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Skimming strategy in reading as a function of familiarity with content and redundancy reduction in printed… Nacke, Phil L. 1970

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SKIMMING STRATEGY IN READING AS A FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY WITH CONTENT AND REDUNDANCY REDUCTION IN PRINTED DISCOURSE by Phil L. Nacke B.A. , Loras College, 1956 M.S., The Creighton University, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL, FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Doctor of Education in Reading Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1970 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A B S T R A C T The v a l i d i t y of the t h e o r y of s k i m m i n g as a p r o c e s s of lo o k i n g only at the. key words in continuous d i s c o u r s e was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the p r e s e n t study. The p r i m a r y r e s e a r c h questions r a i s e d were whether s k i m m i n g by l o o k i n g only at key words i s an effective r e a d i n g strategy and to what extent s k i m m i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p r o c e s s of d i s e m -bedding key words. Attention was also given to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of f a m i l i a r i t y with the content of stimulus passages to s k i m m i n g p e r f o r -mance. The r e s e a r c h design i n v o l v e d manipulating three independent v a r i a b l e s : ( 1 ) F o r m of p r e s e n t a t i o n of each of two stimulus p a s s a g e s (key words underlined; k e y words p r e s e n t e d by m a s k i n g the non-key words; o r i g i n a l text with no key words identified; and no stimulus passage at a l l , the c o n t r o l group); ( 2 ) L e v e l s of key words (three l e v e l s of redundancy reduction: syntactic, l e x i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l , and anaphoric or d i s c o u r s e redundancy); and ( 3 ) F a m i l i a r i t y with content of the stimulus passage (p r e t e s t f a m i l i a r i t y : P r e t e s t and N o « P r e t e s t ; and amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n : High, Middle, o r Low P r e t e s t s c o r e s ) . ' i i T h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e f o r e a c h s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e w a s a s e t o f m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d a s a p r e t e s t ( P r e t e s t g r o u p o n l y ) a n d a s a p o s t t e s t f o l l o w i n g t h e s k i m m i n g t a s k ( s ) . T h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e t h e p o s t t e s t r a w s c o r e s a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n s c o r e s ( p o s t t e s t s c o r e m i n u s p r e t e s t s c o r e ) . S c o r e s o n t h e V a n W a g e n e n R a t e o f C o m p r e h e n s i o n S c a l e w e r e u s e d as a c o v a r i a t e . G r a d e 11 s u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o P r e t e s t a n d N o - P r e t e s t g r o u p s i n t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n . W i t h i n t h e s e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s t h e Ss w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f s e v e n t r e a t -m e n t s f o r t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n a t w h i c h t h e Ss w e r e d i r e c t e d t o s k i m t w o p a s s a g e s ( s c i e n c e a n d h i s t o r y ) u n d e r a t i m e - l i m i t c o n d i t i o n . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t : 1 . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i s o n e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s . I t w a s o b s e r v e d t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n t e n t c o u l d b e i n d u c e d b y e x p o s u r e t o a r e l a t e d p r e t e s t . I n f a c t , s k i m m i n g w a s e f f e c t i v e o n l y w h e n t h e r e w a s c u e i n g v i a e x p o s u r e t o t h e p r e t e s t a n d t h e n o n l y o n t h e s c i e n c e p a s s a g e - O v e r a l l , s k i m m i n g d i d n o t a p p e a r t o b e a n e f f e c t i v e r e a d i n g s t r a t e g y o n t h e h i s t o r y p a s s a g e . A s p r e d i c t e d , h a v i n g a g r e a t e r a m o u n t o f b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n d i d f a c i l i t a t e s k i m m i n g o n t h e s c i e n c e p a s s a g e . 2. E l i m i n a t i o n o f n o n ~ k e y w o r d s d i d n o t a f f e c t s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e s c i e n c e p a s s a g e a t a n y l e v e l o f r e d u n d a n c y r e d u c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , since no si g n i f i c a n t effects were o b s e r v e d either due to having non-key words e l i m i n a t e d or to the amount of redundancy r e d u c t i o n ( l e v e l s of key words), it was concluded that grade 11 Ss are able to gain i n f o r -mation through s k i m m i n g by l o o k i n g only at key words i n continuous d i s -c o u rse. C o n t r a r y to expectations, however, having k e y words i d e n t i f i e d did not f a c i l i t a t e s k i m m i n g at any l e v e l of redundancy reduction. Consequently, s k i m m i n g cannot be s a i d to be e s s e n t i a l l y a p r o c e s s of disembedding k e y words. 3. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between and among the t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s : f o r m s of the passages, l e v e l s of k e y words, and amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n . Implications of the conclusions for methods and m a t e r i a l s to be u s e d for i n s t r u c t i o n a r e that (1) some m a t e r i a l s may not be a p p r o p r i a t e l y skimmed; (2) while r e a d e r s may be capable of skimming-by c a p i t a l i z i n g on the redundancy and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the language, they apparently need i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r to take advantage of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the language in e f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s -sing. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s k i m m i n g and other f a c t o r s such as immediate or s h o r t - t e r m m e m o r y and p r a c t i c e effect should be i n v e s t i -gated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people contributed to the planning and execution of the present study. The writer wishes in particular to thank Dr. G. M. Chronister, advisor and chairman of the dissertation committee, for his very kind encouragement and assistance during all phases of the graduate program. Sincere appreciation is also conveyed to committee members, Dr. F. Bowers, Dr. H. M. Covell, Dr. S. S. Lee, and Dr. R. L. R. Overing, for their guidance and stimulating ideas. To Dr. Lee for his assistance with the research design and statistical procedures, the writer is especially grateful. The writer is indebted to Dr. Bowers, who deserves credit for developing the linguistic algorithm used in the study. The contribution made by the personnel, students, administra-tion, faculty and staff of the North Vancouver School District is grate-fully acknowledged, especially to Mr. Wm. Fromson, Assistant Superintendent. Angela, my wife, and my daughters, Ann and Laura, deserve a special expression of gratitude. Thanks are extended to Mr. D. Mosedale and Mr. G. Partridge who assisted in collecting the data in the experimental sessions. V CHAPTER OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. ........... 1 The Problem. . 1 Theoretical Rationale and Related Literature. 5 Summar y. ......... ................... . 19 Experimental Design. 21 Hypotheses and Specific Expectations. .... 30 Subjects. 37. Stimulus Passages. 38 Measuring Instruments. ............... 41 Procedure 44 Session One 44 Session Two 46 III RESULTS OF THE STUDY. . 48 Description of the Data. 48 Analysis of the Data Related to the Question of the Effectiveness of Skimming Performance. 55 Analysis of Data Related to Pretest Familiarity 59 Analysis of Data Related to Amount of -Background Information . . . 60 vi CHAPTER. PAGE III Analysis of Data Related to Skimming as a Disembedding Process 61 Analysis of Data Related to Interaction Between Forms of Passage, Levels of Key Words and Background Information 62 I V S U M M A R Y AND.CONCLUSIONS.—-^ r.-.-~. - 64 The Problem. 64 Procedure 64 Findings........... 66 Discussion. b9 Conclusions. 72 REFERENCES 74 APPENDICES A. Instructions for Examiner. . . . , . 82 Session One. ......... . 82 Session Two. ^ 4 B. Measuring Instruments. 87. Science Questions ^8 History Questions. ................ 92 Van Wagenen Rate of Comprehension Scale... 95 C. Stimulus Passages 97 Directions to Students. . 97 v i i APPENDICES ' PAGE C. T 2 - Form Ul (Complete) 99 T - Form U2 (Complete) ...... 106 T, » Form U3 (Complete) 113 6 . T - Form Or (Page 1 only) 120 - Form Ml (Page 1 only) 121 T ~ Form M2 (Page 1 only) 122-5 T - Form M3 (Page 1 only) 123 History: "The Age of Exploration". . 124 . T - Form Ul (Complete). 125 T 4 - Form U2 (Complete)... 132 T, - Form J3 (Complete)........ 139 6 T - Form Or (Page 1 only) 146 T - Form Ml (Page 1 only) 147 T - Form M2 (Page 1 only) 14.8 • 5 "-T ? - Form M3 (Page 1 only) 149 D. Tables....... 150 E. Procedure for Determining Key Words and Non-Key Words in Continuous Discourse. . 162 L e a f v i i i o m i t t e d i n page numbering. ix LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Number of Words, Flesch Score and Grade Level of Stimulus Passages 39 II Science Posttest Raw Score Means Before and After Adjustment for Covariate (Rate of Comprehension) T. through T. _ 49 1 15 UI History Posttest Raw Score Means Before and after Adjustment for Covariate (Rate of Comprehension) T through T. 50 IV Science Gain Score Means Before and After Adjustment for Covariate (Rate of Comprehension) T through T and T ... 53 1 7 15 V History Gain Score Means Before and After Adjustment for Covariate (Rate of Comprehension) T. through T and T. _. . 54 1 ( 15 VI Science Posttest Raw Score Means of Treatment Groups (T Through and T 1 )• by Levels of Background Information 56 lb VII Science Gain Score Means of Treatment Groups (T, through T and T n _) by Levels 1 i 15 of Background Information. 57 VIII A Summary Table of the Analysis of Variance on the Posttest Raw Score Means Adjusted for Covariate 1 (Rate of Comprehension) T^ IX History A Summary Table of the Analysis of Variance on the Posttest Raw Score Means Adjusted for Covariate 1 (Rate of Comprehension) T through T )........ . 150 X Science A Summary Table of the Analysis of Variance on the Gain Score Means Adjusted for Covariate 1 (Rate of Compre» X TABLE PAGE X (cont'd) hension) T through T and T „ . 151 1 7 15 XI History A Summary Table of the Analysis of Variance on the Gain Score Means Adjusted for Covariate 1 (Rate of Com-prehension) T 1 through T and T 1 7 15 151 XII . History Posttest Raw Score Means Before and After Adjustment for Covariate (Rate of Comprehension) for Each Form of XIII Science Posttest Raw Score Means Before and After Adjustment for Covariate (Rate of Comprehension) for each Form of XIV Results of Item Analysis for Science Pretest Showing Per Cent of Responses Correct for Total, for the Top and Bottom Quartiles, and the Difference Between the Quartiles for Each of 56 Items (Nsl75). . . 154 XV Results of Item Analysis for Science Post-test Showing Per Cent of Responses Correct for Total and the Top and Bottom Quartiles and the Difference for Between the Quartiles for each of 56 Items (N=339). .... . 156 XVI Results of Item Analysis for History Pretest Showing Per Cent of Responses Correct for Total, the Top and Bottom Quartiles and the Difference Between Quartiles for each of 44 Items (N=176). . . . 158 XVII Results of Item Analysis for History Posttest Showing Per Cent of Responses Correct for Total; for the Top and Bottom: Quartiles, and the Difference Between, the Quartiles for Each of 44 Items (N=344). . 160 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Experimental Design Involving Three Independent Variables Plu One Extra Control Group. « . . . . » C H A P T E R I S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M The p r e s e n t study was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d with r e s e a r c h questions which rel a t e to the ski m m i n g p r o c e s s i n reading. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was designed to answer five questions: 1) A r e students able to gain i n f o r m a t i o n through s k i m m i n g by looking only at key words i n p r i n t e d d i s c o u r s e ? A n important c o r o l l a r y of this f i r s t question was whether s k i m m i n g i s , i n fact, an effective s t r a t e g y for gaining i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m stimulus passages at a l L 2) What is the r e l a t i v e effect upon s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e of red u c i n g the amount of redundancy i n d i s c o u r s e , or what i s the optimum l e v e l of k e y words which .-.can be used i n skimming? 3 } Is s k i m m i n g str a t e g y e s s e n t i a l l y a disembedding p r o c e s s ? 4) Is s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e in f l u e n c e d by f a m i l i a r i t y with the content of the stimulus p assage? 5) What is the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l i a r i t y with the 2 c o n t e n t o f t h e s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e a n d t h e d i s e m b e d d i n g o f k e y w o r d s i n t h e s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s ? S k i m m i n g i s d e f i n e d , f o r t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a s t h e s p e c i a l r e a d i n g s t r a t e g y i n w h i c h t h e r e a d e r d o e s n o t l o o k a t o r f i x a t e u p o n a l l t h e w o r d s o n t h e p r i n t e d p a g e w h i l e p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a t a r e a d i n g r a t e i n e x c e s s o f 8 0 0 w o r d s p e r m i n u t e ( w p m ) . I t w a s a s s u m e d t h a t i n s k i m m i n g , t h e r e a d e r a t t e m p t s t o p e r c e i v e t h e p a r t s o f t h e d i s c o u r s e w h i c h c o n v e y m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t o r e f r a i n f r o m l o o k i n g a t t h e l e s s i n f o r m a t i v e p a r t s . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g e y e -m o v e m e n t p h o t o g r a p h y h a v e r e p o r t e d s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t r e a d e r s a r e n o t a b l e t o f i x a t e o n e v e r y w o r d s w h e n p r o c e e d i n g a t r a t e s i n e x c e s s o f 600 w p m ( K o l e r s , 1 9 6 8 ) o r 8 0 0 t o 9 0 0 w p m ( T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5 ; S p a c h e , 1 9 6 2 ; T i n k e r , 1 9 6 3 a , b, 1 9 5 0 ) . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d b y e y e - m o v e m e n t p h o t o g r a p h y , i t h a s b e e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t r e a d e r s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y s k i m m i n g w h e n t h e y c o v e r m a t e r i a l a t r a t e s i n e x c e s s o f 600 t o 9 0 0 w p m . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t s o m e r e a d e r s m a y u s e a s k i m m i n g s t r a t e g y a t r a t e s b e l o w 600 w p m . S k i m m i n g , i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m " r e a d i n g , " i n w h i c h a p e r s o n t e n d s t o l o o k a t a l l o r m o s t o f t h e w o r d s i n t h e p r i n t e d d i s c o u r s e ( S p a c h e , 1 9 6 2 ) . U n l e s s s p e c i f i e d t o t h e c o n t r a r y , i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e r m r e a d i n g i s u s e d i n t h e g e n e r i c s e n s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g f r o m p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e a b o v e ™ m e n t i o n e d d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n s k i m m i n g a n d " r e a d i n g . " As noted above, skimming, by definition, requires the reader to refrain from looking at some of the words in the printed discourse. In general, the skimmer could refrain from looking at parts of each sentence, as in the strategy of looking at the key words, or he could refrain from looking at certain whole sentences, as in skimming by looking at topic sentences. Attention in the present study is given to the former alternative. A remarkably small amount of empirical evidence regarding the nature of the skimming process has been reported to date. Whipple and Curtis (1917) and Grayum (1953) used observation and/or interview techniques in order to identify the strategies applied in skimming. The strategy of looking only at the key words was not recognized as an approach which skimmers used in either of these two studies. Moore (1955, 1962) used an eye-movement camera in his study of skimming and concluded that some of his subjects (Ss) may have been able to skim by looking only at the key words in the passages. To the present, the question of whether students are able to skim effectively by looking only at key words has not been answered. Yet, the writers of reading improvement manuals typically have encouraged the reader to try to skim by looking only at the key words in paragraphs and to refrain from looking at the non-essential words (Maxwell, 1969b; Spache and Berg, 1966; Leedy, 1968, 1963; Berg, Taylor and Frackenpohl, 1962; N. B. Smith, 1958). Although the process of identifying key words is typically assumed to be intuitive, that is, no special training is needed, many students in high school and college have considerable difficulty in using the key-words approach to skimming (Maxwell, 1969a). In the present study, the term key words, refers to those words which are relatively more information-bearing and tend to be essential for conveying the message of the continuous discourse. They are the words which have semantic content, not merely those words which form the topic of the sentence. Keywords are determined by identifying those words which are redundant in the discourse. Redundant words are considered to be relatively less information-bearing and are referred to as non-key words in this study. Non-key words are defined here as those categories of words in continuous discourse which are redundant at the syntactic, lexical, morphological or anaphoric levels according to modern linguistic theory. Redundancy is defined as the degree to which language is predictable when only parts of it are known. In practice, redundancy reduction in a specific discourse was accomplished by increasing the number of non-key words which were identified or deleted. In turn, the process of increasing the number of non-key words resulted in a decrease in the number of key words remaining in the given dis-course. The term "key words" is understood to denote a relative concept rather than one that is absolute. It is not known whether there exists, in fact, an absolute designation of the ideal minimum number o f k e y w o r d s i n a s p e c i f i c d i s c o u r s e . I t c a n b e a r g u e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r i n t h e n u m b e r a n d s e l e c t i o n o f k e y w o r d s w h i c h . t h e y r e q u i r e f o r a c c u r a t e a n d e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n » p r o c e s s i n g . I t w a s a s s u m e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h a t l e v e l s o f k e y w o r d s w e r e r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s o f t h e " i d e a l " s e l e c t i o n s o f k e y w o r d s w h i c h t h e t y p i c a l r e a d e r m i g h t e m p l o y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s k i m m i n g . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n a l l o w e d f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e " i d e a l " l e v e l o f k e y w o r d s c o u l d i n c l u d e s o m e r e d u n d a n t w o r d s . L e v e l s o f k e y w o r d s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w e r e t r e a t e d a s d i s c r e t e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s . T h u s , s o m e c a t e g o r i e s o f r e d u n d a n t w o r d s w e r e d e s i g n a t e d as n o n « k e y w o r d s a t o n e l e v e l , b u t w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s k e y w o r d s a t a n o t h e r l e v e l . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f k e y w o r d s a n d n o n - k e y w o r d s i s f u r t h e r d e l i n e a t e d i n C h a p t e r I I . T h e o r e t i c a l R a t i o n a l e a n d R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e A s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s t o s k i m b y l o o k i n g o n l y a t k e y w o r d s , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s e s s w h e t h e r s k i m m i n g w a s , i n f a c t a n e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r g a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e p a s s a g e s a t a l l . T h e r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s b y M o o r e ( 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 6 2 ) a n d G r a y u m ( 1 9 5 2 ) h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n h i g h s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e a r e a b l e t o s k i m e f f e c t i v e l y . M o o r e ( 1 9 6 2 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t Ss w h o w e r e a b l e t o s k i m e f f e c t i v e l y w e r e a b l e t o s c o r e o n a c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t as w e l l as o r b e t t e r t h a n Ss w h o w e r e g e n e r a l l y s l o w e r r e a d e r s ( i . e . t h e y d i d n o t o s k i m t h e p a s s a g e s ) . I t m u s t b e p o i n t e d o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t M o o r e d i d not control the differences in the amount of previous knowledge which his Ss had and that the Ss in his study included 84 females and only 11 males, with ages of the Ss ranging from 19 to 58 years. On the other hand, Hill (1964), A.C. Smith (1963), and Maxwell (1969), among others, have observed that students do not necessarily skim effectively when directed to do so, even when given a limited purpose such as finding the main idea. In view of the conflicting and inconsistent previous findings, it was necessary to determine whether the Ss in the present study were able to skim the passages effectively. The theory of skimming as a process of looking only at the key words is supported by the study of the English language. The elimination of non-key words from typical discourse in English is possible without diminishing the quality of the message because discourse typically includes more signalling devices than are absolutely necessary. This repeated information, or redundancy, is frequently necessary or at least desirable because of what has been called "noisy communication channels" by information theorists (Shannon & Weaver, 1948). In practice, noise refers to distractions, interruptions or moments of inattention and the like, on the part of the decoder or reader. Shannon (1948) observed that a competent subject could reconstruct passages from which 50 per cent of the letters had been deleted. From this fact Shannon concluded that English has a redundancy of at least 50 per cent. Miller and Friedman (1957) have supported this deduction. However, Herdan (1965) has presented strong objections to treating vocabulary items as letters or phonemes. Miller and Chomsky (1963) have expressed a similar view. More recently, McLeod and Anderson (1970) have pointed out that calculations, such as were made by Shannon for letters and phonemes, have not been made for word distribution or word dependency. Indeed, according to Herdan's (1965) argument it is virtually impossible to-make calculations of this sort for the word dependencies or redundancy of words in the English language. Common experiences with the English language lead the language user to conclude, however, that the amount of redundancy in strings of'w'ords, sentences or sentence constituents, must be high, even if the exact quantity has not been measured as precisely as it has for strings of letters or phonemes. Language users are readily able to recover missing words in the following examples: "The solar. system held by two forces balance each other. " [ is, together, which]; "Cabral blown off course." was, his ]. That the language user is able to restore a range of highly predictable words in such cases is evidence of the redundancy in discourse. While a surface string or words may include many redundant words, the string may, paradoxically, be a reduction of a much more complex structure which contained even more words. This suggests that the process of redundancy reduction is an innate characteristic of the language. It is generally accepted that the language user is 8 able to delete redundant words as a natural part of his linguistic competence. The language user is able to encode and decode messages with a minimum number of words as in a telegram and he is also able to interpret headlines in newspapers without any special training. Conversely, another feature of human linguistic behavior seems to be the ability to expand expressions which are ambiguous due to their brevity. For example, if a person hears the statement, "I don't like riding horses, " he may expand it to "(you mean) you don't like to ride horses yourself or you don't like horses when they are being ridden or horses that can be ridden, period. " The feature of expansion in order to minimize ambiguity, like that of deletion for the purpose of minimi-zing redundancy, seems to be part of the native language speaker's intuitive competence, not merely a process or skill acquired after learning externally«taught rules. The two apparently contrary features, deletion and expansion, depend upon a distinction between referential and non-referential words. Both the deletion and the restoration of words in a string involve words which provide structural rather than referential information. The dis-tinction between structure words and reference words has been made by grammarians of all linguistic complexions ("independent sense units" in Sweet, 1891; "form class words" in Fries, 1952; "complex symbols" in Chomsky, 1965). Referential words, which name objects, concepts and relations and are traditionally classified as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, form an indefinitely large class of words, whereas structure words form a small, finite class. It is for this reason that the distinc-tion between referential and non-referential, or structural, words is crucial for a discussion of linguistic redundancy. It follows, then, that the frequency of the two categories of words in discourse differs greatly. As a class, reference words comprise 60 per cent of discourse (Herdan, 1965); however, the individual word frequency is relatively low and is necessarily a function of the subject matter in the discourse. On the other hand, although a small number of words make up the class, structure words form 40 per cent of discourse. Consequently, since structure words have a much higher frequency, they are considerably-more predictable than referential words. Rankin (1957) investigated the predictability of structural and lexical units and reported that structural words were decidedly more predictable than lexical words. Strickland (1962) and Loban (1963) have independently observed that children exhibit skill in using language patterns that are far more complex than was previously recognized. Salzinger and associates (1966) demonstrated that children at three years of age were sensitive to the syntactical structure of sentences and that they could use their insight in encoding and ordering sequences. Thus, after having considered both the nature of the language and the capabilities of language users, it was reasonable to expect that students would be able to skim material by looking only at the key words in the discourse. 10 A n o b j e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g k e y w o r d s w a s a p r e -r e q u i s i t e f o r a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s k i m m i n g as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e u s e o f k e y w o r d s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h e s e c o n d m a j o r q u e s t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t u p o n s k i m m i n g o f r e d u c i n g t h e a m o u n t o f r e d u n d a n c y i n t h e s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e s , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y s e v e r a l d e g r e e s o f r e d u n d a n c y r e d u c t i o n . It s h o u l d b e r e c a l l e d t h a t r e d u c i n g t h e a m o u n t o f r e d u n d a n c y i n d i s c o u r s e w a s a c h i e v e d , b y d e f i n i t i o n , t h r o u g h i n c r e a s i n g t h e n u m b e r o f n o n - k e y w o r d s . T h e r e f o r e , o n t h e b a s i s o f m o d e r n a n d t r a d i t i o n a l l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y , t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f non»key w o r d s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y i d e n t i f y i n g t h e w o r d s i n t h e d i s c o u r s e w h i c h w e r e : (1} s y n t a c t i c a l l y r e d u n d a n t ; (2) l e x i c a l l y a n d m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y r e d u n d a n t ; a n d (3) a n a p h o r i c a l l y r e d u n d a n t w i t h i n p a i r s o f s e n t e n c e s ( a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s " d i s c o u r s e r e d u n d a n c y " ) . T h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f n o n - k e y w o r d s w e r e c o m b i n e d c u m u l a t i v e l y t o e s t a b l i s h t h r e e l e v e l s o f k e y w o r d s , s u c h t h a t f o r L e v e l 1 o n l y s y n t a c t i c r e d u n d a n c i e s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d ; f o r L e v e l 2, t h e l e x i c a l a n d m o r p h o l o -g i c a l r e d u n d a n c i e s a s w e l l a s t h e s y n t a c t i c r e d u n d a n c i e s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d ; f o r L e v e l 3, a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f r e d u n d a n c i e s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s m a l l e s t n u m b e r o f k e y w o r d s . P r i o r t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e w a s a p p a r e n t l y no f o r m a l i z e d q u a l i t a t i v e p r o c e d u r e a v a i l a b l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g k e y w o r d s a n d non<=key w o r d s i n c o n t i n u o u s d i s c o u r s e . C l a i m s h a v e b e e n m a d e f o r u s i n g t h e c l o z e t e c h n i q u e a s a m e a s u r e o f r e d u n d a n c y ( T a y l o r , 1954). A p i l o t s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f c l o z e s c o r e s f o r e a c h w o r d i n a 11 1, O00»word passage was carried out by the present investigator as an early attempt at determining key words objectively. The cloze scores were obtained by administering five different cloze forms of the passage. By deleting every fifth word and replacing it with a regular«sized, under => lined space, each word in the passage appeared as a cloze item in one of the five forms. These cloze tests were administered to grade eleven students who were assigned at random to the various forms, (N=150). The cloze items were scored for exact»word restorations and for synonym restorations. The proportion of Ss correctly restoring each item was calculated. The results of this pilot study revealed that the cloze procedure was unsatisfactory as a procedure for determining key words in a continuous prose passage. This procedure for identifying key words/non-key words or discourse redundancy was rejected primarily because, at best, it appeared to discriminate only at the extremes, where the most obvious distinctions could be made intuitively, and it clearly included as key words a significant number of items which would typically be considered to be non=key words at any level. Even more problematical was the fact that the cloze procedure identified as non» key words a significant number of words which would necessarily be considered to be referents (essential for conveying the meaning) in the discourse. It may be pointed out here that it appears to be the difference in the function of the referential and non»referential words, discussed in detail previously, and therefore in the relative frequencies, along with the extended range of dependencies which naturally occur 12 among words in sentences, that makes the cloze technique an inappro-priate procedure for measuring redundancy in discourse. It was therefore decided that the most appropriate procedure for identifying the key words in continuous prose passages was to apply independently-motivated linguistic theory, both traditional and modern, but especially as presented by Fries, Lyons, Chomsky, Katz, and Miller. The algorithm and motivation for selecting the key words are presented subsequently. Research relating to the effect of redundancy in discourse upon reading performance is very meagre. Morton (1964) demon-strated that the amount of redundancy, which he refers to as contextual restraint, affected the speed of reading 200-word passages of statistical approximations. The faster readers in Morton's study were able to take significantly more advantage of the redundancy in the passages than were the slower readers. While Morton's findings, in general, support the expectation that readers can take advantage of redundancy when reading, it must be stressed that the stimulus passages were statistical approximations rather than regular discourse, and that the task involved was oral rea.ding of relatively short selections. Bever, Mehler, and Carey (1967) studied the effect of surface phrase structure and deep phrase structure on eye-fixation patterns of adult readers and, after concluding that the entire surface phrase structure hierarchy of sentences influenced visual scanning patterns in f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l , s u g g e s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a g e n e r a l e y e - f i x a t i o n r u l e f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f a d u l t e y e - f i x a t i o n s i n r e a d i n g p r e d i c t a b l e s e n t e n c e s . T h e r u l e p o s t u l a t e d i s " f i x a t e o n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f e a c h c o n s t i t u e n t . " W h i l e B e v e r a n d a s s o c i a t e s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e y b u i l t t h e r u l e o n a s m a l l a m o u n t o f d a t a , t h e r e a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n t h a t t h e , r u l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a t u r e r e a d e r c a n a n d d o e s u s e s o m e r e s t r a i n t o r s e l e c t i v i t y i n v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , n o t as a m a t t e r o f d i r e c t o r c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l , b u t r a t h e r i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e l a n g u a g e a n d i t s p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . Y e t , m a n y i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e f o u n d t h a t r e a d e r s t y p i c a l l y l o o k a t e v e r y w o r d i n t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g r e a d ( T a y l o r , 1 9 6 5 ; H i l l , 1 9 6 4 ; A . C . S m i t h , 1 9 6 3 ) . T h e t h i r d m a j o r p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w a s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e s k i m m i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d i s e m b e d d i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s a s p e c t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i s s u e o f w h e t h e r Ss a r e a b l e t o u s e a k i n d o f v i s u a l r e s t r a i n t , o r s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , w h e r e b y t h e y l o o k o n l y a t t h e k e y w o r d s i n t h e p r i n t e d d i s c o u r s e . I f s k i m m i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d i s e m b e d d i n g p r o c e s s , i t w a s r e a s o n e d t h a t s k i m m i n g w o u l d b e f a c i l i t a t e d b y h a v i n g t h e k e y w o r d s d i s e m b e d d e d a n d t h a t i t w o u l d n o t b e n e c e s s a r y f o r s k i m m e r s t o l o o k a t n o n - k e y w o r d s , s i n c e , b y d e f i n i t i o n , t h e n o n - k e y w o r d s w e r e r e d u n d a n t a n d t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n - b e a r i n g . I f s k i m m i n g i s n o t e s s e n t i a l l y a d i s e m b e d d i n g p r o c e s s , t h e n h a v i n g t h e k e y w o r d s d i s e m b e d d e d w o u l d n o t f a c i l i t a t e t h e s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s a n d l o o k i n g a t t h e n o n - k e y w o r d s m a y b e a d v a n t a g e o u s i n i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g . 14 The fourth major concern of the study was to determine whether skimming is influenced by the amount of familiarity or prior knowledge which the reader has about the content of the reading material. Familia-rity with the content of the passages has two aspects. One aspect of familiarity refers to exposure to a pretest, a set of questions relating to the content of a stimulus passage; the pretest, of course, is administered prior to any presentation of the stimulus passage. The second aspect of familiarity is the amount of information which individuals have about the subject matter or content of stimulus passages prior to exposure to them. The first feature of familiarity refers to the fact of answering the pretest questions, as opposed to not being exposed to the questions. The second aspect refers to the size of the score on the pretest, insofar as the score represents the individual's real prior understandings. For the sake of clarity, in this study the term pretest familiarity is used to designate the familiarity, or cueing, which may result from exposure to a set of questions relating to a stimulus passage prior to the presentation of the passage; background information is used to refer to that aspect of familiarity which relates to the actual amount of prior knowledge about the subject matter of a given stimulus passage. The amount of background information is commonly considered to affect reading performance (Kingston, I960; McDonald, 1963}. The argument is that the reader who has background information about the subject matter of a passage will find the material easier to read than a person who has little background information about the topic. Weaver (1967} has suggested that reading in most situations is actually a "selecting of the parts of what we already know. " Reading in this sense becomes e s s e n t i a l l y a p r o c e s s of c o n f i r m i n g what the r e a d e r a l r e a d y knows, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the r e a d e r i s responding p r i m a r i l y to the cues in the m a t e r i a l about which the p e r s o n a l r e a d y has i n f o r m a t i o n . Weaver's point of view may be m o r e relevant to the p r o c e s s of skimming, or r a p i d and eff i c i e n t r e a d i n g i n general, than it i s to r e a d i n g c a r e f u l l y and intensively, or to reading slowly. C e r t a i n l y , a r e a d e r must, at the least, know the meanings of r e f e r e n t i a l words in a passage and be able to make some app r o p r i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s among the meanings to gain i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the p r i n t e d d i s c o u r s e . Otherwise, decoding p r i n t e d d i s c o u r s e is not p o s s i b l e at a l l , for reading n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e s some l e v e l of background i n f o r m a t i o n . F a m i l i a r i t y with the content of the m a t e r i a l , i . e. , background in f o r m a t i o n , has not been i n v e s t i g a t e d as a factor which affects a reader's a b i l i t y to cover words in s p e c i f i c p a s s a g e s at a speed which would be c o n s i d e r e d to be skimming. Reading comprehension has t y p i c a l l y been m e a s u r e d without a s c e r t a i n i n g the amount of p r e v i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n which Ss had about the subject matter before r e a d i n g the m a t e r i a l (Kingston, I960). Since it i s known that i n d i v i d u a l s v a r y g r e a t l y in the amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n which they possess, i t i s r e a d i l y conceivable that two p e r s o n s could obtain the same s c o r e on a comprehension test after r e a d i n g a given passage even though they d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the amount of s p e c i f i c background i n f o r m a t i o n which they had before r e a d i n g the passage. One p e r s o n may have gained a great deal of i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m reading, while the other p e r s o n may have gained v e r y little information that he did not possess prior to reading. It is extremely-important, therefore, to assess the amount of previous information which readers have before reading in order to determine the amount of information gained from reading (Rankin, 1965). Information gain is measured by administering a pretest as well as a posttest of compre-hension. The information gain score is calculated by computing the difference between the pretest score and the posttest score for each individual. Exposure to a pretest, however, can be a confounding variable in research (Campbell and Stanley, 1963). It can be argued that exposure to a set of questions relating to the content of a stimulus passage may cue a reader to look for specific answers to questions when he subsequently reads the passage. Likewise, exposure to a set of related questions may affect a person's response patterns to parts of the discourse during the act of reading or skimming. Rothkopf (1966), Rothkopf and Bisbicoes (1967), Bruning (1968) and Frase (1967), in their studies of mathemagenic behavior, or "learning" from prose materials, have concluded that questions presented prior to reading generally do not facilitate comprehension or "learning." Carver (forthcoming) challenged the conclusions drawn by Rothkopf and Frase on the grounds that they have failed to control two important variables, learning strategy and learning time. If the presentation of relevant or adjunct questions just prior to reading a passage does not have a facilitating effect upon reading performance, t h e n i t w o u l d s e e m u n l i k e l y t h a t e x p o s u r e t o a p r e t e s t w o u l d a f f e c t r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e w h e n t h e r e i s a l a p s e o f t i m e , s a y s e v e r a l w e e k s , b e t w e e n t h e p r e t e s t a n d t h e p o s t t e s t , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t a k e n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x p o s u r e t o t h e s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e . K a r l i n a n d J o l l y ( 1 9 6 5 ) f o u n d t h a t e x p o s u r e t o a p r e t e s t d i d n o t a f f e c t p o s t t e s t s c o r e s w h e n t h e r e w a s a t i m e l a p s e o f s e v e r a l m o n t h s . T h e y o b s e r v e d t h e s a m e r e s u l t s w h e n t h e p r e t e s t a n d p o s t t e s t w e r e e x a c t l y t h e s a m e f o r m o f t h e t e s t a s w h e n a n a l t e r n a t e o r " e q u i v a l e n t " f o r m w a s u s e d . W a r e a n d B o w e r s ( 1 9 6 9 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e p r e t e s t d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t o n t h e p o s t t e s t . D e s p i t e t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , t h e Ss i n v o l v e d i n a p i l o t s t u d y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e m e m b e r q u e s t i o n s t h a t w e r e p a r t o f t h e p r e t e s t , e v e n a f t e r a t i m e l a p s e o f m o r e t h a n t w o w e e k s . F u r t h e r , s o m e o f t h e S_s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r h a v i n g p r e v i o u s l y a n s w e r e d t h e p r e t e s t q u e s t i o n s h a d h e l p e d t h e m t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h e n t h e y s k i m m e d t h e s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t w a s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t o f t h e p r e t e s t o n s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e f i f t h , a n d f i n a l , p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s t w o q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d i s e m -b e d d i n g a n d f a m i l i a r i t y f a c t o r s , w a s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e f a m i l i a r i t y f a c t o r a n d t h e d i s e m b e d d i n g f a c t o r . I t c a n b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e p e r s o n w h o h a s a b e t t e r i d e a o f w h a t s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n h e i s g o i n g t o t r y t o f i n d i n t h e p a s s a g e w i l l h a v e a n a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e p e r s o n w h o h a s n o s u c h p r i o r k n o w l e d g e o f w h a t 18 to expect or of what to look for when he skims m a t e r i a l which he has not p r e v i o u s l y read. It is also r e a s o n a b l e to expect that the p e r s o n who bri n g s m o r e r e l a t e d background i n f o r m a t i o n to the r e a d i n g situation w i l l have an advantage because the background i n f o r m a t i o n m a y s e r v e to d i r e c t attention to those bits of i n f o r m a t i o n which a r e not f a m i l i a r . F u r t h e r , f a m i l i a r i t y with the content may a s s i s t the r e a d e r i n making a s s o c i a t i o n s o r . r e s p o n s e s to . s e l e c t e d bits of i n f o r m a t i o n . The r e a d e r who has s u p e r i o r background i n f o r m a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be able to spend m o r e of his r e a d i n g t i m e i n c o n f i r m i n g h i s expectations or p r e d i c t i o n s , which follow out of his awareness of what he a l r e a d y knows. S i m i l a r l y , he w i l l l i k e l y f i n d it e a s i e r to o b s e r v e s i g n i f i c a n t or new r e l a t i o n s h i p s among elements in the passage. On the other hand, the p e r s o n with l i t t l e or no p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the topic p r e s e n t e d i n the stimulus passage w i l l l i k e l y have m o r e d i f f i c u l t y i n making p r e d i c t i o n s about the content and t h e r e f o r e w i l l be able to c o n f i r m fewer expectations (he w i l l , no doubt, be able to make fewer p r e d i c t i o n s ) . S i m i l a r l y , the p e r s o n with l e s s background i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be m o r e apt to have d i f f i c u l t y in d i r e c t i n g h i s attention toward the bits of i n f o r m a t i o n which he seeks, p a r t i c u l a r l y since he apparently would have many m o r e d e c i s i o n s and r e s p o n s e s to make with r e s p e c t to the r e f e r e n t i a l elements p r e s e n t e d i n the d i s c o u r s e . A u s u b e l and F i t z g e r a l d (19 62) studied the effect that knowledge of a first passage of explicitly unfamiliar material had upon learning the content of a second passage which was sequential and informationally related to the first passage. The results of the investigation supported the point of view that the reader needs to have informational referents in order to process the information. It was anticipated that there would be a significant interaction between the amount of familiarity with the content of the passages and the disembedding process, if skimming is determined to be essentially a disembedding process. It was thought that both factors would tend to make the skimming process less complex and therefore less demanding, since disembedding the more information-bearing words would enable the skimmer to spend his time in processing those bits of information which were not familiar to him. Summary Based upon characteristics of the English language, particularly its redundancy and predictability, along with the intuitive capabilities of the competent language user, it seemed reasonable to expect readers to be able to skim passages by looking only at the key words in the discourse. In general, it followed that redundancy reduction and greater familiarity with content would reasonably facilitate the skimming process. The specific expectations and methodology for securing the 20 data r e q u i r e d to answer the r e s e a r c h questions f o r m u l a t e d in the study-a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter II. C H A P T E R II M E T H O D E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n I n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h e s t u d y i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o m a n i p u l a t e t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : (1) t h e l e v e l s o f k e y w o r d s ; (2) t h e f o r m s o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e s ; a n d ( 3 ) f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e s . L e v e l s o f k e y w o r d s . F u n d a m e n t a l to t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r a t i o n a l e a n d o b j e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g k e y w o r d s i n c o n t i n u o u s d i s c o u r s e . A s n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f k e y w o r d s w a s m a d e b y a s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e s s o f r e d u n d a n c y r e d u c t i o n w h i c h i n v o l v e d i d e n t i f y i n g t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f n o n - k e y w o r d s a s f o l l o w s : (1) r e c o v e r a b l e s y n t a c t i c r e d u n d a n c i e s £ z J ; (2) t h e r e c o v e r a b l e l e x i c a l a n d m o r p h o l o g i c a l r e d u n d a n c i e s [ y ] ; ( 3 ) t h e r e c o v e r a b l e a n a p h o r i c , o r d i s c o u r s e , r e d u n d a n c i e s w i t h i n p a i r s o f s e n t e n c e s [ x ] . T h e n , i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f k e y w o r d s d e s i r e d to d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f r e d u n d a n c y 22 reduction on skimming, the three categories of non-key words were deleted in a cumulative manner, so that key words at Level 1 were determined by eliminating the non-key words in category J; key words at Level 2 were identified by eliminating the non-key words in categories 2 and 1; and the key words at Level 3 were selected by eliminating the non-key words in categories 3, 2, and 1-The relationships of the key words and non-key words at the three levels may be represented by the following formulas: Level 0 = w + x + y + z (no key words identified) Level l = w + x+ y= (z) Level 2 = w + x-(y+z) Level 3 = w ~(x + y + z), where w represents the theoretical or "ideal" minimum number of key words in a given discourse and x, y, and z refer to the categories of redundancy identified above. Thus it can be clearly observed that the number of key words identified decreased from Level 1 to Level 3, while the number of non-key words, inversely, increased. The algorithm used for determining the non-key words and key words is given next. A more detailed explanation and motivation of the procedure for determining the key words in continuous discourse is given in Appendix E. The explanation given therein is based upon a forthcoming article by Bowers and Nacke. 2 3 N o n - k e y w o r d s , C a t e g o r y 1 . T h e f o l l o w i n g c l a s s e s o f w o r d s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s n o n - k e y w o r d s i n C a t e g o r y 1 z . 1} t h e v e r b t o b e i n a n y i n f l e c t i o n ; 2 } a l l v e r b s t o h a v e , t o d o , a n d m o d a i s w i l l , m a y , a n d s h a l l ; 3) a l l d e t e r m i n a t e r s a n d p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s ; 4) a l l r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n s , ( e . g . w h o , w h o m , w h o s e , w h i c h , t h a t , w h e n c e , e t c . 5) t h e c o n j u n c t i o n , a n d , b u t , n o t o n l y , a l s o , b u t a l s o , y e t , t h u s , t h e r e f o r e ; 6) o f i n a l l i n s t a n c e s ; 7 } t o w h e n u s e d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e i n f i n i t i v e ; 8 ) t h a t w h e n u s e d t o i n t r o d u c e n o u n c l a u s e s . N o n ^ k e y w o r d s , C a t e g o r y 2 . N o n - k e y w o r d s i n C a t e g o r y 2 w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s f o l l o w s : 1) D e l e t e e m p t y p h r a s e s , s u c h a s i n g e n e r a l , o c c a s i o n a l l y , e t c . , 2} F i r s t d e s i g n a t e t h e i m m e d i a t e c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s i n t h e s e n t e n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o P h r a s e S t r u c t u r e R u l e s ( C h o m s k y , 1 9 5 7 , 1 9 6 5 ) a n d c o m p u t e t h e s u c c e s s i v e l y g r e a t e r g r o u p s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e s m a l l e s t i m m e d i a t e c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s . 24 a) Then, identify the semantic redundancies within each group and at each level by letting features, f^, f^, f^, in one item cancel f^ , f , f^, in a second or third item. An item is considered to be dispensible if its features • are wholly included in the set of features of another item. b) Also, identify the syntactic redundancies according to the contextual and selectional rules (Chomsky, 1965) and by the transfor-mational deletion rules and delete all- syntactic redundancies, unless ambiguity arises, on a principle of conservation, i . e. .retain the smallest number of words. This procedure . includes extra positions and clefts. Non-key words, Category 3. The non-key words in Category 3 were identified as follows: 1) Identify anaphoric references within sentences and between pairs of sentences; then delete the second referring item. 2) Delete items recoverable from the regular topic of the paragraph. [This is not likely to be different from the anaphoric references above ( 1 ) , except in very discursive passages.] Forms of passages. To answer the first major question, whether Ss are able to gain information by looking only at the key words in continuous prose passages, and to answer the third and fifth questions relating to skimming as a disembedding process, it was necessary to create the condition whereby non-key words in the discourse were eliminated from the printed text by a process referred to as masking [ M By masking the non-key words, only the key words, at a given level, were presented in the context with blank spaces resulting from the masking of the non-key words. Three different masked forms were prepared so that only the key words at each of the three levels were presented in a specified form of each passage. So that the third and fifth questions regarding skimming as a disembedding process could be answered more definitively, it was essential that an additional variation in the form of presentation of the stimulus passages be used. - This form of presentation was imple« mented by underlining [uj the key words at each of the respective three levels of key words. The key words underlined in one form were exactly the same as the words presented in the corresponding masked form. Therefore, the underlined forms of the passages differed from the masked forms essentially only in that the non-key words, at the specified level, were not masked in the underlined condition. By providing the underlined forms of the passages it was possible to determine the effect of the non-key words on skimming performance and to assess whether skimming is facilitated by perceiving only the key words. A third form of presentation of the passages was required for all aspects of the study. This was the condition in which the passages were presented in their original [ o r ] forms, that is with no masking of non-key words and no underlining of the key words. This form of presentation of the passages served as an essential comparison group with which the features of the other forms of the passages [ M ] and [u] could be evaluated. In this way, the effect of having the key words identified, as in both the masked and the underlined forms, as well as the effect of the non-key words in their respective cumulative categories could be considered. The original form of the passage was also considered to be Level 0 of key words. Familiarity. The third independent variable was familiarity with the content of«the stimulus passages. As previously discussed, familiarity was considered to have two aspects: ( 1 ) pretest familiarity; and ( 2 ) amount of background information. It was deemed essential to consider both aspects of familiarity in order to assess the amount of information gain due to skimming and to analyze the possible cueing effect due to exposure to the pretest. The Extra Control Group. The corollary of the first major question was concerned with whether skimming is, in fact, an effective strategy for gaining information. A special condition was required in order to answer this question. Therefore a situation in which Ss did not skim any passages, either before or after the pretest, was created. Instead of skimming the passages, Ss in this group, which is referred to as the No-Passage group, were engaged in a "dummy" activity for the period of time corresponding exactly to the amount of time which the other groups of Ss spent in skimming. The "dummy" activity was concerned with responding to simple mathematical items and, thus, was completely unrelated to the stimulus passages. Through the imple-mentation of the No-Passage condition it was possible to compare and evaluate the posttest performance of the groups of Ss who skimmed the passages with the performance of the No-Passage group which did not skim the passages. Figure 1 summarizes the plan of collecting data required to answer the research questions formulated in the study. The plan involved fifteen different treatment conditions. Treatment conditions 8 through 14 corresponded, respectively, to treatments 1 through 7 except that groups 1 through 7 answered the pretest batteries of questions [Pretest .'groups] , while treatments 8 through 14 did not answer the pretest questions JNo=>Pretest groups] . Instead, the No-Pretest groups answered a completely unrelated battery of questions during the given period of time. The Ss in the extra control group No-Passagel were exposed to the pretest. 1. FORM OF PASSAGES Original Pas sage (Or) Underlined Passage (U) Masked Passage (M) No-Passage (control) 2. LEVELS OF KEY WORDS Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 (Level 4) W > 1 — 1 t-£ H K! P Pre = Test Hi Md T i T2 T 4 T 6 T 5 T 7 T 15 Lo No-Pre-test T8 T 9 T l l T13 T12 T 14 (a) Pretest familiarity (Pretest, No-Pretest); (b) Background information (Hi, Md, &: Lo Pretest Scores) FIGURE 1. Experiemental design involving three independent variables plus one extra control group. FAMILIARITY involved two aspects: The fifteen treatment groups were labelled by Pretest/No-Pre-test pairs as follows: Treatments 1 h 8: (To be denoted as T. & T.) Complete text 1 o was presented with no masking of non-key words and no underlining of key words; no key words identified, Level 0 of key words; Original [Or] form of passage. Treatments 2 & 9: (T^ &: T^) Complete text presented as in T^ & Tg; with key words at Level 1 underlined [u] ; no non-key words were masked. Treatments 3 & 10; (T, & T ) Only key words at Level 1 were presented; non=key words in category 1 (z) were masked [ M ] . Treatments 4 & 11: (T & ^ Complete text presented with key words at Level 2 underlined [u] ; no non-key words were masked. Treatments 5 & 12: (T r & T,.) Only key words at Level 2 were b 12 presented; non-key words in categories 1 and 2 (_z and y ) were masked J^ Vl] . Treatments 6 & 13; (T^ & ^ 1 3 ) Complete text presented with key ords at Level 3 underlined ju] ; no non-key w words were masked. Treatments 7 & 14: (T„ & T, ) Only key words at Level 3 were 7 14 presented; non-key words in categories 1, 2, and 3-(jz, y_andx) were masked [M] . Treatment 15: No exposure to the stimulus passage(s) either before or after the pretest [^No-Passage]. Hypotheses and Specific Expectations Hypothesis 1. Ss who skim a passage will perform significantly better on the posttest than Ss who do not skim the passage. It was anticipated that Ss who skimmed a stimulus passage would gain a significant amount of information and that they would achieve significantly higher scores on a criterion measure (posttest questions) than Sis who answered the posttest questions without being exposed to the stimulus passage. When the information gain scores (posttest score minus the pretest score) were considered for those Ss who responded on both the pretest and the posttest, the comparison of the groups which skimmed the passages with the No-Passage (no skimming) group was expected to support the expectation that the Ss would be able to gain a significant amount of information through skimming. Any group of_Ss which did not perform significantly better than the No-Passage group was considered to have been ineffective in skimming the passages. 31 H y p o t h e s i s 2. S_s who a r e exposed to the p r e t e s t ( P r e t e s t groups) w i l l achieve higher s c o r e s on the posttest after s k i m m i n g the r e l a t e d passage than Ss who a r e not exposed to the p r e t e s t ( N o - P r e t e s t groups). It was expected that those Ss who responded to the questions r e l a t e d to the stimulus passage as a p r e t e s t would have an advantage over those _Ss who d i d not r e s p o n d to the p r e t e s t questions p r i o r to s k i m m i n g the stimulus passages. It was decided that i f the p e r f o r m a n c e of the P r e t e s t groups was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r to that of the N o - P r e -test groups, then it must be concluded that f a m i l i a r i t y with the passage had been induced by exposure to the p r e t e s t . The a l t e r n a t i v e r e s u l t s , i . e. , that the N o - P r e t e s t groups would p e r f o r m as w e l l as or better than the P r e t e s t groups, would be i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence that t h e r e was no f a m i l i a r i z i n g effect due to exposure to the pretest, or, most unlikely, that exposure to. the p r e t e s t had a deleterious effect upon the s k i m m i n g task. Hypothesis 3 . Ss who have a greater amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n (higher p r e t e s t s c o r e s ) w i l l p e r f o r m s i g n i f i c a n t l y better on a skimming task than Ss who have l e s s background i n f o r m a t i o n (lower p r e t e s t s c o r e s ) . The amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n was expected to affect s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e as a b e n e f i c i a l effect for those Ss who a c h i e v e d higher s c o r e s on the p r e t e s t . If the outcome was that Ss with a high amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n did not p e r f o r m s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f ferent on the posttest f r o m Ss who had a low amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n then there was no effect due to f a m i l i a r i t y with the subject matter. The other p o s s i b l e outcome, that Ss with low background i n f o r m a t i o n would p e r f o r m better than Ss who had a high amount of background information, would be m o r e d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e to c u r r e n t t h e o r y and expectations. It i s conceivable that Ss who a l r e a d y knew a great deal of i n f o r m a t i o n about the subject matter ma y not have been as attentive and may have adopted a mental set which allowed attention to s t r a y . H ypothesis 4. _Ss who s k i m passages i n which k e y words are i d e n t i f i e d [ M , UJ w i l l p e r f o r m better than Ss who s k i m passages i n which key words ar e not i d e n t i f i e d [Orj . Hypothesis 5. Ss who s k i m passages i n which non~key words ar e not p r e s e n t e d M w i l l p e r f o r m as w e l l as or better than Ss who s k i m passages i n which non-key words are p r e s e n t e d [u] . It was a ssumed that the Sis who s k i m m e d the p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p assages i n which non-key words were m a s k e d would have the advantage that the k e y words had a l r e a d y been disembedded, s i n c e only the k e y words were presented; t h e r e f o r e , the Ss could not spend ti m e i n l o o k i n g at those words which were r e l a t i v e l y l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n -b e a r i n g ( i . e. , at the non-key words). The p o s s i b l e disadvantage of the m a s k e d f o r m s £ M ] of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the passages was that the Ss did not have a v a i l a b l e the complete text of the passage as n o r m a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s . T h i s , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , was not expected to cause p r o b l e m s for the r e a d e r i n that the redundant words were e l i m i n a t e d on the b a s i s of the study of the native language user's intuition. Yet, in practice it is possible that individuals may have needed to perceive some non-key words in case uncertainty or ambiguity arose due to the "noise" discussed above. In the forms of presentation of the passages in which the key words were underlined, the reader again had the advantage that the key words were already disembedded for him by virtue of the fact that only the key words were underlined. As in the masked forms of the passages, the reader could have looked only at those words which had been emphasized by being underlined. At the same time, however, since all words of the original text were presented in context (i. e. , no masking of non-key words), the reader was able to look at those words determined to be non-key words if he felt the need to perceive such words in the event of uncertainty or ambiguity. A possible disadvantage of the under-lined forms was that the reader may have looked at more words than were actually needed in order to gain the information in the discourse and he would thereby have used processing time inefficiently. The common advantage of the underlined and masked forms was that the key words were disembedded. The original form of the passages had no underlining, of the key words and no masking of the non~key words. Therefore, the readers of the original form of the passages did not have the advantage of having the key words already disembedded for them. On the other hand, since no words were available for clarifying any uncertainties or ambiguities 34 i f n e c e s s a r y for p r o c e s s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the d i s c o u r s e . T h i s was the advantage which the o r i g i n a l f o r m s and the u n d e r l i n e d f o r m s had i n common. If s k i m m i n g strategy is e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of disembedding the k e y words f r o m context without l o o k i n g at the non-key words, it was expected that Sis would gain as much or m o re i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s k i m m i n g the m a s k e d f o r m s M J of the passages than f r o m skimming the o r i g i n a l f o r m [Or] o r the u n d e r l i n e d f o r m s [ u ] of the passages. T h i s r e s u l t would support the t h e o r y of s k i m m i n g as a p r o c e s s of l o o k i n g only at the key words. If Ss who s k i m m e d the non-masked f o r m s of the p a s s a g e s [ o r and u j p e r f o r m e d better than Ss who s k i m m e d the m a s k e d f o r m s j^vl] then it would be n e c e s s a r y to conclude that l o o k i n g only at the key words i n the continuous d i s c o u r s e did not f a c i l i t a t e skimming. The p o s s i b l e r e s u l t that the Ss who s k i m m e d the u n d e r l i n e d f o r m s [uj would p e r f o r m better than either the Ss who s k i m m e d the m a s k e d f o r m s M J or the o r i g i n a l f o r m s [o.rj was c o n s i d e r e d to be evidence that at l e a s t some of the non-key words (redundancies) aided the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , but that s k i m m i n g was f a c i l i t a t e d by disembedding the key words. If Ss p e r f o r m e d l e s s w e l l on the u n d e r l i n e d f o r m s U than on m a s k e d f o r m s M J or the o r i g i n a l f o r m s Jor] , this would be evidence that Ss did not take advantage of the u n d e r l i n i n g (disembedding) of the k e y words and also that they may have spent t i m e l o o k i n g at non-key words. While it was anticipated that Ss would gain as much or m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the u n d e r l i n e d f o r m s and f r o m the m a s k e d f o r m s than f r o m the o r i g i n a l forms, the c o n v e r s e r e s u l t s ( U + M < O r ) would have been c o n s i d e r e d to indicate that s k i m m i n g was not f a c i l i t a t e d by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the key words and t h e r e f o r e that s k i m m i n g i s not e s s e n t i a l l y a disembedding p r o c e s s . Hy p o t h e s i s 6. Reducing the degree of redundancy i n a passage w i l l f a c i l i t a t e s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e ; i . e. , s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on passages with fewer k e y words w i l l be as good as or better than on passages with a l a r g e r number of key words. A s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , it was a s s u m e d that the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of key words used in the study were reasonable approximations of the " i d e a l " s e l e c t i o n of key words i n s p e c i f i c d i s c o u r s e , since each d i s c r e t e l e v e l of key words was d e t e r m i n e d by a p r o c e s s of redundancy re d u c t i o n which was based upon t h e o r i e s of the nature of language. With r e s p e c t to the p o s s i b l e f a c i l i t a t i n g effect of the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of key words upon s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , it was r e a s o n e d that i f Ss were able to gain as much i n f o r m a t i o n or m o r e at L e v e l 3 than at L e v e l s 2 , 1 and 0 , then the non-key words at L e v e l 3 were not e s s e n t i a l for s k i m m i n g the passage; i f the c o n v e r s e re s u l t e d , it would ind i c a t e that at least some of the non-key words at Level 3 were, in fact, needed for skimming. Similarly, if S_s who skimmed at Level 2 were to gain as much information or more than Ss who skimmed at Level 1 and Level 0, it would be concluded that at least some of those key words eliminated at Level 2 were not an aid to skimming. Again, the converse conclusion would be required in the event that Ss performed better at Level 1 than at Level 2. While it was anticipated that Ss who skimmed at Level 3 would perform as well as or better than Ss who skimmed at Levels 2, 1, and 0, it was thought that a reasonable alternative could be that Ss would perform better at Level 2 than either Ss at Level 3 or Level 1. It was conceivable that perhaps too much of the redundancy had been removed at Level 3, so that there was more uncertainty and ambiguity than the Ss could handle effectively. On the other hand, it was observed that the number of non-key words at Level 1 may possibly have been so minimal as to have had little or no facilitating effect. Superior performance at Level 0 over all other levels would indicate that the non-key words did facilitate the skimming. As discussed above, since Level 0 is also the original form of the passage, such results would also indicate that skimming was not essentially a disembedding process. No significant differences among the various levels of key words would be interpreted as support for the superiority of the level with the smallest number of key words. 37 H ypothesis 7. Under the conditions where key words ar e disembedded by either u n d e r l i n i n g or by m a s k i n g the non-key words, Ss who have a higher amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l p e r f o r m better on the s k i m m i n g task than Ss with a lower amount of background inf o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y under the higher l e v e l s of redundancy reduction. [Note: t h i r d - o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n among and between f a m i l i a r i t y , f o r m s of passage and l e v e l s of key words.] It was a n t i c i p a t e d that Ss with higher background i n f o r m a t i o n would p e r f o r m better when the l a r g e r number of non-key words were e l i m i n a t e d and that this p e r f o r m a n c e would be s u p e r i o r to that of Ss with lower background i n f o r m a t i o n . Subjects The e x p e r i m e n t a l population c o n s i s t e d of 312 students i n grade eleven at C a r s o n G r a h a m Senior Secondary School, N o r t h Vancouver, B.C. The Ss i n c l u d e d the tot a l school population i n grade eleven except for the absentees on the day of the p r e s e n t s e s s i o n and the absentees on the day of the posttest s e s s i o n . The school in which the experiment was conducted s e r v e s students f r o m the entire N o r t h Vancouver school d i s t r i c t s i n c e it does not have r e s t r i c t e d attendance zones. The school population may be c o n s i d e r e d to r e p r e s e n t the range of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c - i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i t s of the city. The S_s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d either to the P r e t e s t or No-P r e - t e s t groups for the i n i t i a l p r e t e s t i n g session. Ss within t h e i r respective groups (Pretest and No-Pretest) were then randomly assigned to treatments for the second session during which the Ss were asked to skim two stimulus pas sages. All Ss answered the corresponding set of questions (posttest) immediately after skimming a passage. Ss in the special control group were those Ss in the Pretest group who were randomly assigned to the special condition in which they answered the posttest questions in the second session without having skimmed either passage. Stimulus Passages Two stimulus passages were used in the study. One passage was of a scientific nature and dealt with the solar system the source of this material was "To the Moon and Beyond, " A Book of Popular  Science Teacher's Guide by Grolier, Inc. This selection is included in the book Skimming and Scanning by Berg, Taylor and Frackenpohl, Educational Developmental Laboratories. The other passage, in the area of social studies, was concerned with the age of exploration. This material was taken from Civilization, Past and Present, Part I, by T. Walter Wallbank and Alastair Taylor, Scott Foreman and Company, Third Edition, 1954, pages 574»576. The publishers kindly granted permission to adapt and use the material for research purposes. Table I shows the number of words in each selection, the Flesch reading ease score obtained by applying the Flesch formula to the entire passage in each case, and the grade level assigned by Flesch to the r e s p e c t i v e s c o r e s . F l e s c h t r a n s l a t e d the r e a d i n g ease s c o r e s ranging f r o m 60 to 70 as grade l e v e l s 7 to 8 with the lower s c o r e r e p r e s e n t i n g g r e a t e r degree of d i f f i c u l t y . The d e c i s i o n to use passages with a r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l below the grade placement of the Ss i n the experiment was based upon the d e s i r e to m i n i m i z e the effects of l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y and g e n e r a l r e a d i n g achievement. T A B L E I N U M B E R O F WORDS, F L E S C H S C O R E A N D G R A D E L E V E L O F S T I M U L U S P A S S A G E S ' r ,,r F l e s c h Reading P a s s a g e No. of Words _ Grade L e v e l E a s e Score Science .1400 64. 30 7 *. 8 H i s t o r y 1400 63. 48 7 - 8 In addition to having comparable r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s , as in d i c a t e d by the F l e s c h s c o r e s above i n Table I, the se l e c t i o n s were also p a r a l l e l i n t h e i r o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s i o n of ideas, since each began with an i n t r o d u c t o r y section followed by sections d i s c u s s i n g either the planets and other h eavenly bodies or the v a r i o u s e x p l o r e r s . The two passages were p r e s e n t e d i n exactly the same f o r m a t 40 with regard to type size, arrangement and number of lines of print per page. Exactly one-seventh of the text of each 1, 400-word passage was printed on each of the seven pages for each selection. The division was made on the basis of the total number of lines of print rather than putting exactly 200 words per page. In this way there were no partial lines of print at the ends of the pages due to an artificial restriction. The print and basic layout are considered to be representative of that found in the typical textbook, except that there was only one narrow column centered on the page. Both passages were printed in 9 point Press Roman type face with 4 point leaded on 100 pound Island Hilite Book stock. The heavier paper was used to safeguard against having print show through from one page to the next. The length of line was 18 picas. The underlining was 2 point underlining. The printed passages were put into booklets which contained in the first half: (1) a page explaining the procedure for skimming ("Direction to Students"); (2) a practice page which contained X's and O's in place of words; (3) the seven pages of the passage in consecutive order; (4) a blank sheet of pink paper; (5) a page of directions relating to answering the multiple-choice questions; (6) the complete set of questions corresponding to the previous passage; (7) a second blank sheet of pink paper. The second half of each booklet contained the second passage which was presented in exactly the same sequence. The single 41 d i f f e r e n c e between the two halves was that the blank sheets at the end of the a r t i c l e and after the set of questions were.gold i n s t e a d of pink. The purpose for the c o l o r e d sheets was to a s s i s t the e x p e r i m e n t e r i n s u p e r v i s i n g the pr o c e d u r e . T h e y also a s s i s t e d the subjects i n following i n s t r u c t i o n s . A s i n d i c a t e d above, i n front of'the f i r s t page of the a r t i c l e t here was a page which had groups of X's and O's ( X O X O X O X O XOXO) in p l a c e of words. T h i s page was p r o v i d e d as a demonstration or p r a c t i c e page so that the subjects could determine how fast they would need to p r o c e e d i n o r d e r to cover a l l of the p a r a g r a p h s on the following pages in the time allowed. T hey were given the signal to t u r n this page after twelve seconds had elapsed. The time i n t e r v a l was the same for a l l pages. Since each subject was a s s i g n e d to only one treatment, both passages i n each booklet were of the same treatment condition with r e s p e c t to f o r m of the passage and l e v e l of k e y words. M e a s u r i n g Instruments The m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t for the s c i e n c e passage was a set of f i f t y - s i x m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e questions, each of which had five options. F o r the h i s t o r y passage, the battery of questions i n c l u d e d f o r t y - f o u r m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e items, each of which also had five a l t e r n a t i v e s . T he items i n each test b a t t e r y were a r r a n g e d i n r a n d o m o r d e r . L i k e w i s e , the p o s i t i o n of the c o r r e c t response was r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d i n each test battery. 42 In developing the batteries of questions, each p a r a g r a p h i n the x passages was f i r s t a n a l y z e d to determine the s p e c i f i c bits of i n f o r m a t i o n which could be i n c l u d e d i n a test item. Then questions were w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g l y . When the m a x i m u m number of questions had been written, the items were an a l y z e d to detect i t e m s which were redundant. Such items were el i m i n a t e d . In addition, the items were s c r u t i n i z e d i n o r d e r to detect any p o s s i b l e cueing of i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m one i t e m to another. A n y items which contained cueing were either e l i m i n a t e d or m o d i f i e d i n o r d e r to c o r r e c t this fault. In a second p i l o t study r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n both b a t t e r i e s of questions were a d m i n i s t e r e d to 108 grade eleven students both as a p r e t e s t and as a posttest after s kimming the r e s p e c t i v e passages. T h e s e data were subjected to an i t e m a n a l y s i s . Some items were r e f i n e d s t i l l f u r t h e r on the b a s i s of the i t e m a n a l y s i s since c e r t a i n p r o p o s e d d i s t r a c t o r s did not seem to function adequately. It should be pointed out, however, that because of the design and r a t i o n a l e of the bat t e r i e s of questions, items which did not d i s c r i m i a t e adequately a c c o r d i n g to the n o r m a l c r i t e r i a for i t e m a n a l y s i s were not n e c e s s a r i l y eliminated, since i t was d e s i r a b l e to mai n t a i n questions which few Ss were able to answer c o r r e c t l y . It was intended that the m a x i m u m number of d i s c r e t e questions be p r o v i d e d i n o r d e r to enable each i n d i v i d u a l to r e v e a l the m a x i m u m amount of i n f o r m a t i o n which he gained f r o m skimming. F u r t h e r , i t was n e c e s s a r y that the p r e t e s t include a l a r g e number of items which few, i f any, subjects were able to answer correctly, since the same questions were used to measure change or information gain after skimming. Thus the batteries of questions were designed so that students would have the maximum opportunity to reveal both the amount of their background information and the amount of information gained from skimming. Precedent for using the same set of questions as both the pretest and the posttest may be found in the study by Karlin and Jolly (1965) and in mathemagenic studies of Rothkopf (1966) and Frase (1967, 1968). The Van "Wagenen Rate of Comprehension Scale, Form D, was used to measure the initial rate of comprehension of each subject in the experiment. This measure of reading achievement was particularly apropos for this investigation since it measures the rate at which an individual can read easy levels of material with understanding. Rather than measuring the rate of reading separately from comprehension on given selections, this test unifies the measure of reading into a single direct score. The test consists of fifty-six thirty-word paragraphs. The reader is instructed to read each paragraph and select the word in the last half of the paragraph that does not fit in with the meaning of the rest of the paragraph; he then makes a mark through this word. The time limit for the test when administered to grade eleven students is four minutes. The raw score for the test is the number of words correctly crossed out. The author provides norms by which the raw scores can be converted to the number of words read per minute with understanding. However, for the purposes of the experiment, the raw 44 s c o r e s w e r e u s e d i n a l l c a s e s . T h e a u t h o r r e p o r t e d c o e f f i c i e n t s o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e s c a l e s r a n g i n g b e t w e e n . 8 6 a n d .96. B e c a u s e o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e r e p o r t e d r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t , t h i s m e a s u r e w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h e b e s t i n s t r u m e n t t o u s e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t . B e r g e r ( 1 9 6 7 , 1968) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t w a s t h e m o s t r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n r a t e a v a i l a b l e . P r o c e d u r e A r r a n g e m e n t s f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t w e r e m a d e i n a d v a n c e t h r o u g h t h e N o r t h V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d O f f i c e a n d t h e C a r s o n G r a h a m S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B o t h e x p e r i - . m e n t a l s e s s i o n s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e n o r m a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . W h i l e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s w a s i n i n t a c t g r o u p s , r a n d o m a s s i g n m e n t t o t r e a t m e n t a n d h a v i n g a s i n g l e t i m e l i m i t f o r a l l t r e a t m e n t s m a d e t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t a c c e p t a b l e . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d a n a s s i s t a n t ( g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t ) c o l l e c t e d a l l o f t h e d a t a i n b o t h s e s s i o n s . T h e a s s i s t a n t w a s t h o r o u g h l y b r i e f e d r e g a r d i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e . H e w a s p r o v i d e d w i t h a s c r i p t i n c l u d i n g t h o s e p a r t s w h i c h w e r e p r e - t a p e d . T h e s c r i p t s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x A - E x p e r i m e n t e r v a r i a b l e s w e r e c o n t r o l l e d b y u s i n g p r e - r e c o r d e d a n d c a l i b r a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . S e s s i o n O n e . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h s t u d y b e i n g c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h a t t h e s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d with how grade eleven students do c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s . T h e n the students were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d to a group which, though not explained to the students, was either the P r e t e s t or the N o - P r e t e s t group. B e c a u s e of the fact that the c o n t r o l group was answering a dummy set of i t e m s r a t h e r than the two b a t t e r i e s of questions on the stimulus passages, the two groups were a s s i g n e d to separate rooms for the r e m a i n d e r of the c l a s s p e r i o d . Then, adhering to the i n s t r u c t i o n s in the t e c h n i c a l manual, the "Van Wagenen Rate of C o m p rehension Scale was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l subjects i n the c l a s s . Immediately following the completion of the rate of c o m prehension test, the Ss i n the P r e t e s t group were asked to answer the items on the two b a t t e r i e s of questions based upon the two stimulus p a s s a g e s . In o r d e r to counter balance the p o s s i b l e effects due to o r d e r of presentation, the questions on the s c i e n c e passage were a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t to h a l f of the subjects i n each e x p e r i m e n t a l group, while the questions on the h i s t o r y passage were a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t to the other half. A l l r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d on standard I. B. M. m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e answer sheets for machine s c o r i n g . T h e Ss were allowed a m a x i m u m of twenty minutes i n which to answer each set of questions. T h e y were advised to pace t h e m s e l v e s so that they could complete the set of questions within the s p e c i f i e d t i m e l i m i t . The i n s t r u c t i o n s also i n c l u d e d the advice not to delay too long on any one item, that they should go on to the next i t e m after a r e a s o n a b l e 46 effort. T h e y were also t o l d that they could go back to check items about which they were u n c e r t a i n i f t i m e allowed. T h i s t i m e l i m i t s eemed to be adequate for most £>s. It should be pointed out that the Ss did not have a c c e s s to the stimulus passages p r i o r to answering the sets of questions. In fact, t h e i r f i r s t exposure to the passages was i n the second s e s s i o n . Upon completion of the Rate of C o m p r e h e n s i o n Scale, the Ss in the N o ~ P r e t e s t group were asked to answer items not r e l a t e d to the two stimulus passages i n any way. T h i s dummy ac t i v i t y i n c l u d e d 100 items and r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same amount of t i m e for c o m p l e t i o n as the two b a t t e r i e s of questions which the P r e t e s t group answered. Session Two. F o u r weeks after the f i r st. s e s s i o n , the Ss were asked to s k i m the two stimulus passages under c a r e f u l l y - c o n t r o l l e d t i m e l i m i t s . At the beginning of this second session, the Ss were given two IoB.M. machine s c o r i n g answer sheets, a p e n c i l , and a booklet containing the two stimulus passages, each followed by a blank sheet of c o l o r e d paper and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g set of questions and a second blank sheet of c o l o r e d paper. Again, the order or p r e s e n t a t i o n was c o m p l e t e l y counter-balanced, so that h a l f of the Ss s k i m m e d the s c i e n c e passage f i r s t , while the other half s k i m m e d the h i s t o r y passage f i r s t within each treatment. A f t e r they had f i l l e d i n the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d on the answer sheets, the attention of the Ss was directed to the "Directions to Students' on the front of their booklets and they were asked to listen to the next instructions on the tape which was then played. The instructions are given in Appendix A, along with a transcript of the tape recording. In the skimming procedure, the £>s were instructed to get as much information as they could from each page within the time allowed. The time limit for each page was twelve seconds. An additional three seconds was allowed for the time required to turn each page. The signals to turn the page were pre»recorded on tape by the experimenter as part of the total pre-recorded instructions for the study. A stop watch was used to determine the exact time intervals. As soon as the £>s were instructed to turn the last page of the stimulus passage, they were told to turn the next page immediately. This was a colored page, so that it was relatively easy to observe that students were following the instructions exactly. The Ss were then instructed to answer the following set of questions on their answer sheets. A period of twenty minutes was allowed for the Ss to answer the set of questions. The same procedure was followed for skimming the second passage, except that the instructions were shortened considerably. C H A P T E R i n R E S U L T S O F T H E S T U D Y D e s c r i p t i o n of the Data F o r the purpose of evaluating the expected treatment effects, two dependent m e a s u r e s were obtained. One of the two m e a s u r e s was the total number of c o r r e c t answers on the c r i t e r i o n test which i s r e f e r r e to as the posttest raw s c o r e ( s ) . The posttest was given to a l l Ss, T^ through T i r . The other m e a s u r e was the gain s c o r e , which i s defined 15 as the d i f f e r e n c e between the s c o r e s of the p r e t e s t and the posttest, i . e . , posttest minus p r e t e s t s c o r e . The gain s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d only for the groups T through T and T , since a l l other groups, T through T, , 1 7 15 o 14 d i d not answer the p r e t e s t questions. Rate of C o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s were t r e a t e d as a c o v a r i a t e i n o r d e r to adjust the dependent v a r i a b l e for p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s among Ss i n g e n e r a l rate of comprehension. The posttest raw s c o r e means before and after adjustment for the covariate' are given i n T a b l e II for the s c i e n c e p a ssage and i n T a b l e III for the h i s t o r y pas sage. The rank o r d e r for each set of s c o r e s i s also given i n the t a b l e s . F r o m the tables it i s o b s e r v e d that adjustment TABLE II SCIENCE POSTTEST RAW SCORE MEANS BEFORE AND AFTER ADJUSTMENT FOR COVARIATE ( RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T. THROUGH T (N = 312) 1 I D Treatment Raw Score Adjusted Group Means Rank Raw Score Rank Means Ss in Pretest Groups 1 (Or) 2 5. .36. 15 25..04 14 14 2 (1U) 22..63 11 22.54 11 3 (IM) 21..68 9 21..52 8 4 (2U) 20..56 5 20. 59 4 5 (2M) 24. 54 14 25.17 15 6 (3U) 23..94 13 23..60 13 7 (3M) 21..79 10 21. 80 10 Ss in No»Pretest Groups 8 (Or) 18..47 2 18. 66 2 9 (1U) 21.68 8 21..37 6 10 (IM) 20.:45 4 20.63 5 11 (2U) 23..35 12 23..48 12 12 (2M) 18.23 1 18..11 1 13 (3U) 21. 40 6 21. 61 ,9 14 (3M) 19..48 3 19..46 3 5s with Pretests, but No Skimming 15 (No- 21. 56 7 21.46 7 Passage] > Variance (MS . .., . 1 = 38.29; df = 296 TABLE III HISTORY POSTTEST RAW SCORE MEANS BEFORE AND AFTER ADJUSTMENT FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T. THROUGH T (N= 314 ) Treatment Raw Score Adjusted Group Means Rank Raw Score Rank Means Ss in Pretest Groups 1 (Or) 17. 70 14 17. 47 15 2 (1U) 15. 30 6 15.23 6 3 (IM) 15. 37 7 15. 18 5 4 (2U) 15. 28 5 15. 30 8 5 (2M) .16.25 13 16.88 13 6 (3U) 17.75 15 17. 37 14 7 (3M) 15. 62 10 !• 15. 61 11 Ss in No-Pretest Groups 8 (Or) 15. 58 9 15.76 12 9 (1U) 15. 64 11 1.5. 29 7 10 (IM) 14. 55 4 14.71 4 11 (2U) 13.91 2 14.03 2 12 (2M) 15.73 12 15. 58 10 13 (3U) 14.00 3 14.20 3 14 (3M) 12.86 1 12. 84 1 Ss with Pretests, but No Skimming 15 (No- 15.42 8 15. 43 9 Pas sage) Variance (MS ) = 33. 18; df = 299 51 for the initial differences due to the general rate of comprehension changed the rank order of five group means by more than two positions for the history scores; whereas, only two scores changed more than one step for the science scores. An analysis of covariance was performed on the posttest raw scores of all treatment groups (T through T, ) with rate of comprehen-sion as a covariate. The results of this analysis are given in Appendix D, Table VIII for Science and Table IX for History. After adjustment for initial differences due to general rate of comprehension there were sig-nificant main effect differences among the treatment group means for science (F = 2.52, df = 14/296, p_ < .01). However, no main effect differences were observed for history (F = 1. 05, df_= 14/298, p > . 05). The observed regression coefficient of the covariate on the science data was 0.25, which was found to be a significant deviation from the zero slope (F = 23.40, _df = 1/296, p< .001). The regression coefficient of the covariate for the history data was 0. 27 which was also a significant deviation from the zero slope (F = 30.96, df_= 1/298, jp < .001). These results indicated that the covariate, rate of comprehension, was significantly related to the dependent variable, the posttest raw scores. Further, it was observed that the test for equality of slopes resulted in nonsignificant F values for both science (F = 1. 64, df = 14/284, _p > .05). and for history (F = 0. 30, df = 14/284, £ > . 05). The nonsignificant value bf the test for the equality of slopes designated that the slopes for 52 the fifteen treatment groups were approximately parallel in each case. No further tests were performed on the posttest raw score means for the history data since there was no evidence of differences among the adjusted cell means. For the science data, further contrasts were made involving the posttest raw score means for all groups (T - T ). The gain scores before and after adjustment for the covariate along with the rank order for each set of scores are given in Table IV for science and in Table V for history. These tables show that the gain scores for both science and history retained essentially the same rank order after adjustment for individual differences due to general rate of comprehension as they had before adjustment. The summaries of the results of the analysis of covariance performed on the gain scores of treatment groups T^ through T ^ are given in Appendix D, Table X for science and Table XI for history. For science, the regression coefficient of the covariate was -0.06. This value was not significantly different from zero (F = 0,96, df - 1/147, _p > .05). The regression coefficient was not significant (F = 1.67, df_= 1/150, p > .05). Since the covariate, rate of comprehension, was not significantly related to the gain scores, that is, there was no significant deviation from the zero slope, a simple analysis of variance was performed on the gain scores for both science and history. Since there were no significant treatment effects for history (F = 1. 48, df = 7 /135, p > . 05) no further analyses were 53 TABLE IV SCIENCE GAIN SCORE MEANS BEFORE AND AFTER ADJUSTMENT FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T. THROUGH T_- AND T._ (N=156) 1 / 15 Treatment Group Raw Score Means Rank Adjusted Raw Score Means Rank 1 (Or) 4. 18 3 4.24 2 2. (1U) 4. 68 1 . 4 . 7 0 1 3 (IM) 2 . 7 9 6 2. 82 6 . 4 (2U) 3. 50 4 3. 48 " 4 5 (2M) 4. 25 2 4. .11 3 6 (3U) 3. 31 5 3. 38 5 7 (3M) 1.71 7 1. 7 0 . 7 15 (No-Passage) 0.78 8 0. 79 8 Variance (MS ) = 21.72; df = 148 error • —— 54 TABLE V HISTORY GAIN SCORE MEANS BEFORE AND AFTER ADJUSTMENT FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T. THROUGH T AND T (N=159) 1 7 15 Treatment Group Raw Score Means Rank Adjusted Raw Score Means Rank 1 (Or) 2. 17 2 2. 13 2 2 (1U) -0. 23 7. 5 -0.01 8 3 (IM) 1. 05 3 1. 02 3 4 (2U) 3. 11 1 3. 12 1 5 (2M) 0. 55 5 0.69 5 6 (3U) 0. 50 6 0. 43 6 7 (3M) -0. 26 7.5 0. 00 7 .5 (No-Passage) 1. 00 4 1. 01 4 Variance (MS ) =13.32; df=151. error performed on the gain scores for history. In order to test the third hypothesis, the science data for the Pretest groups were categorized on the basis of pretest raw scores as follows: High (21 and above); Middle (18-20); and Low (17 and below). Table VI presents the posttest raw score means within each treatment condition (Tj through T^ and ) after the subgroups were designated on the basis of high, middle, and low pretest scores. Science gain score means are given in Table VII for the same categories of amount of information within each treatment group. The posttest raw scores were used to test hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 which were concerned with the general effectiveness of skimming and the effect of familiarity upon skimming performance. The gain scores were used to test the hypotheses relating to the effectiveness of skimming in .general, to skimming as a disembedding process hypotheses 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Analysis of the Data Related to the Question of the Effectiveness  of Skimming Performance In order to test the assumption, as stated in the first experi-mental hypothesis, that Ss are able to gain a significant amount of information by skimming stimulus passages, contrasts were made between the combination of all treatment groups in which the Ss skimmed the passages, T 1 through T 1 , and the No-Passage group, T , in which the Ss did not skim the passages. For science, the result of this TABLE VI SCIENCE POSTTEST RAW SCORE MEANS OF TREATMENT GROUPS (T. THROUGH T_ AND T. _) 1 / lb BY LEVELS OF BACKGROUND INFORMATION, HIGH, MIDDLE AND LOW (N= 156) Treatment B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n Group High Middle Low T i 27.55 18.67 13. 38 T2 25.00 19.00 13. 44 T 3 24. 00 19.33 15. 38 T 4 22.67 18.43 13.75 T 5 27.25 19. 20 13.43 T 24. 63 18.80 13.00 T 7 24.83 18.75 13, 63 T 15 24.33 19. 25 15.60 Marginal Mean 25. 03 18. 92 13.95 Variance (MS ) error = 9. 57; d f = 132 57 TABLE VII SCIENCE GAIN SCORE MEANS OF TREATMENT GROUPS (T THROUGH T AND T ) BY LEVELS OF 1 7 15 BACKGROUND INFORMATION, HIGH, MIDDLE, LOW (N= 156} Treatment Group B a c k g High r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n Middle Low T i 2.73 5.00 5.88 T 2 2. 40 3. 20 6. 78 T 3 -0.40 3.33 4. 38 1.67 1.57 5.88 T 5 1. 75 3. 00 8. 00 '6 4.75 1. 40 2. 66 ' T 7 0.83 -0. 50 4. 13 T15 1.22 -0.75 1. 20 Marginal Mean 1. 47 2. 03 4.86 Variance (MS ) = 20. 13, df=132 error — contrast showed no significant difference in the performance on the post-test due to skimming (F = 0.023, df_ = 1/296, p > .05). Similarly, there was no significant difference due to skimming in the history passage (F = 0. 0009, df_= 1/298, p > .05). While skimming did not appear to be effective on the average in either passage when posttest raw scores were considered, a significant difference was observed on the science passage for three pairs of posttest means. The observed difference between the posttest raw score means of T. and T._ was 1 1 5 3. 58, which was statistically significant (F = 3.57, df = 1/29 6, p < .05). The difference between T and T., was 3.71, which was significant 5 15 (F = 3. 61, df = 1/296, _p .05). The difference between T and ^15 w a S w k i c h w a s 3 i L S O significant (F = 3. 13, di_= 1 /296, p < . 05). All other observed differences among skimming/no-skimming pairs were not statistically different when the posttest raw score means were analyzed. When gain scores were used to compare those groups which skimmed the passages (T^ through T ) with the No»Passage group (T ), statistically significant differences were observed for science 15 (F = 5. 23, _df = 1 /148, £ < 0. 0001). No significant differences were observed for the history passage (F = 0. 002, df = 1. 153, p >. . 05). It was expected that Ss who skimmed the passages would perform significantly better on the posttests than Ss who did not skim the passages. However, the results of testing this assumption using the posttest raw scores for all groups indicated that none of the No-Pretest group (T D ~ T | performed significantly better than the No-Passage o 14 group. When gain' scores were analyzed, the amount of background information was implicitly consideredo Significant differences were then observed between the Pretest groups which skimmed and the No-Passage group which did not skim the science passage. No statistically signifi-cant differences between the,groups which skimmed the history passage and the No»Passa.ge group were detected. Because the basic assumption regarding the overall effectiveness of skimming was not confirmed for history, no further analyses were performed on the history data. Each of the remaining hypotheses was tested for the science passage. Analysis of Data Relating to Pretest Familiarity When the Pretest treatment groups (T^ » T^J were compared with the No-Pretest treatment groups (T„ •» T, „), it was found that the to r- g j ^ / ; main effect due to the pretest was significant for science (F = 11.90, df = 1/296, p < .01). From this result it was concluded that the groups exposed to the pretest achieved higher mean scores on the post-test than the groups which did not respond to the pretest questions. Pretest and No^Pretest groups were further compared by treatment conditions. There was a statistically significant difference between T^ and Tg, the original form of the pas sage (F = 11.63, df = 1/296, p < .01) and between T and T , masked at Level 2 (F = 14. 59, df = 1/296, b 12 ~ p < .01). Comparisons between all other Pretest/No«Pretest pairs of treatment groups resulted in nonsignificant F values. Only those 60 P r e t e s t groups which s k i m m e d the o r i g i n a l f o r m of the s c i e n c e passage and the m a s k e d f o r m at L e v e l 2 p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g N o - P r e t e s t groups. T h i s suggested that p r e t e s t f a m i l i a r i t y f a c i l i t a t e d s k i m m i n g only i n these two f o r m s of the s c i e n c e passage. A n a l y s i s of Data Relating to Amount of B a c k g r o u n d Information It was hypothesized that Ss who had a gre a t e r amount of back-ground i n f o r m a t i o n would p e r f o r m better on the c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e after s k i m m i n g than Ss who had a lower amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by the Ss' p r e t e s t s c o r e s . F o r the purpose of testing this hypo-thesis , Ss within each treatment group were di v i d e d into three •categories on the b a s i s of t h e i r r e l a t i v e p r e t e s t s c o r e s , i . e . H i g h (21-43), M i d d l e (18-20), and Low (0-17). The o b s e r v e d mean di f f e r e n c e s among the three l e v e l s of background information, as can be seen in T a b l e VI, appear to be in the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n ( i . e. , 25. 03, 18. 92, and 13. 95 for the High, Middle, and Low groups r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . That i s , the o b s e r v e d mean differences y i e l d e d a sig n i f i c a n t m a i n effect due to the amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n ( F = 161.14, df = 2/132, £ < .0001). Hypothesis 3, t h e r e f o r e was accepted on the basi s of this evidence and it was concluded that having a higher amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n did f a c i l i t a t e s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . When the gain s c o r e s were analyzed as a post hoc comparison, a si g n i f i c a n t m a i n effect due to background i n f o r m a t i o n was o b s e r v e d ( F = 6.74, df = 2/132, p < .01). However, the mean d i f f e r e n c e s were 61 i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n f r o m what would have been p r e d i c t e d had the gain s c o r e s been the m a j o r dependent v a r i a b l e . Ln a l l c ases except for [ ^ M ] , the mean i n f o r m a t i o n gain s c o r e was l a r g e r for the Low group than for the High group. The o v e r a l l o b s e r v e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of the gain s c o r e s on the p r e t e s t s c o r e s was -0.21, which was s i g n i f i c a n t ( F = 9. 90, df = 2 /146, p < .01). H a d the gain s c o r e s been used as the dependent v a r i a b l e i n Hypothesis 3, the hypothesis would not have been accepted. A n a l y s i s of Data R e l a t i n g to Skimming as a Disembedding P r o c e s s . In o r d e r to test the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses which were c o n c e r n e d with s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to the use of key words and non-key words, the main effects and i n t e r -action due to v a r i a t i o n s i n the f o r m of the stimulus passages and the l e v e l s of k e y words were tested by means of orthogonal c o m p a r i s o n s . When p e r f o r m a n c e on the m a s k e d f o r m s of the s c i e n c e passage (T , T , T ) were c o m p a r e d with p e r f o r m a n c e on the u n d e r l i n e d f o r m s 3 5 7 (T , T , T , ) , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was o b s e r v e d ( F = 1.40, df_= 1/148, p > .05). In i t i a l l y , this r e s u l t i n d i c a t e d that p e r f o r m a n c e on the m a s k e d forms, which had non-key words masked, was as good as p e r f o r m a n c e on the u n d e r l i n e d forms which had k e y words identified, but no non»key words were masked. Skimming p e r f o r m a n c e on the forms of the passages i n which key words were i d e n t i f i e d both by un d e r l i n i n g and by m a s k i n g the non-key words (T through T^), was compared with performance on"the original form of the passage in which no key words were identified (T^J. This comparison yielded no significant differences (F = 0.65, df_= 1/148, p_ > . 05). From this result, it appeared that having the key words identified did not facilitate the skimming process. Thus, the fourth experimental hypothesis was not accepted. With regard to possible differences among the levels of key words, two orthogonal contrasts were made. No significant differences were observed when Level 1 was compared with the combination of Levels 2 and 3 (F = 0. 38, df_= 1/148, p_ > . 05). Likewise, when Level 2 was compared with Level 3, there was no significant difference (F = 1.95, df_= 1/148, p_ > .05). Consequently, the sixth experimental hypothesis was- confirmed, since the results of comparing levels of key words indicated that skimming performance was as good when a smaller number of key words were identified as when a larger number of key words were identified. The fact that no significant difference between the masked presentations and the underlined presentations further supports this conclusion in that the number of non-key words did not affect skimming performance. Analysis of Data Related to Interaction Between Forms of Passage, Levels bf Key Words and Background Information There was no interaction whatsoever between and among the three variables, familiarity with content, form of passage,and levels of key words. All F values of second- and third-order interaction were less 63 than l o00. There fo re , the seventh hypothesis was not accepted. Th is suggested that, given the f o r m of the passage and the l e v e l of key words , there was no d i f fe rent ia l effect due to background i n f o r m a t i o n . C H A P T E R IV S U M M A R Y A N D C O N C L U S I O N S The P r o b l e m Skimming as a strategy in which the r e a d e r looks only at the key words i n the p r i n t e d d i s c o u r s e has been w i d e l y suggested as an appropriate technique for gaining i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s t h e o r y i s supported by the study of the nature of the E n g l i s h language, p a r t i c u l a r l y its redundancy and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , and also by the a b i l i t y of the competent language u s e r . The present study was designed p r i m a r i l y to determine the v a l i d i t y of the t h e o r y of s k i m m i n g as a p r o c e s s of looking only at the key words i n continuous d i s c o u r s e . Since there was c o n c e r n for d e t e r m i n i n g the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n gained f r o m skimming, attention was also given to f a m i l i a r i t y with the content of the stimulus passages i n the sense of background information. F o r this reason, i t was also n e c e s s a r y to evaluate the effect of f a m i l i a r i t y with the passages as a r e s u l t of experience with the pretest. P r o c e d u r e Grade eleven students attending a s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y school i n a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d to P r e t e s t and N o - P r e t e groups i n the f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n . Within the r e s p e c t i v e groups, the Ss were then r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d to treatments for the second s e s s i o n at which the Ss were d i r e c t e d to s k i m two 1400-word passages i n a t i m e -l i m i t situation, such that the Ss were r e q u i r e d to deal with a m i n i m u m of 800 words per minute. One passage was i n the a r e a of science, "The Solar System"; the other was i n h i s t o r y , "The Age of E x p l o r a t i o n . " The v a r i a t i o n s i n treatment c o n s i s t e d of m o d i f y i n g the f o r m of p r e s e n t a t i o n for each of the two stimulus passages a c c o r d i n g to the number of non-key words which were i d e n t i f i e d or deleted f r o m the passages. T h r e e l e v e l s of key words were designated by id e n t i f y i n g three c a t e g o r i e s of redundancy which were t r e a t e d c u m u l a t i v e l y to create three c a t e g o r i e s of non-key words i n each passage. N o n - k e y w o r d s and key words were mu t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e at each l e v e l of key words. Six t r e a t -ment conditions c o n s i s t e d of p r e s e n t i n g the passages with key words id e n t i f i e d at each of the three l e v e l s either by (1) u n d e r l i n i n g the key words in the complete text, or by (2) m a s k i n g the non-key words. A seventh treatment condition was the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the stimulus passages i n the o r i g i n a l f o r m which had no key words i d e n t i f i e d either by under-l i n i n g the key words or by masking the non-key words. The c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e for each stimulus passage was a post-test b a t t e r y of questions. P o s t t e s t raw s c o r e s were used as the dependent v a r i a b l e when a l l fifteen treatment groups were c o n s i d e r e d and to test the hypothesis concerning amount of background i n f o r m a t i o n . Information 6 6 gain s c o r e s (posttest minus p r e t e s t s c o r e s ) were used for analyses i n v o l v i n g only the P r e t e s t groups. The r e s u l t s of a p i l o t study i n d i c a t e d that rate of c o m prehension was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the posttest raw s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , the Van Wagenen Rate of C o m p r e h e n s i o n Scale was a d m i n i s t e r e d to all_Ss during the f i r s t s e s s i o n of the experiment. F i n d i n g s The e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses test e d i n the study dealt with the assumption that s k i m m i n g i s an effective strategy for gaining a s i g n i f i -cant amount of information, with the effect of v a r y i n g the f o r m of p r e s e n -tation of the stimulus passages, with the effect of redundancy r e d u c t i o n or l e v e l s of key words, and with the effects due to two aspects of f a m i l i a r i t y with content. T e s t s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses, based upon analyses i n v o l v i n g the pretest, posttest, and i n f o r m a t i o n gain s c o r e s , along with the rate of comprehension (covariate) s c o r e s , p r o d u c e d the following findings. 1 . It was f i r s t n e c e s s a r y to test the b a s i c assumption that Ss would be able to gain a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of i n f o r m a t i o n by s k i m m i n g the stimulus passages. The assumption that s k i m m i n g would be an effective s t r a t e g y for gaining i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the h i s t o r y passage was not supported when either the posttest raw s c o r e s ( F = 0 . 0 0 0 9 , df_= 1 / 2 9 8 p > . 0 5 ) or the gain s c o r e s ( F = 0 . 0 0 2 , df_= 1 / 1 5 3 , p_ > . 0 5 ) were con s i d e r e d . L i k e w i s e , a n a l y s i s of the s c i e n c e posttest raw s c o r e s , o v e r a l l did not support the assumption of s k i m m i n g effectiveness 67 ( F .= Oo 0 2 3 , d f =• 1 / 2 9 6 , _p„ > „ 0 5 ) . F u r t h e r p a i r - w i s e c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e s k i m m i n g g r o u p s w i t h t h e n o - s k i m m i n g ( N o - P a s s a g e ) g r o u p i n d i c a t e d t h a t t w o g r o u p s s k i m m e d e f f e c t i v e l y : ( F = 3 . 5 7 , d f = 1 / 2 9 6 , p < . 0 5 ) a n d T ( F = 3 . 6 1 , _df = 1 / 2 9 6 , j p < . 0 5 ) . W h e n g a i n s c o r e s w e r e u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s k i m m i n g t h e s c i e n c e p a s s a g e , t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f s k i m m i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s w a s s u p p o r t e d ( F = 5 . 2 3 , d f = 1 / 1 5 0 , p < . 0 2 ) . 2 . T h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n d u c e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s t i m u l u s p a s s a g e s w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m e x p o s u r e t o t h e r e l a t e d p r e t e s t w a s t e s t e d b y c o m p a r i n g t h e p o s t t e s t r a w s c o r e s o f t h e P r e t e s t a n d N o - P r e -t e s t g r o u p s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w a s o b s e r v e d f o r t h e s c i e n c e p a s s a g e ( F = 1 1 . 9 0 , d f = 1 / 2 9 6 , p < . 0 1 ) . P a i r - w i s e , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e o b s e r v e d o n l y b e t w e e n T a n d T [ O r l ( F = 1 1 . 6 3 , ^ 8 i J — d f = 1 / 2 9 6 , £ . < . 0 1 ) a n d b e t w e e n T a n d T 1 2 [ZM ] ( F = 1 4 . 5 9 , d f = 1 / 2 9 6 , p < . 0 1 ) . T h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o n t e n t w o u l d b e i n d u c e d b y e x p o s u r e t o a r e l a t e d p r e t e s t w a s s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e s c i e n c e p a s s a g e . 3 . I t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a m o u n t o f b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n ( H i g h p r e t e s t s c o r e s ) a n d s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . A s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t d u e t o a m o u n t o f b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n w a s f o u n d ( F = 1 6 1 . 1 4 , d f = 2 / 1 3 2 , p < . 0 0 0 1 ) , m e a n i n g t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e w a s i n f a v o r o f t h e Ss w h o h a d a g r e a t e r a m o u n t o f b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d b y t h e i r h i g h e r p r e t e s t s c o r e s . 4. The p r i m a r y r e s e a r c h question r a i s e d i n the study p e r t a i n e d to s k i m m i n g as a p r o c e s s of looking only at the key words i n continuous d i s c o u r s e . In o r d e r to answer this question, three hypotheses were tested using the i n f o r m a t i o n gain s c o r e . T h e r e was no si g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p e r f o r m a n c e on the m a s k e d f o r m s [M] and the u n d e r l i n e d f o r m s [uj of the sci e n c e passage (F = 1. 11, df_= 1/150, p > . 05). T h i s r e s u l t gave l i m i t e d support to the hypothesis that Ss who sk i m m e d the m a s k e d f o r m s would p e r f o r m as well as or better than Ss who s k i m m e d the non-masked f o r m s i n which a l l words were p r e s e n t e d i n context. I n i t i a l l y , this r e s u l t suggested that the non-key words were not needed i n o r d e r to gain i n f o r m a t i o n and that having the non-key words a v a i l a b l e did not f a c i l i t a t e the s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s . It was further h y p o t h e s i z e d that having the key words already, disembedded or i d e n t i f i e d i n the d i s c o u r s e would f a c i l i t a t e skimming. To test this hypothesis, the p e r f o r m a n c e of the groups which s k i m m e d the f o r m s of the passage i n which key words were i d e n t i f i e d M and U was compared with the p e r f o r m a n c e of the group which s k i m m e d the O r T h e r e was no f o r m in which the key words were not i d e n t i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e due to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or disembedding of key words (F = 0.65, df = 1/148, p >.05). Consequently, the hypothesis that having key words disembedded was not confi r m e d . The additional hypothesis that t h e r e would be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -ship between the degree of redundancy reduction and s k i m m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e was tested by comparing the various levels of key words. The two orthogonal contrasts involving levels of key words yielded no significant differences due to variations in the degree of redundancy reduction: Level 2 vs Level 3 (F = 1.95, d£_= 1/148, p > .05) and Level 1 vs Levels 2 and 3 (F'= 0.38, df_= 1/148, p > .05). These results did not support the hypothesis that Ss would gain as much or more information by skimming a passage when redundancy had been reduced to a greater degree than when it had been reduced less, or not at all. 5. There was no significant interaction between and among the three independent variables: forms of presenting the passages Or, U, M , levels of key words (Levels 1, 2, 3), and familiarity with content (High, Middle, and Low pretest scores) (all F's 1.00). Dis cus sion Based upon the analyses of the data collected in the study, skimming does not appear to be an effective reading strategy for Grade 11 students unless familiarity with the content of the passage is induced. Such a process of familiarization or cueing may be in the form of pretest questions as in the present study, but other forms of cueing may operate in a similar manner. For example, the style and format of the passage may serve such a purpose. As Carver (in press) has pointed out, the mathemagenic studies of Rothkopf (1965, 1967) and Frase (1968, 1969) have not taken into account the strategy of reading or the time limit allowed for "learning. " Both of these factors were controlled in the 70 present study. This may account, in part, at least, for the fact that the results of the present study are apparently in conflict with the results of the studies cited previously, which have reported that questions presented prior to the learning or reading task generally did not facilitate performance. Further investigation of the question is certainly indicatedo The evidence strongly suggests that in further related studies rate of reading, in the broad sense of information-processing, should be treated as a variable in both time-limit and time-amount conditions. While varying the nature and location of the questions has been studied in some aspects, these conditions have not been considered in relation to skimming and efficient reading. In this regard, attention should also be given to the time interval between the cueing or exposure to questions and the skimming task. . Differences in the nature of the stimulus passage affected skimming performance since, overall, the students were able to skim the science passage, but did not skim the history passage effectively. This result may be attributable in part to the observation that the history passage is considered to be distinctly more discursive than the science passage in spite of fee fact that the two passages were matched with respect to their readability level and their overall progression of ideas. Thus it seems that skimming strategy may be appropriately used for some types of passages, but not for others without special instruction and practice. 71 The conclusion in Morton's (1964) study that the faster readers were able to take significantly more advantage of redundancy in dis-course than the slower readers was not confirmed in the skimming situations in the present study. The fact that having a greater amount of background information did prove to be an advantage in skimming is in agreement with Weaver's (1967) point of view and confirms the prediction made in the present study that skimming as a function of redundancy reduction is predicated to a large extent upon a process of confirming (or disconfirming) predictions which the skimmer makes on the basis of his prior know-ledge or background information. Further research on the validity of such a model of skimming behavior is indicated. The question raised in experimental hypothesis 3 could have been asked in terms of information gain scores instead of in terms of performance on the post-test. Considering the fact that readers with less background information achieved higher gain scores than readers with more background information as observed in the present study, it appears that clarifi-cation of the effect of background information on skimming performance as measured by change scores is needed. The feasibility of the rule to "fixate on the first half of each constituent" as proposed by Bever and associates (1967) was not challenged since in the present study Ss who skimmed the masked forms of the science passage were able to skim as effectively as the Ss who 72 s k i m m e d the s c i e n c e passage i n which a l l the words were presented. U s i n g the b a s i c e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e developed i n the p r e s e n t study, it would be p o s s i b l e to investigate further the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of the fixation r u l e under d i s c u s s i o n . The obvious i m p l i c a t i o n of applying such a r u l e to s k i m m i n g strategy, however, would be that i n s t r u c t i o n should be a i m e d at helping the r e a d e r to develop f a c i l i t y i n identifying the constituents q u i c k l y or spontaneously. T h i s then may be an aspect of ski m m i n g s t r a t e g i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology which should be in v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r . C o n c l u s i o n s G i v e n the data a n a l y z e d i n the p r e s e n t study, it may be con-cluded that f a m i l i a r i t y with the content of the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i s one of the important factors i n v o l v e d i n the s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s . It was furth e r o b s e r v e d that f a m i l i a r i t y with the content c o u l d be induced by exposure to a p r e t e s t r e l a t e d to the passage. In fact, for the Ss in the pr e s e n t experiment, it was only when there was cueing r e s u l t i n g f r o m exposure to p r e t e s t that s k i m m i n g was effective. It appears that skimming may not be an appropriate r e a d i n g strategy for some types of m a t e r i a l . It may be p o s s i b l e that s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e may enable r e a d e r s to apply s k i m m i n g str a t e g y to different types of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . Regarding s k i m m i n g as a disembedding p r o c e s s , it was concluded that, on the whole, the non-key words were not r e q u i r e d for effective skimming, since the Ss were able to gain as much i n f o r m a t i o n when the non-key words were m a s k e d as when the complete text was ava i l a b l e . However, having the key words disembedded, either by m a s k i n g the non-key words or by u n d e r l i n i n g the key words, did not fa c i l i t a t e s k i m m i n g at any l e v e l of redundancy reduction. Thus, on the basis of the p r e s e n t investigation, it could not be s a i d that s k i m m i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a disembedding p r o c e s s . Consequently, the t h e o r y of s k i m m i n g as a p r o c e s s of looking only at the k e y words i s supported only to a l i m i t e d extent. In spite of the fact that redundancy r e d u c t i o n did not appear either to f a c i l i t a t e or to i n t e r f e r e with i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n skimming, there was, at the same time, no p o s i t i v e effect due to the disembedding of key words. T h e r e f o r e , Ss apparently do not have to look at a l l of the words on the p r i n t e d page i n o r d e r to p r o c e s s the inf o r m a t i o n . S t i l l , Ss g e n e r a l l y do not s e e m to have a c q u i r e d the additional s k i l l n e c e s s a r y for taking advantage of redundancy r e d u c t i o n under the t i m e - l i m i t conditions i m p o s e d by skimming. Investigation of other f a c t o r s such as p r a c t i c e effect and s h o r t - t e r m m e m o r y i n r e l a t i o n to the s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s may r e v e a l further i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature of s k i m m i n g stra t e g y i n reading. R E F E R E N C E S 7 4 R E F E R E N C E S A n g l i n , J . M o , & M i l l e r , G . A . T h e r o l e o f p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e i n t h e R e c a l l o f m e a n i n g f u l v e r b a l m a t e r i a l . P s y c h o n o m i c S c i e n c e . 1 9 6 8 , 10 , 3 4 3 - 3 4 4 . A u s u b e l , D. P . , & F i t z g e r a l d , D. O r g a n i z e r , g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d a n t e c e d e n t l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s i n s e q u e n t i a l v e r b a l l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 6 2 , 5 3 , B a b c o c k , H . A n e x p e r i m e n t i n t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n . A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y . N e w Y o r k , 117 ( w h o l e ) , 1 9 3 0 . B e r g e r , A . C o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o r e a d i n g r a t e . S e v e n t e e n t h  Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . M i l w a u k e e : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 6 8 , 1 8 - 2 4 . B o r m u t h , J . R . E x p e r i m e n t a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f c l o z e t e s t s . P r o c e e d i n g s  o f A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n , I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 , 9 , 3 0 3 - 3 0 6 . B o r m u t h , J . R . N e w m e a s u r e s o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o m p l e x i t y . I n K . S. G o o d m a n ( E d . ) , T h e P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c N a t u r e o f t h e R e a d i n g  P r o c e s s . D e t r o i t : W a y n e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . B o w e r s , F . , & N a c k e , . P . L . A l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e d u r e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g k e y w o r d s i n E n g l i s h d i s c o u r s e . ( F o r t h c o m i n g ) B r u n i n g , R . H . E f f e c t s o r r e v i e w a n d t e s t - l i k e e v e n t s w i t h i n t h e l e a r n i n g o f p r o s e m a t e r i a l . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 8 , 5 9 , 1 6 - 1 9 . C a m p b e l l , D. T . , & S t a n l e y , J . C . E x p e r i m e n t a l a n d q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s f o r r e s e a r c h o n t e a c h i n g . I n N . L . G a g e ( E d . ) , H a n d b o o k o f R e s e a r c h o n T e a c h i n g . C h i c a g o : R a n d M c N a l l y , 1 9 6 3 , 1 7 1 - 2 4 6 . C a r n e r , R. L . , & S h e l d o n , V . D . P r o b l e m s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c e p t s t h r o u g h r e a d i n g . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1 9 5 4 , 5 5 , 2 2 6 - 2 2 9 . C a r v e r , R . P . 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A n a n a l y t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f s k i m m i n g : I t s p u r p o s e a n d p l a c e as a n a b i l i t y i n r e a d i n g . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I n d i a n a , I n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n ) B l o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 19 5 2 . G u s t a f s o n , H . W . , & T o o l e , D . L . E f f e c t s o f a d j u n c t q u e s t i o n s , p r e -t e s t i n g , a n d d e g r e e o f s t u d e n t s u p e r v i s i o n o n l e a r n i n g f r o m a n i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e x t . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 1969 a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , L o s A n g e l e s , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 9 . ; . H a b e r , R. N . T h e e f f e c t o f p r i o r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s t i m u l u s o n w o r d r e c o g n i t i o n p r o c e s s e s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 5 , 69 , 2 8 2 - 2 8 6 . • H a r r i s , Z . D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s R e p r i n t s . T h e H a g u e : M o u t o n , 1 9 6 3 . H e r d a n , G . T h e A d v a n c e d T h e o r y o f L a n g u a g e a s C h o i c e a n d C h a n c e . N e w Y o r k : S p r i n g e r & V e r l a g , 1 9 6 6 . H e r d a n , G . T h e C a l c u l u s o f L i n g u i s t i c O b s e r v a t i o n s , T h e H a g u e : M o u t o n , 1 9 6 2 . H e r d a n , G . Q u a n t i t a t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s . L o n d o n : B u t t e r w o r t h s , 1 9 6 4 . H i l l , W . R . I n f l u e n c e o f d i r e c t i o n u p o n r e a d i n g f l e x i b i l i t y o f a d v a n c e d c o l l e g e r e a d e r s . T h i r t e e n t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . M i l w a u k e e : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 6 4 , 1 1 9 - 1 2 5 . J u d s o n , H . T h e T e c h n i q u e s o f R e a d i n g , ( 2 n d e d . ) , N e w Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , 1 9 6 3 . K a r l i n , R . , & H a y d e n , J . T h e u s e o f a l t e r n a t e f o r m s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s . R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 1 9 6 5 , 19 , 187-19 l o 77 K a t z , J . T h e P h i l o s o p h y o f L a n g u a g e . N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r & R o w , 1 9 6 6 . L a f f i t t e , R . Go A n a l y s i s o f i n c r e a s e d r a t e o f r e a d i n g o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l R e a d i n g , 1 9 6 4 , 7 , 1 6 5 - 1 7 4 . L e c k a r t , B r u c e T . L o o k i n g t i m e : T h e e f f e c t s o f s t i m u l u s c o m p l e x i t y a n d f a m i l i a r i t y . P e r c e p t i o n a n d P s y c h o p h y s i c s , 1 9 6 6 , 1, 1 4 2 - 1 4 4 . L e e d y , P . D. R e a d w i t h S p e e d a n d P r e c i s i o n , N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 6 3 . L e e d y , P . D. A K e y t o B e t t e r R e a d i n g . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 6 8 . L e t s o n , C . T . , T h e r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f m a t e r i a l a n d p u r p o s e s o n r e a d i n g r a t e . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1 9 5 9 , 5 2 , 2 4 0 f f . ~ L y o n s , J . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T h e o r e t i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s . L o n d o n : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . M a r t i n , F . W . C o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h r e a d i n g w h a t r e s e a r c h s a y s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 5 5 , 1 3 7 , 2 4 - 2 6 . M a x w e l l , M . A s s e s s i n g s k i m m i n g a n d s c a n n i n g s k i l l s i m p r o v e m e n t . E i g h t e e n t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . M i l w a u k e e : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 6 9 a , 2 2 9 - 2 3 3 . M a x w e l l , M . S k i m m i n g a n d S c a n n i n g I m p r o v e m e n t . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 6 9 b . M c C l u s k y , H . Y . A n e x p e r i m e n t o n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e l i m i n a r y s k i m m i n g i n r e a d i n g . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 3 4 , 2 5 , 5 2 1 - 5 2 9 . M c D o n a l d , A . S. F l e x i b i l i t y i n r e a d i n g . I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s . N e w Y o r k : S c h o l a s t i c M a g a z i n e s , 1 9 6 3 , 8 . M c L e o d , J . , & A n d e r s o n , j " . A n a p p r o a c h t o a s s e s s m e n t o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g  B e h a v i o u r , 1 9 7 0 , 2 , 1 1 6 - 1 4 3 . M e h l e r , J . , B e v e r , T . G . , & C a r e y , P . W h a t w e l o o k a t w h e n w e r e a d . P e r c e p t i o n a n d P s y c h o p h y s i c s , 1 9 6 7 , 2 , 2 1 3 - 2 1 8 . M i l l e r , G . A . , & C h o m s k y , N . F i n i t a r y m o d e l s o f l a n g u a g e u s e r s . I n D . R . L u c e , R . R . B u s h , & E . G a l a n t e r . H a n d b o o k o f  M a t h e m a t i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . N e w Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 6 3 , 2 , 4 1 9 - 4 9 1 . 78 M i l l e r , G.A., & F r i e d m a n , E . A. T h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f m u t i l a t e d E n g l i s h t e x t s . I n f o r m a t i o n a n d C o n t r o l , 1 9 5 7 , 1 , 38<=55. M i l l e r , G . A . & S e l f r i d g e , J . A . V e r b a l c o n t e x t a n d t h e r e c a l l o f m e a n i n g f u l m a t e r i a l . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 0 , 6 3 , 1 7 6 - 1 8 5 . M o o r e , W . J . A l a b o r a t o r y s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d e l e m e n t s t o t h e s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y ) A n n A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1 9 5 6 . M o o r e , W . J . T h e s k i m m i n g p r o c e s s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g . I n C h a l l e n g e a n d E x p e r i m e n t in. R e a d i n g , J . A . F i g u r e l ( E d . ) , I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1 9 6 2 , 7, N e w Y o r k : S c h o l a s t i c M a g a z i n e s , 2 0 3 . M o r t o n , J . T h e e f f e c t s o f c o n t e x t u p o n s p e e d r e a d i n g , e y e m o v e m e n t s a n d e y e - v o i c e s p a n . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 4 , 16 , 3 4 0 - 3 5 4 . ~ N e i s s e r , U . V i s u a l s e a r c h . S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n , 1 9 6 4 , 2 1 0 , 9 4 - 1 0 2 . P a u l , I . H . S t u d i e s i n R e m e m b e r i n g : T h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o n n e c t e d a n d e x t e n d e d v e r b a l m a t e r i a l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l I s s u e s , M o n o -g r a p h , 1 9 5 9 , 1 ( w h o l e n o . 2 ) . P o u l t o n , E . C . P e r i p h e r a l v i s i o n , r e f r a c t o r i n e s s a n d e y e m o v e m e n t s i n f a s t o r a l r e a d i n g . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 19 6 2 , 5 3 , 4 0 9 - 4 1 9 . P r o g e r , B . B . , T a y l o r , R . G . J . , M a n n , L . , C o u l s o n , J . M . , a n d R . J . B a y u k . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 7 7 t h A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n o f  t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 6 9 , 4 ( 2 ) , 6 1 9 - 6 2 0 . R a n k i n , E . F . , J r . A n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e as a t e c h n i q u e f o r m e a s u r i n g r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n ) A n n A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o -f i l m , 19 5 7 . R a n k i n , E . F . , J r . T h e c l o z e p r o c e d u r e — A s u r v e y o f r e s e a r c h . F o u r t e e n t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e . M i l w a u k e e : N a t i o n a l R e a d i n g C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 6 4 , 1 3 3 - 1 4 8 . R o s e n b e r g , S. , & K o p l i n , J . H . ( E d s . ) . D e v e l o p m e n t s i n A p p l i e d P s y c h o l i n q u i s ' t i c s R e s e a r c h . N e w Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 8 . 7 9 R o t h k o p f , E . Z . T h e c o n c e p t o f m a t h e m a g e n i c a c t i v i t i e s . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1 9 7 0 , 4 0 , 3 2 5 - 3 3 6 . R o t h k o p f , E . Z . L e a r n i n g f r o m w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i v e m a t e r i a l : A n e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l o f i n s p e c t i o n b e h a v i o r b y t e s t - l i k e e v e n t s . A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 6 , 3, 2 4 1 - 2 4 9 . R o t h k o p f , E . Z . , & B i s b i c o e s , E . E . S e l e c t i v e f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s o f i n t e r s p e r s e d q u e s t i o n s o n l e a r n i n g f r o m w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , 5 8 , 5 6 - 6 1 . R u d d e l l , R . B . T h e e f f e c t o f o r a l a n d w r i t t e n p a t t e r n s o f l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e o n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 19 6 5 , 18 , 2 7 0 - 2 7 5 . S a l z i n g e r , S. , S a l z i n g e r , K . , & H o b s o n , S. J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 6 4 , 1 9 6 6 , 7 9 - 9 0 . S c h l e s i n g e r , I . M . S e n t e n c e S t r u c t u r e a n d t h e R e a d i n g P r o c e s s . T h e H a g u e : M o u t o n , 1 9 6 8 . S h a n n o n , C . E . P r e d i c t i o n a n d e n t r o p y o f p r i n t e d E n g l i s h . B e l l S y s t e m  T e c h n i c a l J o u r n a l , 1 9 5 1 , 3 0 , 5 0 - 6 4 . S h a n n o n , C . . E . A m a t h e m a t i c a l t h e o r y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . B e l l S y s t e m  T e c h n i c a l J o u r n a l , 1 9 4 8 , 2 7 , 3 7 9 - 4 2 3 . S h a n n o n C . E . , & W e a v e r , W . T h e M a t h e m a t i c a l T h e o r y o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n . U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . S h o r e s , J . H . R e a d i n g s c i e n c e f o r t w o d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s as p e r c e i v e d b y s i x t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s a n d a b l e a d u l t r e a d e r s . E l e m e n t a r y  E n g l i s h , I 9 6 0 , 3 7 , 4 6 1 - 4 6 8 . S m i t h , A . C . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f c h a n g e i n p u r p o s e u p o n o c u l a r m o t o r r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r o f u n i v e r s i t y f r e s h m e n . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n ) A n n A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o -f i l m s , 1 9 6 3 . S m i t h , H . K . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s f o r p u r p o s e -f u l " r e a d i n g . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 1 9 6 4 , 8 , 1 7 - 2 3 . S p a c h e , G e o r g e D. I s t h i s a b r e a k t h r o u g h i n r e a d i n g ? R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 1 9 6 2 , 15 , 2 5 8 - 2 6 3 . S p a c h e , G . D . , & B e r g , P . C . T h e A r t o f E f f i c i e n t R e a d i n g . N e w Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 6 . 80 Stevens, G. L. , & R e g i n a l d O r e m , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c r eading techniques of r a p i d r e a d e r s . Reading Teacher, 1963, 17, 102-112. Sweet, H.A. A New E n g l i s h G r a m m a r . Oxford, The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , (1891) 1940. T a y l o r , S. E. Eye movements i n reading; F a c t s and f a l l a c i e s . A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l , 1965, 2, 187-202. T a y l o r , W. L . C l o s e r e a d a b i l i t y s c o r e s as i n d i c e s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n and aptitude. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y , 1957, 41, 19-26. T a y l o r , W. L . A p p l i c a t i o n of " c l o z e " and entropy m e a s u r e s to the study of contextual c o n s t r a i n t i n samples of continuous p r o s e . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s ) A n n A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1954. T i n k e r , M. A. E y e movements i n reading. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1963, 30, 241 -277. ~ T i n k e r , M. A. Recent studies i n eye movements i n Reading. P s y c h o l o -g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1950, 55, 4. T i n k e r , M. A. U ses and l i m i t a t i o n s of speed of r e a d i n g p r o g r a m s i n s chools. P r o c e e d i n g s of the F o r t y - f o u r t h Annual E d u c a t i o n  Conference, Newark, Delaware: U n i v e r s i t y of Delaware, 1963, 10, 9-18. Tweney, R. D. , & Ager, J. Role of stimulus c o m p l e x i t y i n r e c a l l of complex p r o s e m a t e r i a l s . P r o c e e d i n g s of the 77th A n n u a l Convention of the A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l Convention, 1969, 4 (1), 53-54. ' "Ware, W. B. , & Bowers, N. D. The pos s i b i l i t y of p r e t e s t - i n s t r u c t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m under two conditions of p r e t e s t i n g . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d at the 19 69 annual meeting of the A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , L o s Angeles, F e b r u a r y I969. Weaver, W. The p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of o m i s s i o n s i n reading and l i s t e n i n g . E l e v e n t h Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Reading Conference. Milwaukee: Na t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1961, 184-153. Weaver, W. , & B i c k l e y , A. C. The r e t r i e v a l of l e a r n i n g sets by the e x t e r n a l d i s p l a y of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . Sixteenth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. Milwaukee: N a t i o n a l Reading Conference, 1967, 38-46. 81 Wells R. S. Immediate constituents. Language, 1947, 23, 81-117. Whipple, G. M. , & Curtis, J. N. Preliminary investigation of skimming in reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1917, 8, 333-349. Wood, E. N. A breakthrough in reading. Reading Teacher, I960, 14, 115-117. Yngve, V. H. A model and hypothesis for language structure. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, I960, 104, 444-466. Yngve, V. H. The depth hypothesis. In R. Jakobson (Ed.), Structure of Language and its Mathematical Aspect. Proceedings of ths 12th Symposium in Applied Mathematics. 1961. A P P E N D I C E S APPENDIX A Instructions for E x a m i n e r 82 A P P E N D I X A Instructions for E x a m i n e r S e s s i o n One Introduction G r e e t i n g "You have been s e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t being conducted at UBC. Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and cooperation i s v e r y much appreciated. "We are going to s p l i t into two groups for the a c t i v i t i e s today. F o r this purpose, take one piece of paper f r o m the box which i s being p a s s e d at this time. " P a s s the box with the blue and gold s l i p s of paper. Ei g h t g o l d ( e x p e r ) : -x_ Seven blue (control). "As soon as you have your s l i p of paper, wri t e your name on it along with the l e t t e r of this block (period) and the r o o m number. "Those of you who have a gold s l i p of paper, wri t e ( r o o m number) on your paper and c i r c l e this number. Now, you people with the gold (blue) s l i p s of paper w i l l go i m m e d i a t e l y to r o o m for the r e m a i n d e r of this p e r i o d . ( T a k e your books etc. with you and go now.)" P a u s e for r o o m changes ( A s s i s t Ss as indicated) C o l l e c t gold s l i p s of paper f r o m Ss. " T h e r e are two p a r t s to the a c t i v i t i e s which we w i l l do today. The f i r s t p a r t is v e r y short. DO N O T turn the page of the handout which i s being p a s s e d out now. " D i s t r i b u t e one copy of the V a n Wagenen Rate of C o m p r e h e n s i o n to each Ss. "Look at the front page of this handout. Ln the spaces p r o v i d e d . along the righ t m a r g i n of this page, f i l l i n the i n f o r m a t i o n requested. P r i n t your name, grade and school. In the space for teacher, put the name of your r e g u l a r teacher in this p e r i o d ; also indicate the block and your r e g u l a r r o o m number. Today's date is A p r i l 9 ( A p r i l 1 0 ) . "Now look at the bottom h a l f of this page where it says: D I R E C T I O N S F O R R A T E O F C O M P R E H E N S I O N T E S T and follow along: "Read p a r a g r a p h A c a r e f u l l y . It says: ( r e a d f r o m copy of test) 'Ln the l a s t h a l f of this p a r a g r a p h the w o r d buttons does not 83 f i t i n w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p a r a g r a p h , so b u t t o n s i s c r o s s e d o u t . 1 N o w l o o k at p a r a g r a p h B a n d f i n d t h e w o r d w h i c h d o e s n o t f i t i n w i t h t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e r e s t o f t h e p a r a g r a p h . P A U S E . Y e s , t h e w o r d w h i c h s h o u l d b e c r o s s e d o u t i n B i s " M a t c h e s . " "Now, i n t h e n e x t o n e h a l f m i n u t e o r s o t r y t o f i n d a n d c r o s s o u t t h e w o r d w h i c h d o e s n o t f i t i n t h e l a s t h a l f o f p a r a g r a p h s C, D, E, F, a n d G. " A f t e r o n e h a l f m i n u t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y , "O. K. , w h a t w o r d s h o u l d be c r o s s e d o u t i n C ? ( A f t e r n o o n ) D ? ( W a t e r ) E ? ( l a u g h e d ) F ? ( t a b l e ) G ? ( f i r s t ) " A r e t h e r e a n y q u e s t i o n s o r d i s a g r e e m e n t s ? " . . . . "On t h e n e x t t w o p a g e s y o u w i l l f i n d m o r e p a r a g r a p h s j u s t l i k e t h e o n e s we h a v e j u s t d o n e . W h e n I g i v e t h e s i g n a l y o u w i l l t u r n t h e p a g e a n d r e a d e a c h p a r a g r a p h t o f i n d t h e w o r d i n t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e p a r a g r a p h w h i c h d o e s n o t f i t i n w i t h t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e r e s t o f i t . M a k e a c r o s s t h r o u g h t h i s w o r d j u s t as y o u h a v e done o n t h e s a m p l e p a r a g r a p h s . W o r k a s f a s t a s y o u c a n w i t h o u t m a k i n g m i s t a k e s . Do n o t s t a y t o o l o n g o n a n y one p a r a g r a p h . A f t e r a r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t , go o n t o t h e n e x t one. • , " A r e t h e r e a n y q u e s t i o n s ? " H a v e t i m e r r e a d y f o r f o u r m i n u t e s . " I f n o t , G E T R E A D Y , T U R N T H E P A G E . . . B E G I N . C o l l e c t t h e t e s t p a p e r s w h e n t h e t i m e r g o e s o f f at f o u r m i n . H a v e t h e I B M A n s w e r S h e e t s r e a d y t o h a n d o u t . D i s t r i b u t e t h e m . D i s t r i b u t e q u e s t i o n b o o k l e t s . " F i l l i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d o n t h e t o p o f y o u r I B M a n s w e r s h e e t . " L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s o n t h e f r o n t o f y o u r b o o k l e t . " S t a r t t a p e o n w h i c h i s r e c o r d e d t h e d i r e c t i o n s p r i n t e d o n t h e f r o n t o f  th e q u e s t i o n b o o k l e t s ( " D i r e c t i o n s t o S t u d e n t s " ) A t t h e e n d o f th e t a p e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e . W h e n s t u d e n t s h a v e h a d 20 m i n u t e s i n w h i c h t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s c o l l e c t  t h e f i r s t a n s w e r s h e e t a n d s a y : "Now go o n t o t h e s e c o n d s e t o f q u e s t i o n s i n t h e s a m e m a n n e r a s y o u h a v e j u s t done o n t h e f i r s t s e t o f q u e s t i o n s . Go. a h e a d . " O b s e r v e s t u d e n t s t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e y f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s . ' C o l l e c t a l l m a t e r i a l s a f t e r s t u d e n t s h a v e h a d t w e n t y m i n u t e s o f w o r k i n g t i m e . 84 APPENDIX A Instructions for Examiner Session Two Greeting Distribute a pencil and two IBM answer sheets to each student. "Please fill in the information requested on the top two lines of both the IBM answer sheets. "Today's date is May 5 (May 6 ) . "In the space after INSTRUCTOR, write (the name of your regular English teacher). "We will fill in the space for NAME OF TEST later. "Now, when your name is called, please come and pick up an IBM card with your name on it and a booklet. Please DO NOT OPEN THE BOOKLET UNTIL YOU ARE GIVEN DIRECTIONS TO DO SO. "On your IBM card there is a number written under your name. Copy this number in the squares below the arrow on both of your answer sheets. Start at the top and put only one number in each page. " Distribute the booklets by groups according to the IBM cards: Control: Pink stripe Experimental: Blue stripe If a student is absent, write "abs" on the IBM card. There is a separate sequence of materials for students for whom there is no IBM card (these Ss should not have been present for the first session. ) N- B. Booklets must be given to the Ss present in sequence within the respective groups (C;E). When the entire initial sequence of booklets for the group has been exhausted, it is necessary to repeat the process in order (as numbered) in the upper left corner). As soon as each Ss has received a booklet; "Now you should each have a booklet. (Remind about not opening if necessary) "On the upper right corner of your booklet you should find a letter and a number (e. g. H-l, or S-7; H-0); Write this letter and number on just one of your IBM answer sheets in the space after NAME OF TEST. Put the other answer sheet under your test booklet until later. "Next, put a " 1 " in the upper left corner of your answer sheet above the word NAME and circle it. 85 "Now follow along on the front page of your booklet and listen to the next instructions on the tape. Start the tape deck. After the Ss have skimmed: "Now turn the first pink page and look at the directions for answering the questions. "You will have approximately 15 minutes in which to answer this set of questions. Work as rapidly as you can. If you are unsure of an answer, do not delay too long. After a reasonable effort, go onto the next item. If time allows, you may go back to those items about which you were uncertain. "Do not look back at the article for any reason. (Repeat). Do not look back at the article. "Do not turn past the second colored page until you are instructed to do so. "When you have finished answering all of the items in this set, close your booklet and wait quiety for further instructions. If you brought materials with you, you may study until we are ready to start the next part. "Go ahead . . . . begin. " When the time is up for answering the first set of questions (ZO minutes): "Pass forward the answer sheet which you have just completed. Be sure that you have filled in the information at the top of the answer sheet: NAME; 1; ID number; NAME OF TEST (as on the front cover of your booklet). "Now turn the second colored page, so that your booklet is open to the page headed "DIRECTIONS TO STUDENTS" at the middle of the booklet (This page is opposite the second pink page. ) Stop recorder - on the upper right corner of this page is a letter and a number. Write. "These instructions are exactly the same as before. In order to review the procedure briefly, look toward the bottom of the page where it says, "Remember, then:" After the Ss have skimmed the second article: 86 "Now turn the first gold page. "Be sure to write the name of test on your answer sheet and then go ahead immediately. "You will have approximately 15 minutes in which to do the next part of the activity. Be sure to write the name of test in the proper space now. "When you have finished please wait quietly until all have finished. "Please do not discuss the activities you have done this period with other students. This is very important. We appreciate your cooperation. "Thank you very much for your assistance and cooperation. " o APPENDIX B Measuring Instruments SCIENCE The Solar System DIRECTIONS: Do not make marks of any kind on this set of questions. A l l of your answers should be marked on the IBM answer sheet. On the top of the answer sheet f i l l in the information requested. In the space after "NAME OF TEST" write the subject given on top of your set of questions: "SCIENCE". In the same space put a "1" i f you are doing, this set of questions f i r s t ; put a "2" i f you are doing them second, for example: "SCIENCE-1". In the space after "INSTRUCTOR" write the name of your regular teacher in this block. Then put the letter indicating the block and the room number for this class period. Now look at the "DIRECTIONS" on the top l e f t of your answer sheet: Read each question (item) and i t s numbered answers (choices). When you have decided which answer is correct (or the best choice), blacken the corresponding space on this sheet with a (No. 2) pencil. Make your mark as long as the pair of lines, and completely f i l l the area between the pair of lines. If you change your mind, erase your f i r s t mark COMPLETELY. Make" no stray marks; they may count against you. Now look at the sample given next. You w i l l notice that the space between the dotted lines under the small number four has been completely f i l l e d in because Chicago is a city and "a ci t y " is choice number 4 in the sample. Note that the answer spaces for the items go l e f t to right across the page: Remember then: 1. Choose the one best answer or completion for each item. 2. Erase completely any answer you wish to change. 3. Make your marks heavy and black. 4. Do not bend or crease your answer sheet. 5. Move l e f t to right across the answer sheet.— When you have finished answering a l l of the items, close the set of questions and wait quietly for further instructions. 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7 11 4 8 12 88 SCIENCE The Solar System 1. An object weighing 150 pounds on earth would weigh on Mercury: 1) 60 pounds; 2) 40 pounds; 3) 190 pounds; 4) 210 pounds; 5) 150 pounds.. (2) 2. The planet named for the Romangod of the harvest i s : 1) Saturn; 2) Mars; 3) Earth; 4) Uranus; 5) Ceres. (1) 3. Most asteroids are found i n a zone between the o r b i t s of: 1) Mars and Saturn; 2) Pluto and Neptune; 3) Earth and Saturn: 4) Venus and J u p i t e r ; 5) Mars and J u p i t e r . (5) 4. J u p i t e r was f i r s t seen i n : 1) ancient times; 2) 1930; 3) 1846; 4) 1671; 5) 1905. (1) ' 5. Neptune was discovered i n : 1) 1905; 2) 1801; 3) 1846; 4) 1676; 5) ancient times. (3) 6. The l a s t planet to be discovered was: 1) Pluto; 2) Uranus; 3) Saturn; 4) Mercury; 5) Neptune. (1) 7. The planet f a r t h e s t from the sun has an o r b i t a l speed of about: 1) 1/2 mile per minute; 2) 3 miles per second; 3) 15 miles per second; 4) 30 miles per second; 5) 26 miles per minute. (2) 8. The diameter of the sun i s : 1) 528,000 miles; 2) 88,700 miles; 3) 1,027,700 miles; 4) 865,400 miles; 5) 27,500 miles. (4) 9. The planet which has an atmosphere that reaches outward about as f a r as the earth's i s : 1) Mercury; 2) Venus; 3) J u p i t e r ; 4) A p o l l o ; 5) Mars. (5) 10. The planet named for the Roman goddess of beauty and love i s : 1) Venus; 2) Neptune; 3) Earth; 4) Ceres; 5) Saturn. ( D 11. The smallest planet i s : 1) Venus; 2) Mercury; 3) Pluto; 4) Ceres; 5) J u p i t e r . (2) 12. The diameter of Apollo i s : 1) about one mile; 2) about 50 miles; 3) about-100 miles; 4) about 500 miles; 5) nearly as large as the earth's. (1) 13. The temperature on the surface of the. sun i s about: 1) 830 degrees F. ; 2) 770 degrees F.; 3) 40,000,000 degrees F.; 4) 8,370 degrees F.; 5) 10,000 degrees F. (5) 14. The planet on which a great red spot has been seen p e r i o d i c a l l y i s : 1) Venus; 2) Mars; 3) Mercury; 4) Saturn; 5) J u p i t e r . (5) 15. The sun and the other heavenly bodies t r a v e l through space as,a u n i t at the rate of: 1) 30 miles per minute; 2) 1/2 miles per second; 3) 6-1/2 miles per minute; 4) 12 miles per second; 5) zero miles per second. a (4) ' a c o r r e c t answers are given on the r i g h t f o r each item. 89 -2-16. The c l o s e s t any planet comes to earth i s : 1) 15,600 miles; 2) 26 m i l l i o n miles; 3) 43 m i l l i o n miles; 4) 43,800 miles; 5) 13 m i l l i o n miles. (2) 17. Telescopic observations i n d i c a t e changing seasons on the planet: 1) Mars; 2) J u p i t e r ; 3) Uranus; 4) Saturn; 5) Venus. (1) 18. The planet named for the Roman god of the sea i s : 1) Venus; 2)Neptune; 3) Pluto; 4) Ceres; 5) Saturn. (2) 19. Pluto was f i r s t seen i n : 1) ancient times; 2) 1930; 3) 1846; 4) 1801; 5) 1905. (2) 20. The " t a i l s " on some heavenly bodies may be as long as: 1) 30,000 miles; 2) 100 m i l l i o n miles; 3) 300 b i l l i o n miles; 4) 3,000 miles; 5) 10,000 miles. (2) 21. The planet c l o s e s t to the sun i s : 1) Venus; 2) Pluto; 3) Mars; 4) Mercury; 5) Apollo. (4) 22. The name "planet" comes from the Greek word meaning: 1) plane; 2) o r b i t ; 3) c i r c l i n g ; 4) wandering; 5) star. (4) 23. The color of Uranus i s : 1) b r i g h t red; 2) pale blue; 3) pale green; 4) b r i g h t gold; 5) orange. (3) 24. In a l l , there are: 1) e i g h t planets; 2) nine planets; 3) eleven planets; 4) seven planets; 5) twelve planets. (?) 25. The number of asteroids i s believed to be about: 1) 1,500; 2) 2,200; 3) 2,500; 4) 150,000; 5) a m i l l i o n . (3) 26. The l a r g e s t of a l l of the planets i s : 1) J u p i t e r ; 2) Saturn; 3) Uranus; 4) Earth; 5) Neptune. (!) 27. The axis of the earth i s t i l t e d at: 1) a 12.5 degree angle; 2) a 19 degree angle; 3) a 23.5 degree angle; 4) a 33 degree angle; 5) a 29.5 degree angle. (3) 28. The sun rotates from: 1) north to south; 2) west to east; 3) south to north; 4) east to west; 5) none of these. (^) 29. The planet named a f t e r the Roman god of war i s : 1) Pluto; 2) Gemini; 3) Mercury; 4) J u p i t e r ; 5) Mars. 30. The planetary bodies with " t a i l s " are c a l l e d : 1) planets; 2) a s t e r o i d s ; 3) comets; 4) meteors; 5) none of these. 31. The planet nearest the sun has an o r b i t a l speed of about: 1) three miles per second; 2) 12 miles per minute; 3) 15 miles per second; 4) 30 miles per second; 5) 26 miles per minute. (5) (3) (4) 9 0 -3-32. The planet which weighs more than a l l the other planets together i s : 1) Saturn; 2) Uranus; 3) J u p i t e r ; 4) Earth; 5) Mercury. (3) 3.3. Most planets travel i n the same plane except f o r : 1) Neptune and J u p i t e r ; 2) Mercury and Saturn; 3) Apollo; 4) Pluto; 5) Venus. (4) 34. The " t a i l s " of c e r t a i n heavenly bodies are always: 1) behind the body; 2) i n fr o n t of the body; 3) making clouds; 4) moving away from the sun; 5) none of these. (4) 35. The surface of Venus i s : 1) covered by clouds; 2)pale greenish colored; 3) marked by many canals and c r a t e r s ; 4) sometimes b r i g h t red; 5) covered with i c e . (1) 36. The sun i s : 1) mostly potash; 2) extremely hard rock; 3) a combination of minerals; 4) mostly granite and s i l i c o n e ; 5) a mass of gases. (5) 37. The planet which has a "sunny side" and a "dark sid e " i s : 1) Earth; 2) Mercury; 3) Mars: 4) Ceres; 5) Pluto. (2) 38. In r e l a t i o n to the size of the earth, the sun i s : 1) 500,000 times larger; 2) one m i l l i o n times l a r g e r ; 3) 5,000 times l a r g e r ; 4) f i v e m i l l i o n times larger; 5) nine-tenths as large. (2) 39. S c i e n t i s t s have suggested that l i f e may e x i s t on: 1) Saturn; 2) Venus; 3) Mars; 4) Ju p i t e r ; 5) Mercury. (3) 40. The diameter of Ceres i s : 1) about one mile; 2) about 50 miles; 3) about 100 miles; 4) about 500 miles; 5) nearly as large as the earth's diameter,(4) 41. The planet named a f t e r the oldest Greek God i s : 1) Pluto; 2) Gemini; 3) Uranus; 4) Mars; 5) Neptune. (3) 42. The diameter of the rin g s which c i r c l e s one of the planets i s more than: 1) 8,600 miles; 2) 88,700 miles; 3) 170,000 miles; 4) 528,000 miles; 5) a m i l l i o n miles. (3) 43. The t o t a l volume of the asteroids i s : 1) o n e - f i f t h the earth's; 2) four times the earth's; 3) a thousand times the earth's;4) one-five hundredth of the earth's; 5) one-fourth the earth's. (4) 44. The planet named for the king of the Roman gods i s : 1) J u p i t e r ; 2) Apollo; 3) Mars; 4) Pluto; 5) Mercury. (1) 45. Asteroids were f i r s t observed i n : 1) ancient times; 2) 1930; 3) 1846; 4) 1801; 5) 1905. (4) 46. The o r b i t of Pluto i s thought to influence the movement of the planet: 1) Uranus; 2) Apollo; 3) Jupiter; 4) Saturn; 5) Neptune. (5) 47. The b r i g h t e s t planet i n the solar system i s : 1) Mars; 2) J u p i t e r ; 3) Venus; 4) Mercury; 5) Saturn. (3) 48. The planet f a r t h e s t away from the sun i s : 1) Venus; 2) Pluto; 3) Mars; 4) Mercury; 5) Apollo. (2) o 91 49. The planet which has three rings circling its equator is: 1) Neptune; 2) Apollo; 3) Jupiter; 4) Saturn; 5) Mars. (4) 50. The planet named after the Greek god who ruled the "lower world" is: 1) Saturn; 2) Jupiter; 3) Neptune; 4) Uranus; 5) Pluto. ( 3 ) 51. The planet named after the messenger of the Greek gods is: 1) Jupiter; 2) Pluto; 3) Mercury; 4) Apollo; 5) Uranus. ( 3 ) 52. The orbit of Uranus is influenced by the planet: 1) Neptune; 2) Apollo; 3) Jupiter; 4) Pluto; 5) Saturn, (1) 53. The planet often considered to be the most interesting and beautiful of a l l the planets is: 1) Jupiter; 2) Mars; 3) Saturn; 4) Moon; 5) Venus. ( 3 ) 54. The planet which glows red in the sky is: 1) Venus; 2) Mars; 3) Mercury; 4) Gemini; 5) Saturn. (2) 55. In the order of the distance from the sun, the earth is: 1) second; 2) third; 3) fourth; 4) fi f t h ; 5) sixth. (2) 56. The planet which comes closest to the earth is: 1) Mars; 2) Mercury; 3) Venus; 4) Jupiter; 5) the Moon. ( 3 ) 92 HISTORY 1. Most of Mexico was taken under the control of: 1) Italy; 2) Spain; 3) Portugal; 4) England; 5) France. (2) 2. Cabral sailed in the service of: 1) Spain; 2) Italy; 3) France; 4) Portugal; 5) none of these. (4) 3. Cabot sailed in the service of: 1) Spain; 2) England; 3) France; 4) Holland; 5) Italy. (2) 4. The most advanced culture of the western world before the age of exploration was the: 1) Aztecs; 2) Tenochtitlan; 3) Incas; 4) Conquistadores; 5) Brazilians. (3) 5. Cook explored: 1) the northeast; 2) Australia; 3) South America; 4) Africa; 5) Central America. (2) 6. The leader of a native people in Mexico was: 1) Cortes; 2) Montezuma; 3) Aztecs; 4) Tenochtitlan; 5) Incas. (2) 7. The explorer who tried to find a straight route to the Spice Islands was: 1) Diaz; 2) Magellan; 3) Cabot; 4) Columbus; 5) Cartier. (2) 8. Magellan sailed in the service of: 1) Spain; 2) Portugal; 3) France; 4) England; 5) Italy. (1) 9. The man whose exploration f i r s t gave England claim to much of North America was: 1) La Salle; 2) Hudson; 3) Cartier; 4) Cabot; 5) Drake. W 10. Francis Drake: 1) was poorly paid for his voyages; 2) sailed for France; 3) tried to establish a colony for England; 4) circled the globe in the late 1500's; 5) sought to colonize the East coast. (4) 11. The leader of the famous expedition to Mexico was: 1) Montezuma; 2) Pizarro; 3) Aztec; 4) Cortes; 5) Cartier. (4) 12. The explorer of Peru was: 1) Pizarro; 2) Cortes; 3) La Salle; 4) Cartier; 5) Cabot. (1) 13. The person usually credited with being the f i r s t European to see the Pacific Ocean is: 1) Balboa; 2) Magellan; 3) Vasco da Gama; 4) Columbus; 5) Cortes. ° (1) 14. The period referred to as the age of exploration of the New World is: 1) the 15th and 16th centuries; 2) the 16th and 17th centuries; 3) the 14th to the 17th centuries; 4) the mid-15th to the late 17th centuries; 5) the 13th to the 15th centuries. (1) 9 3 - 2 -15. The f i r s t European to s a i l past the southern t i p of A f r i c a was: 1) da Gama; 2) Cortes; 3) Magellan; 4) Diaz ; 5) Cabot. (4) 16. The f i r s t permanent French colony was started by: 1) La S a l l e ; 2) C a r t i e r ; 3) Cabot; 4) L a f f i t t e ; 5) Champlain. (5) 17. The explorer credi ted with opening passage to the Far East was: 1) Vasco da Gama; 2) Vasco de 'Balboa; 3) Magellan; 4) Cortes; 5) P i z a r r o . (1) 18. Car t ie r t r i e d to explore: 1) a route to A u s t r a l i a ; 2) a northern route to the Far East ; 3) a route around A f r i c a ; 4) a route to the Far North; 5) the South P a c i f i c . ( 2 ) 19. The f i r s t permanent French colony in America was started i n : 1) 1596; 2) 1607; 3) 1696;4) 1608; 5) 1495. C 4 ) 20. The explorer who found the route that led to the P a c i f i c Ocean was: 1) Balboa; 2) Cabot; 3) Cortes; 4) P i s a r r o ; 5) Magellan. ( 5 ) 21. The name of a group of native people i n Mexico was: 1) Cortes; 2) Montezuma; 3) Incas; 4) Aztecs ; 5) Tenocht i t lan . (4) 22. The man whose explorat ion f i r s t gave France i t s c la im to parts of North America was: 1) La S a l l e ; 2) Hudson; 3) Drake; 4) Cabot; 5) C a r t i e r . (5) 23. The c a p i t a l c i t y of Mexico i n the time of the ear ly native empire was: 1) the " c i t y of K ings" ; 2) Darien; 3) Mexico C i t y ; 4) Tenoch-t i t l a n ; 5) Cathay. (4) 24. The time required for the f i r s t crew to circumnavigate the world was: 1) a year and a h a l f ; 2) a l i t t l e over two years; 3) three years ; 4) fourteen months; 5) twenty-nine months. (3) 25. The B u l l of Demarcation was intended to s e t t l e a dispute between: 1) France and Spain; 2 ) Spain and Por tugal ; 3.) France and England; 4) France and Por tugal ; 5) Spain and England. ( 2 ) 26. The explorer who was k i l l e d in the Ph i l ipp ine Islands was: 1) C a r t i e r ; 2) da Gama; 3) Cabot; 4) Diaz; 5) Magellan. (5) 27. The f i r s t European to reach North America af ter the Northmen was: 1) Magellan; 2) C a r t i e r ; 3) La S a l l e ; 4) Cabot; 5) Cortes. (4) 28. The leader of the f i r s t expedit ion to circumnavigate the world was: 1) Diaz ; 2) da Gama; 3) Magellan; 4) Balboa; 5) Columbus. 29. The f i r s t permanent Engl ish colony in America was started i n : 1) 1596; 2) 1695;3) 1608; 4) 1607; 5) 1495. (3) (4) 94 30. The claim of France in North America was based on the exploration of: 1) La Salle; 2) Cartier; 3) Cabot; 4) Champlain; 5) Cook. (2) 31. Not a reason for the downfall of the native empire of Mexico was: 1) their being outnumbered; 2) the stern rule of their leader; 3) their superstitions; 4) their great wealth; 5) their lack of horses and iron armor. (1) 32. John Cabot was by birth: 1) an Englishman; 2) a Frenchman; 3) an Italian; 4) a Dutchman; 5) a Spaniard. (3) 33. Brazil came under the control of: 1) Spain; 2) England; 3) France; 4) Italy; 5) Portugal. (5) 34. The famous explorer of the Mississippi was: 1) Cabot; 2) Hudson; 3) Champlain; 4) Laffitte; 5) La Salle. (5) 35. Henry Hudson sought to discover: 1) Australia; 2) the South Pacific; 3) a route to China; 4) a route to the Indies; 5) a route to the Far North. (3) 36. Magellan began his famous expedition in: I) 1490; 2) 1500; 3) 1519; 4) 1576; 5) 1607. (3) 37. The natives of Mexico lost the control of their capital in: 1) 1490; 2) 1521; 3) 1590; 4) 1441; 5) 1607. (2) 38. The fi r s t permanent French colony in America was in: 1) Montreal; 2) Quebec; 3) Nova Scotia; 4) Prince Edward Island; 5) St. Lawrence. (.2) 39. Balboa was from: 1) Italy; 2) Spain; 3) France: 4) Portugal; 5) England. (2) 40. Captain Cook made his explorations in: 1) the early 1500's; 2) the 1700's; 3) the late 1600's; 4) the late 1400's; 5) the 1800's. (2) 41. France's claim to the Louisiana Territory was the result of explorat-ion by: 1) La Salle; 2) Magellan; 3) Cartier; 4) Laffitte; 5)Champlain, (1) 42. Montezuma was: 1) leader of the Incas; 2) the capital of a native tribe in Mexico; 3) a conquistador; 4) ruler of the Aztecs; 5) a tribe of Indians. (4) 43. A new city was built in Peru by: 1) Cortez; 2) Cartier; 3) Pizzaro; 4) Diaz; 5) Balboa. (3) 44. By the "northwest passage", the English sought a route to: 1) Russia; 2) China; 3) the North Pole; 4) Australia; 5) Canada. (2) (4) V a n . W a g e n e n R A T E O F C O M P R E H E N S I O N S C A L E F o r m D Also Part I Van Wagenen Verbal Mental Abilities Scales Form A Division 4 and Part I Dvorak-Van Wagenen Diagnostic Examination of Silent Reading Abilities Senior Division  In Grades 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, give five minutes for working on the scale and use this conversion table. 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 No. of paragraphs correctly read Words per minute 6 1 2 ig 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108 114 120 in grades 4-9 No. of paragraphs correctly read Words per minute 126 132 138 144 150 156 162 168 174 180 186 192 198 204 210 216 222 228 234 240 in grades 4-9 No. of paragraphs 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 g 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 5 0 g l 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 g 5 6 correctly read Words per minute 246 252 258 264 270 276 282 288 294 300 306 312 318 324 330 336 in grades 4-9 In Grades 10, 11 and 12, give four minutes for working on the scale and use this conversion table. No. of paragraphs correctly read Words per minute 7 1 5 2 2 3 0 3 7 4 5 5 2 60 67 75 82 90 97 105 112 120 127 135 142 150 in grades 10-12 No. of paragraphs correctly read 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Words per minute i g ? 1 6 5 1 ? 2 1 8 0 l g 7 1 9 5 2 Q 2 2 1 Q 2 1 ? 2 2 5 2 3 2 2 4 0 2 4 7 2 5 5 2 6 2 2 7 Q 2 7 7 2 g 5 2 9 2 3 Q ( ) in grades 10-12 No. of paragraphs correctly read 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 V/ords per minute 3 Q 7 3 i g ^ 3 3 Q 3 3 ? 3 4 g 3 g 2 3 6 Q 3 6 ? 3 ? 5 3 g 2 3 9 0 3 9 ? 4 Q g 4 J 2 4 2 Q in grades 10-12 DIRECTIONS FOR RATE OF COMPREHENSION TEST Read paragraph A carefully. A Jane needed a spool of silk thread to finish her new dress. But when she went to the store for her mother she forgot to get the & ^ 4 ( J ^ she needed. In the last half of this paragraph the word buttons does not fit in with the meaning of the rest cf the paragraph, so buttons is crossed out. B The carpenter asked Tom to go to the hard-ware store and get him a pound of nails. When. Tom got back with the matches the carpenter gave him a ruckle. C We are planning to go on an all day pic-ric tomorrow. We want to get started just as early in the afternoon as we can get away. D John's car came to a stop because there was no more gasoline in the tank. When he had to walk over a mile to get water it made him cross. E When we hit the man as he was crossing the street it made him very angry. While he was getting up and brushing off his clothes he laughed at us. F There was a very large crowd to see the motion picture last night. We got there very early but even then there was hardly an empty table in the place. G The ball game was more than half over when we got to it but it was so exciting that we were glad to see even the first part of it. Copyr ight , 1953, M. J. Von Waganen R A T E O F C O M P R E H E N S I O N 9 6 . 0 1. Alice had wanted a new sewing machine for a long time. She was very happy when she got one as a Christmas present and has already learned to play it. 2. T h e fire in the city last night was such a big one and could be seen from so far away that people drove long distances to see the fireworks. 3. H e n r y feels sure that he will be a good carpenter when he grows up. Whenever his mother has any-thing to be repaired around the house he does it very poorly. 4. T h e blizzard lasted so long that the Scott family was without food for two days. A s soon as the storm let up M r . Scott hurried to the store for some fuel. 5. M y friend lives a mile from the main road. W h e n -ever I visit her I go as far as I can on the bus and swim the rest of way. 6. M a r y expects to get a letter telling her of her brother's death at any time so she watches with a great deal of happiness for the coming of the mailman. 7. Thomas' new bicycle breaks down nearly every time he rides it. T h e boys think it must have been a very costly one, however much he may have paid for it. 8. Margaret liked to sit on the beach in her bathing suit but the sun shone so brightly that she was afraid of getting wet if she stayed out too long. 9. E v e r y one in Marshall calls the old shoemaker on the corner Uncle John. M a n y people have been going to him to have their watches repaired for the last twenty years. 10. It is cloudy this morning and looks as if it would rain in a short time. If you go to the store be sure to take your cane with you. 11. D u r i n g the winter squirrels can seldom get food from the earth because it is covered with deep snow, so during the fall they store up fuel for the coming winter. 12. Since they have been living at the lake the boys have become so fond of rowing that we have bought each one of them a new bicycle for his birthday. 13. Alice is making a new dress to wear to a party next week. She expected to have it done tonight but she did not have enough paint to finish it. .. 14. A l l the boys in our school like Peter and want him to play in all their games. T h i s is because he plays unfairly when he is on the losing side. 15. There was danger of fire in the woods since no rain had fallen for weeks. So when campers came they were told it was too wet to start a fire. 16. Otto always shares his toys and candies with his playmates whether he likes them or not. Because of this trait everyone who knows him thinks he is very selfish. 17. T h e firemen came rushing down the street to the corner house but when they got there they were too late to help as the cat had already been put out. 18. E g g s were so high last winter that M r s . Scott de-cided not to use them any longer in baking. In making cakes she selected recipes which did not call for butter. 19. M r . B r o w n is an honest man and has been such a good mayor of our city that nearly everybody will vote against him if he runs for the office again. 20. Some children who live in the country think a l i -brary is a place where books are made but city children know that it is a place where they are sold. 21. There has been a great deal of rain this summer. In fact, we have had so much that it has been too dry for anyone's garden to grow well. 22. H e n r y and John started to build a kennel in which their new dog could sleep nights. W h e n it was nearly finished they suddenly discovered that they were out of mucilage. 23. M r . Jones expects to move into his new house soon. O n l y a little carpenter work remains to be done and the plumber thinks he can have that finished next week. 24. John had never seen a mountain before he went to visit his country cousins. H e was very much thrilled at his first view of one because it seemed so active. 25. W h e n it is cold the ice freezes thick enough for children to skate safely but it was so warm last winter that children could not go swimming at any time. 26. T h e old roof on our house has been leaking very badly for a long time. Father says that we shall just have to have a new chimney before winter comes. 27. W e started out for the concert very early last night but when we got there we found the restaurant-already so crowded that we could not get a seat any-where. 28. T h e children were a very gay and happy lot when they got back from the picnic. T o be in such a mood they must have had a dismal time indeed. (Continue on next page) 96. 29. The man who does our painting always forgets to paint something so he has to come back again. The last time he was here he forgot to do the rugs. 30. M r . W i l l i a m s has been going to his work on the bus. H e bought a new car one day last week so now ne can walk to his work every morning. 31. W h e n Ralph's mother lets him play every after-noon during the summer while she washes clothes for other people to earn a l iv ing , we think she is very cruel to h im. 32. The new hunting dog which we bought only a short time ago was delivered in a crate. W h e n we opened it he jumped out and began to purr very happily. 33. Y o u had better look in your mai l box for some .mail for you. W h e n Jane and I were coming down the street we saw the mi lkman stop at ycu r house. 34. Joseph is so fond of animals that he has no trouble in taming the w i l d ones that he catches young. W h e n he grows up he expects to be a butcher. 35. M a n y children have been having the measles lately. Al though it was clear and warm yesterday very few children were at the school picnic. The rain must have kept them away. 36. Las t month the carpenters put a new roof on our house and this week the painters have been here. Our house begins to look much like an old one again. 37. Mar t in ran hurriedly out of the house wi th his ball and bat. H i s sister, who saw him go, called to her mother that M a r t i n had gone to play marbles again. 38. The doctor has been stopping at the next door every day for a week. A s we have not seen the little boy for a while he must be away again. 39. A l l the boys except Ralph were wearing their bath-ing suits, so when a swim was decided upon Ralph ran Home as fast as he could to get his baseball suit. 40 . It always makes Frank very angry to see a big boy tease and abuse a smaller one. H e started in to laugh y h e n Henry tripped up his litt le brother yesterday. • 41. W h e n H a r r y fell off his new pony and broke his arm his mother was very much frightened and rushed him to the dentist just as fast as she could drive. 42. Jane is a clerk at the ribbon counter in a large de-partment store in our city. It amuses her very much when some people try to match dishes for themselves. 43. W h e n we drove home after the shower it seemed as if half the trees along the road had been blown down. It must have taken a heavy rainfall to do that. 44. H a r r y started to the store on his bicycle to get some groceries. The streets were so icy and the wind blew so hard that he found the walk ing very difficult. 45. D u r i n g his vacation Theodore had to work in a meat market instead of playing wi th the other boys. H e used to get very tired of cutting cloth day after day. 46. The boys were afraid that the waves would over-turn their boat when the wind came up so quickly so they swam back to the shore as quickly as they could. 47. Our teacher told us one morning that sponges are the skeletons of animals. Since then we have been t ry ing to find out what kind of looking plants they come from. 48. Whenever John was late to breakfast he always la id it to his broken watch. H e w i l l have to find an-other excuse now as he got a new pen for Christmas. 49. John earns money by keeping hens and sell ing eggs in a nearby city. A s he delivers them whi le they are perfectly fresh he gets a good price for his vegetables. 50. Jane learned so easily that she seldom took the trouble to look at her lessons. W h e n she failed i n school everyone knew that it was due to her stupidity. 51. Margaret is very much afraid of getting sunburned in the summer. Th i s is the reason why she w i l l never go out for a walk without taking her dog w i t h her. 52. The teacher seems to think that Jack is either very stupid or very lazy or perhaps both. It must be be-cause he does a l l of his school work so we l l . 53. John has already worn a hole in the bottom of one of his new shoes. T e l l h im to be sure to stop at the tailor's to have it repaired today. 54. W h e n Haro ld started the brush fire in the dry grass back of our house this afternoon he never thought that the disease would spread so rapidly over the whole place. 55. The president had been shot in the morning. Eve ry detective in the country was working on the case but at a late hour the thief had not yet been caught. 56. F rank must have had a breakdown on the way as he is very late in getting home from the village to-night. Otherwise he must have started much earlier than usual. If you have finished before the t ime is up, raise your hand and let the examiner know APPENDIX C STIMULUS PASSAGES DIRECTIONS TO STUDENTS DO NOT TURN THIS PACE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO. Read the following instructions silently as you listen: This is a test of your ability to skim an article which has been divided into seven equal parts. Each-part is printed on a separate page. You will be given a limited amount of time to get as much information as you can from each page. When the examiner says "Turn," you should turn the page immediately and skim through the entire part of the article on that page. Try to get as much information as you can. Do not delay in turning the page. No matter how far you have gotten when you hear the signal, go right on to the next page. The amount of time you will have on each page will be quite short. For example, it will be from now... (pause)... to now. You will not expect to get every bit of information, but do try to get as much as you can. You should try to pace yourself so that you are able to get to the bottom of each page by the time you are given the signal to turn the page. In order to reach this goal you will probably need to proceed at a rate which is much faster than your usual reading rate. Therefore, you should not plan to look at every word. In front of the first page of the article you will find a page which hasx's and o's (xoxoxox oxo) in place of words. This is a practice page which you should use to see how fast you will need to proceed in order to cover al! of the paragraphs on the following pages in the time allowed. When you have finished skimming the article you will be asked to answer some questions about the information contained in the article. Remember, then: 1. The first page will have x's and o's in place of words. The purpose for this page is to show you how much material you will need to cover in the given amount of time. 2. Try to skim all of each page to gel as much information as you can in the time allowed. 3. When the examiner gives the signai, "Turn," turn to the next page immediately. Do not delay for any reason. If you have any questions, ask them now. WAIT FOR THE SIGNAL TO TURN THE PAGE. SCIENCE The Solar System o x o x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x OXOX X O X O X O 0X0X0 0X0X0 OXOX o x o x o x XOXO x o x o o x o x o x x o x o x o 0X0X0 x o x o x x o x o 0X0X0X0. x o x o x o 0X0X0 OXOX x o x o x o o x o x o x o x 0X0X0X0 x o x o x o x x o x o x o x 0X0X0 OXOX o x o x o x x o x o x o x o OXOX o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x 0X0X0 o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o o x o x o o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x x o x 0X0 0X0X0X0 OXOX 0X0 XOXO XOXO OXO ; XOXOX 0X0 OXOX XOXO OX XOX 0X0X0X0 XOX 0X0X0X0X0X0xox x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o o x x o x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o OXOX x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x -o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x . o x o x o x o x o WAIT FOR THE SIGNAL TO TURN THE PAGE. SCIENCE The Solar System The vastness of our solar system is almost  incomprehensible. At the center of the solar  system is. 'the sun. Circling the sun are nine  planets. Moving around some of the planets are their moons. In the space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are the thousands of little  planets, or asteroids, also revolving around the sun. Cutting m, this way and that, across the paths of the planets, are countless comets and meteors. All these moving bodies — sun; planets. satellites.' asteroids, comets and meteors — travel  together _as, a unit through space. a_t the rate of about twelve miles a second. The planets, m order of their distance from the sun, are Mercury. Venus, Earth, Mars,  Jupiter. Saturn, Uranus. Neptune and Pluto. The first four are relatively close to the sun and to each other. The outer five planets are not only farther from the sun, but are also separated from ? 3 c h other by, vast distances. The planets revolve  around the sun eg 11 n ter-c I o c k w i s e jn nearly  circular orbits. Ajl travel jn almost the same pjane excejjt for Pluto, the outermost planet. In general, as the distance from the sun increases, the gjane t • paths are more and more widely  separated. The farther from the sun, the longer S-2.1 "he numeral to the left of the period designates the treatment ondition T. through T„ The numeral to the right identifie he page number within the treatment condition. 100 it takes a planet to complete one revolution. This is due not only to the longer orbital path, but also to the slower speed with which the more distant planets revolve. Mercury, the planet nearest to the sun, has an orbital speed of almost thirty miles a second, while Pluto. farthest from the sun, has an orbital speed of only three miles a second. The solar system is held together by two forces, gravitation and centrifugal force, which balance each other. If they did not balance each other, one of two things would happen: either the planets would fh/ out into space or they would be PuHed into the sun. The sun, located in the center of our solar  system, is a star, a heavenly body that produces Jight and heat, h is a huge mass of gases  burning -dt a temperature ranging from 10,000  degrees Fahrenheit _at the surface to about  35.000.000 degrees Fahrenheit at_ the center. The sun, whose diameter is £65^400 miles, is large enough to contain one ni il 1 ion pj^nejs' the size of our earth. The sun rotates on its axis from east to west. The five planets nearest to the sun.  Mercury. Venus. Earth. Mars and Jupiter, were S - 2 . 2 101 known and named m ancient times. Babylonian  astronomers could predict the motion of the planets but could not explain h. The name "planets" comes from ihe Greek word planetes. which means wandering. Mercury, named for the messenger of the Greek gods, is the smallest planet m the solar  system. Because Mercury is tiny and no_t very  dense, its gravitational puH is much less than  that of earth. A man weighing 150 pounds on our earth would weigh only 40 pounds on  Mercury. Since hs rotation and revolution are identical in time. Mercury always presents the sjtme face to the sun. U is est [ma ted that the temperature of this sunny side ranges from 500 degrees to 770 degrees Fahrenheit. The dark side is believed to have a temperature less than 400  degrees. Venus, named for the Roman goddess of love and beauty, is the brightest planet of the solar system. Venus comes closer to our earth than any other planet, sometimes approaching to within 26.000.000 miles. The surface of Venus cannot be seen because the planet is covered b^ a layer of clouds. Earth is the planet on which we live. The S-2.3 102 axis of the earth is tilted at a 23'/> degree angle to the plane of _ks orbit. This causes the sun's  rays to strike the earth a£ different angles during  different times of the year, thus creating seasonal  changes. Mars, the planet that glows red m the sky, is named for the Roman god of war. Astronomers have long speculated on the possibility that hfe exists on Mars. JU h_as an atmosphere extending outward about as far as earth's atmosphere. Scientists believe, however, that there is much less oxygen and water \n Mars' air than in ours. Telescopic observations show large areas that [ur_n ixkieigreeji at certain  seasons and polar ice caps that grow larger m the Martian winter and recede m the Martian  summer. Many straight lines can be seen th rough the telescope. These Hnes are believed by some  astronomers to be canals. Jupiter, largest and heaviest of a]l the planets, is named for the king of the gods iri Roman mythology. Jupiter weighs more than ajj the planets put together. Through the telescope this planet is seen to shine brilliantly and jn many colors. In 1878, a great red spot was noticed on Jupiter. After a few years, it faded. S-2.4 T h e last t i m e il was unusua l l y red was m, 1,936. Th i s spot was visible t h r o u g h the gaseous c louds w h i c h h ide J u p i t e r ' s sur face. S a t u r n , named fo r the R o m a n god o f the harvest , is the mos t b e a u t i f u l and most  in te res t ing o f aH the p lanets . T h o u g h m u c h larger than o u r e a r t h , S a t u r n is made u p o f m a t t e r that is l igh ter than wate r . C i r c l i n g Sa tu rn ' s  e q u a t o r are three r ings f o r m i n g a band s o m e w h a t l ike the b r i m o f a man 's s t raw ha t . These r ings, more t h a n 1 7 0 , 0 0 0 mi les across, cons is t o f m i l l i o n s o f t i n y par t ic les . U ranus is n a m e d fo r the o ldest Greek g o d . Uranus , in Greek m y t h o l o g y , was the god w h o gave hea t , l i gh t and rain to the e a r t h . T h e p lanet was discove red by W i l l i a m Herschel hi 1 7 8 1 . Uranus is d i f f i c u l t t o see w i t h the naked eye . T h r o u g h the te lescope, j t appears a pale greenish  co lo r . N e p t u n e , n a m e d fo r the R o m a n god o f the sea, is t o o far away to be seen w i t h the n a k e d SX.^ .-....U w a s d iscovered in 1846 bv_ m a t h e m a t i c a l ca lcu la t ions . A s t r o n o m e r s had n o t i c e d tha t U ranus was n o t m o v i n g Jri i ts e x p e c t e d o r b i t . T h e r e f o r e . they began to suspect tha t Uranus m i g h t be u n de r the in fl uence o f an u n k n o w n p lane t . T w o S-2.5 104 astronomers, Adams in England, and Leverricr hi France, working independently determined where the unknown planet would have to be. U was found jjn exactly that location. Pluto is named for the Greek god who ruled the "lower world." Just as Neptune was so Pluto . was discovered by_ astronomers who observed unexplainable variation in- Neptune's  orbital motion. In 1905 Lowell, an American  astronomer, proved that there must be a planet  beyond Neptune. Because the ninth planet is so far away and its Jj^ht, is so faint, was not  until 1930 that a specially-built telescope found the planet. Asteroids are small planetary bodies, most of which revolve about the sun u± orbits that lie m the zone between the paths of Mars and Jupiter. Observations of these bodies began jn 180.1. As telescopes were improved, more and more asteroids were discovered. There are about ,2,500 astejoids of which oyer 1,500 have been idejitified. These phnietoids vary in size. The largest. Ceres, is about, 500 miles m diameter;  others Jike Agojjo. are less than a mile hi diameter. The combined mass of all the asteroids S-2.6 is less than one;five hundreth that of our earth. The origin of the asteroids is unknown. Comets are heavenly bodies that look like  stars with tajjs. A comet's tail is formed as it approaches the sun and disappears as the comet  moves away from the sun. The tail is created by the action of sunlight which forces gases and solid particles to break away from the comet's  head. Because this Junynous appendage always  streams away from the sun. _[]_ is behind a comet  when the comet' is approaching the sun, and in front of a comet when the comet is receding  from the sun. Comets vary m diameter from 30.000 to 100,000 miles. The tag can be asjong £i 100,000,000 miles. Most comets have such  long paths that they are near the sun only once in thousands of years. Until comparatively recent  times the appearance of a comet, terrified people. Meteors and meteorites are bodies that fall to earth frorn outer space. As they penetrate the atmosphere, friction with air causes these bodies to become so hot that most of them burn up  before striking the earthjs surface. Meteors are sometimes called "shooting stars" or "falling  stars." Those fragments that do reach the surface are called meteorites. S-2.7 S C I E N C E The Solar System The vastness of our solar system is almost  incomprehensible. At the center of the solar  system is the sun. Circling the sun are nine  planets. Moving around some of the planets are their moons. In the space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are the thousands of little  planets, or , asteroids, also revolving around the sun. Cutting in, this way and that, across the paths of the planets, are countless comets and meteors. All these moving bodies — sun, planets. satellites, asteroids, comets and meteors — travel together as a unit through space, at the rate of about twelve miles a second. The the sun Jupiter. Saturn lanets, in order of their distance from are Mercury. Venus. Earth. Mars. _____ Uranus. Neptune and Pluto. The first four are relatively close to the sun and to each other. The outer five planets are not only farther from the sun. but are also separated from each other by vast distances. The planets revolve around the sun counter-clockwise in nearly  circular orbits. AU travel in almost the same plane except for Pluto, the outermost planet. In general, as the distance from the sun increases, t r i e Pjimel: paths are more and more widely  separated. The farther from the sun, the longer S-4.1 107 it • takes a planet to complete one revolution. This is due, not only to the longer orbital path, but also to the slower speed with which the more "distant planets revolve. Mercury, the planet nearest to the sun, has an orbital speed of almost thirty miles a second, while Pluto,  farthest from the sun, has an orbital speed of only three miles a second. The solar system is held together ' by two  forces, gravitation and centrifugal force, which balance each other. If Uiey, did not balance each  other, one of two things would hapjjen: either (he planets would flv out into space or they would be pulled into the sun. The sun, located in the center of our solar  system/ is a star, a heavenly body that produces  light and heat, h is a' huge mass of gases  burning at a temperature ranging from 10,000  degrees Fahrenheit at the surface io about  35.000,000 degrees Fahrenheit at the center. The sim.. whose diameter is 865,400 miles, is la roe  enough to contain one million planets the size of. o u r earth. The sun rotates on its axis from east to west. The jive planets nea rest to the sun.  Mercurv. Venus. Earth. Mars and Jupiter, were S-4.2 known' and named in ancient times. Babylonian  astronomers could predict the mo I ion of the planets but could not explain __. The name "planets" comes from the Greek word planetes. which, means wandering. Mercury, named for the messenger of the Greek gods, is the smallest planet in the solar  system. Because Mercury is tiny and not very dense, its gravitational pull is much less than that of earth. A man weighing 150 pounds on our earth would weigh only 40 pounds on Mercurv. Since its rotation and revolution are identical jn time. Mercury; always presents the same face to the sun. It is estimated that the temperature of this sunny side ranges from 500  degrees to 770 degrees Fahrenheit. The dark side is believed to have a temperature less than 400  degrees. Venus, named for the Roman goddess of love and beauty, is the brightest planet of the solar svstem. Venus comes closer to our earth than any other planet, sometimes approaching to within 26.000,000 miles. The surface of Venus cannot be seen because the planet is covered b_/ a layer of clouds. Earth is the planet on which we Uye. The S-4.3 ax is of the earth is tilted at a 23 V2 degree' angle to the plane of jts orbit. This causes the sun's  rays to strike the earth at different angles during different times of the year, thus creating seasonal  changes. Mars, the planet that glows red in the sky, is named for the Roman god of war-Astronomers have long speculated on the possibility that hfe exists on Mars. It has an atmosphere extending outward about as far as earth's atmosphere. Scientists believe, however, that there is much iess oxygen and water in Mars' ai_r than in ours. Telescopic observations, show jarge areas that turn blue-green at certain seasons and polar ice cap.s that grow larger in the Martian winter and recede in the Martian  summer. Many straight lines can be seen through the telescope. These lines are believed by some  astronomers to be canals. Jupiter, largest and heaviest of all the planets, is named for the king of the gods in Roman mythology. Jupiter weighs more than all the p] a nets put together. Through the telescope  this £lan£t is seen to shme frriljjanth^ and in many colors. In JJ878, a great red spot was noticed on Jupiter. After a few years, j^ t faded. S-4.4 110 The last time _ was un usually red was in 1936. This spot was visible through the gaseous clouds which hide -Jupiter's surface. ^ Saturn, named for the Roman god of the harvest. is the most beautiful and most interesting of all the planets. Though much larger  than our earth. Saturn is made up of matter that is lighter than water. Circling Saturn's  equator are three rings forming a band somewhat like the - brim of a man's straw hat. These rings, more than 170,000 miles across, consist of millions of tiny particles. Uranus is named for the oldest Greek god. Uranus, in Greek mythology, was the j_od who gave heat' light and rain to the earth. The planet was discovered, b_ William Herschel in 1781. Uranus is difficult to see with the naked eye-Through the telescope, it appears a pale greenish color. Neptune, named for the Roman god of the sea, is too far away to be seen, with the naked eye. It was discovered in 1846 by mathematical  calculations. Astronomers had noticed that Uranus was not moving in its expected orbit. Therefore, they began to suspect that Uranus might be under the influence of an unknown planet. Two S-4.5 as'tronomers, Adams in England, and Leverrier in France, working independently determined where the unknown planet would have to be. h was found in exactly that location. Pluto is named for the Greek god who ruled the "lower world." Just as Neptune was discovered by studying the behavior of Uranus, s o Pluto was discovered by astronomers who observed unexpluui able variation in Neptune's  orbital ' motion. In 1905 Lowell, an American  astronomer, proved that there must be a planet  beyond Neptune. Because the ninth planet is so tar away and its Jjght, is so f_dnt, it was not  until 1930 that a specially-built, telescope found the planet. Asteroids are small planetary bodies, most of which revolve about the sun in orbits that He in the zone between the paths of Mars and Jupiter. Observations of these bodies began in 1801. As telescopes were improved, more and more asteroids were discovered. There are about  2.500 asteroids of which oyer 1,500 have been identified. These planetoids vary in size. The largest. Ceres, is about 500 miles in diameter;  others jjke Apollo, are less than a mile in diameter. The combined mass of all the asteroids S-4.6 is less• than one-five hundreth that of our earth. The origin of the asteroids is unknown. Comets are heavenly bodies that look like  stars with tails. A comet's .tail is formed as .it approaches the sun and disappears as the comet moves away from the sun. The tail is created by the action of sunlight which forces gases and solid particles to break away from the comet's  head. Because this luminous appendage always streams away from the sun. \l_ is behind a comet when the comet, is approaching the jum, and in front of a comet when the comet is receding from the sun. Comets vary in dmmeter from 30.000 to 100.000 miles. The tail can be as long as 100.000.000 miles. Most comets have such  long paths that they are near the sun only once in thousands of years. Until comparatively recent times the appearance of a comet terrified people. Meteors and meteorites are bodies that faj] t 0 earth from outer space. As they penetrate the atmosphere, friction with air causes these bodies to become so hot that most of them burn up before striking the earth's surface. Meteors are sometimes called "shooting stars" or "falling  stars." Those fragments that do reach the surface are called meteorites. S-4.7 113 S C I E N C E The Solar System The vastness of our solar system is almost  incomprehensible. At the center of the solar  system is the sun. Circling the sun are nine  planets. Moving around some of the planets are their moons. In the space between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are the thousands of little  planets, or asteroids, also revolving around the sun. Cutting in, this way and that, across the paths of the planets, are countless comets and meteors. All these, moving bodies — sun, planets, satellites, asteroids, comets and meteors — travel  together as a unit through space, at the rate of about twelve miles a second. The pjanets, in order of their distance from the sun, are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The fiist four are . relatively close to the sun and to each other. The outer five planets are not only farther from the sun, but are also separated from each other by vast distances. The pjanets revolve around the sun counter-clockwise in nearly circular orbits. All travel in almost the same pjane except for Pluto, the outermost ghmet. In general, as the distance from the sun increases, the planet paths are more and more widely  separated. The farther from the sun, the longer S-6.1 it • takes a planet to complete one revolution. This is due not only to the longer orbital path, but also to the slower speed with which the more distant planets revolve. Mercury, the planet nearest to the sun, has an orbital speed of almost thirty miles a second, while Pluto,  farthest from the sun, has an orbital speed of only three miles a second. The solar system is held together' b_ two  forces, gravitation and centrifugal force, which balance each other. If they did not balance each other, one of two things would happen: either the pjanets would tT_ out into space or they would be pulled into the sun. The sun. located in the center of our solar  system.' is a star, a heavenly body that produces jight and heat. It is a huge mass of gases burning at a temperature ranging from 10.000 degrees Fahrenheit at the surface to about 35,000,000 degrees Fahrenheit at the center. The sun, whose diameter is 865,400 miles, is large enough to contain one million planets the size of our earth. The sun rotates on its axis from east to west. The five planets nearest to the sun.  Mercury. Venus. L_mth, Mars and Jupiter, were S-6.2 known- and named in ancient times. Babylonian  astronomers could predict the motion of the planets but could not explain it. The name "pianets" comes from the Greek word planetes. which means wandering. Mercury, named for the messenger of the Greek gods, is the smallest planet in the solar  system. Because Mercury is tiny and not very dense, its gravitational pull is much less than that of earth. A man weighing 150 pounds on our earth would weigh only 40 pounds on Mercury. Since its rotation and revolution are identical in time, Mercury a]ways presents the same face to the sun. It is estimated that the temperature of this sunny sjde ranges from 500 degrees to 770 degrees Fahrenheit. The dark side is believed • to have a temperature less than 400 degrees. Venus, named for the Roman goddess of love and beauty, is the brightest planet of the solar svsiem. Venus comes closer to our earth than any other planet, sometimes approaching to within 26,000.000 miles. The surface of Venus cannot be seen because the planet is covered by a layer of clouds. Earth is the planet on which we Hye. The S -6 .3 axis of the earth is tilted at a 2 3 H degree angle to the plane of its orbit. This causes the sun's  rays to strike the earth at different angles during Mars, the planet that glows red in the sky, is named for the Roman god of war. Astronomers have long speculated on the possibility that hfe exists on Mars. It has an atmosphere extending outward about as far as earth's atmosphere. Scientists believe, however, that there is much less oxygen and water in Mars' air than in ours. Telescopic observations show large areas that turn blue^greeri ai certain  seasons and polar ice caps that grow larger in the Martian winter and recede in the Martian summer. Many straight lines can be seen through the telescope. These lines are bejieved by some  astronomers to be canals. Jupiter, largest and heaviest of all the planets, is named for the kjn£ of the gods in Roman mythology. Jupiter weighs more than aU t n e planets put together. Through the telescope this planet is seen to shine brilliantly and in noticed on Jupiter. After a few years, it faded. different times of the changes. S-6.4 117 The last time it was unusually red was in 1936. This spot was visible through the gaseous clouds which hide Jupiter's surface. Saturn, named for the Roman god of the harvest. is the most beautiful and most interesting of all the planets. Though much larger  than our earth. Saturn is made up of matter that is lighter than water. Circling Saturn's equator are three rings forming a band somewhat like the brim of a man's straw hat. These rings. more than 170.000 miles across, consist of millions of tinv particles. Uranus is named for the oldest Greek gocl. Uranus, in Greek mythology, was the god who gave heat, J_gj_ and rain to the earth. The planet was discovered bv William Herschel in 1781. Uranus is difficult to see with the naked eye. Through the telescope, it appears a pale greenish color. Neptune, named for the Roman god of the sea, is too fax away to be seen with the naked  eye. It was discovered in 1846 by mathematical calculations. Astronomers had noticed that Uranus was not moving in its expected orbit. Therefore, they began to suspect that Uranus might be under the inlluence of an unknown planet. Two S-6 .5 astronomers, Adams in England, and Leverrier in France, working independently determined where the unknown planet would have to be. It was round in exactly that location. ' Pluto is named for the Greek _c_d who ruled the "lower world." Just as Neptune was discovered by studying the behavior of Uranus. s o Pluto was discovered by astron omers who obse rved unexplainable variation in Neptune's  orbital motion. In 1905 Lowell, an American astronomer, proved that there must be a planet beyond Neptune. Because the ninth planet is so far away and its hglU is so faint, it was not  until 1930 that a specially-built telescope found the planet. Asteroids are small planetary bodies, most of which revolve about the sun in orbits that he in the zone between the paths, of Mars and Jupjjer Obseryanons of these bodies began in 1801. As /elescopes were improved, more and more asteroids were discovered. There are about 2.500 asteroids of which over 1,500 have been identified. These planetoids vary in size. The largest. Ceres, is .about 500 miles in diameter;  others like Apollo, are less than a mile in diameter. The combined mass of all the asteroids S-6.6 is less than one-five lumdreth that of our earth. The origin of the asteroids is unknown. Comets are heavenly bodies that look like  stars whir tails. A comet's tail is formed as it approaches the sun and disappears as the comet moves away from the sun. The ta.U is created by the action of sunlight which forces gases and solid particles to break away from the comet's  head. Because this luminous appendage. always streams away from the sun, it is behind a comet when the comet is approaching the sun, and in front of a comet when the comet is receding from the sun. Comets varv in diameter from 30.000 to 100.000 miles. The jail can be as long £s 100.000.000 miles. Most comets have such long paths that they are near the sun only once ' n thousands of years. Untjl comparatively recent times the appearance of a comet terrified people. Meteors and meteorites are bodies that fall to earth from outer space,. As they penetrate the atmosphere, friction with air causes these bodies to become so hot that most of them burn up before striking the earth's surface. Meteors are sometimes called "shooting stars" or "faljing  stars." Those fragments that do reach the surface are called meteorites. S-6.7 120 SCIENCE The Solar System The vastness of our solar system is almost incomprehensible. At the center of the solar system is the sun. Circling the sun are nine planets. Moving around some of the planets are their moons. In the space between the orbits of Mars .. and Jupiter are the thousands of little planets,- Or asteroids, also revolving around the Sun: Cutting in, this way and that, across the paths of the planets, are countless comets and meteors. All these moving bodies — sun, planets, satellites, asteroids, comets and meteo;s — travel together as a unit through space, at the rate of about twelve miles a second. The planets, in order of their distance from the sun, are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The first four are relatively, close to the sun,and to each other. The outer five planets are not only farther from the sun, but are also separated from each other by vast distances. The planets revolve around the sun counter-clockwise in nearly circular orbits. All travel in almost the same plane except for Pluto, the outermost planet. In general, as the distance from the sun increases, the planet paths are more and more widely separated. The farther from the sun, the longer S—1.1 1 2 1 S C I E N C E The Solar System vastness solar system almost incomprehensible. At center solar system sun. Circling sun nine planets. Moving around some planets moons. In space between orbits Mars Jupiter thousands little planets, asteroids, revolving around sun. Cutting in, this way and that, across paths planets, countless comets meteors. All moving bodies sun, planets, satellites, asteroids, comets meteors — travel together as unit through space, at rate about twelve miles second. planets, in order distance from sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Pluto, first four relatively close to sun to each other. outer five planets farther from sun, separated from each other by vast distances. planets revolve around sun counter-clockwise in nearly circular orbits. All travel in almost same plane except Pluto, outermost planet. In general, as distance from sun increases, planet paths more more widely separated. farther from sun, longer S-3 .1 122 SCIENCE The Solar System vastness solar system almost incomprehensible. center solar system sun. Circling sun nine planets. Moving around some planets moons between orbits Mars Jupiter thousands little planets, asteroids, revolving sun. this way and that, across paths planets, countless comets meteors. sun, planets, satellites, asteroids, comets meteors — travel together space, about twelve miles second. planets, order distance sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Pluto, first four relatively close sun each other. outer five planets farther sun, separated each other by vast distances. planets revolve sun counter-clockwise nearly circular orbits. All travel almost same plane except Pluto, outermost planet. as distance sun increases, planet paths more widely separated. farther sun, longer S-5.1 SCIENCE The Solar System vastness solar system almost incomprehensible. center solar system sun. Circling sun nine planets. Moving around some planets moons between orbits Mars Jupiter thousands little planets, asteroids, revolving sun. this way and that, across paths planets, countless comets meteors. sun, planets, satellites, .asteroids, comets meteors travel together about twelve miles second. planets, order distance sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Pluto, first four relatively close sun each other. outer five farther sun, separated each other by vast distances. planets revolve sun counter-clockwise nearly circular All almost same plane except Pluto, outermost planet. as distance sun increases, planet paths more widely separated. farther sun, longer S-7.1 HISTORY The Age of Exploration x o x o x o x c x o x o x o x x o x o x x o x o x o x x o x o o x o x o x o x o o x o x x o x o o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x o x x o x x o x o x x o x o x o x x o x o x x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o OXOXOXOX 0 X 0 o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x OXOX X O X O X ' x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x x o x o x o x , X O X O X O 0X0X0 x o x o x x o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x 0X0X0X0X0 OXOXO XOXOX' XOXOX 0X0X0 OX x o x o x x o x o x x o x x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x o o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o o x o x x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x 0X0 o x o x o x XOXOXO OXOX' x o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x x o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x XO o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x o x . . x o x o x x o - x o x o x o x o x x o x o o x o x o x o x o o x o x o x o x o x o x o x OXOXO 0X0 o x o x o x o o x o x o x . x o x o x o o x o x o x o x x o x WAIT FOR THE SIGNAL TO TURN THE PAGE. HISTORY The Age of Exploration A stout heart and a burning desire to explore the unknown and discover new lands for the sake 'of "gospel, gold and glory" made  possible the exploits of Columbus, da Gama, Magellan and many other adventurous explorers. The age of exploration was a breath-taking epoch of discovery. Within eighteen years after  Columbus died m 1506, the general configuration of the New World had been revealed, the most southern point of South America • had been rounded, and the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean traversed. In 1500 a Portuguese commander named  Cabral, sailing around Africa to the indies, was blown far off his course. He sighted land in South America. This territory was acquired for Portugal, and that is why today, the people of Brazil speak the Portuguese language-Explorers kept looking for a passage  through the new lands which would lead them to Asia, voyaging along the coasts of Central America and the northern portion , of South America. A settlement was made on the isthmus °f Darien, and here a youthful Spaniard, Vasco 2^ Balboa, heard tales from the Indians of a great ocean but a short distance to the west. In 1513 Balboa with a handful of soldiers set eyes H-2.1 126 upon the Pacific Ocean and Europe was ready to explore a new realm of conquest. In 1519 a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain found the passage that, led into the Pacific. He was Ferdinand Magellan, whose remarkable achievements entitle him to ecrual rank with Columbus and Vasco da Gama.  Columbus made Europe acquainted with the New  World; da Gama showed the way to the Far East; Magellan now linked the two areas b_ circumnavigating the world. He had for some  time believed that rt was possible to sajj around South America jusj. as Diaz had rounded Africa. The Spanish king fitted him out with a fleet of five small ships which were "very old and patched up'] and ordered Magellan to make  straight-way for the Spice Islands. In March 1521, Magellan came to islands that he mistook for the Spice Islands, which  w e r e _! i e a l ' t y the Philippines. At one of these jslands the intrepid explorer was slain during a skirmish with natives. His crew in a single vessel, l ' l e Victoria, crossed the Indian Ocean, rounded the Gape of Good Hope, and dropped anchor in a S j J ^ T J s h harbor jn September 1522. PractJcally three years to the dav had been required to circumnavigate the globe. H-2.2 127 Meanwhile the Spaniards were making valuable land discoveries' in the interior of the New World. In 1519. the year Magellan set  forth, a youthful adventurer by the name of Hernando Cortes led an expedition to Mexico, whence had come rumors of great riches and a high native civilization. Montezuma, ruler of the native Aztecs, had thousands of warriors, while Cortes had a mere handful. But the Spaniards possessed horses, iron .armor, and gunpowder, all unknown to the Aztecs. Two other factors aided the Europeans — the discontent of many native  tribes, who chafed under the stern rule of the Aztecs and who were willing to join Cortes, and an ancient legend in Mexico that the Aztecs would one day be visited and destroyed by strange, white-skinned gods. The superstitious Montezuma sent many  embassies bearing rich gifts to Cortes with the order to leave the country. But such lavish gifts had the opposite effect, for instead of persuading the Spaniards to depart, they excited the gold-mad adventurers to gush on to Tenochtitlan, 'he Aztec cju^haj chy_. Cortes eventually captured Tenochtitlan in 152L With this defeat the Aztecs  soon lost their entire empire to the Spanish conqueror, or conquistador, and it was not long H-2.3 128 befo re the Spanish h a d e x p l o r e d m o s t o f Cen t ra l A m e r i c a and C a l i f o r n i a . O t h e r n o w e m u l a t e d the success o f Cor tes . Tales h a d c o m e t o D a r i e n tha t a m i g h t y e m p i r e lay to the s o u t h , o f such  boundless r iches tha t a ca t t le raiser b y the name ° f F ranc isco P izar ro dec ided t o e x p l o r e and c o n q u e r the f a b u l o u s k i n g d o m o f P e r u . T h e c i v i l i z a t i o n w h i c h P izar ro was searching  f o r was tha t o f the Incas. the mos t advanced people in the western w o r l d , whose f a r - f l u n g  emp i re s t re t ched a long the wes te rn coast. P izar ro  managed to mee t the e m p e r o r , w h o m he t reacherous ly seized. Despi te a huge ransom the Spaniards d i d n o t release the e m p e r o r b u t on t r u m p e d - u p  accusat ions sentenced h i m t o be b u r n e d to dea th . lU 1533 P izar ro en te red the Inca c a p i t a l , where li£ reaped f u r t h e r t reasure. L a t e r he b u i l t a n e w  c i t y . L i m a , the " C i t y o f K i n g s . " h t o o k m a n y  years to suJ^uj^aU: the i n f u r i a t e d Incas ejse w h e r e , bu t even tua l l y mos t o f S o u t h A m e r i c a f w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Braz i l ) passed i n t o Spanish c o n t r o l . M e a n w h i l e the Spanish had n o t been inact ive in e x p l o r i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a . D u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y var ious i n t r e p i d Spanish H-2.4 129 before the Spanish had explored most of Central  America and California. Other conquistadors now emulated the success of Cortes. Tales had come to Darien that a mighty empire Ja_ to the south, of such boundless riches that a cattle raiser by the name of Francisco Pizarro decided to explore and conquer the fabulous kingdom of Peru. The civilization which Pizarro was searching  for was that of. the Incas. the most advanced  people m the western world, whose far-flung  empire stretched along the western coast, Pizarro the managed to meet  treacherously seized. emperor, whom he Despite a huge ransom . the Spaniards did not release the emperor but on trumped-up  accusations sentenced him to be burned to death. _2 1533 Pizarro entered the Inca capital, where he reaped further treasure. Later he built a new city, Lima, the "City of Kings." U took many years to subjugate the infuriated Incas elsewhere, but eventually mjos_ of South America (with the exception of Brazil) passed into Spanish control. Meanwhije the Sjpanjsh had not been inactive in exploring North America. During the sixteenth century various intrepid Spanish H-2.4 130 was made Grand Admiral and given 1 0 pounds by. Henry VH with the right to make another  voyage. He made his second voyage hi 1498. coasting along the eastern shore m a vain  attempt to find a passage to the orient. Cabot was the first European after the hardy Northmen to land on the continent o f North America, and, what was most important. his discovery laid the foundation for England's  claim to the whole rich continent. Thus, for 1 0 pounds and a title. England eventually won al] of Canada. Newfoundland. Labrador, and even  thirteen unruly colonies along the Atlantic coast.,  certainly an excellent business transaction. For the next hundred years England tried '° to Chi iia by_ means of the famous "northwest passage." Il was believed that such a passage must exist north of Canada. Explorers  like Henry Hudson Jost their lives in a vain atiemrk to discover this route. Meanwhile, an attempt to reach Cathay yja_ a "northeast passage" above Russia also ended in disaster. Certain other English explorers distinguished themselves in various ways, Sir Francis Drake  circled the globe in 1577-1580. plundering  Sj^anjsh galleons en route and bringing his ship  Golden Hind home to Elizabeth laden with booty. Still later, in the eighteenth century, H - 2 . 6 131 Captain Cook explored Australia and other lands in. the south Pacific. Between 1534 and 1541 Jacques Cartier  tried to find the northwest passage^ As a result, he discovered much about the SL Lawrence, and so gave France its claim to sovereignty over  eastern North America- France followed up this initial work by  founding a colony hi Nova Scotia m 1604. Then in 1608 an adventurous soldier called Samuel de Cham plain founded at Quebec the first  permanent French setdement _in America (the English had already established a colony in Virginia the year before). In later years this vigorous explorer and administrator journeyed  th rough the lake which bears his name and went  westward to the Great Lakes. Other Frenchmen continued the task of opening ug the interior of North America. The great explorer of the Mississippi was La Salle. In 1681 he sailed down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexjco, taking possession of the entire territory and njjjumg it, Louisiana. Fie encountered frightful privations at times, his expendjjm^i more than once having to eat  crocodiles _n lieu of better food. Thanks to La Salle more than to any other man. France was able later to claim the entire Mississippi valley. H - 2 . 7 HISTORY The Age of Exploration A stout heart and a burning desire to explore the unknown and discover new lands for the sake of "gospel, gold and glory" made  possible the exploits of Columbus, da Gama, Magellan and many other adventurous explorers. The age of exploration was a breath-taking epoch of discovery. Within eighteen years after  Columbus died in 1506. the general configuration of the New World had been revealed, the most southern point of South America had been rounded, and the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean traversed. In 1500 a Portuguese commander named Cabral, sajhng around Africa to the Indies, was blown far off his course. He sighted land in South America. This territory was acquired for  Portugal, and that is why today the people of Brazil speak the Portuguese language. Explorers kept looking for a passage throujgh the new lands which would lead them to Asia, voyaging along the coasts of Central  America and the northern portion of South America. A settlement was made on the isdimus °f DjUjert^ and here a youthful Spaniard. Vasco Balboa, heard tales from the Indians of a great ocean but a short distance to the west. In 1513 Balboa with a handful of soldiers set eyes H-4.1 1 3 3 upon the Pacific Ocean and Europe was ready to explore a new realm of conquest. In f 5 1 9 a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain found the passage that led into the Pacific. He was Ferdinand Magellan, whose remarkable achievements entitle him to equal  rank with Columbus and Vasco da. Gama.  Columbus .made Europe acquainted with the New  World; da Gama showed the way to the Far East: Magellan now linked the two areas by  circumnavigating the world. He had for some time believed that it was possible to sail around  South America just as Diaz had rounded Africa. The Spanish king fitted him out. with a fleet of five small ships which were "very old and  patched up" and ordered Magellan to make straight-way for the Spice Islands. In March 1521, Magellan came to islands that he mistook for the Spice Islands, which were in reality the Philippines. At one of these i^laiids the intrepid explorer was slain during a skirmish with natives. His crew iri a smgje vessel, the Victoria^ crossed the Indian Ocean, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and dropped anchor in a Spanish harbor in September 1522. Practically jhree vears to the day had been required to circumnavigate the globe. H -4.2 134 Meanwhile the Spaniards were making valuable k_nd discoveries in the interior of the New World. In 1519. the year Magellan set  forth, a youthful adventurer by the name of Hernando Cortes led an expedition to Mexico, whence had come rumors of great riches and a high native civilization. Montezuma, ruler of the native Aztecs, had thousands of warriors, while Cortes had a mere handful. But the Spaniards possessed horses, iron armor, and gunpowder, all unknown to the Aztecs. Two other factors aided the Europeans — the discontent of many native tribes, who chafed under the stern rule of the Aztecs and who were willing to join Cortes, and an ancient legend in Mexico that the Aztecs would one day be visited and destroyed by strange, white-skinned gods. The superstitious Montezuma sent man embassies bearing rich gifts to Cortes with the •order to leave the country. But such lavish gifts had the opposite effect, for instead of persuading m e Spaniards to depart, they excited the gold-mad adventurers to push on to Tenochtitlan, m e Aztec capital city'. Cortes eventually captured  Tenochtitlan in 1521. With this defeat the Aztecs soon lost their entire empire to the Spanish conmjenor. ° r conqm'stador, and it was not long H-4.3 135 before the Spanish had explored most of Central  America and California- Other conquistadors now emulated the success of Cortes. Tales had come to Darien that a mighty empire lay to the south, of such boundless riches that a cattle raiser by the name of Francisco Pizarro decided to explore and conquer the fabulous kingdom of Peru. The ciyilization which Pizarro was searching for was that of the Incas. the most advanced people in the western world, whose far-flung  empire stretched along the western coast. Pizarro managed to meet the emperor, whom he treacherously seized. Despite a huge ransom the Spaniards did not release the emperor but on trumped-up  accusations sentenced him to be burned to death. ' n 1533 Pizarro entered the Inca capital, where he reaped further treasure. Later he built a new  city, Lima, the "City of Kings." It took many years to subjugate the infuriated Incas elsewhere, but eventually most of South America (with the exception of Brazil) passed into Spanish control. M e a n w h i l e the had not been inactive in exploring North America. During the s i x t e e n th in t . rcpid Spanish H-4.4 explorers opened up the interior, thereby giving Spain the right to claim a huge area in North  America, stretching from Florida _to California. Wh ile Portuguese and Spaniards were making discoveries and establishing empires, other  European powers had not been idle. France, England and Holland were embarking upon significant geographical schemes. Naturally the division of the over-seas world between Spain and Portugal as set forth by, the Bull of Demarcation of 1493 and the treaty of 1494 was scarcely calculated to arouse enthusiasm among other European powers, and it was not  long before France and England encroached on t n e private preserves of both Portugal and Spain. In 1497 John Cabot, an Italian mariner in the employ of England, sailed across the north Atlantic in a small ship manned by only eighteen  men. Although close-fisted Henry VII had contributed no money to the defraying of expenses, he granted Cabot the right to enlist  English sailors and sai_ west to Cathay in the name of the king of England. After six weeks of turbulent sailing the ship arrived off the northern coast of the New World. Cabot's main discovery was an cxjensjyc fishing ground, but he was disappointed in not reaching at least Japan and the Spice Islands. When he returned home, he H-4.5 137 was made Grand Admiral and given 10 pounds coasting along the eastern shore in a y_ain attempt to find a passage to the orient. Cabot was the first European after the . hardy Northmen to land on the continent of North America, and, what was most important, his discovery laid the foundation for England's  claim to the whole rich continent. Thus, for 10  pounds and a title, England eventually won al] . of Canada, Newfoundland. Labrador, and even thirteen unruly colonies along the Atlantic coast, certainly an excellent business transaction. For the next hundred years England tried to get to China by means of the famous "northwest passage." It was believed that such a passage must exist north of Canada. Explorers  like Henry Hudson host their jjyes in a vain attempt to discover this route. Meanwhile, an attempt to reach Cathay, via a "northeast passage" above Russia also ended in disaster. Certain other English explorers distinguished  themselves in various ways. Sir Francis Drake  circled the globe in 1577-158Q. plundering  Spanish galleons en route and bringing his ship  Golden Hind home to Elizabeth laden with booty. Still later, in the eighteenth century. H-4.6 Captain Cook explored Australia and other lands in the south Pacific. Between 1534 and 1541 Jacques Cartier tried to find the northwest passage. As a result, he discovered much about the S_ Lawrence, and so gave France its claim to sovereignty over eastern North America. • France followed up this initial work by founding a colony in Nova Scotia in 1604. Then in 1608 an adventurous soldier called Samuel de C h a rn p 1 a i n founded at Quebec the first  permanent French settjement in Amerjca (the English had already established a colony in Virginia the y e a r before). In later years this  vigorous explorer and administrator journeyed through the lake which bears his name and went westward to the Great Lakes. Other Frenchmen continued the task of opening up the interior of North America The great explorer of the Mississippi was La Salle. In 168.1 he sailed down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, _jj_nig, possession of the entire  territory and n a m i n g Louisiana. He encountered frightful privations at times, his expendition more than once having to eat crocodiles in lieu of better food. Thanks to La Salle more than to any other man, France was able later to claim the entire Mississippi valley. H-4.7 HISTORY The Age of Exploration A stout heart and a burning desire to explore the unknown and discover new lands for the sake of "gospel, gold and glory" made  possible the exploits of Columbus, da Gama, Magellan and many other adventurous explorers. The age of exploration was a breath-taking erjoch of discovery. Within eighteen years after  Columbus died in 1506, the general configuration of the New World had been revealed, the most southern point of South America had been rounded; and the vast expanse of the Pacific  Ocean traversed. ' n 1500 a Portuguese commander named Cabral. sailing around Africa to the Indies, was blown far off his course. He sighted kind in South America. This territory was acquired for  Portugal, and that is why today the people of Brazil speak the Portuguese language. Explorers kept looking for a passage  through the new lands which would lead them lo Asia, voyaging along the coasts of Central  America and the northern portion of South America. A settlement was made on the isthmus of Darien, and- here a youthful Spaniard, Vasco  Balboa, heard tales from the Indians of a ^reat ocean but a short distance to the west. In 1513 Balboa with a handful of soldiers set eyes H-6.1 upon the Pacific Ocean and Europe was ready to explore a new realm of conquest. In 1519 a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain found the passage that led into the Pacific. He was Ferdinand Magellan, whose remarkable achievements entitle him to equal  rank with Columbus and Vasco da Gama.  Columbus made Europe acquainted with the New  World; da Gama showed the way to the Far  East; Magellan now Iniked the two areas by  circumnavigating the world. He had for some time believed that it was possible to saH around  South America just as Diaz had rounded Africa. The Spanish kjn« fitted him out with a fleet of five small ships which were "very old and  patched up" and ordered Magellan to make straight-way for the Spice Islands. ' n March 1521, MjigeHan came to islands that he mistook for the Spice Islands, which were in reahty the Philippines. At one of these islands the intrepid explorer was slain during a skirmish with natives. His crew in a single vessel,  i n e }'fc(9JJtf\ crossed the Indian Ocean, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and dropped anchor in a Spanish harbor in September 1522 Practically three years to the day had been required to circumnavigate the globe. H - 6 . 2 Meanwhile the Spaniards were making valuable land discoveries in the interior of the New World. In 1519. the y_ear Magellan set forth, a youthful adventurer by the ' name of Hernando Cortes led an expedition to Mexico, whence had come rumors of great riches and a high native civilization. Montezuma, ruler of the native Aztecs, had thousands of warriors, while Cortes had a mere handful. But the Spaniards possessed horses, iron armor, and gunpowder, all unknown . to the Aztecs. Two other factors aided the Europeans — the discontent of many native tribes, who chafed under the stern rule of the Aztecs and who were willing to join Cortes, and a n ancient legend in Mexico that the Aztecs would one day be visited and destroyed by  strange, white-skinned gods. The Montezuma sent embassies bearing rich gifts to Cortes with the order to leave the country. But such lavish gifts had the opposite effect, for instead of persuading the Spaniards to depart, they excited the gold-mad adventurers to push on to Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital city. Cortes eventually captured  Tenochtitlan in 1521. With this defeat the Aztecs soon lost their entire empire to the Spanish conqueror, or conquistador, and it was not long H-6.3 before the Spanish had explored most of Central America and California. Other now emulated the conquistadors success of Cortes. Tales had come to Darien that mighty empire a !T"gi1,t.Yi lay to the south, of such boundless riches that a cattle raiser by the name of Francisco Pizarro decided to explore and conquer the fabulous kingdom of Peru. The civilization which Pizarro was searching for was that of the Incas. the most advanced people in the western world, whose far-flung  empire stretched along the western coast. Pizarro managed to meet the emperor, whom he treacherously seized. Despite release a huge ransom the Spaniards did not the emperor but on trumped-up  accusations sentenced him to be burned to death. ' n ,1,533 Pizarro entered the Inca capital, where he reaped further treasure. Later he built a new  city, Lima, the "City of Kings." It took many years to subjugate the infuriated Incas elsewhere, hu' eventually most of South America (with the exception, of Brazil) passed into Spanish control. Meanwhile the Spanish had not been inactive in exploring North America^ During the sixteenth century various intrepid Spanish H-6.4 143 explorers opened up the interior, thereby giving  Spain the right to claim a huge area in North  America, stretching from Florida to California. Wh ile Portuguese and Spaniards were making discoveries and establishing empires, other  European powers had not been idle. France. England and Holland were embarking upon geographical schemes. Naturally the division of the over-seas world between Spain and Portugal as set forth b_ the Bull of Demarcation of 1493 and the treaty of .1494 was scarcely calculated to arouse ejithusiasm among other European powers, and it was not  long before France and England encroached on the private preserves of both Portugal and Spain. I" 1497 John Cabot, an Italian mariner in the employ of England, sailed across the north  Atlantic in. a small ship manned by only eighteen  men. Although close-fisted Henry VII had contributed no money to the defraying of expenses, he granted Cabot the right to enlist  English sailors and saU west to Cathay in the name of the king of England. After six weeks of turbulent sailing the ship arrived off the northern  coast of the New World. Cabot's main discovery was an extensive fishing ground, but he was disappointed in not reaching at least Japan and the Spice Islands. When he returned home, he H-6.5 144 was made Grand Admiral and given 10 pounds  by Henry VII with the right to make another  voyage. He made his second voyage in 1498. coasting along the eastern shore- in a vain  attempt to find a. passage to the orient. Cabot was the first European after the hardv Northmen to land on the continent of North America, and, what was most important, his discovery laid the foundation for England's  claim to the whole rich continent. Thus, for 10 pounds and a title. England eventually won all of Canada. Newfoundland, Labrador, and even thirteen unruly colonies along the Atlantic coast, certainly an excellent business transaction. For the next hundred to get to China by means of the famous "northwest passage." It was believed that such a passage must exist north of Canada. Explorers like Henry Hudson lost their lives in a vain  atlemrjt to discover this route. Meanwhile, an attempt to reach, Cathay, yui, a "northeast passage" above Russia also ended in disaster. Certain other English explorers distinguished themselves in various ways. Sn; Francis Drake  circled the globe, in .1,5 7 7-15 8,0,. plundering Spanish gal.je.ons en route and bringing his shij3 Golden Hind .home to Elizabeth laden with booty. Still later, in the eighteenth century. H-6.6 Captain Cook explored Australia and other lands in the south Pacific. Between • 1534 and 1541 Jacques Cartier tried to find the northwest passage. As a result. n e discovered much about the SL Lawrence, and s o ,"aYe France its chjinr to sovereignty over eastern North America. France followed up this initial work by founding a c__[c_ny in Nova Scotia in 1604 Then in 1608 an adventurous soldier called Samuel de C h a m p 1 a i n founded at Quebec the first  permanent French settlement in America ("the English had aheady established a colony in Virginia the year before). In later years this vigorous explorer and administrator journeyed  through the lake which bears his name and went westward to the Great Lakes. Other Frenchmen continued the task of opening up the interior of North America. The great explorer of the Mississir _ was La Salle. In 1681 lie saikd down the Mississippi to the Gulf  of Mexico, _u_n_ possession of the entire  te rritory and n a m i n g i__ Louisiana. He encountered rjjJvaJ_iojj_i at times, his expendition more than once having to eat crocodiles in lieu of bettej food. Thanks to La Salle more than to any oijicr man, France was able later to claim the entire Mississippi valley. H-6.7 HISTORY The Age of Exploration A stout heart and a burning desire to explore the unknown and discover new lands for the sake of "gospel, gold and glory" made possible the exploits of Columbus, da Gama, Magellan and many other adventurous explorers. The age of exploration was a breath-taking epoch of discovery. Within eighteen years after Columbus died in 1506, the general configuration of the New World had been revealed, the most southern point of South America had been rounded,. and the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean traversed. In 1500 a Portuguese commander named Cabral, sailing around Africa to the Indies, was blown far off his course. He sighted land in South America. This territory was acquired for Portugal, and that is why today the people of Brazil speak the Portuguese language. Explorers kept looking for a passage through the new lands which would lead them to Asia, voyaging along the coasts of Central America and the northern portion of South America. A settlement was made on the isthmus of Darien, and here a youthful Spaniard, Vasco de Balboa, heard tales from the Indians of a great ocean but a short distance. to the west. In 1513 Balboa with a handful of soldiers set eyes H-l.l HISTORY The Age of Exploration stout heart burning desire explore unknown discover new lands for sake - "gospel, gold and glory" made possible exploits Columbus, da Gama, Magellan many other adventurous explorers, age exploration breath-taking epoch discovery. Within eighteen years after Columbus died in 1506, general configuration New World revealed, most southern point ' South America rounded, vast expanse Pacific Ocean traversed. In 1500 Portuguese commander named Cabral, sailing around Africa to Indies, blown far off course. He sighted land in South America. This territory acquired for Portugal, . why today the people Brazil speak Portuguese language. Explorers kept looking for passage through new lands would lead them to Asia, voyaging along coasts Central America northern portion South America. settlement made on isthmus Darien, here youthful Spaniard, Vasco" de Balboa, heard tales from Indians of great ocean but short distance to west. In 1513 Balboa with handful soldiers set eyes H - 3 . 1 HISTORY The Age of Exploration stout heart burning desire discover lands for "gospel, gold and glory" made possible exploits Columbus, da Gama, Magellan many other age exploration breath-taking epoch discovery. eighteen years after Columbus died 1506, general configuration New World revealed, southern point South America rounded, expanse Pacific Ocean traversed. 1500 Portuguese commander Cabral, sailing around Africa to Indies, blown off course. He sighted land South America. This territory acquired for Portugal, today Brazil speak Portuguese Explorers looking for passage through new lands to Asia, voyaging along coasts Central America northern South America. settlement made isthmus Darien, here youthful Spaniard, Vasco de Balboa, heard from Indians of great ocean short distance west. 1513 Balboa with handful soldiers set eyes APPENDIX D TABLES o 150 TABLE VIII SCIENCE A SUMMARY TABLE OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON THE POSTTEST RAW SCORE MEANS ADJUSTED FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T. THROUGH T._ (N=312) ' I 15 Source of Variance DF SS MS F P Equality of adjusted cell means 14 1,256. 92 89.78 2. 52 . 01 Zero slope 1 833.35 833. 35 23.40 .001 error 296 10,540.76 35.61. Equality of slopes 14 791. 42 56.53 1. 64 ns error 282 9,749.34 34.57 TABLE IX HISTORY A SUMMARY TABLE OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON THE POSTTEST RAW SCORE MEANS . ADJUSTED FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T. THROUGH T (N=314) 1 l b Source of Variance DF SS MS F P Equality of adjusted cell means 14 442.61' 31.61 1.048 Zero slope 1 933.69 933. 69 30.955 .001 error 298 8,988.34 30.16 Equality of slopes 14 131. 51 9.39 0. 301 ns error 284 8,856.83 31. 19 151 TABLE X SCIENCE A SUMMARY TABLE OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON THE GAIN SCORE MEANS ADJUSTED FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T, THROUGH T_ AND T e 1 I 15 Source of Variance DF SS MS F Equality of Adjusted cell means 7 245.78 35.11 1.62 Zero slope 1 20.83 20.83 0.96 error 147 3,195.46 21.74 Equality of slopes 7 246.50 35.21 1. 67 error 140 2,948.96 21.06 TABLE XI HISTORY A SUMMARY TABLE OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON THE GAIN SCORE MEANS ADJUSTED FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) T, THROUGH T_ AND T ' 1 7 15 Source of Variance DF SS MS F P Equality of adjusted cell means 7 161.62 23.09 1.74 Zero slope 1 22.21 22.21 1.67 error 150 1,988.77 13. 26 Equality of slopes error 7 12.00 143 1,976. 76 1. 71 13. 82 0. 12 152 TABLE XII HISTORY POSTTEST RAW SCORE MEANS BEFORE AND AFTER ADJUSTMENT FOR COVARIATE RATE OF COMPREHENSION) FOR EACH FORM OF PASSAGE Form of Raw Score Adjusted Passage Means Rank Raw Score Rank Means Or. ( T J + TQ) 16. 74 8 16.69 8 1 U ( T 2 . + T G ) 15. 48 6. 15.26 4 I M ( T 3 + T 1 0 ) 14.93 3 14. 93 3 2 U ( T 4 + T n ) 14.51 2 . 14.59 2 2 M ( T 5 + T 1 2 ) 15. 98 7 16.20 7 3 U ( T 6 + T 1 3 ) . 15. 46 5 15. 44 6 3 M ( T Y + T U > ' 14. 30 1 14.28 1 No-Passage. ( T . J 15 1.5.42 4 15. 43 5 153 TABLE XIII SCIENCE POSTTEST RAW SCORE MEANS BEFORE AND AFTER ADJUSTMENT FOR COVARIATE (RATE OF COMPREHENSION) FOR EACH FORM OF PASSAGE Form of Raw Score Adjusted Passage Means Rank Raw Score, Rank Means O r ( T 1 + T g) 22. 17 7 22. 09 6 1U (T.2 + T g) 22. 12 5. 5 21.92 5 1M(T 3 + T 1 0 ) 21.02 2 21. 05 2 ?.U(T4 + T n ) 22. 12 5. 5 22. 21 7 2 M ( T 5 + T 1 2 ) 21.23 3 21. 46 3 3U(T 6 + T 1 3 ) 22.39 8 22. 39 8 3M(T ? + T u ) 20. 65 1 20. -65 1 No-Passage (T. r) 1 5 21. 56 4 21.47 4 154 T A B L E XIV RESULTS O F I T E M ANALYSIS FOR SCIENCE P R E T E S T SHOWING PER CENT OF RESPONSES CORRECT FOR T O T A L , FOR T H E TOP AND B O T T O M QUARTILES, AND T H E D I F F E R E N C E B E T W E E N T H E QUARTILES FOR E A C H O F 56 ITEMS (Ns 175} Item Number Percentage of Responses Correct Total Top 2 5% Bottom 25% Difference 1 . 37. 1 52. 3 29. 5 22.7 2 25. 1 29. 5 18.2 11.4 3 22. 3 38. 6 15. 9 22. 7 4 46.9 61.4 31.8 29. 5 5 20. 6 31.8 13.6 18.2 6 67. 4 88. 6 40. 9 47. 7 7 9. 1 13. 6 4. 5 9. 1 8 18.9 22.7 18. 2 4. 5 9 52. 0 52. 3 52. 3 0. 0 10 93. 1 97. 7 84. 1 13. 6 11 36. 0 54. 5 25. 0 29. 5 12 9. 1 11.4 2. 3 9. 1 13 24. 0 34. 1 15.9 18.2 14 14.9 36. 4 4. 5 31.8 15 17. 7 18. 2 9. 1 9. 1 16 18. 3 29. 5 20. 5 9. 1 17 ... 59. 4 84. 1 45. 5 38. 6 18 82. 9 97. 7 59. 1 38. 6 .19 36.6 59. 1 22. 7 36. 4 20 17. 1 34. 1 11. 4 22. 7 21 60. 0 90.9 31. 8 59. 1 22 28. 6 40.9 18. 2 22. 7 23 17. 7 27. 3 11.4 15. 9 24 52. 0 75. 0 36. 4 38. 6 25 10. 9 6.8 13.6 -6. 8 26 56. 6 88. 6 22. 7 65. 9 27 33. 1 45. 5 20. 5 25.0 28 29. 7 34. 1 25. 0 9. 1 29 49. 1 81.8 20. 5 61. 4 30 68. 0 88. 6 34. 1 54. 5 155 TABLE XIV (cont'd) Item Percentage of Responses Correct Number Total Top 25% Bottom 25% Difference 31 27. 4 43. 2 11.4 31.8 32 38.9 68. 2 11.4 56. 8 33 21.7 36. 4 15. 9 . 20. 5 34 18.3 31.8 11.4 20. 5 35 38. 3 68. 2 13. 6 54. 5 36 82. 3 93. 2 63. 6 29. 5 37 18. 9 43. 2 9. 1 34. 1 38 10.3 11.4 11. 4 0. 0 39 76. 0 88.6 56. 8 31. 8 40 21.7 18. 2 11.4 6.8 41 22.9 27.3 15. 9 11. 4 42 23. 4 27. 3 11. 4. 15.9 43 9. 1 .11.4 4. 5 6. 8 44 40. 0 63. 6 15.9 47. 7 45 13. 7 18. 2 13. 6 4. 5 46 23.4 36. 4 9.1 27. 3 47 20. 6 27. 3 18. 2 9. 1 48 70. 9 90.9 38. 6 52. 3 49 60. 6 88. 6 27. 3 61.4 50 17.7 13. 6 15. 9 -2. 3 51 38. 9 79. 5 15.9 63. 6 52 12.6 15.9 6. 8 9. 1 .53 29.-7 47. 7 13. 6 34, 1 54 41.1 70. 5 13. 6 56. 8 55 44.0 79. 5 20. 5 59. 1 56 10.3 18.2 4. 5 13. 6 156 TABLE XV RESULTS OF ITEM ANALYSIS FOR SCIENCE POSTTEST SHOWING PER CENT OF RESPONSES CORRECT FOR TOTAL, FOR THE TOP AND BOTTOM QUARTILES, AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE QUARTILES FOR EACH OF 56 ITEMS (N=339) Item Percentage of Responses Correct Number Total Top 25% Bottom 25% Difference 1 53.7 68.2 41.2 27. 1 2 43. 4 64. 7 23.5 41.2 3 27. 7 . 40. 0 15. 3 24. 7 4 44. 8 49.4 37. 6 1.1. 8 5 , 21. 5 27. 1 20. 0 7. 1 6 68. 4 84. 7 48.2 36. 5 7 23. 9 43. 5 11. 8 31. 8 8 24. 5 30. 6 27. 1 3. 5 9 45. 7 56. 5 25.9 30. 6 10 88. 8 98. 8 75. 3 23. 5 11 28. 3 50. 6 15. 3 35. 3 12 13,3. 11. 8 9.4 2. 4 !3 22,4 37. 6 10.6 27. 1 14 2 5.7 / 40. 0 9.4 30. 6 15 22.7 27. 1 16. 5 10. 6 16 26. 3 27. 1 27. 1 0. 0 17 62. 2 85. 9 55. 3 30. 6 18 84. 7 9 5.3 69. 4 25. 9 19 33. 3 56. 5 18.8 37. 6 20 26. 5 44.7 12. 9 31. 8 21 61. 1 88. 2 42. 4 45. 9 22 56. 0 67. 1 43. 5 23. 5 23 23. 3 40. 0 11.8 28. 2 24 55.8 78. 8 32.9 45. 9 25 14. 2 16.5 12. 9 3. 5 26 55. 2 83. 5 25.9 57. 6 27 57. 8 77. 6 38. 8 38. 8 28 36. 9 41.2 30.6 10. 6 29 47. 5 83.5 18. 8 64. 7 30 66. 1 91.8 32.9 58. 8 157 TABLE XV (cont'd) Item Percentage of Responses Correct Number Total Top 25% Bottom 25% Difference 31 32. 4 50. 6 27. 1 23. 5 32 38. 1 72.9 15.3 57. 6 33 23. 6 32.9 15. 3 17. 6 34 21.8 37. 6 14.-1 23. 5 35 41.0 69. 4 25.9 43. 5 36 82. 6 95. 3 61.2 34. 1 37 17. 1 34. 1 7. 1 27. 1 38 15. 6 24. 7 11. 8 12. 9 39 77. 0 9L8 58. 8 32. 9 40 23. 6 34. 1 10. 6 23. 5 41 35. 7 50. 6 23. 5 27. 1 42 26. 5 34. 1 11. 8 22. 4 43 15. 3 11. 8 15. 3 -3. 5 44 44. 5 77. 6 22. 4 55. 3 45 • 13. 6 15. 3 10. 6 4.7 46 25. 1 40. 0 14.1 25.9 47 25. 4 41. 2 16.5 24. 7 48 72. 0 96. 5 41. 2 55. 3 49 68.4 78. 8 47. 1 31. 8 50 20. 1 15. 3 12.9 2. 4 51 42. 2 74. 1 20.0 54. 1 52 16. 2 18. 8 10. 6 8. 2 53 29. 5 38. 8 21. 2 17. 6 54 42. 2 71.8 20. 0 51. 8 55 44. 5 68. 2 17. 6 50. 6 56 8. 8 11. 8 5.9 5.9 158 TABLE XVI RESULTS OF ITEM ANALYSIS FOR HISTORY PRETEST SHOWING PER CENT OF RESPONSES CORRECT FOR TOTAL, FOR THE TOP AND BOTTOM QUARTILES, AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN QUARTILES FOR EACH OF 44 ITEMS (N=176) Item Number Percentage of Responses Correct Total Top 25% Bottom 25% Difference 1 '80. 1 100. 0 52. 3 47. 7 2 27. 3 45. 5 11. 4 34. 1 3 35.8 52.3 18. 2 34. i 44 47. 7 .56. 8 31. 8 25. 0 5 29. 0 . 59. 1 13. 6 45. 5 6 26. 1 54. 5 13. 6 40. 9 7 16. 5 9. 1 13. 6 -4. 5 8 23.9 38. 6 22. 7 15.9 9 16. 5 36. 4 0. 0 36. 4 10 26. 7 45.5 15.9 29. 5 11 52. 3. 86. 4 25. 0 61.4 12 52. 3 77. 3 ' 40. 9 36. 4 13 11.4 29. 5 4. 5 25. 0 : 14 19. 3 27. 3 6. 8 20. 5 15 14.2 15.9 11.4 4. 5 16 54.0 63.6 43. 2 20. 5 17 37.5 47.7 25. 0 22. 7 18 57. 4 72.7 43. 2 29. 5 19 18. 2 27. 3 11. 4 15. 9 20 40. 3 68.2 18. 2 50. 0 21 55. 1 77. 3 27. 3 50. 0 22 50. 0 79. 5 31.8 47. 7 23 18. 2 43. 2 4. 5 38. 6 24 32. 4 34. 1 22. 7 11. 4 25 38. 1 50. 0 29.5 20. 5 26 42. 0 77. 3 13. 6 63. 6 27 29. 0 38. 6 18.2 20. 5 28 46. 6 79. 5 13. 6 65. 9 29 19. 3 27. 3 6.8 20. 5 30 34. 1 45. 5 20. 5 25. 0 159 TABLE XVI (cont'd) Item Percentage of Responses Correct Number Total Top 25% Bottom 25% Difference 31 20. 5 31.8 11. 4 20. 5 32 11. 4 20. 5 11.4 9. 1 33 35. 2 54. 5 22. 7 31. 8 34 33.0 70. 5 6.8 63. 6 35 27. 3 45. 5 18. 2 27. 3 36 25. 0 40.9 18. 2 22. 7 37 31. 3 52. 3 18.2 34. 1 38 45. 5 47.7 45. 5 2. 3 39 17. 6 22. 7 15. 9 6. 8 40 25. 0 29. 5 11. 4 18. 2 41 31. 8 68. 2 6. 8 61. 4 42 - 35.2 61.4 15.9 45. 5 43 33. 0 54. 5 20. 5 34. 1 44 70. 5 97. 7 43. 2 54. 5. 160 TABLE XVII RESULTS OF ITEM ANALYSIS FOR HISTORY POSTTEST SHOWING PER CENT OF RESPONSES CORRECT FOR TOTAL, FOR THE TOP AND BOTTOM QUARTILES, AND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE QUARTILES FOR EACH OF 44 ITEMS (N=344) Item Percentage of Resp onses Correct Number Total Top 2 5% Bottom 2 5% Difference •1 '69. 5 87.2 55. 8 31. 4 2 .35. 5 55.8 22. 1 33. 7 3 41. 9 74.4 20. 9 53. 5 4 34. 9 •54. 7 23. 3 31.4 5 33. 7 58. 1 15. 1 43. 0 6 41.9 72. 1 25. 6 46. 5 7 34. 6 29. 1 37. 2 »8. 1 8 28. 5 38.4 22. 1 16. 3 9 28. 8 54.7 12. 8 41. 9 10 29.7 44. 2 17. 4 26.7 11 55.2 76. 7 30. 2 46. 5 12 51.2 73. 3 " 34. 9 38. 4 13 18.6 39. 5 8. 1 31. 4 14 26. 7 31.4 22. 1 9.3 15 16.9 25. 6 14. 0 11. 6 16 43. 3 68. 6 20.9 47.7 17 35. 5 4.6. 5 18. 6 27. 9 18 51. 5 83. 7 23. 3 60. 5 19 18. 9 27. 9 10. 5 17. 4 20 39. 5 59. 3 18. 6 40. 7 21 55. 2 76. 7 37.2 39. 5 22 55. 0 76. 7 24.4 52. 3 23 29.9 43. 0 12. 8 30. 2 24 32. 8 50.0 17. 4 32. 6 25 39. 8 62. 8 19.8 43.0 26 37. 5 61.6 14.0 47. 7 27 35. 8 61. 6 16.3 45. 3 28 40. 1 69.8 17. 4 52. 3 29 16. 3 17. 4 19.8 -2. 3. 30 28. 8 36. 0 16. 3 19. 8 161 TABLE XVII (cont'd) Item Percentage of Responses Correct Number Total Top 25% Bottom 25% Difference 31 20. 6 33.7 7. 0 26. 7 32 17. 7 30. 2 5.8 24. 4 33 37. 2 66. 3 19. 8 46. 5 34 36.0 . 74. 4 14.0 60. 5 35 33. 4 58. 1 15. 1 43. 0 36 26. 7 40. 7 19. 8 20. 9 37 26. 5 40. 7 15. 1 25. 6 38 41. 6 55.8 29. 1 26. 7 39 17. 7 25. 6 12.8 12. 8 40 27. 0 40. 7 20.9 19. 8 41 37. 5 70.9 12. 8 58. 1 42 32. 0 59. 3 20. 9 38.4 43 ' 36.0 47.7 23. 3 24. 4 44 68. 0 96. 5 41.9 54. 7 APPENDIX E PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING KEY WORDS AND NON-KEY WORDS IN CONTINUOUS DISCOURSE APPENDIX E Procedure for Determining Key Words and Non-Key Words In Continuous Discourse-*-Syntatic Redundancy Standard s t r u c t u r a l theory of language ( F r i e s , 1952) and standard transformational theory (Chomsky, 1965) show that i n Eng l i s h , struc-ture words, c e r t a i n a u x i l i a r y verbs and other recoverable items are r e a d i l y deletable from sentences without impairing the r e f e r e n t i a l or grammatical meaning. I t i s possible to l i s t such words which may be deleted from a sentence at sight since a small number of words meet thi s c r i t e r i o n . In the texts which were used as stimulus passages i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the following categories of words were found to be deletable at sight on sy n t a t i c grounds: (1) Unquantified determiners: ja, the, t h i s , that, these, those (unstressed) e.g. (1) vastness of our solar system (the) (2) sun i s star (the, a) (3) At one of islands (these) (4) With defeat, Aztecs ... ( t h i s , the) based on a manuscript by Bowers & Nacke; submitted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . The universal quantifier a l l seems to be recoverable from the p l u r a l form of the noun, but some i s not: England eventually won  Canada ( a l l of) ( 2 ) Conjunctions ( i ) co-ordinates: and, but, or, also, yet e.g. Captain Cook explored A u s t r a l i a other lands i n the South P a c i f i c (and) meteors are ca l l e d "shooting stars" " f a l l i n g stars." (or) The Spaniards did not release the emperor on trumped-up accusations, sentenced him ... (but) A l l sentences and parts of sentences have the p o s s i b i l i t y of being co-ordinately joined. The kinds of co-ordinators which can be deleted are those which are recoverable from the sense of the refer-e n t i a l remnants. ( i i ) sentence connectors: thus, therefore, consequently, for  this reason, that i s why, accordingly, etc. -e.g. Cabot's discovery l a i d the foundation for England's claim to the whole r i c h continent, . for 10 pounds and a t i t l e , England eventually won a l l of Canada. (Thus) This t e r r i t o r y was acquired for Portugal and today the people of B r a z i l speak the Portuguese language. (that i s why) Astronomers had noticed that Uranus was not moving i n i t s expected o r b i t , they began to suspect that Uranus might be under the influence of an unknown planet. (Therefore) Like co-ordinators, sentence connectors are recoverable from the connected sentences themselves, as they merely act as e d i t o r i a l signals to indic a t e to the reader the p a r t i c u l a r part of an argument or d e s c r i p t i o n reached. ( i i i ) subordinating conjunctions, r e l a t i v e pronouns: who, whom, whose, whence, that, etc. e.g. The sol a r system i s held together by two forces balance each other. (which) The sun, diameter i s 865,4000 miles ... (whose) (The sun i s ) a heavenly body produces l i g h t and heat. (that) Relative pronouns are recoverable by anaphora, i.e.,by reference to th e i r antecedents. In t h i s respect they resemble co-ordinators, which delete or pronominalize recoverable nouns o b l i g a t o r i l y : John a r r i v e d  and John started work i s not a well-formed sentence: .John a r r i v e d and  he started work i s better, but John a r r i v e d and started work i s the more acceptable. It i s noteworthy that current theory derives many adjectives from r e s t r i c t i v e r e l a t i v e clauses. The man f e l l down and  the man i s t a l l transforms to the man who i s t a l l f e l l down; further, to the t a l l man f e l l down. This regular process confirms the delet-a b i l i t y of r e l a t i v e pronouns. In e a r l i e r English a l l forms of the r e l a t i v e pronoun were quite deletable i n normal usage, not merely i n the r e l a t i v e clause-object structure as i s the case today. (iv) subordinating that e.g. I t i s estimated the temperature ... (that) It i s believed • such a passage must e x i s t north of Canada. (that) Tales had come to Darien a mighty empire lay to the south. (that) In normal English usage, that i s optional as a s i g n a l for a f o l l o w i n g r noun clause i n a l l but unextraposed subjects, e.g. that he i s l i v i n g  i s obvious i s an obsolescent s t r u c t u r e . (3) A u x i l i a r y verbs and modals: to have, to do, can, must, may. w i l l , s h a l l e.g. He f o r sometime believed (had) ... i f they not balance, one of two things happen. (did, would) Babylonian astronomers p r e d i c t the motion of the planets but not explain i t . (could, could) I t was believed that such a passage •  e x i s t north of Canada. (must) A l l these verbs are grammatically a u x i l i a r y and s t r u c t u r a l i n E n g l i s h . The word have as a perfect tense operator i s recoverable from the past p a r t i c i p l e verb i n f l e x t i o n ; _do i s recoverable from the i n f i n i t i v e . The modals, of course, have semantic force but not reference. In most discourse the force, ( i . e . the tone, the presupposed viewpoint of the speaker) i s c l e a r from the o v e r a l l i n t e n t i o n and e f f e c t , from the t i t l e to the conclusion. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case i n expository d i s -course of which the test or stimulus passages used i n the i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n were examples. Whether one could delete modals from highly r h e t o r i c a l discourse without l o s i n g the sense i s doubtful; however, even i n r h e t o r i c a l discourse, d e l e t i o n of modals would not a f f e c t r e f e r e n t i a l meaning. In grammar models, modal f o r c e i s r e p -r e s e n t e d i n two ways; one i s to d e s c r i b e the v e r b phrase as modals •f v e r b (Chomskyan s t a n d a r d t h e o r y ) w h i l e the o t h e r r e p r e s e n t s m o d a l i t y as a s u p e r o r d i n a t e sentence w i t h the r e f e r e n t i a l s e n t e n c e embedded i n i t . A l t h o u g h the former makes the modal depend from the v e r b and the l a t t e r the v e r b from the modal,' b o t h d e s c r i p t i o n s keep the modals, l i k e the a u x i l i a r i e s , s t r i c t l y s e p a r a t e from the p r e d i c a t e , and i t i s t h i s p r i n c i p l e w h i c h p e r m i t s the a u x i l i a r y and the modal d e l e t i o n s . (4) to be e.g. A t the c e n t e r of the s o l a r system the sun. ( i s ) The o u t e r f i v e p l a n e t s s e p a r a t e d from each o t h e r by v a s t d i s t a n c e s . ( a r e ) C a b r a l blown o f f h i s c o u r s e . (was) Meanwhile the S p a n i a r d s - making v a l u a b l e l a n d d i s c o v e r i e s . (were) The v e r b to be, i n b o t h i t s e x i s t e n t i a l and a u x i l i a r y u s e s , i s r e c o v e r -a b l e from word o r d e r , where j u x t a p o s i t i o n i m p l i e s c o p u l a r i t y and from the p a r t i c i p a l form of the f o l l o w i n g v e r b i n p a s s i v e and c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t s t r u c t u r e s . The f o r m a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r d e l e t i o n was d i s c u s s e d . e a r l i e r . (5) I n f i n i t i v a l to e.g. ... the l o n g e r i t takes a p l a n e t complete one r e v o l u t i o n ... ( t o ) I n s t e a d of p e r s u a d i n g the S p a n i a r d s d e p a r t ... they e x c i t e d , them push . on to T e n o c h t i t l a n . ( t o , to) to i s w h o l l y p r e d i c t a b l e i n E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e s which i n v o l v e the i n f i n i t i v e . (6) _of i n a l l cases e.g. Montezuma, r u l e r the n a t i v e Aztecs ... ( o f ) A f t e r s i x weeks tu r b u l a n t s a i l i n g ... ( o f ) Venus i s the b r i g h t e s t planet system. (of) the s o l a r Among the p r e p o s i t i o n s , which as a whole belong to the area at which content words and s t r u c t u r e words i n t e r s e c t , _of seems to be the only one which can be recovered unambiguously. F i l l m o r e (1968) has shown i t to be the marker of the n e u t r a l case and, as such, the l e a s t marked and most d e l e t a b l e of the p r e p o s i t i o n s , In suggesting these d e l e t i o n s , i t must be s t r e s s e d that i t i s not necessary f o r a reader to have a 100 per cent p r e d i c t i o n , i . e . , to replace the word e x a c t l y i n order to understand the message. Often, of course, a reader can r e s t o r e the exact word, but i t i s not on the p r i n c i p l e of absolute p r e d i c t i o n that l i n g u i s t i c redundancy i s based, but on the p r i n c i p l e of r e c o v e r a b i l i t y of meaning from other s i g n a l s . This p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l i e s not only s y n t a c t i c redundancy, but a l s o semantic or l e x i c a l redundancy which w i l l be considered next. The r e s u l t of i d e n t i f y i n g s y n t a c t i c redundancies i n the stimulus passages can be seen by r e f e r r i n g to form 2 of the passages i n Appendix C. Words which are s y n t a c t i c a l l y redundant are not u n d e r l i n e d i n form 2. L e x i c a l (Semantic) Redundancy Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to a discussion of l i n g u i s t i c redundancy are the notions of semantic "components" (Lyons, 1968) or "features" (Katz, 1966) which are the meaning-constituents of r e f e r e n t i a l terms. For example, a consideration of terms l i k e man, woman: b u l l , cow w i l l show that they are analyzable into "features" or "components": man ( + adult + human + male ) woman ( + adult + human - male ) b u l l ( + adult - human + animate + male ) cow ( + adult - human + animate - male ). Such a n a l y s i s , although not to ultimate components, i s valuable i n c a l c u l a t i n g the redundancy of a s t r i n g because i t allows the analyst to locate the common and non-common items of l e x i c a l u n i t s . For example, i n : Moving around some of the planets are t h e i r moons. In the space between the o r b i t s of Mars and J u p i t e r are thousands of l i t t l e planets, or a s t e r o i d s , also revolv-ing around the sun. We can compare moving around and revolving around i n terms of features and notice that revolving ( + motion + round ) minus moving ( + motion ) = + round, and, consequently, that around i n revolving around i s redundant. Further, the p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase i n the space ( + l o c a t i v e ) and between ( + l o c a t i v e + r e l a t i o n a l ) overlap to the extent that between includes the feature of _in the space: therefore _in the space i s redundant. C l e a r l y , there i s nothing very e s o t e r i c about t h i s procedure. I t is based, i n f a c t , on the t r a d i t i o n a l and w i d e l y - u t i l i z e d p r i n c i p l e of d e f i n i t i o n by d i v i s i o n into genus and species (Lyons, 1968, 472 f f ) . 170 I t i s also the p r i n c i p l e underlying the native speaker's avoidance of semantic deviance. Strings such as Auntie drank the bacon are s y n t a c t i c a l l y c o r r e c t but are considered odd because drink has the feature ( - s o l i d ) which c o n f l i c t with bacon ( + s o l i d ). I t should be stressed that semantic a n a l y s i s i n t o features i s part of the ordinary speaker's i n t u i t i v e behavior and not an a r t i f i c i a l procedure. In formulating a procedure of deleting semantically redundant items i t i s necessary to define units within and up to the sentence l e v e l . Immediate constituent a n a l y s i s , as explained by Wells (1947) and used by sy n t a c t i c i a n s of a l l complexions, seems to be a workable method and r e f l e c t s the speaker's own preconceptions of s t r u c t u r e . 'It i s convenient to adopt the formal notation of generative grammar as used by Yngve (1961, 1960) i n h i s examination of surface structures as, for example i n the sentence: The sun, located i n the center of our s o l a r system i s a star, a heavenly body that produces l i g h t and heat. This a n a l y s i s permits the d i s t i n c t i o n of l e v e l s as follows: Level 1: The sun, located ... system // i s a sta r , a ... heat. Level 2: The sun / located ... system // i s / a s t a r , a ... heat. Level 3: The sun / located J i n the ... system // i s / a star J a heavenly body ... heat. Level 4 : The sun / located J i n the center ) of ... system // i s / a star jj a heavenly body ) that produces l i g h t and heat. The purpose of the above analysis i s to d e l i m i t word groups within which to c a l c u l a t e semantic redundancy. It is. possible to analyze the small units f i r s t , and to delete redundancies. The process is" then repeated at successively higher l e v e l s . In the above example, a f t e r s y n t a c t i c d e l e t i o n the following words remain: sun / located J i n center ) solar system // / star J heavenly body ) produces l i g h t heat. No component c a n c e l l a t i o n s occur at l e v e l 4 ; at l e v e l 3 , no cancel-l a t i o n s are possi b l e , but at l e v e l 2 we have located ( + l o c a t i v e ) i n ... center ( + l o c a t i v e + point ) and located i s thus cancelled. S i m i l a r l y , s t a r and h e a v e n l y body a r e synonymous i n c o n t e x t , so we ma c a n c e l one or the o t h e r of them. A t l e v e l 1, sun and s o l a r s h a r e f e a t u r e s and s o l a r may be c a n c e l l e d . Thus, what remains i s : ... sun ... i n c e n t e r . ... system ... s t a r ... produces l i g h t ... h e a t . I t can be a r g u e d t h a t produces i s r e d u n d a n t . I t s d e l e t i o n , however, i n v o l v e s q u i t e f i n e c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s which a r b i t r a r i l y was n o t r e s o r t e d t o i n the p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e . A l o n g w i t h semantic r e d u n d a n c i e s may be c l a s s e d m o r p h o l o g i c a l r e d u n d a n c i e s , because they a r e l e x i c a l r a t h e r than s y n t a c t i c . F o r example, i n E n g l i s h , t h e r e a r e many compound v e r b s such as _to c r o s s  o v e r , t o l o o k f o r , t o s e t eyes upon, to e n t i t l e t o , to embark upon, i n w h i c h the t r a n s i t i o n a l dependency of the p a r t i c l e on the v e r b i s v e r y h i g h . A c c o r d i n g l y , i n compounds of t h i s k i n d the p r e d i c t a b l e p a r t i c l e may be d e l e t e d . Examples from the s t i m u l u s passages a r e : The sun r o t a t e s i t s a x i s . . . (on) Astronomers have l o n g s p e c u l a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y (on) The S p a n i s h k i n g f i t t e d him a f l e e t . . . (out w i t h ) The c u m u l a t i v e r e s u l t o f d e l e t i n g the l e x i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l r e d u n d a n c i e s p l u s the s y n t a c t i c r e d u n d a n c i e s can be o b s e r v e d by r e f e r r i n g to form 4 o f the s t i m u l u s passages i n Appendix C. I t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t the redundant words a t the g i v e n l e v e l a r e n o t u n d e r l i n e d . Discourse (Anaphoric) Redundancy The p r i n c i p l e of delet i o n over discourse seems to be natural to language but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to formalize. Instead of repeating the same noun phrase i n f u l l , f o r example, i t i s usual to pronominalize or delete the subsequent occurrences: e.g. John was studying hard  for John's exams. John had to pass or John would not have John's scholarship renewed, i s c e r t a i n l y not very acceptable English, whereas, John was studying hard f o r his exams. He had to pass or would not have  his scholarship renewed, i s one of several possible pronominalization and d e l e t i o n s t r a t e g i e s which render the l a s t discourse more acceptable. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i s i l l u s t r a t e d by pronominalization and deletion i s anaphora, a process of r e f e r r i n g back to what has just been mentioned i n the discourse. The process i s not easy to formalize unless only one unit i s repeated, as i n the example above or i n expository w r i t i n g which i s topic dominated i n the sense that one paragraph presents information about one' topic, i n the form of sentences where the topic phrase i s generally the f i r s t noun phrase, 1 1 1 2 thus: ( ) Topic Comment . ( ) Topic Comment . ( ) 1 3 Topic Comment , etc. In f a c t , t h i s kind of structure characterized one of the stimulus passages, "The Solar System", but was almost completely absent from the second passage. "The Age of Exploration," which was written i n what frequently passes for a superior ' l i t e r a r y ' s t y l e xtfith constant l e x i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n and sentence structure v a r i a t i o n . I n o r d e r n o t to impose undue s t r a i n on a r e a d e r ' s immediate memory an a r b i t r a r i l y s m a l l upper l i m i t was p l a c e d on a n a p h o r i c d e l e t i o n u n l e s s a whole p a r a g r a p h was s t r u c t u r e d i n i s o m o r p h i c s e n t e n c e s . I n d i v i d u a l s may w e l l v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the amount of a n a p h o r i c d e l e t i o n they can cope w i t h and, as d i s c o u r s e d e l e t i o n was the t h i r d , and l a s t , c a t e g o r y o f redundancy c o n s i d e r e d , a con-s e r v a t i v e a p p roach was t a k e n . As a c a u t i o u s p r o c e d u r e , t h e r e f o r e , a n a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e s were scanned o v e r a maximum o f two j u x t a p o s e d s e n t e n c e s and d e l e t e d , the p r o c e s s b e i n g r e p e a t e d f o r each s u c c e s s i v e p a i r . In some paragraphs t h i s p r o c e d u r e l e f t u n d e l e t e d a s m a l l number o f items w h i c h were r e c o v e r a b l e from the par a g r a p h ' s c e n t r a l t o p i c , so these were a l s o d e l e t e d , b u t , i n the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f the d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s a r t , no f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e , m o t i v a t e d to the same degree as t h a t f o r s y n t a c t i c and semantic d e l e t i o n , e x i s t s t o j u s t i f y t h i s p r o c e d u r e . As a r e s u l t o f a d o p t i n g a c a u t i o u s a p p r o a c h , t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y few d i s c o u r s e d e l e t i o n s . The e f f e c t on the f i r s t ... p a r a g r a p h of the s c i e n c e passage was t h a t o n l y the p h r a s e , " s o l a r system," i n the second s e n t e n c e , was d e l e t e d . I t w i l l be noted t h a t s o l a r system was d e l e t e d from the second s e n t e n c e because i t o c c u r s i n the f i r s t s e n t e n c e , whereas p l a n e t s i n the f o u r t h s entence has not been d e l e t e d i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t i t o c c u r s i n the t h i r d s e n t e n c e . . The r e a s o n f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t the r e c u r r i n g items must be s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r i n o r d e r f o r d e l e t i o n to o c c u r ; s o l a r system i s g e n i t i v e i n the f i r s t and second s e n t e n c e s , but p l a n e t s i s n o m i n a t i v e ( s u b j e c t ) i n the t h i r d and a c c u s a t i v e ( o b j e c t ) in the fourth sentence. This constraint seenis to be a natural and i s corroborated i n Harris (1963). Space i n the l a s t l i n e deleted because i t i s recoverable from the sense of the whole paragraph. 

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