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Integration of publicly-sponsored housing programs with the development plan : cases of Ghana and Israel Poku, Sam 1969

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INTEGRATION OF PUBLICLY - SPONSORED HOUSING PROGRAMS WITH THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN: CASES OF GHANA AND ISRAEL by SAM POKU B.A. (Hons.) U n i v e r s i t y of Ghana, Legon 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d stand^rdfl ,THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose of the study i s to s u b s t a n t i a t e and document the n o t i o n t h a t , i f government-sponsored housing i s e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the development p l a n , i t can c o n s t i t u t e an:' e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r socioeconomic development. The use of hous-i n g as an instrument f o r economic development i s w i d e l y recog-n i z e d "by many de v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Ghana. Since housing, urban and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , c o n s t i t u t e some of the elements of development p l a n n i n g , they can no more be allowed to operate i n i s o l a t i o n than can any other major a c t i v i t y . Based on the f i n d i n g s of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s and t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s , i t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t housing can c o n t r i b u t e to worker p r o d u c t i v i t y and e x t e r n a l economies. In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i t i s noted t h a t housing c o n d i t i o n s c e r t a i n l y have some e f f e c t on h e a l t h and l o n g e v i t y , hence p r o d u c t i v i t y . In the l a t t e r case, some e x t e r n a l economies can be reaped i f , f o r example, r e s o u r c e development i n a remote l o c a t i o n i s supported w i t h housing to a t t r a c t workers or to prevent w a s t e f u l com-muting. Thus, housing can be used to p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the emerging geographic p a t t e r n of economic a c t i v i t i e s which I t s e l f determines, by and l a r g e , the new p a t t e r n of l a n d use, popula-t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , and f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of c i t i e s and s e t t l e m e n t s . I t Is p o i n t e d out t h a t the q u e s t i o n of implement-i n g housing schemes should be concerned w i t h how best to handle i n e v i t a b l e changes i n the s o c i a l environment i n the e a r l y stages of economic development through proper p l a n n i n g . A case study of I s r a e l i s presented t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t housing c o u l d be adapted t o economic development by t r e a t i n g housing programs as some of the e s s e n t i a l elements of the d e v e l -opment p l a n . I t i s argued t h a t the c o n t r i b u t i o n of housing to the economic advancement of I s r a e l , much as i t i s hard i f not im p o s s i b l e to eva l u a t e i n i s o l a t i o n , cannot be d i s m i s s e d as i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The conscious manner i n which housing programs are e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h development p l a n n i n g , i t i s p o i n t e d out, should serve as a l e s s o n to other d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . I s r a e l ' s experience demonstrates, and would seem t o support, the n o t i o n t h a t housing can be used to support a g r i -c u l t u r a l developments, i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and even as an instrument f o r p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l c a l c u l a t e d to f o s t e r economic development. Using s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a based on the I s r a e l i experience and a g a i n s t the background of development p l a n n i n g , the r e l a -t i o n between government-sponsored housing and p l a n n i n g i n Ghana i s e v a l u a t e d . I t i s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t mainly because the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n which b u i l d s most p u b l i c p r o j e c t s operates without a g u i d i n g program r e l a t e d t o other develop-ment programs, i t s a c t i v i t i e s a re f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h p l a n n i n g i n an adverse manner. Again, f o r l a c k of programing, i n t e g r a t e d d e c i s i o n s on housing f o r l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , or n a t i o n a l purposes, are out of the q u e s t i o n as f a r as the C o r p o r a t i o n i s concerned. An examination o f the e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c a l program of p l a n -n i n g f o r Ghana r e v e a l s the prospect f o r e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of i i i h ousing programs w i t h development p l a n n i n g . I t i s concluded t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u t i l i z i n g government-sponsored housing f o r economic development w i l l be more a v a i l a b l e , i f the newly-created Housing D i v i s i o n and other r e l e v a n t agencies are i n v o l v e d more i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION General I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Purpose of Study 2 Scope of Study........ 3 The Problem of R e l a t i n g Housing to Planning... 4 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem to Ghana 1 1 Hypothesis of Study 1 5 Organization of Study 1 5 I I . ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF HOUSING INVESTMENT Housing i n N a t i o n a l Economy 1 7 Housing and Worker P r o d u c t i v i t y 24 Housing and Related I n d u s t r i e s : Consequences f o r Labor and the Economy 29 Housing and Domestic Personal Savings M o b i l i z a t i o n 3 1 Summary. 3 5 I I I . LINKING HOUSING PROGRAMS WITH DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: CASE OF ISRAEL I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 7 CHAPTER PAGE Circumstances f o r Housing Programs i n I s r a e l . . . 38 P o l i c y f o r D i s p e r s a l of P o p u l a t i o n 4-1 Machinery of P o p u l a t i o n D i s p e r s a l 4-3 The Role of the Housing D i v i s i o n 47 Housing and the N a t i o n a l Economy 52 Housing as a Source of Employment 54 Economic Importance of A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlements 56 Lessons of I s r a e l ' s E x p e r i e n c e . . . .59 IV. EVALUATION OF HOUSING AND PLANNING IN GHANA The Seven-Year Development P l a n . . . . 63 P l a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Departmental Machinery f o r C o o r d i n a t i o n 66 Housing i n the Seven-Year Development P l a n . . . 67 The V o l t a Resettlement Scheme 68 Housing i n S e l e c t e d C i t i e s and Towns 69 The Role of the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . . . . 70 C o n c l u s i o n 75 V. THE PROSPECT FOR RELATING HOUSING TO PLANNING IN GHANA P r a c t i c a l Program of P l a n n i n g i n Ghana 79 Programing U n i t s 81 I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l P l a n n i n g Committee 82 Comment on Program of Pla n n i n g 82 Need f o r Pre-determined Plans f o r Housing Schemes 83 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S p a t i a l P l a n n i n g 87 BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX PAGE 1 . Ghana i n R e l a t i o n to West A f r i c a 98 2 . P o p u l a t i o n Growth 1891-1960 99 3 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i v i s i o n s 100 4 . P o p u l a t i o n of P r i n c i p a l Towns 1898 to i 9 6 0 . . . . 101 5 . Area, P o p u l a t i o n and Po p u l a t i o n Density of the Regions, i 9 6 0 102 6 . Ghana: I n t e r r e g i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Flows...in Excess of 30,000 Persons 103 7 . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Po p u l a t i o n , 1948 104 8. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Popu l a t i o n , i960 104 9. S i z e of L o c a l i t y , 1948 and i960 105 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 . I s r a e l : Increase of P o p u l a t i o n 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 6 3 ... 40 2 . I s r a e l : D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n i n 1 9 4 8 4 5 3 . I s r a e l : D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n i n 1 9 6 1 . . . . 4 5 4 . Israel':' Proposed D i s t r i b u t i o n of A Future Popula-.. t i o n of 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 I n h a b i t a n t s ( 1 9 8 2 ) 46 5 . Change i n P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n i n I s r a e l 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 6 3 48 6% I s r a e l : A g r i c u l t u r a l Region Concept 5 8 ?. S k e l e t a l D e s c r i p t i o n of the S t r u c t u r e of P r a c t i c a l Program of P l a n n i n g f o r Ghana 8 0 8 . I n t e g r a t i o n of Plans f o r P u b l i c l y - s p o n s o r e d Housing w i t h Development P l a n 8 8 LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I D i s t r i b u t i o n of N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Savings Between Commercial Banks and C r e d i t C o o p e r a t i v es, 1961-1962, Peru , 34 I I I s r a e l : Government A l l o c a t i o n i n Housing 194-9-1955. 53 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Of a l l the marvellous people who have been so e x c e e d i n g l y h e l p f u l i n g e t t i n g t h i s study done, I would l i k e to thank e s p e c i a l l y Dr. N. d. Cherukupalle, f o r her c r i t i c i s m s , Dr. H. Peter Oberlander, D i r e c t o r of the School of P l a n n i n g , f o r h i s c o n s t a n t guidance; the r e s t of the s t a f f f o r t h e i r a m i a b i l i t y , and Owura Kwame Yeboah, a wonderful f r i e n d , who spared no pains i n sending me important m a t e r i a l s from home. My s i n c e r e thanks go to Mrs. J.K. Jephson f o r p a i n s t a k i n g l y t y p i n g the d r a f t and f i n a l c o p i e s . F i n a l l y , I am g r a t e f u l to the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency and the Government of Ghana f o r sponsoring my two-year study program a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION General Introduction At the national l e v e l governments i n developing countries recognize that a housing problem presents an obstacle to rapid economic growth which t h e i r countries want to achieve. There-fore, public investment c r i t e r i o n f o r housing i s based on the recognition of the benefits of housing i n socioeconomic devel-opment. The objective of l i n k i n g housing programs with the national development plan i s to use housing as a tool for eco-nomic development. This i s as i t should be, since both econom-i c and s o c i a l change are i n t e g r a l parts of one process, that of development. The emerging geographic pattern of economic a c t i v i t i e s along with housing and other programs determines, by and large, the new pattern of land use, population r e d i s t r i b u t i o n and functional organization of c i t i e s and settlements. And once fixed , the new pattern can only be improved through the burden-some and expensive process of demolition and renewal. The glar -ing issue today i s how best to handle the inevitable changes i n the s o c i a l environment i n the early stages of development. Lloyd Rodwin presents his opinion by stating that: One thing i s c e r t a i n : the welter of problems cannot be d e c i s i v e l y attacked piecemeal. That would be an endless Sisyphean labor. These countries need to influence markedly, and with minimum e f f o r t , many c r i t i c a l determinants of urban development. Probably 2 the most important goal for urban p o l i c y i n develop-ing areas must be to create t h i s a b i l i t y and to use i t wisely.^ Here Lloyd Rodwin i s not suggesting that a developing country should put a l l i t s resources into housing and urban development i n order to eradicate urban problems overnight. He i s i n d i c a t i n g that many of the basic decisions on urban develop-ment (and one might add r u r a l development) are not, and for some p r a c t i c a l purposes, cannot, be made by the market mechanism. They involve public p o l i c y on the character of land use control systems and decisions on public investment of c a p i t a l f o r urban overhead, including housing. It w i l l seem reasonable to suggest, then, that i t i s f a i r l y probable that the improved standard i n q u a l i t y and quantity of housing, no matter how scanty, w i l l not be obtained by merely increasing housing investment, but also by implementing c a r e f u l l y formulated programs that are e f f e c t i v e l y integrated with the over-a l l development plan. This means that i n order to achieve both s o c i a l and economic gains as quickly and as e f f i c i e n t l y as pos-s i b l e , with minimum diversion of resources, housing may be used along with other development tools i n pursuit of economic develop-ment through s a t i s f a c t o r y planning. The Purpose of Study The purpose of t h i s study, then, i s to substantiate and document the notion that by e f f e c t i v e l y l i n k i n g housing programs 1 Lloyd Rodwin, "Metropolitan Policy for Developing Areas," i n (ed), Walter Isard, Regional Economic Planning: Technique of Analysis for Less Developed Areas"; (0.E.E.C. Paris: 1961), p. 221. with other programs i n the development plan the former can constitute a tool for economic development. The objective i s to investigate those, conditions the existence of which f a c i l i -tates or hampers the integration of housing with other a c t i v i -t i e s , and to establish whether or not public housing i s effec-t i v e l y integrated with planning i n Ghana. Scope of Study This study, i s about developing countries with case studies of Ghana and I s r a e l . I t i s recognized that general statements about developing countries are extremely unsafe to make. And for this reason, very few r e l i a b l e references w i l l be made to these countries, and as s p e c i f i c a l l y as possible. Most of the data to be used i s secondary and i s gathered from books, published documents, and papers on the subject. Although there i s a l o t of l i t e r a t u r e on the economic r o l e of housing, empirical studies of the subject are very scarce and lim i t e d i n scope. This i s the major l i m i t a t i o n of the study. In dispensing with clear-cut data on external economies of housing, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the treatment of the re l a t i o n s h i p between housing and economic development as tentative as i t i s , should not be seen as an attempt to provide clear-cut answers to the hypothesis to be tested. While we are s t i l l behind a compre-hensive understanding of the re l a t i o n s h i p between housing and socioeconomic development by many years, the way of empirical research i s through the formulation and testing of such a hypothesis. The Problem of Relating Housing to Planning Confronted with problems of poverty and economic develop-ment, the majority of governments i n developing countries have had to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r development planning to ensure that economic and s o c i a l advancement would ac t u a l l y occur i n th e i r countries. In recent years, according to a United Nations 2 Report, almost a l l countries have prepared national development plans. Gunmar Myrdal defines a national development plan as: a program for the strategy of a national government i n applying a system of state interference with the play of market forces, thereby conditioning them i n such a way as to give an upward push to the developmental process.^ Its function i s to provide guidelines for the use of scarce resources and to indicate the methods of implementation. Reflected i n a number of countries which possess develop-ment plans i s the recognition of housing as a t o o l for economic development. Almost a l l these countries have some form of public housing programs which are linked to the economy as a whole. Some programs are made mandatory requiring the performance of c l e a r l y - defined tasks, while others are general directions concerning building development. A planned economy could have a 2 United Nations, Development Plans: Appraisal of Targets  and Progress i n Developing Countries, ("New York: 1965) , P«23 3 Gunmar Myrdal, "National Economic Planning i n Underdeveloped Countries," Rich Lands and Poor, (New York: Harper Brothers Publishers, 1957) , P-81 ^ Glenn Beyer, Housing and Society, (New York: MacMillan Company, 1965), P» 5^6 . w e l l d e f i n e d s t r u c t u r e o f o n e - y e a r p r o g r a m s , f o u r - y e a r o r f i v e -y e a r p rogram and p e r s p e c t i v e p l a n s c o v e r i n g 1 5 t o 2 0 y e a r s . The degree o f p r e c i s i o n I n the l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t he t a r g e t s a s s i g n e d and the p a r t p l a y e d by l o c a l f a c t o r s d u r i n g the p r e p a -r a t i o n o f t h e programs a r e bound up w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n o f t he c o u n t r y . I n some c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , h o u s i n g programs a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d by i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n c i e s , u s u a l l y h o u s i n g banks o r o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n f i n a n c i n g and b u i l d i n g h o u s i n g . I n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , Ghana f o r e x a m p l e , the b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e under s e v e r a l depa r tmen t s o f t he g o v e r n m e n t . As a U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e p o r t i n d i c a t e s : A h o u s i n g program c u t s a c r o s s so many f i e l d s t h a t i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d h o u s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y - o f m i n i s t r i e s and government f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , p u b l i c works H o u s i n g needs a r e i n s e p a r a b l e f rom o t h e r community needs , such as w a t e r s u p p l y , s a n i t a r y d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s and r o a d s . . . ^ D e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e f o r e , have n o t o n l y a h o u s i n g p r o b l e m i n te rms o f d w e l l i n g s h o r t a g e s , o f t e n e s t i m a t e d by the g o v e r n -ment , bu t a l s o i n te rms o f c o o r d i n a t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g . A c u r s o r y o v e r v i e w o f deve lopment p l a n s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s r e v e a l s t h a t the s t r a t e g y f o r s e t t i n g up new d e v e l o p -ment programs and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t r a t e g y f o r h o u s i n g , ^ B u r e a u o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f P r o g r e s s  o f S o c i a l Deve lopmen t , (New Y o r k : 1 9 5 5 ) » P« 4 5 . 6 although made e x p l i c i t at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , are h a r d l y s p e l l e d out i n d e t a i l and executed a t the l o c a l l e v e l i n time and place as i n t e g r a l p a r t s of the development p l a n . Several examples of problems of c o o r d i n a t i n g development a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t i n many c o u n t r i e s . The P a k i s t a n i c e n t r a l planning agency pointed out during the country's F i r s t Five Year Pl a n t h a t , " c o o r d i n a t i o n i n the true sense of u n i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p at v i t a l p o i n t s i s g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g . " In Jamaica, the Department of Housing was planning.to c o n s t r u c t a housing p r o j e c t on the same land which The M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e was preparing to f l o o d f o r 7 i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t . The shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y / ' i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n — making, and f a c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , have l e d to many cases of confusion as can be seen from the above example. This f a i l u r e to r e l a t e housing to other elements of the development p l a n has obviously engaged the a t t e n t i o n of housers, economists, and planners f o r some time. Housing, urban and r e g i o n a l planning c o n s t i t u t e some of the elements of planning. As Charles Abrams points out: ...They are root programs, out of which other a c t i v i t i e s s p r i n g . They can no more" be allowed to operate i n i s o l a t i o n than can; any other major a c t i v i t y . g The i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a housing program that i s u n r e l a t e d to the 6 P a k i s t a n , N a t i o n a l Planning Board, F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n , 1955 - I 9 6 0 , p. 94. ? C i t e d i n A l b e r t Waterston, Development Planning - Lessons  of Experience,(Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1 9 6 5 ) . p. 2 5 1 . 8 Charles Abrams, Man's Struggle f o r S h e l t e r i n an Urban-i z i n g World, (Camb. Mass: The MIT Press, 1966), p. 218. 7 t o t a l urban context, f o r example, can be manifest i n s e v e r a l ways. From a s o c i a l p o i n t of view, a housing p r o j e c t u n r e l a t e d to the t o t a l urban p i c t u r e can i s o l a t e s o c i a l groups from the mainstream of the l o c a l urban make-up by p r o v i d i n g d w e l l i n g s unsuited to the c u l t u r a l background and based upon imported c u l -9 t u r a l v a l u e s . According to F r a n c i s V i o l i c h , a c o n s i s t e n t f a u l t of most housing developments i s that they tend to i s o l a t e t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s from the main s o c i a l f a b r i c of community l i f e and thus impede t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n b r i n g i n g about a higher s o c i a l standard of housing. One example can be c i t e d i n C h i l e , where some $42 m i l l i o n was spent i n 196]] on post-earthquake c o n s t r u c t i o n , b u i l d i n g about 2 5 , 0 0 0 d w e l l i n g u n i t s . Particu'-l a r l y l a c k i n g were the elements and s t r u c t u r e about which a town should be composed to s u i t the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l back-ground set of values and way of l i f e of the occupants. From an economic p o i n t of view, housing u n r e l a t e d to planning can f a l l to r e l a t e to a l o c a l economic base upon which the r e c i p i e n t s of housing can r e l y f o r employment i n the r i g h t l o c a t i o n and of a s u i t a b l e type. In terms of p h y s i c a l develop-ment of urban areas, whole patterns of c i t i e s can be a f f e c t e d by d e c i s i o n s i n the l o c a t i o n and design of housing development i n r e l a t i o n to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , community f a c i l i t i e s and employment. Without r e l a t i n g housing developments t h o u g h t f u l l y to long-range urban growth p a t t e r n s , we are l e a d i n g to undesirable and q F r a n c i s V i o l i c h , "Urban Planning Framework f o r Housing A i d Abroad," i n Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, Subcommittee on Housing, Committee on Banking and Currency, United States Senate, (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 1 2 9 . 8. unworkable me t r o p o l i t a n areas and unacceptable l i v i n g commu-n i t i e s looked at as u n i t s of three-dimensional design. The problem of r e l a t i n g housing- to planning has. a l s o been 10 e x t e n s i v e l y discussed by Catherine Bauer Wurster. She postu-l a t e s that urban growth i n developing c o u n t r i e s i s unavoidable and e s s e n t i a l f o r economic and s o c i a l progress, but that i t i s a l s o c o s t l y . Urban s o c i a l overhead expenditures must, t h e r e f o r e , be kept as low as p o s s i b l e during t h i s c r i t i c a l p e r i o d of r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n , i f p r o d u c t i v i t y i s to be adequately increased. To give an idea of how the cost of c e r t a i n elements such as housing and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are a f f e c t e d , Professor Wurster i s o l a t e s the "more obvious v a r i a b l e s " of c i t y s i z e ( i n popula-t i o n terms), d e n s i t y and area and f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , p a r t i c -u l a r l y the r e l a t i o n between home and work p l a c e s . I f the comparative costs and b e n e f i t s of d i f f e r e n t patterns are to be assessed, the e f f e c t of these v a r i a b l e s on s p e c i f i c elements i n the urban environment must be considered. Thus, f o r example, we can consider housing and i t s impact on d e n s i t y . C i t y s i z e per se has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on housing c o s t s . But the high land p r i c e s and r e l a t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y problems which are of t e n prevalent i n growing c i t i e s both tend to increase the r e q u i r e d d e n s i t y of r e s i d e n t i a l development. And den s i t y i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the cost of housing c o n s t r u c t i o n . Apart from the geographic v a r i a b l e , increased c i t y s i z e and de n s i t y probably tend to make f o r economy i n , f o r example, water Catherine Bauer Wurster, "Urban L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s , Over-head Costs and the Development P a t t e r n . " i n E k i s t i c s , v o l . 13, March 1962, pp. 139-L4-4-. 9 d i s t r i b u t i o n system and sewerage system. For any a l t e r n a t i v e method, however, r e l a t i v e l y low density i s usually an essential factor i n i t s f e a s i b i l i t y for decent and healthy urban l i v i n g . Size and density can, therefore, work together i n both ways to some degree. There i s also the question of transportation: The effects of si z e , density, and functional structure. The e f f e c t of size and transportation costs i s q u a l i f i e d by two f a c t o r s . One i s density, which i n t h i s case makes for economy u n t i l t r a f f i c jams begin to counter-balance geographic proximity. The other i s c i t y structure, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of relationships between homes and work opportunities. I f most people l i v e f a i r l y close to an adequate job market, whether i n the main centre or elsewhere, community costs w i l l not be high even i f the c i t y i s large. But where employment i n a big c i t y i s either highly centralized, . so dispersed that job markets tend to spread over a wide area, or i s otherwise unrelated to places of residence, transportation problems and costs are l i k e l y to be maximum. Now i t i s well recognized that i t w i l l be worth-while to consider ways and means for the integration of d i f f e r e n t kinds of industry on, say, a regional basis and then to provide hous-ing to cater to t h e i r combined requirements. A housing scheme can play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n contributing to accommodation needs of i n d u s t r i a l workers i f i t i s linked with physical planning. Of course, i t i s often argued that the trend towards i n d u s t r i a l and population concentration i n a few major areas, io because of p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s , cannot be d i v e r t e d whatever the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l c o s t s . This view tends to ignore the e f f e c t of p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s on l o c a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n s . Industry and business r e q u i r e many s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s — from u t i l i t i e s to good schools, housing e t c . — w h i c h are l a r g e l y provided by the government. What i s being overlooked i s that while housing, s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s are e x c e l l e n t instruments f o r reducing s o c i a l c o s t s , they are, nonetheless, u s u a l l y not adapted to t r e a t i n g or c r e a t i n g the e x t e r n a l economies, the fundamental c o n t r i b u t i o n of u r b a n i z a t i o n to the development process. These e x t e r n a l economies grow w i t h i n an urban framework, and even w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l framework. They are brought about by combinations of s e c t o r s , i . e . i n d u s t r y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , commerce, housing, e t c . , working together. But the n a t i o n a l development p l a n i s r a r e l y geared to the micro-scale of an i n d i v i d u a l com-munity so that housing cannot be used e f f e c t i v e l y to a greater economic advantage."^ 1 For example, w r i t i n g on the "Importance of Housing and Planning i n L a t i n America-," Anatole A.Solow wonders whether: ...the economists have c a l c u l a t e d the enormous waste i n man-hours of thousands of people w a i t i n g f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the centre of Sao Paulo....to get to t h e i r houses a f t e r work — a phenomenon due to H Malcolm D. R i v k i n , " U r b a n i z a t i o n and N a t i o n a l Develop-ment: Some Approaches to the Dilemma," Inter-Regional Seminar  on Development P o l i c i e s and Planning i n R e l a t i o n to Urban-i z a t i o n , P i t t s b u r g , Pa., 24 October to November 7, 1966. 11 i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and economic development without ' proper p h y s i c a l planning. I t i s p o s s i b l e that by using more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s i n e m p i r i c a l research more i n s i g h t w i l l be gained i n t o the so-c a l l e d unnecessary s o c i a l costs that are o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d to l a c k of e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of housing w i t h other elements of the p h y s i c a l p l a n . I t i s evident from the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n that s e v e r a l patterns of urban development can o f f e r economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s under urban c o n d i t i o n s , i f given thought and acted upon through the planning process. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem to Ghana A sympathetic e v a l u a t i o n of planning i n Ghana may probably r e v e a l that the t o o l s and s t u d i e s f o r comprehensive r e g i o n a l planning are g e t t i n g s t a r t e d . Along w i t h o v e r a l l f i s c a l economic and s o c i a l p o l i c i e s , the government wi e l d s a great many t o o l s t h a t could have a powerful e f f e c t on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l environment i n p u r s u i t of development o b j e c t i v e s . These comprise resource development, i r r i g a t i o n and power system, p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , highways and t r a n s p o r t , a g r i c u l t u r a l a i d s and land use p o l i c i e s , a i d s and c o n t r o l f o r i n d u s t r y and s e r v i c e s , a i d s and standards f o r housing and community f a c i l i t i e s . The 1 2 Anatole A. Solow, "The Importance of Housing and Planning i n L a t i n America," i n (ed)", BurnhamKelly, Housing and Economic  Development, Report of a Conference Sponsored at the Massachu- s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology by the A l b e r t F a r w e l l Bemis  Foundation, on A p r i l 30 and May 1 and 2, 1953« (Cambridge: January, 1955), P«57' 12 ground, as can be seen, i s , t h e r e f o r e , very f e r t i l e f o r develop-ment planning. Although Ghana has had some experience w i t h n a t i o n a l development plans, i t could be claimed that the Seven-Year Development Pl a n (1963-1970) i s the f i r s t r e a l p l a n which sets 13 out the p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s of the government. The plan attempts to provide a n a t i o n a l comprehensive development program f o r both the government and the non-government sectors of the economy. I t recognizes that a true development plan must be comprehensive i n i t s coverage; i t emphasizes the choice by the whole n a t i o n of the s o c i a l i s t form of s o c i e t y , the choice that can: assure Ghana a r a p i d r a t e of economic progress without d e s t r o y i n g that s o c i a l j u s t i c e , that freedom and e q u a l i t y , which i s a c e n t r a l feature of our t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e One of the o b j e c t i v e s of the plan r e l a t e s to s o c i a l i s t goals pursued by the n a t i o n . Housing, too, i s one of our main preoccupations. We are at t h i s moment i n the l a s t stages of form u l a t i n g l a r g e - s c a l e housing p r o j e c t s , which we hope to have ready soon. J-5 The r e c o g n i t i o n that housing i s an instrument f o r s o c i o -economic development i n many c o u n t r i e s of the world i s candidly acknowledged i n the preamble to "Housing P o l i c y , " and there i s 13 E.N. Omaboe, "Process of Planning." i n A Study of  Contemporary Ghana: The Economy of Ghana, (ed.) Walter Birmingham, et a l . (London: George A l l a n and Unwin L t d . , 1966), p. k^Z. ^ I b i d . , p. 453. 15 President of Ghana, Ghana-Seven-Year Development P l a n , 1963-1970, p. x i x . 13 a whole paragraph on "The Economic and S o c i a l Importance of Housing.""""^ I t would not be wrong to b e l i e v e that the idea of i n t e g r a t i n g housing w i t h other development programs i s not new i n the country, e i t h e r . The t r o u b l e w i t h Ghana i s that i n the Seven-Year Develop-ment Pla n the i m p l i e d "housing p o l i c y " d i d not provide any d e t a i l e d housing programs th a t could form i n t e g r a l elements of the p l a n both at the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s . S t r i c t l y speak-i n g , the country d i d not possess a defi n e d housing p o l i c y which s p e c i f i e d b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s to be undertaken by various b u i l d -17 ing bodies w i t h i n c e r t a i n p e r i o d s . The government i s , i n f a c t , now t r y i n g to formulate a housing p o l i c y . However, i t i s true t h a t housing schemes were i n t e g r a t e d w i t h other major programs i n the "Accra-Tema-Akosombo r e g i o n a l program and p l a n " and the " V o l t a River Basin P l a n . " For the r e s t of the country housing t a r g e t s were announced i n r e g i o n a l terms, some f o r s e l e c t e d urban areas, and that was a l l . As a r e s u l t house-building by the government sector has f r e q u e n t l y been l a c k i n g i n c r i t e r i a f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , s i t i n g of p r o j e c t s o f t e n does not f i t i n w i t h p h y s i c a l development planning, which means that the housing c o r p o r a t i o n and the planning depart-ment o f t e n work a t cross-purposes. For example, the State Housing 1 6 I " i d . , p. 192. 17 "The major c o n t r i b u t o r to the housing problem i n Ghana i s the f a c t that no e f f o r t has been made to implement a sound i n t e g r a t e d mass housing p o l i c y . " J.A.S. de G r a f t Johnson, (Ag. D i r e c t o r of the B u i l d i n g and Road Research I n s t i t u t e ) i n Mimeograph f o r Seminar on Housing S t a t i s t i c s and Programmes -GhanaV United Nations Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a , 1966• p. 13-In-c o r p o r a t i o n c a r r i e d out the Pedu Housing Scheme i n Cape Coast without c o n s u l t a t i o n s . The p l a n n i n g department l a t e r observed t h a t p r o v i s i o n was not made f o r s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s , a day 18 n u r s e r y , a s c h o o l , and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The Chairman of the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n and the C h i e f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r , each submitted a memorandum to the E f f a h Commission, complaining about l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n between government bodies concerned w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of houses and t h e i r attendant 19 s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s . A good d e a l of expensive mistakes might ;have been made a l r e a d y as regards the i n t e g r a t i o n of housing p r o j e c t s w i t h the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l development programs. I t i s f e a s i b l e under the c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n Ghana t o l i n k housing schemes w i t h the development p l a n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h any agreed - upon s e t of economic or s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s , and i t i s p o s s i b l e , indeed l i k e l y , t h a t some p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n s i n a r u r a l or urban s e t t i n g are per-haps more conducive than others to the achievement of these o b j e c t i v e s . I t o n l y begs the q u e s t i o n to assume t h a t the proper p a t t e r n s would s o r t themselves out a u t o m a t i c a l l y . That they w i l l i n f a c t do so i s p r e c i s e l y what i s q u e s t i o n e d i n an u r b a n i z i n g country l i k e Ghana. The sequence of development which, f o r one reason or the o t h e r , took p l a c e i n Europe and North America does not seem to be a r a t i o n a l sequence to f o l l o w by a d e v e l o p i n g country w i t h v e r y IS Report of the E f f a h Commission Appointed to Enquire i n t o  the Manner - o f O p e r a t i o n of the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , ( P r i n t e d by the S t a t e P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , P r i n t i n g D i v i s i o n , Accra-Tema, Ghana, 1968), p. 332. 1 9 I b i d , p. 330; p. 308. 15 l i m i t e d resources and a burning d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l and economic progress. Catherine Bauer Wurster describes the western d e v e l -opment process i n t h i s way: F i r s t we encouraged o v e r - c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , then i n ' r e a c t i o n , d i s o r d e r l y m e t r o p o l i t a n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , both e q u a l l y w a s t e f u l i n terms of any r a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . l e a v i n g problems which w i t h a l l our vast e f f o r t and expenditure we are ba r e l y beginning to solve.2 Q I t i s , of course, r e a l i z e d that i t would be more s e n s i b l e and l e s s c o s t l y to take steps now to evolve a p a t t e r n of development and land use c o n t r o l that would be conducive to gradual progress i n the s o c i a l environment i n s t e a d of a l l o w i n g a p a t t e r n that can s t e a d i l y d e t e r i o r a t e , and even too expensive to c o r r e c t i n the f u t u r e . Ghana i s faced w i t h many problems. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n resources must be used i n the best p o s s i b l e manner to advance r a t i o n a l planning of housing programs that f i t i n w i t h the de v e l -opment plan i n r e a l i t y , both at the l o c a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s . Hypothesis of the Study The hypothesis of the study i s that i f publicly-sponsored housing programs are e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the n a t i o n a l development p l a n , they can be used to advance socioeconomic development i n Ghana. Organization of Study The study w i l l proceed w i t h a quick overview of a s s o c i a t e d b e n e f i t s of housing i n a developing economy i n order to amp l i f y 2 0 Catherine Bauer Wurster, "The Case f o r Regional Planning and Urban D i s p e r s a l , " i n (ed), Burnham K e l l y , op_. c i t . , p. 4 0 . 16 the n o t i o n t h a t housing c o n s t i t u t e s a t o o l f o r economic develop-ment. In Chapter I I I a case study of I s r a e l w i l l he presented t o i l l u s t r a t e those c o n d i t i o n s whose e x i s t e n c e may advance or h i n d e r an e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of housing w i t h other elements of the development p l a n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s hoped t h a t c r i t e r i a f o r t e s t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be o f f e r e d by t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n . The t a s k of Chapter IV w i l l be t o e v a l u a t e the r e l a t i o n between housing and p l a n n i n g i n Ghana i n order to examine the u n d e r l y i n g h y p o t h e s i s of the study. I n the f i n a l Chapter, the p r o s p e c t , i f any, f o r an e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of housing p r o j e c t s w i t h the development p l a n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . CHAPTER I I ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF HOUSING INVESTMENT Housing I n the N a t i o n a l Economy The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s o c i a l r o l e of housing has never been i n doubt, and i t probably tends to overshadow the importance of the economic r o l e of housing. We are concerned w i t h the economic r o l e of housing because of pur i n t e r e s t i n economic development. The s e r v i c e s produced by the d w e l l i n g u n i t as w e l l as the p r o d u c t i o n of the u n i t have economic impact. From such a 1 s t a n d p o i n t , Frankenhoff hypothesizes t h a t housing p l a y s a c r u -c i a l r o l e i n a d e v e l o p i n g economy. T h i s Chapter w i l l d i s c u s s some a s p e c t s of the p o t e n t i a l economic b e n e f i t s of housing, c o n s i d e r e d o n l y m a r g i n a l to the u n d e r l y i n g argument of the study, t h a t an e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of housing w i t h the development p l a n can p r o v i d e an instrument f o r f o s t e r i n g economic development. Opinions on the s u b j e c t of the economic b e n e f i t s of housing a r e f a i r l y d i v i d e d among a number of w r i t e r s . Among s e v e r a l economists concerned w i t h the problems of c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n i n a d e v e l o p i n g economy, a m a j o r i t y i s of the view t h a t housing i n v e s t -ment competes w i t h other forms of investment necessary f o r economic development, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t Humphrey a t a 1965 Urban Development Seminar o r g a n i z e d by the Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l 1 C h a r l e s A. Frankenhoff, "Economic Role of Housing i n a Developing Economy," i n Housing P o l i c y f o r a Developing L a t i n  Economy, ( U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto R i c o , I 9 6 6 ) , p. ?. 17 18 Development (AID) had t h i s t o say i n r e l a t i o n t o unfavourable a t t i t u d e s t o housing: S e v e r a l years ago there was a f e e l i n g on your p a r t and on ours t h a t t h i n g s l i k e housing "were l u x u r y investments t h a t would have to wait on the b u i l d i n g of more f a c t o r i e s . . . . ' H o u s i n g , ' so they s a i d , was 'unproductive'»^ The p o s i t i o n t h a t housing i s an "unproductive" form of c a p i t a l 3 investment i s d e s c r i b e d by Charles Abrams as t h e " d e v i l - t a k e -housing" theory, which s t a t e s t h a t housing i s a durable form of investment r e q u i r i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l o u t l a y to c r e a t e but y i e l d s v e r y l i t t l e per y e a r . For t h i s reason, housing i s , g e n e r a l l y , accorded a l o w - p r i o r i t y i n r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . Jan Tinbergen, f o r i n s t a n c e , argues t h a t housing y i e l d s a h i g h c a p i t a l - o u t p u t r a t i o . He estimates t h a t housing r e q u i r e s an investment of $8.20 per d o l l a r of output w h i l e a commercial e n t e r p r i s e needs o n l y one d o l l a r of a d d i t i o n a l investment to produce another d o l l a r i n the North American economy, housing i s thus l e s s "pro-d u c t i v e M . However, a c c o r d i n g to Frankenhoff, there i s some d i s t o r -t i o n i n the use o f the c a p i t a l - o u t p u t r a t i o i n measuring the economic r o l e of housing s t o c k . A b r i e f a n a l y s i s of t h i s c r i t e r i o n f o r investment may be d i s c u s s e d a t t h i s p o i n t , because i t shows very w e l l the d i s t o r t i o n which takes p l a c e i n measuring 2 I b i d . , pp. 7, 8. 3 Charles A&rams, Man's S t r u g g l e f o r S h e l t e r i n an Urban-i z i n g World. (Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Pre s s , 1966), p. 106. 5 Jan Tinbergen, The Design f o r Development, ( B a l t i m o r e : John Hopkins P r e s s , 1958), p. 72. 19 the economic r o l e of housing s t o c k and which Frankenhoff^ p o i n t s o u t . Under the n a t i o n a l income a c c o u n t i n g procedure, the t o t a l v a l u e of the housing s e r v i c e s produced d u r i n g the year i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the r e n t f a c t o r a l o n e . Although the p r o d u c t i v i t y of a f a c t o r y i s not measured by i t s r e n t a l o n e , t h i s i s what i s done by the n a t i o n a l income accounts i n the case of housing. In the c o n t e x t of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the^use of r e n t alone to measure the v a l u e of housing s e r v i c e s i s c l e a r l y inadequate i n t h a t houses are o f t e n the s m a l l product-i o n c e n t r e s f o r the t a i l o r , dressmaker, or s t o r e k e e p e r . ^ From another p o i n t of view, i t i s c l e a r t h a t the use of any c a p i t a l c o e f f i c i e n t to measure housing investment y i e l d s does not i n c l u d e n o n - c a p i t a l f a c t o r s , such as, p o l i t i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , or s o c i a l f a c t o r s . The problem i s t h a t these n o n - c a p i t a l f a c t o r s a r e p r e c i s e l y the ones which p l a y the major r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the p r o d u c t i v i t y of a d d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l . The upshot of t h i s argument over the use of the c a p i t a l -output r a t i o i n measuring housing investment y i e l d s i s t h a t a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d y a r d s t i c k must be developed. Meanwhile, i n the main, the o p i n i o n of most American and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y makers s i n c e postwar f o r e i g n a i d began had continued to be d i v i d e d . For i n s t a n c e , a t a conference sponsored by the A l b e r t F a r w e l l ,.Bemi;s Foundation i n 1953, the theory was advanced by S i r Percy Spender, A u s t r a l i a n Ambassador to the U n i t e d S t a t e s , ^ C h a r l e s A. Frankenhoff, op_. c i t . , p. 14. C h a r l e s Abrams, op_. c i t . , p. 109. 20 t h a t the problem of housing i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s was one about which a i d - g i v i n g n a t i o n s d i d not want to be too urgent. He f e l t t h a t the more important t h i n g was to h e l p people to o b t a i n the f a c i l i t i e s t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n and p r o g r e s s i v e l y they would 7 thereby s o l v e the problem of housing i n t h e i r own way. At the same conference Max P. M i l l i k a n expressed a m o d i f i e d a t t i t u d e t o housing investment when he s a i d t h a t some housing investment i s j u s t i f i e d where: The o b j e c t i v e i s to encourage r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e i n the e s s e n t i a l l y r u r a l a reas i n I n d i a , r a t h e r than to put a h e a v i e r l o a d on the l a r g e c i t i e s or as i n Indonesia f o r r e d u c i n g the o v e r - c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n on Java by moving people en masse to some of the l e s s e r populated I s l a n d s such as Sumatra. R I t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d from t h i s p o s i t i o n then t h a t i f housing i s to be b u i l t , i t must be an economic n e c e s s i t y t o be c o n f i n e d to p l a n t l o c a t i o n s , so as to curb e x c e s s i v e journey to work prob-lems; t h a t housing must be s i t e d where i t can c o n s t i t u t e "concrete demonstrations of the rewards t h a t may be obtained 9 from g r e a t e r d i s c i p l i n e d p r o d u c t i o n e f f o r t . " S i r Percy Spender, "The Colombo P l a n , " i n (ed), Burnham K e l l y , ej_. c i t . , p. 18. 8 Max P. M i l l i k a n , "The Economist's View of the Role of Housing," i n (ed), Burnham K e l l y , op_. c i t . , pp. 2^, 25» According to C h a r l e s Abrams, more r e c e n t l y P r o f . M i l l i k a n has s a i d t h a t the problem i s not a c h o i c e between housing and other investment, the problem i s how much housing you must have i n order to make some other investment pay o f f . (See f o o t n o t e , C. Abrams, op_. c i t . , p. 107) 9 Leo G r e b l e r , " P o s s i b i l i t i e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c i n g of Housing," i n (ed), Burnham K e l l y , op_. c i t . , p. 32. 21 The main t r o u b l e w i t h both the e x t r e m i s t and m o d i f i e d 10 t h e o r i e s , C h a r l e s Abrams, i n d i c a t e s , i s t h a t they assume t h a t t h e r e i s a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between "economic" and " s o c i a l " change, and between " p r o d u c t i o n " and "consumption" stand a r d s . They a l s o take i t f o r granted t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o n c e n t r a t e on i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y w h i l e d e f e r r i n g any g e n e r a l changes i n the s o c i a l environment u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s may be a v a i l -a b l e f o r the purpose. What i s happening i s t h a t both economic development and s o c i a l change a r e i n t e r a c t i n g i n the same process of change i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s which r e q u i r e s equal a t t e n t i o n a t the same time. There a r e s e v e r a l w r i t e r s who would even recommend t h a t a g r e a t e r emphasis should be g i v e n to housing f o r i t s economic 11 b e n e f i t s . For example, Edward D. H o l l a n d e r notes t h a t even where housing has been s m a l l s c a l e , h i g h c o s t , and h i g h p r i c e d , i t has been one of the e a r l y forms of i n d u s t r i a l development, s t i m u l a t i n g a v a r i e t y of a u x i l i a r y i n d u s t r i e s and t r a d e s . 1 0 C. Abrams, ©£. c i t . . p. 107. See a l s o : Gun$ar Myrdal, "The T h e o r e t i c a l Assumptions of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , " i n T r a n s a c t i o n s of the 4th World Congress  of S o c i o l o g y , v o l . I I , (London: I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i o -l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959), p. 162. See a l s o : Simon Kuznets, " P o p u l a t i o n , Income and C a p i t a l , " i n F a c t o r s of Economic P r o g r e s s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e B u l l e t i n , v o l . 11, No. 2, ( P a r i s : 1954), p. 170. See a l s o : C a t h e r i n e B. Wurster, "The Case f o r Regional P l a n n i n g and Urban D i s p e r s a l , " i n Burnham K e l l y , op_ c i t . , p. 40. 1 1 Edward D. H o l l a n d e r , " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Housing and Economic Development," i n Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, Sub-Committee on Housing, Committee on Banking and Currency, United S t a t e s Senate. (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963), P. 22. 22 In t h i s case, the betterment of housing i s an i n t e g r a l part of the complex process of development. For housing programs can serve as important "breeders" of development - - a f i l l i p to saving and encouragement to investment, an e x e r c i s e i n organ i -z a t i o n and planning, as w e l l as a breeding ground of e n t e r p r i s e , management technology and craftsmanship. 12 Arthur Lewis a l s o notes that a housing program can be used as one of the "bootstraps" f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g income through p u t t i n g l o c a l labor and m a t e r i a l s to work, and so r a i s i n g the standards of l i v i n g not only i n housing but a l s o i n food and other ways. The economic r o l e of housing has been observed by 13 Homer Hoyt. ^ He proposes that housing a i d to developing c o u n t r i e s should not be considered as an independent matter, but as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the economic development of the n a t i o n a s s i s t e d . Of a s i m i l a r o p i n i o n but moving a step f a r t h e r i s Anatole Ik Solow. In commenting upon the concession made by some econo-mists that some minimum housing f a c i l i t i e s are needed around new major i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s to maintain p r o d u c t i v i t y of l a b o r , he poi n t s out that i n c o n t r a s t to t h i s approach the f o l l o w i n g argu-ments are advanced to prove t h a t housing and planning i n L a t i n America are e s s e n t i a l elements of economic development program. 1 2 W. Arthur Lewis, Theory of Economic Growth, p. 218. Homer Hoyt, " P r i n c i p l e s Governing Housing A i d to Under-developed Countries," i n Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, op. c i t . , p. 17. ^ Anatole A Solow, "Importance of Housing and Planning i n L a t i n America," i n (ed), Burnham K e l l y , pjo. c i t . , p. 5 5 * 23 a) At present m i l l i o n s of people i n L a t i n America l i v e i n areas c o n s i d e r e d "by Solow to be "sub-human" t h a t p r o v i d e no i n c e n t i v e whatsoever f o r them to become suddenly p r o d u c t i v e . The g o a l of a decent l i f e i s e a s i l y v i s u a l i z e d i n the form of a decent house, and consequently housing improvement becomes a powerful motive towards p r o d u c t i v i t y . b) One of the most v i s i b l e steps to prove the g o a l i n t e n t i o n s behind economic development to the masses i s t o r a i s e t h e i r standard of l i v i n g by improving housing. c) Housing betterment i s a t l e a s t as important as the improvement of n u t r i t i o n through i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n as a means of i n c r e a s i n g l a b o r p r o d u c t i v i t y . d) Funds spent on housing as a form of p r e v e n t i v e medicine w i l l balance s i m i l a r or l a r g e r expenditures on h o s p i t a l s , m e d i c a l , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . e) A minimum adequate home which permits normal f a m i l y l i f e i s , except f o r food, the s t r o n g e s t element a g a i n s t s o c i a l u n r e s t and i n d i v i d u a l apathy, without which other supposedly q u i c k e r forms of r a i s i n g l i v i n g standards w i l l not be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e . For the above reasons, i n d i v i d u a l governments of L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s have i n c r e a s e d housing programs. But, as Solow p o i n t s out, f a i l u r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e p o s i t i v e and adequate housing programs i n economic development p r o j e c t s has r e s u l t e d i n the "most d e t r i m e n t a l consequences" and may l e a d to an o u t r i g h t f a i l u r e of such p r o j e c t s . I t may be added t h a t s i n c e the t r e n d towards i n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n w i l l c o n t i n u e f o r many more yea r s , f a i l u r e t o accompany economic development w i t h housing and other m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i n g f a c i l i t i e s can hamper economic development. E s p e c i a l l y f o r i t s i n h e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y consequences, which r e q u i r e a good d e a l of r e s e a r c h , housing should be complementary w i t h other o b j e c -t i v e s of economic development. 2 4 Housing and Worker P r o d u c t i v i t y A c c o r d i n g t o the O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r European Economic Cooperation, the most u s u a l meaning of p r o d u c t i v i t y i s the p r o d u c t i v i t y of l a b o r . W h e n the word p r o d u c t i v i t y i s used without f u r t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n , the p r o d u c t i v i t y of l a b o r i s understood. The importance of p r o d u c t i v i t y l i e s i n i t s cen-t r a l p o s i t i o n of l a b o r and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e s s e n t i a l f o r any economy. P r o d u c t i v i t y of l a b o r i s an important i n d i c a t i o n of the standard of l i v i n g which depends on a number of f a c t o r s ; the r i c h n e s s of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , the abundance or s c a r c i t y of manpower r e l a t i v e to other m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , and so on. But g i v e n the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , i t i s l a r g e l y the p r o d u c t i v i t y of l a b o r t h a t determines the standards of l i v i n g . T h e r e f o r e , the importance of the use of l a b o r as a determinant of the standard of l i v i n g i s a f a c t o r of g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n o p e r a t i n g p r e t t y w e l l a t a l l times not o n l y i n d e v e l -oping but a l s o i n advanced c o u n t r i e s . The importance of produc-t i v i t y i s f u r t h e r enhanced when we c o n s i d e r t h a t l a b o r i s an element of c o s t s i n a l l branches and s e c t o r s of p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y . There i s some l i t e r a t u r e on the r e l a t i o n between housing and l a b o r p r o d u c t i v i t y . The a s s o c i a t i o n of h e a l t h and e n v i r o n -ment has been known s i n c e the e a r l y days of medicine and i n the mid-nineteenth century i t s importance was r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d i n the w r i t i n g s of Chadwlck, Simon, Southwood, Smith and other 1 ^ P r o d u c t i v i t y Measurement, (O.E.E.C. P a r i s : 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 2 2 . 25 h e a l t h p i o n e e r s."^ C o n c l u s i o n s of a survey on f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i v i t y r e c o g n i z e d housing as one of those f a c t o r s t h a t 17 f o s t e r s t a b i l i t y of l a b o r . In a very r e c e n t a r t i c l e , L e l a n d S. Burns and B. Khing T j i o e i n d i c a t e t h a t housing can p l a y a " p r o f i t a b l e " r o l e i n the economic development of emerging n a t i o n s . T h e i r a r t i c l e attempts to determine " o b j e c t i v e l y " the e f f e c t s of housing investment on economic development. The case s t u d i e s t o be d e s c r i b e d , the authors c l a i m , c o n s t i t u t e important elements of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o d u c t i v i t y Study, a l a r g e - s c a l e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t c u r r e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, and 18 supported by the Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development. The main o b j e c t i v e i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing B r o d u c t i v - -i t y Study i s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n and measurement of the m e r i t s of b e t t e r housing i n economic terms. The b e n e f i t s to be determined are broad. a) g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y from the work f o r c e b) l e s s absenteeism from work c) r e d u c t i o n i n the need f o r medical c a r e , and improved s c h o o l attendance which has an e f f e c t on the f u t u r e q u a l i t y of the work f o r c e ; The authors agree t h a t a worker w i t h b e t t e r housing works more e f f i c i e n t l y on the job. He i s l e s s concerned about the w e l f a r e 16 See S.E. M a r t i n , "Environmental Housing and H e a l t h , i n Urban S t u d i e s , Feb., 1967. PP. 1-21. M a r t i n c i t e s t h a t a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1934, (From Stocks, P. (1934) E r o c . Roy. Soc. Med, 27, 1127. 1 7 ' See The Human F a c t o r s of P r o d u c t i v i t y I n A f r i c a : A P r e l i m i n a r y Survey, I960. (C.C.T.A. I n t e r - A f r i c a n Labour I n s t i t u t e ) , p. 106. L e l a n d S. Burns, and B. Khing T j i o e , "Does Good Housing C o n t r i b u t e to Sound Economic Development?" i n J o u r n a l of  Housing (24) Feb-March, 1967, pp. 8 6 - 8 9 . 2 6 pf h i s f a m i l y a t home and i s , t h e r e f o r e , a b l e to devote h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the job. Because good h e a l t h i s one of the major c o r r e l a t e s of good housing, the b e t t e r housed l a b o r e r i s absent from work l e s s o f t e n because of i l l n e s s . Both b e n e f i t s -b e t t e r e f f i c i e n c y on the job p l u s lower absentee r a t e s -add up to h i g h e r earnings f o r the worker. 19 These b e n e f i t s even extend to the worker's f a m i l y who are h e a l t h i e r , r e q u i r e few treatments f o r i l l n e s s , and save i n medical expenses. Burns and T j i o e are c u r r e n t l y attempting to determine whether these presumptions a r e , indeed, t r u e w i t h a s e r i e s of case s t u d i e s . These s t u d i e s are a t s i t e s where new housing p r o j e c t s have been occupied r e c e n t l y by workers employed i n l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e o c c u p a t i o n s , paying time and i n c e n t i v e wages. In the o p i n i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r s two of the s t u d i e s completed one a t the Ogala-Sioux I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n i n Pine Ridge, South Dakota; the other i n Hambaek mining d i s t r i c t i n South Korea - -meet the c r i t e r i a . While the r e s u l t s were found to be encouraging, they were i n t e r p r e t e d o n l y as a very g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between b e t t e r housing and i t s e f f e c t on economic w e l f a r e . Adding a l l the b e n e f i t s , ( i n the Korean study) h i g h e r income earned by the employees, i n c r e a s e d output f o r the employer c o r p o r a t i o n , and medical c o s t s saved, and deducting the o p e r a t i n g c o s t s of the p r o j e c t y i e l d s a t o t a l " p r o f i t a b i l i t y " estimate of impressive s i z e . For the p r o j e c t taken as a whole, the b e n e f i t s amounted to 1 6 . 3 m i l l i o n won ( $ 1 2 5 - 3 8 5 ) per y e a r . The value of 1 9 I b i d . , p. 8 8 . 27 the b e n e f i t s represents a r a t e of r e t u r n of 18.2$ on- the p r o j e c t ' s c a p i t a l cost of 108.2 m i l l i o n won ($832 ,300) . For the corporate i n v e s t o r , the r a t e of r e t u r n on the p r o j e c t e q u a l l e d 16.3$. Burns and T j i o e compare t h i s " p r o f i t a b i l i t y r a t e " w i t h s i m i l a r r a t e s f o r Korean i n d u s t r i e s , Among the p r i n c i p a l mining and manufacturing s e c t o r s , the r a t e s ranged between 16.6$ f o r metals and 3«3$ f o r the paper i n d u s t r y (1961-62). The average 20 f o r a l l such i n d u s t r i e s stood roughly at 10$. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study show that housing could be t r u l y an economic investment i n i t s own r i g h t . However, i t may be concluded that progress achieved by P r o f . Burns and by h i s c o l -league i n b r i d g i n g the gap between theory and p r a c t i c e on the p r o d u c t i v i t y issue i s only a beginning. H o p e f u l l y , more t e s t s w i l l be run and the r e s u l t s r e a l i z e d to e n l i g h t e n us. on t h i s c r u c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing and worker p r o d u c t i v i t y . Another study i n the same area but w i t h the emphasis on psychology has been done by P r o f . Lee 0. Thayer. Although d i r e c t e d toward an e x p l a n a t i o n of housing's t o t a l s o c i o p o l i t i c a l impact i n developing c o u n t r i e s , Thayer's work, E l l i o t p o i n t s out, i s of importance here i n i t s "development of a theory l e a d i n g 21 toward a s o c i a l psychology of housing." Thayer s t a r t s w i t h the assumption that there i s a d i r e c t and powerful r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h y s i c a l environmental and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . He points out that 2 0 I b i d . , p. 8 9 . x Sean M. E l l i o t , F i nancing of Housing i n L a t i n America, (New York: F r e d r i c k A Praeger P u b l i s h e r , 1968), p. 14. 28 man's home i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g i n the world around him: a man's d w e l l i n g being a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f h i m s e l f , 22 h e l p s to determine h i s concept o f h i m s e l f . These assumptions are b u t t r e s s e d w i t h separate examinations i n t o the ways i n which the home a f f e c t s human development, both e a r l y and l a t e r i n l i f e : The p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and f a c i l i t i e s of the f a m i l y d w e l l i n g space, l i g h t , s anitation...may serve t o form the boundaries or c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l e cology. A c l u t t e r e d and crowded p h y s i c a l environment without p e r s o n a l p r i v a c y may l e a d to a d i s c a r d e d or confused p a t t e r n of o r i e n t a t i o n to l i f e . ^ Thayer deduces t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y adverse c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h inadequate housing are "underdeveloped person-a l i t y , d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g p o s i t i v e l y , e i t h e r r e j e c t i o n or i d e a l i s m or optimism about l i f e and s c h i z o p h r e n i a . " These c o n d i t i o n s a r e l i k e l y to be passed on t o the c h i l d from the d i s i l l u s i o n e d a d u l t s who surround him: ....The b i t t e r n e s s of the parents becomes the b i t t e r n e s s o f the c h i l d r e n . A sense of I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s , competence, and adequacy cannot develop where these q u a l i t i e s a re n e i t h e r p o s s i b l e nor v a l u e d . ^ Although the psychology of housing i s a r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d , E l l i o t ' s view i s th a t i t seems l o g i c a l t o assume Thayer's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t inadequate housing i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s can o n l y a r r e s t the development of those s k i l l s or a t t i t u d e s "deemed 22 L e e Q. Thayer, "Some s o c i o p o l i t i c a l Aspects of Housing." i n Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, op. c i t . , p. 41. 2 3 Ibid.., pp. 41, 42. 2 i + I b i d . , p. 43. See " P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on V i o l e n c e , " (Washington, D.C: 1968), c i t e d under c a p t i o n " S q u a l i d Housing  Breeds Crime." i n "The P r o v i n c e . " ( 1 s t Feb. 1969,Vaneouver) 29 necessary f o r a c c e l e r a t e d socioeconomic advancement. There may be some doubt about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p r o d u c t i v i t y and housing. I f so, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a t would e i t h e r r e f u t e , or c o n f i r m t h a t doubt w i l l be h e l p f u l . Housing and R e l a t e d I n d u s t r i e s : Consequences f o r Labor and  the Economy Apart from the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p r o d u c t i v i t y , housing i s a l s o r e l a t e d w i t h the g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r and the b u i l d -i n g m a t e r i a l s i n d u s t r y . H a r o l d Robinson b r i e f l y e x p l a i n s why t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r d e v e l o p i n g economies. In c o u n t r i e s which are underdeveloped t o a l i m i t e d degree, o n l y , and which have a formal o r g a n i z e d c o n s t r u c t i o n , as i s the case of so much of L a t i n America,...housing p l a y s . . . a s u b s t a n t i a l r o l e i n the n a t i o n a l economy. I n C h i l e , f o r example, c o n s t r u c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the e n t i r e economy and house c o n s t r u c t i o n is. the major p a r t o f a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n . For the ten-year p e r i o d from 194-1 to 1950» s i t e development and home b u i l d i n g r e p r e s e n t e d 3.2% of the net n a t i o n a l product, while from 1951 to 1955. the percentage was 3*5• 2 5 Sean M. E l l i o t , op_ c i t . , p. 15. c Many authors, i n c l u d i n g Thayer, do not attempt t o over-r s i m p l i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing and s o c i a l , economic or p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . T h e i r treatment of these r e l a t i o n -s h i p s are t e n t a t i v e and should not be seen as an attempt to pr o v i d e c l e a r - c u t answers i n the absence of c l e a r - c u t d a t a . They are o n l y f o r m u l a t i n g some hypotheses t h a t deserve a t t e n t i o n and best r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s . ' H a r o l d Robinson, from address d e l i v e r e d before Senior E x e c u t i v e Conference of Mortgage Bankers A s s o c i a t i o n of America, D a l l a s , Texas, J an. 21, 1963t P» !• 3 0 I t may be s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h Robinson's argument i s l o g i c a l enough the o b j e c t i v e i n t h i s case i s not to d w e l l upon the economic p o t e n t i a l of housing as an i n d u s t r y , but r a t h e r , to advance t h e o r i e s s u g g e s t i n g i t s c a p a c i t y to breed comple-mentary b u i l d i n g - m a t e r i a l : i n d u s t r y and a s k i l l e d domestic c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r . Housing's r o l e i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by Robinson: Without the i n c e n t i v e of housing, such i n d u s t r y might not develop, f o r c i n g the country to be dependent upon imports. Without housing, other demands f o r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l might not be s u f f i c i e n t i n s c a l e to warrant the c o n s t r u c t i o n of cement and b r i c k p l a n t s , metal and wood-working e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . . . . e t c . o 0 CO In another source, Robinson r e f e r s to s e v e r a l cases where housing -induced b u i l d i n g - m a t e r i a l i n d u s t r i e s had the e f f e c t of r e d u c i n g the need f o r imports w h i l e , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , c r e a t i n g new f o r e i g n exchange-earning e x p o r t . For example, i n 1953. the Export-Import Bank (U.S.) l e n t I s r a e l some | l 6 . 5 m i l l i o n to h e l p i t develop her cement f a c t o r i e s i n f u r t h e r a n c e of i t s large' s c a l e housing program. By 1963. I s r a e l was no longer importing cement. In f a c t , cement exports had earned c o n s i d e r a b l e 29 foreign-exchange. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r and the n a t i o n a l economy forms the s u b j e c t matter of a study being done by P r o f . C A . Frankenhoff i n Puerto R i c o . Dr. Frankenhoff d e f i n e s h i s problem as one of measuring "the key i n p u t s 2 8 I b i d . 2 9 H a r o l d Robinson, "Inter-American Housing F i n a n c i a l sources and P o l i c i e s , " i n C a p i t a l Formation f o r Housing In L a t i n America (Washington, D.C: Pan American Union, 1962), p7 124. 31 generated by the c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r i n Puerto Ri c o from 1956-30 1962," Data assembled by Frankenhoff i n d i c a t e the way the d e v e l o p i n g economy can be a f f e c t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r . In 1956 the c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r of Puerto Ri c o of which housing forms a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n grew by f l 4 0 m i l l i o n s , almost 12$ o f the gross n a t i o n a l product. T h i s growth was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 6 l$ of the t o t a l domestic c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n . In 1962 the c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r c o n t r i b u t e d 15.6$ of the i s l a n d ' s GNP w i t h a v a l u e - p u t - i n - p l a c e of #306 m i l l i o n s . While the economy was growing a n n u a l l y a t an average r a t e of 9$, the con-31 s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r was growing a t an average annual r a t e of 17$. The g e n e r a l consequences f o r the l a b o r f o r c e from a l l t h i s i n terms of employment and earnings are q u i t e apparent. Thus, i t seems t h a t housing's c o n t r i b u t i o n to development of b u i l d i n g -m a t e r i a l i n d u s t r i e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r s can be of major importance. Housing s t i m u l a t e s employment, d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t ; i t has an impact on other i n d u s t r i e s and adds to l o c a l p u rchasing power, and s a v i n g p o t e n t i a l . Housing and Domestic P e r s o n a l Savings M o b i l i z a t i o n In r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e the n o t i o n i s being e n t e r t a i n e d t h a t 32 housing can c o n s t i t u t e a p o t e n t i a l m o b i l i z e r of domestic s a v i n g s . A study undertaken by Sean M. E l l i o t i n L a t i n America (1966) may 3° C A . Frankenhoff, "The Economic Impact of the C o n s t r u c t i o n S e c t o r i n Puerto Rico," General O u t l i n e f o r Research', San Juan, A p r i l , 1964. 3 1 i b i d . 32 See f o r example, F i n a n c i n g of Housing and Community  F a c i l i t i e s i n Developing C o u n t r i e s , (New York: U.N. P u b l i c a t i o n 1966), pp. 38, 39. 32 # be c o n s i d e r e d as an e f f o r t to exp l o r e such a n o t i o n . E l l i o t 33 h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r s h i s work as a response to K i n d e l b e r g e r * s i m p l i e d a s s e r t i o n t h a t , o n l y the hig h e r income s e c t o r s of the d e v e l o p i n g economy are capable of s a v i n g , and t h a t t h i s l i m i t e d savings source may do very l i t t l e i n terms of c o n t r i b u t i n g to domestic c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n . By a n a l y z i n g the l e n d i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the c r e d i t cooper-a t i v e s i n Puno (Peru), E l l i o t shows t h a t housing and r e l a t e d investments i s a major l o a n o b j e c t i v e o f , and a powerful savings i n c e n t i v e t o , members of the i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g i s f u r t h e r strengthened w i t h s t a t i s t i c s taken f o r f i v e other cooper-a t i v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s geographic r e g i o n s of Peru, which shows t h a t on the average, 3°«3$ of approved loans were chan-n e l l e d i n t o c o n s t r u c t i o n of improvements on, or mortgages for, : 34 housing. The c o n t e n t i o n i s made th a t these f i g u r e s suggest t h a t those who have opposed housing investment i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , on the ground t h a t i t tends to d i v e r t c a p i t a l away from more p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , have g e n e r a l l y f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e the r o l e of housing i n the development of new p e r s o n a l savings r e s o u r c e s . H a r o l d Robinson a l s o argues t h a t the demand and d e s i r e f o r housing c r e a t e s savings which otherwise would not accrue, "and t h i s , i n t u r n , c r e a t e s a h a b i t and atmosphere of saving t h a t i s 33 J J C F . K i n d e l b e r g e r , Economic Development. 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 97-3^ S.r: E l l i o t , pj_ c _ i t . , p. 40. 33 35 p e c u l i a r t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s o c i e t i e s . " ^ Whether savings h a b i t and atmosphere c r e a t e d by housing i s p e r c u l i a r or not, 3 6 Robinson Newcombe's view i s t h a t housing as savings s t i m u l u s i s not c o n f i n e d t o modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , but to the c o n t r a r y , i s t r a n s f e r a b l e to the d e v e l o p i n g economies. The m o b i l i z i n g e f f e c t of housing i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e i n the case of middle- t o lower- income s e c t o r s . E l l i o t ' s overview of massive savings and l o a n movement i n L a t i n America comes out w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the homeownership i n c e n t i v e and m o b i l i z a t i o n of new p e r s o n a l savings r e s o u r c e s i n d e v e l o p i n g economies. Not o n l y has t h i s new savings accumulation i n c r e a s e d the f o r m a t i o n of domestic c a p i t a l , but i t has become, i n c o u n t r i e s where a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d , a major source of funds f o r f i n a n c i n g new home c o n s t r u c t i o n . In Table 1, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d savings between commercial and c r e d i t c o o p e r a t i v e s i n Peru (1961-64) shows t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l savings accrue from c o o p e r a t i v e housing s a v i n g s . The impact of such an a c t i v i t y on the housing s e c t o r of the economy can be s i g n i f i c a n t . But i t may be noted t h a t running of c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , though a worthy i d e a , i n v o l v e s f i n a n c i n g to s t a r t w i t h , and e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a -t i o n which a r e by themselves sources of c u r r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s . To achieve any reasonable success w i t h savings i n s t i t u t i o n s such 35 Harold Robinson, "Inter-American Housing F i n a n c i a l Sources and P o l i c i e s , " op_. c i t . , p. 125. 36 Robinson Newcombe, "Housing and Economic Development," i n Study of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, op. c i t . , p. 31* TABLE I D i s t r i b u t i o n of N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d Savings Between Commercial Banks and C r e d i t Cooperatives, 1961-64 1961 1962 1963 .. 1964 Amount on Deposit, Commercial Banks S.1,762,887,000 2,111,220,000 2,523,446,000 2,791,481,000 Amount on Deposit, C r e d i t Co-ops 60,126,000 114,896,000 180,230,000 251,847,000 Percentage of T o t a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d S a v i n g s — Commercial Banks 94.48 91.75 87.97 83.94 Percentage of T o t a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d S a v i n g s — C r e d i t Cooperatives 3.22 4.99 6.29 7.58 Source: "Balances de l a s Empresas B a n c a r i a s , " No. 138, S u p e r i n t e n d e n c i a de Bancos, Lima, 1965. "Commercial Bank Balances," No. 138, Superintendence of Banks, Lima, 1965. 35 b a r r i e r s must be overcome. In f a c t the success a c h i e v e d i n c o o p e r a t i v e housing i n L a t i n America may l a r g e l y be a t t r i b u t e d to the U n i t e d S t a t e s A s s i s t a n c e programs w i t h r e s p e c t to the i n i t i a l f i n a n c i n g and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e c h n i c a l know-how. Summary T h i s Chapter has summarized the r o l e of housing i n the d e v e l o p i n g economy w i t h the emphasis on the a s s o c i a t e d economic b e n e f i t s : t h a t housing can c o n t r i b u t e to worker p r o d u c t i v i t y , s t i m u l a t e s a v i n g s , and generate s u b s t a n t i a l impact on the b u i l d -i n g i n d u s t r y and m a t e r i a l s , and employment. In d e a l i n g w i t h the housing problem governments may vary t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n : a) M e t r o p o l i t a n and urban a r e a s , b) Areas "for development of new r e s o u r c e s , and c) Areas f o r r u r a l development programs. In p r a c t i c e , housing investment cannot be d i v o r c e d from g e n e r a l economic p o l i c i e s , because i t i s these very areas where develop-ment i s o c c u r r i n g and where, i n consequence, the r o l e of housing can be s i g n i f i c a n t . Once t h i s i s accepted, a n a t i o n i s made more aware and b e t t e r i n c l i n e d to p l a n most e f f e c t i v e l y and economic c a l l y f o r h o u s i n g . The country can program housing where i t i s most needed and t i e i t i n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n or settlement p o l i c y . In s p i t e of a l l the b e n e f i t s of housing, I t i s important to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the argument t h a t o n l y l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e and t h a t techniques should be d e v i s e d to a l l o c a t e these l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s to the b e s t advantage. A country can devote some amount of r e s o u r c e s i t can a f f o r d f o r housing i n i t s development p l a n . But the q u e s t i o n i s not j u s t how much should be a l l o c a t e d to housing w i t h i n economic l i m i t a t i o n s , but r a t h e r , "the proper use of r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r housing — and not i n s t r a i n i n g a l l r e s o u r c e s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of 37 the maximum p o s s i b l e number of modern standard housing u n i t s , " and f a c i l i t i e s . The t h e s i s has suggested t h a t i n order to r e a l i z e most of the b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h housing programs, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the l a t t e r are i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the development p l a n . At the n a t i o n a l l e v e l governments may r e c o g n i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r p l a n n i n g , programing, investment, a c t i o n r e s e a r c h and e v a l u -a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d through the use of and support f o r r e l i a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s v e s t e d w i t h necessary a u t h o r i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n and a c t i o n i n the a r e a . The next Chapter w i l l examine how t h i s has been e f f e c t i v e l y done i n a d e v e l o p i n g country, w i t h a case study of I s r a e l . S i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the s t a t e , I s r a e l has used housing as an e f f e c t i v e element of n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g to encourage economic development. I t has succeeded i n a v o i d i n g an unnecessary concen-t r a t i o n of the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n a few m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , as f r e q u e n t l y happens where spontaneous and unplanned trends are predominant. I n t e g r a t i o n of housing programs w i t h the develop-ment p l a n alone cannot produce economic development, though i n a s u i t a b l e environment i t can be the m i s s i n g agent. J ( John C. Turner, "A Mew Yiew of the Housing D e f i c i t , " i n Housing P o l i c y f o r a Developing L a t i n Economy, (ed), C. Frankenhoff, ( U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto Rico, 1966), p. 3 6 . CHAPTER I I I LINKING HOUSING PROGRAMS WITH DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: CASE OF ISRAEL I n t r o d u c t i o n In commenting on p l a n n i n g i n dev e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , the su g g e s t i o n was made i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r t of t h i s study t h a t b r o a d l y speaking, housing programs are not e f f e c t i v e l y l i n k e d w i t h other development programs, so t h a t they w i l l advance r a t h e r than hinder economic development. We saw how c e r t a i n e x t e r n a l economies c o u l d be overlooked through the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of housing programs, t h a t do not t i e i n w i t h other elements of the development p l a n . The second Chapter has presented some aspects of the economic b e n e f i t s of housing, and the task of the present one i s to d i s c u s s how housing has been used as a t o o l f o r economic development i n I s r a e l through development p l a n n i n g . I s r a e l ' s e f f o r t a t housing and n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n compar-i s o n w i t h other d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s has been e x c e p t i o n a l . The e x c e p t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the country d u r i n g the p e r i o d which f o l l o w e d the c r e a t i o n of the s t a t e i n 1948 conduced I s r a e l t o an experiment i n o v e r - a l l n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g p l a n n i n g of the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of i t s p o p u l a t i o n i n which housing p o l i c y p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . The aim of t h i s p l a n -ning was to reduce the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of urban p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas and the densely populated c o a s t a l &one, and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o c r e a t e a p a t t e r n of urban s e t t l e m e n t . 37 38 T h i s c a l l e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a network of a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h urban c e n t r e s , i n accordance w i t h a prepared p l a n . T h i s network was intended to f u l f i l t h ree main aims: a) To o b t a i n a l a r g e r d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n In the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s so as to reduce the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the major c i t i e s . b) To d i m i n i s h the e x c l u s i v e dependence of the r u r a l r e g i o n s on the t h r e e major c i t i e s , by t r a n s f e r r i n g p a r t of t h e i r s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s to r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t c e n t r e s . c) To f o s t e r r e g i o n a l community l i f e by encouraging c o o p e r a t i o n between the new c e n t r e s and t h e i r r u r a l environment.^ The p r i n c i p l e s and t r e n d s of n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g as r e f l e c t e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the p l a n n i n g Department m a t e r i a l i z e d i n a s e r i e s of N a t i o n a l P l a n s . The p o l i c y of p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e t r s i o n i n which planned housing was e f f e c t i v e l y used i n f u r t h e r a n c e of economic development stands i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t to the spontaneous trends i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , where the p o p u l a t i o n tends to c o n c e n t r a t e i n a few m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , and w i t h i n the con-f i n e s of b i g , primate c i t i e s . Thus, a study of I s r a e l ' s experience might throw c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on the nature of r a p i d s o c i a l change i n which housing and p l a n n i n g may c o n t r i b u t e to a c c e l e r a t e d economic growth. Circumstances f o r Housing Program i n I s r a e l The main problem c o n f r o n t i n g the newly-created s t a t e of I s r a e l was the a b s o r p t i o n of immigrants. Housing lagged f a r 1 Jacob Dash, E l i s h a E f r a t , ;The I s r a e l P h y s i c a l Master P l a n , (Jerusalem, 1964), p. 23. 39 behind the g r e a t i n f l u x of the immigration. Widespread slum areas i n l a r g e urban c e n t r e s , and housing h a r d s h i p s were the c h i e f causes of s o c i a l problems. Thus the problem of p r o v i s i o n of housing f o r l a r g e masses of p o p u l a t i o n ceased to be merely a matter of p r i v a t e concern and became a v i t a l i n t e r e s t of government and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . In 1948 there were o n l y about 650,000 .Jews i n the c o u n t r y . From then u n t i l the end of 1951, thousands of refugees came from the Nazi e x t e r m i n a t i o n camps i n Europe a t an average r a t e of about 200,000 persons per y e a r . By the end of 19&3 t l l e popula-t i o n of the country numbered about 2.4 m i l l i o n , so t h a t i t had i n c r e a s e d by 200$ w i t h i n 15 y e a r s . (See p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n F i g u r e 1, on f o l l o w i n g page) The a b s o r p t i o n of the immigrants w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g frame-work of settlement was not o n l y i m p o s s i b l e , but a l s o u n d e s i r a b l e . The settlement s t r u c t u r e was c o n s i d e r e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y due to the o v e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the Jewish p o p u l a t i o n i n the main c i t i e s . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e s u l t e d not only i n e x c e s s i v e u r b a n i z a t i o n , but had i t s i n f l u e n c e on the r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n s e t t l e d areas - - the settlement p a t t e r n proceeded i n the d i r e c t i o n of an extreme " p o l a r " arrangement. Greater T e l A v i v alone, taken together w i t h the f i v e c l o s e s t suburbs, c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n i t s c o n f i n e s 4-3.7$ and the three m e t r o p o l i t a n areas of T e l Aviv, H a i f a , and Jerusalem together, 70.4$ of the Jewish popula-t i o n of the c o u n t r y . The percentage of the Jewish p o p u l a t i o n con-c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n the three a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s c o i n c i d i n g w i t h T e l Aviv, H a i f a and the C e n t r a l c o a s t a l zone 2 I b i d . , p. 22. 4 0 2pOO in a z < C O o i z o < _J 0 -o a £ 0 0 © © I® 0 © 1,000 o © 500 Q © 1948 1951 1954 1957 I960 1963 FIGURE I SOURCE : ISRAEL ADAPTED MASTER INCREASE OF POPULATION 1948 FROM THE ISRAEL PHYSICAL PLAN , 1964 -1963 -41 amounted to 79-5%- Thus the numerical r a t i o of the non-agric-u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , concentrated i n the areas of the b i g towns to that dispersed among v i l l a g e s , , small and medium cent r e s , was 13 : 17 : 7 0 . 3 Thus extremely high degree of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l population concentrated w i t h i n the areas of three b i g c i t i e s was p a r a l l e l e d by a h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d system f o r the marketing of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce and f o r the d e l i v e r y of s u p p l i e s to r u r a l areas. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of urban p o p u l a t i o n was f o l l o w e d by a s i m i l a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the bulk of the economic, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c u l t u r a l f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the three major c e n t r e s . Administra-t i o n of e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s was thus d i v i d e d between the b a s i c r u r a l c e l l - - the kibbutz or moshav^- - and the b i g town, wi t h the almost complete e l i m i n a t i o n of the intermediary stage of small and medium s i z e urban ce n t r e s . P o l i c y f o r D i s p e r s a l of P o p u l a t i o n The aim of the economic p o l i c y , to reverse the process from the over-concentration i n the various s e r v i c e branches to the increase of the productive p o t e n t i a l i n g e n e r a l , was bound up w i t h a c e r t a i n settlement p o l i c y : to avoid the " o v e r - u r b a n i z a t i o n " of the new immigration, and decrease the i n f l u e n c e of the l a r g e towns and that of the more developed r e g i o n s . The p o l i c y aimed at E l i e z e r Brutzkus, P h y s i c a l Planning i n I s r a e l , (Jerusalem, 1964), p. 16. 4 Moshav: a v i l l a g e c o n s i s t i n g of 15 to 20 f a m i l i e s each c u l t i v a t i n g i t s land i n d i v i d u a l l y . Kibbutz: an a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement comprising one hundred to s e v e r a l hundred f a m i l i e s . This settlement i s based on c o l l e c t i v e ownership of a l l means of production. (H. Drabkin-Darin, Housing i n I s r a e l , p. 7. 70. ^2 c r e a t i n g an h i e r a c h i c a l p a t t e r n of urban and semi-urban c e n t r e s as i n t e r m e d i a r y l i n k s between the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and the b i g towns. In p r i n c i p l e , the o b j e c t i v e was to modify the ' d i r e c t l i n k ' between the r u r a l communities and the b i g c e n t r e s w i t h a more a r t i c u l a t e d settlement p a t t e r n , where economic and s o c i a l connec-t i o n s w i t h i n s m a l l e r r e g i o n a l u n i t s would emerge and develop. Such s m a l l e r r e g i o n a l u n i t s d e f i n e d on the b a s i s of v a r i o u s f e a -t u r e s of p h y s i c a l and human geography were u l t i m a t e l y d e l i m i t e d as the "zones of i n f l u e n c e " of e x i s t i n g urban c e n t r e s , or such a n t i c i p a t e d f o r the f u t u r e . The f i r s t grade of t h i s planned h i e r a c h i c a l p a t t e r n , (B-c e n t r e , s i n c e the moshav v i l l a g e was c o n s i d e r e d an A-centre) was the r u r a l s e r v i c e c e n t r e c a t e r i n g f o r f o u r to s i x moshavim w i t h o n l y a few hundred i n h a b i t a n t s . They would be craftsmen and people employed i n s e r v i c e s . The second (C-centre) was a s m a l l township w i t h a planned p o p u l a t i o n of between s i x and 12,000 i n h a b i t a n t s , designed to serve a s m a l l d i s t r i c t w i t h an average diameter of 12 to 20 k i l o m e t r e s . Such a c e n t r e would c o n t a i n a l a r g e number of work-shops, p r o v i d e s e r v i c e and i n s t i t u t i o n s needed i n the area, and would i n c l u d e a few i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s , mainly those of the p r o c e s s i n g and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . The manpower needed i n the d i s t r i c t f o r h i r e d l a b o r and a g r i c u l t u r e , and f o r b u i l d i n g and development works would be e q u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n such a c e n t r e . The t h i r d grade (D-centre) was a m i d d l e - s i z e d town s e r v i n g a s t i l l l a r g e r d i s t r i c t w i t h a planned p o p u l a t i o n of 15 to 16,000, 43 T h i s would i n c l u d e c e n t r a l r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and s e r v i c e s and a v a r i e t y of manufacturing e n t e r p r i s e s , not n e c e s s a r i l y dependent on r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . Most of the D-centres were chosen as s m a l l " r e g i o n a l c a p i t a l s " of the "basic r e g i o n a l u n i t s . The c r e a t i o n of t h i s network of urban and semi-urban c e n t r e s has been going on s i n c e 1949 and i t i s not y e t e n t i r e l y f i n i s h e d . A balanced d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n through r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and development continues to be the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of the government. Machinery of P o p u l a t i o n D i s p e r s a l The p o l i c y f o r d i s p e r s a l of p o p u l a t i o n was implemented mainly through r u r a l c o l o n i z a t i o n and f o u n d a t i o n of urban s e t t l e -ments based p r i m a r i l y on a b s o r p t i o n of immigrants.^ Though hous-i n g alone was not the o n l y Instrument used i n a b s o r b i n g immi-6 g r a n t s , " i t was o b v i o u s l y , as Drabkin-Darin puts i t , "a c o n d i t i o s i n e qua non." The p r o v i s i o n of s h e l t e r was n e c e s s a r i l y an e s s e n t i a l step without which, t o some reasonable degree, produc-t i v e a b s o r p t i o n would not prove e f f e c t i v e . The government took over the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s i -d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g , because of heavy m i g r a t i o n and the need f o r a c o n t r o l l e d p l a n of n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s ettlements and development of a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y . Government a l l o c a t i o n became i n s e p a r a b l e and prominent p a r t of the s t a t e . On the average, 20% to 28% of the t o t a l government budget was expended Benjamin A z k i n and Yehezkel Dror, I s r a e l : High-Pressure  P l a n n i n g , (New York: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966), p. 66. ^ H. Drabkin - D a r i n , pj_. c i t . , p. 36. 44 on housing. For each of the subsequent f i s c a l years a d i s t r i b u -t i o n p l a n f o r new housing u n i t s was prepared i n which the quotas f o r e x i s t i n g towns and new ones were f i x e d . As a r e s u l t of a comprehensive survey, a general p l a n f o r the d e s i r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n served as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f i x i n g such quotas. A survey f r e q u e n t l y included the f o l l o w -ing items; a n a l y s i s of the r e g i o n (zone of i n f l u e n c e ) of the e x i s t i n g or proposed urban centre; r e g i o n a l resources and t h e i r p o s s i b l e u t i l i z a t i o n ; estimates of r u r a l p o pulation; demographic t a r g e t s , and the time schedule f o r the development of the town proper; long-and-short range employment f o r e c a s t s and the a n t i c i -pated s t r u c t u r e of employment; r e q u i r e d areas f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l zones, roads, open spaces and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , d e n s i t y standards and the a l l o c a t i o n of land necessary f o r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . The f o l l o w i n g three maps i n Figure 2 ,3, and 4 (see next pages) show past and f u t u r e trends i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n I s r a e l . The f i r s t map d e p i c t s the s i t u a t i o n e x i s t -ing i n 1948 when planning was i n i t s e a r l y stages. The second map shows the impact of the new p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l p o l i c y based on data from the f i r s t P o p u l a t i o n Census, conducted i n 196 l . The t h i r d map i n d i c a t e s the p r o j e c t e d and planned d i s t r i b u t i o n of a p o p u l a t i o n of four m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s , a t a r g e t which w i l l probably be reached i n another 20 years. On the whole, the r e s u l t s of the p o l i c y f o r planned popula-t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n which housing played a c r i t i c a l r o l e since 1948, were not i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The percentage of the Jewish p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n the three b i g c i t i e s and t h e i r suburbs 45 46 PROPOSEO DISTRIBUTION OF A FUTURE POPULATION OF 4.000,000 INHABITANTS (1982) MORE T H A N - 100,000 INHABITANTS 50 ,000 - 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 II © 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 50 ,000 II e 5 ,000 - 10 ,000 II • 3 , 0 0 0 - 5,000 ll • LESS THAN - 3,00 0 ll • EACH DOT REPRESENTS 200 INHABITANTS FIGURE 4 SOURCE : ADAPTEO FROM THE ISRAEL MASTER PHYSICAL PLAN , 1964 4? dropped from 70.4$ i n 1948 to 51.5$ i n 1963 as shown i n Figure 5 . (see f o l l o w i n g page) The r e l a t i v e concentration'' 7 of the c o a s t a l zone dropped from 79•5$ to 70.9$ w i t h i n the same p e r i o d . This achievement by I s r a e l demonstrates that the opportunity e x i s t s f o r other developing nations to adopt a planning p o l i c y which can use housing and other devices i n an i n t e g r a t i v e f a s h i o n to channel m i g r a t i o n i n t o d e s i r a b l e areas. Government and p u b l i c agencies are capable of g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e or s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n c e n t i v e s to p r i o r i t y areas so as to a t t r a c t people, s e r v i c e s , and i n d u s t r i e s there. Such a i d may be given i n a number of ways: f o r example, p r i o r i t y i n e r e c t i o n of p u b l i c housing, establishment of i n d u s t r i a l zones, encouragement of p r i v a t e investment i n in d u s t r y - - a l l c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the development p l a n . In I s r a e l ' s d r i v e toward the general goal of n a t i o n a l devel-opment, housing programs p l a y no small r o l e , f o r housing provides one of the foundations necessary f o r the existence of settlements w i t h d i v e r s i f i e d occupational s t r u c t u r e , and performing 'socio-economic f u n c t i o n s which i n t e g r a t e them w i t h t h e i r r e g i o n s . We s h a l l now examine the place of the Housing D i v i s i o n i n t h i s process. The Bole of the Housing D i v i s i o n In I s r a e l the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of housing are i n p r a c t i c e l a r g e l y determined by the economic c a p a c i t y of the government. Since 1948 o n e - t h i r d of the houses have been b u i l t by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and,two-thirds by p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e . E. Brutzkus, op_. c i t . , p. 25. 48 1948 196 FIGURE 5 CHANGE IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IN ISRAEL 1948-1963 SOURCE : ADAPTED FROM ELIEZER BRUTZKUS , PHYSICAL PLANNING IN ISRAEL. 1964 49 The government has made i t s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the housing of immigrants and f o r the housing needs of the whole p u p u l a t i o n except the very w e l l - o f f who can buy t h e i r own houses through 8 the p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . T h i s dependence of a b s o r p t i o n on p u b l i c bodies, (which i s s i g n i f i c a n t ) o f f e r e d a unique opportu-n i t y f o r the planned g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , and i n d i r e c t l y f o r f a r - r e a c h i n g a l t e r a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g s ettlement p a t t e r n . The f i r s t p r i o r i t y was to d i r e c t immigrants t o predetermined areas and p r o v i d e them w i t h jobs. One s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r of housing seems t o be t h a t i t takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the changing c h a r a c t e r of the country, as a r e s u l t of i t s i n t e n s i v e immigration and economic development. I t i s t r u e to say t h a t many c o u n t r i e s a l s o developed i n the past as r e g i o n s of constant immigration and a b s o r p t i o n . But as f a r as housing the immigrants was concerned, the f u n c t i o n of the author-i t i e s was a t best r e g u l a t o r y r a t h e r than p l a n n i n g i n advance. In f a c t , t h i s r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t y by the government i s more common i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s than advanced p l a n n i n g . I s r a e l i t s e l f s t a r t e d on s i m i l a r l i n e s u n t i l i t c r e a t e d a new p l a n n i n g d e p a r t -ment, enacted a nation-wide p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g law and s e r i o u s l y s t a r t e d a c t u a l p l a n n i n g of p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n based on an o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . The p r a c t i c a l p l a n n i n g of a new urban and semi-urban d i s -t r i c t s i s i n the hands of the Housing D i v i s i o n w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of Labor. I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l housing a c t i v i t i e s i n the country t h a t are c a r r i e d out w i t h the a i d of government _ Joan Ash,"Planning and Housing f o r Immigrants In I s r a e l . " i n E k i s t l c s , v o l . 23, Feb., 1967, p. 118. r e s o u r c e s . The D i v i s i o n plans and p r o v i d e s housing f o r v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n , the a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of housing being c a r r i e d out e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or through other b o d i e s . These p l a n s are prepared f o r a long-term p e r i o d over s e v e r a l y e a r s , changing to meet the needs from year to year i n the l i g h t of a s c a l e of p r i o r i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . One l e s s o n o f f e r e d by the Housing D i v i s i o n i s i t s c o o r d i -n a t i n g r o l e . The s t r u c t u r e of the D i v i s i o n r e s u l t s from i t s range of a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c i n g , and a l l o c a t i o n of housing f o r v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n . The D i v i s i o n i s composed of a managerial committee t h a t d e t e r -mines housing p o l i c y and formulates programs and e f f e c t s changes i n the course of t h e i r implementation. The committee n e g o t i a t e s w i t h the M i n i s t r y of Finance, and determines j o i n t l y t h e r e w i t h the f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s of housing. I t c o o r d i n a t e s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s e v e r a l agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s which are i n t e r e s t e d i n housing p l a n s , such as, the A b s o r p t i o n and Settlement Depart-ments of the Jewish Agency, housing companies, c o n t r a c t i n g bodies, and the p l a n n i n g department. The committee a l s o c e n t r a l i z e s and c o o r d i n a t e s the a c t i v i t i e s of the v a r i o u s departments w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n i t s e l f . These i n c l u d e : Department of Immigrant Housing and Development Areas; Department f o r M i s c e l l a n e o u s Housing P r o j e c t s ; P u b l i c I n s t i t u t i o n s Department; P l a n n i n g and E n g i n e e r i n g Department E x e c u t i o n Department; Department f o r Development Works and I n s p e c t i o n F i n a n c i a l Department; B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s Department, The important t h i n g to note i s t h a t there i s a c l e a r d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e set-up and 51 ;bhe e f f o r t i s made to ensure that a l l interdependent a c t i v i t i e s merge together according ,to plans. The s k i l l developed by the I s r a e l i s i n usi n g housing as an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r o r g a n i z i n g immigration, supporting a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e s , i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s , and the urban economy, would not have been p o s s i b l e without i n t e g r a t i n g common e f f o r t s whether f i n a n c i n g , planning or b u i l d -i n g . E f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n of inter-departmental a c t i v i t i e s remains a c r u c i a l p o i n t i n housing and planning i n many devel-oping c o u n t r i e s . I s r a e l had to minimize t h i s problem reasonably i n order to achieve a resounding success i n housing. By 1962, housing d e n s i t i e s had decreased from 2.18 persons per room i n 19^8 to 1.9 persons per room. 9 The r a t e of house c o n s t r u c t i o n necessary f o r t h i s achievement i s the highest recorded f o r any n a t i o n i n p r o p o r t i o n to i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , 16 houses per thousand i n 1963, compared to 11 per thousand i n the U.S.S.R. (the next highest) and n e a r l y 6 per thousand i n the United Kingdom. C e r t a i n l y , a l o t of resources went i n t o housing, but the point being empha-s i z e d here i s how these resources have been used through coordinated p l a n n i n g . One other important p o i n t i n connection w i t h housing i n I s r a e l i s i t s impact on the n a t i o n a l economy through employment, b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , c a p i t a l investment, labor p r o d u c t i v i t y , Thus, i n order to f u l l y appreciate housing as an instrument f o r economic development, i t i s e s s e n t i a l not only to consider i t agains t the planning background, but a l s o against the l o c a l economic background. 9 A. Doudai, "Regional Development and Housing i n I s r a e l " , i n E k i s t i c s , June 1962, p. 385• .52 Housing and the N a t i o n a l Economy The problems of the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y a re r e l a t i v e l y more important i n I s r a e l than i n many other c o u n t r i e s . I s r a e l ' s economy i s l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by e x t e n s i v e development a c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e l a r g e - s c a l e b u i l d i n g , not onl y f o r housing but a l s o f o r the needs of economic investment. Furthermore, between 1948 and 1961, r u r a l settlements alone rose from 4?9 to 732.**"° A c c o r d i n g t o A. D o u d a i , t h e share of b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t -i o n f o r a l l purposes f l u c t u a t e s a t around 60$ of the e n t i r e raw investments; the investment i n housing alone being about 30$ of raw investments i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The manufacturing of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s comprises about 10$ of a l l i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n the country and by i n c l u d i n g the by-products consumed i n b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n the f i g u r e stands a t 19$• The share b u i l d i n g r e p r e s e n t s i n the country's economic s t r u c t u r e becomes c l e a r from the f o l l o w i n g data on the p a r t p l a y e d by b u i l d i n g i n the n a t i o n a l incomes of v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g I s r a e l , a c c o r d i n g t o the Un i t e d Nations S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook of 1955* Percentage of B u i l d i n g i n N a t i o n a l Income, 1954 A u s t r i a 7$ I t a l y 5$ U.S.A. 5$ B r i t a i n 6$ H o l l a n d 6$ Greece 4$ F i n l a n d 10$ Canada 7$ Norway 10$ I s r a e l 7.3$ The above d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of b u i l d i n g i n I s r a e l corresponds more or l e s s to t h a t of the c o u n t r i e s of 1 0 The I s r a e l P h y s i c a l Master P l a n 11 A. Doudai, op_. c i t . , p. 384. .53 Europe and North America. In the same year, 1954, the investment share of housing was 35$ which a g a i n compares w i t h s e v e r a l European c o u n t r i e s * a l l o c a t i o n s . A United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n of 1955 p r o v i d e s the f o l l o w i n g d a t a : Percentage of Housing i n Gross C a p i t a l Investment, 1954 England 24$ Belgium 24$ West Germany 28$ Denmark 17$ Greece 32$ Sweden 24$ One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a spect about f i n a n c i n g of housing i s the r o l e p l a y e d by the government. From the development budget the government g r a n t s loans f o r housing under two main headings; as a s p e c i a l item f o r housing earmarked f o r immigrants and l o n g -e s t a b l i s h e d p o p u l a t i o n , and second, as s p e c i a l expenditure f o r housing i n a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s , c o n s t i t u t i n g p a r t of govern-ment expenditure on the development of a g r i c u l t u r e . Between 1949 to 1955, f o r example, as shown i n Table I I the government a l l o c a -t i o n s f l u c t u a t e d a t between 20$ and 28$ of a l l development e x p e n d i t u r e . TABLE I I i Government A l l o c a t i o n s i n Housing, 1949 - 1955 (In I L . 1,000,000 a t c u r r e n t p r i c e s )  Development Government Housing $ f o r Housing Year Budget A l l o c a t i o n s A l l o c a t i o n s 194"9 35^9 9T3 2o74" 1950 67.4 24.0 28.0 1951 73.5 18.3 24.9 1952 100.8 20.6 20.4 1953 197.6 42.5 21.5 1954 197.6 42.5 21.5 1955 236.8 59.1 25.0 T o t a l 869.2 199.7 23.0 Source: The I s r a e l Economic Annual, (1949-1955, Jerusalem) 54 Thus, government a l l o c a t i o n s f o r housing o f f e r e d a b a s i s f o r the development of a s p e c i a l s e c t o r w i t h i n the c o u n t r y ' s b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s , namely, housing, which was s u b j e c t to the s u p e r v i s i o n and p l a n n i n g by the s t a t e . A l l b u i l d i n g w i t h the p a r t i a l or e n t i r e f i n a n c i n g of the s t a t e i s conducted i n accordance w i t h government plans and i s s u b j e c t to the c o n t r o l of and d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by government i n s t i t u t i o n s . The consequences of these investment a c t i v i t i e s f o r l a b o r were obvious i n the I s r a e l i economy. Housing as a Source of Employment The process of absorbing immigration had to be accompanied w i t h the e n s u r i n g of r e g u l a r employment based on making p r o d u c t i v e use of the immigrants. Because of the d i s p r o p o r t i o n between the expansion of i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and l a r g e -s c a l e immigration, a s i t u a t i o n was c r e a t e d i n which the economy c o u l d not promptly or immediately absorb a l l those r e q u i r i n g work 12 i n t o the c y c l e of p r o d u c t i o n . A Manpower Survey c a r r i e d out i n 1955 g i v e s an i d e a of the s t a t e of employment i n the e a r l y stages of the new economy. I t shows t h a t as a g a i n s t 631,200 persons g a i n f u l l y employed a t t h a t time, 45,500 persons were without employment. Hence f u l l employment was found among the substan-t i a l r a t i o of 7.2% of the e a r n e r s . The survey a l s o i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d a b s o r p t i v e c a p a c i t y of the b a s i c branches of p r o d u c t i o n i n I s r a e l . Only 39•9 of the earners were employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e , mines and i n d u s t r y , w h i l e 60.1% made t h e i r l i v i n g — Manpower Research, C e n t r a l Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s and M i n i s t r y of Labour June 195&, Jerusalem, p. 16. 55 from b u i l d i n g , commerce and other s e r v i c e s . Under these c o n d i t i o n s the b u i l d i n g of d w e l l i n g s and p u b l i c works was of p a r t i c u l a r importance. These branches c o u l d e x e r c i s e a r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n i n the f i e l d of employment and i n some measure counterbalance the d i f f i c u l t i e s d e r i v i n g from the r e s t r i c t e d a b s o r p t i v e c a p a c i t y of i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e , b e s i d e s d i m i n i s h i n g the dangers of i n c r e a s e d unemployment. 13 Furthermore, as Drabkin - D a r i n speculates, as l o n g as the b a s i c branches of p r o d u c t i o n have not been adequately expanded and a g r i c u l t u r e i s h i g h l y mechanized, a h i g h p o t e n t i a l of housing a c t i v i t i e s and p u b l i c works can m a i n t a i n economic a c t i v i t y . a n d the p u r c h a s i n g power of the l o c a l market a t a d e s i r a b l e l e v e l , thus p e r m i t t i n g the speedy expansion of l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n . I t must be noted t h a t an a p p r e c i a b l e p a r t of I s r a e l ' s l a b o r f o r c e makes i t s l i v i n g d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y from b u i l d -i n g . A c c o r d i n g to the data of the "Manpower Survey", i n the middle of 1954, a t o t a l of 50»800 earners were d i r e c t l y employed i n b u i l d i n g and t h e i r number had r i s e n to 52,600 earners by the end of 1955* In a d d i t i o n , however, more than 8,000 persons were employed i n q u a r r i e s and i n the stone and cement i n d u s t r i e s . N early 6,000 persons were engaged i n c a r p e n t r y , mechanics and the I n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n of wooden and metal products r e q u i r e d i n b u i l d i n g . As a t t h i s p e r i o d , i t was computed t h a t 12% or more of a l l earners l i v e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y from housing. Hence housing and p u b l i c works are a v a l u a b l e instrument 13 H. Drabkin - D a r i n , op_. c i t . , p. 175. 56 f o r the government i n d e a l i n g w i t h employment and p r o v i d i n g work f o r a l a r g e number of people. While the p u b l i c works serve only i n p a r t f o r the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e , and thus c o n t r i b u t e to the expansion of p r o d u c t i o n , housing i s fundamental and v i t a l l y n e cessary, f o r i t c r e a t e s p r e r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o d u c t i o n by e n s u r i n g d w e l l i n g s f o r the workers, and a t the same time s e r v i n g as a major source of employment. Economic Importance of A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlements Q u i t e a p a r t from p r o v i d i n g sources of employment housing i n s e ttlements i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r i t s value i n expand-i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy of the c o u n t r y . For t h i s reason, housing i s l a r g e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n new v i l l a g e s which a r e planned to conform w i t h the development p l a n . Of the 22,609 d w e l l i n g s b u i l t i n farming areas a t the end of 1955, 85$ were i n 230 new v i l l a g e s and only 15$ i n the Ik p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d 85 v i l l a g e s . The value of settlements f o r a b s o r b i n g immigrants and promoting the economic p r o d u c t i v i t y of the c o u n t r y i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s . At the end of 1955t there were 720 Jewish a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e -ments, w i t h a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of about 50,000 f a m i l i e s . These sett l e m e n t s c o n t a i n e d 31,000 farm u n i t s as a t 1955* Thus the new s e t t l e m e n t s c o n t a i n e d 60% of what was then the t o t a l Jewish a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y . In the past the attempt has been made to set up, i n a d d i t i o n t o the new v i l l a g e s , an e n t i r e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n , ^ I b i d . , p. 76. 57 comprising about 36 v i l l a g e s as shown i n F i g u r e 6 (see f o l l o w i n g page). The o b j e c t i v e i s t o c o o r d i n a t e a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h indus-t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s , the l a t t e r to be e s t a b l i s h e d so as to u t i l i z e the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . T h i s r e g i o n a l set-up of v i l l a g e s and semi-urban c e n t r e s has s e v e r a l advantages: i t a l l o w s f o r a planned v a r i e t y of crops and a combined p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , which can be managed more e f f e c t i v e l y f o r an e n t i r e r e g i o n than f o r i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . During the development stage envisaged i n the N a t i o n a l P l a n 1 ^ (1962-67) r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n should a t t a i n a t o t a l of 600, 000, of which n e a r l y 450,000 would be Jewish r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , as compared w i t h 85,120 i n 1948. P r i o r i t i e s i n housing aimed a t a l l o c a t i n g 85$ of the 236,000 permanent u n i t s c o n s t r u c t e d under p u b l i c b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s to immigrant housing and a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s . To achieve t h i s o b j e c t i v e , p l a n n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l development on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e has been designed to f i t i n wit h the country-wide p l a n . I t has been i n d i c a t e d by Drabkin - D a r i n " ^ t h a t t h i s r e g i o n a l experiment has proven to be very e f f e c t i v e . The k i b b u t z economy i s f a i r l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and i t s achievements g r e a t e r than t h a t of any other a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . A g r i c u l t u r a l s e ttlements of a l l k i n d s , i n which housing undoubtedly pl a y e d a predominant r o l e r e p r e s e n t s one of the s t r i k i n g achievements of I s r a e l i n economic development. For i n s t a n c e , a g r i c u l t u r a l 17 exports d u r i n g 1954-1959 i n c r e a s e d by 64$. A. Doudal, p_p_. c i t . , p. 388. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 82. 1 ^ A. Doudai, op_. c i t . , p. 384. 58 DIAGRAM FIGURE 6 AGRICULTURAL REGION CONCEPT SOURCE : ADAPTED FROM A. DOUDAI , "REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND HOUSING IN ISRAEL* EKISTICS, JUNE 1962, PAGE 387 59 From the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n , i t may be concluded t h a t housing as an instrument f o r economic development can p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e not o n l y the i n d u s t r i a l but a l s o the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r of the economy, i f i t i s e f f e c t i v e l y l i n k e d w i t h the over-a l l n a t i o n a l p l a n . I t i s i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t I s r a e l ' s e x p e r i -ence, i n s p i t e of i t s uniqueness and problems, o f f e r s a l e s s o n worth emulating by other d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . Lessons of I s r a e l ' s Experience There a r e indeed many l e s s o n s t o be l e a r n e d from I s r a e l ' s experience by many c o u n t r i e s a n t i c i p a t i n g l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n , or undergoing r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n . A few of them w i l l be mentioned here. The f i r s t i s the importance of adopting a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y aimed a t u s i n g housing t o i n f l u e n c e p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n through p l a n n i n g . For p l a n n i n g to be e f f e c t i v e i t must have a nation-wide l e g a l b a s i s . The I s r a e l Parliament (Knesset) had to str e n g t h e n the l e g a l b a s i s of p l a n n i n g by e n a c t i n g a new P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g Act which, t o a very l a r g e extent, enables housing pro-j e c t s t o be adapted t o the country's needs f o r economic develop-18 ment. Although n a t i o n a l plans are not l e g a l l y b i n d i n g , they are a u t h o r i t a t i v e plans f o r subsequent e x e c u t i o n . The p o l i c y of p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l has been s u c c e s s f u l , f o r w h i l e there i s s t i l l some unemployment i n a few development areas, most are t h r i v i n g . I t i s t r u e T e l A v i v and H a i f a have continued t o grow, but the p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n them has f a l l e n . 1 ^ The I s r a e l P h y s i c a l Master P l a n , p. 125. 60 19 Joan Ash 7 notes t h a t a l t h o u g h there i s no d i r e c t c o n t r o l over the l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r y , government e n t e r p r i s e s move i n t o development areas and p r i v a t e I n d u s t r y i s induced to go i n t o them by s e v e r a l b e n e f i t s , i n c l u d i n g housing. For many de v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i t has long been urgent to l i n k housing p r o j e c t s w i t h the development p l a n , so as to d i r e c t housing i n t o more c o n s t r u c t i v e channels t h a t w i l l encourage economic development both i n urban and r u r a l a r e a s . The n a t i o n a l development p l a n , f o r example, can i l l u s t r a t e each a s p e c t i n r e l a t i o n to housing or some other a s p e c t . The aim of the n a t i o n a l p l a n should be to prevent where e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e the popula-t i o n from crowding i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y i n t o the a l r e a d y dense metro-p o l i t a n a reas and c r e a t e some balance between the urban and r u r a l a r e a s . I s r a e l has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t i n p u r s u i n g a p o l i c y of popula-t i o n d i s p e r s a l geared.to e x p l o i t i n g the .natural.: r e s o u r c e s of the country, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to have a s t r o n g housing a u t h o r i t y t h a t a c t i v e l y cooperates w i t h other government bodies and even housing a s s o c i a t i o n s . A l o t of c r e d i t i n I s r a e l ' s achievement i n l o c a -t i n g , programing, p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g of s e t t l e m e n t s goes to I t s housing d i v i s i o n which i s In c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the p l a n n i n g department and the other agencies connected w i t h housing and p l a n n i n g . The l e s s o n to be l e a r n t i n t h i s r e g a r d i s t h a t i t i s not enough f o r a government to assume p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g powers; these powers must be used i n a manner t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s coopera-t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n of p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I s r a e l i t s e l f 19 Joan Ash, op_. c i t . , p. 8 3 . 61 s u f f e r s from the problem of c o o r d i n a t i n g d e c i s i o n s of the v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s i n charge of housing and b u i l d i n g , I n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l -t u r e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , l a b o r , and so on. But every e f f o r t i s made to minimize c o n f l i c t and t h i s a t t i t u d e has helped i n advancing i n t e g r a t i v e r a t h e r than i s o l a t e d and independent p l a n n i n g . I n d e a l i n g w i t h development p l a n n i n g and housing I s r a e l has produced a most i n t e r e s t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . E x c e p t i o n a l l a b o r f o r c e and s t r o n g e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p p l u s l a r g e Inflows of c a p i t a l are the a s s e t s most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the economic growth of I s r a e l which compares w i t h Japan's. The economies of the two c o u n t r i e s , M c D i a r m i d 2 0 notes, have grown more than 10$ a year d u r i n g the l a s t decade. In 1954 Japan had a per c a p i t a gross n a t i o n a l product of $232, and I s r a e l $745. By 1967 these have grown to about $714 and $1177 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Since produc-t i v i t y i s r e l a t e d to the l a b o r f o r c e and i t i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h housing, the i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s of housing on I s r a e l ' s l a b o r f o r c e cannot be d i s m i s s e d l i g h t l y . I t was I s r a e l ' s p o l i c y to adapt housing t o economic development by i n t e g r a t i n g housing programs w i t h the development p l a n s , a c h i e v i n g a remarkable success i n t h i s e f f o r t . Again the f a c t t h a t I s r a e l i n v e s t e d on the average about 20$ to 28$ of i t s raw investment i n housing i n r e c e n t years and y e t managed to a t t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l economic growth s i g n i f i e s Ithe. p o t e n t i a l s of housing investment t h a t i s c o n s c i o u s -l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h development p l a n n i n g . O r v i l l e J . McDiarmld, "Japan and I s r a e l " , Finance and  Development, v o l . I l l , No. 2, June 1966, pp. 136-143. The author i s economic a d v i s e r South A s i a Department of the World Bank. 62 Though times change and co u n t r i e s d i f f e r , I s r a e l ' s e x p e r i -ence demonstrates both problems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o u n t r i e s now seeking r a p i d economic development. One such country i s Ghana, which l i k e I s r a e l has adopted planning as a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y instrument f o r socioeconomic progress. Ghana i s small, measuring 92,000 square miles i n area w i t h a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 6.7 m i l l i o n (i960 census). I t i s u r b a n i z i n g a t the r a t e of 6.7% w i t h 7*7% of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n concentrated i n a few la r g e c i t i e s where housing problems are considered to be acute by the government. The pop u l a t i o n increase i n the urban areas 21 and the r e s u l t i n g housing problems are l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to n a t u r a l increase and r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n . (Appendix 1-9* have been provided to f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n on pop u l a t i o n growth and u r b a n i z a t i o n trends i n Ghana.) Circumstances l i k e these pose problems of r e l a t i n g housing to planning. And to t h i s a t t e n t i o n may now be turned. Between 1948 and i960 the average occupancy per house i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s increased by about 30$ to 19•3 persons per house. (Population Census of Ghana i 9 6 0 ) . t CHAPTER IV EVALUATION OF HOUSING AND PLANNING IN GHANA In the p r e v i o u s Chapter we saw how c e r t a i n circumstances p r e v a i l i n g i n I s r a e l compelled the country to i n i t i a t e housing programs t h a t were i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the development p l a n . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a conscious p o l i c y of p o p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l i n which housing programs were implemented i n the l a r g e r context of economic development and u r b a n i z a t i o n h i g h l i g h t s the country's achievement. The purpose of the pres e n t Chapter i s to e v a l u a t e the extent t o which government-aided housing i s e f f e c t i v e l y t i e d i n w i t h the development p l a n i n Ghana, i n order t o t e s t the under-l y i n g h y p o t h e s i s of the study. The I s r a e l i experience, of course, p r o v i d e s some of the c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which pur hypothesis can be t e s t e d . The Seven-Year Development P l a n D e s p i t e Ghana's long experience w i t h development p l a n n i n g , i t i s o n l y the Seven-Year Development P l a n 1963-1970 which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as the f i r s t r e a l p l a n which a) s e t out the p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s of the r u l i n g government; b) took i n t o account the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the s e c t o r s of the economy; c) attempted to p r o v i d e a n a t i o n a l comprehensive develop-ment program f o r both the government and non-government s e c t o r s of the economy.-, 1 E.N. Omaboe, "PPllcSy and P l a n n i n g " i n A study pf Ccntemporary Ghana: The Economy of Ghana, Ed. Walter Birmingham et a l . (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1966), p. 452. 63 64 In order to a s s i s t a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g bodies t o work out t h e i r d e t a i l e d d e s igns i n r e l a t i o n to the n a t i o n a l p l a n , a N a t i o n a l 2 P h y s i c a l Development P l a n was s e t f o r t h . I t was intended to t r a n s l a t e the p o l i c i e s of economic and s o c i a l plans i n t o t a n g i b l e d e s i gns of economic geography, a l l o c a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n , l a b o r f o r c e , p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n s , urban growth a l l o c a t i o n s , major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s , power and water zones and other e s s e n t i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The form of the p h y s i c a l p l a n p r o v i d e d both a long-range p i c t u r e of p o s s i b i l i t i e s and a short-range d e t a i l e d d e s i g n i n d i c a t i n g the s t a t u s of a l l c u r r e n t p r o j e c t s and immediate f u t u r e recommendations. P r e p a r a t i o n of annual p l a n s was to be the o c c a s i o n f o r the a c t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o l i c i e s of the seven-year and perspec-t i v e p l a n s . T h i s f u n c t i o n was the most important c o n t i n u i n g assignment of the O f f i c e of the P l a n n i n g Commission. The annual p l a n would attempt to guide the growth of p r o d u c t i o n , to m a i n t a i n o v e r a l l s t a b i l i t y and the d e s i r e d pace of g e n e r a l economic a c t i v i -t y i n the country, to a l l o c a t e the s c a r c e s t r e s o u r c e s and to i n f l u e n c e the a l l o c a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l income i n a manner which was most conducive to the f u r t h e r growth of the economy i t s e l f . The s k i l l w i t h which the e s s e n t i a l elements i n the annual p l a n would be r e l a t e d would i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s determine how f a s t the economy of Ghana would grow. An emphasis was, t h e r e f o r e , p l a c e d on the importance of c o o r d i n a t i o n of the elements of the p l a n . 2 O f f i c e of the Planning Commission, The Ghana Seven-Year  Development Plan,1963-1970, p. 292. 65 The c o o r d i n a t i o n d i v i s i o n of the O f f i c e would need a l l the a u t h o r i t y of the Pl a n n i n g Commission to ensure both t h a t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e i r plans and p r o j e c t s a l l agencies were aware of the r e l e v a n t plans of other agencies and c o n s u l t them prop-e r l y and, no l e s s important, that one agency d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y h o l d up the development or p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t y of another agency through f a i l u r e to p r o v i d e a p r e v i o u s l y agreed s e r v i c e or 3 commodity. In o r g a n i z i n g t h i s i n t e r - a g e n c y c o o r d i n a t i o n i t was r e c o g -n i z e d t h a t e f f e c t i v e systems of programing f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of development plans must be d e v i s e d . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had l e a r n e d t h a t owing t o l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n a c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e , f o r example, was o f t e n occupied by i d l e workers because m a t e r i a l s had not a r r i v e d or because one group had to wait f o r another to f i n i s h t h e i r o p e r a t i o n f i r s t . The examples were many and always the e x p l a n a t i o n was t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n had been p a i d to the r u l e t h a t " i t i s as important t o p l a n when to do a t h i n g as what to do." A p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s r e s u l t of t h i s i n a t t e n t i o n t o t i m i n g and programing was the waste of scarce c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o i n t e d out, "much of the waste i n v o l v e s a l o s s of f o r e i g n exchange as well.V A c c o r d i n g l y , the Programing D i v i s i o n of the O f f i c e of the Pla n n i n g Commission was implored to bear the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of working f o r the e l i m i n a -t i o n of "such waste." 3 I b i d . , p. 2 9 3 . L I b i d . , p. 2 9 k 66 P l a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Departmental Machinery f o r C o o r d i n a t i o n The Seven-Year Development P l a n i n d i c a t e d t h a t every department and m i n i s t r y of government would have a p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r who would g e n e r a l l y be i t s deputy head. The p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the a c t i v i -t i e s of h i s agency w i t h that of other a g e n c i e s , as w e l l as gener-a l l y f o r the e f f i c i e n t performance of i t s other p l a n n i n g respon-s i b i l i t i e s , thereby e n s u r i n g t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s of the p l a n were brought to bear c o n s t a n t l y on a l l departmental a c t i v i t i e s . P l a n n i n g o f f i c e r s would be concerned w i t h the s e t t i n g up of an adequate s t a t i s t i c a l system i n t h e i r agencies and the r e p o r t i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n to the C e n t r a l Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ; they would be the channel through which the new i d e a of f a c t u -a l l y - b a s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would f i l t e r i n t o a l l those areas where a d m i n i s t r a t o r s then e i t h e r a c t e d on hunches owing to an unneces-sa r y absence of data, or might not worry to a s c e r t a i n a v a i l a b l e f a c t s . I t was admitted t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would o b v i o u s l y be r e q u i r e d to use judgement and experience always. But i n a modern a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system the oc c a s i o n s on which judgements have to be made on a b a s i s of inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n should~be r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t , w h i l e i n many cases the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g cognate f i e l d s i n c r e a s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t n o n - s t a t i s t i c a l judgements w i l l be r i g h t when they have t o be made.,-In b r i e f , the country r e c o g n i z e s the importance of c o o r d i -n a t i n g p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s as s e t out i n the development p l a n ; i t attempts t o p r o v i d e machinery i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system to achieve i n t e g r a t i o n of p l a n s . I t i s a g a i n s t the background 5 i b i d . , p. 2 9 5 . 6 7 of these unique f e a t u r e s t h a t we s h a l l attempt to ev a l u a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing and p l a n n i n g i n Ghana. Housing i n the Seven-Year Development P l a n As p o i n t e d out i n Chapter I the Seven-Year Development P l a n r e c o g n i z e d the economic and s o c i a l importance of housing i n the n a t i o n a l economy and gave an e x p l i c i t o u t l i n e of what may be d e s c r i b e d as an i m p l i e d housing p o l i c y . I t was s t a t e d t h a t e v e n t u a l l y the economy of the country must be a b l e t o p r o v i d e decent housing f o r each f a m i l y as a matter of r i g h t . For e a r l y i n 1 9 6 2 when the N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission was i n i t i a t i n g i t s work on the p l a n , the housing problem came i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e a g a i n s t the broad background of n a t i o n a l development. The need f o r a d a p t i n g housing t o economic development was r e c o g n i z e d and, housing was to be t r e a t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l development p l a n . For the purpose of t h i s study, the r e l a t i o n between hous-i n g and development p l a n n i n g w i l l be e v a l u a t e d i n two main areas of government a c t i o n : a) Government-aided housing i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a Resettlement Scheme; b) Government-aided housing i n s e l e c t e d c i t i e s and tox-rns i n Ghana mostly undertaken by the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n housing, as o u t l i n e d i n the development p l a n , was to occur In two main a r e a s . Thus, l i k e the I s r a e l i s i t u a t i o n , the government had the power, the r e s o u r c e s , and an o p p o r t u n i t y to use housing as a p r o f i t a b l e instrument f o r economic development through p l a n n i n g . 68 The V o l t a Resettlement Scheme The V o l t a Resettlement Scheme forms p a r t of a multi-purpose r i v e r development p r o j e c t i n Ghana, i n v o l v i n g the damming of the V o l t a R i v e r to generate h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power. In t h i s o p e r a t i o n 70,000 people l i v i n g i n 739 v i l l a g e s r anging i n s i z e from hamlets to important towns i n the V o l t a Region had to be moved to 52 new s e t t l e m e n t s . ^ The r e s e t t l e m e n t i s t r e a t e d as an e x e r c i s e i n p o s i t i v e economic development p l a n n i n g ona r e g i o n a l b a s i s designed to improve the economy of the a r e a . B r i e f l y summarized: The i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s i n t o new towns f i t s p e r f e c t l y w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l framework and c o n v e r s e l y can o n l y be brought about by r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s because of the combination of m a t e r i a l s , t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n , l a b o r and power which i s necessary i n order to e s t a b l i s h i n d u s t r i e s a t t h e i r r i g h t p l a c e s . In e f f e c t t h i s i s the very formula f o r the p o s i t i v e l o c a t i o n of new towns i n proper geographic r e l a t i o n s h i p to n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e and manpower, wi t h e l e c t r i c power conducted to the s e l e c t new town s i t e s Thus, the development of the a r e a i n q u e s t i o n i s phased i n t o the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l development p l a n . Housing programs are c o o r d i -nated w i t h other development schemes i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e t c . , so t h a t they would mutually r e i n f o r c e each o t h e r . Whether the r e s e t t l e m e n t scheme w i l l prove to be an e c o n o m i c a l l y worthwhile a c t i v i t y or not may be s t u d i e d through f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . But f o r the time being, i t L a s l o Huszar, "Resettlement P l a n n i n g . " i n V o l t a R e s e t t l e -ment Symposium Papers, (Kumasi) (Ghana: 1965), p. 103. ^ George Nez, Memorandum to R e s i d e n t . U.N. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Ghana. (Accra: 1962), p. 1. 69 i l l u s t r a t e s a p o s i t i v e e f f o r t to adapt housing to economic development by l i n k i n g i t w i t h the n a t i o n a l development p l a n . Housing i n Selected C i t i e s and Towns One of the major goals of the Seven-Year Development Pl a n was to a l l e v i a t e housing problems e x i s t i n g i n s e l e c t e d c i t i e s and towns. I t was estimated, f o r ins t a n c e , that i n order to provide f o r the expected increase i n urban population during the p l a n period a t o t a l of 25,000 new d w e l l i n g u n i t s should be con-s t r u c t e d i n the major c i t i e s and another 35»000 u n i t s i n the towns and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . ^ This "housing program" was expected to cost a minimum of about $130 m i l l i o n of which $90 m i l l i o n would be r e q u i r e d f o r s t r i c t l y commercial housing and $40 m i l l i o n f o r low-income housing. I t was to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government to ensure that an adequate flow of finance was made a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n . The p l a n noted that the r a p i d flow of r u r a l people i n t o urban areas since the end of the second world war had r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a number of s a t e l l i t e towns and v i l l a g e s around the major c i t i e s and a l s o to the increased over-crowding of slum areas w i t h i n those c i t i e s . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , proposed that "under t h i s plan a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y w i l l be evolved f o r the development of sub-urban towns and v i l l a g e s as i n i t i a l r e c e p t i o n Q O f f i c e of the Planning Commission, Ghana Seven-Year  Development--Plan, 1963-1970, p. 194. I t i s assumed that a housing problem e x i s t s i n Ghana, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c i t i e s , Our focus, however, i s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between government-aided housing and pla n n i n g . 70 9 centres for immigrant labor i n the larger c i t i e s . " One would expect, therefore, that an opportunity somewhat sim i l a r to the I s r a e l i s i t u a t i o n existed i n Ghana and that housing programs could be adapted to economic development. But t h i s did not occur, l a r g e l y because there was a missing l i n k between plan-ning and housing as w i l l be demonstrated i n the following discussion. It i s perhaps by examining the r o l e of the State Housing Corporation i n the housing f i e l d that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between planning and housing can be understood and evaluated. The Role of the State Housing Corporation The State Housing Corporation was established i n 1 9 5 5 to increase the a v a i l a b i l i t y of houses i n the country. It i s i n the main responsible for a) s e l e c t i o n of s i t e s and planning of housing estates; b) construction of housing estates, and houses, and c) management and maintenance of housing estates, and hire-purchase houses. The Corporation has been given ample powers as l i s t e d under i t s instrument of incorporation to pro-vide p r a c t i c a l solutions to ex i s t i n g housing problems.-1-0 However, i t functioned without a housing p o l i c y under the plan period. A housing policy would normally consist of the formulation by the government of goals and targets for the hous-ing of the population on the one hand and of the development of machinery for the r e a l i z a t i o n . Without a housing p o l i c y no housing programs could, of course, be developed. In fact, the 9 Ibid., p. 1 9 5 -71 E f f a h Commission r e p o r t e d t h a t there was no p l a n n i n g of the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s . 1 1 In c o n t r a s t to the I s r a e l i e x p e r i -ence, housing i n the main towns was not guided by any c l e a r - c u t p o l i c y and program. N e v e r t h e l e s s , housing a c t i v i t i e s were under-taken by the C o r p o r a t i o n because i t had the power to do so. The p o s s e s s i o n of i t s own powers s i d e by s i d e w i t h the powers ve s t e d i n a u t h o r i t i e s and departments r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l a n d use p l a n n i n g , the p r o v i s i o n of e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s , l e d to c o n t i n -uous c o n f l i c t r e s u l t i n g i n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e l e c t i o n of s i t e s , improper p l a n n i n g i n time and p l a c e throughout the c o u n t r y . L e t us l o o k a t examples of what the C h i e f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r of the P l a n n i n g Department d e s c r i b e d as "improper Housing Corpo-12 r a t i o n Developments." a) "Unauthorized Housing Development Aerodrome T r a f f i c Zone" For purposes of the r e v i s i o n of the Master P l a n ( f o r A c c r a ) , the P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g Department requested the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n to submit a l l l a y o u t s . I t was then n o t i c e d t h a t the A i r p o r t R e s i d e n t i a l Area f e l l on l a n d a l r e a d y zoned f o r use of the A i r p o r t . On i n s p e c t i o n i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the a r e a had been b u i l t upon, a l r e a d y . Meanwhile the C i v i l A v i a t i o n A u t h o r i t i e s requested t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n should be d i s c o n t i n u e d . A meeting was convened by the C h i e f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r , attended by o f f i c i a l s of Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , S t a t e C o n s t r u c t i o n C o r p o r a t i o n , M i n i s t r y of Lands, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the C i v i l A v i a t i o n . The meeting 1 1 I b i d . , p. 9 8 . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 331. 72 .decided t h a t i ) Ghana Housing C o r p o r a t i o n should stop a l l development works; i i ) I t should n e g o t i a t e w i t h the Department of C i v i l A v i a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the use - - other than r e s i d e n t i a l -to which the s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e i r e x i s t i n g stage of development c o u l d be put; i i i ) S e c r e t a r y was to convey the above d e c i s i o n to the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . b) "Unauthorized Development a t South Labadi ( A c c r a ) " The P l a n n i n g Department's comment was, " t h i s develop-ment i s too c l o s e to the sea and may s u f f e r p h y s i c a l l y d u r i n g h i g h t i d e s i n the f u t u r e . " I t was f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o r r o -s i o n of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s may a f f e c t the s t r u c t u r e and l e a d to h i g h c o s t of frequent r e p a i r s and replacements. c) "Unauthorized s t r u c t u r e s near Cantonments P o l i c e S t a t i o n . " I t was p o i n t e d out by the C h i e f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r t h a t "these houses were b u i l t on low l y i n g ground where r e c e n t q u a r r y i n g o p e r a t i o n s had taken p l a c e . " For t h i s reason, the l a n d was s u b j e c t to f l o o d i n g and roads may have to be r a i s e d and c o n s o l i d a t e d a t g r e a t expense. In summary the C h i e f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r s t a t e d i n h i s memorandum to the E f f a h Commission t h a t although the Hous-i n g C o r p o r a t i o n d i d not employ a q u a l i f i e d planner i t d i d not a v a i l i t s e l f of the e x p e r t i s e a d v i c e from the P l a n n i n g Depart-ment. For t h i s reason housing developments were not always guided to the a p p r o p r i a t e areas, and were not o f t e n based on a survey and a n a l y s i s of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and on data d e f i n i n g the housing demand i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s . Moreover, by a c q u i r i n g l a n d without p r i o r c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h the P l a n n i n g Department which i t was expected to do, the C o r p o r a t i o n c o u l d not a v o i d ,73 f r e e z i n g l a n d beyond the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of immediate development. The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t was t h a t l a n d t h a t c o u l d otherwise be immediately used i n the n a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t was f r o z e n to await housing development i n the d i s t a n t f u t u r e . What may be i n f e r r e d from the s e v e r a l p o i n t s r a i s e d by the C h i e f P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r i n h i s memorandum i s simply t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the P l a n n i n g Department would have ensured t h a t areas s e l e c t e d f o r housing would conform to the requirements of the Master P l a n s . I t i s not unreasonable to assume t h a t the n a t i o n might have s u f f e r e d some economic l o s s because housing development f r e q u e n t l y d i d not conform to Master Plans of the n a t i o n a l development p l a n . I t i s contended t h a t the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p l a n n i n g and housing has been too weak to prove e f f e c t i v e mainly because the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has not p r o v i d e d c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t would t i e housing to the d e v e l -opment p l a n . F i r s t , the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n has undertaken housing developments haphazardly both i n time and p l a c e mainly because i t f u n c t i o n e d without the b e n e f i t of a c o n s c i o u s housing p o l i c y and program. At b e s t the C o r p o r a t i o n t r i e d to c o n s u l t w i t h bodies l i k e the M i n i s t r y of Lands where a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d was concern-ed and w i t h the S t a t e C o n s t r u c t i o n C o r p o r a t i o n where b u i l d i n g works were concerned. Even the procedure f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d 13 was awkward. Accor d i n g to the e x i s t i n g approved procedure under the development p l a n , the o f f i c i a l s of the C o r p o r a t i o n were • ^ " A c q u i s i t i o n of Land f o r Housing E s t a t e s . " L e t t e r from the Chairman of the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n to the P r i n c i p a l S e c r e t a r y , M i n i s t r y of Works and Housing, (Dated 15, August, 1966, A c c r a ) . 74 .expected to search f o r s i t e s and then make p r e l i m i n a r y e n q u i r i e s at the M i n i s t r y of Lands and the Department of P h y s i c a l Planning f o r formal approval of the Permanent S i t e Advisory Committee. On a number of occasions such a procedure undoubtedly proved f r u s t r a t i n g because a concise program had not been drawn up to guide the Corporation as to what land should be a v a i l a b l e at i t s d i s p o s a l , where and when i t should be developed and so on. In b r i e f , because the country lacked housing programs that could be geared to meet, no matter how marginal, the demand f o r government-aided housing i n the main towns and c i t i e s , i n t e g r a t -ed d e c i s i o n s concerning a c q u i s i t i o n of lands, p h y s i c a l planning, house b u i l d i n g , e t c . , could not be taken by the i n t e r a c t i n g government bodies. The most r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s could be taken only on the b a s i s of an adequate i n t e r p l a y between the author-i t i e s concerned w i t h p h y s i c a l planning, c o n s t r u c t i o n , housing, on the one hand, and the a u t h o r i t i e s and agencies i n charge of the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l housing p o l i c y on the other. I t may be noted that i n Ghana p h y s i c a l planning i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Department of P h y s i c a l Planning lodged i n the M i n i s t r y of Economic A f f a i r s . Several problems i n connection w i t h land a c q u i s i t i o n are under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Lands and N a t u r a l Resources. Housing i t s e l f i s under the M i n i s t r y of Works and Housing but through the State Housing Corporation. In the past, the degree of cooperation, as has been demonstrated above, among a l l these p a r t i c i p a n t bodies i n charge of housing and planning has not worked too w e l l . This i s , f o r t u n a t e l y , recognized by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 7,5 In a recent paper on housing p o l i c y the Minstry of Works and Housing i n d i c a t e s t h a t . . . i t i s e s s e n t i a l to b r i n g together the planning of government agencies p r e s e n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r housing, to prepare a c o n s o l i d a t e d annual housing program and budget, to arrange f o r the sharing and strengthening of t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s , to provide f o r l a r g e s i t e development...^ In the same paper i t i s a l s o proposed to set up a Housing -Advisory Committee to provide necessary guidance i n the formula-t i o n and e f f e c t i v e implementation of housing p o l i c i e s . In comparison w i t h the I s r a e l i experience, an e s s e n t i a l step i s now being taken i n Ghana to u t i l i z e a housing p o l i c y to formulate housing programs. But whether housing can be used as a machinery f o r po p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l or not w i l l depend on l o c a l circumstances. To use housing as an instrument f o r economic development i s one t h i n g ; but to use i t , as a t o o l f o r popula-t i o n d i s p e r s a l i s something e l s e . I t may or may not be p r a c t i c a l f o r Ghana to f o l l o w a po p u l a t i o n d i s p e r s a l p o l i c y i n which hous-ing can play a c r i t i c a l r o l e . The immediate relevance of the I s r a e l i experience, to begin w i t h , i s the f a c t t h a t the planning process ensures t h a t housing developments are planned as part of the development p l a n . Conclusion In e v a l u a t i n g the r e l a t i o n between housing and planning i n Ghana i t emerges that w h i l e housing i n connection w i t h the V o l t a 14 Housing P o l i c y i n Ghana, (Accra Minstry of Works and Housing), 1 9 6 7 . Mimeo. 76 Resettlement Scheme was planned to support the economy of the r e g i o n , housing developments i n c i t i e s and towns were f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n f l i c t w i t h p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g . Understandably enough, f o r l a c k of advanced p l a n n i n g s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s were not c o n s c i o u s l y adapted to economic development, but r a t h e r r e s u l t e d i n unneces-sary c o s t s , examples of which have been c i t e d . Now t h a t the beginnings of a housing policy^"-' are q u i t e apparent, the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between housing and p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s much g r e a t e r d e f i n i t i o n . I t w i l l be the task of the next and c o n c l u d i n g Chapter to o f f e r some steps t h a t c o u l d be taken to ensure t h a t housing developments t i e i n much more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the development p l a n . I t i s o n l y by i n t e g r a t i n g housing w i t h the development p l a n t h a t the economic b e n e f i t s of housing can c o n s c i o u s l y be a t t a i n e d i n an o r g a n i z e d manner. Indeed, such i s the r e a s on which has l e d , under the Seven-Year Development P l a n , to an i m p l i e d p o l i c y which aims a t e n s u r i n g t h a t i n those l o c a t i o n s where new economic a c t i v i t i e s are expected to develop and b r i n g together l a r g e numbers of working people, adequate housing w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to meet the requirements of the working f o r c e . The P l a n 1 ^ e x p l i c i t l y emphasizes t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t number of housing u n i t s i s an impor-t a n t element of work p r o d u c t i v i t y on account of t h e i r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . 15 See Report on Housing P o l i c y to the Government of Ghana. (Ac c r a : November 19&7) U.N. Housing i n Developing P l a n n i n g , Hou/ Working Paper No. 2, August 1963. CHAPTER V THE PROSPECT FOR RELATING HOUSING TO PLANNING IN GHANA Assuming t h a t the Improvement of housing i s now accepted as a d e s i r a b l e c o n s t i t u e n t and o b j e c t i v e i n economic and s o c i a l development programs, i t has been argued that s i n c e housing , urban, and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n s t i t u t e some of the, elements of development p l a n n i n g , they can no more be allowed to operate i n i s o l a t i o n than any other major a c t i v i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i n order to use government - sponsored housing programs as an e f f e c t i v e instrument f o r socioeconomic development, these must be i n t e g r a -t e d w i t h development p l a n s . Based on documented r e s e a r c h i t has been demonstrated t h a t housing can c o n t r i b u t e to worker produc-t i v i t y . I f the pl a n n e r expects housing p r o j e c t s to y i e l d " e x t e r n a l economies", expenditure of funds, d e s i g n , l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a , should make maximum e f f o r t to c o o r d i n a t e housing pro-grams w i t h other development p r o j e c t s . A case study has been presented to i l l u s t r a t e how a d e v e l -oping n a t i o n , r e c o g n i z i n g the n e c e s s i t y f o r and socioeconomic b e n e f i t s of housing, has c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t e g r a t e d housing programs i n t o i t s development p l a n s . Although i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e the economic impact of housing on I s r a e l ' s impressive development, i t i s e q u a l l y hard t o ignore the f a c t t h a t the country has succeeded i n u s i n g housing to support other develop-mental t o o l s through conscious i n t e g r a t i o n of p l a n s . A l o t of 77 7 8 e m p i r i c a l evidence has been produced to show the extent to which housing f e a t u r e s as a s u p p o r t i n g and i n t e g r a l d e v i c e i n the economic development of I s r a e l . Using s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a based on I s r a e l ' s experience and a g a i n s t the background of the Seven-Year Development Pl a n , the r e l a t i o n between government - sponsored housing and p l a n n i n g i n Ghana has been e v a l u a t e d . I t has been found t h a t although the importance of a d a p t i n g housing to economic development through p l a n n i n g i s r e c o g n i z e d , s e v e r a l housing a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n are o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the l o c a l l e v e l . The f a i l u r e t o r e l a t e housing to p l a n n i n g , the study has suggested, c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t the S t a t e Housing C o r p o r a t i o n operates without a program t h a t would synchronize i t s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h development p l a n n i n g . Secondly, an e f f o r t to c o o r d i n a t e i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l f u n c -t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h housing and l a n d use p l a n n i n g has been l a c k i n g . T h i s e x p l a i n s , by and l a r g e , why matters concerning c r i t e r i a f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g v a r i o u s types of housing, l o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g whether i n the r e g i o n a l or l o c a l c ontext, e t c . , are h a r d l y a r t i c u l a t e d and c a r e f u l l y phased i n t o the development p l a n . The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s Chapter, t h e r e f o r e , i s to o f f e r suggestions f o r improving the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s and the development p l a n . Before undertaking t h i s task, however, i t i s c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l to examine a new program of 79 planning, recently adopted by the country. The objective i s to study the extent to which th i s program of planning f a c i l i t a t e s or f a i l s to secure integration of housing projects with devel-opment planning. Figure 7 on the following page i s designed as a s k e l e t a l representation of the structure of the new program of planning for Ghana. P r a c t i c a l Program of Planning for Ghana According to this document,-'- the Ministry of Economic A f f a i r s , formerly the Planning Commission, i s the central plan-ning agency responsible for the following functions: 1) Control of development 2) Physical planning 3) The formulation and r e v i s i o n of development plans, including the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of sector and sub-sector programs i n these plans 4) Relations with Economic Committee for A f r i c a 5 ) Servicing of National Economic Committee The document recommends that i f the central planning agency i s to be able to carry out i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for preparing Albert A. Waterston, " P r a c t i c a l Program of Planning for Ghana," (Accra: State Publishing Corporation, 1966), p. 12. 80 DEVELOPMENT PLAN ( CENTRAL PLANNJNG AGENCY ) ECONOMIC 8 PHYSICAL PLANNING z < _l 0. O o _l b. ECONOMIC SECTORAL PLANNING AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY MINING POWER TRANSPORT EDUCATION HEALTH A INTER-MINISTERIAL PLANNING COMMITTEE MINISTERIAL PROGRAMMING UNITS J MINISTRIES DEFENCE FOOD 8 AGRICULTURE ECONOMIC AFFAIRS EDUCATION EXTERNAL AFFAIRS FINANCE FORESTRY HEALTH INDUSTRY INFORMATION INTERIOR JUSTICE LABOR a WELFARE LANDS a MINES TRADE TRANSPORT a COMMUNICATIONS WORKS ft HOUSING r o o o T) O CO > r co FIGURE 7 SKELETAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STRUCTURE OF PRACTICAL PROGRAM OF PLANNING FOR GHANA SOURCE DESCRIBED FROM A. WATERSTON , " PRACTICAL PROGRAM OF PLANNING FOR GHANA " 1966 81 2 o v e r a l l p l a n s , the f o r m u l a t i o n of s e c t o r programs must be l e f t t o o p e r a t i n g m i n i s t r i e s and departments. For the l a t t e r purpose, the document recommends t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e medium would be a programing u n i t e s t a b l i s h e d i n each m i n i s t r y or department to a c t f o r i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n much i n the same way as the M i n i s t r y of Economic A f f a i r s a c t s f o r the government as a whole. Programing U n i t s A programing u n i t , as s t a t e d above, i s c o n s i d e r e d the v i r t u a l c o u n t e r p a r t of a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g agency f o r the govern-ment by the nature of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t s main f u n c t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : 1) to s e t standards and c r i t e r i a f o r the o p e r a t i n g departments i n q u e s t i o n or other u n i t s to f o l l o w i n p r e p a r i n g and c a r r y i n g out p r o j e c t s ; 2) to formulate the o v e r a l l development program and the r e c u r r e n t budget f o r i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n on the b a s i s of d i r e c t i v e s from i t s head; ^ See I b i d . , pp. 5. 6. The c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e i s f o r the MEA to prepare a comprehensive annual development p l a n cum m u l t i -annual s e c t o r a l programing l i m i t e d to the "most important s e c t o r s of a g r i c u l t u r e , mining, power, highways, r a i l w a y s , p o r t s , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , as shown i n F i g u r e 7« Thus s e c t o r programing i s a c a l c u l a t e d way of l o o k i n g ahead to ensure o r d e r l y develop-ment of an economic s e c t o r or branch. The p e r i o d of a s e c t o r program may v a r y . W i t h i n each longer-term s e c t o r program, i t i s p o s s i b l e to formulate a s o - c a l l e d " r o l l i n g program" o f , say three y e a r s . The t h r e e - y e a r r o l l i n g program would add another year a t the end of each year so t h a t i t would r e t a i n the t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d always as i t " r o l l e d forward" i n time. Annual plans would pr o v i d e u s e f u l data f o r u pdating s e c t o r a l programs. But i t i s v i s u a l i z e d t h a t "when c o n d i t i o n s s t a b i l i z e " i n Ghana the establishment of more comprehensive multi-annualg,uidelines both i n the form of medium-term and longer-term p e r s p e c t i v e plans w i l l become p o s s i b l e 82 3 ) "to prepare a l t e r n a t i v e development p o l i c i e s f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s head a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g heads of depart-ments or ot h e r u n i t s ; 4 ) to s e t standards f o r o p e r a t i n g departments and u n i t s to f o l l o w i n r e p o r t i n g on the progress of p r o j e c t s and on the b a s i s of r e p o r t s from o p e r a t i n g u n i t s , i t should prepare r e g u l a r , t i m e l y , and r e a s o n a b l y complete r e p o r t s and e v a l u a t i o n s of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o v e r a l l program; 5) i t should c o o r d i n a t e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e program f o r i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and a c t as the l i a i s o n f o r i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g agency. I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l P l a n n i n g Committee In order to e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e f o r l i a i s o n and mutual c o n s u l t a t i o n s , the heads of a l l programing u n i t s have been con-s t i t u t e d i n t o an I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l P l a n n i n g Committee, c h a i r e d by a h i g h o f f i c i a l of the c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g agency. The f u n c t i o n s of the Committee would i n c l u d e the formula-t i o n of uniform c r i t e r i a and standards f o r p r e p a r i n g p r o j e c t s , s e c t o r programs and p l a n s , and f o r r e p o r t i n g on t h e i r progress as c o n s i s t e n t l y as p o s s i b l e . I t i s a t t h i s stage t h a t v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s submitted by the m i n i s t r i e s would be s t u d i e d , e v a l u a t e d , and r e c o n c i l e d w i t h one,another. T h i s appears to be the f i n e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e c u r i n g i n t e g r a t i o n of programs of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Comment on Program of Pl a n n i n g From the viewpoint of r e l a t i n g government-sponsored housing p r o j e c t s w i t h other elements of the development p l a n , the program i s r a t h e r inadequate. I t s t a t e s t h a t the 83 p r e p a r a t i o n of m u l t i - a n n u a l programs should be l i m i t e d to the "most economic s e c t o r s or s u b - s e c t o r s " as shown i n the p r e v i o u s diagram. These are s a i d to be a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , mining, power, highways, r a i l w a y s , p o r t s , e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h . Housing has not been i n c l u d e d . In e f f e c t , no o p p o r t u n i t y i s p r o v i d e d f o r the heads of the programing u n i t s s e r v i n g on the I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l P l a n n i n g Committee to r e c o n c i l e any major a c t i v i t y of the development p l a n w i t h a housing p r o j e c t even when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . What seems to have r e c e i v e d i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n i s the f a c t t h a t l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , the f o r m u l a t i o n of plans f o r housing, the p r e l i m i n a r y s i t e works, and the prepara-t o r y work on the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s i s of n e c e s s i t y a major aspect of the development p l a n . The f a i l u r e to r e l a t e housing t o l o c a l p l a n s , of course, p e r s i s t s . The M i n i s t r y of Works and Housing has c a b i n e t as w e l l as p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r housing and continues to pass on d i r e c t i v e s t o the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . Need f o r Pre-determined Plans f o r Housing Schemes Si n c e the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n s t i l l operates without a program designed to match other elements of the development p l a n there i s c o n t i n u a l c o n f l i c t between p l a n s f o r housing and master 3 p l a n s . For i n s t a n c e , a p l a n f o r a proposed housing scheme i n J "Techie-Nungua Housing P r o j e c t " - - L e t t e r from the P r i n c i p a l S e c r e t a r y , M i n i s t r y of Works and Housing to the M i n i s t e r , (dated June 1968, Accra) 84 £ h e A c c r a - T e m a M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a d i d n o t confo rm w i t h the m a s t e r p l a n f o r the a r e a . When t h i s was "brought t o the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Works and H o u s i n g the n e c e s s i t y f o r s e e k i n g f o r e f f e c t i v e l i n k i n g o f h o u s i n g e s t a t e s w i t h l o c a l p l a n s was p o i n t -ed ou t by t h e P r i n c i p a l S e c r e t a r y : . . . . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g to . r e c o g n i z e i s t h a t t h i s i s a b i g scheme which- must f i t i n t o the o v e r a l l d e v e l o p -ment and the mas t e r p l a n f o r the A c c r a - T e m a M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . A t t h a t s t a g e i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t the P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g 4 Depar tment i n s t e a d o f the H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n m i g h t assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t he p l a n n i n g o f t he h o u s i n g scheme i n q u e s t i o n . I n a n o t h e r l e t t e r t h i s t ime f rom the Managing D i r e c t o r o f t he H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n the need f o r t h e C o r p o r a t i o n t o u n d e r -t a k e i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p r e - d e t e r m i n e d p l a n s was made much more e x p l i c i t . I t was p o i n t e d ou t t h a t "a c o n s t a n t and v a l i d c r i t i c i s m o f the C o r p o r a t i o n i s t h a t ou r e s t a t e s a r e n o t d e v e l o p e d p r o p e r l y i n t o p l a n n e d communi t i es".5 One c h i e f r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e f e c t , i t was e x p l a i n e d , i s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g ; t o the p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e f o r s e l e c t i o n o f s i t e s f o r new h o u s i n g , f o r example , an o f f i c e r on b e h a l f o f the C o r p o r a t i o n has t o l o o k f o r "empty l a n d s on w h i c h we can b u i l d a h o u s i n g e s t a t e . " When a " s u i t a b l e " s i t e i s f ound t h e n t h e C o r p o r a t i o n has t o i n q u i r e f r o m : • • •' i " "I"-'"-""" • • —.—..••ni. • i. —I. • .mi —I. The P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g Depar tment has a n a t i o n a l o f f i c e w i t h a ne twork o f r e g i o n a l and l o c a l p l a n n i n g u n i t s i n " a l l t he n i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s o f the c o u n t r y . ^ L e t t e r f rom t h e Managing D i r e c t o r o f the S . H . C . t o the P r i n c i p a l S e c r e t a r y , M i n i s t r y o f Works and H o u s i n g . (Dated 5th, J u n e , 1968), A c c r a ) . 85 a) M i n i s t r y of Lands and M i n e r a l Resources, whether the a r e a i n q u e s t i o n can be a l l o c a t e d f o r housing; b) P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g Department, whether a housing e s t a t e on the s i t e would f i t i n t o the master p l a n ; c) E l e c t r i c i t y C o r p o r a t i o n , whether s e r v i c e s can be extended to the area; d) S i t e A d v i s o r y Committee to approve the s e l e c t i o n a f t e r the above steps have been taken. Ample evidence and experience suggests t h a t such a procedure i s f r e q u e n t l y time-consuming, f r u s t r a t i n g and c o s t l y . I t c o u l d l a r g e l y be e l i m i n a t e d I f , i n the f i r s t p l a c e , the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n c o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h a program and s p e c i f i c p l a n s , determined on the b a s i s of a p p r o p r i a t e master plans t h a t a re a l r e a d y c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h the development plan.. A s t a r t i n g p o i n t towards t h i s g o a l i s f o r the new program of pl a n n i n g to r e c o g n i z e housing, and f o r t h a t matter, p u b l i c l y -sponsored housing as one of the important s e c t o r s of the eco-nomy to be c o n s i d e r e d along w i t h the other s e c t o r s mentioned i n the program. Investment plans f o r p u b l i c housing should c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t of the g e n e r a l economic p l a n f o r the n a t i o n a l economy. In view of the important economic r o l e of housing investment, i t i s reasonable to expect t h a t d e c i s i o n s on c r i t e r i a f o r housing p r o j e c t s would take i n t o account the requirements r e s u l t i n g from c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g of the n a t i o n a l economy and a l s o the r e q u i r e -ments of r e g i o n a l or l o c a l p l a n s . I t i s suggested t h a t housing be e x p l i c i t l y c o n s i d e r e d as an important s e c t o r ^ i n the new 5 Apparently, under the e r s t w h i l e Seven-Year Development P l a n 1963-JL970 housing was regarded as a "non-productive s e c t o r " - a s a g a i n s t a g r i c u l t u r e , mines and i n d u s t r y . Ghana Seven-Year Development P l a n 1963-1970, p. 253* program of p l a n n i n g f o r the count r y . Such a move w i l l enable housing programs formulated by a Housing D i v i s i o n ^ i n the M i n i s t r y of Works and Housing to be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h other pro-grams of the development p l a n by the I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l P l a n n i n g Committee. The e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangement permits the Hous-i n g D i v i s i o n to send d i r e c t i v e s to the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , and so p u b l i c l y - s p o n s o r e d housing p r o j e c t s are q u i t e d i v o r c e d from c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g . As a t 1966 the C o r p o r a t i o n had completed 7 3,323 housing u n i t s which c o n s t i t u t e d about 30 per cent of a l l d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n c i t i e s and towns i n Ghana. I f such housing schemes are to be u t i l i z e d as a v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r improving l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , then, i n so f a r as i t i s w i t h i n the power and a b i l i t y of the government t o do so, they should be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the framework of the o v e r a l l investment plans f o r the Q c o u n t r y . I t i s not enough f o r the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n t o s p o r a d i c a l l y search f o r s i t e s and then enquire whether these s i t e s a r e i n a c c o r d w i t h the master p l a n , i f any, and s u i t a b l e f o r housing to be pr o v i d e d t h e r e . As a nucleus i n the M i n s t r y of Works and Housing t h i s D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of n a t i o n a l housing p o l i c y . I t i s a s s i g n e d the task of b r i n g i n g together a n n u a l l y a c o n s o l i d a t e d budget f o r housing i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r and a l s o to r e p o r t on plans and progress i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . P u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s can, t h e r e f o r e , be somehow r e l a t e d to housing i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . (See "Housing P o l i c y i n Ghana," p. 5 ) . ? E f f a h Commission, op_. c i t . , p. 9« Q T h i s study does not venture to d i s c u s s how housing i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o u l d be r e l a t e d to the development p l a n . 87 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S p a t i a l P lanning With housing t a k i n g i t s p l a c e i n the queue w i t h other important s e c t o r s f o r a l l o c a t i o n s and other c l a i m a n t s f o r s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s and l a b o r , the r e s u l t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g must be r e s o l v e d . P l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e i n Ghana r e c o g n i z e s t h a t long-term p l a n -n i n g i s a fundamental l i n k between p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and the e n t i r e system of the quasi-planned economy. One of the c h i e f g o a l s of the n a t i o n being "balanced" r e g i o n a l development, r e g i o n a l p l a n s have become i n t e g r a l p a r t s of long-term economic p l a n n i n g . A p h y s i c a l p l a n of a r e g i o n a l economic p l a n impinges on towns and c i t i e s , s e r v i n g as a b a s i s of the s e t t l e m e n t s ' economic and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g program. Thus g e n e r a l l y speaking, the whole process of p l a n n i n g i s c o o r d i n a t e d up and down the h i e r a c h y as c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n F i g u r e 8 on next page. These pl a n s of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s are r e l a t e d w i t h one another, which e s t a b l i s h e s more adequate estimates of the e n t i r e economy. The emphasis i n t h i s Chapter i s on p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g f o r housing p r o j e c t s as embodied i n a housing program. I f the c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g agency can secure c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the development p l a n , and programs f o r government-sponsored housing p r o j e c t s , then i t should a l s o ensure that plans f o r housing schemes f i t i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e master plans f o r s e t t l e -ment u n i t s . I t i s suggested t h a t d e t a i l e d plans f o r housing be pre-pared by the l o c a l o f f i c e s of the P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g Department which are u n i t s under the c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g agency. In t h i s way 88 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN ( CENTRAL PLANNING AGENCY ) I SECTORAL PLANS INCLUDING HOUSING J -> SPATIAL PLANNING (PHYSICAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT) REGIONAL PLANNING REGIONAL PLANS CITY PLANNING (LOCAL OFFICES) SETTLEMENT UNITS MASTER PLANS \ I f PARTS OF SETTLEMENT UNITS DETAILED PLANS HOUSING PLANS FOR HOUSING CORPORATION ETC. FIGURE 8 INTEGRATION OF PLANS FOR PUBLICLY-SPONSORED HOUSING WITH DEVELOPMENT PLAN SOURCE AUTHOR^ CONCEPTION 89 p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g f o r housing schemes w i l l produce harmonious p h y s i c a l changes as opposed t o c o s t l y c o n f l i c t brought about by l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n . Consequently, the Housing C o r p o r a t i o n w i l l cease to p l a n f o r housing e s t a t e s . I t w i l l Implement i t s programs a l r e a d y designed to match master plans f o r c i t i e s and towns, or new a r e a s , u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e plans as g u i d e l i n e s . The C o r p o r a t i o n w i l l , however, manage, a d m i n i s t e r and m a i n t a i n housing e s t a t e s . That housing p r o j e c t s , i f executed i n a haphazard f a s h i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to time, p l a c e , e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a , e t c . , would i n f a c t a c h i e v e the most d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t o f e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t -i n g t o socioeconomic progress i n a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y l i k e Ghana i s p r e c i s e l y what i s being questioned i n t h i s study. I f p u b l i c l y - sponsored housing programs are to prove t h e i r worth, then they should be f o l l o w e d up w i t h d e t a i l e d p l a n s t h a t t i e them to the development p l a n . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s may shed some l i g h t on what types of i n f o r m a t i o n are necessary f o r doing t h i s k i n d of p l a n n i n g . BIBLIOGRAPHY ,90 BOOKS Abrams, Charles, Man's Struggle f o r S h e l t e r i n an Urbanizing World, Camb. Mass: The M.I.T. Press, 1966. Ak z i n , Benjamin, I s r a e l : High-Pressure Planning, New York: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966. Alonso, W i l l i a m , L o c a t i o n and Land Use: Toward a General  Theory of Land Rent, Camb. Mass: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964. Aron, Raymond, Eighteen Lectures on I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , Weindenfeld and Nicholson, 1967• Asher, Robert E. et a l . , Development of the Emerging Countries: An Agenda f o r Research, Washington, D.C, The Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n , 1962. Beyer, Glenn, Housing and S o c i e t y , New York: Macmillan Company, 1965 Birmingham, Walter, and A. G. Ford, Planning and Growth i n  R i c h and Poor Countries, London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1966. et a l . , ed. A Study of Contemporary Ghana: The Economy of Ghana, London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1966. 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Hance, W i l l i a m A., A f r i c a n Economic Development, London: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1967. Hausmann, W.H., ed., Managing Economic Development In  A f r i c a , Camb., Mass: The M.I.T. Pr e s s , 1963. H e r s k o v i t s , M.J., and M. Harwitz, Economic T r a n s i t i o n i n  A f r i c a , Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : 1964. King, John A., ed., Economic Development P r o j e c t s and  t h e i r A p p r a i s a l : Cases and P r i n c i p l e s from the  Experience of the World Bank, B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkins Press, 1967. Koth, Marcia, et a l . , Housing i n L a t i n America, Camb. Mass: The M.I.T. Press, 1965. Kuznets, Simon, S i x L e c t u r e s on Economic Growth, New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1961. Meier, G.M., Leading Issues i n Economics, New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. Meier, L. Ric h a r d , Developmental P l a n n i n g , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965i Needleman, L., The Economics of Housing, London: S t a p l e s P r e s s , 1965* N e v i t t , A. Adela, ed., The Economic Problems of Housing, New York: Macmillan, 1967* Rodwin, L l o y d , Housing and Economic Progress, Camb. Mass: The M.I.T. Press, 1961. S h a f f e r , Robert J . , "What i s N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A c t i o n , under P l a n n i n g " i n ed. Bertram M. Gross, The  Guidance of Economic Development, New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Co., 1967. Tinbergen, Jan, C e n t r a l P l a n n i n g , New Haven, Mass: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964. Walinsky, L o u i s J . , P l a n n i n g and E x e c u t i o n of Economic  development, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1963. 92 Waterston, A l b e r t , Development Planning - - Lessons of  Experience, B a l t i m o r e , Maryland: The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1965. Weaver, Robert C , The Urban Complex: Human Values i n Urban L i f e , New York: Anchor Books Doubleday and Co., I960. Wendt, Paul P., Housing P o l i c y - - The Search f o r S o l u t i o n s . B erkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1962. PERIODICALS Alexander, B e r l e r , " U r b a n i z a t i o n Process i n I s r a e l . " E k i s t i e s , ( J a n u a r y 1964). Amiran, D.H.K., and A. Shahar, "Towns of I s r a e l : P r i n c i p l e s of T h e i r Urban Geography," E k i s t l c s , ( 1 3 ) 1962. Ash, Joan, "Planning and Housing f o r Immigration i n I s r a e l E k i s t i c s , (February I 9 6 7 ) . A r i a , Hashinishany, "Housing and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n I s r a e l , " Town and Country P l a n n i n g Summer School, Report of the Proceedings, (September 1964). A t k i n s o n , G.A., "Mass Housing i n R a p i d l y Developing T r o p i c a l Areas," Town P l a n n i n g Review, V o l . 31, ( J u l y I960). Bauer, C , "Economic Programs and L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s , " Town Planning Review, V o l . 24, 1956. "Optimum P a t t e r n of U r b a n i z a t i o n , " E k i s t i c s , V o l . 13, 1962. "Urban L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s : Overhead Costs and Development P a t t e r n , " E k i s t i c s , V o l . 13, 1962. Burns, L e l a n d S., "Does Good Housing C o n t r i b u t e to Economic Development," J o u r n a l of Housing, (Feb-March 1967). "Economic A n a l y s i s of Housing Programs f o r Developing C o u n t r i e s , " Development D i g e s t , V o l . 4, No. 1, ( A p r i l 1966). C a l d w e l l , Lynton K., "Environment: A New Focus f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y ? " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, V o l . XXIII No. (September 1963). 93 Chapman, D., " R e l a t i o n Between House and Work," Housing  and P l a n n i n g Review, (July-August 1968). Doudai, A., "Regional P l a n n i n g and Housing i n I s r a e l , " E k i s t i c s , (June 1962). D o x i a d l s , C , " I n t e g r a t i o n of P l a n n i n g , Design and A r c h i t e c t u r e , " E k i s t i c s , (18), 1964. Gaash, E., "Jerusalem's R e g i o n a l P l a n s , " Town and Country P l a n n i n g , V o l . 34, No. 2, (November 1966) G r e b l e r , Leo, " C r i t e r i a f o r A p p r a i s i n g Governmental Housing Programs," American Economic Review, V o l . L, No. 2, (May i 960) . G u t h r i e , J.A., "Economies of Scale and R e g i o n a l Develop-ment," S o c i a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n Papers and  Proceedings, V o l . 1, 1955-Haar C h a r l e s and B. H i g g i n s , "Economic and P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Developing Areas," J o u r n a l  of American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, V o l . 24, No. 3, H l r s h l e i f e r , Jack, "On the Theory of Optimal Investment D e c i s i o n , " J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l Economy, V o l . LXVI, (August 195^1 H o z e l i t z , Bert F., "The C i t y , the F a c t o r y , and Economic Growth," American Economic Review, (May 1955) Hughes, J.T., and J . Kozlowski, "Threshold A n a l y s i s - -An Economic T o o l f o r Town and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , " Urban S t u d i e s , V o l . 15, No. 2, (June 1968). Johnson and Chin, "The Saving-Income R e l a t i o n i n Under-developed C o u n t r i e s , " The Rconomlc J o u r n a l , V o l . LXXVIII, (June I96BTI Kahn, A l f r e d E., "Investment C r i t e r i a i n Development Programs," Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l of Economics, (February 195D Lean, W., "Economics of New Town S i z e and Form," Town  Pla n n i n g I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l , (July-August 1966"H M a r t i n , A.E. "Environment, Housing and H e a l t h , " Urban  S t u d i e s , V o l . 4, No. 1, (February 1967) Maxwell, Fry, "Housing and Environment," R.I.B.A. J o u r n a l V o l . 74, No. 8, (August 1967). 94 Muench, Lo u i s H., and L. C a r o l y n , "Planning and A n t i -P l a n n i n g i n N i g e r i a : Lagos and Ibadan," J o u r n a l of  American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, V o l . XXXIV No. 6, (November 196b). Myrna, L e v i n e , " I s r a e l Housing Agency Experience w i t h Community Workers," E k i s t i c s , (18), 1964. Nez, George, "Methodology f o r I n t e g r a t i o n of Economic and P h y s i c a l Development," E k i s t i c s , (17), 1964. Rosow, I r v i n g , "The S o c i a l E f f e c t s of the P h y s i c a l Environment," J o u r n a l . o f American I n s t i t u t e of Plan n e r s , 1961. S a l v a t o , A. Joseph, "Environment, H e a l t h and Community P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l of Urban P l a n n i n g Development  D i v i s i o n , V o l . 94, (August 196b). Solow, A.A., "Housing i n L a t i n America," Town Planning  Review, V o l . 38, No. 2, ( J u l y I967). Turner, J.C., " B a r r i e r s and Channels f o r Housing Develop-ment i n Modernizing C o u n t r i e s , " J o u r n a l of American  I n s t i t u t e of Planners, V o l . 33. No. 3, (May 1967). Vapnarsky, C.A., "An Approach to S o c i o l o g y of Housing," E k i s t i c s , V o l . 22, No. 129, (August 1966). " V o l t a Resettlement Symposium." E k i s t i c s , V o l . 21, (March 1966). Weaver, Robert C , "Goals of the Development of Housing and Urban Development," Urban A f f a i r s Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2, No. .2, (December 1966). Wise, M. J . , "Economic F a c t o r s of M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g , " E k i s t i c s , V o l . 13, 1962. C. PUBLICATIONS OF GOVERNMENTS, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. European P r o d u c t i v i t y Agency of the O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r European Economic Cooperation. " P r o d u c t i v i t y Measurement Concepts," P a r i s : 1955* Government of Ghana, Report of the Commission Appointed to  I n q u i r e i n t o the Manner of Operation of the St a t e  Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , A c c r a : S t a t e P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , (196b). : 95 Government of Ghana, Ghana Seven-Year Development P l a n  1963-1970, Accra, Ghana: O f f i c e of the Pl a n n i n g Commission, (1964). P r a c t i c a l Program of Pla n n i n g f o r Ghana, by-A l b e r t Waterston. A c c r a : S t a t e P u b l i s h i n g Co., (1966). Housing P o l i c y i n Ghana, Accra: M i n i s t r y of Works and Housing, (1967). Government of United S t a t e s , "Inter-American Housing F i n a n c i a l Sources and P o l i c i e s , " by Harold Robinson i n C a p i t a l Formation f o r Housing i n  L a t i n America, Washington, D.C, Pan American Union, 1963-C a p i t a l Formation f o r Housing i n R a p i d l y Expanding Economies: Some Major I s s u e s , " by W.B. H a r r i s and James G i l l i e s . " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Housing and Economic Development," by Edward D. H o l l a n d e r , i n Study  of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Housing, Washington, D.C, 1963' " P r i n c i p l e s Governing Housing A i d to Under-developed C o u n t r i e s , " by Homer Hoyt. "Some S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l Aspects of Housing,"by L. 0. Thayer. "Housing and Economic Development," by Robinson Newcombe. "Urban P l a n n i n g " Framework f o r Housing A i d Abroad," by F r a n c i s V i o l i c h . I n t e r - A f r i c a n Labour I n s t i t u t e , "The Human F a c t o r s of P r o d u c t i v i t y i n A f r i c a . " P r i n t e d i n P o r t u g a l , (I960). I n t e r - R e g i o n a l Seminar on Development P o l i c i e s and Pla n n i n g i n R e l a t i o n to U r b a n i z a t i o n . P i t t s b u r g , Pa., 1966. " U r b a n i z a t i o n and N a t i o n a l Development: Some Approaches to the Dilemma," by Malcolm D. R i v k i n . Report of a Conference Sponsored a t the Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology by the A l b e r t F a r w e l l Bemis Foundation on A p r i l 30 and May 1 and 2, 1953' ed. Burnham K e l l y , (Cambridge, January 1955). 96 S o c i a l Science Research Centre and the Graduate P l a n n i n g Program of the U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto R i c o . Housing  P o l i c y f o r a Developing L a t i n Economy, Papers and Commentaries of Housing P o l i c y Seminar, ed., Charles A. Frankenhoff, Puerto R i c o , ( A p r i l 1966). U n i t e d Nations, Development P l a n s : A p p r a i s a l of Targets and  Progress i n Developing C o u n t r i e s , New York, (1965)« Methods f o r E s t a b l i s h i n g Targets and Standards f o r Housing and Environmental Development. New York, (1965). World Housing C o n d i t i o n s and Estimated Housing Requirements^ (Copenhagen, 1963). - F i n a n c i n g of Housing and S o c i a l F a c i l i t i e s i n  Developing C o u n t r i e s , New York, (1966). Housing and Urban Development, U n i t e d Nations Seminar, (1962). Housing i n Development Pl a n n i n g , Hou/Working Paper No. 2, (August 1963). Housing i n A f r i c a , New York, (1965). NEWSPAPERS News Item i n the Vancouver P r o v i n c e , (1st February 19&9) 97 APPENDICES APPENDIX I GHANA IN RELATION TO WEST AFRICA Source: E.A. Boateng. A Geography of Ghana (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966), p.5 APPENDIX 2 POPULATION GROWTH 1891-1960 POPULATION Year Male Female T o t a l 1 8 9 1 — -- 1 ,473,882 1901 — — 1,486 ,433 1911 — 1,503,386 1921 1 ,098,301 1,068,680 2 ,296 ,400 1931 — 3,160,386 1948 — — 4,117,779 1954 — — 4 ,548 , 000 I960 3,400,270 3,326,550 6,726,820 Source: P o p u l a t i o n Census of Ghana, i960 . 100 «r >- *v f c \ > R E G I O " N I ' •Wo - W E S T E R N I*" \ •Torkwa \ R E G I O N Axim E^*<3 I O N * § ) » ^ S a l t p o n d * / Cape ' * j > Coast Sekondi—Takoradi l SO milts | ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS ® Regional Headquarters % National Capital • District Headquarters Reqional Boundaries District Boundaries APPENDIX 3 E.A. 2oateng5 Op. Cit., p.II. LOl APPENDIX 4 POPULATION OF PRINCIPAL TOWNS I898-I96O POPULATION Town 1898 1911 1921 1928 1948 i960 Accra — 19 ,582 38,623 135,926 337,828 Kumasi 5,500 — 20,268 30,000 78,483 180,642 Sekondi-Takoradi — 9,768 44,557 75,450 Cape Coast — — 14,987 23,346 41 ,230 Tamale — — 3,901 16,164 40,443 Source: P o p u l a t i o n Census of Ghana, i960 . APPENDIX 5 AREA, POPULATION AND POPULATION DENSITY OF THE REGIONS, i960  Density Area Population Persons Region Square Miles Percent Thousands Percent Per Square Miles Accra CD 990 1.1 492 7.3 497 Western 13,150 14 .3 1,377 20.5 105 (Western) (9,494) (10.3) (626) (9.3) (66) (Central) (3,656) (4.0) (75D (11.2) (205) Eastern 7,760 8 .4 1,094 16.3 • 141 V o l t a 8,000 8 .7 777 11.5 97 Ashanti 9,700 10.5 1,109 16.5 114 Brong-Ahaf0 14 ,900 16.2 588 8 .7 39 Northern 37,600 40.8 1,289 19.2 34 (Northern) (27,122) (29.4) (532) (7.9) (20) (Upper) (10,478) (11.4) (757) (11.3) (72) A l l Regions 92,100 100.0 6,727 100.0 73 Source: Robert Szereszewski, i n Birmingham et a l . "Regional , op_. c i t . Aspects of , p. 90. the S t r u c t u r e of the Economy," 104 s a is so fs too APPENDIX 7 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, 1948 Source: E.A. Boateng, Op. C i t . p.114. so too JOO JOO APPENDIX 8 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, I960 Source: E.A. Boateng, Op. C i t , p.115. 105 APPENDIX 9 SIZE OF LOCALITY, 1948 and i960 SIZE OF LOCALITY NUMBER OF LOCALITIES 1948 I960 Under 100 7 ,401 20,568 100-199 2,980 3,601 200-499 1,133 3,531 500-999 461 1,532 1,000-1,999 461 772 2,000-4 ,999 181 295 5,000-9,999 28 61 10,000-19,999 7 27 20,000-49,999 2 8 50,000 and over 2 -100,000 and over - 2 Source: P o p u l a t i o n Census of Ghana, i 9 6 0 . 

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