UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The aesthetics of either/or in Samuel Beckett's novels Murphy, Peter 1970-12-31

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.THE  AESTHETICS SAMUEL  OF  EITHER/OR  BECKETT'S  IN  NOVELS  by Peter B.A.,. University  A  of  British  THESIS  SUBMITTED  -  REQUIREMENTS  THE  Murphy  IN  PARTIAL FOR  MASTER  in  the  Columbia,  OF  1968  FULFILMENT  THE DEGREE  OF  OF  ARTS  Department of  English  We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  as  conforming  to  standard  UNIVERSITY  OF  May,  BRITISH 1970  COLUMBIA  the  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  be  It  financial  for  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  Columbia,  British  Columbia  for  extensive by  the  understood  permission.  Department  of  available  granted  is  fulfilment  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  and  of my  I agree  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  A b s t r a c t  This  thesis  p h i l o s o p h i c a l or  no"  and  of  this  ( e s p e c i a l l y  in  problem  has  indebted  cussion  " a r t  of  Bee k e 1 1 :  p l o r a t i o n in  a  closed  ph i 1os'ophy an  The  is  as  make  they  attempts and  the  a r t In  terms  of  t h e i r  S amue1  Be e k e11 :  centre  around  B e c k e t t ' s Watt  by  B e c k e t t ' s absurd.  appeal  this  line  or  the  i s :  of  of  e x -  " a r t  n o . "  emphasize  the  c h a r a c t e r s  question  what  the  are-the  " c h o i c e " made  Such  " e x i s t e n t i a 1 "  B e c k e t t ' s  key  Joyce  notion  "yes  helps  A  d i s -  K i e r k e g a a r d ' s  of  of  answer  the  yes  M  of  or  w i t h i n  A  no", theme  C a r t e s i a n ism  completion  a r t  with  A  of  the  the•psycho  terms  and  is  t h e s i s  nature the  closed  l i f e ?  of  my  New A p p r o a c h  s c h i z o p h r e n i a  o f . B e c k e t t ' s to  of  dualisms  Since  r e l a t e  awareness  w r i t i n g s  to  with  some  t h e s i s  new  the  B e c k e t t ' s  " c h o i c e s . "  and  (Note:  with  an  emotional  Hu r p h y  the  and  f o r  c o n t i n u a l l y  of  developing  a  s  f u l l  Flaubert,  But  conjunction  e i t h e r / o r  consequences  f i e l d  in  B e c k e t t ' s  of  by  t h e i r  p r o v o c a t i v e in  e  While  This  1  f i e l d "  " y  c r i t i c s  Kenner),  Kenner s  the  of- the  by  e l a b o r a t e d .  closed  with  novels.  noted  Hugh  Hugh  up  allows  urgency  been  S t 6 i c 'Cornedi an s .  opened  of  of  a  f i e l d "  approach  nature  to  in  B e c k e t t ' s  and  been  b a s i c a l l y  i m p l i c a t i o n s '  have  Coe  not  e s p e c i a l l y  and  Samuel  Richard  s i g n i f i c a n c e  concerned  a e s t h e t i c  d i a l e c t i c  aspects  is  has  and  with  the  is  "yes  no"  My  c o n t r i b u t i o n  thought  I  i n d i c a t i n g philosophy  B e c k e t t ' s  b e l i e v e ,  the of  -  however,  a l l  to  dimensions  attempt  but  to made  relevancy  form  Barnard's  e x t e n s i v e l y  f a i l s ,  own  in  to  come  d i s c u s s  ions  conundrum.  s i g n i f i c a n t i s ,  G.C.  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  e c l e c t i c  or  with  s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  deals  He  thought.).  Beckett the  which  dealt  and  t h e s i s ,  appeared.  1ogica1  is  -  indebtedness  h i s to  of  the in  study the  Kant  of  d i s c u s s i o n and  a e s t h e t i c s  of  Enlightenment  Hume  to  the thought,  e s p e c i a l l y pioneer in  D e s c a r t e s ,  work.  terms'  he r i t a ge  But.  of  Kant  a s.  it  Tracing in  the  t r i l o g y  p o s s i b l e of  to  Hegelian  the  and  s t i l l Moi1oy,  B e c k e t t ' s  r a t i o n a l  ism  ho"  d i a l e c t i c  cussion  of  some a r t . is  is  leads  Is  in  to- a  the  s o c i a l  B e c k e t t ' s  Beckett  marred  by  an  redress  .  made of  a  It  t h i s  is  The  hoped  f a i l u r e  of  t h i s  t r a d i t i o n  Unnamab1e,  The  it  is  the  p u r s u i t  K n i f e , "  deals  ' i m p l i c a t i o n s is  f a i l u r e  in  of  = The  the d i s -  pornographic  s u b - l i t e r a r y  that  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  treatment  c l e a r e r . .  c r i t i c i s m  obvious  debt  Kierkegaardian-1ike-parody  a n d - c u l t u r a l  of  work.  Dies,  ."No's  area  this  i n t e l l e c t u a l  r e l e n t l e s s  as  Kenner's  .  u n i q u e p h i l o s o p h i c a l  regarded  c o n c l u s i o n ,  This  terms  B e c k e t t ' s him  art  a e s t h e t i c s .  thus  of  complexity  p r o g r e s s i v e  is  The of  to  It  u s u a l l y  often  part  how  and  B e c k e t t ' s  the  t h i s  Ma 1 o n e  since  d i s c u s s i o n  B e c k e t t ' s  f u r t h e r  " y e s o r  what  shows  d i s c e r n  How  recognized  extended  i n f l u e n c e s  of  premises'  been  Hume  underpinin'g  i l l u s t r a t e s  has  most  to  t h i s  Beckett  of  form his  a r t i s t i c  treatment  of  genre. b r i e f l y of  B e c k e t t ' s  weak  study  w i t h  in  t h e s i s h e l p s c r i t i c i s m .  and depth in  Table  of  of  Introduction  The  Chance  Chapter  I  The  Divided  Chapter  II  The  Breakdown  C e r t a i n t y >'^>*«.  :  Contents  The  S e l f  in  III  [Landscape  Chapter  IV  The  Art  in  of  i n  of  i  -  ix  Murphy  pp.  1  -  22  E m p i r i c a l  pp.  23  "  pp.  50  -  57  pp.  58  -  72  pp.  73  -  92  pp.  93  -  112  Wa11  Introduction to Malone Dies and  Chapter  A l t e r n a t i v e s  Mo 1 T o y , The Unnamable  Moi Toy  Dying  in  Malone  Dies Chapter  V  " S c i e n c e  F i c t i o n "  in  The  Unnamab1e Chapter  VI  P h i l o s o p h i c a l i n  Conclusion  How  No's  It  Pornography  pp.113  130  -  I s  K n i f e  B i b l i o g r a p h y  pp.131  ~  135  pp.136  -  142  I n t r o d u c t i o n The  Chance  o . f t h e  "Yes or no?" t a u t o l o g y . My  p h i l o s o p h y  stand, and is  for  I  do  I  not  necessary  s u c c e s s i v e the Thus  when  from  my  I  say  which  is  it do  for  if  djd  not,  I  n e g a t i v e  of  my  only  me,  although  I  p h i l o s p h y .  if  that,  I  did so  so  parture S.  level  exhausted  that  I  What the  the  development  and  sensual  of  of  it I I  now?  of  B e c k e t t ' s  whose the  c a p a b i l i t y ,  my  i n t e l l e c t  de-  c e s s a t i o n .  r.  now?"  On  of  as the  arouse  It  a l l  a  a  much  Samuel  c r i t i c  has at  i t ,  regret  never  e t e r n a l  above  c u l t u r e  should  a l s o  novels..  a r t ,  to  e t e r n a l  -words the  my  regret  I  my  When  anguished  from  s i n c e  w i t h  remains  s h o u l d ,  s t o p ;  prot r u t h ,  i m p o s s i b l e  E i the r/0  those  any  higher  should  But  never  B e c k e t t ' s  humanity  proceeded  f o r t h .  a l s o can  e t e r n a l no  no  seems  who  make  the  I  has  t h i s  those not  f i n d  stop,  he  argument  philosophy  stopped,  p a r a l l e l  d i s c u s s i o n  s i g n i f i c a n t  I  i d e n t i c a l  now?  do  if  anything  that  my  a d m i t s o f  if  not  can  is  I  K i e r k e g a a r d ,  "Where  Unnamab1e  I  for  t h i s  and  is  movement,  should  i f  if  unfold  which  I  and  s t a r t ,  p r o s a i c  now  or  there proves  But  For  p r i n c i p l e , and  one  that  foreward  of  from  p r i n c i p l e ;  another  to  it  i t s e l f ,  my  it  f o l l o w  for  from  If  g r e s s ,  stop;  n o n - p re c e e d i n g i t , a n d  same.  v i r t u e  o p p o s i t i o n  that.  the  by  through  equal  regret  proves  w i t h i n  e x -  i t s e l f ,  in  p h i l o s o p h y ;  s h a l l  underf o r t h  regret  say  any  be  a l s o  in  have  proceed not  would  hearers  I  not  must a  would  for  and  rather  a  It the  f o r t h .  proceeding  t h e r e f o r e ,  what  set  p r i n c i p l e  respected  to  a  I  that.  between  a  proceed  d i d , I  do  apprehended  not  from  to  p r e c e e d l n g o r I  under-  e i t h e r / o r ,  t h i s  o p p o s i t i o n is  I  to  p r i n c i p l e ,  here  that  the  a  in  d i a l e c t i c  e t e r n a l  easy  one  d i s t i n g u i s h  for  t a l e n t  takes  proceed  to  but  seems,  The  even  i t ,  i t .  l e a s t  only  p r e s s i o n to  at  The  have  p r i n c i p l e ,  in  from  is  Murphy.  d i a l e c t i c  e t e r n a l  stood  more  s a i d  A l t e r n a t i v e s  a i t s  B e c k e t t  who  under-  is  h i g h l y  comment b a s i c  expense massive  on  an  dilemma  of  energy  amount  1  i i  of a  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n c r i s i s .  D i s c u s s i n g  p re ta t i o n ,  Susan  modern  instances  of  to  art  tames  which  the  i t s  summarizes  i t s e l f  this  Sontag  r i g h t l y  of  quite  and  a r t . "  i n d i c a t i v e  problem  a c c u r a t e l y  out to  few  the  In t e  of  r-  in  reduce  major  s t a t e  such  that  i n t e r p r e t i n g a  of  Aga i n s t  tends  then With  in  points  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  content  work  is  most  "the  that,  work  one  e x c e p t i o n s , Beckett  she  c r i t i c i s m :  Another oeuvre that has a t t r a c t e d i n t e r p r e t e r s l i k e leeches is that of Samuel B e c k e t t . B e c k e t t ' s d e l i c a t e dramas of the withdrawn consciousness pared down to the - e s s e n t i a l s , cut off, often represented as p h y s i c a l l y immobilized are r e a d as a s t a t e m e n t about modern man's a 1 ienation from meaning or from God, o r as an a l l e g o r y of psychopathology. 1 The is  preoccupation opposed  towards  to  the  c r i t i c i s m  basis  of  of  c o n s t i t u t e s  its  "meaning."  p o e t , . n o t  p h i l o s o p h e r .  a  important  only  for  the  a  with  f i n d i n g  B e c k e t t ' s  c r e a t i o n  more  the  of  s i t u a t i o n  No  art  which  whose  Beckett  statement  p r o s p e c t i v e  "meaning" is  tenuous is  c r i t i c  e x i s t e n c e  above  about  d i r e c t e d  a l l  a  Beckett  than  that  is by  H a r o l d P i n t e r : The f a r t h e r he g o e s the more good it does me. I don't want phi1osophies, t r a c t s , dogmas, creeds,.ways outs, t r u t h s , answers, nothing from the bargain basement.. He is the most courageous, remorseless w r i t e r going and t h e m o r e he g r i n d s my n o s e in the s h i t the more I am g r a t e f u l to him. 2 The  c r i t i c a l  approach  i a l l y  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  be. on  B e c k e t t ' s  into the  a  r a d i c a l  emphasis  ravage  the  of  the  thought  are  suggestive set  out  S to ?c Kenner  by  form, of  most  i t s  of  .Kenner  Corned i a n s . s t a t e s  that  of  the w i l l  a  The  be  studies  less  to  thought  for  future  in  Joyce  " a r t  B e c k e t t ' s  w i l l  in  themes  r e s u l t  of  temptation  to  for  "meaning."  B e c k e t t ' s his  Hugh  a  search  of  and  D i s c u s s i n g  e s s e n t -  emphasis  As  f r u i t l e s s  Flaubert,"  is  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Coe  in  t h e s i s  novel.  r e l a t i o n s h i p  Richard  l i n e  in  important  and by  of  there  art  t h i s  a e s t h e t i c .  a e s t h e t i c  on  novel  and  in  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  work  The  adopted  a e s t h e t i c  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Kenner.  A  most  development and a  novels  Beeke11:  c l o s e d  is The  system"  a  t e c h n i q u e  is  of  h a n d l i n g  and  the  c l o s e d  i n v e n t o r y come  is  f o r  supposed  the  B e c k e t t  the  o d d l y  t r a d i t i o n  j u s t  as  r e l e v a n t  what  he  c a l l s  the  sense  man's  and  the "yes" of  o f  The  and of  he  is  words  it  end  is  Bloom  "a  And  is  s o u r c e  the  o f  For  i t too  am  does  element  o f  " o d d l y  thought  in  e l a b o r a t e d  e t h i c a l move or the  and  o n l y  a r t i s t term  o r d e r  the  to  in  a p p l i e s  l e v e l  escape  to the  end  c h o i c e  by  the  B e c k e t t . " c l o s e d  more a l l  he  the  " n o "  o f  extreme d e a t h .  of  knew  i n c l u s i v e  w i t h  a r t p o i n t s  In  M o l l o y  a p p e a r a n c e s ,  began,  is  it  c l e a r  emphasize  B e c k e t t ' s  a r t ,  n a r r a t i v e s . not o f of  in  W h i l e  e x i s t e n c e  -  n a r r a t o r s  are  the  of  the  The sense  K i e r k e g a a r d system"  a  the  h i s  major  detachment  c h o i c e .  is  in  B e c k e t t  the  a e s t h e t i c .  thought  o f  . . . "  B e c k e t t ' s -  m u s i c . system  system  and  it  in  s e l f  l e v e l s  " t h e  the  s p i t e  such  K i e r k e g a a r d ' s  c l o s e d  a d e q u a t e l y  i n v o l v e m e n t  t h r e e  s t r a n g l e d  in  e n d i n g  not  the  r e l i g i o u s , one  end  and  the  from  is  i n c l u d e s  U1y s s e s  the  which  c l o s e d  to  Joyce  impotence  an  the  i n d i c a t e s  K i e r k e g a a r d  which  opposes  g r i p p i n g "  c o n f r o n t s  gaard  at  to  c l o s e r  r e g a r d e d  f o r t h ,  f i e l d "  o f  c o n c l u d e s  an  but  mathematics  of  B e c k e t t  at  K i e r k e g a a r d but  s a i d  that  w o r l d  as  t r a n s -  S i l e n c e  t r a c e s  genre"  B e c k e t t  Kenner  h i s  He  so  3  c l o s e d  much  i g n o r a n c e ,  I  What study  -  brought  enough?  is  o b s e s s i v e l y  l i m i t a t i o n  a  w o r l d ; from  empty  and  l i m i t a t i o n s  d o . "  U n . n a m a b.1 e .  l i f e  i t s  the  B e c k e t t  M o l l y  in  systems  e x i s t e n c e  c o u l d  of  Language 1  And  i r r e d u c i b l e  and  c o n s t r u c t i o n . in  o f p r e -  mental  the  plane  " P y t h a g o r e a n  J o y c e ' s .  more  a  system given  a  ber  the  s u b t r a c t i n g ,  a l l  B e c k e t t .  o f  to  D u b l i n ,  to  "art:-  c l o s e d  B e c k e t t ' s  to  of to  n o n - 1 i n g u i s t i c  than  novel  to  o f  a n a l y s i s .  is  U l y s s e s  S t e i n e r  a n o t h e r  system amid  l o g i c a l  to  tended  c l o s e d  at,  J o y c e ' s  g r i p p i n g  George  the  d o i n g  of  of  J o y c e ' s  m a t e r i a l ;  it  p e r t a i n s  is  methods  p o s i n g  a r t  but by  as  c l o s e d  a r r i v e d  a n a l y s i s  r e a l i t i e s  However,  the  l i k e  r e a l  i n d i s p e n s a b l e  l o n g e r ,  p a s t , d a t a ,  very  less  system  J o y c e ,  t r a n s a c t e d  l o g i c a l  and  no  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  what  i n v e n t o r y  less  l i k e o f  K i e r k e a e s t h e t i c  a b l e  to  i n t e l l e c t u a l in  f e l t  which that  f i r s t  in  l e v e l  i v a  " l e a p  of  of  f a i t h "  e x i s t e n c e  caped. even  For  more  if  severe  saved  with  completely i n s c r u t a b l e  choices own  f r a c t u r i n g  most  of  e s t a b l i s h e s f i c t i o n a l  of  that it  tension  the  to  e s -  choice  are  i n one  who  that  man's  i r r a t i o n a l .  But  hero  is  faced  whether  he  can  release  mind  basjc  This  and  the  is  " e x t e n d e d . "  how the  the  s e l f  and  the  other  is  what  so  ever?  a  between  given  and  the  the  o b j e c t ,  question  knowledge  at  there  question  determines with  is  a  thought t h i s  the  be,  as  nature  of  from  Mu r p h y  onwa rds ,  himself The the  s p l i t  the  this  is  do  with  to  no  occurs  p h y s i c a l  the  as  can  a  body  quotations  that  preface  and be  the any  i t s  a  t h i s  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  own  assumed  heroes  which  the  must hero  mind. i n t r o d u c t i o n of  act  p r o p o s i t i o n  B e c k e t t ' s in  so  i n t e g r a l  dualism  e i t h e r / o r  and  f a c t ,  c a r r i e s  the  novel  two,  and  ex-  p h y s i c a l  with  body  t h i n g s ,  in  dualisms  a  given  choice a  a l l  mind  becomes  This  the  a  and  anything  question  accepted.  of  knowing  and  long  if  related?  l^r&h t ,  there  the  fundamental  of.  thought  conception  how  involves  body  property  the  The  B e c k e t t ' s  the  and  Then , have  in  property  of  s i n c e  ideas  And  cannot  realms  In  a r i s e s  a l l .  e s s e n t i a l  events  p r o p e r t i e s r e l a t i o n  mind  is  aroun  Descartes  dualism  what  d i f f e r e n t .  in  by  p r o p o s i t i o n  are  v e r s a ,  centres  dualism.  body  e s s e n t i a l  The  completely  and  q u e s t i o n s :  Descartes,  Beckett  metaphysical  body?  and  in  C a r t e s i an  e i t h e r / o r  t h i n k s ,  space  choice  into  v i c e  confront  Beckett  s e l f  and  feels  be  implies  order  of  ones  deal  to  t h i e v e s ,  and  the  was  th(0s  a r b i t r a r y  conundrum  physical  the  damned,  w i l l  mental  by  two  that  can  answer:  was  the  order  how  of  of  level  B e c k e t t ' s  determine  it  accepted,  that  of  w i l l  f o l l o w i n g  mind  are  subject  death"  that  universe.  According  that  higher  K i e r k e g a a r d .  important  the  answering . the  is  unto  a  damnation.  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  nature  in  other  The the  than  to  r e s t r i c t i o n s  the  his  its  the  w h i l e  t h i s  made  " s i c k n e s s  parable  v i t a l  from  be  the  is  construct  to  of  s a l v a t i o n w i t h i n  the  Beckett  t e r p r e t a t i o n was  had  l o g i c  by  V  means and  of  a  l o g i c  that  d i a l e c t i c . (Murphy's  o p p o s i t i o n  ("the  eternal  overcome cept  the  statement  o p p o s i t i o n  becomes  and  wider  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  the  c1 a s s i c a 1 .  very  seem  z a t i o n s .  to  s o c i a l  to  the  or  and  the In  "me"  with and  t h e v e r y  d i a l e c t i c the  must  and  i s  B e c k e t t ' s  " s u c c e s s i v e means  of  a  to  l o g i c a l  caught process  ambiguous  with  with  my  .a n d  no"  eternal  the  a  of  process  con e l u s i o n , d e s t r u c t i v e  (Molloy's  overcome..  f i r s t  s i t u a t i o n ,  to  or  incomplete-  tend  toward  "my  eternal  nature  of  e i t h e r / o r  as  Meaning  thus  does  end.  But  Beckett  that  the  r  while  he  important  The merely  and  (Jf°  involves  quest.  change  an  de-  c e s s a t i o n . "  consciousness  paradox,  statement  o p p o s i t i o n ,  i n t e l l e c t u a l  regards  con-  cannot  K i e r k e g a a r d ' s  towards  " y e s "  f i n a l  which  paradoxical  and  i m p l i c i t l y ,  endless  in  the.  dua1 i s m . i n v o 1 v i n g  c h a r a c t e r s  d i a l e c t i c "  d i a l e c t i c "  function  in  Faced  is  1  the  at  g e n e r a l i -  e i t h e r  law of  r e a 1 i z a t i o n • o r- d i s c o v e r y .  only a  the  s h o r t ,  does  Murphy s  Mu r p h y ' s  B e c k e t t ' s  " e t e r n a l  a t t i t u d e  -d i a l e c t i c  is  (n  Murphy  least  to  wider  d i a l e c t i c . "  of  absolute  respect  l o g i c .  " y e s or  double  that  always  i d e n t i c a l  The  on  movement  statement  However,  r e s o l v i n g  non-be'ing,  parture  a  me"  at  him  e n t a i l s ,  through  and wider  choice  leads  Endon,  of  of  K i e r k e g a a r d ' s  a  Mr.  a c t  e i t h e r / o r  ness  C e l i a  i t  B e c k e t t ' s  in  no"  con-  Each  movement.  no"  i n v o l v e s ,  a  recon-  " e t e r n a l  " y e s o r  judgment.  " n o t  But  wider  the  however  proceeds  opposite  but  negative  moral  new  dynamic  whole  t o .  e x p l i c i t , , a  " y e s or  a  l o g i c ,  than  through  C e l i a ,  of  more  This  i n i t i a 1  importunate  f r o n t a t i o n  of  proceed  towards  f a r  K i e r k e g a a r d ' s  d i a l e c t i c  a f f i r m a t i v e a  to  of  cannot,  d i a l e c t i c  the  d i a 1ectica11y  dedicated  e x p o s i t i o n .  j u s t  Murphy's'  d i r e c t e d  and  Hege1 i o n  c l o s e  The f i r s t  necessary,  involves  is  language  parts  D i a l e c t i c  excludes  is  is  between  r a t i o n a l i s t ,  of  implies  c o n t r a d i c t o r y  c i l i a t i o n  it  only  e s s e n t i a l l y  reconci1ing  d i a l e c t i c  no")  t a u t o l o g y " ) .  the  the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n  " y e s o r  can occur  B e c k e t t ,  once  The  not  becomes lead is  accepts thing  is  this  v i never an  to  ^ a r r i v e  a b s o l u t e  B e c k e t t ' s t h e i r  that  essence l i g h t  of  is  i t ,  beyond  it  l o g i c  does  not  turns of  l i t t l e  in  b e t t e r  same  that  e x p r e s s ,  no  the  dreary  there  with  a r t i s t i c  e x p r e s s i o n  minimal  a e s t h e t i c Beckett  is  power the  old  in  set  s t a t e m e n t s , the  up.  "Dante b a s i c  the  it  by  to  In  the  of  one  a  Bruno.  d u a l i s t i c  to  yes  or  basis  of  an  art  puny  a b l e ,  g i v i n g  a  be  e x p l o i t s ,  of  B e c k e t t  d e s i r e  of  the  f e a s i b l e ,  i t s  must  there  of  of  doing l i t t l e  advocates  an  " e x -  nothing to  e x p r e s s . "  p l a c e  cannot  form.  e x p r e s s , no  time;  attempt  t a l k s  of  the  that  same  i t ,  being  art  to  ...  i n s u f f i c i e n c y  r e a l i t y  Instead  e x p r e s s ,  take  at  of  t h i n g ,  which  o b l i g a t i o n to  of  nothing  to  o p p o s i t i o n  emphasizes  a b l e ,  road."  a e s t h e t i c  together  a  be  v i s i o n  e x i s t e n c e ,  novel  weary  thing  world  l i m i t e d  plane  the  d i s c o v e r  B e c k e t t  the  d i s c o v e r  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  the  d i s g u s t ,  to  p a r a d o x i c a l  of  the  only  the  the  of  that  B e c k e t t ' s  the  D i a l o g u e s " , on  a  understand  c h o i c e s  s u p p l i e s  it  can  s t r u c t u r e  of  pretending  a  It  examines.  operate  from  along  p r e s s i o n  own  a e s t h e t i c  "Three  about  of  from  the  Internal  i t .  r e s u l t  heroes  of  d i s c o n t i n u o u s  p o s s i b i l i t y  of  what  a  brain  Beckett  But  cannot  i t  the  slowness  s i l e n c e ) .  as  proceeds  the  achieve  o u t s i d e  a r t i s t  of  i t s e l f ?  and  i t s  " n i h i l i s t i c "  f u r t h e r  to  into  a  In  a  but  the  For  escapes  s t r u c t u r e s  no,system  a  binany.  e x i s t  to  for  he 1 p 1 e s s 1 y  thought,  no.  d e s i r e s  quest  must  But  is  continuous  profound  weary  'an~d  things  a l s o  f u n c t i o n i n g  i n t e l l i g e n c e  i n c o r p o r a t e  "but  that  . 1ike  proves  the  a c c e p t s  which  strugg1e  l o g i c .  yes  he  Unnamable's  s e l f  j u s t  by  to  binary  his  of  language  l i m i t e d  go  a  a r i t h m e t i c a l  c l a s s i f i e s  it  of  language,  that  (the  c h a r a c t e r s  nature  binary  of  goal  c h o i c e  binary  anywhere),  e x p r e s s ,  But  must his Viconature  with  be  for at  l e a s t  e a r l i e s t ... of  J o y c e , " a r t :  On t h i s earth that is Purgatory, V i c e and V i r t u e - which you.may take t o mean any p a i r of large c o n t r a r y human f a c t o r s must in turn be p u r g e d down to s p i r i t s of reb e l l i o u s n e s s . Then the dominant c r u s t of the V i c i o u s and'Vi rtuous s e t s , r e s i s t a n c e is p r o v i d e d , the e x p l o s i o n duly takes place and the machine proceeds. 5  which  v i I But  throughout  "absurd" to  a  the  mantled  the  Such  a  purging  the  down,  device  c o n s t r u c t i o n W a t t - K n o t t f u s i o n  attempt n a r r a t o r  does  moving  on. in  I  to  By  a p o r i a  pure  "I  that  back  n o v e l ,  to  he  c a n ' t  him  go  the  as  in  nothingness  of  which  d i a l e c t i c  of  in  Beckett'  The  of  "yes  n a r r a t o r if  of I  come,  a  the  power  t h e r e ,  s  and  to  double  negative  upon  the  there  is in  d e s p a i r  an  B e c k e t t ' s  u l t i m a t e  n e g a t i v e , -  "machine"  from  s t a t e s ,  "W|yat  my  s i t u a t i o n ,  Or  by  a f f i r m a t i o n s  and  or  l a t e r ? "  sooner  "noes"  able  his  to  how  or  w i l l  At  proceed?  i n e v i t a b l y  the  end  of  transcend  "Ockham's the  the  the  be  the  dichotomy,  is  to  The  of  only  sought  f i n d or  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y  forms  a  found  in  v i a b l e  void  e x p o s i t i o n  to  of  b a s i c  the  escape  c h a r a c t e r s  long  purest  which  razor"  p o s s i b i l i t y  B e c k e t t ' s  The  the  s u b - s t r u c t u r e  Tex t s  f o r  No t h ? n g .  s t a t e s ,  9  say,  T h e r e ' s  out  other to  of  get  pass  p e r s i s t s  s t r i k i n g  o p p b s i t e s  the  along.  f i c t i o n  way  Murphy  attainment  t r i l o g y  c o n c o m i t a n t l y .  no"  text  could  t h e r e ' s the  1  the  Unnamable  comparable  or  of  most  of  Despite  in  Mu r p h y ,  "1eap."  v i n d i c a t e d .  o n . "  being  is  Even  and  a p p l i e s  appears  K i e r k e g a a r d ' s  a l l  go  decreases  no"  l i t e r a l  the  u t t e r e d ,  been  be  o u t s e t .  or  swamp  The  goes  of  the  n a r r a t i v e  do  as  not  no"  debacle  themselves  I  he  I ' l l  or  the  " y e s s e s "  B e c k e t t  "yes  i n .  simple?  s t i l l  on,  a l t e r n a t i v e s from  and  the  has  As i n i t i a l  s h a l l  s e l f "  permutations  the  D les .  i n v a l i d a t e d  knows  of  prevent  what  d i s -  machine  d i s s o l u t i o n o f  out  Ma l o n e  is  use  Throughout  by  the  The  the  various  themselves  not  do,  negations  come  Wa t t ° i  scramble  death,  am  in  replaced  the  the  nothingness.  content)  by  "yes  of  and  an  represented  at  prevents  s  now  " t r u e  doomed  subsequent  f i n d  the  o r i g i n a l  and  dua1ism.  to  of  is  i n v o l v i n g  and  when  towards  (form  is  o f t e n  ' Only  the  B e c k e t t  dualism  most  quest  works  e x p l o s i o n  c h o i c e  a e s t h e t i c  s t y l i s t i c  He  The  apart.  w i l l  B e c k e t t  t h i s  machine,  f a l l s  throughout  a  of  nothingness.  - b i c y c l e ,  of  novels  reduction  entropy;  the  the  a  way  somewhere,  words,  s o o n e r ' o r  t h e r e , out,  out the  and  and see  there, rest l a t e r ,  the.way the  to  s k i e s ,  would and get and  v I i T  But  the  see  the  "I"  of  '"eternal  s t a r s t e x t  yes"  is  so  1 ie  1ying1y  many  s i l e n e e o f  l i e s ,  And  wish  to  gone,  k n i f e  in is  head  is  gone,  there  true, n o t - t s  order  to  no t h i n g  of  around  the  c h o i c e  in  be  at  an  these  e c l e c t i c , or  c l o s e d  no"  ..wound,  i t  become  of  the  heart  one  f e e l s  a n y t h i n g ,  s i l e n c e .  t r u e , i t ' s and  w i l l  there  be  true is  "no  al1  conundrum, of  to  t r a c e  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s e x i t "  thought, but  f i e l d  no  only  same  p re ven t s . any t h ?n g  t h e s i s  'complex  the  seeks-  is  one  a e s t h e t i c  a r r i v e  "yes a  t h i s  and  B e c k e t t ' s  n e c e s s a r i l y  no  has  gone,  a n y t h i n g , y e s , i t s  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  that  screaming  y e s ' s  i t  not i t ' s  the  what  a n y t h i n g ,  aim  admits  times  know,  the  someone,  f o l l o w  many  I t ' s  b a s i c  one,  whose  says and  in  so  wonders  a n y t h i n g ," a s k s  The  l a s t  denied, no's  wonders. is  the  13,  i m p o s s i b l e :  ...  the  a g a i n .  art  the the' the  and  the  B e c k e t t  pursues  c o n c l u s i o n s . approach  w i l l  d i s c u s s ions p o s s i b i l i t y l i f e .  To  w i l l of.  c e n t r e  i x  Re f e r e r i c e s 1  Susan  Dell 2  C i t e d  Hudson  Hugh  :  1965), 5  A  i n a t i on 1929),  of  pp.  Barbour,  Becke11, of  and  and  P r e s s ,  5|onesco",  B e c k e t t :  1962)  Dia 1ogues",  C r i t i c a l N . J . :  York:  •  Joyce  "Three  (New  17-18.  " B e c k e t t  Z7.k.  Beacon  C 1 i f f s ,  E s s a y s ,  , i n  ed.  P r e n t i c e - H a 11  The  p.  81.  Samue1 M a r t i n Inc.,  17. B e c k e t t ,  Exagm? n a t i o n P.  ,  F l a u b e r t ,  C o l l e c t i o n  Samuel Our  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  1961)  1958,  (Boston:  (Eng1ewood p.  ,  Thomas  Kenner,  Samuel  Beeke11:  A g a i ns t Inc.  Summer,  Corned i a n s  4 E s s 1 en  Co.  in  Review,  3 S to i c  i n  Sontag,  Pub 1 i s h i n g  Work 12.  i n  " D a n t e . . .  round  h ?s  Progress  Bruno.  V i c o  Fac t i f i cat ion  ( P a r i s :  fo r  Shakespear  ...  J o y c e , "  Incamand  Co.,  Chapter  I The  of  the  Divided  R e l a t i o n s h i p  S e l f of  in  Murphy:  C a r t e s i a n i s m  An  A n a l y s i s  and  S c h i z o p h r e n i a /  I At Leon  Edel  that  the  the  c o n c l u s i o n  s p e c u l a t e s n o v e l i s t  of  about  The  Modern  the  Psychologica1  future  of  the  Novel,  novel.  He  s t a t e s  is  faced now n o t with d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , but with a s e r i o u s threat of d i s s o l u t i o n , the n o v e l i s t has turned away, f r o m t h e fragmenting of experience ... He h a s r e d i s c o v e r e d the picaresque and the comic and •sought o l d forms that wi 1 1 g i v e him as much .of- a grasp as p o s s i b l e on the concrete and the p a l p a b l e . Or he has w r i t t e n p h i l o s p h i c a l n o v e l s : or created a n t i - n o v e l s out of his sense of emptiness and d e s p a i r . Such  a  d e s c r i p t i o n  Murphy  i s  a  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  with  the  This  thematic-  Beckett and  r e l a t i o n s h i p  to  modern  not  of  key  as  merely  with  g i c a l  e x p l o r a t i o n  by  r e f e r r i n g  he  accepts  regard  human  a b s o l u t e  s e l f  W h i l e • B e c k e t t ' s method  a n a l y s i s  is  of  enough,  being.  What  "are  can  major  does  and  Both  a l l o w i n g  a  r a t i o n a l i s m  for  way  the  that  plumb  What the  can  be  they  in  of  makes  a  is  i t  c l e a r  and  the  same  as  mysteries  of  a  fine  the  space.  time  does  of the  of  Beckett  that  djo r  P r o u s t ' s ,  the  s u b t l e  not  penetrate  man's  P r o u s t ' s . c h a r a c t e r s '  w i t h  of formulated  nature  search  be  p s y c h o l o -  t e n t a t i v e l y  o u t s i d e  For  then  d e l i n e a t i o n  consciousness the  kind  e s s e n t i a l  problem  of  raise.must  attempt  only  admires  to  in  the  d i f f e r e n t .  developed  such  11y  s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  allows  Beckett  of  e x i s t  l e v e l s not  Beckett  presented  Proust.  a r t i s t i c  r e a d i c a l l y  m u l t i p l e  deeply  adopt  d e f i n i t i o n  which  in  f a i l s  answer  problem.  and  c l a s s i c a l  f i c t i o n .  Beckett  B e c k e t t ' s  e s s e n t i a  inte11ectua1ism.  Edel  An  e x p l o r a t i o n s .  i n s i g h t ,  between  themes  B e c k e t t ' s  does  P r o u s t ' s  and  his  to  dea1s  r t he rmo r e  barren  which  that  b r i l l i a n  I t f u  c r e a t i o n s ? to  a r t i s t i c  a  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  question  f i c t i o n a l  is  ism.  f i c t i o n a l  C a r t e s i a n i s m  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  asked  his  between  i r r a t i o n a l  appear A  an  B e c k e t t ' s  picaresque  conjunction  make  p r e s e n t a t i o n do  encompasses  1  e s s e n t i a l is  that  Dos t o k e v s k i a n  they  attempt  2 for  the  v u l g a r i t y  own  approach  to  of the  p l a u s i b l e p r o b 1 em  bf  c o n c a t e n a t i o n . " i d e n t i t y  goes  much  But  B e c k e t t ' s  deeper  than  a  P r o u s t i a n  personal  u n b e l i e f  own  approach  such  phrases  "the  Ca r t e s i an ; ho t  a  as  "The  references  simple  "I  return  t h i n k ,  to  would  w i t h  agree  ontology  1 on  as  What  ontology  man  as  -  the  that  "the  is  endeavour  that  u n t i l  an  it  sees  It  is  are  an  of  concern  t h e i r  be  i n d i c a t e  the  e q u a t i o n ,  s t r e s s e d of  is  being,  what  psychology.  Beckett  d i s c o v e r i e s  of  p s y c o a n a 1 y s i s . "  A l l  to  di s c o v e r  p r i n c i p l e s  to  what  genuinely  be a  man  used,  B e c k e t t ' s  h i g h l y  personal  that  or w i t h  motives.  the  mere  second The  By  makes acts  of i s ,  ex-  brand  of  is  the  novel  the  for  his  c r e d i b l e  open.  an  of  a  d e s i r e w i t h  to deranged  c h a r a c t e r s accounts  d e l i n e a t i o n is.  more  not  c o n t r a r y ,  c h a r a c t e r s  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  s i t u a t e d  c l e a r l y  r e f l e c t s  unnecessary  f a n t a s y ,  is  psychology On  what  a n a l y s i s .  s e t t i n g in  r a t i o n a l i t y  escape  Mu r p h y  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in  to  p a r t . o f  behaviour. the  Unnamable  pushing  ab1e  s e q u e n t i a l ' ' and  from  r i c h  is  r e p r e s e n t i n g i t  a r t i s t i c  more  in  By  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  i n t e r e s t  i n s a n i t y  Freed  the  e x p e r i e n c e  B e c k e t t  s c h i z o p h r e n i c  t h e i r  resemble  r e a s o n . "  of  f a s h i o n a b l e  in  i n d i v i d u a l ,  to  cu1 - d e - s a c  B e c k e t t  embody  of  c h a r a c t e r s  a b s u r d i t y ,  psycho 1ogy.  behaviour,  c a l l e d  for  Library.'"^  to  study  f i n a l  must  i n s a n e . a s y l u m ;  a  p s y c h o p a t h i c  beyond  be  "reduced  s i g n i f i c a n t  instance  j u s t i c e  label  B e c k e t t ' s  the  in  a  cou 1d  becomes  l a r g e l y  l a . M e t h o d , "  p s y c h o l o g y . "  of  as  do  If  man  they  he  of  by  course,  should  b a s i s  art  o f  de  of  the  B e c k e t t ' s  A l l  of  am."  S a r t r e  being.  Proust  Guermantes  not,  p r i n c i p l e s  " e x i s t e n t i a l  to  do  f i r s t  p l o r a t i o n  go  the  the  human  in  D?scourse  of  Descartes  psycho 1ogy;which-wM1  the  foreshadowed  are  the  permanence  r a t i o n a 1 i s t •• p s y c h o 1 o g y ,  emphasis man  is  cupboard  to  c o n s t i t u t e s  in  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Proust?an  t h e r e f o r e ,  B e c k e t t ' s  of  the  i ty.  His  These  in  to  of  of the  l e v e l s  p h i l o s o p h i c a l .  I I Of the  most  r e a l i t y .  a l l  B e c k e t t ' s  soundly The  d e t e r m i n i s t i c  f i c t i o n  grounded  opening chain  of  l i n e  in  a  Murphy world  i n d i c a t e s  cause  and  of a  e f f e c t  appears  to  be  i d e n t i f i a b l e world s t i l l  in  which  holds  s o c i a l the true.  "The In  sun  shone,  Murphy  with  and  which  paragraph between Murphy from  Watt  his  the  the  s u n . "  novel  he  f r e e . . . . "  a  The  motion,  of  a  freedom  freedom  once  t h i s  of - Cartes ian ism. through  rocking b e l i e f  the  use  hero's  causal sat  in  w i l l  " c u r t a i n e d  of  l i g h t  of in  i t , the  the  world  not  that  as  he  appear  can  come  out  though  q u a l i f y i n g  Murphy  him  which  off  imagery  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  a l l o w  of  o b j e c t .  is  n o v e l .  c o n f u s i o n " w i l l  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  b e l i e f  out  the  a  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l .  embodied  which  that  the  In  This  Murphy,  world  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p p o s s i b l e . i n i t i a l  as  for. mind  of  set come  r i t u a l  to  c l a u s e  must  fi  escape  of  nd  from  Newtonian  n e g a t i v e l y  the  of  o u t . p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y a 1i ve  a  i n  allows  w a n d e r i n g - t o  D e s c a r t e s , (res  his  s t r a p p i n g  p o s i t i o n  i s " b u t  can  him 1  cog ?tans)  as  m a t e r i a l i t y .  the  realms  of  thought  "Belacqua  b l i s s "  of  the  to  t h i s  and  rocking  naked  carry  home"  which  is  terms  Murphy  not  No  must  in  his  out (p.  be ' f o u n d  of  s o l u t i o n  to  f i n d  only  in  mind,.  himself  world  between  The  to  f o e t a l  the  contingency  is  order  a l l l i f e  for  absolute  search  grotesque  c h a i r .  "Home",  by  problem  of  opening  e s c a p i s m . : At  go  of  "Murphy  bloomi ng•buzz ing and' yet  his  s c e p t i c i s m  c e n t r a l  concept  " b i g  me r e  statement.  towards'a  v i a b l e  the  t h i s  world  the  which the  new."^ r e a l i t y  perceived  e s s e n t i a l l y  towards  Newtonian  Yet  e m p i r i c a 1ily  the  nothing'  m a t e r i a l  p o s s i b i l i t y  Throughout  a t t i t u d e  of  terms.  g a r r e t t  in  p o i n t s ,  the  t h e " p l o t " i s  the  to  the.  o n • t h i s  world  his  c l e a r l y were  and  a  of  i r o n i c  from  come  upon  corner  that  B e c k e t t ' s  p o s i t s  must  doubt  a  a l t e r n a t i v e ,  Beckett  p e r c e i v e r in  emphasizes  no  heroes  throws  s i t s  escape  having  his  4).  in  the  e f f e c t e d  harmonious  extended c h a i r  matter  is  is  Murphy's  d u a l i s m :  For i t was not u n t i l his body was appeased that he c o u l d , come a l i v e i n his mind, as d e s c r i b e d in s e c t i o n s i x . And l i f e in h i s mi nd g a v e him p l e a s u r e , such p l e a s u r e - t h a t - pleasure was not the word. 9(p.2), S e c t i o n  s i x  E x i s t e n c e the  Mind  which  of and  deals  refers  to  D e s c a r t e s '  Corporeal Body with  of  Things  Man")  Murphy's  as  S i x t h  and w e l l  mind.  of as  M e d i t a t i o n ,  the to  Real  ("Of  the  D i s t i n c t i o n  chapter  s i x  of  the  Between novel  Before a l l u s i o n Murphy  to  a  " s i c k  a  in  man  the  The  and  the  to  b l a t a n t l y  One  that  of  or  i n t e l l e c t u a l  his  "between, makes  of  a  the  "a  by  a  c o n s i d e r s  of  cuckoo to  made,  be  dark  n i g h t ' o f  purely  soundly  " a e s t h e t i c "  reasons,  made  highly  Murphy's  i n t e l l e c t u a l to  imply  rocking be  a  ideal  c h a i r  crude on  i nto  imagery  fushion  ( l a t e r  v e r s i o n  the  man  the-  the  " C a r t e s i a n  one  b i c y c l e ,  a  part  encompassing  end.  an It  would has  being  p l a c e ' a t  body  and  mind  in  be-more  "conarium the  a  C e n t a u r . "  c o n s t i t u t e of  shrunk  took  of  of  t h i s  with  At  referred  of  symbol  of  s o l i p s i s m  m a s t u r b a t i o n .  an  it  w o r l d . between While  " M e t h o d i c a l  upon  Murphy  which  enters of  a l l  his  the  world  e t h i c a l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  s u g g e s t i v e  escape  makes  D e s c a r t e s .  devoid  of.  c l o c k " ,  mad  He w o r k e d ' up the c h a i r - to i t s maximum rock r e l a x e d . Slowly the world died down, the where Qu i d ' P r o Qu o w a s c r i e d as'-wares and never waned the same way t w i c e ; in favour l i t t l e , as d e s c r i b e d in s e c t i o n s i x , where love h i m s e l f , (pp.6-7) The  body  however,  truths  e s t a b l i s h e d ,  found  the  a  the  d i s c o v e r ' f u n d a m e n t a l  between  his  c l o c k  of  to  t h i r t y . "  Descartes  that  h i m s e l f  r o c k e r ;  comparison  poorly  it  s u b t l e  and  m a c h i n e •and  for.Murphy  symbolized  more  twenty  e x t e n s i o n ,  between  B e c k e t t  c o u l d ' b e  for  in  and  o r d e r t o  mind  si t t i n g  C a r t e s i a n i s m  Doubt"  of  a  be  subjected  philosophy  is  d i s t i ii c t i o n ' mu s t  Descartes in  is  to  the re  c l o c k . B e c a u s e  world  is  :  s t r i ke  made  machine  v i t a l  brand  the  it  p r i o r  M e d i t a t i o n  d i s t i n g u i s h '  that  c l e a r  clock  poorly of  s o c i a l  f a c t  Murphy's  a  refererice,  Just  S i x t h  view  d i f f i c u l t -  man.  cuckoo  and  m e c h a n i s t i c it  e x p l i c i t  D e s c a r t e s ,  hears  Descartes  t h i s  to  as  and  in  the to  n o t h i n g " , Descartes  sense. c h a i r say the  appears  f a v o u r i t e  The is  w i t h  Kenner  rocker two  only Neary  conarium  b e l i e v e d ' t h e  or  does terms  a  i d e n t i f y  form  imagery  Hugh  the  to  p h y s i c a l .  l a t e r  But  Murphy  w i t h ' a  "machine")  which  , then big world the l i g h t ' of the he could  tends  sexual  phenomenon  a c c u r a t e  p l a c e .  a  B e c k e t t ' s  u n i t :  which  the  mental  C a s s i r e r ' s  to  onanism,  f i r s t  the  passage  1  means that pineal  of seems  The to symbols, has.termed not are to  not an  Murphy's gland  i r i t e r a c t i o n • o f  5 Murphy s'  re 1a t i o n s h i p  1  e x - p r o s t i t u t e , means  of  mind,  and  of  r e c o n c i l i n g  these  the in  h i s  i s t  s i m i l a r  the  leads of  C e l i a ,  that  h i s  c o n f l i c t i n g to  to  accept  h i s  B e c k e t t ' s  required  pope-confessed  D e s c a r t e s ,  to  of  remained  of  Rene  Whoroscope,  in  e i t h e r  himself  Sweden  s t i na bed  and  D e c a r t e s ,  found of  some  body  l i f e  down f a 1 1 .  queen  find  the  the  amazon/Chri  "who had  engaging  f a i l u r e  purely  f i n a l poem  the  claims  p o s i t i o n . w it h ' C h r i s t i na.,  m u r d e r i n g m a t i n a l who  c l e a r  r e l u c t a n c e  'realms/  protagon a  makes - i t  with  ("the  the  r i p p e r " ) ,  t i l l  midday  6 a l l  h i s  l i f e ,  Murphy,  an  attempts nver  be  Ir ish  to  q u i t e  t o  with  Oblomov,  fo r ce f u l l y  him  compass ionate  sympathy  with  (Cartesian Murphy problem  the  of  is  the  h i s  he r o ' s  the  them  a c c o r d i n g  to  in  of  Beckett  mind  body  T h e - e s s e n t i a l b i t  the  which  presents is  syntax  of  way. o f  the neatly the  d e s t r o y i n g to ' her.  amb i g u i t y of  B e c k e t t ' s  The  dilemma  her  her  of  f o r c e t o  and  The  of  one  w a y , a c c o r d i tig  important  perhaps  c h a r a c t e r s !  (1 a y ) . b e t w e e n  this  C e l i a ' s  is  as  b a s i c a l l y  h i s  morning".  catalogue  " c a r t e s i a n "  h i m , and  the  horror  real  view.  p a r a l lei. ism o r  out  i n i t i a l  gives  dualism  p a s s i o n : " ( p . 2 7 ) comes  same  feminine  p o i ii t ' o f  " T h e d i f f e rence  s i t u a t i o n  in  While-Ce1 ia  the  drawn  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  n a r r a t i v e :  gentle  with  endearing  in  The  views  a f t e r  summarized  both,  o ' c l o c k  f in d ' a j ob.  C e l i a  conundrum  from  f i v e  she does,.however,.appear  and  which  f a c e s .  to  at  humanized  physica1'a11ributes , most  her  of  t h e i r  d i a l o g u e : .  "Yes or n o ? " said Murphy. The e t e r n a l tautology " Y e s " , said C e l i a . ' "Now you hate'me." "No", said Murphy. "Look is there a clean s h i r t : " ( p . A l ) The to a  ambiguity both  j o b ;  of  a r i s e s  C e l i a ' s  t h i s  symbolic Murphy once, of  to  each  which  f i r s t  language  t r i e s  to  view other  they  not  dichotomy  Murphy's  a r e  of take  the by  the  fact  statements'.  " N o " , he-does  resolve  from  hate  that  h e r .  is  regarding  rendered.  It the  to  solve By  poles  of  and  does  is  at  a s t r o l o g y .  s u b j e c t i v e  Murphy's  " N o " , he  attempt  both  that  centre the  means  as  But  the  not  h i s  into  of  a s t r o l o g i c a l  get'  to  involves  as  the  C o e 1 i " ,  account  the  refer  novel.  "Thema  worlds  f u n c t i o n s  to  i n a b i l i t y  problem  of  could  want  o f " t h e  perception  o b j e c t i v e  both  the  " n o "  at  f u n c t i o n s symbols  system  is  in j u s t  that, is  a  system,  a l i e n  the  to  the  system's  order,  and  f i n a 1 1y  a s t r o l o g i c a l  not  symbols.  f u n c t i o n  u n i t ;  but  " p h i 1 o s o p h i c a 1 "  i n d i c a t e s Richard  Coe  i t  has  baroque  is  as  a  of  imposition  of  f i n a l  system  of  s t y l i s t i c  w i l l  a n a l y s i s  " s i g n s " ,  e s o t e r i c  always,  that  Because  the  the  a  which  of  bankrupt  pointed  Med i t a t i o n s  seems  to  out  as  the  a l l u s i o n s  device  d e s i r e s  a  e s t a b l i s h  a  for  deeper,  a s t r o l i g i c a l  far in  as  own  system goes.  Beckett  0 c c a s i o n a 1 i s t s . ^  towards  which  b e l i e f  Mu r p h y  " s u f f i c i e n t  point  his  the  that  of of  O c c a s i o n a l i s t s of  as  a b s u r d i t y  r a t i o n a l i s m  i l l o g i c a l i t i e s  In  q u a l i t y  u n i t .  d e f i n i t i o n  the  i t .  novel  mainly  t h e o l o g i c a l  of  the  s t a t i c  simple  involves  symbo1?sm  patent  that  the  B e c k e t t ,  " m e t a p h y s i c a l " The  the  scheme  a  symbolism.  r e j e c t s  Throughout  a s t r o l o g y  more  of  a r b i t r a r i n e s s ,  Murphy  1 i t e r a r y  suggests  pholosophy  the  to  hence  cause"  the  brought  Descartes'  in  The  "abs u rd"  out  the  adopts  ^dp^ct r i n e s  inherent  system:  a substance, to be c o n s e r v e d at every moment it endures, needs the same power and the same a c t i o n which would be n e c e s s a r y to produce g it and c r e a t e it anew i f . i t did not yet e x i s t . A c c o r d i n g  to  Malebranche,  nothing  to  do  happens  in  one  occur of  in  the  events  God's  the  in  no  is  note  a  Ramaswarni in  a s t r o l o g e r  f a l l ,  wantum  cannot The  dilemma  is  "kept could  him  who  makes events  they  Instead  Suk,  to  are  corresponding  in  not  one  only  are the  sysfern  as  of  who  God  astro1oger. Beckett  cast  his  n a t i v i t y . "  r e s u l t s  bound  by  the  a  moral  of  e n t i t y  could  in  in  is  s t a t e s  birthday,  job  causes  o c c a s i o n  It  own  a  the  give  a  pseudo-mystica1  1  his  seek  have  something  Murphy s  s t a r s  events  whenever-anything  are  C a r t e s i a n  to  mental  ones,  Who r o s c o p e ,  Murphy's,  f o r c i n g  Newtonians,  o t h e r ,  framework  that  of  The  The  Descartes  reading  God  Murphy.  metaphysical  that  realm,  a c t i o n s .  there  p h y s i c a l  other.  in  co11 a p s e s  to  w i t h  although  to  the  law  i n t e r e s t i n g  in  the  footnotes  himself The  the  so  that  Suk's  l a t t e r ' s  wo r 1 d  "the  r e v e r i e s ,  of  downthe  quantum  of  v a r y . "  s t r a ightforward c o m p l i c a t e d  by  n a r r a t i v e the  comic  l i n e  a c t i o n s  of  Murphy's  which  occur  7 in  an  involved  Wylie,  s u b - p l o t .  Cooper,  Miss  the  Newtonians.  the  o b j e c t  one  point  meeting  of  t h e i r  point  of  c i r c u m s c r i b i n g of  a  is  the  so  c a l l e d  c l o s e d  f a c t any  that  and  the  were,  ...  of  the  cosmos.  belong  i t  The  " s u c c e s s i v e r e s u l t s  the  meet  a  Murphy  in  f i n a l  a l l o w  another  of  by  d i a l e c t i c . "  If  as  the  t h i s  what  v o i d ;  But,  held and  an  realm  o b j e c t  the  Wylie  that  the  among  Beckett  f o l l o w i n g  Despite in  the  in  be  severed  B e c k e t t ' s  novel  s t r u c t u r e .  a  from is  the the  is  the  thus  e x p l o i t s  Murphy of  of  d i s o c i a t e d  of ex-  c a l l  a  obtained a  out,  determinism of  v o r t i c e s .  in  some  way  body  sets  up  (a  a  v o r t e x ) .  wishes  to  suggest  laws,  in  c o n t r a s t  c o n In  a  p h y s i c a l to  Murphy.  it  t h i s  s p e c u l a t i o n  c l e a r  that  secondary  any  C a r t e s i a n chapters and  the  bodies from  real  in  it  con-  which l o s s .  i t s  very  p l o t  a l t e r n a t e l y  Newtonians. in  i n is  a c t i o n  non-seq u i t u r  without  the  Murphy that  is  bodies  comic  novel  the  c r e a t e s  theory  one  makes  c l e a r l y  Newtonians,  completely  of  of  of  by  is  points  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  whole  g i g a n t i c  Throughout  with  motion,  f a c t ,  mainly  Beckett  The  process  matter  other  r e v e r i e s  s u b - p l o t ,  would  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  of  mind,  p h y s i c a l  d e s i r e  D e s c a r t e s '  and  Murphy's  is- that w h i l e one ings g e t t i n g any not fear t h e i r g e t t a l w a y s be t h e same kS)  mechanical  humour  i r r e l e v a n t .  s t i t u t e s ,  of  the  of  of  whole  displacement  p s e u d o - i n t e l 1 e c t u a 1  world  the  c e s s a t i o n  c y n i c a l l y  motion  motion  passage,  b l i n d l y  a l l  l i k e  K i e r k e g a a r d  "Newtonian"  that  c i r c u l a r  above  deal  i t s  symbol  in  for  not  determined  imply  Descartes  could  up  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  metaphorica11y  to  f i n a l l y  of  s o l i p s i s t " ,  sharply  it  seems  volved  p e r f e c t  set  at  The  centre  is  Yet  t h i s  the  motion, Wylie  i s ,  I n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  world  is  seedy  t r i a n g l e s "  of  Murphy."  a  "the  world  Murphy.  in  is  Neary,  perpetual  t r i a n g l e  The a d v a n t a g e of t h i s view may n o t look forward to th b e t t e r , at l e a s t one need ing any w o r s e . They w i l l as they always were. (p.  the  the  Newtonians  workings  c i r c l e .  tinuous  in  c i r c l e  " e t e r n a l  of  does  are  c i r c u l a r  to  i n e l u c t a b l e  medians  c i r c l e ,  of  it  the  medians  world  d e s i r e .  v i c i o u s  as  the  system.  perience  it  "Our  a l l  c h a r a c t e r s ,  s u b - p l o t .  The a  a r e ,  quest  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c e n t r e  "humour"  Counihan,  They  s t a t e s ,  The  mechanical  Murphy's  world  The  of  t h e mind:  l a t e ,  The Newtonians  u n t i l  he h a s been  Plunged " f e l t. sure,  into  that'  on.the the  be  o n e system  Part  most  h i g h l y  o f  Becke11"s  f i r s t  1 i f e i s He  a  thought  he  have  a  enamoured  Ba 1a c q u a , good  beyond  before  by  i n which  he h a d  f u l f i l 1e d . " ( pp . 7 5 ~  fantasy  and perhaps involves  w a i t i n g  Murphy's'  t h e  f o r  death,  v i s i o n  t h e  of  t h i s  post-mortem  l i v e  there  t o  s i t u a t i o n , i t s ' t o h i s mind,,  be o l d .  dreaming,  i t s z o d i a c s ,  Then  watching  before  that  he  would'  t h e  t h e t o i l  up  (p.75)  w i t h  t h i s  p r o s p e c t ' t h a t , ' h e ,  c h a n d l e r  Murphy  a  he  f a c t  i s  another'  d e s i r e s in  that  s t i l l  extreme  theophanism before  would  extreme o f  such  t o  shorten  p l a c e  it  should  is  fond  be  o f  faced  u n l i k e  Dante's  b i s time  w i t h  i n v o l v e s  a  Murphy  decides,  h i s v i s i o n , ,  a  t o  adherent  o f  o f  t h e d o c t r i n e  from  remembered  that that  type  o f  modern Murphy,  o f  t h e symbolic  b u t  j u s t  how  p o i n t - t o  f e l t  reverence  n o t b u t  part  mercy."  o f  q u i b b l i n g  Cp-81)  may seem  Murphy.  which  i m p o r t a n t l y , i n  B u t  s t u d e n t , Descartes  t h i s  i t s  that  This  h i s phci 1o s o p h ' y  i m a g i n a t i o n  feel  Himself  t h e e x - t h e o 1 o g i c a 1  More  have  i m p l a c a b l e  day C a r t e s i a n /  r e c o n c i l e  t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n .  t h i s  of  B u t  he must  t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n  s c h o l a s t i c  he had t o  mind.  he c o u l d  On t h i s  o f  l a y  (on and o f f ) o f t h e  g r a c e ;  have  a t  Murphy  Cha.mpeaux  may t h e Lord  o f  that  seems  D e s c a r t e s .  as an  W i l l i a m  There  that  landscape  and i n d i c a t e s  t h e s i l e n t  coming  parody  t h e world  t o h i s small  t h e same  o f  into  " t o those'  t h e f i r s t  s a c r i f i c e s  t o u s e when  d o c t r i n e s  Park,  r e f e r e n c e  o f  belonged  s u f f e r i n g , . . .  t o h i s body.  i n d i g e s t  e x p r e s s i o n  which  t o escape  "because  n o r omit'  am a b o u t  o f  undercuts  i m p l i c i t  h i s lunch  a p p e t i t e ,  v i s i o n  Hyde'  t i e d  towards  humble  t h i s  t h e f r o n t i e r s  t h e episode  l u n c h -  was.  been  based  praye r ."  freedom",  much  Murphy  prdphecy,  i n .such, detai 1  l y i n g  " n o godly  Inspired j u s t  time  run through  Murphy  hopes  o f  he might  P a r a d i s e :  i s  t o o  Suk's  c o l l e c t i o n " ,  f o r Godot..  .present  hoped  long  t h e  bodies  t h e theme.of  so h i g h l y  d a y s p r i n g h i l l ' t o  t h e whole  o f  (.p.AO),  h i s own ' l i t t l e  have  i t . i s  body.  a t which  " t h e Balacqua o f  u n t i l  romantic o n e :  were  a c t u a l l y  t o a  t h e heavenly  i n Wa i t i n g h i g h l y  .Murphy  gehenna"  o w n ,would  system,  advantages  out  o f  treatment  a f t e r  s o l e l y  ( t h e time  i1 1ed)  s y s t e m a t i s e d  e l a b o r a t e d  I  fu1f  o u t s i d e  t h i s  l a t e r  be  then  l e a s t ' c o n f i d e n c e , \ h i s  76)  So  reduced  find  t h e " m e r c a n t i 1 e  before'  p rophec ie s wou1d  do.not  more  with  t h e  episode  9 p r i m i t i v e  myth-making  At B e c k e t t ' s  the  he r o e s ,  foreshadows Murphy the  park  or  Murphy  s p e c u l a t e s  absurd  that  if  b i s c u i t , then  he  the  could  the  radiant  e d i b l e  in  hundred  and  twenty  achieve  such  attachment  to  p h y s i c a l  i n h a b i t a n t  of  the  indulge  E u c h a r i s t i c  in  b i s c u i t s ;  he  :  is  mathematics; Dew,  one  that  Murphy  eats  his  the  of  B e c k e t t ' s  zone  (p.  her  dog  Dickens ian  who  is  i l l u s t r a t e s  of  his  in  mind, •"a  the  Murphy  radiant  his  is  not  language  of  entrance Her  true  to his  of  Rosie  request  i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  s t i l l  a b s t r a c t  a  able of,  who,  is  f a i l u r e ,  e a t i n g  the  w i t h  l i f e  to  only  is  (and  s t o n e s ,  permutabi1ity,  he  c r e a t i o n s .  heat  that  due  He  by  to  t o t a l  i s  symbolic  dramatized  which  i n f a t u a t i o n  ,  the  of  sucking  M o 11oy  access  most  scene  Murphy's  prospect  concerning  is  pastime  s p r i n g  98)  Un1ike  to  his  i t s  s o p h i s t r y  f a i l u r e  biiiscuit)  f i r s t  b l i s s f u l  of  Beckett ian•underworld.  This  hold  ways."  a  w i t h • t h e  would  measure  p l e a s u r e s .  denied  In  overcome  " a s s o r t men t  dancing  a  f a v o u r i t e  c a l c u l a t i o n s  him,  however,.to  a  speculation!.  before  a  phase.  i n d u l g e s ' i n  ma t h e m a t i c a 1  M o l l o y ' s  ginger  r e l i g i o u s  d w e 11 i n g  of  the  in  dog's  l i f e . " The that  o n l y  in  influences When who  main  had  by  the  the  to  Chapter a e s t h e t i c of  symbolism  o u t s i d e and  theory  the  the  Murphy  thus  p h y s i c a l  s a t i s f a c t i o n  he  d i s c o v e r s  p h i l a n t h r o p i c c r o p p i n g . "  fact  that  the  mind.  In  motif  next  chapter  and  is  used  to  is  B e c k e t t ' s  o b t a i n e d . the  sheep,  Rosie  Dew,  This  point  is  deals  the  be  of  throughout mark  be  o u t s i d e  that  e f f o r t s  (p.106)  Murphy,  from  to  with  the  B e c k e t t ' s  t r a n s i t i o n  from  s o l i p s i s m . of  Murphy  u n t i l  the  represents  an  of  e n t e r p r i s e  C a r t e s i a n  h e r m e t i c a l l y  i s o l a t i o n  r e v e r i e ,  the  i n t e r l u d e " ' s e e m s  complete  even  premises  a r t i s t i c  w i t h i n  6  even  " p a s t o r a l  and  p a s t o r a l  r e a l i t y  t h i s  his  res i sted  Murphy's  f i c t i o n ,  or  from  ruminating  of  s o c i a l  mental  wakes  r e - e n f o r c e d  of  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  ear 1ier  were"now  zones  the  can  Murphy  point  p i c t u r e s closed  to  Dialogues'.  attempt'  to  f i n d ' a  the  point  of  B e c k e t t ' s  has  devoted  to  an  s o l u t i o n  to  i t s  been the  mind  the  "as  world  a  large  w i t h o u t . "  d i s c u s s i o n  While  d u a l i s m ,  system his  Three  major  of  phdl©§ophy departure  e n t i r e - i n t e l l e c t u a l attempt' own  hollow (p.107)  to  f i n d  problems.  sphere, The  c i r c l e  is  10 an  apt  f i g u r e  Murphy's  for  brand  examining  the  important  to  c r i t i c a l short  inte11ectura1 note  of  seems  James  has  in  with  the  sees that  i t s e l f  i d e a l i s t  t a r ;  (p.108)  to  Immaterialise  Such  Murphy  -a d m i t s  e q u a l l y  real  a  f a c i l e  i d e a l i s m ,  not  a  thus  s o l u t i o n s  the  of  for  to  B e c k e t t ' s  conception do  of  the  not  Neary,  involve  when  the  it  as  a  sleep  of  sheer  "defence t e r r o r . "  B e c k e t t .  premises  Even  mental Both  faced  Newtonians,  saw  the  in  " e x c l u d i n g  "does  and  not,  than  t r i l o g y .  B e c k e t t ,  attempts  t h e o r e t i c a l  goes),  Baudelarian  Descartes'  Murphy's  it  the  (p . 1 0 8 )  to  W i l l j a m  v o i d ,  by  the  of  as  world  rejected fact  from  m i s t a k i n g  the  E a r l i e r ,  p1easant."  u n a c c e p t a b l e . s u p p l i e s  •i s  the  theory  The  p h y s i c a l  e q u a l l y  a  He  is  s c e p t i c i s m  theories  As  closed  bust.  s o l u t i o n  t h e . c l a s s i c  are  the  us  more  w r i t i n g  idea 1 ism.  or  -"the re"was if  of  Berke1ey's  with  and  it  m i n d : " A  what  far  more  this  his  according  c o n t a i n . "  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e  (as  plenum  out,  u  of  is  the  point  a t t r a c t e d  views  not  a  of  B e c k e t t ' s  Murphy's  q u i c k ' t o  mechanism.  two  u n t i l  s e c t i o n ,  r e l i e v e  theory  i t s e l f  both  w i l l  Hence,  Murphy's'  Before  times , . opening  F a l l a c y " ,  is  f u l l  knowledge,  did  as  at  i t s e l f  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  mind  it  in  concerns  this  awareness  about.^  e x p r e s s i o n  his  C a r t e s i a n ;  and  It  f u l l  good  Proust,  concrete  find  (p.58)  an  be  Proustean.  was  by  consciousness  develop.  of  f u r t h e r . "  may  than  the  it  which  judgements  with  for  is  to  and,  s t a t e  " P s y c h o l o g i c a l  it  him  of  conception  the  own  in  this  determined  processes  nothing  Murphy's  c a l l e d  very  Murphy  towards  a p o l o g i z i n g  the  Murphy  leads  i r o n i c ,  i t s e l f . a t  be  conception  " f i r e w o r k s "  B e c k e t t ' s  to  to  d o c t r i n e  f a c t ,  s o l i p s i s t i c  C a r t e s i a n i s m  a t t i t u d e  n e c e s s i t y  a  of  s e c t i o n  here  the  f a c t ,  m a t e r i a l  problem to  of  r e c o n c i l e  for  ism  the  B e c k e t t ' s  " s y m b o l i s m . " Murphy the  question  problem  of  of s e l f  refuses  to  permanence or  accept and  the  change  " A r i s t o t e l i a n " as  it  r e l a t e s  s o l u t i o n to  to  the  mind:  He d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the act not as b e t w e e n form and the form but'as between that of which he p h y s i c a l experience and- t h a t of experience only. Thus the form that of caress v i r t u a l , (p. 108)  ual and v i r t u a l of his min less yearning for form, had both mental and which he had mental of k i c k was a c t u a l ,  11 Ruby  Cohn  pure  I r i s h ,  which of  how  But  but  both  that  pun  what  is  upon  that  a  is  Greek  as  the  does  sees  the  in  Murphy.,  is  "morphe"  seeking  MUrphy  " N i r v a n a "  "name  the  B e c k e t t  Instead'he  a t t a i n i n g  the  Murphy  serve  point  form.  out a  h e w i l l  the  seek of  is  p o i n t s  for  probably  meaning  h i m s e l f  prototype  and  of  n o t ' c r e a t i v e 1 y  zones  which  of  the  his  s e l f  "form" an  i n d i c a t i o n  future  f i c t i o n s . "  o r ' a r t i s t i  minds  is  not  as  devoid  the of.  c a l l y means  a l l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The a t t r a c t i o n of  sel f  "seedy f o r  so 1 i p s i s t "  D e s c a r t e s '  i ndent i ty  even  shows  r a t i o n a l i s t i c  through  the  a_ p r i o r ?  some  n o s t a l g i c  s o l u t i o n  to:  assumption  the  of  problem  God's  ex i s ten ce . Perhaps there was o u t s i n o n - p h y s i c a l kick from Murphy in i t s c o r r e l a t e e x t e n s i o n , the k i c k _i_n_ But where then was the Without.  God  Murphy,  l i k e  behaviour"  or  the  the  his  mind  of  s u p e r n a t u r a l  with  which  to  the  the  world  system  becomes  more  his  own  t o l e r a t e  Between  him  not  in  the  p r i o r  the  a e s t h e t i c  For  it  only y e s / n o  c o n c e p t i o n  elements  arrangement."  of  some  question the  r a t i o n a l , world  process  is  not  asylum  p r e t e r i s t  the  of  s e c t i o n .  with  regard  (p.  round  him  the  less  to  any  other.  there They  was  were  he  correspondence, his  s t a r s ,  he  was  183)  how  does  Murphy  aspects  "zones"  " e x p l o i t "  of  that  his  it  or  theory  is  develop of  p o s s i b l e  " f o r m s : " to  escape  d i a l e c t i c .  more'phenomenological "the  out  to  subordinated  s t a r s  these  due  t h i s  c l o s e d  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  w i t h i n  of  congruence  as  c o l l a p s e s .  b o d i e s . "  sense.  ion' i s  system  "parody  a n t i c i p a t e s  being  his  Suk's system,  important'quest and  and  But  system  i t s  body  out'and  heavenly  but  The-  "an  t h e i r  p a r t i a l  his  6  the  The  the  Chapter  of  could  is  "the of  D e s c a r t e s '  with  d e t e r m i n a t i o n . "  Murphy  The  from  accepts  importance.  in  C a r e s s " ,  0 c c a s i o n a 1 i s t s  (p.110),  of  c e n t r a l  "Supreme  d e s p a c e and time, a non-mental, a l l e t e r n i t y , dimly revealed to d modes of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and ?n te 1 1 e c tu and the k i c k _i_n_ re_. supreme Caress? (p.109)  of  of than  p h y s i c a l  ( p . I l l )  phy s i ca 1  f i a sco  operates  in  It.  became  Mu r p h y .  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  The  a  that  psycho l o g i c a l ,  In  e x p e r i e n c e  (were)  is  sphere,  in  t h i s  howling second  s u c c e s s " ,  zone  is  developed  the  f i r s t  a v a i l a b l e " i n  that  concerns  the  is zone  for  which B e c k e 11'  a  the  a  new whole  p r-i ma r i 1 y  "Bal'aequa  1 2 f a n t a s y " seems area a  that  p r o p h e t i c of  mote  of  in  the  as  heroes  a  they  are  of  no  c o r r e l a t i v e " accept  concept  with  d e s c r i p t i o n search  for  s e a r c h ,  no  f l e a  that  s t i l l not  n e c e s s i t y  of  not  to  Murphy  d i a l e c t i c " , to  be  of  the  the  Here  i n t e l l i g i b l e p o s s i b l e chapter  to 6,  d i s c o v e r s  awareness  for  forms  process  no  s e l f  crumble of  a  love  r e s u l t s  in  C a r t e s i a n i s m  or  that  "without  of  and  love No  if  Murphy he can  breakdown  s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  a  and  c o m i c a l l y  the a  of  refers  goal  seems  negation  absolute any is  it  which  r e a l l y prefaces  amat."  his  place  makes  a  " s u c c e s s i v e  ipsum  d i s c o v e r s  the  (p.217)  hate  l i n e  take  the  Wy1ie  longer  se  used  a p p l i e s  thus  three  or  f l e a ? "  capfture  s e l f .  dark  Spinoza's  quo,  even  is  however,  the  (p.112)  communication  Murphy's  in  there  towards  involve  "mote  meaning  asylum  f l e a  i n v o l v e s ,  p e r t a i n i n g  e s t a b l i s h  inwards  zone  B e c k e t t ' s  Descartes  to  change."  the  to  seems  in  the  "Is  s o l i p s i s t ,  key  i n a b i l i  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  out  avoided.  But  which  key  t h i s  be  s e l f  of  No  to  process. the  it  The  c o s t s  i n t e 1 1 e c t u a 1 i s  the  turns  his  question  to  the  that  " o b j e c t i v e  thought:  set  order  mind.  r e c o n c i l e  route  a  " s e l f - c o n t a i n e d "  a l l  the  find  f u l f i l l  in  at  the  (p.201)  Murphy, but  G o d - l i k e  becoming  "Amor  Endon)  between  To  in  of  phenomenologica1  j u s t  had  l o v e . "  d i s t a n c e .  r e d u c t i v e  reached.  freedom."  (Mr.  the  search a  s e l f ,  macrocosm,  " v e r m i n " ,  This  with  regression  i n t e r i o r  with as  but  Murphy  as  in  upon  issue?  from  but  s u p p l i e s  depends  raised  without  mind  or  B e c k e t t ' s  was  e x i s t e n c e .  the  for  "It  c h i l d ,  i n f i n i t e  type  i d e n t i f i e d  a  i n d i c a t e  dangers world  to  main  l a t e r  element  almost  Neary  dies  adds,  anger  God's  does  seminal  l a s t  than  with  of  P a s c a l i a n  to  at  the  the  the  i n a b i l i t y  however,  f r e e ,  c a t e g o r i e s  f a i l u r e  his  But  take,  idea  found  less  theory  theory  an  Kant's  not  the  the  of  e x p e r i e n t i a l  from  mind  w i l l  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i m s e l f , this  mind,  into  theory  Murphy's  " c o n c r e t e " .  s e l f  t h i s  an  "was  Unlike  journey  t h r e e ,  B e c k e t t ' s  discovered  resemble  unless  Murphy's  the  the  is  Murphy  freedom." yet  Zone  which  Here  Murphy's  zones  his  forms"  not  in  s u p p l i e d .  the  to  Beckett  The  in  of  has  emphasizes  is  l i f e  absolute  involved  value  of  d i s c u s s e d .  t r i l o g y .  Murphy  paradigm.  been  " f l u x in  of  pleasures  only  w h i l e  the  dark  Beckett  to  p r e v i o u s l y  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  B e c k e t t i a n well  has  ideal  with  the  i t .  Murphy s e l f This  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  13 III The p a r a l l e l  movements,  room.  The  l i v e d  above  e f f e c t his  t r a n s i t i o n  f i r s t  Mercy  terms:' that  he  news Seat.  The be  "Descartes  t h i s  s i l e n c e ,  no  1o n g e r  plenum  ,-not  of  second  movement  asylum.'  the  room  The  process  Murphy and  of  as  the  consciousness  the  room  "Balacqua  is  in  ways  reference ,  composed  not  his  possib1y,  p e r p l e x e d l y turned  i n e x p l i c a b l e  to  break  the  t h i s  down.  f a c t  that  on  came  to  be  i n d i c a t e  the  that  was  of  a  a  but  of  The  garret  in  twice  as  f i c t i o n  c o n s c i o u s n e s s . of  C e l i a In  and Endgame  q u i t e  of  Murphy  d i f f e r e n t  but  human  c l e a r l y  thought of  e s s e n t i a l it  of  B e c k e t t ' s  becomes  as  or  the  s p a t i a l  s e l f .  Moreover  c l e a r  that  the  womb. on  a  cupboard" of  for  the  o f f . "  Murphy  the  f i r e  in  T i c k l e p e n n y ,  turned  with  (p.148)  rooms  f a t e ,  s c h i z o p h r e n i c .  half  realm  the  own  v,acuu m  i d e n t i f i e d  world  tap  the  u n i v e r s e .  i n s i s t s  "hot  of  his  he,  pleasures  of  "not  b e n e f i t s from  ( r e p l e t e  c o n t r a c t i o n  for  Murphy  In  the  event  the  negative-  could  above  new  the  boy  the  the  the  c o n s i d e r e d ,  the  Med i t a t i o n s .  are  Since  with  asylum  the  in  1  monad  d i m i n i s h i n g  search  synonymous  for  in  " e x t e n d e d " ,  is  of  Through-out  symbol  man.  the  was  Magdelen  Murphy s  a i r . "  l i t t l e it  old  to  room  quiet  d e p i c t e d  f a n t a s y "  c a u s a l ' e x p e c t a t i o n s  r e a l l y  of  forward  of  s l i g h t s  death'  servants  s i l e n c e  of  evident  rooms  s k u l l  a t . t h e  a  B e c k e t t ' s  f a c i l i t a t e s  Once a  is  the'  the  a  who'  unutterable  s i l e n c e n o t  room  conceived  reduction  see  "the  b o y ' s "  Murphy's  l a r g e . "  the  e x - b u t l e r  but  new  at  of  boy"  C e l i a  boy".(an  The  as  of  c o o r d i n a t e  taken  C e l i a ' s  job  two  t r a u m a t i c  to  "the  ed .  the  not  partakes  room",  "old  a c c r u i n g  " o l d  there  Strang]  a  through  symbolism  that  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  the  and  f e e l s  does  looks  half  t r i l o g y '  symbolic  if  into  d e a l s - w i th  of  He  made  the the  numberless  Watt?)  s u i c i d a l  c h a r a c t e r i z e s  the  the  is  resents  emphasizing  " o l d  with  " l i t t l e  L i k e  is  by  of  obtained  already  in  breath  because  Murphy  has  the  linoleum")  In  ...  of  moves  rocker.  good  were  the  C e l i a  the  he  with  s u i c i d e  C e 1 i a .  C e l i a  Knott  emphasizes  the  s e c t i o n  deal  B e s i d e s •, M u r p h y  death  Mr.  which  upon  ident i f i e d  mysterious  of  asylum  C e l i a . '  that  a c c r u e ,  demise."  and  has  the  with  and  comforts  would  perhaps;  deals  event  s t a r t l i n g  Mental  both  Murphy  t h i s  to  which mad  for  a l l  at  his  normal is  "which  Could  last  room,  Descartes  example,  r a d i a t o r  (p.17*0 has  for  found  he  had  t h i s a  world  14 a  world  and  in  p h y s i c a l  d e c i s i o n in  which  the  to  is  worlds? turn  on  In the  physica 1 wor1d.  longer  c o n s t a n t l y  j u n c t i o n  of  the  For such  there  an  two  complete  other tap  in  in  separation  words,  cannot  "God"  involved  of  the  Tick1epenny s  mental  1  be  t r a n s f e r r e d  Ma 1 e b r a n c h e  e f f e c t i n g  the  1  s  mental  or  maintained  terms  is  no  " m i r a c u l o u s "  con-  realms.  Murphy  ideal  a  the  asylum  affords  the  entrance  to  j u s t  1  world:  ... the impression he r e c e i v e d was of that s e l f immersed i n d i f f e r e n c e to the c o n t i n g e n c i e s of the c o n t i n g e n t w o r l d w h i c h he had c h o s e n for himself as the only f e l i c i t y and a c h i e v e d so se1dom.(p.168) Diagnosed  by  he  l a s t  has  at  loathes  "the  s c i e n t i f i c index  The  D i v i ded  w i t h i n  f o u n d " a  no  with  the  i t s  But  of  that  a l l  c o n t e x t .  Murphy,  i r o n i c a l l y  that  threatened  outer  in  Laing  u n t i l  the  thoughts, the  he  r e a l i t y  a t t i t u d e .  and  o r d e r l y , to  doctor works  c a r r i e s become  one  h i m s e l f .  detached  romantic  r e s u l t  complacent  attempts  a •p a t i-ent  Murphy's  f a c t s  of  a  be 1 i e v e s  R.D.Laing  develop  c o n c l u s i o n : . h e  the  the  with  textbook can  Murphy As  (pp.176-17 7)  c a t e g o r i e s  becoming  B e c k e t t ,  reader  s  them,  contact  dialogue  absurd by  made  b e i n g : "  1  (p,176)  towards  r e j e c t s ' the  e x i s t e n t i a l  d i s t o r t i o n  that  meaningful  to  spasmophi 1e",  b r o t h e r h o o d . "  well  also  p a t i e n t s  the  s c h i z o i d  s c h i z o p h r e n i c  that  b e l i e f  mental Se1f  the  t h i s  t e l l s  "a  t e x t b o o k ' a t t i tude  of  that  accepts  as  conceptua 1ism  the  states  Neary  author,  notions his  c a r e f u l l y  involve  empathy  a  !  with  the  p a t i e n t s . . . . e v e n i f the p a t i e n t s did sometimes feel they sometimes looked, s t i l l no a s p e r s i o n n e c e s s a r i l y c a s t on t h e l i t t l e world where p r e s u p p o s e d ' t h e m , , one and a 1 1 , t o be h a v i n g time. One-had merely to a s c r i b e t h e i r agi t a to any flaw i n t h e i r s e 1 f - s e e l us i o n , but to investment by the h e a l e r s . (p. 180) Mr. of  Endon the  (Greek  most'amiable  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s b e l i e v e s has  to  " w i t h i n " )  he  admit  is  that  type." it  is  i n t i m a t e l y  that  "they  appears, (186)  -h o e v e r ,  What  e s s e n t i a l l y bound  remained  by.a to  a  threatens d u a l i s t i c .  pure one  -as  love  another,  to  as l o w l y ' a s was Murphy a g l o r i o u s t i o n s , not i t s  " s c h i z o p h r e n i c this,  ideal  While Mr. even  Murphy-  E n d o n , h e when  most  '5 profoundly As  a  one  r e s u l t  i s ' no  of  longer  Murphy  in  spi r i t , . ..Mr.  the  "'vicarious  able,  1  becomes  to  come  aware  of  Murphy autology"  a l i v e  the  and  in  gulf  Mr.  with  Endon."(p.  Mr.  h i s m i n d i  which  18k)  Endon,  More'  separates  Murphy  a n d ' mo r e '  him  from  the  inmates. Murphy instead more  of  s  fee 1ihgs  a c t i n g  humble  Murphy's  1  role  as of  " c l o s e d  a  chess  system"  p e r f e c t l y  time'of  s u b m i s s i o n , , o f his  Mr.  " b r o t h e r "  a  Endon's  reaching  for  Endon he  partner.  is  In  the  r e c i p r o c a t e d ,  to  accept  game  of  inadequate  system.  checkmate,  not  forced  completely  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  avowed  is  are  that  Yet  Murphy  the  chess  before  it  is  seems  Mr.  at  the  c l o s e s t  to  goal'.  Murphy began to see n o t h i n g , that c o l o u r l e s s n e s s which is such a rare p o s t n a t a l t r e a t , b e i n g t h e ..absence (to abuse a nice d i s t i n c t i o n ) not of pere i p ire but of pere i p i . His other - senses, a l s o found themselves at peace, an u n e x p e c t e d p l e a s u r e . Not the numb p e a c e of t h e i r own s u s p e n s i o n , but the p o s i t i v e peace that comes when the somethings give way, a simply add up, to the Nothing, then which in the guffaw of the A b d e r i t e naught is more r e a l . ' ( p . 2 4 6 ) Th i s  mys t i c a 1  maintained';  s t a t e ,  the  s i m i l a r  " b i g  to  blooming,  A r s e n e ' s buzzing  in  Wa t 1 ,  cannot  c o n f u s i o n "  be  r e - e s t a b l i s h e s  i t s e l f . As as  a  free  long  as  Murphy  agent,  he  was  h i m s e l f  as  f e e l i n g  his  own  poss ibi1  i ty  of'becoming  other; the  an  very  act  his  to  a  But have  (esse  est  Murphy have  is  his  e a r l i e r  to  f i l i a l l y  'yes/no  It able  The  e x p e r i e n c e  than  at  thing In  has  such  person from  a  in  Hr.  Endon's  his  own  closed  thing of  in  as the  Mr.  Endon's  minimal ly is  s t i l l  become  the  to  of  t h i r d  l i k e  zone he  system." by the  and  d i a l e c t i c a l , more  s u i c i d a l  presence l i v e  the  w o r l d ;  exemp1ified presence  of  f e l t a s  the  reaching  the  a n x i e t y ,  is  of  p e r s o n a l i t y  l e a s t  a  '  of  wi th  world  capable  part  only  thereby  the of  Endon,  e x p e r i e n c i n g  and  terms  h i mseIf  a  of  in  frees  is  Mr..  threatened  Murphy  s i t u a t i o n  p r o p o s i t i o n  a  is  as  v e r i f i e d b y is  One  other  h i m s e l f ,  p e r c l p i ) .  o t h e r " ,  the  he  s c h i z o i d  "the  p o s s i b i l i t y  o n e s e l f .  of'"be ing-  e x i s t e n c e  being.  more  for  Endon,  the  i t s  no  When  Instead  thing  the  Mr.-Endon's  e x p e r i e n c i n g  Mr.  mind;  becomes  must  of  open-to;  drained"away.'  1i fe  s u i c i d a l .  a t t r a c t i o n  of  being  w i t h o u t ' a n y  v i r t u a l l y  of  object  experienced  Murphy "other" t h a t ,  move but  S a r t r e ' s  and  now  the  16 permutations  of  f a i l u r e  to  Sartian  en-soi ,  being  r e c o n c i l e or  image,"horrib1y  And,  lines to  himself  reduced,  " s t i g m a t i s e d  i n a b i l i t y  those  prophetic fathom  of  Mr.  major  f i c t i o n a l  is  not  even  "a  speck  "a  in The  world" to  of  r a i s e  does  mote  only  even to  better  to  music,  Music,  a  p i c t u r e  a 1b a d a , " ( p . 2 5 2 ) l o g i c  a  way  exasperation use  of  "seedy  a  deu s  by  with ex  | o l i p s i s t "  was his  now of  for  him  Endon's  him."  (p.249)  of  his  250)  one  f i r s t  absolute  own  himself  v o i d ,  the  his  the  s t a t e s  the  the  world  C e l i a . the  he  has  f a t a l l y  machin a  the  mind,  to  of  Once  of  B e c k e t t ' s  time.  freedom";  Murphy  he  "whinge"  in  to  C e l i a , down  of do  a l i k e  is  the  only  "big  Murphy c h a i r ,  he  face  the  Mr. is  any  the  music, nocturne,  ladder the  Knott.  with the  to  of  asylum  in  B e c k e t t ' s  i n d i c a t e d Murphy.  other  f a i l s he  f e l t  serenade,  a c t i o n  a l l  to  drawn  to  away  if  off  i n e v i t a b l y  to  the  "planning  come  course  body,  d i s t r a u g h t  back  a t t r a c t e d  device  the  Ticklepenny  Road,  plans  hero's  does  of  to  Mr.  r e s u l t  of  leaving  which  Watt  a  aspect  Brewery  Murphy  Cartesian  as  h a l t i n g l y  seen  However,  in  g o . . . to  breakdown  see  h i m s e 1 f . " (p..  is  of  a l i v e  back  not  his  unseen . "(p.250)  motion.  and  did  sees  in  of  dark  recourse  come  dress  the  hero  d i s t o r t e d "  that  admits  (somewhat.akin  B e c k e t t ' s  and  Murphy  and  emerges  Endon's  Newtonian  begin  s i m i l a r  in  .  last  him  last  Endon  Murphy  at  by  t h r e a t e n i n g themes,  Mr.  Watt's  l a s t  At  Mr.  eyes  Knott,  unseen d e s t r u c t i v e ,  with  obscured,  in  "the The  nothingness.  b e i n g - i n - i t s e 1 f )  cornea, in  and  by  the  The  p u p p e t - l i k e  c h a r a c t e r s . R.D. which  are  Laing  remarkably  "spontaneous  w r i t e s  of  s i m i l a r  "impingement" to  the  of  i l l - s t a r r e d  r e a l i t y Murphy's  in  terms death  by  combustion":  Impingement does not convey, however, the f u l l t e r r o r of the e x p e r i e n c e of the world as l i a b l e at any moment to crash in and o b l i t e r a t e a l l i d e n t i t y as a gas w i l l rush in and o b l i t e r a t e a v a c u u m . The i n d i v i d u a l feels that, l i k e the vacuum, he is empty. But t h i s emptiness is him. Although in o t h e r w a y s he longs for the emptiness t o be f i l l e d , he d r e a d s the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s happening b e c a u s e he h a s come t o f e e l that a l l he c a n be is the awful nothingness of just this very vacuum. Any " c o n t a c t " with r e a l i t y is then in i t s e l f experienced as a dreadful threat because r e a l i t y , as e x p e r i e n c e d from this p o s i t i o n , is n e c e s s a r i l y imp 1 o s i ve a n d thus, as was relatedness in engulfment, in i t s e 1 f a threat to what i d e n t i t y the i n d i v i d u a l is able to suppose himself to have.  17 Murphy's  "cas(e  be  with  dealt  Murphy  history'" in  feared  the  in  an  yet  cannot  remain  a r t i s t  B e c k e t t ' s But  the  of  to  art  that  in  rather  B e c k e t t ' s  c e n t r a l  e x p l o i t  Murphy the  B e c k e t t ' s L a i n g's  aim in  in  The  D ? v i ded  ...  I  the  s c h i z o i d  am  may in  lead mind  only  in  one  other  i z a t i o n .  Quite power,  Many  the  of  t h e i r  Quite ment  c l e a r l y is  " p o r t r a i t  s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  his  can  to  be  bring  out  r e l a t i o n s h i p  because  he  in  to  to  does  not  part  f o l l o w  p s y c h o s i s inherent but  and  through  and in  not  i t  one  to  which  must  bear  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  i n i t i a l  c l e a r l y , and  s c h i z o i d  a u t h e n t i c  c r e a t i v i t y  a  be  are  o r g a n -  v i s i o n s  can  of  achieved  In  r e t r o s p e c t ,  are  other  who  r e l a t i o n s h i p made  to  But  t h e i r s  use  of  are  succeed w i t h  embody  is  not  rein things  the  f i g u r e s  our  13  c r e a t i v e  B e c k e t t ' s  a r t i s t s  the  c r e a t i v e which  s t o r y .  not  and  from  fantasy.  the  the  w r i t e r s  w o r l d ,  present  of  i s o l a t e d  estab 1 i s h i n g in  making  out.  s c h i z o i d  l a t i v e l y  into  d i r e c t i o n s ,  outcome  1i ved  of  s c h i z o p h r e n i a .  concerned  d e t e r i o r a t i o n  freedom, and  d i a l e c t i c .  approximates  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  that  point  S e1f:  p o s i t i o n  the  tenuous  helps  study his  then  p r i m a r i l y  d e s c r i b e  of  the  f a i l u r e  to  the  p s y c h o l o g i s t  of  terms  to  U n l i k e  i n t e n t i o n  Murphy's  case  aspects novel  no  a  v o i d ,  is  through  of  regard  a  he  a  at  caught  the  e i t h e r / o r  study  c l i n i c a l  becomes  the  able  is  of  w i t h  i f  Endon  v o i d ,  t e n e t s .  the  case  part  point  c r e a t i v e  a t t a i n  e s t a b l i s h  of  Mr.  thus  r e a l i t y  there a  with  is  c o n c l u s i o n s  as  f a c t  for  hero.  the  appear  very  terms  Mu r p h y ,  accounted  his  the  o b l i t e r a t i o n  Murphy  not  to  the  the  cannot  f i r s t  (the  of  p h i l o s o p h i c a l is  job  in  can  At  nature  e x t e r n a l  language  a p p l y i n g  Laing  he  Murphy  between  By as  his  heroes  medium  balance  such  to  to  a  encounter  ambiguous  dilemma:  get  r e s u l t  " n e g a t i v e . "  return  f a i t h f u l  symbolic of  and  i n e x t r i c a b l e  he  l a t e r  the  to  would The  s c h i z o p h r e n i a  a b s t r a c t i o n s .  ultimatum  " I " .  however,  " p o s i t i v e "  these  r e a l i t y )  i n t e l l e c t u a l  c o n f i r m s , once  of  C a r t e s i a n  of  C e l i a ' s  "impingement" of  terms  of  present  s t o r y  however,  of  the  a r t i s t  T i c k l e p e n n y ,  the  pot  as  poet,  Jihat J e c k e t j L A n t e r L d s ^ M u r D j r y ^  s o - c a l l e d  a  Murphy  young  in to  in  the  mental  Murphy. appears  man."  His  asylum  does  take  a  derange-  c r e a t i v e  as  B e c k e t t ' s  replacement suggest r o l e .  o  18 But  Murphy  w r i t e " ;  he  d e l i r i u m  f a i l s  to  w r i t e  f a i l s  to  accept  in  several  the  is  not  c r e a t i v i t y  as  of,  If  in  are  his  most  at  uses  the  in  the  remains.  of  having  Theatre f l o o r  o f . a at  Newtonian denied P r o u s t ,  drawn  pub..  of  of  human  ness bri1  view  the  rarest  The  n a r r a t o r  " t h o u " ; Murphy does  not  n o v e l ) , of  word of  the  of  Cartes  placed  language the  the  with  upon  is  the  the  C a r t e s i a n it  treatment, ian  mechanical  b a s i c  or  animal  paradoxes  is  to  be  last  a  of  of  of  of  by  found'  is  as  yet-  of to  C e l i a  human  the  the  for  r e - e n t e r  t o i l e t  the  ia)  is  bowl.  "but  refers  to  In  n e g a t i v e l y , phenomena,  that  is  is of  more the  com-  the  f r a i l e s t  the  tender-  B e c k e t t ' s never  in  w r i t i n g s ,  B e c k e t t ' s  The  pronoun  appears  of  the  e l e g a n t ,  of  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p  D a y s ..  fusion  and  Somehow  s a r d o n i c a l l y  imperfect  " i d e a l  present  nature,  l i g h t  Happy  language  over  r e a c h ' t h e  shafts  v o c a b u l a r y ,  l i n e s  to  l - a n d - t h o u  the  Abbey  excrement"  a c t i v e ,  s u r v i v e .  escapes  surds"  instead  f i t t i n g ,  the  able  through  of  the  to  of  ^  not  able  in  of  comes  out,  Cooper  e x t r a c i rcumferent  The  Is  l a s t  c a r r i e d  "sublunary  a r t i s t  sympathetic  the  the  t o i l e t  v o r t e x "  manages  e x p r e s s i o n  The  piece  f r a i 1t i e s  IT  d i s p o s a l  s c a t t e r e d  had  B e c k e t t ' s  of  the  death  of  e x c e p t i o n  How  and  are-not  down  the  is  a  Murphy  intended  C e l i a  such  in  r i t e s  towards  his  s a t i r e .  q u a l i t y  a e s t h e t i c s .  in  philosophy  t h e •e d d y "  he  with  "matrix  f i n d  While  a r t i s t i c  t h i s - is  i ty  . love,  in  Because (the  for  a t t i t u d e  ".Cartesian  the  p o s s i b l e  the  c r e a t i v e  does.  last'' a n a l y s i s '  h i m s e l f  of  and  again  of  nu M  core  a s s o c i a t e d  appears with  the  o n i o n " ,  wi t  the  described  vi r t u e s ,  1 i a n t  to  l a s t ' w i s h e s  the  the  Beckett  p a s s i o n a t e  of  Murphy,  to  the  the  from  could,  preoccupation  Chomsky  Western  flushed  moment  from  If core  In  Be e k e t t  into  man-  unceremoniously  w o r l d .  s h r i n k i n g  of  example,  Descartes  c o m i c o - i r o n i c  are  access  form  a  alone  language.  remains  the  he  Descartes  answer  of  which  subject  s t r e s s  any  Murphy's  they  Murphy  has  d e s c r i ption  his  for  Noam  For  centre  B e c k e t t ' s the  case. the  as  B e c k e t t ' s  d i s t i n g u i s h ! ng  of  out  M o l l o y ,  language.  poem  "madness  d i f f i c u 1 t  the  Beckett  "one  regarded  emphasizes  c r i t e r i o n ' ' f o r w o r l d .  a  r e a l l y  L i n g u i s t i c s ,  which  that  c r i t i c s - h a v e  C a r t e s i a n i s m this  way  the  only  "thou"', once  to  his  sack  as  form  and  content  p r o t a g o n i s t s ' s learned  important  novel  a g a i n .  have  an  in.  mind  d i c t i o n than  a  of  any  the system  emotional  19  impact'comparable behind  to  w h i l e  to  continue  the  the  Murphy's  Neutonians  t o l e r a n c e ,  l a s t  are  theory  of  many  in  b r i l l i a n t  comic  n o v e l ,  A_t  0 ' B r i e n ' s ' novel  s t a t e s  that  degree  of  manne r ,  his  he  they  f a i l e d  an  is  f i c t i o n .  the  being  of  that  I r i s  Pi e r rot  Two  of  l e f t  the  chain  mind,  of  love,  d i s g u s t " . puts in  -  f o r t h  in  Flann  Birds .  Murphy  O ' B r i e n ' s  The  n a r r a t o r  s a t i s f a c t o r y  novel  reader  regu l a t e - a t  could in •a  mock  should  of be  a  w i l l  Stephen  the  Dedalus  r e q u i r e d ,  l a r g e l y  Beckett  makes  Murphy, of  upon a  point  as  s u c c e s s o r .  the  two  a  of  from of  s t a r t i n g  I r i s  of  terming  Flann  O ' B r i e n ,  that  Hence  i s ,  the  for  each  importance  throughout point  a l l  B e c k e t t ' s  a l l  of  and  Murdoch's  novels in  a  whom  unique of  future  e x p l o r a t i o n  simple Murphy  of  the  i m i t a t i o n .  It  with  the  s i t u a t i o n .  is  a  in  i n t r o d u c t i o n  to  B e c k e t t ' s  s p e c u l a t i o n s .  of  at  An  author  p a r t i c u l a r l y  important of  S a r t r e :  the  most  novel  16  novel  is  s i g n i f i c a n t romance,  a r t i s t i c  Roman t i c  Am i .  concern  useful  n o v e l i s t ,  his  form  sentimental  Murdoch  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  of  is  one  hero,  Beckettean  n o v e l i s t s  I r i s  Oxford,  the  e x p l o r a t i o n  Am i . an  Net,  lodgings. Before he leaves books, Murphy and Pie rrot Mon  with  couples  the  E n g l i s h ,  t y p i c a l l y  phi1osophica1  capable  in  Under  his  his  f i g u r e  Murdoch  philosophy  when 15  parody  of  Like  s p o r a d i c a l l y  h i m s e l f  B e c k e t t ' s  p o i n t t o  the  could  only  e x i s t i n g . p u p p e t .  " a e s t h o - e u g e n i c s " ,  appears  be  authors  c r e a t i n g  puppets.  his  -should  d i s c e r n i n g  s u i t a b l e  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  e x p e l l e d  c o u r s e ,  Mon  which  as  a  creates  finds  him  e x i s t i n g ' l i t e r a t u r e from  b u i l t  serves  a e s t h e t i c  makes  of  find  beginning  returns  not,  and  is  f i c t i o n s .  t r u l y  themselves.  to  He  Donaghue,  B e c k e t t ' s  "endless  E x p a t i a t i n g  theory  name  l a t e r  few  m i s t r e s s  form  a  whose  At  He  to  c h a r a c t e r  B e c k e t t ' s  Jake  the  c h a r a c t e r s  except  develops  Murphy,  the  the  -  "a  limbo  a n t i - n o v e l  c h a r a c t e r s ,  l a t e r  a  c o n v e n t i o n s ,  f i c t i o n a l  of  as  t h e i r  n o v e l i s t i c  of  which  entire'-corpus  draw  Murphy,  Beckett  e x p l o r a t i o n  advanced  Swim  c r e d u l i t y " . .  regarded  his  to  one  C e l i a  adds :  The  In  ways' the  sham  Watt.  nove1'Beckett  resembles  s e l f - e v i d e n t  to  a v e r s i o n ,  the  in  a b o r t i v e  l e f t  i n d i f f e r e n c e ,  The  scene  f i g u r e  and a  former  Rational is  don t,  20 Murdoch I r i s h with  encompasses,  and  e x i s t e n t i a l  p a r a l l e l s language too  European  often  European  Wa t t  been  as  themes  and  in  i n f l u e n c e s of  terms  i n c r e a s i n g the  considered  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p  B e c k e t t  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  B e c k e t t ' s in  j u s t  when both  l a t e r as they  does,  both  t r a d i t i o n s . of  French  with  a c t u a l l y of  a  A n g l o preoccupation  t h e o r i e s  the  w r i t i n g s .  r e p r e s e n t i n g  t r a d i t i o n s  Her  l i n g u i s t i c  i n t e r e s t  the  working The  l a t t e r  movement  i n d i c a t e  a  of have  towards  complex  p h i l o s o p h i z i n g .  2 1  1  Grossett 2  193D  Refe  rences  Leon  Edel ,  and Dunlap,  1964)  Samuel  B e c k e t t ,  I b i d . ,  p.51 ;  , p.62.  3  The Modern ,  Psycholog ica 1  p . 203.  Prous t  (London:  N o v e 1- ( N e w Y o r k :  Chatto  and  Windus,.  p.25.  4 Cited i n R o l l o May, "Dangers i n t h e R e l a t i o n o f E x i s t e n t i a l ism t o Psychotherapy," in Psychoanalys i sand E x i s t e n t i a ];. P h i l o s o p f o y , e d . H e n d r i c k M . R u i t e n b e c k E..P. Dutton and-Co., I n c . , T962) , - p i  (New Y o r k : ' .  Samuel B e c k e t t , Mu r p h y (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , I n c . , p . l .A l l future references a r e from this t e x t . - A l l references t o B e c k e t t ' s w r i t i n g a r e from t h e Grove Press e d i t i o n s unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d . 5  1957),  6 Press 7  Inc.;  8  (New  Samuel  B e c k e t t ,  1955) , p . 1 1 .  Inc. ,  Richard  1 964) , Rene  York:  9 (London:  Poems!  C o e , Samuel  pp.21-34.  Descartes,  T h eB o b b s  in  En gl i s h  Beckett  Me d i t a t i o n s ,  -  Merrill  (New Y o r k :  (New Y o r k :  trans.  Grove  Grove  P r e s s ,  L . J . L a f l e u r  C o . I n c . , I960),  Cited i n I . A . Richards, T h e P h i 1osophy Macmillan a n d C o . L t d . , 1 93 6) , p . 7 9 .  p.105.  of  R h e t o r ic  10 Ruby Cohn, Samuel B e c k e t t : T h e Com i c Gamut. (N e w B r u n s w i c k , N e w J e r s e y : Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962),p.54. 11 The metaphor o f t h e f l e a i s l a t e r used i n But here t h e reactions o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i l l u s t r a t c h a n g i n g a 11 i t u d e towards t h e s e l f and t h e void.' of Hamm'and Clov a r e c l o s e r t o Neary's point o f vi of t h e - o p t i m i s t i c Murphy, whob e l i e v e s t h e search in t h e void i s determinded by love, n o t anger. Clov  (anguished, I  have  A  f l e a !  a  s c r a t c h i n g  himself)  flea.'  Hamm: A r e there  s t i l l  Clov: On me t h e r e ' s o n e . ( s c r a t c h i n g . ) Unless i t s a c r a b l o u s e .  f l e a s ?  :  Endgame. e B e c k e t t ' s The a t t i t u d e s ew than that f o r t h e s e l f  22 H a m m : ( v e r y But  p e r t u r b e d ) :  humanity  again. . Catch him,  might  s t a r t  from  there  a l l  over  1  C  1  ov  I ' l l  go  (Exit  f o r  and  the  get  love  the  of  God!.  powder.  Clov.)  H amm A R.  12 in-  Sani.ty  D .  f l e a !  La i n g ,  and  Ibid.  14  Becket t,  15  Flann  16 Wi n d u s ,  and  I r i s 1954)  The  Madness.  13  MacGibbon  This  -  ,  p.89.  a w f u l !  D-? v ? d e d  (London:  What  Sel f :  An  a  day!  E x I s t e n t i a-1  Penguin  Books ,  -  Birds  1 9 6 0)  Stu.dy  pp . 45 -6 .  •  P r o u s t ,  O ' B r i e n , Kee,  is  .At  p.48 Swi m  1 9 6QT7  Murdoch, , p.14 .  Unde r  p .  Two  -  2 5 ..  the  Ne t  (  London:  (London:.  Chatto  and  23 Chapter  11 The  Breakdown  That  the  sun  of  E m p i r i c a l  w i l l  i n t e l l i g i b l e  a  not  C e r t a i n t y  r i s e  tomorrow  p r o p o s t i o n ,  c o n t r a d i c t i o n ,  than  the  in  and  Watt.  is  no  implies  no  a f f i r m a t i o n  that  less more i t  w i l l  r i s e . Hume,  An_  E nq u i r y  Con ce rn i ng  Human  Understanding  We h a v e here the same c a s e as w i t h the f i r s t thought of C o p e r n i c u s , who, not being able to get on in the e x p l a n a t i o n of the movements of the heavenly b o d i e s , as long as he a s s u m e d that a l l the s t a r s turned round the s p e c t a t o r , t r i e d , whether he c o u l d n o t succeed b e t t e r , by a s s u m i n g the s p e c t a t o r t o be turning around, and the s t a r s t o be a t r e s t . A s i m i l a r experiment may be t r i e d in m e t a p h y s i c , so far as the i n t u i t i o n of object is concerned. Kant,  C r i t i q u e  of  Pure  Reason  I In mind new of  in  Watt  which  forms  becoming, change"  from  the  an of  c h a r a c t e r s  sense  about  nature  ep i s temo 1 og i c a 1  and  Murphy  f i c t i o n a l of  and  I  don't  My  "the  of  the  two  f u t i l i t y  set is  " b i g  bony  Watt  the  to  which  the  seedy  a  shabby to  s o l i p s i s t " . same  But  both  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  e x t e r n a l  and  w o r l d ,  converge.  when by  be  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s  the  l i m i t s  concerned  of  p r i n c i p l e  appears  impotence  systems  fragments  r a t i o n a l i s t i c  novels  and  e x p e r i e n c e  B e c k e t t  a  opposing  r e l a t i o n s h i p  Murphy's  i n t e l l i g i b l e  seedy  with  completely  Murphy  think  impotence  e x p l o r a t i o n  always  been  unuseable  -  w i t h  1  a r t.  any  of  with  a l l  faced  i t s of  of  BothVW.at't.,  with  very  a  nature  is  B e c k e t t ' s the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  ignorance:  l i t t l e  has  or  rednosed"  Murphy,  the  noumenal  and  hate  metaphysical  u n i v e r s e .  impotence  the  The  p l o t s  a l l  Watt  " i n t o  confronted  e x p e r i e n c e  n o n - v e r b a l .  crumble  e x p e r i e n c e .  man's  the  t r a n s r a t i o n a 1,  zone  than  From  of  of  t h i r d  rather  of  f i n a l l y  dilemmas.  i n t e l l e c t i o n ,  or  the  r o t t e n t o o t h e d  a e s t h e t i c the  love  opposite  are  and  e m p i r i c a l  knockkneed  complete  approaches  become  without  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n haggard  Beckett  as  set  has  is  aside  something  been  e x p l o i t e d  that  whole  zone  by  a r t i s t s  as  by  d e f i n i t i o n  of  in  the  being  p a s t . . . that  something uncompatible  2k Watt's  vain  s t r u g g l e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t c l e a r  that  is  a l l  i n t e l l e c t u a l in  the  to  come  or  a r t i s t i c .  e s s e n t i a l l y  sense  terms  there  is  a  a  the  need  for  i n  new  " s e e m s ' s a f e r  fronn  i n f l u e n c e  can  and,  on  Reason  i t  becomes  incapable  becomes the  is  of  a  thus  of  " f i c t i o n " ,  word.  Any  attempt  i m a g i n a t i v e ,  t r e a t e d  in  his  l a s t  b a s i c a l l y  Nature  and  An  Watt  of  general  n ove 1 . w r it.ten  by  a  but;  key  propos  i tions  Con ce rn i ng  f e e l s  that  i n f l u e n c e  in  Kant's  be  an  in  of in  Human  it  This  f a i r l y  d i r e c t l y  streams  ideas  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  e m p i r i c i s m . ' ' ^  major  o t h e r , b y c e n t r a l  r e s e r v a t i o n s .  general  l y ,  way  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  t h i s  two  E n q u i.ry  a  c e r t a i n  to  the  Jacque1ine  . F l e t c h e r  notions  e m p i r i c i s t s .  points  as  across  c a r e e r ,  t r a d i t i o n  upon  hand,  of  B e c k e t t ,  be  D i s c U s s i n g  come  only  in  to  P h i l o s o p h e r s "  not  these  not  debt  expresses  his  s k e p t i c a l  p e r v a s i v e  his  Watt.  he  in  is  of  the  did  late  one  the  complex  i t s  through  him  on  approaches  i n t e l l e c t u a l than  both  o s o p h i c a l terms  to J  meant  to  E n g l i s h ,  t h o u g h t , b e s t Hume's  T r e a t i s e  U n de r s t an d i n g ,  C r i t i q u e  and  novel  pigeon  the  to  of  Pure  It  is  Shandy  is  a  Hume's  in  these Watt  and  w i l l  no  mo r e  of  K a n t ' s  be  no  on it  are  be  a t t a c k  as  upon  Kant  and  at  -dimensions.of  an  s u b s e r v i e n t  seen  went  attempt  a"H u m e a n "  to  or  to  the  attempt  :  up  K a n t i a n "  is  B e c k e t t ' s an  of  opened  " L o c k e a n " n o v e l , t h a t  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  could  thought  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s  t h e - c o m f o r t a b l e  epistomo1ogies  p o s i t i o n  Hume's  i f i c a t i o n  i t s : inf1uence  There  hole.  With  In  the  o 1 d ' p r o b 1 ems. s  oversimp1  p o s i t i o n .  conclus ions!  Kiergegaard  v i s i o n .  with  not  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  T r i s t r a m  works  a r t i s t i c  is  immediate'  r e d u c i n g . B e c k e t t  to  K n o t t ' s  .}  beyond  in  he  on  B e c k e t t ' s  novel  of  forms"  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  This.schema  new  of  i n f l u e n c e  and  a t t r i b u t e  be  draws  Human  or  e x p e r i e n c e sense  Mr.  one.-As  d e c e p t i v e  examination  that  the  s p e c i f i c a l l y .  e x e m p l i f i e d ,  an  q u i t e  -to  emanating  of  " f l u x  p o s i t i v i s m ,  admits  u n t i l  Beckett  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  l o g i c a l  d o c t r i n e  is  l i t e r a r y  " B e c k e t t  farce  B e c k e t t  a e s t h e t i c  a 1 1  C a r t e s i a n  i n f l u e n t i a l  As  and  with  Hoefer's on  an  of  :  F l e t c h e r  towards  " f o r m l e s s n e s s "  e x p e r i e n c e  p h i l o s o p h i c a l to  the  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n ,  While  John  with  say,,  t o t a l p h i l to  metaphysics.  come  25  The  l i m i t a t i o n s ' placed  the  tradi t i o n a l  emphasis  on  concerns  world  of  is  o b j e c t s The  Mr.  pursui ts  man's  of  the  house  Murphy of  of  Watt  r a i s e s  as  the  Jackson  KjrowJ.e.dge  Watt  c i t e s  a  in  The  "Subject  1.1  that  a  woman."  of  Watt's  man  book  dimensions being  a  Watt's  w i l l of  help  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Tn  The  attempts  of  he  e s s e n t i a l l y  -  theory  o f ' k n o w l e d g e :  of  s p a t i otemporal  c e p t i o n ;  Humes'  a c c e p t a b l e  to  elementary  s t u f f  of  any  form  of  that  and ' t i m e ) , we  and  of  a l l  union of  it  there  a  the  c o m p l i c a t i o n the  s e n s a t i o n s )  of  and  of  and  as  the  of  the  the  middle  is  space  c r e a t i o n in  con-  p a r t l y a s ' t h e  occurance From  1  K a n t ' s  i n t u i t i o n  t h i s con(space  that by be  (sense-data of  the  seeing  e s s e n t i a l l y  c a n ' t h e r e  the  e m p i r i c a l  only  w i t h  instead  of  Henry  s e n s a t i o n s  b e l i e v e s  "forms"  t a r g e t s  d e n i e s • t h e  m a y b e j  Henry  resuIt  r  aggregation.!  i t s e l f  Besides  Watt'.  for  turn  d i s a g r e e s  was  n o v e l ,  purely  upon  it  between  a 1lows in  general  Know l e d g e ,  way a  or  Wa t t .  in  between  Nor  of  Jackson  main  of  up  p h i l o s o p h i c a l in  c l e f t  sense  a woman.. p a r c e l , , n , wrapped h a c o r d ,  Henry  t h e o r i e s  as  journey  whether  one'-of.the  but  far  his  B e c k e t t ' s  wrongly  must-be,  space.  matter  on  forward  W a t t ' a l s o  g u l f ,  i s ,  on  knowing  looks  them  He  B e c k e t t ' s  an_d_ S t n e t u r e  w h i c h ,  but  complete  increased  p e r c e p t i o n :  s e n s a t i o n a l i s m  amongst  is  conception between  puts  mind,  conception-.  bridge  a  " r i g h t l y  view,  of  S t r u c t u r e  c a t e g o r i e s  as  of  n o n - s p e c i f i c ,  s e n s o r y ' e x p e r i e n c e  of  out  f u r t h e r  be  find  He  d o c t r i n e  Watt  e m p i r i c a l ' p o i n t c l u s i o n  dilemma.  a  t i t l e  and  to  an  of  knowledge'of  e x p 1 o r a t i o n s '  could  B a s i s  one  gains  comment  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  Sensory  Kantian  of  b r i e f  the  in  i t w a s a man o r at i t was not a r o l l of t a r p a u l i t the middle wit  without  a r t i s t i c of  Wa_tt  sets  B a s i s  d e l i n e a t e  study  Humean  the  face A  to  source  parody  .Sensory  a  B e c k e t t ' s  p o s s i b l e  B e c k e t t ' s  Watt  or  saw  r e j e c t i o n  resu1 ted  man  problem  s i m i l a r - e x a m p l e  image:'  t h i s  him.  T e t t y was not sure whether M r . H a c k e t t was n o t sure th a carpet for example, or a in dark paper and t i e d abou (p.16) Henry  by  and  how  surrounds  d e s c r i p t i o n  K n o t t ' s  In  problem  which  reason  metaphysics  ep i s temo 1 ogy .  major  to  upon  and  such or  that a a g u l f  elementary  time.  These  26  must a t t r l e a r dark sens the hope the the with and t h i s For  B e c k e t t  t h i s  p o s s i b i l i t y away  w i t h  of (as  c o l l a p s e s . apply  to  w o r l d ,  rest upon , i n t e g r a t e , and so sha r e • k i n s h i p w i t h , i b u t e s of the elementary s e n s a t i o n s . A n d w e mu s t n . f r o m these.examples to carry our v i s i o n o v e r ' t h e gulf that must somewhere appear for us (beyond e d a t a ) , to things b e y o n d , • t r y i n g to learn from system of mind how t o think of them w i t h g r e a t e s t ' of t r u t h . Then there w i l l be no g r e a t break in world at a l l . We c a n o n l y s t r i v e to i n t e r p r e t p a r t ' o f it t h a t we a r e not, and do n o t r e a l l y see the inward e y e , .by .the part of it that we are, do so s e e , a n d by w h a t we f i n d streaming through world of our own b e i n g from beyond.^ v i a  a t t a i n i n g is  the  Such the  the  B e c k e t t ' s  a r e a o f  Berkeley  with  knowledge  to  Hume,  less  information  Watt  appears  only  p l e a s u r e  at  f i r s t  s t i m u l i  r i g o r o u s l y  a  e x i s t e n c e ,  o f f e r ,  only  Watt's  hope  of  or  we  genuine Smith  in  s c e p t i c i s m  points  b e l i e f s  are,  independent  K n o t t ' s about  know  out  naive to  in  Watt'  void  or'  it.  to  from  d i s c o v e r  Locke  y i e l d e d  have  to far  hoped  for.  e m p i r i c i s t • w h o s e  name  or  place  a l l  response  t h i s  c l e a r  s u r v i v a l .  i n d i c a t e d sense  about'the  that  longer  shows.that  the  hoped  might  Watt's  house  done  leads  that  to  to  such  sense .external  a t a c t i c s  However,.the  f a i l u r e  to  the  deal  i l l u s t r a t e s of  with  B e c k e t t ' s ' a t t a i n i n g  e i t h e r  knowledge .  from  e x i s t e n c e ,  one  While  makes  ,  But  t h e - p o s s i b i l i t i e s  t h a t " i n  f i r s t ,  able  no  Knott, M  is  break  e x p e r i e n c e  l o g i c a l ' p r o c e s s e s  a n a l y s i s  fact  than  p a t t e r n .  Watt's  metaphysica1  Hume's what  Mr.  s c e p t i c i s m  e m p i r i c a l  being  a l l  s o l u t i o n  The  gu 1f  the  house.  extremely  B e c k e t t for  "dark  sense  s c i e n t i f i c .  i n d e f a t i g a b l e  i r r a t i o n a l i t y "Humean"  an  l o g i c a l  deadening  of  as  him.  e x p e r i e n c e .  world  at  possesses  e m p i r i c i s t s  that  Once  whole  and-Hr.  K n o t t ' s  found the  upon  the  the  the  Watt  hi mseIf  sense  from  w i t h i n  the  in  about  a r i s e s  Mr.  knowledge  then  in  is  Locke,  they  e x p e r i e n c e is  between  by  u n a c c p t a b l e .  B e c k e t t ' s  streaming  symbolized  for  Watt),  e x p l o r a t i o n  Beginning b a s i s  as  c l e a r l y emperical  in  "forms"  " r e a l i t y "  is  any  case  d i s j u n c t i o n  nothingness  a  media  p o s s i b l i t y  o b j e c t s  a  thorough  e x p e r i e n c e  Hume's  and  that  view we  s e c o n d l y ,  would  examination lead  to  of  any  knowledge.  our  two  most  p e r c i e v e that  have  nothing  a can  a  of  most, Kemp  fundamental c o n t i n u i n g come  into  27 e x i s t e n c e  save  continuing through to  t h e i r  machinery  he  is  aware  t h e i r  he  meets  Mr.  As  Hume  into  of  d i a l e c t i c  such  a  connexion,  a  and'  adequate  Watt  Mr. explained'  avoid  him  any  emperical Logic  argues  the  world  as'a  the  human  of  him  whole by  the  towards  formerly  impulse  d i r e c t e d .  Hume,  N a t u r a 1'  than  views  :  of  l a t e r .  i c s *, o r  thought,  towards is  r e s u l t s  b a r r i e r s  B e c k e t t , enqui  Hume's  in  philosopher-  is  terms  the  concerned  r i e s .  In  the  Philor,,  " m y s t i c i s m "  is  In  (derrifrved  to  been  d i f f e r e n t the to  whom  judgment  r e c o n c i l e  stimuli. "the is  mis-  e p i s t e m o l b g i c a l  Dialogues  s i m i l a r  other'  breakdown  external  Hume's  r  developed  very  with  . ~' ye  conceive  traumatic  in  be  M y s t i c i sm.  inabi 1 ity  the  against  But  is  m y s t i c i s m ,  Watt ' s  with  however,  that  two  :  man  a  has  to  r e a l i t y .  attempt  c o n f 1 i c t o f  It  as  the  s a t i s f i e d .  concern  cannot,  for  s t i c k i n g  in  cause  no  -cause  by  Watt's  demand  is  be  Bertrand - Russell  and  which  never  meaning  upon  its  to  there  "whatness"  p r i n c i p l e ,  urging  Cleanthes  can  deeper  of  in  " s u f f i c i e n t "  which  unchecked."  metaphysical  a  since  " s u f f i c i en t "  means  Hume  was  However,  But  unaware  causal  know l e d g e ,  for  union  one  l i k e  predicated  is  is  of  shown  s c i e n c e " ;  Re 1 i g i on ,  " m y s t i c " .  of  e f f i c a c i o u s  s c i e n t i f i c  rather  be  mystic  by  R u s s e l l ' c i t e s  Watt  pursuit'  demand  "me t a p h y s  the  heroes,  e x c e s s i v e  questions  concept  c o n f 1 i e t i n g  his  a  1  be  be  nothing  cause '.  to  would  seek  the  preeistent"  b e l i e f ; i s  what  to  "that  the  things.  u n t i l  is  Hume  the  not  "something".  For  w i l l  that  impulses,  urging these  f i r s t  a  even  a  b e l i e f s  B e c k e t t i a n  i n v e s t i g a t i o n . .  and  from  through  in  does  this  s e l f  is  As  than as  names  (p.21),  a c t i v i t y  appears  b a s i c  giving  r e l a t i o n "  more  the  e x i s t e n c e  the  a l l  Knott,  by  our  By  t h e i r  s u p e r f i c i a l no  Watt  v e r i f i a b l e  that  a l l  of  is  named..  space  asks  For  states  in  for  this  leads  a  save  objects  i n s t i n c t i v e , t e n d s  conception  causation  of  l a t e r  which  s u r f a c e ' ' r e a l i t y .  from  one  the  cause  t r i e s - to  -  "nought"'who  l e a d s u s ,  phenomenon,  of  captured  time  Watt  cause."-'  being  has  such  nothingness.  s u f f i c i e n t  any  and  being  influence  a  e x i s t e n c e  Arsene  just  a  out,  Unlike the  of  that  Knott,  to  he  essence.  pointed  come  e x i s t e n c e  s u s c e p t i b i 1 i t y  d i s c l o s e  can  p r e e x i s t e n t  Wa11"be 1 i e v e s  " f r i g i d  though  a  independent  objects  the  through  Concerning  surrogate, in  part  a to  28 to  B e c k e t t ' s :  of  r a t i o n a l  i t . d e r i v e s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  e m p i r i c a l l y  d e r i v e d ,  that  the  he  mysterious Kant,  more  fundamental cover  d i s c o v e r  of  any  slumbers  of  Hume.  l i m i t a t i o n s  many an  for  the  is  term  a s s e r t i o n  years  e n t i r e l y  A t . t h e  that  the  the  or  God,  meaningless.  of  could  e x i s t e n c e  p a t t e r n  d i r e c t i o n  to  that  t h i s  set  f o r t h  by  Hume,  l i m i t a t i o n s ' of  p a r a d o x i c a l ' s i t u a t i o n noumenally thought  f r e e ,  under This  Beckett  in  once  part  be  c h a i n ,  and  as  of  his of  yet  man  a  as  the  1 ?t e ra ry  r i g i d l y  somehow  my  of  dogmatic  e n q u i r i e s  is  or  his  knowledge of  the  does'not  from  or  a  that  man's  r e a l i t y ,  they  form  reason.  to  noumena,  in  s e n s e - e x p e r i e n c e .  a  to  s p e c u l a t i v e  d i f f i c u l t  phenomena  1 1y  and  at  free  and  The  r e a l i t i e s Un-  enqui ry  as  a p p a r e n t l y  determined, the  that  dogmatic  suprasens i b l e and  by begins  u n t h i n k a b l e away  in  same'  but  time,  a s p e c t s .  e s s e n t i a l l y f i r s t  the  determinded  d i f f e r e n t is  b e , g i v e n  o f f e r s  my  knowledge  veers  noumenal  i n a p p l i c a b l e  Kant  Future  thogught  d e l i m i t a t i o n  example, Kant  a l l  l i m i t s - - o f  the'  Any  Reason ,  the  to' accept  to  a l s o  uncovering  Pure  by- s e t t i n g  wi11 ing  thereby,  C r i t i que' o f  f u n c t i o n  cannot  d i s - :  began  p o s i t i v e  and  to  thus  noumena  not,  the  Kant  are  are  quest  the  i n t e r r u p t e d  there  which  e x p e r i e n c e .  at  and  f i r s t  that  are  of  was - the  b e l i e v e s  c a t e g o r i e s  p l a c i n g  p o s s i b l e  it  c l e a r l y  Kantian  Cleanthes  metaphysical  present  s c i e n t i f i c  of  the  l e a s t  " t h a t  time  While  at  be  or  resembles  Pro legomen a  c l a i m  for  l i m i t a t i o n s  admit  a t t a i n ,  would  new  same  t h e o r e t i c a l Kant  the  p h i l o s o p h y " . 7' iii  of  wouId  the  ago  e m p i r i c i s t s '  e x p e r i e n c e . of  .In  must  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  it  which  admits  know l e d g e , the  an  man  t r u t h s .  f r e e l y  capable  the  b e l o g i c a l l y  hand ,  r a t i o n a l  thought,,  knowledge  one  other  takes  From  s p e c u l a t i v e  with  i n d i c a t e  B e c k e t t ,  Kant  gave  human  bounderies  a  than  which  of  agreeing  he  does  Kant  and  f i e l d  wi th  a  me t a p h y s i c a l '  Hume  study  w i t h i n  the  Met a p h y s i'cs ,  the  Mr.Knott  c e r t a i n  to  David  is  of  can  that  the  reason  l e v e l ,  what  on  his  as  s e r i o u s l y  r e a l i z a t j o n  i n s i s t s  Watt,  b e l i e v e s  a  Beyond'what  Hume  " i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e " . in  from  same  problem  which  study,  P r o u s t'.  How  determined  t r a n s c e n d  it?  can  c h r o n o l o g i c a l In  Watt  so  this  f a s c i n a t e d man  and  at  s p a t i a l  Kantian  29 equation  forms  pragmatic a  hero  noumenal  and'  God  r e a l i t y  is  1  was is  the  to  place  it  of  a l l  e t h i c a l  says,  Needless  for  nothing,  or  stated cosmic is  of  p o s i t  Beckett  the  the  no  " c a t e g o r i c a l It  centre "In  With  to  imagine  Beckett  Kant  (can't)  with  is  of  of  Knott  Kant  taste  a p p r e c i a t i n g  Mr.  being  beginning  Logos  this  an  man's  the  r a t i o n a l i s t  B e c k e t t ;  Mollby,  Hypothetical  universe.  at  The  for  are  ("Kno11") .  Murphy.  joke  easy  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  nought  to  i m m o r t a l i t y ,  things,  there  that  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  f i c t i o n a l  Beckett  which  necessary  For  "Charming  say,  B e c k e t t ' s  f a c t  it  to  upon  freedom,  s t r i p p e d  in  a  punning,  order  found  antinomies.  pun",  simply  Kant  problems  the  1  o n t o l o g i c a l  c e n t r a l  of  imperatives"  a  in  mockingly  imperatives. '  is  the  range  example,  there  of  f l o u n d e r s .  beyond  noumenal for  one  for  the  i r o n i c  . A  double  (not).  negative. With plot  of  with  the  is  the  regard n o v e l ,  e l e m e n t . i n Hume's  the  B e c k e t t ' s  It  s c e p t i c i s m  about 'the  to  between a  complex  ideas  of  i d e n t i t y  w i l l  destroy Watt  seems  be  Mr.  shown  of  and  Knott,  c a u s a t i o n :"'•  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  context  understanding  of  c l o s e l y  of  one.  epistemo1ogica1  view,  There  is  is  key The  w i l l  Beckett  the  in  The  of  a l l o w  a e s t h e t i c s  of  and  to  s i m i l a r in dichotomy  there  occurs  c o n t r a d i c t o r y as  personal  Watt for  the  a  simple  down,  such  d i s c u s s i o n  part,  research  o s t e n s i b l y  questions  Knott  s c e p t i c a l  e x p l o i t s  broken  Mr:  and"personal  machinery.  hopefully  B e c k e t t ' s  a  corresponds,  thus  of  i d e n t i f i e d  while  e p i s t e m o l o g i e a l  l o g i c a l  on  the  most'  point  that  f r u i t s  Kant'  of  a b o u t ' c a u s a t i o n  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and  be  thought'which  Watt's  and  Hume  to  " K a n t i a n "  c o n c l u s i o n s  i d e n t i t y .  order  o u t l i n i n g  phi1osophica1  with  negative  the  Watt  "Humean"  a s s o c i a t e d  to  w i t h i n a  this  more'profound'  novel'.  I I Murphy no  a l t e r n a t i v e  symbo1ica11y the  sun  does  has on  as' i t s the  'opposite; not  r i s e  opening  nothing in as  l i n e ,  new".'-The-  terms  of  e x p e c t e d .  "The  sun  s i t u a t i o n  c a u s e - e f f e c t The  s h o n e , h a v i n g  novel  - in  Watt  i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  opens  with  the  30 scene  o f M j l Hackett  Hackett,  s i t t i n g  i n "the  f a i l i n g - l i g h t " .  w h oh a s h a d " a f a l l  o f f , t h e  ladder"'  d i f i c u l t y Nixon's fate  remembering  mindl  a f t e r  a b i l i t y nature  It  names,  i s c l e a r  he returns  o f names badly  from  which  appear  r e a l i t y .  While  t o an i d e n t i f i a b l e  he  with  embark  upon  d e t a i l s  applli.es  says',  i n this  i m p o s s i b l e ,  that  b u t never  between  does  i s often  t h e "two  Watt  houses"  he  adopts  t h e f o e t a l b1 i s s " .  Watt  M r . K n o t t ' s .  of  being  A t M r . K n o t t ' s ,  i n wmich  Hackett  and  Upon decessor,  o f death  t h e time-space  Mr..  Nixon  h i s a r r i v a l  d e l i v e r s  f a i l u r e  t o find  Aresene  h a d hoped  tedious  years  a  l a s t i n g  enters  coordinates  c l i n g i n g  t o  h i s  by t h e back t o be  open.  t h e t r a n s i t i o n 1"inter1ude. Here  Murphy'.s  hears with  makes t h e  another o f  journey  dimension  t h eworld  o f  apply. Arsene  Watt's  he t e l l s  i n t h e s e r v i c e  t o be " i n t h e midst'.of  spent  o f  Watt  t o h i m i n which  harmony  It i s  i n a d i t c h .  a n d r e b i r t h  a t M r . K n o t t ' s ,  speech  house  b y a "pas tor a  threne  no longer  t h i s  h i s back  f i c t i o n ,  t o rest  Watt  o f  happened  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Themysterious  communication,  t o make  t o have  i n B e c k e t t ' s  p o s i t i on  two  t h e t w ohouses.  howt h e door  stops  afew  experienced  M r . K n o t t ' s  i s e f f e c t e d  t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  to  enters  Watt  Those who  t h e  and t h e house "an  s t i l l  world  o f  c a nbe no  a t having  preferred  i t  only  metaphor  There  between  this  know  K n o t t ' s  with t h e  as M r . Knott.  supposedly,  t h e case  In  journey  reason  d i s c o v e r  t h eway t o K n o t t ' s ,  e x p l i c i t  o f  o f every d a y  conversation  rea1i ty.  r e l u c t a n c e  Watt  On  "Be 1acqua  o f  •journey  (p.26)  i n t h eworld  an e n t i t y  Watt,  ".already  d e s t i n a t i o n . "  Mr.  s o c i a1  house  "absurd"  a r r i v a l  a n dnon s e q u i t u r s ,  instance.  t r a v e l l e r " , .shows 'great,  As  a t M r .  h i m . . Kant's  r e a l i t y .  supersensible  door,  i nt h e  Watt's  h i s unreal  about  between'the  reported  h i s f a i t h  Watt's  u n i f o r m i t y  a b s u r d i t i e s  t o be as mysterious  i r r e l e v a n t  i n M r'.  foreshadows  with  M r . H a c k e t t ' s  refers  Watt  Watt  t h e s c i e n t i f i c  .to be grounded  i s f i l l e d  houses  Mr'. K n o t t ' s  precede  Nixons  watch  with  M r . Hackett  t o s u b s t a n t i a t e  scenes  establishment,  appears  that  and h a s  shaken.  The  empirical,  i s a s s o c i a t e d  M r .  t o t h e p e r i m e t e r . "  o fh i s  o f M r .  himself  pre-  a f t e r (p.41)  Knott. so  many  The  31  "Humean"  sun does  experience which  allows  has a  r i s e  him to  the "quantum  Arsene enjoy  not  of  reached  a  in  the  escape  wantum  sense  from  cannot  noumenal  a  vary."  with  Arsene's  d e t e r m i n i s t i c  r e a l i t y  G o d - l i k e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  that  in  It  m y s t i c a l world  appears  which  he  is  in  that  able  to  c r e a t i o n .  The sensations the premonitions of harmony a r e i r r e f r a g a b l e , or imminent harmony,, when a l l outside him w i l l b e , the f l o w e r s , the flowers that he i s among h i m , . t h e sky the sky that he i s above h i m , the earth trodden the earth t r e a d i n g , and a l l sound his e c h o . ( p . kO). I was in t h e s u n , and t h e wall w a s i ii t h e s u n . I was the sun need I add,.and the wall and the step and the yard, and the time of year, .and the time of d a y , to mention only these, (p.Ml) The  sense  of  "some t h i n g  transcendent  s l i p p e d . "  t h i n g , w h e r e  i t  Arsene enigmatic  unity  Arsene  always  does  i s  plunged  w a s , back  attempts  to  not  l a s t , back  however,.  into  " t h e o l d  a g a i n . "  e x p l a i n  what  happened  with  these  l i n e s :  What was changed was e x i s t e n c e o f f the ladder. Do n o t come down o f f the ladder. I f o r , I haf taken i t away. This I am h a p p y to inform you i s the reversed metamorphosis. The Laurel into Daphney(p.kM) . J a c q u e l i n e with She  Hoefer  Ludwig  attempts'  W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s  quotes  from  My p unde when (He has  h i sT r  r o p o s i t i rstands he has must so climbed  to  e l u c i date  p h i 1 os.op.hy  i t  through  • o f , l o gi c a1  Beckett  duced  v a n a t i o n s  a n a l y s i s whereas is  a  f a i l s the  "ladder  W i t t g e n s t e i n t h e i r  may  ract a tus:  o n s me cli to up  a r e f i n a l mbed speak on i t  own  ladder of  intend  .upon to  e l u c i d a t o r y in t h i s w a y : he who l y r e c o g n ize.s them a s s e n s e l e s s , out them, through them, on them. throw away t h e 1 a d d e r , .. a f t e r h e ) .  this  a l l u s i o n ,  W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s  bring-out.-. which  1ogic"  advises  comparison  p o s i t i v i s m .  He m u s t surmount these p r o p o s i t i o n s , then world r i g h t l y . Whereof one cannot speak, must be s i l e n t . While  a  h i s  independence,  thought  advises  • " o r " ) ,  d e s c i p l e s is  has obviously which  The d i f f i c u l t y  Aresene  ("If,"  he  h i s  to  here  Watt  the  ladder  The  the one i n t r o -  Hoefer's i s  not  d i s c a r d ,  own s y s t e m .  he sees thereof  to  t h a t , , come  down  which f o r  the  sake  of  two ladders  do  32 not  form  e x a c t ' ' p a ra 1 1e l s . The  from  the  most  f a c t  p o s i t i v i s t . for  every  e n t i t y .  Such  that For  name  f a c t s  statements be  r e j e c t e d  there  is  a  must  be  f a c t ,  s i l e n t " .  or  which with  by  p o s i t s  that  "rieces s i ty  the  " l a d d e r  e x i s t e n c e is  not  of  s t r i c t  In  "Copernican  assumption than  the  r e a l i t y meant  that  other can  be  rather  e x p e r i e n c e  the  own  human  s e n s i b i l i t y  be  known  except During  o b j e c t the in  t h i n g - i n - i t s e l f framework  P r o 1 egomen a but  was  that  i n f l u e n c e  "we on  Kant know our  suri",.  c o g n i t i v e  s i n c e  and  p r e d i c a t e s . one  would,in.,  possess ing comprehend  only a  word'  human  imposes  the  period  of  them  of  l o g i c  is  that  the  i t s  determined and'  But  for  a n o t h e r . "  rather  view  that |t  m a t e r i a l the  things  of  s t r u c t u r e cannot  forms. harmony, in  such  the  K a n t ' s a  absurd.  us."9  s u b j e c t -  terminology,  c o n d i t i o n - w i t h In are  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  procures  a^  the  by  that  these  Kant,  i d e a l s .  u l t i m a t e  i m p o s s i b l e ,  the  of  one  the  s t r i c t '  s a i d  of  t h i n g s - i n - t h e m s e 1 v e s  through  s e n s i b i l i t y  and  became,  a ri S ? c h ) .  and  :  i n e f f a b l e He  agreed  our knowledge  mind  c o g n i t i o n ,  Kant  with  imply  ,  K a n t ' s  marks  c o n s i s t s  not  on  medium  here  connected  u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  (Ding  s t a t e s  are  o n e ' o f  as  t h e r e f o r e ,  1  does  such  n e c e s s i t y  follows ,  to  out  r e a l i t y .  d e r i v e  conform  d i s s o l v e d .  of  to  It  the  of  and  p h i l o s b p y  noumenal  Kant  mind  A r s e n e ' s  dichotomy  K a n t ' s  to  through  a  r e v o l u t i o n "  must  forms  of  in  i n s e p a r a b l y  around.  reduced  that  i t s  are  o b j e c t s way  not  of  the  1 d>g i c " ' p o i n t s  uri i v e r s a 1 i t y  and  K a n t ' s  was  thereof  as  which  p r o p e r t i e s . .  monologue  does  of  p o s s i b l e  p r i o r ? ' k n o w ledge shorty  a  e x p e r i e n c e .  and  not  p o s i t i v i s t Watt  "I  speak,  b i t t e r  in  corresponding  t h e i r  s u b j e c t s  cannot  one  s t r u c t u r e s  and  as  l o g i c a l  is  a  A r s e n e ' s  thei r  incons i s t e n c i e s  from  the  p o s i t i v i s t s  logical,  is  derives  speech.  from  i t  there  or  A r s e n e ' s  a  language  o b j e c t s  e x i s t s " ,  1  the  ideal  produces  one  a n a l y s i s  W i t t g e n s t e i r i i a n  of  "emotive' ' val ue.  f a l l  u n i v e r s a l i t y that  composed  H o s t ' o f  s e r i o u s  Hume  thus  l o g i c a l  f a r e w a l l  The most  the  Hoefer's  language  "whereof  c o n s i d e r e d  A r s e n e ' s  the  by  to  a  c o n t r a d i c t i o n - b e t w e e n  " p o e t i c a l " of  not  the  " K n o t t  statements  be  is  in  are  as  would  are  Arsene  i d e a 1 " 1a n g u a g e  s i n c e  They  o b j e c t i o n  W i t t g e n s t e i n  proper The  f a c t s ,  obvious  By  the unknowable  which  t h e i r  t a l k i n g  in  33  t h i s  way  Kant  applying  the  o b v i o u s l y  lays  p r i n c i p l e  of  h e h i m s e l f l a y s d o w n . only  to-  phenomenon''.  This  ph M - o s o p h y . • c o r r e s p o n d s , " l a d d e r  of  m y s t i c a l  l o g i c " ,  in  S a r t r e  the  realm  of  the  step  the  a  and  the  his  of  h i m s e l f "  from  the  attempt  i t  with  to  as  by  is  a  type  a  because  of  that  which  in  K a n t ' s  A r s e n e ' s  s t a t e  of  and  f o r - i t s e 1 f  it  c o n s t a n t l y  and  a  And y when cease ch.ips puke then  is  the  by.  of  the a  negative  that  of  i s ,  d i a l e c t i c  be  of  a  Arsene d e s i r e  the  Beckett  l i e s - c o i l e d  ,  non-  l a t e r  " i n  'to  p i c t u r e d  s t a t e  w i l l  en - so i .  is  beyong  The  to  have  l o g i c "  e x p e r i e n c e go  w i t h i n  could  " l a d d e r  to  Beckett  noumenal  Arsene  t h e U n n a m a b l e  view  of the  man's  basica11y is  for  the  midst  :  would  in  the  o f . i t .  of  heart  God,  Arsene being  f a c t i c i t y  et it is u you- c e a s e to want, down your down y o u r the puked  being the  the  it  one  is the  the  cause.  to  fuse  the  Watt's  is  as  nonoverflows  two  d e s i r e Man,  plenum two..'  the  of  and  u n i tie t h e  both  with  conceived  phenomenon  nothingness of  be  s e l f c o n t a i n e d  managed  and  to  i n t r i n s i c a l l y  b e i n g - i n - i t s e l f  des i re • to  i m p o s s i b l e .  be  d e s i r e s  being;  The  of  e x i s t e n c e . a s  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  being  des i re  to  moment  s t a t e  nauseated  is  has  s t r i v e s  For f a l l e n  man being  caused  of.  S a r t r i a n "  Sartre  b e i n g ;  of  the  Both  is  worm."  conscious  fulness  of  e x p l a n a t i o n .  Worm,  e x p e r i e n c e  o n t o l o g y " .  "nothingness  a d e s i r e  is  a  1  A r s e n e ' s  i t s  that  b e i n g ;  the  him  of  a p p l i c a b l e  in  A r s e n e s  necessary  B e i n g - f o r - i t s e 1 f  knowledge  with  means  for  of  being  a l l o w s  rung  not  become  Sartre  i n - i t s e l f .  a  l i m i t s  is  flaw  e x p e r i e n c e .  While  ontology  Beckett  the  cause  the  concept  l a s t  s t a t e  one,  being®like  lack  Kantian  i s s i m i l a r t o  in  absurd  to  "phenomenologica1  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  m y s t i c a l  agree  the  charge  i n c o n s i s t e n c y  part,  p a r a l l e l  nothingness.  d e s c r i b e s  a  s  treat  supernatural  of  !  transcendent  being as  useful  S a r t r e  and  made  the  transcendence. Another  found  of  f l a g r a n t  b r i e f l y  to  beyond  category  in  which  open  c a u s a l i t y  The  '  himself  in  into of e f f e c t ji  of Back  being. in  predecessor  being:  seless not to seek, not to w a n t , f o r to seek y o u ' s t a r t to f i n d , and when youthen l i f e b e g i n s . to. ram h e r f i s t and g u l l e t u n t i l you. p u k e , 'and. then - you g u l l e t u n t i l you puke the puke, and puke u n t i l you begin to l i k e i t . (p.kk)  34  Beckett  conceives  continually itself.  "transcends"  No m e a n i n g f u l  between of  the  self  "obscene of  were  things  two other  disgust  was  The the  fact  Watt is Mr.  Knott,  an  awareness  response, if  the  the  that  Watt  expect.any is  Knott  existence" He  is  the  Knowing Watt  (p.50) "other"  that  c l i ngs  shown  in  the  his  his  to  as  last  does  rise:  Such  to  such  not  the  wish  conversely, together from  Arsene s 1  there  earth,  from Mr.  which  and  horsical"  on as  the  fate  with  to  Watt  to  the  can  be  everything  It  is  of  his  it  who, "the is  was  tabulations of  the his  senseless Mr.  of  Knott,  being.  superior  inconceivable.  verified of  pre-  like  unwitnessed  "masturbating  one  consciousness  be  ladder.  only  that  existence  by  Arsene's  - whatnot.  master,  one  the  imputes  nothing  perimeter  part  determined  become  leads  Endon,  the  is  life  to  discovered  to. the of  Watt  a judgment  existence'cannot  Watt  fee1ing  "If  attempt  "what?"  abso 1ute,  lines  Watt.  desire  [person"',or  without  "hobby  inoffensive  sun  "third  fulfill  Roquentin's  o n e was  self-contained  desparately  The mild,  the  any  learned  recognition  Mr.  to  which  be e s t a b 1 i s h e d  of  advice  The.latter  a perfectly  being  approximates  really  that  placed  possesses  of  attempt  can  those  question  has  Murphy.  as  not  Or,  are  its  loathed,  a n t i '-self.  that  lack  (p.36)  He  " n o t h i ng"..  decessor, to  perhaps,  two w o r d s  possible  does  a  nature.  Arsene's  failure.  his  in  Nausea  well  Watt  of  Watt  realizes, to  as  in  sky."  irony  as  relationship  external  that  the  that  doomed  and  itself  superfluity"  feelings the  a consciousness  witness. by  Mr.  Knott,  empirical  of  fact  as  events.  novel snout",  picture  the  waiting  for  .  B u t t h a t w o u l d c o m e , W a t t knew t h a t w o u l d c o m e , w i t h pa t i en c e i t w o u 1 d c o m e , l i t t l e by l i t t l e w h e t h e r he l i k e d i t o r n o t , o v e r the y a r d w a l l , and t h r o u g h the w i n d o w , f i r s t t h e g r e y , t h e n the b r i g h t e r c o l o u r s one by o n e , u n t i l g e t t i n g on to- n i ne a . m . a l 1 ' t h e g o l d and w h i t e and b l u e w o u l d f i l l t h e k i t c h e n , a l l t h e u n • s o i ' l - e d l i g h t o f t h e new d a y a t l a s t , t h e d a y w i t h o u t precedent, (p.84) It  is  truly  a day  he w a i t s  forever  course.  The  wi t h o u t things  "Humean"  precedent  will  no  sun w i l l  for  longer not  Watt follow  rise.  No  learns their longer  that  though  expected do  the  35 normal man of  d e t e r m i n i s t i c  whob e l i e v e s i n t e r n a l  has  with  t h e sunw i l l  c o n t i n u i t y  t h e normal  able"  human  being.  d i f f e r e n t  be 1 i e v e s  going  on  i n  that  Becke.tt  something  The  i s some  s o r t  c a l l e d  (Mr. K n o t t ) ,  and customs,  poses  that  good.  " h i m s e l f " ,  a n d i s considered  e l s e ,  h a b i t s  hold  there  t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e ,  Someone  mental  r e l a t i o n s  r i s e ,  s e t o f • b e l i e f s *  " u n r e a s o n a b l e " . two  c a u s e - e f f e c t  " r e a s o n -  o p e r a t i n g  i s "abnormal" and  t h e q ue s t i on :  a c t u a l l y  a  wh i c h  corresponds  o f t h e  t o what  i s  t h e world?  Ill During Watt  h i s e a r l y  waspuzzled  Although  Watt  t o ponder  thumb,  could  (p.121) beginning we  o f  seen  thus  have  argues What  that  happens  "For  o f  pushed?  i s that  t h i s  being " " c o n s t a n t l y  c o n j o i n e d . "  takes  p l a c e  o f  t h e e x p e r i e n c e  Watt's i t  d i s c o v e r y  wasb r o k e n . " This  can of  never the.  b e l i e f the  b e l i e f  example  d i s c o v e r  rather meaning  a l s o  from  i n  o f  i s  upon  i s  o f  that  although  idea  i s  Hume  determined.  i s  o ftwo  . i n f e r e n c e  a n d does  n o t  reside  i m p l i c i t  i n E r s k i n e ' s  " cus torn"  t h e case  Hume's  or  o f  i n  room,  b u t  lose  Watt  c o n t e n t i o n  t h a t we  whether  t h e p r i n c i p l e  A c c o r d i n g  t o Hume t h e  i s true.  nature  " hab i t "  house that  true.  nature  i s due only  man h a s . t h e i r  A c c o r d i n g  Even  sense  i s no longer  o f  t o  a t a  p o t , f o r  t o a  t h e commonest i d e n t i t y ,  able  i t was i n vain  e x a m p l e , ' o r . - t h i n k i n g pots, that  o f oneo f  Watt  s a i d ,  .  Hume  t o  o r ,  impose  them.  o n e o f M r . K n o t t ' s  pots,  i t  The causal  b e l l  supports  t h e u n i f o r m i t y  Looking at  toe?....  t h e experience?  p r o p o s i t i o n  wasa  nature  i n M r . K n o t t ' s i t  A  a tt h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  o u r e x p e r i e n c e  t h e u n i f o r m i t y  p s y c h o l o g i ca-1 o b j e c t s  "there  o r a  (p.128)  u n i f o r m i t y i n  This  f i n g e r ,  poses  why i s  t h e p e r c e i v e r  i t s e l f . that  Hume  immediately  we a r e s i m p l y . a w a r e  items'  in  b u t a  he  i m m e d i a t e 1y o f a n  i n e x p e r i e n c e  i n t h e mind  t h e night.  By a nose?  t o produce  i s n o t by reason  during  by what  we t h i n k  a t M r ; K n o t t ' s ,  i n t h e house,  c a u s a t i o n :  wasnecessary  i t  b e l l  b e l l  t h e question  h i s a n a l y s i s  we t h i n k  s e r v i c e  o f a  been  r a i s e s  do n o t s e e t h e c a u s e ,  which  a  t h e cause.  t h e b e l l  Watt  o f  by t h e r i n g i n g  has never  begins  period  M r .  o f  a  p o t ,  K n o t t ' s  p o t , p o t . (p.82)  36 Watt's on  mental  speech  d i s o r d e r  disorders-  p a t h o l o g i c a l  the  and  a  becomes  Nausea  where  (and He  as  hence,  s t a r e s  rather refuses  a  q u i x o t i c  end  only  in  in  to  the  gap-  a  on  -  to  purge  reducing  i t  to  a  as  of  the  a  that  of  the  "  I  word  murmur  s e r i e s  of  of  mysticism  of  "Whereof  is.  one  j u s t  cannot  1  language  r e a l l y Its  on  a  speak  l i p s ,  can  n o i s e s .  e r , heard cry. But Tweet! to make a str f plop plo  corner  thereof  it  nominalism,  a b s t r a c t i o n  the  are.  s e a t ' ,  my  meaningless  around  of  S a r t r e " s  r a d i c a l  heard Mr. Knott e i t h to day, or laugh, or heard him say Tweet! and o n c e he h e a r d him PLOPF P l o p f Plopf plop  o r " a b s u r d i t y "  in  they  remains  language  of meaning  between  as  Watt's  i t s  t h i s  metaphysical  e x i s t s  things  of  a l i e n a t i o n  expressed  climax  experts  r e s u l t  f e e l i n g  r s  M y s t i c i s m  a  loses  t h i n g . " ' P  attempt  Watt  and  glimpse  it  and  But  A  u n t i l  s t r e e t c a r :  the  Watt had n e v e speak, that i he t h o u g h t he l i t t l e b i r d , n o i s e , PLOPF ( p . 1 4 7 )  by  v i v i d l y  moves  e x o r c i sm.  s e t t l e  his  a l s o  i t s e l f )  seat  p s y c h i a t r i s t s  a p h a s i a " .  "pot" This  is  r e a l i z e s  an  to  word  Roquentin  at  to  obtained  sound.  thought  l i k e  is  r e a l i t y  he  known  "semantic  common  mere  from  d i s t r e s s  as  c o n d i t i o n  overworking  language  is  him once a ange, p i .  -  one  the  must  be  can  be  s i l e n t . " The named, can  but  only  them. by  He  named  says  in  they  primi t i v e ,  of  or  that  are  pointed a  "name  d e f i n i t i o n :  themselves  Beckett  elements  because  be  means  names  simple  comes  have  remarkably  loses  his  p r i m i t i v e  before  Mr.  Knott.  transmogrify i n t e n s i t y , must  a  he  rema i n  pot is  a  did  of not  a  is  a  a b i l i t y  no  to  a  p o s s i b l e any  to  Quixote  are.  to  f u r t h e r These  In  P roust,  p r i m i t i v i s m . "  things  he  " i m a g i n a t i o n who  define  W i t t g e n s t e i n .  name  helmet.  Panzaic  they  s i g n . ' " ' '  s o c i e t y ' s  whose  k n i g h t ' s  dedicated  j u s t  barbarous  Watt,  one",  has  the  With  r e a l i t y  has power  the in  is  to  same  which  pot  pot.  Furthermore, that  of  into  p r i m i t i v e  to  elements  d i s s e c t e d  repeating  Watt  l i v e l y  be  not  c l o s e  Once  a  a  is  they  is  been  It  world  b a s i c  meaning,  Name  never  example  is  "The  h e l p l e s s  an  to. cannot  it  no  W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s  Watt  himself  too  seem  f a l s e  as  he  makes  could as  if  no he  "the  d i s t r e s s i n g  longer had  a f f i r m  affirmed  d i s c o v e r y  anything it  of  a  that  stone". (p.82)  37 The of  f r a g i l i t y meaning,  r e s u l t  o f  o f  in  i s easy  p o s i t i o n of  :  the  o f  which  Watt  into  t o meaning."''  i d e n t i t y c a l l  l o g i c a l  Watt'  i s  Hume  found  i t  i s  " t h i s  As a  as well  as  threatened,  a man."  (p.83)  p o s i t i v i s m  " a sf o r Once t h e  i s s t r i p p e d  i n an analogous himself  p u r s u i t  (p.75)  f o r an " i n s i d e "  very  no longer  covering  that  quest  Watt's  t o s e e that  t o  forces  i n d i f f e r e n c e  he c o u l d  pseudo-modern  meaning  f r u i 11 e s s  meaning,  h i m s e l f . . .  it  t h i s  th i s  " o u t s i d e "  outer  away,,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  in at  t h e end o f  Book  I  Treat ise. W h e r e am I o r w h a t ? From what c a u s e s d o I d e r i v e my e x i s t e n c e , and t o what c o n d i t i o n sha 11 I return. What beings surround me? a n d o n whom h a v e I any i n f l u e n c e , or who have any i n f l u e n c e on me? I am c o n f o u n d e d with a l l these q u e s t i o n s , and b e g i n ' t o fancy myself in t h e most deplorable c o n d i t i o n imagineable, i n v i r o n ' d with the deepest darkness, and u t t e r l y d e p r i v ' d o f t h e u s eo f every member and f a c u l t y . 13 For'Watt,  o r ' c o l l e c t i o n with  an  as a  cou'd be  o f d i f f e r e n t  i n c o n c e i v a b l e  movement." s e l f  a s f o r Hume,  This  p e r c e p t i o n s ,  r a p i d i t y  e x i s t e n t i a l  s t a b l e , idea  be d e r i v ' d ? "  derived  from  M r . Knott.  f l u x ,  As it  Watt  i n c r e a s i n g l y  begin Hoefer  points  senses. also  c l o s e d ' h i s  e x o r c i s e r  o f  dependent  upon  events  occurs  i n  only  1  case  bundle  each  other  flux and  denial  o f t h e  'impression  could  p o s s i b l y  to Watt  t o be in  twice. t o  "meaning"  i n t e l l e c t i o n "  and plugged  i t  on t h e o t h e r  t o note,  a  what  in h i s approach  t o formulate  thing  from  appea rs  t h e same  M r . Knott,  r e a l i t y ,  when  hand,  h i s ears  h i s senses as J a c q u e l i n e  by c l o s i n g  h o w e v e r , . i s  o f fh i s  that  i n order  he f i n  Descartes  n o t t o be  senses. Michel Foucault i n Madness and C i v i l i z a that " t h eC a r t e s i a n f o r m u l a o f doubt i s a great  madness."  • ' W a t t ' s  t h e p r o p o s i t i o n  only which  recourse  i s  ostensib1y  t h e episode  n a r r a t o r , . e v e n "but  i m p i r i c i s t  eyes,  decei ved by his t i on a p t l y adds  upon  i s an  The important  His  B u t Knott  o u t ; "promotes  1k  b u t a  succeed  " F o rfrom  In W a t t ' s  looking  t o d e t e r i o r a t e ;  which  derives  e n t i t y . ^  never  d i f f i c u l t  i s "nothing  and a r e i n a perpetual  anguish  c o n t i n u i n g  t h i s  perpetual  t h e s e l f  with  suggests  "I  t o  impose  have  o f  s e e a n d name, meaning;  no meaning.  t h e piano  that  an uninte11igib1e  d e f i n i t i o n  perhaps  tuners,  o f  i s ,  however,  t h e r e f o r e ' I a m . " o r  a t  least  An example t h e G a l l s .  t h e C a l l s  s u c c e s s i o n  s e l f ,  never  changes,  d e s i g n ,  o f  this  Sam,.the  e x i s t e d ,  from  which  Watt  38 e x t r a c t e d appears scene  the G a l l s  that. Watt,  w i t h t h e  c a t e g o r i e s . t u a l i z e d  episode  J : E.  from  i l l u s i o n . "  Austin  B e r k e l e y ,'-Hume  d i r e c t  idea  philosophy  problems  Mr.  -  out  that  our only  theory  the inherent K n o t t ' s  in what  philosophy  would  i t  i s  o f  o f  obvious  n o t help  Kant  "argument  a  dualism.  a r e -  from  i l l u s i o n "  e m p i r i c a l  fact  i s  knowledge  from  any  t o  c a l l s  any proof seen  i t s  l o g i c a l  t h e  scandal  o f the  then  t h e Galls  c l a s s i c a l  that  Watt's  r e s u l t  from  e m p i r i c i s m .  that.Austin's  t o e x p l a i n  problem,  involves  Pushed  c a n be  and with  evidence.  two categories  provide It  the  o f ' L o c k e ,  The "argument  r e s u l t s  pots  t h e  t h e view  these  i t s e l f .  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  house  ca1 I s  knowledge  to  - into  empi M e a l  we d o n o t d e r i v e  inabi1ity  It  use of t h e  perception  object  K n t t ' s  impression  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  1?a  in  o b j e c t s .  (p.79)  inte11ectual1y • concep-  larger  t h e a c t of  o f . t h e  M r .  " K a n t i a n "  much  the e x t e r n a l ' w o r l d .  with  a  terminology  that  the  f l e e t i n g  corroborating  a  s e n s e - d a t a ;  c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s  of  in  a  and Sensib?  He p o i n t s  perception  r e a l i t y  Sense  and external  dependent'upon  of  in  and Kant,  " i m p r e s s i o n s " the  of  s e l f - d e f e n c e . "  the G a l l s ,  raise's  d i f f e r e n c e s  s t r e s s e s  means  but w i t h o u t ' t h e  what  of  by  He h a s t h o u g h t  This  in  has-'tranformed  G a l l s  them,  Despite  and the-piano  some  Within  "ordinary  language"  t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y  events  t h a t t r a n s p i r e . But mysteries It  i s  w r i t t e n for  Watt's  of  Mr.  main K n o t t ' s  the symbolic very  further  house  language  p e r c e p t i v e l y  o f on  i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  view.  Discussing  ingly  inexp1icab1e  phenomenon)  weapon  is  Watt's by  me r e 1 y  i t  f o r i s  not-ordinary  t h i s w i l l  in  be u s e f u l  a  i n e x p l i c a b l e  language  Watt.. to  reaction  t o  " s e r i e s " o f  Coe. c o n c l u d e s  t h e  Richard'  question  i n s t i n c t i v e  part,  with  mathematics.  p o s t u l a t i n g a  dealing  >.that  a ta l l .  Coehas As a  basis  summarize "tame" which  h i s t h e  any  seem-  present  Watt  begins t o grow aware o f a d i s q u i e t i n g f a l l a c y i n - the "law of cause and e f f e c t " . Normally we t h i n k o f " d e t e r m i n i s m " ' a c t i n g in one d i r e c t i o n only - i . e . , t h e "cause" determines the " e f f e c t " , but the " e f f e c t " does not determine r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y the " c a u s e " . There "i s a compulsion at one e n d , as i t were, .but freedom a t the other - a reasonably s a t i s f y i n g compromise. But (Watt wonders) i s t h i s in fact the case? In a n y s e r i e s ( s a y , 4-5-6-7-8-9-10), i f t h e p o s i t i o n a n d n a t u r e o f t h e - e f f e c t  39 are determined by t h e c a u s e , the p o s i t i o n and nature of the cause are e q u a l l y l i m i t e d by t h e e f f e c t . The a t t r i b u t e s o f .7, f o r i n s t a n c e , are determined by i t s predecessors 4-5-6 : but they are j u s t as severely l i m i t e d by what they themselves determine, i . e . , the e x i s t e n c e o f 8-9-IO. Every'beginning determines the ending o f that which preceded i t , just as t y r a n n i c a l l y as e v e r y ending determines a beginning. Within the s e r i e s , there 'is,not' the thousandth part of a m i l l i m e t r e of freedom in e i t h e r direction.16 H o w e y e |T, C o e  goes  "Tom,  and  of  D i c k ,  some  must  element  also  r e a l j t y the  w i l l  space  philosophy  judgments  case  of  judgment  must  s u b j e c t .  A  not  depend  according  to  completely  judgments o s i t i o n true was  that  because one  included  that in  time  and  types  that  7+5=12, of  the  he  the  bare  this  or  e x i s t -  K a n t ' s  former  not  terms  s i t u a t i o n  theory  f a l l  c o n s i s t s  of  reference  to  in  less  the  the  nature,  i n f o r m a t i o n , i t  B u t ,  t h e r e f o r e ,  l o g i c a l  any  p r e d i c a t e o f  contained  render  into  employed.  the  would,  Kant  c h a r a c t e r . was a  of  the  "7"  thought Even  have  to  and'yet  s i n c e , than  terms  and  in  there  were  the elementary  truth  information o f  i t s  knowledge  the  o f a  p h y s i c s ,  concepts  eludes  necessary.  i n s i s t e d ,  more  of  p a r a d o x i c a l at  knowledge,  always  core  and w h i c h  without  experimental  would  and  of  purely  'There  !  a c t , a  same  The  judgement  not  e x i s t e n c e  f i n d i n g s . .  information  p r i o r i  the  determine  p r i o r i  basis  d e f i n i t i o n s  contained  a  s e r v a n t s ,  s e r i e s " .  look  Coe's  of  u n i v e r s a l ,  p r e c i s e l y  c l o s e r  a ' p r i o r i  erjip i r . i c a 1 o r Hume,  the  determined  the  some a  is  the  every  l o g i c ' to  s y n t h e t i c .  on  (mathematics of  time,  can be  contain  c e r t a i n ,  In  and  and  information  on  space  the  s y n t h e t i c  the  of  to  s o l e l y  " l a w of  this  to  admit  in  some' a d d i t i o n s  truth  to  not  A  s y n t h e t i c  some'  forced  f o r t h .  a n a l y t i c  e x p e r i e n c e , . b u t  contain  sets  regard  i f  e a r l i e r  claimed  whose  person,  and  mentioned  g r o u p s ' -  the  the  evades  outside  Kant  in  which  is  f o r  with  is  which of  that  H a r r y " , - W a t t  every  allow  two  say  in  As  Kant's  to  be,  powers  ence".  on  that  was not  invo1ved,  the  propmerely  .but ,  p r e d i c a t e  then  rather was  "5".  That 5 should be added t o 7 was no doubt i m p l i e d b y my c o n c e p t o f a s u m 7+5, but not that that sum s h o u l d b e ' equal to 12. An a r i t h m e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , always s y n t h e t i c a l , which i s seen more e a s i l y s t i l l by taking larger numbers, w h e r e we c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e • t h a t , turn a n d t w i s t o u r c o n c e p t i o n s a s we m a y , we c o u l d never,  40  by t h e means o f and w i t h o u t t h e wanted..'?  t h e mere a n a l y s i s help of i n t u i t i o n  The  the  sentences only  two  question  is  of  highly  types  of  disputable.  sentences:  empirical  investigation  and  those  whose  But  this  calls are  is  not  somewhat  tries  and  to  Mr  setting  up  priori,  o r - by  taking  a  him  an  as  absurd  a  causal  integer  be  logical  as  becomes is  he  placed  (  is  and  which  Hume  calls  being  such  Kant's man  within  series.  Watt),  this  colour  of  D . F . P e a r s ' in  is  Beckett  his  that.the  most  two  analysis  was  that  Hume's  rather  than  logical I '  mind,  whereas  modern  relevant  part  for  Watt,  is  that  in  place  analytical  BeaRs-s. s t a t e s  the  reasoning  from  causal  ing  is  that  "a^ p r i o r i  can  become  habitual  one  digression  of'the  of  than  Lou i t  and  Watt,  pushes a  such  scope  Beckett  and  the  which  until  Modern  of  of  The  of  the  Hume  his  the  most  causation seems  in to  critique.  appeal  necessity."  to  human  The. r e a s o n -  mathemat i c a l ' e q u a t i o n s ,  inferences."'  of  apparently  Nackyba 1 .  surd  contents  causal the  makes  or p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a 1  Hume's  as  literally  question.'  inference  priori  using  mathematician:  question  "extends  a_  difference'between  examined  the  a a  is  By  reason  Empiricism  the  he  is . fan a t i c a 1 1 y  a- p o e t ' s  causal  to'a  implications  concerning  of  inferences, less  makes  exami ne• l a n g u a g e . "  outside  n e c e s s i ty no  was  "Hume  Wittgenstein  series,  Harry",,.and  man  psychological  discussion  his.analysis  that  asked  Watt  reasoning.  or  extremism  of  determined  Watt  if  striking  empiricists  nature  possibly  Further',  a  prior i ' irrational,  essay, '"Hume's  states  When  simply  Dick  Even  That  knowledge  into  Through  once  Empiricism" is  a  very  p i ?"  be  Kant  propositions'which our  series,  theory.  of  make w h a t  a , p r i or i .  "Tom,  sort  ("synthetic"),  "demonstrative"  believes a  extend  cannot  as  some  does  is,  servants  a mathematical  of  Watt  time  considers  meaning:("analytic").  that  which  same  dogs  "unreason."  the  the  chain  in  application  cannot  "Wha't  what  conscious  i t c l e a r t h a t  at  require  their  a p r i o r i '  positivist  confirmation  point.  but  synthetic  which  from  the  of  logical  sentences,  Knott's  ;  their  beside  are  A  those  follows  explicative  which  fit  for  a^ p r i o r i  merely  reality  it  truth  synthetic  existence  of our c o n c e p t s a r r i v e ' a t t h e sum  This  senseless  _Th.e " M a t h e m a t i c a 1  is  k] I n t u i t i o n  of  the  V i s i c e l t s " ,  f a b r i c a t i o n ,  a.hoax.  cubes  to  for  of  one  nine  psycho 1ogica1  i n f e r e n c e .  sequences  these  a l s o  as  reason  as  a  The  s t i l l  does  no  i n t r i n s i c  causal  f o r  B e c k e t t ' s  movement  complete by  heart  s u b s t i t u t ? o n not  reveals  t h i s a  the  of  rules  j u s t i f y  causal  flaw  Hume's  prior?  " h a b i t . "  patent  a  knew  psycho 1ogica1  and  t h e i r  is  "merely  198)  a l s o  "custom"  f o r m u l a t i o n s ,  possess  Watt  o u t ,  c o m p u l s i o n . tOirea'sbn.  appears  words,  (p.  a s s o c i a t i o n  Watt's  turns  Nackybal  ..."  B e c k e t t ' s  argument.  Hume's  Mr.  i t  in  mathematical  compulsion,  or  in  T h e . a r t i f i c i a 1 i t y  a b s u r d i t y ,  IndTcates  r e l a t i o n s h i p . towards  This  i s  of  that  they  another  s o l i p s i s m .  IV A of  the. p i c t u r e  c r i b e d the  by  a  middle  ground  and  compass,  and  foreground  of  centre  i t s  in  and  so  on.  was  "perhaps  a  point  centre  The  important  i t s  t ime"  r e v e a l i n g  to  (p.  t e r r o r  before  or  universe  the  the  up  i t s  and  a  a  ...  centre to  not  in  new n o n - P t o 1emaic  or  a  the  thought  centre  with  that  os  and  in  that  it  search  of  space,  and  t e a r s .  It  i s  P a s c a l , w h o  cosmology. the  c i r c l e  a  r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  boundless  sphere,  back-  p o s s i b i l i t i e s :  the  eyes to  occupied  eastern  c i r c l e  i t s  Watt's  r e a c t i o n  of  is  des-  Pondering  other,  note  r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  f r i g h t f u l  i n . t h e  and  d i s c o v e r y  p o i n t ,  128)  each  Watt's  o b v i o u s l y  lowest  s e r i e s  centre  Watt's  was " a  c i r c l e ,  (p.  of  f i l i e d  involves  i t s  ...  thing  129) ,  compare  date  f o r  c i r c l e  at  search  search  "A  p i c t u r e  sets  i t s  and  i nf i n i te  o r  novel  room.  t h i s  in  c i r c l e  the  broken  Watt  cent re  a  in  E r s k i n e s '  i n t e n t i o n s  c i r c l e  a  episode  in  appeared  a r t i s t s '  a  c e n t r a l  For  f e l t  Pascal  centre  of  nature  which  is  19 everywhere, would  and  c l a s s i f y  because  the  Geoffrey  best  circumference  P a s c a l ' s  subject  Watt's perhaps  the  and  C l i v e  uses  to  Mathematicians minds, means  statement  as  p r e d i c a t e  o s t e n s i b l y  ni:di c u l o u s e x p l a i n e d  provided of  by  obsession t h i s  preface  h i s only  are  a 11  and  are  negate  P a s c a l ' s  e x p l a i n e d are  a d j e c t o . other.  s e r i e s - i s  Pensees  which  Enlightenment: have  to  otherwise they  l o g i c i a n *  each  mathematical  Romantic  f o r  the in  mathematicians  a x i o n s :  i n s u f f e r a b l e ,  Watt,  c o n t r a d i c t o  from  The  things and  a  with  quote  who  d e f i n i t i o n s  i n a c c u r a t e  nowhere."  them they  only  exact by are right  when the p r i n c i p l e s a r e ' q u i t e c l e i n t u i t i o n who a r e only i n t u i t i v e p a t i e n c e to reach the f i r s t p r i n c s p e c u l a t i v e and c o n c e p t u a l , w h i c h seen in the w o r l d , and w h i c h are the common . The  unheroi c,  stems', from with  the  which ment  hoi low  his  i n a b i l i t y  e s p r i. t  is  de  p o s s i b l e  But  towards  e x p e r i e n c e .  a  of  Watt  j u s t  The the is  as  n a r r a t o r  ^e.fckett  takes  in  balance  of  in  working  a  Notes his  mathematical  f i c t i o n a l  the  r e s u l t  of  obsessed  a t t a i n i n g  a  e sp r i t is  a n t i - h e r o e s  possesses  Dostoyevsky's  as  r e c o n c i l e  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  example,  the  to  B e c k e t t  While  for  of  .f in e s s e .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  thought.  Moll by,  nature  a r . A n d men of cannot have the i p l e s of things they have never a l t o g e t h e r out of  in  with  dehumanization  of  p o s t - E n 1 i g h t e n only  two  way  de  Underground  the  he  and'  -  sees  approaches  e sp r i t  p r e c a r i o u s  and  geome t r i c  mathematics  k i n d ' o f from  de  a  the  these  c h a r a c t e r  as  to  Watt  i s ,  f j hes se .  shows  the  way  " n e g a t i v e "  i n t u i t i v e :  . . . e v e n if man w a s n o t h i n g but a piano key, even if this c o u l d be demonstrated to him m a t h e m a t i c a l l y even then, he w o u l d n ' t come t o h i s senses but would p u l l some t r i c k o u t ' o f sheer i n g r a t i t u d e , j u s t to make his p o i n t . And if he d i d n ' t have them on h a n d , he would devise the means of d e s t r u c t i o n , chaos, and a l l kinds of s u f f e r i n g to get his way. Watt  is  overcome  e m o t i o n a l l y  E r s k i n e ' s  p i c t u r e .  in  " s u f f e r i n g  Pj20_u_s_t  e x p e r i e n c e . " this in  v i s i o n  the  and  and  it  the  of  keep  " f o r i t  is  by  that  go,  we  c i r c l e form  can  one's  the  that  one  it  of  the  a  own  towards  the  way  B e c k e t t ' s where  the  breach  n a d i r  seen  that  that  as  c e n t r e .  the we  l a t e r  means."  b i r t h , t h e One's  (p.  had  . . '. ,  been  house, Watt's  heroes.  in a  long  the  Addenda  sexual  i n t e r -  is  p o s s i b l e .  Watt  at  the  point,  and The  breaking  away  is  s t a t e d  r e j e c t i n g  the  a r t i s t  13 0 )  search  by  not in  i n t e n d e d " ,  by  a r t i s t i c  h i m s e l f  comment  c i r c l e  come  Beckett  N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  suggested  the  long  131)  i r o n i c none  of  remain  (p.  p i c t u r e s ' s the  not  as  of  p i c t u r e  s e r i e s . "  symbols  whatever be  would  and  c o n d i t i o n  " t h a t  the  to  main  s u f f e r ,  c o n c l u d i n g  "no  p r e f e r s  the  to  c o n t r o l  f o r g e t t i n g  n o v e l ,  p r e t a t i o n  is  made  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  gains  point  Not  is  the  f i n a l l y  and  was  experiences  to  Watt  house,  that  He  by  lowest  it  is  by  breach from  henceforth  the in  the to  nadir the  womb  to  return  to  43  the  womb.  mother  the  In  e s s e n c e ,  is  both  womb  and  In- w r i t e r s  such  a s P l o t i n u s  who  c i r c l e  is  masculine of  t h i s  "not  a  the  and  feminine  woman's  in  tomb,  p h r o d i t i c  nature  r e p o r t e d ,  had  her  Mrs.  each  of  of  in  quest the  the  l e f t  we  both  seems  w i t h  his  come  and  "not  a  and  to  re 1a t i on s h i p , removed  " i n  be  man's To  a  the  parody Watt,  woman"' confuse  the  Gorman, the  both  Gorman.  suggest  Mrs.  go.  example,  to  Mrs.  s e x u a l i t y .  couple  for  i n c o r p o r a t i n g  There  Gorman,  breast  Molloy  a n d - R i I k e , . f o r  nature,  o t h e r ' s  the  of  way  r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  negate  i d e n t i t y  the  p r i n c i p l e s .  Watt's  man",  almost  sexual  is  h e r m a p h r o d i t i c  concept  (p.139)  t h i s  herma-  tt.  heat  f u r t h e r  is  of  duly  a  s u r g i c a l  o p e r a t i o n . " ( p . 1 4 0 ) . Watt caresses  her.  movement, then  Walter  Watt  it  had  not  a  i t s  c i r c l e  t h i s  it  and  c i r c l e  the  inmate  of  t h o u g h t g r e a t 1 y  of  He  words  Foucault' of  no  t r i e s ,  and  The  observes  l o g i c i a n s  for  it  of  But  learns  (in  in  Cas t i e )  Surveyor' permit  him  The to  a t t a i n  i s ,  of  the  f a c t ,  a s s e r t s  But  a f t e r  the  never had  c i r c l e  Watt's  and  c i r c u l a r s i t u a t i o n Watt t o  not  the  and  world  encounter  a .  time,  (p.141)  u n i t i n g is  s t i l l  limits-sol i p s i s t i c ,  the  1  consummated  c o a l e s c e n c e . "  the  a  a  a c c o r d i n g  Gorman  of  in  e c c e n t r i c  love"  Mrs.  p o s i t i o n  other,  The  in  c l o s i n g  from  shows  yb  a  d i s , l o g i c  is  e x a c t l y  somewhat that  K n o t t ' s ,  with  here  last  desperate  no  s e l f -  'Mf..  Knott  is  next  seen,  language, attempt and  at  displacements  nem,.owt."  (p.168)  Michel  of  seems  mock  the  the  same  mad  same."2'  way  to-be' as  c o n v o l u t i o n s  knowledge  his  i n v e r s i o n s  p a r a d o x i c a l l y the  Watt  Even  v a r i o u s  "the  appears  to  Mr.  asylum.  "Dis  language Watt  involved  make  symbol  example,  that  madness  to  f o e t a l  broken.  mental  because  a  p e r f u n c t o r y  ideal  e x p u l s i o n  s y n t a x ,  lap  and  of  f o r c e f u l l y  a  "  love  means  in  i n t e r v a l s .  most,  d i s t o r t e d ,  :  l o g i c .  the  f o r e v e r his  the  s t r e n g t h ,  even,  lap  c o n s t a n t l y  regular  i n e s c a p a b l e .  is  1  on  Their  the  so  a r e  e v e n s e e m s  c e n t r e .  A f t e r as  at  o f f e r s  for  contained  to  Gorman's  s i t t i n g  p a t t e r n .  c l e a r l y  with  one  Shandy)  i n d i s p e n s a b l e Love  Mrs..  couple  reversed  mathematical " f o r  on  The  f i r s t  being  ( l i k e  s i t s  of  the  to  The that  K a f k a ' s of  l o g i c  that  u l t i m a t e of  reason.  Land w i l l  S u p r a n a t i o n a l . '  ever  44  Due last  to  the  the  reader  K n o t t ' s .  A f t e r  leaves  in  the  (p.244)  The  r e a l i t y pended those  in at  jumbled  sees  of  Watt  w a i t i n g  morning sun  the  K n o t t ' s  assembled  are  night "a  and  of  agreed  t r a i n  to  the  is  and  back  '  the  It  from  of  iii  a  Mr..  Watt  was  e s s e n t i a l l y  again.  has  Thus  "Shandean" of  seen  his  everyday were  world  sus-  in  which  that  novel  impotence  p i c t u r e ,  t r a g i c .  ends  and  Watt's  B e c k e t t ' s ,,  the  sun  "cock  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  and  1  l i n e . "  The h i l l s f a l l i n g to the p l a i n made as p r e t t y a p i c t u r e in the e a r l y morning l i g h t ' a s a man could to meet w i t h i n a day's march, (p.246) But  the  Watt  the  which  is  n o v e l ,  s t a t i o n ,  end  e f f e c t  again.  of  departure  the  Watt  cause  o p e r a t i v e  his  at  t i c k e t  again  laws  s t r u c t u r e  concerns  a l l  with  r i s e s  which  n a r r a t i v e  view  has  and  by  of  s e t ,  b u l l  its  1ife  it  never  often  presented  to  s t o r y " ,  hope  r i s e  his  most  whimsical  treatment  f u t i l i t y ;  V  The. r a d i c a l Th r e e  a r t i s t i c  theory  of  D i a 1ogues.  escape* the  dilemmas  raised  art  Beckett  puts  Here  Beckett  s t a t e s  d u a l i s t ie  nature  of  in  Wa t t  forth  the  in  that  foreshadow his  the  c r e a t i v e  the  manifesto,  a r t i s t  cannot  process.  Two t h i n g s are established', however p r e c a r i o u s l y : the a l i m e n t , from f r u i t s on p l a t e s to low mathematics and s e l f - c o m m i s e r a t i o n , and its manner of d i s p a t c h . A l l that should concern us is the acute and i n c r e a s i n g a n x i e t y of the r e l a t i o n i t s e l f , as though shadowed more and more d a r k l y by a sense of i n v a l i d i t y , of inadequacy, of e x i s t e n c e at the expense of a l l that it e x c l u d e s , . a l l that it b l i n d s to.22 In  the  simply  e l l i p t i c a l , s t a t e s  a n a l y s i s the  of  and  his  Watt  often  c o n c l u s i o n s in  H umean - Ka n t i an  terms'  of-  debate  of the  The the  s c e p t i c a l '  side  about the  allows  p h i l o s o p h i c a l ' u n d e r p i n n i n g s a r t .  e s o t e r i c ,  of  and  i n c r e a s i n g  p e r c e i v e r  and  the  the  issues for  a  the  of  Be e k e  a r t .  of  :  t r a c i n g  o f .'some'  n i h i l i s t i c  the  subject  of  theory  raised-' the  r e l a t i o n " and  the  11'  The  and consequences  e m p i r i c i s m '  a n x i e t y  p e r c e i v e d ,  Dialogues,  n a t u r e ' o f  B e c k e t t ' s  of.Hume's  "acute  Three  .the of question  between o b j e c t .  45 Hume's n e g a t i v e / c o n c l u s i o n s  implied that  absence  the two.  of r e l a t i o n  between  from  knowledge would  quite  certainty move  with  appeal  towards  of  apply  conception  o f fo.rm".  For Beckett" the .  no l o n g e r h a v e - a n y c o g n i t i v e of Knott  between  rejects  posits  existent.  failure  c a n be s e e n  and "outer",  value.  moves. between  In t h e a b s e n c e the s e l f ,  hand, the imaginative  i t s o b j e c t as n o t h i n g n e s s , to establish  as n o n - .  any r e l a t i o n s h i p  as c h a r a a t e r i s t i c  It isdualistic  with  between  there  Mr.  of the f i c t i o n a l  (Watt-Knott), but since  as a n o t h i n g n e s s  relationships  They d o '  e m p i r i c a l p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h pos i t s '  a t one l e v e l  (Mr. Knott)  Watt  -  On; t h e o t h e r  conscioushessness Watt's  in which  "inner"  as e x i s t i n g . -  establishing  i n phi 1osoph i z i n g .  -  object  object  tradition  sympathizes  not, of course,  its  its  t o B a c k e t t , who  theory  does  to the world  itself.  Kant s  c a u s a t i o n , self.e_t.a_l_, Beckett  n o t - s e 1 f , 'Becke11  process  ontology.  not allow f o r  and  Knott  phen1  does  a Kantean  a l l relation  idealist  • the  experience  Kantean.categories not  i n some w a y s  Hume t h a t e m p i r i c a l  about  of the  r e v o l u t i o n , was an a t t e m p t ' a t  'necessary, f o r - a n y  obviously w i t h t h e  Concluding  theory  t h e e m p i r i c a l a t t a c k on m a t a p h y s i c s  omenology c a l elements of  Kant's  complete 1  c a t e g o r i e s , h i s Copernican salvaging  t h e r e was a  i t posits  i s no p o s s i b . l i t y o f  t h e two t e r m s .  The a r t i s t i s  d oomed ' t o f a i 1 u r e . But his  vision  Beckett of chaos.  Addenda  t o Watt:  (p.. 14.6)  While  fallacy, The  and  content)  of w r i t i n g  in  the  t h e d on n e e , i s  grotesque'  to a type  M r . Knott', and' t o c r e a t e a  of a r twhich  seeks  t o e n c l o s e him  of nothingness.  of the c r e a t i v e  of mimesis.  process  Since the  i s inescapable, the  can do i s t o r e d u c e  the c o n s t i t u e n t . terms  t o the bare  until  minimum  i s an a n t i - n o v e l  novels.  i t ends  stated  a r t as a  own w a y , . c o m m i t t e d  f o r t h e work  conception  Beckett  finally  realistic  must.- f a s h i o n : an'- a e s t h e t i c  Watt  that  rejects  he i s , i n h i s  dualistic  some way o r o r d e r i n g  how c a n o n e "n o t h i ngne's s / i n w o r d s - e n c l o s e ? "  "aliment-'of Watt,  Beckett  to find  The- c r u x - o f ' t h e p r o b l e m i s  Beckett  l e g i t i m a t e , form  best  i s compelled  itself  the story  approach  illustrates  The u s e o f f o r m  up by c a l l i n g  learns that  that  they  i s told  nothingness.  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y  i n the novel  into  (form  question;  i s so When  arbitrary the reader'  by S a m , an j n m a t e w i t h  Watt  k6 at  the  asylum,  undercut,  if  avatar  the  a l l  of  the  its of  1  that  the is  is  t e l l e r  a l l  have  told  from  Mr.  t h i s s t o r y K n o t t ' s  the  at  the  Addenda  fatigue,  and  p o s s i b l y was  able  p o s s i b l e submits i t s e l f  1ike but  to. Sam,  ( 1 ) , .. i t  use.  The  reader  in  the  to  the  an  i r r a t i o n a l  never  d i s c o v e r e d ,  the  whole  the  d e t a i l s :  c e n t r a l  prime  example  story  about  another  place  Mr.  no t  ,novel"s  the  K n o t t ' s  through nothingness of  the  Louit he  might  premises,  p o s s i b 1 e . . '. . ( p . 1 9 8 ) is  forced  Watt's not  to  pi a c e ' a n  adventures.  appear  that  i n c o r p o r a t i o n .  is  thus  l e f t  Watt-Knott  Since  "only  The  Addenda  lack  of  a r r i v i n g .  number,  the  without  a l l  the  Beckett  r e l a t i o n .  The  As  novel  running  on  the  fated  i l l  m i l l e n i u m ,  is  Sanr  e q u a t i o n .  number,.forever of  know  r e c a l c i t r a n t m a t e r i a l s '  i n c o e r c i b l e  capable  on  who  i t s  not  Shandy  A  of  f i r s t  T'TNVtram from  does,  s e r i e s - of'  a  involved  wholly  i n f i n i t y , clan  to  was  a l l  the  The  " i n  But  tha t  prevented  of  that  end.  does  e v e n ' f u r t h e r  t r u s t e d .  A r t h u r ' s  c o n c l u s i o n  numbered  terms  is  i t s  app1ied  t h e f i r s t  not  to  d i s g u s t "  is  concludes  supposed  are  1i ke  Knott'.  Watt  p remi ses ,  s a m e ' s i t u a t i o n  Addenda  of  be  r a d i a t e  Mr.  he  remember  can  is  p o i n t ' S a m ,  that  riot  p roceed i ng which  n a r r a t i v e  one  admits  t a l e  with  Arthur  the  At  could  the  of  movement  N a c k y b a l .  The  nor  non-meeting  l a b y r i n t h i n e  " I " ,  Watt  c e n t r i p e t a l ,  Watt's  of  p o s s i b l e .  s i n c e  d i g r e s s i o n s ,  and  c r e d i b i l i t y  B e c k e t t i a n  s t o r y ,  N-i e t h e r ' "form'  the  towards Lynch  cannot be 1  a t t a i n e d . Watt's his  e x p u l s i o n ,  ci r c u l a r is  told  E r s k i n e ' s shape  and  return  "Two,  his  e l a b o r a t e d . "  to  to  a b s u r d i t i e s  resembles does  .  Flann  K a f k a ' s  The  The  and  to  the  of  But  q u a t r a i n s of  the  form  of no  In  O ' B r j e n ' s  The  w i t h  t h i s  come  t h i s  is  suggest  a  s t r u c t u r e  order  in  which  otherwise  broken  c i r c l e  in  c h a o s " B e c k e t t . t r i e s story  is  apply.  much  of  B e c k e t t ' s  Policeman it  s e r v i c e ,  simple  the  not  longer  regard  Thi rd which  the  of  world  was  are  o n t o l o g i c a l point  period  even  t h r e e , . t h a t  p i c t u r e the  his  o u t s i d e  formlessness  Watt.  C a s t l e  1  whole  metaphors  humour'of  K n o t t ' s ,  quest.  H e r o i c  The  form  Hr.  four,  represents  Wa 11  of  the  one,  ( p . 215)  room i n  of  s t o r y .  s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l  w i t , a n d  his  p a t t e r n i n g  a l t e r e d .  Watt  journey  often  much  that  a l l  From the  the  f a n t a s y ,  novel more  compared.  than  it  47  The  concept  advancement with as  the  from  way'  counters  the  use  Mj_rpJ__  words,  says  s i n c e  with  each  c o u n t e r .  in  p a r t i c u l a r  there  i n t e r e s t  w i l l  and  b i z a r r e  even  c o n t r a s t s the  a  few  games  to  surround  a c u t a l l y  cases,  s i n c e  they  under  played  high 1 ight  i n t e l 1 i g e n c e ' w h e n  someth  ing. Watt  the  f a i l u r e  could  it  the  be  played  but  i n v e s t i g a t i o n :  But  the  u t t e r  with  of  Knott,  a  his  who  11 for  played, of  c o n t r a s t s  games.  Our  in  imaginary  sharply in  the  W a t t ' a l l the  and  incomprehension nothing  Wa  Invest-  e s p e c i a l l y  r e p e t i t i o n  naming  in  asking  range  other  point  Mr.  used in  with  marked  concerned  Phi 1osoph ica1  more  the  faced  are  up  around  a  more  point  a p p r e c i a t e  games  games'  now  no  that  in  be  human  completely  order  in  catalogues.-'involving  phrases ,  For  many  shows  Words is  may  games  of'word'  There  Watt  is  functions'.  games.  are  in  B e c k e t t  we  not  the  language  pages of  in  that  at  W i t t g e n s t e i n  Iii  game  in  a r r i v e d  i t s e l f  language  i gat ions,  a  form  language in  of  of  v a r i a t i o n of  the  appears  processes  is  as  a  not  n e g a t i v e ;  Not that Watt'longed at a l l times for this r e s t o r a t i o n , of t h i n g s , of h i m s e l f , . t o t h e i r comparative innocuousn e s s . f o r he d i d not. For there were times when he f e l t a f e e l i n g c l o s e l y resembling the f e e l i n g of sati s f a c t i o n a t h i s being so abandoned by t h e ' l a s t r a t s . F o r a f t e r these there would be no m o r e r a t s , not a rat l e f t , and there were'times when Watt almost'welcomed' this p r o s p e c t , of being r i d of his l a s t r a t s , at l a s t . It would be l o n e l y , t o be' s u r e , at f i r s t , and' s i l e n t , a f t e r the gnawing, the s c u r r y i n g , the l i t t l e c r i e s , (p.84) 1  It  is  that the  in the  vo i d .  t h i s l a t e r  w o r l d ,  s i l e n t ,  a r t i s t - h e r o e s  dark, make  at  once  t h e i r  welcomed  l i t t l e  and  f e a r e d ,  e x p l o r a t i o n s  of  48 Ref e rences Israel  1  May  John  2  Compa r at i v e 3 t a t i o n . Richard " s i l e n t "How c o u  Sh~anker,  "Moody.  Man o f  L e t t e r s " .  N.Y .  T i 'iri.es ,  s e c2. , p . 3 .  6,1956,  F l e t c h e r , L? t e r a t u r e  " B e c k e t t  and t h e P h i l o s o p h e r s " ,  X V I (1964),  p.55.  B e c k e t t ' s knowledge o f Hume and Kant needs no document The f o l l o w i n g a n e e d o t e s a r e ,however, worth mentioning. Ellmann records th"at Joyce once broke one o f h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s " with Beckett by posing t h e q u e s t i o n , ld t h e i d e a l i s t Hume w r i t e a h i s t o r y ? " Beckett  r e p l i e d , " " A h i s t o r y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s " . I n 1938 B e c k e t t wrote t o Germany t o order t h e Complete Works o f Kant'and he asked t h e b o o k s e l l e r t o send h i mwhat he terms " a n antedeluvian e d i t i o n . " When t h e v o l u m e s a r r i v e d ' B e eke11 spent much time with them. Heiry  4  Know 1e d g e . .  J . Watt,  (London:  David  5  (London:  Kemp  MacMillan  The Sensory  Methuen Smith,  7 (New  a n d St r u c t u r e  L t d . , 1925)  The p h i1osophy  a n d C o . , LtcTTj  6 Bertrand R u s s e l l , (London:,Al len and Urwin,  Basis  and'Co.  Logic  1959),  o f  o f  p • 2 39 •  David  Hume  p . 89 .  1941),  a n d My s t i c . i s m a n d 01 h e r  p.120.  Essays  Immanuel Kant, P r o l e g.omen a T o A n y F u t u r e Me t a p h y s i e s York: T h e , B o b b s - Me r r i 1 1 C o . I n c . , 1950) , p . 8 .  8 J a c q u e l i n e Hoefer, "Watt" , in Samuel B e c k e 11 : A_ C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l Essays , e d . Martin E s s 1 i n (Eng l a n d C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l 1 I n c . , 1965) , p . 7 5 . Kant,  9 10 York: 11 Montor 12 .  Jean Paul S a r t r e , Nausea, NewD i r e c t i o n s Books" 1964) Cited Books, Samuel  193 1 ) , p - 2 9 . 13 Bigge  15  in Herbert Kohl, 1 965) , p . 4 7 . B e c k e t t ,  Michel Insanity  1965),  "trans. p.79-  Lloyd  The Age o f  Proust  (London:  ?n  p . 185.  Hoefer,  F.oucault, t h e ! A ge of  "Watt" Madness Reason  Alexander (New  Comp1 e x i t y  Chatto  David'- Hume, T r e a t ? s e o f H urnan N a t u r e , (Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1967) , p . 2 7 1 . J a c q u e l i n e  14  of  P r o l e gomen a , p.39-  (New Y o r k :  and Windus,  e d . L . A . Selby-  , p.78. a n d Ci v i 1 i z at i o n : (New Y o r k :  A_ H ? s t o r y  Pantheon  Books,  Re f e r e n c e s 16  Richard  Inc.,  1964) ,  (cont'd)  N.  Coe,  Samue1  50-51 •  pp.  B e c k e t t  17 Immanuel Kant, Cr i t i que " M u 1.1 e r . . ( N e w . Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y and 18 D.F. Pears, "Hume's in David Hume: A Symposium, pp. 44-62. 19  B l a i s e  Dell 20 The  Co.  F o u c a u l t ,  22  Samuel Col l e c t i o n  C l i f f s *  N . J . :  Madnes s  E m p i r i c i s m (New Y o r k :  1966),  B e c k e t t ,  of  C r i t i c a l  and  "Three  p.  Mo r r i s . B i s h o p  (New  I n c . ,  York:  12 7 -  Dia1ogues," ed.  Max  a n d M o d e r n E m p i r i c i s m " Ancho Books, 1962),  C i v ? 1 i z a t i on j  Es s a y s ,  P r e n t i c e - H a l l  Press  o f Pu re Reason , t r a n s . F. C o . I n c . " 19 6 6 ) , p. 11.  Pensees , •ed.  I n c . ,  Grove  Fyodor D o s toy^.vTsJi^yZ>.'1 N o t e s From Underground New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , • 1-5)6-1) , p . 2 0 3 -  21 A  P a s c a l ,  P u b l i s h i n g  (New Y o r k :  Martin  1965),  p.  p. in  (New  York  302. Samuel  Ess 1 i n 21.  Beckett : ffEnglewood  50 Mo 1 1 o y , A  L a b y r i n t h  Ma 1 o n e  of  Dies*  The  Unnamab1e:  Novels  "Sweet  S p i r i t *  what souls are these And he t o me: "these l i v e s concluded n e i t h mixed here with that were n e i t h e r for God The H i g h Creator  who run are the e r blame d e s p i c a b nor Sata  through nearly s nor p r a l e corps n, but o  this black haze?"" o u l l e s s whose i s e . They are of angels who nly for themselves.  s c o u r g e d ' them from Heaven for i t s p e r f e c t beauty H e l l ' w i l l ' n o t r e c e i v e -them s i n c e the- wicked'' might some g l o r y over them."' And I "Master,,  what  gnaws  lamenatation of  d e a t h , "  stuns  he  at  them  so  the  very  a i r ? "  answered  h i d e o u s l y  t h e i r  "They  have  no  t h e i r must  No w o r d of them s u r v i v e s t h e i r l i v i n g season. and J u s t i c e deny them even a name. Let us n o t of them: l o o k , a n d pass o n . "  In a l i s t i c which  Murphy  and  in  nothing  p o s i t i v e  that  know l e d g e  e i t h e r  in  terms  thought'. that man  What  there is  and  are  involved  in  in  knowing thing  than  before  beyond'  concerns the  e i t h e r  the  r e a l i t y he  o u t l o o k  did Kant  ina  the  the  knowing,  and  sense  in  so  or  c a l l e d  c h a r a c t e r  is in  nature  tend' the  so.has  no  reason.  It  is  necessary  u l t i m a t e ' of the  the  r e a l i t y .  r e l a t i o n  t r i l o g y  i n  the  a r t i s t i c  his  " C o p e r n i c a n "  a  r a t i o n a l  for in  t o ' s t u d y  knowledge  The  r e a l ,  t r a n s c r i p t  c r u c i a l  between.the  Beckett  assumed  forget  part  be  e x i s t s  pure  to  of  knowing  R e v o l u t i o n .  the  is s i n c e  the of the some-  question  c a r r r i e s • much  e x p l o r a t i o n - o f  common  which  of  case,  can  there  r a t i o n -  in  from  form  there  that  the  u l t i m a t e l y the  of  doing  In  c a l l e d  both  p h i l o s o p h i e s  p o s i t i o n s '  his  30-48  s c e p t i c i s m  or-  envy  Mercy speak  one' a s s u m p t i o n  what  known. Watt'  II.  that  Both  possess  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  c l a i m i n g it  had  information  l i m i t a t i o n s  r e s u l t a n t ' k n o w l e d g e truth  could  III,  showed  forthcoming.  sense  these  Beckett  t e r m i n a t i n g  seemed one  Canto  phi1osophies  both  of  In f e r n o ,  Watt,  empi r i c i s t  r e s u l t e d  in  The  hope'  me,  "and in t h e i r b l i n d and u n a t t a i n i n g s t a t e m i s e r a b l e l i v e s have sunk so low t h a t they every other f a t e .  Dante,  and f e e l  change  Instead  and f u r t h e r of of  51  assuming in  what  mind  that  is  to  dilemma  the  Ma 1 o n e  D i e s ,  fusion  of  and'the  our  human  B e c k e t t ' s  "I"  n a r r a t o r ,  w h i l e  e s s e n t i a l  "I"  " e g o , "  stands at  or  space  dimensions  of  "I"  way  the  accounts  W i l l i a m  the  that  at  for  B a r r e t t ' in  be  the  it  only  emerges  The  the  tendencies  f a c t i c i t y  of  Man  if  in the  points  as  Moi1oy,  viewed  e x t e r n a l  as  a  r e a l i t y ,  r e a l i t y .  s i t u a t i o n an  of  each  i d e a l ,  o u t s i d e  t e n s i o n  idea'  such  in  e m p i r i c a l  e x i s t  the  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  represents  core' of  I r r a t i on a 1  The  from  with  with  p r e c i s e l y  approached  e x i s t e n t i a l  can  is  f u l l y  severed  time.  i d e a l i s t i c  proceed  knowing.  time  the  we know  which  can  same  and  is  do  contingent  the  of  of  " e g o , "  for  s e l f  we  " I "  unnamable  c a t e g o r i e s  no  ways  C a r t e s i a n  Kantean  suggests  r e a l i t y  B e c k e t t i a n  The  the  But  K a n t  whatever  "conforms" of  r e a l ,  of  between  the  the  two  t r i l o g y . K a n t ' s  own  thought  B e c k e t t i a n out'  in  " I " .  that  Kant, b e f o r e ' H e g e 1 , - h a d made a s t a t e m e n t on the subject of e x i s t e n c e and reason that has become d e c i s i v e for modern p h i l o s o p h y . K a n t d e c l a r e d , in e f f e c t , that e x i s t e n c e can never be c o n c e i v e d by reason. . . . " B e i n g , " says Kant, " i s e v i d e n t l y not a real p r e d i c a t e , or concept of some t h i n g that can be added to the concept of a t h i n g . " That i s , if I think of a t h i n g ; and t h e n - t h i n k of that thing as e x i s t i n g , my s e c o n d concept does not add'any determinate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to the f i r s t . B a r r e t t  goes  on  to  e x p l a i n  that  when K a n t made t h i s p o i n t , he was s p e a k i n g , or intended to speak, form the more p o s i t i v i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c side of his p h i l o s o p h y . From the point of view o f . t h e o r e t i c a 1 knowledge e x i s t e n c e is n e g l i g i b l e , because'.know 1 edge wants t o know about a t h i n g , and the fact that it e x i s t s does not t e l l me - a n y t h i n g about i t . ' U n l i m i t e l y . w h a t I want to know a b o u t ' the t h i n g is what c h a r a c t e r i z e s it in t h e way o f d e f i n i t e observable q u a l i t i e s ; and e x i s t e n c e , f o r from being an•observable q u a l i t y is in fact too g e n e r a l , remote and tenuous a property t o be represented a t a l l to the m i n d i ' This How  is  the  c r u c i a l  can  the  s e r i e s  v a l i d a t e  problem  t h e i r  dilemma of  " I ' s "  B e c k e t t  deals  d e s c r i b e  with  t h e i r  in  the  e x i s t e n c e ,  t r i l o g y . somehow  being?  B e c k e t t ' s  major  that  a t  l i e s  the  a r t i s t i c centre  concern of  Western  is  thus  the  p h i l o s o p h y ,  same namely,  52 the  d i s t i n e t i o n • b e t w e e n  b e i n g . '  With  analogous not  a  regard  to  that  concept  to  of  system.  being  t r i l o g y  the  this  perceptions  of  inescapable  datum  it  of  a  is  that  essence,  question ,  too  Beckett  himself  s e l f - a w a r e n e s s ,  and  K i e r k e g a a r d ,  because  i n t e l l e c t u a l in  e x i s t e n c e  a l l  which  agreed  complex  are  to  in  that  e x i s t e n c e  s i t u a t i o n  B e c k e t t ' s  who  shows  c o n t i n u a l l y that  the  f o r c e f u l l y  reduced  is  s e l f  to  :  is  an'  cycle  the in  i s  e x i s t e n c e  unending  real  and  p o s i t i o n :  that  be  the  is  is  becoming  of  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  f l u x .  The  cannot  escape  expressed  in  B e c k e t t ' s  Film, A l l a s s i z e i s n o for  B e c k e t t ' s  w h e r e t o  be  p o s s i b l i t y  an  escape  t r i l o g y sense  is  a  that  is  of  from  to' be  a  are  g u i l t y .  nothingness  with  the  " I ' s "  attempt  e x i s t s  o u t s i d e ' o f  by  p s e u d o - s e l v e s .  the  v i r t u e  is  that  the  he  v a l i a n t l y  However,  they  s t i l l  not  space  time,  to  e s s e r i t i a l i s t  d e s c r i b e d , . i s  cosmic could  t r a d i t i o n  be  seen  as  culminates  that  the  of  search  S i m i l a r l y last  but  Molloy  The-dynamics Hege1ian  "the  "of-  the  Dia 1ectic:  " a n t i t h e s i s " ) d i s s o l u t i o n  the  form  Mo r a n  the  in  (the  that  of  the  be  search  " s y n t h e s i s " ) ,  in  the  can  the  d i a l e c t i c in  P rou s t unfolding  T h i n g . I t s e l f . " 2 as'the  described  in  his  "second (p..16).  terms  Molloy  the  heirs  t r i l o g y  fading-forms"'  and  s e l f  thought'.  o f ' t h e  journey  reveals  ' i n t e g r i t y .  e s p e c i a 11 y  the  Malone  -movement  stated  turn  and  are  Western  Hegelian  and  that  prime  for  they  is  peopled  his  progressive  " t h e s i s )  Malone,  s e l f  Molloy  amorphous  the  being-  f a i t h "  that  the  That  e x i s t e n t i a l  s t r u c t u r e  among  could  While general  that  permeates  unreal  fading  t r i l o g y ,  of-  Idea,  his  allow  man's  Likewise  Beckett  involves  Model,  culminate of  parody  d e s c r i b e s  o f . t h e  The  of  "bad  r a t i o n a 1ism ,  A b s o l u t e .  venture  of  a s s e r t s  type  as  would  absolute  impossible  from  H e g e l . .  the  world  that  there  the  data  i n d i c a t i n g  far  a' r u t h l e s s  a r t i s t i c  one  of  in  for  as  r e c o i l  r a t i o n a l i s m  that  a  a  the  thereby  E x i s t e n t i a l i s m , be  a  world  e s s e n t i a l i s t.  duped."  maintain  obscure  being. in  d i s c o v e r ' t h e  been  an  which  man's  a l s o  Unnamable  attempt  beyond the  and  The  to  " l e a p "  document  e x i s t e n t i a l  has  s t r u g g l e  to  in  B e c k e t t ' s  t h e - i r r e d u c i b l e  i n - t h e - m ? d s t - o f - t h e - w o r l d , i t i s t o d a y , ,  In  of  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  deals  v i c t i m s  Kierkegaard ian  the  major  it  narrators  death  of  a  (the (the  " A b s o l u t e " ,  the  53 Unnamable,  the  f i g u r e  T h e - A b s o l u t e c o n s t a n t l y and  to  by  a c h i e v e  a  t r u t h .  u n i v e r s e world  As  becomes  not  yet  s t r u c t u r e has  of  of  f u l l  w i l l  the  is  Unnamable, never  t h e o r y  where  e f f e c t s  can  of  B e c k e t t  bold  f o r ,  form  s p i r i t  H e g e l ' s  mind a  is  b a s i s  Brian is  " p o s s i b l y  of  return-  l o g i c a l  from  "Whoroseope"  and  liit't. m i g h t  be  A b s o l u t e ,  B e c k e t t ' s  end  essence  of as  r e f e r e n c e  said)  the  in  Murphy The  Hegel  to  only  same'  mental  that  seen  by  beginning  to  B e c k e t t ' s amusing  and  of  Descajrtes as  the  '('inevitably of  the  escape concept  only b i t  "ego"  Hegel  r e p u d i a t i o n  p u r e l y  of  i n t e l l e c t u a l  the  known,"  o p e r a t i o n  of  e x p l i c i t of  d i a l o g u e  s a i d ' N e a r y ,  of  "a  unspeakable  d i ff i cu1ty . " "Perhaps  you  hadn't  a r r e s t e d  his  deve1opmentQ"  h e a r d , "  s a i d ' W y l i e , (p.222)  ian  the  Mu r p h y : "The  a  e n q u i r y .  mockery been  f i n a l  into  C a r t e s i a n  i d e a l i s t i c  t h i s  the  Hegel  of  ly  n e v e r . a r r i v e s ,  world  c u l m i n a t e s  had  and  the  a  e s p e c i al  is  the  the  t h i n g . -  a c t i o n s  the  and  and  metaphysic  for  suggests  onwards  in  the  C a r t e s i a n  s e l f .  appears  comprehension and  of  A b s o l u t e  thought  s y n t h e s i s  attempt  the  point  the  Un n a m a b 1 e ,  whole  that  l i m i t e d themselves  the  n a r r a t o r s ,  development  be  e n t i r e  B e c k e t t ' s  very  r a t i o n a l i s t i c  a p p l i e d to  when  and  the  developments  s t a t e d  one  the  only  be  grand  in  U n t i l  the  Descartes  the  truths  Therefore  a c c o u n t i n g  even  the  to  B e c k e t t ' s  the  for  a l l - e n c o m -  o b j e c t i v e - i d e a l ism  r e a l ,  Coffey  While  dead  but  can  one  w i l l  o n , , a n d  there the  t h e s i s  i t  an  i t .  f u l l '  be  a p o c a l y p s e  in  of  At  s i n c e  w i l l  t r a n s f o r m i n g  only  e x p e r i e n c e .  can' o n l y  u n i v e r s e  search  of  s i n c e  of  u n t i l  a l l ' p a r i a l  understanding  i d e n t i c a l ,  the  d i a l e c t i c  s t r u g g l e ' g o e s  r a t i o n a l .  f i c t i o n s .  s t r i v i n g •  s y n t h e e s ,  i n c l u d e  s t r u c t u r e ' ,  appears.  c u l m i n a t i o n  t h i s  s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n .  the  This  Godot  1  H e g e l ' as  i n t e l l i g i b l e  u n i v e r s e  become  s t a t e ' o f  the  does  c o m p l e t e l y  r e a c h e d ' f u l  being  i t s  by  previous  s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n  d i a l e c t i c a l so  the  higher  w i l l  c o m p l e t e l y  comprehension were  and  which  d e v e l o p s ,  of  r e s o l v e ,  complete  the  a l l  p o r t r a y e d  higher  p . a s s i n g s y n t h e s i s , vast  is  o v e r c o m e , o r  a n t i t h e s i s  f i n a l l y  behind  "Hegel'  in  54 Hegel of  submerged  ideal  who  mind.  i n s i s t s  t h i s  is  humour.  But  for  that  l o g i c "  is  The  Malone  t h e i r  own  system  throughout  B e c k e t t .  states  at  The  the  s t o r i e s ,  it  i t . "  (p.  took  than  blacken  is  i s ,  dilemma-  which  d i s c o v e r speaking,  l i e s  at  be  a l l  the  the  may and  time  to  page,  perhaps  be  the  an  the  a  release  it  t h a t . t o  b e ' h i m s e l f  l i f e  and  l i t e r a t u r e ) ,  barreness  and  s i l e n c e .  scending  t h i s  dualism  is  by  that  the  means  of  "I.'  the  the  to the  that  on  to  t i l l looks  These  l i k e two  c r e a t i v e  words  But  w r i t e r what speak  by• s p e a k i  which  f a l s e  is  way of  w i l l in  becoming, must  f i r s t  normally  when  t r i l o g y  mediation  sure  texts  Only  p o s s i b l e  v i t a l  M o l l o y ,  1  business  and  being  only  is  words  the  it  is  goes  m i s e r y . "  being  In  for  o b i i terate'  those  of  to . r e a l i z e  to  however,"  of  or  s u b - s t r u c t u r e  which  t r i l o g y .  " r e a 1ism"  come  novels  point  of  that  achievement  not  h i m s e l f  n a r r a t o r ' s  depth  ,i t s • t o r m e n t s .  f a l s e  r i c h  I'm  g h a s t l y  find  so  t h a t , a n d  to  to  is  .is"  holes  from  (the  I  in  the  of.  f i c t i o n a l  problem  "to  f a l s e  process  now  i l l u s t r a t i o n  w r i t e r  " p o e t i c  the  to  b e t t e r  of  wry  need  f a l s e  leads  a l l  B e c k e t t i a n  the  the  e x c l u d e s a l l  e x i s t e n c e  know  f e e l s  absolute  p o s s i b l e  i s s u e l e s s  centre  the  of  "What  whole  or  t r i l o g y  M o l l o y ,  t o f i l l  and  the  of  the  remarkable  and  t a l e ,  his  same  it  useful  of  butt  by  and  o v e r r i d e s  i n a g i n a t i v e  As  of  long  the  unity;  B e c k e t t , knows  that  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  t e m p t a t i o n • t o  paradox  a  avatar  as  the  great  essence  s p e e c h l e s s ,  seen  s e l f  in  l i e s  have.to  f l a t ,  a  as  cy c 1 i ca 1  1  c o n i c a l of  grand  B e c k e t t ' s  summaries  major  margins,  be  at  the  a  would  and  may  anything  the  the  sense l e s s j  statements-  truth  it  blank  me  than  As  c r e a t e d .  of  best  V i con i an"  a  himself  m e t a p h i s i c "  p a r t i c u 1 ar1y  f i r s t  On  13)  that  to  is  beginning  suggest  termed  1 1  as  such  thought  U n n a m"a b 1 e ,  ever  question  Beckett  language.  there  a  such  appear  the  For  The  systems  he  in  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  language  possesses  emphasizes  of  of  ''poetic  into  p o e t i c  r i g h t ,  Hegelian  what  is  rather  Dies,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  a l l  His  i t s e l f  a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  Mo 1 1 o y ,  of  system  universe  c y c l i c a l  c u l m i n a t i o n .  of  what  an t i t-hes i s , ' s y n t h e s i s - - c h a o s .  purgatory  the  only  t y r a n n i c a 1 , . a t  a b s o l u t e s .  resolves  t h e s i s ,  is  consciousness  E x i s t e n t i a l i s t  is  Any  e x i s t e n t  of  an  r e a l i t y  B e c k e t t ' s  absence'  in  i n d i v i d u a l  m e a n i n g 1 e,s s .  s u f f e r e i n g  in  the  the'  a l l of a r t ,  the trans-^ that  55 is  to  say,  in  d i s c o v e r i n g  between The  "the  s e l f  s t o r i e s " . through  and  methodology  p h i l o s o p h i c only  is  to  s e l f ;  each  and  supply  n a r r a t o r ' s  sheets  serve  r e l i v e  the  in  and  of  1  f o r  the  c r i t i c s  have  pointed  p o r t r a i ts  of  the  means  as  s w a d d l i n g - c l o t h e s . of  the  macabre  race  which  a  type  second  childhood  has  infant  in  in  man  the  s t a t e d  the  l i f e l e s s  at  the  However, Molloy  in  time  a  and  of  is  only  of  his  c y c l i c a l  a  form  process  wanders  fading  sees  as  a  the  as  must c y c l i c a l seem,  the  of  to  a r t i s t Beckett  the  great  in  grave  a  c h i l d .  deal a  But  mori bunds which  and  .  f i g u r e  in  great  p r o c e s s .  unborn  deal  of  both  powers.  o u t s i d e  Molloy a  is  " f a c t "  B e c k e t t ' s  a r t i s t  other  a r t i s t  o c t a g e n a r i an ;  limbo  space.  the  the  " t h e r e  apogee t h i s  type  and  that  of  between  old'man  Beckett  most  r i d d l e ' o f . t h e  c r e a t i v e  an  and  ' ' s y n t h e s i s "  the  that  Each  entered  p o r t r a i t  to  e x t e r n a l .  at  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,  and  a  are  Each  as  Molloy  becomes  the  heroes  out  r e s u l t , of  l i t e r a r y  the  a r t i s t  by  h i s t o r y  both  r e l a t i o n s h i p  r a d i c a l l y  a  and  answer  more  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n  i n t e r n a l  his  a  h i m s e l f  mind,,  the  s a 1 v a t i o n ; 1 i e s -  some  s y m b o l i s t s .  s o u g h t  of  for  words  As  f i g u r e  of  long  q u e s t i o n s  are  t r i l o g y ,  have  s c e p t i c a l  the  Several  p r o c e s s . .  or  of  symbolic  Beckett  d i s e n t e g r a t i o n  " f i c t i o n "  the  But  hope  between  c l e a r l y  sense.  only  scramble  non'^self,  p r o b l e m a t i c  f a i l s  a  The  of  appears  the  in  the  among  to  normal  placed  c a t e g o r i e s  t h i r d  fading  have  zone  of  Murphy's  forms.  And even my s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y was wrapped in a nameless ne s s often hard to p e n e t r a t e ' . . . and so on for a l l the other things w h i c h made m e r r y with my s e n s e s . Yes, even then, when already a l l was f a d i n g , waves and p a r t i c l e s , there c o u l d be no things but nameless t h i n g s , no - n - a m e s but t h i n g l e s s names. I say 'that now, but a f t e r a l l what do I know now a b o u t then, now when the icy words h a i l down upon me, the icy meanings, and the world dies too, f o u l l y named, A l l I know is what the words know,,and the dead t i n g s , , and that makes a handsome l i t t l e sum, w i t h a b e g i n n i n g , a middle and an end as in the w e l l - b u i l t phrase and the 1ong sonata of the dead. ( p . 3 I) While  t h i s  passage  p o i n t s  f u l l - s c a l e ' l i n g u i s t i c most'  important  between  the  for  "now  towards  a n a l y s i s  of  M o i l o y ' s ' q u e s t  and  " t h e n " .  The  The  Unnamab1e  the  problem  is  the  room  in  of  and  s e l f ,  d i s j u n c t i o n which  B e c k e t t ' s what in  Molloy  time  is  56  s c r i b b l e s - h i s f u n c t i o n s '  story  a g a i h a s  of'  the  s e l f .  of  the  C a r t e s i a n  Kant's  two  moves in  a  The  a  very  the  which  res  of  is  for  c o g i t a n s  "as  the  in  a  a r t i s t i c  problem  M o l l o y ,  "My  l i f e ,  l i f e ,  for.  at  any  tense  to  the  t e l l  l o g i c a l l  as  same for  h i s and  that  Molloy  the  fading  b i t  of  a  to  This a e s t h e t i c subsequent' novels  upon  hope  to  He  modern  be  a  i t  Molloy  For  that  of  r a t i o n a l  by  l o g i c ' d o e s  is  i t  is  naive make  only  and  by  p e r c e p t i o n  l i f e  among  D e s c a r t e s '  regard i s ,  there forced  syntax  K a n t ' s  as  Beckett  he  is  in  to  d i s c o u r s e :  n e i t h e r ,  The  h i s  himself  f o r  something  and  thought  But  one  on,  a c c u r a t e l y  ego.  as  i s ,  s u r e . "  goes  would,  the  be  i t . is  Freudian by  to  p r e s e n t . "  of  compares  saying  the  and  " f i c t i o n . "  d e s c r i b e  Mo 1 1 o y  on,  b r i e f  d e s c r i p t i o n  of  the  problems  encountered  by  Moi l o y  n a r r a t o r s .  The a f o r  each  i h M o 1 1 o y ,"  F i c t i o n  i t  embodied  c a t e g o r i e s  w i t h i n  c o n s t r u c t s  is  only  b e l i e v e  u n f l i n c h i n g l y through  the  a  s e l f ' s  d i s c o v e r e d .  f o l l o w i n g - a n a l y s e s  complex  of  goes  time  as  space  would  l o g i c  i t s - p r e d e c e s s o r  " S c i e n c e  of  home  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  speak  and  the  t r e a t e d  time,  Molloy  type  c o n s t i t u t e s  "Landscape  a  d e f i n i t i o n  i n t u i t i o n ,  (p.kl)  imposed  of  be  of  " m y t h o l o g i c a l  even  w a s . "  some  can  the  d ' e t r e  head,  Consequently,  n e c e s s i t y  forms.  r e p r e s s i o n  freedome  in  I  over  (p.36)  t r a d i t i o n a l  transcendence  of  by  " m e l t i n g  f a i t h f u l  is  of  out  s t i l l  conception  can  as  i t  t h a t ? "  l i n e a r  the  "scheme"  time  out  and  now  a  cannot  becomes  j o k e w h i c h  story  d i s c o u r s e  escaping  of  ef. a  with  sensuous  cage  The  now  of  ra i son  s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l  that  s c h o o l s ,  my  a  h i s  i d e n t i f i e d  (p.51)  over,  become  categores  s l o w l y ,  jargon  symbol  room'  p r i o r i  has  in  separate i t s work  "The  The  story  of  sets' "I"  1  but  the in  each  of  treated  Dying  Unnamable." the  At  in the  novels  and  srcewe  t h i s  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  will.-be  i n t e r r e l a t i onshi ps•among  each  whole,  f u l l  A r t  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  the  l a b y r i n t h  work In  f o r  depends the  s e p a r a t e l y ,  Ma 1 o n e  Dies,  same'  time  w i l l  be  some'of t r a c e d .  th  57  Re f e r e n c e s  Wi 1 1 i a m  1  Ex i s t e n t i a 1 pp..  1958)  3  k  ,  I r r a t i . o n a 1- M a n  (New  York:  :  A  Doubleday  Study  In  and  CCK  Chatto  and  I n c . ,  1 - 2 .  Samuel  2 1 9 3 0  16  B a r r e t t ,  Philosophy  B e c k e t t ,  Proust  (London:  Windus,  p . 3 9 . Brian  Coffey  "Memory  Samuel  B e c k e t t " ,  Samuel  B e c k e t t ,  1  s._Mu r p h y  T h r e s h o l d , P r o u s t.,  p. 5 2  Maker  XVII  : .Some  ( 1 9 6 4 ) ,  notes  28-29 .  on  58 Chapter  III Landscape The  throw  two  l i g h t  possesses more  upon  Mo)loy  c o m p a r e d t b search  e r u d i t i o n ,  her-  p e r c e p t i o n  to  his  his  mother very  a  mythic  Odyssey.  s i t u a t i o n the  p a t t e r n s .  The  r e c a l l s  f i g u r e  that  from  c i r c l e  of.  companions  repeats who of  in  keeps the  that to  h i n t s Molloy  d e a t h . "  two  is  to  B e c k e t t ' s  i t s  use  a  the  room.  the  suggests are  ocean;  the.  seashore  Madame  a g a i n , Lousse  -her' g a r d e n - b e a r s  And  what  is  the  the  song  of  w i t h  the  then - disappears  N a u s i c a a :  one' t a l e "  p a r a l l e l s  on  At  e p i c  wanderings  him  a'  M o l l o y ' s  a r c h e t y p a l  s a i l e d  to  "nursery  in  is 1  question in  terms  s u b - l i t e r a r y  in  and  most  a  time  u s e o f  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  Compass , play  to  as  B e c k e t t ' s  back  a  Perhaps  s p e c u l a t i o n  s t r u c tu red  regarded  Molloy  i n c e s s a n t  t h e ' s i rens  f e a t u r e s  murmuring  l u r i n g  hii'm  1  regard is  C i r c e .  hears?  Such n o t i c e d  for  but  obvious  and  of  While  harkens  an  his  approaches  appearance  c a p t i v e  enchantress  Molloy  with  the  of  having  female  her  of  most  f l e e t i n g the  the  form  Molloy  mytho1ogoca1.  as  in  i n d e f i n i t e n e s s  "Molloy  the  wanderings  takes  in  landscape.  refers  The  the  of  i m a g i n a t i o n , -  'present  employed  use  of  journey. h o s t . o f  forms  form  his  for  Mo 1 1 o y  1i t e r a r y  B e c k e t t ' s  great  p r i m i t i v e  point  b a s i c  in  I ones c o ' s  a c c u r a t e l y  e n d l e s s .  a  of  type  of of  a: p a r a o d y  :  of  1e t ' s The  the the  The  V i c t i m s  d e s c r i b e s  What  p r i n c i p l e ' Molloy.  of  is  .what  d e t e c t i v e  E r a s e r s , Duty.  B e c k e t t ' s  be  form .i n  d e t e c t i v e  of  must  p a l i m p s e s t  1i t e r a r y  form,  use  Robbe-Gri1  almost  u s u a l l y  " t h r i l l e r . "  genre  Borges ' A  Part  is  Pea th- and  comment  reasons  s i m i l a r  for  in  the  I one's c o '  using  the  d e t e c t i v e ' f o r m : A l l the pi ays that haveAncient Greece to the pr been anything but t h r i l l re a 1 i s t i c and there has Every play i s an i n v e s t i .conclusion. There •i s a f i n a l scene. W.  H.  Auden-  between  the  even,  goes  phases  of  so-  f a r  ever' been w r i t t e n esent day, have n e r s . Drama has a a l w a y s b e e n a d e t g a t i o n brought to r i d d l e and it is  as - t o  A r i s t o t e l i a n  draw  , from ever r e a l l y lways been e c t i v e - about'. a s u c c e s s f u l solved in the  an. e l a b o r a t e  tragedy  and  those  p a r a l l e l of  the  59 d e t e c t i v e  t h r i l l e r .  d e t e c t i v e  s t o r y ,  G r a i l , of  maps  time)  by  world  in  his  which His  of  concern  is  Moran s o r d e r i n g  a  him  t h i s  face  to  of  his  of  in  (p.137) s e l f ,  beneath  has  Watt,  search  is  art  supported p r e - e x i s t s use  i n l i g h t ' of  form  of into  in  s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l  important i t s -actual' the  for  i ts  and  the  e p i c  the  Moi1oy.  is  and  d e t e c t i v e  which  l i e  Molloy  w i t h i n  the Proust:  the  genres  a r t i s t . " s u p p l i e s  epistemo1ogy, allows  use  of  of  for  and a  d e f i n i t e  story  b l u r r i n g  landscape  a s s o c i a t i o n s ' a  he  o w n - c r e a t i o n .  in  mythic  d e s c r i p t i o n s  o t h e r - h a n d , , t h e  his  the  statement  form  p o e t i c a l  The  o t h e r s . " for  with  The  " g a l l e r y  the  search  one  be  whole  process  of  Its  to  forces  of  come  supposedly  a l l a  f a t a l  never  seems  d e t e c t i v e  e p i c  begin  "The  had  and  problems  c o o r d i n a t e s .  n a t u r a l i s t i c  he  d i s c o v e r e d and  Gaber'  On  being"  B e c k e t t ' s  of  i m p l i c a t i o n s .  r e s p e c t a b i l i t y .  by  from not  B e c k e t t ' s  a r t i s t i c  the  At  d a r k l i b i d i n a l  the  a  j o u r n e y .  involves  "fabulous of  does  l i b i d o ) ,  M e r c i e r ,  the  innocent  message  his  a  creates  which  The  prototype  Moilby  be  equation  in  that  with  of But  d i s c o v e r s  of  agency  observance,  world  plan  s t a t e s  York,  for  a  this  Moran  h a d ' d e a l i n g s  to  important  On  r i t u a l  p r e c i s e l y  d e f i n e d .  Freudian-  whose  seems  for  B e c k e t t ' s  m i l i e u .  Moran,  bourgeois  of  for  the  bourgeois'  f e e l i n g  Moran  to  anagram  of  "The  more'  He  facade  metephorical  the  on  (p.99)  ,. M u r p h y ,  hunt  of  takes  (an  the  the  But  c a s e ,  c l i e n t s .  his  Molloy.  Molloy  O b i d i l  are  novels  by  Sherlock-Holmes hunt  up  even  d i s r u p t e d  his  philosophy  for (the  smug  g u i ,1 t ' e n t e r s .  w i t h - the  work  Quest  r e l i g i o u s  d e t e c t i v e  which  down  the  with  d e t e c t i v e  an  pulp  a  a r e - n e a t l y  pervades  is  in  perfunctory  c o n f r o n t a t i o n  searches The  hunt  of  Hence  a  the  d e t e c t i v e  c o o r d i n a t e s  values  Eden  Murphy,  moribunds  the  " i n  t i m e t a b l e s  l i v e s  p r i e s t , s e t s  in  d e t e c t i v e  other  Cooper  that  a, m e t a p h y s i c a l  Youd i ,  with  many  1i k e ' a  face  for  which  p r i n c i p l e . "  to  and  which  to  threshold  pleasure  space)  the  v i c a r a g e  m e t h o d i c a l l y  the  in  bourgeois  1  once  with  common  m i l i e u  of  time-space  uneasiness  f e e l i n g  image,  agent  the  s o c i e t y  sense  m i r r o r  mysterious  d i s c u s s i o n  closed  adds  Its  r i t u a l  an  the  d e f i n e d .  in  he  d e s i r a b l e . " ^  Moran, headed  as  (the  are  Furthermore,  is than  h i s t o r i c a l  presents  a  60  s c i e n t i f i c , of  the  r a t i o n a l  s l e u t h  grace  in  Molloy  in  which  the  the  d e s t r u c t i o n hunt  the  and  with  of  in  garden, boggy f o r e s t from  and  an  philosophy  death  p s y c h o l o g i c a l '  physical'.r.a l i t y ; w h i c h it  He  the  a l s o  shows  in  do  the  fa, i 1  to,  r e a l i z e  t h e y  a l s o  In  this  of  a  r e s p e c t ,  Moebius  the  s t r i p  The  most  c o n t r a s t ' b e t w e e n  country"  the  p r o j e c t e d  by  the  conscious  region  v a s t ,  1  w i l l  wheresoever always  be  1  region"  no  escape  through  hOHever, is  mind.  f o r e s t  never  that  the  and  return'  that  no  way  ends  in  the a  in  "and  i t s  of  is  end-  g o a l ,  but  a t t a i n i n g ' the  i t .  form  to  show  the  c u s t o m a r y world  p h y s i c a l  you  mind;,  his  "Molloy  things de-mytho-  as than the  a  your  s h a l l ,  a a  v i l l a g  i n t e r i o r  F o r M o l l o y mother,  the  world  l i m i t s ,  more  of  "Molloy  never  country no  the  d i t c h .  of  and  and  t h e i r  With  was  he  environment.  inner  d i s t a n t  earth  which  r e f l e c t s :  Molloy  the  one=sided.  c h a o t i c  and  time  In  resembles  Moran's  unfathomable. to  c h a o t i c  c i r c u l a r  landscape  it  scope  ordered  l a b y r i n t h i n e  novel  s e t t l e m e n t the  1  to  his  p r e c i s e 1 y . " ( p . 6 6 )  main  n i h i l i s t i c  J  order  reach  Molloy  the  a  landscape'  s t r u c t u r e d  l e f t  Moran'sees  l i m i t l e s s  except  the  a r t i f i c i a l l y  whose  is  the  wander , . w i t h i n  "narrow  landscape,  between  same,  Thus  ranges  is  to  and  you  s e n s i b i l i t y ,  l e a r n ,  the  have  1og i z e d  Both  of  It  novel  f a i l  you  the  chaos.  j u n g l e - l i k e  mind,,  endless  "Molloy  and  the  involves u n t i l  Moran's  the  which  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  a  the  and  o f . t h e  use  p o s s i b l y  in  in  in  d e a t h - i n - 1 i f e .  there  obvious'  subconscious  and  of  both  in  of  genre  forms  c o p e ' w i t h  the  that  or  is  to  of  is  an  d i t c h .  man  s t r u c t u r e  which  l o s t  to  c h a r a c t e r s  environment,  1  a  r e a l i t y  only  But  process  towards  from  s t a t e  s t a t e  memorized,  d e p i c t s  movement,  a  fad ing  has  becomes  attempt  l e s s ;  not  he  c o n f r o n t s  The  the  d e t e c t i v e  ranges  f u n c t i o n  one.  This  for  among  l i f e  impenetrable;  the  a l l o w s  from  inner  are  one.  journey  in  an  restore  e s t a b l i s h  of  covers  or  to  The  form: w h i c h ' i n v o l v e s  which  terms ' B e c k e t t  p r o j e c t s - i n t o  to  M o 1.1 o y  Molloy  is  are  fade  of of  where  to  of'  "forms  e v e n t u a l l y  b i r t h  is  form  u n i v e r s e .  e t h i c a l  aimless  l i t e r a r y  d e t a i l  Bal lyba  and  "schema"  landscape  every  s t o r i e s  Moran.  the  which  The  the  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  of  B e c k e t t ' s  a e s t h e t i c  of  be come s  breakdown  :  of  a e s t h e t i c  f u n c t i o n  a e s t h e t i c  1  d e t e c t i v e  the  the  Moran s  o r d e r i n g  there  wondering country",.  is  61 or  the  1and  p r o d u c t i v e  o f  Ba11y ba ,  bog  and  i s  meagre'  a ' region  of  apparently  un-  pastures : .  But the p r i n c i p l e beauty of t h i s region was a k i n d of s t r a n g l e d creek which the slow grey t i d e s emptied and f i l l e d , emptied and f i l l e d . And the people came f l o c k i n g from the town, unromantic people, to admire the s p e c t a c l e . Some said There is nothing more b e a u t i f u l than these wet sands. Others, High t i d e is the best time to see the creek of B a l l y b a . How lovely then that leaden w a t e r , you w o u l d . s w e a r ' i t - w a s stagnant, if you did not know i t was n o t . And yet others held i t was l i k e a n u n d e r g r o u n d ' l a k e . But a l l were agreed, l i k e the i n h a b i t a n t s of Blackpool , that t h e i r town was on the s e a . And they had B a l l y on-Sea p r i n t e d on t h e i r notepaper. (p.134) The receives  s t r a n g l e d  creek  may  an  ebb  and  flow  of  understand,  but  can  only  try.  repressed  persona 1i ty  some'observers, genius, only  to  one'  people  s e a ! "  o t h e r s ,  f a c t  a l l  exclaims  -  which  to  is' seldom  that  The  know  t h e i r  f r u s t r a t i o n :  c o n t r a s t ,  and  explain-,  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  they  subconscious  information  madness.  that  agree  w i t h In  these  be' the  town  is  of  man  may to  does  be  not  the  emerge.  To  c h a r a c t e r • r e p r e s e n t are'  c e r t a i n  l i t t l e  a b o u t \ t h e  on  sea,  the  mind,  environment  !  i t  a l l owed  "Unfathomab1e  Horan s  or  observers  very  which  which  is  of  mind.  The  and'Moran now  beacon,  ordered'and  now  f a m i l i a r :  Does' t h i s mean I s h a l l one day be ban i s h e d from my h o u s e , f r o m my g a r d e n , l o s e my t r e e s , my 1 awns, my b i r d s , of which the l e a s t is known t o me a n d the way. a l l i t s own it has of s i n i n g , of f l y i n g , o f c b m i n g up t o me o r f l e e i n g a t my c o m i n g , l o s e and be banished from the absurd c o n f o r t s of my h o m e w h e r e a l l is snug and'neat and a l l those things at hand w i t h o u t which | could not' bear being a man, where my e n e m i e s cannot reach me, w h e r e i t was m y - l i f e ' s work to adorn, to p e r f e c t , to - keep ? I am t o o o l d to lose' a l l t h i s a n d b e g i n ' a g a i n , -I - a m t o o O l d . Q u i e t . M o r a n , q u i e t . No e m o t i o n , p l e a s e , (p.132) :  1  1  Moran's is  journey  a " l o n g , a n g u i s h o f  bear  the  e x i s t e n c e and  n e c e s s i t y which  that  lurks  garden.  Now,  of  his  vagrancy  of  has  s u b c o n s c i o u s ,  Molloy his  insearch  subconscious and  abandoning  acted  between  as  a  the  freedom."'  his  that  w i t h i n .  F i n a l l y ,  he  however,  the  and  bees  between others  again hens  hidden  He  c a r e f u l l y  b a r r i c a d e Moran  or  can  hardly  s t r u c t u r e d his know  seeks are  i d e n t i t y  conscious and  refuse  dead,.and  the in the  62 b i r d s  are  w i l d .  order  arid  f a m i l i a r i t y  f u n c t i o n  as  a  Molloy  the  and  garden  that  each  formal  p a t t e r n s  remain  to  s e m i - c o n s c i o u s  There by  The  i s . a l s o  a  Moran.  Each  he  garden  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  is  of  a l l o w  a  r e a l i t y .  but  to  the  assume  perhaps  merely  Moran  between  seems ' to  or  gone,  enough  continue  to  i n d i v i d u a l .  c o n t r a s t  i n h a b i t s ^  are  it  is  p r o j e c t i o n Molloy  gardens'  some  more of  chosen  t r a i t s  -of  c o r r e c t " t o  say  t h a t " c h a r a c t e r ' s  remembers:  And there was a n o t h e r ' h o i s e ; that of my l i f e becoming the l i f e of t h i s garden as it rode the earth of depth a n d ' w i l d e r n e s s e s . Yes, there were times when •I ' . f o r g o t - n o t only who' I was, but that I was, forgot to be. Then I was no longer t h a t ; s e a l e d j a r to which I o w e d my b e i n g so w e l l p r e s e r v e d , but a w a l l gave way and I f i l l e d with roots and tame stems for example, stakes long s i n c e dead and' ready for b u r n i n g , the recess of n i g h t a n d the imminerice of dawn; and then the labour of the planet r o l l i n g eager into w i n t e r , , w i n t e r. w o u 1 d r i d it of these contemptible s c a b s ' . . . B u t that did not happen t o me o f t e n , mostly I stayed in. my j a r which k n e w n e i t h e r seasons or gardens, (p.49) The of  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n A r s e n e ' s  Arsene The  n y s t i e  j a r  is  the  his  of  there  Morna's  w i t h  the  i s ,  to  is  g r a d u a l l y  ot  his  c o n s c i o u s  mind.  the  sanctuary  of  change  i n f l u e n c e he  is  to  support  in of  taught  the his to  his  l o c k e d .  He  in  and  must on  s o l i p s i s t i c . •-  Moran to  rhythms  now  which  to  knees  :  of  is  he  had  matched  by  which  reveals  man  r e a l i t y .  and Molloy  e v e n t u a l l y  of  a  bees' he  the  dance  f e e l s s h u t ,  Moran  gate  e f f o r t  a  L  b u t  finds open.  demanded  p r e v i o u s l y ,  is  the  garden  never  burst  u s e - p h y s i ca1  and  's  the  return to  the  i n t e r p r e t  r e s t r i c t i o n s  epvironment  and  his  forced  the  landscape  created  weak  is  of  c h a r a c t e r s  apply  of  w i c k e t  On  and  de s c r i p t i on ' o f  t r y i n g  and  Molloy  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  part  Lousse's  freed  order  For  . r e s t r i c t i o n s ' on - b e h a v i o u r ,  f i t ,  being  g e o m e t r i c a l  f i g u r e s  always  does  r e m i n i s c e n t  e s s e n t i a l l y  spends'hours  the  is  cosmos.  important  impose'them.  key  generation  he  in  nature  b a r r i e r - b e t w e e n  a p p a r e n t  w i c k e t  The-  however,  most  where  areno  his  is  f u s i o n  The  s i g n a l s  compelled  He  with  impenetrable  beehive  system  that  s e l f  " C a r t e s i a n " "or  e x t e r n a l . w o r l d .  If  the  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  b o d y , t h e  is  of  to  by regain  depended. •  p h y s i c a l d e s t r i p p e d  the  formal  wanders chooses  using to  of  the  approach c r u t c h e  remain  in  63 a  d i t c h .  worm. the  He'has  The  key  b i c y c l e .  B e c k e t t i a n p e r f e c t mind  Hugh,  hero  for  a  it  l e f t  in  his  ,and  i n e v i t a b l y  b i c y c l e  of  seems the  1i k e  fails.*  more  ideal  Moran leg  is  For  and  a l s o  moves  the  only  This  d e s o l a t e  M o l l o y ,  symbol  of  is  the the'  ideal  and  fusion  of  important the  f a t a l  But  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  dream  d e r e l i c t  in  which  C a r t e s i a n  t h i s  soon  body  confusion  "The  the  a  di smemberment  " C a r t e s i a n •Centaur",:  with  b i c y c l e  l i k e  of  Centaur being*.  apotheosis  remnant  becomes  grass  impressions  a  reduced  to  a  l i s t e n  :  is  of  only  the a  memory  the  be  him,  e f f e c t s  of  in  garden  the to  to  His  use  a '  perhaps c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  between  grow.  r e v e r i e  and  landscape. a  Molloy  Moran  wasteland  where  d e s c r i b e s  t h i s  both  the  earth  and  the  p r i m i t i v e - p r i s o n  beauty  b e s t i a l  and  can  m e n t a l l y .  forced  off  echoed  o r d e r l y  could i t s  rot  the  and  is  d i s t i n g u i s h  and'weeds  of  M o l l o y , h e  of  longer  which  p h y s i c a l l y  c l o t h e s  c u l t i v a t e d  region  I  the  problem.  degenerates  no  f a l s e man  ive  most'  god'.  degeneration  his  b i t t e r  a  e l i m i n a t i o n  !  from  :  the  u n t i l ,  h i s - m i n d c a n  r e a l i t y .  away  dream,  c r u t c h e s , h i s  s y m b o l i z i n g  This  a  h e T e s e m b l e s  past;  weakened  b i c y c l e  and  do  mind-body  moving  the  B e c k e t t ' s  to  Cartes i an'man-machine, a  termed  mechanism. one  u n t i l  progress  has  s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  knowing;  of  t h i s  Kenner  on  'consti tutes  Descartes was  f a c t o r  corporeal  symbols,  dehumanized  been  s t r i p p e d  of  man' of  s t a t e :  voice  is  of  a  world  c o l l a p s i n g  e n d l e s s l y , a frozen world under a f a i n t ' untroub1ed sky, enough to see by, yes, and frozen too. And I hear it murmur that a l l w i l t s and y i e l d s , as if loaded down,- but there arerio loads, and the ground t o o , J u n f i t for loads, and'the l i g h t ' too, down toward an e n d it seems can never come. For what p o s s i b l e end to these' wastes where true 1i g h t ' n e v e r was, nor any upright t h i n g s , forever' l a p s i n g and crumbling away, "beneath a sky without memory of.morning or hope of n i g h t . . . an it says that here nothing s t i r s , has never s t i r r e d * w i l l never s t i r , except myself, who do n o t s t i r e i t h e r when I am t h e r e , but see and am s e e n . Y e s , - a world at an e n d , in s p i t e of appearances, i t s end brought it f o r t h , ending i t began, • is i t c l e a r e n o U g h ? ( p . 4 0 ) 1  The Like  names-  B a u d e l a i r e  between.the example,  and  body  sends  in  Joyce  and  his  the  the  son  to  landscapebefore  him,  landscape Hole  a l s o  Beckett  and  which  seem  to  b e s u g g e s t i v e .  draws  c i t y s c a p e . .  could  suggest  p a r a l l e l s Moran, nothing  for or  64 nowhere,  Hell  the  underworld  to  the  or  excrement.  is  s e x u a l i z e d ,  e s p e c i a l l y  wryly  body  or  s p e c u l a t e s  that  it  and'  is  "must lead  o r i f i c e  of  the  the  be  our  "ba"  of  l a t t e r ' s  E n g l i s h and  slang to  " f l a b b e r g a s t e d " ,  and  Molloy  suggest on  the  a  as  or  help  for  Godot).  f e e l s He  may  in' how  my I  And  in  of  some  In  the  s n a i l  yet  of  second  her in he  the  is  (p.39)  ,  an  separated has  nothing  of  French  longs  of  both  could  I iii  in  of  the to  terms to  any  c h a r a c t e r s  reminds  one  which)  with  of  i n s e c t , could  i t s  reader  s h e l l  of  have  the  degenerated  both  his he  s e c t i o n s  dying  decides  to  f o r e s t ' ( c f . : W a i t i n g  see  his  mother,  whom  back  where  he  happened  n a r r a t i v e  by  e x p l a i n i n g :  an I'd  1ive  'there  ambulance, never  returns  and  wait  go  who'  of  mother  to  s t a y ,  the  Moran  these  The  the  found  town,,and  helped.  the  meaning  wi t h o u t  c h a r a c t e r s  search  end  Perhaps  word  remember  l a s t ' b e c a u s e  It's  s e c t i o n  is  in  the  to  wi I d e m e s s .  out at  "the  invironment  c r e a t u r e  the  and  b1ood-sucking  remind  quest,  begins  was  a M  s u f f i z e s  add,  A l l  Moran  never  " B a l l y "  The  which  negation  other  the  ."  wanderers.  can  w h i l e  i t s d o m a i n "  a  r o l e s .  or  nearby  room.  I  have  p h y s i c a l  of  which  the  sets  he  there.  k i n d ;  plus  a l s o  the  names to  "Mo 11oy  mother's got.  is  t h e i r  through  There be  Moran  excrement,  t o . " 1 bu s e " , . a  These  d i t c h  to  (Moran  a  find  a  c h i e f  which  s y l l a b l e s  landscape  c l o s e  theme  cone 1udes:  (p.91)  a  meaning  Molloy  in  the  "con founded  " B a l l y  "Baba"  Moilone  f i n d s / d o e s ' n o t for  to  meaning  suggest  s t r u g g l e  novel.-  refer  nonsense  ,  c o n d i t i o n  The the  a l s o  are  of  o u t s i d e . '  they  is  and  humour  concludes  always"  former's  vigorous  i n d i c a t e  m o l l u s c ,  dehumanized  Molloy  the  is  or  both  of  a l s o  Lousse  While  Molloy  us  anus  d e s c r i p t i o n  image  Moron,.  the  "dumbfounded."  convey  could  "shows  the  landscape  b i r t h ,  or  the  names  anal  "amazed",  supplement  appa-ren t - orde r  moon  the  metaphors.  that  term  - confusion  the  the  an  reference  i t .  d o m a i n e x c l u s i v e l y " fee1ihg•of  of  gross  Molloy  s t a t e  i t s  could  "baba"  as  excremental  r e a l i t y ,  in  about  in  arse" to  v i s i o n  prud ish  an  her  well  Throughout  memory  being.  "Turdy" is  his  f i l i a l l y  excremental from  on  as  to  havehis  now.  into,  the to  I  he f o r e s t . be."  "I  don't  c e r t a i n l y  a  am know  v e h i c l e  got  there  a l o n e . "  home  a f t e r  s e a r c h i n g  65 w i thou't . s u cces s w i l d e r n e s s  of  his  and  garden  this to  episode  be  able  is  are  f a c t s  to  which He  form  several k i n d , the  of  the  Molloy.  decay  a l s o  conscious  his  beating  "It  mind  apart,  his  at  was  on  the  not  to  l i v e  in  However,  he  does  not'  occurrences report  the  by  and  windows."  midnight.  becoming  his  These his  It  was  not-  for  mother  As  a  as  a  for  Molloy  can  his  Molloy  or  .as  his  leg  now  begins  it  to  is  the  to  be  During  the  his  The  the  he  is  death  and that is  subconscious o b l i v i o n  of  of  journey  b i c y c l e  of  It  quest  a c t i v e ,  i n e r t i a r e l i s h  the  man-  o r i g i n s ,  room.  Moran's  l e a s t ,  of  p o s s i b l e  peaceful  weakens,  t h a t ' t h e  that  symbolize  of  seems  t o . m o v e d i m i s h e s . stated  is  the  subconscious'.  take  say  his  mother's  symbol  r e s t i n g - p l a c e  to  i d e n t i t y ,  Thus  in  which  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  meaning  which  and  have,  a  his  growth.  Molloy  the  insane  quests  the Moran  f a l l s  organized  things  was  opportun i ty  enough of'  immobile: To be l i t e r a l l y incapable of motion at l a s t , th be s o m e t h i n g ! My m i n d swoons when I think of i mute into t h e . b a r g a i n ! And perhaps'as deaf as A n d who- k n o w s as b l i n d a s a bat! And - as l i k e l y your memory a blank! And j u s t enough brain i n t allow you t o e x u l t ! , And to dread death l i k e a r e g e n e r a t i o n , ( p . 1 4 0)  But  seem  w r i t i n g :  b e g i n n i n g o f  unresolved  p l a u s i b l e  d i t c h  search  e a r l i e r  one  and  and  a  see  a b i 1 i t y  had  One  earth  for  becomes  d r i v e  is  the  s e a r c h .  because  begins  s e a r c h i n g ' f o r  in  to  slowly  to  be  r e b i r t h  Moran's  who  his  into  back  p h y s i c a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  be'both  mihd•searching  man  of  the  p o s s i b l e  death.  come  a n d ' d e t e c t i v e - s t o r y  death.  for  and  e p i c  may  womb,•or  a l s o  He  observed  adds;  of  between  wind  had  has  u n c e r t a i n t y  overlapping  l e v e l s  could  in  ventured  (p.176)  s e a r c h i n g  he  he  then  These the  and  r e a l i t y . - . The  has  r e p o r t  d i s t i n g u i s h  r a i n i n g .  r a i n i n g . "  a  ends  -o f  He  country  w r i t e  a l s o  to  monlogue.  Molloy..  Molloy  own' c o n c e p t i o n "It  for  Moran  is  s t i l l  not  f r o m Y o u d i  v i a  r e a s s u r i n g  o r d e r . o f  conscious  to  Gaber,  the  his  own  d r i v i n g  his  him  garden  regimented  man,'  ,  He  back  from  real i ty  receives from  the he  the  chaos  has  a  at must t . And a post! as not a c t to  message  forest of  the  to sub-'  c o n s t r u c t e d .  the  66 In  e x p l o r i n g  the  toward  inner  s t r u g g l i n g knowable  and  important of  the  do)  y e t . w h i c h  image  a  ( l a b y r i n t h s  I did"as.when my m i n d , s l o w l l a b y r i n t h , i t s garden and y e t could wish or I heard the d i s t i l l time ... s e a . (p . Moran  e x p l a i n s  from he a  years  I  i s . a l s o  i h t h e  a 1i ty a l s o  says  are  that  he  can  and  his  no  a c t u a l  awa i t i n g  Youdi  (  which  could  a  re 1 i g i o u s  which  of  he  the  be 1 i e f .  Moran  d e s c r i b e d  is  as  a  is un-  is  an  s t r u c t u r i n g  nature  as  is  jungles  trapped:  1  To  that  role  of  in my t' And time, now  t h i s  prol  f a c t  an  that  t h e i r of  phenomenon;  object ive  e v e r y t h i n g ,  f i c t i o n  is  truth  n o t h i n g .  the  of  Moran  perhaps  of  of  "Dieu"  and  and  image•  i f e r a t i o n  of  Perhaps  which  he  to  assume  blood  somethat  of  " J a h v e h " ) ,  imposed  by  his  a l t e r n a t i v e s  questionas  Moreover,  c a l l s  e x i s t e n c e .  Both  can  And Moran  best fades  when is  (a  to  it  Noumenon  f i c t i o n .  could  own  M o l l o y ,  God's  dream."  his  taught  f i f t h  a c t u a l  p e r s o n - '  f a c e d ' t o  been  the  is  meaning  " s u s p e c t s "  f l e s h a  f o r s t ; .  chaos.  consciousnessness  into  in  p e r s o n a l i t y  o r i g i n a l .  "waking  the  w h i c h t o  been  has  and  d i s i n t e g r a t e d  conception  he  l i g h t  known  waits  d i t c h  These  r a i s e s  Moran's  once  a  d i s i n t e g r a t i n g  adds  in  toward  M o l l o y s ,  t h i s  man  man  a  has  his  he  had  complete  he  of  these  I  mind  his  t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n  But  type  of  "the  drawing  p e r s o n a l i t y  f i v e  c h a r a c t e r  i m p l i c a t i o n  admit  a  c o n t r o l .  in  and  l a b y r i n t h  l a b y r i n t h  face  whether  by  in  i s ' in  knows  -  of  1  repress:  c h a r a c t e r  be  or  aspects  the  1  Moran s  s c h i z o p h r e n i a )  doubt  Moran  e s s e n t i a l l y  v i c t i m  that  Molloy  longer  me."  k i n d  o f . t h e  type"of.mu1tip1e  into  mind  a r t i f i c i a l  the  name,  " c a r i c a t u r e "  p o s s i b l e  there  an  :  cannot  and  o t h e r s ,  where  n o t o c c u r  beast  indenti t i e s  the  to  he that  a l t e r n a t e l y ' a s s u m e  presents  a  several  be' v a r i o u s  p e r s o n a l i t y ,  do  centre  recesses  because  there  is The  both  not'  r e p r e s s i o n .  Moran that  the  man' b e c o m e  l a b y r i n t h  sought.  f e l t . " a  could  In  of  which  is  in  own  I could not s l e e p . I wandered y , noting every d e t a i l of the paths a s f a m i l i a r a s those of ever new, as empty as the hear a l i v e ' w i t h strange encounters. s t a n t cymbals. There is s t i l l -Unfathomable mind, now b e a c o n ,  t h a t ' h e  d e n i e d . "  m i n,pt a u r , , a  be  his  106)  and' countenance long  it  confusing-maze  of  r e a l i t y  must  because  unknown  and  an  l a b y r i n t h  be into  f i c t i o n  only  Moll  the  is  67  figment  of  expressed of  some by  Mo 1 1 o y .  c a t i o n  other  Borges Even  that  the  in  at  The  t h i s  search  Whenever  i d e n t i t i e s ,  him  is  reduced  point  in  the  the  s e l f  the is  t i t l e able  is  an  only is  i n . t h e  beast  incoherence  and  f r u s t r a t i n g  able  to  c o n s i d e r  p e r s o n a l i t y own he  l i s t e n i n g  without  ravaging-mind. is  the  of  the  Both through uses  Molloy  fear  being  time  and  l e f t  this  p e r p l e x i t y . "  The  the  a  method,  was  need  suck,  order a l s o The  a l s o  rapture,  of  he the  bees'  s a t i s f y i n g here  understand.  is And  I  think  compelled  a n a l y s i s  extremely  way I  but  -need  not  them  a  a l l  during  in  not  of  apparent  can t h i s  system  w r i t e s :  study long  a l l  over'  of  "And my  journey  real  to  a l s o  in  twice,  of  haphazard  meaning  He  his  "But  Moran  r e a l i t y  and  c o n t r o l  instead  a  his  sucked  anger  h i m s e l f .  into  with  method  of  Moran. I  a  instead  movements  by  Molloy  one  suck:  n e e d ."'  peppermints  find  something  to  d e s c r i b e d ,  b o d i l y  p r i e s t  for  his  urge  he  environment  arranged  B e f o re'-.d i s c o v e r i n g at  that  repressed  environment.  "hot  have  garden'  c o n t a c t  was  his  I t i s  Mo r a n .  that  there  of  Moran  consumed  he  as  that  his  how  gaxed  terms  s i gn i f i , c a n t ' t h a t  s u s t a i n  p h y s i c a l  "he  in  him.  his  t o . e x p l a i n  sucks  to  in  seems  and to  w i t h i n  s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d  It  or  i n a c t i v i t y :  or  w i t h i n  f a c i n g  r e - e s t a b 1ishment'of  the  t o . r e a s s u r e f e e l s  feat  b o d i l y  s t o n e s i n  to  so  u n s u c k e d . " .  a c c o m p l i s h i n g  much  his  loose  M o l l o y ,  c o m p l e t e l y  Mo 1 1 o y  energy  not  as  in  c h a r a c t e r s . a t t e m p t  s u c k i n g - s t o n e s  is  even  is  s ixteen one  of  or  a s s i m i l a t e d .  novel  of  voice  meeting  s t r u c t u r i n g ' o f • t h e i r  much  the  roles  long i n t e r v a l s , bulk, rage, s u f f o c a t i o n , v a i n . Just the o p p o s i t e hange.. And when I saw v o c i f e r a t i o n , I was  a s s i m i l a t e d ,  l i k e n e s s  to  is  ;  i n d i -  r e g r e s s i o n .  c o n f l i c t i n g  o r d e r ' r e m a i n i n g  - Yet  be i n g ' f u r t he r  t i t l e  of  a  is  i n f i n i t e  the  into  d e s c r i p t i o n  there  that  p a r t i a l l y  semblance  apt,  f e e l s  degenerating stand  f o r c e f u l l y  these  by-becoming  to  an  t r i l o g y  -  only  theme  Ruins,  This was how he came t o me, at Then I was n o t h i n g but uproar, e f f o r t u n c e a s i n g , f r e n z i e d and of myself, in f a c t . It was a c him d i s a p p e a r , his whole body a almost s o r r y , (p.113) I t i s  a  recognizes  he to  dream,  C i r cu1 a r  for  Moran  assumed and  c h a r a c t e r ' s  ity  suck but  with  f e e l s  stones  the in  However,  he  . c o n f u s i o n . ' s i g n a l s  is  I  with  l i f e ,  s a i d , and  home...the  never thought  68 of  my b e e s  (p.  124)  added is  and t h e i r  Thus  important.  to  A g a i n ,  the  c r e a t i v e  the  B e e k e t t i a n  you  would  " I " .  never  centre  o f  a r t .  They  reason  and  t o , o r g a n i c  as  Moran, and  c o n t r o l l i n g wore  though  he seems  r e a l i t y ,  Molloy  p h y s i c a l , garbage  i f  dump  to  d i s c o v e r  no  more means  able  o f  four  ways  Moran  and  i s s t i l l  t h e paradigm  i n  accept  what  counts,  that  way  by  to-be  done,  a r e able as t h e  have  o f  e v e r y t h i n g  " r e a l i t y "  Both  seems  your  a p a r a d o x i c a l  and t h e r a t i o n a l  i s  i s s t i l l  as a highly  t o  v i t a l  l i e s  a  only  double  o b j e c t ,  t o  t o t h e voyage  he g r o t e s q u e l y  than  somehow  w i t h  from  t r i v i a l  t o break  a se n d  makes  wayo f  i n d e t a i l wearing  through  love.  i n  t o a  t o a  This  desperate  and outer  t h e f o r e s t t h i s  s t r a n g e l y  o f  without'  behaviour  how  he  o u t .A l -  e x e r c i s e s  love  t h e arrangment  that  permutations  wi t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . '  t h e inner  through  emphasizes  o f  i t  with  f o r m a l i z e d  He e x p l a i n s  able  contact  t h e meaning  f a s c i n a t e d  t o keep  preoccupied  connecting  but  there  t h e journey,  1ogica1'conc1 usion ,  M o l l o y ,  f u t i l e  t o wander  important,  before  becoming.  o f o b j e c t s  s u c c e s s f u l  t h e  a n d ' i m a g i n a t i o n  h i s environment.  h i s s h i r t  that  that  means.  l i k e  combinations  and n o t t h e goal  M o 11 b y o r M o r a n  e x p e r i e n c e  rea1i zati on'and  t h e voyage  o f  wi t h t h e  i s no whole,  and t h a t ' s  cannot  again,  c o m f o r t . "  y o u s e t o u t t o mention  N i e t h e r  o f  t o  " F o rt h e w h o l e  regarded  F o r i f  t h e sumbolic 'process  sheer  a  i s  (p.41)  t h e paradbx  l o y a l t y  had said  anywhere.  be done,  regard  in  Molloy  thing  recurs  t h e search  however,  p r o c e s s ,  done",  i s  quest  Perhaps' the re  (p.27)  have  i t  t o a r r i v e  be no s p e l l .  to  that  E a r l i e r  i s never  dead."  was t h e nearest  t h e theme " o f - t h e  imp1ication  thing  dance  ordering  purely In t h e  s e x l e s s  woman  approach  i s  sucking  stones  as  w o r l d .  Molloy  i s  a p p a r e n t ' c o n c e r n , i s p e c u l i a r  f o r - h i m  enjoyable:  It w a s then t h e unheard of s i g h t was t o - b e ' s e e n o f Moran making ready t o g o wi t h o u t ' k n o w i n g where he was going, having c o n s u l t e d n e i t h e r map o r t i m e t a b l e , c o n s i d e r e d ' n e i t h e r i t i n e r a r y n o r h a l t s , heedless of t h e weather o u t l o o k , w i t h only t h e vaguest notion of t h e o u t f i t he-would need, t h e time t h e e x p e d i t i o n was l i k e l y t o take, t h e money he w o u l d r e q u i r e , and even t h e very nature o f t h e work t o be'done and consequently t h e means t o be employed, (p.121)  69 This  is  being  perhaps  one  a s s i m i l a t e d  towards  M o l l o y ' s  a e s t h e t i c  of  by  to  is  then  seven  for  ciphers Only  by  n a r r a t o r s and as  the  the  forced is  tend  to  real  a e s t h e t i c  it  becomes  than  of  But  the  t h r e s h o l d ,  the  outer  and  emphasize  with  inner  c a r p e n t e r f i x i on  I  likened that  to  "the  the  the  s t a r e  shepherd  of thus  a  the  only  can  has  by  true  by  pursuing  B e c k e t t ' s to  o r g a n i c now  appear in  r e a l l y  which happened,  r e a d e r - i s  Democritus  which  is  f i n a l l y  that  the  c r e a t e s  a  " b o t h / a n d " in  Molloy  the  "Nothing  i d e n t i f i e d  symbolism.  r a i s e s .  a  and  mother,  lumber, a l l u s i o n  awareness world  of  s t a t i o n s . with  type  Molloy  and  his  The  his  f o r c e f u l  of  a  of  dog.  between  some  novel  Molloy i t s  to  C h r i s t ' s  and  c o n t r a s t  as  of .  w e l l  s i g h t s  on  asleep The  type'  1  " p a s t o r a l  way  to  whose  a some  c r u c i -  domonic  which  course the  is  f a c t  phosphorous"  C h a r o n ' f i g u r e .  f a l l s  metaphor,  Furthermore,  sulphur  of  new  the  Molloy  the  Freudian  Two  the  as  becomes, b l u r r e d  with  i t  for  grows  d i s j u n c t i o n  problem  burning  shepherd  fantasy  summarize  without  town  and  world  to  n a i l s  as  inner  serve  ( p . 26)  boatman  the  r e l i g i o u s  of  was  and"  r e a l i ty  evanescent  c a v a l r y  outside  and  The  when  s e e k e r .  d i a l e c t i c  What  real?  is  twenty-two  w i t h  Molloy  negative  other.  a r o u s e s 5' an  murky,  the  a  outer  search  cargo  horizon  i d e n t i f i e s f r o n t i e r  a  of  f i l l  of  know  a n y t h i n g ,  that  a l l e g i a n c e  parts  emphasize  w i l l  suppose."  the  an  to  i n c u r i o u s  begins,  pages  introduces  c e n t r a l  i mmed i a t e 1 y  pervades  of  becomes  or  Molloy  "a  of  as  the  o r d e r ' t o  the  the  the  n o t h i n g n e s s ,  two  each  l o g i c  Beginnihg boatman  The  B e c k e t t  in  in  of  want  a n y t h i n g ,  of  i r r a t i o n a l i t y ,  p h y s i c a l  metaphysical  i n t e r l u d e s "  beyond  n o t h i n g . "  between  work.  soul  Beckett  between  " e i t h e r / o r "  a b s o l u t e  w i t h  to  the  paradox  d i s c e r n i b l e  gap  d i s t i n c t i o n  as  an  conclude  The  dream  (p.64)  cancel  important  knowing  be  d i v i s i o n  a n t i t h e s i s  to  f i n a l l y  more  The  and  most  is  points  to  knowing  l a s t .  the  it  n o t h i n g , - n o t '  the  true  e x p e r i e n c e .  t h e s i s  is  to  and  overcome  terms  what  the  u n t i l  r a t i o n a l  is but  beyond  i n ,  the  Moran  n o v e l ) :  example,  at  espousing  r a t i o n a l i t y  are  i m p o r t a n t l y ,  (perhaps  nothing  enters  i n d i c a t i o n s ' that  More  the  • 1 ?kewise,  t o k n o w y o u It  Molloy.  in  know  anything peace  f i r s t  c o n c l u s i o n  statement  For  the  and  In aWakes  encounter between  t h i s  with  the  under the  world  of  .  70 sin  and  damnation  intermingi  ing  and  of  these  that  shrouds  M o l l o y ' s  line  between  the  should which  be  Testament  which nags to  overtones the is  an  "Where  shambles?"  Molloy  answer.  An  e l u c i d a t e  the  over  about  the  world  no  met  of  a l l  With Moran  white  beard",  As  part,  has  goes  the  Old  the  and  " f l o c k "  and  Good  imagery  the  question f i e l d s  the  "shambles"  negate  any  overtones  the  scene.  In  between  the  from  one's  shepherd  the  the  or  are of  of  of  the "leap  secen to f o r  i d e n t i t y . a  Waiting  (Chap. an  the  sheep.  In  f a i t h "  which the  M o l l o y , Moran, to  has  is  that  thus  The  query  1  B e c k e t t i a n  under-  p o s s i b l e . in  one.  the  second  Moran  has  a 1ready  symbol  who e a r l i e r  stated  whom  may  learn  Moi1oy s  he  halfalready ica11y a  hatred  i s ' a t t c a e t e d . .  sentimental ism s t i l l  f a r  s a y :  to  Godot  i r r a t i o n a l  bourgeois as  receives  shepherd,  in  the  occurs  f i r s t  shepherd  f o r  a b s o l u t e l y i m p l i c i t  He  v.23).  25,  him as  tramps  and  is  to  regards  f l o c k .  goatherd  Matthew  d e s t i n y  hunt  s i g h t s  so  of  One  to  i t  d e t a i l  S w i f t ,  s t r a y e d ' f r o m  p o s s i b i l i t y  h i s  a  While  C h r i s t  them,  play  o l d  even  in  d i v i d i n g  B e c k e t t ' s  this-  i n . h i s  of  about  taking  whether  " p a s t o r a l "  traces  of  ambiguity  figure  " p a s t o r "  in  of  animals,  terms  the  boatman,  i n s c r u t a b l e .  a n a l o g o u s . s i t u a t i o n  the  h i s  the  correspondence'.  you  is. contrapuntal  f a i l u r e  destroyed  long  But  innocence.  K i e r k e g a a r d i a n  Molloy  The  symbolism  large  d e s t i n a t i o n  The of  who  l i n e s  determination  are  in  d i s c r i m i n a t e s  anguish  d i v i n e ?  the  simple  wonders  sheep"  of  (p.28)  p a s t o r a l  reversing  the  opaqueness  a  tradi t i o n a l  Godot  " a  b i b l i c a l  such  Molloy:  help  the  are  and,  no  is  purposes  there  " b l a c k  Where  God whose  omnipresent  a  an  him with  prevents  the  had  in  w o r l d .  and  innocence.  •resu I ts  i d e n t i f y  mind  Shepherd,  Arcadian  to  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l to  dream  demonic  seem  of  two m o t i f s  remembered,  would  bring  that  e v i d e n t ,  How I would love to dwel1 upon h i m . His dog loved him, h i s sheep d i d n o t f e a r him. Soon he w o u l d r i s e , ' f e e l i n g t h e dew. T h e f o l d was f a r , f a r , he w o u l d see from afar the l i g h t in h i s c o t . (pp.l59-60) This  peacefu1,  whose'own  safe  r e c o g n i t i o n mind.  of  simp1e  e x i s t e n c e  appears  l i t t l e  world  been  the  has  "Mb 1 1 o y a n " ' o r  i d y l l i c  u t t e r l y  " D i o n y s i a n "  to  Moran  destroyed e1ements  by of  the h i s  71 He I  longs  w i l ' l ' s e r v e  l i t t l e  as  to  much  L i ke  i d e n t i f y as  with  characters  o u t c a s t s  the  shepherd's  •(p.  he  are'  the  not  who  go  who  at  for  l i e  But  part  you,,  and  Godot,  a  Mo r a h  comforts  B e c k e t t ' s  of  the  way  alone.  the  t h r e s h o l d ,  he  recorded  to  with  m a t e r i a l i s t i c  become  t h e i r  me  f l o c k ;  They  they  are  not  l i k e ' knowing  must  stay  out,  St.  John  ( Chap . 1 0 , vv . 8 - 9 )  I  the  in  a l l  n i g h t . "  here:  I am t h e he s h a l l and find  I  say  door; by be ' s a v e d pas tu re .  B e c k e t t ' s  c h a r a c t e r s ' . a l l  Unnamable  in  that  " s t o r i e s : "  The  edge  v o i d ,  the  place  longings."  whether  words  a  Wa i t i n g  with  "stops  or  for  i ii  to  find  V e r i l y , v e r i l y , the sheep  the  jUst  s p i r i t u a l  in  shepherd , ,"Take  tramps  allowed'  dog  may  relavent  of  the  shepherd  must  C h r i s t ' s  160).  to  the  any  are  are  whether  say  y o u ' f a i t h f u .1 1 y ,  f o o d . "  seems  to  they  p s e u d o - s e l v e s .  resemble  are  oh  becomes  the  door  the  figure  threshold  B e c k e t t ' s  between  beginning  the  of  t h e i r  heroes  the  of  of  i n , out,  archetypal  for  l i n e  very  am  man e n t e r go in and  the  always  d i v i d i n g  At  you,  me. i f any and s h a l l  t h r e s h o l d the  unto  true  his  the  s e l f  t a l e  and  Molloy  says: A l I t I fa is The  B e c k e t t i a n  does the  l grows dim. A l i t t l e more a n d ' y o u ! 1 1 go b l i n d . ' s in the head. It doesn" work anymore, it says, d o n ' t work anymore'. Y o u go dumb as w e l l and sounds de. The t h r e s h o l d s c a r e c e l y crossed t h a t ' s how it . (p.8)  not  have  door  B e c k e t t ' s More  the  the  quest  period to  l a b y r i n t h .  approach  s t a r k ,  parable is  importantly,  French leads  in  " I '3 ' s  told  Molloy that The  the  absolute to  e s s e n t i a l l y  learn  another'.  to  and i f  threshold  drama  K.  by  of  the  the  threshold  other  p r i e s t  becomes  in  not  n a r r a t o r s  threshold  his  K a f k a ' s  p h i l o s o p h i c a l ,  the  of  " s t o r y "  man  before  The  C a s t l e .  r e l i g i o u s . of  B e c k e t t ' s  is  c r o s s e d ,  it  only  the  entrance  to  the  72 Re f e r e n c e s Dieter  1  W el-1 e r's h o f f ,  D e - M y t h o 1 o g i z a t i on : Beckett: C l i f f s , 2 (London:  .  Samuel  A_ C o l l e c t i o n  o f  " F a i 1 ure' Be.ckett's  Cr i tica 1  N .J . :  P ren t i ce-Ha11,  Cited  i n Martin  Penguin  Books,  an Attempt 1  Ess ays  I n c . , 1965),  E s s l i n , J 968)  o f  Novels ','  ,  (Engl p.  The Theatre  p p . 1 50-  in  a t Samuel  ewood  96 . o f  t h e Absurd  1 .  3 W. H . A u d e n , -" T h e - G u i l t y V i c a r a g e : Notes on t h e. Q e t e c t i v e S t o r y , •by an A d d i c t " , i n T h e C r i t i c a l Pe r f o rma n e e , ed . S . E . Hyman (New Y o r k : Vintage Books^ 1956) , p .306. 1  k 5 of  Samuel  , B e c k e t t ,  Hugh K e n n e r , C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s ,  Proust  -Samuel 1968) ,  ,p . 2 4  Beckett p.132.  ( L o sA n g e l e s :  U n i v e r s i t y  73 Chapter  IV The  A r t  of  Dying  Gnosticism  in  Ma l o n e  Dies:  and.E x i s t e n t i a l ism  W h y t o d a y , we d o n ' t even know where real l i f e i s , what i t is c a l l e d ! . Left alone without l i t e r a t u r e , we i m m e d i a t e l y . b e c o m e ' e n t a n g l e d a n d ' l o s t : . . We e v e n find i t p a i n f u l t o b e men real men o f f l e s h a n d b l o o d , w i t h o u r o w n p r i v a tie b o d i e s (  Fyodor  Dostoyevsky,  Notes  From  Underground  The w i s h t o have a death of one's own i s growing even rarer. A w h i l e y e t , and i t w i l l be j u s t as rare as a l i f e ' o f one's own. Heavens, i t ' s a l l there. One a r r i v e s , one' finds a l i f e , r e a d y made; • one'has only to put i t o n . One wants to leave or one is compelled t o ; anyway no e f f o r t ; V i o l a votre mort, monsieur.One d i e s j u s t as i t comes; one dies the death that belongs to the disease one has (for s i n c e ' o n e h a s come t o know a l l d i s e a s e s , o n e knows, t o o , that the d i f f e r e n t l e t h a l terminations belongs to the d i s e a s e s and not to the people; and the s i c k person has so to speak nothing to d o ) . Rainer B r i gge Ma 1 o n e and  e l a b o r a t i o n  his  f i c t i o n .  q u i t e ' d e a d a t a r a x i a  at  c o n f r o n t a t i o n  "death  iii is  a  Dies  serves  of  B e c k e t t ' s  l a s t is  weal  it  is  the  death,  I  be  as  conceive  dead. of  impossible  of  i t s f i n a l  be'thought  subsequent  d e f i n i t i o n  as  any  to  of  Sartre never  No  man  Laurids  Camus.  been  able  cannot  Since  c l a r i f y  or or  a  in  s t a t e  For to  f o r  Molloy  conceive  down  r e a l l y  inthe  imagine  adherence  t o  the d e p i c t i o n  of  consciousness becomes  movement  in  an  newness  as  a  be  of  fouund,  in  a n o t h e r . l e v e l ,  M o l l o y ' s  soon  passionate  go  r e l e n t l e s s  summary  s h a l l  negation,  can ever  B u t , on  "I  a  throughout  o f t h e  e x t i n c t i o n , . d e a t h  change  death  and  r e s u l t s  paradox.  f o r  suggests  u l t i m a t e  therefore  s t a b i l i z a t i o n  helps  of, M a l t e  point  opposite  B e c k e t t ' s  i m p o s s i b i l i t y . of  o f , a l l " ,  the of  p i v o t a l  d i s p a s s i o n a t e ,  reasoning  an  logic'anQ  Notebooks  treatment  have  and w o e : " ( p . 6 8 ) to  t h e  a  complete  and which  ".absurd", process  the  s p i t e  c o n d i t i o n  of  as  calm,  the w r i t i n g s  s a t i s f a c t i o n  death  in  with  my  l i k e  R i l k e ,  t  Malone's  which  example,  Maria  "death"  element,  statement  1  to  ledge what an  cannot terms  "birth .  to  1  the  of may  and This e f f e c t  74  that the  his  l i f e  normal  wander  and  death  c y c 1 i c a 1, appear  then  then  B e c k e t t ' s  it  views  theme  in  in  order  ation  in  an  t h i s  complementary  heroes on  s t a t e the of  Murphy. h i g h l y  of  tejnptation  to  to  s e l f  of  views  as  the  B e c e k t t ' s  are death  ending  a  c y c l e .  r e g e n e r a t i o n .  wondered  l i f e . "  Dies -w i l l means  The concern  Beckett l i f e  and  incomprehensible-damn-  of  the  comparing  death  in  the  expressed  " B e l a c q u a  Richard  i n t e r p r e t  by  time and  he  than  i t s -  s o 1 i p s i s t " ' d e a t h  of  l i k e  the  Several  between  never  dia 1ectica11y  from  l i n e  m a j o r - a s p e c t s them  to  b a s i c  E x i s t e n t i a l i s m .  treatment  seedy  a  that  Malone  freedom,  and l i f e  death  worse  of  i 11 u r n i n a t e d  his  space  confused  of.  B e c k e t t i a n  c y c l i c a l .  even  Outside  boundary  If  transcend  and  the  the  dread  purgatory.  terms  of  and  the  freedom.  commentators  being  death  be  "the  to  d i s c u s s i o n  free  from  romantic  landscape  of  on..  h a l v e s - o f  were "so  G n o s t i c i s m  For  is  learn  death  to  change  which  the  B e c k e t t ' s marked  in  space,  a l s o  e a r t h l y  of  and  motion  q u e s t " c a n  d o c t r i n e s  time  limbo  attempt  death  of  a  goes  1  a l l  in  an  of  yet somehow  merge.  r e l a t i o n s h i p  employs'  and  i m p e r c e p t i b l y  w a s n ' t ' a  c e n t r a l the  as  in  l a t e r  M o l l o y ' s " i f  over  c a t e g o r i e s  mbribunds l i f e  is  Coe,  Murphy's  by  his  was  of  s t a t e s  f i r s t  the  the  of  a  heebe, of  in  f i r s t  most  that  e x p l o r a t i o n  shows  conceived  b l i s s " ,  one  thought,  t r i l o g y  p e r c e p t i v e  there  is  a  death  and  n o t h i n g n e s s . , in  terms  of  a  speci f i c-branch  Tao i s t, B udd h i not w h o l l y mis remembers that arguments to r the l e a s t r a t i i mpor tan t.1 These in  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  which  the  there  n a r r a t o r ' s  is  t e a c h i n g ,  a n a l y s i s  is  more two  profound major  onwards  v i s i o n  aspects  The is  a l s o  be  remembered  in  even  g r e a t e r  temptation  to  of  of  danger in his  C a r t e s i a n  of  the  s t a r t i n g :p i n t the  death  G n o s t i c i s m .  less  m y s t i c a l  But  terms in  -  a l l o w s  m y s t i c i s m  B e c k e t t ' s  s p l i t . o f  the  of  a  Malone  g o i n g a s t r a y  t r i l o g y  mind of  in  teaching  -  an d i t is perhaps rovided that one great v a r i e t y of. and- that t h i s , ly the l e a s t  must  r e a c t i o n  m y s t i c a l  in  an  of  s t or "Ze n - B u d d h i s t l e a d i n g ' t o do s o , p B e c k e t t employs a each his o b j e c t i v e , o n a l , is consequent  Malone  i n t e r p r e t p a r t i c u l a r  Dies  such  for  B e c k e t t ' s  for  a  f u s i.on  and' r a t i o n a l  r a t i o n a l i s m s e l f  D i es  into  of  the  ism.  from  body  an  and  Murphy mind.  75 In  the  out  in  d i s c u s s i o n ; o f  " D e s c a r t e s '  a  n o t e t h a t  h i s t o r i c a l  Myth' ,  G i 1be r t  1  Ry 1e p o i n t s v  It wou.ld not be t r u e to say that the o f f i c i a l theory derives s o l e l y from Descartes' t h e o r i e s , or even froma more w i d e s p r e a d anxiety about the i m p l i c a t i o n s of seventeenth century mechanics. S c h o l a s t i c and Reformation theology had schooled tehe i n t e l l e c t s of the s c i e n t i s t s as w e l l as of the 1ayrneri, ph i 1o s o p h e rs and- c l e r i c s of that age'.. S t o i c - A u g u s t i n i a n theories of the w i l l were embedded in the C a l v i n i s t d o c t r i n e s of sin and g r a c e ; ' P 1. a t o n i c a n d A r i s t o t e l i a n theories of the i n t e l l e c t shaped the orthodox d o c t r i n e s of the i m m o r t a 1 i t y -of. t h e s o u l . Descartes was reformu1 ating al ready prevalent t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e s of t h e s o u l i n t h e new s y n t a x of G a l i l e o . 2 B e c k e t t ' s c u l t u r e  e x p l o r a t i o n leads  s t r i k i n g l y Gnostic  in  s i m i l a r  was  s a l v a t i o n open  him  a  to  an  evi1  of  r e l i g i o u s  to  c r e a t i o n .  s y s tern ,  as  dual ism'expresses matter,  e v i l ,  and  1i f e  transcendent that and  it  is  rules  an  of  Simone  man  - t h e  body  ' s For  and'  the  For as  and  Malone a  in  is  his  every  Its has  root  is  nothing  in  god,  or  This  Wait ing  and  for  "I"  or  with  a  the  -  has  am  I  s h a l l  p a r t i c u l a r l y  down  f a r - f r o m not  among  unbeknown  the speak  relevant  has  nothing  them.I to  my  sounds.of of  and  the  the  who  good  God  is  of  d i v i n e  and so  and  has  created  Beckett  p o s s i b l e  text  This  w o r l d ,  w o r l d ,  s i t u a t i o n  has  parody  modern a s p e c t . o f  n o t h i n g - t o - d o  cleavage  b e i n g - i . n - t h e - m i d s t - o f - t h e - w o r l d I  dualism.  that  a  iii  d e f i n i t e  darkness,  with  the  v i s i o n  with  the  w o r l d .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  death  God  Godot,  Weil  s p i r i t  -  major  in  v a r i e t y  one  r a d i c a l  demiurgos,  for  The  home  wide  b e l i e f  the  at  to  and  do  is  Beckett  " r e a l "  a  applied  to  God,  or  covers,  the  are  r e v e l a t o r y feel  and- body , , l i g h t  which  believed  not  sphere  for  soul  mind  be  Waiting  B e c k e t t ' s body  term  cannot  cosmos;.  e s s e n t i a l  did  in  Western  teachings.  that  c a r d i na l._ feature... a  depicted  Wei1  G n o s t i c i s m :  the  e v i l - c r e a t o r  o v e r ' t h e  d r a m a t i c a l l y  they  death. he  sect  who  soul  that  Gnostic  know ledge  knew  permeates  formulations  e s o t e r i c  i t s e l f  s p i r i t / a n d  which  in  .aricient  and  i t s  to  found  Although  t h i n k i n g  i t - has  those ;  few  dualism  Dies  o f a n  an  the  this  Ma 1 o n e  member  '• t h r o u g h  only  of  my  feel  stupid  of  to  the  the'  to  s e l f . i n t o  question  do  with  of  his  death.  f a c t i c i t y  . blood  and  s u f f e r i n g s . nothing. f l e s h .  It That  breath,  immured.  Cowering is  there  which  is  deep I  d i e ,  seen,  that  76 which c r i e s and w r i t h e s , my w i t l e s s remains. Somewhere in t h i s turmoil thought s t r u g g l e s on, it too w i d e . o f . t h e mark. It too s e e k s me, as it always has, when I am n o t t o be found, (p.186) As  he  l i e s  d y i n g ,  Malone  f e e l s  that  A l l s t r a i ns towards the nearest deeps , - and notably my f e e t , which even in the o r d i n a r y ' w a y are so much f u r t h e r f r o m me t h a n a l l the r e s t , f r o m my head I mean, fqr that is where I a m f l e d , my f e e t are leagues away. And to c a l l them i n , t o be cleaned for example, would I think t a k e me o v e r a month, e x c l u s i v e of the time required to l o c a t e them,  (p.234)  If  the  s e l f  is  death  cannot  world  o f  of  is  higher  w i t h  imprisonment  the  or  c l a i m  s o u g h t ' f o r  to  by  the  of  an  of  the  " I . "  s t a t e  "I"  of  predecessor  Ma 1 o n e ,  Di e s ,  G n o s t i c ,  through escape  Malone  because  i t s  the  humanity.  w o r l d l y  of  and  B e c k e t t ' s  transcendent  Only  t h i s  knowledge  in  ancient the  freedom  " f a c t i c i t y " , . t h e  exhausted  to  can  i t s  " o t h e r s " .  e s p e c i a l l y  c o n t r a s t  f a l l e n  f i c t i o n a l  his  that  knowledge the  realm' of  composed  transcendent  in  The  to  l i k e  a - s p a t i a 1 ,  in' the  d i s g u s t s  p o s s i b l e the  and  emphasizes,  and  gnosis  Beckett)  a c t i o n  w o r l d ,  sharpest one  located  man  languors'  B e c k e t t ' s the  be  s o c i a l  p o r t r a y a l l a s t '  a-temporal  it  is  set  God  who  a t t a i n i n g from  in  a  i t s  b e i n g . renounced did  not  ( l i k e  lead  s a l v a t i o n .  Yes, I once took an i n t e r e s t in a s t r o n o m y , ' I don't deny i t . Then i t was g e o l o g y that k i l l e d a few years' for me. The next pain in the b a l l s was anthropology and the other d i s c i p l i n e s , such as p s y c h i a t r y , that are connected with i t , d i s c o n n e c t e d , then connected, a g a i n , a c c o r d i n g - to the l a t e s t d i s c o v e r i e s . What I. l i k e d in a n t h r o p o l o g y was i t s i n e x h a u s t i b l e f a c u l t y of n e g a t i o n , i t s r e l e n t l e s s d e f i n i t i o n • o f man, as though he w e r e no b e t t e r than God,. in terms of what he is not. B u t - my ideas on Ibhis subject were, always h o r r i b l y confused, for my knowledge of men w a s s c a n t , a n d the meaning of being beyond me. Oh I've t r i e d e v e r y t h i n g ; In the end it was.magic that had the honour of my r u i n s , and s t i l l today, when I walk there, I find i t s v e s t i g e s , (p.239) -  For  Malone  the  knowledge  is  The  f i r s t  pages  and  diagrams.  " s a c r e d  the  t e x t "  c h i I d ' s of  the  Malone  which  may  show  the  book  that  c o n t a i n s  f i l l e d  with  mysterious  e x e r c i s e  book  are  wonders  whether  they  could  way  to  a  his  refer  higher s t o r i e s .  symbols to  77 astronomy  or  a s t r o l o g y .  in  G n o s t i c i s m  he  has  that  toyed  had  The  has  s e l f  Malone's a l l  the  thing  to  note  is  As  e x i s t  of  art  symbolic  or  For  dying,  that  in  Heidegger, There  is  ess, at  There that the  a  is  to  He  " i s  suddenly, (p.  i s ,  1anguage decide  Murphy,  can  free  The  symbols  in  prematurely  at  even  B e c k e t t ' s the  s e l f  those  they  e x p e r i e n c e is  i t s e 1 f  .  may  the  in  which  preoccupied  c o n f r o n t a t i o n  whether  the  s c r i b b l i n g  Malone  the  sense Molloy.  un1ike  for  endless  which  one and  209)  search  the  Hans  J o n a s ,  n i h i l i s m ,  w i t h  d i s c o v e r  se1f  is  same  emphasis  world  where  same  above  of  upon  a he  God of  the  to  be  law,  beyond  is  ex-  Gnosti  cism.  a n c i e n t  man's  as  t h i s  a l i e n a t i o n ,  in  which  to  good  as  but any  and  the  in  with  to  e x i l e .  i t  be  immoral.  s p i r i t u a l  o b j e c t i v e e v i l ,  feel  G n o s t i c i s m  c a r r i e s held  f o r l o r n -  cannot  antinomian  world  law,-  he  h i m s e l f  o r d i n a r i l y  belong  i t  to  only  the  a u t h o r i t i e s  and  know  by  great  S a r t r e  can  is  the  N i e t z s c h e ,  in  what  not  of  universe  from  abide  "does  the  of  p r o c l a m a t i o n  must  man,  in  one  particu1 a r 1 y ' a s  m a n y " s i m i l a r i t i e s  man  higher  that  systems,  has  1e g i t i m i z a t i o n  or  that  modern  absence  Ordinary-'  Mai one ,  watch.  the  e x i s t e n t i a l i s m  the  the  of.Murphy  t h e . e x i s t e n t i a 1  of  "throwness"  home,  ruins  the  the  and  in  magic  important  saved.  G n o s t i c i s m ,  pressed  was  knowledge.  w i l l  A c c o r d i n g on  It  e x i s t s  Malone  higher  f u n c t i o n  words  damned  of  c o n s t i t u t e s  the  thought  d i s c o u r a g e d . "  a l l  with  B e c k e t t ' s  stop  o u t s i d e  any  "magic"  to  that  precede  of  death  d i s c o v e r e d  mutt;  the  i t s  "seems  themselves.  notebook  of  though  so  that  formula  horrors  have  only  his  magic  notebook  n a r r a t o r s  create  no  symbolism  Murphy. both  the  events.  can  s i n c e  aspect  of  that  from  as  a s t r a l  honour  important  r e a l i ze's  been  w i t h  the  The  scheme."  and  a  law  unto  For  Beckett  3 himself  in  hypothesis p o s s i b l e t r a s t ,  or  p o s i t i o n  of-  Western  such terms  that  as of  power  of  God  does  allowed  nothing A l l  and  the  of  is  for  the  B e c k e t t ' s rig  Thought  for  does  s u p e r i o r for  out  is  make  a l l  i n d i v i d u a l .  In  are  placed  for  in  Cho ron  an  e i t h e r  i n v a l i d  the.  c o n -  c h a r a c t e r s .  Jacques  that  death, an  not  B e c k e t t ' s  death . "  for  death,  e x i s t  c h a r a c t e r s  points  wai t i n g  s p e c i f i c  ' k n o w l e d g e ' . "  not  p o s s i b l e  "wa i t i  S a r t r e  his  in  the i n  absurd  Peat h  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e  p r o j e c t .  or  Waiting  in  78  for it  death is  can  in  absurd  never  absurd  wait  S a r t r e  c e n t r a l  aspect  it  part  of  something  not  for  of is  the  his  whose a  and  i n t e r e s t e d  of  from  i t s e l f  c o n s t r u c t i o n  of  f o l l o w i n g  a l t e r a n t e  seem of  i t s  c o r r e c t ,  advantage  in  nothingness  is  i n t r o d u c i n g the  (consciousness) r e a l i z a t i o n ; death, the  and  crux  death  a  In  f a c t ,  for  is  in  Ma 1o n e to  about'  Dies. Murphy  an  to  attempt,, of  death r  :  .  In  of  s u i c i d e . .  c h a r a c t e r s  to  this  I  the  " o l d  Malone I  cut  d o n ' t . " -boy"  says, his  in  throat  for  of  be  If  t h i s with  f a c t i c i t y  shows  which view  that  into  s u g g e s t s ,  Beckett  of  w a i t i n g  But  it  is  c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f f e r s  of  death at  of  w i l l  in  Malone  not  for  to  Malone  p o s s i b l e of  death.  the  only  the  c r e a t i o n s .  Camus'  hope  serve  as  .S i syphus ,  Camus  s t a t e s  involves  a  Molloy  t y p i f i e s  the  The  was  an  his  only,  s u i c i d e  Even  t h i s  a l l  s u i c i d e  old  b u t l e r  razor  ..."  of  thought in  too,  s p e c u l a t i o n s  is in  (p.236)  useful  that of  r e a c t i o n  I  why,  of  a •more  question  I  know  involves  death  thus  1ife  don't,  Dies  harmonizing  thought  with  death.  Godot,  B e c k e t t  Murphy.  " t h e r e  o f  p r o p o s i t i o n , , " t h e  ( p . 79)  may may  nothingness  negative  the  My t h ' o f  l e g i t i m a c y  me,  on  t e s t  reasoning  f i c t i o n a l  q u e s t i o n i n g  on  t h i s  c o n c e r n .  attempt'  l e g i t i m a t e  hold  f o r - '  f o r - i t s e l f  periphery  B e c k e t t  "absurd"  the  the  s e l f .  his  a nd. . t h e  is  reasoning  the  equate  Waiting  treatment  thatof  of  Murphy  n e g a t i v e l y  by  of  views  c o n t r o l  the  " a b s u r d "  w i t h  see  the  l i n e o f  and  extent  path  u l t i m a t e  to  S a r t r e ' s  novel  freedom  comparison.  l i t t l e  from  chosen  made  p o s i t i v e  " h u m a n . W h i l e  the  appear  l a t t e r  B e c k e t t ' s  Malone  would'  is  a  F a c t i c i t y  B a c k e t t ' s  death  t h i s  t h i s  b a s i c a l l y  the  has  from  as  a l s o  (another  Becektt  death  you  is  f a i l u r e  death  is  r e a l i z a t i o n  death  the  in  c e r t a i n  the  which  e x i s t e n t i a 1 i s t i c  It  for  to  then  remove  a p p l i e s  D i e s,  true  This  of  f o l l o w s  " f i n i tude"  an  of  r e a l i t y .  because  death  i n t e r p r e t e d  d i s t i n g u i s h e d in  a  in  Death"is  " f a c t i c i t y "  S a r t r e  c i r c u m s t a n c e s  which  e x p l o r a t i o n  not  to  s p e c i f i c  future  t o l e r a t e  p h i l o s o p h y .  the  s i g n i f i c a n t  Waiting  w i l l  aspect  his  not  pronounces  S a r t r e  of  is  for  determine.  onwards).  as  to  because  paradox' the  p r i n c i p l e  a  the of  B e c k e t t ' s  s u i c i d e - h a d I  of  d i d ,  but  Beckett  I is  q u e s t i o n a b l e : London The  I.  t h i n k ,  question  of  79 s u i c i d e  a f f o r d s  d i  Gogo  DI  for  and the  comments the  if  some  s u i c i d e .  The  l i m i t e d  t o . h i s It  is  q u e s t i o n  q u e s t i o n ' o f not  Both  is  reached  of  the  from  man  freedom  r e j e c t s This  " m o r a l " to  an  of  the  the  under  the  s u i c i d e ,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l the  o u t s i d e r .  i n s i d e  me  or  h i m s e l f  statement  p o i n t s ,  thoughts  cannot  p h y s i c a l l y  cannot  be  Malone  does  not  r e a l l y  consider'  of  is  A  a  and  Camus  of  the the  in  the  l i k e  of  who  language.  his  approximates  me.  I  have  a l i v e  an  1ies  in  own' in  seen  my  the  ^dis-  in  the to  He a  e x p l a i n s  commitment;  B e c k e t t ' s t h e i r  attempt in  he  is  sign  commitment only the  i d e r ,  l i f e " .  any  of  p r e f e r e n c e .  s e v e r a l  pinned  i r r a t i o n -  s e n s j: t Is/I t y /  h idden  that  to  out  the  is  of  The-Outs  in  rebates  and  ab s u r d  -  of  the.  w o u l d ' be  abrogate  s e l f  B e c k e t t .  absurd.  upon  The  never  the  standards  d e a t h " ,  have  of  s e l f  of  i d e n t i t y  because  true  and  and  ma i n t a i n s ;  cannot  i t s e l f  born  s i l e n c e  his  l i g h t  the  i r r a t i o n a l i t y  " a b s u r d "  moral  takes  l i f e ,  harmony  echoed  Meurseault of  concept " a b s u r d "  the  Camus  th-rows  l a b y r i n t h  o u t s i d e  both  paradox  words.  " F o r i  w a y s ' by  of  c h a r a c t e r s  dilemma  s u i c i d e  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  is  man  that  seeking  keeping  that  but  b e l i e f  from  and  c o n c l u s i o n  around  f e e l i n g  sentence  the  The  n o s t a l g i a - f o r  q u e s t . f o r - t h e  the  Malone  throw  l i t e r a l l y  meaningfu1ness  of  in  His  use  of  t h i s  s a r d o n i c a l l y  "I"  concept  thought'also-  code.  centre  "Man  the  judgments  " a b s u r d "  through at'  value  un-  Malone  would  s u i c i d e  real  a l l .  however,  a  commitment  l i n e  that  a c c e p t " s u i c i d e ,  i n t e r e s t  t h i s  r e j e c t  his  l e g i t i m a t e ,  gains  r e j e c t  but  is  o f ' t h e  To  his  of  that  i n d i f f e r e n t  u n i v e r s e .  that  that  at  u n i v e r s e .  stems  the  irony  he  for  too  Malone  c o n f r o n t a t i o n  that  t o l e r a t e .  is  fact  Camus  understanding  harmony  orgasm  mo r e ' p h i 1 o s o p h i c a 1  s u i c i d e  an  universe  f i n a l l y  B e c k e t t ' s  s i g n i f i c a n t of  the  an  game  body.  For  of  to  macabre  they  s t r e n g t h  obvious'  'answers .centre,-  a l i t y  them the  a  Godot;  emphasizes  s u i c i d e  " a b s u r d " .  for  produce  for had  of  fo r  w i l l  The  "himse1f"  is  it  he  window. to  s i t u a t i o n  Waiting  destroy  the  a  grotesque'  that  however, about  in  :  f a c t ' that  b e l i e v a b l y  out  only  p o s s i b l e void  Camus''  " f r e e r  than  Malone's ways of  f a i t h  that any  to  of o r d e r , ,  appearances,  80  be 1 i e v i n g view old  them  the  t r i l o g y  man  who  loses  Camus  is  through  an  In  an  not  on  order  anodyne the  or  same  be  n e i t h e r  w i l l  be  no  w i l l  be  almost  in  Freud  in in  of  be  be"the  e x i s t e n c e -  always  in  -  u n i t y . unity  In is  e x i s t s ,  M a l o n e ' D i e s j  done a  away  deadly  Freud three the of  f a c t s  p l e a s u r e  which ing of  for it  l i f e ,  "the  through  to  o b s e s s i v e f i c t i o n  for  in  it  end,  appearing  that  them  thus  " w i l l  is  a l l .  b e c a l m ,  They  there  anymore,  (p.l8o)  " c a l m n e s s " one  the  s t o r i e s  wi11  t e l l e r . "  is  they  The  (could  the  p h i a l  w h i c h w a s a  c e n t r a l  C a l m a t i v e " , ' " T h e  End"?).  p o s t u l a t e s  but  that  a  dynamic,  a t f i r s t only  the  two  great  which  -  his  p o s t u l a t i o n of  and  a  the  the  are  - d i a 1ectica1  that  t h i s  f o r c e  sadism  " r e p e t i t i o n is  of  d i a l e c t i c a l Thanatos  abandon  the  under  need  to  ( i r o n i c a l l y  e a r l i e r  i n f l u e n c e  enough  in  of  w i t h  beyond  masochism  ( e x t r o v e r t e d  " r e p e t i t i o n  s c r i b b l e  p r i n c i p l e "  p r i v a c y  c o m p u l s i o n "  an  i n s t i n c t  c o m p u l s i o n - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  Malone's  death  " N i r v a n a  temporal  over  it  of  r e p e t i t i o n  r e i n s t a t e m e n t  f o r c e s . . . . . " 5 his  B e c k e t t :  B e c k e t t ' s  E r o s a n d ' T h a n a t o s  p r i n c i p l e , t h e  c h a r a c t e r :  had  t h e  The  they  P'-r i n c i p 1 e  and  aggression)  i n s t i n c t i v e  of  c o n f r o n t a t i o n  f i c t i o n  h i t h e r t o ,  appears  e x i s t e n c e  e x p r e s s i o n s ' of  s t r i v e  w i t h ,  i s ,  c a l m n e s s .  the  i n s t i n c t u a l  ;  d u a l i t y , it  supports  -  ( i n t r o v e r t e d The-  a  his  S a r t r e  simply,  that  w a i t i n g  f e v e r  same  P l e a s u r e  not  as  "The  governing  of  not  i n t e r e s t s  d e a d . "  here  f o r c e s  in  s t o r i e s j  or  l i k e  s t o r i e s  form,  the  r e a l l y that  is  t e c h n i q u e ' t h a t  u g l y ,  beauty  introduced  f u s i o n  of  Salamano,  from  a b s u r d i t y  what  the"  nor  l i f e l e s s ,  of  What'  death  employs  o f . ' s t o r i e s  or  that  p o i n t ' o f  approached.  for  b e a u t j f u l  Beyond' the  of  is  t h i s  B e c k e t t ' s  Outs ider..  t.ime"-while  " o p i a t e  short  from  terms  t e l l ' ' h i m s e l f  inventory  the  in  dying  must  kind  theme  The  Malone  " k i l l  u g l i n e s s  Malone's  symbol  to  to-  w i l l  important  .but  of  death  in  But  m e t a p h y s i c a l  a n a l y s i s  decides  be  a r t  more  treatment  a e s t h e t i c s The  m e d i t a t i o n s  as  dog  the  (p.210)  taken  thema t i ca 1 1y ,  death.  Malone  is  his  that  a b s u r d i s t  w i t h  v a i n . "  B e c e k t t ' s  is  developed the  be  in  d i s t i n g u i s h e s and  to  of  an  to  c o n d 1 t i o n , of  an'  d i s t u r b -  c o n s i s t s  book.  " r e a l i t y  to  one  e x t e r n a l  e x e r c i s e  only  show  i n s t i n c t  c o m p u l s i o n "  his  the  seem  a g g r e s s i o n . )  Only  p r i n c i p l e "  •  '  .  81  in  B e c k e t t ' s  to  a n e a r l i e r c o n d i t i o n  contained of  the  is  to  being.  return  Malone's towards  the  which  me  made  often  I  to  wish  is  death,  of  animate  it  ...  were  then  r e p r o d u c t i v e  own  s p e c i e s .  picked  e e l Is  sexual  by  the  r e a l i t y  apparatus  as  a w h o l e ' " f r e e  p r i n c i p l e  i n o r g a n i c  Malone no  p r a i s e s  End game,, is  loves a  time  to  has  when  he  of  o r g a n i c  a l l  l i f e  i n s i g h t  is  into  His  movement'  g row i ng': i'den t Malone  presence' of  that  and  admits t h i n g s ,  stone,  and  and  keep  them  put'  them  in  the  have  secure  " o r g a n i c  goal  act  in  a l w a y s ,  my  pocket,  to  low  as  d r i v e  n e c e s s i t y "  or  of  of  t h e i r  " l i f e as  the to  p s y c h i c keep  p o s s i b l e . " to  a  a l l  matter.  and  keep  e x c i t a t i o n ,  sex  with  the  r e d e f i n e d ,  as  l i f e  i m m o r t a l i t y  s t r i v e s  the  a l l  t h i s  t h e r e f o r e  as  any  of  dispensed  the  are  c o n s t a n t , o r  "calmness" body  but  is  made  produced'any  to  by  have  as  to  the  0  death  r e t u r n i n g  much  for  to  am  i n f a n t i l e  death  his  sperm  and' turn*.a bout,  used  to  a g a i n s t  e r o t i c  his his  two s t i c k  s t o i c a l  s a y s , . o n l y  the  sexual f o r c e . has  L i k e  going  v a l u a b l e  than  The  descendants. "1  some  more  r u e f u l l y  serve  turn  rub  throws  impotent.  Macmann  s a y i n g , an  is he  te rmed  not  begins  theory  which  i s ,  c r e a t i o n  shown  suck,  a  and  s i n c e  from  his  Malone  c l e a r l y  the  inventory.  me  p r i n c i p l e ,  liin a d v i s e d 1 y  s u r v i v e s ,  damage,  added  wood  up  true  subserves  Malone's  perhaps  i n s t i n c t  them  metaphsycho1ogica 1  Ma 1 o n e ' s  i n d i f f e r e n c e . is  of  s t a t e .  Freud's  what  the  in  e x p l a n a t i o n  goal  in  the  p r i n c i p l e ,  e x c i t a t i o n  and'favours  upon  an his  i n s t i n c t s  q u a l i f i e d  1 ight  the  about  f i g h t . t o  p l e a s u r e  the  tendency  n o t - a l 1 ' o r g a n i s m s  The  pleasure  up  in  long  i n s t i n c t s . "  The  an  s e l f -  kj)  woud But  The  of  for  T h e . e m b i t t e r e d  a l t o g e t h e r  death  The  amount  b i l o g y  gives  them  (p . 2  matter.  the  i d e a l ,  things  have  and  tears  If  to  r e t u r n i n g  i t s  Hence  " t h i n g s " .  of  in  the  draw  p o r t a b l e  stooped  with  force  to  feel i h g o f - p i t y . . . l i t t l e  that  s e l f  process  need  his  e s p e c i a l l y  so  the  p o s s i b i l i t y  t h e • i n o r ga n i c , : r e s u 1 t s  with  " f o u l  of  a  i n o r g a n i c .  c y c l i c a l  death,  there  compu1sion";-  o b s e s s i v e  ifi.cation a  to  This  is  Freud.goes  " r e p e t i t i o n  death.  to  universe)  to  done'  Hamm  p l a y " ;  base. p e n c i l s . s a y i n g ,  in Art  Malone There " I t ' s  was  82 a  l i t t l e  be  p l e a s a n t  and  take  ment, in  woman.".(p2k7) t o  care  Malone  sented love  in  of  or  the  the  another.  F o r do  that  But  ( e l l i p t i c a l  to  Malone find  making  While  B e c k e t t ' s  attempt  with  to  a l l  force  f o r  the "brave-company"  he  fondle and  of  the  h i m ,  the  couple is  p r e -  the question  an  "I  -  into  thou" the  f a l s e  has never  o f  a t one  " o t h e r s " ,  the s e l f  longed  would  b e w i l d e r -  n a r r a t o r s  of  man a l o n e )  i t  s e x u a l i t y  terms,  t h e .p o s s i b 1 i t y away  " f i c t i o n s "  who would  love  room.  of  that  f a s c i n a t i o n  and d i s g u s t i n g i n t e r e s t  would  With  h i s  imagines  g i r l  f u t i l e  from  grotesque  r e a l t i o n s h i p  a ; l i t t l e  h i s wants.  across  captures  point  capture  watches  the hotel  'Malone'even  being.  been  able  f o r .  That is why I gave up t r y i n g to play and took t o myself forever shape 1 essness and s p e e c h l e s s n e s s , i n c u r i o u s wondering, darkness, long stumbling with o u t s t r e t c h e d arms, h i d i n g . Such is the. earnestness from w h i c h , f o r nearly a century now, I have never been able to depart, (p 180) 1  Without  the p o s s i b i l i t y  its  f e a r f u l  power  and  mocked.  Eros  through  death A  Freud over and  to n o t  c o l l e c t i v e in  Freud's  S i m i l a r l y ,  of  of  f o r  such  as  c r e a t o r  thing  in  Jung -  s p i r i t  F o r Jung  of  to  dark  w o r l d :  suggest world  anima  only  p l a c e .  d e m i u r g e , a the  of  b e ' r e v i l e d  take  would  the  g o d , or  because  B e c e k t t ' s  t h e s e l f  G n o s t i c i s m  unconscious.  a  Thanatos  " t r a n s c e n d e n t "  that given  s e x u a l i t y and the  the-m a t e r i a l i s t i c  trend  thought  had the e aspect o f s p i r i t ' a s t h e . . . : feminine Freud's p  s i d e .  G n o s t i c  h a l f  s e x becomes,  r e g e n e r a t i o n ,  becomes  the w r a t h f u l the  love,  can the search  modern  saw only  of  of  f f e c t of o G n o s t i c i s another, vessel' o f ' p r i n c i p l e a t r i a r c h a l  Beckett  Within  t h i s  sees  b s c u r i n g that other e s s e n t i a l m : t h e p r i m o r d i a l image of the higher god who gave t o m a n k i n d s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ... a which could find no p l a c e in w o r l d . ?  only  context  h a l f  B e c k e t t  of  G n o s t i c i s m  develops  h i s  -  the  dark  a e s t h e t i c s  death. I I A  phantasmagoric  i n t e r m i n g l i n g  of  n a r r a t i v e  d e r a i l  83  i d e n t i f i e s vaguely to  his  Malone  with  remembers present  mysterious v e l i e v e s  has  of  bearing  from met  these  on  the  it  p r e s e n t " !  the  (p.183)  a  the  ambulance;  before,  ''I  must  time:  q u a l i t y  feel  at  whom  a  was  r e c e i v e s s t r a n g e r  Gaber.  and  death.  time  A  that  belongs  whom  e s t a b l i s h ,  before  I  allow  While  the  superimposi tion  to  last  present  Malone's that  sands  ."  a P r o u s t e a n of  d e t a i l s  would'seem  s i t u a t i o n , - this  the  Now  avenged  1  not  the  fading-  past.  do  upon  important  his  am  for  d i s -  an  the  he  of  The  to  to  a  host  has  R e f e r r i n g  Malone  t r a n s p o r t e d  correspondence.  space  a l l  e x i s t e n c e  t i m e l e s s  case,  of  memories  of  e a r l i e r  the  he  he  probably  in  p r e d e c e s s o r s .  b e l i e v e s  s t r a n g e r  s a y s , . "  Malone's  transcendence  give  a  question  Malone  an  an  events  memories;  from  by  and  d e t a i 1 s • r e - e n f b r c e  j u n c t i o n  is  " f i c t i o n a l "  f o r e s t  abode  v i s i t  he  s i m i l a r  a  his  are  to  is  running  not o u t . "  (p.183) The  chamber  c o o r d i n a t e s Malone' he  is  not  simply  But  where  Malone's goes  a  l i t t l e  process  p a t t e r n s . ' more  came  the  As  in  them, as  room  is  food  b o d i l y  i n t e r e s t e d  "nothing  nothing  and  Malone's  accepts  Malone's  ment and  of  pot  not  or  went,  ...  of  l i k e  entropy,  iii  a l l  which  of  a  vacumm  a  or  o b j e c t s  e s t a b l i s h -  > remai ned ,  coming  and  going.  o f . c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  under-  things'.do his  these  d e s i d e r a t a .  nothing  was  c i r c l e  Ma 1 o n e ' n e a r s - d e a t h  "dimensions"  p l a c i n g  Watt,  M r . - K n o t t ' s  because  because  u n i v e r s e , . h i s  or  s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l  U n l i k e  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  plenum  changed  the  edi s t e n c e .  "naming"  the a  pot'mark  room  not  takes  reappear on  more  in and'  v o i d .  For I have s u f f i c i e n t l y perished iii t h i s room to know that some things go o u t , and o t h e r s come i n , though I know not what agency. And among those that go out there are some that come b a c k , a f t e r a more or less pro1origed'absence, and o t h e r s that never come back. With the r e s u l t that among those that come i n , some are- f a m i l i a r to me, others n o t . ' (p.250) O n e o f  the  has  do  to  woman  who  questions with cared  why for  Malone  his him  pots  asks are  seems  his not  a l s o  u n i d e n t i f i e d longer  to  have  emptied.  v i s i t o r The  d i s a p p e a r e d .  old Time  84  j e r k s way  haphazardly,  as  Malone's What  but  mption  precedes  H e r a cliijttea n .  been  the  in  both  both  room  Malone  "much  d i r e c t i o n s ' . "  d i r e c t i o n s ,  Malone  is  Thoughts  not  a r i s e ,  a l s o  that  "the  c r e a t e d ,  i.'s  but  only  thing the to  a  impose  towards faced the  his  with  s e l f .  acted  is  upon his  "end"  Like  the  these  "I  11  from  the  such  of  a  the  In  against He  is  has  e x t e r n a l in  as  to  which  which  s e l f . of  time, movement  Malone  is  c o n s t i t u t e s  seeks  drama  a  "h  to  which  is  o1e"  r a t i o n a l  seeks  language  e s t a b l i s h .  stop  Malone's  place  Malone  r a p i d i t y  permanent  W a l l ,  what  d e s p e r a t e l y  time.  temporal  The  in  t h i n g ' c a l l e d  to  to  B r i d g e ,  forwards.  no  order  thus  hero  and  permanent  there  has  place  with  'Malone  f l oW  Itakes  other  the  is  Butt  l o s i n g  b a r r i e r s of  beneath  he  or  is  d e c i s i o n  words.  s i n c e  gaining  upon  w a l l s  conception  real  same  death  he  S a r t r e ' s  But  of  backwards  r e a l l y  1  that  motion  thoughts. 1  made-of  the  of  u l t i m a t e  in  the  moves  but  the  (loophole?)  in  s t a s i s  passed  Since  i l l u s i o n  present '  own  death.  .the  flow  " m y t h o l o g i c a l  has  f o l l o w i n g  o i S s u c c e s s ion  f i n a l  s p e c u l a t e s  water  whether  one  the  ( p . 2 50)  time  sure  mind",  forward  n a r r a t i v e ;  c l e a r l y in  r e l e n t l e s s l y ,  r e s t r i c t i o n s  e x t r i c a t e e n c l o s e s '  i t .  What I sought, when I s t r u g g l e d out of my hole, t h e n ' a l o f t through the s t i n g i n g ' a i r towards an i n a c c e s s i b l e boon, was the capture of v e r t i g o , the l e t t i n g go, the f a l l , the g u l f , the relapse to darkness, t o - n o t h i n g n e s s , to e a r n e s t n e s s , to home, to him w a i t i n g for me a l w a y s , w h o n e e d e d me and whom I n e e d e d , who took me i n h i s arms and t o l d ' me t o s t a y w i t h him a l w a y s , who gave me h i s place and watched over me ... whom I have never seen. There I am f o r g e t t i n g myself a g a i n . My c o n c e r n is not for me, but with another, far beneath me a n d w h o m I try to envy j of whose crass adventures I c a n now t e l 1 at l a s t , I don't know how. (p.195) The time  and  •Malone being  death  has can  Malone beneath  t r i p a r t i t e is  never only  who  brought seen  a n t i t h e s i s ) .  the  (Sapo , If  a  o f . M a l o n e ' s  out  s t r u g g l e  in  the  above  represents  his  true  b e r e a c h e d  w r i t e s  him  nature  by  story  a  type-  (the  of  Ma 1 o n e ' s ' o p p o s i t e s y n t h e s i s  takes  passage. s e l f .  dia 1 e c t i c  t h e s i s ) to  place  against  and begin  the  This  "I"  ideal  between other  w i t h ,  between,  The  the  far  is  the  t :.°./ , w  i t  85 may  be  real or  p o s s i b l e  " I " ,  who,  temporal  s i d e ,  to  at  l i k e  a  Malone  a  of  "pensum".  of  " p l a y "  i r o n i c  with  "What is  meaning is  of  than in  Malone the  s e l f  an  Sapo  that  Malone  f a i l u r e drives on  and  to  i s ,  the  me  from,  in  being  (sap?)  mind  set  And  myself  on  the  Very  among in  an  d e a l i n g  attempt  Ruby Big  may  Lambert  in  Lambert as  Cohn  with  out  books  Malone  be  right  is. a  c h a r a c t e r i z e s  caused  peasant  t h e i r  L_a_ C o r n e d i e  i n d i c a t i n g  b r u t a l  of by  and  alone  the him  my  l i k e an  i n t e r e s t  eyes  to  the  sought  a l s o  Malone  and  comments  being  no  "So  which  prevented  m o r e l  succeed  194)  when  she  of  H uma i n e . ^ Malone's  and  seems  d i v e r t  continued  simply his  says  B a l z a c ' s The  flow  of  be  a from  the  of  story  i d e a l i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t y  view  on  images  i d e n t i t i e s  r e l i g i o u s  m y s t i c .  But  would  have  p o s s i b l e  to  been  to  197)  a t t e n t i o n  demented  jaundiced  the  h a t e " . (p .  B a l z a c ' s i t  c l e a r  Malone's  he  days  son.  him  g e n e r a t i o n s .  of  l i f e  confuse  his  took  f a m i l y .  h a l l u c i n a t o r y to  his  impotence,  parody  of  c r e a t i o n  and  less  the.Lamberts  to  his  h i m s e l f .  young  (p.  the  p r o g r e s s i v e l y  the  t h r e s h o l d  P r e t t y . "  d e s c r i p t i o n  one  nature,  his  his  d e c i p h e r - the  company"  from  " o u t p o u r i n g o f m i s e r y , ,  t h a t , h a s  of  I  s e c t i o n  Lambert  w e l l  r e l a t i o n s h i p  goal  b r u t a l ,  as  "brave  is  i n t e r e s t  Moran  becomes  his  with  the  between  t a l k i n g - a b o u t  away  another.  h i m s e l f .  Big  f a c t ,  for  that  it  Sapo  d i g r e s s i o n ,  of  1 9 1),  Malone's  with  "loved  •  name* Sap b s c a t ,  i n t e r r u p t s  to  no  sati r e o f  Saposcats  gains Sapo  my  182).  very  reveals  w i l l i n g l y , r a i s e d  c r e a t u r e  strange  Louis  (p.  (p-.  b i t t e r  The  the  is  the  s p a t i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p  who  or  The  the  and  in  m o s t ' o f t e n  there  love  l i v i n g :  Malone's  that  a  c o n t i n u a l l y  young  of  the  c y c l i c a l  near  The  in  f i n d  his  t h i s  n i g h t "  of  f i n a l l y  .the  with  s u b j e c t . m a t t e r  garden  i n v e r s i o n  a n i m a l s - a n d ' p l a n t s day  his  Malone's  emphasizes  simple  with  commentary,  of  one  t h e r e f o r e ' o n  s c a t o l o g y ,  What  l i f e ,  are  n o v e l .  Malone  s t r u g g l e  his  sky,  I  Moran's.  e s s e n t i a l l y  While  ordered  be  d e f i n a b l e  " s t o r i e s "  and  and  o f . a e s t h e t i c s . "  towards  tedium".  the  not  bourgeois  Sapiens  w e l l  i s  kind  his  a t t i t u d e  The  words,  " A e s t h e t i c s  and' the  reminiscent  Malone  void  c e r t a i n  Homo  contemptuous  phrase,  the  begins  life,  fusion  between-  metaphors.  least  bourgeois  get  of  l i f e in  his  the  nowhere become  the  86 author out,  of  Madame  working  Lambert,  hands,  focusses  Malone  could  Malone  uses  p o e t i c  i d e n i t i f i c a t i o n  e v e r •'. a t t r a c t . in  the  and,sense  Sapo  t h e i r  in  stumbling in  which  the  death  is  arbi t r a r y ' a n d  as  to  whether  of  the  f a v o u r i t e  of  the  two  B l a c k e y  Malone's l o v e - h a t e himse1f,  Ma 1 o n e  towards  A l l  I  has  so  he  babblings  of  who  of  a  saved  the  his  fuse  a l l  d e c i s i o n  r a i s e s  c h a r a c t e r s , the  w i t h  where  The  one  namely,  other  c h a r a c t e r s  m a s o c h i s t i c a 1 1 y  his  u n i v e r s e  one'  k i l l e d  w h i l e  and  Malone's  u n i v e r s e  be  B e c k e t t ' s  towards  but  is  a The  Lambert  i n s i d e  should  was  t i m e s t o  para11e1s  f o r m l e s s n e s s  Whitey  was  that damned.  i n v o l v e s  a  f l a g e l l a t i n g  f r u s t r a t i ons' through  had  I  l a s t , is  to  my  get  dead,  of  me  and  of  is  as  always  c a n ' t  d e c i d e s  suddenly  becomes  poor  nowever, in  the " l i e "  Malone's  for  a g g r e s s i o n  novel or  dead.  l i f e  and  from  w i n n i n g ,  d y i n g ,  and  w a i t e d ,  (p . 19  my s e l f ,  before  8)  But  why  t h i s  anything get  good  job  a  who  of  c l i n g i n g  s w e l l i n g ,  never  want  to  is  love,  e x p e c t i n g  make  it own  only  and i s .  to  the  s a y i n g ,  Got  sudden  changed? born too. my  And  w e l l  the  t h e r e f o r e If  l i t t l e  t h a t ,  heat,  No,  and  I  t e l l  one,  l " l l want  a  c r e a t u r e  in  i t  be of  to  destroy  it  To  d e s t r o y  his  his when  a • hiomun c u 1 e ,  for  i n s o f a r  w r i t e s ,  as  This  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  he  double w i t h  image he  Malone's and  negation Macrriann.  (Sapo  sees  f i c t i o n  a n n i h i l a t i o n ,  " i n v e n t " .  growing  on,  have  whose  death  f o l l o w i n g :  other  Macmann)  his  him  my  (p.225)  l a s t  s u r r o g a t e  involve  and  w a s n ' t  s t o p , at  be  legend.  that  and  l i v i n g  to,  t o Id  s h a l l  abandon  r o t t i n g , and  would  happened,  no-I  .I  from  he  the  I've  I  death  a n d s w e l l i n g ,  never  buggered,  my  him  body  s t o r i e s  anything  before  that  l i v e d  his  mucus,  answer  I  know,  s u f f e r i n g ,  statement  at  has  to  to  begun^  j o y i n g ,  the  it .  is  w e l l  p u t r i d  in  f i c t i o n s .  m e a n i n g l e s s .  one  d i e d , , f o r  A l l  means  his  e t h i ca 1ly  Between  ask  even  Compare'this  e x i s t s  at  Madame  1 i f e  prose  way  It  a l o n e . p r e v e n t s  that  a  and  worn-  n o ' d y i n g  mechanical  w i t h o u t .  or  takes  l o s i n g ,  what  w i t h  her  h i s . c r e a t i o n s :  mine  Malone  h e l p l e s s n e s s  a t t i t u d e  dual ism.  fee 1ing  gives  author  the  a g i t a t e s  s t i l t e d ,  of  q u e s t i o n s  t h i e v e s ,  of  the  through  sounds  range  of  m u r m u r i n g s , a n d  meaningless  she  s e c t i o n  encounter  journey the  a  while,  the  Lambert  bewilderment feel  who,  w i l l , i d e n t i t y  to is  w r i t e involved  87 Two adventures: Macmann  i s  that  t h e garden,  The next  Macmann  which  seen  f in a l l y  finds  begins  in>'the  t r i l o g y ,  r o l l  t h e asylum.  involves o f  roaming  Malone  in a  a i m l e s s l y  w a l l .  Macmann's  p a r a l y s i s  t h e House  high  o f  C h r i s t - 1ike  t o  in  control  and that  sequence  s o l a c e by a  imagery  f o r general  t h e asylum,  i s enclosed  passages'  o f  sprawled  n a r r a t i v e  imprisonment.in Here  o f  B u t t h e hoped  Macmann  s i d e .  patterns  f i r s t  downpour. and  c e n t r a l  does  n o t occur  around  t h e count  Macmann's  Saint  through In  John  t h e  one o f  d e s c r i b e s  t o r r e n t i a l  o f  God.  garden  t h e most  l y r i c a l  t h e p l i g h t  o f  Macmann: He h u n g c l o s e r a n d c l o s e r ' t o t h e w a l l , b u t n o t too close', for' i t was guarded, s e e k i n g away o u t into t h e d e s o l a t i o n o f having nobody and n o t h i n g , the w i l d s o f t h e hunted, and scant bread and t h e scant shelter, and t h e black j o y o f t h e s o l i t a r y way, i i i h e l p l e s s n e s s a n d w i 11 l e s s n e s s , through a l l t h e beauty, t h e knowing and t h e l o v i n g ; (p.278) i  Malone's they  notes  purport  undercut'by  have  a  curious  t o say.  f h e l y r i c i s m  Malone's  f u c k i n g  t e l l  me t h a t , , U n d e r g r o u n d  scenery.  underground  conscious.  l y r i c i s m an  idea  Where  o f o f  could  t o a n n i h i l a t e a l l t h e above  i t  have  i d e n t i f i a b l e flow  from  In  with t h i s  anyway, this  Malone's source  c o r r e l a t i v e " ' f o r h i s present  t h e above Malone's  passage  does,  h a r s h , s e v e r e 1y  however, 1imited  i s  with a l l  risen  (p..27.7).  1  which  passage  " b u t t o h e l l  perhaps. '  seems  The images  • v a i l y - a s . " o b j e c t i v e  o f  i n t e r j e c t i o n -  this  instance  tendency  u n - .  attempt  s t a t e .  manage  The  t o  conception  give  o f  freedom. The hideous  main  threat  " s t r u l d b r u g "  a f f a i r .  T h e i r  d i s g u s t i n g B e c k e t t ' s  o f  f u t i l e  t o Macmann's a  keeper  love  y e t comical  freedom  with  making  whom  i s M o l l ,  he h a s a  represents  d e p i c t i o n s  o f  "love"'  one o f  s e x u a l i t y  in  a 1  t h e most  al1"of  f i c t i o n .  The  s p e c t a c l e  bundle' into it  hi.s  a p i l l o w - s l i p ,  i n with  they  offered  f o l d i n g  t o t h e i r  they  f i n a l l y  a l l t h e resources  i m a g i n a t i o n ,  o f  Macmann  h i s p a r t n e r ' s  h i s f i n g e r s .  warmed  impotent aid  was then  s e x into  i t , i n  A n d though  succeeded,  a n . s t r i k i n g  t h e i r  t r y i n g  t o  p i l l o w  l o s i n g both  summoning  t h e s k i n , from  a  two,,and - s t u f f i n g  B u t f a r from  work. o f  l i k e  heart were  t o  t h e mucus d r y and  t h e i r  and feeble  t h e  88 c l i p s Moll  could  I r i s h  a  be  Com i c  the  pagan  A  g e n e r a l  who  is  an  the  Great  the  Supreme  who  God,-  s e r i e s  Male'and  is  of  Female,  representation''-of - t h i s There  seems  i n - t h e such  ideal  f a l l e n  Jungian  says:  are  mainly  and  the  i l l  by  the in  it  ...  waged  by  purely  death  Mother;  the  of  the  Unbegotten  s e l f of  Macmann's with tooth  the. sexual is  carved  the  in  p r i n c i p l e . Father or  The  form  remote  of  A l l ,  Man,  is  in  the  p a i r s  m y s t i c  and  unknowable.  r e l a t i o n s h i p  B e c k e t t ' d o e s ' n o t  a l l o w  could  gap  bridge  the  Eva on  goddess  r e l i g i o n ,  of  Met man,, Samuel  the  B e c k e t t ' s  with  the  unconscious  s o c i e t y  and  morals  i n d i v i d u a l  of  it  b a t t l e  the  Old'Testament  must  is  is  precede  a. g r o t e s q u e for  p a r t l y  the  p r i n c i p l e  For not  the  B e c k e t t ' s in  e q u i v a l e n t  war  image  made  Western  c o n s c i o u s that  1  Beckett  .regarded search  i n c a r n a t i o n  Unnamab1e  for  between  is  the  and From  of  The  for  of  the  the  use  of  mythico-  which  he  attempts  to  the  Supreme  B e i n g , '  woman. escape'and  symbol ism in  Being  father-god),  way  that  Supreme  '.(! J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n  female  the  C h r i s t .  i n ' d e t a i l ,  male-female  mother  and  of  arranged  is  .9  of  e x i s t e n c e ,  mothe r-cjoddess . " ' ^  M o l l ,  c l e a r s  a l l  ''Re f 1e c t i on s  a l w a y s ,  terms;  archetypes  d e s c r i b e  in  s p i r i t  the  negative  The  as  against  But  the  t h i s  the  t h i s  A  c a l l e d  together  wh ? c h  says  s t r u c t u r e  in  emerge: of  the  fusion  v a r i e t y  Unbegotten  of  c u l t u r e  Today,  fought  r e l i g i o u s to  formed  is. the  female  who  and  o f . G n o s t i c i s m - i n  t r a n s c e n d e n t . G o d .  equates  d e s t r u c t i o n . o f  Great  the  womb'  teachings  personages  a f f a i r . '  ''Western  p s y c h i c  is  s e l f .  parody  p s y c h o l o g i s t ,  and  Jahveh  a  and  Jung  the  God,  r e 1a t i o n s h i p  s e l f  P'l a y s ' . ' ' t h a t  ness  be  Moll-Macmann  an  the  to  the  essence  a l l  one  the  s t r a i n  v a r i o u s l y  which  The  tomb  coneepts  devine  in  pn.ce  s t r i k i n g  Ineffab1e,  M e r c i e r  I r i s h  wi th  the  260)  " s h e e l a - n a - g i g " , a n d  the  r e p r e s e n t i n g  being,  a  for  V i v i e n  G n o s t i c i s m  a  c e n t r a l  a b s t r a c t i o n  descended  with  manifests  Mother,  at  mythology  'the  Unapproachable-  is  in  what  the  f e a t u r e o f  and  mythology  in  of  t i e s  main  but  who  g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; ( p .  of  c a l l s  c r e a t u r e  s y m b o l i sm  Gnostic  sombre  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  source  n o v e l ;  pagan  of  T r a d i t i on  m y t h o l o g i c a l This  kind  the  Malone's  death  associated' with  shape  of  is  Moll'.  C h r i s t , . h e r  interwoven M o l l ' s  e a r - r i n g s  r o t t e n  89 standing  for  a b o u t ' h i s  the  two  escape  powerful  from  perhaps  p a r t i n g , this as  before  is  of  for  death  of  Easter  is  of  Malone  from)  s p e c u l a t e d  this  same  reunited  one  done  another, whi te  i v o r y ,  with  back  to  and-vaulted  and  old  ,  rotten  by  the  her  "The  d e s t r o y i n g that  i s  to  to  "the  c l e a r  a l r e a d y ,  simultaneous the  achieve  his  asylum  occur  the  the Foetus),  ( M o l l ' a s  day,  can old  from  events  time  out.  d e s t r o y i n g  Eros  The  Macmann-  both  by  are  ( p . 283)  of  s i n c e  of  feet  f a l l s  imagery  only  Malone,  of  tooth  r e l i g i o u s  p r i n c i p l e  escape  Malone'hope'  symptons  i m p l i e s ' t h a t  e x i s t e n c e . "  r e s u r r e c t i o n , Only  and  death.  the  the  Malone,  continued'.  into  a  during woman  c r e a t i o n  real  the is  of  death  which  r e b i r t h .  The  gramented,  Dies  emphasizes  is  of  by  events  be  and  consciousness.' death  sexual  cunt, of  can  a  back, on  developed  of  regenerat ion,-  time)  a l s o  using  di r t y ,  out  with  s e l f born  week.  capable "new"  a  al1  away"  these  Malone  appear.as  den  has  o n e s e l f  the  great  come  1 owed  (who  done  h i m s e l f  the  Malone  (p,237)  with  s e v e r i n g  f e e l s  foul  pattern  a s s o c i a t e d  a l l  w i t h - p r y i n g  ho1  Moll  complex  search  w e ' l l  though  pregnancy)  (or  his ' f i c t i o n s ,  done  l i t t l e  t o o t h ,  The  E a r l i e r  image: Or  Just  t h i e v e s .  .broken the  Despite  not.merely  s e n t e n c e ' of... t h e  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  his  i n i t i a l  p a s s i v e l y  of  l a s t  pages  of  Malone's  " c a l m n e s s " ,  Malone's  e x p e r i e n c e d ' b y . h i m :  There i s no good p r e t e n d i n g , it is hard to leave e v e r y t h i n g . The h o r r o r worn eyes l i n g e r abject in a l l they have beseeched so 1 on g , - i n a l a s t prayer, the true prayer at l a s t , t h e one that asks for nothing. And it is then a l i t t l e breath of f u l f i l l m e n t revi ves the dead l o n g i n g s ' and a murmuris born' in the s i l e n t w o r l d , reproaching you a f f e c t i o n a t e l y with having despaired too l a t e . (p. 2^3) -  There  i s ,  daath  c o i n c i d e s  the  other  Freedome on  hoever,  the  s t a t e d concept  a  with  inmates  that of  he  the  into  c o n t r a s t s  s u b j e c t .  " p o s i t i v e "  had  freedom  departure  the  sharply  The  aspect  v o i d . with  previous  of  bold  M o l l o y ' s  "I"  of  p r e f e r r e d  was  best  Malone's  Lemual,  This  always at  to  the  Macmann  attempt  e a r l i e r  to  Hi  and f o r  statements  B e c k e t t i a n  s l a v e r y  minimal:  death.  death.  hero His  90 'I  :  who'had  young,  that  of  crawl  is  a  But  how  of  The Macmann, time: The.  The  The  moving  not  Unnamab'le  in  is  now  into  of  the  for  dead  U l y s s e s ,  deck.  him  who  s e l f  does  has  That has  not  The  not in  in  real  escape  from  the  metaphysical  the  the  found.  l i n e a r  f i r s t  pages  of  Malone  transcendence  of  death  i n e x t r i c a b l y as  at  of  c y c l e s .  d e s t r u c t i o n  h i m s e l f  "I"  dimension been  escapes  himself  the  not  r e s u l t s  ending  a  attempt?  y e t . a n o t h e r  Malone  find  lodged'  d e s c r i b e s  dies  attempt  in  boat  along  Malone's  who  negation ,  the  G e u l i n e x ,  (p.51)  never  r e s u l t e d is  "I"  to  old  freedom  U n n ama b 1 e . only  on  t i m e l e s s  a b o r t i v e  double  has  of  Malone  of  E a s t ,  s p i r i t ,  The  time  Unnamab1e  fr.ee  the  p r o j e c t e d  space:  Malone's  conception The  the  s imply  of  me  s u c c e s s f u l  behind  a b s u r d i t i e s  image  measure  p i o n e e r i n g  and  Instead  l e f t  great  is  the  towards  the  He  time  who  to  1ies  time.  loved  between  once  in  and  and and  the  two.,  out  of  the  worId: I f e e l , a n o u t s i d e and an i n s i d e a n d me i n the middle, perhaps t h a t ' s what I am, the thing that d i v i d e s the world in two, on o n e side the o u t s i d e , , on the other the i n s i d e , . t h a t c a n be as thin as f o i l , I'm.nei ther one side nor the o t h e r , I'm in the m i d d l e , I'm the p a r t i t i o n , I ' v e two s u r f a c e s and no' t h i c k n e s s , p e r h a p s t h a t ' s what I f e e l , myself v i b r a t i n g , I'm the tympanum,on the one'hand' the mind, on the other the w o r l d , I d o n ' t belong to e i t h e r , (p.383) Beckett  has  f u r t h e r  than  Beginning Beckett  c a r r i e d ' t h e a n y  with  l y r i c a l l y  his  the  many  a r r i v e s  s p e c u l a t i o n s .  of  at  of a  Camus, view  of  "absurd" major the  about  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s  negative for  reasoning  view  example,  which  of  goes  much  f i g u r e s . ; S a r t r e far  a b a n d o n s ' l o g i c  S y s y p h u s , h i s i d e a l  death  absurd  and''Camus,  beyond to  present  man.  I leave Sisyphus at the foot of the mountain] One always finds one' burden again. But Sisyphus the h i g h e r . f i d e l i t y that negates the gods and  a  r a i s e s r o c k s . He t o o concludes tha This u n i v e r s e henceforth without a to him n e i t h e r s t e r i l e or f u t i l e . that stone, each mineral f l a k e o f t fi 1led mountain, in i t s e l f f i l l s 'a s t r u g g l e i t s e l f towards the heights a man's h e a r t . One must imagine-- Si  t h e i r  teache  t a l l is we)1 . master seems Each atom of hat night w o r l d . The is enough to f i l l syphus h a p py. I I  91 B e c k e t t ' s  absurd  Sisyphus v o i d ,  only  burying The  who to  him  In  of  b u r i e d  al ive  and  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  the  c o n c l u s i o n ledgeable r e j e c t  in  them  dilemmas. wjth  as  his  of  f i n a l l y  thought  B e c e k t t ' s a l l  as  of  world  one  the  an  who  the  Like of  Malone,  words.  help of  of  of to  death. reveal'  B e c k e t t ' s cannot  death.  i n e v i t a b l y  f u l l y  T r a c i n g at'  have'become  the  concludes  that  he  of  man's  ought.to  same  know-  i n t e l l e c t u a l . d i s c i p l i n e s only e x p l a n a t i o n s  One  extremely  sources  a r r i v e s  of  h i m s e l f ,  p o r t r a y a l  phenomenon  a  "happy."  analogues  these  upon  made  n a r r a t o r s  n a r r a t o r ' s  inadequate  Malone  a  edge  words.  underpinnings  i n e x p l i c a b l e  p a t t e r n s  iii  Unnamable,  the  down  emotional  E x i s t e n t i a l i s t  deal  to  B e c k e t t ' p r e s e n t s  p o w e r f u l l y  But,  up  the  meaningless  B e c e k t t ' s  D ies  is  tumbling  is  system.  these  come of  A e s t h e t i c with  words  morass  and  the  r o l l s  a  Ma l o n e  G n o s t i c  some  them  imagine  i n t e l l e c t u a l The  have  in  never  pa r - e x c e 1 1en ce  e t e r n a l l y  Unnamable  could  man  to  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t  content  himself  " p a s t i m e s " .  instead of l a u n c h i n g ' f o r t h on a l l t h i s b a l l s a c h i n g poppycock, about 1 i fe and death, i f that is what it is a l l about, I suppose' it i s , for nothing was ever about anytiiig e l s e to the best of my r e c o l l e c t i o n ; ' But what it is a l l about e x a c t l y I could'no.more say at the present moment, than t a k e u p my b e d and walk. I t ' s vague, 1i f e and' d e a t h , (p..225)  92 Re f e r e n c e s  1 Press 2 Barnes  Richard C o e , S 'am l i e 1 I h c : , 1964), p. 24.  Bec ek t 1  G i l b e r t Ryle, The Concept and Noble, 1 9 4 9 ) , 'p.. 23 .  o f  3 H a n s ' J o n a s , - , G h o s t i c R e l i g.i o n Paperbacks, 1963), pp.332-40. 4  Jacques  Choron,  C o l l i e r  B o o k s , .19.63),  5  Sigmund  6  Ibi d . ,  Mind  (New-York:  (Boston:  and Western  Grove  Beacon  Though t ' (  Press  New Y o r k :  pp;235"40.  'Freud,.  J a m e s ' .St r a c h e y ,  Death  (New Y o r k :  Beyond  (New Y o r k :  t h e P1ea.su r e  L i v e r | g h t  Pr i n c i p l e s ,  P u b . Corp.,  trans .  1961),  p . 83 .  p.86  7 C a r l ! J u n g , Memo r i e s , Dr e a m s , Re.fd e c t i o n s , c i t e d i n Mau r i c e Fr d edman , T o D e n y O u r N o t h i n g n e s s (New Y o r k : Delta Books, I 9 6 7 ) p 153r  8 Ruby Cohn, Samuel B e c k e t t : T h e Comi c Gamut (New Brunswick, NewJ e r s e y : ' R e u t g e r s Un i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2) , P.158. 9 Vivien M e r c i e r , Clarendon P r e s s , 1962),  T h e I r i s h. C o m i c pp.237"40.  T r a d i t i o n  (Oxford:  10 E v a M e t ma n , , " R e f 1 e c t i o n s . o n S a m u e l . B e c k e t t ' s P l a y s " , in Samuel B e c k e t t : A - C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l Essay s e d . Martin E s s l i n (Enge1 wood C1 i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a 1 1 I n c . , 1965), p.132 . r  11  House,  A l b e r t 1955) ,  Camus, p.91•'  T h e Myt h  o f  Sisyphus  (New York':'  Random  93 Chapter  V  " S c i e n c e  F i c t i o n "  in  The  Unnamab1e  " T h a t ' s one small step for man, one leap for mankind." N e i l Armstrong, "A  step  forward  Samuel  time,  I  sense  in  time,  then  think  i t ' l l  be  The  t r i p a r t i t e of  t h i s  an  a  f a i l u r e ,  in  the  " l a s t lies  Unnamable of  behind finds  of  a l l  I  in  But  more  of  B e c k e t t ' s  h i m s e l f  in  a  the  limbo  of  the  "metaphysics  is  of  f a n t a s t i c  an  c l u e  important  most  d i f f i c u l t In  a  for  and  very  The  Unnamable  ing  of  his  s t r u g g l e  the  branch  is  novel is  l i t e r a l work  the to  Through  to  on  c o n s t a n t l y he and  Ma T o n e s  i n v a l i d a t e d  l o g i c a l  of  which  in  a  soon  the  world  as  on view  Descartes  a  played  a  that  s u p p l i e s B e c k e t t ' s  of  the At  term  the  beginn-  h i m s e l f  he  v a i n l y  through  his  by  d i s c u r s i v e  a  s e r i e s  The  291)  the  form  Method.  the  and  The of The  t r i e s argument  " p e r h a p s * s "  Mo 1 1 o y s  l a b y r i n t h  of  negations  s o m e r s a u l t i n g  an  absurdly  growth  seven t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , r o l e ,  of  " I " ;  own  a  puppets,  (p.  c e n t r a l  e x t e n s i o n  hypotheses  " a f f i r m a t i o n s  the  The  his  of  in  presence  in  babble  of  r e s u l t s  statement  terms  l i v e .  Lack  the  f u r t h e r  sense  to  the  ended  perhaps  order  takes  has  b e l i e f  courses  u t t e r e d . "  them  s y n t h e s i s  a  u n b e l i e v i n g l y  s c a t t e r  Unnamable  D i s c o u r s e  s c i e n t i f i c in  as  in  to  f i c t i o n s  f i c t i o n " .  e s t a b l i s h  new  is  and  f i c t i o n .  " s c i e n c e  of  Dies  l i t e r a t u r e "  what of  answer;  into  is  j u n c t u r e  his  Borges'  profound  l a b y r i n t h  r i g h t  a 1. ,  r e s u l t s  d i a l e c t i c  a  attempts  e t  of  n a r r a t o r  channeled  h e r o i c a l l y  f i c t i o n s  the  work  and  somehow  e x i s t e n c e . s c r a b b l e  u n r a v e l l i n g  o r i g i n a l  a  v o i d .  8)  f i c t i o n s .  that  l a s t  from  Unnamable,  e x p l o r a t i o n a  the  a  i m p l i e s  Ma 1 o n e  with  previous  (p.  c r i t i c a l  escaping  a c c u r a t e l y ,  story  the  J o y c e . "  perhaps  t r i l o g y  between  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n  ...  t o o . "  the  1969-  b a c k . "  V i c o then  world  a p o c a l y p s e .  at  step  t h i n k ,  time  occurs  a  Bruno.  that  attempt  the  J  ...  more  with  p a t t e r n  perhaps  time' ,  B e c k e t t ' s  once  Malone's  or,  d e f i n i t i o n ,  "Dante  over  simultaneous  in  in  an  t e l e o l o g i c a l  through  by  d i v i s i o n  ending,  Unnamable.  which  Beckett  "This  M o l l o y ' s a  i s ,  giant July 20,  a  culminated  of  the  movement in  the  reduction  of  The  the  s e l f  Unnamable  f o u r t h - d i m e n s i o n conception  of  B e c k e t t i a n  "I"  not  or  f o l l o w  to  in  A  mere  finds  which  motion. revolve conform  seven t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  ,a  " f i c t i o n . "  h i m s e l f  o b j e c t s  in  do  a  not  Around  the  l a t e s t  Malone  and  Molloy.  to  any  type  of  E i n s t e i n i a n  f o l l o w  the  Newtonian  m a n i f e s t a t i o n T h e i r  geometrical  the  movements  p a t t e r n ,  s c i e n t i s t - p h i 1 o s o p h e r s  of  such  imposed  do  as  on  the  r e a l i t y :  These l i g h t s for instance., which I d o n o t require t o mean anything* what is there so strange about them, so wrong? Is it t h e i r i r r e g u l a r i t y , t h e i r i n s t a b i l i t y , t h e i r s h i n i n g strong one minute and weak the next, but never beyond the power of one or two. c a n d l e s ? Malone appears and disappears w i t h the p u n c t u a l i t y of c l o c k w o r k , always at the same remove, the same v e l o c i t y , in the same d i r e c t i o n , the same a t t i t u d e . But the play of l i g h t s is t r u l y unp r e d i c t a b l e .... They are p^rhaTps u n w a v e r i n g and f i x e d a n d my f i t f u l p e r c e i v i n g the cause of t h e i r i n c o n s t a n c y , (p. 294) Newton's which The  ether  forms  has  the  f i r s t  d e s c r i p t i o n  s l o w l y  i n , a  become  of  s t a t e  matter  Molloy of  c o n t r i b u t e s  f i c t i o n . "  Trying  adopts  an  his  Copernican  R e v o l u t i o n .  it  is  he  at  the  be."  of  t h i s  s e l f  (and  s u b j e c t i n g  al1  methodical  doubt.  data,  How  do  part  order t h i s  entropy to  the  " s a t e l l i t e s " stance  "to  p l a c e ,  planets  a  k i l l s "  f i c t i o n a l  around  e s t a b l i s h  u n i v e r s e .  wheeling  t h e i r  theme  of  sun,  the  " s c i e n c e  t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l  and  h i m s e l f ,  analogous  to  the  is  p o s s i b l e ,  or  think  of  myself  f i x e d  i t s  Unnamabl  K a n t ' s  " a l l  whatever  not  Descartes  of  his  Descartes'  q u e s t i o n , is  as  that  as  shape  a l m o s t " , and  and  extent  may  the  e x i s t e n c e  '295)  (p.  the  Malone  While  c o n c l u d e s ,  Simi1 ar1y, of  to  muck  B e c k e t t ' s  e x p l i c i t l y  v a i n l y  between  c e n t r e  of  and  epistemo1ogica1  best  " n o u r i s h i n g  advanced  Unnamab1e,  r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  can of  c o n s t r u c t e d h y p o t h e t i c a l  i t s  necessary  b e l i e f s A f t e r  next we a  the'  in  c e r t a i n  dream?  a c c o r d i n g dream  to  his  the  ;wor1d:  of God)  d e v a s t a t i n g the  that  test  f i r s t of of  involves  e v e r y t h i n g Descartes  geometrical  by  r e l i a b i l i t y  argument  However, to  proof  c o r o l l a r y ,  q u e s t i o n i n g  stage be  began  we  the  see  d o e s . f i n d  patterns  sense  and some  w i t h i n  95 For whethej? I am a w a k e o r a s l e e p , two three always make, f i v e , and the square never not  have  seem  more  apparent  can  be  unce r t a i n ty. In  B e c k e t t ' s  even  a  dream  "But  o b s c u r i t i e s . " " i r r e g u l a r inverted  loops"'  commentary century  upon  moon.  In  f i c a n t  event  Verne post one of  and  of the  (p.  ably  also  thus  the  in  decor  of  the  But  example,  a  of  man  s e r i e s  kind  of  of  Texts  Fo r  towards sees is  of  the  the  seems,  of  his  involves  a  the  modern  to  be  f a c t .  Much  simply  f u t u r i s t i c ; A  2001: The  Space  p o r t r a i t is  of  remark-  B e c k e t t i a n f i l m  v e r s i o n  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y ,  o r i g i n  of  the  s c i e n t i f i c  process  s c e p t i c a l in  infant  s h e l t e r .  as  of  the  Unnamable  the  which an  who  B e c k e t t ' s of  u l t i m a t e l y  about  Endgame  aftermath  Western  t r a n s -  moon  the  was  who  American  In  The  Jules  the  a  the  s i g n i -  and  of  Nothing.  the  documentary,  drawings  t e l e s c o p i n g  consequences.  :  death  k i l l  on  a  part,  of  h o r r i b l e  o u t s i d e  is  point  more  man  become  C l a r k e ' s  es pec i a l l y  the  in  has  not.be  c y c l i c a l  much  a  n a t u r a l i s t s  c y c l i c a l .  room  i r o n i c  d e s c r i p t i o n .  of  the  an  t w e n t i e t h -  landed  account  is  A r i k h a ' s  to  of  r a t i o n a l  a  a  the  of  In  at  is  modern  udes  invents  is  " i n  of  areas  need  time  r e a c t i o n  a l s o  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  in  time.  of  r e b i r t h ,  p i c t u r e  f i r s t  f i c t i o n "  in  Beckett of  one  movement  are  era  M a i l e r ' s  old  Clarke  a  s u p p l i e s  has  e l a b o r a t e  a s t r o n a u t ' s  back  wasteland  i t s  for  f i c t i o n  back  Th i rteen  p o i n t i n g  as  is  one  him  s m a l l e s t  contemporary  an  to  s i g n i f i c a n c e  and  the  for  s c i e n c e  a f f i r m a t i v e .  the  c a l l s  p a t t e r n i n g  s i m i l a r  C l o v ' s  technology  world  example,  a s t r o n a u t - a s  method.  seen  advanced  look  so  •p r e c l  for  course-  e x p l o i t s  the  mo r i b u n d the  s c i e n t i f i c  done  But  on  universe"  best  for  or  316)  " d i m i n i s h i n g  w r i t i n g  f a l s i t y  allow  Unnamable's  f i c t i o n  0dyssey the  go  s c i e n c e  l a n d i n g . can  must  f i n a l l y - e m b r o i l  The  does and  geometry  w i l l  " p o s t ' f i c t i o n " ;  r e p o r t i n g ,  it  that  which  W e l l s ,  forward.  it  c l e a r  any  The  which  H.G.  of  29A)  B e c k e t t ' s  and  so  non-Euclidean  d i s c o u r s e  the  in.which  a  c e r t a i n t y  s p i r a l . " B e c k e t t ' s  sides ,  truths  suspected  world  the  (p.  four  that  2  mathematical  d i s c o u r s e .  than  p o s s i b l e  and can  be  atomic  appears  war. in  " s c i e n c e  o r i g i n s i s ,  may  in  consciousness  of one in  s c i e n c e way, that  96 he  has  The  been  ''reduced  Me t a p h y s i c a 1  none  of  the  One of  of  p h i l o s o p h e r s  the  f i n a l  aims  if  Burtt  is  wonders the  r e a s o n . "  Foun da t i o n s  e a r l y  understood  to  s c i e n t i f i c  or  view  E.A.  338)  Mode rn of  the  when  s c i e n t i f i c  he  are  Burtt  'Science- has  i n t e n t i o n s  r i g h t  world  (p.  of  worth  the  the  shown  that  method  t h e i r  says  in  r e a l l y  d i s c o v e r i e s . accomplishments  " m e t a p h y s i c a l  3 barbarism" that  the  it  has  only  However,  f r o n t i e r  the  c e n t u r i e s  carry  on  the  have  now?  to  who  the  seeks  l i n e s  of  " s t o r i e s " ,  is  philosophy.  found The  in  D e s c a r t e s '  to  language  of  philosophy  a  o r g a n i z a t i o n  of  the  into  or  l o g i c a l ,  a t i n g is  l i g h t  the  i n f i n i t e  poseful physical as  upon  modern  r e a l i t y  can  n o n - v e r b a l , B e c k e t t ' s  p h i l o s o p h e r  be  spoken  r e g r e s s i o n ,  when  words  tendencies  in  G a l i l e o .  for  But,  the at  the  in  the  on  his  D e s c a r t e s '  of  of  the  truth  s e l f and  wfoossought•to'ma hence  throws  an  s i l e n c e . the is  the  has  be-  i l l u m i n -  W i t t g e n s t e i n  question  whether  merely  kind  of  a  other  provided  t h e o r i e s sharp  of  of  words.  c o m p l e t e l y  w o r l d ,  the  why  his  metaphysics  denying  time,  i s " ,  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s ,  of  spoken  p h y s i c a l  same  of  speech  p h y s i c a l  new  of  Spinoza  which  r a i s e s  being  mechanism, the  f a c t  it  to  now?  is  carry  mathematics,  language  I  Who  reason  language  axioms,  p o e t i c s  "how  recourse  w i t h  verbal  a  Descartes'  basis  a l l ,  who  of,  the  which  now?  cannot  weaknesses  to  n a r r a t o r  The  s e l f ,  having  for  the  come  i s . "  man,  303)  s c i e n t i f i c  it  true  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  above  the  the  "why  point  then  that  to  s i l e n t .  method  "Where  proof,  Since  of  which  going  Unnamable,  mathematical  c o r o l l a r i e s .  s p i r i t  l a s t  C a r t e s i a n  The  b a s i c  E th les  without  mind.  the  w i t h  (p.  i m p l i c i t and  r e s i d u a l  shows  the  of  a d d i c t e d . "  without  turning  of  too  the  the  that  language  The  the  h i m s e l f  d i s c o u r s e  any  i n d i c a t e  d i s c o v e r  is  B e c k e t t  d i s c o u r s e  h i m s e l f  is  metaphysical to  pseudo-1ogica1  in  spare  l i t t l e  c o n f i n e  with  s e l f .  U n q u e s t i o n i n g " ,  than  occurs  a  Unnamab1e  e x p l o r i n g  away  with to  The  s c i e n t i f i c  m i r a c l e  f i r s t  attempting rather  the  been  The  " I " ,  hopes  prevents perhaps  When  done  dialogue  Unnamable,  "What  has  In  worth  predominantly  three  the  produced.  any a  such  pur-  metas c i e n t i s t s  d i v i s i o n  of  97 the  c r e a t e d  gave  r i s e  theory  world  to  of  great  the  overpowering kind  between  cog i t a n s ,  his  gave,  at.  to  his  scheme.  statement  C a r t e s i a n  than  seemed provide  ( c a u s a 1)  l e a s t  t e n t a t i v e l y ,  There  was  "God  s t i l l The  was  and  p h y s i c a l  c o n s t r u c t i n g  accommodation  s t r u c t u r e .  that  in  God  c o s mo 1 o g i c a 1  God  be 1 i e f ,  by  r a t h e r  D e s c a r t e s '  of  "God"  The  played  o f - m y s t i c i s m ,  knowledge.  mental  d i f f i c u l t i e s  u n i v e r s e . role  the  to a  of  titend b a s i s  the  a  c o n s i s t s e n t of  the  toward for  "I"  some  moral  in  the  res  proofs  s i g n i f i c a n c e  p o s s i b i l i t y of  necessary  a  s c i e n t i f i c  o n t o l o g i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e  indeed  a  conception  and  the  substance  of  an  B a s i l  " I " ,  W i l l e y ' s .  hypothesis  in  k seven teenth^century the  p o s t u l a t i o n  lodged a  Descartes'  it  to  was  in  as  pronoun  the  of  leads  natural  most of  these  now  be  of  into God's the  " s e l f "  s t r i k i n g  ergo  In  and  " o t h e r s " manner.  s t r u c t u r e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  he  of  The  a  Such As  did  not  o t h e r s : Unnamable and A  r e s u l t s  through  been  w o r l d .  e x i s t e n c e ,  e x i s t e n c e  have e s t . "  B e c k e t t ' s  s t y l i s t i c  l i n g u i s t i c  Without  would  " d u b i t o ,  e x t e n s i o n .  the  seen.  argument  1  one  e s t a b l i s h  between  a  point  e s t a b l i s h i n g a  r e d u c t i o n  p r e s e n t a t i o n  to  about  f o l l o w  out  o l o g i c a l  "God"  is  phenomenin  jumble  the of  r e f e r e n c e s . The  his  able  . r e 1a t i o n s h i p  c a r r i e d  at  can  D e s c a r t e s  p o s s i b i 1 i t y  worry  would  the  God,  i n e x t r i c a b l y  harrowing  have  of  p h i l o s o p h y "  "I"  Unnamab1e  from  i t s  begins  his  "pensum"  by  t r y i n g  to  p u r i f y  c o n t i n g e n c i e s :  Nothing, then but one, of which I know n o t h i n g , except that I have never u t t e r e d , and t h i s b l a c k , of which I know n o t h i n g e i t h e r , except that i t is black and empty. That then is what, s i n c e I have to speak, I s h a l l speak of, u n t i l I need speak, no m o r e . And B a s i l and his gang? I n e x i s t e n t , invented to e x p l a i n what l ^ f o r g e t . Ah y e s , a l l 1 i e s , God and man, nature and the 1ight of day, the h e a r t ' s outpourings and the means of unders t a n d i n g , a l l i n v e n t e d , b a r e l y , >;by me alone, w i t h the help of no o n e , s i n c e there i s no o n e , to put o f f the hour when I must speak of me. There w i l l be no m o r e a b o u t them. (p. 304) Such  a  idea  of  s o l i p s i s t i c  detached  "God" from  and  philosophy S a r t r e ' s  metaphysics  would  negate  idea  of  the  tends  to  become  both  " O t h e r . " .  D e s c a r t e s ' R a t i o n a l i s m  concerned,  only  with  98 epistemo1ogy. f i c t i o n s , empty"  The  can  e v i t a b l y  d e s c r i b e  the  "they"  "Other",  they  s c i o u s n e s s ,  a l l o w i n g  reduce  of  is  t h e i r  a r e ' t o  and  misuse  person  i n s i d i o u s  i n t e r w i n e  ambiguous  the  only  the  t r e a t e d  as  t h i n k i n g  Qa  in  his  paradigms  of  The  his " b l a c k  to  manages  moye to  Like "though  Unnamable's  and  not  his yet  f a b l e . " going  t e l l  from  a  H i s . f a m i l y  back  the  into  q u a l i f y only  f o l d ,  for to  B a s i l  (whom  again  in  ©and  Unnamable  extremity,-  B a s i l ' s  t a l e s . - i n  tour  how  by " p e r s o n s "  Qworld to  Ojcrevi  the  from  the  Unnamable's  which  world  is  now  c a l l s  Mahood),  it  of  being  possessed  by  which  where  the  the  to  becomes his  d i a "I"  of  to  M o l l o y ' s  draw^fuijm  "breath  is  c i t e s  t h i s  Unnamable  mistook  s l i p p i n g , r e s o r t s  keep  attempts  the  e a r l i e r  to  the  r e m i n i s c e n t  c i r c u s  While  he  order  above  the  h i m s e l f  towards  of  into  are  pronoun  sees  one  back  "persons"  w h i l e .  in  the  way,  Descartes) ,  e n t i c e d  in  are  exhausted  his  person  for some-  s c i e n t i f i c  is  i l l u s t r a t e  danger  f i c t i o n a l  in  t h i s ,  i s ,  and  the  a s p h y x i a t i o n . "  he  to  of  f i r s t  l a s t  world  journey.  then  of  deter'mine  b o d i l e s s  a  space.  d e s c r i p t i o n s  which  He  308)  to  r e t u r n i n g  the  or  con-  and  concept  s e l f  real  the  time  does  as  The  Sartrean  Descartes  B a s i l  a  the  models  of  f o r  a v a t a r s , at  (p.  out  when  i n -  a n o t h e r ' s  in  another  foreshadowed  hold  freedom  it  attempts  the  of  put  the  crew,  n a r r a t i v e .  object  a s s i m i l a b l e  or,.  his  l i k e  question  A g a i n s t  (a  h i m s e l f  c l e a r  for  that  c r e a t u r e s ,  he  is  his  c r e a t i o n s . F i n a l l y ,  who  represents  the  "I"  who  w i l l  j e c t s  s e l f . ^  thing-1anguage  language,-  t a l e  to  his  e x p r e s s i o n s  mechanica1  the  the  an  person  l o g i c a l l y  the  begins  by  e x t r i c a t e  to  of  and  f o r ,  s e l f ' s  "I"  thing..  e x t e r i o r i z e d  into  to  concept  and  e x h a u s t i b l e  s e l f  of  c o n c e p t u a l l y -  |s  r e s o r t s  B a s i l  f e a r e d ,  t h i r d  visua1 - s p a t i a 1  t h i n g ,  v|ew.  be  pronoun  even  logue  he  p e r c e p t i o n  " t h e y " ,  i m p r i s o n . t h e  i ns t a n c e ,  of  his  v o i c e s  the  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  "I"  unless  space. But  The  Unnamable,  ^ t h e  pure  a t t e m p t s ' t n a l l o w  h i m s e l f  him into  Unnamable  or  unconscious  Worm to  c r e a t e s  to  c r e a t e  s ubve rt  Worm  (that  a  f i g u r e  being. a  In  names  other  " n o n - f i c t i o n a 1  the d e s i g n s  of  is  the  h e u s e s  B a s i l . f i r s t  Worm  words, c h a r a c t e r " He  pro-  person  99 pronoun  when  fuse  S a r t r e ' s  in  r e f e r r i n g  As  is  unconscious  were  soon  "If  I  say  a n y t h i n g ,  towards  as  Worm  the  I  I'd  This  his  c r e a t u r e ) ,  terminology  i t s e l f . Worm,  to  the  the  he  becomes  is  k n o w . i t ,  be  (p.  f a i l u r e "great  suggests  chain  of  3  I  attempt  and  the  no  to  i n -  conscious  l o g i c a l l y  wouldn't Worm."  an  f o r - i t s e l f  Unnamable  being,  in  that  longer  wouldn't  say  he  Worm.  i t ,  I  w o u l d n ' t  47)  another  being"  hypothesis  in  How  It  which  p o i n t s  Is:  there might be a h u n d r e d of us a n d s t i l l we'd lack the hundred and f i r s t , w e ' l l always be s h o r t of me. Worm, I nearly s a i d Watt ... Perhaps i t ' s by t r y i n g to be Worm that I ' l l f i n a l l y succeed in being Mahood, I hadn't thought of that. Then a l l I ' l l have t o do i s be Worm. Which no d o u b t I s h a l l achieve by t r y i n g to. be J o n e s . Then 311 I ' l l h a v e . to. do i s be J o n e s . Stop, perhaps h e ' l l s p a r e me t h a t , have compassion and l e t me stop, (p. 339) Never j e c t  w i l l  the  Unnamable  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  c a l l y God  to  in  This  D e s c a r t e s '  the  " T h i r d  be  able  to  be  i n f i n i t e  c o s m o l o g i c a l  "archetype  own  " s e l f " .  argument  search his to  is  conclude  f i r s t  for  a the  the  quote  ob-  a l l u d e s  for  the  i r o n i -  e x i s t e n c e  of  to  the  a  Thus  searches  Descartes for  God.  pointed  out  that  of  conjoined  Unnamable  is  for  is  i l l u s t r a t e s  quest  sequence the  pen that one i d e a , that e l y , but one cause of which ce. 6  Unnamable  from  c a u s a l i t y  that  Hume  is  events  f o r e v e r  t h i s  However, there  l o s t  his  no  reason  must  have  in  limbo  a  in  a of  non-being. The  from  the  of  term.  endless  source"  e q u i v a l e n t  c r i t i q u e  and  M e d i t a t i o n " :  or  As  subject  r e g r e s s i o n  And even though it might hap idea gives b i t t h to a n o t h e r could not continue i n d e f i n i t must reach a f i r s t idea, the is l i k e an a r c h e t y p e o r sour The  both  fragmentation  d i a l e c t i c s e l f  h e l p l e s s l y How an  is  in  a  a l l eye  e i t h e r / o r  in  forward.  The  morass  my  of  becomes the  it it  depth  c l e a r  the ...  is if  o  1  u t i on  which  a  of  the  "I"  l a b y r i n t h  C a r t e s i a n  r e s u l t s  of  hypotheses  " c o g i t o "  flounders  words. and  w i t h i n ,  to  c o n t r a s t  person, of  put  on  exposed the  of  diiis s  and  simple  having  w i t h o u t , But  r e a l l y I'm  in  enough too  not  of  red  when  order  of a  c a r e f u l .  one  course t h i s  to  b e n e f i t  cursed  h e r r i n g , But  opens  p e r i o u s l y  I ' l l  what  by  f i r s t get  then  out is  00  1 the  subject?  Even  1ess ,  provided  Mahood?  Bah,, any  one  h a b i t .  To  Ah  the  yes ,  sees  be  No,  old  not  through  adjusted  b l i s s  of  yet.  pronoun i t .  l a t e r .  what  is  c l e a r " c l e a r  e l a b o r a t e  s p e c u l a t i o n s  on  now  only  category  which  serves  as  a  c o r r e l a t i v e . "  Without  o u t ' a  the  by  whi ch  p o s s i b i 1 i t y  of  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  kind  perhaps  of no  c o n t r a s t s  stream  on  the  of  to  c o n t r a c t  out at a  of  be  human  s a i d  is  of  n o n e . " ( p .  n a r r a t o r ' s  an  the  a  "no  of  3 6 0)  But  the  held  t r a d i t i o n a 1  in  l o g i c a l  "I"  the  to  a t t a i n  be  able  of  the  in  Unnamable  which  B e c k e t t ' s the  Rather  p i c k i n g  is  no  no  then  d i s t i n c t i o n s  Unnamable's  personal  pronoun  a  program  1 an.g u a g e - ( i ' f  can  not  human  f u t i 1 i ty  of  his  endeavour,  s u b j e c t question  is  of  p h i l o s o p h i c a l only  then  5  is  jthe  there  the  p r o b 1 em  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  being,  as  s u p e r i o r i t y there  - about  and  matter,  v i t a l ,  w i t h - t h e  nor  pronouns  doesn't  "I"  it  is  about  apply  a b o r t i v e  person to  ^be-  i n d i c a t e s ,  which  no  "I"  p o s s i b i l i t y  Only  then  w i l l  absoluteness w i l l  he  be  in  t o r r e n t  of one  s i l e n c e .  concern  l e a s t  an  touches  concerns.  S a r t r e As  is  no  h i m s e l f word  the whole he w a l l s , t ens , ebbs , words, a l l w i t h no g r o with  words,  e s o t e r i c  i t  language."  finds  there  a l l words, the a i r , t y i e l d s , op a i r these of words, (p. 386)  in  of  ideas  " o b j e c t i v e  Discourse  b i c k e r i n g  the  no  that  "God"  s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  The words  -  is  a  metaphysics ,  an  simple"  overcome  p o s i t i o n  o f ,,es t a b l i s h i n g  and  to  obsess i v e • p r e o c c u p a t i o n  has  with  in The  the  plenum  I? simple,  f)there  where  r i s e  the  b l a t h e r .  made,  attempt  f i r s t  sense  without  a  and  p o s i t i o n  The  language)  for  "I"  was  there  anything.  a p p l i e s . is  Aware  s a y s ,  parts  be  are  process  w h i c h g i v e s  to  w o r l d .  Unnamable other  s e l f  ex i s ten ce  a l l  or  language  d i s c o u r s e t r y i n g  for  p r i v i l e g e d  "who"  and  of  Where  Descartes'  a  do,  Matter  343)  (p.  comes  Worm?  w i l l  on  the  has  does  for  of  him:  e s p e c i a l l y  v i t a l  repeatedly  B e c k e t t ,  a  world is here with me, I'm he.wa11ed-in one, everything flows l i k e f l a k e s ... I'm these s t r a n g e r s , t h i s dust und for t h e i r <js e 111 i n g .  e x p l o r a t i o n most  trapped  he  of of  spoken  pronouns , l i n g u i s t i c  modern about  i d e n t i f i e s  is  not  ambiguity.  p h i l o s o p h i c a l "the  t h i s  c r i s i s  c r i s i s  of  w i t h  101 the  problem  which  the  forced few  of  "Other"  to  use  s c r a p s ,  remind form  one  the  that  a of  is  for  "Other",  the  Heidegerrian  the  with  question  language;  s e l f , of  t h i s  there  is  point  acorning  contemporary  and  the  most  e x p l i c i t l y Ry1e.  of  The  to  an  in  Descartes'  Con cep't  e x p o s i t i o n  of  out  paradoxes  the  B e c k e t t ,  in  a b i l i t y with in For  of  the  " h i g h e r-  5 5  method  of  d i s c u s s i o n problem  o rde r  con s c i l u s n e s s .  of  as  a  by  the  of  the schools  E x i s t e n t i a 1ism,  that  of  the  " s y s t e m a t i c  of  "I"  is  f i r s t  chapter  m i s t a k e s "  to  in  to  comes  the a  way  C a r t e s i a n ,  deal out  the  more  determined  by  the  acts  involve  i n -  adequately  e l u s i v e n e s s  which  involved  promise  However,  i d e n t i t y  more  G i l b e r t  modern  s e l f .  The is  "ghost  t h e r e f o r e ,  personal  i s ,  c r e a t i v e  is  his  Philosophy"  that  i n d i c a t e s  which  "category  s e l f  <£h:a t  major  problems  Language  a c t s " , He  the  f a c t  P h i l o s o p h y . "  movement  c a l l e d  t r a n s -  fundamental  two  devotes  encountered  "Ordinary  the  he  seems,  e x p l o r a t i o n  question  R y l e ' s Ry1e  his  l a t t e r  a  to  any  name 1y,  Language  M in d  of  the  thought,  of  conception  R y l e ' s  of  l i n g u i s t i c  so  more  is  crew  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  in  the  machine." of  the  i n t e r e s t e d  In  together  his  " s y l l a b l e "  the  B e c k e t t ' s  only  attempt  e s t a b l i s h i n g  involves  "Ordinary  example  or  by  Unnamable  and  who  means  knows  non-en t i t y .  of  p h i l o s o p h i c a l ,  a n a l y t i c a l  useful  of  he  Basil  "they"  " s i l a b "  others  The  which  images.  problem  r e l a t i o n s h i p  At  for  i s . t h e  being.  of  c o 1 1 e c t i verj  anagram  Beckett  of  language  nameless  a  language  one's  few  into  an  for  threatens  " t h e i r "  "I"  " B a s i l "  the  c l e a r l y  of  nature  " I " . " of  s e l f -  s t a t e s :  a higher order a c t i o n cannot be t h e a c t i o n upon w h i c h it is performed. S o my commentary o n my p e r f o r m a n c e s must a l w a y s be s i l e n t about one p e r f o r m a n c e , namely i t s e l f , "and-this performance c a n be t h e t a r g e t only of another commentary. S e l f commentary . . . -i(;i s ) l o g i c a l l y condemned to e t e r n a l penultimacy. Ryle  summarizes  his  argument  in  these  terms:  This general c can be t h e c o n but cannot be w i t h what was f u n c t i o n i n g of and And  o n c l u s i o n that any performance cern of a higher order performance, the concern of i t s e l f , is connected s a i d e a r l i e r about the s p e c i a l index words, s u c h as " n o w " , "you", "I" sentence i n d i c a t e s whom in  p a r t i c u l a r  is  i t  about  by  being  i t s e l f  uttered  102 or w r i t t e n by someone in p a r t i c u l a r . "I" i n d i c a t e s the person who u t t e r e d i t . So, when a p e r s o n u t t e r s an " I " sentence, his utterance may be p a r t of a higher order performance, namely one, perhaps of s e l f r e p o r t i n g , s e 1 f - e x h o r t a t i o n , or s e l f commisseration, and t h i s performance i t s e l f is not dealt w i t h in the o p e r a t i o n which i t i t s e l f i s . Even i f the person i s , for s p e c i a l s p e c u l a t i v e purposes momentarily c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the Problem of S e l f , he has f a i l e d and knows that he h a s f a i l e d to c a t c h more than the f l y i n g c o a t - t a i I s of t h a t w h i c h he (was p u r s u i n g . His quarry was the hunter. 7 While  R y l e ' s  a n a l y s i s  problems  involved  image  the  of  search  for  anguish  which  one  which  quarry  and  appears  to  to in  not  VI  for  of  the  s e l f  (the 1  e x i s t e n t i a l  a r t i s t - h e r o e s . is  Unnamable's I  1 i n gu ? s tji'c  Moran s  evident  d i s c u s s i o n  Book  the  the  s o l u t i o n  famous the  of  d e s c r i bes  B e c k e t t i a n  behind  part  some  e x p l a i n  R y l e ' s  another  l i e  search  hunter  the of  e x p l a i n  s  1"'  does  inadequacy  refers  11  to  the  motivates  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s Hume  the  M o l l o y ) , i t  The when  in  seems  of  the  of  a l s o  the  s e l f  babble,  Hume's  Treat i se;  w r i t e s : when I enter most i n t i m a t e l y into what I c a l l myself, I a l w a y s s t u m b l e on some . parti c u l a r p e r c e p t i o n or o t h e r , of heat or c o l d , l i g h t or shade; love, or h a t r e d , pain or p l e a s u r e . I never can c a t c h myse1f at any time without a p e r c e p t i o n , and can never.observe anything but the p e r c e p t i o n . 8  Ry1e  would  p i r i c a l  say  that  psychology,  o s t e n s i b l y  posed  l i n g u i s t i c  a n a l y s i s  the to for  s o u l "  d i s c o v e r the  the  but  simply  the  world  does  a c t ,  The  begins  i d e n t i t y ,  is  They  the  and  i t s  found say  not  through  s e l f .  which of  is  " o r d i n a r y  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  One order"  problem  goes  Unnamable  p i r i c a l of  Hume  by  Hume's  his  they,  a  the  to  due a  r e s u l t of  to  his  em-  p s e u d o = p r o b 1 em But  for  ¥he of  t h i s dark  the  Hume  r e s t r i c t i n g  is  night  of  i n a b i l i t y relevant  h i m s e l f  consciousness  and  to i t s  an  em-  p e r c e p t i o n  i t .  f o r c e f u l  r e l a t i o n in  account  example  e n c l o s e s most  due  not  language."  as  by  of  is  to  examples the  problem  Unnamable's  speaking  of  of  a of  "higher personal  statement:  them,  to  make  me  103 think i t i s I who am s p e a k i n g : Or I they, s p e a k i n g o f God knows w h a t , t o .me t h i n k i t i s n o t I who am s p e a k i n g , Beckett the  attempts  " e t e r n a l  t o g e t"between  penultimacy"  "they)".  R y l e ' s  use  f o r Beckett  here  way;  tween  suggests  t h ef i r s t  "God",  which  p h o r i c a l l y  language  with  person  f o r Beckett  represented  i n making  sense  o f  that  the.  "God"  can  is  B i b l i c a l l y ,  Exodus the  I s r a e l ,  t h econcept  obsenable  acts  o r behaviour;  the  world  each  o r that  case  there  events  even  there  b e l i e f  attempted. c e i t f u l  S p i r i t "  f a l s e  which  who  means  o f a  ruthless  God.  Sartre  cause  they  this  h i s" I " u n t i l parody  a r ed i r e c t e d God  (and  that  with  a d r a s t i c  toward  o r  i s  o r  D e -  t h e n a r r a t o r point  T h e Unnamable  i d e n t i f i e d  by  conceptions  o f  a r ea b s u r d b e -  an u n a t t a i n a b l e  o r t o be simu1taneous1y  o f  m o d i f i c a t i o n .  i s t h ec r u c i a l  projects'  events  paradigm  (Jahweh)  t o t r i c k  t r a d i t i o n a l  In  between t h e  t h i s  i t becomes  man's  i n  o f t h e acts  by previous'commentators),  h a sshown  t o become  t r i e s  without  events.  o f t h ea c t s  Youdi  w i t h -  exhausted  o f God  :  Instead  t o e l e v a t e  be  a s D e s c a r t e s " "M5JLig]o3^t  continua11y  missed  ("I")  i n  "Say  there  back  Unnamab1e  t h e" I " a n d  o f Himself  ^God"  o f c o r r e l a t i o n  undergoes  " I " .T h e  b y t h ee v e n t s  stands  indeed,  you."  o f these  total  In T h e  appears  being.  h a sbeen  attempts  des i re  between  Youdi  who  and,  me t o  i s o r can speak  observe  he s a i d ,  o f t h es e l f  a sum  sort  s t r u c t u r e s  N o / r e l a t i o n s h i p  into  i s some  i s t o  And sent  we can  i s n o t t h e sum  a n dt h e • " a c t s . "  C h r i s t i a n  am has  i s exhausted  i s an " a c t o r "  T h e f i r s t  pronoun  am."  o f s e l f  He i s s i m p l y  b u t who  though  " a c t o r "  t h econcept  I  speak  that  " I " meta-  o r void.  " I " a n d t h ew o r d  we can  holds b e -  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  "I  assuming  that  that  language.  a p p r o p r i a t e l y ,  amwho  t h epronoun  t h i s - p a r a l l e j :  assuming  or  o f  o f " I " -  ordinary  o f  b e l l e f - t a l k  be q u i t e  "I  use  an absolute  r e l i g i o u s  fash Ion:  Between  stands  connotes  o f God's  avoid  " I " a n dt h e term  o n t h ep e r s o n a l  speaks  t o t h ep e o p l e -  out  modelled  n a r r a t i v e  f o l l o w i n g  this  by  world  pronoun  by t h es i l e n c e  step  i n an  i s an analogy  personal  t o  dualism  language  t h e" r e l i g i o u s "  there  3 7 0 )  c r ? t i q ue . wou 1 d b e o f n o  i s n o tusing  that  i n order  o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c  ordinary  he i s concerned  Beckett  words"  s a y make (p.  g o a l , t h e t h efree  f o r -  1 itself  and the a b s o l u t e Dieter  of  gization"  genera11y  1  d e s i gn o f  misconception, In an e s s a y  in-itself.  We 1 1 e r s h p f f s  the o v e r a i l  typical  entitled  ok  the t r i l o g y  o f most  "Failure  he s u m m a r i z e s  perceptive  is ^ flawed  criticism  by o n e m a j o r  o f T h e Unnamab1e.  o f an A t t e m p t  the three  ana 1 y s i s  novels  at  De-Mytholo-  in these  terms:  No 11oy s n a r r a t i v e s t i l l has t h e pi e n i t u d e and f a n t a s y o f t h e b e g i n n i n g . It represents the m y t h i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s which s t i l l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e d u a l i t y o f man a n d w o r l d , subj e c t a n d o b j e c t , e g o and god i n t h e image o f a long j o u r n e y and v a i n homecoming, a n a l o g u e s to t h e P a s s i o n * t h e O d y s s e y , t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f Hermes, w h i c h , • i n however r u d i m e n t a r y and d i s f i g u r e d a.form are compressed in t h i s story. M o r a n ' s r e p o r t , i n c o n t r a s t , r e p r e s e n t s a more e n l i g h t e n e d , more r e a l i s t i c l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s ness. It r e d u c e s t h e m y t h i c a l n a r r a t i v e to a more b a r r e n k e r n e l o f e x p e r i e n c e , i t w a n t s t o say what r e a l l y h a p p e n e d . But t h i s n a i v e clai.m in•objectivity i s f i n a l l y d e s t r o y e d by t h e n e x t disillusionment. Behind M o i l o y ' s n a r r a t i v e and M o r a n ' s r e p o r t i n M a l o n e D ? e s , t h e s u b j e c t whose f i c t i o n s t h e y a r e , i s made v i s i b l e . Then, finally, i n T h e Unnamab1e t h e s u b j e c t a l s o i s dissolved. I t i s now no more t h a n an e m p t y a r e a o f t r a n s i t o f anonymous l a n g u a g e and d i s a p p e a r s inside i t . It a l l h a p p e n e d o n l y i n t h e l a n g u a g e , w h i c h , now t h a t i t i s u n m a s k e d a s a i m l e s s search a n d c o n s t a n t d e c e p t i o n , no l o n g e r y i e l d s a n y m y t h i c a l symbo1, and h i s t o r y , t h a t m i g h t interpret i t s own o b s c u r i t y . 9 1  On  the c o n t r a r y ,  T h e Unnamab1e  mythico-religious its  obscurity.  In  ' does ' i n Language involves theory final  more  is  The  a n d My t h ) a  that  theory  interna1  reason  fundamental is  that  re 1 a t i o n s h i p  denote  the real  ificance  in  of  in part  and f a c t u a l  thing  is  the t i t l e  is  other,  be r e a l i z e d :  it  involves  bear  implies  and  a their The  Fi ct ion.  that  a n e c e s s a r y and t h e name  of the  i n t h e name.  of Beckett's  t h e mind  the myth-making  the essence  contained  Cass i re r  knowledge."  and e s s e n c e  to each  but a c t u a l l y  it  of  of  partially)  shows • ( a s  Towa r d s a_ Sup reme of  patterns  least  and e x p r e s s i o n ,  assumption  name  (at  "the philosophy  of knowledge;  B e c k e t t ' s Notes  consciousness  can  interpret  o f ' p r e 1 o g i .ca 1 c o n c e p t i o n  Unnamable  that  which  archetypal  T h e Unnamab 1 e B e c k e t t ,  than  culmination  merely  thought  supplies  last  novel  complete  object,  Hence of  does not  the  the  sign-  trilogy  i s o 1 a t i on ,<i^::>  105 for to  the be  nameless  has  completely  no  o b s c u r e d .  things  "they  taught  me  But  s t i l l  has  use  he  of  the  of  s i l e n c e .  thought chaos only no  The a  into  a  that as  s e l f , a  to'  the  it  is  that  As  the  seems  to  the  powers seems,  the  the  Being  made  his  in  "god"  wonders  whether  "hidden  of  the  does I  alone  am  man  m y t h i c o - r e of  was  the  word  to  speak  transformed The  the  He  Word.  a b s o l u t e  1igious  u n i v e r s e .  e x p 1 o i t i n g  d e i t y , of  A p o s t l e gives  a  god  takes  rather  rule of  by  idea  than  god  him-  the  ( C a s s i r e r , s e c r e c y  would  crew  as  an  attempt  means  of  the  a l l  grotesque  1ike  Viewed  48)  a p p l i e s  t h i s  " c h a r a c t e r s " are  p.  r e l e a s e  However  Author.  i r o n i c a l l y power  His  his  an  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  F i c t i o n .  of  it  that  involves  of  h i m s e l f . on  and  thought  e f f i c a c y . "  the  is  at  my n a m e , w o r l d , p here I who can ds, (p. to  are  Pirande11o's a r c h e t y p a l l y  to  bring  word.  the one a t i e n t l y am i n s a f have d e a l 300)  his  Th'e  the Unnamabje  they from e t y , t me  f o i s t e d season amusing these  c r e a t i o n :  s e c r e t to h i s c r e a t i o n s . There s i g n a t i o n that may be a p p l i e d to that of C r e a t o r , Maker of men and the d e s i g n a t i o n of pure Being. is not begotten, he b e a r s and is is B e i n g , the Constant in everymaining. ( C a s s i r e r , p. 76) in  two  statements  " d i s s e r t a t i o n " :  me,  a l l  ing e i r no, ing woun  a ' s e c r e t  appears  look  of  fend  B a s i l  Unnamable's  not  forced  b e l i e f ,  Search  god"  paradox  is  in  His name is a is but one d e him, besides gods: that is He b e g e t s and not born, he t h i n g , the Re This  Unnamable  mention  is s t i l l usurp up there in t h to season? No myself, wonder i n s i g n i f i c a n t The  the  m y t h i c o - r e 1igious  source  B a s i l  t h e i r  reach  the  appears  w i t h i n  to  e t h i c a l  the  or'Supreme  in  c l e a r . "  attempt  for  image.  a c t i o n  of  Unnamable  C h a r a c t e r s  t h i s  of  t h i s  inherent  meaning  only  end.  r e a r of  are  to  agency  i r o n i c a 1 1 y  name  Name"  Supreme  Six  be  consequence "Holy  the  words  order  to  beginning  tends  in  phase  and  t h e i r  and  words  that  pattern  to  is  the  and  the  Unnamable  b1ank  the  through  in  Another  " i t  of  language  making  that  meaningful  assurance  Beckett  these  in  the  without  words  man  To  " t h e y " ,  parody  when  says  that  to  t h r e a t e n i n g  c o n s t i t u t e  e x i s t e n c e  does  the  not  rest  know  the of  d i v i n e " ;  made f i r s t me,  the  at  the  s t a t e s ,  wants second,  for  beginning "He nothing.  which  106 appears  to  am  ^ c o n t r a d i c t  and  I  the  s i n n i n g ,  301)  the  a n g e l , came  Because  Yet  he  they  have  f i r s t , came  the  are  as  another  pattern  of  r e l i g i o u s  the  came  of  in  before  (pp.  he  300,  is  the  immortal.  sense  that  essence.  i n t e r m i n g l i n g  thought.  Matthew  c r o s s ,  born  " d i v i n e "  B e c k e t t ' s  am  h e r e . "  get  i d e n t i f y - t h e i r  phantasmagoric  appears  before  cannot  who  which  s t a t e s , " I  w o r l d ,  Unnamable  f i c t i o n s  names  The  who  into  the  begets  I  the  of  r e v e r s a l s C a s s i r e r  i d e n t i t i e s  of  a  t r a d i t i o n a l  s t a t e s  the  t r a d i -  t i o n a l v i e w : the polynomy of the personal d e i t i e s is an e s s e n t i a l t r a i t of t h e i r beings. For r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g the power of a god is expressed in the abundance of his e p i t h e t s ; r e q u i s i t e fo r a god o f the order, (p. 62) Through of  the  polynomy god  f i c a t i o n the  idea.  w i t h  " s a c r e d "  foul  breath  only  be  God  and  f u l l y  the  me,  of  an  to  p o s s i b i 1 i t y  w i t h  in  At  mind  i t  a  more  o u t s i d e  changes  appears  am  that  1  me  unto  y o u . "  am.  as  a  Thus  t h i s  t a l k  i t s e l f the  parody thou  d o n ' t  know  of  s h a l t says  can  l i t e r a l l y  the  that  why  and  I  d i s c e r n i b l e  The  don't  as  p o s s i b i l i t y Unnamable's  M o l l o y ' s  the  m a t r i x  quest of  l e v e l  the  that There  absolute  recourse  human of  d i s c o v e r s  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  without  same  mother's  my  is  about  the  t r u t h ,  Unnamable  to  is  s e l f other  " I . "  perpetrated  C a s s i r e r by  to  of  statement  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  the  mixing in  which  tongue,  i d e n t i -  "And  before  c l e a r  a  unity  M o l l o y ' s ,  e a s i l y  " i n c e s t u o u s "  w i t h i n  deception  I  is  mother  language  references  only  t h e i r s ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p .  the  f o s t e r s  to  the of  me,  This  h o r r i b l e  fear  makes  to  302)  c r u c i f i e d ,  Oedipal  enclosed  The  the  thought  u t t e r  compared  i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  i t s e l f  completely  if  a t t a i n  involves  "Me, (p.  to  any  l u n a t i c s "  you  language.  p h i l o s o p h i c a l language  of  " p r i m i t i v e "  return  c r e a t i v i t y ,  pronoun  t e l l  furthermore a  Unnamable  M o l l o y ' s  the  t r i e s  " p r o f a n e . "  mingles  incestuous  involves  mind  c r e a t u r e s . "  59)  of  statement  no  the  l i k e ' b e i n g  (p.  horror  "troop  my  sometimes  t o . "  the  a p p r e c i a t e d  unendurable, want  mythic  For  his  as  f o r g i v e  image  the  polynomy is a prehigher personal  by  what say,  the God  unto  pronoun s a i d them:  to I  that  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  of  o b j e c t i v e  i n t e r Moses:  "I  am  sent  has  107  e x i s t e n c e i n t o s u b j e c t i v e b e i ng t h a t t h e Deity i s r e a l l y elevated to the "absolute r e a l m " , t o a s t a t e t h a t c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a n y a n a l o g y w i t h t h i n g s o r names o f things. The o n l y i n s t r u m e n t s o f speech that remain f o r i t s e x p r e s s i o n a r e the personal p r o n o u n s : " I am h e ; I, am t h e f i r s t , flthe l a s t " , as i t i s w r i t t e n i n t h e P r o p h e t i c Books , ( p . 7 7 ) . Although up  Beckett  a dialectic  this are  appears  no o t h e r  "them"  the case.  "third  this  pattern  The U n n a m a b l e  parties",  t h e whole  i s forced  t o speak  son,  f o r "they"  have  i nto  h i s na r r a t i ve :  setting "they",  that  there  involving  But, f i n a l l y , the  of himself  inextricably  says  business  i s " t o o much o f a . r e d - h e r r i n g . "  Unnamable  by  t h e "1" and t h e t h r e a t e n i n g  between  i s not t r u l y  to vary  in the t h i r d  interwined  per-  themselves  he's i n h i s own s t o r y , un i mag.i n a b l e , ' ^ u n s p e a k a b l e , • j t h a t doesn t m a t t e r , the attempt m u s t be m a d e , i n t h e o l d s t o r i e s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b 1 y m i n e , t o f i n d h i s , i t m u s t be t h e r e s o m e w h e r e , i t must have been m i n e , b e f o r e b e i n g h i s I ' l l r e c o g n i z e i t , t h e s t o r y o f t h e s i l e n c e t h a t he never l e f t , t h a t I s h o u l d never have l e f t , t h a t I may n e v e r f i n d a g a i n , O t h a t I may f i n d a g a i n , t h e i t w i l l be h e , i t w i 1 1 be I , i t w i 1 1 be t h e s i l e n c e the e n d , t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e b e g i n n i n g again, how c a n I s a y i t , ^ t h a t ' s a l l w o r d s , t h e y ' r e a l l I h a v e , a n d n o t many o f t h e m . . . ( p . 4 1 7 ) 1  Beckett's  philosophical  1ies,.in  general  terms,  Sartre.  Through  t h e Unnamable  bitter  irony  rather  than  of  an  usually  Unnamable  "Other"  human  Sartre  are  taking  similar  to those i  these  experiences  supernatural , that main  intention  t o assume  " I "  character o fthe  Theplight  pushed  to the  on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  found  most  limits  of the  being  and  of experiences in mystic  which  literature.  -  However, h e i s c a r e f u l of  man  is l e d to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  strangely  with  the concept  comp1 e x d i a 1 e c t i c . o f  i n tiffs  and  o f the Cartesian  o f i t through  consciousness  t h e non-human, thus  nothi ngness  implies  a t t r i b u t e d to the d e i t y .  shows  God-head.  Beckett  allows  Unnamab1e  ? n The  o f Descartes  those  internalization  an e x t e r n a 1 i z a t i o n  "God" o r S a r t r e ' s  is t i c s of  that  between  position  to emphasize  have  n o need  i s , existential  i n Being  that  h i s exp1orations  t o g o beyond context.  and N o t h i n g n e s s  a non-  Sartre's  i s t oestablish a  108 v i a b l e ,  t h e o r e t i c a l  freedom  in  Beckett  t h i s  to  the  fuse  the  i t s  The  a l t e r n a t i v e mythical  t h i s  s e l f .  The  q u i t e  the  a  beast  d e a l i n g task  its  highest  a  world  But  of  of  is  at  once  he  attempts  forces much  that of  the  inward name  that  of  born  same  or  no  to  Martin  a t t a i n Buber  into to  a  archetypes  i n a b i l i t y  to  " I . "  t a l k The  is  is  no  nothing  yet  in  a  response  to  of  Thou,  S a r t r e .  is  about  Beckett e n c o u n t e r s :  any  human  and  n o n - s e l f use  of  God  i m p l i e s  a  image  end  product  of  the  metaphysical  the  development  of  the  s c i e n t i f i c  method  the  reason is  m y t h i c o that  the  of  the  t r i l o g y  engendered of  to  to  negation  in  chaos  While  which  showing  the  dilemma  analogous  towards  human  towards  s i l e n c e .  d i r e c t e d  dismembered  in  p a r t i -  commitment  B e c k e t t ' s  a l s o  l i k e  r a t i o n a l i s t i c .  his  s e l f  space,  seek,  the  p o s i t i o n  "a  t o t a l i t y ,  of  the  s t i r s ,  d i r e c t e d  world  of  is  390)  a v o i d i n g  a  _l_ a n d  I  i t s  is  re-  empty  m y s t i c i s m  and  in  an  he  where  problem  to  language  in  (p.  r e l i g i o u s  Unnamab1e.  thing  ..."  with  from  because  beasts  his  s e l f  unable  that  and  For i n a b i l i t y  The  e x i s t e n t i a l  of  r e l i g i o u s  in  and  language,  dialogue  that  There  Divine  of  i n h e r i t e d  M y s t i c i s m  m y s t i c :  the  l i s t e n ,  the  image.  the  on  understand  dual  r e a l i t y ,  r i g o r o u s l y  him  I  And  i an . " 1"  p l a c e ,  caged  transcends is  c l o s e r  human  black  test  O t h e r s . "  f i c t i o n "  wordless  comprehending  Beckett  that  and  with  the  cannot  c o l d  With  Method  B e c k e 11  a  s e l f ' s  open.  d i a l e c t i c .  t h i n g ,  dry  speaks,  c u l a r i t y  On  of  Unnamable  the  d i s c o u r s e  'a.vator  nothing  is  of  " s c i e n c e  shut  caged  mode  not  in  d i f f e r e n t  hard  is  D ?scou rse  negative  for  R e l a t i o n s  r e s u l t s  l a t e s t  solve  a  "Concrete  re t i ona1 i s t i c  Descartes  framework  the  is by  seventeenth  cen t u ry . The  Unnamable  enormous  p i c t u r e s  p r i s o n ,  l i k e  h i m s e l f a  as  hundred  an  thousand.  c a t h e d r a l s , never anything e l s e from t h i s time f o r t h , and in i t , perhaps, r i v can he be f o what f a l s e n e that around  in  •.  anymore, somewhere,  e t e d , t i n y , the p r i s o n e r , how und, how f a l s e t h i s space i s , s s i n s t a n t l y to want to draw you, to want to put a being  t h e r e , a c e l l would be p l e n t y , if I gave up, before b e g i n n i n g , before beginning a g a i n . . . (p. Later  the  ^13) Unnamable  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  adds  that  he  needs  a  p r i s o n :  109 s e l f the  Imposed a 1ien  another around  " v o i c e s " .  metaphor w i t h  s t y l i s t i c of  his  b a s i c  Ma l o n e  Unnamable and  "I  ad  is  in  am to  a  a  be  bone."  as  1ike  in  of  sees and  an  truth  the  the  his  head,, in  work,  350)  the  a r t i s t  the  w a l l  imagery 11y  This  t e l e -  the  makes  me  say  on  a l l  Unnamable  is  B e c k e t t ' s  parable  the  fusion  surrounded  The  of  " w a l l e d  es pe c i a  t e r r o r  s a f e t y ,  p r i s o n e r  is  " v o i c e s . "  i t s  by  main  p r e d e c e s s o r s ,  (p..  c o n c l u s i o n  i d e a l i s t i c  the  mythic  mythical  image.  w o r d - p i c t u r e of  The  in  language  which he  the  is  forced  Unnamable  n e g a t i v e l y  of  gods  " b r i g h t  in  the  a b s t r a c t i o n s  of  My t h  Cass i re r  r a t i o n a l  d i s c o u r s e  expresses  daemons  is  nor  n e i t h e r  the  the  l o g i c a l  sometimes I ' l l  from  go w i t h  The  mage, which, once confronted hard r e a l i s t i c powers, have r e a l i t y and e f f e c t u a l i t y ; a l i g h t , bright ether in can move w i t h o u t - l e t or penetrates  image  is  r a t i o n a l  only  The  void,  is  a  mythic  l e v e l  But  not  w i t h  fused  in  a  the  which  a  dichotomy  is  no  urinous  f i n a l  dualism.  h e r o i c  human  the  There  Unnamable's t h i s  of  image'appear  powers."  void  epitomizes  t h i s  to  d i s c o u r s e .  t h e bblack  appears. on"  and  r e a l i s t i c  the  "I  c a n ' t  Every  attempt  to  con*' wrest  chaos. C a s s i r e r ' s  wi th  art  and  which-word  mythic  e t h e r " ,  f r o n t a t i o n art  and  between  What  Beckett  a s : " h a r d  p e r s i s t s :  on,  Language  a b s t r a c t - d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .  consciousness  glow  of  s y n t h e s i s  Word and m y t h i c i the human mind as now c a s t o f f a l l they have become which the spi ri t hindrance.  go  w r i t i n g s  e a r l i e r  is  A  the  out  negated  he  325)  example  keeps  is  that  (p.  l a t e r  w i t h  it  employ.. At  In  says  t h i s  the  fo r,  absurdum  seen  In  for  metaphor  "I"  B e c k e t t ' s  longing  massive  reduct i o  to  of  sui t a b l e  the  t h i s  the  i d e n t i f i e d  says,  by  a r t i s t  is  necessary  v o c i f e r a t i o n s . "  important  D ies , i s  which  metaphors.  so  s c o p i ng  sides  t h e i r  is  However  in  device  w h i c h - i s  i t ,  i n c a r c e r a t i o n  Ulnriamabl e ,  statement,  i f  i l l u s t r a t e s  taken that  in  w h i l e  conjugation Beckett  espouses  n o a  romantic,  c a l l y  a  that  or  s y m b o l i s t .  the  image  Yeats  the  mind,  a c t i o n  represents  of  the  and  of  truth  of  s i l e n c e  Romantic If  volved image  in  ways.  In  attempts  to  was  what  would  only  a  a  The  work  now  be  a  the  he a e s t h e t i c  with  the  They  e x i s t  c o n d i t i o n  symbolist shows  e a r l i e r  were  recover  those, i n t e l l e c t  of  formulations  masterpiece.  Unnamab1e  which  which  beyond p e r f e c t  could  be  movement,  the  his  i m p o s s i b i l i t y  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  the and  h i s  a  The of  of  The  an  human  form  B a l z a c ' s stood  had  escaped  is  that  Unknown  mad the  reader's  most  many  r e s u l t in  is  which At  the  r e a c t i o n  before  p e t r i f i e d  in  a r t i s t ,  p a i n t i n g  c h a r a c t e r s f a i r l y  incomprehensioni  d i s c e r n i b l e .  the  i n -  magic  Unnamab1e  but  a b s t r a c t  Unnamab1e,  the  The  the  d'oeuvre,  dangers  for  B a l z a c ' s  Frenhofer,  "They  which  search  the  u l t i m a t e l y  in  chef  c a l l e d  shows  resembles  s t o r y ,  of  of  that  fragment  the  foreshadowed  fragment  p a r a l l e l s  of  o b s c u r i t y  c r e a t e  " c o n c l u s i o n "  in  and  u n i t i e s  to  time.  nothingness  of  in  B a l z a c ' s to  with  for  body  Symbolist  do  s t r e s s e s  discovered  attempt to  Image  the  These  The  t e c h n i -  movement.  lead  M a s t e r p i e c e ,  terms  goals  symbolism  danger  out.  a r t i s t i c  and  a n y t h i n g ,  can  This  in  a_j_.  nothing  not  s i g n i f i e d  of  Descartes  d i s s o c i a t i o n  B e c k e t t ' s  the  _____  is  dance  dualisms  when  do  he  Roman t? c  the  magical  to  d i s c u s s e d  r e a l i z i n g  a  nothing  u s e f u l l y  of  the  art  in  and  than  have  While  the  bed  which  u n i t J '  a e s t h e t i c  of  b e l i e v e d ,  e s s e n t i a l l y  p o s s i b i l i t y  of  dancer  in  of  Ke r m o d e  contemplation  b e t t e r  s c i e n t i s t s ,  the  Frank  of  Yeats  think  images  conception  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  destroyed, could  mystic  the  unknown  before  that  i n c r e d i b l e ,  gradual,  12 p r o g r e s s i v e art  are  t o t a l l y  Frenhofer's to  d e s t r u c t i o n . "  f o l l o w  comments  "Nature" his  l i k e  ignorance,  From  a  ones), however,  d i f f e r e n t  downfall  on  point  from  was too  leads set  far  a r r i v e d to  The  in  i t s  a  negation.  the  same  Unnamable  and  ones  because  f l i g h t .  p o s t u l a t e s at  assumptions  romantic  "Observe  to of  the  p e r c i p i t a t e d  f a i l u r e :  d i f f e r e n t Beckett  B e c k e t t ' s  that I  he  The too  of  mad  my  B a l z a c .  attempted  much  doubt  on  a r t i s t knowledge,  own  work!"  ( e s s e n t i a l l y  " C a r t e s i a n "  c o n c l u s i o n .  One  say,  as  Porbus  cannot, did  I l l about our  the  art  unknown  on  e a r t h . "  e m o t i o n a l l y than which  has is  formless t h i s  masterpiece , Beckett  powerful  ever  been  beyond and  s t a t e o f  done  the  c h o t i c the  of  a l l  in  of  a e s t h e t i c  s e l f  The  his  before  grasp  that  doomed  "marks  Unnamab1e,  n o v e l s , to  a r t .  the  the  takes  edge  Only  of  art  is  to  never  an  of  end  of  the  most  one  c l o s e r  the  void  o s t e n s i b l y  able ending  to  pattern non-being;  11 2  References 1 J o r g e L u i s B o r g e s , 0 t h e r 11 n a u i s i t i o n s Washington Square P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p• 13. 2 (New  (New  Rene D e s c a r t e s , M e d i t a t i o n s , t r a n s . L . J . Y o r k : The B o b s - M e r r i 1 1 C o . I n c . , I 9 6 0 ) , p. E.A.  3  Burst,  The  Metaphysica1  York:  Lafleur 88.  Foundations  of  Mode r n  S c i en c e (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d C o . I n c . , 1 925) . 4 B a s i l W i l l e y , T h e S e v e n t e e n t h Cen t u r y B a c k g r o u n d (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y a n d C o . I n c . , 1 9 5 3 ) , p. • 91 .  P^~ 29-  5 One o f t h e b e s t d i s c u s s i o n s o f " t h i r d p e r s o n " a n d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n 1i t e r a t u r e i s f o u n d i n R a i n e r M a r i a R i 1 k e s 'ffih e No t e b o o k s o f M a t t e L a u r i ds B r i g g e . T h i s d i sc u s s i o n bears great r e l e v a n c e f o r the " G o d o t " , " Y o u d i " , f i g u r e s i n B e c k e t t ' s own w r i t i n g ; 1  A n d ( o u g h t t o h a v e known t h a t t h i s t h i r d p e r s o n who p e r v a d e s a l l l i v e s a n d l i t e r a t u r e s , t h i s g h o s t o f a t h i r d p e r s o n who n e v e r w a s , h a s no s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d m u s t be d i s a v o w e d . He i s o n e o f t h e p r e t e x t s o f N a t u r e who i s a l w a y s e n d e a v o u r i n g t o d i r e c t the a t t e n t i o n o f . man f r o m h e r d e e p e s t s e c r e t s . He i s the s c r e e n b e h i n d w h i c h a drama u n f o l d s . He i s the n o i s e at the t h r e s h o l d of the v o i c e l e s s silence of a real c o n f l i c t . One i s i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t h e r e t o f o r e they have a l l found i t too d i f f i c u l t t o s p e a k o f t h e two c o n c e r n e d . The t h i r d , just b e c a u s e he i s s o u n r e a l , i s t h e e a s i e s t p a r t o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g ; , h i m t h e y have a l l been a b l e t o manage. From t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r p l a y s one n o t i c e s t h e i r i m p a t i e n c e to a r r i v e a t t h i s ' t h i r d , p e r s o n ; , they- can s c a r c e l y w a i t f o r h i m . The moment he a p p e a r s a l l i s w e l l . B u t how t i r e s o m e w h e n he i s l a t e . A b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g can happen without him; everything stops, waits. Y e s , and how i f t h i s d a m n i n g a n d s t a g n a t i o n k e p t o n ? 6 7 and  Rene  Descartes,  Med i t a t ? o n s ,  G i l b e r t Ry1e, The N o b l e , 1 9 ^ 9 ) , p. 1 9 5 ;  Concept of pp. 197"8.  8 D a v i d Hurae, A T r e a t i se Selby-Bigge (Oxford: Clarendon  p.  98.  Mind  (New  York:  Barnes  o f Human Na t u r e , e d . L.A. P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , P• 2 5 2 .  9 D i e t e r We 1 1 e r s h o f f , " T h e F a i l u r e o f an A t t e m p t a t D e - M y t h o l o g i z a t i o n " , i n Samue1 B e c k e t t : A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , e d . M a r t i n Es s1 i n ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 105 10 E r n s t C a s s i r e r , L a n g u a g e and M y t h , t r a n s . Susanne K. L a n g e r (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d R o w , 1946) , X . All future r e f e r e n c e s to C a s s i r e r in the c h a p t e r a r e from t h i s t e x t . 11 Co.,  F r a n k K e r m o d e , Roman t i c I mage ( L o n d o n : 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 29See e s p e c i a l l y t h e c h a p t e r  12 H o n o r e de B a l z a c , " T h e U n k n o w n Corned i e H u m a i n e ( L o n d o n : C a x t o n P r e s s ,  Macmillan on Y e a t s .  M a s t e r p i e c e " in 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 42.  La  and  113 Chapter  VI P h i l o s o p h i c a l At  Beckett al  the  had  "end"  reached  e x p l o r a t i o n s .  seemed, than  a  Even  i f  question  How  can  the  of  e t i c s How  |t  It  of  is  only his  Is  r e s o l v i n g and  the  s t r a n g e s t  B e c k e t t  which  important  to  note  represents  B e c k e t t ' s  most  s e l f  and  s t r u c t u r e s ,  i n s e p a r a b l e ,  Concomitant  is  an  void  of  c o n d i t i o n . invokes  T h a l i a , of  of  humour."  in  t h i s  ate only  in  f a l l s  to  a  The  humanity  with  termed  form  a  is  so  an  reductions  v i s i o n  and  o f . a e s t h -  form. at of  in  The  Unnamab1e.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  shortage, the  j u s t  form  become  there  f i n i t e  human  s a r d o n i c a l l y at  the  of  human  of  to  a n n i h i l a t i o n  b i t t e r  again  the  attempt  " d e t e r i o r a t i o n  underground  of  "I"  and  admits  of  How  of  "how"  I t i s  he  c a r i c a t u r e  How  be  taboos  journey  previous  The art  comedy,  " w i t h i n  Is  How  of  18)  of  In  problems  than  v i s i o n of  by  content  any  f i g u r a -  novels  the  d r a s t i c  never  n a r r a t o r  B e c k e t t ' s It  is  has  t i t l e  f u r t h e r  must  excremental  "I"  hk~S)  the  (p.  there  the  his  B e c k e t t ' s  method.  impossible  technique  so  on"  rather  corner?  attempt  and  more  h o r r i f y i n g  While  beginning  that  which  i n c r e a s i n g l y  even  w i t h  a  the  Through  form  of  it  t h i s  go  precedence,  but  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  n o n - s e l f .  f i c t i o n -  e n t e r p r i s e .  takes  r a i s e s  of  grammatical  the  a l s o  questions  and  o n , . I ' l l  that  involves  a e s t h e t i c  go  o r i g i n a l  another  but  c a n ' t  when  most  answer  s t o r y ,  his  into  to  true  c o n t e n t ,  of  and  s t i l l  in  r e s o l v e ,  attempts  implies  the  v i r t u a l l y  of  that  end  on",  i t s e l f  one  d i s c o v e r  one  go  appeared  a r t i s t i c  painted  ______,  not  the  continue  l i t e r a l l y  novel  for  I s  contradi c t i o n  process  and  q u e s t i o n .  simple  " I ' l l  not  "I  It  it  dead  a r t i s t i c  t i v e l y  time;  a  necessary  becomes  a  Unnamable's imply  How  Unnamab1e,  impasse,  a f f i r m a t i o n ,  the  our  The  an  to  d i a l e c t i c the  of  The  moreover,  Po r n o g r a phy i n  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  savage  b a r e l y . "  the  a e s t h e t i c  sense  novel  (pp. form  c u l m i n -  w h i c h c a n  " p o r n o g r a p h i c . "  1e g i t i m a t e  d e s i g n a t i o n  has  been  hampered  often  lead  c r i t i c s  by to  the  of  pornography  f a c t  regard  it  that only  as  an  s o c i o - c u 1 t u r a 1 in  p a t h o l o g i c a l  in terms.  Pornography  of  a  r a d i c a l  as  far  view  as  a  is  f a i l u r e work  or  of  u n f o r t u n a t e l y  therefore  s t r u c t u r a l l y  resemble  few  form,  b a s i c  d i s l o c a t i o n by  and  form The  of  are  de  S to ry  These  contain  the  Some  120  been  w h i l e  an  of  yet  of  Days  chosen  i s s u e s . t h e i r  in  same  B e c k e t t ' s  e x p l o r a t i o n  formulation upon The  a  of  an  r a d i c a l  novel  of  could  the  or  works  l a s t  novel  as  which  be  d e s c r i b e d  i n d i c a t i o n  of  the  of  rds.  work  to  common may  concern pornographic  date,  t h i s ends  of  as  t h i s  Reage's  a r t i s t i c  How  novel w i t h  the  p a r a d o x i c a l l y  deformation  hence  ex-  s i g n i f i c a n t  In  is  is  the  are  novel  form  art  Edwa  a l s o  is  p s y c h i c  use  refute  must  category.  a e s t h e t i c  f a i l u r e  Madame  s t a t u r e  J_t  of  " l i t e r a r y "  These  B e c k e t t ' s  the  s t r u c t u r e  P a u l i n e  they  they  a  prominent  Sodom,  for  h i g h l y  w i t h  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , of  which  i t s  modern  more  B a t a i l l e ' s  Samuel  belongs  which  the  much  of  a e s t h e t i c  w i t h  of  w r i t i n g  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  f o r m u l a t i o n s . __s_,  an  pornography  maintain  that  Because  a c c e p t a b l e  other  of  point  preoccupation  even  Georges  have  w i t h  and  The  and  elements  throughout,  for  imagination  This  areas  as  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n  0_,  that  themselves  pornography  i n d i c a t i v e  awareness  o b s e s s i v e  l i t e r a r y ,  examples  argument  i t s  Sade's  o f  the  as  the  c o n s i d e r e d .  includes  concerned.  the  of  pornography.  e f f e c t i v e  n e c e s s i t y  amples  and  themes,  p a r t i c u l a r l y  is  precludes  l i t e r a t u r e  s t y l i z e d  deformation  art  contemporary  viewed  the  based  i m a g i n a t i o n .  " p h i l o s o p h i c a l  po r n o g r a p h y " . An B e c k e t t ' s be  given  use by  C a l c u t t a ! with The  death  occupation  dump and  word  with  pornographic  rubbish,  landscape, are  l i t t l e the  act  theme  themes  "a  It  1s  to  Oh.'  stage  -naked  namely, t h i s It  Is  by  r a i s e s  the  can  p e o p l e . " of  s e x u a l i t y  i t s  themes.  pre-  the  profoundest  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c h a p t e r ' s is  of  l i t t e r e d  B e c k e t t i a n  words,  s i l e n c e ,  How  How  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  without  While in  of  inc1ud?ng  of  dimensions  " P r o l o g u e "  s o l e l y  the  in  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  q u e s t i o n s , r e a l i t y .  form  B e c k e t t ' s  c o n s i s t s  decay  t h i s  and  to  piece  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  tween  pornographic  r e f e r r i n g The  garbage  Moreover,  of  the  m i s c e l l a n e o u s  with  of  of  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  be-  examination  concerned  w i t h  115 the  l i t e r a r y  graphy,  aspects  t h e socio-cu1tura1  avoided.  What  C a l c u t t a ! ?  of  e x c i t a t i o n .  c u l t u r a l  whole  suggests  that  2  o b j e c t i o n a b l e ;  death.  With  w i l l  be  l a t e s t  novel  B e c k e t t " , that,  in  Beckett  in  which  de. S a d e ' s  t e x t ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  for  there  an  the  of i s  almost  of  doubt  a n d ,t h e i r f o r  a l l  a  s e x i s  pornography  a  r i t u a l  in  by  In  a l l  a p t medium  only air of  be  f o r  enacted  time. the word  In  in  A  How I t  v i r t u a l l y  world Is  novel. stock  o f  the  c o n s t i t u e n t  d i s c u s s i o n  How I t  Is  d i s c u s s i o n i s  w i l l  o f  evidenced  o f a  a l l  form of  o u t s i d e  landscape  disappears.  of  a b s t r a c t  in  a l l any  s p e c i f i c in  e x t e r n a l s .  f a n t a s i e s o f  a  almost  tends,  s o c i a l  as  novel. an  of  of  serve  the  Pornography  t h e d e p i c t i o n a  3  allows  time.  an  almost  reduction  in  i s  the  t h e  notes  by  h  there  a r t i s t i c a 1 1 y  He  to the  in  r e s u l t s  that  t h e human  l o c a t i o n  What  information  pornographic  This  a n a l y s i s  in  the e l i m i n a t i o n  Samuel  the other  t h e establishment  towards  on  i ce o f  to  f a c t ,  B e c k e t t ' s  Sodom.  i n d i f f e r e n c e and  o f  a f f e c t e d  complete  space  a r i s e n :  proposal  of  alOho t  form.  d e t a i l e d  longer  has  Notes  s t r i p p i n g  use  no  in  pornography,  been  p o s s i b i l i t y .  the pornographic  framework  Days  by  of  any  Pornography  i n t e r e s t i n g  impressed  process  that  has s h i f t e d  o f  w h i l e ,  pornography.  a  "The  Some  the  spec i  t r a d i t i o n a l  -changing  taboo  have  phenomeno1ogica1  elements  In  took  Oh1  "how i t i s . "  The12 0 to  to  sexual  the d i s c u s s i o n  a  assumed  imaginative  elements these  no  by  in  Maker:  appeared  c h a r a c t e r  t h e  causes  ©that  i t  was-, f o r  how he  was a l s o  o f  t e l l s  t r a n s l a t e  Beckett  geometrical  l i m i t  he  Murphy  there  1938,  f i t  i l l u s t r a t e s  d e f i n i t i o n  approach  porno-  completely  new "unmentiona1b1e"  B r i an -'Coffey - supp 1 i es  should  w r i t i n g  to  "Memory's  deeply  Beckett  a  expanded  p o s s i b l e  In  how  t h i s  Gorer  He a r g u e s  be  not  which  the primary  t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y .  r e a l l y  does  determined  Geoffrey  i s  the "Prologue"  Calcutta.'  i s  what  cannot  that  Oh!  pornography  standards.  Death"  the  it  of  a  as  o f  about  c e r t a i n l y  pornography As  d e f i n i t i o n  aspects  i s .pornographic  The scene  d e f i n i t i o n  of.  the question  of  e x p r e s s i o n i s m ,  which-can  h i s t o r y ,  o f  t r a d i t i o n a l  The actual  use o f  sense  116 s e t t i n g t h i s  in  the  novel  statement  of  is  foreshadowed  Gogo's  in  Waiting  A l l my lousy l i f e I've the mud! And you. t a l k Look at t h i s muckheap! from i t !  Whereas the  between  the  composed  as  is  craw 1ing  in  works  which  in  the  ideal  p o s s i b i 1 i t y is a  a  de  Sade's  pornography  of  Newtonian  order  they  can  The  i s . a  in  imposed out  in  How  It  r e f e r s  to  the  system  that  partner. counter  each Here  are  Is.  How  of  a  It  known  the  world  use  of  The of  too  the  apparent1y  Is  s o c i a l  or  the  l o c a l e  mud  excrement  or  they  a  as  realm  are  are  to  appears  c r e a t e is  a  an  the  "the  f a c t  each  run  The  in  example,  the  "I" his  the  the of  world  world wantum  of  cannot  j u s t i c e  order  same  v i c t i m  p o s s i b i 1 i t i e s  in  becomes i n .  c o n c e p t i o n heroes  e f f e c t ,  w i l d  in  quantum  in  it  that  As  non des c r i pt  " j u s t i c e "  for  the  " p o r n o t o p i a . "  o c c u r s ,  Sodom,,  be  i n e x h a u s t i b l e  to  of  to  pornographic  f a n t a s i e s  Sade's  that  h  s i t u a t i o n  c o n t i n u a l l y world w i l l  for  which have  " s e x u a l "  en-  a en-  i n f i n i t e .  in vo1ve  r e a l i t y .  "above",  space  not  in  u n t i l  t h e "p h i 1 o s o p h i c a 1  does  to  system".  and  and  s o l e l y  r e a l i t y  f a n t a s i e s .  t o r t u r e r  However, in  de  mud  most  What  r a t i o n a l i s t i c by  of  there  of  Murphy,  t h e i r  e x i s t s  sures  world  emphasizes  extremely  act  attempt  " c l o s e d  motion  is  s e t t i n g  Days  as  o s t e n s i b 1 y  sexual  120  of  the  mud.  encounter.  for  chateau  of  and  sexual  l o c a t i o n  An  the  an  the  subterranean  wor1d  is  about  r e c o g n i z a b l e  reduced  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  f o r t r e s s - 1 i k e  v a r y . "  through  there  element  t h i s  pornographic  complete  in  of  me  moves  Barely  a - h i s t o r i c a l  for  s u i t a b l e  But  primeval  p u r g a t o r i a l  of  I t i s  movements,  end1ess1y  o p p o s i t e  How  c a l l e d .  t h e i r  This  the  the  in  i n h a b i t a n t s  w o r m - l i k e  In  of  v a r i o u s l y  the  "somewhere  n a r r a t o r  by  crawled about in t o me a b o u t scenery! I've never s t i r r e d  Molloy  dwelled  o b v i o u s l y Godot:  T e l l  world  human,  f o r  You and your landscapes! worms! (p. 39)  scum"  it  most  It  world has  a  use  of  w i s h - f u l f i l is  " i n  f o r e v e r the  space  c o o r d i n a t e  l i n g - e x t e n s i o n  severed  l i g h t . "  a p h i 1 o s o p h i c a 1 !  the  from  B e c k e t t ' s dimension  117 i n d i c a t e d  by  the  world  an  i n t e r i o r  and  becomes mind;  a At  one  point  s p l i t  w o r l d .  s c a t o l o g i c a l  dimensions the  " C a r t e s i a n "  The  metaphor  the  between world  for  of  the  d e s c r i b e s  in  which  his  realm  terms  C a r t e s i a n  res  cog(i)tan s •  e x t e r n a l  mud  world  n a r r a t o r  of  an  f i n a l l y of  the  the s p a t i a l  i d e n t i f y  it  with  but here I quote on we do n o t revolve that is above in the l i g h t where t h e i r space is measured here the s t r a i g h t l i n e the s t r a i g h t l i n e eastward strange and death in t h e w e s t as a r u l e . (p. 123) Beckett  thus  d e p i c t i o n to  of  carry  and  makes an  on  somehow  e x p l o r a t i o n  to  in  n o v e l s , takes  a  regard  t o t a l  for  on  Sadean  a  to  present  the  de  would  upon  sexual  j u n c t i o n  of  c a l l '  the  P l e a s u r e  is  accept  t h i s  While  the  for  f a l l  achieved a l l into  time; an  to  rather  search  to  of  as  his  "I"  the of  into  he  is  of  than  of  instantaneous Is  time  as  a  present,  to  instantaneous  of  sexual  it  is  bears  present time of  but  a  at  f u t u r e , because  his  c o n -  seems  what t h i s  that  S a r t r e attempt  t y p i c a l l y  been  to  p l e a s u r e .  e s s e n t i a l l y resemblance in as  c o s t .  a  continuum, He  Or  has  rather,  resolved  past,  to  pornography.  c y c l e s .  has  From  unable  u n s a t i s f i e d chain  acts  upon  r e p e t i t i o n .  s e r i e s  present  the.de  c e s s a t i o n .  have  it  present  temporal  But  things  Sade's  out  unite  evades  and  yet.  a l l  t i m e l e s s  roles  endless  s e x u a l ,  It  de  pornography  t h i s  How  In  the  c h a r a c t e r s  escape  can  which  c a r r y i n g  a c t i v e  in  chain  order  novel  perverse  en-so i .  i n s t a n t a n e i t y ,  past,  many  an  chain  I d e a l l y ,  g r a t i f i c a t i o n , of  s p a t i a l l y  is  in  the  as  and  p l e a s u r e  B e c k e t t ' s  search  The only  of  for  means  and  who  present.  attempting  meaningless  o n t o l o g i c a l the  By  is  thought  onwards  as  pou r - s o i  idea  Mu r p h y  have  p a s s i v e  hero  idea  excludes  c o n d i t i o n  quest  h i m s e l f  these  the  the  to  in  pornographic  dimension.  o b j e c t .  Sadean  f a i l s :  the  l o c a l e  s e q u e n t i a l  the  a  man  pornographic  i t .  simultaneous  d e s i r e s  how  a  time,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  perpetrated  a - s o c i a l  from  a t t a i n s  example,  hero  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of in  escape  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e x i s t  the  determined  manage With  of  a - h i s t o r l c a l ,  his  temporally  use  i t s e l f  p r e s e n t ,  118 and  future  time  are  repeats It  eye 1i ca1 ,  i t s e l f is  often  from  1 i t e r a t u r e  or  a  middle  as  de  Sade's  go  on  f o r e v e r  hand,  How  p a r t i te a f t e r (p.  "the  Is  120  This  that  "how  e t e r n i t y " ,  the  Days  w i t h i n  i t s  i t  Only  "when  ends  on  e x i s t s  only  the  |n  Because  of  extensa and  the  B e c k e t t ' s  Newtonian  is  of  means  human  in  The  the  two  of  of  Endless  As  the  each  previous  concept  thus  Sade's  being  a  of  time.  "I"  of  (How  It  begin).  " s h i t  a  Is Time  exhaust  r e s t r i c t i o n s -  b a s i c  the  i m p o s s i b l e  never  of  p r i o r i  and  vomit"  his  14) connecting  space  and  " e t h e r "  in  time.  sexual  s e x u a l i t y  B e c k e t t ' s  of  and  (p.  the  i n d i c a t e s  terms  de  c o u p l i n g ,  to  b e i n g . "  of  the  however,  can  an  contained  87') »  novel  at  as  of  "commencer",  "I"  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  i s ,  (Kant's  the  the  mechanics.  excrement  This  into  continuum.  (p.  the  a . " s i n g l e  be  j o u r n e y ,  for  i t s e l f  chain  cannot  i t ; "  in.  c a l l e d  great  Pirn  "a  only  Just  and  w i t h  hear  e a r l y  t i m e . "  c y c l i c a l  the  I  made  c l e a r  end"  t r i -  Pirn  of  d i s g u s t  a x i s  being),  a  a  to  i t s  other  category,  endless  may  of  the  as  such  t r u e ,  the  i s . a - r e p e t i t i o n  1  equals  c a t e g o r i e s  t h e - i m a g i n a t i o n  into  of  c a t e g o r i e s Motion  you  it  r e s o l v e s  end"  an  is  e q u i v a l e n t  The  present,  s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l  "great  or  into  t h e t i t l e C'E s t  c a t e g o r i e s  w i t h  murmurs.  Comment  the  Is  i t s e l f  time  say  i n f i n i t e l y  p a r t . o f  equals  i t s e l f .  t r a c t s  t h i s - sequence  resolves  pun  is  it  before  however,  time  s e c t i o n s .  r e s i g n e d l y  the  of  which  It  I  novel  promises  quote  becomes  beginning  are  of  one,  novel  How  three  departure  It  beginning  On  temporal  i s ,  "vast  I  parts the  expanded  e i t h e r  e x t e n s i o n  as  be  Sodom,  "without  the  or  could  of  of  d i v i s i o n  present  in  pornography  a  c o u l d ,  outset  was  24),  instantaneous  novels  it  lack  N i g h t s .  very  c l a r i t y . "  t h i s  acts  pornographic  Sodom  Arabian  the  (p.  of  separates  to  i.deal  of  i s / t h r e e  e t e r n i t y " of  The  the  d i v i s i o n  s e r i e s  what  tends  Days  from  it  jt  end.  1 ike  how  sake  novel  The  that  that  s t r u c t u re',  7)  s i n g l e  an  every  i n f i n i t y . " '  said  is  or  It  Pim  to  and  f i c t i o n a l  Both  encounter  with may  the  the  have  res de  Sade's  i d e n t i f y  imagination condensed  underground,  but  of  119 what  minimal  r i g o r o u s l y  movement  does  s c i e n t i f i c  occur  is  described  in  terms:  Sudden swerve therefore l e f t i t s p r e f e r a b l e f o u r t y - f i v e degrees and two y a r d s s t r a i g h t such is the face of habit then right r i g h t angle and s t r a i g h t ahead four yards dear f i g u r e s then l e f t right angle and bee l i n e four yards then right right angle so on t i l l Pirn, (p. 4?) The  savage  c o u p l i n g  mechanical  terms.  ritua1istica11y to  order  |n  p s y c h o l o g i c a l  teach  is  the  dealt  role  s a d i s t i c a l l y  him  the  terms  .parody  Pirn  Taking  and  in  grotesque  with  of  a  of  theory  kind  of  of  of  in  e x p l i c i t l y  t o r t u r e r  i n f l i c t s  rudiments  the  with  the  pain  "I"  upon  Pirn  communication.  knowledge  Pavlovian  is  a  determinism:  t h a t ' s not a l l he c o n t i n u e s thump on s k u l l he s t o p s and s t o p it l i k e w i s e the thump on s k u l l s i g n i f y i n g stop at a l l times and that come to t h i n k of i t a 1most m e c h a n i c a 1 1 y at l e a s t where words involved, (p. 64) The is  i t s  and J_t  most  complete  in  what  _l_s_?  far  s e x u a l i t y , in  can  as  this  in  Sartre  S e x u a l i t y  dimensions'  the  of  bodies.  While  impotent  or  theories  that  moment  of  b e l i e f  that  almost man  b i r t h  that  and  women  of  the  c a t e g o r i e s  being Ruth  are  the  is  and  a  man  Hamm's  in  one  the  toy  sex  image  of  w i l l a  s i m i l a r i t y  from  shown  in  in  between the  Malone's  the  b l u r r i n g  sexua1ity  d e s c r i p t i o n  dog  the  B e c k e t t ' s  is  woman,  Freud's  of  the  men of  in  Watt  as  androgynous  Ejndgame  to  which  ————— be  w i f e of  moribunds,  being  feminine  a  are  other  sexual  of  and  o n t o l o g i c a l  with  death.  the  Being  to  d i f f e r e n c e  and  in  witness  Examples  or  only  of  How  bear  of  sense  with  "Body"  i the  is  s e x u a l i t y  l i t t l e  what  a l l  c h a r a c t e r s  ^they  ambiguous a  at  r e l a t i o n s h i p  moment  masculine  f i r s t  only  In  a p p l i e d i n  it  the  B e c k e t t ' s  precedes  e i t h e r  Mo 1 1 o y ,  i t s  c r e a t i o n s .  of  the  thus  p r i m a r i l y  there  p o s s i b l y in  is  be  n o v e l ,  with  impotent,  u n t i l  his  is  pornography  r e a l i t y .  concerned  t h i s  and  of  ontology  statement  Beckett  body  most  is  deals  Noth ?n g n e s s .  of  statement  Beckett  e s p e c i a l l y  which  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  s e x u a l i z a t i o n  ways  As  sense  obvious  slapped.on becomes  Pam  and  l a s t .  Pam  Pirn  Prim,  suggests  In  How  (jand that  It  the the  Is  a  f l e e t i n g  phonetic n a r r a t o r ' s  120 partner  in  is  s e x u a l i zed  thus  the  Couple  "po1ymorphous1y s e x u a l i t y  is  sexual  through  p e r y a s i v e  and  be  perverse"  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . is  may  As  what  of  a  stage  Freud  B e c k e t t ' s  has  been  by  to  turns  d i s g u s t  in  from  be  a  from  the to  romantic  i n t e r p re t a t i on  f a i I s  with  treatment  a n a l i t y  nominator  of How  e x p r e s s i o n  It of  excremental anal  represents  Is  represents  B e c k e t t ' s o f  de  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n -  in  B e c k e t t ,  of  the  on  a  "a  f a r t  no  sound  n a r r a t o r  few  key  in  image." scape"  (p. of  an  is  the  i a l l y Thus  at the  B e c k e t t ' s the  graphy  is  is  Is,  v a r i e d  9)  M e t a p h o r i c a l l y novel  is  at  anal i ty  f a c t  that  who  thus  But  that  as  is  t h i s far  concerned  common  de-  w i t h  the  base, the  to  pornographic quest an  as  and  form  or  But  -  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  i t s  the  as  mouth  shat  another  t h e " l a n d p i l e  of  s t i l l the  has  n a r r a t o r ' s  sound. prison  from  hamper  which  of  from  aims  i d e a l l y language  s i l e n c e . stereotyped  Most  which  and  non-verbal  i t s e l f  escape of  in  only  s e r i e s  a e s t h e t i c  and  language  a  monologue  e x p r e s s i o n s  "m"  Words  the  spoken  permutations  compost  is  the  The  t h r o u g h  evidenced  lands  is  the  of  the  pervasive  l i t e r a l l y  imagination a  of  such  p l e a s u r a b l e  of  the There  pissed  language  Even  f u n c t i o n . .  by  sewer  escape.  c r e a t i o n  beside  S w i f t ,  "I  developed  v i s i o n . "  i s s u i n g  f i c t i o n s .  e r o t i c  of  not  excrementa1,  f u l l y  composed  26),  pornographic  c r e a t i o n  the  n o v e l .  in  (p.  major  what  wi th  the  sexual  e x c r e t o r y  It  pornography  the  as  mud"  necessary  s t r i c t  the  How  previous  For  of  or  v i s i o n  to  most  l a s t  the  i n f a n t i l e  to  Beckett  pale  meaning  preoccupation  it  in  the  with  the  B e c k e t t ' s  w i t h  phrases,  fraught  barely  r e a l i z e  the  Sade  B e c k e t t ' s  word  lack  s c a t o l o g i c a l .  goes  which  childhood  his  "excremental  of  w r i t t e n  in  sexes.  ism  or  of  to  it  orgies  symbol  in  c r i t i c s  the  s e x u a l i t y  both  the  preoccupation  of  for  to  very  sacramental  e s c h a t o l o g i c a l  the  its  are  deprived  the  as  of  s e v e r a l  mystic  R e a l i t y  childhood  excrementa1  d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  he.seems  of  s t a t e s ,  a l l  a t t r i b u t e d  sex.  r e g r e s s i o n  because  is  e i t h e r  re-  e s s e n t images. to and porno-  f o r m a l i t y ,  121 its a  use  of  c l i c h e s ,  d e s c r i p t i o n  in  How  It  sparse  of  f i t s  Is.  almost  But  phrases  dead  w i t h i n  a  p h i l o s o p h i c .  remind  of  It that  i t  could  been be  as  "I  wrong  e_t  aj_.  a  movement  away  Beckethian  use  of  c l i c h e  in  be  diagrammed as  appears  say  from  and  f i c t i o n ;  i r r e g u l a r  formational  generative  to  use  such  almost  cut  o f f  obtains  n a r r a t o r  a r t i s t i c  how a  the  b i z a r r e  in  a  short  Sodom. each  work,  (g fj  l a s t  o f w h i c h  pornographic to  a r t i s t i c  How  three Here  resorts  from  which  Dead  It  an  finds  s e c t i o n s  Sade  Beckett  of  simply  c o n s i s t s  de  of  imagination  a  l i n e  f i n a l l y  l i s t i n g s ,  c r e a t i v e  process  is  or  s e t t i n g But to  no  matter  s u r v i v e ,  l i t e r a r y  p a r a l l e l  120  Days  in  of  episodes, Just  as  i t s e l f  sees in  up  expressed  The  exhausts  from  B e c k e t t i a n  neatly  two.  r e s u l t i n g  n a r r a t o r  towards of  b r i e f  Beckett  " t r a n s -  a e s t h e t i c a l l y  i t .  The  use  above  i n t e r e s t i n g  h i s  the  the  Image.  to  n a r r a t i v e  his  manages  Sade's  numbers  c l o s e  as  of  has  use  is  theory  " l i g h t "  i t  the  not  "deep  problem  But  could  of  s o l v i n g  is  i n d i c a t e the  the  " r e a l i t y "  Imagination Is  Is  f u r t h e r  the  alone  imagination  mechanical  and  e x t e r n a l  l e t  It  because  of  The  becomes  e q u a t i o n , the  world  images.  phenomenon  ^h^T^WanS) the  his  of  to  They  Beckett  phrases  the  and  e x p r e s s i o n .  use  l i n g u i s t i c  formalized  n o n - s p e c i f i c  a c c u r a t e l y  the  games."  "Something  t y p o g r a p h i c a l l y  minimal  so  f a c t i c i t y  How  grammar."  from  is  is  permutations  "language  resemblance  More  few  contexts  r e f e r e n t i a l  beyond no  a  Such  pornography.  modern  greater  atrophied  is  approaches  withdraws  s o l i p s i s m an  the  of  i t " ,  The  verses.  in  he  hear  longer  even  s t r u c t u r e s "  which  I  computerized.  phrases  is  as  of  language  these  computer.  a  bears  rate  stereotyped  forced  concept  Such  of  d i f f e r e n t  by  no  c l i c h e  use  o b v i o u s l y  language.  second  to  in  of  of  use  pornography  i t  are  the  that  " I " ' s Q s i t u a t i o n  B e c k e t t ' s  poetry  Most  w r i t t e n  a b s t r a c t i o n s there"  s e r i e s  s a i d  phrases.  symbolic  W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s  has  dying  p e r f e c t l y  B e c k e t t ' s  e x p l i c i t l y one  and  and  the  the  the  whole  same  s t a g n a t i o n . Another the  use  sense,  of  aspect  o b s c e n i t y ,  o b s c e n i t y  may  of must  be  the be  language  of  c o n s i d e r e d .  defined  as  the  pornography, I n t h e  language  of  broadest a n t i -  122 value,  as  language  the of  natural  o b s c e n i t y  underground  n a r r a t o r  however,  the  the  is  s a c r e d .  belongs p raye  idiom  the  of  a  an  How  It  c l a s s  Is.  of  of  This  language What  between  i n v o c a t i o n  same  r e b e l l i o n .  f i t t i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p  As  to  is  o f  magic  f o r  must  the  subthe  be  obscene  powers,  utterance  noted,  as  and o b s c e n i t y  the  curse  or  r. Sacks that void and burst others never i s i t p o s s i b l e the o l d business of grace in. t h i s - s e w e r why want us a l l a l i k e some vanish others never. Al 1 I hear leave o u t more leave out a l l hear no more l i e there i n my a r m s the ancient without e n d me w e r e t a l k i n g o f me w i t h o u t end that buries a l l mankind to the l o s t aunt. (p. 61)  S t r u c t u r a l l y , into  How  chapter  and  s p r e a d - e a g l e d ,  It  a  element  as  toward  is  found,  and  upon  ground'.  in the  To  understand  the  found  concern  in  de  B e c k e t t ' s  of  the  o f f a l  e x p e r i e n c e ,  and  the  s w i f t - e p i 1 e p s y ,  but  time,  space,  v a l u a b l e under-  is  to  r e a l i s t i c . a n d  P rou.s t  content  s e x u a l i t y ,  f i c t i o n a l  as  cp>r^pTsXcate^A?fb^re and  Edwarda.  epistemology  in  a l s o  problems  throws  a g a i n s t  C h r i s t . involves  i t  Madame  B e c k e t t ' s  d e s c r i b e d  with  profane  Sade,  form  s t r i c t u r e s  w r i t e r s ,  the  B i b l e crawls  " r e l i g i o u s "  of  B e c k e t t ' s  n a t u r a l i s t i c  n a r r a t o r  Bata ?11e's use  the  p a r a l l e l ,  and  pornographic  a e s t h e t i c s  a  w i t h  in  s t y l i z e d  understand  of  sacred  l i k e  the  drawing  example,  the  d i v i d e d  Moreover,  is  real  highly  language  l i g h t  a  of as  f o r  The  even  immedi a t e l y  i n v i s i o n  points  is  verse.  B e c k e t t ' s parodic  Is  to  "worshipping  the  epidermis  t r a n s c r i b e  the 6  s u r f a c e ,  the  facade,  behind  B e c k e t t ' s  p h i l o s o p h i c a l '  i n  Is  How  What  It  invokes  re 1a t i o n s h i p s  occas i o n ,  that  Crawling w o r l d , which at  the there  a l l .  spews  He  f o r t h  even h i s  Idea  is  p r i s o n e r . "  the  pornographic  b a s i c a l l y  the  question  between  source  through,  no  the  of  h i s  n a r r a t o r is  use  e x i s t  i s ,  which  the  seems  to  of  b i z a r r e  images  or  be  with  faced  of  making  v o i c e  any  once  and  h i s  symbols?  h i s  which  " v o i c e  epistemology.  a r t i s t ,  o f  the  s t o r y .  the  darkness  p o s s i b i 1 i t y d i s c l a i m s  " I " ,  of  form  a  primeval s i t u a t i o n  in  r e l a t i o n s h i p s s p a s m o d i c a l l y without  quaqua  123 on  a l l  sides  me  again  then  f i n i s h  enables  the  in  me  t e l l i n g  d i s c o u r s e  t i n u a t i o n  of  the  n a r r a t i v e  to  continue  of  the  c r e a t i v e  to  the  " I . "  "above", him or  no  The  u n t i l  the  forth  involves of  c r i b e s  the  dualism then The  of  a l l  "yes  of  with  of  the  01"  has  or  "rags"  the  the  before  lap Pirn,  involve  a  a r t i s t i c  grotesque  excrement, with and  that  and  opening  This  enables  sees  " p a s t o r a l "  remind b i z a r r e  the  of  A  "I" to  into  with  "yes therev i t a l  "copy"  him. a  des-  But  f i n a l  is  for  put  simply  if  the  "no"  threatened.  s i l e n c e  u n t i l  "dreams"  "immense  the  of "I"  of if  my  of  the  his of  l i f e  image  which  his  n a r r a t o r  above:  to  on  part  his  one,  seems  mouth lost  would  good  does,  to  theories  resources  are  He  himself  o r g a n i c i s t  de-  c l o s e l y  in  swallowed they  is  s e c t i o n  f i l l s  13), The  memory.  images  main  (p.  t a l e . "  imagination  glimpses  The  v i s t a s  "below"  epistemology  flashed  extended  another  of  0  it  of  with a  the  moment  nourish  moments."  (p-28)  " e x c r e t e "  yet  i mage. He  a  up  world '  n o v e l ;  e m p i r i c i s m .  d e f e c t i v e  the  question  " a l i m e n t "  a n o t he r  in  " i t ' s  the  1itt1e  of  parody  production.'  the  a  are  c h i l d ,  an  is  questions  his  f l e e t i n g  involves  external  These  which  his  But  " r e a l i t y "  pages.  n a r r a t o r ' s  e t c .  a  and  brink  of  a  of  resolved  f a c u l t y  as  theory  important  are  the  d u a l i s t i c  there  communication  l a s t  himself  mother's  of  a  most  of  in  is  be  conthe  i n h a b i t a n t s  novel  form  which  on  must  other  What  For  e x i s t  t e l l  7)  B e c k e t t ' s  whether  the  the  h o w e v e r , r e c e i v e images  of  of  gen e r a t i on<|of  of  13)  no"  t o t t e r s  " s c r a p s "  there  advanced  p o s s i b i l i t y  Yet  must  a e s t h e t i c  crude  is  "apocalypse"  linked  a  "images"  novel  the  pages  art  there  are  is  stops  (p.  d i a l e c t i c .  a 11 - i m p o r t a n t  l a s t  theory  no"  (p.  panting  i n v o c a t i o n . "  or  the  w r a n g l e . "  /  continue  there for  the  to  question  c r u c i a l  long  me  p r o c e s s ;  o b v i o u s l y  upon  "yes  whether  are  when  one  of  a  c o u r t i n g  himself love  at  the  a f f a i r .  youthful r i t u a l  Watt, which  age  of  s i x t e e n ,  Described the  "I"  p r e f i g u r e s  in  ftengaged  terms  describes part  two  which a of  the  12.4 n o v e l , of  the  encounter  N i c h o l a s  suddenly between  Ma 1e b r a n c h e - ,  appears. mind  For  and In  parison  "I"  of  kind  his  from  of  l a s t .  mind. The  comes  the  out  With work,  the to  f i n d  over  on  his  v e n t i o n ; his  sack  sleep  food  for  s p e c u l a t i o n gical a  image  - i n . t h e  t i r e d  of  his  thought." his  (p.  " l a s t  Or  " q u a s i - c e r t i t u d e "  that  attempts  i n f i n i t y .  the  underground  such the  The  as  the  vo.id  world  previous  which, the  reached,  it  A l l  can  that  be  l i f e " ,  impose  The  of  q u e s t i o n s and  Penal  Pirn's  arse  love are:  v i c t i m ' s  which  in  power  is  a  the mind  is the  order of  and  to  of  has  examines  images there  a  some  are  ravines  t e l e o l o -  " r e v e r i e " ,  impose days  or  w a l l s  has  at  l a s t  the  v o i d .  with  Pirn  c o n s t i t u t e s  comment  upon  f r i e n d s h i p .  of  and  matter,  the  " j u s t i c e "  the  communication:  The  l i t t l e  B e c k e t t ' s  the  p o s s i -  E s s e n t i a l l y ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p  hasten  s e l f .  h o r i z o n . a  If  been  of  on  r u t h l e s s l y  In  encountered.  attainment  that-  order  over:  c r e a t e  to  dreams is  t h i s  only  f a l l e n  i n t e r -  " t o  s i m i l a r "I"  "images"  or  But  l i m i t l e s s  attempt  pattern  d i c t a t e s  Colony)  no  a b s o l u t e  c o u p l i n g  u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  ( a " j u s t i c e "  are  not  B e c k e t t ' s  d i v i n e  e l s e  to  hugging  " p o r n o g r a p h i c "  human  the  no  an  some  r a i s e d  F o l l o w i n g  The  is  savage  a  B e c k e t t i a n . he r o e s  for  Pirn'  " o b s c e n e " ,  b i l i t i e s  there  d i s c e r n e d  with  to  w a l l  a  does  in  his  f a i l s  is  U n n ama b 1e . . d e s i r e d  allows  encounter  most  " l " ' s  space  by  Belacqua  j o u r n e y . "  and  image  "tongue  found  f a c e ,  a l l  time  an  com-  31)  for  his  14)  the  when  w a i t i n g  of  on  c o n c e p t i o n  (p.  Even  "when  b i t t e r  created  and  before  to  a  d i v i n e  i n t e r v e n t i o n  mud."  hand  for  scene  is  fade,  not  c o n t e n t s ,  about  t h i s  matter  s u b s t i t u t e .  draws its  of  in  name  r e l a t i o n s h i p  implies  s i m p l y . a t t e m p t s  side,'  and.  for  the  p h i l o s o p h e r ,  " o c c a s i o n "  miraculous  acceptance  another  "I"  the  Beckett  kind  the  l o l l s  an  the  God,  t h i s  narrator'  fade  a  and  Unexpectedly  Occas i ona 1i s t  Was  with  But  again  the  c o n t e x t ,  mud,  words  Pirn.  Malebranche  matter  i n t e r v e n t i o n .  a r i s e s  with  c o n s c i o u s n e s s  form  in  the  of  and  content.  his  realm  K a f k a ' s  i n s c r i b e s  development  words of  the  on.  125 opener the HERE  not  so  many  end  of  part  and  l a s t  day  Bom  Bom  we  states  that  gave  him  the as  "I" it  l i f e  (p.  then  no  With  a  l i f e  above  and  see  and  how  "they" to  the  (a  be  the  " s o c i a l l y "  search  for  the  the  "I"  How  It  of  only  to  advantage severed  i n  It  Through is  Is  f i n d  however,  no  longer  i n h a b i t a n t s the  merged I  metaphor  into  a  t a l k  l i k e  one  kind  the  v o i c e  voice in  us.  of  of  has t h i s  of  the  greater of  him  (p.  a l l  76)  for  nether  in  The  a  (p. " I ' l l  w i l l .  here  so. i t  talk,  one  at  t a l k s  quaqua  on  away  from  "I".  vast  c e s s p o o l .  are  f i n a l l y  a l i e n  an  are  me  us  the then  " t h e y . " united.  i d e n t i t y  only  another  e s -  "I"  thus  d i s c r e t e  sides  But  h i m s e l f " ,  with  l i k e a l l  c o s t s  towards  real  l i k e  behind  a l l  the  a f t e r  q u i c k -  Unnamab 1 e.  "above"  a l l  76)  Sartrean  "I"  and  the  world  " v o i c e "  s t a r t  longer  the  "they"  contend  Pirn  to  No  "named  world  of  myself  52)  that  n a r r a t o r ' s ,  promise,  avoided  is  l i f e  the  e f f a c e  I  Pirn's  s i l e n c e . "  his  so  is  whole. Bom  t a l k  s a i d us  to  "I"  issue  slow  B e c k e t t i a n  the  the  t a l k i n g  (p.  be  void  the  the  with  r e a l i t y ,  that  from  episode  arse  s i l e n c e ,  the  the  name.  long  a d m i t t e d l y  that  of  con-  case  the  the  concerns  more  can  to  defined  had  forever  the  draw  v o i d , Is  i s ,  caped;  the  to  the  commodity  me."  were  at  I  e x p r e s s i o n  was  "they"  attempted  the  A l l  as  is  than  good I  you  more  we're  s k u l l  takes  c o l l e c t i v e  fearecT  t r i l o g y  e x t e r n a l  f i t  BOM  any  opener  you  when  on  the  jumble  t h i s  l i f e  made  wait  ME  intermingled  has  "they"  How  adopt  stop  three  to  confuses  "I"  "Other")  The  more  happy  part  BOM  name  the  the  if  no  n a i l s  conclude come  a l l  happy  or  c o u p l i n g  vengence  is  even  the  Pirn's  wife  no  pronoun  r e a l l y  a l s o  ME  a e s t h e t i c  for  becomes  my  me  thump  c r e a t u r e  an  Pirn  scraps  .conclude  I  him  my  for  of  lost  and  only  h o l d i n g  him  the  and  "had  times  there  en  In  75~6)  What  59)  at  my  COM  has  CUNT  to  complex  name  e x t r a c t e d  up  YOU  (pp.  v i c t i m  the  to  LOVE  comes  beginning  his  does  "samples my  comes  and YOU  leaving  days  he  ABOVE  b i t s  song  p h i l o s o p h i c  one  is  two  the  Bom.  the  v e n i e n c e . "  l i t t l e  extremely  the  At  DO  if  CUNT  comes  thrust and  novel.  LIFE  it  cut  This  c a p i t a l s  as  armpit  of  or YOUR  CUNT  s o r t s end  centre  arse  thread  126 The  " v o i c e " ,  same  ways  medium  the  thejme  as  s y m b o l i s t i c  fusion  quotations figure  the  given  of  Bom.  W h i l e ' t h e  are  content  is  made  murmurs  of.  the  "!", j u s t  as  Ruby the  " I " ,  unity.  u n t i l . t h e y  omn i p r e s e n t Bom  seems  " p a i n "  a a  and  "bon"  p r a c t i c a l  u s e . " ^  From  its  f i c t i o n ,  various  humanity  While  as  treatment, only  "something  being  If  t h i s  without  the  other? i n d i c a t e  the or  form,  the  the  Holy  i n v e r s i o n and  Bom  are  l i f e ,  of  are  r i c h  puns  of  w o r l d ,  e t h i c a l  of  sacred  the  sack  the  in  bread  pronouns  The  T r i n i t y  used  the g o a l , and  in  which  through  i d e n t i f i e d  with  connexions  to  one  of  say  I  take  part  wrong  reveals chain  of  e i t h e r  a  f i r s t "  and  as  a  whole  in  How  same  at 1  a f t e r  becomes the  flaws  squirming  beginning  mankind  the  of  few  s a d i s t i c  in is  or the  the  human end,  It  Is  metaphysical same  Bom  and  Pirn  40) Pirn; more  the and  " j u s t i c e " in  17)  most  inhabitants  three,  e x p l o r a t i o n  that  the  the  us  there"  only  A l l  tormented.. " ' (p.  in  " u n t h i n k a b l e  receives  seelms  a l l  a p p e l a t i o n :  i n d i v i d u a l  "each  But  of  the  d i v i s i o n s  the  becomes  other  themselves  and  " l " ' s  a l l  thou."  compassion.  find  cu1-de-sac tormentor  an  Beckett  ultmately  The  In  t i n my a r m s t a l k to it put my h e a d in t rub my c h e e k o n . i t l a y my l i p s on it urn my b a c k o n it turn to it again c l a s p t t o me a g a i n . s a y to it though thou. (p.  Pirn  merits  of  God's  of  t h i s  again  a  i n s e p a r a b l e ,  of  Pirn  mixture  meanings  merits  T h e s a c k i i t i  r a r e s t  symbolic  alone  this  "the  a l l  which  " s t a f f  sustenance;  B e c k e t t ' s  If  w i t h  that  c e n t r a l  the  does  B e c k e t t i a n  out  c o n n o t a t i o n s :  emerges  it  parody  presence,  profane  for  into  the  the  ' vo i c e .  form  points  allows  merge  come  equivalent  in  dualism.  creates  unanswerable  e x a c t l y  Cohn  it  Pirn,  c h a r a c t e r  blurred  French  p l e a s u r a b l e  the  i 5  " v o i c e "  f u n c t i o n s  j o u r n e y i n g :  a e s t h e t i c  Pirn,  the  Logos. upon  above  towards  language,  s u b j e c t - o b j e c t  Which  c a t e g o r i e s  of  of  question  movement  of  t h i s  of  more  l i n e  i n s i s t e n t .  the  great  mathematical  f l e s h it  c h o r i c  is  means  " u n t h i n k a b l e  in  fact  that l a s t "  chain theology. i n f i n i t e  the are  un-  127 accounted  for.  This  l i e v e s ,  gross  i n j u s t i c e  a  the  " 1ight"  above.  the  q u e s t i o n  e x i s t e n c e , Hume's f i r s t an  of  cause  or  prime  f u t i l e  the  does  h i m s e l f  concludes  to  the  of  the  it  c l o s e d  of  two  death  Hume's  chain  as  curve,  be  a  it  a  v a r i a t i o n  geometrical  symbol,  the  The  problem  then  human  ("go").  to  d i s c o v e r  would  the  invoke  c r i t i q u e  one  step  involves  one  questions but  "how by  simply  it  to  in  are  i s . "  changing  l i n e of.  of  in  i s " ,  solved  r a i s i n g  occur  such  s t r a i g h t  in  cannot  cause"  non-specu1 a t i v e can  death  universe  "why  be-  only  poles  attempt  Knowing ask  e x i s t  and  the  " l a s t  n a r r a t o r  s y m b o l i c a l l y  the  an  takes a  not  problem  c e p t i o n a  for  the  of  Because  p r o g r e s s i o n . "I"  here  that  mover  the  could  ("come")  B e c k e t t  search  i n f i n i t e  as  o r i g i n  r e g r e s s i o n .  To  is  t h e . a b s u r d t t y  underworld,  fines  which  a n a 1y s e s . i nd i c a ' t e d  f u r t h e r . an  i n v o l v e ,  B e c k e t t  namely  i n f i n i t e  t h i s  would  c o n He  the  the  view  B e c k e t t ' s  .  conof  f a v o r i t e  c i r c l e . r e s o l v e s  i t s e l f  into  these  a l t e r n a t i v e s : in o t h e r words in s i m p l e words I quote on e i t h e r I am a l o n e and no f u r t h e r - p r o b l e m or e l s e we a r e innumerable and no f u r t h e r problem e i t h e r , (p. 124) If  the  s e c o n d - a l t e r n a t i v e  h i m s e l f The  in  j o i n i n g  t r a v e l l e r another l i f e of  to  owes  the  never  whom never  one."  boundless  (p.  141)  f i c t i o n a l  hope  then  owes  another  f u t u r i t y  of  end  l i f e  s p e c u l a t i o n gleam  chosen  K i e r k e g a a r d i a n - 1ike can  and  p h y s i c a l of  a  is  a  the  in  v i c t i m  tormentor a  leads  the  ("why  i t  which  find  d i a l e c t i c . "  " j u s t i c e " w i l l  the  the  never  have  abandoned  harrowing n a r r a t o r  i s " ) ,  s t i l l  w i l l  " s u c c e s s i v e  for  Such  "I"  and  s u r v i v e s  to  whomO  p o s s i b i l i t y into  a  gives in  metaa  glimpse  B e c k e t t ' s  u n i v e r s e :  One perhaps there is one 'perhaps somewhere m e r c i f u l enough to s h e l t e r such f r o l i c s where no o n e ever abandons any one and no o n e ever waits for any one and n e v e r two b o d i e s touch, (p. 143) The that  only the  " p r a c t i c a l "  s o l u t i o n  n a r r a t o r  a l o n e ,  is  seems  to  be  trapped  in  a  the limbo  hypothesis of  128 " i n e x i s t e n t "the  time  f i c t i o n " , It  is  and  l i t e r a l l y at  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  s p a c e . "  t h i s  and  At  t h i s p o i n t  the  n o v e l ,  d i s i n t e g r a t e s .  point  that  a e s t h e t i c  but a l l t h i s busin yes of other world world yes whose ki t o be y e s that he t e l l s a l l the time only story yes.  B e c k e t t ' s  s o l u t i o n  r a d i c a l  becomes  c l e a r :  ess of v o i c e s yes quequa s yes of someone in another nd of dream I am y e s s a i d dreams a l l the time yes yes his only dream yes his  a l l t h i s business of sacks d e p o s i t e d yes at the end of a c o r d no d o u b t yes of an ear l i s t e n i n g t o me y e s a care for me y e s a n a b i l i t y to note yes a l l that a l l b a l l s yes Krim and Kram yes a l l b a l l s yes. and a l l t h i s skies yes a the earth tu l i t t l e scene the dog yes ba11s yes.  busin l i t t l e rning s yes the pr  ess blu yes a l l ayer  and t h i s business' t h i s business of a p r o c e s s i o n no n o r no n o r any Bom no answer only me y e s what's my n a m e no Screams good. (pp. The  pun  on  "What's  f o r t u i t o u s .  The  f i n a l l y  admitted  r e a l i t y  c r e a t e  as  e x i s t e d  in  My  that  Watt  l a t i o n s h i p  between  refused  be  mo r e  to  e s s e n t i a l l y Watt,  the  contend in  the  the  w i t h . novel  to  of  How  It  Is.  a  Is  r e s u l t  more  h i g h l y  problems  most  o b v i o u s l y B e c k e t t .  is  the  a he  not  Watt  who  of  p e r c e i v e d .  r e a l i t y , some found  in  what  minimal  f i r s t  a  Is  gives  a  with  developed  are  But,  u n l i k e  Knott  content  his  re-  order  Mr.  a r t i s t i c  Throughout  unity  r a t i o n a l ,  of  have  c o i n c i d e s  p e r f e c t e d  It  Watt.  not  on  Content  i t s  kind  has  imposes  a r t i s t i c  How  yes  is  absence  does  j o u r n e y " ) ,  name)  Such  While  c r e a t i n g these  ("the  .s a t i s f y  of  as  As  es l i g h t yes t t l e w h i t e yes less b r i g h t yes t h e women yes homes yes a l l  p a t t e r n s  and  same  in  my  It  upon  form.  This  howeyer,  or  based  v i s i o n  means  "I"  How  p e r c e i v e r  reduced  the  of  is  a b s u r d i t i e s .  was  " p o r n o g r a p h i c "  mathematical  (Watt  s e r i e s  l o g i c a l  ve y a l i and yes the  of a p r o c e s s i o n no answer p r o c e s s i o n yes never any any j o u r n e y never any Pirn never any one o n l y me no so that was true about me answer What's My Name 145-6)  Name"  n a r r a t o r  of abo e yes b r i g h t b a l l s s yes  e x i s t s  i t s  form.  s o l u t i o n in  to  Watt  novels  he  to do has  not  29  1 been  searching  s o l u t i o n come  to  his  c l o s e s t  treme  form  for  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  problems.  to  of  a  The  r e c o n c i l i n g  i d e a l i s m  or  absolute  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  a l l  being  the  now  only  absurd  as. a  for  the  " I "  longer.  Only  way  " t h i n k a b 1 e . "  even  saying  God  if  is  the  in  the  v i r t u a l l y  becomes  any  "I",  By  God  a  they  s i l e n c e .  becomes  "a  forth  in  to  the  be  an  T h re.e  i%  dicates  that  makes  of  naught."  (p.  has  term  is  c a r r i e d  f a i l ,  w o r l d . "  of  as  art  1  a c t ,  and  makes  or  v i c e  versa. h i m s e l f , around without in  of  the  a l l  form  work  of  novel  and art  i t s e l f  hh) h i s - c r e d o must  other  admit  of  How  e x i s t  in  "a  of  the  which,  e x p r e s s i v e  wholly  It  new  to  that Is  so  f a i l u r e act  set  that  d a r e f a i l ,  pages  only  as  "submit  to  an  any  value;  the  any  be  between  r e l a t i o n ,  can  in  outside  The  out'  l a s t  appears tota11y  may  absence  of  a r t i s t  no  submission  r e l a t i o n , to  The  The  Be e k e 1 1 s  of  a c t , , o b l i g e d  thus  absence  to  this  unity for.  D i a logues •  his  of  absolute  Kl~j)h t  strangled  n o n - s e l f ,  questing  i n c o e r c i b l e a r t i s t  and  If  nothingness  be the  been  tenement  f a i l u r e  new  the  has  Beckett  s e l f  or  w i l l  P a r a d o x i c a l l y ,  between  Beckett  r e a l i t y  r e f e r e n t i a l  over  involves  p o s i t i o n  man,  ex-  e x i s t e n c e  Beckett as  The  content.  own  voice  s e t t l e  novel  becomes,  the  to  which  it  with  objects  the  and  one  any  to  mud  his  any  have  leads  is  p o s i t i o n  denying  and  his  inversion  longer  content  a  is  no  r e l a t i o n s h i p  it  maintain  of  a e s t h e t i c  forth  form of  as  problems.  put  a l l  Words  vacuum-of  pages  imagination,  "I"  by  well  two  worlds  even  as-bad  Moreover,  him.  of  to  these  of  s o - c a l l e d  product  l a s t  s o l i p s i s m  the  in  as  far  i nas  o c c a s i o n , unable  a c t ,  even  to if 8  only  of  i t s e l f ,  Thus  B e c k e t t ' s  meaningfu11y p h i l o s o p h i c a l a  mystical  of  i t s  i m p o s s i b i l i t y  development  i d e n t i f i e d works  theory  of  of  of  with  a  v i s i o n  that  pornography art.  of  found  i ts  ob1 i g a t  which in  f i n a l l y  can  the tends  i o n . "  be  more towards  130  Refe rences  1  Samuel.  devised  by Kenneth  York:  Grove  P r e s s ,  Geoffrey  2 Ame r i c a n  Samuel  form  1969),  p . 9-  o f  Richard  Press,  1964),  "Memory's  f o r  Steven  A Study o f Sexual ity C e n t u r y . Eng1 a n d (New the l a s t . c h a p t e r " P o r agree w i t h h i s d i s t i n he d o e s supply a high l a t i o n . My own p o i n t forth b y Sus an S o n t a g in S t y l e s o f R a d i ca1 G e r o u x , 1 9^9~) • 5  Coe,  Samuel  B e c k e t t ,  Windus ,  1931) ,  P - 35-  (7  Ruby  Cohn,  Brunswick,  d i s c u s s i o n The  Some  Notes  33-  o f the  Other  pornographic  V i c t o r i a n s : '  Beckett  (New  York:  Grove  New  Proust.  Samuel  (London:  B e c k e t t : . The  J e r s e y :  Rutgers  Chatto  Comic  and  Gamut  U n i v e r s i t y  P r e s s ,  1 962) ,  189. Samuel  8 B e c k e t t:  21 ;  B e c k e t t ,  A C o 1.1 e c t i o n . 0 f  (Englewood p.  Maker:  (1964),  The.  3 7 ~5 5-  p p . 82-3•  Samuel  p.  the  Marcus,  (New  o f Death,"  X V (1955),  Murphy XVII  Levy  a n d Pb r n o g r a p hy in M id - N i n e t e e n t h York: B a s i c Books, 1966) , e s p e c i a l 1 y n o t o p i a " . While I b a s i c a l l y d i s c t i o n s between a r t and pornography, 1y usefu1 schema f o r f u r t h e r specuo f view i s much c l o s e r t o t h a t put ?n "The P o r n o g r a p h i c Imagination," W i11 ( N e w Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s , and  6  (New  Pornography  Th r e s h o l d ,  framework from  "The  Calcutta.' ,  by Jacques  P s y c h o a n a l.ys i s ,  Coffey,  i s taken  t o O h .'  d i r e c t e d  B e c k e t t , "  The  4  "Prologue"  Tynan,  Gorer,  J o u rn a 1 Brian  3 on  Beckett ,  C l i f f s ,  p . 17-  "Three  D i a l o g u e s " ,  Cr?t ica 1  E s s.ays ,  N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a 11,  i n Samuel ed.  I n c . ,  Martin 1965),  E s s l i n .  ,  131  C o n e 1us 1 on No s  Kn!fe  1  No's e n t i r e t y 19&6-  of  Kn i f e his  f i c t i o n ,  of  l a s t  far)  (thus of  s t a r t e d  de  on  in  w r i t t e n  col l e c t i o n  Sac  Beeke11  important at  are  that  a l l The  19 6 5.  d i s a s s o c i a t e d  than  that  The  from  it  novel  is  prose an  are  Dead  the  l e f t is  gave  between  has  for  attempt  more  of  Beckett  "I m a g i n a t i o n  a l s o  " P i n g "  t i t l e  prose  t h i s  "Enough", is  pages  in  cu1  c o l l e c t i o n  the  short  Included  e x p r e s s i v e  is  or  How  and  themselves  reached  in  his  Imagine." contains form. of  even  It  the  19^5  t i t l e s  a  The  B e c k e t t ' s The  four  novel  mo r e  i d e n t i f i a b l e  Unnamab1e  to  Beckett  difficu11,  s o c i a l  Is.  r e a l i t y '  For  example:  Afar f l a s h of time al1 white a l l over a l l of old ping f l a s h white w a l l s , s h i n i n g - w h i t e no t r a c e e y e s - h o l e s l i g h t ' b l u e almost white last c o l o u r ping white over. Ping f i x e d l a s t elsewhere legs j o i n e d l i k e sewn h e e l s together right angle hands hanging palms front head haught eyes white i n v i s i b l e bare white a l l know w i t h o u t w i t h i n over. White c e i l i n g never seen ping of old only j u s t almost never one second l i g h t time white f l o o r never seen ping of old perhaps there. Ping of old only j u s t perhaps a. m e a n i n g a - nature.-one second almost never blue and w h i t e in the wind that much memory h e n c e f o r t h never. White planes no trace s h i n i n g w h i t e one o n l y s h i n i n g white i n f i n i t e but that known n o t . Light heat a l l known a l l white heart breath no s o u n d . Head haught eyes white f i x e d f r o n t o l d p i n g 1 a s t mu r m u r one second perhaps not alone eye u n l u s t r o u s black and w h i t e half c l o s e d long lashes imploring ping s i l e n c e ping over. 1 At a  present n o v e l i s t .  " P i n g "  mature now  in to  double  reached  i t s  desparate long  as  mo r e The  conclude the  search  of for  l i v e s  is  evident  "over" in  than  Unnamab1e.  But  the  a e s t h e t i c s  goal  a l l  c r i t i c a l  that  negative  he  that  impasse  even  a f t e r  become  f i n a l  appears The  seems  himself  As  it  being the and  it  of  and s e l f  is  w r i t e s ,  the  prehave  such  s e l f  a  had  B e c k e t t ' s  c l e a r l y his  found  e i t h e r / o r For  that  s i l e n c e .  be  as  work  Beckett  would  n e i t h e r / n o r . suggest  Beckett  abandoned  that  a e s t h e t i c s  of  would  the  for  world  not  yet  w i l l  f i n i s h e d . be  132 determined world  by  of  choice  issue  which  s o c i a l  and  an  to  could  the  the  t h i s  contingency  -  t h e s i s  t r a d i t i o n a l  purposely  the  n o v e l ' s  the of  t h e i r  t h i s  has  shown  and  have  that  does  the  are  not  regarded in  by  in  i t s  as  i n One  suggesting  fact If  B e c k e t t ' s in  with  development.  f i c t i o n . -  roots  man, is  judgment  absurd"  modern  of  l i e s  future  a r t .  n o v e l s ,  work  value  an the  B e c k e t t ' s  v i s i o n s  whose  chal1enge of  of  sense  avoided:  a n t i - r e a l i s t  a p p e a l ;  modern  current  e x t r a - 1 i t e r a r y  ugly  current  "novel  major  the  and  great  s e r i o u s l y  that the  on  an has  that  perverse  "underground"  fluence  as  s i g n i f i c a n c e  feel  have  in  t h e s i s  cu1tura1  often  l i k e l y  r a i s e s  t h i s  c r i t i c s  t h e i r  well  e i t h e r / o r . " P i n g "  Some  as  c o n s t i t u t e  nothing  themes  centre  e l s e  are  of  highly  Western  c u l t u r e . One and  Be 11ow  versions  in  of  of  a  he  r e j e c t s  r e a l i t y  B e c k e t t ' s a  Such  B e c k e t t ' s  work  is  whole  w i t h i n  i t s  h i s t o r y  f i c t i o n return  of  however  work  the  the moral  i 1 l u s o r y , Herbert  hope  f o l l o w s  that  " i n  a t t i t u d e s  tend  to  Samuel hide For  B e c k e t t ' s ..."  (the  Marcuse  the  quotation  "even  such  viewing  that  c r i t i q u e  of  of  s o c i a l  terms  more  on  these  e s c a p i s t "Don't from  which,  in  a t t i t u d e s ,  part  to  the to  be.hunted  two  withdrawal  genre.  One-  c r i t i c a l  s o c i e t y ,  wait  w i l l  and  Beckett same  the B e c k e t t ' s  "proper"  p o l i t i c a l l y  t o t a l i t a r i a n  personal  his  of  B e c k e t t ' s  in  is  i s o l a t e d  t r a d i t i o n "  c r i t i c i s m s  absurd,  is  from  point a  the  an  n o v e l i s t  along  a d v i c e :  into  "great  comic  w h i l e  for  modern  comment  become  quest  r e s u l t s  t a ,  d i s c o v e r y  r e a l i t y ,  o b j e c t s  v i t a l  Lo1i  t h e i r  the  statement  D imens iona 1  the  These  that  the  defined  i m p l i c a t i o n s  however  s t a t e s  the  in  because  to  s o - c a l l e d  Marcuse's  Ma n  from  Nabokov  King  which  novel.  o r i e n t e d  of  c r i t i c i s m  the  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y  He  in  m i s s i n g  the  Ra i n  s o c i a l l y  broadest  reveal to  a  work  u l t i m a t e l y  withdrawal  thereby  in  the  m o r a l i s t i c  art  n o v e l ,  the  lead  w i t h i n  involves 2  s e l f .  lauds  Henderson  se1f-hood  s e l f  the  c r i t i c  of of  l i n e s . human f o l l o w to  'MoT 1'oy) mental  • and  133 p h y s i c a l today  energy  from  p o s s i b l e  s e q u e n t i a l  for  aspect  s o c i a l l y  only of  a  required  few;  the  i t  is  a c t i v i t i e s  only  r e d i r e c t i o n  of  an  is  i n c o n -  energy  which  3  must  precede  somewhat f u l l For  p a c i f i c a t i o n . "  beside  the  c o m p l e x i t y B e c k e t t  c u l t u r a l  p o i n t ;  of  the  But he  B e c k e t t ' s  " a r t i s t i c "  Marcuse's.comment  f a i l s own  to  recognize  philosophy  e x p e r i e n c e  mu sit  of  the n e g a t i o n s .  precede  ;  is  any  r e g e n e r a t i o n . The  experience  kind  of  deals  be  c l a r i f i e d  by  Martin  to  i n t e g r a t i o n  and  the  some  ends  extend  with  of  by  which  that  the  p o e t i c  i n t e g r a t i o n  examining  t h i s  can  statement  Heidegger:  ... we now u n d e r s t a n d poetry as. the inaugural naming of the gods and of the essence of t h i n g s . To "dwell p o e t i c a l l y " means: to stand in the p r o x i m i t y of the essence of t h i n g s . E x i s t e n c e is " p o e t i c " in i t s fundamental a s p e c t - w h i c h means at the same time; in so f a r as i t is e s t a b l i s h e d (founded), it is not recompense, but a g i f t . Poetry is not merely an ornament accompanying e x i s t e n c e , not merely temporary enthusiasm or nothing but i n t e r e s t and amusement. Poetry is foundation which supports h i s t o r y , t h e r e f o r e it is not a mere appearan of c u l t u r e , and a b s o l u t e l y not the " e x p r e s s i o n " of a " c u l t u r e s o u l . " Heidegger or  mere  poetry and  here  appearance is  logos  the by  themselves, indeed are  of  to  a s s e r t ,  determines  means  not by  poetry  bring  which  them  of  the  the  we  not  bring  g e n e r a l ,  but  brings is  as  gods  the the  of  essence  man  the  terms  into  essence  a  of  of  l i k e  of  it  myth.  Marcuse of  c u l t u r e  i t  provides  names  and  L i k e w i s e ,  things  things  may  c u l t u r e .  but  them:  context  things Poetry  aspect  b e i n g ,  mythos,  of  Being.  i d e n t i t y  understand  Heidegger,  e t h o s ,  essence  the  into  e x c r e s c e n c e  to  c r i t i c s  is  an the and ce mere k  than  the  u n i v e r s a l  poetry  may  or  the  o n t o l o g i c a l  w i t h i n  what  c u l t u r e ,  as  more  A c c o r d i n g  c u l t u r e  but  does  p e r c e i v e  as  approach  e x i s t e n c e  prone  may  of  men  aspect  i d e n t i f i e s  may  which  poetry  c u l t u r e .  essence  an  Poetry  in  of  be  which  the  c o n s i d e r s  a  into  by in  which that  being he primary  .  134 act  of  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  which  p r e d i c a t e s  poetry inner  is  man's  and  a c t i o n : as  an  of  man  so  much  act and  as  the  r e p o s i t o r y  s c e p t i c a l  is  of  of the  It  the  gods  and  the  essence  may  i n d i c a t e  the  i m p o s s i b i 1 i t y  in  Heidegger's  of  the  For to  such  a  escape  "yes  or  from  no,  his  prelude  to  way,  metaphysical  to  e t e r n a l  Beckett^s out and  of  of  any  t h i s  of  of no  and  naming  of  B e c k e t t ' s  negations c u l t u r e  art  a l s o  i t  is  necessary  Western  thought  To  the  date  the  i n e v i t a b l e  dilemma  and  i t s -  chaos.  part  r e g e n e r a t i o n .  place  of  is  is  o n t o l o g i c a l  doubt  Unnama b1e the  While  t a u t o l o g y . " w r i t i n g  which  would  The  not  ' c r e a t i n g • " p o e t r y "  take  l o g i c  is  source  Beckett  of  of  poetry  archetypes  and  things.  art to  t h e . b i n a r y  the in  a  of  of  poetry  i m p o s s i b i l i t y  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  c e r t a i n t y f i n d  sense,  necessary  and  f i e l d  consciousness  statement:  How  words,  environment,  record  the  c r e a t o r  1  the  other  sense,  a r c h e t y p e s .  logos  unknowable  the  values  the  his  and  t h i s  Heidegger s  i l l u s t r a t e  to  only  In  but  and  In  s t r u c t u r e s  c u l t u r e .  v a l u e s ,  Is  knowable  which  c u l t u r e ,  c u l t u r e ,  a  values.  response  h i s t o r y  mind  his  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  human  primary  even  of  determine  be  a l l  outer,  and  and  only f a i l u r e  r e s u l t a n t  135 Re f e r e n c e s  Samuel  1 Calder  and  Daniel  2 and  B e c k e t t , .-"P i n g " ,  Henderson  (1963),  J. the  Hughes Rain  PP,  in  " R e a l 1ty  K i n g " ,  N o ' s  K n i f e  (London:  l67-6o\ and  Mode rn  the  Hero:  F i c t i o n  L o l ?t a  Studies  345-3657" Herbert  3 Beacon  1967),  Boyars,  P r e s s ,  4 Gateway,  Ma r e u s e ,  1964),  Martin  1967),  p.  Heidegger, pp.  0 ne - D i me n s i o na 1  Man  (Boston:  2 43• Ex i s tehee  282-283-  and  Being:  (Chicago:  136  B i b 1 i og raphy Works  L  of  Samue1  by  Sources  C o n s u1  ted  Beckett  Verse Beckett, Samuel. Inc., 1962.  Poems  in  j  Novels  E n g l i s h .  and  New  York:  Grove  P r e s s ,  S t o r i e s  Murphy. New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , Inc., Watt. New Y o r k : Grove Press, Inc., Mo 1 1oy, Ma 1 o n e Dies, The Unnamab1e. York:  Grove  Grove  . P r e s s ,  ' '  P r e s s ,  .  Inc.,  nc,  fo r  Wa ? t i n g  1 958,  Inc., •  Al1  "  New  Nothing.  New Y o r k : Grove London: Calder  Stage  End game.  for  and  New  York:  P r e s s , Inc., and Boyars,  1964, 1967-  Ra d i o  Godot.  Last  Sew.  New  York:  York:  Grove  Tape.  New  Grove  P r e s s ,  P r e s s ,  Inc.,  York:  Grove  Faber  and  1958,  P r e s s ,  I960,  •  and  Texts  fo r  Krapp's • •  1955.  S t o r i e s an d Inc., 1967. How I t Is. No's Kn i f e . Plays  1957 1959. New  .  E_h  .  F a 11.  London:  and  .01 h e r  F i l m .  New  York:  .  Happy  Days.  .  "Act  Faber,  W r i t i n g s .  Faber,  London:  1  957-  Faber  1967.  York:  Faber  That Joe  Grove  New  Without  P r e s s ,  Grove  P r e s s ,  York:  Grove  Words  Inc.,  1  I,"  in  Inc.,  1969.  P r e s s ,  Krapp's  Inc.,  Last  960.  PI ay a n d two s h o r t p i ece s fo r rad ?o. Faber, 1964. . "Prologue" of 0 h I, C a l c u t t a ! , d e v i s e d  and  Kenneth Tynan, Press, Inc.,  d i r e c t e d 1969.  by  1961  Tape.  Jacques  Levy.  New  London: by  York:  Grove  C r i t i c i s m .  "Dante  Exagmination Work  i n  P rog re s s . __.  C o l l e c t i on  Paz,  o f  N . J . :  Bruno.  Vico  Fa c11f  P a r i s :  "Three  preface  i c a t i on  London:  Chatto  Es says,  P r e n t i c e - H a l l  in ed.  i n to  An t h o 1 o g y  Mex i c a n  P a r i s :  C M . 0 1d Les  of  Bowra. Tune ,  J o y c e , "  In c a m ? n a t ? on  E d i t i o n s  Be  Co.,  and  M.  in  of  1929.  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