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The relations between the British treasury and the departments of the central government in the nineteenth… Boys-Smith, Stephen Wynn 1968

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THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE BRITISH TREASURY AND THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY f  STEPHEN WYNN BOYS SMITH B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Cambridge, 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of HISTORY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY VJF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  thesis  advanced degree at Library  I further for  this  shall  the  his  of  this  agree that  written  University  of  permission  representatives. thesis  f u l f i l m e n t of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  be  available for for extensive  g r a n t e d by  for financial  gain  HISTORY Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada 13,  the  It i s understood  permission.  May  British  1969  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  i i ABSTRACT The tors  object  governing  of the thesis the relations  ments o f t h e c e n t r a l  between t h e T r e a s u r y  Government  s e e k s t o s h o w how n i n e t e e n t h financial period lies  and C i v i l  and  between t h e reforms  century  patronage,  which  century  Treasury  and t h e Departcentury.  control,  was t h e p r o d u c t  of British  It  i n both  of a  unique  administration. This  period  ended t h e s u r v i v i n g and t h e changes  obsolete practices  of the late  nineteenth  saw a new a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l  administration  fac-  o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at the end o f t h e  century, which  political  i n the nineteenth  Service affairs,  i n t h e development  eighteenth  i s t o l o o k a t some o f t h e m a i n  and a weakening  of the hold  of  of the idea  of public  economy. The tion  i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter  by a s i n g l e  of political  practices,  which dates  been t h e most  legal the  patronage from  important  of the late  and medieval  t h e 1780's.  political  was changing this  late  tive  powers.  reflects  role. well  eighteenth  century which and d e p r i v e d  the nineteenth  control  i t s long existent legal  had  i t was  only  c r e a t e d an the Treasury  century, which  of the Department's e f f e c t i v e  The T r e a s u r y ' s  dis-  and though the  The w o r k o f t h e v a r i o u s T r e a s u r y  into  development  Though t h e T r e a s u r y  b a c k t o t h e l66o's,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n amenable t o c o n t r o l , its  of administra-  administrative  o f the Departments,  powers i t e x e r c i s e d dated  reforms  the control  D e p a r t m e n t w a s made p o s s i b l e b y t h e g r a d u a l  appearance  long  s h o w s how  o f t h e Revenue  powers t o s u p e r v i z e  of  officers emphasizes  administraDepartments t h e money  i i i voted  to the  Crown.  They were a b s o l u t e  eighteenth century, relations teenth  and  with other  thus  central  second  chapter  ing public expenditure, the  nineteenth  e c o n o m y was and  on  an  The  integral the  remarks  servants  and  out  w h i c h was  b a s i s of  prestige  of  Treasury  was  very able The  i n fact  to  curtail  the  The  third  administration,  policy,  chapter  s h o w how  the  Treasury the  of great  the  the  the  The in this  way  Treasury  i n c r e a s e s on  discusses the the  field,  political departmental  however  the  autocratic to  inter-  s h o w how  i n which  the  was  expenditure  despite the not  able  emphasis  effectively  commitments once they  t h a t i t became w e a k e r t o w a r d s t h e  which at  was  chapter  i t s business  century,  idea of retrenchment  chapter  Treasury  could c o n s t i t u t ei n t e r f e r e n c e .  i n d i c a t e s the  and  not  pres-  Treasury  the  v a r i o u s examples  looks at  expenditure  economics  relative  small matters  i t was  but  curtail-  the E x c h e q u e r and  E x c h e q u e r and  i n the nineteenth  into, as  felt  of expenditure  This  been entered century  in a position  of high policy  Treasury  rise  on  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  In  in  a l li t s activities  to exercise something approaching  c o n c l u s i o n the  economy.  the  nine-  show t h a t , b e c a u s e p u b l i c  p o i n t , and  important.  i n departmental  on  was  of C h a n c e l l o r s of  sense  role  current thinking  C h a n c e l l o r of the  mere c u r t a i l i n g  did  of  emphasize t h i s  the  authority.  In  I t seeks to  part  i n matters  m i n i s t e r s was Treasury  the  the v a r i o u s weaknesses of  s h o w s how  fere  the  Treasury's  Government Departments i n the  Treasury's  a Department w i t h a h i g h points  d e f i n e d by  i n f l u e n c e the  discusses the  century.  government,  tige. civil  well  century.  The  in  did not  and  end  of  came t o h a v e l e s s  reforms the  end  of r o u t i n e  had of  force.  financial  eighteenth century  were  iv i n s t i t u t e d p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f a t t e m p t s t o r e d u c e t h e t h e Crown, and  i n the  to e s t a b l i s h the  p e r i o d from the  E x c h e q u e r and  Audit  w h i c h money was to the  w h i c h was  of 1866,  supervized  Crown.  1  At  Parliamentary  These r e f o r m s , w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d Act  one  and  in  the  r a d i c a l l y c h a n g e d t h e way  in  once i t had the  been g r a n t e d  by  same t i m e t h e y c r e a t e d  f a r more o p e n t o c o n t r o l f r o m t h e  centre,  Parliament  a  system  and  one  which  r e q u i r e d t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f a l a r g e number o f r e g u l a t i o n s . reforms increased its  the d u t i e s of the  e f f e c t i v e power, a l t h o u g h  object  T r e a s u r y , and  they were not  The  g r e a t l y enhanced  introduced  with  that  i n mind.  The Civil  of  1830's to I 8 6 0 s l a r g e l y  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e of the  c o n t r o l over grants.  power  f o u r t h chapter  S e r v i c e , and  looks at the Treasury's c o n t r o l of  shows how  i n personnel  t o o k an e x c e s s i v e l y f i n a n c i a l a p p r o a c h . lishments  and  the  i t i a t i v e s which t h i s  The  Department  In supervising  estab-  g r o w t h o f Government Departments i t f a i l e d  l o o k o b j e c t i v e l y at the  expansion  a f f a i r s the  the  problems i n v o l v e d , or to take  period  up  to  the i n -  of unprecedented a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  offered. fifth  chapter  looks at the  co-ordination  of  decisions  i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l D e p a r t m e n t s , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d a more r o u t i n e aspect of the T r e a s u r y ' s work. o f 1873  mail contract  affair  the  o v e r how  confusion  A  > and  s t u d y i s made o f t h e t h e way  Lowe, f a i l e d  to take  account o f the  s e c t i o n s of the  Government,with the  t o be  Prom t h i s t h e  reversed.  i n which i t demonstrates  the T r e a s u r y might best  departmental decisions. In t h i s instance  Zanzibar  co-ordinate  inter-  the T r e a s u r y , under R o b e r t  k n o w l e d g e a v a i l a b l e i n some r e s u l t that  conclusion  important decisions  i s drawn t h a t t h i s s i d e  of  had  V  t h e T r e a s u r y ' s w o r k a s t h e c e n t r a l D e p a r t m e n t was b e s t d u c t e d by c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g by e x e r c i s i n g  initiative.  an e f f i c i e n t  procedure  con-  rather  than  vi  TABLE OP CONTENTS  I  II  Introduction  ...  The Treasury and the C o n t r o l of Expenditure  III  The Treasury and  ...  The Treasury and the  ...  The Treasury and the  ...  108  Centralizing  of Decision-Making  VI  72  Civil  Service  V  28  Financial  Administration  IV  1  ...  147  Conclusion  ...  184  Bibliography  ...  190  CHAPTER I Introduction  The great power t h a t the Treasury w i e l d s w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h c e n t r a l government has l e d t o e x p r e s s i o n s both of admiration and of  disapproval.  of  the Department's p o s i t i o n .  1  But nobody has sought t o deny the uniqueness The Treasury was the f i r s t o f  the c i v i l Departments t o assume something approaching i t s modern 2 form,  although i t has been i n a s t a t e o f continuous growth and  a d a p t a t i o n ever s i n c e .  I t i s unique  i n t h a t i t has two c h i e f s ,  the F i r s t Lord of the Treasury and the C h a n c e l l o r o f the Exchequer.  As the M i n i s t r y of Finance i t has s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s  throughout  the whole f i e l d  bilities  of government, and s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i -  i n the way t h a t Parliament v o t e s money and the Crown  spends i t .  I t s powers come from the a u t h o r i t y the Crown c o n f e r s  on the Lord High Treasurer, or the Lords Commissioners o f the Treasury i f these powers a r e vested i n a commission, and i t r e c e i v e s the support of the i n t e r e s t and p r e s t i g e o f Parliament. The a c t i v i t i e s of the Treasury d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from those o f the other Departments, i n t h a t they are c o n f i n e d f o r the most p a r t to  t r e a t i n g w i t h these Departments, or w i t h the House of Commons,  and not w i t h the p u b l i c .  As a r e s u l t p o l i t i c i a n s , c i v i l ser-  vants, and o u t s i d e commentators have unanimously d e s c r i b e d i t as a s u p e r v i s o r y r a t h e r than an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e .  It i s in  the b a s i s and the e x e r c i s e o f these s u p e r v i s o r y powers that the i n t e r e s t of the Treasury i n the n i n e t e e n t h century c h i e f l y  lies.  2 The the  Treasury's  nineteenth  public  affairs  activities  century  throw  at that time,  tion  had changed from  ance  i snecessarily a central  the  activities  administration expansion object paid  light  ages.  aspect  illumine  Department  but r e l a t i v e l y  o f most public  government  o f the great affairs.  of Treasury therefore  The merely  work,  could.  century  little  tell  of  The  h a s been t h e  a t t e n t i o n h a s been  t h e i r work  changed  u s much a b o u t  The p h i l o s o p h y  i n nineteenth  philosophy  contemporary  of retrench-  century  British  was a l s o b a s i c t o t h e w o r k and enforcement  The a p p l i c a t i o n  be o f c e n t r a l  fin-  l a y at the basis of the thinking  and t o t h e growth  control.  must  nineteenth  figures  This  the Treasury,  i tdeveloped.  administra-  on t h e whole p r o c e s s  i n the nineteenth  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d and t h e y  about  o f any government's  t o t h e older Departments, although  ment a n d o f l i m i t e d  on t h e t h i n k i n g  Moreover, because  i n a way t h a t no o t h e r  a n d how  o f government i n  a n d on t h e way i n w h i c h  of the Treasury  o f much i n q u i r y ,  administration  and  great  preceding  o f government  radically  of  at the centre  concern  o f Treasury  of the  concept  control  to the historian  of  century administration.  work o f the Treasury  illumine  on t h e p r o c e s s  on t h e t h i n k i n g w h i c h  administration  i n the nineteenth  century  does not  of administration at that  l a y behind  and t h e t h i n k i n g  it.  differed  I t s h o w s how radically  time,  both t h e  from what h a d  preceded  i t a n d w h a t w a s t o come a f t e r w a r d s .  Financial  sibility  o f some s o r t  even i n t h e most  inefficient proper which  may h a v e b e e n e s s e n t i a l  and c o r r u p t  was e s s e n t i a l l y came i n t o  being  o f governments, a product  but Treasury  o f the reformed  by t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h  respon-  control  administration  century.  Likewise  the philosophy of retrenchment, conspicuous start It  but n o t  of the  g a v e way  of course  to a reassessment  The  Department,  a  good i l l u s t r a t i o n  at least  the  as  f a r as  the  existed  as  i t s legal  powers,  by t h e  the  duties of i t s o f f i c e r s modern  form  until  o n l y when t h e s e  and  which  by w h i c h  the  Treasury  of the  an  continued to  well  after  d u t i e s had  seventeenth  c h a n g e and  wars.  was  run- by  a single  e x e c u t i v e head r a t h e r than  by  had  a permanent  non-political  i t could  e x e r c i s e what  flect  i n the  the  ment, and far  for Eord  and  of the  of the  fact  Treasury  a Board,  that Treasury  Always  T r e a s u r e r was  i n the persuading  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n one figure  involved i n the  of Parliament  and  The re-  govern-  depended  on  powers.  century the  a political  the  control  form  effec-  control.  Treasury within  seventeenth  f i n a n c e s was  Treasurer.  the Lord High  called  t h e mere p o s s e s s i o n o f l e g a l  middle  government High  position  underlines the  the  be  assume  patronage,  d u t i e s of the Department's v a r i o u s o f f i c e r s  changing  more t h a n By  came t o  and  Yet i t  modern  i t s work i n d e a l i n g w i t h  - that  the  century,  d i d not  assumed t h e i r  staff  of  Department,  the Napoleonic  finally  the  century.  had  and  lost  development  independent late  of  Treasury  changes  and  therefore  - when t h e  tively  the  much o f i t s f o r c e .  early nineteenth  Treasury  most o f  is  by  d u t i e s of the v a r i o u s o f f i c e r s  had  their  principle  proved  most  greater expenditure  o f government,  of the  i n the  s e r v e as  Although  tolerated  i s the  finance.  changes  Treasury  the o n l y exponent,  to thinking which  controlled  Gladstone  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y to have l o s t  a more c o n s c i o u s e x p a n s i o n led  of which  to grant  responsibility  office of  -  that  importance,  formulation of funds.  of  He  was  policy also  responsible and  the  his  own,  f o r the  issuing and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the  of revenue.  had  to r e l y  He  on  the  a s s i s t a n c e when h i s p e r s o n a l the  ancient  A g e s , was brought and  Exchequer,  losing  any  the  real  i t had  Treasurer,  so  fallen  that  d i d not  Exchequer  by  i t became l a r g e l y  an  The  late  p r o g r e s s i v e l y under  for  of  clerical But  body i n t h e  stature. the  staff  insufficient.  financial  independent control  have a  office  servants proved  principal  i t under e f f e c t i v e  thence  still  raising  Crown  Middle had  sixteenth century,  the wing of  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body  to  •5 deal with The Lord the  the Order  High  Treasury's  the  rely  Stephen Baxter  to on  establish  the Exchequer  suggests  that  Treasury  "reached  was  remained  extending  over  the  seventeenth  i t s own  Crown p l a c e d t h e  i n January  s h o w s how  of the  slowly to establish  still  i n commission  a u t h o r i t y as  second h a l f  Treasury to  i n C o u n c i l , by w h i c h t h e  Treasurer  finance.^" in  revenue.  staff,  I667, c l e a r l y  the  allowed  work.  u n c l e a r , and  to have l a t e r ,  but  I676.  The  i t still  i t s official  had  i t d i d not  Privy  i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p i n p o i n t one  won  powers were  able  then  of  the by  have  Council.  year,  position not  place  the  T h u s i t was  i t s independence from the  maturity" in  of  changes which took  century  of  defined  whole range  w h i c h meant  for clerical  post  He  the  i t s officers prestige i t  this  time  well  defined. The  position  depended as The  latter Lord  much on  Crown had  occasions  High  put  i n the  part  of the  on  Treasury  i t s political  the  Tteasurer's  preceding  Charles  Treasurer  i n the as  on  eighteenth  i t s administrative role.  position  hundred years,  I I ' s r e i g n onwards.  assumed  the  title  century  i n c o m m i s s i o n on especially  from  T h i s meant  of F i r s t  Lord  of  the  that the  various  the  5 Treasury.  By 1685 the head o f the Treasury wielded  f l u e n c e than the S e c r e t a r i e s of S t a t e ,  greater i n -  hut f o r a l o n g time  a f t e r t h i s there was no c l e a r i d e a of precedence a t the meeti n g s o f the i n c r e a s i n g l y important  i n n e r Cabinet, which would  a l l o w one to say t h a t the F i r s t Lord o f the Treasury was a l s o head o f the m i n i s t r y .  The p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f the F i r s t  Lord  of the Treasury was i n a s t a t e of f l u x , and so a l s o was the adm i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f h i s Department. 1730  Even though between  and 1742 S i r Robert Walpole showed the power t h a t could  accumulate t o the F i r s t Lord of the Treasury,  there were i n -  stances a f t e r t h i s when t h i s o f f i c e r was n o t the Prime M i n i s t e r . J.P. MacKintosh has suggested t h a t one way i n which a man could become Prime M i n i s t e r was f o r h i s a b i l i t y t o be i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o the s u r v i v a l o f the m i n i s t r y .  I n t h i s r e s p e c t the F i r s t  of the Treasury had a c l e a r advantage.  Lord  He had complete c o n t r o l  over f i n a n c e , w h i l e b e f o r e 1782 a S e c r e t a r y of State would have to  encroach on the work of h i s c o l l e a g u e t o gain an e q u i v a l e n t Q  c o n t r o l over f o r e i g n p o l i c y .  He wielded v e r y  considerable  patronage through h i s c o n t r o l of the Revenue Departments, and the power o f the purse.  And i t was he who guided  the major  p a r t of the government's work - money b i l l s - through the House of Commons.  The case o f t h e E l d e r P i t t however shows t h a t i n  time of war, at l e a s t u n t i l  the middle of the century,  other than the F i r s t Lord of the Treasury  a man  could f e a t u r e as the  most i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n the m i n i s t r y . As the Exchequer l o s t ficer,  i t s independence, so i t s c h i e f o f -  the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, came under t h e i n f l u e n c e  of the Lord High T r e a s u r e r .  By the eighteenth century he regu-  6 l a r l y s a t on the Treasury Board as the Second Lord.  From the  time of Stanhope i n 1717, u n t i l the r e s i g n a t i o n of Robert P e e l i n 1835» i t was u s u a l f o r the F i r s t Lord of the Treasury, i f he was  i n the House of Commons, t o h o l d t h i s secondary q  well.  post as  T h i s emphasizes of course t h a t the r e a l b a s i s o f the  Prime M i n i s t e r ' s power, u n t i l he came t o be seen as au indepen-  1C dent o f f i c e r , and u n t i l patronage  had disappeared, was f i n a n c i a l .  But i t a l s o meant t h a t f o r a long while a f t e r the Treasury had become the most important Department i n the government, the i n t e r n a l arrangements o f the o f f i c e were u n s e t t l e d .  The i n f l u -  ence o f the p o s i t i o n of C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer f o r a l o n g time depended on the p r e s t i g e of the F i r s t Lord.  I n the e i g h t -  eenth century, u n l e s s the two p o s t s were combined, the C h a n c e l l o r s h i p o f the Excheque was seldom a Cabinet post.  I n 1809 the  Prime M i n i s t e r and F i r s t Lord, Spencer P e r c e v a l , o f f e r e d the C h a n c e l l o r s h i p t o Palmerston, who was then only twenty f i v e y e a r s o l d and r e l a t i v e l y unknown.  In doing t h i s P e r c e v a l i n -  d i c a t e d t h a t he would do a l l the important work of the Treasury h i m s e l f , but t h a t he wanted somebody e l s e as C h a n c e l l o r t o a s s i s t him i n the more onerous t a s k s . The C h a n c e l l o r o f the Exchequer only assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r running the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a f f a i r s of the Department as the Treasury Board proved When the Board  i t s e l f unable t o cope w i t h a l l the work.  showed i t s e l f unable t o manage the i n c r e a s i n g  number of problems which came b e f o r e the Treasury, and as the Prime M i n i s t e r assumed wider d u t i e s o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n , so i t a l s o became i m p o s s i b l e f o r the F i r s t Lord t o r u n the Department of which he was the o f f i c i a l head.  I n the e i g h t e e n t h century  7 the Treasury Board used to meet about f o u r times a week t o conduct i t s b u s i n e s s .  I t used to hear the papers prepared by the  S e c r e t a r i e s , and i n s t r u c t these o f f i c i a l s to implement i t s d e c i s i o n s i n the form of Treasury Minutes.  The pressure of work  during the Napoleonic Wars f i n a l l y proved too much f o r a comm i t t e e to d e a l with, and  so more and more of the executive func-  t i o n s of n e c e s s i t y devolved upon the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer. By the end  of the war  there were only two meetings of the Board  each week, and these l a r g e l y f o r m a l . wrote i n 1827  t o W i l l i a m Huskisson,  One  of the Treasury  Lords  then P r e s i d e n t of the Board  of Trade and T r e a s u r e r of the Navy, t h a t the members of the Board were unable t o have a r e a l grasp of the background t o the papers the S e c r e t a r i e s read to them, which rendered t h e i r  deci-  11 s i o n s of q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e .  In t h i s same year the  First  Lord and the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer - posts which were h e l d s e p r a t e l y a f t e r August when the Prime M i n i s t e r was  i n the House  of Lords, - ceased t o attend the meetings of the Board. 1856  the Government of Lord Palmerston  altogether.  In  d i s c o n t i n u e d the meetings  I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t by the l a t e 1 8 3 0 ' s the  C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer was not only i n v a r i a b l y a d i f f e r e n t man  from the Prime M i n i s t e r , but was  head of the Treasury.  a l s o the r e a l e x e c u t i v e  Although i t was not u n t i l 1855  t h a t he  r e g u l a r l y s a t i n the Treasury b u i l d i n g , r a t h e r than i n h i s official residence,  1 2  i n 1848 b o t h S i r C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n , then  head of the permanent s t a f f of the Treasury, and S i r F r a n c i s B a r i n g , a former C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, confirmed t h a t 13 the C h a n c e l l o r was the r e a l head of the Department. The p o s i t i o n of the S e c r e t a r i e s t o the Treasury took a l -  8 most as l o n g as t h a t of the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer to achieve t h e i r f i n a l s t a t u s .  The  d i v i s i o n of d u t i e s , and  d i s t i n c t i o n between a permanent and a p o l i t i c a l consequence of the work t h a t the Treasury was of the e i g h t e e n t h century. t h e r e were two Board, and  S e c r e t a r y , are a  doing by the  i n the eighteenth century, were appointed by  the  t h e r e f o r e were not l e g a l l y o f f i c e s of p r o f i t under the They were always  1  with p o l i t i c a l backing  men  of some importance, and always sat i n  They acted as s e c r e t a r i e s f o r the Board, p r e p a r i n g  the papers to be read to i t at i t s r e g u l a r meetings. only one  end  The Treasury S e c r e t a r i e s , of whom  Crown i n the terms of the Act of 1707. ^  Parliament.  the  At  first  of them, but l a t e r i n the century both c u s t o m a r i l y r e -  signed with each m i n i s t r y .  They performed important  duties f o r  the Crown as w e l l as doing t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work, which meant t h a t , l i k e the o l d S e c r e t a r i e s of State, there was t i n c t i o n between them on f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s . century t h i s had  J  no d i s -  By the end of the  l e d to c o n s i d e r a b l e i n e f f i c i e n c i e s , and  Commission on Fees and Emoluments of 1786  the  recommended t h a t  one 16  of them become " s t a t i o n a r y " to provide g r e a t e r c o n t i n u i t y . In 1804  the Treasury Board gave a l l f i n a n c i a l d u t i e s to one  the S e c r e t a r i e s , and a l l p o l i t i c a l work to the other. f o l l o w i n g year they appointed  of  In the  a permanent, or A s s i s t a n t , S e c r e t -  ary, l e a v i n g the F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y as the p r i n c i p a l a i d to the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, and  the P o l i t i c a l 17  S e c r e t a r y as the  a s s i s t a n t to the Prime M i n i s t e r . The A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y , and d u t i e s are the important  the S e c r e t a r y w i t h the  j u n i o r o f f i c i a l s i n the Treasury  n i n e t e e n t h century, p l a y i n g a f a r more c r u c i a l r o l e than  financial i n the their  nominal  s u p e r i o r s , the  political First so  Secretary  Lord,  the  as  of the  Secretary  the  Financial Secretary  ing  a l l proposals  of managing the considered  the  Leader  E x c h e q u e r was  Treasury.  left  of  from  the  the  Commons,  House o f  executive task  with  through  the  the  important  of  examin-  House.  outside  the  duties.  Departments,  of b i l l s most  the  assistant to  the  the  As  t o w o r k out  of  t o o k upon h i m s e l f  progress one  of  precise division  for expenditure  as  of  became i n c r e a s i n g l y t h e  The  was  Lords  P r i m e M i n i s t e r and  Chancellor  Financial  Junior  and  The  post  the  Cabinet,  18 and  as  indicating  Secretarynwas  a bright p o l i t i c a l  one  Government, and  of  the  most h a r d  played  by  most  of the  d e t a i l e d work of the  j u n i o r m i n i s t e r s was  Chancellor  of  Financial their  Secretaries,  or  Permanent  I 8 6 7 , t h e o p p o s i t e was duction  of  the  a few  years,  S e c r e t a r i e s as  true.  p o s i t i o n they  In  the  held  office  but  with  they  on  what  papers  seldom  held  see. century  century  the  performed  decided  to  nineteenth  the  that  He  J  and  t h e E x c h e q u e r w o u l d want  p o s i t i o n f o r more t h a n  Financial  opinion 19  crucial.  Treasury  S e c r e t a r i e s i n the  The  w o r k e d members o f  e x e m p l i f i e d Henry T a y l o r ' s  r6le  the  future.  the  Assistant  were c a l l e d after  the  average  after  intro-  for a  little  20  under t e n of the  the  office  line  trative  years,  of  As  they  organized  were a b l e  policy,  prcedure. the  principal to  as w e l l as I t was  Treasury  effectively with  the  the  exert  i n 1848,  of  the  considerable  ensuring  S i r Charles  staff  guardians  so  influence  continuity in  Trevelyan that  growing volume of work.  who  on  adminis-  re-  i t could He  traditions  deal  more  also helped  to 21  establish The  the  tradition  permanent head  of a powerful  involved himself  supervising  i n a l l the  Department.  work  of  the Department,  so  that  T r e v e l y a n was  led to  remark t h a t  " i ti s  22 more e a s y  t o s a y what he  t h e s e men  were hard workers,  loyalty  and  dedication  and Welby a t  least,  does not  do  t h a n what he  w i t h a deep sense  to duty  that,  i n the  seems t o h a v e l e d t o an  ment i n t h e m i n u t i a e  of administration,  does."  A l l  of  departmental  cases  of Trevelyan  inefficient  at the  involve-  cost of  failing  23 to  exercise  real  made p o s s i b l e  supervision.  The  this  involvement  T r e a s u r y was  at the  forefront  to  permanent heads  which  personal in  the  commitment,  exercising  sion  o f any The  bility  by  the middle  in  this  the r61e years. that  the  of the d r i v e  And  over  other Departments,  to guide  theoretical and  fragmented of the  and  i t s position  too heavy  a  handed  to the  exclu-  c o - o r d i n a t e by p e r s u a s i o n .  powers,  i t s technical  as  t h e most  eighteenth century. must  largely  o f i t s v a r i o u s o f f i c e r s was  duties  economy,  responsi-  important  element  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine, were a l l c l e a r  p o s i t i o n which  I n 1755  the  i n the nineteenth century f e l t  i t s authority attempt  Treasury  while  for public  f o r i t t o be  for finance,  still  i n a l l i t s work.  easy  Treasury's  a  of the  i t was  real  in  small size  Lord Hardwicke of the F i r s t  It i s later  account  for the  changing  remarked  L o r d were  developments  fact  f o r another  t o t h e Duke o f " f a r beyond t h e  that fifty  Newcastle bare  24 management o f t h e r e v e n u e . E m o l u m e n t s i n 1786 the d u t i e s  was  The  the f i r s t  Commission official  on F e e s  body t o  and  summarize  of the Treasury. I t remarked t h a t t h e , business of the Board o f Treasury i s to c o n s i d e r and d e t e r m i n e upon a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i v e t o Y o u r Majesty's C i v i l L i s t , or other revenues; to give d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f a l l B o a r d s and  11 p e r s o n s e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e r e c e i p t , management, or e x p e n d i t u r e of t h e s a i d revenues; to sign a l l w a r r a n t s f o r the n e c e s s a r y payments t h e r e o u t , and g e n e r a l l y t o s u p e r i n t e n d e v e r y b r a n c h of r e v e n u e b e l o n g i n g t o Y o u r M a j e s t y o r t h e Public. 25 The trol by  legal  authority  of the  Treasury  over f i n a n c e r e s t e d e n t i r e l y  t h e Crown.  determine  Despite the r i g h t  never  spent  to  be  an  to  spend  any  I t granted  by  E r s k i n e May  taxation,  practice  con-  in i t won  to  i t remained  that Parliament  t o t h e Crown what i t f e l t  a p p r o p r i a t e amount, c o n f e r r i n g i t .  this  t h a t P a r l i a m e n t had  of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  money.  exefcise  on t h e powers v e s t e d  t h e amount o f money r a i s e d  a basic principle  to  on  summarizes the  the  Crown the  principle  power  thus:  T h e C r o w n d e m a n d s m o n e y , t h e Commons g r a n t i t , and t h e L o r d s a s s e n t t o t h e g r a n t ; but the Commons do n o t v o t e m o n e y u n l e s s i t b e r e q u i r e d by the Crown; n o r impose o r augment t a x e s , u n l e s s , t h e y . be. n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p u b l i c , s e r v i c e . . as d e c l a r e d by t h e Crown t h r o u g h i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l advisers"! 2b By  the Letters Patent  mission,  s e t t i n g up  the Treasury  possessed  powers of R o y a l P r e r o g a t i v e . ity  on  matters  not  only controlled  the  only people  each successive Treasury the r i g h t  They a l o n e  Com-  to e x e r c i s e these could exercise author-  of government revenue or e x p e n d i t u r e , s i n c e t h e money once i t had  entitled  been r a i s e d ,  t o p r o p o s e money r e s o l u t i o n s  but to  they were  the  H o u s e o f Commons. Legal authority  alone  s u p e r v i s o r y Department nineteenth  On  even when t h e F i r s t  Lord  of  the  Treasury  the  central  i t was  t o be  i n the  of the government, as  century.  chief minister  d i d n o t make t h e  the  contrary, i n the  of the Treasury  Crown, t h e  was  Treasury's  eighteenth csntury, accepted  as  the  administrative  12 a c t i v i t i e s d i d n o t extend much beyond s u p e r v i s i n g the r a i s i n g of revenue, and the l e g a l i s s u i n g of funds f o r expenditure. T h i s appeared q u i t e s u f f i c i e n t to most observers. cial  The f i n a n -  system provided f o r the needs of government, and d e s p i t e  i t s manifest  inefficiencies,  a complete breakdown. the House were concerned  there was no r e a l l i k e l i h o o d of  Furthermore, although many members o f about the l e v e l of t a x a t i o n , there was  no general c a l l f o r a c o n s i s t e n t attempt to c u r t a i l the expendit u r e o f the c e n t r a l government.  The Treasury i n the eighteenth  century c l e a r l y p a i d v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o departmental 27 Estimates.  '  So long as the n a t i o n ' s f i n a n c e s worked to the  s a t i s f a c t i o n o f informed  o p i n i o n , the Treasury had n o t h i n g t o  do i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f i e l d beyond ensure t h a t the system continued t o operate as i t always had. The  d e s c r i p t i o n of the Treasury's powers i n 1786 made no  mention of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i o n , expenditure or the e f f i c i e n c y o f the f i n a n c i a l system.  Above a l l , the  r e p o r t does not use the word which i n the n i n e t e e n t h was  control,  century  so f r e q u e n t l y l i n k e d w i t h the name of the Department -  control.  T h i s c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the o u t l i n e of the  Department's powers g i v e n i n the r e p o r t of the S e l e c t Committee on the P u b l i c Income and Expenditure 1828. of  of the U n i t e d Kingdom i n  T h i s Committee emphasized the a n c i e n t l e g a l a u t h o r i t y  the Treasury, and s a i d the Department was f a i l i n g t o exer-  c i s e the " e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l " over p u b l i c f i n a n c e t h a t i t was e n t i t l e d t o and ought t o .  The Committee summarized the Trea-  sury's d u t i e s i n a passage which c e n t e r s around the word control.  I t i s necessary that t h i s c o n t r o l should he c o n s t a n t l y e x e r c i s e d , i n determining the amount of Expenditure to he i n c u r r e d by each Department; i n s e c u r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of each Sum voted i n the Annual Estimates t o the S e r v i c e f o r which i t has been voted; i n regul a t i n g any e x t r a o r d i n a r y Expenditure which, upon an emergency, may be deemed necessary w i t h i n the year, although not i n c l u d e d i n the E s t i m a t e s ; and i n p r e v e n t i n g any i n c r e a s e of S a l a r y or e x t r a allowance, or any other emoluments, b e i n g granted without a Minute, e x p r e s s i v e of the approbation of the Board of Treasury. 28 So strong i s the emphasis on the c e n t r a l c o n t r o l of the Treasury that the d u t i e s w i t h the revenue and the i s s u e of funds, which were d i s c u s s e d i n 1786,  were s c a r c e l y mentioned;  pre-  sumably because they were obvious, u n c h a l l e n g a b l e , and t h e r e f o r e not worthy of d e t a i l e d  discussion.  The change i n a t t i t u d e towards the Treasury which the c o n t r a s t between these two Reports e x e m p l i f i e s r e f l e c t s a v o l t e - f a c e i n t h i n k i n g about government f i n a n c e s i n c e the mid e i g h t e e n t h century.  T h i s new  t h i n k i n g l a y behind the Trea-  sury's adoption of the wider s u p e r v i s o r y t a s k s i t was i n the n i n e t e e n t h .  to perform  I t i s therefore c r u c i a l i n explaining  the d u t i e s of the Treasury o f f i c e r s were changing u n t i l i n t o the new  well  century, although the Department had a l r e a d y  c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e and i t s f u l l l e g a l powers. ency of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the l i m i t i n g of p u b l i c  The  why  won  effici-  expenditure  had become a major f a c t o r i n p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n by the l a s t two decades of the e i g h t e e n t h century.  Thus i n t e r e s t i n the  a c t i v i t i e s of the Treasury tended to s w i t c h from  emphasizing  the t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of revenue r a i s i n g to the e f f e c t i v e enforcement of p o l i c i e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reform and  retrenchment.  H The  o r i g i n s of the Economical Reform Movement date back to  the p e r i o d a f t e r the American War  of Independence, and were  d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the o p p o s i t i o n ' s  d e s i r e to a t t a c k  the  2°, Government, and  t o reduce Royal i n f l u e n c e .  gradually l o s t i t s p o l i t i c a l role,  As the Crown  so a c l e a r and g e n e r a l  t i n c t i o n came to be made between p o l i t i c s and In i t s t u r n t h i s change was g e n e r a l r u l e s and i n a way pointed  not  the  dis-  administration.  to n e c e s s i t a t e the establishment  c e n t r a l i z e d s u p e r v i s i o n of  previously called for.  But  as D.L.  of  administration Keir  has  out, although the movement e v e n t u a l l y caused a reduc-  t i o n i n the i n f l u e n c e of the Crown, i t was  most important f o r  s t a r t i n g a process of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m . ^ of February 11th  1780,  In h i s speech  which i s g e n e r a l l y taken as the  begin-  n i n g of the Economical Reform Movement, Edmund Burke emphasized that reform of o f f i c e s and the Crown was chaos.  impossible  the r e d u c t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of  while a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  i n a s t a t e of  He remarked t h a t , n e i t h e r the present, nor any other f i r s t l o r d of the Treasury, has ever been able to take a survey or to make any t o l e r a b l e guess, of the expenses of government f o r any one year, so as t o enable him w i t h the l e a s t degree of c e r t a i n t y or even p r o b a b i l i t y , to b r i n g h i s a f f a i r s w i t h i n compass. 31  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Burke f e l t i t e s s e n t i a l that the  Treasury  have f u l l c o n t r o l of the C i v i l L i s t to stop i t s b e i n g misused by the C r o w n . ^ and  George Rose, who  the Younger P i t t , and  who  was  h e l d o f f i c e under Shelburne an advocate of reform even  i f at the same time something of an a p o l o g i s t f o r h i s masters, argued f o r a s t r i c t c o n t r o l of the expenditure i n c u r r e d w i t h i n  15 the  Departments.  L i k e B u r k e he  r e f o r m e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  the  machinery of  of  cism  was  Government and  combined with  ment e x p e n d i t u r e leonic  Wars, a  to  administration.  by  o p i n i o n had  but  o n l y when t h e r e o n l y when t h e control,  come a g e n u i n e l y  supervisory  office.  not  of wider  a u t h o r i t y of the a f f e c t e d by  the  on  Treasury  there  sury  and  was  Crown c o u l d Chancellor  clearly  same l e g a l  basis.  dispute  sections of the  of  the  m i n i s t e r the  the  various  become  apparent  order  in  might  was  the  concern  Treasury  raising  revenue century  forms of  to  the  Treasury.  troller  of  the  Exchequer,  Since  Monteagle,  summarized the  R e v e n u e B o a r d s when he  at  P u b l i c M o n e y s i n 1856.  f o r any  i n the  one  His  the  the  the  raising  job  i t was  time  Treasury's  appeared before  Committee on  Trea-  only  Commons,  the  the  of to  ad-  suborComp-  rights Select  remarks are  hundred years,  was  bodies,  t a x a t i o n , were e n t i r e l y  Lord  preceding  of i t s  between the  Government.  be-  complete  revenue r a i s i n g  about t h i s  so  to  of  nineteenth  I n d e e d so  the date  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  Revenue B o a r d s , whose  dinated  time  Napo-  a heightened  Exchequer always i n i t i a t e d  And  the  govern-  of the  Treasury  p r o p o s e money r e s o l u t i o n s i n t h e  revenue.  over the  end  a  c r i t i -  d u t i e s , even though both aspects  n e v e r any  other  of high  over the  Department's a u t h o r i t y over the  that  any  the  the  i t s assumption i n the  supervisory  work r e s t e d  When t h i s  J  was  between  s u p e r v i s i o n of  powers of the  amenable t o  was  to  finance.  be  The  as  effective  g r o w n up  legal  p u b l i c economy, and  ordered  connection  a s u p e r v i s o r y body to r e t a i n  The  b a c k a l o n g way,  of  the  increasing fears  w h i c h had  climate  which would look  for  the  saw  which  valid under-  16 l i n e s the f a c t that where the Treasury's powers depended o n l y on law, as opposed t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n or p u b l i c o p i n i o n , they changed v e r y l i t t l e . sury f o r revenue purposes a r e , " he  "The powers of the T r e a said,  common law powers, at l e a s t t h e y are not u n i f o r m l y r e s t i n g on any s t a t u t e ; they are the usage which i s the unquestioned r i g h t of the Department, s u b j e c t to P a r l i a m e n t a r y a u t h o r i t y , and s u b j e c t t o the c o n t r o l of law i f e x e r c i s e d improperly. 34 Although the Crown's a b i l i t y t o r a i s e the revenue had been undermined a t v a r i o u s times i n h i s t o r y , i t was  administrative  i n e f f i c i e n c y r a t h e r than p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n which had p r e vented the r e a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the revenue machinery. Crown f i n a l l y a b o l i s h e d the Customs farm i n 1671,  The  to bring a l l 35  revenues under i t s c o n t r o l i n f a c t as w e l l as i n law.  The  Commissions of E x c i s e and of Customs were subordinated t o the a u t h o r i t y of the Treasury Board, or the Lord High T r e a s u r e r . With the Post O f f i c e , which an Act of Parliament c o n s t i t u t e d i n 1660,  and which was  seen as a source of revenue  a system of communications,  r a t h e r than  these Boards c o n s t i t u t e d the p r i n -  c i p a l means of o b t a i n i n g the Government's income.  As the  T r e a s u r y grew t o a p o s i t i o n by the end of the seventeenth cent u r y where i t c o u l d undertake a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s , so these Boards, l i k e  the Mint, came under i t s c o n t r o l .  The L e t t e r s Patent which e s t a b l i s h e d the Revenue Boards r e q u i r e d obedience to " A l l & s i n g u l a r the Orders Rules 37  I n s t r u c c o n s & d i r e c c o n s " of the T r e a s u r y .  According to  E l i z a b e t h Hoon, the T r e a s u r y "determined the p r i n c i p l e s  on  which the Customs Board conducted i t s b u s i n e s s and had imme-  d i a t e s u p e r v i s i o n of the customs establishment." sury r e c e i v e d a weekly statement  The  Trea-  of a l l r e c e i p t s , d e a l t w i t h  a l l communications between the Customs and  other Departments,  heard p e t i t i o n s about the Customs, and ensured s t r a t i o n complied w i t h t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s . c o n t r o l over the E x c i s e Commission was  t h a t admini-  The  Treasury's  e q u a l l y powerful,  so  that even on occasions i n the l a t e r seventeenth century they had used t h i s Board loans.  3  as a source of money f o r ' u n o f f i c i a l '  The c o n t r o l had been r e i n f o r c e d by an Act of  1700,  which denied Commissioners of the Revenue Boards the r i g h t to s i t i n the House of Commons, and so removed from them the 4.0 o p p o r t u n i t y of e x e r c i s i n g independent One  p o l i t i c a l authority.  of the g r e a t i n c e n t i v e s f o r the Treasury to s t r e n g -  then i t s h o l d over the Revenue Boards was  the immense patron-  age these Boards e x e r c i s e d a l l over the country.  In  1782  h a l f of the 14,000 revenue posts i n the U n i t e d Kingdom were •41 d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the.Treasury.  Governments were a l -  ways under pressure t o f i n d posts to appease p o l i t i c a l  sup-  p o r t e r s , and t h i s meant t h a t the Treasury i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, as the Department then c h i e f l y concerned ing  the s u r v i v a l of the m i n i s t r y , sought  with  ensur-  to appoint not only  the s e n i o r revenue o f f i c i a l s , but a l s o the j u n i o r ones i n outl y i n g areas.  By the end of the century i t was  "invariably  the r u l e " f o r the Treasury to appoint o f f i c i a l s to country Post O f f i c e s i n England the E x c i s e and  2  Prom 1680  onwards both  the Customs Commissioners were under p r e s s u r e  to make p o l i t i c a l l y Fifty  and Wales.^  a p p r o p r i a t e appointments to j u n i o r posts.  years l a t e r i t appears  the Treasury e x e r c i z e d a c o n s i s -  t e n t p o l i c y of a p p r o p r i a t i n g to i t s e l f as many as p o s s i b l e of these  posts. The  Treasury's use  of the patronage of the Revenue Boards  emphasizes the p o l i t i c a l , as opposed to the merely t i v e , nature of the Department's p o s i t i o n i n the century.  I t had  administra-  eighteenth  e s t a b l i s h e d both i t s l e g a l a u t h o r i t y and i t s  independent s t a f f by the death of W i l l i a m .  B u i l d i n g on  this,  the F i r s t Lord of the Treasury became the Prime M i n i s t e r cause f i n a n c e was  the key t o the s u r v i v a l and  t i o n i n g of any m i n i s t r y .  But  e f f e c t i v e func-  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks of  Treasury were s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . ^ a c t u a l l y organize,  be-  I t supervised,  the r a i s i n g of the revenue.  but  The  the  d i d not  gross  i n e f f i c i e n c i e s of the f i n a n c i a l system, rendered impossible d e t a i l e d s u p e r v i s i o n of money once i t had been i s s u e d to spending Departments. philosophy  And  i n the absence of any  of retrenchment, or of any  any the  widespread  deep i n t e r e s t on the  of the Commons i n f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s , there was  little  part  incentive  to undertake c l o s e s c r u t i n y of departmental a f f a i r s . In the n i n e t e e n t h  century  these f a c t o r s were a l l changed.  P o l i t i c a l patronage l a r g e l y disappeared, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n reformed, and  the s c r u t i n y of expenditure came to be  a major p a r t of a government's work.  was  seen as  These changes, which  became apparent i n the 1780's, i n v o l v e d the Treasury i n more d e t a i l e d work, and  created a s i t u a t i o n more open to  S i m i l a r l y the Treasury was d r i v e by the end  supervision.  at the f o r e f r o n t of the economy  of the Napoleonic Wars, s i n c e they alone  the powers, or were i n a p o s i t i o n , to enforce  had  retrenchment.  D e s p i t e the  long h i s t o r y of the Treasury's  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y , and  t h e f a c t t h a t by t h e a c c e s i o n o f Queen Anne i t was i n f l u e n t i a l Department o f government, T r e a s u r y came a r e a l i t y w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f p o l i t i c a l medieval  administrative practices.  e m p h a s i z e d how t o o k new to  men  patronage  t h e one whose c o n t r o l o v e r  be-  and  Recent d i s c u s s i o n has  r e a l i s i n g why,  consequences of such  appear t h a t the Treasury,  to  control only  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n grew and  duties without  be t h e f u l l  t h e most  o r what w e r e  an e x p a n s i o n .  underlikely  I t would  among t h e o l d e s t o f D e p a r t m e n t s ,  and  o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f government i s h e l d  e p i t o m i z e so much o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h a d m i n i s t r a -  t i v e h i s t o r y , found  i t s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g a u t h o r i t y  a b o u t w h i c h s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s m i g h t be  expressed.  FOOTNOTES  F o r e i g n observers nave expressed some of the most l a v i s h praise. A. Lawrence L o w e l l says the Treasury " e x h i b i t s i n the h i g h e s t degree the m e r i t s of the E n g l i s h Government." Gerard W o l f f remarks t h a t the Treasury i s "un department p o l y v a l e n t et i r r e m p l a c a b l e ; l a complexite de sa s t r u c t u r e , commela v a r i e t e de ses a c t i v i t e s ne f o n t que t r a d u i r e son o r i g i n a l i t e , " and he concludes e f f u s i v e l y that the Treasury's a b i l i t y to adapt to new c i r cumstances and so preserve i t s power i s due to the "genie anglo-saxon." W.R. Anson and S i r I v o r Jennings, among c o n s t i t u t i o n a l commentators, were u n c r i t i c a l of the Treasury's r o l e . S.H. Beer, i n a book on post-war Treasury c o n t r o l , l i k e w i s e r a i s e s no s u b s t a n t i a l c r i t i c i s m of e i t h e r the p r i n c i p l e or the p r a c t i c e of the c o n t r o l . The same, perhaps understandably, i s t r u e of the r e l e vant volumes i n The W h i t e h a l l S e r i e s and the New Whiteh a l l S e r i e s , which were b o t h w r i t t e n by C i v i l Servants. The c r i t i c i s m of the Treasury, o f t e n v e r y b i t t e r , has tended to come from those who have s u f f e r e d from t h a t Department's t i g h t c o n t r o l over the purse s t r i n g s , or from those to whom the Treasury epitomises a p r e v a l e n t but dangerous amateurism i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A.L. L o w e l l , The Government of England, New York, -1921. Gerard Wolff, ""La T r e s o r e r i e Britanniqu'e,, Paris., .1960. W.R. Anson, The Law and Custom of the C o n s t i t u t i o n , Oxford.,. 191.1, 4.th. ed. S.H. Beer, Treasury C o n t r o l ; The C o - o r d i n a t i o n of Financ i a l and Economic P o l i c y i n Great B r i t a i n , Oxford, 1957, 2nd. ed. S i r W. I v o r Jennings, Cabinet Government, Cambridge, 1961, 3rd. ed. S i r Thomas Heath, The Treasury, London-,- 1927. Lord B r i d g e s , The Treasury,. London,. 1.866,. 2nd. ed. Hugh Thomas, ed., C r i s i s i n the C i v i l S e r v i c e , London, 1968. The Treasury had assumed i t s modern shape b e f o r e the S e c r e t a r i e s of S t a t e d i v i d e d t h e i r d u t i e s along f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s i n 1782. Likewise i t d i d so b e f o r e the Board of Trade l o s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the P l a n t a t i o n s , and so b e f o r e C o l o n i e s came under a separate Department; and b e f o r e the d r a s t i c changes i n the Pay, A u d i t and Exchequer Offices. The  o f f i c e s which were attached to the Lord C h a n c e l l o r ,  21 the Lord P r e s i d e n t of the C o u n c i l , and the Lord P r i v y S e a l , o b v i o u s l y go back a l o n g way, but they were not ones performing normal a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s and so are not r e a l l y comparable. 3-  The establishment of c o n t r o l over the Exchequer i s a mark of the i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y of the Crown i n the s i x t e e n t h century. Henry VII had used a Household Treasury t o keep a f f a i r s under h i s own cognizance, and Cromwell had c r e a t e d v a r i o u s revenue c o u r t s which proved unmanageable a f t e r he had gone, and had t o be amalgamated. I t was d u r i n g E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n t h a t the Crown obtained r e a l c o n t r o l over the Exchequer, which u n t i l then had always been i n danger of b e i n g taken over by b a r o n i a l opponents. By the seventeenth century the Lord High T r e a s u r e r was a l s o the e x - o f f i c i o T r e a s u r e r of the Exchequer, which emphasizes h i s assumption of c o n t r o l over t h i s Department. L e g a l l y the powers were d i s t i n c t , the s e n i o r post b e i n g c o n f e r r e d by the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a white s t a f f , and the j u n i o r by a L e t t e r Patent. G.R. P.C.  E l t o n , The Tudor C o n s t i t u t i o n , . Cambridge., 1962. D i e t z , The Exchequer i n E l i z a b e t h ' s Reign, Northampton, niassT7~T9^37 ~~~ Lord B r i d g e s , The Treasury, London, 1966, 2nd. ed., pp. 17-2.3. W.R. Anson, OJJ. c i t . p. 175• 4.  Stephen Baxter, The Development of the Treasury, 1660-1702, London, 1957, p. 13« '  5-  I b i d . , p.  262.  6.  I b i d . , p.  16.  7.  The Duke of Newcastle was the F i r s t Lord of the Treasury from June 1757 to May 1762, but the r e a l head of the m i n i s t r y was the S e c r e t a r y of State f o r the Southern Department, W i l l i a m P i t t , who h e l d h i s post u n t i l October 1761. The Duke of P o r t l a n d was the F i r s t Lord of the Treasury from A p r i l to December 1783, "but as i s i m p l i e d by the name n o r m a l l y g i v e n to t h i s Government - the Fox/North c o a l i t i o n - he d i d not r e a l l y h o l d e f f e c t i v e power.  8.  Mark A. Thomson, S e c r e t a r i e s of S t a t e , 1681-1782, Oxford, 1932, p. 14-  22 9-  Walpole 1721; Pelham 1744; P i t t 1783; Addington 1801; Canning 1827; P e e l 1834-  G r e n v i l l e 1763; North 1770; P i t t 1804; P e r c e v a l 1809;  The posts of C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer were separate from 1835 u n t i l 1873Gladstone h e l d b o t h posts 1873-4, and again 1880-2. A s q u i t h presented the Budget of 1908 because he had been C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer when i t was drawn up. The Prime M i n i s t e r s h i p has been combined w i t h the p o s i t i o n of F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y on s e v e r a l occasions, but only s i n c e the Prime M i n i s t e r came to be seen as an independent official. On these occasions the combination of p o s t s merely r e f l e c t e d the i n t e r e s t of the Prime M i n i s t e r , and had no r e a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i . e . Pox 1806; S a l i s b u r y 1885, 1887 and 1895; MacDonald 1924Both C h u r c h i l l and A t t l e e combined the Prime M i n i s t e r s h i p w i t h the post of M i n i s t e r of Defence. 10.  The post of Prime M i n i s t e r was not r e c o g n i z e d i n s t a t u t e , w i t h i t s own s a l a r y , u n t i l the M i n i s t e r s of the Crown Act, 1937-  11.  C.R. Pay, Huskisson and h i s Age, London, 1 9 5 1 , pp- 7 0 - 1 . S i r F r a n c i s B a r i n g seems to be the only person who expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t the Treasury Lords served a usef u l purpose. He f e l t they c o u l d perform a c e n t r a l s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the Treasury, l o o k a t expend i t u r e f i g u r e s , and supply c r i t i c i s m to the i d e a s of the departmental o f f i c i a l s . But he d i d not suggest that they could take upon themselves any o r d i n a r y a d m i n i s t r a tive duties. I t was the o p i n i o n of S i r C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n t h a t the Treasury would "break down" i f they t r i e d to do t h i s . S e l e c t Committee on M i s c e l l a n e o u s Expenditure, 1 8 4 8 . G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1 8 4 7 - 4 8 , XVIII p a r t i , pp.354-62 and p. 83«  12.  S. C h i l d e r s , The L i f e and Correspondence of the R i g h t Hon. Hugh C.E. C h i l d e r s 1827-1S96, London, 1901, v o l . I I , p. 14b. T h i s p o i n t was contained i n a l e t t e r from S i r R e g i n a l d Welby to Hugh C h i l d e r s . I n the same l e t t e r Welby o u t l i n e d the v a r i o u s d u t i e s of the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer a t the time he was w r i t i n g - 1882. He c l a s s i f i e d them under f i v e heads: a) t o d e a l w i t h suggestions and appeals on revenue matters, which o f t e n reached the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer d i r e c t l y , without f i r s t passi n g through the Treasury, b) as the supreme head of the Finance Branch he had to s u p e r v i z e the movement of funds, rard ensure t h a t money was a v a i l a b l e when and where i t was  23 required. T h i s aspect a l s o i n v o l v e d l o a n s , and communic a t i o n s w i t h t h e Bank of England. The C i v i l Servants i n the Finance Branch r e p o r t e d d i r e c t to the C h a n c e l l o r o f the Exchequer r a t h e r than through the Permanent S e c r e t a r y , c) as head of the N a t i o n a l Debt O f f i c e and the Mint, he r e c e i v e d a few d i r e c t questions from the executive c h i e f s of these two bodies, d) to r e c e i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from c o l l e a g u e s who objected t o , or a n t i c i p a t e d , a Treasury d e c i s i o n which a f f e c t e d then unfavourably, e) to decide what the F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y should send him. 13«  Select. Committee on M i s c e l l a n e o u s Expenditure, 1 8 4 8 . op. c i t . , p. 80, f o r Trevelyan's remark, and p. 355 f o r Baring s. 1  14.  The Regency Act, 1707. 6 Anne, c. 41, s. x x i v . Men with approximately s i m i l a r s t a t u s i n the F o r e i g n O f f i c e , the Under S e c r e t a r i e s of State f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , were much inconvenienced by t h i s c l a u s e of the Regency Act. E. Jones-Parry, "Under S e c r e t a r i e s of State f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , 1782-1855," E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1934, XLIX.  15.  I n the F o r e i g n O f f i c e as w e l l the d i s t i n c t i o n between p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s remained u n c l e a r u n t i l 1825. IMd., p. 319.  16.  Second Report o f the Commissioners Appointed by Act 25 Geo. I I I . cap. 19- to enquire i n t o the FEES, GRATUITIES, PERQUISITES, and EMOLUMENTS, which a r e or have been l a t e l y r e c e i v e d i n the s e v e r a l PUBLIC OFFICES h e r e i n mentioned, 1786. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1806, V I I , p. 56.  17-  The Minute a p p o i n t i n g the A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y s a i d t h a t , "My Lords take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the great i n c r e a s e i n B u s i n e s s i n a l l the Departments of the O f f i c e and the a d d i t i o n a l l a b o u r and attendance thrown upon the S e c r e t arys and C l e r k s , and a r e o f o p i n i o n , t h a t f o r promoting r e g u l a r i t y and d i s p a t c h , an a d d i t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y should be appointed...." Treasury Minute, of 19th August 1805, quoted i n Lord B r i d g e s , op. c i t . , p. 232.  18.  Despite the f a c t that the post o f F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y was supposed to presage a promising c a r e e r f o r the h o l d e r ,  24 few o f t h e F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r i e s i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e nineteenth century i n f a c t reached very s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s i n Cabinet. T h o s e t h a t d i d w e r e H u g h C h i l d e r s , W.H. Smith, and Austen Chamberlain. But others had already a c h i e v e d a r e p u t a t i o n o r were t o l a t e r , e i t h e r i n s i d e Parliament or outside i t . Among men i n t h i s c a t e g o r y w e r e J a m e s W i l s o n , G e o r g e S c l a t e r B o o t h , S i r M. R i d l e y , S i r J.E. Gorst. J a m e s W i l s o n , t h e F i n a n c i a l . S e c r e t a r y f r o m 1853-58, a n d the f o u n d e r o f t h e E c o n o m i s t , was c o n s i d e r e d b y h i s o f f i c i a l s t o be t h e b e s t F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y i n t h i s period. L e o n a r d C o u r t n e y (1882-5) m a d e t h e b i g g e s t impact a t t h e time of h i s tenure o f t h e o f f i c e , w i t h h i s remarkable q u a l i t i e s of i n t e l l e c t . S i r T. H e a t h ,  19-  Henry  Taylor,  20.  There were t e nAssistant/Permanent S e c r e t a r i e s 1805-1903The a v e r a g e o f t h e i r t e n u r e o f o f f i c e - i s l o w e r e d b y a n u n i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e , W i l l i a m H i l l (1826-8), a n d b y A l e x a n d e r S p e a r m a n , w h o r e t i r e d i n 1840 a f t e r f o u r y e a r s because o f i l l h e a l t h ; he l a t e r returned t o p u b l i c serv i c e a s t h e head o f t h e N a t i o n a l Debt O f f i c e . see:-  op_« c i t . ,  p p . 82-3*  see:-  The S t a t e s m a n ,  Cambridge,  1957,  p.  75.  J . W i n n i f r i t h , "The R t . H o n . S i r A l e x a n d e r S p e a r m a n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1960, X X X V T I I .  1793-1874-"  There were o n l y f o u r Assistant/Permanent S e c r e t a r i e s 1840-94. S i r C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n (1840-59); George H a m i l t o n (1859-70); S i r R a l p h L i n g e n (1870-85); S i r R e g i n a l d W e l b y (1885-94). Welby had been P r i n c i p a l C l e r k i n t h e F i n a n c i a l D i v i s i o n f o r f o u r t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e assuming the highest post. 21.  E. H u g h e s , " S i r C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n a n d C i v i l S e r v i c e R e f o r m 1853-5." E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , 1949, LXIV. J. Hart, " S i r Charles Trevelyan a t the Treasury," E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , 1960, LXXV.  22.  S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on M i s c e l l a n e o u s E x p e n d i t u r e , 1848, o p . c i t . , p . 110. T r e v e l y a n then went on t o attempt t o summarize h i s d u t i e s a s f o l l o w s : "he h a s t o l o o k a f t e r the expenditure; everything that concerns t h e e s t a b l i s h ments, t h e r e v i s i o n s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , and t h e a l t e r a t i o n of r u l e s of various kinds under which t h e expenditure takes place." loc.c i t .  25 23.  I n her a r t i c l e on T r e v e l y a n at the Treasury, J e n n i f e r Hart notes t h a t he l a c k e d the a b i l i t y to delegate work. If a problem arose, r a t h e r than t a k i n g a broad view and s e e i n g t h a t i t was p r o p e r l y d e a l t with, "he would r u s h impetuo u s l y i n t o the breach, or w r i t e o f f a dozen l e t t e r s exhorti n g everyone to work harder i n i m i t a t i o n of h i m s e l f . " J e n n i f e r Hart, op_. c i t . S i r Algernon West remarks of Welby t h a t he "was devoid of the power of d e v o l u t i o n , and would occupy hours of v a l u a b l e time i n doing work which might have been done as w e l l , i f not b e t t e r , by a j u n i o r c l e r k . He would use a r a z o r to cut a b l o c k . " S i r A. West, Contemporary P o r t r a i t s ; Men p u b l i c l i f e , London, 1920, p. 1B2.  of my  day i n  24.  P.C. Yorke, The L i f e and Correspondence of P h i l i p Yorke, e a r l of Hardwick, Lord High C h a n c e l l o r of Great B r i t a i n , Cambridge, 1913, v o l . I I , p. 274-  25.  Second Report of the Commissioners on Pees and Emoluments, 1786. op_. c i t . , p. 51.  26.  T. E r s k i n e May, P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r a c t i c e , 11th. ed., p. quoted i n W.R. Anson, op. c i t . , p. 272.  27.  J.E.D. Binney, B r i t i s h P u b l i c Finance and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1774-1792, Oxford, 1958, p. 1 4 0 .  28.  Report of the S e l e c t Committee on the P u b l i c Income and Expenditure of the U n i t e d Kingdom, 1828. G.B.  S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1828,  545-  V, p. 7»  29.  f o r i n s t a n c e see: E.A. R e i t a n , "The C i v i l L i s t i n Eighteenth-Century B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s : P a r l i a m e n t a r y Supremacy v e r s u s the Independence of the Crown," H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l , 1966, IX.  30.  D.L. K e i r , "Economical Reform, 1770-1787," Law Q u a r t e r l y Review, 1935, L. The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the Treasury was of course a f f e c t e d by these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes; payment by s a l a r i e s , i n s t e a d of by f e e s and p e r q u i s i t e s , came i n 1782.  26 31.  E. Burke, The Works of the R i g h t Honourable Edmund Burke, London, 1803, v o l . I l l , p. 276.  32.  E.A. R e i t a n , op_. c i t .  33*  George Rose, O b s e r v a t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g the P u b l i c Expenditure and the I n f l u e n c e of the Crown, London, 1810, p. 74•  34«  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys, 1 8 5 6 . G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1 8 5 6 , XV, p.  35-  71.  Customs were farmed out u n t i l the Parliament o f 1642-3, which decided to b r i n g them under i t s own a u t h o r i t y . C h a r l e s I I r e t u r n e d them to the farmers i n 1660, and f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d the Crown Commission i n 1671. E x c i s e was introduced_under government s u p e r v i s i o n by the Long P a r l i a m e n t . C h a r l e s found he needed the money thus provided, and so r e t a i n e d them, but farmed them out l i k e the Customs. He e s t a b l i s h e d a Board i n 1662. The I n l a n d Revenue Board was formed i n 1849 by amalgamating the E x c i s e w i t h Stamps & Taxes. E x c i s e was attached to Customs i n 1909-  36.  S i r John C r a i g , The Mint: A H i s t o r y of the London Mint from A.D. 287 t o 1948, Cambridge, 1953. :  37*  E l i z a b e t h Hoon, The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the E n g l i s h Customs System, 1696-1786, New York, 1933, p. 46.  38.  I b i d . , p. 45-  39.  D.M. G i l l , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Treasury and the E x c i s e and Customs Commissioners (1660-1714)," Cambridge H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l , 1932, IV. In 1850 T r e v e l y a n p o i n t e d out t h a t t o some degree the cont r o l o f the Treasury was weakened by the f a c t t h a t a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n on which the Treasury formed i t s o p i n i o n about the way the Commissioners were running the revenues had, of n e c e s s i t y , t o come from the Commissioners themselves. See the Memorandum by C E . Trevelyan, p r i n t e d i n Papers on the R e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the C i v i l S e r v i c e , G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1854-55, XX, p. 4 3 1 . I t appears a l s o that the Treasury's c o n t r o l over revenues  27 from the C o l o n i e s , w h i l e complete i n theory, was i n practice rather ineffective. D.M.  Young, The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n the E a r l y Nineteenth Century, London, 1961, pp.. 171-202. H.T. Manning, B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l Government a f t e r the American R e v o l u t i o n , 17«2-1o20, New Haven, 1933, p. 96. 40.  E. Hughes, S t u d i e s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Finance, Birmingham, 1934, p. 2B4.  41.  J.E.D. Binney,  42.  K. E l l i s , The Post Office" i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century, London, 1958, p. 1 T  43.  Apart from the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Revenue Boards, and the i s s u i n g of funds, the Treasury only administered a few of the Crown l a n d s , and arranged c e r t a i n s p e c i a l types of c o n t r a c t , such as those f o r v i c t u a l l i n g troops overseas. J.E.D. Binney,  1558-1825,  op_. c i t . , p. 179.  op_. c i t . , pp. 169, and 176-7.  28  CHAPTER I I The Treasury and the C o n t r o l of Expenditure  The Treasury's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f i n a n c i a l b u s i n e s s of the government i n v o l v e d the r a i s i n g of revenue, the management of the N a t i o n a l Debt and the coinage of the realm, and p r o v i s i o n of funds f o r expenditure.  the  In the n i n e t e e n t h cen-  t u r y these d u t i e s formed the b a s i s of the Treasury's  position  w i t h i n the machinery of government, and f o r the e x t e n s i o n of i t s powers.  But the Department's r e l a t i o n s w i t h other organs of  government were not c h i e f l y determined  by the few a d m i n i s t r a -  t i v e d u t i e s i t undertook i t s e l f , nor by the f a r wider ones f o r 2 which i t was  responsible.  Rather these r e l a t i o n s were d e t e r -  mined by the s u p e r v i s o r y d u t i e s i t performed  in controlling  expenditure, the d e t a i l s of f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and machinery of government.  the  Such s u p e r v i s o r y d u t i e s , although  based upon l o n g e x i s t i n g l e g a l powers, became e f f e c t i v e only w i t h the reform of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p o l i t i c s which had been c a r r i e d out by the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century. As the machinery of government was made more e f f i c i e n t , as i n t e r e s t i n government f i n a n c e grew, so there was  and  a greater  awareness of the connection between the r a i s i n g of revenue and the need to c o n t r o l expenditure.  The c o n t r o l of expenditure  i n v o l v e d both l e g a l r i g h t s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . r e q u i r e d t h a t the Treasury be a b l e to determine  how  It  much money  29 a Department might spend d u r i n g t h e coming f i n a n c i a l year, and t h a t , i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with P a r l i a m e n t , i t c o u l d ensure that the money he used f o r t h e purposes ations Act.  l a i d down i n the A p p r o p r i -  Only i f the T r e a s u r y had a u t h o r i t y backed up by  an e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine c o u l d i t ensure t h a t a balance would be h e l d between income and expenditure, and so f u l f i l i t s o b l i g a t i o n s t o p r o v i d e the Government with the money required. I t was a p p r e c i a t e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h century t h a t there was a c o n n e c t i o n between t h e Treasury* s r i g h t s over  expendi-  t u r e , and t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Arbuthnot,  A u d i t o r of the C i v i l L i s t and a Treasury o f f i c i a l ,  s a i d when he appeared 1862,  Mr.  b e f o r e the P u b l i c Accounts Committee i n  t h a t "we cannot have a n y t h i n g approaching t o c o n t r o l p  i f we do not know how the expenditure i s going on."  He  c i t e d a S e l e c t Committee o f 1817 which had d i s c u s s e d the cont r o l o f expenditure, and had spoken of "the n e c e s s i t y o f b r i n g i n g a l l f i n a n c i a l s u b j e c t s o f f i c i a l l y w i t h i n the view of the T r e a s u r y . T h e  most f a r - r e a c h i n g item o f f i n a n c i a l  l e g i s l a t i o n i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, the Exchequer and A u d i t Departments A c t o f 1866, l i k e w i s e r e c o g n i z e d the c o n n e c t i o n . I t d e a l t i n adjacent c l a u s e s w i t h the c o n t r o l o f Estimates, and the s t r i c t ation Acts.^  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the d e t a i l s o f the A p p r o p r i The great extensions and reforms o f the  machinery o f f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which took p l a c e b e t ween the 1780's and the 1860's were p o s s i b l e because nobody c h a l l e n g e d the r i g h t o f t h e Treasury t o s u p e r v i s e Depart-  30 mental expenditure.  Despite t h i s ,  the a c t u a l d e t a i l s  of  t h e s e c h a n g e s w e r e more d i r e c t l y t h e r e s u l t  of attempts  to  make t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n more e f f i c i e n t , and  the c o n t r o l  of  P a r l i a m e n t more e f f e c t i v e , t o enhance t h e T r e a s u r y ' s right  of the Treasury  than t h e y were of c o n s c i o u s control  to l i m i t  of expenditure.  attempts  Thus t h e  Government e x p e n d i t u r e  provided  on t h e one h a n d t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e and  other Departments.  the Treasury's  Treasury  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , b e c a u s e i t meant  l e g a l p o w e r s w e r e u n o p p o s e d , i t was  the  e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes which g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d the importance  of the Treasury,  by  estab-  l i s h i n g a s y s t e m w h i c h made p o s s i b l e t h e e a s y s u p e r v i s i o n o f d a i l y e x p e n d i t u r e , and I t was  the e f f e c t i v e enforcement of the a u d i t .  t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e House o f Commons t o  money o n l y f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e f i n a n c i a l y e a r , and t o i n s i s t  envisaged  vote  d u r i n g the  on t h e s u r r e n d e r  coming  o f any  surplus  5  a t t h e end  of that period.  This p r a c t i c e dates  p e r i o d when t h e r a i s i n g o f r e v e n u e and had  been a t t h e r o o t o f t h e c o n f l i c t  ment, b u t  i t came t o be  Department had  the v o t i n g of  to the  I t meant t h a t e a c h y e a r  Departments had  t o r e - e v a l u a t e the whole o f  e x p e n d i t u r e p r o g r a m m e s , and requirements,  Parlia-  Treasury every  t o a p p l y anew t o t h e Commons f o r t h e money i t  needed t o p r o v i d e i t s s e r v i c e s f o r a f u r t h e r t w e l v e The  the  Supply  b e t w e e n Crown and  of great importance  i n the nineteenth century.  back t o  and  how  handed t h e i r E s t i m a t e s  show b o t h t h e t o t a l  t h i s was  months.  their of  their  b r o k e n down i n d e t a i l .  to the Treasury  before  They  Christmas,  31 t o g i v e the C h a n c e l l o r t i m e t o examine them and t o p l a n h i s Budget f o r t h e S p r i n g .  The T r e a s u r y a l s o saw the p r o p o s a l s  f o r e x p e n d i t u r e w h i c h r e s u l t e d from p o l i c y d e c i d e d upon d u r i n g the course of the f i n a n c i a l y e a r .  I t appears t h a t t h e r e was  no r e a l guarantee t h a t an i t e m of e x p e n d i t u r e so approved would he a u t o m a t i c a l l y s a n c t i o n e d when i t appeared a g a i n b e f o r e the , T r e a s u r y on t h e next y e a r ' s  Estimates.  I n e x e r c i s i n g i t s r i g h t s over the c o n t r o l l i n g of e x p e n d i t u r e the T r e a s u r y was i m p l e m e n t i n g the predominant p h i l o s o p h y of government o f the age.  The c u r t a i l i n g o f p u b l i c e x p e n d i -  t u r e was a n e s s e n t i a l element i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h man's t h i n k i n g about government.  And a l t h o u g h the  Tories,  c e r t a i n l y under D i s r a e l i and S a l i s b u r y , showed l e s s i n c l i n a t i o n t o be r u t h l e s s i n t h e i r f i n a n c i a l p l a n s , members of a l l p a r t i e s took i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t h i g h p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e was bad f o r the c o u n t r y .  S i r S t a f f o r d N o r t h c o t e , who s t a r t e d l i f e  private secretary  as  t o G l a d s t o n e , and who l a t e r became C h a n c e l l o r  o f the Exchequer i n D i s r a e l i ' s second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , wrote a book i n 1862 on t h e f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y of t h e p r e c e d i n g twenty years.  He ended i t w i t h a c a l l t o a l l h i s  readers,'whatever  t h e i r p a r t y , t o j o i n t o g e t h e r i n the f i g h t a g a i n s t h i g h 7  government e x p e n d i t u r e .  It  i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the  bitterest  arguments i n Budget debates were not o v e r the l i m i t i n g of  ex-  p e n d i t u r e , w h i c h was t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , but over the r a i s i n g of r e v e n u e , the r e l a t i v e advantages of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n , and the r e f o r m o f the t a r i f f .  No C h a n c e l l o r of  the  Exchequer b e f o r e L l o y d George embarked on a b u d g e t a r y p o l i c y which was drawn up w i t h what appeared t o be few i n h i b i t i o n s  32 about  i n c r e a s i n g government  expenditure.  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  Chancellors  o f t h e E x c h e q u e r a l l w o r k e d t o w a r d s t h e same e n d :  either  strove  tive  they  indirect  f o ra surplus with which t o remit  taxes  o r p a y o f f some o f t h e N a t i o n a l D e b t , o r ,  at worst,  they  increases  i n expenditure.  The as  only  increased  t a x a t i o n t o cover  l i m i t a t i o n o f government  a major part  o f any p o l i c y  expenditure  decision.  unavoidable  thus  The c o s t  programme d i d n o t m e r e l y have t o f i t i n w i t h t h e available tend  t o t h e government a t t h a t  t o be t h e case i n most  a d v o c a t e s o f a new p o l i c y , gramme w a s e s s e n t i a l ,  Although  stagnation, activity siderable  this  view  of the twentieth i n trying  inherent  situation  i n both the c i v i l i n the nineteenth  problems.  of a particular  time,  t o show t h a t  The  i t s advantages  pro-  out-  i n expendi-  expenditure  a n d m i l i t a r y f i e l d s was v e r y century,  i t d i d mean t h a t  a l i m i t e d view of individual  and con-  there admini-  I t was o n l y p o s s i b l e t o t a k e  an objective  p o l i c y when i t was d i s c u s s e d  i n i t s own  of retrenchment  d i dnot then l i e only  of the Treasury  or f a i l u r e i n l i m i t i n g expenditure. the l i m i t i n g of expenditure whole approach taken philosophy  as would  clearly d i dnot lead to  The i m p o r t a n c e  The  new  their  i n an increase  retrenchment.  the  of a  resources  terms, r a t h e r than p a r t i a l l y i n terms o f a g e n e r a l  in  featured  century.  s i n c e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f government  was a t e n d e n c y t o t a k e strative  particular  h a d t o show t h a t  weighed t h e disadvantages ture.  restric-  policy  of  i n t h e heyday  i n i t s relative  success  As t h e foremost  element  i th e l d a c e n t r a l  position i n  towards a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  o f r e t r e n c h m e n t was p a r t  of that  same  33 economic p h i l o s o p h y which  i t s more c o n s p i c u o u s  i ntariff  that  economic w e l f a r e depended on a l l o w i n g i n d u s t r y and a g r i t o make f u l l  resources.  I t was a p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h  suc-  cess  culture  reform.  achieved  assumed  and u n r e s t r i c t e d use o f t h e n a t i o n ' s  I n T h e W e a l t h o f N a t i o n s Adam S m i t h  said  that  Q  high  taxes  would l i m i t  Samuel W e l l s country's plaining gate the  of "inordinate taxation, q  explicitly  In  extravagance.  f o rc a p i t a l  Com-  and a r u i n o u s and p r o f l i -  of the nineteenth century  he s a i d ,  1834  blamed t h e  r a t e o f e x p e n d i t u r e , " - ^ he s t a t e d what may b e t a k e n basic creed  both  a book which  of industry.  economic t r o u b l e s on government  "Taxation"  in  produced  the expansion  as  economiser.  " d i m i n i s h e s t h e amount o f employment  and l a b o u r . " ^  Though W e l l s was  h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e causes  of the poor state  1  incorrect of the  11 economy,  this  does n o t d e t r a c t from  ance o f h i s v i e w s .  I n 1879  t h e widespread  Mr. Rylands,  accept-  M.P. f o r B u r n l e y ,  m o v e d a r e s o l u t i o n i n t h e H o u s e o f Commons w h i c h h e l d , T h a t t h e T a x e s r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e p r e s e n t e x p e n d i t u r e impede t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r e and manufactures, and d i m i n i s h t h e funds f o r the employment o f l a b o u r i n a l l branches o f productive i n d u s t r y , thereby t e n d i n g t o produce pauperism and crime, and adding t o t h e l o c a l and g e n e r a l burden o f t h e p e o p l e ; 12 The  assumption  running through  Nation i s quite clearly  G.R. P o r t e r ' s P r o g r e s s  t h a t h i g h government  ofthe  expenditure, and  13 therefore The  high  taxes, are undesirable.  laissez  "faire  interpretation  o f economics,  though  modified  and a t t a c k e d a t v a r i o u s times  i n the nineteenth  century,  was a c c e p t e d  involved i n national  by most  o f those  34 affairs. less  I t i s t r u e t h a t by  careful  about  more c o m m i t t e d t o The  fact  tions not  that  i n the  taken  expensive  The  by  the  total  taxes  fully  q u e n c e o f new  policies.  creed  supreme i n economic  was  a creed,  validity  and  as  which  Eric  being  accepted The  Roll  laissez  imposing  the  by  the  end  theoretical  necessary  conseSmith's  t h i n k i n g f o r over it,  faire  to start  b a s i c t e n e t s o f Adam  puts  was  higher  came t o a c c e p t  as  restric-  century  a signal  on  were  programmes.  the  of  as  justified  were m e r e l y  It  social  t u r n of  serve  t h a t men  grounds, but  reigned  and  of the economy by  of the c e n t u r y were not  c e n t u r y men  expenditure,  rejection  t h e r e f o r e d i d not  higher  of the  curtail  military  of t a r i f f s  t a k i n g more money out  end  i t l e g i t i m a t e t o i m p o s e new  i m p l y i n g the  e c o n o m i c s , and  taxes.  need to  some f e l t form  as  the  the  a  century.  "which claimed u n i v e r s a l  i n v o l v e d i t s adherents  in a  special  view  14 of  s o c i e t y and  the  state."  Liverpool manufacturers Club has  - they noted  ology  The this  of  way  were n o t  o r members o f t h e P o l i t i c a l  i n c l u d e d almost  the  These adherents  i n which  a l l t h i n k i n g men. economic  Gr.M.  just  Economy Young  ideas permeated the  ide-  the  age. I h a v e a l w a y s t h o u g h t t h a t one o f t h e most remarkable achievement o f our e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h o u g h t was t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e new s c i e n c e o f e c o n o m i c s i n t o . t h e g e n e r a l b o d y o f t h e c u l t u r e , a s a t o p i c w i t h i n t h e common framework of reference. 15  limiting science  o f government e x p e n d i t u r e of  economics, and  Department w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  thus  was  the  instrument  element  Treasury,  as  in  the  f o r p u b l i c f i n a n c e s , became  16 important  one  i n i t s application.  an  The a t t i t u d e s of the v a r i o u s C h a n c e l l o r s of the Exchequer towards economy m i r r o r the dominant t h i n k i n g of the age, show how  and  c l e a r l y the a c t i o n of the Treasury was r e l a t e d to t h i s 17  thinking.  In the search f o r c u t s i n government expenditure  a c l e a r l i n e can he drawn from the Younger P i t t ,  through  Robert  P e e l , Gladstone, Robert Lowe, S i r S t a f f o r d Northcote, Hugh C h i l d e r s , Lord Randolph C h u r c h i l l , t o S i r M i c h a e l  Hicks-Beach  a t the end of the century, to mention only those who  were the  most d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n expounding the creed of p u b l i c economy. Winston C h u r c h i l l remarked i n 1907  t h a t , "No  i s so s t r o n g or so enduring as that founded  s c h o o l of thought on the great t r a d i -  1 ft  t i o n of G l a d s t o n i a n or P e e l i t e f i n a n c e . "  Gladstone used to  l o o k back to the years 1825-1840 as the halcyon days of the 19 economist,  but the s t r u g g l e f o r economy was  3  fundamental  to  the t h i n k i n g of the heads'of the Treasury f o r seven decades a f t e r the end of t h a t p e r i o d . B a r i n g , who  was  C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer from 1839-1841,  as "the Cerberus who no matter how  G r e v i l l e described S i r Francis  growls at every claimant on the Treasury, 20  j u s t h i s c l a i m may  be."  S i r Edward Hamilton  remarked of Hicks-Beach t h a t "With him Treasury c o n t r o l was reality."  a  2 1  C h a n c e l l o r s of the Exchequer, and informed o p i n i o n , used to gauge the success of a f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y by the s i z e of the s u r p l u s and the way  i n which expenditure had been cut, or a t  l e a s t kept i n l i n e w i t h the r i s e i n n a t i o n a l wealth. on expenditure centered around h i s Budget Speech i n 1860,  comparisons  Debates  of t h i s s o r t .  In  f o r i n s t a n c e , Gladstone l a i d great  emphasis on what must have been s t a r t l i n g f a c t s to h i s l i s t e n e r s .  He  maintained  creased 1859 as  125$,  by  wealth i t was  1842  that from and  1853  to  expenditure  i n c r e a s e d by  o p t i o n a l and  n a t i o n a l wealth 8.75$-  by  16-gfS, a n d  had  in-  B e t w e e n 1853  and  "public expenditure,  subject to the  so  far  a c t i o n of p u b l i c opinion,  22 at  r a t e o f 58  the  per  Welby, a t t h a t time sury, measured the  cent."  head  of the  success  i n 1876  Similarly financial  of Robert  of the Exchequer i n terms of the  S i r Reginald  s e c t i o n of the  Lowe's y e a r s  s u r p l u s he  had  as  Trea-  Chancellor  been able  to  23 achieve. The vital to a  relatively  rSle  new  i n financial  d e g r e e unknown and  study  of economics thus  d i s c u s s i o n , use  came t o p l a y  b e i n g made o f  impossible i n the  eighteenth  a  statistics century.  o  But  important  restrain  though  government  e c o n o m i c s was expenditure,  s c i e n c e w h i c h l e d t o an ing.  At  apparent in  fact  crease  this  f o r those  t h e r e was  incorrect  period a price  w h i c h was  only the  necessary  s e r v i c e s were t o be  i n d e x was  not  real  i n a time  maintained. ^  of  least  of  allowing a rise  p a r t of  this rise  on  Although  when t h e y  were w o r k i n g  cellors  of the  ture.  not  at  I t provided  effective  the  an  current prices also that i n i f existing  i t does not  E x c h e q u e r who  appear were  t o have blamed  at  inflation. f o r p u b l i c economy Chanthe  f e l l o w M.P.'s, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e House  an  to  happen-  Thus  Exchequer were a c t i n g i n accordance w i t h  opinions of t h e i r Commons w a s  used.  inflation  i n expenditure, price  o f w h a t was  Certainly  2  were t r y i n g  weakness i n  increase, but  to have been normal f o r C h a n c e l l o r s of the 'guilty'  one  assessment  i n c r e a s e i n government expenditure included not  who  instrument  the background  for curtailing  consensus of o p i n i o n  of  expendiagainst  which  the  Treasury  small  size  c o u l d do  o f government  i t s work.  Despite  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and  the  w o r k l o a d f o r b a c k b e n c h M . P . ' s , t h e H o u s e was that  detailed  successful Estimates broad  examination  attempt  policy  t w e e n 1832  1912,  or to attempts  and  after 1852  some b i g m a t t e r  vagant  retrenchment.  expenditure  rejection  of  the  his  first  Budget  and  eleven  years  criticism  to win  the Finance  a few Bill  the House r e j e c t e d r a t h e r than overall.  Budget was because later  very  rare.  Gladstone  make  was  any  regular confined in  to  the  been p r e s e n t e d . but  Be-  usually  i t allowed f o r too  the  of h i s plans  no  s i x Budgets,  because After  able to  concessions  had  official  l a y behind  T h e r e was  so  relatively  light  not  of expenditure which  Committee u n t i l  Committee stage  on  at  the  middle  of  I n 1852  century  Disraeli  to double  avoided  the  extra-  lost  the house  almost  certain  tax,  defeat  25 by w i t h d r a w i n g Treasury, time of  even at the  before  putting  than  teenth  the  steward  creed  w h e n t h e M.P.  century of  of the  of public  expressed,  others, the  Chancellor  time  for charities.  or since to express  Gladstone way  h i s proposals  T h u s i t was  was  freer  h i s o p i n i o n , which economy i n t o  i f i n a more i m p r e s s i v e and  b a s i c t h i n k i n g about  Exchequer  p u b l i c " who  had  "the was  trusted  "under a  at  any  the  task  practice.  expenditure  C h a n c e l l o r s of the Exchequer. the  than  the  and  He  eloquent of  called  ninethe  confidential  sacred  obligation  with  26 regard letter and  t o a l l t h a t he c o n s e n t s t o s p e n d . " He h a d s a i d i n a t o h i s b r o t h e r t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h a t "Economy i s t h e  great  article  (economy as  I understand  i t ) i n my  financial  27 creed." flicts  At with  the Treasury  other  he  departments,  was  frequently involved i n  t h e most n o t a b l e  being  con-  with  first  38 Palmerston  i860 over t h e p l a n s t o b u i l d h a r b o u r  i s  against  the  sending  a r o u n d r o b i n among L i b e r a l M.P.'s t o arm  those  French.  I n 1861  members o f t h e  necessary. active  early years reduction  Cabinet  When he  interest  was  i n the  brought him  into  took  who  and  the  held  extraordinary step  the  conflict  continued  expenditure,  w i t h h i s own  which  First  Lord  be  take  an  the  for  in of  against  In  worked hard  of  to  to  o f p u b l i c economy.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n he  military  himself  fortifications  P r i m e M i n i s t e r he  enforcement  of h i s f i r s t  i n naval  he  fortifications  a  1871 the  29 Admiralty.  I t was  the  t h a t any  principle  statement  with  as for  when Mr.  P r i m e M i n i s t e r t h a t he  i m p l i c a t i o n s which might  f u t u r e must f i r s t  Thomas H e a t h , w r i t i n g memory t h e  was  member o f h i s G o v e r n m e n t m a k i n g  financial  commitment f o r t h e  living  when he  of the  Treasury  Gladstone  was  Treasury  has  inform  the  i n 1927,  perhaps never  First  Lord  of the  formalized a public  involve a  Treasury.^ said  that  Sir  "Within  been so  powerful  Treasury,  whether  the  moment h o l d i n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l o f f i c e o f C h a n c e l l o r 31 the Exchequer or n o t . L o r d George H a m i l t o n went so f a r  of  to  the  say  that  under Gladstone  " c e r t a i n l y was...  as  the  Treasury  the  commitment t o p u b l i c economy  "32 Government. Almost the  part  officials  figure  as  of the  of Treasury  loyalty  ^ as  Chancellors  Civil  of  Servants.  t h e E x c h e q u e r was  Even u n t i l  the  end  seemed t o combine v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e  with such  Secretary about the  important  a definite as  creed  of  economy.  S i r C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n , who  the  on  attitude  of the  century  departmental  A highly responsible was  Assistant  f r o m 1 8 4 0 - 1 8 5 9 , was n o t a p p a r e n t l y v e r y i m p r o p r i e t y o f a p l a n n e d l e a k , i f i t was  sensitive i n the i n t e r -  ests  of the policy  he s t o o d f o r . ^  mitted  to a policy  Wealth  of N a t i o n s . ^  b e t w e e n 1869 strict  o f economy a n d s t r o n g l y Ralph Lingen, head  a n d 1885,  economist,  T r e v e l y a n was f i r m l y advocated  Smith's  of the Treasury  w a s , i n t h e w o r d s o f The T i m e s ,  and w a t c h f u l guardian  com-  of the public  staff  "a purse"  who w a s a b l e t o s a y 'No' w i t h " a n e m p h a s i s a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n which  repelled  t h e most o b s t i n a t e and most i n g e n i o u s o f p e t i -  tioners."-^ The  best  politicians W e l b y , who  example o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e views  and C i v i l succeeded  Secretaryship u n t i l "guiding  spirit  century,  Servants Lingen  1894*  of B r i t i s h  called  i n 1885,  i s Reginald  and h e l d t h e Permanent  R e f e r r e d t o b y The T i m e s a s t h e finance" f o rnearly a quarter of a  he was a f r i e n d  Gladstone  i n the Treasury  of  o f many L i b e r a l  politicians.  him "a c l o s e p e r s o n a l f r i e n d  Henry  and v a l u e d ad-  37  viser"  t o h i sfather.  S i r Algernon  s h o w s how W e l b y w a s o n e o f G l a d s t o n e ' s Gladstone great  would a u t o m a t i c a l l y send  complexity arose.  a m o n g t h o s e who k n o w who  i n matters  wrong."^ masters definite  circle,  f o rhim i f a matter  a n d how of  t h a t " t h e r e a r e some  s a y t h a t S i r R e g i n a l d Welby i s t h e most Empire.  of high policy,  Welby combined t h i s  giving  I f we they  exclude  t h e power o f  are probably not f a r  rapport with h i s p o l i t i c a l  w i t h uncompromising views i d e a s about  social  West c o n c l u d e d  p o w e r f u l man i n t h e B r i t i s h initiating  West, i n h i s d i a r i e s ,  on economics and f i n a n c e , and  the Treasury  powers t o d e c i d e  what  39 e x p e n d i t u r e was " i m p e r a t i v e " a n d what m e r e l y He  succeeded  1899,  Lord  and wrote  "desirable."  ^  F a r r e r a s Chairman o f t h e Cobden C l u b i n  an i n t r o d u c t i o n  t o Cobden's p o l i t i c a l  writings  40 in which  he  fore  S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on N a t i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e  the  complained taking  spoke  of  bitterly  f o r granted  "we  Free  of the the  Traders."^  up  Treasury's  charts i n their  ture  over  form  i n which  directly It  the l a s t  control  where the  in  ency,  but  faced  t h e s e men  legally  was  not  they f e l t  i t inhibited  a l lpoliticians  oust  took  our  ing  to  connected  that this  that  spoke of the  an  The  was  expeditask that  powers f o r  grounds,  but  their  exer-  administration.  to raise  and who  only  be-  Virtu-  d i s c u s s e d the powers to control  revenue-  " a n c i e n t and  wise  control  Treasury  Expenditure."^  " n o t h i n g more t h a n  i t s ancient a u t h o r i t y . " ^  of  expendi-  A Select  the  vested  over a l l Complain-  2  inadequately exercised, they  i t s r e s t o r a t i o n w o u l d be of  public  the Treasury  i n the hands of the  c o n t r o l was  the Treasury  legal  w i t h the P u b l i c  catches  Even those  i t s legal right  i t s right  best  Department  not merely  i n which  on  to  o f the powers i t had,  o r a u t h o r i t i e s who  Financial Policy  departments  The  prosperity.  flexible  f o r granted  as much a s  C o m m i t t e e i n 1828 by  so  demands  expendi-  eye  of d e d i c a t i o n to  to create theoretical  do  of  while  1  d i d i t s work.  t o o p p o s e t h e way  cause  ture,  arises."^"  the  i s the  take p l a c e , because your  t o make e f f e c t i v e u s e  i t s powers d i d not  Treasury  course  "That r e a l l y  t o whom e c o n o m y was  cised  the  showing the  background  Treasury  he  to advise o f f i c i a l s  speaking were u n c h a l l e n g e a b l e .  most r e a s o n  ally  used  a necessity for national  Department, but  had  task of c u r t a i l i n g  years.  increase  t h e h a n d s o f men  which  can  i s against this  economy t h a t t h e  He  rooms,  twenty  i n 1902  be-  recent increases i n expenditure,  of the v a r i o u s departments. paste  In h i s evidence  suggested  restoration  S i r Reginald  41 Welby  said  before  Expenditure the  civil  t h e S e l e c t Committee on C i v i l  i n 1873 t h a t " T h e T r e a s u r y  expenditure.  measure i n c r e a s i n g ,  I t claims a right  thepublic  claim  o f a G-ladstonian, b u t a c l e a r legal  on P u b l i c for  expenditure."^  right.  Appearing  M o n e y s i n 1856, W.G.  Financial  t h e whole o f  t o judge  every  o r tending to increase, directly  ectly  accepted  control  Services  Business  or indir-  T h i s was n o t t h e a r r o g a n t statement  before  of a  universally  t h e S e l e c t Committee  Anderson, t h e P r i n c i p a l  i nt h e Treasury,  m a d e t h e same  Clerk point:  The r i g h t o f t h e T r e a s u r y t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e c i v i l d e p a r t m e n t s may s p e n d , a n d w h a t t h e y may not spend, though m o d i f i e d o c c a s i o n a l l y by c e r t a i n s p e c i a l enactments, i si n c o n t e s t a b l e , and r e s t s upon a n unbroken p r e s c r i p t i o n which h a s , a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e f o r c e o f law. 45 If  the country's  penditure  f i n a n c e s were t o be p r o p e r l y managed, t h e e x -  o f t h e n a t i o n had t o be balanced  of  t h erevenue,  is  a t issue i snot the right  over  while both  departmental  by t h o s e  remained  with the collection  as low as possible.  or necessity of Treasury  E s t i m a t e s , b u t t h emethod  t o whom t h i s  control  What  control  of i t s application  was a n e x p r e s s i o n o f f a i t h .  There were acknowledged weaknesses i n t h e power o f t h e Treasury. ing,  The more s e n i o r t h e o f f i c e  the less  was t h e T r e a s u r y  w i t h which  able t o i n s i s t  i t was d e a l -  o n economy.  Talking  of the offices  Affairs  a n d f o r t h e Home D e p a r t m e n t , T r e v e l y a n r e m a r k e d i n  1848  of the Secretaries of State f o r Foreign  t h a t t h e y "have been h e l d i n a degree  Treasury,  a n d we h a v e n o t f e l t  trol  them i n m a t t e r s  over  offices."46  we h a d p r e c i s e l y  ofthis  The T r e a s u r y  o f respect byt h e  sort  as over  c o u l d seldom,  t h e same  con-  the other  i f ever,  have a n  42 item  t a k e n o f f t h e E s t i m a t e s o n c e i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e .  Welby*s u s e o f t h e words " i n c r e a s i n g , seems t o i m p l y t h i s . Pointing he  said  cannot  out that  Estimates,  Lowe c o m p l a i n e d  o f t h e same  weakness.  t h e Treasury was a Department l i k e  i n 1873 t h a t well  or tending to increase,"  withdraw  the rest,  "when a t h i n g h a s g o t o n t h e E s t i m a t e s it;  we c a n p r e v e n t  we  i t s coming on t h e  b u t when i t i s t h e r e t h e T r e a s u r y  i s powerless t o 47  get  r i d of i t ;  that  i s where o u r weakness i s . "  the T r e a s u r y have t h e machinery ments'  e x p e n d i t u r e programmes each  concentrate in  t o make  this  o n t h e new i t e m s  respect that  full  year.  Nor d i d  surveys o f depart-  Rather  on t h e E s t i m a t e s .  they had t o Welby  remarked  "the defect of the Treasury control i s  A8 that  necessarily  Anderson  noted  speaking i t i s applied  that  make a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  the Treasury  i n isolated  cases."  d i d n o t h a v e t h e means t o  examination of the d e t a i l s  of the military  49 Estimates, The elements  of English  suggested  control  the totals.  e x p e n d i t u r e was one o f t h o s e procedure  which,  of Royal prerogative,  long after that  over  governmental  application  statute u n t i l  Welby  i tc o u l d o f course  Treasury's control  legitimate in  though  a  was n o t s e t down  i t h a d become n o r m a l  the control  while  c o u l d be t r a c e d  practice. b a c k two h u n -  50 dred years, mittee  i n 1958  a n d a memorandum said that  s u b m i t t e d t o t h e E s t i m a t e s Com-  the Treasury  custom and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e tion  as t h e c e n t r a l  finally Act  financial  control  from  "derives by  the Treasury's 51  authority."  y  Treasury  r e c e i v e d s t a t u t o r y backing i n t h e Exchequer  o f 1866,  though  i n s u c h a way a s t o show t h a t  of t h e l e g i s l a t i o n were m e r e l y  putting  posicontrol  and A u d i t  the drafters  down o n p a p e r  what  they  43 felt  existed i n practice.  ,bates  on t h e B i l l  to Treasury  control.  Clause  the reality  so t h a t  i t may b e g i v e n  Comptroller  Comptroller  that  i n t h e de-  nobody complained about t h e passage  granted  the  I t i ssignificant  twenty  o f c o n t r o l over  seven o f the A c t takes f o r expenditure  the extra backing  and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l .  and Auditor-General  m e n t s w e r e made w i t h t h e p r o p e r  relating  b u t l a y s i t down  of the services,of  Having stated that the  were t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t a l l payauthority, the clause  goes on:  Provided always, and i t i s hereby enacted, that whenever t h e s a i d C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - . G e n e r a l s h a l l be r e q u i r e d b y t h e T r e a s u r y t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e Expenditure i n c l u d e d o r t o be i n c l u d e d i n a n A p p r o p r i a t i o n A c c o u n t , or any P o r t i o n o f such Expenditure, i s supported by t h e A u t h o r i t y o f t h e Treasury, t h e C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l s h a l l examine s u c h E x p e n d i t u r e w i t h t h a t Object, and s h a l l r e p o r t t o t h e Treasury a n y E x p e n d i t u r e w h i c h may a p p e a r , u p o n s u c h e x a m i n a t i o n , t o have been i n c u r r e d without such A u t h o r i t y ; and i f t h e T r e a s u r y s h o u l d n o t t h e r e u p o n s e e f i t t o sanction such unauthorized Expenditure, i t s h a l l be r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g n o t p r o p e r l y c h a r g a b l e t o a P a r l i a m e n t a r y G r a n t , a n d s h a l l be r e p o r t e d t o t h e H o u s e o f Commons i n t h e M a n n e r h e r e i n - a f t e r p r o vided. 52 W i t h i n the terms o f t h i s  clause  by  1868:  a Minute  of 1st A p r i l  the Treasury  defined  i t s role  I t a p p e a r s t o my L o r d s t h a t i t w o u l d b e b e yond the f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s Board t o c o n t r o l t h e ordinary expenditure placed under the charge of the several departments, w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the sums s e t f o r t h u n d e r t h e s u b h e a d s o f t h e s e v e r a l grants o f Parliament, and t h a t i t i s only i n exc e p t i o n a l cases that the s p e c i a l s a n c t i o n o f the T r e a s u r y s h o u l d be h e l d t o be n e c e s s a r y . My L o r d s c o n s i d e r t h a t s u c h s a n c t i o n s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d f o r a n y i n c r e a s e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , o f s a l a r y , o r o f t h e cost o f a s e r v i c e , o r f o rany a d d i t i o n a l w o r k s o r new s e r v i c e s w h i c h h a v e n o t s p e c i a l l y been provided f o r i n t h e grants o f Parliament. 53  44 By  t h i s Minute  the  Treasury  of  expenditure  was  valid  original or  Estimates,  i f the  course  Treasury  of the  The tailed  and  was  only so  i f i t had  got  approved  making quite  on  of  to  i t at  statutory expression  e x p o s i t i o n d i d not  made v e r y  little  d i f f e r e n c e to the  least  that  the  Sir  i n c u r r i n g of  the  Ivor Jennings i s the  penditure. an  S.H.  adequate Treasury  man  who  of the  has  basis  B e e r has  influential  the is  given  placed  i s a  with  his  that  this  p r e s t i g e and  alone  As  element  of Treasury Robert of  an  As  an  the both  inher-  the  power  i n f l u e n c e means s e n i o r man  in  i n f l u e n t i a l man,  he  prestige i n h i s  Lowe s a i d i n 1869,  s t r e n g t h and  not  Presumably  Exchequer i s always a already  i s  one  relations "high  which a  Govern-  55 ment a n x i o u s  f o r economy ought n o t  Chancellors  of  the  to  ex-  p o s i t i o n of  very  Conversely,  position  i n f l u e n c e of  Exchequer.  this  colleagues.  power^ t o c o n t r o l  But  of the  matters  Chancellor's  i n some s e n s e t r u e .  i t s head.  over  influence  at  added weight  great  of the  the  increases  with his colleagues.^ office  the  out  Act  Treasury  important  deomni-  Audit  Treasury  party.  the  the  i t s  Treasury  department the  Chancellor  ruling  On  the  must a u t o m a t i c a l l y enhance the  ently  the  power o f  Treasury's  pointed  since  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are  that  the  the  and  E x c h e q u e r and  Exchequer c a r r i e d  of the  becomes C h a n c e l l o r  man  the  suggested that  these  of the  item  Grant,  during  control,  a u t h o r i t y depended on  explanation,  the  Parliamentary  some s t a g e  expenditure.  Treasury's  Chancellor  i n Cabinet  the  a u t o m a t i c a l l y make t h e  i t appears that  at  been a p p r o v e d on  of Treasury  Indeed  initial  an  year.  potent.  the  clear that  neglect."  Exchequer, both before  and  after  the  45  A c t of 1866, leagues,  were i n v o l v e d i n major b a t t l e s w i t h C a b i n e t  i n which the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  col-  of T r e a s u r y c o n t r o l was  synonymous w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e .  In his battles  the f o r t i f i c a t i o n s i n 1860 the success of the T r e a s u r y ' s  over  case  r e s t e d on G l a d s t o n e ' s a b i l i t y t o persuade o t h e r members of C a b i n e t t h a t the F r e n c h t h r e a t i t i n v o l v e d dangerous.  was u n r e a l , and the  expenditure  G l a d s t o n e h i m s e l f u n d e r s t o o d the  s o n a l commitment of the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer t o Estimates that Cabinet d i s c u s s e d .  the  per-  the  In a l e t t e r to Morley i n  1886 he s a i d , " I have r e p e a t e d l y fought e s t i m a t e s 56  to the  ity,  I n the same  w i t h an i n t e n t i o n o f r e s i g n i n g i n c a s e . "  extrem-  l e t t e r he c r i t i c i z e d the way L o r d Randolph C h u r c h i l l had t e n dered h i s r e s i g n a t i o n a f t e r h i s d i s p u t e over the n a v a l E s t i mates.  I n G l a d s t o n e ' s o p i n i o n C h u r c h i l l had presumed too  much of a r i g h t t o o r d e r how much the defence  Secretaries  might spend, i n s t e a d of r e l y i n g on h i s p o s i t i o n i n C a b i n e t t o 57 f o r c e h i s way.  Others a l s o a c c e p t e d t h a t the p r o p e r p l a c e  t o r e s o l v e major d i s p u t e s of t h i s n a t u r e was i n t h e C a b i n e t room.  I n a M i n u t e of J a n u a r y 1870 L o r d G r a n v i l l e , the F o r e i g n  Secretary,  r e f e r r e d t o a d i s p u t e t h a t he had had w i t h t h e  C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, Robert Lowe.  Drawing g e n e r a l  c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s , he c i t e d the case where a Department p l e a d e d e f f i c i e n c y over a c e r t a i n programme, and the T r e a s u r y economy.  I n such a c a s e , " i f we cannot a g r e e ,  Lowe has an  o f f i c i a l r i g h t t o b r i n g the m a t t e r b e f o r e the Prime M i n i s t e r and the  Cabinet."  5 8  The s u p p o r t of the Prime M i n i s t e r was c r u c i a l i n most d i s p u t e s o v e r e x p e n d i t u r e t h a t had t o be a r b i t r a t e d i n C a b i n e t .  Gladstone the to  provided  as strong  a backing to h i s Chancellors  Exchequer as any Prime M i n i s t e r . deduce from t h i s  ously  the  1835  supporter  he was t h e r e f o r e  of retrenchment  Peel,  Gladstone  Exchequer before Gladstone held Treasury, sters  public  to the view that  administrations the  Treasury  post.  there  economy,  of Prime  severe c o n f l i c t s  departments.  the Chancellor  Salisbury's  colonial After with  expenditure,  the start t h e War  mark t h a t  o f t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n War  O f f i c e , and a t one p o i n t  expenditure unless support  let  sub-  between refusal to  Hicks-  conflicts  r o l e was  Hicks-Beach  i n 1903  was  o f the Exchequer could  cause  over  important. clashed  l e d to r e -  hope t o c o n t r o l  he h a d " t h e a c t i v e , f i r m , and  continuous  of the Prime M i n i s t e r . "  Not as  i n several  i n which Salisbury's  no C h a n c e l l o r  Mini-  a direct  of the Exchequer's r e s i g n a t i o n .  Beach and C h a m b e r l a i n were i n v o l v e d  and  In Salisbury's  s u p p o r t C h u r c h i l l o v e r t h e N a v a l E s t i m a t e s was of  of the  a l t h o u g h he c l e a r l y  i t was n e c e s s a r y .  1908,  t h e y went t o t h e  the least vigorous  were s e v e r a l  and v a r i o u s  and  Both Peel  t h e i r v i e w s on economy b e f o r e  i n enforcing  scribed  of the Exchequer  had been Chancellors  assuming the highest  was  had n o t .  d i f f e r e n t people, u n t i l  and D i s r a e l i  and D i s r a e l i  automatically  t h a n o n e who  o n w a r d s , when t h e C h a n c e l l o r  P r i m e M i n i s t e r were n o r m a l l y  only  possible  because a Prime M i n i s t e r had p r e v i -  sat i n the Treasury that  a stronger Prom  that  But i t i s not  of  a l l requests  to require alone  the attention of the Chancellor  the Cabinet.  E s t i m a t e s were  f o r e x p e n d i t u r e were o f such a  The v a s t  of a routine  kind  majority  of  which could  nature  o f t h e Exchequer, departmental be d e a l t  with  at  an o f f i c i a l  level.  The  D e p a r t m e n t s s e n t them t o t h e  S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , who  w o u l d p a s s them on t o t h e Chan-  c e l l o r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t t h e two out between t h e m s e l v e s .  Financial  men  had  T h u s t h e number o f E s t i m a t e s  actually  e x a m i n e d by t h e C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e E x c h e q u e r w o u l d v a r y Government t o G o v e r n m e n t .  worked  from  Lowe u s e d t o l o o k a t a g r e a t number,  60  and D i s r a e l i v e r y few. papers  be s e n t t o h i m  Lowe r e q u i r e d t h a t a l a r g e number o f p a r t l y b e c a u s e he d i s t r u s t e d h i s F i n a n c i a l  S e c r e t a r y , W i l l i a m B a x t e r , and  p a r t l y b e c a u s e he was  very  c o n s c i o u s o f t h e need t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e work o f those  beneath  him.^"*"  disin-  Disraeli  took the o p p o s i t e view  b e c a u s e he was  c l i n e d t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e m i n u t i a e o f f i n a n c e . indeed not  o n l y l o o k e d a t a l a r g e number o f p a p e r s ,  more n i g g l i n g a p p r o a c h the Exchequer.  but  took  a  t h a n most o f t h e o t h e r C h a n c e l l o r s o f  I n 1 8 7 1 he  General - a d m i t t e d l y not  aroused  a man  the wrath  of the  Postmaster  to win the r e s p e c t of the  gent o r t h e i n d u s t r i o u s - by h i s o b j e c t i o n t o p a y i n g passage of emigrants  Lowe  in fulfilment  intelli  the  o f an a g r e e m e n t w i t h  62  Australia.  T h i s underlines the f a c t that personal  factors  were i m p o r t a n t even i n t h e d e t a i l e d work o f t h e T r e a s u r y , as i t had  been i n t h e b i g d i s p u t e s w h i c h  I t was  i n matters  to maintain a r i g i d  was  not  Cabinet.  o f s m a l l and r o u t i n e e x p e n d i t u r e t h a t  t h e power o f t h e T r e a s u r y was had  had r e a c h e d  just  most e f f e c t i v e .  They  clearly  c o n t r o l over s m a l l items i f the  t o r u n out o f c o n t r o l .  But d o u b t l e s s t h e f a c t  total that  r o u t i n e i t e m s c o u l d be more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d made them more a t t r a c t i v e to the parsimonious Miscellaneous Expenditure  mind.  The  S e l e c t Committee  on  i n 1848 remarked t h a t , " I n a l l cases  48 a narrow and constant examination  of the d e t a i l s should he  pected from the o f f i c i a l s of the T r e a s u r y . ^ t h i s o p i n i o n the Committee was  In e x p r e s s i n g  r e i t e r a t i n g what S i r F r a n c i s  B a r i n g , a former C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, had of the h e a r i n g s .  ex-  s a i d i n one  S i r C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n v o i c e d h i s a p p r o v a l of  the i d e a i n a Minute he wrote on the o r g a n i s a t i o n of the D i v i s i o n of the Treasury i n 1850,  Finance  though he p o i n t e d out at the  same time the d i f f i c u l t y of a s m a l l o f f i c e undertaking t h i s amount of d e t a i l e d w o r k . ^ Few  i f any departmental M i n i s t e r s would he i n a p o s i t i o n to  complain t o the Cabinet or the Prime M i n i s t e r every time the Treasury denied i t s s a n c t i o n t o one of t h e i r small r e q u e s t s f o r expenditure.  For reasons of time and e f f i c i e n c y the great major-  i t y of the d e t a i l s of the Estimates had to be decided w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine, and i n such cases i t was  relatively  easy  f o r the F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y of the Treasury, or the Permanent S e c r e t a r y , t o r e f u s e p o i n t blank than i t was  f o r the C h a n c e l l o r  of the Exchequer i f a major item reached Cabinet.  Often indeed  even the F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y d i d not deal w i t h the Estimates i n detail.  I n 1880  Lingen wrote t o W.H.  Smith t h a t "A great deal 65  of work i n f a c t i s f i n a l l y done by the P r i n c i p a l C l e r k s . " Mr.  Gibson Bowles complained  to the House of Commons i n  1900  of the i n s e n s i t i v e and t i g h t - f i s t e d approach of the Treasury i n d e t a i l e d matters.  " I t i s i n s m a l l matters t h a t the  ence of the Treasury i s most f e l t . "  interfer-  He f e l t t h a t the Trea-  sury had reached a p o s i t i o n where i t s arrogant d i s d a i n f o r the o p i n i o n s of others i n these small matters was  matched only by  67  the t i m i d i t y of the Departments.  The combination  of "ancient  authority" had  by  those  Peel's things  highest in  the  no  awe-inspiring  t i m e meant t h e r e w h i c h were too  level.  1900,  the  and  To  t a k e up  reputation  could  petty an  because the  little  t o he  T r e a s u r y had  the  Treasury  dispute  over  considered  example used by  M i n i s t e r of Works c o u l d  Cabinet  he  that  the  Gibson  conceivably refused  at  Bowles  complain  him  to  the  money  The  chances  68 needed are  to re-whitewash Bethnal  that  quest  his  i f they were  emphatic The certain  small  sury  Mr.  sure  fact that  the  that  even b o t h e r to  the  a n s w e r was  T r e a s u r y was  Estimates without  c o n t r o l and  evidence  1888,  would not  put  i n the  b o u n d t o be  re-  an  'No'.  Treasury's In  officials  G r e e n Museum.  to  the  argument r a i s e s the  influence  itself  of  on  the  Board  too  much i n m i n o r  Civil  Trade,  refuse issue  over p o l i c y i n the  Royal Commission  G i f f e n , of  involved  i n a p o s i t i o n to  of  Departments.  Establishments  argued  details,  the  that  the  in  Trea-  "leaving  very  69 little  d i s c r e t i o n to  Chamberlain sanction that  clearly  for  volved  to  the  by  have u n d e r t a k e n belonged  to  one  s u c c e s s f u l l y o p p o s i n g an  tailed  a programme as  it  might  as  to  the  directly  influence  itself."  so  hampered c o l o n i a l p o l i c y T h e s e two  examples  T r e a s u r y m i g h t h a v e become i n of  other  departments.  direct administrative of  item  effectively  involve  Joseph  Treasury's r e f u s a l of i t s  direct interference.  internal affairs  could  which r i g h t l y  that  ways i n w h i c h the  i n the  Treasury  felt  department  some o f h i s p r o j e c t s  i t amounted t o  point  the  itself  the on to on  developments i n the  Departments. the  Estimates,  have  destroyed  The duties It  might,  have  so  i t .  Or  some p o l i c y d e c i s i o n , way  i t wanted.  On  cur-  top  so of  50 t h i s was  the  generally  ©ation o f p u b l i c of  economy had  administration  constitute important rights was  on  i n general.  in providing  the  o f a new  general acceptance  effect that  the view While  direct interference  and wrongs  the  inhibiting  terms  p o l i c y would of the need  tended  it  to  e x p e n d i t u r e , and  t h o s e who  would  Treasury their  or  ministers one  agreed  extend  to the  evidence  from  t h e man  instituted  felt  wrote  i n 1879  the purpose  Chancellor cloth.  improper.  on  ^"  L  that  i t was  any job  of terms.  within  of Treasury  even  control  power d i d not In h i s  that  i s purely  purposes,  shape or  and  c o n t r o l was  was  In the  merely  "cut h i s coat administrative  "the part  "the a  financial  that  kind with  policy  Minute  of the Treasury, Welby  could  only  departmental  of other Departments.  s p h e r e . ""^  decision  significant  of Treasury  financial  the  Such  not  to say  It i s  to the Treasury  the duties  not  i t i s  o f t h o s e whose  the Treasury's  i t s proper  Thus not  I t was  out.  f o r economy t h a t  Commission Welby h e l d  of the Exchequer , ,  argued  Needless  t h e moment i t i n t e r f e r e s i n a n y  he  taking,  p o l i c y i n i t s own  exponents  for purely  from  be  officials.  t o say that  check: e n t r u s t e d  i s departing  his  these  before the Ridley or  necessarily  i n t e r f e r e i n e i t h e r a Department's  internal affairs  it  that  obviously  o f t h e most a r d e n t  be  check,  with  process  to the disadvantage  a new  i n i t s administration.  should  control  to  does not  t o the advantage  to advocate  officials  jurisdiction  making,  that  want  this  of the  appli-  of reference w i t h i n which  discussion curtail  taken  strict  in policy decision  policy was  the  said  so t h a t  the  according to inteference  of the Treasury to  say  51 whether the p o l i c y which l e a d s to a c e r t a i n expenditure i s r i g h t 72 or not."  In 1870  G r a n v i l l e took p r e c i s e l y the same p o s i t i o n .  He denied t h a t the Treasury c o u l d r e f u s e him money merely  be-  cause i t disapproved of h i s p o l i c y . D e s p i t e Welby's c l a i m s i t seems i t was  not easy t o draw a  c l e a r l i n e between - t o use h i s words - " f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l " "Departmental The  and  b u s i n e s s of which the Treasury has no knowledge."^  s i t u a t i o n d i d not have to be v e r y complex before i t became  hard t o d i s t i n g u i s h between "economy", supposedly  the concern of  the Treasury, and the e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of a programme, the concern of the other Department.  Even i f a M i n i s t e r could pre-  vent d i r e c t i n t e r f e r e n c e i n h i s p o l i c y making at the top l e v e l , concern f o r the d e t a i l s of expenditure c o u l d have an e f f e c t on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n lower down the s c a l e . Hamilton,  who  was  inhibiting  Lord George  F i r s t Lord of the Admiralty 1885-92, w i t h the  e x c e p t i o n of a few months i n 1886,  noted t h a t Treasury p a r s i -  mony under Gladstone had l e f t f o r t s without guns and s h i p s w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t ammunition, thus r e d u c i n g m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t y f a r more than would a t f i r s t appear from the sum  by  of money b e i n g  75 saved.'' The s a v i n g of r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sums i n the Royal Dockyards meant l a r g e delays i n the completion of s h i p s , and t h e r e f o r e a d i s r u p t i o n of n a v a l p l a n s out of p r o p o r t i o n to the 76 economy. equipped  The Treasury, he concluded, was  singularly 77  to make d e t a i l e d c u t s of t h i s n a t u r e .  ill  In a sense  the Post O f f i c e i s not a f a i r example of t h i s , because i t was a Revenue Department f o r which the Treasury had a s p e c i a l r e sponsibility.  But i t had i t s own  p o l i t i c a l head, had always  shown c o n s i d e r a b l e independence, and undertook many a d m i n i s t r a -  52  tive his  duties  about which  the  Treasury  Autobiography_Anthony Trollope  laid had  down d e t a i l e d r e g u l a t i o n s to  be  delivered  organized; however,  a  before  a new  apparently  avoid  knew n o t h i n g .  describes  about  the  how  the  number  of  of  the  letters  some o f  the  In  Treasury  letters  messenger's walk could  "sanguine" counting  could  clearly  by  the  which  be officials,  restrictive  con7  sequences Half in  a  of  century  the  House  Treasury's exercise the  a  the  opinion the  He  the  duties.  of  of the  questions  expressed  "by  e x e r c i s i n g the  Treasury.'  and  the  S a l i s b u r y , who  probably  that  the  Board  and  opinion  was  that  power  of  at  i n the  government  of  ordinary  the  I t was the  i t was  Board,., and, R o b e r t  only  Lowe a t  p a r t l y . t o blame 79  B o e r War. to  curtailed i t from  the the  a favourable  Lowe o v e r r o d e  the  hearing opinion  i n the  of Lingen  be  particularly in  1870's  the  the that  activities  performing John  T r e a s u r y , w h i c h won  I869-73.  and  for  .  f r i e n d s h i p of  years  authority  expressed,  known i n t h e  prevented  at  purse,it  in administration  well  Treasury  and  openly  appeared  interference  of Health, Indeed  others  the  Prime M i n i s t e r  Q  Board  statements  i n the  a t t i t u d e was  shortcomings  to Treasury  officials  felt,  Treasury's  military  effectively.. at  part  i n h i b i t ed. D e p a r t m e n t s  p u b l i c economy.  permanent the  their  the  in a series  Commons,, p e o p l e  newer organs  susceptible name o f  of  on  c l e a r v o i c e . i n a l l d e c i s i o n s .of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  policy."  The  later,  said that  and  some o f  approach  power s t i l l  of  time,  claims  of  s u c h an  Pi  authorised  Simon the  *l  In the  I869 extra Op  staff  required  to  E d w i n C h a d w i c k , who the  Treasury,  83 v  had  carry had  out  duties  under the  earned h i m s e l f  frequent  clashes  a  with  very  Sanitation bad  Treasury  Act.  reputation officials.  at  53 A l t h o u g h , t h e r e w a s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n that  the Board  i n the Treasury's  o f H e a l t h was a s u b o r d i n a t e D e p a r t m e n t and t h a t  C h a d w i c k was l i a b l e  t o be i n a c c u r a t e i n h i s e x p e n d i t u r e  mates,  often reached  the Treasury  grounds without one  it  d e c i s i o n s on p u r e l y  examining  t h e needs  of the policy.  occasion, by l i m i t i n g  the funds  i t was p r e p a r e d  available  f o rt h e purchase  d i dn o t merely  since  opinion  limit  t o be e f f e c t i v e  the policy  financial Thus on  t o make  o f cemeteries by t h e Board  the policy but t o t a l l y  esti-  of Health,  destroyed i t ,  r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e Board  had a  Pi/i  monopoly o f t h e cemeteries. Commissioners appointed the  Treasury,  I n a s i m i l a r way t h e work o f t h e  t o examine  emigrant  s h i p s was l i m i t e d  so t h a t they c o u l d n o t adequately  carry  by  outthe  85 work expected At existed on  o f them.  the highest level  successful  grounds,  control  was n e v e r  millions  just  really  definition  p a r t be t h e cause prove hard  either to take  successful  t h e B o e r War.  inefficiency effective  i n 1853 After  control  raised  to nearly  1853  i n the financial  given t o Treasury  of this.  and o t h e r s ,  i n preventing the  d e c i s i o n s which  f r o m £55-| m i l l i o n s  before  Gladstone,  against extravagant colleagues.  E s t i m a t e s were o n l y once reduced, very  o p p o s i t i o n t o a Department  of those major p o l i c y  government e x p e n d i t u r e  there  does n o t appear t o have been as  a n d won b a t t l e s  the Treasury  implementation  The  f o r m a t i o n , where  a s might have been expected.  may h a v e f o u g h t  £120  of policy  many i n s t a n c e s o f T r e a s u r y  economic  But  y  the C i v i l  year  1862-3.  a t t h e t i m e may i n  So l o n g a s t h e T r e a s u r y h a d t o or inexpediency,  action  to p r o v i d e government funds  i t would  find i t  against, f o rinstance, decisions  f o r e d u c a t i o n and l o c a l  authorities,  or  f o r a stronger fleet.  as  t h i s which  really  I t was m a j o r p o l i c y  raised  decisions  government e x p e n d i t u r e ,  towards t h e end o f the c e n t u r y ,  caused  this  such  and  especially  expenditure to Cry  outstrip big  the rise  items  of expenditure  the Exchequer if  they  i n the gross n a t i o n a l c o u l d be f o u g h t  i n Cabinet,  represented  s i b l e , t o escape  and were  r a s h new  from  product.  by C h a n c e l l o r s o f  often.fought  enterprises,  the financial  Although  successfully  i t was almost  implications  impos-  o f t h e new  commitments t h a t Governments were  undertaking towards the  community.  While  i s no c o n n e c t i o n  enforcement  of efficiency,  clear  that  very  of Treasury  modern s t a n d a r d s  ineffective  taken_its taking  an  policy  any r e a l  stages  of  decision  and submitted  until  trying  economic  t h e Department had  i t s Estimates  to limit  costs.  before The  Treasury  contact w i t h the Departments a t the  o f p l a n n i n g a new  policy,  and thus  could not bring  o p i n i o n t o bear, on t h e o u t c o m e .  o u t t h a t "The c o n t r o l  i n t e r f e r e , w i t h t h e making expenditure  i t i s  e x e r c i s e d i t s power i n a  I t waited  outside economist's  of policy,  was t o b e f u l f i l l e d .  the Treasury  about  between t h e 88  i f the basic  manner.  action  Anderson pointed not  and t h e c o n t r o l  control  was n o t . u s u a l l y i n f o r m a l early  there  t h e two h a d t o go t o g e t h e r  justification By  logically  i n any shape;  of expenditure  w£©. does  of contracts, or the incurring a l l that belongs  to the executive  89 Departments.",  I t i s significant  should  thus  aspect  of Treasury  considered penditure.  use t h e word  'interfere'  c o n t r o l which  t o be e s s e n t i a l 9 0  that a Treasury when t a l k i n g  official about t h e  i s the twentieth century i s  t o any e f f e c t i v e  limitation  B y t h e e n d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y many  o f exwere  v o i c i n g complaints about the amateur nature of Treasury  con-  91 trol,  but i t was  not u n t i l a f t e r the F i r s t World War,  under  the i n f l u e n c e of the Haldane Committee on the machinery of government, and of S i r Warren F i s h e r , Permanent S e c r e t a r y t o the Treasury 1919-1939, t h a t the Treasury came s e r i o u s l y to r e l y  on  d i s c u s s i o n s i n the e a r l y stages of p o l i c y formation, r a t h e r than the l a t e r r i g i d to  c u r t a i l expenditure.  the F i r s t World War, procedure,  Likewise, i t was not u n t i l  after  any requirement  on the p a r t of a  M i n i s t e r to t e l l the Treasury i n advance of any  p o l i c y he proposed  a f t e r the War  to b r i n g b e f o r e Cabinet.  there s t i l l  Thus u n t i l  e x i s t e d the r i s k t h a t the C h a n c e l l o r  would be i l l - p r e p a r e d f o r the d i s c u s s i o n s i n Cabinet.  Once  the Cabinet had reached a d e c i s i o n , the Treasury of course to  way  and L l o y d George's f o r m a l i z a t i o n of Cabinet  t h a t there was  Departmental new  enforcement of a u t h o r i t y , as the best 92  had  s a n c t i o n any money the p o l i c y i n v o l v e d . The growing c o s t s of new  commitments undertaken  by  govern-  ments are the r e a l cause of the r i s e i n government expenditure. Yet the Treasury was  s i n g u l a r l y i l l - e q u i p p e d t o d e a l with  this  s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e i t c o u l d not remove an item which had become e s t a b l i s h e d on the Estimates. faced each incoming was  government were not merely  hard to opt out of;  ones which i t  they were ones which tended to grow  under t h e i r own momentum. had  Many of the commitments which  Once B r i t a i n had accepted that she  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to defend  the c o l o n i e s , there was  very  l i t t l e the Treasury c o u l d do but s a n c t i o n the funds r e q u i r e d to  pay the necessary number of t r o o p s .  e s p e c i a l l y t h i s proved  In South A f r i c a  to be f a r more expensive than had been  56 originally envisaged.  No C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer i n the  JJ  l a t e 1850's, or i n the 1860's, was a b l e t o lower expenditure t o its in  pre-Crimean War l e v e l .  Although the L i b e r a l s came t o power  1868 f i r m l y committed t o retrenchment,  Gladstone h i m s e l f was  q u i t e aware of the g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g e t t i n g r i d of the e x t r a £3 m i l l i o n s added t o the government expenditure by h i s OA  C o n s e r v a t i v e predecessors.  The s t e a d i l y growing, but  s c a r c e l y a v o i d a b l e , c o s t of e d u c a t i o n a l g r a n t s c o n s t i t u t e d h a l f the i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t s o f c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Gladstone's f i r s t ministry.  J  W i t h i n seven years of purchase  the t e l e g r a p h s  had a l r e a d y c o s t £9.2 m i l l i o n s , i n s t e a d of an estimated £2.5 96 millions.  Sidney Buxton, w r i t i n g i n 1888, made the d i s t i n c -  t i o n between a v o i d a b l e expenditure, which r e s u l t e d from p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , and unavoidable charges and the l i k e .  expenditure, which c o n s i s t e d o f debt  He missed  the p o i n t that many p o l i c y  commitments were of such a nature t h a t f u t u r e governments had to  accept them, whatever they c o s t . Although most of t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e c o s t s i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century were born a t the l o c a l l e v e l , there i s a d i s t i n c t change in  the s t r u c t u r e of government expenditure, which r e f l e c t s the  Treasury's f a i l u r e t o prevent new commitments.  I n 1790 the  debt charges c o n s t i t u t e d 41$ of the t o t a l expenditure, of both l o c a l and c e n t r a l governments, defence 27$, and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s 10$. 28$,  I n 1890, the debt charges were 15$ of the t o t a l , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s 17$.  defence  I n 1910, by which time the  c e n t r a l government was u n d e r t a k i n g many s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , the 97  corresponding f i g u r e s were 10$, 27$, and 3 0 $ .  I n the l a t e  n i n e t e e n t h century, f o r i n s t a n c e , there were b i g i n c r e a s e s i n  the c o s t s of the Navy. c o u n t r i e s , and  Given the n a v a l programmes of other .  the p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n i n the country about the  need f o r adequate p r o t e c t i o n , there was  v e r y l i t t l e t h a t the  c o n s e c u t i v e C h a n c e l l o r s of the Exchequer c o u l d do but allow the money r e q u i r e d .  Gladstone  dangers of encouraging  i n i860 had warned Palmerston  "a s p i r i t  of expenditure."  of the  In  1872  Lowe c a l l e d on the House to give him the backing he needed to qq  c o n t r o l expenditure.  And Harcourt and Hicks-Beach,  c e l l o r s of the Exchequer who  the Chan-  were c h i e f l y concerned w i t h the  r i s i n g c o s t s of the Navy, were aware that the pressure of opini o n made t h e i r e f f o r t s at economy l a r g e l y  ineffective. ^ 1  The c e n t r a l weakness, as w e l l as the b a s i c s t r e n g t h of the Treasury's c o n t r o l of expenditure, i s i l l u s t r a t e d by remarks of Welby's to the S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l Expenditure  in  1902.  He accepted t h a t the Commons and the p u b l i c a t that p e r i o d were l e s s i n c l i n e d t o c o n s i d e r the cost of a programme b e f o r e embarki n g upon i t than they had been i n e a r l i e r times.  He  to "the o l d e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e " t h a t the Treasury was  referred  e n t i t l e d to  examine measures i n v o l v i n g an i n c r e a s e i n expenditure, and tinued:  con-  " T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the powers of the Treasury, I t h i n k , are  complete w i t h r e g a r d to t h a t , but those powers are v e r y much s u b j e c t to the i n f l u e n c e s of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , Comparing e a r l y days,  say i n the s i x t i e s , w i t h l a t e r days, 101  difference i n public opinion."  one  sees a d i s t i n c t  The Treasury could enforce  i t s c o n t r o l over small matters by r e l y i n g on the  impossibility  of t a k i n g a l l such items to Cabinet, on i t s p r e s t i g e , and a u t h o r i t y which i t h e l d i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l theory, which tantamount t o l e g a l a u t h o r i t y even before 1866.  the  was  I t c o u l d en-  58 force  e f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n the  much d i f f i c u l t y ; ment i n t h e  although  stage  terms of major p o l i c y without  even here  at which the  Treasury  the r e a l  measure  decrease  i n government expenditure.  on  a price  of Treasury  index,  this  nineteenth century, twentieth  century,  control  expenditure  but  t h e r e was  room f o r  too  improve-  became i n v o l v e d .  But  i s the r a t e of i n c r e a s e  or  Even i f i t i s c a l c u l a t e d not  towards the  only rose  end,  and  was  outstripping  the  justification  f o r Treasury  control  steeply i n  throughout  the  the  increase i n national  wealth. The  'Gladstonians from spending Treasury sophy  was  1  not  merely  more t h a n was  control  they  the  size  that high taxes  t h a t Departments were  strictly  necessary.  of economics -  of government -  d i d not  and  "impede t h e  one  of  enforcing  definite  philo-  which tended  were t r y i n g  operations  of  the  prevented  In  were a c t i n g w i t h i n a v e r y  o f g o v e r n m e n t and  restrict  i n the mind  to  to  ensure  agriculture  102 and  manufactures."  estimated ture,  the  Although  importance  by  their  success.  The  own  criteria  major p o l i c y  government t o p r o v i d e -  which together  a  faster  Treasury. a new, not  and  faster The  added  economy o f  Treasury  the  c o n t r o l was  c o m m i t m e n t s and  rate -  level  Parliament  approach to the  role  and of  so much t o t h e  to  provide  the  p r e s t i g e of the  limited  trend  of  government, faire  Treasury.  at  the  public alike  underpinning  of  services  expenditure  control  t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of l a i s s e z  able  only a  social  under-  expendi-  the whole  of government  were o u t s i d e the by  that they  government  i n c r e a s i n g number o f  acceptance  d e s t r o y i n g the i t less  an  raised  more p o s i t i v e  rendered  to the  i t i s arguable  of while  economics,  which Treasury  had con-  trol,  as expounded  success  when  theoretical It  a l l who w e r e foundation  century  a negative  control  of expenditure  economy  curtailing  an  economics, reference  s o i t became  more a m a t t e r  w h i c h h a d t o be w e i g h e d w i t h  helped  on w h i c h  justified  problems.  a n y new  retrenchment held  i twith  consideration. a policy  of expediency, the other  exclusively  sway.  advantages  element  administration.  The T r e a s u r y ' s  i t had  been  only  a  limited  because  and  of  disadvan-  of the  creed  i n government t h i n k i n g to  individual  had n e c e s s a r i l y h e l d  be d i s c u s s e d ,  narrow  While  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  But the Treasury  responsible f o r this  to  By t h e t w e n t i e t h  o b j e c t i v e approach  would  As  that the  T h i s was  itself.  The T r e a s u r y  policy  such  central  o f government and o f  sway, and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n  within which  the  itself.  because  philosophy  and e f f e c t i v e  make p o s s i b l e a more  administrative great  came t o b e  o f the. q u e s t i o n . . . T h i s . g r a d u a l , d i s a p p e a r a n c e  o f economy a s a m a j o r  this  increasingly difficult  expenditure  i n effect  a  Departments  o f economy a n d t o i n s i s t  to the policy.under  be  by t h e end o f t h e n i n e -  i t had_been p o s s i b l e t o enforce  c e n t u r y , i t was  tages  Rather,  of the current  economy was  i n so f a r as  a p p l i e d h a d t o be r e d e f i n e d .  f o r the sake  part  really  actions.  much t h e v a r i o u s  economy h a d been an end i n i t s e l f ,  integral  public  control,  approach t o government  was  o f government  only  to their  and so t h e p r i n c i p l e s  t h i n k i n g changed,  enforce  could  i n government accepted i t s  as t h e s o l e guide  c o n t r o l o f how  seen as inadequate,  public  Involved  spend, which had f a i l e d . .  teenth  the  o r Welby,  was n o t t h e r e f o r e T r e a s u r y  meant t h e c e n t r a l might  by G l a d s t o n e  view  approach,  of the terms when cannot  the idea be  held  of and t h e approach  of  to  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems  of  the predominant  Treasury taken  officials  their  or C h a n c e l l o r s  imaginative  the  twentieth  approach  century  was n o t t h e p r o d u c t age w h i c h  approach  that  of the Exchequer  i s to suggest  the Treasury  - certainly  of wiser  set less store  the  To s u g g e s t  own f u n d a m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s .  and  an  were both  t h i n k i n g o f t h e age.  a more f l e x i b l e  rejected  i n general,  after  they  that could  could  The more  have have  flexible  s t a r t e d t o take i n  the First  o r more a b l e  product  men,  by p u b l i c economy.  W o r l d War  but merely of  -  61  FOOTNOTES  At t h i s p e r i o d the Government was not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r bank notes. These remained i n the hands of the i n d i v i d u a l banks and the Bank of England, which was not n a t i o n a l i z e d until 1946. I have not attempted to d e a l w i t h the r e l a t i o n s between the Treasury and the Bank of England i n t h i s chapter. I t i s worth n o t i n g however t h a t the Bank of England was of concern to the Treasury f o r the p a r t i t played i n bond i s s u e s , f o r the currency n o t e s i t i s s u e d , and f o r i t s cont r o l of the Bank Rate. The s t a b i l i t y of the Bank was of c r u c i a l concern i n the f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y of the country. The 1844 Bank C h a r t e r Act s p l i t the Bank i n t o two p a r t s an i s s u e s i d e and a banking s i d e - as w e l l as prevented hew banks from i s s u i n g t h e i r own notes. I t thus served to c e n t r a l i z e the i s s u e of currency, s i n c e the i s s u e department of the Bank was brought under l e g a l s u p e r v i s i o n . For P e e l , who was c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 1844 Act, t h i s was merely an extension of the Crown's monopoly over coinage. I t was not u n t i l l a t e r however t h a t the Bank came to accept t h a t i t had as b i g a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as the Government f o r ensuring f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y . Although i n the e a r l y part of the n i n e t e e n t h century men such as S i r F r a n c i s B a r i n g had expressed ideas about the Bank's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the community, not u n t i l the 1850's and 1860's d i d the modern i d e a of c e n t r a l banking r e c e i v e widespread support, c h i e f l y under the i n f l u e n c e of Bagehot. In the c r i s e s of 1847, 1857, and 1866, although i t was s t i l l unresolved who should take the l e a d i n a f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s - the government or the Bank - the Bank seems to have a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n by the Treasury and behaved i n a r e s p o n s i b l e way. Gladstone, f o r one, resented Bank i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t o what he f e l t was the Government's sphere of managing national finance. see:-  F.W. F e t t e r , Development of B r i t i s h Monetary Orthodoxy, 1797-1873, London, 1965-  a l s o : - J.H. Clapham, The Bank of England, A H i s t o r y , vol.11 Cambridge, 1945 * A.B. Cramp, Opinion on the Bank Rate, 1822-60, London 1962. P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1862; G.B.  Minutes of Evidence.  S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1862,  XI,  p.288.  62 3.  I b i d . , p.  271.  4-  The Exchequer and A u d i t Departments Act, 29 & 30 V i c t o r i a , c. 39-  1866.  "An Act to c o n s o l i d a t e the D u t i e s of the Exchequer and A u d i t Departments, to r e g u l a t e the R e c e i p t , Custody, and Issue of P u b l i c Moneys, and to provide f o r the A u d i t of the Accounts t h e r e o f . " In normal usage the word 'Departments' i s omitted. This p r a c t i c e w i l l be f o l l o w e d here and i n subsequent chapters. 5.  T h i s i s one of the i n s t a n c e s where a c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e between B r i t i s h and American f i n a n c i a l procedure u n d e r l i n e s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l e g i s l a t u r e ' s examining Estimates f o r expenditure. Congress i n s i s t s t h a t the t o t a l cost of a p r o j e c t i s voted a t one go, even though much of the money w i l l remain unspent f o r s e v e r a l years. I t i s not a t a l l c l e a r t h a t , under the modern p a r t y system i n the House of Commons, the more frequent examination of the requests of the Government c o n s t i t u t e a more e f f e c t i v e check. I t i s probably e a s i e r f o r a B r i t i s h Government to push through small i n c r e a s e s every year, r e p r e s e n t i n g s m a l l e x t r a commitments to expenditure, t h a t i t i s f o r an American A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which would have to r e - e v a l u a t e the whole of i t s programme b e f o r e Congress, even i f i t only d i d so i n f r e q u e n t l y .  6.  F i g u r e s on the income and expenditure ment are to be found i n -  of the c e n t r a l Govern-  S. Buxton, Finance and P o l i t i c s ; An H i s t o r i c a l Study, 1 7 8 3 - 1 8 8 3 , London, 1888, 2 vols. B. M a l l e t , B r i t i s h Budgets, 1887-88 to 1912-13, London,  1913-  7-  S. Northcote, Twenty Years of F i n a n c i a l P o l i c y , London, 1862, pp. 371-2:  8.  A tax, he s a i d , "may o b s t r u c t the i n d u s t r y of the people, and discourage them from a p p l y i n g to c e r t a i n branches of b u s i n e s s which might g i v e maintenance and employment to great m u l t i t u d e s . While i t o b l i g e s the people t o pay, i t may d i m i n i s h , or perhaps d i s l o d g e , some of the funds which might enable them more e a s i l y t o do so." The Wealth of Nations, Book V, New  9-  York, 1901,  S. Wells, The Revenue and Expenditure London, 1834, P« 15-  p.  221.  of the U n i t e d Kingdom,  63 10.  I b i d . , p.  490.  11.  A.W. Acworth, F i n a n c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n England, 1822, London, T&F. ~  1815-  &  12.  Hansard, 3 r d . 2 4 t h , 1879-  Series, v o l . 245,  13.  For i n s t a n c e he t a l k s of the "ruinous r a t e of expenditure" i n the Napoleonic wars. S i g n i f i c a n t l y he does not s p e c i f i c a l l y condemn h i g h expenditure, but takes i t f o r granted that i t i s bad by t a l k i n g of i t i n derogatory terms.  Commons, c o l . 987,  April  P o r t e r , G.R., The Progress of the Nation, ed. F.W. H i r s t , London, 1912, Chapt. XXXV, " P u b l i c Revenue and Expenditure, 1800-1850," pp. 613-38. 14.  E. R o l l , A H i s t o r y of Economic Thought, London, 1956, ed., p. 152.  15«  G.M.  16.  Needless to say the Board of Trade played a v i t a l r o l e i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the same i d e o l o g y by l e a d i n g the f i g h t against protection. A mark of the Board's success, of the f a c t t h a t under Free Trade t a r i f f s were f o r revenue purposes, and above a l l of the involvement of the Treasury i n the removal of r e s t r i c t i o n s on economic a c t i v i t y , occurred a f t e r 1845• That y e a r marked the l a s t t a r i f f r e v i s i o n by the Board of Trade. "The next two t a r i f f r e v i s i o n s were performed by Gladstone h i m s e l f as C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer."  Young, V i c t o r i a n Essays, London, 1962,  F.E. Hyde, Mr. Gladstone a t the Board 1 9 3 4 , p« x x i i . 17.  3rd.  p. 203»  of Trade, London,  The c o n n e c t i o n between a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g , w i t h i t s h i g h economic purpose, and the a c t i o n of government, goes a l o n g way to d e t r a c t from the f o r c e of the anecdotes about Gladstone's parsimony w i t h postage stamps and candle ends, which were o r i g i n a l l y t o l d i n h i s favour, but l a t e r became o b j e c t s of r i d i c u l e . Though perhaps candle ends had become something of a joke i n Gladstone's l i f e t i m e , even i f he d i d not take the p o i n t . He s a i d i n one of h i s Midl o t h i a n speeches that the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer " i s not worth h i s s a l t i f he i s not ready to save what are meant by candle-ends and cheese-parings i n the cause of h i s country." F.W. H i r s t , Gladstone as F i n a n c i e r and Economist, London 1931, p. 243-  64 18.  W.S. C h u r c h i l l , l o r d Randolph" C h u r c h i l l , London, 1907, p. 571.  19.  S. Buxton, op_. c i t . p. 29•  20.  C. G r e v i l l e , The G r e v i l l e Memoirs, ed. H. Reeve, London, 1896, v o l . V, p. 49-  21.  V. Hicks-Beach, L i f e of S i r M i c h a e l Hicks-Beach, London, 1932, v o l . I I , p. 177.  22.  Hansard, 3rd. S e r i e s , v o l . 156, Commons, c o l . 825, 10th February, i860.  23*  A.P. M a r t i n , L i f e and L e t t e r s o f V i s c o u n t Sherbrooke. London, 1893, p. 383. v o l . 1 1 .  24-  A.J. Peacock and J . Wiseman, The Growth o f P u b l i c Expendit u r e i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, P r i n c e t o n , 1961, p. 36.  25.  P. E i n z i g , C o n t r o l of the Purse, London, 1959, pp. 211-12. In 1873 W i l l i a m Baxt er, then F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y to the Treasury, remarked t h a t the Treasury was f a r more important than the House of Commons i n l i m i t i n g expenditure. S e l e c t Committee on C i v i l S e r v i c e s Expenditure, 1873* G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1873, V I I , p. 687• Towards the end of the century there were o c c a s i o n a l S e l e c t Committees on Estimates, but they never became Standing Committees. For i n s t a n c e a J o i n t S e l e c t Committee s a t i n 1887 on the Army and Navy Estimates, and t h r e e S e l e c t Committees s a t i n 1888 to examine r e s p e c t i v e l y the E s t i mates f o r the Army, the Navy, and the Revenue Departments.  26.  Speech i n the M i d l o t h i a n Campaign, 29. November, 1879> J . Morley, L i f e of W i l l i a m Ewart Gladstone, London, 1906, 2 v o l s . p. "5§5~.  27-  I b i d . , p. 696.  28.  D. Southgate, "The Most E n g l i s h M i n i s t e r . . . " The P o l i c i e s and P o l i t i c s of Palmerston, London, 1966, p. 485.  65 29-  G. H a m i l t o n , P a r l i a m e n t a r y R e m i n i s c e n c e s a n d R e f l e c t i o n s , 1868-1885, London, 1916, v o l . I I , p.82.  30.  J.P. Mackintosh,  pp.  257-8.  The B r i t i s h  Cabinet, London,  1962,  M a c k i n t o s h c i t e s a C a b i n e t M i n u t e o f 21 J u n e , 1 8 6 9 , t h e G l a d s t o n e P a p e r s . B.M. A d d . M S S . 6 6 , 6 3 7 f . 7 3 « 31.  T.Heath, The Treasury, London,  from  1927.  Heath c o n t i n u e s , " I n those days t h e Treasury could r e f u s e a p p l i c a t i o n s from Departments without g i v i n g reasons; t h e onus was r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r e d a s b e i n g on t h e D e p a r t ment t o j u s t i f y t h e p r o p o s a l . " H i s u s e o f w o r d s i m p l i e s the o l ds p i r i t had not d i e d even i n t h e 1920's. 32.  G. H a m i l t o n ,  33.  G . K i t s o n C l a r k , "Statesmen i n D i s g u i s e ; R e f l e x i o n s on the H i s t o r y o f the N e u t r a l i t y o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e . " Historical  op.cit.,  Journal,  p.294-.  1959,  I I , p.30.  34.  J . Hart, " S i r Charles Trevelyan H i s t o r i c a l Review, I960, LXXV.  35.  The Times, 24 J u l y ,  36.  The Times,  1 November, 1915,  37.  F?W,Hirst,  op.cit.,  38.  A. W e s t , P r i v a t e D i a r i e s o f t h e R t . Hon. S i r A l g e r n o n W e s t , G';.'C>B., L o n d o n , 1 9 2 2 , p . 1 3 2 .  1905,  at t h e Treasury."  English  p . 8 , c o l . b. p . 12,  c o l . d.  p. 318.  W e s t ' s u s e o f t h e w o r d " h i g h " s h o u l d p e r h a p s be emphasized, b e c a u s e W e l b y d i d o f c o u r s e o r i g i n a t e s c h e m e s o f h i s own. i n 1880 f o r example he produced p l a n s , w h i c h G l a d s t o n e a c c e p t e d , t o use t h e Cyprus revenue t o p a y i n t e r e s t on t h e O t t o m a n g u a r a n t e e d l o a n o f 1855* s e e : - e d . A g a t h a Ramm, T h e P o l i t i c a l Q o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f M r . G l a d s t o n e a n d L o r d G r a n v i l l e , 1876-1886, O x f o r d ! 1962, v o l . I , p. 170.  66 39•  H. H a m i l t o n , " T r e a s u r y C o n t r o l i n t h e E i g h t i e s , " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1955, XXXIII. A. W e s t ,  op.cit.,  p.  Public  191•  40.  R. C o b d e n , T h e P o l i t i c a l London, 2 v o l s .  41-  S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e , E v i d e n c e , p . 184-  W r i t i n g s o f R i c h a r d Cobden,  1902,  1903,  Minutes  of  The T r e a s u r y o f c o u r s e was n o t a l o n e i n h a v i n g politically committed C i v i l Servants. Apart from such obvious exa m p l e s a s S i r E d w i n C h a d w i c k , who w o r k e d h a r d e r t h a n a n y p o l i t i c i a n f o r t h e p o l i c y he b e l i e v e d i n , Free T r a d e r s seem t o h a v e f i l l e d t h e t o p p o s t s i n t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e b y t h e e a r l y 1840's. L. B r o w n , The B o a r d o f T r a d e a n d t h e F r e e O x f o r d , 1 9 5 8 , p . 29. 42.  S e l e c t Committee on t h e P u b l i c Income the U n i t e d Kingdom, 1828. G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1828,  T r a d e Movement,  and Expenditure o f V, p .  7.  43.  I b i d . , p . 8. The C o m m i t t e e went on t o u r g e t h a t t h e House o f Commons s h o u l d h o l d t h e T r e a s u r y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l items o f expenditure i n every Department.  44•  S e l e c t Committee c i t . , p . 435.  45«  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys, 1856. G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1856, XV.  46.  S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on M i s c e l l a n e o u s E x p e n d i t u r e , 1848. G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1 8 4 7 - 8 , X V I I I , p a r t i , p.74-  47.  S e l e c t Committee  cit.,  p . 675*  48.  Ibid.,  p. 668.  -49-  Select  Committee  on C i v i l  on C i v i l  on P u b l i c  Services Expenditure,  Services Expenditure,  Moneys,  1856,  1873,  1873,  op_. c i t . ,  p.  op.  op.  218.  67 50.  "Duties and O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Treasury of the U n i t e d Kingdom." 21st November 1879; a Minute by Reginald Welby. The Minute i s quoted i n Lord B r i d g e s , The Treasury, London, 1966, 2nd. ed., pp. 222-7.  51.  S e l e c t Committee on Estimates, 1 9 5 7 - 8 , 6 t h Report, memorandum submitted by t h e Treasury, p. 3 o f the Minutes of Evidence. G.B.Sessional Papers, Commons, 1 9 5 7 - 8 , V.  52.  Exchequer and Audit Act, 1866, OJJ. c i t . Clause 27.  53.  Treasury Minute, 1st A p r i l , 1868. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, X I I I , p. 607-  54«  I . Jennings, Cabinet Government, Cambridge, 1961, 3rd. ed., P- 171. ~~ " S.H. Beer, Treasury C o n t r o l , Oxford, 1957, 2nd. ed., p. 126.  55-  Hansard, 3 r d . s e r i e s , v o l . 1 9 4 , c o l s . 8 5 2 - 3 , March 8 t h 1869, debate on the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the Board of Treasury.  56.  J . Morley,  57.  "He ( C h u r c h i l l ) i s a l s o e n t i r e l y wrong i n supposing t h a t the Finance M i n i s t e r has any r u l i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the g r e a t estimates of defence. I f he had he would be the master of the country. But although he has no r i g h t to demand the concurrence of h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n h i s view of the e s t i mates, he has a r a t h e r s p e c i a l r i g h t , because they do so much towards determining the budget and t a x a t i o n , to i n d i cate h i s own views by r e s i g n i n g . " l o c . c i t .  58.  P.M. Buxton, "Treasury C o n t r o l and C o l o n i a l P o l i c y i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1966, V, p. 174-  59«  V. Hicks-Beach,  60.  S. C h i l d e r s , The L i f e and Correspondence of the R i g h t Hon. Hugh C E . C h i l d e r s 1827-1B96, London, 1901, 2 v o l s T  op_. c i t . , v o l . I I , p. 605.  op_. c i t . , p. 1 9 0 .  In v o l . I I , p. 1 4 9 , S. C h i l d e r s quotes a l e t t e r from Welby to Hugh C h i l d e r s , i n which he o u t l i n e s the d u t i e s o f the C h a n c e l l o r o f the Exchequer. The f i f t h of the f i v e t a s k s i s to decide what he should see, and what the F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y was competent to decide on h i s own.  68 61.  Debate on the C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Board o f Treasury, op. c i t . , c o l . 852.  62.  A.M. Buxton,  63-  S e l e c t Committee on M i s c e l l a n e o u s Expenditure, 1 8 4 8 , op. c i t . , p. i x .  64.  I b i d . , p. 362. Papers on the R e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the C i v i l S e r v i c e , G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1854-55, XX, p. 432.  65-  A.M. Buxton,  66.  Hansard, 4 t h S e r i e s , v o l . 80, Commons, c o l . 1357, 20th March, 1900.  67.  "When they see a Treasury Minute, they h o i s t a white flag." loc• c i t .  68.  Hansard, 4 t h S e r i e s , v o l . 80, Commons, c o l . 1357, 20th March, 1900.  69.  Minutes of Evidence g i v e n b e f o r e the Royal Commission on C i v i l E s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( R i d l e y ) , 1888; 2nd Report. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1888, XXVII, p. 333•  70.  I b i d . , p. 11.  71.  Lord B r i d g e s , op_. c i t . , p. 224-  72.  R i d l e y Commission,  73«  A.M. Buxton,  op_. c i t . , p. 175.  op_. c i t . , p. 173.  op_. c i t . , p. 1 1 .  op_. c i t . , p. 174-  I f the disagreement was over p o l i c y , and n o t over the cost of t h a t p o l i c y , the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer "had no r i g h t t o appeal t o t h e Cabinet, other than that r i g h t apart from Departments, which a l l of us have t o complain o f any c o l l e a g u e who i s i n our judgement about t o commit a f o o l i s h act." 74-  Lord B r i d g e s , op_. c i t . , p. 224«  69 75 •  G. Hamilton, op_. c i t . ,  p. 262.  76.  I b i d . , p. 299-  77.  I b i d . , p. 305-  78.  A. T r o l l o p e , An Autobiography, London, 1950, p. 89-  79.  Hansard, 4 t h S e r i e s , v o l . 78, Lords, c o l . 32, 30th January, 1900. Other questions and statements are to be found as f o l l o w s : Commons, v o l . 78, c o l . 180; Lords, v o l . 78, c o l . 237-40; Commons, v o l . 78, c o l . 1233; v o l . 79, c o l . 592; v o l . 80, c o l . 1358-60; v o l . 82, c o l . 128-54As w e l l as the above r e f e r e n c e s i n Hansard, see: The Times, 1900, 7 Feb. p. 13e; 10 Feb. p. 10b; 12 Feb. p. 15a; 14 Feb. p. 6f; 15 Feb. p. 6b; 16 Feb. p. 15d; 16 Feb. p. 9 f ( l e a d e r ) ; 23 Feb. p. 12e; 27 Feb. p. 3e.  80.  R. Lambert, S i r John Simon, 1816-1904, London, 1963, p. 313-  81.  I b i d . , p. 362.  82.  I b i d . , p. 450.  83-  J . Hart, op., c i t . T r e v e l y a n s a i d i n a l e t t e r of 14 February 1853 t h a t Chadwick had "never shown any f e e l i n g about the p u b l i c money except t o get as much of i t as he c o u l d " which f a c t alone " d i s q u a l i f i e d him from o f f i c e . "  84.  S.E. F i n e r , The L i f e and Times of S i r Edwin Chadwick, London, 1 9 5 2 , pp. 4 0 0 - 2 0 .  85.  0. MacDonagh, A P a t t e r n of Government London, 1961, p. 264«  86.  S. Buxton, op_. c i t . , v o l . I , p. 293«  Growth  1800-60,  70 87.  ed... A-T. Peacock, & D.J. Robertson, P u b l i c _ E x p e n d i t u r e , A p p r a i s a l and C o n t r o l , London, 1 9 6 3 , p. 117* J . Veverka, "The Growth of Government Expenditure i n the U n i t e d Kingdom s i n c e 1 7 9 0 . "  88.  I b i d . , p. 126.  89-  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys, 1856, op_. c i t . , p. 149*  90.  S e l e c t Committee on Estimates, 1957-58, ap_. c i t . , p. v i i . "Treasury c o n t r o l i s most important a t the stage when p o l i c y i s b e i n g formed."  91-  See the exchange of correspondence i n The Times c i t e d i n note 79.  92.  Machinery o f Government Committee, 1918. Command 9230, 1918. H. Hamilton, " S i r Warren F i s h e r and the P u b l i c S e r v i c e . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1951, XXIX, pp. 3-38. . There were s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n between the wars which d e s c r i b e d new approaches to expenditure c o n t r o l which were being taken a t t h a t time, i . e . H. Bunbury, " F i n a n c i a l C o n t r o l w i t h i n Government Departments," op_. c i t . , 1924, I I , pp. 131-7Bunbury says t h a t the " s t r e n g t h o f the Treasury l i e s n o t i n i t s powers but i n the wisdom, judgement, and imagination with which they are e x e r c i s e d . " p. 133A l s o A.J. Waldegrave, " F i n a n c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Cont r o l , " op_. c i t . , 1935, X I I I , pp. 251-62. He quotes Lord Northbrook, then a t the War O f f i c e : "the modern n o t i o n of f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l means the union of f i n a n c e and adminis t r a t i o n , so t h a t f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may attend and determine a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y from i t s i n c e p t i o n , as w e l l as c o n t r o l i t during i t s progress and review i t i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of each f i n a n c i a l year." p. 261.  93.  A.M. Buxton, op_. c i t . , pp. 176-92.  94.  S. Buxton, op_. c i t . , v o l . I I , p. 5 8 .  95.  S. Buxton, OJJ. c i t . , p. 155-  96.  Hansard, 3rd. S e r i e s , v o l . 228, Commons, c o l s . 175-7; speech by Mr. Goldsmid, M.P. f o r Rochester.  71 97.  ed. A.T. Peacock,  98.  J . Morley, op_. c i t . , v o l . I , p. 683-  99-  S. Buxton,  100.  On Harcourt see: B. M a l l e t , op_. cit.,, p. 99• On Hicks-Beach see: V. Hicks-Beach, op_. c i t . , p. 138, vol. I I .  and P.J. Robertson, op_. c i t . , p. 118.  p. 153.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note how the r i s e i n p u b l i c expenditure t r a i n e d people t o t o l e r a t e y e t f u r t h e r r i s e s . In p a r t t h i s t o l e r a t i o n of h i g h e r and h i g h e r expenditure f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t s an awareness of i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l wealth, but n e v e r t h e l e s s the changes i n o p i n i o n are striking. I n 1834- Samuel W e l l s complained t h a t the exp e n d i t u r e o f £54 m i l l i o n s was the cause of a l l the n a t i o n ' s economic problems. On 21st J u l y , 1854, D i s r a e l i remarked i n the House of Commons t h a t "there i s no count r y t h a t can go on r a i s i n g seventy m i l l i o n s per annum w i t h impunity - England cannot, and i f England cannot no other country can." In 1895, when expenditure was e s t i mated f o r £95,981,000, H a r c o u r t remarked t h a t t h e country "had a l r e a d y reached the l i m i t of t o l e r a b l e t a x a t i o n . " S. Wells, op_. c i t . , p. 4 9 1 Hansard, 3rd S e r i e s , Commons, v o l . 155, c o l s . 170-1. B. M a l l e t , op_. c i t . , p. 9 9 101.  S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l Expenditure, 1902, op_. c i t . , p. 178.  102.  See note 1 2 : Hansard, 3rd S e r i e s , v o l . 2 4 5 , Commons, c o l . 987, 2 4 t h , 1879-  April  72  CHAPTER I I I The  The  they  essential  trol. '  and F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  n e c e s s i t y f o r Treasury  mates b e f o r e the  Treasury  approval  c o u l d be p r e s e n t e d  of departmental  to Parliament  e l e m e n t i n w h a t came t o b e c a l l e d  The u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e  of the need  employed  central  limiting cient  financial  expenditure  service.  need f o r p r i o r be  started  only  appeared  Treasury  or financial  obligation  a n y new  entered  into,  the Treasury's  The c u r t a i l i n g  as the o v e r r i d i n g element  the  of financial  moment t h a t a new p o l i c y  cost, the  process  through  as  were n o t t h e  1  i n the financial  with  may  have  policy  limited  of  aspect  administration of finance.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c a n be t r a c e d i s examined  t o those  audit of the accounts.  and t h e  relations  to determine  the presentation of the Estimates  money f r o m t h e E x c h e q u e r  effi-  service could  o f expenditure  a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e money f o r t h e y e a r ,  final  not the  of the Estimates,  approval before  t h e more mundane, b u t permanent, The  most  of the Treasury  t h e v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t s , y e t i t was o n l y a v e r y of  were  t o t h e minimum commensurate w i t h a n  But the examination  departments.  econ-  department, which had the o b l i g a t i o n of  f a c t o r s which determined  other  Con-  f o rpublic  i n t h e hands o f p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s ,  Government, had u n d e r l a i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t the  i s clearly  'Treasury  omy, a n d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e n a t i o n ' s r e s o u r c e s fruitfully  Esti-  who w i l l  i t s likely  to Parliament,  the passing  spend  This complicated  from  of that  i t , to the procedure  73 t o u c h e s on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l both the ordering easily  of the f i n a n c i a l  supervised,  matters,  f o ri t involves  system so t h a t  and t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y  control of grants i n  accordance w i t h the Appropriations  Act.  already  didnot force  appropriated  by Parliament  to  concern i t s e l f  as  d i d control of the Estimates,  into the  almost legal  these  daily  with  which  affairs  ended w i t h  The  still  incurring  t h e Ex-  the  t h e power  to a c e r t a i n extent  The o r d e r i n g o f control,  regulated the  and e s t a b l i s h e d a code o f p r o c e d today.  o f Commons,  a p p l i e d and  T h u s a t t h e same t i m e t h a t i tcould  i n Acts but i t  administered  the Treasury  i n the establish-  procedure  of which i t  I t was n o t a s y s t e m i n t e n d e d  o f the Treasury  was  control the i n i t i a l  i t was a l s o i n v o l v e d  system of f i n a n c i a l  f o r i t s own s a k e , a n d  i t t o o k away f r o m t h e T r e a s u r y  d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers  Treasury  code o f p r o c e d u r e was embodied  was t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e hub.  old  only  A c t o f 1866,  only be e f f e c t i v e l y  of expenditure,  1866  s t a r t e d i n t h e 1780's and t o have  t h e r o u t i n e whereby  ment o f a n o r d e r e d  increase  of which  and r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e House  by the Treasury.  vested  Before  of Audit,  significance.  s u b s t a n t i a l l y stands  was one w h i c h c o u l d  establishing  extent  the departments  the funds.  Paymasters,  offices  o u t l i n e of t h i s  of P a r l i a m e n t  Treasury  i n w h i c h were  the Board  t h e Exchequer and A u d i t  of a l l these  which  the  o f money  and t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y  can be s a i d t o have  affairs  the offices  the Treasury,  any stature or p o l i t i c a l  financial  ure  with  but i t brought  powers t o i s s u e and a u d i t  chequer, and t h e v a r i o u s had  The s p e n d i n g  d e p a r t m e n t a l p o l i c y t o t h e same  contact  o f f i c e s were  i tc a n be  to indeed  some o f t h e  i th a d once h a d when f i n a n c e  was i n a  74 state  of chaos.  extra  duties,  other  d e p a r t m e n t s w h i c h was e s s e n t i a l t o e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l .  It  would  was  and t h a t  appear that  financial partment  But nevertheless  system,  The the  t h e more t h a t  that  o f an ordered i t provide  adequate audit  But  control.  c o n t r o l over issues  any extensive  consideration  o f the Treasury  o f a w a r e n e s s o f what was b e i n g  omnipotent filling  b u t n o t more  done.  made e a s i e r b e c a u s e  lack  by a  lack  reason  that and  the Treatherefore  more c l o s e l y  I t would c e r t a i n l y  of f i n a n c i a l  i t was t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d  undertake the administrative  they  of interest  explained  out i t s powers w i t h  the task  the inten-  of the effect  assumption  duties.  real  responsi-  But the chief  held  in-  so they were n o t  i n matters financial,  extensive,  appear t o be t h e c a s e t h a t  changed  supervised.  with  This  i s i n part  appear t o be t h e g e n e r a l l y  a t most i t was o n l y  could  and  changes were n o t i n t r o d u c e d  on t h e r o l e o f t h e T r e a s u r y .  defined,  of  behind the  i n t o one where b o t h  o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e power o f t h e T r e a s u r y ,  was a l r e a d y  force  from t h e Exchequer, and no  would have  sury  required  was a n e n t i r e l y  and e x p e n d i t u r e were c l o s e l y d e f i n e d  the function  department  T h e new r e g u l a t i o n s  with  would  Such a  the administrative  introduced  in  i nthe  a need f o ra c e n t r a l de-  s y s t e m f r o m one where t h e r e  just as these  tion  about t h e  was e s t a b l i s h e d  system of finance  or detailed appropriation,  bility  order  many  l i k e w i s e i t had t o a s s i s t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h -  ment o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y financial  of information  obedience and e f f i c i e n c y .  new r e g u l a t i o n s .  the  the Treasury  the Treasury.  creation  Treasury  ready supply  t h e more was t h e r e  t o ensure  of necessity  i tgave  that  initiatives  reform  was  the Treasury  and  formulate  the  detailed regulations  changes meant e x t r a The  improvement  regulating but  of  itself  as  being  daily the  i n one  of  left of  to  the  Treasury  extra  duties  to  The  Act  l e d to  perform  2  detailed  thus  the  were i n t r o d u c i n g ,  to  the  Parliament,  d r a w up  Treasury  changes would  Treasury.  of  improvements of  politicians these  a l l the  work f o r the  Exchequer by  f o r the  a w a r e o f how  l a r g e number o f  the  Not  i s s u i n g money had  i t s Minutes.^  instrument  system that  fully  administrative  system of  duties  i t was  the  financial  a  the  even here  regulations  of  t h a t were r e q u i r e d .  found  nation's without  i n fact give  i n supervising  i t other  departments. It sion and  was  taken f o r granted  of v e r y because  authority  considerable  the  The  Treasury's  out  of  had  a vested  and  that  for  granted  the  i t by  spending Departments.  that  and the  that  saying  c o n t r o l over the  administration.  A  authority"  Select of  the  remarked  day  therefore  that  that  I t was  the  this  to  day  that  i t was  Treasury Minute which followed  up  It  money  thus  was  orderly  rightly  bound to  Government  taken  have  undertook.  power meant i t had activities  C o m m i t t e e i n 1817 Treasury  the  d u t i e s were c e n t r a l to a l l  i t was  projects  i s s u i n g of  expenditure  regulations.  i t s administrative  f a r from  but  that  of  Parliament.  the  was  A  to  Exchequer to  i n t e r e s t i n ensuring  posses-  i n t o commission  e s s e n t i a l f o r the  But  spent,  putting  in  i t s seniority,  was  i n most o f  was  v i r t u e of  sanction  some s a y  effective  T r e a s u r y was  Crown o v e r money v o t e d  government a c t i v i t y ,  ancient  the  i t complied with  this  the  powers, by  i t represented  of  that  of  not this  financial  spoke of  i n c o n t r o l l i n g how effectively  an  "the money administered.  Committee r e i t e r a t e d  76 the t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the power of the T r e a s u r y by s a y i n g t h a t "no Department of l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e ought e v e r t o be p l a c e d beyond the c o n t r o l l i n g s u p e r i n t e n d e n c e o f the B o a r d of T r e a s u r y . " ^  But the M i n u t e a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t t h i s power  was i n e f f e c t i v e . The b a s i c powers of the T r e a s u r y t o r e g u l a t e  financial  procedure do not appear t o have been a n a l y s e d c l o s e l y i n any of t h e p r o c e e d i n g s of the Committees i n v o l v e d i n f i n a n c i a l r e f o r m , n o r i n t h e h e a r i n g s o f the P u b l i c Accounts Committee from i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1861.  A t b e s t the d e f i n i t i o n of T r e a -  s u r y powers o f r e g u l a t i o n were made i n g e n e r a l terms as had been by the Committee of 1817, s i o n on some o t h e r t o p i c .  they  i n the course o f a d i s c u s -  They d i d not become the  subject  of debate e i t h e r i n the House o f Commons o r i n t h e Committee Rooms.  On t o p of t h i s g e n e r a l , but i l l - d e f i n e d ,  assumption  about the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y of the T r e a s u r y , t h e n e c e s s i t y  of  the T r e a s u r y h a v i n g the r i g h t t o r e g u l a t e o t h e r s was a c c e p t e d i n the i n t e r e s t s  of good b u s i n e s s .  Thus h i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t ,  l e g a l r i g h t , and e x p e d i e n c y , a l l combined i n such a way t h a t nobody q u e s t i o n e d the v a l i d i t y of the T r e a s u r y * s a u t h o r i t y i n ordering f i n a n c i a l administration.  A c c o r d i n g l y the f i n a n c i a l  r e f o r m e r s gave the T r e a s u r y a g r e a t number o f e x t r a a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t o p e r f o r m , w h i c h immensely i n c r e a s e d the  effective-  ness of i t s power over o t h e r departments, w i t h o u t a s k i n g thems e l v e s whether t h e y were i n f a c t augmenting the power o f the Treasury. The g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a t t i t u d e towards the power o f the T r e a s u r y i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by L o r d M o n t e a g l e , a former  77 S e c r e t a r y of the T r e a s u r y and C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, who was C o m p t r o l l e r - G e n e r a l of t h e Exchequer at t h e time the Committee on P u b l i c Moneys was i n s e s s i o n i n 1856. t i o n e d , r e f e r r i n g to f i n a n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s , that p a s s e s by T r e a s u r y M i n u t e , from the s m a l l e s t He went on t o say  Select  He men"everything  t o the  greatest."  that,  The a u t h o r i t y under w h i c h T r e a s u r y M i n u t e s are i s s u e d a r e v e r y m u l t i f a r i o u s i n d e e d ; many o f them are i s s u e d under A c t of P a r l i a m e n t ; but t h e f u n c t i o n s of the T r e a s u r y are so v a r i e d , t h a t i f t h e r e was not a power of d i r e c t i n g by M i n u t e (and the Bo a rd can o n l y speak by i t s M i n u t e s ) even i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which t h e r e i s no P a r l i a m e n t a r y a u t h o r i t y , the p u b l i c b u s i n e s s c o u l d not go on f o r h a l f an h o u r . 6 M.H. Poster,  who was t h e p r i n c i p a l ' T r e a s u r y w i t n e s s t o  P u b l i c A cco unt s Committee from 1867 t o 1871,  the  was asked i n the  h e a r i n g s of 1870 what law u n d e r p i n n e d T r e a s u r y a u t h o r i t y , and replied that,  "The T r e a s u r y i s an o f f i c e of v e r y g r e a t a n t i -  q u i t y , and I t h i n k t h a t p r a c t i c e  i s more the law t h a n any  7  s p e c i a l Act of P a r l i a m e n t . "  Taken t o g e t h e r t h i s  constitutes  an a d m i s s i o n by two of the more s e n i o r f i n a n c i a l o f f i c i a l s  at  the time when most of the i m p o r t a n t changes were b e i n g i n t r o duced, t h a t the a u t h o r i t y of t h e T r e a s u r y was a t one and the same moment vague and r e a l .  Such a s i t u a t i o n was p e r f e c t l y  d e s i g n e d t o a l l o w the T r e a s u r y t o undertake a g r e a t many more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s , and thus t o i n c r e a s e o r i t y over o t h e r departments,  i t s effective  auth-  while s t i l l remaining w i t h i n  its  t r a d i t i o n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d terms of r e f e r e n c e . The r i g h t of P a r l i a m e n t t o c o n t r o l t a x a t i o n had of e x i s t e d i n p r a c t i c e as w e l l as i n t h e o r y s i n c e the  course  seventeenth  78 century.  But the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l the i s s u e and s p e n d i n g  of money a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r the v a r i o u s Government s e r v i c e s s t i l l l a r g e l y non-existent  b e f o r e the 1 7 8 0 ' s .  was  I t took a l o n g  p e r i o d o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development and of e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t made any s e r i o u s attempt t o s u p e r v i z e t h i s a s p e c t of f i n a n c e .  T a l k i n g of the e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s  for  the  c o n t r o l of d e t a i l e d a p p r o p r i a t i o n , B a s i l Chubb p o i n t s out  that,  " u n t i l such time as the House c o n s i d e r e d i t s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and u n t i l the l e g i s l a t u r e was l i n k e d t o executive,  strict  for  the  a p p r o p r i a t i o n was n e i t h e r p o s s i b l e n o r d e -  Q  sired."  Y e t even when the Commons had assumed t h i s  responsi-  b i l i t y i t s t i l l d i d not a p p r e c i a t e how b e s t i t might e x e r c i s e its detailed control.  L o r d Welby, i n a memorandum s u b m i t t e d  t o the Committee on N a t i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e i n 1902, that,  " f r o m 1802 u n t i l 1868  (the  remarked  date o f t h e Exchequer and A u d i t  A c t ) the House l e a r n e d o n l y the i s s u e s from the  Exchequer.  Thus i t knew t h e sums which had been i m p r e s t e d t o the ments from the Exchequer;  i t d i d not know how the  Depart-  Departments  Q  had a c t u a l l y expended those i m p r e s t s . "  H a v i n g remarked how  " s i n g u l a r " i t was t h a t f i n a n c i e r s of t h e c a l i b r e of P i t t and P e e l s h o u l d have been s a t i s f i e d by t h i s , he goes on t o  conclude  t h a t u n t i l the 1850's "The f a c t i s t h a t C h a n c e l l o r s o f t h e E x chequer,  t h e i r a d v i s e r s , and P a r l i a m e n t i t s e l f ,  were  still  under the i l l u s i o n t h a t P a r l i a m e n t a r y C o n t r o l o v e r e x p e n d i t u r e c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y secured by s a f e g u a r d s from the Exchequer,  on the i s s u e of money 1(  w i t h o u t f o l l o w i n g the e x p e n d i t u r e  further."  Thus t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the r e f o r m s w h i c h were t o a f f e c t T r e a s u r y ' s p o s i t i o n was a s l o w p r o c e s s ,  and was a s s o c i a t e d  the with  a  slowly  quired  e v o l v i n g awareness  i f order  The voted  by  the  legislative  s o r t o f m e a s u r e t h a t was  c o n t r o l were  t o be  the  procedure f o r appropriating  Parliament  may  be  i n the  Treasury i n the  back to  seventeenth century.  late  appropriation  ment c o u l d  traced  1660's, clause  show i t was  the The  the  money  aftermath  of  Secretary  to  George Downing, i n t r o d u c e d  i n a money b i l l  so  re-  established.  o r i g i n s of  revolution  first  and  of  that  the the  the  the  Govern-  l o o k i n g a f t e r i t s money w e l l and  so  11 obtain better part  of  the  allocated to  the  c r e d i t terms.  expenditure  to  eighteenth  century,  stration  born  was  were c o n f i n e d i t was  to  on  for instance, 12  Extraordinaries.' eighteenth form the  Chubb  But  century  details  influence  of  large  the  that  of  the  by  civil  be  not  financial  traced  votes  Ordnance, although  s p e c i a l votes  was  admini-  Annual  any  until  as  the  the end  concerted  even  system.  which  'Army of  the  effort  to  P a r t l y under  E c o n o m i c a l R e f o r m Movement, whose  suggests can  which  excesses were normal,  i t was  there  List.  s t r a i g h t through to  sum  the  votes of  was  a lump  Throughout  cost  least  Ordnance  handed as  the  Crown's C i v i l  that  onwards a t  miscellaneous  Army, N a v y and  accepted  were covered,  few  non-recurrent,  the  the  not  i t s discretion.  save f o r a  most p a r t  time  N a v y , Army and  p u r p o s e s and  spend a t  were f o r the  here  f o r the  particular  Crown t o  Prom t h a t  rethe  activities  the  Exchequer  1 3 and  Audit  Act,  and  Younger P i t t ,  a  cedure.  Consolidated  brought  The  i n t o one  belonging  to  the  start  p a r t l y through the was  place,  activities  of  the  made i n m o d e r n i z i n g f i n a n c i a l Pund, w h i c h P i t t  f o r the  Government.  first The  time,  s e t up a l l the  in  pro1787,  funds  immensely i n e f f i c i e n t  Auditors  80 of the Imprest, who  i n some i n s t a n c e s had  allowed  annual  accounts to remain open f o r twenty or t h i r t y years, were r e placed by a Board of Audit, which was t i v e A u d i t and 1782  to provide an  to r e p o r t to the T r e a s u r y . ^  administra-  By the Act of  1  the Economical Reformers s t a r t e d the l i m i t a t i o n of the  C i v i l L i s t which was  to culminate  i n the 1830's, and  brought the C i v i l L i s t under P a r l i a m e n t a r y the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t  extension  which  control.  of Parliamentary  This  was  c o n t r o l over  15  appropriated  grants. '  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n the  extended d i s p u t e s over the C i v i l L i s t Debt the reformers found i t expedient  had  to a t t a c h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Treasury  a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t Lord North, as F i r s t Lord of the  -  Trea-  16  sury, had Burke and  accepted i n 1777. In response to the demands of h i s c o l l e a g u e s Lord North appointed Commissioners of  the P u b l i c Accounts i n 1780. g r e a t e r than those  17  '  T h e i r powers were c o n s i d e r a b l y  the reformers  had  f i r s t demanded, and  i s s u e d f i f t e e n r e p o r t s c o v e r i n g a l l aspects of p u b l i c  they  admini-  18 stration.  These r e p o r t s provided  i n f o r m a t i o n on how  an unprecedented amount of  the f i n a n c e s were o p e r a t i n g .  wards the House of Commons r e c e i v e d Finance  From 1802  on-  Accounts, showing  i s s u e s from the Exchequer, which n e c e s s i t a t e d a g r e a t e r degree of order i n the a f f a i r s of t h a t The  office.  p e r i o d of reform i n the l a s t two  decades of the e i g h t -  eenth century, which set the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the reforms of the 1830 s-1860 s, saw 1  1  attempts to remove the mass of abuses and  a b s u r d i t i e s which then e x i s t e d , and t i o n a r y powers of the Crown.  But  to end  some of the d i s c r e -  there was  attempt to e s t a b l i s h f u l l P a r l i a m e n t a r y  no  coherent  c o n t r o l over  expenditure.  81 Though the reforms s i m p l i f i e d procedure they d i d not e r e c t anything  approaching the t i g h t l y organized  he i n o p e r a t i o n by the 1870»s. j u s t as they r e q u i r e d , a supply formulate  of i n f o r m a t i o n and  d e t a i l e d r e g u l a t i o n s which was  new  Even at t h i s e a r l y stage there was  Treasury  to p l a y a g r e a t e r r o l e .  financial  a need f o r the greater  but the f a c t t h a t as  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i n a n c i a l system an i n c r e a s i n g  number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t a s k s devolved a n c i a l Department.  The new  d i r e c t l y to the Treasury.  and  on the  the need to  T h i s r e f l e c t e d not  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power f o r the Treasury,  t i o n and  to  But they brought w i t h them,  scene.  order was  system t h a t was  upon the c e n t r a l f i n -  Board of Audit was The  Treasury  responsible  found t h a t the  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Finance Accounts r e q u i r e d  preparaactivity  communication w i t h other Departments t h a t had not been  necessary  before.  The more t h a t A p p r o p r i a t i o n s were d i v i d e d  i n t o d e t a i l e d c a t e g o r i e s , and the C i v i l L i s t brought under Parliamentary  c o n t r o l , the more the Treasury had work to  which i t c o u l d not s h i r k or do i n e f f i c i e n t l y ,  do  s i n c e i t was  work  exposed to p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . There were of course  changes i n f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n the e a r l y decades of the n i n e t e e n t h extension But  i n 1817  of the Treasury's  century,  such as  power over the A u d i t  these changes d i d not c o n s t i t u t e an e x t e n s i v e and  p e r i o d of reform  the Office.  consistent  such as took p l a c e between the e a r l y 1830's and  the mid  1860's, c u l m i n a t i n g with the Exchequer and Audit Act of  1866.  By the 1830's the House of Commons was  greater i n t e r e s t i n administrative a f f a i r s , money t h a t governments spent.  showing much  and  Purely p o l i t i c a l  the amount of considerations  82 had been a v e r y important c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the reformers o f the 1780's and 1790's, hut now genuinely a d m i n i s t r a t i v e matters aroused g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t .  M.P.'s were now f r e e of d i r e c t  r o y a l i n f l u e n c e and contained among t h e i r numbers men w i t h a knowledge o f a f f a i r s and an i n t e r e s t i n e f f i c i e n c y . Binney  J.E.D.  suggests t h a t from the p e r i o d of North and the Younger  P i t t i t i s p o s s i b l e to date a change i n the a t t i t u d e of the 20 House of Commons.  P r e v i o u s l y the House had n o t known enough  or been i n t e r e s t e d enough t o take the i n i t i a t i v e t i v e reform.  i n administra-  But by t h e t u r n of the century i t was s t a r t i n g  to do so, and i n 1797 f o r i n s t a n c e f o r c e d P i t t g r e a t l y t o extend the scope o f a f i n a n c i a l enquiry he had proposed. Prom the 1830's onwards the i n t e r e s t of t h e House of Commons developed  c o n s i d e r a b l y , and b u i l d i n g on the sound know-  ledge of f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s which was now widespread  turned t o  the P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o l o f money granted to the Crown. Although t h e p r i n c i p l e of a p p r o p r i a t i o n had been e s t a b l i s h e d , the House was s t i l l a l o n g way from b e i n g a b l e to see how t h e money was a c t u a l l y b e i n g spent.  Yet by 1866 a l l aspects o f  government expenditure were under P a r l i a m e n t a r y s c r u t i n y .  In  h i s evidence to t h e S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l Expenditure i n 1902 Lord Welby s i n g l e d out the p e r i o d 1856-66, between the P u b l i c Moneys Committee and the Exchequer and A u d i t Act, as the time when most M.P.'s came to a p p r e c i a t e the way i n which P a r l i a ment could best e x e r c i s e f u l l c o n t r o l over grants and expendi21 ture-  I n the course of t h e changes of the 1830's to the  1860's a network o f r e g u l a t i o n s was e s t a b l i s h e d which was e s s e n t i a l i f f o r c e were t o be g i v e n to A c t s of Parliament.  It  83 was  the  Treasury  undertook t h e i r c l o s e r and had  which formulated day  to  day  these  r e g u l a t i o n s and  application.  I t thus  which  came i n t o  far  more r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r D e p a r t m e n t s t h a n i t  before. In  1831  a S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons a t  came t o t h e that the  the  c o n c l u s i o n , w h i c h had  cost of running  the  civil  s c r u t i n y of Parliament.  expenses then civil  placed  Departments,  on  and  been i m p l i e d i n the  the  Civil  1780's,  Government s h o u l d be  I t pointed List  " o u g h t t o be  out  under  t h a t many o f  were f o r t h e  last  the  costs  always under the  of  cognizance  22 and  subject to the  concluded applied of  that  only  c o n t r o l of Parliament."  " i t i s expedient  to  such expenses as  t h e Crown, and  the  proper  that the affect  The  CIVIL the  maintenance  Committee  LIST should  dignity  and  be  State  o f THEIR MAJESTY'S  2 3 Household."  In  Fund Charges A c t Departments had cover thus  the  been able  from the  seized  on  the  it  introduced  t o make u s e  without  passing  of  their  reading  w o u l d mean " t h a t g r e a t a perfectly  clear,  will  Exchequer,  Government Gladstone  of  t h i s reform,  of the B i l l  progress  the  2  for purely constitutional  Revenue  r e c e i p t s to  them t h r o u g h  c o n t r o l of P a r l i a m e n t . ^  first  Consolidated  p r a c t i c e whereby the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e importance  when m o v i n g t h e  establishing  ended t h e  removing a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of  penditure  it  t h e P u b l i c Revenue and  finally  expenses,  in effect  was  1854  reasons.  clearly although He  i n the House,  h a v e b e e n made  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and  ex-  s&id,  that towards  accurate  25 system of p u b l i c a c c o u n t s . " accurate  the  accounts  detailed regulations.  ^  The  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  were, t h e more t h e y  had  t o be  and  subject  to  84 The had  principle  heen  Public  of paying a l l  receipts  into  t h e Exchequer  emphasized by t h e Report o f the Commissioners o f  A c c o u n t s on t h e Exchequer  i n 1831,  which l e dt o t h e  26 E x c h e q u e r A c t o f 1834.  D e f i n i n g t h e Exchequer as " t h e great 27  c o n s e r v a t o r o f t h e Revenues concluded that deduction, for  "Gross Receipts...should  t h e Commissioners  be p l a c e d , w i t h o u t  i n t h e custody o f t h e Exchequer,  t o P a r l i a m e n t , whose a u t h o r i t y  appropriation one  of the nation"  o f t h e whole....  o f paramount  Money."  and be a c c o u n t e d  s h o u l d be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e  We f e e l  this  principle  importance f o r the security  They proposed sweeping changes  t o be  of the Public  i n t h e method o f  k e e p i n g a c c o u n t s a t t h e Exchequer, w h i c h appeared t o have r e mained  almost unchanged  made b y p h y s i c a l l y the  consolidation  the Paymaster  since  t h e days when payments h a d t o be 29  handing over specie.  General.  This  supervision.  Gladstone in  that  t h e hands  such.  And they  o f t h e seven Pay O f f i c e s  I n 1854  the "Pay O f f i c e  i s a mere p a s s i v e i n s t r u m e n t t o be d e a l t  w h i c h h a s no w i l l  would  have  from t h e report The  of  t h e changes  Such a statement which  followed  1831.  Commissioners  phasize that  before  w i t h as  o f i t s own, b u t b l i n d l y  every impulse given i t by the h e a d . " ^ impossible  to  Charles Trevelyan wrote t o  obeys  been  one - t h a t o f  f a r more amenable  o f t h e T r e a s u r y , and ought  I t i s t h e hand  into  recommended  r e d u c e d t h e amount o f c a s h i nu n -  s p e n t b a l a n c e s a n d made t h e P a y . O f f i c e Treasury  ^  the chief  of Public  A c c o u n t s w e r e c a r e f u l t o em-  duty o f the Exchequer so that  all  was t h e c o n t r o l  of issues  t o the Departments,  might  be i n a c c o r d -  ance w i t h  t h e A p p r o p r i a t i o n s A c t - a duty which was  purely  85 legal,  and  i n g the  d i d not  actual workings  allowing  the  issues  efficient. Treasury of the  involve  The  at  of  the  Exchequer o f f i c e  the  Departments.  from the  sanctioning  some s t a g e  Crown, and  as  along  the  in  The  scrutinizmethod  E x c h e q u e r was  made s a f e r  of  issues  had  always  the  line,  as  liaison  the  between the  for  and  more  involved  the  representative Departments  and  31 the  Exchequer.  the  Treasury  month.  The  was  could  the  t h i s means t h e  various of  of  a record  partment had  left,  t o meet l i k e l y  chequer,  to  w i t h i n the  praise control  to  rate yet  therefore  the  how  e s t a b l i s h the  i t clearly and  had  of  first  of of  con-  time,  was  expenditure the  actual  Treasury would had  beDeneeded  c h a n g e was  issues  only  from the  of  a legal  administrative  enhanced t h a t  be  not  each i n d i v i d u a l  principle great  of de-  m u c h m o n e y w o u l d be  of  this  money  Department  Although t h i s  process  basis  The  accuracy that  i t s vote  each  Excontrol import-  Department's p o s i t i o n  Government.  reform  of finance  which i n l a t e r  for i t s effectiveness was  an  demands.  Treasury,  the  of  tell  Exchequer i f  Act.  Henceforth the  much o f  facilitate  issues,  ance f o r the  The  future  i n order  over these  and  as  the  the  f o r the  of the  ascertain, with  f o r e b e e n p o s s i b l e , how  instigated  Treasury,  start  on  c l e a r e d by  Paymaster to  expenditure.  a position to  the  a warrant  departments, though not  that  at  Appropriation  passed v i a the  i n possession  tails in  By  the  Departments were t o  required  w h i c h w o u l d t h e n be  t h e n be  be  the  Treasury would issue  i n agreement w i t h  cerned. to  henceforth  e x a c t l y what t h e y  information, it  But  the  one  years  in establishing  introduced  by  gained  great  Parliamentary  S i r James Graham, F i r s t  Lord  86 of t h e A d m i r a l t y , i n 1832.  He caused P a r l i a m e n t t o pass an  A c t r e q u i r i n g the A d m i r a l t y t o prepare a d e t a i l e d a n n u a l account of t h e i r e x p e n d i t u r e , p a r t l y so t h a t he would have more i n f o r m a t i o n , but a l s o so t h a t P a r l i a m e n t c o u l d know more about how 32  e x p e n d i t u r e was p r o g r e s s i n g .  The Board o f A u d i t was t o  ex-  *  amine t h i s account and p r e s e n t a r e p o r t t o the T r e a s u r y , who would t h e n hand i t on t o the House of Commons.  For the  first  time the Commons c o u l d see how a Department had spent i t s money, l o r d W e l b y , i n a l e t t e r t o Graham's o f f i c i a l b i o g r a p h e r i n said that,  1905,  " S i r James Graham saw, and saw f i r s t , t h a t the o n l y  r e a l check on e x p e n d i t u r e i s t o be found i n a Report t o  the  House o f Commons on t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e when i t has t a k e n p l a c e , by an independent a u d i t o r . T h e  a s s u m p t i o n about the  suit-  a b i l i t y of the T r e a s u r y as the c o - o r d i n a t o r of f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s i s shown by t h e f a c t t h a t i t was t o be the i n s t r u m e n t f o r h a n d i n g t h e r e p o r t and account t o the Commons.  But f a r more i m -  p o r t a n t , the T r e a s u r y now came i n t o r e c e i p t of f a r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x p e n d i t u r e of t h e A d m i r a l t y t h a n of any o t h e r Department, even a f t e r the Exchequer r e f o r m s of 1834. : I n h i s e v i d e n c e t o the P u b l i c Accounts Committee i n 1862, M r . A r b u t h n o t , A u d i t o r of the C i v i l L i s t ,  was t o remark on t h e way  i n which the changes which Graham i n t r o d u c e d i n 1832 had i n c r e a s e d the r o l e of the T r e a s u r y i n s u p e r v i s i n g f i n a n c e . ^ The p r i n c i p l e of p r e s e n t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e a c c o u n t s . t o  Parliament  was extended t o the Army, t o the P u b l i c Works B o a r d , and t o 35  Woods and F o r e s t s ,  d u r i n g the n e x t twenty y e a r s .  The f i n a l s t a g e s i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f an e f f i c i e n t and  o r d e r e d system of p u b l i c f i n a n c e , w h i c h was based on c o n s t i t u -  tional ectly  p r i n c i p l e and also from t h eenquiries  Public 1861, of  open t o easy s u p e r v i s i o n , and Report o f the Select  M o n e y s o f 1856-57.  two o f the main recommendations directly  and i t s a b i l i t y editorial the  cation not  Committee on  thedirect result  o f t h eC o m m i t t e e . ^  to control financial  administration.  i n September  Pew  than that i n  1857, w h i c h a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e  o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e P u b l i c Moneys Committee  "detract  These  enhanced t h ep o s i t i o n o f t h e Treasury,  comments c a n have b e e n more i n a c c u r a t e  Spectator  dir-  The P u b l i c A c c o u n t s Committee o f  a n d t h eE x c h e q u e r a n d A u d i t A c t , were  two m e a s u r e s  flow  from the importance and a u t h o r i t y  appli-  would  o f t h e Trea-  37 sury."  J I  William  Dunbar,  t h ef i r s t  Comptroller and Auditor-  G e n e r a l a p p o i n t e d u n d e r t h e A c t o f 1866, r e m a r k e d t h a t , " T h e Exchequer and Audit Act i s , therefore, the  l e g a l embodiment  Moneys Committee Welby was most  o f 1857, t h u s t a r d i l y  most  tion  t o the Committee  the  butthey  Treasury.  reveal  provide  Clerk  thesort  and l a y b e h i n d  a wealth  i t sconstitu-  J  important  o f the greatest  The e v i d e n c e ,  Anderson, P r i n c i p a l sury,  also  Expenditure  a s " I ' t h i n k , oneo f  I remember."  d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f 1856-57 w e r e  i n g two measures w h i c h were Treasury,  on N a t i o n a l  Moneys Committee  i t d i d , that  matured."^  o f the Committee.  remarkable Committees, both as regards  and t h ework The  butf u l l y  emphatic about t h e i n f l u e n c e  spoke o f t h e ' P u b l i c  the  provisions,  o f the recommendations o f the P u b l i c  In h i s o r a l evidence he  i ni t s main  i n establish-  influence  of information  especially that  about  o f William  o f F i n a n c i a l Business a t t h e Trea-  o f t h i n k i n g which guided the  i t sbeing  on t h e  given  extra administrative  Treasury, duties.  88 A n d e r s o n , i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with. Macaulay o f t h e A u d i t O f f i c e , and Hugh C h i l d e r s , F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y of the T r e a s u r y , was t o p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n the d r a f t i n g of the Exchequer and Audit  Act.  4 0  I n h i s evidence t o t h e Committee, Anderson was c h i e f l y concerned t o d i s c u s s the two p o s s i b l e means of c o n t r o l l i n g e x p e n d i t u r e - e i t h e r at source when the money was handed over t o the Departments,  o r when i t was spent by them.  would e x e r c i s e the f i r s t s o r t of check,  The Exchequer  a n d , suggested A n d e r s o n ,  the T r e a s u r y c o u l d b e s t do. the s e c o n d , w h i c h he f e l t was f a r more s a t i s f a c t o r y .  W i t h L o r d Monteagle he emphasized t h a t  Exchequer c o n t r o l a l o n e was q u i t e i n a d e q u a t e .  He suggested  t h a t the e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r any c o n t r o l of e x p e n d i t u r e , be i t by the T r e a s u r y o r an independent a u t h o r i t y , was a c o h e r e n t system of a c c o u n t s .  Such a system had not e x i s t e d  f o r e Graham's r e f o r m s i n 1832,  be-  and s t i l l remained t o be i n t r o 41  duced f o r t h e Revenue and C i v i l Departments.  I n o t h e r words,  j u s t as G l a d s t o n e had seen t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e the A c t of 1854,  so Anderson i m p l i c i t l y accepted t h a t  of  effective  c o n t r o l o v e r e x p e n d i t u r e by the T r e a s u r y was o n l y made p o s s i b l e by a move w h i c h was aimed p r i n c i p a l l y a t e n s u r i n g t h a t  Parlia-  42  ment might c o n t r o l the money i t v o t e d .  The T r e a s u r y was the  most i n t e r e s t e d of a l l i n d o i n g t h i s , as Anderson p o i n t e d o u t , because i f a Department overspent i t was the Tre.asury who had t o d e a l w i t h t h e l a c k of funds when the V o t e was exhausted prematurely. ^ 4  Thus w i t h o u t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t i n g i t , Anderson  was a c c e p t i n g t h a t t h e T r e a s u r y had e s s e n t i a l and i n c r e a s i n g d u t i e s l a i d upon i t by t h e g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n of the p r i n c i p l e  of the P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o l over expenditure.  The Treasury,  he i m p l i e d , was the only department a b l e t o a d m i n i s t e r the changes, and a c c o r d i n g l y the v i g o u r and frequency of i t s superv i s i o n over other departments was augmented as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of these changes. Anderson was a t pains t o emphasize t h a t the Treasury was not a Department which spent l a r g e sums of money, but t h a t " i t i s a department o f c o n t r o l over other d e p a r t m e n t s . " ^  Its  power d i d n o t extend t o the a c t u a l handing over of money by a Department t o a c o n t r a c t o r o r s u p p l i e r ,  45  but,  i f i t f i n d s t h a t the department i s spending a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r g r a n t s than the Treasury t h i n k they ought t o have spent i n a c e r t a i n p e r i o d . . . i t can c a l l on them t o r e v i s e t h e i r accounts and t h e i r estimates, t h a t they may s a t i s f y the Treasury t h a t they have made s u f f i c i e n t p r o v i s i o n f o r c a r r y i n g on the p u b l i c s e r v i c e f o r the year. 46. Thus i t r e s t e d w i t h the Treasury t o s u p e r v i z e any v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f money between the Votes, which would a l l o w a degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n the f i n a l p l a n n i n g of expenditure, without l o s i n g u l t i m a t e P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o l . ^  The r i g h t o f  the Treasury t o g i v e p e r m i s s i o n t o a Department to use the surp l u s of one Vote t o meet the d e f i c i t on another, w h i l e remaining w i t h i n the t o t a l - the r i g h t o f virement  still  as i t was  termed - i s a f u r t h e r example of the way i n which Parliament was i n e f f e c t g i v i n g some o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s to the Treasury.  Since the A p p r o p r i a t i o n s A c t of 1846 the Treasury  had had the formal power t o a u t h o r i z e the t r a n s f e r of funds w i t h i n the t o t a l .  Before that date the m i l i t a r y departments  a t l e a s t had been l a r g e l y f r e e t o t r a n s f e r t h e i r s u r p l u s e s  themselves.  The A p p r o p r i a t i o n s A c t of 1858 had f u r t h e r m o d i -  f i e d the T r e a s u r y ' s r i g h t i n t h i s r e s p e c t .  Following  the  Second R e p o r t of the P u b l i c Accounts Committee i n 1 8 6 2 ,  4 8  the  T r e a s u r y was empowered, i n the words of a M i n u t e i t i s s u e d the next  year, t o a u t h o r i z e the temporary use of s u r p l u s e s t o meet d e f i c i e n c i e s , i n o r d e r t h a t such p r o c e e d i n g s may be s u b m i t t e d f o r the s a n c t i o n of P a r l i a m e n t , and t h a t p r o v i s i o n may be made f o r the d e f i c i e n c i e s upon the s e v e r a l v o t e s f o r t h e s a i d s e r v i c e s i n such manner as P a r l i a m e n t s h a l l determine. 49  Once a g a i n t h i s i s c l e a r evidence of the c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n b e t ween the work of the T r e a s u r y and the d e s i r e o f P a r l i a m e n t , w h i c h was f u l l y developed by the m i d d l e of the c e n t u r y , t o have a complete c o n t r o l over t h e money i t had v o t e d , r i g h t t o moment i t passed from the hands of the Government. s u r y was t h e i n s t r u m e n t whereby the r a t h e r r i g i d  the  The T r e a -  requirements  of the A p p r o p r i a t i o n A c t were made more f l e x i b l e , and so a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y more p r a c t i c a l . It  seems t o have been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d ,  even b e f o r e the  Exchequer and A u d i t A c t , w h i c h was t o s t r e n g t h e n the l i n k s of T r e a s u r y and P a r l i a m e n t , t h a t c o n t r o l by the l e g i s l a t u r e went hand i n hand w i t h c o n t r o l by the T r e a s u r y .  Parliament could  o n l y be sure t h a t i t had r e a l c o n t r o l over e x p e n d i t u r e i f  the  f i n a n c i a l system was w e l l o r d e r e d , and s u p e r v i z e d by a D e p a r t ment t h a t i t c o u l d h o l d t o a c c o u n t .  S i r James Graham, who was  a member of the P u b l i c Moneys Committee, put t o Anderson the question,  "Is  i t n o t the o b j e c t of the l e g i s l a t u r e to  t r a t e and accumulate c o n t r o l i n the T r e a s u r y ? "  concen-  Anderson  91 replied,  "I t h i n k i t should he so, as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  ulti-  mately r e s t s w i t h the c o n t r o l l i n g department of the Government."' Gladstone, 1862,  appearing b e f o r e the P u b l i c Accounts Committee of  expressed  a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n when he s a i d t h a t , "any  ments which would go to prove the u s e l e s s n e s s of Treasury trol,  from t h e i r want of t e c h n i c a l and departmental  argucon-  knowledge,  are arguments t h a t would go f a r to show the u s e l e s s n e s s of Parliamentary c o n t r o l . time as Gladstone,  •51  Arbuthnot,  % w  appearing a t the same  remarked q u i t e simply t h a t , "the Treasury 52  i s weak without  the a s s i s t a n c e of P a r l i a m e n t . "  together these comments imply t h a t there was ence between Parliament and f u l l use of i f i t was  Taken  y  a mutual depend-  the Treasury, which had  to be s t r o n g .  to make  N e i t h e r the Treasury  Parliament c o u l d do a l l i t wanted i n the f i e l d  nor  of f i n a n c i a l  c o n t r o l u n l e s s i t had the backing of the other, and the use  of  the s e r v i c e s t h a t the other provided. One  aspect of t h i s mutual dependence i s e x e m p l i f i e d by  P u b l i c Accounts Committee, f i r s t s e t up i n 1861. Accounts Committee was  the  The P u b l i c  converted i n t o a Standing Committee of  the House i n 1862-^ and soon e s t a b l i s h e d the p r i n c i p l e t h a t i t s Chairman should be a member of the O p p o s i t i o n w i t h a knowledge of  detailed financial a f f a i r s .  The Committee was  c a l l f o r papers and witnesses, and was to  examine the accounts  empowered to  thus i n theory  of any Department-  equipped  I t reported i t s  f i n d i n g s to the House of Commons, and though i n the n i n e t e e n t h  54 century these f i n d i n g s only once caused a f u l l they were an incomparable  s c a l e debate, ^  source of i n f o r m a t i o n and a c o n s i d e r -  a b l e i n c e n t i v e to good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h i n the Departments.  92 It  d i d not have i t s own s e c r e t a r i a t u n t i l the Exchequer and  A u d i t A c t came i n t o f o r c e , hut from the s t a r t the Treasury was the p r i n c i p a l witness, p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about government f i n a n c e and bookkeeping.  The Treasury witnesses  m i t t e e were i n permanent attendance,  t o the Com-  and were u s u a l l y s e n i o r  f i g u r e s i n the Finance D i v i s i o n o f t h a t Department. T h i s mutual dependence i s b e t t e r demonstrated by the Exchequer and Audit A c t of 1866.  The A c t repeated  the p r i n c i p l e  that gross revenues had t o be p a i d i n t o the Exchequer,  without  deductions,  and combined i n t o one Department the d u t i e s o f the  Comptroller  of the Exchequer - who had supervized the handing  out of funds - and those of the A u d i t o r - who had checked expenditure  i n so f a r as f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e .  The head of  the newly c r e a t e d o f f i c e was t o be an o f f i c i a l of the House o f Commons, p a i d d i r e c t l y out o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d Fund, and remova b l e only on an address Judiciary. accounts,  of both Houses, l i k e the members of the  The Departments were t o prepare  f u l l appropriation  and the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l , as the new  o f f i c i a l was c a l l e d , was t o check them and r e p o r t on them t o the P u b l i c Accounts Committee.  By t h i s means the House would  have a v a i l a b l e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f expenditure,  and would be  able t o see t h a t i t s i n t e n t i o n s had been f o l l o w e d .  Further,  it  could p o i n t t o i n s t a n c e s where there was room f o r improve-  ment i n procedure. When i n t r o d u c i n g the Exchequer and A u d i t B i l l 1866  Gladstone,  i n February  as the C h a n c e l l o r o f the Exchequer, r e c o g n i z e d  that the measure d i d n o t i n t r o d u c e any r a d i c a l l y new  concept.  T h i s a p p l i e d t o S e c t i o n 27, which d e a l t w i t h the Treasury's  93 c o n t r o l of e x p e n d i t u r e , and t o the r e s t of the B i l l w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e a u d i t , the accounts and the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r General*  The B i l l aimed t o extend and c o n s o l i d a t e the changes  i n a u d i t w h i c h went hack t o Graham's r e f o r m s of 1832 and the Exchequer A c t of 1834*  I n h i s speech d u r i n g the second r e a d -  i n g i n March G l a d s t o n e s a i d t h a t the B i l l  embodied,  a f i n a l d e c i s i o n t h a t the t h e o r y of law was t o be made t o conform t o the e s t a b l i s h e d and r e c o g n i s e d p r a c t i c e , i n s t e a d of the p r a c t i c e b e i n g made t o conform w i t h the t h e o r y . F o r a l o n g s e r i e s of y e a r s t h a t the p r a c t i c e under the law had n o t been i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the law was a m a t t e r of perfect notoriety. 55 The debate showed t h a t the House of Commons had on t h e whole a c c e p t e d t h a t s u p e r v i z i n g and c h e c k i n g t h e a u d i t p r o v i d e d the b e s t means of e s t a b l i s h i n g P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o l , as opposed t o the m e r e l y l e g a l check o f t h e Exchequer.  Gladstone  a t t a c h e d g r e a t importance t o the p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d t h e  clearly  Bill,  and t o h e l p ensure s u c c e s s o f f e r e d the p o s t of C o m p t r o l l e r and 56  A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l t o R i c h a r d Cobden, who r e f u s e d . S e c t i o n 27 of the Exchequer and A u d i t A c t assumed the s u r y had the r i g h t of c o n t r o l l i n g the i n i t i a l i n c u r r i n g of p e n d i t u r e by the Departments.  Treaex-  I n t h i s r e s p e c t the C o m p t r o l l e r  and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l was t o see h i s t a s k as one of e n s u r i n g T r e a s u r y r e g u l a t i o n s were obeyed, and i f he found i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , 57  o f r e p o r t i n g them t o the T r e a s u r y .  '  I f the T r e a s u r y r e f u s e d  t o g i v e ex post f a c t o s a n c t i o n t o any p a r t i c u l a r i t e m o f expend i t u r e the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l would r e p o r t i t the House as " b e i n g n o t p r o p e r l y c h a r g e a b l e Grant."^  to  to a Parliamentary  Though the T r e a s u r y a t t i m e s r e s e n t e d the f a c t  that  94 the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o 59  Parliament than t o them, quiries.  they were g r e a t l y helped by h i s en-  The Treasury c o u l d , moreover, r e q u i r e the Comp-  t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l t o a u d i t any e x t r a account f e l t necessary.  t h a t they  Thus an o f f i c e r o f the House of Commons, whose  main purpose was t o strengthen P a r l i a m e n t ' s c o n t r o l , p l a y e d an important p a r t i n i n c r e a s i n g y e t f u r t h e r t h e e f f i c i e n c y of the Treasury's c o n t r o l over the other Departments. While the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l helped the Treasury e x e r c i s e i t s c o n t r o l , so the Treasury played an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e apparatus r e q u i r e d by the Exchequer and A u d i t Act.  I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f the Exchequer and A u d i t  B i l l b e f o r e t h e P u b l i c Accounts Committee of 1866, S i r W i l l i a m Dunbar, then C o m p t r o l l e r o f the Exchequer, showed the v a s t amount of d i s c r e t i o n t h a t the new l e g i s l a t i o n would leave t o the Treasury - indeed had t o l e a v e t o the Treasury i f i t was to f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y .  6 0  The Treasury was to r e g u l a t e h i s  61 office, and t o s u p e r v i z e the format o f the accounts t h a t the Departments were t o submit t o the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r -  go General.  The Exchequer and A u d i t Department and the Trea-  sury were t o work i n c l o s e harmony i n i s s u i n g funds, the Treasury a u t h o r i z i n g t h e d e t a i l e d i s s u e s t o the Departments out of the g e n e r a l c r e d i t s a u t h o r i z e d by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r and Auditor-General. ^ 6  I n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t i o n  accounts the Treasury was t o determine who i n each Department was  l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e , so that P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n t r o l might  not be undermined by a d i f f u s e d a u t h o r i t y .  6 4 -  A l l these d u t i e s  were c l e a r l y e s s e n t i a l t o the e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t e r i n g o f the  95 machine s e t up under the Exchequer and A u d i t A c t .  On the one  hand they made the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l more powerful, and on the other they gave e x t r a work t o and i n c r e a s e d t h e s t a t u s o f the Treasury.  The s i x t h C o m p t r o l l e r and  A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l t o he appointed under the A c t , S i r H.J.  Gibson,  commented i n 1916 t h a t "Parliament, i n t h e Exchequer and A u d i t Departments A c t , appears t o have pre-supposed  t h a t u n i t e d pur-  pose and a c t i o n between the two Departments which i s so essen65 t i a l to e f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l administration." ^  He might have  gone f u r t h e r and spoken of the mutual dependence which enhanced the power o f both the T r e a s u r y and the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r General . One  o f t h e most s t r i k i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e Exchequer and  A u d i t A c t , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the P u b l i c Accounts was  the amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i t brought  he appeared  Committee,  to l i g h t .  When  b e f o r e the P u b l i c Moneys Committee i n 1856 W i l l i a m  Anderson had been a c u t e l y aware o f the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on the Treasury by i t s l a c k o f knowledge about the o t h e r Departments.  He f e l t t h a t t h e T r e a s u r y had a v e r y g e n e r a l c o n t r o l  over expenditure, but " i t cannot r e a c h d e t a i l . "  He went  on, " I t h i n k the Treasury c o n t r o l over p u b l i c expenditure i s at present weak, and t h a t i t i s owing i n a great measure t o a d e f e c t i v e knowledge o f the a c t u a l proceedings o f the departments."^  From 1866 onwards t h i s d e f i c i e n c y was i n l a r g e  p a r t made up f o r by the r e p o r t s of the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r General and t h e h e a r i n g s o f the P u b l i c Accounts  Committee.  The d e t a i l e d c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f the f i n a n c e o f f i c i a l s the v a r i o u s Departments not onlyexposed  f a c t s about the  from  accounts details  then under about  the  discussion,  general  ment, w h i c h w o u l d not the  Treasury  told if  the  they  the  workings  period  of  of  the  and  other  irregularities  provided  the  extensive  machinery  been e a s i l y  jealous  "Comptroller  T r e a s u r y what committed  also  otherwise have  in this  commented t h a t  but  of  govern-  available  departmentalism.  Auditor-General's  to  Welby. reports  Departments were doing,  and  i t enabled  to  the  Treasury  68 c h e c k them, w h i c h  t h e y had  He  reports  added  that  Treasury,  the  i n ensuring  not  had  the  a l s o had  that  a  means o f  doing  salutary effect  i t always  before." on  the  obeyed r e g u l a t i o n s ,  and  69 d i d not not  exercise  mean t h a t  i t s power d i m i n i s h e d ;  responsibility other  indiscriminate authority.  to  Parliament,  rather that  D e p a r t m e n t s w e r e more open t o The  reports  of  the  came i n t o e f f e c t .  Minutes which  follow  instructions  he  to  give  had  to  the  up  by  been i n v o l v e d  that  them i n t i m e ,  the the  and  e f f e c t had  to  each  the  C o m m i t t e e show a  so be  the  The  reports  how  to  marked Act  include  implement  Indeed  T r e a s u r y had date  on  postponed  and  Auditor-General  accounts  the  various  the  one  could  Act  year. start  departments had  to  the  were  necessary  these  complete  was  to  Before h i s work,  be  new  mentioned  regulations  been unable t o  by  detailed  Welby  so. e x t e n s i v e  which the  as  Treasury  Committee r e p o r t s .  i n d r a w i n g up  Act.  the  1868.  of these  Comptroller of  formal  supervision.  and  D e p a r t m e n t s on  required  effect to  regulations  a more  i t s relations with  Public Accounts  b e t w e e n 1861  been  how  i t had  did  T h e y became c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s  t h e y n e v e r had  regulations  this  I858, t h e y e a r t h a t t h e E x c h e q u e r and A u d i t  change a f t e r  into  and  But  J  made  come the a l l the  uniform  97 a t a s k i n v o l v i n g a tremendous l a b o u r .  Y e t once made uniform  to meet t h e needs o f t h e A c t , they were f a r more amenable t o T r e a s u r y s u p e r v i s i o n than they had been b e f o r e .  I n a Minute  i s s u e d i n 1872 the T r e a s u r y commented t h a t "The Exchequer and A u d i t A c t p r o v i d e d f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n t h e broadest sense, o f the f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e C i v i l ments.  Depart-  I t s e f f e c t has been t o i n t r o d u c e an obedience t o r e g u 70  l a t i o n s and a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as were n o t p r e v i o u s l y known." I n 1872, t o a i d them i n s u p e r v i s i n g departmental  accounts,  the T r e a s u r y appointed 'Treasury O f f i c e r s o f Accounts', the s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the T r e a s u r y at t h e P u b l i c Accounts  Com-  m i t t e e , t h e j u n i o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t w i t h the other d e p a r t ments.  S i r H.J. Gibson summarized t h e i r d u t i e s by s a y i n g they  covered " t e c h n i c a l p o i n t s connected w i t h book-keeping and accounts, q u e s t i o n s o f a u d i t , q u e s t i o n s o f l o s s e s and f r a u d ( i n c l u d i n g p r e c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e i r r e c u r r e n c e ) , the s t a f f i n g of the Accounts Branches,  the nomination o f Accounting  and many o t h e r cognate m a t t e r s .  Officers,  They a r e expected t o see t h a t  a reasonable u n i f o r m i t y of accounts i s p r e s e r v e d throughout 71 the Departments."  Once a g a i n , the e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t e r i n g  of t h e Exchequer and A u d i t A c t r e q u i r e d o f the T r e a s u r y more e x t e n s i v e , f o r m a l i z e d r e g u l a t i o n s t o govern the a c t i v i t i e s o f the other Departments i n a way t h e r e had been no need t o govern them b e f o r e . A d i s t i n c t i o n must be drawn between t h e source o f t h e T r e a s u r y ' s power t o s u p e r v i s e f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n o t h e r Departments, and the reasons f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s power.  Nobody seems to have questioned the a u t h o r i t y  • of  the Treasury,  respect  duced in  i n the late  eighteenth  they were a c c e p t i n g t h e r i g h t  supervise this  even  i t s own  income,  as voted  and  the financial  system which  t h e p e r i o d o f t h e 1830's - 1860's,  because  trolling  i t worked  between P a r l i a m e n t Treasury's  backing voted  given  of the Treasury's  the legislature  possible  1866 onwards depended  The u n d i s p u t e d  right  which c u r t a i l e d centralize  thus  Prerogative  over  t o ensure i t s  more f l e x i b l e  because  A degree o f  be e s t a b l i s h e d i n a way n o t n o r m a l l y  of Parliament  departmental  the machinery  control  of Parliament's between  could  Much o f  on t h e l e g i s l a t i v e  of Parliament  w i t h was r e n d e r e d  Treasury  f o r a body o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The T r e a s u r y  to have t h e backing  eventual  i n con-  but the l i n k  became c l o s e r .  t o the e x e r c i s e of the Royal  and o r d e r  influence  i n Parliamentary enquiries,  with  and t h e Treasury  especially  established Parliamentary  c o u l d be a p p l i e d by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e .  obedience  over  control,  British  independence,  o f government.  and thereby  Much o f t h e procedure,  tended  to  Treasury's just  a s much  came t o d e p e n d o n t h e c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e e x e c u t i v e .  been v e r y m a r k e d l y weaker constitution  was  seen  i n the introduction of regulations  ordinary financial  the legislature  would have the  removed abuses and,  of the actions of Parliament,  power from  money.  were  Not o n l y was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e  d i r e c t i o n s were compiled it  much  i n harness  expenditure.  enhanced as a r e s u l t  the  intro-  into  the information uncovered  o f t h e Crown t o spend and  only as reforms  effective  came f r o m  and i n t h a t  But  became r e a l l y  Indeed by t h e i 8 6 0 ' s  century,  t o i t by P a r l i a m e n t .  power  control.  98  Indeed  the control  i f there had e x i s t e d i n  anything approaching  a real  separation  99 o f powers.  Thus Walter Bagehot's " e f f i c i e n t s e c r e t of the  English Constitution...the f u s i o n , of the executive  c l o s e union, the n e a r l y complete  and l e g i s l a t i v e powers" came to be the  v i t a l element i n e s t a b l i s h i n g order and e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l i n the n a t i o n ' s  financial  administration.  The r e l a t i o n s of the Treasury w i t h the Departments of the c e n t r a l Government thus underwent a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of f i n a n c i a l reform.  change i n t h i s  None of the reformers, e i t h e r i n  the 1780's and 1790's, or between the 1830's and 1860's, seems to have p a i d much a t t e n t i o n to the e f f e c t the changes would have on the Treasury.  The changes were i n t r o d u c e d  t o make  procedure more e f f i c i e n t , t o remove abuses, and above a l l t o e s t a b l i s h Parliamentary very l i t t l e  c o n t r o l , but there  seems to have been  d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t that t h i s would have on  the e x e r c i s e of f i n a n c i a l a u t h o r i t y .  The reformers were not  p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the Treasury, and so sponsored changes without b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y aware t h a t they were i n f a c t ing  increas-  the e f f e c t i v e power and the d u t i e s of that Department.  The  f a c t t h a t the Treasury was assumed t o be l e g a l l y omnipotent i n matters f i n a n c i a l removed any i n h i b i t i o n from g i v i n g i t a d d i t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work and i n f l u e n c e .  While c l e a r l y  there  were many l i m i t a t i o n s on the Treasury's power to c o n t r o l f i n a n c i a l administration before  1866, t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n  enabled i t more e a s i l y t o assume an i n c r e a s i n g l y powerful r o l e i n government. The more t h a t order and e f f i c i e n c y were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the government's f i n a n c e s ,  the g r e a t e r was the need f o r the e x e r c i s e  of c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e .  While i t would be an overstatement  100 to suggest t h a t a l l the Treasury's e f f e c t i v e power i n t h i s f i e l d was t h r u s t upon i t , i t i s c l e a r that the i n c r e a s e i n the Department's a u t h o r i t y was a response t o a reformed and r a t i o n a l i z e d administration.  Although the new r e g u l a t i o n s i n f i n a n c e  might he c l a s s e d under the g e n e r a l p e j o r a t i v e term red tape was e s s e n t i a l t o the removal  of abuses,  glaringi n -  e f f i c i e n c i e s , and the l a c k of l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l . tened i n t e r e s t i n f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s , a l i t y i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s i n general,  'red tape,'  A heigh-  a heightened sense of morand the d e s i r e t o ensure  c o n t r o l by Parliament, a l l l a y behind the reforms i n f i n a n c i a l administration.  The Treasury was a necessary instrument i n  these reforms, and i n terms of the e f f e c t i v e power i t e x e r c i s e d , i t was a l s o one of t h e p r i n c i p a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s .  101  FOOTNOTES  1.  The Exchequer and A u d i t Departments A c t , 29 & 30 V i c t o r i a , c . 3 9 •  1866.  2.  " A n A c t t o r e g u l a t e the o f f i c e of the R e c e i p t of H i s M a j e s t y ' s Exchequer a t W e s t m i n s t e r , " 1834. 4 & 5 W i l l i a m , IV c 15~  3-  T r e a s u r y M i n u t e " f o r the REGULATION o f the RECEIPT of H i s MAJESTY'S EXCHEQUER," 26 September, 1834G . B . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1856, XV, p p . 471-84.  4«  P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1862. G . B . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1862,  X I , p.  277-  5-  Thomas S p r i n g - R i c e , 1 s t B a r o n Monteagle of Brandon, 1790-1866. He was S e c r e t a r y t o the T r e a s u r y 1830-4, S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r War and the C o l o n i e s 1835, and C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer 1835-9. He r e s i g n e d i n 1839, h a v i n g become d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h a c t i v e p o l i t i c s , a c c e p t e d a peerage, and took on the job of C o m p t r o l l e r of the E x chequer w h i c h he h e l d u n t i l h i s d e a t h .  6.  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys, 1856. G . B . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, T856, XV, p .  70.  7.  P u b l i c A c c o u n t s Committee', 1870; e v i d e n c e t o 2nd R e p o r t . G . B . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1870, X , p . 159*  8.  B . Chubb, The C o n t r o l of P u b l i c E x p e n d i t u r e , O x f o r d , p . 9-  9.  Memorandum handed i n by L o r d Welby t o the S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l E x p e n d i t u r e , 1902, p . 228. Appendix No. 13. Welby p u t s t h e date of the Exchequer and A u d i t A c t as 1868. He was of c o u r s e aware t h a t t h e A c t was passed i n 1866, and uses t h a t date e l s e w h e r e . I t i s possible that t h i s i s a m i s p r i n t , but more l i k e l y t h a t he meant t o say somet h i n g l i k e " t h e date when the Exchequer and A u d i t A c t came into effect." I t t o o k two y e a r s t o f o r m u l a t e the n e c e s sary r e g u l a t i o n s .  1952,  102 10.  Welby's Memorandum, op_. c i t • ,  11.  S. Baxter, The Development of the Treasury 1660-1702, London, 1957, p. 17b. '.  12.  R.G. Hawtrey, The Exchequer and the C o n t r o l of Expenditure, London, 1921, p. 11.  13«  B. Chubb, op_. c i t . , p. 1 0 .  14-  25 George I I I , c. 52.  15-  22 George I I I , c  16.  E.A. R e i t a n , "The C i v i l L i s t i n Eighteenth-Century B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s : P a r l i a m e n t a r y Supremacy versus the Independence of the Crown." The H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l , 1966, IX.,  17-  20 George I I I , C.  18.  J.E.D. Binney, B r i t i s h P u b l i c Finance and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1774-1792, Oxford, 1958, p. 9-  19.  The S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys of 1856 i s a good example of t h i s . I t s members were: F r a n c i s B a r i n g , the Chairman, of the f a m i l y of B a r i n g B r o t h e r s , a former C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer and h o l d e r of a wide range of p o s t s i n d i f f e r e n t governments i n which he was noted f o r his efficiency; George C. Lewis, then C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, who had worked e x t e n s i v e l y on i n q u i r i e s i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n M a l t a and I r e l a n d , and who had been a member of the Poor Law Commission; S i r James Graham, who had gained an outstanding r e p u t a t i o n as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r at the A d m i r a l t y ; Edward Cardwell, who was l a t e r t o achieve fame with, h i s army reforms; James Wilson, the founder of the Economist; and Lord S t a n l e y .  20.  J.E.D. Binney,  21.  S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l Expenditure, 1902, o r a l e v i dence by Lord Welby, p. 175•  p. 229.  82.  19-  op_. c i t . , p. 2 5 4 -  103 22.  Report of the S e l e c t Committee on the C i v i l L i s t , 1831. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1830-1, I I I , p. 437.  23.  Loc. c i t .  24.  17 & 18 V i c t o r i a , c 94The Act d i d a l l o w the r e g i o n a l revenue o f f i c e s t o make use of t h e i r cash r e c e i p t s f o r payments, t o prevent the unnece s s a r y p a s s i n g of funds to and from London. But a l l t h e i r c o s t s had t o he horn on a Vote of t h e House o f Commons, so t h a t i n the end they were i n a p o s i t i o n t o pay the Exchequer the f u l l amount o f t h e i r r e c e i p t s , and t h e i r c o s t s were p r o p e r l y accounted f o r . see:  a) speech by Gladstone June 2nd 1854, Hansard, 3 r d . S e r i e s , Commons, v o l . 133, c o l s . 1258-9. b) evidence by L o r d Monteagle t o the P u b l i c Moneys Committee, G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1856, x v , p. 1 3 .  T h i s same A c t rearranged the d a t i n g of the F i n a n c i a l Year, so that f o r a l l purposes i t r a n from A p r i l 1 s t t o March 31st. B e f o r e that date the year had been f r e q u e n t l y changed, and e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e 1832 had been i n a s t a t e of complete chaos. Finance Accounts had run from January 6th t o January 5 t h . Revenue had been r a i s e d f o r the year A p r i l 6th - A p r i l 5 t h . Supply expenditure had been voted f o r the year o f A p r i l 1st - March 31st. See Lord B r i d g e s , The Treasury, London, 1966, p. 1 8 8 , n . 1 . 25.  Hansard, 3rd S e r i e s , Commons, v o l . 130, c o l . 217, February 2nd, 1854-  26.  F i r s t Report of t h e Commissioners on P u b l i c Accounts: Report on the Exchequer. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1831, X, pp. 1-22.  27.  0p_. c i t . , p. 3 .  28.  OJD.  29.  The method of keeping t h e accounts a t the Exchequer, u n t i l Act o f 1834, p r o v i d e s a s u b j e c t of l i g h t amusement i n an otherwise r a t h e r a r i d f i e l d . The Exchequer had not y e t adopted double-entry book-keeping, although the p r a c t i c e had been w i d e l y used i n commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f o r many years. But more than t h i s , a l t h o u g h the Exchequer made up i t s accounts i n E n g l i s h and A r a b i c Numerals, on paper,  c i t . , p. 4*  104 i t a l s o c o p i e d e v e r y t h i n g out i n t o a m e d i e v a l r e n d e r i n g o f Roman N u m e r a l s , on parchment, r i g h t up t o 1831. The Commissioners o f t h a t y e a r s a i d , "The Roman Numerals, u n c o u t h , obscure and i n c o n v e n i e n t as they a r e , and i n a p p l i c a b l e t o the commonest o f a r i t h m e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s , were t h e u s u a l f o r m u l a o f a b b r e v i a t i o n i n the Norman p e r i o d , and were c o n s e q u e n t l y employed i n t h e Exchequer, though the E x chequer i s p r o b a b l y the o n l y e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n the c i v i l i z e d w o r l d t h a t s t i l l r e t a i n s them i n p r e f e r ence t o t h e s i m p l e and i n t e l l i g i b l e A r a b i c Numerals, i n t o w h i c h , i n f a c t , e v e r y document i s now t r a n s l a t e d i n the Exchequer b o o k s . " Op. c i t . ,  p.  21.  T h i s must come as no s u r p r i s e when one l e a r n s t h a t i n 1787 the P u b l i c Accounts Commissioners had a t l a s t been moved t o recommend the a b o l i t i o n of wooden t a l l i e s , though t h e y had been c a r e f u l t o a l l o w the e x i s t i n g T a l l y C u t t e r s to r e t a i n t h e i r p o s t s u n t i l death or r e t i r e m e n t . The l a s t one went i n 1826, so t h a t wooden t a l l i e s were b e i n g c u t u n t i l t h a t date. But m e d i e v a l p r a c t i c e was n o t t o l e a v e the scene o f E n g l i s h Government F i n a n c e w i t h a mere whimper. The o l d t a l l i e s remained s t o r e d i n odd c r a n n i e s of t h e Exchequer O f f i c e u n t i l 1834, when the changes of. t h a t y e a r r e q u i r e d t h e i r r e m o v a l f o r r e a s o n s of s p a c e . A c c o r d i n g l y they were ordered t o be burned i n a f u r n a c e under the P a l a c e of Westminster. A z e a l o u s employee f e d i n t o o many a t one t i m e , t h e f l u e o v e r h e a t e d , and the Houses of Commons and L o r d s were r a z e d to the g r o u n d . 30.  T r e v e l y a n t o Gladstone 9 t h F e b r u a r y , 1854B . M . A d d . MSS. 44333 f 158, c i t e d i n E . Hughes.,. " S i r C h a r l e s .Trevelyan and C i v i l S e r v i c e R e f o r m , " E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1949, LXIV.  31•  The i s s u i n g of money from the Exchequer was one of the d u t i e s t h e T r e a s u r y i n h e r i t e d d i r e c t f r o m the days o f royal administration. I t r e p r e s e n t e d , i n commission, the p r e r o g a t i v e o f the Crown, and t h e r e f o r e drew up the w a r r a n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r the i s s u e of t h e money w h i c h belonged t o the Crown. An i s s u e of money f r o m the Exchequer c o u l d o n l y be made by an i n s t r u m e n t under the Great o r P r i v y S e a l . The procedure f o r payment was as f o l l o w s : G e n e r a l L e t t e r s of the P r i v y S e a l gave the T r e a s u r y Commissioners, the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, and the Under T r e a s u r e r of the Exchequer f o r the time b e i n g the r i g h t t o i s s u e money from the Exchequer on s i g n manual w a r r a n t s . One of these s i g n manual w a r r a n t s would be used t o p r o v i d e f u n d s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , and would be s i g n e d by the Crown and the L o r d s Commissioners of the T r e a s u r y . A T r e a s u r y warr a n t would then be i s s u e d t o the A u d i t o r of R e c e i p t a t the  105 Exchequer, r e q u i r i n g him t o draw an order t o pay the sum mentioned. The warrant and the order were then countersigned by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. But s i n c e t h e Treasury had the d i s c r e t i o n over t h e balances kept i n the Exchequer, a c t u a l payment was only made when a l e t t e r o f a u t h o r i z a t i o n was sent from t h e S e c r e t a r y o f the Treasury to the Exchequer. The procedure was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r payments from the C i v i l L i s t , which were done under General L e t t e r s Patent Dormant, and s a l a r i e s , done by L e t t e r s Patent under t h e Great S e a l . J.E.D. Binney, op_. c i t . , pp. 172-4. 32.  2 & 3 W i l l i a m IV, c. 4 0 .  33«  C.S. Parker, L i f e _ a n d L e t t e r s of--Sir James Graham 17921861, London, 1907, v o l . I , p. 165-  34«  G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1862, XI, p. 277.  35*  Army A p p r o p r i a t i o n s Accounts A c t , 9 & 10 V i c t o r i a , c . 92. Woods and Works A p p r o p r i a t i o n s Accounts A c t , 14 & 15 V i c t o r i a , c 24.  36.  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys: Evidence a l Papers, Commons, 1856, XV, pp. 1-449*  i n G.B. Session-  The f i r s t two r e p o r t s are merely formal, and c o n t a i n no i n formation. 3 r d Report i n G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1857, S e s s i o n I I , IX, pp. 495-50937-  Spectator,  September 1 2 t h , 1857, p. 959-  38.  L e t t e r from S i r W i l l i a m Dunbar t o the Treasury, 14 D e c , 1866. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1867, XXXIX, p. 177*  39.  Minutes o f evidence t o the S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l Expenditure, 1902. Evidence of Lord Welby 4 t h December, 1902, p. 175-  40.  Lord Welby's Memorandum, op_. c i t . , p. 230.  41.  24 & 25 V i c t o r i a , c 93, i n t r o d u c e d A p p r o p r i a t i o n Accounts f o r the Revenue Departments i n 1861. The Exchequer and Audit A c t d i d so f o r the r e s t o f the C i v i l Departments.  106 42.  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys, op_. c i t . , p. 150.  43•  Loc. c i t .  44.  0p_. c i t . , p. 233-  45.  0p_. c i t . , p. 150.  46.  Loc cit.  47.  Op_. c i t . , p. 151-  48.  Second Report of the P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1862. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1862, XI, pp. 205-10.  49«  Treasury Minute, January 1863G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1863, XXIX, p. 173-  50.  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys, op_. c i t . , p. 411*  51.  P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1862, op_. c i t . , p. 334-  52.  I b i d . , p. 302.  53*  House o f Commons J o u r n a l , v o l . 116, p. 130, 8 t h A p r i l , 1861. I b i d . , v o l . 117, p. 126, 31st March, 1862.  54*  K.C. Wheare, Government by Committee, Oxford, 1955, p. 232. In 1872 there was a debate On the Post O f f i c e Telegraphs, which f o l l o w e d a r e p o r t of the P u b l i c Accounts Committee. To the date of Wheare's book the other debates were i n 1905, 1907, 1908, 1910, 1916 and 1942.  55.  Times,  56.  F.W. H i r s t , Gladstone F i n a n c i e r and Economist, London, 1931, p. 245-  57.  Evidence of S i r W i l l i a m Dunbar t o the Second Report of the P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1 8 7 0 . G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1 8 7 0 , X, p. 159*  2nd March, 1866, p. 6b.  107 58.  29 & 30 V i c t o r i a , c. 3 9 , s . 2 7 -  59'  P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1 8 7 0 , OJD. c i t . ,  60.  S p e c i a l Report o f the P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1866. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1866, V I I , pp. 540-44*  61.  29 & 30 V i c t o r i a , c. 3 9 , s. 8 .  62.  I b i d . , s. 10.  63.  I b i d . , s. 13-  64«  I b i d . , s. 22. The Treasury appointed the heads of the Departments a s the r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c e r s by a Minute o f August 14th, 1872, but l a t e r had to modify the arrangement f o r some of the Departments.  65.  Memorandum prepared by the C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n of the P u b l i c Accounts Committee, 1916. " F i f t y Years o f t h e Exchequer and A u d i t Departments A c t , " Command 8 3 3 7 , 1916, p. 10.  66.  S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Moneys, op_. c i t . , p. 411.  67«  Loc cit.  68.  S e l e c t Committee on N a t i o n a l Expenditure, 1902, op_. c i t . , p. 177.  69.  Loc. c i t .  70.  Treasury Minute, 1 4 t h August, 1 8 7 2 . G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1 8 7 3 , V I I , p. 9 5 -  71.  Memorandum by t h e C o m p t r o l l e r and A u d i t o r - G e n e r a l , 1 9 1 6 , op. c i t . , p. 3«  p. 1 5 9 .  108  CHAPTER  The  The  task  Treasury  nineteenth  century  s e r v i c e no l o n g e r and  than  the basis  a  Instead  definite function  eventually a man  structure  than  slowly  inefficiences  impossible  to the tasks  reformed  which had never  became o f c e n t r a l  concern.  in  century  entry  came  alone  qualified  had been  disorganized,  i t had t o perform.  e s t a b l i s h i n g a degree before,  so  to a quite  unprecedented  the  question  as i t could  of  supervision  u n d e r t o o k wider, more p o s i t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arose  But as  t o remove  Moreover, as government  of co-ordination  t o have  i n t h e days when t h e  and  before.  came  and c e n t r a l  the administration  existed  Service  gradually  and e d u c a t i o n  Co-ordination  and abuses, thus  the nineteenth  into the C i v i l  ability,  of the administrative'machine  governments  criterion.  and examination  ability  service.  i n the  public  each p o s i t i o n i n government  was v i r t u a l l y  largely unrelated  uniformity  i t s main  and e n t r y  to perform,  f o r the public  The  govern-  patronage f o r t h e government,  become  rather  t o ensure that  supervision  and  offices,  o f contact  disappeared.  slowly  central  a n d more c r u c i a l  i t had been before.  had to provide  so e f f i c i e n c y c o u l d  Service  and c o - o r d i n a t i n g  was f a r l a r g e r  Superfluous medieval on  and t h e C i v i l  of supervising  ment a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  IV  expanded  extent,  duties, not have  so done  109 The  job  of  supervision  Treasury.  I t was  and  concerned w i t h  so was  public the to  the  s e r v i c e , who  Department see  that  of  the  cost  of  the  of  House  of  Service legal  the  proposals  Commons S e l e c t  authority  over  legal authority  was  not  to  adapt  that the  itself  i n the  the  The to  the  search  tration,  and  derived  trenchment.  a  at  required from  Public  deep grasp  an  kept  of  as  Civil  and  in later  the As  low  as  Service  in  years i t  Royal Commissions  matters.  even the  to  an  at  f o r the  Treasury, on  the  T r e a s u r y was  Service  principal  the  affairs,  extent  was  given  The  this  and  changing i n the  new  changes were,  never  tasks  adminis-  expanding  a concern f o r  i t had  within  multigarious  a p p r o a c h w h i c h was  that  able  driving force  w o r k o f new  imaginative  did  issue  c e n t r a l i z i n g a newly reformed  organize  these  What was  need  f o r economy.  Civil  more t h a n t h e y  f a r the  Civil  and  Treasury's  closely expenditure  i s how  the  the  any  l e g a l a u t h o r i t y and  c o n t r o l and o f what  Minister,  concerned  the  Service,  administration  a p a c e and To  and  in co-ordinating  merely  i t was  was  various  supervize  century  in supervising  before.  Civil  dealing with  D e p a r t m e n t was  century  of the  question  involved  be  of  century,  in financial  nineteenth  ment a g e n c i e s ,  Finance  reform  o v e r a l l a u t h o r i t y , nor  service.  officers  the  Committees which examined general  Finance M i n i s t r y , to  public  upon  Crown's F i r s t  Nobody s e r i o u s l y d i s p u t e d  its  as  the  fell  s p e a k i n g Crown s e r v a n t s .  administration  nineteenth  problems.  the  c o n t r o l l i n g the  M i n i s t e r of  I t pioneered  implemented  of  were l e g a l l y the  the  co-ordination  Department  possible. middle  and  not  governto  renineteenth  changed  machine  required  as w e l l  as  110 a w i l l i n g n e s s t o adapt t o new s i t u a t i o n s . The i d e a o f a s i n g l e C i v i l S e r v i c e i s an i n v e n t i o n o f the nineteenth first  century.  The terra 1  ' C i v i l S e r v i c e ' appears t o have  come i n t o use i n the 1780's t o d i s t i n g u i s h the c i v i l  from the m i l i t a r y s i d e s o f the East I n d i a Company. of the term ' C i v i l S e r v i c e ' i n c o n n e c t i o n  1  The use  w i t h the home admini-  s t r a t i o n d i d not r e q u i r e that there should he a f u l l y c e n t r a l i z e d body o f departments, hut that the p o l i t i c a l m i n i s t r a t i v e servants each o t h e r .  and the ad-  o f the Crown should he d i s t i n c t  from  T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n people's 2  minds a t l e a s t by the 1830's,  although ' C i v i l Servant', r e -  f e r r i n g t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , was i n use by the e a r l y p a r t o f the century.^  However the term ' C i v i l S e r v i c e ' d i d not come i n t o  common use u n t i l the p e r i o d of reform  i n the 1850's, when the  Report drawn up by S i r S t a f f o r d Northcote and S i r C h a r l e s Trevelyan granted sphere.  d i d much t o p o p u l a r i z e i t . ^ "  T h i s Report took f o r  the s e p a r a t i o n o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e from t h e p o l i t i c a l I n t h e opening passages o f t h e i r Report Northcote  and T r e v e l y a n s a i d t h a t , I t may be s a f e l y a s s e r t e d t h a t , as m a t t e r s now stand, the Government o f the country c o u l d not be c a r r i e d on without the a i d of an e f f i c i e n t body o f permanent o f f i c e r s , occupying a p o s i t i o n d u l y subordinate t o t h a t o f the M i n i s t e r s who are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Crown and t o Parliament, y e t p o s s e s s i n g s u f f i c i e n t independence, c h a r a c t e r , a b i l i t y , and experience t o be a b l e t o a d v i s e , a s s i s t , and t o some extent, i n f l u e n c e , those who are from time t o time s e t over them. 5 Although Northcote and T r e v e l y a n c o u l d r e f e r t o the C i v i l S e r v i c e as an independent and permanent body o f o f f i c i a l s , i t  111 does not mean t h a t i t was a u n i t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . a f t e r they produced  Indeed l o n g  t h e Report people were s t i l l t a l k i n g of the  C i v i l S e r v i c e s of t h e Crown, i n t h e p l u r a l , o r r e f e r r i n g t o i t from the f u n c t i o n a l viewpoint by u s i n g the term vice-'  6  Northcote and T r e v e l y a n complained  'Public Ser-  of the "fragment-  7  ary  c h a r a c t e r " o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e ,  between departments  c i t i n g the v a r i a t i o n s  i n such matters as g r a d i n g and pay.  marked departmentalism was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the C i v i l  A Ser-  v i c e which continued l o n g a f t e r i t had l o s t i t s p o l i t i c a l  affi-  l i a t i o n s , and indeed l o n g a f t e r t h e reforms of the years 1855 to  1870.  Two a r t i c l e s i n Macmillan's Magazine i n the e a r l y  1870's make t h i s q u i t e c l e a r .  One s a i d that, "At present t h e  C i v i l S e r v i c e i s , so f a r as the p u b l i c requirements a r e concerned, a d i s u n i t e d body w i t h v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and w i t h v e r y s l i g h t bonds of union."  Q  The other maintained  that  the " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d e f e c t of the C i v i l S e r v i c e i s the absence q of a n y t h i n g l i k e c o h e s i o n . " Evidence b e f o r e House of Commons Committees and Royal Commissions f u r t h e r emphasizes the strong sense o f departmental independence  through the n i n e t e e n t h century.  But i t was a  sense which r e f l e c t e d not merely a l a u d a b l e d e s i r e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f government to s u i t v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s . I t r e f l e c t e d a l s o an i n h e r e n t o p p o s i t i o n to that  standardization  which was bound to come i f t h e r e was t o be the o v e r a l l establishment of h i g h standards o f m o r a l i t y and a b i l i t y .  The slow  disappearance o f patronage had s e t up a n o n - p o l i t i c a l and t h e r e f o r e independent C i v i l S e r v i c e , but i t a l s o ended the need f o r m i n i s t e r s o f the Crown to be i n t i m a t e l y concerned w i t h t h e  112 10  personnel of t h e i r o f f i c e s . c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , which was  I t thus posed the problem of  to be r a i s e d more a c u t e l y by the a t -  tempts a f t e r the mid n i n e t e e n t h century to e s t a b l i s h throughout  the p u b l i c  service-  In the 1780's the p u b l i c s e r v i c e was e n t l y t h a t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was s e r v i c e s performed, widespread  efficiency  impossible.  organized so  ineffici-  Payment by f e e s f o r  r a t h e r than by s a l a r y , together w i t h the  use of patronage  f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes,  l e d to a  h i g h l y i n e f f i c i e n t use of manpower, and gave ample scope to those who  f e l t the power of the Crown ought to be reduced.  c a l l f o r the reform of the p u b l i c o f f i c e s which was  The  widely i n  evidence from the e a r l y 1780's onwards, thus centered around the d e s i r e f o r economy and around p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e .  Al-  though i t v a r i e d from case t o case as to whether c e r t a i n posts 11 were g e n u i n e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , or merely p o l i t i c a l ,  the r e -  forms were u l t i m a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a b o l i s h i n g the Crown's 12 power t o i n f l u e n c e e l e c t i o n s ,  and  should t h e r e f o r e be  seen  as p a r t of the same movement which l e d to Crewe's Act, Dunning s 1  Motion,  or the reform of the C i v i l L i s t . ^ 1  Retrenchment how-  ever a l s o l e d to measures to reduce the number of s i n e c u r e s , and a body of Commissioners i n 1782 which they f e l t  l a i d down f o u r p r i n c i p l e s  should guide a l l p u b l i c appointments.  Office  h o l d e r s were no l o n g e r to have t h e i r posts by l e g a l tenure, a l l o f f i c e r s were to have s p e c i f i c d u t i e s t o perform, f i c e s were to be c o n s o l i d a t e d , and  s i m i l a r of-  every o f f i c e r was  work h i m s e l f , thus p r e v e n t i n g some men  t o do the  t a k i n g on many posts and  p a y i n g others t o do the work at a f r a c t i o n of the income they themselves  were r e c e i v i n g . ^ 1  113 The d r i v e t o reform the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of government a t the  end of the e i g h t e e n t h century was  to a l a r g e extent con-  nected w i t h p o l i t i c a l reform, hut from the s t a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h century p u b l i c economy i n c r e a s i n g l y became the c h i e f motive-  C e r t a i n l y i t cannot be s a i d that there was any con-  s i s t e n t p o l i c y towards the C i v i l S e r v i c e as such which l a y behind the changeover from f e e s to s a l a r i e s , and the g r a d u a l a b o l i t i o n of sinecures.  As the i n c e n t i v e f o r reform switched  15 to retrenchment, ' so the T r e a s u r y became i n c r e a s i n g l y and i t was much i n t e r e s t e d i n the moves a f t e r 1828  involved,  t o reduce the  E s t a b l i s h m e n t s to t h e i r 1797 l e v e l - moves which l e d to the 16 saving of n e a r l y £1 m i l l i o n .  By the 1830's the f o u r p r i n -  c i p l e s l a i d down i n the r e p o r t of the Commissioners y e a r s b e f o r e had been f u l l y implemented,  of f i f t y  and i t was accepted  t h a t the e f f i c i e n c y of the p u b l i c s e r v i c e should not be hampered by p o l i t i c a l patronage. separated p o l i t i c s  The p e r i o d of reform e f f e c t i v e l y 17  from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  a change which was  course strengthened by the 1832 Reform A c t . P e e l , who  was  I n 1841  S i r Robert  then Prime M i n i s t e r , noted that there was  l y any p o l i t i c a l patronage l e f t ;  of  scarce-  the odd p o s t s t h a t could be  used f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes were c o n f i n e d t o the Revenue Board, the  Household,  or the s t a f f of the House of Commons, which d i d  not  m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  appears patronage as a whole was  Indeed i t  coming t o be seen as a n u i -  sance, and even as r a t h e r degrading, by m i n i s t e r s , 1 fi  departmental  heads, and M.P.'s. There i s a c l e a r s h i f t  i n t h i n k i n g about C i v i l S e r v i c e r e -  form by the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h century, a s h i f t  which  r e f l e c t s the success  of the o r i g i n a l reforms.  In the 1780's  the prime motive behind reform had been to some extent  extern-  a l to the C i v i l S e r v i c e .  The  ending of p o l i t i c a l abuses and  the c u t t i n g of expenditure  had  f e a t u r e d f a r more prominently  than the a c t u a l e f f i c i e n c y of the S e r v i c e i t s e l f .  T h i s con-  t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the i n t e r e s t i n C i v i l S e r v i c e reform the l a t e 184-0's onwards, where the prime motive was the c a l i b r e of C i v i l Servants. Northcote and  Trevelyan  i n s t r u c t i o n s , they had q u i r e d of new  raising  At the s t a r t of t h e i r Report  s a i d t h a t , i n compliance w i t h  their  looked a t what c o n d i t i o n s would be r e -  candidates  "to o b t a i n f u l l s e c u r i t y f o r the  p u b l i c t h a t none but the best q u a l i f i e d persons w i l l be p o i n t e d , and  from  t h a t they w i l l afterwards  ap-  have every p r a c t i c a b l e 1°/  inducement to the a c t i v e discharge  of t h e i r d u t i e s . "  s h i f t i n emphasis u n d e r l i n e s the f a c t t h a t the C i v i l was  now  seen as a separate  But  Service  e n t i t y , and r e q u i r e d a s h i f t i n  p h a s i s on the p a r t of those who change.  This  J  em-  were to be the main agents of  s t i l l t h i n k i n g about the C i v i l S e r v i c e f a i l e d  i n c o r p o r a t e any  to  s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r 6 l e t h a t admini-  s t r a t i o n should p l a y , or to show any a p p r e c i a t i o n of the consequences of government expansion. The p a s s i n g  of the days when each Department was  g i f t of i t s p o l i t i c a l head r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n the C i v i l S e r v i c e , and the o f f i c e s . destroyed  The  of c r e a t i n g uniform  of c e n t r a l i z i n g  standards f o r a l l  s e p a r a t i o n of p o l i t i c s from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  much of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the r i g i d  a l i s m which t i l l  i n the  then had  department-  e x i s t e d , s i n c e the p o l i t i c a l  no l o n g e r r e l i e d on patronage f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e  system  operation.  115  The  eventual  abolition  of patronage  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of competitive examinations  undermined whatever  justification  the  still  departments had  permanent  requirements  whole i s s u e of C i v i l the  growth  of  ministers,  but  stimulating active  ideas  position.  encouragement  the  contained  the  same t i m e  w h i c h was The  be  able  to  b a s i s of  up  and  the  Treasury  Robert  interest  the  i n these from  full  the The  in a  and  reform i s how  the  very  with  the  Treasury  of  the  far  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s about To  do  this  purely financial,  cope w i t h  by  of  Lowe, t h e  reforms.  the  the Treasury's  i n the  the  days o f p o l i t i c a l  Treasury,  dual headship  as  the  first  of the  growth of  i t would  and  at  government  the  Treasury's  power o v e r  the  Civil  Service  department,  and  dates  back  patronage.  The  m i n i s t e r of  d i s p o s a l of patronage  indeed  from  simultaneously taking place.  lay  the  take  i t s concern  between  i s complicated  under T r e v e l y a n ,  issue of real to  course  responsibility  prime mover f o r t h e  centralization shift  i t placed  of Gladstone  able  have to  individual  Although  d e p a r t m e n t was  admission,  separation  of  Service centralization on  with  administrative flexibility.  nevertheless  S e r v i c e , the  for  for strict  survived, apart  of  became f o r a w h i l e t h e Civil  a l t o g e t h e r , combined  own  i n the  the  First  of  C r o w n , was  interests  patronage  Lord  of  the  to  the  concerned  with  government;  increased considerably  in  20 the  late  eighteenth  State held do,  their  century.  posts  " a t p l e a s u r e , " so  Moreover  i n the  eighteenth  they were  of the  Q r o w n i n whom i t w a s  should  take  i n the  employees of century,  fullest  n a t u r a l that the  a leading interest.  This  as  the they  sense  first  s t i l l  servants  minister  i s even more t h e  case  116 if  t h e terra  to  a l l t h o s e who  central  'civil  servant'  i s taken, as i t i s here,  s e r v e i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  to refer  capacity i n the  g o v e r n m e n t , a n d who w e r e t h e r e f o r e i n f a i r l y  close  21 contact with The  the Treasury.  C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e Exchequer,  Treasury  and i t s e f f e c t i v e  the C i v i l  S e r v i c e through  the v a r i o u s government administration, constituted has  h i s concern  i n t h e form  the Treasury's  the Department's  The a c t u a l  of salaries  leadership, forming  the Treasury's  authority  at  the Treasury's  role,  affairs.  concerns  t i m e when  was e r e c t e d i n t o  ment, was t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e Yet  the side  Service  of the Treasury's  o r g a n i z a t i o n which  imagination would diction  approach  Lord,  having  looked  arrangement to Civil  Service, at t h i s  a philosophy of  be l i m i t e d  as f a ras  r61e i n connection with  r e q u i r e d t h e g r e a t e s t energy  a p p e a r t o be t h a t w h i c h  of the First  i ti s essential  t o be s e e n ,  f o r the C i v i l  should  aspect  on t h e s u r f a c e t h a t t h e f o r e -  most o f t h e T r e a s u r y ' s retrenchment  r a t h e r than  governpossible. Civil and  came u n d e r t h e j u r i s -  the Chancellor o f the  Exchequer. Although  a  S e r v i c e , was o f c o n c e r n  or not the dual  I t would appear  t o provide  This dual  But though  h a m p e r e d an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e T r e a s u r y ' s Service  than  as i t d i d t h e b a s i s o f  i t remains  whether  of course  expenditure  undertook  i n the C i v i l  to  cost of the  and p e n s i o n s ,  f o r t h e community.  the nineteenth century.  of the  f o r the expenditure of  s i n c e t h e Government  interest  head  had an i n t e r e s t i n  a higher proportion of the c i v i l  been t h e case  throughout  executive chief,  departments.  l a r g e number o f s e r v i c e s of  as second  the Treasury had o c c a s i o n a l l y  concerned  itself  117 w i t h matters  of e f f i c i e n c y s i n c e the e a r l y p a r t of the n i n e 22  t e e n t h century,  i t i s c l e a r that i t s main concern a t t h a t  time, as throughout  the century as a whole, was  financial.  In  the economy d r i v e a f t e r the Napoleonic Wars the Treasury a t tempted to prevent r i s i n g c o s t s , and i n 1817  and 1821  forbade  s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s a t the same time as t r y i n g t o a d j u s t them t o some common standard.  As o f f i c e s were reformed  J  from the l a t e  e i g h t e e n t h century onwards so the Treasury strengthened i t s c o n t r o l over s a l a r i e s and E s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  In the C o l o n i a l  O f f i c e , f o r example, though i t s c o n t r o l was  nominal  i t was  complete by 1830. * 2  n e c e s s i t y was  in  1795,  Once the argument of p o l i t i c a l  no l o n g e r v a l i d as f a r as appointments were con-  cerned, i t became e s s e n t i a l t h a t the Treasury was  able to  j u s t i f y i t s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the Establishment a f f a i r s of other Departments.  7/itnesses to the S e l e c t Committees and  Commissions, even i n the 1870's and of reform,  Royal  1880's, a f t e r the p e r i o d  show t h a t the a u t h o r i t y of the Crown's f i r s t m i n i -  s t e r over Crown s e r v a n t s was not an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the Treasury's r o u t i n e e x e r c i s e of a u t h o r i t y over other ments.  Depart-  I n other words, even when the i s s u e of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  had been r a i s e d both by the reforms of the middle of the cent u r y and by the steady growth of government agencies, Treasury c l e a r l y saw  i t s concern f o r the C i v i l S e r v i c e as y e t  another element i n i t s g e n e r a l superintendence finance.  the  of government  T h i s would tend t o imply t h a t there was,  a t the v e r y  l e a s t , a l i m i t e d amount of independent  t h i n k i n g about the C i v i l  S e r v i c e on the p a r t of the Treasury.  T r e v e l y a n s a i d of the  Treasury's s u p e r v i s i o n of s a l a r i e s t h a t , " I t i s a b s o l u t e l y  118 essential  and n e c e s s a r y t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e F i n a n c i a l Depart-  25 ment; In  there  evidence  1875,  would he no proper f i n a n c i a l to the Playfair  Charles  Service  Trevelyan  affairs  control without  Commission on t h e C i v i l  i t . "  J  Service i n  saw t h e T r e a s u r y ' s f u n c t i o n i n C i v i l  as being  directly  dependent  on i t s f i n a n c i a l  powers. No d o u b t t h e T r e a s u r y a r e t h e p r o p e r s u p e r v i z i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g body i n a l l m a t t e r s w h i c h r e l a t e to the public establishments. They have t h e power o f t h e p u r s e , o r r a t h e r , i n t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f u n c t i o n , t h e y have t h e power of c o n t r o l l i n g the public expenditure. 26 He w e n t on t o s a y t h a t  this  the  Service  backing  Act,  of a Civil  w h i c h was n e v e r  strengthened  f u n c t i o n needed  Act of Parliament.  introduced,  existing  would  powers, r a t h e r  Welby, b o t h as head  strengthening  only  by  B u t such an  have recognized  than have c r e a t e d  and  new  ones.  o f t h e T r e a s u r y F i n a n c i a l D i v i s i o n and  then a s Permanent S e c r e t a r y ,  most  s u c c i n c t l y summarized t h e  Treasury's a t t i t u d e towards t h e C i v i l  Service  i n h i s appearances  27 before  the various  many o t h e r stonian that  witnesses  aspect  the Treasury  belief  that  h i m shows t h a t  The f a c t t h a t t h i s most He  emphasizes  f o rt h e department's  number o f s t a t u t e s w h i c h r e q u i r e  to a l t e r a t i o n s of establishments,  custom, d a t i n g  service i n i t s present  i srather  so  Glad-  o f t h e T r e a s u r y ' s w o r k , a s i n s o many  the control of the Treasury  administrative public  agree w i t h  was n o c l e a r s t a t u t o r y b a s i s  "There a r e a great of  of the period.  o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was n o t e x c e p t i o n a l .  i n this  there  inquiries  others,  power.  the assent  b u t i t i s my a matter of  from the establishment  of the  form,  i n any d i s -  than t o be found  28 tinet  w r i t t e n document."  H e made t h i s  r e m a r k i n 1873,  when  119 he a l s o h e l d o p i n i o n s t h a t he was t o repeat b e f o r e the Royal Commission on C i v i l Establishments under the chairmanship o f Lord R i d l e y i n 1888: the c o n t r o l or check e n t r u s t e d t o the Treasury i s t h a t i t i s a p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l check, i n s t i t u t e d f o r p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l purposes.... I t appears t o me t h a t the c o n t r o l of the Treasury i s r e a l l y the c o n t r o l of the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer, and t h a t i t i s g i v e n t o the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer because i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the p u b l i c and P a r l i a ment should be s a t i s f i e d t h a t somewhere or other i n the Government t h e r e i s a guarantee f o r what I c a l l f i n a n c i a l order. 29 Since the Treasury had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r " f i n a n c i a l order throughout  the s e r v i c e , " ^  0  the department had the o b l i g a t i o n to  s c r u t i n i z e every request f o r an i n c r e a s e i n expenditure, i n the form of an i n c r e a s e i n s a l a r i e s , or an i n c r e a s e i n the number of  employees i n any of the government o f f i c e s .  T h i s merely  meant t h a t the.Estimates f o r personnel were t r e a t e d i n the same way as the Estimates f o r other c l a s s e s of expenditure. It  i s c l e a r t h a t Welby, and the others who gave evidence  b e f o r e the e n q u i r i e s , looked a t the C i v i l S e r v i c e from the p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l view-point, but they were aware o f inadequacies i n what the Treasury was a b l e to do i n even t h i s , i t s p r i n c i p a l role.  No a l t e r a t i o n s i n the Establishment of a department  could take p l a c e without the s a n c t i o n of the Treasury, but t h i s did  not mean t h a t the Treasury was i n a p o s i t i o n to e x e r c i s e  an e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n of the E s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  I t d i d not  possess the machinery f o r a d e t a i l e d annual examination departmental  Establishments.  of the  Welby p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s d i d  not r e f l e c t a l a c k of power, but merely a l a c k of personnel t o undertake  the e x t e n s i v e l a b o u r s t h a t such an examination would  120 require.  He  should  say  the  sarily  speaking  for  was  aware t h a t t h i s  defect of the  it  examined  at  a l l other aspects  ment. in  f o r an  look at the  But  then  i t did not  the  Treasury  clearly  and  requests f o r extra  c a s e s ; B e  p a r t i c u l a r branch a request  the  "believed  have the  d i d concern staff,  of the  look  govern-  f o r more i n s p e c t o r s  Treasury  arrangements f o r s i m i l a r  Ireland.  neces-  increase i n expenditure, to  of t h i s  i n England,  i s that  s h o u l d be  able  chance t o  itself  do  this.  with personnel  o f t e n t o the annoyance  details  of  the  complaint  Welby f e l t  Treasury's  p o w e r t o be  the of  field any  of finance, but  lack  the f i e l d  that  the Treasury  other f i e l d s ,  of f i n a n c i a l  mentioned  was  but  constituted Robert  an  integral  Lowe, t h e  have a r e a l department's the  cise  control  as  did not the  in  complain  This reflects powerful i n  part of the Treasury's  outnot  these  h i s colleagues did not  to the  i s that  Treasury  feel  activities.  C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer i n S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on  1873, Civil  t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n weaknesses i n Service.  I t d i d of  i n that i t could prevent  Establishment.  e x p e n d i t u r e on  an u n i n v i t e d  c o n t r o l by  as w e l l  of the C i v i l  control  He  supervision.  active  i n h i s testimony  Treasury's  elsewhere.  t h a t Welby and  Services Expenditure  in  not  of power o r e f f e c t i v e  side  they  of the  But  any  i t could not  which  was  not  the  course  increase i n a  force a reduction  p e r s o n n e l , s i n c e t h i s w o u l d be  scrutiny,  and  While  about t h i s  inadequacies  to  inspectors i n Scotland  D e p a r t m e n t s , ^ what i s i n t e r e s t i n g the  "I  s h o u l d h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y , when  i n s t a n c e i f t h e r e was  some f i e l d  a weakness.  control  i n isolated  Treasury  a request  For  Treasury  i t i s applied  instance that the  constituted  within  the  to  exer-  Treasury's  121 rights.^  In this  Lowe was  control  of the C i v i l  pressed  about  If  the  Service the  E s t a b l i s h m e n t was  the Treasury f e l t too b i g , then  " i t i s moral  that  request  of the Treasury's then the matter  remonstrance is  not  department  t h a t we  i t . " - ^  Should  the Cabinet  to the  the Treasury directs  qua  the Treasury, but  cases  that  i t i s p e d a n t i c t o make t h i s  of  i t s chief,  the thing  action  t o be  because they are  and  e x p e n d i t u r e on  ally to  settled  Cabinet.  he  the T r e a s u r y ' s power o u t s i d e i t s normal the an  increase of expenditure increase.  sury's daily  He  the p o l i t i c a l  involvement  in Civil  extension of i t s ordinary exercise liam Baxter, then F i n a n c i a l such  t h e man  Estimates, Lowe h a d  who  undertook  expressed  ad-  influence  dependent.  the r e d u c t i o n automatichas  to  the l i m i t a t i o n s  on  f i e l d , of control  the normal  aspect  or  go  over  disapprove  of the  S e r v i c e a f f a i r s was of f i n a n c i a l  in  argued  between the  t h e power t o approve  i s saying that  that  I t c a n be  obviously mutually  i s underlining  Trea-  merely  control.  detailed  examination  the o p i n i o n before the  rather underestimated  of  an  Wil-  S e c r e t a r y t o t h e T r e a s u r y , and the  the  Lowe, t h e n " i t  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine, but  In this  to  original  the Cabinet  that  to  this  taken  Treasury's  existing Establishments i s not  within  power  i n with  c o u l d be  distinction  Y e t what i s i m p o r t a n t i s Lowe's s t a t e m e n t of  ex-  department's  have any  fall  done."^  of a department,  had  exert pres-  i n question, said  such  ministrative  did not  support the  department  another  i t c o u l d t r y and  enforce  Cabinet.  Treasury's  of expenditure i n g e n e r a l .  suasion, i t i s not  I f the  the  same o p i n i o n t h a t h e  Treasury's control  f o r some r e a s o n  sure,  e x p r e s s i n g about  as  the  same C o m m i t t e e  the power of the T r e a s u r y  to  that per-  122 suade departments t o reduce t h e i r E s t a b l i s h m e n t s .  37  But n e i t h e r  he, nor any of the other witnesses, on t h i s or on other occasions, c h a l l e n g e d the i m p l i c a t i o n s which l a y behind the remarks of Lowe and Welby. The Treasury's c o n t r o l over expenditure l a y behind i t s l o n g - s t a n d i n g involvement  in Civil  S e r v i c e superannuation.  The  paying of pensions to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e employees i n the Customs dates back to the l a t e seventeenth century, but d i d not become u n i v e r s a l u n t i l 1810.  As such superannuation was  the  arrangement to be made common to the whole of the p u b l i c and the f i r s t  to be r e g u l a t e d by s t a t u t e .  first service,  Before t h i s  time  the Treasury had e x e r c i s e d the r i g h t to c o n t r o l the g r a n t i n g of pensions, but the Act n e c e s s a r i l y took away some of i t s d i s c r e tion. 1834  4 0  The Treasury fought a g a i n s t t h i s t e n d e n c y ,  41  and i n  a f u r t h e r Act mentioned t h a t the Treasury "should c o n s i d e r  the H e a l t h , Age meritous Conduct and other Circumstances P a r t y a p p l y i n g f o r a Superannuation  Allowance,  of each  i n order t o exer-  c i s e t h e i r D i s c r e t i o n i n f i x i n g the Amount of such  Allowances, A O  s u b j e c t always t o the L i m i t a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by t h i s A c t . " The Act of 1859,  which e s t a b l i s h e d the modern system of super-  annuation, maintained t h i s d i s c r e t i o n f o r the T r e a s u r y . ^ 4  But  s i g n i f i c a n t l y the Treasury c l u n g to i t s c o n t r o l over the granting  of pensions even when i t seemed threatened by the  bility for of  inflexi-  of s t a t u t e , not because i t c o n s t i t u t e d a common system  the whole s e r v i c e , but because superannuation was  an item  expenditure which could e a s i l y get out of hand. I f the r e a l b a s i s of the Treasury's concern f o r C i v i l  v i c e a f f a i r s was  Ser-  f i n a n c i a l , then i t remains to be asked why i t  123 was  t h a t the Treasury  took a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the reform  C i v i l S e r v i c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the p e r i o d 1848  of the  to 1 8 7 0 .  These  years s t r e t c h from the s t a r t of the i n q u i r i e s i n t o the workings of the departments, which were i n s t i t u t e d by Trevelyan, t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of competitive  examination entry by Robert Lowe.  The f a c t t h a t the Treasury was  so i n v o l v e d does not mean i t had  l o s t i t s b a s i c concern f o r f i n a n c e , as the evidence others i n the 1 8 7 0 ' s and  1880's c l e a r l y shows.  case of the g r a d u a l acceptance by informed to  Rather i t i s a  o p i n i o n of the need  i n t r o d u c e some measures of reform to improve the  of the p u b l i c o f f i c e s .  of Welby and  efficiency  The C i v i l S e r v i c e had been the  of r i d i c u l e at the hands of Dickens,  subject  though the i n t e n s i v e p u b l i c  i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t d i d not come u n t i l a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Northcote-Trevelyan to be i n the years 1 8 5 5 - 8 . the Crimean War  Report. 4 4  The  The b i g g e s t d i s c u s s i o n  was  subject became more urgent  brought to l i g h t great incompetence i n  s t r a t i o n , though t h i s incompetence was  as  admini-  not the main r a i s o n d'etre 4.5  of the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reform A s s o c i a t i o n . o r i g i n s of the reform back i n 1 8 4 8 ,  T r e v e l y a n saw  though he took f o r granted  the precedent t h a t the reform of the I n d i a n C i v i l S e r v i c e set. to  4 6  "The  r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d of 1 8 4 8 , " he  the P l a y f a i r Commission i n 1 8 7 5 ,  said, i n  had evidence  "gave us a shake, and  a d i s p o s i t i o n to put our house i n order, and quences was  the  one  created  of the conse-  a remarkable s e r i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o p u b l i c  o f f i c e s , which l a s t e d f o r f i v e years, c u l m i n a t i n g i n the  Organi-  z a t i o n Report. The  i n i t i a l s t a r t t o reform was  the work of a few men,  or at  l e a s t of a r e s t r i c t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n , j u s t as i t s  124 final  effective  commitment  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was  t o men  as  to improve  same t i m e  as 1  in different  Others  hoped  Jowett,  the c h i e f  exponent  of the  incentive  to improve  able  none of t h e s e towards  i t would then  but It  idea that  different  The the  these  approaches  the  on  the  and  lies  was  chiefly  officials, role not  this  for  provide a  and  concerned  rather  I t i s not-  for financial  Even with  that  i t t o expand  the ideas, i t s vision.  a c o n s i d e r a b l e move  been and  im-  i n general.  s o m e o f t h e new  s h o u l d have  objective  than w i t h  of administration  caused  was  great  took a very  i n t h e mere f a c t  role  middle  College,  of administration.  of the p o s i t i o n  concern  based  role  o r d e r and  on  a  of administraeconomy  was  this.  system  creation  so f a r as system  to which  single  appointments  at  f o r the  of B a l l i o l  i t would  i n implementing  appreciation  inadequate  to  lead  centralization,  A  appeared  administration,  dealing w i t h reforms which required  sensitive tion.  of senior  interest  took the  the degree  towards  Reform  the n a t i o n ' s e d u c a t i o n a l system.  the e f f i c i e n c y  historical  was  i t  o p e n t h e way  a tutor  the whole process  proving the quality  Treasury  i n 1870.  Gladstone  of the  personal  the h o l d of the a r i s t o c r a c y  the Northcote Trevelyan Report  The  of the  Q  Benjamin  discussing  To  the e f f i c i e n c y  classes.  attitude  ways.  i t strengthened  government.  that  result  o f the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer  appealed a way  the  and  of patronage of  by  s e p a r a t e pay  promotion  the reform  of admissions,  each d e p a r t m e n t a l scales  arrangements  i n the v a r i o u s departments.  of the C i v i l and  and  c h i e f had  similar  d i f f e r e n c e s were bound  t o be  Service required  a  for Thus i n  uniform  p r o s p e c t s f o r a l l , most attacked.  I t has  led  of  already  125 been noted that Northcote and T r e v e l y a n complained of the " f r a g mentary c h a r a c t e r " of the S e r v i c e .  They saw t h a t the i n t r o -  d u c t i o n of a s e p a r a t i o n between ' i n t e l l e c t u a l ' and  'mechanical'  work, and of a s i n g l e examination e n t r y system, contained a s t r o n g tendency to c e n t r a l i z e the S e r v i c e . of  They d e c l a r e d  t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s to be "To m i t i g a t e the e v i l s which  one  result  from the fragmentary c h a r a c t e r of the S e r v i c e , and t o i n t r o d u c e i n t o i t some elements of u n i t y , " . ^ 4  In 1873,  Lowe, w h i l e d i s -  approving of any attempts t o c e n t r a l i z e f o r the sake o f c e n t r a l i z i n g , noted t h a t "one must see the f u t u r e of the C i v i l  Service 50  tends t o u n i f o r m i t y by admission of uniform p r i n c i p l e s . " ^ more t h e r e was for  o p p o s i t i o n to reform, the more was  The  t h e r e a need  the T r e a s u r y to be the instrument of reform, s i n c e the r e -  forms would have to be to an even g r e a t e r degree the concern of  the whole s e r v i c e , r a t h e r than be i n t r o d u c e d spontaneously  by the departments. from 1848  In attempts to reform v a r i o u s Departments  onwards, T r e v e l y a n found h i m s e l f faced w i t h c o n s i d e r -  a b l e departmental o p p o s i t i o n .  In t r y i n g t o overcome t h i s and  i n t r o d u c e the changes he f e l t were necessary, he was  l e d to  make s t r o n g statements on what he f e l t were the r i g h t s of the 51  Treasury and the d u t i e s of the  Departments.  The measures of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , l i m i t e d as they were, which flowed from the N o r t h c o t e - T r e v e l y a n p r o p o s a l s , d i d not mark any r e a l change of the Treasury's approach to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ization.  organ-  C e r t a i n l y the Treasury, having been the advocate of  reform i n the 1840's and 1850's, d i d not take up the f u l l  im-  p l i c a t i o n about u n i f i c a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the changes they thems e l v e s had proposed.  In so f a r as common standards were ex-  126 tended,  they were  inquiries after  into  the result  the C i v i l  the Report.  of the i n i t i a t i v e s  S e r v i c e over  Certainly  direct also  involvement  d i e d soon.  the middle the  This  i n the taking  I n so f a r as t h e T r e a s u r y was  o f t h e c e n t u r y i t was m e r e l y  reflects  Civil Lord  The Civil  first  tentative  S e r v i c e were  the  Civil  the  examinations  taken  steps towards i n 1855,  up d e t a i l e d an Order  about t h e  o f the  First  the unifications  The C o m m i s s i o n was  Commissioners,  department,  of the of  to organize  f o r t h e whole S e r v i c e , though not u n t i l  f o r each  regula-  i n Council.  with the establishment  on a c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s .  examination  t o implement  t h e s e r v a n t s o f t h e Crown.  S e r v i c e Commission.  were they  initiatives  involved after  of the Treasury  S e r v i c e , b u t on t h e i n h e r e n t a u t h o r i t y over  of  as t h e agent  o r by d r a f t i n g  n o t on t h e t h i n k i n g  of the Treasury  years  v e r y l o n g , and t h e r e f o r e the  of the Treasury  i n one o f i t s M i n u t e s ,  or t h i r t y  of the Northcote-  i d e a s o f o t h e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e by d r a w i n g  tions  the  the twenty  the impetus  Trevelyan proposals d i d not last  of the various  1870  T h e r e w a s t o b e a. s e p a r a t e settled  "with the Assistance of  according to the Discretion  of the chief  author-  52 ities  o f the Department."  great  diversity  s t i l l  o r g a n i z i n g two h u n d r e d  tions.  The C i v i l  supervision approved that  time  i n the examinations!  of the Treasury,  the initiatives  and twenty  before  came f r o m  progress  a  I865 t h e C o m m i s s i o n w a s  different  s e t s of examinaunder the  i n t h a t a l l i t s r e g u l a t i o n s h a d t o be they  became o p e r a t i v e .  The  fact  t h e Commission as f a r as the r e g u l a -  Concerned, and the f a c t  made l i t t l e  in  S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n was t e c h n i c a l l y  by t h e T r e a s u r y  t i o n s were  For s^long w h i l e there remained  towards  that the Commission f o r a greater unity,  show  that  long  the of  T r e a s u r y was n o t i n t h i s Civil  Service  The the  other  Service  unity  i n 1875 a d v o c a t e d  mechanical  duties.  This  common p a y p r o s p e c t s ,  Playfair  be t h e f i r s t  and candidates would This  to the senior  an acceptable  as a whole.  gain  one  admittance  would narrow t h e  division  were e s s e n t i a l before  of the Service  The  throughout  a Lower D i v i s i o n t o do a l l t h e  between departments  same C o m m i s s i o n s a w t h a t  likewise,  pay and g r a d i n g .  a single examination.  severe differences  i n the issue  will.  new D i v i s i o n w o u l d  common t o a l l d e p a r t m e n t s ,  grading  involved  m o v e s a t s e t t i n g u p common s t a n d a r d s  largely involved  i tthrough  really  o f i t s own f r e e  Commission  to  respect  grades. The  o f labour,  there  could  and  be a n y  A u n i f o r m Lower D i v i s i o n ,  was t h e e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e o f any i n t e r 54.  departmental The  transfers.  Ridley  Commission  P l a y f a i r had advocated. what m a t t e r s outside so  i s that  the administration.  these  imaginatively, changes.  clumsy f a s h i o n . departmental  large  reduction  considerable  On o c c a s i o n s  Treasury  that  i s concerned,  came f r o m  authority,  they used  When, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  completed.  which This  their  they  i n this  bodies as i n  t o implement authority  the officials plan  i n a  overrode plans f o r o f t h e Board o f  would have l e dt o a  i n t h e number o f e s t a b l i s h e d  Treasury had agreed Board  f o runity  was m e r e l y t h e i n s t r u m e n t  increase  o f change  i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l terms, y e t seldom  reorganization 55  Trade had just  the sort  As f a r as the Treasury  the initiatives  much e l s e , u n d i s p u t e d  used  reinforced  officers,  and t o a  i n t h e number o f t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s .  the year  before  that  o f T r a d e was c a l l e d f o r , b u t t h e n  a reorganization found  The of the  i n 1870 t h a t t h e  128 Board's proposals year. in  The T r e a s u r y  the Order i n Council  was n o t p r e p a r e d  of competitive  a l l out war w i t h  accept  the ideas  arrangements.  of that  t o brook any i n t e r f e r e n c e  examinations.  the Board  issuej  The p r i n c i p a l  were R a l p h Lingen,  o f Trade.  Treasury's subject knife.  the corresponding t o Lingen,  do e v e r y t h i n g  there  there  to the  Treasury,  position at the  Farrer referred to the  departments,  of t h e Orders i n Council I shall  i t s own  over and above t h e immediate  Permanent S e c r e t a r y  of other  itself  p r o t a g o n i s t s , b e t w e e n whom  In a letter  snubbing  found  j u s t w h e n i t h a d made  conflict  Thomas F a r r e r , who h e l d  Board  I t therefore  o f T r a d e , w h i c h was n o t w i l l i n g t o  of the Treasury  was an e l e m e n t o f p e r s o n a l  and  with  i t s a u t h o r i t y t o implement t h e changes r e q u i r e d by t h e i n t r o -  duction in  conflicted  and s a i d t h a t ,  "On t h e  i s a war between us t o t h e  properly  i n my  power t o expose and 56  resist  the injustices  and e v i l  Though t h i n g s were e x a c e r b a t e d illustrated in The it  Treasury  never  doubted  of proposals  to introduce  of c o n s i s t e n t and f l e x i b l e departments over C i v i l Given t h e f a c t move  centralization, techniques  Service  that  affairs. instance  and t a k i n g no  any  notice  i thad agreed t o . had been  very  i tmarks t h e absence  of consultation with  other  affairs.  on t h e whole  to Civil  Service  Treasury  regulations without  a l o n g p e r i o d when t h e r e  t o encourage  of the  i t s authority, but i n this  which r e s u l t e d from an enquiry  attempt  concerted  i n Civil  t h e department concerned,  Coming a s i t d i d a f t e r  cause."  by the c l a s h o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i t  t h e Departments  was a s s e r t i n g i t s r i g h t  consultation with  any  will  a heavy-handed a p p r o a c h on t h e p a r t  i t s relations with  little  I think they  Service  the Treasury  centralization,  d i d not lead but only  129 used  i t s power a s t h e department  of the f i r s t  Crown t o implement c e r t a i n i d e a s , where,  i ti s important  many  minister  o f w h i c h came f r o m  t o see what t h e v a r i o u s  an  extra burden  the  connection  Civil  The  Playfair  t h e changes i tadvocated would  on t h e T r e a s u r y .  This  else-  advocates of  reform thought of the p o s i t i o n of the Treasury. C o m m i s s i o n was aware t h a t  of the  shows t h a t  throw  i t accepted  between t h e r e f o r m and t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e  Service-  "We  are of the opinion,"  the Report  said,  that t h e p o s i t i o n of that Department i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r D e p a r t m e n t s s h o u l d b e made a s s t r o n g a s p o s sible; t h a t i t o u g h t t o have t h e means o f m a k i n g i t s e l f a c c u r a t e l y acquainted w i t h t h e wants and conditions of t h e other Departments; and t h a t i t should thus, w h i l s t a c q u i r i n g t h e i r confidence, be a b l e t o e x e r c i s e a n e f f i c i e n t and i n t e l l i g e n t control. 57 Such a s o p h i s t i c a t e d a t t i t u d e had been c l e a r l y previously with that  the Board  the Treasury  consisting  o f Trade.  convene a s m a l l  kind  committee from time  of inter-departmental  Commission, n o t i n g  that  i n financial  q u e s t s were u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d , tion  The C o m m i s s i o n  o f b o t h T r e a s u r y and departmental  courage t h i s  suggested to  officials,  relationship.  affairs  admitted  between t h e Treasury and  l a c k i n g two y e a r s  there  time,  t o enThe  Ridley  the Treasury's r e were c a s e s o f f r i c -  others.  With a view t o improving t h i s state of things, and o f b r i n g i n g t h e T r e a s u r y i n t o more h a r m o n i o u s and e f f i c i e n t r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e o t h e r Government d e p a r t m e n t s , as w e l l a s i n s t i t u t i n g a more s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , we a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n that i t would be d e s i r a b l e , i n t h e f i r s t instance, t o embody g e n e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e , i n an Order i n C o u n c i l . 58 On t h e s e t w o s e p a r a t e cated  a stronger  occasions  Treasury,  therefore  a Royal Commission  and a more c e n t r a l i z e d C i v i l  advo-  Service,  130 in  o r d e r more e f f i c i e n t l y  ant t o note an  they  the  Treasury.  was  which  such  would n a t u r a l l y  was  ministerial a b o u t new  cause t h e y had  no  supreme. on  the  part  stand  forthcoming. of the  Treasury  form  t o u n d e r m i n e any  tendency  t o t a k e up  centralizing  century  which  to the  political  by  Farrer,  the  the  expressed  independence  growth  of the  i n response  answerable  chief,  the  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f e e l i n g s were r e i n f o r c e d  Partly  were not  departmental  inquiries  to preserve  onwards by  i t -  b e i n g more e n l i g h t e n e d  i n angry  These  Civil  d i s c u s s e d above, i m p l i e s  expressed  o f r e f o r m by  of  in  of  those  not  because  feelings  responsibility.  Boards,  did  Strong  about the need  of the  they  Treasury's  only the a t t i t u d e  the v a r i o u s departments. the middle  technically  really  Many o f t h e w i t n e s s e s  strong feelings  suggested  Indeed  t h a t department from  as  tend  implications  machine.  not  Service affairs.  independence,  full  was  import-  of power, presumably  Welby, and  course  prevented  about.Civil  aspects  e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e  approach of  Treasury.  Treasury  g i v e n by  not  the  It i s  R i d l e y merely  a more e n l i g h t e n e d a p p r o a c h  The  affairs  t h i s new It  self  t h a t the  they wanted  Service that  power of  constitutional  realised  Rather  implement reforms.  that n e i t h e r P l a y f a i r nor  increase i n the  discuss the  to  to  of  from  idea  of  complaints  to Parliament  be-  i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y  the  custom f o r a l l branches  o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o be  put  the wing  and  responsible  of a m i n i s t e r ,  for  a l l t h a t was  the  civil  Trevelyan destroy  f o r t h a t m i n i s t e r t o be  done i n h i s name.  s e r v a n t s who  submitted  p r o p o s a l s was  departmental  3  The  general opinion  comments on  that nothing  independence.  under  should  the be  of  Northcote-  done w h i c h  This attitude  i s best  would summed  131  up  i n the words  employed  o f one  such witness.  i n Government Departments  t o w a r d s t h e Head, and n o t  towards  "The  ought any  eyes  of a l l  a l w a y s t o be  external  those turned  authority,  as  the  in  i860  60 fountain before felt  and  power."  the Select  that  mental  Most  Committee  t h e r e was  a need  i n d e p e n d e n c e , so  o v e r who  went  strictness implying  into  o f t h e w i t n e s s e s who on C i v i l  t o keep  that  Service Appointments  a large  degree  t h e Head might  his office.  appeared  Some e v e n  have  of the  objected  even  i n the f i e l d  i n which  i t was  discretion  to the  o f t h e T r e a s u r y ' s a p p r o a c h on f i n a n c i a l  that  depart-  matters,  supposed  to  be  6l unchallenged  the Treasury might  Thus w i t h i n the  the Whitehall  a g e n c i e s w h i c h had  slight  moves t o w a r d s  recruitment. led  c a u s e as b i g an change  greater  from the f i n a n c i a l opposition  excluding  there were s e r i e s  to enforce  strict  enforcement  but even  so d i d n o t  isolated,  instance,  1870.  The  Treasury s t i l l in Civil  been looked  Service  Though i t f a c e d  a  the  affairs  genuine i t tended  to  on many o f t h o s e o c c a s i o n s when i t  organizational  with  they  i n t h e T r e a s u r y ' s power, o r as b i g a  view-point.  t h e T r e a s u r y was  of  i n such m a t t e r s as  t h e s e needed  the departments  clumsy  same w a y ,  in  machine,  i n the form o f d e p a r t m e n t a l l o y a l t i e s ,  unnecessarily  time  uniformity  of the i n q u i r i e s .  on i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h  tried  grown up,  degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , increase  opposition.  i n t h e T r e a s u r y ' s a p p r o a c h , as a p p e a r s t o have  common o p i n i o n  be  to face  administrative  recently  I n so f a r as  to a greater  have  never  the exception  changes.  i n the van  of reform i n quite  of the v i t a l l y  o f Lowe's i n t r o d u c t i o n  Rather i t confined  After Trevelyan's  itself  important, of  to being  the  but  competition the agent  to  apply  132 the changes t h a t others had  suggested.  Yet the Treasury  was  the only body which could c o n c e i v a b l y have taken the l e a d i n ensuring a g r e a t e r amount of coherence of s t r u c t u r e among the new  government agencies  tified  which arose  to d e a l w i t h r e c e n t l y iden-  s o c i a l problems.  I t was agencies  i n the v a r i e t y of tasks t h a t the new  performed, and  government  i n t h e i r haphazard establishment,  rather  than i n the simple number of e x t r a employees, t h a t the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s of government expansion l a y .  The  only r e a l l y b i g changes i n the s i z e of departmental E s t a b l i s h ments i n the mid n i n e t e e n t h century occurred and  the v a r i o u s P o l i c e f o r c e s .  i n the Post O f f i c e  Recent c a l c u l a t i o n s suggest  t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of c e n t r a l government employees to the labour f o r c e as a whole i n c r e a s e d only from 2.4$ years  1851-1891.  Only one  to 3.6$  i n the  t w e n t y - f i f t h of the t o t a l of c e n t r a l  government employees were employed i n c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  dur-  i n g the middle years of the century.  the  new  agencies  grew without  any  action.  Between 1832  and  boards were founded.  and  two  f a s h i o n to deal w i t h  1855  three new  m i n i s t r i e s and  T h i s coming and  eleven  In about the same p e r i o d n i n e boards  m i n i s t r i e s were a b o l i s h e d , a l l but one J  plan.  only r e c e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as r e q u i r i n g  new  1847-58.  despite t h i s ,  semblance of c o - o r d i n a t e d  Governments c r e a t e d them i n an ad hoc tasks which they had  But  i n the  years  going on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e scene  r e f l e c t s , as W i l l s o n p o i n t s out, P a r l i a m e n t a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a c t i o n of C i v i l Servants  f e a r s about the r a t h e r than  any  c o n s i s t e n t p l a n f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the machine of government.  The  f e a r about r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  probably  justified,  133  given  the  liberties  were t a k i n g . ^ " as  But  i t does the  Service  that the  absence  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  ernment does not conception  of  lack  o b s c u r e and  of an  t h e s e new  terms the  planning,  ambiguous and  the  agencies  Civil "ad  plan,  reflecting  firm basis.  of  c e n t r a l gov-  the  Service. and  Civil  such a  w i t h i n the  hoc  "lines  there  Chadwick  t h i n k i n g about  entered  the  s u c h as  overall  appear to have  i t s c o n t r o l of  of  servants  independent  appear t o have  of what D a v i d R o b e r t s the  absence  s t r u c t u r e , would not  The  and  some c i v i l  Treasury's As  timid  a result  legislation"^  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  was  little  were  co-ordination  of  66 policy." the  And  this  despite  T r e a s u r y ' s c o n t r o l of  the  fact,  expenditure  as  Roberts admits,  made i t t h e  that  dominant  67 Department. nothing  Lack of  was  as  bad  as  c o - o r d i n a t i o n was  what K i t s o n - C l a r k  not  calls  of  c o u r s e new,  the  and  "administra68  tive But  bric-a-brac"which the  T r e a s u r y was  been i n the  survived  now  eighteenth  that  expansion  of  the  century,  without  such as the  Likewise  the  of H e a l t h  central  or  eighteenth  faced  the  the  I t was adapt  Board and  similarly  considerations, should  do  not  there  of  new  The  rapid  T r a d e seems t o  therefore  attempt  f i t i n t o the g e n e r a l sphere of 70 local. The o n l y r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e  without  consequences.  Inspectorate  Relations  no  had  expansion  this  itself.  appear to have being  an  to  administrative  financial.  century.  i t never  with  Treasury's i n t e r e s t i n the School 69  appears t o have been p u r e l y  department  to  Treasury,  seriously considering  financial  was  precedent.  anybody,  Board  and  Treasury f a i l e d  departments  have taken p l a c e  the  a c e n t r a l Department as  of government q u i t e without situation  from  with  extended to  see  the beyond  how  this  government, Treasury  in  the  134 Poor  C o m m i s s i o n A c t o f 1834  Law  were  i n the section which  dealt  71 w i t h numbers  and  of  the existing  in  a coherent  as  the central  ative tive in  This clear  government machine  department,  expansion  that the  time  problems.  as i t has  Treasury,  manifestly failed  to undertake  imagin-  Scope f o r i n i t i a -  scarcely  peace t i m e , and c e r t a i n l y had n e v e r  Treasury  on t h e p a r t  d i d n o t have a s u f f i c i e n t l y  to administrative  at this  failure  t o p l a n i t s own  fashion underlines the fact  approach existed  staffing.  ever  existed  existed  since  before, yet the  the tasks required of  it. The  failure  t o organize the expansion  symptom o f a f a i l u r e approach  to Civil  Service affairs.  f e r e n c e s were bound have  of f l e x i b l e  administration,  1919  Division  when R o b e r t  broad  the  about  i n the reform proposals of the years  not u n t i l  a  Although departmental  d i d n o t t a k e up a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s  contained  ments  part to take  i s a  t o s u r v i v e t o some e x t e n t , a n d i n d e e d  i n the i n t e r e s t s  clearly  was  on t h e T r e a s u r y ' s  of government  Lowe r e f e r r e d  Service affairs.  t o the Permanent  should  Treasury  centralization  1848-1870.  t h a t the Treasury had a separate  to deal with C i v i l  dif-  I t  Establish1872,  In  Secretary of the  72 Treasury have been ity  as b e i n g a t "the head d o i n g no more t h a n  on C i v i l  cannot  Service affairs,  of the C i v i l  the Treasury's should  i t care  Service," undisputed  Treasury financial  had never thinking.  a u t h o r i t y was  based  Service Affairs.  really  broken  The p a r a d o x upon  On  was  the authority  He  genuinely  the contrary, the  out of the s t r a i t j a c k e t lies  can  author-  t o use i t .  c o n c e i v a b l y have meant t h a t t h e T r e a s u r y  a Department f o r C i v i l  he  i n that the o f t h e Crown  of i t s  Treasury's over  Crown  135 servants,  and  this  theoretically the C i v i l its  ship  challenged.  as  to limit  costs  department  right  was  financial on  source  Civil  Service  failure  of the  politicians  and  the  structure  same t i m e , a n d  use  of.  I n so f a r a s  t o be  an  Treasury to the  organization  t o t a k e an  the process of administration.  The  method  a n c e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s h o w e d how  policy of  lead  to preclude a real  i n question, or i t s wider  government. t o any  broad  administration.  to take a broad  Select  Committees -  view -  largely  structure  without relating  s h o u l d be  done.  sion  of the  than  earlier  coherent  concern  was  for wider  a s much  a  inquiries,  of fin-  retrenchment'and analysis f o r the  of  the  activities  Service did  not  or importance have been  t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s and inquiries  j o b t h a t was  i s less true  most  of c o n t r o l l i n g  of the p o s i t i o n  i t to the  to  Civil  common t o  of the C i v i l  confined their  Though t h i s  in a  of the  Even those b o d i e s which might  pected  the  objective view  implications  Likewise, control appreciation  and  an  i n the nineteenth century  of the general f a i l u r e ,  tended  of  strength.  administrators,  balanced accounts  Ex-  impediment t o t a k i n g a  the dual headship  of  by  d u a l head-  source  the  systematic approach i s symptomatic  Thus the  at  i t was  towards  determined  c o u l d have been the  Service affairs,  of weakness as  The take a  proved  never  of the Chancellor of the  to organize both  n o t made f u l l  problems  S e r v i c e was  the Treasury's a t t i t u d e  government e x p e n d i t u r e .  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  fashion,  the C i v i l  t o have been l a r g e l y  of the Treasury, which  incontestable  view  the  over Yet  S e r v i c e appears  concern,  chequer,  authority  to  the approach  ex-  the internal  b e i n g done  of the Ridley  of  or  Commis-  of the Northcote-  136 Trevelyan Report, in  one  sentence,  The tematic  which discussed  the expanding work  d o e s n o t seem t o h a v e  died.  o f t h e T r e a s u r y was  n o t due  attitude  t h i n k i n g n o r , n e e d l e s s t o s a y , o f men  atic  and p e n e t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s .  man,  had a wide grasp and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  The  same w o u l d a p p l y  and  t o the Chancellors  and  perception  been l e d i n t o situation.  Welby,  of Gladstone, a c t i n g as they  Disraeli  Moreover they were  a l l , politicians  opinion  incentive fairs. as and of  or pressure  people  the whole i d e a  run well  b y men  seriously  civil  such that  Treasury  intellect have  of the  discouraged  from  officials.  servants alike, But the t h e r e was  no  great  Service af-  o f an independent C i v i l of the f u l l  men  climate  o f government were  t h r o u g h most o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  new,  Service,  implications  of the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  f o r whom r e t r e n c h m e n t w a s  started  century  t h e same o b j e c t i v i t y  I n the nineteenth century  economy was  government  with.  the complexity  and o r d e r .  appeared unaware  as the main c r i t e r i o n  public  muddled  of government, i t i s perhaps understandable  w e r e more aware  government.  of system-  of the  to take a wider view of C i v i l  administration with  who  Men  sys-  or Northcote would not  and  B e c a u s e many o f t h e a g e n c i e s  the expansion  that at  store by consistency  b e c a u s e m o s t men  of  dealt  swords w i t h permanent  i n w h i c h t h e y w o r k e d was  i n d e e d was  o f what he  d i d merely by  of crossing  of  capable  i f sometimes a  of the Exchequer.  Nor would they have been  set great  to a lack  t o t h e other permanent heads o f t h e  a c t i n g by the f e a r  who  of government  did not  as l a t e r  look  generations,  o f and need f o r a c t i v e  the administration  t h e paramount  o f good government.  was  concern,  The  embedded i n t h e E n g l i s h m a n ' s m i n d  idea  of  before  t o expand o r t h e need f o r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  as  137 became a p p a r e n t , and i t t h u s s e r v e d a s a b l o c k t o a more o b j e c t i v e approach.  The a t t i t u d e o f t h e T r e a s u r y , and o f most  in public affairs,  men  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e h a d t o be a deep c h a n g e  i n t h i n k i n g b e f o r e t h i s b l o c k was r e m o v e d .  The i m p a c t o f  g o v e r n m e n t e x p a n s i o n , and t h e r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t r e t r e n c h m e n t l o n g e r had u n i v e r s a l  no  s u p p o r t among t h e e d u c a t e d p u b l i c was n o t  s u f f i c i e n t t o promote such a change i n t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e gene r a t i o n which reached p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n s around the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h century.  or s h o r t l y a f t e r  138  FOOTNOTES  1.  See t h e Oxford P i c t i o n a r y , w h i c h dates t h e f i r s t use o f t h e term a s 1785* No h i s t o r i a n s appear t o have c h a l l e n g e d t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e O.D.  2.  E. Hughes, " C i v i l S e r v i c e Reform, 1853-5." P u b l i c Adminis t r a t i o n , 1954, X X X I I . G. K i t s o n C l a r k , "Statesmen i n D i s g u i s e : R e f l e c t i o n s on the H i s t o r y of the N e u t r a l i t y of the C i v i l S e r v i c e . " H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l , 1959, I I .  3-  G.H. S t u a r t - D u n n i n g , "The O r i g i n s and Development o f t h e C i v i l Service." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1926, I V , p. 121.  4«  E. Hughes, o p . c i t . "Report on C i v i l S e r v i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n . " G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1854, X X V I I , pp. 1-23. The Report was dated November 1853, and was p r e s e n t e d t o P a r l i a m e n t i n F e b r u a r y 1854- H e r e a f t e r i t w i l l be c i t e d as t h e N o r t h c o t e - T r e v e l y a n R e p o r t .  5.  N o r t h c o t e - T r e v e l y a n R e p o r t , op_. c i t . , p. 3.  6.  S e l e c t Committee on C i v i l S e r v i c e s E x p e n d i t u r e , 1873G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1873, V I I .  7«  N o r t h c o t e - T r e v e l y a n R e p o r t , op_. c i t . , pp. 7-8.  8.  F.W. R o s w e l l , 1873, XXIX.  9.  W.B. Scoones, "The C i v i l S e r v i c e o f England." Magazine, 1874, XXXI.  10.  H. P a r r i s , "The O r i g i n s o f t h e Permanent C i v i l S e r v i c e , 1780-1830." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1968, XLVI.  "The P u b l i c S e r v i c e . "  M a c m i l l a n ' s Magazine,  Macmillan's  139 11.  P.B. Wickwire,. "King's F r i e n d s , C i v i l Servants, or P o l i ticians." American H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1965, LXXI, pp. 18-42.  12.  A.S. Foord, "The Waning of the I n f l u e n c e of the Crown." E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1947, LXII. "Most c o n v i n c i n g of a l l arguments i s the p l a i n f a c t t h a t W e l l i n g t o n l o s t the e l e c t i o n of 1830. Never b e f o r e s i n c e the days of the Hanoverian s u c c e s s i o n had the m i n i s t r y of the day, backed by the i n f l u e n c e of the crown, been def e a t e d a t the p o l l s . " p.505. see a l s o : Large, D., "The D e c l i n e of the 'Party of the Crown' and the R i s e of P a r t i e s i n the House of Lords." E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1963, LXXVIII.  13«  P.G. Richards, Patronage 1963, pp. 2 5 - 8 .  14.  E.W. Cohen, The Growth of the B r i t i s h C i v i l S e r v i c e , London, 1 9 6 5 , pp. 3 7 - 9 -  15-  P.G.  R i c h a r d s , op_. c i t . , p.  16.  E.W.  Cohen, OJD. c i t . , p.  17.  S.E. F i n e r , "Patronage i n the P u b l i c Service.: J e f f e r s o n i a n . Bureaucracy and the B r i t i s h T r a d i t i o n . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 9 5 2 , XXX, p. 3 5 3 .  18.  E. Hughes, op_. c i t . , p. 19 •  19«  N o r t h c o t e - T r e v e l y a n Report,  20.  E.W.  Cohen, op_. c i t . , p.  i n B r i t i s h Government, London,  36.  70.  op_. c i t . , p.  3.  34*  J.E.R. Binney, B r i t i s h P u b l i c Finance and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1774-1792, Oxford, 1 9 5 8 , p. 179Over h a l f of the 1 4 , 0 0 0 revenue s t a f f were appointed by the Treasury, the exception b e i n g to some extent i n the E x c i s e Department, but c h i e f l y i n the Post O f f i c e , which had i t s own p o l i t i c a l head. 21.  C o n s i d e r a b l e c o m p l i c a t i o n s can a r i s e over the d e f i n i t i o n on " c i v i l servant." The Tomlin Commission on the C i v i l Serv i c e i n 1931 took as i t s d e f i n i t i o n , "Those servants of the  H O  Crown, other than h o l d e r s o f p o l i t i c a l o r j u d i c i a l o f f i c e s , who a r e employed i n a c i v i l c a p a c i t y , and whose remunerat i o n i s p a i d wholly out of monies voted by Parliament." N.E. Mustoe, i n The Law and O r g a n i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h C i v i l S e r v i c e , London, 1932, d i s c u s s e s the problem o f a c l e a r l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n of a c i v i l servant. The dispute c e n t r e s over where l i e s the b o r d e r l i n e between Crown servants and other employees o f p u b l i c bodies. I s the C i v i l S e r v i c e t o i n c l u d e o f f i c i a l s of the Post O f f i c e , Inland Revenue, Customs, as w e l l as the employees of such government e n t e r p r i s e s as the Ordnance F a c t o r i e s and the Royal Dockyards? I s i t to i n c l u d e the n o n - e s t a b l i s h e d s t a f f of c e n t r a l government o f f i c e s such as temporary c l e r k s and c l e a n e r s ? I s i t to i n c l u d e a policeman, who holds a Crown commission but i s appointed and dismissed by a l o c a l Watch Committee? Mustoe concludes t h a t " i t would appear, however, t h a t i n o r d i n a r y language the phrase i s used t o d e s c r i b e the body o f persons who a r e engaged upon executive a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the work of the government, and i t i s submitted t h a t the C i v i l S e r v i c e i s the body o f o f f i c i a l s i n the s e r v i c e of the Crown who d i s charge d u t i e s belonging to the e x e r c i z e of the King's executive powers, but not b e i n g members o f H i s Majesty's n a v a l , m i l i t a r y or a i r f o r c e s , and n o t b e i n g h o l d e r s o f political offices." N.E.  Mustoe, OJD. c i t . , p. 26.  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of Mustoe's has been used here22.  Treasury Minute of 10th August 1821. I t s a i d t h a t promot i o n between grades should take account of a b i l i t y . G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1822, XVII, pp. 3 - 9 * Treasury Minute of 16th August 1833, on p r o b a t i o n schemes. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1833, XXIII, p. 437-  23-  P.M.. Young, The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n t h e E a r l y Nineteenth Century, London, 1961, pp. 39-40.  24-  I b i d . , p. 147-  25.  S e l e c t Committee on Superannuation Allowances, 1856. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1856, IX, p. 8 .  26.  C i v i l S e r v i c e I n q u i r y Commission, 1875. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1875, XXIII,  p. 565*  141 27.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e r e were no i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e workings o f the C i v i l Service before those, l a r g e l y under t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f Trevelyan, i n t o t h e v a r i o u s departments from 1848 o n w a r d s . These i n q u i r i e s l e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e N o r t h c o t e - T r e v e l y a n R e p o r t o f 1853• Before this period i n q u i r i e s had l a r g e l y been c o n f i n e d t o i n d i v i d u a l matters such a s sinecures o r fees. A f t e r t h i s time t h e r e were the f o l l o w i n g i n q u i r i e s i n t o t h eC i v i l S e r v i c e a s a whole. C i v i l S e r v i c e Appointments, i860. C i v i l S e r v i c e s E x p e n d i t u r e , 1873• P l a y f a i r C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e , 1875R i d l e y C o m m i s s i o n o n C i v i l E s t a b l i s h m e n t s , 1887-90.  28.  S e l e c t Committee on C i v i l p . 459.  S e r v i c e s E x p e n d i t u r e , op.  c i t . ,  29.  E v i d e n c e t o t h e 2nd R e p o r t o f t h e R i d l e y C o m m i s s i o n , G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1888, X X V I I , p . 11.  1888.  30.  E v i d e n c e t o t h e 1st R e p o r t o f t h e R i d l e y C o m m i s s i o n , G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1887, X I X , p . 1.  1887-  31.  Ibid.,  32.  Loc.  33.  L o r d George H a m i l t o n found, t h a t t h e r e was a c o n t i n u o u s between h i s Department and and new a p p o i n t m e n t s , w h i c h time i n such a l a r g e o f f i c e was r e q u i r e d .  p . 2. c i t . when h e w a s a t t h e A d m i r a l t y , and unnecessary correspondence t h e Treasury over s m a l l changes were bound t o a r i s e a l l t h e b u t f o rwhich Treasury s a n c t i o n  George H a m i l t o n , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Reminiscences 1868-1885, L o n d o n , 1916, p . 30334-  S e l e c t Committee c i t . , p . 668.  35.  Ibid.,  p . 675-  36.  37-  and R e f l e c t i o n  on C i v i l  S e r v i c e s E x p e n d i t u r e , 1873, o p .  Ibid.,  p . 677-  Select  Committee on C i v i l  S e r v i c e s E x p e n d i t u r e , 1873, op_.  H 2  c i t . , p. 682. Lowe and Baxter were not on good terms, which may have caused Baxter t o emphasize the d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n . 38.  M. Raphael,. Pensions and P u b l i c Servants; a 3tudy of the o r i g i n s of the B r i t i s h system, London and the Hague, 1964, p. 123-  39-  Superannuation  40.  The S e l e c t Committee on P u b l i c Income and Expenditure, 1828, s a i d t h a t , "the Act of 1810, not i n t e n t i o n a l l y indeed, but i n p r a c t i c e , took from the Treasury not only the power of g r a n t i n g Pensions beyond the l i m i t s pres c r i b e d , but v i r t u a l l y d i v e s t e d them of a l l d i s c r e t i o n i n g r a n t i n g them even w i t h i n those l i m i t s ; because the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act became the r u l e to which the A p p l i cants appealed, and which the Treasury could not r e f u s e to apply i m p a r t i a l l y i n a l l cases." Raphael, M., op. c i t . , p. 135-  41.  Treasury Minute of 21st June, 1831. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1856,  Act, 1810.  50 George I I I , c  IX, p.  117-  347.  42.  Superannuation S e c t i o n 24.  Act, 1834-  4 & 5 W i l l i a m IV, c.  43«  Superannuation  Act, 1859•  22 V i c t o r i a , c.  24,  26.  By t h i s Act the Treasury was a b l e to waive the o r d i n a r y requirements f o r men who entered i n t o the S e r v i c e at a l a t e r age, having gained o u t s i d e a s k i l l they could not have gained i n the C i v i l S e r v i c e . The Treasury c o u l d grant s p e c i a l allowances to those who had to leave t h e i r jobs e a r l y , or whose o f f i c e s were a b o l i s h e d . Above a l l , under s e c t i o n 8, the Treasury was not to grant any pension u n t i l i t was sure the man concerned had worked d i l i g e n t l y throughout h i s time. 44-  J.Wv  Pence, "The R h e t o r i c of B r i t i s h C i v i l S e r v i c e Reform D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , XXIV, 3882.  45«  Anderson, 0., "The Janus Pace of Mid-Nineteenth-Century E n g l i s h R a d i c a l i s m : the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Reform A s s o c i a t i o n of 1855." V i c t o r i a n S t u d i e s , 1964-5, V I I I , pp. 231-42.  1848-70."  143 46.  T r e v e l y a n had been an a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n I n d i a from 1826 1840. He r e t u r n e d to I n d i a i n 1858, and worked there h i s death i n 1.880.  till till  I t is. i n t e r e s t i n g , t o note, t h a t the a r t i c l e s on him i n the D i c t i o n a r y N a t i o n a l Biography devotes a mere twenty l i n e s to h i s eighteen y e a r s a t the Treasury, out of a t o t a l of three and a h a l f columns. S i m i l a r l y the Times, i n i t s one and a q u a r t e r column o b i t u a r y n o t i c e , g i v e s f i f t e e n l i n e s t o the time Trevelyan was i n the Treasury. D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography, Oxford, 1917, pp. 1 1 3 5 - 6 . ~ Times, 2 1 s t June, 1 8 8 6 .  volume XIX,  I t was i n I n d i a that T r e v e l y a n met Macaulay, who was a l e a d i n g proponent of the i d e a of c o m p e t i t i v e entry, though not of course the o r i g i n a t o r of i t . P e r s o n a l connections were important i n a l l a s p e c t s of C i v i l S e r v i c e reform. Trevelyan knew Macaulay, and l a t e r married h i s s i s t e r . Macaulay knew Jowett; Jowett and Lowe were on good terms. A f a s c i n a t i n g s i d e l i g h t on the connections between the Macaulays and the Trevelyans, as on the connections between many other i n t e l l e c t u a l bourgeois f a m i l i e s , i s t o be found i n an essay by No§l Annan e n t i t l e d , "The I n t e l l e c t u a l Aristocracy." I t appears i n ed.. J..H. Plumb, S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y : A T r i b u t e to G.M. Trevelyan, London, 1955, pp. 241-87. 47.  G.B.  S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1875,  48.  J . Morley, The L i f e of W i l l i a m Ewart Gladstone, London, 1 9 0 6 , v o l . I I , p. 807.  49«  N o r t h c o t e - T r e v e l y a n Report,  50.  S e l e c t Committee on C i v i l cit., p. 6 6 4 .  51.  J . Hart, " S i r C h a r l e s T r e v e l y a n a t the Treasury," E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1960, LXXV.  52.  Order i n C o u n c i l of 2 1 s t May, 1855, a p p o i n t i n g the C i v i l S e r v i c e Commissioners. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1856, XXII, p. 364-  53-  See Order i n C o u n c i l of 2 1 s t May, 1 8 5 5 , op. c i t . A l s o the Order i n C o u n c i l of 4 t h June, 1 8 7 0 , i n t r o d u c i n g competitive examinations. The new r e g u l a t i o n to be a p p l i e d  XXIII, p.  op_. c i t . , pp.  100.  22-3.  S e r v i c e s Expenditure, 1 8 7 3 ,  op.  144 by t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e the Treasury. G.B. S e s s i o n a l  Commission had a l l t o be approved by  Papers,  Commons, 1 8 7 3 ,  VII,  pp. 728-30.  54.  Playfair  55.  The w h o l e a f f a i r was t h e c a u s e o f a v e r y s e v e r e d i s p u t e , w h i c h w a s made p u b l i c i n t h e h e a r i n g s o f t h e S e l e c t Committee on C i v i l S e r v i c e s E x p e n d i t u r e , 1873.  56.  L e t t e r from Lingen t o F a r r e r , quoted i n an a r t i c l e by S i r J o h n W o o d s , w h i c h a p p e a r s as. c h a p t e r I X i n e d . W.A. R o b s o n , The C i v i l S e r v i c e i n B r i t a i n a n d P r a n c e , L o n d o n , 1956, P. 1 1 5 . ' ;  Commission,  o_p_. c i t . , p p . 18— 19•  :  Lingen suggested, t a k i n g an approach n o t d i s s i m i l a r t o that o f Lowe o v e r t h e T r e a s u r y a n d t h e C a b i n e t , t h a t t h e T r e a s u r y was o n l y a n i n s t r u m e n t t o a p p l y an O r d e r i n C o u n c i l . The T r e a s u r y " m e r e l y r e c e i v e d t h e O r d e r s i n C o u n c i l a s a c t s o f t h e Government. The T r e a s u r y b e c o m e s t h e e x e c u t i v e of the Order i n Council simply by v i r t u e of i t s financial position." S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on C i v i l c i t . , p . 394-  Services  Expenditure,  1873,  op.  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y t h i s i s c l e a r l y wrong, s i n c e t h e Crown, a c t i n g t h r o u g h i t s f i r s t m i n i s t e r , h a s u n l i m i t e d power over i t s servants. But the quotation i s i n t e r e s t i n gi n t h a t i t d e m o n s t r a t e s a g a i n how t h e l e a d i n g T r e a s u r y o f f i c i a l s i n f a c t o n l y e n v i s a g e d t h e power o f t h e T r e a s u r y i n terms o f f i n a n c e , and t h e p r e s t i g e that t h e c o n t r o l o f f i n a n c e gave t h e i r department. Lingen appears unable t o have t h o u g h t o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f T r e a s u r y power i n terms o f the a u t h o r i t y o f t h e F i r s t Lord, which as f a r as t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e was c o n c e r n e d i s what r e a l l y matters. 57«  Civil  58.  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C i v i l E s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( R i d l e y ) . Second Report. G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1 8 8 8 , X V I I I , p . x i i .  59«  J.B. Christoph, " P o l i t i c a l Rights and Administrative. I m p a r t i a l i t y i n the. B r i t i s h C i v i l S e r v i c e . " American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e R e v i e w , 1957» L I .  Service  Inquiry  Commission  (Playfair),  op_. c i t . , p . 23-  S.E. F i n e r , "The I n d i v i d u a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f M i n i s t e r s . " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1956, X X X I V .  H5 E. H u g h e s , " S i r J . S t e p h e n a n a t h e A n o n y m i t y o f t h e C i v i l Servant." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1958, X X X V I . G. K i t s o n - C l a r k , op_.  c i t .  P. W i l l s o n , " M i n i s t r i e s a n d B o a r d s : , some. A s p e c t s o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e 1832." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1955, X X X I I I . 60.  P a p e r s on the R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h eC i v i l S e r v i c e . G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , Commons, 1854-5, X X , p . 358.  61.  See t h eEvidence o f Mr. G i f f e n o f the Board o f Trade t o t h e h e a r i n g s f o r t h e S e c o n d R e p o r t o f t h e R i d l e y Commission. He c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o d i s c u s s i o n o f a r e q u e s t f o r h i g h e r e x p e n d i t u r e on E s t a b l i s h m e n t s , o n l y acceptance o r a blank r e f u s a l . Royal  62.  Commission  on C i v i l  Establishments,  op_. c i t . ,  p . 334•  M. A b r a m o v i t z a n d V.E.. E l i a s b e r g , T h e G r o w t h o f P u b l i c E m p l o y m e n t i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , P r i n c e t o n , 1957* On p a g e 16 t h e a u t h o r s p r e s e n t t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s o n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f government employees o u t o f the whole l a b o u r force. They r e a c h t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s b y c o r r e c t i n g t h e f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c e n s u s e s o f 1851 a n d 1891 On p p . 17-1.8 t h e a u t h o r s s h o w t h e b r e a k d o w n o f t h e 1851 census f i g u r e s . Excluding the m i l i t a r y and t h e Indian C i v i l S e r v i c e , o f t h e 40,000 c i v i l i a n e m p l o y e e s o f t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n 1851, 25$ w e r e i n t h e P o s t O f f i c e , 40$ w e r e i n t h e I n l a n d R e v e n u e a n d C u s t o m s & E x c i s e , a n d 20$ w e r e m e s s e n g e r s o r w o r k e d i n t h e R o y a l D o c k y a r d s a n d Ordnance F a c t o r i e s . O f t h e r e m a i n i n g 5,000, 1,000 w e r e P e e r s o r i n t h e H o u s e h o l d , a n d 2,000 w e r e c i v i l i a n e m p l o y e e s i n Naval and m i l i t a r y establishments. T h i s l e f t 1,628 i n the c i v i l departments o f t h e c e n t r a l government. The T r e a s u r y e m p l o y e d 96, t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e 49, t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e 85, a n d t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e 103. O f t h e Home O f f i c e e m p l o y e e s 23 w e r e f a c t o r y a n d m i n e s i n s p e c t o r s . The P o o r L a w B o a r d e m p l o y e d 8 4 , a n d t h e B o a r d o f H e a l t h 30. 1851 C e n s u s , G.B. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , LXXVIII, pp. c c c x l i x - c c c l .  63-  E . W i l l s o n , op_.  c i t .  64«  G. K i t s o n  op_.  Clark,  Commons, 1852-3,  c i t .  For example T r e v e l y a n h a d w r i t t e n t o the M o r n i n g Chroni c l e about I r e l a n d a n d p r o b a b l y h e l p e d a r r a n g e t h e premat u r e r e l e a s e o f the Northcote-Trevelyan Report t o t h e  146 Times. Edwin Chadwick used newspapers to spread h i s views. Roland H i l l approached M.P.'s t o secure the d i s m i s s a l o f h i s J o i n t S e c r e t a r y a t the Post O f f i c e . In 1841 the J o i n t S e c r e t a r y of the Board of Trade p u b l i s h e d anonymous t r a c t s a g a i n s t p r o t e c t i o n . 65.  D. Roberts, V i c t o r i a n O r i g i n s of the B r i t i s h Welfare State, New Haven, 1960, p. 13b.  66.  I b i d . , p. 135-  67-  Loc. c i t .  68.  G. K i t s o n C l a r k , op_. c i t .  69-  R- Prouty, The Transformation of the Board o f Trade. A Study o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e o r g a n i s a t i o n i n the Heyday o f L a i s s e z F a i r e , London, 1957. ' N. B a l l , Her Majesty's I n s p e c t o r a t e , 1963.  1839-1849, London,  70.  R. Lambert, S i r John Simon, 1816-1904, London, 1963-  71.  4 & 5 W i l l i a m IV,  72.  Hansard, Commons, T h i r d S e r i e s , volume 210, column 8 4 8 , A p r i l 5th, 1872.  c. 76, s. v i i and s. i x .  147  CHAPTER The  The and  Treasury  and  Treasury's  i t s p o s i t i o n as  that  i t had  the  close the  V  C e n t r a l i z i n g of  relations with  Treasury's  i n supervising  the  activities  administration, century the  principle  ments and  Treasury  that  of  Revenue Boards w i t h Since  providing  York.  so  the  t h a t by  of the Post  F r o m 1685 revenues  the As  task  a l l the  more a s  efficient  hereditary  through  a  making i t s e l f  early  eight-  stages  source  1760,  i n return  sole  channel  of  had  the work of  the  government.  General Post  Office  of revenue than as  O f f i c e were t h e  i t s part  the Treasury  other Departments of the  inter-  of the process  of c o - o r d i n a t i n g  i n 1660  The  1  from  For  the  Depart-  greatly strengthening i t s  a consequence  communications.  until  Treasury  fin-  guarded  the Treasury.  of the  of  the  Since the  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  over  i t s inception  been envisaged  from  t h e Revenue B o a r d s had  to pass  administration.  take upon i t s e l f  profits p  and  radically  Service.  t o t h e B o a r d s i t was  them, and  financial to  appreciated  communication over  meant  expenditure, routine  the protection  other sections  Treasury  hold  of government,  a l l communications between government  Revenue Boards v a l u e d  the  or the C i v i l  t h e s e B o a r d s had  f e r e n c e by  Departments,  t o c o - o r d i n a t e work between d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s T h i s work d i f f e r e d  eenth  the Revenue  c e n t r a l Department  the administration.  ancial  Decision-fraking  F r o m 1663  had  a means f o r  t o 1685  the  income o f James, Duke  when G e o r g e III  surrendered  for a larger Civil  List,  of  the  these  H8 profits  formed p a r t  naturally ant  as  concerned  the Post  tended  of the  to lose  income  i t s e l f with a  Office,  which  i t s political  o f the Crown. source  during the  to reinforce  with  the r e s t  Treasury's appeared  ordinate those from  Post  lies  and  time  to  Part  of the  Office  time  This a l lhelped  bolstering  nearly  store ceased  of the  i t appears  The  not  interest  the Treasury  until  was  Treasury's  l a r g e number o f P o s t  By  Offices  1855  patronage  concern  to  the revenue,  the never  of  able  the to  co-  with a l l  i t was  bound  involvement  in  t h e amount  of  the  start  i t was  means  officials  i n England  and  Wales.  started  Office,  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e by an  Office  4  patronage  had  1830's.  In  the  i t s normal  t h e hope t h a t i t c o u l d  attempts  in  to r e -  incentive behind beyond  of  of the n i n e t e e n t h the  complex o r g a n i s a t i o n .  Treasury's  officials  appointed  to the Post  i f t h e r e was  Office  convenient  that the Treasury  f o r the Post  huge and  that the  the  that the Treasury  Treasury's  suggested  The  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was  of great p o l i t i c a l  economy i n t h i s  liaison  closeness of  government w i t h which  influence.  the nineteenth century,  control  t o a c t as a  Office,  to exercize control,  country provided a very  country Post  provincial t o be  the  i n the  political  T h o u g h i t was  the Post  s u b o r d i n a t e Revenue Board  incentive behind  available.  a l l the  and  to  t o have c o n t a c t .  affairs  a l lareas  The  of debate.  i n which  of t h i s  other s e c t i o n s of  century  i t s right  i n t h e way  the work  patronage in  relations,  t o become a m a t t e r  situation  Treasury  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  import-  eighteenth century  independence.-^  the need f o r the  Treasury  of revenue as  cement the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e T r e a s u r y and  The  desire  ensure  I t has  at exercising  the  a  been minute  149  control  over  largely  ineffective,  guarded  i t s authority.  One in  the  aspect  Post  of  with  this  Indeed  other  concern postal  r e l a t i o n s was  on  general  back: a l m o s t  communications  i n general.  overseas  altered  transport  the  had  over  taken  foreign  nineteenth  possessions,  radically  every  c o n t r o l w h i c h was  f o r them went  i n the  mails,  case  Majesty's  and  the  t h e way  the  Post  i t was  cheaper  s h i p s , as  had  mails naval as  be  d r a w n up  to  decide  or  with  whether the  Although  by  to  dangerous offer  often the for  relations  the  government's  acquisition of  most  shipping  efficient the  184-0's' t h a t  h i r e d packets  than  custom t i l l  to  for  i n nearly Her that in  the  need  The  C o m m i t t e e h o w e v e r was  contracts should  be  put  time.  1849.that  were p r e f e r a b l e t o f o r these  lines,  Admiralty  H o u s e o f Commons r e p o r t e d  care.  of further  responsibility  the  for  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  i n 1837  O f f i c e the  importance  i t s concern  extension i t was  jealously  using  contracts  to  unable  to public  tender  not. When o v e r s e a s  and  the  u s u a l l y been the  emphasized  great  were  foreigh mail  t o u c h e d on  the  contracts with private shipping lines v e s s e l s , and  the  affairs,  But  great  t o use  S e l e c t Committee o f the  naval  century  special  over  f a r as  century,  i t became a p p a r e n t  of  that  i n which  foreign mails. from  nineteenth  the Department n e v e r t h e l e s s  since overseas  powers and  steamships  A  but  inter-departmental  contracts.  O f f i c e i n the  s h i p p i n g s e r v i c e s were r e l a t i v e l y  undertakings  considerable  inducement  government had  political  reasons,  i t was  the to  custom  the  t h e r e was  government  firms i n question.  established a mail  where  f o r the  uncommon  s e r v i c e on  inadequate  a  commer-  Quite  route  150 cial ing  justification  f o rregular sailings.  t o r u n a regular service throughout  average  speed,  felt  to cover  entailed.  the extra cost  I n providing a subsidy  i t was h e l p i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n  courage t h e spread the  of trade  links  the  i n time  o f war.  overseas mail  size,  at a set  Because  the firm  that  these  t h e government  t h e c o l o n i e s , en-  i n f l u e n c e , and ensure ships which would  of this military  be  aspect  advantages  of the ships  o f such  t o be used.  s e r v i c e s may h a v e b e e n c l e a r i n t h e  m i n d s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , b u t t h e c o s t was c o n s i d e r a b l e . 1852 of  t h e p o s t a l r e v e n u e was o n l y  the subsidies.  while  accepting  services,  that  suggested  t h e government alone t h a t much money c o u l d  Committee suggested  number o f s h i p s the  Atlantic,  slightly  and s m a l l e r  could  be saved  should  i f these  was a  large  as f o r i n s t a n c e  merely  the  permitted.  f u r t h e r t h a t where t h e r e  the contracts  year,  organize  s h i p s were  on a p a r t i c u l a r r o u t e ,  In  over h a l f t h e cost  A S e l e c t Committee o f t h e previous  s t i p u l a t i o n s were r e l a x e d The  of  services the contracts usually specified the  power, and speed The  with  and B r i t i s h  c o n s t r u c t i o n of l a r g e and powerful  valuable  the year,  and w i t h heavy p e n a l t i e s f o r delay,  would r e c e i v e a subsidy stipulations  I n r e t u r n f o r agree-  arrange  across  f o rthe trans-  7 port  o f t h e m a i l bags as ordinary The  lowered  r e l a x a t i o n o f the terms  cargo. o f t h e c o n t r a c t s may  costs, but i td i dnot lessen  the involvement  government,  o r t h e need  tiations.  N o r d i d i t end a l l c o m p l a i n t s  A S e l e c t Committee concentrating  f o r the Treasury  o f i860  examined  have of the  to co-ordinate about  nego-  excessive  some o f t h e s e  costs.  complaints,  e s p e c i a l l y on t h e way i n w h i c h t h e c o n t r a c t s  were  151 entered  into.  I t noted  a  and w e l l  defined responsibility"  clear  a "want o f c o n c e r t , a n d a n a b s e n c e o f between t h e government  bodies i n v o l v e d - t h e A d m i r a l t y , t h e Post O f f i c e , and t h e TreaQ sury. I t p o i n t e d o u t two s p e c i f i c w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e way t h e negotiations  f o r t h e c o n t r a c t s were c a r r i e d  out.  First, i t 10  suggested ly,  that Parliamentary control  i t noted  that "great  under t h e present  defects exist  system,  p a r t i e s b y whom s u c h  nized  to  their  t h e Lords  tiating  come t o . "  necessary  Having  concerned  them t o be formed,  and o f  i s acknowledged  clearly  f o ra r i g h t identified  "without having before 12  to belong nego-  p r o c e d u r a l weaknesses, which had  contracts,  t h e way i n w h i c h  These remedies introduce  were  stricter  and which  the Treasury  o f two d i f f e r e n t  the Committee  conducted t o suggest  kinds - those  procedure.  emphasized t h e need t o extend  t o see the contracts before  Accordingly  a l l a t some p o i n t  supervision of contracts,  i n t r o d u c e a more e f f i c i e n t  i t the  determination."  S e l e c t Committee o f 1860 proceeded  House  recog-  although under t h e present  a decision  to unsatisfactory  tunity  right  arrangements t h e r e had r e c e n t l y been cases where t h e  elements  to  to a  The Committee f u r t h e r  of the Treasury,"  had reached  the  are essential  terms and c o n d i t i o n s ,  Treasury  led  i n t h e means p r o v i d e d ,  c o n t r a c t s a r e t o be a u t h o r i z e d a l l t h e  t h a t t h e "power o f a u t h o r i z i n g  prescribing  Second-  f o rb r i n g i n g under t h e n o t i c e oft h e  m a t e r i a l s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which 11 consideration being  was i n a d e q u a t e .  t h e government changed  i t s affairs, remedies. intended t o  and those  intended  I n the f i r s t  category  Parliament's  they were f i n a l l y  oppor13  settled.  t h e Standing Orders  o ft h e  o f Commons i n 1 8 6 0 s o t h a t a l l c o n t r a c t s h a d t o l i e o n t h e  152 Table  o f t h e H o u s e f o r one  binding.  I n 1869  Hartington, tract  had  the  then Postmaster  changed these r e g u l a t i o n s  actually  to receive  House b e f o r e i t became The had  the  Office,  implications  c o n t r a c t s was and  thus  an  legally  General, the Marquis a g a i n so  that  affirmative vote  the  of  of  con-  the  binding.  p r o c e d u r a l remedies  direct  ting  month b e f o r e t h e y became  suggested  by  the Committee a l l  f o r the Treasury. r e t u r n e d from  The  job of n e g o t i a -  the Admiralty to the  Post  t o a Department under f a r c l o s e r  Treasury  The  points,  1A  supervision. which  i t was  Committee a l s o  hoped would  negotiating contracts, of  complaint that  first tion  of the  complete  a mere s a n c t i o n i n g  send  useful  the  Fourth,  must f u l l y  kept  was 15  to  carry  out.  one  may  Second,  implement the s h o u l d see  that the  decisions  a draft  no  the  concerned. way  i n which  had  a very  sort  The distribu-  Treasury not  to  a l l interests  departments might  Third, of the  Fifth,  were be  those  Treasury.  c o n t r a c t and the  circulate Treasury  t h e v a r i o u s schemes  These p o i n t s a l l i n d i c a t e  that  be  T r e a s u r y was  of m a i l contracts.  the Committee the Treasury which  of the  information they f e l t  informed of the out.  The  of  1850's.  of the  must see  consulted.  a l l the departments  were w o r k i n g  form,  late  "whatever  but  Treasury a l lthe  the Treasury  around  m u s t be  of  agent,  system  a repetition  i n the  effective."  i n the n e g o t i a t i o n  concerned  it  so p r e v e n t  been r a i s e d  and  five  a more e f f i c i e n t  business, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n v o l v e d were f u l l y to  and  of these points held that  s h o u l d be be  had  ensure  outlined  that  special  o t h e r department  was  i n the  duty to i n a  view per-  position  The  of difficulty  interested had  Government press  public As  see  points  t h e many  ocean m a i l  well  this  as t h e Post  detailed  negotiations  t o ensure  touch  the charge  that  a  the affairs  indicated,  money was  future,  e i t h e r by t h e s e d e p a r t m e n t s which they  The n e g o t i a t i o n  reconciled.  o f the Board  Thus when t h e  Office t o carry out as t o t h e speed,  with  the overseas mail  that  t h e Post  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine.  o r by t h e c o u n t r i e s  contracts  or the Civil  contracts  Office acted  thus  Service.  and  touched  a s an i n t e g r a l  part  When  of a  although  i t went  on  the exercize  the Treasury had only  I t sa c t u a l a u t h o r i t y over  was n e v e r q u e s t i o n e d ,  there  be r a i s e d i n t h e  o f the Treasury's work from  c o n t r o l over expenditure  Offices,  dealt.  o f ocean m a i l  d i f f e r e n t aspects  well  j o b , but t o  o f t h e s e r v i c e , t h e y h a d t o be s u r e objections would  that  subsidy.  of their  the f i r m i n question  no p o s s i b i l i t y  Office  part  i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e Post with  they  a Colonial  t h e War, C o l o n i a l a n d F o r e i g n  existed  of  level  O f f i c e and t h e Treasury.  issued  rather  that  by g i v i n g t o o h i g h  there  could  the Admiralty,  organizations with  suggest  i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d were e f f e c t i v e l y  contract  and frequency  The  involved  could  was an i m p o r t a n t  Treasury  cost  face.  down by t h e C o m m i t t e e i n i860  laid  two  be c o n s i d e r a b l e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y  a n d Members o f P a r l i a m e n t  although  of Trade, as  could  money h a d b e e n m i s s p e n t  that  could  and where t h i s  T r e a s u r y was n o t m e r e l y  spent,  An  treated,  contracts  were p o t e n t i a l l y  t h e Government  the repercussions  the five  the  that  there  p a r t i e s , a t home o r a b r o a d , m i g h t  been u n f a i r l y  the  which had a r i s e n over the mail  t h e 1850's h a d shown t h a t  during sorts  disputes  dealing t o ensure  large the Post  back t o the  154 days o f p o l i t i c a l the in  i s s u e i s one a way  finance.  to co-ordinate decision  over  circumstances Office  the Post  therefore the Post  the Colonial  a new  c o n t r a c t be drawn up, o r t h a t c e r t a i n f o r one t h a t was  would suggest  t h e scheme i n p r i n c i p l e  structed  to invite  Office to  would  sift  offers these  from  p a r t i c u l a r 'route,  Post  Office's  able,  and send  ensure  Treasury w o u l d be i n The  Office sury.  i t was  send  of the offers  should  be  detailed  instructions  who  would  I f nobody r a i s e d  was  Treasury  t h e most were  to the Post A draft  again clear  Office  would i t with  from  draw up  the TreaMinutes  t h e terms o f the c o n t r a c t and g i v i n g reasons  t h e c o n t r a c t w h e n i t was approval.  The  i t .  laid  a p p r o v a l was  later  objections the Post  w o u l d a t t h e same t i m e  Government had u n d e r t a k e n  suit-  of the plan the  would c l o s e t h e c o n t r a c t on i n s t r u c t i o n s The  on  accepting the  t h a t nobody's i n t e r e s t s  to negotiate the contract.  departments.  describing  Post  involved i n the service  of the f e a s i b i l i t y  be r e t u r n e d t o t h e T r e a s u r y other  that  t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ones  and w h i l e n e a r l y a l w a y s  Once c o n v i n c e d  Treasury would o n how  1  a d v i c e on which  would thereby  harmed.  for  Office  pos-  taken to  the shipping firms.  offers  or  I n t h e meantime t h e T r e a s u r y would have been i n  this  to  s t e p s be I f the  the Post  contact w i t h the other departments  the  Office  t h e T r e a s u r y 'with i t s recommendation about which  accepted.  first  to the Treasury  about t o e x p i r e .  approved  taking  Office.  sibly  tender  Indeed  and i m p o s s i b l e when i t h a d  i t s authority  normal  and d i s o r d e r l y  of i t s ability  both unnecessary  established In  patronage  The M i n u t e s  were  b e f o r e t h e House normally only a  why  attached  o f Commons formality,  155 and  therefore  was  given,  as  " o f t e n as  not"  even though the  the  contract  service  started before  was  at  not  that  i t  stage  1 ft legally  binding.  Prom the ferent  start  from the  other  the  years.  out  the  had  been f o r c e d  I t 'was  of  to  such  Livingstone  and  introduced  adopt by  others  that  of the  Livingstone.  by  the  abolition  tractable Sultan  c o n d o n e d 'the  trade.  was  a party of  Coast  area  to  the  was  of of  standing  of Zanzibar,  interests i n that  activities  18  long  Government the  details  there  over  stamp  a r o u s e d by  remained unaffected  dif-  sponsored  The  showed t h a t  Moreover the  was  Gladstone  a public opinion  as  1873  a p o l i c y to  East  17 ions. A sense of with humanitarianism  on  part  the  of p r o t e c t i n g her  slave  of  on  pense, meant t h a t B r i t a i n  the  service  trade  E m p i r e i n 1833•  Sultan  as  revealed  slave  of b o l s t e r i n g the way  mail  s e r v i c e s governments had  explorers  considerable  w h i c h had the  Zanzibar  East A f r i c a n slave trade  reports  very  the  that  s t i l l  a  Africa slavery  British as  the  without trade,  in policy  best  great since  s l a v e r s i n h i s own  exthe  domin-  i n j u r e d n a t i o n a l honour thus combined i n p u s h i n g the government to a c t a g a i n s t A Select  Committee  E a s t A f r i c a n ' s l a v e r y i n 1871,  and  of  the  called  Commons  f o r the  reported  vigorous 19  use  of  " a l l l e g i t i m a t e means" t o b r i n g i t t o  the  face  of  this  e v i d e n c e and  of the  great  a close.  pressure  In  J  of  public  o p i n i o n the government announced i n the Queen's Speech of F e b r u a r y 1872 that i t would take steps to a b o l i s h the s l a v e trade. the  I t was  following The  two  to repeat year.  this  pledge i n the  Queen's Speech  of  20  measures that  the  government  decided  on  were  ex-  156 tensions It  of  i t s traditional  w o u l d n e g o t i a t e a new  the  right  to have  k i n g d o m , and Aden to these a  the  and  Zanzibar as  the  slowly  a line  of the  abrupt  n e g o t i a t e d by  a high  qualms about  Zanzibar.  inimical  level  t o t r y 'to p e r s u a d e t h e  round  steamers  enough t o  of s l a v e r y i n the  thus  the  the  was  h i s own  concern,  but  new  economic  s l a v e r y , and  forcing  done  diplomat  Gladstone  trade  Both  The  to accepting abolition. legitimacy of  from  to British  S u l t a n of the  objections to  own  endanger  area.  British  him  within his  of m a i l at  deny  t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and  S u l t a n ' s r e g i m e was  abolition  of i n f l u e n c e .  Sultan to  slave trade  Cape o f Good Hope, c a l l i n g  humanitarian  internal  w i t h the  i t would e s t a b l i s h  the  t o be  African policy  even a domestic  awareness t h a t anything  stability  was  treaty  steps were concessions  full  ests  East  the intertreaty  sent  to  as  well  bring  had  him  many  Sulton, since  accepted  with  that  the  the  21 government had  no  choice  but  to act.  new  m a i l s t e a m e r s e r v i c e was  to help  and  "civilization,"  and  conditions under which mail  s e r v i c e was  slavery  policy,  earlier  policy  i n the  but  so  i n the  The open the  long term  one  aspect  of the  influence.  eyes of the  The  g o v e r n m e n t was  The  an  to  the  commerce  remove  the  anti-  extension of of  of  Aden-Cape  government's  purpose thus  area  to help  slavery flourished.  w h i c h i n i t s t u r n was of  intention  the  the m a i l s e r v i c e  chiefly  political  and  humanitarian. The the  East  Government's commitment t o t a k i n g s t e p s African  negotiation d e c i s i o n was  of  slave trade  the  taken  had  big repercussions  Zanzibar mail contract. i n an  to a b o l i s h  atmosphere  The  on  fact  the that  of considerable p u b l i c  the  157 e x c i t e m e n t m e a n t t h a t 'the able new  to reverse  i t s policy.  s e r v i c e , and  therefore  difficulties because the  that  this  the  basis  not  the  actual  with and  the  upon. its  as  taking  the  an  other  decision  decision  Treasury  the  was  formed  rather  than  contract,  Department i t touched  T r e a s u r y was  of  Treasury in  interests that  the  undermining  information  between  interest i n despatching therefore  i t would normally  have  com-  involved  work done i n a n o t h e r  and  and  important,  come f r o m  about the  an  entirely  expenses  f a r more  be  need f o r b e t t e r p o s t a l  The  possible,  the  the  i n neglecting exercised  the  itself  departments. the  a u t u m n Of  Exchequer,  the  various  I t had  extra  an  a political  tended to  of the  with  administrative  Office.  the  But  clearing-house  r e s u l t of  i n the  a l l the  initiative  influence  contacting  the  the  parties.  restraining  policy  Post  q u i c k l y as  a  of  u n l i k e l y ever to  saddled  r e s u l t of  initiative  r e c o n c i l i n g of  p o s i t i o n as  As  not  mere a p p r o v a l  In  matter  the  detailed decisions  interested  in  the  from the  the  with  of 'evidence about  munications, and  and  I t was  involved.  s e r v i c e was  taken i n Cabinet, on  G o v e r n m e n t was  contacted  Cabinet's 1871 the  d e c i s i o n on  anti-slavery  R o b e r t Lowe, t h e  Chancellor  Secretary  Post  of  the  of  Office,  22 John T i l l e y , cost  of  places  a  and  service  on  the  a s k e d him  t o make e n q u i r i e s  b e t w e e n A d e n and  way.  Lowe h a d  the  a very  about  Cape c a l l i n g  poor opinion  master General,  William Monsell,  and  from the  only  i n whose a b i l i t y  and  e f f i c i e n c y he  with  dence. not  those  John T i l l e y  i n the  Cabinet,  was and  one  s u c h man.  therefore  the at  various  of the  start  Post-  dealt had  Because Monsell  presumably not  likely  confiwas  immediately  158 privy  t o ••the d e c i s i o n o n a n t i - s l a v e r y p o l i c y , i t w a s e a s i e r t o  p a s s h i m b y t h a n i t would have been most d e p a r t m e n t a l sters.  Tilley  received  two r e p l i e s from h i s  enquiries.  from Mr. H a m i l t o n , manager o f t h e Union Steamship offered but  month, t h e s u b s i d y was  to last  Monteath,  There w o u l d be one s h i p  One,  Company,  t o do t h e s e r v i c e f r o m t h e Cape a s f a r a s  n o t on t o Aden.  mini-  Zanzibar,  e a c h way e v e r y  w a s t o b e £29,000 p e r y e a r a n d t h e c o n t r a c t  f o r seven years.  Director General  t i m e w a s home i n E n g l a n d  The o t h e r  o f Posts  o f f e r came f r o m M r .  f o r I n d i a , who a t t h a t  on leave.  He s a i d t h a t  the British  23 I n d i a Steam N a v i g a t i o n business, the  the  would r u n a s e r v i c e  Cape f o r a s u b s i d y  Indian  contract."  journey  Of t h i s  therefore passed  retary  to the Chancellor  information  examined  1873, L o w e i s e m p h a t i c  lished.  He w a s o n l y  ment c o u l d would ly  enter  be " g u i d e d  Government c o u l d  the contract  t e r m s t o be g i v e n .  would  This  d i r e c t f r o m t h e Company.  on t o t h e a c t i n g p r i v a t e  In his  evidence  t h e whole a f f a i r at this  sec-  stage  to the Select  i n t h e summer o f t h e Government h a d  o n how t h e s e r v i c e was t o b e  gathering  information  so that  estab-  t h e Govern-  i n t h e m a k i n g u p o f o u r m i n d s w h e t h e r we  into the plan  an overstatement  was f o r t h e s t a g e o f  o n D e c e m b e r 19th, 1871, who i n h i s  that  reached any decisions  did  of the general  and t h e Cape;  t u r n gave i t d i r e c t t o Lowe. Committee which  whom h e n o r m a l l y  s u m £16,315  was n o t r e c e i v e d  this  with  every f o u r weeks from Aden t o  t e n years' f o r t h e s e  Tilley  not  J  o f £27,365 " a s p a r t  between Zanzibar  have t o l a s t offer  Company,  since  or not."  2 4  This  i s almost c e r t a i n -  i t i shighly u n l i k e l y that the  have gone b a c k  on i t s word about t r y i n g t o  159 a b o l i s h the E a s t coast s l a v e trade, such was the s t r e n g t h of opinion.  But the evidence  of the other witnesses before the  Committee c o r r o b o r a t e s Lowe's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a t t h i s  stage  the Government had not reached  The Trea-  any f i n a l d e c i s i o n s .  sury, f o l l o w i n g u s u a l p r a c t i c e , then contacted the other ments i n v o l v e d .  depart-  I n response t o t h i s , on January 10th, 1872,  the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e sent despatches to the Governments of the Cape and of N a t a l o u t l i n i n g the B r i t i s h Government's p l a n s , g i v i n g d e t a i l s o f the o f f e r of the B r i t i s h I n d i a Company by way of example, and i n v i t i n g the two Governments to c o n t r i b u t e t o wards the c o s t o f the subsidy. f o r the s e r v i c e .  Only N a t a l o f f e r e d t o h e l p pay  The F o r e i g n O f f i c e f o r i t s p a r t , i n response  to the request o f the Treasury,  r a i s e d the matter with  those  European Governments w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the area, and i n v i t e d them t o h e l p i n the suppression  of the s l a v e t r a d e .  They a l l  r e p l i e d i n a noncommittal way. The c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s e from the f a c t that the Union Company a l s o h e l d the c o n t r a c t f o r the r e g u l a r d i r e c t s e r v i c e from B r i t a i n to t h e Cape by the A t l a n t i c r o u t e .  They had  25 c a r r i e d out the s e r v i c e s i n c e 1857, c o n t r a c t renewed t i l l  and i n 1868 had had t h e i r  1876 w i t h a subsidy of £20,000 a year and  a time l i m i t of t h i r t y seven days f o r the voyage.  Early i n  January 1872 they had approached the Post O f f i c e and that t h e i r c o n t r a c t be extended u n t i l 1881. would immediately and  suggested  I n r e t u r n they  s t a r t making the voyage i n t h i r t y f o u r days,  i n t h i r t y days i n 1873, and would surrender what amounted  to about £1,900 a year from t h e i r subsidy.  On 29th January,  when b i s department had examined the p r o p o s a l , Monsell wrote  160 to  t h e Treasury  good b a r g a i n  recommending t h a t t h e o f f e r he accepted  for both the B r i t i s h  William Baxter,  Secretary  Government and t h e Cape.  t o the Treasury,  disagreed  Postmaster General,  and t o l d  the  on t o h i m i n t h e u s u a l way.  contract papers  disliked  awarding contracts  Treasury  d i dn o t inform  because t h e papers Nothing the  the Chancellor  over  any other  stayed  U n i o n Company, h a v i n g  considered  by t h e Treasury,  w i t h Lowe.  The o b j e c t  such a long  I n the course  direct be  negotiated  a s one.  On M a y 1 6 t h , the next  of t h i s  This  previous  things  Hamilton,  summer, r e a d  British time it  January,  to lapse  pleted  had an i n t e r v i e w  that  con-  henceforth and t h e  f o ra w h i l e . the Select  Com-  i n a c u t t i n g from a South A f r i c a n t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e had sent out of the cheaper o f f e r  that the  T h i s was t h e f i r s t  t h e U n i o n Company h a d a r i v a l ,  t h a t by t h e time  i t was u n l i k e l y  could  f o r the  s e r v i c e , would  a s he was t o t e l l  and therefore  he was aware t h a t  made h i m r e a l i s e  being  i n t e r v i e w Lowe a n n o u n c e d t h a t h e  I n d i a C o m p a n y h a d made f o r t h e r o u t e .  that  office.  when M r . H a m i l t o n o f  done, b o t h t h e T r e a s u r y  newspaper o f t h e despatch that the  offer  o f the Western route  and f o rt h e Zanzibar  U n i o n Company a l l o w e d  mittee  11th,  private  t h e U n i o n Company's two p r o p o s a l s ,  Cape r o u t e  The  o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was t o s e e i f he  tract.  that  period.  a t h i s own r e q u e s t  a d e c i s i o n on t h e e x t e n s i o n  decided  strongly  t h a t t h e m a t t e r was  expedite  had  He  departments of t h i s  April  learned  with the  so when he handed  i n the Chancellor's  f u r t h e r was done u n t i l  as a  the total  thenegotiations subsidy  Cape would  amount t o more t h a n a b o u t £25,000.  approached  the British  and  were.com-  f r o m Aden t o t h e He  accordingly  I n d i a Company a b o u t m a k i n g a c o m b i n e d  161 offer.  On J u n e  contract  to the Chancellor.  British  It  was q u i t e  it  arrangement t h e  a n d t h e U n i o n Company t h e Z a n z i b a r - C a p e  f o r £15,000;  should  Under t h i s  both contracts  contrary  t o normal p r a c t i c e that  Both the Treasury  this  joint  tender  who  this told  offer nobody  that  earlier  o f f e r s t h e y h a d made f o r t h e E a s t  and a s e r i e s of large  London, prodded t h e T r e a s u r y  coast  route.  of reports  and i n f l u e n t i a l  13th the Chancellor  wrote t o the Post  a  of the joint  o f June 25th and t e l l i n g  negotiate  a detailed contract  Western route  from  i t .  f o r the purposes  the  Government would t h e r e b y w i n b e t t e r Office already  of these negotiations  the  was s e n t  not e x p l i c i t l y  Western contract.  August  On enclosing them t o and  13th l e t t e r  i n t h e hope  terms.  Since  as that  the  knew a l l a b o u t t h e W e s t e r n o f f e r o f t h e  of the l e t t e r  were t h e r e f o r e  Office  The E a s t e r n  U n i o n Company t h e T r e a s u r y m e r e l y a l l u d e d A copy  meetings  t e n d e r s o f t h e U n i o n were t o be c o n s i d e r e d  one  Post  from  into further action.  August  tender  con-  o f June 25th superseded any  D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1872 a f r e s h s p a t e  copy  that  and t h e two Companies  sidered  Livingstone,  ser-  were t o r u n f o r t e n y e a r s .  b e made d i r e c t t o t h e C h a n c e l l o r ,  had a r r i v e d .  in  combined  I n d i a Company w o u l d do t h e A d e n - Z a n z i b a r s e r v i c e f o r  £10,000 a y e a r , vice  25th t h e two Companies s u b m i t t e d a  to i ti n this  letter.  on t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , told  of the proposals  who  t o extend  The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e f o r w a r d e d t h e  t o t h e Cape.  In i t s reply  t h e Cape  m e n t made no m e n t i o n o f a n y p l a n s  about  route  t h e a l l u s i o n had n o t been  strong  to Britain,  i n d i c a t i n g that  enough t o i n f o r m  the Western  Govern-  those not already  acquainted  direct  with the  162 facts. Though the P o s t O f f i c e had p r e v i o u s l y known n o t h i n g of t h e j o i n t o f f e r i t proceeded t o open n e g o t i a t i o n s , win c e r t a i n concessions  and managed t o  from the Union Company.  29th 1872 the P o s t O f f i c e s e n t d r a f t c o n t r a c t s  On October t o the  Treasury  f o r a p p r o v a l , and t h e s e were a u t h o r i z e d on the f o l l o w i n g day. The P o s t O f f i c e and the r e s p e c t i v e Companies s i g n e d the c o n tracts  s h o r t l y b e f o r e C h r i s t m a s , though the B r i t i s h I n d i a Com-  pany s t a r t e d t h e i r s e r v i c e from Aden t o Z a n z i b a r e a r l y i n December.  The U n i o n Company s t a r t e d i t s s t a g e of t h e Z a n z i b a r  r u n e a r l y i n F e b r u a r y 1873• O p p o s i t i o n t o the Government's p r o p o s a l s s t a r t e d i n November 1872, tracts.  a f t e r Lowe had a u t h o r i z e d the s i g n i n g of the c o n -  I n the m i d d l e of the month the Cape Merchants i n  London h e a r d of t h e d e c i s i o n t o extend the Western and h e l d a p r o t e s t m e e t i n g .  contract,  A week l a t e r they sent  letters  and " e x t e n s i v e l y s i g n e d " memoranda t o the P o s t O f f i c e and the T r e a s u r y o b j e c t i n g t o the e x t e n s i o n .  They h e l d t h a t the Cape  had not been c o n s u l t e d and t h e r e e x i s t e d an a l t e r n a t i v e  ship-  p i n g l i n e w h i c h was a b l e t o do the s e r v i c e more e f f i c i e n t l y , so t h a t the c o n t r a c t tender.  ought t o have been a d v e r t i z e d f o r p u b l i c  They o b j e c t e d t o the h i g h r a t e of 1 / - p e r -|oz.  letter,  which might have been j u s t i f i e d i n 186^ when i t was i n t r o d u c e d , but which was not any l o n g e r w i t h the enormous growth i n m a i l s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the d i s c o v e r y of diamonds at K i m b e r l e y i n 1867.  The Cape Merchants showed t h a t  since January  1872  t h e r e had been a n o t h e r Company on the d i r e c t r o u t e t o the Cape - t h a t o f M r . D o n a l d C u r r i e - which d i d the t r i p i n 30 days o r  163  l e s s and c a r r i e d a i-oz. l e t t e r f o r 4d.  C u r r i e had p l a y e d no  s m a l l p a r t i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r o t e s t s o f t h e Cape M e r c h a n t s , and t o t h a t e x t e n t Lowe was j u s t i f i e d i n t h i n k i n g t h e p r o t e s t s were m e r e l y a l o b b y f o r C u r r i e . t h i s competition  But i t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t  had f o r c e d t h e U n i o n Company t o improve i t s  s e r v i c e v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n o r d e r t o keep p a s s e n g e r s and c a r go.  The Cape Merchants had t h e q u i t e l e g i t i m a t e c o m p l a i n t  t h a t t h e r e now e x i s t e d a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d l i n e which would prove a v e r y s t r o n g r i v a l t o t h e U n i o n Company i n any p u b l i c tender.  Indeed d u r i n g August 1872, b e f o r e t h e d e c i s i o n t o  extend t h e p u b l i c c o n t r a c t had become p u b l i c knowledge, and therefore before  C u r r i e c o u l d have had any i n t e r e s t i n manu-  f a c t u r i n g o p p o s i t i o n , t h e r e had been l e t t e r s i n t h e Times p o i n t i n g out how much more e f f i c i e n t t h e C u r r i e s h i p s were 27 compared w i t h t h o s e o f the U n i o n Company. The  o p p o s i t i o n soon s p r e a d t o t h e Cape, where people were  angered t h a t t h e y had n o t been c o n s u l t e d about t h e e x t e n s i o n of t h e Western c o n t r a c t f o r t h e U n i o n Company. 3rd  On J a n u a r y  1873 t h e Cape Governor r e p o r t e d t h i s o p p o s i t i o n back t o  London, and on F e b r u a r y 1 9 t h t h e Times mentioned a l a r g e meeting  i n Cape Town where t h e new arrangements were " u n i v e r s a l l y 28  condemned."  I n t h e meantime t h e T r e a s u r y c a r r i e d on i t s  u s u a l p r o c e d u r e and p r e p a r e d d e s c r i p t i v e M i n u t e s , w h i c h i t l a i d before Parliament  with the contracts.  These M i n u t e s  o u t l i n e d t h e terms o f t h e c o n t r a c t s i n n o n - t e c h n i c a l  language,  but d i d not make c l e a r as f a r as t h e U n i o n Company was conc e r n e d t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t s had been n e g o t i a t e d  as one.  How-  e v e r t h e c o n t r a c t s were n e v e r brought t o a v o t e b e f o r e t h e  House, because i n the f a c e of mounting o p p o s i t i o n i n B r i t a i n and the Cape Lowe withdrew them b o t h .  The arrangements on the  Western r o u t e t h e r e f o r e r e v e r t e d to what they had been b e f o r e the Union Company a p p l i e d f o r i t s extension,  so t h a t the eon-  t r a c t would come up f o r renewal i n 1876 and presumably be put to  public  tender.  This s t i l l  l e f t Lowe w i t h the problem of what to do about  the East Coast s e r v i c e .  The s e r v i c e was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of  the Government's a n t i - s l a v e r y p o l i c y , and so could not be abandoned.  Moreover a t t h a t time B r i t a i n was e x e r t i n g c o n s i d e r -  able d i p l o m a t i c pressure  on the S u l t a n , and i t was  important  t h a t the B r i t i s h envoy, S i r B a r t l e Prere, r e c e i v e d a l l the backing  he needed.  Lowe had n e g o t i a t e d t h i s c o n t r a c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h the Western one which he had now withdrawn, and the Union Company o f f e r of June 25 1872 f o r a £15,000 subsidy had been made i n the knowledge t h a t both r o u t e s were t o be n e g o t i a t e d as one. operate new  Furthermore the Union Company had a l r e a d y s t a r t e d to the E a s t e r n r o u t e , and had spent c o n s i d e r a b l e sums on  ships f o r the purpose.  In view of t h i s , and because he  wanted t o s t a r t the s e r v i c e as soon as p o s s i b l e , Lowe immedia t e l y o f f e r e d the Company b e t t e r terms f o r the E a s t e r n routeHe was q u i t e aware that the £15,000 had been an a r t i f i c i a l l y low o f f e r made i n the hope t h a t i t would improve the Company's chances i n winning an extension of the Western c o n t r a c t .  He  t h e r e f o r e r e v i v e d the o r i g i n a l o f f e r which had been made back i n November 1871, but which had been superseded by the j o i n t tender  of June 25th, 1872, reduced the suggested subsidy by  £3,000, and asked T i l l e y t o enquire whether the Union Company  165 would do the Zanzibar-Cape  service f o r £26,000.  n e g o t i a t i o n s took p l a c e .  The Government merely  £26,000,  No normal offered  and a f t e r c e r t a i n h e s i t a t i o n the Union Company accepted.  The p r e s s and M.P.' s l e v e l l e d t h e i r a t t a c k a g a i n s t Lowe on f o u r counts.  Though the d e s i r e t o d i s c r e d i t the Govern-  ment, and Lowe p e r s o n a l l y , was an added i n c e n t i v e , there was a s o l i d b a s i s f o r the attack which was obvious t o a l l s i d e s .  They  accused him of d e c e i v i n g Parliament when he f i r s t presented the c o n t r a c t s i n February 1873, because the explanatory Minutes had not made c l e a r t h a t the arrangements f o r the two Union Company s e r v i c e s had been connected.  Therefore, a c c o r d i n g t o the Times  he had l e d Parliament to b e l i e v e t h a t the a n t i - s l a v e r y s e r v i c e was only c o s t i n g £ 1 5 , 0 0 0 , while i n r e a l i t y i t was c o s t i n g more but the r e s t was being defrayed out o f the Union Company's p r o f i t s on the Western r o u t e .  I t was suggested  t h a t Lowe's  w i l l i n g n e s s t o r a i s e the subsidy when he had abandoned the 29 Western c o n t r a c t proved t h i s p o i n t .  Secondly  i t was sugges-  ted t h a t Lowe was wasting p u b l i c funds by paying out the e x t r a £ 1 1 , 0 0 0 merely  t o f r e e h i m s e l f from the p o s i t i o n h i s own incom-  petence had f o r c e d him i n t o . g e t t i n g all  r  T h i r d l y Lowe was accused of f o r -  about the o f f e r from the B r i t i s h I n d i a Company o f  December 1871 t o do the complete Aden-Cape route f o r a subsidy of £27,365-  He had plunged  s t r a i g h t i n t o the new arrangements  f o r the E a s t e r n s e r v i c e without s t o p p i n g to c o n s i d e r whether the Union Company could make the b e s t o f f e r when i t was n o t combined w i t h t h e i r Western c o n t r a c t . accused  And f o u r t h l y Lowe was  of mixing up a p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e , the E a s t e r n , w i t h a  normal p o s t a l one i n such a way as t o cause c o n f u s i o n .  These  p o i n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the l a s t three, were the s u b j e c t of an  en-  q u i r y by a S e l e c t Committee of the House of Commons which r e ported  i n J u l y 1873  route c o n t r a c t be  and  recommended t h a t the modified  dropped.  But  ready i n c u r r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e n t l y and  given f i r s t  s i n c e the Union Company had a l -  expense they might be t r e a t e d  chance to make a cheaper tender.  Government approached the Union Company again, who lower the subsidy  to £20,000, and  accepted on August 4th, The  1873«  reached were l a t e r r e v e r s e d .  t r a c t , and  the Cape f o r c e d him  opened  that the  Increasing  decisions  opposition i n  t o withdraw the Western con-  a S e l e c t Committee of the Commons had  arrangements he had  The  agreed to  important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s not t h a t Lowe had  B r i t a i n and  leni-  t h i s arrangement the House  h i m s e l f to a t t a c k from p o l i t i c a l r i v a l s , but he had  Eastern  rejected  the  made w i t h the Union Company f o r the  Zanzibar-Cape s e r v i c e .  While there may  where a m i n i s t e r , even one  be many i n s t a n c e s  as s e n i o r as the C h a n c e l l o r  of  the  Exchequer, i s f o r c e d to back down w i t h i n the p r i v a c y of h i s own  department or of the Cabinet room, i t i s r a r e indeed that  f i n a l Treasury d e c i s i o n s have to be r e t r a c t e d because of p u b l i c and P a r l i a m e n t a r y  opposition.  a l l those concerned that there  I t i s a severe indictment should  have been such a  m i s c a l c u l a t i o n of the l i k e l y impact of the c o n t r a c t s .  on  total It  seems that Lowe's method of d e a l i n g w i t h the matter  explains  the shortcomings of the eventual  decision.  I f the  Treasury,  or more e s p e c i a l l y Lowe h i m s e l f ,  had  only taken the  decisions  a f t e r the Treasury had  s i f t e d a l l the a v a i l a b l e  on the m a i l c o n t r a c t s and  information  t h e i r probable consequences, then  167 the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered on t h i s o c c a s i o n c o u l d have been avoided.  I t would appear moreover t h a t the d e c i s i o n - t a k i n g  procedure o u t l i n e d by the S e l e c t Committee on Packet g r a p h i c C o n t r a c t s i n i860 provided the necessary  and  Tele-  safeguards  and  checks. The  events over the Zanzibar and the Western c o n t r a c t s  appear t o have f o l l o w e d the course normal f o r a l l m a i l cont r a c t s u n t i l Lowe decided he would c o n s i d e r both Union Company tenders as one-  Before t h a t date the u s u a l p r e l i m i n a r y sound-  i n g out of other departments had O f f i c e , i n the u s u a l way,  taken p l a c e , and  the Post  had passed on i t s recommendation  about the e x t e n s i o n of the Western c o n t r a c t .  But because Lowe  had undertaken to d e a l w i t h the m a i l s e r v i c e aspect of the Government's a n t i - s l a v e r y p o l i c y , he and h i s p e r s o n a l took d e c i s i o n s i n a way the u s u a l channels.  staff  t h a t meant a f f a i r s d i d not pass through  And  once he had  decided to l i n k the  two  r o u t e s the d i s c u s s i o n s over the Western c o n t r a c t were a l s o taken out of normal departmental the e a r l y p a r t of 1872, public opinion.  circulation.  not,  Though he was  The  save money as to speed t h i n g s  Indeed the remarkable t h i n g i s t h a t at t h i s stage the so slow over r e a c h i n g i t s d e c i s i o n s .  to taken up.  Treasury  I t would appear t h a t  the only b a s i s of Lowe's d e c i s i o n to l i n k the two r o u t e s  was  the i n f o r m a t i o n T i l l e y had  the  sent him  by  not u n t i l the summer of  d e c i s i o n to l i n k the c o n t r a c t s was  probably as much to t r y and  from  acting in a f i e l d restricted  t h a t pressure mounted to the p o i n t where a choice had  be made at once.  was  during  because of any unbearable pressure  the need to a b o l i s h s l a v e r y , i t was 1872  T h i s was  i n December 1871  and  . 168 Post  Office's  recommendation  The  joint  necessity route.  offer  of formally  between June the  Post  Post  the Post  Office  Office,  with mail  h a d been sent  Office  to start  the division  the E a s t e r n and Western  draft  the letter  heard  nothing of this  felt  throughout  satisfactorily  because he took  when h e w r o t e  instructing  negotiations.  would n o r m a l l y pass i n the dark  until  o f August  13th.  letter.  about  Thus t h e normally  instructed  dealt  through  on t h e i r way t o  the association of  The T r e a s u r y  mail contracts  i n a memorandum  to  The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y The C h a n c e l l o r appears  t h a t so l o n g a s t h e a f f a i r i t was q u i t e  no  t e n d e r w a s made  o f the Treasury which  tenders.  was not' i n f o r m e d  highly  But he  and t h e S e c r e t a r y o f the Treasury  C h a n c e l l o r , were l e f t  division  coast  to him d i r e c t .  the joint  detailed  whose hands a l l t h e papers the  of the  o r anybody e l s e what had happened.  13th,  and August  contracts,  f o r the East  objected at the time  by Lowe t o a c c e p t  25th  the Treasury  t o t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e t h a t i t was  does n o t appear t o have  decision  relieved  requesting offers  that the offer  to t e l l  25th  o f June  Lowe a d m i t t e d  irregular  The  contract of  1872.  January  steps  on t h e W e s t e r n  i n order  t o have  was p r o g r e s s i n g  t o proceed  i n this  u n c o n v e n t i o n a l way. Impatience  w i t h b u r e a u c r a t i c methods alone  Lowe's b e h a v i o u r , t h e man others  although  to tolerate  unnecessary  i n the Treasury  of the c a p a b i l i t i e s  once he had d e c i d e d delay.  does n o t e x p l a i n t o a c t he was n o t  His failure  i s an immediate r e f l e c t i o n  o f t h o s e w i t h whom h e w a s  to inform  of h i s opinion  supposed  Above a l l he had a v e r y low o p i n i o n o f t h e F i n a n c i a l  t o work.  Secretary  169 of the Treasury,  W i l l i a m B a x t e r , who  the  important  had  made a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n i n t h e  as  an  ardent  papers  t h a t came i n t o  would n o r m a l l y see a l l  advocate  of public  the  up  t o h i s g o o d name.  On  before  he  instructed  Office  the  the Post  c o n t r a c t s , Lowe w r o t e  Baxter's position  as  August  such  had  im-  he  12th,  1872,  to start negoti-  to the Prime  as S e c r e t a r y to the  1860's  once i n o f f i c e  to l i v e  day  ating  But  Baxter  1850's a n d  economy, and  pressed h i m s e l f upon G l a d s t o n e . ^ failed  the Department.  Minister  about  Treasury.  I n t h a t o f f i c e he i s a p e r f e c t c y p h e r t h e w h o l e o f t h e b u s i n e s s i s d o n e b y L i n g e n & me a n d I s h o u l d s a y b y my s e c r e t a r y t o whom p e o p l e come w h e n t h e y o u g h t t o go t o B a x t e r . He h a s n e v e r i n v e s t i g a t e d o r worked out a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n o f d e t a i l o r indeed t h r o w n any l i g h t on any q u e s t i o n w h a t e v e r . He i s p e r s o n a l l y not u n p o p u l a r i n the o f f i c e but has n e i t h e r weight, nor i n f l u e n c e , nor knowledge. 31 He  complained  to  spend on  i n the  same l e t t e r  c o - o r d i n a t i n g those  of the beneath  amount o f t i m e he  had  him  he  - a complaint  32 had  v o i c e d i n the House t h r e e y e a r s  his Financial and a  S e c r e t a r y t h e r e f o r e Lowe was  inefficient  d e c i s i o n and  this  does not  Lowe was job.  a d m i n i s t r a t o r who would  a v o i d the  Although'the and  w o u l d do  i n a l lprobability fact,  from  by-passing  by-passing  a  nothing to  expedite  have d e l a y e d  carrying  s l a v e t r a d e made t h e  out  lazy  it.  But  that  i t s proper  Zanzibar contract  a l t h o u g h r e l a t i o n s w i t h B a x t e r made i t h a r d  t o work i n harmony, t h e p r i n c i p a l reconcile  In  even i f i t e x p l a i n s i t ,  preventing the Treasury  exceptional,  earlier.  interests  and  centralize  task of the Treasury decisions.  p u r s u i t o f a w e l l o r g a n i z e d p r o c e d u r e was I n a l e t t e r he w r o t e t o Lowe i n J u n e  For  was  this  essential. 1873, a f t e r the  to the  ex-  170 posure  of the  "miscarriage that  this  affair,  Gladstone  or irregular  was  a lapse from  referred  t o w h a t he  called  the  handling of papers"  and  suggested  earlier practice.  He  continued,  I t seems n e c e s s a r y t h a t a dept. l i k e t h e T r e a s u r y s h o u l d h a v e a t l e a s t o n e p e r s o n a s a c e n t r e , who s h o u l d he c o g n i z a n t o f e v e r y p a p e r as i t p a s s e s through the o f f i c e . T h i s p e r s o n c a n n o t be t h e Ch. o f t h e Ex on a c c o u n t o f t h e w e i g h t and v a r i e t y o f h i s g e n e r a l - d u t i e s . 33 The he  implication was  that  had  changed from  i n the Treasury emphasizes  procedure  that  Lowe f o l l o w e d .  o f M o n s e l l , and  his desire  w i t h h i s apparent Treasury, cations atic  practice  had  i n a  him  to expedite the  to tolerate  of August  1st  1873  said  that  one  rules,  and  Lowe m a n i f e s t l y  leading  to l i v e  "should expect  up  and  combined  f o r the  were  article  i n the  a m a r t i n e t i n adherence failed  i n the  a b r e a k d o w n i n communi-  C H A N C E L L O R o f t h e EXCHEQUER p u n c t i l i o u s fixed  role  s i t u a t i o n where good communications A  when  of Baxter  decision,  of the correct  of good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  time  the p e r s o n a l element  Lowe's d i s t r u s t  unawareness  caused  the  to  to this  symptom-  i n the  Times  to find  the  observance  routine."-^  definition  of  4  of h i s  duties. The  consequences'of  w i t h i n the But  Lowe's f a i l u r e  T r e a s u r y were not  his failure  to inform others  very severe  to inform the Colonial  O f f i c e ' s recommendation of January  i n August  Office  1872  was  of h i s defeat over the Western contract. August  13th merely  Western contract, letter.  alluded but  Thus u n t i l  of the  the  chief  Post cause  The  letter  of  to the proposals to  extend  the  the C o l o n i a l the  1873•  Office  e x i s t e n c e of the  saw  only  this  contract plans  be-  171 came p u b l i c knowledge' i n November 1872 and the Cape Merchants i n London had p r o t e s t e d so v i g o r o u s l y the T r e a s u r y was not i n any p o s i t i o n t o know what the l i k e l y r e a c t i o n would b e . u n t i l J a n u a r y 1873,  Not  when t h e r e had been time f o r the rumours  t o r e a c h the Cape, f o r a r e a c t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e r e ,  and f o r  news of t h i s t o r e t u r n t o London, c o u l d the T r e a s u r y p o s s i b l y know of the f e e l i n g s of those c h i e f l y a f f e c t e d . 1872,  I n January  when the P o s t O f f i c e had suggested t h a t the U n i o n Com-  p a n y ' s r e q u e s t t o extend t h e i r c o n t r a c t be a c c e p t e d , t h e r e had not been any r i v a l s on the Western r o u t e . f i r s t a d v e r t i z e m e n t i n J a n u a r y 1872, O f f i c e had s e e n ' i t  Currie issued h i s  but even i f the P o s t  t h e r e was no reason f o r them t o b e l i e v e  i t would l e a d t o a n y t h i n g ;  that  a number of o t h e r f i r m s had t r i e d 35  t o compete w i t h the Union Company, and a l l had gone b a n k r u p t . The e x t r a o r d i n a r y s u c c e s s of C u r r i e ' s s h i p s d u r i n g the c o u r s e of 1872 e n t i r e l y changed t h e s i t u a t i o n , and l a r g e l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e f o r c e of the o p p o s i t i o n i n the C a p e .  Yet those who  t o o k the d e c i s i o n i n t h e summer of 1872 t o a c c e p t the  January  recommendation of the P o s t O f f i c e knew n o t h i n g of the s u c c e s s of C u r r i e ' s s h i p s .  They were t h u s i g n o r a n t of a p i e c e of i n -  f o r m a t i o n w h i c h was v i t a l i n f o r m i n g any judgement about p r o b able r e a c t i o n s .  As the d i s p u t e s of the 1850's had shown,  the c h i e f t a s k of t h e T r e a s u r y - i n d e e d a n e c e s s a r y  task  which o n l y t h e T r e a s u r y was i n a p o s i t i o n t o p e r f o r m - was the r e c o n c i l i n g o f the i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the  contracts.  By o m i t t i n g t o keep i n t o u c h w i t h the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e about t h e i r t h i n k i n g the T r e a s u r y d e p r i v e d i t s e l f o f the o p p o r t u n i t y of ever, knowing what t h e s e i n t e r e s t s were, l e t  alone  172 reconciling  them.  And t h e Treasury  b e c a u s e p r o c e d u r e was i n e f f i c i e n t , the  whole  ure  was n o t f o l l o w e d . The  see  t h e payment o n t h e E a s t  h o w e v e r i t i s more a c a s e  this  aspect  negotiations.  He f e l t  already  only  He  wanted  and d i d n o t  taken  for the  on the Zanzibar  t o w i n the Western.  my v i e w w a s t h a t i t w a s n o t a c a s e f o r p u b l i c c o m p e t i t i o n , b u t h a v i n g g o t t h i s company i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n t h e y w e r e i n , i t was o u r d u t y , n o t only as a matter o f honour but as a matter o f p u b l i c p o l i c y , t o deal handsomely and l i b e r a l l y w i t h them, i n o r d e r t h a t nobody s h o u l d s a y t h a t t h e y were i n j u r e d by d e a l i n g w i t h t h e Government. No t h o u g h t  pre-  he h a d an o b l i g a t i o n t ot h e  U n i o n C o m p a n y , who h a d r e d u c e d t h e s u b s i d y contract  coast  taking  o u t o f t h e way.  the steps  proced-  In this i n -  of the anti-slavery policy,  any purpose- i n r e p e a t i n g  original  way.  of the Chancellor  action t o clear the matter  to settle  count n o t  private office,  c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n a s i m i l a r  cipitate  on t h i s  b u t because by c o n f i n i n g  to the Chancellor*s  decision to increase  contract stance  affair  failed  was g i v e n  to the letter  I n d i a Company w o u l d be a b l e  stating  that  the British  t o do t h e s e r v i c e f o r  £27,365,  which had been sent  to Tilley  i n December  it  tender.  When t h e Member f o r H a c k n e y ,  Mr.  was n o t a f o r m a l Holms, t o l d  such an o f f e r He h a d h a s t i l y  1871,  36  t h e H o u s e o f Commons o n J u n e  h a d b e e n made, Lowe was c a u g h t t o adjourn  t h e debate,  even  9th 1873 off his  and l a t e r  though  that balance.  t o accept the  37 enquiry  by the Select  Committee.  Lowe's o p i n i o n o n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e plains  his failure  t o consider  way t o p r o c e e d e x -  t h e p o s s i b l e consequences o f  r a i s i n g the subsidy t o £26,000.  H i s overly hasty modifica-  t i o n of the c o n t r a c t i s comparable to h i s p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n to  l i n k the E a s t e r n and Western s e r v i c e s , and l a t e r t o accept  the j o i n t tender of June 25th without advice of the Post O f f i c e .  seeking the t e c h n i c a l  I t seemed common sense t o Lowe  to  complete a matter which he had been p e r s o n a l l y i n charge  of  from the s t a r t , and on which a n t i - s l a v e r y pressure demanded  action. ish  The l e t t e r c o n t a i n i n g the 1871 o f f e r of the B r i t -  I n d i a Company had, i t appeared, stayed i n the C h a n c e l l o r ' s  p r i v a t e o f f i c e , and not t h e r e f o r e been indexed files.  on Treasury  I t was only recovered a f t e r t h e a c c u s a t i o n s i n  Parliament,  which had been made on the b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n  d i r e c t from the Company.  Once again, by a v o i d i n g normal  o f f i c e procedure Lowe had deprived h i m s e l f of the i n f o r m a t i o n he needed t o make sound d e c i s i o n s .  I t i s remarkable t h a t he  does n o t seem t o have considered the p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b j e c t i o n s to  the r a i s i n g o f the subsidy by £11,000, even though he was  c l e a r i n h i s own mind i t was l e g i t i m a t e . One o f the major complaints made a g a i n s t Lowe was t h a t the explanatory Treasury Minutes attached to the c o n t r a c t s when they were f i r s t presented  t o Parliament  f a i l e d t o mention  they had been l i n k e d f o r purposes of the n e g o t i a t i o n s .  Norm-  a l l y such Minutes would be drawn up by the S e c r e t a r y of the Treasury on the a d v i c e of the department's m a i l c o n t r a c t division.  A l l papers would have passed through h i s hands  b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the C h a n c e l l o r . ary had seen none of the papers,  I n t h i s i n s t a n c e the Secretand attended none of the  d i s c u s s i o n s s i n c e he had handed on the Post O f f i c e ' s recom-  mendations lack  i n January  o f confidence  chief  1872 - a d i r e c t  i n the  assistant.  memo m a d e n o m e n t i o n o f t h e  and  because  i t came f r o m t h e  further advice.  procedure those  sent  explanatory  The  no  link  Thus once  again,  o f the  Minutes.  contracts,  Secretary  because  o f the  sought unusual  i n f o r m a t i o n was m i s s i n g  known b e t t e r . of touch tion.  and therefore  he was w i t h  for  he t r i e d  the  that  was informed  of  suggestion  should  have  Lowe shows how o u t  n o r m a l means f o r c i r c u l a t i n g  t h eTreasury  what h a d h a p p e n e d when t h e andtherefore  out.  cannot  on h i s part.  was n o tkept  informa-  anything  procedure been t h a t h i s ignorance  Lowe's c o n t e n t i o n ,  i n Parliament,  t o suggest  that Baxter  be blamed o n a n y l a c k o f v i g o u r  learned  Committee f o r t h e  h a d h a d no o p p o r t u n i t y o f f i n d i n g  unusual had the  whole  First,  I nmaking t h i s  Baxter  easily  t o the  13th o n w a r d s t h e w h o l e T r e a s u r y  what was h a p p e n i n g ,  Contrary  informed, b u t  details  were d i s c l o s e d  b e c a m e common k n o w l e d g e  for  the  country. Lowe's second excuse f o r the  contradicts of the had  the  1873•  who h a d m o s t n e e d o f i t .  from August  only  instruct-  i n January  between the  Chancellor  f o l l o w e d b y Lowe, v i t a l  inadequacy  to  h i m a memo  Minutes  Lowe o f f e r e d two e x p l a n a t i o n s  So  o f Lowe's  m a n who w a s s u p p o s e d t o b e h i s  The C h a n c e l l o r  i n g h i m t o draw u p t h e  consequence  t h estand  blame a t l e a s t  b e e n made.  shortcomings  he h a d taken on Baxter  Butthis  required that  over Baxter.  was t o a d m i t  link,  t h eGovernment  Minutes  T o p u t some  that  done he t h e n c o n t e n d e d  M i n u t e s d i d n o t have t o m e n t i o n the Orders only  o f the  a mistake that the  since the s t a t e the  Standing  .  grounds on  175 which, t h e  c o n t r a c t s were a p p r o v e d .  I t was  good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which r e q u i r e d t h i s the  Minutes,  not  pay  hut  only  courtesy  indication  ference,  to Parliament.  non-experts,  speedy despatch of business. get  a  b e t t e r c o n t r a c t , and  course  told  i s  tolerate  i n what he  Informing  i n  T h a t Lowe  was  of h i s unwillingness to  e s p e c i a l l y by  of  extra information  much a t t e n t i o n t o what P a r l i a m e n t  another  not  felt  did  yet  intert o be  Parliament  did  M.P.'s w e r e a l w a y s l i a b l e  the not  to  be  38 the  subject  of  i n f l u e n c e from pressure  the  C o m m i t t e e he  went  should  not  by  executive,  the  have the  people." tomatic  of  take  a t t i t u d e which guided  efficiency formal  this  on  the  procedure  p o s i t i o n of the felt  t h a t , "he  that  Before Parliament  i n contracts  negotiated  r e f e r r e d t o M.P.'s a s " i r r e s p o n s i b l e opinion  one on  of Parliament  he  hand and the  i s not  ought t o  as  symp-  h i s a c t i o n throughout the  other  were  Lowe on  Chancellor  i n the  existence  can  consult  get  i t . "  of  w h a t he  felt  Treasury,  and  anyone; He  -  incompatible.  conduct h i s business.  obliged to  s e e k h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w h e r e he say  interfere  the  i n w h i c h he  replied  and  to  suggest  S e l e c t Committee questioned  about the way  right  to  may  and  The  f a r as  One  namely t h a t controls  so  groups.  the  Lowe  he  is  went on  to  to  that, the C h a n c e l l o r of the Exchequer does not live i n t h e T r e a s u r y , and he i s n o t i n t i m a t e l y b r o u g h t i n t o contact w i t h i t s workings, but i s r a t h e r outside of i t . The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Treasury p u g h t t o be t h e h e a r t a n d s o u l o f t h e T r e a s u r y . 39  This  statement  should  do,  and  reflects thus  is a  w h a t he direct  felt  the  criticism  Financial Secretary of Baxter.  But  i t  176 also  explains  from h i s  office  It  explains  of  the  part  the  worked.  at h i s  why  tightly  view  established  official  he  cannot  which the  business  the  usefulness  take  and  the  fulfilled  by  ought t o were not  need not  this  most p o w e r f u l  as  i n the  reaching  of  a  mail  d e c i s i o n , but from  of  the  Post  the  channels  communication had  along Trea-  chantasks  Office's  so  T r e a s u r y was  have been the  of  Government  Lowe' not  duties But  embarked upon  aspect  of  not  departments concerned.  a  were  i t s work the  communication  been used the  as  administration  a l l view-points  vital  efficient  had  department  finance.  of the  department  the  to  re-  operating  1872,  w e r e c o n c e r n e d was  information of  and  August  realm  Thus the  contracts  a  Western contract  department  whenever the  consideration. the  had  Government's  The  The  case,  a f f e c t i n g m o r e t h a n one  f a r as  he  Its detailed administrative  c e n t r a l and  taken into  machine  important  of the  of the  point.  the  policy  that  the  decisions.  i n this  initiatives.  ensure that  aspect  from January t i l l  accept  not  personally  duties  some o f  part  therefore  acting through private  extension  were l a r g e l y  to  the  Street.  perform. an  initiatives  had  he  work  feel  which t h i s  that  that  have grasped  and  it  by  and  of t h i s machine  I f Lowe f e l t  i n Lowe's o f f i c e  normally,  Treasury,  i f Lowe f e l t  which required urgent  would presumably  to  the  machine, i t i s l i k e l y  recommendations f o r the lain  i n Downing  w o r k Lowe d i d n o t  procedure  fully  contracts  day  ordered  department  Mail  to  so much o f h i s  residence  of  of the  best  to conduct  machine  lines.  c o x i l d be  able  i n h i s day  work o u t s i d e  nels,  felt  More important,  stricted  sury  he  bureaucratic  of  could  why  If  quick of these  Treasury would  have  177 been aware o f the l i k e l y r e a c t i o n t o the c o n t r a c t s , and Lowe c o u l d have avoided  the h u m i l i a t i o n , as one  of the  so senior  members of the Government, of having to bow  before  opposition  and withdraw the c o n t r a c t s he had presented  to the House of  Commons. The main p o i n t of the S e l e c t Committee on Packet and graphic C o n t r a c t s  Tele-  of i860 had been t h a t there were i n s u f f i c i e n t  means f o r c i r c u l a t i n g the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l l the parties involved.  The  4 0  suggestions  i n t h e i r report  the means t o a v o i d these d e f e c t s , but the way  provided  t h a t Lowe had  executed the n e g o t i a t i n g of the c o n t r a c t s meant t h a t the guards were by-passed.  H i s f a i l u r e to express  S e l e c t Committee or i n the House any h i s Department should be doing may  safe-  before'the  c l e a r o p i n i o n of the  job  i n p a r t be e x p l a i n e d by  attempt t o a v o i d i n c r i m i n a t i n g h i m s e l f .  But  the  an  consistency  of h i s approach, and h i s f a i l u r e to take compensating a c t i o n , imply t h a t he had not taken the c e n t r a l p o i n t of the Committee of i860.  The  job of a c t i n g as the c l e a r i n g - h o u s e  for  informa-  t i o n when the Government had to reach a d e c i s i o n which touched on the a f f a i r s o f more than one which the T r e a s u r y  department, was  c e n t r a l i z e d the country's  in  administration.  I t was  c e r t a i n l y a job r e q u i r i n g v i g i l a n c e , but  i t was  one  cedure was  one way  nevertheless  where the c a r e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of w e l l ordered  pro-  f a r more important than p r e c i p i t a t e a c t i o n , o r  great s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r on the p a r t of the c h i e f s of the department. the Treasury  Indeed the p o l i t i c a l and C i v i l S e r v i c e heads of had  only to e x e r c i s e t h e i r judgement on the  of d e t a i l e d b r i e f s l a i d before them.  They were not  basis  required  178 to  take  the  initiatives,  hut  rather to  co-ordinate  the  work  of  others. The  Zanzibar  mail  troubles  that  Government had  together  caused Gladstone  summer o f  the  that  year.  Lowe's d i s p u t e siderable in  contract  to  The  particular.  of the  Treasury,  Baxter  resigned  of  upon the  Lord and  to  one  i n 1873,  of  and  Office Telegraphs  the  Board  the which  r e m a r k e d on  s a i d i t was  upon the the  not  get  on  and con-  Treasury  disorganization  i n a "hopeless  could  late  scandal  of works brought  Government and  Eimberley  b e c a u s e "he  face  only  r e s h u f f l e h i s m i n i s t r y i n the  Post  with Ayrton  disrepute  a f f a i r was  mess."^  with  the  1  Chancel-  42 lor  of the  Exchequer."  Lowe went t o Treasury. the  the This  Home O f f i c e ,  over the  less  say,  to  information The  on  emphasizes the  Zansibar  i t was  most i m p o r t a n t ,  but  this the  mail  affair  the workings the  government.  sury' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h its  right  ideas try  on  kind,  within  political  importance  of  aspect  At  the  retrenchment  the  the  best  j o b was  clearly  time,  equally  the  interesting  administration. i n supervizing work as  precise nature O f f i c e of  provided  course  of  an  the the  the  central Trea-  depended  on  current  added i n c e n t i v e  to  p o s s i b l e terms f o r m a i l  contracts.  essentially  administrative  of  the  need-  which appeared  from i t s other  Post  the  disharmony  Treasury  The  peerage,  took over  t o c o n t r o l the Revenue D e p a r t m e n t s , and  to win  e v e n so  the  the  a  the  provides  of  ocean m a i l c o n t r a c t s d i f f e r s of  Gladstone  contracts.  political  job which faced  Department  and  withdraw with  reorganization reflects  Government, and  dispute  Monsell  a purely  w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n common t o m o s t g o v e r n m e n t  But  machines,  179 whether expanding  or c o n t r a c t i n g , extravagant or  Moreover, a l t h o u g h the job brought  parsimonious.  the Treasury i n t o c l o s e and  r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h other Departments, i t was not one which i n v o l v e d the e x e r c i s e of a u t h o r i t y i n the o r d i n a r y sense of the word.  The Treasury i n t h i s i n s t a n c e had t o prove i t s worth  through u n p r e t e n t i o u s e f f i c i e n c y , and not by r e l y i n g on prest i g e or l e g a l power.  The case emphasizes an unchanging as-  pect of the Treasury's work, f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n of m a i l cont r a c t s would continue whatever the p o l i c i e s or philosophy of the p a r t y i n power.  I t was  a job of c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n a complex  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and which t h e r e f o r e f e l l t o the Treasury.as c e n t r a l Department.  the  180  FOOTNOTES  1.  E.E. Hoon, The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the E n g l i s h Customs System, 1690-1786, New York, 1 9 5 8 , p. 47-  2.  15 Car. I I , c. 14-  3.  K. E l l i s , The Post O f f i c e i n the E i g h t e e n t h Century, 1958, p. 14-  4-  I b i d . , p. 17-  5.  E. Murray, The Post O f f i c e , London, 1927, p. 37.  6.  S e l e c t Committee on C o n t r a c t Packet S e r v i c e s , 1849G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1 8 4 9 , X I I , p. 3«  7.  Committee of Enquiry on C o n t r a c t Packets, 1853. G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1 8 5 2 - 3 , XCV, pp. 139-45-  8.  S e l e c t Committee on Packet and T e l e g r a p h i c C o n t r a c t s , G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, i 8 6 0 , XIV.  9-  I b i d . , p. 3«  10.  I b i d . , p. 14-  11.  Loc. c i t .  12.  I b i d . , p. 3 .  13.  I b i d . , p. 14-  14.  Packet S e r v i c e ( T r a n s f e r o f C o n t r a c t s ) A c t , i 8 6 0 . 23 V i c t o r i a , c 6.  London,  1860.  181 15.  Select. Committee on Packet and T e l e g r a p h i c C o n t r a c t s , 1860, op. c i t . , p. 16.  16.  S e l e c t Committee on the Cape of Good Hope and Zanzibar M a i l Contracts, 1 8 7 3 . G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1 8 7 3 , IX, p. 3 8 2 .  17-  R. Robinson and J . Gallagher, A f r i c a and the V i c t o r i a n s , New York, 1961, pp. 43-50.  18.  Times, J u l y 15th,  19-  S e l e c t Committee on the Slave Trade (East Coast o f A f r i c a ) . G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1871, XII, p. 8.  20.  Hansard, 3rd S e r i e s , Commons, v o l . 109, c o l . 3, February 6th, 1872, o_£. c i t . , v o l . 214, c o l . 4, February 6th, 1873.  21.  ed. A. Ramm, The P o l i t i c a l Correspondence of Mr. Gladstone and Lord G r a n v i l l e , 1868-1876, London, 1952, Camden T h i r d S e r i e s , v o l . 82, 7 t h November, 1872.  22.  John T i l l e y , S e c r e t a r y of the Post O f f i c e ; born 1813, he entered the Post O f f i c e as a c a r e e r c i v i l servant i n 1829. I n T848 he became A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y of t h e Department and i n 1864 he succeeded S i r Rowland H i l l as S e c r e t a r y . He h e l d t h i s post u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1880, i n which year Fawcett, then Postmaster General, remarked on the great value of T i l l e y ' s f i f t y years i n the Post O f f i c e . Times, 19th March, 1898, p. 7 f • 26th Report of the Postmaster General, G.B. S e s s i o n a l Papers, Commons, 1880, XIX, p. 22.  23*  The names of these two companies were a b b r e v i a t e d a t the time, and t h i s p r a c t i c e w i l l be f o l l o w e d here, v i z : The Union Steamship Company as the Union Company, and the B r i t i s h I n d i a Steam N a v i g a t i o n Company as the B r i t i s h I n d i a Company.  24.  S e l e c t Committee on the. Cape of Good Hope and Zanzibar M a i l C o n t r a c t s , 1 8 7 3 , op_. c i t . , p. 3 5 9 .  25.  H. Robinson, C a r r y i n g B r i t i s h M a i l s Overseas, New York, 1964, p. 174-  1872, p. 9e-  182 26.  Times, 26th J u l y , 1872, p. 10e, r e p o r t s a l a r g e meeting h e l d i n London under the chairmanship o f the Lord Mayor. Times, 25th July,"1872, p. 9 e , c o n t a i n s a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e on the East A f r i c a n s l a v e t r a d e , which i t condemns v e r y s t r o n g l y , and a g a i n s t which i t asks the government t o take a c t i o n .  27.  Times, 28th August, 1872, p. 7d. Times, 31st August, 1872, p. 7b.  28.  Times, 17th February, 1873, p. 5 c  29-  Times, 25th J u l y , 1873, p. 9b.  30.  F o r example see h i s speech i n the House of Commons 3 r d June, 1862. Hansard, 3rd s e r i e s , Commons, v o l . 67, c o l s . 315-22.  31.  Gladstone Add. MSS. 44302,ff.61-2.  32.  Hansard, 3rd s e r i e s , Commons, v o l . 194, c o l . 852, 8 t h March, 1869-  33-  Gladstone Add. MSS. 44542, f .  34.  Times, 1 s t August, 1 8 7 3 , p. 9 d .  35«  H. Robinson, op_. c i t . ,  36.  S e l e c t Committee on t h e Cape, of Good Hope and Zanzibar M a i l C o n t r a c t s , 1873, op_- c i t . , p. 365•  37-  Hansard, 3rd s e r i e s , Commons, v o l . 216, c o l . 710, 9 t h June, 1873 -  38.  Ibid., cols. 686-9-  39.  S e l e c t Committee on the Cape o f Good Hope and Zanzibar M a i l C o n t r a c t s , 1 8 7 3 , op_. c i t . , pp. 3 7 7 - 8 .  126.  p. 174*  183 40.  S e l e c t Committee on Packet and T e l e g r a p h i c i860, op_. c i t . , p. 14«  Contracts,  41.  J . Kimberley,, A J o u r n a l of Events during the Gladstone M i n i s t r y 1868-1074, London, 1955, ed. E. Drus, Camden T h i r d S e r i e s , v o l . 90, p. 39.  42.  H. Maxwell, L i f e and Times of Rt. Hon. W.H. London, 1893, p. 244-  Smith  M.P.,  184 CHAPTER  VI  Conclusion  It  i s commonly p o i n t e d  that  i n the  p e r i o d 1914-1918 she  most o f h e r  rivals  and  this  to l a y too  changes i n the  a  degree  to  long  of  and  to  The  key  i n the  of population  the  too  of  expansion  little  on  problems which  new  late  t o an  and  explanation century  e m p h a s i s on changes such  the  to deal with  disappearance  p u b l i c economy and as  these  that  can  adminispreceded  i s , i t  of  those  government earlier  these  the  which  a  c e n t r e , may  be  and  problems. Yet  governad-  i n the  pressure  the  the  develop-  there  wege  at  earlier  patronage,  o r d e r l y government. Treasury  a l l help  growth of  found  created,  political  and  large central  of the  ;  made  administration,  E n g l i s h government of  to  army,  a growing awareness of  population  s u b s t a n t i a l changes.in  such as  the  locality  the  to develop  cities,  i n d u s t r y and  ment o f t e c h n i q u e s  able  war.  of a large standing  c o n t r o l from  nineteenth  i n the  to  in  explains  opinion clearly  absence  distrust  the  better  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which were c h i e f l y  E n g l a n d was  Likewise  was  some e x t e n t  a l a r g e scale d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  standing  many v e r y  and  on  Napoleon  governments  century  m u s t a l s o go  this  of  to organize: f o r  i n t e g r a t i o n between c e n t r e  ministration  date,  century,  existing  e x p l a i n why  ment.  credit  though  central  nineteenth  much e m p h a s i s  the Treasury.  possible a  i n the  but  Correct  the nineteenth  .affect  allies  changes which accompanied  growth.  tends in  government  transformation,  trative that  of  developed  time  Europe,  Expansion  least  the  one  than  the  t h a t at  E n g l a n d had but  of  out  an and  a  new  It i s to  owes i t s p o s i t i o n  as  the  185 effective The  s u p e r v i s i n g Department aspects  of the Treasury's  from t h e mid eighteenth were e i t h e r the  done by such Treasury's  century  unimportant,  Treasury  i n the English activities  o r they were a c t i v i t i e s  which  as the Board  direct  bodies  and e f f e c t i v e  half  being  organized  and  o n l y when t h e r e was a premium  the  Treasury's  for  i n s t a n c e when G l a d s t o n e Prime M i n i s t e r - they  century.  O n l y when  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , as opposed t o of p o l i t i c a l  on economy and  after  this  was C h a n c e l l o r owe l i t t l e  o f government i n t o  eighteenth  managers,  efficiency,  s u p e r v i s i n g department.  grew w e l l  The  rationlized  i n the late  the tool  an e f f e c t i v e  powers  and  of the nineteenth  w h i c h was i n p a r t a t l e a s t  exist  o f Customs.  being  supervision o f the machinery of  one  departures  over  subordinate  t h e r e was a f u n c t i o n a l l y  then  century  s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e main work  and t h e f i r s t  there  survived  only had a general  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h came i n t o  could  which  t o the mid n i n e t e e n t h  government was a c r e a t i o n o f t h e r e f o r m e d  century  government.  period of reform  -  o f t h e Exchequer and  to the radical  the f i e l d  Although  new  o f p u b l i c h e a l t h and  welfare. The need the  great  emphasis placed  to control  the i n i t i a l  need t o maintain  i n the nineteenth  incurring  financial  order  background f o r a l l the Treasury's its  p r e s t i g e by p u t t i n g i n t o  nineteenth crucial possible of  century Englishman's  position  the Finance  Department  a n d upon  The T r e a s u r y  a fundamental  held  implementation  on t h e  i n government, p r o v i d e t h e  thinking  that retrenchment  the e f f e c t i v e  of expenditure,  activities.  practice  century  about  of the  government. The  i n people's  o f Treasury  to scurtinize  aspect  gained  thinking  control  and i f n e c e s s a r y  made  - the right refuse  186 s a n c t i o n to programmes i n a l l areas of government.  Nineteenth  century Treasury c o n t r o l r e p r e s e n t s the combination  of l e g a l  power, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y , and a concern f o r f i n a n c i a l order and economy.  Only the l e g a l powers e x i s t e d b e f o r e the  l a t e e i g h t e e n t h century. may  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Treasury c o n t r o l  t h e r e f o r e be taken as a symbol of the degree to which the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  reformed by the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century,  and the degree to which men and gained a new  became i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i c economy  and heightened m o r a l i t y i n p u b l i c  affairs.  The Treasury's i n f l u e n c e i n the n i n e t e e n t h century i n p a r t depended on the importance  that men  came t o p l a c e on ideas  which only a c e n t r a l Finance Department c o u l d enforce. p a r t the i n f l u e n c e arose even more i n d i r e c t l y .  As an  dent C i v i l S e r v i c e became e s t a b l i s h e d , so there was c e n t r a l s u p e r v i s i o n i n a way departmentalism set  unnecessary  and p o l i t i c a l  patronage.  But i n indepen-  a need f o r  i n the days of s t r i c t As g r e a t e r s t o r e was  by f i n a n c i a l e f f i c i e n c y and the s t r i c t P a r l i a m e n t a r y  con-  t r o l of g r a n t s voted t o the Crown, so the Treasury became the Department to enforce r e g u l a t i o n s f o r which there had been no r e a l demand b e f o r e the 1780's.  And  as the most c e n t r a l of the  Departments, w i t h l i n k s to a l l the other Departments, the duty of  ensuring c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of  govern-  ment n e c e s s a r i l y devolved upon the Treasury. The growth of the Treasury's powers cannot counted  f o r i n p u r e l y impersonal terms.  of course be ac-  The d e d i c a t i o n t o  p u b l i c economy and to good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on the p a r t of success s i v e C h a n c e l l o r s of the Exchequer and Prime M i n i s t e r s was  clearly  e s s e n t i a l to the establishment of the Treasury a t the fulcrum of  187 government.  l i k e w i s e the s e n i o r c i v i l servants i n the  Trea-  sury, a t l e a s t by the time of C h a r l e s Trevelyan, were not  only  dedicated t o the same p r i n c i p l e s as t h e i r p o l i t i c a l masters, but passed from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n a c e n t r a l and powerful  Treasury.  of  Indeed the t r a d i t i o n which  Welby or Lingen r e p r e s e n t s u r v i v e d i n the minds of c i v i l  ser-  vants l o n g a f t e r i t s r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n had become a t h i n g of the p a s t .  The  s t r e n g t h of the Treasury's p o s i t i o n i n the n i n e -  t e e n t h century owed a g r e a t deal to the way both p o l i t i c i a n s and c i v i l  i n which these  servants, acted.  haps e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h e i r a b i l i t y and  . But though per-  energy, these men  not e x c e p t i o n a l i n the views they h e l d .  men,  were  On the c o n t r a r y ,  they  epitomize a c e n t r a l element of the c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g on p u b l i c affairs. J u s t as the views expressed  by the l e a d e r s of the  Treasury  r e v e a l so much of the contemporary ideology, so the approach they took i n the conduct of t h e i r a f f a i r s r e v e a l s a l o t of the contemporary approach t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . it  Once again,  although  i s customary to p o i n t to the ad hoc growth of government  agencies  i n the n i n e t e e n t h century as the p r i n c i p a l evidence  for  the absence of an o b j e c t i v e approach to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, the a c t i v i t i e s of the Treasury  show e x a c t l y the same t h i n g .  The great emphasis on p u b l i c economy meant t h a t new might be d e a l t with i n a r a t h e r c u r s o r y f a s h i o n by officials.  I t was  the d e s i r e to enforce the  p r i n c i p l e of the Parliamentary led  to the establishment  country's f i n a n c e s ;  policies Treasury  constitutional  c o n t r o l over grants which f i n a l l y  of an o r d e r l y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the  there was  no c o n s i s t e n t d r i v e by the  Trea-  188 sury  to introduce these  ment.  Above a l l , the  reflects no  real  a very  chiefly  by  suggest  Treasury  view  of personnel the  guided  To the  about  staff  of  a sense  that  scale  f o r reproach  the  appreciated. with  loss  other  planning  control  c o n t r o l was While  this  conscious  and  problems ran It  muddled  Britain  of  the  First  to the  many y e a r s  abandoned, and  this  strictly  see  not  the  out to  fault  was Large  manner, was yet  still  been  an  fully  synonymous  with the  and  Financial  restriction.  agencies,  un-  which  more b l a t a n t  in i t s  results  the vast a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Treasury's  negative  of  approach  government  approach  before  to  o f new  essentially expand.  to government  there  could  to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expansion,  criticism  the  made e a s i e r t h e  the  The  general  that  encouraged.  government  some o f  day was  attitude  same r e a s o n s  efficiency  t h e r e f o r e many y e a r s  financial  the Treasury  administration in  underlying tendency before  to  o f government.  doubtless  W o r l d War,  more i m a g i n a t i v e a p p r o a c h less  the  actively  growth of  and  was  day  for singling  a c t i o n was  order,  deal with  There  taxes w i t h economic d i s t r e s s .  efficiency  industrialisation  counter was  and  to  o f which had  f o r much t h e  synonymous w i t h  Service  in their  in a functional  growth of  promoted  Civil  i t s limited  to a l l f i e l d s  high  manage-  responsibility.  i s to f a i l  o f f i n a n c e was  order  turn helped rapid  not  and  of  government  and  good  administration.  Departments  because  and  of  of the  i s a s t r o n g case  potential  liberty  t h e r e f o r e was specific  full  Extensive  of  controlled  of  of  administration, organized  innovation,  control  of f i n a n c i a l  there  t h e w h o l e age  sake  management, and  many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s , common t o  f o r the  Treasury's  restricted  concept  dealings  reforms  policies  by  be  a  or  a  the  was  189 Treasury.  By t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  retrenchment as  and r e s t r i c t e d  t h i s happened  expansion part  t h e way was  being  opened f o r a more  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a more f l e x i b l e  on  dropped,  and  conscious approach  on t h e  of the Treasury. Treasury  control  i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was  unique  to a certain stage  Before  the late  necessary  i n public  would  of  the nineteenth  to  change  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e development.  there d i d not exist the  be a m e n a b l e t o c e n t r a l  heyday o f Treasury  adminis-  control.  on p u b l i c  that the strict  by G l a d s t o n e  something  finance, or the ordered  century t h i n k i n g  so deeply  exercised  i n British  eighteenth century  interest  t r a t i o n which  The  government were  o l d views  By t h e e n d  economy h a d  application  of control,  o r W e l b y , was no l o n g e r r e a l l y control  thus  lies  started  possible.  i n a p e r i o d when  government  had r i d d e d i t s e l f  of the last  corruption  and i n e f f i c i e n c y ,  b u t h a d n o t y e t become aware o f  its  potential  as a p o s i t i v e  embedded t r a d i t i o n s have hindered approach  control  traditions  existed,  of  changes without  impossible.  may  The  respects  imaginative  But t h e mere f a c t  a n d a b o v e a l l c o u l d be e n f o r c e d , which  medieval  deeply  i n some  t h e g r o w t h o f government a n d a more  t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems.  earlier  vestiges of  force i n society.  of Treasury  as  a l l expension'would  that  these  i s a sign have  been  190  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A.  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