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Urban growth and transportation implications in port development : a case study Tassie, Peter 1970

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THE URBAN GROWTH AND TRANSPORTATION IMPLICATIONS IN PORT DEVELOPMENT : A CASE STUDY, VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA by PETER TASSIE B . A . , The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949 B .A.Sc . The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia,' 1950 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In presenting th i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulf i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library sha l l make i t f reely avai lable for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publ ica t ion of th i s thesis for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Peter Tassie School of Community and Regional Planning The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 1970 P r e f a c e T h i s s t u d y , u n l i k e m o s t , i s t h e w o r k o f two a u t h o r s . T h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n h a s r e s u l t e d i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f P o r t D e v e l o p m e n t i n a n u r b a n s i t u a t i o n . Many o f t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y a r e j o i n t l y d e r i v e d , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y a n d c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r s , ( I a n d V I I ) . C h a p t e r s I I I , IV a n d V I w e r e p r i m a r i l y w r i t t e n b y P e t e r T a s s i e a n d C h a p t e r s I I a n d V a n d A p p e n d i x I X b y N e i l G r i g g s . i v A b s t r a c t W h i l e m o s t r e s e a r c h o n P o r t P l a n n i n g i n t h e p a s t h a s f o c u s e d o n t h e m a r i n e a n d r a i l a s p e c t s , t h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e u r b a n i n f l u e n c e o n p o r t d e v e l o p m e n t . I t - i s a c a s e s t u d y o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t o f t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a , w h i c h l i e s a d j a c e n t t o a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f 1,000,000 p e r s o n s . A s u r v e y w a s c a r r i e d o u t o n a l l t h e w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s t o d e t e r m i n e o r i g i n s , d e s t i n a t i o n s a n d v o l u m e s , o f c a r g o h a n d l e d , f r e q u e n c y o f s e r v i c e c a l l s , e m p l o y m e n t a n d s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t , s i t e a n d p l a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d mode a n d f r e q u e n c y o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A s e c o n d s u r v e y o n a m a j o r c a r g o t e r m i n a l w a s c o m p l e t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o r i g i n a n d d e s t i n a t i o n o f t r u c k t r i p s , a n d t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t a t t h e w a t e r f r o n t . A t h i r d s u r v e y s a m p l e d 25% o f t h e 350 m a r i n e s e r v i c e i n -d u s t r i e s a s p a r t o f a n e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s t u d y o f t h e p o r t . T h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. T h e v o l u m e s h i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r w i l l d o u b l e d u r i n g t h e n e x t d e c a d e . As t h e 1 9 6 8 c a p a c i t y o f t h e p o r t w a s b a r e l y a d e q u a t e t o h a n d l e t h e e x i s t i n g f l o w s a t w o f o l d e x p a n s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y i f t h e p r o j e c t e d f l o w s , a r e t o b e a c c o m m o d a t e d . 2. S p a c e t o a c c o m m o d a t e s h i p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e s e p r o -p o r t i o n s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e w i t h o u t e i t h e r l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n o r m a j o r d i s r u p t i o n o f a d j o i n i n g u r b a n s i t e s . W i t h i n t h e w a t e r f r o n t , 50% o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s i n d i c a t e a n e e d w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s i t e s f o r a . t o t a l o f 84 a c r e s . V 3 . C o n g e s t i o n o n t h e u r b a n s t r e e t s y s t e m i n c r e a s e d t h e c o s t o f t r u c k i n g f r o m a g e n e r a l c a r g o t e r m i n a l b y 27%. 4. T h e u n p r o d u c t i v e t i m e o f t r u c k s d e l a y e d a t o n e g e n e r a l c a r g o t e r m i n a l a m o u n t e d t o $750,000 a n n u a l l y . 5. T h e p r e s e n t s w i t c h i n g m e t h o d s a n d a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e r a i l -way l i n e s i m p o s e d e l i v e r y d e l a y s a n d i n c r e a s e c o s t s , a m o u n t i n g t o a b o u t $400,000 a n n u a l l y „ 6. C a r g o e s a n d w a t e r f r o n t p r o d u c t s h a v e f e w d i r e c t l i n k s w i t h t h e c i t y . O n l y 0.6% o f t h e p o r t ' s e x p o r t s o r i g i n a t e f r o m t h e c i t y a n d 10% o f i t s i m p o r t s a r e d e s t i n e d f o r t h e c i t y . 7. A n u r b a n l o c a t i o n f o r t h e p o r t i s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y d u e t o t h e c h a n g e i n c a r g o f l o w s a n d s e r v i c e l i n k s . E i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e m a j o r p o r t s e r v i c e s e c t o r i n d i c a t e t h e y w o u l d r e m a i n i n t h e c i t y s h o u l d t h e e n t i r e p o r t o p e r a t i o n s b e moved s o u t h , 18 m i l e s , t o R o b e r t s B a n k . 8 . T h e u r b a n g r o w t h h a s r e s u l t e d i n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p o r t w a t e r -f r o n t b e i n g u s e d f o r n o n - p o r t f u n c t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e p o r t i n t e r f a c e i s b e i n g r e d e v e l o p e d w i t h u r b a n r e n e w a l a n d r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s , w h i c h i s e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t i n g p o r t e x p a n s i o n i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 9. M a n a g e m e n t o f t h e p o r t i s i m p e d e d , i n t h a t no s i n g l e a g e n c y e x e r c i s e s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r p o r t l a n d s , t o p r o v i d e c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g . 10. T h e v a r i a t i o n i n d o w n t o w n l a n d v a l u e s a r e , r e f l e c t e d i n s i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n s i n w a t e r f r o n t a s s e s s m e n t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t f u n c t i o n , o r i t s t r a d e a n d s e r v i c e l i n k s . T h i s s t u d y f o u n d t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t y a n d t h e a d j o i n i n g u r b a n a r e a i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p e d i m e n t t o t h e p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n a n d f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r P a g e I . THE PROBLEM AND I T S S I G N I F I C A N C E 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m . . . . . 1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l 3 N a t i o n a l . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 P r o v i n c i a l 1 2 . M u n i c i p a l . . 14 P u r p o s e , o f S t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 H y p o t h e s i s . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 19 P l a n n i n g A p p l i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d D o m e s t i c 2 1 P r o v i n c i a l a n d M u n i c i p a l . . . . . . . . . 22 S t u d y A r e a . . . . . . . . . 24 S t u d y M e t h o d o l o g y . • . , . . . . . . . . • . . . . 27 L i m i t a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s U s e d . . . . . . . . . • . 28 D a t a S o u r c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 I I . THE METROPOLITAN AREA AS A RESOURCE 31 P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . 31 M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r 32 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 v i i Chapter Page Manufacturing, Commercial and Storage . . . . . . 39 Shipping, Terminals and Land Transportation F a c i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Agr icul ture and Unused Land . . . . . . . . . 42 Res ident ia l Land . . . . . . . . 43 Recreation, F i sh Boat Mooring, Marinas and Towing . . 43 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 I I I . WATERFRONT CHARACTERISTICS 46 The Study Area . . . . . . . . 47 Questionnaire Administrat ion . . . . • . . . . . . 50 Questionnaire Results - ' . . . . . . . . . > . . 54 S i te Character is t ics . . . . . 54 Cargo Flows and Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Transportation Services . . . . . 57 Urban Dependency . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Future Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Summary 64 IV. PORT LAND NEEDS AND TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS . . . . 66 Changes i n Transportation Technology . . . . . . 67 General Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Bulk Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 v i i i Chapter Page Other Shipping Innovations . . . . . . . . . 79 Passenger Traf f i c . . . • . . . . . . . ... 79 The Vessel Size Race . •• . . . . - . • • . . • 80 Port Size Requirements . . . . . . . . ... . 8 2 Bulk Cargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 General Cargo . , . . . . . . . . > , . . . 86 Future Trends . . . . . . . . . . ,• ,. . ,. . 90 Transportation Network . . . 94 i Railways •'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Highways . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . 97 Employment and Transportation Requirements . . . . 98 Employment Requirements and-Spatial ^ay\-'v&,i;feM£^' Characteristics . . . .• . . ^  , . 98 Transportation . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . 101 X Modes . . . . . . . • . . ,. . . . ... . ,. 102 Number of Trips . . . • .. . , . . . . . 103 Tonnage; . . . . . . , . . . , . . . 103 Destination of Transportation . . . . . . . . 105 Transportation Delays . . . . . . . . . , . .• , 108 Railways . . . . . . . . . < . . . . . • 109 Highways , . • , > . . . . . . . • • • • • H I Terminal Delays . . . . . . . . . . . I l l ix Chapter Page Delays Within the Study Area . . . . ,. . . . . 113 Delays i n City Streets . . . . . . . . . . 114 Summary . . . . . . , ,. . . . • . . . . . . 116 V. THE URBAN INFLUENCE ON WATERFRONT LANDS . . . . . . 119 Urban Growth and Development . . . . . ... . . . 121 Commodity Flows and Transport Linkages . . . . . 121 Service Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Population-Forecast . . . . . ; . . ,. . : .. . 133 Availability of Land . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Waterfront Land Needs . . ... . . . - . . . 137 City Land Needs . . • ,. , . . . . . . . . . 139 Industrial Requirements . , . . . . . . . 140 Residential Requirements . . . . . . . . 144 Recreation Requirements . . . . > •. . . . . 146 Commercial Requirements . . . . . . . ... 150 Interfering Land Uses . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Zoning and General Land Use . . . , . ... . 156 Recent Developments and,Development Proposals . . 159 Disarrangement =of Sites . . . • . . . . . . . . 166 Other Urban Port Relationships . . . . . ... . 169 Comparative Land Values 169 Social Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 175 X C h a p t e r P a g e P o l l u t i o n a n d B l i g h t . . . • . . . • .. . . . . . . 177 T h e C o n t r o l o f t h e P o r t „ . . . . 180 E c o n o m i c I m p a c t o f t h e P o r t F u n c t i o n o n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . ' . . . . . / . . 1 8 1 C a r g o - G e n e r a t e d I n c o m e . . . . . . .• .. . .. . 182 S e c o n d a r y I n c o m e . . . , . . . . . . . . 184 E m p l o y m e n t . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . 186 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 189 V I . PORT ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 1 C o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d S t a t u t o r y B a c k g r o u n d . . . . . 192 F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . 195 P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t . . . . . . . . 199 S u b - P r o v i n c i a l - G o v e r n m e n t . . . . . • .. . ,. . , 200 R a i l w a y s . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . 2 0 1 O t h e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 2 P l a n n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e R e g i o n 202 F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l . . . . . , . . . . . 202 N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d M a n a g e m e n t 204 H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n M a n a g e m e n t . . . . . . . 206 M u n i c i p a l C o n t r o l . . . . ,• . . . . . . . . . 207 Summary . • . ! . . . ,• ... . . . . . . . . . 210 XX C h a p t e r P a g e V I I . CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 1 Summary . . . . ° . . . . . . . . . 211 T h e C o n f l i c t B e t w e e n S h i p p i n g A c t i v i t y and t h e A d j o i n i n g U r b a n A r e a . . . . . . . . . . . 213 D i s a r r a n g e m e n t o f W a t e r f r o n t S i t e s . . . . . . 216 L a c k o f A v a i l a b l e L a n d . . . . . . . , . . 216 I n t e r f e r i n g L a n d U s e s . . . . . . . . .. . 217 C o n g e s t i o n o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s . . . 219 E x p a n d i n g S h i p p i n g R e q u i r e m e n t s . . . .. . .• . . 2 2 0 P o r t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . , . . . . . . . . . 2 2 1 F u r t h e r S t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 BIBLIOGRAPHY 224 A p p e n d i x I W a t e r f r o n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 . . . . . . 234 I I C o n t a c t L e t t e r t o B u s i n e s s e s i n S t u d y A r e a , N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 9 . 240 I I I T r u c k i n g Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , F e b r u a r y 1970 . . . . . . . 242 I V Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S a m p l e : S e r v i c e S e c t o r S u r v e y . . . . . 244 V I n d u s t r i a l L a n d A v a i l a b i l i t y a n d R a t e o f T a k e - u p , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 1 9 6 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 V I I n d u s t r i a l L a n d , M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 9 . . . . 248 V I I C a r g o T o n n a g e , P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r a n d C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r S t u d y A r e a , 1 9 6 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 0 V I I I E s t i m a t e o f W a t e r f r o n t D a i l y T r u c k T r a f f i c ( S t u d y A r e a ) . 252 I X C o m m o d i t y F l o w M o d e l . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 x i i L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e P a g e 1 . W a t e r f r o n t L a n d U s e s , C i t y a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 9 . . • . . . . . . . . . . . f .. . . . . . . 3 8 ! 2 . L a n d U s e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n S t u d y A r e a , 1969 , . . . . 55 3 . I m p o r t s i n t o S t u d y A r e a b y Z o n e o f O r i g i n i n 1969 . . . 5 8 4 . E x p o r t s i n t o S t u d y A r e a b y Z o n e o f O r i g i n i n 1969 . . . • 5 8 5 . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c c e s s t o S t u d y A r e a 6 0 6 . A n n u a l T o n n a g e H a n d l e d b y Mode i n S t u d y A r e a , 1 9 6 9 . . . . 60 7 . A n n u a l Number o f M o v e m e n t s b y M o d e , 1969 . . . . . . 60 8 . M o s t I m p o r t a n t S e r v i c e s R e q u i r i n g P e r s o n a l C o n t a c t . . . 6 1 9 . D a i l y V i s i t o r s t o S t u d y A r e a b y Z o n e o f - O r i g i n . . . . 62 1 0 . V o l u m e o f B u s i n e s s i n N e x t 5 Y e a r s . . . . . . . . . 6 3 1 1 . E m p l o y m e n t i n N e x t 5 Y e a r s ' » . , . . V." . . . . . . 6 3 1 2 . F u t u r e P l a n s o f B u s i n e s s e s i n S t u d y A r e a . . . . ... . 6 3 1 3 . C o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n - ^ A d v a n t a g e s a n d D i s a d v a n t a g e s . . . . . 75 1 4 . P o p u l a t i o n P r o j e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 8 6 , C i t y a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 93 1 5 ; P r e d i c t e d C a r g o T o n n a g e , P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 8 5 . . 93 1 6 . P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r , T o n n a g e a n d C a p a c i t y , 1968 . . . . . . 9 3 1 7 . E m p l o y e e S p a c e R e q u i r e m e n t s , S t u d y A r e a , 1969 . . . . . 100 1 8 . C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n . . . , . . . , 102 1 9 . A v e r a g e . M o n t h l y T o n n a g e p e r U s e r b y M o d e , S t u d y A r e a , 1 9 6 9 • • - • - » o • o • o o e a o , J » t> e » f e • 103 x i i i Table Page 20. Average Monthly Tonnage T r i p s , Study Area, 1969 . . . . 104 21. Tonnage-Area Rat ios , Study Area, 1969 . . . . . . . 105 22. Truck Time at Centennial P i e r , 1969 . . . . ,• . . . . 112 23. Port Relocat ion: Impact on Service Industr ies , Vancouver 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . ,• ,. . . . . . 131 24. Population Projec t ions , 1966-1986, Ci ty and Metropolitan Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,• . . . . 133 25. Port Land Requirementsj Vancouver Waterfront Study Area, 1970-1974 . . . . . . - . . . 138 26. Major Land Uses i n Indus t r i a l D i s t r i c t s , Vancouver^ 1969 . 140 27. Major Apartment Zones, and 95 per cent Development Dates, Vancouver j 1969 . . • . . . . . . . . . . . ,. • 145 28. Burrard Peninsular Wet Berthage Requirements, 1966-1986 . 148 29. Vancouver Harbour, Berth and Parking F a c i l i t i e s , 1966 . . 148 30. Present and Future Commercial.Sales Volumes and Floor Areas, 1962.and 1981, C i ty and Metropolitan Vancouver . 152 31. Supply i n Acres of Undeveloped Land by Tra f f i c D i s t r i c t s , CBD Vancouver, 1969 . . . . . 155 32. Recent Office Developments i n Downtown Vancouver, 1966-1969 . . . . . . . . . . 161 33. Nat ional Harbours Board Property Assessments, Vancouver, 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 x i v Table Page 34. Market Values of Land, C i ty of Vancouver, 1961, 1967 . . 176 35. Income Generated by Port A c t i v i t y , Port of Vancouver Study Area, 1968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 36. Tota l Direct and Indirect Income Generated by Port A c t i v i t y , Vancouver Study Area, 1968 185 37. Marine Service Industries Employment and P a y r o l l , C i ty of Vancouver and Study Area, 1969 187 38. Tota l Employment Related to Port Operations, Ci ty of Vancouver and Study Area, 1969 . • 188 XV LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Projected Growth of Populat ion, 1960-2000, by Regions . . 6 2. Canadian Shipping A c t i v i t y , Internat ional Seaborne Shipping Only . . . . „ .. , . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Metropoli tan Vancouver and Study Area . . . . . . . 25 4» Location and Usage of Deep-sea Shipping F a c i l i t i e s . . . 26 5. Canadian Shipping Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6. Waterfront Slope Analysis • . 37 7. Port of Vancouver Cargo Tonnage, 1955-1968 . . . . . . 40 8. Changes i n Land Use, 1950-1970, Burrard Street to Main 9. Sequence for Shipment of General Cargo . . . . . . . • . 70 10. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Container Ships . . . . . . . . . 74 11. Port of Vancouver Deep-sea Cargo Tonnage, 1955-1985 . . . 92 12. Major Transportation Network . . . . . . . . , . . . 96 13. Average Vehicle Speeds i n Peak Hours (7-9 a.m., 4-6 p.m.) . 99 14. Port and Region Commodity Flows, Vancouver, 1859, 1883 and 1969 . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • .. 122 15. Major Origins of Persons .Vis i t ing Waterfront Si tes . . . . 126 16. Steamship Companies, Customs Brokers and Shipping Agents, Business Locations . . • . . . • . 127 x v i F i g u r e P a g e 1 7 . S h i p C h a n d l e r s a n d M a r i n e E q u i p m e n t a n d S u p p l i e s , B u s i n e s s L o c a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 128 1 8 . I m p o r t e r s a n d E x p o r t e r s , B u s i n e s s L o c a t i o n s . . . . . 129 1 9 . L a n d F i l l A r e a s , t o 1 9 6 0 a n d P r o j e c t e d . . . . . . . 136 2 0 . L a n d U s e s V a n c o u v e r C i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 2 1 . Downtown T r a f f i c Z o n e s - V a n c o u v e r . . 154 2 2 . M a j o r D e v e l o p m e n t s and P r o p o s a l s . . . . . . . . . 160 2 3 . M a j o r S o u r c e o f I n c o m i n g Goods t o W a t e r f r o n t S i t e s . . .' . 167 2 4 . M a j o r D e s t i n a t i o n o f O u t g o i n g Goods f r o m W a t e r f r o n t S i t e s . 168 2 5 . R e l a t i v e C h a n g e i n - A s s e s s e d V a l u e o f L a n d , 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 6 0 . . 170 2 6 . R e l a t i v e C h a n g e i n A s s e s s e d V a l u e o f L a n d , 1 9 6 0 - 1 9 6 5 . . 171 2 7 . A v e r a g e S q u a r e F o o t V a l u e b y B l o c k s , Downtown W a t e r f r o n t , 1 9 6 1 . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • . . . . . . 173 2 8 . O w n e r s h i p o f L a n d C o v e r e d b y W a t e r , M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 2 9 . H a r b o u r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . . . . 197 3 0 . Laws o f R e f r a c t i o n A p p l i e d t o R o u t e L o c a t i o n 257 3 1 . T h e M l n - C u t , M a x - F l o w P a t h f o r a S i m p l e N e t w o r k . . . . 259 3 2 . E x p o r t F l o w i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D e c i s i o n T r e e N e t w o r k — T r u c k i n g . 261 3 3 . M i n i m a l - C o s t F l o w T h r o u g h a C o m p l e x N e t w o r k . . . . . 262 Acknowledgment I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. V. Setty Pendakur and Professor Paul 0. Roer for t h e i r c r i t i c i s m , advice and support. To my colleague, N e i l Griggs, go my thanks for h i s assistance and enthusiasm. The study could not have been possible without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the waterfront businesses, and to them I extend f u l l c r e d i t for t h e i r cooperation. To the Richard King MellongCharitable Trust I acknowledge, with gratitude, the support given over the past year. Without detracting i n any way from the contribution of the foregoing, the major c r e d i t i s due to my wife, Elizabeth, for her constant support and encouragement over the past two years. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE A. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The ship was cheered, the harbour cleared, Merrily did we drop Below the kirk, below the hill, Below the lighthouse top^ The scene that Samuel Coleridge described one hundred years ago i s a far cry from the harbour a c t i v i t y of today, wi th i t s uni t t r a i n s , super tankers, mammoth elevators , container terminals and the never ending stream of vehic le t r a f f i c . Yesterday they cheered ships out of ports and today we cheer astronauts in to space, and i n the midst of t h i s progress a trucking manager b i t t e r l y comments, I t takes longer to c o l l e c t a shipment from the Vancouver waterfront, than i t does to o rb i t a man around the e a r t h . 2 The unceasing demand for space has seldom been more succ inc t ly i l l u s t r a t e d than i n the case of harbour lands adjoining metropolitan areas. Operating wi th in th i s area are the t r a d i t i o n a l and accepted shipping a c t i v i t i e s involv ing the transshipment of goods between land Samuel Taylor Coler idge, The Ancient Mariner, P t . I . 2 Interview with Mr. M. Br ink , President, Johnston Terminals' L t d . , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, November 21. 1969. 2 and water transport, and requir ing extensive f a c i l i t i e s and space. Competing for the same land i s a more aggressive opponent, the urban land user, whose.needs stem from the expanding cent ra l c i t y business d i s t r i c t s and the i r demands for increased space. The con-f l i c t between these opposing forces has become apparent i n the years fol lowing World War I I , but has received greater emphasis i n the past decade, as pressures from a l l sides have increased, and as the "squeeze play" has become tangible and formidable. I t would appear that most world ports are caught i n the middle of two apparently c o n f l i c t i n g developments. On one hand in te rna t iona l trade i s increasing r ap id ly , r e su l t ing i n greater p o r t . a c t i v i t y , thus requi r ing addi t iona l port f a c i l i t i e s , space and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . On the other hand the greatest concentration of populations are i n coastal c i t i e s , and i n Canada for example, the three largest c i t i e s predicted to experience the greatest growth are port c i t i e s . These are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, the l a t t e r two being the nat ion ' s two major ports . Thus the process of urbanizat ion, which often re -su l t s i n greater congestion, con f l i c t s with the nee4s of developing port areas. One response to th i s i s the bu i ld ing of new ports outside urban core.areas. For example i n Europe th i s has happened at EUROPORT, near Antwerp, MEDAPORT, near M a r s e i l l e s , PORT TALBOT (South Wales) and TILBURY near London, and i n Canada at CANPORT 6 miles south-west of Saint John, New Brunswick, and ROBERTS BANK 30 miles south of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. From these observations i t would appear that i f indeed there is a problem, i t would be an urban one, to be resolved by those in the immediate area. This conclusion however would be a misconception, due to tb,e misunderstanding of the true function of a port. Port cargoes are generated at some distance from the port itself, thus any change in trade policies, cargo types, sizes, frequency, etc- could have significant effects at the port,itself in terms of handling time, cost, scheduling, storage, etc. , Therefore regional, national and international interests should be considered when discussing port planning. For this reason some mention is now made of the inter-dependency of a local port to a l l its regions, the purpose of this is to present an overview of a port's function at each of these regions, and finally to focus at the urban region wh^ ch i t i ^ believed is a critical one in the entire trade system. (1) International Complex physical, economic, political and human factors affect the origin and evolution of a port. Perhaps the two most influential at the international level have been, (i) the changes in the world patterns of trade, and (ii) the changes in tbe transportation industry itself. (i) The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought about vast changes in human activity and from the viewpoint of port.activity similar changes also occurred. The Industrial Revolution's greatest impact was in northwestern Europe, thus creating a vast new market for 4 r a w m a t e r i a l s . A s a r e s u l t t h e E n g l i s h C h a n n e l a n d N o r t h S e a p o r t s b e c a m e t h e c h i e f t e r m i n a l s c o n n e c t i n g E u r o p e w i t h o t h e r c o n t i n e n t s , a n d a p o r t s u c h a s B o r d e a u x f o u n d i t s e l f i n t h e b a c k w a t e r o f o c e a n 3 t r a n s p o r t . S i m i l a r l y t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n p o r t s l o s t commerce i n t h e 1 5 t h C e n t u r y a f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e r o u t e t o A s i a a r o u n d t h e C a p e o f Good H o p e . H o w e v e r t h e y w e r e r e j u v e n a t e d l a t e r w i t h t h e o p e n i n g 4 o f t h e S u e z C a n a l . C a r g o c a r r i e d o n t h e S t . L a w r e n c e - G r e a t L a k e s s y s t e m , w h i c h i n e f f e c t o p e n e d new m a r k e t s t o w o r l d s h i p p i n g , i n c r e a s e d f i v e - f o l d , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e S e a w a y ' s o p e r a t i o n . " ' T h e s e a r e a f e w e x a m p l e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t h a v e o p e n e d new m a r k e t s a n d o f c h a n g e s i n . h u m a n a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s a n d d e n s i t i e s t h a t h a v e a f f e c t e d p o r t a c t i v i t y . V a n c o u v e r f a c e s a s i m i l a r p o t e n t i a l f o r c h a n g e s i n p o r t a c t i v i t y s i m p l y f r o m i t s g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n i n t h e P a c i f i c r i m , w h e r e p o p u l a -t i o n c h a n g e s a r e o c c u r r i n g a t t h e f a s t e s t r a t e o n t h i s e a r t h . T h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e P a c i f i c R i m t r a d i n g a r e a , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e immense i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h a n d f o o d demands o f t h e A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , h a s s t i m u -l a t e d a d d i t i o n a l t r a d e i n t h e P a c i f i c , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y b e t w e e n N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d J a p a n , C h i n a a n d t h e U.S.S.R. ( U n i o n o f S o v i e t S o c i a l i s t G u i d o G . W e i g e n d , "Some E l e m e n t s i n . t h e S t u d y o f P o r t G e o -g r a p h y , " Readings in Urban Geography, H . M . M a y e r a n d C . F . K o h n , e d . . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1959, p . 366. ^Ibid., p . 367. ^ C a n a d i a n I m p e r i a l B a n k o f C o m m e r c e , Commercial Letter, M a y -J u n e , 1969, p . 4. 5 R e p u b l i c s ) . W i t h t h e p r o j e c t i o n s f o r r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g w o r l d p o p u -l a t i o n s i n t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o n t i n e n t s , a n d . w i t h t h e t r e m e n d o u s e m p h a s i s b e i n g p l a c e d u p o n i m p r o v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a n d l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s , t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e r e m a i n o p t i m i s t i c , i f n o t e n s u r e d , b a r r i n g a m a j o r c a l a m i t y . F i g u r e 1 s h o w s t h e F a r E a s t a s h a v i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f n e a r l y two b i l l i o n i n 1970, w h i c h w i l l h a v e d o u b l e d w i t h i n 30 y e a r s t o c o m p r i s e 60% o f t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n . When o n e c o n s i d e r s . t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l t h e t r a d e t h r o u g h t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r i s w i t h i n t h i s a r e a , o n e c a n a p p r e c i a t e t h e s t a g g e r i n g f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l . ( i i ) P a r a l l e l l i n g t h e s e c h a n g e s i n human a c t i v i t y a r e r e v o l u -t i o n a r y c h a n g e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r i n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Many o f t h e s e m a r i n e c h a n g e s h a v e come a b o u t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e h i g h c o s t o f t r a n s -s h i p m e n t a t t h e p o r t . T r a n s s h i p m e n t c o s t s a r e o f t e n 50% o f t h e t o t a l 6 7 8 c o s t s o f s h i p p i n g b e t w e e n two p o r t s . ' ' S h i p p e r s a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r e d u c e t h e s e p o r t c o s t s b y d e v e l o p i n g e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e t h r o u g h r e d u c i n g t o t a l h a n d l i n g c o s t s i n t h e u s e o f u n i t t r a i n s , p i p e l i n e s f o r s o l i d s , c o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n , p a l l e t b o a r d s , r o l l - o n / r o l l - o f f o p e r a t i o n s 9 a n d t h e L A S H s y s t e m . A l l t h e s e h a v e e s s e n t i a l l y b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n P e t e r E n g e l m a n n , " C h a n g i n g S i t e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r P o r t O p e r a -t i o n s , " Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division} A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , V o l . 84, WW4, P r o c . P a p e r 1769 ( S e p t e m b e r 1958), p p . 1769-2. ^ B a n k o f M o n t r e a l , Business Review^ A u g u s t 29, 1969, p . 1. g S t a n l e y J o h n s o n , " T h e S e a p o r t s o f t h e F u t u r e , " Ports and Ear-bours3 V o l . 14* N o . 6, ( J u n e , 1969), p . 7. 9 E a c h o f t h e s e a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r I I I . Millions 4200-4000 3800-3600H 3400 3 2 0 0 -3 0 0 0 -2 8 0 0 -2600 2 4 0 0 - 1 2200-1 2 0 0 0 -1 8 0 0 -1600 1400 H 1200 1 0 0 0 -8 0 0 -6 0 0 -4 0 0 -2 0 0 -1 GROWTH 1 9 9 0 - 2 0 0 0 1 9 8 0 - 9 0 1 9 7 0 - 8 0 1 9 6 0 - 7 0 1960 EUROPE (incl USSR) »1 1 FAR EAST (incl.M.China LATIN AMERICA AFRICA NORTH AMERICA NEAR EAST WITiiiiriT> f a Ktm H OCEANIA Projected growth of Population 1960-2000, bv regions Source FAO monthly bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, July/August 1965 7 t h e p a s t d e c a d e . T h e m o s t . r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a p p e a r e d i n t h e Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 1 4 t h , 1 9 7 0 , i n w h i c h C a s c a d e P i p e L i n e L i m i t e d " ^ a r e a p p l y i n g t o b u i l d a p i p e l i n e f r o m F e r n i e ( a c o m m u n i t y i n t h e s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n e a r t h e A l b e r t a b o r d e r ) t o R o b e r t s B a n k , f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g c o a l . O t h e r e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g g a i n e d t h r o u g h i n c r e a s i n g s h i p p i n g c a r g o c a p a c i t y . O n l y t w e n t y y e a r s a g o a 2 8 , 0 0 0 t o n d e a d w e i g h t ( d . w . t . ) t a n k e r w a s d e x c r i b e d a s a " s u p e r t a n k e r " . T o - d a y t h e l a r g e s t s h i p , a n o i l t a n k e r , i s r a t e d a t 3 2 6 , 6 0 0 d . w . t . , 79 f o o t . d r a u g h t a n d 1 , 1 3 5 f e e t i n l e n g t h . On t h e d r a w i n g b o a r d s t h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , l a r g e r t a n k e r s o f 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 d . w . t . T o - d a y c r u d e o i l i s t h e o n l y p r o d u c t t h a t i s b e i n g s h i p p e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s i n s u c h a m a n n e r ( 1 , 0 0 0 m i l l i o n t o n s a n n u a l l y ) . H o w e v e r , o t h e r p r o d u c t s s u c h a s i r o n o r e , p r e s e n t l y b e i n g c a r r i e d i n 9 5 , 0 0 0 t o n - s i z e v e s s e l s , g r a i n , c o a l , b a u x i t e , p h o s p h a t e s a n d e v e n c o n t a i n e r i z e d c a r g o e s , c o u l d w e l l b e h a n d l e d i n t h e l a r g e r v e s s e l s . T h e v o l u m e o f g o o d s now b e c o m e s t h e c r i t i c a l f a c t o r t o s u s t a i n t h e u s e o f s u p e r - v e s s e l s , a n d V a n c o u v e r c o u l d w e l l q u a l i f y i n s u p p l y i n g t h e n e e d e d v o l u m e s : (1) b e c a u s e o f t h e a r e a ' s v a s t m i n e r a l a n d g r a i n r e s o u r c e s , a n d ( 2 ) b e c a u s e i t i s t h e o n l y s i z e a b l e w e s t c o a s t t e r m i n a l s e r v i n g t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n a n d ( 3 ) C a n a d a c o u l d b e a l a n d b r i d g e f o r g o o d s m o v i n g f r o m A s i a t o E u r o p e a n d v i c e v e r s a , w i t h V a n c o u v e r b e i n g t h e w e s t e r n t e r m i n a l . A s i m p l e e x a m p l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e e c o n o m i e s i n s c a l e . I f o n e t a k e s a n 1 8 , 0 0 0 A d v e r t i s e m e n t , Vancouver Sun, J a n . 1 4 , 1 9 7 0 . 8 t o n s h i p w h i c h r e q u i r e s a b o u t 1 0 , 0 0 0 h . p . a n d d o u b l e i t s l e n g t h , w i d t h a n d d e p t h , t h e r e s u l t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o n v e s s e l . T h i s s h i p d o e s n o t r e q u i r e d o u b l e t h e e n g i n e c a p a c i t y o r d o u b l e t h e c o s t . T h e l a r g e r v e s s e l s o p e r a t e w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same number o f c r e w , a 3 2 , 0 0 0 h . p . e n g i n e a n d c o s t l e s s p e r t o n t o b u i l d , i . e . , 11 $ 7 5 . 0 0 a t o n c o m p a r e d tfo $ 3 0 0 . 0 0 a t o n f o r t h e 1 8 , 0 0 0 t o n v e s s e l . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h e r e f o r e , w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r a p i d l y r i s i n g w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n s a n d u r b a n a g g l o m e r a t i o n s , t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e c a n w e l l e x p e c t some u n p r e c e d e n t e d g r o w t h . W o r l d s e a - b o r n e t r a d e w h i c h e x i s t s t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 , 5 0 0 m i l l i o n , a m o u n t s t o 1 , 8 0 0 m i l l i o n t o n s . I f p r e d i c t i o n s f o r t h e y e a r 2 0 0 0 a r e a c c e p t e d t h e n t h e s e a - b o r n e t r a d e s h o u l d d o u b l e i n t h e n e x t 30 y e a r s t o m e e t 12 t h e n e e d s o f a w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n o f 6 , 3 0 0 m i l l i o n . T h i s i n c r e a s e o f s e a - b o r n e t r a d e w i l l n o t r e s u l t i n a p a r a l l e l e d i n c r e a s e i n s h i p p i n g t r a f f i c a s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y F i g u r e 2 . H e r e i t i s s e e n t h a t v e s s e l a r r i v a l s a r e d e c l i n i n g w h i l e t o t a l c a r g o t o n n a g e i s i n c r e a s i n g . How-e v e r , t h i s i n c r e a s e i n t r a d e w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d r a i l a n d t r u c k a c t i v i t y . A s m o s t p o r t c a r g o i s d e s t i n e d f o r p o i n t s o u t s i d e t h e u r b a n a r e a , a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n r a i l a n d t r u c k t r a f f i c , i m p r o v e m e n t s w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y b e r e q u i r e d t o i m p r o v e p o r t c o n g e s t i o n a n d p o r t a c c e s s . F . C . L e i g h t o n , Economic Forces Behind the, Roberts Bank Super Port Development, p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A s s o c i a -t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s o f B . C . , V a n c o u v e r , D e c e m b e r 6 , 1 9 6 8 . 12 S t a n l e y J o h n s o n , o p . ext., p . 7 . 9 10 As future countries emerge from their colonial status to p o l i t i c a l independence, their growth and economic development becomes increasingly dependent upon International trade. Many countries are in this state of development and a l l face the same problem of future port efficiency and f l e x i b i l i t y . Port planning and redevelopment is expensive and requires knowledgeable techniques in engineering and planning. This has been recognized by a number of International Agencies who have taken steps to meet these c r i t i c a l needs. Organiza-tions such as the United Nations, The Colombo Plan, The Canadian and American International Development Agencies, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and The International Association of Ports and Harbours, have contributed both money and personnel to assist in this international problem. (2) National A l l of these Indications for increased international trade are of relevance only to those participating countries. Individually a nation's involvement in international commerce i s a matter of government policy, formulated at the national level, and with national consider-ations at stake. In this formulation are involved not only the import demands of the nation, as well as the surplus goods, but also the encouragement that should be given to Internal producers. The resulting policy i s expressed in t a r i f f regulations, quota restrictions and other measures designed to influence the volume of commodities crossing the national boundaries, and in turn affect a port's activity. For example wheat exports from Russia were stopped after the Bolshevik revolution 11 a n d t h e p o r t a n d c i t y o f O d e s s a l o s t i t s p r i n c i p l e f u n c t i o n . W i t h t h e l o s s o f t h i s a c t i v i t y t h e p o r t c i t y c e a s e d t o g r o w a n d i n f a c t 13 s t a g n a t e d ; T h e h i s t o r i c g r o w t h o f M a r s e i l l e s c a n b e l i n k e d t o b o t h e c o n o m i c a n d p l i t i c a l f a c t o r s . F r e n c h c o l o n i a l p o l i c y o f t h e 1 9 t h a n d 2 0 t h c e n t u r y w a s d i r e c t e d a t A l g e r i a , a n d M a r s e i l l e s w a s t h e 14 d i r e c t l i n k t h r o u g h w h i c h a l l t r a f f i c p a s s e d . S i m i l a r l y New Y o r k b e n e f i t e d t h r o u g h t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f A m e r i c a n c o l o n i z a t i o n , a s d i d S a n F r a n c i s c o , a n d V i c t o r i a i n C a n a d a . P o l i c y d e c i s i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t s t o a c h i e v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t p r o d u c t s may c u r t a i l p o r t a c t i v i t y i n t h e c o u n t r y a s w e l l a s t h e s u p p l y c o u n t r i e s . A f u r t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s n o t r e c o g n i z i n g R e d C h i n a o r C u b a , h a s h a d a d i r e c t e f f e c t o n t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e a f f e c t e d p o r t s — w h e r e a s C a n a d a ' s a t t i t u d e , t h o u g h m o r e v a g u e , a l l o w s f o r t r a d e a n d h e n c e V a n c o u v e r h a s s u b s t a n t i a l t r a d e l i n k s w i t h R e d C h i n a . P r e f e r e n t i a l f r e i g h t r a t e s c a n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e l o c a l e c o n o m y o f a p o r t c i t y . T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s I n t e r s t a t e Commerce A c t , S e c t i o n 2 2 , a l l o w s r a i l w a y s s p e c i a l r a t e s f o r g o v e r n m e n t s h i p m e n t s . T h i s a l l o w s t h e r a i l w a y s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t t h e G r e a t L a k e p o r t s , b y s h i p p i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e A t l a n t i c p o r t s . N a t u r a l l y t h e y c o n t i n u e 13 C D . H a r r i s , " T h e C i t i e s o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , " Geographical Review, V o l . 3 5 , 1 9 4 5 , p p . 1 0 7 - 1 2 1 . 14 G u i d o G . W e i g e n d , op. ovt., p . 3 6 8 . 15 N e i l J . G r i g g s , The !{%story of Planning in Victoria, u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 9 . 12 to do this as Great Lakes-overseas shipping operations are a direct competitor to the railway lines that carry traffic from the Great Lakes area to the Atlantic Coast ports."'''' Thus coastal cities receive a heavier volume of traffic resulting from preferential rates. Government decisions for defense cargo movements or inter-national aid or emergency programs can similarly stimulate a port's activity. However, governmental decisions on international aid could well be thwarted or made less effective, i f the ports concerned in either country were operating at capacity or extreme inefficiency. A fundamental need in a l l international trade is an efficient transportation network, providing facilities for the distribution of goods within the country, and externally, as well as for the trans-shipment of goods from one mode to another at break-bulk points. These points, the ports, are key connections in the total transportation process, and account for a significant, but variable proportion of the total costs. While line haul costs are generally consistent for any mode, the port costs and port efficiency are highly variable, and are components of the total cost upon which volume of trade and economic growth are dependent. 3. Provincial For the purposes of this paper the Provinces are used as the next level of influence below the National and yet larger than the Municipal E. Schenker, The Port of Milwaukee, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1967, p. 97. 13 o r M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h i s d i v i s i o n i s o f c o u r s e a r b i t r a r y a n d w o u l d b e d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h p o r t . F o r V a n c o u v e r t h i s p r o v i n c i a l h i n t e r l a n d w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s , t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r m s o f t h e p r e s e n t - d a y c i t y a n d h i n t e r l a n d c o n c e p t , t h e y a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s e s t a b l i s h e d a n d a f f o r d . a f r a m e w o r k f o r a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e g i o n a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p o r t s i s i n t e r m s o f i t s g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n a s w e l l . a s i t s h i n t e r l a n d . One e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s M o n t r e a l w h o s e h i n t e r l a n d i n w i n t e r i s o n l y t h e t o w n i t s e l f , w h e r e a s i n summer i t i s t h e e n t i r e G r e a t L a k e s a r e a , a n d t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n . C a n p o r t n e a r S a i n t J o h n , New B r u n s w i c k , w i l l h a v e t h e n a t i o n a s i t s h i n t e r l a n d i n w i n t e r w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n h e a v y p o r t a c t i v i t y . H o w e v e r , d u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s i t c o u l d l o s e 17 much o f t h i s t o t h e S t . L a w r e n c e a n d G r e a t L a k e p o r t s . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p o r t ' s h i n t e r l a n d i n t e r m s o f e f f i c i e n t a n d r a p i d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . A n e x a m p l e o f s e v e r a l r a w m a t e r i a l s s h i p p e d t o J a p a n i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s t h r o u g h V a n c o u v e r a n d i t s h i n t e r l a n d , s h o w s t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e l e m e n t . I n t h e c a s e o f w h e a t a n d s u l p h u r , r o u g h l y 25% o f t h e e n d p r i c e o f - t h e p r o d u c e i s d u e t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , f o r p o t a s h , t h i s i s 30% a n d i n t h e 18 c a s e o f c o a l t h i s i s a p h e n o m e n a l 6 0 % . T h u s e v e n m i n o r i m p r o v e m e n t s ^ M . H . M a t h e s o n , " T h e H i n t e r l a n d s o f S a i n t J o h n , " Geographioal Bulletin, N o . 7, O t t a w a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 5 , p p . 6 5 - 1 0 2 . 18 F . C . L e i g h t o n , op. cit. 14 in the region's transportation network could substantially reduce the delivered price of the commodity. Finally, a developing and urbanizing region, such as the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, i s in i t s e l f a market and creates some degree of activity simply to meet i t s own needs. The megalopolis sea ports of the eastern seaboard of the United States are a further example of a somewhat larger region's influence on port activity, in terms of local consumer demand. While external trade policies are generally determined by the national government through the control of import and export licences, intra-provincial commerce comes under the control of individual provin-c i a l governments. In the aggregate, national policy i s the cumulative expression of the constituent provinces, but provincial policy may conflict with or oppose that of the national government. At the port planning level the result i s that provision must be made not only to accommodate commodities entering or leaving the country as a result of federal government policy, but also those flows staying within the province, such as coastal trade, which may be encouraged or rejected by provincial consideration. 4. Municipal The f i n a l level to be examined i s the local administrative area, usually a municipality. Here the administrative responsibility i s primarily with matters of local concern, including provision of municipal services, planning, education, recreation, and public health. T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s o f l o c a l n e e d a t a l o c a l l e v e l a n d w i t h l o c a l l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h e b a s i c a n d m a j o r r e v e n u e s o u r c e i s t h e p r o p e r t y t a x , a n d t h e c o n c e r n w i t h l a n d i s a t a m o r e i n t i m a t e l e v e l t h a n w i t h e i t h e r o f t h e two s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s p r e v i o u s l y m e n -t i o n e d . L a t e l y much c o n c e r n h a s b e e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e o p t i m u m a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d s a n d p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e g r o w t h , a n d t h i s f e e l i n g h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e g r o w t h a n d i n f l u e n c e o f m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t -m e n t s . I n t h e p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s much a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , w h o s e o r i g i n i s u s u a l l y r o o t e d i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n t e r m i n a l s . D e s p i t e t h e g r o w t h o f t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s a n d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e C B D , ( C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s -t r i c t ) , a n d t h e n e e d f o r a c o n c e n t r a t e d , i n t e n s i v e l y d e v e l o p e d c o m m e r c i a l c o r e r e m a i n s s t r o n g a n d v i g o r o u s , a n d i s l i k e l y t o c o n -19 t i n u e . I t i s b e c a u s e o f t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h i s t r e n d , a n d t h e n e e d f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a l a r g e b u s i n e s s p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n a s m a l l a r e a , l i m i t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e i s p r e v a l e n t , t h a t many p r o b l e m s o f c i t i e s h a v e b e e n e m p h a -s i z e d . Of g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , b u t n o t l i m i t e d t o t h i s c o n t i n e n t , t h e CBD i s t h e s t a g e w h e r e t h e p r o b l e m s o f c o n g e s t i o n , t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f d w i n d l i n g p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d t h e t h r e a t s o f P a u l J . C l a f f e y , " P l a n n i n g R a p i d R a i l S e r v i c e f o r I n t r a -u r b a n T r a v e l , " Traffic, Quarterly, V o l . X V I I , N o . 4 , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 3 , p p . 5 0 8 - 5 0 9 . i n t o l e r a b l e l i m i t s o f p o l l u t a n t s a l l h a v e b e c o m e p r o m i n e n t . A t t h e same t i m e t h e a t t e n d a n t p r o b l e m s o f t h e CBD h a v e n o t s e r v e d t o c u r b t h e demand f o r e x p a n s i o n , a n d l a n d p r i c e s h a v e m a i n t a i n e d a n d e x t e n d e d t h e m s e l v e s i n a n i n s a t i a b l e m a n n e r . T h e e x p a n s i o n h a s a l s o c a u s e d t h e p r o b l e m s o f p o l l u t i o n a n d c o n g e s t i o n m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a s w e l l a s o r i g i n a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e l o c a t i o n o f t e n a n t s d i s p l a c e d a s r e s i d e n c e s h a v e b e e n r a z e d . I n t h e c a s e s o f w a t e r f r o n t c i t i e s , t h e C B D , u s u a l l y l o c a t e d c l o s e t o , t h e w a t e r , h a s e x p a n d e d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . I n t h i s c a s e t h e p r o b l e m s r a i s e d b y c o m m e r c i a l u s e r s e n c r o a c h i n g o r i n f r i n g i n g u p o n w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s a r e l i k e l y t o r e s t r i c t t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f movement o f g o o d s t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r f r o n t a r e a . T h e t h r e a t o f e n c r o a c h m e n t o n t o w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s i s a t a n g i b l e o n e , i n a s m u c h a s t h e n o r m a l m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s a r e o p e r a t i v e , a n d t h e c o m m e r c i a l b i d d e r i s a b l e t o o f f e r a h i g h e r p r i c e t h a n t h e w a t e r f r o n t u s e r c a n m a t c h . D e s p i t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f z o n i n g b y - l a w s , t h e s e h a v e b e e n s h o w n c o u n t l e s s t i m e s t o b e a m e r e f a c a d e , s e n s i t i v e a n d s u s -c e p t i b l e t o t h e m a r k e t demands f o r a d i f f e r e n t u s e . T h e c r i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e l o c a l a r e a h a s o n t h e p o r t i s i n t e r m s o f c o n g e s t i o n . I n a d e q u a t e p l a n n i n g a l o n g w i t h u n c o o r d i n -a t e d e f f o r t s o f h a r b o u r a n d c i t y p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d l e a d t o p o r t s b e i n g " c h o k e d t o d e a t h " . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s a r e t h e c h a n g i n g s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f new t e r m i n a l s a n d b e r t h s w h i c h p l a c e s h i g h e r demands f o r a d j a c e n t p o r t l a n d s t o b e u s e d f o r p o r t f u n c t i o n s . E n g e l m a n n i n d i c a t e s t h a t 6 t o 10 a c r e s p e r b e r t h i s s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e m e n t t o d a y f o r g e n e r a l c a r g o b e r t h s . S t a t i s t i c s a r e a s y e t u n a v a i l a b l e f o r a v e r a g e s i z e o f c o n t a i n e r t e r m i n a l s . H o w e v e r L o n g B e a c h , C a l i f o r n i a , i s b u i l d i n g a 120 a c r e s i t e c o n t a i n e r t e r m i n a l 21 c o m m i t t e d t o a s i n g l e t e n a n t . T h e s e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h e n e e d f o r l a r g e r s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p o r t o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s p r o b l e m i s c o m p o u n d e d i f t h e p o r t u n d e r s t u d y i s a d j a c e n t t o a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d a n d e x p a n d i n g c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . B . PURPOSE OF STUDY I n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d b y d e s c r i b i n g t h e f o u r l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t y t h a t h a d a b e a r i n g u p o n t h e u s e o f t h e s e l a n d s . P a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s w a s p l a c e d u p o n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , a n d t h e c o n f l i c t i n t r o d u c e d a s CBD n e e d s s p i l l e d o v e r a n d e n c r o a c h e d u p o n w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s . T h e s e p a r a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t b e t w e e n t h e u r b a n a r e a , e m p h a s i z e d b y t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , a n d t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d s h i p p i n g i n t e r e s t o n t h e w a t e r f r o n t , a p p e a r s t o b e a n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n , i n h e r e n t i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e two i n t e r e s t s . I t w o u l d a l s o a p p e a r t o b e a d e s i r a b l e d i v i s i o n . The u r b a n a r e a i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h l a r g e v o l u m e s o f p e o p l e a n d h i g h i n t e r a c t i o n a n d a c c e s s a b i l i t y a m o n g s t t h e m . On t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e w a t e r f r o n t s h i p p i n g a r e a o p e r a t e s t o m o v e , g o o d s P e t e r E n g e l m a n n , op. ait., p p . 1 7 6 9 - 4 . Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 7 0 , p . 3 2 . 18 f r e e l y a n d q u i c k l y f r o m o n e mode t o a n o t h e r , w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x a m i n e t h e p o r t - u r b a n i n t e r -f a c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e . s e c t i o n s w h e r e t h e u r b a n i n f l u e n c e i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g t o a p p e a r t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e p o r t . o p e r a t i o n . P r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r f a c e w i l l b e t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f d a t a o n s i t e u s e a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d e c o n o m i c a n d t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n f e a t u r e s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n c l u d e s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s , a n e s t i m a t e o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r l a n d u s e , a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t i m p e d i m e n t s t o p o r t o p e r a t i o n s . A summary o f t h e p u r p o s e s t h e r e f o r e i s t o e x a m i n e : (1) t h e e x i s t i n g p o r t f u n c t i o n s , ( 2 ) t h e e x i s t i n g l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s , ( 3 ) t h e e x p e c t e d l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s , ( 4 ) t h e e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , ( 5 ) f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s n e e d e d f o r t h e p o r t o p e r a t i o n , ( 6 ) t h e e x i s t i n g u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s , ( 7 ) t h e e x p e c t e d f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n s , ( 8 ) t h e l i n k a g e s b e t w e e n t h e p o r t o p e r a t i o n a n d o t h e r w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s w i t h t h e u r b a n a r e a . 1 9 C . H Y P O T H E S I S T h e p o r t , e s s e n t i a l l y a j u n c t i o n b e t w e e n l a n d a n d w a t e r t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , i s l o c a t e d w h e r e s u i t a b l e l a n d t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s m a y b e c o m b i n e d w i t h a n a d e q u a t e w a t e r s i t e . A s t h e e s s e n c e o f a c t i v i t y o f t h e p o r t i s i n t r a n s s h i p m e n t o f g o o d s , e q u i p m e n t f o r c o n v e y a n c e f r o m o n e m o d e t o a n o t h e r m u s t b e p r o v i d e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o s t o r a g e a n d s e r v i c e a r e a . I n i t i a l w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s w e r e f r e e t o l o c a t e a t s i t e s a l o n g t h e h a b o u r , u n r e s t r i c t e d b y a s h o r t a g e o f l a n d , b y h i g h l a n d p r i c e s , o r b y r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g s i t e u s a g e . T h e o p t i m u m s i t e s w e r e s e l e c t e d f i r s t , i n w h i c h t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , a n d r e s u l t i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y , w a s a p r i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e c o n -s e q u e n t e m e r g i n g p a t t e r n o f s i t e u s e w a s a r a n d o m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s , w h i c h c o n d i t i o n p r e v a i l s t o d a y . W h i l e t h e s a m e o p e n c o n d i t i o n s a p p l i e d t o t h e r e m a i n i n g u r b a n l a n d s , t h e g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y o f b u s i n e s s , t h e h i g h e r l a n d d e m a n d s a n d t h e r a p i d t u r n o v e r h e r e o p e r a t e d t o f o r c e s o m e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d s e p a r a t i o n o f l a n d u s e , w h i c h t o d a y a r e r e g u l a t e d b y z o n i n g b y - l a w s . I n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b o t h w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s a n d t h e u r b a n l a n d s i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s a n d t e r m i n a l s w a s t h e p r i m e d e t e r m i n a n t i n t h e r e s u l t i n g g r o w t h p a t t e r n . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , a s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , i s t o e x a m i n e t h i s w a t e r f r o n t a r e a , i n t h i s c a s e , p a r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r h a r b o u r , t o 20 e v a l u a t e t h e s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d a p p a r e n t l y u n s y s t e m a t i c l a n d u s e s . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h i s r a n d o m g r o w t h h a s i n c r e a s e d t h e c o s t o f p o r t a c t i v i t i e s a n d t h e s h i p p i n g f u n c t i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s i s p u t f o r w a r d : T h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t y a n d t h e a d j o i n i n g u r b a n a r e a i n t e r m s o f i n t e r f e r i n g l a n d u s e s , e x p a n d i n g s h i p p i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , d i s a r r a n g e m e n t o f w a t e r f r o n t s i t e s , c o n g e s t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p e d i m e n t t o t h e p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n a n d f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r . I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e l e c t a n a p p r o p r i a t e s e c t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r h a r b o u r , a n a l y z e i t s l a n d u s e a n d v a l u e , a n d t h a t o f t h e u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t , a n d d e r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e e d s a n d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a d j o i n i n g b u s i n e s s . T h e m e t h o d s u s e d t o d e r i v e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a r e e x p l a i n e d i n f o l l o w i n g p a r t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . I n t h e h y p o t h e s i s s i x a r e a s o f c o n f l i c t a r e s p e c i f i e d , a n d t h e s e a r e d e a l t w i t h i n s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s . E x p a n d i n g s h i p p i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c o n g e s t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n C h a p t e r I V , w h i l e i n t e r f e r i n g l a n d u s e s , d i s a r r a n g e m e n t o f w a t e r f r o n t s i t e s a n d l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d a r e c o v e r e d i n C h a p t e r V . L a s t l y , a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n f o r m s t h e b u l k o f C h a p t e r V I . 21 D. PLANNING A P P L I C A T I O N (1) I n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d D o m e s t i c T h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . H o w e v e r a s p o r t s h a v e l o c a l , n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l h i n t e r l a n d s , a comment w i l l b e made r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f p l a n n i n g . S u c h i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s t h e W o r l d B a n k , a n d t h e F . A . O . ( F o o d a n d A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ) a r e v i t a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h o p t i m u m r e t u r n s o f i n v e s t m e n t s o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l l o a n s . T h u s t h e s u c c e s s o f a new c a s h c r o p o r i n d u s t r i a l p r o g r a m , s a y i n I n d i a , w i l l b e i n f l u e n c e d b y e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d i f t h i s i s i n t e r m s o f e x p o r t s t h e n t h e s e p r o d u c t s w i l l n a t u r a l l y p a s s t h r o u g h p o r t s . A s r e m a r k e d e a r l i e r , g e n e r a l l y 50% o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s o c c u r i n t h e p o r t a r e a i n t e r m s o f t r a n s s h i p p i n g c o s t s . I f t h e s e p o r t s a r e u n d u l y i n e f f i c i e n t a n d c o n g e s t e d t h e n much o f t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d p r o g r a m s i s s i p h o n e d o f f a t t h e p o r t s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d a i m e d a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f p o r t s may w e l l p r o d u c e e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e t h r o u g h o u t t h a t n a t i o n i n a l l o w i n g c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r i c e s f o r i t s g o o d s a n d p r o d u c e . F . C . L e i g h t o n , the v i c e - p r e s i d e n t o f t h e e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m i n c h a r g e o f t h e R o b e r t s B a n k d e v e l o p m e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o s t o f s h i p p i n g c o a l t o J a p a n t h r o u g h t h e new p o r t w i l l b e r e d u c e d f r o m $ 1 0 . 5 0 t o $ 7 . 0 0 p e r t o n . He e s t i m a t e s t h a t o v e r t h e 1 5 - y e a r c o n t r a c t a t o t a l s a v i n g o f $ 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 w i l l b e 22 r e a l i z e d i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . F . C . L e i g h t o n , op. ait., p „ 6 . 22 I n t h e same way t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s c o u l d b e i n t e r e s t e d i n p o r t p l a n n i n g , N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t s t o o c a n h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n -f l u e n c e t h r o u g h a s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o p o r t p l a n n i n g . C a n p o r t a n d R o b e r t s B a n k a r e e x a m p l e s o f r e c e n t C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m s i n p o r t p l a n n i n g . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t p o r t s a r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e two p r e s s u r e s o f i n c r e a s i n g t r a d e a n d u r b a n i z a t i o n , a n d t h u s N a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t s c a n d i r e c t p r o g r a m s a t e i t h e r a s p e c t , h o p e f u l l y t o i n c r e a s e t r a d e a n d d e c r e a s e u r b a n c o n g e s t i o n . H o w e v e r , i n a r e c e n t C a n a d i a n p u b l i c a t i o n (Multiple Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada: Part J J . 1 9 6 9 ) i t w a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , b y c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e f i n a n c e s f o r a s e c o n d h a r b o u r c r o s s i n g , a r e i n f a c t c o n t r i b u t i n g t o 23 i n c r e a s e d c o n g e s t i o n a r o u n d t h e p o r t ' s b a c k l a n d . ( 2 ) P r o v i n c i a l a n d M u n i c i p a l T h e r e l e v a n c e o f a s t u d y i n t o t h e demands o n w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s may b e j u s t i f i e d o n s e v e r a l c o u n t s . A l l o f t h e s e r e a s o n s h a v e a n a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t o w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s d i r e c t e d . F i r s t l y t h e r e h a s b e e n n o s t u d y made o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t a r e a t h a t l i s t s t h e v a r i o u s u s e r s , s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s , e m p l o y e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e e d s , a n d o t h e r d a t a . W h i l e some i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l -a b l e i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , o r N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d , i t i s d i r e c t e d S e e V . S e t t y P e n d a k u r , P e t e r T a s s i e , N e i l J . G r i g g s , Multiple Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada: Part II, Sooio-'Economic Impact and Transport Consequences, V a n c o u v e r , S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 9 , p . 5 9 . t o w a r d a m o r e g e n e r a l u s e a n d d o e s n o t i n c l u d e a l l o f t h e a b o v e i n f o r -m a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , b o t h u n d e r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d t h e r e i s n o s y s t e m a t i c a l l o c a t i o n o f w a t e r f r o n t l a n d t h a t c o n s i d e r s t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f t h e p r o p o s e d t e n a n t . I n d e e d , i n a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f a p r o p o s a l t o d e v e l o p a i r r i g h t s o v e r a r a i l w a y r i g h t - o f - w a y i n d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r , ( P r o j e c t 2 0 0 ) , i t w a s s h o w n t h a t t h e c o n g e s t i o n a n d o t h e r r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t s h a d r e c e i v e d l i t t l e c o n -25 s i d e r a t i o n b y m u n i c i p a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . A l t h o u g h m o s t w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t i e s a r e s m a l l e r i n a r e a t h a n t h e p r o p o s a l i n P r o j e c t 2 0 0 , t h e a g g r e g a t e s i z e a n d e f f e c t o f a l l w a t e r -f r o n t p r o p e r t i e s i s much l a r g e r . L a s t l y t h e p r o p o s a l t o s t u d y t h e w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s a n d t h e i r u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t s i s j u s t i f i e d i n n a t i o n a l t e r m s , i n w h i c h i t i s i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a n d n e e d t o m a i n t a i n a n e f f i c i e n t p o r t o p e r a t i o n . S u c h a n e e d i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e a l o n g t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t o f C a n a d a , w h e r e t h e number o f s u i t a b l e p o r t s i t e s i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . I n a d d i t i o n t h e l a r g e i n v e s t m e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t p o r t w a r r a n t s i t s c o n -t i n u e d u s e a n d e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n . S e e Port of Vancouver Inventory, a r e p o r t o n t h e w a t e r f r o n t l a n d u s e i n t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d b y J . B . Ward a n d A s s o c i a t e s ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 6 . 25 V . S e t t y P e n d a k u r , e t a l . , op. cit., p . 6 3 . 24 E . STUDY AREA I n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a r e a , t h e r e a r e c l o s e t o 330 m i l e s o f w a t e r f r o n t . T h e two H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n e r s ( F r a s e r R i v e r H a r b o u r ' , C o m m i s s i o n a n d N o r t h F r a s e r H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n e r s ) c o n t r o l t h e 200 m i l e F r a s e r R i v e r s e c t i o n a n d t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d c o n t r o l t h e r e m a i n -i n g 130 m i l e s f r o m P o i n t A t k i n s o n i n t h e n o r t h t o B o u n d a r y B a y i n t h e s o u t h , ( s e e F i g u r e 3 ) . T i m e d i d n o t a l l o w a c o m p l e t e s u r v e y , s o a n a r e a was c h o s e n t h a t w a s b o t h a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n s h i p p i n g a n d i n d u s t r y a s w e l l a s b e i n g a d j a c e n t t o t h e u r b a n a r e a . T h e I n n e r H a r b o u r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r w a t e r f r o n t met t h e s e r e q u i r e -m e n t s a n d was s e l e c t e d a s t h e s t u d y a r e a , ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t h i s a r e a w a s u n d e r o n e m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y a n d o n e h a r b o u r a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h made d a t a g a t h e r i n g a n e a r i e r t a s k . T h e w e s t e r n l i m i t o f t h i s a r e a , C a r d e r o S t r e e t , w a s c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t m a r k e d the w e s t e r n e x t e n t o f t h e r a i l w a y t r a c k a g e . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e a r e a f u r t h e r w e s t o f C a r d e r o w a s i n a l a n d u s e t r a n s i t i o n w h i c h w o u l d h a v e r e s u l t e d i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h e e a s t e r l y e x t e n t w a s t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y l i m i t s a t B o u n d a r y R o a d . A t t h e o u t s e t t h e s t u d y a r e a w a s t o b e l i m i t e d t o w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s . H o w e v e r , a s t h e a r e a w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y i t w a s s o o n d i s c e r n i b l e t h a t t h e r i g h t - o f - w a y o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l -w a y f o r m e d a n a t u r a l s o u t h e r n l i m i t t o t h e a r e a , a s t h i s l i n e e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t e d a c c e s s . t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t , a n d c o n s t i t u t e d a b a r r i e r . I n a d d i t i o n , a s s e s s m e n t d a t a o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r u s e d t h i s same l i m i t i n g r o u p i n g r e c o r d s . 25 3 M E T R O V A N C O U V E R A N D S T U D Y A R E A 27 F . STUDY METHODOLOGY T h e c e n t r a l i s s u e p o s t u l a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y h i n g e s o n t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f w a t e r f r o n t l a n d u s e r s a n d t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes a n d c o m m o d i t y f l o w s . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s t u d y w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m two m a j o r s o u r c e s : p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s a n d q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s a n d i n t e r v i e w s . A t t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l much i n t r o d u c t o r y a n d b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l w a s e x a m i n e d i n t e x t b o o k s a n d r e p o r t s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n d e a l t w i t h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w i t h c o s t s o f c o n g e s t i o n , e s t i m a t e s o f l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , a n d w i t h g e n e r a t i o n o f t r a f f i c b y l a n d u s e . O t h e r t e x t s o n t h e e c o n o m i c a p p r o a c h c o n s i d e r e d b u s i n e s s l o c a t i o n s , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r a t e o f r e t u r n a s w e l l a s t h e w h o l e a s p e c t o f l o c a t i o n t h e o r y . A t a m o r e l o c a l l e v e l p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -ment a n d o f t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d w e r e a l s o e x a m i n e d . T h e s e c o n d s o u r c e w a s f r o m a s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d a n d t e s t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d f o r w a t e r f r o n t o p e r a t i o n s . A l i s t o f w a t e r -f r o n t b u s i n e s s e s w a s c o m p i l e d f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s , t h e C i t y D i r e c t o r y , T h e Ward R e p o r t . o n W a t e r f r o n t l a n d , a n d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a , E a c h b u s i n e s s was s e n t a l e t t e r o n e w e e k p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r . c o o p e r a t i o n . A c o p y o f t h i s l e t t e r i s i n t h e A p p e n d i x . E a c h i n t e r v i e w w a s c o n d u c t e d p e r s o n a l l y a n d u s u a l l y l a s t e d 35 t o 45 m i n u t e s . I n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s t h e f o r m s w e r e l e f t w i t h t h e f i r m s f o r a f e w d a y s , i f t h e y r e q u e s t e d t h i s , i n o r d e r t o c o n s u l t t h e i r r e c o r d s . T h e i n t e r v i e w i n g w a s c o m p l e t e d i n a t w o - w e e k p e r i o d , 28 a n d w a s c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s h o u r s . A c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n t h e A p p e n d i x . T h e f i n a l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h w a t e r f r o n t u s e r s , p l a n n i n g a n d m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n company o f f i c i a l s a n d F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . M u c h o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d a t t h e same t i m e a s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s w h i l e a n a d d i t i o n a l amount w a s g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h g o v e r n m e n t , m u n i c i p a l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f f i c i a l s . L a s t l y i n some s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s , i n t e r -v i e w s w e r e a r r a n g e d t o i n q u i r e f u r t h e r i n t o a q u e s t i o n . G . L I M I T A T I O N S T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e o n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r p o r t i o n o f t h e p o r t . A s p o r t s , h o w e v e r , h a v e many common p r o p e r t i e s , t h e a p p l i c -a b i l i t y o f t h e f i n d i n g s t o o t h e r p o r t s m e r i t s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o p u r s u e t h i s , h o w e v e r , t h i s s t u d y m u s t f i r s t b e e x p a n d e d t o . e n c o m p a s s t h e e n t i r e p o r t , a n d t h u s s u p p o r t o r r e j e c t t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s . H . D E F I N I T I O N S OF TERMS USED P o r t . a n d H a r b o u r a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . A p o r t i s t h e p l a c e o f c o n t a c t b e t w e e n l a n d a n d m a r i t i m e s p a c e . I t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i s t h e 29 t r a n s f e r e n c e o f g o o d s a n d p e o p l e f r o m o c e a n , v e s s e l s t o l a n d o r i n l a n d c a r r i e r s a n d v i c e v e r s a . B a c k L a n d i s t h e i m m e d i a t e a r e a a d j a c e n t t o t h e w h a r v e s a n d j e t t i e s . I t c o n t a i n s f o r t h e m o s t p a r t s t o r a g e s h e d s , a p r o n s , t r a n s i t s t o r a g e s p a c e a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r i g h t s - o f - w a y . H i n t e r l a n d i s t h e l a n d a r e a c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p o r t b y means o f t r a n s p o r t l i n e s , a n d w h i c h r e c e i v e s o r s h i p s g o o d s t h r o u g h t h e p o r t . P o r t I n t e r f a c e i s t h a t a r e a o f l a n d w h e r e p o r t a n d m a r i n e a c t i v i t y i s r e p l a c e d b y u r b a n a c t i v i t y . I n t h i s s t u d y i t i s m a r k e d b y t h e w a t e r f r o n t r a i l w a y . P o r t L i n k a g e s a r e a l l f o r m s o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o r t a n d t h e l a n d o r m a r i n e a r e a . E x a m p l e s o f t h e l a n d l i n k a g e s a r e v e h i c l e a n d r a i l m o v e m e n t s , i n d i v i d u a l t r i p s , a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n b y m a i l , t e l e -g r a m , t e l e p h o n e , e t c . , b e t w e e n t h e w a t e r f r o n t a n d t h e u r b a n a r e a . M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r . T h a t f o r e s h o r e a n d l a n d c o v e r e d b y w a t e r u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d . I t i n c l u d e s a l l t i d a l w a t e r o f B u r r a r d I n l e t l y i n g e a s t e r l y o f a l i n e d r a w n b e t w e e n P o r t A t k i n s o n a n d P o i n t G r e y , a n d B o u n d a r y B a y , R o b e r t s B a n k a n d S t u r g e o n P o i n t , b u t d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . I n n e r H a r b o u r . T h a t p a r t o f B u r r a r d I n l e t l y i n g b e t w e e n t h e F i r s t N a r r o w s a n d S e c o n d N a r r o w s . 30 V a n c o u v e r I n n e r H a r b o u r . T h a t p a r t o f t h e I n n e r H a r b o u r w i t h i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . S t u d y A r e a . T h a t p a r t o f t h e u p l a n d o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r e x t e n d i n g f r o m C a r d e r o S t r e e t t o B o u n d a r y R o a d a n d l y i n g b e t w e e n t h e r i g h t - o f - w a y o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company a n d B u r r a r d I n l e t . I . DATA SOURCES A u t o m o t i v e T r a n s p o r t A s s o c i a t i o n o f B . C . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s E m p i r e S t e v e d o r i n g C o . L t d . F r a s e r . R i v e r H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t J o h n s t o n T e r m i n a l s L i m i t e d N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d , O t t a w a , O n t a r i o N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . N o r t h F r a s e r H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n e r s P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e Swan W o o s t e r E n g i n e e r i n g C o . L t d . V a n c o u v e r B o a r d o f T r a d e V a n c o u v e r C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t CHAPTER I I THE METROPOLITAN AREA AS A RESOURCE A . PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS A r e s o u r c e a s d e f i n e d b y t h e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y i s " a s t o c k t h a t c a n b e d r a w n o n " o r " t h e means o f s u p p l y i n g a w a n t " . T h e 330 m i l e s o f w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r i s o n e s u c h r e s o u r c e t h a t c a n b e s e e n b o t h a s a s t o c k t h a t c a n b e d r a w n o n , a s w e l l a s s a t i s f y i n g a number o f i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l w a n t s . I t i s i n . t h i s c o n t e n t t h a t t h e w a t e r f r o n t i s r e g a r d e d a s a r e s o u r c e , a n d i n f a c t a l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e s u p p l y i s i n e l a s t i c a n d f i x e d a t 330 m i l e s . . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s , t h e r e f o r e , t o t a k e a n i n v e n t o r y o f t h e r e s o u r c e w i t h s p e c i a l f o c u s o n t h e I n n e r H a r b o u r , ( s e e F i g u r e 3 , p . 2 5 ) . T h e f i n d i n g s s h o u l d g i v e t h e d e c i s i o n m a k e r s , t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d a n d t h e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a b a s i s u p o n w h i c h t o b u i l d - a n d f o r m u l a t e p o l i c y o n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f a l l w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g f o l l o w e d i n t h e S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y a r e a , w h e r e e a c h e x i s t i n g a n d p o t e n t i a l u s e i s e x a m i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s . " ' " T h e S a n F r a n c i s c o r e s o u r c e a r e a u n d e r s t u d y i s 345 m i l e s o f s h o r e l i n e , a n a r e a a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l , b o t h i n s i z e a n d i t s p r e s e n t u s e , t o t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r Bay Area Conservation and Development Committee, Waterfront Industry Around San Francisco Bay, Associa t ion of Bay Area Govern-ments: San Francisco, 1968. 32 situation. Once this study is completed i t i s intended that the various Californian authorities w i l l jointly develop a waterfront land use policy. 2 (1) Metropolitan Vancouver Vancouver Harbour is one of the few natural harbours in British Columbia's rugged fiord-type coastline. It enjoys year-round ice-free access from the Pacific Ocean through the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia, and i s protected from the open waters of the Pacific Ocean by Vancouver Island. The strong topographic features of this province with the drainage patterns principally orientated in a north-south direction, so limits access to the Pacific by land routes, that aside from Vancouver, only Prince Rupert and Squamish have developed as Canadian coastal r a i l terminals. Vancouver i s located in the south-west part of the Province on Burrard Inlet, twenty-five miles north of the United States border (see Figure 3, p. 25). It becomes apparent from this picture of trade flows that Vancouver, because of i t s location and the local geography, has become Canada's western gateway to the world, (see Figure 5). This has resulted in a vast array of land transportation and communication link-ages that feed into this shipping network. Vancouver i s the western etropolitan Vancouver, as defined in the Census of Canada, 1961, consists of the Cities of Vancouver, North Vancouver, Port Moody, Port Coquitlam, New Westminster, and White Rock, and the Districts of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Coquitlam, Fraser M i l l s , Burnaby, Surrey, Delta and Richmond, and some unorganized territory including the University Endowment Lands. terminus of the Canadian National Railways and Canadian Pacific Railway Company, and the southern terminus of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. In addition i t has a direct r a i l route to the Puget Sound region in Washington, connecting with the major United States railway lines. The city i s at the westerly end of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and has a freeway connecting to the Interstate system in the United States. The Fraser lowland, a part of the Georgia Depression, i s home to one million people who l i v e in Metropolitan Vancouver, containing about 50% of the province's total population. This area i s surrounded on the north by the Coast Mountains which rise steeply to elevations well over 5,000 feet immediately north of Burrard Inlet and east of Indian Arm. The broad flat-bottomed valley and delta of the Fraser River l i e to the south of the City of Vancouver and for the most part requires dyking. The entire waterfront which borders this small but 3 densely populated area totals 331.1 miles. The coastline runs from West Vancouver in the north, to Boundary Bay in the south and includes Burrard Inlet to Port Moody, both arms of the Fraser River and east to P i t t Meadows (see Figure 3, p. 25). This length of waterfront i s the upland limit of the Port of Vancouver. Of the harbour's 331.1 miles, 135.6 miles i s administered by the National Harbours Board. This i s a recent development and was made possible in August, 1967, Charles M. Forward, Waterfront Land Use in Metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Geographical Paper No. 41. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1968, p. 8. when the National Harbours Board extended i t s jurisdiction from Burrard Inlet to include a l l t i d a l water to the south, but excluding the water already under the jurisdiction of the North Fraser Harbour Commissioners and Fraser River Harbour Commission (195.5 miles). The physical characteristics of the shoreline vary consider-ably between the extremes of the rocky coast bordering Indian Arm to the f l a t peaty shores of the Fraser River. (2) City of Vancouver In the Port of Vancouver, the waterfront land has been histor-i c a l l y connected to land and r a i l transportation routes. At f i r s t the access was largely through r a i l f a c i l i t i e s , but currently there i s an increasing use of trucks and highways. The port and i t s relation to the city are shown again in Figure 3, p. 25. The lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company skirt the southern side of Burrard Inlet with an extension from the west part of the line through a tunnel to the False Creek yards. The Canadian National Railways and Great Northern Railway Company make joint use of a line that runs inland from New Westminster through Burnaby to the east end of False Creek. On the north side of the inlet are the lines of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company and the Canadian National Railways. A recently completed connection of the Canadian National Railways through a tunnel and bridge at the Second Narrows, has eliminated a slow and circuitous route along Burrard Inlet. Highway access to the waterfront i s along several of the water-front distributories leading off the major north-south routes feeding 36 t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . I n t h e d o w n t o w n s e c t i o n t h e m a j o r w a t e r f r o n t r o u t e i s t h e P o w e l l S t r e e t , W a t e r S t r e e t a n d C o r d o v a S t r e e t r o u t e r u n n i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t . W a t e r d e p t h a n d t h e r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s a t t h e F i r s t N a r r o w s i s s t i l l a c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r f o r n a v i g a t i o n i n B u r r a r d I n l e t , o r I n n e r H a r b o u r a s i t i s m o r e c o m m o n l y k n o w n . T h e F i r s t N a r r o w s l i m i t i n g e n t r y 4 d e p t h i s 39 f e e t , t h o u g h c o n t r a c t s h a v e b e e n l e t t o i n c r e a s e t h i s t o 5 0 f e e t . H o w e v e r , n a v i g a t i o n o f l a r g e v e s s e l s t h r o u g h t h e n a r r o w s w i l l a l w a y s r e m a i n a s e r i o u s l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . T h e m a i n c h a n n e l d e p t h i n t h i s 5*2 m i l e I n n e r H a r b o u r a r e a i s w e l l o v e r 39 f e e t , a n d m o s t w h a r v e s l i s t d e p t h s o f 30 t o 40 f e e t . T h e s u r f l c i a l g e o l o g y a t t h e V a n c o u v e r W a t e r f r o n t i s t e r t i a r y s a n d s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e , s h a l e a n d m i n o r v o l c a n i c r o c k s . T h e s t e e p n e s s o f s l o p e w i t h i n f i v e h u n d r e d f e e t o f s h o r e l i n e v a r i e s b e t w e e n 0 t o 15 p e r c e n t , s e e F i g u r e 6 . The w e s t e r n t w o - t h i r d s a v e r a g e s no m o r e _ t h a n 5 p e r c e n t , a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r i s a b o v e 6 p e r c e n t . T h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s a r e a , i t w o u l d a p p e a r , a r e a t t r a c t i v e t o a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s . T h e f i r m g r o u n d , t h e v a r i e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c c e s s , t h e s h e l t e r e d a n d r e l a t i v e l y d e e p m a r i n e f a c i l i t i e s a n d t h e v a r y i n g l a n d s t e e p n e s s , c o u l d b e u t i l i z e d b y t h e l a r g e a d j a c e n t u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . T h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e t h e p r e s e n t u s e s o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t , a l l o f w h i c h a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 1 b e l o w . A l l d e p t h s q u o t e d r e f e r t o d e p t h s a t l o w e s t n o r m a l t i d e s . ' C h a r l e s N . F o r w a r d , op. ait., p . 5 . 33 TABLE 1 WATERFRONT LAND U S E S , C I T Y AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER, 1 9 6 9 M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r S t u d y A r e a ( E s t i m a t e d m i l e a g e ) M i l e s % M i l e s I A g r i c u l t u r e & u n u s e d 2 0 1 . 7 6 0 . 8 . 2 3 . 6 R e c r e a t i o n a l 3 5 . 2 1 0 . 6 . 4 7 . 3 R e s i d e n t i a l 2 7 . 2 ' 8 . 2 . 0 . 0 L a n d T r a n s p o r t 2 0 . 1 6 . 1 . 5 9 . 2 F i s h b o a t M o o r i n g & N e t L o f t s 4 . 5 1 . 4 . 2 3 . 6 M a r i n a s 2 . 9 . 9 . 2 3 . 6 T o w i n g & D r e d g i n g 2 . 6 . 8 . 2 3 . 6 M a n u f a c t u r i n g 2 5 . 4 7 . 7 1 . 3 2 3 . 7 w h o l e s a l e & S t o r a g e 1 . 8 . 5 . 2 3 . 6 C o m m e r c i a l & R e t a i l 1 . 5 . 5 . 2 3 . 6 S h i p p i n g T e r m i n a l s 8 . 2 2 . 5 2 . 1 3 8 . 2 T o t a l 3 3 1 . 1 1 0 0 . 0 5 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 S o u r c e : C h a r l e s N . F o r w a r d , op. a i t . , p . 8 , a n d W a t e r f r o n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S u r v e y , N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 . 39 B . MANUFACTURING, COMMERCIAL AND STORAGE M u c h o f w h a t f o l l o w s i n t h i s a n d s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s i n t h i s C h a p t e r h a s b e e n c o n d e n s e d f r o m two s o u r c e s , t h e s t u d y b y F o r w a r d , q u o t e d e a r l i e r , a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l S t u d y , Vancouver Harbour Traffic Trends and Facility Analysis, 1 9 6 7 . A l l o f t h e d a t a f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y W a t e r f r o n t a r e e s t i m a t e s b a s e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i n N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 . I n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r 2 8 . 7 m i l e s o f w a t e r f r o n t i s t a k e n u p f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y a n d s t o r a g e , w h i c h i s a b o u t 8 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s . T h e s i t e s a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n , w i t h some c o n c e n t r a t i o n a l o n g t h e N o r t h A r m o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a n d t h e b a l a n c e a l o n g B u r r a r d I n l e t a n d F a l s e C r e e k . A l o n g t h e V a n c o u v e r I n n e r H a r b o u r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 . 7 m i l e s o f t h e 5h m i l e w a t e r f r o n t i s f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o m m e r c i a l a n d s t o r a g e p u r p o s e s . T h e s e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e a r e a a r e s c a t t e r e d f a i r l y e v e n l y a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t . I n a l l t h e y w o u l d c o v e r a b o u t 2 0 0 a c r e s o u t o f a t o t a l o f 3 , 9 2 0 g r o s s a c r e s o f i n d u s t r i a l -z o n e d l a n d i n V a n c o u v e r . 1 ^ F u r t h e r d e t a i l s o n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e c e n t z o n i n g c h a n g e s f o r P r o j e c t 200 a n d H a r b o u r P a r k d e v e l o p m e n t a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r V . Urban Renewal Technical Report No. 4, V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 6 9 , p . 1 . C . S H I P P I N G , TERMINALS AND LAND TRANSPORT F A C I L I T I E S S h i p p i n g , t e r m i n a l s a n d l a n d t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s a l s o I n c l u d e g o v e r n m e n t a l u s e s a n d u t i l i t i e s , a n d i n a l l t o t a l 2 8 . 3 m i l e s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n w a t e r f r o n t a r e a , e q u i v a l e n t t o 8 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l w a t e r f r o n t . T h e s e a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n w i t h no p a r t i -c u l a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n . I n t h e V a n c o u v e r I n n e r H a r b o u r , 47 p e r c e n t , o r 2 . 6 m i l e s , i s d e v o t e d p r e s e n t l y t o t h i s l a n d u s e . A l m o s t t h e e n t i r e w e s t e r n h a l f o f t h i s a r e a i s p r e s e n t l y u n d e r t h i s u s e , t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s p l a n n e d t h a t w i l l a l t e r t h e s i t u a t i o n . I n t h e V a n c o u v e r I n n e r H a r b o u r t h e r e i s a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r 39 d e e p s e a b e r t h s h a v i n g a t o t a l o f 2 2 , 1 9 5 f e e t . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l b e r t h s i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , w h i c h h a s 78 d e e p s e a b e r t h s f o r a , t o t a l o f 4 1 , 8 0 2 f e e t . T h e c a r g o h a n d l e d i n t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r a s w e l l a s t h e F r a s e r R i v e r i n 1 9 6 8 a m o u n t e d t o 3 7 , 1 6 8 , 7 2 0 t o n s 7 o f w h i c h 2 4 , 4 9 3 , 3 2 0 t o n s w e r e s h i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r . O f f i c i a l f i g u r e s a r e u n a v a i l a b l e f o r s h i p m e n t s t h r o u g h a l l t h e b e r t h s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , a l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y ' s s u r v e y c o m p l e t e d i n O c t o b e r 1969 e s t i m a t e d t h a t 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r t o n n a g e ( 2 4 , 4 9 3 , 3 2 0 t o n s ) p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e g C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . F i g u r e 7 i n d i c a t e s t h e summary o f c a r g o t o n n a g e N o r t h F r a s e r H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n e r s , 1 9 6 8 A n n u a l R e p o r t , t o t a l t o n n a g e 7 , 8 7 1 , 0 4 2 . F r a s e r R i v e r H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 6 8 A n n u a l R e p o r t , t o t a l t o n n a g e 4 , 8 1 6 , 2 8 9 . N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d , 1 9 6 8 A n n u a l R e p o r t , t o t a l t o n n a g e 2 4 , 4 9 3 , 3 2 0 . 8 S e e C h a p t e r I I I f o r t h e s u r v e y a n a l y s i s a n d A p p e n d i x A f o r e s t i m a t e d t o n n a g e . 1955 1958 1955 In Out Total F 1 , 2 9 6 5 8 0 - 3 , 8 3 5 8 1 7 5 , 1 3 2 3 9 7 D 3 , 8 2 1 1 8 8 2 0 3 1 4 2 7 5 , 8 5 2 6 1 5 1 0 , 9 8 5 0 1 2 1964 F 1,193 3 7 6 1 0 , 8 3 9 5 8 9 1 2 0 3 2 9 6 5 ; D 4 5 1 8 0 1 8 3 , 2 4 2 8 2 7 - 7 > 6 0 8 4 5 1 9 7 9 3 8 1 0 1961 In Out Total F 1 , 0 1 8 : 7 8 9 7 , 4 1 1 1 8 0 8 , 4 2 9 9 6 9 D 3 , 1 9 6 7 8 3 ^ 2 , 4 1 3 5 9 4 5 , 6 , 1 0 3 7 7 1 4 , 0 4 0 3 4 6 1958 In Out Total F - 1 , 0 2 0 5 0 7 5 , 2 8 0 2 5 3 6 , 3 0 0 7 6 0 D 3 , 3 8 8 6 4 7 1 9 4 0 2 2 4 5 , 3 2 8 8 7 1 1 1 , 6 2 9 6 3 1 . 1968 Foreign F 1 , 8 7 2 7 4 3 1 2 , 9 7 6 4 8 3 : 7 , 0 1 2 3 5 5 Domestic D 5 , 1 3 9 6 1 2 • • 4 , 5 0 1 4 8 2 ? 1 7 , 4 7 7 . 9 6 5 : . 2 4 , 4 9 0 3 2 0 Port of Vancouver Cargo Tonnage SOURCE: N;H.B. AND CN.'FORWARD. WATERFRONT LAND USE VANCOUVER h a n d l e d i n 1955, 1961 a n d 1968. T h e f i g u r e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t O u t w a r d F o r e i g n c a r g o i s e q u a l t o h a l f t h e r e g i o n ' s t o t a l t r a d e . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c h a n g e b e t w e e n e a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t r a d e i n t h e , p a s t f o u r y e a r s . The t o t a l v o l u m e h a s h o w e v e r i n t h i s p e r i o d i n c r e a s e d b y 28 p e r c e n t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t r a d e f l o w s h a v e r e a c h e d a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e s t a t e , h o w e v e r a s t h e v o l u m e i s s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g , a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e i n d e m a n d , t h e d e t a i l s o f w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s IV a n d V r e s p e c t i v e l y . D . AGRICULTURE AND UNUSED LAND I n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e o f w a t e r f r o n t , l a n d i s b y f a r t h e g r e a t e s t a n d t o t a l s 201,7 m i l e s o r 60.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e w a t e r f r o n t . T h e s e a r e a s d o m i n a t e t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , L u l u I s l a n d , S e a I s l a n d , B o u n d a r y B a y a n d I n d i a n A r m , ( s e e F i g u r e 3, p . 25). I n V a n c o u v e r I n n e r H a r b o u r t h e r e i s .2 m i l e s o f v a c a n t l a n d , e q u i v a l e n t t o 3.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t . H a l f o f t h i s i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r i s i n t h e e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t . T h e e a s t e r n p o r t i o n h a s n o b a c k l a n d s d u e t o t h e s t e e p g r o u n d s l o p e a n d h e n c e i s o f m a r g i n a l u s e u n l e s s s u b s t a n t i a l sums o f money a r e s p e n t i n r e c l a m a t i o n , w h i c h i s u n l i k e l y d u e t o v e r y d e e p w a t e r s . I n t o t a l t h i s a m o u n t s t o a b o u t 10 a c r e s o f v a c a n t l a n d . 4 3 E . R E S I D E N T I A L LAND A t o t a l o f 2 7 . 2 m i l e s o r 8 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n w a t e r f r o n t i s d e v o t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u s e , T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l o c c u p a n c y „ S i n g l e f a m i l y d e t a c h e d homes o f g o o d q u a l i t y a r e f o u n d a l o n g B u r r a r d I n l e t w i t h summer c o t t a g e s a l o n g t h e u p p e r p a r t o f I n d i a n A r m . A f e w h i g h r i s e a p a r t -m e n t s h a v e b e e n b u i l t o n t h e w a t e r f r o n t i n W e s t V a n c o u v e r . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e s c a t t e r i n g s o f p o o r q u a l i t y h o u s i n g a l o n g t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , u s u a l l y owned b y f i s h e r m e n ^ I n t h e I n n e r H a r b o u r a l o n g t h e V a n c o u v e r w a t e r f r o n t t h e r e i s , n o r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a h o t e l a t t h e w e s t e r l y e n d a n d t h e r e , a r e a d d i t i o n a l h o t e l s a n d a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a p p r o v a l f o r t h i s same a r e a . F . RECREATION, FISHBOAT MOORING, MARINAS AND TOWING T e n p e r c e n t o r 3 5 . 2 m i l e s o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n w a t e r f r o n t i s s e t a s i d e f o r r e c r e a t i o n . M o s t o f t h i s i s i n t h e S t a n l e y P a r k , P o i n t G r e y a n d N o r t h A r m o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a r e a s . W i t h i n t h e I n n e r H a r b o u r 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e a r e a i s s e t a s i d e f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a p a r k a t t h e e a s t e r l y e n d . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a n e q u i v a l e n t amount o f a r e a a t t h e w e s t e r l y e n d i n t h e f o r m o f a m a r i n a f o r p r i v a t e m o o r i n g s a n d a y a c h t c l u b . F o r w a r d s u g g e s t s t h a t i n t h e s u b u r b a n a r e a s o n l y t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a n e e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l s p a c e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a n d 44 publ ic open space, Stanley Park and English Bay provide adequate f a c i l i t i e s for the c i t y popula t ion, . He concludes that Boundary Bay be acquired as a park area and the Roberts Bank area be protected as 9 a w i l d l i f e and waterfowl conservation. Addi t iona l comments are elaborated on th i s point i n Chapter V i n the sect ion on Recreation Requirements. In the metropolitan area fishboat mooring, marinas and towing f a c i l i t i e s occupy only a small port ion of the waterfront, i . e . , 10 mi les , or equivalent to 3.1 per cent,of the area. In the Vancouver waterfront area each of these f a c i l i t i e s occupy ,2 miles or 3.6 per cent of the waterfront, and are scattered throughout the waterfront wi th no pa r t i cu la r concentration. G. SUMMARY Any attempt to forecast future demands for a l l waterfront,land would require a deta i led s o c i a l and economic survey of the ent i re region. However the conclusion reached by Forward was that during the next 15 to 20 years present commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and recrea t ional f a c i l i t i e s i n the metropolitan area w i l l have to be doubled. The demand for waterfront land w i l l increase grea t ly , but i f properly managed these demands can be met. For example the Fraser-P i t t r i v e r system can provide the p r i n c i p l e stock of waterfront land Charles N . Forward, op, cit*, p, 46. 4 5 f o r m o s t o f t h e f u t u r e m e t r o p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . B o u n d a r y B a y , i f d e v e l o p e d a s a m a r i n e p a r k c o u l d meet much o f t h e e n t i r e a r e a ' s r e c r e a t i o n d e m a n d s . F i n a l l y t h e s t u d y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s c o n -s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e , t o i n d i c a t e t h a t B u r r a r d I n l e t c o u l d a c c o m m o d a t e m o s t o f t h e r e q u i r e d s h i p p i n g t e r m i n a l s f o r t h e f o r s e a b l e f u t u r e . T h u s f r o m a M e t r o p o l i t a n o r M a c r o v i e w p o i n t t h e r e i s a n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f t h i s w a t e r f r o n t r e s o u r c e , i f p r o p e r l y m a n a g e d , f o r G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r ' s f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s s t u d y i s d e v o t e d t o a m i c r o e x a m i n a t i o n o f j u s t o n e p o r t i o n o f t h i s w a t e r f r o n t . r e s o u r c e i n t h e I n n e r H a r b o u r t o s e e how t h i s r e s o u r c e i s b e i n g u t i l i z e d a n d w h a t demands a r e b e i n g made o n i t . CHAPTER I I I WATERFRONT CHARACTERISTICS T h e s e t t i n g o f t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r . w a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I . T h e u n i q u e l o c a t i o n o f a n i c e - f r e e , s h e l t e r e d h a r b o u r , a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o a l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e l e a d i n g t o t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y a r e i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s t o i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t r a i l w a y l i n e a n d i t s t e r m i n u s h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t m e r c a n t i l e a n d s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s f r o m w h i c h f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t e n s u e d . ^ " T h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r o p e r a t e s u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e e x i s t i n g t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s , a n d t h e s p a t i a l a n d l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s . A s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I , t h e m a i n t h r u s t o f t h i s t h e s i s . i s d i r e c t e d a t , t h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n , o n t h e o n e h a n d , t h e demands o f i n c r e a s e d p o r t f u n c t i o n s , a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e demands e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e c e n t r a l . c i t y i n r e s p o n s e t o b u r g e o n i n g u r b a n a c t i v i t i e s , w h i c h a r e n o n - p o r t f u n c t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o d e r i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e l a n d u s e a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s d e v e l o p e d . T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , a n d t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o b e e x h a u s t i v e , V. Setty Pendakur, Peter Tassie , N e i l Griggs, Multiple Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada, Part II: Socio-Economic Impact and Transport Consequences, Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning, The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1969, p . 8. 47 but forms the basis from which further analyses are developed i n succeeding chapters. A. THE STUDY AREA The formulation of the hypothesis and the choice of the study area were discussed i n the i n i t i a l chapter. In b r i e f , the study area was governed by the hypothesis, and an area was selected that would give the highest contrast i n a c t i v i t y between port and non-port functions. As a resu l t that part of the C i t y of Vancouver between the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company right-of-way in-Burrard I n l e t , extending from Cardero Street to Boundary Road, was chosen. This area i s shown i n Figure 4, p . 26. While the questionnaire resul ts d isclose , informat ion on present land uses and other cha rac t e r i s t i c s , which are discussed i n succeeding parts of t h i s chapter, i t does not reveal information on the trends i n land use that have led to the present s i t e s . Records of previous owner-ships are on.deposit i n the Land Registry Off ice , and reco l lec t ions and descript ions of past conditions are recorded i n h i s t o r i c a l journa ls , l i b r a r i e s and archives, from which i t would be possible to prepare a comprehensive documentation of the change that the study area has underr gone. However, without going into th i s d e t a i l i t i s possible to describe in.more general terms the changes i n the area that have occurred from changes i n passenger t r ave l modes. Most of t h i s i n f o r -mation i s derived from the memory of the author over the past two decades. T h e s e c t i o n t h a t h a s u n d e r g o n e t h e g r e a t e s t c h a n g e i n u s e i s t h a t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a b e t w e e n B u r r a r d S t r e e t a n d M a i n S t r e e t , s h o w n i n F i g u r e 8 . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e o l d e s t p a r t , t h e r e h a s b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e o r c o m p l e t e s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e m a r i n e p a s s e n g e r t e r m i n a l s , w h i c h o c c u p i e d a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t a g e . A m o n g s t t h e s e a r e t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c S t e a m s h i p s P i e r B - C , o n c e t h e t e r m i n u s f o r r e g u l a r t r a n s - P a c i f i c r u n s , a s w e l l a s t h r i c e d a i l y V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a n d c o a s t a l r u n s . T h e s e p i e r s a r e now l a r g e l y u s e d a s b e r t h s f o r o c c a s i o n a l o c e a n - g o i n g c r u i s e s h i p s a n d v i s i t i n g n a v a l v e s s e l s , a n d o t h e r w i s e f o r g e n e r a l c a r g o s h i p s . S i m i l a r l y , P i e r D , o n t h e e a s t o f P i e r B - C , w a s d e s t r o y e d b y f i r e i n t h e m i d 1 9 3 0 ' s a n d h a s n e v e r b e e n r e p l a c e d . M o r e . r e c e n t l y a s h e d a d j o i n i n g a m a r g i n a l w h a r f a t t h e f o o t o f A b b o t t S t r e e t , w a s s e v e r e l y damaged b y f i r e i n 1 9 6 9 , a n d h a s n o t b e e n r e s t o r e d . F u r t h e r e a s t , a t t h e f o o t . o f C o l u m b i a S t r e e t , M u n i c i p a l f e r r y s y s t e m s t o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a n d W e s t V a n c o u v e r w e r e s u s p e n d e d b e c a u s e o f i n s u f f i c i e n t p a t r o n a g e . I n t h e same a r e a , a t t h e f o o t o f C a r r a l l S t r e e t , t h e U n i o n S t e a m s h i p s L i m i t e d o n c e o f f e r e d a c o a s t a l s e r v i c e i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c S t e a m s h i p s . T h i s o p e r a t i o n h a s now c e a s e d a n d t h e s u c c e s s o r t o t h e company h a s s h i f t e d i t s o p e r a t i o n t o t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , a b o u t two m i l e s e a s t o f t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . G e n e r a l l y t h e p a s s e n g e r t r a f f i c t h a t o n c e u s e d t h e f a c i l i t i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e h a s b e e n s h i f t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , o r o u t -s i d e t h e u r b a n a r e a . T r a n s - o c e a n i c a n d c o a s t a l s t e a m e r r u n s h a v e 49 8 C h a n g e s in Land U s e -Burrard St. to Main St. Scale : 1 inch to 1500 feet 4000 ft. l a r g e l y b e e n r e p l a c e d b y a e r o p l a n e f l i g h t s , s e r v e d f r o m t h e a i r p o r t a d j o i n i n g t h e s o u t h e r n e d g e o f t h e c i t y , a l t h o u g h c r u i s e s h i p s s t i l l u s e t h e d o w n t o w n p i e r s . V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h a s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , b e e n t a k e n o v e r b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e r r i e s u s i n g two t e r m i n a l s l o c a t e d o u t o f t h e u r b a n a r e a , ( s e e F i g u r e 3 , p . 2 5 ) . One o f t h e s e i s a t T s a w w a s s e n a t t h e s o u t h e r n e n d o f D e l t a M u n i f i p a l i t y a d j o i n i n g t h e R o b e r t s B a n k S u p e r - P o r t , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i l e s s o u t h o f V a n c o u v e r . T h e o t h e r i s a t H o r s e s h o e B a y , i n Howe S o u n d , a t t h e w e s t e n d o f W e s t V a n c o u v e r M u n i c i p a l i t y . L o c a l l y , f e r r y t r a f f i c a c r o s s B u r r a r d I n l e t h a s b e e n r e p l a c e d b y v e h i c u l a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n u s i n g t h e L i o n s G a t e a n d S e c o n d N a r r o w s B r i d g e s , W i t h i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a b e t w e e n B u r r a r d a n d M a i n S t r e e t s , t h e f o r m e r l a n d u s e s h a v e n o t b e e n r e p l a c e d , o r h a v e b e e n r e p l a c e d b y a u s e o f a l e s s i n t e n s i v e n a t u r e . Two m i n o r p a s s e n g e r f a c i l i t i e s , a h o v e r c r a f t s e r v i c e a n d a w a t e r t a x i , h a v e l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a , b u t t h e y do n o t g e n e r a t e s u b s t a n t i a l p a s s e n g e r v o l u m e s . E l s e w h e r e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a t h e c h a n g e s i n l a n d u s e h a v e n o t b e e n s o s t r i k i n g . B . QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION 2 T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s d e v e l o p e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n o n o c c u p a n t s a n d l a n d u s e w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , e m p l o y m e n t a n d p a r k i n g S e e A p p e n d i x I f o r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , q u a n t i t y o f c o m m o d i t y f l o w s , modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e m p l o y e d , a n d d e p e n d e n c y u p o n u r b a n s e r v i c e s . I t w a s d e s i g n e d f o r r e s p o n s e b y p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . P r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w a l i s t o f 3 b u s i n e s s e s f r o m t h e s t u d y a r e a w a s c o m p i l e d a n d a l e t t e r w a s s e n t t o e a c h o f t h e s e b u s i n e s s e s , o u t l i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , a n d g i v i n g t h e d a t e o f t h e s u r v e y a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w . T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s e n d i n g a l e t t e r i n a d v a n c e was d e m o n s t r a t e d a s t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d , i n w h i c h t h e a d v a n c e n o t i c e p r o v i d e d a m o r e f a v o u r a b l e r e c e p t i o n a n d h i g h e r r e t u r n s . T h e l i s t o f b u s i n e s s e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e w a s c o m p i l e d f r o m a 4 l o c a l d i r e c t o r y , a n d s h o w e d 164 b u s i n e s s e s w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . U p o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f N o v e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 , i t w a s f o u n d t h a t s o m e . o f t h e s e b u s i -n e s s e s no l o n g e r w e r e s i t u a t e d a t t h e a d d r e s s s h o w n , o r t h a t o n e o f f i c e s e r v e d s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o m p a n i e s s e p a r a t e d i n name o n l y , a n d i n e f f e c t c o n s t i t u t i n g o n e b u s i n e s s . T h e d e c r e a s e i n . n u m b e r u n c o v e r e d b y t h i s f i e l d c h e c k w a s s i g n i f i c a n t , a n d r e d u c e d t h e o r i g i n a l 164 b u s i n e s s e s t o 1 0 0 , e a c h o f whom was a p p r o a c h e d a n d a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s o f t h e 100 b u s i n e s s e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , 79 w e r e p a r t i a l l y o r f u l l y c o m p l e t e d , a n d 21 w e r e n o t e x e c u t e d . T h e 2 1 u n e x e c u t e d r e t u r n s r e s u l t e d e i t h e r f r o m o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l o f t h e S e e A p p e n d i x I I f o r a c o p y o f t h i s l e t t e r . 4 Vancouver City Directory, 1969, V a n c o u v e r : B . C . D i r e c t o r i e s , 1 9 6 9 . 52 . b u s i n e s s t o s u p p l y a n y i n f o r m a t i o n t o i n c o n v e n i e n c e o r . l a c k o f t i m e o f t h e p r o p r i e t o r s o f s m a l l o f f i c e s . Where t i m e p e r m i t t e d c a l l - b a c k s w e r e m a d e , b u t w e r e n o t a l w a y s s u c c e s s f u l . I n t h e 79 p a r t i a l l y o r f u l l y c o m p l e t e d r e t u r n s , t h e i n c o m p l e t e d s e c t i o n s r e s u l t e d e i t h e r b e c a u s e . t h e r e s p o n d e n t d i d n o t h a v e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , o r b e c a u s e h e w a s n o t p r e p a r e d t o d i v u l g e i t . Where p o s s i b l e t h e m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s , s u c h a s C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a n d N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d r e c o r d s , b u t o t h e r w i s e w a s l e f t b l a n k . U p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e v a l u e s w e r e c o d e d , a n d p u n c h e d o n t o s t a n d a r d c o m p u t e r c a r d s , e n a b l i n g t h e d a t a t o b e a n a l y z e d b y c o m p u t e r . . I n i t i a l l y , h o w e v e r , o n l y a s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , w a s c o n d u c t e d . One o f t h e l o c a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a o n C o m m i s s i o n e r S t r e e t , c o n t a i n e d s i x s i m i l a r i n d u s t r i e s e n g a g e d i n f r o z e n f i s h p r o c e s s i n g a n d s t o r a g e . B e c a u s e t h e a s s e s s m e n t d a t a i n t h i s l o c a t i o n w a s t a b -u l a t e d f o r t h e o n e p a r c e l o f l a n d o n w h i c h a l l t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s w e r e l o c a t e d , . a n d n o t s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s , i t w a s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o m b i n e t h e s i x r e t u r n s i n t o o n e . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n r e d u c e d t h e r e t u r n s b y f i v e , a n d t h e t o t a l r e t u r n s , o r i g i n a l l y n u m b e r i n g 7 9 , was d e c r e a s e d , t o 7 4 . To a s s i s t i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e a s s e s s m e n t a n d t a x a t i o n r e c o r d s o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r w e r e o b t a i n e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , c a l l e d t h e A s s e s s m e n t R o l l , i s o p e n t o City of Vancouver Assessment Roll 1969, V a n c o u v e r : A s s e s s m e n t D e p a r t m e n t , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 9 . 53 publ ic inspect ion , and gives the abbreviated l ega l descr ip t ion of the property, and the assessed values for school and general purposes, of land, bui ld ings and machinery. The p r i n c i p a l use of t h i s record was to check the questionnaire returns with the C i t y of Vancouver,data to determine i f a l l lands had been.included, and to obtain assessed,values of land and improvements for a l l parcels wi th in the study area. The values shown i n the Assessment R o l l are supposed to repre-sent market values, although i t i s recognized that because of increasing values and slow turnover of property i n some sections of the c i t y , there i s a lag between the values shown on the r o l l , and the s e l l i n g p r i c e d Nevertheless, the assessed values are consistent w i th in the study area, and therefore const i tute a sui table indica tor of values. The Assessment R o l l of the ,Ci ty of Vancouver did not contain any information on the area of parce ls , the nature of bui ld ings and improvements on the property, or the uni t assessment for land and improvements used to compute the t o t a l assessment. Had th i s informa-t i o n , which i s tabulated separately, been divulged, i t would vhave been of great value. Unfortunately i t was not, and th i s deficiency i n data had to be supplanted by approximations from other sources . ' Interview with Mr. H. Urquhart, Assessment Department, C i ty of Vancouver, June 3, 1969. 7 ' I t would be possible to obtain the area of most of the parcels from a.search of Land Registry Office records. However the time and expense involved in .such.a search, excluded th i s approach. In addi t ion 54 C. QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS (1) S i te Charac ter i s t ics The s i t e charac te r i s t i cs of the study area, shown i n Table I , p . 38, were derived from the questionnaire. In Table 2 the charac-t e r i s t i c s are l i s t e d under eight land use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . In the determination of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of s i t es in.which more than one land use was involved, the major or predominant land use was adopted, and the minor use was not mentioned,. The one entry i n the table i n the "other" column, a publ ishing service for an ethnic group, did not f i t in to the other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and was thus l i s t e d separately. The t h i rd column, "Average footage.from CBD", l i s t s the resu l t s assuming that the CBD extends from Burrard Street to Main Street adjoining the south side of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company r i g h t -of-way but not extending across to the north s ide . As a resu l t the distance from the CBD of those businesses wi th in the study area varies from 500 feet to a maximum of 15,400 feet, The fourth and f i f t h columns, "Year of Or ig in" and "Year of Major Investment", were evaluated from questionnaire data. The year of o r i g i n i s the year i n which the present occupant began operations at the s i t e , while the year of major investment i s the year i n which the major c a p i t a l investments were constructed. some of the leases are not deposited i n the Land Registry Off ice . However, addi t iona l information on sizes of parcels was obtained from the Nat ional Harbours Board, and from composite maps showing the l o t s wi th in the study area. TABLE 2 LAND USE CHARACTERISTICS IN STUDY AREA, 1969 Land Use No. of users Average footage from Average year of Origin Average year of major Average floor area Average site area Average water-front-Average employees Average parking spaces CBD invest-ment (acres) age (feet) on-site off-site employees visitors Goods Terminals 14 5,844 1934 1935 73,700 14.9 591 49 7 43 9 Passenger Terminals 6 5,600 1960 1964 1,300 0 . 7 84 3 35 2 14 Marine Sales Service and Repair 14 5 , 7 0 0 1948 1952 1 0 , 4 0 0 6 . 5 134 18 27 14 29 Fish Processing 21 6 , 5 0 0 1949 1949 6 0 , 0 0 0 6 . 4 427 98 17 44 11 O t h e r Processing 10 6 ,100 1943 1953 9 9 , 5 0 0 4 . 3 222 75 5 40 4 Public Administration 6 4 , 7 0 0 1940 1935 9 , 5 0 0 0 . 3 38 20 4 12 4 Construction 2 7 , 6 0 0 1960 1958 1 0 , 5 0 0 1 . 2 69 12 18 3 4 O t h e r 1 7 , 9 0 0 1967 1967 3 , 8 0 0 0 . 1 0 2 0 4 0 A v e r a g e o f T o t a l 5 , 8 4 4 1945 1945 4 4 , 4 0 0 5 . 7 268 41 15 26 12 T o t a l 74 2 , 6 2 2 , 0 0 0 3 3 7 . 2 1 5 , 8 0 6 2 , 4 1 5 914 1 , 5 5 9 686 U I U I In the columns l i s t i n g f loor area, and s i t e area, the land uses involv ing goods terminals, f i s h processing and other processing occupy the largest areas. This resu l t conforms to,what might be expected. On the other hand, s i t e s used for passenger terminals occupy a r e l a t i v e l y small area. The s i t e s used for the l a t t e r purpose consist of f loa t plane, hovercraft , water t a x i and c r u i s e - l i n e f a c i l i t i e s . The oldest occupants on,the waterfront are the goods.terminals. Their tenancy averages 36 years and the i r average age of f a c i l i t i e s are 35 years; and exceeds those of a l l other users, except publ ic adminis trat ion. The large number of o f f - s i t e employees i s a t t r ibuted to those marine services such as towing and f i sh ing companies, and cruise l i n e s , i n which the bulk of the employees are af loat and away from the land s i t e , (2) Cargo Flows and Volumes A large part of the questionnaire sought information on the commodities handled by the businesses, their, tonnage, o r i g i n and des t ina t ion . This information included annual import and export tonnage, the mode of transportat ion used, and the number of t r i p s made by each mode. The o r i g i n and dest inat ion of zones were tabulated i n zones which started at the waterfront and worked outward i n i n -creasingly larger increments, ending with the zone consis t ing of a l l of the world except Canada. 57 No information was returned concerning the type of goods handled, although an estimate could be made of th i s by considering the i nd iv idua l questionnaire returns. In considering whether goods were imported or exported, the d i r ec t i on of movement of these goods was the determining factor . Goods moving into the business or operation, I r respect ive of the mode of transport , and whether i t was by.land or water, were considered imports. In the same manner, goods moving outward or away were considered ex-por ts . Thus for any business the t o t a l import tonnage would equal the t o t a l export tonnage, plus any allowance for inventory deplet ion or bui ld-up . The outcome of the questionnaire resul ts were tabulated to give t o t a l cargo flows i n and out of the study area and are l i s t e d i n Tables 3 and 4. The strong external patterns of the commodity flows of the waterfront users are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n these tables , i n which commodities entering the study area from the metropolitan region account for only s l i g h t l y over 1 per cent of the t o t a l Imports. In considering goods moving out of the study area, the metropolitan region i s the dest inat ion of s l i g h t l y over 12 per cent of the t o t a l movement of goods. The CBD, waterfront, and one-half mile zones account for an even lower o r i g i n or dest inat ion of goods than the metropolitan region. 3. Transportation Services In addi t ion to the tonnage of commodities and the i r sources, the questionnaire sought information on the modes of transportat ion TABLE 3 IMPORTS INTO STUDY AREA BY ZONE OF ORIGIN IN 1969 Water-front CBD Within h mile Remainder of Vancouver Remainder of Metro Vancouver Remainder of B. C. Remainder of Canada Foreign Tota l Annual Tonnage Percent 1,392 ,04 1,452 .04 5,244 .15 12,444 .35 21,324 .60 481,608 13.48 2,663,448 74.57 384,684 10.77 3,571,596 100.00 TABLE 4 EXPORTS FROM STUDY AREA BY ZONE OF DESTINATION IN 1969 Water-front , CBD Within % mile Remainder of Vancouver Remainder of Metro Vancouver Remainder of B. C. Remainder of Canada Foreign Tota l Annual Tonnage Percent 107,532 2.97 6,132 0.17 8,016 0.22 113,796 3.14 . 205,116 5.66 361,728 9.98 669,888 18.49 2,150,660 59.37 3,622,788 100.00 59 ava i l ab l e , the i r adequacy, the tonnage handled and the number of movements by each mode. These resul ts are l i s t e d i n Tables 5, 6 and 7. The sample should not be construed as a t o t a l sample of the study area as 21 responses were not obtained out of the 100 businesses. While, information on freight movements along the waterfront i s scanty, a report prepared i n 1963 showed freight movements i n the Greater g Vancouver region for 1961. In that year the number of loaded r a i l cars was estimated at 123,500 for the ent i re Vancouver waterfront. 4. Urban Dependency This sect ion re la tes to the dependency of the waterfront users upon adjoining urban services . To evaluate the importance of the urban l i n k , one sect ion of the questionnaire asked information on the frequency of contact with a broad range of s e rv i ces , , i nc lud ing trans-porta t ion agents, marine and f i n a n c i a l services , labour market, the urban consumer market, and business with a l l l eve l s of government. To the question asking which three services requir ing personal contact were considered the most important for the e f f i c i e n t operation of the business, the resu l t s are given i n Table 8. While th i s table represents the returns from the sample of 74, not a l l returns l i s t e d three serv ices , and as a r e s u l t , the t o t a l i s less than 222 (3 x 74). B r i t i s h Columbia Research Counc i l , Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouver, Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research Counci l , May, 1963, p . 17. 60 TABLE 5 TRANSPORTATION ACCESS TO STUDY AREA Mode Ori-Site Access Yes : No No Reply S u i t a b i l i t y of Access Adequate Inadequate No Reply R a i l Highway Deep Sea Barge 28 46 73 1 31 36 52 22 0 0 7 0 23 52 15 40 4 16 7 8 47 6 52 26 TABLE 6 ANNUAL TONNAGE HANDLED BY MODE IN STUDY AREA, 1969 Inward Outward Total R a i l 2,412^,930 480,445 2,893,375 Highway 220,506 749,356 969,862 Deep Sea 769,560 2,304,540 3,074,100 Barge 189,750 87,792 277,542 A i r 301 1,176 1,477 Total 3,593,047 3,623,309 7;216,356 TABLE 7 ANNUAL NUMBER OF MOVEMENTS BY MODE, 1969 • Mode Number of Movements R a i l Cars 72,144 Trucks 311,262 Deep-sea Ships 6,252 Barges 3,228 Aeroplanes 7,200 61 TABLE 8 MOST IMPORTANT SERVICES REQUIRING PERSONAL CONTACT .Service Replies Marine Services (personnel, stevedoring, shipyards) 39 Transportation Agents 39 F inanc ia l Services 13 Labour Market 15 Urban Consumer Market 19 Business wi th a l l Levels of Government 12 Tota l 137 The dependency upon marine services and transportat ion agents i s seen i n Table 8, i n which over ha l f the users are dependent upon these serv ices . The t h i r d most important se rv ice , the urban consumer market, showed a d i s t i n c t spa t i a l v a r i a t i o n , i n which 12 of the 19 r ep l i e s were concentrated i n that port ion of the study area between Cardero Street and Granv i l l e Street . The remaining 7 rep l i e s were from businesses scattered throughout the eastern part of the study area. A further question on urban dependency concerned frequency and o r i g i n of v i s i t o r s to the businesses, such as customers and salesman, but not including employees. These resu l t s are given i n Table 9, 62 TABLE 9 DAILY VISITORS TO STUDY AREAS BY ZONE OF ORIGIN Water-front CBD Within % mile but not CBD or waterfront Remainder of Metro Vancouver Total Number of v i s i t o r s 877 579 174 1,188 2,929 Per cent 33.7 19.8 5.9 40,6 100,0 5. Future Plans The. l a s t sect ion of the questionnaire dealt with future expected trends i n volume of business and employment, and future plans con-cerning bu i ld ing area, s i t e area, and a l te rna t ive l oca t ion . Tabulation of the expected changes i n volume of business and employment are g iven , in Tables 10 and 11. I t i s evident that the large majority of the,users expect an increase i n business, while a smaller majority expect an increase i n employment. The difference between the number expecting an increase i n business, and those expecting an increase i n employment can be explained by the increased use of labour-saving machines as a device to reduce the labour inputs . In regard to the future plans of the study area respondents, the tabulat ion of these resu l t s are,shown i n Table 12. The numbers with de f in i t e plans for expansion numbered about 30 per cent, while those requir ing increased s i t e area numbered about one t h i r d of the t o t a l , with a s ign i f i can t number of "No Reply" returns. 63 TABLE 10 VOLUME OF BUSINESS IN NEXT 5 YEARS Expect a Decrease Expect an Increase No Reply- Total No. of r ep l i e s 7 61 6 74 Range of decrease or increase lone stated 5% to 600% TABLE 11 EMPLOYMENT IN NEXT 5 YEARS Expect a Decrease Expect an Increase No Reply Total No. of rep l ies 11 32 11 74 Range of decrease or increase 5% to 20% '5% to 600% 1 TABLE 12 FUTURE PLANS OF BUSINESSES IN STUDY AREA Def in i te Plans for Increased Floor Area Require Increased S i te Area Considered Moving to Another S i te Considered Moving.to Roberts Bank Yes 22 25 18 6 No 45 30 54 55 No Reply 7 19 2 1 3 Businesses that had considered moving to another s i t e numbered 18, while those,who had s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned Roberts Bank to t a l l ed 6. While there i s no comparison upon which to gauge the s igni f icance of th i s number of respondents that are considering moving, when a l -most one-quarter of the t o t a l a re . involved, i t seems a high f igure . D. SUMMARY The purpose of th i s chapter was to examine-the study area i n closer d e t a i l and reveal charac te r i s t i cs of land use, t ransportat ion and commodity flows. That part of the study area adjoining the cent ra l business d i s t r i c t was shown to have undergone.a s ign i f i can t change i n land use, r e su l t ing i n a lower in tens i ty of a c t i v i t y , as many passenger terminals have been suspended or replaced i n another l oca t i on . Whether such a change i n land use i s a resu l t of the proximity of the CBD and d i f f i c u l t y of access was not answered i n the chapter, but th i s question w i l l be discussed i n a l a t e r section of the study. In a tabulat ion of•the land use charac te r i s t i cs i t was seen that the space and working force requirements showed large var ia t ions between the land users, as mught be considered from an examination of the pa r t i cu l a r uses. At the same time the age of the various f a c i l i t i e s showed wide var ia t ions with the o l d e s t , i n s t a l l a t i o n s being those for transshipment of goods and for publ ic administrat ion. 65 Of the commodity flows through the study area, the adjoining lands were r e l a t i v e l y i n s ign i f i c an t as ei ther or ig ins or destinations of exports. As mlght.be expected these flows ref lected upon the large area which i s t r ibutary to the port . Transportation modes used for commodity movement varied be-tween land and sea transport. On the land side r a i l cars handled the bulk of tonnage, with trucks accounting for only about one-third of r a i l tonnage. However, i n t o t a l movements, the r e l a t i v e l y small loads carr ied by trucks were ref lected i n the high number of movements by, that mode as compared to r a i l . The greatest urban dependency of the businesses wi th in the study area was upon marine services and transportation agents. The t h i r d ranking dependency, the urban consumer market, was concentrated among those businesses at the western end of the study area. The number of persons v i s i t i n g the area was not high when compared with 9 v i s i t o r s to the CBD. The o r i g i n of these v i s i to r s .was divided between the CBD, waterfront, and remainder of the metropolitan area i n i n -creasing order. In the future plans of the waterfront study area, i t was evident that the majority of the firms expected an increase i n both bolume of business and employment. S i m i l a r l y , about one-third of the businesses expected an-increase i n bu i ld ing area or s i t e area. v Of the 74 r e p l i e s , almost one-quarter (18) had considered moving to another s i t e , although only 6 had s p e c i f i c a l l y considered Roberts Bank as an a l t e rna t ive . V. Setty Pendakur, et a l . , op, ait., p . 53. CHAPTER IV PORT LAND NEEDS AND TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS The scene described i n the opening l i ne s of the f i r s t chapter, i n which the departing ship sa i l ed out of the harbour, i s as much out of date as the Model T Ford i s a conveyance for today's transpor-ta t ion needs. Yet both examples serve as a contrast to i l l u s t r a t e and emphasize the major advances that have been made i n developing new methods of t ransportat ion. Although the s a i l i n g ship has long departed from the high seas as a serious contender for commercial t ransportat ion of goods, i t s successor, the cargo l i n e r with engine propulsion has, u n t i l recent ly , remained as the standard and accepted ca r r i e r with few innovations. Other than increases i n vessel s i z e s , more e f f i c i e n t means of propulsion, and the use of new s t ruc tu ra l mater ia ls , the cargo vessel has shown l i t t l e change. S imi l a r l y the methods of stow-ing and t ransferr ing cargo, had not undergone any r a d i c a l change u n t i l the termination of World War I I i n 1945. The year 1945, or the period fol lowing the Second World War, i s often taken as the turning point i n the movement toward more 1 2 e f f i c i e n t methods of shipping. ' This period i n i t i a t e d the departure R.B. Oram, Cargo Handling and the Modern Port, Oxford: Perga-mon Press L t d . , 1 9 6 5 , p. 64, 120. 2 E. G. Frankel , "Containerized Shipping and Integrated Trans-por ta t ion , " Proceedings of the IEEE (Proceedings of-the Ins t i tu te of E l e c t r i c a l and Elect ronics Engineers), V o l . 56, No. 4, ( A p r i l , 1968), p . 713. from i so la t ion i sm, h i g h - t a r i f f and pro tec t ion is t p o l i c i e s , b u i l t up and maintained during the decade of depression i n the 1930's, and the ensuing war. Taking the place of these conditions was freer and more open trade as was evidenced i n the formation of the European Common Market, the General Agreement on Tar i f f s and Trade.(GATT), the expansion of United States and Russia as trading nat ions, and the remarkable resurgence of Japan. In the decade between 1950 and 1960, the t o t a l world ocean-borne trade more than doubled from 500 to 1,100 m i l l i o n long tons, while i n the fol lowing f ive-year per iod, from 1960 to 1965, the growth was even more dramatic, r i s i n g from 1,100 to over 1,700 m i l l i o n 3 long tons. L o c a l l y , trade agreements with Communist Bloc countries and other Asian nations have resulted i n huge shipments of bulk materials from Vancouver,across the P a c i f i c . At the Port of Vancouver foreign trade has increased from 3,100,000 tons i n 1945 to 14,532,670 4 tons i n 1968. A. CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY In the l i g h t of t h i s developing and competitive overseas trade, a t tent ion was focused upon the cost of t ransportat ion. Here, one of 3 Al f red H. K e i l and P h i l i p Mandel, "Transportation by Sea—To-day and Tomorrow," Proceedings of the IEEE, (Proceedings of the Ins t i tu te of E l e c t r i c a l and Elec t ronics Engineers), V o l . 56, No. 4, ( A p r i l 1968), p. 516, (F ig . 5 and 6) . 4 National Harbours Board, Annual Reports, 1945, 1968, the major components was that paid to labour as wages for manning vessels ; the other was the increased cap i t a l cost of ships. I f shipping costs were to be res t ra ined, then ship u t i l i z a t i o n would have to increase, and port time decrease. The incentive to lower costs has led to analysis of va r i a t i on of costs with vessels of d i f f e r ing s ize and speed, and use of innovative loading and unloading equipment. In th i s l a t t e r aspect the type of dock movements and handling, and the performance of equipment came under scru t iny . Vessel charac te r i s t i cs have undergone major changes, p r i n c i p a l l y i n s ize and draught; and have resulted i n marked reductions i n shipping costs . For example, a 50,000 dead-weight ton tanker can transport fuel at 0.18c per ton-mile , a 100,000 dwt. vessel at O . l l C a ton-mile, and a 200,000 dwt. vessel at 0 .08C. 5 The lower transportat ion costs obtained from the larger vessel r esu l t from the charac te r i s t i cs of vessel s i z e , and crew and power requirements. Thus while one vessel may be double the capacity of another, the vessel dimensions and cap i t a l cost are less than double, the power requirements are only s l i g h t l y increased, and the crew s ize remains the same. The economic benefits accruing from the use of such increased capacity vessels i s immediately apparent. On the dock side the increased competition has also served as an incent ive i n producing more effect ive handling movements at the E. G. Frankel , op. cit,, p . 517 (Table I I I ) . port in ter face . Here the ine f f i c i ency of the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of handling cargo were revealed when i t was shown that cargo arr ived at the pierhead i n various shapes and sizes that prevented complete automation ei ther i n handling or s to r ing . For example, i n Figure 9 the t y p i c a l sequence for shipments of general cargo i s shown, i n -volv ing 28 operations.and 19 wai t s . Each of the sections of the transportat ion process has a proper cost/time input and output affected by in te rna l physical set-up as w e l l as external factors inc luding p o l i t i c a l and environmental influence. The p o s s i b i l i t y that various operations w i l l not be carr ied out at the i r optimum conditions increases i n p robab i l i t y as the number of operations i n -crease, and th i s i n turn reduces ef f ic iency and resul ts i n increasing cost and time. The new developments i n shipping have given large reductions to the cost of shipping, both i n better performance at sea, and i n loading and unloading operations at the port . In both bulk movements and general cargo handling there have been changes which w i l l be described hereunder. (1) General' Cargo The ine f f i c i ency of t r a d i t i o n a l break-bulk port handling methods has led to the development of more effect ive techniques. I n i t i a l l y pa l l e t s were introduced as a base for supporting goods, which could be conveniently handled with f o r k - l i f t equipment. With the greater mobi l i ty ava i lab le using such methods i t was more e f f i c i en t to handle goods of the same type, and th i s marked the f i r s t step toward unit handling of cargoes. ORIGIN (SHIPPER) RECEIPT (CONSIGNEE) PACKAGE . JL @ SHIPPER " I 0 CONS UNPACKAGE IGNEE f UN I TIZE i SHORT HAUL 7 UN i n ZE ^ J _ © T FORWAROER | LONG HAUL*] ^ FREIGHT © i T IN i n i I OEUNITIZE SHORT HAUL T OEUNITIZE (UNITIZE) 1 FREIGHT -FORWARDER | LONG HAUL! SHORT HAUL _L X. SHORT HAOi. _L T STORE I f UNITIZE _ SHIPPING ( c ) COMPANY OPERATIONS i T STORE OEUNITIZE STORE J L . X i»o -70 SYMBOLS O UNL0AC LOAO X TRANSFER (CONVEYOR,, FORK LI F T ) ~ WAIT (STATIC) — TIME COST LOAO ONTO SHIP I T © STOW J _ OFFLOAD FROM SHIP ± © © SHIP TRANSPORT [ Sequence for Shipment of General Cargo PERCENTAGE OF TIME REQ. FOR PRODUCTIVE TRANSPORT. 28 OPERATIONS 19 WAITS Source: Frankel; Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 56. No. 4 (April 1968) 71 The p a l l e t - f o r k l i f t m e t h o d o f h a n d l i n g g o o d s i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t i n many p o r t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e g e n e r a l c a r g o p i e r s o f t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d i n t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i t h a s b e e n r e p l a c e d b y u n i t i z e d c a r g o i n c o n t a i n e r s , w h i c h d i f f e r s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s o p e r a t i o n i n t h a t t h e s h i p p e r may s t o w c a r g o e s a t t h e p o i n t o f o r i g i n i n s t a n d a r d s i z e d c o n t a i n e r s w h i c h a r e t h e n s e a l e d u n t i l d e l i v e r e d t o t h e c o n s i g n e e . T h e a d v a n t a g e o f s u c h a m e t h o d o v e r p a l l e t o p e r a t i o n s i s t h a t c o n t a i n e r c a r g o e s , w h i c h a r e l a r g e r t h a n p a l l e t l o a d s , may b e h a n d l e d i n o n e l o a d i n g o r u n l o a d i n g o p e r a t i o n f r o m s h i p t o s h o r e ; f r o m t h e r e t h e c o n t a i n e r may b e t r a n s p o r t e d b y l a n d t o t h e p o i n t o f c o n s i g n m e n t . T h e s i n g l e l o a d i n g o p e r a t i o n o f a c o n t a i n e r r e d u c e s t h e number o f m o v e m e n t s a n d i n c r e a s e s t h e r a t e o f u n l o a d i n g , b o t h o f w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o r e d u c e d s h i p p i n g c o s t s . T h e c o n t a i n e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t h i n m e t a l b o x w h i c h d e r i v e s i t s s t r e n g t h f r o m f o u r . v e r t i c a l p o s t s c o n n e c t e d t r a n s v e r s e l y a n d l o n g i t u d i n a l l y b y r a i l s a t t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m . I t v a r i e s i n d i m e n s i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e 8 f t . b y 8 f t . c r o s s . s e c t i o n i n l e n g t h s o f m u l t i p l e s o f 10 f t . up t o 40 f t . h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n a c c e p t e d , ^ T h e s e d i m e n s i o n s a l l o w a h i g h d e g r e e o f f l e x i b i l i t y f o r l o a d i n g o n r a i l w a y c a r s a n d h i g h w a y t r u c k t r a i l e r s , a s w e l l a s s h i p s . T h e maximum s i z e c o n t a i n e r , 40 f e e t l o n g , h a s a g r o s s l o a d e d w e i g h t o f 6 7 , 2 0 0 l b s . (30 l o n g t o n s ) , w h i l e t h e s m a l l e r s i z e s a r e p r o -p o r t i o n a t e l y l i g h t e r . T h e n o r m a l c o n t a i n e r i s c l o s e d a n d s e a l e d i n J o h n C . K o s t i e r , N o r m a n H . T i l s l e y , Container Guide, L o n d o n : N a t i o n a l M a g a z i n e C o . L t d . , 1 9 6 9 , p . 1 1 , 2 1 . shipment, to reduce pilferage, but special containers have been designed with open tops for carrying machinery and some bulk goods. Other containers include mechanical refrigeration, or are insulated and contain a refrigerant to keep the cargo chilled while in shipment. The wide application of containers and their adaptability to a variety of general cargoes suggests that they may eventually be used for handling the majority of general cargoes. Estimates on the degree of containerization possible d i f f e r , but vary from 60 per cent 7 8 9 to 85 per cent. '•' Containers are designed to be stocked up to four high in the hold of a ship, supported by the corner posts of the lower containers. The vessels for carrying these containers are of special design, essentially consisting of cells 8 feet wide and 40 feet long, with vertical guides at.the corners. Because of the need for vertical access to a l l c e l l s , and for unobstructed top decks for loading, the container ship differs from the general cargo ship with i t s more limited hatches, and proliferation of equipment on the top deck. On this account the structure of the ships d i f f e r , the container ship usually requiring bulkheads at forty-foot intervals. E. G. Frankel, op. cit.,.p. 712 g Bank of Montreal, Business Review, August 29, 1969, p. 2, 9 John T. McCullough, "The Impact of Containerization on the World's Ports," The International Association of Ports and Harbours, Proceedings of the Fifth Conference, 1967, Tokyo: The International Association of Ports and Harbours, 1967, p. 264. The f u l l range of container vessels , shown i n Figure 10, i s la rge , but the majority of containers i n t r ans i t today are p a r t i a l container c a r r i e r s . " ^ These ca r r i e r s usual ly consist of a.general cargo ship converted for carriage of containers i n some holds, or on deck. The vessel designed for exclusive container use i s expensive, costing from $6 to $10 m i l l i o n , and more than double the cost of conventional freighters of the same tonnage.''"''' The handling of containers has ei ther been by shipboard gantries or by dock-based cranes, although current usage tends to 12 favour land-based unloading devices. The crane tackle i s often equipped with s e l f - l e v e l l i n g devices to ensure that the container remains l e v e l while being transferred from ship to shore. The advantages and disadvantages of containers are tabulated i n Table 13. The p r i n c i p a l advantage, the high loading and unloading ra te , resu l t s i n greater vessel time at sea, claimed to be 85 per cent as against 40 per cent for a conventional cargo vesse l . With such u t i l i z a t i o n i t i s claimed that less than 60 container berths could be used to handle 82 per cent of the general cargo of the United States overseas trade, as compared to several thousand general cargo 14 piers now i n use i n that country. I t i s further claimed that with 1 0 E . G. Franke l , op. ait., p. 721. "'""'"Bank of Montreal , op. ait., p. 1. 12 E. G. Frankel , op. c%t«, p. 724. 13 John C. Kos t i e r , Norman H. T i l s l e y , op. ext., p. 712 14 E. G. Frankel , op. a%t., p. 712. C O N T A I N E R SHIPS C O N V E N T I O N A L D I S P L A C E M E N T H U L L S N O V t l S H I P F O R M S C O N T A I N E R C A R R Y I N G S H I P S TRAILER CARRIERS B A R G E C A R R Y I N G SHIPS S E G M E N T E D SHIPS C A T A M A R A N TYPE SHIPS C O M B I N A T I O N LIFT O N - R O - R O R O - R O SHIP B A R G E LIFT O N B A R G E F L O A T O N M U L I I P U C O N T A I N E R S H I P S E G M E N T S B A R G E - T U G C O M B I N A T I O N D I S P L A C E M E N T C A T A M A R A N S E M I S U S M E R G E O C A T A M A R A N F U l l C O N T A I N E R P A R T I A L S H I P S C O N T A I N E R SHIPS C O N V E R T I B L E C O N T A I N E R SHIPS SHIPS W I T H S P E C I A L D E C K F I T T I N G S G E N E R A L C A R G O SHIPS HINGED SHIPS RIC DLY C O U P U D SEGMtNlTD SHIPS *USH TOW TOW 10 I Classification of Container Ships RIGIDLY HINGE COUPLED COUPLED Source: Frankel; Proceedings of the IEEE Vol.56, No. 4 (April 1968) VI 75 TABLE 13 CONTAINERIZATION A d v a n t a g e s D i s a d v a n t a g e s S p e e d - u p o f l o a d i n g a n d u n l o a d i n g . P r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t p i l f e r a g e . P r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t d a m a g e . L o w e r I n s u r a n c e r a t e s . C h e a p e r p a c k a g i n g o f c a r g o . R e d u c e d d o c u m e n t a t i o n r e -q u i r e d . R e d u c e d number o f p a c k a g e h a n d l i n g . C o s t o f c o n t a i n e r s . T a r e w e i g h t o f c o n t a i n e r s . L o s s o f - c u b a g e o f c o n t a i n e r s . C o s t o f r e t u r n i n g e m p t i e s . H e a v y g e a r r e q u i r e m e n t . L a b o u r p r a c t i c e s . F i x e d v o l u m e n o t a l w a y s o p t i m u m u s a b l e s i z e . P a r t l o a d p r o b l e m . P r o v i c e s t e m p o r a r y p r o t e c t e d s t o r a g e . C o n t a i n e r r o u t i n g a n d h a n d l i n g . M o d i f i c a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c a r g o f o r e a s i e r h a n d l i n g . C o n t a i n e r l o s s a n d d a m a g e . C a r g o h a n d l i n g i n a l l w e a t h e r . E a s i e r s t o w a g e . E f f e c t i v e s t o w p l a n n i n g . C a r g o h a n d l i n g w h i l e s h i p o n f e e d e r , n o t i n p o r t . 15 E . G . F r a n k e l , o p . c%t.i p . 7 2 1 . such improvement i n vessel use, one container ship may replace four conventional cargo ships . U t i l i z i n g t r a d i t i o n a l cargo ships , 60 to 75 per cent of the cost of transporting cargo by sea i s accounted for at the dock s ide. By making use of containers the p ier to p ier costs , as w e l l as packaging costs are reduced markedly. In an example involv ing ship and truck transportat ion of containers, the t o t a l costs were.reduced from $50 to $30 per measurement t o n . * ' The widespread advantages claimed i n container usage have not 18 met with such extensive acceptance i n the Port of Vancouver. One of the unfavourable aspects i n th i s port i s the large imbalance of imports over exports of general cargo, and the consequent problem of returning large numbers of empty containers. Another point i s that while p i l ferage of small l o t s of cargoes have been c u r t a i l e d , p i l f e r -age of whole containers has been known to occur. A further point i s the high cost of r a i l equipment for handling containers, and the l imi t ed use of th i s equipment. However, the decis ion of the National Harbours Board to con-struct a container terminal scheduled to commence operation i n May, 1970, indicates that the use of containers has been recognized i n the 16 John C, Kos t i e r , Norman H, T i l s l e y , op, c i t . , p. 21. 1 7 A l f r e d H. K i e l and P h i l i p Mandel, op. cit., p. 519 (F ig . 11). 18 J . M. Riens t ra , Port Development and Planning in the Lower Mainland, Speech to Vancouver Branch, Ins t i tu te of Publ ic Administra-t ion of Canada, Vancouver, January 28, 1970, 77 Port of Vancouver, The cost.of t h i s f a c i l i t y i s approximately $5 m i l l i o n and i s estimated to have a through-put of between 40,000 and 19 50,000 containers per annum by 1973. (2) Bulk Loading The same economies that were evident i n the shipping of goods by container are also e f f e c t i v e i n movement of goods i n bulk q u a n t i t i e s . Moreover, the movement towards larger v e s s e l sizes and increased cargoes has been spearheaded by the bulk cargo v e s s e l . While the movement of goods i n bulk quantities i s us u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with grain and petroleum products, other goods may also be handled i n . t h i s fashion. Included are many minerals and ores, food-s t u f f s (sugar, molasses), as well as fue l s that are l i q u i f i e d and transported at very low temperatures, such as methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Bulk cargo can then include many commodities, and i s defined i n one source as a "homogeneous cargo c a r r i e d without any form of 20 packaging, and not capable of being handled by s l i n g s . " Of the t o t a l world ocean-borne shipping, the majority i s c a r r i e d i n bulk cargoes, although the values of these cargoes are proportion-a t e l y smaller. In the United States i n 1966, 88 per cent of the tonnage of the fore i g n trade, but only 32 per cent of the value was 21 c a r r i e d by bulk movers, One of the large bulk commodities, petroleum, 19 National Harbours Board: Vancouver Harbour, c i r c u l a r issued by National Harbours Board, Vancouver, no date. 20 R. B. Oram, op, ext., p, 118, 2 1 A l f r e d H. K e i l , P h i l i p Mandel, op. cit., p. 515. i s moving i n vessels of espec ia l ly large s ize and deep draughts. In the ships of most recent design, 300,000 dwt;, the lengths have reached 1,200 feet and the draughts have increased to 65 feet , while projected designs for 500,000 dwt, require a length of 1,300 feet and 22 a draught of 85 feet . Bulk cargoes, because of the i r homogeneous q u a l i t y , are adaptable to movement on or off the vessel by spec ia l equipment such as conveyors, p ipe l ines , or a i r -pressure : devices that w i l l transfer the cargo from the vessel to a c o l l e c t i n g point . With such methods replacing break-bulk loading, i t i s not always necessary to have the c o l l e c t i o n point near the vesse l . Often a more.optimum loading point i s located some distance inland where land access i s more su i t ab le , and where land does,not command the same premium that i t does at the waterfront. A disadvantage of bulk cargo movement i s the high cost of spec ia l ized equipment, the lack of f l e x i b i l i t y of a s ingle purpose ves se l , contrasting with the tramp steamer and i t s wide va r i a t i on i n cargoes, and the back-haul problem. While on occasion bulk vessels 23 have been adapted for return movements, such cases are l imi t ed by the p o s s i b i l i t y of f inding a route adaptable for haulage i n both d i r ec t ions . 'Alfred H. K e i l , P h i l i p Mandel, op. c i t , , p. 521 (F ig . 13). ^Ibidry pi 515. 79 (3) Other Shipping Innovations In addi t ion to movements of bulk commodities and general cargoes by spec ia l vessels , new methods have been designed for spec ia l condi t ions» One of these, LASH ( l igh te r aboard sh ip ) , involves the ocean carriage of a preloaded l i g h t e r , l i f t e d out of or discharged into the waters of the harbour. The use of LASH i s ef fec t ive where dock congestion i s h igh , and where the l i gh t e r may be loaded i n shallow water away from the dock. I t i s also effect ive i n harbours having l imi t ed draught for deepsea vesse ls , often located at r i v e r estuaries . The p robab i l i t y of employing such a system i n the Port of Vancouver i s 24 not considered high. Other techniques such as commercial submarines and a i r cushion vehicles have been proposed but have not yet proved feasible for the conveyance of large tonnages. Future research and development w i l l decide i f these ca r r i e r s w i l l take the i r place alongside the conven-t i o n a l displacement h u l l . (4) Passenger Tra f f i c The charac te r i s t i cs of passenger t r ave l have changed considerably over the past decade, as scheduled trans-oceanic voyages have los t ground to the a i r l i n e s . As a resu l t passenger vessel runs have.changed from competitive trans-oceanic passages to cruise t r i p s , catering to a more-affluent c l i e n t e l e and requir ing a higher l e v e l of se rv ice . Interview with Mr, J , S , Wood, Swan Wooster Engineering Co , , L t d , , February 11, 1970, This emphasis on service i s i n fact a major point that w i l l require consideration when new passenger terminals are b u i l t or renovated. The new terminals w i l l not only be generally smaller , but more compact and designed for more sophist icated standards. Ai rpor t s have responded to the i r passenger needs by providing lounges, d in ing-rooms, c o c k t a i l lounges, specia l ty shops and restaurants; and ports could fol low th i s example. However, as cruise t r ave l i s l a rge ly seasonal, the terminal f a c i l i t i e s require a measure of f l e x i b i l i t y to meet these seasonal f luc tua t ions , espec ia l ly i n terms of the v i s i t o r s , cars , buses, and tax is that require access to the terminal . (5) The Vessel Size Race A leading question a r i s ing out of the trend toward increasing ship s izes concerns i t s e l f with the outcome of th i s movement and the eventual s ize of vesse ls . This question may be approached from the viewpoint of the ship owner, as w e l l as that of the dock authori ty concerned with land f a c i l i t i e s . A further point of view i s that of the publ ic which comes into play i f matters of publ ic concern are r a i sed . From the point of view of the ship owner the objective i s to provide the most e f f i c i en t movement. I f the demand e x i s t s , then the inherent economies resu l t ing from larger vessel s izes w i l l come into p lay . On the other hand, the harbour authority must provide channels, wharfage, and loading f a c i l i t i e s to accommodate these vessels and the i r cargoes, at considerable cost . A r a t i ona l so lu t ion to the vessel s ize race would be based upon minimum t o t a l transportat ion costs , i n which the economies of transporting goods i n large s ize vessels would be countervailed by the high cost of f a c i l i t i e s , as w e l l as a consideration of the quantity of cargoes demanded. A further matter mi t iga t ing against large vessels and cargoes i s the threat .of pol lutants escaping from shipwrecked vessels , l i k e l y to resul t i n increased insurance rates for these c a r r i e r s , Contr ibut-ing to the r i s k of shipwreck i s the r e l a t i v e l y low maneuverability of a large vesse l . For example, i f a 1,000 f t , 200,000 ton tanker i s scaled down to a model 40 f t , long, the corresponding power i s reduced 25 to one-half horsepower. At present the world 's largest ship i s an o i l tanker of. 126,000 26 tons i n the service of the Gulf O i l Corporation and future plans c a l l for even larger ships of 500,000 tons. One source estimates that vessel capaci t ies w i l l not exceed 1,000,000 tons, requir ing a ship 27 • 1,640 feet long, 274 feet i n breadth, with a draught of . 100 feet. For general cargo vessels the capaci t ies are very much smaller , and 28 29 seem to be s t a b i l i z i n g at about 30,000 tons ' due to higher value 2 5 A l f r e d H. K e i l , P h i l i p Mandel, op, cit., p, 515, 26 Engineering Journal, V o l , 53, No, 2 (February, 1970), p. 35= 27 John T, McCullough, op. cite, p, 264i 28 R. B„ Oram, op, cit,, p t 120, 29 Interview with Mr, J , S, Wood, Swan Wooster Engineering Co. L t d . , February 11, 1970, 82 and more l imi t ed market of the commodites ca r r i ed . B. PORT SITE REQUIREMENTS The preceeding sections have out l ined the trends i n sea-borne ca r r i e r s i n response to increased shipping flows and competition. As a resu l t "super" dimension vessels have emerged, f i r s t on the drawing board, then on the seas. At the general cargo l e v e l the volumes do not approach those of bulk cargoes, and vessel s izes have not increased i n the same proport ion. Nevertheless, substant ia l innovations have been devised i n the form of un i t i zed cargoes, i n -cluding pa l l e t s and containers. This sect ion w i l l proceed from the above discussion to that of the land f a c i l i t i e s required to accommodate these vessels and the i r cargoes, as w e l l as the land transport required i n transshipment. In th i s accommodation the purpose of the s i t e w i l l govern the design, and thus an i n i t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between f a c i l i t i e s for bulk movement and those for general cargo. The s t a r t ing point for consideration of the land requirements i s the ber th , which must be planned i n accordance with vessel charac-30 t e r i s t i c s . Various types of ship berthing f a c i l i t i e s are i n use, 30 Peter Engelmann, "Changing S i te Requirements for Port Opera-t i o n s , " Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 84, WW4, Proc. Paper 1769 (September 1958), p. 1769-2. 83 which may be c l a s s i f i e d as p i e r s , wharves, offshore berths, ship wharves, and ferry s l i p s . For the purpose of th i s chapter the 31 fol lowing de f in i t ions have been adopted: P ie r - a structure extending outward at an angle from the shore in to navigable waters normally permitt ing the berthing of vessels on both sides along i t s ent i re length. Wharf - a structure extending p a r a l l e l with the shore l i n e , connected to the shore at more than.one point (usually with continuous connection) and providing i n most cases, berthing at the outshore face of the structure only. Offshore berths consist of breasting and mooring dolphins.and are heavi ly constructed to withstand greater wave forces than ex i s t i n the harbour. Ship wharves and ferry s l i p s are used for bow and stern loading but the i r use i s not widespread, because of l i m i t a t i o n to vessels wi th in a spec i f i c s i z e . P iers and wharves are both commonly used in.harbours. The piers permit bow, s tern , and side loading, while wharves are o r d i n a r i l y only sui table for side loading. Despite such l i m i t a t i o n s , the wharf, The American Associa t ion of Port Au tho r i t i e s , Incorporated, Port Design and Construction, Washington: The American.Insti tute of Port Au tho r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1964, p . 13. or marginal wharf as i t i s often c a l l e d , i s current ly receiving greater use because of greater f l e x i b i l i t y and greater operational 32 advantages for general cargo requirements,. 33 According to one source,, the fol lowing minimum requirements are necessary to provide adequate space for berthing and mooring vesse ls : Length - length of vessel plus beam, Width - width of vessel plus 100 feet (for tug maneuvering. Depth - loaded draught of vessel plus 4 feet. (1) Bulk Cargo The bulk movement f a c i l i t y i s now required to receive such large ships that many of the world 's harbours have i n s u f f i c i e n t 34 draught for the supercarr iers . As a r e s u l t , off-shore berths have been constructed which allow the vessel to t i e up at moorage some distance from shore and discharge i t s cargo. The method of discharge Walter P. Heddon, Mission: Port Development, Washington: The American Associa t ion of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1967, p. 13. 33 Howard J . Marsden, "Shoreside F a c i l i t i e s for Special Purpose Ships ," Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineering, V o l . 83, WW2, Proc. Paper 1248 (May 1957), pp. 1248-4. 34 Leonard S, Oberman, "Functional Planning of Bulk Mate r i a l Por t s , " Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 91, WW2, Proc. Paper 4310 (May 1965), p. 20. 85 i s often by conveyor be l t for dry bulk cargoes, and p ipe l ines i n the case of petroleum and other l i q u i d products. In a recent a r t i c l e an example i s c i t ed i n . A u s t r a l i a of a conveyor be l t used to discharge 35 coal to an off-shore point some 2,000 feet out from the shorel ine , i The design of areas for conveyance and storage of cargoes for off-shore moorage i s dictated by the type of cargo, as w e l l as l o c a l condi t ions , and no general standards have been formulated, although i t may be said that the area required i s less than that for general 36 cargoes and requires less wharfage. The storage f a c i l i t i e s need not be at the waterfront, and are often more su i tab ly located near . t rans-porta t ion routes in land . In the case of shipside loading operations, a . large area i s usual ly required for storage i n close proximity to the sh ip . I f the bulk commodity i s transported by uni t t r a i n , the use of an unloading loop reduces cost considerably by allowing the t r a i n to remain i n t a c t , without the necessity of uncoupling and shunting. The minimum radius of such a loop i s 350 feet , and wi th t ra ins of 100 cars , each car being 50 feet long, the required area i s 5,000 feet by 700 feet , or approx-37 imately 80 acres. An a l te rna t ive arrangement.without the r a i l loop would require less area. In th i s case the economies of loading and unloading would be foregone i n favour of lower land costs . 35 Leonard S, Oberman, opc cit* j p . 20, 36 Walter P. Heddon, op, cit,, p, 13, 37 Leonard S. Oberman, op, cit., p, 25, M o d e s o f l a n d t r a n s p o r t o f c a r g o e s a r e . s t i l l l a r g e l y b y r a i l -w a y s f o r l o n g h a u l s , a l t h o u g h t h e y h a v e b e e n s u p e r s e d e d b y t r u c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r s h o r t e r t r i p s . On a t o n - m i l e b a s i s t h e c o s t o f r a i l movement h a s b e e n g i v e n a s two c e n t s , a s o p p o s e d t o f o u r c e n t s 38 f o r t r u c k t r a n s p o r t , a l t h o u g h f a c t o r s s u c h a s l e n g t h o f h a u l w i l l m o d i f y t h e s e f i g u r e s . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e u n i t t r a i n h a s e n a b l e d many e c o n o m i e s t o b e a f f e c t e d i n r a i l o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h g r e a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n a n d l o w e r l o a d i n g a n d u n l o a d i n g c o s t s . A s a n e x a m p l e i t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t p r e s e n t f r e i g h t c o s t s o n b u l k c o m m o d i t i e s b e t w e e n P r a i r i e p o i n t s a n d t h e W e s t C o a s t c o u l d b e r e d u c e d f r o m 25 p e r c e n t t o 40 p e r c e n t 39 w i t h t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a u n i t t r a i n s e r v i c e . ( 2 ) G e n e r a l C a r g o F o r a g e n e r a l c a r g o f a c i l i t y t h e v e s s e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a g a i n a d e t e r m i n a n t g o v e r n i n g t h e d e s i g n o f m a r i n e t e r m i n a l s . B e -c a u s e g e n e r a l c a r g o v e s s e l s h a v e n o t e x p a n d e d t o t h e same d i m e n s i o n s o f b u l k v e s s e l s , n e a r l y a l l g e n e r a l c a r g o b e r t h s p r o v i d e f o r t h e s h i p t y i n g up a t a w h a r f o r p i e r a d j o i n i n g t h e h a n d l i n g a n d s t o r a g e a r e a . V a r i o u s l e n g t h s h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d f o r b e r t h s o f v e s s e l s h a n d l i n g J o h n L . E y r e , The Seventies at Sea, a p a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o t h e C a n a d i a n I n d u s t r i a l T r a f f i c L e a g u e , ^ F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 6 9 , p . 9 . 39 F . C . L e i g h t o n , A Brief on.Development Problems of the Greater Vancouver Port Area, M a r c h 7 , 1 9 6 6 , p . 1 0 . 40 41 42 c o n t a i n e r s a n d g e n e r a l c a r g o r a n g i n g f r o m 604 f e e t t o 850 f e e t . ' * A s i d e f r o m t h e v e s s e l b e r t h , t h e g e n e r a l c a r g o t e r m i n a l m u s t 43 a c c o m m o d a t e • t h e f o l l o w i n g o p e r a t i o n s : 1. T r a n s i t a r e a i n c l u d i n g t r a n s i t h a n d l i n g a n d t r a n s i t s t o r a g e o f c a r g o . 2. A c c e s s f o r means o f l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . 3. L o n g t e r m s t o r a g e o f c a r g o . 4. A u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s , s u c h a s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p a r k i n g f i e l d s , m a i n t e n a n c e s h o p s a n d p e r s o n n e l f a c i l i t i e s . Of t h e s e f o u r c o m p o n e n t s , t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t a r e a t o s p e c i f y q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i s t h a t f o r t r a n s i t h a n d l i n g a n d t r a n s i t s t o r a g e o p e r a t i o n . T h e l a t t e r a r e a i s t h a t s p a c e r e q u i r e d f o r s t o r a g e i n t h e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n u n l o a d i n g f r o m t h e s h i p a n d p i c k - u p b y l a n d t r a n s p o r t , w h i l e t h e t r a n s i t h a n d l i n g a r e a i s t h a t p a r t r e q u i r e d f o r a i s l e s , a p r o n s , l o a d i n g p l a t f o r m s , r o a d w a y a n d r a i l w a y t r a c k s . S t u d i e s h a v e s h o w n t h a t t h e t r a n s i t a r e a , c o m p r i s e d o f b o t h t h e t r a n s i t h a n d l i n g a n d t r a n s i t s t o r a g e a r e a , r e q u i r e s f r o m 2 t o 9 a c r e s 40 T h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P o r t A u t h o r i t i e s , I n c o r p o r a t e d , op. cit. 3 p . 21. 41 C h a r l e s L . V i c k e r s , " C o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n 1967," T h e I n t e r n a t i o n -a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f P o r t s a n d H a r b o u r s , Proceedings of the Fifth Conference^ 1967, T o y k o : T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f P o r t s a n d H a r b o u r s , 1967, p . 120. 42 J . M , R i e n s t r a , op. cit. 43 P e t e r E n g e l m a n n , op. cit.3 p p . 1769-3. 44 per be r th . . The area required i s dependent upon the design capacity, i n the range of 56 to 300 tons per foot of berth per year. The depth of the back-up land has been given i n one source as from 300 to 500 45 46 feet, while i n another a depth of 480 feet i s given. The second operation, access for land t ransportat ion, must pro-vide space for railway cars and trucks to take goods from the t rans i t storage area to railway and highway routes. The provis ion of r a i l f a c i l i t i e s i s sometimes unnecessary i n the case of ports handling cargoes.largely of l o c a l o r i g i n and des t inat ion. Railway f a c i l i t i e s require heavier supporting s t ructures , and the r a i l handling operation i s l i k e l y to in ter fere with other t r a f f i c . The necessity of providing space for long term storage of cargo 47 at the marine terminal i s questioned i n some reports , . i n which i t i s recommended that t h i s space could be provided in land , and allow more turnover of goods at the terminal . In .the same manner cer ta in admin-i s t r a t i v e f a c i l i t i e s , not requir ing personal contact with the wharf, could be located some distance away. The t o t a l area required for such berths has again been spec i -f i ed i n several sources. Engelmann, i n 1958, recommended s i x to eight ^ W a l t e r P. Heddon, op.'cit., p . 20. 45 Walter :P..Heddon-, loc. ext. 4 6 Peter...Engelmann,-. op. pit:.;>;p .51769-5. 47 B. Nagorski, "Lay-out of Port F a c i l i t i e s " , .The Dock and Harbour Authority, V o l . XLIV, No. 512 (June 1963) and V o l . XLIV, No. 513 (July 1963). acres per berth for a l l operations except long term storage. More recent publications have exceeded t h i s standard and the general figure 49 50 recommended today i s 20 acres. ' The remaining consideration for marine terminals i s that of equipment, of which the most important s i n g l e item i s the crane for unloading containers. To unload the l a r g e s t containers (8 feet by 8 feet by 40 feet) a crane having a l i f t i n g capacity of 67,200 pounds 51 52 (30 long tons) i s needed. ' While the controversy over ship-based or pier-based unloading f a c i l i t i e s i s long standing, the preva-lence of recommendations i n favour of pier-based cranes indicates the trend. From another aspect, the competition between ports has required the i n s t a l l a t i o n of land-based cranes i f that port i s to remain competitive. 48 Peter Engelmann, too. cit. 49 I r . F. Posthuma, "Impact on Port Development.of Modern Trends i n Ship Design", The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Association of Ports and Harbors, Proceeding of the Fifth Conference3 1967, Tokyo: The International Ass o c i a t i o n of Ports and Harbors, 1967, p. 178. "* '^J.ieM« tRiens/tra^ibp. cit. 51 JohniGv,Kosiifer?,Nojcmaat-fl..Tilslfey, op. cit.3 p. 11. 52 . . .Ian; t EgraEost^ humav^ c p . p « t S 7 § . p . 178. C. FUTURE TRENDS The section on future trends i s included at th i s point to supply a background to the study, and to impart to the reader the con-ception that as expansion takes place, an analysis of transportat ion charac ter i s t ics w i l l serve as a guide from which the impact of future development may be gauged. The s ign i f i can t increases i n world ocean borne trade were men-tioned i n the preceding parts of th i s chapter. In Canada the volume of maritime shipping has shown a corresponding growth, and the P a c i f i c Coast and. the Port of Vancouver have shared i n th i s growth. Contr ib-uting to the increase are the exports of a g r i c u l t u r a l and mineral products, as a resu l t of which Vancouver.is now the p r i n c i p a l out let for Canada's g ra in , handling AO per.cent of the exports i n the 1964-53 1965 crop year. , In addi t ion , an -increasing demand for fuel and minerals , including c o a l , sulphur, .potash.and propane has accentuated the volume of shipping. , Most of the established export flows have been maintained, and pulp and paper have shown larger increases. Metropolitan Vancouver,. now approaching a population of a m i l l i o n , i s expected to reach.1.3 m i l l i o n i n another decadei as shown i n Table 14, This increase i n populat ion, and the increased purchasing power, w i l l augment the demand for consumer goods, much of which i s Charles N. Forward, .Waterfront Land Use in Metropolitan Van-couver, British Columbia, Geographical Paper No. A l , Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968, p. 26. imported as general cargo from overseas points . In contrast to the marked imbalance of exports of natural resources over imports, the imports of general cargo exceed the exports. Such conditions might be expected to hold i n a country with large reserves of minerals , forest and a g r i c u l t u r a l products, and with a scanty population. The increases i n trade occurring as a resul t of these growing export demands, and the growing consumer, market are shown i n Figure 11 54 and i n Table 15, from information prepared i n 1966. The predict ions are for a doubling of shipping-volumes in . the next decade, correspon-ding to an approximate annual increase of 7 per cent per year. This figure c lose ly conforms with preductions for world ocean borne trade, which predict a 7.7 per cent annual r i s e i n the decade of the 1970's and a 5% per cent annual increase i n the . fol lowing decade."'"' Estimates of capacity at the waterfront are included i n the projec t ions , and are shown i n Table 16. While-the t o t a l 1968 capacity was adequate for the t o t a l flows of that year, i t i s seen that some of the i n d i v i d u a l f a c i l i t i e s were beyond capacity-for that year. I t i s evident that more port terminal f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be needed i n the next decade i f the projected shipments are to be handled. In addi t ion to waterfrontage, the major component of expanded terminals i s adequate "back-up" land. - Container s i t es are now being specif ied 54 B r i t i s h Columbia Research Counc i l , Vancouver Harbour Traffic Trends and Facility Analysis, Vancouver: Bri t ish-Columbia Research Counc i l , 1967, p . 2, 5. 55Aifredv.HrdEeil-i'pPhttltp.,Mandel* ^-i.tfOt*. 6)p. 516 (Figure 6) . 92 1955 Total Harbour Deepsea Cargo Bulk(non grain) Out Grain Out General In&Out less Lumber General less Lumber, Pulp. Paper Lumber Out Bulk In 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 W Port of Vancouver Deepsea Cargo Tonnage - 1955-85 Source 1955-65 NHB data 1965-85 BCRC estimate 93 TABLE 14 POPULATION P R O J E C T I O N S , 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 8 6 . C I T Y AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER { 1966 1 9 6 8 1 9 7 1 1976 1 9 8 1 - 1986 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r M e t r o V a n c o u v e r 3 8 4 * 5 2 2 8 9 2 , 3 8 4 4 1 0 , 3 7 5 9 7 2 , 4 6 7 4 3 5 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 2 6 , 0 0 0 4 5 8 , 0 0 0 1 , 1 6 9 , 0 0 0 4 8 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 3 3 5 , 0 0 0 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 5 2 4 , 0 0 0 S o u r c e : D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , L o w e r M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . TABLE 15 PREDICTED CARGO TONNAGE, PORT OF VANCOUVER 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 8 5 ( M I L L I O N OF S H I P P I N G TONS) 1 9 6 5 1 9 6 8 1970 1975 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 G r a i n 4 . 9 6 . 1 7 . 0 9 . 4 1 1 . 4 1 3 . 0 B u l k o u t ( n o n - g r a i n ) 2 . 8 5 , 2 7 . 4 1 4 . 0 1 9 . 0 2 3 . 0 B u l k i n 0 . 7 1 . 0 1 . 2 1 . 6 1 . 9 2 . 4 L u m b e r 1 . 3 1 . 6 1 . 8 2 . 1 2 . 3 2 . 6 P u l p , P a p e r 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 4 1 . 0 1 . 2 1 . 5 G e n e r a l C a r g o 1 . 3 1 . 8 1 . 9 2 . 3 2 . 8 3 . 5 T o t a l 1 1 . 3 1 5 . 9 1 9 . 7 3 0 . 7 3 8 . 6 4 6 . 0 S o u r c e : N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d D a t a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l e s t i m a t e . TABLE 16 PORT OF VANCOUVER TONNAGE AND CAPACITY ( M I L L I O N OF S H I P P I N G TONS) T o n n a g e 1 9 6 8 C a p a c i t y 1 9 6 8 G r a i n 6 , 1 7 . 0 B u l k C u t ( n o n - g r a i n ) 5 . 2 1 2 . 0 B u l k I n 1 , 0 a m p l e L u m b e r 1 , 6 1 . 4 O t h e r G e n e r a l 2 . 0 1 . 9 S o u r c e : N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B o a r d D a t a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l e s t i m a t e s . 94 as 20 acres per ber th, and recent terminals have been constructed on 120 acre s i t e s . S i m i l a r l y bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s u t i l i z i n g unit t ra ins require about 80 acres. Port capaci t ies have become a concern of the Asian countries anxious to maintain an adequate flow of raw mater ia ls . In a recent meeting a prominent Japanese i n d u s t r i a l i s t , Tadayoshi Yamada, re fer -red to the Port of Vancouver when he sa id "Port capacit ies may become a deciding factor i n the economic.growth of Western -Canada.""^ D. TRANSPORTATION NETWORK (1) Railways I n i t i a l l y the waterfront users were served by the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, which l i e s c lose . to the whole southern edge of Burrard I n l e t . Because th i s railway had precedence i n l oca t ion , subsequent l ines were at a disadvantage i n not being able to serve the waterfront d i r e c t l y , but had to r e ly on the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company for switching the i r cars to waterfront custom-ers . The Canadian National Railways and the Great Northern Railway have l imi t ed access to the waterfront using a Great Northern Railway l i n e extending northerly from the rai lway yards-at the.east end of False Creek, and crossing the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway at Campbell Avenue. Using th i s l i n e , the Canadian National Railways has access Vancouver Express, A p r i l 14, 1970. to the Nat ional Harbours Board p i e r s , and has j o i n t access with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to most of the National Harbours Board elevators . The Canadian National Railways has extensive trackage at North Vancouver on the north shore of Burrard I n l e t , where i t j o ins with the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway, serving the cent ra l and northern sections of the province. U n t i l 1967 th i s trackage was only accessible by using the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l i n e between Campbell Avenue and the Second Narrows, from there switching onto the Second Narrows Railway Bridge, However, i n 1967 the Canadian National Railways com-pleted a new l i n e providing a l i n k between the Great Northern l i n e i n Burnaby and the north shore, by means of a new tunnel and bridge, shown i n Figure 12. This bridge replaced the e a r l i e r Second Narrows Railway Bridge, mentioned above. At the in te rsec t ion of the Canadian Nat ional Railways l i n e with the ex i s t ing Canadian P a c i f i c Railway t racks , the two l ines are grade separated, and no d i rec t r a i l con-nection i s poss ib le . As a resul t the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l i n k with the north shore i s severed, save by a c i rcui tous route by way of Port Coquitlam and New Westminster.^' The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i s s t i l l the dominant ca r r i e r i n metropolitan Vancouver, handling about 55 per cent of. the cars. The Canadian Nat ional Railways i s the second largest with about 30 per cent, while the Great Northern and P a c i f i c Great Eastern account for E:.' C- Leighton,. dp. c i t l j . p . 12. the remaining movements. 97 (2) Highways The highways serving the study area and CBD are shown i n Figure 12, The CBD l i e s generally along Burrard and G r a n v i l l e Streets, to the north of False Creek, with the more intensive development i n the northerly part. I t i s the major s i n g l e generator of t r a f f i c flows from other parts of the c i t y and from the north shore. Of the o r i g i n s of CBD t r a f f i c , approximately 55 per cent enters from the east, 30 per cent from the south, 5 per cent from the West End (between Burrard Street and Stanley Park), and 10 per cent comes from the north shore 59 over the Lions Gate Bridge at the F i r s t Narrows of Burrard I n l e t . As a r e s u l t of the unique l o c a t i o n . o f the CBD of Vancouver on a peninsula l y i n g between False Creek and Burrard I n l e t , the flow of t r a f f i c entering or leaving the CBD from the east i s concentrated into the narrow neck of land between False Creek and Borrard I n l e t . In t h i s section the main t r a f f i c streets east of Main -Street are Powell, Hastings and P r i o r Streets, and-west of Main-Street are Cordova or Powell Streets (one way streets i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s ) , Hastings, Pender and Georgia Streets. T r a f f i c flows along these st r e e t s are a l l B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council, Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouvery Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council, 1963, p. 2. 59 Interview with Mr. Jack Hutchinson, T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n , C i t y of Vancouver Engineering Department, June 3, 1969. 98 high, approximately 10,000 to 12,000 vehicles per 24-hour per iod, and about 5,000 to 6,000 vehicles i n the 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. i n t e r v a l . ^ Due to the constr icted entrance to the CBD, congestion along the entering streets i s h igh , and average vehic le speeds i n the peak hour seldom exceed 23 mph. i n the peak periods, as shown i n Figure 13. In the non-peak hours, the conditions are -improved only s l i g h t l y , and average about 18 mph. along the main routes. I f t r ave l along the in tersec t ing streets i s included then the o v e r a l l f igure drops to about 61 15 mph. Thus the streets adjoining the major par t -of the study area suffer from congestion and over capacity. E. EMPLOYMENT AND TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS In Chapter I I I , the waterfront businesses were grouped into land uses for purposes of tabulat ion into the general -character is t ics of s i t e s , t ransportat ion flows, and future plans. Using-these same cate-gories of land use, further inves t iga t ion may be made of employment and s p a t i a l cha rac t e r i s t i c s , and of transportat ion requirements. (1) Employment Requirements and Spa t i a l Character is t ics Using the previously established categories of land use i t was ^ V e h i c l e counts were obtained from the Tra f f i c D i v i s i o n , C i ty of Vancouver Engineering Department, March 11, 1970. ^"^V. Setty Pendakur, Peter Tassie and N e i l J . Gr iggs ,-Multiple Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada; Part II.:. Socio-Economic and Transport Consequences3 Vancouver: School of Community and Region-a l Planning, The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia,. October 1969, p. 50. 66 possible to compute the area requirements per employee both i n terms of f loor area and s i t e area, shown i n Table 17. A def in i te trend i s shown i n which the space per employee i s very much higher at the terminals than they are at the publ ic administrat ion f a c i l i t i e s . In th is l a t t e r category the f loor space per employee i s 469 square feet, not far above the same charac te r i s t i c for the Vancouver CBD of 325 62 square feet. Generally the working force employed wi th in the study area i s much less intensive than i n the CBD. TABLE 17 EMPLOYEE SPACE REQUIREMENTS, STUDY AREA, 1969 Land Use . Floor Space per employee ( sq . f t . ) Si te Area per employee ( sq . f t . ) Goods Terminals 1,680 14,400 Passenger Terminals 512 30,000 Marine Sales, Service & Repair 600 7,000 F i sh Processing 613 2,800 Other Processing 1,280 2,400 Publ ic Administrat ion 469 570 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. While most of the land uses appear to be randomly d i s t r ibu ted wi th in the study area, shown i n Figure 4, page 26, some patterns of concentration show up. The most apparent of these i s i n the marine 62 P. 0. Roer, Memorandum Re. Access to Project 2003 C i ty of Vancouver Planning Department, June 12, 1969. 101 sa les , service and repair category, i n which the businesses are la rge ly found i n the western par t . Half of the 14 users are si tuated between Burrard Street and Cardero Street , while the remainder are scattered throughout the study area. A s imi l a r trend i s noticeable i n the publ ic administration f a c i l i t i e s i n which f ive of the s i x agencies are located i n the section between Burrard Street and Campbell Avenue. The passenger terminals are also la rge ly concentrated i n the western par t , with f ive of the s i x services si tuated west of Main Street , As a r e s u l t , the three land uses of marine, sales service and repa i r ; pub l ic administrat ion; and passenger terminals are predominant-l y located i n the western part of the study area. The remaining three land uses, goods terminals, f i s h processing, and other processing do not show any c lus te r ing cha rac t e r i s t i c s , but are mainly located east of Main Street . (2) Transportation With the data avai lable from the questionnaire the correlat ions of truck t r i p s and t o t a l tonnage handled (by r a i l or truck) with area and waterfrontage were obtained using the TRIP computer control pro-gram. The resu l t ing coeff ic ients of cor re la t ion are shown i n Table 18, and generally show a strong re la t ionship between land tonnage and ei ther s i t e area or waterfrentage. The corre la t ions obtained would indicate that regression equations may be developed from th is data to indicate and predict the 102 re l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s . However because the standard errors of estimate were so large the independent variables were found to be non - s i g n i f i c a n t . Accordingly t h i s aspect of analysis was discontinued and further use was made of modes, number of t r i p s and tonnages by land use, not intended to be used as pr e d i c t o r s , but to i l l u s t r a t e the differences between land uses. TABLE 18 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION Land Use Total Land Tonn.-"-Floor Area Total Land Tonn.-Site Area T o t a l Land Tonn.-Water-f ront Truck T r i p s -Floor Area Truck T r i p s -S i t e Area Truck Trips Water-frontage Goods Terminals .097 .7!98 .921 -.052 .095 -.186 Fi s h Processing .001 .218 .424 -.038 .660 .470 Other Processing .470 .882 .908 .930 .660 .540 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. (a) Modes Separation of the businesses i n t o land use, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 19, showed that several of the land uses had no need f o r r a i l access, and that others had minimal transportation requirements. As might be expected goods terminals and processing plants made the maximum use of transpor-t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . 103 TABLE 19 AVERAGE MONTHLY TONNAGE PER USER BY MODE STUDY AREA 1969 Land Use R a i l (tons) T o t a l Monthly R a i l Tons Truck (tons) T o t a l Monthly Truck Tons . Goods Terminals 20,220 222,400 4,283 47,100 Passenger Terminals 0 0 33 200 Marine Sales, Service and Repair 0 0 77 1,100 Fi s h Processing 202 3,200 349 2,100 Other Processing 1,612 12,900 2,714 21,700 Public Administration 0 0 2 0 238,500 72,200 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. (b) Number of T r i p s . Further analysis.of the questionnaire data was used to compute the average number of cargo t r i p s by land use, as an i n d i c a t i o n of r a i l and highway requirements. While the r e s u l t s , shown i n Table 20, correspond to the trends shown i n Table 19, they do not ex h i b i t the wide ranges previously shown. (c) Tonnage The r a t i o s of tonnage handled to area for each of the land uses within the study area were computed from the questionnaire data. The r e s u l t i n g r a t i o s , the quotient of tonnage handled by either r a i l or truck, divided by the area, are shown i n Table 21. The r a t i o for Goods Terminals i s about 30 per cent greater than for Other Processing, 104 TABLE 20 AVERAGE MONTHLY TONNAGE TRIPS, STUDY AREA, 1969 R a i l Trips Truck Trips Land Use per acre per user no. of users t o t a l per acre per user t o t a l Goods Terminals 23.9 428 11 4,708 60.6 1,088 11,968 Passenger Terminals 0 0 6 0 6.4 11 66 Marine Sales . Service & Repairs 0 0 14 .0 33.8 94 1,316 F i sh Processing 2.5 16 6 96 56.7 362 2,172 Other Processing 12.5 53 8 424 73 310 2,480 Publ ic Administr . 0 0 6 0 55 15 90 5,228 18,092 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. and.about 16 times greater than F i sh Processing, where large tonnages are handled by water. For Publ ic Administrat ion the r a t io i s so low that i t would appear there i s l i t t l e to d i s t ingu ish th is land use from a normal o f f ice bu i ld ing i n the CBD. When the figures of Table 21 are applied against the water-frontage occupied by each land use, shown i n Table 2 (page 55), three major shippers account for over 99 per cent of the cargo tonnage shipped i n and out of the study area. These three categories are Goods Term-i n a l s , F i sh Processing, and Other -Processing, and together they occupy 105 about 5/6 of the waterfrontage. Of these three major land uses the Goods Terminals predominate the study area, i n both waterfrontage occupied and throughput of goods. In waterfrontage they occupy 8,274 feet, or s l i g h t l y over h a l f of the t o t a l . In goods handled they account for about 87 per cent of the tonnage (Table 19), 90 per cent of the r a i l t r i p s and 66 per cent of the truck t r i p s (Table 20). They are thus the major land use i n the study area i n s o f a r as transportation i s concerned. TABLE 21 TONNAGE - AREA RATIOS, STUDY AREA, 1969 Land Use Average Monthly Tonnage Per Acre R a i l Truck T o t a l Goods Terminals 1,028 236 1,366 Passenger Terminals 0 19 0 Marine Sales, Service and Repair 0 3 3 F i s h Processing 32 55 87 Other Processing 380 637 1,017 P u b l i c Administration 0 4 4 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. (3) Destinations of Transportation The preceding section showed that the Goods Terminals were the pre-eminent land use and transportation user, and that they accounted for the majority of tonnage handled and cargo t r i p s by highway and 106 r a i l . I t was therefore considered that information on t r i p destinations from the goods terminals would be representative of the study area. The introductory sect ion of th i s chapter segregated the.goods terminals into bulk f a c i l i t i e s and general cargo terminals. Analysis of the questionnaire resul ts for the bulk terminals i n the study area showed that the i r land shipments were almost exclus ive ly by r a i l . f r o m sources outside the province to destinations outside the country. Aside from the working force, the urban dependency and in te rac t ion of these s i t es i s minimal and thei r need for a loca t ion close to the urban centre i s not acute. The other segregation of the goods terminals, the general cargo p i e r s , deal with d i v e r s i f i e d commodities of a .different nature than the homogeneous cargoes handled at the bulk terminals. Analysis of the questionnaire returns revealed that movement of goods at these f a c i l i t i e s involved both -highway and . r a i l t ransportat ion, and that the sources and destinations .were not. as concentrated as with bulk cargoes. While the questionnaire revealed general .information on the der ivat ion and termination of products entering the study area, i t did not y i e l d spec i f i c data to determine the or ig ins and destinations of land based t r a f f i c . To uncover^this information would have required tabulat ion of the large number of items on the sh ip ' s manifests. I t was considered, however, that the majori ty, i f not a l l of the r a i l based t r a f f i c , would be shipped out of the metropolitan area, while most of the truck t r i p s would be wi th in metropolitan Vancouver, i n l i n e 107 with the general economies of movement under.these two modes. To obtain information on truck t r ip s to and from the study area a second questionnaire was devised, to be administered at a general cargo p i e r , as th is f a c i l i t y was ind ica t ive of t o t a l t r i p s i n the area. This questionnaire, a copy of which i s enclosed as Appendix I I I , requested information on the or ig ins and destinations of t rucks , the type and weight of truck and cargo, and the times of entry and ex i t from the p i e r . This questionnaire was administered to truckers entering Cen-tennia l P i e r , shown i n Figure 4 (page 26), on February 18, 1970. The entrance and ex i t procedures at th is p i e r , i n which a l l t r a f f i c re -ports to a Gate House, lent themselves to the administrat ion of the questionnaire from th i s b u i l d i n g . During the day the sample was taken 320 trucks entered the p i e r , and out: of these 179 returns were received., although some were not completely answered. Consequently the sample represented 56 per cent of the truck population of that day, considered by the attendants to be t y p i c a l of most working days. In addit ion about 210 cars entered the p i e r , from which no information was co l l ec ted . The analysis of the questionnaire returns showed that the dominant d i r ec t ion of movement of goods i s away from the p i e r , con-t ras t ing with the charac te r i s t i cs of bulk cargo terminals, i n which the p reva i l ing d i rec t ion of land based cargoes.is toward the terminals. I t was found that 35 trucks del ivered a t o t a l of 256 tons to the p i e r , 108 while 116 vehicles hauled 1,045 tons away,from the p i e r . This con-63 6 A elusion i s v e r i f i e d i n other s tudies , ' i n which the rate of imports to exports was about four to one. On the questionnaire the respondent was asked to supply i n f o r -mation on the o r i g i n and-destination of loads by census t r ac t s . Of the 151 loads brought i n t o , or taken out of the p i e r , 68 were wi th in a l*g mile radius , and 83 were wi th in that part of the Ci ty l y i n g to the north of 16th Avenue. I f the whole of the Ci ty i s considered, 99 out of the 151 were w i th in the Ci ty l i m i t s , and the majority of the remainder were to the western part of Burnaby, with a few to New Westminster, Richmond, and North and West Vancouver. Only-6 t r i p s out of the 151 went d i r e c t l y outside.of metropolitan Vancouver, although some loads may have gone to a centra l c o l l e c t i o n poin t , to be exported out of the region as part of a larger shipment. F . TRANSPORTATION DELAYS Delay i s used here i n an o v e r a l l sense, and .refers to the delays that are caused to rai lway and highway traffic-moving i n and out of the study area. I t includes delays caused-by congestion and blockage, and from i n e f f i c i e n c i e s of movement. - W.. J . Sher i f f , The Port of Vancouver: General Cargo Require-ments, Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research Counci l , January, 1968, p. 14. " Ross Robinson,' Spatial' Patterns .of. Port-Linked Flows:'"•••'••. General Cargo Imports Through the Port, of Vancouver, 1965^ Vancouver, F a l l 1967. 109 taey ( l)'e Railways tictc ' .u m.thi-n. t';c c n - w * l i m i t s Because of the precedence of r a i l t r a f f i c over highway t r a f f i c , allowing them for example, to block crossings. for up to f ive minutes, they are not r e s t r i c t ed wi th in the same l i m i t s as vehicular t r a f f i c . Nevertheless, i n the waterfront area, the railway operation i s con-strained by l i m i t s of capacity. / In spi te of recent changes i n railway switching procedure, whereby almost a l l Canadian P a c i f i c Railway t ra ins are broken up at Port Coquitlam, 17 miles east of Vancouver, the present l i n e and yards 65 i n the study area are operating a close to capacity. The chief point of.congestion i s the downtown yard.of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way at the foot of Granvi l l e Street , which acts as a sub-depot for d i s t r i b u t i o n to the nearby waterfront area. Any increase i n car loadings w i l l require addi t iona l trackage and expansion. I f , for example, the grain,elevators are operating at 66 the i r maximum capaci ty .of 599.cars per day, the railways would have d i f f i c u l t y i n f inding enough trackage to carry out switching oper-67 at ions. In the downtown area expansion i s not possible because of 68 the r e s t r i c t i ons imposed by Project 200. Elsewhere the r ight-of-way, "^V. Setty Pendakur et a l . , op. cit., p . 41, 54. ^ J . Kates, West Coast Commodity Transportation Studyj Part I: The Transportation and Handling of Grains; Short•Term Recommendations, Toronto: Kates, Peat, Marwick and Company, 1967, p . 35. 67 Interview with Mr. R. Hughes, Yardmaster, Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, Vancouver, March 13, 1970. VanSe'tty Eendakuroet a i ; , , o p . 'ait., p . 55. 110 generally 99 feet wide, would allow i n s t a l l a t i o n of add i t iona l t rack-age at most points east of the CBD, at the expense of increased blockage of grade crossings, and the extension or rebui lding of over-, passes, underpasses and other s t ructures . Under the present arrangements between the railways operating i n the study area, each company has i t s own trackage, under which there are def in i te r e s t r i c t i ons on the switching of cars. Cars o r ig ina t ing on Canadian Nat ional Railways sidings destined for Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l ines are not usual ly permitted to be switched by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, but must be taken by the Canadian Nat ional Railways to the interchange p o i n t , where they are .picked up by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. For example, freight cars from the Canadian National Railways served Ballantyne P ie r which are required to be handled out of Vancouver by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway must f i r s t be moved east by the Canadian National Railways.to the interchange with the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway at Campbell Avenue, and there picked up by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway for assembly in to a t r a i n . This arrangement increases the cost .of handling.a car.routed to a s id ing control led by.another ra i lway. The average cost of terminal handling i n 1963 was estimated at 8 dol lars per loaded car. When an interchange i s required the c o s t . i s -doubled to 16 do l la r s as a resu l t of the dupl ica t ion i n handling by the two ra i lways. In 1961 the waterfront area generated approximately 124,000 loaded r a i l - c a r s . Of th i s number 38,000 required interchange at an estimated addi t iona l I l l cost of $300,000. 6 9 In addit ion to the addi t iona l cost incurred from interchanges between ra i lways, a further charge resul ts from delay at interchange points , estimated to be about a day. '^ The resu l t ing cost of th i s delay, taking in teres t on c a p i t a l , and insurance, as 10 per cent per year, i s estimated at $125,000 annually for the waterfront study area. (2) Highways Delays resu l t ing to highway vehicles operating.on the waterfront occur at the-terminals, -between the-terminals and the c i t y s t ree ts , and on the c i t y street system.. Delays at the terminal apply only to that pa r t i cu l a r terminal or p i e r . Delays between the terminal and the c i t y street system, and wi th in the study area, are separated from those of the street system as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for th i s phase i s gener-a l l y undertaken by the National-Harbours Board, and involves railway crossings. Las t ly delays on the c i t y street system are wi th in muni-c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . . (a) Terminal Delays I t was not wi th in the scope of th i s study, to tabulate delay time at a l l p i e r s , and to evaluate the i r e f f i c i ency . The only data a v a i l -able i s that from the Trucking Questionnaire at Centennial P i e r i n which the time spent at the p ie r f o r . a l l trucks sampled was obtained 69 B r i t i s h Columbia Research Counci l ,.Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouver, op. ait.., p . 3, 19, 25, 26. ^°Ibid., p . 38. 112 and i s shown i n Table 22. The data here probably represents an extreme case on account of the large number of trucks entering the p i e r and the small average load per truck. Much of t h i s delay would be lessened by i n s t i t u t i n g a scheduling system. If the data from Table 22 (below) i s used to derive the ;accumulated non-productive time spent at the piers by trucks, and a t h i r t y minute i n t e r v a l f o r loading or unloading a truck i s a reasonable period, then the t o t a l delay time of the 132 trucks stopping for more than 29 minutes i s approximately 135 hours. As the sample was approxi-mately 56 per cent of a l l trucks, the t o t a l delay for one day was about 240 hours. I f equipment and labour i s valued at 12 d o l l a r s per hour, the average charge i n a -local f r e i g h t t a r i f f then the a d d i t i o n a l expense imposed on shippers i s $2,900 per day, and about $700,000 per year. TABLE 22 TRUCK TIME AT CENTENNIAL PIER, 1969 0-29 min. 30-59 min. 60-89 min. 90-119 min. 120-149 min. 150-179 min. 180 min. and over Number of Trucks 46 42 43 19 9 12 7 Percent-age 26.0 23.6 24.0 10.7 5.1 6.7 3.9 Source: Trucking Questionnaire, February 1970. (" - Johnston::TermMalsh£imited,/ Gneater Vancouver Local and Joint Freight Tariff No. 13 issued November 19, 1969, e f f e c t i v e February ,19,: 1970, p. 13. ..... •.•:• 113 (b) Delays wi th in the Study Area In th is sect ion delays occur p r i n c i p a l l y from blockages at the railway crossings. These crossings, along with underpasses and over-passes, are shown i n Figure 12, page 96. The two general cargo p i e r s , Centennial and Ballantyne, shown i n Figure 4 (page 26), are accessible by an overpass connecting with Heatley Avenue. A second overhead crossing constructed by the Nat ional Harbours Board at the.foot of Renfrew Street allows t r a f f i c onto Commissioner Street . The l a s t two overhead crossings, at Burrard and Granv i l l e Streets , are p r iva te ly owned by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. One of these, at Granv i l l e Street,, i s to be demolished as work on Project 200 commences i n 1970, forcing t r a f f i c from the western part of the study area out in to Burrard Street , or further west along a pr ivate road of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to Cardero Street . With grade separation s t ructures , delay from the marine terminals to the c i t y streets i s n e g l i g i b l e . . However for those businesses wi th -i n the study area using grade crossings, some delay i s encountered from blockage of the crossing by railway cars. Some f i e l d measurements of delay were taken at Rogers Street and Salsbury Dr ive , ind ica t ing that .the t o t a l delay per day for a l l vehicles for one crossing i s about one hour. The accumulated value for the 11 grade crossings would then be about 11 hours per day, a much smaller f igure than that encountered at the general cargo p i e r . The lack of a waterfront service road.on the north side of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway right-of-way contributes to the d i f f i c u l t y 114 of access i n the study area. Although portions of a service road are i n existence as Commissioner Street , th i s road does not extend westerly to the more congested parts of the c i t y . Extension of th i s road would re l i eve t r a f f i c congestion i n two ways. F i r s t l y i t would allow t r a f f i c to get d i r e c t l y from one waterfront s i t e to the other without compelling i t to make two crossings of the railway and t r ave l along the c i t y s t ree ts . Secondly, i t would provide an a l ternat ive outlet for t r a f f i c from the waterfront area going to the c i t y s t ree t s , i n the event that one crossing was obstructed. As some parts of the study area at present are only accessible by one crossing, they are i n effect "locked i n " when the crossing i s blocked. While the construction of th i s service road would a l l ev i a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s described above, i t would again be done at the s a c r i f i c e of land wi th in the study area. (c) Delays i n C i ty -Streets As mentioned previously , the only land, access to the waterfront study area i s across the the ra i lway. Because of the lack of a service road, t r a f f i c from the study area i s forced onto the c i t y street system at a crossing si tuated near the business loca t ion . In so doing i t enters a s treet system where peak hour average speeds west of Main Street are between 0 and 13 mph., and i n non-peak hours increase about 5 mph. Between Main Street and V i c t o r i a Drive average peak hour i s about 10 mph. higher. Only i n that part- of the study area east of V i c t o r i a Drive does- t r ave l speed increase beyond 23 mph. Not only i s the congestion high on the east-west s t ree ts , but i s also high on the north-south streets close to the waterfront. Throughout the CBD, and i n that part of the c i t y adjoining the study area as far east as Clark Dr ive , the average speed on these north-south routes i s from 0—13 mph. at the peak. To tabulate the delay resu l t ing to t r a f f i c serv ic ing the water front area, the o r i g i n and dest inat ion data of trucks entering Centennial P ie r were tabulated by census t r ac t . From data of the T ra f f i c D i v i s i o n of the Ci ty of Vancouver Engineering Department showing distance and average.24 hour speed on the co l l ec to r and a r t e r i a l s treets i n metropolitan Vancouver, the distance and average t r ave l time to each census t ract was computed. The.resul t ing t o t a l t r ave l time of a l l trucks was compared with the resu l t obtained from the same vehicles t r a v e l l i n g on uncongested s t ree ts . The addi t iona l time resu l t ing from congestion was 27 per cent above the base condi t ion. The 27 per cent surcharge resu l t ing from. congestion i s sup-ported by the findings of -a l o c a l trucking company, i n which a spec ia l t a r i f f i s imposed upon t r a f f i c o r ig ina t ing i n deepsea docks or terminals. The extra rate i s about 15 per cent above the basic ra te . According to a company o f f i c i a l th is extra rate i s not high enough to cover costs of se rv ic ing the waterfront docks, but should 72 be increased to about 30 per cent. The method used i n determining 72 Interview with T. Barr ie Lindsay, Manager, Export-Import Services, Johnston Terminals Limi ted , February 16, 1970. 116 the increased costs was by random sampling of trucking costs of a l l vehicle t r i p s , out of which emerged the increased cost of operating i n the waterfront. Elsewhere, an eastern trucking company executive estimates the cost of operating On i n t e r - c i t y hauls i s about one quarter the 73 cost of urban movements. In downtown Toronto the running costs i n the downtown area were $2.06 per mi l e , as compared with $1.05.per mile i n the fringe areas. G. SUMMARY This chapter has dealt wi th .por t land needs and transportat ion requirements as measured i n the study area. I t started with develop-ments that have been i n i t i a t e d i n maritime technology i n the past decade, i n which the resu l t ing economies that may -be effected i n t o t a l t ransportat ion costs were shown to apply to both bulk loading and general cargo terminals. The f a c i l i t i e s to contain these newer developments have one common requirement: land, which i s required i n large quan t i t i e s , i n the order of 100 acres. The future shipping flows that may be expected i n the Port of Vancouver were then introduced to indicate the magnitude of cargo tonnages that may be expected i n the next decade. The t o t a l projected 73 " R. C. Barnstead, "Congestion Costs and F l e x i b i l i t y of Goods Movement", i n Proceedings of the First Canadian Urban Transportation Conference, ed. by John S tee l , Ottawa: Canadian Federation of Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 1969, p. 173. 117 tonnage of 1980 i s approximately double that of 1970. In dealing with the study area i t was shown that some land uses tended to concentrate i n the western par t . Employment space re -quirements varied considerably and employment at the goods terminals was much less space intensive than i n normal CBD uses. In considering a l l businesses i n the study area different access and transportat ion requirements were exhibi ted . Some land uses had no need for r a i l access and minimal need for highway trans-por ta t ion , while others had much higher requirements. The goods terminals showed the maximum need for transportation a c c e s s i b i l i t y both by highway and r a i l and accounted for 87 per cent of the tonnage, 90 per cent of the r a i l t r i p s and 66 per cent of the truck t r i p s . The o r i g i n and dest inat ion of truck loads at a general cargo p ie r were concentrated close to the p i e r , although further research i s needed to determine the ultimate dest inat ion of these loads. In the concluding sect ion on delays i t was shown that i n -e f f i c i enc i e s and dupl ica t ion of railway switching procedures imposed an addi t iona l $425,000 annual expense on the waterfront.area. Delays at the terminal for the one case studied-were excessive and resulted i n an addi t iona l annual-charge of $700,000 through unproductive time, that would be re l i eved i n a scheduling system. L a s t l y , transportation costs of vehicles operating i n the study area are estimated to be 27 per cent higher than i n uncongested areas, not because or igins and destinations are i n the CBD, but because t r a f f i c serving the area i s routed onto the congested street system serving the CBD. The construction of a waterfront service road would a l l e v i a t e th i s condition at the expense of a l imi ted supply of land adjoining deep water moorage. CHAPTER V THE URBAN INFLUENCE ON WATERFRONT LANDS I t was suggested i n the e a r l i e r chapters and hypothesis, that there are two developments occurring simultaneously at the port in te r face , the resu l t of which impedes the future port develop-ment. The f i r s t of these i s the changing shipping a c t i v i t y and port requirements for space and transportat ion i n the context of r e -cent technological developments. The de t a i l s and consequences of these were discussed i n Chapter IV. The conclusions reached were that future space needs for a l l ex i s t i ng users can not be met unless some indust r ies relocate or add i t iona l land i s ava i l ab l e . S i m i l a r l y the future t ransportat ion demand c a l l s for large scale improvements simply to maintain the present l eve l s of se rv ice . Thus technologi-c a l changes i n the shipping and re la ted indust r ies are causing s i g n i f i c a n t pressures at the urban/port interface that require large scale t ransportat ion investments. There i s also a second development that i s occurring at the port interface that adds to the already c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . This i s the expanding urban population and i t s own space and transportat ion needs. The trend toward metropolitan l i v i n g i s strong and observers are unanimous i n project ing th i s trend into the future."* In Canada "'"Benjamin C h i n i t z , City and Suburb, the Economies of Metro-politan Growth, Englewood, New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1964, • p. 3. 120 for example 70 per cent of Canadians now l i v e i n urban areas and by 1980 th is w i l l have reached 80 per cent, most of them l i v i n g i n 2 29 major urban centers across the country. This chapter attempts to document these urban pressures and the re la t ionship between the Ci ty of Vancouver and the Por t . This re la t ionsh ip w i l l be examined i n terms of a c t i v i t i e s , zoning, land uses, land values, the,flow of goods and people, i n d u s t r i a l , commer-c i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l and recreat ional needs, major developments, and b l i g h t and i t s s o c i a l and economic consequences. By examining each of these, an o v e r a l l impression of the c i t y ' s influence on the port w i l l be gained. This w i l l be of value i n understanding what the c o n f l i c t i s between shipping a c t i v i t y and the adjoining urban dev-elopment . This information alone would not be suf f i c ien t on which to base investment decisions for urban expansion into the port area or v ice versa. As a resu l t an understanding of the benef i ts , both economic and s o c i a l , that the c i t y receives from the port operation has to be undertaken. Intensive inves t iga t ion into th is area i s not included i n th i s study, however some basic measurements have been made i n terms of port growth forecasts, land needs and the , resu l t -ant economic impact. Report of the Federal Task Force on Rousing and Urban Devel-opment, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969, p . 9. 121 A. URBAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (1) Commodity Flows and Transport Linkages. The growth of Vancouver has always been associated with the waterfront because of the import and export trade, which has been a part of the c i t y since i t s e a r l i e s t days. However the role of the downtown waterfront has changed markedly over the l a s t century, as has i t s re la t ionship to the c i t y . O r i g i n a l l y i t served the most important means of . t ranspor ta t ion , making i t the center.of commerce for the ear ly settlement. This settlement around 1859 was pr imar i ly engaged i n sawmil l ing, and logging. Here at the waterfront timber was exported, goods were received, passengers landed and departed, 3 mai l was received and news and gossip spread. This was the f i r s t of what we bel ieve to be the C i t y ' s three stages of development. The port and the town were one, through which a l l goods and people passed and to which a l l communication, roadways and paths were l i n k e d . S i m i l a r l y 100 per cent of a l l incoming goods were destined for t h i s community. This was the f i r s t of three stages of develop-ment which i s graphica l ly shown i n Figure 14A, Port and Region Commodity Flows. The volumes of trade flows for the f i r s t two stages are' estimates, but the th i rd stage re f lec t s the present s i t -uation and was extrpolated from the 1969 Waterfront Questionnaire. A s imi l a r development occurred i n the,state of Wisconsin. Wisconsin, Department of Housing and Urban Renewal, Waterfront Renewal, Madison, 1966. source Waterfront Survey, 1969. 123 The second stage of Vancouver's development, Figure 14B, occurred some twenty years l a t e r i n the mid 1880's, and was primar-4 i l y the resu l t of poor navigation channels along the Fraser r i v e r . The town became the fur trade center for t h i s area. The communica-t i o n , trade and transportation l i n k s were now extended from the l o c a l community to a much larger h in te r land , that could be penetrated by small r i v e r c ra f t . Thus the port h in te r land , i n addi t ion to the o r i g i n a l settlement also became dependant upon the harbour, and.in turn the harbour services . As the hinter land trade and population grew, so i t s demand on port f a c i l i t i e s grew, both i n terms of exports as w e l l as imports. A resu l t of th i s was a change i n the o v e r a l l flow of goods; t h e . l o c a l community was no longer the gener-a tor .of a l l port a c t i v i t y as the port began to .service these other settlements in land . The linkages i n th i s second stage were primar-i l y short haul for both land and marine, as compared to.the short haul land linkages of the f i r s t stage. The t h i rd stage occurred as a-resul t of a technological change that enabled land linkages to -become long haul and trans-cont inental . With the a r r i v a l of the r a i l w a y . i n 1883 to Vancouver, i t lessened the dependence of the c i t y and the l o c a l area on water-borne commerce for a l l . i t s l i v e l i h o o d . The port was now l inked with a l l parts of . the continent,, f o r . i t s resources, and.shipment of food, goods, mai l and gossip. This, process .of . l inkage d i f fus ion 4 Vancouver: Ci ty of Vancouver Planning..Department, Restoration Report: A Case for Renewed--Life .in. the Old .City, 1969, p . 12-. 124 has continued with the addi t ion of each new ra i lway, road and free-way, and today.the c i ty /po r t re la t ionship i n terms of commodity flows has changed subs tan t ia l ly as seen i n Figure 14C-1 and 14C-2 (page 122). Of a l l goods flowing from the waterfront, the c i t y now absorbs 10.3 per cent, and of a l l goods flowing to the waterfront the c i t y ' s contr ibut ion i s .6 per cent. This i s a considerable change from the s i tua t ion 100 years ago when the c i t y received 100 per cent of the imports and was accountable for 100 per cent of the por t ' s exports. Thus the waterfront area i s no longer the c i t y ' s transportation hub as i t used to be. In some instances i t would appear that the c i t y has v i r t u a l l y " tu rned i t s back" on th is area to which it" now has few d i rec t trade l i n k s . The discussion of road access i n Chapter IV confirms t h i s , where i t was seen, i n some instances, that access to the waterfront was only v i a tortuous and ind i rec t back lanes. (2) Service Links As goods flow through the c i t y , they have.to be transferred from one transportat ion mode to another, from marine to land and vise versa. At th i s po in t , where change of ownership usual ly occurs, there develops a vast array of service industries, to-handle th i s transference. These include customs .service , steamship, agencies, shippers, brokers, marine.insurance,-banking, ship supplies and chandlery, tug h i r e , stevedoring, repair se rv ice , warehousing, and a port au thor i ty , to name a few. Each of these-have d i rec t l i nks 125 with the port i n various forms, e i ther by telephone, te lex , corres-pondence or by truck, automobile or personal contact. These are important port/urban l i n k s , any one of which may be s ign i f i can t enough to influence loca t iona l decisions;. The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board suggested i n 1961 that i t would be quite impossible, at least for some decades to equip any new port f a c i l i t y with the supporting f a c i l i t i e s which downtown Vancouver now provides for i t s harbour."' For example, one basic pattern of l i nks are the .da i ly personal v i s i t s that are made to each s i t e . Although a l l s i t es at one time or another receive service c a l l s , each over time develops a basic pattern, Figure .15. shows .the point from which most da i l y v i s i t s are made.to each s i t e . I t would ..appear that the c i t y (which includes the CBD and.waterfront), and the metropolitan area have an equal share of l inkages. This indicates the wide range of influence the waterfront has over the ent i re area. An explanation of th i s scat ter ing can be based.on.the l oca -t ion of businesses i n the port service sector . Figures 16, 17, and 18 show the off ice d i s t r i b u t i o n of these businesses. Each group appears to have d i f f e r ing and yet de f in i t e loca t ion patterns. Steam-ship Companies, Customs Brokers and Shipping Agents are highly con-centrated and appear to require a Central Business D i s t r i c t loca t ion over a waterfront l oca t ion . The opposite appears to be the case for Ship Chandlers and Marine Equipment Suppl iers , who have located "'The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Industrial Land Prospects in the Lower Mainland, New Westminster, 1961, p. 21. 15 j Person Trips ho —I 130 close to the waterfront and adjacent to shipping terminals. F i n a l l y Importers and Exporters are both concentrated and dispersed, the l a t t e r i s i n part explained by the i r warehouses which are located to optimize d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t would appear from these maps that waterfront proximity i s not a foregone conclusion for these por t . serv ice indus t r i es , i n fact the.analysis i n Chapter I I I showed the average distance of Goods and Passenger Terminals to -the Central Business D i s t r i c t to be over one mi le . An attempt was made to substantiate t h i s conclusion.- A 25 per cent sample was taken of the above businessesj p r imar i ly i n respect to an economic analysis which appears i n Section F . However one question was directed.at t h i s aspect-of l oca t ion .^ Each of the sampled Marine Services were asked i f they could continue to operate from.their-present loca t ion should the ent i re port function be relocated to the new-Roberts Bank Super Por t . Their response and the employment-implications-are seen i n Table 23. I t i s in te res t ing to note that-most companies gave th is question serious thought and indicated that i f they did .not move to the new loca t ion they most l i k e l y would-open a small one- or two^staff branch o f f i c e . The-planning-implications of t h i s for both Delta and Vancouver'are s i g n i f i c a n t . Not only would there be a r e d i s t r i -bution of business taxes, r e s i d e n t i a l populations, and t r a f f i c , but also s ign i f i can t of f ice space requirements.. For example, of the 54 This survey i s referred to as The Service Sector Survey 1970. See Appendix IV for sample of the l e t t e r and questions asked. businesses that indicated a def in i te move, they would require an addi t iona l 237,500 square feet of of f ice space, based on 250 square feet per employee.' TABLE 23 PORT RELOCATION: IMPACT ON SERVICE INDUSTRIES, VANCOUVER 1969 Service Industries Companies that Employees Indicated Re- Involved loca t ion necessary Customs Brokers 10 50 Steamship Companies 8 880 Ship Chandlers and Agents 5 160 Marine Equipment and Supplies 0 0 Importers and Exporters 31 124 54 1,214 Source: Service Sector Survey 1970. I t would appear from the responses that the largest water-front employment category. (Marine Services) would be affected by. Community Builders Council of Urban.Land Ins t i t u t e , The Community Builders Handbook, Ed i to r , J . Ross McKeeves, Washington, 1968, p. 242. g Service Sector Telephone Survey, conducted January 1970, using a 25 per cent sample of the 352 businesses. 132 less than 15 per cent sh i f t i n business operations i f , t h e ent i re port function was relocated, and that Vancouver would s t i l l re ta in the l i o n ' s share of t h i s service business. In summary the h i s t o r i c growth and development of Vancouver i n terms of commodity flows and service l i n k s have been found to be a useful method of describing the changing re la t ionship between c i t y and por t . This approach i s b a s i c a l l y a Systems Approach which attempts to view the p o r t / c i t y re la t ionship i n terms of a t o t a l , t ransportat ion system. I t i s concerned with the flow of commodities as w e l l as the se rv ic ing .o f th i s flow. H i s t o r i c a l l y the c i t y ' s re la t ionship dominated the ent i re flow of commodities, and the port functioned to meet the community needs, therefore proximity of port and community was important.. As transportation improvements were made and resource areas opened up i n the country's i n t e r i o r , the c i t y depended less and less upon, the port f o r . i t s goods and communi-cation but rather became a service center f o r . i t . For example of a l l goods today flowing from, the waterfront,-the c i t y absorbs 10.3 per cent and of a l l goods flowing to the waterfront, the c i t y ' s contr ibut ion i s .6 per cent. Conversely 89.7 per cent of imports and'.-99.4 per cent of the exports must pass through the urban area in-order to reach the i r respective points of o r i g i n and des t ina t ion . I t i s expected that th i s pattern w i l l continue into the future, un-less a s ign i f i can t change occurs wi th in the c i t y , for example changes i n i ndus t r i a l : growth, that w i l l a l t e r th i s pattern. The following sect ion expands upon t h i s . 133 ( 3 ) P o p u l a t i o n F o r e c a s t T h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i s f o r e c a s t t o r e c e i v e a 25 p e r c e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e o v e r t h e 1 8 - y e a r p e r i o d 1 9 6 8 t o 1 9 8 6 , o r a t o t a l i n c r e a s e o f some 9 0 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s . T a b l e 24 b e l o w s h o w s t h e s e t r e n d s f o r t h e c i t y a n d m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . TABLE 24 POPULATION P R O J E C T I O N S , 1 9 6 6 - 1 9 8 6 . C I T Y AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 8 1 9 7 1 1976 1 9 8 1 ! 1 9 8 6 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 3 8 4 , 5 2 2 4 1 0 , 3 7 5 4 3 5 , 0 0 0 4 5 8 , 0 0 0 4 8 0 , 0 0 0 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 M e t r o V a n c o u v e r 8 9 4 , 3 8 4 9 7 2 , 4 6 7 1 , 0 2 6 , 0 0 0 1 , 1 6 9 , 0 0 0 1 , 3 3 5 , 0 0 0 1 , 5 2 4 , 0 0 0 S o u r c e : D e p a r t m e n t o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , L o w e r M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . T h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s i n c r e a s e a r e c o m p l e x , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o a 1 9 6 0 s t u d y , f o r t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t C o m m i t t e e , two m a j o r f a c t o r s a r e a t t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s i n c r e a s e . 1 ^ T h e f i r s t m a j o r f o r c e i s t h e " a m e n i t y " f a c t o r . E d w a r d U l l m a n s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s g r o w i n g e v i d e n c e t o d a y t h a t p l e a s a n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s a n d a m e n i t i e s s u c h a s c l i m a t e , s c e n e r y , m o u n t a i n s , b e a c h e s a n d t h e s e a a r e . b e c o m i n g m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t G . H o d g e i a n d I . M . R o b i n s o n , Jobs, People and Transportation, R e p o r t t o t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t C o m m i t t e e , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 0 , p p . 1 8 - 1 9 . 134 factors i n the population growth of urban communities. Vancouver apparently has these amenities and planners bel ieve th is i s a factor that i s contr ibuting to i t s rapid growth. The second force i s the growth of secondary manufacturing i n -dus t r ies , these are tending to locate i n Metropolitan Vancouver. Being at the point of transportation break, where break-of-bulk occurs, Vancouver i s therefore the place where manufacturing processes y i e ld ing reduced bulk and enhanced values, can take place p r o f i t a b l y . Thus the early head s tar t which Vancouver obtained as a resu l t of i t s being located at the point of trans-portat ion break gave i t an i n i t i a l loca t ion advantage over other c i t i e s and towns. Since then her economic development and population growth have continued and there i s no evidence that th i s trend w i l l not continue into the future.12 From these b r i e f comments i t appears that Vancouver can expect a steady growth so long as these two "resources"—amenity and break-of-bulk remain. The growth of the l a t t e r w i l l r e su l t i n increased resource demands as w e l l as increased external trade. This could subs tan t ia l ly influence the present-pattern of commodity flows, and Vancouver may once again contribute subs tan t ia l ly to port trade. However the c r i t i c a l issue here i s the loca t ion of these indus t r i es , be they at the waterfront, other c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned lands or i n i n d u s t r i a l parks outside the c i t y . For each of these locat ions the commodity flow patterns would d i f f e r and the degree of access i -b i l i t y would also d i f f e r . "''"'"Edward Ullman, "Amenity as a Factor i n Regional Growth", Geographical Review, 44, January, 1954, pp» 119-132. 12 " G. ;Hodge, and;I . M. Robinson, loo. ait. 135 The a v a i l a b i l i t y of land, as w e l l as the projected require-ments of industry, commerce, recreation and residences, are discussed n e x t . B. AVAILABILITY OF LAND The a r r i v a l of the railway i n 1883 along the Vancouver water-front had a.two-fold effect . The f i r s t has already been discussed, i n that a l l parts of Canada were now d i r e c t l y l inked to the Far East i n terms of trade. I t was also seen that the "dominant" ro le which Vancouver once influenced over the port was changed at th i s time. The second effect of the rai lway being located i n 1883 at the water-front , resul ted i n an immediate shortage of land.for shipping f a c i l i t i e s . Figure 19 shows the loca t ion of the railway i n r e l a t i on to land f i l l areas. From th i s i t i s seen that the ent i re port has been b u i l t on l a n d - f i l l and that any future expansion w i l l undoubtedly require further land reclamation. I t could be argued ..therefore that the port has h i s t o r i c a l l y been short of-development space. This study found the s i tua t ion to be no different to.one made i n .1961 which concluded that there was p r a c t i c a l l y no read i ly avai lable waterfront land -on Vancouver „ , 13 Harbour. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Zoo. ait. 137 (1) Waterfront Land Needs As cautioned i n Chapter I, the findings that follow on water-front land needs i s based on only 74 responses of the 100 occupants and i s not a complete survey of the e n t i r e waterfront. In attempting to obtain an o v e r a l l land needs picture the r e s u l t s have been pro-portionately increased to account for t h i s sampling bias. Within t h i s study area, 56 per cent of the industries indicated an expected increase of business over the next f i v e years, 19 per cent gave no reply and 15 per cent expected a decrease. . The o v e r a l l i n -crease r e f l e c t s a growing area, whose s p a t i a l demands are now sum-marized. Twenty-nine per.cent indicated a d e f i n i t e need for increased f l o o r area and 34 per cent a d d i t i o n a l outside space requirements. Table 25 summarizes these figures i n terms of general land use cate-gories. I t i s acknowledged that these-figures are not exact measure-ments of future requirements, but rather an. estimated, generally " o f f the c u f f " p r o j e c t i o n of land needs, that each manager foresaw for h i s own establishment. Within the next f i v e years i t i s expected that the present users of the c i t y waterfront w i l l require an a d d i t i o n a l 84 acres for t h e i r normal expansion needs. This may not appear too serious a problem, however, when 60 per cent of the establishments indicated that a d d i t i o n a l adjacent space was not immediately a v a i l a b l e , i t becomes c r i t i c a l . The most obvious s o l u t i o n w i l l be to develop more land f i l l and water l o t s . This i s based on present National Harbour 138 TABLE 25 PORT LAND REQUIREMENTS, VANCOUVER WATERFRONT STUDY AREA, 1970-1974 Land Use No. of Firms % that re- 1 Average quired Plant additional I Size outside space in 5 years j„(acres) Respective Plants and Space re-quirements Total Future Land Needs (acres) Fish Process-ing & Storage 21 52% Goods Terminal 14 43% Passenger Terminals Marine Sales Service & Repair Manufacturing & Other Processing Public Administration Construction Total 33% 14 10 28% 40% 0% 50% 1.47 14.9 0.7 6.5 4.3 1.2 10% 40% 60% 90% @ 100% 2 @ 5% 1 @ 15% 1 @ 20% 2 @ 100% 1 @ 35% 1 @ 100% 2 @ 25% 1 @ 30% 1 @ lOOJ 1 @ 5% 1 @ 15% 1 @ 40% 1 @ 100% 1 @ 30% 9.0 38.5 1.0 11.7 6.8 67.4 This total of 67.4 acres has been rounded up 25% to 84 acres to account for the differences between the sample taken and the total occupants. Source: Waterfront Survey, 1969. 139 Board po l i cy that allows for th i s form of development so long as i t does not in ter fere with shipping channels. The development of the new Centennial P ie r container terminal exemplifies the p o l i c y . In conclusion i t appears that for some years now the a v a i l a -b i l i t y of land at the waterfront has been at a premium. The s i tua t ion for the next f ive years sees even greater space demands, which may account for the 13 industr ies that indicated they have been consider-ing other waterfront and i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s . This space shortage has resulted from increased demands from ex i s t ing waterfront indus t r ies . No account has been made of a l te rnat ive s i t es or the addi t iona l urban demands on th is area. . Therefore a c i t y perspective i s added, which considers the main land uses and the i r po ten t i a l demands on th is waterfront. (2) C i ty Land Needs As the c i t y grows.it i s a foregone .conclusion that land i s developed and zoned areas-become f i l l e d - . The purpose here i s to summarize the most recent publ icat ions on t h e . c i t y ' s future land re -quirements as they re la te , to the waterfront.. The four land uses discussed, I n d u s t r i a l , High Density Res iden t i a l , Commercial and Recreat ional , are selected on the c r i t e r i a of the i r present develop-ing trends on the waterfront. For the purpose of th i s study i t i s presumed that market forces w i l l allow these developments to continue, despite the zoning. 140 (a) I n d u s t r i a l Requirements The most recent i n d u s t r i a l survey was completed i n 1969 by 14' the C i t y Planning Department and w i l l be used, along with C. N. Forward's Waterfront Land Use,^ as the basis for t h i s section. The study completed by the c i t y also looks at the i n d u s t r i a l land requirements for the metropolitan area and i n doing so has r e l i e d upon work done some years e a r l i e r , by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia. Figure 20, on General Land .Uses, shows approximately 2,000 of the 2,834.81 acres of i n d u s t r i a l l y . z o n e d land i n the c i t y . Within these d i s t r i c t s primary manufacturing firms dominate the Vancouver manufacturing a c t i v i t y of which Wood and Wood Products, Primary Metals and Non-Metalic-Minerals account for 70 per cent of the manu-fact u r i n g acreage. The major land uses i n the. i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s are as follows:"^ TABLE 26 MAJOR LAND USES IN INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS - VANCOUVER 1969 1. Manufacturing 765.12 net acres or 37.5% 2. Wholesale & R e t a i l Trade 421.39 I I I I " 20.7% 3. Storage & Transport 313.55 II it " 15.4% 4. Vacant 210.87 II I I " 10.3% 5. R e s i d e n t i a l 126.56 I I I I 6.2% 6. Parking, Signs, Garages 55.98 II I I 2.7% 7. Other Uses 144.34 I I it 7.1% Source: Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, 1970. 14 Vancouver .City Planning Department,.Urban:-Renewal: Study, TecKnicailoRepor.t Number 4±;. Vancouver,('August> 1969.: 15 C-,rKN:;ir:F.QrwavdgiWaterfront Land Use in Metropolitan Vancouver, British'Wqlumbia, Geographical Paper Number 41, Department^of Energy, Mines and' Resources , Ottawa':" Queen's P r i n t e r 1 9 6 8 , ' ''pi $2. "* "^Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, op. cit. This survey indicated that approximately 75 per cent of the i n d u s t r i a l -l y zoned land (excluding the waterfront) i s being used for i n d u s t r i a l purposes and that 25 per cent i s e i ther vacant or i n some.other tem-porary use. This 25 per cent represents 502.52 net acres. According to the Technical Report Number 4, i f the demands continue at the i r present l e v e l , 12.7 years ' supply of po ten t i a l i n d u s t r i a l land remains i n the c i t y . This figure could be reduced to 10 years i f the North and South sides of False Creek, and the Fairview slopes are rezoned and.taken out of the i n d u s t r i a l land market, which appears to be a most l i k e l y proposi t ion.* - 7 The de ta i l s of each parcel and i t s annual take up rate i s expanded i n Appendix V. Vancouver, over the past f ive years has received (176) new i n -dustries and follows Burnaby as the second most act ive i n i n d u s t r i a l development. Thus centra l l oca t i on , w i th in the Metropolitan Area, i s s t i l l a strong determining force i n the loca t ion of new industry. There i s also a tendency for the new indus t r ies - to be small whole-salers and with d i s t r ibu torsh ips and-servicing f a c i l i t i e s . As these require small amounts of space, the high land values - of $50,000-18 $175,000 per acre becomes l e s s " s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus the waterfront area could be most a t t rac t ive for these new industr ies that import or s e l l the i r products overseas and thus could claim a waterfront loca -t i o n . At present there i s no detai led Harbours Board po l i cy for the "*7Vancouver C i ty Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report Number 4, Vancouver, August, 1969, p. 14. 1 8 I b i d . , p . 17. 143 p r i o r i t y of waterfront tennants, other than by demonstrating a need 19 tor a waterfront s i t e . Within 10 years i t i s expected that a l l c i t y zoned i n d u s t r i a l land w i l l be occupied, when that occurs, there w i l l be extreme competi-tiveness f o r such property. The s i t u a t i o n becomes less c r i t i c a l once a Metropolitan pers-pective i s taken. I n d u s t r i a l Land—Metropolitan Vancouver, Appendix VI gives comparable figures for acreages and values i n the Metropoli-tan region, here the 10,400 acres of vacant land i s an obvious outlet for t h i s near capacity s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver. In addition C. N. Forward suggests that the F r a s e r - P i t t River-system o f f e r s the p r i n c i p l e supply of p o t e n t i a l waterfront land for industry i n the 20 future. The major disadvantage here i s the r e s t r i c t e d deep sea 21 channel depth which i s l i m i t e d to 28 feet 6 inches. In conclusion i t appears that i n d u s t r i a l pressures f o r water-front land are indeed apparent. The c i t y ' s a v a i l a b l e land supply i s expected to l a s t another ten years. This demand i s not only measur-able i n land s c a r c i t y and r i s i n g values, but also i n changing indus-t r i a l demands, from primary to secondary and ser v i c e . The l a t t e r two require d i f f e r e n t transportation requirements, smaller s i t e s and 19 Interview with the National Harbours Board Port Engineer Mr. L. C a r l y l e , Vancouver, B. C , July 17, 1969. 20 . , . C. N. Forward, &pt#&ptcyvpLaA2.I'-.r ;: -..•>.-'"21 ': ' Ibid;"-' ••• 144 generally are more labour intensive, which r e s u l t i n t h e i r urban l o c a t i o n preference. In addition to these future industries seeking i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s i n the c i t y , there are the e x i s t i n g waterfront users who themselves require a d d i t i o n a l space i n an area where land i s already at a premium. I t would appear that the landlords of t h i s property, the National Harbours Board, are about to experience some unprecedented demands for i n d u s t r i a l space. This w i l l require some p o l i c y decisions regarding t h e i r long term land use objectives for the waterfront. (b) R e s i d e n t i a l Requirements The. r e s i d e n t i a l requirements f o r t h e . c i t y are examined only i n terms of high density dwelling units as t h i s i s the only residen-t i a l land use that appears to compete e f f e c t i v e l y . w i t h i n d u s t r i a l or commercial uses for downtown waterfront property. Indications are that soon there w i l l be.a shortage of zoned land for apartment development i n Vancouver, - Table 27 below projects when a 95 per cent development w i l l occur i n the f i v e major apart-22 ment areas. The study by the c i t y concluded that the areas pre-sently zoned for high density r e s i d e n t i a l could reach capacity development by 1977 (high estimate) or by 1981 (low estimate). This would i n d i c a t e that most areas i n the c i t y within ten years could be subject to rezoning. There are some in d i c a t i o n s that C i t y of Vancouver,. Urban Renewal Study3. Technical Report Number 23 Vancouver, December, 1968, p. 28, 145 TABLE 2 7 MAJOR APARTMENT ZONES, AND 95% DEVELOPMENT DATES VANCOUVER 1969 Kerr lsdale 1968 South Granv i l l e 1970 Marpole 1971 K i t s i l a n o 1972 West End 1973 Source: Vancouver C i ty Planning Department, 1969. cer ta in commercial zones and- indus t r ia l zones are today being rezoned to Comprehensive Development (CD-I) so as to allow a r e s i d e n t i a l mix. Certain False Creek proposals have applied for th i s zoning, Denman Place i n the West End i s a residential /commercial complex, and two waterfront areas are preparing such development. These are Harbour Park i n Coal Harbour, which w i l l be h o t e l , convention center and apartments, and the second i s Project 200, see Figure 22 page 160 to cover an area of 28.6 acres and w i l l consist of three basic elements. ( i ) An of f ice /hote l / t rade center. ( i i ) A r e s i d e n t i a l area containing s i x apartment bui ldings and some town houses. ( i i i ) A department s t o r e - r e t a i l area. The r e s i d e n t i a l area alone w i l l amount to 1,417,865 square feet of 23 f loor space. 23 V. Setty Pendakur'et al.3 op. oit.3 p. 19. 146 In addi t ion to these developments, both of which contain large ho te l s , there i s an ex i s t ing waterfront hote l presently being expanded at the foot of Cardero Street at the westerly end of the study area. Thus there appears to be r e s i d e n t i a l and hote l accommodation planned for the waterfront, before the ex i s t ing zoned areas are themselves f i l l e d . This once again indicates the presence of the urban influence on the port and the at tractiveness of th i s se t t ing for high density r e s i d e n t i a l un i t s . In ten years, when the present apartment zones are f i l l e d , one can expect areas wi th in the c i t y to be rezoned, however as the shoreline has already proven to be an a t t r ac t ive loca t ion i t i s expected that developers w i l l continue to buy or lease property and a i r r i g h t s . i n the area for high density r e s i d e n t i a l un i t s . (c) Recreation Requirements Recreation i s assuming an increas ingly important ro le i n modern society and the community i s being expected to provide recre-a t iona l f a c i l i t i e s to sa t i s fy the growing demand. Many recreat ional a c t i v i t i e s are focused on water and waterfront areas, and Vancouver i s fortunate i n having publ ic access to more than ten miles of shore-l i n e from Stanley Park to Point Grey. The Vancouver beaches have been developed for swimming and are used extensively each summer week-end, catering to as many as 50,000 to 100,000 persons on a f ine afternoon. The New Brighton beach.at the east end of the study area, sandwiched between a grain elevator and a gypsum plant, i s evidence that l i m i t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l zones can e x i s t i n conjunction with i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . ^ It i s most d i f f i c u l t to measure the demand and future require-ment of r e c r e a t i o n a l shoreline space. The Parks Board have figures for park space requirements per 1,000 population, but at present have no o f f i c i a l p o l i c y on marine park requirements. Several studies have been done i n the United States which.indicate-the growing demands 25 26 of a boating population. ' Two recent studies have been done on. 27 28 the Gulf-Islands and Georgia S t r a i t areas and although neither focus d i r e c t l y on the s p e c i f i c demands of Vancouver, the l a t t e r can be r e l a t e d i n general terms. Both studies i n d i c a t e the rapid growth of boat.ownership and both.project accelerated increases. The N. D. Lea Study of 1966 surveyed the e n t i r e metropolitan area, and projected.future requirements to 1976 and 1986. The C i t y C'.-'-'M. Forward^-op. cit. £.-p. 45. 25 Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Pleasure Boating Study Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle D i s t r i c t , November, 1968. 26 U.S. Department of Commerce, Developing Small Boat Harbours in Six Oregon Counties, Washington: Howland, Hayes and M e r r y f i e l d , 1965. 27 Barry K. Clark, The Formulation and Application of a Marine Recreation Planning Methodology. A case study of the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands. M.A. Thesis i n Community and Regional Planning, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. 28 N. D. Lea and Associates, Recreation Boating Study in Georgia Strait Area of B. C, Government of Canada, Department of Public Works, 1966 ( i n the f i l e s of the department). of Vancouver projections are as follows: 148 TABLE 28 BURRARD PENINSULAR WET BERTHAGE REQUIREMENTS 1966-1986 1966 T o t a l Existing.Berths 1976 1986 low 4,800 low 6,580 1,323 high 7,350 . high 10,050 Source: N. D. Lea and Associates, 1966. Within t h i s area i n 1966 over 50 per cent of the e x i s t i n g berths were i n the Vancouver Harbour. The following table (Table 29) l i s t s 30 these berths and.their parking capacity, the l a t t e r i s included as i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t acreage of land not usually associated with boating. TABLE 29 VANCOUVER HARBOUR, BERTH AND PARKING .FACILITIES 1966 Berths . Parking.Capacity Boatland Marina 165 133 Cardero Wharf Co. 23 30 Bayshore Yacht Service 16 -Wharfage Harbour Tours 55 15 Marker Marine Brokers 40 -John Sangster Ltd. 15 -Burrard Yacht Club 124 30 Royal Vancouver Yacht Club 240 46 Blackmore Marine Service 80 50 758 304 Source: N. D. Lea and Associates, 1966. Ibid. 3 p. 52, *Ibid. 3 Appendix H. 149 I f the future f a c i l i t i e s are to be patterned a f t e r the present l o c a -t i o n s , then the harbour area can expect between 2,400 and 3,700 ad-d i t i o n a l berths by 1976 and a s i m i l a r increase i n parking spaces from 300 to approximately 1,400 spaces. For the purposes of t h i s study the r a t i o between berths and parking capacity i s assumed to be l i n e a r , and i s to be used only as a "ball-park" f i g u r e . The require-ments for 1986 i n d i c a t e a further 50 per cent increase for both berths and parking spaces.. There i s of course no i n d i c a t i o n when f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be expanded or what proportion w i l l i n f a c t develop i n the harbour. The pressure however for waterfront marinas continues to e x i s t and i s -reflected-in a two-year waiting l i s t at Vancouver's largest 300 boat downtown marina, the Burrard C i v i c Marina at the 31 entrance to False Creek. It would appear that t h i s marine aspect of recreation i s yet to "take o f f " as i t has i n other European and American coastal c i t i e s . Marine parks, s a l t water p i c n i c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , s a l t water camping f a c i l i t i e s , overnight and vacation boating boatels and public boat r e n t a l s are e n t i r e r e c r e a t i o n a l areas that have yet to be developed i n Vancouver. The Inner Harbour could be an.ideal amphi-theatre for i n t e r n a t i o n a l yacht and speed boat .racing.. According to Mr. Minock i t s sheltered l o c a t i o n would also make i t a unique l o c a -t i o n for yacht moorage. However there are e x i s t i n g c o n f l i c t i n g uses, 31 Discussion with Mr. Larry Minock, Ph.D. student, Department of Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis on Recreational Boating. March .14,. 1970. 150 p o l l u t i o n and a lack of long-range harbour goals that make planning for th is rap id ly developing a c t i v i t y most d i f f i c u l t . In conclusion i t would appear that recreat ion demands for marine f a c i l i t i e s are growing at an extraordinary ra te . However these f a c i l i t i e s are not compatible with the ex i s t ing harbour t r a f f i c of hovercraft , seaplanes and marine shipping. The s i t e requirements for marine pleasure craft are a major l i m i t i n g factor as to where i t s development takes place, for instance, the areas have to be w e l l sheltered. In.the case of p o r t . f a c i l i t i e s , natural shel ter i s not so c r i t i c a l , as witnessed by the Roberts Bank development. There-fore i t remains a matter of po l i cy to. determine what form the future marine f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be at Roberts Bank and Vancouver. The pre-sent competitive influence of marinas and marine - f a c i l i t i e s on the por t ' s development are minimal, however wi th in ten years these de-mands are expected to increase by. 130 per cent, for an addi t iona l 4,000 berths and 1,500 parking spaces, (d) Commercial Requirements Estimates for commercial requirements are perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t to project . The projections made i n 1960 never foresaw the large scale super blocks of Project 200 and the P a c i f i c Center which together produce a t o t a l f loor , area of approximately 4 m i l l i o n square feet. Thus c i t y projections made i n 1968 for the Arbutus Regional Shopping Center have since been revised , and th is indicates 151 32 the rapid change taking place. Unl ike the i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l zones i n the c i t y , which are made up of large t racts of land, the commercial zones are r e l a t i v e l y small and are scattered throughout the c i t y , p r i n c i p a l l y along major thoroughfares. The density and permitted uses i n these areas are many and f a l l into one of any of the eight c lasses , C l , C2, C3, C4, C5, CM1, CM2, CD1. A deta i led account of each area and each class was found unnecessary as take up of commercial land along major thoroughfares, and l o c a l d i s t r i c t s has remained r e l a t i v e l y stable i n spi te of the large proportion of undeveloped commercial zones that s t i l l ex i s t i n the suburban community. For example there s t i l l 33 exis t s 4,000 dwelling units w i th in these d i s t r i c t s . The only s ign i f i can t block of land i n commercial use i s i n the downtown area and th i s takes up 24.8 m i l l i o n square feet or 50 per cent of metropolitan Vancouver's 50 m i l l i o n square feet. The suburban commercial area i n Vancouver amounts to 8.5 m i l l i o n square feet , and i s made up of 75 l o c a l areas, 14 d i s t r i c t centers and a 34 regional center. As the downtown area accounts for 90 per cent of a l l new commercial developments th is sect ion w i l l focus on th is 32 Vancouver C i ty .Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report Number .6, Commercial Districts, Vancouver, 1969 (Preliminary Draft , i n the hands of. the department). 33Ibid, 34 Vancouver C i ty Planning Department, Proposed Arbutus Park Regional Shopping Center, p. 14. 152 area, which i s out l ined as the CBD on Figure 20 (page 141). Forecasts of r e t a i l sales volumes for 1981 have been updated 35 and Table 30 below summarizes these project ions. TABLE 30 PRESENT AND FUTURE COMMERCIAL SALES VOLUMES AND FLOOR AREAS (MILLIONS OF SQUARE FEET), 1962, AND 1981 CITY AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1962 1981 Department]Non-Department Dept. Store Non-Dept. Store Metro Vancouver Sales Volume . Percent Floor Area 174.7 100 3.00 532.9 100 8.00 274.3 100 4.60 836.9 100 12.54 Ci ty of Vancouver Sales Volume Percent Floor Area 125.7 72 2.22 263.1 49 3.99 158.0 58 2.76 332.8 40 5.03 CBD | Sales Volume ! Percent Floor Area 108.3 62 2.2 67.3 12.6 1.03 126.2 46 2.32 79.5 9.5 1,21 Source: Vancouver C i ty Planning Department, 1969. In terms of department store business the CBD i s seen i n the 1981 p ro j ec t ion , . t o continue as the dominant center, accounting for almost ha l f the metropolitan sa les . I t i s also expected to contain ha l f the metropolitan f loor area. The f loor area of non-department Vancouver C i ty Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report Number 6. 153 store business i n the CBD i s also expected to increase and i n t h i s case by 20 per cent i n 1981. The CBD's market share of r e t a i l sales and f l o o r space i n t h i s sector i s expected, however, to decline sub-s t a n t i a l l y . Thus from these projections a considerable future growth i n t o t a l commercial floor,space i s expected. Substantial redevelopment has occurred i n the Central Business D i s t r i c t since 1963. In general t h i s has involved the b u i l d i n g of commercial and o f f i c e space on r e s i d e n t i a l and vacant land. Between January 1963 and July 1969 a t o t a l of 27 major redevelopments were i n i t i a t e d i n the CBD, each over $500,000 i n improvement value. These developments amounted to 13.51 net acres of improvements of which 11.5 acres occurred i n the c i t y ' s t r a f f i c zones, 3 and 7, see Figure 21 f o r the l o c a t i o n of Downtown T r a f f i c Zones. Indications, according to the c i t y o f f i c i a l s , are that increased redevelopment a c t i v i t y i n the near future w i l l occur i n T r a f f i c D i s t r i c t s 9 and 13. Thus two of.the four d i s t r i c t s which have-and w i l l experience the greatest commercial and o f f i c e redevelopment, border the waterfront. This again indicates the attractiveness of Urban Development close to the waterfront. As suggested e a r l i e r , the projections of future demands for su i t a b l e commercial space i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate. The following table (Table 31) compiled by the c i t y i s an attempt to account for the supply of undeveloped commercially zoned land i n the eight t r a f f i c zones i n the urban core area. 21 Downtown Traffic Zones. 155 TABLE 31 SUPPLY IN ACRES OF UNDEVELOPED LAND BY TRAFFIC DISTRICTS CBD VANCOUVER, 1969 Tra f f i c Zone Vacant Areas Older Res ident ia l Acres Unimproved Parking Acres Tota l Acres Under Used Commercial and Indus-t r i a l Acres 3 .6 10.0 12.8 23.4 25.9 6 .1 - .9 1.0 10.4 7 - .4 3.9 4.3 20.7 8 .2 .9 10.1 11.2 12.8 9 2.4 9.7 11.3 23.4 27.3 10 .2 2.0 4.8 7.0 12.2 11 .5 .1 7.6 8.2 9.5 13 .5 6.7 6.8 14.0 31.5 Tota l 4.5 29.8 58.2 92.5 150.3 Source: Vancouver C i ty Planning Department, 1969. In t o t a l 92.5 net acres are ava i l ab le . At the average.rate of development which prevai led from 1963 to 1969 (2.08 net acres per year) , th i s supply would take 44.5 years to f i l l up. Even i f the highest rate recorded (4.44 net acres i n 1967) were used, complete redevelopment of the CBD would require 25 years. This figure of 92.5 acres i s not a true figure as underdeveloped land must be included. Thus a l l properties with improvements to land ra t ios below 2.00 are , to ta led i n the l a s t columns of the above table . The new t o t a l of avai lable land i s now 242.8 net acres and th is i s equal to 69 per cent of the CBD. At h i s t o r i c a l development 156 37 rates th is would take 116 years to f i l l up. Future developments are not l imi t ed to surface space alone. The p o s s i b i l i t y of future developments u t i l i z i n g street a i r r ights or sub-surface r i g h t s , parking l o t airspace, railway a i r r ights would suggest that perhaps the ent i re CBD could be classed as having dev-elopment p o t e n t i a l . In conclusion i t would appear that there i s adequate supply of commercial and off ice space wi th in the c i t y and the Central B u s i -ness D i s t r i c t to take care of the future requirements for many years, perhaps i n d e f i n i t e l y , e spec ia l ly by applying the space and a i r r ights concept. Theore t ica l ly there should be no commercial urban influence on the waterfront. In ac tua l i ty the waterfront i s an a t t rac t ion for commercial and of f ice a c t i v i t y , as witnessed by recent developments i n t r a f f i c zone 3 and proposals for zone 13. A discussion of recent developments as w e l l as development proposals fo l lows, which demonstrates how non- indus t r ia l businesses are locat ing i n , as w e l l as adjacent t o , the waterfront. C. INTERFERING LAND USES (1) Zoning and General Land Use A t r a d i t i o n a l method of examining the urban influence i s to examine the zoning regulations and see i f changes have occurred i n Ibid. 157 both zoning and land use. These are r e l a t ive ly . s imple to measure. Changes i n zoning come about from a var ie ty of reasons, p o l i t i c a l , speculat ive, s o c i a l or economic, however without over general iz ing th is s i t u a t i o n , there has to be a s ign i f i can t market demand to rezone land. New York Ci ty i s often quoted as an example of a density popu-lated c i t y , and i n 1964 recorded a t o t a l of 4,977 persons per square 38 mi le . The Ci ty of Vancouver density i s double that of New York and one can therefore speculate that land i n th is c i t y i s indeed suscep-39 t i b l e to development pressures. Most c i t y maps indicate the study area to be an i n d u s t r i a l waterfront. Figure 20 (page 141) shows the general land uses sur-rounding the waterfront, which for the most part, conform with the zoning. 40 A recent c i t y publ ica t ion i n 1968, indicated two zoning changes on the waterfront, one from i n d u s t r i a l to r e s i d e n t i a l and the other from i n d u s t r i a l to commercial. These properties cover the westerly 1,000 feet of shoreline bordering Stanley Park. A year la te r these same properties along with an addi t iona l 1,000 feet were a l l rezoned to Comprehensive Development (CD1). Comprehensive Dev-elopment allows for a mix of r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial land uses. 38 Benjamin C h i n i t z , Zoc. cit, 39 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Municipal A f f a i r s , Municipal Statistics for year ended 1968, V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969 (Vancouver C i ty 1969 Population 440,000, and area 44 square mi l e s ) . 40 Vancouver C i ty Planning Department, Downtown Vancouver, Part 1, The Issues, Vancouver, 1968. This zoning category i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t . o f developers demanding greater f l e x i b i l i t y for developments, however the C i t y argue that 41 t h i s form of zoning also allows for greater c i v i c c o n t r o l . In 1968 the developers of Project 200 applied for rezoning for Stage 1 of the project which covers 500 feet of shoreline (see Figure 22, page 160, for l o c a t i o n of Project.200). This they received from the c i t y , and i t appears that eventually.the e n t i r e project w i l l receive t h i s zoning condition. The t o t a l rezoned shoreline area, including a l l of Project 200 which i s 2,000 fe e t , amounts to approxi-mately 4,000 feet, that has, and . w i l l have changed from i n d u s t r i a l to comprehensive development. The e n t i r e waterfront shoreline adjacent to the downtown peninsula, from Stanley Park to Main Street i s about 10,000 feet. Therefore approximately .40 per cent of t h i s shoreline i s no longer port orientated. It ;is.assumed that i t i s t e c h n i c a l l y possible to maintain the e n t i r e waterfront f o r maritime f a c i l i t i e s , by dredging. At present the Coal Harbour portion i s only dredged to a low water depth of 18 feet, which i s ample however f o r f e r r y , barge and coastal t r a f f i c , but presently inadequate for deep sea shipping. It i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t of the e a r l i e r discussion on the c i t y ' s density, that these changes i n waterfront zoning have a l l taken place adjacent to,the Urban Core and the High Density West End. From t h i s b r i e f survey, i t appears t h a t . i n d u s t r i a l land i s indeed at a premium i n the City of Vancouver, and yet i t appears to be 41 Interview with Mr. W. E. Graham, Director of Planning, C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, Ju l y 17, 1969. 159 most susceptible to rezoning e s p e c i a l l y along the Inner Harbour as witnessed by, Harbour Park Development, the Bayshore Hotel, and Project 200. These developments confirm the thesis that a l t e r n a t i v e use of the waterfront i s being sought. (2) Recent Developments and Development Proposals The purpose of examining recent and proposed developments i s to show where they are occurring and what proportion are on or adjacent to the waterfront. By seeing the concentration of developments, which are shown i n Figure 22 an o v e r a l l impression i s gained, which indicates that most development i s occurring within f i v e blocks of the waterfront. New o f f i c e developments i n the Commercial and Central Business D i s t r i c t , not shown on the map,. tend to concentrate at the northerly edge of these d i s t r i c t s . A l i s t of these i s seen i n Table 32. Between 1966 and 1969 the following t h i r t e e n o f f i c e towers were b u i l t , a l l within the Central Business D i s t r i c t and within a few blocks of the Port Interface. Their t o t a l . o f f i c e space amounts to 42 1,839,600 square fee t . The remaining developments and development proposals that border the waterfront are b r i e f l y discussed, from west to east. Only the larger developments are seen i n Figure 22. Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board, Beat Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver, S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver, 1968, p. C.13. I 161 TABLE 32 RECENT OFFICE DEVELOPMENTS IN DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER, 1966-1969 Year Bui ld ing Sq, F t . 1966 Nesbit t Thompson Bui ld ing 65,500 1966 Prescott Bui ld ing 50,700 1967 Ben ta l l Centre 1st Tower 245,000 1967 Royal General Insurance 97,000 1967 P h i l l i p s Bui ld ing 67,000 1968 Montreal Trust Bui ld ing 83,400 1968 P a c i f i c Palisades 20,000 1969 MacMillan Bloedel 340,000 1969 Board of Trade 286,000 1969 Guiness Tower 260,000 1969 Ben ta l l Centre 2nd Tower 170,000 1969 West Coast Transmission 150,000 1969 885 Dunsmuir Bui ld ing 65,000 1,839,600 Source: Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board, 1968. The Harbour Park Area. Recently re-assigned to Mar-West Devel-opments from the Nat ional Harbours Boardj for the purpose of developing a ho t e l , apartment, trade center. This development w i l l occupy water-front property to the exclusion of any shipping or commerce. Bayshore Inn Hotel Complex. Extensions there w i l l accommodate some 500 rooms. Future developments ant ic ipate a t h i rd hote l tower of 700 rooms as w e l l as other f a c i l i t i e s . This development occupies water-front property and these extensions have been made possible through the 162 use of extensive land f i l l s - The low water depth of Coal Harbour i n the v i c i n i t y i s 20 feet. This project occupies over 500 feet of waterfront and i s not designed to accommodate shipping or maritime commerce„ Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Ferry S l i p . This land f i l l wharf and parking area of 10,000 square feet replaces the old Canadian P a c i f i c Railway P ie r A, and i s used almost exc lus ive ly for trucks that are fe r r ied to Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands. New F i r s t Narrows -Crossing. The exact loca t ion and dimension of the causway w i l l be determined once the c i t y - selects i t s route. This structure which protrudes in to the harbour w i l l undoubtedly re -s t r i c t shipping a c t i v i t y to i t s west as the navigation channel w i l l be narrower. I f the waterfront freeway route i s adopted, i t w i l l effec-t i v e l y cut off a l l parts of the waterfront from Burrard to Main Street from the urban area i n terms of e f f i c i e n t truck access. The ex i s t ing designs have not accommodated a waterfront truck route. North Vancouver Commuter Ferry Terminal. . A small temporary loading f a c i l i t y to accommodate,commuters to the CBD located at the foot of Granv i l l e Street . P a c i f i c Hovercraft L imi ted . A small temporary loading and s to r -age f a c i l i t y of 7,440 square feet that w i l l accommodate the vehic le which connects Vancouver with Nanaimo. 163 Project 200. The t o t a l project covers some 28 acres and w i l l extend 2,000 feet along the waterfront. The waterfront sect ion i s not designed to accommodate shipping or marine f a c i l i t i e s . The ex i s t ing Piers B and C, at i t s westerly boundary, w i l l remain. Because of the large volumes of t r a f f i c that th i s project w i l l generate the future a c c e s s i b i l i t y of Piers B and C, for truck t r a f f i c to service th i s major general cargo and passenger te rmina l , i s questionable. The Project i s designed to accommodate 900,000 square feet of of f ice space, 2,000,000 square feet of r e t a i l space, 1,000 hote l rooms, 1,000 apart-ments and parking space for 7,000 veh ic les , and w i l l generate 4,000 peak hour, automobile t r i p s . Townsite Renewal Program. A renewal program started i n 1969 to "save Gastown", the h i s t o r i c center of Vancouver. The area covers several blocks and th is program has encouraged reinvestment i n an area of once dec l in ing land values. These increasing land values, have acted as a formidable bar r ie r against i n d u s t r i a l expansion into th i s area, a land use that appears to be needed along th i s waterfront. Project 100. Nat ional Harbours Board. The f i r s t stage of th i s 100 acre project has been completed and consists of a new con-tainer terminal with one berth of 687 feet and approximately 5 acres of backland. The remaining 90 acres of f i l l has been temporarily ha l ted , as discussions continue as to the future role of the inner V. Setty Pendakur et a l . , op. c i t . , p . 50. 164 harbour. The major con f l i c t here i s the es thet ic impact of such a f a c i l i t y which would be viewed by thousands of of f ice workers from the new and proposed developments, Mr, D. Mooney, the General Manager of Marathon Real ty, who are the partners i n Project 200, indicated that should Project.100 be completed he ser iously doubted i f h is own Project 200 would be b u i l t to i t s intended capacity. He indicated that much of the attractiveness of the Project would be los t i f the 44 Nat ional Harbours Board persis ted with the i r development. Whether the discont inuat ion of Project 100 has been influenced i n any way by the developers of the $300 m i l l i o n Project 200, w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to confirm, however i t must surely be recognized as an urban pressure that i s effect ing port development. Urban Renewal Projects 1 and 2; Urban Renewal Schemes 3, 4A, 5  and 6. The Urban Renewal Projects and Schemes, the f i r s t three of which are completed, are attempts to redevelop areas that are d e c l i n -i n g , both i n the phys ica l and economic sense. None of these schemes s p i l l in to waterfront property, but they face a subst a n t i a l area of waterfront both i n False Creek and along the harbour waterfront from Main Street east to Semlin Dr ive . Thus the c i t y has attempted to in jec t new l i f e in to these old areas i n the hopes that they w i l l once again become a t t r ac t ive areas and regain some of the i r l o s t land values. This po l i cy i n effect w i l l hinder the future port orientated i n d u s t r i a l 44 Interview with Mr. D. J . Mooney, General Manager, Marathon Realty Company Limi ted , Vancouver, June 12, 1969. 165 lands spreading from the waterfront in to the c i t y i n places where land values were once decreasing. Thus the urban renewal po l i cy can be described as a def in i te pressure that w i l l impede the development of port back-up lands into the c i t y . In conclusion i t would appear that there are indeed urban developments that w i l l e f fec t ive ly hinder waterfront development, espec-i a l l y i n terms of obtaining r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive port back-up lands. Adjacent to the Central Business D i s t r i c t and west to Stanley Park i t appears that developments have generally u t i l i z e d waterfront lands. This westerly port ion once considered excel lent for deep-sea f a c i l i t i e s , accounts for approximately one-third of the c i t y ' s waterfront space i n the Burrard In l e t . In the remaining two-thirds , where i t i s expected that maritime commerce w i l l continue, 50 per cent of th i s area has and w i l l experience major developments at the urban interface which w i l l e f f ec t ive ly hinder development of th i s area for storage and cargo handling. In the remaining 25 per cent which i s the easter ly 10,000 feet , 1,500 feet i s park land and the rest has both l imi t ed and steep back-up lands. Within 500 feet of th i s shoreline steepness of the slope i s between 11-15 per cent, see Figure 6 (page 37). Thus the ent i re waterfront has been influenced i n terms of future development by ei ther geographic conditions or man made urban developments. 166 D. THE DISARRANGEMENT OF SITES The hypothesis stated among other things, that there was a d i s -arrangement of s i t e s wi th in the port area. Figures 23 and 24 trace the major (75 per cent or over) trade flows to and from the waterfront s i t e s . The tenants have been evenly spaced along the waterfront for cartographic purposes, and thus the figures : are not the true pat terning. I t appears that there i s a random s p a t i a l re la t ionship between the businesses and the i r markets. No one sect ion of the waterfront has spec ia l ized i n any one of the four markets, for example industr ies trading p r imar i ly wi th the metropolitan area are not necessari ly located closest to i t , i . e . , at the easter ly end of the study area. S i m i l a r l y businesses receiving and sending goods to the "rest of Canada" are scattered throughout the waterfront. The economies that, r esu l t f rom.centra l iz ing a c t i v i t i e s or sys-temat ical ly arranging land uses, thereby reducing service costs , t rans-por ta t ion and handling costs , are not being r e a l i z e d . For example i n th i s area f i sh ing industr ies are concentrated, but at three separ-ate locat ions and the same i s true for grain elevators . Cargo wharves and service indust r ies are intermingled with a l l other users. Each business could be more e f f i c i e n t l y served, i n terms of marine and land transportat ion i f the waterfront was planned around common transportation needs. Jo in t access roads, j o i n t parking and bay areas are obvious economies that could be r e a l i z e d . Causes of such disarrangements are complex and cos t ly to remedy, however as the harbour continues to be 169 developed, and older areas become condemned, i . e . , Fisherman's Wharf at Campbell Avenue, the ove ra l l s i t ua t ion can be improved, by adopt-ing a systematic a l l o c a t i o n of land uses. A further aspect of th i s problem i s the mixed var ie ty of users wi th in the waterfront lands. The Waterfront Survey (1969) found that 28 out of 74 occupants had no deep-sea access, i n an area c l a s s i f i e d by the Nat ional Harbours Board as prime deep-sea waterfront. Therefore 38 per cent of the occupants along the deep-sea terminal are not engaged i n deep-sea shipping, and therefore presumably have d i f f e r ing transportat ion and service requirements from the res t . Thus not only do the industr ies appear to be randomly scattered along the waterfront but the indust r ies themselves are not a l l port orientated. I t i s i n th is context that the s i t es along the.waterfront are found to be i n a state of disarrangement. E. OTHER URBAN PORT RELATIONSHIPS (1) Comparative Land Values Changes i n land.values i s one method of observing the major development patterns of the c i t y . In terms of the Central Business D i s t r i c t , where most research by the c i t y has been done, Figures 25 and 26 show the r e l a t i v e change i n values from 1950 to 1965. The Central Business D i s t r i c t , the West End and most parts of downtown, west of Granv i l l e street have experienced continuous increases i n land values, i n several areas over 100 per cent increases i n each 172 ten year per iod. In 1961 these values along the downtown waterfront ranged from $2.00 to $25.00 (see Figure 27). The influence of th is change of both r i s i n g values i n the down-town, and decreasing values i n the east i s d i f f i c u l t to measure i n exact terms along the waterfront, however at a macro l e v e l th i s has been done. The study by Forward c l ea r ly demonstrated the pre-eminence of 45 the Inner Harbour i n terms of market values of waterfront land. In 1965 the per acre value of waterfront, from Stanley Park to Clarke Dr ive , 50 per cent of the c i t y waterfront, was prices at over $50,000 per acre. From Clarke Drive to Boundary Road the value was placed at $15,000 to $50,000 per acre, the second highest category. From h i s study there appears to be a re la t ionship between the pr ice of water-front property and the in tens i ty of development i n the adjoining urban area. Waterfront lo t s have complex assessment procedures, each are assessed i n terms of land l o t s , f i l l l o t s and water l o t s , i n addit ion the i r boundaries are d i f f i c u l t to locate i n the assessment r o l l s . An attempt was made to es tab l i sh land values along the waterfront, and compare these with the urban interface lands to determine what influence one may have on the other. This was abandoned due to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n data c o l l e c t i o n , and an a l te rnat ive procedure of assessment comparison was used. There have been no sales of Vancouver harbour-front C. N . Forward, op. cit* 3 p . 42. 27 _ . Average sq. ft. Value by Blocks, Downtown, 1961. M Co 174 property for many years to es tab l i sh current market values and i n turn assessments, and therefore the method of comparing assessments has l i m i t a t i o n s . For the purposes of th i s study they have been used for comparative purposes only. The c i t y assessor who i s aware of rents charged by the National Harbours Board, has cap i t a l i zed these ren ta l values i n determining h is assessment value. The Nat ional Harbours Board had the i r harbour property appraised by J . B. Ward and Associates i n 1966 and from th i s have set the i r annual renta l rates , these being 7.75 per cent of t h i s appraised value. Most of the land area i n the Harbour i s f i l l e d and therefore the rate for f i l l e d land i s generally the same as for upland. F i l l e d land ranges i n value from $1.00 per square foot and up. The assessed values for 46 Harbours Board properties wi th in the study area i s as fo l lows. TABLE 33 NATIONAL HARBOURS BOARD PROPERTY ASSESSMENTS VANCOUVER 1970 Per Square Foot Cardero Street to Boundary Road A l l water areas $ .53 Cardero Street to Heatley Avenue Land $1.75 Heatley Avenue to Clark Drive Land $1.45 Clark Drive to Boundary Road Land $1.25. Source: Vancouver C i ty Assessment Department, 1970. Interview with Mr. Peter George, C i ty of Vancouver Planning Department, March 12, 1970. 175 Though these are general figures they indicate an obvious decrease i n values the further one moves from the downtown area. This pattern of decreasing land values, occurring with distance from the.Central Business D i s t r i c t has been a common phenomena i n most c i t i e s and i n the case of Vancouver, Table 34 shows the changing downtown land values. As i n the case of the waterfront, with increased distance from the center, land values decrease. In conclusion i t appears that the highest urban land values are adjacent to the highest waterfront assessments and s i m i l a r l y the lowest waterfront assessments are adjacent to lower c i t y land values. The causal re la t ionship between these i s a complex subject however for the purpose of th i s study i t i s concluded, as a resu l t of the previous f indings , and discussions with-the Assessment Department, that the urban influence i s p r imar i ly responsible for the va r i a t ion i n waterfront assessments. This influence i s not only seen i n assess-ments but also ren ta l s , which i n turn-partly-determine the tenants. (2) Soc ia l Considerations The s ign i f i can t urban influences on port development have a l -ready been mentioned and are generally quant i f iab le . These are, for example, ex i s t i ng t r a f f i c flows with which port - t r a f f i c must contend, changing land values, non-port orientated developments, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of land. There are, however, other re la t ionships that are often v i s i b l e but d i f f i c u l t to i so l a t e and measure. . F o r example the influence of two large ethnic g roupsChinese and Japanese, being 176 TABLE 34 MARKET VALUES OF LAND: CITY OF VANCOUVER, 1961, 1967 Downtown 1961 1967 % of change West End & Bulge $ 51,030,000 $ 95,151,000 +86.5 CBD & East Hastings 103,200,000 101,536,000 - 1.6 Main-Georgia 5,357,000 4,404,000 -17.8 Tota l . $159,587,000 $201,091,000 +26.0 C i ty Tota l $780,000 $1,180,877,000 +51.4 Source: Land Values 1961-19673 Vancouver: C i ty of Vancouver Planning Department, March 1968, p . 3. adjacent to the waterfront, and the influence of the "skid-road" com-munity are d i f f i c u l t to gauge. S i m i l a r l y the benefits of l i v i n g close to th i s centre of employment for the f i s h processing industry and the casual waterfront gangs required for longshoring, are again apparent but d i f f i c u l t to quantify. I t was reported by f i sh ing company managers and the longshoreman's union s ta f f that both r e ly on th is downtown area for much of the i r seasonal help . On clear days most vantage points along the waterfront, e spec ia l -l y the Ballantyne P ie r parking l o t , are l ined with persons viewing the harbour a c t i v i t y . For the l o c a l resident i t may be a f l ee t ing look, for the v i s i t o r s who have never seen a por t , i t could be a fascinat ing half-hour, and for the unemployed and r e t i r ed i t could be h i s major pastime. .Employees at the Centennial p ie r noted that there are a 177 large number of "regulars" that come, r a in or shine, and even respect each other 's spaces along the r a i l i n g . ^ (3) P o l l u t i o n and Bl igh t F i n a l l y the cause and effect of b l i g h t , though eas i ly observ-able, i s again d i f f i c u l t to e s t ab l i sh . Whether b l i gh t at the water-front causes b l i g h t i n the adjacent c i t y , or v ice versa i s not known, and would require considerable research. I t was established at the beginning of th i s chapter that the role of the downtown waterfront has changed markedly over the l a s t century. The waterfront area i s no longer the c i t y ' s transportat ion hub as i t once used to be, i n fact the c i t y appears to have v i r t u a l l y "turned i t s back".on th is area. This d i s in te res t i s ref lec ted i n many ways, both s o c i a l and economic, a l l of which gives th i s area i t s cha rac te r i s t i c s . On the urban side of the port in ter face , downtown land values have generally decl ined, except i n the previously mentioned Central Business D i s t r i c t and the west end. Decl ining land values and older bui ldings often witness changes i n tenants, from r e t a i l i n g to whole-s a l i n g . This general change i s witnessed i n the Central Business D i s t r i c t which has been moving i n a westerly d i r ec t i on from i t s old center on Hastings Street . Like most coastal c i t i e s , Vancouver also finds i t s oldest sect ion located at the waterfront, i n a state of 47 Interview with the two attendants, Gate House, Centennial P i e r , January 19, 1970. 178 decline, and making no p o s i t i v e use of the water. C i v i c improvements i n areas l i k e these, have been minimal. For example while most of the c i t y i s sewered, the waterfront i s not. Plans are however under way to remedy t h i s and the Harbour West Interceptor, from Cardero Street to Main Street w i l l be completed i n 1971, and the Harbour East Interceptor from Main Street to Boundary 48 Road by 1978. Presently not only do most of the harbourfront 49 i n d u s t r i e s dump t h e i r waste materials d i r e c t l y into the harbour, but there are also four c i t y o u t f a l l s that drain into t h i s area. As p o l l u t i o n of waters i s a major contributor to waterfront b l i g h t , i t would appear that the. c i t y i s contributing and in f l u e n c i n g t h i s process of b l i g h t i n terms of untreated sewage and i n d u s t r i a l wastes that drain from the north-easterly section of the c i t y into the harbour area. Underlying a l l problems of development i n the harbour area i s the basic need for p o l l u t i o n abatement and co n t r o l . Use of urban waterfronts f or e i t h e r , i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, r e s i d e n t i a l or r e c r e a t i o n a l use, i s and w i l l continue to be. severely... i n h i b i t e d by the present p o l l u t e d conditions of the harbour. The causes of e x i s t i n g p o l l u t i o n are seve r a l , o r i g i n a t i n g from both the C i t y and the Port. The major causes being.as follows: 48 Interview with Mr. D. Purdon, Chief Engineer, Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t , March 13, 1970. 49 National Harbours Board O f f i c i a l s were not prepared to give d e t a i l s on t h i s information as "the s i t u a t i o n i s soon to be r e c t i f i e d " . 179 Discharge.' of untreated ; sewerage .from; upland areas xnr„< Discharge of untreated Indus t r i a l waste, including chemicals. Discharge of organic refuse from food processing p lants . Seepage from petro-chemicals i n storage tanks. Discharge of o i l and untreated sewerage from vessels . Water p o l l u t i o n may not only be discouraging new industr ies from l o c -at ing at the harbour, but also may be discouraging new land uses. At the marine side of the port in ter face , technological changes i n shipping and goods handling are placing severe constraints on the ex i s t ing f a c i l i t i e s , and unless these are f l e x i b l e enough to meet the changing demands they w i l l , i n turn , become obsolete. The deter-io r a t i on of old bulkheading and other retention s tructures , as w e l l as the general age and condit ion of the ex i s t ing f a c i l i t i e s are an ind ica t ion of po ten t i a l causes of b l i g h t . Thus deter iora t ion of harbour f a c i l i t i e s or upland areas can resu l t from a number of factors—although there appears to be some patterning. I f poor con-d i t ions ex is t on one side of the interface they are l i k e l y to ex i s t on the other, The West End and Downtown w i l l soon be mirrored with s i m i l a r high investment waterfront projects . S i m i l a r l y the poor wharf conditions from Main Street to Commercial Drive are mirrored by poor housing and commercial d i s t r i c t s at the urban in ter face . There are a host of other s o c i a l forces that operate between Ci ty and Por t . The nos ta lg ic and h i s t o r i c s ignif icance of the por t ' s development, i s for many, the h i s tory of Vancouver. Secondly 180 the port for seamen i s the i r only contact wi th other persons and for them i t has yet a dif ferent r o l l , Thi rd ly port c i t i e s are often notorious centers of underworld a c t i v i t y , espec ia l ly i n drug t r a f f i c -ing . Examples such as these are many and serve to show that there are complex in t e r - r e l a t i onsh ips . The waterfront i s l i k e any other sect ion of the c i t y , i t i s an act ive functioning organ l inked by numerous and complex t i e s to that greater organism, the c i t y . (4) The Control of the Port The Harbour of Vancouver i s owned, control led and administered by a m u l t i p l i c i t y of organizations, government bodies and corpora-t ions . The fol lowing i s a l i s t of those organizations which have control over some part of the study area, and i n th is sense have an i n -fluence over i t . A more detai led discussion on th is aspect i s presented i n Chapter V I . Federal Government; P r o v i n c i a l Government; Nat ional Harbours Board; Canadian-PacificRailway-..Company; Ci ty of Vancouver; Vancouver Parks' Board";" Depar'tmeht: of ' 'National Defence; Department v o f PupXicLWorks; - .Department of Transport; Department of Transports-riMarine; 'JDepartmeht: of . .Fisheries; Customs and Immigration''"D^aif'Melh't?;1-. P o l l u t i o n 'Qohtrol Board; The Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t ; . T h e Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t ; Other P r o v i n c i a l Departments - F i she r i e s , Highways, Forests , Water, Publ ic Works, Recreation and Conser-va t ion , etc.. 181 F. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE PORT FUNCTION ON THE CITY OF VANCOUVER Thus far i t has been shown that the land i n the port area i s being caught i n a squeeze. The urban area's growth i s resu l t ing i n an urban overflow into the por t , and at the same time the congestion of urban t r a f f i c i s making the port f a c i l i t i e s less accessible . The second force i n th i s pressure squeeze was described i n Chapter IV i n which the technological change taking place i n both the shipping industry and marine handling technology has resulted i n the need for an increased port area. Some of these space demands can be met through land f i l l , but others may have to involve redevelopment of adj acent urban areas, espec ia l ly for improved transportat ion access and d i s t r i b u t i o n routes. These conclusions are based on the assump-t ion that the present port function and occupants are to continue. Equally possible i s the proposal that cer ta in users relocate the i r operations to other i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s or cer ta in shipping functions be relocated to the new Roberts Bank Superport. I t i s not the purpose of th i s study to complete such an inves-t i ga t ion but rather to present an overview of the economic benefits received by the c i t y as a resul t of port a c t i v i t y . In th i s way there i s a better understanding of the urban impact should the present con-d i t ions be allowed to continue to the point of choking the port operations. This choking process can occur very rapid ly as shippers change shipping routes and import or export through Seattle or other P a c i f i c North West.Ports. The recurr ing longshoremen's s t r ikes have demonstrated the a b i l i t y with which shippers and trucking companies can switch the i r operations to the American networks. F i n a l l y , any decisions to relocate shipping a c t i v i t y to Roberts Bank w i l l have to be preceded by a more deta i led examination of this fol lowing economic survey to determine the ove ra l l costs and benefits to the c i t y and region. For example the tax benefits received from a new land use i n the Inner Harbour, would have to be considered. The economic impact of maritime commerce i s here defined as that por t ion of the c i t y ' s jobs that would not ex i s t were the port not present. Although.this i s a hypothet ical statement, i t allows for an overview. At a more precise l e v e l several sectors of the port service industry were asked i f they would have to relocate to Roberts Bank should the shipping function be moved to that l oca t ion . Comment on th i s was made e a r l i e r i n the section on Service L i n k s , page 124. Two basic methods have been used i n the past to measure the impact from ports . The f i r s t measures the d i rec t income generated by each ton of goods handled at the waterfront, and the second i s an employment measure which simply re la tes the t o t a l "port population" to the c i t y population. (1) Cargo-Generated Income The port income approach was pioneered i n 1953 by the Delaware River Port A u t h o r i t y , a n d l a t e r improved upon i n 1959."'"'" For the ^Delaware River Port Author i ty , The Value of a Ton of Cargo to the Area's Economy, Ph i l ade lph ia , 1953. "'"'"Delaware River Port Author i ty , .The Economic Impact of the Delaware River Ports, Ph i l ade lph ia , 1959. 183 purposes of th i s study the Economic Review by E r i c Schenker e n t i t l e d , 52 The Port of Milwaukee3 w i l l be used as a base as there are no figures avai lable for Vancouver. At best these figures i n Table 35, on income generated from port a c t i v i t y , must only be taken as "bal l -park" comparisons. TABLE 35 INCOME GENERATED BY PORT ACTIVITY, PORT OF VANCOUVER STUDY AREA - 1968 Commodity Income per Milwaukee 1963 Ton (a) Income Per Ton Vancouver (b) 1968 Tonnage Vancouver (c) Tota l Income From Commodity General Cargo $17.00 $20.00 3,225,000 $64,500,000 Grains 5.45 6.50 2,737,500 17,783,750 Petroleum 2.67 3.20 500,000 1,600,000 Coal 2.21 ) Soybeans 5.45 ) Dry Bulk Sal t 2.21 ) 2.50 415,000 1,037,500 Ores 1.60 ) Total 6,877,500 84,921,250 E r i c Schenker, The Port of Milwaukee, p . 131, 132. Based on a 4 per cent annual increase since 1963, less United States Discount, 10 per cent. Vancouver C i ty tonnage calculated from Tota l Port Tonnage, see Appendix V I I . E r i c Schenker, The Port of Milwaukee, An Economic Review, Madison: Univers i ty of Wisconsin Press, 1967. 184 (2) Secondary Income These figures do not take in to account secondary income gener-ated by the expenditure of the o r i g i n a l $84.9 m i l l i o n . This economic concept of the " m u l t i p l i e r " as used i n regional ana lys i s , s p e c i f i c a l l y with regional input-output techniques, i s used to calculate th i s add i t iona l income. Examples i n the appl ica t ion th is theory have been 53 54 55 documented by Isard, Leont ief , Miernyk, and many others. The Milwaukee study used two marine m u l t i p l i e r s , based on previous s tudies , 5 6 these were 2,905 and 2.33. For the sake of s i m p l i c i t y th i s study w i l l use the mean figure of 2.62. Other secondary income would ar ise out of spendings from the 260,872 passengers that landed or embarked i n Vancouver i n 1968. I f each spent $10,00 per head th is would amount to $2,608,720. This i s a conservative estimate as many passengers are from out of town which would necessitate overnight accommodation and meals. Crew expenditures have not been included, but would be substant ia l as almost 2,000 57 vessels entered Vancouver harbour l a s t year. 53 Walter Isard , "Interregional and Regional Input-Output Analys i s : A Model of a Space Economy", Review of Economics and Statistics, November, 1951, 54 W. Leont ief , Input-Output Economics, New York: Oxford U n i -ve r s i ty Press, 1966. "^W. Miernyk, .The Elements of Input-Output Analysis, Random House, 1965. " ^ E r i c Schenker, op. cit., p . 136 and 137. ""^National Harbours Board, Annual Report, 1968, p . 53. 185 Addi t iona l income would be generated from the mooring f a c i l i t i e s , the l o c a l passenger serv ice , and the car and truck f e r r i e s . No attempt has been made to calculate these, but a figure of $1,000,000 i s e s t i -mated. Table 36 below summarizes a l l d i rec t and secondary income gener-ated by industr ies i n that por t ion of the Port of Vancouver which i s wi th in the Ci ty of Vancouver and along the Burrard In l e t . TABLE 36 TOTAL DIRECT AND INDIRECT INCOME GENERATED BY PORT ACTIVITY VANCOUVER STUDY AREA, 1968 Estimated Income M u l t i p l i e r (2.62) Foreign & Domestic Passenger Service Other $84,921,250 2,608,720 1,000,000 $222,493,675 6,834,846 2,620,000 Total $88,529,970 $231,948,521 Source: Waterfront Survey, 1969; Service Sector Survey, 1970. The t o t a l revenue, d i rec t and i n d i r e c t , that i s generated by the Inner Harbour sect ion of the Port amounts to an estimated $231,948,521. This figure i s not complete for the ent i re waterfront business. To obtain complete information, measurements should not be r e s t r i c t ed to cargo wharves as numerous industr ies and services i n th is area handle low volumes of goods but generate high cash flows, such as marine repair indus t r i e s . By using th is approach the t o t a l revenue would be considerably increased. One ind ica t ion of the t o t a l impact i s seen i n the employment measurements discussed below. 186 The Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product (the market value of a l l P rov in-c i a l goods and services produced) of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1968 was 58 $7.5 b i l l i o n , with a population of jus t over 2,000,000. As no Gross Ci ty Product has been calculated for Vancouver, a r e l a t i ve pop-u la t ion percentage has been used to ar r ive at th i s f igure . The c i t y ' s population i n 1968 was approximately 420,000 or 21 per cent of the Province, therefore an estimate of the C i t y ' s Gross Product for 1968 would be 21 per cent of the P r o v i n c i a l Product or $1,575,000,000. From these extremely rough but conservative ca lcu la t ions , the shipping indust ry ' s $232,000,000 contributes to 15 per cent of the c i t y ' s Gross Product, or about one do l l a r out of every seven that c i rcu la tes i n Vancouver i s derived from port a c t i v i t y . This has not included the non-shipping waterfront users, (3) Employment In order to obtain an a l te rnat ive perspective of th i s impact from the maritime industry , a second method i s used, that of employ-ment. This has been measured i n terms of male and female workers, employed both on the waterfront as w e l l as i n the service indus t r i es . These figures are calculated from the questionnaire returns i n th i s study, and summarized i n Chapter I I I . A separate telephone survey was conducted i n January of 1970 to determine the s i z e , p a y r o l l and charac te r i s t i cs of the major 58 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,.British.Columbia Financial and Economic Review, 29th Edition, V i c t o r i a : Department of Finance, 1969, p . 63. 187 service indus t r i es . These included Customs Brokers, Steamship Companies, Ship Chandlers, Ship Agents, Marine Equipment and Supplies, and Importers and Exporters. A 25 per cent random sample was taken from the Ci ty of Vancouver Telephone Directory and each was sent an 59 introductory l e t t e r , asking f ive questions. The following week each manager was telephoned the resu l t s of which are tabulated i n Table 37. A t o t a l of 352 such businesses were l i s t e d , 88 l e t t e r s were sent out (25 per cent) of which 13 were returned, as "no such address". Of the remaining 75.businesses, 50 were w i l l i n g to co-operate and offered information (66 per cent response). The figures i n Table 37 have taken th is in to account, and the responses have been weighted accordingly. TABLE 37 MARINE SERVICE INDUSTRIES -EMPLOYMENT AND PAYROLL, CITY OF VANCOUVER AND PORT STUDY AREA, 1969 Tota l Number of Companies Average Marine Employees Tota l Marine Employees Average Salary (a) Tota l Marine Salary Customs Brokers 24 5 120 $6,700 $ 804,000 Steamship Companies 56 110 6,160 8,400 51,744,000 Ship Chandlers and Agents 44 32 1,408 7,320 10,306,560 Marine Equipment and Supplies 56 5 280 8,300 1,324,000 Importers and Exporters 172 4 688 8,200 5,641,600 Tota l 352 8,656 $69,820,160 Calculated from t o t a l annual p a y r o l l . Source: Service Sector Survey, 1970. 188 When the service employment and income are mu l t ip l i ed by the 2.62 marine m u l t i p l i e r established e a r l i e r , then the t o t a l employment, d i rec t and i n d i r e c t , of the service industr ies and the i r p a y r o l l amount to 2,267,872 persons and $187,928,819. Table 38 below shows the figures for the t o t a l employment related to a l l the port operations i n the Ci ty of Vancouver along the Study Area of the Inner Harbour. TABLE 38 TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RELATED TO PORT OPERATIONS, CITY OF VANCOUVER AND STUDY AREA, 1969 Total Employment F u l l Time Waterfront On S i te 2,415 Off Si te 914 Vancouver Longshoremen 1,800 Marine Service, Agents, e tc . 8,656 Waterfront Trucking (a) 1,340 Railway, Off Si te (b) 200 Tota l '-.--.-.'v.-, V'T••• 'T » r • ! 15; 325. : See Appendix VI I I for ca lcu la t ions . 9^ Estimate„ Source: Service Sector Survey, 1970, Waterfront Survey, 1969. The actual employment that the Port i s d i r e c t l y accountable for , amounts to 15,325 persons. By applying the regional marine 59 See Appendix E for a copy of th i s l e t t e r . 189 m u l t i p l i e r of 2.62, i t becomes apparent that when d i rec t and ind i rec t employment of the port related operations are viewed as a whole, they are seen to be a s ign i f i can t factor i n the c i t y ' s t o t a l employment. The new t o t a l employment figure that the port a c t i v i t y generates now amounts to 40,177 persons, or approximately 10 per cent of the c i t y ' s 1968 populat ion, or 25 per cent of the t o t a l labour force. In conclusion one can c l e a r l y state that Port operations i n Vancouver i s a major asset to the c i t y , cont r ibut in t to a quarter of i t s employment and approximately 15 per cent of the Gross Ci ty Product. Therefore any decisions to.improve the port operations that involve the re loca t ing of a c t i v i t i e s w i l l have to consider the economic effects i n terms of the Gross C i ty Product and employment. G. SUMMARY This chapter has shown that there are measurable pressures created by the c i t y , that are and w i l l continue to influence port development, as long as the ex i s t ing s i tua t ion i s l e f t to continue. These pressures are seen i n terms of: 1. A rap id ly diminishing supply of_ land,84 acres alone are required^.in.:, the i n e x t i f ivecyears byvthe; presentiwaterfronfc industr ies .•'..'.•.•tei-xiciit 1. .•MC,I:.Y.X >.cc . 2. High urban land values ref lected i n high waterfront asses Sment S •..,:.;;:.;,: i; :; Ai i". Li .. 3. Commercial developments of no r e l a t i o n to port a c t i v i t y 190 occupying port lands; and 4. Urban sewerage po l lu t i ng the whole area, v 'v 5;, 'Operating apart from, these vcKanging^dandauses^'has /beehlthe oyer-^ all- 'changingeroieibf the'Cporfcjcwhichpis;'-perhaps fchenmajorrsource-bf the current port/urban c o n f l i c t . At i t s inception one hundred years ago the por t ' s function was en t i r e ly one of,supplying and receiving goods from the c i t y . Now only .6 per cent of i t s .expor ts or iginate from the c i t y and 10 per cent of i t s imports are destined for the c i t y . Thus i n terms of commodity flows the port appears not to be dependent upon the c i t y for i t s s u r v i v a l . In terms of service l i n k s and economic impact, however, they c i t y i s c r i t i c a l l y t i ed to the port function. Though the service industr ies do not require proximity to the port they do account for 57 per cent of the por t ' s labour force, the l a t t e r being 25 per cent of the c i t y ' s t o t a l labour force. Thus the service l i n k i s now the c r i t i c a l re la t ionship between port and c i t y , and i n an era of improving communication systems the phys ica l aspects of the s p a t i a l r e l a t i on of these two functions could become less s i g n i -f i can t . F i n a l l y i n terms of future urban pressures most indica t ions are that i n d u s t r i a l , recreat ional and high density r e s i d e n t i a l pres-sures w i l l create a c r i t i c a l demand on th is area wi th in 10 years as land i n the ex i s t i ng zones becomes f u l l y developed. CHAPTER VI PORT ADMINISTRATION The j u r i s d i c t i o n and authority granted to an i n d i v i d u a l or corporation serves as a guide to future planning by es tabl ishing the l i m i t s wi th in which that i nd iv idua l or body may act . While conceptions are abstract , they develop into concrete plans i n response to a need, and depend upon the administrat ive and l ega l framework for the i r inaug-ura t ion . A knowledge of th i s framework i s then a prerequis i te to an ef fec t ive planning program. Ports are no different from any other corporation, i n that they are governed and administered by management, that they are responsible to a senior body, and that they operate wi th in the l i m i t s of a sover-eign author i ty . However a d i s t i n c t i o n may be made between a port and another corporation, i n which the ports are a l i n k i n the nat ional t ransportat ion network, and an instrument of na t ional p o l i c y . In th i s respect they command greater a t tent ion than a comparison by the usual economic c r i t e r i a would ind ica te . In the previous chapters the emphasis has been placed upon the study area, i t s i n t e rna l and external cha rac t e r i s t i c s , and i t s i n t e r -act ion with the adjoining urban area. Nevertheless, the second chapter introduced the concept of the metropolitan area as a resource, con-sidered as a s ingle un i t . This penultimate chapter w i l l s i m i l a r l y discuss the metropolitan area, but from a planning and administrat ive 192 viewpoint, i n which the whole i s considered as the amalgamation and in tegra t ion of the constituent par ts . The chapter w i l l commence with an out l ine of the l ega l frame-work covering ports i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and then w i l l go on to describe the method of operation of ports and planning agencies i n the.metro-po l i t an area. The conclusion w i l l examine some of the l imi t a t ions imposed under the present arrangement. A. CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY BACKGROUND The fundamental l ega l -document defining nat ional and p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the B r i t i s h North America Act,"'" from which stems the d i v i s i o n between federal and p r o v i n c i a l author i ty . Generally the intent was to assign r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for matters of na t ional importance to Canada, and those of p r o v i n c i a l in teres t to the province, with residuary power going to the senior government. As a resu l t navigation and shipping, -inter alia, were federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , while the management and sale of publ ic lands became one of the p r o v i n c i a l respon-s i b i l i t i e s . Although the B r i t i s h North America Act was a B r i t i s h s ta tute , and came into force i n 1867, before the admittance of B r i t i s h Columbia in to the Dominion of Canada, the Act contemplated the p o s s i b i l i t y of such a step, as set out i n Section 146. "'"Great B r i t a i n , British North America Act, 1867, 30 V i c t o r i a , C. 3. 193 B r i t i s h Columbia became a part of the Dominion of Canada on Ju ly 2 20, 1871 under the Terms of Union, i n which i t was speci f ied that pub l i c harbours became the property of Canada at the date of entry. While some doubt existed regarding the d e f i n i t i o n of publ ic harbours i t was recognized that a natural harbour not ac tua l ly used for harbour purposes at the date of Union did not go to the federal government. Some of the doubt mentioned above was resolved i n 1924 by an Order- in-Counci l of the Dominion Government, i n which the " r igh t , t i t l e , and in te res t" of the Dominion to foreshore lands and lands 3 covered with water, was r e s t r i c t ed to s i x harbours. These s i x harbours were V i c t o r i a , Esquimalt, Nanaimo, A l b e r n i , Burrard In le t and New Westminster. This Order- in-Counci l cleared up much of the doubt regarding ownership of lands seaward from the high water mark, although subse-quently the j u r i s d i c t i o n of ownership of sea land at Roberts Bank became an issue which was referred to the.Supreme Court of Canada. The findings of th i s court was that a l l lands below ordinary low water mark are the property of Canada, and under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the 4 nat ion. Great B r i t a i n , Order of Her Majesty in Council Admitting British Columbia into the Union, Court of Windsor, May 16, 1871. 3 Governor General i n Counc i l , Ottawa, P.C. 741, June 7, 1924. 4 The Supreme Court of Canada, Decision over Offshore Mineral Rights as set out in Order in Council P.C. 1965-750. November 7, 1967. 194 Turning now from the question of j u r i s d i c t i o n of lands covered by water to the question of r ights of ownership, the t i t l e to land i s established under the p r o v i n c i a l land r eg i s t r a t ion statutes. Under these statutes ownership i n fee-simple i s the strongest in teres t that may be acquired i n land, although i t does not give to the owner an unrestr ic ted r ight to carry out.any act ion or erect any structure upon that land. The owner.is s t i l l considered a tenant i n fee-simple subject to control of the sovereign power. This concept of ownership as a "high-class tenant" subject to regulations imposed under l e g i s l a t i v e action,-has been accepted as zoning regulations and expropriat ion acts have -become more prevalent commensurate with the increasing competition for land. Although lands covered by water are seldom the subject of ce r t i f i ca t e s of indefeasible t i t l e , the same sort of over-r id ing conditions apply, i n which n a v i -gable waters are analagous to publ ic highways, and for the benefit and use of a l l . For th i s purpose navigat ion, and structures b u i l t i n navigable water are subject to the control of the federal government. Leading out of the above paragraphs i t i s appropriate to con-s ider a l l lands, whether they are covered by water or not , and whether they are p r iva t e ly or pub l i c l y owned, as subject to regulations on the use of that land, imposed by governments, granted under the author-i t y of the federal parliament or p r o v i n c i a l l eg i s l a tu r e s . While some of these regulations stem from municipal l e g i s l a t i o n , the municipal-i t i e s i n turn are en t i r e ly under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the l e g i s l a t u r e . 195 Within the metropolitan area, described i n Chapter I I , the in te res t i n land, and lands covered by water, are shown i n Figures 28 and 29. Figure 28 shows ownership of water lands, and Figure 29 shows administrat ions. These interests are summarized below: (1) Federal Government Owner of the bulk of the "inner harbour" from the F i r s t Narrows, easter ly to Port Moody, and including Indian Arm; and owner of the s i x harbours mentioned i n P .C . 741, of which New Westminster i s the only other s i t e i n metropolitan Vancouver. These are a few pr ivate ownerships of water land i n the inner harbour, of which the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company i s the predom-inant owner. In add i t ion , the federal government i s the owner of a l l lands seaward from the ordinary low water mark, outside of the bays, harbours and es tuar ies , to the outer l i m i t of the t e r r i t o r i a l sea of Canada. Landward the federal government has less p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and ownership i s l imi t ed to holdings of Indian reserves, defence estab-lishments, and some other waterfront lands i n Burrard In le t and False Creek. In addit ion to ownership the Federal Government has responsi-b i l i t y and control over navigation and shipping under the Navigable Waters Protect ion Act . Within established harbours i t regulates navigat ion, harbour f a c i l i t i e s , services and p o l i c i n g , and some leases of water lands, under the Nat ional Harbours Board Ac t , The 198 North Fraser Harbour Commissioners Ac t , and the Fraser River Harbour Commissioners Ac t . On land the federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s somewhat l e s s . I t has ownership of some upland acquired under e i ther the Nat ional Harbours Board Ac t , or the appropriate Harbour Commissioners Ac t . These statutes empower the acqu i s i t ion of land, including the r ight to expropriate. In general the federal government has l imi t ed r e spons ib i l i t y for land t ransportat ion, exercised through the Nat ional Transportation A c t , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y through such statutes as the Railway Act . The fol lowing are the p r i n c i p a l relevant federal s tatutes, being part of the Revised Statutes of.Canada, 1952: Statute Canada Shipping A c t , (Chap. 29) Department of Transport Act (Chap, 79) Fisher ies Act (Chap. 119) Government Harbours and Piers Act (Chap. 135) Harbour Commissioners Act (Chap. 32, Statutes of 1964-65) Nat ional Harbours Board Act (Chap. 187) Nat ional Transportation Act (Chap. 69, Statutes of 1966-67) Navigable Waters Protect ion Act (Chap. 193) New Westminster Harbour Commission Act (Chap. 158, Statutes of 1913) North Fraser Harbour Commissioners Act (Chap, 162, Statutes of 1913) Min i s t ry Transport Transport F isher ies Transport Transport Transport -Transport Publ ic Works Transport Transport 199 (2) P r o v i n c i a l Government Owner of most of the lands seaward from high water mark from the F i r s t Narrows to the Port of Vancouver l i m i t s , and of most of the remaining lands below high water mark i n the metropolitan Vancouver area, inc luding the Fraser River and False Creek. As was the case i n the inner harbour, there are some.lands under separate ownership, i n which the three main owners are the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, the Ci ty of Vancouver, and the Federal Government. Their holdings are i n False Creek, and i n the Fraser River at New Westminster. On land the province i s the owner of a l l land that has not been a l ienated, of a l l s treets and roads i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y and mun-i c i p a l i t i e s except Vancouver. With the exception-of the upland,and-foreshore adjoining Roberts Bankj the province has not acted as a port developer, and i t s main ro le has been that of leasing land and i n administering secondary roads and a r t e r i a l highways. However i t occupies a pre-eminent role i n that i t i s the sole authority for mun ic ipa l i t i e s , and has the power to amend or innovate a l l municipal l e g i s l a t i o n . The following are the p r i n c i p a l relevant p r o v i n c i a l statutes related to port adminis t ra t ion, a l l being part of the Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960. 200 Statute Min i s t ry Highway Act (Chap. 172) Highways Land Act (Chap. 206) Lands, Forests and Water Resources Municipal Act (Chap. 255) Municipal Af fa i r s Vancouver Charter (Chap. 55, Statutes of 1953. (3) Sub-Provincial Government Within the metropolitan area are 14 mun ic ipa l i t i e s , consis t ing of the C i t i e s of Vancouver, North Vancouver, New Westminster, Port Moody, Port Coquitlam, and White Rock, and the D i s t r i c t s of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Coquitlam, Fraser M i l l s , Burnaby, Surrey, Delta and Richmond; and shown i n Figures 28 and 29. These munic ipa l i t i e s are, with the.exception of Vancouver, gov-erned by the Municipal Ac t . Vancouver .comes.under-the Vancouver Charter. In e i ther case the munic ipa l i t i e s are empowered to regulate land use through o f f i c i a l community plans and zoning by-laws. In addi t ion to these regulatory powers the munic ipa l i t i e s have the important respon-s i b i l i t y of providing for l o c a l roads and for publ ic access to a l l lands. They may, and commonly do, undertake to provide services of water and sewerage, l e v e l , a further l e v e l of government was recently created, ca l led the regional government. I t s j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the regional d i s t r i c t , i n the case of the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t corresponding to At a stage above the municipal l e v e l , but below the p r o v i n c i a l 201 the munic ipa l i t i e s of metropolitan Vancouver, plus the inc lus ion of some unorganized t e r r i t o r y , mostly i n the northern part of the d i s t r i c t . At present the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t functions are l imi t ed to hosp i t a l services and planning. The l a t t e r function i s centered around the o f f i c i a l Regional Plan adopted by the Lower Main-land Regional Planning Board, the predecessor of the regional d i s t r i c t , i n 1966. This plan was not re t roact ive and allowed ex i s t ing municipal zoning to stand. However, in. the.event of change, i t required that the proposed change must be toward that use speci f ied i n the O f f i c i a l Regional P lan . (4) Railways The l a s t s ingle agency to be considered, the ra i lways , operate as l i n k s i n the na t ional transportation network.. They were an essen-t i a l instrument i n developing the na t ion , and were given large f i nanc i a l and land grants to encourage construction... . Under the i r acts of incorporat ion they were given broad powers, including. the r igh t to acquire land, and the r ight of expropria t ion. ..In addit ion to the i r incorporat ing l e g i s l a t i o n , they operate,under both federal and provin-c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . ^ Many of the lands that were acquired, e i ther through purchase, or as a subsidy, are i n the urban centres, and have great value i n today's market. In pa r t i cu l a r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company has Railway Act ( R . S . C . , 1952, Chap. 234). Railway Act ( R . S . B . C . , 1960, Chap. 329). 202 large holdings along Burrard In le t adjoining the CBD, and i n False Creek. This ra i lway, along with the Canadian National Railways, are the owners of the bulk of the 500 acres taken up for railway yards, exclusive of main l i n e t rack, i n the Ci ty of Vancouver.^ (5) Others The remaining land i n the metropolitan area i s i n pr ivate ownership, i n parcels of various dimensions and areas, and held under l i t e r a l l y thousands of ce r t i f i ca t e s of t i t l e i n the Land Registry Offices of the Province. Much of th i s land borders on water and as such has the r ight of r ipa r i an ownership. This r igh t cannot be abro-gated without the consent of the upland owner, often requir ing an ex-pensive considerat ion. B. PLANNING ADMINISTRATION. IN THE REGION (1) Federal and P r o v i n c i a l The trends i n the past regarding port administration have been to separate i t from the urban area, and manage i t e i ther as a branch of the government, a pr ivate corporation under.contract or lease, a j o i n t stock company i n which the government retains majority con t ro l , 7 or as a separate publ ic en t i t y . In Canada the senior port agency has B r i t i s h Columbia Research Counc i l , Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, May 1963, p . 4. ^Walter P. Heddon, Mission: Port Development, Washington: The American Associa t ion of Port Au tho r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1967, p . 73. always been under the federal government. I n i t i a l l y the Harbour Commission form of management preva i led , although th is trend was a l -tered as the Nat ional Harbours Board assumed control of the major Canadian outlets i n 1936. In the Vancouver metropolitan area, the Board has j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Port of Vancouver, o r i g i n a l l y defined i n 1936 as a l l t i d a l waters l y i n g east of the l i n e between Point Atkinson and Point Grey. This area was extended i n 1967 to include Roberts Bank, Sturgeon Bank g and Boundary Bay. The area under the Harbour Commissioners includes the Fraser River easter ly and upstream from the mouth to beyond New Westminster. I t i s served under two federal agencies, The North Fraser Harbour Commissioners, and the.Fraser River Harbour Commission. The control exercised by these three federal agencies varies with the nature of ownership of the sea bottom, l i s t e d i n the f i r s t sect ion of t h i s chapter. In.the inner harbour Nat ional Harbours Board cont ro l i s strongest, as possession of the sea bottom, as w e l l as control of navigation and shipping, gives th i s senior government " agency a free hand to lease these lands for a speci f ied use. Elsewhere i n the Por t , the Nat ional Harbours Board exercises j o i n t authority of appl icat ions made under the Navigable Waters Protect ion A c t , through 9 provis ion contained i n the Nat ional Harbours Board Act . As the name impl ies , the Navigable Waters Protect ion Act i s l imi ted to navigable g Governor General i n Counc i l , Ottawa, P . C 1967-1581, August 11, 1967. g National Harbours Board-Act . (R.S.C. 195, Chap. 187), Sec. 38. 204 water, and does not include upland. In the case of those parts of Vancouver Harbour and the Fraser River i n which the sea, r i v e r bottom or foreshore i s owned by the P r o v i n c i a l Government, or i s p r iva t e ly he ld , the control of the senior government i s lessened. Although the relevant statutes state that j u r i s d i c t i o n of these areas i s with the federal authori ty , the e x p l i c i t nature of t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n has not been c l ea r ly establ ished. Notwithstanding that the federal government has absolute authority over navigation and shipping, i t would appear that any extension of control beyond th i s stage would be l i m i t e d , and would require the approval and cooperation of the owner of the sea -bottom as w e l l as the r i pa r i an owner. Lacking such an arrangement, each government would then be able to exercise a veto over proposed development. (a) Nat ional Harbours Board-Management The report which led to the enabling l e g i s l a t i o n of the National Harbours Board i n 1936,"*^ recognized the shortcomings of the Harbour Commission form of port administration that was prevalent i n Canada at that time. To a large extent p o l i t i c a l patronage was used i n the choice of appointments i n the various Harbour Commissioners, and re -sulted i n i ne f f i c i enc i e s i n engineering work and i n management. S i r Alexander Gibb further recognized the necessity of the ports as a part of the nat ional transportat ion system, i n which he " ^ S i r Alexander Gibb, Dominion of Canada:-National Ports Survey, 1931-1932, Ottawa: King ' s P r i n t e r , 1932. 205 s u c c i n c t l y stated: "The main l i n e s of communication i n Canada traverse the country from A t l a n t i c to P a c i f i c . The 'East and West' route i s the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , dictated not only to a s s i s t i n g the i n t e r i o r prov-inces to compete i n the markets of the world, but directed even more int o l i n k i n g the whole Dominion i n t o a s i n g l e u n i t . And the natural c o r o l l a r y i s the demand by the seaboard provinces that Canadian t r a f f i c should flow by Canadian channels.""'""'' The recommended form of administration r e s u l t i n g from the conditions mentioned above was s p e c i f i e d i n the National Harbours Board Act, i n which ce n t r a l control-was vested in-the head o f f i c e of the Board at Ottawa, and some measure of l o c a l control remained at the port. The i n t e n t i o n was to e s t a b l i s h a system of administration that " w i l l give the ports f u l l opportunity to develop on i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s i n accordance with l o c a l requirements, and at the same time to 12 play t h e i r part i n the n a t i o n a l transportation system." While t h i s concept of port.administration into c e n t r a l and l o c a l areas of control.may be v a l i d i n theory, and was c e r t a i n l y necessary at the time of the Gibb report, l o c a l control i s minimal and has been dominated by the c e n t r a l function. Today the main task of the l o c a l port o f f i c e i s i n making operating decisions, while the planning of port f a c i l i t i e s i s undertaken at.the head o f f i c e of the 13 National Harbours Board. ^Ibid.3 p . 9. ^Ibid. j p. 12. 13 Wallace Edward McMullen, Port ...Administration Structures 3 206 The remoteness of the cent ra l o f f ice from the port has worked against development i n response to l o c a l needs. On the contrary Nat ional Harbours Board po l i cy i s to remain iner t u n t i l the need for 14 further f a c i l i t i e s has been w e l l establ ished, (b) Harbour Commission Management*""' Contrasting with the Nat ional Harbours Board administration i s that offered by the two Harbour Commissions i n the metropolitan area. Although the commissioners are appointed by the Governor-General i n Counc i l , there i s l i t t l e interference with the administrat ion beyond th i s step, as long as the Commission i s operating at a p r o f i t . The threat of interference from the head of f ice appears to be effect ive i n inducing both these Commissions to operate p r o f i t a b l y , and both have consis tent ly s tayed."in - the b lack" . Furthermore, i t was stated that the Harbour Commissions are able to handle goods at lower cost than those i n the Port of Vancouver by v i r tue of higher ship unloading rates and superior unloading equipment. The v i t a l i t y of these Harbour Commissions stems from two sources. F i r s t l y , the p ro f i t motive has been effect ive i n creating an Unpublished M.B.A. Thesis , The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, July 1968, p . 91, 99, 100. 14 Interview with Mr, J . E . Chadwick, Port of Vancouver Develop-ment Committee, March 9, 1970. ^Informat ion i n th is sect ion was obtained from interviews with Mr. N . D. Eastman, Port Manager, The North Fraser Harbour Commissioners, Vancouver, March 26, 1970; and Captain J . W. Kavanagh, Port Manager, Fraser River Harbour Commission, New Westminster, March 30, 1970. 207 e f f i c i e n t operation. Secondly, the composition of the commissioners wi th l o c a l l y based members has made the operation sens i t ive and res-ponsive to l o c a l pressures. Cooperation with the Province has been undertaken, i n which both Commissions have had delegated to them by the Province, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of administration of water lands under p r o v i n c i a l . c o n t r o l , i n return for a share of the revenue. This undertaking has been successful . (2) Municipal Control The planning function i s a comparatively recent addi t ion to municipal services but has become recognized f o r . i t s important r o l e , i n most munic ipa l i t i e s forming a separate department of the adminis-t r a t i o n . As an a id to implementation of planning and land use, a l l metropolitan munic ipa l i t i e s have adopted zoning by-laws. With few exceptions the l e g a l i t y of these by-laws has been upheld i n the courts. A l l of the munic ipa l i t i e s i n the area border on, or extend in to navigable water, be i t part of the Fraser River or an i n l e t of the sea. I t would appear.that i n the case of those munic ipa l i t i e s whose l i m i t s extend in to navigable areas, that the land use i n these areas could be determined munic ipa l ly , even though .federal l e g i s l a t i o n states that j u r i s d i c t i o n i s under the senior government. While wi th in the study area, the C i ty of Vancouver zoning i s consistent with the National Harbours Board use, i t i s not inconceivable that differences could ar ise between municipal and senior -governments. This po ten t i a l dispute has never been tested i n the.courts , an ind ica t ion that the 208 16 municipal governments concede th is r ight to the senior governments. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , to a greater extent than the p r o v i n c i a l or federal government, are dependent upon the l o c a l tax do l l a r and are sens i t ive to pressure to effect a change i n land use which w i l l r esu l t i n greater assessments and increased tax returns. In such s i tuat ions the zoning regulations are v i r t u a l l y inef fec t ive against the market demands for a change i n land use or an increased in tens i ty of develop-ment . In determining land use and transportat ion routes there has been l i t t l e comprehensive planning between munic ipa l i t i e s and the senior governments despite -the success of the Lower Mainland - Regional Planning Board i n enacting.a general p lan. To a cer ta in extent munic ipa l i t i e s have been frustrated by the two senior governments who are not bound by zoning by-laws,and have - inst i tuted land use changes without the cooperation of the mun ic ipa l i t i e s . Notable offenders i n th is respect are . the Department of Highways* -7 and the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power Authori ty—a p r o v i n c i a l government corporation. Above the municipal l e v e l , the influence of the regional form of government has yet to be f e l t . However i t appears that i t s 16 Interview, Mr. W„ T. Lane, S o l i c i t o r , Township of Richmond, A p r i l 4, 1970. 17 . . See Gary C. Harkness, Criteria for River Crossing Location: A Case Study Approach, Unpublished M.A. Thesis, The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l 1964, p . 101. 18 See "Superport Railway Faces Roadblock", Vancouver Sun, August 29, 1968. 209 effectiveness l i e s i n a coordinating r o l e , assuming functions that i n d i v i d u a l munic ipa l i t i e s cannot undertake, e i ther because they ex-tend across several m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , or because they need a stronger f i n a n c i a l base. Recently passed amendments to the Municipal Act have given the Minis te r a stronger hand i n imposing a function upon a regional d i s t r i c t . C. SUMMARY This chapter has outl ined the planning and administrat ive framework i n the metropolitan port area. I t commenced with an i n t r o -duction of the statutory r ights of the various interes ts connected with land and water use. Following th i s a more detai led study was made of the various agencies having planning author i ty . These agencies were: 1. Nat ional Harbours Board 2. The North Fraser Harbour Commissioners 3. Fraser River Harbour Commission 4. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 5. Fourteen Mun ic ipa l i t i e s i n Metropolitan Vancouver 6. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t 7. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company .and other ra i lways. Three spec i f i c . conc lus ions : are reached i n th i s chapter. F i r s t l y , there i s no o v e r a l l port authori ty . Although the National Harbours Board comes closest to th i s f u n c t i o n , . i t i s imbalanced 210 i n favour of maritime f a c i l i t i e s , and i t s primary in teres t has been on the marine side of the waterfront. Secondly, the above,agencies are generally uncoordinated. The best efforts at coordination are between the regional d i s t r i c t and the fourteen mun ic ipa l i t i e s . The remainder of the agencies are con-t r o l l e d ei ther at the cap i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia or Canada, or at the head of f ice of the railways outside the region. L a s t l y , the j u r i s d i c t i o n of land use i n parts of the port have not been resolved. At present both municipal and senior governments claim j u r i s d i c t i o n over navigable water, although the senior government decisions have generally prevai led i n case of c o n f l i c t . Under th is^condi t ion the l i n e of d i v i s i o n between muni-c i p a l and federal j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the high water mark, a l i n e along which port a c t i v i t y i s concentrated.. CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS A. SUMMARY This research has focused pr imar i ly upon the study area, that narrow s t r i p of land wi th in the Ci ty bf Vancouver, shown i n Figure 4 (page 26), between the railway and the sea, about four and a ha l f miles long, and varying i n width from a few feet up to a quarter of a mi le . When compared with the c i t y or metropolitan area, i t repre-sents only a small f rac t ion of the aggregate area. I f other ind ica t ions , such as employment and land values are used i n place of area, then different charac te r i s t i cs are evidenced, which are not revealed i n a comparison on the basis of area. Total employment, land values and economic impact are s ign i f i can t ind ica t ing a greater in tens i ty of a c t i v i t y i n th is area than i n other parts of the c i t y . These charac te r i s t i cs are important to the l o c a l l e v e l of government concerned with the provis ion of l o c a l services and c o l l e c t i n g revenues through taxat ion. The hinter land of the port , an area simple i n concept but dif ferent to define r igorous ly , has an in teres t d i f f e r ing from the l o c a l viewpoint and i s d i r e c t l y concerned with the maintenance of export and import flows. As a resu l t th i s hinter land.region has an important stake i n the study area, as the majority of trade flows pass through th is sect ion of the waterfront. 212 Going beyond the two leve ls of concern mentioned above, the study area may be viewed from a nat ional point of view, i n which i t s s igni f icance i s equally apparent. While i n some respects i t resembles the natura l t ransportat ion corr idors found i n B r i t i s h Columbia con-ta in ing the two transcontinental ra i lways , a nat ional highway, and a communication network, i t d i f fe r s from these corr idors i n that i t i s not a point of movement along, but an area for transshipment and change of mode for goods. In th i s sense i t takes on importance not only as a center of employment requir ing services , generating income, and commanding high land values, not only as point of shipment of goods from various parts of the h in ter land , but i n addi t ion as a p a r t i -cu la r ly v i t a l l i n k of the t o t a l transportat ion network i n the fabric of external trade of the nat ion, upon which Canada r e l i e s heav i ly . From the l a t t e r point of view i t deserves careful at tent ion and con-s idera t ion from the whole country, elucidated i n the Nat ional Trans-porta t ion Po l i cy as the declarat ion "that an economic, e f f i c i e n t , and adequate transportat ion system making the best use of a l l avai lable modes of transportat ion at the lowest t o t a l cost i s essent ia l to protect the in teres ts of the users of transportat ion and to maintain the economic wel l -being and growth of Canada . . . The importance of the study area does not rest exc lus ive ly with the l o c a l municipal or regional government, nor at the l e v e l of port and h in te r land , and neither i s i t the sole concern of the nat ional 'National Transportation Aet (S.C. 1967, Chap. 69), Sec. 1 (par t ) . 213 government. Rather i t i s an amalgam of a l l these pos i t ions , each of which has i t s own sphere of in teres t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In th is context the ro le of planning becomes s ign i f i can t not only for the manifold in teres ts that are represented, but also because of the po ten t ia l c o n f l i c t that ex i s t s . I t ,was i n th is connection that the hypothesis was formulated, mentioning seven points that may impede the port i n the present and future, and which i s repeated below: The c o n f l i c t between the shipping a c t i v i t y and the adjoining urban area (1), i n terms of disarrangement of waterfront s i t es (2) , lack of avai lable land (3), in te r fe r ing land uses (4), congestion of transportat ion f a c i l i t i e s (5) , expanding shipping requirements (6), and port administrat ion (7), i s a s ign i f i can t impediment to the present operation and future development of the Port of Vancouver. The parts of the study that followed the hypothesis are related to the tes t ing of each of the seven terms mentioned above. The remain-ing parts of th i s chapter consider each term and conclude as to the i r effect upon the present operation and future development. (1) The Conf l i c t Between Shipping A c t i v i t y and the Adjoining  Urban Area ' The transshipment process that occurs i n ports i s a major item i n the t o t a l transportat ion costs , estimates, discussed i n Chapter IV, place th is between 45 - 60 per cent of the t o t a l shipping costs. Because of these large transshipment costs , i t would appear that any minor improvement i n th i s area could produce major returns to t o t a l shipping costs . U n t i l now, a l l effor ts of improving investment returns i n shipping have been focused on the vessels . 214 Attent ion has yet to be paid to th i s former problem, that of transshipment, i n Vancouver and i t appears that the expanding trade s i t ua t ion and the rapid urbanization are two forces that w i l l further aggravate the ex i s t ing s i t u a t i o n . The Far East, with which the Vancouver port presently does two-thirds of i t s trade, i s expected to double i t s population wi th in the next t h i r t y years to 4 b i l l i o n persons, or 60 p e r c e n t of the world 's population. According to the 1967 B r i t i s h Columbia Research Counci l ' s report discussed i n Chapters I and IV, th i s i s bound to produce a substant ia l increase i n trade through Vancouver. For the same t h i r t y year period the Economic Council of Canada predicts a large population growth for a number of c i t i e s , Vancouver being one. I f both trends are correct larger volumes of cargo w i l l be passing through th i s rap id ly urbanizing area, given that the present port terminal w i l l remain where i t i s . One can only conclude that with r i s i n g urban land and congestion costs , the transshipment costs are destined to increase and represent an even greater propor-t ion of the t o t a l transportat ion cost . This has come about as a resu l t of the c o n f l i c t between shipping a c t i v i t y and the adjoining urban development. The ro l e of the port and i t s changing re la t ionsh ip to i t s c i t y gives r i s e to an add i t iona l source of urban/port c o n f l i c t . At i t s incept ion one hundred years ago the por t ' s function-was en t i r e ly one of se rv ic ing the c i t y of Vancouver. Now only 0.6 per cent of i t s exports originates from the c i t y and only 10 per.cent of i t s imports 215 i s destined for the c i t y . Thus i n terms of commodity flows the port appears not to be dependent upon the . c i t y of Vancouver for i t s s u r v i v a l . This separation of port and urban function can also be seen i n the loca t ion patterns of the Port Service Sector. For example Steamship Companies, Customs Brokers and Shipping Agents are located i n that part of the Central Business D i s t r i c t which i s adjacent to the least act ive shipping area of the waterfront. S i m i l a r l y Importers and Exporters are not concentrated around the major shipping terminals, i n fac t , many are dispersed through the c i t y i n what appears to be an attempt to optimize d i s t r i b u t i o n locations for the i r warehouses. Ship Chandlers, Marine Equipment and Supplies have l o c -ated along the waterfront and adjacent to shipping terminals, however, when asked i f they would relocate the i r businesses to Roberts Bank should the ent i re port function be relocated there, they f e l t the move would be unnecessary and that they could continue the i r opera-tions from the i r present loca t ions . In a l l only 18 per cent (50 companies) i n the t o t a l Port Service Sector indicated that they would move wi th the shipping function. I t would appear that the c o n f l i c t i n g marine and urban develop-ments, as w e l l as the lack of dependency between c i t y and port i n terms of commodity flows and service flows, i s such that proximity to each other i s not e s sen t i a l . 216 (2) Disarrangement of Waterfront Si tes Waterfront users located adjacent to the Central Business D i s t r i c t do not necessar i ly transact business with that area, neither are businesses located at the edge of the c i t y ' s waterfront, trading p r imar i ly with the metropolitan area. I t appears that the loca t iona l advantages of proximity have not been made use of. Neither has advantage been taken of from concentrating industr ies of a s imi l a r type. Some concentration has occurred with the f i sh ing industry at Fisherman's Wharf, however, there are s t i l l three separate f i sh ing areas ex i s t i ng along th is waterfront. Other uses such as shipping terminals, passenger terminals, marine repair yards, marinas and shallow draft users could each benefit through greater consolidat ion of a c t i v i t i e s . For example, economies i n s e rv i c ing , t ransportat ion, storage and parking are some of the d i rec t benefits a t ta inable through.. consol ida-t i o n . In th i s aspect waterfront s i t es and land uses are seen to be i n a state i f disarrangement. (3) Lack of Avai lab le Land The ent i re Vancouver metropolitan waterfront measures 330 miles and according to C. N„ Forward's Report, discussed i n Chapter I I , the supply w i l l meet the demands i f properly managed, despite the growing pressures placed on i t . Along Vancouver's Inner Harbour there remain a few small parcels of vacant land, t o t a l l i n g no more than 10 acres. Apart from th is there are other small parcels with steep back-up lands facing deep:waterlots that presently have marginal po ten t ia l use for 217 shipping f a c i l i t i e s . In the remaining area which i s designated as the major deep-sea terminal , there i s a severe shortage of avai lable land. Of the 74 businesses interviewed, 34 per cent required an increased s i t e area wi th in the next f ive years, the t o t a l requirements amounted to 84 acres. In addit ion 60 per cent of the businesses also indicated that adjacent space for expansion was not ava i l ab le . As a resu l t of th i s and other reasons th i r teen firms are considering a move to another s i t e . I t would appear that to accommodate the future land require-ments, the present po l i cy of " l a n d - f i l l " on which the ent i re harbor has been b u i l t since 1867, w i l l be continued. This i s a d i rec t re -f l e c t i o n of a shrinking land supply brought about by the adjacent urban development. (4) Interfer ing Land Uses Approximately 25 per cent of the users of the Vancouver water-front area can be classed ..as non-harbour orientated, i . e , , construct ion, publ ic adminis t ra t ion, and other manufacturing and processing indus-t r i e s . A further ind ica t ion of th i s non-^waterfront or ienta t ion i s that 28 out of 74 firms indicated having no deep-sea access and 28 indicated no r a i l access. Thus throughout.the study area approximately one quarter of the present businesses are non-compatible and are l abe l l ed as " in te r fe r ing land uses", i n terms of future port develop-ment. 218 In addit ion to these ex i s t ing mixed uses are a number of proposals that w i l l u t i l i z e waterfront lands to the exclusion of marine functions. These are Harbour Park development, the proposed F i r s t Narrows Crossing approaches, and Project 200. These projects e f f ec t ive ly use one-third of the Inner Harbour waterfront and are seen as a major in te r fe r ing land use. The ex i s t ing s i tua t ion i s expected to worsen over the next ten years as marina demands w i l l increase f ive f o l d , as i n d u s t r i a l and high density apartment zones become f i l l e d and as commercial developments continue to be b u i l t at th i s interface c a p i t a l i z i n g on an a t t rac t ive loca t ion . In an abstract and yet very r ea l sense, po l l u t i on i s i n t e r -fer ing wi th a l l ex i s t ing land uses. Most waterfront users dump untreated waste and sewage into the i n l e t i n addi t ion to the four ou t f a l l s that the c i t y has that empty into th is area. Thus a l l ex i s t ing and future developments compatible or incompatible with the ex i s t ing area w i l l have to contend with the b l i gh t effects i n -fluenced by p o l l u t i o n . F i n a l l y , the urban area i t s e l f i s seen as an in te r fe r ing land use. Major developments and renewal projects have taken place along, three-quarters of , the port in te r face , and these large investments have e f fec t ive ly prevented any expansion of port functions in to the back-up land area. This i s seen as a .def in i te bar r ie r inf luencing the d i r ec t i on of port development. In addit ion the r e l a t i ve value of.these developments appears also to have influenced tax assessments 219 on the waterfront lands.whine highest assessments-are - found-.in... the western portion, s i m i l a r l y the highest c i t y taxes are also found i n the Central Business D i s t r i c t and the West End. Thus i n many aspects there have been interferences or influences on the waterfront lands, with reference to the port function. (5) Congestion of Transportation F a c i l i t i e s The major d i f f i c u l t y faced i n transportation to and from the study area r e s u l t s from i t s proximity to the Central Business D i s t r i c t , i n which the t r a f f i c flows are i n o r d i n a t e l y larger than those gener-ated at the waterfront. The present system of a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s serving t h i s d i s t r i c t i s over capacity and r e s u l t s i n an average speed within the CBD of about 15 mph. i n non-peak.hours, and somewhat less than 13 mph. i n peak periods. This congested condition i s applicable not only i n that part of the study area adjoining the CBD, but has a "back-up" e f f e c t which extends east to V i c t o r i a Drive, and thus applies to.about 60 per cent of the length of the study area, and a higher proportion of users. T r a f f i c entering .or.leaving the waterfront i s required to use the same streets that CBD t r a f f i c uses, as there i s no a l t e r n a t i v e access. Not only i s external t r a f f i c a ffected, but also i n t e r n a l t r a f f i c faces the same conditions because there i s no continuous service road.within the study area. The a d d i t i o n a l cost, r e s u l t i n g to a general cargo terminal from the congested s t r e e t system amounted 220 to a 27 per cent surcharge from the condit ion ex i s t ing with uncon-gested t r a f f i c . While rai lway t r a f f i c has not reached the condit ion of highway t r a f f i c , nevertheless i t i s faced with the same problems, not r e s u l t -ing from an upsurge i n downtown t r a f f i c , but from a general increase i n shipping along and beyond the waterfront area. The present l ines are inadequate i f the maximum elevator input of 600 cars per day i s required. The present switching methods and the arrangement of rai lway l ines as discussed i n Chapter IV, impose addi t iona l costs on the waterfront users. Interchanges between the two main railways con--t r ibute to delays of de l ivery and double the cost of handling. The combined effect of these r e s t r i c t i ons resu l t s i n addi t iona l costs of about $400,000 per year. Direc t shipments of r a i l cars between the north and south shores of Burrard In le t are now impossible, and a 30 mile detour i s required to make th is one-half mile t r i p . Because of the unique pos i t ion of the Vancouver CBD, a l l e v -i a t i o n of congestion i s both d i f f i c u l t and expensive. To maintain the present l e v e l of service alone, l e t alone improve i t , for the increase i n t r a f f i c accruing from a current downtown undertaking, Project 200, would require s i x grade streets leading to the eastern. part of the c i t y , costing approximately $15 m i l l i o n . (6) Expanding Shipping Requirements Forecasts for port shipping show an annual increase of about 7 per cent, which w i l l double the volume shipped i n the next decade.. 221 Of the various commodities, the bulk users w i l l show a marked r i s e , and i n demands above those of other commodities. The 1968 capacity of the port was barely adequate to handle flows o f : tha t year. In the next decade an expansion of almost two-fo ld w i l l have to be provided i f the projected flows are to be accom-modated, and w i l l require more berths, and faster turn around time. The major component for higher unloading rates and expanded f a c i l i t i e s , i s the need for more land. Elsewhere container terminals are being constructed on s i t e of 120 acres each, and bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s u t i l i z i n g uni t t ra ins require about 80 acres. The land required to accommodate operation of these proportions i s simply not avai lable i n the Inner Harbour without major.disruption of adjoining urban, commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s . (7) Port Administrat ion Management of the port i s impeded, i n that no s ingle agency exercises j u r i s d i c t i o n over port lands to provide coordinated planning. In the study area both municipal and federal governments are involved, while outside of Burrard In le t a l l three leve ls of government exert some author i ty . While the Nat ional Harbours Board comes closest to o v e r a l l management, much of i t s author i ty , and the authority of federal s tatutes , i s l imi ted to lands covered by water and foreshore. The very important aspect of j u r i s d i c t i o n over the upland remains a p r o v i n c i a l or municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The lack of a .sui table o v e r a l l agency has been.mentioned and emphasized i n other s tudies , and.ample evidence of disharmonious 222 re la t ions have been recounted in . the press regarding port f a c i l i t i e s at Roberts Bank. At best such an arrangement can resu l t i n a sympa-the t ic col laborat ion of regulatory agencies, at worst i n a complete divergence of act ions , and the breakdown of the o v e r a l l port function. (b) Further Study This study has demonstrated the complexity of issues involved i n Vancouver's future port development,, The data and analysis has also indicated that th i s loca t ion i s detrimental to the o v e r a l l port operation. However, the study has also demonstrated the need to ex-tend th i s p i l o t project to ascertain i f s i m i l a r conditions ex i s t throughout the port system. Therefore the fol lowing areas are of relevance for further study: (1) The development of a systematic approach to a l loca t ing shipping and waterfront functions wi th in port areas. The basis of such an approach would be founded i n the t o t a l transportat ion costs of goods moving from the i r o r i g i n to the i r des t ina t ion , using a l ternat ive shipping or port terminals. Such a model i s developed i n Appendix IX, en-t i t l e d the.Commodity Flow Model. (2) A benefit cost study of a waterfront access road. (3) The transportat ion requirements of prospective Roberts Bank tenants, measured i n terms of the added congestion th is w i l l have on.the ex i s t ing transportat ion network. 223 (4) The effects on the nat ional economy of reducing trans-shipment costs by 10 per cent. (5) Establishment of a coordinating body at the regional l e v e l for a l l port management. (6) Amendments to the National Harbours Board Act to allow for zoning powers for the use of land const i tu t ing the immediate port service area to protect the nat ional in t e res t , s i m i l a r to the a i rpor t zoning l e g i s l a t i o n . (7) The ultimate destinations of cargo i n i t i a l l y destined for Vancouver Ci ty warehouses, i n order to a r r ive at more precise o r i g i n and dest inat ion f igures . This l i s t i s by no means endless, however, i t s purpose i s to demonstrate the need for addi t iona l study i n th i s area by a l l leve ls of government, C i t y , P r o v i n c i a l and Nat iona l . 224 B i b l i o g r a p h y A . BOOKS A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P o r t A u t h o r i t i e s , I n c o r p o r a t e d ( T h e ) . Port Design and Construction. W a s h i n g t o n : T h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P o r t A u t h o r i t i e s , I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1 9 6 4 . C h i n i t z , B e n j a m i n . 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Restoration Report : A Case for.Renewed Life in the Old City, Vancouver, 1969. , Proposed Arbutus Park Regional Shopping Center, King Edward Avenue and Arbutus Street, No. C58.14.2. Vancouver, 1968. . Vancouver Urban Renewal Study Technical Report. Numbers 2, 4 & 6. Vancouver, 1969. Vancouver Harbour Commissioners. Annual Reports. 1925, 1935. V icke r s , Charles L . "Containerizat ion 1967," Proceedings of the Fifth Conference, 1967, The Internat ional Associa t ion of Ports and Harbors, Toyko, 1967. Ward, J . B. and Associates In ternat ional , Port of Vancouver Inven-tory. Report prepared for the National Harbours Board, Vancouver, 1966. Washington Bureau of Business.Research. The Impact of Harbour Activity on Portland's Economy, Washington, Univers i ty of Oregon, 1960. Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. Pleasure Boating Study, Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters, Washington: U.S . Army Corps of Engineers, Seatt le D i s t r i c t , November, 1968. Wisconsin Department of Housing and Urban Renewal. Waterfront Renewal. Madison, 1966. D. STATUTES Governor General i n Counc i l . P,C. 741. June 7, 1924. . P.C. 1967-1581, August 11, 1967. Great B r i t a i n . British North America Act, 1867. 30 V i c t o r i a , C .3 . . Order of Her Majesty in.Council Admitting British Columbia into the Union. Court of Windsor, May 16, 1871, National Transportation Act. (S.C^ 1967* Chap. 69). Sec. 1 (Par t ) . 232 Railway Act, ( R . S . C . 1952, C h a p . 234). : . ( R . S . B . C . 1960, C h a p . 329). T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a . Decision over Offshore Mineral Rights as Set out in Order of Council P.C. 1965-750. N o v e m b e r ? , 1967. Zoning and' Development By-Law No, 3575, a n d a m e n d i n g b y - l a w s , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1956, E . I N T E R V I E W S M r . R . M . B r i n k , P r e s i d e n t . J o h n s t o n T e r m i n a l s L t d . , N o v e m b e r 21, 1969. M r . L . C a r l y l e , P o r t E n g i n e e r . P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r , J u l y 17, 1969. M r . J . E . C h a d w i c k , S e c r e t a r y , P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e , M a r c h 9, 1970, M r . N . D . E a s t m a n , P o r t M a n a g e r . T h e N o r t h F r a s e r H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n -e r s , M a r c h 26, 1970, M r . P . G e o r g e . R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -m e n t , M a r c h 12, 1970. M r . R . H u g h e s , Y a r d m a s t e r , C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y C o m p a n y , V a n c o u v e r , M a r c h 13, 1970. M r . J a c k H u t c h i n s o n . T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n , E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , J u n e 3, 1969. C a p t a i n J . W , K a v a n a g h , P o r t M a n a g e r . F r a s e r R i v e r H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n , M a r c h 30, 1970, M r . T . B a r r i e L i n d s a y , M a n a g e r , E x p o r t - I m p o r t S e r v i c e s , J o h n s t o n T e r m i n a l s L i m i t e d , F e b r u a r y 16, 1970. M r , L . M i n o c k , P h . D . s t u d e n t . D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , T h e U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M a r c h 14, 1970. M r , D . J . M o o n e y , G e n e r a l M a n a g e r . M a r a t h o n R e a l t y C o m p a n y L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , J u n e 12, 1969. M r . D . P u r d o n , C h i e f E n g i n e e r , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r S e w e r a g e . D i s t r i c t , M a r c h 13, 1970. 233 Mr. H. Urquhart. Assessment Department, C i t y of Vancouver, June 3, 1969. Mr. J . S. Wood. Swan Wooster Engineering Co. L t d . , February 11, 1970. Main gate checkers. Centennial P i e r , January 19, 1970. F . UNSIGNED ARTICLES Bank of Montreal. Business Review. August 29, 1969, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Commercial Letter. May-June, 1969. Engineering Journal. V o l . 53, No. 2, February, 1970, National Harbours Board: Vancouver Harbour. C i r cu l a r issued by National Harbours Board, Vancouver (no date).'-.. Vancouver Express. A p r i l 14, 1970. Vancouver Sun. August 29, 1968. G. CARTOGRAPHIC SOURCES Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board; Development May June, C i ty of Vancouver Sheets, 4,7,8,10,11,13. Mainland Harbours Board. Vancouver Harbour; Plan of South Shore. Sheets 1 to 5, Scale 1 inch to 400 feet. APPENDIX I WATERFRONT QUESTIONNAIRE, NOVEMBER, 1969 VANCOUVER HARBOUR QUESTIONNAIRE Conducted by the School of Community and Regional Planning University of B r i t i s h Columbia In conjunction with the P o l i c y and Research Branch, Canada Department of Transport 235 1. PLEASE INDICATE THE PRODUCT CATEGORIES V!:IC» DOMINATE THE SITE BASED ON VALUE OF BUSINESS (••IA."U>Wl OF 3) TYPE OF BUSINESS 3. 8. 22-27 9. 10. year WHEN MAS THE MAIN PLANT A1ID/OK 3UILDIKG CONSTRUCTED? year v r r a : WEV.E THE ;-AJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENTS CONSTRUCTION? year Industries Services Column Foods and beverages Transportation - f i s h 1 [ ] - marine H t ] - other foods 2 [ ] - land 12 [ ] Primary metals 3 [ J Storage Machinery Industries man- - f i s h & f i s h products 13 [ ] ufacture and repair - cereal and grain 14 | 3 7--8 - marine 4 [ ] - meat f r u i t & vecetablesl5 | ] - land 5 [ ] - container & general Transportation equipment cargo 16 | ] - marine 6 [ ] - moorage 17 | ] - land 7 [ ] - auto and other 18 I 3 i i --12 Non m e t a l l i c minerals 8 [ T J Communication 19 | 3 Chemical products 9 [ 3 Wholesale trade 20 | 3 Construction 10 [ ] R e t a i l trade 21 | 3 Public administration 22 | 3 recreation 23 1 3 Ruslness to management 24 | 3 Hotels and restaurants 25 I n J Other - (Please specify) 26 | : 3 WHEN DID YOU PEGIN OPERATIONS AT THIS SITE? 13 -14 15-16 17-18 IS THIS SITE THE ORICINAL LOCATION FOR YOUR FIRJI IN THE METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER ARFA? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] 19 IF NOT, WHERE WAS THE PREVIOUS LOCATION? 20 Also on flurrard I n l e t Ueter front 1 [ 3 * Elsewhere C i t y of Vancouver 2 [ 3 Elsewhere Metropolitan Vancouver 3 [ ] PLEASE INDICATE VH1CU OP THE FOLLOWINC CATEGORIES ACCURATELY DESCRIBES THE SITUATION OF YOUR BUSINESS: (SEE ALSO QUESTION #34) 21 Own Land and Bui l d i n g * 1 [ 3 Lease Portion of Building 3 L 3 Lease Land and Zulldlnps 2 [ 3 Lease Land, Own Building 4 [ ] HOW irucr FLoor AREA DO Y:HJ occur?? square feet; no. of f l o o r s 28 WHAT IS THE TOTAL AREA OF THE SITE? (PHASE CIVE TO NEAREST TENTH OF AN ACRE) acres 29-33 HOW MAilY FEET OF SHORELINE DO YOU OCCUPY, EXCLUDINC FILL, BUILDING EXTENSIONS, ETC.? feet 34-37 236 l i . 12. HOW MANY FEET OF THIS SHORELINE IS DOCK FRONTAGET feet HOW MANY PARKING SPACES DO YOU MAKE AVAILABLE ON SITE FOR THE FOLLOWING PURPOSES? Employee Parking number Company Vehicles number V i s i t o r Parking number 13. PLEASE INDICATE THE PRESENT NUMBER OF YOUR EMPLOYEES AT THIS SITE ENGAGED IN THE rOLLOUING CATEGORIES: Management and professional C l e r i c a l , Sales and Service Craftsmen, production, processing and related vorkers Transport operators snd communication Other Total employment (Not Including casual or temporary employees) HOW MANY OF YOUR EMPLOYEES SPEND THE CREATES PA11T OF THE WORK DAY OFF THE SITE? number 15. DO YOU HAVE ON-SITE ACCESS TO THE FOLLOWING TRANSPOPTATION MODEST 14. 17. 248-250 251-255 256-259 18. 307-310 311-312 313-315 19. 324-327 328-329 330-332 number number number number number 38-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 54-55 56-57 number 58-60 61-62 No Yes Adequate Inadequate R a i l i [ ] 2 C 3 3 [ ] 4 C 3 63 Truck 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ 3 * [ 3 64 Sea - Deepsea Draught I t ] 2 [ ] 3 [ 3 4 [ 3 65 - Barges or Shallow Draught l t 3 2 [ 3 3 [ ] * [ ] 66 16. PLEASE LIST THE TOTAL ANNUAL IMPORT TONWACE HANDLED BY THE FOLLOWING METHODS: (USE SHORT TONS) 213 R a i l tons Sca-Deepsea Vessels tons 226- 232 216 Truck-CVW under 10,000 l b s . tons -Barges tons 233- 236 221 -GVW over 10,000 l b s . tons Other tons 237- -240 225 Piggyback tons PLEASE LIST T H K i C T A T . A N N U A L EXPORT TONNAGE HANDLED BY THE FOLLOWING M E T I I O O S : R a i l tons Sea-Deepsea Vessels tons Truck-CVW under 10,000 l b s . tons -Barges tons -GVW over 10,000 l b s . _ Piggyback tons tons Other tons THE POLLOWIHC TWO 0UESTI0NS ASK FOR INFORMATION ON INCOMING AND OUT-GOING TRIPS TO OR FROM YOUR .".USINESS. PLi^VSE LIST ALL TRIPS TQ YOU* SITE BY VEHICLE, SHIP OR RARCE, IRRESPECTIVE OF WHETHEH THE VEHICLE, SHIP OR BARGE IS EMPTY, PARTIALLY LOADED, OR FULL, AS INCOMINC TRIPS. IN THE SAME MANNER PLEASE LIST ALL TRIPS FROM YOUR SITE, WHETHER EMPTY, PARTIALLY LOADED, OR FULL, AS OUTCOINC TRIPS. IN AN AVERAGE MONTH OF 1969 WHAT WOULD DE THE NUMBER OF INCOMINC TRIPS BYT R a i l Car number Truck-CVW under 10,000 lbB. number Ship number -CVW over 10,000 l b s . number Barge number Piggyback number IN AN AVERAGE MOUTH OF 1969 1JHAT WOULD BE THE NUMBER OF OUTGOING TRIPS BYT R a i l Car number Truck-CVW under 10,000 lbs. number Ship number Barge number 260-266 267-270 271-274 end of card 2 -CVW over 10,000 l b s . Piggyback number number 316-318 319-321 322-323 333-335 336-338 339-340 - 3 -20. OF ALL \0UR INCOMING GOODS AND MATERIALS, INDICATE BY PERCENTAGE, WHERE ARE THE MAJOR ORIGINS? Waterfront Zone Number 341 Waterfront Z of Goods t 342-343 Within 5 Blocks of Waterfront Z of Good* Z 344-345 C i t y of Vancouver Zone Number _____ 346 C i t y of Vancouver Z of Good* Z 347-348 Metropolitan Vancouver X of Goods Z 349-350 Remainder of B.C. £ of Goods Z 351-352 • Yukon, N.W.T., Alb e r t a , Sask., Kan. X of Goods Z 353-354 Remainder of Canada Z of Goods Z 355-356 United States Z of Coods Z 357-358 Outside Canada Z of Coods Z 359-360 Specify Z Z Z 21. OF ALL YOUR OUTGOING COODS AND MATERIALS, INDICATE BY PEHCENTACE, WHERE ARE THE MAJOR DESTINATIONS? Waterfront Zone Number 361 Waterfront Z of Goods Z 362-363 Within 5 Mocks of Waterfront X of Goods Z 364-365 C i t y of Vancouver Zone Number 366 City of Vancouver Z of Goods Z 367-368 Metropolitan Vancouver Z of Coods Z 369-370 Remainder of B.C. Z of Coods Z 371-372 Yukon, N.W.T., Al b e r t a , Sask., !_»n. Z of Coods Z 373-374 Remainder of Canada Z of Coods Z 375-376 United States Z of Goods Z 377-378 Outside Canada Z of Goods Z 379-380 Specify Z Z z IN ADDITION TO GOODS AND MATERIALS, WE WOULD LIKE TO EVALUATE THE DE-PENDENCY OF THE WATER FRONT BUSINESSES UPON CONTACT PERSONALLY WITH OTHER BUSINESSES AND PEOPLE (SUCH AS CUSTOMERS, SALESMEN, SPECIAL SERVICES AND SKILLS) RATHER THAN COMMUNICATION BY TELEPHONE OR THROUGH THE'MAIL. THE FOLLOWING TOO QUESTIONS DEAL WITH THIS TYPE OF CONTACT. 22. FOR AN AVERAGE DAY, PLEASE LIST THE APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF INCOMING DAILY TRIPS (OTHER THAN DCPLOYEES) TO YOUR BUSINESS: The o r i g i n of the t r i p : Waterfront _____ number 407-408 Downtown business d i s t r i c t (other than water front) number 409-410 Other than water front or downtown business d i s t r i c t but w i t h i n S » i l e number 411-412 Metropolitan Vancouver number 413-414 23. FOR AN AVERACE DAY, PLEASE LIST THE APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF OUTGOING DAILY TRIPS (OTHER THAN EMPLOYEES) FROM YOUR BUSINESS: The des t i n a t i o n of the t r i p : Waterfront number 415-416 Downtown business d i s t r i c t (other than water front) number 417-418 Other than water front or downtown business d i s t r i c t but w i t h i n 4 m i l * number 419-420 Metropolitan Vancouver number 421-422 237 end of card 3 - 4 -24. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE, IN YOUR OPINION WILL EMPLOYMENT AT THIS SITE INCREASE OR DECREASE? 1 [ ] increase 2 [ ] decrease Please estimate the approximate percentage of Increase or decrease by 197S, and 1980: 1975 Increase Z; decrease . t 1980 Increase Z; decrease Z 25. DOES YOUR BUSINESS HAVE DEFINITE PLANS TO INCREASE ITS FLOOR AREA? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] 26. IF YES, ARE THESE EXPANSION FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT THIS SITEY Yes 1 [ ] Ho 2 [ ] 27. IS THE PRESENT STRUCTURE SUITABLE TO ACCOMMODATE THESE ADDITIONS? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] 28. DOES YOUR BUSINESS REQUIRE TO INCREASE ITS OUTSIDE AREA, e.g. STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION BAYS, SIDINGS, ETC.7 Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] 29. IS THERE ADJACENT SPACE FOR THESE HOil-DUILDIMG EXPANSIONS? Yes 1 [ ] Co 2 [ ] 30. APPROXIMATELY WHAT X OP INCREASE IN TOTAL SITE AREA WILL YOU REQUIRE OVER THE NEXT 5 YEARS? No increase 1 [ ] 51S - 75Z 5 [ ] 0 - 10Z 2 [ ] 76Z - 100Z 6 [ ] 11Z - 25Z 3 [ ] over 100X 7 ( ] 26Z - 50Z 4 [ ] 31. DOES YOUR BUSINESS EXPECT TO INCREASE ITS VOLUME OF BUSINESS? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] Anticipated Increase Z by 1975 Z by 1980 32. PLEASE RATE THE FREQUENCY OF PERSONAL CONTACT OF YOUR BUSINESS WITH THE 238 423 424-426 427-429 430 431 432 433 434 43S 436 437-438 439-440 FOLLOWING SERVICES: Marine Services Personnel - deep sea - coastal - p i l o t s - tugs Stevedoring Shipyards Agents - railway - trucking - shipping v - public transportation a u t h o r i t i e s Finance Services - customs brokers - marine insurance - f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , banks, etc. Labour Market - sem i - s k i l l e d - highly s k i l l e d - labour organizations - wholesale trade salesmen Urbsn Consumer Market (Vancouver) (1) (2) (3) Daily Weekly Monthly Personal Personal Personal Contact Contact Contact 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] * [ ] 5 [ 3 6 [ 3 7 [ 3 8 [ 3 9 [ 3 10 [ ] 11 [ ] 12 [ 3 13 [ ] 14 [ 3 15 [ 3 16 t 3 w C 3 18 [ 3 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 454 455 456 457 458 239 ' 5 " (1) (2) (3) Dal ly Weekly Monthly Personal Personal Personal Contact Contact Contact Business with a l l leve ls of Governm«nt 19 [ ] [ ] [ ] OF THE ABOVE SERVICES. WHICH DO YOU CONSIDER THE 3 MOST IMPORTANT FOR THE EFFICIENT OPERATION OF YOUR BUSINESS? [ ] nucber, [ ] number, [ ] number 33. HAVE YOU CONSIDERED ICVING TO EITHER: Another Indust r ia l Si te? Yes No or Roberts Bank? Yes No Why? 34. VALUE - LAND $ BUILDING $ MACHINERY $ 459 460-465 466 467 (code i n S.000) 468-470 471-473 474-476 APPENDIX I I CONTACT LETTER TO BUSINESSES IN STUDY AREA NOVEMBER, 1969 241 THE UNIVERSITY OF-BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver 8, Canada School o f Community & R e g i o n a I . P l a n n i n g N o v e m b e r 1 3 , 1969 G e n t l e m e n : T h e S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e P o l i c y a n d R e s e a r c h B r a n c h o f t h e C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t , i s s t u d y i n g u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t p r e s s u r e s a n d l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s i n t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e r e s e a r c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e s e n t a d e q u a c i e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d o t h e r s e r v i c e s , a n d p o r t u s e r r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s c o n c e r n s t e m s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r w i l l c o n t i n u e t o g r o w i n i t s i m p o r t a n c e a s a n o u t l e t f o r e x t e r n a l t r a d e b e t w e e n C a n a d a a n d o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . T h e q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f t h i s t r a d e a n d t h e e a s e a n d e c o n o m i c s o f t r a n s -s h i p m e n t o f g o o d s a n d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a n d a n d s e r v i c e s f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p o r t f u n c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t o p e r a -t i o n o f t h e P o r t . T h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r a n d i t s e c o n o m i c e f f i c i e n c y i s o f n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o a s s e s s c u r r e n t p o r t u s e r r e q u i r e m e n t s t o f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r i n t h e ' 7 0 ' s a n d t h e ' 8 0 ' s . A s a p a r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h two o f o u r r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s , M r . N e i l J , G r i g g s , a n d M r . P e t e r T a s s i e w o u l d b e c o m i n g t o y o u r o f f i c e t o , i n t e r v i e w o n e . o f y o u r o f f i c i a l s o n r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s . We e x p e c t t o s t a r t o n t h e i n t e r v i e w s d u r i n g t h e w e e k o f N o v e m b e r 1 7 , 1 9 6 9 . T h e I n t e r v i e w s h o u l d t a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 t o 30 m i n u t e s a n d i s a n e s s e n t i a l p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o t h e s u c c e s s o f o u r r e s e a r c h . We w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e i t v e r y much i f y o u w o u l d b e g o o d e n o u g h t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h M r . G r i g g s a n d / o r M r . T a s s i e w h e n t h e y v i s i t y o u t o o b t a i n r e l e v a n t d a t a . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y w i l l b e made a v a i l a b l e t o , y o u w h e n t h e s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e d . T h a n k y o u v e r y much f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e r e l y y o u r s , V . S e t t y P e n d a k u r A c t i n g D i r e c t o r V S P / n m APPENDIX I I I TRUCKING QUESTIONNAIRE, FEBRUARY 1970 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER 8, CANADA SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY & REGIONAL PLANNING Good day The School of Community & Regional Planning at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, with the co-operation of the Automative Transport Association of B.C., i s studying the o r i g i n and destination of trucks entering t h i s p i e r . We would l i k e you to help us by answering the following f i v e questions: 1. No. of axles of vehicle 2. GVW Registration of vehicle l b s . 3. I f you are d e l i v e r i n g a load to t h i s pier What i s the type of load What i s the weight of load lbs k. I f you are picking up a load at t h i s pier What i s the type of load What i s the weight of load lbs 5. On the map below please mark the o r i g i n of t h i s t r i p with an " 0 " , and your next stop (either to load or ay out. Your co-operation i s appreciated. APPENDIX IV QUESTIONNAIRE SAMPLE: SERVICE SECTOR SURVEY, 1970 245 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver 8, Canada School of Community § Regional Planning January .23, 1970 Dear S i r : The School of Community and Regional Planning i n cooperation wi th the P o l i c y and Research Branch of the Canada Department of Transport, i s studying urban development pressures and land use patterns i n the port of Vancouver environment. The research i s also concerned with the port linkages and i t s economic influence i n Vancouver and i n th i s regard I w i l l be telephoning you next week to obtain information on the fol lowing questions. I would appreciate i t very much i f you would be good enough to cooperate wi th me i n g iv ing me the relevant data which i s an essen t ia l pre-requ i s i t e to the success of my research^ The resul ts of the study w i l l be made avai lable to you when i t i s completed: I f exact f igures are not immediately avai lable an estimate w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t . Sincerely yours, N e i l Griggs 1. How many ( f u l l time) persons did you employ i n 1969? 1968? 1967? 2. What i s the annual p a y r o l l , 1969? 3. What percent of your business i s exc lus ive ly marine? 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Don't know 4. I f the ent i re port operation was moved to Roberts Bank, could you continue serving the new port from your present location? 5. What percent of your business i s connected with general cargo, as compared with bulk cargo? APPENDIX V INDUSTRIAL LAND AVAILABILITY AND RATE OF TAKE-UP CITY OF VANCOUVER, 1969 INDUSTRIAL LAND AVAILABILITY AND RATE OF TAKE-UP, VANCOUVER CITY, 1969 D i s t r i c t Vacant Open Total Annual Take-up Year 's Res ident ia l Storage Avai lab le 1964-1968 Supply 1 Granv i l l e Island — 1.34 1.34 .10 13.4 2 Granvi l l e to Burrard 12.72 .07 12.79 1.08 11.8 3 Fairview 25,99 .69 26.68 1.18 22.5 4 Cambie - 2nd Avenue 42.39 4.50 46.89 4.17 11.2 5 False Creek F la t s 14.48 12.06 26.54 3.60 7.7 1. 6 False Creek North Side 2.84 27.92 30.76 - * 2. 7 False Creek East End 10.71 31.57 42.28 .41 * 2. 8 False Creek South Side 4.68 12.66 17.34 - * 2. 9 Arbutus & 12th Avenue 3.88 .57 4.45 .38 12.1 10 Powell Street 45.92 3 = 24 49.16 1.25 39,3 11 Clark Drive 32.63 4.66 37.29 3.96 9.4 12 Lougheed & Boundary 47.56 - 47.56 3.47 13.7 13 Cedar Cottage 2.13 - 2.13 .30 7,1 14 Joyce Road 8.13 - 8.13 2.11 3,9 15 Hudson Street 6.38 .40 6.78 .26 26,1 16 Marine Drive - West 46.91 9.58 56.49 6.92 8,2 3. 17 Marine Drive - Centre 36.26 .62 36.88 5.28 7,0 18 Marine Drive - East 48.43 .60 49.03 5.23 9-4 TOTAL 392.04 110.48 502.52 39.7 12.7 * No estimate made, 1- The supply of sui table and avai lable acreage which may become avai lable i n the future tends to be understated because of the large amount of railway land excluded. This railway land may become avai lable i n the future, 2- The i n d u s t r i a l take-up 1964-1968 i n those d i s t r i c t s was n i l or extremely small thereby making project ion by th is method impossibler 3, The 28 acre s i t e of the Manitoba Works Yard was excluded i n assessing annual i n d u s t r i a l take-up, Source: Ci ty of Vancouver Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report Number 4, 1969, p, 14. APPENDIX VI INDUSTRIAL LAND, METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER, 1969 INDUSTRIAL LAND — METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER, 1969 D i s t r i c t Total Developed Vacant % Occupied Approximate Acreage Acreage Acreage Pr ice /Acre Vancouver 2,834,81 2,332,29 502.52 82.3 50,000 - 175,000 Burnaby 3,028.70 1,989.66 1,039.04 65.7 20,000 - 70,000 New Westminster 581.94 445.43 236,51 76.5 N.A, Fraser M i l l s 212.36 212.36 - 100.0 N, A, Coquitlam 719.28 460.66 258.62 64.0 N,A. Port Moody 772.25 675,54 96,71 87,5 N.A, Buntzen 364.59 364,59 - 100,0 N.A. Port Coquitlam 1,631.42 845.30 786.12 51.8 2,500 - 3,500 Richmond 4,743,71 1,172,99 3,570,72 24.7 7,500 - 15,000 North Vancouver C i ty 456.43 240.25 216.18 52,6 25,000 - 40,000 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 617-95 503,29 114,66 81.4 20,000 - 50,000 Delta 2,412,39 356,29 2,056.10 14,8 N-A. Surrey 3,611.63 1,931,95 1,679.68 53.5 N.A, TOTAL 21,987,46 11,530,60 10,456,86 53.5 N.A, Not Avai lable Source: Ci ty of Vancouver Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study. Technical Report Number 4, 1969, p, 17, APPENDIX VII CARGO TONNAGE, PORT OF VANCOUVER AND CITY OF VANCOUVER STUDY AREA, 1968 251 CARGO TONNAGE, PORT OF VANCOUVER AND CITY OF VANCOUVER STUDY AREA, 1968 BULK CARGO GENERAL CARGO Port of Vancouver Port of Vancouver Vancouver Study Area (estimates) Vancouver Study Area (estimates) | Wheat 4,943,500 2,034,000 Flour 46,000 46,000 j Sugar & Meats & j Molasses 125,000 125,000 Fish 40,000 20,000 Fodder 118,500 100,000 Fru i t 37,500 30,000 Seeds 503,500 503,500 Nuts 10,000 8,000 1 F e r t i l i z e r 124,000 100,000 Coffee 21,000 12,000 | Scrap Metal 12,000 10,000 Foods 48,000 30,000 Coal 1,247,000 - Mater ia ls Scrap 497,000 350,000 Asbestos 207,000 - Fabrics 12,000 10,000 Sand & Gravel 2,274,000 50,000 Tallow 36,000 36,000 Stone 319,000 50,000 Chemicals 150,000 50,000 Phosphate 30,000 Rock 402,000 80,000 Chem,Product 51,000 Salt 410,000 — Metal & Glass 369,000 260,000 Sulphur 1,178,000 - Machinery 97,000 80,000 Ores 266,500 - Autos 43,000 43,000 Potash 1,656,000 - Equipment 143,000 100,000 Gas & Fuel O i l 2,117,000 500,000 News P r in t 272,000 70,000 Cement 160,000 100,000 Lumber 2,148,000 1,000,000 Logs 826,000 - Wood Pulp 852,000 200,000 Pulp Chips 1,158,000 Paper Misc . 96,000 1,267,500 50,000 800,000 Tota l 17,847,000 3,652,500 6,326,000 3,225,000 ~] Total Port of Vancouver 24,173,000 Tota l Study Area 6,877,500 Source: N.H.B. Annual Report, 1968. Waterfront Survey, 1969. APPENDIX VI I I ESTIMATE OF WATERFRONT DAILY TRUCK TRAFFIC (STUDY AREA) ESTIMATE OF WATERFRONT DAILY TRUCK TRAFFIC (STUDY AREA) * 40,000 monthly t r ip s to the waterfront. 2,000 d a i l y t r i p s , 5-day week. hour average t r i p length, (2 hours at por t ) . 1J_ addi t ional man-hours per t r i p for unloading, s e rv i c ing , o f f ice time, etc . (estimated). 5 man-hours per waterfront t r i p . 5 x 2,000 da i l y t r i p s = 10,000 man-hours. 1,340 estimated employees engaged f u l l time on 8-hour weekday. * 26,000 from survey and addi t iona l 14,000 estimated from incomplete surveys, for example, P iers B and C, Ballentyne P i e r , and Terminal Dock. APPENDIX IX COMMODITY FLOW MODEL 255 COMMODITY FLOW MODEL This study has attempted to demonstrate what the ex i s t ing conditions are along one port ion of the Vancouver waterfront-, I t has not attempted to produce any solutions or recommendations. To do th i s would require considerably more information as w e l l as study on the implicat ions of any such recommendations. What follows i s a proposal that could provide the f i r s t step or foundation for a waterfront a l l o c a -t i on po l i cy for port lands. I t i s simply a theore t ica l concept and as yet i s untested, but i s based on the information gained from th is study. As no comprehensive po l i cy exis ts that systematical ly a l locates port lands to i t s optimum use i n terms of a t o t a l t ransportat ion system, the fol lowing provides such a base upon which other s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l conditions can be added. The model i s based on a simple Route Theory p r i n c i p l e that selects a route with the least cost for the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n of goods. Presently Freight Forwarders and Shippers apply various models as to optimum routes, load factors and warehouse locations."' ' S imi l a r l y Shipowners operate the i r own models of cos t /p roduc t iv i ty , Wil l iam J . Baumol and P h i l i p Wolfe, "A Warehouse-Location Problem," Operation Research, V o l . 6, 1958, pp. 252-63; also Edward L . Brink and John S. de Cani , "An Analogue Solut ion of the Generalized Transportation Problem with Specif ic Appl ica t ion to Marketing Loca t ion ," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Operational Research, Baltimore: Operations Research Society of America, 1957, pp, 123-36. 256 2 cost/revenue and ship s ize and speed. Industries l ikewise have 3 optimum loca t ion models. In i t s basic form th i s theory considers the loca t ion of a s ingle route. August Ldsch (1954, p, 184), applied the "Laws of Refraction" to the route se lec t ion of a port s i t e . The problem was to f ind the least cost route to ship goods from s i t e A 4 to s i t e B. Figure 30-A shows the influence of transportat ion costs i n the se lec t ion of a s i t e , assuming that port construction i s equally favourable at any point . As land transport costs increase over ocean costs the length of the land haul decreases, Losch showed that the least -cost loca t ion of the port , using one route would be where s i n x - s i n y = 0, where x and y are the angles that the two transport routes make with the coas t l ine . Figure 30—B shows examples of leas t -cost port s i t e s . For example, S i te No. 1 re f lec t s proportionately higher land transportat ion costs , and Si te No. 2 re f lec t s proportionately higher marine transportat ion costs . This theore t ica l app l ica t ion would only be possible where there i s one point of o r i g i n , one point of dest inat ion and one commodity. Situations such as th i s could ex is t i n mining communities close to the coast engaged i n the export of the raw mater ia ls . B. Foss, "A cost Model for Coastal Shipping," J1, 2?.P.. May, 1969. 3 Michael Goldberg, Intrametropolitan Industrial Location: Plant Size and the Theory of Production,. Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics Ins t i tu te of Urban and Regional Development, Univers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1969, 4 Peter Haggett, Locational Analysis in Human Geography, E. Arnold L t d . , London, 1965, p. 63. B C i sea Be/ c 2 land / / + - p A /. j / y / / ... / ; x / / / m Be/ LAWS OF REFRACTION APPLIED TO ROUTE LOCATION Source: Losch , 1954. Ln 258 Although the s i tua t ion i n Vancouver i s more complex, th i s p r inc ip l e can s t i l l be appl ied, and instead of considering the se lec t ion of a s ingle route and a s ingle commodity, a route network i s developed accommodating a var ie ty of commodities. The Model now becomes a dynamic stochastic l inear programming model based on network ana lys i s . The resul t i s a Commodity Flow Model which selects routes that allow for the maximum flow of goods with the minimum costs . The Model i s a modified version of "Maximum Flow Paths," one of several network models used i n Geography, The problem of defining maximum flow was solved i n 1955 by Dantzig and Fulkerson through the i r "Maxflow-mincut" theorem, which showed that the maximum flow through a network was equal to the sum of the capacity of the branches of the minimum cut- A "cut" i s any c o l l e c t i o n of branches which completely separates two terminals i n the network, In Figure 31, there are four possible cuts which separate A from D. The capacity of these cuts are 7, 8, 15, and 6 respec t ive ly , see Figure 31-B, The maximum cut i s the l i n e ACBD with a t o t a l capacity of 6 un i t s , which i s also the maximum flow.^ Once accepting th is basic p r i nc ip l e of maximizing flows and minimizing costs , the next step i s to look at a l o c a l area and apply th is concept. Richard J . Charley and Peter Haggett, eds. , Integrated Models in Geography, London: Methuen & C o . , Univers i ty Paperbacks, 1969. ^Op, a i t , , p. 617. BAC 7UNITS BDC 8UNITS ABCD I5UNITS ACBD 6 U N I T S 31 T H E M I N - C U T M A X - F L O W PATH FOR A SIMPLE NETWORK S o u r c e : A k e r s , I 9 6 0 . In Greater Vancouver we now have three a l te rnat ive port s i t e s , Burrard I n l e t , the Fraser River and Roberts Bank, Feeding each of these s i tes i s a transportat ion network of roads and rai lways. Figure 32 i s a hypothetical example of the road transportation network of Southern B r i t i s h Columbia and i s presented i n the form of a Decision Tree Network faced by a shipper,^ The example i n th i s case i s the export flows of Okanagan canned f r u i t . The o r i g i n i s known, a canning plant or ware-house i n Pent ic ton, and the dest inat ion i s known, for example, the United Kingdom, In the reverse s i t u a t i o n , that of Import Flows, the o r i g i n of a good i s known, for example, t rans is tor radios from Japan, and the dest inat ion i s also known from the b i l l s of l ad ing . However, i n most cases when importing goods, the immediate receiver i s usual ly an agent with the goods being warehoused, so i n th i s case the warehouses would be used as dest inat ion points . The next step i s to take each import and export commodity, for example, canned f r u i t from the Okanagan, and trace the ex i s t ing flow pattern through the Burrard Inlet Terminal and calcula te i t s transpor-ta t ion costs . Figure 33 i s a hypothetical network of the ex i s t ing flow g capaci t ies and costs, A s imi la r process would be completed for each of the three Port s i t e s , and as the Model i s a dynamic program, both E, G. Frankel , "Containerized Shipping and Integrated Transpor-t a t i o n , " Proceedings of the Institute of the Electrical and Electronic Engineers, V o l , 56, No, 4 ( A p r i l 1968), p. 716, (Figure 32 i s a modi-f ied version of that presented by Frankel) , g Richard J . Charley and Peter Haggett, eds, , op, cit.., p. 618. R O B E R T S B A N K F R A S E R R I V E R BURRARD I N L E T S HORT H A U L LONG H A U L SHORT H A U L  321 E X P O R T F L O W IN T R A N S P O R T A T I O N DECISION T R E E N E T W O R K - T R U C K I N G >j M I N I M A L - C O S T F L O W T H R O U G H 1 A C O M P L E X N E T W O R K S o u r c e : f o r d a n d F u l k e r s o n , 1 9 6 2 . @ MAXIMUM FLOW CAPACITY OF EACH LINK © U N I T SHIPPING COSTS ALONG EACH LINK 263 the ex i s t ing street use and capacity as we l l as any added usage would be a continuous input. An out-put from th is program would be a suggested least cost and maximum flow route to one of the three ports for each commodity. Figure 33-C would be the i n i t i a l flow pattern of the suggested canned f r u i t , and the terminal could be, for example, a Fraser River s i t e . Two assumptions are made that would enable th i s Commodity Flow Model to work. 1. There i s to be one port authority to manage a l l port operations on the West Coast. 2. That money be made avai lable to develop the required f a c i l i t i e s and improvements i n access to any or a l l three port s i t e s . It i s assumed that any a l l oca t i on of resources to improve one port s i t e over another would be subjected to an economic analysis based on the premise that the goal i s to provide the least cost maximum flowing transportation system. The s ingle port authority would receive a l l b i l l s of lading pr ior to any shipment. These could be fed into computer terminals throughout B r i t i s h Columbia and on the entry points along the p r o v i n c i a l border. Each trucking company would be given a route, a port s i t e and del ivery time for the load. S imi l a r ly the shipping companies would be required to forward the i r b i l l s of lading so as to determine the " o p t i -mum discharge port" , i n terms of the cargo des t ina t ion , again based on 264 Least cost maximum flow routes. In cases of mixed cargoes the "optimum port" would be chosen, based on the " c r i t i c a l " cargo or cargoes ca r r ied . This decis ion could be simply handled by the computer. In the same way that terminals would be al located for use, so too could th i s model be applied to water-orientated indus t r ies . Each industry would be measured i n terms of i t s commodity flows and a basic s i t e selected i n terms of access that allows for maximum commodity flows with minimum costs . I t i s cautioned that th i s model i s not to replace the ex i s t ing Indus t r ia l Location Models but rather to supple-ment them i n terms of providing a basic and e f f i c i en t transportat ion input which i s c r i t i c a l to any loca t ion model. The most obvious appl ica t ion of t h i s model i s with road trans-port . However, i t could also be applied to the railway systems, especia l ly when there are now three s i t es to choose from, each of which could have d i f f e r ing r a i l service , I t could provide shippers, using road, r a i l and sea with more effect ive techniques for planning, schedul-ing , rout ing, cost accounting and document con t ro l . For the consumer or the nation as a whole, I t would provide a more e f f i c i e n t transporta-t ion system and i n turn a better a l l oca t ion and u t i l i z a t i o n of resources. 

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