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The impact of increased income on peasant want patterns in Mexico's southern Gulf Lowlands Ford, G. Marilyn 1969

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THE IMPACT OF INCREASED INCOME ON PEASANT WANT PATTERNS IN MEXICO'S SOUTHERN GULF LOWLANDS by G. MARILYN FORD B.A. (Honours), U n i v e r s i t y o f S h e f f i e l d , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d staa^dard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1969 In presenting this thesis in part i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree tha permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of. B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT T h i s paper examines t h e changes t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n want p a t t e r n s when unaccustomed p u r c h a s i n g power i s made a v a i l a b l e t o p e a s a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s as a r e s u l t o f a r e c e n t Government-sponsored development p r o j e c t i n the Mexican G u l f Lowlands. I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d cash income s t i m u l a t e s changes i n p e asant e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s and t h a t c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n wants can be i d e n t i f i e d . I n o r d e r t o measure t h e changes t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e i n e x p e n d i t u r e and make i n f e r e n c e s about wants, a d e t a i l e d s t u d y has been u n d e r t a k e n o f p a t t e r n s o f income and e x p e n d i t u r e i n a sample group s e l e c t e d w i t h i n the P l a n compared w i t h a c o n t r o l group o f p e a s a n t s o u t s i d e o f t h e immediate p r o j e c t a r e a . The comparison between t h e sample groups s u p p o r t s the h y p o t h e s i s . However, no s i m p l e l i n k was found between i n c r e a s e d p u r c h a s i n g power and consumption. The i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f new want development consequent on income i n c r e a s e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g on a wide v a r i e t y o f s u p e r -f i c i a l wants, w h i c h a r e u n l i k e l y t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d as deep-seated components o f t h e consumption p a t t e r n s i n c e t h e y a re based on s h o r t - t e r m i m p u l s e s prompted by c u r i o s i t y and p r e s t i g e m o t i v e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n c r e a s e d e x p e n d i t u r e on want s a t i s f a c t i o n had a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i mpact on the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e main s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n c r e a s e d income i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s t h a t i t a c t s as a c a t a l y s t t o change i i i i n wants and b r i n g s the consumer t o the p o i n t where s a t i s f a c -t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l wants i s p o s s i b l e . P o t e n t i a l wants a r e n o t adopted s i m p l y because the o p p o r t u n i t y i s a v a i l a b l e and the i t e m s can be a f f o r d e d , b u t o n l y i f t h e y a r e t h e response t o a f e l t need and have a good f i t w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l m a t r i x . Thus, change i n want p a t t e r n s i s a f u n c t i o n o f change i n p e r c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a response t o i n c r e a s e d income. The v a l u e system, t h e n , p l a y s t h e key r o l e i n want development and i t appears t h a t change i n t h e v a l u e system i t s e l f i n terms o f a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s , i s p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the development o f new wants and the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f o l d wants, w h i c h i n t u r n s t i m u l a t e s f u r t h e r r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e . TABLE OF CONTENTS Ch a p t e r Page I . INTRODUCTION . ., . • 1 Economic B e h a v i o u r as Human B e h a v i o u r Want Development Peasant Economic Systems-Consumption P a t t e r n s The Impact o f I n c r e a s e d Income on Peasant Want P a t t e r n s I I . PLAN CHONTALPA: THE REGIONAL CONTEXT 16 Development P l a n n i n g i n Mexico The C h o n t a l p a Region P l a n C h o n t a l p a : Aims and Achievements I I I . FIELD METHODS 46 IV. THE CONTROL SAMPLE-EJIDO ARROYO HONDO . . . . 50 Socio-Economic S e t t i n g A s s e t s , Income and E x p e n d i t u r e : Data P r e s e n t a t i o n Summary o f T a b l e s : Data A n a l y s i s Household W e a l t h and Want P a t t e r n s C o n c l u s i o n s on Want P a t t e r n s V. THE PLAN SAMPLE-UNIT 2 8 101 Socio-Economic S e t t i n g A s s e t s , Income and E x p e n d i t u r e : Data P r e s e n t a t i o n Summary o f T a b l e s : Data A n a l y s i s Household W e a l t h and Want P a t t e r n s : Comparison W i t h C o n t r o l Sample C o n c l u s i o n s on Want P a t t e r n s : Comparison W i t h C o n t r o l Sample V I . CONCLUSIONS ON WANT DEVELOPMENT 14 8 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ' . 152 APPENDIX A 160 APPENDIX B 167 APPENDIX C 171 LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1 M e x i c o - A g r i c u l t u r e , Commerce and I n d u s t r y E x p r e s s e d as a P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e Gross Domestic P r o d u c t , 19 50 and 19 64 .. . 17 2 Type o f Land Tenure i n t h e F i r s t Phase o f P l a n C h b n t a l p a 2 8a 3. P l a n C h o n t a l p a - A l l o c a t i o n o f Budget by S e c t o r s . . 33a 4 C o n t r o l S a m p l e - P e r s o n a l Data 55 5 C o n t r o l Sample-Crops and Domestic A n i m a l s (September 19 67-August 1968) 59 6 C o n t r o l Sample-Labour U n i t s p e r Household . . . . 62 7 C o n t r o l Sample-House L o c a t i o n and Appointments 63a 8 C o n t r o l S a m p l e - P o i n t V a l u e s f o r Ranking o f Domestic A s s e t s _ 64 9 C o n t r o l Sample-Average R e t a i l P r i c e o f S e l e c t e d ' P r e s t i g e ' Items Quoted by Cardenas S t o r e - K e e p e r s , (August 1968) 65 10 C o n t r o l Sample-Household Rankings o f Domestic A s s e t s 66-69 11 C o n t r o l S a m p l e - Q u a l i t y o f P o p u l a t i o n , S e l e c t e d Examples 71 12 C o n t r o l Sample-Estimates o f Cash Income Earned From S a l e o f Crops and Domestic A n i m a l s (September 1967-August 1968) 74 13 C o n t r o l S a m p l e - T y p i c a l D a i l y D i e t 77 •14 C o n t r o l Sample-Estimates o f Weekly Cash E x p e n d i t u r e on Food Items, (August 1968) . . . . 78 15 C o n t r o l Sample-Income and E x p e n d i t u r e T o t a l s . . 81 v i T a b l e Page 16 P l a n S a m p l e - P e r s o n a l Data . 105 17 P l a n Sample-Crops and Domestic A n i m a l s 10 8 18 P l a n Sample-House and L o t Improvements 109 19 P l a n S a m p l e - P o i n t V a l u e s f o r Ranking o f Domestic A s s e t s 1 . . 110 20 P l a n Sample-Household Rankings o f Domestic A s s e t s 111-115 21 P l a n S a m p l e - Q u a l i t y o f P o p u l a t i o n , S e l e c t e d Examples . . . . 117 22 P l a n Sample-Estimate o f Cash Income Earned From S a l e o f Crops (September 1967 t o August 1968) . 119 23 P l a n Sample-Number o f Weeks Worked f o r L a Com-i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a 121 24 P l a n Sample-Pay S c a l e s p e r C a t e g o r y o f Employee 123 25 P l a n Sample-Wages Earned from Labour i n t h e Works o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a 124 26 P l a n Sample-Estimates o f Weekly Cash E x p e n d i t u r e on-Food Items, (August 1968) . . . . 125 27 P l a n Sample-Income and E x p e n d i t u r e T o t a l s . . . . 127 MAPS AND DIAGRAMS Map Page 1 P l a n C h o n t a l p a : L o c a t i o n . . . .. • • • • • .... . 168 2 P l a n C h o n t a l p a : Agro-Economic U n i t s and New Urban C e n t r e s . . . 169 3 L o c a t i o n o f E j i d o A r r o y o Hondo I n R e l a t i o n t o The Agro-Economic U n i t s o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a . . • 170 Diagrams 1 C o n t r o l Sample: Summary Diagram I n d i c a t i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h i n t h e Peasant Economic System 8 3 2 P l a n Sample: Summary Diagram I n d i c a t i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h i n t h e P l a n n e d Economic System 130 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my thanks t o a l l employees o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a f o r p r o v i d i n g w o r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n Cardenas and u n q u e s t i o n n i n g a c c e s s t o accounts and f i l e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , thanks a r e due t o Ing . C a r l o s M o l i n a R., V o c a l E x e c u t i v o de l a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , and Ing . J a v i e r G a r c i a , V o c a l S e c r e t a r i a , who gave up many hours o f t h e i r t ime t o d i s c u s s i o n o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a . S p e c i a l thanks a re a l s o due t o my a d v i s o r Dr. A.H. Siemens f o r h i s a d v i c e and encouragement, and t o P r o f . R i c h a r d C o p l e y f o r p a t i e n t l y l i s t e n i n g t o me. The a s s i s t a n c e o f R i c h a r d S u l l i v a n and Ted Manning i n l a y i n g o u t the maps i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. F i n a l l y , I am e s p e c i a l l y " g r a t e f u l t o t h e pea s a n t s o f La C h o n t a l p a f o r t h e i r c h e e r f u l c o o p e r a t i o n , w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s would o b v i o u s l y n o t have been p o s s i b l e . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Economic B e h a v i o u r as Human Beh~aviour Economics i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as t h e s t u d y o f man's a l l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . Human needs and wants a r e assumed t o be i n f i n i t e w h i l s t m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s e x i s t o n l y i n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t i e s . Thus, men must make d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption o f t h e s e s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s i n o r d e r t o choose the a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h w i l l o f f e r t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f wants. Thus economics i s e s s e n t i a l l y the s t u d y o f c e r t a i n a s -p e c t s o f human b e h a v i o u r e l i c i t e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . 1 However, economics has tended t o l o s e s i g h t o f i t s o v e r a l l b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t e x t , becoming more and more a b s t r a c t i n i t s methodology i n s e a r c h o f s c i e n t i f i c p r e c i s i o n . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' r a t i o n a l economic man1 w i t h h i s programmed way o f r e a c t i n g t o e n v i r o n -m e n t a l s t i m u l i i n o r d e r t o maximize s a t i s f a c t i o n and a v o i d s t r e s s o r p a i n , i s s t i l l a g h o s t g i v i n g m e c h a n i s t i c o v e r t o n e s t o modern economics. However, most b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s a r e n e i t h e r a u t o m a t i c nor u n i v e r s a l and t h e r e i s no such t h i n g as b e h a v i o u r d e t e r m i n e d George Ka t o n a , P s y c h o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s o f Economic  B e h a v i o u r , New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1951, p. 1. 2 by p u r e l y economic m o t i v e s . Economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p a r t o f an o v e r a l l system o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and can o n l y be comprehended i n t h i s b r o a d e r b e h a v i o u r a l c o n t e x t . Economic b e h a v i o u r v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y between d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups f o r p e o p l e s ' a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v e s and v a l u e s — t h e i r whole 2 c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e — m o l d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the environment and i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n t h a t e n v i r o n -ment. F o r c u l t u r e i s something more than the sum t o t a l o f t h e t a n g i b l e o r m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f man's occupance o f t h i s p l a n e t . These phenomena have a s y m b o l i c q u a l i t y and t h e p h y s i c a l form i s a l s o a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l meaning. A l l m a t e r i a l phenomena e n t e r human e x p e r i e n c e n o t as a b s o l u t e s b u t as e n t i t i e s r e f r a c t e d by p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s o f v i e w o r p e r c e p -t i o n s based on the c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e . Thus i n o r d e r t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d economic b e h a v i o u r as human b e h a v i o u r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o go beyond th e a b s t r a c t a n a l y s i s o f economic p a t t e r n s and p r o c e s s e s and examine the r o l e p l a y e d by t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and implementa-t i o n o f d e c i s i o n s and c h o i c e s c o n c e r n i n g p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i -b u t i o n and consumption. The term 1 c u l t u r a l frame-of'-reference1 i s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e 'value system* o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r -a t u r e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n between the s e v e r a l common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the term 1 value1. The ' c u l t u r a l frame-of-r e f e r e n c e ' of. a group may be d e f i n e d as the common m a t r i x formed by the most w i d e l y s h a r e d a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , w h i c h forms the b a s i s f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e and the s e l e c t i o n o f a c t i o n - p a t h s t o a c h i e v e group g o a l s . 3 Want Development I f we a c c e p t t h a t man has u n l i m i t e d wants b u t only-l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s w i t h w h i c h t o s a t i s f y them, i t i s c l e a r t h a t a n a l y s i s o f consumption o r e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s w i l l r e v e a l the e x i s t e n c e o f t h o s e wants s e l e c t e d as p r i o r i t i e s f o r s a t i s -f a c t i o n . The v a r i e t y and type o f wants chosen f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by t h r e e main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : f i r s t l y , t h e amount of w e a l t h a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p e n d i t u r e on want s a t i s f a c t i o n ; s e c o n d l y , t h e number o f a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e ; and t h i r d l y , and t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n as f a r as t h i s paper i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e i n w h i c h d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e made and w h i c h g i v e s meaning and d i r e c t i o n t o t h e wants s e l e c t e d f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t i s n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s p o i n t t o attempt some d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e terms 1 wants1 and 'needs 1 as used i n t h i s c o n t e x t , as t h e s e terms a r e q u i t e broad and o f t e n l o o s e l y d e f i n e d . The f o l l o w i n g i s based on d e f i n i t i o n s o f wants and needs by L e l a n d 3 4 J . Gordon and E l i z a b e t h Hoyt. F o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y wants a r e d e f i n e d as t h o s e d e s i r e s o v e r and above the b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e , w h i c h a r e f e l t t o be n e c e s s a r y t o f u l f i l s h a r e d c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e good l i f e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e . Thus, p e r s o n a l i t y - b a s e d whims of the L e l a n d J . Gordon, Economics f o r Consumers, American Book Company, New Y o r k , 1961, p. 23. Gordon g i v e s a more ex-p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n o f needs- "...needs a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e forms of w e a l t h w h i c h a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o the.maintenance o f l i f e - a minimum o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r , w h i c h are s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n t h e p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e t h e s e v e r y n e c e s s i t i e s . " 4 i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h a r e n o t gro u p - s h a r e d d e s i r e s o r i g i n a t i n g i n the v a l u e - s y s t e m a r e n o t i n c l u d e d as wants i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . Moreover, t h i s paper d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h o s e wants w h i c h are the c o n c r e t e e x p r e s s i o n o f economic c h o i c e s and n o t w i t h wants w h i c h are s o c i a l o r p s y c h o g e n i c i n o r i g i n . Needs a r e d e f i n e d as t h e b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r s u r v i v a l — f o r t h e p h y s i c a l maintenance o f l i f e i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f 3 g r o u p - s h a r e d i d e a s as t o what makes l i f e w o r t h l i v i n g . E l i z a b e t h Hoyt d i s t i n g u i s h e s between r e g u l a r l y s a t i s f i e d deep-seated wants w h i c h form r e l a t i v e l y permanent components o f th e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , and s u p e r f i c i a l wants o r i m p u l s e s w h i c h have n o t y e t been a c c e p t e d as a permanent and n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f 4 t h e consumption p a t t e r n . M i s s Hoyt c o n s i d e r s o n l y t h e deep-s e a t e d wants as t r u l y s i g n i f i c a n t . However, i n t h i s paper s u p e r f i c i a l wants a r e a l s o s t u d i e d , s i n c e t h e y have t h e p o t e n -t i a l o f becoming deep-seated wants i f t h e y a r e c u l t u r a l l y con-gruous and do n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h e x i s t i n g wants, and thus may o f f e r c l u e s t o p o s s i b l e f u t u r e changes i n t h e p a t t e r n o f consumption. The development o f wants and t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e as p e r -manent components o f t h e consumption p a t t e r n i s a p p a r e n t l y a v e r y complex p r o c e s s w h i c h i s , as y e t , l i t t l e u n d e r s t o o d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of r e s e a r c h i n E l i z a b e t h Hoyt,"Want Development i n Underdeveloped A r e a s , " J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Economics, V o l . L I X , No. 3, June 1951, . pp;. 194-208. 5 p s y c h o l o g y and economics on how p e o p l e l e a r n t o s a t i s f y e x i s t -i n g wants, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e work has been attempted on t h e development and acceptance o f w a n t s — w h y p e o p l e want what t h e y want and how t h e s e wants a r i s e and become e s t a b l i s h e d . Some 5 s o c x a l s c i e n t i s t s have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s q u e s t i o n , b u t t h e i r i d e a s a r e s c a t t e r e d '-piecemeal* t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e and are f a r from f o r m i n g a connected t h e o r y o f want development. S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may be s a i d t o have o p e r a t e d a g a i n s t t h e development o f such a t h e o r y : f i r s t l y , t h e l a t e development o f t h a t p a r t o f p s y c h o l o g y most r e l e v a n t t o s t u d e n t s o f consumer b e h a v i o u r — t h e a n a l y s i s o f a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n and c o g n i t i o n ; s e c o n d l y , t h e apparent r e l u c t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l geographers and 7 a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t o c o n s i d e r n o n - m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e ; t h i r d l y , t h e a b s t r a c t n e s s o f modern economics; and f o u r t h l y , t h e o b s e s s i o n w i t h d i s c i p l i n a r y b o u n d a r i e s w h i c h has i n e v i t a b l y Hoyt, op. c i t . See a l s o K a t o n a , op. c i t . and James B a y t o n , " M o t i v a t i o n , C o g n i t i o n and L e a r n i n g - B a s i c F a c t o r s i n Consumer B e h a v i o u r , " J o u r . M a r k e t i n g , V o l . 22, 1958, pp. 282-289. ^Hoyt,op. c i t . , p. 194. 7 T h i s r e l u c t a n c e i s now a t h i n g o f the p a s t i n N o r t h American a n t h r o p o l o g y and i s f a s t f a d i n g i n c u l t u r a l geography. See N a t i o n a l Academy o f S c i e n c e s - N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l : The S c i e n c e Of Geography, Washington, D.C, P u b l i c a t i o n 1277, 1965, p. 28. "Values a r e the essence o f c u l t u r a l s t u d y , f o r w i t h o u t them one cannot comprehend t h e 1 slant} o f the c u l t u r e o r i t s o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s . . . . I n f l u e n c e d by a n t h r o p o l -o g i c a l t h o u g h t , many c u l t u r a l geographers a re coming t o r e a l i z e t h a t i d e a s , a t t i t u d e s , and o t h e r n o n - v i s i b l e e n t i t i e s o f a c u l t u r e a r e o f imp o r t a n c e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s and space r e l a t i o n s o f phenomena." 6 hampered any attempts to construct general theory. Perhaps the roots of a l l these retarding factors l i e i n the history of Western thought, with the post-Renaissance separation of philosophy and science and the consequent r e i f -i c a t i o n of valued knowledge or the d e i f i c a t i o n of xhard f a c t s 1 . This trend e f f e c t i v e l y discouraged inquiry into the relations between what people think and what they do, u n t i l the develop-g ment of ' p h i l o s o p h y of science1 or 1 operational philosophy1 i n the early twentieth century, which seems to have created an i n t e l l e c t u a l climate which i s at l a s t favourable for research along i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y l i n e s towards, the construction of gen-e r a l theory i n the s o c i a l sciences. This return to a consider-ation of thought and action as one continuing process has led to an increasing i n t e r e s t i n the construction-of : a general theory of choice, which i s of especial relevance to want de-velopment. Study of the scattered l i t e r a t u r e on want development suggests several areas of p r i o r i t y for research. Although the problem of want development i s obviously e s s e n t i a l l y suited to an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach, research would be f a c i l i t a t e d by the a l l o c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c problem areas to the d i s c i p l i n e best equipped to handle the approaches, and techniques required. F i r s t l y , i t i s clear that a wide range of psychological factors enter into want development. Thus research i n psychology A n a t o l R apoport, O p e r a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h y , New Y o r k , 1953. should be directed towards analysis of those psychological factors which influence variations i n the degree of s u s c e p t i b i l -i t y , r e c e p t i v i t y and speed of reaction to changes i n economic g s t i m u l i leading to development and modification of wants. Secondly, within the f i e l d of economics, research on want de-velopment should be concerned with the r e l a t i o n between economic wants and income and expenditure l e v e l s . How do wants as d i s -positions to buy e f f e c t demands for consumer goods and services? How do wants react on the standard of l i v i n g ? Can predictive economic models be developed to explain these relationships? Th i r d l y , there are a number of questions which must be examined by. c u l t u r a l geographers and c u l t u r a l anthropologists, which are perhaps the most basic of a l l to want development and provide the framework for the research design of t h i s thesis What i s the role played by the c u l t u r a l frame-of-reference i n the development of new wants and the modification of established wants? Do changes i n the non-material elements of culture such as attitudes, values and aspirations cause corresponding changes i n want patterns? How are these c u l t u r a l values used as choice determiners i n the decision-making process? What c u l t u r a l configurations are l i k e l y to make for the acceptance of new For example, research into motivation, cognition and le-rning as related to consumer behaviour - the forces behind economic choices and actions. Hoyt, op. c i t . , p. 195. 8 wants as permanent components o f t h e consumption pattern?''"''' I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , a case s t u d y was s e l e c t e d o f a peasant community i n w h i c h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l economic system had r e c e n t l y been 'upset 1 by l a r g e -s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i c a l change and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n c a s h income. I t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s 'unbalanced 1 s i t u -a t i o n p r o v i d e d an i d e a l l a b o r a t o r y f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e development o f new wants and t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e o l d , s i n c e t h e o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s had been d e l i b e r a t e l y a c c e l e r a t e d t h r o u g h p l a n n e d change and were thus more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o t h e common p r o c e d u r e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s c i e n c e s o f e x a m i n i n g d e v i a t i o n s from t h e norm i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t e i n t h e r e g u l a r o r 'normal 1 s t a t e . P e a s a n t Economic Systems - Consumption P a t t e r n s A s u r v e y o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a v a s t 12 q u a n t i t y o f d e f i n i t i o n s o f the term ' p e a s a n t r y 1 o f w h i c h no The term ' c u l t u r a l configurations* i s synonymous w i t h Ruth B e n e d i c t ' s ' p a t t e r n s of culture1; Ruth B e n e d i c t , P a t t e r n s  of C u l t u r e , 19 34 - meaning the p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l .components w h i c h makes a c u l t u r e group d i s t i n c t . I t would seem l o g i c a l t h a t some c o m b i n a t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l compon-e n t s would f a v o u r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r want, w h i l s t o t h e r s would i n h i b i t a c c e p t a n c e , depending on whether t h e new want f i t s i n o r c l a s h e s w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f c u l t u r e . I f t h e s e c o m b i n a t i o n s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h some degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y , a p r e d i c t i v e model c o u l d be.developed w h i c h would be i n v a l u a b l e i n p l a n n i n g s o c i o - c u l t u r a l change. 12 The d e f i n i t i v e works on p e a s a n t r y i n c l u d e : C.S. Belshaw, T r a d i t i o n a l Exchange and Modern M a r k e t s , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1965; A.V. Chayanov, The Theory o f  P e a s a n t Economy, 1925, E d i t e d by D a n i e l T h o r n e r , B a s i l e K e r b l a y and R.E.F. S m i t h , Homewood, I l l i n o i s , American Economic A s s o c -9 two d e f i n i t i o n s a re a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r i n e v e r y r e s p e c t . P e r -haps t h i s i s b e c a u s e — "Peasant s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e has some-t h i n g g e n e r i c about i t . I t i s a k i n d o f arrangement o f human-13 l t y w i t h some s i m i l a r i t i e s a l l o ver the w o r l d . " Thus, a l t h o u g h c e r t a i n b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s can be i d e n t i f i e d i n peasant s o c i -e t i e s i n w i d e l y v a r y i n g g e o g r a p h i c and c u l t u r a l a r e a s no two pea s a n t communities w i l l be e x a c t l y a l i k e i n a l l r e s p e c t s . The c o n t e n t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d w i l l t h e r e f o r e depend b o t h on t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r -12 ( c o n t i n u e d ) i a t i o n 1966; Raymond F i r t h and B.S. Yamey, C a p i t a l , S a v i n g and C r e d i t i n Peasant S o c i e t i e s , London, A l l e n and Unwin, 1964; George M. F o s t e r , T z i n t z u n t z a n : M exican P e a s a n t s i n a  Changing W o r l d , B o s t o n , L i t t l e , Brown, 1967; C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , S t u d i e s i n P e a s a n t L i f e , S t a n f o r d , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963;. Manning Nash, P r i m i t i v e and Peasant Economic Systems, San F r a n c i s c o , C h a n d l e r , 1966; Rob e r t R e d f i e l d , P e a s a n t S o c i e t y and  C u l t u r e , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o Press"^ 1956; T e p o z t l a n , A.Mexican V i l l a g e ; A Study o f F o l k L i f e , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Ch i c a g o P r e s s , 1930; Gideon S j o b e r g , " F o l k and F e u d a l S o c i e t i e s , " A merican J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , L V I I I , No. 3, Nov. 1952, pp. 231-239; S o l Tax, Penny C a p i t a l i s m , A Guatemalan I n d i a n Economy, C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chic a g o P r e s s , 1963; C h a r l e s Wagley and M a r v i n H a r r i s , " A Typology o f L a t i n American S u b c u l t u r e s , " Amer- i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , L V I I , No. 3, P a r t I , June 1955, pp. 428-451. E r i c W o l f , P e a s a n t s , Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1966; "Types o f L a t i n American P e a s a n t r y : A P r e l i m i n a r y D i s c u s s i o n , " Amerlean A n t h r o p o 1 o g i s t , L V I I , No. 3, P a r t I , June 1955 , pp. 452-3 7 X 7 ' Robe r t R e d f i e l d , P e asant S o c i e t y and C u l t u r e , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1956, p. 17. 10 a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t s o c i e t i e s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y , and the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r approach o f t h e d e f i n e r . Perhaps the most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n o f p e a s a n t r y 14 i s by R o b e r t R e d f i e l d though E r i c W o l f's "Peasants" a l s o 15 p r o v i d e s an e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n . R e d f i e l d d e f i n e s p e a s a n t s as "a t y p e o r c l a s s l o o s e l y d e f i n e d , a f o c u s 16 o f a t t e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a box w i t h a l i d , " f o r whom a g r i c u l -t u r e i s a way o f l i f e r a t h e r t h a n a p r o f i t - o r i e n t e d commercial e n t e r p r i s e and who r e p r e s e n t a s o c i e t y " i n t e r m e d i a t e between 17 t h e t r i b e and t h e modern c i t y . " I n o t h e r words p e a s a n t r y i s a b r o a d d e s c r i p t i v e term, r e f e r r i n g t o a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c group of s m a l l - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s who are i n v o l v e d t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t i n t h e urban market system a l t h o u g h t h e i r t e c h n o l o g y r e -mains p r i m i t i v e . Only p e a s a n t farmers a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , s uch as 18 Raymond F i r t h , use t h e term 'peasant 1 f o r any s o c i e t y o f s m a l l p r o d u c e r s who r e s e r v e t h e l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r produce f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l consumption thus i n c l u d i n g h u n t e r s , 19 f i s h e r m e n and p a s t o r a l i s t s . 14 E s p e c i a l l y R o b e r t R e d f i e l d , P e asant S o c i e t y and C u l t u r e , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1956. 15 E r i c W o l f , P e a s a n t s , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1966. 16 R e d f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. 17. 17 R o b e r t R e d f i e l d , T e p o z t l a n , A Mexican V i l l a g e ; A Study o f F o l k L i f e , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1930. 18 Raymond F i r t h , Elements o f S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , London, T a v i s t o c k , 1951. 11 The o p e r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e appears t o be t h a t peasant a g r i -c u l t u r e i s r e g a r d e d as an a s s i g n e d o r t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e r a t h e r t h a n a p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e aimed a t t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f money o r a s s e t s . However, i t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t t r u e t o say t h a t p e a s a n t s a r e n o t s t i m u l a t e d by a p r o f i t m o t i v e and do n o t t r y t o o b t a i n maximum s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r economic a c t i v i t i e s . U n l i k e p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , p e a s a n t s use money f o r a r e l a t i v e l y w ide range o f t r a n s a c t i o n s and ca s h c r o p p r o d u c t i o n t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t i s a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . On t h e o t h e r hand, w e a l t h i s reckoned i n terms o f a s s e t s accumulated r a t h e r t h a n money income, and t h e s e a s s e t s i n c l u d e a wide range o f goods and s e r v i c e s w h i c h o f t e n have a s y m b o l i c c u l t u r a l v a l u e t h a t cannot r e a d i l y be q u a n t i f i e d i h economic terms. F o r example a p l o t o f l a n d o r a p i g a r e n o t mer e l y r e g a r d e d as f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n b u t have s t r o n g s y m b o l i c o v e r t o n e s . To an American farmer a p i g o n l y r e p r e s e n t s a p o t e n t i a l c ash income o f $150 on s a l e , w h i l s t -to a Mexican peasant i t i s a symbol o f s e c u r i t y — a n ' i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y 1 a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e f u t u r e h a r d s h i p s u c h as c r o p f a i l u r e o r a d e a t h i n t h e f a m i l y , and he may be u n a b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e monetary v a l u e o f t h e a n i m a l . 19 Other r u r a l d w e l l e r s such as c r a f t s m e n and s m a l l bus-i n e s s o p e r a t o r s c o u l d a l s o l o g i c a l l y be i n c l u d e d s i n c e they e s s e n t i a l l y form p a r t o f t h e peasant s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system and sha r e t h e same v a l u e system. 20 . . . G e n e r a l l y money i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n peasant s o c i e t i e s and w e a l t h c a r r i e s a d e f i n i t e p r e s t i g e v a l u e . However, a s p i r -a t i o n s t e n d t o be low and t h e pe a s a n t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f a ' d e s i r -able1 o r 'adequate* s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g i s r a r e l y f a r above the bar e s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l . C o n s e q u e n t l y a c h i e v e m e n t - m o t i v a t i o n i s a l s o low and d r i v e i s l i m i t e d below t h e p e r c e i v e d optimum l e v e l . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n some c l o s e d - c o r p o r a t e p e a s a n t communities a s p i r -a t i o n s a r e f u r t h e r l i m i t e d by t h e 'peasant image of l i m i t e d good ( F o s t e r , 1965) . 12 In other words, peasants commonly possess a d i f f e r e n t concept of wealth from 'modern 1 economic systems due to d i f f e r -ences i n the c u l t u r a l frame-of-reference, and non-economic variables dominate behaviour patterns to a greater extent. Thus the term ' -peasantry' implies something more than an economic system since i t involves a d i s t i n c t i v e set of values and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However t h i s paper i s not concerned with the study of peasant so c i e t i e s per se, and s t r u c t u r a l or s o c i a l relationships such as kinship systems or ceremonial r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s are only relevant i n so far as they a f f e c t consumer behaviour patterns. In most peasant so c i e t i e s the household i s both the main unit of production and of consumption since the greater pro-portion of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce i s devoted to domestic subsis-tence. A household system of production does not have the incentives for c a p i t a l accumulation nor the resources for i n s t i t u t i n g large-scale technological innovations, but when the opportunity i s available the peasant w i l l expand beyond the bare minimum necessary for subsistence and become involved i n cash crop production. However, involvement i n market f l u c t u -ations can prove disasterous to the peasant farmer operating within a very narrow r i s k margin, and the rate of change from dominantly subsistence to commercial production tends to be very slow and e r r a t i c . S i m i l a r l y , analysis of peasant consumption patterns reveals a slow rate of change i n want development. However, th i s i s not because peasants are inherently backward and unpro-gressive but i s a function of the few r e a l i s t i c alternatives available to them. Thus the popular view that peasants are e s s e n t i a l l y conservative i s a complete misconception, for i t has been shown that peasants are s u r p r i s i n g l y swift to accept 21 changes which they perceive as b e n e f i c i a l . Consequently, i t seems l i k e l y that the provision of a wider range of alt e r n a t i v e action paths through the introduc-t i o n of technological change w i l l greatly stimulate the speed of want development, by increasing productive capacity and earned income. However, new wants w i l l not i n e v i t a b l y develop simply because a wider range of consumer goods are available and the peasants can afford to buy them. For a l l wants o r i g i n -ate i n the c u l t u r a l frame-.of-reference, and patterns of con-sumption are influenced strongly by s o c i a l sanctions and are guided by the values of the group as a whole. Thus, items which do not f i t i n with the e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l configurations and are not perceived as useful or desirable, are unlikel y to 22 be accepted as new wants, though there are cases where peas-ants have adopted items from another c u l t u r a l complex by changing the meaning or use of the items. It would seem then, that the introduction of technolo-l o g i c a l change and the development of an increased involvement with modern cash economies i s one of the most powerful forces transforming t r a d i t i o n a l peasant s o c i e t i e s . Thus, i n order to 21 Sol Tax, "Changing Consumption i n Indian Guatemala," Economic Development and Cultural Change, No. 5, 1956-57, pp. 147-158. 22 See footnote 11, p. 6. 14 c l a r i f y t he p r o c e s s o f want development i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l t h e changes t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s when pe a s a n t f a r m e r s r e c e i v e a sudden i n c r e a s e i n c a s h income, as a r e s u l t o f a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the, r a t e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c change. The Impact o f I n c r e a s e d Income on Peasant Want P a t t e r n s  i n The Mexican G u l f Lowlands The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine t h e changes t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n want p a t t e r n s when unaccustomed p u r c h a s i n g power becomes a v a i l a b l e t o peasant a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s as a r e -s u l t o f a r e c e n t Government-sponsored development p r o j e c t i n the M e x i c a n G u l f Lowlands. I t i s ' h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d c a s h income s t i m u l a t e s , changes i n peasant e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s and t h a t c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n wants can be i d e n t i f i e d . I n o r d e r t o measure t h e changes t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e i n expen-d i t u r e and make i n f e r e n c e s about want changes, a d e t a i l e d s t u d y has been u n d e r t a k e n o f p a t t e r n s o f income and e x p e n d i t u r e i n a sample group s e l e c t e d w i t h i n the P l a n and a c o n t r o l group o f p e a s a n t s o u t s i d e o f the immediate p r o j e c t a r e a . The q u e s t i o n s asked i n t h i s s t u d y can be a r r a n g e d i n t h r e e groups -1. a) Can new wants be i d e n t i f i e d ? b) A r e t h e s e new Wants s u p e r f i c i a l ? o r do they, have s u f f i c i e n t c u l t u r a l c o n g r u i t y t o be a c c e p t e d w i t h i n t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e as permanent com-ponents o f t h e consumption p a t t e r n ? 2. a) What has been t h e e f f e c t o f income change on ' o l d 1 l o n g - s t a n d i n g wants? 15 b) A r e t h e s e o l d wnats now s a t i s f i e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s s t i m u l a t i n g t h e f u r t h e r development o f new wants? c) Have o l d e s t a b l i s h e d wants a c q u i r e d new meaning w i t h i n t h e new s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t ? 3. a) What e x a c t l y i s t h e r o l e o f income i n c r e a s e i n the p r o c e s s of want development? b) I s the r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f -r e f e r e n c e accompanying t e c h n o l o g i c a l change more i m p o r t a n t i n want development than th e a c t u a l i n -c r e a s e i n p u r c h a s i n g power w h i c h m e r e l y a c t s as a c a t a l y s t ? I n o t h e r words, i s t h e most f u n d a -m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n e x p e n d i t u r e n o t p u r c h a s i n g power p e r se b u t d i s p o s i t i o n s t o buy, s p r i n g i n g from wants d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f -r e f e r e n c e ? Thus, t h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o measure the t a n g i b l e e f f e c t s o f change i n cash income i n terms o f chang-i n g , wants. However, i t has added s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h a t measure-ment o f t a n g i b l e change may a l s o p r o v i d e the key t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t a n g i b l e change i n t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f -r e f e r e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s be-tween i n c r e a s e d income and want p a t t e r n s s h o u l d p r o v i d e i n -d i c a t i o n s o f change i n a t t i t u d e s and a s p i r a t i o n s , w h i c h are l e s s t a n g i b l e components o f t h e v a l u e system t h a n wants. CHAPTER I I PLAN CHONTALPA: REGIONAL CONTEXT Development P l a n n i n g i n Mexico M e x i c o ' s r a p i d economic p r o g r e s s s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f World War I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o u n t r y i s w e l l on t h e way t o s u s t a i n e d economic g r o w t h . 1 However, i n Mexico as i n many o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e e x i s t s an i n b a l a n c e between p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n , and u n t i l r e c e n t l y most p r o g r e s s was l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d Mesa C e n t r a l and t h e i r r i g a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s o f t h e n o r t h e r n d e s e r t s . W i t h i n t h e l a s t two decades o t h e r a r e a s , such as the G u l f Lowlands, have begun t o emerge as growth r e g i o n s due t o economic d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and development programming. The a g r a r i a n s e c t o r o f the Mexican economy i s l a g g i n g b e h i n d t h e commercial and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s i n terms o f t o t a l v a l u e o f p r o d u c t i o n , and t h i s gap has i n c r e a s e d n o t i c a b l y i n the l a s t two decades (See T a b l e 1 ) . Only about one t e n t h o f Mexico's t o t a l s u r f a c e a r e a can be r e g a r d e d as s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s a h i g h p r e s s u r e o f popu-l a t i o n on t h e c u l t i v a b l e l a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Mesa C e n t r a l , M exico's Gross N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t has i n c r e a s e d from 22.3 i n 1939, t o 93.2 i n 1964 ( e x p r e s s e d i n thousands o f m i l l i o n s o f pesos a t 1950 p r i c e s ) . Source: Banco, de M e x i c o , S.A. -quoted i n N a c i o n a l F i n a n c i e r a S.A., S t a t i s t i c s on t h e Mexican  Economy, M e x i c o , D.F., 1966, T a b l e 5, p. 29. 17 and the c o u n t r y ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s have been f e e l i n g t he s t r a i n of t h e r e c e n t ' p o p u l a t i o n explosion* . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f Government funds has been devoted t o i n c r e a s i n g i r r i -g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e a r i d N o r t h ; however, o t h e r p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y have been l e s s f o r t u n a t e and r e c e n t M exican p l a n -n i n g p o l i c y has been concerned w i t h r e d u c i n g t h i s i n b a l a n c e 2 i n i n v e s t m e n t i n a g r i c u l t u r e and wat e r r e s o u r c e s . TABLE 1 MEXICO: AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (1950 and 1964) [2] 1950 1964 A g r i c u l t u r e (a) 22.5% 17.5% Commerce 26.3% 25.9% I n d u s t r y (b) 29.3% 33.8% (a) a g r i c u l t u r e i n c l u d e s c a t t l e , f o r e s t r y and f i s h e r i e s . (b) i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s m a n u f a c t u r e s , m i n i n g , p e t r o l e u m and c o n s t r u c t i o n . Source: Based on d a t a quoted i n - N a c i o n a l F i n a n c i e r a S.A., S t a t i s t i c s on t h e Mexican Economy, M e x i c o , D.F., 1966, T a b l e 8, pp. 32-33. ( O r i g i n a l d a t a s u p p l i e d by Banco de Mexico S.A.) M e xican F e d e r a l P u b l i c Investment i n a g r i c u l t u r a l development has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y from 563 m i l l i o n pesos i n 1953 t o 1,415 m i l l i o n pesos i n 1963. Source: N a c i o n a l  F i n a n c i e r a , op. c i t . , T a b l e 91, p. 194. A l s o - a n a l y s i s o f th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f F e d e r a l P u b l i c Investment by s t a t e be-tween 1959 and 1966, shows a marked i n c r e a s e i n Government s p e n d i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e , c a t t l e r e a r i n g and f l o o d c o n t r o l i n the Lowland S t a t e s o f Tabasco and V e r a c r u z . Source: M i n i s t r y o f the P r e s i d e n c y , G e n e r a l Bureau o f P u b l i c Investment: F e d e r a l P u b l i c Investment S t a t i s t i c s . 18 L a r g e - s c a l e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n M exico was n o t r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t u n t i l t h e f i r s t r i v e r b a s i n development a u t h o r i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1947 under the a u s p i c e s o f the S e c r e t a r i a t  de Recursos H i d r a u l i c o s (the M i n i s t r y o f Water R e s o u r c e s ) . However, d u r i n g t h e l a s t two decades the Mexican Government have o b v i o u s l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l approach p r o v i d e s the b e s t framework f o r a comprehensive a t t a c k on development i s s u e s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e Government has p a i d e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n ; t o the f o r m e r l y n e g l e c t e d , r e l a t i v e l y s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d s t a t e s o f t h e G u l f Lowlands. Government a g e n c i e s have p u b l i s h e d glow-i n g r e p o r t s o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l o f t h i s humid t r o p -i c a l l o w l a n d , and c a l l f o r a "maroh'to the sea" w h i c h r e l i e v e c o n g e s t i o n i n t h e C e n t r a l Mesa and open up d e s p e r a t e l y needed new a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . However, i n v i e w o f the somewhat dubious h i s t o r y o f p l a n n i n g i n Mexico i t i s unwise t o t a k e t h e s e Government pronouncements t o o l i t e r a l l y as t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n p u r e l y economic, and w i t h each change of Government p o l i c i e s w h i c h were promoted e n t h u s i a s t i c -a l l y by t h e p r e v i o u s regime t e n d t o be somewhat n e g l e c t e d . There i s , however, c l e a r e v i d e n c e of the r e s u r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e G u l f Lowlands and c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s has been a c h i e v e d i n t h e l a s t two decades. P l a n n e d developments i n a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y ( e s p e c i a l l y the p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r y o f 3 The t r e n d i n o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s appears t o be away from l a r g e - s c a l e i n t e g r a t e d development p r o j e c t s on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e , towards c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s on t h e s o l u -t i o n o r a m e l i o r a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c key i s s u e s . 19 Tabasco and V e r a c r u z ) , t o g e t h e r w i t h improvements i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e and communications, have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o g r e s s w i t h i n t h e a r e a , and t h e G u l f Lowlands a r e no l o n g e r an econ-omic backwater b u t one o f Mexico's l e a d i n g growth r e g i o n s . A number o f a g e n c i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e r e c e n t d e v e l o p -ments i n t h e Lowlands. The most s p e c t a c u l a r a g r i c u l t u r a l development programming has been u n d e r t a k e n by L a •Comision d e l Papaloapan and L a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a — t w o r i v e r b a s i n a u t h o r -i t i e s under the a u s p i c e s o f the S e c r e t a r i a t de Recursos  H i d r a u l i c o s ( M i n i s t r y o f Water R e s o u r c e s ) . However, o t h e r Government a g e n c i e s are a l s o i n v o l v e d , n o t a b l y t h e Departmento  de A s u n t o s A g r a r i o s y C o T o n i z a c i o n (Department o f A g r a r i a n A f f a i r s and C o l o n i z a t i o n ) , the S e c r e t a r i a t de A g r i c u l t u r a y  G a n a d e r i a (the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and C a t t l e ) , the c r e d i t banks such as t h e Banco N a c i o n a l A g r o p e c u a r i a ( N a t i o n a l A g r i -c u l t u r a l and C a t t l e Bank) and the Banco N a c i o n a l de C r e d i t o E j i d a l ( N a t i o n a l E j i d a l C r e d i t B a n k ) , and the Government mar-k e t i n g agency CONASUPO (La Compania N a c i o n a l de S u b s i s t e n c i a s P o p u l a r e s ) . The " a g r a r i a n m i n i s t r y and i t s d e p a r t m e n t a l dependencies aim t o r a i s e the l e v e l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and s m a l l development p r o j e c t s . However, t h e i r achievements i n t h i s r e s p e c t a r e l i m i t e d i n a r e a and have l i t t l e i m p a c t on t h e Lowlands as a whole. S i m i l a r l y , t h e c r e d i t banks t e n d t o g i v e c r e d i t o n l y t o t h e h o l d e r s o f l a r g e r p r o p e r t i e s , as t h e e j i d a t a r i o s and s m a l l p e a s a n t farmers a r e g e n e r a l l y v e r y poor and cannot o f f e r a c c e p t a b l e a s s e t s f o r 20 s e c u r i t y . T h i s l a c k o f c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e Lowland farmers o b v i o u s l y makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o r a i s e the g e n e r a l l e v e l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the r e g i o n as a whole. The Government m a r k e t i n g agency a l s o tends t o concen-t r a t e i t s e f f o r t s on t h e owners o f l a r g e r p r o p e r t i e s who are a b l e t o meet r e g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s and a r e c o n s p i c u o u s by t h e i r absence i n a r e a s m a i n l y devoted t o e j i d a l l a n d . Thus, i t would seem t h a t t h e achievements o f Government a g e n c i e s i n p r o m o t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n t h e G u l f Lowlands, a l t h o u g h i m p o r t a n t on a l o c a l s c a l e a r e g e n e r a l l y l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n t h e r e g i o n as a whole. I t i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s such as t h e r a n c h e r s and p l a n t a t i o n owners, who by t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e and c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s have c o n t r i b u t e d most t o the r e c e n t emer-gence o f t h e Lowlands as an a g r i c u l t u r a l growth r e g i o n . How-e v e r , t h e i r e f f o r t s would n o t have a c h i e v e d such i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t s w i t h o u t t h e improvements i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , s uch as r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and f l o o d - c o n t r o l works, u n d e r t a k e n by the Government a g e n c i e s e s p e c i a l l y t h e r i v e r b a s i n a u t h o r i t i e s . The two r i v e r b a s i n a u t h o r i t i e s have been concerned w i t h l a r g e - s c a l e i n t e g r a t e d development. The f i r s t , L a  C o m i s i o n d e l P a palbapan, was s e t up i n 194 7 and i n v o l v e s t h e development and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f a r i v e r b a s i n l o c a t e d p r e -d o m i n a n t l y i n the S t a t e o f V e r a c r u z . The Papaloapan P r o j e c t was i n i t i a l l y c o ncerned p u r e l y w i t h f l o o d c o n t r o l , b u t i t s aims were expanded t o i n c l u d e the improvement o f t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s i n h a b i t a n t s , the r e s e t t l e m e n t o f p e o p l e from th e c o n g e s t e d u p l a n d s and t h e development of 5 a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y . The i n i t i a t i o n o f t h i s Government-sp o n s o r e d development p r o j e c t was i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e p r e v a l e n t f e e l i n g o f o p t i m i s m r e g a r d i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l o f the t r o p i c a l l o w l a n d s . However, a l t h o u g h the Papaloapan P r o j e c t has a c h i e v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s i n f l o o d c o n t r o l , communi-c a t i o n s and t h e improvement o f l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y , t h e a g r a r i a n and c o l o n i z a t i o n s e c t o r s were w i t h o u t doubt a r e s o u n d -i n g f a i l u r e . Most o f the new c o l o n i e s have been abandoned and t h e Commission's budget was c u t d r a s t i c a l l y i n 1958 when Lopez Mateos took o v e r as p r e s i d e n t , and t h e P r o j e c t was v i r t u a l l y suspended from 1961 u n t i l 1966 when a p l a n was d r a f t e d f o r a new c o l o n i z a t i o n scheme i n t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e b a s i n . Poleman s u g g e s t s t h a t much o f t h e blame f o r t h e f a i l u r e s w i t h i n L a C omision d e l Papaloapan i s a semi-autonomous agency under th e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t de Recursos H i d r a u l i c o s , (the M i n i s t r y o f Water Resources) and was o r i g i n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l s e c t o r s o f t h e p r o j e c t e d development o f t h e Papaloapan B a s i n . The Commission was empowered t o d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h o t h e r Government a g e n c i e s , b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y t o t h e M i n i s t e r f o r Water R e s o u r c e s , thus a v o i d i n g some o f the b u r e a u c r a t i c and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems w h i c h seem t o be i n e v i t a b l e i n Mexican Government Departments. 5 T.T. Poleman, The Papaloapan P r o j e c t , S t a n f o r d , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y - P r e s s , 1964. T h i s book p r o v i d e s a v e r y comprehensive a c c o u n t o f the aims and achievements of t h e Papaloapan P r o j e c t and an assessment o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Mexican economic development. 22 the a g r a r i a n s e c t o r must be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a u l t y and i n -adequate p l a n n i n g and o v e r - p a t e r n a l i s m o f the Papaloapan Commission. However, i t seems t h a t perhaps even more impor-t a n t t h a n the f a u l t y i n n o v a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s used by t h e Commission was t h e i r f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r the human elements i n v o l v e d , t h a t i s , t h e a t t i t u d e s , a s p i r a t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h e p r o s p e c t i v e c o l o n i s t s . The second r i v e r - b a s i n a u t h o r i t y o p e r a t i v e i n the G u l f Lowlands - La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , a l s o a semi-autonomous agency o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t de Recursos H i d r a u l i c o s , — w a s s e t up i n 1951 b u t was n o t r e a l l y o p e r a t i v e i n t h e f i e l d u n t i l t h e 7 l a t e 1950's. The f i r s t f i e l d works of t h e Commission from 1958 onwards were concerned w i t h c r e a t i n g "more f a v o u r a b l e g c o n d i t i o n s f o r human a c t i v i t y " p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h f l o o d c o n t r o l measures. The danger o f l a r g e - s c a l e f l o o d i n g was v i r t u a l l y removed by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the P r e s a N e t z h u a l c o y o t l , a v a s t c o n t r o l dam w i t h h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power i n s t a l l a t i o n s on the edge o f t h e C h i a p a s U p l a n d s , w h i c h was completed i n 1965, (See Appendix: Map 1 ) . I n t h i s y e a r t h e Commission e n t e r e d t h e second s t a g e o f the o v e r a l l P l a n and i n i t i a t e d measures t o promote economic development c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l 6 I b i d . , pp. 153-154. 7 Most o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a ar e a t p r e s e n t c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e lower b a s i n o f t h e G r i j a l v a R i v e r w h i c h f a l l s m a i n l y i n t h e S t a t e o f Tabasco about 240 m i l e s S.E. o f the Papaloapan. g U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , C a r -denas, Tabasco, 1965. s e c t o r , w h i c h a f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be p r o d u c i n g a t f a r below i t s p o t e n t i a l l e v e l . The C h o n t a l p a , the w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e Tabascan c o a s t a l p l a i n i n the l o w e r b a s i n o f t h e G r i j a l v a R i v e r , was s e l e c t e d as t h e p i l o t a r e a f o r t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e and t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The C h o n t a l p a p r o j e c t i s j o i n t l y f i n a n c e d by t h e M e xican Government w h i c h s u p p l i e s 52% ' o f the funds and t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s 48%. The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e G r i j a l v a Commission i n the C h o n t a l p a a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f the Papaloapan Commission, b u t a r e c o n cerned w i t h i m p r o v i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o v e r a l a r g e r a r e a , 150,000 h e c t a r e s from 1963 t o 1976. There a r e two o t h e r b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the Papaloapan P r o j e c t and t h e P l a n C h o n t a l p a . F i r s t l y , t h e P l a n C h o n t a l p a i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o j e c t r a t h e r t h a n a c o l o n i z a t i o n scheme, s i n c e much o f t h e l a n d i s a l r e a d y under c u l t i v a t i o n and t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y , o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the P l a n a r e n a t i v e t o t h e 9 r e g i o n . S e c o n d l y , th e P l a n C h o n t a l p a i s a * s e l f - h e l p * type o f p l a n n e d change programme as opposed t o the more p a t e r n a l -i s t i c p o l i c y o f the Papaloapan Commission. Thus the G r i j a l v a A t p r e s e n t about 40 p e a s a n t farmers from th e s t a t e o f Michoacan a r e i n c l u d e d i n P l a n C h o n t a l p a under a s p e c i a l a g r e e -ment w i t h t h e Governor o f t h a t s t a t e . These p e a s a n t s are g r a d u a t e s o f 1 rural technical a g r i c u l t u r a l schools* i n the c e n t r a l uplands and h o p e f u l l y w i l l demonstrate t o t h e l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s how t o use modern f a r m i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 24 Commission aims t o h e l p t h e pe a s a n t s t o h e l p themselves w i t h o n l y a minimum o f f o r m a l a i d . The C h o n t a l p a Region The p l a n n e d change p r o j e c t t o be examined i s l o c a t e d i n the C h o n t a l p a r e g i o n o f Tabasco, about 550 m i l e s s o u t h - e a s t o f M e x i c o C i t y . (See Appendix: Map 1.) The name 'Chontalpa1 i s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d from one o f t h e i d i g e n o u s t r i b e s o f the c e n t r a l p a r t o f T a b a s c o — t h e C h o n t a l , though i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s o f y Mexica.no' o r i g i n s i g n i f y i n g ' f o r e i g n e r ' . ^ The t h r e e main I n d i a n g r o u p s — t h e C h o n t a l , Zoque and M e x i c a n o s — w e r e o f Maya s t o c k b u t tended t o be l e s s advanced and l e s s w a r l i k e , a c c e p t i n g b o t h t h e C o n q u i s t a d o r e s and C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h r e l a t i v e e q u a n i m i t y . E a r l y i n t h e C o l o n i a l p e r i o d when Tabasco was p a r t o f the .Pr o v i n e i a o f Y u c a t a n , dependent on the A u d i e n c i a o f M e x i c o , t h e C h o n t a l p a a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d a d i s t i n c t r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t y owing t o a r a t h e r h i g h e r p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y t h a n the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s o f c o a s t a l p l a i n . T h i s ' o a s i s ' o f dense s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e C h o n t a l p a has p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h t o the p r e s e n t day, p r o b a b l y due t o t h e s o i l s and d r a i n a g e w h i c h a r e u n u s u a l l y good f o r a t r o p i c a l l o w l a n d environment and reduce the i n c i d e n c e o f l a t e r i z a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e C o l o n i a l p e r i o d the p r i n c i p a l crop I . R a mirez, ed., D i r e c t o r i o M o n o g r a f i c o de I n d u s t r i a , Commercio, A g r i c u l t u r a , G a n a d e r i a y P r o f e s i o n e s , 1957-1959, C h i a p a s , Tabasco, Campeche, Qu i n t a n a Roo, Y u c a t a n , M e x i c o , D.F., 1960. i n Tabasco was cacao owned by t h e encomenderos, w h i c h was s e n t d i r e c t l y t o t h e c a p i t a l f o r e x p o r t .to S p a i n , C a t t l e r e a r i n g was a l s o t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e zone b u t was a r a t h e r i n -s e c u r e o c c u p a t i o n due t o t h e f r e q u e n t f l o o d s and t h e p r e v -a l e n c e o f p a r a s i t i c d i s e a s e s . T h i s r e g i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s was p r o b a b l y r e i n f o r c e d by t h e r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n from t h e Mesa C e n t r a l , the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l and economic c o r e o f Mexico and t h e h e a r t h o f S p a n i s h C o l o n i a l power i n t h a t c o u n t r y . Because o f t h i s g e o g r a p h i c remoteness Tabasco has tended t o be on the p e r i p h e r y o f major h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s . However, the C h o n t a l p a has s u f f e r e d p e r i o d s o f v i o l e n t u p h e a v a l from the p i r a t i c a l r a i d s o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s t h r o u g h the R e v o l u t i o n commencing i n 1910 and t h e u n s e t t l e d decades o f the 1920's and 1930's. D u r i n g t h e C o l o n i a l p e r i o d t h e r e were f r e q u e n t f o r c e d m i g r a t i o n s o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s i n h a b i t a n t s f l e e i n g from the r a p i n g and p i l l a g -i n g p i r a t e s . The R i o Seco, a t t h a t time one o f the o u t l e t s The f o l l o w i n g i s p r o b a b l y the c l e a r e s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e encomienda system: "Under t h i s system a c o n q u i s t a d o r r e -c e i v e a t r o m t n e r o y a l g o v e r n o r an a l l o c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s who were t o s e r v e him w i t h t r i b u t e and l a b o u r . The encomendero, i n t u r n , assumed the f e u d a l o b l i g a t i o n o f d e f e n d i n g h i s c o u n t r y f o r t h e emperor C h a r l e s V, o f p r o t e c t i n g h i s I n d i a n c h a r g e s , and o f i n s t r u c t i n g them i n t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . The encom-i e n d a d i d n o t i n v o l v e an award o f l a n d , b u t a l o n g w i t h tne d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f I n d i a n s o f t e n went a g r a n t o f l a n d t o the: c o n q u i s - t a d o r ." E d i t o r ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 8, i n - A l o n s o de Z o r t a , L i f e and Labour i n A n c i e n t M e x i c o , The " B r i e f and Summary R e l a t i o n o f t h e L o r d s o f New S p a i n , " " t r a n s l a t e d and w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Benjamin Keen, New B r u n s w i c k , New J e r s e y , Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. o f the G r i j a l v a R i v e r , s e r v e d t h e p i r a t e s as a c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s r o u t e f o r t h e l o o t i n g o f r i v e r i n e s e t t l e m e n t s . I n 1775 t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s were f o r c e d t o b l o c k t h i s waterway w i t h p a l l i s a d e s and e a r t h banks i n o r d e r t o s t o p t h e p i r a t i c a l r a i d s . A g a i n , i n t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d t h e C h o n t a l p a became a b l o o d y b a t t l e f i e l d between n a t i o n a l t r o o p s and r e v o l u t i o n a r y g u e r i l l a s . The pe a s a n t s s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r -a b l y d u r i n g t h i s t i me and i n t h e uneasy y e a r s a f t e r the R e v o l u t i o n when l a n d r e f o r m was t a k i n g p l a c e , b e i n g e x p l o i t e d b o t h by t h e middlemen who bought up t h e i r produce a t v e r y low p r i c e s and h e l d them i n v i r t u a l debt s e r v i t u d e , and by the p o l i -. . 12 t x c i a n s who used t h e p e a s a n t s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r own ends. The p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C h o n t a l p a are m e s t i z o s descended from t h e o r i g i n a l I n d i a n i n h a b i t a n t s who can no l o n g e r be i d e n t i f i e d as a s e p a r a t e c u l t u r e group w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n , i n t e r m i x e d w i t h t h e S p a n i a r d s and o t h e r l a t e r immigrant groups i n c l u d i n g I t a l i a n s , F r e n c h and E n g l i s h and t h e negroes i m p o r t e d by t h e S p a n i a r d s t o work t h e p l a n t a t i o n s . The popu-l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s s t i l l h i g h r e l a t i v e t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the C h o n t a l p a i n t h i s p e r -i o d see - F r a n c i s c o J . S a n t a m a r i a , Documentos H i s t o r i c o s de  Tabasco, V o l s . I and I I . P u b l i c a t i o n e s d e l Go b i e r n o de Tabasco, V i l l a h e r m o s a , Tabasco, 1950 and 1951. A l s o - p e r s o n a l i n t e r -v i e w w i t h Senor D a r i o V i d a l , Cardenas, Tabasco, August 3 0 t h -3 1 s t , 1968. though f a r below t h e d e n s i t i e s a c h i e v e d i n t h e Mesa C e n t r a l , and t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y d e s p i t e the r u r a l - u r b a n d r i f t w h i c h i s one o f the most - o u t s t a n d i n g modern 13 Mexican demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A g r i c u l t u r e i s t h e predominant o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e 14 p a r t o f t h e C h o n t a l p a s c h e d u l e d f o r development. The o n l y i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e t h o s e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p e t r o -15 leum i n d u s t r y and p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s -such as sugar cane and cacao. The o n l y a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s 13 I n 1960 t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n t h e C h o n t a l p a was 25.5 people/sq.km. as opposed t o t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e S t a t e o f Tabasco o f 20.1/sq.km. and t h e n a t i o n a l average o f 17.8/sq.km. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n o f L a Chon-t a l p a has r e a c h e d 325,000 by 1960, o r 65.5% o f t h e t o t a l S t a t e p o p u l a t i o n , w i t h an average a n n u a l i n c r e a s e r a t e o f 3.2% be-tween 1950 and 1960, w h i c h e q u a l l e d t h e S t a t e average and came s l i g h t l y above t h e n a t i o n a l f i g u r e o f 3.1%. Source: U n p u b l i s h e d handbook o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , Cardenas, Tabasco, 1966, pp. 9-10 (based on 1960 census d a t a ) . 14 A g r i c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g c a t t l e r a n c h i n g , f o r e s t r y , h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g o c c u p i e d 69.45% o f t h e t o t a l a c t i v e l a b o u r f o r c e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t o f L a C h o n t a l p a i n 1960. Source: U n p u b l i s h e d Handbook o f L a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , C a rdenas, Tabasco, 1966, p. 11. (Based on 1960 Census data.) 15 The s e v e r a l s m a l l o i l and n a t u r a l gas f i e l d s i n the C h o n t a l p a a r e amongst the most p r o d u c t i v e i n t h e G u l f Lowlands a c c o u n t i n g f o r 22.7% o f t h e v a l u e o f t o t a l n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n i n 1962. I b i d . , p. 15. 16 The C h o n t a l p a " s two sugar m i l l s and o n l y cacao f a c -t o r y , a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e m u n i c i p i o o f Cardenas near t h e f i e l d h e a d q u a r t e r s o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a . 17 The e j i d o i s a form o f l a n d t e n u r e o r i g i n a t i n g i n the breakdown o f t h e l a r g e e s t a t e s i n the p o s t - R e v o l u t i o n a r y l a n d r e f o r m , i n w h i c h t h e group f o r m i n g t h e e j i d o h o l d s the l a n d t i t l e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l members have ;qnW u s u f r u c t r i g h t s t© the l a n d . ~.' 28 w h i c h a r e o f any r e a l commercial i m p o r t a n c e a r e c a c a o , r o a t a n bananas, c o p r a and sugar cane, w h i l e c o f f e e , m a i z e , r i c e and beans a r e m a i n l y produced f o r d o m e s t i c consumption o n l y . C a t t l e r e a r i n g i s w i d e s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t the r e g i o n c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f t h e ' c r i o l l o ' s t o c k i n t r o d u c e d by t h e S p a n i a r d s c r o s s e d w i t h Zebu and Swiss breeds w h i c h a r e e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d t o t r o p i c a l l o w l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t s . A p a r t from a few l a r g e c a t t l e ranches and p l a n t a t i o n s w h i c h r a r e l y exceed 200 h e c t a r e s , most o f the l a n d h o l d i n g s i n t h e C h o n t a l p a a r e s m a l l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s and e j i d a l p l o t s 17 o f l e s s t h a n 10 h e c t a r e s i n s i z e . D e s p i t e the p o s t -R e v o l u t i o n a r y l a n d r e f o r m s t h e l a n d i s s t i l l v e r y u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h 35.2% o f t h e l a n d i n t h e hands o f o n l y 4.9% o f t h e f a r m e r s . (See T a b l e 2, p. 2 8 a ) . A l t h o u g h s o i l s a r e p o t e n t i a l l y v e r y p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l -t u r e i s b a s i c a l l y s u b s i s t e n c e - l e v e l w i t h a v e r y low p e r c a p i t a p r o d u c t i v i t y . The main r e a s o n s . f o r t h i s low p r o d u c t i v i t y are p r o b a b l y t h e fragmented and u n e c o n o m i c a l l y s m a l l p r i v a t e p r o p -e r t i e s and e j i d a l p l o t s , t h e r u d i m e n t a r y n a t u r e o f p easnat t e c h n o l o g y and c l i m a t i c h a z a r d s . There a r e t h r e e main c l i m a t i c h a z a r d s . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e v e r y g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g s l o p e o f t h e Tabascan c o a s t a l p l a i n t o g e t h e r w i t h a humid t r o p i c a l marine c l i m a t e , r e s u l t s i n poor s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e w i t h p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g w h i c h f o r m e r l y caused e x t e n s i v e damage t o c r o p s , l i v e s t o c k and s e t t l e m e n t s . The danger o f l a r g e - s c a l e f l o o d i n g has now been v i r t u a l l y r e -moved by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam the P r e s a N e t z h u a l c o y o t l . TABLE 2 TYPE OF LAND TENURE IN THE FIRST PHASE OF PLAN CHONTALPA (83,000 h e c t a r e s ) [1] Type o f Tenure T o t a l A r e a i n H e c t a r e s % Number of Farmers % Average Amount o f Land/Farmer i n H e c t a r e s E j i d o s 30,706 37.0 2,590 55.3 11.9 S m a l l p r o p e r t i e s l e s s t han 10 has. i n s i z e 5,100 6.2 1,200 25.7 4.3 S m a l l p r o p e r t i e s be-tween 10 has. and 50 has. 16,880 20.3 660 14.1 25.6 S m a l l p r o p e r t i e s g r e a t e r than 50 has. 29,214 35.2 230 4.9 127.0 C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a 1,100 1.3 - - -T o t a l 83,000 100.0 4,680 100.0 -F o r l o c a t i o n o f Phase I o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a see Appendix, Map 1. Source: U n p u b l i s h e d Handbook o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , Cardenas, Tabasco, 1966, p. 29. to 00 0) 29 S e c o n d l y , a l t h o u g h t h e C h o u t a l p a l i e s i n t h e humid t r o p i c a l G u l f Lowland one o f t h e main rea s o n s f o r c r o p l o s s e s due t o c l i m a t i c h a z a r d s i s t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n l e n g t h o f the s p r i n g d r y season w h i c h n o r m a l l y o c c u r s from F e b r u a r y t o A p r i l , b u t has been known t o l a s t u n t i l J u l y . T h i r d l y , the c o m b i n a t i o n o f h e a t and h u m i d i t y a l s o encourages a wide v a r i e t y o f t r o p i c a l d i s e a s e s . Other i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s a r e poor communi-c a t i o n s , an i n e f f i c i e n t m a r k e t i n g system and the l a c k o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a d v i c e and c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s f o r e j i d a t a r i o s and s m a l l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners. E j i d a t a r i o s have o n l y u s u f r u c t o f t h e l a n d and cannot a l i e n a t e the p r o p e r t y i t s e l f , thus they have no s e c u r i t y t o o f f e r f o r bank l o a n s e x c e p t a s s e t s such as a n i m a l s o r f a r m i n g equipment, o r any p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owned a p a r t from t h e e j i d a l l a n d . The Banco E j i d a l de Mexico i s r e -l u c t a n t t o g i v e c r e d i t t o e i i d a t a r o s i n t h e C h o n t a l p a s i n c e most a r e v e r y poor and p o s s e s s no a c c e p t a b l e a s s e t s . The commercial banks such as t h e Banco A g r o p e c u a r i a d e l S u r e s t e , a l s o t e n d t o g i v e c r e d i t o n l y t o t h e l a r g e r p r o p e r t y owners as the s m a l l p e a s a n t farmers cannot o f f e r adequate s e c u r i t y . B e f o r e t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a peasant l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s were v e r y poor. O u t s i d e o f t h e p r o j e c t a r e a malnu-t r i t i o n and t r o p i c a l d i s e a s e s a r e s t i l l w i d e s p r e a d , and i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e s and o v e r a l l d e a t h r a t e s a r e h i g h s i n c e m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t e x c e p t i n t h e towns. The p r o v i s i o n o f adequate s e r v i c e s i s hampered by t h e d i s p e r s e d n a t u r e o f t h e r u r a l s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n : i l l i t e r a c y i s h i g h and r u r a l s c h o o l s a r e few and f a r between, adequate s a n i t a t i o n , e l e c t r i c -i t y and p i p e d w a t e r s u p p l i e s a r e r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e i n r u r a l a r e a s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e c o m p l e t e -l y , i n a d e q u a t e . The type o f p e a s a n t r y found i n the C h o n t a l p a comprises what E r i c Wolf terms an 'open' heterogeneous community as opposed t o t h e 'closed' c o r p o r a t e p e a s a n t community w h i c h i s perhaps more i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e p o p u l a r image o f p e a s a n t 18 s o c i e t y . T h i s open s t r u c t u r e i s t y p i c a l o f p e a s a n t r y i n t r o p i c a l l o w l a n d s and i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n dependent on c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t from t h e o u t s i d e , though the p e a s a n t s t i l l depends a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y on s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e f o r d o m e s t i c consumption. I n t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by P l a n C h o n t a l p a t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p e a s a n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e main a c c e s s r o u t e s , the l o c a l market c e n t r e s and t h e sugar m i l l s and cacao f a c t o r y i n t h e m u n i c i p i o " o f Cardenas, (See Appendix: Maps 1 and 3 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e o f c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e Chon-t a l p a has shown a re m a r k a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e l a s t 15 y e a r s due p r i m a r i l y t o t h e f l o o d c o n t r o l and r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n works o f the G r i j a l v a Commission, t h e s t i m u l a t i o n o f the sugar i n d u s t r y E r i c R. Wolf, Types o f L a t i n American P e a s a n t r y : A  P r e l i m i n a r y D i s c u s s i o n , American A n t h r o p l o g i s t , . V o l . 57, 1955, pp. .452^470. The m a j o r i t y , o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f p e a s a n t s o c i e t i e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e more e a s i l y i d e n t i -f i a b l e t r a d i t i o n a l c l o s e d - c o r p o r a t e communities and r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e work has been u n d e r t a k e n on the somewhat l o o s e l y d e f i n e d open a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s . 31 t h r o u g h Government s u b s i d i e s , and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c e r s ' c o o p e r a t i v e s f o r t h e s a l e o f cacao t o the Cardenas f a c t o r y . However, t h i s c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y conducted on a s m a l l s c a l e w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l framework o f p easant a g r i c u l t u r e and c o n s e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t t o most o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l development o u t l i n e d on page 28. Thus the p e a s a n t who becomes i n v o l v e d i n commercial a g r i c u l t u r e i s f r e -q u e n t l y i n a v e r y p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n , s i n c e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c r o p f a i l u r e due t o c l i m a t i c h a z a r d s he must f a c e t h e r i s k o f f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e c a s h - c r o p market. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a p e a s a n t i n t h i s p o s i t i o n -... i s always concerned w i t h t h e p r o blem o f s t r i k i n g some s o r t o f b a l a n c e between s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n and c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . P r e c e d i n g c y c l e s o f c a s h -c r o p p r o d u c t i o n have e n a b l e d him t o buy goods and s e r v i c e s w h i c h he cannot a f f o r d i f he produces o n l y f o r h i s own s u b s i s t e n c e . Y e t an a l l - o u t e f f o r t t o i n c r e a s e h i s a b i l i t y t o buy more goods and s e r v i c e s o f t h i s k i n d may s p e l l h i s end as an independent a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e r . H i s tendency i s thus t o r e l y on a b a s i c minimum o f s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n and t o expand h i s c a s h p u r c h a s e s o n l y s l o w l y . 19 T h i s t r e n d i s e v i d e n t i n t h e C h o n t a l p a and p e a s a n t s seem h e s i -t a n t t o commit themselves t o t a l l y t o c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n even when the o p p o r t u n i t y i s a v a i l a b l e . G e n e r a l l y money income r e c e i v e d from t h e s a l e o f c a s h - c r o p s i s s m a l l and i r r e g u l a r and m o s t l y used t o s a t i s f y wants w h i c h have a l r e a d y been i n -c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e I b i d . , pp. 371-372. 32 v i s i b l e change i n e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s . However, i t would seem t h a t the open t y p e o f peasant community e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e C h o n t a l p a i s more o r i e n t e d towards t e c h n o l o g i c a l change than t h e c l o s e d c o r p o r a t e s o c i e t y , s i n c e i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s a c e r t a i n degree o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , and one would e x p e c t t h e p e a s a n t s t o show a c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r e a t e r degree o f a c h i e v e m e n t - m o t i v a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e accumu-l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l w e a l t h . P l a n C h o n t a l p a : Aims and Achievements The b a s i c aim o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a i n the Chon-t a l p a i s t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y t h r o u g h the complete r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e 20 and t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . To a c h i e v e t h e s e ends th e Commission has i n t r o d u c e d measures t o remove th e con-s t r a i n t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l development o u t l i n e d above and t o improve the c o n d i t i o n s o f r u r a l l i f e i n the r e g i o n . The o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e p l a n i n 1963 was a p i l o t p r o j e c t t o d e v e l o p i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e on 52,000 h e c t a r e s o n l y . However, i n 1965 the p l a n was expanded r e d i c a l l y i n v o l v -i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l development t h r o u g h i r r i g a t i o n 21 and d r a i n a g e works o f 143,000 h e c t a r e s . The r e v i s e d p r o j e c t 20 Over a f o u r t e e n - y e a r p e r i o d the n e t v a l u e o f g r o s s o u t p u t p e r farmer i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e from U.S. $540 t o U.S. $3,760, and g r o s s per c a p i t a income from U.S. $73 t o U.S. $520. Source: U n p u b l i s h e d Report o f t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n  Development Bank ( B . I . P . ) , May 1968, M e x i c o , D.F. i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two phases; from 1965 t o 1970 and from 1971 t o 1976. The f i r s t phase up t o 1970 i n v o l v e s , t h e development o f 83,000 h e c t a r e s o f w h i c h 36,000 h e c t a r e s a r e a l r e a d y p r o -d u c i n g w i t h low r e t u r n s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o p e r a t i o n s are b e i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d i n f i v e main a r e a s : a) The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f l o o d c o n t r o l works, d r a i n a g e d i t c h e s , main p e n e t r a t i o n roads and paved a c c e s s roads t o e v e r y p a r c e l of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h i s s e c t o r e s s e n t i a l l y forms th e c o r e o f t h e p l a n and i s a l l o c a t e d o v e r 60% o f the t o t a l p r o j e c t f u n d s . 2 2 (See T a b l e 3 ) . b) The c l e a r i n g and l e v e l l i n g o f f o r e s t e d l a n d s newly opened up f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development and o f ' r o t a t i o n scrub' a l r e a d y w i t h i n t h e p e a s a n t s l a s h - a n d - b u r n c y c l e . c) The r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e fragmented and unequal l a n d t e n u r e p a t t e r n (See T a b l e 2, p.28a) by t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f a l l l a n d i n c l u d i n g p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , so t h a t the whole a r e a can be d i v i d e d up i n t o p a r c e l s o f economic s i z e . The p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners a r e compensated f o r t h e v a l u e o f the l a n d e x p r o p r i a t e d , and t h e e j i d a t a r i o s a r e p a i d f o r t h e v a l u e o f a s s e t s such as houses and c r o p s . The o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e P l a n i n v o l v e d t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e whole a r e a i n t o 10 h e c t a r e p l o t s o f a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l 5 h e c t a r e s o f p a s t u r e f o r c a t t l e r a i s i n g . These p a r c e l s a r e t o be grouped i n t o 24 a g r o -21 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d a l l s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s s e c t i o n were o b t a i n e d from r e c o r d s o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , C a r -denas, Tabasco. 22 I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank, op. c i t . 33a TABLE 3 PLAN CHONTALPA-ALLOCATION OF 1965-1970 BUDGET BY SECTORS A l l o c a t i o n i n m i l l i o n s of (Mex. $) % • o f T o t a l Budget F l o o d c o n t r o l works, d r a i n s and s e r v i c e roads 499.8 63.9 H o u s i n g , i n c l u d i n g u t i l i t i e s and community s e r v i c e s 78.4 10.0 A g r i c u l t u r a l Research S t a t i o n 17.3 2.2 R e s e t t l e m e n t , i n c l u d i n g compen-s a t i o n and l a n d c l e a r a n c e 67.4 8.6 R e s i d e n c e s f o r Commission p e r s o n n e l 70.1 9.0 M i s c e l l a n e o u s , i n c l u d i n g o p e r -a t i n g expenses, v i s i t i n g a d v i s e r s and i n s p e c t i o n teams, and g e n e r a l overheads 48.7 6.3 T o t a l Budget 781.7 100.0 S o urce: I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank R e p o r t , May 196 8. economic units of between 1,500 and 5,000 hectares i n size according to the number of parcels included. The a g r i c u l t u r a l units w i l l function as ejidos i n that each peasant w i l l have only usufruct rights to his parcel. However tthe organizational framework, w i l l be more flexible,, being intermediate i n s t r u c t u r a l organization between the con-ventional ' i n d i v i d u a l 1 ' ejido i n which the peasants, operate completely independently from each other, and the c o l l e c t i v e ejidos i n which the land i s owned and worked j o i n t l y and the t o t a l c a p i t a l i s controlled by the community as a whole. Each agro-reconomic unit consists of an a g r i c u l t u r a l zone of 10 hectare parcels with an adjoining c a t t l e zone, and four units were completed according to these s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . However, th i s i n i t i a l plan was modified i n 1967 attaching greater impor-tance to livestock production, and the remaining agro-economic units are being subdivided into a g r i c u l t u r a l parcels of 5 hec-tares with 10 hectares devoted to c a t t l e rearing. The decision to increase the emphasis on c a t t l e rearing was made for a number of reasons including the 'physical' d i f f i c u l t i e s of agriculture i n the humid tropics and c r e d i t and marketing prob-lems . Cattle rearing has great p o t e n t i a l i n t r o p i c a l lowlands and there i s s u f f i c i e n t demand for meat i n the Mexican domestic market to warrent expansion i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The provision of a 5 hectare a g r i c u l t u r a l p l o t w i l l allow the peasant to grow some crops for his own subsistence and to take part i n the production of cash-crops which w i l l be marketed on a co-operative basis. d) The p r o v i s i o n o f c r e d i t t h r o u g h t h e agency o f the Banco  A g r o p e c u a r i a d e l S u r e s t e , t h e development o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s t o i n s t r u c t t h e p e a s a n t s i n t h e use o f modern t e c h n i q u e s , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a t i o n t o conduct r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e s p e c i a l problems o f a g r i c u l t u r e and c a t t l e r a i s i n g i n t h e humid t r o p i c s . e) The improvement o f c o n d i t i o n s o f r u r a l l i f e t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and d i s e a s e e r a d i c a t i o n p r o -grammes; the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s c h o o l s and new h o u s i n g w i t h p i p e d w a t e r , sewerage and e l e c t r i c i t y ; and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l and community w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . . The new houses a r e b e i n g con-s t r u c t e d i n n u c l e a t e d semi-urban v i l l a g e s , one f o r each a g r i -c u l t u r a l u n i t , i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the p r o v i s i o n o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s . I n August 1968 a f t e r n e a r l y t h r e e y e a r s o f i n t e n s i v e f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s , the r e l a t i v e achievements w i t h i n t h e P l a n ' s major s e c t o r s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n some s e c t o r s , n o t a b l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b a s i c works such as p r o t e c t i v e embankments, d r a i n s and s e r v i c e roads the work was p r o g r e s s i n g s a t i s f a c t o r -i l y , however a g r i c u l t u r a l development, th e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f l a n d t e n u r e and r e h o u s i n g were l a g g i n g f a r b e h i n d the p l a n n e d s c h e d u l e . Some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r the s l o w r a t e o f p r o g r e s s o f t h e s e t h r e e components a r e o u t l i n e d i n a r e p o r t i s s u e d by t h e 36 23 G r i j a l v a Commission i n March 1968. P r o g r e s s i n a g r i c u l t u r e has been hampered b y 1 M e x i c o ' s l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e o f i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e i n the t r o p i c a l l o w l a n d s . The Papaloapan P r o j e c t (See Pages 20-22 ) s u f f e r e d i n the same way from t h e l a c k o f adequate background r e s e a r c h d a t a . However., P l a n C h o n t a l p a has t h e advantage o f an a s s o c i a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e p r o j e c t a r e a , w h i c h i s u n d e r t a k i n g e x p e r i -ments on t e c h n i q u e s and c r o p s t r a i n s s u i t a b l e f o r s u c c e s s f u l c u l t i v a t i o n w i t h i n the zone. I n a d d i t i o n , the a g r o n o m i s t s employed by the G r i j a l v a Commission are aware o f and p r o f i t from e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d by o t h e r c o u n t r i e s e x p e r i m e n t i n g i n t h e c o l o n i z a t i o n o f t r o p i c a l l a n d s . The major b o t t l e n e c k i n the a g r a r i a n s e c t o r appears t o be t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f l a n d t e n u r e , due m a i n l y t o t h e r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n o f t h e P l a n i n 196 7 w h i c h reduced t h e s i z e o f t h e a g r a r i a n p l o t t o 5 h e c t a r e s and i n c r e a s e d t h e amount o f c a t t l e l a n d t o 10 h e c t a r e s p e r f a r m e r . The f o u r a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t s w h i c h had a l r e a d y been completed r e t a i n e d t h e o r i g i n a l format o f 10 hectare p l o t s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , and t h e o n l y m o d i f i -c a t i o n n e c e s s a r y was t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c a t t l e zone o f each u n i t t o award 5 a d d i t i o n a l h e c t a r e s o f p a s t u r e l a n d t o each 24 f a r m e r . However, a c o m p l e t e l y f r e s h s t a r t had t o be made i n 23 R e p o r t e d i n a communication from L a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , M e x i c o , D.F., t o t h e I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank ( B . I . D . ) , Washington, D.C., d a t e d May 1 0 t h , 1968, w i t h r e f e r -ence t o t h e r e v i s i o n o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a . 24 The e x p a n s i o n o f t h e P l a n has n e c e s s i t a t e d the e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f 52,000 a d d i t i o n a l h e c t a r e s o f p r i v a t e p r o p -e r t y w h i c h w i l l p e r m i t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a g r e a t e r number of p e a s a n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t . two u n i t s where work was underway a t t h e time o f t h e r e v i s i o n o f the P l a n , w h i c h c o m p l i c a t e d t h e s u r v e y i n g and d e l i m i t i n g o f p a r c e l s and r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l a y i n t h e payment o f compensation and a l l o c a t i o n o f new p a r c e l s t o t h e p e a s a n t s . A p a r t from d e l a y s r e s u l t i n g from t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e P l a n , t h e Commission o r i g i n a l l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e amount o f t i m e n e c e s s a r y f o r the complete r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t e n u r e on such a l a r g e s c a l e . Each p e a s a n t has t o be i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an adequate e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f l a n d t r a n s f e r and t o a r r a n g e s a t i s f a c t o r y compensation f o r the l o s s o f c r o p s and o t h e r a s s e t s , and many u n f o r s e e n d e l a y s can a r i s e d u r i n g t h e s e t r a n s a c t i o n s . However, t h i s programme has now been a c c e l e r a t e d and g i v e n top p r i o r i t y and the r e s t r u c -t u r i n g o f t e n u r e s h o u l d be completed i n a l l 24 agro-economic u n i t s by l a t e 1970. The e x p a n s i o n o f c a s h - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e has been h e l d back due t o problems w i t h l a n d c l e a r a n c e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c r e d i t and m a r k e t s , and w i t h t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f an e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programme. However, i n c r e a s e d i n v e s t m e n t i n machinery has p e r m i t t e d t h e more e f f i c i e n t l e v e l -25 l i n g and c l e a r i n g o f l a n d . The main problem w i t h t h e d e v e l o p -2 5 B e t w e e n May 1 4 t h and September 11th 1968 a t o t a l o f 2565 h e c t a r e s were c l e a r e d by machinery i n the f i r s t a g r i -c u l t u r a l u n i t s ; o f w h i c h 1301 h e c t a r e s were devoted t o a n n u a l c r o p s such as r i c e , maize and sorghum, 460 h e c t a r e s t o p e r e n -n i a l s (bananas), and 80 h e c t a r e s t o p a s t u r e i n the c a t t l e zones. T h i s i s f a r b e h i n d t h e o r i g i n a l .schedule f o r new p l a n t -i n g s . However, the p e a s a n t can o b t a i n f u r t h e r c r e d i t t o c l e a r h i s l a n d by hand and c u l t i v a t e ' r u s t i c ' maize by t r a d i t i o n a l methods. 38 ment o f t h e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has been t h e l a c k o f r a p p o r t between t h e p e a s a n t s and t h e e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , many o f whom though t e c h n i c a l l y competent, l a c k e x p e r i e n c e i n communicating t e c h n i q u e s on a l e v e l t h e p e a s a n t can u n d e r s t a n d . However, t h i s has been remedied by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a new t r a i n i n g programme f o r e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . The problem o f c r e d i t i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e whole f u t u r e of t h e P l a n and cannot be s o l v e d as e a s i l y as t h e l a n d c l e a r -ance and e x t e n s i o n problems. The two main d i f f i c u l t i e s have been t h e p e a s a n t s ' m i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f c r e d i t funds and f a i l u r e t o pay o f f t h e i r bank l o a n s due t o l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e p r i n c i p l e s o f c r e d i t e x t e n s i o n , and t h e fundamental d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e towards c r e d i t . o f L a C o m i s i o n d e l  G r i j a l v a and t h e Banco A g r o p e c u a r i a d e l S u r e s t e . The f i r s t y e a r o f c r e d i t e x t e n s i o n from s p r i n g 1966 t o s p r i n g 1967 had r a t h e r d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y many pe a s a n t s d e f a u l t e d on t h e i r l o a n s and t h e G r i j a l v a Commission was f o r c e d t o q u a r e n t e e t h e repayment o f each i n d i v i d u a l l o a n t o the Bank i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t f o r t h e 1967-196 8 a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e . A l t h o u g h t h e d i r e c t o r s o f the Banco A g r o p e c u a r i a a r e concerned t h a t P l a n C h o n t a l p a s h o u l d be a s u c c e s s , t h e Bank i s e s s e n t i a l l y a commercial ' p r o f i t - o r i e n t e d x i n s t i t u t i o n , and as such i t s o p e r a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y does n ot accommodate t h e r i s k o f e x t e n d i n g l o a n s w i t h o u t r e a s o n a b l e g u a r a n t e e s o f repayment. Thus t h e Bank's i n c l i n a t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l d i s a p p o i n t -i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c r e d i t was t o d e c r e a s e t h e volume o f c r e d i t i s s u e d and t o c u t down on t h e number o f l o n g - t e r m l o a n s u n t i l t h e p e a s a n t s can o f f e r more s o l i d g u a r a n t e e s o f l o a n repayment. On t h e o t h e r hand t h e G r i j a l v a Commission i n s i s t s t h a t i t cannot f u n c t i o n a d e q u a t e l y w i t h i n t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s , and t h a t ' s u f f i c -ient V c r e d i t i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s 2 6 i n i n c r e a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . B o t h the Bank and the Commission a r e b e i n g r e a s o n a b l e i n t h e i r demands, f o r commercial banks a r e n o t c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s and the G r i j a l v a Commission must show r e s u l t s by 1970 (Government e l e c t i o n y e a r ) i f the M e x i c a n Government i s t o c o n t i n u e s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n P l a n C h o n t a l p a . The s t e p t a k e n by the G r i j a l v a Commission o f q u a r a n t e e i n g a l l l o a n s g r a n t e d t o the p e a s a n t s s h o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e t e m p o r a r y s o l u t i o n . . However, i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h i s b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e t o c r e d i t o f the Banco A g r o p e c u a r i a and t h e G r i j a l v a Commission w i l l i n e v i t a b l y c r e a t e f u r t h e r problems i n t h e f u t u r e , and doubts a r e r a i s e d as t o the s u i t a b i l i t y o f a commercial bank as t h e c r e d i t agent f o r a p l a n o f t h i s t y p e . One p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n might be t o p l a c e the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c r e d i t i n the hands o f a j o i n t committee com-p r i s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l the major Mexican banks. Thus, no one bank would be r e q u i r e d t o assume a l l the l o a n r i s k s and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f n e g o t i a t i n g l o n g - t e r m l o a n s would be i n c r e a s e d , 2 6 Long-term l o a n s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r t r o p i c a l p e r e n n i a l c r o p s due t o t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t must l a p s e b e f o r e any r e t u r n s can be e x p e c t e d . I n a d d i t i o n l o n g - t e r m l o a n s a r e de-s i r a b l e f o r a l l c r o p s , i n c l u d i n g a n n u a l s , i n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f a development p r o j e c t u n t i l the economic t a k e - o f f p o i n t has been r e a c h e d . However, c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s was made i n a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n 1968, and c r e d i t was a v a i l a b l e f o r i r r i g a t e d 27 banana p l a n t a t i o n s , sorghum, r i c e , maize and t h e s e e d i n g o f p a s t u r e . A p a r t from i r r i g a t i o n o f the banana p l a n t a t i o n s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f w i d e s p r e a d i r r i g a t i o n on the a g r i c u l t u r a l p a r -c e l s has been postponed u n t i l a f t e r 1971, t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e • i e x p e c t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s f o r t h e f i r s t phase 2 8 o f t h e P l a n . The. main r e a s o n g i v e n by t h e G r i j a l v a Commission f o r t h i s d e p h a s i n g of i r r i g a t i o n i s the Tabascan p e a s a n t s ' u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f i r r i g a t i o n , n e c e s s i -t a t i n g t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f a l o n g and i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l 29 e x t e n s i o n programme i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s s u c c e s s f u l l y . The banana p l a n t a t i o n s a r e t h e 'showpiece 1 o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a i n v o l v i n g a s o p h i s t i c a t e d s p r i n k l e r i r r i g a t i o n system and mechanized p a c k i n g p l a n t s . Each o f t h e f i r s t f i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t s has an a r e a o f w e l l -d r a i n e d s o i l s e t a s i d e f o r p l a n t a t i o n s o f t h e 'FaZery' banana w h i c h i s r e s i s t a n t t o t h e endemic Panama d i s e a s e . The bananas ar e t o be s o l d on t h e West German market as t h e r e s u l t o f a s p e c i a l l y n e g o t i a t e d c o n t r a c t . D e s p i t e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p i t a l o u t l a y i n v o l v e d , (Mexican $11,000 p e r h e c t a r e f o r i r r i g a t i o n and d r a i n a g e w o r k s ) , t h e Commission e x p e c t s t o recoup t h e i r i n -vestment a f t e r a y e a r o f f u l l p r o d u c t i o n . 2 8 I r r i g a t i o n would reduce th e r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n s p r i n g p l a n t i n g and would i n c r e a s e o u t p u t by an e s t i m a t e d 62% i n 14 y e a r s . Communication from La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a t o the I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank, op. c i t . , p. 4. 41 However, i t would seem l i k e l y t h a t f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e s have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n t o 1dephase 1 i r r i g a t i o n , , s i n c e the I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Development Bank f u n d i n g (48% o f t h e t o t a l ) has n o t been i n c r e a s e d a l t h o u g h the r e v i s i o n o f t h e P l a n has w i d e l y expanded the scope of. development o p e r a t i o n s . The G r i j a l v a Commission seems t o have r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e p e a s a n t s can o n l y a s s i m i l a t e a l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y o f new t e c h n i q u e s a t one t i m e , and t h a t undue h a s t e i n i n t r o d u c i n g p l a n n e d i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l o n l y j e o p a r d i z e t h e f u t u r e o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a . The l a s t s e c t o r i n w h i c h work has p r o g r e s s e d more s l o w l y t h a n was a n t i c i p a t e d i s t h e r e h o u s i n g programme i n v o l v i n g t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n n u c l e a t e d semi-urban v i l l a g e s . The d e l a y s i n t h i s s e c t o r can be a t t r i b u t e d t o two main r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , due t o the Commission's l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g , the f i r s t v i l l a g e s completed 30 showed d e f i c i e n c i e s i n workmanship and house d e s i g n , and e x p e n d i t u r e exceeded th e a s s i g n e d budget. However, the Commis-s i o n l e a r n e d from t h e s e m i s t a k e s and the new v i l l a g e s a r e b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a m o d i f i e d house d e s i g n w h i c h i s b o t h low-c o s t and b e t t e r s u i t e d t o t h e needs o f t h e p e a s a n t s . The con-s t r u c t i o n programme was a c c e l e r a t e d i n 1968 and 19 v i l l a g e s complete w i t h s e r v i c e i n s t a l l a t i o n s are e x p e c t e d t o be f i n i s h e d by 1970. S e c o n d l y , th e G r i j a l v a Commission r e a l i z e d t h a t the r e h o u s i n g programme was more th a n a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d p h y s i c a l 30The main c o m p l a i n t o f t h e peasants, o c c u p y i n g the new houses i n the f i r s t v i l l a g e was t h a t t h e k i t c h e n s were f a r t o o s m a l l f o r t h e average Tabascan f a m i l y , (average s i z e approx-i m a t e l y 6.5 p e r s o n s ) , and p o s s e s s e d i n a d e q u a t e o u t l e t s f o r smoke from th e c o o k i n g s t o v e . c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t programme and had t o be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n s o f t h e p e a s a n t s . I n o t h e r words, th e p e a s a n t s c o u l d n o t be f o r c i b l y rehoused i n o r d e r t o meet the p r o j e c t e d time s c h e d u l e , and r e s e t t l e m e n t c o u l d o n l y p r o c e e d a f t e r m o t i v a t i o n had been aroused by an i n t e n s i v e p r o -gramme o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h e x p l a i n e d t h e aims o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a and t h e b e n e f i t s i t . would o f f e r i n terms the p e a s a n t s c o u l d 31 u n d e r s t a n d . The p r o blem o f s t i m u l a t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t - m o t i v a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l t o a s e l f - h e l p programme l i k e P l a n C h o n t a l p a , s i n c e the G r i j a l v a Commission aims t o h e l p t h e p e a s a n t s t o h e l p them-s e l v e s w i t h a minimum o f f o r m a l a i d . Thus the a c t i v e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the. v i l l a g e s i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o f o s t e r s e l f - r e l i a n c e and a f e e l i n g o f achievement. However, t h i s means t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n work can o n l y p r o c e e d as f a s t as a c h i e v e m e n t - m o t i v a t i o n r i s e s . The G r i j a l v a Commission to o k eare t o g a i n t h e sympathy and c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l e l i t e — t h e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and t h e members o f t h e e j i d a l c o u n c i l who h e l p e d i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e proposed i n n o v a t i o n s t o t h e p e a s a n t s . Most e f f e c t i v e o f a l l was p r o b a b l y t h e w r i t t e n propaganda put out by t h e Commission. T h i s was i n t h e form o f a w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d and c a r e f u l l y w r i t t e n pamphlet w h i c h a p p e a l e d t o t h e t h i n g s w h i c h th e M exican peasant v a l u e s most h i g h l y — h i s l o v e f o r h i s c o u n t r y , h i s f a i t h i n the R e v o l u t i o n and h i s c o n c e r n w i t h the w e l l - b e i n g o f h i s f a m i l y . ( P u b l i s h e d by La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , V i l l a h e r m o s a , Tabasco, 1964.) The s u c c e s s o f t h i s e x t e n s i o n programme i s e v i d e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h r e s i d e n c e i n the new v i l l a g e s i s o p t i o n a l , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e a s a n t s have chosen t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the programme. I n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t e f f i c i e n c y was v e r y low, s i n c e n o t o n l y was c o n s t r u c t i o n work c o m p l e t e l y u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e p e a s a n t s , b u t i n a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s no t r a d i t i o n o f cooper-a t i v e l a b o u r i n t h e C h o n t a l p a . I n o r d e r t o be e l i g i b l e f o r a house i n t h e new v i l l a g e s each p e a s a n t i s r e q u i r e d t o donate 50 days l a b o u r a t making b r i c k s and t i l e s , house c o n s t r u c t i o n 32 o r l a y i n g o u t d r a i n s and r o a d s , as i n i t i a l payment. When c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r s t g o t underway many pe a s a n t s c o n t r a c t e d out t h e i r compulsory l a b o u r , p r e f e r r i n g t o pay o t h e r s than t o l e a r n the s k i l l s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s p r a c t i c e was o b v i o u s l y c o n t r a r y t o the aims o f a s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t and had t o be d i s c o u r a g e d . The Commission overcame the problem b y . i n t r o d u c i n g an ' i n d i v i d -ual incentive system' whereby any work v o l u n t e e r e d o v e r th e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t i s p a i d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e minimum s a l a r y s c a l e 33 f o r t h e r e g i o n w i t h a d d i t i o n a l payment f o r o v e r t i m e . I n a d d i t i o n , p e a s a n t s who show a p t i t u d e a r e encouraged t o a c q u i r e s p e c i a l s k i l l s such as c a r p e n t r y , and r e c e i v e t h e minimum wage d u r i n g t h e i r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . The p e a s a n t s have responded e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o t h e s e i n c e n t i v e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s a r e now r u n n i n g v e r y smoothly. D e s p i t e t h e s e t b a c k s o u t l i n e d above i t seems t h a t , on t h e w h o le, P l a n C h o n t a l p a i s a c h i e v i n g i t s g o a l s and t h a t 32 The t o t a l c o s t o f each house i s M exican $12,000 and payment i s s c h e d u l e d o v e r a 25 y e a r p e r i o d . 33 The minimum d a i l y wage f o r u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s m Tabasco has r i s e n from Mexican $15 f o r an e i g h t hour day i n 1966 t o M e xican $18 i n 1968. 44 g e n e r a l l y t h e G r i j a l v a Commission i s a c t i n g w i s e l y i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e a s a n t s . Success i s most e v i d e n t i n t h e s e c t o r s concerned w i t h i m p r o v i n g th e c o n d i t i o n s o f p e a s a n t l i f e and R e h a b i l i t a t i n g 1 t h e p o p u l a t i o n . However, i t i s t o o soon t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e outcome o f t h e p r o j e c t i n economic terms 3 s i n c e t h e e x p e c t e d ' t a k e - o f f ' ' p o i n t has n o t y e t been a c h i e v e d . I n any case th e G r i j a l v a Commission may f i n d t h a t i n t h e l o n g r u n t h e s u c c e s s o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a may n o t be weighed i n pesos o r k i l o s , b u t i n terms o f t h e improvement i n t h e ' q u a l i t y * o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , f o r -I t may be t h a t t h e l a r g e - s c a l e development p r o j e c t i s a l r e a d y o b s o l e t e as a means o f p r o m o t i n g economic development; s i n c e even i f such a p r o j e c t a c h i e v e s i t s economic g o a l s t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e t h a t the c o u n t r y as a whole w i l l b e n e f i t t o an e x t e n t w h i c h w i l l j u s t i f y s u ch a l a r g e c a p i t a l o u t l a y . I t seems t h a t a more e f f i c i e n t way t o promote development would be t o c o n c e n t r a t e b o t h monetary and human r e s o u r c e s on key p r o b l e m s , and t o p e r m i t change i n one s e c t o r t o promote i t s own R e v o l u t i o n i n i t s own t i m e . 45 The u l t i m a t e measure, o f s u c c e s s i s n o t s t a t i s t i c s o f m i l e s o f roads b u i l t and i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s dug, a c r e s sown i n p a r t i c u l a r c r o p s , p e o p l e made l i t e r a t e o r v a c c i n a t e d e t c . as i m p o r t a n t as t h e s e t h i n g s a r e . R a t h e r t h e f o c u s i s upon what happens t o t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s ; whether o r n o t t h e y have g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h emselves and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s o l v e t h e i r , own p r o b -lems and a l l e v i a t e t h e i r needs w i t h o u t dependence on the government t o do i t f o r them, as i s so o f t e n the case i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s ; t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o i n v e s t t h e i r l e i s u r e and s a v i n g s t o a t t a i n t h e i r g o a l s ; and f i n a l l y t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o govern themselves i n t h e sense o f b u i l d i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g l o c a l s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r own s t a g e o f development. 35 James W. Green,"Community Development as Economic _ Development: The Rate of V a l u e , O r i e n t a t i o n s , " / Community De v e l o p - ment Review, V o l . V, No. 3, p. 10. CHAPTER I I I FIELD METHODS From t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c u r r e n t achievements o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s t h e impact o f i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f a development p r o j e c t i n terms of r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d , as i n s u f f i c i e n t t i me has l a p s e d t o a l l o w any r e a l l y m e a n i n g f u l c o n c l u s i o n s t o be drawn. However, i t was s u g g e s t e d i n C h a p t e r I t h a t t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t advantages t o s t u d y i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f , as opposed t o t h e r e s u l t s o f p r o c e s s o p e r a t i o n , i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f a development p r o j e c t . Thus, c o n d i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i d e a l f o r t h i s s t u d y o f want development as ".... the o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s had been d e l i b e r a t e l y a c c e l e r a t e d t h r o u g h p l a n n e d change and were thus more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . " ' ' " I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e most a c c u r a t e measurement p o s s i b l e o f t h e changes t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e i n income and e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s , a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f income and e x p e n d i t u r e was under-t a k e n i n a sample group s e l e c t e d from p e a s a n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n P l a n C h o n t a l p a and a c o n t r o l group o f p e a s a n t s o u t s i d e o f the immediate p r o j e c t a r e a . The c o n t r o l group sample was e s s e n t i a l l y t o p r o v i d e a b a s e l i n e f o r measurement o f t h e f u l l e x t e n t o f changes i n income and e x p e n d i t u r e , f o r m i n g t h e 'before1 segment o f the t o t a l 1 S e e Chapter I , p. 8, 47 'before and after innovation' p i c t u r e . Thus the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f t h e s e l e c t e d c o n t r o l group had t o approximate as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t h o s e o f t h e sample a r e a s e l e c t e d , now d e s i g n a t e d U n i t 2 8 o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a , b e f o r e the P l a n began f u l l - s c a l e f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s i n 1966. A c c o r d i n g l y , s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l group was based on t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s -a) d i s t a n c e from market town (Cardenas) - about 14 k i l o m e t e r s b) r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the major t r u n k r o a d (La C a r r e t e r a  d e l G o l f o ) - w i t h i n 2-3 k i l o m e t e r s c) t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n between 150 and 300 e j i d a t a r i o s (no p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y h o l d e r s ) . d) a r e a o f t o t a l e j i d a l l a n d h o l d i n g s - 1,000-2,500 h e c t a r e s e) economic c o n d i t i o n s - t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g w i t h some comm e r c i a l p r o d u c t i o n o f sugar cane and cacao on a v e r y s m a l l s c a l e f ) s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s - no e l e c t r i c i t y o r p i p e d w a t e r , s e r v i c e s o n l y a v a i l a b l e i n market town, l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y v e r y poor ( d i e t , h e a l t h , e t c . ) . The e j i d o s e l e c t e d , A r r o y o Hondo, met t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n a l l r e s p e c t s , e x c e p t t h a t i t was s e v e r a l k i l o m e t e r s n e a r e r Cardenas as i t b o r d e r e d on t o t h e s e l e c t e d a r e a w i t h i n P l a n C h o n t a l p a . The c o n t r o l sample was s e l e c t e d from a numbered l i s t o f e j i d a t a r i o s h o l d i n g o f f i c i a l t i t l e t o p a r c e l s i n A r r o y o Hondo, e x c l u d i n g 'squatters' who had n o t y e t made o f f i c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n 2 f o r e j i d a l r i g h t s . A 10% random sample was drawn u s i n g a 48 random-numbers t a b l e , y i e l d i n g a sample of 18 p ersons out o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 179 e j i d a t a r i o s . The 'Plan sample1 was s e l e c t e d from p e a s a n t s o c c u p y i n g p l o t s i n U n i t 2 8 — t h e f i r s t a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t i n P l a n C h o n t a l p a t o be c o m p l e t e d , as s u f f i c i e n t time had l a p s e d s i n c e t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f i n t e n s i v e development works i n t h i s u n i t i n F a l l 1966, t o p e r m i t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e change i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e a s a n t way o f l i f e . A 10% random sample was s e l e c t e d u s i n g a random numbers t a b l e , y i e l d i n g a sample o f 26 out o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 25 8 p a r c e l h o l d e r s i n August 1967. 3 F i e l d methods e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f the use o f work-s h e e t s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , combined w i t h t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s and 4 s t a n d a r d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n . The use o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e i n the c o n t r o l sample as the p e a s a n t s were unaccustomed t o t a l k i n g t o s t r a n g e r s o t h e r than the o c c a s i o n a l Government a g r i c u l t u r a l a gent, and were nervous and even h o s t i l e when s u b j e c t e d t o f o r m a l q u e s t i o n n i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , ta p e d i n t e r v i e w s were used e x c l u s i v e l y i n A r r o y o Hondo. The i n t e r -v i e w s were c o m p l e t e l y i n f o r m a l , b u t were f o c u s e d on income, a s s e t s and e x p e n d i t u r e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . A d d i t i o n a l key 2The l i s t o f o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d e j i d a t a r i o s i n A r r o y o Hondo was o b t a i n e d from t h e Cardenas o f f i c e o f t h e Department o f A g r a r i a n A f f a i r s and C o l o n i z a t i o n . •^The P l a n sample was s e l e c t e d from a numbered l i s t o f p a r c e l h o l d e r s i n U n i t 28 p r e p a r e d by L a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a . ^See Appendix f o r examples o f work s h e e t s , q u e s t i o n n -a i r e s and tape t r a n s c r i p t s . 49 i n f o r m a n t s , such as s c h o o l - t e a c h e r s and 1 aged* r e s i d e n t s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, were i n t e r v i e w e d t o o b t a i n i n -f o r m a t i o n about the h i s t o r y o f the e j i d o and r e c e n t changes i n economic c o n d i t i o n s and p e a s a n t way o f l i f e . I n the P l a n sample a p r e l i m i n a r y worksheet was used t o s u p p l y background i n f o r m a t i o n on f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n , q u a l i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n i n terms o f h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , and the e x t e n t o f t h e change i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g system caused by the i n n o v a t i o n s o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a . T h i s i n i t i a l s u r v e y was f o l l o w e d by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e on d o m e s t i c and p e r s o n a l a s s e t s and main h o u s e h o l d e x p e n d i t u r e s . I n f o r m a t i o n on a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s e t s and c a s h income earned was o b t a i n e d from the r e c o r d s o f t h e G r i j a l v a Commission. A d d i t i o n a l t a p e d i n t e r v i e w s were u n d e r t a k e n t o examine the p e a s a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e changes a c h i e v e d by P l a n C h o n t a l p a , and t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u r r e n t want p a t t e r n s . Thus, i n b o t h the c o n t r o l and P l a n sample groups d a t a were c o l l e c t e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s — a s s e t s , income and expen-d i t u r e . The d a t a were t a b u l a t e d and t h e n compared i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y want p a t t e r n s . CHAPTER IV THE CONTROL SAMPLE - EJIDO ARROYO HONDO Socio-Economic S e t t i n g The l a n d now c o m p r i s i n g t h e e j i d o A r r o y o Hondo was f i r s t o c c u p i e d by s q u a t t e r s e t t l e r s i n the e a r l y 1930's. These p e a s a n t s were a l l n a t i v e s o f the S t a t e o f Tabasco: t h e m a j o r i t y were l a n d l e s s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s who were u n a b l e t o o b t a i n e j i d a l p l o t s i n t h e i r own d e n s e l y - s e t t l e d m u n i c i p i o s , and moved i n t o the C e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the C h o n t a l p a n o r t h o f Cardenas i n s e a r c h o f u n o c c u p i e d n a t i o n a l l a n d s . T h i s a r e a was r e l a t i v e l y s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d a t t h i s p e r i o d due l a r g e l y t o the absence o f waterways w h i c h p r o v i d e d v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y means o f ac c e s s i n the C h o n t a l p a , and t h e d e n s i t y o f the f o r e s t c o v e r w h i c h d i s -c ouraged p o t e n t i a l s e t t l e r s from c l e a r i n g the l a n d f o r c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e . When the s e t t l e r s were s u f f i c i e n t i n number t o meet the p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the A g r a r i a n Code w i t h r e s p e c t t o e l i g i b i l i t y 2 f o r e j i d a l l a n d g r a n t s , an a p p l i c a t i o n was made t o t h e Govern-ment f o r t h e f o r m a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f A r r o y o Hondo as an e j i d o . The o f f i c i a l l a n d g r a n t o f 1,556 h e c t a r e s was made on September 1 , 1 M u n i c i p i o ' - l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t r o u g h l y e q u i v -a l e n t t o t h e N o r t h American county.. ^The group o f pe a s a n t s making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r e j i d a l l a n d must exceed 20 i n number, and each must be ov e r 16 y e a r s o f age. A r e s i d e n c e p e r i o d o f 6 months must be f u l f i l l e d b e f o r e an a p p l i c a t i o n can be f i l e d . The pe a s a n t s may own s m a l l p i e c e s o f p r o p e r t y , b u t th e y must work t h e l a n d themselves and n o t r e n t i t i F o o t n o t e 2 c o n t i n u e d on page 5 1 ] . 5 1 1 3 t h , 1939 b e n e f i t t i n g 126 p e a s a n t s . T h i s a l l o c a t i o n was l a t e r e x tended by 250 h e c t a r e s " o n March 25th 1957 i n v o l v i n g 28 peas-a n t s , b r i n g i n g the t o t a l o f o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d e j i d a t a r i o s t o 150 w i t h an average l a n d h o l d i n g o f 10 t o 14 h e c t a r e s per c a p i t a . A f u r t h e r 25 p e a s a n t s are o c c u p y i n g a 300 h e c t a r e ex-t e n s i o n o f t h e e j i d o and are c u r r e n t l y a w a i t i n g o f f i c i a l con-f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i r e j i d a l s t a t u s , b r i n g i n g t h e t o t a l popu-3 l a t i o n o f E j i d o A r r o y o Hondo t o 179 as o f August 1968. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h p i o n e e r e j i d a t a r i o s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s o f the E j i d o were al m o s t c o m p l e t e l y dependent on s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e , p r o d u c i n g s o l e l y f o r d o m e s t i c con-sumption and s e l l i n g produce o n l y i n r a r e y e a r s o f p l e n t y . The two sugar m i l l s i n t h e m u n i c i p i o o f Cardenas were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e i n the 1930's, but t h e s e were o p e r a t i n g on a v e r y s m a l l s c a l e d r a w i n g on cane grown on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s o n l y , s i n c e the e j i d a t a r i o s were unable t o become i n v o l v e d i n c a s h -c r o p p r o d u c t i o n due t o t h e l a c k o f a c c e s s r o a d s . S i m i l a r l y cacao was grown o n l y on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s and s o l d d i r e c t l y t o a g e n c i e s i n V i l l a h e r m o s a , t h e S t a t e C a p i t a l . The p r e c a r i o u s n a t u r e o f s u b s i s t e n c e p e a s a n t a g r i c u l t u r e i n A r r o y o Hondo was i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e low a l t i t u d e o f t h e t e r r a i n w h i c h a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y f l o o d e d i n the r a i n y season u n t i l t h e G r i j a l v a 2 (Continued) out t o t e n a n t s . Source: Codigo A g r a n o de  l o s E s t a d o s Umdos Me x i c a n o s , A r t i c l e 54, Medina Hermanos, M e x i c o , D.F., 1965. 3 Data s u p p l i e d by c o u r t e s y o f t h e Departmento de Asuntos  A g r a r i o s y C o l o n i z a c i o n : Comite R e g i o n a l Campesino, Cardenas, Tabasco, August 196 8. 52 Commission i n s t i t u t e d f l o o d - c o n t r o l works i n t h e e a r l y 1960's. The p r i v a t i o n s s u f f e r e d by t h e s e e a r l y s e t t l e r s a re v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e words o f t h e c u r r e n t e j i d a l p r e s i d e n t who f i r s t s e t t l e d i n A r r o y o Hondo i n 1933. To s u r v i v e i n A r r o y o Hondo i n t h o s e days you had t o g e t used t o w a t e r — w a l k , work and swim i n w a t e r and e a t w a t e r as w e l l as d r i n k i t — t h e r e wasn't a n y t h i n g e l s e t o e a t . What chance d i d we have t o improve o u r s e l v e s and our l a n d ? We were t o o busy t r y i n g t o keep our heads above w a t e r . 4 Thus, u n t i l t h e l a s t decade t h e r e was l i t t l e dynamism i n t h e economy m a i n l y due t o t h e l a c k o f economic a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e . The p e a s a n t s produced and consumed the b a s i c s t a p l e s — m a i z e and beans and v e r y l i t t l e e l s e . C l i m a t i c h a z a r d s and the use o f v i r t u a l l y p re-Columbian t o o l s and t e c h n i q u e s r e s u l t e d i n low p r o d u c t i v i t y w h i c h made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e peasant t o accumulate c a p i t a l f o r r e i n v e s t m e n t i n the l a n d . He was t o o concerned w i t h k e e p i n g the s p e c t r e o f hunger one s t e p away from h i s f r o n t door t o be a b l e t o break the v i c i o u s c i r c l e of p o v e r t y w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y s u r r o u n d s the s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t . However, w i t h i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s t h e embryo o f a cash, crop, economy, has been g r a f t e d on t o t h e s u b s i s t e n c e economic base though the p e a s a n t s s t i l l r e l y h e a v i l y on s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l -t u r e t o f e e d t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The r e c e n t development o f c a s h - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e i s l a r -g e l y t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c e r s ' c o - o p e r a t i v e s 4 I n t e r v i e w w i t h F r a n c i s c o Vazquez S o l i s , P r e s i d e n t o f E j i d o A r r o y o Hondo, Tuesday, September 1 0 t h , 1968. 53 f o r t h e s a l e o f cacao t o t h e Cardenas f a c t o r y i n 1959, and t h e s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e sugar i n d u s t r y t h r o u g h Government s u b s i d i e s and t h e consequent e x p a n s i o n o f the two sugar m i l l s i n the m u n i c i p i o o f Cardenas. However, the impact o f t h e s e d e v e l o p -ments would have b e e n . r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d w i t h o u t the f l o o d con-t r o l and r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n works o f the G r i j a l v a Commission. As s t a t e d on page 30 -The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e pe a s a n t s a r e i n v o l v e d i n c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e main ac c e s s r o u t e s , t h e l o c a l market c e n t r e s and t h e sugar m i l l s and cacao f a c t o r y i n the m u n i c i p i o o f Cardenas. E j i d o A r r o y o Hondo i s l o c a t e d o n l y 14 k i l o m e t e r s from Cardenas and t h r e e new a c c e s s roads have been b u i l t by t h e G r i j a l v a Commission t o s e r v i c e f l o o d c o n t r o l works. C o n s e q u e n t l y , com-par e d w i t h much o f the C h o n t a l p a , t h i s e j i d o has an e x t r e m e l y f a v o u r a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r the development o f c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n and v e r y few o f t h e e j i d a t a r i o s a re s o l e l y dependent on sub-s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e . However, a l t h o u g h a l l the. p e a s a n t s i n A r r o y o Hondo are i n v o l v e d i n a monetary economy, t o some e x t e n t s i n c e t h e y f r e q u e n t l y s e l l s u r p l u s produce o v e r and above t h e i r h o u s e h o l d needs, o n l y about h a l f o f them can be r e g a r d e d as c a s h - c r o p f a r m e r s w i t h p r i m a r i l y commercial p r o d u c t i o n m o t i v e s . These c a s h - c r o p f a r m e r s a r e p r i n c i p a l l y engaged i n t h e produ c -t i o n o f cane and cacao, the two c r o p s f o r w h i c h p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y , w i t h c o f f e e and bananas as s u b s i d i a r y c a s h - c r o p s . Commercial s a l e o f t h e s e c r o p s on any a p p r e c i a b l e s c a l e i s dependent on the ease of a c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r t r a n s p o r t e r t r u c k s . Thus, th e degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a s h -c r o p p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e A r r o y o Hondo e j i d a t a r i o s v a r i e s a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e l o c a t i o n of h o l d i n g s r e l a t i v e t o the t r u c k a c c e s s roads r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e a c t u a l d i s t a n c e from t h e market cen-t r e , Cardenas, as the crow f i l i e s , (See T a b l e ? " ) . D e s p i t e the r e c e n t n a t u r e o f t h e s e developments i n c a s h -c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e , the impact has been c o n s i d e r a b l e and i t would appear t h a t more change has t a k e n p l a c e i n the economic system i n the l a s t decade th a n i n a l l the 25 y e a r s s i n c e the o r i g i n a l s e t t l i n g o f the e j i d o . Cash income has i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y and t h e p e a s a n t s no l o n g e r s u f f e r the extreme h a r d s h i p s o f the e a r l y y e a r s . However, c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i s s t i l l c o nducted on a v e r y s m a l l s c a l e w i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l framework of p e a s a n t a g r i c u l t u r e and w i t h a l l the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t e n t a i l s , and w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s cash income earned from c r o p s a l e i s s m a l l and s p o r a d i c and has n o t y e t a c h i e v e d much impact on the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and want p a t t e r n s . A s s e t s , Income and E x p e n d i t u r e I n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y wants and c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between peasant income and e x p e n d i t u r e i n A r r o y o Hondo, a s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n o f a sample group o f 18 h o u s e h o l d s . Data were c o l l e c t e d under t h r e e h eadings - a s s e t s , income and e x p e n d i t u r e . and are t a b u l a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages t o f a c i l i t a t e compar-i s o n s between the sample components. Table.4 summarizes the r e l e v a n t background d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e h o u s e h o l d as t h e main 55 TABLE 4 CONTROL SAMPLE-PERSONAL DATA House-h o l d Sample Age o f F a m i l y Head ( i n y e a r s ) Sex Length o f Res i d e n c e i n A r r o y o Hondo ( i n y e a r s ) Former P l a c e o f Residence Number of C h i l -d r e n T o t a l Number o f Household R e s i d e n t s [ 1 ] 1 2 3 4 5 42 56 42 28 M M E M M M 34 35 ^ ( l i f e ) -25 28 ( l i f e ) Rancho[2] i n Cunduacan Rancho i n V i l l a h e r m o s a Cardenas Rancho i n Co m a l c a l c o 8 9 8 12 4 13 9 8 8 6 6 55 M 55 ( l i f e ) - 151.4] 5 7 8 48 60 M M 28 60 ( l i f e ) S m a l l P r i v P r H u i m a n g u i l l o 9 5 4 2 9 38 M 3 8 ( l i f e ) - 12[4] 8 10 32 M 3 2 ( l i f e ) - 8 10 11 12 39 22 M M 20 22 ( l i f e ) Rancho i n Co m a l c a l c o 16 [4] 4 11 6 13 49 M 30 V i l l a h e r m o s a 23[5] 9 14 15 54 30 M M 34 3 0 ( l i f e ) Rancho i n Cunduacan 8 5 7 8 16 17 18 40 55 27 M M M 25 30 27 ( l i f e ) Rancho i n Cardenas E j i d o i n Huimangui1lo 7 20[4] 2 5 8 4 The l a r g e number o f r e s i d e n t s p e r h o u s e h o l d i s due i n many ca s e s t o the extended f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n whereby the t y p i c a l h o u s e h o l d c o n s i s t s o f t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y (husband, w i f e and c h i l d r e n ) p l u s m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r o f f s p r i n g and/or one o r b o t h p a r e n t s o f the husband and w i f e . 56 TABLE 4 F o o t n o t e s c o n t i n u e d . Rancho - p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f moderate s i z e - r a r e l y e x c e e d i n g 100 h e c t a r e s i n t h e C h a n t a l p a . A l l o f the pea s a n t s i n t h i s sample g i v i n g a "rancho" as t h e i r former p l a c e o f r e s i -dence (or t h e i r f a t h e r s ' where a p p l i c a b l e ) were employed as d a y - l a b o u r e r s (or peons) and were n o t themselves l a n d h o l d e r s . 3 I t i s v e r y u n u s u a l f o r a woman t o be head o f a h o u s e h o l d . T h i s woman was l e f t a widow 10 y e a r s ago w i t h 8 s m a l l c h i l d r e n . She r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f the ho u s e h o l d u n t i l h e r o l d e s t s o n , now 20, was o l d enough t o t a k e c h a r g e , and she s t i l l i s e f f e c t i v e head a l t h o u g h h e r son i s n o m i n a l l y so. 4 Four men i n t h i s sample have two wiv e s and thus m a i n t a i n two s e p a r a t e h o u s e h o l d s . Only one man (head o f h o u s e h o l d number 5) i s l e g a l l y m a r r i e d . The o t h e r s a l l have common law spouses. 5 T h i s man i s now l i v i n g w i t h h i s f o r t h w i f e , the o t h e r t h r e e h a v i n g d i e d i n c h i l d - b i r t h . The c u r r e n t w i f e i s o n l y 16 y e a r s o l d . G e n e r a l l y t h e w i v e s a re from 5 t o 20 y e a r s younger than t h e i r husbands. 57 u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n and consumption, and s h o u l d be borne i n mind when e x a m i n i n g the subsequent t a b l e s . A s s e t s A s s e t s can be r e g a r d e d b o t h as the s o u r c e from w h i c h w e a l t h i s g e n e r a t e d , and t h e t a n g i b l e e x p r e s s i o n o r r e s e r v o i r o f w e a l t h p o s s e s s e d — t h e r e s u l t o f income r e c e i v e d . Thus a s s e t s may be r e g a r d e d as b o t h cause and e f f e c t , p r o v i d i n g a combined i n d e x o f p o t e n t i a l income and p a s t e x p e n d i t u r e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n a s s e t s must f i r s t be e v a l u a t e d b e f o r e any attempt can be made t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between income and e x p e n d i -t u r e . E v a l u a t i o n o f a s s e t s i s o f e s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s paper w h i c h aims t o s t u d y peasant use o f w e a l t h i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y p a t t e r n s o f want s a t i s f a c t i o n , s i n c e p e a s a n t s r e c k o n w e a l t h i n terms o f a s s e t s accumulated r a t h e r t h a n money income. J u s t as p e a s a n t s p o s s e s s a d i f f e r e n t c oncept o f w e a l t h from 'modern' economic systems, a s s e t s a r e a l s o r e g a r d e d as i n c l u d i n g a f a r w i d e r range o f i t e m s than i s common i n 'modern' economies. Thus, t h e term 'asset' as used i n t h i s paper i s v e r y b r o a d l y d e f i n e d , and i s t a k e n t o s i g n i f y a n y t h i n g owned by the p e a s a n t o r any r e s o u r c e o r advantage t o w h i c h t h e peasant has a c c e s s w h i c h has economic v a l u e , even though t h i s v a l u e may n o t be r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t o r q u a n t i f i a b l e i n monetary terms. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a s s e t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s u r v e y i n c l u d e l a -bour u n i t s p e r h o u s e h o l d , l o c a t i o n o f l a n d h o l d i n g r e l a t i v e t o a c c e s s r o a d s , and h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , as w e l l as . 58 the more o b v i o u s t a n g i b l e economic a s s e t s — h o u s e s and t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t s , d o m e s t i c and p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s , and c r o p s and l i v e s t o c k . T a b l e 5 shows th e t o t a l c r o p and d o m e s t i c a n i m a l a s s e t s h e l d by t h e e i g h t e e n households i n t h e sample, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s i z e o f l a n d h o l d i n g s w h i c h can a l s o be r e g a r d e d as an a s s e t . The c r o p and a n i m a l s t a t i s t i c s r e f e r t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e from October 1967 t o September 1968, t h a t i s , from i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the 1967 maize h a r v e s t t o t h e 1968 h a r v e s t . The maize c y c l e was s e l e c t e d as t h e b a s e l i n e f o r a n n u a l e s t i m a t e s o f a l l d a t a r a t h e r t h a n sugar cane, the o t h e r main f i e l d c r o p , s i n c e f i e l d s u r v e y s i n d i c a t e t h a t d e s p i t e t h e r e c e n t i n c r e a s e s i n c a s h - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e n e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the A r r o y o Hondo e j i d a t a r i o s grow most o f t h e maize needed f o r h o u s e h o l d consum-5 p t i o n , whereas o n l y o n e - t h i r d grow cane f o r s a l e . Households 1 and 7'on T a b l e 5 have n o t produced any maize s i n c e the cacao c o o p e r a t i v e s were o r g a n i z e d i n 1959, s i n c e revenue from t h e s a l e o f cacao i s s u f f i c i e n t t o e n a b l e them t o buy a l l t h e f o o d r e q u i r e d by the h o u s e h o l d . S i m i l a r l y , house-h o l d s 3 , 4 , 6, 14 and 1 7 — a l l o f w h i c h are cane growers, have n o t grown any maize s i n c e t h e y became i n v o l v e d i n c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . However, th e r e m a i n i n g 11 households i n c l u d i n g c ash I n the a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e 1967-1968, 56 e j i d a t a r i o s i n A r r o y o Hondo were growing cane f o r s a l e t o the sugar m i l l on 261 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d . I n f o r m a t i o n v o l u n t e e r e d by the I n g e n i o S a n t a R o s a l i a , Cardenas, June 196 8. TABLE 5 CONTROL SAMPLE-CROPS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS (September 1967-August 1968) House-hold Sam-ple Size of Holding (Hectares) Acahual [1] (Low Rota-tion Scrub (Hectares) Monte (High Rotation Forest (Hectares) Milpa Maize Clearings (Hectares) [2] Beans (Hec-tares) Sugar Cane (Hec-tares) Rice (Hec-tares ) Natural Pasture (Hectares) (Hectares (h) or trees (t) i n production) (Average yearl v total) Turkeys (t) Cacao Coffee Bananas Horses Cattle Pigs Chickens (c) 1 12 2 - - - - - 4 6(h) - - - 20 4 80 (c) 2 11 1 1 *k k - - - 3% i n cacao, coffee _ 2 20 (c) and bananas(h) 3 11 Ik - - - 8 - - 1(h) kW - - -4 9 - 1 - - 7 - - 1,500 1,500 800(t) _ _ 15 (c) (t) (t) 4 (t) 5 12 4 2 1 k 1 - 2 800 - - l _ - 3 50 (c) (estimate) (t) 15 (t) 6 12 - - - - 10 - - 2(h) - - - - 4 15(c) 7 12 - - - - - - - 2 ,251 891 2,404(t) l _ 7 300(c) (t) (t) 8 12 ik - Ik - 5 - 2 - 300 300(h) - 18 1 100(c) • (h) 9 10 ik 2 2 - k - - - k(.h) - - 2 50)c) 10 14 6 1 4 J, - 2 k - - - l _ _ 20 (c) 2 (t) 11 9 5 2 1 - - - - 500 tf-\ - 200(t) - - 1 10 (c) 12 10 4 - 1 - 2 - - It; 800 250 k(h) _ _ 2 _ (t) (t) 13 12 6 1 1 - - - 4 - - - l 16 1 30 (c) 14 12 4 Ik - - 4 1 - Ik kW _ _ (h) (h) 15 9 5 1 1 - - 2 1 k - - - - - 7(c) (h) 2 (t) 16 11 3 1 3 - k - 1,500 300 700(t) - - 2 16 (c) (t; (t) 17 12 5 1 - 6 - - - - - l - 2 30 (c) 18 12 2 2 1 I* -2 2 k 2 1,500 - - - - 1 12 (c) The acahual (or low rotation scrub forest) includes a variety of assorted t r o p i c a l f r u i t s such as orange, lemon, avocado, mango, coconut, palm, etc., which are consumed on m occasion by the household, but rarely sold. 2 These area totals represent two maize crops, the summer crop planted i n early May and the Fall/Winter crop planted i n late September. The only a g r i c u l t u r a l implements used are the digging-stick (for seeding) and the hoe, machete and spade (for preparing the land and weeding). No insecticides or f e r t i l i z e r s are used and yields per hectare are low, rarely exceeding one ton. Cash-crop production of maize i s r e s t r i c t e d largely by the peasant's lack of adequate storage f a c i l i t i e s , and i n many cases the store put by for the family i s eaten by rodents or grows fungus before i t can be consumed. 60 c r o p p r o d u c e r s r e g u l a r l y c u l t i v a t e m l l p a (maize c l e a r i n g s ) , and t h e i r economic h o r i z o n s are s t i l l p r i m a r i l y f o c u s s e d on t h e maize c y c l e . I n t h e case o f households 5, 8, 12 and 18 who produce c a s h - c r o p s as w e l l as m a i z e , the c u l t i v a t i o n o f maize may be m o t i v a t e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependence on t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e c r o p r a t h e r than by economic n e c e s s i t y , s i n c e t h e h o u s e h o l d heads a l l showed g r e a t a l a r m when asked i f they would c o n s i d e r d e v o t i n g a l l t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o c a s h - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n and abandoning maize c u l t i v a t i o n c o m p l e t e l y . The head o f h o u s e h o l d 8 made t h i s p o i n t v i v i d l y as f o l l o w s -Even though we have 5 h e c t a r e s o f cane now I w i l l n e v e r abandon my m l l p a . You c a n ' t l i v e on 'sugar cane can you? What would happen i f they won't buy my cane any more? I don't t r u s t t h o s e o l d goats i n t h e sugar m i l l ; t h a t ' s j u s t t h e s o r t o f t h i n g t h e y would d o — c u t me o f f w i t h o u t a c e n t . Anyway, we've always grown mai z e , we l i v e from maize, i f we don't have maize we don't have any-t h i n g . We've got t o f e e d t h e a n i m a l s t o o . Buy maize? — n o I'd never buy maize. How do you know th e y a r e n ' t c h e a t i n g you on t h e p r i c e . The o n l y r i g h t way i s f o r a man t o have h i s own m l l p a , then he's s e c u r e , he can s t a n d on h i s own f e e t ... he's a man. 6 Domestic a n i m a l s supplement f a m i l y income and a c t as i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e f u t u r e h a r d s h i p s and unex-p e c t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s . Up u n t i l two y e a r s ago e v e r y h o u s e h o l d owned h o u s e h o l d owned some p o u l t r y f o r i t i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e t o f e e d and even th e p o o r e s t households were a b l e t o have a c o u p l e o f c h i c k e n s t o f a l l back on. However, the I n t e r v i e w w i t h F r e d e r i c o Lopez V e l a z q u e z , September 8 t h , 1968. 61 number o f households w i t h p o u l t r y and the number o f p o u l t r y p e r h o u s e h o l d has d e c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e t h a t d a t e due t o r e c u r r e n t o u t b r e a k s o f f o w l p e s t , w h i c h has c o n s i d e r a b l y i n -c r e a s e d t h e p o o r e r p e a s a n t s ' o p e r a t i n g r i s k s . I n p a r t i c u l a r egg p r o d u c t i o n has been a f f e c t e d w h i c h f o r m e r l y p r o v i d e d s m a l l b u t r e g u l a r c a s h income, s i n c e eggs a r e n e a r l y always s o l d r a t h e r t h a n consumed by the h o u s e h o l d because o f the h i g h p r i c e p e r egg i n Tabasco, (60 Mexican c e n t s p e r e g g ) . Ownership o f p i g s , c a t t l e and h o r s e s i s more r e s t r i c t e d because purchase r e q u i r e s i n i t i a l c a p i t a l , and o n l y t h e w e a l t h i e r h o u s e h o l d s can a f f o r d any a p p r e c i a b l e number. The s t a t i s t i c s q uoted f o r l i v e s t o c k r e p r e s e n t p e a s a n t e s t i m a t e s o f t h e average number o f d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s owned d u r i n g t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r . The f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r h o r s e s , c a t t l e ' and p i g s a r e a c c u r a t e , and t h e pe a s a n t s a r e w e l l aware o f the exact.number o f t h e s e v a l u a b l e a n i m a l s t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s . However, t h e c h i c k e n e s t i m a t e s a r e e x t r e m e l y rough, e s p e c i a l l y where l a r g e r numbers a r e i n v o l v e d , s i n c e many p e a s a n t s do not b o t h e r t o count t h e e x a c t number, ( i f i n d e e d t h e y can count t h a t h i g h ) , and i n any case t h e number f l u c t u a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r depending on h o u s e h o l d needs. T a b l e 6 s p e c i f i e s t h e number o f u n i t s o f a d u l t male l a b o u r p e r h o u s e h o l d . T h i s 'asset' i s c r i t i c a l t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y o f f i e l d c r o p s such as maize and cane, i n w h i c h t h e amount o f l a n d a p e a s a n t can p l a n t i s e s s e n t i a l l y dependent on t h e amount he can c l e a r o f the f o r e s t o r s c r u b v e g e t a t i o n . Thus, households w i t h the g r e a t e s t number o f a d u l t 62 TABLE 6 CONTROL SAMPLE-LABOUR UNITS PER HOUSEHOLD Household Sample U n i t s o f A d u l t Male Labour p e r Household 11] Household Sample U n i t s o f A d u l t Male Labour p e r Household 1 3 10 3 2 3 11 3 3 2 12 1 4 4 13 1 5 1 14 3 6 2 15 1 7 4 16 2 8 1 17 3 9 2 18 1 Youths over 16 y e a r s o f age are r e g a r d e d as a d u l t m a les. male l a b o u r u n i t s w i l l be a b l e t o c l e a r and p l a n t p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more l a n d and c o n s e q u e n t l y w i l l p o s s e s s more c r o p a s s e t s . The extended f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n e x h i b i t e d by many households o f t e n , i n c r e a s e s the number o f l a b o u r u n i t s p e r h o u s e h o l d and i s thus r e g a r d e d as an advantage r a t h e r t h a n a burden. T a b l e 7 summarizes d a t a on house l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o a c c e s s roads and house appointments i n terms o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , w a t e r s o u r c e and o u t b u i l d i n g s . House l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o r o a d a c c e s s i s a l s o c r i t i c a l t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , as i t i s the dominant i n f l u e n c e as t o whether o r n o t c a s h - c r o p s can be c u l t i -v a t e d by t h e h o u s e h o l d (See p a r a g r a p h 3, page 3 0 ) . Thus, house l o c a t i o n can l o g i c a l l y be r e g a r d e d as an a s s e t s i n c e i t i s , as i s l a b o u r u n i t s — " ( a ) r e s o u r c e o r advantage t o w h i c h the p e a s a n t 7 has a c c e s s w h i c h has economic v a l u e . " The house i t s e l f i s o b v i o u s l y a m a t e r i a l a s s e t , and the assessment of age and s t a t e o f r e p a i r , t o g e t h e r w i t h the des-c r i p t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s used, i n t e r i o r room p a r t i t i o n -i n g , w a t e r s o u r c e and o u t b u i l d i n g s , p r o v i d e s b o t h an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e . v a l u e o f the house and t h e w e a l t h o f t h e o c c u p a n t s . T a b l e s 8 and 10 must be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , s i n c e T a b l e 8 i s a key o u t l i n i n g t h e p o i n t v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o d o m e s t i c a s s e t s , w h i c h are t o t a l l e d i n T a b l e 10 t o show the v a r i a t i o n bwtween the sample households i n t y p e , q u a n t i t y and 1 value* o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s . The p o i n t r a n k i n g o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 8 i s w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f the u t i l i t a r i a n See d e f i n i t i o n , page 57. TABLE 7 CONTROL SAMPLE-HOUSE LOCATION AND APPOINTMENTS House-hold Sample House Lo c a t i o n Age of House (Years) State of Repair Roofing Walls F l o o r s Windows Doors Rooms Water Source O u t b u i l d i n g s Km from Trunkroad Km from Accessroad 1 0 _ 3 E x c e l l e n t Aluminum Concrete b r i c k Cement 2 R u s t i c wooden 3(wooden par- Well w i t h R u s t i c k i t c h e n and 2 t i t i o n s ) hand pump 2 k by - 8 Poor Palm thatched Cane Earth - R u s t i c wooden 2 (cane par- D i t c h R u s t i c k i t c h e n and footpath t i t i o n s ) r u s t i c barn 3 2 0 9 Very poor Palm thatched Cane Ear t h - R u s t i c wooden 2 (cane par- Well New concrete b r i c k l a r g e holes t i t i o n s ) house under construe) 4 3 0 5 Very good Aluminum(crops Cane ( f r o n t E a r t h 2 2 R u s t i c 3 ( s o l i d wood Well w i t h R u s t i c k i t c h e n s t o r e d under w a l l wood wooden p a r t i t i o n s ) hand pump roof) faced) 5 4 1 by f o o t - 12 Very poor Palm thatched Cane Ear t h - - 1 Creek ^km R u s t i c k i t c h e n path mostly holes away" 6 2 h 3 E x c e l l e n t Aluminum Concrete b r i c k Cement 2 Cement porch 1 ( r u s t i c W e l l , w i t h R u s t i c barn cooking exten.) hand pump 7 3 1 by jeep 4 E x c e l l e n t Aluminum Concrete b r i c k Cement 2 Cement 4(cement Well w i t h R u s t i c k i t c h e n t r a i l veranda p a r t i t i o n s hand pump 8 2k k 7 F a i r Palm thatched Cane Earth - 2 c u r t a i n s , 1 Creek ^km -1 cane door away 9 2 1 by f o o t - 3 Very poor Palm thatched Cane Earth - R u s t i c wooden 1 Well -path 10 4 lk by f o o t - 8 F a i r Palm thatched Cane Earth - R u s t i c wooden 1 Creek a t R u s t i c k i t c h e n and path back door barn 11 0 - 5 Good Palm thatched Cane Ear t h - C u r t a i n s 3(cane par- Lake ^km R u s t i c k i t c h e n t i t i o n s away 12 1 0 6 F a i r Aluminum Cane ( f r o n t Earth 1 R u s t i c wooden 2(wood par- Well R u s t i c k i t c h e n and w a l l wood t i t i o n s ) barn faced) 13 5 2 by f o o t - 8 Very poor Palm thatched Cane Earth - - 1 Creek t h r o - -path (mud) ugh back door 14 % 0 3 Very good Aluminum Concrete b r i c k Cement 2 R u s t i c wooden 3(cement Well w i t h R u s t i c k i t c h e n p a r t i t i o n s hand pump 15 IH by - 7 Poor Palm thatched Cane Earth - - 1 Swamp -path i n swamp 16 0 _ 3 Good Palm thatched Cane Earth - R u s t i c wooden 3(cane par- Drain R u s t i c k i t c h e n and t i t i o n s ) barn 17 2 0 4 Very good Cement t i l e s Concrete b r i c k Cement 2 R u s t i c wooden 3(cement Well w i t h R u s t i c k i t c h e n and p l a s t e r p a r t i t i o n s ) hand pump 18 H by - 9 F a i r Palm thatched Cane Earth - C u r t a i n 1 Well -jeep t r a i l Pi 64 TABLE 8 CONTROL SAMPLE-POINT VALUES FOR RANKING OF DOMESTIC ASSETS (See T a b l e 10) P o i n t V a l u e s U t i l i t a r i a n Items P r e s t i g e Items 6 R e f r i g e r a t o r 5 Gas s t o v e Bed ( s t o r e bought) 4 Bed (home-made wooden w i t h s t o r e - b o u g h t m a t t r e s s ) Sewing machine B i c y c l e T a b l e k n i f e 3 Bed ( w i t h o u t s t o r e -bought m a t t r e s s ) C h a i r ( s t o r e bought) T a b l e ( s t o r e bought) Saucepan T a b l e f o r k C a s s e r o l e Radio Gun 2 T a b l e ( r u s t i c ) P e t r o l lamp Wic k e r b a s k e t S h e l v e s Cupboard Hammock Aluminum b u c k e t J u g C u r t a i n Table-spoon 1 C h a i r ( r u s t i c ) Bench Reed s l e e p i n g mat C l o t h e s s t o r a g e box R u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e (fogon) Earthenware o r alum-'"' inum c o o k i n g p o t Earthenware o r alum-inum bowl Mug o r cup P l a t e P l a s t i c b u c k e t 6 5 TABLE 9 AVERAGE RETAIL PRICE OF SELECTED 'PRESTIGE' ITEMS QUOTED BY CARDENAS STORE KEEPERS (August 196 8) P o i n t V a l u e Item R e t a i l P r i c e $ Mex. 6 R e f r i g e r a t o r 3,500 5 Gas s t o v e 900 5 Cupboard 500 5 Box s p r i n g bed 1,200 4 F o l d i n g m e t a l frame bed w i t h m a t t r e s s 700 4 B i c y c l e 400-700 3 C h a i r ( k i t c h e n ) 100 3 T a b l e ( k i t c h e n ) 600 3 Radio ( t r a n s i s t o r ) 250 3 C l o c k (alarm) 90 3 Gun 300 3 P i s t o l 120 66 TABLE 10 CONTROL SAMPLE-HOUSEHOLD RANKINGS OF DOMESTIC ASSETS Household Data P o i n t Sample ( P o i n t Ranking i n B r a c k e t s ) T o t a l 4 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 4 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s -t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 cupboard ( 2 ) , 1 s e t s h e l v e s ( 2 ) , 4 hammocks ( 8 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 4 s t o r a g e boxes ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 4 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 4 ) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t (2) , 2 c a s s e r o l e d i s h e s ( 6 ) , 2 p l a t e s ( 2 ) , 4 mugs ( 4 ) , 2 spoons ( 4 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) , 1 b i c y c l e (4) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 70 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s -t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 5 hammocks (10) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 3 s t o r a g e boxes ( 3 ) , 1 w i c k e r b a s k e t ( 2 ) , 2 c u r t a i n s ( 4 ) , 3 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s (3) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t ( 2 ) , 4 p l a t e s ( 4 ) , 2 mugs ( 2 ) , 1 spoon ( 2 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) . 42 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 cupboard ( 2 ) , 1 s e t s h e l v e s ( 2 ) , 3 hammocks ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c cook-i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 e a r t h e n c o o k i n g p o t ( 1 ) , 2 aluminum bowls ( 2 ) , 1 j u g ( 2 ) , 4 p l a t e s (4) , 4 mugs ( 4 ) , 2 spoons ( 4 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) . 44 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 cupboard ( 2 ) , 1 cupboard ( 2 ) , 1 s e t s h e l v e s ( 2 ) , 4 hammocks ( 8 ) , 4 s t o r a g e boxes ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 mug ( 1 ) , 3 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 3 ) , 1 j u g ( 2 ) , 1 s l e e p i n g mat ( 1 ) . 40 67 TABLE 10 - c o n t i n u e d . 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 s t o r a g e box ( 1 ) , 2 e a r t h e n c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 p l a t e (1) , 1 mug ( 1 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) . 20 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e (2) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 p e t -r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 4 hammocks ( 8 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e (1) , 2 s t o r a g e boxes (2) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t (2) , 4 mugs ( 4 ) , 4 spoons ( 8 ) , 1 saucepan (3) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 57 4 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 4 ) , 4 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 1 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 4 hammocks ( 8 ) , 1 cupboard ( 2 ) , 2 s e t s s h e l v e s ( 4 ) , 2 s t o r a g e boxes ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed w i t h s t o r e - b o u g h t m a t t r e s s ( 4 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t bed ( 5 ) , 2 p e t r o l lamps ( 4 ) , 5 mugs ( 5 ) , 2 cups ( 2 ) , 2 t a b l e k n i v e s ( 8 ) , 6 p l a t e s ( 6 ) , 4 f o r k s ( 1 2 ) , 8 spoons ( 1 6 ) , 2 s l e e p -i n g mats ( 2 ) , 2 b i c y c l e s ( 8 ) , 2 r a d i o s ( 6 ) , 4 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 4 ) , 2 ju g s ( 4 ) , 1 aluminum bowl ( 1 ) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t ( 2 ) , 1 c a s s e r o l e ( 3 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 142 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r -age box ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 cup ( 1 ) , 1 spoon ( 2 ) , 1 s l e e p i n g mat ( 1 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) . 12 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 4 s t o r a g e boxes ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 2 mugs ( 2 ) , 2 p l a t e s ( 2 ) , 2 spoons ( 4 ) , 4 s l e e p i n g mats ( 4 ) , 3 aluminum cook-i n g p o t s ( 3 ) , 1 j u g ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) . 33 68 TABLE 10 - c o n t i n u e d . 10 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 3 hammocks ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 3 s t o r a g e boxes ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 2 e a r t h e r n c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 2 mugs ( 2 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 4 s l e e p i n g mats ( 4 ) . 31 11 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 4 hammocks ( 8 ) , 1 s e t s h e l v e s ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r a g e boxes ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e (1) , 4 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 j u g ( 2 ) , 6 mugs ( 6 ) , 2 p l a t e s (2) , 3 spoons ( 6 ) , 5 s l e e p i n g mats ( 5 ) , 1 w i c k e r b a s k e t ( 2 ) , 2 c u r t a i n s ( 4 ) . 57 12 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 1 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 1 cupboard ( 2 ) , 1 s e t s h e l v e s ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r a g e box ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) . 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 saucepan ( 3 ) , 2 aluminum cook-i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 2 p l a t e s ( 2 ) , 2 mugs ( 2 ) , 1 spoon ( 2 ) , 3 s l e e p i n g mats ( 3 ) . 44 13 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 4 s t o r a g e boxes (4) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , I mug ( 1 ) , 1 spoon ( 2 ) , 6 s l e e p i n g mats ( 6 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t (1) . 25 14 4 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 4 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 4 hammocks ( 8 ) , 1 cupboard ( 2 ) , 2 s e t s h e l v e s ( 4 ) , 4 s t o r -age boxes ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed w i t h s t o r e - b o u g h t m a t t r e s s ( 4 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 4 mugs ( 4 ) , 4 p l a t e s ( 4 ) , 2 f o r k s ( 6 ) , 4 spoons ( 8 ) , 4 s l e e p i n g mats ( 4 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t (2) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 3 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s (3) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 1 j u g ( 2 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 79 15 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 1 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r a g e boxes ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 3 s l e e p i n g mats ( 3 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s C2), 13 69 TABLE 10 - c o n t i n u e d . 16 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 1 s e t s h e l v e s ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r a g e boxes ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed w i t h store-bought, m a t t r e s s ( 4 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 3 mugs ( 3 ) , 2 p l a t e s ( 2 ) , 3 spoons ( 6 ) , 1 p l a s t i c buc-k e t ( 1 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 j u g (2) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) , 2 c u r t a i n s (4) , 1 saucepan ( 3 ) . 52 17 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e (3) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 1 cupboard (2) 2 s e t s h e l v e s ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e (1) , 2 p e t r o l lamps ( 4 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t bed (5) , 4 mugs ( 4 ) , 4 p l a t e s ( 4 ) , 4 spoons (4) , 4 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 4 ) , 2 r a d i o s (6) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 4 s l e e p i n g mats ( 4 ) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 1 saucepan ( 3 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 76 18 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 1 s e t s h e l v e s ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r -age boxes ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 r u s -t i c c o o k i n g s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 mug ( 1 ) , 2 p l a t e s (2) , 1 spoon ( 2 ) , 1 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t ( 1 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 s l e e p i n g mat ( 1 ) . 27 70 and p r e s t i g e v a l u e awarded t o do m e s t i c a s s e t s by t h e pe a s a n t s t h e m s e l v e s . The p r e s t i g e i t e m s a r e n o t r e g a r d e d as b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s f o r a ' t o l e r a b l e * l i f e by peasant s t a n d a r d s , b u t as l u x u r i e s e v i d e n c i n g a w e a l t h y h o u s e h o l d . C o n s e q u e n t l y th e s e i t e m s a r e awarded a h i g h p o i n t r a n k i n g i n t h i s assessment. S i m i l a r l y , i t e m s w i t h a h i g h u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e a r e a l s o g i v e n h i g h r a n k i n g . The low r a n k i n g i t e m s a r e thos e r e g a r d e d as r e l -a t i v e l y e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s by the p e a s a n t s . T a b l e 9 g i v e s average r e t a i l p r i c e s quoted by Cardenas s t o r e -k e e p e r s f o r s e l e c t e d p r e s t i g e i t e m s . T a b l e 10 f a c i l i t a t e s t he r a p i d assessment o f the w e a l t h o f a hou s e h o l d i n terms o f do m e s t i c a s s e t s a c cumulated, (the w e a l t h i e r the h o u s e h o l d the h i g h e r the p o i n t t o t a l a s s i g n e d ) , and p r o v i d e s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a l a t e r assessment o f wants w i t h r e s p e c t t o domesti c a s s e t s w h i c h w i l l be i n f e r r e d from t h e a s s e t p a t t e r n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t a b l e . T a b l e 11 summarizes ' i n t a n g i b l e * a s s e t s r e l a t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n — l i t e r a c y and h e a l t h , and i n c l u d e s a l i s t o f r e c r e a t i o n s e n j o y e d by each h o u s e h o l d w h i c h i s a good i n d i c a t o r o f the c u l t u r a l q u a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g two columns i t e m i z e t h e number o f changes o f c l o t h -i n g and p a i r s o f shoes p e r h o u s e h o l d member, w h i c h a r e m a t e r i a l a s s e t s e v i d e n c i n g the w e a l t h o f the ho u s e h o l d . The number o f p a i r s o f shoes p e r h o u s e h o l d member i s a l s o d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the h e a l t h o f t h e f a m i l y i n many c a s e s , s i n c e p a r a s i t e s such as hookworm are c o n t r a c t e d by w a l k i n g b a r e f o o t i n t r o p i c a l r e g i o n s , TABLE 11 CONTROL SAMPLE-QUALITY OF POPULATION, SELECTED EXAMPLES House- Literacy Health of No. of Pairs of Recre-hold Sample Husband Wife Family Changes of Clothing Shoes per Household Member ations 1 c/d d u(13),v (1) ,y (1) H-l,W-1 — i , j ,l,m 2 b d u(6) ,z(l) H-3,W-2 H-2 m,o 3 c (head) c u(l) W-2 ,C1-5 c2-3,c3-3 cl-4,c2-l C3-1 i,k,1 ,m n ,o ,p 4 c d u(4) ,w(l) z(l) H-2,W-1 C-l H-l j ,m,p 5 c c u(6) H-l,W-0 H-l i , 1 ,m 6 c d u(3) ,z (1) H-2 H-l 1,m,o,p 7 a • u(l) H-3,C1-5 C2-4 ,c3-4 H-2,C1-4 C2-2,C3-2 i,k, 1 ,m n ,o ,p 8 c/d d u(2) ,x(l) H-2,W-2 H-l — 9 c d u(7) ,v(l) H-l — j ,m 10 c c u(10) ,z (1) H-l — i.P 11 b c u(4) H-2,W-1 H-2,W-1 k,1,m,o P 12 b c z (2) H-4,W-4 Cl-2 H-2,W-2 Cl-1 i,k,1 ,m n ,o ,p 13 d d u(9) ,z(4) H-l — — 14 b d u(2) ,w(l) H-3,W-2 ci-i H-2,W-1 ci-i 1 ,m ,o ,p 15 c/d c/d u(8) — — — 16 c c/d z (3) H-2,W-1 H-l i , j ,o 17 c d u(3) ,y (1) H-3,W-2 C1-3 H-2,W-1 Cl-2 i,k,1,m P 18 b c/d z(2) H-3,W-3 H-2,W-2 i,k,1,m P Coding Key for Sample of Quality of Population: H - Husband, W - Wife, C - Children Literacy a - reads and writes fluently b - reads and writes with average competence c - reads and writes haltingly c/d - reads ha l t i n g l y , writes name only d - i l l i t e r a t e Health u - parasites v - anaemia w - malaria x - chronic bronchitus y - T.B. z - sickness unidentified Recreations i - l i s t e n to radio j - read Bible and rel i g i o u s books k - read magazines or newspapers 1 - go to cinema m - rel i g i o u s or national fie s t a s n - sports (baseball, fo o t b a l l participation) o - walk to town p - drinking 7 2 and t h e r e i s a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between the number o f house-h o l d members who do n o t wear shoes and the number w i t h p a r a s i t e s . L i t e r a c y , h e a l t h and r e c r e a t i o n s are c o d i f i e d t o f a c i l -i t a t e , i n t e r - h o u s e h o l d comparisons. The v a r i o u s components, i n c l u d e d under ' q u a l i t y of population1 can thus a l l be r e g a r d e d as a s s e t s i n t h a t they are a d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n o f w e a l t h , o r a r e i n some way r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y . H e a l t h i n p a r t i c u l a r can be r e g a r d e d as a d i r e c t economic a s s e t s i n c e poor h e a l t h i s e x t r e m e l y l i k e l y t o be r e f l e c t e d i n low a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . L i t e r a c y , and r e c r e a t i o n as an i n d e x o f c u l t u r a l ' q u a l i t y ' , have more tenuous l i n k s w i t h economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Income Cash income i s d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from th e s a l e o f c r o p s , e i t h e r c a s h - c r o p s o r s u r p l u s e s above b a s i c s u b s i s t a n c e r e q u i r e -ments. Some a d d i t i o n a l income i s o b t a i n e d from the s a l e o f l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c e , b u t t h e s a l e o f p o u l t r y and eggs i s now r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t due t o the r e c e n t o u t b r e a k s o f f o w l - p e s t . A g r i c u l t u r a l wage l a b o u r i s a n o t h e r supplement t o h o u s e h o l d income, but t h i s i s v e r y s p o r a d i c and i s o n l y under-t a k e n i n the months o f J u l y and August when the p e a s a n t s have l i t t l e work i n t h e i r own l a n d p a r c e l s , o r when ready cash i s d e s p e r a t e l y needed t o meet some emergency. I n the h o u s e h o l d sample o n l y two h o u s e h o l d s , numbers 7 and 13, r e c e i v e d any cash income from a g r i c u l t u r a l wage l a b o u r , and i n b o t h cases e a r n i n g s d i d n o t exceed $300 Mexican and t h e work was u n d e r t a k e n by youn-ger sons who wanted t o o b t a i n p o c k e t money and thus d i d n o t e n t e r i n t o t h e h o u s e h o l d budget. A s m a l l number o f households i n the e j i d o supplement t h e i r c a s h income w i t h money earned from p a r t - t i m e employment i n nonTagricultural work as s k i l l e d a r t i s a n s — c a r p e n t e r s , t i l e r s i b l a c k s m i t h s , e t c . The head of h o u s e h o l d number 13 earns between $1,000 and $1,500 (Mexican) i n a y e a r from spare time work as a t i l e r , w h i c h adds c o n s i d e r a b l y t o h i s meagre income from t h e s a l e o f s u r p l u s s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l produce. F i n a l l y , s e v e r a l s m a l l money-making e n t e r p r i s e s are u n d e r t a k e n by the women. The w i v e s i n households 2 and 10 s e l l t o r t i l l a s t o t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s ; t h e w i f e i n h o u s e h o l d 11 s e l l s garden p r o d u c t s such as c h i l e , f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s i n Cardenas a,nd t h e w i f e i n h o u s e h o l d 1 has a sewing machine and makes up c l o t h e s t o o r d e r . However o n l y the seamstress e a r n s more th a n $100 (Mexican) from t h i s s p a r e time work T a b l e 12 c o n t a i n s e s t i m a t e s o f c a s h income earned from the s a l e o f c r o p s and d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s and t h e i r produce d u r i n g the 1967-1968 a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e , (October 1967-September 1968). The f i g u r e s quoted f o r income r e c e i v e d from c r o p s a l e are gener-a l l y a c c u r a t e t o w i t h i n $50 ( M e x i c a n ) , however no s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d be computed f o r income from t h e s a l e o f d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s due t o t h e v e r y rough n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5. I n any c a s e , t h e r e a r i n g o f d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s f o r s a l e i s n o t a r e g u l a r commercial e n t e r p r i s e i n any o f t h e sample h o u s e h o l d s , as t h e a n i m a l s a r e k i l l e d and s o l d o n l y when emergencies o r u n f o r s e e n e x p e n d i t u r e s a r i s e . Even h o u s e h o l d 7, w h i c h owns 300 TABLE 12 CONTROL SAMPLE-ESTIMATES OF CASH INCOME EARNED FROM SALE OF CROPS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS, 1967-68 House-hold Sample Cacao (Amount Sold in Kilos) (Cash fron sale in $ Mexican[1] Cane (Amount Sold in tons) (Cash from sale i n $ Mex. [2] Maize (Amount Sold i n Kilos) (Cash from sale in $ Mex. [3] Bananas (Amount Sold i n Kilos Cash from Sale i n $ Mex. [3] Coffee (Amount Sold in Kilos) Cash from Sale in $ Mex. [3] Rice (Amount Sold i n Kilos Cash from Sale in $ Mex. [3] Eggs No. Cash from Sale i n $ Mex. [3] Total Cash Income Earned $ Mexican 1 1,000 5,000 - - - - - ! - - - - 65 39 5,039 2 800 4,000 - - 300 165 1,800 360 - - - - - - 4,525 3 50 250 960 21,510 - - 500 100 - - - - - - 21,860 4 650 3,250 840 18,900 - - 2 ,000 400 - - - - - - 22 ,550 5 500 2 ,500 120 2 ,700 - - - - - - - - - - 5 ,200 6 80 400 1,000 22,500 - - - - - - - - - - 22,900 7 2 ,217 .1,087 - - - - 3,628 726 400 3,200 - - 200 120 15,133 8 - - 600 13,500 50 28 200 40 100 800 - - 60 36 14,404 9 - - - - 150 83 500 100 - - 250 175 - - 358 10 - - - - 300 165 - - - - 1,000 700 - - 865 11 350 1,750 - - - - 150 30 - - - - - - 1,780 12 550 2,750 300 6 ,750 - - 500 100 100 800 - - - - 10,400 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1,000 14 1,200 6 ,000 600 13 ,500 - - 450 90 150 1,200 500 350 - - 21,140 15 50 250 - - 70 39 - - - - 2,500 1,750 - - 2,039 16 680 3,400 - - 450 248 2,500 500 100 800 - - - - 4,948 17 - - 1,080 24,300 - - - - - - - - - - 24,300 18 600 3,,000 240 5,400 - - - — - - - - - - 8,400 The standard rate of payment for one k i l o of cacao offered by the producers' cooper-ative in Cardenas i s $5 Mexican. 2 The standard rate of payment for one ton of sugar cane offered by the Tngenio Santa Rosalia i s $55 Mexican; however, net payment received per ton i s only $22.50 Mexican after deductions for transportation of the crop to the Ingenio. Average price in $ Mexican offered by Cardenas traders in August, 196 8 was: Maize, 0.55/kilo; bananas, $0.20/kilo; coffee, $8.00/kilo; r i c e , $0.70/kilo; and eggs, $0.70/egg. 7 5 c h i c k e n s , s e l l s eggs o n l y and c h i c k e n s are k i l l e d f o r d o m e s t i c consumption a l o n e . I t i s more m e a n i n g f u l t o c o n s i d e r l i v e s t o c k as i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t hunger and u n f o r s e e n e x p e n d i t u r e s r a t h e r than as a s o u r c e o f cash income. I n most cases t h e p e a s a n t s c o u l d c l e a r l y r e c a l l t h e amount o f produce s o l d i n k i l o s , t o n s , e t c . , b u t were c o m p l e t e l y unable t o c a l c u l a t e t h e cash r e c e i v e d from t h e s a l e . Thus, e s t i m a t e s o f c a s h income r e c e i v e d were o b t a i n e d by computing t h e average p r i c e p a i d by t r a d e r s p e r u n i t v a l u e o f produce and m u l t i p l y i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s by t h e s a l e q u a n t i t i e s p r o v i d e d by t h e p e a s a n t s . A l l cacao was s o l d t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n Cardenas a t a s t a n d a r d p r i c e and t h e f i g u r e s quoted check c o r r e c t l y w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s ' r e c o r d s . S i m i l a r l y , a l l cane was s o l d t o the I n g e n i o S a n t a R o s a l i a (the l o c a l sugar m i l l ) a t a c o n t r a c t e d p r i c e and a l l f i g u r e s check c o r r e c t l y . The s t a t i s t i c s g i v e n f o r m a i z e , bananas, c o f f e e and r i c e have a l e s s e r degree o f a c c u r a c y . E x p e n d i t u r e The amount o f c a s h e x p e n d i t u r e p e r h o u s e h o l d i s o b v i o u s l y d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e w e a l t h o f t h e h o u s e h o l d i n terms o f c a s h income ear n e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s are m a i n l y d e v o t e d t o a summary o f t h e p e a s a n t ' s a l l o c a t i o n o f c a s h income earn e d i n a y e a r t o v a r i o u s e x p e n d i t u r e c a t e g o r i e s . However, e x p e n d i t u r e s a l o n e cannot be r e g a r d e d as a s u f f i c i e n t i n d e x t o h o u s e h o l d w e a l t h , as c a s h income i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and i r r e g u l a r f o r the most p a r t and w e a l t h i s more t r u l y r e p r e s e n t e d by a s s e t s accumulated. Thus, i n o r d e r t o comprehend 76 t h e l o n g - t e r m e x p e n d i t u r e s o f each h o u s e h o l d i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine and e v a l u a t e a s s e t s , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t b o t h t h e sum o f p a s t e x p e n d i t u r e s and the p o t e n t i a l t o ge n e r a t e f u t u r e income and make new e x p e n d i t u r e s . The s e c t o r s under w h i c h e x p e n d i t u r e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a r e — f o o d , h e a l t h , c l o t h i n g and r e c r e a t i o n . E x p e n d i t u r e on t h e house, e i t h e r f o r maintenance o r the purchase o f f u r n i s h i n g s and a p p l i a n c e s , c o n s t i t u t e s a f i f t h c a t e g o r y , however, i t p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e t o e l i c i t a response from t h e pe a s a n t s as t o t o t a l a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . A rough e s t i m a t e can be o b t a i n e d , however, from t h e amount o f ca s h r e m a i n i n g from t h e t o t a l income earned p e r h o u s e h o l d a f t e r a l l o t h e r expenses have been deducted. T a b l e 13 i s n o t concerned w i t h a l l o c a t i o n s o f cash income w i t h i n v a r i o u s e x p e n d i t u r e c a t e g o r i e s as a r e the remain-i n g t a b l e s , b u t has been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n on e x p e n d i t u r e as a summary o f t y p i c a l d a i l y f o o d consumption, r e f l e c t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e on food w h i c h i s the major i t e m i n the e x p e n d i t u r e budgets o f a l l the households sampled. The ' t y p i c a l ' d a i l y d i e t i s t y p i c a l o f the average h o u s e h o l d , s p e n d i n g about $35-$45 (Mexican) a week on f o o d t o supplement i t s own produce. T a b l e 14 p r o v i d e s an e s t i m a t e o f weekly cash e x p e n d i t u r e on f o o d p e r h o u s e h o l d , c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e e s t i m a t e s o f ; t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f each f o o d item^ p u r c h a s e d by the average p r i c e p e r u n i t v a l u e ( u s u a l l y k i l o s ) o f f e r e d by l o c a l s t o r e -k e e p e r s . The e s t i m a t e s g i v e n f o r households 1, 3, 7, and 13 have 7 7 TABLE 13 TYPICAL DAILY DIET Time of Day Food Items 4:30 - 5:00 A.M. 7:00 - 8:00 A.M. 2:00 - 3:00 P.M. 8:00 - 9:00 P.M. C o f f e e w i t h sugar o r p o z o l [1] B r e a k f a s t : Beans o r eggs and t o r t i l l a s . C o f f e e . D i n n e r : R i c e o r g a r l i c soup o r consomme and/or stewed meat o r c h i c k e n (average 3 t i m e s i n 14 days) w i t h c h i l e s and r i c e o r t o r t i l l a s o r p a s t a ( g a r l i c o f t e n sub-s t i t u t e d f o r c h i l e s ) o r beans o r eggs w i t h t o r t i l l a s o r r i c e o r p a s t a . Occas-i o n a l l y bananas o r o n i o n s are s e r v e d as a v e g e t a b l e . P o z o l w i t h o r w i t h o u t cacao o r A t o l e de masa [ 2 ] . P o z o l - a "paste o f maize and w a t e r , p r e p a r e d by c o o k i n g maize w i t h l i m e t o form ' n i x t a m a l ' which i s ground i n a 'metate' t o form c o a r s e - g r a i n e d lumps w h i c h are soaked i n w a t e r t o form a p a s t e . P o z o l i s consumed e i t h e r ' s t r a i g h t ' w i t h s a l t o r mixed w i t h ground cacao. On f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n s fermented p o z o l may be consumed. T h i s i s p r e p a r e d by a l l o w i n g t h e p a s t e t o ferment on r o l l e d banana l e a v e s i n the h e a t o f the sun. A t o l e de masa - a g r u e l made w i t h v e r y f i n e l y ground c o r n mixed w i t h m i l k o r w a t e r . TABLE 14 CONTROL SAMPLE-ESTIMATES OF WEEKLY CASH EXPENDITURE ON FOOD ITEMS House- No. of Maize Beans Rice Sugar Pasta Egos Meat Vegetables Coffee Other To t a l hold Resi-Sample dents K i l o s $ Mex. K i l o s $ Mex. K i l o s $ Mex. K i l o s $ Mex. K i l o s $ Mex. No. $ Mex. $ Mex. $ Mex. K i l o s $ Mex. $ Mex. $ Mex. 1 13 28 29.40 7 17.50 4 11.40 3 5.40 1 2.20 6 3.60 10.00 2.00 H 3.00 3.00 87.50 2 9 14 14.70 3 7.50 - - 2 3.60 6 3.60 7.00 ? 1 6.00 6.00 47.80 3 8 35 36.75 5 12.50 5 14 .25 3 8.40 - - 15 9.00 (Ave.) 25.00 5.00 1 . 6.00 10.00 12 3.9 5 4 8 17 17.85 2 5.00 1 2.85 1% 2.70 _ _ _ 5.00 _ H 3.00 2.00 38.40 5 6 11 11.55 3 7.50 - - 1% 2.70 ? - - (Ave.) - 1 • 6.00 .40 28.15 6 5 28 29.40 3^ 8.75 9.98 3k 6.30 1 2. 20 14 8.40 12.00 3.00 1% 9.00 2.00 91.03 7 4 30 31.50 7 17.50 2 5.70 5 9.00 ? - - 20.00 (Ave.) 5.00 IH 9.00 8.00 105.70 8 2 - - 7, 1.75 - - H 0.90 - - - - 5.00 - - - 5.00 12 .65 9 8 14 14.70 - - - - 1 1.80 1.10 - - 12.00 6.00 H 3.00 2.00 40.60 10 10 10 10.50 1 2.50 - - 3% 6 . 30 1 2.20 - - - - k 3.00 ? 24.50 11 11 14 14. 70 2 15.00 2 5.70 1 1.80 - - - - 15.00 2.00 - - 7 44 . 20 12 6 7 7.35 1 2.50 1 2.85 H .90 - - - - - 3.00 - - 7 16 .60 13 9 3 3.15 J , "2 1.75 - - H .90 - - - - - - - - 7 5 . 80 14 7 ' 25 26.25 7 17.50 3 8.55 2 3.60 - - 10 6.00 20.00 2.00 H 3.00 5.00 91.90 15 8 6 6.30 1. 75 - - 2 3.60 - - - - 5.00 - 9.00 ? 25.65 16 5 10 10.50 5 12. 50 3% 9.98 Ik 2.70 1 2.20 _ _ 18.00 1.50 _ _ 5.00 52.38 17 8 29 30.45 7 17.50 1 2.85 3 5.40 - - - - (Est.) 10.00 (Est. ) Ik 9 .00 p 75.20 18 4 3 3.15 % 1. 75 - - 1 1.80 - - - - - 3.00 (Est. ) H 3.00 7 12 . 70 79 a h i g h degree o f a c c u r a c y s i n c e t h e s e f a m i l i e s were v i s i t e d d a i l y f o r a one week p e r i o d w i t h c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n o f a l l f o o d p u r c h a s e s and meal p r e p a r a t i o n . Data quoted f o r o t h e r households a r e v e r y rough e s t i m a t e s based on i n f o r m a t i o n v o l u n t e e r e d by t h e p e a s a n t s , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h shop-keepers and s p o t checks on shopping h a b i t s . I t must be emphasized t h a t t h i s weekly e s t i m a t e was un d e r t a k e n i n August 196 8 and i s v a l i d o n l y f o r t h i s month, s i n c e t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the q u a n t i t y and t y p e s of f o o d p u r c h a s e d from month t o month depending on the amount o f ready c a s h a v a i l a b l e , and the amount o f maize each h o u s e h o l d needs t o buy wh i c h i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the s t a t e o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e . However, w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the y e a r l y c y c l e , t h e r e i s an average amount o f cash a v a i l a b l e f o r f o o d e x p e n d i t u r e s i n August. The sugar m i l l (Santa R o s a l i a ) advances c r e d i t t o t h o s e p e a s a n t s w i t h cane c o n t r a c t s , and s m a l l amounts of. c a s h a r e o b t a i n e d from the s a l e o f cacao, c o f f e e and bananas d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The amount o f maize p u r c h a s e d i s p r o p o r -t i o n a l l y h i g h i n August s i n c e t h e r e i s s t i l l a month t o go b e f o r e the h a r v e s t i n g o f the summer maize c r o p , and o n l y h o u s e h o l d 8 grows enough maize f o r y e a r - l o n g d o m e s t i c consumption. The l a c k of adequate s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s p r e v e n t s the m a j o r i t y o f the p e a s a n t s from k e e p i n g t h e i r h a r v e s t e d maize f r e e from r o d e n t s and fungus, and d i s c o u r a g e s a t t e m p t s t o be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n maize. Only households 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 14, and 17 buy maize a l l y e a r round. The r e m a i n i n g households w i l l consume t h e i r own 80 produce a f t e r t h e September h a r v e s t u n t i l s u p p l i e s r u n out a g a i n . However, the t o t a l weekly e x p e n d i t u r e p e r h o u s e h o l d w i l l t e n d t o remain c o n s t a n t d e s p i t e t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f maize from the budget s i n c e t h e p e a s a n t s d i v e r s i f y t h e i r s p e n d i n g amongst the o t h e r f o o d c a t e g o r i e s . The households w h i c h purchase maize a l l y e a r round d e v i a t e v e r y l i t t l e from the f o o d e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s t a b l e . Thus, a l t h o u g h t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h i n the v a r i o u s f o o d c a t e g o r i e s are v a l i d o n l y f o r A u g u s t , the e s t i m a t e o f t o t a l w e e k l y f o o d e x p e n d i t u r e s s h o u l d be c l o s e t o the weekly average f o r t h e y e a r , and p r o v i d e s a rough g u i d e t o a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e on f o o d . T a b l e 15 summarizes t o t a l income and e x p e n d i t u r e and the c a t e g o r i e s o f o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n o f the money earn e d . These t o t a l s a r e e s t i m a t e s and s h o u l d o n l y be used as a g u i d e t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n income and e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s between th e sample h o u s e h o l d s . I n any c a s e , the income and e x p e n d i t u r e t o t a l s a r e l e s s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s t h e s i s t h a n the p r o p o r t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n o f cash between each e x p e n d i t u r e c a t e g o r y , s i n c e t h i s g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r i o r i t y wants f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n most c a s e s , (16 households out o f the sample o f 1 8 ) , f o o d i s a l l o c a t e d o v e r 50% o f t h e t o t a l h o u s e h o l d e x p e n d i t u r e and f r e -q u e n t l y a c c o u n t s f o r o v e r 80%. R e c r e a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y t h e second l a r g e s t e x p e n d i t u r e . Any s u r p l u s c a s h l e f t a f t e r t h e o t h e r e x p e n d i t u r e s have been deducted i s u s u a l l y devoted t o t h e purchase o f h o u s e h o l d 81 TABLE 15 CONTROL SAMPLE-INCOME AND EXPENDITURE TOTALS House-h o l d Sample E s t i m a t e o f T o t a l Income E s t i m a t e o f T o t a l E x p e n d i t u r e s $ .Mex. ,$ - Mex. H e a l t h C l o t h i n g R e c r e a t i o n Food T o t a l 1 5,289 250 100 300-350 4,550 5 ,225 2 4,525 100 150 50-100 2,485 2 ,810 3 21,860 - 1,000 1,500 6,445 8,945 4 22,550 300 300 400 1,995 2,995 5 5,200 50-100 150 150 1,465 1,840 6 22,900 - 100-150 700-800 4,735 5 ,610 7 15,133 - 1,800 2,000 5,495 9,295 8 14,404 300 150 - 660 1,110 9 358 - 100 150 2,110 2,360 10 865 - 50-100 200 1,275 1,550 11 1,780 350 350 500 2,300 2 ,500 12 10,400 300 600 800-1000 865 2,665 13 1,250 - 50 - 300 350 14 21,400 600 700 1,000 4,830 7,130 15 2,039 - 0-50 - 4,830 7 ,130 16 4,948 300 200 100-150 2 ,725 3,350 17 24 ,300 500 900 1,000 3 ,910 6 ,310 18 8,400 250 500 400 660 1,810 82 f u r n i s h i n g s and a p p l i a n c e s . However, i n 12 o f the sample house-h o l d s income exceeds e x p e n d i t u r e by a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y l a r g e amount. T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y can l a r g e l y be accounted f o r by t h e m e r c h a n t s 1 and t r a d e r s ' p r a c t i c e o f e x t e n d i n g c r e d i t on f u t u r e c r o p s so t h a t t h e p e a s a n t s can s u b s i s t u n t i l h a r v e s t t i m e . N a t u r a l l y t h i s arrangement i s f a r more b e n e f i c i a l t o the mer-chant t h a n t o t h e p e a s a n t as i n t e r e s t r a t e s on c r e d i t extended a r e v e r y h i g h . Thus f r e q u e n t l y , t h e p e a s a n t i s c r i p p l e d by d e b t s w h i c h he can never f u l l y pay o f f due t o h i s low a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o f i t m a r g i n , and he s i n k s i n t o debt s e r v i t u d e handing down deb t s from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , though c a s h income may appear ample t o meet e x p e n d i t u r e needs, a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e cash r e c e i v e d from c r o p s a l e has t o be immed-i a t e l y a l l o c a t e d f o r debt repayment. Summary of T a b l e s The c l e a r e s t way t o summarize the meaning o f t h e d a t a on income, a s s e t s and e x p e n d i t u r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i s t o c o r r e l a t e the t a b l e s i n o r d e r t o i n f e r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between th e s e l e c t e d components o f the p e a s a n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system. F i g u r e 1 i s a summary diagram t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s i g n i -f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between th e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s t a b l e s . The economic system o p e r a t e s i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: a s s e t s produce income w h i c h r e s u l t s i n e x p e n d i t u r e s t h u s p r o -Diagram 1 - Control Sample: Summary Diagram Indicating Relationships Within the Peasant Economic System ASSETS INCOME 'EXPENDITURES LAND LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY LAND ASSETS DOMESTIC ASSETS CROPS LABOUR UNITS CASH INCOME NON - FOOD EXPENDITURES QUALITY OF POPULATION (HEALTH.EDUCATION) FOOD EXPENDITURES 84 d u c i n g a s s e t s . Thus t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the p e a s a n t ' s l a n d by t r u c k t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e number o f a d u l t male l a b o u r u n i t s i n the h o u s e h o l d , w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e amount o f l a n d t h a t can be c u l t i v a t e d and c o n s e q u e n t l y the q u a n t i t y and t y p e o f c r o p s p r o -duced. The v a l u e o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s accumulated i n f l u e n c e s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n terms o f t h e h e a l t h and educa-t i o n a l l e v e l o f each h o u s e h o l d , w h i c h a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t s t h e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . The q u a n t i t y and t y p e o f c r o p s produced, ( s u b s i s t e n c e o r c a s h c r o p s ) , o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e amount o f cash income earned by t h e p e a s a n t house-h o l d , w h i c h i s expended on f o o d and non-food i t e m s w i t h p r o -p o r t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e between t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s depending on t h e amount of f o o d produced by the h o u s e h o l d f o r d o m e s t i c consumption. The amount o f e x p e n d i t u r e on f o o d feeds back t o i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a l i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f t h e h o u s e h o l d l a b o u r u n i t s . Ex-p e n d i t u r e on non-food items r e s u l t s i n the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f domes-t i c and p e r s o n a l a s s e t s w h i c h a l s o f e eds back t o i n f l u e n c e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y . Thus th e w e a l t h i e s t households t e n d t o be t h o s e w i t h easy t r u c k a c c e s s and s e v e r a l a d u l t male l a b o u r u n i t s , who can c u l t i v a t e enough l a n d t o t a k e f u l l advantage o f c a s h - c r o p o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Cash income i s c o n s e q u e n t l y h i g h and more money can be s p e n t on f o o d and non-food i t e m s . The impact o f t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s can be seen d i r e c t l y i n t h e amount o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s accumulated and l e s s d i r e c t l y i n the h e a l t h and edu-c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s . 85 An example o f a w e a l t h y h o u s e h o l d i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s h o u s e h o l d number 14 i n t h e sample. T h i s h o u s e h o l d has 4 a d u l t male l a b o u r u n i t s and i s l o c a t e d on a paved a c c e s s r o a d o n l y h a l f a k i l o m e t e r from the main t r u n k r o a d . These f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the amount and t y p e o f c r o p s produced by t h e h o u s e h o l d — 4 h e c t a r e s o f sugar cane, 1 h e c t a r e o f r i c e and 2 and a h a l f h e c t a r e s o f cane, cacao and bananas i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e from F a l l 1967 t o F a l l 196 8. A t o t a l o f (Mexican) $21, 140 was o b t a i n e d from t h e s a l e o f t h e s e cash c r o p s o f w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4,830 was s p e n t on f o o d , $1,000 on r e c r e a t i o n s , $700 on c l o t h i n g and $600 on m e d i c a l expenses. The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l o n g - t e r m e x p e n d i t u r e s on d o m e s t i c and house a s s e t s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e above-average p o i n t t o t a l o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s accumulated (79 p o i n t s ) , and i n t h e c o n c r e t e - b r i c k 'modern' house b u i l t t h r e e y e a r s ago. The h i g h e x p e n d i t u r e on f o o d and non-food i t e m s a l s o appears t o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e h o u s e h o l d w h i c h i s w e l l above average and has a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p o o r e r households t e n d t o be t h o s e a c c e s s -i b l e o n l y on f o o t , w i t h o n l y one o r two l a b o u r u n i t s a v a i l a b l e f o r l a n d c u l t i v a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s a m i n i m a l degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a s h - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e and the h o u s e h o l d i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y dependent on s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n . The s m a l l amount o f c a s h income earned from t h e s a l e o f c r o p s u r -p l u s e s and d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s and t h e i r produce has t o be s p e n t on t h e b a r e e s s e n t i a l s f o r s u r v i v a l such as f o o d , and l i t t l e o r no money can be a l l o c a t e d t o d o m e s t i c a s s e t s , c l o t h i n g , r e c r e -a t i o n and h e a l t h . 86 Household 13 i n the sample p r o v i d e s a good example o f a h o u s e h o l d i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . T h i s h o u s e h o l d has o n l y 1 u n i t o f a d u l t male l a b o u r and i s l o c a t e d 5 k i l o m e t e r s from t h e trunk, r o a d and 2 k i l o m e t e r s by f o o t p a t h from t h e n e a r e s t a c c e s s r o a d . L a r g e l y because o f t h e s e d i s a d v a n t a g e s no c a s h c r o p s a t a l l a r e grown, and o n l y 1 h e c t a r e o f maize m i l p a was c u l t i -v a t e d d u r i n g t h e 1967-1968 a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r . The (Mexican) $1,000 r e c e i v e d from t h e s a l e o f c a t t l e was the o n l y c a s h income earned by t h e h o u s e h o l d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e h o u s e h o l d s p e n t o n l y $300 . on f o o d , depending al m o s t e n t i r e l y on i t s own a g r i c u l t u r a l produce f o r do m e s t i c s u b s i s t e n c e . The o n l y o t h e r r e c o r d e d e x p e n d i t u r e was a $50 o u t l a y on c l o t h i n g . No money was a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s on r e c r e a t i o n and h e a l t h . The s m a l l s i z e o f the f a m i l y budget i s r e f l e c t e d i n the below-average p o i n t t o t a l o f do m e s t i c a s s e t s accumulated (25 p o i n t s ) , and i n t h e v e r y poor s t a t e o f r e p a i r o f t h e e i g h t - y e a r - o l d r u s t i c house. I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f p o v e r t y the ho u s e h o l d r a n k s v e r y low i n t h e assessment o f l e v e l s o f h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h would t e n d t o have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y . I t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e s e two households r e p r e s e n t extremes on o p p o s i t e ends o f the s c a l e o f w e a l t h . The m a j o r i t y o f the hou s e h o l d s f i t somewhere i n between and a r e o c c u p i e d w i t h a m i x t u r e o f c a s h - c r o p and s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e . I n many cases t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o u t l i n e d i n the s y s t e m a t i c diagram, ( F i g u r e 1 ) , a r e n o t so c l e a r c u t and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e s i n c e t h e y o p e r a t e w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f i n t e n s i t y . Indeed, some 87 of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s may n o t e x i s t a t a l l as i n t h e case o f h o u s e h o l d 11. T h i s h o u s e h o l d i s l o c a t e d r i g h t on t h e t r u n k r o a d and has a c c e s s t o t h r e e u n i t s o f a d u l t male l a b o u r . C o n s e q u e n t l y we would e x p e c t t o f i n d a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a s h - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e r e s u l t i n g i n a s i z a b l e c a s h income. However, d u r i n g the 1967-1968 a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r o n l y 1 h e c t a r e of maize was c u l t i v a t e d , and t h e t o t a l c ash income r e c e i v e d was o n l y $1,780 from t h e s a l e o f s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of. cacao and bananas. The p o i n t t o t a l o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s accumulated i s 57 w h i c h i s about average f o r the sample, and .health and l i t e r a c y l e v e l s a l s o meet average s t a n d a r d s - - s o t h e s e two f a c t o r s do not h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount of c a s h income ear n e d . The key t o t h i s problem l i e s i n T a b l e 1 5 — t h e summary o f t o t a l income and e x p e n d i t u r e t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r , where i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e exceeds income by n e a r l y $2,000. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h h o u s e h o l d members r e v e a l e d t h a t the f a m i l y has been h e a v i l y i n debt f o r many y e a r s , and t h a t i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y , t h e apparent i m p o s s i -b i l i t y o f e v e r p a y i n g o f f the debts has reduced t h e i r a c h i e v e -m e n t - m o t i v a t i o n t o the p o i n t where t h e y are s i n k i n g deeper and d e e p t e r i n d e b t , w i t h o u t t h e a m b i t i o n t o t a k e advantages o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r c a s h - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e . The main o b j e c t i n the. l i f e o f t h i s f a m i l y i s a p p a r e n t l y t o o b t a i n o b l i v -i o n t h r o u g h a l c o h o l , r a t h e r t h a n t o maximize economic o p p o r t u n -i t i e s . 88 However, i n g e n e r a l t h i s system o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o v i d e s a good e x p l a n a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s o f w e a l t h i n the e j l d o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e example o f hou s e h o l d 11 quoted above i l l u s -t r a t e s t h e dangers o f a c c e p t i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s as i n f a l l i b l e o r a b s o l u t e , s i n c e economic b e h a v i o u r cannot be e x p l a i n e d i n p u r e l y economic t e r m s , and i s p a r t o f the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . Household Wealth and Want P a t t e r n s I t was proposed on page 3 o f the i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r t h a t -I f we assume t h a t man has u n l i m i t e d wants b u t o n l y l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s w i t h w h i c h t o s a t i s f y them, i t i s c l e a r t h a t a n a l y s i s o f consumption o r e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s w i l l r e v e a l t h e e x i s t e n c e o f tho s e wants s e l e c t e d as p r i o r i t i e s f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the assumption was made t h a t -The v a r i e t y and ty p e o f wants chosen f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by t h r e e main c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : f i r s t l y , t h e amount o f w e a l t h a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p e n d i t u r e on want s a t i s f a c t i o n ; s e c o n d l y , t h e number o f a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e , and t h i r d l y ... t h e c u l t u r a l frame-o f - r e f e r e n c e i n w h i c h d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e made and w h i c h g i v e meaning and d i r e c t i o n t o t h e wants s e l e c t e d f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . 8 A c c o r d i n g l y , want p a t t e r n s were i n f e r r e d from t h e d a t a on the use o f cash income i n the v a r i o u s e x p e n d i t u r e c a t e g o r i e s , (See Chap t e r I : I n t r o d u c t i o n , page 3. 89 T a b l e s 14 and 1 5 ) , and on t h e t y p e , amount and v a l u e o f a s s e t s a c c u m u l a t e d , (See T a b l e s 8, 9, and 1 0 ) ; b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t the n a t u r e o f the wants i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e t o t a l w e a l t h o f each h o u s e h o l d , t h e range of want o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e , and t h e degree o f c o m p a t a b i l i t y o f each o p t i o n w i t h the c u l t u r a l f r a r a e - o f - r e f e r e n c e . A l t h o u g h a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f wants can be i d e n t i f i e d f o r the sample group as a whole, t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a t i o n i n income and a s s e t s between th e households t o w a r r e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f want p a t t e r n s i n t h r e e s u b - g r o u p s — w e a l t h y h o u s e h o l d s , house-h o l d s w i t h average w e a l t h , and poor h o u s e h o l d s . S i n c e c a s h income a l o n e i s an u n r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r o f h o u s e h o l d w e a l t h as i t r e f l e c t s o n l y s h o r t - t e r m s p e n d i n g power and a s s e t s accumulated a r e a b e t t e r g u i d e t o l o n g - t e r m e x p e n d i t u r e s , a w e a l t h i n d e x was d e v i s e d based on b o t h cash income earned and the p o i n t t o t a l o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s , accumulated. These two components were w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t o t a l h o u s e h o l d w e a l t h . Thus c a s h income was awarded a w e i g h t i n g o f 0.4 and d o m e s t i c a s s e t s a w e i g h t i n g o f 0.6. Two s c a l e s between 0 and 10 were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the t o t a l range o f v a l u e s o f c a s h income and d o m e s t i c a s s e t s , and each h o u s e h o l d was a s s i g n e d a s c a l e r a n k i n g f o r each c a t e g o r y . These s c a l e r a n k i n g s were th e n m u l t i p l i e d by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e w e i g h t i n g f a c t o r s (0.4 and 0.6) and t h e r e s u l t s were added t o o b t a i n t h e w e a l t h i n d e x . F o r example: Household 1 Cash income -$5,2 89 P o i n t t o t a l o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s . - 70 S c a l e r a n k i n g - 3 S c a l e r a n k i n g - 5 3 x 0.4 = 1.2 5 x 0.6 = 3.0 Wealth Index: 1.2 + 3.0 =4.2 The households were t h e n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups based on t h e i r w e a l t h i n d i c e s : Group A - w e a l t h y households ( w e a l t h i n d e x > 5.0); Group B - households w i t h average w e a l t h ( w e a l t h i n d e x 2.5-5); and Group C - poor households ( w e a l t h i n d e x < 2.5). The wants o f each group were a s s e s s e d as deep-s e a t e d o r s u p e r f i c i a l depending on t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e as components o f t h e c o n s u m p t i o n - e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n . Three main c a t e g o r i e s o f wants were i d e n t i f i e d i n each group o f h o u s e h o l d s — f o o d wants, d o m e s t i c wants and p e r s o n a l wants, c o m p r i s i n g the t o t a l range o f want o p t i o n s amongst w h i c h e x p e n d i t u r e s c o u l d be a l l o c a t e d . Group A - Wealthy Households T h i s group comprises s i x h o u s e h o l d s — n u m b e r s 3, 4, 6, 7, 14 and 17 i n the sample. A n a l y s i s o f f o o d wants r e v e a l s a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f wants i n comparison w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e sample. I n a d d i t i o n t o maize, beans, s u g a r , c o f f e e and cacao w h i c h a r e b a s i c deep-seated wants i n a l l t h r e e groups, h i g h - c o s t p r e s t i g e foods such as 91 p o u l t r y , meat, eggs and v e g e t a b l e s can a l s o be r e g a r d e d as perm-anent components o f t h e consumption p a t t e r n . Other deep-seated f o o d wants i n t h i s group i n c l u d e r i c e , . c h i l e , g a r l i c and o t h e r s p i c e s . A l l i t e m s w h i c h a r e r e g a r d e d as b a s i c deep-seated f o o d wants by. a l l groups a r e consumed i n l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s by t h i s group. S u p e r f i c i a l f o o d wants w h i c h are s a t i s f i e d o n l y s p o r -a d i c a l l y i n c l u d e p a s t a , m i l k , bananas and o t h e r f r u i t . S i m i l a r l y , d o m e s t i c wants i n c l u d e a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f b o t h d eep-seated and s u p e r f i c i a l wants. Deep-seated d o m e s t i c wants comprise t h e f u l l range o f home-made r u s t i c f u r n i t u r e and u t i l i t a r i a n h o u s e h o l d i t e m s such as c o o k i n g and e a t i n g u t e n s i l s (See T a b l e 8 ) . However, p r e s t i g e s t o r e - b o u g h t i t e m s such as r a d i o s , b i c y c l e s , sewing machines, c h a i r s , t a b l e s , saucepans and spoons a r e a l s o deep-seated wants i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g as r e g u l a r l y s a t i s f i e d wants. S u p e r f i c i a l wants w h i c h appear i r r e g u l a r l y i n a s s e t a c c u m u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e f u r n i s h i n g s and k i t c h e n ware w i t h a v e r y h i g h p r e s t i g e r a t i n g such as gas s t o v e s , 'modern1 beds, c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s and c u t l e r y ( k n i v e s and f o r k s ) . Six-.out o f t h e seven households i n t h i s group ex-h i b i t a deep-seated want f o r ' m o d e r n 1 houses b u i l t w i t h permanent c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s , as opposed t o t h e r u s t i c c a n e - w a l l e d , p a l m - t h a t c h e d houses t r a d i t i o n a l t o the r e g i o n . P e r s o n a l wants i n c l u d e c l o t h i n g and shoes and l e s s t a n -g i b l e wants such as h e a l t h needs and r e c r e a t i o n s w h i c h are i n c l u d e d s i n c e t h e y a r e -92 ... d e s i r e s o v e r and above the b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e w h i c h a r e f e l t t o be n e c e s s a r y t o f u l f i l s h a r e d c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e good l i f e d e v e l o p e d i n the c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e , 9 Deep-seated wants i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e c l o t h i n g , shoes, and r e c r e a t i o n a l i t e m s and e x p e n d i t u r e s . Four o f t h e households i n t h i s group spend o v e r $700 a y e a r on c l o t h i n g and shoes w h i c h i s an e x t r e m e l y l a r g e o u t l a y by pe a s a n t s t a n d a r d s . G e n e r a l l y c l o t h i n g i s bought f o r a l l f a m i l y members i n c l u d i n g v e r y s m a l l c h i l d r e n , though shoes a r e r a r e l y worn by women and c h i l d r e n e x c e p t on f e s t i v e o c c a s i o n s . 1 C i t y - s t y l e * c l o t h i n g such as j e a n s , u n d e r c l o t h e s and h i g h - h e e l e d s hoes, can be r e g a r d e d as a s u p e r f i c i a l want w h i c h i s d e v e l o p i n g amongst t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n who a r e f a s c i n a t e d by American movies. The e x t e n t t o w h i c h r e c r e a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g c a s h e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e becoming i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e h o u s e h o l d budget, i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l • l o c a t i o n a l s i n t h i s group o f households average o v e r $1,000 p e r h o u s e h o l d . S i m i l a r l y t h e range o f r e c r e a t i o n s i s f a r g r e a t e r , w i t h movies, magazines and n o v e l s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e asant r e c r e a t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f a t t e n d i n g a few f i e s t a s , v i s i t i n g r e l a t i v e s o c c a s i o n a l l y and w a l k i n g t o town. M e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and drugs a r e , however, o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l want, and u n l e s s i t i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y most ho u s e h o l d s i n t h i s group would r a t h e r spend money on r e c r e -a t i o n s t h a n on d o c t o r s and d r u g s . The head o f h o u s e h o l d 5 e x p r e s s e d t h i s s e n t i m e n t as f o l l o w s -See I n t r o d u c t i o n : page 3. 93 I f I have a p a i n i n my b e l l y perhaps i t ' s o n l y i n d i g e s t i o n o r l i t t l e a n i m a l s (amoebas) o r p e r -haps i t ' s r e a l s i c k n e s s and I ' l l d i e . But i t ' s no use w o r r y i n g y o u r s e l f about i t — I ' 1 1 d i e someday i n any case and no d o c t o r ' s g o i n g t o grow f a t on my c a r c a s s . Anyway I'd r a t h e r t a k e a beer t h a n a p i l l any day, and i f you d r i n k enough b e e r the p a i n w i l l go a w a y — s o why worry? 10 Group B - Households W i t h Average Wealth T h i s group i s composed o f seven h o u s e h o l d s — n u m b e r s 1, 2, 8, 11, 12,. 16 and 18 i n t h e sample. Food wants a r e l e s s numerous than i n Group A and a h i g h e r p e r c e n t o f f o o d i s produced by the p e a s a n t s themselves i n t h e i r p a r c e l s . M a i z e , beans, s u g a r , c o f f e d and cacao a r e s t i l l p u r c h a s e d b u t on a more i r r e g u l a r b a s i s , however r e l i a n c e on t h e s e b a s i c s t a p l e s i s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r s i n c e t h e s m a l l e r f o o d budget p e r m i t s fewer a l t e r n a t i v e wants t o be s a t i s f i e d . Meat, v e g e t a b l e s and c h i l e a r e the o n l y o t h e r deep-s e a t e d wants w h i c h can be s a t i s f i e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Super-f i c i a l wants i n c l u d e p a s t a , eggs and c h i c k e n w h i c h a r e g r e a t l y d e s i r e d b u t can o n l y be a f f o r d e d o c c a s i o n a l l y . Items c o n s i d e r e d as s u p e r f i c i a l wants i n Group A such as f r u i t and m i l k , do n o t appear a t a l l i n Group B's f o o d wants. T h i s i s a p p a r e n t l y n o t due t o any monetary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s i n c e f r u i t t r e e s are u b i q u i -tous i n e v e r y p a r c e l and m i l k i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e . R a t h e r , i t seems t h a t the p e a s a n t s have no t a s t e f o r t h e s e items d e s p i t e t h e i r n u t r i t i v e v a l u e . The head of h o u s e h o l d 3 gave the r e a s o n f o r t h i s d i s t a s t e as f o l l o w s -1 0 I n t e r v i e w w i t h I g n a c i o de D i o s M o n t e j o , September 18,196 8. 94 F r u i t and m i l k - b l a h ! - t h a t ' s f o r b a b i e s . I w o u l d n ' t t a k e t h a t s t u f f i f t h e r e was n o t h i n g e l s e i n t h e house t o e a t . I'm n o t a t t h e b r e a s t any more. I'm a man - men need meat w i t h p l e n t y o f c h i l e t o make them s t r o n g and h o t b l o o d e d . 11 Domestic wants a r e a l m o s t as numerous as i n Group A but-i n c l u d e fewer p r e s t i g e s t o r e - b o u g h t i t e m s as deep-seated wants, and t h e s e a r e g e n e r a l l y the l e s s e x p e n s i v e i t e m s such as r a d i o s , spoons and cheap c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s . However, s u p e r f i c i a l wants wh i c h can be s a t i s f i e d o n l y by the m i n o r i t y o f the households i n c l u d e some h i g h - v a l u e s t o r e - b o u g h t i t e m s such as sewing machines, b i c y c l e s , f u r n i t u r e and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s . 'Modern* houses cannot r e a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d even as a s u p e r f i c i a l want i n t h i s group, s i n c e o n l y one h o u s e h o l d p o s s e s s e s such a house and t h e o t h e r f a m i l i e s e x h i b i t l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n s t r i v i n g t o o b t a i n one. Deep-seated p e r s o n a l wants i n c l u d e c l o t h i n g and shoes though on a more l i m i t e d b a s i s s i n c e p u r chases are m a i n l y r e -s t r i c t e d t o a d u l t s and o l d e r c h i l d r e n . R e c r e a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g c a s h e x p e n d i t u r e a r e a l s o a deep-seated want b u t have a l e s s e r degree o f i m p o rtance i n comparison w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n s . S u r p r i s i n g l y , m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s can a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as a deep-seated want i n t h i s group i n c o n t r a s t w i t h Group A where t h e y were r e g a r d e d o n l y as a s u p e r f i c i a l want. Perhaps t h i s i s due t o t h e more p r e c a r i o u s n a t u r e o f l i f e i n t h i s l e s s w e a l t h y group o f h o u s e h o l d s , s i n c e t h e p e a s a n t s t e n d t o be more p r e -I n t e r v i e w w i t h M i g u e l Montejo Gamas, September 11, 1968. 95 o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e maintenance o f l i f e r a t h e r than t h e g r a t i f i c a -t i o n o f p l e a s u r e - o r i e n t e d wants. Group C - Poor Households T h i s group i s composed o f f i v e h o u s e h o l d s — n u m b e r s 5, 9, 10, 13 and 15 i n the sample. I n t h i s group o f households f o o d wants a r e l i m i t e d a l -moat e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e f i v e b a s i c s t a p l e s — m a i z e , beans, s u g a r , c o f f e e and cacao. S u p e r f i c i a l wants i n c l u d e p a s t a , v e g e t a b l e s and meat, w h i c h a r e g r e a t l y d e s i r e d t o v a r y t h e monotonous d i e t o f beans and t o r t i l l a s b u t can r a r e l y be a f f o r d e d . When q u e s t i o n e d about meat consumption the head o f h o u s e h o l d 3 r e a c t e d q u i t e h e a t e d l y -How many t i m e s a week, do we e a t meat? - you mean how many t i m e s a y e a r ? o r more i m p o r t a n t t o us -how many t i m e s a week do we e a t a t a l l ? W e l l -when God g i v e s us good c r o p s and we have money i n the p o c k e t we e a t meat al m o s t e v e r y day. But maybe t h a t ' s two weeks i n each y e a r . The r e s t o f the t i m e — w e l l i t ' s o b v i o u s you don't know what meat c o s t s i n t h e s e p a r t s — l i f e ' s j u s t beans, t o r t i l l a s and p o z o 1 — t h a t ' s a l l . The poor campesino thanks God he has a n y t h i n g i n h i s b e l l y . Meat? — t h a t ' s funny — y o u don't know what l i f e ' s a l l about. 12 Domestic wants are a l s o v e r y l i m i t e d i n q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y . Deep-seated wants c o n p r i s e b a s i c f u r n i s h i n g s and u t e n s i l s s uch as c h a i r s , hammocks and c o o k i n g p o t s , b u t no p r e s -t i g e s t o r e - b o u g h t i t e m s , n o r even t h e range o f more s o p h i s t i c a t e d home-made f u r n i s h i n g s such as beds o r s t o r a g e c l o s e t s . Some I n t e r v i e w w i t h M i g u e l Montejo Gamas, September 11, 1968. s t o r e - b o u g h t i t e m s such as r a d i o s and spoons appear as s u p e r -f i c i a l wants, b u t t h e m a j o r i t y , o f t h e s u p e r f i c i a l wants are u t i l i t a r i a n i t e m s such as p e t r o l lamps and p l a t e s w h i c h more w e a l t h y h o u s e h o l d s c o n s i d e r t o be b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s . E a t i n g u t e n s i l s a r e a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r — "The t o r t i l l a i s t h e p l a t e o f t h e poor campesiho and f i n g e r s make a good enough 13 spoon. Deep-seated p e r s o n a l wants i n c l u d e only' c l o t h i n g , and e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h i s i t e m are g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o w o r k i n g a d u l t s . Many c h i l d r e n a r e unable t o go t o s c h o o l s i n c e t h e y do 1 n o t p o s s e s s any c l o t h e s ; f o r t h e m — "God's s k i n i s good enough. Shoes a r e the o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l want s i n c e r e c r e a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g c a s h o u t l a y a r e g e n e r a l l y o u t o f the q u e s t i o n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o l o c a l f i e s t a s . C o n c l u s i o n s on Want P a t t e r n s I t i s c l e a r t h a t want p a t t e r n s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y between t h e t h r e e groups of households and t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n w e a l t h a r e t h e o p e r a t i v e f a c t o r c a u s i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . F o r example, even th e p o o r e r h ouseholds i n Group C d e s i r e meat as a s u p e r f i c i a l want, and i n c r e a s i n g w e a l t h e n a b l e s Group A h o u s e h o l d s t o consume meat on a r e g u l a r b a s i s as a deep-seated want. G e n e r a l l y , as w e a l t h i n c r e a s e s the households t e n d t o buy g r e a t e r q u a n t i t i e s o f t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h a r e b a s i c wants i n 13 I n t e r v i e w w i t h V i c t o r i o P e r e z Lopez, September 18, 1968 - ^ I n t e r v i e w w i t h I g n a c i o de D i o s M o n t e j o , August 30, 1968 a l l t h r e e h o u s e h o l d g r o u p s , such as f o o d s t a p l e s , c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s and c l o t h e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y a re a b l e t o s a t i s f y a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f wants such as f o o d wants f o r a more v a r i e d , h i g h e r p r o t e i n d i e t , d o m e s t i c wants f o r p r e s t i g e - s t o r e bought i t e m s as w e l l as a w i d e r range o f u t i l i t a r i a n goods, and p e r -s o n a l wants t o improve t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e such as m e d i c i n e s , b e t t e r c l o t h i n g and r e c r e a t i o n s . However, i t would seem t h a t t h e s e new wants a r e not p u r e l y t h e p r o d u c t o f i n c r e a s i n g w e a l t h , b u t a r e a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e as p o t e n t i a l , u n s a t i s f i e d wants i n t h e p o o r e s t group o f h o u s e h o l d s . The p o o r e r households p o s s e s s a s p i r a t i o n s f o r new f o o d s , modern c l o t h i n g , and so on, bu t e x t r a income i s needed t o b r i n g t h e s e households t o the p o i n t where s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e p o t e n t i a l wants i s p o s s i b l e . D e s p i t e t h e s e i n t e r - s a m p l e d i f f e r e n c e s a common want p a t t e r n can be i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h e group as a whole. Though want p a t t e r n s have been slow t o change i n the p a s t and a l l house-h o l d s s t i l l e x h i b i t many o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e asant wants such a 'pre-Columbian' dependence on c o r n , t h e sample households do n o t conform t o t h e p o p u l a r v i e w o f p e a s a n t s as backward and u n p r o g r e s s i v e . The development o f c a s h - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e has a l r e a d y had c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on want p a t t e r n s , and t h e c o r r e s -p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n p u r c h a s i n g power has opened up a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e want o p t i o n s . The p e a s a n t s i n t h i s sample have, on the whole, b o t h r e c o g n i z e d and t a k e n advantage o f t h e s e new o p p o r t u n i t i e s as i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e q u a n t i t y and t y p e o f new wants s a t i s f i e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . 98 However, income i s n o t t h e o n l y f a c t o r i n want d e v e l o p -ment, and the u l t i m a t e d e c i d i n g f a c t o r as t o whether o r n o t a want w i l l be a c c e p t e d as a r e g u l a r component o f t h e consumption p a t t e r n i s the degree of. c o m p a t a b i l i t y . w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l frame-o f - r e f e r e n c e . P o t e n t i a l wants a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y adopted j u s t because th e o p p o r t u n i t y i s a v a i l a b l e and t h e i t e m can be a f f o r d e d , s i n c e change i n wants i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n . Thus f o r a new p o t e n t i a l want t o become p a r t o f t h e s t a n d a r d o f consumption, i t must n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h the e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l m a t r i x as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e v a l u e system. D i s c u s s i o n o f two examples w i l l c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t . A t p r e s e n t i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t m i l k w i l l be a c c e p t e d as a d e e p - seated want i n t h e near f u t u r e , even though t h e w e a l t h i e r h o u s e h o l d s can e a s i l y a f f o r d t o buy i t and a r e w e l l aware t h a t urban s o c i e t y c o n s i d e r s i t a p r e s t i g e i t e m w i t h h i g h n u t r i t i v e v a l u e . The s m a l l number o f h ouseholds who buy m i l k do so s o l e l y t o supplement th e s m a l l c h i l d r e n s ' d i e t and r e f u s e t o d r i n k i t t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s d i s t a s t e i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f m i l k as f i t o n l y f o r n u r s i n g b a b i e s , 15 and d e g r a d i n g as a beverage f o r a d u l t consumption. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a t t e m p t s by the l o c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s t o promote a d u l t m i l k consumption amongst the p e a s a n t s are u n l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , s i n c e t h i s p o t e n t i a l want i s i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e i n w h i c h a l l d e c i s i o n s a r e made. 15 See page 94, e x e r p t from i n t e r v i e w w i t h M i g u e l Montejo Gamas. 99 On t h e other, hand r a d i o s have been a c c e p t e d w i t h i n the l a s t decade as a deep-seated want w h i c h i s a permanent and necessary, component o f t h e s t a n d a r d o f consumption, s i n c e t h e y a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e h i g h v a l u e w h i c h t h e p e a s a n t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a c e d on music. A b r i e f s u r v e y o f a s p i r a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e wants r e i n f o r -ces i n f e r e n c e s as t o w h i c h e x i s t i n g s u p e r f i c i a l wants a r e l i k e l y t o become permanent components o f the consumption p a t t e r n . T h i r t e e n o f t h e sample ho u s e h o l d s e x p r e s s e d a want f o r more modern f u r n i s h i n g s and c l o t h i n g , a h i g h e r p r o t e i n d i e t , and more r e c r e a t i o n a l i t e m s and f a c i l i t i e s , and i t seems l i k e l y t h a t i f th e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f peasant w e a l t h c o n t i n u e s t o grow a t t h e p r e s e n t r a t e t h e s e wants w i l l soon be s a t i s f i e d on a l a r g e r s c a l e . However, d e s i r e f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s was more l i m i t e d , and t h e s e items cannot y e t be con-s i d e r e d s e r i o u s l y as p o t e n t i a l wants. I n any c a s e , i t i s unwise t o make any s p e c i f i c p r e d i c -t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g f u t u r e want p a t t e r n s s i n c e new wants, a r e o f t e n more i m p o r t a n t as symbols than as u t i l i t a r i a n a d d i t i o n s t o the s t a n d a r d o f consumption. Thus many o f t h e new wants r e c e n t l y adopted by t h e households i n t h i s sample are p r e s t i g e items s y m b o l i c o f t h e w e a l t h o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s . P r e s t i g e i s a f u n c t i o n o f f a s h i o n , and f a s h i o n , by d e f i n i t i o n , i s m e r e l y a p a s s i n g f a d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many o f the new p r e s t i g e wants such as r e f r i g e r a t o r s and b o x - s p r i n g beds, may n o t be v e r y d u r -a b l e , , and i n any case a r e u n l i k e l y t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the 100 s t a n d a r d o f consumption as deep-seated wants, s i n c e t h e y do n o t r e a l l y f i t i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g want p a t t e r n w h i c h s t i l l r e t a i n s many elements o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e asant way o f l i f e . CHAPTER V THE PLAN SAMPLE - UNIT 2 8 Socio-Economic S e t t i n g U n i t 28 o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a was the f i r s t a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t t o be completed i n terms o f the r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f l a n d t e n u r e and t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e new semi-urban v i l l a g e . Re-l o c a t i o n o f the p e a s a n t s i n t h i s new v i l l a g e — n a m e d G e o g o r i o Mendez a f t e r a l o c a l R e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r o — w a s commenced i n May 1967, and t h e m a j o r i t y were rehoused by June o f t h a t y e a r . A l t h o u g h r e s i d e n c e i n t h e v i l l a g e i s n o t compulsory f o r p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n t h e P l a n , t h e c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f G r e g o r i o Mendez numbers 240 h o u s e h o l d s , (January 1969), and i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the r e m a i n i n g 18 f a m i l i e s s t i l l l i v i n g i n t h e i r former homes w i l l e v e n t u a l l y submit r e q u e s t s f o r new h o u s i n g . The r e s e t t l e m e n t programme caused c o n s i d e r a b l e u p h e a v a l i n t h e p e a s a n t s ' t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e . Two o f t h e most r a d i c a l changes were the s h i f t from t h e t y p i c a l r u r a l d i s p e r s e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n t o l i v i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o n e i g h b o u r s i n a n u c l e a t e d community, and t h e breakdown o f the t r a d i t i o n a l e xtended f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n , s i n c e each a d u l t male over 16 y e a r s o f age i s e l i g i b l e f o r a p a r c e l and a house o f h i s own. However, d i s p i t e t h i s u p h e a v a l t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f pronounced d i s o r i e n t a t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y s u r p r i s i n g l y s h o r t l a s t i n g l i t t l e more than 6 months, and by May 1968 t h e m a j o r i t y 102 o f t h e p e a s a n t s seemed t o be accustomed t o t h e i r new environment. There were s t i l l some c o m p l a i n t s about t h e s m a l l s i z e o f the houses and t h e k i t c h e n s i n p a r t i c u l a r , and t h e e c c e n t r i c i t i e s o f t h e e l e c t r i c i t y and wa t e r s u p p l i e s w h i c h seem t o o p e r a t e on an a p p a r e n t l y random b a s i s . However, most o f the i n h a b i t a n t s agreed t h a t the advantages o f l i v i n g c l o s e t o s c h o o l s , m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and shops, t o g e t h e r w i t h the companionship a f f o r d e d by. urban r e s i d e n c e f a r outweighed t h e s e minor d i s a d v a n t a g e s . ' The p e a s a n t s were g e n e r a l l y l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r new p a r c e l s as o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e had been a b l e t o e n j o y t h e b e n e f i t s o f mechanized a g r i c u l t u r e , s i n c e t h e P l a n ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l programme had e n c o u n t e r e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s and was l a g g i n g f a r b e h i n d s c h e d u l e . The p r o v i s i o n o f c r e d i t f a c i l -i t i e s e n a b l e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e a s a n t s t o c u l t i v a t e more maize p e r c a p i t a than on t h e i r former l a n d h o l d i n g s , b u t many were unhappy a t h a v i n g t o c o n t i n u e t o p r a c t i c e r u s t i c methods and were d i s a p p o i n t e d a t t h e sl o w p r o g r e s s o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f l a n d t e n u r e caused an al m o s t complete breakdown o f t h e p r e - e x i s t i n g p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g network. The p e a s a n t s who were f o r m e r l y cane growers under c o n t r a c t t o t h e sugar m i l l S anta R o s a l i a , o f t e n found themselves w i t h a new 10 h e c t a r e p a r c e l c o n s i s t i n g s o l e l y o f a c a h u a l ( r o t a t i o n f o r e s t ) . The G r i j a l v a Commission p a i d compen-s a t i o n f o r t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t a n d i n g c r o p s , b u t i n e v i t a b l y t h i s change caused a f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y amongst s e v e r a l o f the pe a s a n t s a f f e c t e d . Other p e a s a n t s who had f o r m e r l y r e l i e d on 103 c a s h income from t h e s a l e o f bananas, c o f f e e and cacao found themselves w i t h new p a r c e l s i n w h i c h t h e r e were no f r u i t t r e e s a t a l l . Even t h e p e a s a n t s who were f o r t u n a t e enough t o be i n a zone s u i t a b l e f o r mechanized l a n d c l e a r a n c e and c u l t i -v a t i o n , 1 o f t e n found i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t from t h e o l d regime o f p a r t i a l dependence on t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e p r o -d u c t i o n t o l a r g e - s c a l e mechanized f a r m i n g . Thus, i n t h e summer of 1968, many o f t h e p e a s a n t s appeared t o be i n a s t a t e o f d i s -o r i e n t a t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l programme, though the a c c e l e r a t i o n o f l a n d c l e a r a n c e and the i n c r e a s e d development o f mechanized a g r i c u l t u r e was b e g i n n i n g t o a m e l i o r a t e the s i t u a t i o n . The v a r i a t i o n s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mechanized a g r i -c u l t u r e w i t h i n U n i t 2 8 r e s u l t e d i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e a s a n t s i n t h e amount o f cash income earned from c r o p s a l e , though t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f wage-labour work f o r t h e G r i j a l v a Commission i n r o a d and house c o n s t r u c t i o n h e l p e d t o reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t o t a l income ea r n e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a p a r c e l i n t h e mechanized m a i z e , r i c e , sorghum and banana zones was r e g a r d e d by t h e p e a s a n t s as a g r e a t advantage and a key f a c t o r i n r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l o f h o u s e h o l d w e a l t h . Thus a t t h e t i m e t h i s s u r v e y was un d e r t a k e n i n the summer o f 1968, t h e p e a s a n t s appeared t o have adapted r e a s o n a b l y ^ I n i t i a l mechanized l a n d c l e a r a n c e was l i m i t e d t o areas of l e s s dense f o r e s t c o v e r and easy r o a d a c c e s s i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and maximize s h o r t - t e r m r e s u l t s . 104 w e l l t o t h e changes i n r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n , b u t were l e s s s e c u r e w i t h i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r , and the g e n e r a l l e v e l o f peasant w e l l - b e i n g i n terms o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n had i n c r e -ased n o t i c a b l y s i n c e t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a i n t h i s r e g i o n . A s s e t s , Income and E x p e n d i t u r e I n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y want p a t t e r n s and measure the changes i n income and e x p e n d i t u r e r e s u l t i n g from the G r i j a l v a Commis-s i o n ' s i n n o v a t i o n s , a s u r v e y was u n d e r t a k e n o f 26 f a m i l i e s r e s i -d e n t i n G r e g o r i o M e n d e z — t h e new v i l l a g e . As i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, d a t a were c o l l e c t e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s — a s s e t s , income and e x p e n d i t u r e . The d a t a a r e t a b u l a t e d i n t h e same format used i n C h a p t e r 4 f o r the c o n t r o l group d a t a i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r - s a m p l e comparisons. T a b l e 16 summarizes th e r e l e v a n t •background d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e h o u s e h o l d as an economic u n i t , and p r o v i d e s a b a s e l i n e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r a l l subsequent t a b l e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e number o f r e s i -d e n t s p e r h o u s e h o l d i s much s m a l l e r than i n t h e c o n t r o l group sample, due t o t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l e x t e n d e d - f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n . A s s e t s D e s p i t e t h e i n c r e a s e d dependence on c a s h income, a s s e t s are s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t o r o f w e a l t h amongst t h e households i n t h e P l a n sample, though the TABLE 16 PLAN SAMPLE-PERSONAL DATA Household Age o f Length o f Former P l a c e o f Number o f Number o f Sample F a m i l y Head Residence Residence C h i l d r e n Household ( i n y e a r s ) ( i n y e a r s ) R e s i d e n t s 1 39 L i f e — 5 7 2 35 L i f e - 4 6 3 62 6 P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i n Cunduaca] n 5 4 4 24 L i f e - 2 4 5 40 L i f e 3 6 6 39 L i f e - 6 6 7 33. 4 Rancho near Cardenas 6 8 8 35 10 Rancho i n H u i m a n g u i l l o 7 8 9 45 30 Rancho i n V i l l a h e r m o s a 6 4 10 36 L i f e - 5 7 11 32 L i f e - 5 7 12 20 L i f e - 1 3 13 40 L i f e 5 2 14 29 L i f e - 5 7 15 19 L i f e 0 2 16 28 L i f e - 3 5 17 42 8 Rancho ne a r C o a t z a c o a l c o s 5 5 18 35 L i f e - 9 11 19 27 L i f e - 2 4 20 35 L i f e - 8 9 21 49 25 Rancho near Cunduacan 6 8 22 30 10 Rancho i n Co m a l c a l c o 4 7 23 31 3 V i l l a h e r m o s a 8 10 24 48 L i f e - 6 7 25 33 10 Rancho i n Com a l c a l c o 4 6 26 33 L i f e 4 6 106 range o f i t e m s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s s e t s by t h e s e p e a s a n t s d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from t h o s e d i s c u s s e d i n the c o n t r o l group sample. Items r e g a r d e d as a s s e t s i n b o t h t h e c o n t r o l group sample and the P l a n sample i n c l u d e d o m e s t i c and p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s , o u t -b u i l d i n g s , h e a l t h , c r o p s and d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s . The l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i s a l s o an a s s e t i n b o t h samples, though i t has t a k e n on new meaning i n the P l a n sample i n c l u d i n g s k i l l s a c q u i r e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n work, such as c a r p e n t r y and b r i c k - l a y i n g , w h i c h p r o v i d e a s i z e a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the income o f many h o u s e h o l d s . S e v e r a l a s s e t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n t r o l group sample must be r e g a r d e d as c o n s t a n t s i n t h e P l a n sample, w h i c h do n o t c o n t r i -b u t e t o v a r i a t i o n s i n h o u s e h o l d w e a l t h . Thus, houses, the l o c a -t i o n o f p a r c e l s r e l a t i v e t o a c c e s s r o a d s , and the number o f l a b o u r u n i t s p e r h o u s e h o l d a r e s t i l l a s s e t s i n t h a t t h e y a r e r e s o u r c e s , p o s s e s s i o n s o r advantages w i t h economic v a l u e , b u t a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n t h i s c h a p t e r s i n c e t h e y a re u n i -form i n c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h o u t U n i t 28. A l l the p e a s a n t s i n G r e g o r i o Mendez l i v e i n i d e n t i c a l new homes o f c o n c r e t e b r i c k w i t h t i l e d r o o f s , and a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y and r u n n i n g w a t e r . S i m i l a r l y , a l l t h e p a r c e l s a re s e r v e d by a l l - w e a t h e r truck, a c c e s s r o a d s . I n a d d i t i o n , the number o f l a b o u r u n i t s p e r h o u s e h o l d i s l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t t o the p r o d u c t i v e a b i l i t y o f t h e h o u s e h o l d , s i n c e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r o f t h e P l a n i s based on the one man/one p a r c e l c o n c e p t , w i t h mechanized c u l t i -v a t i o n and group l a b o u r p o o l s o b v i a t i n g the n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l a b o u r on a h o u s e h o l d b a s i s . The amount o f l a n d p e r h o u s e h o l d i s a l s o a c o n s t a n t , as each p a r c e l averages 10 h e c t a r e s i n s i z e . The t y p e o f s o i l 107 and v e g e t a l c o v e r i s a more m e a n i n g f u l a s s e t i n terms o f t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e p a r c e l owner t o g e n e r a t e w e a l t h , s i n c e a l i g h t w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l i s s u i t a b l e f o r p e r e n n i a l s such as, bananas w h i c h y i e l d a h i g h e r income per h e c t a r e t h a n f i e l d c r o p s , and p a r c e l s w i t h a l i g h t v e g e t a l c o v e r a r e more l i k e l y t o be machine-c l e a r e d a t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e P l a n . T a b l e 17 shows th e t o t a l c r o p and a n i m a l a s s e t s h e l d by t h e 26 households i n t h i s sample. As i n t h e c o n t r o l group sample, t h e c r o p and a n i m a l s t a t i s t i c s r e f e r t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e from O c t o b e r 1967 t o September 1968. S i m i l a r l y , t h e s t a t i s t i c s quoted f o r l i v e s t o c k r e p r e s e n t p e a s a n t e s t i m a t e s o f t h e average number o f d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s owned d u r i n g t h e a g r i -c u l t u r a l y e a r . The numbers o f l i v e s t o c k p e r h o u s e h o l d have been d r a s t i c a l l y r educed i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s , due t o s t e a l i n g and o u t b r e a k s o f f o w l p e s t b o t h o f w h i c h have i n c r e a s e d i n i n t e n s i t y s i n c e t h e p e a s a n t s moved i n t o G r e g o r i o Mendez. T a b l e 18 summarizes th e improvements made i n houses and l o t s o v e r t h e l a s t two y e a r s . House e x t e n s i o n s and o u t b u i l d -i n g s can be r e g a r d e d as improvements r a i s i n g t h e v a l u e o f t h e house as an a s s e t . The i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e house can be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y ' s i n t e r e s t i n i m p r o v i n g the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r d o m e s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t , as can t h e upkeep and use o f the l o t w h i c h a r e c o d i f i e d t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r - h o u s e h o l d comparison. T a b l e 19 l i s t s the p o i n t v a l u e s used i n T a b l e 20 f o r the h o u s e h o l d r a n k i n g s o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s . The p o i n t r a n k i n g TABLE 17 PLAN SAMPLE-CROPS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS House- Parcel Acahual Monte Maize Beans Sugar Mechan- Sorghum Natural Horses Cattle Pigs Chickens (c) hold Number (Low (High [2] Cane ized (Hectares) Pasture No. Yearly Yearly Turkeys (t) Sample [1] Rotation Rotation (Hectares) (Hectares) (Hectares) Rice (Hectares) Average Average Yearly Scrub) (Hectares) Scrub) (Hectares) (Hec-tares Number Number Average Number 1 188 3 _ _ - - 2'-i _ 1 - . _ _ 9(c),3(t) 2 116 3 - - - - ih - 1 - - 2 8 (c) 3 139 3 - - - 4 - - 2 - - 2 3(c) 4 244 2 - - - 6 - - - - - 4(c) ,3(t) 5 198 2 1 - ih - 2 - - - 5(c) 6 221 3 - - - - 4 - 2 - - 1 3(c),(1 duck) 7 108 2 - - - - 2k - - - - - -8 213 3k 2 3 - 1% - - - 1 3(c) ,3(t) 9 254 4 - - - ik 2k - 1 1 1 10(c) 10 86 2 - 2 - - 2k - 2 1 - - 20(c) ,1 (t) 11 240 2k - 2k - - ik - - - - 7(c) ,3(t) 12 219 3 1 2 - l 2k - 2 - - -13 102 3 - - - - 4 - 1 - 6 (c) 14 62 3 - - - - 2k - 1 1 - -15 98 3 1 ik - ik - - - - - -16 212 2 1 ik - ik ik - - 1 • - 1 15(c),3(t) 17 3 3 2 - - - 4 - - - - - -18 200 3 - . - k - 4 - - 1 - 1 10 (c) 19 13 5 1 - - - 2 - - - - - -20 30 3 - - 50 sq. meters ik 1 — - - 7(c) 21 176 4 1 2 - - 2 - - - - - 30(c),10(t) 22 28 4 1 1 - - - 2 1 - - 10(c) ,4(t) 23 151 - - Ik - 50 sq. meters 5k 5k — 1 - 1 8(c),(1 duck) 24 82 - - - - - 11 - - 1 - - 8(c) 25 210 3 - 2 - - 2 - 2 - - 3 12 (c) 26 37 2 1 2 3 2 7 (c) See Appendix Map 3. A l l parcels in Unit 28 average 10-12 hectares in siz e . 2 Includes both mechanized and r u s t i c maize. household 1 formerly cultivated 2 hectares of cane which were ploughed i n by the G r i j a l v a Commission i n preparation for the new banana zone. The household head received ($ Mex.) $5 ,258.12 from the Commission as compensation for the. loss of the standing crop. o 03 TABLE 18 PLAN SAMPLE-HOUSE AND LOT IMPROVEMENTS Household Sample House Extensions Interior Decoration of House Outbuildings Fenced Lot? Use of Yard[l] Assessment of Amount of Lot Development[2] 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Porch bricked in and painted Porch bricked in and painted Concrete brick rear extension, corrugated iron roof Concrete brick rear extension, corru-gated iron roof. Photos, re l i g i o u s pictures Photos, calendars, religious pictures; painted i n t e r i o r Painted i n t e r i o r Painted i n t e r i o r ; photos, calendars Religious pictures Painted i n t e r i o r ; photos, travel posters Painted i n t e r i o r ; magazine pictures Painted i n t e r i o r Photos, posters Painted i n t e r i o r Painted i n t e r i o r , religious pictures Painted i n t e r i o r ; religious pictures Painted i n t e r i o r , magazine pictures Painted i n t e r i o r ; photos, calendars, magazine pictures, china ornaments Painted i n t e r i o r ; photos, calendars Painted i n t e r i o r Rustic chicken house Storage barn, r u s t i c cooking hut Wooden tool house Rustic cooking hut, wooden tool house Rustic cooking shelter Rustic chicken coop Rustic chicken coop Rustic cooking hut Wooden chicken coop Rustic tool shed Rustic chicken coop Rustic storage barn Chicken coop Yes No Yes (plus fenced chicken range) Yes Yes Yes (plus fenced) Yes (chicken range) No Yes (chicken range) Yes (chicken range) Yes Yes Yes Yes (plus fenced chicken range) (plus fenced) Yes (chicken range) Yes Yes (plus fenced chicken range) Yes (plus fenced chicken range) Yes Yes (plus fenced chicken range) Yes (high cane walls) Yes (plus fenced chicken range Yes Yes (chicken range) Yes C,0,F C C,0,F,L C,0 C,F,L C,0,P 0,F,L,P C,M C C,0,F 0,F,L,P C 0,L,P Ca,0 C,F,P C,F,0 V,F,P C,F,Ca C,F C,F,0,P C,F,0,Ca C,0 C,0 C Coding Key: 1. Use of Yard C - chicken O - orchard F - flowers Ca- cane range L - lawn V - vegetable garden P - paved walks M - maize m i l l 2. Amount of Lot Development: 1 - intensively developed 2 - average development 3 - poorly developed 4 - undeveloped 110 TABLE 19 PLAN SAMPLE-POINT VALUES FOR RANKING OF DOMESTIC ASSETS (See Table 20) (New items not recorded i n Table 8 are underlined) P o i n t Values U t i l i t a r i a n Items P r e s t i g e Items 6 R e f r i g e r a t o r 5 Gas stove Bed (store-bought) Cupboard (store-bought) 4 Bed (home-made wooden with store-bought mattress) Sewing Machine B i c y c l e Table K n i f e F o l d i n g metal-frame bed and mattress 3 Bed (without store-bought mattress) Chest (home-made wooden) Cha i r (store bought) Table (store bought) Saucepan Table fork Casserole Radio M i r r o r Saucer Mincer Clock Small cupboard (store bought) Gun P i s t o l Table g l a s s 2 Table ( r u s t i c ) P e t r o l lamp Wicker basket Shelves Cupboard Hammock Aluminimum bucket Jug C u r t a i n Table-spoon 1 Chair ( r u s t i c ) Bench Reed s l e e p i n g mat Clothes storage box Ru s t i c cooking stove (fogon) Earthenware or alum-inum pot Earthenware or alum-inum bowl Mug or cup P l a t e P l a s t i c bucket P l a s t i c bowl P l a s t i c spoon I l l TABLE 20 PLAN SAMPLE-HOUSEHOLD RANKINGS OF DOMESTIC ASSETS Household Data P o i n t Sample ( P o i n t Ranking i n B r a c k e t s ) T o t a l 1 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e (2) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds ( 6 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 3 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 3 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 3 p l a t e s ( 3 ) , 6 mugs ( 1 2 ) , 2 spoons ( 2 ) . 43 2 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds ( 6 ) , 1 s t o r a g e box ( 1 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e (1) , 2 c u r t a i n s ( 4 ) , 6 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 6 ) , 1 w i c k e r b a s k e t ( 2 ) , 3 p l a t e s ( 3 ) , 1 mug ( 2 ) , 8 spoons ( 1 6 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) . 57 3 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e (2) , 1 r e f r i g e r a t o r ( 6 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed and m a t t r e s s ( 4 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t cupboard ( 5 ) , 1 m i r r o r ( 3 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 w i c k e r b a s k e t ( 2 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 s l e e p i n g mat ( 1 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 2 c u r t a i n s ( 4 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 12 p l a t e s ( 1 2 ) , 4 f o r k s ( 1 2 ) , 2 k n i v e s ( 8 ) , 4 spoons ( 8 ) , 5 aluminum p o t s ( 1 0 ) , 2 saucepans ( 6 ) , 2 c a s s e r -o l e s (6) , 4 mugs ( 4 ) . 119 4 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 2 benches (2) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 c u r t a i n (2) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 3 mugs ( 6 ) , 3 spoons ( 6 ) , 1 p l a t e ( 2 ) , 1 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t ( 1 ) , 1 saucepan ( 3 ) . 41 5 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 hammock (2) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t bed ( 5 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed and m a t t r e s s ( 4 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 2 p l a s t i c b u c k e t s ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 10 p l a t e s (10) , 6 spoons (12) , 6 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s (6) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) , r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 66 112 TABLE 20 - c o n t i n u e d . 6 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 gammock ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) , 7 p l a t e s ( 7 ) , 7 spoons ( 1 4 ) , 7 a l u m i n -um c o o k i n g p o t s ( 7 ) , 2 ju g s ( 4 ) , 2 mugs (2) . 52 7 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s (2) , 4 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 1 2 ) , 1 bench .(1), 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t beds ( 1 0 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r a g e boxes ( 2 ) , 1 wooden c h e s t (home-made) ( 3 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 3 p l a t e s ( 3 ) , 2 spoons ( 4 ) , 1 k n i f e ( 4 ) , 1 f o r k (3) , 2 cups ( 2 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 63 8 4 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 8 p l a t e s ( 8 ) , 8 mugs ( 8 ) , 2 spoons ( 4 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) . 43 9 4 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 4 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e (2) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t . t a b l e ( 3 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds ( 6 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 7 p l a t e s (7) spoons ( 1 4 ) , 2 f o r k s ( 6 ) , 8 mugs ( 8 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 m i r r o r ( 3 ) , 2 s t o r a g e boxes ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 6 7 10 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 3 r u s t i c beds ( 9 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 mi n c e r ( 3 ) , 1 m i r r o r ( 3 ) , 1 gas s t o v e (5) , 6 p l a t e s (6) , 6 cups (6) ,. 2 spoons ( 4 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t ( 2 ) . 48 11 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 1 ) , 2 r u s -t i c beds ( 6 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 10 c o o k i n g p o t s ( 1 0 ) , 8 p l a t e s ( 8 ) , 8 spoons' (16) ,..2 f o r k s ( 6 ) , 2 k n i v e s ( 8 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 3 ) . 70 12 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 1 r a d i o (3) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 1 p l a s -t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 12 p l a t e s ( 1 2 ) , 6 cups ( 6 ) , 6 s a u c e r s ( 1 8 ) , 6 f o r k s (18) , 6 spoons ( 1 2 ) , 2 k n i v e s ( 8 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) . 100 113 TABLE 20 - c o n t i n u e d . 13 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 p l a t e ( 1 ) , 2 mugs ( 2 ) , l i spoon (2) , 1 c o o k i n g p o t (1) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) . 25 14 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds ( 6 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 3 s l e e p i n g mats ( 3 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 aluminum b u c k e t ( 2 ) , 3 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s (3) , 3 p l a t e s ( 3 ) , 3 mugs ( 3 ) , 4 spoons ( 8 ) . 41 15 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 2 p l a t e s ( 2 ) , 2 f o r k s (6) , 2 spoons ( 4 ) , 2 k n i v e s ( 8 ) , 2 mugs (2) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 m i r r o r ( 3 ) . 51 16 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t cupboard ( 5 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 b i c y c l e (4) , 2 r u s t i c beds ( 6 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 2 p l a s t i c b u c k e t s ( 2 ) , 4 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 4 ) , 5 p l a t e s ( 5 ) , 5 mugs ( 5 ) , 5 spoons (10) , 1 gun (3) . 66 17 1 r u s t i c c h a i r ( 1 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed and m a t t r e s s ( 4 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e (1) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 5 p l a t e s ( 5 ) , 3 mugs ( 3 ) , 1 spoon ( 2 ) . 30 18 4 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 4 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t cupboard ( 5 ) , 1 m i r r o r (3) 1 sewing machine (4) , 1 r a d i o (3) , 2 hammocks (4) , 4 r u s t i c beds ( 1 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t bed (5) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 12 p l a t e s ( 1 2 ) , 4 cups ( 4 ) , 6 spoons (12) , 6 p l a s t i c spoons ( 6 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 6 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 6 ) , 1 gun (3) , 1 p i s t o l ( 3 ) . 99 19 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 1 s m a l l s t o r e - b o u g h t cup-bo a r d ( 3 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds and m a t t r e s s e s ( 8 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds (6) , 1 hammock (2) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 2 alum-inum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 2 saucepans ( 6 ) , 4 p l a t e s (4) , 4 spoons (4) . 48 114 TABLE 20 - c o n t i n u e d 20 1 bench ( 1 ) , 2 hammocks ( 4 ) , 5 s l e e p i n g mats ( 5 ) , 2 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 2 ) , 2 p l a t e s ( 2 ) , 2 cups ( 2 ) , 1 spoon ( 2 ) . 18 21 5 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 5 ) , 3 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 9 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 2 s t o r e -bought beds ( 1 0 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 1 m i r r o r ( 3 ) , 12 mugs ( 1 2 ) , 12 p l a s t i c spoons ( 1 2 ) , 12 p l a t e s ( 1 2 ) , 1 k n i f e ( 4 ) , 1 f o r k ( 3 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats (2) , 1 p e t r o l lamp (2) ,1 -'gun ( 3 ) . 96 22 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 2 hammocks ( 2 ) , 2 s l e e p i n g mats ( 2 ) , 4 ju g s ( 8 ) , 5 p l a t e s ( 5 ) , 5 spoons ( 5 ) , 3 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 3 ) , 1 c a s s e r o l e (3) ,. 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 1 c l o c k ( 3 ) . 45 23 6 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 3 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 2 s m a l l s t o r e - b o u g h t cupboards ( 6 ) , 1 sewing machine ( 4 ) , 1 r a d i o (3) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t bed ( 5 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds and m a t t r e s s e s ( 8 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 r e f r i g e r a t o r ( 6 ) , 1 min c e r ( 3 ) , 1 c l o c k ( 3 ) , 1 m i r r o r . (3) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 8 p l a t e s ( 8 ) , 8 cups ( 8 ) , 8 s a u c e r s (24) , 6 spoons ( 1 2 ) , 4 f o r k s ( 1 2 ) , 4 k n i v e s ( 1 6 ) , 2 mugs ( 2 ) , 2 p l a s t i c b u c k e t s ( 2 ) , 6 g l a s s e s ( 1 8 ) , 3 saucepans ( 9 ) , 2 c a s s e r o l e s ( 6 ) . 185 24 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 2 r u s t i c t a b l e s ( 4 ) , 1 bench ( 1 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 sew-i n g machine ( 4 ) , 2 r u s t i c beds ( 6 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 m i r r o r ( 3 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) , 3 aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ( 3 ) , 4 p l a t e s ( 4 ) , 4 spoons ( 8 ) , 3 saucepans ( 9 ) , 2 c a s s e r o l e s ( 6 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 bed s t o r e - b o u g h t ( 6 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 1 min c e r ( 1 ) , 1 c l o c k ( 1 ) , 4 s t o r a g e boxes ( 4 ) , 6 s l e e p i n g mats ( 6 ) , 1 gas s t o v e ( 5 ) . 91 25 3 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 3 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 stores-bought t a b l e (3) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e (2) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 4 r u s t i c beds ( 1 2 ) , 1 p e t r o l lamp ( 2 ) , 1 m i r r o r ( 3 ) , 1 s m a l l s t o r e -bought cupboard ( 3 ) , 1 r u s t i c s t o v e ( 1 ) , 1 w i c k e r b a s k e t ( 1 ) , 3 c u r t a i n s ( 6 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 p l a s t i c bowl ( 1 ) , 3 aluminum cook-i n g p o t s ( 3 ) , 3 p l a t e s ( 3 ) , 3 mugs ( 3 ) , 4 spoons ( 8 ) , 1 saucepan ( 3 ) , 1 gun ( 3 ) . 72 115 TABLE 20 - c o n t i n u e d 26 2 r u s t i c c h a i r s ( 2 ) , 2 s t o r e - b o u g h t c h a i r s ( 6 ) , 1 r u s t i c t a b l e ( 2 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t t a b l e ( 3 ) , 1 s t o r e - b o u g h t bed ( 5 ) , 1 r u s t i c bed ( 3 ) , 1 hammock ( 2 ) , 1 p l a s t i c b u c k e t ( 1 ) , 1 r a d i o ( 3 ) , 1 b i c y c l e ( 4 ) , 3 p l a t e s ( 3 ) , 3 f o r k s ( 9 ) , 3 k n i v e s ( 1 2 ) , 3 mugs ( 3 ) , 2 saucepans ( 6 ) , 1 j u g ( 2 ) . 66 116 o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 19 i s w e i g h t e d as i n t h e e q u i v a l e n t t a b l e i n the c o n t r o l group sample, (Table 8, Ch a p t e r 4 ) , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of some new items, w h i c h d i d not appear i n d o m e s t i c a s s e t a c c u m u l a t i o n s i n the c o n t r o l group sample. T a b l e 21 summarizes i n t a n g i b l e a s s e t s r e l a t e d t o the q u a l i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n — l e v e l s o f l i t e r a c y and h e a l t h , i n c l u d -i n g a l i s t o f t h e most common r e c r e a t i o n s e n j o y e d by each house-h o l d as an i n d e x t o the c u l t u r a l q u a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . As i n t h e e q u i v a l e n t t a b l e i n Ch a p t e r I V , l e v e l s o f l i t e r a c y and h e a l t h and t h e l i s t o f r e c r e a t i o n s a r e c o d i f i e d t o f a c i l i t a t e r a p i d comparison between h o u s e h o l d s . Income The two main s o u r c e s o f cash income earned by members o f the P l a n sample a r e income d e r i v e d from t h e s a l e o f c r o p s and from wage l a b o u r i n c o n s t r u c t i o n works o f t h e G r i j a l v a Commission.-A t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e P l a n i t appears t h a t i n many cases wage l a b o u r p r o v i d e s t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l income e a r n e d , s i n c e t h e a g r a r i a n s e c t o r i s n o t y e t f u l l y o p e r a t i v e . I n a d d i t -i o n , wage l a b o u r i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t as i t i s p a i d on weekly b a s i s , w h i c h p r o v i d e s a more b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ready c a s h t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . On the o t h e r hand, though c r e d i t i s p r o v i d e d f o r c r o p c u l t i v a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e , the b u l k payment o f p r o f i t ( i f any) can o b v i o u s l y o n l y be p a i d a f t e r t h e c r o p s have been s o l d and the amount o f c r e d i t d e d u c t e d . 117 TABLE 21 PLAN SAMPLE - QUALITY OF POPULATION, SELECTED EXAMPLES Household L i t e r a c y H e a l t h of No. o f Changes of P a i r s o f Shoes Re c r e a t i o n s Sample Husband wife Family C l o t h i n g Per Household Member 1 b c u ( l ) H-3.W-4,C1-4 c 2 - 5 . 3 H-2,W-1 i,n,o,p 2 c d u ( 3 ) y ( l ) 2(1) H-3,K-4,C1-3 c2 - 4_2 H-l,w-l, c i - 2 - i i , j ,m 3 c b [ l ] t ( l ) u ( l ) 2(1) H-2,W-4,C1 - 2 . H-1,W-2[1] i ,k ,q 4 c c u(2) H-2,W-1,C1-4, C 2-2 H-l,W-1 i,1,m,n,0 5 c c/d s ( l ) u ( l ) H-2,K-2,C 1 _ 2-3 c3-4-2,c5-l H-l.W-l C 1 _ 2 - 2 , C 3 - 1 i ,k,m,o,p 6 c c/d u ( 2 ) v ( l ) H-3,W-3,C1-3-3 C4-6-2 H-l,W-l,C 1 _ 3-2 C 4 - 6 - l i,1,m,p,q 7 a b s ( l ) u d ) v ( l ) H-3,W-3,C1 _ 3-2 C4-6-1 H-3,W-2,C1 _ 3-2 c 4 - 6 - l k[2],m,n 8 c/d c/d u(4)z(2) H-2,W-1,C 1 _ 4-1 H - l . C 1 - ! i ,m,p 9 c c/d u ( 2 ) v ( l ) x ( l ) H-l,W-l,C 1-3 CH-2 H - l,C 1-2 CH-2 m 10 b c/d u(3) H-2,W-2,C1 _ 4-2 H - l . C 1 - 3 - ! i , j , k [ 3 ] , m 11 c/d c/d H-LW-l.C 1" 4-! H-l 12 c d 2(1) H-3,W-3,C1-5 H-2,W-1,C1-1 l,m,n,o 13 c/d d u ( 2 ) y ( l ) H-2,W-1 H-l j 14 c c r ( l ) u ( 3 ) v ( l ) H-3.W.4[4] c l - 4 . 2 c i - 4 - i j , l , o 15 b c u ( l ) H-12,W-10 H-5,W-7 i,k,1,m,n, o,p 16 b c/d u ( 2 ) v ( l ) z ( l ) H-4,W-5,C1"3-3 H-2,W-2, Cl-3-1 i,j,m,n,p 17 c d s ( l ) u ( 3 ) 2(3) H-2,W-l,C1- 3-l H - l ^ 1 " 2 - ! i,m,p,q 18 b c u ( 4 ) x ( l ) y ( l ) z ( 2 ) H-4,W-2,C~-3 C2-7-2 H-2,C 1-2, c 2 - ^ - i i ,k ,m ,q 19 c c/d s ( l ) v ( l ) x ( l ) H-4,W-5,C 1 _ 2-3 H-l.W-l j,k,m,n 20 c d u(3)2(2) H - 2 , W - l , c l " 2 l - H - l.C 1-! h,k,m,o 21 b c/d u ( 2 ) z ( l ) H-4,W-1 , c l"3 - l H-2,W-1,C1-1 i,m,o,q 22 c d ? H-3,W-2,C 1 _ 4-4 H-2,W-2,C 1 _ 2-1 i,1,m,p 23 a b s ( l ) u ( 2 ) 2(1) H-5,W-6,C1"4-6 H-4,W-2,C 1 _ 2-3 C 3 " 4 - l i , h , k [ 5 ] , m,n,o ,p 24 b d s ( l ) u ( 3 ) H-4,W-7,C 1 _ 3-4 C4-8-1 H - 2 , c l - 8 - l i,k,1,m,o 25 c c/d u(3) H-2,W-2,C1-3-2 C 4 - l H-2,C 1 _ 3-2 C4-1 i,1,m,p,q 26 b c u ( 2 ) v ( l ) y d ) H-3,W-2,C 1 _ 2-1 H - l.C 1-! i,k,m,p U n u s u a l l y the w i f e i s more l i t e r a t e than the husband. She i s employed as t r e a s u r e r of the Consumer's C o o p e r a t i v e and consequently needs more c l o t h e s f o r b u s i n e s s purposes. 2 Reads t e c h n i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l books and a r t i c l e s . ^Reads medical books. Wardrobe i n c l u d e s two paper d r e s s e s . ^Reads e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l books - e.g., ' T e a c h Y o u r s e l f E n g l i s h ' . Coding Key H - Husband, W - Wife, C - C h i l d r e n , CH - C h i l d ' s Husband. L i t e r a c y a - reads and w r i t e s f l u e n t l y , b - reads and w r i t e s w i t h average competence, c - reads and w r i t e s h a l t i n g l y , c/d - reads h a l t i n g l y , w r i t e s name o n l y , d - i l l i t e r a t e . R e c r e a t i o n s g - v i s i t s r e l a t i o n s , h - w r i t e s l e t t e r s , i - l i s t e n s to r a d i o , j - reads B i b l e and r e l i g i o u s books, k - read magazines or newspapers, 1 - go to cinema, m - r e l i g i o u s or n a t i o n a l f i e s t a s , n - s p o r t s ( b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l ) , o - walk to town, p - d r i n k i n g . Health (brackets i n d i c a t e number of people s u f f e r i n g from d i s e a s e ) s - r e c u r r e n t r e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s , t - female d i s o r d e r s , r - i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r s , u - p a r a s i t e s , v - anaemia, w - m a l a r i a , x - c h r o n i c b r o n c h i t u s , y - T.B., z - s i c k n e s s u n i d e n t i f i e d . 118 A t p r e s e n t , no c a s h income i s o b t a i n e d r e g u l a r l y from the s a l e o f l i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s as s t o c k has been reduced i n number by a n i m a l p l a g u e s and f o w l p e s t , and i n any case t h e r e a r e problems w i t h h o u s i n g and f e e d i n g d o m e s t i c a n i m a l s i n the l i m i t e d a r e a o f t h e urban house l o t s . Three households i n G r e g o r i o Mendez supplement t h e i r c a s h income w i t h money earned f r o m , l a b o u r as s k i l l e d a r t i s a n s — t w o h o u s e h o l d heads a r e c a r p e n t e r s and one i s a b l a c k s m i t h . E i g h t h ouseholds r u n s m a l l g e n e r a l s t o r e s i n one room o f t h e i r houses. F i n a l l y , s e v e r a l women i n the v i l l a g e have sewing machines and make c l o t h e s t o o r d e r f o r n e i g h b o u r s . T a b l e 22 c o n t a i n s e s t i m a t e s o f c a s h income earned from the s a l e o f c r o p s d u r i n g the 1967-1968 a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e . The f i g u r e s quoted f o r sugar cane are a c c u r a t e as a l l cane was s o l d t o . t h e sugar m i l l , S a n t a R o s a l i a , and t h e d a t a was o b t a i n e d from t h e i r r e c o r d s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e d a t a on t h e p r o d u c t i o n and s a l e o f sorghum was o b t a i n e d from the accounts o f t h e G r i j a l v a C o m m i s s i o n ' i n Cardenas. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d be g i v e n f o r maize and r i c e as f i n a l p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s were s t i l l n o t a v a i l a b l e a t the time t h i s s u r v e y was completed. C o n s e q u e n t l y , an e s t i m a t e was made o f p o t e n t i a l c a s h income i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s — h i g h income, average income and s m a l l income, based on the number o f h e c t a r e s o f each c r o p i n t h e p a r c e l s o f t h e sample h o u s e h o l d s . T a b l e s 23,.24 and 25 must be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r as a l l t h r e e r e l a t e t o t h e t o t a l c a s h income earned i n wage-labour f o r t h e G r i j a l v a commission. T a b l e 23 shows the t o t a l number o f 119 TABLE 22 PLAN SAMPLE-ESTIMATE OF CASH INCOME EARNED FROM SALE OF CROPS Household Sample Cane 1.1] Sorghum Maize [3] R i c e Amount Cash from Amount Net I n -S o l d i n S a l e i n $ S o l d i n come f r o n Tons Mexican K i l o s s a l e i n $ Mexican a f t e r de-d u c t i o n s [2] 1 5,258[4] _ _ 2 2 - - - - - 1 3 600 13,500 - -4 - - - - 3 1 5 — — - - — 1 6 — _ _ _ _ 2 7 - - - - 3 2 8 240 5,400 - - - -9 200 4,500 - - 2 2 10 — — — — 2 2 11 1 — _ _ 2 1 12 120 2,700 - - - 2 13 - - - - - 3 14 - - - - 3 2 15 — — - - - 1 16 250 5,625 _ — 3 3 17 - - - - - 2 18 - - - - - 2 19 - - - - - 2 20 — — — - — 1 21 — — _ _ 2 2 22 - - - - 3 -23 - - 9 ,704 3,225 3 1 24 - - - , - 1 25 - - - - 2 2 26 - 0[5] 0[5] 2 2 Key t o M a i z e once R a n k i n g s : 1. o v e r 4 h e c t a r e s h i g h income. 2. 2-4 h e c t a r e s average income. 3. under 2 h e c t a r e s s m a l l income. 120 TABLE 22 F o o t n o t e s c o n t i n u e d . The s t a n d a r d r a t e o f payment f o r one t o n o f sugar cane o f f e r e d by t h e I n g e n i o Santa R o s a l i a i s M e xican $55; however, n e t payment r e c e i v e d p e r t o n i s o n l y $22.50 a f t e r d e d u c t i o n s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f t h e c r o p t o t h e I n g e n i o . 2 D e d u c t i o n s i n c l u d e c r e d i t repayment and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . 3 T h i s column i n c l u d e s b o t h mechnaized ' r u s t i c ' maize. 4 T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e amount o f compensation p a i d t o t h e head o f Household I f o r l o s s , o f banana t r e e s due t o l a n d c l e a r a n c e i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e mechanized banana zone, i n w h i c h the p a r c e l h o l d e r w i l l have 2 h e c t a r e s o f i r r i g a t e d bananas. 5 No income r e c e i v e d due t o c r o p f a i l u r e . TABLE 2 3 PLAN SAMPLE-NUMBER OF WEEKS WORKED FOR LA COMISSION DEL GRIJALVA (July 1st 1967-June 30th 1968) House-hold Sample Jul y 1 2 3 4 August 1 2 3 4 5 September 1 2 3 4 October 1 2 3 4 November 1 2 3 4 5 December 1 2 3 4 January 1 2 3 4 5 February 1 2 3 4 March 1 2 3 4 A p r i l 1 2 3 4 May 1 2 3 4 June 1 2 3 4 To t a l Weeks 1 X X X j X X X X X X X X X 12 2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21 3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X I 16 4 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 30 5 1 0 6 X X i 2 7 g X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X i 19 9 i 0 0 10 X X i 2 11 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 23 12 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14 13 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 16 14 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 33 15 0 16 X X X X X X X X 8 17 0 18 X X X 3 19 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14 20 X X X X X X j 6 21 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 48 22 X X X X X X X X X X ' X X X 13 23 X X X X X X 6 24 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 30 25 19 26 -0 Source: Data obtained from the records of La Comission d e l G r i j a l v a , Cardenas, Tabasco 122 weeks worked by t h e head o f each h o u s e h o l d i n t h e sample, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e .'labour weeks1 t h r o u g h o u t the f i s c a l y e a r from J u l y 1 s t 1967 t o June 3.0th 1968. . The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t as i t i n d i c a t e s p e r i o d s when ca s h income from wage-l a b o u r i s r e c e i v e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . T a b l e 24 quotes t h e pay s c a l e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f employees. The p r o g r e s s w h i c h the P l a n C h o n t a l p a p e a s a n t s have made i n a c q u i r i n g con-s t r u c t i o n s k i l l s i s e v i d e n c e d by the v a r i e t y o f employment c a t e g o r i e s . I n i t i a l l y , a l l the p e a s a n t s commenced work as b a s i c w a g e - l a b o u r e r s , however, s e v e r a l have l e a r n e d t r a d e s and become masons, s o l d e r e r s and e l e c t r i c i a n s , and o t h e r s have been p l a c e d i n p o s i t i o n s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as n i g h t watchmen, guards and foremen. T a b l e 25 summarizes n e t income earned from wage-l a b o u r i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n works from J u l y 1 s t 1967 t o June 30th 196 8. E x p e n d i t u r e The main s e c t o r s under w h i c h e x p e n d i t u r e w i l l be con-s i d e r e d a r e — f o o d , h e a l t h , c l o t h i n g , r e c r e a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , house payments and minor d o m e s t i c expenses. As i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, i t p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e on d o m e s t i c a s s e t s such as f u r n i s h i n g s and a p p l i a n c e s , as t h e p e a s a n t s had no c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , and c o u l d n o t even remember w h i c h i t e m s had been pu r c h a s e d i n the l a s t t w e l v e months. T a b l e 26 p r o v i d e s an e s t i m a t e o f weekly, c a s h expend-i t u r e on f o o d p e r h o u s e h o l d . The f i g u r e s were c a l c u l a t e d by 123 TABLE 24 PLAN SAMPLE-PAY SCALES PER CATEGORY OF EMPLOYEE ( J u l y 1 s t 1 9 6 7 - J u l y 30th 1968) Pay S c a l e s : R e v i s e d Pay S c a l e s : J u l y 1 s t 1967-December 30th 1967 $ Mex./hour J a n u a r y 1 s t 1968-June 30th 196 8 $ Mex./hour L a b o u r e r 15.00 17.40 Mason 21.00 21.00 S o l d e r e r 21.00 21.00 S o l d e r e r ' s Mate 18.35 18.35 E l e c t r i c i a n 21.00 21.00 E l e c t r i c i a n 1 s Mate 18.35 18.35 N i g h t Watchman 15.00 15.00 Guard 18.35 18v35 Foreman 35.75 45.00 Sou r c e : Records o f L a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , Cardenas, Tabasco. 124 TABLE 25 PLAN SAMPLE-WAGES EARNED FROM LABOUR IN THE WORKS OF LA COMISSION DEL GRIJALVA (July 1st 1967-June 30th 1968) Household Sample Net Wages After Deductions 1 $ Mex. No. of Weeks Worked 2 Category of Employee 3 1 1,730.89 12 Night watchman Guard 2 3,267.69 21 Night watchman Labourer 3 3,526.38 16 Solderer's mate E l e c t r i c i a n ' s mate 4 3,431.52 30 Labourer Night watchman 5 - - -6 135.55 2 Labourer 7 8 5,974.47 19 Mason 9 10 122.09 2 Labourer 11 2,294.64 23 Labourer 12 2,257.98 14 Labourer 13 2,682.26 16 Labourer 14 4,428.07 33 Labourer Night Watchman 15 - - -16 544.36 8 Labourer 17 - - -18 222.78 3 Labourer 19 3,490.26 14 Labourer Mason 20 653.65 6 Labourer Guard 21 12,663.49 48 Foreman 22 1,589.96 13 Labourer 23 735.01 6 Guard Solderer 24 12,759.83 30 Foreman 25 2,073.44 19 Labourer 26 - - -Source: Records of La Comision del G r i j a l v a , Cardenas, Tabasco. "*"Net wages af t e r deductions: i . e . , a f t e r tax has been deducted, and medical expenses and house repayments where applicable. 2 No. of weeks worked: check Table 23 for s p e c i f i c weeks worked i n t h i s time period. 3See Table 24. TABLE 26 PLAN SAMPLE-ESTIMATES OF WEEKLY CASH EXPENDITURES ON FOOD ITEMS (August, 1968) Household Sample Number of Household Residents Maize K i l o s [1] S Mex. Beans K i l o s [1] S Mex. Rice K i l o s [U 5 Mex. Sugar K i l o s [1] 5 Mex. Pasta K i l o s [1] s Mex. Eggs No. [1] 5 Mex. Meat K i l o s [1] Vegetables S Mex. [1] Coffee K i l o s [1] $ Mex. Bread S Mex [1] Milk $ Mex. Cacao K i l o s m Chocol $ Mex. S a l t $ Mex. [1] Soft Drinks $ Mex. rn F i s h 5 Mex. [1] Misc. S Mex. rn T o t a l $ Mex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 6 4 4 6 6 8 8 4 7 7 3 2 7 2 5 5 11 4 9[3] 8 6 7 10 7 6 14 21 21 5 8 20 6 3 2 8[2 17% 10 a 10 25 a 15 25 18 10 14 14 14 28 12 18 18 4 7 17 5 2% 2 ] 7 15 8% 8% 21 13 21 15 8% 12 12 12 24 2 3% 7 3 1% 6 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2% 1 1 2 8 % 3 1 3% 2 2 3 3 5 9 17% 7% 4 15 2% 5 2% 2% 2% 5 2% 6% 2% 2k 5 20 1% 7% 2% 9 5 5 7% 7% 3 3% 4 1 2 6 1 1 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 7 2 2 2 % 2 3 3 3% 8% 10 11% 3 5% 17 3 3 8% 8% 3 5% 3 5% 3 5% 5% 20 5% 5% 5% 1% 5% 8% 8% 10 2 7 3 1 3% 2 1 2 1 2H 3 1 2 % 2% 1 1 1% 1 1 7 4 8 3% 3% 5% 20 8% 3 10 5% 3 5% 3 7 8% 3 5% 1% 7 3 3 4% 3 3 20 11% 5% 10 10 % ll % 2 2 >! 1 1 % % % % 1 1 1 4 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 10 60 5 6 12 4 12 10 5 18 10 6 30 6 40 12 5% 33 3 3% 6% 2 6>s 5% 3 10 5% 3% 16)i 3>l 22 6% 15 35 50 20 10 20 12 5 15 5 20 30 8 50 25 20 20 50 25 15 13>i 10 40 25 50 15 3 5 5 3 10 2 5 3 2 5 3 10 8 1% t i n 1 % il 1 % % >  % ii 1 % % % % % % 1 % 1 % 9 1% 6 3 3 6 1% 3 3 3 3 6 3 3 3 1% 3 111 6 3 6 1% S 7 10 4 2 2 2 10% 10 2 6 14 2 5 10 16 12 14 6 6 4 3 4% or 5 1% 9 1% 1% 1>I 3 3 1% or 3 3 1% or 3 7% or 12 3 or 6 3 4% 7% or 12 1% 1% or 5 1% % % % Is 1 2 1 % % 1 % H 2 2 2 1 4% 2 4% 2 2 4% 1 1 % 1 4 1 2 2 % 1 3 2 5 2 6 % 2 3 4 8 2 5 8 2 2 1 5 15 6 5 6 10 14 7 12 6 6 6 14 3 10 15 8 30 3 10 2»i 10 10 5 10 10 15 15 5 10 5 5 10 5 15 5 8(f) 1(c) 5(f) 5(f) 7(c)t(b) 5(f)6(c) 76% 123% 107 57% 74% 106 38% 30 80% 37% 85 90% 30% 131% 92% 74 60% 140 113 41 82% 89% 151% 93 188 102 Pr i c e s o f f e r e d by the consumers' cooperative i n Gregorio Mendez i n $ Mexican -Maize SO. 85 / k l l o s ; beans S2.50/kilo; r i c e 52.85/kilo; sugar $1.80/kilo; pasta S2.20/kilo; eggs $0.55 each; coffee S6.00/kilo or 56.00 f o r 1 can Nescafe; bread 50.20/part l o a f ; 1 can powdered milk 55.00/can; 1 can Nestle milk S1.50/can; cacao 54.35 k i l o ; s a l t Sl.OO/small baq; s o f t drink 51.00/a b o t t l e ; t i n c h i l e S0.70/tin. Average p r i c e o f f e r e d by l o c a l traders - Meat 510.00/kilo; milk S 1 . 5 0 / l i t r e ; f i s h 55.00/averaqe s i z e f i s h . ^A p o r t i o n of maize fed to animals. 3 T h i s household's expenditures are high i n proportion to income, since four labourers eat t h e i r mid-day meal here, three times a week. Code: (f) f r u i t ; (c) c h i l e ; (b) b i s c u i t s . 126 m u l t i p l y i n g t h e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f each f o o d i t e m p u r c h a s e d , by t h e p r i c e p e r u n i t v a l u e ( u s u a l l y k i l o s ) o f f e r e d by t h e consumers' c o o p e r a t i v e i n G r e g o r i o Mendez. The f i g u r e s quoted f o r households 1, 3, 9 and 11 have a r e a s o n a b l e degree o f a c c u r a c y s i n c e t h e s e f a m i l i e s were v i s i t e d d a i l y o v e r a one week p e r i o d and a l l f o o d purchases were r e c o r d e d . Data c i t e d f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g households a r e e s t i m a t e s based on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e p e a s a n t s and t h e a c c o u n t s o f t h e consumers', c o - o p e r a t i v e . As i n the c o n t r o l sample, th e e s t i m a t e s o f a l l o c a t i o n o f t o t a l f o o d e x p e n d i t u r e s between th e d i f f e r e n t f o o d i t e m s a r e v a l i d o n l y f o r t h e month of A u g u s t , as b o t h q u a n t i t i e s and t y p e s o f f o o d p u r c h a s e d v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from month t o month. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e amount of money s p e n t on maize f l u c t u a t e s w i d e l y , depending on t h e s t a g e i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e , t h e amount of maize grown by each h o u s e h o l d , and t h e adequacy o f s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h e x p e n d i t u r e on maize i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y h i g h i n August as t h e r e i s s t i l l a month t o go b e f o r e t h e maize h a r v e s t , t h e r e i s a tendency t o compensate by s p e n d i n g l e s s on o t h e r f o o d i t e m s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Thus, as i n the c o n t r o l sample, th e e s t i -mates o f t o t a l weekly f o o d e x p e n d i t u r e s s h o u l d be c l o s e t o t h e weekly average f o r t h e y e a r , and p r o v i d e a rough g u i d e t o annual e x p e n d i t u r e on f o o d . T a b l e 27 p r o v i d e s an e s t i m a t e o f t o t a l income f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r 1967-1968, and summarizes t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e and e x p e n d i t u r e a l l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s i x b u d g e t a r y components. TABLE 27 PLAN SAMPLE-INCOME AND EXPENDITURE TOTALS T o t a l Income T o t a l Expenditure ($ Mex.) ($ Mex.) House- A v a i l - Income House-ho l d able Rank- Recre- Educa- h o l d Sample Crops Wages i n g [ l ] Medical[2] C l o t h i n g a t i o n Food t i o n Payments T o t a l 1 5,258 1,731 Average 111* 400 100-150 5 ,600 36 _ 5,250 2 — 3,268 Average 260* 500 50-100 6,550 24 - 7,400 3 13,500 3,526 High 800(E) 500 250-300 5,650 - - 7 ,250 4 3,432 3,432 High 418* 1,200 350-400 3,050 12 - 5,050 5 - - Low 50 (E) 400 50-100 4,000 36 - 4,550 6 - 135 Low 50 (E) 500 150-200 5,600 36 60 6 ,400 7 - 5,976 High 480** 300 350 2 ,200 36 - 3 ,350 8 5,400 - Average n i l l 125 < 50 1,600 36 - 1,800 9 4,500 - Average 100 (E) 300 < 50 4 ,300 36 - 4 ,800 10 — 122 Average 50(E) - 150 (?) 150 2,050 24 - 2 ,400 11 - 2,295 Average 106* 100 - 4,500 24 - 4,750 12 2,700 2 ,258 Average 115* 300 150-200 4, 750 - - 5 ,350 13 - 2 ,682 Low 50 (E) 450 - 1,600 36 - 2 ,150 14 - 4,428 Average 1,000** 800 200-250 6,900 24 - 8,950 15 - - Average 50 (E) 1,200 500-600 5,000 - - 6 ,800 16 5,625 544 Average 20(E) 500 100-150 3,950 - 30 4 ,650 17 — - Low - 250 < 50 3,150 36 - 3 ,500 18 - 22 3 Low 500** 500 <100 7,400 60 - 8 ,550 19 - 3,490 ' Low 600** 750 150 5,950 - 750 8,200 20 —' 654 Low n i l l 250 50 2 ,150 36 225 2 ,700 21 - 12 ,663 High 2,364* 900 150-200 4 ,400 36 - 7,900 22 — 1,590 Low n i l l 500 250 4,800 24 — 5 ,550 23 3 ,225 735 High 450(E) 750 600 8,050 24 178 10 ,050 24 - 12,760 High 838* 750 700 4,950 60 - 7,298 25 - 2,073 Average 144* 500 200-250 9,850 48 - 10,750 26 Average n i l l 200 100-150 5 ,350 24 5,700 127a Table 2 7 Footnotes: '''Income ranki n g i s based on a s u b j e c t i v e assessment of value of p o t e n t i a l income from crop s a l e p l u s income from wage labo u r . Numbers.marked with a s i n g l e a s t e r i s k are accurate and were obtained from the G r i j a l v a Commission's records as 'deductions from wages f o r medical expenses'. Numbers marked with two a s t e r i s k s r e f e r t o households where medical expenses exceed the amount deducted from wages, and r e p r e s e n t a f a i r l y c l o s e estimate of annual expenditure. Numbers marked (E) are very rough estimates p r o v i d e d by the peasants themselves and should only be used as a guide to a c t u a l expenditure i n t h i s category. High income Average income Low income - > Mexican $10,000 Mexican $5 ,000-$10,000 - < Mexican $5,000 2 The f i g u r e s f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s on c l o t h i n g and r e c r e a t i o n s are p r o v i d e d by the p e a s a n t s t h e m s e l v e s , and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y v e r y rough e s t i m a t e s . Some o f t h e d a t a on average a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e on d o c t o r s and drugs a r e a l s o e s t i m a t e s , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f the f i g u r e s f o r m e d i c a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , and t h e f i g u r e s f o r house payments are a c c u r a t e as t h e y were o b t a i n e d from t h e G r i j a l v a Commission's r e c o r d s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d from a s t a n d a r d s c h o o l r a t e , o f $10 p e r c h i l d p e r annum. As t h e complete f i g u r e s f o r c a s h income earned from c r o p s a l e were u n a v a i l a b l e , a s u b j e c t i v e r a n k i n g o f p o t e n t i a l income was used based on an assessment o f whether h i g h , a v e r a g e , o r low cash income would be e x p e c t e d , depending on the amount o f c a s h - c r o p s i n each p a r c e l . The p r o p o r t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n o f c a s h between each e x p e n d i t u r e c a t e g o r y i s , however, o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h i s c o n t e x t , as t h i s p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r i o r i t y wants f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . As i n the c o n t r o l sample, e x p e n d i t u r e s on f o o d comprise t h e l a r g e s t a l l o c a t i o n o f t o t a l f u n d s ; i n a l l the sample house-h o l d s f o o d e x p e n d i t u r e s c l a i m w e l l o v e r 50% o f t h e t o t a l house-h o l d budget, and f r e q u e n t l y a c c o u n t f o r o v e r 80%. However, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o n t r o l group, c l o t h i n g t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f r e c r e a t i o n as t h e second l a r g e s t e x p e n d i t u r e . Cash o u t l a y on m e d i c i n e s and r e c r e a t i o n s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y o f the same o r d e r and rank t h i r d , f o l l o w e d by e d u c a t i o n a l expenses and l a s t l y , payments on t h e new houses i n G r e g o r i o Mendez. As i n the con-t r o l sample, any s u r p l u s c a s h r e m a i n i n g a f t e r t h e v a r i o u s expen-d i t u r e s have been deducted i s u s u a l l y devoted t o t h e purchase 129 of h o u s e h o l d f u r n i s h i n g s and a p p l i a n c e s . There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e P l a n sample and the c o n t r o l sample w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e upper range o f incomes, and i n f a c t t h r e e households i n the c o n t r o l sample have incomes of o v e r (Mexican) $20,000, e x c e e d i n g t h a t o f any h o u s e h o l d i n the P l a n sample. However, t h e average income p e r ho u s e h o l d i n the P l a n sample i s c l e a r l y c o n s i s t a n t l y f a r h i g h e r than i n t h e c o n t r o l group, w i t h a l l h o u seholds i n the sample r e c e i v i n g an income o f o v e r (Mexican) $2,000. I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t t h i s income i s b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r t h a n i n the c o n t r o l sample, and r e p r e s e n t s n e t income r e -c e i v e d a f t e r t h e s t a n d a r d bank c r e d i t repayments have been made as opposed t o t h e c o n t r o l group i n wh i c h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e c a s h income must f r e q u e n t l y be a l l o c a t e d f o r debt repayment. T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s a re a l s o c o n s i s t a n t l y h i g h e r i n t h e P l a n sample t h a n i n t h e c o n t r o l group sample. Summary o f T a b l e s As i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, a s s e t s produce income w h i c h r e s u l t s i n e x p e n d i t u r e thus p r o d u c i n g a s s e t s . However, we are no l o n g e r d e a l i n g w i t h a pe a s a n t economic system, b u t w i t h a p l a n n e d economy o p e r a t i n g w i t h a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f i n p u t s and c o n s t r a i n t s . Thus, though t h e b a s i c f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e the same i n b o t h systems, t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the component p a r t s o f the P l a n system a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . F i g u r e 2 i s a diagram summarizing; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s components as i n f e r r e d from the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n Diagram 2 - Plan Sample: Summary Diagram I n d i c a t i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s Within the Planned Economic System LAND QUALITY SOIL TYPE, VEGETAL COVER, POTENTIAL FOR MECHANIZED CLEARANCE AND CULT I VAT 10 N LAND AREA (CONSTANT) LABOUR UNITS (CONSTANT) A S S E T S INCOME 'EXPENDITURES DOMESTIC ASSETS CROPS CASH INCOME QUALITY OF POPULATION (HEALTH, EDUCATION, -SKILLS) NoN - FOOD EXPENDITURES FOOD EXPENDITURES O 131 t h i s c h a p t e r . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new s e t o f p r o d u c t i o n methods and g o a l s r e s u l t s i n changes i n t h e t y p e and meaning o f a s s e t s . Thus, l a n d l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o a c c e s s r o a d s , t h e number of l a b o u r u n i t s p e r h o u s e h o l d , and the amount o f l a n d i n each p a r -c e l become c o n s t a n t s , as t h e y a r e more o r l e s s u n i f o r m t h r o u g h -o u t U n i t 28. However, l a n d q u a l i t y i n terms o f s o i l t y p e and amount o f v e g e t a l c o v e r , have t a k e n on added i m p o r t a n c e as r e s o u r c e s o r advantages w i t h economic v a l u e , a f f e c t i n g p r o d u c -t i v i t y by i n f l u e n c i n g t h e t y p e o f c r o p s grown and t h e amount o f mechanized c l e a r a n c e and c u l t i v a t i o n p o s s i b l e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e amount o f income earned from c r o p s a l e . As i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, t h e v a l u e o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s accumulated i n f l u e n c e s the q u a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n terms of t h e h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f each h o u s e h o l d , w h i c h i n t u r n a f f e c t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . However, a new d i m e n s i o n has been added t o t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i n the form o f new s k i l l s a c q u i r e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o u r , w h i c h i s t h e s o u r c e o f a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t o t a l c ash income ear n e d . Thus, th e main d i f f e r e n c e between the p e a s a n t economic system and t h e p l a n n e d economic system i s t h e s o u r c e s o f income; t h e c o n t r o l group depends al m o s t e n t i r e l y on income from c r o p s a l e , w h i l e t h e P l a n sample has a c c e s s t o two income s o u r c e s , from c r o p s a l e and wage l a b o u r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e amount o f c a s h income earned by households i n the P l a n sample depends on b o t h t h e q u a n t i t y and t y p e o f c r o p s produced, and t h e number o f weeks worked i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and the c a t e g o r y of employment. 132 Income i s expended on f o o d and non-food i t e m s , w i t h p r o -p o r t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e between t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s depending on h o u s e h o l d income and t h e t o t a l number o f r e s i d e n t s per h o u s e h o l d , r a t h e r than on t h e amount o f f o o d produced f o r d o m e s t i c consumption as t h i s i s m i n i m a l i n the P l a n sample. The amount o f e x p e n d i t u r e on f o o d feeds back t o a f f e c t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n terms o f h e a l t h , and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n f l u -ences the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the h o u s e h o l d l a b o u r u n i t s . Non-food e x p e n d i t u r e s r e s u l t i n t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d o m e s t i c and p e r s o n a l a s s e t s w h i c h a l s o f e e d back t o i n f l u e n c e q u a l i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n and p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y . Household number 24 i n the sample i s an example o f a w e a l t h y h o u s e h o l d i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s h o u s e h o l d p o s s e s s e s a p a r c e l w i t h good, w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l and s c a t t e r e d f o r e s t c o v e r , p e r m i t t i n g e c o n o m i c a l l a n d c l e a r a n c e and c u l t i v a t i o n by machines. The H h e c t a r e s o f mechanized r i c e i n t h e p a r c e l w i l l p o t e n t i a l l y y i e l d a c a s h income o f o v e r (Mexican) $5,000. The head o f h o u s e h o l d 24 worked as a foreman i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n works f o r t h i r t y weeks between J u l y 1 s t 1967 and June 30th 1968, y i e l d i n g a n e t income o f (Mexican). $12,759.83. H i s s k i l l s and knowledge a c q u i r e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o u r t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s r e l i a b i l i t y as a s u p e r v i s o r , a r e thus a g r e a t a s s e t t o h i s f a m i l y as he i s p a i d $35.75 an hour as opposed t o the b a s i c l a b o u r e r ' s wage o f $15 an hour. The h o u s e h o l d s p e n t an e s t i m a t e d t o t a l o f (Mexican) $7,29 8 d u r i n g t h e y e a r on m e d i c i n e s , c l o t h i n g , r e c r e a t i o n s , f o o d and e d u c a t i o n . Of t h i s t o t a l a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4,950 was 133 expended on f o o d , $700 on r e c r e a t i o n s , $750 on c l o t h i n g , $838 on m e d i c a l expenses and $60 on e d u c a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l o n g - t e r m e x p e n d i t u r e on d o m e s t i c a s s e t s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the above average p o i n t t o t a l o f a s s e t s accumulated (91 p o i n t s ) . The above average e x p e n d i t u r e s on f o o d and non-food i t e m s a l s o appear t o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , as b o t h l i t e r a c y and h e a l t h l e v e l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , w h i c h would t e n d t o have a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y . Household 13 i s t y p i c a l o f t h e l e a s t w e a l t h y households i n t h e sample. The f a m i l y ' s ; p a r c e l has a dense c o v e r o f r o t a -t i o n f o r e s t making l a n d c l e a r a n c e by hand a d i f f i c u l t u n d e r t a k i n g . The p a r t o f U n i t 28 i n w h i c h t h e p a r c e l i s l o c a t e d has n o t y e t been s c h e d u l e d f o r mechanized c l e a r i n g , and t h e h o u s e h o l d has o n l y been a b l e t o c u l t i v a t e 1 h e c t a r e o f r i c e i n t h e p a s t y e a r u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l methods, w h i c h w i l l y i e l d a p o t e n t i a l c a s h income o f w e l l under (Mexican) $5,000. The h o u s e h o l d head worked as a l a b o u r e r i n c o n s t u r c t i o n f o r 13 weeks, and r e c e i v e d a n e t income o f $2,682, thus t o t a l income f o r t h e y e a r would amount t o a l i t t l e o v e r $5,000. The h o u s e h o l d s p e n t an e s t i m a t e d t o t a l o f $2,150 d u r i n g t h e y e a r on m e d i c i n e s , c l o t h i n g , f o o d and e d u c a t i o n . No money was s p e n t on r e c r e a t i o n s , as the f a m i l y c i t e s r e a d i n g t h e B i b l e as t h e i r o n l y 'recreation'.• Of t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e budget a p p r o x i m a t e l y $1,600 was spen t on f o o d , $450 on c l o t h i n g , about $50 on m e d i c i n e s and $36 on e d u c a t i o n . The c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f t h e h o u s e h o l d budget i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e below-average p o i n t t o t a l o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s accumulated ( 2 5 ) , and i s i n -134 d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d i n the low l e v e l s o f h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t must be remembered t h a t U n i t 28 i s p a r t o f a p l a n n e d economic development programme w h i c h i s s t i l l i n the e a r l y s t a g e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a g r i c u l t u r a l system i s i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x , w i t h a l m o s t d a i l y m o d i f i c a t i o n and r e c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n p u t s and components, i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y and thus r a i s e t h e s t a n d a r d and q u a l i t y o f pe a s a n t l i f e as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e system o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o u t l i n e d above h o l d s good o n l y f o r the time o f e x a m i n a t i o n — s u m m e r 1968, as wage l a b o u r i n c o n s t r u c -t i o n and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e l a n d i n terms o f s o i l t y p e and v e g e t a l c o v e r , may no l o n g e r be t h e dominant c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f w e a l t h . Household Wealth and Want P a t t e r n s ; Comparison W i t h  C o n t r o l Sample The main aim o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a i s t o r a i s e t h e p e a s a n t s 1 income and s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g by m o d e r n i z i n g t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l system and i r o n i n g o u t i n e q u a l i t i e s i n l a n d t e n u r e , a g r i c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and income. C o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s has a l r e a d y been a c h i e v e d i n r a i s i n g t h e average amount o f ca s h income earned per h o u s e h o l d , as can be seen i n T a b l e 2 7 as compared t o T a b l e 15 i n Ch a p t e r 4. I n a d d i t i o n , some p r o g r e s s has been made i n e r a d i c a t i n g income i n e q u a l i t i e s , and t h e range i n v a l u e o f i n -come and a s s e t s i n t h e P l a n sample households i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t h a n i n the c o n t r o l sample. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was n o t con-s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o s u b d i v i d e households on the b a s i s of w e a l t h 135 i n o r d e r t o u n d e r t a k e a s u r v e y o f want p a t t e r n s i n the P l a n sample. As i n t h e c o n t r o l sample t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s o f wants were i d e n t i f i e d — f o o d wants, d o m e s t i c wants and p e r s o n a l wants. These wants were th e n a s s e s s e d as deep-seated o r s u p e r f i c i a l depending on t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e as components o f t h e c o n s u m p t i o n - e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n . A n a l y s i s o f f o o d wants r e v e a l s a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f wants i n comparison w i t h t h e c o n t r o l s a m p l e , . w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f new wants such as b r e a d , f i s h , s o f t d r i n k s , d r i n k i n g c h o c o l a t e , and canned goods such as condensed m i l k , N e s c a f e , canned f r u i t , v e g e t a b l e s , meat and f i s h . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e new i t e m s a r e s u p e r f i c i a l wants w h i c h a r e s a t i s f i e d on an i r r e g u l a r b a s i s on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s such as f i e s t a s , o r when s u r p l u s income i s a v a i l a b l e , though t h e y a r e consumed more f r e q u e n t l y by w e a l t h i e r h o u s e h o l d s e a r n i n g a r e g u l a r c a s h income from wage l a b o u r . How-e v e r , canned m i l k and s o f t d r i n k s can be r e g a r d e d as deep-s e a t e d wants as t h e y are r e g u l a r l y consumed by o v e r 50% o f t h e sample h o u s e h o l d s . Canned m i l k i s f r e q u e n t l y used as a s u b s t i -t u t e f o r t h e b r e a s t - f e e d i n g o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n , w h i c h f o r m e r l y used t o be c o n t i n u e d up t o t h e age o f 5 y e a r s o r more. However, no i n s t a n c e s o f a d u l t consumption o f canned m i l k were e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e h o u s e h o l d s . On t h e o t h e r hand, s o f t d r i n k s a r e consumed i n v a s t q u a n t i t i e s by e v e r y member o f t h e 18 households c i t i n g t h i s i t e m as a r e g u l a r w e e k l y e x p e n d i t u r e . T h i s may have un-f o r t u n a t e d i e t e t i c and h e a l t h consequences, e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e s m a l l c h i l d r e n . . As one mother says — 136 My c h i l d r e n won't d r i n k m i l k — o n l y s o f t d r i n k s . The s o c i a l worker says t h i s i s bad f o r t h e m — b u t I don't see why. The l i t t l e ones don't g e t s i c k any more th a n t h e y used t o . Anyway, when t h e y d r i n k a b o t t l e o f pop t h e y a r e n ' t so hungry a l l t h e t i m e and don't want so much t o e a t . L i t t l e mouths s t i l l c o s t enough t o f e e d , and we don't have t h a t much money y e t . 2 F i s h i s i r r e g u l a r l y consumed l a r g e l y because i t i s o f t e n r o t t e n by t h e t i m e t h e t r a d e r s g e t t o G r e g o r i o Mendez, b u t would p r o b a b l y become a deep-seated r e g u l a r l y s a t i s f i e d want i f i t a r r i v e d i n t h e town i n good c o n d i t i o n . B read i s a c o m p l e t e l y new want f o r t h e p e a s a n t s i n t h i s r e g i o n , and i s d e s i r e d as a p r e s t i g e f o o d e a t e n f o r d e s e r t as 'cake* r a t h e r t h a n as a s t a p l e c e r a l — a p o s s i b l e r e p l a c e m e n t f o r the t o r t i l l a . Thus, i t would seem u n l i k e l y t h a t b r e a d w i l l become a deep-seated want i n t h e near f u t u r e , as t r a d i t i o n a l p e a s a n t dependence on maize i s v e r y deep-seated p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p e a s a n t s p r e f e r the t a s t e o f c o r n t o t h a t o f wheat meal, and d i e t a r y t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s a r e g e n e r a l l y v e r y slow t o change as t h e y are d e e p l y r o o t e d w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , canned goods a r e bought l a r g e l y o ut o f c u r i o s i t y f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l and p r e s t i g e r e a s o n s , and the p e a s a n t s p r e f e r f r e s h f i s h , meat and v e g e t a b l e s f o r everyday consumption. The e x t e n t t o w h i c h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e on s u p e r f i c i a l wants i s m o t i v a t e d by c u r i o s i t y and d e s i r e t o I n t e r v i e w w i t h w i f e o f C o n s t a n t i n o Olan Gamas, August 8 t h , 1968. 137 3 e x p e r i m e n t wxth new i t e m s , i s e v i d e n c e d by the wide range o f goods s t o c k e d i n v e r y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s i n the consumer's c o o p e r -a t i v e i n G r e g o r i o Mendez, w h i c h i s run by the p e a s a n t s them-s e l v e s . They were g i v e n f r e e range i n s t o c k i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i v e , and s e l e c t e d i t e m s from the range o f goods s t o c k e d i n the s u p e r -market i n V i l l a h e r m o s a — t h e s t a t e c a p i t a l . Thus, t h e l i s t o f goods i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e i n c l u d e s a number o f well-known, brand name i t e m s w h i c h t h e p e a s a n t s would n o t even have h e a r d o f 5 y e a r s ago,, such a s — T r i u m p h c o o k i n g o i l , A j a x c l e a n s e r , A l k a -S e l z e r , Camel c i g a r e t t e s , C o l g a t e t o o t h p a s t e , J e l l o i n s t a n t p u d d i n g , Camay soap and Fab washing powder. Most o f t h e s e i t e m s were s e l e c t e d s i m p l y out o f c u r i o -s i t y as many o f t h e p e a s a n t s had been i m p r e s s e d by t h e c o l o u r -f u l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n magazines, w h i c h , i n many c a s e s , a r e t h e o n l y p a r t o f p e r i o d i c a l s t h e y can r e a d w i t h any degree o f f a c i l i t y due t o t h e i r low l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y . However, the i n -c l u s i o n o f i t e m s such as soap, d o m e s t i c c l e a n s e r and,washing powder, was i n f l u e n c e d p a r t l y by the s o c i a l workers o f t h e G r i j a l v a Commission who have been u n d e r t a k i n g an i n t e n s i v e d r i v e f o r p e r s o n a l and h o u s e h o l d c l e a n l i n e s s . Deep-seated wants comprise r o u g h l y t h e same range o f i t e m s as i n t h e w e a l t h y group o f households i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, i n c l u d i n g h i g h - c o s t p r e s t i g e foods such as p o u l t r y , meat, eggs and v e g e t a b l e s as w e l l as the b a s i c s t a p l e s such as m a i z e , r i c e , pasta,, beans, s u g a r , c o f f e e , s a l t and cacao. However, •^ A p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by E l i z a b e t h Hoyt, op. c i t . , i n h e r case s t u d y o f peasants i n -v o l v e d w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e U n i t e d F r u i t Company's o p e r a t i o n s i n Guatemala b u t was n o t a p p a r e n t t o Manning Nash, op. c i t . , i n h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f a Guatamalan community. 138 c o n s i d e r a b l y more money i s a l l o c a t e d t o t h e h i g h - p r o t e i n p r e s -t i g e i t e m s such as meat and eggs, t h a n i n t h e c o n t r o l sample. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o n t r o l sample, m i l k can be r e g a r d e d as a d e e p - s e a t e d want. However, as s t a t e d above, m i l k i s s t i l l n o t r e g a r d e d as a commodity f o r a d u l t consumption. I n summary, i t i s c l e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h some households i n t h e c o n t r o l sample spend as much on f o o d as t h e households i n G r e g o r i o Mendez, th e average e x p e n d i t u r e p e r h o u s e h o l d i s c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r i n t h e P l a n sample. I n a d d i t i o n , i t appears t h a t t h e p e a s a n t s respond t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n cash income a v a i l -a b l e f o r f o o d e x p e n d i t u r e s , by d i v e r s i f y i n g s p e n d i n g r a t h e r t h a n p u r c h a s i n g l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l components of the p e a s a n t d i e t . Thus f o o d and d o m e s t i c wants a r e f a r more v a r i e d t h a n i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, i n c l u d i n g more h i g h c o s t , h i g h p r o t e i n f o o d s , and a l a r g e r number of p r e s t i g e s u p e r f i c i a l wants d e s i r e d f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a s o n s . Domestic wants a l s o i n c l u d e a wide v a r i e t y o f b o t h deep-s e a t e d and s u p e r f i c i a l wants. As i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, deep-s e a t e d wants comprise the f u l l range o f home-made r u s t i c f u r n i -t u r e , and u t i l i t a r i a n h o u s e h o l d i t e m s such as c o o k i n g p o t s and e a t i n g u t e n s i l s (See T a b l e s 19 and 2 0 ) . However, a g r e a t e r number o f p r e s t i g e s t o r e - b o u g h t goods can be i n c l u d e d as deep-s e a t e d wants, which.can be s a t i s f i e d by w e l l o v e r 50% o f the sample h o u s e h o l d s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , the use o f k i t c h e n ware and beds, e i t h e r home-made beds w i t h bought m a t t r e s s e s o r s t o r e -bought 'modern style1 beds, has become f a r more w i d e s p r e a d t h a n 139 i n the c o n t r o l sample. Other items w i t h h i g h p r e s t i g e r a t i n g w h i c h are s u p e r f i c i a l wants s a t i s f i e d by o n l y a few w e a l t h y h o useholds i n c l u d e r e f r i g e r a t o r s , gas s t o v e s , box s p r i n g beds, c u t l e r y and h o u s e h o l d ornaments. Even th e p o o r e r h ouseholds i n the sample w i t h t h e l o w e s t p o i n t r a n k i n g o f d o m e s t i c a s s e t s , p o s s e s s some s t o r e - b o u g h t i t e m s , and i t seems l i k e l y t h a t as income i n c r e a s e s w i t h the p r o -g r e s s o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a , many o f the s u p e r f i c i a l p r e s t i g e wants w i l l become i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . However, e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s such as r e f r i g e r a t o r s and 'urban style' modern f u r n i s h i n g s such as b o x - s p r i n g beds r e p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g , and i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t they w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d as deep-seated wants i n t h e near f u t u r e even i f income c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e a t the p r e s e n t r a t e . F o r p e o p l e do n o t buy t h i n g s s i m p l y because t h e y are a v a i l a b l e and can be a f f o r d e d , and t h e r e has t o be a degree o f c o n g r u i t y w i t h l o n g - s t a n d i n g wants. The p e a s a n t s i n t h e P l a n sample do not y e t p e r c e i v e any r e a l need f o r t h e s e a p p l i a n c e s and f u r n i s h i n g s , and they do n o t f i t i n w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t p a t t e r n of l i v i n g , w h i c h s t i l l i n c l u d e s many t r a d i t i o n a l elements o f r u s t i c l i f e i n t h e r e g i o n . S e v e r a l o f the h ouseholds i n G r e g o r i o Mendez buy e x p e n s i v e a p p l i a n c e s and t h e n throw them away when they break-down or use them as cupboards f o r s t o r a g e , w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e peasants a r e n o t y e t ready f o r t h i s t y pe o f commodity. However, the o c c a s i o n a l h o u s e h o l d w i l l c o n t i n u e t o buy t h e s e a p p l i a n c e s and f u r n i s h i n g s f o r p r e s t i g e r e a s o n s , b u t they w i l l n o t become deep-s e a t e d wants u n t i l a r e a l f e l t need d e v e l o p s . 140 As i n t h e c o n t r o l group, p e r s o n a l wants comprise c l o t h i n g , shoes, h e a l t h needs and r e c r e a t i o n a l i t e m s , b u t items f o r p e r -s o n a l adornment .such as c o s m e t i c s , t o i l e t r i e s and d r e s s a c c e s s -o r i e s a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d as a . new component. C l o t h i n g i s a deep-s e a t e d want c l a i m i n g a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y l a r g e r amount o f the t o t a l ' f a m i l y budget t h a n i n t h e c o n t r o l group. T h i s i n c r e a s e d expen-d i t u r e i s due l a r g e l y t o more f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n a t i o n a l and s c h o o l f e s t i v a l s as a response t o community l i v i n g , w h i c h prompts the p e a s a n t s t o spend more money on 'fiesta clothes'. The same r e a s o n p a r t l y e x p l a i n s i n c r e a s e d e x p e n d i t u r e on shoes, and most a d u l t s and s c h o o l - a g e ..children have a t l e a s t one p a i r f o r s uch s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s . However, the s o c i a l workers', campaign t o persuade the p e a s a n t s t o wear shoes t o reduce t h e i n c i d e n c e of hookworm probably, c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n number o f p a i r s o f shoes p e r h o u s e h o l d , though t h e mere f a c t o f p o s s e s s i o n does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e p e a s a n t s do not go b a r e f o o t most o f t h e time i n o r d e r t o a v o i d wear and t e a r on f o o t w a r e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c l o t h i n g and shoes p u r c h a s e d i s somewhat more modern i n s t y l e t h a n i n the c o n t r o l group, r e f l e c t i n g t h e impact o f magazine a d v e r t i z i n g and t h e i n c r e a s e d f r e q u e n c y o f t r i p s t o Cardenas and V i l l a h e r m o s a . However, such i t e m s as j e a n s and h i g h - h e e l e d shoes can s t i l l o n l y be r e g a r d e d as s u p e r f i c i a l wants, and i t seems i m p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e m i n i - s k i r t w i l l become a c c e p t e d a p p a r e l i n G r e g o r i o Mendez f o r many a y e a r . U n l i k e the c o n t r o l group, h e a l t h e x p e n d i t u r e s can be r e g a r d e d as a deep-seated want i n t h e P l a n sample. However, t h i s i s not r e a l l y due t o a change i n want p e r c e p t i o n , b u t r a t h e r \ 141 t o the i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and drugs t h r o u g h th e m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s o f t h e G r i j a l v a Commission. I n a d d i t i o n , t h o s e peasants w o r k i n g as wage l a b o u r e r s i n t h e Commission's c o n s t r u c t i o n works can have the c o s t o f drugs de-d u c t e d out o f t h e i r wages i f they so d e s i r e . T h i s encourages the p e a s a n t s t o seek m e d i c a l a i d and buy d r u g s , as -I t d o e s n ' t h u r t so much t o spend money when you never knew you had i t anyway. 4 The v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l wants i s a l s o a p p r e c i a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, as i s the number o f r e c r e -a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g c a s h o u t l a y . More money i s s p e n t on 'modern' r e c r e a t i o n s such as movies, magazines and books, and the t r a d i t i o n a l p e a s a n t r e c r e a t i o n s such as v i s i t i n g r e l a t i v e s , w a l k i n g t o town, and B i b l e - r e a d i n g are o n l y p r a c t i s e d by t h e o l d e r i n h a b i t a n t s and t h e more 'rabidly' r e l i g i o u s h o u s e h o l d s . The r o l e o f r e l i g i o n i n i n f l u e n c i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l wants i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n one r e s p e c t — t h o s e h ouseholds w h i c h i n c l u d e b o t h B i b l e - r e a d i n g and d r i n k i n g , i n t h e i r l i s t o f r e c r e a t i o n s a r e i n v a r i a b l y C a t h o l i c , w h i l e households l i s t i n g B i b l e - r e a d i n g w i t h o u t d r i n k -i n g , m o v i e - g o i n g , and r e a d i n g magazines a r e i n e v i t a b l y E v a n g e l i c a l — w h i c h i n d i c a t e s the i m p o r t a n c e o f c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n want development. S p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n a l equipment a r e a c o m p l e t e l y new want i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f b i c y c l e s t h e s e must be r e g a r d e d as s u p e r f i c i a l wants e n j o y e d by o n l y a few o f the h o u s e h o l d s . However, the p r o v i s i o n o f s p o r t s f a c i l i t i e s i n 4 I n t e r v i e w w i t h E f r a i n L a r a Barahona, June 3 0 t h , 1968. 142 G r e g o r i o Mendez for. c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s s h o u l d encourage t h i s want t o d e v e l o p on a more w i d e s p r e a d b a s i s . B i c y c l e s can be r e g a r d e d as b o t h d o m e s t i c a s s e t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l i t e m s . I n any c a s e , they r e p r e s e n t a more deep-s e a t e d , w i d e l y s a t i s f i e d want i n t h e P l a n sample t h a n i n the c o n t r o l group. T h i s i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f b i c y c l e s i s due l a r g e l y t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f good a l l - w e a t h e r roads w i t h i n P l a n C h o n t a l p a , whereas r i d i n g a b i c y c l e i s s i m p l y n o t f e a s i b l e i n A r r o y o Hondo i n the r a i n y season. I n a d d i t i o n t h e c o n t r o l group p e a s a n t p r e f e r s a h o r s e t o a b i c y c l e f o r u t i l i t a r i a n r easons as a work a n i m a l f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g c r o p s and r o u n d i n g up s t o c k , whereas t h e pe a s a n t i n t h e P l a n sample has a c c e s s t o t r u c k s p r o -v i d e d by t h e G r i j a l v a Commission. The younger p e a s a n t s i n p a r -t i c u l a r p r e f e r b i c y c l e s as t h e y have t o spend l e s s time each day w a l k i n g t o t h e i r p a r c e l s and can go i n t o town i n t h e e v e n i n g s , and a l s o a b i c y c l e does not have t o be f e d . F i n a l l y , t h e p r e v -a l e n c e o f b i c y c l e s i n G r e g o r i o Mendez i s a good i n d i c a t o r o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e P l a n sample peasants have moved away from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r u s t i c way o f l i f e . C o s m e t i c s , t o i l e t r i e s , and d r e s s a c c e s s o r i e s such as handbags and w r i s t watches c o n s t i t u t e s u p e r f i c i a l wants w h i c h a r e s a t i s f i e d by o n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e sample h o u s e h o l d s , though-; t h e number o f p e o p l e b u y i n g t h e s e i t e m s , however s p o r -a d i c a l l y , has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d o ver the l a s t two y e a r s due b o t h t o the impact o f magazine and r a d i o a d v e r t i z i n g and the example s e t by the young t e a c h e r s and s o c i a l workers employed by the Commission. 143 F i n a l l y , a growing want f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e i n c r e a s i n g e n r o l l m e n t i n a d u l t l i t e r a c y , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e and h a n d i c r a f t c l a s s e s o r g a n i z e d by t h e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s . C o n c l u s i o n s On Want P a t t e r n s : comparison w i t h c o n t r o l sample I t i s c l e a r t h a t want p a t t e r n s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y be-tween t h e P l a n sample and t h e c o n t r o l sample, b o t h i n the t y p e o f wants e x h i b i t e d and i n t h e degree o f want s a t i s f a c t i o n o b t a i n e d . The P l a n sample households e x h i b i t more p r e s t i g e wants f o r h i g h -c o s t s t o r e - b o u g h t goods,, and are a b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e a g r e a t e r number o f t h e s e items i n t o t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g as deep-s e a t e d wants. They are a l s o a b l e t o buy l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s o f b a s i c u t i l i t a r i a n i tems and thus a c h i e v e a h i g h e r degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e wants. The h i g h e r average income i n the P l a n sample i s c l e a r l y t h e o p e r a t i v e f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the i n c r e a s e d degree o f s a t i s -f a c t i o n o f wants common t o b o t h samples. I n c r e a s e d income i s a l s o i n d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e wide v a r i e t y o f wants e x h i b i t e d by the P l a n sample as opposed t o t h e c o n t r o l group, as t h e P l a n p e a s a n t s have been l i b e r a t e d from t h e s t r u g g l e t o keep t h e i r f a m i l i e s a l i v e , and have s u f f i c i e n t s u r p l u s c a s h t o u n d e r t a k e a c e r t a i n amount o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g . However, t h e r e i s no . d i r e c t l i n k between the i n c r e a s e i n c a s h income and t h e t y p e o f wants d e s i r e d by the P l a n sample p e a s a n t s , f o r i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t an a r t i c l e i s a v a i l -a b l e and can be a f f o r d e d does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t i t w i l l become a r e g u l a r , component o f t h e consumption p a t t e r n . Thus, a l t h o u g h most o f the households i n t h e P l a n sample can a f f o r d t o wear shoes e v e r y day, they have not become a deep-seated want i n s p i t e o f the e f f o r t s o f n u r s e s and s o c i a l w o r k e r s , as t h e y are n o t p a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l peasant w e a r i n g a p p a r e l and the p e a s a n t does n o t p e r c e i v e any r e a l need f o r them. The key f a c t o r i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s u p e r f i c i a l wants i n t o d eep-seated wants i s thus t h e degree o f c o m p a t a b i l i t y w i t h the e x i s t i n g , c u l t u r a l m a t r i x and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e v a l u e system, o r . . c u l t u r a l , f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e . . . Thus many o f t h e s u p e r -f i c i a l wants w h i c h are t h e p r o d u c t o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g a r e u n l i k e l y t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d as deep-seated wants, as t h e y a r e prompted by c u r i o s i t y and t h e d i c t a t e s o f a d v e r t i z i n g and are p a s s i n g whims which, have no r e a l 'fit' w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and g e n e r a l way o f l i f e o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n G r e g o r i o Mendez. However, i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a 'modern1 way o f l i f e due t o t h e i n n o v a t i o n s o f P l a n C h o n t a l p a , and consequent improvements i n l i t e r a c y , g r e a t e r e x p o s u r e . t o mass media, and more c o n t a c t w i t h the 'other Mexicans1 — e n g i n e e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e rs and o t h e r w e l l - e d u c a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , has r e s u l t e d i n t h e g e n e s i s o f new deep-seated wants w h i c h have a l r e a d y been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s t a n d a r d o f consumption. Thus, items such as r a d i o s , b i c y c l e s , sewing machines, modern c l o t h i n g , m e d i c i n e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l i t e m s , w h i c h are g e n e r a l l y s u p e r f i c i a l wants i n t h e c o n t r o l sample, have become deep-seated wants i n t h e P l a n sample, due t o t h e s e changes i n the peasant way o f l i f e and 145 c o r r e s p o n d i n g change i n a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , as w e l l as the i n c r e a s e i n c a s h income w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g t h e p e a s a n t s t o t h e p o i n t where the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e wants i s p o s s i b l e . The i n c r e a s e i n c a s h income i n the P l a n sample has p e r m i t t e d a g r e a t e r degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o f deep-seated wants a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e c o n t r o l group. However, i n many cases t h e s e l o n g - s t a n d i n g wants have a c q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l d imensions o r new meaning i n t h e P l a n c o n t e x t as a r e s u l t o f changes i n a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v e s and a s p i r a t i o n s . For. example, e x p e n d i t u r e on r e c r e a t i o n s and f i e s t a s , has moved away from t r a d i t i o n a l components a l o n g more modern l i n e s . However, some o f t h e new wants d e v e l o p e d i n t h e P l a n sample as a response t o i n c r e a s e d exposure t o a modern way o f l i f e , have been m o d i f i e d i n meaning t o g i v e a b e t t e r 'fit' w i t h t h e p e a s a n t s ' v a l u e system w h i c h s t i l l r e t a i n s many t r a d i -t i o n a l e l e m e n t s . Thus> the p e a s a n t s i n t h e P l a n sample e x h i b i t a s u p e r f i c i a l want f o r w h i t e b r e a d , b u t t h i s i s d e s i r e d as a cake w i t h 'treat1 c o n n o t a t i o n s r a t h e r than as a b a s i c d i e t a r y component, as wheat cannot compete w i t h c o r n as a s t a p l e g r a i n f o r i t would c o n f l i c t w i t h e x i s t i n g p e a s a n t v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n want p a t t e r n between th e c o n t r o l group and t h e P l a n sample, the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g between th e two groups i s f a r l e s s . t h a n may be e x p e c t e d . T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e i s much h i g h e r w i t h i n t h e P l a n sample, b u t t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n every-day e x p e n d i t u r e s , and d e s p i t e the improvements w h i c h P l a n C h o n t a l p a has made i n t h e q u a l i t y o f the environment th e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f t h e P l a n sample households i s o n l y a l i t t l e h i g h e r 146 t h a n t h a t o f t h e w e a l t h i e s t households i n the c o n t r o l sample. S e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s can be suggested f o r t h i s a p p arent anomaly. F i r s t l y , t h e e f f e c t s o f o t h e r developments i n Tabasco a p a r t from P l a n C h o n t a l p a such as improvements i n t h e commun-i c a t i o n network and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f the s u g a r , cacao and p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r i e s , a r e more w i d e s p r e a d t h a n appears i n i t i a l l y i n terms o f impact on peasant a c h i e v e m e n t - m o t i v a t i o n , a s p i r a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . S e c o n d l y , the h i g h degree o f experimen-t a l s p e n d i n g undertaken, by the peasants i n the P l a n sample r e -t a r d s t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f new wants w i t h i n t h e permanent consum-p t i o n p a t t e r n , as t h e way o f l i f e o f the s e p e o p l e has changed r a d i c a l l y . i n a v e r y s h o r t time and they have n o t y e t had time t o d e v e l o p .many new p r i o r i t y wants f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i r d l y , t h e p e a s a n t s a r e unaccustomed t o r e c e i v i n g c a s h income on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e p l a n n i n g o f e x p e n d i t u r e and l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e meaning o f b u d g e t i n g and s a v i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , some degree o f c u l t u r e shock i s e v i d e n t and i t w i l l be some time b e f o r e t h e r e i s f u l l a djustment t o t h e change i n l i f e way, and t h e embryonic changes i n a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s have been c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o the c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e . F i n a l l y , some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l new wants c o n f l i c t w i t h the c u l t u r a l m a t r i x w h i c h r e t a r d s o r p r e v e n t s t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . I n summary, t h e c o n t r o l group sample r e p r e s e n t s a t r a -d i t i o n a l p e a s a n t s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e r a t e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c change i s a c c e l e r a t i n g due t o i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h c a s h -147 c r o p a g r i c u l t u r e . Consequently,, t h e want p a t t e r n shows a m i x t u r e of t r a d i t i o n a l deep-seated p e a s a n t wants, w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f some new it e m s w h i c h have a s u f f i c i e n t degree o f c o n g r u i t y w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l m a t r i x t o be a c c e p t e d as d e e p - s e a t e d , r e g u l a r l y s a t i s f i e d wants i f income c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e . On the o t h e r hand, the P l a n sample r e p r e s e n t s a peasant group w h i c h has been i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n e d a c c e l e r a t e d change, i n v o l v i n g r a d i c a l d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e a s a n t l i f e - w a y and c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e s . Thus, t h e want p a t t e r n comprises a b l e n d o f new s u p e r f i c i a l wants w h i c h a r e the r e s u l t o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g , new deep-seated wants w h i c h a re consequent on changes i n v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s t r i g g e r e d o f f by t h e P l a n , and o l d l o n g - s t a n d i n g wants w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o the many t r a d i t i o n a l elements o f t h e peasant way o f l i f e and v a l u e system w h i c h s t i l l p e r s i s t i n t h e P l a n sample. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS ON WANT DEVELOPMENT R e f e r r i n g back t o t h e q u e s t i o n s asked and t h e h y p o t h e s i s e r e c t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y , c h a p t e r , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n t r o l group and the P l a n sample has c l e a r l y shown t h a t i n c r e a s e d c a s h income s t i m u l a t e s changes i n e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s and t h a t c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n wants can be i d e n t i f i e d . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t s uch a s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n c r e a s e d income and t h e development o f new sp e n d i n g p a t t e r n s , g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f changes i n a t t i t u d e s and a s p i r a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by P l a n C h o n t a l p a . However, t h e r e i s no s i m p l e l i n k between i n c r e a s e d p u r -c h a s i n g power and consumption. The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a s h income m e r e l y a c t s as a c a t a l y s t t o change i n wants, as p o t e n t i a l wants a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y adopted m e r e l y because t h e o p p o r t u n i t y i s a v a i l a b l e and t h e items can be a f f o r d e d . Thus t h e main s i g n i f i -cance o f i n c r e a s e d income i s t h a t i t b r i n g s t h e consumer t o t h e p o i n t where s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l wants i s p o s s i b l e . I t has been shown t h a t change i n wants i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n o f change i n p e r c e p t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n c r e a s e d income, f o r a l l wants o r i g i n a t e i n t h e c u l t u r a l frame-o f - r e f e r e n c e o r v a l u e system. Thus, i t appears t h a t change i n the v a l u e system i t s e l f i n terms o f changes i n a t t i t u d e s , m o t i -v a t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s , i s p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the development o f new wants and t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f o l d wants, w h i c h i n t u r n s t i m u -l a t e s f u r t h e r r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e system. Thus, the amount o f income a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p e n d i t u r e and t h e number of a l t e r n a t i v e want c h o i c e s p o s s i b l e are secondary i n i m p o r t a n c e t o the r o l e o f t h e v a l u e system i n want development. The key f a c t o r i n want development i s d i s p o s i t i o n s t o buy w h i c h o r i g i n -a t e w i t h i n t h e v a l u e system. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t has been shown t h a t the u l t i m a t e d e c i d -i n g f a c t o r as t o whether o r not a s u p e r f i c i a l want w i l l be a c c e p t e d as a r e g u l a r l y s a t i s f i e d d e e p - seated want, i s t h e degree of c o m p a t a b i l i t y w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l m a t r i x formed by the sum o f a l l components o f t o t a l way o f l i f e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r a new p o t e n t i a l want t o become p a r t o f /the s t a n d a r d of cpnsum p t i o n , i t must n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l m a t r i x as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e v a l u e system. The comparison between the P l a n sample and the c o n t r o l group i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n o f t h e r a t e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c change a l s o a c c e l e r a t e s the r a t e o f want development. The a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s e d c a s h income makes p o s s i b l e a g r e a t e r degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o f o l d l o n g - s t a n d i n g wants, and t h e r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e system accompanying s o c i o - e c o n o m i c change causes some o l d wants t o a c q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s w i t h i n t h e new c o n t e x t . However, i t became c l e a r t h a t t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f new want development consequent on income i n c r e a s e , was c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by a p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g on a wide v a r i e t y o f s u p e r f i c i a l wants w h i c h a r e u n l i k e l y t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d as d e e p - seated wants, as t h e y a r e prompted by c u r i o s i t y and are p a s s i n g 1 whims1 w h i c h have no r e a l c u l t u r a l c o n g r u i t y . Conse-150 q u e n t l y , i n c r e a s e d s p e n d i n g on want s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the P l a n sample has a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e impact on t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g i n comparison w i t h t h e c o n t r o l group, as t h e h i g h degree o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s p e n d i n g r e t a r d s i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f new wants w i t h i n t h e permanent consumption p a t t e r n . Thus, i n c r e a s e d income does n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , a t l e a s t i n t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t m o t i v e s f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s on s u p e r f i c i a l wants i n f l u e n c e the l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e i r a d o p t i o n as d e e p - s e a t e d wants. I n p a r t i c u l a r , wants m o t i v a t e d by d e s i r e f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a r e u n l i k e l y t o be v e r y d u r a b l e once i n i t i a l c u r i o s i t y has been s a t i s f i e d . N e i t h e r a r e 1 prestige * wants m o t i -v a t e d s i m p l y by a d e s i r e t o d i s p l a y w e a l t h l i k e l y . t o be l o n g -l a s t i n g , a s : " . . . p r e s t i g e i s a f u n c t i o n o f f a s h i o n , and f a s h i o n , by d e f i n i t i o n , i s m erely a p a s s i n g f a d . " 1 Thus, i t appears t h a t a s u p e r f i c i a l want, has a b e t t e r chance o f becoming a perm-anent component of t h e consumption p a t t e r n i f i t has some u t i l i t a r i a n a s p e c t s and f u l f i l s a r e a l 'felt need'. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s unwise t o make any s p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g p o s s i b l e f u t u r e p a t t e r n s o f consumption based on t h e s e new want d e v e l o p -ments , as new wants a r e o f t e n more i m p o r t a n t as symbols t h a n as u t i l i t a r i a n a d d i t i o n s t o t h e s t a n d a r d o f consumption. I n c o n c l u s i o n , a n a l y s i s o f c h a n g i n g income and expen-d i t u r e p a t t e r n s seems t o be a u s e f u l method of i d e n t i f y i n g See C h a p t e r IV, page 99 change i n wants. However, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o c e e d beyond i d e n t i f i c a t i o n towards a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s o f want development, w i t h o u t a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r o l e p l a y e d by the c u l t u r a l f r a m e - o f - r e f e r e n c e o r v a l u e system, b o t h i n g i v i n g b i r t h t o new wants and i n i n f l u e n c i n g whether o r n o t they w i l l be a c c e p t e d as permanent components o f t h e p a t t e r n o f consumption. Thus th e n e x t s t e p i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a c o n n e c t e d t h e o r y o f want development s h o u l d l o g i c a l l y be a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e r o l e p l a y e d by t h e v a l u e system i n t h a t p r o c e s s , SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bauer, P.T., Yamey, B.S. The Economics o f Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s . Cambridge, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. Belshaw, C.S. 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Transforming- T r a d i t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r e . New Haven, Conn., Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. S h a f e r f R o b e r t J . M e x i c o . M u t u a l Adjustment P l a n n i n g . S y r a c u s e , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. 156 S h a p i r o , Samuel, ed. I n t e r g r a t i o n o f Man and S o c i e t y i n L a t i n A m e r i c a . N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a , U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame, 1967. Smelser,, N e i l . The S o c i o l o g y o f Economic L i f e . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1963. Tax, S o l . Penny C a p i t a l i s m . A Guatemalan I n d i a n Economy. C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chica g o P r e s s , 1963. V e l i z , C l a u d i o . O b s t a c l e s t o Change i n L a t i n A m e r i c a . New Yo r k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Wagley, C h a r l e s . Economics o f a Guatemalan V i l l a g e . Menasha, W i s c o n s i n , American A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Memoir No. 58, 1941. W a r r i n e r , Doreen. The Economics o f Pe a s a n t Farming. London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939. Whetten, N.L. R u r a l M e x i c o . C h i c a g o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , . 1948. W i l k i e , James W. The Mexican R e v o l u t i o n : F e d e r a l E x p e n d i t u r e  and S o c i a l Change S i n c e 1910. B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1967. Wol f , E r i c R. Peas a n t s . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e -H a l l , 1966. de Z o r i t a , A l o n s o . ( L i f e and Labour i n A n c i e n t Mexico) The  B r i e f and Summary R e l a t i o n s o f the L o r d s o f New Spain, T r a n s l a t e d and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Benjamin Keen, New B r u n s w i c k , R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. A r t i c l e s and. P e r i o d i c a l s A t k i n s o n , J.P. " M o t i v a t i o n a l D e t e r m i n a n t s o f R i s k - T a k i n g B e h a v i o u r , " Psycho l o g i c a l Review. V o l . 54,. 1957, pp. 359-372. 157 Breslaw,. B.T.. "The Development o f a Socio-Economic A t t i t u d e , " A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y . No. 226, 1938, pp. 5-96. Ba y t o n , James A. " M o t i v a t i o n , C o g n i t i o n , L e a r n i n g - B a s i c F a c t o r s i n Consumer B e h a v i o u r , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g . V o l . 22, J a n u a r y 1958, pp. 282-2 89. F o s t e r , George M. "Community Development and t h e Image o f the S t a t i c Economy," Community Development B u l l e t i n . V o l . 12, 1961, pp. 124-128. " I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n Pe a s a n t S o c i e t y , " Human O r g a n i z a t i o n . V o l . 19, 1960-1961, pp. 174-184. "Peasant S o c i e t y and t h e Image o f L i m i t e d Good," American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t . V o l . 67, 1965, pp. 293-315. F r a n k , J.D. "Some P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e L e v e l o f A s p i r a t i o n , " American J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . V o l . 47, 1935, pp. 286-293. Green, James W. "Community Development as Economic Develop-ment: The R o l e o f V a l u e O r i e n t a t i o n s , " Community  DeveTopment Review. V o l . 5, pp. 1-10. Hoyt, E l i z a b e t h . "Want Development i n Underdeveloped A r e a s , " J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Economics. V o l . 49, June 1951, pp. 194-202. K a t o n a , George. " R a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r and Economic B e h a v i o u r , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review. V o l . 60, 1953, pp. 307-318. L e w i n , K u r t . " F o r c e s B e h i n d Food H a b i t s and Methods o f Change," B u l l e t i n o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . No. 108, 1943, pp. 35-65.. Nash, Manning. "The M u l t i p l e S o c i e t y i n Economic Development: Mexico and Guatemala," American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t . V o l . 59, 1957, pp. 825-833. 158 O p l e r , M o r r i s E. "Problems C o n c e r n i n g O f f i c i a l and P o p u l a r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Development P r o j e c t s , " Economic De- velopment and C u l t u r a l Change. V o l . 2, 1954, pp. 269-278. R e d f i e l d , R o b e r t . "The F o l k S o c i e t y , " American J o u r n a l o f  S o c i o l o g y . V o l . 42,. J a n u a r y 1947, pp. 293-308. S c o t t , W.A. " E m p i r i c a l Assessment o f V a l u e s and I d e o l o g i e s , " A merican S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. V o l . 23, 1959, pp. 299-309. S j o b e r g , Gideon. " F o l k and F e u d a l S o c i e t i e s , " American  J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y . V o l . 48, November 1952, pp. 231-239. S w i f t , M i c h a e l . "The A c c u m u l a t i o n o f C a p i t a l i n a Peasant Economy," Economic Development and C u l t u r a l Change. V o l . 5, 1956-1957, pp. 325-337. Tax, S o l . "Changing Consumption i n I n d i a n Guatemala," Econ-omic Development and C u l t u r a l Change. V o l . 5, 1956-1957, pp. 147-158. ________ "The Freedom t o Make M i s t a k e s , " A m e r i c a I n d i g e n a . V o l . 16, 1956, pp. 171-177. T o b i n , James. "On the P r e d i c t i v e V a l u e o f Consumer I n t e n t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s , " Review o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . V o l . 51, 1959, pp. 1-16. Wagley, C h a r l e s ; H a r r i s , M a r v i n . "A Typology o f L a t i n American S u b c u l t u r e s , " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t . V o l . 47, June 1955, pp. 428-451. Wolf, E r i c . "Types o f L a t i n American P e a s a n t r y : A P r e l i m i n a r y D i s c u s s i o n , " American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t . V o l . 57, 1955, pp. 452-470. 159 Government P u b l i c a t i o n s Banco N a c i o n a l de Comercio E x t e r i o r . Mexico 1966. Hechos, C i f r a s , T e n d e n c i a s • M e x i c o , D.F., 1966. N a c i o n a l F i n a n c i e r a S.A. S t a t i s t i c s o n t h e M e xican Economy. M e x i c o , D.F., 1966. S a n t a m a r i a , F r a n c i s c o J . Documentos H i s t o r i c o s de: Tabasco, V o l s . I and I I . V i l l a h e r m o s a Tabasco, P u b l i c a c i o n e s d e l G o b i e r n o d e l E s t a d o , 1951. S e c r e t a r i a de A g r i c u l t u r a y G a n a d e r i a , S e c r e t a r i a de H a cienda y C r e d i t o P u b l i c o , Banco de M e x i c o , P r o j e c t i o n s o f  S upply o f and Demand ,f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s i n Mex- i c o t o 1965, 1970 and 1975. J e r u s a l e m , U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1966. S e c r e t a r i a de I n d u s t r i a y Comercio, D i r e c c i o n G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a . A n u a r i o E s t a d i s t i c o Compendiado, 1966 M e x i c o , D.F., 1967. S e c r e t a r i a de I n d u s t r i a y Comercio. D i r e c c i o n G e n e r a l de E s t a d i s t i c a . IV Gensos A g r i c u l a , Ganadero y E j i d a l  1960. Resumen G e n e r a l . M e x i c o , D.F., 1960. U n p u b l i s h e d Documents and Other Sources I t a l c o n s u l t A r g e n t i n a , and C.I.E.P.S. I n g e n i e r o s C o n s u l t o r e s . Banco I n t e r - A m e r i c a n o de D e s a r r o l l o . S e c r e t a r i a de  Recursos H i d r a u l i c o s : P r o y e c t o P i l o t o E l Limon, La  C h o n t a l p a , Tabasco, M e x i c o . V o l s . I-V, M e x i c o , D.F., 1963. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h I n g . C a r l o s M o l i n a R., V o c a l E j e c u t i v o de l a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , and I n g . J a v i e r V a l l e G a r c i a , V o c a l S e c r e t a r i o de l a C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a , and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l o f La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a and t h e Banco I n t e r -Americano de D e s a r r o l l o . Summer 1967 and Summer 1968. La C o m i s i o n d e l G r i j a l v a . U n p u b l i s h e d documents, r e p o r t s and a c c o u n t s , 1965-1968. APPENDIX A - 1 E x t r a c t from i n t e r v i e w w i t h head o f Household 5 i n the C o n t r o l Sample ( l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n from t h e S p a n i s h , w i t h some e d i t i o n a l comments i n b r a c k e t s ) . " W e l l h e r e we a r e as: e j i d a t a r i o s f i g h t i n g t h e l a n d t h e "Govern-ment gave us. We have had t o work and work a l l our l i v e s t o g a i n a l i v i n g from t h e s o i l . Each o f us here has 12 h e c t a r e s , e x a c t l y t h e same. But o f c o u r s e some o f us work h a r d e r t h a n o t h e r s ( l a u g h t e r ) . I n t h i s p a r t o f the e j i d o n e a r l y a i l o f t h e p a r c e l s a r e i n cane and cacao (he means n e a r l y everybody has some o f t h e s e c r o p s b u t t h e q u a n t i t i e s a re o f t e n m i n u t e ) . I , m y s e l f have t e n h e c t a r e s o f cane, and two h e c t a r e s o f cacao o r t h e r e a b o u t s . We have been growing cane here f o r about 6 y e a r s . We s t a r t e d t o grow cacao s e r i o u s l y a l i t t l e e a r l i e r about 1960 (N.B. when t h e p r o d u c e r s ' c o o p e r a t i v e s came i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n C a r d e n a s ) . B e f o r e t h a t i t was o n l y maize and beans. We never grew r i c e ; I don't know why. When the I n g e n i o s t a r t e d expand-i n g we t o o k t h e chance o f e a r n i n g a l i t t l e more, and those who c o u l d , grew s u g a r . I t depends a l o t on your p a r c e l though — m o s t o f mine was h i g h p a s t u r e and not f l o o d e d v e r y e a s i l y . The poor boys w i t h pure f o r e s t o r l o w l a n d — w e l l t h e y are t o o busy c l e a r i n g w i t h machete o r swimming t o l o o k a f t e r cane. We s e l l our cane t o the I n g e n i o , y e s . T h i s y e a r t h e y pay $55 pesos a t o n b u t i t v a r i e s from y e a r t o y e a r . L a s t y e a r i t was a l i t t l e h i g h e r b u t I don't know why. We c l e a r about $22.50 a f t e r a l l t h e o t h e r c o s t s have been t a k e n o f f — i t ' s a l o t , no? They t a k e t h e b i g g e s t p a r t f o r t h e i r expenses. S t i l l i t ' s a l i v i n g . The r e t u r n s p e r h e c t a r e a r e q u i t e good f o r t h e f i r s t c u t t i n g , about 120 tons p e r h e c t a r e . R i g h t now I'm g e t t i n g 100 tons on t h e f i f t h c u t t i n g . I'm a member o f the cacao c o o p e r -a t i v e t o o ; we a l l a r e . They pay $5 p e r / k i l o . I used t o have a l o t o f ca c a o , b u t when my sons grew up I s p l i t up t h e l a n d amongst them and now I have o n l y 50 0 t r e e s l e f t f o r m y s e l f . The boys have 400 t r e e s and 350 t r e e s each. So r i g h t now I s e l l about 80 k i l o s a y e a r w h i c h i s n ' t v e r y much r e a l l y . - My f a m i l y i s l a r g e e n o u g h — ( l a u g h t e r ) — I have e i g h t c h i l d r e n i n t h i s f a m i l y , 4 boys and 4 g i r l s : b u t I have a n o t h e r f a m i l y t o o n o t f a r from h e r e w i t h 7 c h i l d r e n , ( i . e . , 2 w i v e s ) . R i g h t now o n l y one o f the g i r l s i s l i v i n g h ere a t h o m e — a l l the r e s t ar e o f f my hands. Three o f my sons i n t h i s f a m i l y have l a n d here i n the e j i d o , buy one has moved o v e r t o H u i m a n g u i l l o . - A n i m a l s : I have 4 p i g s and 15 c h i c k e n s . The p l a g u e d i d n ' t a f f e c t us he r e as much as i t d i d f u r t h e r down t h e r o a d . - I was b o r n h e r e and l i v e d here a l l my l i f e . My f a t h e r worked on t h e o l d F i n e a S a n t a T e r e s a . I have been t o V i l l a h e r m o s a and C o a t z a c o a l c a s b u t t h e r e a r e some p e o p l e 'inside 1 ( i . e . , away from t h e roads) who have never been t o Gardenas,.. I am 55 y e a r s o l d , b u t I l o o k a l o t o l d e r don't I ? That's what h a r d work does t o you. When I h e a r d t h e y were g i v i n g n a t i o n a l l a n d t o t h e pe a s a n t s ( i . e . , when t h i s a r e a was o r i g i n a l l y b e i n g 162 d i v i d e d up i n t o e j i d o s i n t h e 19 30's) I d e c i d e d t o s t a y . Anyway where e l s e c o u l d I go? T h i s i s my c o u n t r y . So I was the f i r s t P r e s i d e n t o f the e j i d o A r r o y o Hondo and s e r v e d a second term about 10 y e a r s l a t e r . - P l a n C h o n t a l p a - w e l l , who knows—we are accustomed t o c u l t i -v a t e t h e l a n d on our own, t o l i v i n g on our own i n our own houses. I ask m y s e l f , how a r e we g o i n g t o l i v e i n t h e s e new towns? (Brought up s u b j e c t h i m s e l f — n o p r o m p t i n g ) . X don't know much about t h e P l a n i t s e l f ; I o n l y know th e y move you i n t o towns i n t o l i t t l e houses w i t h v e r y s m a l l garden l o t s — n o room f o r a n y t h i n g t h e r e . Where am I g o i n g t o p u t my a n i m a l s then? Of c o u r s e I am i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e machines and t h e h e l p they g i v e t h e f a r m e r s , we need a l l t h e h e l p we can g e t . On t h e w h o le, we t h i n k t h e P l a n i s a good t h i n g f o r t h e p e a s a n t i f we c o u l d s t a y i n our own homes on our own p l o t s o f l a n d , something i n the form of a c o l o n y maybe—yes a c o l o n y w i t h Government h e l p would be t h e r i g h t t h i n g . I t ' s about time t h e Government d i d something. I've v i s i t e d t h e towns s e v e r a l t i m e s b u t I t h i n k i t ' s b e t t e r t o l i v e a t home. A t l e a s t t h e r e i s room t o l i v e h e r e . APPENDIX A - 2 PLAN SAMPLE: QUESTIONNAIRE - SUMMER 1968 U 28 ( E n g l i s h V e r s i o n ) PERSONAL DATA Name House Number P a r c e l Number B i r t h p l a c e o f Household Head . . . . i I f b o r n o u t o f t h e r e g i o n - r e a s o n f o r coming t o t h e C h o n t a l p a Number o f Household R e s i d e n t s , L i t e r a c y o f P a r e n t s ? ; O f f i c i a l P o s i t i o n s h e l d by F a m i l y Head DOMESTIC ASSETS F u r n i t u r e T a b l e C h a i r Bench Radio Cupboard Sewing Mechine Beds Hammock Other C l o t h i n g I n t e r i o r House D e c o r a t i o n 164 Cook i n g U t e n s i l s L u x u r y A r t i c l e s and R e c r e a t i o n a l Items A n i m a l A s s e t s L i v e w i t h a n i m a l s ? .................. i C h i c k e n houses? O u t b u i l d i n g s ? Fenced l o t . . ; . L o t Use T o o l s and implements House E x t e n s i o n s EXPENDITURES A. E x p e n d i t u r e on F o o d , ( E s t i m a t e s ) : D i e t e t i c I n f o r m a t i o n 1. S t a p l e foods -2. Number o f meals d a i l y ? A t what hou r s ? 3. T y p i c a l d i e t - foods consumed a t each meal? 4. F o o d s t u f f s grown by h o u s e h o l d i n p a r c e l ? 5. F o o d s t u f f s k e p t r e g u l a r l y i n the house. 6. Member o f the Consumers' C o o p e r a t i v e ? .... 7. Number o f times a week purchases a r e made? Where and w h i c h shops? ...... .8. Number o f tim e s a month purchases a r e made i n Cardenas? . ........ ............ . . .Which i t e m s ? ....... . ^  . 9:. Q u a n t i t y o f f o o d s t u f f s bought each week? Maize ....... Meat ............ . F r u i t ........... . Cacao Beans ....... M i l k ........... Vege- S a l t t a b l e s ........ P a s t a s ....... Cheese ......... Eggs ............ Candy & B i s c u i t s ........ R i c e F i s h .......... . C h i l e ...... . S o f t D r i n k s B r e a d . . . . . . . . C o f f e e . . . . . . Sugar Other ........... 10. E s t i m a t e - how much money spent on f o o d p e r week? ($ Mexican) B. Non-Food E x p e n d i t u r e s ( E s t i m a t e s i n $ Mexican) 1. Domestic e x p e n d i t u r e s - average monthly e x p e n d i t u r e s . 2. C l o t h i n g - average y e a r l y e x p e n d i t u r e . 3. A r t i c l e s o f l u x u r y and r e c r e a t i o n - average y e a r l y e x p e n d i t u r e 4. E d u c a t i o n - y e a r l y e x p e n d i t u r e .............. i ........... 5. M e d i c a l expenses - y e a r l y average 166 C. I n f o r m a t i o n : L i s t - main r e c r e a t i o n s 1. What ty p e o f movies do you l i k e ? 2. Type o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l ? . 3. What ty p e o f r a d i o programmes do you l i k e ? - amount o f l i s t e n i n g t i m e ? . . . ; • . .. .. .. • ..• 4. Any i n c r e a s e i n e x p e n d i t u r e o f time and money i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ? D. P e a s a n t e s t i m a t e of main changes i n d i r e c t i o n and amount o f expenses s i n c e i n i t i a t i o n o f P l a n . A P P E N D E X B M A P S MAP P L A N C H O N T A L P A L O C A T I O N MAP 2 P L A N C H O N T A L P A A G R O - E C O N O M I C U N I T S 8 N E W U R B A N C E N T R E S SOURCE: A D A P T E D FROM MAP DRAWN B Y L a C O M I S I O N D E L G R I J A L V A ( 1 9 6 6 ) MAP 3 LOCATION OF EJIDO A R R O Y O HONDO IN R E L A T I O N TO T H E A G R O - E C O N O M I C UNITS OF P L A N C H O N T A L P A N5 N.S-0 SOURCE: ADAPTED FROM MAP DRAWN BY La COMISION DEL GRIJALVA (1966) iCARDEN AS — LEGEND— EJIDO ARROYO HONDO (CONTROL SAMPLE) I KM. V///A U N I T 2 8 _ P L A N CHONTALPA {PLAN SAMPLE) P. PRIVADA — PRIVATE PROPERTY APPENDIX C GLOSSARY OF SPANISH TERMS USED IN TEXT a c a h u a l low r o t a t i o n s c r u b f o r e s t c o n q u i s t a d o r  e j i d a t a r i o  e j i d o encomienda f i n e a i n g e n i o (de azucar) m i l p a m u n i c i p i o p o z o l rancho one o f t h e o r i g i n a l S p a n i s h conquerors o f t h e New World p e a s a n t h o l d i n g u s u f r u c t t i t l e t o an e j i d a l p l o t a form o f l a n d t e n u r e o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e b r e a k -down o f t h e l a r g e e s t a t e s i n the p o s t - R e v o l u -t i o n a r y l a n d r e f o r m , i n whi c h the group form-i n g t h e e j i d o h o l d s the l a n d t i t l e and the i n d i v i d u a l members have o n l y u s u f r u c t r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d a system g r a n t i n g I n d i a n s t o S p a n i s h c o n q u e r o r s , who were o b l i g a t e d t o p r o t e c t t h e i r charges i n r e t u r n f o r t r i b u t e and .labour. A g r a n t o f l a n d o f t e n accompanied t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f moderate s i z e , r a r e l y ex-c e e d i n g 100 h e c t a r e s i n the C h o n t a l p a sugar r e f i n e r y c l e a r i n g f o r maize c u l t i v a t i o n l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o the N o r t h American county a p a s t e o f maize and w a t e r consumed as a beverage p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s i m i l a r i n s i z e t o a f i n e a 

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