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Britain and Malaya : imperialism as the mystification of self-image Pechey, Ann 1970

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BRITAIN AND MALAYA : IMPERIALISM  AS THE MYSTIFICATION  OF  SELF-IMAGE  hy ANN PECHEY B.A., University of Queensland, Australia, 196^  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFIJMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS  IN THE DEPARTMENT of HISTORY  We accept this thesis as coriforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1970  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  for  may  be  It  financial  for  of  April  28th,  gain  Columbia  1970.  of  Columbia,  British  by  for  the  understood  History  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  Date  freely  permission  representatives. thesis  partial  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  Abstract  H e r a c l i t u s s a i d , "Man i s estranged he i s most f a m i l i a r . "  from t h a t w i t h which  Which i s to say, h i m s e l f .  i m p e r i a l i s t , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y estranged  Man, as  from h i s t r u e  self.  T h i s , then, i s the "problem" c o n f r o n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages the processes, bred o f h i s a l i e n a t i o n from h i m s e l f , by which man d i s t o r t s h i s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s human and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n ments so as to b r i n g them i n t o accordance with h i s own m y s t i f i e d self-image. Mid-nineteenth  century England, l i k e H e r a c l i t u s ' Greece,  turned out an impressive a r r a y o f i m p e r i a l i s t s , among them the "Residents",  to whom the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Her Majesty's  I n d i a n Empire was e n t r u s t e d .  Further  V i c t o r i a n England was a l s o f o r  the most p a r t l a c k i n g i n t h a t q u a l i t y , as Keats understood i t , of Negative  C a p a b i l i t y - " t h a t i s when man i s capable  i n u n c e r t a i n t i e s , M y s t e r i e s , doubts, without r e a c h i n g a f t e r f a c t and reason." t h e i r own c o n f e s s i o n , the Residents  of being  any i r r i t a b l e  I t was a q u a l i t y which, by found amply present i n the  Malays. Given a remarkable o p p o r t u n i t y to " l e a r n " t h i s  quality  i n the Malayan s e t t i n g however, the B r i t i s h , as purveyors of law and order and the s c i e n t i f i c method, by s e t t i n g about making over the Malays i n the image of the V i c t o r i a n gentleman, almost without  e x c e p t i o n c o n s p i r e d to destroy p r e c i s e l y what  might have been t h e i r s a l v a t i o n from the dilemmas o f i m p e r i a l i s m .  I have attempted adapted  to understand how  and why  the B r i t i s h  t h e i r image of Malaya and the Malays to t h e i r  r e a l i t y - a r e a l i t y determined  ( f o r a l l that they might have  been condemned i n some c i r c l e s f o r "going n a t i v e " ) by own  own  their  experience as V i c t o r i a n i m p e r i a l i s t s , and conceived i n  e s s e n t i a l ignorance of the country and i t s people.  Moreover,  I have h y p o t h e s i z e d that s i n c e people are to a c e r t a i n extent what o t h e r s make them, the Malays came to accept and to act out, i n v a r y i n g degrees, the B r i t i s h image of them. F i n a l l y , I would conclude w i t h C h a r l e s Olsen that h i s t o r y i t s e l f can be shown to be of two k i n d s .  One i s  n e g a t i v e l y capable - a f u n c t i o n of any one of us^and as can be taken q u i e t l y and u s e f u l l y .  such  The o t h e r i s power.  Men can and do w i l f u l l y set i n motion e g o t i s t i c a l , sublime events. They have e f f e c t which looks l i k e use. These are power, and h i s t o r y as p r i m o r d i a l and p r o s p e c t i v e i s seen to demand the r e g o g n i t i o n that the other h i s t o r y which I would c a l l ' a n t i - h i s t o r y ' - i s not good enough.  -  - i -  BRITAIN AND MALAYA : IMPERIALISM AS THE MYSTIFICATION OF SELF-IMAGE  An Investigation into Some Aspects of the True Nature of Imperialism i n A l l Times and Places, with Special Reference to the Imperialism practised by the B r i t i s h Residents i n the Malay Peninsula i n the Last Quarter of the Nineteenth  Century.  My t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o Professor Brian Harrison, f o r his "advice without control", and t o my t y p i s t , M a r i e , who showed me, b e a u t i f u l l y , t h a t t h e medium i s i n d e e d t h e m e s s a g e .  Table of Contents  P a r t One  :  Know t h e H i s t o r i a n  P a r t Two  :  Imperialism: The M y s t i f i c a t i o n o f E x p e r i e n c e and t h e D i s t o r t i o n of Selfimage  P a r t Three :  The Image and t h e Culture  Part Pour :  Land o f the Orang-Utan and t h e B i r d o f P a r a d i s e  Part Five  Intervention Revisited  :  Part Six :  P l a y i n g a t Eden  Part  Conclusion  Seven :  A b o u t My  Sources  Bibliography Appendix  I  Appendix I I  - iv -  Part One :  Know the h i s t o r i a n  (or, the Duke o f G l o u c e s t e r t o Edward Gibbon on p u b l i c a t i o n of D e c l i n e and F a l l : Another damned f a t book, eh, Mr. Gibbon? S c r i b b l e , s c r i b b l e , s c r i b b l e eh, Mr. Gibbon?)  - v -  To be freed from the b e l i e f that there i s no freedom i s indeed to be free. Martin Buber: Ich and Du  Art stands against history, withstands history which has been the history of oppression, f o r art subjects r e a l i t y to laws other than the established ones; to the law of the Forum which creates a d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t y - negation of the established one even where a r t depicts the established r e a l i t y . But i n i t s struggle with history, a r t subjects i t s e l f to h i s t o r y : history enters the d e f i n i t i o n of a r t and enters into the destruction between art and pseudo-art. Previous forms, styles and q u a l i t i e s , previous modes of protest and r e f u s a l cannot be recaptured i n or against a repressive society. Herbert Marcuse: Repressive  Tolerance  You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows. Bob  Dylan.  1. I had w r i t t e n an e l a b o r a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r undertaking a study o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y B r i t i s h from a l i b r a r y  I m p e r i a l i s t s i n Malaya  i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the l a t e t w e n t i e t h century -  from a p o s i t i o n , t h a t i s , which made i t extremely r e s u l t would j u s t be another ial  l i k e l y t h a t the  " E u r o p e - c e n t r i c " study of the imper-  experience. An a n a l y s i s o f B r i t i s h Imperialism may c o n t r i b u t e t o the comparative study of the i n t e l l e c t u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of group and r a c i a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , the e v o l u t i o n o f p r e j u d i c e s and s t e r e o t y p e s , and the m e n t a l i t y of dominant c l a s s e s . B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m o f the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century i n the Malayan s e t t i n g , while unique i n many r e s p e c t s , developed a p a t t e r n or r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a t t i t u d e s f o r which analogues can be found i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s then and now - i n A f r i c a , South America and A s i a , s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s have emerged which bear comparison with n i n e t e e n t h century Malaya. F u r t h e r , the study o f B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i d e o l o g y continues t o be r e l e v a n t to contempo r a r y i s s u e s because o f the r o l e i t p l a y s i n the n a t i o n a l i s t s t r u g g l e s o f emerging c o u n t r i e s . I t i s important to understand what these peoples are r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t , the p e c u l i a r nature o f t h e i r c o n t a c t with the west, i n order t o apprec i a t e the nature o f the r e a c t i o n . Some o f them accepted the B r i t i s h view o f themselves and o f the n a t i v e peoples they governed; others d i d not. But the i d e o l o g y of c o l o n i a l r u l e r s cannot be ignored by the indigenous race because the former l a r g e l y s e t the terms o f the deb3,1/©  *• •  F r a n k l y , I borrowed most of t h a t from other h i s t o r i a n s t r y i n g t o j u s t i f y doing p r e c i s e l y the same t h i n g . understanding  Such i s my  a t present t h a t the o n l y phrase which seems to  have any meaning a t a l l i s "the study of B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l  ideol-  ogy  continues t o be r e l e v a n t to contemporary i s s u e s ..." - t h a t  is,  i n the end, i f I can j u s t i f y i t a t a l l ,  I can j u s t i f y w r i t i n g  2. i n t h e s i s form o n l y as i t r e l a t e s t o the present and t o myself as p a r t o f t h a t a c t u a l i t y - as student, woman, c i t i z e n o f the E a r t h , p a r t i c l e i n the Universe ... " . . . t h e r e i s no o t h e r r e a l i t y than the present ... you must r e a l i z e i n what tense you l i v e . Are you i n c o n t a c t w i t h the present? Are you awake to the r e a l i t y o f your surroundings, o r do you wander o f f i n t o the past o r f u t u r e ? .... how much o f your time i s spent i n a t t e n d i n g to a c t u a l r e a l i t y and how much i s remembering and a n t i c i p a ting. T r a i n your sense o f a c t u a l i t y by watching your i n c l i n a t i o n t o s l i d e o f f i n t o the past o r f u t u r e . At the same time, f i n d out i f you upset your balance by a v o i d i n g t o - l o o k i n t o e i t h e r past o r f u t u r e ... .."^ E.H. full  C a r r wrote t h a t i n order t o a p p r e c i a t e h i s t o r y a t i t s  value we have t o understand  what the h i s t o r i a n i s doing, be-  cause whether we l i k e i t o r not, the f a c t s o f h i s t o r y never come to us "pure" - they are always r e f r a c t e d through the mind o f the p recorder.  Many h i s t o r i a n s pay l i p s e r v i c e t o the  assumption  that h i s t o r i a n s should not and cannot be detached,  and then pro-  ceed to w r i t e and l i v e p r e c i s e l y w i t h detachment.  The reason f o r  t h i s has been c l e a r l y s t a t e d by Noam Chomsky;  1  i t i s because  F..S. P e r l s : Ego, Hunger and Aggression, The Beginning o f G e s t a l t Therapy (New York, Vintage Books, 19t>9), P.20b. cf.. : Leonard Cohen: S e l e c t e d Poems 1956-1968, (Toronto, Canadian P u b l i s h e r s , 1969). H i s t o r y i s a n e e d l e / f o r p u t t i n g men asleep/anxbinted w i t h the p o i s o n / o f a l l they want t o keep. • E.H* C a r r : What i s H i s t o r y ? (Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1964) Chap.I. A l s o , Clementi-Smith's awareness o f t h e . " a c t u a l i t y " j when a d d r e s s i n g the Royal C o l o n i a l I n s t i t u t e on a paper d e l i v e r e d by the "young" Mr. C l i f f o r d : " I cannot h e l p t h i n k i n g a paper of t h i s . k i n d has a very s p e c i a l value, not perhaps today o r tomorrow ... but the time w i l l come ... when c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l have so extended i t s e l f t h a t these w i l l be matters o f c h i e f l y h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t ..." Proc. R. C o l o n i a l I n s t i t u t e , V o l . XXX, 1898-99, p.398.  3. "scholarly ians and certain  detachment" i n f a c t permits i n t e l l e c t u a l s , as  as people, not q u e s t i o n s , not  to make c e r t a i n to draw c e r t a i n  about t h e i r s u b j e c t but  comments, not  histor-  to  c o n c l u s i o n s , not  ask only  about themselves.  In f a c t I have to admit to agreeing with Chomsky when, d i s c u s s i n g the society  and  filling"  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  "the  i n t e l l e c t u a l s " i n modern  methods they have c u s t o m a r i l y a p p l i e d i n " f u l -  t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he  wrote:  By e n t e r i n g i n t o the arena of argument and counterargument, of t e c h n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y and t a c t i c s , of f o o t n o t e s and c i t a t i o n s , by a c c e p t i n g the presumption of l e g i t i m a c y of debate on c e r t a i n i s s u e s , one has a l r e a d y l o s t one's humanity. ]_ T h i s i s a very s i n g u l a r more c o r r e c t l y , and  the  "thesis-writer".  of a l l " h i s t o r i a n s " ,  eptible  and  c a l l e d the __  damnation of the  the  For  thesis-writer  historian,  of a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l s is especially  susc-  f r e q u e n t l y f a l l s prey to what M a r s h a l l McLuhan power of the  or  medium to impose i t s own  has  assumptions on ______  N. Chomsky: American Power and The New Mandarins, (New York, 1969) (my u n d e r l i n i n g ) . "Given the unique p r i v i l e g e s that the i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n our s o c i e t y enjoy, the l e i s u r e , the f a c i l i t i e s and the t r a i n i n g presumably to seek the t r u t h behind t h a t v e i l of d i s t o r t i o n and m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i d e o l o g y and c l a s s i n t e r e s t s through which events are presented, t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s much wider and deeper than t h a t of o r d i n a r y people." "The n o t i o n t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s must speak the t r u t h and expose,.the l i e s of h i s t o r y has become j u s t another t r u i s m and as such i s being l a r g e l y ignored." But c f . Abbie Hoffman: R e v o l u t i o n f o r the H e l l of I t (p.89) who compares a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l s to "sheep t a l k i n g r h e t o r i c " . Even "the ' L e f t ' masturbates c o n t i n u o u s l y because i t i s essent i a l l y rooted i n the academic t r a d i t i o n " . The i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' i n s i s t e n c e on i d e o l o g i c a l exactness r a t h e r than a c t i o n conc e a l s the t r u t h as much as the a c t i o n s of the people i n p o l i t i c a l power.  the unwary.  Even Chomsky admits  to being t e m p o r a r i l y and  f r i g h t e n i n g l y drawn i n t o " t h i s morass o f insane r a t i o n a l i t y i n v e n t i n g arguments and counter-arguments to counter and demolish the c o n s t r u c t i o n s of "the Bormans and the Rosenbergs", and, one might add, a l l the thousands o f " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " people who  have thus f a r escaped p u b l i c n o t i c e , but who  accepted without q u e s t i o n the r i g h t of one organism  and have  to impose  upon o t h e r s , by f o r c e i f necessary, i t s v i s i o n of the world the assumption in  which l i e s at the base of a l l i m p e r i a l i s t  a l l p l a c e s , ages and times.*  ventures  T h i s a p p l i e s as w e l l to those  whoS.e only " i m p e r i a l i s t " gesture i s to assume, unaware of the t y p o g r a p h i c b i a s of our c u l t u r e , t h a t uniform and h a b i t s are a s i g n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and who the ear man  1  * 2  and the t a c t i l e man.  continuous  would thus e l i m i n a t e  2  c f . F. S. P e r l s : Ego, Hunger and Aggression, o p . c i t . , p . 2 0 8 . "The f l i g h t i n t o the past i s mostly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of people who need scapegoats. These people f a i l to r e a l i z e t h a t , desp i t e what has happened i n the past t h e i r present l i f e i s t h e i r own, and t h a t i t i s now t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to remedy t h e i r shortcomings, whatever they may be. Whenever these people who hang on to the past encounter d i f f i c u l t y , they spend a l l t h e i r energy i n complaining, or i n f i n d i n g 'causes' o u t s i d e themselves." A l s o , David Reisman: " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Types and N a t i o n a l Chara c t e r " ( i n American Q u a r t e r l y 1953, p.333-4) f o r r e s u l t s of a Thematic Apperception Test on graduate h i s t o r y students. I do not agree w i t h Reisman's i n f e r e n c e t h a t there i s r e a l l y nothing wrong w i t h pursuing an o c c u p a t i o n which tends to pathology r a t h e r than h e a l t h . c f . C l i f f o r d : Bushwacking ... (London, 1901) p.318: " I l i v e i n the past, as a l l men must who have no f u t u r e - save the end. See i n t e r l e a f . A f t e r M a r s h a l l McLuhan: Understanding Media (New York, 1964) esp. Chap. I. " R a t i o n a l " , of course, has f o r the West long meant "uniform and continuous and s e q u e n t i a l " (the t h e s i s ) . We have, as McLuhan p o i n t s out, confused reason with l i t e r a c y , and r a t i o n a l i s m w i t h a. s i n g l e technology. "Our c o n v e n t i o n a l response to a l l media, namely t h a t i t i s how they are used t h a t counts, i s the numb stance of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l i d i o t . " I t i s not the content but the medium which i s the message.  The thing i s ugly but inevitable. Our experience i n Asia has taught us that i t i s impossible to avoid making a l i t t l e war of our own before we can hope to teach an unimaginative people the f u l l blessings of peace. It i s a p i t y , and stated crudel y , i t has an ugly look to those who do not understand. Therefore, at each forward step which England makes, her sons thrust the past behind them, hope that the future w i l l b e l i e i t s experience, and decline to face the facts which history teaches a l l too p l a i n l y . Given, however, an oligarchy of native chiefs who have ruled a cowed brown people, melancholy and unresisting, for t h e i r own p r o f i t , and f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e i r own l u s t s , with f l i n t y hearts unfettered by conscience or p r i n c i ples, given a strong feudal s p i r i t among the lower classes, the habits of centuries which bid them to obey unquestioningly; given a fear of the Unknown which t e l l s them white me^n may be harder task masters than t h e i r hereditary oppressors - given these things and an explosion of some sort must c e r t a i n l y occur. Add to them the presence of a slender band of Europeans, men callous of that personal dignity which r e a d i l y impresses Oriental f o l k - s t r i v i n g to set up a new standard of ethics i n a land where right and wrong have hitherto been things of l i t t l e meaning, curbing the lawlessness of chiefs, punishing the crimes of the community with an even-handed justice which d i s r e gards a l i k e the convenience of friend and foe, and a l l the while unwittingly offending the s u c e p t i b i l i t i e s of a most sensitive race,and the chances of peace become small indeed. To an Eastern people, with the t r a d i t i o n of centuries of war and rapine i n their wake, bloodshed naturally appeals as the only conceivable exit from an impasse such as t h i s , so we inaugurate our rule of peace with a heart-breaking l i t t l e war .... S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d , G.C.M.G., C.B.E., of the Malayan C i v i l Service: "Recollections of the Pahang Disturbances of December I 8 9 O - September 1 8 9 1 " i n Bushwacking and Other A s i a t i c Tales and Memories.  ....the q u a r r e l was between white a u t h o r i t y and Malay resentment o f i n t e r f e r e n c e ... There f o l l o w e d what i s known as "a s t a t e o f r e p r i s a l s " . U n c i v i l i z e d people, who do not understand f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s i n such matters, c a l l e d i t war .... Swe11enham: Malay Sketches, "The E t e r n a l Feminine" p.b4  5. Graduate theses are r e q u i r e d o f c a n d i dates f o r advanced degrees as evidence of competence i n r e s e a r c h . As these are o f t e n c o n t r i b u t i o n s to knowledge ( s i c . ) i t i s important t h a t the f i n d i n g s be made a v a i l a b l e f o r use and i t i s e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t sound academic standards be adhered to i n t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n ... I f the m a t e r i a l i s not presented i n the proper form, the t h e s i s w i l l not be accepted nor w i l l the degree be c o n f e r r e d ... the e n t i r e t h e s i s must be typed on the same t y p e w r i t e r , and care should be taken to ensure evenness of impression and c o l o u r ... ( " i t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permi s s i o n " ). I t i s M a r s h a l l McLuhan's o p i n i o n t h a t the p a r t i a l specialized  c h a r a c t e r of the viewpoint, however noble, w i l l  serve a t a l l i n the e l e c t r i c age, Every c u l t u r e and every age has and  and not  i n the n i n e t e e n - s e v e n t i e s .  i t s f a v o r i t e model of p e r c e p t i o n  knowledge t h a t i t i s i n c l i n e d to p r e s c r i b e f o r everybody and  everything.  But  ....the mark of our time i s i t s r e v u l s i o n a g a i n s t imposed p a t t e r n s . We are suddenly eager to have people and t h i n g s d e c l a r e t h e i r beings t o t a l l y . There i s a deep f a i t h to be found i n t h i s new a t t i t u d e - a f a i t h t h a t  1  " I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the P r e p a r a t i o n of Graduate Theses" - Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of Graduate S t u d i e s . 4 pages. The f i n a l p a r e n t h e t i c a l q u o t a t i o n i s p a r t of a statement signed by the student" and normally" bound w i t h each copy submitted. L i b e r a t i o n has, i n f a c t , become e l i m i n a t i o n of the s o l i t a r y viewpoint. ( I am not c e r t a i n i n what sense the word "competence" i s being used.) c f . Swettenham: J o u r n a l s . A p r i l 9th, 1874 (J.M.B.R.A.S., Vol.XXIV, Pt. IV, p.38) What a c u r i o u s t h i n g i t i s to w r i t e down one's thoughts e s p e c i a l l y when there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that they may be read by someone who has never experienced circumstances such as gave being to those w r i t t e n thoughts. How c u r i o u s l y f o o l i s h and e g o t i s t i c a l they must appear to that o t h e r person, c o n s t a n t l y harping on the same s u b j e c t ..."  6. concerns the ultimate harmony of a l l being. Can history be written, especially i n thesis form, without involving the writer i n a gigantic contradiction, without alienating him from his age?  Elsewhere McLuhan offers a ray of  hope by suggesting that Harold Innes has shown historians that they can as well be "recognizers of patterns" as " c l a s s i f i e r s of knowledge" (the t r a d i t i o n a l "point-of-view" thesis orientation tends towards the l a t t e r . )  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a process, some-  thing which takes up one's time, which one might do reluctantly, unwillingly or e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , which can be done with more or less success, done very well or very poorly. sharp contrast, i s not time-consuming.  Recognition, i n  A person may  spend a  long time while looking before recognition occurs but when i t occurs, i t i s "instantaneous". When recognition occurs, i t i s not an act which would be said to be performed e i ther r e l u c t a n t l y or e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , compli a n t l y or under protest. Moreover, the notion of recognition being unsuccessful, or having been done very poorly seems to make l i t t l e or no sense at a l l . 2 Straughton Lynd also offers temporary solace to the h i s t 1  2  McLuhan: Understanding Media: Chapter I. The age of the "fixed point of view" has given way to the age of the "inclusive image". It was the natural mode of expression of the age of mechanical industry f o r mechanization i s achieved by fragmentation of a process and by putting the fragmented parts into a series (- the "thesis"). McLuhan suggests i n his study of the psychic and s o c i a l consequences of the coming of e l e c t r i c technology, that the aspiration of our time f o r wholeness, empathy and depth of awareness, i s a natural adjunct of this technology. Marshall McLuhan s introduction to H.A. Innes: The Bias of Communication (p. v i i i ) quoting from Kenneth Sayre: The Mode l l i n g oi'"~5He Mind (U. of Notre Dame Press, 1963, p. 17) f  7. o r i a n of the  'seventies i n d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of r e c o n c i l -  i n g h i s t o r i c a l past with e x i s t e n t i a l p r e s e n t . two b a s i c assumptions:  one,  1  He begins  that what d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  with  histor-  i a n from the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s not t h a t he w r i t e s about the past but t h a t he c o n s i d e r s t h i n g s i n process of development. " H i s t o r y " and  " s o c i o l o g y " are not concerned w i t h d i f f e r e n t o b j -  2 e c t s , they are d i f f e r e n t ways of l o o k i n g at the same o b j e c t . The h i s t o r i a n need not be embarrassed i f he concerns h i m s e l f more w i t h the present and  f u t u r e than w i t h the p a s t .  no l o n g e r even p o s s i b l e to adopt the a l o o f and  (In f a c t ,  i t is  dissociated role  of the l i t e r a t e westerner, a c c o r d i n g to McLuhan.)  For, and  this  i s Lynd's second assumption, the h i s t o r i a n ' s business with the 1 McLuhan: Understanding Media, o p . c i t . p.20. "Western man a c q u i r e d from the technology of l i t e r a c y the power to a c t without r e a c t i n g . The advantages of fragmenting h i m s e l f i n t h i s way are seen i n the case o f the surgeon who would be q u i t e h e l p l e s s i f he were to become i n v o l v e d i n h i s o p e r a t i o n . We a c q u i r e d the a r t of c a r r y i n g out the most dangerous s o c i a l o p e r a t i o n s w i t h complete detachment." W r i t i n g h i s t o r y i s a l s o a "dangerous s o c i a l o p e r a t i o n " which.came to r e q u i r e complete detachment. 2  Lynd, S.: " H i s t o r i c a l Past and E x i s t e n t i a l Present" ( i n The D i s s e n t i n g Academy, ed. T. Roszak, New York, 1 9 6 7 ) . c f . L e v i - S t r a u s s : S t r u c t u r a l Anthropology (New York, 1967) Chap. 1, " H i s t o r y and Anthropology". A l a n Watts i n The Book (on the Taboo A g a i n s t Knowing Who You Are) (New York, 19o6), makes a s i m i l a r p o i n t i n a wider sense. His c o n t e n t i o n i s that we c r e a t e problems f o r o u r s e l v e s by a l l o w i n g nominalism (the myriad pigeon h o l e s and boxes i n t o which f o r convenience we o b s e s s i v e l y attempt to cram o u r s e l v e s and our u n i v e r s a l environment i n order to "make sense of i t a l l " ) to obscure the f a c t t h a t we are at one w i t h our u n i v e r s e and o u r s e l v e s . We are separate o n l y i n name... "when t h i s i s not r e c o g n i z e d , you have been f o o l e d by your name." Thus h i s t o r y and s o c i ology p r o p e r l y used are convenient names only f o r d i f f e r e n t ways of l o o k i n g at "man-in-his-universe". Man i s no l o n g e r , as S i r Thomas Browne supposed i n R e l i g i o M e d i c i "that g r e a t and t r u e amphibian whose nature i s disposed to l i v e not o n l y l i k e o t h e r c r e a t u r e s i n d i v e r s elements, but i n d i v i d e d and d i s t i n g u i s h e d worlds ... "  8.  f u t u r e i s not be,  but  to p r e d i c t but  what can be.  sake but  as  "The  1  Further,  t o c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f one t i m e must be  i s ransacked not f o r i t s  t h e h i s t o r i a n c o u l d and  argue) i n v o l v e "being  t o c h r o n i c l i n g and  n e c e s s a r i l y (and  a h i s t o r i a n " to the  a c t s as w e l l as w a t c h e s w i l l  u n a v a i l a b l e t o him  who  watches o n l y ,  own  should  cease  whose  envisioning;  must n o t ,  I would  e x c l u s i o n of a l l e l s e .  acquire as  will  future  o f a f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l few  committed w h o l l y  w r i t i n g h i s t o r y does not  who  past  what  a s o u r c e o f a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s o f what t h e  m i g h t become."" '  He  t o e n v i s i o n - to say not  kinds of  i s conversely  knowledge commonly  accepted. But  i t i s i n h i s two  concluding  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s that  strength l i e s .  A l l human b e i n g s ,  at l e a s t those born i n t o  Judaeo-Christian  c u l t u r e appear t o need t o f o r m u l a t e  a  Lynd's the  collective  2 past.  Presumably i t w i l l  a l w a y s t h e r e f o r e be  mainly  o f t h e h i s t o r i a n t o r e s p o n d t o t h i s need r e s p o n s i b l y Chomsky) and  job  (recalling  t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e n t a i l s a r e f u s a l t o do  to e i t h e r the f a c t s of the past 3 sent.  the  violence  o r t o t h e human b e i n g s o f t h e  Moreover, whatever e l s e i t i s doing,  pre-  mankind i s making  I  2  o  Lynd: o p . c i t . , p.107-109. I f i n d h i s use o f t h e word " r a n s a c k ed" d i s t u r b i n g . On t h i s p o i n t see a l s o P a n n e n b e r g , W.: " R e d e m p t i v e E v e n t and H i s t o r y " i n E s s a y s on O l d T e s t a m e n t H e r m e n e u t i c s ( e d . C l a u s W e s t e r m a n n . R i c h m o n d , J o h n Knox P r e s s , 1 9 & 0 ) . e s p . p.339 f f * " I n C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e r e i s i n f a c t an i n t e r e s t i n t h e p a s t w h i c h c a n n o t be s u r r e n d e r e d , b e c a u s e I t c o n t a i n s t h e p r o m i s e w h i c h w i l l be f u l f i l l e d i n t h e f u t u r e . " c f . L a i n g , R.D.: P o l i t i c s and E x p e r i e n c e , p . l 4 3 . "we r e q u i r e a h i s t o r y o f phenomena, n o t s i m p l y a phenomena o f h i s t o r y . As i t i s , t h e s e c u l a r p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t i s o f t e n i n t h e r o l e o f the b l i n d l e a d i n g the _ a l f - b l i n d ..."  9 .  an agonized t r a n s i t i o n from societies based on private property to societies which are not.  The h i s t o r i a n who does not or can  not grasp this f a c t i s out of touch with what i s happening i n the second h a l f of the twentieth century and must resign himself to becoming not merely old-fashioned but anachronistic.  "Those  not busy being born, are busy dying."1 There i s no necessity, h i s t o r i c a l or otherwise, that these new s o c i e t i e s be more humane than those they replace - i n the interests of our s u r v i v a l , however, we can as e a s i l y take an opti m i s t i c view and assume that there are s u f f i c i e n t elements within p the human psyche to give some sort of humane socialism a chance. It i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the h i s t o r i a n ;as. i n t e l l e c t u a l and as human being to recognize this and to act accordingly. i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y largely abdicated.  It  Chomsky i l l u s t r a t e s this  abdication by looking closely at a c o l l e c t i o n of"scholarly and objective studies" which appeared i n the journal Asian Survey i n August 1 9 6 7 ;  a symposium on Vietnam i n which a number of "experts"  were asked to contribute t h e i r thoughts on alternative solutions to the c o n f l i c t there.^  Here, as i n so much of what passes f o r  scholarly debate on this p a r t i c u l a r issue, there was no questioning of the American r i g h t to transfer innovations and i n s t i t u t i o n s to the Vietnamese;  or of America's "superior i n s i g h t " into the  1  Or as Eldridge Cleaver put i t " I f you are not part of the s o l ution, you are part of the problem . 1  2  3  Richard Brautigan i n In Watermelon Sugar (San Francisco, Four Seasons Foundation, 1 9 6 8 ) envisions one such alternative f o r example. Chomsky: o p ^ c i t . p.4l f f . See i n t e r l e a f .  Which of us, Chomsky asks, would f i n d Vietnam an o b s c e n i t y had order and s t a b i l i t y been secured i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e . One can imagine the r h e t o r i c t h i r t y years hence. " ....At a l l events, the p o l i c y was crowned w i t h success; and though success does not i n a l l cases j u s t i f y the means employed, i t does not seem p o s s i b l e t h a t by any m i l d e r course could the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the murderous and treacherous p i r a t i c a l communities which had so long been the scourge of the A r c h i p e l a g o have been accomplished ... the n a t i v e s gained i n peace, p r o s p e r i t y and p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y . Before the advent of ("Rajah") Brooke, the country was i n a completely a n a r c h i c a l c o n d i t i o n - Malays were f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t Malays, and Dyaks a g a i n s t Dyaks. The l a t t e r drank deeply o f the cup of wretchedness; they were exposed to continuous e x a c t i o n s - t h e i r c h i l d r e n were c a r r i e d o f f , t h e i r v i l l a g e s attacked and plundered by p i r a t i c a l hordes, and t h e i r t r o u b l e s were f r e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s e d by want, approaching famine ... The impetus g i v e n by the Rajah's c o l o s s a l energy was so g r e a t that i n t h i s d e s e r t p l a c e , a t h r i v i n g commercial community sprang up ,. Hence came wealth, and the comforts t h a t flow from wealth, as were evidenced i n the improved dwellings;, the l a r g e r prahus, the gayer and c o s t l i e r d r e s s e s , the amount o f g o l d ornaments worn by the women ... " W.H.D. Adams: The E a s t e r n A r c h i p e l a g o , (p.171 f f . w r i t T n g i n i68o or James B r o o k e s murder of 800 M i| " p i r a t e s " o f f the Sarawak coast i n 1847.) 1  0  a  ;  10. needed i n n o v a t i o n s and  appropriate i n s t i t u t i o n s .  That i s , i n  presuming to p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s f o r Vietnam, however much r e s p e c t a b i l i t y can be mustered f o r them by c l o t h i n g them i n a v e i l  of  b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n c e r h e t o r i c , these detached s c h o l a r s , by r e f u s ing to ask themselves the q u e s t i o n "By what r i g h t ? " , are i n g p r e c i s e l y the c o l o n i a l m e n t a l i t y they c l a i m to be  reflect-  condemning.  When we s t r i p away the terminology of the b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n c e s , we see r e v e a l e d i n such works as t h i s , the m e n t a l i t y o f the c o l o n i a l c i v i l servant persuaded of the benevolence of the mother country and the c o r r e c t n e s s of i t s ' v i s i o n of world o r d e r , and convinced t h a t he understands the t r u e i n t e r e s t s of the backward peoples whose w e l f a r e he i s to a d m i n i s t e r . 1  The  assumption t h a t c o l o n i a l power i s benevolent  and  has  the i n t e r e s t s of the n a t i v e s at h e a r t i s as o l d as i m p e r i a l i s m itself.  It i s a familiar r e f r a i n .  But the i d e a t h a t the i s s u e  Of benevolence i s i r r e l e v a n t , an improper s e n t i m e n t a l t i o n , i s something of an i n n o v a t i o n i n i m p e r i a l i s t  considera-  rhetoric.  It i s p r e c i s e l y with the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i m p e r i a l i s m , bene v o l e n t or no,  i s unnatural t h a t I undertake the w r i t i n g of  this  study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the " i m p e r i a l i s t " and " i m p e r i a l i z e d " i n n i n e t e e n t h century Malaya. seeks to d i s t o r t another's  I t i s u n n a t u r a l because i t  s e l f - i m a g e , to make over what i t p e r -  c e i v e s as d i f f e r e n t i n i t s own  image, i n the f i r m c o n v i c t i o n  that this i s "better." Our  s u r v i v a l depends on our a b i l i t y to l e a r n to l e t others  be but with a f f e c t i o n and  concern  - i n s h o r t , i f I might borrow a  r a t h e r t i r e d word from my  peer group, to l o v e .  For In the landscape of s p r i n g there i s n e i t h e r b e t t e r nor xrorse. The f l o w e r i n g branches grow n a t u r a l l y , some l o n g , some s h o r t .  Love and v i o l e n c e , p r o p e r l y speaking are p o l a r o p p o s i t e s . Love l e t s the other be, but w i t h a f f e c t i o n and concern. V i o l e n c e attempts to c o n s t r a i n the o t h e r ' s freedom, to f o r c e him to a c t i n the way we d e s i r e , but w i t h u l t i m a t e l a c k of concern, w i t h i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the o t h e r ' s own e x i s t e n c e or d e s t i n y . R. D. L a i n g : The P o l i t i c s o f Experience  By the green shade of the palm t r e e s Where the r i v e r flows along To be wedded to the calm seas, Dwell the people o f my song. With a l a n g u i d step they wander T h r o the f o r e s t o r the grove, And w i t h l i s t l e s s eyes they ponder on the g l o r i e s poets l o v e . They have l i t t l e joy i n beauty, L i t t l e joy i n v i r t u e h i g h , Honour, mercy, t r u t h and duty, Or the creeds f o r which men d i e . But t h e i r l i v e s are calm and p e a c e f u l , And they ask f o r nothing more Save some happy, l i s t l e s s , e a s e f u l Years, and peace from s t r i f e and war. T a l e s I t e l l of women w a i l i n g , C r u e l wrong and b i t t e r s t r i f e , S h r i e k i n g s o u l s t h a t pass, and q u a i l i n g Hearts t h a t s h r i n k beneath the k n i f e . T a l e s I t e l l of e v i l p a s s i o n s , Men t h a t s u f f e r , men t h a t s l a y , A l l the tragedy t h a t f a s h i o n s L i f e and death f o r such as they. Yet these t h i n g s are but as f l e e t i n g Shadows, t h a t more l i g h t l y pass Than the s u n l i g h t , which r e t r e a t i n g Leaves no s t a i n upon the g r a s s . 0 my f r i e n d s ! I judge ye l i g h t l y , L i s t e n to the t a l e s I t e l l Answer, have I spoken r i g h t l y ? Judge me, have I l o v e d thee w e l l ? 1  Hugh C l i f f o r d : In Court and Kampong.  Part Two  :  Imperialism The M y s t i f i c a t i o n of Experience and the Distortion of Self-image.  " C a p t a i n T . C . S. Spceclv, Basha K e l i k a " , reproduced f r o m Sir Frank Swcttcnham's  Footprints in Malaya ( H u t c h i n s o n & C o . , L o n d o n , 1942), from a block kindly loaned by the publishers. The date of this portrait is not certain,  but it seems likely that it was taken  Napier's expedition  to Abyssinia, and  after Speech's return  from  shortly before lie came to Malaya.  A good many o f those who began the work are dead, and a good many have gone - I n v a l i d e d , o r to seek b e t t e r p r o s p e c t s ; but, to speak c o l l e c t i v e l y o f those who remain, there i s amongst them the same s p i r i t , the same earnest d e s i r e to "make" the Malay S t a t e s , that ever t h e r e was.  S i r Frank Swettenham: The Real Malay, "A New Method ..."  We E n g l i s h have an immense d e a l to answer f o r , and i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to see e x a c t l y how our account stands - we come to a country which i s racked w i t h war and r a p i n e , and, a f t e r making a l i t t l e war of our own, we reduce the land to a dead monotony o f o r d e r and peace. We f i n d v i l e m i s r u l e , and a government which i s so i n competent and impotent t h a t i t Is i n c a p a b l e of even o p p r e s s i n g i t s s u b j e c t s completely, and we r e p l a c e i t by a h i g h - c l a s s , t r i p l e a c t i o n automatic revenue-producing admini s t r a t i o n that presses e q u a l l y on a l l alike. We g i v e the poor and undefended r i g h t s , of the very e x i s t e n c e of which they had never f o r m e r l y dreamed; we f r e e the s l a v e s , who have f o r g e n e r a t i o n s been made to l a b o u r s o r e l y a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l and who c e l e b r a t e t h e i r emancipation by d e c l i n i n g t o engage i n any t o i l more arduous than betel-chewing, w i t h an o c c a s i o n a l t h e f t thrown i n when the c h i l d r e n cry f o r rice; we l o p h i s power from the C h i e f who, i t must be confessed, has always c o n s i s t e n t l y abused i t , but f i n d s l i t t l e to comfort him i n the r e c o l l e c t i o n ; we open up the most i n a c c e s s i b l e p l a c e s ; we b r i n g Trade and Money and P r o s p e r i t y and M a t e r i a l Comfort and S a n i t a t i o n and D r a i n s and a thousand b l e s s i n g s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n i n our wake. We educate, we v a c c i n a t e ; we p h y s i c ; we punish the Wicked and reward the Good. We a d m i n i s t e r the N a t i v e t i l l we make him almost giddy, and he begins to f o r g e t that he i s an absurd anachronism i n the Nineteenth Century and must s u r e l y l o s e h i s way most u t t e r l y i f he t r i e s to stay here. We sweep away the h o r r i b l e gaol-cages of independent Malaya and r e p l a c e them by model prisons, where, should the Fates so decree, he may lodge w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e convenience to h i m s e l f .... Hugh C l i f f o r d : Proc. Royal C o l . I n s t i t u t e 1902-03  Behaviour depends on the image - the sum of what we think we know and what makes us act the way we do. The image l i e s behind the actions of every indivi d u a l . I t accounts f o r the growth of every cause. To recognize the image is to begin to understand the s c i e n t i s t , the believer, the crusader, the s o l d i e r . J. P. Corbett.  You see, r e a l l y and t r u l y , apart from the things anyone can pick up (the dressing and the proper way of speaking, and so on), the difference between a lady and a flower g i r l i s not how she behaves, but how she's treated. I s h a l l always be a flower g i r l to Professor Higgins, because he always treats me as a flower g i r l , and always w i l l ; but I know I can be a lady to you because you always treat me as a lady, and always will. G. B. Shaw:  Pygmalion.  11. The s e l f i s h desire to have others act i n a way calculated to feed one's ego i s not confined to the group of men to whom the governing of the Malay States was entrusted after 1874, nor indeed to that whole cavalcade of Empire Builders which issued f o r t h from the Sceptred Isles throughout the nineteenth century.  Sadly, i t s t i l l motivates the behaviour of most of  us i n our r e l a t i o n s with fellow human beings.  R.D. Laing speaks  of the process by which we, as human beings, i n the name of "love", subject our children to a system which i s as imperiali s t i c as any perpetrated against the peoples of A f r i c a , Asia and America i n the nineteenth century.  1  It i s not enough to destroy one's own and other people's experience. One must overlay t h i s devastation by a f a l s e consciousness innured, as Marcuse puts i t , to i t s own falsity. Exploitation must not be seen as such. It must be seen as benevolence. Persecution preferably should not need to be Invalidated as the figment of a paranoid imagination; i t should be experienced as kindness. Marx described mystification of experience and showed i t s function i n h i s day. Orwell's time i s a l ready with us. The colonists not only mystify the natives, i n the ways that Fanon so c l e a r l y shows, they have to mystify themselves. We i n Europe and North America are the colonists, and i n order to sustain our amazing images of ourselves as God's g i f t to the vast majority of the starving human species, we have to i n t e r i o r i z e our violence upon ourselves and our children and to employ the rhetoric of morality to des1  R.D. Laing: The P o l i t i c s of Experience (New York, Ballantine Books, 1967) Chap. I l l See also E. Cleaver: Soul on Ice (New York, Delta Books,1968) J. Farber: The Student as Nigger (San Francisco, Contact Books, 1969) and Betty Friedan: The Feminine Mystique (New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1963)  12.  cribe this process. The process, i n which our society t r i e s to involve us a l l , has elsewhere been seen as a "double-bind" game with s e l f - c o n t r a dictory rules, a game "doomed to perpetual s e l f - f r u s t r a t i o n " . The c h i l d i s tricked into the ego-feeling by the attitudes, words and actions of the society which surround him - his parents, h i s teachers, his s i m i l a r l y hoodwinked peers. to teach us who we are.  We allow other people  "Their attitudes to us are the mirror  i n which we learn to see ourselves, but the mirror i s d i s t o r t e d . " Our s o c i a l environment thus has an enormous power precisely because we are a part of i t - "society i s our extended mind and body."  ;  Yet the very society from which the i n d i v i d u a l i s inseparable i s using i t s whole i r r e s i s t i b l e force to persuade the individual that he i s indeed separate from i t . Society as we now know i t i s therefore playing a game with self-contradictory r u l e s . 2 Kfy suspicions were aroused by a comment made by V.G.  Kiernan i n h i s study on European attitudes to the rest of the world i n the "Golden Age" of European imperialism.  It i s h i s  contention that u n t i l the l870's, current notions about Malays were drawn c h i e f l y from t h e i r p i r a t i c a l depredations i n the Archipelago.  Thus they had won the reputation of being "the  1 Laing: ibid.  p.57. f f . J e a n - P a u l S a t r e o b s e r v e d i n h i s f o r w a r d  i960,  to The T r a i t o r by Andre Gorz (London, Calder, pp.14-15): "They are called parents. Long before our b i r t h even before we are conceived, our parents have decided who we w i l l be." 2  A. Watts: The Book.., o p . c i t . pp.64-67. For these purposes our society i s e s s e n t i a l l y that of V i c t o r i a n England - with i t s contradictory emphasis on "team-spirit" and "individualism" - the p i l l a r s of the Public School t r a d i t i o n .  13. most f i e r c e , treacherous, ignorant and i n f l e x i b l e of barbarians."  However decades l a t e r , according to Kiernan, " i t was  necessary to contradict reports that a l l Malays were pirates or  savages, forever running amuck and knifing one  another."  Their country was s t i l l depicted as being i n a f r i g h t f u l condi t i o n of misrule and chaos and the mass of i t s cultivators i n a state of slavery, but now a l l that they manifestly stood i n need of was the c i v i l i z i n g influence of B r i t i s h r u l e . Why  1  did i t become necessary f o r the B r i t i s h to see  Malaya and the Malays d i f f e r e n t l y ?  Did they, i n fact?  is the process by which our images are formed and  What  transformed?  Does "the image i n the mind disappear as soon as the need of the organism i s g r a t i f i e d . . ? " I would begin with the proposition that behaviour depends on the image; that i s , how we act depends on what we see. To understand what determines the image i s fundamental understanding of how  to the  l i f e and society r e a l l y operate, not only  i n nineteenth century Malaya but i n a l l times and places. Platitudinous as i t may  seem " i t ' s a l l a matter of how  you  perceive r e a l i t y " ... advertising agents owe t h e i r success to this realization. We look at l i f e by conscious attention, and when we I  E. J. Trelawney: The Adventures of a Younger Son 1831 pp. 353-4, 357. quoted i n V. G. Kiernan: The Lords of Human Kind (London, Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1969, 0 . 8 3 ) . F. S. Perls: Ego, Hunger and Aggression, op.cit., p.40. "Exactly the same happens to our subjective r e a l i t i e s : they disappear once they are required no further."  14.  a t t e n d t o one t h i n g , we  ignore others.  I n a s o c i e t y which p l a c e s  low v a l u e on " i n d e c i s i o n " , p e r c e p t i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y narrowed to g i v e the advantages o f b e i n g sharp and b r i g h t - f o r o n l y under such c o n d i t i o n s can one a c t d e c i s i v e l y .  B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l admin-  i s t r a t o r s came to p l a c e a v e r y h i g h v a l u e on a c t i n g w i t h p r e c i s i o n - above a l l e l s e , i t was  i m p e r a t i v e t h a t they a v o i d g i v i n g  the n a t i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t they were u n c e r t a i n of what they were d o i n g .  S u c c e s s f u l i m p e r i a l i s m demanded narrowed p e r c e p t i o n ,  the s i n g l e v i e w p o i n t .  Cadets were not chosen f o r t h e i r  "intell-  e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s " , * Hugh C l i f f o r d f r e q u e n t l y v o i c e d the  familiar  1  i m p e r i a l c o n v i c t i o n t h a t " t h i n k i n g makes cowards o f us a l l , " 2 and what he meant was  s i m p l y t h a t h i s s o c i e t y p l a c e d low v a l u e  i n d e c i s i v e n e s s , and  on  t h a t t h i n k i n g , by r e v e a l i n g a m b i g u i t i e s , i n -  c o n s i s t e n c i e s and a l t e r n a t i v e modes, makes the s i n g l e v i e w p o i n t d i f f i c u l t to s u s t a i n . A t t e n t i o n i s n o t i c i n g and t o n o t i c e i s to s e l e c t , to r e g a r d 1  2  See B o u l d i n g : The Image: Knowledge i n L i f e and S o c i e t y ( A n n A r b o r , U. o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) P.125. " I n t r a c i n g the e f f e c t s o f images on the course of h i s t o r y , p e c u l i a r a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o the f u t u r e ... i t may not be so much the a c t u a l c o n t e n t o f the image o f the f u t u r e which i s i m p o r t a n t i n i t s e f f e c t , but i t s g e n e r a l q u a l i t y o f optimism, o r pessimism, c e r t a i n t y o r u n c e r t a i n t y , b r e a d t h o r narrowness. The p e r s o n o r the n a t i o n t h a t has a date w i t h d e s t i n y goes somewhere, (though not n e c e s s a r i l y to the address on the l a b e l ) . The i n d i v i d u a l o r the n a t i o n w h i c h has no sense of d i r e c t i o n i n t i m e , no sense o f a c l e a r f u t u r e ahead i s l i k e l y t o be v a c i l l a t i n g , u n c e r t a i n i n b e h a v i o u r , and to have a poor chance o f s u r v i v i n g . " I would argue r a t h e r t h a t one needs o n l y a f i r m sense of the p r e s e n t , but B o u l d i n g e x p r e s s e s a f i r m l y - e n t r e n c h e d Western idea. See a l s o R. F u r s e : A u c u p a r i u s : R e c o l l e c t i o n s of a R e c r u i t i n g Agent (London, Oxford U. P r e s s , 1952)- R. H e u s s l e r : Yesterday's R u l e r s : The Making of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l S e r v i c e . ( S y r a c u s e , Syracuse U. P r e s s , 19^3)  15. some pieces of perception or some features of the world as more noteworthy, more s i g n i f i c a n t , "better" f o r the purposes at hand, than others.  It i s a way  of looking at l i f e using that special  part of the memory, the value system, to string the b i t s  together.  There are numberless features and dimensions of the world to which our senses respond without our conscious attention. What governs what we choose to notice?  According to Alan Watts:  The f i r s t i s whatever seems advantageous for our s u r v i v a l , our s o c i a l status, and the security of our egos. The second, working simultaneously with the f i r s t , i s the pattern and the l o g i c of a l l the notation symbols which we have learned from others, from our society and our culture. There i s another process at work i n the formation of images: what Harold Isaacs has called "the unwitting or witless process by which we generalize from the small fact or single experience." According to Isaacs, "the mind's bent to make much out of l i t t l e is  .... part of the secret of human genius."  common understanding  The necessity f o r  requires that we employ the normal devices  of generalization every day i n our l i v e s .  Normally, these are  checked f o r relevance and v a l i d i t y against the r e a l i t i e s with which they must cope.  However,  In a great many matters i n a great many minds, what goes on i s a kind of mental t r i c k ery, a process of enlargement whereby we people 1  cf. A. Watts: The Book, o p . c i t . p.29 "we need a notation for almost everything that ca,n be noticed. Notation i s a system of symbols - words, numbers, signs... Such symbols enable us to c l a s s i f y our b i t s of perception. They are the labels on the pigeon holes into which memory sorts them.." It i s hard, but not impossible, to notice anything f o r which the languages available to us have no description.  16. our worlds with caricatures which appease some private or s o c i a l needs.]_ Kenneth Boulding sees the image as "subjective knowledge", which i s b u i l t up as a r e s u l t of a l l the past experience of i t s possessor.  From the moment of b i r t h a constant stream of mess-  ages enters the organism from the senses.  As a c h i l d grows these  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d l i g h t s and noises gradually become distinguished into objects and people.  He begins to perceive of himself as an  object i n the midst of a world of objects. has begun." web  "The conscious image  The c h i l d finds himself i n an increasingly complex  of personal relationships;  every time a message reaches  him,  his image i s changed i n some degree by i t , and as his image i s p  changed his patterns of behaviour w i l l be changed likewise. There are images of "fact" and images of "value". Clearly there i s normally a difference between one's image of a given physical object and the value one puts upon i t .  Any  image of value i s concerned with the rating of the various parts of our image according to some scale of betterness or worseness. We a l l tend to erect such scales, at least over that part of the universe closest to us. But adherence to any doctrine of imperi1 H. Isaacs: Images of A s i a : American Views of China and India (New York, Capricorn Books, 1962). c f . P. Mason: Prospero's Magic: Some Thoughts on Race and Class (London, Oxford U. Press, 1962) p.97. "Have we, the B r i t i s h , l i v e d the past two centuries i n an unreal world, projecting our own image on to the peoples we have ruled, seeing them as Calibans who practice the vices we d i s l i k e i n ourselves, obedient A r i e l s who must be reminded to be g r a t e f u l , Mirandas who gaze with parted l i p s at the wonders we reveal and who must never express an opinion of t h e i r own." K. Boulding:  The Image, op.cit., p.7 f f . ;  p.54 f f .  17. a l i s m makes t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t Things no l o n g e r j u s t e x i s t ; the  they must he judged a c c o r d i n g to  value s c a l e o f the i m p e r i a l i s t .  most d i s i n t e r e s t e d  to make.  The w r i t i n g s o f even the  "observers" o f the Malays show t h a t the need  for  the d i s t i n c t i o n was r a r e l y f e l t .  John Cameron " d e s c r i b e d "  the  Malay's appearance i n these terms: The physique o f the Malay i s o f h i g h o r d e r . The men a r e s h o r t , being on an average about f i v e f e e t three inches i n h e i g h t ; but they are w e l l p r o p o r t i o n e d , round, f u l l - l i m b e d and g e n e r a l l y possess a good, honest, open countenance. T h e i r f e e t and hands a r e small and t h e i r f i n g e r s l o n g and t a p e r i n g , w i t h well-shaped n a i l s . In f a c t , they show most o f those p o i n t s which we o u r s e l v e s s e t down as the i n d i c e s o f good b r e e d ing. T h e i r eyes are dark brown, o r b l a c k , w i t h a b o l d y e t not impudent e x p r e s s i o n ; and t h e i r h a i r - which o n l y grows upon the head - i s j e t b l a c k and u s u a l l y c u t s h o r t y Cameron was a Singapore j o u r n a l i s t w r i t i n g about the  Malays on the eve o f the t r a n s f e r o f the S t r a i t s Settlements to the  Colonial Office i n 1 8 6 7 ;  t h a t i s , "under the b e l i e f t h a t the  p o s s e s s i o n s of which the f o l l o w i n g pages t r e a t are about to come under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the Imperial Government, and w i t h a view to a f f o r d  the people o f England some glimpse o f the g r e a t  beauty, some c o n c e p t i o n o f the v a l u a b l e commerce, and some grounds upon which to estimate the importance, i n a p o l i t i c a l p o i n t o f view, o f the t r o p i c a l country t o which they are about t o be drawn i n t i e s o f a nearer r e l a t i o n s h i p . " compared of  H i s " d e s c r i p t i o n " might be  w i t h A.S. Bickmore's comments on the " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the Malays" he saw d u r i n g a b r i e f t o u r of the East  Indian  1 J . Cameron: Our T r o p i c a l Possessions i n Malayan I n d i a (London, Smith E l d e r & Co., I d b 5 ) p . 1 3 1 - 2 ; Preface.  18.  Archipelago  undertaken i n the l 8 6 0 ' s "to r e c o l l e c t the s h e l l s  f i g u r e s i n Rumphius's ' R a r i t e i t Kamer'."  1  The men have but few s t r a g g l i n g h a i r s f o r beards, and these they g e n e r a l l y p u l l out w i t h a p a i r o f i r o n tweezers. The h a i r o f the head i n both sexes i s lank, coarse and worn l o n g . Each sex t h e r e f o r e resembles the other so c l o s e l y t h a t n e a r l y every f o r e i g n e r w i l l , a t f i r s t , f i n d h i m s e l f puzzled i n many cases t o know whether he i s l o o k i n g a t a man o r a woman. T h i s want o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the sexes possi b l y i n d i c a t e s t h e i r low rank i n the human f a m i l y i f the law may be a p p l i e d there t h a t o b t a i n s among most other animals.  One o f the most important p r o p o s i t i o n s o f B o u l d i n g ' s a n a l y s i s o f the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f images i s t h a t ....the value s c a l e s o f any i n d i v i d u a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e perhaps the most s i n g l e e l e ment determining the e f f e c t o f the messages i t r e c e i v e s on i t s image o f the w o r l d . /is p  I f a message/received that i s p e r c e i v e d bad,  as n e i t h e r good nor  i t may have l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on the image;  perceived  as bad o r h o s t i l e t o the image a l r e a d y  i fi t is  h e l d o r de-  s i r e d t o be h e l d , there w i l l be r e s i s t a n c e to a c c e p t i n g i t . T h i s r e s i s t a n c e may manifest i t s e l f as a simple r e f u s a l to acknowledge the message, o r i n an emotive response - anger, h o s t i l i t y , indignation. ('The B r i t i s h r e a c t i o n t d the Indian 1 A.S. Bickmore, (M.A.): T r a v e l s i n the East Indian A r c h i p e l a g o (New York, 1867) B i c k m o r e s self-image was such that he desc r i b e d h i m s e l f as "Fellow of the Royal Geographic S o c i e t y o f London, corresponding member o f the American and London E t h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t i e s , New York Lyceum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , Member of the Boston S o c i e t y o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and the American O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , and P r o f e s s o r o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y i n Madison U n i v e r s i t y , New York." 1 f  Boulding,  The Image, p.12-13.  19. Mutiny, f o r example took the l a t t e r extreme form s i n c e the message  could not be i g n o r e d .  i n 1874  The murder of Resident B i r c h i n Perak  evoked a s i m i l a r response).  i n g images of the world,  Messages f a v o r a b l e to e x i s t -  on the other hand,are e a s i l y r e c e i v e d .  V i c t o r i a n England p l a c e d h i g h value on c e r t a i n outward p h y s i c a l s i g n s of m a s c u l i n i t y - B e n g a l i Hindus, l a c k i n g these  manifesta-  t i o n s .were r e j e c t e d by the B r i t i s h as "effeminate", while Pathans who  Sikhs,  Mohammedans, Rajputs  and  e x h i b i t e d the more f a m i l i a r  a g g r e s s i v e masculine  t r a i t s could more e a s i l y be r e l a t e d t o .  K i p l i n g could only p i c t u r e East and West meeting on that almost u n i v e r s a l male preserve  - the  battlefield.  1  The nature of B r i t i s h - M a l a y a n contact i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h century, a f a r more harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p by the admission  of most observers  the f a c t t h a t , i n Boulding's  then and now,  terms, f a r more messages r e c e i v e d  by Anglo-Malayan minds confirmed Cameron's d e s c r i p t i o n t e s t i f i e s .  world  images a l r e a d y h e l d - as  Swettenham's "embodiment of  an E a s t e r n dream", the Famous Seyyid, was "A man was  of war".  there s t i l l ,  "Sarong" and  The  owes much to  first  and  foremost  awareness of the masculine-feminine  (witness Major Fred McNair's Perak and  " K r i s " ) but g e n e r a l l y speaking  conflict the Malays:  Anglo-Malayan i m p e r i a l -  1 c f . S. and L. Rudolph: The Modernity of T r a d i t i o n (Chicago, U. of Chicago Press, 1967) p.162-4 " P r a c t i t i o n e r s of the swashb u c k l i n g s t y l e shaped the dominant image o f Englishmen i n I n d i a and by c o n t r a s t 'the m i r r o r image of Indians." See a l s o S.H. A l a t a s : "Feudalism i n Malaysian S o c i e t y : A Study i n H i s t o r i c a l C o n t i n u i t y " . (Paper presented to I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on A s i a n H i s t o r y , Kuala Lumpur, Aug. 5-10, 1968) p.8: "the dominant standard o f a r i s t o c r a t i c Malay S o c i e t y from the century to the t u r n of the century ... was t h a t of w a r r i o r k i n g s h i p . The values o f bravery, a b s o l u t e l o y a l t y to the p r i n c e , s k i l l f u l n e s s i n combat, aggressiveness and p i l l a g e were s t r e s s e d . " 1  l6th  19th  2 0 .  ists  " r e c o g n i z e d " that the Muslim  Malays  shared much more of the  code of conduct, and of the i d e a l s , o f the B r i t i s h  "gentleman"  c l a s s , than d i d the Hindus. The v a l u e image, then, i s very s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r to a l a r g e extent we  see the world the way  us to see i t t h a t way. image f r e e ;  we  see i t because  i t has  "paid"  Incoming messages are not admitted t o the  they are mediated  through a h i g h l y l e a r n e d process  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and acceptance.  To t h i s extent, the image of  the world possessed by an i n d i v i d u a l i s a p u r e l y p r i v a t e matter all  knowledge i s s u b j e c t i v e .  "Knowledge i s what somebody or some-  t h i n g knows ... without a knower, knowledge i s an a b s u r d i t y . " Yet p a r t o f our image of the world i s the b e l i e f t h a t i t i s shared by the o t h e r people who  are a l s o p a r t of our image.  We behave d a i l y as i f we a l l possess roughly the same image of the world.  The b a s i c bond o f any s o c i e t y , c u l t u r e , s u b c u l t u r e  or o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a " p u b l i c image" - an image whose e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are shared by the i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the group.  A l a r g e p a r t of the a c t i v i t y of each s o c i e t y i s  concerned w i t h the t r a n s m i s s i o n and p r o t e c t i o n of i t s p u b l i c image - "that set of images r e g a r d i n g space, time,  relation,  e v a l u a t i o n e t c . which i s shared by the mass of i t s people." 1  B o u l d i n g : The Image, o p . c i t . , Chaps. IV and V, "The Image of Man and S o c i e t y and "The P u b l i c Image and the S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge." c f . Watts: The Book, o p . c i t . , p . 6 4 - 6 5 : "We are perhaps r a t h er dimly aware of the immense power of our s o c i a l environment. We seldom r e a l i z e , f o r example, t h a t our most p r i v a t e thoughts and emotions are not a c t u a l l y our own. For we t h i n k i n terms o f languages and images which we d i d not i n v e n t , but which were g i v e n to us by our s o c i e t y . We copy emotional r e a c t i o n s from our parents ... Our s o c i a l environment has t h i s power j u s t because we do not e x i s t apart from a s o c i e t y . " Watts seems a t times unduly d e t e r m i n i s t - s o c i e t y has as much and as l i t t l e power as one a l l o w s i t .  21.  The  impact  of s o c i e t y on the image i s nowhere more marked  than i n the value image. value image which Is b u i l t itution  Por apart from the b a s i c  "biological"  i n t o an organism by i t s g e n e t i c c o n s t -  (an organism which puts h i g h value on p a i n , hunger or  s e l f - i m m o l a t i o n would be u n l i k e l y to s u r v i v e ) , the value image of  most of us i s s o c i a l l y - a c q u i r e d .  A s o c i e t y ' s system of  e d u c a t i o n Is perhaps i t s most e f f e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r harne s s i n g the b i o l o g i c a l d r i v e s i n the i n t e r e s t s of e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a value system.  By constant r e i t e r a t i o n  these  a c q u i r e d values become i n t e r n a l i z e d and a c q u i r e the same s t a t u s as b i o l o g i c a l v a l u e s , i f not s u p e r i o r .  The  ceremonial l i f e  of  a s o c i e t y a l s o l a r g e l y centres around the reinforcement of the a c q u i r e d value system, and  i n t h i s context, i t i s worth n o t i n g  that ceremonial o c c a s i o n s loom l a r g e i n the dynamics of i m p e r i alist  society.  Beyond the formal and  ceremonial  however, value^images are created and  instruction  f i n d reinforcement  inform-  a l l y w i t h i n the s m a l l "face to f a c e " group, e s p e c i a l l y  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s peer group.  century  The genius of mid-nineteenth  i m p e r i a l i s m l a y i n the e f f i c a c y w i t h which i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s drew t o g e t h e r these formal and  i n f o r m a l value images.  t i o n s l i k e the p u b l i c s c h o o l , the u n i v e r s i t i e s , civil  Through  institu-  the army and  s e r v i c e , the i n f o r m a l s a n c t i o n s of peer group and  the  parents  came very c l o s e l y to approximate the formal s a n c t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u p e r i o r s and it  at f i r s t ,  society.  V i c t o r i a n England  P o s s i b l y without  grasped  realizing  that  .... i f a group of people are to share the same image of the world, or, to put i t more e x a c t l y , i f the v a r i o u s images they have of the world are  22.  to be roughly i d e n t i c a l and i f t h i s group of people are exposed to much the same set of messages i n b u i l d i n g up images of the world, the value systems of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s must be approximately the same.]_ Joseph  Schumpeter claimed t h a t i m p e r i a l i s t s were f e u d a l  atavisms, men  whose hunger f o r the c h i v a l r i c l i f e  could not  be  accommodated by the m i d d l e - c l a s s c i v i l i z a t i o n of n i n e t e e n t h century Europe, and who of  t h e r e f o r e turned to the new  frontiers  the c o l o n i e s f o r a c h a l l e n g e they could not f i n d at home;  0 . Mannoni saw  the c o l o n i a l l i f e  simply as a s u b s t i t u t e to those  who  are, as a r e s u l t of having f a i l e d to make the e f f o r t  ary  to adapt  i n f a n t i l e images to a d u l t r e a l i t y  increasingly d i f f i c u l t century Europe),  necess-  (an a d a p t a t i o n  i n competitive, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  nineteenth-  s t i l l o b s c u r e l y drawn to the "desert i s l a n d "  "the world without men".  But what d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  and  imperialist  i s t h a t , f o r whatever reason, he has become convinced t h a t h i s world view i s "best";  moreover he i s concerned  f o r a v a r i e t y of  reasons, t h a t others share t h i s view - he t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r i l y sets about imposing of  i t upon those o t h e r s who  have come to be p a r t  h i s world view. As to the q u e s t i o n of which comes f i r s t ,  i m p e r i a l i s m or the  1 Boulding:  ibid.,  p.73.  Confucian China a l s o r e a l i z e d t h i s  fact.  2  Joseph Schumpeter: The S o c i o l o g y o f Imperialism (New York, World P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1959, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1919); 0. Mannoni: Prospero and C a l i b a n : The Psychology of Imperia l i s m (New York, Praeger, 1956) p.101, 105. "....there i s i n the c h i l d some t r a i t which i s p a r t l y misant h r o p i c or at any r a t e a n t i - s o c i a l , a t r a i t which, f o r the l a c k of a b e t t e r term, I would c a l l 'the l u r e o f the world without men'. I t may be r e p r e s s e d to a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r extent, but i t w i l l remain, nonetheless, i n the unconscious."  23.  imperialists, and  egg  there seems l i t t l e p o i n t i n e n t e r i n g such a  controversy.  The  image not only makes the s o c i e t y ,  s o c i e t y c o n t i n u a l l y remakes the image." i s as v a l i d as the hen  hen  theory of eggs.  1  The  egg  theory of hens  Causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f  h i s t o r i c a l development are too complex, too e l u s i v e to be  caught  i n a catchword.  * One  *  *  o f the b a s i c concepts of the theory o f the image i s  that i t i s the image which determines the c u r r e n t behaviour of any  organism or o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The  image a c t s as a f i e l d ;  i o u r c o n s i s t s o f g r a v i t a t i n g toward the most h i g h l y valued of the f i e l d .  Imperialism,  part  as behaviour, however, u l t i m a t e l y  d e a l s w i t h r e l a t i o n s between i m p e r i a l i s t and c o l o n i a l "experience",  behav-  i m p e r i a l i z e d - the  although the i m p e r i a l i s t i s g e n e r a l l y  unaware of i t , i s , p r o p e r l y speaking, the c o l o n i a l " i n t e r - e x p e r i e n c e " - as A l b e r t Memmi and Franz Fanon have e m p h a t i c a l l y out.  As such i t i s p e c u l i a r l y s u b j e c t to t h a t "strange  pointed  dynamic  i n s t a b i l i t y a r i s i n g out of the f a c t that persons themselves are to a c e r t a i n extent what t h e i r images make them." JBb'ulding:  The  Image, o p . c i t . , p. 64,  2  And  because  79.  A l b e r t Memmi: The C o l o n i z e r and the Colonized (New York, O r i o n Press, 1965); Franz Fanon: The Wretched o f the E a r t h ( t r a n s . C. F a r r i n g t o n , New York, Grove Press 1968). Both are introduced p o w e r f u l l y by Jean-Paul Satre; i n the l a t t e r , Satre g i v e s two reasons why " a l l Europeans" should read Fanon: "the f i r s t i s that Fanon e x p l a i n s you to h i s b r o t h e r s and shows them the mechanism by which we are estranged from o u r s e l v e s ; take advantage of t h i s , and get to know y o u r s e l v e s i n the l i g h t of t r u t h , o b j e c t i v e l y ... i t i s enough that they show us what we have made of them f o r us to r e a l i z e what we have made of o u r s e l v e s ... And here i s the second reason: i f you set a s i d e S o r e l ' s f a s c i s t u t t e r a n c e s , you w i l l f i n d that Fanon i s the f i r s t s i n c e Engels to b r i n g the processes o f h i s t o r y i n t o the c l e a r l i g h t of day." (p.13-14)  24. the image i s the creation of the messages i t receives, people tend to remake themselves  i n the image which other people have  of them. Personal relations involve an extremely complex action and reaction of image upon image.  In The P o l i t i c s of Experience,  Laing describes this process i n such terms: I see you and you see me. I experience you and you experience me. I see your behaviour. But I do not see and never have and never w i l l see your experience of me. And,  further: I do not experience your experience. But I experience you as experiencing. I experience myself as experienced by you. And I experience you as experiencing yourself as experienced by me. And so on ..." ^  This i s basic to the understanding of the s e l f - j u s t i f y i n g image a phenomenon basic, i n i t s turn, i n the mechanism of imperialism. If I think that you are mean and suroly I w i l l treat you i n such a way that you w i l l tend to react i n a surly and mean way, me f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n my o r i g i n a l presumption.  making  A study of "teach-  er expectation and pupils' i n t e l l e c t u a l development" i n an American elementary  school recently investigated what was  called "the i n t e r -  personal s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy - how one person's expectations for another's behaviour can quite unwittingly become a more accurate prediction simply f o r i t s having been made."2  Normally,  much of our behaviour i s governed by widely shared norms and expectations that make i t possible to prophesy how  a person w i l l  1 R. D. Laing: The P o l i t i c s of Experience, Chap. I, "Persons and Experience, esp. p.17-18. R. Rosenthal and L. Jacobson: Pygmalion i n the Classroom (New York, Rinehardt andWinston, 19b8) Introduction.  25.  behave i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n even i f we have never met person and  know l i t t l e o f how  he d i f f e r s from o t h e r s .  same time, however, behaviour v a r i e s so t h a t we a t e l y prophesy the behaviour of a person we can t h a t o f a s t r a n g e r .  At the  can more a c c u r -  know w e l l than  we  To a g r e a t extent, our e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  another's behaviour are a c c u r a t e because we iour.  that  know h i s past behav-  The accuracy of i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s i n c r e a s e d w i t h  another f a c t o r however, namely:  "our p r e d i c t i o n or prophecy  in i t s e l f  be a f a c t o r i n determining the behaviour of o t h e r  people."  In o t h e r words, people more o f t e n than not do what  i s expected  of them.  1  may  Or as L a i n g put i t :  I am c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon what we o u r s e l v e s and to each o t h e r -  do to  Let us take the s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e i n t e r p e r s o n a l scheme. Consider Jack and J i l l i n relation. Then Jack's behaviour "towards J i l l i s experienced by J i l l i n p a r t i c u l a r ways. How she experiences him a f f e c t s c o n s i d e r a b l y how she behaves towards him. How she behaves towards him i n f l u e n c e s (without by any means t o t a l l y determining) how he experiences her. And h i s experience of her c o n t r i b u t e s to h i s way o f behaving towards her, which i n t u r n ... 2 In these terms then, Frank Swettenham's "Real n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , what the Englishmen  i n Malaya saw was  T  :  Malays" not the  Rosenthal and Jacobson: i b i d . B r i e f l y , 20 percent of the c h i l d r e n i n a c e r t a i n elementary s c h o o l were s e l e c t e d at random as showing unusual p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. E i g h t months l a t e r these unusual or "magic" c h i l d r e n showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains i n I.Q. than d i d the remaining students who had not been s i n g l e d out f o r the t e a c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . . The change i n the teacher's e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l performance of these a l l e g e d l y " s p e c i a l " c h i l d r e n , had l e d to an a c t u a l change i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l performance of randomly s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . Laing:  P o l i t i c s o f Experience, o p . c i t . , p . 3 3 .  26.  "Malays" b u t the " M a l a y s - e x p e r i e n c i n g - t h e - B r i t i s h - e x p e r i e n c i n g the-Malays."  Almost a l l w r i t e r s  i n c l u d e d a chapter on what they  were wont to c a l l the "Malay Character" as though t h i s were some unchanging e n t i t y e x i s t i n g more l e g i t i m a t e as  i n a vacuum, an e x e r c i s e rendered the  by the w i d e l y - h e l d c o n v i c t i o n  that  "the  Malays  a race d e t e s t change." L a s t l y , these Malays were then, and a r e s t i l l (but i n some p a r t i c u l a r s to a l e s s extent) a courageous, haughty, and e x c l u s i v e people, i n f i n i t e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , h a t i n g change, f u l l o f strange p r e j u d i c e s , c l i n g i n g t o t h e i r a n c i e n t customs, t o the teachings o f the men o f o l d time, and ready to d i e t o uphold them, o r simply i n obedience to the orders o f t h e i r h e r e ditary chiefs." £  I t should not be s u r p r i s i n g ,  keeping i n mind the f a c t  that  thoughts and a c t i o n s do not occur i n vacuums (they, and the phenomenon which we c a l l c h a r a c t e r , are the t o t a l  continuum  of every person and event w i t h whom we have come i n t o i n our l i f e t i m e , i n c l u d i n g :about- the  self-justifying  ourselves),  and what has been s a i d  image, t o observe that  " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Malay" a r e s u r p r i s i n g l y list  contact  o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the V i c t o r i a n  Swettenham's s i m i l a r t o any  "gentleman".  T h i s i s Jean-Paul Satre's " r e l e n t l e s s r e c i p r o c i t y b i n d i n g colonized  to c o l o n i z e r "  and v i c e  versa.  Clifford: Proc. Royal C o l . I n s t i t . V o l . X K X , 1 8 9 8 - 9 , p.371 Swettenahm: The Real Malay, P.18J a l s o p.264-66. Satre, i n t r o d u c i n g A. Memmi: C o l o n i z e r and t h e C o l o n i z e d , op. c i t . ; Memmi's book p u r p o r t s t o "show the p a t t e r n and g e n e s i s of each r o l e , (of t h e c o l o n i z e r and c o l o n i z e d ) , the g e n e s i s of one through the o t h e r and the p a t t e r n o f the c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p out o f the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n " i n T u n i s i a . (As a T u n i s i a n Jew, he f i t s i n t o n e i t h e r r o l e h i m s e l f . ) He speaks of 'the n e c e s s i t y o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , the n e c e s s i t y o f i t s development, the necessary images which i t impressed on the c o l o n i z e d and the c o l o n i z e r .  27.  The  genius of B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m i n Malaya r e s t e d upon  the f a c t t h a t , with a few notable needed f o r t h e i r own found i t necessary  exceptions,  reasons to accept  1  the Malay r u l e r s  the image which the  to impose upon them.  British  (The B r i t i s h i n Malaya  were able f o r the most p a r t to " i g n o r e " the Malay peasant c l a s s e s o r , at l e a s t , consign them to an i d y l l i c  Kampong e x i s t e n c e ,  cause they were f o r t u n a t e enough to have the Chinese and Indians  to perform the more menial i m p e r i a l t a s k s . ) Or,  be-  Tamil  2  more orthodoxly,  B r i t i s h p o l i c y i n the p e n i n s u l a throughout the p e r i o d (before the t u r n of the century) was based on a mutually p r o f i t a b l e a l l i a n c e with the Malay r u l i n g c l a s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with the i n d i v i d u a l r u l e r s of the s t a t e s and t h e i r a r i s t o c r a t i c establishments. T h i s symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n which the B r i t i s h undertook to m a i n t a i n i n t a c t the p o s i t i o n and p r e s t i g e of the t r a d i t i o n a l r u l i n g c l a s s i n the s t a t e s i n r e t u r n f o r the r i g h t to develop a modern e x t r a c t i v e economy w i t h the s t a t e s , c e r t a i n l y deprived the Malay S u l t a n of much of h i s policy-making power, but i t was f u r t h e r e d with a t a c t which c a r e f u l l y preserved the f i c t i o n t h a t the Sultans were autonomous r u l e r s a c t i n g under advice from Residents who were i n some sense t h e i r s e r v a n t s . ^ It  i s my  impression  t h a t i t was  as much i n r e t u r n f o r a  c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y , a r i s i n g out o f being  permitted,  O b v i o u s l y the murderers of B i r c h were none too enamoured o f the i d e a . See a l s o i n t e r l e a f from Mrs. Innes overpage. 2  This point i s discussed  i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , p.166 below.  3  Roff. O r i g i n s of Malay N a t i o n a l i s m p.250 (my u n d e r l i n i n g ) c f . Swettenham: Real Malay, p.32 ""It was not the Malay people who asked f o r the B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l ; i t was a d i s a p p o i n t e d Malay Raja who, d e s i r i n g B r i t i s h r e c o g n i t i o n of a coveted posi t i o n , o f f e r e d the i n v i t a t i o n as a means to t h a t end. He o b t ained the end he sought, and he was p r o p e r l y h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what happened to the guest e n t r u s t e d to h i s c a r e . 1  At f i r s t I was inclined to laugh at the impertinence of the unclothed old savage, (the Sultan at Langat) as I considered him, thus giving us - us, free-horn Britons I - his gracious permission to walk, but on r e f l e x i o n I considered that the country was h i s , and we were only there by his i n v i t a t i o n , and the fact of his dress being rather a i r y did not r e a l l y a f f e c t the question ... ....He complained that sometimes he received as l i t t l e as $90 a month and t h i s was not r e a l l y enough f o r him to l i v e upon, as everyone i n the country who was i n want looked to him f o r assistance, and he could not possibly send them away; no Sultan had ever been known to do such a thing... ....I do not know how to play the piano, nor does anyone i n my house; and moreover, I am too old to learn. I. prefer fingers' to forks; European crockery and glass i s not suited to my servants, who smash i t continually; and as f o r the horses, 1 suppose we do not understand the care of them, f o r they do nothing but die, one after the other, as fast as they can. The buggy i s a l l broken, and we do not know how to mend i t ; and the gun which was sent me i s useless, as I am now too old to begin. I should be glad i f no more European a r t i c l e s were sold to me f o r the present, as I wish to receive my $1000 intact. We f e l t glad to know that t h i s poor old man had received any benefit at a l l from the 'protection' of the B r i t i s h Government, f o r we fancied we saw i n his talk and demeanour, occasional signs that he f e l t the loss of dignity entailed on him by his revenue being collected, and his laws altered and administered f o r him, by a l i e n s . He bore i t very well on the whole; but on occasions ... he was evidently much distressed, and only agreed to i t , we believed, from f e e l i n g himself powerless to cope with the English Government. Emily Innes and the Sultan of Langat from The Chersonese with the Gilding Off  28. w i t h i n the " R e s i d e n t i a l System", to p l a y a r o l e which p r o v i d e d and maintained a w e l l - d e f i n e d and accepted s e l f - i m a g e , as f o r "the r i g h t to develop a modern e x t r a c t i v e economy" t h a t the B r i t i s h adopted  the p o l i c y they d i d In  Malaya.  1  Imperialism r e l i e s f o r i t s success on the phenomenon of the s e l f - j u s t i f y i n g  image.  The  i m p e r i a l i s t needs, (because  of  the h i g h values he has come to p l a c e on c e r t a i n images o f h i m s e l f and the o t h e r people i n h i s w o r l d ) , and  t h e r e f o r e expects, the  i m p e r i a l i z e d to behave i n a c e r t a i n way  - w i t h the r e s u l t  more o f t e n than not he does,  that  a process which can always be  facil-  i t a t e d by the j u d i c i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n of a system o f rewards or punishments t o the i m p e r i a l i z e d .  I n s o f a r as i m p e r i a l i s m can be  s a i d to be a medium of communication, an e x t e n s i o n of the human senses, between i m p e r i a l i s t and  imperialized,  i t largely  config-  ures the awareness and experience of both. imposing 1  i t s own  assumptions  I t has t h a t power of p upon even the wary.  T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n a l a t e r chapter. But c f . 0. Mannoni: Prospero and C a l i b a n , o p . c i t . p.32: "The c o l o n i z e r s of the h e r o i c age - the e r a of c o l o n i a l expansion were f u l l y convinced of the s u p e r i o r i t y of the c i v i l i z a t i o n they r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e i r s t r e n g t h came from t h e i r knowledge t h a t , though they r e p r e s e n t e d t h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n , they d i d not embody i t . They d i d not set themselves up as models; they o f f e r e d to o t h e r s t h e i r own i d e a l s , something g r e a t e r than they. But the f a c t t h a t they possessed s u p e r i o r power p e r suaded the n a t i v e s of the o v e r - r i d i n g need to i m i t a t e and, l i k e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , to obey. P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y the r e s u l t was - at f i r s t b e n e f i c i a l . At that stage i t was i m p o s s i b l e even dimly to p e r c e i v e the r e c i p r o c a l misunderstanding on which the s i t u a t i o n was based, nor could i t have f o r e s e e n what successes and f a i l u r e s the e f f o r t a t i m i t a t i o n was to meet. I t would be p o i n t l e s s to pass judgment now on what happened then, e s p e c i a l l y as t h e r e was undoubtedly much good w i l l on both s i d e s at the o u t s e t . . . . " M. McLuhan:  Understanding  Media, o p . c i t . Chap.I.  29.  Imperialism,it should be r e a l i z e d , i s a process involving f o r a l l concerned d i s t o r t i o n and m y s t i f i c a t i o n of one's s e l f image.  As such, there i s an inevitable contradiction i n imperi-  alism.  Por the i m p e r i a l i s t , because, i f he i s not successful,  i f he f a i l s to make the "native" over s u f f i c i e n t l y i n his image, the l a t t e r may  own  stab him i n the back - at any rate, he w i l l  constantly be reminded of his f a i l u r e .  I f , on the other hand, he  succeeds, then the "native" becomes equally a threat, or rather a rival:  the i m p e r i a l i s t , as i m p e r i a l i s t , i s no longer needed;  is redundant, his task i s done and w i l l no more o f f e r him f a c t i o n f o r the image: .is complete. :  He may  move on to a  he  satisnew  "colony", but he i s doomed to perpetual f r u s t r a t i o n . Hugh C l i f f o r d saw this c l e a r l y : Since the day when I played i n the squalid street, And dreamed that I'd go to sea, No place i n the world was dear or sweet, Or good i n i t s e l f to me! The Land I loved was the Land I saw Just dipping below the sky, And when I was there - i t was,good no more, So forward again trudged I! And f o r the imperialized because ....we only become what we are by a r a d i c a l and deep-seated refusal of that which others have made (or would try to make) of us. 1  Clifford: 2  Bushwacking^op.cit. p.86  T  Satre: Introduction to Fanon: The Wretched of the Earth, op.cit., The parenthetical addition i s mine.  T H E SULTAN OF JOHORB.  Part Three  "The development of images i s part of the culture or subculture i n which they are developed and i t depends on a l l elements of that culture or subculture." Kenneth Boulding:  The Image  Every Roman was surrounded by slaves. The slave and his psychology flooded ancient Italy, and every Roman became inwardly, and of course unwittingly a slave. Because l i v i n g constantly i n the atmosphere of slaves, he became infected through the unconscious with t h e i r psychology. No one can shield himself from such an influence. C. G. Jung: Contributions to A n a l y t i c a l Psychology.  I was astonished at what seemed to me the weakness of Mr. Low's argument. He repeated again and again that the slaves were from time immemorial the property of t h e i r owners, just as much as i f they were elephants or cows; that i t would be unjust to deprive the owners of t h e i r elephants or cows; that i t would cause a revolution i n the country i f the slaves were freed without f u l l pecuniary compensation; that to grant such compensation would r u i n the government .... Later Mr. Low spoke to me " h a l f i n earnest". " I t i s too good, your making a fuss about these slaves. You are a slave yours e l f - a l l married women are slaves'" why  I r e p l i e d , "Just so. That i s precisely I can sympathize with other slaves." Emily Innes: The Chersonese with the Gilding Off.  30. Both P h i l l i p Curtin and George Bearce i n t h e i r studies of B r i t i s h attitudes to A f r i c a and India respectively have noted a s t r i k i n g variance between B r i t i s h b e l i e f s and African or Indian "reality".  Curtin concludes firmly that observers went to A f r i c a  with preconceived notions derived from the reports of t h e i r predecessors and the t h e o r e t i c a l conclusions already drawn from them, and that they were therefore sensitive to data that seemed to confirm t h e i r preconceptions but comparatively insensitive to contradictory d a t a .  1  As a r e s u l t , B r i t i s h thought about A f r i c a  responded weakly to new data of any kind;  Indeed i t responded  f a r more p o s i t i v e l y to changes i n B r i t i s h thought.  Observers,  taking the European weltanschaung as t h e i r point of departure, did not ask "what i s A f r i c a l i k e and what manner of men there?" but "How  do Africans, and how  we already know about the world?"  live  does A f r i c a , f i t into what  In t h i s sense, claims Curtin,  the.image of A f r i c a was f a r more European than African.  (Scien-  t i s t s , supposedly studying the nature of r a c i a l differences, i n f a c t studied A f r i c a i n order to find answers f o r questions posed f o r them by the existing state of b i o l o g i c a l theory and knowledge. The interdependence of race and culture was assumed because i t helped explain a phenomenon i n which contemporary Europeans were very interested - namely t h e i r own leadership i n the world of the nineteenth century - f'How i s i t that i t can be so t r u l y said __ P.D. Curtin: The Image of A f r i c a : B r i t i s h Ideas and Action 1780-1850 (Madison, U. of Wisconsin Press, 19b4} G.D. Bearce: B r i t i s h Attitudes towards India, 1784-1858 (London, Oxford U. Press, 1961J  31.  that the sun never sets upon the English flag?") The image of A f r i c a , i n short, was l a r g e l y created i n Europe to suit European needs - sometimes material needs, more often i n t e l l e c t u a l needs. When these needs allowed, i t might touch on r e a l i t y .... otherwise the European Afrikanschaung was part of a Weltanschauung, and i t was warped as necessary to make i t f i t into a larger whole .... 2 There i s l i t t l e reason to believe that those who went to Malaya were q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t to any great extent.  In the  following pages I s h a l l consider the more important facets of western and especially B r i t i s h thoughtwhich were l i k e l y to have been brought to bear upon the Malayan c o l o n i a l experience, to attempt to reach some understanding of the d i s p o s i t i o n of the era i n which the B r i t i s h came into contact, as imperialists, with 1  2  "At a more personal l e v e l , many affirmations about A f r i c a were made f o r p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s or personal reasons. Prichard's b e l i e f i n monogenesis came, f i r s t of a l l , from his desire to prove that science was congruent with Scripture. Nott and Gliddon's polygenesis came from t h e i r desire to prove that negro slavery was l i c i t . It i s hard to avoid the conclusion that some of the wilder ravings of Knox's "transcendental anatomy" came from a blighted career, not merely from the currents of evolutionary thought;" (Curtin: ibid., p.480). The quotation i s from F.S. Marryat : Borneo and the Indian Archipelago (London, Longmans, 1 8 4 8 ) p . 2 3 1 - 2 3 2 . "May i t not be, I say, that the Almighty has, f o r h i s own.good reasons, fought on our side, and has given us victory upon victory, u n t i l we have swept the seas, and made the name of England known to the uttermost corners of the globe?.;" In f a c t , however, t h i s sentiment i s i n such contrast with.the rest of Marryat's work that I am tempted to suppose he added i t simply as an after-thought f o r the benefit of his London readers; Curtin: i b i d . "To say t h i s , however, i s not to imply a moral or i n t e l l e c t u a l judgment of the nineteenth century Europeans. They sought knowledge f o r t h e i r guidance and the very magnitude of the e f f o r t remains as a kind of monument. Their errors nevertheless did as much to mold the course of history as t h e i r discoveries ...;"  32. Malaya.  What ideas, events and circumstances were l i k e l y to have  influenced, and how,  the nature of contact between the B r i t i s h  Residents and the Malay people, i n the "Golden Age" of Malayan imperialism?  1  B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i a l interest i n Malaya dates from  1786  when the East India Company secured the island of Penang o f f the west coast of the Peninsula.  Malacca, taken from the Dutch during  the Napoleonic Wars but returned i n l 8 l 8 , became B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y i n l 8 2 5 a n d Singapore, the l a s t of the three outposts known c o l l ?  e c t i v e l y as the S t r a i t s Settlements, was occupied i n 1819.  From  the moment i t occupied Penang, the East India Company regarded i t s settlements i n Malaya purely as ports of c a l l and trading stations and t r i e d to keep clear of commitments i n the Peninsula itself;  In 1833* government of the S t r a i t s Settlements, with the  character of the B r i t i s h p o s i t i o n i n Malaya s t i l l l a r g e l y undefined, was transferred from the East India Company to the India Office to be administered as part of the Bengal Presidency.  The  Indian Government, immersed i n Indian a f f a i r s , had neither the time nor the knowledge to cope with the t o t a l l y d i s s i m i l a r problems of the S t r a i t s , and i t s unfortunate attempts to f o i s t Indian currency and port dues on them evoked a good deal of resentment, and, a f t e r 1855* a demand from the merchants of Penang and Singapore f o r the ending of the Indian connexion.  By 1859* both  I  The phrase i s J. de V. Allen's, i n "Two Imperialists: A study of S i r Frank Swettenham and S i r Hugh.Clifford." (J.M.B.R.A.S., Vol. x x x v i i , Pt. I, 1964) p.42.  33  the Indian Government and the India Office were prepared to admit that the S t r a i t s Settlements would be better  administered  by the Colonial Office (as i n the case of Hong Kong);  in  1867,  a f t e r a long period of haggling over the f i n a n c i a l arrangements of the t r a n s f e r r a l , the S t r a i t s Settlements became a separate Crown Colony.  1  B r i t a i n o f f i c i a l l y "intervened" on the Malay Peninsula, and B r i t i s h government of the native Malay States, however i n d i r e c t , was  established through the Residential system.  Malaya's early B r i t i s h history occurred  But  i n the shadow of events  i n India, and when separation f i n a l l y occurred  i n 1867,  i t was  as much i n response to events within India as to the conviction of the necessity f o r establishing d i r e c t control over the S t r a i t s Settlements.  In p a r t i c u l a r , the violence done to that most sacred  of i n s t i t u t i o n s where B r i t i s h imperial rule was  concerned, the  Indian Army, by the revolt of Indian soldiers i n 1857  forced the  B r i t i s h to reconsider the whole question of the nature and e f f i c i e n c y of t h e i r government i n the East.  It was  as much due  to the conviction that henceforth a l l the energies of the Bengal Government should be focussed  upon Bengal, as from any concern  f o r the advantages that might accrue to the region i t s e l f , that "bur t r o p i c a l possessions the Colonial Office i n  i n Malayan India" were transferred to 1867.  It i s unlikely that any event had a greater e f f e c t upon the B r i t i s h image of Asia and the-Asians,  1 '  or upon the imperial  See CD. Cowan: Nineteenth Century Malaya: The Origins of B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l Control (London, Oxford U. Press, 19bl) Chap. I, f o r greater d e t a i l .  34.  ideology on whose foundations the B r i t i s h Empire of the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century would be b u i l t , than the Indian Mutiny of 1 8 5 7 , "the T e r r i b l e Year i n ' 5 7 , which found us English f o l k , l i t t l e handfuls of us, isolated, almost defenceless, facing the brown m i l l i o n s who f o r once were banded together against us by hate and wrath." ^ The Sepoy Mutiny has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been regarded as an isolated incident quickly and e f f e c t i v e l y dispersed, i n a country whose calm was not r u f f l e d again u n t i l the n a t i o n a l i s t s t i r r i n g s of the turn of the century.  Despite the fact that nothing could,  and did, arouse such a frenzy of hatred i n the V i c t o r i a n Englishman  as the sight of his womenfolk (so long safe from foreign  invaders and hedged around by sentiment and chivalry) hacked to pieces by barbarous savages,  2  the memory of the s t i r r i n g events  at Lucknow and Delhi did fade r e l a t i v e l y quickly from the B r i t i s h consciousness  and "the annual Indian Debates" soon ceased to  a t t r a c t attention outside a small c i r c l e of merchants and r e t i r e d 1  :  H. C l i f f o r d : Bushwacking. etc.. "The Breath upon the Spark" p.319. (The works of C l i f f o r d and.Swettenham w i l l be cited i n abbreviated t i t l e only - f o r d e t a i l , see bibliography) . 1  ibid; p;324: "Through the chaos came the voice of H a j i Muhammed Achbar ... *nor w i l l i t be the turn of our womenf o l k to be made chattels f o r the pleasure of new husbands'. At that word fear l e f t me and a great wrath alone remained. I rose from my chair, and i n an instant I had him by the throat. 'Have a care, dog,* I cried ..." This fear and anger might be compared with the emotion aroused by the suspected detention of a European female at Amboon, Borneo i n 1 8 4 4 - an emotion more akin to c u r i o s i t y . See Captain Belcher: Narrative of the Voyage of H'.M.S. Samarang, (London, 1 8 4 b ) V o l . 1 1 , p . 1 6 3 f f . f o r o f f i c i a l correspondence. 1  35. c i v i l servants.  1  But i n the B r i t i s h subconscious  the Indian Mutiny l i v e d  on and l e f t a deep and abiding mark both on the f a b r i c of Indian Society and i n the nature of B r i t i s h Imperial r u l e .  Its most  pervasive legacy was to be found i n the sphere of human r e l a t i ons, i n the attitudes of the B r i t i s h and Indian peoples toward each other.  To the f e e l i n g of patronizing superiority which  followed n a t u r a l l y from the p o s i t i o n of the numerically smaller r u l i n g B r i t i s h class, evangelical r e l i g i o n with i t s stern d i s approval of Indian ways, and the advent of European wives i n India, was added a new r a c i a l tinge - a b e l i e f i n the inherent r a c i a l i n f e r i o r i t y of the natives of Hindoostan. Before the Mutiny i t had been assumed that f o r a l l his i d o l a t r y and debauchery, the Indian could s t i l l be c i v i l i z e d , Indian Society regenerated and reformed on a B r i t i s h modelj U t i l i t a r i a n s and Evangelicals a l i k e agreed that i n a generat i o n or two India's "respectable" classes would be Christian, English speaking and actually engaged i n the governing of t h e i r country.  Any f a u l t s they had arose not from inherent r a c i a l  i n f e r i o r i t y but "from the hateful superstitions to which they are subject, and the unfavorable state of society i n which they are placed. But i f i t please God to make any considerable portion of them Christians, they would I can well  1  T. Metcalf: The Aftermath of Revolt; India 1 8 5 0 7 0 (New 'Jersey, Princeton U. Press, 1964) p.vii. I am l a r g e l y indebted to M e t c a l f s study f o r my understanding of the e f f e c t s of the Mutiny on the B r i t i s h psyche.  36.  believe, put the best of European Christians to shame, i From the time of Bentinck i n 1 8 2 8 therefore, the B r i t i s h had openly set t h e i r hand to the task of r a i s i n g the moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l character of t h e i r subjects;  spurred on by the  l i b e r a l and reforming s p i r i t of early V i c t o r i a n England, they had hoped to transform Indian society on a European model.  On the  other hand, almost a l l recent historians of B r i t i s h imperialism i n the second h a l f of the century have noticed that the optimism of the e a r l i e r period was lacking - the atmosphere of "glad confident morning" was a good deal less pervasive than might be supposed of the era which saw the hectic colonization of the p  African, Asian and P a c i f i c land masses. The enthusiasm  may well have begun to waive i n the decade  or so before the Revolt;  alsmost c e r t a i n l y i t did not change  the attitude of thousands of Englishmen overnight.  But i t  c r y s t a l l i z e d a s i t u a t i o n , provided a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r what 1 Bishop Heber, l e t t e r to Charles Wynn, March 1st, 1825, i n Regionald Heber: Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India (London, 1829, I I I , p.333), i n F.G. Hutchins: The I l l u s i o n of Permanence: B r i t i s h Imperialism i n India (New Jersey, Princeton U. Press, 1967) 2  See R. Faber: The V i s i o n And The Need, op.cit., p.12-13; C.A. Bodelson: Studies i n mid-Victorian Imperialism (Copen~ hagen, U. of Scandinavia Press, I960) p.174, maintains that one of the most Important e f f e c t s of Seeley's writings (whom he considers one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l prophets and popularizers of Imperialism) was the studied sobriety with which he t r i e d to dampen what he called "bombastic Imperialism", by which he meant the flamboyant and romantic orientalism that came to be associated with D i s r a e l i . Also G.M. Young: V i c t o r i a n England: P o r t r a i t of an Age (London, Oxford U. Press, I960 edit.)  37.  some may  have already begun to suspect.  At any rate, the  p o l i c y of reform and the ultimate goals of B r i t i s h rule had both to be reconsidered.  Racial animosities had been aroused  by the event, which were to poison relations between B r i t i s h and a l l Indian peoples; of Your Majesty who  doubtless i n fact >'  i s not a Christian and who  "every subject has a dark  skin." Almost without r e a l i z i n g i t , the B r i t i s h threw over the whole notion of Indian regeneration and consigned the Indian people to permanent r a c i a l i n f e r i o r i t y . Prom the Mutiny they drew the lesson that the Indians were not backward and inept, i n need of guidance, but irredeemably mired i n o r i e n t a l stagnation. A people who rejected the benefits of European c i v i l i z a t i o n , they were c l e a r l y incapable of appreciating them and could never be l i f t e d to the heights of V i c t o r i a n l i b e r a l i s m . Their only hope now  lay, i t was presumed, i n the long  continued rule of a beneficient B r i t i s h government; was  rarely openly expressed,  and, i f i t  the idea of permanent r a c i a l  inferi-  o r i t y underlay most post-Mutiny B r i t i s h thought about India, Asia and "the East" and i t was  ultimately written into imperial ideology.  Importantly, however, the idea of permanent r a c i a l  inferi-  o r i t y soon found a t h e o r e t i c a l backing outside the Indian experience - i n contemporary s c i e n t i f i c thought, i n the pseudo-scientific 1  2  Horace St. John wrote as early as 1 8 5 3 of the "Indians" of the "Indian Archipelago"; "Their imbecility i s as incurable as t h e i r despotism i s ferocious. They deserve only r u i n . " The Indian Archipelago; Its History and Present State ( 2 . v o l s . London 1 8 5 3 ) T. Metcalf: o p . c i t . p . 3 0 3 - 0 4 , p . 3 0 9 . With the passage of the I l b e r t B i l l i n 1 8 8 3 "the p r i n c i p l e s of racism and imperialism emerged triumphant.from t h e i r greatest challenge."  38.  racism of new r a c i a l theories of men  l i k e Cuvier and Arthur  de Gobineau, which helped convert the notion from an emotional sentiment to a s c i e n t i f i c f a c t .  The e a r l i e r European self-con-  fidence had naturally clothed with moral overtones "the inst>inct i v e revulsion against the new  and /familiar which has l a i n at  the base of r a c i a l prejudice since men of d i f f e r e n t cultures and colours f i r s t came into contact."  It was obvious to the  B r i t i s h that t h e i r expanding i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n was somehow superior to that of the darker-skinned negroes and o r i e n t a l races. In  the mid-nineteenth  century however, with the development of  the study of anthropology, r a c i a l prejudice was given s c i e n t i f i c foundations and differences became permanent and  irradicable.  1  Some, l i k e Gobineau, adhered to the Christian t r a d i t i o n of a single ancestor;  others, amongst them the American ethnologist,  J.G. Nott, took the theory to i t s l o g i c a l extreme and s,aw the various races of mankind as separate and d i s t i n c t acts of creation;  S t i l l l a t e r , others, influenced by the publication of  Darwin's Origin of Species, found a path somewhere between the two. 1  A.C. Haddon noted that  Curtin, Image o f • A f r i c a , op.cit., e s p e c i a l l y discusses t h i s point. "Eighteen f i f t y - f o u r was the great year f o r r a c i s t publications. Nott and Gliddon accepted Knox and proclaimed that human progress came from "a war of races"; Bulwer Lytton, l a t e r to become Secretary of State f o r the Colonies, presented his own r a c i a l interpretation of history; In Prance, Count de Gobineau began publication of his Essai sur l ' I n e g a l i t e des races humaines, the most famous and perhaps the most i n f l u e n t i a l of a l l r a c i s t works i n the nineteenth century." See also Nott J.C. and Gliddon G.R.: Types of Mankind (Philadelphia, 1855) and Indigenous Races of the Earth (Philadelphia, 1857).  39. "....the three groups of mankind - the white, the yellow and black races, are probably a l l divergencies from the same unknown ancestral stock. They have severally specialized along l i n e s of evolution, and what i s important to •note i s that d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s of t h e i r organi z a t i o n have become arrested, or specialized in d i f f e r e n t degrees and i n d i f f e r e n t directions." 1  A l l however were able to reassure t h e i r European audiences that "there can be no doubt that, on the whole, the white race has progressed  beyond the other races."  i s t i c s became anatomical  When r a c i a l character-  features susceptible of precise measure-  ment (size of the brain, f a c i a l angle, shape of the head) and c r a n i a l structure could be shown to provide an enduring natural and r e l i a b l e basis upon which to e s t a b l i s h a true c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the races of men, i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity became related to physical structure and i t was possible to rank the races of mankind on a scale of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  1  2  A.C. Haddon: The Study of Man (New York, 1 8 9 8 ) p . x x i i . Haddon went on to make the rather dubious observation that "while the white man may, f o r example, be nearer the ape i n the character of his h a i r than the Mongol or the Negro, the usual short body and' long legs of the l a t t e r also remove him farther from the ape, to whom, i n this respect, the other groups are more a l l i e d . " See also Quatrefages A.: The Human Species (London, 1886) pp.89-178 f o r a detailed analysis of different.theories of the origins of Human Species. Of the Malays, Quatrefages wrote ( p . 4 3 3 ) " A l l polygamists have regard ed the Malays as one of t h e i r human.species; many monogami s t s have considered them as one of the p r i n c i p a l races. I showed them long ago that, i n r e a l i t y , they are only a mixed race i n which white, black and yellow elements are associated." Ranging understandably from the Saxons of North Europe (with the largest c r a n i a l capacity, the most advanced anatomical structure, and the greatest appreciation of freedom) to the negro at the other extreme, midway between man and ape, h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f e r i o r i t y c l e a r l y established by the fact that from e a r l i e s t times, "the dark races had been the slaves of t h e i r f a i r e r brethren," and unalterable, since the size and (continued page 4 0 )  40. Further, the races of mankind were demarcated according to climate: That certain races are c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y f i t and.other u n f i t f o r certain climates i s a fact which the English have but too good reason to know when on the scorching plains of India they themselves become languid and s i c k l y , while t h e i r children have soon to be removed to some cooler clime that they may not pine and die.'^ Whenever the white races ventured into the tropics or negroes into the temperate climes, they deteriorated rapidly. The r a c i s t s concluded that although the white races were destined by virtue of t h e i r superior energy and i n t e l l i g e n c e to dominate the earth, they could neither s e t t l e i n the tropics nor marry the native races.  The mission of the white man i n  t r o p i c a l A f r i c a and Asia was not to displace the  indigenous  races but to rule over them as conqueror and guardian. (Naturally t h i s posed some problems f o r the B r i t i s h i n "our t r o p i c a l possessions i n Malayan India" and not a small part (Footnote 2. contd. from page 39) shape of h i s brain set r i g i d l i m i t s to his advance i n c i v i l i z a t i o n . -See A.R. Wallace, (who s i g n i f i c a n t l y dedicated h i s book to "Charles Darwin, ... not only as a token of personal esteem and friendship but also to express my deep admiration f o r h i s genius and his works"): The Malay Archipelago (London, 1869), especially Vol.11, Chapter XL, on "The Races of Man i n the Malay Archipelago - "a short statement of my views as to the races of man which.inhabit the various parts of the Archipelago, t h e i r chief physical and mental characte r i s t i c s " - and Appendix, (p.287-290j_, on "The crania of the races of.man i n the Malay Archipelago." Wallace was perhaps the most i n f l u e n t i a l ethnographer of the region. i  Tyler, Edward B.: Anthropology: An Introduction to the Study of Man and C i v i l i z a t i o n (New York, 1898, f i r s t edn. 1881) p.73; c f . Henri Fauconnier's conviction that every land.in which man cannot l i v e naked a l l year round i s condemned to work and war and morality (The Soul of Malaya; London, 1931, p.143)  41. of t h e i r writing was devoted to proving that they might reside there f o r reasonably long periods without succumbing to the insidious physical and moral torpitude of the t r o p i c s : Within seventy-sev/f miles of the equator, i t might be expected that the climate (of Singapore) would be i l l - s u i t e d to Europeans. Such however i s not the case. Neither i s the high temperature nor the extreme humidity of the atmosphere found to interfere seriously with t h e i r health or even with t h e i r comfort. So green and b e a u t i f u l i s a l l around that heat which would be intolerable i n an arid p l a i n or sandy desert i s there scarcely appreciated, and i s borne without d i f f i c u l t y . In Singapore - a l l i s constant midsummer. And yet "this extreme equableness  ... i s a f t e r a l l ,  perhaps,  the greatest objection to the climate": . . . . f o r i t has the e f f e c t of slowly ennervating the system, and u n f i t t i n g i t to withstand any acute disease that should overtake it. No bad e f f e c t s , however, should be f e l t from a residence of six or seven years, and i t has been ascertained by a l l the best medi c a l authorities i n the S t r a i t s that a f t e r such a residence, one year i n a cold bracing climate i s s u f f i c i e n t to completely restore whatever vigour may have been l o s t and f i t the European f o r another term of similar duration;-^ 1  : ; Cameron: Our T r o p i c a l Possessions, op.cit., p.150-1; Curtin op;cit..draws attention to the influence of the imperfect state of contemporary medical knowledge on r a c i a l and imperial ideology. Doctors attributed the recovery of Mrs. Innes and Mrs; Lloyd (from i n j u r i e s received i n the "Pangor Tragedy") to "our being below par ..; Had we been l i v i n g i n Singapore, where a more generous diet i s available, the danger would have been much greater; Semistarvation has i t s advantages; Many a Malay, owing to the national diet of f i s h and vegetables, combined with teetotalism, has recovered from wounds that would have been f a t a l to a European accustomed to l i v e on beef, mutton and brandy." (Mrs. Innes, needless to say, l o s t l i t t l e love f o r what she was wont to c a l l "the red-tapeists of Singapore".) The Chersonese with the Gilding Off, Vol.11, p.144).  42.  Nevertheless, as i n a l l countries east of Calais, the B r i t i s h e r had continually to be on h i s guard - p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r any loss of moral "vigour": Passions run high among a people l i v i n g within shout of the equator . ; . If morality i s a question of l a t i t u d e .... by western standards ( i t ) i s remarkably lax throughout a good ..many degrees north and south of the equator #  Incredible though these race theories may appear today 2  with t h e i r easy assumption of European superiority,  at the  time they marked the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t attempt to place anthropology on a s c i e n t i f i c basis, and met with widespread approval. 1 : ~~ Swettenham: Real Malay, pi150-151. Note also the theme of Dawe's short romantic stories of "The love of the'White f o r the Yellow, the Yellow f o r White" (A.C.L. Dawe: Yellow and White (London, John Lane, 1895); 2  As the home of the "orang-utan", the ape. and an aboriginal race of "black woolly-haired", ape-like men, the Semangs or "orang-utan" ( l i t e r a l l y "wild men of the woods"), the Malay Peninsula was naturally the focus of a good deal of speculation along pseudo-Darwinian l i n e s . Most serious studies carried a chapter on the possible origins and r e l a t ionship, to the Malay race proper, customs, physical and moral c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and so on. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l precisely how.their presence affected images of Malaya - the emphasis on t h e i r "negrito" t r a i t s , f o r example, must have deflected to Malaya, i n part at least, that whole spectrum of emotion generated i n mid-Victorian England by the negro problem. On the whole, however, they were regarded as a c u r i o s i t y arousing the interest only of t r a v e l l e r , and ethnographerj with rare exception l i t t l e attention was paid them i n the nineteenth century once i t was decided/6hat the Malay race would become the agents of B r i t i s h imperialism, beyond s a t i s f a c t i o n or regret at t h e i r inevitable passing before the wheels of progress and c i v i l i z a t i o n . See, e.g. Burbidge. Gardens of the Sun (London, John Murray, 1880), "Let any n a t u r a l i s t who i s prejudiced against Darwinian views go to the forests of Borneo. Let him there watch from day to day t h i s strangely human form...."  43. Even the r i s e of Darwinism with i t s emphasis on evolution did not shake the hold of this pseudo-scientific racism. ution destroyed  1  If evol-  ideas of multiple creation and the f i x i t y of  r a c i a l types, i t provided, i n the struggle f o r s u r v i v a l , a mechanism by which r a c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c o n f l i c t could take place;  The white race, more adaptable and advanced, emerged  dominant from Darwin's theories, v i c t o r i o u s i n the struggle f o r existence.  The new  r a c i a l theories, whether Cuvier's or Darwin's,  provided Englishmen a l l over the Empire with a B r i t i s h audience already conditioned to think i n r a c i a l terms when i t became necessary to proclaim the inherent s u p e r i o r i t y of the B r i t i s h people, and such was  the prestige of the new  sciences that there  could be l i t t l e unjust or immoral i n merely following t h e i r dictates. After the events of 1857, no one could e a s i l y deny that the races of men were cut o f f from one another by enormous differences i n behaviour and attitude, and that the darker races were permanently consigned to an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n the scale of c i v i l i z a t i o n ; Together the new r a c i a l thought and the lessons of 1857 reinforced and gave c r e d i b i l i t y to one another; Cranial measurement and the Kanp-ur Massacre taught much the same lesson; g But see Harvard Educational Review (Feb. 1969) and New York Times (August 31st, Sept. 21st, 19b9) .for Arthur Jensen's conclusion that I.Q. i s genetically-determined and "negroes as a group test out poorly when compared with whites or orientals . "No amount of compensatory education or forced., exposure to culture i s going to improve t h i s f a c t o r " . Note also the recent popularity of books l i k e Robert Ardrey's A f r i c a n Genesis (Atheneum 1961) and T e r r i t o r i a l Imperative (Atheneum 1955);. Desmond N o r r i s The Naked Ape; and K. Lorenz's: On Aggression (Harcourt, Brace and World, 1966). Ashley Montagu, and others, i n Man and Aggression (LondonO.U.F. 1968) however, vigorously attack any such doctrine based on the "innate depravity of mankind. 1  -2  T. Metcalf:  The Aftermath of Revolt,  op;cit.,,p.313.  44.  At the same time, there were important differences between the Malayan and Indian imperial experience;  (many of  which appear to have arisen simply out of the determination of the Anglo-Malays to create them, but also precisely because the Indian Army and the Sepoy Revolt did not "occur" i n Malaya.)  1  It was, beyond the vague but important f i e l d of B r i t i s h attitudes to the A s i a t i c races, mainly i n a negative sense that the Indian mutiny impinged upon the c o l o n i a l experience i n Malaya. In the immediate sense, "Malaya" was anxious to share i n the drama of those s t i r r i n g days as f a r as i t could - i t was with pride that one resident recorded that Lord E l g i n was  actually  staying with Mr. Blundell i n Singapore when "the great r e b e l l i o n i n India" broke out, and that from "the government bungalow that stood where Fort Canning now  stands" he issued the famous order  "which, by deflecting the troops of the China expedition at Anjer and sending them back to India, i t i s believed by many, saved the B r i t i s h Empire i n India."  2  Moreover there are occasional intimations that the mutiny experience remained i n the Anglo-Malayan sub-conscious, long a f t e r the event i t s e l f had become mere h i s t o r y . 1  :  :  — A l l e n : Two Imperialists ;.., op.cit., also looks at the ideas Swettenham and C l i f f o r d held i n common with t h e i r age, (Part I ) , and how they d i f f e r e d , (Part I I ) . The l a t t e r , according to .. . Allen, was due to one of two reasons - either i t was because they l i k e d and respected" t h e i r subjects i n a way which was by then quite unfashionable i n India and never possible i n A f r i c a , or because they entered the Malay States just before "the rush-hour" of imperialism, under abnormal circumstances. - 2  J . Cameron:  Our Tropical Possessions, op.cit;, p.24;  45. Mr; Innes always said he believed the 'simple dressing which was sent to us with other medicines from Klang, was neither more nor less than hog's l a r d , the thought of using which would have been horrible to the Mahometan Malays; but I cannot think that the Government, knowing their prejudices, would r i s k offending them by treachery of this kind, after the lesson taught by the Indian Mutiny. ^ 1  There i s a sense i n which the early Anglo-Malay  imperialists  keenly f e l t the lack of incidents i n t h e i r history to compare with the Mutiny f o r creating heros and martyrs (even A f r i c a made one of General Gordon and t h i s was, a f t e r a l l , the "real s t u f f " of imperialism), a vague but unmistakable sense of 2 "being l e f t out of i t a l l " i n some way.  Swettenham t r i e d  desperately to invest the murder of Resident Birch i n Perak with something of t h i s atmosphere, but the whole a f f a i r was  nonethe-  less robbed of much of i t s dramatic potential by the suspicion that Birch had, i n dashing "into Perak s Augean Stables l i k e an 1  angry V i c t o r i a n schoolmaster, confident that i t could a l l be cleared up with a l i t t l e firmness and decision  somehow broken  with the Malay " t r a d i t i o n " of tactfulness and understanding i n dealing with the natives, and i n fact might even have deserved 1 Mrs. Innes: The Chersonese with the Gilding Off, o p . c i t . Vol.1, p.~102. 2  Malaya's " i s o l a t i o n " i s discussed more f u l l y i n Part 4.  3  R.O. Windstedt: Malaya and Its History (n.d) p.66, 68, quoted i n Kiernan: op.cit., p.84; c f . Anson.About Others and Myself (p.323), quoted i n Parkinson, C.N.: B r i t i s h Intervent i o n i n . Malaya, 1867-1877 (Singapore, U. of Malaya Press, I960), p.202-03. "I am very much annoyed with Birch, and the head-over-heels way i n which he does things; ... He has made a regular mull of the farms, and does not seem to have impressed either the Sultan or the ex-Sultan very favorably."  46. his rather hasty, i f regrettable, demise.  C l i f f o r d at once  defined Anglo-Malay sentiments about the Mutiny, and i n a wider sense, the whole Malayan imperial experience, i n h i s short story "The Breath upon the Spark".  1  Ostensibly a minor Anglo-Indian  o f f i c i a l ' s reminiscences on h i s reaction to the outbreak of the Mutiny, i n fact i t reveals a good deal about how the B r i t i s h perceived of themselves i n Malaya:  Insofar as he i d e n t i f i e s  at a l l with the mutiny, i t i s through h i s hero C a n Assistant Deputy Commissioner of sorts " stowed away i n a God-forsaken d i s t r i c t at the Back of Beyond, so long alone among the natives "that he knew as much about the dusky insides of Orientals as i s good f o r any man.") This "Assistant Deputy Commissioner of sorts" has successfully cowed the Muslims i n his d i s t r i c t ; at the  end of h i s story, C l i f f o r d asks him "But you must have got plenty of kudos for keeping that d i s t r i c t quiet at such a d i f f i c u l t time." "Kudos?" he queried. "0 dear, no! You see mine was one of the d i s t r i c t s that had no mutiny history, and there were heaps of them - heaps of them!" 2 C l i f f o r d : Bushwacking: p.309 f f . See Swettenham's account of Birch's murder and the role the former played i n the events, especially i n Malay Sketches, Chap, xix, "James Wheeler Woodford Birch" and Chap, xx, "A Personal Incident".  2  Clifford: i b i d . This story i s also a very interesting comment upon the Deputy Commissioner's attitudes to the opposite sex. The European woman who i s the "breath upon the spark" of h i s flagging imperial s p i r i t s i s married to a man whose "lack of pluck .... was somehow degrading to us a l l " , but she earns C l i f f o r d ' s hero's undying love by "helping him to play the man".  47.  The thought that his imperial gestures might go unnoticed apparently preyed heavily upon Swettenham's mind too (and perhaps partly explains his feverish determination to leave his mark upon the Peninsula i n railway l i n e s , public buildings, roads and Botanical Gardens).  Nothing was  so unjust to his  mind as the treatment meted out to Stamford R a f f l e s . of B r i t i s h expansion  He spoke  i n the East as  "a record of the doings of courageous, capable and masterful men. Opportunity may tear the cloaks from a thousand excellent, hesitating, conscience-burdened theorists and talkers, who never get beyond t h e i r good intentions; while one man of courage, determination and action inspired by the f i r e of patriotism w i l l make opportunities f o r himself, to the p r o f i t s of his country. Such a man was Sir.Stamford Raffles, and today his countrymen can gauge to a nicety England's gain and his personal reward." But, while hastening to point out that no true p a t r i o t counts either his present r i s k , or his prospective advantage, when intent upon his country's interests, ("the greater so immeasurably overshadows the l e s s " ) , Swettenham confided "....probably no true man can help a f e e l i n g of m o r t i f i c a t i o n when the s a c r i f i c e of the best he has to o f f e r passes without acknowledgment. Raffles was a great man and stronger i n i n d i v i d u a l i t y than most, but neglect touched him, and embittered the closing years of his l i f e . " ]_ To Swettenham, nothing could be more t r a g i c . But to return to the effects of the Indian Mutiny; I have spoken elsewhere of a "Malayan t r a d i t i o n " of governing 1 Swettenham:  Real Malay . "A New  Method", p.8-9.  48. native peoples.  It i s my impression that denied by circumstance  and economy, the glamour and romance that was lent to the l i f e of B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s i n India by the presence of the Indian Army (what more impressive a place f o r display of imperial splendour than the b a t t l e f i e l d ... or the parade ground?),  1  the Anglo-  Malays determined to make a virtue of the somewhat less spectacular imperial q u a l i t i e s of understanding and kindness to the natives - which had the effect of modifying the r i f t created i n India between r u l e r and ruled by the Mutiny, and gave the r a c i a l element i n late nineteenth century imperial ideology a s l i g h t l y p  d i f f e r e n t emphasis i n Malaya. . At the same time Malayan c i v i l servants never avowedly modelled themselves on the precedent of the government of India. 1  The pomp and ceremony of the Malay courts became an important part of the Residents business and the Durbars following Federation were unquestionably very important f o r a l l that l i t t l e of substance was discussed. This pomp was obviously much enjoyed by both B r i t i s h and Malays and i s a t r a d i t i o n that continues today. (See the l a v i s h production "The King Installed - The Pageantry of a Great Ceremony" S t r a i t s Times Annual (Singapore, 1967) p.22 f f . ) >. 1  p  -  -  Although m i l i t a r y force played i t s part i n the Malayan imperi a l experience i t was i n a special and temporary sense only. "The history of B r i t i s h influence i n Malaya ... of the l a s t quarter of the nineteenth century began with a m i l i t a r y expedition which attracted small attention, f o r i t cost the country l i t t l e i n blood and nothing i n treasure. The expedi t i o n was punitive and what was required was done quickly and e f f e c t u a l l y ... In Selangor,beyond a naval demonstration, the s h e l l i n g of some f o r t s and the excavation of certain reputed p i r a t e s , there had been no c o n f l i c t with B r i t i s h forces and no B r i t i s h troops were ever employed to support the Resident's authority" (Swettenham Real Malay p.47, p.17-18) cf. Miss Bird's evident disapproval of the Residency of Bloomfield Douglas, which had "the appearance of an armed post amidst a h o s t i l e population" (The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither (London, John Murray, 1883; Oxford edition,  1967, p.218)  .  49. In C l i f f o r d ' s story, "Concerning Maurice Curzon," Maurice's father curses the examination system and i s given to lament that, i n another age, his r e c a l c i t r a n t son might have been a "Clive"; man  the author points out however, that "a new kind of  i s now called f o r i n the E a s t " .  1  The early Malayan Resid-  ents were very much aware that theirs was "a new method" f o r governing the native races, and i n the attempt to define t h e i r r o l e , they looked back to men l i k e "Rajah" James Brooke ("who upset h i s bishop by conniving at l i a i s o n s between h i s s t a f f and Borneo women", and many of whose administrators "sported Dyak tattoos and shunned European company"), and, perhaps even more, tor  Stamford Raffles, the founder of Singapore and the f i r s t  and greatest Malay scholar-administrator. Moreover,  i t was s i g n i f i c a n t that Stamford Raffles had  written as early as the eighteen-twenties of the Malays: 1  c f . Hugh Egerton: S i r Stamford Raffles, (London, 1900) i n the "Builders of Empire Series"; " I t i s to the honour.of Raffles that he was distinguished both i n the f i e l d s of thought and action, that he bridged the chasm which divides the Wakefields from the Clives i n this s e r i e s . " c f . H. Keppel: The Voyage to Borneo of the H.M.S. Dido (2 Vols., London, lb4'6J "Whether i n preparing f o r the establishment of a British.settlement on the coast of Borneo, or i n actually making one, Her Majesty's Minister, I am s a t i s f i e d , w i l l advert to the merits and peculiar q u a l i f i cations of Mr. Brooke;.... I consider him as possessing a l l the q u a l i t i e s which distinguish the successful founders of new colonies; i n t r e p i d i t y , firmness, and enthusiasm, with the a r t of governing and leading the masses. He possesses some, moreover, which have not always belonged to such men, however otherwise distinguished; a knowledge of the languages, manners, customs and i n s t i t u t i o n s of the natives by whom the colony i s to be surrounded ;..;" Keppel also noted that "benevolence" and an "independent fortune" were convenient but unusual attributes f o r "projectors of.colonies" i n t h i s part of the world;  50. Notwithstanding t h e i r piracies and vices usually attributed to them there i s something i n the Malayan character which i s congenial to B r i t i s h minds and which leaves an impression the very opposite to that which a much longer intercourse has given of the subdued and cultivated natives of Hindoostan ...." ]_ In the same s p i r i t , H. Wise wrote i n 1846 that "  The Malays, with proper management, may in my.opinion be rendered a very superior race i n many respects to some of the natives of Hindoostan ...."  and opined that Rajah Brooke was noteworthy i n his b e l i e f that the natives should be treated "as equals" " On t h i s point, most Europeans are grossly wanting .... When we desire to improve and elevate a people we must not begin by treating them as an i n f e r i o r race; and yet t h i s i s too generally the style of our Indian r u l e r s , with a few b r i l l i a n t exceptions." 2 From A. Wright and T. Reid: The Malay Peninsula (London, 1912) p. 134. Also J . de V. A l l e n : ''Malayan C i v i l Service 1874-1941 - Colonial Bureaucracy/Malayan E l i t e . " (Paper presented to International Conference, Asian History, Aug; 5-10, 1968, University of Kuala Lumpur). Allen f e e l s that in speaking only of the Malays, Raffles anticipated more correctly the views of succeeding generations of Malay C i v i l Servicemen than of "the founding fathers". I would argue that the Chinese were tolerated rather than l i k e d and that t h e i r women-folk apart, the Indians were generally d i s l i k e d . It was as much f o r himself as f o r "the Malay" that Swettenham spoke when he wrote "The land i s Malaya, and.he i s the Malay. Let the i n f i d e l Chinese and the evil-smelling Hindu from Southern India t o i l , ... they are strangers and unbelievers, and while he i s quite w i l l i n g to tolerate them, and to be amused, rather than angered, by t h e i r strange forms of i d o l a t r y , t h e i r vulgar speech i n harsh tongues, and t h e i r repulsive customs, he thinks i t only f i t t i n g that they should contribute to his comfort Real Malay p.37: see also p.39,on Chinese and p.37-40 on the Indians. H. Wise: A Selection of Papers r e l a t i n g to Borneo, (1846) p ; 4 9 , 24. i n Kiernan; Lords of Human Kind, op.cit. p.86 .  51. Even Henry Keppel, f o r a l l t h a t the nature  of h i s contact  the Malays sharpened h i s awareness of t h e i r l e s s  with  endearing  t r a i t s , o f f e r e d the o p i n i o n that No d i f f e r e n c e can be more marked than between the Hindoostan and the Malay. The former though more s e l f - p o s s e s s e d and p o l i s h e d , shews a c o n s t r a i n t i n manners and c o n v e r s a t i o n , and you f e e l t h a t h i s t r a i n i n g has made him an a r t i f i c i a l character. The Malay, on the c o n t r a r y , c o n c e a l i n g as w e l l the f e e l i n g s uppermost i n h i s mind, i s l i v e l y and i n t e l l i g e n t , and h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n i s not confined to a d u l l t o r t u r e of unmeaning compliment. -j_ And  when they turned away from the Indian model i n an attempt to  e s t a b l i s h a d i s t i n c l y Malayan i m p e r i a l i d e n t i t y a f t e r 1867, was  to t h i s t r a d i t i o n t h a t the founding  States C i v i l  S e r v i c e turned,  it  f a t h e r s of the Malay  a l b e i t a t r i f l e r e l u c t a n t l y i n some  1 H. Keppel: H.M.S. Dido, o p . c i t . , p.26-27. See J . de V. A l l e n "Malayan C i v i l S e r v i c e ...", o p . c i t . on the d i s t i n c t i o n between S t r a i t s Settlement C i v i l S e r v i c e and Malay States C i v i l S e r v i c e * the l a t t e r being a l l those who served i n Malaya except those who served only i n the Crown Colony. S t r i c t l y speaking there were two d i s t i n c t c i v i l s e r v i c e s i n Malaya b e f o r e F e d e r a t i o n , even before 1919, when the two were amalgamated at S i r Lawrence Guillemard's suggestion. G e n e r a l l y , the S.S.C.S. clung more to the Indian model (many were ex-India o f f i c i a l s ; See e.g. 0. Cavenagh: Remini s c e n c e s of an Indian O f f i c i a l , (London, esp. p.3fc>9.) and to the other s t r a n d of the R a f f l e s ' image of "EmpireBuilder". S i r F r e d e r i c k Weld o b v i o u s l y saw h i m s e l f i n "the R a f f l e s ' t r a d i t i o n when, u n v e i l i n g a statue of R a f f l e s i n 1887, he s t r e s s e d "the crowd of s p l e n d i d s h i p p i n g , the churches, the p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and o f f i c e s " , and the i n f l u ence of the B r i t i s h name i n the Native S t a t e s " as testimony to the greatness of that man. R a f f l e s was not s o l e l y an o r i e n t a l i s t and humanitarian; i n f a c t , (see J . B a s t i n : The Native P o l i c i e s of S i r Stamford R a f f l e s i n Java and Sumatra An Economic I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , (Oxford, Clarendon Press, he was one of the f i r s t to suggest the importance of b r i n g i n g i n f l u e n c e to bear on the Malay Sultans as a means of s a f e guarding B r i t i s h commercial i n t e r e s t s i n the E a s t . See a l s o Egerton: S i r Stamford R a f f l e s , (London,  1884),  1957),  1900).  52.  There are two roads to possession and power .... the one i s by force of arms and 'the mailed hand , - the other i s by force of character and the exercise of certain q u a l i t i e s which compel respect and even sometimes win a f f e c t i o n . Of the two, any one who has t r i e d force knows which appeals most to him. Conquest and physical mastery i s to most health-minded Englishmen, the f i n e s t game i n the world, and to those who have had the luck to take part i n i t , a r e a l l y good f i g h t i s the acme of man's enjoyment. The grim excitement of war, the t h r i l l of b a t t l e , the quickening pride of race, the i n s p i r i n g t r a d i t i o n s of heroism and s a c r i f i c e , the shock of arms, and the ecstasy of victory, which shouts i n d e l i r i o u s joy l e s t i t should choke with unexpected tears - appeal to i n s t i n c t s higher than those of the mere savage; It i s an experience to l i v e f o r , worth dying for: with reward, and fame, and praise coming hard upon the heels of success. •]_ 1  The other, which Swettenham was obviously struggling to accept, and "the more excellent way"  (though i t "lacks i n b r i l l i a n c e ,  in scenic e f f e c t , i n excitement, and often i n recognition, much of what the f i r s t possesses,") required .....courage and resource, combined with t i r e l e s s energy, sympathy with the people of the land, t h e i r customs and prejudices, and t h e i r enthusiasm f o r the work entrusted to them, that determination to compel success, which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the class which sends i t s sons to the uttermost parts of the earth to preach the gospel of freedom, j u s t i c e and B r i t i s h methods of adminSee also Swettenham: Perak Journals 1874-1876 (ed. by CD. Cowan, J.M.B.R.A.S., Vol.24, Pt.4, 1951) and B r i t i s h Malaya (London,. 1948 edn.) p.191-2 f o r his eulogy of Raja Mahmud of Selangor whom Swettenham found a most a t t r a c t i v e persona l i t y perhaps because "he fought f o r no p o l i t i c a l reason, but f o r friendship's sake, and because he l i k e d i t "  53. istration.' ' 1  The r e s u l t was that, i f only by projecting most of t h e i r animosities on to the "natives of Hindoostan",  the Anglo-  Malayans were able to forgive i n the "more c i v i l i z e d " of t h e i r subjects even those t r a i t s which at f i r s t sight they might have found just as repulsive. in the sentiment:  At one extreme, this expressed  itself  however u n c i v i l i z e d the Malays, they are  s t i l l better than the Hindoo barbarians. Less admirable however, are t h e i r practices of rouging - a custom confined to married ladies alone - and using antimony a f t e r the fashion of Kobe to darken the eyelids and give a lustrous look to the eyes. But a f t e r a l l , these customs are i n f i n i t e l y preferable to those of the Hindoos who give a ghastly yellow tinge to t h e i r faces, by the use of a powder composed 1  Swettenham: Real Malay p.46-48, p.212-213; "A B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y expedition had been dispatched to the State, at a moment's notice, and the troops were divided Into two forces; one sent from China ... and the other composed of troops from India. I myself was with the f i r s t force, and, f o r a time, a l l the f i g h t i n g to be got was t h e i r s . That, of course, was very annoying to the l a t e r a r r i v a l s , stationed here with nothing to do but to gaze upon t h i s Malay paradise, which I have no doubt they regarded as very i n d i f f e r e n t compensation f o r t h e i r hurried dispatch from India - the soldier's paradise . . . " I am prepared to admit that, as woman, I am perhaps unable to understand the appeal of war to man; But, even i f , as Dioseph Kinsey Howard (Strange Empire: The Story of Louis R i e l , Toronto, Swan Publishing Co. 1965 p.18) claims: "They were maments of war, and boys play momonto at war because they recognize i n i t , by unerring i n s t i n c t , the most dramatic of human experiences; A philosopher has commented that, as much as we hate to admit i t , war gives a 'suddenedged preciousness to values we take f o r granted, l i k e l i g h t when night i s f a l l i n g , or conversation with a friend one knows i s doomed to die?* I could understand that," I t seems unnecessary to make war merely to achieve a f e e l i n g of the preciousness of values normally taken f o r granted - easier, in f a c t , simply to stop taking them f o r granted.  54. of  tumeric;  At the other extreme, i t expressed i t s e l f i n the conviction that the Malay might be backward and inept, i n need of guidance, but he was probably not as "irredeemably mired i n o r i e n t a l stagnation" as the natives of India. concern to preserve the -real Malay  1  In any case, a "genuine existed amongst most of  the Residents; From what I have.said, i t might be thought that a l i t t l e emancipation i s what the Malay audience c h i e f l y need. I doubt i t . That form of experiment, though f u l l of interest to the operator, i s sometimes f a t a l to the patient; A l i t t l e learning i s not so dangerous as to plant the seeds of aspirations which can never grow to maturity. It i s easy f o r a teacher to make a c h i l d e n t i r e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d with a l l i t s old surroundings, to f i l l i t with a determination to have something better than the old l i f e , or to have nothing at a l l . But, when the time comes to s a t i s f y the cultivated taste of the educated mind, the teacher i s powerless to help, i s probably f a r out of reach, and the lonely soul ... w i l l f i n d l i t t l e comfort i n her old home and society of her own unregenerate people. 2  1  2  !  Major Fred McNair: Perak and the Malays: "Sarong" and "Kris" (London, 1878) p.154. See also F.S. Perls: Ego, Hunger and Aggression, op.cit., p.157 "The projecting person ;.. v i s u a l i z e s i n the outside world those parts of his own personality with which he r e f u ses to i d e n t i f y himself. The organism experiences them as being outside the Ego-boundaries and reacts accordingly with aggression;" Also Chap; X, Part I I I , "The Assimilation of Projections." Swettenham: Real Malay p.273-4; (Speaking of the i s o l a t i o n imposed by Muhammedanism on Malay women, but expressing a common sentiment about a l l Malay subjects.) See J. de V. A l l e n : "Two Imperialists...", op;cit. p;55 ff., his analysis of the difference i n the way.Clifford and Swettenham used the words "regenerate" and "unregenerate", and how t h i s difference affected t h e i r ideas on the value of education f o r Malays.  55. In any event, although i t remained i n the B r i t i s h subconscious, i t i s obvious that the lesson taught by c r a n i a l measurement and the Kanpur Massacre was f o r a variety of reasons softened as i t found expression through imperialists i n Malaya.  The v e i l of misunderstanding and fear that lay  between the races i n India, was never so impenetrable i n Malaya. 1 Swettenham proclaimed confidently: that contrary to general b e l i e f , i t was not impossible f o r a European and a Christian to "understand the character of an Eastern, or follow the curious working of his brain", provided, that i s , "....you make yourself perfectly f a m i l i a r with the language, l i t e r a t u r e , customs, prejudices and superstlcions of the people; i f you l i e on the same f l o o r with them, eat out of the same dish with them, f i g h t with them, and against them, j o i n them i n t h e i r sorrows and t h e i r joys, and. at l a s t , win t h e i r confidence and regard ... 2  T  2  A l l e n : i b i d , p.62, speaks of C l i f f o r d ' s a b i l i t y , already rare i n B r i t i s h imperial l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , to write of non-Europeans as r e a l people, and maintains that i t sprang from C l i f f o r d ' s connection with "early imperialism" when race b a r r i e r s were low; Most historians of t h i s period draw attention to the lack of "racialism" i n early AngloMalayan r e l a t i o n s - even the Chinese were not r a c i a l l y discriminated against, i t i s claimed. Swettenham: Real Malay p.265: In any case the task was made easier by the fact that "between one Eastern and another there i s a much greater s i m i l a r i t y than there i s between two Westerns, even though they be of the same n a t i o n a l i t y . There are good and bad, lazy and energetic, but you w i l l hardly ever meet those complex western products of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n whose characters are subordinated to the state of t h e i r nerves, and those to the season of the year, the surroundings of the moment, p o l i t i c s , the money market, and a thousand things of which the Eastern i s b l i s s f u l l y unconscious." Qne can almost hear Swettenham s sigh of r e l i e f s i n c e . i t was precisely to avoid these "complex products of western c i v i l i z a t i o n " that he had l e f t England. (See Part 6, below). 1  56. Or,  as C l i f f o r d put  i t , observing  the S u l t a n of Perak upon h i s  knees i n a London H o t e l , " p r o s t r a t i n g h i m s e l f upon h i s c a r p e t , making earnest the l i f e  prayer  s u p p l i c a t i o n to the King of Kings f o r  of the Ruler whose s e r v a n t s , i n His name, have brought  a Malayan people out of the Land of Darkness and  out of the  House of Bondage", Surely, there i s hope f o r a race, l e t the p e s s i m i s t s say what they w i l l , whose i n f l u e n c e wins the l o v e , admiration, c o n f i d ence, and ready support of such men as t h i s men with the c l e a n mind, the keen i n t e l l i g e n c e , and the kind heart of S u l t a n I d r i s of Perak and makes of them l o y a l and e n t h u s i a s t i c Imperialists. Or perhaps the I m p e r i a l i s t simply makes v i r t u e out of n e c e s s i t y .  C l i f f o r d : Bushwacking " P i l o t t i n g P r i n c e s " , p.222, upon the death of King Edward. C l i f f o r d ' s remark i s a p l e a f o r B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m as a whole, and, f o r the p a r t i c u l a r case, Malaya.  57. Further support was found f o r the new imperial doctrines at home, i n the authoritarian l i b e r a l i s m which grew up i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l community of the Gladstone era.  At the  same time that the Indian Mutiny forced the B r i t i s h to re-examine t h e i r Indian policy, l i b e r a l i s m at home was undergoing a slow but profound transformation.  "By i 8 6 0 , i t was no longer the  heady intoxicating brew i t had been during the l830's when a group of earnest young men, brash, self-confident and aggressive had set out to remodel England according to the p r i n c i p l e s of Bentham and Ricardo.''  1  The prosperous,  complacent  l a i s s e z - f a i r e England of the mid-nineteenth century decades aroused l i t t l e reforming enthusiasm. With the gradual incursion of "democracy" upon the English p o l i t i c a l scene and i n p a r t i c u l a r upon the L i b e r a l party, i n t e l l e c t u b a l s , Increasingly estranged from the party leaders, began to proclaim that nothing could be further removed from the true l i b e r a l s p i r i t than the rule of a tyrannical majority, manipulated by wire-pullers and party caucuses and with no object i n view other than the s a t i s f a c t i o n of i t s own baser i n s t i n c t s . 1  T. Metcalf: Aftermath of Revolt, op.cit., p . v i i i . See also G.M. Young's b r i l l i a n t analysis of these years i n P o r t r a i t of an Age: V i c t o r i a n England, op.cit;, esp. p.100 f f . "We are nearing the years of d i v i s i o n . In 1859, the l a s t of the Augustans was l a i d by Johnson and Addison, and the Red House was begun at Bexley: i n i 8 6 0 Ruskin issued as much of Unto This Last as Thackeray dared to p r i n t , and how great a part of l a t e V i c t o r i a n thought i s i m p l i c i t i n f i v e books of those same years, i n the Origin of Species, M i l l on Liberty and Essays and Reviews: i n Fitzgerald's Omar and Meredith's Richard Feverel we can appreciate now better than t h e i r own age could have foreseen. We are approaching a f r o n t i e r ... The l a t e V i c t o r i a n age i s opening ..;"  58. Robert Lowe spoke f o r these men as early as 1865 when, contesting the 1867 Reform B i l l , he asserted: Because I am a l i b e r a l and know that by pure and clear i n t e l l i g e n c e alone can the cause of the progress be promoted, I regard as one of the greatest dangers with which t h i s country can be threatened a proposal to subvert the existing order of things, and to transfer power from the hands of property and i n t e l l i g e n c e .. ; to the hands of men whose l i f e i s necessari l y occupied i n struggles f o r existence; ]_ Much of this opposition to the spread of democracy was a natural response on the part of the educated middle classes to the loss of those p r i v i l e g e s which they had held since 1832. However i t rested on a well-developed i n t e l l e c t u a l foundation, derived i n part from the philosophy of Hobbes and Bentham, i n part from an i d e a l i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h rule i n India, of the type Lord Elcho alluded to, i n the same debate, through the words of "Mr; Kaye's History of the Indian Mutiny": In that country, public men are happily not exposed to the pernicious influences which i n England s h r i v e l them so fast into party leaders and parliamentary chiefs; With perfect singleness of aim and pure s i n c e r i t y Lowe added: "Are we prepared to do away? with a system of t r i e d and tested e f f i c i e n c y as no other country was ever happy enough to possess since the world was a world and substitute f o r i t a form of Government of exteme s i m p l i c i t y , whose tendencies and p e c u l i a r i t i e s have been as c a r e f u l l y noted and recorded as those of any animal or vegetable, with who sec- r e a l nature we have no excuse f o r not being well-acquainted - pure democracy?" Such a form of government might answer i t s purpose well enough i n Greece or America (a nation of " l o g - r o l l e r s and wire-pullers"), but f o r England " i n i t s present state of development and c i v i l i z a t i o n , to make a step i n the d i r e c t i o n of democracy appears to me the strangest and wildest proposition ever broached by man;" Hansard, V o l . CLXXVIII, May 3rd 1865, pp. 1437, 1440.  59.  of purpose they go with l e v e l eyes straight at the public good never looking up i n fear at the suspended sword of a Parliamentary majority, and never turned aside by that fear into devious paths of t r i c k e r y and finesse ... i The most f o r t h r i g h t exponent of this authoritarian l i b e r a l i s m was  James Fitzjames  and Hobbes i n proclaiming  Stephens, who  that the greatest happiness of the  greatest number, rather than l i b e r t y , was i n denying a natural propensity j u s t i c e , and  followed Bentham  i n maintaining,  i n man  the aim of government,  to treat his fellows with  as a consequence, that only the  judicious a p p l i c a t i o n of force wielded by a powerful l e g i s l a t o r could resolve the c o n f l i c t i n g interests and suppress the desires of mankind.  Force i n t h i s sense was  selfish  not an e v i l but a  necessary element i n the creation of a c i v i l i z e d society. Stephens departed from the U t i l i t a r i a n creed however, on the matter of popular education;  Bentham and J.S. M i l l , with a l l  the enthusiasm that characterized U t i l i t a r i a n , early V i c t o r i a n thinking, assumed that everyone, English working man native, was  or Asian  capable of understanding the p r i n c i p l e s of V i c t o r i a n  i b i d , p.1407. c f . Swettenham*s t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s i n the Malayan s e t t i n g : " i t may be assumed that the leading motive of government i n an English dependency i s to spend f o r i t s advantage, a l l the revenues raised i n i t , never seeking to make money out of a distant possession, or exact any c o n t r i bution towards Imperial funds .; This p o l i c y i s one which appeals s p e c i a l l y to I n t e l l i g e n t natives of the East, and as long as these p r i n c i p l e s are maintained, the spread of English rule can only be f o r the good, and no native race, Eastern or otherwise, w i l l regret the advent of English advice, as In Malaya, or English control as i n India;" (This d i s t i n c t i o n between "advice" and " c o n t r o l " was one the Residents were pleased to make, but which was scarcely supported i n practice;) Real Malay p.33; ;  60.  m o r a l i t y and  living  i n peace w i t h h i s n e i g h b o u r , g i v e n o n l y  t r a i n i n g o f good g o v e r n m e n t and o t h e r h a n d , was  convinced  education.  S t e p h e n s on  the  the  t h a t the b u l k of the people would  always remain beyond the r e a c h  of r a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n or  improvement. T h e r e a r e and a l w a y s w i l l be i n t h e w o r l d an enormous mass o f bad and I n d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e - p e o p l e who d e l i b e r a t e l y do a l l s o r t s of t h i n g s w h i c h they ought not t o do, and l e a v e undone a l l s o r t s o f t h i n g s w h i c h t h e y o u g h t t o do. Estimate the prop o r t i o n o f men who a r e s e l f i s h , s e n s u a l , f r i v o l o u s , i d l e , a b s o l u t e l y commonplace, and w r a p p e d up i n t h e s m a l l e s t o f p e t t y r o u t i n e s , and c o n s i d e r how f a r t h e f r e e s t of f r e e d i s c u s s i o n i s l i k e l y to improve them. The o n l y way b y w h i c h i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o a c t upon them a t a l l i s by c o m p u l s i o n o r r e s t r a i n t . ^ U n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e and  p  e d u c a t i o n would achieve  nothing.  R a t h e r t h e masses o f p e o p l e n e e d e d t h e r u l e o f a g i f t e d  minority  a b l e t o command t h e i r o b e d i e n c e and of happiness.  Where M i l l and  i m p o s e upon them i t s own  B e n t h a m had  obscured the f a c t  ideal that  1 Stephens, J.F.: L i b e r t y , E q u a l i t y , F r a t e r n i t y (London, Smith E l d e r & Co., 1&74, 2nd e d i t i o n , p.31-35) S e e a l s o R . J . W h i t e ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e 19&7 Cambridge e d i t i o n of S t e p h e n s b o o k ^ w h i c h S t e p h e n s h i m s e l f d e s c r i b e d as " l i t t l e more t h a n t h e t u r n i n g o f a n I n d i a n l a n t e r n on E u r o p e a n p r o b l e m s . " See a g a i n t o o , M a r s h a l l McLuhan"s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t " r a t i o n a l " has l o n g meant " u n i f o r m , c o n t i n u o u s and s e q u e n t i a l " a n d r t h a t p r o g r e s s and i m p r o v e m e n t w e r e f e l t t o f o l l o w s i m i l a r - p a t t e r n s . E.M. F o r s t e r ' s A P a s s a g e t o I n d i a d r a m a t i c a l l y u n d e r l i n e s t h e i n a b i l i t y o f o r a l and i n t u i t i v e ( " p a s s i o n a t e " ) oriental c u l t u r e t o meet w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l v i s u a l E u r o p e a n p a t t e r n s of e x p e r i e n c e . To McLuhan, F o r s t e r ' s b o o k i s a p a r a b l e o f w e s t e r n man i n t h e e l e c t r i c age, and o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y r e l a t e d t o Europe or the o r i e n t (Understanding Media, o p . c i t . . 2  P.30) See  Swettenham:  R e a l M a l a y , "A M e z z o t i n t "  p.273.  1  61. men were "fundamentally  unequal", Stephen now  asserted that  society could only progress i f this fact were unequivocally accepted and the idea of democracy ahandonned.  Under the c i r c -  umstances, i t i s not surprising to find that Stephens book" was Robinson Crusoe.  1  Nor should i t now  1  "ideal  be surprising  to f i n d S i r Andrew Clarke, Governor of the S t r a i t s  Settlements,  writing: " The Malays, l i k e every other rude eastern nation, require to be treated l i k e children, and to be taught, and this espe c i a l l y i n a l l matters of improvement, whether i n the question of good government and organization or of material improvement, .;; such teaching can only be effected by an O f f i c e r l i v i n g on the spot, whose time should be devoted to c a r e f u l l y studying the wants and c a p a b i l i t i e s of each State, the character of the Sultan and his Chiefs, and to making himself personally acquainted with every portion of the country ..." 2 Bodelsen, i n his study of mid-Victorian imperialism looks closely at the writings of Seeley and'Froude - the " c l a s s i c a l expressions" of imperialism.  He emphasizes the  influence of the conservative thinker, Carlyle, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the latter.Froude shared Carlyle*s ideas about the role of "Great men"  i n history, his d i s t r u s t of p o l i t i c a l democracy, his p r e f e r -  ence f o r an older and more p a t r i a r c h a l state of society, his d i s l i k e of the i n d u s t r i a l ("competitive")  system, his d i s b e l i e f  Elsewhere Stephens had had occasion to praise M i l l f o r his castigation of "the complacent optimism" of the age, and the growing influence of a petty mediocre type of character, ( i b i d . 1967 edn. p.2.) See Mannoni and Mason..on-the subject of Robinson Crusoe and the imperial mentality, discussed i n Part b below. 2  Clarke to Sec, of State. No.43, 24th Feb.,  1874)  62. in nineteenth century progress.  Froude distrusted the granting  of self-government even to the "white" colonies, although i t was due more to his fear of parliamentary democracy than to any objection to c o l o n i a l autonomy.  "He would have granted  the  colonies any amount of independence within the Empire:If  they  had chosen to be ruled by a "Hero" instead of a responsible ministry;"  Moreover, as another commentator has written:  Kipling's attitude towards leadership was supported by an almost g i r l i s h capacity f o r hero-worship; Throughout his l i f e he showed a tendency not only to admire but i d e a l i z e Great Men;" Authoritarian paternalism and "Hero-worship" became closely related strands i n imperial ideology, i n fact t h i s authoritarian p a t e r n a l i s t i c l i b e r a l i s m , combined with the  new  r a c i a l theories, provided the p i l l a r s upon which rested the ideology that was  to govern B r i t a i n ' s imperialist ventures  i n the  l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century, - the Malayan experience among them.  In India, the B r i t i s h outwardly remained  convinced  of t h e i r own moral superiority and looked upon t h e i r presence there as tangible manifestation of this supremacy.  But the s e l f -  confident optimism, and the plans f o r rapid westernization of Asia were shattered;  The introduction of western ideas into  t r a d i t i o n a l Asian society now thing;  seemed a dangerous and explosive  the consequences of meddling, however well intentioned,  1  R. Faber: The V i s i o n and the Need, o p . c i t . , (p.99 et. seq.) One wonders whether the judgment i m p l i c i t i n the phrase " g i r l i s h capacity f o r hero-worship" does not make Faber a party to the same male Chauvinism e x p l i c i t i n Kipling's writings.  63. were at best uncertain and at worst catastrophic^  Doubts,  however small, crept into even the most ardent supporters Pax Britannica.  of  Thus Hugh C l i f f o r d , writing from his cherished  Malay fastnesses i n 1896,  could wonder, i n the midst of his  certainty that "...;no one who has seen the horrors of native rule and the misery to which the people l i v i n g under i t are ofttimes reduced, can f i n d doubt that i t s many drawbacks notwithstanding, the only salvation f o r the Malays l i e s i n the increase of B r i t i s h influence ... and the consequent spread of modern ideas, progress and c i v i l i z a t i o n " , whether "....the Malay i n his natural unregenerate state i s more a t t r a c t i v e than he i s apt to become under the influence of European c i v i l i z a t i o n ; " 1 In future, i t would be safer and more sensible to leave Asian society as i t was  and to concentrate  a sound e f f i c i e n t administration.  upon the provision of  Caution and conservatism  underlay every sphere of a c t i v i t y i n India "after the Mutiny"; i n Malaya too, the B r i t i s h sought to " e n l i s t on our side and to employ i n our service those natives who  have from t h e i r b i r t h or  C l i f f o r d : In Court and Kampong, (London, 1897) esp. Chapters I and I I . c f . also Swettenham s introduction to the Malay Sketches, (London, 1893). Note again Allen's ("Two Imperialists, op.cit.) discussion of C l i f f o r d ' s and Swettenham's use of "regenerate and "unregenerate". Swettenham, though to a l e s s e r degree, shared with C l i f f o r d , this peculiar schizophrenia i n '£his conception of t h e i r role i n Asia - were they r a p i s t s or saviours? Swettenham notes that the " i r r e s i s t i b l e Juggernaut of Progress," that "enemy at the gates" who w i l l destroy "Malaya's natural beauty, i s at the same time the bearer of "a higher morality." 1  64. p o s i t i o n a n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e i n the country."  I t was  wiser  to b u t t r e s s the t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , to strengthen p o s i t i o n of " n a t u r a l " l e a d e r s who  alone,  command the a l l e g i a n c e of the masses and own  terms, to minimize s o c i a l change, and  i t was  the  presumed, could  speak to them on to s o f t e n the  their  impact  o f western r u l e .  *  *  *  In f a c t the B r i t i s h b u i l t , on t h e i r knowledge of the behaviour  of the Indian People during a p e r i o d of r e v o l t ,  exaggerated and  stereotyped  image of Indian conservatism.  people were never so devoted to t h e i r o l d ways as the imagined and gathered  British  momentum, a marked adeptness at combining western and  ends.  1  towards  T h i s image, g e n e r a l i z e d i n t o a kind o f  " i m p e r i a l f o l k l o r e " , was  used as evidence  of " o r i e n t a l s t a g n a t i o n " , and was,  to support  the  eased h i s conscience Faced with'a  as he enjoyed  theory  i t has been argued, i n l a r g e  measure a c o n v e n i e n t l y created myth by which the white  man  the p e r q u i s i t e s o f power.  s t a t e o f s o c i e t y , t h a t of the i m p e r i a l experience,  which he found was  The  showed, p a r t i c u l a r l y as the n a t i o n a l i s t movement  t r a d i t i o n a l Indian i n s t i t u t i o n s and modes f o r use t h e i r own  an  p l e a s u r a b l e and p r o f i t a b l e but which, based as i t  on the r u l e of one person by another,  he f e l t  subconsciously  1 See L. and S. Rudolph:., Modernity of T r a d i t i o n , o p . c i t . , esp. and S. Wolpert: T l l a k and Gokhale: R e v o l u t i o n and Reform i n the Making of Modern I n d i a (Berkeley, U. o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1952). One might compare these w i t h R o f f s very competent a n a l y s i s o f the o r i g i n s o f Malay N a t i o n a l i s m : O r i g i n s of Malay N a t i o n a l i s m (New Haven and London, Y a l e U. Press, 1967) . 1  65. to be b a s i c a l l y unjust, the imperialist experienced a deep psychological need to j u s t i f y h i s position and hence emphasized his subjects' i n f e r i o r i t y to l e g i t i m i z e his r e f u s a l to mix with them on equal terms: If imperialism i s as I have argued elsewhere, a s e l f j u s t i f y i n g image, and i f Shakespeare was  correct i n assuming  that the c o l o n i a l mentality i s not created by the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n but i s a facet of human nature, always present, perhaps suppressed to a greater or lesser extent, i t might not be irrelevant to consider here the concept of the personality of the i m p e r i a l i s t . The psychological phenomena which occur when two peoples at d i f f e r e n t stages of c i v i l i z a t i o n meet and mingle can probably best bp explained and understood If we see them as reactions to each other of two d i f f erently-constructed types of personality." 2 F i r s t l y , given the less e b o u i l l i e n t imperial mood of the second h a l f of the century, i t seems reasonable to expect a change i n the personality - type of the person "who 1  went out to  This i s e s s e n t i a l l y Thomas Metcalf's analysis of the Indian imperial experience i n latter, nineteenth century. (Aftermath of Revolt, op.cit.) The r e a l nature of these" pleasurable psychological perquisites of power i s discussed i n Part 6 below. 0. Mannoni: Prospero and Caliban, op.cit., p.24. Note Mannoni's comments(p.24 ff.) on the " i n d i v i d u a l " and "personality". "An individual consists of what i s inherited i n the chromosomes, the genetic stock with which a man enters upon l i f e . As an i n d i v i d u a l he represents the species to which he belongs, and within that species, the time from which he has sprung. The personality i s inherited up to a point, but the inheritance i s a s o c i a l one ... ( i t ) i s simply the sum t o t a l of b e l i e f s , habits and propensities, organized and linked on to another, which go to make up the individual as a member of his group. "Personality"and the"value image" are closely related. See Part 2 above.  This dark forest, where trees shoot up straight and t a l l , and are succeeded bygeneration a f t e r generation varying i n stature but struggling upwards, strikes the imagination with pictures t r i t e but true. Here the hoary sage of a hundred years l i e s mouldering beneath your foot, and there the young sapling shoots beneath the parent shade and grows i n form and fashion l i k e the parent stem. The towering few, with heads raised above the general mass, can scarce be seen through the f o l i a g e of those beneath; but here and there the touch of time has cast his withering hand upon t h e i r leafy brow, and decay has begun his work upon the giganti c and unbending trunk. How t r i t e and yet how true I It was thus I meditated in my walk. The foot of European, I said, has never touched where my foot presses - seldom the native wanders here. Here I indeed behold nature fresh from the bosom of creation, unchanged by man, and stamped with the same impress she o r i g i n a l l y bore I Here I behold God's design when he formed t h i s t r o p i c a l land, and l e f t i t s culture and improvement- to the agency of man. The Creator's g i f t as yet neglected by the creature; and yet time may be confidently looked for when the axe s h a l l l e v e l the forest, and the plough turn the ground.  Rajah Brooke's sentiments on f i r s t beholding the forests of the Malayan Archipelago.  66. the c o l o n i e s . "  I t has been noted t h a t i n I n d i a , a t l e a s t ,  b e f o r e the Mutiny, he tended to be an o t p i m i s t , man ing  s p i r i t , who  of reform-  looked to I n d i a f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of r a d i c a l  hopes f r u s t r a t e d at home.  In l a t e r decades  however i t was  more  the a u t o c r a t , p e s s i m i s t i c i n h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f e l l o w humans, who  sought  England.  i n India a f i e l d A man  English l i f e ,  to f u l f i l  ambitions b l o c k e d i n  d i s t u r b e d by the growing  d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of  and l i k e l y t o be l e s s e x c i t e d by the d e s i r e to  reform than t o r u l e , concerned w i t h B r i t i s h might  r a t h e r than  1  c o l o n i a l hopes. men  In Malaya t h i s type was  l i k e S i r F r e d e r i c k Weld who  r e p r e s e n t e d , too, by  c o u l d q u a l i f y what seems, a t  f i r s t g l a n c e , an u n u s u a l l y p e r s p i c a c i o u s remark to the e f f e c t that Nothing we have done so f a r has taught (the Malays) to govern themselves. We are merely t e a c h i n g them t o cooperate w i t h us and govern under our guidance. To teach men to govern themselves, you must throw them on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . We are n e c e s s a r i l y doing the very r e v e r s e ..." w i t h the remark t h a t i n any  case  "• I doubt i f A s i a t i c s can every r e a l l y be taught to govern themselves. Good n a t i v e government seems hot to be a p l a n t congeni a l to the s o i l . " 2 and t h i s set h i s i m p e r i a l i s t  s o u l a t ease.  F. Hutchins, I l l u s i o n o f Permanence, o p . c i t . p . x i .  2  Weld to h i s S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , 2 1 Oct., 1 8 8 0 , C 0 / 2 7 3 / 1 0 4 . c f . H i s address to the Royal C o l o n i a l I n s t i t u t e : "I think the c a p a c i t y f o r governing i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f our race " (Proc. Roy. C o l . I n s t . , V o l . 1 5 , 1 8 8 3 - 4 , p . 2 6 6 )  67. Moreover, 0 . Mannoni, i n a study of the phenomenon of "dependence" as manifested  by Malagasi natives under the French  c o l o n i a l system,has suggested that this dependence met  exactly  the psychological and personality needs of the c o l o n i a l European. Mannoni argues convincingly that everyone i n a competitive society (as that of V i c t o r i a n England increasingly was)  i s the  victim to some extent of an i n f e r i o r i t y complex which may expressed i n any number of ways (- i n determination good, a desire f o r perfection, aggressiveness, with order); and to the s p i r i t convinced, of i t s own  be  to make  preoccupation  or at least suspicious,  inferiority  "....the homage of a dependant i s balm and honey and to surround oneself with dependants i s perhaps the easiest way f o r appeasing an ego eager f o r assurance." He suggests that the c o l o n i a l administrator (and the  missionary  and pioneer/settler) shows himself, by choosing the c o l o n i a l career, p a r t i c u l a r l y prone to this weakness "of which the germ i s present i n every member of a competitive society and which", he claims, "flourishes with peculiar luxuriance i n the warm broth of the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n , "  1  P h i l i p Mason, introducing 0 . Mannoni: Prospero and Caliban, p.11; c f . Albert Memmi: The Colonizer and the Colonized, p.xxvi. Memmi s t r i k i n g l y described the sequence of steps that lead the colonizer to " s e l f - a b s o l u t i o n . " Conservatism brings about the s e l e c t i o n of mediocre men. How can an e l i t e of usurpers, aware of t h e i r mediocrity e s t a b l i s h t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s ? By one means only: "debasing the colonized to exalt themselves denying the t i t l e of humanity to the natives and defining themselves as simple absences of q u a l i t i e s - animals not humans." c f . , E r i c Berne: Games People Play, The Psychology of Human Relationships (New York, 1 9 o 4 ) , p . I l l - 1 1 2 , c a l l s the game "Blemish" - i t i s played from the depressive c h i l d p o s i t i o n "I am no good", which i s p r o t e c t i v e l y transformed: into the Parental p o s i t i o n "They are no good." Hence, (Continued on Page 68)  68. Mannoni's thesis, that the European image of the native peoples they came to govern i s simply a r e f l e c t i o n of their  own  inner d i f f i c u l t i e s i s supported by the tentative conclusions of a recent study of conservatism and personality. Conservative doctrines appear i n some measure to arise from personality needs the exacting and i n f l e x i b l e features of conservative s o c i a l doctrine are related to the prototypic personality attributes of conservative believers.' Measuring  the social-psychological attributes of conservatism,  1  Herbert McLoskey found that i t appears to be f a r more charactp  e r i s t i c of s o c i a l i s o l a t e s , themselves, who who  of people who  think poorly of  suffer personal disgruntlement and f r u s t r a t i o n ,  i n f a c t may be very timid and submissive and wanting i n  Footnote 1 continued from Page 67 "Blemish" players do not f e e l comfortable with a new person.until they have found his blemish. "In i t s hardest form i t may become a t o t a l i t a r i a n political.game played by "authoritarian" p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and then i t may have serious h i s t o r i c a l repercussions." 1  b  Herbert McCloskey: "Conservatism and Personality" (American Pol. Sc. Review, March '50 Vol. I l l pp. 42,44) McLoskey admits to the tentativeness of h i s hypothesis; his conclusions are drawn e n t i r e l y from contemporary Minnesota examples and the degree to which they may be generalized to conservatives i n a l l places and a l l times could be questioned. In fact however, he i n c l i n e s to the view that "the connecttions between conservatism and the personality.configurations presented i n the foregoing would very l i k e l y p r e v a i l wherever and whenever the members of a society are free to choose between conservatism and alternative l i b e r a l systems of belief." c f . C l i f f o r d , speaking of a group of colonials returning home to England i n "The Home-Coming of Vincent Brooke" (Bushwacking etc.) p.250^1: "Most of us were f r i e n d l e s s , a d r i f t i n a barren world, whose.only inhabitants were English f o l k who, a f t e r the manner of t h e i r kind, eyed one another with deep disfavour and suspicion."  69. confidence.  Such people may lack a clear sense of d i r e c t i o n  and purpose, may be uncertain of t h e i r values and tend to be bewildered by the alarming task of having to thread t h e i r way through a society which seems too complex to fathom. (The D i s t r i c t Commissioner i n C l i f f o r d ' s "The Breath upon the Spark", by way of i l l u s t r a t i o n of this point, i s immensely relieved when the suggestion of violence upon English women, whom he has s i g n i f i c a n t l y epitomized i n the person of a single woman, "Mrs. Harold", breaks him dramatically out of his paralysing loss of f a i t h i n himself.  "Qui bono?" he wonders.  "When a  white man i n the East once f a l l s to setting himself that r i d d l e , he i s i n woefully bad case.  So long as we can f e e l that we are  doing something that j u s t i f i e s our presence east of Suez, we can hold on, we can f i g h t , we can endure."  But  with that thought (of violence against the white woman) came also the necessity f o r action, and when a man i s called upon to act ..; he i s relieved of the curse of thinking. I t i s the habit of taking thought, of l e t t i n g the imagination have f u l l play - i t i s that habit, more than conscience, that makes cowards of us a l l .  2  It may merely have been a l i t e r a r y ploy but a great many Anglo-Malay writers prefaced t h e i r works with an elaborate apology f o r forcing themselves upon t h e i r readers' attention. (See i n t e r l e a f . ) Nevertheless, t h i s l i t e r a r y prostration before one's c u l t u r a l peer group reveals a great deal about V i c t o r i a n society and the i m p e r i a l i s t s ' relationship to i t . C l i f f o r d : Bushwacking p;326: The process of "taking thought", of " l e t t i n g the imagination have f u l l play", is.that of recognizing the ambiquities of any s i t u a t i o n , or r e a l i z i n g that there may be many alternative solutions - o r n o solution, rather than the single, indisputably 'right' solution which the conservative personality, with i t s obsession f o r d e f i n i tion, must seek out.  P R E F A C E  As the history of even the most uneventful l i f e , when f a i t h f u l l y  recorded, must always contain  some matter deserving notice, I venture, with a l l humility, to express a hope that i n the following p l a i n unvarnished  sketch of the career  of an Indian O f f i c e r from Cadet to Governor, there may be found some scenes described, some incidents related, which may be deemed of s u f f i cient interest to induce i t s readers to pardon my presumption i n presenting i t to the Public.  General S i r Orpheus Cavenagh; Governor, S t r a i t s Settlements: Reminiscences of an Indian O f f i c i a l .  70.  Provided with a clear purpose, whose worth he has need to question,  no  that of saving Mrs. Harold, the Commissioner  can begin to function as i m p e r i a l i s t once more. On the other hand, McCloskey's research revealed  that  h o s t i l i t y and aggressiveness are p r i n c i p a l components of the conservative personality and of the conservative  doctrine.  Conservatives prefer to believe i n man's e s s e n t i a l wickedness, they choose to see man i s h and weak.  as f a l l e n , untrustworthy, lawless,  self-  Expressed as a p o l i t i c a l doctrine, these  projections of aggressive personality tendencies take on the r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of an old and time-honoured philosophical tradition.  They also l i e at the root of the  i n c l i n a t i o n to regulate and control man;  conservative  to ensure, that he  w i l l not v i o l a t e the conditions necessary for order, to t r a i n him to value duty, obedience and conformity, and to surround him with s t a b i l i z i n g influences l i k e property,  church and  the  family. The high values placed on authority, leadership  and  natural heirarchy and on an e l i t e to guide and check the rest of mankind apparently impulses.  derive from the same set of psychological  The extreme emphasis on law and order, the 1  elaborate  a f f e c t i o n f o r the t r i e d and true, and f a m i l i a r , the fear of change and desire to f o r e s t a l l i t , and the hope f o r a society which i s ordered and h i e r a r c h i c a l , and i n which each i s aware 1  "Nothing has tended more decidedly to the deterioration of . the Malay character than the want of a well-defined, generally acknowledged system of law." (Isabella B i r d , Golden Chersonese, op.cit., p.22-23)  7 1 .  of his station and i t s duties, are, according to McCloskey, doctrinal expressions of a personality pattern that has a strong need f o r order and tidiness, that adjusts only with d i f f i c u l t y to change and cannot bear the uncertainty of questions unanswered.  1  left  Such a personality i s uneasy i n the give and take  atmosphere of free enquiry and the open society, i t yearns f o r concensus of values and unequivocal d e f i n i t i o n s and conclusive p  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the source of authority. . The threads which hold together these various persona l i t y configurations of the conservative - the submissiveness, indecisive, r e t i r i n g and somewhat s p i r i t l e s s demeanour on the one hand,and the h o s t i l i t y and aggressiveness on the other, defy precise t r a c i n g .  and perfectionism  They seem at f i r s t  glance  to have l i t t l e to do with the administrators of the B r i t i s h Empire - neither seems to conform with the image we have inherited of the t i r e l e s s , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g imperial proconsul. But i f the trend to conservatism imperial ideology was a f a c t ;  i n B r i t i s h i n t e l l e c t u a l and  and i f , as McCloskey and Mannoni  suggest, "conservative doctrines t e l l us less about the nature c f . Swettenham: p. 55.  Real Malay, p.265, quoted above, footnote 1  c f . Swettenham: Real Malay, p;258-9. He a t t r i b u t e s the anarchy that reigned supreme on the Malay Peninsular p r i o r to B r i t i s h intervention to "a variety of reasons, amongst the p r i n c i p a l of which may be instanced the absence of roads and the immense d i f f i c u l t i e s of communication; the jealousies and r i v a l r i e s of d i f f e r e n t aspirants to the supreme authority, and the consequent " f a i l u r e of any individual to make h i s power recognized throughout the State ..." It was t h i s burden of many masters, and no fountain of j u s t i c e and appeal, "that resulted i n a well-nigh perpetual state of s t r i f e .  72. of man  and society than about the persons who believe i n these  doctrines";  and i f , f i n a l l y , my purpose here i s to understand  what kind of men went to the colonies i n the late-nineteenth century, then some understanding of the conservative personality i s not i r r e l e v a n t . It acquires added significance i f the marked p a r a l l e l between the values and mechanisms of the V i c t o r i a n public school system and those of B r i t i s h government, at home and  abroad,  which has been underlined by various scholars of the two utions, i s accepted.  instit-  The most systematic of these i s Rupert  Wilkinson's study of B r i t i s h leadership and the public school tradition. other;  1  Wilkinson does not maintain that the one begot the  however, he f e e l s that both were equal r e f l e c t i o n s of p  B r i t i s h s o c i a l character,  and further that;  Taken together, the attitudes and values inculcated by the V i c t o r i a n public school very nearly comprise a d e f i n i t i o n of conservatism. They match p r a c t i c a l l y item f o r item, the l i s t of common b e l i e f s held by Burke and acknowledged conservative thinkers. _ Rupert Wilkinson: The Prefects: B r i t i s h Leadership and the Public School Tradition (London O.U.P. 1954j. The main theme of t h i s work is:"how did.the V i c t o r i a n school produce r u l e r s , and what sort o f . r u l e r s did they turn out to be?" See especi a l l y his chapters on "The Guardian Imperialist" and "Conservatism . c f . Bernard Darwin: The English Public School (London, Longmans Green 1929) p.2b-29: " I t seems ... that when we s t i c k up f o r the public schools i n a good s t o l i d conservative way, we are not so much sticking up f o r a p a r t i c u l a r English i n s t i t u t i o n but rather f o r the genius and f o r the stupidity of the whole English people. ... they ... emphasize the q u a l i t i e s of the Englishman of whatever class, r e f i n i n g and improving them i n the process..." Wilkinson; op.cit., p . 3 0 - 3 1 .  73.  Wilkinson argues that the main goal of the V i c t o r i a n public school system was  p o l i t i c a l and that behind the aimr of  "character-building" lay a p o l i t i c a l bent that was from the t r a d i t i o n s of the English gentry.  inseparable  Thomas Arnold's  formula f o r creating "the Christian gentleman" became an educational  device f o r maintaining a public service e l i t e .  In other words, because conservatism was  the argument which the  group i n power could put forward to j u s t i f y i t s retention of power and because the problems facing t h i s group, the landed gentry, were twofold  (namely, i t must absorb i t s competition  and extend i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p r i v i l e g e s to potential leaders of the l i b e r a l business class, and i t must show that i t deserved to govern by merit as well as by birth), i t s education system, the public school, became not merely the propagator of conservatism, but i t s l o g i c a l expression.  The public schools  attempted to perpetuate the p o l i t i c a l supremacy of the landed classes by capturing talent from the r i s i n g bourieoisie and moulding that talent into synthetic gentlemen;  the bias that  preferred government service to private profit-making  was a l l  part and parcel of the gentleman ideal.' ' 1  1  The ideal was not peculiar to England. The same pattern emerged i n Imperial China. "Like the public schools, Confucian education made public servants by making gentlemen ... The remarkable likeness between Confucian education and the V i c t o r i a n public schools suggest that there i s an i n t r i n s i c l i n k between landed t r a d i t i o n s , the gentleman i d e a l and a certain p o l i t i c a l bias i n education." Wilkinson, i b i d , p.4. cf. J.D. Pringle "The B r i t i s h Commune: Thoughts on the Public School", (Encounter,Vol.l6,Feb. 196l.,pp. 24-28.) Pringle compares Plato's Republic, the 20th century Chinese commune, and the public school as p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s designed to provide guardians f o r t h e i r respective s o c i e t i e s .  74. Again, the inter-relationships between the public school system, B r i t i s h government and character cannot be simply defined but there appears to be a connection between "the public school s p i r i t " and "the imperial urge".  As one writer put i t :  This public school s p i r i t , though s u f f i c i e n t l y elusive and hard to define i s a r e a l thing. It i s probably wisest not to attempt any d i r e c t d e f i n i t i o n of i t but to try to discover what sort of man i t i s who i s imbued with i t , what he i s best f i t t e d to do, what he has dorie?and i s doing f o r his country ... I fancy ... that i f several old boys were asked f o r t h e i r opinions, they would say that what struck them most was:the great number of the t h e i r fellows who were i n one capacity or another "doing something abroad. They are in short, to use a convenient if.tiresome expression, 'builders of empire'....^ There was  i n fact something i n the character nurtured  by the public school experience,  predominantly  a boarding school  system with i t s monitorial t r a d i t i o n , i t s highly selective curriculum, i t s emphasis on competitive a t h l e t i c s , and being "out of doors" that predisposed many of i t s bearers toward building and guarding the Empire. set  A Public School Commission,  up i n l 8 6 l to investigate the f a i l u r e of existing schools  to meet the r e c r u i t i n g needs of the Army and C i v i l Services, s i g n i f i c a n t l y found no f a u l t with t h e i r training of character: 1  B. Darwin: op.cit.,p.20. c f . C.E. Carrington: prefacing his study of The B r i t i s h Overseas (Cambridge U. Press, 1950, p.xx), I should not have undertaken t h i s task i f I had not the good.fortune to be born into one of those middle class families whose members f o r hundreds of years moved f r e e l y about the Empire. An uncle or cousin i n every Dominion i s a great help to thinking imperially"; and see Roff's introduction to Stories by S i r Hugh.Clifford,(Kuala Lumpur Oxford U. Press, 196b) f o r biographical d e t a i l s of the C l i f f o r d family,for example.  75. It i s not easy to estimate the degree i n which English people are indebted to these schools f o r the q u a l i t i e s on which they pride themselves most - f o r t h e i r capacity to govern others and control themselves, t h e i r aptitude f o r combining freedom with order, t h e i r public s p i r i t , t h e i r vigour and manliness of character, t h e i r strong but not s l a v i s h respect f o r public opinion, t h e i r love of healthy sports and exercise... they have had perhaps the largest share i n moulding the character of an English gentleman .... ^ It was i n these schools that the young middle class boy could learn the "gentlemanly" virtues of strength, courage, chastity and " s a c r i f i c e of private interest on the a l t a r of p a t r i o t i c devotion to England's c i v i l i z i n g mission."  2  A public school  background did much too, to prepare the c o l o n i a l o f f i c e r f o r the harassing that was, In spite of the servants and exotic t r a v e l , so much of c o l o n i a l l i f e . him against homesickness,  Boarding school i s o l a t i o n inoculated and the spartan conditions of dormi-  tory and study h a l l offered harsh contrast to the comforts of the middle or upper-class household.  Indeed, one proud  commen-  tator at the turn of the century observed. Long before the B r i t i s h public at large had been f i r e d with a f a i t h i n the B r i t i s h Empire, one and i n d i v i s i b l e , that was the f a i t h i n which every English schoolboy was Quoted i n Pringle:op.cit. p . 2 7 . 2  The process i s described i n d e t a i l and with some insight by Simon Raven: The English Gentleman: An Essay i n Attitudes (London, Blond, 1961) pp. 23-59,esp. His picture of the f i n a l product largely supports Wilkinson's claim that the values of the public school were l a r g e l y those of the conservative thinker. See i n t e r l e a f .  And so at l a s t we may see and sum our paragon, the English Gentleman i n the l a s t days of his ascendance; We see that he was an agent of j u s t i c e and e f f e c t i v e action, having the fairness and the thoroughness to examine facts and the i n t e g r i t y to act on his findings. We see that he had much regard f o r the o l d l o y a l t i e s - to country, to kinsmen, to Church - and that as a guardian of such I n s t i t u t i o n s , and no less to assist him i n his other duties, he saw f i t to adopt a grave and somewhat aloof attitude of mind which was matched by d i g n i f i e d demeanour and a superior, though not an ostentatious, s t y l e of maintenance. Deeply conservative, i f only as a r e s u l t of fostering the l o y a l t i e s with which he was charged, he never forgot his status as a warrior, was always ready, i n time of need, to return to the ancient proving ground of his kind; but when there was no c a l l f o r service, then he preferred to remain on the lands which his ancestors had won by service, f o r on these lands were at once h i s proper establishment and his proper occupation. Lacking the passion f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l exchange which had made c i t y l i f e tolerable f o r the Greeks, he held f i r m l y to the Greek rule which pronounced most urban employments to be degrading. He went to the c i t y , therefore, only to carry out his duties as a r u l e r - f o r to rule and to administer"were among the many obligations on which his honour was based. According to t h i s notion of honour, he was bound, not only by such commonplace rules of decency as chivalry to women and charity to the poor, but by a d i r e c t and imperative necessity to pay for his p r i v i l e g e s by rendering service - service to h i s Sovereign and h i s superiors i n o f f i c e , service to his dependants, service to his Church. But even so,he set store by his freedom; if.he met his obligations i t was because honour bade him do so, not because any absolute authority compelled him. Authority he c e r t a i n l y recognized, but only such as his conscience suffered him to obey; he would welcome laws made by man i n proper form and would acknowledge a King who ruled with his consent and with regard f o r his i n t e r e s t s ; but he would brook nothing from a tyrant who claimed divine r i g h t or a p r i e s t who,dictated through dogma, and i n no case whatever would he accept'interference from beyond the sea. As his p o s i t i o n required, he had pleasing manners intended to reassure his i n f e r i o r s and to show the proper respect, free of any hint of s e r v i l i t y , to those above him; and he was l i a b l e to combine such manners with a l i g h t scepticism which eschewed enthusiasms and quarrels. But i f ever he was tempted to l e t his scepticism a f f e c t his deeper attitudes, then he was apt to receive timely reminder that many of his countrymen took their souls - and h i s , very seriousl y , and that i f he was to continue i n his place then he must look to his morals. For the English Gentleman, over and above a l l , was the product of English morality - a morality compatible with a l l forms of s o c i a l and p r a c t i c a l endeavour, but none the less grounded, as deep and firm as the roots of the oak tree were grounded i n English s o i l , i n the stubborn prohibitions of St. Paul. Simon Raven: The English Gentleman.  The dominant standard of Malay society from the l6th century to the turn of the 19th century ... was that of warrior kingship. The values of bravery, absolute l o y a l t y to the prince, s k i l f u l n e s s i n combat, aggressiveness, and p i l l a g e were stressed. From the 15th century ... the history of the Malays was dotted by petty as well as more serious warfare between contending chiefs and princes, right up to the end of the 19th century. Within Malay society, there developed two contradictory systems, the one stressing cooperation, togong-royong, usaha, (labour) and conformity, the other stressing courage, power, i n i t i a t i v e , individualism adventure, absolute l o y a l t y to the r u l e r ... The former value system was to be found among the agrarian subjugated section of the Malay so.ciety. The l a t t e r was upheld by the rulers and t h e i r courts, t h e i r dependants and h i r e l i n g s . The larger section of Malay society was dominated by the latter;  Syed Hussein Alatas: "Feudalism in Malaysian Society:. A study i n H i s t o r i c a l Continuity"  76. reared. Or, as G.M.  Young put i t ,  Nor,in any h i s t o r y of the V i c t o r i a n Age, should the school builders be forgotten. Those s o l i d large-windowed blocks, which s t i l l r i s e everywhere above the slate roofs of mean suburbs, meant f o r hundreds of thousands their f i r s t glimpse of a l i f e of cleanl i n e s s and order, l i g h t and a i r . 2 And yet, there i s a; vague i n d i c a t i o n i n the midst of a l l the glory of God,  Queen and country, that the public school boy  was  not e n t i r e l y convinced of his a b i l i t y to play the r o l e of guardian of England and Empire. one may  The indoctrination was  thorough (as  judge from Simon Raven) but the fear remained i n the  subconscious that a synthetic gentleman was  just that, and  in any case the day of the gentleman-guardian was  fast  that  passing.  On the conscious l e v e l , most c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s successfully overcame these fears - a f t e r a l l , action was.all that mattered, and, once i n the colonies, that tiresome habit of thought, which C l i f f o r d confessed, "makes cowards of us a l l " could be l e f t 3  behind.  But the doubt remained, colouring i n greater or lesser  Minchin: Our Public Schools (London, 1901) quoted i n Pringle: op.cit., p.27-2b. Pringle notes that i t i s surprising that mothers " i n a class society where parents have an extraordinary .affection f o r t h e i r children" should allow t h e i r sons to be taken from them at the tender age of eight or nine years, in much the same way that Chinese mothers are persuaded by rhetoric which declaims maternal love - as;:a product of a class society inseparable from ideas bred of private ownership and "nothing but the s o c i a l ideology of man." He also points out that Plato was aware that the separation.of the young guardians from t h e i r homes during education was the key to his whole system, i b i d , p.26. G.M.  Young:  V i c t o r i a n England, op.cit., p.117.  See C l i f f o r d : Bushwacking, p.49-50: "A man to go bushwacking should have no insight, no sympathy, no imagination". It was C l i f f o r d ' s dilemma that, as i m p e r i a l i s t i n Malaya where high values were placed on precisely these three a t t r i b u t e s , he possessed a l l three.  77.  extent, the actions of a l l c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s ,  manifesting  i t s e l f i n that t i r e l e s s " s e l f - s a c r i f i c e " which never quite concealed the suspicion that imperialism was wrong. Many a lad who leaves an English public school d i s g r a c e f u l l y ignorant of the rudiments of useful knowledge, who can speak no language hutjhis own, and write that imperfectly, to whom the whole l i t e r a t u r e of his country and the s t i r r i n g history of his fore-fathers are almost a sealed book and who has devoted a great deal of his time and nearly a l l his thoughts to a t h l e t i c sports, yet brings away with him something beyond a l l p r i c e , a manly, s t r a i g h t forward character, a scorn of lying and meanness, habits of obedience and command, and f e a r l e s s courage. Thus equipped he goes out into the world, and.bears a man's part i n subduing the earth and r u l i n g -its wild folk, and building up the Empire; doing many things so well that i t seems a thousand p i t i e s that he was not .trained to do them better, and to face the problems of race, creed and government i n distant corners of the Empire with a more instructed mind. This type of c i t i z e n , however, with a l l his defects, has done yeoman's service to the Empire; and f o r most that i s best in. him, our public schools may f a i r l y take c r e d i t ... If V i c t o r i a n public schools cannot be held responsible f o r the creation of an empire, they did, once  empire-bullding  had been begun, p a r t l y contribute a f a i t h and a rationale, "a fusion between the n a t i o n a l i s t s p i r i t and the motive f o r imperial philanthropy".  The B r i t i s h Empire s a t i s f i e d both the p a t r i o t i c  impulse to seek national glory, and the philanthropic impulse to " do good to others" and to inspire them by setting examples of superior morality, which was school t r a i n i n g .  the essence of so much of the public  The connection between the two  impulses  was  Rev. T.L. P a p i l l o n : "The Public Schools and Citizenship," quoted i n Pringle: o p . c i t .  78. to be found i n t h e assumption o f n a t i o n a l and r a c i a l  superiority.  I n t h e eyes o f t h e i m p e r i a l g u a r d i a n , t h e w h i t e man's burden came t o s i g n i f y m o r a l s t a t u s as w e l l as m o r a l duty.  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l  f u s i o n between p r e s t i g e and p h i l a n t h r o p y was a f a m i l i a r  process  t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l gentleman, who showed much t h e same a t t i t u d e to h i s place i n B r i t i s h c l a s s s o c i e t y . gentlemanly  Prom t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f  v a l u e s , t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e "white man's burden"  was r e a l l y o n l y an i m p e r i a l e x t e n s i o n o f n o b l e s s e o b l i g e .  Both  p r i n c i p l e s sought t o make s t a t u s a reminder o f d u t y , and t o make duty a symbol o f s t a t u s .  1  F i n a l l y , and a g a i n w i t h o u t a r g u i n g a s t r o n g c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between i m p e r i a l p o l i c y , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l t r a d i t i o n , and c o n s e r v a t i s m , t h e p o l i c y o f " i n d i r e c t r u l e " adopted i n Malaya and some p a r t s o f t h e A f r i c a n and I n d i a n Empire i s based on v a l u e s p  w h i c h b e a r a marked resemblance t o those o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l . I t was v e r y much i n t h e l a t t e r ' s t r a d i t i o n o f compromise between custom and e f f i c i e n c y .  A complex p a t t e r n o f c o n t r o l  which,  e s s e n t i a l l y , r e s p e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l communities and t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i t a l l o w e d f o r B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through n a t i v e l e a d e r s and, a t t h e t i m e , was a v e r y c o n v e n i e n t , e c o n o m i c a l and f l e x i b l e way o f r u n n i n g an empire.  But i t i s a l s o h i g h l y s u i t e d  t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l concept o f l e a d e r s h i p and r e s p e c t f o r t h e guardian r a t h e r than the innovator.  There were f u r t h e r shades  1 2  See R. H e u s s l e r : Y e s t e r d a y ' s R u l e r s R. P u r s e : A u c u p a r i u s (Oxford^198£j ~  See R. Emerson's s t u d y , M a l a y s i a : I n d i r e c t Rule  (Syracuse,1963)"  A Study i n D i r e c t and  (New York, M a c M i l l a n , 1937)  for detail.  79. of the ethic of guarded tolerance i n the sympathy that many of these administrators showed toward native t r a d i t i o n s and the personal l o y a l t y they often f e l t f o r t h e i r subordinates and colleagues, the chiefs and princes, q u a l i t i e s which were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n evidence i n the Malayan imperial experience. The Malayan Residents and Assistant Residents came from widely d i v e r s i f i e d s o c i a l backgrounds and careers and were drawn to the Malay C i v i l Service f o r varying motives.  Most of the  Residents however came from the professional middle class and the small gentry and were educated i n public schools.  Four of  them had attended a university or had read law, and had taken t h e i r degrees.  The others had gone from school into their  chosen services, or into experiences or adventures that event u a l l y led them to government service i n the East. twelve residents appointed between 1874 fields.  and 1896  Five of the  came from other  Davidson served very b r i e f l y i n Selangor before returning  to a successful l e g a l career i n the S t r a i t s Settlements.  Douglas  had previously served as lieutenant i n the Navy, as a marine surveyor, and as Resident, i n the Northern T e r r i t o r y of A u s t r a l i a . Like Low, he was one of "Rajah" Brooke's men.  Murray also came  to the Malay C i v i l Service from the Navy, and had t r a v e l l e d extensively i n A f r i c a .  Rodger, "a gentleman of means", was  "born i n a castle", attended Eton and Christchurch College, Oxford, and was t r a v e l l i n g i n Malaya when he received his f i r s t appointment under Swettenham i n Selangor. son of an e a r l ;  L i s t e r was the younger  o r i g i n a l l y a coffee planter i n Ceylon and Malaya,  he accepted government service i n Selangor and l a t e r Negri Sembilan.  80. Birch, Low, Paul, Swettenham, Maxwell and Treacher were career members of the Colonial Service.  A l l had worked i n other  colonies before coming to the Native Malay States;  Paul, an  Etonian, had accompanied Brooke to Sarawak i n i860. Maxwell's father had been Chief Justice i n the S t r a i t s ;  his sons followed  i n his footsteps, Maxwell has been described as a " l i g h t l y humourless man who symbollically spent his career f l i t t i n g between the States and the Colonies, perhaps from a distended sense of duty."  Swettenham s father was a lawyer, 1  "a strange  person" according to his son, who appeared only infrequently at home - i n intervals of hunting, shooting and f i s h i n g i n the country and searching old c u r i o s i t y shops i n London f o r m i s c e l l aneous antiques that cluttered his study i n Belper, Derbyshire. Swettenham therefore spent most of his early childhood i n the company of his mother, who took Frank and his elder brother, Alexander,to  Scotland i n i860; u n t i l her death the following  year, when Swettenham was eleven years o l d , his education.  She provided a l l  For"the next f i v e years he attended the l o c a l  boarding school as a day boy.  He returned to England to an  academically undistinguished career at St. Peters School, York; considered joining the Emperor of Austria's Foreign Guard, and, the Indian Woods and Forests Service; but eventually sat f o r the competitive examinations f o r cadetship to the S t r a i t s Colony. At the age of twenty, i n January 1871,  he arrived i n Singapore  to begin his professional l i f e . C l i f f o r d , the grandson of the Seventh Baron of Chudleigh i n Devon, one of the leading Roman Catholic landed families of  81.  England, was  the only Resident who  spent the whole of his early  career i n the Malay States, from his appointment i n Perak as cadet at the age of seventeen to his f i r s t appointment as R e s i d e n t of Pahang i n 1896. "inward-looking  C l i f f o r d ' s childhood i n the  enclaves" of the great Roman Catholic houses  of the C l i f f o r d family i n Devonshire and Somerset, which "seemed to partake of an e a r l i e r and simpler v i s i o n of society than that of the l a t e nineteenth century", was  undoubtedly a formative  influence on his personality and set him apart from the other Residents.  It i s not hard to see i n the castle-cottage r e l a t i o n -  ship a shaping influence on C l i f f o r d ' s l a t e r "romanticization" of Malay l i f e with i t s court and Kampong dichotomy and i t s supposedly medieval system of values,and  upon his own  strong  bent toward benevolent paternalism and mistrust of material progress." " 1  His schooling was home; i n 1883,  acquired through a private tutor at  he passed the entrance examination f o r Sandhurst,  and seemed about to follow i n his father's footsteps i n the Army, when the l a t t e r died and C l i f f o r d decided to go East, where his 1  :  :  These biographical details on the Residents are taken mainly from E. Sadke: The Protected Malay States, 1874-1895 (Kuala Lumpur, U. of Malaya Press, 196B) p.203 f f . j J . de V. A l l e n : "Malayan C i v i l Service 1874-1941: Colonial Bureaucracy/ Malayan E l i t e " , o p . c i t . ; W. Roff: Introductions to Stories and Sketches by S i r Frank Swettenham (Kuala Lumpur, Oxford U. Press, 1967) and Stories by S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d (Kuala Lumpur Oxford U. Press, i960); and CD. Cowan (ed.): "Frank Swettenham's Perak Journals, 1874-76",(Journal of Malayan Branch Royal A s i a t i c Society,Vol. XXIV, 4, 1951.J  82.  father's cousin,Sir Frederick Weld,was Governor of the S t r a i t s Settlement. How  1  does a l l this relate?  There were certain important elements i n the culture or  subculture from which sprang the Malayan imperial experience  and thus B r i t i s h images of Malaya, and I have attempted to out-1  l i n e these.  An Englishman growing to maturity i n the ''sixties  and'seventies , the opening of the l a t e V i c t o r i a n age, was 1  no  longer isolated and secure but involved i n a world of accumulating and accelerating change. The f i r s t thing which strikes one i n the schoolboy of today i s that h i s views of l i f e are much wider than those of the schoolboy of e a r l i e r times. He seems to be more i n contact with i t s cares and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There i s no dimunition of freshness or of capacity f o r healthy enjoyment but he i s manifestly not without a sense that existence: has i t s business, and that that business he w i l l sooner or l a t e r be called upon to transact. The lad begins of his own accord to discuss the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a career, the chances of schoolfellows who are reading f o r examinations, or the merits of those who have actually gained appointments. In a l l this one may witness some of the results of the competitive system. If competitive examinations had done nothing more than bring home to the minds of English boys a sense of the necessity for prolonged individual e f f o r t they would have done much. They may be unf a i r sometimes i n their.operation ...  1  Weld has also been described as an "incurable romantic" who loved to tour the Native States, shared Swettenham's love of picnics and shooting parties with his Malay hosts,and enjoyed the i m p l i c i t f l a t t e r y i n the l a v i s h t r a d i t i o n a l entertainments arranged by both Chinese and Malays on these tours. See E. Sadke: Protected Malay States, op.cit., p.144 f f ; and Lady A l i c e Lovat: The L i f e of S i r Frederick Weld, A Pioneer of Empire (London, Murray, 1914). '  83. but they have at least not so much modified by revolutionized the schoolboy's whole conception of l i f e . The happy-go-lucky temper that a l l w i l l come r i g h t i n the end i s more or less superseded by an i n t e l l i g e n t recognition of the circumstances that how this may be very much depends on himself. ^ Outside B r i t a i n , under the impulsion of Bismarck, the European pieces were setting to a new pattern.  Britain  still  held her own but i t was not without the sense that her security rested as much on Bismarck's prudence as on the restraining influence of her own diplomacy and the Royal Navy.  Economically,  too, there were doubts and fears. The roaring slapdash prosperity of a decade had worked i t s e l f out to i t s appointed end. Overtrading, speculation, fraud and collapse ... In spite of a buoyant revenue and a record expansion of the export trade there was already a c h i l l i n the a i r ... i t seemed as i f the r e s i l i e n c y of old days had gone, as i f we were moving from our apogee, yielding, as Cobden had foreseen, to the larger resources of America, y i e l d i n g , too, to the higher e f f i c i e n c y of the Germans." 2  At home, the forces so long restrained by the genial ascendancy of Palmerston were seeking t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l outlets the abatement of p r i v i l e g e and the extension of the franchise. In 1867, the Tenpound Householder imparted his p r i v i l e g e to the Householder at large and the lodger;  the Forty S h i l l i n g Free-  holder to the Twelve Pound Householder.  The s o c i a l  composition  T.H.S. Escott: England: Its People, P o l i t y and Pursuits (London, Chapman and Hall,l«87, 1st.edn. 18b2) p.297. See also C o r n h i l l Magazine (Vol. IV, l 8 6 l p.692-712) "Competi t i v e Examinations" which looks at the "Nature, and the moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l effects of the system of competitive examinations". G.M. Young:  V i c t o r i a n England, op.cit., p . l l 4 f f .  84. of Parliament began to a l t e r rapidly to the advantage of the business class, and I f the C i v i l War i n America and the public school i n England helped to stave o f f the r e a l menace to the r u r a l gentry, the return of the L i b e r a l s i n 1868 f o l d blow to the gentlemanly i n t e r e s t .  dealt a three-  Purchase of commission  was abolished, the Universities were thrown open to dissenters, and the C i v i l Service to competition. The quiet time was over. the  In i t s s i x years of o f f i c e ,  L i b e r a l administration contrived to offend, disquiet or  to disappoint almost every interest i n the country. But above a l l , i t was manifest that a revolution of far wider and deeper import than any s h i f t of the balance of power i n Europe, or the centre of e l e c t o r a l or s o c i a l gravity i n England was impending - a revolution that must leave i t s mark upon the individual's as well as the nation's psyche. It was the same kind of change which had come over the human mind i n the sixteenth century, when the earth expanded from Europe to a globe - Hieronymous Bosch, by means of paintings that interfused medieval forms i n Renaissance space, t r i e d to t e l l what i t was l i k e to l i v e straddled between two worlds of the  old and new during that change.  In the mid-nineteenth  century i t appeared to be happening again.  "The earth had given  up her most mysterious secret when i n 1856,  Speke stood on the  shores of V i c t o r i a Nyanza and saw the Nile pouring northward." The A t l a n t i c cable was l a i d , the Suez Canal was opened. In domestic l i f e the contraction was making i t s e l f f e l t - the f u l l flowering of the Industrial Revolution manifested i t s e l f i n an  85. increasingly  compact metropolis and Suburbia was born.  1  There were then, as always, two possible ways of reacting  to this atmosphere of change - with optimism or with  pessimism.  At the one extreme, one might read Lewis C a r r o l l  and ascend into the fantasy world of discontinuous space and time that he created i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of Kafka, Joyce and E l i o t . In A l i c e i n Wonderland, C a r o l l invited those Victorians confidant enough i n themselves and t h e i r society to participate i n his fantasy and gave them a p l a y f u l foretastejof time and space.  Einsteinian  He took them into a dream world that was as  s t a r t l i n g as that of Bosch but b u i l t on reverse p r i n c i p l e s . Where Bosch had taken the old medieval idea of unique, discontinuous space, and superimposed upon i t , with nightmare  intensity,  the new Renaissance idea of uniform connected space, C a r o l l was avant garde enough to know that non-Euclidean geometry was coming into vogue i n his time. But A l i c e In Wonderland has, i r o n i c a l l y , been regarded f o r a century as a child's book and, l i k e Marshall McLuhan's today, Caroll*s f a i t h and optimism was suspect i n Victorian England.  C l i f f o r d , describing the f i e r c e r e t r i b u t i o n sought by  the r e l a t i v e s of two small, quarrelsome, Malay children,  wrote:  "I own I was astonished at what seemed to me to be as charming a piece of perverse inconsequence as ever the f e r t i l e brain of a Gilbert or a Lewis Caroll could devise". the Malays he t r a v e l l e d with i n  Swettenham wrote of  1874:  1 It i s impossible to ignore the p a r a l l e l s between the l860's and the 1960's - to r e c a l l McLuhan and "the global v i l l a g e . "  86. They had told me stories of there being f i s h and scarlet prawns ... i n the springs, but I did not see any, and am so incredulous that I don't believe i t . I told them so but they only said "they are there, but of course you can't see them." This i s the f a i t h which w i l l move mountains." It was  a f a i t h manifestly lacking i n imperial England. An increasing number of Englishmen lacking the confid-  ence i n themselves to overcome, t h e i r fear of the unknown, met the challenge of t h e i r changing world with horror, as Bosch had done i n the sixteenth century, and Shakespeare i n King Lear and ;  Pope i n The Dunciad.  More and more, refusing to admit the  i n e x o r a b i l i t y of change because of t h e i r own deep fear that they were ill-equipped to perform the appointed  task, found solace  in conservative doctrines, i n past modes as solutions to present problems, and attempted, i n fact, to make time stand s t i l l or go back upon i t s e l f .  Others read Robinson Crusoe and l i t e r a l l y or  f i g u r a t i v e l y sailed f o r the colonies:  Prosperos i n search of  islands inhabited by Calibans and A r i e l s . England watching Paris burn, was i n no mood to go too f a r or too fast, and a greater destiny was beginning to absorb her thoughts. Mistress of India and the seas, mother of nations, she might well see i n her world-wide sovereignty the crown and demonstration of evolution i n history. The very contraction of the C l i f f o r d : Proc. Roy. Col. Inst. Vol. XXX. 1898*9* P.378; Swettenham: Journals, (21 June 1874, p.85) c f . p.88 "Some of my people say that three elephants passed the boat l a s t night. I can't say as I did not see them." But, possessing no " f a i t h " himself, except i n what he "saw", Swettenham could therefore not expect his English readers to believe what he wrote of Malaya. See Also and Perhaps; "Disbelief i n the Unseen", p.227, "No-one who has been i n out-of-the-way places can have f a i l e d to notice the aggravating i n c r e d u l i t y with which a p l a i n statement of fact i s received by l i s t e n e r s who' have not met with the same experience."  1  87.  world was making the thought of Greater B r i t a i n more intimate and f a m i l i a r , and giving to imperial hopes and aspirations an ascendancy over domestic fears and doubts ... i Her sons, p a r t i c u l a r l y the r u r a l gentleman and the "pseudogentleman" product of the public school, neither e n t i r e l y convinced of the legitimacy of the r o l e i n which t h e i r changing society had at once cast them and seemed about to deny them, converted t h e i r own inner fears and doubts into imperial ardour and proceeded to project the former on to t h e i r imperial  1  Young:  V i c t o r i a n England, op.cit., p.113-4.  subjects.  Part Pour  Land of the Orang-Utan And the Bird of Paradise  OKANll  M A N  ATTACKKl>  ItV  DYAKS.  88. If we l o o k a t a globe or a map of the E a s t e r n A r c h i p e l a g o , we s h a l l p e r c e i v e between A s i a and A u s t r a l i a a number of l a r g e and s m a l l i s l a n d s , forming a connected group d i s t i n c t from those g r e a t masses o f l a n d , and having l i t t l e connexion w i t h e i t h e r of them. S i t u a t e d upon the Equator and bathed by the t e p i d water of the g r e a t t r o p i c a l oceans, t h i s r e g i o n enjoys a c l i m a t e more u n i f o r m l y hot and moist than almost any other p a r t of the globe, and teems w i t h n a t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n s which are elsewhere unknown. I t produces the g i a n t f l o w e r s of the R a f f l e s i a , the g r e a t green-winged O r n i t h o p t e r a (Princes;- among the b u t t e r f l y t r i b e s ) , the man-like orang-utan, and the gorgeous B i r d of P a r a d i s e . I t Is i n h a b i t e d by a p e c u l i a r and i n t e r e s t i n g race of mankind - the Malay, found nowhere beyond the l i m i t s o f t h i s i n s u l a r t r a c t , which has hence been named the Malay A r c h i p e l a g o . ]_ In such fecund Wallace for  terms, the n a t u r a l i s t A l f r e d R u s s e l l  attempted to conjure up an image of the Malay A r c h i p e l a g o  h i s readers i n 1869.  (The f u l l t i t l e  of h i s book was  Malay Archipelago,. The Land of the Orang-Utan, and Paradise: and of  i t was,  and  i n c i d e n t a l l y , d e d i c a t e d to "Charles Darwin,  and h i s works".  One  V i c t o r i a n England  of  Nature  author  deep a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s genius  might s p e c u l a t e on the image conjured up i n  by t h i s t i t l e  - "orang-utan"  e v o l u t i o n a r y overtones,  Old Testament, g e n e s i s Wallace  .  ... not only as a token of esteem and  f r i e n d s h i p , but a l s o to express my  Darwinian,  the B i r d  A N a r r a t i v e of T r a v e l , w i t h S t u d i e s of Man  The O r i g i n of Species  The  and  w i t h i t s pseudo-  " B i r d of P a r a d i s e " w i t h  connotations.)  continued h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p h y s i c a l  Wallace, A l f r e d R u s s e l l : The Malay A r c h i p e l a g o ... (2 volumes, London, MacMillan & Co. Wallace was author a l s o of T r a v e l s on the Amazon and Rio Negro and Palm Trees of the Amazon.  1869).  89. geography of the Archipelago i n these terms: To the ordinary Englishman, this i s perhaps the least known part of the globe. Our possessions i n i t are few and scanty; scarcely any of our t r a v e l l e r s go to explore i t ; and i n many collections of maps i t i s almost ignored, being divided between Asia and the P a c i f i c Islands. It thus happens that few persons r e a l i z e that, as a whole, i t i s comparable with the primary divisions of the globe, and that some of i t s separate islands are larger than France or the Austrian empire. The t r a v e l l e r , however, soon acquires d i f f e r e n t ideas. He s a i l s for days, or even f o r weeks, along the shores of one of these great islands, often so great that i t s inhabitants believe i t to be a vast continent. He finds that voyages among these islands are commonly reckoned by weeks and months, and that t h e i r several inhabitants, are often a s l i t t l e known to each other as are the native races of the northern to those of the southern continent of America. He soon comes to look upon this region as one apart from the rest of the world, with i t s own races of men and i t s own aspects of nature; with i t s own ideas, feelings, customs, and modes of speech; and with a climate, vegetation, and animated l i f e altogether peculiar to i t s e l f . 1  Wallace was,  i n fact, one of the f i r s t to use the term  "Malay" to describe the region;  on the whole, insofar as i t had  any location i n space f o r most Europeans i n the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century, the geographical entity l a t e r known as Malaya was  simply part of what was variously referred to a s "India  beyond the Ganges", "Ultra-Gangetic India", the "Indian Archipelago" or the "Indian I s l e s " .  In 1864,  John Cameron had  titled  2 his  2  work "Our Tropical Possessions i n Malayan India", Wallace:  ibid,  p.1-2.  cf. John Crawford: Edinburgh,  but on  1820);  History of the Indian Archipelago ( 3 vols. also, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian (continued page  90)  90. the whole there can be l i t t l e Settlements  doubt that Malaya (the S t r a i t s  and the Malay Peninsula) remained g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  i s o l a t e d and i n d i s t i n c t  i n the minds o f most Englishmen even  a f t e r the " I n d i a - c e n t r i c " approach t o South East A s i a had g i v e n way, and  "Malaya" was r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from Indian a s s o c i a t i o n s .  As l a t e as 1928,  Ashley Gibson p r o t e s t e d t h a t  E n g l i s h people s t i l l c h e r i s h a number of e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y wrong ideas about Malaya ... the l e a d e r w r i t e r s i n London ... w i l l c a l l i t "Malay" j u s t as they d e c l a r e , i n the f a c e of a l l p r o t e s t , that S i n g a p o r e . i s the c a p i t a l o f the Federated Malay S t a t e s . But then, o f course, most post o f f i c e young l a d i e s i n the suburbs who d e a l w i t h your p a r c e l s to and from these p a r t s , w i l l i n s i s t t h a t both a r e i n India.n (Footnote 1 continued from Page 89) . I s l e s and Adjacent Countries (London, George Windsor Earl: The E a s t e r n Seas, o r Voyages and Adventures i n the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o (London, 1837;; J . H. Moore: N o t i c e s ~ o f the I n d i a n A r c h i p e l a g o and Adjacent C o u n t r i e s (Singapore, 1837); Horace S t . John: The Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , i t s H i s t o r y and Present State (2 v o l s . , London, 1853); J . Cameron: Our T r o p i c a l Possessions i n Malayan I n d i a (London, See B. H a r r i s o n : " E n g l i s h H i s t o r i a n s o f 'the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o ' : Crawford and S t . John", i n D.G.E. H a l l ( e d . ) : H i s t o r i a n s o f South East A s i a (London, Oxford U. Press, 1961, p.245 f t . ) I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t both P.J. Begbie,V.v (The Malayan P e n i n s u l a , Vepery M i s s i o n Press, 1884; Kuala Lumpur, O.U.P., 19b7, Oxford i n A s i a H i s t o r i c a l R e p r i n t s s e r i e s ) , and J . Anderson \.,r ( P o l i t i c a l and Commercial C o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t i v e to the Malay-Peninsula and the B r i t i s h Settlements i n the S t r a i t s o f Malacca, P r i n c e o f Wales I s . , 1824, Reprinted i n J.M.B.R.A.S., V o l . XXXV, Dec. 1962), p l a c e d t h e i r s t u d i e s f i r m l y i n the Malayan P e n i n s u l a .  1856);  1865);  1  Gibson: The Malay P e n i n s u l a and A r c h i p e l a g o (London, Dent & Sons, 19281 c f . Emily Innes: The Chersonese w i t h the G i l d i n g O f f , (2 v o l s . London, R. B e n t l e y , 1885, V o l . 1 , p.34-35) Mrs. Innes complained t h a t , o f the newspapers and books she requested from London w h i l e r e s i d e n t on the P e n i n s u l a , most were l o s t , and of those t h a t weren't "the g r e a t e r p a r t had the post-marks on them 'missent to Bombay', 'missent to Hong Kong', 'missent to D e l h i , and so f o r t h . P o s t a l o f f i c i a l s seemed t o be under the impression t h a t * Singapore'which was p a r t o f our address, must be an Indian name ..." " 1  91. Kenneth Boulding has underlined the importance of maps i n building up public and private images of a p a r t i c u l a r region. Not only can the s p a t i a l image be transcribed very b r i e f l y and commodiously i n the form of a map,  but the map  profound e f f e c t on our s p a t i a l image.  i t s e l f has a  Although the Romans had  only vague ideas about the shape of t h e i r empire, the distance from Rome to wherever they happened to be was an important factor, and t h e i r maps stress this s p a t i a l conception.  The maps  of the Middle Ages show the world centering on Jerusalem because the theological symbolism rather than the s p a t i a l configuration was  important.  The Chinese, too, centered t h e i r maps upon China -  ethnocentricity, i t would appear, i s a universal habit i n mapformation.  But, with the advent of surveying, trigonometry and  accurate measurement, the map became an exact representation of "a bird's eye view". The invention of l a t i t u d e and longitude reduced the m u l t i - d i r e c t i o n a l space of e a r l i e r days to two simple directions, north-south, east-west. The gradual exploration of the globe leads to a closure of geography. This has profound effects upon a l l parts of the image. ]_ Bounding: The Image, op.cit., p.65-66. "Primitive man l i v e s i n a world which has a s p a t i a l unknown, a-dread f r o n t i e r populated by the heated imagination. For modern man the world i s a closed and completely explored surface. This i s a r a d i c a l change i n s p a t i a l viewpoint. It also produces effects in a l l other spheres of l i f e . " In s l i g h t l y less dramatic terms, t h i s anecdote from Emily Innes i l l u s t r a t e s Boulding*s point: "One of the rajahs remarked to me the other day that he would l i k e to learn English, 'only', he said, 'there i s this objection to English, that i t i s only spoken by about a dozen people i n the world, even counting the Governor of Singapore and h i s followers; while wherever you go - to the north, south, east and west or beyond the wind, you f i n d Malay spoken'. " (Chersonese with the Gilding Off} op.cit. Vol.1, p.98). See also Isaacs: Images of A s i a ~ O P . c i t . p.40 f f . f o r the important role played by map-makers i n determining images of "Asia" i n modern American minds.  92. Hugh C l i f f o r d , B r i t i s h Resident i n the Malay States i n the l a s t decades of the century, wrote a short story about an expedition by a group of English o f f i c e r s into "the benighted lands' on the east coast of the Peninsula to apprehend a party of rebel natives. A Sakai, a h i l l tribesman, acts as guide. He i s a c i t i z e n of the jungle, and owns no country as his home. To him the States on the fringe of the Empire and the Benighted Lands are a l l one; he recognizes no boundaries ... To him a l l the- i n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s of the Peninsula form one State - the jungle kingdom a land without d e f i n i t e l i m i t s , where a l l men are free to come and go at w i l l .... An hour passes, during which bearings are taken by compass of a l l the mountains of which the Sakai can furnish or invent names, f o r the Europeans, a f t e r the manner of t h e i r own kind, are making a rough map of the unknown land. ^ Alan Watts sees map-making and the d i v i s i o n of the world into latitudes and longitudes as an example of that obsession of ego-centred western society with imposing order upon chaos. (I am reminded of Richard Faber's impression i n his study of V i c t o r i a n imperialism, The Vision and the Need, that "the English seem sometimes to have been possessed by a f i t of tidiness on a C l i f f o r d H. : Bushwacking... "The 'Benighted lands' , p.98,105. c f . Swettenham: Real Malay, p.20 "We spent our time getting about the country as best we could, roughly mapping i t ...." Note C l i f f o r d ' s r e f l e c t i o n that "without the aid of his knowledge - the knowledge of a creature who wears his scanty l o i n - c l o t h of rough bark ungladly, and can count no higher than the numeral three - the white men, the "heirs of a l l ages", and the semi-civilized brown folk, t h e i r companions, would be unable to prosecute t h e i r journey; without his help the great engine of the empire, which, working from Downing Street, i s propelling the l i f e force into the Benighted Lands, would find i t s monstrous wheels clogged: The idea has something awful about i t : i t exemplifies the impotence of the mighty i n a manner which i s humiliating". This kind of circumspection i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of C l i f f o r d , . i n fact of many of the type of Englishman i n Malaya,who tended to exhibit more "humility" than t h e i r counterparts i n India. 11  93. global scale and to have found a p o s i t i v e l y aesthetic s a t i s f a c t i o n i n spreading order . . . . " ) , Watts notes that "the net" has become one of the presiding images i n Western thought. As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the tendency to which I f e e l Boulding, Watts and Faber are alluding, I would direct the reader's attention to four maps - they are images of Malaya. The f i r s t accompanied P.J. Begbie's Malayan Peninsula i n 1 8 3 4 .  1  There are two points worth mentioning about the image this map transferred to his readers;  the f i r s t i s that the map-drawer  places the Malay Peninsula i n the wider context of Siam, Cambodia, the China Sea, Borneo and Sumatra - that i s , i n 1834, the  Malay Peninsula was only a part of a larger geographical  entity taking i n a l l these other countries.  Secondly, although  he indicates l a t i t u d e and longitude east of Greenwich, i n the margin, he does not draw i n the intersecting l i n e s of "the net". There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of the scale of the map. The second map i s one of the two maps included i n an 1878  publication, Major Fred. McNair's Perak and the Malays.  Here the focus i s narrowed so that the Peninsula appears only in the context of the Gulf of Siam and part of the Island of Sumatra; the  Peninsula and a rather complex scale i n "English Miles"  1  ;  P.J. 2  l i n e s of l a t i t u d e and longitude now intersect across  Begbie:  "  Malayan Peninsula..., op.cit.  Major Fred. McNair: Perak and the Malays "Sarong" and "Kris" op.cit. The other i s a more detailed map of Perak State, whose eastern boundary had not yet been determined but was nonetheless indicated by a dotted l i n e ; "Approximate boundary of the State of Perak."  94. (1-13/16" t o 100 m i l e s ) i s i n d i c a t e d .  Although  no boundary  l i n e s a r e d e s c r i b e d , the P e n i n s u l a had been subdivided Native any  into  " S t a t e s " , f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience as much as from  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the n a t i v e s u l t a n s recognized  to t h e i r "Kingdoms". outlined  The S t r a i t s Settlement  boundaries  c o l o n i e s are  i n pink to i n d i c a t e t h a t they, a t l e a s t , a r e d e f i n i t e l y  p a r t o f the Empire.  T h i s map a l s o r e f l e c t s two other  interesting  p o i n t s - the s t r i k i n g l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the east coast r e g i o n , and the i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f the p r o x i m i t y of Siam to the n o r t h e r n boundaries u n l i k e Begbie's,  o f the P e n i n s u l a r s t a t e s . (This map,  which was drawn by the C h i e f Engineer's  Office  at F o r t S t . George, was drawn i n England by T i n s l e y B r o t h e r s . I t seems p r o b a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t was compiled  from  information  s u p p l i e d by the C o l o n i a l o r F o r e i g n O f f i c e - as such i t can be seen as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n o f f i c i a l s ' i n c r e a s i n g p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the problem of s e c u r i n g B r i t a i n ' s boundaries  i n Malaya from Siamese (French)  northern  encroachment, without  y i e l d i n g t o l o c a l pressure f o r e x t e n s i o n of the Resident to t h i s r e g i o n . —  system  T h i s was undoubtedly the predominant image of  the Malay p e n i n s u l a evoked f o r F o r e i g n O f f i c e o f f i c i a l s i n the l a s t two decades o f the century;  i t culminated  convention between B r i t a i n and Siam i n 1 8 9 7 . The  i n a secret  1  other two maps were " s p e c i a l l y compiled"  e d i t i o n s o f S i r Frank Swettenham s B r i t i s h Malaya: 1  f o r two An Account  I  See E. T h i o : " B r i t a i n ' s Search f o r S e c u r i t y i n North Malaya: 1886-1897" (J.S.E.A.H.. V o l . 1 0 , No.2, Sept. 1 9 6 9 ) , and K.G. K i e r n a n : " B r i t a i n , Siam and Malaya" ( J o u r n a l of Modern H i s t o r y , Vol.28, No. 1, March 1 9 5 6 . ) .  In the f o l l o w i n g days, a great d e a l of very u s e f u l work was done, a l l the s u l t a n s and many of the c h i e f s f r e q u e n t l y speaking on the v a r i o u s questions under d i s c u s s i o n , and t a k i n g a keen i n t e r e s t i n a l l the proceedings. The f o l l o w i n g i s taken from the o f f i c i a l r e p o r t of the proceedings:  Resident-General's  From every p o i n t of view the meeting has been an u n q u a l i f i e d success, and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o estimate now the present and p r o s p e c t i v e value of t h i s unprecedented g a t h e r i n g of Malay Sultans, Rajas and c h i e f s . Never i n the h i s t o r y of Malaya has any such assemblage been even imagined. • I doubt whether anyone has ever heard of one Ruler of a State making a ceremonial v i s i t t o another; but to have been a b l e t o c o l l e c t together, i n one p l a c e , the Sultans of Perak, Selangor, Pahang and N e g r i Sembilan i s a f e a t that might w e l l have been regarded as i m p o s s i b l e . People who do not understand the Malay cannot a p p r e c i a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s of such a t a s k ; and I confess t h a t I myself never b e l i e v e d t h a t we should be able t o accomplish i t . I t i s h a r d l y t o be expected t h a t a man o f the great age of the S u l t a n o f Selangor could be induced to make, f o r him, so long and d i f f i c u l t a journey, and t o those who know the p r i d e , the p r e j u d i c e s and the s e n s t i v i e n e s s o f the Malay Rajas, i t was very u n l i k e l y t h a t the S u l t a n o f Pahang would j o i n an assemblage where he could not h i m s e l f d i c t a t e the exact p a r t which he would p l a y i n i t . I t i s not so many years s i n c e the Governor of the S t r a i t s Settlements found the utmost d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g speech with the Malay Rajas i n the States which are now federated; S i r F r e d e r i c k Weld, even though accompanied by the present S u l t a n of Perak, by S i r Hugh Low, and the present Residents of Selangor and Pahang, a l l o f f i c e r s accustomed to d e a l with Malays, had to wait s e v e r a l hours on the bank of the Pahang R i v e r , before anyone could persuade the S u l t a n of Pahang t o leave a game o f chance  i n which he was engaged w i t h a Chinese, i n order to grant an i n t e r v i e w to His E x c e l l e n c y . It i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e than between then and now, and, though the S u l t a n of Perak has been f a r more n e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s than any other of the S u l t a n s , he has always been extremely j e a l o u s of h i s r i g h t s as a R u l e r . I was, t h e r e f o r e , s u r p r i s e d t o hear the f r a n k way i n which, a t the c o u n c i l , he spoke of B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n , ., which he d i d not h e s i t a t e to d e s c r i b e as c o n t r o l . T h i s 1897 Conference was such a profound success t h a t by the d e s i r e of the Malays, i t was decided t o repeat i t from time to time as found d e s i r a b l e and convenient, and on each o c c a s i o n to assemble i n a d i f f e r e n t S t a t e , so t h a t , each S u l t a n i n t u r n might have the p l e a s u r e of welcoming the neighbouring r u l e r s , of showing them h i s country, and the hope was expressed t h a t the f r i e n d s h i p s then so h a p p i l y made might be renewed. A second and e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l conference was h e l d at Kuala Lumpur, i n Selangor, i n J u l y , 1903. Again the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the assemly, a f t e r m u c h ' i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n , r e s u l t e d i n a number of important d e c i s i o n s c h i e f l y connected w i t h matters i n which the Malay p o p u l a t i o n was s p e c i a l l concerned. T h i s conference was rendered notable by the f a c t t h a t the r u l e r s of a l l the western s t a t e s were conveyed to Kuala Lumpur by t r a i n , only the S u l t a n of Pahang and h i s c h i e f s having to t r a v e l by sea, and a l s o by reason of a remarkable speech d e l i v e r e d by the S u l t a n of Perak a t the c l o s e of the proceedings, when H i s Highness gave a g r a p h i c account of B r i t i s h i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the Malay S t a t e s , and the b e n e f i t s which had been c o n f e r r e d on the country and people by the adoption of B r i t i s h methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The S u l t a n spoke f r e e l y of h i s own and h i s people's e a r l y s u s p i c i o n and d i s t r u s t of the white man and how they had g r a d u a l l y changed t h e i r minds. His Highness l a i d s p e c i a l s t r e s s on the f a c t t h a t he and h i s people had g i v e n t h e i r confidence and l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p to those Residents who came w i t h the e v i d e n t wish to secure them. Frank Swettenham: B r i t i s h Malaya  1908  95. of the Origins and Progress of B r i t i s h Influence i n Malaya, published i n 1908 and 1948.  As such they represent the coming  to f r u i t i o n of Swettenham s v i s i o n f o r Malaya, a graphic 1  representation of the dream of one of the most of B r i t a i n ' s "servants" i n Malaya.  imperial-minded  Both maps focus very  d e f i n i t e l y on the Peninsula - the outline only of the Sumatran coast e x i s t s ;  the boundaries of the various states are not  only d i s t i n c t l y drawn i n , but emphasized by the super-imposition of d i f f e r e n t colours ( i n 1908);  by 1948, Swettenham had adopted  that technique, f a m i l i a r to a l l school children, of the English system at l e a s t , of depicting d i f f e r e n t states by s o l i d blocks of contrasting colour.  In 1908, although the boundary of Siam  includes the northern states (Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu), they are subtitled " B r i t i s h Sphere of Influence" so as to leave h i s readers with no doubt as to Swettenham's intention f o r them. Lines of l a t i t u d e and longtitude further subdivide the 1948 map, while i n 1908, he deemed i t necessary to indicate not only degrees of latitude/longUtude, but intervals of 5 ° . Having thus subdivided and c l a s s i f i e d the geographical entity i n this way, however, Swettenham draws i t a l l together again by describing across i t s face: Railways open " under construction " surveyed Roads surveyed B r i d l e paths Railway routes explored and indicating distances i n miles from Kuala Prai, i n Province  C O N F E R E N C E OF CHIEFS,  KUAI.A  LUMPOR,  IQOJ  96. Wellesley.  1  As a symbolic  projected  image of Malaya, these maps might be compared  the p l a t e , e n t i t l e d  1  with  "Conference of C h i e f s , Kuala Lumpur, 1903."  His v i s i o n , i n fact,appears c h i e f s under one  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Swettenham s  roof,  to have been, by u n i t i n g a l l i t s  (and p r e f e r a b l y i n B r i t i s h  garb) to impress upon Malaya the  image of being a  ceremonial political-  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t - a s i n g l e n a t i o n with the B r i t i s h Empire. Swettenham's g r a t i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of two i n 1897  and  only one  1903,  Anglo-Malayan's image of s u c c e s s f u l i m p e r i a l i s m ,  see t h e i r r o l e i n Malaya and of the processes  by which Malay Sultans  i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h a t process 1 equate w i t h  imperialism.  i t s i g n i f i c a n t and  but  in this  came to  They are a p e r f e c t  of d i s t o r t i o n of self-image That any human being  which  could come to  important, a measure of the  success  of h i s l i f e ' s work, t h a t a l l save one Malay S u l t a n should to Kuala Lumpur by t r a i n i n 1903;  not  the B r i t i s h came to  to measure-their success  "change t h e i r minds" about the white man.  consider  conferences,  are very s i g n i f i c a n t f o r they i l l u s t r a t e  they p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e of how  r o l e , and  of these  travel  or t h a t a n a t i v e r u l e r i n  Malaya could be persuaded to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a game, i n the  sense  2  i n which E r i c Berne uses the word,  which n e c e s s i t a t e d h i s  1 c f . Real Malay p.48. "Those who know anything of the modern h i s t o r y of the States w i l l no more f o r g e t what was done f o r them by Governors S i r F r e d e r i c k Weld and S i r C e c i l Smith than they w i l l t h a t S i r Andrew C l a r k e i n i t i a t e d the whole p o l i c y of B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n , and t h a t , both f e d e r a t i o n and the r a i l w a y l o a n were sanctioned during the Government of S i r Charles M i t c h e l l , the f i r s t High Commissioner f o r the Malay S t a t e s . " E r i c Berne: T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s i n Psychotherapy (New ¥ork, Grove Press, 1961) and Games People Play, o p . c i t . 2  97. sending f l o r i d and meaningless messages to a "Queen Empress" t o t a l l y remote from the r e a l i t y of h i s l i f e , has an absurdity bordering on the p a t h e t i c .  1  But such i s the nature of  imperialism. We, the Sultans of the Malay States, by the i n v i t a t i o n of Your Majesty's High Commissioner, are met together, f o r the f i r s t time in history, to discuss the a f f a i r s of our States confederated under Your Majesty's gracious protection. We desire to o f f e r our respectful and c o r d i a l congratulations on a reign of unexampled length and unequalled progress. And we pray f o r Your Majesty's long l i f e and the continuance of that protection which has already brought such prosperity to Malaya. 2 Further though, a l l this i l l u s t r a t e s the point made previously in the present chapter - that, i n Swettenham s mind p a r t i c u l a r l y , 1  and doubtless also i n many others, a decent B r i t i s h order had indeed been created out of Malay chaos. If i n e a r l i e r pages I have been able to give the reader an i n t e l l i g i b l e idea of t h i s waste of jungles and swamps, of mountains and r i v e r s sparsely populated by a f a r from industrious or happy people, preying on each other and on the heaven-sent Chinese t o i l e r i n an atmosphere of eternal heat, tempered by frequent deluges of t r o p i c a l r a i n ; i f I have been able to show him something of the extraordinary changes which may have passed over the country and the people, l i g h t i n g the dark See B. Friedan's chapter, "The Forfeited Self" ( i n The Feminine Mystique, op.cit., p.299 f f . ) " . . . a l l postulate some positive growth tendency within the organism which, from within, drives i t to f u l l e r development, to s e l f r e a l i z a t i o n . This ' w i l l to power', 'self-assertion', 'dominance', or 'autonomy', as i t i s variously c a l l e d , does not imply aggression or competitive s t r i v i n g i n the usual sense; i t i s the individual affirming his existence and his p o t e n t i a l i t i e s as a being i n his own r i g h t ; i t i s 'the courage to be an i n d i v i d u a l ' . " Swettenham:  B r i t i s h Malaya (London, 1908,  p.228 f f . )  98.  p l a c e s , b r i n g i n g freedom and comfort and h a p p i ness to Jhe g r e a t l y oppressed, and wealth to the g r e a t l y i n d u s t r i o u s ; i f now the reader sees a country covered w i t h prosperous towns and v i l l a g e s , with roads and r a i l w a y s , w i t h an enormously i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , w i t h every s i g n o f advancement and p r o s p e r i t y , and i f he a l s o understands, i n a measure a t l e a s t , how t h i s change has been brought about, I w i l l cease t o t r o u b l e him w i t h f u r t h e r d e t a i l s o f t h i s unique experiment i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n -j_ T h i s i s the process which these f o u r maps r e p r e s e n t . I t g a i n s added s i g n i f i c a n c e i f read w i t h McLoskey's c o n c l u s i o n about the " c o n s e r v a t i v e " p e r s o n a l i t y and i t s i n a b i l i t y to cope w i t h ambiguity,  i t s need f o r w e l l - d e f i n e d boundaries  and i t s p o b s e s s i o n w i t h p l a c i n g e v e r y t h i n g i n the c o r r e c t o r d e r . There a r e s e v e r a l f u r t h e r f a c t s to be brought  out as  f a r as the r o l e o f maps i n b u i l d i n g images o f Malay i s concerned. Geographic  images a r e g e n e r a l l y o u t l i n e d on some mental screen  i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s mind f i r s t exposed i n the e a r l y grades o f school.^  I have not seen a V i c t o r i a n s c h o o l a t l a s , but s i n c e ,  even i n American schools as l a t e as the 1 9 4 0 ' s , geography t e x t s c a r r i e d world maps which p l a c e d England  along the Greenwich  meridian, a t the c e n t r e , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t , i f V i c t o r i a n 1  Swettenham't  ibid.,  p.291-2.  2  3  McLoskey: o p . c i t . , d i s c u s s e d i n Part 3. c f . Boulding: Image,op.cit. p.66-6?. "We l e a r n our geography mostly i n s c h o o l not through our own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . " T h i s a s s e r t i o n probably a p p l i e s l e s s t o n i n e t e e n t h century a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the B r i t i s h empire than t o B o u l d i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Boulding r i g h t l y draws a t t e n t i o n to what he c a l l s "the e x t r a o r d i n a r y a u t h o r i t y " o f the map, "an a u t h o r i t y g r e a t e r than t h a t o f the sacred books of a l l r e l i g i o n s . " That an i n c r e a s i n g l y h i g h value was p l a c e d on "the map" i n n i n e t e e n t h century England can be judged by the i n c r e a s i n g number of p u b l i c a t i o n s on Malaya proudly b o a s t i n g on the t i t l e page: " I l l u s t r a t e d ... w i t h maps".  99. school children acquired any image at a l l of the Malay A r c h i p e l ago,from t h e i r geography classes, i t could not have been other than as part of "the Far East" with a l l the additional connotations this image carried.' ' 1  As such i t was as removed geograph-  i c a l l y from English minds as any place on the world map  could be.  Secondly, although the exploration of the globe has undoubtedly resulted i n a closure of geography, and while the S t r a i t s Settlements and the Peninsula c e r t a i n l y did not escape the "net"of B r i t i s h imperialism;(its human and natural geography were eventually subjected to as many c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , divisions and systematizations as those of any other part of the i t was  Empire);  l a t e i n the century before the Malay Peninsula received  an i d e n t i t y c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t from the "Eastern Archipelago" or the "Malayan Archipelago" i n the minds of a l l but a few Europeans.  This was p a r t l y due to the fact that a stereotype  approach developed region,which  to writing about the various parts of the  took the form of a description of the present state  of the region and a b r i e f outline of i t s past p a r t i c u l a r l y i n European times.  As Begbie noted when, writing of the Malayan  Peninsula: In those rapid and numerous revolutions incident i n some measure to a l l States, but more p a r t i c u l a r l y to infant ones, these divisions have been subject to various alterations of geographical units and p o l i t i c a l influence; and, as European powers have acted a conspcuous part in the drama of the Peninsula, i t i s impossible to omit the neighbouring settlements of Java, Rhio, Singapore and Prince of Wales Island, so f a r as they are mixed up with i t s a f f a i r s . 3 1 Isaacs, H.: 2  3  c f . Wallace: quoted. Begbie:  Images of Asia, op.cit., p.42-43. $falay Archipelago, op.cit., p.102 previously  Malayan Peninsula, op.cit.,  p.2.  100.  It was 1874 was  issued.  before any map  In 1878,  or handbook of the Peninsula  one author wrote:  It i s hardly too much to assume that p r i o r to 1875, when the sad news reached England of the r i s i n g of a people under B r i t i s h protection, and the murder of Mr. Birch, the State of Perak was to the majority of people a t e r r a incognita. They knew, of course that the Malay Peninsula was a long tongue of land stretching nearly to the equator and that i t was i n close proximity to Sumatra and Java with innumerable islands generally known as the Malay Archipelago, but saving those interested i n the B r i t i s h S t r a i t s Settlements - Singapore, Malacca and Penang - i t may be taken f o r granted that few people were aware that a large and r i c h t e r r i t o r y , ruled over by a Sultan and h i s petty chiefs, had been, so to speak, placed under the wing of the B r i t i s h government whose representatives ... were at the court of the r u l e r , to counsel and advise f o r the better management of a country whose people were suffering from anarchy and misrule; ]_ Such comments apply equally to the other native states on the Peninsula - the east coast states, i n f a c t , being less commercially attractive,remained unexplored and unknown f a r p longer. When the surveyor Daly published his report i n the Royal Geographical Society's Journal i n 1882,  he marvelled that  ...even i n this nineteenth century, a country •••rich i n i t s resources and important in i t s contiguity to our B r i t i s h possessions is s t i l l a closed volume ... there i s a vast extent, more than half the Malay Peninsula, unexplored. ...Of the internal government, geography, mineral products and geology of these regions we do not know anything ... In 1883, McNair:  Isabella Bird explained the fact that her l e t t e r s  Perak and the Malays, op.cit.,  See C l i f f o r d :  p.1-2.  In Court and Kampong, Chaps. I and  2.  101. dealt only with the western portion of "the GoldenOGhersonese"^ by "the very s u f f i c i e n t reason that the i n t e r i o r i s unexplored by the Europeans, h a l f of i t being so l i t t l e known that the l a t e s t map gives only the p o s i t i o n of i t s c o a s t l i n e . " I hope, however, that my l i t t l e book w i l l be accepted as an honest attempt to make a popular contribution to the sum of knowledge of a b e a u t i f u l and l i t t l e t r a v e l l e d region, with which the majority of educated people are so l i t t l e acquainted that i t i s constantly confounded with the Malay Archipelago ..«i She ventured the information that there was, at the time of her writing, no point on i t s mainland at which European steamers c a l l , "and the usual conception  of i t i s as a vast  and malarious equatorial jungle sparsely peopled by a race of s e m i - c i v i l i z e d and treacherous  Mohammedans."  2  It i s also worth noting that not one of the maps accompanying the many descriptions and " h i s t o r i e s " of the S t r a i t s Settlements and the Peninsula attempted to show the region i n any larger context than that of the surrounding  Archipelago.  1 Isabella B i r d : The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither, op.cit., Preface; p.5. 2  „  ibid., p . l . I t was, i n f a c t , as l i t t l e known to most people as i t was to myself before I v i s i t e d i t , and as r e l i a b l e information concerning i t exists mainly i n valuable volumes now out-of-print or scattered through blue books and the transactions of the A s i a t i c Society of Singapore, I make no apology f o r prefacing my l e t t e r s from the Malay Peninsula with as many b r i e f preliminary statements as s h a l l serve to make them i n t e l l i g i b l e " , c f . Buckley, C.G.: An Anecdotal History of Singapore i n the Old Times, l8lQ-l8b7. (preface to V o l . 1 , p.if;: "It has long been a matter of regret to me that the writings.of Crawfurd, Logan, Braddell and others who gave so much time to writing about Singapore and neighbouring countries, should be so soon forgotten, and the books scarcely to be obtained. When a copy-is to be found on the bookshelves of some old l i b r a r y here, i t i s generally tumbling to pieces..." -  102. That i s , i t was important to  never r e l a t e d to Europe and  t r a n s c r i p t of s p a t i a l images.  clarify  England  in this  Some w r i t e r s attempted  images of the r e g i o n i n terms such as these  (which  r e v e a l l e s s about i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n than of the importance as a commercial outpost p l a c e d upon i t by i n 1820, pelago  Europe):  Crawfurd had p r o f e r r e d the i n f o r m a t i o n of the  Archi-  that: ... I t s g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n i s between the g r e a t c o n t i n e n t a l land of New H o l l a n d and the most southern e x t r e m i t y of the c o n t i n e n t of A s i a . I t i s c e n t r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to a l l the great and c i v i l i z e d n a t i o n s of A s i a , and l i e s i n the d i r e c t and i n e v i t a b l e route of the maritime i n t e r c o u r s e between them. I t s e a s t e r n extremity i s w i t h i n three days' s a i l of China; i t s western not above three weeks s a i l from A r a b i a . Ten days' s a i l c a r r i e s a s h i p from China to the r i c h e s t and most c e n t r i c a l p o r t i o n of the A r c h i p e l a g o , and not more than f i f t e e n are r e q u i r e d f o r a s i m i l a r voyage from Hindustan. Taking a wider view of i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t i o n s , i t may be added, t h a t the voyage from Europe to the western e x t r e m i t y .. may be r e a d i l y performed i n n i n e t y days ... and that the voyage from the west coast of America may be e f f e c t e d i n l i t t l e more than h a l f that time, such are the e x t r a o r d i n a r y advantages of the g e o g r a p h i c a l and l o c a l p o s i t i o n s of these five countries. ^ 1  1  J.  Crawfurd:  H i s t o r y of the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , o p . c i t . , As f a r as images-in-time are concerned, Crawfurd's i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s three-volume H i s t o r y i s equally s i g n i f i c a n t : "That g r e a t r e g i o n of the globe, which European geographers have d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the name of the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , became well-known to the more c i v i l i z e d p o r t i o n of mankind, and was f i r s t frequented by them much about the same time t h a t they d i s c o v e r e d and knew America ... i n regard to a l l knowledge not merely s p e c u l a t i v e or c u r i o u s , our d i s c o v e r y of the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o i s a t r a n s a c t i o n of h i s t o r y as r e c e n t as that of America. The Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , at the moment of the d i s c o v e r y of both, may be advantageously compared even w i t h the New World i t s e l f , to which, In f a c t , i t s moral and p h y s i c a l s t a t e bore a closer resemblance than any other p a r t of the globe. I t was g r e a t l y i n f e r i o r to i t i n extent, but i n the s i n g u l a r i t y , v a r i e t y , and extent of i t s animal and vegetable p r o d u c t i o n s , and i n the c i v i l i z a t i o n and number o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , i t was g r e a t l y s u p e r i o r .  Vol.1., p.2-3.  103.  It i s doubtful whether Begbie's assertion that "the best a u t h o r i t i e s have l a i d down the geograp h i c a l l i m i t s of the Malayan Peninsula as being comprised within the latitudes of 8 d . 2 7 m . , or, according to Horsburg, 8 d . 09m. north, corresponding to the northernmost point of the neighbouring island of Junk Ceylon, and Id. 22m. north, which i s the l a t i t u t e i n which point Romania, i t s south-eastern extremity l i e s , " gave his readers any clearer picture of where the Peninsula a c t u a l l y was.  Even Swettenham attempted l i t t l e more than "From  England to Penang by way  of the Suez Canal i s a voyage of about  eight thousand miles, and the l a s t stage of i t , from Colombo to Achin Head, the turning point of Sumatra, i s p r a c t i c a l l y  due  East." 2 F i n a l l y , one of the most interesting attempts to create a r e l a t i o n a l image of these two regions i s a map  printed i n  Wallace's account of his journeys i n the "Land of the Orang-Utan and the Bird of Paradise".  In an e f f o r t to give his readers some  notion of the size of the Archipelago, Wallace super-imposed the outline of the B r i t i s h Isles on a map  —  of Borneo and wrote:  The Malay Archipelago extends f o r more than 4 , 0 0 0 miles i n length from east to west, and i s about 1 , 3 0 0 i n breadth from north to south. It would stretch over an expanse equal to that of a l l Europe from the extreme west f a r into Central Asia, or would cover the widest parts of South America, and extend f a r beyond the land into the P a c i f i c and A t l a n t i c Oceans. It includes three islands larger than Great B r i t a i n ; and{hone of them, Borneo, the whole of the B r i t i s h Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of f o r e s t s . . 3  Begbie:  Malayan Peninsula, op.cit., p . 1 - 2 .  Swettenham: Wallace:  B r i t i s h Malaya, op.cit., p . l .  Malay Archipelago, op.cit., V o l . 1 ,  p.3.  104. (Whether i t was intended to emphasize the smallness of the B r i t i s h Isles, or ::the largeness of Borneo,is uncertain - at any rate,the image created i n the l a s t l i n e s must certainly have g i v en Wallace's readers food f o r thought on the subject of the might of  Imperial England.) Malaya, then, appears to have remained  s p a t i a l l y and geographically i n d i s t i n c t i n European minds i n the nineteenth century.  I t i s i r o n i c therefore that, i n an attempt  partly to overcome this i s o l a t i o n , to "put Malaya on the map", (an urge a l l imperialists must indulge as they necessarily seek recognition f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ) and partly to overcome the stigma, a r i s i n g from t h i s i s o l a t i o n , of i t s being one of the least a t t r a c t i v e imperial outposts, they turned to g l o r i f y i n g i t s exotic natural beauties and, by consequently creating an almost Edenic image of the region, succeeded  i n isolating i t  even more. The comparison with other colonies, p a r t i c u l a r l y India, was obviously i n Major McNair's mind when he wrote of Perak, ("a land metaphorically flowing with milk and honey"): Picture this t r o p i c a l land; Not a sunbaked region of parched desert and unsufferable drought; but a r i c h moist country almost touching the equator, but r a r e l y suffering from excessive heat; a land of eternal summer, where refreshing rains f a l l , where the monsoons blow regularly, where the f r i g h t f u l tempests of the East are unknown, and which i s f o r the most part covered with a luxurious vegetation, the produce of a f e r t i l e s o i l . -j_ McNair's opinion might be compared with that of Emily Innes.  Returning to England a f t e r her f i r s t years as the wife  1 McNair:  Perak and the Malays, op.cit., p.2.  .105. of D i s t r i c t Magistrate James Innes, i n "the butcherless, bakerless, t a i l o r l e s s , cobblerless, doctorless, bookless, and altogether comfortless jungle", of Selangor, she compared situations with other c o l o n i a l wives and remarked that "...they hinted pretty p l a i n l y that the o f f i c i a l s of the Native Malay States must be fools to stay on i n i t . That was my own opinion ..." ^ Voices as consistently disenchanted as Mrs. however, were r a r e l y heard. from India i n the  Innes , 1  P a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the separation  1860's, Anglo-Malay  writers were anxious to  point out that i t was only ignorance which resulted i n the impression that "an existence i n Malay was an e x i l e of the worst description" and that "...those who have endorsed that e x i l e can t e l l of a f a r d i f f e r e n t condition of l i f e i n the t r o p i c a l garden." 2 The connotations of.the Aurea Chersonese notwithstanding however, i t became evident that there was l i t t l e i n Malay to compare with visions of o r i e n t a l splendour to which tales of Indian rajahs, the Taj Mahal, fabulous treasure and the adventures of Marco Polo had accustomed B r i t i s h minds i n contemplation of  1  the Asia of India and China.  At least, many expressed the  E. Innes:  Chersonese with the Gilding Off, op.cit., V o l . I I , Vol.I, p.244-5. In fact, she did not recommend the Malay States service to anyone who did not begin "at the top, by being Resident". Elsewhere, she compared the Malay Peninsula to "Timbuctoo" and the "Deserts of Sahara", and wrote of Durian Sabatang: "the unhealthiness of i t s climate ... was far worse than that of the Gold Coast of Africa". (Vol.II,  p.242-3;  p  P.55, P.70.)  Cameron: Our Tropical Possessions, op.cit., p.2. He was s i g n i f i c a n t l y equally w i l l i n g to promote the image of i t s commercial p o t e n t i a l "...those at a l l acquainted with the high roads of eastern.trade have but to view the p o s i t i o n of the island of Singapore on the chart, to become sensible of i t s importance to such a nation as great as B r i t a n . "  INCHE  MAIDA, PRINCESS OF P E R A K , H E 11 H U S B A N D , N A K O D A T K O X l i , AND A T T E N D A N T S .  106. sentiment  that:  " ... Nature i s so imposing, so m a g n i f i c e n t and so p r o l i f i c on the Malay p e n i n s u l a t h a t one n a t u r a l l y g i v e s man a secondary p l a c e which I have assigned to him ... N e i t h e r g r e a t wars, nor an a n c i e n t h i s t o r y , nor a v a l u a b l e l i t e r a t u r e , nor s t a t e l y r u i n s , nor b a r b a r i c splendours a t t r a c t s c h o l a r s or s i g h t s e e r s to the P e n i n s u l a . " 1 In the absence of such man-made splendours, i n Malaya turned to the b e a u t i e s of nature,and omitted a long opening bathed  s c a r c e l y an  chapter oh f i r s t glimpses  i n warm t r o p i c seas.  the B r i t i s h  of t h i s  author  Jewel  In i t s more moderate form i t was  simply an attempt to balance the impression of Malaya as a t r o p i c a l no-man's land i n h a b i t e d by t i g e r s , e q u a t o r i a l swamps, orang-utans,  amok-running savages, head-hunting p i r a t e s ,  and  p every c o n c e i v a b l e i n s e c t and r e p t i l e ever to torment mankind, ("my  first  impression was  o f mud,  mosquitoes and  immorality")  which had been b u i l t up i n the f i r s t h a l f of the century, out o f ignorance^and  p a r t l y through  -  partly  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other  "regions of the Unknown" while attempting  to f i l l  these gaps  i n the i m a g i n a t i o n . 1 I. B i r d : Golden Chersonese, o p . c i t . , p.12, p.338. When s c h o l a r s and s i g h t s e e r s d i d t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the P e n i n s u l a , as they i n c r e a s i n g l y d i d towards the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century and i n the opening decades of the t w e n t i e t h century, they were more o f t e n a t t r a c t e d to the study of the languages and customs of "a p r i m i t i v e people", or to the problems of governing n a t i v e races i n the t r o p i c s , or to the p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f t r a v e l l i n g In e q u a t o r i a l j u n g l e s , " i n the r a y l e s s paths of deep f o r e s t s " . See the works of Winstedt, Kidd, I r e l a n d , Rathborne and K i r k l a n d . As l a t e as 1926, the l a t t e r r e f l e c t e d i n F i n d i n g the Worthwhile i n the O r i e n t (London, 1926 p.282") "...there are no a n c i e n t c i t i e s or monuments of any s o r t i n h e r i t e d from a n t i q u i t y . Nature has been supreme - not man. On the o t h e r hand, i f the mystery, the beauty and the s i l e n c e of the j u n g l e draw you, then Malaya awaits you..." 2  See B i r d : i b i d . , p.7-10 f o r a t y p i c a l t e r r i f y i n g l i s t beasts i n h a b i t i n g the P e n i n s u l a .  of w i l d  107. At  i t s extreme, t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s  reached what I c a l l  "the P a r a d i s e " o r "garden o f Eden" v i s i o n o f  Malaya. A g r e a t d e a l has been w r i t t e n about the n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s o f Ceylon and Java, and some t h e o l o g i a n s determined t o g i v e the f i r s t scene i n the Mosaic n a r r a t i v e a l o c a l h a b i t a t i o n , have f i x e d the P a r a d i s e o f u n f a l i e n man on one , or o t h e r o f those noble i s l a n d s ... I have seen both Ceylon and Java, ... but f o r calm p l a c i d l o v e l i n e s s I should p l a c e Singapore h i g h above them b o t h ... perfumed i s l e s a r e i n many people's minds merely f a b l e d dreams but they a r e easy o f r e a l i z a t i o n here ... j_ G e n e r a l l y speaking, those who passed any time i n the country m o d i f i e d these glowing f i r s t i t remained  impressions  i n p a r t , but  a f a m i l i a r image o f t r a v e l l e r s and s o j o u r n e r s whose  p i c t u r e o f Malaya extended  o n l y t o the view from the steamer's  decks as i t came i n t o the roadstead a t Penang o r Singapore, and whose t a l e s were d o u b t l e s s a v i d l y read by a B r i t i s h  publiculiving  v i c a r i o u s l y on the adventures o f i t s l e s s sedentary b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s .  One such w r i t e r hoped t h a t :  .... t h i s r e c o r d o f a time spent among the l e s s well-known p o r t i o n s o f M a l a y s i a may be i n t e r e s t i n g to those whom the goddess o f t r a v e l has wooed i n v a i n , as perchance t o those " b i r d s o f passage" t o whom the i g l a n d s and c o n t i n e n t s o f the world a r e as well-known as the church s p i r e s and m i l l - s t o n e s o f t h e i r own land .... and spoke o f the r e g i o n as "the gardens o f the sun" where "nature i s very b e a u t i f u l " and "man, although o f t e n s t r i k i n g l y  primitive,  i s h o s p i t a b l e and not o f t e n v i l e ..." 1  • Cameron:  Our T r o p i c a l P o s s e s s i o n s , o p . c i t . ,  p.27-28.  108.  A voyage;- of a few weeks brings us to these beauty-spots of the Eastern Seas to an "always-afternoon" kind of climate since they are blessed with the heat and glory of eternal summer - to a place where winter i s unknown - monsoon-swept islands o a s i s - l i k e basking i n a warm and shallow desert of sea. Warmed by perpetual sunshine, deluged by copious rains, and t h r i l l e d by e l e c t r i c i t y , they are r e a l l y enormous conservatories of b e a u t i f u l vegetation - great Zoological Gardens inhabited by rare birds and curious animals. In these sunny garden scenes,man i s the Adam of a modern Eden, primitive i n habits and numerically i n s i g n i f i c a n t ; he has scarcely begun his b a t t l e with things inanimate, or his struggle f o r existence as i t i s known to us. At home we have man as i n some sort the master of Nature, but i n the Bornean forests Nature s t i l l reigns supreme. Here with us man wrests his sustenance from her - there she i s l a v i s h i n the bestowal of g i f t s unsought; -j_ There was,  i n f a c t , a prevalent f e e l i n g that "Malaya  had dreamed away the centuries".  Even when such  landscapes  were peopled, nature continued to play a dominant part, and the sensation of existing i n an unreal, dream-world pervaded the image. It was late afternoon, and the sun was casting shafts of hot l i g h t between the palms, across the fern-carpeted ground, through the feathery fronds of bamboos, swaying gently on the r i v e r bank, out among the dancing r i p p l e s of the steam. Under the trees was gathered a l i t t l e group of men and women, dark, olive-skinned natives of the country clad i n soft-toned s i l k s ; the women wearing ... gossamer v e i l s edged with gold embroidery - not v e i l s to hide the face, only to frame i t i n a tenderly a r t f u l setting, whence the dark-lashed, dewy eyes might s t i r the beholder's blood more e a s i l y ... F.W. Burbidge: The Gardens of the Sun (London, John Murray, 1880) Preface. That l a t e V i c t o r i a n England could conceive of Eden only i n terms of "a great zoological garden" i s significant in i t s e l f .  With the e x c e p t i o n of the more c i v i l i z e d t r i b e s i n the v i c i n i t y of Sarawak, the Malays who i n h a b i t the coast of Borneo are a c r u e l , treacherous and d i s g u s t i n g race o f men w i t h s c a r c e l y one good q u a l i t y to recommend them ... every man i s armed and i s a robber by p r o f e s s i o n ... these Malay t r i b e s l i v e almost wholly by p i r a c y , to c a r r y on which each town possesses s e v e r a l l a r g e prahus, which they man, and send out to i n t e r c e p t any u n f o r t u n ate junk or o t h e r v e s s e l i n c a p a b l e of much r e s i s t a n c e , which f a t e or the c u r r e n t s may have d r i v e n too near t h e i r coasts ... Unless they are i r r i t a t e d by a desperate r e s i s t a n c e or they a t t a c k an i n i m i c a l t r i b e , they do not shed blood, as has been g e n e r a l l y supposed; r e s t r a i n e d , however, by no other f e e l i n g than that of a v a r i c e , f o r the s a l v e s are too v a l u a b l e to be d e s t r o y e d . In t h e i r physiognomy, these Malays are i n f e r i o r to the Dyaks; they have a s t r o n g resemblance to the monkey i n the f a c e , w i t h an a i r of low cunning and r a s c a l i t y most unprepossessing. In s t a t u r e they are very low, and g e n e r a l l y bandy-legged. T h e i r h a i r and eyes are i n v a r i a b l y b l a c k , but the f a c e i s i n most i n s t a n c e s devoid o f h a i r ; when i t does grow, i t i s o n l y a t the extreme p o i n t of the c h i n . The Borneo Malay women are as p l a i n as the men, although at Sincapore ( s i c . ) M a u r i t i u s and the Sooloos, they are w e l l - f a v o u r e d ...  F.S. Marryat : Borneo and the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , 1848.  109. Some naked c h i l d r e n laughed and played w i t h i n the shadows of a crooning stream; fought i n the shallows and f e l l i n t o the s i l e n t pools o f deeper water, shadowed by branches hidden from the sun. The p i c t u r e caught my eye and h e l d me dreamily d e l i g h t e d ... ]_ As the i n t e r l e a f i l l u s t r a t e s , people had not always aroused  contemplation of the Malay  such i d y l l i c p i c t u r e s .  In the  absence of p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n about the Peninsulajwhich  persis-  ted by and l a r g e u n t i l the l a s t q u a r t e r o f the century, images of i t s peoples were formed mainly by a s s o c i a t i o n - w i t h "the E a s t " and " A s i a - , w i t h "India"- i n the s p e c i a l sense a l r e a d y mentioned, w i t h the7!Eastern o r Indian A r c h i p e l a g o .  T h i s process  of a s s o c i a t i o n was f u r t h e r e d no doubt by the tendency  t o use the  term "Malay" r a t h e r l o o s e l y to d e s c r i b e the i n h a b i t a n t s not only of the P e n i n s u l a and the S t r a i t s Settlement,but o f Sumatra (whence i t was assumed the P e n i n s u l a r Malays had o r i g i n a l l y  emigrated),  and o f the other i s l a n d s o f the A r c h i p e l a g o to which, as a m a r i time r a c e , they had spread. B r i t i s h images of Malaya, p a r t i c u l a r l y u n t i l the d e c i s i o n was  made to i n t e r v e n e on the P e n i n s u l a , r e f l e c t e d B r i t i s h  ests there;  s i n c e these were overwhelmingly  commercial,  interi t is  not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t images o f the Malays were formed i n s o f a r as they impinged  advantageously  o r disadvantageously on these  i n t e r e s t s , o r t h a t , the Malays, w i t h t h e i r Arab h e r i t a g e , being a  1 Swettenham: Real Malay, " L o c a l Colour" p.267-8. There was a very r e a l s e n s a t i o n , n a t u r a l enough f o r the sons of V i c t o r i a n England, t h a t i f they were not ever on t h e i r guard, they would be seduced by Malaya, so compelling and b e g u i l i n g was i t s beauty and charm.  110  sea-going people themselves,  the contact was frequently not to  the advantage of the B r i t i s h . The natives of the Archipelago had carried a formidable and justifiably-earned reputation f o r piracy f o r centuries - at least since Europeans had entered i t s waters.  The many i n l e t s  and r i v e r mouths on both east and west sides of the S t r a i t s of Malacca,and the flow of currents with the monsoons,offered excellent t e r r i t o r y f o r attacks on unwary merchant ships plying between Europe and the Far East.  P i r a t i c a l plundering was natur-  a l enough f o r a people who t r a d i t i o n a l l y made a l i v i n g from the sea - "fishermen who also engaged i n piracy wh/ever they considered that piracy could be committed with safety."  In f a c t , as one  gentleman's experience and p r a c t i c a l observation had led him to believe:.-, "the whole of these seas are more or less infested with pirates of the most sanguinary and cruel description" and "nothing but the fear of European power, or the want of opportunity would deter them from attacking vessels and i f successful, of practising the. most barbaric a t t r o c i t i e s upon t h e i r victims. "•*• It was an image supported i n larger or smaller degree by almost every " h i s t o r i a n " and observer of the Malays from the time of B r i t i s h contact i n the late eighteenth century. the conscientious Marsden  Even  with his determination not to write  "an entertaining book, to which the marvellous might be thought not a l i t t l e to contribute", ... but to furnish those philosophers whose labours have been directed to the investigation 1  Parliamentary Debates, Great B r i t a i n , Series III, Vol. 1 1 0 , July 1 2 , l b 5 0 , p . 1 3 0 7 .  111. of the history of Man, with facts to serve as data i n t h e i r reasonings, which are too often rendered nugatory, and not seldom r i d i c u l o u s , by assuming as truths the misconceptions, or w i l f u l impositions of t r a v e l l e r s . perpetuated the image by writing of Portuguese-^Achinese  contact  i n these terms: That enterprising people, who caused so many kingdoms to shrink from the terror of their arms, met with nothing but disgrace i n t h e i r attempts against Achin, whose monarchs made them tremble i n t h e i r turn.^ The "head-hunting p i r a t e " image was predominant i n the innumerable personal adventure  stories and narratives which  constituted almost the whole of the l i t e r a t u r e on Malaya i n the second quarter of the nineteenth century - books of trade and t r a v e l , with t h e i r emphasis on the commercial potential and the sensational i n the Archipelago, the graphic accounts of naval o f f i c e r s engaged i n expeditions to put down piracy - ("The noble Government of our honoured and beloved Queen V i c t o r i a at home, has come forward with her admirals and brave captains to a s s i s t in reducing the p i r a c i e s which infested the coasts, by deeds of almost unexampled heroism"), and by the various missionaries and n a t u r a l i s t s who travelled i n the region:  a l l of them r e p e t i t i v e  I  William Marsden: The History of Sumatra (London, 1783). As a native state which successfully resisted repeated European encroachments upon i t s sovereignty, Achin doubtless contributed greatly to the " f i e r c e l y independent, i f misguided, petty potentate of the East" image of native Malay Princes, whose passing B r i t i s h writers were wont to dwell upon with mingled awe and r e l i e f - See eg.,. Swettenham: Real Malay, "A Silhouette", p.224.231.  112. i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s of scenery p i r a t e s , head-hunters and c a n n i b a l i s m , t i g e r s , b a r b a r i a n s and g h o u l i s h l o c a l customs.  1  I t i s d o u b t f u l whether any event focussed a t t e n t i o n upon t h i s image of the Malay more than the dramatic  adventures  of James Brooke i n Sarawak and Borneo, the charges  of  l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t h i s d e a l i n g s with the Malays, the  controversy  i n B r i t i s h Parliament enquiry, and  and p u b l i c c i r c l e s ,  inhumanity  the commission of  the complete e x o n e r a t i o n which e v e n t u a l l y f o l l o w e d .  As one observer saw  the whole a f f a i r :  One of the darkest recesses of heathen Ignorance, c r u e l t y , and d e s o l a t i o n , where p i r a c y , and murder and c o n f l a g r a t i o n , and head-hunting s t a l k e d abroad i n open day, and the a b o r i g i n e s were i n sure way of being exterminated u t t e r l y , i s now, so to speak, See e.g. E . J . Trelawney: Adventures of a Younger Son (London, 1 8 3 1 ) ; - G.W. Earl: The E a s t e r n Seas .... (London, 1837) which i n c i d e n t a l l y i n s p i r e d Brooke to embark upon h i s exped-. i t i o n to Borneo; Rev. H. Malcolm: T r a v e l s i n South E a s t e r n A s i a (London, 1 8 3 9 ) ; G.P. Davidson:, Trade and T r a v e l i n the Far East (London, 1 8 4 6 ) ; S i r E. B e l c h e r : N a r r a t i v e of the Voyage o f . t h e H.M. Samarang (2 v o l s , London, 1848); WTs] Marryat: Borneo and the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o (London, 1 8 4 8 ) ; Captain H. Keppel: E x p e d i t i o n to Borneo of the H.M.S. Dido (2 vols,. Borneo, 1845) a n d A l v i s i t to the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o i n H.M. Ship, M e a n d e r ( 2 v o l s , London, 1853). Marryat s works i s perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g , r e v e a l i n g as i t does, Marryat's a t t i t u d e s as n a v a l o f f i c i a l , s p e c t a t o r , man, B r i t o n . A midshipman on the Samarang, he allowed h i s eye to wander a l i t t l e f u r t h e r than d i d B e l c h e r . His a t t i t u d e s to the " n a t i v e s - a t - p l a y " , e s p e c i a l l y h i s e v i d e n t d e l i g h t at the ease of i n t e r c o u r s e with the l a d i e s o f the A r c h i p e l a g o compared w i t h those of Singapore and Europe, are worth comparing with Swettenham s >(Malay Sketches: "A P i s h i n g P i c n i c " , 1 9 0 3 ) , A.C.L. Dawes' t r a g i c male Chauvinism i n Yellow.and White, (1895) and f i n a l l y , those of H e n r i Fauconnier i n the Soul of MaDLaya, (1931) 1  1  113'. l i k e the Paradise o f God.  1  I t was one o f the few o c c a s i o n s i n the century on which the a f f a i r s o f the B r i t i s h i n the Malay A r c h i p e l a g o were debated a t any l e n g t h i n the Houses o f Parliament,and, p u b l i c i t y g i v e n Brooke's adventures  apart from the  i n the House and the p r e s s ,  a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e i n the form o f pamphlets, b i o g r a p h i e s and c o l l e c t i o n s of Brooke's papers and l e t t e r s appeared i n the years f o l l o w i n g the dommission - the best p a r t of i t the product o f the pens o f Brooke's many f r i e n d s and admirers,and  unabashedly e u l o g i s t i c about the achievements o f  the Raja's regime i n Sarawak]  Moreover, p r a c t i c a l l y every book  w r i t t e n from t h a t time c a r r i e d a chapter e x t o l l i n g Brooke's v i r t u e s and e x e m p l i f y i n g h i s methods of d e a l i n g w i t h the n a t i v e peoples o f t h a t r e g i o n , and m a r v e l l i n g a t the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Borneo under h i s " t r u l y i m p e r i a l a s c e n d e n c y ] 1  I t was a v i s i o n  1,2  ' ' " : " ~ Great B r i t a i n , Parliamentary Debates: ( V o l ] l l 8 , S e r i e s " I I I , July/Aug. 1«51 p.467) from a l e t t e r s i g n e d "D; C a l c u t t a " quoted by Mr. Headlam i n the House of Commons] "For"a l e s s f l a t t e r i n g view o f Brooke's achievements, "see Captaln"Vigor's account o f the a t t a c k and massacre o f the a l l e g e d ' p i r a t e s — ( i b i d ] Vol.110, J u l y l 2 , 1850) n o t i n g , nonetheless, "his" con-"" elusion: "That d i s c h a r g e o f grape was a " f e a r f u l s i g h t , as at p o i n t b l a n k range i t crashed over the sea,"and through the devoted prahus, marking i t s t r a c k with f l o a t i n g bodies o f the dying, s h a t t e r e d prahus, planks, s h i e l d s , and fragments of a l l s o r t s ; I should have p i t i e d them;;;but they were".' p i r a t e s and the thought s t e e l e d my h e a r t ..." (My u n d e r l i n i n g . ) :  :  r  2  Brooke h i m s e l f wrote: "My i n t e n t i o n , my wish,"is t o develop the i s l a n d o f Borneo. My i n t e n t i o n , my wish, i s to e x t i r p a t e p i r a c y by a t t a c k i n g - a n d b r e a k i n g up the p i r a t e towns; ' not o n l y p i r a t e s d i r e c t , "but p i r a t e s i n d i r e c t . " I wish to c o r r e c t the n a t i v e c h a r a c t e r , .. to i n t r o d u c e g r a d u a l l y a b e t t e r s y s tern o f government; t o open the i n t e r i o r , to rernpve the c l o g s on trade ] ] ] I wish to make Borneo a second Java. . I intend to amend and i n f l u e n c e $he .entire' A r c h i p e l a g o . ^ ..Cfrom Adaqis^ The E a s t e r n A r c h i p e l a g o . (London.. 1880) p.171-4 quoting J.C. - — — (continued on page 114)  -  #  114. which  m i d - V i c t o r i a n England  obviously-  found  particularly  gratifying  As G e o r g e B o r r o w commented i n The Romany Rye i n 1857:  What a c r o w n o f g l o r y ..] t o c a r r y t h e b l e s s i n g s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and r e l i g i o n t o b a r b a r o u s , y e t ; a t t h e same t i m e , b e a u t i f u l and romantic lands] Only  Raja Brooke,  a c c o r d i n g t o B o r r o w , h a d done so i n t h e s e  times. It his  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  i n passing that i n justifying,  s l a u g h t e r o f e i g h t hundred " p i r a t i c a l  Brooke c a l l e d kindness for  Serebas t r i b e s m e n " ,  upon t h e t w i n themes o f M a l a y a n i m p e r i a l i s m :  t o t h e n a t i v e s , a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the peace  f r e e trade ( - " l a y i n g broad  of  necessary  foundations f o rnative p r o s p e r i t y  w h i l s t e x t e n d i n g g e n e r a l s e c u r i t y and commerce" a s K e p p e l it.)  1  called  I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , he i d e a l i z e d o n t h e one hand t h e  " p o o r e r a n d p e a c e f u l a b o r i g i n a l " Dyak t r i b e s m e n , whom he c l a i m e d were i n danger o f e x t i n c t i o n , S e r e b a s and S a k a r r a n s  and o n t h e o t h e r , t h e p i r a t i c a l  - "Savages, steeped  i n the blood of the  ( F o o t n o t e 2 c o n t i n u e d f r o m Page 113) ~ [ T e m p l a r : P r i v a t e L e t t e r s o f S i r J a m e s - B r o o k e ... ( L o n d o n , 1853, 3 V o l s . ) There was some d o u b t a t t h e t i m e w h e t h e r t h e s e w e r e " p i r a t e s " , e i t h e r " d i r e c t " o r " i n d i r e c t " , drj.simply n e i g h b o u r i n g t r i b e s e n g a g i n g i n a s m a l l c i v i l w a r / " See t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates r e l a t i v e t o t h e " A l l e g e d P i r a c y o f f B o r n e o " and t h e T i m e s n e w s p a p e r i n t h e s e m o n t h s ] ;  1  N o t e B r o o k e ' s " o f f i c i a l " image o f t h e a f f a i r : K i l l e d d u r i n g a c t i o n , b y t h e s t e a m e r and E n g l i s h boats 250 K i l l e d by the n a t i v e s during a c t i o n 50 K i l l e d a f t e r t h e a c t i o n when on t h e i r way home 50 Died i n the j u n g l e , o r a f t e r reaching t h e i r home ] ] 450 ( f r o m B r o o k e ' s J o u r n a l , q u o t e d i n A d a m s : l b i d ] , p . 1 7 4 ) The r e d u c t i o n o f a b l o o d y b a t t l e t o columns o f s t a t i s t i c s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l imperial p r a c t i c e , i s c l e a r l y a special device f o r " t i d y i n g up" an a f f a i r , w h i l e c o n c o m i t a n t l y e a s i n g one's conscience] Cobden, i n t h e House o f Commons, was o u t r a g e d : ( c o n t i n u e d Page 115) :  115^ most innocent and weak and g u i l t y o f the most a t t r o c i o u s crimes." That i s , he made the f a m i l i a r s i m p l i s t i c d i v i s i o n i n t o "the good" and  "the had" which l i e s a t the base o f the western concept o f  j u s t i c e , based as i t i s i d e a l l y on c o n f l i c t r a t h e r than consensus,  on p o l a r i z a t i o n i n t o a t o t a l l y r i g h t and a t o t a l l y It becomes obvious, on. r e a d i n g the o f f i c i a l  wrong]  1  and u n o f f i c i a l  l i t e r a t u r e o f the Borneo p i r a c y and Brooke's p o l i c y t h e r e , that images of., the a n t a g o n i s t s were i n c r e d i b l y b l u r r e d and d i s o r d e r e d as d i s t a n c e from the events, both i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l and a r e l a t i o n a l 'sense, i n c r e a s e d . ears - Malays, Dyaks,  A c o n f u s i o n of 'terms r a i n e d upon B r i t i s h  Sakarran, Sarebas, a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , head  hunters, I n h a b i t a n t s of Borneo, p i r a t i c a l marauders] quent c o n f u s i o n of images undoubtedly p e r s i s t e d  The conse-  i n the minds o f  many when an attempt had l a t e r t o be made t o envisage "the Real Malay", and t o d e f i n e h i s " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s both moral and p h y s i c a l " , in the of  o r d e r t h a t the B r i t i s h might s e t about that r e g e n e r a t i o n o f brown race's of the P e n i n s u l a which was the i n e v i t a b l e adjunct the e x t e n s i o n of B r i t i s h  control.  There were, however, concerted e f f o r t s to c l a r i f y and b a l a n c e the image of the Malay peoples as the "most f i e r c e t r e a c h e r o u s i g n o r a n t and i n f l e x i b l e o f b a r b a r i a n s ] "  Trelawney,  ':{Continued from Page 1 1 4 - Footnote 2 ) "The l o s s o f l i f e was g r e a t e r than i n the case of the E n g l i s h at T r a f a l g a r , Copenhagen o r A l g i e r s , and y e t i t was sought to pass over such a l o s s o f l i f e , a s i f they were so many dogs .;] (P.P., S e r i e s I I I , V o l ] l l 8 , p.498) There are undeniable p a r a l l e l s between the B r i t i s h a c t i o n i n Borneo i n 1849 and the Americans i n Vietnam i n the 196"0's] 1  c f ] P e r l s : Ego/ Hunger and Aggression, op] c i t C h a p , y i i ; and S] and L. Rudolph: The Modernity of T r a d i t i o n , o p . c i t . esp. Part 3 , on the t r a n s i t i o n of India's "legal i n s t i t u t i o n s with B r i t i s h r u l e ]  116]  whose messmates such men had been, noted t h a t t h e y were " t r u e t o t h e i r word , generous t o p r o d i g a l i t y , and of i n i m i t a b l e c o u r a g e " - a c h i v a l r o u s r a c e , "devoted t o war, and t o i t s i n s e p a r a b l e accompaniment, women] "-1  A l t h o u g h i t was never as s t r o n g as i t s c o u n t e r p a r t  in  c o n t i n e n t a l I n d i a d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , t h e r e was a t r a d i t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d s c h o l a r s h i p , c e n t e r i n g on i n t o the n a t i v e p e o p l e o f M a l a y a , i n nineteenth  century  enquiry  t h e second q u a r t e r o f the  - a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h l o o k e d back t o Marsden,  R a f f l e s and Crawfurd,and was c o n t i n u e d  l a t e r by a d m i n i s t r a t o r -  s c h o l a r s l i k e l o w , Major McNair, Swettenham, C l i f f o r d Winstedt] was  I have a l r e a d y spoken o f a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t  something c o n g e n i a l  predispose monstrous  and there  i n the Malay c h a r a c t e r which tended t o  the B r i t i s h towards o v e r l o o k i n g sins against c i v i l i z a t i o n ]  some of t h e i r more  Many came t o b e l i e v e t h a t  t h e l e s s a t t r a c t i v e s i d e o f the Malay n a t u r e was due t o c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r European n a t i o n s ,  ( t h e Portuguese and Dutch,who were  m a n i f e s t l y i g n o r a n t o f the a r t o f d e a l i n g w i t h n a t i v e  peoples),  and t h a t the Malay i n h i s n a t u r a l s t a t e was a f a r more amiable and e n l i g h t e n e d  creature]  ( T h i s l a t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n was  scarcely  s u r p r i s i n g . s i n c e the o n l y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n d i c a t i o n of e n l i g h t e n ment seemed t o be a d i s p o s i t i o n t o welcome the E n g l i s h ] ) T h i s i n v o l v e d a c o n t r a d i c t i o n which i s w o r t h  noting]  P e t e r B e g b i e , who was one o f the B r i t i s h army o f f i c e r s  who  u t i l i z e d h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a y i n the E a s t f o r f r u i t f u l h i s t o r i c a l p u r p o s e s , wrote an account of the Naning War o f Trelawney:  Adventures of a Younger Son, op]-cit„p.353-4,  1831, p.357.  117. which a c t u a l l y comprises  a f a i r l y comprehensive a n a l y s i s of  Dutch a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Malacca,  a g e n e r a l review of B r i t i s h  r i g h t s i n Naning, the s t o r y of the founding of Singapore,  and  a broad  In  The  survey of the h i s t o r y and customs of the Malays]  Malayan P e n i n s u l a , he compared a N a n i n g i t e p l o t to set the  Dutch town of Malacca on f i r e i n 1644  with a s i m i l a r plan  con-  c e i v e d by the Roman Mutius,which had always been regarded  as an  T  a c t of heroism.  But  Italian",'commented  "Had  Mutius  Begbie,  l i v e d l a t e r and been termed an  "or had the a c t i o n been recorded  a Malay, the same f o r c e o f p r e j u d i c e would have l i n k e d e p i t h e t of t r e a c h e r y w i t h the deed.  of  the  L a t e r , however, he  was  to condemn the "turbulence and d i s a f f e c t i o n " of the N a n i n g i t e s i n opposing B r i t i s h r u l e , and  sang the g l o r i e s of B r i t i s h  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which had brought  only plenty and p r o s p e r i t y to  a l a n d of t r a d i t i o n a l poverty;' ' 1  The l a c k of s c h o l a r s h i p was a l circumstances. the o l d Johore-Lingga spheres  p a r t l y the r e s u l t of p o l i t i c -  The Anglo-Dutch t r e a t y of 1824,  in splitting  empire i n t o separate B r i t i s h and Dutch  of i n t e r e s t , d i v o r c e d the B r i t i s h from d i r e c t contact  w i t h Java, Sumatra, and the i s l a n d s of the A r c h i p e l a g o w i t h a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s , and t h i s i s o l a t i o n was  i n t e n s i f i e d by  the  t r a d i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the C u l t u r e System i n Java a f t e r 1830;  The B r i t i s h were a l s o cut o f f from the Malay  P.J. Begbie:  The Malayan Peninsula (p]'56,  p]l54)  I t was noted (above page 101) a l s o t h a t many of the e a r l y works of Crawfurd, R a f f l e s , Logan and other s c h o l a r s , were unobtainable by the l a s t q u a r t e r of the century.  us: h i n t e r l a n d s t a t e s by the East India Company's r i g i d p o l i c y of non-intervention,and Singapore  and  A f t e r 1833,  were c o n f i n e d to the modern sea-ports of  Penang, and  the d e c l i n i n g settlement of  even t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the S t r a i t s  Malacca.  Settlements  d e c l i n e d when the Company l o s t i t s monopoly of the China Apart from the monographs of men Anderson, (of x^hose P o l i t i c a l and  l i k e Begbie and  trade; John  Commercial C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  R e l a t i v e to the Malayan P e n i n s u l a a l l but a few  copies were  r e p u t e d l y destroyed by Government order,because  i t was  highly  • c r i t i c a l of the Company's d u p l i c i t o u s treatment  of the  Raja  o f Quedah, •'-jmost of the Malay s c h o l a r - a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h i s p e r i o d found  an o u t l e t f o r t h e i r t a l e n t s i n the J o u r n a l -of the-  2 I n d i a n A r c h i p e l a g o and E a s t e r n A s i a ,  which was  edited i n  Singapore  by James Logan, e x - p l a n t e r , newspaper e d i t o r ,  agent and  ethnologist;  Most o f the a r t i c l e s i n Logan's J o u r n a l  were f a i r l y  stolid  customs and  e x p l o r a t i o n of the P e n i n s u l a and  But,  e n q u i r i e s i n t o the geography,  languages,  i t s inhabitants.  as f a r as images of Malaya are concerned,  f u n c t i o n of these a r t i c l e s , and  the main  those which appeared i n c o l l e c t -  i o n s l i k e J.H'. Moor's Notioes on the Indian A r c h i p e l a g o Adjacent  law  C o u n t r i e s , was  and  to e s t a b l i s h , by l o o k i n g c l o s e l y at the  w r i t i n g s o f Europeans i n contact w i t h the A r c h i p e l a g o i n e a r l i e r  1 J . Anderson: P o l i t i c a l and Commercial C o n s i d e r a t i o n s R e l a t i v e to the Malayan" P e n i n s u l a and the B r i t i s h , S e t t l e m e n t s i n the S t r a i t s of Malacca. (.Prince„of Wales I s . 1 « 2 4 ; , f a c s i m i l e r e p r i n t i n J.M.B^.R;A . S"., Vol.XXXV, Part IV, Dec. 1962; See John B a s t i n ' s " I n t r o d u c t i o n " f o r the circumstances surrounding p u b l i s h i n g of Anderson's book; The J o u r n a l was p u b l i s h e d 1847 to 1859^ r  2  119.  c e n t u r i e s , that although Malays had and  had  thus spread  earned a l i v i n g  long been a maritime people  over the whole A r c h i p e l a g o ,  from the sea  not a l l of them  (whether l e g a l l y or i l l e g a l l y ) -  Crawfurd, f o r example, expanded upon the f i f t e e n t h Portuguese w r i t e r , de B a r r o s ,  century  to conclude t h a t  The Malay n a t i o n may be d i v i d e d n a t u r a l l y i n t o three c l a s s e s - the c i v i l i z e d Malays, or those who possess a w r i t t e n language, and have made a decent progress i n the u s e f u l a r t s ; the g y p s y - l i k e fishermen c a l l e d "the sea p e o p l e ; and the rude h a l f savages ( q u a s i meois salvages) who f o r the most p a r t l i v e p r e c a r i o u s l y on the produce of the f o r e s t . 1  H  The  " c i v i l i z e d " Malays were to be found I n h a b i t i n g the  s i d e and and  the  eastern  i n t e r i o r of Sumatra,and the seaboards of Borneo  the Malay P e n i n s u l a ;  The  sea gypsies,on  the other hand,  ... are to be found s o j o u r i n g from Sumatra to the Moluccas the only h a b i t a t i o n s of these people are t h e i r boats and they l i v e e x c l u s i v e l y by the produce of„the sea, or by r o b b e r i e s they commit upon i t . They were g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as the laut",  the l a t t e r  "orang l a u t " or  the A r a b i c word f o r s u b j e c t , s i g n i f y i n g  dependence on the p r i n c e s of the c i v i l i z e d Malays"^  The  wandering savages" i n h a b i t e d the i n t e r i o r of the Malay and  Sumatra;  "rayat-  they were c a l l e d  o f the woods", " w i l d men" f o l l o w e r or dependant^ (In passing,  "their "rude  Peninsula  "orang utan", ( l i t e r a l l y  "men  or "savages") or " s a k a i " which means  1  the S a k a i s 1  a t t r a c t e d a good d e a l of a t t e n -  t i o n from the amateur e t h n o l o g i s t s and  anthropologists  of  Crawfurd: D e s c r i p t i v e ^Dictionary..(London, Bradbury and Evansj1 8 5 6 , p. 250 f f . ) The d i c t i o n a r y was a c o m p i l a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n h i s previous volumes on the A r c h i p e l a g o . See h i s e n t r i e s f o r 'Malays and 'Malay Peninsula.' 1  120]  pseudo-Darwinian  England.  c u r i o u s ambivalence  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e r e was a  i n a t t i t u d e s t o these n o m a d i c , a b o r i g i n a l  p e o p l e s o f i n l a n d Malaya]  On t h e one hand, they were seen as  t h e most p r i m i t i v e b a r b a r i a n s , w o o l l y - h a i r e d animals  scarcely  more developed  their  than t h e apes who shared t h e i r name;  demise,as such,would  be a l o s s t o s c i e n t i s t and m i s s i o n a r y  z e a l o t , b u t t h e i n e v i t a b l e was s c a r c e l y t o be regretted.'  On  t h e o t h e r , they were d e p i c t e d as a Malayan v e r s i o n o f "noble savage",  pure, u n t a i n t e d c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g E d e n i c games i n t h e  t r o p i c a l Malayan j u n g l e s " c o n t e n t and happy i n t h e s o l i t a r y grandeur of the primeval forests.'"  As s u c h , t h e i r d i s a p p e a r a n c e ,  i n t h e p a t h o f Malay encroachment upon t h e i r r i g h t s , would be r e g r e t t e d by a n a t i o n a l r e a d y f i r m l y grasped between t h e jaws of  t h e i n d u s t r i a l monster, t h e Juggernaut o f P r o g r e s s , a l t h o u g h  i t was hoped t h a t t h e b e n i g n i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h Government xvould s e c u r e them some measure o f p r o t e c t i o n from Malay o p p r e s s i o n and  imposition;)  1  See Cameron: Our T r o p i c a l P o s s e s s i o n s , op] c i t ; , p; 1.24-125. And compare W a l l a c e : The Malay A r c h i p e l a g o , o p v c i t . , e s p . h i s c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , Vol]. I I , p . 2 b 2 2 8 b ] "We should now c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e t h e f a c t , t h a t t h e w e a l t h and knowledge and c u l t u r e o f t h e few do not c o n s t i t u t e c i v i l i z a t i o n , and do n o t o f themselves advance us towards " t h e p e r f e c t s o c i a l s t a t e . " Our v a s t m a n u f a c t u r i n g system, o u r g i g a n t i c comme r c e , o u r crowded towns and c i t i e s , support and c o n t i n u a l l y renew a mass o f human misery^and crime a b s o l u t e l y g r e a t e r than-has ever e x i s t e d b e f o r e . They c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n i n l i f e - l o n g l a b o u r an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g army ... who ..'.'.are worse o f f than t h e savage i n t h e m i d s t o f h i s t r i b e . . . I b e l i e v e t h a t the, c i v i l i z e d man can l e a r n something from t h e savage man ..; as r e g a r d s t r u e s o c i a l s c i e n c e , we a r e s t i l l i n a State of Barbarism." r  121. In 1850, Logan r e p r i n t e d i n h i s J o u r n a l the work o f F r a n c o i s Valentyn,  ( D e s c r i p t i o n o f Malaka), a Dutch  i n the E a s t , who wrote a t the beginning t u r y , and was r e c o g n i s e d on the whole a r e a . "  missionary  o f the e i g h t e e n t h  cen-  as "the g r e a t e s t European a u t h o r i t y  Valentyn  wrote;  The Malays o f these c o u n t r i e s are commonly c a l l e d orang de bawa angin, i . e . •the people below the wind (to leeward), or e l s e ' E a s t e r l i n g s ' ; w h i l s t those o f the Occident, more e s p e c i a l l y the Arabs, are c a l l e d Orang a i a s 0 a n g i n , that i s , 'people above the w i n d , o r ' O c c i d e n t a l s ' ; t h i s i s n o t t h a t there are no other t r i b e s of t h a t name, but that these two n a t i o n s are the most renowned, the most ingenious and the most c i v i l i z e d o f that r a c e . 1  1  The Malays a r e the most c l e v e r , the most ingenious, and the p o l i t e s t people i n the whole E a s t . They a r e of a r a t h e r p a l e hue and much f a i r e r than other n a t i v e s o f I n d i a , a l s o much k i n d e r , more p o l i t e , and neater i n t h e i r manner o f l i v i n g , and i n g e n e r a l so charming that no other people can be compared to them ... T h e i r women, too, are g e n e r a l l y o f a more e x a l t e d mind than other women o f I n d i a and they e x c e l a l s o i n l o v e l i n e s s and w i t f a r above o t h e r s . ]_ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note how B r i t i s h observers r e l a t e d to the f a c t o f the Arab i n f l u e n c e on the Malays. i n t o the past h i s t o r y o f Malay people, any n a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y  The enquiry  (a necessary  adjunct o f  based on the premise t h a t "you a r e what  you have done"), a t t r a c t e d a good d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n and e f f o r t , and  although  most c o n c l u s i o n s were t e n t a t i v e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y ,  i t was g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the Malays "had a h i s t o r y which shows t h a t , i n p l a c e o f being a poor s p i r i t l e s s body o f t r i b e s ,  1  Logan: J o u r n a l o f Indian A r c h i p e l a g o V o l . IV, 1850, p . 6 9 8 - 7 0 .  and E a s t e r n A s i a ,  122.  they have been from the e a r l i e s t times a race whose e n t e r p r i s e has been widespreading  to a degree" and t h a t , while n o t i n g the  Hindu a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the P e n i n s u l a , the Arab connection been most formative on Malay c h a r a c t e r .  I t was  not always seen  •as a f a v o r a b l e i n f l u e n c e - to t h e i r A r a b i c h e r i t a g e was buted  had  attri-  the Malay p i r a t e s ' b l o o d t h i r s t y l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r l i f e : Besides t h e i r l o v e o f p i r a t i c a l plunder these Malays more than any others were much more under the i n f l u e n c e of t h e i r A r a b i a n teachers and had imbibed to the f u l l the bel i e f that to d i e f o r the r e l i g i o n of the Prophet Muhammed was to there and then e n t e r the Paradise of Islam.'' Crawfurd, w r i t i n g of the "Manner of F o r e i g n S e t t l e r s " i n  the A r c h i p e l a g o , remarked t h a t A r a b i a n adventurers almost  every  had  settled  country a n d , i n t e r - m a r r y i n g w i t h the n a t i v e peoples,  had  "begot a mixed and numerous r a c e . "  met  on t h i s "common t h e a t r e " , he wrote,  Of a l l the n a t i o n s which  ... the Arabs are the most ambitious, i n t r i g uing and b i g o t t e d . They have a s t r e n g t h of ' c h a r a c t e r which p l a c e s them above the simple n a t i v e s ... to whom, i n matters of r e l i g i o n , they d i c t a t e w i t h that arrogance w i t h which the meanest of the countrymen of the prophet c o n s i d e r themselves e n t i t l e d to conduct themselves. 2 Much l a t e r , Ambrose Rathborne was  to w r i t e of the Malays t h a t :  T h e i r t r e a c h e r y , cunning and a b s o l u t e d i s r e g a r d f o r human l i f e i s due to t h e i r  -  _ See N.J. Ryan: . Malaya Through Four C e n t u r i e s : An Anthology 1500-1900 (London, Oxford U. Press, 1959, p.19 f f . ) r e f e r r i n g to the^Achinese a c t u a l l y . G. F i n l a y s o n : The M i s s i o n to Siam and Hue (London, 1826) l i k e n e d the " r o v i n g u n s e t t l e d l i f e " , and " d i s t a s t e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s " of the Malays to t h a t of the "more savage b a n d i t t i of the A r a b i a n d e s e r t . "  2  J . Crawfurd:  P.139)  H i s t o r y of Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , o p . c i t . ,  (Vol.1.  123.  Arabian a n c e s t o r s , who introduced the Mohammedan r e l i g i o n , which i s answerable f o r the f a t a l i s m and the looseness of t h e i r marriage ties. ^ I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , h o w e v e r , that Rathborne o f f e r e d t h i s a t i o n more i n the way h i s own;  by the  of pardoning  inform-  the Malay f o r s i n s not  really  ' s i x t i e s i n f a c t , one w r i t e r could d i s p e l  images - of b a r b a r i a n and  i n f i d e l (- i n p a r t a t least.)  a n c i e n t p r a c t i c e of p i r a c y was,  after a l l ,  both  The  a c c o r d i n g to John  Cameron, a s i n f o r which the Malays might be excused,since i t "has  to be l a i d at the doors of a s e a - f a r i n g p o p u l a t i o n , f o r  whose shortcomings  even i n our own  to make c o n s i d e r a b l e allowances." Englishmen were more i n c l i n e d  country we  are accustomed  Moreover,  mid-century  to look f a v o r a b l y upon the Muslim  r e l i g i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when they r e c a l l e d  the i d o l a t r o u s  caste-bound Hindu b e l i e f s which had proven to be such a b a r r i e r to the progress and A. Rathborne:  2  3  (p.58-59)  enlightenment  of the n a t i v e s of I n d i a .  Camping and Tramping i n Malaya,  op.cit.  Cameron: Our T r o p i c a l Possessions, o p . c i t . , p.128. c f . Wallace: The Malay A r c h i p e l a g o , passim, observing t h a t "Man has means.of t r a v e r s i n g the sea which animals do not possess; and a s u p e r i o r race has power to press out or a s s i m i l a t e an i n f e r i o r one", was impressed w i t h the m a r i t i me e n t e r p r i s e and h i g h e r c i v i l i z a t i o n of the Malays, which had enabled them to c o l o n i z e neighbouring r e g i o n s , and which a p p a r e n t l y c r e a t e d a f u r t h e r a f f i n i t y between the Malays and m i d - V i c t o r i a n Englishmen. Note again Boulding's c o n t e n t i o n that messages c o i n c i d i n g w i t h our own value system w i l l be more r e a d i l y r e c e i v e d . P i n l a y s o n : The M i s s i o n to Siam and Hue, o p . c i t . , p.69. And yet note the R e s i d e n t s ' frequent a s s e r t i o n l a t e r t h a t "the Malays as a race d e t e s t change. 'Let our c h i l d r e n d i e . r a t h e r than our customs' i s a f a m i l i a r saying ... which has but l i t t l e of e x a g g e r a t i o n . " ( C l i f f o r d : Proc. R o y a l . C o l . Inst.,  1898-9, P.371)  124. (They a l s o compared f a v o r a b l y  In t h i s r e s p e c t w i t h the " c i t i z e n s  of the C e l e s t i a l Empire" whose "immutable laws f o r b i d a l t e r a t i o n i n the customs of t h e i r upholders. contrary  eagerly  The Malay race on the  adopt improvements.")  In f a c t , i t was w i t h a  f e e l i n g a k i n t o r e l i e f that Anglo-Malayan w r i t e r s began t o note that t h e i r s u b j e c t s were f o l l o w e r s of the Prophet.  Moreover,  Mohammedanism i n the Malay s e t t i n g was seen to be somehow l e s s pernicious.  Lieutenant  Newbold a t t r i b u t e d t h i s to the f a c t  that t h e i r r e l i g i o n resembled more the simple mode o f the Arab than "the Musselman o f Hindoostan t a i n t e d and contaminated by the admixture o f many Hindu observances" and that being  descen-  dants of the Arabs, " t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the r u l e s o f Islam i s more constant Others f e l t  and r e g u l a r than the Muhammedans o f I n d i a . "  1  that i t was p r e c i s e l y because t h e i r Mohammedanism  was not pure t h a t i t was t o l e r a b l e . The Malays o f the S t r a i t s ... were converted t o the f a i t h of Mahommed i n the t h i r t eenth century; but whether i t be t h a t t h e i r conversion was not a t f i r s t complete, and that many o f the e a r l y s u p e r s t i t i o n s were l e f t behind, or that i t i s simply the r e s u l t o f degeneracy, c e r t a i n l y the d u t i e s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n seem to s i t very l i g h t l y upon the great b u l k of them. Another wrote that the Malays "are nominally  Mohammedans but  '  have none o f the f a n a t i c i s m o f that sect i n A r a b i a . " 1  p  I t was  Cameron: Our T r o p i c a l Possessions, o p . c i t . . p.128. " I t i s t r u e that when they accumulate a f o r t u n e , which very few o f those i n the S t r a i t s ever do, they expend a p o r t i o n ot i t i n a t r i p to Mecca, but t h i s i s s c a r c e l y an i n d i c a t i o n o f great p i e t y ; i t i s r a t h e r a d e s i r e , by c o n s i d e r a b l e temporal s a c r i f i c e to make up f o r a good many s p i r i t u a l shortcomings, both past and p r e s e n t . "  2 Bickmore:  Travels  i n the East  Indian A r c h i p e l a g o ,  op.cit.,  P.33-34; c f . Swettenham: Real Malay! "A Study i n Shadows" p.l6l; and Rathborne: Camping and Tramping, o p . c i t . . p.58.  125. g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t t h e i r sins, at l e a s t the s i n s of those  who  were uncorrupted  have  "by the v i c e s of the other p o p u l a t i o n s who  crowded i n upon them, were not heinous, of  and were c h i e f l y  those  omission". Whatever the reason the B r i t i s h i n Malaya i n c r e a s i n g l y  drew comfort  from the f a c t that many of the concomitants  of  the Mohammedan r e l i g i o n and the A r a b i c t r a d i t i o n which they had  d i f f i c u l t y a c c e p t i n g i n other r e g i o n s w e r e ?  sent i n Malaya.  modified or  V i c t o r i a n gentlemen could s c a r c e l y be  had ab-  other  than g r a t i f i e d to note t h a t , though t h e i r r e l i g i o n permitted i t , few Malays had more than one w i f e , and though d i v o r c e laws were i n c r e d i b l y l a x by E n g l i s h standards,  there " s u b s i s t s a s i n c e r e  and g e n e r a l l y l a s t i n g attachment" between man men  and w i f e .  The  moreover "are f a r more g a l l a n t than the n a t i v e s of the  other p a r t s of the East, and Observations  those they l o v e , they a l s o r e s p e c t . " !  of t h i s kind were g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d by  upon the p e a c e f u l d o m e s t i c i t y of Kampong l i f e  ("and  reflections i t i s indeed  r a t h e r to these than to the crowded s t r e e t s of our towns t h a t we  must go f o r a glimpse  marital bliss,  i n t o the l i f e  of these people") -  upon which V i c t o r i a n m o r a l i z e r s placed  h i g h value, a p p a r e n t l y accompanied the g r e a t e r freedom  such accorded  the women of Malaya by t h e i r spouses, a freedom which, nonethel e s s , they d i d not abuse: They are s t r o n g l y attached to t h e i r homes and f a m i l i e s , and there i s probably no more  1  !  Cameron: Our T r o p i c a l Possessions, o p . c i t . , p.130. c f . Crawfurd: . H i s t o r y of Indian A r c h i p e l a g o , o p . c i t . , V o l . 1 , p.95 "The f u n e r a l s of the Indian I s l a n d e r s who are Mahommedans are conducted with a decent solemnity, without clamour and ostentation."  126. p l e a s i n g p i c t u r e of s o c i a l happiness than i s presented by many of the Malay hamlets ... the women are constant and f a i t h f u l and a f t e r marriage esteem t h e i r v i r t u e t h e i r c h i e f ornament. Both parents are kind to t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and govern r a t h e r through a f f e c t i o n than f o r c e , the r e s u l t being that o l d age i s w i t h them an honoured e s t a t e . T h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n of Kampong l i f e was  to r e a c h i t s z e n i t h  under the pen of Hugh C l i f f o r d , but i t became a f a m i l i a r image w i t h most B r i t o n s w r i t i n g about the Malays.  Clifford's  and  'bad' were Kampong and court - to the l a t t e r i t was  the  c r o s s o f S t . George was  'good' that  sent out from B r i t a i n to "yet another  b a t t l e w i t h the g r e a t dragon - the four-headed dragon of C r u e l t y , Ignorance, S e l f i s h n e s s , and S t u p i d i t y , " to r e l i e v e the lower c l a s s e s of the p o p u l a t i o n of "the heavy hand of m i s r u l e which  2 f e l l most c r u s h i n g l y " upon them.  Perhaps  more " o b j e c t i v e " observer than those who and governed she was the  I s a b e l l a B i r d was  a  a c t u a l l y l i v e d with  the Malay people - f o r whatever  reason, a t l e a s t ,  l e s s i n c l i n e d , t h r o u g h o u t the account of her journey i n  N a t i v e S t a t e s , t o i d e a l i s e the doings of e i t h e r B r i t i s h or  Malays, and the image she l e a v e s i s worth n o t i n g ,  especially  s i n c e i t draws t o g e t h e r the s t r a n d s I have noted i n these pages:  1  '  :  Cameron: i b i d , p.129, 131. There i s something p a t h e t i c a l l y i r o n i c i n Cameron's a p p l i c a t i o n of the wordu"estate" to the p o s i t i o n of the aged i n Malay s o c i e t y , but i t i s a n . e x c e l l ent i l l u s t r a t i o n of the power of the medium (language) to impose i t s own l i m i t a t i o n s upon i t s user, c f . Swettenham: Real Malay, p.262. " I t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine any s t a t e of human e x i s t e n c e more t y p i c a l of p e r f ect peace, of i d y l l i c s i m p l i c i t y , of warmth and c o l o u r , and the p l e n t y bestowed by a super-abundantly f r u i t f u l Nature, than that presented by a Malay r i v e r i n e hamlet." Clifford:  Proc. Roy.  Col. Inst.,  1898-99, p.372, p.385.  The Malays undoubtedly must be numbered among c i v i l i z e d people. They l i v e i n houses which are more or l e s s t a s t e f u l and s e c l u d e d . They are w e l l c l o t h e d i n garments of both n a t i v e and f o r e i g n manufacture; they are a s e t t l e d and a g r i c u l t u r a l people; they are s k i l f u l i n some of the a r t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the working o f g o l d and the damascening of k r l s e s ; the upper c l a s s e s are to some extent educated; they have a l i t e r a t u r e , even though i t be an imported one, and they have possessed f o r c e n t u r i e s systems of government and codes of land and maritime laws which, i n theory at l e a s t , show a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of enlightenment. Miss B i r d : The Golden Chersonese And The Way T h i t h e r , 1«8T~  "Have the Malays any s p e c i a l h a b i t s ? " I c h a v e o f t e n been asked. The q u e s t i o n e r has c o n t i n u e d : " I suppose they are a l l d r e a d f u l l y f i e r c e men, w i t h w i l d eyes, and armed w i t h l o n g k n i v e s ? " "Whatever makes you say t h a t ? " ."Well, i t ' s what I've r e a d . Why only r e c e n t l y I heard of - what do you c a l l i t ? - a Malay running amuck and k i l l i n g s i x people. D r e a d f u l , d r e a d f u l ! Could the average Englishman only r e a l i s e the exceeding g e n t l e n e s s o f the Malay, could he see him i n h i s house w i t h h i s w i f e , or p l a y i n g w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n ; could he t a l k w i t h him and note h i s p l e a s i n g l y s o f t a c c e n t s ; could he watch him s t r i d e the roads - head e r e c t , neck w e l l p o i s e d , one of Nature's gentlemen; could he meet w i t h the c o u r t e s y which the Malay w i l l bestow on a l l - he would revise his opinion. R i c h a r d J. H. Sidney, M.A., F.R.G.S.: In B r i t i s h Malaya Today (1927)  127. The theory of government ( a b s o l u t e despotisms, modified by c e r t a i n r i g h t s of which no r u l e r s i n a Mohammedan country can a b s o l u t e l y d e p r i v e the r u l e d , and by the a s s e r t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s by the c h i e f s ) does not c o n t a i n anything i n h e r e n t l y v i c i o u s , and i s well-adapted to Malay circumstances. Whatever i s e v i l i n p r a c t i c e , * i s r a t h e r c o n t r a r y to the theory than i n accordance with i t . The States undoubtedly have f a l l e n i n many ways i n t o e v i l case; the p r i v i l e g e d f e w , c o n s i s t i n g of the rajahs and' t h e i r numerous c h i l d r e n , oppressing the under p r i v i l eged many, l i v i n g i n i d l e n e s s on what i s wrung from t h e i r t o i l . The Malay sovereigns i n most cases have come to be l i t t l e more than f e u d a l heads of bodies of i n s u b o r d i n a t e c h i e f s ; while even the headmen of the v i l l a g e s take upon .themselves to l e v y taxes and a d m i n i s t e r a s o r t of j u s t i c e . Nomadic c u l t i v a t i o n , c ^ i s l i k e of systematic labour and g e n e r a l /security have f u r t h e r imprverished the people ... In any  event,  although  the t r a n s i t i o n contained many  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , a n d images were r a r e l y as c l e a r c u t as an attempt to  o u t l i n e them i n " t h e s i s - f o r m " might imply,  i t appears that  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , the n e c e s s i t y of which Kiernan draws a t t e n t i o n to  1  2  i n The Lords  2  of Human Kind, d i d occur, although  I s h a l l argue  She i n s t a n c e s debt s l a v e r y , f o r c e d labour and the oppressive taxes. I. B i r d : Golden Chersonese, o p . c i t . , p.26: (Note t h a t on p.19 she had i n s t a n c e d t h e i r " s e t t l e d and a g r i c u l t u r a l " h a b i t s as evidence of t h e i r m e r i t i n g i n c l u s i o n amongst " c i v i l i z e d people.") A devout C h r i s t i a n , she could not r e s i s t adding: ."while Islamism e x e r c i s e s i t s usual f r e e z i n g and r e t a r d i n g i n f l u e n c e , producing f a t a l i s o l a t i o n which to weak peoples i s slow decay." G e n e r a l l y speaking,the B r i t i s h were s c a n d a l i z e d by the indulgence a f f o r d e d the r o y a l sons of Malaya; not s u r p r i s i n g l y , C l i f f o r d wrote: "Can there be room f o r wonder that with such an up-bringing the young r a j a developed i n t o something not u n l i k e a Nero?/ ... wanting even a l o v e of a r t to weave a c e r t a i n h a l o of romance about h i s v i c e s and c r u e l t y . " (Proc. Roy. C o l . I n s t . , 1898-99, p.375-6); See a l s o J.M. G u l l i c k ' s c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s i s of Rajah Abdul Samad of Selangor: "A C a r e l e s s , Heathen, P h i l o s o p h e r ? " (J.M.B.R.A.S., Vol.26, P t . I , 1953, P.86 f f . ) Quoted above p. 12-13.  128. below (Part 6) t h a t I t was not wholly a t r a n s i t i o n w i t h time and  circumstance as Kiernan suggests, but one which the  i m p e r i a l i s t must make a t a l l times as he n e c e s s a r i l y and  divides h i s world^in  order  defines  that he may c o n t r o l i t by  ruling i t .  *  *  *  There i s one p o i n t to make i n passing  about the i l l u s t r a -  t i o n s accompanying Anglo-Malayan l i t e r a t u r e f o r these,  as much  as the worded d e s c r i p t i o n s that accompanied them, conveyed the images which would be h e l d by t h e i r  readers.  "In d e s c r i b i n g people and c o u n t r i e s h i t h e r unknown," as one w r i t e r remarked, "no d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by pen w i l l equal one c o r r e c t drawing."  The tendency of many c o l o n i a l authors to  a n g l i c i z e the c o l o n i a l s e t t i n g , that occurred of empire i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century  i n other  as Englishmen s t r u g g l e d to  f a m i l i a r i z e t h e i r new surroundings, may be n o t i c e d  i n Malaya.  I t was the same process to which Crawfurd unconsciously when d e s c r i b i n g the " h o s p i t a b l e  outposts  and elegant  referred  mansion" of the  Governor o f Penang, (named S u f f o l k , a f t e r F r a n c i s L i g h t ' s  birth  country): ... the taste of Mr. P h i l l i p s has rendered i t the most b e a u t i f u l spot o f the kind i n I n d i a , a f t e r Barrackpore,... i t i s , i n short, an E n g l i s h gentleman's park, where clove and nutmeg t r e e s ... are s u b s t i t u t e d f o r oak, elms and ash. 1 Crawfurd: J o u r n a l of an Embassy t o the Courts of Siam and Cochin China^ (London, 1830) p.15. The B o t a n i c a l Garden and the Museum, both f a m i l i a r i m p e r i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e p r e sent an attempt t o preserve n a t i v e f l o r a , fauna and a r t i f a c t yet by reducing and c o n f i n i n g them t o order and manageability w i t h i n the garden border and d i s p l a y case.  THE  'I J I . M B A N G  H A U L I N G  P A S T  129  The a n g l l c i z a t i o n of the environment may not have been e n t i r e l y intentional on the part of the author.  Marryat,  regretting the f a i l u r e of the Admiralty, i n f i t t i n g out survey vessels, to supply a professional draughtsman, noted that "the engravings which have appeared i n too many of the Narratives of Journeys and Expeditions give not only an imperfect, but even erroneous, idea of what they describe." This was due to the fact that the hasty pencil sketch from an impractised hand was commonly made over to an a r t i s t to reduce to proportion, from him i t passes over to the hand of an engraver, and an interesting plate i s produced by t h e i r j o i n t labours. But i n this making up, the character and features of the individual are l o s t , or the scenery i s composed of foliage not indigenous to the country, but introduced by the a r t i s t to make a good picture ... ^ Swettenham also grappled with the problem of presenting r e a l i t y , recognising the l i m i t s of both pen and brush i n r e producing nature, but f e e l i n g very strongly the "...wish, i n the heart of the beholder, that h i s joy should be shared by those he loves, by those to whom such a scene would appeal as i t does to him."  Although he was a f r a i d that the r e s u l t could  be " l i t t l e more than a caricature of the beauty which so s t i r r e d his f e e l i n g s , " he concluded that " i n even i n d i f f e r e n t hands" i t was possible to "catch a f a i n t semblance of the r e a l i t y , and give, sometimes pleasure, sometimes a grain of i n s t r u c t i o n . . . " 1  p  2  Marryat: op.cit. p.v-vi. Marryat's book i s interesting f o r "by my not doing any duty on board at one time, and at another' by my having been discharged into hospital ship at Hong Kong," he found time to complete his own drawings, having intended o r i g i n a l l y to publish them without commentary on the voyages of the H.M.S. Samarang. Swettenham:  Real Malay, p.263-4.  .130,.. Indeed apart from the o c c a s i o n a l token palm t r e e , many of  the "Malayan" s e t t i n g s looked remarkably l i k e the  of  the Lake D i s t r i c t  or the South o f France.  whether anyone i n England was  had  forests  It i s doubtful  any i d e a what the Malayan j u n g l e  r e a l l y l i k e u n t i l photography, w i t h a l l i t s c a p a c i t y f o r  destroying i l l u s i o n ,  1  t u r e , a t the very end  was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Anglo-Malayan of the century.  litera-  I t i s my impression  t h a t i t was a l s o p a r t l y an attempt t o convey g r a p h i c a l l y the image of a land being brought s l o w l y but to  civilization.  success  s u r e l y from anarchy  I t d i d not accord w i t h B r i t i s h hopes f o r the  o f t h e i r c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n i n Malaya, t o d e p i c t t h e i r  subjects i n anarchic s e t t i n g s .  The tendency t o r o m a n t i c i z e  i d e a l i z e the environment was r e f l e c t e d  in illustrations  and  too;  but even the E n g l i s h i m a g i n a t i o n was s o r e l y t e s t e d when r e q u i r e d to  d e p i c t the "Garden o f Eden".  of  t h i s i s W.H.D. Adams  1  "60 i l l u s t r a t i o n s " accompanying h i s  • of  The  study  p  Eastern Archipelago.  takably o r i e n t a l ,  Perhaps one o f the b e s t examples  While c e r t a i n l y strange and  they have an order and  unmis-  even t r a n q u i l i t y about  them which c o n t r a s t s markedly w i t h e a r l i e r f o r e b o d i n g  mystery  Compare e.g. H. Norman's photographs i n Peoples and P o l i t i c s of the Far East ( 1 9 0 1 ) w i t h Cameron's drawings i n Our T r o p i c a l Possessions i n Malayan I n d i a ( 1 8 6 5 ) . See M a r s h a l l McLuhan": Understanding Media, op.cit.,.Chap.20, "The Photograph", f o r the " t r a n s f o r m i n g power o f the photo. ...) Swettenham: i b i d . d i s p l a y s a s u s p i c i o n o f the photo "whose comparative exactness ... o f t e n conveys a poorer i d e a of a scene than an i n d i f f e r e n t l y p a i n t e d sketch," a f a c t which, t o Swettenham, "gives encouragement, and some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t o an a c c u r a t e and t r u t h l o v i n g observer, who h o n e s t l y t r i e s , w i t h however l i t t l e success, t o share h i s p l e a s a n t experiences w i t h those who may never have the o p p o r t u n i t y o f seeing w i t h t h e i r own eyes...." W.H.D. Adams: The E a s t e r n A r c h i p e l a g o : A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the scenery, animal.and vegetable l i f e , people, and p h y s i c a l wonders o f the I s l a n d s i n the E a s t e r n Seas. (London, Nelson, 1880).  131-,.  and darkness,  and which has l i t t l e  photographs of Malayan scenery.  i n common with the l a t e r  " I n t e r i o r of a Dyak Hut"  ( f a c i n g p.136) f o r example, f o r a l l t h a t the women are barebreasted and  otherwise o b v i o u s l y " n a t i v e " , p o r t r a y s a s t u d i e d  d o m e s t i c i t y - the men  t a l k amiably and two are a c t u a l l y r e a d i n g .  "Bamboo T h i c k e t " ( f a c i n g p.110) might a l s o be "The Hay o r i e n t a l s e t t i n g , and looks remarkably  "Natives of New  Guinea"  Wain" i n  ( f a c i n g p.476)  l i k e Arthur Rackham's f r o n t i s p i e c e to The V i c a r  of Wakefield. *  *  The r o l e of Singapore  #  i n images of Malaya i s important  f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s the B r i t i s h attempt  to supply the Malayan  image w i t h those outward and v i s i b l e signs of  "civilization"  which the Malayan peoples had m a n i f e s t l y f a i l e d to provide - a l a c k to which they a l l u d e d when they spoke of "her unheroic past  .."  Malaya has played an exceedingly i n s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n the drama of e a s t e r n h i s t o r y . I t s jungles h i d no r u i n s of great c i t i e s of past empires. There never has been an era of proud distinction. Java ... Cambodia ... Burma ... Ceylon ... each of these lands has nourished great c i v i l i z a t i o n s . Malaya has dreamed away the c e n t u r i e s ... 1 Singapore was R a f f l e s had  indeed a white man's c i t y .  From i t s beginning  e n v i s i o n e d that t h i s small settlement should and  become "the Venice of the East", and he was of the l a c k of enthusiasm  determined,regardless  i n i t i a l l y shown by the Home Government,  1 Kirkland:  could  F i n d i n g the Worthwhile i n the O r i e n t , o p ; c i t .  132,. to rescue t h i s " c l a s s i c a l spot" from i s o l a t i o n and and e s t a b l i s h i t permanently  oblivion,  as such i n the minds of Europe and  England. I s h a l l say nothing of the importance which I a t t a c h to the permanence of the p o s i t i o n I have taken up at Singapore; i t i s a c h i l d of my own ... i t i s my i n t e n t i o n to ... devote the remaining years of my stay i n the East to the advancement of a colony which i n every way i t can be viewed, b i d s f a i r to be one of the most important and a t the same time, one of the l e a s t expensive and troublesome which we possess. Our o b j e c t i s ... a g r e a t commercial emporium. As l a t e r w r i t e r s t e s t i f i e d ,  the r a p i d i t y and success of  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h i s swampy l a n d , i n h a b i t e d by a few p i r a t i c a l Malay fishermen, i n t o a f l o u r i s h i n g , b u s t l i n g port and cosmopolitan c i t y was achievements  one of the most  of the B r i t i s h i n the E a s t ;  free  remarkable  i t was  frequently  felt  t h a t i t would have s u r p r i s e d even R a f f l e s t o have r e t u r n e d i n the l880's to gaze upon the "crowd of s p l e n d i d s h i p p i n g , the churches, the p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and o f f i c e s " and a l l the other evident s i g n s of " c i v i l i z a t i o n " . they compared i t ,  2  T h i s was  the more so when  as they almost i n v a r i a b l y d i d , w i t h the  g e n t i l e l y - d e c a d e n t ex-Portuguese  and Dutch Colony of Malacca  and the p i c t u r e s q u e , b u t commercially l e s s - c h a l l e n g i n g , p o r t of Penang-. Whether they represented the image i n terms of Singapore Harbour - P. and 0. Company Shipping i n the Roadstead - P r o j e c t e d new'docks Chinese junks - Malay Prahus - P u b l i c B u i l d i n g s -  1  R a f f l e s to Duchess of Somerset, June 1819; Anecdotal H i s t o r y , o p . c i t . , p.5-6.  from Buckley:  From a speech by Weld, u n v e i l i n g a s t a t u e of R a f f l e s i n Singapore i n 1887, from Egerton: R a f f l e s , o p . c i t . . Chap.XV. "The Man and H i s Work."  133 v Crowded S t r e e t s - Commercial Square - Crowd of B o a t s ' - Busy Wharves - N a t i v e Shops - Chinese Trades - Opium Shops - I t i n e r a n t Vendors - S t . Andrews C a t h e d r a l - C o u r t House - Town H a l l or i n exhaustive t a b l e s of s t a t i s t i c s  showing i n c r e a s i n g amounts  2 of t r a d e p a s s i n g through the p o r t ,  almost every account of the  B r i t i s h experience i n Malaya i n c l u d e d a chapter or two Singapore as p o r t and  c i t y , a l l of which supported  on  the s t e r e o -  typed image of the almost f a n t a s t i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n of R a f f l e s ' dream.  T h i s was  no  "small t r a d i n g s t a t i o n ,  s c a t t e r e d about  a r i d coast, t r a f f i c k i n g w i t h a b o r i g i n e s f o r g o l d dust and and p l a n t i n g , at b e s t , a few "the c e n t r e of commercial, between Europe,  coconuts  an  ivory  and o i l - p a l m s " - i t was  t e l e g r a p h i c and n a v a l communications  I n d i a , China, Western, Northern and  North-Eastern  Australia." 3 And commercial  y e t , w h i l e i t undoubtedly  grew i n t o a f l o u r i s h i n g  c e n t r e a n d a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of those Europeans ?  (and Chinese) whose image of the town extended i t s commercial  potential,  no f u r t h e r than  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether Singapore  became a g r e a t c e n t r e of s o c i e t y i n the n i n e t e e n t h century.  ever As  one w r i t e r put i t as e a r l y as the l 8 4 0 ' s : Singapore, l i k e a l l new settlements i s composed of so mixed a community, that t h e r e i s but l i t t l e h o s p i t a l i t y , and l e s s g a i e t y . Everybody i s w a i t i n g to a s c e r t a i n what i s to be h i s p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y , and t i l l then i s a f r a i d of committing h i m s e l f by f r i e n d l y i n t e r c o u r s e ;  1 2  3  Taken from chapter headings of Cameron's Chapters I I and I I I on Singapore i n Our Tropical Possessions, op.cit. See e.g. Begbie: The Malayan Peninsula, op.cit., opp. p.386; and Cameron, i b i d . , Chap. VII. F. Weld:  Proc. Roy. Col. I n s t i t u t e : V o l . XV,  1883-4, p.266.  134....  moreover everybody i s too busy making money ... The consequence i s , but few p a r t i e s a r e g i v e n and a b a l l i s so r a r e that i t becomes the s u b j e c t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n f o r months ..." ^ While French c i v i l  servants and c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s may  have found cosmopolitan Singapore a v a s t improvement over the s o c i e t y o f Saigon, as one proud Englishman expressed any r e a l enthusiasm Singapore, bankers,  observed, few w r i t e r s  beyond n o t i n g that the s o c i e t y o f  " i n i t s r e s t i v e s i g n i f i c a t i o n " comprised  officials,  lawyers, p h y s i c i a n s and army o f f i c e r s , and centred on  an a r i s t o c r a c y o f European merchants.  The n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n was  one, Whampoa, a Chinese merchant, who gave " e x c e l l e n t d i n n e r s and very agreeable p a r t i e s " and whose "champagne i s p a r t i c u l a r l y approved  of".  Even John Cameron, who found much t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the d e c i d e d l y l a n g u i d l i f e ation,  s t y l e o f Singapore's European p o p u l -  (estimated a t only 800 persons  i n 1864), noted that "The  people o f Singapore must a p p r e c i a t e what long experience taught the Dutch i n Java, that heavy d i n n e r p a r t i e s a r e s c a r c e l y  suited  1  :  :  Marryat:  :  o p . c i t . , p.213.  2 Marryat: i b i d . , p.213. c f . Cameron, Our T r o p i c a l P o s s e s s i o n s , op.cit.: "The community i s a very s m a l l one. There a r e not I t h i n k over f o r t y f a m i l i e s who aim t o form a p a r t o f s o c i e t y , and i f I might o f f e r an o p i n i o n on so d e l i c a t e a s u b j e c t , I t would be t h a t , among so few, a more g e n e r a l , even l e s s i n t i m a t e i n t e r c o u r s e should s p r i n g up." Cameron's i s the best and most d e t a i l e d account o f S i n g a p o r e . s o c i e t y on the eve<of B r i t i s h i n t e r v e n t i o n on the P e n i n s u l a . See esp. Chap.10. The images evoked by h i s chapter d i v i s i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . "No f i e l d f o r European l a b o u r - Case i n I l l u s t r a t i o n s - None f o r Advent u r e r s - Social Distinctions - Society i n i t s r e s t r i c t i v e s i g n i f i c a t i o n - i t s c o n s e r v a t i v e n e s s - i t s expensive h o s p i t a l i t y - i t s composition - p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t c o l o u r - s t y l e of l i v i n g - g e n e r a l l u x u r y - A Day's scenery - B r e a k f a s t - D r i v e to Town - Business - T i f f i n - F i v e s Court - The Band - D r i v e Home - Dinner - I t s S u b s t a n t i a l Nature - A f t e r Dinner Amusements." c f . Parkinson, B r i t i s h I n t e r v e n t i o n , o p . c i t . , Chap.I.  :13.5.. e i t h e r t o the c l i m a t e or to the purse of s e t t l e r s anxious to push t h e i r way  to f o r t u n e " , and he was  particularly  of the r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e evidenced i n the European the town;  e s p e c i a l l y he noted  critical  s o c i e t y of  ...  One of the c h i e f of these impediments appears to be an i n s u p e r a b l e , though somewhat o v e r - s e n s i t i v e , o b j e c t i o n taken to a l l who are descended from the people of I n d i a , no matter how remote the descent; and i t has happened more than once a t a b a l l , t h a t one lady has r e f u s e d to dance o p p o s i t e another because her v i s - a - v i s was s l i g h t l y d a r k e r than h e r s e l f i n complexion. There can be no r e a l n e c e s s i t y f o r such extreme s e n s i b i l i t y as t h i s ... Nor d i d Singapore "present any f i e l d  f o r the i n d u s t r y  and e n t e r p r i s e of the working c l a s s at home, ... to adventurers of a l l s o r t s Singapore i s a most u n l i k e l y f i e l d  ..."  The m u c h - t r a v e l l e d , i f e c c e n t r i c , Miss B i r d was disenchanted w i t h the s o c i e t y of "the p a r - b o i l e d in  1  frankly  community",  1879. As Singapore i s a m i l i t a r y . s t a t i o n and ships of war hang about c o n s t a n t l y , t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l of f l u c t u a t i n g s o c i e t y and the o f f i c i a l s of the S t r a i t s Settlements are numerous enough t o form a l a r g e s o c i e t y of t h e i r own. Then t h e r e i s the merchant c l a s s , E n g l i s h , German, French and American; and there i s the u s u a l round of g a i e t y , and of the  1  Cameron: i b i d . , p.288. The town was d i s t i n c t l y d i v i d e d i n t o European, Malay, Chinese.and Indian s e c t i o n s , the former l i v i n g two or t h r e e m i l e s out of the town g e n e r a l l y . There was l i t t l e a s s i m i l a t i o n except perhaps among the wealthy merchant c l a s s of the v a r i o u s r a c e s , and of these Miss B i r d was to note "Not a Malay or a K l i n g has r a i s e d h i m s e l f e i t h e r as a merchant or i n any o t h e r c a p a c i t y t o wealth or d i s t i n c t i o n i n the colony ... (Golden Chersonese, o p . c i t . , p . l l 6 . ) (The S u l t a n of J o h o r e , . i t should be noted, was almost as famous f o r h i s l a v i s h p a r t i e s as Whampoa.) See a l s o P a r k i n s o n : i b i d , p.14. 1  136,. amusements which make l i f e The European  intolerable ...  n l  l a d i e s of Singapore were p a r t i c u l a r l y  maligned,  Marryat, perhaps m i s s i n g the easy a s s o c i a t i o n o f the " P r e t t y Dyak girls,  very s c a n t i l y clothed",remarked  "some good l o o k i n g g i r l s or  on parade  that though  there were  i n Singapore", i t was "only a t church  that a s t r a n g e r o b t a i n s a glimpse of them."  Prudery, he regretted,was the order of the day and was c a r r i e d to  such an extent from n o n - i n t e r c o u r s e t h a t " a t a f a r e w e l l  ball  g i v e n to the Cambrians, the women would only p o l k a and waltz w i t h each other ..." Miss B i r d had only a l i t t l e sympathy f o r them. I t h i n k that i n most of these t r o p i c a l c o l o n i e s the l a d i e s e x i s t only on the hope of going "home". I t i s a dreary aimless l i f e f o r them - s c a r c e l y l i f e only e x i s t e n c e . The g r e a t est s i g n of v i t a l i t y i n Singapore Europeans that I can see i s the f u r i o u s hurry i n w r i t i n g f o r the m a i l ... the h u r r y Is desperate and even the f e e b l e Englishwemen e x e r t themselves f o r " f r i e n d s a t home" ... 3 1  ' ~~ Miss B i r d : i b i d , p.110-111. See 0. Cavenagh: passim, and Lady A l i c e L o v a t : passim, f o r an impression of the r a t h e r t e d i o u s o f f i c i a l s o c i e t y surrounding the comings and goings of a n a v a l - m i l i t a r y c e n t r e i n the second h a l f of the century. A l s o , H. C l i f f o r d , ( I n Court and Kampong, p.170), was aghast at the Malay p r a c t i c e of cage-gaols and concludes: "And y e t , a l l these t h i n g s happened and a r e happening today, w i t h i n shouting d i s t a n c e o f Singapore, w i t h i t s churches, and i t s ballrooms, i t s s o c i e t i e s f o r the p r e v e n t i o n of c r u e l t y , i t s m i s s i o n a r i e s , i t s d i s c o n t e n t e d e x i l e d Europeans, i t s h i g h standards, i t s poor p r a c t i c e , i t s loud t a l k , and i t s boasted civilization."  p Marryat: 3  o p . c i t . , p.213.  I. B i r d : op.cit., "To judge from the f l u r r y and excitement and d r i v i n g down t o the p o s t - o f f i c e a t the l a s t moment, and the commotion - one would suppose the m a i l to be an u n c e r t a i n event o c c u r r i n g once i n a year or two, r a t h e r than the most r e g u l a r of weekly f i x t u r e s ! The incoming m a i l i s a l s o a g r e a t event, though i t s p u b l i c and commercial news i s a n t i c i p a t e d by f o u r weeks by the t e l e g r a p h . . . " , .. , __ , (continued page 118) Q  I t i s only i n the European p a r t of Singapore, which i s d u l l and sleepy l o o k i n g . No l i f e and movement congregate around t h e i r shops. The merchants, hidden away behind j a l o u s i e s i n t h e i r o f f i c e s , or dashing down the s t r e e t i n covered buggies, make but a poor show. T h e i r houses are mostly p a l e , roomy, detached bungalows, almost hidden by the b o u n t i f u l v e g e t a t i o n of the c l i m a t e . In these t h e i r wives, growing p a l e r every week, l e a d h a l f - e x p i r i n g l i v e s , kept a l i v e by the e f f o r t s of u b i q u i tous punkah-wallahs", w r i t i n g f o r the m a i l the one a c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n . At a g i v e n hour they emerge, and d r i v e i n g i v e n d i r e c t i o n s , s p e c i a l l y round the esplanade, where f o r two hours a t a time a double row of handsome and showy equipages move c o n t i n u o u s l y i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s . The number of c a r r i a g e s and the s t y l e of d r e s s . o f t h e i r occupants are s u r p r i s i n g , and yet people say t h a t l a r g e f o r t u n e s are not made these days i n Singapore! Besides the d a i l y d r i v e the l a d i e s , the o f f i c e r s , and any men who may be d e s c r i b e d as of "no o c c u p a t i o n " , d i v e r t themselves w i t h k e t t l e drums, dances, lawn t e n n i s , and v a r i o u s other d e v i c e s f o r k i l l i n g time, and t h i s w i t h the mercury a t 8 0 ° ! Just how the Maharajah of Johore, Sovereign of a s m a l l s t a t e on the nearest p o i n t of the mainland, a man much p e t t e d and admired by the B r i t i s h Government f o r unswerving f i d e l i t y to B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s , has a house here, and h i s r e c e p t i o n s and d i n n e r p a r t i e s vary the monotonous round of g a i e t i e s ....  Miss B i r d : The Golden Chersonese and the Way T h i t h e r  137*  For her i t was the natives who monopolized "the picturesqueness of Singapore with t h e i r bizarre crowds." It i s a l l fascinating! Here i s none of the indolence and apathy which one associates with Oriental l i f e , and which I have seen i n Polynesia: These yellow, brown, tawny, swarthy, o l i v e - t i n t e d men are a l l intent on gain; busy, industrious, frugal, s t r i v i n g . . . . " -j_ And, strangely i n view of the prevailing d i s l i k e of the Indian population of the S t r a i t s Settlements, both Miss Bird and Mrs. Innes commented upon the c l a s s i c a l grace of the Kling women and the absurdity of the steadfast adherence to European in t r o p i c a l Singapore.  styles  Perhaps such i d e a l i z a t i o n ,  .... a beautiful object, c l a s s i c a l i n form, exquisite i n movement, and a r t i s t i c i n colouring, a creation of the tropic sun, made admiration possible from afar.  At any rate both were, from  the position of t h e i r firm exclusion from Singapore society, able to wonder what the Kling woman thought .... of the pale European, paler f o r want of exercise and engrossing occupation, who steps out of her carriage i n front of her, an ungraceful heap of poufs and f r i l l s , tottering p a i n f u l l y on high heels, i n tight {.Footnote 1 continued from page 117) cf. Interleaf above; Note also the d i s l i k e the Residents generally evidenced f o r the telegraph (below, part 6 ) ; — a fact which, given Mannoni's d e f i n i t i o n of the imperialist as one reluctant to have to communicate with his own kind, throws some l i g h t on the commonly held view that the presence of white women per se tends to increased imperial/racial c o n f l i c t i n the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n . 1  B i r d : i b i d . And yet she noted that despite a l l the a c t i v i t y and earnestness "the swarthy faces have no expression that I can read and the dark, l i q u i d eyes are no more i n t e l l i g i b l e to me than the eyes of oxen." It was Oriental i n s c r u t a b i l i t y , "the Asian Mystery" a l l over.  i'3a». boots, her figure distorted into the shape of a Japanese Sake b o t t l e every movement a struggle, the clothing u t t e r l y unsuited to this or any climate, impeding motion, and a f f e c t i n g health, comfort and beauty a l i k e . .  n i  But, f o r a l l the nascent " c i v i l i z a t i o n " of Singapore, i t s image was s t i l l l a r g e l y derived from nature, from the fabulous opulence of the scenery, on the one hand: (...such a wealth of gold and green giving off fragrance! Here too are treasures of the heated c r y s t a l seas - things that one has dreamed of a f t e r reading Jules Verne's romances. Big canoes, manned by dark-skinned men i n white turbans., and l o i n cloths floated round our ship or lay poised on the clear depths of the aquamarine water with f a i r y f r e i g h t s - forests of coral white as snow ... to eyes which have seen only the yellow skins and non-vividness of the Far East, a world of wonders opens at every step...) p  or,  on the other hand, f o r those who looked beyond the immediate  l i m i t s of the town, from tales of man-eating  t i g e r s , crocodiles,  monkeys and the ever-encroaching t r o p i c a l jungle. The sense of this mixture of c i v i l i z a t i o n and fable i s perhaps best expressed i n Cameron's description of Singapore at  1 2  3 ,  Miss B i r d : i b i d . , p . l l 6 . Miss Bird's f i r s t impression, t y p i c a l of f i r s t views of Singapore ... See H. Norman: op.cit., p.547-8. "The jungle i s a world:bf i t s e l f ... No human foot has ever pressed i t : ... A l l the .strange green things that the r i c h warm earth produces and the t r o p i c a l sun and r a i n nurse into exuberance are engaged in a desperate struggle f o r existence ... But the chief impression ... must be that of i t s marvellous nearness to the days of creation. It i s man i n his garden, scarce awakened as yet From that sleep that f e l l on him when woman was made, The new-finished garden i s p l a s t i c and wet From the hand that has fashioned i t s unpeopled shades.  139.< night: I t i s a very f i n e s i g h t from the beach to see these houses l i t up a t n i g h t , the b r i l l i a n t argland lamps i n use shedding a f l o o d o f l i g h t around the l o f t y white p i l l a r s and colonnades of the upper s t o r i e s , w h i l e the lower p a r t s of the b u i l d i n g s a r e h i d by the shrubbery of the gardens i n f r o n t . Every door and window i s thrown open to admit the c o o l n i g h t breeze and gathered round t h e i r t a b l e s , or l o l l i n g about i n t h e i r easy c h a i r s , may be seen the wearied t r a v e l l e r s or r e s i d e n t s , w i t h the strange, o f t e n g r o t esque f i g u r e s of t h e i r n a t i v e servants f l i t t i n g about w i t h refreshments. Indeed on a f i n e s t a r r y n i g h t , standing t h e r e , on the sea-wall o f the bay, w i t h the s t i l l n e s s broken by the g e n t l e r i p p l e of the wavelets at one*s f e e t , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o imagine o n e s e l f amid the garden p a l a c e s of the A r a b i a n Nights .... 1 I have t r i e d  to a v o i d suggesting r i g i d  chronological  order, o r cause and e f f e c t , or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of image A to image B a t p o i n t C i n space and time.  There were as many images  of "Malaya" as t h e r e were people who thought a t a l l of the r e g i o n f r e q u e n t l y elements of these images c o n t r a d i c t e d each o t h e r . enquire a f t e r p r e c i s e images,and  To  t h e i r "causes",of "our Malayan  p o s s e s s i o n s " i n the broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t h i s study i s an i n j u s t i c e t o the reader and t o those who h e l d them. if  I must g e n e r a l i z e t h e n I would 5  s t a t e t h a t Malaya,  But  perhaps  more than any colony, r e s i s t e d that c l o s u r e of geography and focus of r e l a t i o n a l image attendant on the wider e x p l o r a t i o n o f the globe i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, remaining i s o l a t e d and remote even f o r those Europeans who had come i n t o " d i r e c t c o n t a c t " w i t h i t whether as t r a v e l l e r s , merchants,  1  Cameron:  op.cit., p.72.  s c i e n t i s t s or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  140,. and n a v a l o f f i c i a l s .  Even the work of Malayan s c h o l a r s ,  enemies of ambiguity and ignorance, d i d l i t t l e  arch-  t o overcome t h i s  f e e l i n g - p a r t l y because they were so few and narrowly read,and p a r t l y b e c a u s e , i n some Toynbean  sense, perhaps, the c h a l l e n g e  of the Malayan environment was beyond  them.  And t h i s was as much because "observers", i n g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree,wanted especially  i t that way.  For, Penang, Malacca and  Singapore n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Malaya ( p a r t i c u l a r l y  P e n i n s u l a r Malaya), w i t h i t s orang-utans, and t i g e r s , and k r i s e s , tropic  I t s sarongs  i t s v a s t e q u a t o r i a l j u n g l e r e c e s s e s and g l i t t e r i n g  seas, remained Robinson Crusoe's i s l a n d f o r an i m p e r i a l  n a t i o n and i t s sons at home and abroad. went t o Malaya i n the n i n e t e e n t h century; it  .  Very few Europeans even fewer sought  out as a c e n t r e of c i v i l i z a t i o n and the s o c i e t y o f other  Europeans.  Part Five :  Intervention Revisited  .141,. At home i n B r i t a i n there was to be focussed upon Malaya.  l i t t l e reason f o r attention  In an era noted f o r i t s "surpassing  love of economy", a colony which paid f o r i t s e l f was receive a great deal of attention. in the  unlikely to  As one observer noted  later  'eighties: ...this colony i s getting on so well that there i s no occasion even f o r a Parliamentary question about i t . . . i f you had to go to the market to t r y to scrape a loan for a few m i l l i o n s , or were testing the ingenuity a'nd-resources of Cabinets and Parliaments to say how your colony would be governed,then we should hear plenty about you.  And although c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s occasionally expressed  vexation  that "a colony not only r e l a t i v e l y but absolutely the richest of a l l the Crown Colonies under the B r i t i s h f l a g " should receive so l i t t l e attention i n the metropolis, and that many newspapers professedly devoted to c o l o n i a l interests never f i n d room f o r even a"passing glance" for  1  at i t s a f f a i r s , i t remains true that,  the most part,they were jealous of the freedom that this  lack of the f i e r c e l i g h t that beats upon the Throne gave them. "Red-tapeism" was anathema to men more inclined to act f i r s t account l a t e r .  and  As Isabella Bird remarked:"A Crown Colony where  the Government has i t a l l i t s own way must be the Paradise of officials  1  ..."  ...in this town (London) I do not speak with the same freedom as I do i n the jungle of the Malay Peninsula, where there i s nobody to * ~~~~ Proc. Roy. Col. Inst.: 1883-4. Chairman responding to S i r Frederick Weld's address. See also An Index to Events Relating to India and the East referred to i n "The Times" between 1»50 and 1889 inclusive (Printed by order of Sec, of State f o r India in Council, June 1893.)  142. . contradict me, but the r e a l reason i s that in the Malay States we have had as l i t t l e red tape as possible, and we have done a good many things that, i f we had been working i n an old-established and recognized Colony, I have no doubt we should not have been allowed to do. -j^. It must be remembered that Malaya was a very small part of the c o l o n i a l Empire of a country, which f o r a l l the emphasis placed upon European imperial expansion i n the l a s t quarter of the century, was s t i l l more than preoccupied with domestic p o l i t i c s , and with Ireland, and only secondarily concerned to maintain,in " c o l o n i a l Europe", that balance of power her d i p l o matists hoped to achieve i n Europe while e s s e n t i a l l y  remaining  aloof from a f f a i r s i n that continent. The confusion surrounding  the decision to intervene i n  the native Malay States, p a r t i c u l a r l y Kimberley's apparent volte face i n the summer of 1873,  which has involved historians  of Malaya i n a massive amount of very detailed and exhaustive research, may be seen simply as the consequence of imperfectly formed and c o n f l i c t i n g images held by metropolitan  officials,  r e s u l t i n g l a r g e l y from i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge about the region at a time when a decision could no longer be postponed. Generally speaking neither Parliament nor the Foreign Office displayed any interest i n the whole question of B r i t a i n ' s . r e l a t i o n s with the Native Princes of the Peninsula. Frederick Rogers, the Permanent Under-Secretary A f f a i r s f i r s t broached the subject i n 1867,  1~~  When  f o r Colonial  as part of a general 1  Isabella B i r d : Golden Chersonese, op.cit., p.112. Swettenham: Proc. Roy. Col. IniT., Vol. XXVII, p.312, 1895-6.  143:... enquiry into the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the entire imperial f r o n t i e r , Lord Stanley, the Foreign Secretary, had replied that he found i t a l l "rather an i r r i t a t i n g and troublesome matter," and his Permanent Under-Secretary  had commented:  "Let the Colonial Office adopt their own rules."  The Foreign  Office was anxious only to avoid giving c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s , noted f o r t h e i r over-zealousness,  a chance to meddle with native  policy, thus involving the Home Government " i n quarters of which we cannot see the end."  1  Even the Colonial Office had small reason to give any serious thought to the Native Malay States i n 1867.  Its chief  preoccupation was with the revenue of the S t r a i t s colony;  fear  of a new drain on the exchequer had been the main obstacle to the transfer from the India O f f i c e which was broached a decade previously.  As the f i r s t Colonial Secretary to deal with the  Malay States, Buckingham simply accepted the p o l i c y of "nonintervention ... unless," which was inherited from the India Office,along with a bundle of papers'among which Charles Cox, head of the Eastern Department of the Colonial Office, discovered a few that were "interesting & instructive as regards our relations and d i f f i c u l t i e s with Native Princes."  When Rogers  1  ~~ ~~ " See Minute by Rogers, 19th February, 1868 on Ord to Buckingham, 3rd Nov. I 8 6 7 , CO/273/13. Notes by Stanley and Hammond with CO. to F.O. 17 March, 1868. Foreign Office f i l e s Siam correspondence. F.O./69/47 and F.O. to C.O. 25 March I869. CO/273/23, quoted i n Mclntyre: " B r i t i s h Intervention in Malaya"(J.S.E.A.H., Vol.2, No.3, Oct. 1961) p.51. cf. C l i f f o r d : Bushwacking p.36-37.  2  Minute by Cox, 1 July, 1867  1867, CO/273/15.  on India,office to CO., 6 June  144.,, drafted his instructions f o r Governor Ord i n 1 8 6 7 , he deleted the heading " P o l i t i c a l Relations" and wrote nothing i n i t s place. ^ Important i n the consideration of the formation of metrop o l i t a n images, moreover, i s the fact that sources of information were e r r a t i c and biassed, and the Colonial Office frequently had a most imperfect knowledge of the events upon which i t was presumably deciding policy.  Often f i r s t intimation of trouble  came from l e t t e r s to The Times, or petitions from  Singapore  merchants and t h e i r London agents,whose special pleading generally led them to exaggerate t h e i r picture of events i n Malaya, or from questions asked i n the House by Opposition backbenchers eager to embarrass the Government on subjects about which i t knew the l a t t e r to have only a vague knowledge.  A good  deal of the Governor's correspondence about the Malay States was obviously not sent home by Ord; Clarke preferred to act f i r s t and send i n h i s dispatches much l a t e r ;  and l i k e almost a l l  c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s of the time, Anglo-Malayans resented the intrusion §f the telegraph upon t h e i r privacy,and reacted to i t in a way that would have delighted Marshall McLuhan. Daily, deep i n his heart, he thanks God that he i s not linked to the telegraph. In the eyes of the men who do t h e i r country's work on the outskirts, telegraphy, seen i n the l i g h t of a b i t t e r experience, i s the most abominable of human i n v e n t i o n s . Fettered to the l i t t l e t i c k ing instruments by miles of thin wire, a man loses a l l power of i n i t i a t i v e : the passion f o r personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which had so much to do  1  Draft instructions dated 6 Feb. 1867, a f t e r Treasury to GO.  26 Jan. 1867, CO/273/16.  1.45 with the f o r m a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s t h a t have made England's r u l e i n A s i a a p o s s i b i l i t y , i s scotched or s l a i n . By the agency of the t e l e graph the man at a d i s t a n c e i s able to o v e r - r i d e the recommendations of the man on the spot - the man, be i t noted, who i s best a b l e to form an o p i n i o n ; by i t s a i d ai.' c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s c r e a t e d which, had i t e x i s t e d from the beginning, would i n f a l l i b l y have choked the l i f e out of our E a s t e r n empire w h i l e i t was s t i l l a puking t h i n g i n swaddling c l o t h e s . ^ In of  any event, as one h i s t o r i a n remarked:  State as he planned h i s f u t u r e moves was  "The  Secretary  rather l i k e a general  going i n t o b a t t l e w i t h poor maps and a weak i n t e l l i g e n c e When Kimberley  became C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y i n J u l y  he o b v i o u s l y had l i t t l e sula.  service. 1870,  knowledge o f , o r i n t e r e s t i n , t h e Penin-  When shown a c o l l e c t i o n of photographs of Malaya sent  him by P r o f e s s o r Huxley, he d e c l a r e d them to be "a hideous  1  2  series";  T h i s q u o t a t i o n , from C l i f f o r d , i s very s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the l i g h t i t throws upon the n i n e t e e n t h century i m p e r i a l i s t s ' i n a b i l i t y to cope with the i n c i p i e n t e l e c t r i c technology w i t h i t s compulsion towards " i n t e r a c t i o n " r a t h e r than mere " a c t i o n " ; p a r t i c u l a r l y i f read w i t h M a r s h a l l McLuhan's e x p l a n a t i o n s of the t e l e g r a p h as e l e c t r i c media, and Mannoni's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the i m p e r i a l i s t p r e f e r s to i n h a b i t "a world without men"- t h a t i s , to a c t r a t h e r than i n t e r a c t . For t h i s reason i t deserves q u o t a t i o n i n f u l l . C l i f f o r d continues, i l l u s t r a t i n g a l s o the dilemma of the i m p e r i a l i s t , a s conserva t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y , c a u g h t between f e a r of f a i l u r e and f e a r of d i s o b e y i n g the v o i c e of a u t h o r i t y . " Were he now i n t e l e g r a p h i c communication w i t h headquarters, the Resident f e e l s sure t h a t he would be bidden to r e t u r n , to abandon an e n t e r p r i s e so hopeless, to confess to the people of the Benighted Land, once f o r a l l , the impotence of the Government ... But i t i s not the l e a s t of the many f a s c i n a t i o n s of these remote p l a c e s t h a t no word of i n s t r u c t i o n s or a d v i c e can r e a c h the e x p e d i t i o n ; and s i n c e the R e s i dent i s t h e r e f o r e a b l e to a c t p r e c i s e l y as he chooses, he determines to make one l a s t attempt ..." Bushwacking, o p . c i t . , p.120-121. McIntyre:  " i n t e r v e n t i o n ..."  op.cit.  146., and he responded  to a rumour,circulated by the Dutch,that the  Maharaja of Johore was about to lease Tioman Island to the North German Confederation as a naval station, with the comment that "the f i r s t step i s to ascertain d i s t i n c t l y where the Maharaja and h i s island a r e . "  1  Kimberley has been described  as having a "rather narrow interest" and "somewhat cynical aloofness from Malay a f f a i r s " but, i n a l l fairness, he probably devoted more time to the Malayan problem than did his successor Carnarvon, and he did attempt to acquire a more balanced picture of the whole s i t u a t i o n when the time came to make a decision, despite his simultaneous preoccupation with the equally timeconsuming matter of Garnet Wolseley's Ashanti expedition i n West Africa.  Before considering the question of proposed  closer  relations with the Malay States, Kimberley did give his department a fortnight to prepare a comprehensive memorandum on the nature of B r i t a i n ' s relationship with the States from the time of the Indian regime, stressing, however, that i t be "so as to be i n t e l l i g i b l e without books or papers."  2  complete  He did c a l l f o r  some of the o r i g i n a l documents and his pencilled adornments on the memorandum indicate that he studied i t quite thoroughly. It i s worth noting that although the Dutch rumour did not bother him i n 1870,because he had no idea where Tioman Island was, the message obviously predisposed him, In Boulding's terms, towards accepting an image of Malaya as s t r a t e g i c a l l y threatened when, i n 1873, another rumour of possible German interest i n Selangor was c i r c u l t t e d by Singapore merchants, although there i s l i t t l e evidence that such an interest ever existed. See Seymour Clarke's l e t t e r to Herbert, 18 July 1873, C0/273/l4; and Rear Admiral Osborn's l e t t e r to Times,12 July 1872, p.12. See Mclntyre:  "Intervention" op.cit., p . 6 6 .  147*., Historians of the period  1867-73, preoccupied  with the  "hen and egg" question of cause and effect, and seeking to exp l a i n the presumed reversal of the avowed policy of non-intervention, have laboured mightily to discover the exact moment of Kimberley*s decision and the precise attitude of the Colonial Secretary to the problem he was faced'; w i t h .  Thus, Parkinson  1  stresses the decisive impact of the a r r i v a l of a p e t i t i o n from Chinese merchants on August 21st  1873,  set against the back-  ground of a r i s i n g tide of imperial fervour and the imminent f a l l of the L i b e r a l Government,which presumably gave Kimberley wider freedom of choice, and concludes  that the reversal occurred  2 between August  21st  and September  20th, 1873.  Cowan feels that  " i t was probably only coincidental that the formal record of his (Kimberley s; •) decision was 1  he i s ambivalent  attached to the Chinese p e t i t i o n " ,  about the role of Seymour Clarke and the  Selangor Tin Company, and concludes  that "the decision to take  some action i n Malaya, and i f necessary to intervene i n the a f f a i r s of the States, was provoked not by conditions i n the Peninsula, nor by any consideration of B r i t i s h economic interests there, but by fear of foreign intervention."3  Mclntyre  that the change took place between early July and  1  2  concludes  22nd July :  (the  '  Mclntyre: "Intervention.." i b i d . , p.66. See E. Chew: "The Reasons f o r B r i t i s h Intervention i n Malaya: Review and Reconsideration (Vol.6, No.I, 1965, J.S.E.A.H.) esp. p.81-82, f o r the e a r l i e r interpretations of Swettenham, Margaret Knowles, A. Wright and T.H. Reid, and Richard Winstedt, which according to Chew, the work of Cowan, Parkinson, and Mclntyre have relegated to "the limbo of historical curiosity .  3  Parkinson:  B r i t i s h Intervention, op.cit.,  p.107-111 esp.  148..,  date of Kimberley's minute on Seymour Clarke's l e t t e r ) , as a r e s u l t of the "coincidence" of several f a c t o r s :  Lieut.-Governor  Campbell's meeting with Kimberley at the same time that the s i t u a t i o n i n the west coast states,(the Larut War),was causing him to change his mind; and Seymour Clarke's production of the u n l i k e l y threat of a German protectorate,which was  "a sort of  p o l i t i c a l blackmail to a sensitive diplomatist l i k e Kimberley, who  immediately f e l t a challenge to B r i t a i n ' s p o s i t i o n as the  paramount power i n Malaya."  1  In 1965,  Ernest Chew reconsidered  the l i t e r a t u r e of intervention and, a f t e r confessing that i t was impossible to discover the precise moment of Kimberley's decision, concluded  that the reversal i n p o l i c y occurred between early  July and the l a s t week of August  1873.  Frankly, a f t e r reading a l l t h i s , (and without going into the question of i t s relevance.) I am l e f t with the  impression  that Kimberley can scarcely have been other than generally confused about what was  actually happening i n Malaya.  Ultimately,  however, as a former diplomatist under Palmerston, his interest  2 was  imperial strategy;  that he continued to conceive of the  Malayan question overwhelmingly i n such terms, despite the various requests, incidents, q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , attempted and actual i n t e r ventions impinging  1  on his image between 1867  ~~  "  may  —  Mclntyre, "Intervention...", op.cit,  2  and 1873,  be  "—  p.68-69.  Kimberley served as Under-Secretary to the F.O. from 1852 to as Envoy to St. Petersburg as Under-Secretary to the F.O. again and as Special Envoy to Denmark I863. In he favoured supporting the Dutch i n the Malay Archipelago to prevent France stepping i n and threatening India and A u s t r a l i a .  I856;  i860,  1859-61;  1856-8;  149*. judged from the summary of the situation which he forwarded to Gladstone with Governor Clarke's instructions on September  1873,-when he  10th,  concluded that the time had f i n a l l y come to make  a statement on what was, f o r him, simply a special instance of that problem of achieving order on the f r o n t i e r of an Empire, by some method that f e l l short of the extension of B r i t i s h sovereignty. He wrote: The condition of the Malay Peninsula i s becoming very serious. It i s the old story of misgovernment of A s i a t i c States. This might go on without any serious consequences except the stoppage of trade were i t not that European and Chinese c a p i t a l i s t s stimulated by the great riches i n t i n mines i n some of the Malay States are suggesting to the Native Princes that they should seek the aid of Europeans ... We are the paramount power on the Peninsula up to the l i m i t of the States tributory to Siam and looking to the v i c i n i t y of India & our whole position i n the East I apprehend that i t would be a serious matter i f any other European Power were to obt a i n a footing on the Peninsula ... 1 Moreover, i t i s my impression that Kimberley did not genuinely f e e l that h i s instructions to Clarke embodied a dramatic reversal of any policy.  People l i k e W.H.M. Read had long hinted hopefully  that the Malay States might be ready f o r a new relationship with  1  Kimberley to Gladstone: 10th Sept. 1873. Gladstone Papers 44225/103. It. i s worth noting Parkinson's contention ( B r i t i s h Intervention, op.cit., p.113), that, even a f t e r the heated dxchange between D i s r a e l i and Gladstone i n January 1874, over whether D i s r a e l i ' s actions i n 1868 or Gladstone's actions i n 1871,had endangered B r i t i s h trade i n the Far East by r e l i n quishing "a treaty which secured us the freedom of the S t r a i t s of Malacca"; " . . . i t i s unfortunately open to doubt whether the problem of the S t r a i t s of Malacca was understood by England, Gladstone or even by D i s r a e l i . There was, i n fact, no more mention of the S t r a i t s after the General Election was over."  150,.,  B r i t a i n , and the Anson Committee and George Campbell had suggested e x p l i c i t l y the appointment of Residents.  After a l l " i n  India, i n many a native-ruled State, i t i s marvellous what work a single well-selected B r i t i s h o f f i c e r has effected ... most native-ruled states i n and around India have such o f f i c e r s and the value of t h e i r influence i s unquestionable."  1  Moreover, Kimberley assured Gladstone that the new instructions "do not actually pledge us to anything, but they imply that some attempt i s to be made to produce a better state of things."  Moreover, they are tentative i n the extreme, and  his tone suggests that, r e a l i z i n g his own i n a b i l i t y to be more d e f i n i t e because of lack of time, first-hand knowledge or i n c l i n a t i o n , Kimberley was prepared to trust Clarke to take the i n i t i a t i v e i n working out a p r a c t i c a l solution to a problem, which, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , he conceded could no longer be postponed.  He asked  Clarke to find out c a r e f u l l y "the actual condition of a f f a i r s i n • each State," implying that,for a l l the mass of reports, petitions and despatches he had attempted to assimilate i n the previous months, he would gladly exchange the sound opinion of one competent observer; and then he suggested the Resident system as a means of promoting "the restoration of peace and order",  1  — —  —  .  Lieut. Governor Campbell reported on the Larut War a f t e r an expedition to the Larut River i n October 1872. Drawing on his Indian experience, he suggested, as a solution to the chaos there, the appointment of a Resident or p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r " to certain of the States, i n a l e t t e r to Ord, 6 Sept:. 1872: See Wilkinson: "Notes on Perak", Papers on Malay Subjects, Vo.l4, (1908), pp. 99-100. And Campbell's Report, dated London, 28 June 1873 (received 3 July '73) CO/273/74. Also Anson Committee Report, 19 May 1871 enc. i n Anson to Kimberley, 3 June 1871, CO/273/47.  without any i t had  sense of i t s being an i n n o v a t i o n , but simply because  a p p a r e n t l y adequately met  of economy and avoidance  the c u r r e n t twin i m p e r i a l demands  of t r o u b l e with the n a t i v e p r i n c e s ,  elsewhere. I should wish you e s p e c i a l l y to c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r : i t would be a d v i s a b l e to appoint a B r i t i s h O f f i c e r to r e s i d e i n any of the S t a t e s . Such an appointment c o u l d , of course, only be made w i t h the f u l l consent of the N a t i v e Government, and the expenses connected w i t h i t would have to be defrayed by the Government of the S t r a i t s Settlements." I t i s my from  impression t h a t , unaware of the i s o l a t i o n of Malaya  the minds of m e t r o p o l i t a n o f f i c i a l s and B r i t i s h  i n g e n e r a l , h i s t o r i a n s have over-estimated Kimberley s 1  involvement  of a widening  empire.  the degree of  i n the problems of t h a t one A g a i n s t my  attention  understanding  of  small part Kimberley•s  image of Malaya, h i s famous i n s t r u c t i o n s to C l a r k e , embodying the "dramatic r e v e r s a l " of p o l i c y from one of n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n to one  s a n c t i o n i n g establishment of the R e s i d e n t i a l system, i  seem s l i g h t l y l e s s than t h a t .  What he i m p l i e d , beneath a good  d e a l of F o r e i g n O f f i c e r h e t o r i c , was come up w i t h a s o l u t i o n t h a t was  t h a t he hoped Clarke could  cheap, would i n t i m a t e to any  other European power that the P e n i n s u l a was s a t i s f y the clamourings all,  "taken", would  of the Singapore merchants, and  above  would avoid the kind of f u s s w i t h n a t i v e Malay peoples which  had t e r r i f i e d B r i t i s h Governments s i n c e Rajah Brooke and the Dyak p i r a t e s , and Maxwell Benson's outraged l e t t e r to The Times  1  "  :  P.P.,  Kimberley  to Clarke, 20 Sept.  1873.  —  —  152., condemning the Selangor intervention as an "act of war", shown  what  had  public outcry could be roused by even the suspicion  that native peoples i n the Archipelago were being tampered  ^ 1 with. Above a l l , the dispatch was a plea that Clarke t r y , as quietly and e f f i c i e n t l y as possible, to remove the rather tedious Malay question from the focus of Foreign Office and metropolitan attention.  Unfortunately, however, Kimberley  overlooked the fact that Clarke, having just seen his solution to  the Ashanti problem i n West A f r i c a rejected i n favour of  Wolseley's more ambitious expedition, and knowing that the L i b e r a l Government was about to f a l l , was l i k e l y to f e e l j u s t i f i e d in impressing doubly with his solutions f o r Malaya;  and that, as  imperialists i n the late nineteenth century, he, and his successors  and t h e i r subordinates i n the Sultan's palaces, must s t r i v e  for  recognition of t h e i r actions and therefore shared precisely r  that determination to put Malaya on the map,  which Kimberley  desired to avoid,but which nonetheless loomed large i n the Malayan imperial experience.  1  Times, Wed. 13th September, 1871, p.9. See Parkinson: op.cit., p.48-60,for an account of this p a r t i c u l a r piece of gun boat diplomacy "which began i n the . pursuit of pirates, and ended with the coercing of the Sultan of Selangor, S t r a i t s government intervention i n a c i v i l war, and p u b l i c i t y f o r the whole a f f a i r i n England." Asked by Gladstone to explain his subordinate's untimely actions, Kimberley f e l l back, with a good deal of melodrama but l i t t l e accuracy, on the f a m i l i a r image: "The Malay pirates are desperate men, and the murders committed on this occasion were most attrocious." Kimberley to Gladstone: 19th Sept. 1871, (quoted i n Mclntyre: "Intervention ...", op.cit. p.59).  Part Six :  Playing at Eden  As I was w r i t i n g these l a s t words, a b e a u t i f u l green c i c a d a w i t h g r e a t eyes and l o n g t r a n s p a r e n t wings, f l e w i n t o the room and dashed s t r a i g h t a t a lamp; In s p i t e o f s e v e r a l severe burns, and a l l my e f f o r t s to save her, she has accomplished h e r — own d e s t r u c t i o n and now l i e s s t a r k dead; the v i c tim,of a new l i g h t which e x c i t e d her c u r i o s i t y and a d m i r a t i o n , but the consuming power o f which she d i d not understand. She would have been w i s e r to remain i n the c o o l moonlit j u n g l e where, a t l e a s t she was a t home w i t h those o f her kind, but the c r e a t u r e s o f the f o r e s t have not y e t learned f;he danger of g i v i n g way to n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s ] . . . c  Swettenham:  The R e a l -Malay  The undeniable f a c t that the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e o f the n a t i v e has l o n g been i n our f a v o u r has b l i n d e d us to i t s c h a r a c t e r as a r e a c t i o n ^ Today that c h a r a c t e r is,, o n l y too apparent and cannot be overlooked Hi'. Mannoni:  Prospero and C a l i b a n  Europeans, a f t e r a few steps i n the darkness you w i l l see s t r a n g e r s gathered around a f i r e ; come c l o s e , and l i s t e n f o r they are t a l k i n g o f the d e s t i n y they w i l l mete out t o your t r a d i n g c e n t r e s and to the h i r e d s o l d i e r s who defend them. They w i l l see you, perhaps, but they w i l l go on t a l k i n g among themselves, without even l o w e r i n g t h e i r voices; T h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e s t r i k e s home; t h e i r f a t h e r s , shadowy c r e a t u r e s , your c r e a t u r e s , were but dead s o u l s ; you i t was who allowed them a glimpse o f l i g h t , to you o n l y d i d they dare t o speak, and you d i d not bother to r e p l y to such zombies^ T h e i r sons ignore you, a f i r e warms them and sheds i t s l i g h t around them, and you have not l i t itNow, a t a r e s p e c t f u l d i s t a n c e , i t i s you who w i l l f e e l f u r t i v e , nightbound, and p e r i s h e d with cold^ Turn and t u r n about; i n these shadows from whence a new dawn w i l l break, i t i s you who are the zombies-^;; Jean Paul Satre i n t r o d u c i n g Franz Fanon: The Wretched o f t h e - E a r t h -  153*. It i s possible to explain the nature of B r i t i s h rule and contact with the Malays i n Malaya i n terms of pure economic and p o l i t i c a l expediency.  Mid-Victorian statesmen, being gentlemen,  had a profound sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and duty.  It was t h e i r  duty to give the colonies good government and t h i s included j u s t i c e f o r the natives as well as protection f o r the white men's commercial i n t e r e s t s .  But the desire f o r good government was  perpetually restrained by the desire to keep down expenses. Nothing could be more apt than Carnarvon's warning to Shepstone in  1877*  "Parliament does not l i k e to be made to pay even f o r  what i t approves ... Your object therefore must be to bear i n mind these two opposite conditions - e f f e c t i v e government and economy - and as f a r as possible to reconcile them."-1  In fact,  t h i s does go a long way towards an explanation of the policy of " i n d i r e c t " rule, of advice without control, which was the ideal behind the Residential system introduced i n the Native Malay States.  But i t should not be permitted to disguise the fact  that, because of that very policy, and because of the i s o l a t i o n of Malaya, the men to whom i t s government was entrusted, played a very s i g n i f i c a n t part i n the actual working out of the Reside n t i a l system and thus i n the nature of contact between the two races.  As J.S. M i l l had recognised ... In the position of the administrators of a dependency where the people are not f i t to have control i n t h e i r own hands, the character of the government e n t i r e l y depends on the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l of  1  _____  Carnarvon to Shepstone: 30 May, 1877, (Private), P.R.0.30 6/23 quoted i n Cambridge History of B r i t i s h Empire, V o l . I l l ,  P.17-18.  the i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n a r i e s  ...  The e a r l y Residents of Malaya, d e c i s i o n to " i n t e r v e n e " was  from 1874,  when the  taken, u n t i l F e d e r a t i o n i n  1895,  were a unique phenomenon i n the h i s t o r y of i m p e r i a l i s m .  In  r e a l i t y they were n e i t h e r n i n e t e e n t h century Empire b u i l d e r s nor Twentieth century c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (though  Clifford  and Swettenham c o n t r i v e d to i n c l u d e both r o l e s i n t h e i r long c o l o n i a l careers.)  Rather, they belonged  i n the t r a d i t i o n of  James Brooke i n Sarawak and Cromer i n Egypt, of B r i t i s h g e n t l e men  sent to put the houses of " n a t i v e p r i n c e s " i n order f o r them.  And  s i n c e the j u s t i c e of such missions was  the time as s e l f - e v i d e n t , l i t t l e  l a r g e l y regarded at  t r o u b l e was  the l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of t h e i r p o s i t i o n . some Malay Residents were a l i t t l e  taken to c l a r i f y ( I t i s obvious  uncomfortable  that  i n the ambiguous  r o l e i n which the e a r l y C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n s t r u c t i o n s l e f t them others, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the passage  of time, came t o r e a l i z e  that h e r e i n l a y i t s p r e c i s e wisdom. )  1  2  ~  J.S. M i l l s : On L i b e r t y , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Government, The Subject of Women (London, Oxford U. Press, 1963) from Chapter XVIII, p.4l8-4l9. ( O r i g i n a l l y published l86l). Allen: "Two I m p e r i a l i s t s " o p . c i t . , p . 4 l . Swettenham wrote i n The Real Malay, A New Method" p.27-28 "The main reason why success has been secured i s t w o f o l d ; f i r s t , because a s u c c e s s i o n of Governors t r u s t e d t h e i r Residents and supported them; and, secondly, because of t h a t very p o s s e s s i o n of l a r g e a u t h o r i t y which was a t once the s t r e n g t h and the weakness of the r e s i d e n t i a l i d e a . " The flaw, i n Swettenham s mind, of "the power f o r mistakes, f o r extravagance, f o r f a v o r i t i s m , " which was " g r e a t e r than should be p l a c e d i n a s i n g l e hand," was removed by Federation. See Cowan: Nineteenth Century Malaya, o p . c i t . , (p.251-2.) f o r Low's correspondence w i t h Robinson f o l l o w i n g the reprimand of Douglas f o r exceeding h i s powers i n Selangor. 1  155 B r i t i s h r e s i d e n t s , whose "advice acted  must be asked f o r  upon on a l l important q u e s t i o n s " w e r e sent  of Perak, Selangor, and  Sungei Ujong i n  1874-5,  Sembilan ( i n c o r p o r a t i n g Sungei-Ujong) and  to the  a n d  Pahang i n  t  ence, the  the Golden Age  1887-8,.intervention.  of Malayan i m p e r i a l  " R e s i d e n t i a l System" operated  Courts  Negri-  o  a process which i s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as B r i t i s h During these years,  and  experi-  fully.  From the f i r s t to the l a s t the t h e o r e t i c a l independence of the States was the governing f a c t o r i n the system evolved i n Malaya. The s o - c a l l e d "Resident" was i n f a c t , a Regent, p r a c t i c a l l y u n c o n t r o l l e d by the Governor or W h i t e h a l l , governing h i s "independent" s t a t e by d i r e c t p e r s o n a l r u l e , w i t h or without the c o o p e r a t i o n of the n a t i v e r u l e r . ^ I t i s 0. is  Mannoni's c o n t e n t i o n  that a c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n  created ... the very i n s t a n t a white man, even i f he i s alone, appears i n the midst of a t r i b e , even i f i t i s independent, so long as he i s thought to be r i c h or powerful or merely immune to the l o c a l f o r c e s of magic, and so long as he d e r i v e s from h i s p o s i t i o n , even though only i n h i s most s e c r e t s e l f , a f e e l i n g of h i s own superiority. 2  I have a l l u d e d b r i e f l y to Mannoni's study of what he  1  :  terms  "the  :  S i r F. D. Lugard: The Dual Mandate i n B r i t i s h T r o p i c a l A f r i c a (London, pp.130-1. See a l s o Emerson: M a l a y s i a l A Study i n D i r e c t and I n d i r e c t Rule, o p . c i t .  1926)  2 Mannoni: Prospero and C a l i b a n , o p . c i t . , p.l8. Clifford's "heart-breaking l i t t l e wars" thus become nothing more than a B r i t i s h demonstration of immunity to l o c a l magic. I t was commonly accepted i n i m p e r i a l thought that a b r i s k show of f o r c e was an e s s e n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y to e f f e c t i v e government of the n a t i v e peoples, j u s t as p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e i s s t i l l w i d e l y considered to be the only c o n c l u s i v e way of p r o v i n g o n e s e l f to be immune to the f o r c e s of l o c a l magic, c f . Swettenham: Real Malay p.17. "A m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n had v i n d i c a t e d the p r e s t i g e of a power h i t h e r t o u n f e l t , and the e x i s t e n c e of which was but vaguely r e a l i z e d . " See page 159 below.  156-.. psychology of c o l o n i z a t i o n " elsewhere, and although t h e r e are c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which must be made, h i s work i s one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the understanding of the i m p e r i a l experience,and appears  to have more than marginal  a p p l i c a t i o n to the n i n e t e e n t h century Malayan s i t u a t i o n .  In  any event, I intend to e l a b o r a t e upon i t i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I f there i s any merit i n such an approach t o i m p e r i a l i s m it  i s because,  customary  as Mannoni p o i n t s out, although i t has been  to see a c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n as a case of the r i c h  dominating the poor, of the weak being under the g u a r d i a n s h i p of the s t r o n g , or of the s y s t e m a t i c e x p l o i t a t i o n of a. d i f f e r e n c e i n standards of l i v i n g , the meeting  i t i s not g e n e r a l l y seen as a case of  of two d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y types and t h e i r  to one another. Resident system  relation  Because of the s p e c i a l circumstances of the i n Malaya,  and the type of people the  were, none of these customary  approaches  Malays  throws a g r e a t d e a l  of l i g h t on the nature of the i m p e r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p - w h i l e p r e c i s e l y these two f a c t o r s suggest that Mannoni's p s y c h o l o g i c a l / p e r s o n a l i t y framework might be a c o n s t r u c t i v e one from which t o seek some understanding.  Although severe M a r x i s t s might  see the Residents as a s e t of f i n a n c i a l adventurers and  l i k e to well-  connected f r e e b o o t e r s whose machinations i n the S u l t a n s ' Courts s e a l e d the f a t e of Malaya f o r e i g h t y y e a r s , i n the main i t was not economic g a i n which motivated them - r a t h e r , as Mannoni suggests, they seem to belong to a type w i l l i n g to f o r e g o p r o f i t f o r the sake of c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s a f f o r d e d by the p o s i t i o n .  157Undoubtedly there were e x c e p t i o n s . f i r s t Assistant-Resident  i n L a r u t was  Captain  Speedy,  the  c e r t a i n l y c a s t i n the  mould of the o l d - s t y l e adventurer, but even he appears to have r e l i e d on h i s w i f e ' s  i n h e r i t a n c e f o r any  financial  independ-  ence he enjoyed,and,having earned, i n the eyes of Governor J e r v o i s at l e a s t , a r e p u t a t i o n f o r extravagance, he  eventually  r e s i g n e d when o f f e r e d a lower post at h a l f the s a l a r y . wealthy Singapore b a r r i s t e r , J.G. Resident, and  had  considerable  Davidson, Selangor's  f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the  Carnarvon, i n the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , had  h i s appointment,on the grounds t h a t he was  first  State,  2  o r i g i n a l l y opposed not  the t r a n s f e r of Davidson's f i n a n c i a l claims  The  1  satisfied  that  to other hands  was  s u f f i c i e n t guarantee of h i s f u t u r e d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s as a public servant. he found he was  Davidson e v e n t u a l l y r e s i g n e d , p a r t l y because running  h i s post at a l o s s .  Douglas' (who  r e p l a c e d Davidson), aided by h i s son-in-law,Daly, bought up some p u b l i c land i n Selangor, a l i e n a t e d h i s S u l t a n , was  reprimanded by the Governor, and was  h i s post f o r tampering w i t h  the Sultan's  Zia'u'din,  f i n a l l y removed from salary.3  I  See  2  3  Gullick:  Pt.2,  1953)  "Captain  Speedy of L a r u t "  (J.M.B.R.A.S..  Cowan:. Nineteenth Century Malaya, o p . c i t . , p.76, Carnarvon to ITervois, b A p r i l 1875, CO/273/76.  139,  Vol.26. 207;  See Cowan: i b i d . , p.247-9, P.250-51; and C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , Singapore, to H.B.M. Residents, (17 May, i n C.O./809/18}: "...the Residents have been placed i n the Native States as a d v i s e r s , not as r u l e r s , and i f they take upon themselves to d i s r e g a r d t h i s p r i n c i p l e they w i l l most a s s u r e d l y be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e i f t r o u b l e s p r i n g s out of t h e i r n e g l e c t of i t . " This divergence between theory and p r a c t i c e was never r e a l l y resolved.  1878,  158*. But  i t appears  t h a t the " b e s t " Residents f e l l w i t h i n  the c a t e g o r y , d e s c r i b e d by Mannoni as "greedy"  f o r something  other than economic p r o f i t .  Those unprepared  to  f i n a n c i a l g a i n , (to a c t l i k e  "gentlemen"),  dismissed from the  r e s i g n e d or were  service.  Dr. Mannoni i s a French p s y c h o l o g i s t who years i n Madagascar, and was 1947,  which was  sacrifice  spent s e v e r a l  there d u r i n g the r e b e l l i o n of  put down by the French w i t h very heavy l o s s e s  to the M a l a g a s i e s .  He  1  i s not a c o l o n i a l h i s t o r i a n , and  he  attempts  no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of wider a p p l i c a t i o n than Mada-  gascar;  he makes no r e f e r e n c e to events  in British  colonial  h i s t o r y , although many seem to support h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n g e n e r a l . In Madagascar he was  s t r i c t l y a b i r d of passage;  he was  not  there long enough to become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h e i t h e r " s i d e " , w i t h the French who  had  the M a l a g a s i e s . anyone c o u l d , who  spent t h e i r l i v e s on the i s l a n d , or w i t h  He looked at both with as much detachment as i s f u l l y aware t h a t "the observer's  of the n a t i v e ' s behaviour  description  i s n e c e s s a r i l y an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  ....  t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a l s o a r e a c t i o n , t h a t of the observer t o the n a t i v e b e f o r e  him."  I t i s t r u e t h a t Mannoni i s d e a l i n g w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r modern c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n - where people from an scientific, j  c o m p e t i t i v e s o c i e t y are suddenly .  individualistic,  i n contact with _ _  0. Mannoni: Prospero and C a l i b a n : The Psychology of C o l o n i a l i z a t i o n (New York, Praeger, 1964, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d as P s y c h o l o g i e de l a C o l o n i s a t i o n ( P a r i s , E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1950). He had p r e v i o u s l y spent s e v e r a l years s t u d y i n g the ethnology o f Madagascar and came to r e a l i z e "there was a background of more d i s t u r b i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems behind the e t h n o l o g i c a l ones."  159*--  people o f a c u l t u r e which may be o l d e r , b u t  i s temporarily  static.  I t i s p a r t of the s i t u a t i o n that the s c i e n t i f i c people have l e f t t h e i r own country and a r e separated  from i t by a sea voyage.  i s t a l k i n g about French c o l o n i a l i s m r a t h e r than B r i t i s h .  He This  1  i s P h i l l i p Mason's main c r i t i c i s m o f Mannoni's t h e s i s - o r r a t h e r , h i s reason f o r m a i n t a i n i n g which must be made before B r i t i s h imperialism.  that there are s t r i c t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s even attempting t o apply  Mannoni to  But g i v e n Mannoni's d e f i n i t i o n of the  " c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n " (page 1 5 5 a b o v e ) , i t  seems that h