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PRI and the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 : a case study of repression. Hernandez, Salvador 1970

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THE PRI AND THE MEXICAN STUDENT MOVEMENT OF 1968 A CASE STUDY OF REPRESSION  by SALVADOR HERNANDEZ B.A., U.N.A.M. Mexico  1958  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  Master o f A r t s  i n the Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1970  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  freely  that permission  purposes  may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  for  financial  is  Columbia,  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  t h e Head o f  understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  for extensive  permission.  Department  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  i  ABSTRACT  T h i s r e p o r t i s a study o f the development of s t r a t e g i e s of p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s u r r o u n d i n g the Mexican Student Movement o f I t a n a l y z e s s t r a t e g i e s of the s t u d e n t s ' S t r i k e Committee and (P.R.I.), by  i n order  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the  the Government P a r t y  to understand why  of R e v o l u t i o n a r y  violent  1968.  National Institutions  r e p r e s s i o n was  applied  the government to suppress the s t u d e n t group. The  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e p r e s s i o n i s undertaken i n a review  of the development of governmental s t r u c t u r e s and c o n f l i c t i n Mexico b e g i n n i n g i n  the h i s t o r y of  1910.  I n l o o k i n g through the h i s t o r y of Mexico and s t u d e n t movement, the r e p o r t weaves t o g e t h e r  three  examining  theories:  c o n f l i c t of d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l groups i n h i s t o r y ; 2) the of a one-party system of government; and  1)  3) the r o u t i n i z e d use  of of  In review of the h i s t o r i c a l development of the P.R.I., study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the e a r l y p e r i o d i n the 1930's c o n t a i n e d t u n i t y f o r a v i a b l e p o l i t i c a l democracy w i t h a c o n t r o l and the l e f t and  c e n t r a l i z e d government came from Cardenas who  right. was  The  the  development  r e p r e s s i o n i n p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s i n c e the Mexican R e v o l u t i o n  f l i c t between i n t e r e s t group on  the  1910. the  an oppor-  o r d e r l y con-  push to a  sympathetic to  the  needs of the peasants and workers and whose a d m i n i s t r a t i o n worked their behalf. successors,  But  f o l l o w i n g the l e a d e r s h i p  A v i l a Camacho and  strengthening  i t s c o n t r o l , suppressed l a b o r and  matters i s i n t r o d u c e d  —  on  of Cardenas, the p r e s i d e n t i a l  Aleman, used the C e n t r a l P a r t y ,  I t i s a t t h i s time t h a t the legacy  '  and  by  peasant movements.  of v i o l e n c e i n p o l i c y  a s t r a t e g y of r e p r e s s i o n i n modern Mexican p o l i t i c s .  ii  E v i d e n c e on the  c o m p o s i t i o n o f the P.R.I, p o i n t s  i n which c o n t r o l o f the government f l o w s , d i r e c t i o n a l manner w i t h l i t t l e or no sants  or s m a l l businessmen.  from the  to a  top down i n a u n i -  i n f l u e n c e from the workers, pea-  Representation  i n the p a r t y  does not  w i t h i t the a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n making, nor the p o p u l i s t i d e o l o g y  structure  does  of the p a r t y mean t h a t the masses are a b l e  " i n f l u e n c e the l e a d e r s h i p  of the government.  problem f o r the government becomes one  This being  of p e r s u a s i o n  A c h r o n o l o g i c a l account of the events of 1968 the s t r a t e g y of the s t u d e n t movement, was p u b l i c debate w i t h the government i n o r d e r  the case,  and  to the  control. reveal  t h a t of c a l l i n g to p r o v i d e  bring  that  for a  a means of  r e s t o r i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the masses of the p e o p l e upon p u b l i c o f ficials,  and  the s t r a t e g y  of the government was  f o r c e through the p o l i c e and debate and  the army i n o r d e r  to q u i c k l y e l i m i n a t e  to a p p l i e d p h y s i c a l to a v o i d a p u b l i c  the s t u d e n t movement.  iii  TABLE Of CONTENTS  Abstract L i s t of Charts  Introduction Chapter Ii  The M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n the O f f i c i a l P a r t y  and the O r i g i n s o f  Chapter I I : The F.R.I. P o l i t i c a l Machine Chapter I I I :  Chapter IV:  The S t u d e n t s ' P r i n c i p l e : P u b l i c Dialogue  We Must Have  The Government P r i n c i p l e : We Must P r e s e r v e the " P r i n c i p l e o f A u t h o r i t y ' 5  Chapter V; Bibliography  Conclusions  iv  LIST OF CHARTS Page  Chart 1  3  Chart 2  33-34  Chart 3  4  1  5  To the s t u d e n t s who Year o f T l a t e l o l c o  fell  i n 1968;  Massacre.  1  INTRODUCTION On October  2nd, 1968 i n t h e P l a z a o f t h e Three C u l t u r e s i n  T l a t e l o l c o 15,000 s t u d e n t s  s  p r o f e s s o r s , workers, r e s i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g  women and c h i l d r e n met f o r a r a l l y c a l l e d by t h e N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Comm i t t e e (CNH) o f t h e 1968 s t u d e n t movement.  T h i s was t h e s i x t h p r o t e s t  d e m o n s t r a t i o n m o b i l i z e d by s t u d e n t s a g a i n s t t h e Government over a p e r i o d o f t h r e e months.  I t was c a l l e d i n s u p p o r t o f s i x demands  (which  I w i l l o u t l i n e i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r ) t h a t had been p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Government. Unknown t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s 5,000 s o l d i e r s and p o l i c e s u r rounded the square. of  Upon o r d e r s and w i t h o u t w a r n i n g o r p r o v o c a t i o n  c i v i l d i s o r d e r they f i r e d i n t o t h e masses o f p e o p l e , k i l l i n g and  wounding, and p u r s u i n g those who attempted  to f l e e .  T h i s i s now known- as the ' ' T l a t e l o l c o Massacre.  !i  The "'Mas-  s a c r e " i s b u t one p o i n t i n t h e 1968 M e x i c a n s t u d e n t movement and i t i s f o r us a p a i n f u l l y s y m b o l i c p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e i n l o o k i n g i n t o t h e movement and t h e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e M e x i c a n government. October  The  2nd i n c i d e n t was one o f the more g l a r i n g and o v e r t a c t s o f  p o l i t i c a l v i o l e n c e c a r r i e d o u t by t h e Government and i t rang down t h e c u r t a i n on a decade o f i n c r e a s i n g r e p r e s s i o n o f p o p u l a r movements which began w i t h t h e peasants and workers  and ended w i t h t h e s t u d e n t  movement o f 1968. The purpose o f t h i s r e p o r t i s t o s t u d y t h e development o f s t r a t e g i e s o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s t u d e n t movement  from  b o t h t h e s i d e s o f t h e s t u d e n t and t h e Government, and w i t h r e s p e c t t o the. l a t t e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e major t a c t i c o f p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n .  2  R e p r e s s i o n i s a form of p o l i t i c a l  conflict.  I t i s not  of power a c t i v i t y i n which p a r t i e s attempt to n e g o t i a t e , others,  persuade  or r a t i o n a l l y advance t h e i r i n t e r e s t through d i a l o g u e .  r e p r e s s i o n i s an extreme use  a type  Rather  of power i n which a government or a p a r t y  i n c o n t r o l of governmental departments e x e r c i s e s p h y s i c a l f o r c e to i n a t e opposing groups. groups who  T h i s , i n f a c t , i s the r e v e r s e  use p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e  form of government.  In the  to b r i n g down an  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e  ment, r e p r e s s i o n may cases,  be  such as t r e a s o n ,  the r i g h t to destroy political force.  political  institutionalized  case o f v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n ' a n d  of r e p r e s s i o n p h y s i c a l power i s used as a d e v i c e Unlike  of  regarded as l e g a l and  groups and  c r i m i n a l s from the p o l i t i c s  i n the  to destroy  justified.  case  the opponent.  of removing the  or s e d i t i o n , where p o l i t i c a l  political  elim-  govern-  There are  leaders  are  the  granted  to remove persons l a b e l e d  as  of the country through p h y s i c a l  These c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e c a r e f u l l y s p e l l e d out  i n the laws of  a c o u n t r y , such as a r t i c l e i 8 9 , s e c t i o n 6 of the Mexican c o n s t i t u t i o n which s t a t e s , To t!  make use  of the e n t i r e permanent armed  forces whether  of the Army, the Navy or the A i r Force f o r the i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y e x t e r n a l defense of the Now i t y and  Federation."  i f there are no attempts to undermine the i n t e r n a l s e c u r -  e x t e r n a l defense of a c o u n t r y , and  eliminate  an opposing p o l i t i c a l  a case of " i l l e g a l  to have  repression."  Government, namely P a r t y  1968,  i f a government t r i e s  group or mass movement, then we  I t i s the purpose of t h i s r e p o r t  illegal  and  of R e v o l u t i o n a r y  to r e v e a l how  the Mexican  I n s t i t u t i o n s (PRI)  applied  r e p r e s s i o n i n a t t e m p t i n g to suppress the s t u d e n t movement of  and  how  that party  s t r a t e g i c a l l y manouvered to use p h y s i c a l f o r c e  3  as a measure to what they c a l l e d a " r e a l t h r e a t " to the s o c i a l o r d e r . of M e x i c o , i n o r d e r to persuade the M e x i c a n p o p u l a t i o n t h a t they were justified  i n the massacre of T l a t e l o l c o . But the s o c i o l o g i c a l problem  of r e p r e s s i o n goes beyond the  q u e s t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s to the. i s s u e o f why p r i n c i p l e d on d e m o c r a t i c l i n e s  s  a government, e s p e c i a l l y  uses p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e as a r e c o u r s e  to remove i t s o p p o s i t i o n i n a modern c o n f l i c t ? c o n c e r n i n g why  one  To answer a q u e s t i o n  p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s s i o n i s used as a d e v i c e takes us i n t o  the a r e a of the development of governmental h i s t o r y of c o n f l i c t i n M e x i c o ,  s t r u c t u r e s and i n t o  the  F o r t h a t r e a s o n the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s  r e p o r t c o n c e n t r a t e s on the h i s t o r y of the p o l i t i c s and economic c o n d i t i o n s of Mexico i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r the d e t a i l e d documentation  of the r i s e and s u p r e s s i o n o f the s t u d e n t movement o f  In l o o k i n g through the h i s t o r y of Mexico and i n examining s t u d e n t movement I w i l l attempt  to weave t o g e t h e r - t h r e e themes:  1968. the  1) the  c o n f l i c t of d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l groups i n h i s t o r y ; 2) the development of  a one-party system of government; and 3 ) t h e r o u t i n i z e d use o f r e p r e s -  s i o n i n p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s i n c e the M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n of The remainder  1910.  of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l t r a c e the major con-  t r i b u t i o n of the M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n o f 1910 government o f the c o u n t r y .  t c the r i s e o f the modern  Chapter I i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the  founders o f the o f f i c i a l o n e - p a r t y system. the s t r u c t u r e of the PRI and i t s o p e r a t i o n .  I n Chapter I I we l o o k a t Chapters  I I I and IV d e a l  w i t h the c o n f l i c t s u r r o u n d i n g the s t u d e n t movement, w i t h the former  con-  c e n t r a t i n g on the p e r i o d J u l y 2.2 to August 29 and the s t r a t e g i e s o f the s t u d e n t s , and the l a t t e r on the p e r i o d September 1 to October and t a c t i c s of the Government.  the  F i n a l l y i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r t , i t must be emphasized t h a t t h i s i s not a study of the p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y of the M e x i c a n s t u d e n t movement of 1968,  nor of the i d e a l s , the g o a l s and  b e l i e f s of  that  movement; r a t h e r , i t i s a case study of the p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t between the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee ( t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s t u d e n t s d u r i n g the e v e n t s o f 1968) r e p r e s s i o n a p p l i e d by the  and  the Government, and  of  the  the  latter.  S i n c e we a r e e m p h a s i z i n g s t r a t e g i e s of p o l i t i c a l  conflict  r a t h e r than the c o n t e n t of i d e o l o g i e s a c o m p a r a t i v e framework, u t i l i z i n g d a t a from student movements i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i s not fruitful.  particularly  I d e o l o g i e s appear h i g h l y t r a n s f e r a b l e but the immediate h i s -  t o r i c a l contexts  of the v a r i o u s movements are so v a r i a b l e as t o shed  lit-  t l e l i g h t on t h i s case s t u d y . The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n  modern p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s may ernment p a r t y , "The order  of 1910  be seen i n the t i t l e of the o f f i c i a l gov-  P a r t y of R e v o l u t i o n a r y  I n s t i t u t i o n s " (PRI).  In  t o understand the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the use of the word "Rev-  o l u t i o n a r y " i n the t i t l e and  l a t e r t o understand the changes t h a t  have t a k e n p l a c e i n i t s meaning we count of the p e r i o d of the 1910  b e g i n our a n a l y s i s w i t h an  of 1910  was  posed t o become the f i r s t " s o c i a l i s t i c " R e v o l u t i o n , of the century.  L a t e r i n 1917  a new  C o n s t i t u t i o n was  among the most advanced of i t s time. 123,  ac-  Revolution.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n  27 and  in  present  e n a c t e d , w h i c h was  also  Examples of i t are the A r t i c l e s  b o t h c l o s e l y r e l a t e d s i n c e the former p r o c l a i m s  p r i a t i o n of p r i v a t e l a n d i n o r d e r  sup-  the e x p r o -  t o be d i s t r i b u t e d among the p e a s a n t s ,  5  and the l a t t e r had established a labor code which gave to the Mexican worker the right to  strike.  So advanced were A r t i c l e s 27 and 123 of the nCar-ta Magna1', that Mexican commentators proudly pointed out the international fects of the a r t i c l e s . Versailles  ef-  They claim to have influenced the Treaty of  (1918), and on the Constitution o f the Spanish Republic,  Estonia, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania; Poland s Rumania, the Weimar Republic of Germany, and among the L a t i n American nations of B o l i v i a , B r a z i l , C h i l e , Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras, Nica1 ragua, Panama, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. Hence, we have been talking about what happened at the theor e t i c a l l e v e l but we may ask:  how was that theory carried out i n  practice? The answer to the question, so-called ' ' S o c i a l i s t i c "  is a very obvious one:  the  Revolution, turned out to be a bourgeois Rev-  o l u t i o n , and the Constitution an instrument o f the newly born bourgeoisie.  Once the f i e l d was clear after the assassination of Emiliano  Zapata i n 1919, and Pancho V i l l a i n 1923, both o f them genuine popular leaders, the new Mexican r u l i n g class took f u l l command of the "revo l u t i o n 1 5 , but also at the same time, they foresaw the necessity of creating a p o l i t i c a l party i n order to maintain themselves i n power, and to use the party as a concrete and immediate t o o l : a l l dissident 1.  groups, and attracting  to  them t o "participate' 1  See: Howard F. C l i n e , Mexico, Revolution to Evolution; p. 138. New York, Oxford University Press, 1963.  "centralize" and to 1940-1960.  "share'' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the country's p o l i t i c a l l i f e , a l l this obtained simply, but only by becoming members of the " O f f i c i a l Party" and at the same time of the "Revolutionary  Family' . 1  Nowadays, the party i s known as P.R.I. — Revolutionary  Institutions —  the Party of  and has become an extremely e f f e c t i v e  p o l i t i c a l machine i n c e n t r a l i z i n g power, to the extent that no one seriously  deny that Mexico i s a society of a One-Party System.  can  In  regard to this a Mexican observer writes:  It tem the the  fi  i s a fact that i n Mexico a predominant one-party syshas existed since 1929. Parties do not alternate i n exercise of power, and there i s no s p e c i a l party for labouring masses."^  Thus, we can c l e a r l y see that within the Mexican context, an e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l opposition does not e x i s t .  Consequently this  s i t u a t i o n has created through the years.a climate of p o l i t i c a l asphyxiation  9  since the o f f i c i a l party had been also transformed into an  instrument of repression of any relevant and independent massmovement . Countless  times peasant  leaders have been repressed.  and workers'movements.and their  The most s t r i k i n g examples i n the l a s t  ten years have been the assasination of Ruben M. Jaramillo, a peasant leader from the state of Morelos, and i n 1959-  the  imprison-  ment of Demetrio V a l l a j o , a r a i l r o a d leader.  2.  Pablo Gonzalez Casanova,, Dynamics of the Class Structure, op. c i t . , p. 74. Comparative Perspectives on S t r a t i f i c a t i o n : Mexico, Great B r i t a i n , Japan, Joseph A. Kahl. L i t t l e , Brown and Company, Boston 1968.  7  D e s c r i b i n g J a r a m i l i o ' s movement aims and h i s e v e n t u a l ass a s s i n a t i o n an o b s e r v e r w r i t e s :  •'Jaramillo was b o r n w i t h t h i s c e n t u r y i n the h i l l s o f the s t a t e o f M o r e l o s . S t i l l young, he j o i n e d Zapata f o r the T i e r r a y L i b e r t a d (Land and L i b e r t y ) crusade a g a i n s t o p p r e s s i o n . When armed f i g h t i n g stopped, J a r a m i l l o r e t u r n e d to M o r e l o s , where he became a peasant leader, constantly threatening r e b e l l i o n i f agrarian reforms were not c a r r i e d o u t . O f t e n he l e d h i s men onto u n d i s t r i b u t e d l a n d , and s t a y e d t h e r e u n t i l i t was p a r c e l e d out or u n t i l f e d e r a l troops f o r c e d him o f f ....  During Cardenas p r e s i d e n c y , J a r a m i l l o had no reason to f i g h t . But a f t e r Cardenas, he became v o c a l . As l o n g as some a g r a r i a n reforms were enacted, he kept h i s a c t i v i t i e s peaceful. When R u i z C o r t i n e s h a l t e d reforms c o m p l e t e l y , J a r a m i l l o took h i s men to the h i l l s . He was pursued by tanks, c a v a l r y , a r t i l l e r y , and the a i r f o r c e , b u t , a i d e d by M o r e l o s ' peasants and f a m i l i a r w i t h M o r e l o s ' t e r r a i n , he was never caught.  When Lopez Mateos became P r e s i d e n t , and o f f e r e d him an amnesty, J a r a m i l l o went home. He met Lopez Mateos, t o l d him what he had fought f o r , and t h a t he would cont i n u e to f i g h t i f l a n d reforms were not renewed. Lopez Mateos promised to b r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n back to M o r e l o s , and the two men hugged each o t h e r i n a L a t i n s t y l e abrazo. The scene, photographed by w i t n e s s e s , became known throughout Mexico. Jaramillo produly decorated h i s walls with i t .  But Lopez Mateos f o r g o t about M o r e l o s . Jaramillo waited and w a i t e d . Then, i n 1961, he d e c i d e d to w a i t no l o n g e r . With f i v e thousand l a n d l e s s p e a s a n t s , he o c c u p i e d a s e r i e s of l a t i f u n d i o s and unused p l o t s i n Michapa and E l G u a r i n , e s p e c i a l l y the v a s t u n t i l l e d t r a c t s owned by a wealthy landowner named Ramon E s p i n , the p r o t e g e and f r i e n d o f Morelos PRI Governor Norberto Lopez A v e l a r . The case went to the Department o f A g r a r i a n M a t t e r s and  8  C o l o n i z a t i o n . (DAAC), which found t h a t the l a n d was i n d e e d unused and s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d . J a r a m i l l o , h i s aims acc o m p l i s h e d , l e f t h i s men on t h e i r new l a n d . Then, a few weeks l a t e r , DAAC r e v e r s e d i t s e l f , and d e c l a r e d J a r a m i l l o an o u t l a w f o r t r e s p a s s i n g on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . E a r l y i n 1962, the S e c r e t a r i a t of H y d r o e l e c t r i c Resources announced t h a t the A l t o Amacuzac and San Jeronimo r i v e r s were to be tapped f o r a dam, e l e c t r i c power and i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t which would t r a n s f o r m Michapa and E l G u a r i n ' s 40,000 h e c t a r e s i n t o the b r e a d b a s k e t of M o r e l o s . DAAC had n o t known about the p r o j e c t when i t announced i t s f i r s t d e c i s i o n . S a i d P r o f e s s o r Roberto B a r r i o s , DAAC's b o s s ; ''I d i d not know. We were g o i n g to g i v e a g o l d mine to those p e o p l e ! And g r e a t p o l i t i c a l power.'' Thus on February 13, 1962, G e n e r a l P a s c u a l C o r n e j o Brum, c h i e f of M o r e l o s ' m i l i t a r y zone, was o r d e r e d to c l e a r the o c c u p i e d l a n d s . J a r a m i l l o a g a i n sought a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n . On March 18th he t r i e d t o see Lopez Mateos, but was r e f u s e d an a u d i e n c e , and r e t u r n e d to h i s home i n T l a q u i l t e n a n go, M o r e l o s , a modest s i n g l e - f l o o r , p o u r e d - c o n c r e t e house where he l i v e d w i t h h i s pregnant w i f e , E p i f a n i a Z u n i g a , and h i s t h r e e a d o l e s c e n t sons. They were a l l t h e r e on May 23, 1962, a t 2:30 P.M. when s i x t y s o l d i e r s and c i v i l i a n s suddenly a r r i v e d i n two army t r u c k s and two j e e p s , surrounded the house, l e v e l e d sub-, machine guns a t i t s two e n t r a n c e s , and o r d e r e d J a r a m i l l o to come o u t . When he d i d , b e s i e g e r s r u s h e d i n t o the house, brought out E p i f a n i a and the t h r e e s o n s , pushed a l l f i v e i n t o the v e h i c l e s , and drove away. Up to t h i s p o i n t , t h e r e a r e s c o r e s of w i t n e s s e s — the n e i g h b o r s and p a s s e r s by. Two hours l a t e r , near the X o c h i c a l c o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r u i n s , peasants found the whole J a r a m i l l o f a m i l y dead. Each o f the f i v e heads had a coup de grfice .45 b u l l e t i n i t ; i n each of the f i v e b o d i e s was a h a n d f u l of Thompson submachine-gun s l u g s . * W i t n e s s e s , s l u g s , h i s t o r y , and f a c t s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Mexico's p r e s s —- and, n a t u r a l l y . Time magazine — tried to make the murders. sound l i k e "a p r i v a t e a f f a i r ' ' o f ''revenge/'. But t h e r e can be no doubt t h a t the J a r a m i l l o s were k i l l e d , on o r d e r s from the PRI t o p , because they r e p r e s e n ted the Mexican p e a s a n t s ' u n f u l f i l l e d demands from the r e v olution. * The c a r t r i d g e s , found a l l around the b o d i e s , were stamped F a b r i c s N a c i o n a l de M u n i c i o n e s (1953 and 1954), a s u p p l i e r t h a t d i s t r i b u t e s o n l y to the army. M o r e l o s P o l i c e C h i e f  9  C a p t a i n Gustavo O r t e g a R c j a s t o l d r e p o r t e r s a few hours a f t e r t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n t h a t the F e d e r a l J u d i c i a l P o l i c e had c a l l e d him t h e n i g h t b e f o r e t o a s k f o r arms and a j e e p , but t h a t when the F e d e r a l e s never showed up and he c a l l e d them, he was t o l d ; I t i s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y ; e v e r y t h i n g has been taken c a r e o f . The time: 1 hour 30 minutes a f t e r J a r a m i l l o s death. (Ortega l a t e r d e n i e d t h i s convers a t i o n when q u e s t i o n e d by o f f i c i a l " i n v e s t i g a t o r s . ! ,  Ji  F  The  case o f t h e l a b o r l e a d e r Demetrio V a l l e j o and h i s move-  ment took p l a c e i n 1958 when a p o w e r f u l movement i n f a v o r o f union i n dependence grew i n the 9 t h S e c t i o n o f S.N.T'.E. ( P u b l i c S c h o o l U n i o n o f Mexico C i t y ) .  Teacher's  I t s main l e a d e r , Othon S a l a z a r , was a r r e s t e d  and j a i l e d t h a t same y e a r . W i t h the growth o f t h i s movement i n f a v o r o f independent uni o n s and a g a i n s t " c h a r r i s m o "  (the c o r r u p t i o n of establishment  unions)  the R a i l r o a d Workers Union e n f o r c e d  the m a j o r i t y c h o i c e i n f a v o r o f the  t i c k e t headed by Demetrio V a l l e j o .  A l l i n a l l , i n 1958 t h e o u t l o o k  f o r t h e l a b o r and t h e peasant movement was v e r y p r o m i s i n g ,  because  a l s o by t h a t time Lopez Mateos had t a k e n o f f i c e and as we a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , he o f f e r e d iunnesty t o Ruben J a r a m i l l o . But, once a g a i n the p r e s i d e n t i a l promises were o n l y p r o m i s e s . The  r a i l r o a d s t r i k e o f March 1959 and the r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e u n i o n headed  by V a l l e j o c r e a t e d a c l i m a t e of s o c i a l t e n s i o n .  An a t t e m p t was made t o  p l a c e the p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r a i l r o a d s t r i k e cn the Mexican Communist P a r t y w h i c h f e l l v i c t i m t o a wave o f p e r s e c u t i o n .  Close  to 5,000 p e r s o n s were a r r e s t e d , the m a j o r i t y o f whom were r a i l r o a d workers.  The s t r i k e r s were f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o work and s e a r c h i n g  out a w a r r a n t became an everyday o c c u r r e n c e .  According  with-  t o A t t o r n e y Gen-  e r a l Fernando Lopez A r i a s t h e r e p r e s s i v e measures employed a g a i n s t t h e 3.  John G e r a s s i . The Great F e a r i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , .107. N.Y.- C o l l i e r Books, 1968. '"  op. c i t . , pp. 105-  10  r a i l r o a d workers were f o r the purpose  of p r e v e n t i n g " i d e o l o g i e s  and  i n t e r e s t s f o r e i g n to those of Mexico from a t t e m p t i n g to s u b v e r t publ i c order."  The  l e a d e r s Demetrio  cused of b e i n g " t r a i t o r s  V a l l e j o and V a l e n t i n Campa were ac-  to t h e i r country. ' 1  Two  members of the d i p l o -  matic corps of the S o v i e t Union, a p p a r e n t l y l i n k e d w i t h the c o n f l i c t s , were d e p o r t e d . for  S e v e r a l o f the Mexican newspapers c a l l e d  b r e a k i n g o f f d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h the U.S.S.R., and ''McCarthy-  ism' was  railroad  1  reached i t s h e i g h t s when Lopez A r i a s s t a t e d t h a t ''in Mexico i t i n t o l e r a b l e f o r a Communist to h o l d a u n i o n p o s i t i o n . "  p r e v a i l i n g anti-Communist  In the  c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n hundreds o f p e o p l e were  accused of a v a r i e t y of crimes i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the s t r i k e . l e a d e r s were accused o f " s o c i a l  The  dissolution'.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s r e p r e s s i o n a Committee to Defend t i c a l P r i s o n e r s was Agusut  4, 1960,  clothesmen  formed, which i n t u r n was  an e s t i m a t e d number of 1,500  s a v a g e l y suppressed. uniformed p o l i c e and  to  plain-  On  S e v e r a l people were wounded, some o f them s e r -  the 9th of August,  the well-known p a i n t e r of murals,  A l f a r o S i q u e i r o s , and newspaperman Filomeno Mata were a r r e s t e d jailed.  On  a t t a c k e d a d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n support of the t e a c h e r s of Sec-  t i o n 9 o f the S.N.T.E. iously.  Poli-  As members and sponsors of the Defense  be accused o f " s o c i a l The  David  and  Committee, they v/ere  dissolution''.  day b e f o r e the 50th a n n i v e r s a r y of the Mexican  Revolu-  t i o n , 21 of the 35 p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s b e i n g h e l d i n Mexico C i t y ' s Lecumberri j a i l went on a hunger s t r i k e .  They were p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t  the d e l a y i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i r appeals and cases.  The m a j o r i t y of them had been i n j a i l  the h e a r i n g of  f o r over 18 months.  their  11  Two  of the p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s , D a v i d A l f a r o S i q u e i r o s  and  Filomeno Mata, the l a s t to be a r r e s t e d , were sentenced t o 8 y e a r s i n p r i s o n on March 10,  1962, more than 20 months a f t e r t r i a l p r o c e e d i n g s  a g a i n s t them were i n i t i a t e d .  On the 10th c f August 1963, sentence  p a s s e d on the m a j o r i t y of the r a i l r o a d and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s who still in jail.  was  were  The sentences v a r i e d from t h r e e y e a r s t o 16 i n the  case of Demetrio V a l l e j o .  A t the p r e s e n t moment o n l y two o f the  1959 p r i s o n e r s a r e s t i l l i n j a i l :  Demetrio V a l l e j o and V a l e n t i n Campa,  both o f whom a r e e l e g i b l e f o r p a r o l e because they have s e r v e d more than t w o - t h i r d s of t h e i r s e n t e n c e s . up to now,  Both have r e q u e s t e d t h e i r r e l e a s e b u t ,  i t has been d e n i e d them. In  1964, when the c u r r e n t p r e s i d e n t of Mexico:  Gustavo  D i a z Ordaz took o f f i c e one o f h i s campaign s l o g a n s , "Order and P r o g r e s s " resembled those o f the y e a r s of G e n e r a l P o r f i r i o D i a z whose d i c t a t o r i a l regime of almost t h i r t y y e a r s was i c a n R e v o l u t i o n of  overthrown by the Mex-  1910.  But w i t h the e l e c t i o n of D i a z Ordaz, hopes t h i s time were not so h i g h , s i n c e the c a n d i d a t e was w e l l known f o r h i s r i g h t i s t p o l i t i c a l leanings. D i a z Ordaz's  L e f t p o l i t i c a l o b s e r v e r s were p e s s i m i s t i c  about  e l e c t i o n f o r the p r e s i d e n t i a l term o f 1964-1970.  Soon,  t h e i r pessimism proved to be r i g h t , because i f the p o l i c i e s of the former p r e s i d e n t Lopez Mateos  were those of p o l i t i c a l  w i t h D i a z Ordaz t h e y were expanded and p e r f e c t e d .  R e p r e s s i o n was  no l o n g e r ex p o s t f a c t o ; i t was now p r e v e n t i v e as w e l l . cal  repression,  Left  radi-  groups were e s p e c i a l l y v i c t i m i z e d but they were not the o n l y  ones.  W i t h i n the P.R.I., r e p r e s s i o n took the form'of f o r c e d r e s i g -  12  nations by those cabinet members vzhc were not partisans of the administration.  A clear example of what we have just said, was  of Carlos A. Madrazo, who December 7, 1964  and was  was  the case  appointed as president of P.R.I, on  forced to resign on November 22,  1965;  Madrazo t r i e d during this short period to clear up and democratize the party at a l l l e v e l s , but soon his task was Mow  the PRI operates and how  interrupted.  much i n t e r n a l repression i s  applied leads us to ask about the h i s t o r i c a l origins of the o f f i c i a l party, i t s early formation i n 1929, administration of 1964. chapter.  and i t s development up to the  These questions  are dealt with i n the next  13  '  CHAPTER I The Mexican R e v o l u t i o n and the O r i g i n s of the " O f f i c i a l P a r t y "  I n 1910  the Mexican R e v o l u t i o n emerged as a r e a c t i o n t o almost  t h i r t y y e a r s of G e n e r a l D i a z ' s d i c t a t o r i a l regime. d e s p i t e a c e n t u r y of p o l i t i c a l was  typically "colonial".  During  those  independence, the economy of the  R a i l r o a d s , t e x t i l e m i l l s , and  years, country  o i l wells  were b u i l t by f o r e i g n c a p i t a l and d i r e c t e d by f o r e i g n managers and a l l the p r o f i t s from those i n d u s t r i e s flowed  abroad.  The  r u l e r s of  country were absentee l a n d l o r d s , p o l i t i c i a n s , and m i l i t a r y men, of  them i n c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s t s .  all  About 80  c e n t o f the people were peasants l a b o r i n g f o r mere s u b s i s t e n c e , l i v i n g as s e m i - s e r f s on l a r g e p l a n t a t i o n s or  ulation f e l l  and  The  years  were a p e r i o d of t u r b u l e n c e d u r i n g which the pop-  by almost h a l f a m i l l i o n from a t o t a l of 15 m i l l i o n , as  r e s u l t of c i v i l  war  many f o r e i g n e r s were d r i v e n out and  were f o r c e d from t h e i r h a c i e n d a s . was  per  haciendas.  Then D i a z ' s f e u d a l order c o l l a p s e d i n r e v o l u t i o n . between-1910 t o 1920  the  local  a  landlords  A l s o the p o l i t i c a l power of the Church  broken. I n regard  t o t h i s stage of Mexican h i s t o r y , an observer  "The Mexican R e v o l u t i o n v/as a product of a l l i a n c e between the b o u r g e o i s i e , r e p r e s e n t e d by Madera, and the peasants, l e d by E m i l i a n o Zapata and Pancho V i l l a . They f a c e d a common enemy, the f e u d a l order and i t s s u p p o r t i n g p i l l a r s of Church, army, and f o r e i g n c a p i t a l . But t h e i r g o a l s i n evitably differed. Freedom from domestic and f o r e i g n bonds and l o o s e n i n g of the economic s t r u c t u r e f o r the b o u r g e o i s i e ; land f o r the p e a s a n t s . A l t h o u g h Zapata c o n t i n u e d to p r e s s the i n t e r e s t s of the peasants u n t i l h i s murder i n 1919, the r e a l l e a d e r s h i p of the r e v o l u t i o n was never out of the hands of the b o u r g e o i s i e , except i n s o f a r as i t was c h a l l e n g e d by  writes:  14  Huerta r e a c t i o n and American i n t e r v e n t i o n . The e l i m i n a t i o n of f e u d a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s was of course i n the i n t e r e s t of the emerging b o u r g e o i s i e as w e l l as of the p e a s a n t s . Educ a t i o n became s e c u l a r i z e d , Church and S t a t e more w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d . But a c c e s s i o n to power by the p e a s a n t r y was never r e a l l y i n the c a r d s . As  a r e s u l t of t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y decade 1910-1920, a newly  formed N o r t h e r n dynasty headed by G e n e r a l Obregon de emerged i n the p o l i t i c a l  succeeded him, I n order  the e a r l y twenties and  Plutarco  Elias  i n the middle 1920's.  to r e t a i n the power w i t h i n  the N o r t h e r n dynasty,  Obregon sought p r e s i d e n t i a l r e - e l e c t i o n a t the end tration in  Calles,  arena.  Obregon r u l e d d u r i n g C a l l e s who  l a Huerta and  of C a l l e s  1  adminis-  1928. By an amendment to the C o n s t i t u t i o n of 1917,  p l e says t h a t no p r e s i d e n t Obregon was  which i n p r i n c i -  can be r e - e l e c t e d f o r a second term i n o f f i c e ,  r e - e l e c t e d , but j u s t b e f o r e  t a k i n g o f f i c e was  assassinated  by a r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c .  W i t h Obregon's d e a t h , G e n e r a l P l u t a r c o E . C a l l e s  2 remaned " J e f e Maximo."  But  i n order  f  he no  l o n g e r , as Obregon, sought r e - e l e c t i o n  t o m a i n t a i n power; i n s t e a d he c r e a t e d  which he r e t a i n e d power u n t i l I n regard  a p o l i t i c a l party,  through  1934.  to Obregdn's death and  the c r e a t i o n of the  politi-  c a l p a r t y , Howard F. C l i n e s w r i t e s : "Obregon's d e a t h by a s s a s s i n a t i o n vacuum which the O l i g a r c h y f i l l e d the c r e a t i o n of a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l the r e v o l u t i o n a r y f a m i l y feuds and 1.  2,  i n 1928 l e f t a dangerous by an i n g e n i o u s d e v i c e , party. Within i t s walls, c o n f l i c t s c o u l d be r e c o n -  A. Gunder Frank, M e x i c o : The Janus F a c e s of 20th Century B o u r g e o i s Revolution, op. c i t . , p. 76. Whither L a t i n America? M.R. Press, N.Y. 1963. Country's B i g Boss.  was  15  c i l e d and q u i e t l y accommodated w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g p e r i l o u s breaches t h r o u g h w h i c h c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y elements c o u l d pour i n t o c a p t u r e power and r e v e r s e t h e g a i n s a c h i e v e d . 1  The  above C l i n e  q u o t a t i o n , n o t o n l y c o n f i r m s Gunder Prank's  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t r e a l l y , " t h e R e v o l u t i o n was n e v e r o u t o f t h e hands o f the b o u r g e o i s i e . . . / ' , b u t a l s o shows c l e a r l y w i t h t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f the " o f f i c i a l p a r t y " , t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f the " i n t e g r a t i o n i s t " e r a .  I t i s almost a g e n e r a l b e l i e f , t h a t i t was C a l l e s , who had  first  t h e i d e a o f c r e a t i n g a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , b u t r a t h e r he was the exe-  c u t o r o f Gbregon i d e a s .  G e n e r a l Obregon was about t o be r e - e l e c t e d  when on J u l y 1, 1928 he had a l o n g c o n v e r s a t i o n about h i s f u t u r e p l a n s f o r Mexico w i t h L u i s L. Leon, M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Development. I n r e g a r d t o t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , P r o f e s s o r John W. D u l l e s w r i t e s : "Obregon s a i d w i t h emphasis t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a d e f i n i t e program and permanent a c t i o n , ' t o guarantee the s u r v i v a l o f t h e Revo l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e s by means o f democratic p a t h s . ' 'We must, he s a i d , 'take advantage o f t h e s i x y e a r s o f my government i n o r d e r to c r e a t e t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h a t s h o u l d be an e x p r e s s i o n o f our d e s i r e s and s e n t i m e n t s . ' "4 1  The F o r m a t i o n o f t h e " G f f i e i a l " P a r t y On December 1, 1928, the n a t i o n l e a r n e d about the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the P.N.R. ( N a t i o n a l R e v o l u t i o n a r y P a r t y ) from a m a n i f e s t o s i g n e d by G e n e r a l C a l l e s and o t h e r prominent p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s o f t h a t time.  I t mentioned t h e need f o r t h e " o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o u n d a t i o n s o f .J  permanent p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s o f d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e s . "  3.  B u t i t was n o t  Howard F. C l i n e : The U n i t e d S t a t e s and M e x i c o , op. c i t . , p. 195. ' Atheneum, N.Y., 1963. 4. John W.F. D u l l e s , Y e s t e r d a y i n M e x i c o : A C h r o n i c l e o f t h e Revol u t i o n , 1919-1936. op. c i t . , p. 358. U n i v . o f Texas P r e s s , A u s t i n . 5. I b i d . , p. 410.  16  u n t i l March 3, 1929, i n a N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n the c i t y o f Queretaro t h a t the p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r o f the Convention,. d e c l a r e d t h a t P a r t i d o N a c i o n a l R e v o l u c i o n a r i o was now o f f i c i a l .  Consequently, w i t h  the f o u n d a t i o n o f the " O f f i c i a l P a r t y P.N.R.", G e n e r a l C a l l e s r e t a i n e d power through h i s "puppet" p r e s i d e n t s ;  Emilio Portes G i l , Pascual  O r t i z Rubio and A b e l a r d o R o d r i g u e z . An o b s e r v e r w r i t e s ; "So l o n g as C a l l e s remained the J e f e Maximo down to 1935, p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s were made almost e x c l u s i v e l y by the P a r t y , g u i d e d by h i s h o l d on i t s key e x e c u t i v e committee. Pres i d e n t s from 1928 through 1934 had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h o u t power. C a l l e s had power w i t h o u t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " 6 Cardenas and the P o s s i b i l i t i e s of a Damocracy and the Development o f the L e f t But an i m p o r t a n t s h i f t i n Mexican p o l i t i c s took p l a c e when on December 1, 1934, G e n e r a l L a z a r o Cardenas became p r e s i d e n t , b r e a k i n g the power o f the N o r t h e r n dynasty — was  the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t who  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t Cardenas  d i d not come from the n o r t h .  L a t e r , on June  19, 1935, Cardenas s e n t C a l l e s i n t o e x i l e because of s e r i o u s i n p o l i c y matters.  disagreements  Having d e l i v e r e d a f a t a l blow t o the N o r t h e r n d y n a s t y ,  L a z a r o Cardenas became s o l e head of the R e v o l u t i o n a r y F a m i l y , i n i t i a t i n g w i t h t h i s blow, the replacement of the "ma'ximato" Obregon and era,  by a new e r a which came to known as the e r a of  Calles  "Cardenismc".  R e f e r r i n g back to the e a r l y days o f 1933, i t was  clear that  the e l e c t i o n of a p r e s i d e n t i n 1934 would be an i m p o r t a n t event i n Mexico.  Consequently p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n , c e n t e r e d on i n t e r f a c t i o n a l raan-  o e u v e r i n g between, the L e f t wingwho wanted the r e v o l u t i o n to f o r g e ahead i n v i o l e n t f a s h i o n and the R i g h t wing who wanted a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the 6.  Howard F. C l i n e s The U n i t e d S t a t e s and M e x i c o , op. c i t . , p. Atheneum, N.Y., 1963.  199.  17  d i r e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e 1920 was  f u r t h e r confused  under the N o r t h e r n dynasty.  by an important  i t s important  norance, the men  objectives. charged  with providing a better l i f e  t o endorse the p r e o r d a i n e d Cardenas' b a s i c i d e a was  failed  i n most and i g -  f o r Mexicans  candidate, Lazaro  had the  Cardenas.  to p r e s e r v e c e r t a i n d e s t r u c t i v e t e n -  eager to r i d the n a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l and  t i o n and  1933,  Thus i n December 1933  d e n c i e s of the M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n t o c l e a r the way He was  30,  Through c o r r u p t i o n , c i r c u m s t a n c e ,  seen t h e i r p r o p o s a l s d e f e r r e d and d e f e a t e d . P.N.R. met  issue  speech by C a l l e s , on May  i n which he p o i n t e d out t h a t the Mexican R e v o l u t i o n had of  The  f o r new  institutions.  corporative exploita-  to r e p l a c e them by s e l f - r u n groups of farmers and  workers.  E x p l o i t a t i o n by the s t a t e as an employer, or the s u b s t i t u t i o n of e i g n c a p i t a l i s m by a n a t i v e v e r s i o n , f e l l  outside his  for-  mass-oriented  program.  New  c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s would r e p l a c e the h i s t o r i c a l  insti-  tutions.  The  n a t i o n a l s t a t e would back o r g a n i z e d groups i n the des-  t r u c t i v e phase and a l s o would h e l p t h e i r p l a n s f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . v/as the message which L a z a r o Cardenas c a r r i e d b e f o r e he was of  inaugurated  the p a r t y , he was  as p r e s i d e n t .  town and v i l l a g e . him  the expected  On  e l e c t i o n day, J u l y 1, 1934,  p a i g n Cardenas repeated a g a i n and unite." his  political  s t a t e , almost official  every  c o u n t i n g gave  Throughout h i s p o l i t i c a l  Cardenas became p r e s i d e n t .  a c t s , Cardenas gave up  i n Chapultepee C a s t l e .  personal  cam-  a g a i n the s l o g a n , "Workers of M e x i c o ,  Then, on December 1, 1934,  first official  new  He v i s i t e d every  overwhelming m a j o r i t y .  1934  W h i l e campaigning i n the name  a l s o b u i l d i n g a powerful  machine, based on mass support.  to most of Mexico i n  That  the gaudy p r e s i d e n t i a l  Among residence  He a l s o began c l o s i n g down the gambling c a s i n o s  and brothels i n which prominent C a l l i s t a s had invested their p r o f i t s from bribery and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s .  Already some tension within  p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s began to appear, but the tension reached, i t s peak, when i n a wave . of strikes early i n 1935, the workers. the new was  I t became clear that a test of power between Calles and  president.was i n the making.  to be no "puppet" president.  1935,  President Cardenas supported  It was  also clear that Cardenas  Then during the f i r s t days of June  Calles .delivered a national speech attacking Cardenas' marathon ,;  of radicalism'.  Calles also emphasized that by "going too f a r on those  grounds s president can be forced to resign."  A f t e r Calles" speech  some of the members of the Congress openly supported former President Calles. But Cardenas i n a very fast and astute manoeuvre, dismissed the Calles-dorninated cabinet, appointed trate his own army contingents  a new  cabinet, began to concen-  i n Mexico City, talked with prominent  Church f i g u r e s , turning C a l l e s ' long time, anticleric'alism against With the Army, much of the Church, Congress, and new  him.  labor organization  behind Cardenas, he isolated Calles sending him as has already been stated into e x i l e on June 19,  1935.  Centralizing the Party Under the Cardenas Regime With the i n i t i a t i o n of Cardenas Era there began also a r e a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power, something that Calles through a l l his years as a Jefe Maximo had never r e a l l y achieved:  the complete c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  of the Agrarian and Labor Sector under "the o f f i c i a l " Party. created the Confederacidn  Nacional Campesina (National Peasant Confed-  eration) and the Confederacion Confederation).  Cardenas  de Trabaja dores Mexicano (Mexican Workers  With the creation of CNC  and CTM  Cardenas not only  19  initiated  the complete c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f f o r c e s under the p a r t y s t r u c -  t u r e b u t a l s o under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the p r e s i d e n t . 1938,  Cardenas c r e a t e d  the P.R.M., the Mexican R e v o l u t i o n a r y  which took the p l a c e o f C a l l e s Mexican R e v o l u t i o n a r y  And i n March  1  P.N.R.  Party,  W i t h the c r e a t i o n o f P.R.M.,  P a r t y , Cardenas d i v i d e d the power elements o f  Mexico i n t o f o u r s e c t o r s :  M i l i t a r y , Labor, A g r a r i a n and P o p u l a r (un-  organized  little  contained  a l l o f them, so the b a s i s o f the new p a r t y was f u n c t i o n a l and  geographical.  urban g r o u p s ) .  Each e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t  An i n d i v i d u a l belonged t o a r e v o l u t i o n a r y  which i n t u r n v/as a f f i l i a t e d v/ith one of the three main —  i n the R e p u b l i c  the Army, the C.T.M. or the C.N.C.  t o choose the p l a t f o r m s and  represented  its  own c o n v e n t i o n  and f o r m u l a t e  a geographical before  organization organizations  Delegates to party  conventions,  the programs were s e l e c t e d by  u n i t o f the s e c t o r .  Each s e c t o r h e l d  they met as a body and p a r t y .  When each s e c t o r had p r e p a r e d i t s p l a t f o r m , a r u n - o f f p r i m a r y v/as h e l d ; t h e c a n d i d a t e s  o f each s e c t o r campaigned v i g o r o u s l y ,  then  a f t e r the p a r t y p r i m a r y e l e c t i o n , t h e s u c c e s s f u l a s p i r a n t became t h e " o f f i c i a l " candidate; The  "Popular"  then the two other  s e c t o r s agreed t o support him.  s e c t o r r o l e was vague.  I n t h i s way Cardenas had t r i e d cracy; also a party  theme v/as c r e a t e d :  t o c r e a t e a f u n c t i o n a l demo" F o r a Democracy of Workers".  I n s h o r t , i t seems t h a t d u r i n g Cardenas' A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the power elements o f Mexico, v/as based on the i d e a of c r e a t i n g a n a t i o n a l economic independence c o n t r o l l e d i n p a r t by t h e State.  Cardenas p r o j e c t s on l a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n , on l a b o r , on s o c i a l i s t i c  programs o f e d u c a t i o n , if  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y on o i l e x p r o p r i a t i o n , g i v e ,  n o t a complete, a c l e a r i d e a of Cardenas governmental p o l i c i e s .  Professor Brandenburg writes: power on behalf of  and i n the name of  "He  (Cardenas) exercised his 7 the worker and the peasant."  Another observer writes: 'Abroad, the Cardenas administration (1934-1940) may be best known for i t s expropriation of Mexico's p r i v a t e l y owned petroleum, a step which was also provided for by the constitution of 1917. But s t i l l more important domestically, the administration of President Cardenas expropriated and r e d i s tributed more land than a l l other administrations before and since, put together. Pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of C a l l e s administration, these lands were taken from the t e r r i t o r i e s surrounding p a r t i c u l a r v i l l a g e s and were ceded to them communally as ejidos to be worked i n some cases c o l l e c t i v e l y but i n most cases i n d i v i d u a l l y . An e.jido bank was established to provide the new owners with a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t . I r r i g a t i o n and other c a p i t a l investment i n a g r i c u l ture was not however, expanded at the same time. In fact, i n retrospect i t i s clear that although he undoubtedly had his heart i n the right place, Cardenas, as a head of a bourgeois government, did not provide Mexican peasant agriculture with nearly enough resources to get i t over the hump into self-sustained development. 7  Although i t i s true that some of the Cardenas p o l i c i e s i n economic matters did not succeed, it. i s also true that the power of the " o f f i c i a l " party was  not used to suppress popular demands; on the  contrary, they v/ere backed by the party. Changing the Direction of P o l i t i c a l and Economic A f f a i r s Under A v i l a Camacho and Aleman Administrations" Cardenas' successors  i n o f f i c e , Manuel A v i l a Camacho and  l a t e r Miguel Aleman, brought a s h i f t i n p o l i t i c a l as well as economic matters. During Manuel A v i l a Camacho's administration, 1940-1946, two major changes altered the P.5..M. Revolutionary Mexican Party Structure.  7. 8.  Frank Brandenburg: The Making of Modern Mexico, op. c i t . , p. 81. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. A. Gunder Frank, Mexico: The Janus Faces of 20th Century Bourgeois Revolution, op. c i t . , p. 77. Whither L a t i n America? M.R. Press, N.Y., 1963.  21  First,  the m i l i t a r y  s e c t o r was  dropped from the o f f i c i a l p a r t y i n  o r d e r t o weld the powers of the Mexican Army to the p r e s i d e n t i a l f i c e , without  the i n t e r m e d i a r y of the o f f i c i a l p a r t y .  This  of-  political  d e v i c e does not mean,as P r o f e s s o r S c o t t comments, t h a t the army d i v o r c e d itself  from p o l i t i c s .  p o s i t i o n behind  On  the c o n t r a r y , having r e t u r n e d  the throne,  the m i l i t a r y ' s r o l e i n Mexican  has remained s t r o n g and p a r t i s a n .  Although  t i e s have been somewhat l e s s obvious  t i n u e s t o w i e l d a v e r y important The  to i t s o l d politics  i n recent years  its activi-  than f o r m e r l y , the m i l i t a r y 9  con-  i n f l u e n c e i n p o l i c y making.  second major change was  the replacement of V i c e n t e Lombardo  Toledano as the l e a d e r of the p o w e r f u l Mexican Worker C o n f e d e r a t i o n  and  the repiacement of the workers' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l i z e d r a i l ways by a government c o n t r o l l e d bureaucracy,  the N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s  m i n i s t r a t i o n , under a s i n g l e d i r e c t o r appointed  by the p r e s i d e n t .  s e q u e n t l y w h i l e Cardenas' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n gave wide support  AdCon-  to the l a b o r  movement, A v i l a Camacho tempered t h e i r demands. D u r i n g M i g u e l Aleman's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1946-1952, the P.R.M. became the P.R.I., P a r t y of R e v o l u t i o n a r y I n s t i t u t i o n s and manner P r o f e s s o r Brandenburg comments, "How 10 olution i f institutionalized?" A l s o i n regard  i n a jocular  can r e v o l u t i o n remain r e v -  to Aleman epoch, P r o f e s s o r Brandenburg w r i t e s :  "Aleman's p h i l o s o p h y of l a b o r c o n t a i n e d overtones of D i a z and C a r r a n z a , and h i s p h i l o s o p h y of p o l i t i c s elements of c a l l i s m o .  9.  R o b e r t E. S c o t t : Mexican Government i n T r a n s i t i o n , p. 134. Univers i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1964. 10. F r a n k Brandenburg: The Making of Modern Mexico, op. c i t . , p. 101. P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1964.  22  Governmental defense of s t r i k e s was nonsense: the c o u r t s would s e t t l e - l a b o r d i s p u t e s p e a c e f u l l y and i n a c c o r d w i t h the promotion of c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h management. Company unions were p r o t e c t e d , promoted, and g i v e n immunity from mandatory membership i n a b i g c e n t r a l ; Rapid i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , an Aleman f e t i s h , r e q u i r e d low wages and the s a c r i f i c e of the l a b o r f o r c e to c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . A l s o i t i s important  s i d e n t who  used  to r e c a l l  t h a t Aleman was  the f i r s t 12  pre-  t r o o p s , i n order t o break an o i l s t r i k e .  I n r e g a r d t o economic p o l i c i e s of A v i l a Camacho and Aleman's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note what Raymond Vernon w r i t e s about i t : "The s h i f t from A v i l a Camacho t o Aleman was n o t d r a m a t i c , the p o l i c i e s of the two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s bore more s i g n s of cont i n u i t y than of change. Aleman had no more h e s i t a t i o n i n u s i n g the economic powers of government than d i d h i s predecess o r . H i s a r r i v a l t h e r e f o r e d i d not b r i n g a r e d u c t i o n of the Mexican government's economic powers and a c t i v i t i e s . Rather, i t brought a somewhat g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o use those powers i n tandem w i t h the r i s i n g b u s i n e s s c l a s s . I n o t h e r words w i t h A v i l a Camacho and mainly w i t h Aleman, a new  e r a of p o l i t i c a l and  economical  s u p p r e s s i o n of l a b o r movements and  activity  s t a r t s w i t h the g r a d u a l  the growth of a s t r o n g Mexican  v a t e c a p i t a l i s t c l a n , which i n t u r n p e r m i t t e d the almost i n f l u x of f o r e i g n investment we w i l l a n a l y z e b r i e f l y  i n t o the c o u n t r y .  some a s p e c t s of the l a s t  pri-  unrestricted  (Later i n this  study  t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s of  i n t e r n a l as w e l l as the e x t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n of Mexican economy.) B r i e f l y , when A d o l f o R u i z C o r t i n e s , took o f f i c e f o r the p r e sidential  11. 12. 13.  term of 1952-1953, he i n h e r i t e d from Aleman's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  I b i d . , op. c i t . , p. 102. See: Robert E . S c o t t : Mexican Government i n T r a n s i t i o n , pp. 141142. U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1954. Raymond Vernon: The Dilemma of Mexico's Development, op. c i t . , p. 99. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965.  among other problems, those of i n f l a t i o n , corruption, an empty government treasury, unfinished public works, balance~of-payments problems, and an amorphous family leadership.  In short Ruiz Cortines' regime  i s known as a paying-off cautious administration. Uncertain Era of Lopez Mateos administration and Early Student Unrest Adolfo Lc'pez Mateos'' Administration, 1958-1964, tends to evoke such adjectives as v a c i l l a t i n g and compromising. i n a complicated sort of context: to c a p i t a l accumulation,  Policy had to be made  a f t e r twnety years of being s a c r i f i c e d  organized labor and agrarian groups wanted  higher r e a l wages and agrarian reforms, i n other words a better share of national increase, but the only answer they got to their demands was repression, a clear-  example of which we have already pointed out i n the  cases of Ruben Jaramillo and Demetrio Vallego. Turning again to Aleman's regime, Professor Brandenburg writes that for the former, " t h e - s a c r i f i c e of a generation of workers and peasants was  small price for making his nation maternally strong, indus14  t r i a l i z e d , modernized, advanced."' of c a p i t a l accumulation, not be even p a r t i a l l y  Therefore why  the demands of those who  after twenty years had paid for i t , can-  fulfilled?  To obtain a complete answer to the above question, one perhaps needs a complete analysis of the Mexican economy, -and since this i s not the main concern of cur study, nevertheless^in order to c l a r i f y p a r t i a l l y our  d o u b t s i t w i l l be necessary >  to know what have been i n the l a s t  twenty-five years the two main goals of Mexico's p o l i t i c a l economy: 1) to increase the standard of l i v i n g of the population: 2) to achieve national economic independence. 14.  Ibid., op. c i t . , p.  103.  24  A Mexican economist, of  Mexico's p o l i t i c a l  Fernando  Carmona, d e a l s w i t h the problen*  economy i n a v e r y a c c u r a t e form when he w r i t e s :  "The income l e v e l s of the g r e a t m a j o r i t y i n d i c a t e o n l y poverty and even d e s t i t u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o d a t a from a survey by the Bank of Mexico, f i f t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of peasant f a m i l i e s had, i n 1963, a monthly income of l e s s than 530 pesos, and f i f t y p e r c e n t of those occupied i n i n d u s t r y , of l e s s than 950 pesos. A s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n i s reached when one a n a l y z e s the c o n d i t i o n of housing, h e a l t h , c l o t h i n g and f o o d , not f o r g e t t i n g t h a t i t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t , on the average, 65 p e r c e n t of the average e x p e n d i t u r e of the urban p o p u l a t i o n and 34 p e r c e n t of the o u t l a y of the peasants i n 1958 was spent which i s v e r y r e v e a l i n g , on food a l o n e . With regard to the l e v e l of l i t e r a c y , i t i s estimated t h a t s t i l l i n 1964-65, 28.9 p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n over s i x y e a r s of age had never been t o s c h o o l and t h a t another 44.9 p e r c e n t had o n l y s t u d i e d as f a r as the f o u r t h primary grade. That i s t o say, g r e a t numbers of peasants w i t h or w i t h o u t l a n d , but p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n ; and the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n the slums and 'misery b e l t s ' of the c i t i e s , have not achieved p r o s p e r i t y i n t h i s q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y , and they a r e l e s s and l e s s c o n t e n t t o remain i n t h e i r " v i e l l e m a l a i s e / ' W i t h r e s p e c t t o the other g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l o b j e c t i v e of p o l i t i c a l development, n a t i o n a l economic independence, can one share t h i s o p i n i o n expressed by the Programme P o l i c y of the o f f i c i a l p a r t y : ' . . . i n 1910 d i r e c t f o r e i g n investment accounted f o r 69 p e r c e n t of the g r o s s nat i o n a l p r o d u c t a t t h a t time, whereas i n 1962 the p r o p o r t i o n was o n l y seven p e r c e n t . W i t h r e g a r d to the t o t a l n a t i o n a l investment i n t h i s l a s t y e a r , i t can be s a i d t h a t our economic independence was n i n e times g r e a t e r , thanks to our n a t i o n a l i s t revolution....' A p a r t from the c h i l d i s h p l o y attempted i n t h i s statement and the obvious f a c t t h a t , w i t h regard to the regime of D i a z , the s i z e and e x t e n t of economic dependence may perhaps have been l e s s and were c e r t a i n l y d i f f e r e n t , who has not observed the growing depth and spread of f o r e i g n — i m p e r i a l i s t -p e n e t r a t i o n , above a l l from North America, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1941? What e l s e , i f not an i n c r e a s e i n our economic dependence, and indeed, the dependence of our economic system, can be meant by the f a c t t h a t s t i l l about 70 p e r c e n t of our t o t a l volume of f o r e i g n t r a d e i s c a r r i e d on w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , v e r y much more than the p r o p o r t i o n p r e v i o u s to 1940: t h a t we c o n t i n u e t o be b a s i c a l l y e x p o r t e r s of r a w - m a t e r i a l s and p r o d u c t s of low economic d e n s i t y , and importers of f i n i s h e d and h a l f - f i n i s h e d goods: t h a t the d e f i c i t i n the balance of t r a d e i s growing, even w i t h o u t c o u n t i n g the l a r g e and growing contraband t r a d e i n imports, b a s i c a l l y coming from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and tlia t we c o n t i n u e t o be threatened by the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the exchange r a t e ?  25  What e l s e can be meant by the e n d l e s s and growing n a t i o n a l debt, through which the c a p i t a l balance of Mexico's debts abroad has grown from 101.4 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n 1940 t o 1803.3 m i l l i o n by the 30 of June 1966? By the u n l i m i t e d and cont i n u a l i n c r e a s e i n d i r e c t investment by the g r e a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l monopolies from a t o t a l of 411.2 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n 1940 t o some 1800 to 1900 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n 1965? I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t these monopolies are e x e r c i s i n g more and more i n f l u e n c e on the economy and the p o l i t i c s of many branches of i n d u s t r y , on t r a d e a t home and abroad and on other s e r v i c e s , and t h a t they are b e s i d e s l i n k e d i n a thousand ways w i t h i n d i r e c t investment? We must not f a i l to mention other f a c t s . What can we say of the growing t e c h n o l o g i c a l dependence? Of the p r e s s u r e s of i n f l a t i o n and the ever g r e a t e r p r e s s u r e s on our balance of payments? Of the s u b j e c t i o n t o e x t e r n a l ( o r f o r e i g n ) economy of r e g i o n s , s e c t o r s and whole branches.of the n a t i o n a l economy? We must c o n s i d e r a l s o t h a t the sum of the r e a l t r a d e d e f i c i t , the r e m i t t a n c e of d i v i d e n d s , p e r q u s i t i e s and i n t e r e s t by f o r e i g n f i r m s who have s e t up b u s i n e s s i n Mexico, the payment of i n t e r e s t on the n a t i o n a l debt abroad and of f r e i g h t charges, i n 1965 went up to some 1,100 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , t h a t i s to say, about a t h i r d of the g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t and almost 55 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l export i n goods and s e r v i c e s i n account c u r r e n t . T h i s g r e a t n a t i o n a l expend i t u r e , to which i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o add the f i g u r e s r e s u l t i n g from the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the r a t e of exchange which have not been taken i n t o account i n the p r e v i o u s d a t a , the 'leakage' of Mexican c a p i t a l , the payments made by Mexican f i r m s f o r p a t e n t s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g l i c e n c e s and i n s u r a n c e t o gether w i t h other items i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c c o u n t s , i s r e a l l y n o t h i n g other than the f o r m i d a b l e and e v e r - g r e a t e r t r i b u t e to the 'developed' c o u n t r i e s -- w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s a t t h e i r head -- t h a t we pay as the p r i c e of our i n c r e a s i n g subo r d i n a t i o n . F a r from advancing towards economic independence, i n r e a l i t y the c o u n t r y has r e g r e s s e d i n the l a s t q u a r t e r of a century. R e t u r n i n g to our a n a l y s i s of Lopes l i a t e o s ' A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , we observe ported  t h a t student p o l i t i c s became a major problem. the Cuban R e v o l u t i o n and  demonstrations,  15.  t h e r e were c o u n t l e s s  Students  sup-  anti-American  but d u r i n g those days s t u d e n t s were d e a l i n g merely  with  Fernando Carmona: L a P o l i t i c a Economica. op. c i t . , pp. 109-111. Mexico: R i q u e z a Y M i s e r i a . A l o n s o A g u i l a r M.Y Fernando Carmona. E d i t o r i a l Nuestro Tiempo. Mexico, 1968.  1.0  international issues and severe measures against them were not taken. Then when the current administration of Gustavo Diaz Ordaz came to power (1964-1970), students  started to deal with national issues  (that we s h a l l analyze l a t e r ) and the c i r c l e of repression was with the student movement of  closed  1968.  F i n a l l y i n this chapter server wrote i n  —  i t i s important to note what an  ob-  1963:  "Cardenas' successors A v i l a Camacho (1940-1946), Miguel Aleman (1940-1952), Adolfo Ruiz Cortinez (1952-1958), and the current President Adolfc Lopez Mateos (1958-1964). The next one, Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, nominated and therefore sure of e l e c t i o n at the time of this writing, i s not expected to change the pattern. These presidents have pushed Mexico to the Right, creating a climate for high-level corruption, and have twisted the I n s t i t u t i o n a l Revolutionary Party (PRI) into a Tammany-like machine.  Summary From our account of the p o l i t i c a l history of modern Mexico, we find that the early period i n the I930's contained  an opportunity  for a viable p o l i t i c a l democracy with a controlled and orderly conf l i c t between i n t e r e s t groups on the l e f t and r i g h t .  Strangely,  push to a centralized government came from Cardenas, who t i c to the needs of  was  the  sympathe-  the peasants and workers, and whose administration  worked on their behalf.  But following the leadership of Cardenas, the  P r e s i d e n t i a l successors, Camacho and Aleman, used the Central Party,and by strengthsing i t s control, suppressed labor and peasant movements.  16.  John Gerassi, The Great Fear i n L a t i n America, C o l l i e r Books, N.Y., 1968.  op. c i t . , p.  103.  27  It i s at this time that we begin to see that legacy of v i o lence i n p o l i c y matters i s introduced as strategy of repression i n modern Mexican p o l i t i c s .  The push toward modernization took on the  character of foreign investments and with i t foreign c o n t r o l .  And  i t i s the latter., the foreign domination of the Mexican economy, that plays an important role i n the application of repression.  28  CHAPTER I I The P.R.I. P o l i t i c a l Machine  To understand b e t t e r how  the " o f f i c i a l " p o l i t i c a l  works and c o n t r o l s the whole s o c i a l and economic f i r s t we  s h a l l attempt  t o d e s c r i b e how  machine  s t r u c t u r e i n Mexico,  t h a t s o c i a l and economic  struc-  t u r e works. Mexico, l i k e many other c o u n t r i e s , i s composed of a s o c i a l and economic  pyramid w i t h a p o l i t i c a l pyramid i n s i d e i t .  d e s c r i b e s the Mexican pyramid  An observer  i n the f o l l o w i n g manner:  "At the bottom are the i n d i g e n o u s I n d i a n s , remaining where they always were. I n the next l a y e r a r e the l a n d l e s s r u r a l p e o p l e and the unemployed or only o c c a s i o n a l l y employed u r ban ones. The l a t t e r a r c a v e r i t a b l e lumpen p r o l e t a r i a t d i s p o s s e s s e d by the r u r a l and unabsorbed by the urban economy, l i v i n g on the margin of s o c i e t y , i s o l a t e d and a l i e n a t e d from i t , from each o t h e r , and o f t e n from themselves. Next come the e j i d a t a r i o s and such p r i v a t e s m a l l h o l d e r s as a r e poor enough t o work t h e i r land by themselves. A l t h o u g h econ o m i c a l l y more s e c u r e , they stand s o c i a l l y some times even below the m a r g i n a l urban p e o p l e , perhaps because the chances f o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y are g r e a t e r f o r the l a t t e r . Above them are the workers i n the narrower sense of the word, p a r t i c u l a r l y the u n i o n i z e d ones, who i n Mexico and i n many p a r t s of L a t i n America, A s i a , and A f r i c a today comprise a s o r t of ' a r i s t o c r a c y of the p r o l e t a r i a t . ' The next l a y e r may be termed the middle c l a s s or p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e . I t comprises a l a r g e v a r i e t y of economic walks of l i f e -- s m a l l landowner, p r o f e s s i o n a l merchant, c l e r g y , government and w h i t e - c o l l a r worker, s m a l l p o l i t i c i a n — but i t a f f o r d s c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t e r a l m o b i l i t y w i t h i n i t , from one o c c u p a t i o n to a n o t h e r . Their badge i n Mexico i s d a r k g l a s s e s as i t i s a b r i e f c a s e i n West e r n Europe, however dark i t may be o u t s i d e or however few papers t h e r e may be t o c a r r y . And t h a t badge i s a c o u n t e r weight t o the sometimes h i g h e r income of the workers below them. The b o u r g e o i s upper c l a s s , the p r i n c i p a l m a n i p u l a t o r s and the b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the system, i n c l u d e s the l a r g e l a n d h o l d e r s , the e f f e c t i v e d i r e c t o r s of the f i n a n c i a l commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , governmental, and m i l i t a r y apparat u s e s and by 'noblesse o b l i g e ' some i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The v i a b l e economic base of the more a r i s t o c r a t i c upper c l a s s was d e s t r o y e d by the r e v o l u t i o n . But many of i t s members and  '  29  t h e i r wealth survived. T h e i r money was i n v e s t e d i n f i n a n c e , commerce, i n d u s t r y , and l a t e r a g a i n a g r i c u l t u r e ; and the exa r i s t o c r a t s became the n u c l e u s of the new bourgeoisie. 1  A vastmajority  of t h i s new  Mexican b o u r g e o i s i e  forms i n s i d e  of P i l l ' s p o l i t i c a l pyramid a h i e r n r c h i c a l f a m i l y known as the  "Revolu-  t i o n a r y F a m i l y " which enjoys p o l i t i c a l  mobility.  The cal  pyramid.  Party The  of R e v o l u t i o n a r y  p r e s t i g e and  political  I n s t i t u t i o n s (PRI)  s t r u c t u r e of t h i s p o l i t i c a l  i s the p o l i t i -  pyramid i s v e r y  we might almost say cumbersome, c o n s e q u e n t l y we  should  complex,  describe  i t in  a b r i e f but p r e c i s e manner-. Today, as P r o f e s s o r i s composed of three —  Brandenburg w r i t e s ,  sectors:  Agrarian,  the  Labor, and  "Official  Party"  P o p u l a r elements  which t h e o r e t i c a l l y nominate c a n d i d a t e s to p u b l i c o f f i c e s through a  functional,, from l o c a l  proportional-representation, to n a t i o n a l l e v e l s .  i n t r a p a r t y process  U n i o n s , f e d e r a t i o n s , and  formally a f f i l i a t e d  w i t h the o f f i c i a l p a r t y p u r p o r t e d l y  s e c t o r s and  appoint  party o f f i c i a l d o m .  mittees  subject  to. d i s t r i c t  are  groups are  associations take over  the  A number of l o c a l "ward" com-  committees, which i n t u r n f a l l  the j u r i s d i c t i o n of s t a t e e x e c u t i v e organs of the o f f i c i a l p a r t y .  structured  under  committees t h a t answer t o n a t i o n a l  At a l l levels, party-affiliated interest  to assume c o n t r o l of the p a r t y ' s  three  sectors.  Theoretically,  the  s e c t o r s then d e c i d e among themselves which e l e c t i v e o f f i c e s are  to  1.  A. Gunder F r a n k : M e x i c o : The Janus F a c e s of 20th Century B o u r g e o i s R e v o l u t i o n , op. . c i t . , p. 35. Whither L a t i n America? M.R. Press, N.Y., 1963.  30  be a p p o r t i o n e d to each s e c t o r , each s e c t o r s e l e c t s the c a n d i d a t e s f o r i t s d e s i g n a t e d o f f i c e s , and a l l t h r e e s e c t o r s c o l l e c t i v e l y s u p p o r t the n o m i n a t i o n s i n the name of the o f f i c i a l p a r t y .  N a t i o n a l organs presum-  a b l y take d i r e c t charge of n o m i n a t i n g a c a n d i d a t e f o r the o f f i c e o f P r e s i d e n t o f M e x i c o , w h i l e s t a t e - l e v e l p a r t y organs s e l e c t governors and s e n a t o r s , d i s t r i c t organs s e l e c t f e d e r a l and s t a t e deputees, and 2 l o c a l organs s e l e c t m u n i c i p a l p r e s i d e n t s and c o u n c i l men.  i  2.  See, Frank Brandenburg: The Making o f Modern M e x i c o , p. 143.  3.1  The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e PRI CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE ( E l e c t e d by President Secretary-General ( N a t i o n a l Assembly. Secretaries of: / D e s i g n a t e d by Agrarian A c t i v i t i e s J n a t i o n a l sector Labor A c t i v i t i e s )organ. Popular A c t i v i t i e s Political Activities ('Designated Senate Chamber o f D e p u t i e s A by caucus.  1  GRAN COMISION f10 members s e l e c t e d by 30 members jeach sector at National ^Assembly. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (As provided i n convocation. Delegates / U s u a l l y about a thousand, I r e p r e s e n t i n g each s e c t o r I equally. 32 REGIONAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES One Committee p e r s t a t e , t e r r i t o r y , and t h e Federal D i s t r i c t . President (Elected at regional Secretary-General 1 convention. Secretaries of: Agrarian A c t i v i t i e s Labor A c t i v i t i e s D e s i g n a t e d by Popular A c t i v i t i e s 4 state sector P o l i t i c a l A c t i v i t i e s ^organization. S t a t e Deputy ^Designated I by caucus.  I  MUNICIPAL COMMITTEES One Committee f o r each m u n i c i p i o i n s t a t e . A p p o i n t e d by C e n t r a l E x e c u t i v e Committee on a d v i c e o f R e g i o n a l E x e c u t i v e Committee Repres e n t a t i v e of s o c i a l and economic a c t i v i t i e s o f a r e a .  3.  S o u r c e , R o b e r t E. S c o t t :  GENERAL MEMBERSHIP  Popular Sector(CNOP-10 Branches)  Farm Sector(CNC,etc.)  Labor S e c t o r (CTM.etc.)  DISTRICT COMMITTEES One Committee f o r each e l e c t i o n d i s t r i c t i n Federal District. [Same as f o r 5 members-)members o f •Municipal 'Committees.  M e x i c a n Government i n T r a n s i t i o n , p. 158  32  The A g r a r i a n , Labor and P o p u l a r , s e c t o r s upon which f i r s t and  which are the t h r e e b a s i c  the Mexican R e v o l u t i o n a r y  then the P a r t y of R e v o l u t i o n a r y  Institutions —  Party  P.R.M.  P.R.I.  were  b u i l t , have remained the major u n i t s f o r " i n t e r e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " i n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y s i n c e 1940. for  our  study  t o know what the group composition  s e c t o r s i s , but i t , we  Consequently i t w i l l be  since there are very  few  sources  of these  outdated  three basic  of i n f o r m a t i o n  w i l l use P r o f e s s o r S c o t t ' s diagram on the S e c t o r s '  Although i t i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y  important  about  Organization.  (1958), i t might serve us as a  guide to have an i d e a of the Party's* scope i n .his " c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  task."  33  THE  SECTOR ORGANIZATION OF THE  PRI  Farm S e c t o r 1. C o n f e d e r a c i o n N a c i o n a l Campesina A. 2,332,914 e j i d o f a m i l i e s on 18,564 e j i d o s (1958 a g r i c u l t u r a l census) 2,500,000 B. S i n d i c a t o s Campesinos ( o r g a n i z a t i o n of wagel a b o r e r s on p r i v a t e l a n d s , a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the CNC) ^ 150,000 2. Sociedad Agronomica Mexicana 10,000 T o t a l i n Farm S e c t o r 2,660,000 Labor S e c t o r 1. A f f i l i a t e d w i t h BUO A. C o n f e d e r a c i o n de T r a b a j a d o r e s Mexicanos (CTM) ^ B. C o n f e d e r a c i o n R e g i o n a l de Obreros Mexicanos (CROM) C. C o n f e d e r a c i o n G e n e r a l de T r a b a j a d o r c s (CGT) D. R a i l r o a d Workers Union (STFRM) E. M i n i n g and M e t a l Workers Union (STMMSRil) F. Petroleum Workers Union (STPRM) G. Telephone Workers Union (STRM) H. M o t i o n P i c t u r e Workers Union (STPCRM) I. Other independent unions (FNRT, FTDF, FNUT, FAO, ANDA, ATA, e t c . )  2.  Anti-BUO A f f i l i a t e s A. C o n f e d e r a c i o n R e v o l u c i o n a r i a de Obreros y Campesinos (CROC) B. C o n f e d e r a c i o n R e v o l u c i o n a r i a de T r a b a j a d o r e s (CRT) C. E l e c t r i c a l Workers Unions (3 u n i o n s ) D. Other independent unions E. S i n d i c a t o de T r a b a j a d o r e s A g r i c o l a s ( i n formation)  1,500,000 35,000 25,000* 102,000* 90,000 85,000* 10,000 6,000 20,000 1,873,000  150,000 25,000 50,000* 15,000  240,000 T o t a l i n Labor  Sector  Popular Sector—CNOP 1. C i v i l Servants A. B u r e a u c r a t s Unions (FSTSE) B. Teachers (SNTE) 2. Cooperatives A. N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of C o o p e r a t i v e s B. N a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i v e League Continued  . . .  2,113,000  300,000 55,000* 275,000 3,000  34  3.  4. _ 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  10.  0  Small Farm P r o p r i e t o r s A. C o n f e d e r a c i e s N a c i o n a l de l a Pequena Propiedad A g r i c o l a 850,000 B. A s o c i a c i o n N a c i o n a l de Cosecheros 15,000 S m a l l Merchants \ „, , , ,r. _ .. _ , ... >These o v e r l a p 40,000 Small I n d u s t r i a l i s t s J Professionals—Intellectuals 55,000 Youth Groups A. C o n f e d e r a c i o n de Jovenes Mexicanos 75,000 A r t i s a n s ( n o n s a l a r i e d s e r v i c e employees) 70,000 Women's O r g a n i z a t i o n s A. Sociedad de T d c n i c a s y P r o f e s i o n a l e s 25,000 B. O t h e r s (Mujeres R e v o l u c i o n a r i a s , Mujeres en Marcha, e t c . ) 10,000 D i v e r s i f i e d Persons ( a c a t c h a l l f o r a l l k i n d s of o t h e r w i s e u n a f f i l i a t e d Mexicans) 75,000 T o t a l i n Popular Sector 1,848,000 Grand T o t a l i n Three PRI S e c t o r s 6,621,000 n  nr  *The mere f a c t t h a t a union or l a b o r c o n f e d e r a t i o n i s l i s t e d as a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the BU0 or a g a i n s t i t does n o t always mean t h a t i t c o l l e c t i v e l y or a l l of i t s l o c a l s or i n d i v i d u a l members support the p o s i t i o n irrevocably. The r a i l r o a d workers and the p e t r o l e u m workers i n the L a bot s e c t o r , and the F e d e r a l D i s t r i c t ' s p r i m a r y - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n the P o p u l a r s e c t o r , n o m i n a l l y support the BUO, but i n a c t u a l i t y , u n t i l the government's crackdown p r e c i p i t a t e d by the r a i l r o a d s t r i k e of MarchA p r i l 1959, they cooperated w i t h the anti-BUO f o r c e s . A t the same time, the e l e c t r i c a l workers, v/ho belong to the anti-BUO f a c t i o n , broke o f f t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n v/ith the l e f t i s t r a i l r o a d l e a d e r s a f t e r the same strike. S i m i l a r l y , a l t h o u g h the CGT n o m i n a l l y i s p a r t of the BUO, the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l of the f e d e r a t i o n i n s t r u c t e d h i s f o l l o w e r s not to support the c a n d i d a t e s f o r c o n g r e s s i o n a l - o f f i c e put up by the CTM duri n g the 1958 p o l i t i c a l campaign. On the o t h e r hand, a l t h o u g h the bure a u c r a t s u n i o n (FSTSE) o p e r a t e s out of the Popular s e c t o r , i t c o n s i d e r s i t s e l f a p a r t of and works v/ith the BUO.  4.  Source:  S c o t t , Mexican Government, pp.  166-67.  35  I f we  l o o k a t t h e s e s e c t o r s more c l o s e l y , we  f i n d t h a t e v i d e n c e about p a r t y membership and  t h a t of s e c t o r s i s con-  t r a d i c t o r y , i n c o m p l e t e and g e n e r a l l y u n r e l i a b l e s a i d , P r o f e s s o r S c o t t has p r e s e n t e d about 1958.  A l s o S c o t t warns t h a t :  immediately  As we have a l r e a d y  a documented g e n e r a l p i c t u r e f o r "Because of the r a p i d l y changing  f a c t o r s of s e c t o r s membership, coupled w i t h the b e g i n n i n g s p i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t and  of  overlap-  consequent m u l t i p l e membership i n f u n c -  t i o n a l i n t e r e s t associations belonging  to one o r more s e c t o r s of  P R I , i t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e a c c u r a t e l y the r e l a t i v e ence of the s e c t o r s on t h e i r component p a r t s i n the  the influ-  decision-making  5 process."  I n s h o r t what S c o t t says i s t h a t , " e f f o r t s to measure the  relative political  i n f l u e n c e of each s e c t o r , are not l i k e l y  to be  very  fruitful." We  f i n d t h a t S c o t t ' s assumptions about the r e l a t i v e  i n f l u e n c e of PRI s e c t o r s , are a c c u r a t e when we f e s s o r G o n z a l e z Casanova's o b s e r v a t i o n s forces.  The  compare  political  them w i t h  on government c o n t r o l of l a b o r  latter writes:  " T w o - t h i r d s of the u n i o n i z e d w o r k e r s b e l o n g to the Mexican Workers' C o n f e d e r a t i o n , w h i c h i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the o f f i c i a l p a r t y through the o f f i c i a l j o b s of i t s l e a d e r s . Other u n i o n s , not l i n k e d to the c e n t r a l one, m a i n t a i n e q u a l l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h the o f f i c i a l p a r t y and the government." G o n z a l e z Casanova adds: "An i n d e x of the dependence of the M e x i c a n unions upon the government and i n p a r t i c u l a r upon i t s p r e s i d e n t i a l - t y p e p o l i c y , i s t h a t of strikes„ I f one o b s e r v e s the s t r i k e s which b r e a k out on a l a r g e s c a l e i n v a r y i n g p r e s i d e n t i a l r e g i m e s , one can e s t a b l i s h the f a c t t h a t i t i s when the P r e s i d e n t s are known f o r t h e i r p r o p u l i s t and pro-worker p o l i c i e s t h a t the g r e a t e s t number of s t r i k e s o c c u r , as i f the u n i o n l e a ders and the workers f e l t themselves p r o t e c t e d o r even en5.  I b i d . , op. c i t . , p.  171.  Pro-  36  couraged by the. p r e s i d e n t i a l power. P r e c i s e l y the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t i s produced when the P r e s i d e n t s f o l l o w a l e s s r a d i c a l p o l i c y , or a more open a l l i a n c e w i t h the p r o p e r t y - o w n i n g nat i o n a l and f o r e i g n s e c t o r s . Then we can see t h a t d u r i n g P r e s i d e n t Obregon's s t a y i n power (1920-24), who counted among h i s f o l l o w e r s the 'Red B a t t a l l i o n s ' and the w o r k i n g - c l a s s l e a d e r s , the n a t i o n a l average o f s t r i k e s r o s e to 197; d u r i n g the c o n s e r v a t i v e p e r i o d of C a l l e s and the s o - c a l l e d "Maximato" (1925-34), the average went down to 41; i t r o s e a g a i n to 470 w i t h Lazaro Cardenas' p r o - a g r a r i a n and w o r k i n g - c l a s s government (1934-40). Later^ the average was 387 i n A v i l a Camacho's moderate government; 108 w i t h Aleman (under the regime i n w h i c h the t r e n d i n income d i s t r i b u t i o n was u n f a v o r a b l e to the w o r k i n g - c l a s s s e c t o r and 240 w i t h R u i z C o r t i n e s whose p o l i c y was above a l l reformist.''6 I n s h o r t , we see t h a t the p a r t y s e c t o r as a group does not have any p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , t h a t those who  ha\ e i t , and who  are a l s o  T  i n c o n t r o l of i t , a r e the l e a d e r s o f these o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and r o l e s t h a t these l e a d e r s have a r e ambiguous and not c l e a r l y  the s o c i a l  defined,  because r a t h e r than r e p r e s e n t the s e c t o r i n t e r e s t s , they a r e m e d i a t o r s between the l a t t e r and  the a u t h o r i t i e s .  As a r e s u l t of t h i s , i t i s  d i f f i c u l t to know i f these l e a d e r s s u p p o r t  the i n t e r e s t o f the power  s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than those of the s e c t o r members.  Thus i n Mexico the  p a r t y masses^ f a r from h a v i n g p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , a r e  manipulated,  c o n t r o l l e d and m o b i l i z e d by l e a d e r s and p a r t y p o l i t i c i a n s .  In regard  to  t h i s p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l G o n z a l e z Casanova w r i t e s : " I n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of Mexico t h e r e e x i s t , then, two types of c o n t r o l : the c o n t r o l by the p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the c o n t r o l of the n o n - o r g a n i z e d p o p u l a t i o n by the government a l and p a r a - g o v e r n m e n t a l organs and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . . " Gonzalez Casanova adds: " I t can be s a i d , w i t h no room f o r doubt, t h a t the p a r t i e s are not o r g a n i z e d , s u b s i d i z e d or c o n t r o l l e d by the c i t i z e n s . The u s u a l t h i n g i s f o r the groups i n power — w i t h p o l i t i c a n s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s — to o r g a n i z e , s u b s i d i z e and c o n t r o l the p a r t i e s .  6.  P. G o n z a l e z Casanova: Dynamics o f C l a s s S t r u c t u r e , op. c i t . , p. 74. Comparative P e r s p e c t i v e s on S t r a t i f i c a t i o n , M e x i c o , Great B r i t a i n , J a p a n . L i t t l e Brown and Co. 1968.  •37  and f o r the p a r t i e s t o be t h e i r l e g a l - p o l i t i c a l t o o l , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y s a n c t i o n e d f o r t h e c i v i c c o n t e s t o f the e l e c t r o n s . I n such a complex c o n t e x t where o r g a n i z a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l come from the t o p , t h e few " o p p o s i t i o n " p a r t i e s , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e i r " ' o f f i c i a l r e g i s t r a t i o n " as p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , must  fulfill  some ambiguous r e q u i r e m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r . T h i s M i n i s t r y has t h e l a s t word i n g r a n t i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n on the grounds t h a t those p o l i t i c a l groups must not " i n t e r f e r e " w i t h t h e " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " l i n e c f t h e o f f i c i a l p a r t y , o t h e r w i s e as Robert S c o t t comments: e r a l times s i n c e 1950 t h e government has r e f u s e d 8  "Sev-  to grant r e c o g n i t i o n  to p o l i t i c a l groups s e e k i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n . " I n such a c o n t e x t , once these p o l i t i c a l groups o b t a i n t h e o f f i c i a l r e g i s t r a t i o n as p a r t i e s they s t a r t t o p l a y t h e i r " p a r t " i n the p o l i t i c a l arena. sition where — PPS  —  One o f the l a t e s t examples o f t h e i r " e f f e c t i v e " oppo-  as a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , has been the p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1958, o f the f i v e p a r t i e s r e g i s t e r e d , f o u r , the PRI, P.N.M., PARM, and 9 s u p p o r t e d the P R I s , p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e , ?  A d o l f o Lopez Mateos.  Only t h e PAN, w h i c h has always been known as a c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r e s t o f t h e Church, some b i g - b u s i n e s s upper- and m i d d l e - c l a s s  party,  rep-  as w e l l as some  p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , nominated an o p p o s i t i o n can-  d i d a t e f o r the p r e s i d e n c y ,  L u i s H. A l v a r e z .  of t h e P a r t y w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d  This candidate,  being  himself  extreme r i g h t - w i n g f o r c e s o f t h e Mexican  s o c i e t y , throughout h i s p r e s i d e n t i a l campaign and b e i n g  s u r e t h a t he c o u l d  not w i n , had made such demagogic promises t h a t h i s v i c t o r y would have p l a c e d ~7~. P a b l o G o n z a l e z Casanova-; L a Democracia en M e x i c o , 102-104. E d i c i o n e s E r a . M e x i c o , 1965. 8. S c o t t : Mexican Government, op. c i t . , p. 151. 9. I b i d . , p. 181.  op. c i t . , pp.  38  an u n t e n a b l e burden on both the governmental and the c o u n t r y . the "staged  s o c i a l . s t r u c t u r e s of  I n r e t u r n f o r the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a l l these p a r t i e s to e l e c t i o n s " , they g e t t h e i r p e r q u i s i t e s :  some s e a t s i n  the Congress. Furthermore, these o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s l a t e l y , have been couraged" by the new any p o l i t i c a l  e l e c t i o n law  p a r t y w i n n i n g 2.5  f i v e of i t s c a n d i d a t e s at  each a d d i t i o n a l o n e - h a l f  Any  or not, w i l l  party w i l l  As we  manipulate and  mobilize  out i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r t of  this  t h a t the " O f f i c i a l " p a r t y became an extremely power-  of r e p r e s s i o n , was  a l s o the year when the e l e c t i o n demonstra-  the f u r t h e r p e r f e c t i n g of the e l e c t i o n c o n t r o l machinery of the A political  observer  writes:  "Beginning i n September, 1957, the p a r t y ' s communications channels were employed f o r the ' a u s c u l t a c i d n ' , the c a n v a s s i n g of p r e f e r e n c e s i n the s t a t e and l o c a l p a r t y machines and i n the i n t e r e s t group s e c t o r s of the p a r t y . G o s s i p about " e l t a pado" (the v e i l e d one), who u l t i m a t e l y would be the candidate of the PRI, had been going on f o r w e l l over a y e a r , a l t h o u g h i t would be hard t o contend t r u t h f u l l y t h a t e l e c t i o n e e r i n g ( f u t u r i s m o ) i s ever suspended. U l t i m a t e l y , on November 4 t h , the PRI's headquarters announced t h a t the m a j o r i t y had shown i t s e l f f o r Labor S e c r e t a r y Lopez. Those o r g a n i z a t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e to the s t r e n g t h of the PR.I then swung h e a v i l y to the i n d i c a t e d ' p r c - c a n d i d a t e , and the nominating c o n v e n t i o n of the p a r t y , h e l d i n a motion p i c t u r e t h e a t e r on November 15 and 16, became a n t i c l i m a t i c and q u i t e p e r f u n c t o r y . 'Tapadismo' served i t s purpose, however; those l e a d e r s i n d i s c r e e t enough See: Brandenburg: Making of Modern Mexico, p. 155. 1  10.  i s c o n t r o l l e d from the  period?  have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d  the year  f u l instrument ted  obtain  has a l r e a d y been mentioned b e f o r e , i n t h i s s o r t of h i g h l y  does t h i s p o l i t i c a l machine named PRI  1958,  automatically  of 7 per c e n t of the t o t a l n a t i o n a l v o t e .  the p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n  study,  that  a c q u i r e another s e a t f o r 10  manipulated p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t , where e v e r y t h i n g top, how  which p r o v i d e s  per c e n t of the n a t i o n a l v o t e , whether  a c t u a l l y win  l e a s t f i v e deputy s e a t s .  As  of December, 1962,  "en-  PRI.  39  to commit themselves to o t h e r s than Lopez were brought out i n t o the open. T h e i r p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e s may w e l l hang on this." 1 1  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe how  " R e v i s t a de R e v i s t a s " , i n August, 1957, who  a Mexican weekly magazine,  referred ironically  to the  c o u l d make the c h o i c e among the v a r i o u s " p r e - c a n d i d a t e s " .  magazine's cover bore photographs of outgoing  The  President Adolfo  Ruiz  C o r t i n e s , the l a t e former P r e s i d e n t Manuel A v i l a Camacho, former i d e n t M i g u e l Aleman, and one  p l u s one  equal  of the other  one,  Cardenas. f o r these  30,000,000 f a c e s ?  To  sum  up,  I t s comment was,  "One  men  Pres-  p l u s one  are the f o u r g r e a t e l e c t o r s .  plus  What 12  What p o i n t i n i d e n t i f y i n g them?"  i f the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n cannot  on t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s as e f f e c t i v e channels through which they can p r e s s themselves p o l i t i c a l l y , participation. devices tive.  they c a n n o t  However, the " p o l i t i c a l  i n order  apparatus"  the moral o b l i g a t i o n to r e g i s t e r f o r v o t e . "  support"  created  several  "Every Mexican of age W i t h t h i s and  of the " o f f i c i a l "  In regard  has  some other  the " P a r t y " keeps the "Myth of s o l i d a r i t y " , and  a b l e to m o b i l i z e the p o p u l a t i o n i n those lar  has  electoral  the enormous d i s p l a y of propaganda  the e l e c t i o n s w i t h the s l o g a n :  p o l i t i c a l devices  effective  ex-  to make them b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e f f e c -  A c l e a r example of these was  made b e f o r e  have  rely  is  huge demonstrations of "popu-  candidate.  to these p a r t y p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e s F r a n t z Fanon  writes: TH  12.  P h i l i p B. T a y l o r J r . : The Mexican E l e c t i o n s of 1958i A f f i r m a t i o n of A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m ? op. c i t . , p. 724. The Western P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . X I I I , Ho. 3, September, 1960. R e v i s t a de R e v i s t a s (Mexico C i t y ) , August 18, 1957, c o v e r , pp. 1 and 3.  "The mass ' p a r t y , becomes e i t h e r simply a n o s t a l g i c purveyor of m y t h i c a l s o l i d a r i t y and p u r e l y symbolic g l o r y , i n c r e a s i n g l y focused on the h e r o i c p a s t ( i n the case of Mexico, the R e v o l u t i o n of 1910), i t s o n l y r e l a t i o n s h i p to the people t h a t of t u r n i n g them out on mass 'spontaneous' s t r e e t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and r a l l i e s and of e n s u r i n g t h a t they toe the p a r t y l i n e , w h i l s t the ' s t a t e ' becomes an instrument of r e p r e s s i o n g and f o r the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of o f f i c e s , p r i v i l e g e s , and p e l f f o r the e l i t e . The c r i t i c a l , d e m o c r a t i c , p a r t i c i p a t o r y l i f e of the p a r t y branch c e a s e s : the t r a f f i c i s novi one-way-from the top downward."^ 1  Another d e v i c e t h a t the P a r t y has c r e a t e d i n order t o s u s t a i n i t s p o l i t i c a l pyramids, i s t h a t of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , but o n l y f o r v i d u a l s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , and  f o r those  t h i s i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l m o b i l i t y has  to be w i t h i n the system.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s , have g i v e n to the lower middle  the s o c i a l c l a s s and  indi-  to whom i t i s p e r m i t t e d ;  s t r u c t u r e and  i t s mythology  even to some people  i n the  lower  c l a s s , the f e e l i n g t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r them to b e t t e r themselves but w i t h i n the system and The  a c c o r d i n g to i t s r u l e s .  f a c t remains t h a t , a l t h o u g h  i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y by  indi-  v i d u a l s i s p e r m i t t e d , m o b i l i t y as a group i s n o t , because such m o b i l i t y i n Mexico would r a d i c a l l y a l t e r Consequently,  i f any  the shape of the p o l i t i c a l group p r e s s u r e begins  pyramid.  t o b u i l d up any-  where i n the p o l i t i c o - e c o n o m i c system, sharp measures a r e taken i n o r d e r to c o u n t e r a c t those The second one may  trends.  f i r s t measure w i l l be to co-opt be  13.  The  to g r a n t s m a l l c o n c e s s i o n s i n order to l e s s e n the  p r e s s u r e of the movement. government f i n a l l y  the group l e a d e r s h i p ,  I f these measures a r c not s u c c e s s f u l , the  r e s o r t s to open r e p r e s s i o n .  The  i n t e n s i t y of  this  F r a n t z Fanon: R e v o l u t i o n a r y T h e o r i e s by P e t e r W o r s l e y , op. c i t . , p. 38. Monthly Review, V o l . 21, No. 1, May, 1969.  41  r e p r e s s i o n w i l l depend on the scope of the movement demands.  About  the reasons f o r these r e p r e s s i v e measures a g a i n s t mass movements P r o f e s s o r R o d o l f o Stavenhagen w r i t e s : "When massive movements f o r the r e s t i t u t i o n of t h e i r r i g h t s by the t r a d e s unions or s y n d i c a t e s a r i s e ( l i k e the r a i l w a y men's s t r i k e i n 1959, the r e c e n t movements of s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , d o c t o r s , s t u d e n t s , e t c . ) which through t h e i r own dynamism exceed the narrow l i m i t s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d l i k e those we a r e c o n s i d e r i n g , then the f i r s t concern of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i s t o break the movement as such, i n the name of the ' p r i n c i p l e o f a u t h o r i t y ' , even i f l a t e r they concede i n a l a r g e measure the demands formulated by the movement. I n these c a s e s , appearances a r e the most im-. portant thing: the f a c t t h a t i t should n o t be apparent t h a t a spontaneous mass movement can succeed o u t s i d e of the system. The b a r g a i n i n g should bo n e i t h e r open nor p u b l i c . " ^  Summary In the pages of t h i s chapter we have t r i e d t o d e s c r i b e the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the PRI, as w e l l as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the government.  nature  Our documentation has l e d us to conclude t h a t the  s e c t o r s and l e a d e r s h i p  of the p a r t y  i s one i n which c o n t r o l o f the  government flows from the top down i n a u n i d i r e c t i o n a l manner, w i t h little  o r no i n f l u e n c e from the workers, peasants o r s m a l l businessmen.  Representation  i n the p a r t y  does n o t b r i n g w i t h i t the a b i l i t y  to par-  t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n making, nor does the p o p u l i s t i d e o l o g y  o f the  p a r t y mean t h a t the masses a r e a b l e  o f the  government. one  14.  This being  of persuasion  to i n f l u e n c e the l e a d e r s h i p  the case, the problem f o r the government becomes  and c o n t r o l ,  The nature o f t h a t c o n t r o l i s v a r i e d  R o d o l f o Stavenhagen: Un Mode l o para e l e s t u d i o de l a s Organiza.-*,, c i o n e s P o l i t i c a s en Mexico, op. c i t . , p. 333. R e v i s t a Mexicana de S o c i o l o g i a . V o l . XXIX, No. 2, A b r i l - J u n i o , 1967.  42  depending on the immediate problems.  For example i t may  that the government prohibits s t r i k e s . for control may  simply  be  At other times the demands  be much more extreme.  We have already pointed out i n Chapter I how  the element of  violence i s embedded i n the origins of the Mexican Revolution of and how ment.  i t was  1910  carried into the origins of the modern Mexican govern-  Thus the s t r u c t u r a l character of the government presented i n  this chapter, and the h i s t o r i c a l legacy noted e a r l i e r , are two tions that set the stage for the use of violence.  condi-  But i t i s s p e c i f i c  conditions i n the history of the country that ha^jebrought about the application of repression.  We have b r i e f l y mentioned a few examples  of p o l i t i c a l repression i n the Introduction and i n these two  chapters.  In the remaining part of our report we s h a l l describe i n d e t a i l the case of the student movement of 1968, government and suppression.  noting how  the t r a d i t i o n of violence was  the structure of the  brought to bear i n i t s  43  CHAPTER I I I The  Students' P r i n c i p l e :  As we our  We  Must Have P u b l i c  have emphasized i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r t of t h i s  thesis  study w i l l f o c u s not on the a n a l y s i s of the d i f f e r e n t groups or f o r c e s  t h a t had p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n the Mexican C o n f l i c t of 1968,  a l s o a l r e a d y s a i d ; on r e p r e s s i o n as a case study. attempt one  Dialogue  but as we  have  T h e r e f o r e , we  will  t o c o n c e n t r a t e our a n a l y s i s i n t h i s chapter and  on the grounds of p r i n c i p l e s and  the f o l l o w i n g  the methods employed, f i r s t  by the s t u d e n t s t o expose them through a P u b l i c D i a l o g u e , and by the government to r e p r e s s them i n order t o p r e s e r v e the  of a l l  secondly  so-called  " p r i n c i p l e of a u t h o r i t y " . A l s o , i t i s important time t h a t the Mexican Army was between 1966-1968 and  t o emphasize t h a t 1968  was  used a g a i n s t the s t u d e n t s .  not the  first  For instance  t h i s i s the most r e c e n t example, t h e r e has been  army i n t e r v e n t i o n i n student c o n f l i c t s i n the s t a t e c i t i e s of M o r e l i a , 1 H e r m o s i l l o and V i l l a h e r m o s a , f o r e 1968,  but as a Mexican observer w r i t e s :  "Be-  n a t i o n a l problems were not among the main m o t i v a t i o n s of the 2  students* p r o t e s t . " As has a l s o been mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r t of the p r e s e n t study, t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be devoted 1968 Mexican student Movement — f i n a l chapter the second one, 1. 2.  t o the f i r s t  stage of the  J u l y 22 t o August 29, and  September 1 t o  the n e x t  and  October.  See: Fernando Carmona, G e n e a l o g i a de l a R e p r e s i f i n , pp. 191-193. T r e s C u l t u r a s en A g o n i a . E d i t o r i a l Nuestro Tiempo. Mexico, 1969. D a n i e l Cazes, D e s p o l i t i z a c i o n y P o l i t i e a c i o n . op. c i t . , p. 94. ,z Tres C u l t u r a s en A g o n i a . E d i t o r i a l Nuestro Tiempo. Mexico, 1969.  44 Thus, i n order t o have an i d e a of the development of the stages above mentioned, a b r i e f but p r e c i s e chronology October e v e n t s , w i l l  12  (Monday) S t r e e t f i g h t between V o c a t i o n a l Schools Nos.  Nos.  of the J u l y -  serve us as an i n t r o d u c t o r y g u i d e : Chronology J u l y 22 - October  J u l y 22  two  2 and  5) and  their traditional rivals,  2 and 5 (Vocas  Preparatory School  Isaac  Ochoterena. J u l y 23  (Tuesday) Renewed s t r e e t f i g h t i n g between Voca No.  students.  5 and Prepa Ochoterena  "Granaderos" ( A n t i - R i o t squad p o l i c e ) , invade Voca No.  s t r i k i n g students and  teachers i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y .  One  student  5  presumed  dead. J u l y 23 ( F r i d a y ) FNET ( F e d e r a c i o n N a c i o n a l de E s t u d i a n t e s T e c n i c o s ) , the o f ficial  student o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r IPN  organizes demonstration No.  5 on the  (Institute Politecnico  p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t granaderos i n v a s i o n of Voca  23rd.  L e f t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r g a n i z e separate r a l l y n i v e r s a r y of C a s t r o ' s 1953  p o l i c e on r o u t e to N a t i o n a l P a l a c e a t the Z o c a l o . regroup,  dents  beaten  Students  they b a r r i c a d e themselves i n s i d e UNAM prepa  subsequently Three day  the end  t o c e l e b r a t e an-  a t t a c k on Moncada B a r r a c k s .  M i l i t a n t s from both r a l l i e s are ambushed and  and  Nacional)  r e p e l p o l i c e by commandering and  by  disperse  schools.  Stu-  s e t t i n g f i r e to buses.  s i e g e of s t u d e n t - c o n t r o l l e d prepas commences.  of the 3rd day  riot  some students dead, s e v e r a l i n j u r e d  By  and'arrested.  'TUTtLOUO  /'I  fOOTTeeKNlfc tNVUTUTE  r  PLAZA Of 1W£  XOftWAl SCHOOL  ct>,  I  e e r o R f i v A  <8  The Plaza of Three Cultures: The name comes from the Aztec (pyramid ruins). Colonial (Church of Apostol Santiago) and modern (Tlatelolco housing project) cultures bordering the plaza. Also ncarhy arc the Ministry of Foreign Relations and Vocational School Nu. 7. The plaza was the scene of several major student-ted demonstrations and clashes with police and army units, ft "was also the site of the October 2nd Massacre.  I}  OVYMfie YTAMUf*  Source:  CITY  The Z6calo (also called the Plaza of the Constitution): The capital's central plaza, site of the National Cathedral, the Presidential Palace and other government buildings, the Zocalo has been the traditional focal point for pro-government rallies. Since July it has been the site of several of the largest studenl-led demonstrations against the government.  Mexico 1 9 6 8 , A Study o f D o m i n a t i o n and R e p r e s s i o n . P u b l i s h e d by t h e N o r t h American Congress on L a t i n A m e r i c a . N.Y. November, 1 9 6 8 .  46  In  separate a c t i o n ,  o f f i c e i n Mexico C i t y ; a r r e s t J u l y 27  ( S a t u r d a y ) - J u l y 28 The  and  IPN  and  July  29  (Sunday)  by  the  forces  c h i e f of p o l i c e , and  claim  30  students are  the  p a r t y headquar-  f o r the  first  time and  a b o l i t i o n of r i o t  getting  e a r l y Tuesday the prepas and  i n f a n t r y , paratroopers, riflemen, and  seize  are  hiding,  the  schools.  To  and  of gun  v.ocas.  Without  the  shops  a bazooka to b l a s t down the  the guards behind i t .  The  p o l i c e h a u l away the take up  the P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e .  Eight  Light  last  from the  i n f a c t i t has  schools.  This,  j u s t opened.  that  over 30  that  o f f i c i a l s reveal  he  implies,  Arrests  are  prisoners. around  continued.  s c h o o l s i n Mexico C i t y and  the  in  action.  release  evacuate  federal^  the c a s e .  Students  of t h e i r comrades are m i s s i n g w i t h o u t t r a c e , and their fate.  students  b a t a l l i o n s are  w i l l close  streets  200-year-old  positions  s t u d e n t s , c a n c e l t h e i r p o l i c e r e c o r d s , and  tanks  resistance  secure the  open P r e p a r a t o r y 1, where the  p a r a t r o o p e r s use  and  army moves i n .  L a t e r on Tuesday, the Mexico C i t y Mayor agrees to  forces  of  squad p o l i c e .  arms out  military police  Other t r o o p s occupy f o u r more s c h o o l s and  arrested  pre-  barricades.  armored c a r s surround the  University  p o l i c e of  riots,  (Tuesday)  that  L a t e Monday and  door and  riots.  They demand amnesty, indemnity, d i s m i s s a l  (Monday) - J u l y Police  and  they i n s t i g a t e d  charging that  UNAM s t u d e n t s u n i t e  assistant  behind the  76,  i l l e g a l invasion  sent i n i t i a l demands. c h i e f and  sack Communist P a r t y  Communist P a r t y d e n i e s charges of i n s t i g a t i n g of the  denounce the  ters.  p o l i c e invade and  But  insist demand  Students-and-teacher s t r i k e s e n g u l f  spread to important c i t i e s i n v a r i o u s  states.  47  August  1 (Thursday) UNAM R e c t o r B a r r o s S i e r r a d e c l a r e s t h a t the s c h o o l ' s c o n s t i -  t u t i o n a l autonomy, i t s academic independence almost 40 y e a r s ago,  i s i n grave  and freedom  established  danger.  I n the a f t e r n o o n UNAM R e c t o r B a r r o s S i e r r a l e a d s 50,000 s t u dents and p r o f e s s o r s , t h e f i r s t  great protest.  The d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o -  ceeds solemnly o u t of the U n i v e r s i t y , s i l e n t l y up the main southern b o u l e v a r d o f Mexico C i t y , and p e a c e f u l l y back onto campus. August  5 (Monday) IPN  s t u d e n t s o r g a n i z e d e m o n s t r a t i o n ( w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  UNAM, Chapirgo and Normales s t u d e n t s ) numbering a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125,000. Government-backed FNET t r i e s b u t f a i l s August  t o take over student movement.  8 (Thursday) Students form N a t i o n a l S t r i k e C o u n c i l , Consejo N a c i o n a l de  Huelga  (C.N.H.), and p r o f e s s o r s a T e a c h e r s ' C o a l i t i o n f o r Democratic  Liberties. demands:  I n a composed manner they i n s i s t e d  on the f o u r  original  amnesty, indemnity, d i s m i s s a l of the p o l i c e c h i e f s , and t h e  a b o l i t i o n o f the r i o t squads. p o l i t i c a l demands:  freedom  And they p r e s e n t e d as w e l l two other  for political  p r i s o n e r s s e r v i n g time f o r  i n f r a c t i o n s o f P e n a l Code A r t i c l e s 145 and 145A (Mexico's A l i e n and Sed i t i o n Laws), and the r e p e a l of those August  articles.  13 (Tuesday) The T e a c h e r s ' C o a l i t i o n f o r Democratic L i b e r t i e s l e a d t h e  t h i r d great protest —  150,000 s t u d e n t s c h a n t i n g c a u s t i c slogans a g a i n s t  the " h i r e l i n g " p r e s s , the p o l i c e and ( u n t i l then a taboo i n Mexico) the P r e s i d e n t h i m s e l f , b u t marching  i n good o r d e r up t h e southern b o u l e v a r d ,  48  a l o n g the downtown avenues and There they r a t i f i e d  (the C e n t r a l Square).  the s i x demands and denounced o f f i c i a l  a "false"  settlement.  A u g u s t 17  (Saturday) CNH  i n t o the ZoCalo  P r e s s Conference  a t the Voca No.  attempts  5 Auditorium.  CNH  the d e c i s i o n to c o n t i n u e w i t h the s t r i k e , u n t i l a u t h o r i t i e s f i n d  at  take a  s o l u t i o n t o the s i x demands. A l s o CNH  d e c l a r e s t h a t i n order t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h the auth-  o r i t i e s , one c o n d i t i o n has t o be p u b l i c . A u g u s t 22  t o be f u l f i l l e d ;  No p r i v a t e d i a l o g u e .  t h a t a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s need  No mediators  commission.  (Thursday) The M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r d e c l a r e s t h a t the F e d e r a l Gov-  ernment i s t o have a " f r a n k and  calm d i a l o g u e " i n order t o r e a c h a  " d e f i n i t i v e " s o l u t i o n of " t h i s lamentable  problem".  But  the CNH  and  the  T e a c h e r s ' C o a l i t i o n i n s i s t t h a t a l l n e g o t i a t i o n s be p u b l i c , so t h a t no i n t i m i d a t i o n or c o - o p t i o n can o c c u r .  And  o f f i c i a l s make no d i r e c t answer.  Meanwhile, s t u d e n t s p o l i t i c a l - b r i g a d e s s t a r t meetings i n the s t r e e t s throughout  spontaneous  Mexico C i t y and i n some s t a t e s ,  ex-  pounding the s i x demands, a r g u i n g t h a t the cause i s not simply academic, but p o p u l a r and d e m o c r a t i c , Other  b r i g a d e s d i s t r i b u t e l e a f l e t s around  August 27  factories.  (Tuesday) CNH  and  announcing p l a n s , and c o l l e c t i n g money.  l e d the f o u r t h g r e a t demonstration  t e a c h e r s , and now  p a r e n t s , workers, s t r e e t p e d d l e r s and  marching l o u d l y but a g a i n i n good order to the Once i n the C e n t r a l Square,, CNH the crowd.  By the end  -- 300,000 s t u d e n t s  of the r a l l y a CNH  z6calo  clerks,  (Central  Square).  l e a d e r s and p r o f e s s o r s address l e a d e r S o c r a t e s Campos JLemus  49  (we  s h a l l r e t u r n l a t e r i n t h i s chapter t o a n a l y z e t h i s i n c i d e n t ) p r o -  pose  t h a t the p u b l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h the government a u t h o r i t i e s ,  will  take p l a c e i n the Z o c a l o , September 1 a t 10:00 a.m. (September 1, a t 10:00  a.m. i s p r e c i s e l y the day and the time when the P r e s i d e n t d e l i v e r s  h i s annual r e p o r t t o the n a t i o n ) . A l s o i n the same r a l l y a t the Z o c a l o some " s t u d e n t s " p a i n t i n s u l t s t o the government a u t h o r i t i e s on the w a l l s o f the N a t i o n a l P a l a c e and  " o t h e r s " f l y a red-and-black  s t r i k e f l a g on the N a t i o n a l f l a g p o l e  i n t h e v e r y c e n t e r of t h e square. L a t e Monday n i g h t a group of s t u d e n t s s t a t i o n themselves i n f r o n t of the N a t i o n a l P a l a c e i n ssi a r o u n d - t h e - c l o c k  picket.  August 28 (Wednesday) A t one i n the morning, armored c a r s and f i r e the student p i c k e t s out o f the square.  trucks drive  A p a r a t r o o p b a t a l l i o n , two i n -  f a n t r y b a t t a l l i o n s , and some 500 p o l i c e chase them back through the downtown avenues.  The t r o o p s and p o l i c e then occupy the square.  A t midday, o f f i c i a l s assemble a crowd o f b u r e a u c r a t s i n the square, t o burn the s t r i k e f l a g and to pay i!  homage t o the N a t i o n a l flag".'  Groups o f s t u d e n t s a r r i v e a t the square, but the t r o o p s and p o l i c e d r i v e them o u t . August 29  (Thursday) I n a P r e s s Conference,  the CNH d e c l a r e s i n r e g a r d t o the a c t s  which have taken p l a c e on August 27 a t the square; CNH has n o t planned t i o n a l Palace:  of a l l  ot a u t h o r i z e d the p a i n t i n g of the w a l l s o f the Na-  secondly t h a t the red-and-black  .against CNH w i l l :  that f i r s t  s t r i k e f l a g was r u n up  t h i r d l y t h a t CNH and T e a c h e r s ' C o a l i t i o n wish t o ex-  50  press again t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to i n i t i a t e  the d i a l o g u e w i t h the a u t h o r -  ities. August 30 ( F r i d a y ) P r o t e c t e d by 22 addresses  t r u c k l o a d s of t r o o p s , P r e s i d e n t D i a z Ordaz  CTM (Mexican Workers C o n f e d e r a t i o n ) .  a s s u r e s D i a z of workers "support".  CTM l e a d e r A r t u r o G u t i e r r e z  CNH d e l i v e r s the f o l l o w i n g agreements:  a) On September 1, day o f the P r e s i d e n t i a l annual r e p o r t t o the n a t i o n , there w i l l be no demonstrations i n the c e n t r a l b) CNH i s very d i s p o s e d orities,  to i n i t i a t e  square.  the d i a l o g u e w i t h the auth-  under the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t the d i a l o g u e be p u b l i c and t h a t there  be no p o l i c e nor army r e p r e s s i o n . c) T h a t the students  commissions t h a t w i l l n e g o t i a t e w i t h the  a u t h o r i t i e s have been a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . d) There w i l l be an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of student p o l i t i c a l act i o n among p o p u l a r f o r c e s w i l l be  s e c t o r s , but any c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h  the r e p r e s s i v e  avoided.  a) The Student movement has no d e s i r e t o o b s t r u c t the Olympic games. August 31  (Saturday) Right-wing t e r r o r i s t  4.  S e v e r a l students  a t t a c k s on V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l s No. 7 and  wounded.  Once a g a i n , CNH r e i t e r a t e s i t s d e s i r e t o i n i t i a t e a d i a l o g u e w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s .  CNH has a l s o d e c l a r e d :  we a c c e p t an immediate  t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h hew the d i a l o g u e w i l l be i n order  t o p u t an end t o the c o n f l i c t ;  accomplished  the d i a l o g u e w i l l be s e t up i n  a way t h a t w i l l guarantee the i n t e g r i t y o f the l e a d e r s as w e l l as t h a t of  the movement.  siege.  CNH a l s o asked f o r an end t o the v i r t u a l  c i t y 8tat d c  ,  51  September 1 (Sunday) P r e s i d e n t D i a z Ordaz defends the government's p o s i t i o n i n h i s f o u r t h annual r e p o r t he  says:  to the n a t i o n .  In regard  " D i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s . . . i n s i d e and  different political  t e n d e n c i e s and  to the student  outside  i d e o l o g i e s , had  the  t h a t he c o u l d not tified  the use  and  to d i s c r e d i t the c o u n t r y " .  would not a l l o w  of the army i n the  maintain " i n t e r n a l security".  He  i t . President  The  The  ad-  aim was  to  President  said  D i a z Ordaz, j u s -  s t r e e t s as a s u i t a b l e measure to promised due  v e r s i t y ' s autonomy, which he denied had the Students s i x demands he d i s c u s s e d mands:  country..of  planned to take  vantage of a t r i v i a l i n c i d e n t t o c r e a t e major t r o u b l e . d i s r u p t the Olympics and  conflict  p r o t e c t i o n of the  been v i o l a t e d .  the two  L i b e r t y to p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s ;  Uni-  I n regard  to  "basically political"  A b o l i t i o n of A r t i c l e s 145  deand  145A. P r e s i d e n t D i a z Ordaz denied t h a t there were p o l i t i c a l With respect  to A r t i c l e s 145  and  145A  he  s a i d t h a t he  had  no  prisoners.  authority  t o change them, but he asked C o n g r e s s " t o h o l d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o d e c i d e whether i t should demands (we  r e p e a l or r e f o r m the laws';"  shall return  He  ignored  the other  to the d i s c u s s i o n .of the P r e s i d e n t ' s  annual r e p o r t i n the next  four  fourth  chapter).  September 2 (Monday) I n a P r e s s Conference CNH R e p o r t has not movement has CNH intend  propped  been  s t a t e s t h a t the P r e s i d e n t ' s  the p o l i t i c a l  s o l u t i o n s t h a t the  Annual  student  seeking.  adds:  to a c t i n any  We  have been i n s i s t i n g t h a t our movement does not  form a g a i n s t  the Olympic Games.  I f our movement  52  i n t e r f e r e s with  the Olympic Games, i t w i l l be  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  F e d e r a l Government, whose o b l i g a t i o n i t i s to f i n d proper the deep s o c i a l problems t h a t are a f f e c t i n g our  s o l u t i o n s to  country.  September 4 (Wednesday) CNH  the  <  states that i t w i l l  propose to F e d e r a l Government to  t i a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s on Monday, September 9.  CNH  ini-  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the  ini-  t i a t i o n of n e g o t i a t i o n s : -- to h a l t r e p r e s s i o n ; —  to have a p u b l i c d i a l o g u e .  CNH  suggest the N a t i o n a l M e d i c a l  lic  dialogue.  Center as a p l a c e to i n i t i a t e  the pub-  September 6 ( F r i d a y ) The M i n i s t r y of the I n t e r i o r , the C i t y Mayor, the General  of the R e p u b l i c  the other  the CNH  ology, f i n a l l y  and  C i t y Attorney,  p e t i t i o n , and  Attorney-  a f t e r p a s s i n g from one  u s i n g extremely ambiguous l e g a l  to termin-  answer t h a t " I n accordance w i t h A r t i c l e 8 of the Con-  s t i t u t i o n a l l p e t i t i o n s need to be presented  i n a w r i t t e n form."  September 9 (Monday) CNH 13, will  and  states that a demonstration w i l l  t h a t ceremonies to c e l e b r a t e the Mexican Independence of  be h e l d on September 15 a t UNAM and IPN  September 10 The  1810  on campus.  (Tuesday) Congress g i v e s " f u l l  Army, the Navy and and  take p l a c e on September  the A i r F o r c e ,  e x t e r n a l s e c u r i t y of M e x i c o . "  support" i n order  to the P r e s i d e n t t o use "to maintain  the  internal  the  53  September 13 ( F r i d a y ) CNH  stages the f i f t h massive,  t i o n of approximately  100,000 people  o r d e r l y and s i l e n t demonstra-  i n the square.  September 15 (Sunday) C e l e b r a t i o n s i n commemoration of the 1310 Mexican Independence take p l a c e i n UNAM and IPN. September 17 (Tuesday) In  a P r e s s Conference,  ber 15, d e c l a r a t i o n s :  CNH l e a d e r s make p u b l i c t h e i r Septem-  a) w i t h t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f 1810 Mexican Indepen-  dence, t h e student movement takes on a n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r ; b) The CNH w i l l a c c e p t the d i a l o g u e i n a w r i t t e n form w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t a l l the documents must be w i d e l y p u b l i s h e d . September 18 (Wednesday) UNAM autonomy v i o l a t e d  f o r the f i r s t  time i n f o r t y y e a r s ,  10,000 army troops invade and s e a l o f f campus, t a k i n g s e v e r a l hundred p r i s o n e r s i n c l u d i n g s t a f f and p a r e n t s of t h e s t u d e n t s , a l l of them t a ken away from u n i v e r s i t y campus i n 15 army t r u c k s . In  a  p u b l i c statement  the M i n i s t e r of I n t e r i o r  emphasizes  t h a t the UNAM o c c u p a t i o n by the Army was a n e c e s s a r y measure i n o r d e r to  stop "openly a n t i - s o c i a l and p o s s i b l y c r i m i n a l a c t s . "  He added: t h e  government has "the o b l i g a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n order i n the t e r r i t o r y  of t h e  n a t i o n , o f which the U n i v e r s i t y a l s o forms a p a r t . " September 19 (Thursday) P r o t e s t s i n r e g a r d t o the Army o c c u p a t i o n on U n i v e r s i t y Campus. UNAM R e c t o r B a r r o s S i e r r a i n a p u b l i c  statement,  says:  The  UNAM m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n has been an a c t of e x c e s s i v e f o r c e , t h a t our u n i v e r s i t y does n o t d e s e r v e . . . .  54  We by  must remember t h a t the student  not  executed  the u n i v e r s i t y . . . . The  examination and  s o l u t i o n s of the youth problems, r e q u i r e  comprehension r a t h e r than v i o l e n c e . be  c o n f l i c t was  S u r e l y , some other measures c o u l d  taken....Mexican i n s t i t u t i o n s , our  s u i t a b l e instruments We  than the use  w i l l hopa t h a t the d e p l o r a b l e a c t s we  the government^ithe R e c t o r ' s  The  t r a d i t i o n s p r o v i d e more  of p u b l i c f o r c e . . . .  not a f f e c t i n an i r r e p a r a b l e way,  September 20  laws and  are c o n f r o n t i n g w i l l  democracy i n t h i s c o u n t r y .  o b j e c t i o n s were  But,  to  futile.  (Friday) PRI  t h r e e s e c t o r s express t h e i r " s o l i d a r i t y " w i t h and  con-  f i d e n c e i n the P r e s i d e n t . A t n i g h t , t e r r o r i s t s machine-gun the C o l e g i o de M e x i c o , a p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t y near the c e n t r e  of the c i t y .  The  small  C o l e g i o de Mexico  asked the p o l i c e f o r p r o t e c t i o n , but the p o l i c e r e f u s e d . From o f f i c i a l  sources,  t h e r e a r e i n Mexico C i t y j a i l ,  334  per-  sons a r r e s t e d . September 21  (Saturday)  Students hold meetings i n P l a z a de T l a t e l o l c o ; granaderos a t t a c k w i t h bayonets. students  refuge  and  medical  l a s Tres Culturas i n T l a t e l o l c o residents give  aid.  In a debate on the Student Movement a t the Congress' Chamber of D e p u t i e s ,  O c t a v i o A. Hernandez, makes some charges a g a i n s t U n i v e r s i t y  a u t h o r i t i e s , c l a i m i n g t h a t the l a t t e r are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the conflict. very  In a press  i n s u l t i n g way  conference,  the UNAM R e c t o r  student  deputy L u i s t i . F a r i a s a t t a c k s i n a Barros  Sierra.  September 22 (Sunday) A c c o r d i n g t o mass media i n f o r m a t i o n ^ severaL^ persons d u r i n g the UNAM army o c c u p a t i o n , have been a l r e a d y r e l e a s e d .  arrested But, many  o t h e r s have been arrested^ among them, the well-known u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s sor E l i de G o r t a r i s t h e p a i n t e r R i n a Lazo^and t h e former d i r e c t o r o f t h e weekly magazine P o l i t i c a , Manuel Marcue. I n the e d i t o r i a l pages of some Mexican d a i l y newspapers, sev e r e c r i t i c i s m s a r e made a g a i n s t the v e r b a l a t t a c k s of D e p u t i e s Hernandez and F a r i a s a g a i n s t the UNAM R e c t o r . An  i n c r e a s e o f Army-Student c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , takes p l a c e .  September 23 (Monday) R e c t o r B a r r o s S i e r r a p r e s e n t s h i s r e s i g n a t i o n to UNAM Board of  Governors.  September 24 (Tuesday) The Array invades IPN campus.  S e v e r a l hours o f v i o l e n t c l a s h e s ;  s t u d e n t s f i g h t the p o l i c e and the Army. Students c a p t u r e busses and blocakde a d j a c e n t  streets.  September 26 (Thursday) UNAM Board  of Governors  do n o t a c c e p t B a r r o s S i e r r a ' s  resig-  n a t i o n and a s k him t o remain as U n i v e r s i t y R e c t o r . September 27 ( F r i d a y ) B a r r o s S i e r r a a g r e s s t o remain a t h i s post as UNAM R e c t o r . Arrests increase. September 28 ( S a t u r d a y ) CNH violence.  l e a d e r s promise  t o UNAM R e c t o r , t h a t they w i l l n o t promote  36  The M i n i s t e r of I n t e r i o r emphasizes t h a t the Army t r o o p s o c cupying  the U n i v e r s i t y campus, w i l l be withdrawn  orities  r e q u i r e them t o do s o .  as soon as UNAM auth-  September 29 (Sunday) I n a P r e s s Conference, for  pacific  CNH d e c l a r e s t h a t :  a) they w i l l  s o l u t i o n s ; b) t h e r e can be no compromises w i t h UNAM  look  author-  ities. September 30 (Monday) The Army l e a v e s U n i v e r s i t y campus. October 1 (Tuesday) Thousands of UNAM s t a f f Student* possibility  r e t u r n t o u n i v e r s i t y campus.  committees i n i t i a t e meetings i n order t o d i s c u s s t h e  of resuming c l a s s e s .  I n two r a l l i e s h e l d a t UNAM campus, one a t midday and the other a t 5:30 p.m. the CNH r e f u s e s t o resume c l a s s e s . CNH  convokes a mass r a l l y a t the P l a z a de l a s T r e s C u l t u r a s  i n T l a t e l o l Q o on Wednesday, October 2, a t 5:00 p.m. October 2 (Wednesday) CNH  rally  i s initiated  C u l t u r a s , approximately  15,000 persons  Around 5:30 p.m. C M s t u d e n t s , workers, men  a t 5:00 p.m. a t the P l a z a de l a s T r e s were gathered  spokesmen address  a t the P l a z a .  the crowd composed of  Tlateloleo r e s i d e n t s , men, women, and c h i l d r e n , camera-  and f o r e i g n r e p o r t e r s . Suddenly a f t e r f o u r f l a r e s ^ presumably used as a s i g n a l a t  6:10  p.m., s o l d i e r s c o o r d i n a t e d by p l a i n c l o t h e s m e n  open f i r e  p r o v o c a t i o n and charge p e a c e f u l student r a l l y a t the P l a z e .  without Students  57  and  bystanders f l e e  at,  beaten and  to T l a t e l o l e o b u i l d i n g s but  arrested.  From 6:10  to 8:30  Presumably 5,000 s o l d i e r s had  they are pursued,  p.m.  the f i r i n g  is  shot  continuous.  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n what i n the  an-  n a l s of Mexican H i s t o r y would be known as T l a t e l o l c o Massacre. October  12 ' Olympics open, scheduled Henceforth,  a f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the composition  S t r i k e Committee and study w i l l be by  The  conflict,  t i o n s be p u b l i c or what we  by  National  them, our  the d i f f e r e n t stages  to negotiate with  Committee i n s i s t e d on one  must have P u b l i c  of the  the a n a l y s i s of the s e v e r a l attempts made  S t r i k e Committee d u r i n g  opment of the student ment.  27.  the s i x p o l i t i c a l demands p r e s e n t e d  concerned w i t h  the N a t i o n a l  to c l o s e on October  the Mexican Govern-  basic condition:  have c a l l e d  the  of d e v e l -  students'  that a l l negotiaprinciple:  We  Dialogue.  Composition of the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee  The  f o l l o w i n g scheme e x p l a i n s  the CHH  composition  from the  top  to the bottom. At  the top CHH  are supported by The  the C.C.  i s composed of 150 members, who  ( C e n t r a l Committee) composed of 600  C e n t r a l Committee i n c l u d e s  i n Mexico:  i n their  several i n s t i t u t i o n s  of h i g h e r  the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y , the N a t i o n a l P o l y t e c h n i c  the N a t i o n a l School  turn  members. education Institute,  of A g r i c u l t u r e , the N a t i o n a l Normal S c h o o l s ,  the  N a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t o r y of M u s i c , the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of F i n e A r t s , the N a t i o n a l School s c h o o l s and  of A n t h r o p o l o g y and  History, a f f i l i a t e d  secondary  some p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s , each of these i n s t i t u t i o n s  having  53  a delegate own  i n the CNH,  who  a t the  same time l e a d s  the movement i n h i s  school. At  the bottom comes the "Comites de L u c h a " ( S t r u g g l e Commit-  t e e s ) of each i n s t i t u t i o n  t h a t compose the C o a i t e C e n t r a l ( C e n t r a l Com-  mittee) . We  have to emphasize t h a t the c a p a c i t y f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t  the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee had of the  student movement, was  demonstrated d u r i n g  h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d , i f we  s i d e r a t i o n the t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l student  take  a concrete  i z a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y , we  apathy of the v a s t m a j o r i t y  of  the  example of the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee organhave the e f f e c t i v e m o b i l i z a t i o n of p e o p l e d u r i n g  the g r e a t mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and a r t i c u l a t e form t h e i r  1.  their c l a r i t y  i n expressing  R e p e a l of A r t i c l e s  S i x Demands  145  and  145A  of the P e n a l  These a r t i c l e s were passed d u r i n g W o r l d War  Code.  I I to p r o v i d e  means of d e a l i n g v/ith the r i s e of f i f t h column i n M e x i c o , and the crime of " s o c i a l d i s s o l u t i o n " .  A l i e n and  S e d i t i o n Laws) , p r o v i d e  any Mexican or f o r e i g n e r who  Articles  145  and  145A  they  disseminates  ideas or programs of any or a f f e c t Mexico's  a de-  (Mexico's  sentences of tv/o to twelve y e a r s  e i g n government t h a t d i s t u r b p u b l i c order These a r t i c l e s a l s o p r o v i d e  in a  s i x p o l i t i c a l demands.  The  fine  i n t o con-  population. As  very  the development  for for-  sovereignty.  sentences of ten to twenty y e a r s f o r  any  M e x i c a n or f o r e i g n e r v/ho c a r r i e s out a c t s "which p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l l y or morally  f o r the i n v a s i o n of n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y or the submission  country  to any  f o r e i g n government."  of  the  59  2.  Freedom f o r p o l i t i c a l  T h i s demand i s concerned  prisecers.• not o n l y w i t h t h e persons  arrested  d u r i n g the J u l y - O c t o b e r 1968 events, but a l s o w i t h those a r r e s t e d bef o r e those events, who a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s . 3  An  example o f the l a t t e r would be the case of Demetrio V a l l e j o . 3. i r e z and R a u l  D i s m i s s a l of the p o l i c e c h i e f s , G e n e r a l s L u i s Cueto RamMendiolea.  The aim of t h i s demand was t o o b l i g e the Government t o a c c e p t i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the development of t h e student movement. 4.  To e s t a b l i s h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a u t h o r i t i e s f o r  the a c t s of r e p r e s s i o n due t o the a c t i o n s of the granaderos and  (riot  squad)  the Army. 5.  c h i e f General  The a b o l i t i o n of the granaderos  and d i s m i s s a l o f t h e i r  Frias.  The Mexican C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l o w s o n l y t h e e x i s t e n c e of the Pol i c e under the J u s t i c e Department's j u r i s d i c t i o n ; c o n s e q u e n t l y the e x i s tence of the granaderos This r i o t  corps i s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l .  squad was c r e a t e d i n 1944 and s i n c e then they have  hden n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e i r r e p r e s s i v e t a c t i c s . 6. who were  Indemnity  f o r wounded students and f a m i l i e s of students  killed. There were s e v e r a l students k i l l e d It  i s important  and hundreds wounded.  t o emphasize as P r o f e s s o r Womack does,  that  "when the students d i d adopt p o l i t i c a l demands, they a c t e d n o t t o over-  4 throw the government but only t o i n s i s t 3. 4.  on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  guarantees."  See I n t r o d u c t i o n , pp. 5-7. J o h n Womach, J r . : Unfreedom i n M e x i c o , Government Crackdown on the U n i v e r s i t i e s , op. c i t . , p. 30. The New R e p u b l i c , October 12, 1968.  60  The  government r e g r e s s i o n s t a r t e d w i t h an i n v a s i o n by  the 5  police riot Later,  squad a g a i n s t V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l No.  as student c o n f l i c t developed 7  5 on J u l y 23,  1968.  the r e p r e s s i o n i n c r e a s e d  with  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Army. The  s t u d e n t s , once they  f i r s t w i t h the c r e a t i o n as we  succeeded i n o r g a n i z i n g themselves,  have a l r e a d y mentioned, of t h e i r  s e n t a t i v e body, the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee, and t a t i o n of t h e i r s i x demands, f o r the f i r s t  w i t h the  repre-  presen-  time i n the h i s t o r y  of  mass-movements, adopted the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s of the t r a d i t i o n a l massmovement p o l i c y — had  t h a t of having one  l e a d e r -- which the government  t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e a l t w i t h by c o - o p t i n g , buying  the s a i d l e a d e r , thus e f f e c t i v e l y b r e a k i n g t r a d i t i o n a l government p o l i c y of d i a l o g u e 7 P r o f e s s o r Stavenhagen has d e s c r i b e d , principle —  the movement. "behind  the students  imprisoning To  this  the scenes",  which  opposed t h e i r  own  t h a t of p u b l i c d i a l o g u e .  Thus, a b a s i c q u e s t i o n a r i s e s i n our S t r i k e Committee a c o n c r e t e aim,  when over and  s i z e d the need t o hold a p u b l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h The  o f f or  study; had  the N a t i o n a l  over a g a i n they emphathe government?  answer t o our q u e s t i o n i s g i v e n by one  of the N a t i o n a l  S t r i k e Committee l e a d e r s , when i n t e r v i e w e d by a weekly M e x i c a n magazine, he  said:  5. 6. 7.  "We be See See See  uphold the p r i n c i p l e t h a t any exchange of o p i n i o n s must p u b l i c . A l l s e c t o r s concerned ,in the d i a l o g u e should be Chronology. Chronology. p. 41.  61  i n f o r m e d about the d i s c u s s i o n s . T h i s i s a m a t t e r of p r i n c i p l e and i t i s the r e a s o n f o r the Movement. We want to f i n i s h w i t h the c o r r u p t p r a c t i c e of " d i a l o g u e s b e h i n d c l o s e d d o o r s " , or of s m a l l committees, where the p r a c t i c e of blowi n g hot and c o l d keeps the o r d i n a r y p e o p l e from any p a r t i c i p a t i o n at a l l . From the b e g i n n i n g of the M e x i c a n R e v o l u t i o n , and even d u r i n g i t , the l e a d e r s of any movement have been i m p r i s o n e d or k i l l e d or bought o f f . We r e a l i z e t h a t our demands w i l l not mean a b a s i c change i n . s o c i e t y . But the Movement t h a t makes them has an h o n e s t and p o p u l a r aim: to g i v e hack to the people c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own s t r e n g t h . We do not want so much to c o n v i n c e p e o p l e t h a t t h i n g s a r e i n a bad way, as t h a t t h e i r c o r r e c t i o n depends on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p e o p l e . We want to c o n v i n c e them t h a t t h e r e are l e a d e r s who cannot be bought. We are not g o i n g to l e t the government s h i f t the s t r u g g l e to t h e i r own t e r r a i n by p r o p i t i a t i n g the movement w i t h p e t t y concessions."^ Thus we  see from t h i s statement t h a t the major i s s u e f o r the  CNH's demand f o r a p u b l i c d i a l o g u e  i s the attempt t o remove the  t h a t i n s u l a t e d the masses from the government and t o renew c o n f i d e n c e  f u r t h e r the attempt  i n the p u b l i c ' s a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e the  of p o l i t i c a l o f f i c i a l s .  elitism  decisions  To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s would mean the undoing o f  the u n i d i r e c t i o n a l f l o w of p o w e r , i n h e r e n t i n the s t r u c t u r e of the t h a t we  PRI  o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I . I f we  a n a l y z e the s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s made by the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e  Committee to i n i t i a t e p u b l i c t a l k s w i t h the government,we see t h a t through the J u l y - O c t o b e r  1968  e v e n t s , the f i r s t time t h a t CNH  c o n d i t i o n of p u b l i c d i a l o g u e was  29th and  had  established  on August 17, but from the b e g i n n i n g  the s t u d e n t c o n f l i c t u n t i l August 17, 1968, repression against students,  had  of  f o u r a c t s of p o l i c e and army  t a k e n p l a c e a l r e a d y , on the 2 3 r d , 2 6 t h ,  30th of J u l y . Then came the f i r s t mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on the 1 s t , 5 t h and  of August.  D u r i n g these t h r e e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s no d i r e c t  confrontation 8.  the  police-army-students  occurred.  H a b l a a Siempre! E l Consejo N a c i o n a l de H u e l g a . Siempre 18-9-68.  op.  13th  c i t . , p.  10,  62 Between the 5th and 13th o f August, on the 8 t h , s t u d e n t s formed the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee, and p r o f e s s o r s the Teacher's C o a l i t i o n f o r Democratic L i b e r t i e s .  Both f o r m u l a t e the s i x demands, which were  a t the Z o c a l o on August  13th.  Consequently when on August  ratified  17th the CNH,  i n s i s t e d on p u b l i c t a l k s i n o r d e r to n e g o t i a t e w i t h the government, the l a t t e r was f u l l y  aware o f the students'demands and of the scope of t h e i r  movement, which had emerged as a response to the J u l y r e p r e s s i o n a p p l i e d to the s t u d e n t s by the p o l i c e and the Army. Then on August ernment made very w i l l i n g  22, through ,;he M i n i s t e r o f the Interior^,Uhe gov-  a move w i t h the f o l l o w i n g statement:  "The a u t h o r i t i e s a r e  to i n i t i a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o come to a ' d e f i n i t i v e '  9 s o l u t i o n of t h i s  'lamentable  No doubt  problem'."  the Mexican Government f e l t  t h a t the need to make such  a move was i m p e r a t i v e s i n c e "the lamentable problem ' was i t s own c r e a t i o n . 1  Consequently, the government's " w i l l i n g n e s s " to i n i t i a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s was m o t h e r p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e i n o r d e r t o r e g a i n what P r o f e s s o r S t a 10 venhagen c a l l s  the'"appoarences",  and by d o i n g so to e s t a b l i s h what we  might c a l l d e l a y i n g t a c t i c s , whereby l a t e r , w i t h " p o p u l a r " support the government c o u l d " l e g a l l y " i n c r e a s e The day a f t e r , August  repression.  23rd, the government went f u r t h e r w i t h i t s  p l a n s to c a r r y on r e p r e s s i o n , when i n a d i s p l a y o f "good w i l l " ,  i t desig11  nated f o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  ( a l l c a b i n e t members) t o i n i t i a t e  negotiations.  The CNH and the Teacher's C o a l i t i o n a c c e p t e d the government p r o p o s i t i o n , b u t the former i n s i t e d  that the d i a l o g u e must be t r a n s m i t t e d sim-  u l t a n e o u s l y by t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o networks  and p u b l i s h e d i n a l l Mexican  newspapers. 9. See: R e v i s t a de l a U n i v e r s i d a d - d e - M e x i c o , Septiembre 1968, p . 11. 10. See p . 41. 11. See: R e v i s t a de l a U n i v e r s i d a d - d e - M e x i c o , Sept. 1968, p. 18.  63  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e CNH a l s o announced t h a t a n o t h e r dem o n s t r a t i o n would t a k e p l a c e on Tuesday, August 2 7 t h . Then on S a t u r d a y , August 2 4 t h , i n two p u b l i c m a n i f e s t o e s d i r e c t e d a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n and a t the p e o p l e o f M e x i c o , t h e CNH and the Teacher's C o a l i t i o n d e c l a r e d :  That l a t e r on August 2 3 r d , they  r e c e i v e d a t e l e p h o n e c a l l from t h e M i n i s t r y o f the I n t e r i o r , 12 t h a t the government would a c c e p t the p u b l i c The  saying  dialogue.  day a f t e r on Sunday, August 25, i n a P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e ,  the CNH d e c l a r e d  t h a t on Monday, August 2 6 t h , i t would e s t a b l i s h through  a telephone c a l l , contact w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s i n order  t o s e t up w i t h  the l a t t e r a d e f i n i t i v e p l a c e and date f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s .  CNH a l s o  i  declared  t h a t from t e n t o twenty s t u d e n t s ,  s o r s , would a t t e n d t h e p u b l i c  a s s i s t e d by s e v e r a l p r o f e s -  dialogue.  On Monday, August 26, a v e r y i m p o r t a n t d e c l a r a t i o n was made by  the Mexico C i t y a u t h o r i t i e s , a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t l a t e r i n t h i s chap-  t e r w i l l throw l i g h t on our assumption about t h e " d e l a y i n g employed by the M e x i c a n government t o i n c r e a s e r e p r e s s i o n  tactics" "legally".  The Mexico C i t y a u t h o r i t i e s d e c l a r a t i o n : (Monday 26th) "The D.D.F. announced t h a t a l t h o u g h the r e q u i s i t e p e r m i t had not been a p p l i e d f o r , i t w i l l a l l o w t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n announced f o r tomorrow t o take p l a c e , s e t t i n g o f f from the N a t i o n a l Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y towards t h e Zoealo ( s q u a r e ) . The s a i d d e c i s i o n has been made i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s n o t t o impede any m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i d e a s , even when the l a t t e r a r e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t them themselves and i n s p i t e o f g r e a t i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o a l l t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e c i t y , b u t k e e p i n g i n mind t h a t a r t i c l e 9 of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e s t h a t no assembly o r r e u n i o n c a n be c o n s i d e r e d i l l e g a l o r d i s s o l v e d i f i t has as i t s a i m t o p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n o r t o make a p r o t e s t some a c t by an a u t h 12.  I b i d , p. 19.  64  o r i t y , u n l e s s the l a t t e r i s i n s u l t e d o f u n l e s s use i s made of v i o l e n c e o r t h r e a t s t o i n t i m i d a t e t h e a u t h o r i t y o r t o o b l i g e i t t o cede t o the demands made. 1  Then on August 27, the f o u r t h g r e a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n , w h i c h we c o n s i d e r t o be the key date o f the J u l y - O c t o b e r 1968 e v e n t s , ( t h e m a n i f e s t a n t s w h i c h we have a l r e a d y mentioned i n t h e c h r o n o l o g y ) , marchi n g l o u d l y , b u t i n good o r d e r reached  the Z o c a l o .  Once i n the C e n t r a l s q u a r e , CNH l e a d e r s and p r o f e s s o r s spoke at the r a l l y .  A t the end, a CNH l e a d e r , S o c r a t e s Campos Lemus took  the microphone and proposed t h a t p u b l i c d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , would take p l a c e a t the Zocalo on September 1 s t a t 10:00 a.m. A group o f " s t u d e n t s " p a i n t e d the w a l l s o f t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l p a l a c e , w i t h i n s u l t s t o the P r e s i d e n t . Other groups o f " s t u d e n t s " f l e w a r e d - a n d - b l a c k  strike  flag  on t h e n a t i o n a l f l a g p o l e i n the v e r y c e n t e r o f the s q u a r e . Other s t u d e n t s s e t up a r o u n d - t h e - c l o c k p i c k e t i n f r o n t of. the N a t i o n a l P a l a c e , u n t i l the s i x demands c o u l d be g r a n t e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , b u t a t one i n the morning, August 28, Army t r o o p s drove t h e s t u d e n t s p i c k e t s out o f the s q u a r e .  A t midday, the government assembled  a crowd o f b u r e a u c r a t s a t t h e Z o c a l o , to b u r n the s t r i k e f l a g and "pay homage t o the n a t i o n a l f l a g . " In a Press Conference, the d e m o n s t r a t i o n  August 29, CNH d e c l a r e s t h a t :  o f August 27 was p l a n n e d ,  when  t h e CNH n e v e r d i s c u s s e d ,  s t i l l l e s s approved the p a i n t i n g o f t h e w a l l s o f t h e p a l a c e o r t h e f l y i n g o f the s t r i k e  flag.  On August 30, t h e CNH agreed h o t t o h o l d any k i n d o f demons t r a t i o n a t t h e Z o c a l o on September 1, and r e i t e r a t e d i t s w i l l i n g n e s s 13.  See: R e v i s t a de l a U n i v e r s i d a d - d e - M e x i c o ,  p. 20, Septiembre 1968.  65  to h o l d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the government, i n o r d e r to f i n d a s o l u t i o n to  the  conflict. R e t u r n i n g to the key events w h i c h took p l a c e i n the  o f August 27 a t the Zocalo we w i l l a n a l y z e f i r s t o f a l l : o f one o f the CNH  evening  the p r o p o s a l  l e a d e r s , S o c r a t e s Campos Lemus, to h o l d a p u b l i c  d i a l o g u e w i t h the government on September 1, 10:00  a.m.  a t the Z o c a l o , .  e x a c t l y on the day and hour when the P r e s i d e n t d e l i v e r s h i s  annual  r e p o r t to the n a t i o n , i n the Congress, a t w h i c h a l l c a b i n e t members have to be  present. Consequently,  S o c r a t e s Campos Lemus'  than a p r o p o s a l of one o f the CNH s i t i o n made by an agent  p r o p o s a l sounds r a t h e r  spokesmen, l i k e a d e l i b e r a t i v e propo-  provocateur.  Then, l e t us c o n s i d e r the p a i n t e d w a l l s o f the N a t i o n a l P a l ace w i t h i n s u l t s to the P r e s i d e n t , and the f l y i n g o f a  red-and-black  s t r i k e f l a g on the n a t i o n a l f l a g p o l e i n the c e n t e r of the s q u a r e , a c t s committed by a group of " s t u d e n t s " . P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e , the CNH  both  These a c t s l a t e r on i n a  denied as b e i n g p l a n n e d o r a u t h o r i z e d by  the l a t t e r f o r the August 27 d e m o n s t r a t i o n .  Thus the s o - c a l l e d group  of " s t u d e n t s " seems more l i k e a group o f agents F i n a l l y , the v i g i l i  provocateurs.  of some s t u d e n t s i n a  round-the-clock  p i c k e t i n f r o n t of the N a t i o n a l P a l a c e , seems a l s o an a c t encouraged by the group above mentioned, i n o r d e r to produce c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h 14.  The s a i d CNH l e a d e r S o c r a t e s Campos Lemus, once he was a r r e s t e d on October 2nd 1968, t u r n e d s t a t e ' s e v i d e n c e and gave the p o l i c e a l i s t of names of l e f t i s t p o l i t i c i a n s and s t u d e n t s . The group o f s t u d e n t s who committed the c r i t i c i z e d a c t s were d i r e c t l y under Lemus' c o n t r o l . F o l l o w i n g h i s s t a t e m e n t to the p o l i c e , the o t h e r CNH l e a d e r s and s t u dents denounced him as a CIA agent. See: Texto d e l a c t a en que c o n s t a l a d e c l a r c i o n de S. Campos Lemus. S o l de M e x i c o . 68.10.06, pp. 1,2. See a l s o : R e v i s t a de l a U n i v e r s i d a d - d e - M e x i c o . pp. 30-32, S e p t i e m b r e , 1968.  te  the Army, g i v i n g t h e government the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o " j u s t i f y t h e Army  l e g a l i n t e r v e n t i o n " , s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s ' v i g i l square was v i o l a t i n g one s e c t i o n o f A r t i c l e 9 o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n which says t h a t : "No assembly o r r e u n i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i l l e g a l n o r d i s s o l v e d i f i t has as i t s aim t o p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n o r to p r o t e s t a g a i n s t some a c t t o an a u t h o r i t y , as l o n g as no i n s u l t s a r e o f f e r e d t o the l a t t e r and no use i s made o f v i o l e n c e o r t h r e a t s t o i n t i m i d a t e the a u t h o r i t y o r t o obl i g e i t t o cede t o the demands made."15 I t was based on t h i s A r t i c l e 9 o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t a t 0.55 hours of August 28, a w a r n i n g through l o u d s p e a k e r s i n s t a l l e d a t the top o f Mexico C i t y H a l l b u i l d i n g , was d e l i v e r e d t o the group o f s t u d e n t s r e m a i n i n g a t t h e s q u a r e , g i v i n g the l a t t e r f i v e minutes t o c l e a r o u t the Z o c a l o .  A f t e r e x a c t l y f i v e minutes army t r o o p s drove 16 the s t u d e n t s p i c k e t s out o f t h e s q u a r e . I f we compare t h e government d i s p l a y o f f o r c e i n the e a r l y  hours o f August 23, c l a i m i n g a v i o l a t i o n o f A r t i c l e 9 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , w i t h t h e d e c l a r a t i o n made on August 26, by t h e Mexico C i t y 17 authorities,  b o t h e v e n t s have a common denominator; A r t i c l e 9 o f t h e  Mexican C o n s t i t u t i o n . On  one hand t h e government "approved" t h e August 27 s t u -  dent d e m o n s t r a t i o n , s i n c e the A r t i c l e 9 o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l o w s i t , b u t a t the same time i t announced t h e " p o s s i b l e " consequences " i n c a s e " the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l A r t i c l e were n o t o b s e r v e d . On t h e o t h e r hand 48 hours l a t e r the government s t a t e d 18 t h e r e was " l e g a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n "  that  f o r the Army i n t e r v e n t i o n , s i n c e t h e  A15. r t i c lSee: e r e qC uo in rs et mi et nu t si o were e d by h e " s t u d eUnidos n t s " . Mexicanos. p. 10. n P o l vi ti io cl aa t de l o stEstados Ed. P o r r u a , M e x i c o . 16. See: Chronology. CIDOC D o s s i e r I I , M e x i c o , C o n f l i c t o E s t u d i a n t i l 1968, p. 47. Documentos y R e a c c i o n e s de P r e n s a . CIDOC, Cuernavaca, Mexico. 17. See: Chronology. 18. See: R e v i s t a de l a U n i v e r s i d a d - d e - M e x i c o . p. 22, S e p t i e m b r e , 1968.  67  A f t e r we  have analyzed  took p l a c e between August 22 and and we and  their final  the development of the events the evening  of August 27 a t the Z o c a l o ,  outcome, i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t the p o l i t i c a l  devices  have c a l l e d the Government's " d e l a y i n g t a c t i c s " , were w e l l executed  wing — sion.  by a powerful  faction —  to " l e g a l l y " i n c r e a s e r e p r e s -  s h a l l r e t u r n t o t h i s p o i n t i n the next c h a p t e r ) .  f a c t i o n i n order  planned  we might c a l l extreme r i g h t  w i t h i n the government, i n order (We  that  This  to c a r r y out those p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e s , used agents  p r o v o c a t e u r s ; d i s g u i s e d the l a t t e r under the banner of "extreme l e f t " elements.  Because we  P r e s s Conference,  have to emphasize aga n t h a t on August 29,  the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee, denied  having  in a  planned  or c a r r i e d out the August 27th l a t e - e v e n i n g events a t the Z o c a l o . T h i s p o i n t s to another Mexican Government had accepted to  the CNH  p u b l i c d i a l o g u e and  had  I f the  given a s o l u t i o n  s i x demands, what l a r g e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s might have caused i n 19  the Mexican p o l i t i c a l I n regard wrote i n one 19.  b a s i c q u e s t i o n i n our study.  structure?  to our q u e s t i o n , P r o f e s s o r P a b l o Gonzalez Casanova  of h i s essays  on the student  conflict:  I t should be noted t h a t c u r r e n t R e p u b l i c - t y p e of governments which are founded upon P o p u l i s t p o l i c i e s , as i n the case of Mexico, u s u a l l y p r e s e n t , when encountering a mass movement, p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e s which i n c l u d e a face'dc of l e g a l i s m t h a t enables the government to a t t r a c t _ s u f f i c i e n t g e n e r a l support so as to suppress the movement. /See: P a b l o Gonzalez Casanova, A r i t m e t i c a C o n t r a - R e v o l u c i o n a r i a , pp. 2-4. L a C u l t u r a en Mexico. SiempreJ 21.3.68.7  " I f i t a c c e p t s the d i a l o g u e the government w i l l have to i n a g u r a t e a new p o l i t i c a l s t y l e , and change the forms o f government t h a t have r u l e d the country s i n c e the time o f Calles. A l l t h i s supposes f o r the government i t s e l f a s e r i e s of r i s k s w i t h r e g a r d to the c o n t r o l of the governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o f the power s t r u c t u r e : The PRI, CTM, CNC e t c . The power s t r u c t u r e w i l l have to r e a d j u s t v e r y s e r i o u s l y f o r a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e i n which o t h e r p a r t i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , both p o p u l a r and u n i o n ized,would p l a y an i n c r e a s i n g l y important p a r t . On the o t h e r hand, a c c e p t i n g the d i a l o g u e and c e d i n g the demands of the p e t i t i o n would imply encouragement o f o t h e r movements and p o p u l a r demands, not o n l y f o r democratic p r o g r e s s b u t f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e , which would be opposed by the more c o n s e r v a t i v e s e c t o r s i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the government, and a l l those f o r c e s who p l a n on a S o u t h - A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n o f Mexico, t h a t i s to say, by those f o r whom the number one o b j e c t i v e i s the immediate c o n c e n t r a t i o n and a c c u m u l a t i o n of c a p i t a l , and who r e g a r d as a v e r y secondary o b j e c t i v e the growth of n a t i o n a l commerce of the s u p p l y and the demand of goods and s e r v i c e s , of employment and e v e n t u a l l y a much more s t a b l e development and a c e r t a i n a c c u m u l a t i o n of c a p i t a l over a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d o f time."^0  20.  Pablo Gonzalez Casanova, E l C o n f l i c t o E s t u d i a n t i l ; d e c i s i o n e s riesgos. op. c i t . , p. 7. E x c e l s i o r 68.09.13.  CHAPTER IV The Government P r i n c i p l e :  We Must Preserve the "Principle of Authority'  Due to the events of lat?;. August, the Mexican people, were anxiously awaiting the P r e s i d e n t i a l annual report, about those Professor Womack writes;  events.  'Military helicopters buzzed constantly over  the city....Mexico seemed just another L a t i n American republic.  Every-  1 one was waiting f o r the President's words on September 1=.." On Semptember 1, the President delivered his annual Report to the Nation.  From this report we w i l l extract some key paragraphs,  which w i l l help us to analyze the Government's " o f f i c i a l v i s - a - v i s the student  1 ,  position  conflict.  The President started his report with the following statement "The Olympics Games w i l l take place for the f i r s t time i n a L a t i n American nation.... During the recent c o n f l i c t s that have been taking place i n Mexico City, d i f f e r e n t interests inside and outside the country...of d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l tendencies and ideologies, had planned to take advantage, of a t r i v i a l incident i n order to create major trouble the aim of which was to disrupt the Olympics and to d i s c r e d i t the country.... We are confident that they w i l l net disrupt the sport events as they have planned...."3 1. 2. 3.  See: John Womack, J r . : Unfreedom i n Mexico, Government Crackdown on the U n i v e r s i t i e s , op. c i t . , p. 28. The New Republic, October 12, 1968. See: Texto integro d e l IV Informe P r e s i d e n c i a l , pp. 1-2. E l Nac i o n a l . Septiembre 2, 1968. I consider i t important to emphasize the fact^as Professor Womack didjthat: ''Students did not picket Olympic i n s t a l l a t i o n s , much less t r y to sabotage them. Before the President's report, the Strike Committee even promised that once negotiations began, students would help beautify the c i t y and would volunteer services to v i s i t o r s during the Games." I b i d . , op. c i t . , p. 29.  70  In r e g a r d to the v i o l a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s autonomy a t the P r e p a r a t o r y denied  i t had  School No.  1, by  the Army., on J u l y 30th, the P r e s i d e n t  been v i o l a t e d , and he promised ''due p r o t e c t i o n of  U n i v e r s i t y ' s autonomy", when he s a i d : l i b e r t y and  autonomy, but we  "We  the  not only r e s p e c t U n i v e r s i t y  even defend i t . "  In r e g a r d to the s t u d e n t s ' s i x demands, he  said;  " I b e l i e v e i t i s my duty to make c l e a r the Government p o s i t i o n i n r e g a r d to some p o l i t i c a l demands. So f a r we have not r e c e i v e d any " w r i t t e n p e t i t i o n " from any u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t y or any e t h e r group o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o f e s s o r s or students ' p r e s e n t i n g c o n c r e t e p e t i t i o n s ' . " V/ith the above statement, we ambiguous p o s i t i o n taken by regard  to the CNH As we  ment was of  fully  c l e a r l y see  s i x demands.  have a l r e a d y s a i d i n p r e v i o u s aware of the s i x p o l i t i c a l i t was  chapters,  p r e c i s e l y f o r t h i s reason,  have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out,the  to get a " d e f i n i t i v e " s o l u t i o n of the lamentable  w r i t t e n p e t i t i o n " , was  Chronology.  f a r we  13th,  in  problem. Conse-  have not r e c e i v e d  j u s t an e x t e n s i o n of the " d e l a y i n g t a c t i c s "  the government on August 22nd.  See;  "So  and  Mexican  to "approach" the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee,  q u e n t l y , the P r e s i d e n t ' s statement:  4.  the  the mass-demonstrations of August 1 s t , 5th and  because of which.as we  Government d e c i d e d  by  to h a l t  that  stage of Army r e p r e s s i o n c a r r i e d out on the 23rd, 26th, 29th  30th of J u l y , and  order  the Govern-  demands and o f the scope  the Government made a move on August 22nd, i n o r d e r  events  and  the P r e s i d e n t i n h i s annual r e p o r t , i n  the student movement, and  first  the d e c e i t f u l  any taken  But the ambiguous p o s i t i o n of the President i n regard to the s i x demands, l e d him to contradict h i s own statement, when a few lines l a t e r i n his annual report the President s a i d : admit the existence of p o l i t i c a l prisoners '. 1  and the Federal D i s t r i c t Attorney's  ''I do not  But he asked the General  to review pending cases to ''make  sure" their charges were f o r "'crimes net f o r ideas".  He added;  "In regard to A r t i c l e s 145 and I45A of the Penal Code... I have to emphasize that the a b o l i t i o n of them does not f a l l under my Executive j u r i s d i c t i o n . " The President's contradiction about the s i x demands i s e v i dent; while on the one hand, he claims he i s not aware of those demands since "no written p e t i t i o n has been received", on the other hand he speaks about two of the. s i x demands even i f he denies the f i r s t one and declares he has no authority to change the second one. The President j u s t i f i e d the Army intervention i n the student c o n f l i c t as "adequate measure to maintain i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y . " And he added:  "The entire Mexican population knows that  when Army intervention takes place, i t i s i n order to protect peace^ not to oppress the population." Then.the government p r i n c i p l e :  the "Principle of Authority"  came to the surface when the President said; "The j u d i c i a l system i s not simply a theory, nor i s i t arbitrary- i t i s v i t a l c o l l e c t i v e necessity; without i t no organized society can e x i s t . . . . In the same context, when those means, which are dictated by good judgment and experience, f a i l , I w i l l invoice, only when i t i s s t r i c t l y necessary, the power referred i n Art i c l e s 89, Section VI of the General Constitution of the Republic which states, and I quote: " A r t i c l e 89, the powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the President are the following: VI To make use of the entire permanent arm forces whether of  72  the Army, the Navy or the A i r Force for the i n t e r n a l security and external defence of the Federation." Consequently, a f t e r the CNH had analyzed annual report, for them, the President's words  the p r e s i d e n t i a l as Professor Womack  5 points out —  sounded both short and threatening.  Nevertheless.  i n a Press Conference that took place i n the  university campus, the National Strike Committee declared: "We took the decision to carry on the struggle, using a l l the l e g a l means.-necessary to achieve a solution to our demands.... We deplore the fact that the p r e s i d e n t i a l report does not offer the p o l i t i c a l solutions that we have been looking for, rather i t denotes a hardening of repressive measures against the student movement..,. We also have been i n s i s t i n g that our movement does not i n tend to disrupt the Olympic Games,..."6 Therefore, with the P r e s i d e n t i a l annual report on September 1st, the government i n i t i a t e s a second stage of Repression against the Student Movement. The difference between the f i r s t stage of repression — 22nd -August 27th —  July  and the new one, was that i n the l a t t e r , the gov-  ernment this time, i n order to use i t s repressive force, took care of the " l e g a l appearances". Henceforth, our analysis w i l l focus on those l e g a l appear:|  ances", taken by the Mexican Government i n order to increase repression. On September 5th, there appeared i n "Excelsior", a national daily newspaper,a manifesto, signed by the National Strike Committee and addressed to the people of Mexico. 5. 6.  John Womack, J r . : See: Chronology.  Unfreedoin i n Mexico, p. 29.  73  In this manifesto,  the CNH,  besides explaining the d i f f e r e n t  occasions, on which the l a t t e r had attempted unsuccessfully to i n i t i a t e negotiations with the government, also explained what they understood by public dialogue, and proposed to the government, the National Medic a l Center as a place to i n i t i a t e negotiations on Monday, September 9, at 5:00  p.m. . The:  CNH manifesto reads;  "In case, this proposal, may be considered by the government as inconvenient, the CNH i s very w i l l i n g to discuss other proposals for the negotiations, with the only cond i t i o n that these negotiations be public and that repression be halted i n advance." At the bottom of the manifesto a note reads; "This declaration has been also o f f i c i a l l y addressed to the President, the Ministry cf the I n t e r i o r , the Attorney General and of Federal D i s t r i c t , the Congress and the Federal D i s t r i c t Department. September 4, 1968 National Strike Committee" The  answer from the authorities to the CNH  came on September 6th. to the concrete CNH  The Government's reply was  7  manifesto,  far from an answer  demands.  The d i f f e r e n t Government Departments to whom the CNH manifesto was  addressed-, were "handing on" the p e t i t i o n , most of them a l -  leging that the s i x demands were "out of their l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n " , and that i n accordance with the A r t i c l e 8 of the Constitution, ''all 8 petitions must be presented i n a written form". 7. 8.  See: See:  Excelsior, Septiembre 5, 1968. E l Dia, p. 3, Septiembre 7, 1968.  74  In other words, to a concrete and written p e t i t i o n presented by the CNH,  the Government objected with a "facade of legalism".  Then on September 10th, there appeared i n " E l Dia'', another national daily newspaper, a manifesto addressed to the people of Mexico, and signed by the National Strike Committee. In the manifesto the CNH states that: "Since i n answer to the CNH manifesto of September 4th, addressed to d i f f e r e n t Departments of Government, the l a t t e r had replied i n a very vague form claiming that i n accordance with A r t i c l e 8 of the Constitution a l l "petitions must be presented i n a written form, and on the other hand they completely ignored our request for public dialogue. The CNH i s sending to the President of the Republic, another o f f i c i a l note, i n which we (CNH) r e i t e r a t e cur p e t i t i o n for public dialogue. Consequently, we expect an e x p l i c i t answer to our proposal.... We (CNH) a f f i r m that our proposal to carry out public negotiations, i s not due to an e x h i b i t i o n i s t desire for publ i c i t y , and on the other hand our proposal does not contrad i c t the terms of A r t i c l e 8 of the Constitution, since the exposition of those terms can be done i n o r a l and written form.... We r e i t e r a t e that our popular movement w i l l continue u n t i l the achievement of the p o l i t i c a l solutions, we have been demanding.... We c a l l the people of Mexico to the s i l e n t demonstration that w i l l take place on Friday, September 13th. This s i lent demonstration w i l l leave at 4;00 p.m., from the National Museum of Anthropology to the Zocalo.... In this demonstration we w i l l show our general repudiation of i n j u s t i c e and of the lack of democratic liberties....''-'^ Meanwhile on September 10th, the Congress gave " f u l l support" to the President, i n order to dispose of the Army, the A i r Force and the Navy, "to protect the i n t e r n a l and external security of Mexico".  9.  See:  E l Dia, p. 10, Septiembre 10,  1968.  75  The announced CNH s i l e n t demonstration took place on September 13th,  During the course cf the demonstrations from the National  Museum of Anthropology to the Zocalo. d i f f e r e n t groups of the population 10 joined the s i l e n t demonstration, i n which no incident took place. The CNH declared on Tuesday, September 17th, that they might accept the dialogue i n a written form provided a l l documents would be 11  widely  published. So f a r , as we have seen, since the P r e s i d e n t i a l annual re-  port on September 1st, the Mexican Government took care of the ''legal appearances" i n order to increase h i s repressive force.  Consequently,  the government attitude toward a p o s i t i v e solution of the student conf l i c t , had been rather evasive, presenting a "facade of legalism'' to each CNH e f f o r t to negotiate. Therefore, i t w i l l be important to ask, what viable prospect from the government side, did the CNH foresee for the settlement of the c o n f l i c t ? In a press interview a CNH spokesman declared;  :  10.  "The solution of, or the f a i l u r e to solve the c o n f l i c t i s at this moment determent by the c o r r e l a t i o n of i n t e r n a l forces i n the Government, To us i t i s obvious at this time that there i s a sector of the government which claims to be able to solve the student c o n f l i c t , and at the same time to promote certain p o l i t i c i a n s with a view to a possible future p r e s i d e n t i a l campaign; i t i s also clear that on the other hand there exist a faction i n the government, which i s opposed to s o l ving the c o n f l i c t , because at this time a s a t i s f a c t o r y solution i s not i n their i n t e r e s t . The struggle between these two governmental groups i s what w i l l i n the f i n a l analysis determine the solution by means of the supremacy of one group or the other. That i s what w i l l determine See; Revista de l a Universidad de Mexico, p. 25, Septiembre, 1968.  11.  See: Chronology.  whether t h i s movement w i l l c o n t i n u e f o r a r e l a t i v e l y or whether i t i s a l r e a d y s o l v e d . " " ^ The above p r e s s i n t e r v i e w w i t h the CNH,  time,  took p l a c e on Sep-  tember 13th, around midday a t the u n i v e r s i t y campus. in  long  A few hours  later  the evening, Army troops o c c u p i e d the u n i v e r s i t y . At the same time, the Army a r r e s t e d 500  persons,  u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f , s t u d e n t s and some of t h e i r p a r e n t s who a t the u n i v e r s i t y  campus, a t t e n d i n g mainly  among them,  were p r e s e n t ,  t h e i r sorts' g r a d u a t i o n s .  All  a r r e s t e d people were taken away from the u n i v e r s i t y campus i n army trucks.  I t i s important  to note t h a t d u r i n g the whole Army " c l e a r out''  o p e r a t i o n , no s t u d e n t s or a r r e s t e d persons  o f f e r e d any k i n d of  resis-  tance. To j u s t i f y  such an a c t , the government d e c l a r e d t h a t : •UNAM  o c c u p a t i o n by the Army was  a n e c e s s a r y measure i n o r d e r to stop  a n t i - s o c i a l and-possibly criminal And  added;  "openly  acts".  'The Government has  "the moral o b l i g a t i o n to  m a i n t a i n o r d e r i n the t e r r i t o r y of the n a t i o n of which the  university  13 a l s o forms p a r t . " I n r e g a r d to the u n i v e r s i t y  take-over by the army, the w e l l -  known l i b e r a l h i s t o r i a n D a n i e l C o s i o V i l l e g a s ,  wrote:  "The m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y takes p l a c e when ...the students had abandoned the v a n d a l i s m , and d i s p l a y the d i s c i p l i n e i n two o r d e r l y d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ; t h a t i s to say when they had announced and repeated t h a t they w i l l not t r y to s p o i l the Olympic games." 12. 13. 14.  Habla e l Consejo N a c i o n a l de Huelga. op. c i t . , p. 13. Revista Gente, Octubre, 1968. See: Chronology. See: D a n i e l C o s i o V i l l e g a s , Los s i e t e a c t o s deuna T r a g e d i a . op. cit. Editorial. E x c e l s i o r , Septiembre 27, 1968..  77  With the university occupation by the army, the l a s t steps to complete the cycle of repression had already been taken by the government . Besides,  the defamatory campaign undertaken by the government  against the university Rector i n order to get his resignation.  Another  sequence of "well prepared'' repressive measures having also s p e c i f i c targets, was underway;  the attack committed against E l Colegic de  Mexico, by a group of armed t e r r o r i s t s , the r e f u s a l of the c i t y p o l i c e , when the former asked for protection, on September 20 (see  chronology),  the increase of p o l i c e arrests, the v i o l e n t Army-Students confrontations on September 21st and 22nd, the UNAM Rector's  resignation and f i n a l l y  on September 24th the National Polytechnic I n s t i t u t e campus occupation by the Army, a l l those events were the penultimate step of the Government " l e g a l " increase of repression. Then, on September 27th, due to the UNAM Board of Governors 15 refusal to accept Rector's  resignation,  the l a t t e r agreed to remain  at his post as UNAM Rector. Therefore,  the government was forced to give a momentum to  i t s escalation of repression. The Minister of the I n t e r i o r declared that the withdrawal of army troops from university campus would take place as soon as UNAM authorities would require them to do so. The army l e f t the university campus, and on October 1st, UNAM s t a f f returned to campus. The National Strike Committee refused to resume classes, and convoked a mass-rally at the Plaza de las Tres Culturas i n T l a t e l o l c o on Wednesday, 15.  See: Chronology.  78  October 2nd. Wednesday,  And', as i t has been a l r e a d y mentioned  October 2nd, the N a t i o n a l S t r i k e Committee r a l l y was  tiated  a t 5:00  Around  5:30  P l a z a , CNH  i n the Chronology,on  p.m.  p.m.  ini-  a t the P l a z a de l a s T r e s C u l t u r a s i n T l a t e l o c o .  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15,000 persons were gathered a t the  spokesmen addressed the crowd composed of s t u d e n t s , workers,  Tlatelolco residents:  men,  women and c h i l d r e n ; cameramen and  foreign  reporters. Suddenly a f t e r f o u r f l a r e s presumably 6:00  p.m.,  used as a s i g n a l , a t  s o l d i e r s c o o r d i n a t e d by p l a i n c l o t h e s m e n opened f i r e w i t h o u t  p r o v o c a t i o n and charged the p e a c e f u l student r a l l y a t the P l a z a . d e n t s and b y s t a n d e r s f l e d  Stu-  t o T l a t e l o l c o b u i l d i n g s , but they were pur-  sued, s h o t , beaten and a r r e s t e d .  From 6:00  to 8:30  p.m.,  the f i r i n g  was c o n t i n u o u s . Presumably,  5,000 s o l d i e r s had p a r t i c i p a t e d  a n n a l s of Mexican H i s t o r y would  i n what i a the 16  be known as T l a t e l o l c o Massacre.  T h e r e f o r e , another important q u e s t i o n a r i s e s i n the p r e s e n t study. w i l l be the p o s s i b l e r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the government's r e p r e s s i o n plied  to the s t u d e n t movement of 1968  i n the Mexican p o l i t i c a l  What ap-  life?  The e x a c t answer t o our q u e s t i o n i s found i n one of P r o f e s sor G o n z a l e z Casanova  s e s s a y s on the student c o n f l i c t , when he wrote:  "...To opt f o r the a l t e r n a t i v e of employing p u b l i c f o r c e by means of massive f a i l i n g s , m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l of academic i n s t i t u t i o n s , e t c . , i s something which we are a l l c o n s c i o u s of as a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y , which has been r e p e a t e d i n e x o r a b l y i n the d i c t a t o r s h i p s of L a t i n America. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s 16.  See: Chronology, a l s o P^evista de l a U n i v e r s i d a d de Mexico. Septiembre 1968, and CIDOC D o s s i e r No. 23, Mexico, C o n f l i c t o E s t u d i a n t i I-II-1968. pp. 55-56. Cuernavaca, Mexico.  73  d e c i s i o n are o b v i o u s . G i v e n the magnitude of the p o p u l a r student movement and the f a i r l y l a r g e support t h a t i t has i n wide s e c t o r s of the middle and upper c l a s s e s — i t i s necess a r y to r e c a l l t h a t the students, d i d not appear suddenly i n the Mexican c o n t e x t -- such a r e p r e s s i o n would have to go l e n g t h s unprecedented i n the contemporary h i s t o r y of Mexico  The measures would have t o be taken d u r i n g the n a t i o n a l f e s t i v i t i e s ^ or i n the Olympics, s i n c e i t i s obvious t h a t i f the demands were not g r a n t e d , there would be no agreement between the government and the students and the r e s t l e s s n e s s would c o n t i n u e i n a manner i n a d m i s s a b l e t o the government. Under such c o n d i t i o n s i t would have r e c o u r s e to a p o l i c y i n which the army and the p o l i c e would n e c e s s a r i l y e x e r t more and more power.1° Then, on October 3 r d , d u r i n g a p r e s s i n t e r v i e w w i t h the Minister  of Defence, the r e p o r t e r asked the former: Reporter: "Who i s the Commander r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the army intervention i n Tlatelolco?" The M i n i s t e r of Defence: Reporter:  "The Commander r e s p o n s i b l e i s me."  W i l l an e t a t de s i e g e be d e c r e e d ? "  The M i n i s t e r of Defence: "No Qtat de s i e g e w i l l be d e c r e e d , Mexico i s a c o u n t r y where l i b e r t y e x i s t s and w i l l c o n t i n u e to e x i s t . " 1 9  17. 18. 19.  I n Mexico, the 15th and 16th of September are d a t e s of n a t i o n a l f e s t i v i t i e s which commemorate the 1810 Mexican Independence. P a b l o Gonzalez Casanova, E l C o n f l i c t o E s t u d i a n t i l ; d e c i s i o n e s y riesgos. op. c i t . , p. 9. E x c e l s i o r 68.09.13. See: E x c e l s i o r , pp. 7, 12. Octubre 3, 1968.  Conclusions  In t h i s r e p o r t we of the f o r m a t i o n how  have attempted to l o o k a t the  of the one-party system i n modern Mexico i n 1929,  the v i o l e n c e of i t s o r i g i n s i n the R e v o l u t i o n  enced the way  i n which p o l i t i c a l  movement of 1968.  The  f o r Mexico and we party  system, as  the p o s s i b i l i t y  can  and  of 1910  resolved  have  i n the  only conclude from our  of a working democracy.  student  can  one-  precluded  democratic  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r i g h t from  . divergent  influ-  a n a l y s i s t h a t the  As an i d e a , the  have d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and who Such  and  of the p o s s i b i l i t y of a democracy  the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of Mexican s o c i e t y ,  public p o l i c i e s . Party  c o n f l i c t was  problem i s one  form of government r e q u i r e s groups who  consequences  i n f l u e n c e the  i n t e r e s t s are not p r e s e n t  opposition course o f in  the  i n f a c t the n a t u r e of the government, of i n f l u e n c e and  i n the c o n t r o l of the masses through l e a d e r s  i n intermediate  power,  structures.  Given the l a c k of a v i a b l e democracy the problem of the i s one  of p e r s u a s i o n  and  control.  T h i s we  PRI  f a c e d i n the governments of  A v i l a Camacho, Aleman, R u i z C o r t i n e s , Lope? Mateos and  most c l o s e l y  i n the p r e s i d e n t i a l p e r i o d of D i a z Ordaz, where the problem of a l a r g e and by  v o c a l o p p o s i t i o n of s t u d e n t s l e d to the use  of p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e  the Government. We  t a l nor  have t r i e d  unique, but  to show t h a t t h i s v i o l e n c e was  i n the h i s t o r y of  the PRI  a traditional  i n d e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t when the government p e r c e i v e d to be  a threat We  neither  the  acciden-  strategy opposition  to i t s power.  have p o i n t e d  to the use  J a r a m i l l o ' s peasant movement i n 1962,  of r e p r e s s i o n i n the cases of and  the r a i l r o a d s t r i k e headed  81  by D e m e t r i o V a l l e j o i n 1959. 1968  And we have used t h e student movement o f  as a case study of how the government used r e p r e s s i o n , namely t h e  tactics  of o f f i c i a l physical violence i n p o l i t i c a l It i s telling  conflict.  indeed t h a t the government r e s o r t e d  to repres-  s i o n when i t s c o n t r o l was threatened  by a demand f o r a p u b l i c d i a -  logue w i t h members of the movement.  F o r , the n a t u r e o f p u b l i c  opens the channels o f i n f l u e n c e from the u n o f f i c i a l  quarters  dialogue  o f the  government., and i n oo d o i n g a c t u a l l y r e s t r u c t u r e s the n a t u r e o f the one-party system.  The P R I , u n w i l l i n g to make such a change r e s o r t e d  to the use of p o l i c e and armed f o r c e s . No doubt, the Mexican Student Movement o f 1968, has most important event i n the l a s t The students, already  historical  within  y e a r s o f Mexican p o l i t i c a l  life.  consequences o f the government's r e p r e s s i o n of  have been a l r e a d y  present  thirty  been the  pointed  out.  The immediate ones a r e a l s o  the Mexican c o n t e x t ,  from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f  the s t u d e n t movement; these a r e : 1) The government's i n c r e a s i n g dependency on i t s r e p r e s s i v e f o r c e when d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l problems. 2) Due to the scope of the s t u d e n t movement of 1968, government r e p r e s s i v e not  force  has been f u l l y exposed f o r the f i r s t  time  only i n t e r n a l l y but abroad as w e l l . 3) When government's r e p r e s s i v e f o r c e s a r e exposed i n t h a t way,  two  main consequences a r e l i k e l y  to  result:  a) Although  the govern-  ment's enormous d i s p l a y of f o r c e , had l e f t a f r i g h t e n e d p o p u l a t i o n , on  the other  hand a v a s t m a j o r i t y  of t h a t p o p u l a t i o n  b)  became more p o l i t i c a l l y  aware, more s e n s i t i v e ; i n o t h e r words t h i s sudden p o l i t i c a l awareness o f  82  the Mexican population, has removed once and f o r a l l , the whole myth of "Democracy i n Mexico". In regard to the government repressive methods used against the student movement and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l consequences, Professor T u l i o Halperin Donghi w r i t e s ; " I t has thus been possible to put down the movement successf u l l y , but i t has l e f t Mexico very d i f f e r e n t from the way i t found i t . A presentiment of p o s s i b l e , i f not c e r t a i n , doom has been f e l t by the p o l i t i c a l machine that governs the count r y , even more serious since the whole a f f a i r has shown up i t s i n e r t i a and at the same time i t s i n t e r n a l s t r i f e . " ^ And Professor Halperin adds: " I f the regime cannot be modernised, l i b e r a l i s e d and made more advanced i n technology through peaceful, means, or i f the l a t ter are r e j e c t e d i n favour of s o l u t i o n s implying a greater emphasis "on a u t h o r i t a r i a n measures, then i t seems i n e v i t a b l e that there w i l l a r i s e i n the p o l i t i c a l drama of Mexico a protagonist who u n t i l now has remained s i l e n t although not t o t a l l y absent; the army. 2 1:  I f we compare Professor Halperin's assumption about, the i n c r e a sing p o s s i b i l i t y of an a c t i v e r o l e of the Mexican army i n t h e • p o l i t i c a l l i f e of. the country, with that of Professor Gonzalez Casanova, we  find  that these assumptions overlap each ether, when the l a t t e r w r i t e s ; The p o l i c e and the army solve the problems of education, of railways, of doctors and of peasants. But the s o l u t i o n i s not that claimed by the p u b l i c i t y men of ' C i v i c A c t i o n ' , who de~. p i c t s o l d i e r s c a r r y i n g l i t t l e c h i l d r e n , b u i l d i n g schools or roads, helping young people, peasants and workers. The p o l i c e and the army solve p u b l i c problems by occupying schools, hospit a l s , r a i l w a y s , that i s to say, by f u l f i l l i n g the m i l i t a r y funct i o n f o r which they are trained i n a war which i s 'domestic'. 11  The cycle of mutual r e c r i m i n a t i o n goes on: the oligarchy permit themselves the luxury of c r i t i c i s i n g the p o l i t i c a l administrators f o r t h e i r inept government, t h e i r weakness, t h e i r corrupt i o n and t h e i r use of v i o l e n c e . And with good cause the middle 1. 2.  T u l i o Halperin Donghi. H i s t o r i a Contemporanea-de-America Latina,op. c i t . , p. 532. A l i a n z a E d i t o r i a l . Madrid, 1969. I b i d . , op. c i t . , pp. 534-535.  c l a s s s e c t o r s , the l i b e r a l and r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e s a l s o i n d i c t the p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a l t h o u g h they s t r e s s the c r i s i s i n the p o l i t i c a l system i t s e l f . The p o l i t i c a l adm i n i s t r a t o r f e e l s p a r t i c u l a r l y f r u s t r a t e d , and hopes t h a t the w o r l d w i l l not change, t h a t s t a b i l i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d and t h a t the o l i g a r c h y , the i m p e r i a l i s t s and the p e o p l e w i l l l e s s e n t h e i r demands arid be u n d e r s t a n d i n g about h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s and s h o r t c o m i n g s : t o some he w i s h e s t o p r o v e t h a t he i s f o r c e f u l and knows how t o e x e r t — w h i c h he c o n f u s e s w i t h u s i n g the pol i c e and the army: t o o t h e r s t h a t he i s open-minded and t o l e r a n t , t h a t he makes those c o n c e s s i o n s t o f o r e i g n c a p i t a l w h i c h a r c h i s t o concede:' and t o the p e o p l e and t o the p r o g r e s s i v e groups t h a t he i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s p i r i t o f the Republ i c , of the lav; and of a regime where i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e c i v i l l i b e r t i e s w i t h n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . But when f a c e d w i t h the r e a l dilemma, between r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e f o r m s and the use of r e p r e s s i v e f o r c e s , he u n w i l l i n g l y chooses the l a t t e r t o an ever g r e a t e r e x t e n t ; u n t i l the army s o l v e s i n p r a c t i c e a l m o s t a l l the problems of government w i t h o u t g o v e r n i n g . The problem t h u s p r e sented t o the m i l i t a r y i s u n i v e r s a l and s i m p l e : why not r e s o l v e a l l t h e s e problems of government by t a k i n g over the government? The f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a coup d'e'tat, l e g a l or i l l e g a l , a r c e s t a - . b l i s h e d a l r e a d y , and can be ' j u s t i f i e d ' t o the p u b l i c : the i n s u r g e n t s can count on the o l i g a r c h i e s , on the s u p p o r t of the i m p e r i a l i s t s , and even on the d i s c o n t e n t of the p e o p l e , who t o some degree s u b s c r i b e t o F a s c i s t and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i d e o l o g i e s . 1  3.  P a b l o G o n z a l e z Casanova; A r i t m e t i c a C o n t r a r e v o l u c i o n a r i a . op. c i t . , p. I I I . SiempreJ - La C u l t u r a en M e x i c o - A g o s t o 21, 1968.  84  Bibliography  Books 1.  A b u r t o Munoz, H i l d a , I d e o l o g i a d e l Hovimiertto E s t u d i a n t i l , 1968. T e s i s - d e , L i c e n c i a t u r a - e n - C i e n c i a s P o l i t i c a s y A d m i n i s t r a c i o n Pdbl i c a ( s i n - p u b l i c a r ) . 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