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A linguistic questionnaire for British Columbia : a plan for a postal survey of dialectal variation in… Polson, James 1969

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A LINGUISTIC QUESTIONNAIRE FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA : A PLAN FOR A POSTAL SURVEY OF DIALECTAL VARIATION IN B.C., WITH AN ACCOUNT OF RECENT RESEARCH  by 1  JAMES POLSON B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of English  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  shall  the  his  of  this  agree that  written  of  be  available for for extensive  g r a n t e d by  gain  permission.  ENGLISH  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  AUGUST 29,  1969  British  the  It is understood  for financial  Department of  Date  University  permission  representatives. thesis  f u l f i l m e n t of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  The object of this study i s to provide a postal questionnaire that may  be used for investigating d i a l e c t a l  v a r i a t i o n i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Such a questionnaire i s necessary  to provide the groundwork f o r  more intensive and systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n at a l a t e r date. The questionnaire w i l l test items for a future questionnaire, e s t a b l i s h the d i a l e c t a l status o f B.C. d i a l e c t a l regions o f  English, and l o c a t e the  B.C.  The questionnaire draws heavily on work sheets and check l i s t s used i n the United States, but includes much material c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canadian speech, since i t i s f e l t that f o r h i s t o r i c a l reasons the>separateness of the Canadian experience must be stressed.  An account of the sources o f the items and  the  c r i t e r i a for s e l e c t i o n are presented along with a methodology for choosing informants  and communities, administering the  questionnaire, and processing the r e s u l t s .  Each question i s accompanied by a commentary on the feature to be investigated, giving information on i t s occurrence i n Canada, or the United States.  B.C.,  The data presented on B.C.usage  i s derived c h i e f l y from research recently carried out by the  author.  CONTENTS  Acknowledgements  i l l  Introduction aims  I  limitations  9  L i n g u i s t i c Geographyuses  12  history  13  methods  17  Selection of Communities  20  Selection of Informants  27  Selection of Items  29  Sources of the Questionnaire  . . . . .  33  Format and Administration  38  The Questionnaire  ko  Index of Variants  107  Bibliography Appendix : Secondary Questionnaire  Ill 118  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This project would not have been possible without the help and encouragement of many people. I wish to acknowledge i n particular my debt to the following: Professor R.J. Gregg, whose patience i s surpassed only by his great knowledge of dialectology. Professor R.E.McConnell, who took some of the wind out o f my writing. The University Summer Research Grants Committee, whose f i n a n c i a l help made the burden more tolerable. and, above a l l , my wife Lynne, not merely for her patience and sympathy, but for her active assistance i n carrying out the research, analysing the data, resolving problems, and preparing the manuscript (she made, the ind  INTRODUCTION  Aims.  This t h e s i s presents a postal questionnaire designed, to investigate d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbian English.  The aims of the  questionnaire are as follows: to establish the usefulness o f questionnaire items so that when a more formal survey i s made c r i t e r i a for i n c l u s i o n or exclusion w i l l be available; to gather data from the items that w i l l make possible general conclusions about -the r e l a t i o n s h i p of B.C. English to the English of the rest of the continent; to discover where r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n exists w i t h i n the province so that l a t e r investigation w i l l be directed to the r i g h t areas.  This questionnaire i s not intended to take the place o f a more formal l i n g u i s t i c survey, but r a t h e r to make such a survey possible.  A  L i n g u i s t i c Atlas survey of B.C. along the l i n e s of tiiose already conducted i n many regions o f the United States js c e r t a i n l y the goal we must work towards.  But such a goal cannot be attained unless much preliminary work  i s done.  As matters stand r i g h t now very l i t t l e i s known about the English  language i n B.C. and i t s r e l a t i o n to other d i a l e c t s .  Furthermore, beyond  the material here presented, nothing i s known about d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n within t h i s province.  One of my present aims, indeed, i s to demonstrate  (1)  - 2 -  that r e g i o n a l variations do e x i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a f a c t that I was not f u l l y convinced of before I undertook this project. Because of this lack of information, a p o s t a l questionnaire such as i s presented here seems to be the l o g i c a l and necessary f i r s t step.  Theoretically, preliminary investigation could take other forms. I t would be possible, f o r example, to take the worksheets from the  New  England survey or from the P a c i f i c Coast Questionnaire and use them i n the f i e l d to investigate some region o f B.C.  The knowledge so gained  would be interesting and to some extent useful.  However, those interested  i n the d i a l e c t geography of B.C. must take as their aim the completion of a formal, controlled survey, based on competent fieldwork, for the whole province; an investigation of only part of the province could never be incorporated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y into this survey of the whole because, to produce r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s , such a survey must have a sommon methodology and must use fieldworkers who  have been trained together.  I f the methods  used i n one area are d i f f e r e n t from those used i n another, or i f the f i e l d workers do not agree on the sound values given to their phonetic notations, a comparison of the r e s u l t s cannot be completely r e l i a b l e .  In some areas  of the continent divergent analyses r e s u l t i n g from differences between fieldworkers may be accommodated because they show up as 'personal boundaries' on a map.'*" In an area where settlement i s recent, however,  1. see Hans Kurath, Handbook of the L i n g u i s t i c Geography of New England (Providence, R.I., 1939), p.51. This work w i l l be referred to hereafter as the Handbook.  - 3 -  and where the settlement patterns are l a r g e l y unknown, i t may more d i f f i c u l t to take such v a r i a t i o n s into account.  be  Two surveys,  therefore, done a t d i f f e r e n t points of time, probably with d i f f e r e n t methods, and almost c e r t a i n l y by d i f f e r e n t people, w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to f i t together.  Further, i t i s to be presumed that, i f the f i r s t survey i s of any value, changes w i l l be made i n the l a t e r survey: items w i l l be added, deleted, rephrased, and the format modified. survey w i l l then lack responses for new items.  The area covered by the o l d Since i t w i l l not be  possible to f i n d again a l l the f i r s t - s u r v e y informants, i t might then be necessary to completely resurvey the whole area.  Since a l i m i t e d  survey would thus probably have to be re-done when the L i n g u i s t i c Atlas program was started, and since i t would i n any case provide no information on regional v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the province, there seems l i t t l e purpose i n making such a survey the s t a r t i n g point of investigation.  Besides the importance of ensuring that the preliminary work cover the whole of the province i t i s also necessary that the survey attempt to deal with those features that are p e c u l i a r l y B r i t i s h Columbian, or at l e a s t Canadian.  I t would have been possible to simply mail out a  standardized, ready-made American check-list rather than produce a new questionnaire as I have done.  But our need i n Canada i s f o r a Canadian  survey that w i l l serve Canadian purposes. ionnaire w i l l not do.  An unmodified American quest-  There i s an issue involved i n this point which must be considered before any extensive work on Canadian E n g l i s h can proceed.  Should  Canadian l i n g u i s t s take i t as t h e i r aim to extend the Linguistic Atlas surveys of the United States into Canada, or t r y to develop a purely Canadian L i n g u i s t i c Atlas?  This l a t t e r aim i s , of cource, undesirable -  we do want to compare Canadian and American features - and probably impossible, since we cannot avoid asking many of the same questions.  The  former aim i s e x p l i c i t l y part o f the American program as i s indicated by the t i t l e of the o v e r - a l l project.planned under the aegis of the American Council of Learned Societies : The L i n g u i s t i c Atlas of the United States and Canada.  The project i s a noble one, and i t does allow some  modification to take account of r e g i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s .  Nonetheless,  this  continental plan contains assumptions that Canadians should question on c u l t u r a l as w e l l as scholarly grounds.  The study of language always has significance beyond the mere s a t i s f a c t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y , and the study of l i n g u i s t i c geography p a r t i c u l a r l y has i m p l i c i t i n i t aims that are c u l t u r a l , not simply l i n g u i s t i c . When M.H.  S c a r g i l l , i n his essay "Canadian English  and Canadian Culture i n Alberta", asks "What i s a Canadian? Have we c a l l ourselves Canadians a d i s t i n c t i v e culture, a d i s t i n c t i v e way of l i f e and thought?"  2  he finds that  2. J.C.L.A., I . Mar.(1955), 27  who  the study of language might prove the surest guide to the way we are developing. The f a c t that a Canadian drives a car made i n Detroit does not make him think l i k e an American. The f a c t that he subscribes to the Times does not make him think l i k e an Englishman. But i f our native-born Canadian speaks l i k e an American, then his thoughts are probably being shaped l i k e an American's thoughts. I f he chooses to speak l i k e an Englishman, then he i s more English than he knows. But i f our Englishspeaking and native-born Canadian prefers to develop his own habits o f speech, then this must show that he i s a man with ideas of his own to express - ideas that cannot be expressed i n either B r i t i s h - E n g l i s h or American-English, because they are neither B r i t i s h nor American ideas. Where there i s a language, there must be a nation t o have made i t what i t is.3  I f the l i n g u i s t i s t o make any contribution to the study o f t h i s important c u l t u r a l problem, he must be very c a r e f u l not to introduce into his investigations any c u l t u r a l bias.  The American worksheets  and check-lists are, I suggest, c u l t u r a l l y biased instruments of investigation.  American l i n g u i s t s , and many Canadian ones, s t a r t from the assumption that, t o quote Morton W. Bloomfield branch of American English".^  "Canadian English i s a  This assumption may or may not be v a l i d  but there i s a danger that a purely American questionnaire w i l l show i t to be true regardless, simply because of It s construction.  Every item  o f an American questionnaire e l i c i t s a feature found i n the United States for which a range of varying responses have been found, each response being associated with an area o f the United States.  Every  Canadian response w i l l then be c l a s s i f i a b l e as Northern, Midland, 3. Loc• c i t . U. "Canadian English and Its Relation to Eighteenth Century American Speech", JEGP, XLVII (19U8),5°.  - 6 -  Southern, or what have you, depending on which area the same response i s found i n i n the United States.  The two speech areas may then appear  to have some genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p , which might, i n f a c t , be explainable i n other ways.  Consider some p a r t i c u l a r term that i s found i n Canada.  An investigator oriented toward the American L i n g u i s t i c Atlas surveys might characterize i t as a Midland usage.  On further investigation,  however, we might find that the same term i s used i n Northern England. The assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Canadian usage and the Midland usage seems now less clear.  American  Is the conns ction between the two areas  d i r e c t , from the Midland region to Canada by migration or c u l t u r a l influence, or i s i t perhaps simply a c o l l a t e r a l relationship based on common roots i n Britain?  Isogloss patterns may possibly show t h i s  d i f f i c u l t y to be a minor one, yet i n the absence of B r i t i s h correlations (and from the nature of Professor Orton's questionnaire f o r England I must conclude that the data from that survey w i l l be of l i t t l e use to us) the relationships with American usages w i l l tend to be  overemphasized.  Most important, an American questionnaire i s bound to produce d i s t o r t i o n because only features found i n the United States are taken into account.  Differences are thus minimized and the true relationships  between speech areas may be d i s t o r t e d .  I f , f o r example, we know that two  areas A and B share features X and Y, we draw c e r t a i n conclusions about their relationship.  I f we then l e a r n that area B also possesses a feature  Z, which i s unknown i n area A, our conclusions must be d i f f e r e n t .  Yet a  - 7-  questionnaire standardized i n Area A would not reveal that Z e x i s t s . The whole problem would perhaps .be a minor one i f we allowed the i n i t i a l assumption that Canadian English i s a branch o f American English. A comparison between B.C. speech and American speech based on the same questionnaire would be as v a l i d as a similar comparison between Oregon and Midland speech since the same genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p would obtain.  Yet  there are reasons for disputing t h i s view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  of Canadian to American English.  S c a r g i l l has challenged on several  grounds Bloomfield's view that Canadian English i s the English of the United Empire Loyalists and i s thus a d i r e c t offshoot of American English.  The argument i s a complex one that cannot be s e t t l e d u n t i l  much more i s known o f both present-day and eighteenth-century English, and I cannot presume here to give an answer.  Yet we might ask i f the  English of the Loyalists was d i f f e r e n t i n many respects from t h e English of B r i t a i n , and i f such differences as existed would be maintained through the  waves of immigration from England, Scotland, and Ireland.  There were,  a f t e r a l l , only about f o r t y to f i f t y thousand L o y a l i s t s , spread from the Maritimes to Upper Canada.  800,000  In t h e t h i r t y - f i v e years following 1815 over  immigrants came from the B r i t i s h I s l e s .  The Canadian English i s much more l i k e American English than l i k e B r i t i s h English i s obvious.  But then Canadian culture i s much more l i k e  that o f the United States than l i k e that of B r i t a i n .  Indeed, the  influence of the United States on our culture has been overwhelming from  5. "The Sources o f Canadian English", JEGP , LVI  (1957),6l0-6lU.  - 8-  the beginning  of our h i s t o r y .  The reasons are obvious: we have a  great deal i n common with the United States, v i s a. v i s the problems of everyday l i f e , et cetera; and while the United States was an aggressive, innovating, independent nation, we were a mere colony. I t would be only natural for us to borrow l i n g u i s t i c a l l y from the United States a t an extravagant r a t e .  I t would also be natural for t h i s  borrowing to take place along the borders of the two countries, c h i e f l y perhaps i n Ontario, which then served as the base from which Western Canada was s e t t l e d .  Correspondences then between Canadian English and v a r i e t i e s of American English may then be due to c u l t u r a l influence rather than any genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p . This I suggest as a p o s s i b i l i t y , though many would challenge such a conclusion.  The point I wish to make i s that  i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between American and Canadian English i s as I have suggested, the use of a purely American questionnaire w i l l not r e v e a l it. For t h i s reason I have t r i e d to produce a questionnaire that w i l l show relationships with American English and yet w i l l , I hope, r e v e a l features that are purely Canadian.  I have found i t d i f f i c u l t to go  very far i n the inclusion of Canadian material at t h i s point, but I think i t i s important to at l e a s t state this as an objective.  - 9 -  Limitations  No apologies are made for the limitations of the postal questionnaire as a means of obtaining data. instrument  only and i t s aims are l i m i t e d .  a questionnaire i s n e c e s s a r i l y l e x i c a l .  I t i s an exploratoryBut the emphasis i s such  I t i s obviously d i f f i c u l t to  get phonological information from a written response, although using rhymes one can learn much o f value.  by  For example, the questions  on tomato and vase reveal i n at l e a s t two areas of the province (the Okanagan and Vancouver Island) the existence of a low-front vowel d i s t i n c t from /de./  J apparently phonemically  and /??/  The majority of B r i t i s h Columbians do not have t h i s instead one vowel, allophone  Cal  before  > £° 1^1  caught,  r  .  .  vowel, using  cot, and father, with an  However, a more complete phonological  investigation of B r i t i s h Columbian English, based on f i e l d work i s needed.  Grammatical data i s also l a r g e l y inaccessible by this method of investigation.  Although questions on grammatical features can be  asked, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to get trustworthy responses.  Social  disapproval i s attached more s t r o n g l y to deviations from the standard i n the grammatical area than i n any other.  Few people, after a l l , w i l l  put ain't i n w r i t i n g , even when i t i s their habitual usage.  As w e l l as r e s t r i c t i n g the type of material that may be investigated, the postal questionnaire has an other important  l i m i t a t i o n : the responses  are not based on unguarded usage.  The more a person's attention  i s directed to the feature to be tested, the less r e l i a b l e the response w i l l be.  There are several reasons f o r t h i s .  Everyone, the  l i n g u i s t included, i s f a m i l i a r with the sudden doubt that r i s e s when one has t o isolate' one's own usage, habitual though that maybe.  There i s  also the desire, conscious o r unconscious, to choose the usage that one thinks best, or that one thinks the questioner wants t o hear.  I have  t r i e d i n this questionnaire to phrase the questions so that these problems are as far as possible avoided, but obviously the r e s u l t s w i l l not have the r e l i a b i l i t y of fieldwork.  The attitude o f the informant must also be taken into account to get the best r e s u l t s .  While the factors mentioned above w i l l a f f e c t a l l  informants to some extent, but there are l i n g u i s t i c snobs whose reports on t h e i r own usage cannot be trusted at a l l .  Usually these people reveal  themselves by t h e i r comments when they are questioned about t h e i r own speech or the speech of t h e i r neighbours.  I considered including a simple  language-attitude t e s t with the questionnaire, using, perhaps, multiplechoice questions.  I t would be possible to locate most of the problem  informants by asking such a question as: "What, i f anything, do you think i s wrong with the way Canadians speak?"  But such a question, would have  to be given separately from the questionnaire l e s t i t s t a r t the informant thinking too much about standards of usage.  One further drawback to a p o s t a l questionnaire i s that i t r e s t r i c t s  - l i -  the classes of people suitable as informants.  In any survey i t helps  a great deal to have informants who are i n t e l l i g e n t and articulate'. In a postal questionnaire such q u a l i t i e s are not just desirable, but r e q u i s i t e , and we must i n addition ask for l i t e r a c y .  Scholars sometimes forget that  reading and writing are not easy and accustomed tasks for everyone and that many people are intimidated by the necessity of putting pen to paper. We w i l l s u r e l y f i n d that a large part of the population to be studied w i l l be neither suitable nor w i l l i n g .  However, the task of finding a t r u l y  representative group of informants must be l e f t to the l a t e r f i e l d  surveys.  For the postal questionnaire we must be very s e l e c t i v e i n any case, choosing people not merely for being representative o f a l o c a l i t y by v i r t u r e of long residence, but also for being most l i k e l y to have the information we want. Furthermore, by using l i t e r a c y and i n t e l l i g e n c e as further c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n we reduce the chances that the questions w i l l be imperfectly understood.  In a f i e l d survey you can always repeat or rephrase a question  i f the informant does not understand you.  In a postal questionnaire, when  you have w r i t t e n the questions as s k i l f u l l y as possible, you must f i n a l l y t r u s t i n the case and i n t e l l i g e n c e with which the informant reads and answers them.  - 12 -  LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY Uses.  L i n g u i s t i c Geography i s "the study of l o c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n a speech-area".^ No l i v i n g language can e x i s t i n perfect uniformity throughout the speech-group that uses i t .  There i s always v a r i a t i o n , as  indeed there i s always v a r i a t i o n i n every aspect of a society's culture.  The study of the ways i n which a society's language varies from region to region and from group t o group can t e l l us much about that society, as w e l l as about i t s language.  I t can r e v e a l the past  history o f the s o c i e t y - i t s ancestry, settlement patterns, trade and migration routes, and i t s c u l t u r a l l i n k s with other groups.  The study  of language variations can also give clues about the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l differences presently e x i s t i n g within the society and can perhaps reveal the trend of changes i n process. D i a l e c t study also makes important contributions t o our knowledge of language.  Since change i n a language i s not uniform i n a l l the areas  i n which i t i s spoken, i t i s often possible by c o l l a t i n g the forms Surviving i n the various dialects to reconstruct e a r l i e r stages of the language.  I t i s also possible to evaluate changes taking place i n the  present, and make predictions about future developments.  6. Leonard Bloomfield, Language (New York, 1933), p.321.  - 13 -  History  I t i s not my purpose here to give a complete history of l i n g u i s t i c geography.  I propose instead to discuss the major d i a l e c t atlases i n  terms of three linked problems that seem relevant to the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The f i r s t problem concerns the c o l l e c t i o n of the data -  how does one gather information that i s r e l i a b l e ( i n the s t a t i s t i c a l sense)?  Secondly, how does one get adequate coverage of a region so  that no important aspect of r e g i o n a l speech i s l o s t ?  The t h i r d problem  i s connected c l o s e l y with the other two - how does one ensure that the data c o l l e c t e d i s manageable?  I have not concerned myself i n this part  of my discussion with the principles or philosophy behind the projects mentioned, nor with the v a l i d i t y of the questionnaires used.  The systematic study of d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n began i n the l a s t century with the investigations of Georg Wenker into the d i a l e c t s of the German language.  Wenker began his work i n 1881,  but the publication of the maps  showing the results of this prodigious enterprise d i d not begin u n t i l 1926 was  and i s s t i l l not complete.''  Wenker's problem was that, because he  dealing with a densely populated, long-settled area, where features  consequently could vary between one v i l l a g e and the next, he had to have a large number of informants.  He solved the problem of obtaining complete  coverage of his area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n by using the services of school teachers i n  U9,363  l o c a l i t i e s . He did not solve the problems of dealing  7. F. Wrede, Deutscher Sprachatlas (Marburg,  1926-).  - Hi -  with such a mass of information.  The manner i n which he obtained his  information, although quite e f f e c t i v e , was that he had used untrained workers who reports of what they heard.  open to c r i t i c i s m on the grounds  could only give impressionistic  The school teachers had been instructed to  transcribe f o r t y given sentences into the l o c a l d i a l e c t , using a s p e l l i n g that attempted to represent the l o c a l pronunciation.  The French d i a l e c t o l o g i s t G i l l i e r o n , who l i n g u i s t i q u e de l a France  i n 1896,  began work on the Atlas  avoided this f a u l t by using a trained  phonetician, Edmond Edmont, to gather his information.  He also expanded  the usefulness of his survey by using a much larger questionnaire than Wenker.  He d i d not, however, solve the problem of adequately covering  the area under i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The French Atlas gathered information from  639 locations only, a number not r e a l l y adequate for a country which has had a continuity of language for two thousand years.  Nonetheless,  r e s t r i c t i n g the number of informants made the amount of data more manageable, and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s was  completed ten years  after collecting had f i n i s h e d .  In the years following the p u b l i c a t i o n of G i l l i e r o n s work many 1  studies i n l i n g u i s t i c ! geography were published. Atlas of the United States and Canada was  Thus when the L i n g u i s t i c  being organized i n 1931, i t s  planners were able to p r o f i t from the experiences o f many others. avoided many of the problems that had hampered e a r l i e r studies.  They For  example, by starting with a single region of the speech-community,  8. Paris, 1902-10.  New  - 15 -  England, by using a team of trained workers, and by l i m i t i n g the number of informants to 4l6, they were able to get a good coverage of the area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n a short period of time (25 months).  They  could be confident the information they had c o l l e c t e d was r e l i a b l e , and since i t constituted i n volume only about a quarter of what was gathered by the French Atlas, this data was f u l l y processed for publication w i t h i n s i x years of the completion of fieldwork.  The questionnaire used i n the New England survey was  carefully  compiled from material found i n D i a l e c t Notes, American Speech, and o J.S. Kenyon's American Pronunciation. I t was  tested i n the f i e l d and then  revised before the survey was a c t u a l l y started. The systematic planning o f this survey extended also to the s e l e c t i o n of informants.  The prime concern was to record the usage of  the oldest inhabitants, " i n order that the e a r l i e r regional pattern might be accurately delineated and the oldest l i v i n g forms of speech preserved as f u l l y as possible."  To this end they selected from every  community to be studied "a simple but i n t e l l i g e n t farmer or farmer's w i f e i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , a workingman, tradesman or shopkeeper i n larger v i l l a g e s and i n cities"."'"  0  A secondary objective was to determine the usage of younger and better educated speakers.  The methods used f o r sampling the population  c e r t a i n l y do not measure up to modern sociometric techniques "'' yet a 1  9. 4th ed., Ann Arbor, 1930. 10. Loc. c i t . 11. see Glenna Pickford's c r i t i c i s m i n "American L i n g u i s t i c Geography: a S o c i o l o g i c a l Appraisal". Word, XII (1956),211-233.  - 16 -  random sampling o f the p o p u l a t i o n would not have f u l f i l l e d t h e aims of e s t a b l i s h i n g "the r e g i o n a l i s m o f t h e p r e - i n d u s t r i a l e r a o f  New  12 England".  One  of informants  may  q u e s t i o n , however, whether the s e c o n d a r y c a t e g o r i e s  (younger and b e t t e r educated) were chosen w i t h  enough  c a r e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers t o g i v e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on modern usage or s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e g i o n .  To get such i n f o r m a t i o n would,  of c o u r s e , have r e q u i r e d a much l a r g e r and more expensive The  p r i n c i p l e f o l l o w e d by the  e d i t o r s of the New  survey.  England m a t e r i a l  of g i v i n g complete i n f o r m a t i o n on e v e r y a s p e c t of the p r o j e c t has made i t much e a s i e r f o r other workers to extend L i n g u i s t i c A t l a s coverage to o t h e r areas o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and most r e g i o n s at  l e a s t one  have been t h r o u g h  stage o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The r e s u l t s , though, are slow t o  be  published. U n f o r t u n a t e l y v e r y l i t t l e work has been done on d i a l e c t v a r i a t i o n s in  Canada and l i t t l e ,  as f a r as I am aware, i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g p l a n n e d .  1 2 . Handbook, l o c . c i t . 13. see, however, the work of Alexander and W i l s o n on Nova S c o t i a , Avis on O n t a r i o , Hamilton on M o n t r e a l , and D r y s d a l e on Newfoundland l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y .  - 17 -  Methods The methods employed i n linguistic geography are not particularly complex.  This may be because the goals are simple and explicit.  The major goal of the dialectologist is to reveal the differences that exist within the normal usage of typical members of a speechcommunity.  To this end he must choose his informants with care, making  sure that they are truly representative of their community.  The invest-  igator who for convenience selects informants from the ranks of his students, or who depends on a network of upper-middle-class acquaintances w i l l obtain results that w i l l be open to serious challenge.  The practice  of selecting elderly informants, although justifiable for reasons stated earlier, w i l l violate this principle of choosing representative speakers unless i t is established that their speech is probably typical of an earlier era. To obtain the normal usage of the chosen informants requires care and a good measure of cunning on the part of the fieldworker.  He must  make a situation i n which the informant speaks easily and naturally to him, not a simple task since most people are apprehensive and on guard in such an encounter.  When the informant is responding in his normal speech style,  the interviewer w i l l be able to record his usage with some feeling that i t is v a l i d . Then the manner i n which the responses are elicited becomes important. The ideal response is the unguarded one, made when the informant is unaware  - 18 -  that i t i s being noted.  Unfortunately, because the available time  i s always limited, only a small amount of the information needed can be gained i n this way.  One might wait a long while before a conversation  works around to the noises a c a l f makes when being weaned.  The interviewer at the least must steer the conversation and often ask d i r e c t questions to get the desired responses.  Because every  informant i s vulnerable to suggestion, the question put to him must i n no way  suggest a p a r t i c u l a r response.  For example, a question of the type  "What i s t h i s ? i s preferable to "What do you c a l l the motor-driven machine that a person uses to cut his lawn?" able to "What do you c a l l the gasoline-powered  which, i n turn, i s prefermachine that mows lawns?"  The l a t t e r two questions provide cues i n such words as "lawn", "powered", "mows", that the informant might respond to.  A question such as "Do  you  c a l l this machine a power mower?" should never be asked.  When the data has been c o l l e c t e d i t must be organized into u s e f u l form. Maps are probably the most e f f e c t i v e way  of doing t h i s . , The  responses of every informant to any one p a r t i c u l a r question are plotted on a map,  using a d i f f e r e n t symbol f o r each v a r i a n t .  I f a geographical  pattern emerges i t may be possible to draw an isogloss for the feature being mapped. An isogloss, which i s a demarkation line between l i n g u i s t i c features or variants,can either represent the outer l i m i t of a feature's occurrence, or show the p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence; that i s , that one feature i s more l i k e l y to be found within the l i n e and another outside i t .  - 19 -  Mapping i s a very graphic way of presenting data on dialectal variation.  It makes the linguistic relationships between geographic  areas clear, showing the effect of settlement patterns, lines of communication, and so forth.  Map analysis can reveal the underlying  dynamics of a linguistic situation - how a feature i s spreading from a focal area, or withdrawing i n the face of competing variants, leaving relic areas i n i t s wake. Mapping can thus t e l l much about the history of a feature and about i t s probably development.  For these reasons the  production of a map is usually one of the prime goals of the dialectologist. The collected data may also be subjected to statistical analysis. A simple statement of a feature's frequency, for example, may provide useful information where a map might reveal no discernible pattern. Quantifying the data, although not as satisfying visually, makes possible mathematical manipulations that may produce new insights.  - 20 -  SELECTION OF COMMUNITIES  The choice of communities from which informants w i l l be selected w i l l depend l a r g e l y on settlement patterns within the province. Unfortunately, although i t i s possible to determine when settlement took place, i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t to t e l l who  d i d the s e t t l i n g .  Census figures show the national origins of the population i n each census d i v i s i o n , but since the categories "Canadian" and  "American"  were apparently unknown to the census takers u n t i l quite r e c e n t l y this information i s of l i m i t e d value.  How  i s one to know whether the  232  Irishmen resident i n Grand Forks i n 1921 were refugees from the troubles i n Ireland, t h i r d generation Canadians from Nova Scotia, or perhaps recent s e t t l e r s from New  York?  S t i l l , one may  f i n d references here and  .12* there (for example, i n the Canadian Family .Tree)  to the  settlement  of foreigners i n B r i t i s h Columbia. What we do not know i s where the Canadian s e t t l e r s came from.  In 195l  30$ o f t h i s province's inhabitants  were people born i n other parts of Canada. In the face of this dearth of information i t has been necessary to use as the chief c r i t e r i o n for s e l e c t i n g communities length and continuity of settlement rather than o r i g i n of the population.  In order  to put this s e l e c t i o n into context a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the province's settlement follows. B r i t i s h Columbia began as a preserve of the fur traders, and a  l U . Canadian Citizenship Branch, Department of the Secretary of State, Ottawa, 1967.  -  21 -  number of the trading posts established i n the early years o f the nineteenth century developed into important communities.  The more  important of these with t h e i r dates of establishment are as follows:  Fort Fort Fort Fort Fort Fort Fort Fort  S t . John S t . James George (Now Prince George) Kamloops Langley Victoria Yale Hope  1805 1806 1807 1812 1827 18U3 18U8 184°  The fur traders d i d not encourage s e t t l e r s , and the f i r s t r e a l i n f l u x of population d i d not begin u n t i l 1858, when gold was discovered on the Fraser.  During the gold rush thousands came from Canada, B r i t a i n ,  Oregon, C a l i f o r n i a , A u s t r a l i a , and other parts o f the world to f i n d t h e i r fortunes i n the gold f i e l d s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Some o f the towns that  sprang up as a r e s u l t were L i l l o o e t , Lytton, Clinton, and Quesnel.  The transportation d i f f i c u l t i e s that arose because of the gold rush l e d to the building o f the Cariboo Road.  Many road-houses were b u i l t  along the length of the Cariboo Road, and some, such as 100-Mile House, and 150-Mile House, remain active communities today.  The majority o f the thousands who came looking f o r gold did not f i n d any. They d i d f i n d rather a l o t o f unoccupied land and many decided to stay. They s e t t l e d i n the Cariboo and i n the Fraser Valley, establishing many farms and ranches.  Subsequently i n the 1860's and 1870's  new settlements were incorporated i n these regions.  many  -  22 -  On Vancouver Island development was slower, but even there would-be prospectors helped the population grow.  The Comox Valley  was s e t t l e d i n 1862 by B r i t i s h and Australian groups who had decided to go no further i n t h e i r search f o r fortune.  There had already been  settlement around the c o a l f i e l d s of Nanaimo since 1852 and the population was beginning t o spread from there and from V i c t o r i a .  With the coming of the railways many areas of the province were open f o r settlement.  Agriculture became p r o f i t a b l e when markets became  accessible, and ranches began springing up throughout the Okanagan i n the  1880's and 1890's.  By the turn of the century, though, the economy  of t h i s region had switched from c a t t l e to f r u i t s and vegetables.  Although there have been many mining rushes, big and small, i n the province's history, perhaps the next i n importance to the Cariboo Gold Rush of 1858 was the discovery of the great mineral resources of the Kootenays i n the 1880's.  Mining towns such as Nelson, Rossland,  Kimberley,  and Kaslo were founded and soon had populations i n the thousands.  When  the prospecting fever had run i t s course many of these towns declined, but again, many miners stayed and t r i e d their hands at farming.  The l a s t great surge of settlement began i n the Peace River D i s t r i c t i n 1912.  Population i n t h i s area continues to grow rapidly,  i n recent years the stimulus being less the f i n e grain growing land than the newly discovered petroleum  and natural gas resources. Although  the natural l i n e s of communication are with Alberta, the completion of the Hart Highway i n 1952,  and the extension of the P a c i f i c Great  - 23 -  E a s t e r n R a i l w a y t o F o r t S t . John and Dawson Creek i n 1958 l i n k s w i t h the r e s t of  established  B.C.  The N o r t h e r n r e g i o n o f the p r o v i n c e remains l a r g e l y u n s e t t l e d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the numerous towns along the C.N.R. l i n e between P r i n c e George and P r i n c e Rupert.  The communities I have s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s s u r v e y r e f l e c t the major p a t t e r n s of s e t t l e m e n t as o u t l i n e d above.  I have t r i e d t o choose  communities t h a t have had continuous s e t t l e m e n t s i n c e b e f o r e 1900  so  t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e t o f i n d e l d e r l y i n f o r m a n t s n a t i v e t o the r e g i o n . In  a number of cases i t has been n e c e s s a r y to s e l e c t more r e c e n t s e t t l e m e n t s  to  g i v e p r o p e r geographic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (the Peace R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t s  are c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t , f o r example), l a r g e communities ( P o w e l l R i v e r ' s  12,000  or to give representation to i n h a b i t a n t s s h o u l d not  i g n o r e d , even though s e t t l e m e n t d a t e s back o n l y f i f t y y e a r s ) .  be Many  towns t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e l a s t c e n t u r y have not been i n c l u d e d because s e t t l e m e n t has n o t been c o n t i n u o u s . founded  in  I8I49,  Hope, f o r example,  was  but i t s p o p u l a t i o n dwindled a f t e r Y a l e became the  terminus o f the Cariboo Road, and, i n e f f e c t , i t has been r e s e t t l e d i n the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s .  There are many towns w i t h t h i s k i n d o f h i s t o r y ,  and i t would be d i f f i c u l t  Geographic  to f i n d o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n informants i n them.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u c h as l i n e s of communication  n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s have, of course, been taken i n t o account.  and  Where a  c h o i c e between two nearby communities o f comparable a n t i q u i t y  was  -  2U -  necessary I have selected the one more dependent on agriculture. The l i s t of 118 communities that follows is tentative only, and is dependent on the possibility of finding suitable informants.  The  fishing communities of the coast are not included i n the l i s t , but they also w i l l be sampled.  The selection of these small isolated  places must wait until i t is, known what informants are available. The arrangement of the l i s t i s by geographic region. Vancouver Island  South Coast - Fraser Valley  Gape Scott Alert Bay Campbell River Courtenay Alberni Parksville Nanaimo Ladysmith Lake Cowichan Duncan Galiano Saltspring Victoria Ocluelet  Lund Powell River Sechelt Squamish Pemberton North Vancouver West Vancouver Vancouver New Westminster Richmond Ladner Surrey Coquitlam Maillardville Haney Mission Chilliwack Sardis Abbotsford Cloverdale Langley Harrison Mills Yale  Okanagan  Cariboo-Shuswap  Princeton Peachland Enderby Armstrong  Anahim Lake Alexis Creek Quesnel Williams Lake  - 25 -  Okanagan  (cont'd)  Cariboo - Shuswap (cont'd)  Vernon Westwold Lumby Kelowna Penticton Keremeos Oliver Osoyoos Grand Forks  Alexandria 150-Mile House Wells Lac l a Hache 100-Mile House Clinton Lillooet Cache Creek As heroft Savona Kamloops Barriere Shuswap Salmon Arm Sicamous Lytton Spences Bridge Merritt  The Kootenays  North Coast - Prince George  Revelstoke Golden Edgewater New Denver Sloean Nelson Kaslo Invermere Canal Flats Skookumchuck Kimberley Cranbrook Fernie Rossland Castlegar Trail Salmo Creston  Stewart Prince Rupert Port Simpson Hagensborg B e l l a Coola Ocean F a l l s Terrace Hazelton Smithers Fort St.James Burns Lake Vanderhoof Prince George McBride Tete Jaune Cache  - 26 -  Peace River Hudson Hope Chetwynd Fort S t . John North Pine Dawson Creek Pouce Coupe  Northern B.C. - Yukon - North West Territories Dease Lake Atlin Telegraph Creek Fort Nelson Whitehorse, Y.T. Dawson, Y.T. Mayo, Y.T. Fort L i a r d , N.W.T.  - 27 -  SELECTION OF INFORMANTS  The informants used i n this survey w i l l a l l be native-born Canadians who have had l i f e - l o n g residence i n t h e i r community with few absences.  The parents o f the informants should have been English-  speaking and, i f possible, longterm residents o f the community. Any person who spoke a language other than English i n the home w i l l not q u a l i f y as an informant.  The informants should be i n t e l l i g e n t , knowledgeable, and w i l l i n g , but not educated beyond high school l e v e l .  literate, Occupation  w i l l not be a deciding f a c t o r i n s e l e c t i o n , although no one with a professional i n t e r e s t i n language - for example, teachers, publishers, or writers - w i l l be considered, and some preference w i l l be given to persons with some farming background.  At l e a s t three informants w i l l be selected from each community. One w i l l be as o l d as possible, consistent with the requirements already stated.  This informant w i l l supply information on e a r l i e r forms,  many of which are r a p i d l y disappearing and must be recorded before being lost.  One informant w i l l be young, preferably between the ages o f 19  and 2 5 . Young informants are needed to gauge the changes which are occurring i n our language  (see the discussion i n the questionnaire  section of the f i r s t two items, Tomato and vase).  Teenagers would be  useful as informants and would be r e a d i l y available - hordes of them are held i n c a p t i v i t y for ten months of the year - but they have not  - 28 -  s u f f i c i e n t life-experience to answer many of the questions.  The  t h i r d informant should be intermediate i n age between the other two, preferably i n the 3 5 to 5 5 year range.  -  29  -  SELECTION OF ITEMS  The number of l i n g u i s t i c features that vary i n a speechcommunity i s very large.  The d i a l e c t o l o g i s t s e l e c t i n g items f o r a  questionnaire must therefore be concerned not simply with the fact that a feature shows v a r i a t i o n , but with how this v a r i a t i o n may reveal something of s i g n i f i c a n c e about the language or the community.  In choosing items for the questionnaire I therefore  first  compiled a large l i s t of features that could be expected to show v a r i a t i o n , then discarded those that seemed u n l i k e l y to vary i n B.C. This l a t t e r series of decisions was based as f a r as possible on concrete information, but I was often forced to r e l y on my own knowledge of B r i t i s h Columbia speech. Although I am a native of t h i s province I recognize that some of my decisions w i l l be mistaken. Later surveys w i l l remedy any gross errors or omissions.  When a body of possible items had been collected, i t was then necessary to exclude those unsuited to the form of a postal questionnaire. This i n e f f e c t meant the elimination o f many of the grammatical and phonological items. In the process of again reducing the l i s t so that the c o l l e c t e d data would be manageable, further c r i t e r i a were employed.  The pes s i b i l i t y  of r e l a t i n g a feature to other areas where i t s incidence has been recorded was an important factor i n the s e l e c t i o n process.  The  - 30 -  p o s s i b i l i t y o f an i t e m r e v e a l i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n , r a t h e r than o c c u r r i n g i n a random d i s t r i b u t i o n , and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a f e a t u r e as p e c u l i a r l y Canadian o r B r i t i s h Columbian were a l s o c a r e f u l l y considered.  The m a j o r i t y of i t e m s are framed i n q u e s t i o n s t h a t g i v e a d e f i n i t i o n and t h e n ask f o r a name; f o r example, q u e s t i o n 18 - "What do you c a l l t h e s t r i p o f g r a s s between t h e s i d e w a l k and the s t r e e t ? " - i s of t h i s t y p e . The n e x t l a r g e s t ? g r o u p o f q u e s t i o n s i s o f t h e c o n t e x t c o m p l e t i o n t y p e , most of w h i c h r e q u i r e the i n f o r m a n t t o s u p p l y a word or phrase t o go i n a b l a n k ; an example i s q u e s t i o n 23 - "A wasp s t u n g him on t h e palm, and h i s hand  up".  A v e r y few o f the c o n t e x t c o m p l e t i o n  and  d e f i n i t i o n q u e s t i o n s o f f e r v a r i a n t s f o r t h e i n f o r m a n t to choose from. The o t h e r i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n type i s the one a s k i n g f o r a p r o n u n c i a t i o n by t h e c h o i c e of an a p p r o p r i a t e rhyme.  Three o t h e r types o f q u e s t i o n are u s e d v e r y s p a r i n g l y .  Questions  -such as i t e m 12 s u p p l y a w o r d and a s k whether t h e i n f o r m a n t uses i t and, i f s o , what meaning i s a t t a c h e d t o i t . a l t e r n a t i v e s t o a s t a n d a r d word. names f o r the d r a g o n - f l y .  A v e r y few q u e s t i o n s ask f o r  Item 11, f o r example asks f o r o t h e r  The p o o r e s t t y p e o f q u e s t i o n i s t h e one  which  s u p p l i e s b o t h w o r d and meaning and a s k s the i n f o r m a n t t o v e r i f y them. Item 28 ( r i g h t now)  i s t h e s o l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s type.  I t might be remarked t h a t t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e f e a t u r e s , p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , b i r d s , or i n s e c t s .  This o m i s s i o n i s r e g r e t t a b l e b u t n e c e s s a r y because  -  31 -  of the d i f f i c u l t y of establishing the proper referents.  When, f o r example,  one asks f o r the name of the tuft-eared, bob-tailed f e l i n e found i n the woods of B.C., the terms offered could r e f e r to either the lynx or the bob-cat.  I t would be d i f f i c u l t to frame the question i n such a way that  i t would be certain which animal the informant was r e f e r r i n g to, or i f , indeed, he made a d i s t i n c t i o n at a l l .  The r e s u l t s from this type o f  question w i l l also d i f f e r according to the knowledge of the informants. To some people every evergreen i s a f i r , and every f i n c h , nuthatch, and chickadee i s a sparrow.  Unless the referent i s c e r t a i n l y known and  responses can be confidently attached to i t alone, there i s l i t t l e  point  i n asking the question.  One might r e f e r here to the example of K. Jaberg and i n their Sprach - und Sachatlas  J . Jud who,  Italiens und der Sudschweiz,^ stressed  the concept of Worter und Sachen.  They i n s i s t e d that the association  between word and thing be precise, since words often d i f f e r simply because the things themselves d i f f e r i n some way.  For t h i s reason  they advocated the use of drawings or photographs i n d i a l e c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  I strongly suspect that the figures quoted by C a r r o l l Reed f o r andirons'^ show informant confusion  about the referent. Such terms as  dog-irons, dogs, and f i r e - i r o n s , long established variants, were found infrequently, but grate was offered.by 1Q% i n Washington, 2$% i n Idaho, and 20% i n Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a .  Grate i s a legitimate term for a  p a r t i c u l a r kind o f metal basket or frame used for holding wood i n a  15.  Zofingen, 1 9 2 8 .  16.  Dialects of American English, p. 7 0 .  - 32 -  fireplace.  I t occurs to me that many people who have grates i n their  fireplaces have never seen andirons (I put myself i n this category), and might offer the familiar grate for any fuel-holder i n a fireplace. The true situation may be not that 20$ of the people i n the western states use grate for andirons, but that they do not i n fact have any term for andirons. But even i f these informants do use andirons and c a l l them grates, we do not know i f grate i s used for other kinds of f u e l holder . Some workers have also made the error of not providing enough scope for differentiation by the informant. In asking for porch, for example, the response may depend on the type of structure the informant has i n mind at that moment. I t might be found that instead of using just one variant, front porch, he also uses verandah, and front stoop, but that these terms each refer to a s l i g h t l y different structure. I have therefore taken care to provide for such differentiation whenever i t seemed l i k e l y to occur.  - 33 -  SOURCES OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE  When, items were being selected f o r the questionnaire i t was necessary to f i n d out two things: what features normally show v a r i a t i o n i n English, and what features have been investigated i n other parts of the English-speaking world.  Accordingly I collected and c o l l a t e d  from questionnaires, word-lists, and dictionaries a large number of items that showed promise of being u s e f u l i n B.C.  I also surveyed  the  r e s u l t s of work i n other geographical areas, making note of findings that might p r o f i t a b l y be r e l a t e d to B.C.usage.  Further, I c a r r i e d out  o r i g i n a l research under the d i r e c t i o n of Professor R.J. Gregg and  gained  access to records produced by other students working under his d i r e c t i o n .  The majority of questions used i n this questionnaire are taken from the worksheets prepared for the L i n g u i s t i c Atlas of the P a c i f i c Coast 17 by David W.Reed and David DeCamp.  The P a c i f i c Coast questionnaire  i s b a s i c a l l y the long worksheets used i n the New  England survey, but  i t has added variants from worksheets and check l i s t s used in., othersparts of the United States. For our purposes most of the questions have been modified to s u i t the requirements of a postal questionnaire, to eliminate ambiguities, or to f i t special circumstances  i n B.C.  The  retention of many American items w i l l reveal relationships between American and Canadian English. 17. Berkeley,  19$2.  -  3U -  Also useful was another work by Reed and DeCamp, a c o l l a t i o n of -l Q  Check L i s t s Used i n the Study of American L i n g u i s t i c Geography, which gathers together items used i n ten check l i s t s from across the United States, most of them also appearing i n their P a c i f i c Coast questionnaire. An examination of the Long Work Sheets of the New England survey, showed several items, not used i n either works of Reed and DeCamp which seemed worth investigating i n B.C. Another important source was Frederick G. Cassidy's "A Method f o r Collecting D i a l e c t " ^ .  This a r t i c l e presents, as well as a questionnaire  of 1520 items, a useful procedure f o r conducting a d i a l e c t survey by mail. Cassidy's questionnaire i s intended to find material for the American Dialect Society's D i a l e c t Dictionary project.  The contents of this  a r t i c l e proved quite valuable, notwithstanding the f a c t that the aims of the ADS project d i f f e r from those of the L i n g u i s t i c Atlas of the United States and Canada.  I t i s concerned to some extent with items of f o l k -  lore and s o c i a l custom, which are not properly i n the domain o f l i n g u i s t i c s , and i t s p r i o r i t i e s are those of the lexicographer rather than the d i a l e c t ologist. A r i c h source of Canadian items was the Dictionary of Canadianisms  20 on H i s t o r i c a l P r i n c i p l e s edited by W.S. Avis. 18. Berkeley, 1952.  19.  PADS, No.  20(1953), 5-96.  20. Toronto, 1967-  Every one of the many  - 35 -  thousands of entries i n t h i s d i c t i o n a r y was read, and every item of possible use noted.  The items i n this questionnaire which are not drawn from the sources mentioned have been acquired mos t l y through personal observation. Other questionnaires,such as Harold Orton's*-- - and Angus Mcintosh's 1  were searched, but nothing suitable for i n c l u s i o n was found. The published r e s u l t s o f many studies done i n the United States and Canada were also consulted.  Among the most useful American works  23 were Hans Kurath's Word Geography of the Eastern United States C a r r o l l Reed's Dialects of American E n g l i s h . ^  and  The l a t t e r work contains  frequency tables for items tested i n Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Of the few Canadian studies published only two proved useful i n the evaluation of items, and, both were quite limited i n scope. Donald 25 E. Hamilton's "Notes on Montreal English" ^ and the three a r t i c l e s by W.S.  Avis on Ontario speech  offered figures on a small number of items  and thus made possible some interesting comparisons with B.C.speech. 21. A Survey of English Dialects:Introduction, Leeds, 1962 22. A.W.Mcintosh, H.J. U l d a l l , Kenneth Jackson, L i n g u i s t i c Survey of Scotland ; Postal Questionnaire No. 1, (Edinburgh, 1951) and A Mcintosh and J.S. Woolley, Postal Questionnaire No. 2 (Edinburgh, 1953). 23. Ann Arbor, 19U9 2k. Cleveland, 1967 25. J.C.L.A., TV(1958), 70-79 26. "Speech Differences along the Ontario-United States border : I, Vocabulary, "JCLA, I [pilot issue}(I95h), 13-20 " I I , Grammar and Syntax" , UCLA, I (1955), 14-19 " I I I , Pronunciation", JCLA, I I (1956) ul-59-  -  36  -  As there was no information available on B.C.English other than 27  the two phonological studies of R.J. Gregg  i t was  necessary to begin  c o l l e c t i n g data myself. Under the guidance of Professor R.J. Gregg and with the assistance of my wife I undertook i n my f i r s t survey to e s t a b l i s h the phonology of the Vancouver area and to test the pronunciation of certain words. The survey was  carried out i n June, I96J4, and used as informants 2I46  students from three Vancouver high schools. Some of the r e s u l t s were presented i n a paper read at the Annual meeting of the Canadian L i n g u i s t i c Association i n 1965. In I966 a much reduced version of the same questionnaire was to I46 grade twelve students from the Duncan area, and this was  given  repeated  i n 1967 with 15 students from Hope. Also i n 1965 I sent l e t t e r s to l o c a l newspapers throughout the province asking readers for information on twelve items.  Many editors  d i d not run the l e t t e r , making the coverage of the province  incomplete,  but 7I4 readers r e p l i e d and contributed some u s e f u l information. Encouraged by the response, I sent a further questionnaire to a number of these  correspondents.  27. "Notes on the Pronunciation of Canadian English as spoken i n Vancouver, B.C.", JCLA, I I I (1957), 20-26. "Neutralisation and Fusion of Vocalic Phonemes i n Canadian English as spoken i n the Vancouver area", JCLA, I I I (1957),  78-83.  - 37 -  Two other students of Professor Gregg were also conducting f i e l d work at t h i s time. Judith Taylor recorded interviews with nine informants on Vancouver Island, and Stephen Smith recorded interviews and made transcriptions f o r sixteen informants i n the Okanagan. When the results of these surveys were tabulated and analysed, they proved useful additions to the data I had already collected.  The commentary on the items o f the questionnaire following i s based l a r g e l y on the r e s u l t s o f the various research projects mentioned above.  FORMAT AND  ADMINISTRATION  I t i s intended that the information gathered through this questionnaire w i l l be processed by computer.  Accordingly the advice  of the Computing Center of the University of B.C. has been sought and t h e i r further assistance has been offered at such time as the project i s d e f i n i t e l y begun.  Every informant w i l l be (asked to complete a farm on which he w i l l give his name, address, sex, occupation, education, parental origins, and residence history.  This information w i l l be punched onto a card  bearing the informant's number. The questionnaire i t s e l f w i l l be printed on sheets and mailed to the informant, perhaps i n two installments to make i t seem less intimidating. The informant w i l l w r i t e his answers and comments i n the spaces below the questions and then w i l l return the sheets by mail.  The answers w i l l be examined and a code f o r the various answers to a question w i l l be devised.  In t h i s form a l l responses w i l l be  punched onto cards and f e d into a computer.  The computer program recommended to me by Mr. Leigh of the Computing Center i s the Gl UBC MVTAB.  Using this program we w i l l be  able to produce the following tables: frequency tables f o r each response, correlations between the response and any other variable such as age, sex, or occupation, correlations between any two responses, and c h i square values f o r any set of correlations.  -  39  -  Mapping w i l l be done f r o m t h e p r i n t - o u t .  I e n v i s a g e u s i n g one c l e a r ,  d u r a b l e , n o n - r i p p i n g p l a s t i c s h e e t t o f i t over the base maps, punching h o l e s i n b t h e p l a s t i c t o p i n - p o i n t i n f o r m a n t l o c a t i o n s , and t h e n making c o l o u r e d d o t s through the h o l e s i n correspondence w i t h a r e s p o n s e - c o d e . This s h e e t w i l l then be p l a c e d o v e r another base map to c h a r t another item.  Such an o p e r a t i o n w i l l no doubt prove t e d i o u s , but no  computer w i l l do t h i s  work.  available  - Uo THE QUESTIONNAIRE  The questionnaire that follows was designed to be by mail.  administered  A set of i n s t r u c t i o n s , not here included, w i l l accompany i t .  At the top of most questions a reference number (or numbers) i s given.  These numbers refer to other questionnaires or ward l i s t s  i n which the item dealt with may  be found.  The abbreviations used are as  follows:  PCQ  : P a c i f i c Coast questionnaire (Reed and DeCamp's worksheets for the L i n g u i s t i c Atlas of the P a c i f i c Coast).  C ChL  : A C o l l a t i o n of Check L i s t s by Reed and DeCamp.  LWS  : The Long Word Sheets used i n Kurath's  Cas  : Frederick G.Cassidy's questionnaire from " A Method for C o l l e c t i n g D i a l e c t "  survey (see the Handbook, pp. 150-158)  New  England  D of C : The Dictionary of Canadianisms. These works are discussed above under the heading A commentary follows each question.  "Sources".  In the discussion the names  of c e r t a i n studies r e f e r r e d to frequently have been abbreviated as follows: VS  The Vancouver survey, carried out among high school students i n I96I4.  DS  The Duncan survey, c a r r i e d out among high school students i n Duncan i n 1966 HS The Hope survey, c a r r i e d out among high school students i n Hope i n 1967. PQ-1 Postal Questionnaire number one, administered through regional newspapers i n 1965. PQ-2 Postal questionnaire number two, the follow-up to PQ-1  These studies are also discussed above under the heading  "Sources".  - m -  PCQ 1*6.-2  1.  In the word tomato do you pronounce the middle part of the. word as eight, at,  or ought? I f none of these words f i t give a  word containing the "a" sound you use.  I have gathered information on t h i s item through three student surveys (Vancouver, Duncan, and Hope) with a t o t a l of 302  informants,  and through the Postal Questionnaire and the Smith and Taylor surveys with a t o t a l of 71 informants. Analysis of this data leads me to three general conclusions. F i r s t , there i s a geographical variation i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the adult responses.  Second, this geographical v a r i a t i o n at the adult  l e v e l seems to have disappeared among the teen-agers studied. considered as a group, the B.C. Ontario informants. below.  Third,  adults respond very much l i k e Avis's  The results of the various surveys are tabulated  Responses from teen-agers have been excluded from the  PQ-1  figures.  tomato  /  /«/ /ZL/CL/t,/  Ontario  PQ-1  Student  surveys  11%  67  97  21  23  2  10  1  8  The next table shows the adult responses by region.  The Vancouver  - 2*2 -  Island figures are taken from PQ-1 Okanagan figures are from PQ-1  and the Taylor survey.  and the Smith survey.  The  The PQ-X  column  gives the responses of the PQ-1 group with a l l the Vancouver Island and Okanagan informants excluded.  Vancouver Island /«'/  Okanagan 56  2h% 4  /at/  /a/a/V  PQ-X(rest of the Province)  7  -  3  30  89  8  5  6  5  The results of the student surveys show a l e v e l l i n g of the s t r i k i n g differences revealed i n the above table.  This may be seen i n a  comparison of the Vancouver Island adults as tabulated above with the Duncan students:  Vancouver Island adults /-ei/ M  /  A / W  21*36  98  47  2  30  o PCQ 1 4 . 7 ;  2.  Duncan students  Cas. B9.  Would you rhyme "vase" with "face", "days", "cause", or "has"? ' I f you don't rhyme i t with any of these, supply your om  rhyme.  A number of very interesting facts have emerged from the study of vase.  There i s a regional v a r i a t i o n quite evident within the province,  -  43  and, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , between B r i t i s h Columbia and Eastern Canada. There i s , furthermore, evidence of a trend i n the pronunciation of this word.  The d i r e c t i o n of this trend may well have significance  regarding the orientation o f Canadian English v i s - a - v i s B r i t i s h and American English.  The r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n may be seen i n the following t a b l e s .  The  V.I. column represents the Vancouver Island informants from Taylor's survey and from PQ-1  The Ok. column represents the Okanagan informants  from Smith's survey and from PQ-1.  The PQ-X  column gives the  figures exclusive o f Vancouver Island and Okanagan informants. l a s t column i s a summation of the three previous columns.  PQ-1 The  A l l the  informants i n this table are mature adults. VI /v*«z / /ueis/  Ok  PQ-X  5.5$  6  32  5.5  6  0  adults 16 3.5  /  72  75  61+  / \/atz /  o  6  ii  3.5  6  0  7  / Wz  / vaz /  . 1 7  70  We may note the high incidence of / va,z / on Vancouver Island. Further, /V£.iz / has a much lower frequency on Vancouver Island and i n the Okanagan than i n the rest of the province.  Only one of eighteen  Vancouver Island informants and one of sixteen Okanagan informants gave / V ^ i z /.  In the Northern Interior a l l three informants gave / v e i ' z  /.  Such small samples cannot provide r e l i a b l e evidence, yet the i n d i c a t i o n  - 44 -  of regional difference i s certainly there. This regional variation persists i n the student sample, although not to the same extent.  The figures are given below. Duncan  Vancouver  Hope  students  /veiz/  hl%  50  19  / v£/ 5' /  0  k  0  3  /V^z/  $2  45  21  45  0  2  0  1  / vaez /  ! / V Ztz /  '  0  7  So  0  1  ! When we compare the B . C . figures with those given by Avis for Ontario and by Hamilton for Montreal we see further differences. The Ontario figures are f a i r l y close to those o f the B . C . teen-agers, except that /V£.iS / i  s  much more common i n Ontario.  The Ontario figures,  though, are quite f a r removed from those for the B . C . adults. Montreal again i s quite different, yet not completely at variance except f o r the high incidence of / vae.z / and / v e i s /. The table i s given below. Montreal 36.3% / M*-l$ /  8.4  / Vbz /  46.2  / i/aez /  10.1  / V3.Z /  0  Ontario 49.5  n  B.C. adults 16 3.5  38  70  B.C. students 5o 3 45  1.5  3.5  1  0  7  1  - U5 -  When we compare the B.C. adult figures with those for the teenagers, we get good evidence of a shift i n pronunciation habits.  As has  been noted above there are five main variants for this word, /vvz  /  is the British form and is common across Canada. I t is the preferred form of most of the adults surveyed i n B.C.  The regular American  pronunciation i s /v^i S /. Of relatively minor importance are /V9£Z / and /v\z ively.  / occurring chiefly i n Montreal and Vancouver Island, respect}  One might expect here the development of a classical Canadian  situation : a choice between a British variant on the one hand, and an American variant on the other. There is no need to document the number of times this situation has occurred i n the history of Canadian English. What i s significant here is that i n the case of vase the movement away from the British /Vvz.  / i s not i n the direction of the American /V-etS / ,  but to /v-^'Z  /, a hybrid not used i n Britain and uncommon in the  United States.  Does this represent an unconscious desire for a middle-  of-the-road solution to this linguistic problem, a need to be un-British, yet a reluctance to be American?  Would an unaffiliated variant have been  chosen i n other polarized situations i f i t had been available?  These  questions cannot be answered on the .basis of this one item, but these implications deserve consideration. That such a trend exists i s easily demonstrable. frequency for /Wz frequency for / v e i z  The overall adult  / i s 7 0 $ . For the teen-agers i t is h$%. The adult / i s only 1 6 $ , but i t has increased i n the teen-  age group to S0%. We cannot say, of course, that the adults i n this case  - 46  -  necessarily represent the parents of the teen-agers studied, since the areas are not the same.  Yet we may compare the Vancouver Island inform/ and $.S%  ants, who give 12% / who  give $2% /VKz  / and kl%  / v e f z /, with the Duncan students,  :  /\j*J\z. /.  Further evidence that a movement from /V~t?z / to / t / e / z / i s i n progress can be found i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the teen-age responses. I have found i n v a r i a b l y that i n the responses to any given item the Duncan students tend to choose the more conservative and/or B r i t i s h form, the Vancouver students are always less conservative and l e s s B r i t i s h , and the Hope students always move further i n this d i r e c t i o n than the Vancouver group.  For t h i s kind of item then an ordered  progression of figures from Duncan, Vancouver, and Hope reveals a d i r e c t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c development. discussed i n the notes to item 6.  This phenomenon i s further  Such a progression i s evident when  the figures f o r the teen-age 'responses are examined..'  Duncan  Vancouver  Hope  /v-eiz/  hl%  So  19  / vvz  52  45  21  /  I f my hypothesis i s correct, / V-ei z / w i l l become the predominant form i n B.C. as / V~&z The American form  / weakens. S  / i s being chosen by very few.  figures seem to show that t h i s form i s at l e a s t holding i t s own, i f we look at the students who  The but  offered t h i s variant we f i n d that four  - hi  -  of the ten had at l e a s t one parent born i n the United States. group not using / Ve.is States.  Of the  / only 7.6$ had a parent born i n the United  The influence of an American parent on the child's choice  here seems obvious, and i f we discount t h i s factor i t seems that / V-ei s" / i s , i f anything, growing weaker.  Besides adding information on this interesting s i t u a t i o n vase w i l l also help pin-point areas where / 3. / occurs, d i a l e c t a l l y a very important feature i n B.C.  PCQ  l&.l  Do you pronounce the f i r s t part of apricot to rhyme with cap or cape?  Do you normally use any other term f o r this f r u i t ?  In V i c t o r i a seven o f nine used /€.1 / for the i n i t i a l vowel, one used / 9£  / and one used both / 9€- / and / € , / / .  9 gave / €~'i / and 3 gave / 3£- /.  i n the Okanagan  Seven of the 12 Okanagan informants  volunteered cots as the name for this f r u i t .  This is apparently  the packing house term f o r this f r u i t , and-it i s not certain whether or not i t s use extends beyond the area where apricots are a major crop.  PCQ  (a)  51.5, 55.7.  Does "shone", as i n "The sun shone b r i g h t l y , "  rhyme with "John" or "Joan"?  - 48 -  (b)  Does "lever", as i n " P u l l the lever", rhyme with "clever" or "cleaver"?  (c)  Does "root", as i n "root of a tree", rhyme with "foot", "boot", or "but"?  (d)  Does "soot", as i n "chimney soot", rhyme with "foot", "boot", or "but"?  (e)  Does "route", as i n "paper route", rhyme with "shoot" or "shout"?  (a)  shone  The standard Canadian pronunciation i s / § vn /•  For the American / §om\  / Avis reports an incidence of y%.  I found 2% and h% i n the Vancouver and Duncan surveys, respectively.  (b)  lever  The usual Canadian pronunciation i s / i i v a r / .  I found the frequency of the American / 'levar / to be $% i n Vancouver, 1% i n Duncan, and 7% i n Hope.  (c)  root  I have no figures from B.C. f o r this word, but Hamilton  reports a surprising 20.3$ for / t * ^ t  (d)  soot  / i n Montreal.  The figures available are as follows:  - U9 -  Ontario  (e)  Montreal  Vancouver  Duncan  11  26.5  6  2  s -v-t  77  73.5  71  67  sat  12  23  29  route  -  The usual Canadian pronunciation i s / put  four of Smith's eleven Okanagan informants from Vancouver Island gave / Mwt"  Does''schedule" begin with a "sk  and two of Taylor's eight  /.  n  as i n s k i , or a "sh" as i n she?  Avis found that 67$ of his informants used / 's 33$ / ' j S c j j a l  but  J3 a J.  /and  /. The r e s u l t s i n B.C. seem to indicate standardization  i n favour of / 'sks^ai  /.  In the V.S. 16$ used the / $ / form,  only h a l f the percentage i n Ontario.  In Duncan, where B r i t i s h forms  are more often chosen than i n Vancouver, 23$ used / s t i l l considerably lower than that reported by Avis. small smaple of i i i , only one person used / with the figures of the  £ /, a figure In Hope, i n a rather  /, a r e s u l t consistent  V.S.  Read the following l i s t c a r e f u l l y and mark with an "R" each pair that has a perfect rhyme. rhyme.  Write "NO"  by any pair that does not  - 5o -  father - bother  leisure  - pleasure  marry - merry  merry  - mary  caught - cot  bury  aunt  - ant  mourning - morning  fairy  - ferry  hoarse  furry  - horse  In the surveys I have taken among High school students i n Vancouver, Duncan, and Hope I found no evidence whatever of phonemic opposition i n the following pairs of words : father - bother, caught cot, aunt - ant, f a i r y - f e r r y , mary - merry, hoarse - horse.  Since  these pairs form constrasts i n other parts of Canada and the U.S. i t i s important to include them, for the older generations may r e t a i n contrasts that the young do not.  The information gathered here w i l l  not be free of error, but i t i s my experience that the error i n this type of question i s always i n one direction; that i s , people w i l l believe they make d i s t i n c t i o n s where i n f a c t they do not.  Any d i s t i n c t i o n s  made i n the pairs mentioned should, however, be checked i n a followup by a fieldworkers.  In reference to the other pairs of words i n this question I would l i k e to note f i r s t an interesting finding.  The responses f o r many  items i n the student surveys show an i d e n t i c a l pattern : taken as a whole, the Duncan responses tend to be more conservative and more B r i t i s h , the Vancouver responses almost always less so, and the few Hope students tend toward the extreme of any pattern set by Vancouver.  In the case  - 5i -  of any feature that i s conservative Duncan w i l l have the highest incidence of i t , Vancouver w i l l be lower, and Hope lower s t i l l ; f o r example, this may be seen i n the case of the /3e , -  /  £  / contrast before  / i n open s y l l a b l e s (as i n marry; merry) : U0$ of Duncan students  retained the contrast, 22$ of the Vancouver students, and none of the Hope students.  The same pattern i s seen i n the case of B r i t i s h as  opposed to American variants; f o r example, 5l$ / 'lej^r  / compared with 33$  holds for innovations : 1*6$ compared with 63$  of Duncan students say  i n Vancouver and 1!$ i n Hop.  The pattern  i n Duncan say / 'fock-W / f o r sherbet ,  i n Vancouver, and 86$  i n Hope.  Given this general pattern, the results f o r the pronunciation of bury prove very interesting indeed.  I became aware from the VS that a  large number of students pronounced this word / barf for this pronunciation (Duncan 20$, Vancouver 35$,  /, but the pattern  Hope k7%)  seems to  suggest that i t i s not, as I had at f i r s t thought, a r e l i c that had unaccountably survived but would die out under the pressure of standardization, but on the contrary a form that i s growing i n acceptance.  A similar s i t u a t i o n may be developing with respect to the pronunciation of mourning.  The figures are too small to support anything  but speculation, but nonetheless the same pattern i s evident : i n Duncan morning and mourning were pronounced the same by a l l student, i n Vancouver 2$ distinguished between the two, using / * mourning, i n Hope the figure was  7$.  / or / v / i n  I t would be unwise to make predictions,  but i t i s possible that i n another twenty years one i n ten young  - 52 -  Vancouverites w i l l say  /'IMKOIITJ  / f o r mourning.  PCQ  7.  69.3  Which of the following words would you choose as a rhyme for rather? mother,  lather,  bother,  father  In Vancouver and Hope 89$ of the students tested said /Vae-^sr and 11$ said / ' ( " ^ ^ i " 32$ /  3  Ontario (67$  ^  /.  - 33$)-  In Duncan 68$ used / V a e . ^ ^  /.  /  / and  This result is very close to what Avis reports for The sample used i n Duncan was not large (46)  but  i t is sufficient to indicate a genuine difference between Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland.  Item 6 should clarify a pronunciation  rhyming with bother or father.  8.  Does the f i r s t part of Zebra rhyme with the Feb. of FEBruary or the feeb of FEEBle?  In Ontario, according to Avis, the / £ / variant of Zebra i s as often used as the form with / I /.  ( / z g t ^ / 48$;  / 'z'lhr^  Vancouver and Duncan only 10$ used the / £ / form.  / $2$)  In  This 9 to 1 ratio of  / I / to / £ / may not hold throughout the province, as is indicated by the results from Hope.  (The Hope sample was small (14), yet as many  (4) used / <£ / as i n Duncan, where the number of informants was  46.  - 53 -  PCQ  9.  u9.7;  C Ch L  60.4;  Cas. K39  What do you c a l l the common worm that l i v e s i n the ground? Any s p e c i a l names?  In the V i c t o r i a survey a l l nine informants responding gave worm or earthworm. earthworm,  In Smith's Okanagan group, however, two out of 12 gave  two gave fishworm, f i v e gave angleworm, and three offered  both fishworm and angleworm.  As a Vancouver native I found these  Okanagan r e s u l t s unexpected, fishworm and angleworm being both quite unfamiliar to me.  The figures f o r Washington State, however, show a  frequency of 63$ for angleworm and lh% for fishworm.  Other frequencies  are fishingworm 3$., f i s h b a i t 3%> earthworm 1%, worm ±6%.  PCQ  10.  49.8;  C ChL  60.4;  Cas. K39  What do you c a l l the large worm of this kind that might be used as f i s h i n g b a i t ?  The t y p i c a l l y Canadian dew-worm w i l l l i k e l y predominate i n the coastal area.  There i s reason to doubt that any special terms at a l l  w i l l be found elsewhere i n B.C. Avis reports  97.6$  o f his responses  favoured dew-worm. Other terms such as night-crawler may possibly be found.  - 5u PCQ 50.6; C Ch L 60.12; Cas M 2k  Do you have any other names f o r the dragon-fly?  There i s no need to e l i c i t dragon-fly  since i t i s the standard  term and i s almost c e r t a i n l y known to everyone.  The secondary f o l k  names such as d e v i l ' s darning needle probably occur i n B.C., since C a r r o l l Reed finds instances of both r i g h t on the B.C. - U.S. border.  Reed's figures are as f o l l o w s : dragon-fly 66$ snake doctor 1 (devil's) darning needle 23 snake feeder 8 mosquito hawk 1 ear sewer 1  C Ch L 21.11 - .12  Is the word "go-devil" ever used i n your area?  I f i t i s , what  does i t mean?  This question i s intended to reinforce item 71> f o r most of the informants f a m i l i a r with this term connected i t with a s l e d used f o r hauling logs.  For some i t was synonymous with stoneboat.  One informant  from Saanich, however, referred t o a species o f clam (known also as the geoduck or gooayduck) as a go-devil.  -  5 5  -  D of C : mowitch  13«  Is the word "mowitch" used i n your area? I f so, what does i t mean?  Mowitch i s borrowed from the Chinook jargon and has some currency, e s p e c i a l l y among hunters, as a synonym for deer. Its use i s centered on the coast but probably extends inland.  There i s some evidence that  the term refers s p e c i f i c a l l y to the Coast or S i t k a deer. Since i t i s only i n the South-east part of the province that more than one species  !  co-exists, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the term may be p r o f i t a b l y compared with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the animal.  D o f C : kokanee  111.  Do any of the lakes i n your region have land-locked salmon i n them?  I f so, what are these f i s h called?  Give the l o c a l name.  Obviously the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f names w i l l be dependent on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f i s h i t s e l f .  There does seem, however, to be some  regional v a r i a t i o n i n the names used. S a l i s h f o r this f i s h i s kikinee  The term used by the Interior  (D of C)  throughout the province i s kokanee/ ' /  c  The term i n general use o  /  .  The D of C l i s t s  as variants kickininee, r e d f i s h , l i t t l e r e d f i s h , s i l v e r f i s h , s i l v e r trout-. I have e l i c i t e d kickaninnee from the Shuswap and North Okanagan regions and kickanee  from Burns Lake.  One of the citations from the D o f C  - 56  -  for k i c k i n i n i e i s also from the Okanagan area.  There are obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s presented by this item. F i r s t , the informant must necessarily r e a l i z e that the f i s h r e f e r r e d to is a land-locked salmon.  Second, the f i s h i t s e l f changes i t s appearance  from season to season. I t i s obvious that we must here t r u s t the knowledgeable anglers among the informants f o r any useable information we get.  D of C : rancherie  Do you have any s p e c i a l name f o r a v i l l a g e or settlement inhabited by Indians, or for an Indian reserve, or for an Indian house?  Rancherie seems to be the term used f o r Indian settlements or reserves i n cattle-country. Ranch(e) and rancheria PQ-2  are other variants.  indicates that rancherie i s i n use i n Pemberton and was  Harrison-Chilliwack area.  used i n the  This leads one to speculate on whether the  term might have come down (or gone up) the o l d Harrison - L i l l o o e t T r a i l . Since rancheria  used i n the sense of Indian settlement i s of Spanish -  American o r i g i n , i t i s quite possible that the term was brought north by American cattlemen.  What i s the name used i n your area for North American Indians?  -57  -  Indian i s , of course, the standard term, but native occurs i n some areas and may i n fact be universal i n the Terrace area.  PCQ 27.ii; C Ch L 31-10; Cas H8l  17.  What do you c a l l a hole i n the road?  Seven of the ten Okanagan informants responding gave pot-hole; the remaining three gave chuck-hole•  PCQ  27.6;  C Ch L 31.12; Cas G 5U;  D of C : boulevard.  18.  What do you c a l l the s t r i p of grass between the sidewalk and the street?  In many B.C. communities either the sidewalk or the s t r i p of grass does not exist, or i s a recent improvement. Boulevard w i l l no doubt be found general.  PCQ 63-2; C Ch L 80.ii; Cas J 17  19.  A person might complain of feeling sick _ j _ from, with) his stomach.  ( at, to, i n , on, of,  - 58 -  The variants expected here are at, to, and i n . To w i l l probably predominate  i n most parts of B.C.,  as i t does i n Ontario and Montreal.  Avis and Hamilton give frequencies of 52$ and 79$ respectively for this variant.  At w i l l occur also although not everywhere with the frequency  reported by Avis (ljO$). preferred i n V i c t o r i a ,  The few figures I have do suggest that at i s four of nine giving this response.  Okanagan informants also gave at.  Two d? seven  Two of the nine V i c t o r i a informants  gave i n , a variant apparently given by 8$ or less i n Ontario, but preferred by 19$ of those interviewed i n Montreal.  In the U.S. to i s associated with the Northern and at with the Southern and Midland regions.  In neighbouring Washington the frequencies  reported by Reed are as follows : to, 1;9$;  at, kk%; i n , 5$.  i n t e r e s t i n g to see i f the geographical v a r i a t i o n which we may  I t w i l l be cautiously  read into the B r i t i s h Columbia figures w i l l hold when a larger survey i s made.  I t w i l l be interesting also to note whether an age difference  w i l l be found when more information i s compiled.  PCQ  60.8;  C Ch L  76.1;  Cas J  US  I f you were t a l k i n g about someone who became i l l , you might say: "He  and couldn't come."  The Northern got sick  i s to be expected here, rather than the  Midland and Southern took sick or was taken s i c k .  - 59 -  PCQ  21.  65.8;  C Oh L  85.6  I f you were on a bus and i t was coming to your stop, you might say, "I want  at the next stop. ti  Kurath states that I want t o get o f f i s the standard phrase everywhere i n the Eastern United States. (A Word Geography, p. 79) The phrase I want o f f , which I believe i s common i n B.C., he describes as "an older English construction" and he suggests that i t s persistence i n the Midland region "may i n part be due to German influence (cf. i c h w i l l hinaus)."  I f I want o f f does occur i n B.C. I think we w i l l have  to look f o r a d i f f e r e n t  explanation.  PCQ  71.4; C  Ch L  95.8;  Cas P  75  22.  When he saw me he  into the water.  into the water with his eyes closed.  Sometimes he has  - 60 -  Dove as the past form of dive i s t y p i c a l of the Northern d i a l e c t region.  Two-thirds of the Smith and Taylor informants gave dove.  The past p a r t i c i p l e i s asked f o r i n the second part of the question because one of the Okanagan informants offered diven I f dove i s formed by analogy with drove,  Q'dlV^"*!  then the analogy may  be  carried further, as this informant has done, to driven.  LWS  77.8  A wasp stung him on the palm and his hand  up.  My own usage i s swoll, and I suspect that this form may r i v a l the standard swelled. I f this i s indeed the case, the data w i l l have to be analysed f o r class as w e l l as regional f a c t o r s .  PCQ h.k;  It's quarter  0 Ch L li.6; Cas D 50  twelve.  Quarter to i s probably universal i n B.C.,  but i n view of this  item's importance i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g dialects i n the U.S., supposition should be confirmed.  this  - 61 -  Reed reports frequencies of 81$ f o r t o , 12$ f o r of , and 5$ f o r till.  PCQ  25.  35.4;  Cas P  11  I f you were t r a v e l l i n g along a road and then found that i t was blocked, you might say, "This i s  we can go."  This item i s intended t o f i n d instances of a l l the father as opposed t o the standard as f a r as. Since a l l the father is considered substandard i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to e l i c i t . A trained fieldworker may be able to find t h i s usage i n the unguarded speech of an informant who would not volunteer i t f o r a postal questionnaire.  Cas I 7  26.  What does a man wear over h i s shoulders to hold up h i s pants?  Avis reports 81.5$ of his informants gave braces, while 18.5$ gave suspenders.  Hamilton reports  41.8$  PCQ  27.  She  f o r braces and  73.4;  C Ch L  58.2$  98.2;  the groceries home by herself.  for suspenders.  Cas G 28  - 62 -  Would you use any other word besides carried  i n the above  sentence - for example, toted, lugged, packed, or hiked? Are there any of these words that you would definitely not use? Would you use any words besides these?  I have not allowed carried as a variant here since i t w i l l probably be used by a l l , and I do not want i t to influence the choice of the other variants.  The question allows the use of negative  information; i.e., that certain variants are not used. People from other parts of Canada continually remark on the B r i t i s h Columbian's use of packed i n such contents as above. Many of the non-native informants of PQ-1 commented on this use.  It is  possible that this usage goes back to a time, perhaps not that far back i n many communities, when the necessities cf a settler's l i f e had to be l i t e r a l l y packed i n from the outside world on the back of a horse, mule, or human. Lugged w i l l also occur here; i n fact, half of Smith's Okanagan group gave this variant.  This i n i t s e l f suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y  of regional variation.  "Yesterday he r e a l l y annoyed me. I was so mad I could have h i t him right now." Would you ever use right now i n this way? Do you know anyone who would?  - 63 -  This usage i s reported i n North Pine, a community settled largely by people from Saskatchewan.  I myself have heard i t i n  Vancouver from a person raised i n Saskatchewan. I t may be d i f f i c u l t to e l i c i t this usage through a direct question since i t would probably be recognized as non-standard even by those who use i t . I t i s so unusual a construction, though, that i f i t i s widely used i t should be reported by t h i r d persons, and a follow-up study can be made.  PCQ 56.1  29.  What do you c a l l the man who delivers letters to your house?  Useful i n urban areas only, since mail delivery i s not universal. Preliminary information seems to show that pos tman predominates i n the Victoria area, while mailman i s the preferred term i n the Lower Mainland and i n the Okanagan.  PCQ 20.5; C Ch L 23-9  30.  What i s the name of the common non-electric lamp that has a glass chimney and a wick? What i s the name of the fuel i t uses?  - 6h -  What i s p r i m a r i l y wanted i n the second part i s coal o i l versus kerosene.  The term kerosene, though coined by a Canadian  (Dr. Abraham Gesner), i s not as common as the U.S.Midland coal o i l . In f a c t a l l twelve Okanagan informants gave coal o i l .  In Taylors  Vancouver Island survey also, a l l informants used c o a l o i l ; some may also use kerosene, but since the question was improperly asked this is  uncertain.  Reed records a frequency o f Sl% f o r kerosene, k3% for coal o i l .  Cas H 101  31.  What do you c a l l the v e h i c l e that you wheel small children around i n , s i t t i n g up?  The variants possible here include s t r o l l e r , go-cart, and pushc a r t.  See item 3h*  PCQ  32.  71.8; C Ch L °6.2; Cas G 32  I f you are t a l k i n g about a baby's way of moving along the f l o o r before i t i s o l d enough to walk, you might say: "Is the baby  yet?"  Taylor's V i c t o r i a group a l l gave crawl, and my own subjective opinion as a Vancouver native i s that creep i s t o t a l l y alien.  However,  - 65 -  f i v e of the ten Okanagan informants responding to this question gave creep.  The Northern American term i s creep, and the Midland and Southern  is crawl.  No figures are available f o r Washington state.  PCQ 1 8 . 8 ; C Ch L 2 2 . 8  What do you c a l l the piece of playground equipment i l l u s t r a t e d below?  The variant that predominates i n B.C. i s t e e t e r - t o t t e r . In the Okanagan, however, only s i x of the twelve who answered this question offered t e e t e r - t o t t e r .  The others gave either see-saw or t e e t e r . The  Vancouver Island records show that of f i v e informants a c t u a l l y born i n Vancouver or Nanaimo a l l used or had used see-saw.  Of three other  Vancouver Island residents born elsewhere two used t e e t e r - t o t t e r . the Lower Mainland see-saw i s a purely l i t e r a r y term.  On  Obviously this  item w i l l demonstrate a geographical' v a r i a t i o n .  The Washington frequencies are as follows: see-saw Ik; teeter(ing) board 3 ; teeter-totter 8 3 .  - 66 -  PCQ  53.7;  C Ch L  64.9;  Cas H  101  What do you c a l l the v e h i c l e that you wheel babies around in?  In the Okanagan baby carriage and baby buggy were equally popular. In V i c t o r i a the s i t u a t i o n was the same with the difference that a large proportion used both terms. pram as a second choice. r e s u l t from socio-economic  However, a s i g n i f i c a n t number also offered  I suspect that v a r i a t i o n i n this item may and age factors as w e l l as geography.  In Washington the frequencies reported are 13$ f o r baby carriage, and 80$ f o r the Midland baby buggy.  Reed also reports 7$ for go-cart,  a variant I am not w i l l i n g to accept u n t i l I know c e r t a i n l y that i t does not refer to the vehicle i n which the c h i l d rides seated, (see item  LWS  31)  83.3  I f children are r e g u l a r l y dismissed from school at three o'clock, you might say, "School  at three."  The term I am familiar with i n the Vancouver area i s gets out,  - 67 -  which Kurath confines to New York City and i t s environs (A Word Geography, p. 79). Lets out i s apparently the usual form i n most of the Eastern United States but other variants, such as turns out, breaks, breaks up, leaves out, closes, and goes out are also found.  PCQ 63.8; C Ch L 82.5; Cas J 76  Is the practice of n o i s i l y serenading a newly-married couple familiar i n your part of the country?  What do you c a l l this activity?  Is i t s t i l l done?  The term used for this a c t i v i t y i n Canada i s usually chivaree /(JlVaV/ /. From PQ-1 i t seems that chivarees are, or were, familiar in many communities throughout the province.  Most of the informants  state that the custom died out t h i r t y , forty, f i f t y or even s i x t y years ago.  Others say that the chivaree degenerated into a game of blackmail  practised by the children of the area.  There i s some indication, though,  that the custom i s s t i l l carried on i n some of the smaller communities of the province.  I t i s interesting that some informants, though familiar  with the chivaree, say that i t was never practised i n their l o c a l i t y ; while other informants from the same region state that i t did occur i n their community. My information i s that chivarees were common on the prairies, particularly Alberta, and i n parts of Ontario.  Settlement  patterns may help to explain the term's haphazard occurrence i n B.C. •  - 68 -  Reed i n Washington reports a frequency of 91% f o r chivaree.  Cas J 72  Which of the given alternatives would you most l i k e l y use i n the following sentence. I f a mother were going away, she might say: "Will you  the  baby while I'm gone." mind tend look after s i t with take care of babysit watch  Are there any of these alternatives that you would not use?  The f i r s t two alternatives are of most i n t e r e s t here.  I know  from personal experience that mind i s common i n McBride but rare i n Vancouver.  D.of C : apartment block  What would you c a l l a set of rooms rented out i n a private home? What would you c a l l a s e t of rooms rented out i n a building that had many such sets of rooms? What would you c a l l such a building?  - 69 -  Professor Gregg has suggested that suite and apartment block may have a much wider distribution i n B.C. than i n other regions of Canada.  PCQ 9.2; C Ch L 10.8 - .9  What do you c a l l the platform at the front of a house that the steps are attached to? Would these different kinds have the same name? a) a simple platform with two or three steps. b) a platform with a r a i l i n g and some kind of roof. c) a covered platform extending along the front of the house.  This i s a d i f f i c u l t item to test i n a postal questionnaire. The only test I have run on this item so far was i n the DS, and no attempt was made to differentiate types of porch. i n the DS were porch and verandah.  The main variants occurring  Stoop also occurred.  Other variants  looked for,by the Pacific Coast Questionnaire are gallery and piazza. The variants may or may not be prefixed by front.  PCQ 9.3; C Ch L  lu.8  What do you c a l l the platform at the back of the house that the steps are attached to? Would these different kinds have the same name?  - 70 a) a simple platform with two or three steps. b) a platform with a r a i l i n g and some kind of roof.  The variants expected are porch, verandah, and stoop, each one possibly prefixed by back.  Do you have a name for a platform near the back door that makes i t easier to reach the clothesline?  I am concerned here to discover the what extent stoop has been extended to this structure.  PCQ 10.k;  C Ch L 11.7;  Cas B 74  What do you c a l l the channel at the edge of the roof that carries away r a i n water? (not the pipe that runs to the ground).  Gutters and eaves troughs are expected here but there are other variants. CaroHReed reports the following frequencies i n Washington! gutters eaves troughs eaves spouts spouts, spouting drain pipes eaves  28% 38 1 2 15 10  - 71 -  Cas  What do at  the  edge  you of  call  the  Downspout,, possibilities  the  roof  pipe  to  that  the  downpipe,  takes  sink  that Tap  WW  faucet  U.S. is  drain  you c a l l  to  the  pipe,  handle  the water be  on  and  s p i c k e t 2;  91;  -  quite  Drake  Canadian regular  for  p. Ohio  border  use  among  15)  and  where  this  a l l  this 92$  faucet  16.1;  closely. social  is  used  faucet  the situation is  tap  and o n l y  5.5$  for  and  10$  faucet  the Duncan  in  his  students  out  in  the  are  channel  a l l  18.7;  at  the  and  Ontario.  35.  Cas B  kitchen  2,  1  l i k e l y follow that  "faucet (A  than  used  The  3$  reports found  90$  .  by  tap.  On  94.5$  for  using  correspondence quite  .  Word  collected  Avis  is  the  figures  Hamilton  A v i s ' s group  areas.  the north",  less  study.  some  states  the  reversed.  Montreal and  very  in  in  in  96,  Kurath  groups  borne  side  faucet  pipe  6  item would  Canadian  between  spout  C Ch L  may o c c u r  tap  1;  the  using  from  off?  spigot  from  Geography,  eaves  on the water  or  expected but  An . i s o g l o s s drawn  in  the water  here.  turns is  5.1  W  ground?  PCQ  W h a t do  75;  B  I  remarkable.  tap found The  .  - 72 -  figures f o r the Okanagan are also very close to those reported by Avis, even though a group of twelve i s not large enough to y i e l d r e l i a b l e results.  The figures, arranged to conform to Avis's presentation, are  as follows:  tap  tap only  faucet only  both  Ontario (Avis)  9k.5%  o9.$%  $%  Duncan  93  88  7  5  Okanagan (Smith)  92  75  8  17  I should note, however, that some of the Duncan students who offered faucet  were not r a i s e d i n B.C., and none of them had parents native to  this province.  In the Okanagan group as well, two of the three giving  faucet d i d not come to the area u n t i l they were f i v e , one l i v i n g previously i n the U.S. and the other i n Quebec.  The present  questionnaire  should reveal whether a "purer" group of informants w i l l give noticeably different results.  A further point of i n t e r e s t here i s that while tap apparently predominates across Canada, the trade term f o r this f i x t u r e i s faucet.  PCQ  6.3;  C Ch L  7-7;  Cas B 6k  What do you c a l l the room i n your house where you would entertain guests  (not the kitchen)?  Have you ever called i t anything else?  -  73 -  Living room is now the dominant form i n B.C.  PQ-1 and the DS  suggest that i t was not always so. Many informants report that their parents or they themselves as children used such terms as front room, s i t t i n g room, drawing room, or parlour. Front room i s the only remaining r i v a l to l i v i n g room and i t too seems to be losing ground. I myself have been converted over the l a s t ten years from front room to l i v i n g room. I t might be noted, however, that of the Duncan students questioned 7.5$ s t i l l used s i t t i n g room or drawing room and 15$ front room.  PCQ  7-1*5  C Ch L  9.1;  Cas B  8U  What do you c a l l the upholstered piece of furniture made for three or four people to s i t on?  What name would you give to a piece of furniture like this that would open out into a bed? Are there any other pieces of furniture that are similar but are given different names? What are they called and how are they different?  Chesterfield i s , of course, a distinctive Canadianism. Certain variants do, occur, however, even i n furniture advertisements.  It w i l l  be useful to know whether variations i n usage are t i e d to differences i n the object i t s e l f , or whether there i s perhaps a regional variation.  - 74 -  Sofa, couch, settee, and lounge have a l l occurred sporadically i n the  surveys made.  PCQ 7.7; C Ch L 9.2-.3; Cas B 52  Which of the following names would you give to the t a l l piece of furniture containing drawers, used for keeping clothing i n .  chest of drawers bureau drawers dresser high boy low boy Chester drawers chiffonier chest stand other . . . If you use more than one of these names, would there be any difference i n meaning?  I have chosen this form because i t seems the only way of getting Chester drawers, the term I use myself. i n the DS.  A l l these variants were e l i c i t e d  Stand i s included because, although I have encountered i t  nowhere else, one student i n Duncan i n s i s t e d on i t as a legitimate usage.  PCQ  7.6;  C Ch L  9.5;  Cas B  87  What do you c a l l the kind of covering you r o l l down over a window?  - 75 -  The term predominant i n B.C. w i l l very l i k e l y prove t o be that used i n the U.S. Midland dialect area; i.e., blind.  Avis reports a frequency of 94.5$ for blinds and 5*5$ for shades i n Ontario.  Hamilton's figures for Montreal are 814.5$ for blinds and  15.5$ for shades.  The few figures I have gathered for B.C. indicate  a probable frequency of over 90$ f o r blinds.  This shoxfs a contrast  with most areas of the U.S., and certainly with the neighbouring state of Washington, where Reed reports a frequency of 6l$ f o r shades,  2$ for  curtains, and 37$ for blinds.  PCQ 6.6; C Ch L 8.9; B 78  What would you c a l l the metal supports used to hold logs i n a fireplace?  In the DS I found that f i r e dog was the preferred term ( 20 out of 48), and that the term andiron, which Kurath t e l l s us i s the usual  - 76 -  expression i n the Northern d i a l e c t area of the U.S., was used by only 6$ of the students ( 3 out of 48). dogs, f i r e - i r o n s ,  There were other variants: dog-irons,  (used by 7 of 48 and not mentioned by Kurath).  Occurring also were grate, f i r e - g r a t e , g r i d , grid-iron, and g r i l l .  These  l a t t e r variants may be the r e s u l t of confusion about the question, since o r d i n a r i l y a grate i s quite d i s t i n c t from an'. andiron.  I t i s interesting to note the difference between the frequencies given f o r Washington and C a l i f o r n i a , and those for Duncan.  F i r e dogs  was not found i n either state, and andirons was the preferred term i n Washington and 68$ i n Ca2f.)  (76$  Other variants l i s t e d by Reed were dog-  irons (4$ i n Washington and 2$ i n C a l i f . )  f i r e - i r o n s , and log-irons  (1$ each i n Washington, but not occurring i n C a l i f . )  PCQ 19.4; C Ch L 23.1a  What do you c a l l the metal container used for scooping up and carrying coal?  Coal scuttle and coal hod are to be expected with the p o s s i b i l i t y of other variants.  PCQ 19.8; C Ch L  20.9;  Cas B  38  What do you c a l l the older type o f iron (non-electric) used for pressing clothes?  - 77 -  F l a t i r o n w i l l probably be found extensively throughout the province, but I noted sad i r o n at Hope, and at Vernon i n the Okanagan.  PCQ Hu5;  C Ch L  17.6; Cas B 1  What do you c a l l a long handled, shallow pan used f o r frying? Have you ever c a l l e d i t anything else?  Frying pan i s the standard now,  but such terms as s k i l l e t and  spider had currency i n the past and may w e l l s t i l l occur. variant f r y pan may  The American  also be found.  PCQ  15.6  Do you normally pronounce b a r r e l to rhyme with Carl or Carol?  I have heard the pronunciation / b<*>i / from Canadians, though  1 I am not sure i n each case of t h e i r province of o r i g i n .  This  pronunciation i s of s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t to test for i t even though i t may be quite rare.  A rhyme w i t h Carol w i l l not, o f course, give the  exact pronunciation of b a r r e l since many B r i t i s h Columbians neutralize the phonemic opposition of / £ / and /3e /  before / r / i n an open  s y l l a b l e and so would have / t £ r s j / rhyming with / ' / c £ > 3 i Others would rhyme / %xr3l  / with / 'kl£i*dl  /.  /.  1. One of the Okanagan informants, a lady, 91 years old at the time of the survey (1966), gave this pronunciation.  - 78 -  PCQ 42.3  Do you pronounce the word pour (as i n "pour the tea") to rhyme with for or tour?  I found i n Vancouver that 16$ of the people questioned gave C P or  £ px^r^j  M 3 ,  \)  , thus making a distinction between pour and pore £  PCQ 40.7; C ChL 47.9; Cas C 58  When milk i s just at the point of becoming sour, you say: "the milk i s  ." or "the milk has  ."  The expected forms here are turned, blinky, tainted, and on the turn.  PCQ 40.8; C Ch L 47.4 ; Cas C 60  What do you c a l l the porridgy white cheese made from sour milk, often eaten with a fork? Do you have any other names for i t .  Cottage cheese i s the trade name for this product and w i l l no doubt be universally known i n B.C. The second part of this question may e l i c i t e a r l i e r variants. This item has been very important i n delineating  - 79 -  o r i g i n a l settlement areas i n the Eastern U.S.  Among Smith's  Okanagan informants, who were mostly quite o l d , four of twelve used, or had previously used, curds as w e l l as cottage cheese.  Reed reports the following frequencies for Washington: cottage cheese Dutch cheese smearcase curds clabber cheese  71$ 17 7 1 1  Cas C 76  When you are going to prepare f r u i t and seal i t into jars for use over the winter, you say you are going t o fruit.  some  Would you use any other words?  One would expect can to be general throughout the province. There are several other possible variants which may be e l i c i t e d here: put up, put down, do, do down.  I t w i l l be interesting t o see i f the  Ontario pack w i l l also be found.  Cas B 11  When you t e l l someone to prepare the table for a meal, you say:  Set,  "  the table."  l a y , and spread are the expected responses.  - 80 -  59.  What do you c a l l t h e pudding,  i c e , cream, f r u i t , or p i e s e r v e d  a t the end o f a meal?  D e s s e r t i s t o be e x p e c t e d h e r e , b u t some i n c i d e n c e o f sweet i s what i s l o o k e d f o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s .  Cas C 2  What a r e t h e main meals o f t h e d a y c a l l e d and when do y o u e a t them?  60.  Do you have names f o r l i g h t meals e a t e n a t o t h e r times - b e f o r e going t o bed, f o r example?  The f i r s t meal o f t h e d a y i s p r o b a b l y u n i v e r s a l l y b r e a k f a s t . The mid-day meal may be l u n c h , l u n c h e o n ( s ) , o r d i n n e r .  The meal eaten a t t h e  end o f t h e day i s d i n n e r or supper. • The l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o e l i c i t l u n c h , w h i c h i s used by s o n s s e t t l e r s from t h e p r a i r i e s t o mean a l i g h t meal b e f o r e bedtime.  Any i n s t a n c e s o f snack here w i l l  p r o b a b l y be d i s r e g a r d e d s i n c e t h i s term w i l l be e l i c i t e d i n another question.  PCQ 111.3; C Ch L 17.ll  What do you c a l l the m e t a l c o n t a i n e r u s e d f o r c a r r y i n g sandwiches,  61.  etc  t o s c h o o l o r work.  (a) the k i n d used by workmen?  - 81 -  (b) the kind used by schoolchildren?  The response here w i l l probably be a compound word with two elements. The f i r s t element w i l l l i k e l y be lunch or dinner, and the second element p a i l , bucket, box, or k i t . In Victoria Taylor's informants divided evenly between lunch p a i l and lunch box.  Smith's Okanagan group did not give lunch box, their  responses being divided evenly instead among lunch p a i l , lunch bucket, and lunch k i t . This item may provide indirect information on p a i l and bucket, since these w i l l not at this point be investigated further.  I t was intended  o r i g i n a l l y to test p a i l and bucket but the results of PQ-1 suggest that i t would not be worth the effort.  P a i l seems to be used for a metal  container, and bucket for a wooden one.  In combination the preferred  use i s milk p a i l and water bucket. A l l possible deviations from these patterns, however, are used.  I t would seem from the way many informants  qualify their choices that bucket was once i n more general use, but that p a i l has now taken over as the general name for this kind of container. Old associations and collocations, however, s t i l l persist, and people who would normally say p a i l would use a bucket for water from a w e l l , or for slops, or for coal.  The reason p a i l has taken over may be that a  ire tal-wood distinction obtained i n the past and the metal container has, of course, replaced the wooden variety.  In any case, the variations from  what now seems to be standard follow no apparent pattern, and the responses  - 82 -  given are mostly very hesitant. While i t i s possible that further information would c l a r i f y matters I do not think that at t h i s point further investigation would be p r o f i t a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y since one would have t o f i n d out which variants were associated with which p a r t i c u l a r uses of the container.  PCQ  2h.h;  C Ch L 29.1  What do you c a l l the padded covering that you put on top of your blankets f o r warmth at night?  I f there i s more than one type, give  the name or names and say what the difference i s .  PCQ  24.3;  C Ch L  28.9;  Cas B  93  What do you c a l l the removable covering f o r a bed pillow?  Pillow case and pillow s l i p are both common with some p o s s i b i l i t y of p i l l o w cover oc curring.  PCQ 2ii.2; C Ch L 28.8; Cas B 90  What do you c a l l the fancy cloth put over a bed f o r decoration?  bed-spread i s the standard term, but spread, coverlet, c o v e r l i d may occur.  Bed-throw, apparently used for a c l o t h rather than a fur  - 83 -  cover, i s mentioned from Alberta i n the D o f C.  PCQ  15" .4;  C Ch L  18.14  What do you c a l l the piece of c l o t h you use f o r washing your face?  Wash c l o t h , wash rag, face cloth may a l l occur here.  PCQ  15.3;  C Ch L  18.4;  Cas B 19  What do you c a l l the piece of cloth you dry dishes with?  dish towel, t e a towel, dry rag, cup towel expected here. There may be some c o r r e l a t i o n with the previous item.  PCQ  15.3  If you were going t o help someone with the dishes you might say: "You wash and I ' l l  ."  On the P a c i f i c Coast Questionnaire the directions to the fieldworker for the item dish towel are / f o r wiping dishes/.  I t i s interesting that  fieldworkers f o r the P a c i f i c Coast should be given instructions i n terms that I would consider d i a l e c t a l . I t should be worthwhile to see i f wipe does occur on the Canadian side of the border.  - 814 -  PCQ 15.2;  68.  Cas B 17  What do you c a l l the piece o f c l o t h you use for washing dishes?  dish rag and d i s h cloth expected.  PCQ 8.6  69.  I f someone couldn't f i n d the broom because the door was i n front of i t , you might say: " I think i t ' s  the door."  This item i s intended to check the incidence of the American back of and i n back of.  Results so f a r , however, show that behind  i s the only term used.  D o f C : dugout  70.  In some areas farmers or ranchers make excavations on t h e i r land to hold the spring run-off and r a i n so that t h e y ' l l have water f o r themselves or t h e i r stock l a t e r i n the year. i n your area?  Do you know i f t h i s i s done  I f i t i s , what are such excavations called?  Dugout i s the general term given by the DC for such an excavation i n the P r a i r i e provinces, and i t i s the only term I have encountered i n  - 85 -  B.C.  The D.C. also reports pothole and dam i n use on the p r a i r i e s  and scoop-out i n B.C. I have, however, been unable to authenticate t h i s l a s t term i n B.C.  The results of PQ-2 suggest that dugout i s quite  r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n inside B.C.  For example, i t seems to  occur i n the Windermere and Peace River areas ( P r a i r i e influence?) and on the Saanich Peninsula. I t i s , however, apparently unknown i n the other areas of the province investigated.  Another use of dugout  as an excavation for f r u i t s and vegetables  also occurs, and w i l l be investigated separately i n item  .  C Ch L 21.11 - .12  71.  Are you f a m i l i a r with a crude kind of s l e d used f o r hauling logs, s i m i l a r to the ones i l l u s t r a t e d below? it?  I f you are, what would you c a l l  Do you know of any other devices f o r hauling logs?  The device shown i n this item w i l l be known to comparatively few people. Where i t i s f a m i l i a r i t w i l l probably be known as a go-devil.  - 86 -  Sometimes an even cruder make-shift version of this already primitive implement is called a school-marm; school-marm i s a logging term meaning a forked tree.  D of C : sloop  72.  Are you familiar with the kind of long platform without wheels that is used for dragging loads of hay i n from the fields?  If you  are, what would you c a l l i t ? Can you add anything to the description given?  PQ-2 indicates that sloop is used in the Upper Arrow Lake and Shuswap Lake regions.  It may also be used i n the Cariboo. The D of C  reports sleigh-rack i n the Cariboo. Both terms are probably quite limited in their distribution.  PCQ 18.3;  73.  C Ch L 21.8;  Cas E $1  Are you familiar with the kind of low wooden sled used for hauling stones from fields?  Stoneboats are s t i l l i n use in most areas of the province, although they are not everywhere used for the same purpose. Stoneboats are apparently used for hauling milk cans i n the Fraser Valley, apple boxes in the Okanagan, and Christmas trees i n the Kootenays.  Other variants,  - 87 -  known i n the U.S. but not yet encountered here, are stone sled, drag sled, drag, and stone drag.  The extension of stoneboat to the less  common sloop and go-devil i s a p o s s i b i l i t y .  Reed's figures f o r Washington are as follows:  stoneboat sled drag stone drag  $1% 37 7  k  PCQ 29.2; C Ch L 33-4; Cas F 22T23  When referring t o a b u l l , do you have any special words that might be used p a r t i c u l a r l y by farmers, or by women, or that  perhaps  might be used only i n the presence of women?  Kurath and other investigators  have found that the older members  of some communities w i l l not use the word " b u l l " i n mixed company. The euphemisms replacing  " b u l l " conform to regional patterns of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The people of B.C.may at one time have been p u r i t a n i c a l enough to use similar euphemisms.  There i s no present evidence to indicate whether o r  not this was so.  PCQ 29.7; C Ch L 33.20; Cas F 30  When r e f e r r i n g to a s t a l l i o n , do you have any special words that  - 88 -  might be used p a r t i c u l a r l y by farmers, or by women, or that might be used i n the presence o f women?  PCQ 32,33, 34,36; C Ch L 36.2-.3-.U5 Cas F 19,40.  Cats "purr" and chickens "cluck".  What noise does a horse make  at feeding time? What would you c a l l the noise a cow makes at feeding time? What would you c a l l the noise a c a l f makes when i t i s being weaned?  Oddly enough the sounds animals make vary from region to region. In the North and Midland most cows moo, while i n the South they low. Horses whinny i n most areas of the North and Midland, but nicker or whicker i n the South. The figures from Washington State are as follows: horses: whinny cows  : moo  68$ , whinner  6l$,  low  15$,  Calves: bellow or b e l l e r  10$,  3$,  nicker  16$  loo 3$. bawl  3$  PCQ 34.8; C Ch L 39.9-.10  What would you c a l l a rope with a loop, used for catching animals? A l a r i a t , lasso, lassoo, reata or  ?  - 89 -  PCQ  78.  1 8 . 1  ; Cas E  5 6  I f a farmer had only a p a r t i a l load o f hay on his wagon, you would say he had a  .  The term jag i s f a m i l i a r t o many with a r u r a l background, nine of . the  Okanagan informants, and two of the Vancouver Island group offering  it.  79.  Years ago a person might have kept his horse from wandering when i t was l e f t by tying or chaining i t to a flat-bottomed metal weight l i k e the one i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n .  Do you know what such a weight was  called?  This item i s based on information from a column i n Weekend Magazine (No. 3 , 1 9 6 7 ; p . 2 3 ) by Doyle Klyn.  The column revealed a profusion  of l o c a l names, s t i l l apparently accessible i n Ontario.  This  "tie-  weight" may or may not have been used i n B.C., i f i t was, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of variants should show whether or not i t X\rill be a u s e f u l questionnaire item here and i n the r e s t o f Canada.  PCQ  80.  3 4 . 6 ;  C Ch L  3 9 . 4 ;  Cas F  32  What do you c a l l the horse on a driver's l e f t hand i n a team?  - 90 -  What about the horse on the right hand?  There are many variants for this item, the most important of which i n the U.S. are near-horse and nigh-horse. Interestingly enough, my father, who learned his farming terms in Alberta, used wheel-horse, which (in the Eastern U.S.) occurs only i n the Piedmont of Virginia.  PCQ 29.U; C Ch L 33.8; Cas F 10-11  81.  If your cow were going to have an offspring and start producing milk again you might say: " Daisy is going to  ." Would you  have a special name for such a cow?  To spring or freshen w i l l be found alongside the more general calve or have a calf.  In the Fraser Valley the cow would be a springer, but  whether this i s purely a market term confined to an area where dairying is an important industry, or whether i t also occurs i n other farming areas is something that this question w i l l help to determine.  Cas F 52  82.  What would you c a l l  (a) a young pig (b) a half-grown pig (c) a f u l l grown pig.  - 91 -  Rural informants may have s p e c i a l terms, such as weaner, or weanling  f o r a young p i g , and shoat for a half-grown p i g .  PCQ 12.6;  C Ch L ll*.7; Cas E 12,li*  What would you c a l l a temporary small heap of hay i n a f i e l d ?  The two most important terms i n the Eastern U.S.are cock and shock.  Avis reports 16.3$  using shock.  83.7$  of h i s Ontario informants using stook  and only  He makes no mention of cock. I t might be noted  however, that the D of C does not c i t e a meaning f o r stook that would be comparable to shock, described by Kurath as "a temporary small heap of hay i n the meadow" (A Word Geography, p.54) i n Canada with this meaning seems certain.  That stook  does occur  Many o f the Duncan students  when asked about hay stacks offered stook, possibly not r e a l i z i n g that the term f o r the larger hay structure was wanted.  Furthermore, three of  Smith's 16 from the Okanagan and one of the four Vancouver Island informants interviewed by Taylor gave stook. onthis very small sample (20) bay, 50$;  c o i l , c o i l of hay  The figures available, then, based  are as follows: hay cock, cock, cock of 25$;  stook 20$;  hay r i c k 5$.  The occurrence  of c o i l i s most interesting since i t apparently i s not found i n the U.S. On the other hand, the two main variants found i n Washington - hay tumble and hay shock - have not been found i n B.C.  - 92 -  PCQ 12.5; C Ch L 1U.5, OJU. 7 a-b; Cas E 12, lit •  84.  Would you have a name for a large stack of hay outdo ots? Would you have different names for different types of stack?  Hay stack i s the standard term but rick i s widely used i n the Southern U.S. and is found occasionally on the West Coast, the frequency reported i n both Washington and California being about 2% (Reed, "Washington Words'). One Okanagan informant gave hay rick for hay cock. Since this informant was a woman, a confusion between types of hay piles i s possible; the fact that the term rick was familiar enough to offer, however, suggests that i t s occurrence may be substantiated by other informants.  PCQ 12.4; C Ch L lit .55 Cas E 61  85.  What do you c a l l the upper part of the barn where hay is stored? Are there any other places where hay would be stored?  Information on this item i s available only from Vancouver Island and the Okanagan. The terms i n use i n these regions are loft- and hay l o f t . Two Okanagan informants gave hay mow. suggested that mow  /ir\2.xx  One person replying to PQ-1  / is i n general use i n the Upper Arrow region.  I suspect that some people may c a l l the hay i t s e l f , wherever stored, the  - 93 -  mow.  This p o s s i b i l i t y w i l l be tested i n item 86.  Carol Reed reports a frequency o f 39% for mow or hay mow i n Washington State.  I t would be interesting to determine whether the  American occurrences of mow and hay mow were found i n the areas contiguous to the Okanagan and Arrow Lakes areas of B.C.  PCQ 12.k; C Ch L l2j.5j Cas E 6l  86.  Would you give a name to the hay stored i n a barn or elsewhere?  See item 8 5 .  87.  Would you pronounce c o r r a l to rhyme with p a l or p a i l ? (or pes s i b l y tell?)  Dr.McConnell  attests / fcaVe)]  / and/. kh^U  /  at Burns  Lake.  Cas E 37  88.  Does the name for the long-handled tool with the long blade used f o r cutting grass rhyme with " t i e " , "tide", or "tithe"? Would you give i t any other name?  - 9k -  11 of 36 PQ-1 informants (31$) gave / s a e / as their normal pronunciation of scythe. Most of the / sa.£ / responses were concentrated i n the Vancouver Island - Lower Mainland region. Here 9 out of 7$ used / S " a e / which i s quite remarkable, considering that }  many of the informants of this area were from urban centres. This question, needless t o say, w i l l not e l i c i t any distinctions between / sae^ /  and / SAi9  /.  PCQ U4.6; C Ch L 5k.2;  In the middle of a peach you always find a peach  Cas M 92  .  P i t i s the form used i n the Northern dialect area o f the United States, while seed i s the Southern or Midland term.  Stone i s general  i n a l l areas. Of the Okanagan informants responding three gave p i t , and eleven stone.  - 95 -  PCQ 44-5; C Ch L 54.lj Cas M 90  90.  In the middle of a cherry you always find a cherry  Pit is the form used i n the Northern dialect area of the United States, while seed is the Southern and Midland term. Stone is general in a l l areas.  Of the Okanagan informants responding eleven gave pit  and one gave stone.  Cas 04  91.  Using a forked stick to find water in the ground is called  .  What do you c a l l the forked stick? What do you c a l l the person who finds water i n such a way?  Water divining is a folk practice of considerable antiquity and i t would be tempting to expand this item to gain more information about i t s use i n B.C.  Bur such information would not be of linguistic concern.  One problem arises with this item.  I know that the term dowse, when used,  may occur as / d ' a . ^ z / or / cLo^-z. /.  Obviously I cannot ask for the  pronunciation of dowse at this point without prejudicing the answer. I have therefore decided to ask for the pronunciation of dowse, i f i t i s used, later in the questionnaire, (item 99), and hope that i t w i l l not interfere with the results of the above question.  - 96 -  C C h L 29.17; C a s A 57,60;  D of C :  Is  there  How w o u l d lake, does you  a "slough"  i n your  Slough.  area?  you describe i t ? (Is i t connected w i t h  a river,  o r the ocean;  i s i t a body o f water,or  marshy  i t s appearance  change w i t h t h e seasons;  i s i t man-made,  pronounce  i t 'to rhyme w i t h S u e ,  o r cow?  land;  If neither,  does  a i t  flow:  etc.)  Would  how d o y o u  pronounce i t ?  This  i s one o f the most  p r o n u n c i a t i o n / SJCA provinces It book  /  important  apparently  separates  and B . C ) from t h e E a s t , where  has been  suggested  that  slough  term and i s not a c t u a l l y used.  literary  / sl°l  and does  /.  Although nothing Island  but /  /  informant  I  have  yielded  part  retained  a very  of this  i s  then  the term i s  important  should  i n itself.  produce  the tape of one Vancouver  d i s t i n c t and t a n t a l i z i n g  prairie  sense o f a s m a l l body o f water  and  drying  the  rising waters  slough  that  question  i t because  the  a  /-sllcv/  a  contrast w i t h the Western  i s obviously  o f t h e word v a r i e s w i t h i n B . C .  i n the season.  of a river  (the prairie  i n E a s t e r n Canada i s p u r e l y  The m e a n i n g  up l a t e r  The  predominates.  i t so proves,  and n o t i n t h e E a s t  sly  t h e West  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n  the fact,if  the pronunciation  i n the questionnaire.  / si3."^"/  not c o n s t i t u t e a genuine  Nonetheless,  used i n t h e West  items  In other  or lake  I n some fed only  places i t i s used by the spring  places a slough  a t high water.  i n  run-off  i s f i l l e d by  In the Fraser  Valley  - 97 -  may be an old channel of a river, probably stagnant, even though s t i l l connected to the main stream.  In coastal areas a tidal marsh may be  called a slough. It seems likely from PQ -1 that slough w i l l be very useful i n differentiating areas within the province.  D of C : butte  Do you use the word "butte" in your area?  If so, what is meant  by i t ?  The DC reports, on rather slender evidence, that in the Northeast corner of B.C. and the North West Territories a butte is a low, rounded rock mountain.  It would be interesting to verify this meaning and also  to check the use of the word i n the more usual sense.  D of C : bluff  Do you use the word "bluff" i n your area?  If so, what does i t  mean? - a c l i f f - l i k e bank on the edge of a river or lake, a grove of trees, or something else?  This item is intended to find out i f the Prairie meaning of bluff ( a grove of trees) has entered the province.  - 98 -  D of C : skookurach.uk  Is the word skookumchuk used i n your area? If i t i s , does i t mean a) b) c) d)  river rapids t i d a l rapids the ocean something else  In the Chinook Jargon skookum meant "big" or "strong", and "chuk" meant "water". According to two knowledgeable informants from PQ-2, skookumchuk was used for either "river rapids" or "the ocean". To avoid confusion saltchuk  replaced skookumchuk  i n this latter meaning.  Apparently skookumchuk s t i l l occurs for rapids, either river or tidal, cf. Skookumchuck Creek north of Kimberley, and Skookumchuck Narrows at the end of Sechelt Inlet.  PCQ 2U.8; C Ch L  30.6;  Cas A  53  Which of the following names would you use for a watercourse smaller than a river: crick stream brook creek rill run other names  - 99 -  The term crick is probably s t i l l in use i n most parts of the province, in spite of efforts by school teachers to root i t out. Whether or not informants w i l l admit to using this less approved form of creek is open to question.  However the question may also turn up  some variants not yet suspected.  D of C : saltchuck  97.  Is there any word you would normallyuse for salt-water besides "ocean"?  The word very common i n coastal areas is salt-chuck. Most British Columbians are familiar with this word and many of them w i l l use i t i n a jocular manner. It is evident, however, that the term is actually part of the normal speech of many people.  D of C : snye  98.  Is there anything i n your area that would be called a "snye"? How would you describe i t ?  This word apparently has some currency i n the North, where i t can refer to any slow-moving side-channel of a river.  It i t i s so used  anywhere in B.C. i t may form a contrast with a similar use of slough.  - 100 -  Cas  99.  Ok  Do you know t h e t e r m "dowse" meaning t o f i n d w a t e r w i t h a forked stick?  I f you do, w o u l d you rhyme i t w i t h "cows" o r  "toes"?  See i t e m 91.  100.  Would you have a name f o r a bus o r t r u c k t h a t p i c k s up men and t a k e s them t o a j o b somewhere?  Crummy seems t o be used i n B.C. w h e r e v e r such a s e r v i c e According  exists.  t o R a n d a l l V. M i l l s t h i s term i s a l s o used i n Oregon.  ("Oregon Speechways," AS, XXV (1950),83)  I have p u t t o g e t h e r  an etymology f o r t h e word; crummy or crumby,  o r i g i n a l l y , and s t i l l i n one s e n s e , - " l o u s y " (Hobo s l a n g ) ; t h e t e r m was a p p l i e d t o t r a i n cabooses o r r a i l w a y work-crew bunk c a r s because t h e y were i n v a r i a b l y l i c e - i n f e s t e d .  I t was extended t o t h e r a i l w a y  c a r s ( g e n e r a l l y r e f i t t e d box c a r s or c a b o o s e s ) used t o t r a n s p o r t t h e men t o the work s i t e . called  crummies.  A p p a r e n t l y r a i l w a y speeders were a l s o sometimes  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e p r e s e n t  use o f crummy t o  mean a bus o r t r u c k t h a t t a k e s men t o work d e r i v e s more from a s i m i l a r i t y i n f u n c t i o n t o t h e s e o l d e r "crummies" t h a n froma s i m i l a r i t y i n c o n d i t i o n .  - 101 -  PCQ 57.7  101.  Does the f i r s t part of either rhyme with my or me? The figures for this item are as follows: Okanagan(Smith)Vancouver Is.(Taylor) Duncan Vancouver Hope 'j>$ r  75$  (9)  33$  (3)  59$  66$  79$  'art^  25$  (3)  67  (6)  1*1  3U  21  3  The number of informants from the Okanagan and Vancouver Island regions is too small to give reliable results yet the frequencies obtained do suggest a geographical variation.  The figures from the  student surveys again show the pattern discussed i n item 6. Whether these indicate a trend from /"^ / to / i / w i l l be shown when t  more responses from adult informants are gathered.  E 76; D of C : root house  102.  What do you c a l l the place where you store carrots, turnips, potatoes, etc. over the winter. Is i t under the house or outside?  The common terms are root cellar, vegetable cellar, and root house. The D of C cites root house as a Canadianism. When I was enquiring about dug out (see item 70) in PQ-2, two informants offered the above meaning.  - 102 -  103.  Is the terra "potlatch" used i n your area?  I f so, what does  i t mean?  An informant fromPQ-1 attests the use of this word by young people at Ganges to mean "a normal get-together at a beach party".  C Ch L 10.1  104.  In some older houses there i s a small room o f f the kitchen that i s used t o store food and equipment.  What i s i t called?  Pantry and buttery are the expected responses.  PCQ la.6; C Ch L kQ.k; Gas C  105-  13  What do you c a l l (food eaten between meals or before going to bed?  The variants expected here are snack, b i t e , piece a n d lunch. See item 60.  PCQ 17.6; C Ch L 21.2; Cas E hi  106.  When two horses are hitched t o a wagon or plow:  - 103 -  wagon This is a This is a These are horse  horse  Would i t be called the same i f you had a three horse rig? What about a one-horse rig?  This item is important because i t differentiates dialect areas i n both the U.S. and Britain.  Smith's and Taylor's results  for this item are confused, probably because the device was not really familiar to the interviewers. It seems, though, that singletree, whiffletree, and whippletree are the variants to be expected for the f i r s t part of the question, whereas doubletree w i l l be the likely choice for the second. singletree swiveltree doubletree whiffletree whippletree  Reed's figures for Washington are as follows: 91% 1 12% 2 6  Evener i s one variant of doubletree that occurs i n the U.S.; however, I have heard i t used only twice i n B.C., and both times i t referred to the hitching device  used on a three-horse r i g .  - lull -  Tugs, traces, and drawlines may be expected f o r the t h i r d part of the question.  D of C : s e r v i e t t e  107.  What do you c a l l the square of cloth or paper you wipe your fingers with at the table?  The figures showing the frequency with which people i n Ontario and Montreal choose the B r i t i s h s e r v i e t t e and the American napkin are as follows: Montreal  Ontario s e r v i e t t e only  68.6*  serviette  28.5$  napkin only  20.8  napkin  71.5  serviette  79.2  both  10.4  These words have not yet been tested i n B.C.  Socio-economic  factors may influence the choice of these variants.  PCQ  108.  58.6  Do you pronounce palm (as i n "palm of the hand") to rhyme with bomb or ram or neither.  - io5 -  I have heard / p ^Tn  / only once from a B.C. - born informant,  but I have had several who claimed to have heard i t from "old-timers" in their areas.  The form persists i n Eastern Canada alongside / k^CW  /  for calm, although, according to Avis, i t is now rare. Ontario:  / p"32.>i /  h%  Montreal: / kge>? /  109.  15.3$  Does "fourteen" as you say i t rhyme best with "short teen" or "shore teen"?  I noticed the existence of a geminated / t  / in thirteen and  fourteen some years ago, and I have since confirmed my opinion that this feature i s widespread in B.C.  I have found i t d i f f i c u l t , though,  to compile figures on i t s occurrence since such a feature is not always reliably reproduced by a tapercorder.  The success of this question  w i l l depend on the ability of the informants to make subtle discriminations between sounds.  This item also provides a good test of the usefulness  of this kind of question.  110.  Do you have any unusual names for birds animals fish insects plants  - 106 -  or any interesting words connected with farming ranching hunting fishing or any other words of interest, particularly from the "old days"?  This kind of question proved useful i n PQ-1, turning up several interesting pieces of information.  - 107 -  INDEX OF VARIANTS  The following index includes a l l variants which appear i n any of the questions or commentaries.  The reference given is to the  question number.  a l l the farther, 25 andiron, 1*9 angleworm, 9,10 apartment, 38 apartment block, 38 apricot, 3 as far as, 25 aunt, 6 baby buggy, 3k baby carriage, 3k babysit, 37 back of, 69 barrel, 53 bawl, 76 bed-spread, 61* bed-throw, 6k behind, 69 beller, 76 belloxtf, 76 bite, 105 Blind(s), ko blinky, 55 bluff, 9k bother, 7,6 boulevard, 18 braces, 26 breakfast, 60 brook, 96 bucket, 6 l bull, Ik bureau, 1*7 bury, 6 butte, 93 buttery, 101*  calm, 108 calve, 81 can (fruit)(V.),57 carried, 27 caught, 6 chest, U7 chest of drawers, 1*7 Chester drawers, 1*7 chesterfield, 1+6 chiffonier, It7 chivaree, 36 chuck-hole, 17 chuk, 95 clabber cheese, 56 coal hod, 50 coal o i l , 30 coal scuttle, 50 cock (of hay), 83 c o i l (of hay), 83 comforter, 62 corral, 87 cots (apricots), 3 cottage cheese, 56 couch, 1*6 coverlet, 6I4 coverlid, 61* crawl, 32 creek, 96 creep, 32 crick, 96 crumby, 100 crummy, 100 cup towel, 66 curds, 56 curtains, I48  dam, 70 darning needle (dragon f l y ) , 11 Dessert, 59 devil's darning needle, 11 Dew-worm, 10 dinner, 60 dish cloth, 68 dish rag, 68 dish towel, 66 dive, 22 diven, 22 divining rod, 91 do (can fruit),57 do down (fruit),57 dog-irons, 1*9 dogs (fireplace), 1*9 doubletree, 106 dove (dived),22 downpipe,li3 downspout, 1*3 dowse, 91, 99 drag, 73 drag sled, 73 dragon-fly, 11 drain pipe, 1*3 drain pipes, 1*2 drawers, 1*7 drawing room, 1*5 drawlines, 106 dresser, 1*7 driven, 22 drove, 22 dry (dishes), 67  - io8 -  dry rag, 66 Dugout, 70, 102 Dutch cheese, 56 ear sewer, 11 earthworm, 9, 10 eaves, 1*2 eaves spout, U3 eaves spouts, 42 Eaves-troughs, 42 either, 101 evener, 106 face cloth, 65 fairy, 6 father, 6,7 faucet, 44 ferry, 6 Fire dogs, h9 fire-grate, h9 fire-irons, 1*9 fish bait, 9, 10 fishingworm, 9,10 fishworm, 9,10 Flat iron, 5 l fourteen, 109 freshen, 81 front room, 45 fry pan, 52 Frying pan, 52 gallery (front-),39 geoduck (clam),12 go-cart, 31,34 go-devil,12,71,73 gooeyduck, 12 got sick, 20 grate, 49 grid, 49 grid-iron, 49 g r i l l , 49 gutters, 42 have a calf, 81 hay cock, 83,84 Hay loft, 85  hay mow, 85  hay rick, 83,84  hay shock, 83  hay stack, 83,84  hay tumble, 83 high boy, 47 hiked, 27 hoarse, 6  I want off, 21 I want to get off,21 in back of, 69 Indian, 16 jag, 78 kerosene, 30 kickanee, l4 kickaninnee, L4 kickininee, 14 kickininie, 14 kikinee, 14 kokane e, 14 land-locked salmon,14 lariat, 77 lasso, 77 lassoo, 77 lay(the table),58 leisure, 6 lever, 4 l i t t l e redfish,l4 Living room,45 loft, 85 log-irons, 49 loo (cow), 76 look after (the baby), 37 lounge, 46 low (cow), 76 low boy, 47 lugged, 27  lunch, 105,60  lunch box, 6l lunch bucket, 6 l  lunch kit, 6l lunch pail, 6 l luncheon(s), 60 mailman, 29 marry, 6 Mary, 6 merry, 6 milk pail, 6 l mind(the baby),37 moo, 76 mosquito hawk, 11 mourning, 6 mow, 85 mowitch, 13 napkin, 107 native, 16 near-horse (left-hand horse),80 nicker, 76 nigh-horse (left-hand horse),80 night-crawler,10 ocean, 95,97 on the turn (milk), 55 packed, 27 pail, 6l palm, 108 pantry, 104 parlour, 45 piazz a(front-),39 piece, 105 pig, 82 pillow case, 63 pillow cover, 63 pillow slip, 63 pit (peach,cherry),89 Porch (back-), 40 Porch (front-),39 postman, 29 pothole, 70 pot-hole, 17  - 109 -  potlatch, 103 pour, 51+ pram, 34 push-cart,31 put down,(fruit),57 put up (fruit),57 quarter of,24 quarter t i l l , 2 4 quarter t o , 24 Q u i l t , 62 ranch(e), 1$ rancheria, 15 rancherie, 15 rather, 7 reata, 77 redfish, l l * r i c k , 84 r i g h t now, 28 r i l l , 96 r i v e r rapids,95 root, 1* root c e l l a r , 102 root house, 102 route, 4 run(watercourse),96 sad iron, 5 l salt-chuck, 97 saltehuk, 95,97 salt-water, 97 schedule, 5 school gets out, l e t s out, turns out, breaks, breaks up, leaves out, close's, goes out, 35 school-marm, 71 scoop-out, 70 scythe, 88 see-saw, 33 seed (peach, cherry) 89,90  serenade, 36 s e r v i e t t e , 107 set (the table),58 settee, 1*6 shades, 48 sherbet, 6 shivaree, 36 shoat, 82 shock, 83 shone, 4 sick (to, i n at, on, of, from, with) his stomach,19 s i l v e r fish,ll* s i l v e r trout,14 singletree, 106 s i t with (the baby), 37 s i t t i n g room, 1*5 s k i l l e t , 52 skookum, 95 skookumchuk, 95 s l e d , 73 sleigh-rack, 72 sloop, 72,73 slough, 92,98 smearcase, 56 snack, 60, 105 snake doctor, 11 snake feeder,11 snye, 98 sofa, 1*6 soot, 4 spicket, 44 ''spider (frying pan), 52 spigot, 44 spouting, 1*2 spouts, 42 spread, 64 spread (the table)  58  spring (of a cow)  81  springer, 81  s t a l l i o n , 75 stand, 1*7 s tone(peac h,cherry)  89,90  stone drag, 73 stone sled, 73 stoneboat, 73 stook, 83 stoop, 4 l stoop (back-), 40 stoop (front-),39 stream, 96 s t r o l l e r , 31 suite, 38 supper, 60 • suspenders, 26 sweet, 59 swelled, 23 swoll, 23 tainted, 55 take care of (the baby), 37 tap, 1*4 tea towel, 66 teeter, 33 Teeter-totter, 33 tend(the baby), 31 thirteen, 109 t i d a l rapids, 95 tie-weight, 79 tomato, 1 took sick, 20 toted, 27 traces, 106 tugs, 106 turned, 55 ,vase, 2 vegetable celler,102 verandah(back-),40 verandah(front-),39 wand, 91 was taken s i c k , 20 wash cloth, 65  - 110 -  wash rag, 65 watch(the baby), 37 water bucket, 6l water divining, 91 water witching, 91 weaner, 82  weanling, 82 wheel-horse ( l e f t hand horse), 80 whicker, 76 whiffletree, 106 whinner, 76  whinny, 76 whippletree, 106 wipe(dishes), 67 worm, 9,10 Zebra, 8  - Ill -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Abercrombie, David. 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A Working B i b l i o g r a p h y o f E n g l i s h D i a l e c t Geography I n America-. S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s : C h i c a g o , 1961. Lehmann, W.P.  H i s t o r i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s ; An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New  Lehn, W^ "Vowel C o n t r a s t s V (1959), 90-98.  1964.  York,  i n a Saskatchewan E n g l i s h D i a l e c t , " JCLA ,  McDavid, R . I . and V.G. McDavid. A C o m p i l a t i o n o f the Worksheets o f the L i n g u i s t i c A t l a s of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada and Associated Projects." Ann A r b o r , 1951"The D i a l e c t o l o g y of an Urban S o c i e t y , " Communications e t Rapports du Premier Congres I n t e r n a t i o n a l de D i a l e c t o l o g i e g e n e r a l e , P r e m i e r e P a r t i e , L o u v a i n , 1964. "The  D i a l e c t s o f American E n g l i s h , " ch.9  F r a n c i s , The S t r u c t u r e o f American E n g l i s h , New and V.G.  of W.  Nelson 1958.  York,  McDavid. "Grammatical D i f f e r e n c e s i n the N o r t h 5-19-  C e n t r a l S t a t e s , " AS, XXXV ( i 9 6 0 ) ,  " L i n g u i s t i c Geography i n Canada : An I n t r o d u c t i o n , " JCLA, 3-8.  I (1954),  "Midland and Canadian Words i n U p s t a t e New XXVI  York,"  AS,  (1951), 248-256. "The  Second Round i n D i a l e c t o l o g y of N o r t h American E n g l i s h , "  JCLA, V I ( I 9 6 0 ) ,  108-114.  "Some P r i n c i p l e s f o r American D i a l e c t Study," S I L , I , No.12. " S t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s and l i n g u i s t i c geography," O r b i s , X (1961),  35-46.  "Two  Decades of the L i n g u i s t i c A t l a s , " JEGP,  L(l95l),  M c i n t o s h , Angus. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o a Survey of S c o t t i s h D i a l e c t s . Edinburgh, 1952. , H.J.  Uldall,Kenneth  Scotland Postal Questionnaire  J a c k s o n . L i n g u i s t i c S u r v e y of  No.  1,  Univ. of Edinburgh,  , and J.S.Woolley. L.S.S. P o s t a l Q u e s t i o n n a i r e U n i v . of E d i n b u r g h ,  1953.  No.  1951. 2.  101-110.  - 115 -  Marckwardt, Albert H. " P r i n c i p a l and Subsidiary Dialect Areas i n the North-Central-States," PADS, No 27(1957). Martinet, Andre. "Dialect," RPh., VIII  (1954), 1-11.  M i l l s , Randall V. "Oregon Speechways," AS, XXV  (1950), 81-90.  Moulton, W.G. "Dialect Geography and the concept of phonological space," Word , XVIII (1962), 23-32. Munroe, Helen C. "Montreal English," AS , V Norman, Arthur- M.Z.  V (1956), 61-79.  (1929), 21.  "A Southeast Texas D i a l e c t Study,"  Orbis,  Orton, Harold, "The English D i a l e c t Survey : L i n g u i s t i c Atlas of England," Orbis, IX (I960), 331-348, "Remarks upon F i e l d work for L i n g u i s t i c A t l a s , " English Studies, XXXIV  (1953), 274 - 78.  , et a l . Survey of English D i a l e c t s. Leeds, 1962  - .  Pederson, Lee A. "An Introductory F i e l d Procedure i n a Current Urban Survey," Orbis, XI (1962),465-69. Pickford, Glenna Ruth. "American L i n g u i s t i c Geography : A S o c i o l o g i c a l Appraisal," Word , XII (1956), 211-233. P i l c h , Herbert. "The Rise of the American English Vowel Pattern," Word, XI (1955), 57-93. Pop, Sever, Bibliographie des Questionnaires Linguistiques. Louvain, 1954. La Dialectologie : Apercu historique et methodes d'enqugtes linguistiques,"  Gembloux, Belgium,  1950.  Porter, B.H. " A Newfoundland Vocabulary," AS, XXXVIII  (1963), 297-301.  Pulgram, Ernst. "Family Tree, Wave Theory and Dialectology," Orbis ,  II (1953),67-72.  Read, A l l e n Walker. "The Assimilation of the Speech of B r i t i s h Immigrants i n Colonial America," JEGP , XXXVII (1938), 70-79Reed, C a r r o l l E. Dialects of American English.  Cleveland,  1967.  - 116 -  Reed, Carroll E. "The Pronunciation of English i n the Pacific Northwest," Lang. XXXVH (l96l), 559-561*. "The Pronunciation of English in the State of Washington,"  AS, XXVII (1952)_,186-189. "Washington Words," PADS, No. 25 (1956). "Word Geography of the Pacific Northwest," Orbis, VI  (1957), 86-93. Reed, David W. and David DeCamp. A Collation of Check Lists Used in the Study of American Linguistic~G*eography. Berkeley, 1952. and John L. Spicer. "Correlation Methods of Comparing Idiolects i n a Transition Area," Lang, XXVIII (1952), 348-59"Eastern Dialect Words i n California," PADS, No. 21 (1954). "Establishing and Evaluating Social Boundaries i n English," in Studies i n Languages and Linguistics i n Honor of Charles C. Fries, ed., Albert Marckwardt. Ann Arbor,1964. , and David DeCamp. Linguistic Atlas of the Pacific Coast : Preliminary Form of WorksheetsT Berkeley, 1952. Roedder, E.C. "Linguistic Geography," Germanic Review, I (1926), 281-308. Scargill, M.H. "Canadian English and Canadian Culture in Alberta,"  JCLA,I (1955),26-29.  "A Pilot Study of Alberta Speech : Vocabulary,"  JCLA, I (pilot issuej (1954) , 21-22. "The Sources of Canadian English," JEGP, LVI (1957), 610-14. Schrijnen,Josef. Essai de bibliographie de geographie linguistique generale. Nimegue, 1933Scott, S.O. and D.A. Mulligan. "The Red River Dialect,"  282(1951), 42-45.  The Beaver ,  Shuy, Roger W. "The Northern - Midland Dialect Boundary i n I l l i n o i s , "  PADS, No. 38 (1962).  Stankiewicz,Edward. "On Discreteness and Continuity i n Structural Dialectology," Word, XIII (1957), 44-59-  - 117 -  S t o c k w e l l , Robert P. " S t r u c t u r a l D i a l e c t o l o g y : A P r o p o s a l , " AS, XXXIV (1959), 258-268. W e i n r e i c h , U r i e l . "Is a s t r u c t u r a l d i a l e c t o l o g y p o s s i b l e ? " Word, X (1954), 388-400. Widdowson, J.D.A. "Some Items o f C e n t r a l Newfoundland D i a l e c t , "  CJL , X (1964), 37-46.  W i l s o n , H.R. The D i a l e c t o f Lunenburg County, Nova S c o t i a . D i s s , U. o f Mich., 1959 • Wrede,F. Deutscher S p r a c h a t l a s , auf Grund des von Georg Wenker begrundeten S p r a c h a t l a s des deutschen R e i c h s .  Marburg,  1926.  - 118 -  APPENDIX A Secondary Questionnaire Following i s a secondary questionnaire containing items of regional or special interest, as well as items which may be valuable, although information is lacking on them. This questionnaire, along with items based on the results of the main project, w i l l be sent to informants who have been particularly useful. 1.  When you are serving tea or coffee to guests, you make sure the cream and sugar are on the table. (Name the proper containers - not cans or bags'.)  2.  Are there any winds or other weather features that have particular names in your area? PCQ 12.7; C Ch L 15.2 ; Cas E  3.  66  What would you c a l l the building, or part of a building, where cows are kept? PCQ 13.2; C Ch L l5.-2-.6-.9j Cas E 69-70  k.  What would you c a l l the fenced i n area near the barn where the stock is kept or fed? C Ch L 17.5  5.  What do you c a l l the container used to carry food to pigs? PCQ  6.  35.8; C Ch L  1*1.6 ; Cas E 10  What do you c a l l a crop of hay that i s cut later i n the season some months after an earlier crop. D of C : jack-lighting  7.  What do you c a l l the kind of fishing or hunting done at night using a light as an attraction?  - 119 PCQ 33.3; C Ch L 37.5 ; Cas F 91 8.  What words would you use to c a l l a cow i n fromthe field? Write them as they would sound.  9.  Does the car- i n "caramel" sound like the car in "used car" or the car in "carry"? Cas H 85  10. Is the word "lane" commonly used i n your area? If so what meaning does i t have? PCQ 6.7; C Ch L 8.3; Cas B79 11. What do you c a l l the shelf built just above a fireplace? Cas E 25 12. What do you c a l l a crop that springs up and grows by i t s e l f from old seed? Cas E 11 13. What do you do to hay i n the f i e l d after i t has been cut? Are there any special terms for this? Cas E 77 lit. Would you have a name for a small building where meat or fish was smoked and cured? Cas D 35 15. Do you have a name for afrost that i s severe enough to k i l l plants? Cas D 34 16. Do you have a name for a fr§s/t that is not severe enough to k i l l plants? D of C : beaver meadow 17. Do you have a name for a rich grassy area, sometimes swampy, that lies behind an old beaver dam?  - 120 -  D of C : band 18. If a group of cattle is a herd, what do you c a l l a group of sheep? Cas H 98 19. What do you c a l l the devices that hold the oars i n place on the sides of a boat? D of C : caulked boot 20. What do you c a l l the boots studded with spikes used by loggers - cork boots - caulk boots - caulked boots - spiked boots 21. Would you have a special name for an Indian woman? PCQ 25.3; C Ch L 29.11 22. What would you c a l l a stretch of land that was unfit for cultivation? Cas H 96 23. Would you have a name for a small rowboat, not big enough to hold more than two people? 2I4. What do you c a l l the long-necked clam found on some parts of the coast? PCQ 29.8; C Ch L 34.9 25. What do you c a l l an unbroken horse? PCQ 3k.7  ; C Ch L 39.14  26. What do you c a l l the sack that you put on a horse's head to feed him? PCQ 56.3;  C Ch L 69.12-.Lb; Cas E 1  27. What do you c a l l a man employed to work on a farm or ranch?  - 121 -  PCQ 30.4: C Ch L 34.16, 38.9 28. What does a horse do when i t ' s trying to throw i t s rider? PCQ 30.5 29. When a horse shows fright at something, you say i t PCQ 56.2; C Ch L 69.14 30. What do you c a l l a man who's employed to herd cattle? D of C : beef-gather 31. When cattle are brough together so they can be marketed it's called a . Cas F 16 32. How is the word "heifer" used i n your neighbourhood? How old a cow? Has she had no calf, only one, or more than one? 33. What would you c a l l a small herd of saddle horses?  PCQ 34.5; C Ch L 39.11; Cas E54 34. What do you c a l l the band that holds the saddle on? 35. What names do you give to different types of horses according to their jobs, colours, sizes, etc. 36. Would you ever put something around the forelegs of a horse to keep i t from wandering? If so, what would you c a l l i t ? D of C : cut-off 37. What do you c a l l the channel that is l e f t behind after a river has changed i t s course? PCQ 27.3; Cas H 84 38. What do you c a l l a local road that goes off froma main thoroughfare. 39. Name and describe the different kinds of fences you are familiar with. PCQ 22.8; Cas I 3 40. What would you c a l l a scarf that a woman wears over her head and ties under her chin?  - 122 -  D of C ; oolichan 111. What do you c a l l the kind of smelt, very rich in o i l , that spawns i n coastal rivers? PCQ 9.6; C Ch L 11.3; Cas B 73 112. What do you c a l l the overlapping boards on the side of a house?  PCQ 26.8; C ChL 30.11; Cas G55 43. What would you c a l l a stone wall built out from the land to protect a harbor from rough water? PCQ 26.7 iili. What do you c a l l the platform, often raised on piles, where boats stop and unload?  PCQ 29.5; C ChL 33-10; D of C : dogie 45. In a herd of cattle a calf that has lost i t s mother i s called . Cas F 20 46. What do you c a l l a calf that is sold for meat? C Ch L 2,10. 47-  It's Thursday and you've just heard that a friend is arriving to v i s i t you, not on the Sunday immediately following, but on the Sunday after. You might say, "He's arriving (when?) PCQ 36.1; C Ch L 4l.7; Cas E 30  48. Wheat is tied into a  .  PCQ 17.5; C Ch L 20.8; Cas E46 49. What do you c a l l the two long pieces of wood i n front of a buggy that the horse stands between?  C Ch L 32.10; Cas H49 50. What do you c a l l i t when you throw a stone over the surface of the water so that i t jumps two or three times.  

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