UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Urban growth and transportation implications in port development : a cast study, Vancouver, British Columbia. Griggs, Neil John Francis 1970

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1970_A8 G75.pdf [ 12.9MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104015.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104015-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104015-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104015-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104015-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104015-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104015-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104015-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104015.ris

Full Text

THE URBAN GROWTH AND TRANSPORTATION IMPLICATIONS IN PORT DEVELOPMENT : A CASE STUDY, VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA by NEIL JOHN FRANCIS GRIGGS B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE ..REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE-UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 \ In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb i a , I a g ree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . N e i l John Francis Griggs Department o f Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia ^ Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 1970 Preface This study, unlike most, i s the work of two authors. Their individual contribution has resulted in a comprehensive presentation of Port Development in an urban situation. Many of the ideas presented throughout the study are joi n t l y derived, specifically the writing of the introductory and concluding chapters, (I and VII). Chapters III, IV and VI were primarily written by Peter Tassie and Chapters II and V and Appendix IX by Neil Griggs. i v Abstract, While most research on Port Planning i n the past.has focused on the marine and r a i l aspects, t h i s study examines the urban influence on port development. It -is a case study of a portion of the waterfront of the Port of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, which l i e s adjacent to a metropolitan area of 1,000,000 persons„ A survey was c a r r i e d out on a l l the waterfront users to determine o r i g i n s , destinations and volumes of cargo handled, frequency of service c a l l s , employment and space requirement, s i t e and plant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and mode and frequency of transportation. A second survey on a major cargo terminal was completed to determine the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n of truck t r i p s , and the length of time spent at the waterfront. A t h i r d survey sampled 25% of the 350 marine service i n -d u s t r i e s as part of an economic impact study of the port. The conclusions reached are as follows: 1. The volume shipped through the Port of Vancouver w i l l double during the next decade. As the 1968 capacity of the port was barely adequate to handle the e x i s t i n g flows a twofold expansion of f a c i l i t i e s i s necessary i f the projected flows are to be accommodated. 2. Space to accommodate shipping operations of these pro-portions i s not a v a i l a b l e without e i t h e r land reclamation or major d i s r u p t i o n of adjoining urban s i t e s . Within the waterfront, 50% of the waterfront users i n d i c a t e a need within f i v e years to increase t h e i r s i t e s f o r a . t o t a l of 84 acres. V 3. Congestion on the urban street system increased the cost of trucking from a general cargo terminal by 27%. 4. The unproductive time of trucks delayed at one general cargo terminal amounted to $750,000 annually. 5. The present switching methods and arrangements of the r a i l -way l i n e s impose d e l i v e r y delays and increase costs, amounting to about $400,000 annually. 6. Cargoes and waterfront products have few d i r e c t l i n k s with the c i t y . Only 0.6% of the p o r t l s exports o r i g i n a t e from the c i t y and 10% of i t s imports are destined for the c i t y . 7. An urban l o c a t i o n f or the port i s no longer necessary due to the change i n cargo flows and service l i n k s . E i g h t y - f i v e per cent of the major port service sector ind i c a t e they would remain i n the c i t y should the e n t i r e port operations be moved south, 18 miles, to Roberts Bank. 8. The urban growth has resulted i n one-third of the port water-front being used for non-port,functions. In.addition, three-quarters of the p o r t , i n t e r f a c e i s being redeveloped with urban renewal and r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s , which i s e f f e c t i v e l y preventing port expansion i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . 9. Management of the port i s impeded, i n that no s i n g l e agency exercises j u r i s d i c t i o n over port lands, to provide coordinated planning. 10. The v a r i a t i o n i n downtown land values are r e f l e c t e d i n s i m i l a r v a r i a t i o n s i n waterfront assessments, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the waterfront function, or i t s trade and service l i n k s . This study found that the c o n f l i c t between the shipping a c t i v i t y and the adjoining urban area i s a s i g n i f i c a n t impediment to the present operation and future development of the Port of Vancouver. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE 1 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . 1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l . ... . . . . . . . . . . 3 N a t i o n a l . . : . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 P r o v i n c i a l . . . . . . .. ... . . . .• . . 12 M u n i c i p a l . ,. ... . . . . 14 Purpose ; of Study . . . . . . . . . ... . , ,. . 17 Hypothesis . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . 19 Planning A p p l i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 I n t e r n a t i o n a l and Domestic . . . . . . . . . . 21 P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l . . . . . . . . . 22 Study Area ...... ... . . . . . . . . . . 24 Study Methodology. . . . . ... ... . . . . . 27 L i m i t a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used . . . . . . . . . . 28 Data Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . - . • .. >. , • . . 30 I I . THE METROPOLITAN AREA AS A RESOURCE . . . . . . . . . 31 P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . 31 M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver . . , . •, • • • • • 32 C i t y of Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 v i i Chapter Page Manufacturing, Commercial and Storage 39 Shipping, Terminals and Land T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . , . 40 A g r i c u l t u r e and Unused Land . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 R e s i d e n t i a l Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Re c r e a t i o n , F i s h Boat Mooring, Marinas and Towing . . 43 Summary . . . . ... . : . . '. . . . ... 44 I I I . WATERFRONT CHARACTERISTICS ;' . . . • . . . ... . . 46 The Study Area . . . . . . . . ......... . . 47 Questionnaire A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ... . • . . . 50 Questionnaire Results . „ ' . . . . . . 54 S i t e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . ...... . 54 Cargo Flows. and Volumes . . . . . . ...... . 56 Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n Services..• • 57 Urban Dependency . . . . .. . 59 Future Plans 62 Summary . . . . . . . . , .. . . . . . . . 6 4 IV. PORT LAND NEEDS AND TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS . . . . 66 Changes i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Technology . . . . . . . . . . 6 7 General Cargo . . . . . o . . . . . . . . , . 69 Bulk Loading ...... . . . . . . • .. . . . , . 77 Other Shipping Innovations . Passenger T r a f f i c . . . . The'Vessel S i z e Race . • ••>.. Port S i z e Requirements Bulk Cargo . . „ . . . General Cargo .... Future Trends . . . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Network Railways Highways . • . > . • •. . ,. . . Employment and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Requirements Employment Requirements and : S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . ... Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n . . .. . - . . • . ... ' X Modes . . . . . . . . . . . o .-Number of T r i p s . . ... • ••.. Tonnage . . . . , •. D e s t i n a t i o n of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n Delays . . . . . . . . Railways . . . . ... . . . < Highways „•.-.; . . . . . Terminal Delays . .. . . . . i x Chapter Page.. Delays W i t h i n the Study Area . „ : . . . . . .  113 Delays i n C i t y S t r e e t s . '.. . . . .. • . . . 114 Summary . . . . . » • • • . • .. • .. .• . • .. . 116 V. THE URBAN INFLUENCE ON WATERFRONT LANDS . . . . . . 119 Urban Growth and Development . . . . . , . . . , 121 Commodity Flows and Transport Linkages . . . , . . 12.1 Se r v i c e L i n k s . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . 124 Population.Forecast . . . . . . . ;. . •. . . 133 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Land . . . . ... . . . . . . 135 Waterfront Land Needs . . . . • ,. . . . . . . 137 C i t y Land. Needs . . , .. . . . . . . . 139 I n d u s t r i a l Requirements . . . . . . . . . 140 R e s i d e n t i a l Requirements . . . . . . . . 144 Recreation Requirements . . . . , •• . . . 146 Commercial Requirements „ . . ... . . . .. 150 I n t e r f e r i n g Land Uses . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Zoning and General Land U s e . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Recent Developments and.Development Proposals . . 159 Disarrangement of S i t e s ......... . . . . . . . . . . 166 Other. Urban Port R e l a t i o n s h i p s . . ... . 169 Comparative Land Values » . . . . . . . . . 169 S o c i a l Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 175 X Chapter Page P o l l u t i o n and Blight< , . . • , . . • .. . . , ,. 177 The C o n t r o l of the Po r t . ' . . . .... . . ... 180 Economic Impact of the P o r t . F u n c t i o n on the C i t y of Vancouver . . ... ... . . ... . . . . . 181 Cargo-Generated Income . . . . . . .• . . .. . 182 Secondary Income ... . , . . . . . ... . 184 Employment, . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . 186 Summary . . . . . , .. . . . ... . . . . ... 189. V I . PORT ADMINISTRATION. . . . . ... . . . .• .. . . . . 191 C o n s t i t u t i o n a l and S t a t u t o r y Background . . . . . 192 Fe d e r a l Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t . . . . . . ... 199 S u b - P r o v i n c i a l Government . . . . . • ... , ..• . , , 200 Railways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Others . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. ... . t 202 Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the Region ... . . . . . . 202 Fede r a l and P r o v i n c i a l . . . . ... . . ... 202 N a t i o n a l Harbours Board Management . . . . . 204 Harbour Commission Management . ... . . ... 206 M u n i c i p a l C o n t r o l . . . . , . . ,. . . . . . . , 207 Summary . . . . . . , • ,. . . ... . .. . • .. . 210 XX Chapter Page V I I . CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . „ . . - .. . . . • .. . t .. 211 Summary . . . - . =» . ... . . . . . . •' .. 211 The C o n f l i c t Between Shipping A c t i v i t y ~?and the A d j o i n i n g Urban Area . . • .. . . . . . . . ... 213 Disarrangement of Waterfront S i t e s , . . . . . . 216 Lack of A v a i l a b l e Land . . . . . . . . . , . 216 I n t e r f e r i n g Land Uses . . . ... .. . . . . 217 Congestion of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s . . . . 219 Expanding Shipping Requirements . • . . ... ... . . 220 Por t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . , . . . . . ... . 221 Further Study . .• „ . „ . . . . . . . . . . 222 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . „ . . . . . ... ... . , .. . . 224 Appendix I Waterfront Questionnaire, November, 1969 . . . . . . 234 I I Contact L e t t e r to Businesses i n Study Area, November 1969. 240 I I I Trucking Questionnaire, February 1970 . 0 . ' < » . < , . 242 IV Questionnaire Sample: Se r v i c e Sector Survey . . . . . 244 V I n d u s t r i a l Land A v a i l a b i l i t y and Rate of Take-up, C i t y of Vancouver 1969 . . . . . . <, . . . . . . 246 VI I n d u s t r i a l Land, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 1969 . . . . 248 V I I Cargo Tonnage, Port of Vancouver and C i t y of Vancouver Study Area, 1968 . . „ . . . „ . . . „ • „ . 250 V I I I Estimate of Waterfront D a i l y Truck T r a f f i c (Study Area) . 252 IX Commodity Flow Model . „ . . . = , . . . . . . 254 x i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Waterfront Land Uses, C i t y and Metropolitan Vancouver, 1969 . . • . . . . . . . .. v . • • • . . . . . 38: 2. Land Use.Characteristics i n Study Area, 1969 , • . . , . . 55 > 3. Imports i n t o Study Area by Zone of O r i g i n i n 1969 . . . 58 4. Exports into Study Area by Zone of O r i g i n i n 1969 . . . 58 5. , Transportation Access to. Study Area 60 6. Annual Tonnage Handled by Mode i n Study Area, 1969 . . . .60 7. Annual Number of Movements by Mode, 1969 . . . . . . 6 0 8. Most Important Services.Requiring Personal Contact. . . . 6 1 9. Da l l y V i s i t o r s to Study Area by Zone .of O r i g i n . . . . 62 10. Volume of Business in.Next 5 Years . . . . . ; . . . 63 11. Employment i n Next 5 Years . . . . ,. . . 63 12. Future Plans of Businesses i n Study Area . . . . ... . 6 3 13. Containerization-^Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . 75 14. Population Projections, 1966-1986, C i t y and Metropolitan Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 9 3 15; Predicted Cargo Tonnage, Port of Vancouver, 1965-1985 . . 93 16. Port of Vancouver, Tonnage and Capacity, 1968 . . . . . 93 17. Employee Space. Requirements, Study Area, 1969 . . . . . 100 18. C o e f f i c i e n t s , of C o r r e l a t i o n . . . . . . ...... . . , . 102 19. Average.Monthly Tonnage per User by Mode, Study Area, X969 o ; . & • o o • o o / " » » e • . ' • o • 103 x i i i Table Page 20. Average Monthly Tonnage T r i p s , Study Area, 1969 . . . . 104 21. Tonnage-Area Ratios, Study Area, 1969 . . . . . . . 105 22. Truck Time at Centennial P i e r , 1969 . . . . , . . . . 112 23. Port Relocation: Impact on Service Industries, Vancouver 1969 . , . ' . . . ,• . . . . . . 131 24. Population Projections, 1966-1986, Cit y and Metropolitan Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 25. Port Land Requirementsj Vancouver Waterfront Study Area, 1970-1974 . . . . . . . . . ... . . . - . . . 138 26. Major Land Uses i n I n d u s t r i a l D i s t r i c t s j Vancouver, .1969 . 140 27. Major Apartment Zones, and 95 per cent Development Dates, Vancouver % 1969 . . < . 145 28. Burrard Peninsular Wet Berthage Requirements, 1966-1986 . 148 29. Vancouver.Harbour, Berth and Parking F a c i l i t i e s , 1966 . . 148 30. Present and Future Commercial Sales Volumes and Floor Areas, 1962.and 1981, Ci t y and Metropolitan Vancouver . 152 31. Supply i n Acres of Undeveloped Land by T r a f f i c D i s t r i c t s , CBD Vancouver, 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . .• . . 155 32. Recent O f f i c e Developments i n Downtown Vancouver, 1966-1969 . . . . . . . . • . . • . 161 33. National Harbours Board Property Assessments, Vancouver, 1970 . . . . • . '". . . . . . . 174 x i v Table Page -34. Market Values of Land, C i t y of Vancouver, 1961, 1967 . . . 176 35. Income Generated by Port A c t i v i t y , Port of,Vancouver Study Area, 1968 . 183 36. T o t a l D i r e c t and I n d i r e c t Income ;Generated by Port A c t i v i t y , Vancouver Study Area, 1968 . . ... . . . 185 37. Marine Service I n d u s t r i e s Employment and P a y r o l l , C i t y of Vancouver and Study Area, 1969 . . . . . . . .... . 187 38. T o t a l Employment Related to Port Operations, C i t y of Vancouver and Study Area, 1969 . / . . . ... . . . . 188 XV LIST OF FIGURES Figure , Page lo Projected Growth of Population, 1960-2000, by Regions . . 6 2. Canadian Shipping A c t i v i t y , International Seaborne Shipping Only . „ . . . „ . „ . , . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 3. Metropolitan Vancouver and Study Area . . . . . . , 2 5 4. Location and Usage of Deep-sea Shipping F a c i l i t i e s . . . 26 5. Canadian Shipping Routes , . „ . „ . . 33 6. Waterfront Slope. Analysis. . . • . 37 7. Port of Vancouver Cargo Tonnage, 1955-1968 . . . . . . 40 8. Changes i n Land Use, 1950-1970, Burrard Street to Main Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . 49 9. Sequence for Shipment of General Cargo . . . . . . . 70 10. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Container Ships. - . . . . . . . . . . 74 11. Port of Vancouver Deep-sea Cargo Tonnage, 1955-1985 . . 92 12; Major Transportation Network . . '. . • . . . „ , .. . . 96 13. Average Vehicle Speeds i n Peak Hours (7-9 a.m.., 4-6 p.m.) . 99 14. Port and Region Commodity Flows, Vancouver, 1859, 1883 and 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • ,. 122 15. Major Origins of Persons. V i s i t i n g Waterfront.. S i t e s . . . . 126 16. Steamship Companies, Customs Brokers and Shipping Agents, Business Locations . . . . . . , . ...... . . - . 127 x v i Figure Page 17. Ship Chandlers and Marine Equipment and S u p p l i e s , Business Locations . . . . . ... . . . . . . 128 18. Importers and E x p o r t e r s , Business Locations . ... . . 129 19. Land F i l l Areas, to 1960 and P r o j e c t e d . . . . . .- . . 136 20. Land Uses Vancouver C i t y . . . . . . . = . " . . . , . 141 21. Downtown T r a f f i c Zones - Vancouver . . . . . . . . 154 22. Major Developments and Proposals . . . . . . .- . . 160 23. Major Source of Incoming Goods to Waterfront S i t e s . ... 167 24. Major D e s t i n a t i o n of Outgoing Goods,from Waterfront S i t e s . 168 25. R e l a t i v e Change i n Assessed Value of Land, 1950-1960 . . 170 26. R e l a t i v e Change i n Assessed Value.of Land, 1960-1965 . . 171 27. Average Square Foot Value by B l o c k s , Downtown Waterfront, 1961 . . . . . . . . . . . 173 28. Ownership of Land Covered by Water, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver . . . . . . . . 196 29. Harbour A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver . . . . 197 30. Laws of R e f r a c t i o n A p p l i e d to Route L o c a t i o n . . . . . 257 31. The Min-Cut, Max-Flow Path f o r a Simple Network . . . . 259 32. Export Flow i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D e c i s i o n Tree N e t w o r k — Trucking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 33. Minimal-Cost Flow Through a Complex Network . . . . . 262 Acknowledgments It was indeed a pleasure to work with Peter on t h i s study. The many hours spent i n d i s c u s s i o n r e s u l t e d i n a greater under-standing of problems r e l a t e d to Port Planning. I am also indebted to a large number of people whose assistance and cooperation made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . These include s i x of my fellow-students who as s i s t e d with the interviews; the managers of the seventy-four water-fr o n t businesses; The C i t y Planning s t a f f and various personnel of the Port Service businesses, Harbour A u t h o r i t i e s and Transportation Companies. I should also l i k e to thank Dr. V. Setty Pendakur, Professor Paul Roer, Dr. Mike Goldberg and Professor B i l l Waters f o r t h e i r advice and constructive c r i t i c i s m s at the various stages of t h i s study. My thanks i s extended to the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation f o r t h e i r fellowship awards which made the course of study considerably l e s s p a i n f u l . F i n a l l y , I should l i k e to thank my wife f o r p u t t i n g up with two years of "$1.49-day s p e c i a l s and hamburger meat," and whose patience and encouragement was always g r e a t l y appreciated. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE A. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The ship was cheered, the harbour cleared. Merrily did we drop Below the kirk, below the hill, Below the lighthouse top.* The scene that Samuel Coleridge described one hundred years ago i s a f a r cry from the harbour a c t i v i t y of today, with i t s u n i t t r a i n s , super tankers, mammoth elevators, container terminals and the never ending stream of v e h i c l e t r a f f i c . Yesterday they cheered ships out of ports and today we cheer astronauts into space, and i n the midst of t h i s progress a trucking manager b i t t e r l y comments, It takes longer to c o l l e c t a shipment from the Vancouver waterfront, than i t does to o r b i t a man around the earth.^ The unceasing demand f o r space has seldom been more s u c c i n c t l y I l l u s t r a t e d than i n the case of harbour lands adjoining metropolitan areas. Operating within t h i s area are the t r a d i t i o n a l and accepted shipping a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g the transshipment of goods between land Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Ancient Mariner, Pt. I. 2 Interview with Mr. M. Brink, President, Johnston Terminal's "Ltd. , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, November 21. 1969. 2 and water t r a n s p o r t , and.requiring extensive f a c i l i t i e s and space. Competing f o r the same land i s a more aggressive opponent, the urban land user, whose needs stem from the expanding c e n t r a l c i t y business d i s t r i c t s and t h e i r demands f o r increased space. The con-f l i c t between these opposing f o r c e s has become apparent i n the years f o l l o w i n g World War I I , but has re c e i v e d greater emphasis i n the past decade, as pressures from a l l s i d e s have i n c r e a s e d , and as the "squeeze p l a y " has become t a n g i b l e and formidable. I t would appear that most world ports are caught i n the middle of two apparently c o n f l i c t i n g developments. On one hand i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade i s i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y , r e s u l t i n g i n greater port a c t i v i t y , thus r e q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l port f a c i l i t i e s , space and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . On the other hand the great e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of populations are i n c o a s t a l c i t i e s , and i n Canada f o r example, the three l a r g e s t c i t i e s p r e d i c t e d to experience the gr e a t e s t growth are por t c i t i e s . These are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, the l a t t e r two being the nat i o n ' s two major p o r t s . Thus the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n , which o f t e n r e -s u l t s i n greater congestion, c o n f l i c t s w i t h the nee^s of developing port areas. One response to t h i s i s the b u i l d i n g of new po r t s o u t s i d e urban core areas. For example i n Europe t h i s has happened at EUROPORT, near Antwerp, MEDAPORT, near M a r s e i l l e s , PORT TALBOT (South Wales) and TILBURY near London, and i n Canada at CANPORT 6 mi l e s south-west of Saint John, New Brunswick, and ROBERTS BANK 30 miles south of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. 3 From these observations i t would appear that i f indeed there i s a problem, i t would be an urban one, to be resolved by those i n the immediate area. This conclusion however would be a misconception, due to the misunderstanding of the true function of a port. Port cargoes are generated at some distance from the port i t s e l f , thus any change i n trade p o l i c i e s , cargo types, s i z e s , frequency, etc. could have s i g n i f i c a n t . e f f e c t s at the p o r t . i t s e l f i n terms of handling t;ime, cost, scheduling, storage, etc. Therefore r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s should be considered when discussing port planning. For t h i s reason some mention i s now made of the i n t e r -dependency of a l o c a l port to a l l i t s regions, The purpose of t h i s i s to present an overview of a port's function at each of these regions and f i n a l l y to focus at the urban region which i t i s believed i s a c r i t i c a l one i n the e n t i r e trade system. (1) International 1 \ — r — — 1 — Complex p h y s i c a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and human factors a f f e c t the o r i g i n and evolution of a port. Perhaps the two most i n f l u e n t i a l at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l have been, ( i ) the changes i n the world patterns of trade, and ( i i ) the changes i n the transportation industry i t s e l f . (1) The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution i n Europe brought about vast changes i n human a c t i v i t y and from the viewpoint pf p o r t , a c t i v i t y s i m i l a r changes also occurred. The I n d u s t r i a l Revolution's greatest impact was i n northwestern Europe, thus creating a vast new market f o r 4 raw materials. As a r e s u l t the English Channel and North Sea ports became the chief terminals connecting Europe with other continents, and a port such as Bordeaux found i t s e l f i n the backwater of ocean 3 transport. S i m i l a r l y the Mediterranean,ports l o s t cpmmerce i n the 15th Century a f t e r the discovery of the route to A s i a around the Cape of Good Hope. However they were rejuvenated l a t e r with the opening 4 of the Suez Canal. Cargo c a r r i e d on the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes system, which i n e f f e c t opened new markets to world shipping, increased f i v e - f o l d during the f i r s t decade of the Seaway's o p e r a t i o n . T h e s e are a few examples pf developments that have opened new markets and of changes in.human a c t i v i t y patterns and d e n s i t i e s that have affected port a c t i v i t y . Vancouver faces.a s i m i l a r p o t e n t i a l f or changes i n port a c t i v i t y simply from i t s geographic p o s i t i o n i n the P a c i f i c rim, where popula^-t i o n changes are occurring at the f a s t e s t rate on t h i s earth. The emergence of the P a c i f i c Rim trading area, corresponding to the immense i n d u s t r i a l growth and food demands of the Asian countries, has stimu-la t e d a d d i t i o n a l trade in.the P a c i f i c , and p a r t i c u l a r l y between North America and Japan, China and the U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet S o c i a l i s t Guido G. Weigend, "Some Elements ,in.the Study of Port Geo-graphy," Readings- in Urban Geography, H.M. Mayer and C F . Kohn, ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1959* p. 366. ^Ibid., p. 367. ^Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Commercial Letter, May-June, 1969, p. 4. 5 Republics). With the projections for r a p i d l y increasing world popu-l a t i o n s i n the underdeveloped continents," and with the tremendous emphasis being placed upon improvement i n educational and' l i v i n g standards, the prospects for increased i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade remain o p t i m i s t i c , i f not ensured, ba r r i n g a major calamity. Figure 1 shows the Far East as having a population of nearly two b i l l i o n i n 1970, which w i l l have doubled wi t h i n 30 years to comprise 60% of the world's population. When one considers that two-thirds of a l l the trade through the Port of Vancouver i s w i t h i n t h i s area, one can appreciate the staggering future p o t e n t i a l . ( i i ) P a r a l l e l l i n g these changes i n human a c t i v i t y are revolu-tionary changes i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine transportation. Many of these marine changes have come about as a r e s u l t of the high cost of trans-shipment at the port. Transshipment costs are often 50% of the t o t a l 6 7 8 costs of shipping between two ports. ' ' Shippers are attempting to reduce these port costs by developing economies of scale through reducing t o t a l handling costs i n the use of unit t r a i n s , p i p e l i n e s for s o l i d s i c o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n , p a l l e t boards, r o l l - o n / r o l l - o f f operations 9 and the LASH system. A l l these have e s s e n t i a l l y been introduced i n Peter Engelmann, "Changing S i t e Requirements for Port Opera-r t i o n s , " Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, Volb 84, WW4, Proc. Paper 1769 (September 1958), pp. 1769-2. ^Bank of Montreal, Business Review, August 29, 1969, p. 1. g Stanley Johnson, "The Seaports of the Future," Ports and Har-bours, V o l . 14, No. 6, (June, 1969), p. 7. 9 Each of these are discussed i n d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I . 4000 3800-| 3600 3400 3200-3000-2800-a 2600-1 2400 2200 2000-1800-1600-1 1400-1200-1000-i 800 600H 400 200 0 G R O W T H EUROPE (incl USSR) 1 NORTH AMERICA 1990-2000 1980-90 1970-80 1960-70 1960 AFRICA NEAR EAST ES8S389 i : : : : ; : : : :u OCEANIA FAR EAST (incl M.China LATIN AMERICA P r o j e c t e d g rowth of P o p u l a t i o n 1 9 6 0 - 2 0 0 0 , by reg ions I Source FAO monthly bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, July/August 1965 7 the past decade. The most.recent development appeared i n the Vancouver Sun, January 14th, 1970, i n which Cascade Pipe Line L i m i t e d 1 0 are applying to b u i l d a p i p e l i n e from Fernie (a community i n the southeast corner of B r i t i s h Columbia near the Alberta border) to Roberts Bank, for transporting coal. Other economies of scale are currently being gained through increasing shipping cargo capacity. Only twenty years ago a 28,000 ton dead weight (d.w.t.) tanker was dexcribed as a "super tanker". To-day the l a r g e s t ship, an o i l tanker, i s rated at 326,600 d.w.t., 79 foot draught and 1,135 feet i n length. On the drawing boards there are, however, l a r g e r tankers,of 750,000 d.w.t. To-day crude o i l i s the only produpt that i s being shipped i n large q u a n t i t i e s i n such a manner (1,000 m i l l i o n tons annually). However, other products such as i r o n ore, presently being c a r r i e d i n 95,000 ton-size vessels, g r a i n , c o a l , bauxite, phosphates and even containerized cargoes, could w e l l be handled i n the l a r g e r vessels. The volume of goods now becomes the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r to sustain the use of super-vessels, and Vancouver could w e l l q u a l i f y i n supplying the needed volumes: (1) because of the area's vast mineral and grain resources, and (2) because i t i s the only s i z e a b l e west coast terminal serving the e n t i r e nation and (3) Canada could be a land bridge for goods moving from A s i a to Europe and v i c e versa, with Vancouver being the western terminal. A simple example i l l u s t r a t e s these economies i n scale. If one takes an 18,000 Advertisement, Vancouver Sun3 Jan. 14, 1970. 3 ton ship which requires about 10,000 h.p. and double i t s length, width and depth, the r e s u l t i s approximately a 200,000 ton ve s s e l . This ship does not require double the engine capacity or double the cost. The larger vessels operate with approximately the same number of crew, a 32,000 h.p. engine and cost l e s s per ton to b u i l d , i . e . , 11 $75.00 a ton compared to $300.00 a ton for the 18,000 ton v e s s e l . I t would appear therefore, with the p o t e n t i a l reduction i n transportation costs coupled with the r a p i d l y r i s i n g world populations and urban agglomerations, that i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade can well expect some unprecedented growth. World sea-borne trade which e x i s t s to meet the needs of the current population of 3,500 m i l l i o n , amounts to 1,800 m i l l i o n tons. If predictions for the year 2000 are accepted then the sea-borne trade should double i n the next 30 years to meet 12 the needs of a world population of 6,300 m i l l i o n . This increase of sea-borne trade w i l l not r e s u l t i n a p a r a l l e l e d increase i n shipping t r a f f i c as demonstrated by Figure 2. Here i t i s seen that vessel a r r i v a l s are d e c l i n i n g while t o t a l cargo tonnage i s increasing. How-ever, t h i s increase i n trade w i l l r e s u l t i n increased r a i l and truck a c t i v i t y . As most port cargo i s destined f o r points outside the urban area, and because of the expected increase i n r a i l and truck t r a f f i c , improvements w i l l undoubtedly be required to improve port congestion and port access. F. C. Leighton, Economic Forces Behind the Roberts Bank Super Port Development, paper presented at the annual meeting of the Associa-t i o n of Pro f e s s i o n a l Engineers of B.C., Vancouver, December 6, 1968. 12 ' . Stanley Johnson, op. ext., p. 7. 9 10 As future countries emerge from t h e i r c o l o n i a l status to p o l i t i c a l independence, t h e i r growth and economic development becomes in c r e a s i n g l y dependent upon International trade. Many countries are i n t h i s state of development and a l l face the same problem of future port e f f i c i e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y . Port planning and redevelopment i s expensive and requires knowledgeable techniques i n engineering and planning. This has been recognized by a number of International Agencies who have taken steps to meet these c r i t i c a l needs. Organiza-tions such as the United Nations, The Colombo Plan, The Canadian and American International Development Agencies, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and The International A s s o c i a t i o n of Ports and Harbours, have contributed both money and personnel to a s s i s t i n t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l problem. (2) National A l l of these i n d i c a t i o n s f o r increased i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade are^ of relevance only to those p a r t i c i p a t i n g countries. I n d i v i d u a l l y a nation's involvement i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l commerce i s a matter of government p o l i c y , formulated at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and with n a t i o n a l consider-ations at stake. In t h i s formulation are involved not only the import demands of the nation, as w e l l as the surplus goods, but also the encouragement that should be given to i n t e r n a l producers. The r e s u l t i n g p o l i c y i s expressed i n t a r i f f r egulations, quota r e s t r i c t i o n s and other measures designed to .influence the volume of commodities crossing the n a t i o n a l boundaries, and i n turn a f f e c t a port's a c t i v i t y . For example wheat exports from Russia were stopped a f t e r the Bolshevik r e v o l u t i o n 11 and the port and c i t y of Odessa l o s t i t s p r i n c i p l e function. With the l o s s of t h i s a c t i v i t y the port c i t y ceased to grow and i n f a c t 13 stagnated. The h i s t o r i c growth of M a r s e i l l e s can be linked to both economic and p l i t i c a l . f a c t o r s . French c o l o n i a l p o l i c y of the 19th and 20th century was directed at A l g e r i a , and M a r s e i l l e s was the 14 d i r e c t l i n k through which a l l . t r a f f i c passed. S i m i l a r l y New York benefited through the e a r l y years of American c o l o n i z a t i o n , as did San Francisco, and V i c t o r i a i n Canada.1"' P o l i c y decisions of governments to achieve s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n c e r t a i n important products may p u r t a i l port a c t i v i t y i n the country as w e l l as the supply countries. A further example of the United States not recognizing Red'China or Cuba, has had a d i r e c t e f f e c t on »\ the a c t i v i t y of the affected ports—whereas Canada's a t t i t u d e , though more vague, allows for trade and hence Vancouver has s u b s t a n t i a l trade l i n k s with iRed China. P r e f e r e n t i a l f r e i g h t rates can d i r e c t l y influence the l o c a l economy of a port c i t y . The United States Interstate Commerce Act, Section 22,allows railways s p e c i a l rates for government shipments. This allows.the railways to discriminate against the Great Lake ports, by shipping d i r e c t l y to.the A t l a n t i c ports. Naturally they continue 13 CD. H a r r i s , "The C i t i e s of the Soviet Union," Geographical Review, Vol. 35, 1945, pp. 107-121. 14 Guido G. Weigend, op. c%t., p. 368. " ^ N e i l J . Griggs, The History of Planning in Victoria, unpublished paper, School of Community and Regional Planning, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. 12 to do t h i s as Great Lakes-overseas shipping operations are a d i r e c t competitor to the railway l i n e s that carry t r a f f i c from the Great 16 Lakes area to the A t l a n t i c Coast.ports. Thus coastal c i t i e s receive a heavier volume of t r a f f i c r e s u l t i n g from p r e f e r e n t i a l rates. Government decisions for defense cargo movements or i n t e r -n a t i o n a l aid or emergency programs can s i m i l a r l y stimulate a port's a c t i v i t y . However, governmental decisions on i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d could w e l l be thwarted or made l e s s e f f e c t i v e , i f the ports concerned i n e i t h e r country were operating at capacity or extreme i n e f f i c i e n c y . A fundamental need i n a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade i s an e f f i c i e n t l ! transportation network, providing f a c i l i t i e s f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods wit h i n the country, and ex t e r n a l l y , as we l l as for the trans-shipment of goods from one mode to another at break-bulk points. These points, the ports, are.key connections i n the t o t a l transportation process, and account for a s i g n i f i c a n t , but v a r i a b l e proportion of the t o t a l costs. While l i n e haul costs are generally consistent for any mode, the port costs and port e f f i c i e n c y are high l y v a r i a b l e , and are components of the t o t a l cost upon which volume of trade and economic growth are dependent. 3. P r o v i n c i a l For the purposes of t h i s paper the Provinces are used as the next r l e v e l of influence below the National and yet larger than the Municipal E. Schenker, The Port of Milwaukee, Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1967, p. 97. 13 or Metropolitan area. This d i v i s i o n i s of course a r b i t r a r y and would be d i f f e r e n t for each port. For Vancouver t h i s p r o v i n c i a l hinterland would include the P r a i r i e Provinces, the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and B r i t i s h Columbia. Although the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries are frequently inconsistant i n terms of the present-day c i t y and h i n t e r l a n d concept, they are nevertheless established and afford.a framework for adminis-t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l . A s i g n i f i c a n t regional influence on the ports i s i n terms of i t s geographic l o c a t i o n as w e l l as i t s h i n t e r l a n d . One example of t h i s i s Montreal whose hinterland i n winter i s only the town i t s e l f , whereas i n summer i t i s the e n t i r e Great Lakes area, and to a l e s s e r degree the e n t i r e nation. Canport near Saint John, New Brunswick, w i l l have the nation as i t s hinte rl an d i n winter which w i l l r e s u l t i n heavy port a c t i v i t y . However, during the summer months i t could lose much of t h i s to the St. Lawrence and Great Lake p o r t s . ^ The development of a port's hinterlan d i n terms of e f f i c i e n t and rapid transportation i s of great importance. An example of several raw materials shipped to Japan i n the 1960's through Vancouver and i t s h i n t e r l a n d , shows the extremely high transportation element. In the case of wheat and sulphur, roughly 25% of the end p r i c e of the produce i s due to transportation, for potash, t h i s i s 30% and i n the 18 case of coal t h i s i s a phenomenal 60%. Thus even minor improvements M. H. Matheson, "The Hinterlands of Saint John," Geographioal Bulletin, No. 7, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955, pp. 65-102. 18 F. C. Leighton, op. oit. 14 i n the region's transportation network could s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the delivered p r i c e of the commodity. F i n a l l y , a developing and urbanizing region, such as the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, i s i n i t s e l f a market and creates some degree of a c t i v i t y simply to meet i t s own needs. The megalopolis sea ports of the eastern seaboard of the United States are a further example of a somewhat la r g e r region's influence on port a c t i v i t y , i n terms of l o c a l consumer:demand. While external trade p o l i c i e s are generally determined by the n a t i o n a l government through the c o n t r o l of import and export l i c e n c e s , i n t r a - p r o v i n c i a l commerce comes under the c o n t r o l of i n d i v i d u a l provin-c i a l governments. In the aggregate, nation a l p o l i c y i s the cumulative expression of the constituent provinces, but p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y may c o n f l i c t with or oppose that of the n a t i o n a l government. At the port planning l e v e l the r e s u l t i s that p r o v i s i o n must be made not only to accommodate commodities entering or leaving the country as a r e s u l t of f e d e r a l government p o l i c y , but also those flows.staying w i t h i n the province, such as coastal trade, which may be encouraged or rejected by p r o v i n c i a l consideration. 4. Municipal The f i n a l l e v e l to be examined i s the l o c a l administrative area, u s u a l l y a m u n i c i p a l i t y . Here the administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s p r i m a r i l y with matters of l o c a l concern, in c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n of municipal s e r v i c e s , planning, education, r e c r e a t i o n , and p u b l i c health. The r a t i o n a l e for the incorporation of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s t h e i r a b i l i t y to deal with matters of l o c a l need at a l o c a l l e v e l and with l o c a l l y elected representatives. The basic and major revenue source i s the property tax, and the concern with land i s at a more intimate l e v e l than with e i t h e r of the two senior governments previously men-tioned. L a t e l y much concern has been directed toward the optimum a l l o c a t i o n of lands and planning for future growth, and t h i s f e e l i n g has resulted i n the growth and influence of municipal planning depart-ments. In the planning considerations of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s much atte n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d toward the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s , whose o r i g i n i s usually rooted i n the l o c a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l transporta-t i o n terminals. Despite the growth of the suburban areas and the improvements i n transportation, the a t t r a c t i o n of the CBD, (Central Business D i s -t r i c t ) , and the need f o r a concentrated, i n t e n s i v e l y developed commercial core remains strong and vigorous, and i s l i k e l y to con-19 tinue. I t i s because of the persistence of t h i s trend, and the need for concentration of a large business population within a small area, l i m i t e d to the extent that personal contact within walking distance i s prevalent, that many problems of c i t i e s have been empha-siz e d . Of greater emphasis i n North America, but not l i m i t e d to t h i s continent, the CBD i s the stage where the problems of congestion, the inadequacies of dwindling public transportation, and the threats of Paul J . C l a f f e y , "Planning Rapid R a i l Service for I n t r a -urban T r a v e l , " Traffie• Quarterly3 V o l . XVII, No. 4, October 1963, pp. 508-509. i n t o l e r a b l e l i m i t s of pollutants a l l have become prominent. At the same time the attendant problems of the CBD have not served to curb the demand.for expansion, and land prices have maintained and extended themselves i n an i n s a t i a b l e manner. The expansion has also caused the problems of p o l l u t i o n and congestion mentioned above, as w e l l as o r i g i n a t i n g the question of r e l o c a t i o n of tenants displaced as residences have been razed. In the cases of waterfront c i t i e s ^ the CBD, usually located close to the water, has expanded i n that d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s case the problems raised by commercial users encroaching or i n f r i n g i n g upon waterfront lands are l i k e l y to r e s t r i c t the e f f i c i e n c y of movement of goods through the waterfront area. The threat of encroachment onto waterfront lands i s a tangible one, inasmuch as the normal market conditions are operative, and the i commercial bidder i s able to o f f e r a higher p r i c e than the waterfront user can match. Despite the existence of zoning by-laws, these have been shown countless times to be a mere facade, s e n s i t i v e and sus-c e p t i b l e to the market demands for a d i f f e r e n t use. The c r i t i c a l influence that the l o c a l area has on the port i s i n terms of congestion. Inadequate planning along with uncoordin-ated e f f o r t s of harbour and c i t y planning a u t h o r i t i e s could lead to ports being "choked to death". In addi t i o n to t h i s are the changing s i t e requirements of new terminals and berths which places higher demands for adjacent port lands to be used f o r port functions. Engelmann indicates that 6 to 10 acres per berth i s standard requirement today f o r general cargo berths. S t a t i s t i c s are as yet unavailable f o r average s i z e of container terminals. However Long Beach, C a l i f o r n i a , i s b u i l d i n g a 120 acre s i t e container terminal 21 committed to a si n g l e tenant. These figures i n d i c a t e the need for larger s i t e requirements for port operations. This problem i s compounded i f the port under study i s adjacent to a highly developed and expanding c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . B. PURPOSE OF STUDY In the introductory section of t h i s chapter, the waterfront lands were introduced by describing the four l e v e l s of a c t i v i t y that had a bearing upon the use of these lands. P a r t i c u l a r emphasis was placed upon the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , and the c o n f l i c t introduced as CBD needs s p i l l e d over and encroached upon waterfront lands. The separation of i n t e r e s t between the urban area, emphasized by the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , and the transportation and shipping i n t e r e s t on the waterfront, appears to be a natural d i v i s i o n , inherent i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the two i n t e r e s t s , It would also appear to be a des i r a b l e d i v i s i o n . The urban area i s concerned with large volumes of people and high i n t e r a c t i o n and a c c e s s a b i l i t y amongst them. On the other hand the waterfront shipping area operates to move goods Peter Engelmann, op. oit.,.pp. 1769-4. Vancouver Sun, January 7, 1970, p. 32. 18 f r e e l y and quickly from one mode to another, with l i t t l e i nterference. The purpose of t h i s study i s to examine the port-urban i n t e r -face, p a r t i c u l a r l y those,sections where the urban influence i s s u f f i c i e n t l y strong to appear to i n t e r f e r e with the port operation. P r e r e q u i s i t e to the examination of the i n t e r f a c e w i l l be the tabulation of data on s i t e use and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and economic.and transporta-t i o n features. Analysis of the data includes a compilation of the waterfront users, an estimate of the v a l i d i t y o f . t h e i r land use, and the establishment of the presence of s i g n i f i c a n t impediments to port operations. A summary of the purposes therefore i s to examine: (1) the e x i s t i n g port functions, (2) the e x i s t i n g land requirements, (3) the expected land requirements, (4) the e x i s t i n g transportation f a c i l i t i e s , (5) future transportation f a c i l i t i e s needed for the port operation, (6) the e x i s t i n g urban development patterns, (7) the expected future development patterns, (8) the linkages between the port operation and other waterfront users with the urban area. 19 C. HYPOTHESIS The port, e s s e n t i a l l y a junction between land and water trans-p o r t a t i o n , i s located where s u i t a b l e land transport f a c i l i t i e s may be combined with an adequate water s i t e . As the essence of a c t i v i t y of the port i s i n transshipment of goods, equipment for conveyance from one mode to another must be provided, i n addition to storage and service area. I n i t i a l waterfront users were free to locate at s i t e s along the habour, u n r e s t r i c t e d by a shortage of land, by high land p r i c e s , or by regulations governing s i t e usage; The optimum s i t e s were selected f i r s t , i n which the l o c a t i o n of the transportation routes, and r e s u l t i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y , was a prime consideration. The con-sequent emerging pattern of s i t e use was a random d i s t r i b u t i o n of waterfront users, which condition p r e v a i l s today. While the same open conditions applied to the remaining urban lands, the greater i n t e n s i t y of business, the higher land demands and the rapid turnover here operated to force some c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and separation of land use, which today are regulated by zoning by-laws. In the development of both waterfront lands and the urban lands i t would appear that the l o c a t i o n of the f i r s t transportation routes and terminals was the prime determinant i n the r e s u l t i n g growth pattern. The purpose of t h i s study, as previously stated, i s to examine t h i s waterfront area, i n t h i s case, part of the Vancouver harbour, to 20 evaluate the s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and apparently unsystematic land uses. It would appear that t h i s random growth has increased the cost of port a c t i v i t i e s and the shipping function. The following hypothesis i s put forward: The c o n f l i c t between the shipping a c t i v i t y and the adjoining urban area i n terms of i n t e r f e r i n g land uses, expanding shipping requirements, disarrangement of waterfront s i t e s , congestion of transportation f a c i l i t i e s , lack of a v a i l a b l e land, and administration i s a s i g n i f i c a n t impediment to the present operation and future development of the Port of Vancouver. In order to test t h i s hypothesis i t i s necessary to s e l e c t an appropriate section of the Vancouver harbour, analyze i t s land use and value, and that of the urban counterpart, and derive information on transportation needs and i n t e r a c t i o n with adjoining business. The methods used to derive t h i s information are explained i n following parts of t h i s chapter. In the hypothesis s i x areas of c o n f l i c t are s p e c i f i e d , and these are dealt with i n succeeding chapters. Expanding shipping requirements and congestion of transportation f a c i l i t i e s are dealt with i n Chapter IV, while i n t e r f e r i n g land uses, disarrangement of waterfront s i t e s and lack of a v a i l a b l e land are covered i n Chapter V. L a s t l y , adminis-t r a t i o n forms the bulk of Chapter VI. 21 D. PLANNING APPLICATION (1) International and Domestic The focus of t h i s thesis i s at the l o c a l l e v e l . However as ports have l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l hinterlands, a comment w i l l be made regarding the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y of planning. Such i n t e r n a t i o n a l organizations as the World Bank, and the F.A.O. (Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l Organization) are v i t a l l y concerned with optimum returns of investments or i n t e r n a t i o n a l loans. Thus the success of a new cash crop or i n d u s t r i a l program, say i n India, w i l l be influenced by e f f i c i e n t transportation, and i f t h i s i s i n terms of exports then these products w i l l n a t u r a l l y pass through ports. As remarked e a r l i e r , generally 50% of the transportation costs occur i n the port area i n terms of transshipping costs. If these ports are unduly i n e f f i c i e n t and congested then much of the benefit of these i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d programs i s siphoned o f f at the ports. International aid aimed at increasing the e f f i c i e n c y of ports may w e l l produce economies of scale throughout that nation i n allowing competitive i n t e r n a t i o n a l prices for i t s goods and produce. F. C. Leighton, the vice-president of the engineering firm i n charge of the Roberts Bank development suggests that the cost of shipping coal to Japan through the new port w i l l be reduced from $10.50 to $7.00 per ton. He estimates that over the 15-year contract a t o t a l saving of $150,000,000 w i l l be 22 r e a l i z e d i n transportation costs. F. C. Leighton, op. ait., p o 6. 22 In the same way that i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies could be.interested i n port planning, National Governments too can have considerable i n -fluence through a systematic approach to port planning. Canport and Roberts Bank are examples of recent Canadian Government programs i n port planning. It i s suggested that ports are s e n s i t i v e to the two pressures of increasing trade and urbanization, and thus National Governments can d i r e c t programs at e i t h e r aspect, hopefully to increase trade and decrease urban congestion. However, i n a recent Canadian p u b l i c a t i o n (Multiple Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada: Part II: 1969) i t was suggested that the Federal Government, by contributing the finances for a second harbour crossing, are i n f a c t contributing to 23 increased congestion around the port's back land. (2) P r o v i n c i a l and Municipal The relevance of a study into the demands on waterfront lands may be j u s t i f i e d on several counts. A l l of these reasons have an a p p l i c a t i o n i n the planning process, to which t h i s study i s d i r e c t e d . F i r s t l y there has been no study made of the waterfront area that l i s t s the various users, s i t e requirements, employee c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , transportation needs, and other data. While some information i s a v a i l -able i n the C i t y of Vancouver, or National Harbours Board, i t i s directed See V. Setty Pendakur, Peter Tassie, N e i l J . Griggs, Multiple Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada: Part II, Sooio-Eoonomio Impact and Transport Consequences, Vancouver, School of Community and Regional Planning, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1969, p. 59. toward a more general use and does not include a l l of the above i n f o r -mation. Secondly, both under the C i t y of Vancouver and the National Harbours Board there i s no systematic a l l o c a t i o n of. waterfront land that considers the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the proposed tenant. Indeed, i n an examination of a proposal.to develop a i r r i g h t s over a railway right-of-way i n downtown Vancouver, (Project 200), i t was shown that the congestion and other r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t s had received l i t t l e con-25 s i d e r a t i o n by municipal and p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c i a l s . Although most waterfront properties are smaller, i n area than the proposal i n Project 200, the aggregate s i z e and e f f e c t of a l l water-front properties i s much l a r g e r . L a s t l y the proposal to study the waterfront lands and t h e i r urban counterparts i s j u s t i f i e d i n n a t i o n a l terms, i n which i t i s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and need to maintain an e f f i c i e n t port operation. Such a need i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true along the P a c i f i c Coast of Canada, where the number of s u i t a b l e port s i t e s i s extremely l i m i t e d . In addition the large investments i n the present port warrants i t s con-tinued use and e f f i c i e n t operation. See Port of Vancouver Inventory, a report on the waterfront, land use i n the Port of Vancouver prepared f o r the National Harbours Board by J . B. Ward and Associates (International) Ltd., Vancouver, 1966. 25 V. Setty Pendakur, et a l . , op. cit., p. 63. 24 ^E. STUDY AREA In the Metropolitan Vancouver area, there are close to 330 miles of waterfront. The two Harbour Commissioners (Fraser River Harbour Commission and North Fraser Harbour Commissioners) control the 200 mile Fraser River section and the National Harbours Board c o n t r o l the remain-ing 130 miles from Point Atkinson i n the north to Boundary Bay i n the south, (see Figure 3). Time did not allow a complete survey, so an area was chosen that was both a c t i v e l y engaged i n shipping and industry as w e l l as being adjacent to the urban area. The Inner Harbour of the Vancouver waterfront met these require-ments and was selected as the study area, (see Figure 4). In a d d i t i o n t h i s area was under one municipal authority and one harbour authority, which made data gathering an e a r i e r task. The western l i m i t of t h i s area, Cardero Street, was chosen because it,marked the western extent of the railway trackage. Furthermore the area further west of Cardero was i n a land use t r a n s i t i o n which would have resulted i n data c o l l e c t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s . The e a s t e r l y extent was the Vancouver C i t y l i m i t s at Boundary Road. At the outset the study area was to be l i m i t e d to waterfront users. However, as the area was investigated more comprehensively i t was soon d i s c e r n i b l e that the right-of-way of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way formed a natural southern l i m i t to the area, as t h i s l i n e e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t e d access.to the waterfront, and constituted a b a r r i e r . In a d d i t i o n , assessment data of the C i t y of Vancouver used t h i s same l i m i t i n grouping records. 25 BRIII-H t - O U M B I A METRO VANCOUVER AND STUDY AREA 27 F. STUDY METHODOLOGY The c e n t r a l issue postulated i n t h i s study hinges on the arrangement of waterfront land users and t h e i r transportation modes and commodity flows. The information required for the study was obtained from two major sources: published materials and question-naires and interviews. At the general l e v e l much introductory and background material was examined i n textbooks and reports. This information dealt with transportation, with costs of congestion, estimates of l e v e l of ser v i c e , and with generation of t r a f f i c by land use. Other texts on the economic approach considered business l o c a t i o n s , the determination of rate of return as we l l as the whole aspect of l o c a t i o n theory. At a more l o c a l l e v e l p u blications of the C i t y of Vancouver Planning Depart-ment and of the National Harbours Board were also examined. The second source was from a s p e c i a l l y designed and tested questionnaire developed for waterfront operations. A l i s t of water-front businesses was compiled from various sources, the C i t y D i r e c t o r y , The Ward Report on Waterfront land, and through personal observations i n the area. Each business was sent a l e t t e r one week p r i o r to the interview requesting t h e i r cooperation. A copy of t h i s l e t t e r i s i n the Appendix. Each interview was conducted personally and usually la s t e d 35 to 45 minutes. In several instances the forms were l e f t with the firms for a few days, i f they requested t h i s , i n order to consult t h e i r records. The interviewing was completed i n a two-week period, 28 and was conducted during general business hours. A copy of the questionnaire i s i n the Appendix. The f i n a l source of information was obtained from personal interviews with waterfront users, planning and municipal o f f i c i a l s , t ransportation company o f f i c i a l s and Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Government agencies. Much of t h i s information was obtained at the same time as the administration of the interviews while an a d d i t i o n a l amount was gathered through casual conversations with, government, municipal and transportation o f f i c i a l s . L a s t l y i n some s p e c i f i c instances, i n t e r -views were arranged to inquire further into a question. G. LIMITATIONS The findings of t h i s study are only applicable to the Port of Vancouver and s p e c i f i c a l l y to the C i t y of Vancouver portion of the port. As ports, however, have many common properties, the a p p l i c -a b i l i t y of the findings to other ports merits serious consideration. In order to pursue t h i s , however, t h i s study must f i r s t be expanded to encompass the e n t i r e port, and thus support or r e j e c t the present f i n d i n g s . H. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED Port and Harbour are used interchangeably. A port i s the place of contact between land and maritime space. Its primary function i s the 29 transference of goods and people from ocean vessels to land or inland c a r r i e r s and v i c e versa. Back Land i s the immediate area adjacent to the wharves and j e t t i e s . I t contains f o r the most part storage sheds, aprons, t r a n s i t storage space and transportation rights-of-way. Hinterland i s the land area connected with the port by means of transport l i n e s , and which receives or ships goods through the port. Port Interface i s that area of land where port and marine a c t i v i t y i s replaced by urban a c t i v i t y . In t h i s study i t i s marked by the waterfront railway. Port Linkages are a l l forms of i n t e r a c t i o n between.the port and the land or marine area. Examples of the land linkages are v e h i c l e and r a i l movements, i n d i v i d u a l t r i p s , and communication by mail, t e l e -gram, telephone, etc., between the waterfront and the urban area. Metropolitan Vancouver. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . Port of Vancouver. That foreshore and land covered by water under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the National Harbours Board. I t includes a l l t i d a l water of Burrard I n l e t l y i n g e a s t e r l y of a l i n e drawn between Port Atkinson and Point Grey, and Boundary Bay, Roberts Bank and Sturgeon Point, but does not include the Fraser River. Inner Harbour. That part of Burrard I n l e t l y i n g between the F i r s t Narrows and Second Narrows. 30 Vancouver Inner Harbour. That part of the Inner Harbour wit h i n the C i t y of Vancouver. Study Area. That part of the upland of the C i t y of Vancouver extending from Cardero Street to Boundary Road and l y i n g between the right-of-way of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company and Burrard I n l e t . I. DATA SOURCES Automotive Transport Ass o c i a t i o n of B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council Canadian National Railways Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Empire Stevedoring Co. Ltd. Fraser River Harbour Commission Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t Johnston Terminals Limited National Harbours Board, Ottawa, Ontario National Harbours Board, Vancouver, B.C. North Fraser Harbour Commissioners Port of Vancouver Development Committee Swan Wooster Engineering Co. Ltd. Vancouver Board of Trade Vancouver C i t y Engineering Department Vancouver C i t y Planning Department CHAPTER II THE METROPOLITAN AREA AS A RESOURCE A. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS A resource as defined by the Oxford Dictionary i s "a stock that can be drawn on" or "the means of supplying a want". The 330 miles of waterfront lands In Metropolitan Vancouver i s one such resource that can be seen both as a stock that can be drawn on, as w e l l as s a t i s f y i n g a number of i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, a g r i c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l wants. I t i s i n . t h i s content that the waterfront i s regarded as a resource, and i n fa c t a l i m i t e d resource i n the sense that the supply i s i n e l a s t i c and f i x e d at 330 miles.. The purpose of t h i s chapter i s , therefore, to take an inventory of the resource with s p e c i a l focus on the Inner Harbour, (see Figure 3, p. 25)* The findings should give the d e c i s i o n makers, the National Harbours Board and.the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a basis upon which to b u i l d and formulate p o l i c y on the a l l o c a t i o n of a l l waterfront lands. This approach i s c u r r e n t l y being followed i n the San Francisco Bay area, where each e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l use i s examined i n terms of t h e i r present and future land requirements."'" The San Francisco resource area under study i s 345 miles of shoreline, an area almost i d e n t i c a l , both i n s i z e and i t s present use, to the Metropolitan Vancouver Bay Area Conservation and Development Committee, Waterfront Industry Around San Franaisao Bay, A s s o c i a t i o n of Bay Area Govern-ments: San Francisco, 1968, 32 s i t u a t i o n . Orice t h i s study i s completed i t i s intended that the various C a l i f o r n i a n a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l j o i n t l y develop a waterfront land use p o l i c y . • ' 2 (1) Metropolitan Vancouver Vancouver Harbour i s one of the few natural harbours i n B r i t i s h Columbia's rugged fiord-type c o a s t l i n e . It enjoys year-round i c e -free access from the P a c i f i c Ocean through the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca and the S t r a i t of Georgia, and i s protected from the open waters of the P a c i f i c Ocean by Vancouver Island. The strong topographic features of t h i s province with the drainage patterns p r i n c i p a l l y orientated i n a north-south d i r e c t i o n , so l i m i t s access to the P a c i f i c by land routes, that aside from Vancouver, only Prince Rupert and Squamish have developed as Canadian co a s t a l r a i l terminals. Vancouver i s located i n the south-west part of the Province on Burrard I n l e t , twenty-five miles north of the United States border (see Figure 3, p. 25). It becomes apparent from t h i s p i c t u r e of trade flows that Vancouver, because of i t s l o c a t i o n and the l o c a l geography, has become Canada's western gateway to the world, (see Figure 5). This has resulted i n a vast array of land transportation and communication l i n k -ages that feed into t h i s shipping network. Vancouver i s the western ^Metropolitan Vancouver, as defined i n the Census of Canada, 1961, consists of the C i t i e s of Vancouver, North Vancouver, Port Moody, Port Coquitlam, New Westminster, and White Rock, and the D i s t r i c t s of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Coquitlam, Fraser M i l l s , Burnaby, Surrey, Delta and Richmond, and some unorganized t e r r i t o r y i n c l u d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands. 34 terminus of the Canadian National Railways and Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, and the southern terminus of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway. In addition i t has a direct r a i l route to the Puget Sound region i n Washington, connecting with the major United States railway l i n e s . The c i t y i s at the westerly end of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and has a freeway connecting to the Interstate system i n the United States. The Fraser lowland, a part of the Georgia Depression, i s home to one m i l l i o n people who l i v e i n Metropolitan Vancouver, containing about 50% of the province's t o t a l population. This area i s surrounded on the north by the Coast Mountains which r i s e steeply to elevations w e l l over 5,000 feet immediately north of Burrard Inlet and east of Indian Arm. The broad flat-bottomed v a l l e y and delta of the Fraser River l i e to the south of the City of Vancouver and for the most part requires dyking. The entire waterfront which borders t h i s small but 3 densely populated area t o t a l s 331.1 miles. The coastline runs from West Vancouver i n the north, to Boundary Bay i n the south and includes Burrard Inlet to Port Moody, both arms of the Fraser River and east to P i t t Meadows (see Figure 3, p. 25). This length of waterfront i s the upland l i m i t of the Port of Vancouver. Of the harbour's 331.1 miles, 135.6 miles i s administered by the National Harbours Board. This i s a recent development and was made possible i n August, 1967, Charles M. Forward, Waterfront Land Use in Metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Geographical Paper No. 41. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968, p. 8. when the National Harbours Board extended i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n from Burrard Inlet to include a l l t i d a l water to the south, but excluding the water already under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the North Fraser Harbour Commissioners and Fraser River Harbour Commission (195.5 m i l e s ) . The p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the shoreline vary consider-ably between the extremes of the rocky coast bordering Indian Arm to the f l a t peaty shores of the Fraser River. . (2) C i t y of Vancouver In the Port of Vancouver, the waterfront land has been h i s t o r -i c a l l y connected to land and r a i l transportation routes. At f i r s t the access was l a r g e l y through r a i l f a c i l i t i e s , but currently there i s an increasing use of trucks and highways. The port and i t s r e l a t i o n to the c i t y are shown again i n Figure 3, p. 25. The l i n e s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company s k i r t the southern side of Burrard I n l e t with an extension from the west part of the l i n e through a tunnel to the False Creek yards. The Canadian National Railways and Great Northern Railway Company make j o i n t use of a l i n e that runs inland from New Westminster through Burnaby to the east end of False Creek. On the north side of the i n l e t are the l i n e s of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway Company and the Canadian National Railways. A recently completed connection of the Canadian National Railways through a tunnel and bridge at the Second Narrows, has eliminated a slow and c i r c u i t o u s route along Burrard I n l e t . Highway access to the waterfront i s along several of the water-front d i s t r i b u t o r i e s leading o f f the major north-south routes feeding 36 the C i t y of Vancouver. In the downtown section the major waterfront route i s the Powell Street, Water Street and Cordova Street route running p a r a l l e l to the waterfront. Water depth and the r e s t r i c t e d access at the F i r s t Narrows i s s t i l l a c o n t r o l l i n g factor for navigation i n Burrard I n l e t , or Inner Harbour as i t i s more commonly known. The F i r s t Narrows l i m i t i n g entry 4 depth i s 39 f e e t , though contracts have been l e t to increase t h i s to 50 f e e t . However, navigation of large vessels through the narrows w i l l always remain a serious l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . The main channel depth i n t h i s 5% mile Inner Harbour area i s w e l l over 39 f e e t , and most wharves l i s t depths of 30 to 40 fe e t . The s u r f i c i a l geology at the Vancouver Waterfront i s t e r t i a r y sandstone, s i l t s t o n e , shale and minor volcanic rocks. The steepness of slope within f i v e hundred feet of shoreline v a r i e s between 0 to 15 per cent, see Figure 6. The western two-thirds averages no more than 5 per cent, and the remainder i s above 6 per cent. ** The p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s area, i t would appear, are a t t r a c t i v e to a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . The f i r m ground, the va r i e d transportation access, the sheltered and r e l a t i v e l y deep marine f a c i l i t i e s and the varying land steepness, could be u t i l i z e d by the large adjacent urban population i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The following sections describe the present uses of the waterfront, a l l of which are summarized i n Table 1 below. All'depths quoted r e f e r to depths at lowest normal t i d e s . 'Charles N. Forward, ©p. cit., p. 5. 38 TABLE 1 WATERFRONT LAND USES, CITY AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER, 1969 Metropolitan Vancouver C i t y of Vancouver Study Area (Estimated mileage) Mi l e s . % Miles % A g r i c u l t u r e & unused 201.7 60.8 .2 3.6 Recreational 35.2 10.6 .4 7.3 Re s i d e n t i a l 27.2 8.2 .0 .0 Land Transport 20.1 6.1 .5 9.2 Fishboat Mooring & Net Lo f t s 4.5 1.4 .2 3.6 Marinas 2.9 .9 .2 3.6 Towing & Dredging 2.6 .8 .2 3.6 Manufacturing 25.4 7.7 1.3 23.7 Wholesale & Storage 1.8 .5 •2 3.6 Commercial & R e t a i l 1.5 .5 .2 3.6 Shipping Terminals 8.2 2.5 2.1 38.2 Tot a l 331.1 100.0 5.5 100.0 Source: Charles N. Forward, op. oit.3 p. 8, and Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November, 1969. 39 B. MANUFACTURING, COMMERCIAL AND STORAGE Much of what follows i n t h i s and subsequent sections i n t h i s Chapter has been condensed from two sources, the study by Forward, quoted e a r l i e r , and the B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council Study, Vancouver Harbour Traffic Trends and Facility Analysis, 1967. A l l of the data f o r the Vancouver C i t y Waterfront are estimates based p r i m a r i l y on the survey conducted f o r t h i s study i n November, 1969. In Metropolitan Vancouver 28.7 miles of waterfront i s taken up for manufacturing, commercial a c t i v i t y and storage, which i s about 8.7 per cent of the t o t a l waterfront lands. The s i t e s are scattered throughout the region, with some concentration along the North Arm of the Fraser River and the balance along Burrard Inlet and False Creek. Along the Vancouver Inner Harbour approximately 1.7 miles of the 5% mile waterfront i s for manufacturing, commercial and storage purposes. These properties which represent 33 per cent of the area are scattered f a i r l y evenly along the waterfront. In a l l they would cover about 200 acres out of a t o t a l of 3,920 gross acres of i n d u s t r i a l -zoned land i n Vancouver.^ Further d e t a i l s on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s portion of the i n d u s t r i a l land, along with the recent zoning changes fo r Project 200 and Harbour Park development are discussed i n d e t a i l i n Chapter V. Urban Renewal Technical Report No. 4, Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, 1969, p. 1. C. SHIPPING, TERMINALS AND LAND TRANSPORT FACILITIES Shipping, terminals and land transport f a c i l i t i e s also include governmental uses and u t i l i t i e s , and i n a l l t o t a l 28.3 miles of metropolitan waterfront area, equivalent to 8.5 per cent of the t o t a l waterfront. These are.scattered throughout the region with no p a r t i -cular concentration. In the Vancouver Inner Harbour, 47 per cent, or 2.6 miles, i s devoted presently to t h i s land use. Almost the e n t i r e western h a l f of t h i s area i s presently under t h i s use, though there are several proposals planned that w i l l a l t e r , the s i t u a t i o n . In the Vancouver Inner Harbour there i s accommodation for 39 deep sea berths having a t o t a l of 22,195 feet. This represents approximately 50 per cent of the t o t a l berths i n the metropolitan area, which has 78 deep sea berths f or a . t o t a l of 41,802 feet . The cargo handled i n the Port of Vancouver as w e l l as the Fraser River i n 1968 amounted to 37,168,720 tons^ of which 24,493,320 tons were shipped through the Port of Vancouver. O f f i c i a l f i g u r e s are unavailable f or shipments through a l l the berths i n the C i t y of Vancouver, although t h i s study's survey completed i n October 1969 estimated that 30 per cent of the t o t a l Port of Vancouver tonnage (24,493,320 tons) passed through the g C i t y of Vancouver. Figure 7 in d i c a t e s the summary of cargo tonnage North Fraser Harbour Commissioners, 1968 Annual Report, t o t a l tonnage 7,871,042. Fraser River Harbour Commission, 1968 Annual Report, t o t a l tonnage 4,816,289. National Harbours Board, 1968 Annual Report, t o t a l tonnage 24,493,320. g See Chapter I I I f o r the survey analysis and Appendix A for estimated tonnage. 1955 1958 1955 . In Out Total F 1,2965 8 0 3,835817 5,132397 D 3821188 2031427 5,852615 10,985012 1958 In Out Total F. 1,020507 5,280253 6,300 760 1961 In Out Total F 1,018789 7,411180 8,429969 D 3,196783.. 2,413594 5,610 377 D 3,388647 1940224 5,328 871 11,629 631 1964 F 1,193 376 10,839589 12p32965i D 4518 018 3,242827 7,760845 19793810 14,040346 Foreign F 1,872743 12,976483 7,012355 Domestic D 5,139612 4,501 482; 17,477965. 24,490320 Port of Vancouver Cargo Tonnage SOURCE: N.H.B. AND CN. FORWARD. WATERFRONT LAND USE VANCOUVER handled i n 1955, 1961 and 1968. The f i g u r e demonstrates that Outward Foreign cargo i s equal to h a l f the region's t o t a l t rade. There appears to have been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e .change between each of the ca t e g o r i e s of trade i n the past four years. The t o t a l volume,has however i n t h i s p e r i o d increased by 28 per cent. This suggests that the trade flows have reached a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e s t a t e , however as the volume,is s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g , a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and space requirements w i l l continue to be i n demand, the d e t a i l s of which are discussed i n Chapters IV and V r e s p e c t i v e l y . D. AGRICULTURE AND UNUSED LAND In M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a g r i c u l t u r a l use of w a t e r f r o n t , l a n d i s by f a r the great e s t and t o t a l s 201.7 miles or 60.8 per cent of the e n t i r e w a t e r f r o n t . These areas dominate the upper reaches of the Fraser R i v e r , L u l u I s l a n d , Sea I s l a n d , Boundary Bay and Indian Arm, (see F i g u r e 3, p. 25). In Vancouver Inner Harbour there i s .2 m i l e s of vacant l a n d , equivalent to 3.6 per cent of the w a t e r f r o n t . Half of t h i s i s i n the process of development and the remainder i s i n the eastern p o r t i o n of the w a t e r f r o n t . The eastern p o r t i o n has no back lands due to the steep ground slope and hence i s of marginal use unless s u b s t a n t i a l sums of money are spent i n recl a m a t i o n , which i s u n l i k e l y due to very deep waters. In t o t a l t h i s amounts to about 10 acres of vacant la n d . E. RESIDENTIAL LAND A t o t a l of 27.2 miles or 8.2 per cent of the metropolitan waterfront i s devoted to r e s i d e n t i a l land use. There are several d i s t i n c t types of r e s i d e n t i a l occupancy. Single family detached homes of good q u a l i t y are found along Burrard I n l e t with summer cottages along the upper part of Indian Arm. A few h i g h r i s e apart-ments have.been b u i l t on the waterfront,in West Vancouver.. In a d d i t i o n there are scatterings of poor q u a l i t y housing along the Fraser River, usually owned by fishermen. In the Inner Harbour along the Vancouver waterfront there is,no r e s i d e n t i a l property. There i s , however, a h o t e l at the westerly end and there,are a d d i t i o n a l hotels and apartment buildings, i n various stages of development and approval for t h i s same area. F. RECREATION, FISHBOAT MOORING, MARINAS AND TOWING Ten per cent or 35.2 miles of the metropolitan waterfront i s set aside for recreation. Most of t h i s i s i n the Stanley Park, Point Grey and North Arm of the Fraser River areas. Within the Inner Harbour 7 per cent of the area i s set aside for recreation i n the form of,a park at the e a s t e r l y end. There i s , however, an equivalent amount of area at the westerly end i n the form of a marina f o r p r i v a t e moorings and a yacht club. Forward suggests that i n the suburban areas only there appears to be a need for a d d i t i o n a l space f o r r e c r e a t i o n and 44 pub l i c open space. Stanley Park and English Bay provide adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r the c i t y population.. He concludes that Boundary Bay be acquired as a park area and the Roberts Bank.area be protected as 9 a w i l d l i f e and waterfowl conservation. A d d i t i o n a l comments are elaborated on t h i s point i n Chapter V i n the section on Recreation Requirements. In the metropolitan area fishboat mooring, marinas and towing f a c i l i t i e s occupy only a small portion of the waterfront, i . e . , 10 miles, or equivalent to 3.1 per cent,of the area. In the Vancouver waterfront area each of these f a c i l i t i e s occupy .2 miles or 3.6 per cent of the waterfront, and are.scattered throughout the waterfront with no p a r t i c u l a r concentration. G. SUMMARY Any attempt to forecast future demands for a l l waterfront.land would require a d e t a i l e d s o c i a l and economic survey of the e n t i r e region. However the conclusion reached by Forward was that during the next 15 to 20 years present commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the metropolitan area w i l l have to be doubled. The demand for waterfront land w i l l increase g r e a t l y , but i f properly managed these demands can be met. For example the Fraser-P i t t r i v e r system can provide the p r i n c i p l e stock of waterfront land Charles N. Forward, op. c%t„s p. 46. 45 for most of the future,metropolitan i n d u s t r i a l requirements. Boundary Bay, i f developed as a marine park could meet much of the e n t i r e area's rec r e a t i o n demands. F i n a l l y the study suggested that there was con-siderable evidence.to i n d i c a t e that Burrard In l e t could accommodate most of the required shipping terminals,for the forseable future. Thus from a Metropolitan or Macro view point there i s an adequate supply of t h i s waterfront resource, i f properly managed, for Greater Vancouver's future requirements. The remainder of t h i s study i s devoted to a micro examination of j u s t one portion of t h i s waterfront.resource i n the Inner Harbour to see how t h i s resource i s being u t i l i z e d and what demands are being made on , i t . CHAPTER I I I WATERFRONT CHARACTERISTICS The s e t t i n g of the Port of Vancouver was described i n Chapter I I . The unique l o c a t i o n of an i c e - f r e e , sheltered harbour, at the entrance to a land transportation route leading to the eastern part of the country are important determinants to i t s development. The p o s i t i o n of the f i r s t railway l i n e and i t s terminus had a s i g n i f i c a n t influence upon the l o c a t i o n of the f i r s t mercantile and shipping f a c i l i t i e s from which further development ensued.^" The Port of Vancouver operates under the influence of l o c a l conditions, which include the e x i s t i n g topographical features, and the s p a t i a l and land use patterns. As discussed, i n Chapter I, the main thrust of t h i s t hesis i s directed at the c o n f l i c t between, on the one hand, the demands of increased port functions, and on the other hand, the demands emanating from the c e n t r a l c i t y In response to burgeoning urban a c t i v i t i e s , which are non-port functions. In order to derive quantitative data regarding the land use and transportation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within the study area, a questionnaire was developed. This chapter deals with the study area, the question-n a i r e , and the results- obtained. It i s not intended to be exhaustive, V. Setty Pendakur, Peter Tassie, N e i l Griggs, Multiple: Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada, Part II: Socio-Economic Impact and Transport Consequences, Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October, 1969, p. 8. 47 but forms the basis from which further analyses are developed i n succeeding chapters. A. THE STUDY AREA The formulation of the hypothesis and the choice of the study area were discussed i n the i n i t i a l chapter. In b r i e f , the study area was governed by the hypothesis, and an area was selected that would give the highest contrast i n a c t i v i t y between port and non-port functions. As a r e s u l t that part of the C i t y of Vancouver between the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company right-of-way i n Burrard I n l e t , extending from Cardero Street to Boundary Road, was chosen. This area i s shown i n Figure 4, p. 26. While the questionnaire r e s u l t s disclose,information on present land uses,and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which are discussed i n succeeding parts of t h i s chapter, i t does not reveal information on the trends i n land use that have led to the present s i t e s . Records of previous owner-ships are on.deposit i n the Land R e g i s t r y . O f f i c e , and r e c o l l e c t i o n s and descriptions of past conditions are recorded i n h i s t o r i c a l j ournals, l i b r a r i e s and archives, from which i t would be possible to prepare a comprehensive documentation of the change that the study area has underr gone. However, without going into t h i s d e t a i l i t i s possible to describe i n more.general terms the changes i n the area that have occurred from changes i n .passenger t r a v e l modes. Most of t h i s i n f o r -mation i s derived from the memory of the author over the past two decades. The section that has undergone the greatest change i n use i s that part of the study area between Burrard Street and Main Street, shown i n Figure 8. In t h i s s e c t i o n , which i s the oldest part, there has been a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease or complete suspension of the a c t i v i t i e s of the marine passenger terminals, which occupied a large part of the waterfrontage. Amongst these are the Canadian P a c i f i c Steamships P i e r B-C, once the terminus for regular t r a n s - P a c i f i c runs, as w e l l as t h r i c e d a i l y Vancouver Island and c o a s t a l runs. These pie r s , a r e now l a r g e l y used as berths f o r occasional ocean-going c r u i s e ships and v i s i t i n g naval v e s s e l s , and otherwise for general cargo ships. S i m i l a r l y , Pier D, on the east of P i e r B-C, was destroyed by f i r e i n the mid 1930's and has never been replaced. More,recently a shed adjoining a marginal wharf at' the foot of Abbott Street, was severely damaged by f i r e i n 1969, and has not been restored. Further east, at the foot.of Columbia Street, Municipal f e r r y systems to North Vancouver and West Vancouver were suspended because of i n s u f f i c i e n t patronage. In the same area, at the foot of C a r r a l l Street, the Union Steamships Limited once offered a coastal service i n competition with the Canadian P a c i f i c Steamships. This operation has now ceased and the successor to the company has s h i f t e d i t s operation to the eastern part of the study area, about two miles east of the Central Business D i s t r i c t . Generally the passenger t r a f f i c that once used the f a c i l i t i e s mentioned above has been s h i f t e d elsewhere i n the study area, or out-r-side the urban area. Trans-oceanic and coastal steamer runs have. 49 8 Changes in Land Use-Burrard St. to Main St. N Scale: 1 inch to 1500 feet 4000 ft. l a r g e l y been replaced by aeroplane f l i g h t s , served from the a i r p o r t adjoining the southern edge of the c i t y , although c r u i s e ships s t i l l use the downtown p i e r s . Vancouver Island transportation, has, to a large extent, been taken over by the B r i t i s h Columbia F e r r i e s using two terminals located out of the urban area, (see Figure 3, p. 25). One of these i s at Tsawwassen at the southern end of Delta M u n i f i p a l i t y adjoining the Roberts Bank Super-Port, approximately 15 miles south of Vancouver. The other i s at Horseshoe Bay, i n Howe Sound, at the west end of West Vancouver M u n i c i p a l i t y . L o c a l l y , f e r r y t r a f f i c across Burrard I n l e t has been replaced by vehicular transportation using the Lions Gate and Second Narrows Bridges. Within t h i s part of the study area between Burrard and Main. Streets, the former land uses have not been replaced, or have been replaced by a use of a l e s s intensive nature. Two minor passenger f a c i l i t i e s , a hovercraft service and a water t a x i , have located i n t h i s area, but they do not generate s u b s t a n t i a l passenger volumes. Elsewhere i n the study area the changes i n land use have not been so s t r i k i n g . B. QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION 2 The questionnaire was developed to obtain.information on occupants and land use within the study area, employment and parking See Appendix I for the questionnaire. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , quantity of commodity flows, modes of transportation employed, and dependency upon urban services. It was designed f o r response by personal interview. P r i o r to the interview a l i s t of 3 businesses from the study area was compiled and a l e t t e r was sent to each of these businesses, o u t l i n i n g the purpose of the question-n a i r e , and giving the date of the survey and the interview. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r sending a l e t t e r i n advance was demonstrated as the personal interviews were conducted, i n which the advance notice provided a more favourable reception and higher returns. The l i s t of businesses mentioned above was compiled from a 4 l o c a l d i r e c t o r y , and showed,164 businesses within the study area. Upon administration of the questionnaire, which took place i n the l a t t e r part of November, 1969, i t was found that some of these b u s i -nesses no longer were situated at the address shown, or that one o f f i c e served several d i f f e r e n t companies separated i n name only, and i n e f f e c t c o n s t i t u t i n g one business. The decrease in.number uncovered by t h i s f i e l d check was s i g n i f i c a n t , and reduced,the o r i g i n a l 164 businesses to 100, each of whom was approached and asked to complete the information on the questionnaire. From the interviews of the 100 businesses mentioned above, 79 were p a r t i a l l y or f u l l y completed, and 21 were not executed. The 21 unexecuted returns resulted e i t h e r from outright r e f u s a l of the See Appendix II for a copy of t h i s l e t t e r . 4 Vancouver City Dxreatory, 1969, Vancouver: B. C, D i r e c t o r i e s , 1969. 52 business to supply.any information to inconvenience or.lack,of time of the proprietors of small o f f i c e s . Where time permitted call-backs were made, but were not always successful. In the 79 p a r t i a l l y or f u l l y completed returns, the incompleted sections r e s u l t e d e i t h e r because the respondent did not have the information, or because he was not prepared to divulge i t . Where possible the missing information was obtained from other sources, such as C i t y of Vancouver and National Harbours Board records, but otherwise was l e f t blank. Upon completion of the questionnaire the values were coded, and punched onto standard computer cards, enabling the data to be analyzed by computer.. I n i t i a l l y , however, only a simple c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , including means and standard deviations, was conducted. One of the locations i n the study area on Commissioner Street, contained s i x s i m i l a r i n d u s t r i e s engaged i n frozen f i s h processing and storage. Because the assessment data i n t h i s l o c a t i o n was tab-ulated f o r the one parc e l of land on which a l l these i n d u s t r i e s were located, and not separately for each of the i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s , i t was considered appropriate to combine the s i x returns into one. The r e s u l t of t h i s combination reduced the returns by f i v e , and the t o t a l returns, o r i g i n a l l y numbering 79, was decreased,to 74. To a s s i s t i n the evaluation and analysis of the questionnaire, the assessment and taxation records of the C i t y of Vancouver were obtained. This information, c a l l e d the Assessment Roll,"' i s open to City of Vancouver Assessment Roll 19693 Vancouver: Assessment Department, C i t y of Vancouver, 1969. 53 p u b l i c inspection, and gives the abbreviated l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the property, and the assessed values for school and general purposes, of land, b u i l d i n g s and machinery. The p r i n c i p a l use of t h i s record was to check the questionnaire returns with the C i t y of Vancouver data to determine i f a l l lands had been included, and to obtain assessed,values of land and improvements for a l l parcels within the study area. The values shown i n the Assessment R o l l are supposed to repre-sent market values, although i t i s recognized that because of increasing values and slow turnover of property i n some sections of the c i t y , there i s a lag between the values shown on the r o l l , and the s e l l i n g p r i c e . ^ Nevertheless, the assessed values are consistent w i t h i n the study area, and therefore constitute a s u i t a b l e i n d i c a t o r of values. The Assessment R o l l of the,City of Vancouver did not contain any information on the area of p a r c e l s , the nature of buildings and improvements on the property, or the unit assessment for land and improvements used to compute the t o t a l assessment. Had t h i s informa-t i o n , which i s tabulated separately, been divulged, i t would have been of great value. Unfortunately.it was not, and t h i s d e f i c i e n c y i n data had to be supplanted by approximations from other sources.^ Interview with Mr. H.'Urquhart, Assessment Department, C i t y of Vancouver, June 3, 1969. 7 It would be p o s s i b l e to obtain the area of most of the parcels from a.search of Land Registry O f f i c e records. However the.time and expense involved in,such,a search excluded t h i s approach. In a d d i t i o n 54 C. QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS (1) S i t e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of-the study area, shown i n Table I , p. 38, were derived from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In Table 2 the charac-t e r i s t i c s are l i s t e d under ei g h t land use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . In the determination of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of s i t e s i n which more than one land use was i n v o l v e d , the major or predominant land use was adopted, and the minor use was not mentioned.. The one entry i n the t a b l e i n the "other" column, a p u b l i s h i n g s e r v i c e f o r an e t h n i c group, d i d not f i t i n t o the other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and was thus l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y . The t h i r d column, "Average footage from CBD", l i s t s the r e s u l t s assuming that the CBD extends from Burrard S t r e e t to Main S t r e e t a d j o i n i n g the south s i d e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company r i g h t -of-way but not extending across.to the north s i d e . As a r e s u l t the d i s t a n c e from the CBD of those.businesses w i t h i n the study area v a r i e s from 500 f e e t to a maximum of 15,400 f e e t . The f o u r t h and f i f t h columns, "Year.of O r i g i n " and "Year of Major Investment", were.evaluated from q u e s t i o n n a i r e data. The year of o r i g i n i s the year i n which the present occupant began operations at the s i t e , w h i l e the year of major investment i s the year i n which the major c a p i t a l investments were constructed. some of the leases are not deposited i n the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e . However, a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on s i z e s of p a r c e l s was obtained from the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, and from composite maps showing the l o t s w i t h i n the study area. TABLE 2 LAND USE CHARACTERISTICS IN STUDY AREA, 1969 Land Use No. of users Average footage from Average year of Origin Average year of major Average floor area Average site area Average water-front-Average employees Average parking spaces CBD invest?-ment (acres) age (feet) on-site off-site employees visitors Goods Terminals 14 5,844 1934 1935 73,700 14.9 591 49 7 43 9 Passenger Terminals 6 5,600 1960 1964 1,300 0.7 84 3 35 2 14 Marine Sales Service and Repair 14 5,700 1948 1952 10,400 6.5 134 18 27 14 29 Fish Processing 21 6,500 1949 1949 60,000 6.4 427 98 17 44 11 Other Processing 10 6,100 1943 1953 99,500 4.3 222 75 5 40 4 Public Administration 6 4,700 1940 1935 9,500 0.3 38 20 4 12 4 Construction 2 7,600 1960 1958 10,500 1.2 69 12 18 3 4 Other 1 7,900 1967 1967 3,800 0.1 0 2 0 4 0 Average of Total 5,844 1945 1945 44,400 5.7 268 41 15 26 12 Total 74 2,622,000 337.2 15,806 2,415 914 1,559 686 56 In the columns l i s t i n g f l o o r area, and s i t e area, the land uses in v o l v i n g goods terminals, f i s h processing and other processing occupy the largest areas. This r e s u l t conforms to,what might be expected. On the other hand, s i t e s used for passenger terminals occupy a r e l a t i v e l y small area. The s i t e s used f o r the l a t t e r purpose consist of f l o a t plane, hovercraft, water t a x i and c r u i s e - l i n e f a c i l i t i e s . The oldest occupants on.the waterfront are the goods terminals. Their tenancy averages 36 years and t h e i r average age of f a c i l i t i e s are 35 years; and exceeds,those of a l l other users, except p u b l i c administration., The large number of o f f - s i t e employees i s a t t r i b u t e d to those marine services such as towing and f i s h i n g companies, and cruise l i n e s , i n which the bulk of the employees are a f l o a t and away from the land s i t e . (2) Cargo Flows and Volumes A large part of the questionnaire sought information on the commodities handled by the businesses, their,tonnage, o r i g i n and dest i n a t i o n . This information included annual import and export tonnage, the mode of transportation used, and the number of t r i p s made by each mode. The o r i g i n and de s t i n a t i o n of zones were tabulated i n zones which started at the waterfront and worked outward i n i n -creasingly larger increments, ending with the zone c o n s i s t i n g of a l l of the world except Canada. 57 No i n f o r m a t i o n was returned concerning the type of goods.handled, although an estimate could be made of t h i s by c o n s i d e r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s . In c o n s i d e r i n g whether goods were imported or exported, the d i r e c t i o n of movement.of these goods.was the determining f a c t o r . Goods moving i n t o the business or o p e r a t i o n , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the mode of t r a n s p o r t , and whether i t was by.land or water, were considered imports. In the same manner, goods moving outward or away were considered ex-p o r t s . Thus f o r any business the t o t a l import tonnage would equal the t o t a l export tonnage, pl u s any allowance f o r inventory d e p l e t i o n or b u i l d - u p . The outcome of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s were tabulated to give t o t a l cargo flows i n and out of the study area and are l i s t e d i n Tables 3 and 4. The strong e x t e r n a l patterns of the commodity flows of the w a t e r f r o n t . u s e r s are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n these t a b l e s , i n which commodities e n t e r i n g the study area from the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n account f o r only s l i g h t l y over 1 per cent of the t o t a l imports. In c o n s i d e r i n g goods moving out of the study area, the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i s the d e s t i n a t i o n of s l i g h t l y over 12 per cent of the t o t a l movement of goods. The CBD, w a t e r f r o n t , and one-half m i l e zones account f o r an even lower o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n of goods than the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . '-3. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Services In a d d i t i o n to the tonnage,of commodities and t h e i r sources, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e sought i n f o r m a t i o n on the modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n TABLE 3 IMPORTS INTO STUDY AREA BY ZONE OF ORIGIN IN 1969 Water-front CBD Within H mile Remainder of Vancouver Remainder of Metro Vancouver Remainder of B. C. Remainder of Canada Foreign T o t a l Annual Tonnage Percent 1,392 .04 1,452 .04 5,244 .15 12,444 •35 21,324 .60 481,608 13.48 2,663,448 74.57 384,684 10.77 3,571,596 100.00 TABLE 4 EXPORTS FROM STUDY AREA BY ZONE OF DESTINATION IN 1969 Water-front , CBD Within h mile Remainder of Vancouver Remainder of Metro Vancouver Remainder of B. C. Remainder of Canada Foreign T o t a l Annual Tonnage 107,532 6,132 8,016 113,796 205,116 361,728 669,888 2,150,660 3,622,788 Percent 2.97 0.17 0.22 3.14 . 5.66 9.98 18.49 59.37 100.00 59 a v a i l a b l e , t h e i r adequacy, the tonnage handled and the number of movements by each mode. These r e s u l t s are l i s t e d i n Tables 5, 6 and 7. The sample should not be construed as a t o t a l sample of the study area as 21 responses were not obtained out of the 100 businesses. While i n f o r m a t i o n on f r e i g h t movements along the w a t e r f r o n t i s scanty, a r e p o r t prepared i n 1963 showed f r e i g h t movements i n the Greater g Vancouver r e g i o n f o r 1961. In that year the number of loaded r a i l cars was estimated at 123,500 f o r the e n t i r e Vancouver w a t e r f r o n t . 4. Urban Dependency. This s e c t i o n r e l a t e s to the dependency of the w a t e r f r o n t users upon a d j o i n i n g urban s e r v i c e s . To evaluate the importance of the urban l i n k , one s e c t i o n . o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked i n f o r m a t i o n on the frequency, of contact w i t h a broad range of s e r v i c e s , , i n c l u d i n g t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n agents, marine and f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s , labour market, the urban consumer market, and business w i t h a l l l e v e l s of government. To the question asking which three s e r v i c e s r e q u i r i n g personal contact were considered the most important f o r the e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n of the b u s i n e s s , the r e s u l t s are given i n Table 8. While t h i s t a b l e represents the r e t u r n s from the sample of 74, not a l l r e t u r n s l i s t e d three s e r v i c e s , and as a r e s u l t , the t o t a l i s l e s s than 222 (3 x 74). B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouver, Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , May, 1963, p. 17. 60 TABLE 5 TRANSPORTATION ACCESS TO STUDY AREA Mode On-Site Access Yes• No No Reply S u i t a b i l i t y of Access Adequate Inadequate! No Reply R a i l Highway Deep Sea Barge 28 46 73 1 31 36 52 22 0 0 7 0 23 52 15 40 4 16 7 8 47 6 52 26 TABLE 6 ANNUAL TONNAGE HANDLED BY MODE IN STUDY AREA, 1969 Inward Outward Tot a l R a i l 2,412^-930 480,445 2,893,375 Highway 220,506 749,356 969,862 Deep Sea 769,560 2,304,540 3,074,100 Barge 189,750 87,792 277,542 Air- 301 1,176 1,477 Tota l 3,593,047 3,623,309 7;216,356 , TABLE 7 ANNUAL NUMBER OF MOVEMENTS BY MODE, 1969 Mode Number of Movements R a i l Cars 72,144 Trucks 311,262 Deep-sea Ships 6,252 Barges 3,228 Aeroplanes 7,200 61 TABLE 8 MOST IMPORTANT SERVICES REQUIRING PERSONAL CONTACT Service R e p l i e s Marine Services (personnel, stevedoring, shipyards) 39 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Agents 39 F i n a n c i a l Services 13 Labour Market 15 Urban Consumer Market 19 Business w i t h a l l L e v e l s of Government 12 T o t a l 137 The dependency upon marine s e r v i c e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n agents i s seen i n Table 8, i n which over h a l f the users are dependent upon these s e r v i c e s . The t h i r d most important s e r v i c e , the urban consumer market, showed a d i s t i n c t s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n , i n which 12 of the 19 r e p l i e s were concentrated i n that p o r t i o n of the study area between Cardero S t r e e t and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . The remaining 7 r e p l i e s were from businesses s c a t t e r e d throughout the eastern part of the study area. A f u r t h e r question on urban dependency concerned frequency and o r i g i n of v i s i t o r s to the businesses, such as customers and salesman, but not i n c l u d i n g employees. These r e s u l t s are given i n Table 9. 62 TABLE 9 DAILY VISITORS TO STUDY AREAS BY ZONE OF ORIGIN Water-front CBD Within ^ mile but not CBD or waterfront Remainder of Metro Vancouver T o t a l Number of v i s i t o r s 877 579 174 1,188 2,929 Per cent 33.7 19.8 5.9 40.6 100.0 5. Future Plans The. l a s t section of the questionnaire dealt with future expected trends i n volume of business and employment, and future plans con-cerning b u i l d i n g area, s i t e area, and a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n . Tabulation of the expected changes i n volume of business and employment are given,in Tables 10 and 11. It i s evident that the large majority of the,users expect an increase i n business, while a smaller majority expect an increase i n employment. The d i f f e r e n c e between the number expecting an increase in.business, and those expecting an increase.in employment can be explained by the increased use of labour-saving machines as a device to reduce the labour inputs. In regard to the future plans of the study area respondents, the tabulation of these r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 12, The numbers with d e f i n i t e plans for expansion numbered about 30 per cent, while those r e q u i r i n g increased s i t e area numbered about one t h i r d of the t o t a l , with a s i g n i f i c a n t number of "No Reply" returns. 63 TABLE 10 VOLUME OF BUSINESS IN NEXT 5 YEARS No. of r e p l i e s Range of decrease or i n c r e a s e Expect ,a Decrease Expect an Increase No Reply T o t a l 7 tione s t a t e d 61 5% to 600% 6 74 TABLE 11 EMPLOYMENT IN NEXT 5 YEARS No. of r e p l i e s Range of decrease or i n c r e a s e Expect a Decrease Expect an Increase No Reply T o t a l 11 5% to 20% 32 5% to 600% 11 74 TABLE 12 FUTURE PLANS OF BUSINESSES IN STUDY AREA D e f i n i t e Plans f o r Increased F l o o r Area Require Increased S i t e Area Considered Moving to Another S i t e Considered Moving,to Roberts Bank Yes 22 25 18 6 No 45 30 54 55 No Reply 7 19 2 13 Businesses that had considered moving to another s i t e numbered 18, while those,who had s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned Roberts Bank t o t a l l e d 6. While there i s no comparison upon which to gauge the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s number of respondents that are considering moving, when a l -most one-quarter of the t o t a l are involved, i t seems a high f i g u r e . D. SUMMARY The purpose of t h i s chapter was to examine the study area i n closer d e t a i l and reveal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of land use, transportation and commodity flows. That part of the study area adjoining the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t was shown to have undergone.a s i g n i f i c a n t change in.land use, r e s u l t i n g i n a lower i n t e n s i t y of a c t i v i t y , as many passenger terminals have been suspended or replaced i n another l o c a t i o n . Whether such a change i n land use i s a r e s u l t of the proximity of the CBD and d i f f i c u l t y of access was not answered i n the chapter, but t h i s question w i l l be discussed i n a l a t e r section of the study. In a tabulation of the land use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t was seen that the space and working force requirements showed large v a r i a t i o n s between the land users, as mught be considered from an examination of the p a r t i c u l a r uses. At the same time the age of the various f a c i l i t i e s showed wide v a r i a t i o n s with the o l d e s t , i n s t a l l a t i o n s being those f o r transshipment of goods and f o r - p u b l i c administration. 65 Of the commodity flows through the study area, the adjoining lands were re lat ively insignificant as either origins or destinations of exports. As might.be expected these flows reflected upon the large area which is tributary to the port. Transportation modes used for commodity movement varied be-tween land and sea transport. On the land side r a i l cars handled the bulk of tonnage, with trucks accounting for only about one-third of r a i l tonnage. However, in total movements, the relat ively small loads carried by trucks were reflected in the high number of movements by that mode.as compared to r a i l . The greatest,urban dependency of the businesses within the study area was upon marine services and transportation agents. The third ranking dependency, the urban consumer market, was concentrated among those businesses at the western end of the study area. The number of persons v i s i t ing the area was not high when compared with 9 vi s i tors to the CBD. The origin of these v i s i tors was divided between the CBD, waterfront, and remainder of the metropolitan area in i n -creasing order. In the future plans of the waterfront study area, i t was evident that the majority of the firms expected an increase in both bolume of business' and employment. Similarly, about one-third of the businesses expected an increase in building area or s i te area. Of the 74 repl ies , almost one-quarter (18) had considered moving to another s i te , although only 6 had speci f ica l ly considered Roberts Bank as an alternative. V. Setty Pendakur, et a l . , op* ait,, p. 53. CHAPTER IV PORT LAND NEEDS AND TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS The scene described i n the opening l i n e s of the f i r s t chapter, i n which the departing ship s a i l e d out of the harbour, i s as much out of date as the Model ;T Ford i s a.,conveyance f o r today's transpor-t a t i o n needs. Yet both,examples serve as a c o n t r a s t to i l l u s t r a t e and emphasize the major advances that have been made i n developing new methods of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Although the s a i l i n g ship has long departed from the high seas as a s e r i o u s contender f o r commercial t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of goods, i t s successor, the cargo l i n e r w i t h engine p r o p u l s i o n has, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , remained as the standard and accepted c a r r i e r w i t h few inn o v a t i o n s . Other than increases i n v e s s e l s i z e s , more e f f i c i e n t means of p r o p u l s i o n , and the use of new s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r i a l s , the cargo v e s s e l has shown l i t t l e change. S i m i l a r l y the methods of stow-ing and t r a n s f e r r i n g cargo, had not undergone any r a d i c a l change u n t i l the te r m i n a t i o n of World War I I i n 1945. The year 1945, or the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the-Second World War, i s o f t e n taken as the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the movement toward more 1 2 e f f i c i e n t methods of shi p p i n g . ' This p e r i o d i n i t i a t e d the departure R.B. Oram, Cargo Handling and the Modern Port, Oxford: Perga-mon Press L t d . , 1965, p. 64, 120. 2 E. G. F r a n k e l , " C o n t a i n e r i z e d Shipping and Integrated Trans-p o r t a t i o n , " Proceedings of the IEEE (Proceedings o f - t h e I n s t i t u t e of E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s E n g i n e e r s ) , V o l . 56, No. 4, ( A p r i l , 1968), p. 713. from i s o l a t i o n i s m , h i g h - t a r i f f and p r o t e c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s , b u i l t up and maintained during the decade of depression i n the 1930's, and the ensuing war. Taking the place of these c o n d i t i o n s was f r e e r and more open trade as was evidenced i n the formation of the European Common Market, the General Agreement on T a r i f f s and Trade (GATT), the expansion of United States and Russia as t r a d i n g n a t i o n s , and the remarkable resurgence of Japan. In the decade between 1950 and 1960, the t o t a l world ocean-borne trade more than doubled from 500 to 1,100 m i l l i o n long tons, w h i l e i n the f o l l o w i n g f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , from 1960 to 1965, the growth was even.more dramatic, r i s i n g from 1,100 to over 1,700 m i l l i o n 3 long tons. L o c a l l y , trade agreements w i t h Communist Bloc c o u n t r i e s and other A s i a n n a t i o n s have r e s u l t e d i n huge shipments of bulk m a t e r i a l s from Vancouver,across the P a c i f i c . At the Port of Vancouver f o r e i g n trade has increased from 3,100,000 tons i n 1945 to 14,532,670 4 tons i n 1968. A. CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY In the l i g h t of t h i s developing and competitive overseas t r a d e , a t t e n t i o n was focused upon the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Here, one of 3 A l f r e d H. K e i l and P h i l i p Mandel, "Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n by Sea—To-day and Tomorrow," Proceedings of the.IEEE, (Proceedings of the I n s t i t u t e of E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s E n g i n e e r s ) , V o l . 56, No. 4, ( A p r i l 1968), p. 516, ( F i g . 5 and 6). 4 Na t i o n a l Harbours Board, Annual Reports, 1945, 1968. the major components was that paid to labour as wages for manning vessels; the other was the increased c a p i t a l cost of ships. If shipping costs were to be r e s t r a i n e d , then ship u t i l i z a t i o n would have to increase, and port time decrease. The incentive to lower costs has led to analysis of v a r i a t i o n of costs with vessels of d i f f e r i n g s i z e and speed, and use of innovative loading and unloading equipment. In t h i s l a t t e r aspect the type of dock movements and handling, and the performance of equipment came under scrutiny. Vessel c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have undergone major changes, p r i n c i p a l l y i n . s i z e and draught; and have resulted i n marked reductions i n shipping costs. For example, a 50,000 dead-weight ton tanker can transport, f u e l at 0.18c? per ton-mile, a 100,000 dwt. v e s s e l at 0.11C a ton-mile, and a 200,000 dwt. vessel at 0.08$.5 The lower transportation costs obtained from the larger v e s s e l r e s u l t from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v e s s e l s i z e , and crew and power requirements. Thus while one v e s s e l may be double the capacity of another, the v e s s e l dimensions and c a p i t a l cost are l e s s than double, the power requirements are only s l i g h t l y increased, and the crew s i z e remains the same. The economic benefits accruing from the use of such increased capacity vessels i s immediately apparent. On the dock side the increased competition, has also served as an incentive i n producing more e f f e c t i v e handling movements at the E. G. Frankel, op. oit., p. 517 (Table I I I ) . port i n t e r f a c e . Here the i n e f f i c i e n c y of the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of,, handling cargo were revealed when i t was shown that cargo a r r i v e d at the pierhead i n various shapes and s i z e s that prevented complete automation ei t h e r i n handling or s t o r i n g . For example, i n Figure 9 the t y p i c a l sequence.for shipments of general cargo i s shown, i n -vol v i n g 28 operations.and 19 waits. Each of the sections of the transportation process has a proper cost/time input and output aff e c t e d by i n t e r n a l p h y s i c a l set-up as w e l l as external factors including p o l i t i c a l and environmental influence. The p o s s i b i l i t y that various operations w i l l not be c a r r i e d out at t h e i r optimum conditions increases i n p r o b a b i l i t y as the number of operations i n -crease, and t h i s i n turn reduces e f f i c i e n c y and r e s u l t s i n increasing cost and time. The new developments i n shipping have given large reductions to the cost of shipping, both i n better performance at sea, and i n loading and unloading operations at the port. In both bulk movements and general cargo handling there have been changes which w i l l be described hereunder. (1) s General" Cargo The i n e f f i c i e n c y of t r a d i t i o n a l break-bulk port handling methods has led to the development of more e f f e c t i v e techniques. I n i t i a l l y p a l l e t s were introduced as a base for supporting goods, which could be conveniently handled with f o r k - l i f t equipment. With the greater m o b i l i t y a v a i l a b l e using such methods i t was more e f f i c i e n t to handle goods of the same type, and t h i s marked the f i r s t step toward unit handling of cargoes. © 1 ORIGIN (SHIPPER) RECEIPT (CONSIGNEE) PACKAGE 1 SHIPPER I I T IITI2 i UNPACKAGE Q CONSIGNEE UN I TIZE SHORT HAUL UN ITIZE © T FORWARDER I LONG HAUL I Q FREIGHT i T IN in i I OEUNITIZE SHORT HAUL T OEUNITIZE (UNITIZE) JL T " •3r SHORT HAUL _L © FREIGHT FORWARDER [LONG HAUL] SHORT MAU. 80 r T STORE I f UNITIZE © SHIPPING COMPANY OPERATIONS i T STORE OEUNITIZE STORE _L . % -70 SYMBOLS O UNLOAD O LOAD X TRANSFER (CONVEYOR,, FORK LIFT) ZZ WAIT (STATIC) TIME COST LOAO ON TO SHIP I STOW | SHIP TRANSPORT "1 T OFFLOAD FROM SHIP JL g I Sequence for Shipment General Cargo 0 ©\ / © / © © PERCENTAGE OF TIME REQ. FOR PRODUCTIVE TRANSPORT, 28 OPERATIONS 19 WAITS Source: Frankel; Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 56. No, 4 (April 1968) 71 The p a l l e t - f o r k l i f t method of handling goods i s s t i l l p revalent i n many p o r t s , i n c l u d i n g the general cargo p i e r s of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board i n the Port of Vancouver, To a c e r t a i n extent i t has been replaced by u n i t i z e d cargo i n c o n t a i n e r s , which d i f f e r s from the previous o p e r a t i o n i n that the shipper may stow cargoes at the point of o r i g i n i n standard s i z e d containers which are then sealed u n t i l d e l i v e r e d to the consignee. The advantage of such a method over p a l l e t operations i s that container cargoes, which are l a r g e r than p a l l e t l o a d s , may be handled i n one l o a d i n g or unloading o p e r a t i o n from ship to shore;, from there the container may be transported by land to the p o i n t of consignment. The s i n g l e l o a d i n g o p e r a t i o n of a container reduces the number of movements and increases the r a t e of unloading, both of which c o n t r i b u t e to reduced s h i p p i n g c o s t s . The container i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t h i n metal box which d e r i v e s i t s s t r e n g t h from f o u r . v e r t i c a l . p o s t s connected t r a n s v e r s e l y and l o n g i t u d i n a l l y by r a i l s at the top and bottom. I t v a r i e s i n dimensions, although the 8 f t . by 8 f t . cross s e c t i o n i n lengths of m u l t i p l e s of 6 10 f t . up to 40 f t . has g e n e r a l l y been accepted. These dimensions a l l o w a high degree of f l e x i b i l i t y f o r l o a d i n g on r a i l w a y cars.and highway t r u c k t r a i l e r s , as w e l l as s h i p s . The maximum s i z e c o n t a i n e r , 40 f e e t l o n g , has a gross loaded weight of 67,200 l b s . (30 long t o n s ) , w h i l e the smaller s i z e s are pro-p o r t i o n a t e l y l i g h t e r . The normal container i s closed and sealed i n John C. K o s t i e r , Norman H. T i l s l e y , Container•Guide3 London: N a t i o n a l Magazine Co. L t d . , 1969, p. 11, 21. shipment, to reduce p i l f e r a g e , but s p e c i a l c o n t a i n e r s have been designed w i t h open tops f o r c a r r y i n g machinery and some bulk goods. Other containers i n c l u d e mechanical r e f r i g e r a t i o n , or are i n s u l a t e d and c o n t a i n a r e f r i g e r a n t to keep the cargo c h i l l e d w h i l e i n shipment. The wide a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n t a i n e r s and t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y to a v a r i e t y of general cargoes suggests that they may e v e n t u a l l y be used f o r handling the m a j o r i t y of general cargoes. Estimates on the degree of c o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n p o s s i b l e d i f f e r , but vary from 60 per cent to 85 per c e n t . 7 ' 8 ' 9 Containers are designed to be stocked up to four h i g h i n the h o l d of a s h i p , supported by the corner posts of the lower c o n t a i n e r s . The v e s s e l s f o r c a r r y i n g these containers are of s p e c i a l design, e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of c e l l s 8 f e e t wide and 40 f e e t l o n g , w i t h v e r t i c a l guides at the corners. Because of the need f o r v e r t i c a l access to a l l c e l l s , and f o r unobstructed top decks f o r l o a d i n g , the container s h i p d i f f e r s from the general cargo sh i p w i t h i t s more l i m i t e d hatches, and p r o l i f e r a t i o n of equipment on the top deck. On t h i s account the s t r u c t u r e of the ships d i f f e r , the container s h i p u s u a l l y r e q u i r i n g bulkheads at f o r t y - f o o t i n t e r v a l s . E. G. F r a n k e l , op. c i t . 3 p. 712 g Bank of Montreal, Business Review, August 29, 1969, p. 2, 9 John T. McCullough, "The Impact of C o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n on the World's P o r t s , " The I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of P o r t s and Harbours, Proceedings of the Fifth Conference3 196?3 Tokyo: The I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of P o r t s and Harbours, 1967, p. 264. The f u l l range of container v e s s e l s , shown i n Figure 10, i s l a r g e , but the m a j o r i t y of containers i n t r a n s i t today are p a r t i a l c ontainer c a r r i e r s . 1 0 These c a r r i e r s u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of a general cargo ship converted f o r c a r r i a g e of containers i n some h o l d s , or on deck. The v e s s e l designed f o r e x c l u s i v e container use i s expensive, c o s t i n g from $6 to $10 m i l l i o n , and more than double the cost of conventional f r e i g h t e r s of the same tonnage. 1 1 The handling of conta i n e r s has e i t h e r been by shipboard g a n t r i e s or by dock-based cranes, although current usage tends to 12 favour land-based unloading devices. The crane t a c k l e i s o f t e n equipped w i t h s e l f - l e v e l l i n g devices to ensure that the container remains l e v e l w h i l e being t r a n s f e r r e d from ship to shore. The advantages and disadvantages of conta i n e r s are tabu l a t e d i n Table 13. The p r i n c i p a l advantage, the high l o a d i n g and unloading r a t e , r e s u l t s i n greater v e s s e l time at sea* claimed to be 85 per cent as against 40 per cent f o r a conventional cargo v e s s e l . With such u t i l i z a t i o n i t i s claimed that l e s s than 60 container berths could be used to handle 82 per cent of the general cargo of the United States overseas t r a d e , as compared to s e v e r a l thousand general cargo 14 p i e r s now i n use i n that country. I t i s f u r t h e r claimed that w i t h 1 0 E . G. F r a n k e l , op. oit., p. 721. 1 1Bank of Montreal, op. cit., p. 1. 12 E. G. F r a n k e l , op. ext., p. 724, 13 John C. K o s t i e r , Norman H. Ti l s l e y , . o p . cvt., p. 712 14 E. G. F r a n k e l , op. cit., p. 712. C O N T A I N S SHIPS CONVENTIONAL DISPLACEMENT HULLS NOVEL SHIP FOAMS CONTAINER CARBYI N G SHIPS TRAILER CARRIERS BARGE CARRYING SHIPS SEGMENTED SHIPS CATAMARAN TYPE SHIPS COMBINATION LIFT ON-RO-RO RO-RO SHIP BARGE LIFT O N BARGE FLOAT O N MULTIPLE CONTAINER SHIP SEGMENTS BARGE-TUG COMBINATION DISPLACEMENT CATA\ \ARAN SEMI SUBMERGED CATAMARAN FULL CONTAINER SHIPS PARTIAL CONTAINER SHIPS CONVERTIBLE CONTAINER SHIPS SHIPS WITH SPECIAL DECK FITTINGS GENERAL CARGO SHIPS HINGED SHIPS tic c o u SEGM SH 6LV PIEO EN TED IPS PUSH TOW TOW 10 I Classification of Container Ships RIGIDLY HINGE COUPLED COUPLED Source: Frankel; Proceedings of the IEEE Vol.56, No. 4 (April 1968) 75 TABLE 13 CONTAINERIZATION 15 Advantages Disadvantages Speed-up of loading and unloading. Pro t e c t i o n against p i l f e r a g e . Protection against damage. Lower Insurance rates. Cheaper packaging of cargo. Reduced documentation r e -quired. Reduced number of package handling. Provices temporary protected storage. M o d i f i c a t i o n of external c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of cargo for easier handling. Cargo handling i n a l l weather, Easier stowage. E f f e c t i v e stow planning. Cargo handling while ship on feeder, not i n port. Cost,of containers. Tare weight of containers. Loss of cubage of containers. Cost of returning empties. Heavy gear requirement. Labour p r a c t i c e s . Fixed volume not always optimum usable s i z e . Part load problem. Container routing and handling. Container los s and damage. E. G. Frankel, op. ait., p. 721. such improvement i n vessel use, one container ship may replace four conventional cargo s h i p s , ^ U t i l i z i n g t r a d i t i o n a l cargo ships, 60 to 75 per cent of the cost of transporting cargo by sea i s accounted f o r at the dock side. By making use of containers the pi^er to p i e r costs, as well as packaging costs are reduced markedly. In an example inv o l v i n g ship and truck transportation of containers, the t o t a l costs were,reduced from $50 to $30 per measurement t o n . * 7 The widespread advantages claimed i n container usage have not 18 met with such extensive acceptance i n the Port of Vancouver. One of the unfavourable aspects i n t h i s port i s the large imbalance of imports over exports of general cargo, and the consequent problem of. returning large numbers of empty containers. Another point i s that while p i l f e r a g e of small l o t s . o f cargoes have been c u r t a i l e d , p i l f e r -age of whole containers has been known to occur. A further point i s the high cost of r a i l equipment f o r handling containers, and the l i m i t e d use of t h i s equipment. However, the d e c i s i o n of the National Harbours Board to con-s t r u c t a container terminal scheduled to commence operation i n May, 1970, i n d i c a t e s that the use of containers has been recognized i n the "^John C . K o s t i e r , Norman H. T i l s l e y , op, eit>3 p. 21, 1 7 A l f r e d H, K i e l and P h i l i p Mandel, op. ait., p. 519 (Fig. 11). 18 J . M, Rienstra, Port Development and Planning in the Lower Mainland3 Speech to Vancouver Branch, I n s t i t u t e of Public Administra-t i o n of Canada, Vancouver, January 28, 1970, 77 Port of Vancouver, The cost of t h i s f a c i l i t y i s approximately $5 m i l l i o n and i s estimated to have a through-put of between 40,000 and 19 50,000 conta i n e r s per annum by 1973, (2) Bulk Loading The same economies that were evident i n the shipping of goods by container are a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n movement of goods i n bulk q u a n t i t i e s . Moreover, the movement towards l a r g e r v e s s e l s i z e s and increased cargoes has been spearheaded by the bulk cargo v e s s e l . While the movement of goods i n bulk q u a n t i t i e s i s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h g r a i n and petroleum products, other goods may a l s o be handled i n , t h i s f a s h i o n . Included are many minerals and ore s , food-s t u f f s (sugar, molasses), as w e l l as f u e l s that are l i q u i f i e d and transported at very low temperatures, such as methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Bulk cargo can then i n c l u d e many commodities, and i s defined i n one source as a "homogeneous cargo c a r r i e d without any form of. 20 packaging, and not capable of being handled by s l i n g s . " Of the t o t a l world ocean-borne s h i p p i n g , the m a j o r i t y i s c a r r i e d i n bulk cargoes, although the values of these cargoes are p r o p o r t i o n -a t e l y s m a l l e r . In the United States i n 1966, 88 per cent of the tonnage of the f o r e i g n t r a d e , but only 32 per cent of the value was 21 c a r r i e d by bulk movers. One of the l a r g e bulk commodities, petroleum, 19 National Harbours Board: Vancouver Harbour, c i r c u l a r issued by N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Vancouver, no date. 20 R. B. Oram, op. cvt„, p, 118, 2Alfred H, K e i l , P h i l i p Mandel, op, cit., p. 515. i s moving i n vessels of e s p e c i a l l y large s i z e and deep draughts. In the ships of most recent design, 300,000 dwt., the lengths have reached 1,200 feet and the draughts have.increased to 65 f e e t , while projected designs for 500,000 dwt. require a length of 1,300 feet and^ 22 a draught of 85 f e e t . Bulk cargoes, because of t h e i r homogeneous q u a l i t y , are adaptable to movement on or o f f the v e s s e l by s p e c i a l equipment such as conveyors, p i p e l i n e s , or air-pressure ;devices that w i l l transfer the cargo from the v e s s e l to a c o l l e c t i n g point. With such methods replacing break-bulk loading, i t i s not always necessary to have the c o l l e c t i o n point near the v e s s e l . Often a more.optimum loading point i s located some distance inland where land access i s more s u i t a b l e , and where land does not command the same premium that i t does at the waterfront. A disadvantage of bulk cargo movement i s the high cost of s p e c i a l i z e d equipment, the lack of f l e x i b i l i t y of - a s i n g l e purpose v e s s e l , contrasting with the tramp steamer and i t s wide v a r i a t i o n i n cargoes, and the back-haul problem. While on occasion bulk vessels 23 have been adapted for return movements, such cases are l i m i t e d by the p o s s i b i l i t y of f i n d i n g a route adaptable for haulage i n both d i r e c t i o n s . 'Alfred H. K e i l , P h i l i p Mandel, op. cit,, p. 521 (Fig. 13). ^Ibidc, p. 515. 79 (3) Other Shipping Innovations In a d d i t i o n to movements of bulk commodities and general cargoes,by s p e c i a l v essels, new methods have been designed for s p e c i a l conditions. One of these, LASH ( l i g h t e r aboard s h i p ) , involves the ocean carriage of a preloaded l i g h t e r , l i f t e d out of or discharged into the waters of the harbour. The use of LASH i s e f f e c t i v e where dock congestion i s high, and where the l i g h t e r may be loaded i n shallow water away from the dock. It i s also e f f e c t i v e i n harbours having l i m i t e d draught f o r deepsea v e s s e l s , often located at r i v e r estuaries. The p r o b a b i l i t y of employing such a system i n the Port of Vancouver i s 24 not considered high. Other techniques such as commercial submarines and a i r cushion ve h i c l e s have been proposed but have not yet proved f e a s i b l e f o r the conveyance of large tonnages. Future research and development w i l l decide i f these c a r r i e r s w i l l take t h e i r place alongside the conven-t i o n a l displacement h u l l . (4) Passenger T r a f f i c The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of passenger t r a v e l have changed considerably over the past decade, as scheduled trans-oceanic voyages have l o s t ground to the a i r l i n e s . As a r e s u l t passenger v e s s e l runs have changed from competitive trans-oceahic passages to cruise t r i p s , catering to a more - a f f l u e n t ; c l i e n t e l e and r e q u i r i n g a higher l e v e l of service. Interview with Mr. J.S. Wood, Swan Wooster Engineering Co., Ltd., February 11, 1970. This emphasis on service i s in fact a major point that w i l l require consideration when new passenger terminals are built or renovated. The new terminals w i l l not only be generally smaller, but more compact and designed for more sophisticated standards. Airports have responded to their passenger needs by providing lounges, dining-rooms, cocktail lounges, specialty shops and restaurants; and ports could follow this example. However, as cruise travel i s largely seasonal, the.terminal f a c i l i t i e s require a measure of f l e x i b i l i t y to meet these seasonal fluctuations, especially in terms of the v i s i t o r s , cars, buses, and taxis that require access to the terminal. (5) The Vessel Size Race A leading question arising out of the trend toward increasing ship sizes concerns i t s e l f with the outcome of this movement and the eventual size of vessels. This question may be approached from the viewpoint of the ship owner, as well as that of the dock authority concerned with land f a c i l i t i e s . A further point of view i s that of the public which comes into play i f matters of public concern are raised. From the point of view of the ship owner the objective i s to provide the most efficient movement. If the demand exists, then the inherent economies resulting from larger vessel sizes w i l l come into play, On the other hand, the harbour authority must provide channels, wharfage, and loading f a c i l i t i e s to accommodate these vessels and their cargoes, at considerable cost. A r a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n to the v e s s e l s i z e race would be based upon minimum t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , i n which the economies of t r a n s p o r t i n g goods i n l a r g e s i z e v e s s e l s would be c o u n t e r v a i l e d by the high cost of f a c i l i t i e s , as w e l l as a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the q u a n t i t y of cargoes demanded. A f u r t h e r matter m i t i g a t i n g against l a r g e v e s s e l s and cargoes i s the t h r e a t of p o l l u t a n t s escaping from shipwrecked v e s s e l s , l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n increased insurance r a t e s f o r these c a r r i e r s . C o n t r i b u t -i n g to the r i s k of shipwreck i s the r e l a t i v e l y low maneuverability of a l a r g e v e s s e l . For example, i f a 1,000 f t . 200,000 ton tanker i s s c a l e d down to a model 40 f t . l o n g , the corresponding power i s reduced 25 to one-half horsepower. At present the world's l a r g e s t ship i s an o i l tanker a t 326,000 26 tons i n the, s e r v i c e of,the Gulf O i l Corporation and f u t u r e plans c a l l f o r even l a r g e r ships of 500,000 tons. One source estimates that v e s s e l c a p a c i t i e s w i l l not exceed 1,000,000 tons, r e q u i r i n g a ship 1,640 f e e t l o n g , 274 f e e t i n breadth, w i t h a draught of 100 f e e t . 2 7 For general cargo v e s s e l s the c a p a c i t i e s are very much s m a l l e r , and 28 29 seem to be s t a b i l i z i n g at about 30,000 tons ' due to higher value 25 A l f r e d H . K e i l , P h i l i p Mandel, op, c ^ t . J p. 515. 26 Engineering Journal, V o l . 53, No. 2 (February, 1970), p. 35, 27 John T. McCullough, op. ctt*3 p. 264*. 28 R. B. Oram, op, e i t , , p^ 120, 29 Interview w i t h Mr. J . S, Wood, Swan Wooster Engineering Co. L t d . , February 11, 1970. 82 and more l i m i t e d market of the commodites c a r r i e d . B. PORT SITE REQUIREMENTS The preceeding s e c t i o n s have o u t l i n e d the trends i n sea-borne c a r r i e r s i n response to increased s h i p p i n g flows and competition. As a r e s u l t "super" dimension v e s s e l s have emerged, f i r s t on the drawing board, then on the seas. At the general cargo l e v e l the volumes do not approach those of bulk cargoes, and v e s s e l s i z e s have not increased i n the same p r o p o r t i o n . Nevertheless, s u b s t a n t i a l innovations have been devised i n the form of u n i t i z e d cargoes, i n -c l u d i n g p a l l e t s and c o n t a i n e r s . This s e c t i o n w i l l proceed from the above d i s c u s s i o n to that of the land f a c i l i t i e s r e q u ired to accommodate these v e s s e l s and t h e i r cargoes, as w e l l as the land t r a n s p o r t r e q u i r e d i n transshipment. In t h i s accommodation the purpose of the s i t e w i l l govern the design, and thus an i n i t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n must be made.between f a c i l i t i e s f o r bulk movement and those f o r general cargo. The s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the land requirements i s the b e r t h , which must be planned i n accordance w i t h v e s s e l charac-30 t e r i s t i c s . Various types of shi p b e r t h i n g f a c i l i t i e s are i n use, Peter Engelmann, "Changing S i t e Requirements f o r Port Opera-t i o n s , " Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division, American S o c i e t y of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 84, WW4, Proc. Paper 1769 (September 1958), p. 1769-2. which may be c l a s s i f i e d as p i e r s , wharves, offshore berths, ship wharves, and f e r r y s l i p s . For the purpose of t h i s chapter the 31 following d e f i n i t i o n s have been adopted: P i e r - a structure extending outward at an angle from the shore into navigable waters normally permitting the berthing of vessels on both sides along i t s e n t i r e length. o Wharf - a structure extending p a r a l l e l with the shore l i n e , connected to the shore at more than one point (usually with continuous connection) and providing i n most cases, berthing at the outshore face of the structure only. Offshore berths consist of breasting and mooring dolphins.and are heavily constructed to withstand greater wave forces than e x i s t i n the harbour. Ship wharves and f e r r y s l i p s are used for bow and stern loading but t h e i r use i s not widespread, because of l i m i t a t i o n to vessels within a s p e c i f i c s i z e . P i e r s and wharves are both commonly used in,harbours. The p i e r s permit bow, stern, and side loading, while wharves are o r d i n a r i l y only s u i t a b l e f or side loading. Despite such l i m i t a t i o n s , the wharf, The American A s s o c i a t i o n of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, Port Design and Construction, Washington: The American,Institute of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1964, p. 13. or marginal wharf as i t i s o f t e n c a l l e d , i s c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v i n g greater use because of g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y .and greater o p e r a t i o n a l 32 advantages f o r general cargo requirements,. 33 According to one source, the f o l l o w i n g minimum requirements are necessary to provide adequate space f o r b e r t h i n g and mooring v e s s e l s : Length - length of v e s s e l p l u s beam, Width - width of v e s s e l p l u s 100 f e e t ( f o r tug maneuvering, Depth - loaded draught of v e s s e l p l u s 4 f e e t . (1) Bulk Cargo The bulk movement f a c i l i t y i s now r e q u i r e d to r e c e i v e such l a r g e s h i p s that many of the world's harbours have i n s u f f i c i e n t 34 draught f o r the s u p e r c a r r i e r s . As a r e s u l t , o f f - s h o r e berths have been constructed which a l l o w the v e s s e l to t i e up at moorage some di s t a n c e from shore and discharge i t s cargo. The method of-discharge 32 Walter P. Heddon, Mission: Port Development, Washington: The American A s s o c i a t i o n of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1967, p. 13. 33 Howard J . Marsden, "Shoreside F a c i l i t i e s f o r S p e c i a l Purpose Ships," Journal of the Waterways and Harbours'Division, American S o c i e t y of C i v i l E ngineering, V o l . 83, WW2, Proc. Paper 1248 (May 1957), pp. 1248-4. 34 Leonard S. Oberman, " F u n c t i o n a l Planning of Bulk M a t e r i a l P o r t s , " Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division, American S o c i e t y of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 91, WW2, Proc. Paper 4310 (May 1965), p. 20. 85 i s o f t e n by conveyor b e l t f o r dry bulk cargoes, and p i p e l i n e s i n the case of petroleum and other l i q u i d products. In a recent a r t i c l e an example i s c i t e d i n A u s t r a l i a of a conveyor b e l t used to discharge 35 c o a l to an o f f - s h o r e p o i n t some 2,000 f e e t out from the s h o r e l i n e . The design of areas f o r conveyance and storage of cargoes f o r of f - s h o r e moorage i s d i c t a t e d by the type of cargo, as w e l l as l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and no general standards have been formulated, although i t may be s a i d that the area r e q u i r e d i s l e s s than that f o r general 36 cargoes and r e q u i r e s l e s s wharfagei The storage f a c i l i t i e s need not be at ..the w a t e r f r o n t , and are o f t e n more s u i t a b l y l o c a t e d near, t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n routes i n l a n d . In the case of s h i p s i d e l o a d i n g o p e r a t i o n s , a,large area i s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r storage i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the s h i p . I f the bulk commodity i s transported by u n i t t r a i n , the use of an unloading loop reduces cost c o n s i d e r a b l y by a l l o w i n g the t r a i n to remain i n t a c t , without the n e c e s s i t y of uncoupling and shunting. The minimum rad i u s of such a loop i s 350 f e e t , and w i t h t r a i n s of 100 c a r s , each car being 50 f e e t l o n g , the re q u i r e d area i s 5,000 feet,by 700 f e e t , or approx-37 imately 80 acres. An a l t e r n a t i v e arrangement without the r a i l loop would r e q u i r e l e s s area. In t h i s case the economies of l o a d i n g and unloading would be foregone i n . f a v o u r of lower land c o s t s . 35 Leonard S. Oberman, op. citi , p. 20. 36 Walter P. Heddon, .op. e i t , 3 p. 13. 37 Leonard S. Oberman, op. c%t«3 p. 25. Modes of land transport of cargoes are s t i l l l a r g e l y by r a i l -ways for long hauls, although they have been superseded by truck transportation f o r shorter t r i p s . On a ton-mile basis the cost of r a i l movement has been given as two cents, as opposed to four cents 38 for truck transport, although factors such as length of haul w i l l modify these f i g u r e s . The development of the unit t r a i n has enabled many economies to be affected i n r a i l operation through greater u t i l i z a t i o n and lower loading and unloading costs. As an example i t has been estimated that present f r e i g h t costs on bulk commodities between P r a i r i e points and the West Coast could be reduced from 25 per cent to 40 per cent 39 with the inauguration of a unit t r a i n s e r v i c e . (2) General Cargo For a general cargo f a c i l i t y the vessel c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are again a determinant governing the design of marine terminals. Be-cause general cargo vessels have not expanded to the same dimensions of bulk v e s s e l s , nearly a l l general cargo berths provide f o r the ship tying up at ...a wharf or p i e r adjoining the handling and storage area. Various lengths have been suggested f o r berths of vessels handling John L. Eyre, The Seventies at Sea, a paper presented to the Canadian I n d u s t r i a l T r a f f i c League, February 20, 1969, p. 9. 39 • . ' F. C. Leighton, A Brief on.Development Problems of the Greater Vancouver Port Area3 March 7, 1966, p. 10. 40 41 42 containers and general cargo ranging from 604 feet to 850 f e e t . ' ' Aside from the v e s s e l berth, the general cargo terminal must 43 accommodate•the following operations: 1. T r a n s i t area i n c l u d i n g t r a n s i t handling and t r a n s i t storage of cargo, 2. Access for means of land transportation, 3. Long term storage of cargo. 4. A u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s , such as administration, parking f i e l d s , maintenance shops and personnel f a c i l i t i e s . Of these four components, the most d i f f i c u l t area to s p e c i f y q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i s that for t r a n s i t handling and t r a n s i t storage operation. The l a t t e r area i s that space required for storage i n the i n t e r v a l between unloading from the ship and pick-up.by land transport, while the t r a n s i t handling area i s that part required for a i s l e s , aprons, loading platforms, roadway and railway tracks. Studies have shown that the t r a n s i t area, comprised of both the t r a n s i t handling and t r a n s i t storage area, requires from 2 to 9 acres 40 The American Association of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, op. ait,, p. 21. 41 Charles L, Vickers, "Containerization 1967," The-Internation-a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Ports and Harbours, Proceedings of the Fifth Conference, 1967, Toyko: The International Association of Ports and Harbours, 1967, p. 120. 42 J . M. Rienstra, op. c i t , 43 Peter Engelmann, op. ext., pp. 1769-3. 44 per b e r t h . . The- area r e q u i r e d i s dependent upon the design c a p a c i t y , i n the range of 56 to 300 tons per foot of be r t h per year. The depth of the back-up land has been given i n one source as from 300 to 500 45 46 f e e t , w h i l e i n another a depth of 480 f e e t i s given. The second o p e r a t i o n , access f o r land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , must pro-v i d e space f o r r a i l w a y cars and trucks to take goods.from, the t r a n s i t storage area to r a i l w a y and highway routes. The p r o v i s i o n of r a i l f a c i l i t i e s i s sometimes unnecessary i n the case of ports handling cargoes l a r g e l y of l o c a l o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n . Railway f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e h e a v i e r supporting s t r u c t u r e s , and the r a i l handling operation i s l i k e l y to i n t e r f e r e w i t h other t r a f f i c . The n e c e s s i t y of p r o v i d i n g space f o r long term storage of cargo 47 at the marine t e r m i n a l i s questioned i n some r e p o r t s , i n which i t i s recommended t h a t . t h i s space could be p r o v i d e d - i n l a n d , and al l o w more turnover of goods at the t e r m i n a l . In the same manner c e r t a i n admin-i s t r a t i v e f a c i l i t i e s , not r e q u i r i n g personal contact w i t h the wharf, could be l o c a t e d some distance away. The t o t a l area r e q u i r e d for. .such..berths..has again-been s p e c i -f i e d i n s e v e r a l sources. . Engelmann, i n 1958., recommended s i x to e i g h t ^ W a l t e r : P'. Heddbn,op. ''dit. , p. 20. 45 Walter^Pv^Heddon* loo. ovt. 46 PefcermEngelmann^op,. -giU.3;;.p:. 51769-5. 47: B. Nagorski, "Lay-out of P o r t , F a c i l i t i e s " , The Book and Harbour Authority, V o l . XLIV, No. 512 (June 1963) and V o l . XLIV, No. 513 ( J u l y 1963). acres per berth for a l l operations except long term storage. More recent publications have exceeded this standard and the general figure recommended today is 20 acres.^ The remaining consideration for marine terminals is that of equipment, of which the most important single item is the crane for unloading containers. To unload the largest containers (8 feet by 8 feet by 40 feet) a crane having a l i f t i n g capacity of 67,200 pounds 51 52 (30 long tons) is needed. ' While the controversy.over ship-based or pier-based unloading f a c i l i t i e s is long standing, the preva-lence of recommendations in favour of pier-based cranes indicates the trend. From another aspect, the competition between ports has required the installation of land-based cranes i f that port is to remain competitive. Peter :Engelmann,; loc, cit. 49 Ir. F. Posthuma, "Impact on Port Development.of Modern Trends in Ship Design", The International Association of Ports and Harbors, 'Proceeding of the Fifth Conference, 1967, Tokyo: The International Association of Ports and Harbors, 1967, p. 178. ^0J:teMr;l:R±en<s/trat?iDp. cit. 51 HohhiCV;,Kdstier-,',N©]rmaii'/-H._. Tdlsliey, op. cit., p. 11. 52 .lars LF:.iiiPos(thuma'4,'iop,. gci'tlg. p. 178. 90 C. FUTURE TRENDS The s e c t i o n on future trends i s i n c l u d e d at t h i s p o i n t to supply a background to the study, and to impart to the reader the con-ception that as expansion takes p l a c e , an a n a l y s i s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l serve as a guide from which the impact of f u t u r e development may be gauged. The s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n world ocean borne trade were men-tioned i n the preceding p a r t s of t h i s chapter. In Canada the volume of maritime s h i p p i n g has shown a corresponding growth, and the P a c i f i c Coast and the Port of Vancouver have shared i n t h i s growth. C o n t r i b -u t i n g to the i n c r ease are . the exports, of a g r i c u l t u r a l and m i n e r a l products, as a r e s u l t of.which Vancouver.is now t h e . p r i n c i p a l o u t l e t f o r Canada's g r a i n , handling 40 per cent of .the exports i n . t h e 1964-53 1965 crop year. , In a d d i t i o n , an-increasing-demand f o r f u e l and m i n e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g c o a l , sulphur, potash-and propane has accentuated the volume of s h i p p i n g . : Most.of the e s t a b l i s h e d export flows have been maintained, and pulp and paper have shown l a r g e r i n c r e a s e s . M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, now approaching a p o p u l a t i o n of a m i l l i o n , i s expected to reach 1.3 m i l l i o n i n a n o t h e r decade^ as shown i n Table 14.. This increase i n population,-and the increased purchasing power, w i l l augment the demand f o r consumer goods, much of which i s " Charles N. Forward, .Waterfront. Land Use in Metropolitan Van-couver, British Columbia, Geographical Paper No. 41, Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968, p. 26. imported as general cargo from overseas p o i n t s . In c o n t r a s t to the marked imbalance of exports of n a t u r a l resources over imports, the imports of general cargo exceed the exports. Such c o n d i t i o n s might be expected to h o l d i n a country w i t h l a r g e reserves of m i n e r a l s , f o r e s t and a g r i c u l t u r a l products, and w i t h a scanty p o p u l a t i o n . The increases i n trade o c c u r r i n g as a r e s u l t of these growing export demands, and the growing consumer, market are shown i n Figure 11 54 and i n Table 15, from i n f o r m a t i o n prepared i n 1966. The p r e d i c t i o n s are f o r a doubling of shipping volumes i n the next decade, correspon-ding to an approximate annual i n c r e a s e of 7 per cent -per year. This f i g u r e c l o s e l y conforms w i t h preductions f o r world ocean borne t r a d e , which p r e d i c t a 7.7 per cent annual r i s e i n the decade of the 1970's and a 5*2 per cent annual increase i n the f o l l o w i n g decade. Estimates of c a p a c i t y at the w a t e r f r o n t , a r e i n c l u d e d i n the p r o j e c t i o n s , and are shown i n Table 16. While the t o t a l 1968 c a p a c i t y was adequate f o r the t o t a l flows of that year, i t i s seen that some of the i n d i v i d u a l f a c i l i t i e s were beyond, ca p a c i t y .for that year. I t i s evident that more :port t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be needed i n the next decade i f the p r o j e c t e d shipments are to be handled. In a d d i t i o n to waterfrontage, the major component of expanded terminals i s adequate "back-up" land. .. Container s i t e s are now being s p e c i f i e d 54 B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , Vancouver Harbour Traffic Trends and Facility Analysis, Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , 1967, p. 2, 5. 55Aifred,.;HrdKeilcSpPh±-lip.,Mand6l$ jptiffriA. 6)p. 516 (Figure 6 ) . Total Harbour Deepsea Cargo Bulk (non grain) "Out . Grain Out 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 111 I P ° r t o f V a n c ° u v e r Deepsea Cargo Tonnage - 1955-85 Source 1955-65 NHB data 1965-85 BCRC estimate 93 TABLE 14 POPULATION PROJECTIONS, 1966-1986. CITY AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1966 1968 1971 1976 1981 1986 C i t y of Vancouver Metro Vancouver 384,522 892,384 410,375 972,467 435,000 1,026,000 458,000 1,169,000 480,000 1,335,000 500,000 1,524,000 Source: Department of Municipal A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, TABLE 15 PREDICTED CARGO TONNAGE, PORT OF VANCOUVER 1965-1985 (MILLION OF SHIPPING TONS) 1965 1968 1970 1975 1980 1985 Grain 4.9 6,1 7.0 9.4 11.4 13.0 Bulk out (non-grain) 2.8 5.2 7.4 14.0 19.0 23.0 Bulk i n 0.7 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.9 2.4 Lumber 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.3 2.6 Pulp, Paper 0.1 0.2 0.4 1.0 1.2 1.5 General Cargo 1,3 1.8 1.9 2.3 2.8 3.5 Tot a l 11.3 15.9 19.7 30.7 38.6 46.0 Source: National Harbours Board Data B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council estimate. TABLE 16 PORT OF VANCOUVER TONNAGE AND CAPACITY (MILLION OF SHIPPING TONS) Tonnage 1968 Capacity 1968 Grain 6,1 7.0 Bulk Cut (non-grain) 5.2 12.0 Bulk In •1.0 ample Lumber 1.6 1.4 Other General 2.0 1.9 Source: National Harbours Board Data B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council estimates. 94 as 20 acres per b e r t h , and recent terminals have been constructed on 120 acre s i t e s . S i m i l a r l y bulk l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s u t i l i z i n g u n i t t r a i n s r e q u i r e about 80 acres. Port c a p a c i t i e s have become a concern of the Asian c o u n t r i e s anxious to maintain an adequate flow of raw m a t e r i a l s . In a recent meeting a prominent Japanese i n d u s t r i a l i s t , Tadayoshi Yamada, r e f e r -red to the Port of Vancouver when he s a i d . " P o r t c a p a c i t i e s may become 5 6 a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n the economic growth of Western Canada." D. TRANSPORTATION.NETWORK (1) Railways I n i t i a l l y the waterfront users were served by the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, which l i e s c l o s e . t o the whole southern edge of Burrard I n l e t . Because t h i s r a i l w a y had precedence i n l o c a t i o n , subsequent l i n e s were at a disadvantage i n not being able to serve the water f r o n t d i r e c t l y , but had to r e l y on the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company f o r s w i t c h i n g t h e i r cars to water f r o n t custom-e r s . The Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways and the Great Northern Railway have l i m i t e d access to the wa t e r f r o n t using a Great Northern Railway l i n e extending n o r t h e r l y from.the r a i l w a y yards at the east end of F a l s e Creek, and c r o s s i n g the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway at Campbell Avenue. Using t h i s l i n e , , the Canadian National-Railways has access Vancouver Express,..April 14., 1970. to . the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board p i e r s , and has j o i n t access w i t h the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to most of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board e l e v a t o r s . The Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways has extensive trackage at North Vancouver on the north shore of Burrard I n l e t , where i t j o i n s w i t h the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway, s e r v i n g the c e n t r a l and northern s e c t i o n s of the province. U n t i l 1967 t h i s trackage was only a c c e s s i b l e by using the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l i n e between Campbell Avenue and the Second Narrows, from there s w i t c h i n g onto the Second Narrows Railway Bridge. However, i n 1967 the Canadian.National Railways com-p l e t e d a new l i n e p r o v i d i n g a l i n k between the Great Northern l i n e i n Burnaby and the north shore,, by means of a new tunnel and b r i d g e , shown i n Figure 12. This bridge replaced the e a r l i e r Second Narrows Railway B r i d g e , mentioned above. At the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways l i n e w i t h the e x i s t i n g Canadian P a c i f i c Railway t r a c k s , the two l i n e s are grade separated, and no d i r e c t r a i l con-n e c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . As a r e s u l t the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l i n k w i t h the no r t h shore .is severed, save by a c i r c u i t o u s route by way of Port Coquitlam and New W e s t m i n s t e r 7 The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i s s t i l l the dominant c a r r i e r i n me t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, handling about.55 per-cent of the ca r s . The Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways i s the second l a r g e s t w i t h about.30 per cent, w h i l e the Great Northern and P a c i f i c Great Eastern account f o r ^7E:.'' C. Leighton,,'.dp. oitl., p. 12. v the remaining movements. (2) Highways The highways s e r v i n g the study area and CBD are shown i n Figure 12. The CBD l i e s g e n e r a l l y along Burrard and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s , to the n o r t h of F a l s e Creek, w i t h the more i n t e n s i v e development i n the n o r t h e r l y p a r t . I t i s the major s i n g l e generator of t r a f f i c flows from other p a r t s of the c i t y and from the north shore. Of the o r i g i n s of CBD t r a f f i c , approximately 55 per cent enters from.the east, 30 per cent from the south, 5 per cent from the West End (between Burrard, S t r e e t and Stanley P a r k ) , and 10 per cent comes from the north shore 59 over the Lions Gate Bridge at the F i r s t Narrows of B u r r a r d . I n l e t . As a r e s u l t of the u n i q u e - l o c a t i o n - o f the CBD of Vancouver on a p e n i n s u l a l y i n g between F a l s e Creek and Burrard I n l e t , the flow of t r a f f i c e n t e r i n g or l e a v i n g the CBD from-the east i s concentrated i n t o the narrow neck of land between F a l s e Creek and Borrard I n l e t . In t h i s s e c t i o n the. main t r a f f i c s t r e e t s east of Main S t r e e t are P o w e l l , Hastings and.Prior S t r e e t s , and west of Main S t r e e t are Cordova or Powell S t r e e t s (one way .streets i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s ) H a s t i n g s , Pender•and Georgia S t r e e t s . T r a f f i c flows'along these s t r e e t s are a l l B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouver, Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , 1963, p. 2, 59 Interview w i t h Mr. Jack Hutchinson,. T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n , C i t y of Vancouver Engineering Department, June 3, 1969. h i g h , approximately 10,000 to 12,000 v e h i c l e s per 24-hour p e r i o d , and 60 about 5,000 to 6,000 v e h i c l e s i n the 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. i n t e r v a l . Due to the c o n s t r i c t e d entrance to the CBD, congestion along t h e . e n t e r i n g s t r e e t s i s h i g h l a n d average v e h i c l e speeds i n the peak hour seldom exceed 23mph. i n the peak p e r i o d s , as shown i n Figure 13. In the non-peak hours, the co n d i t i o n s are improved only s l i g h t l y , and average about 18mph. along.the main ro u t e s . I f t r a v e l along the i n t e r s e c t i n g s t r e e t s i s included then the o v e r a l l f i g u r e drops to about 61 15 mph. Thus the s t r e e t s a d j o i n i n g the major pa r t of the study area s u f f e r from congestion and over c a p a c i t y . E. EMPLOYMENT AND TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS In Chapter I I I , the waterfront.businesses were grouped i n t o land uses f o r purposes of t a b u l a t i o n i n t o the g e n e r a l - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s i t e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f l o w s , and f u t u r e p l a n s . Using-these same cate-g o r i e s of land use, f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n may be made of employment and s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and .of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements. (1) Employment Requirements and S p a t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Using the p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d . c a t e g o r i e s of land use i t was ^ V e h i c l e counts were obtained from the T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n , C i t y of Vancouver Engineering Department, March 11, 1970. "^*~V. Setty Pendakur, Peter Tassie and N e i l J . G r i g g s ^ M u l t i p l e Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada; Part II.:. Sooio-Economio and Transport Consequences, Vancouver: School of Community and Region-a l P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. October 1969, p. 50. p o s s i b l e to compute the area requirements per employee both i n terms of f l o o r area and s i t e area, shown i n Table 17. A d e f i n i t e trend i s shown i n which the space per employee i s very much higher at the terminals than they are at the p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . In t h i s l a t t e r category the f l o o r space per employee i s 469 square f e e t , not f a r above the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r the-Vancouver CBD of 325 62 square f e e t . G e n erally the working for c e employed w i t h i n the study area i s much l e s s i n t e n s i v e than i n the CBD. TABLE 17 EMPLOYEE SPACE REQUIREMENTS, STUDY AREA, 1969 Land Use . F l o o r Space per employee ( s q . f t . ) S i t e Area per employee ( s q . f t . ) Goods Terminals 1,680 14,400 Passenger Terminals 512 30,000 Marine S a l e s , S ervice & Repair 600 7,000 F i s h P r o c e s s i n g 613 2,800 Other P r o c e s s i n g 1,280 2,400 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 469 570 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November. 1969. While most.of the land uses appear to be randomly d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the study area, shown i n Figure 4, page 26, some patte r n s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n show up. The most apparent.of these i s i n the marine 62 P. 0. Roer, Memorandum Re. Access to Project 2003 C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, June 12, 1969. 101 s a l e s , s e r v i c e and r e p a i r category, i n which the businesses are l a r g e l y found i n the western p a r t . Half of the 14 users are s i t u a t e d between Burrard S t r e e t and Cardero S t r e e t , w h i l e the remainder are s c a t t e r e d throughout the study area. A s i m i l a r t r e n d . i s n o t i c e a b l e i n the p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n which f i v e of the s i x agencies are l o c a t e d i n the s e c t i o n between Burrard S t r e e t and Campbell Avenue. The passenger terminals r are a l s o l a r g e l y concentrated i n the.western p a r t , w i t h f i v e of the s i x s e r v i c e s s i t u a t e d west of Main S t r e e t . . As a r e s u l t , the three land uses of marine, s a l e s s e r v i c e and r e p a i r ; p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; and passenger te r m i n a l s are predominant-l y l o c a t e d i n the .western part of the study area. The remaining three land uses, goods t e r m i n a l s , f i s h p r o c e s s i n g , and other processing do not show any c l u s t e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but are mainly l o c a t e d east of Main S t r e e t . (2) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n With the data a v a i l a b l e from the questionnaire the c o r r e l a t i o n s of t r u c k t r i p s and t o t a l tonnage handled (by r a i l or truck) w i t h area and waterfrontage were obtained using the TRIP computer, c o n t r o l pro-gram. The r e s u l t i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n are shown i n Table 18, and g e n e r a l l y show a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between land tonnage and e i t h e r s i t e area or waterfrontage. The c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained would i n d i c a t e that r e g r e s s i o n equations may be developed from t h i s data to i n d i c a t e and p r e d i c t the. 102 r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s . However because the standard e r r o r s of estimate were so l a r g e the independent v a r i a b l e s were found to be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . A c c o r d i n g l y t h i s aspect of a n a l y s i s was discontinued and f u r t h e r use was made.of modes, number of t r i p s and tonnages by land use, not intended to be used as p r e d i c t o r s , but to i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s between land uses. . TABLE 18 COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION Land Use T o t a l Land Tonn.-/-Floor ,. Area T o t a l Land Tonn.-S i t e Area T o t a l Land Tonn.-Water-f ront Truck T r i p s -F l o o r Area Truck T r i p s -S i t e Area Truck Tri p s Water-frontage Goods Terminals .097 ! .7^ 98 .921 -.052 .095 -.186 F i s h Processing .001 .218 .424 -.038 .660 .470 Other Processing .470 .882 .908 .930 .660 .540 Source: . Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. (a) Modes Separation of the businesses i n t o land use, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 19, showed that s e v e r a l of the land uses had no need f o r r a i l access, and that others had minimal t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements. As might be expected goods terminals and processing p l a n t s made the maximum use of transpor-t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . 103 TABLE 19 AVERAGE MONTHLY TONNAGE PER USER BY MODE STUDY AREA 1969 Land Use R a i l (tons) T o t a l Monthly Rail.Tons Truck (tons) T o t a l Monthly Truck Tons Goods Terminals 20,220 222,400 4,283 47,100 Passenger Terminals 0 0 33 200 Marine S a l e s , Service, and.Repair 0 0 77 1,100 F i s h Processing 202 3,200 349 2,100 Other Processing 1,612 . 12,900 • 2,714 21,700 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 0 0 2 0 238,500 72,200 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey,. November 1969. (b) Number of Tr i p s Further a n a l y s i s of the ques t i o n n a i r e data was used to compute the average number of cargo t r i p s by land use, as an i n d i c a t i o n of r a i l and highway requirements. While the r e s u l t s , .shown i n Table 20, correspond to the trends shown i n Table 19, they do not e x h i b i t the wide ranges p r e v i o u s l y shown. (c) Tonnage The r a t i o s of tonnage handled to area f o r each of the land uses w i t h i n the. study area were computed from the ques t i o n n a i r e data. The r e s u l t i n g r a t i o s , the quotient of tonnage handled by e i t h e r r a i l or t r u c k , d i v i d e d by the area, are shown i n Table 21. The r a t i o f o r Goods Terminals i s about 30 per cent greater than f o r Other P r o c e s s i n g , 104 TABLE 20 AVERAGE MONTHLY TONNAGE TRIPS, STUDY AREA, 1969 R a i l T r i p s Truck T r i p s Land Use per acre per user no. of users t o t a l per acre per user t o t a l Goods Terminals 23.9 428 11 4,708 60.6 1,088 11,968 Passenger Terminals 0 0 6 0 6.4 11 66 Marine Sales Service & Repairs 0 0 14 0 33.8 94 1,316 F i s h Processing 2.5 . 16 6 96 56.7 362 2,172 Other Processing 12.5 53 8 424 73 310 2,480 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r . 0 0 6 0 55 15 90 5,228 18,092 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. and.about 16 times greater than F i s h P r o c e s s i n g , where l a r g e tonnages are handled by water. For P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n the r a t i o i s so low that i t would appear there i s l i t t l e to d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s land use from a.normal o f f i c e b u i l d i n g i n the.CBD. When the f i g u r e s of Table 21 are a p p l i e d against the water-frontage occupied by each land use, shown i n Table 2 (page 55), three major shippers account f o r over 99 per cent of the cargo tonnage shipped i n and out of the study area. These three c a t e g o r i e s are Goods Term-i n a l s , F i s h P r o c e s s i n g , and Other P r o c e s s i n g , and together they occupy 105 about 5/6 of the waterfrontage. Of these three major land uses the Goods Terminals predominate the study area, i n both waterfrontage occupied and throughput of goods. In waterfrontage they occupy 8,274 f e e t , or s l i g h t l y over h a l f of the t o t a l . In goods handled they account f o r about 87.per cent of the tonnage (Table 19), 90 per cent of,the r a i l t r i p s and 66 per cent of the truck t r i p s (Table 20). They are thus the major land use i n the study area i n s o f a r as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s concerned. TABLE 21 TONNAGE - AREA RATIOS,. STUDY AREA, 1969 Land Use Average Monthly Tonnage Per Acre R a i l Truck T o t a l Goods Terminals. 1,028 236 1,366 Passenger Terminals 0 19 0 Marine S a l e s , Service and Repair 0 3 3 F i s h Processing 32 55 87 Other Processing 380 637 1,017 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 0 4 4 Source: Waterfront Questionnaire Survey, November 1969. (3) D e s t i n a t i o n s of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n The preceding s e c t i o n showed that the Goods Terminals were the pre-eminent land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n user, and that -they accounted f o r the maj o r i t y of tonnage handled and cargo t r i p s by highway and 106 r a i l . I t was t h e r e f o r e considered that i n f o r m a t i o n on t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n s from the goods terminals would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the study area. The i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter segregated the.goods t e r m i n a l s , i n t o bulk f a c i l i t i e s and general cargo t e r m i n a l s . A n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s f o r the b u l k terminals i n the.study area showed that t h e i r land, shipments were almost e x c l u s i v e l y by r a i l from sources outside the province to d e s t i n a t i o n s outside the country. Aside from the working f o r c e , the urban dependency and i n t e r a c t i o n of these s i t e s i s minimal and t h e i r need f o r a l o c a t i o n c l o s e to the urban centre i s not acute. The other segregation of the goods t e r m i n a l s , the general cargo p i e r s , d e a l w i t h d i v e r s i f i e d commodities of a . d i f f e r e n t nature than the homogeneous cargoes handled at the b u l k - t e r m i n a l s . A n a l y s i s of. the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s revealed that movement of goods at these f a c i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d both highway and r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and that the sources and destinations,were not. as concentrated as w i t h bulk cargoes. While the q u e s t i o n n a i r e - r e v e a l e d general i n f o r m a t i o n on the d e r i v a t i o n and t e r m i n a t i o n of. products e n t e r i n g the,study area, i t d i d not y i e l d s p e c i f i c data to determine the o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s of land based t r a f f i c . To : uncover, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would have r e q u i r e d t a b u l a t i o n of the l a r g e number, of items .on the ship's manifests. I t was considered, however, that the m a j o r i t y , i f not a l l . o f the r a i l based t r a f f i c , would.be shipped out of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area, w h i l e most of the truck t r i p s would be w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, i n l i n e 107 w i t h the general economies of movement under these two modes. To.obtain i n f o r m a t i o n on truck t r i p s to and from the study area a second questionnaire was devised, to be administered at a general cargo p i e r , as t h i s f a c i l i t y was i n d i c a t i v e of t o t a l t r i p s i n the area. This q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a copy of which i s enclosed as Appendix I I I , requested i n f o r m a t i o n on the o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s of t r u c k s , the type and weight of t r u c k and cargo, and the times of entry and e x i t from the p i e r . This q u e s t i o n n a i r e was administered-to t r u c k e r s e n t e r i n g Cen-t e n n i a l P i e r , shown i n Figure 4 (page 26), on February 18, 1970. The entrance and e x i t procedures at t h i s p i e r , i n which a l l t r a f f i c r e -p o rts to a Gate House, l e n t themselves to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e from t h i s b u i l d i n g . During the day the sample ..was taken 320 trucks entered the p i e r , and out:of these 179 returns were r e c e i v e d , although some were not completely answered.. Consequently the sample represented 56 per cent of the t r u c k p o p u l a t i o n of that day, considered by the attendants to be t y p i c a l of most working days. In a d d i t i o n about 210 cars entered the p i e r , from which no i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d . The a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e returns showed that the dominant d i r e c t i o n of movement of goods i s away from the p i e r , con-t r a s t i n g w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b u l k cargo t e r m i n a l s , i n which the p r e v a i l i n g d i r e c t i o n of land based cargoes i s toward the t e r m i n a l s . I t was found that 35 trucks d e l i v e r e d a t o t a l of 256 tons to the p i e r , 108 w h i l e 116 v e h i c l e s hauled 1,045 tons away,from the p i e r . This con-63 6A e l u s i o n i s v e r i f i e d i n other s t u d i e s , ' i n which the r a t e of imports to exports was about four to one. On the,questionnaire the respondent was asked t o supply i n f o r -mation on the o r i g i n - and d e s t i n a t i o n of loads by census t r a c t s . Of the 151 loads brought i n t o , or taken out.of the p i e r , 68 were w i t h i n a lh m i l e r a d i u s , and 83 were w i t h i n . t h a t part of the C i t y l y i n g to the north of 16th Avenue. I f the whole of the C i t y i s considered, 99 out of the 151 were w i t h i n the C i t y . l i m i t s , and the m a j o r i t y of the remainder were to the western p a r t of Burnaby, w i t h a few to New Westminster, Richmond, and North and West Vancouver. Only 6 t r i p s out of the 151 went d i r e c t l y outside of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, although some loads may have gone to a c e n t r a l c o l l e c t i o n p o i n t , to be exported out of the r e g i o n as pa r t o f . a . l a r g e r shipment. F. TRANSPORTATION DELAYS Delay i s used here i n an o v e r a l l sense, and .refers to the delays that are caused to r a i l w a y and highway traff i c . - m o v i n g - i n and out of the study area. I t i n c l u d e s .delays caused.by congestion and blockage, and from i n e f f i c i e n c i e s of movement. W. J . S h e r i f f , The Port of Vancouver: General Cargo Require-ments j Vancouver': B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , January, 1968, p. 14. v_. . ' ' ' ' ' " -i.l.:1.... '•; : °4Ross' Rob\ksbtiyySp"atiaZ'--Patt General Cargo Imports Through the Port, of Vancouver, 1965,- Vancouver, F a l l 1967. 109 f'<:•:•. (1) R a i l w a y s K • >:.•:<> yyj.tlnn t h e fj.-v.'w--. l i m i t s Because of the precedence of r a i l t r a f f i c over highway t r a f f i c , a l l o w i n g them f o r example, to block crossings f o r up to f i v e minutes, they are not r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n the same l i m i t s as v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . N evertheless, i n the water f r o n t area, the r a i l w a y operation i s con-s t r a i n e d by l i m i t s of c a p a c i t y . In s p i t e of recent changes i n r a i l w a y s w i t c h i n g procedure, whereby almost a l l Canadian P a c i f i c Railway t r a i n s are broken up at Port Coquitlam, 17 miles east of.Vancouver, the present l i n e and yards 65 i n the study area are operating a c l o s e to c a p a c i t y . The c h i e f p o i n t of co n g e s t i o n - i s the downtown yard of .the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way at the foot of G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , which acts as a sub-depot f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to the nearby, w a t e r f r o n t area. Any increase i n car loadings w i l l r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l trackage and expansion. I f , for. example, the g r a i n .elevators are operating at 66 t h e i r maximum cap a c i t y of 599 cars per day, the railways.would have d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g enough trackage to carry out sw i t c h i n g oper-67 a t i o n s . In the downtown area expansion i s not p o s s i b l e because of 68 the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by P r o j e c t 200. Elsewhere the right-of-way, "^*V. Setty Pendakur et a l . , op. c i t . p . 41, 54. 66 J . Kates, West Coast. Commodity Transportation Study j Part I: The Transportation and Handling of Grains; Short Term Recommendations, Toronto: Kates, Peat, Marwick and Company, 1967,.p. 35. 67 Interview w i t h Mr. R. Hughes, Yardmaster, Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, Vancouver, March 13, 1970. 68 VsnSetty Eendakurojet alw,,op„ cit., p. 55. 110 g e n e r a l l y 99 f e e t wide, would allow i n s t a l l a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l t r a c k -age at most p o i n t s east of the CBD, at the expense o f . i n c r e a s e d blockage of grade c r o s s i n g s , and the extension or r e b u i l d i n g of over-, passes, underpasses and other s t r u c t u r e s . Under the present arrangements between the r a i l w a y s operating i n the/study area, each company has i t s own trackage, under which there are d e f i n i t e r e s t r i c t i o n s on the s w i t c h i n g of c a r s . Cars o r i g i n a t i n g on Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways s i d i n g s destined f o r Canadian P a c i f i c Railway l i n e s are not u s u a l l y permitted to be'switched by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, but must be taken by the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways to the interchange p o i n t , where they are -picked up by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. For example, f r e i g h t cars from the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways served B a l l a n t y n e P i e r which are r e q u i r e d to be handled out of Vancouver by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway must f i r s t be moved east by the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways to the interchange w i t h the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway at Campbell Avenue, and there picked up by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway f o r assembly i n t o a t r a i n . This arrangement increases - the cost, of handling.a car.routed to a s i d i n g c o n t r o l l e d : b y . a n o t h e r r a i l w a y . . The average cost of t e r m i n a l handling i n 1963 was estimated at 8 d o l l a r s per loaded car. When an interchange i s r e q u i r e d t h e . c o s t . i s doubled to 16 d o l l a r s as a r e s u l t of the d u p l i c a t i o n i n handling by the two r a i l w a y s . In 1961 the w a t e r f r o n t area generated approximately 124,000 loaded r a i l c a r s . Of t h i s number 38,000 r e q u i r e d interchange at an estimated a d d i t i o n a l cost of $300,000. In a d d i t i o n to the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t . i n c u r r e d from interchanges between r a i l w a y s , a f u r t h e r charge r e s u l t s from delay at interchange p o i n t s , estimated to be about a day. 7^ The r e s u l t i n g cost of t h i s d e l ay, t a k i n g i n t e r e s t on c a p i t a l , and insurance, as 10 per cent per year, i s estimated at $125,000 annually f o r the waterfront study area. (2) Highways i' Delays r e s u l t i n g to highway v e h i c l e s -operating on the w a t e r f r o n t occur at t h e - t e r m i n a l s , between the terminals and the c i t y s t r e e t s , and on the c i t y s t r e e t system. Delays at the t e r m i n a l apply only to that p a r t i c u l a r t e r m i n a l or p i e r . Delays between the t e r m i n a l and the c i t y s t r e e t system, and. w i t h i n the study area, are separated from those.of the s t r e e t system as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s phase i s gener-a l l y undertaken by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, and i n v o l v e s r a i l w a y c r o s s i n g s . L a s t l y delays on the c i t y s t r e e t system are w i t h i n muni-c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . . (a) Terminal Delays It.was not w i t h i n the scope -of . t h i s , study, to t a b u l a t e delay time at a l l p i e r s , and to evaluate t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y . The .only data a v a i l -able i s that from the Trucking Questionnaire at Centennial P i e r i n which the time spent at the p i e r f o r a l l . t r u c k s sampled was obtained ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , .Freight,Movements. Through Greater Vancouver, op.- cit.., p. 3, 19, 25, 26. 70Ibid., p. 38. 112 and i s shown i n Table 22. The data here probably represents an extreme case on account of the la r g e number of truc k s e n t e r i n g the p i e r and the s m a l l average load per tr u c k . Much of t h i s delay would be lessened by i n s t i t u t i n g a scheduling system. I f the data from Table 22 (below)' i s used to derive the: accumulated non-productive time spent at the p i e r s by t r u c k s , and a t h i r t y minute i n t e r v a l f o r l o a d i n g or unloading a truck i s a reasonable p e r i o d , then the t o t a l delay time of the 132 trucks stopping f o r more than 29 minutes i s approximately 135 hours. As the sample was a p p r o x i -mately 56 per cent of a l l t r u c k s , the t o t a l delay f o r one day was about 240 hours. I f equipment and labour i s valued at 12 d o l l a r s per hour, 71 the average charge i n . a l o c a l f r e i g h t t a r i f f , then the a d d i t i o n a l expense imposed on shippers i s $2,900.per day, and about $700,000 per year. TABLE 22 TRUCK TIME AT CENTENNIAL. PIER, 1969 0-29 min. 30-59 min. 60-89 min. 90-119 min. 120-149. min. 150-179 min. 180 and min. over . Number of Trucks 46 42 43 19 9 12 7 Percent-age 26.0 23.6 24.0 10.7 5.1 6.7 3 .9 Source: Trucking Questionnaire, February 1970. C'Johnston:^ef^nnldbh^tt^d^^eater Vancouver Local and Joint Freight Tariff No. 13 i s s u e d November 19, 1969, e f f e c t i v e February 19, 1970, p. .13. . • :.::vv;.;-;:' 113 (b) Delays w i t h i n the Study Area  y I n t h i s s e c t i o n delays occur p r i n c i p a l l y from blockages at the r a i l w a y c r o s s i n g s . These c r o s s i n g s , along w i t h underpasses and over-passes, are shown i n Figure 12, page 96. The two general cargo p i e r s , Centennial and B a l l a n t y n e , shown i n Figure 4 (page 26), are a c c e s s i b l e by an overpass connecting w i t h Heatley Avenue. A second overhead c r o s s i n g constructed by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board at the foot of Renfrew S t r e e t allows t r a f f i c onto Commissioner S t r e e t . The l a s t two overhead c r o s s i n g s , at Burrard and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s , are p r i v a t e l y owned by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. One of these, a t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , i s to be demolished as work on P r o j e c t 200 commences in.1970, f o r c i n g t r a f f i c from the western part, of the study area out i n t o Burrard S t r e e t , or f u r t h e r west along a p r i v a t e road of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway to Cardero S t r e e t . With grade se p a r a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s , delay from the marine terminals to the c i t y s t r e e t s i s • n e g l i g i b l e . . However for . t h o s e businesses w i t h -i n the study area using grade.crossings, some delay i s -encountered from blockage of the c r o s s i n g by.railway cars. Some f i e l d measurements of delay were taken at Rogers S t r e e t and Salsbury D r i v e , i n d i c a t i n g that the. t o t a l delay.per day f o r a l l v e h i c l e s f o r one c r o s s i n g i s about.one hour. The accumulated value f o r the 11 grade c r o s s i n g s would then be about'11 hours per day, a much smaller f i g u r e than that encountered at the general cargo p i e r . The l a c k of a w a t e r f r o n t s e r v i c e road on the north s i d e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway right-of-way c o n t r i b u t e s to the d i f f i c u l t y 114 of access i n the study area. Although p o r t i o n s of a s e r v i c e road are i n e x i s t e n c e as Commissioner S t r e e t , t h i s road does not extend w e s t e r l y to the more congested p a r t s of the c i t y . Extension of t h i s road would r e l i e v e t r a f f i c congestion i n two ways. F i r s t l y i t would allow t r a f f i c to iget d i r e c t l y from one water f r o n t s i t e to the other without compelling i t to make two crossings of the r a i l w a y and t r a v e l along the c i t y s t r e e t s . Secondly, i t would provide an a l t e r n a t i v e o u t l e t f o r t r a f f i c from the waterfront area going to the c i t y s t r e e t s , i n the event that one c r o s s i n g was obstructed. As some parts of the study area at present are only a c c e s s i b l e by one c r o s s i n g , they are i n e f f e c t "locked i n " when the cr o s s i n g i s blocked-. While the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s s e r v i c e road would a l l e v i a t e 1 the d i f f i c u l t i e s described above, . i t would again-be done at the s a c r i f i c e of land w i t h i n the study area. (c) Delays in...City. S t r e e t s As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the.only land-access to the waterfront study area i s across the the r a i l w a y . . Because of -the l a c k of a s e r v i c e road, t r a f f i c from the study area i s forced onto the c i t y s t r e e t system at a c r o s s i n g s i t u a t e d . n e a r the business l o c a t i o n . In so doing i t enters a s t r e e t system where peak hour average;speeds west of Main S t r e e t are between 0 and 13 mph., and i n non-peak hours increase about 5 mph. Between Main S t r e e t and V i c t o r i a D rive average .peak hour i s about 10 mph. higher. Only i n that p a r t of the study area east of V i c t o r i a D rive d o e s , t r a v e l speed -increase beyond 23 mph. 115 Not only i s the congestion high on the east-west s t r e e t s , but i s a l s o high on the north-south s t r e e t s close to the w a t e r f r o n t . Throughout the CBD, and i n that part of the c i t y a d j o i n i n g the study area as f a r east as C l a r k D r i v e , the average speed on these n o r t h -south routes i s from 0—13 mph. at the peak. To t a b u l a t e the d e l a y . r e s u l t i n g to t r a f f i c s e r v i c i n g the water-f r o n t - area, the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n data of t r u c k s e n t e r i n g Centennial P i e r were tabulated by census t r a c t . From data of the T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver Engineering Department showing distance and average.24 hour speed .on the c o l l e c t o r and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s i n metropolitan-Vancouver, the d i s t a n c e and average t r a v e l time to each census t r a c t was computed.. The r e s u l t i n g t o t a l t r a v e l time of a l l t r u c k s was compared w i t h the r e s u l t obtained from the same v e h i c l e s t r a v e l l i n g on uncpngested s t r e e t s . The a d d i t i o n a l time r e s u l t i n g from congestion was 27 per cent above the base c o n d i t i o n . The 27 per cent surcharge r e s u l t i n g from congestion i s sup-ported by the f i n d i n g s : of a l o c a l t r u c k i n g company, i n which a s p e c i a l t a r i f f i s imposed upon t r a f f i c o r i g i n a t i n g in-deepsea docks or t e r m i n a l s . The e x t r a r a t e i s about 15 per cent above'the b a s i c r a t e . According to a company o f f i c i a l t h i s e x t r a r a t e i s not high enough to cover costs of s e r v i c i n g the w a t e r f r o n t docks, but should 72 be increased to about 30 per cent. The method used i n determining 72 Interview w i t h T. B a r r i e Lindsay, Manager, Export-Import S e r v i c e s , Johnston Terminals L i m i t e d , February 16, 1970. the increased costs was by random sampling of t r u c k i n g costs of a l l v e h i c l e t r i p s , out of which emerged the increased cost of operating i n the w a t e r f r o n t . Elsewhere, an eastern t r u c k i n g company executive estimates the cost of operating bn i n t e r - c i t y hauls i s about one quarter the 73 cost of urban movements. In downtown Toronto the running costs i n the downtown area were $2.06 per m i l e , as compared w i t h $1.05.per m i l e i n the f r i n g e areas. G. SUMMARY This chapter has d e a l t w i t h port land needs and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements as measured i n the study area. I t s t a r t e d w i t h develop-ments that have been i n i t i a t e d i n maritime technology i n the past decade, i n which the r e s u l t i n g economies that may be e f f e c t e d i n t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs were shown to apply to both bulk l o a d i n g and general cargo t e r m i n a l s . The f a c i l i t i e s to c o n t a i n these newer developments have one ..common.requirement: l a n d , which i s r e q u i r e d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s , i n the order of 100 acres. The f u t u r e s h i p p i n g flows that may be expected i n the P o r t of Vancouver were then introduced to i n d i c a t e the magnitude of cargo tonnages that may be expected i n the next decade. The t o t a l p r o j e c t e d 73 R. C. Barnstead, "Congestion Costs and F l e x i b i l i t y of Goods Movement", i n Proceedings of the First Canadian Urban Transportation Conference, ed. by John S t e e l , Ottawa: Canadian Federation of Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 1969, p. 173. 117 tonnage of 1980 i s approximately double that of 1970. In d e a l i n g w i t h the.study area i t was shown that some land uses tended to concentrate i n the western p a r t . Employment space r e -quirements v a r i e d considerably and employment at the goods terminals was much l e s s space i n t e n s i v e than i n normal CBD uses. I n . c o n s i d e r i n g a l l businesses i n the study area d i f f e r e n t access and. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements were e x h i b i t e d . Some land uses had no need f o r r a i l access and minimal need f o r highway t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , w h i l e others had much higher requirements. The goods terminals showed the maximum need f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c c e s s i b i l i t y both by highway and r a i l and accounted f o r 87 per cent of the tonnage, 90 per cent of the r a i l t r i p s and 66 per cent of the truck t r i p s . T h e - o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n of truck loads at a-general cargo p i e r were concentrated c l o s e to the p i e r , although f u r t h e r research i s needed to determine the u l t i m a t e d e s t i n a t i o n of these loads. In the concluding s e c t i o n on delays i t was shown that i n -e f f i c i e n c i e s and d u p l i c a t i o n of r a i l w a y s w i t c h i n g procedures imposed an a d d i t i o n a l $425,000 annual expense on the wa t e r f r o n t . a r e a . Delays at the t e r m i n a l f o r the one case s t u d i e d were excessive and r e s u l t e d i n an a d d i t i o n a l annual .charge of $700,000 through unproductive time, that would be r e l i e v e d i n a scheduling system. L a s t l y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs of v e h i c l e s o p erating i n the study area are estimated to be 27 per cent higher than i n uncongested areas, not because o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s are i n the CBD, but because t r a f f i c - s e r v i n g the area i s . r o u t e d onto the congested s t r e e t system serving the CBD. The construction of a waterfront service road would a l l e v i a t e t h i s condition at the expense of a l i m i t e d supply of land adjoining deep water moorage. CHAPTER V THE URBAN INFLUENCE ON WATERFRONT LANDS I t was suggested i n the e a r l i e r chapters and hyp o t h e s i s , that there are two developments o c c u r r i n g simultaneously at the port i n t e r f a c e , the r e s u l t of which impedes the f u t u r e p o r t develop-ment. The f i r s t of these i s the changing s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t y and port requirements f o r space and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the context of r e -cent t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments. The d e t a i l s and consequences of these were di s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. The conclusions reached were that f u t u r e space needs f o r a l l e x i s t i n g users can not be met unless some i n d u s t r i e s r e l o c a t e or a d d i t i o n a l land i s a v a i l a b l e . S i m i l a r l y the f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n demand c a l l s f o r l a r g e s c a l e improvements simply to mainta i n the present l e v e l s of s e r v i c e . Thus t e c h n o l o g i -c a l changes i n the s h i p p i n g and r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s are causing s i g n i f i c a n t pressures at the urban/port i n t e r f a c e that r e q u i r e l a r g e s c a l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n investments. There i s a l s o a second development that i s o c c u r r i n g at the po r t i n t e r f a c e that adds to the alr e a d y c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . This i s the expanding urban p o p u l a t i o n and i t s own space and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs. The trend toward m e t r o p o l i t a n l i v i n g i s strong and observers are unanimous i n p r o j e c t i n g t h i s trend i n t o the future."* In Canada "^Benjamin C h i n i t z , City and Suburb, the Economics of Metro-politan Growth, Englewood, New Je r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1964, p. 3. f o r example 70 per cent of Canadians now l i v e i n urban areas and by 1980 t h i s w i l l have reached 80 per cent, most of them l i v i n g i n 2 29 major urban centers across the country. This chapter attempts to document these urban pressures and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the C i t y of Vancouver and the P o r t . This r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be examined i n terms of a c t i v i t i e s , zoning, land uses, land v a l u e s , the flow of goods and people, i n d u s t r i a l , commer-c i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, major developments, and b l i g h t and i t s s o c i a l and economic consequences. By examining each of these, an o v e r a l l impression of the c i t y ' s i n f l u e n c e on the port w i l l be gained. This w i l l be of value i n understanding what the c o n f l i c t i s between shipping a c t i v i t y and the a d j o i n i n g urban dev-elopment. This i n f o r m a t i o n alone.would not be s u f f i c i e n t on which to base investment d e c i s i o n s f o r urban expansion i n t o the po r t area or v i c e v e r s a . As a r e s u l t an understanding of the b e n e f i t s , both economic and s o c i a l , t h a t the c i t y r e c e i v e s from the port operation has to be undertaken. I n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h i s area i s not included i n t h i s study, however some b a s i c measurements have been made i n terms of po r t growth f o r e c a s t s , land needs and the r e s u l t -ant economic impact. Report of the Federal Task Force on Rousing and Urban Devel-opment, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969, p. 9. 121 A. • URBAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (1) Commodity Flows and Transport Linkages The growth of Vancouver has always been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w a t e r f r o n t because of the import and.export tra d e , which has been a part of the c i t y s i n c e i t s e a r l i e s t days. However the r o l e of the downtown water f r o n t has changed markedly over the l a s t century, as has i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c i t y . O r i g i n a l l y i t served the most important means o f . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , making i t the center.of commerce fo r the e a r l y settlement. This settlement around.1859 was p r i m a r i l y engaged i n s a w m i l l i n g , and l o g g i n g . Here at the w a t e r f r o n t timber was exported, goods were r e c e i v e d , passengers landed and departed, 3 m a i l was r e c e i v e d and news and gossip spread. This was the f i r s t of what we b e l i e v e to be the C i t y ' s three stages of development. The port and the town were one, through which a l l goods and people passed and to which a l l communication, roadways and paths were l i n k e d . S i m i l a r l y 100 per cent o f . a l l incoming goods were destined f o r t h i s community. This was the f i r s t of three stages of develop-ment which i s g r a p h i c a l l y shown i n Figure 14A, Port and Region Commodity Flows. The volumes of trade flows f o r the . f i r s t two stages are estimates, but the t h i r d stage r e f l e c t s the present s i t -u a t i o n and. was e x t r p o l a t e d from the 1969 Waterfront Questionnaire. A s i m i l a r development occurred i n t h e , s t a t e of Wisconsin. Wisconsin, Department of Housing and Urban Renewal, -Waterfront Renewal, Madison, 1966. source: Waterfront Survey, 1969. 123 The second stage of Vancouver's development, Figure 14B, occurred some twenty years later in the mid 1880's, and was primarr-4 i l y the result of poor navigation channels along the Fraser river. The town became the fur trade center . for this area. The communica-tion, trade and transportation links were.now.extended from the local community to a much larger hinterland, that could be penetrated by small river craft. Thus the port hinterland, in addition to the original settlement also became dependant upon the harbour, and in turn the harbour services. As the hinterland trade and population grew, so i t s demand on. p o r t . f a c i l i t i e s grew, both in terms of exports.as well as imports. A result of this was a change in the overall flow of goods; the local community was no longer the gener-ator of a l l . port activity as the port began -to.service these other settlements inland. The linkages in this second stage were primar-i l y short haul for both land and marine, as compared to.the short haul land linkages of the f i r s t stage. The third stage occurred as a-result of a technological change that enabled land linkages .to-become long haul and trans-continental. With the: arrival of the railway .in 1883 to Vancouver, i t lessened the dependenceof the city and the local area on water-borne commerce for a l l . i t s livelihood. The port.was now linked with a l l parts of the continent,, for i t s resources, and shipment of food, goods, mail and gossip. This, .process of linkage diffusion 4 Vancouver: City of Vancouver Planning.Department, Restoration Report: A Case for Renewed. Life in. the Old-City, 1969, p. 12. 124 has continued w i t h the a d d i t i o n of each new r a i l w a y , road and f r e e -way, and today.the c i t y / p o r t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n terms of commodity flows has changed s u b s t a n t i a l l y as seen i n Figure 14C-1 and 14C-2 (page 122). Of a l l goods f l o w i n g from the w a t e r f r o n t , the c i t y now absorbs 10.3 per cent, and of a l l goods flo w i n g to the water f r o n t the c i t y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s .6 per cent.' This i s a considerable change from the s i t u a t i o n 100 years ago.when the c i t y r e c e i v e d 100 per cent of the imports and was accountable f o r 100 per cent of the port's exports. Thus the water f r o n t area i s no .longer the c i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n hub as i t used to be. In some instances i t would appear that the c i t y has v i r t u a l l y "turned i t s back" on t h i s area to which i f now has few d i r e c t trade l i n k s . The d i s c u s s i o n of road access i n Chapter IV confirms t h i s , where i t was seen, i n some in s t a n c e s , that access to the waterfront was only v i a tortuous and i n d i r e c t back lanes. (2) S e r v i c e L i n k s As goods flow through the c i t y , they h a v e t o be t r a n s f e r r e d from one t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode to another, from marine to land and v i s e v e r s a . At t h i s p o i n t , where change-of ownership u s u a l l y occurs, there develops a vast array of s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s - t o handle t h i s t r a n s f e r e n c e . These i n c l u d e customs.service,..steamship agencies, s h i p p e r s , b r o k e r s , marine-insurance,-banking,.ship, s u p p l i e s and chandlery, tug h i r e , s t e v e d o r i n g , r e p a i r s e r v i c e , warehousing, and. a port a u t h o r i t y , to name a few. Each o f these .have.direct l i n k s 125 w i t h the port i n v a r i o u s forms, e i t h e r by telephone, t e l e x , c o r r e s -pondence or by t r u c k , • automobile or personal contact. These are important port/urban l i n k s , any one of which may be s i g n i f i c a n t enough- to i n f l u e n c e l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s ; The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board suggested i n 1961 that i t would be q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e , at l e a s t f o r some decades to equip any new port f a c i l i t y w i t h the supporting f a c i l i t i e s which downtown Vancouver now provides f o r i t s harbour."* For example, one b a s i c p a t t e r n of l i n k s are t h e . d a i l y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s that are made to each s i t e . Although a l l s i t e s at one time or-another.-receive s e r v i c e c a l l s , each over time develops a b a s i c p a t t e r n . . Figure .15.shows the. p o i n t from which most d a i l y v i s i t s are made to each. s i t e . I t would-appear that the c i t y (which i n c l u d e s the CBD.and.waterfront) and the met r o p o l i t a n area have an equal share of linkages... This i n d i c a t e s the wide range of i n f l u e n c e the water f r o n t has over the -entire area. An e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s s c a t t e r i n g can.be based.on the l o c a -t i o n of businesses i n the p o r t . s e r v i c e s e c t o r * Figures 16, 17, and 18 show the o f f i c e d i s t r i b u t i o n of these' businesses. .Each group appears to have d i f f e r i n g and yet d e f i n i t e l o c a t i o n p a t t e r n s . Steam-ship Companies, Customs Brokers and Shipping Agents are h i g h l y con-centrated and appear to r e q u i r e a C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t l o c a t i o n over a wa t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n . The opposite appears to be.the case f o r Ship Chandlers and Marine Equipment S u p p l i e r s , who have l o c a t e d ^The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Industrial Land Prospects in the Lower- Mainland, New Westminster, 1961, p. 21. c l o s e to the wa t e r f r o n t and adjacent to shipping t e r m i n a l s . F i n a l l y Importers and Exporters are both, concentrated and d i s p e r s e d , the l a t t e r i s i n par t explained by t h e i r warehouses which are l o c a t e d to optimize d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t would appear from these maps that w a t e r f r o n t p r o x i m i t y i s not a foregone co n c l u s i o n f o r these p o r t . s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , i n f a c t t h e . a n a l y s i s i n Chapter. I l l showed the average d i s t a n c e of Goods and Passenger Terminals to the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t to be,over one m i l e . An attempt was made to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . A 25 per cent sample was taken of the above businesses^ p r i m a r i l y i n respect to an economic.analysis which appears i n Sectio n F. However one question was\directed.at t h i s aspect-of l o c a t i o n . ^ Each of the sampled Marine Services were asked i f they could continue to operate from.their.present l o c a t i o n should t h e . e n t i r e port f u n c t i o n be r e l o c a t e d to the new-Roberts Bank Super P o r t . Their- response and the employment i m p l i c a t i o n s -are.seen i n Table 23. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that most companies gave t h i s question s e r i o u s thought and i n d i c a t e d that i f they, d i d notmove,to the new l o c a t i o n they most l i k e l y would open a small,one-r or two^-staff branch o f f i c e . The p l a n n i n g - i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s f o r both.Delta and Vancouver are' s i g n i f i c a n t . Not ,only would there be a r e d i s t r i -b u t i o n of business taxes, r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s , and t r a f f i c , but al s o s i g n i f i c a n t o f f i c e space requirements.. For example, of the 54 ^This survey i s r e f e r r e d t o as The Service Sector Survey 1970. See Appendix IV f o r sample of the l e t t e r and questions asked. businesses that indicated a d e f i n i t e move, they would require an. a d d i t i o n a l 237,500 square feet of o f f i c e space, based on 250 square feet per employee. 7 TABLE 23 PORT RELOCATION: IMPACT ON SERVICE INDUSTRIES, VANCOUVER 1969 Service Industries Companies that Indicated Re-l o c a t i o n necessary. Employees Involved Customs Brokers 10 50 Steamship Companies 8 880 Ship Chandlers and Agents 5 160 Marine Equipment and Supplies 0 0 Importers and Exporters 31 124 54 1,214 Source: Service Sector Survey 1970. It would appear.from the responses that the larges t water-front employment category (Marine Services) would be affected by Community Builders Council.of Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , The Community Builders Handbook, E d i t o r , J . Ross McKeeves, Washington, 1968, p. 242. g Service Sector Telephone.Survey,.conducted January 1970, using a 25 per cent sample, of the 352 businesses. 132 l e s s than 15 per cent s h i f t i n business operations i f the e n t i r e port f u n c t i o n was r e l o c a t e d , and that Vancouver w o u l d ' s t i l l r e t a i n the. l i o n ' s share of t h i s s e r v i c e business. In summary the h i s t o r i c growth and development of Vancouver i n terms of commodity flows and s e r v i c e l i n k s have been found to be. a u s e f u l method of d e s c r i b i n g the changing r e l a t i o n s h i p between c i t y and p o r t . This approach i s b a s i c a l l y a Systems Approach which attempts to view the p o r t / c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p i n terms of a t o t a l . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system., I t i s concerned w i t h the flow of commodities as w e l l as the s e r v i c i n g of t h i s f l o w . H i s t o r i c a l l y the c i t y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p dominated, the e n t i r e flow of commodities, and the port functioned to meet the community needs, t h e r e f o r e p r o x i m i t y of port and community was important. As t r a n s p o r t a t i o n -improvements were made and resource areas opened up i n the c o u n t r y ' s - i n t e r i o r , the c i t y depended l e s s and less.upon, the port f o r . i t s goods and communi-c a t i o n but r a t h e r became-a s e r v i c e center f o r i t . For example of a l l goods today f l o w i n g from. the.waterfront,-the c i t y absorbs 10.3 per cent and of a l l goods f l o w i n g to the w a t e r f r o n t , the c i t y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s .6 per cent. Conversely 89.7 per cent of imports and.99.4 per cent of the exports must pass through the urban area i n order to reach t h e i r . r e s p e c t i v e p o i n t s of. o r i g i n a n d . d e s t i n a t i o n . I t i s expected that t h i s p a t t e r n w i l l continue i n t o the f u t u r e , un-l e s s - a' s i g n i f i c a n t change occurs w i t h i n the c i t y , f o r example changes i n i n d u s t r i a l growth that w i l l a l t e r t h i s p a t t e r n . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n expands, upon.this. 133 (3) Population Forecast The C i t y of Vancouver i s forecast to receive a 25 per cent population increase over the 18-year period 1968 to 1986, or a t o t a l increase of some 90,000 persons. Table 24 below shows these trends for the c i t y and metropolitan region. TABLE 24 POPULATION PROJECTIONS, 1966-1986. CITY AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1966 1968 1971 1976 1981 1986 C i t y of Vancouver Metro Vancouver 384,522 894,384 410,375 972,467 435,000 1,026,000 458,000 1,169,000 480,000 1,335,000 500,000 1,524,000 Source: Department of Municipal A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. The reasons f o r t h i s increase.are complex, but according to a 1960 study, for the Metropolitan J o i n t Committee, two major factors are a t t r i b u t i n g to t h i s increase.*"^ The f i r s t major force i s the "amenity" f a c t o r . Edward Ullman-suggests there i s growing evidence today that pleasant l i v i n g conditions and amenities such as climate, scenery, mountains, beaches and the sea are becoming more s i g n i f i c a n t G. Hodge, and I. M. Robinson, Jobs, People and Transportation, Report to the Metropolitan J o i n t Committee, Vancouver, B.C., February, 1960, pp. 18-19; f a c t o r s * i n the p o p u l a t i o n growth of urban communities. Vancouver apparently has these amenities and planners b e l i e v e t h i s i s a f a c t o r that i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to i t s r a p i d growth. The second for c e i s the growth of secondary manufacturing in-^ d u s t r i e s , these are tending to l o c a t e i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. Being at the.point of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n break, where.break-of-bulk occurs, Vancouver i s therefore,the place where manufacturing processes y i e l d i n g reduced bulk and enhanced v a l u e s , can take place p r o f i t a b l y , - Thus the e a r l y head s t a r t which Vancouver obtained as-a r e s u l t of i t s being l o c a t e d at the p o i n t of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n break gave i t . an i n i t i a l l o c a t i o n advantage.over other c i t i e s and towns. Since then her economic development and .'population -growth have continued and there i s no evidence that t h i s trend w i l l , not continue i n t o the future.12 From these b r i e f comments i t appears that -Vancouver can expec a steady growth so long-as these two-."resources"—amenity and.break-o f - b u l k remain. The growth of the l a t t e r w i l l r e s u l t i n increased resource demands as w e l l . a s increased e x t e r n a l trade. This could s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e the p r e s e n t - p a t t e r n of commodity f l o w s , and Vancouver may once again c o n t r i b u t e - s u b s t a n t i a l l y to port trade. However the c r i t i c a l i s s u e here i s the l o c a t i o n of these i n d u s t r i e s be they at the.waterfront, other c i t y i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned lands or i n i n d u s t r i a l ' parks outside the c i t y . For each of these l o c a t i o n s the commodity flow patterns would d i f f e r and the degree of a c c e s s i -b i l i t y would a l s o d i f f e r . Edward Ullman, "Amenity as a Factor i n Regional Growth", Geographical Review, 44, January, 1954, pp. 119-132. 12 ' ' • - G..;Hodge„ a n d M . Robinson, toe. o i t . 135 The a v a i l a b i l i t y of l a n d , as w e l l as the p r o j e c t e d r e q u i r e -ments of i n d u s t r y , commerce, r e c r e a t i o n and residences, are discussed. next, B. • AVAILABILITY OF LAND The a r r i v a l of the r a i l w a y i n 1883 along the Vancouver water-f r o n t had a two-fold e f f e c t ? The f i r s t has already been di s c u s s e d , i n that a l l p a r t s of Canada were now d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to the Far East i n terms of trade. I t was a l s o seen that the "dominant" r o l e which Vancouver once i n f l u e n c e d over ..the port.was changed at t h i s time. The second e f f e c t of the r a i l w a y being l o c a t e d ..in 1883 at the water-f r o n t , r e s u l t e d i n an immediate.shortage of land f o r shipping f a c i l i t i e s . F i g ure 19 shows the l o c a t i o n of-the r a i l w a y i n r e l a t i o n to land f i l l areas. From t h i s i t i s seen, that the e n t i r e port has been b u i l t on l a n d - f i l l and that any -future expansion w i l l undoubtedly r e q u i r e f u r t h e r land reclamation. I t could be argued -therefore that the por t has h i s t o r i c a l l y been short of development space. This study found the s i t u a t i o n to be no d i f f e r e n t to one made i n 1961 which, concluded that there was p r a c t i c a l l y no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .waterfront land on Vancouver „ , 13 Harbour. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, too. oit. 137 (1) Waterfront Land Needs As cautioned i n Chapter I , the f i n d i n g s that f o l l o w on water-f r o n t land needs i s based on only 74 responses of the 100 occupants and i s not a complete survey of the e n t i r e w a t e r f r o n t . ' I n attempting to o b t a i n an o v e r a l l land needs p i c t u r e the r e s u l t s have been pro-p o r t i o n a t e l y i n creased to account .for t h i s sampling b i a s . W i t h i n t h i s study area, 56 per cent of the i n d u s t r i e s i n d i c a t e d an.expected i n c r e a s e of business over the next f i v e y e a r s , 19 per cent gave no r e p l y and 15 per cent expected a-decrease.. The o v e r a l l i n -crease r e f l e c t s a growing area,, whose s p a t i a l demands are now sum-marized. Twenty-nine per.cent i n d i c a t e d a d e f i n i t e need f o r increased f l o o r area and 34 per cent a d d i t i o n a l o u t s ide space requirements. Table 25 summarizes these f i g u r e s in. terms of general land use c a t e -g o r i e s . I t i s acknowledged that these -figures are not exact measure-ments of f u t u r e requirements, but r a t h e r an. estimated, g e n e r a l l y " o f f the c u f f " p r o j e c t i o n of land-needs that each manager foresaw f o r h i s own establishment. ' W i t h i n the next f i v e years i t i s expected that the present users of the c i t y w a t e r f r o n t w i l l r e q u i r e an a d d i t i o n a l 84 acres f o r t h e i r normal, expansion needs. This may not appear, too s e r i o u s a problem, however, when 60 per cent of the establishments i n d i c a t e d that a d d i t i o n a l adjacent space -was not -immediately a v a i l a b l e , i t becomes c r i t i c a l . The most obvious s o l u t i o n w i l l be to develop more, l a n d . f i l l and water l o t s . T his i s based .on present N a t i o n a l Harbour 138 TABLE 25 PORT LAND REQUIREMENTS, VANCOUVER WATERFRONT STUDY AREA, 1970-1974 Land Use No. of Firms % that r e -quired a d d i t i o n a l outside space i n 5 years Average Plant Size .(acres) Respective Plants and Space r e -quirements To t a l Future Land Needs j (acres) F i s h Process-ing & Storage 21 52% 1.47 . 1 @ 10% 4 @ 40% 1 @ 60% 2 @ 90% 3 @ 100% 9.0 Goods Terminal 14 43% 14.9 2 @ , 5% 1 (3 15% 1 @ 20% 2 -@ 100% 38.5 Passenger Terminals 6 33% 0.7 1 @ 35% 1 @ 100% 1.0 Marine Sales Service & Repair 14 28% 1 6.5 2 @ 25% 1 @ 30% 1 (3 100% 11.7 Manufacturing & Other Processing 10 40% , 4.3 1 @ 5% 1 @ 15% 1 @ 40% 1 @ 100% 6.8 Public Administration 6 0% - - -Construction 2 50% 1.2 1 (? 30% .4 Tota l 67.4 T h i s . t o t a l of 67=4 acres has been rounded up 25% to 84 acres to account for the differences between the sample taken and the t o t a l occupants. Source: Waterfront Survey, 1969. 139 Board p o l i c y that allows f o r t h i s form-of development so long as i t does not i n t e r f e r e w i t h shipping channels. The development of the new Centennial P i e r container t e r m i n a l e x e m p l i f i e s the p o l i c y . In c o n c l u s i o n i t appears that f o r some years now the a v a i l a -b i l i t y , of land at the w a t e r f r o n t has been at a premium. The s i t u a t i o n f o r the next f i v e years sees even greater space demands, which may account f o r the 13 i n d u s t r i e s that i n d i c a t e d they have been cons i d e r -ing other w a t e r f r o n t and i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s . This space shortage has r e s u l t e d from increased demands from e x i s t i n g w a t e r f r o n t i n d u s t r i e s . No account has been made of a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s or the a d d i t i o n a l urban demands on t h i s area. Therefore a c i t y p e r s p e c t i v e i s added, which considers the main land uses and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l demands on t h i s w a t e r f r o n t . (2) C i t y Land.Needs As the c i t y grows, i t i s a foregone co n c l u s i o n that land i s developed and zoned areas -become f i l l e d . The purpose here i s to summarize the most recent p u b l i c a t i o n s on the c i t y ' s f u t u r e land r e -quirements as they r e l a t e to the-waterfront.. The four land uses di s c u s s e d , I n d u s t r i a l , High Density R e s i d e n t i a l , Commercial and R e c r e a t i o n a l , are s e l e c t e d on the c r i t e r i a of t h e i r present develop-i n g trends on the w a t e r f r o n t . For the purpose of t h i s study i t i s presumed that market forces w i l l a l l o w these developments to continue, d e s p i t e the zoning. (a) Industrial Requirements The most recent industrial survey was completed in 1969 by 14' the City Planning Department, and w i l l be used, along with C. N. Forward's Waterfront Land Use,^ as the basis for this section. The study completed by the city also looks at the industrial land requirements for the metropolitan area and in doing so has relied upon work done some years earlier, by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of British Columbia. Figure 20 , on General Land Uses, shows, approximately 2,000 of the 2 ,834 .81 acres of industrially.zoned land in the.city. Within these d i s t r i c t s primary,manufacturing firms dominate the Vancouver manufacturing activity of-which Wood and .Wood Products, Primary Metals and Non-Metalic Minerals account for. 70 per ..cent of the manu-facturing acreage. The major land uses in the. industrial d i s t r i c t s are as follows: TABLE 26 MAJOR LAND USES IN INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS - VANCOUVER 1969 1. Manufacturing 765.12 net acres or 37.5% 2. Wholesale & Retail Trade 421.39 it it " 20.7% 3. Storage & Transport 313.55 it II " 15.4% 4. Vacant 210.87 II II " 10.3% 5 . Residential 126.56 II II 6.2% 6. Parking, Signs, Garages 55.98 II II 2.7% 7. Other Uses 144.34 ti ti 7.1% Source: Vancouver City Planning Department, 1970. 14 Vancouver..City Planning Department,.Urban Renewal Study, Teehnic'aileReport Number 4y;.?Vancduve'r--, cAugust1969 ' 15 G«rT$&rSorwpv&&!itaterfront Land Use in Metropolitan Vancouver, BritishWplunibid,'.-Geographical Paper Number 41 , Department0of Energy, Mines and' Resources , Ottawa':"" Queen' s Prihtigr 1 9 6 8 ' j ^ p 42. 16 Vancouver City Planning Department, op. cit. This survey i n d i c a t e d that approximately 75 per cent of the i n d u s t r i a l -l y zoned land (excluding the wa t e r f r o n t ) i s being used f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes and that 25 per cent i s e i t h e r vacant or i n some other tem-porary use. This 25 per cent represents 502.52 net acres. According to the Technical Report Number 4, i f the.demands continue at t h e i r present l e v e l , 12.7 years' supply of p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l land remains i n t h e . c i t y . This f i g u r e could be reduced to 10 years i f the.North and South sides of F a l s e Creek, and the F a i r v i e w slopes are^rezoned and taken out of the i n d u s t r i a l land market, which appears to be a most l i k e l y p r o p o s i t i o n . 1 7 The d e t a i l s of each p a r c e l and i t s annual take up r a t e i s expanded i n Appendix V. Vancouver, over the past f i v e years has r e c e i v e d (176) new i n -d u s t r i e s and f o l l o w s Burnaby as the second most a c t i v e i n i n d u s t r i a l development. Thus c e n t r a l - l o c a t i o n , w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, i s s t i l l a strong determining f o r c e . i n the .location -of -new i n d u s t r y . There i s a l s o a tendency f o r - t h e new.industries to be s m a l l whole-s a l e r s and w i t h d i s t r i b u t o r s h i p s . a n d - s e r v i c i n g f a c i l i t i e s . As these r e q u i r e s m a l l amounts of space,. the high .land ..values - of $50,000-18 $175,000 per acre becomes l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . . Thus the.waterfront area could be most a t t r a c t i v e f o r these new i n d u s t r i e s that import or s e l l t h e i r products overseas and .thus could c l a i m a wate r f r o n t l o c a -t i o n . At present there i s .no.-detailed Harbours Board . p o l i c y f o r the 1 7Vancouver C i t y Planning Department., ..Urban..Renewal Study, Technical Report Number 4, Vancouver, August, 1969, p. 14.-^Ibid. 3 p. 17. p r i o r i t y of w a t e r f r o n t tennants, other than by demonstrating a need f o r a w a t e r f r o n t s i t e . W i t h i n 10 years i t i s expected that a l l c i t y zoned i n d u s t r i a l land w i l l be occupied, when that occurs, there w i l l be extreme competi tiven e s s f o r such property. The s i t u a t i o n becomes l e s s c r i t i c a l once a M e t r o p o l i t a n pers-p e c t i v e i s taken. I n d u s t r i a l L a n d — M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, Appendix VI gives comparable f i g u r e s f o r acreages and values i n . t h e M e t r o p o l i -tan r e g i o n , here the 10,400 acres of vacant land i s an obvious o u t l e t f o r t h i s near c a p a c i t y s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver. In a d d i t i o n C. N. Forward suggests that the F r a s e r - P i t t River-system o f f e r s the p r i n c i p l e supply of p o t e n t i a l w a t e r f r o n t land f o r i n d u s t r y i n the 20 f u t u r e . The major disadvantage here i s the ..restricted deep sea 21 channel depth which i s l i m i t e d to 28 f e e t 6 inches. In c o n c l u s i o n i t appears that i n d u s t r i a l pressures f o r water-f r o n t land are indeed apparent.. T h e - c i t y ' s a v a i l a b l e land supply i s expected to l a s t another ten years. This demand i s not only measur-able i n land s c a r c i t y and r i s i n g v a l u e s , but a l s o i n changing indus-t r i a l demands, from primary to secondary and s e r v i c e . . The l a t t e r two r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements, s m a l l e r s i t e s and 19 Interview w i t h the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board Port Engineer Hr. L. C a r l y l e , Vancouver, B. C , J u l y 17, 1969. 20 • , . . C. N. Forward, bptaeptoy-t-gmhl J^r . • • • / - > f v < v r . p . 144 generally are more labour intensive, which r e s u l t i n t h e i r urban l o c a t i o n preference. In addition to these future i n d u s t r i e s seeking i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , i n the c i t y , there are the e x i s t i n g waterfront users who themselves require a d d i t i o n a l space i n an area where land i s already at a premium. I t would appear that the,landlords of t h i s property, the National Harbours Board, are.about to experience some unprecedented demands f o r i n d u s t r i a l space. This w i l l require some p o l i c y decisions regarding t h e i r long term.land use objectives for the waterfront. (b) R e s i d e n t i a l Requirements The residential.requirements f o r the c i t y are examined only i n terms of high density dwelling units as..this i s the only residen-t i a l land use that appears to compete e f f e c t i v e l y with i n d u s t r i a l or commercial uses for downtown waterfront property. Indications are that soon there w i l l be.a shortage of zoned land f or apartment development i n Vancouver.- Table 27 below projects when a 95 .per cent development w i l l occur i n the f i v e major apart-22 ment areas. The study by the c i t y concluded that the areas pre-sently zoned for high density r e s i d e n t i a l could reach capacity development by 1977 (high estimate) or by 1981 (low estimate). This would indicate..that most areas i n the c i t y within ten years could be subject to rezoning. There are some in d i c a t i o n s that C i t y of Vancouver, Urban. Renewal Study3..Technical Report Number 23 Vancouver, December, 1968, p. 28. 145 TABLE 27 MAJOR APARTMENT ZONES, AND 95% DEVELOPMENT DATES VANCOUVER 1969 K e r r i s d a l e 1968 South G r a n v i l l e 1970 ^ Marpole 1971 K i t s i l a n o 1972 West End 1973 Source: Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, 1969. c e r t a i n commercial zones a n d . i n d u s t r i a l zones are today being rezoned to Comprehensive Development (CD-I) so as to al l o w a r e s i d e n t i a l mix. C e r t a i n F a l s e Creek proposals have ap p l i e d f o r t h i s zoning, Denman Place i n the West End i s a r e s i d e n t i a l / c o m m e r c i a l complex, and two waterf r o n t areas are preparing such development. These are Harbour Park in. Coal Harbour, which w i l l be hotel,.convention center and apartments, and the second i s P r o j e c t 200, see Figure 22 page 160 to cover an area of 28.6 acres and w i l l c o n s i s t of three b a s i c elements. ( i ) An o f f i c e / h o t e l / t r a d e center. ( i i ) A r e s i d e n t i a l area c o n t a i n i n g .six apartment b u i l d i n g s and some town houses. ( i i i ) A department s t o r e - r e t a i l area. The r e s i d e n t i a l area alone w i l l amount to 1,417,865 square f e e t of. 23 f l o o r space. 23 V. Setty Pendakur et al„3 op, cit., p. 19. 146 In a d d i t i o n to these - developments, both of which contain l a r g e h o t e l s , there i s an e x i s t i n g w a t e r f r o n t h o t e l p r e s e n t l y being expanded at the foot of Cardero S t r e e t at the w e s t e r l y end of the -study area. Thus there appears to b e . r e s i d e n t i a l and h o t e l accommodation planned f o r the w a t e r f r o n t , before the e x i s t i n g zoned areas are themselves f i l l e d . This once again i n d i c a t e s the.presence of the urban i n f l u e n c e on the port and-the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t h i s s e t t i n g f o r high d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . In ten years, when the present apartment zones are f i l l e d , . o n e can expect areas w i t h i n the c i t y to be rezoned, however as the s h o r e l i n e has already proven to be. an a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n i t i s expected that developers w i l l continue to buy or. lease property and a i r r i g h t s i n the area f o r high d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . (c) Recreation Requirements Recreation i s assuming an i n c r e a s i n g l y important r o l e i n modern s o c i e t y and the community -is being expected to provide r e c r e -a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s to s a t i s f y the growing demand. Many r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are focused on water and waterfront. areas, and Vancouver i s f o r t u n a t e i n having p u b l i c access to more than ten miles of shore-l i n e from Stanley Park to P o i n t Grey. The Vancouver beaches have been developed f o r swimming and are used e x t e n s i v e l y each summer week-end, c a t e r i n g to as many as 50,000 to 100,000 persons on a f i n e afternoon. The New Brighton beach at the east end of the study area, sandwiched between a g r a i n e l e v a t o r and a gypsum p l a n t , i s evidence that l i m i t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l zones can e x i s t i n conjunction w i t h i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . 2 ^ I t i s most d i f f i c u l t to measure the demand and f u t u r e r e q u i r e -ment of r e c r e a t i o n a l s h o r e l i n e space. The Parks Board have f i g u r e s f o r park space requirements per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n , but at present have no o f f i c i a l p o l i c y on marine park requirements. Several s t u d i e s have been done i n the United States which i n d i c a t e the.growing demands 25 26 of a boating population.. .' Two recent s t u d i e s have been done on 2 7 28 the G u l f ; i s l a n d s and Georgia S t r a i t areas and although n e i t h e r focus d i r e c t l y on the s p e c i f i c demands of Vancouver, the l a t t e r can be r e l a t e d i n general terms. Both s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e the r a p i d growth of.boat.ownership and both,project a c c e l e r a t e d i n c r e a s e s . The N. D. Lea Study of 1966 surveyed the e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n area, and p r o j e c t e d . f u t u r e requirements to 1976 and 1986. The C i t y o / C.M. Forward, op. oit.., p. 45. 25 Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Pleasure Boating Study Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, S e a t t l e D i s t r i c t , November, 1968. 26 U.S. Department of Commerce, Developing Small Boat Harbours in Six Oregon Counties, Washington: Howland, Hayes and M e r r y f i e l d , 1965. - . 27 Barry K. C l a r k , The Formulation and Application of a Marine Recreation Planning Methodology. A .case study of the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands. M.A. Thesis i n Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. 28 N. D. Lea and A s s o c i a t e s , Recreation Boating Study in Georgia Strait Area of B: ~C, Government of Canada, Department of P u b l i c Works, 1966 ( i n the f i l e s of the department). of Vancouver p r o j e c t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : TABLE 28 BURRARD PENINSULAR WET BERTHAGE REQUIREMENTS 1966-1986 1966 T o t a l E x i s t i n g . B e r t h s 1976 1986 low 4,800 low 6,580 1,3.23 high 7,350 high 10,050: Source: N. D. Lea and A s s o c i a t e s , 1966. With i n t h i s area i n 1966 over 50 per cent of the e x i s t i n g berths were i n the Vancouver Harbour. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Table 29) l i s t 30 these berths and.their parking c a p a c i t y , the l a t t e r i s included as i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t acreage of land not u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o a t i n g . TABLE 29 VANCOUVER HARBOUR, BERTH AND.PARKING FACILITIES. 1966 Berths. Parking.Capacity Boatland Marina 165 133 Cardero Wharf Co. 23 30 Bayshore Yacht Service 16 -Wharfage Harbour Tours 55 15 Marker Marine Brokers 40 -John.Sangster L t d . 15 -Burrard Yacht Club 124 30 Royal Vancouver Yacht Club 240 46 Blackmore Marine Service 80 50 758 304 Source: N. D. Lea and A s s o c i a t e s , 1966. Ibid, j p. 52, *Ibid°j Appendix H. 149 I f the f u t u r e f a c i l i t i e s are to be patterned a f t e r the present l o c a -t i o n s , then the harbour area can expect between 2,400 and 3,700 ad-d i t i o n a l berths by 1976 and a s i m i l a r increase i n parking spaces from 300 to approximately 1,400 spaces» For the purposes of t h i s study the r a t i o between berths and parking c a p a c i t y i s assumed to be l i n e a r , and i s to be used only as a " b a l l - p a r k " f i g u r e . The r e q u i r e -ments f o r 1986 i n d i c a t e a f u r t h e r 50 per cent i ncrease f o r both berths.and parking spaces.. There i s of course no i n d i c a t i o n when f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be expanded or what p r o p o r t i o n w i l l i n f a c t develop i n the harbour. The pressure however f o r . w a t e r f r o n t marinas continues to e x i s t and i s r e f l e c t e d i n , a two-year w a i t i n g l i s t at Vancouver's l a r g e s t 300 boat downtown marina, the Burrard C i v i c . Marina at the 31 entrance to F a l s e Creek. I t would appear that t h i s marine aspect.of r e c r e a t i o n i s yet to."take o f f " as i t - h a s i n other .European and American c o a s t a l c i t i e s . Marine parks, s a l t water p i c n i c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , s a l t water camping f a c i l i t i e s , overnight and v a c a t i o n boating b o a t e l s and p u b l i c boat r e n t a l s are e n t i r e r e c r e a t i o n a l areas that have.yet to be developed i n Vancouver. The Inner Harbour.could be a n . i d e a l amphi-theatre f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l yacht and speed b o a t . r a c i n g . According to Mr. Minock i t s s h e l t e r e d l o c a t i o n would a l s o make i t a.unique l o c a -t i o n f o r yacht mooragei However there are e x i s t i n g c o n f l i c t i n g uses, 31 D i s c u s s i o n w i t h Mr. L a r r y Minock, Ph.D. student, Department of Geography, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis on Recreational Boating.. March. .14, 1970. 150 p o l l u t i o n and a l a c k of long-range harbour goals that make planning f o r t h i s r a p i d l y developing a c t i v i t y most d i f f i c u l t . In c o n c l u s i o n i t would appear that r e c r e a t i o n demands f o r marine f a c i l i t i e s are growing at an e x t r a o r d i n a r y r a t e . However these f a c i l i t i e s are not compatible w i t h t h e . e x i s t i n g harbour t r a f f i c of h o v e r c r a f t , seaplanes and marine s h i p p i n g . The s i t e requirements f o r marine pleasure c r a f t are a major l i m i t i n g f a c t o r as to where i t s development takes p l a c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , the areas have to be w e l l s h e l t e r e d . In.the case of port f a c i l i t i e s , n a t u r a l s h e l t e r i s not so c r i t i c a l , as witnessed by the Roberts Bank development. There-f o r e i t remains a matter of p o l i c y to. determine what form the fu t u r e marine f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be at Roberts Bank and Vancouver, The pre-sent competitive i n f l u e n c e of marinas and marine . f a c i l i t i e s on the port's development are minimal, however w i t h i n .ten years these de-mands are expected to in c r e a s e by 130 per cent, f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 4,000 berths and 1,500 parking spaces. (d) Commercial-Requirements Estimates f o r commercial requirements are perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t to p r o j e c t . The p r o j e c t i o n s made i n 1960 never foresaw the l a r g e s c a l e super blocks of P r o j e c t 200 and the P a c i f i c Center which together produce a t o t a l f l o o r , a r e a of approximately 4 m i l l i o n square f e e t . Thus c i t y p r o j e c t i o n s made i n 1968 f o r . t h e Arbutus Regional Shopping Center, have si n c e been r e v i s e d , and t h i s i n d i c a t e s 151 32 the r a p i d change t a k i n g p l a c e . U n l i k e t h e . i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l zones i n the c i t y , which are made up of l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d , the commercial zones are r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and are s c a t t e r e d throughout the c i t y , p r i n c i p a l l y along major thoroughfares. The d e n s i t y and permitted uses i n these areas are many and f a l l i n t o one of any of the eig h t c l a s s e s , CI, C2, C3, C4, C5, CM1, CM2, CD1. A d e t a i l e d account of each, area and each c l a s s was found unnecessary as take up of commercial land along major thoroughfares, and l o c a l d i s t r i c t s has remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n s p i t e of the l a r g e . p r o p o r t i o n of undeveloped.commercial zones that s t i l l e x i s t i n the suburban community. For example there s t i l l 33 e x i s t s 4,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s w i t h i n these d i s t r i c t s . The only s i g n i f i c a n t b l ock of land i n commercial use i s i n the downtown area and.this takes up 24.8 m i l l i o n square f e e t or 50 per cent of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's 50 m i l l i o n square f e e t . The suburban commercial area i n Vancouver amounts to 8.5 m i l l i o n square f e e t , and i s made up of 75 l o c a l areas, 14 d i s t r i c t centers and a 34 r e g i o n a l center. As the downtown area accounts f o r 90.per cent of a l l new commercial developments t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l focus on t h i s 32 Vancouver C i t y .Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report Number .6, ..Commercial Districts,. Vancouver, 1969 ( P r e l i m i n a r y D r a f t , i n the hands of,the department). ^Ibid, 34 Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Proposed Arbutus Park Regional Shopping Center, p. 14. area, which i s o u t l i n e d as the CBD on Figure 20 (page 141). Forecasts of r e t a i l s a l e s volumes f o r 1981 have been updated 35 and Table 30 below summarizes these p r o j e c t i o n s . TABLE 30 PRESENT AND FUTURE COMMERCIAL SALES VOLUMES AND FLOOR AREAS (MILLIONS OF SQUARE FEET), 1962, AND 1981 CITY AND METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1962 1981 Department, Non-Department Dept. Store- Non-Dept. Store Metro Vancouver Sales Volume . Percent F l o o r Area 174.7 100 3.00 532.9 100 8.00 274.3 100 4.60 836.9 100 12.54 C i t y of Vancouver Sales Volume Percent F l o o r Area 125.7 72 2.22 263.1 49 3.99 158.0 58 . 2.76 332.8 40 5.03 CBD | Sales Volume ! Percent F l o o r Area 108.3 62 2.2 67.3 12.6 1.03 126.2 46 2.32 79.5 9.5 1.21 Source: Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, 1969. In terms of department s t o r e business the.CBD i s seen i n the 1981 p r o j e c t i o n , . t o continue as the.dominant center, accounting f o r almost h a l f the me t r o p o l i t a n s a l e s . I t i s a l s o expected to contain h a l f the m e t r o p o l i t a n f l o o r area. The f l o o r area of non-department Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report Number 6. 153 s t o r e business i n the CBD i s a l s o expected to increase and i n t h i s case by 20 per cent i n 1981. The CBD's market share of r e t a i l s a l e s and f l o o r space i n t h i s s e c t o r i s expected, however, to d e c l i n e sub-s t a n t i a l l y . Thus from these p r o j e c t i o n s a considerable f u t u r e growth i n t o t a l commercial f l o o r space i s expected. S u b s t a n t i a l redevelopment has occurred i n the , C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t s i n c e 1963. In general t h i s has i n v o l v e d the b u i l d i n g of commercial and o f f i c e space on r e s i d e n t i a l and vacant land. Between January 1963 and J u l y 1969 a t o t a l of 27 major redevelopments were i n i t i a t e d i n the CBD, each over $500,000 i n improvement value. These developments amounted to 13.51 net acres of improvements of which 11.5 acres occurred i n the c i t y ' s t r a f f i c zones, 3 and 7, see Figure 21 f o r the l o c a t i o n of Downtown T r a f f i c Zones. I n d i c a t i o n s , according to the c i t y o f f i c i a l s , are t h a t - i n c r e a s e d redevelopment a c t i v i t y i n the near f u t u r e w i l l occur i n T r a f f i c D i s t r i c t s 9 and 13. Thus two of the four d i s t r i c t s which have-and w i l l experience the great e s t commercial and o f f i c e redevelopment, border the w a t e r f r o n t . This again i n d i c a t e s the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of Urban Development cl o s e to the wa t e r f r o n t . As suggested e a r l i e r , the p r o j e c t i o n s of f u t u r e demands f o r s u i t a b l e commercial space i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (Table 31) compiled by the c i t y i s an attempt to account f o r the supply of undeveloped commercially zoned land i n the eigh t t r a f f i c zones i n the urban core area."^ 155 TABLE 31 SUPPLY IN ACRES OF UNDEVELOPED LAND BY TRAFFIC DISTRICTS CBD VANCOUVER, 1969 T r a f f i c Zone Vacant Areas Older R e s i d e n t i a l Acres Unimproved Parking Acres T o t a l Acres Under Used Commercial and Indus-t r i a l Acres 3 .6 10.0 12.8 23.4 25.9 6 .1 ' - .9 1.0 10.4 7 - .4 3.9 4.3 20.7 8 .2: .9 10.1 .11.2 12.8 9 2.4 9.7 11.3 23.4 27.3 10 .2 2.0 4.8 7.0 12.2 11 .5 .1 7.6 8.2 9.5 !3 .5 6.7 6.8 14.0 31.5 T o t a l 4.5 29.8 58.2 92.5 150.3 Source: Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, 1969. In t o t a l 92.5 net acres are a v a i l a b l e . At the average r a t e of development which p r e v a i l e d from 1963 to 1969 (2.08 net acres per y e a r ) , t h i s supply would take 44.5 years to f i l l up. Even i f the highest r a t e recorded (4.44 net acres i n 1967) were used, complete redevelopment of the CBD would r e q u i r e 25 years. This f i g u r e of 92.5 acres i s not a true f i g u r e as underdeveloped land.must be i n c l u d e d . Thus a l l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h improvements to land r a t i o s below 2.00 are t o t a l e d i n the l a s t columns of the above t a b l e . The new t o t a l of a v a i l a b l e land i s now 242.8 net acres and t h i s i s equal to 69 per cent of the CBD. At h i s t o r i c a l development 156 37 rat e s t h i s would take 116 years to f i l l up. Future developments are not l i m i t e d to surface space alone: The p o s s i b i l i t y of f u t u r e developments u t i l i z i n g s t r e e t a i r r i g h t s or sub-surface r i g h t s , parking l o t a i r s p a c e , r a i l w a y a i r r i g h t s would suggest that perhaps the e n t i r e CBD could be cl a s s e d as having dev-elopment p o t e n t i a l . In c o n c l u s i o n i t would appear t h a t ^ t h e r e i s adequate supply of commercial and o f f i c e space w i t h i n the c i t y and the C e n t r a l B u s i -ness D i s t r i c t to take care .of the f u t u r e requirements f o r many years, perhaps i n d e f i n i t e l y , e s p e c i a l l y by applying-the space and a i r r i g h t s concept. T h e o r e t i c a l l y there should be no commercial urban i n f l u e n c e on the w a t e r f r o n t . In a c t u a l i t y the water f r o n t i s an a t t r a c t i o n f o r commercial and o f f i c e a c t i v i t y , as witnessed by recent developments i n t r a f f i c zone 3 and proposals f o r zone,13. A d i s c u s s i o n of recent developments as w e l l as -development proposals f o l l o w s ; which demonstrates how n o n - i n d u s t r i a l businesses are l o c a t i n g i n , as w e l l as adjacent t o , the wa t e r f r o n t . C. INTERFERING LAND USES (1) Zoning and General Land Use A t r a d i t i o n a l method of examining the urban i n f l u e n c e i s to examine the zoning r e g u l a t i o n s and see i f changes have occurred i n Ibid. 157 both zoning and land use. These are r e l a t i v e l y simple to measure. Changes i n zoning come about,from a v a r i e t y of reasons, p o l i t i c a l , s p e c u l a t i v e , s o c i a l or economic, however without over g e n e r a l i z i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n , there has to be a s i g n i f i c a n t market demand to rezone land. New York C i t y i s o f t e n quoted as an example of a d e n s i t y popu-l a t e d c i t y , and i n 1964 recorded a t o t a l of 4,977 persons per square 38 m i l e . The C i t y of Vancouver d e n s i t y i s double that of New York and one can t h e r e f o r e speculate that land i n t h i s c i t y i s indeed suscep-39 t i b l e to development pressures. Most c i t y maps i n d i c a t e the study area to be an i n d u s t r i a l w a t e r f r o n t . F i g u r e 20 (page 141) shows the general land.uses s u r -rounding the w a t e r f r o n t , which f o r the most pa r t conform w i t h the zoning. 40 A recent c i t y p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1968, i n d i c a t e d two zoning changes on the w a t e r f r o n t , one.from i n d u s t r i a l to r e s i d e n t i a l and the other from i n d u s t r i a l to commercial. These p r o p e r t i e s cover the w e s t e r l y 1,000 f e e t of s h o r e l i n e bordering Stanley Park. A year l a t e r these same p r o p e r t i e s along w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l 1,000 f e e t were a l l rezoned to Comprehensive Development (CD1). Comprehensive Dev-elopment allows f o r a mix of r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial land uses. 38 Benjamin C h i n i t z , loc. cit, 39 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Municipal Statistics for year ended 1968, V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969 (Vancouver C i t y 1969 P o p u l a t i o n 440,000, and area 44 square m i l e s ) . 40 Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Downtown Vancouver, Part 1, The Issues, Vancouver, 1968. This zoning category i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of developers demanding great e r f l e x i b i l i t y f o r developments, however the C i t y argue that 41 t h i s form of zoning a l s o allows f o r greater c i v i c c o n t r o l . In 1968 the developers of P r o j e c t 200 a p p l i e d f o r rezoning f o r Stage 1 of t h e . p r o j e c t which covers 500 f e e t of s h o r e l i n e (see Figure 22, page 160, f o r l o c a t i o n of P r o j e c t 200). This they r e c e i v e d from the c i t y , and i t appears that e v e n t u a l l y the e n t i r e p r o j e c t w i l l r e c e i v e t h i s zoning c o n d i t i o n . The t o t a l rezoned s h o r e l i n e area, i n c l u d i n g a l l of P r o j e c t 200 which i s 2,000 f e e t , amounts to a p p r o x i -mately 4,000 f e e t , that has, and w i l l have-changed from i n d u s t r i a l to comprehensive development. The e n t i r e w a t e r f r o n t s h o r e l i n e adjacent to the downtown p e n i n s u l a , from Stanley Park to Main S t r e e t i s about 10,000 f e e t . Therefore approximately .40 per cent of t h i s s h o r e l i n e i s . n o longer port o r i e n t a t e d . I t ; i s assumed that i t i s t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e to maintain the e n t i r e w a t e r f r o n t . f o r maritime f a c i l i t i e s , by dredging. At present the Coal Harbour p o r t i o n i s only dredged to a low water depth of 18 f e e t , which i s ample however f o r f e r r y , barge and c o a s t a l t r a f f i c , but p r e s e n t l y inadequate f o r deep sea s h i p p i n g . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t of t h e . e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n on the c i t y ' s d e n s i t y , that these changes i n w a t e r f r o n t zoning have a l l taken place adjacent to,the Urban -Core and the High Density West End. From t h i s b r i e f survey, i t appears t h a t . i n d u s t r i a l land i s indeed at a premium i n the C i t y of Vancouver, and yet i t appears to be, 41 Interview w i t h Mr. W. E.. Graham,. D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, J u l y 17, 1969. 159 most s u s c e p t i b l e to rezoning e s p e c i a l l y along the Inner Harbour as witnessed by, Harbour Park Development, the Bayshore H o t e l , and P r o j e c t 200. These developments confirm the t h e s i s that a l t e r n a t i v e use of the w a t e r f r o n t i s being sought. (2) Recent Developments and Development Proposals The purpose of examining.recent and proposed developments i s to show where they are o c c u r r i n g and what p r o p o r t i o n are on or adjacent to the w a t e r f r o n t . By seeing the concentration of developments, which are shown i n Figure 22 an o v e r a l l impression i s gained, which i n d i c a t e s that most development i s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n f i v e blocks of the w a t e r f r o n t . New o f f i c e developments i n the Commercial and C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t , not shown on the map, tend .to-concentrate at the n o r t h e r l y edge of these d i s t r i c t s . A l i s t of these i s seen i n Table 32. Between 1966 and 1969 the f o l l o w i n g t h i r t e e n o f f i c e towers were b u i l t , a l l w i t h i n the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t and w i t h i n a few blocks of the Port I n t e r f a c e . T h e i r t o t a l o f f i c e space amounts to 42 1,839,600 square f e e t . rThe remaining developments and development proposals that border the waterfront are b r i e f l y discussed, from west to east. Only the l a r g e r developments are seen i n Figure 22. Greater Vancouver Real Estat e Board, Real Estate Trends in Metropolitan Vancouver3 S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver, 1968, p. C.13. Second Crossing Approach 22 Major Developments and Proposals SOURCE:! CITY PLANNING, URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM 1966 OA O 161 TABLE 32 RECENT OFFICE DEVELOPMENTS- IN DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER, 1966-1969-Year B u i l d i n g Sq. F t . : 1966 N e s b i t t Thompson B u i l d i n g 65,500 1966 P r e s c o t t B u i l d i n g 50,700 1967 B e n t a l l Centre 1st Tower 245,000 1967 Royal General Insurance 97,000 1967 P h i l l i p s B u i l d i n g 67,000 1968 Montreal Trust B u i l d i n g 83,400 1968 P a c i f i c P a l i s a d e s 20,000 1969 MacMillan B l o e d e l 340,000 1969 Board of Trade 286,000 1969 Guiness Tower 260,000 1969 B e n t a l l Centre 2nd Tower 170,000 1969 West Coast Transmission 150,000 1969 . 885 Dunsmuir B u i l d i n g 65,000 1,839,600 Source: Greater Vancouver Real E s t a t e Board, 1968. The Harbour Park Area. Recently re-assigned to Mar-West Devel-opments from the N a t i o n a l Harbours Boardi f o r the purpose of developing a h o t e l , apartment, trade center. This development w i l l occupy water-f r o n t property to the e x c l u s i o n of any shipping or commerce. Bayshore Inn H o t e l Complex. Extensions there w i l l accommodate some 500 rooms. Future developments a n t i c i p a t e a t h i r d h o t e l tower of 700 rooms as w e l l as other f a c i l i t i e s . This development occupies water-f r o n t property and these extensions have been made p o s s i b l e through the 162 use of extensive land f i l l s . The low water depth of.Coal Harbour i n the v i c i n i t y i s 20 f e e t . This p r o j e c t occupies over 500 f e e t of w a t e r f r o n t and i s not designed to accommodate shipping or maritime commerce. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Eerry S l i p . This land f i l l wharf and parking area of 10,000 square f e e t replaces the o l d Canadian P a c i f i c Railway P i e r A, and i s used almost e x c l u s i v e l y f o r trucks that are f e r r i e d to Vancouver I s l a n d and the Gulf I s l a n d s . New F i r s t Narrows -Crossing. The exact - l o c a t i o n and dimension of the causway w i l l be determined once the c i t y s e l e c t s i t s route. This s t r u c t u r e which protrudes i n t o the harbour w i l l undoubtedly r e -s t r i c t s h i p ping a c t i v i t y to i t s west as the n a v i g a t i o n channel w i l l be narrower. I f the waterfront freeway route i s adopted, i t w i l l e f f e c -t i v e l y cut o f f a l l parts of the w a t e r f r o n t from Burrard to Main St r e e t from the urban area i n terms of e f f i c i e n t t r uck access. The e x i s t i n g designs have not accommodated a wat e r f r o n t truck route. North Vancouver Commuter Ferr y Terminal. , A s m a l l temporary loa d i n g f a c i l i t y to accommodate,commuters to the CBD l o c a t e d at the f o o t of G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . P a c i f i c H overcraft L i m i t e d . A s m a l l temporary l o a d i n g and s t o r -age f a c i l i t y of 7,440 square f e e t that w i l l accommodate the v e h i c l e which connects Vancouver w i t h Nanaimo. 163 P r o j e c t 200. The t o t a l p r o j e c t covers some 28 acres and w i l l extend 2,000 f e e t along the w a t e r f r o n t . The waterfront s e c t i o n i s not designed to accommodate shipping or marine f a c i l i t i e s . The e x i s t i n g P i e r s B and C, at i t s w e s t e r l y boundary, w i l l remain. Because of the l a r g e volumes of t r a f f i c that t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l generate the. f u t u r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y of P i e r s B and C, f o r t r u c k t r a f f i c to s e r v i c e t h i s major general cargo and passenger t e r m i n a l , i s questionable. The P r o j e c t i s designed to accommodate 900,000 square f e e t of o f f i c e space, 2,000,000 square f e e t of r e t a i l space, 1,000 h o t e l rooms, 1,000 a p a r t -ments and parking space f o r 7,000 v e h i c l e s , and w i l l . g e n e r a t e 4,000 peak hou r ; a u t o m o b i l e . t r i p s . Townsite Renewal Program. A renewal-program s t a r t e d i n 1969 to "save Gastown", the h i s t o r i c center of Vancouver. The area covers s e v e r a l blocks and t h i s program.has encouraged reinvestment i n an area of once d e c l i n i n g land v a l u e s . These -increasing land v a l u e s , have acted as a formidable b a r r i e r against i n d u s t r i a l expansion i n t o t h i s area, a land use that appears to be needed along t h i s w a t e r f r o n t . P r o j e c t 100. N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. The f i r s t stage of t h i s 100 acre p r o j e c t has been completed and c o n s i s t s of a new con-t a i n e r t e r m i n a l w i t h one berth of 687 f e e t and approximately 5 acres of backland. The remaining 90 acres of f i l l has been temp o r a r i l y h a l t e d , as d i s c u s s i o n s continue as to the f u t u r e r o l e of the inner V. Setty Pendakur et a l . , op., cit., ...-p.. 50. 164 harbour. The major c o n f l i c t here i s the e s t h e t i c impact of such a f a c i l i t y which would be viewed by thousands of o f f i c e workers from the new and proposed developments. Mr. D. Mooney, the General Manager of Marathon R e a l t y , who are the partners i n P r o j e c t 200, i n d i c a t e d that should P r o j e c t 100 be completed he s e r i o u s l y doubted i f h i s own P r o j e c t 200 would be b u i l t to i t s intended c a p a c i t y . . He i n d i c a t e d that much of the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of,the P r o j e c t would be l o s t i f the 44 N a t i o n a l Harbours Board p e r s i s t e d w i t h t h e i r development. Whether the d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of P r o j e c t 100 has been i n f l u e n c e d i n any" way by the developers of the $300 m i l l i o n P r o j e c t 200, w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to confirm, however i t must s u r e l y be recognized as -an urban pressure that i s e f f e c t i n g port development. Urban Renewal P r o j e c t s 1 and.2; Urban Renewal Schemes 3, 4A, 5  and 6. The Urban Renewal P r o j e c t s and Schemes, the f i r s t three of which are completed, are attempts to redevelop areas that are d e c l i n -i n g , both i n the p h y s i c a l and economic sense. None of these schemes s p i l l i n t o w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y , but they face a s u b s t a n t i a l area of w a t e r f r o n t both i n F a l s e Creek and along the harbour wate r f r o n t from Main S t r e e t east to Semlin D r i v e . Thus the c i t y has attempted to i n j e c t new l i f e , i n t o these o l d areas i n the hopes that they w i l l once again become a t t r a c t i v e areas and r e g a i n some of t h e i r l o s t land v a l u e s . This p o l i c y i n e f f e c t w i l l hinder the f u t u r e port o r i e n t a t e d i n d u s t r i a l 44 Interview w i t h Mr. D. J . Mooney, General Manager, Marathon Re a l t y Company L i m i t e d , Vancouver, June 12, 1969. 165 lands spreading from the w a t e r f r o n t i n t o the c i t y i n places where land values were once decreasing. Thus the urban renewal p o l i c y can be described as a d e f i n i t e pressure that w i l l impede the development of port back-up. lands i n t o the c i t y . In c o n c l u s i o n i t would appear that there are indeed urban developments that w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y hinder w a t e r f r o n t development, espec-i a l l y i n terms of o b t a i n i n g r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive port back-up lands. Adjacent to the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t and west to Stanley Park i t appears that developments have g e n e r a l l y u t i l i z e d w a t e r f r o n t lands. This w e s t e r l y p o r t i o n once considered e x c e l l e n t f o r deep-sea f a c i l i t i e s , accounts f o r approximately o n e - t h i r d of the c i t y ' s w a t e r f r o n t space i n the Burrard I n l e t . In the remaining t w o - t h i r d s , where i t i s expected that maritime commerce w i l l continue, 50 per cent of t h i s area has and w i l l experience major developments at the urban i n t e r f a c e which w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y hinder development of t h i s area f o r storage and cargo handling. In the remaining 25 per cent which i s the e a s t e r l y 10,000 f e e t , 1,500 f e e t i s park land and the r e s t has both l i m i t e d and steep back-up lands. W i t h i n 500 f e e t of t h i s s h o r e l i n e steepness of the slope i s between 11-15 per cent, see Figure 6 (page 37). Thus the e n t i r e w a t e r f r o n t has been i n f l u e n c e d i n terms o f - f u t u r e development by e i t h e r geographic c o n d i t i o n s or man made urban developments. 166 D. THE DISARRANGEMENT OF SITES The hypothesis s t a t e d among other t h i n g s , that there was a d i s -arrangement of s i t e s w i t h i n the port area. Figures 23 and 24 t r a c e the major (75 per cent or over) trade flows to and from the water f r o n t s i t e s . The tenants have been evenly spaced along the water f r o n t f o r car t o g r a p h i c purposes, and thus the f i g u r e s are not the true p a t t e r n i n g . I t appears that there i s a random.spatial r e l a t i o n s h i p between the businesses and t h e i r markets. No one s e c t i o n of the waterfront has s p e c i a l i z e d i n any one of the four markets, f o r example i n d u s t r i e s t r a d i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h the m e t r o p o l i t a n area are not n e c e s s a r i l y l o c a t e d c l o s e s t to i t , i . e . , at the e a s t e r l y end of the study area. S i m i l a r l y businesses r e c e i v i n g and sending goods to the " r e s t of Canada" are s c a t t e r e d throughout the w a t e r f r o n t . The economies that r e s u l t f r o m - c e n t r a l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s or s y s -t e m a t i c a l l y arranging land uses, thereby.reducing- s e r v i c e c o s t s , t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and handling c o s t s , are not being r e a l i z e d . For example i n t h i s area f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s are concentrated, but at three separ-.. ate l o c a t i o n s and the same i s true f o r g r a i n - e l e v a t o r s ; ' Cargo wharves and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s are in t e r m i n g l e d w i t h a l l other users. Each business could be more e f f i c i e n t l y served, i n terms of marine and land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i f the w a t e r f r o n t was planned around common t r a n s p o r t a t i o n needs. J o i n t access roads, j o i n t parking and bay areas are obvious economies that could be r e a l i z e d . Causes of such disarrangements are complex and c o s t l y to remedy, however as the harbour continues to be 169 developed, and ol d e r areas become condemned, i . e . , Fisherman's Wharf at Campbell Avenue, the o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n can be .improved, by adopt-in g a systematic a l l o c a t i o n of land uses. A f u r t h e r aspect of t h i s problem i s the mixed v a r i e t y of users w i t h i n the wat e r f r o n t lands.. The Waterfront Survey (1969) found that 28 out of 74 occupants had no deep-sea access, i n an area c l a s s i f i e d by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board as prime deep-sea w a t e r f r o n t . Therefore 38 per cent of the occupants along the. deep-sea t e r m i n a l are not engaged i n deep-sea s h i p p i n g , and th e r e f o r e presumably have d i f f e r i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s e r v i c e requirements from the r e s t . Thus not only do the i n d u s t r i e s appear to be randomly s c a t t e r e d along the wat e r f r o n t but the i n d u s t r i e s themselves are not a l l port o r i e n t a t e d . I t i s i n t h i s context that the s i t e s along the waterfront are found to be i n a s t a t e of disarrangement. E. OTHER URBAN PORT RELATIONSHIPS (1) Comparative Land Values Changes i n land values i s one method of observing the major development p a t t e r n s of the c i t y . In terms of the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t , where most research by the c i t y has been done^ Figures 25 and 26 show the r e l a t i v e change i n values from 1950 to 1965. The C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t , the West End and most p a r t s of downtown west of G r a n v i l l e s t r e e t have experienced continuous increases i n land v a l u e s , i n s e v e r a l areas over 100-per cent-increases i n each 172 ten year p e r i o d . In 1961 these values along the downtown waterfront ranged from $2.00 to $25.00 (see Figure 27). The i n f l u e n c e . o f t h i s change of both r i s i n g values i n the down-town, and decreasing values i n the east i s d i f f i c u l t to measure i n exact terms along the w a t e r f r o n t , however at a macro l e v e l t h i s has been done. The study by.Forward c l e a r l y demonstrated the pre-eminence of 45 the Inner Harbour i n terms of market values of waterfront land. In 1965 the per acre value of w a t e r f r o n t , from Stanley Park to Clarke D r i v e , 50 per cent of the c i t y w a t e r f r o n t , was p r i c e s at over $50,000 per acre. From Clarke Drive to Boundary Road the value was placed at $15,000 to $50,000 per acre, the second highest category. From h i s study there appears to be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between, the p r i c e of water-f r o n t property and the i n t e n s i t y of development i n the a d j o i n i n g urban area. Waterfront l o t s have complex assessment procedures, each are assessed i n terms of land l o t s , f i l l l o t s and water l o t s , i n a d d i t i o n t h e i r boundaries are d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e i n the assessment r o l l s . An attempt was made to e s t a b l i s h land values along the w a t e r f r o n t , and compare these w i t h the urban i n t e r f a c e lands to determine what i n f l u e n c e one may have on the other. This was abandoned due to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n data c o l l e c t i o n , and an a l t e r n a t i v e procedure of assessment comparison was used. There have been no s a l e s of Vancouver harbour-front C. N. Forward, op. ait* 3 p. 42. source: Vancouver Planning Dept: V , ' MILE DRAWN BY J R HUNT 19?0 | Average sq. ft. Value by Blocks, Downtown, 1961. property f o r many years t o e s t a b l i s h current market values and i n tur n assessments, and.therefore the method of comparing assessments has l i m i t a t i o n s . For the purposes of t h i s study they have been used f o r comparative purposes only. The c i t y assessor who i s aware of rents charged by the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, has c a p i t a l i z e d these r e n t a l values i n determining h i s assessment value. The: N a t i o n a l Harbours Board had t h e i r harbour property appraised by J . B. Ward and A s s o c i a t e s i n 1966 and from t h i s have set t h e i r annual r e n t a l r a t e s , these being 7.75 per cent of t h i s appraised value. Most of the land area i n the Harbour i s f i l l e d and th e r e f o r e the r a t e f o r f i l l e d land i s g e n e r a l l y the same as f o r upland. F i l l e d land ranges i n value from $1.00 per square foot and up. The assessed values f o r 46 Harbours Board p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n the study area i s as f o l l o w s . TABLE 33 NATIONAL HARBOURS BOARD PROPERTY ASSESSMENTS VANCOUVER 1970 Per Square Foot Cardero S t r e e t to Boundary Road A l l water areas $ .53 Cardero S t r e e t to Heatley Avenue Land $1.75 Heatley Avenue to C l a r k Drive Land $1.45 C l a r k Drive to Boundary Road Land $1.25 Source: Vancouver C i t y Assessment Department, 1970. Interview w i t h Mr. Peter George, C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, March 12, 1970. 175 Though these are general figures they indicate an obvious decrease in values the further one moves from the downtown area. This pattern of decreasing land values, occurring with distance from the.Central Business District has been a common phenomena in most cities and in the case of Vancouver, Table 34 shows the changing downtown land values. As in the case of the waterfront, with increased distance from the center, land values decrease. In conclusion i t appears that the highest urban land values are adjacent to.the highest waterfront assessments and similarly the lowest waterfront assessments are adjacent.to lower city land values. The causal relationship between these is a-complex subject however for the purpose of this study i t is concluded, as a result of the previous findings, and discussions with the Assessment Department, that the urban influence is primarily responsible for the variation in waterfront assessments. This influence.is not only seen in assess-ments but also rentals, which in turn partly determine the tenants.. (2) Social Considerations The significant urban influences on port development have al-ready been mentioned and are generally quantifiable; These are, for example, existing traffic flows with which port traffic must contend, changing land values, non-port orientated developments, and the availability of land. There are, however, other relationships that are often visible but difficult to isolate.and measure. -For example the influence of two large ethnic groups,.-Chinese and Japanese, being \ 176 TABLE 34 MARKET VALUES OF LAND: CITY OF VANCOUVER, 1961, 1967 Downtown 1961 1967 % of change West End & Bulge $ 51,030,000 $ 95,151,000 +86.5 CBD & East Hastings 103,200,000 101,536,000 - 1,6 Main-Georgia 5,357,000 4,404,000 -17.8 T o t a l $159,587,000 $201,091,000 +26.0 C i t y T o t a l $780,000 $1,180,877,000 +51.4 Source: Land Values 1961-1967, Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, March 1968, p. 3. adjacent to the w a t e r f r o n t , and the i n f l u e n c e of the "sk i d - r o a d " com-munity"are d i f f i c u l t to gauge. S i m i l a r l y the b e n e f i t s of l i v i n g c l o s e to t h i s centre of employment f o r the f i s h processing i n d u s t r y and the casual w a t e r f r o n t gangs re q u i r e d f o r longshoring, are again apparent but d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y . I t was reported by f i s h i n g company managers and the longshoreman's union s t a f f that both r e l y on t h i s downtown area f o r much of t h e i r seasonal h e l p . On c l e a r days most vantage p o i n t s along the w a t e r f r o n t , e s p e c i a l -l y the Ba l l a n t y n e P i e r parking l o t , are l i n e d w i t h persons viewing the harbour a c t i v i t y . For the l o c a l r e s i d e n t i t may be a f l e e t i n g l o o k , f o r the v i s i t o r s who have never seen a p o r t , i t could be a f a s c i n a t i n g h a l f - h o u r , and f o r the unemployed and r e t i r e d i t could be h i s major pastime. -.Employees at the Centennial p i e r noted that there are a 177 l a r g e number of " r e g u l a r s " that come, r a i n or s h i n e , and even respect each other's spaces along the r a i l i n g . ^ 7 (3) P o l l u t i o n and B l i g h t -F i n a l l y the cause and e f f e c t of b l i g h t , though e a s i l y observ-a b l e , i s again d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h . Whether b l i g h t at the water-f r o n t causes b l i g h t i n the adjacent c i t y , or v i c e v e r s a i s not known, and would r e q u i r e considerable research. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d at the beginning of t h i s chapter that the r o l e of the downtown waterfront has changed markedly over the l a s t century. The w a t e r f r o n t area i s no longer the c i t y ' s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n hub as i t once used to be, i n f a c t the c i t y appears to have v i r t u a l l y "turned i t s back".on t h i s area. This d i s i n t e r e s t i s r e f l e c t e d i n many ways, b o t h . s o c i a l and economic, a l l of which gives t h i s area i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . On the urban s i d e of the port i n t e r f a c e , downtown land values have g e n e r a l l y d e c l i n e d , except i n the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t and the west.end. . D e c l i n i n g land values and older b u i l d i n g s o f t e n witness changes i n tenants, from r e t a i l i n g to whole-s a l i n g . This general change i s witnessed i n the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t which has been moving i n a w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n from i t s o l d center on Hastings S t r e e t . L i k e most c o a s t a l c i t i e s , Vancouver a l s o f i n d s i t s o l d e s t s e c t i o n l o c a t e d at the w a t e r f r o n t , i n a s t a t e of 47 Interview w i t h the two attendants, Gate House, Centennial P i e r , January 19, 1970. d e c l i n e , and making no p o s i t i v e use of the water. C i v i c improvements i n areas l i k e these, have been minimal. For example w h i l e most of the c i t y i s sewered, the waterfront i s not. Plans are however under way to remedy t h i s and the Harbour West I n t e r c e p t o r , from Cardero.Street to Main S t r e e t w i l l be completed i n 1971, and the Harbour East I n t e r c e p t o r from Main S t r e e t to Boundary 48 Road by 1978. P r e s e n t l y not only do most.of the harbourfront 49 i n d u s t r i e s dump t h e i r waste m a t e r i a l s d i r e c t l y i n t o the harbour, but there are a l s o four c i t y o u t f a l l s that d r a i n i n t o t h i s area. As p o l l u t i o n of waters i s a major c o n t r i b u t o r to wat e r f r o n t b l i g h t , i t would appear that the c i t y i s c o n t r i b u t i n g and i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s process of b l i g h t . i n terms of untreated sewage and i n d u s t r i a l wastes that d r a i n from the n o r t h - e a s t e r l y s e c t i o n of the c i t y i n t o the harbour area. Underlying a l l problems of development i n the harbour area i s the b a s i c need f o r p o l l u t i o n abatement and.control. Use of urban w a t e r f r o n t s f o r e i t h e r , i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, r e s i d e n t i a l or r e c r e a t i o n a l use, i s and w i l l continue to be s e v e r e l y . i n h i b i t e d by the present p o l l u t e d c o n d i t i o n s of the harbour. The causes of e x i s t i n g p o l l u t i o n are s e v e r a l , o r i g i n a t i n g from both the C i t y and the P o r t . The major causes being as f o l l o w s : 48 Interview w i t h Mr. D. Purdon, Chief Engineer, Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t , March 13, 1970. 49 N a t i o n a l Harbours Board O f f i c i a l s were not prepared to give d e t a i l s on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n as "the s i t u a t i o n i s soon'to be r e c t i f i e d " . . 179 Discharge, of .untreated ;sewerage f rom!"upland.. areasxnnr,, Discharge of untreated i n d u s t r i a l waste, i n c l u d i n g chemicals. Discharge of organic refuse from food processing p l a n t s . Seepage from petro-ehemicals i n storage tanks. Discharge of o i l and'untreated sewerage from v e s s e l s . Water p o l l u t i o n may not only be discouraging new i n d u s t r i e s from l o c -a t i n g at the harbour, but a l s o may be discouraging new land uses. At the marine s i d e of the port i n t e r f a c e , t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n s h i p ping and goods handling are p l a c i n g severe c o n s t r a i n t s on the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and unless these are f l e x i b l e enough to meet the changing demands they w i l l , i n t u r n , become obsolete. . The de t e r -i o r a t i o n of o l d bulkheading.and other r e t e n t i o n s t r u c t u r e s , as w e l l as the general age and c o n d i t i o n of the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s are an i n d i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l causes of b l i g h t . Thus d e t e r i o r a t i o n of harbour f a c i l i t i e s or upland areas can r e s u l t from a number of f a c t o r s — a l t h o u g h there appears to be some p a t t e r n i n g . I f poor con-d i t i o n s e x i s t on one s i d e of the i n t e r f a c e , t h e y are l i k e l y to e x i s t on the other. The West End and Downtown w i l l soon be mirro r e d w i t h s i m i l a r high investment waterfront p r o j e c t s . S i m i l a r l y the poor wharf c o n d i t i o n s from Main S t r e e t to Commercial D r i v e are mi r r o r e d by poor housing and commercial d i s t r i c t s at the urban i n t e r f a c e . There are a host of other s o c i a l f o r c e s that operate between C i t y and P o r t . The n o s t a l g i c and h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of the por t ' s development, i s f o r many, the h i s t o r y of Vancouver. Secondly 180 the port f o r seamen i s t h e i r only contact w i t h other persons and f o r them i t has yet a d i f f e r e n t r o l l . T h i r d l y port c i t i e s are o f t e n notorious centers of underworld a c t i v i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n drug t r a f f i c -i n g . Examples such as these are many and serve to show that there are complex i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The w a t e r f r o n t i s . l i k e any other s e c t i o n of the c i t y , i t i s an a c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g organ l i n k e d by numerous and complex t i e s to that greater organism, the c i t y . (4) The C o n t r o l of the Port The'Harbour of Vancouver i s owned, c o n t r o l l e d and administered by a m u l t i p l i c i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , government bodies and corpora-t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of those o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have c o n t r o l over some pa r t of the study area, and i n t h i s sense have an i n -fluence over i t . A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s aspect i s presented i n Chapter V I . F e d e r a l Government; p r o v i n c i a l .Government; N a t i o n a l Harbours Board; Canadian P a c i f i c .Railway C i t y of Vancouver; Vancouver Parks B o a r d ' D e f e n c e ; Department,.of Pubig&r$6r^^.'Department of Transport; Department Immigration'Dep^ Board; The Greater Vancouver Sewerage and.'.Drainage[•.Distrlet;,.The Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t ; O t h e r Provincial^Departments - F i s h e r i e s , Highways, -Fore's'ts..''Waterf.'.Public 'Works, Recreation and Conser-v a t i o n , e t c . 181 F. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE PORT FUNCTION ON THE CITY OF VANCOUVER Thus f a r i t has been shown that.the land i n the por t area i s being caught i n a squeeze. The urban area's growth i s r e s u l t i n g i n an urban overflow i n t o the p o r t , and at the same time the congestion of urban t r a f f i c i s making the port f a c i l i t i e s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . The second f o r c e i n t h i s pressure squeeze was described i n Chapter IV i n which the t e c h n o l o g i c a l change.taking place i n both the shipping i n d u s t r y and marine handling technology has r e s u l t e d i n the need f o r an increased p o r t area. Some of these space demands can be met through land f i l l , but others may have to i n v o l v e redevelopment of adjacent urban areas, e s p e c i a l l y f o r improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n access and d i s t r i b u t i o n routes. These conclusions are based on the assump-t i o n that the present port f u n c t i o n and occupants are to continue. E q u a l l y p o s s i b l e i s the proposal that c e r t a i n users r e l o c a t e t h e i r operations to other i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s or c e r t a i n s h i p p i n g f u n c t i o n s be r e l o c a t e d to the new Roberts Bank Superport. I t i s not the purpose of t h i s study to complete such an i n v e s -t i g a t i o n but r a t h e r to present an overview of the economic b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d by the c i t y as a r e s u l t of port a c t i v i t y . In t h i s way there i s a b e t t e r understanding of the urban impact should the present con-d i t i o n s be allowed to continue to the p o i n t of choking the port operations. This choking process can occur very r a p i d l y as shippers change shipping routes and import or export through S e a t t l e or other P a c i f i c North West P o r t s , The r e c u r r i n g longshoremen's s t r i k e s have 182 demonstrated the a b i l i t y w i t h which shippers and t r u c k i n g companies can switch t h e i r operations to the American networks. F i n a l l y , any de c i s i o n s to r e l o c a t e shipping a c t i v i t y to Roberts Bank w i l l have to be preceded by a more d e t a i l e d examination of t h i s f o l l o w i n g economic survey to determine the o v e r a l l costs and b e n e f i t s to the c i t y and reg i o n . For example the tax b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d from a new land use i n the Inner Harbour, would have to be considered. The economic impact of maritime commerce i s here defined as that p o r t i o n of the c i t y ' s jobs that would not e x i s t were the port not present. A l t h o u g h . t h i s i s a h y p o t h e t i c a l statement, i t allows f o r an overview. At a more p r e c i s e l e v e l s e v e r a l s e c t o r s of the port s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y were asked i f they would have to r e l o c a t e to Roberts Bank should the s h i p p i n g f u n c t i o n be moved to that l o c a t i o n . Comment on t h i s was made e a r l i e r i n the s e c t i o n on Ser v i c e L i n k s , page.124. Two b a s i c methods have been used i n the past to measure the impact from p o r t s . The f i r s t measures the d i r e c t income generated by each ton of goods handled at the w a t e r f r o n t , and the second i s an employment measure which simply r e l a t e s the t o t a l "port p o p u l a t i o n " to the c i t y p o p u l a t i o n . (1) Cargo-Generated,Income The port income approach was pioneered i n 1953 by the Delaware R i v e r Port A u t h o r i t y , a n d l a t e r improved upon i n 1959."'"'" For the "^Delaware.-..River Port A u t h o r i t y , The Value of a Ton of Cargo to the Area's Economy, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1953. ^Delaware R i v e r P o r t - A u t h o r i t y , -The Economic Impact of the Delaware River Ports, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1959. 183 purposes of t h i s study the Economic Review by E r i c Schenker e n t i t l e d , 52 The Port of Milwaukee, w i l l be used as a base as there are no f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r Vancouver. At best these f i g u r e s i n Table 35, on income generated from p o r t a c t i v i t y , must only be taken as " b a l l - p a r k " comparisons. TABLE 35 INCOME GENERATED BY PORT ACTIVITY, PORT OF VANCOUVER STUDY AREA - 1968 Commodity Income per Ton Milwaukee (a) 1963 Income Per Ton Vancouver (b) 1968 Tonnage Vancouver (c) T o t a l Income From Commodity General Cargo Grains Petroleum Coal Soybeans S a l t Ores $17.00 5.45 2.67 2.21 ) 5.45 ) Dry 2.21 ) 1.60 ) $20.00 6.50 3.20 Bulk 2.50 3,225,000 2,737,500 500,000 415,000 $64,500,000 17,783,750 1,600,000 1,037,500 T o t a l 6,877,500 84,921,250 E r i c Schenker, The Port of Milwaukee, p. 131, 132. Based on a 4 per cent annual in c r e a s e s i n c e 1963, l e s s U n ited States Discount, 10 per cent. Vancouver C i t y tonnage c a l c u l a t e d from T o t a l Port Tonnage, see Appendix V I I . E r i c Schenker, The Port of Milwaukee, An Economic Review, Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1967. 184 (2) Secondary Income These f i g u r e s do not take i n t o account secondary income gener-ated by the expenditure of the o r i g i n a l $84.9 m i l l i o n . T his economic concept of the " m u l t i p l i e r " as used i n r e g i o n a l a n a l y s i s , s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e g i o n a l input-output techniques, i s used to c a l c u l a t e t h i s a d d i t i o n a l income.. Examples i n the a p p l i c a t i o n t h i s theory have been documented by I s a r d , " ^ L e o n t i e f , M i e r n y k , ^ ^ and many others. The Milwaukee study used two marine m u l t i p l i e r s , based on previous s t u d i e s , 56 these were 2,905 and 2.33. For the sake of s i m p l i c i t y t h i s study w i l l use the mean f i g u r e of 2.62. Other secondary income would a r i s e out of spendings from the 260,872 passengers that landed or embarked i n Vancouver i n 1968. I f each spent $10.00 per head t h i s would amount to $2,608,720. This i s a conservative estimate as many passengers are from out of town which would n e c e s s i t a t e overnight accommodation and meals. Crew expenditures have not been i n c l u d e d , but would be s u b s t a n t i a l as almost 2,000 57 v e s s e l s entered Vancouver harbour l a s t year. 53 Walter I s a r d , " I n t e r r e g i o n a l and Regional Input-Output A n a l y s i s : A Model of a Space Economy", Review of Economics and Statistics, November, 1951. 54 W. L e o n t i e f , Input-Output Economics, New York: Oxford Uni-v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. "'"'w. Miernyk, The Elements of Input-Output Analysis, Random House, 1965. " ^ E r i c Schenker, op. cit., p. 136 and 137. " ^ N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Annual Report, 1968, p. 53. 185 A d d i t i o n a l income would be generated from the mooring f a c i l i t i e s , the l o c a l passenger s e r v i c e , and the car and tr u c k f e r r i e s . No attempt has been made to c a l c u l a t e these, but a f i g u r e of $1,000,000 i s e s t i -mated. Table 36 below summarizes a l l d i r e c t and secondary income gener-ated by i n d u s t r i e s i n that p o r t i o n of the Port of Vancouver which i s w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver and along the Burrard I n l e t . TABLE 36 TOTAL DIRECT AND INDIRECT INCOME GENERATED BY PORT ACTIVITY VANCOUVER STUDY AREA, 1968 Estimated Income M u l t i p l i e r (2.62) Foreign & Domestic Passenger Service Other $84,921,250 2,608,720 1,000,000 $222,493,675 6,834,846 2,620,000 T o t a l $88,529,970 $231,948,521 Source: Waterfront Survey, 1969; Service Sector Survey, 1970. The t o t a l revenue, d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , that i s generated by the Inner Harbour s e c t i o n of the Port amounts to an estimated $231,948,521. This f i g u r e i s not complete f o r the e n t i r e . w a t e r f r o n t business. To o b t a i n complete i n f o r m a t i o n , measurements should not be r e s t r i c t e d to cargo wharves as numerous i n d u s t r i e s and s e r v i c e s i n t h i s area handle low volumes of goods but generate high cash f l o w s , such as marine r e p a i r i n d u s t r i e s . By using t h i s approach the t o t a l revenue would be considera b l y increased. One i n d i c a t i o n of the t o t a l impact i s seen i n the employment measurements discussed below. 186 The Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product (the market value of a l l P r o v i n -c i a l goods and s e r v i c e s produced) of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1968 was 58 $7.5 b i l l i o n , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of j u s t over 2,000,000. As no Gross C i t y Product has been c a l c u l a t e d f o r Vancouver, a r e l a t i v e pop-u l a t i o n percentage has been used to a r r i v e at t h i s f i g u r e . The c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n 1968 was approximately 420,000 or 21 per cent of the P r o v i n c e , t h e r e f o r e an estimate of the C i t y ' s Gross Product f o r 1968 would be 21 per cent of the P r o v i n c i a l Product or $1,575,000,000. From these extremely rough but conservative c a l c u l a t i o n s , the shipping i n d u s t r y ' s $232,000,000 c o n t r i b u t e s to 15 per cent of the c i t y ' s Gross Product, or about one d o l l a r out of every seven that c i r c u l a t e s i n Vancouver i s derived from port a c t i v i t y . This has not i n c l u d e d the non-shipping w a t e r f r o n t users. (3) Employment In order to o b t a i n an a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s impact from the maritime i n d u s t r y , a second method i s used, that of employ-ment. This has been measured i n terms of male and female workers, employed both on the w a t e r f r o n t as w e l l as i n the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . These f i g u r e s are c a l c u l a t e d from the questionnaire returns i n t h i s study, and summarized i n Chapter I I I . A separate telephone survey was conducted i n January of 1970 to determine the s i z e , p a y r o l l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of-the major 58 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,.British Columbia Financial and Economic Review, 29th Edition, V i c t o r i a : Department of Finance, 1969, p. 63. 187 s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . These i n c l u d e d Customs Brokers, Steamship Companies, Ship Chandlers, Ship Agents, Marine Equipment and S u p p l i e s , and Importers and Exporters. A 25 per cent random sample was taken from the C i t y of Vancouver Telephone D i r e c t o r y and each was sent an 59 i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r , asking f i v e questions. The f o l l o w i n g week each manager was telephoned the r e s u l t s of which are tabulated i n Table 37. A t o t a l of 352 such businesses were l i s t e d , 88 l e t t e r s were sent out (25 per cent) of which 13 were returned, as "no such address". Of the remaining 75.businesses, 50 were w i l l i n g to co-operate and o f f e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n (66 per cent response). The f i g u r e s i n Table 37 have taken t h i s i n t o account, and the responses have been weighted a c c o r d i n g l y . TABLE 37 MARINE SERVICE INDUSTRIES EMPLOYMENT AND PAYROLL, CITY OF VANCOUVER AND PORT STUDY AREA, 1969 T o t a l Number of Companies Average v Marine Employees T o t a l Marine Employees Average Salary (a) T o t a l Marine Salary Customs Brokers 24 5 120 $6,700 $ 804,000 Steamship Companies 56 110 6,160 8,400 51,744,000 Ship Chandlers and Agents 44 32 1,408 7,320 10., 306,560 Marine Equipment and Supplies 56 5 280 8,300 1,324,000 Importers and Exporters 172 4 688 8,200 5,641,600 T o t a l 352 8,656 $69,820,160 C a l c u l a t e d from t o t a l annual p a y r o l l . Source: Service Sector Survey, 1970. 188 When the service employment and income are multiplied by the 2.62 marine multiplier established earlier, then the total employment, direct and indirect, of the service industries and their payroll amount to 2,267,872 persons and $187,928,819. Table 38 below shows the figures for the total employment related to a l l the port operations in the City of Vancouver along the Study Area of the Inner Harbour. TABLE 38 TOTAL EMPLOYMENT RELATED TO PORT OPERATIONS, CITY OF VANCOUVER AND STUDY AREA, 1969 Total Employment F u l l Time Waterfront On Site 2,415 Off Site 914 Vancouver Longshoremen 1,800 Marine Service, Agents, etc. 8,656 Waterfront Trucking (a) 1,340 Railway, Off Site (b) 200 Total ' •' v-<v-jH-vr v " T f ->r <v\i.l5:-325o^, See Appendix VIII for calculations. .Estimate. Source: Service Sector Survey, 1970, Waterfront Survey, 1969. The actual employment that the Port i s directly accountable for, amounts to 15,325 persons. By applying the regional marine 59 See Appendix E for a.copy of this letter. 189 m u l t i p l i e r of 2.62, i t becomes apparent that when d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t employment of the port r e l a t e d operations are viewed as a whole, they are seen to be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the c i t y ' s t o t a l employment. The new t o t a l employment f i g u r e that the port a c t i v i t y generates now amounts to 40,177 persons, or approximately 10 per cent of the c i t y ' s 1968 population,.or 25 per cent of the t o t a l labour f o r c e . In c o n c l u s i o n one can c l e a r l y s t a t e that Port operations i n Vancouver i s a major asset to the c i t y , c o n t r i b u t i n t to a quarter of i t s employment and approximately 15 per cent of the Gross C i t y Product. Therefore any d e c i s i o n s to improve the p o r t operations that i n v o l v e the r e l o c a t i n g of a c t i v i t i e s w i l l have to consider the economic e f f e c t s i n terms of the Gross C i t y Product and employment. G. SUMMARY This chapter has shown that there are measurable pressures created by the c i t y , that are and w i l l continue to i n f l u e n c e p o r t , development, as long as the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s : l e f t to continue. These pressures are seen i n terms of: 1. A r a p i d l y d i m i n i s h i n g supply of. land.,_84 acres alone-are required!in;, the Lnextii.f iveoyears by . the^presenti-waterfrdrifc i n d u s t r i e s . v c t o r x r o i i t L ^ i f i t x x & a . 2. High urban land values r e f l e c t e d i n high w a t e r f r o n t assessments.^.;,:,.;oiiL :u , 3. Commercial developments of no r e l a t i o n to port a c t i v i t y 190 occupying port lands; and 4. Urban sewerage p o l l u t i n g the whole area, •.^-or»t-J.5.;- ..Operating apart from, these.'.changing''lan'douses. hasvb e'en I the over-, all-ichangingerole 1 of the^port jcwhichpis; perhaps t-hg^maj'or.rsourcel'.bf the current port/urban c o n f l i c t . At i t s i n c e p t i o n one hundred years ago the po r t ' s f u n c t i o n was e n t i r e l y one of supplying and r e c e i v i n g goods from the c i t y . Now only .6 per cent of i t s - e x p o r t s o r i g i n a t e from the c i t y and 10 per cent of i t s imports are destined f o r the c i t y . . Thus i n terms of commodity flows the port appears not to be dependent upon the c i t y f o r i t s s u r v i v a l . In terms o f . s e r v i c e l i n k s and economic impact, however, they c i t y i s c r i t i c a l l y t i e d to the port f u n c t i o n . Though the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s do not r e q u i r e p r o x i m i t y to the port they do account f o r 57 per cent of the port's labour f o r c e , the l a t t e r being 25 per cent of the c i t y ' s t o t a l labour f o r c e . Thus the s e r v i c e l i n k i s now the c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between port and c i t y , and i n an era of improving communication systems the p h y s i c a l aspects of ^ the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n of these two f u n c t i o n s . c o u l d become l e s s s i g n i -f i c a n t . F i n a l l y i n terms of f u t u r e urban pressures most i n d i c a t i o n s are that i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and.high d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l p res-sures w i l l create a c r i t i c a l demand on t h i s area w i t h i n 10 years as land i n the e x i s t i n g zones becomes f u l l y developed. CHAPTER VI PORT ADMINISTRATION The j u r i s d i c t i o n and a u t h o r i t y granted to an i n d i v i d u a l or cor p o r a t i o n serves as a guide to f u t u r e planning by e s t a b l i s h i n g the l i m i t s w i t h i n which that i n d i v i d u a l or body may a c t . While conceptions / are a b s t r a c t , they develop i n t o concrete plans i n response to a need, and depend upon the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l framework f o r t h e i r inaug-u r a t i o n . A knowledge of t h i s framework i s then a p r e r e q u i s i t e to an e f f e c t i v e planning program. Ports are no d i f f e r e n t from any other c o r p o r a t i o n , i n that they are governed and administered by management, that they are r e s p o n s i b l e to a s e n i o r body, and that they operate w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a sover-eign a u t h o r i t y . However a d i s t i n c t i o n may be made between a port and another c o r p o r a t i o n , i n which the ports are a l i n k i n the n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, and an instrument of n a t i o n a l p o l i c y . In t h i s respect they command greater a t t e n t i o n than a comparison by the usual economic c r i t e r i a would i n d i c a t e . In the previous chapters the emphasis has been placed upon the study area, i t s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and i t s i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h the a d j o i n i n g urban area. Nevertheless, the second chapter introduced the concept of the me t r o p o l i t a n area as a resource, con-, sid e r e d as a s i n g l e u n i t . This penultimate chapter w i l l s i m i l a r l y d iscuss the m e t r o p o l i t a n area, but from a planning and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 192 viewpoint, i n which the whole i s considered as the amalgamation and i n t e g r a t i o n of the c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s . The chapter w i l l commence w i t h an o u t l i n e of the l e g a l frame-work covering ports i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and then w i l l go on to describe the method of operation of ports and planning agencies i n the.metro-p o l i t a n area. The conc l u s i o n w i l l examine some of the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed under the present arrangement. / I A. CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY BACKGROUND The fundamental l e g a l document d e f i n i n g n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the B r i t i s h North America Act,*" from which stems the d i v i s i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y . Generally the i n t e n t was to a s s i g n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r matters of n a t i o n a l importance to Canada, and those of p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t to the pr o v i n c e , w i t h r e s i d u a r y power going to the s e n i o r government. As a r e s u l t n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g , inter alia, were f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , w h i l e the management and s a l e of p u b l i c lands became one of the p r o v i n c i a l respon-s i b i l i t i e s . Although the B r i t i s h North America Act was a B r i t i s h s t a t u t e , and came i n t o f o r c e i n 1867, before the admittance of B r i t i s h Columbia i n t o the Dominion of Canada, the Act contemplated the p o s s i b i l i t y of . such a step, as set out i n Secti o n 146. *"Great B r i t a i n , British North America Act3 1867, 30 V i c t o r i a , C. 3. 193 B r i t i s h Columbia became a p a r t of the Dominion of Canada on J u l y 2 20, 1871 under the Terms of Union, i n which i t was s p e c i f i e d that p u b l i c harbours became the property of Canada at the date of e n t r y . While some doubt e x i s t e d regarding the d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c harbours i t was recognized that a n a t u r a l harbour not a c t u a l l y used f o r harbour purposes at the date of Union d i d not go to the f e d e r a l government. Some of the doubt mentioned above was resolv e d i n 1924 by an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l of the Dominion Government, i n which the " r i g h t , t i t l e , and i n t e r e s t " of the Dominion to foreshore lands and lands 3 covered w i t h water, was r e s t r i c t e d to s i x harbours. These s i x harbours were V i c t o r i a , Esquimalt, Nanaimo, A l b e r n i , Burrard I n l e t and New Westminster. This O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l c l e a r e d up much of the doubt regarding ownership of lands seaward from the high water mark, although subse-quently the j u r i s d i c t i o n of ownership of sea land at Roberts Bank became an i s s u e which was r e f e r r e d to the Supreme Court of Canada. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s court was t h a t . a l l lands below o r d i n a r y low water mark are the property of Canada, and under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the 4 n a t i o n . Great B r i t a i n , Order of Her Majesty in Council Admitting British Columbia into the Union, Court of Windsor, May 16, 1871. 3 Governor General i n C o u n c i l , Ottawa, P.C. 741, June 7, 1924. 4 The Supreme Court of Canada, Decision over Offshore Mineral Rights as set out in Order in Council P.C. 1965-750, November 7, 1967. 194 Turning now from the question of j u r i s d i c t i o n of lands covered by water to the question of r i g h t s of ownership, the t i t l e to land i s e s t a b l i s h e d under the p r o v i n c i a l land r e g i s t r a t i o n s t a t u t e s . Under these s t a t u t e s ownership i n fee-simple i s the strongest i n t e r e s t that may be acquired i n l a n d , although i t does not give to the owner an u n r e s t r i c t e d r i g h t to c a r r y out any a c t i o n or erect any s t r u c t u r e upon that land. The owner i s s t i l l considered a t e n a n t . i n fee-simple subject to c o n t r o l of the sovereign power. This concept of ownership as a " h i g h - c l a s s tenant" subject to r e g u l a t i o n s imposed under l e g i s l a t i v e action,..has been accepted as zoning r e g u l a t i o n s and e x p r o p r i a t i o n acts have -become more prevalent commensurate w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g competition f o r land. Although lands covered by water are seldom the subject of c e r t i f i c a t e s of i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e , the same s o r t o f . o v e r - r i d i n g c o n d i t i o n s apply, i n which n a v i -gable waters are analagous to p u b l i c highways, and f o r the b e n e f i t and use of a l l . For t h i s purpose navigation,.and s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t i n navigable water are subject to the c o n t r o l of the f e d e r a l government. Leading out of the above paragraphs i t i s appropriate to con-s i d e r a l l lands, whether they are covered by water or not, and whether they are p r i v a t e l y or p u b l i c l y owned, as subject to r e g u l a t i o n s on the use of that l a n d , imposed by governments, granted under the author-i t y of the f e d e r a l parliament or p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . While some of these r e g u l a t i o n s stem from m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n , the m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s i n turn.are e n t i r e l y under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the l e g i s l a t u r e . 195 W i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area, described i n Chapter I I , the i n t e r e s t i n l a n d , and lands covered by water, are shown i n Figures 28 and 29. Figure 28 shows ownership of water lands, and Figure 29 shows a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . These i n t e r e s t s are.summarized below: (1) F e d e r a l Government Owner of the bulk of the "i n n e r harbour" from the F i r s t Narrows e a s t e r l y to Port Moody, and i n c l u d i n g Indian Arm; and owner of the s i x harbours mentioned i n P.C. 741, of which New Westminster i s the only other s i t e i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. These are a few p r i v a t e ownerships of water land i n the i n n e r harbour, of which the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company i s the predom-inant owner. In a d d i t i o n , the f e d e r a l government i s the.owner of a l l lands seaward from the or d i n a r y low water mark, outside of the bays, harbours and e s t u a r i e s , to the outer l i m i t of the t e r r i t o r i a l sea of Canada. Landward the f e d e r a l government has l e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and ownership i s l i m i t e d to holdings of Indian r e s e r v e s , defence estab-lishments, and some other w a t e r f r o n t lands i n Burrard I n l e t and False Creek. In a d d i t i o n to ownership the Fe d e r a l Government has r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y and c o n t r o l over n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g under the Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act. W i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d harbours i t re g u l a t e s n a v i g a t i o n , harbour f a c i l i t i e s , s e r v i c e s and p o l i c i n g , and some leases of water lands, under the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t , The 198 North F r a s e r Harbour Commissioners A c t , and the Fraser R i v e r Harbour Commissioners Act. On land the f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s somewhat l e s s . . I t has ownership of some upland acquired under e i t h e r the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t , or the appropriate Harbour Commissioners Act. These s t a t u t e s empower the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d , i n c l u d i n g the r i g h t to . e x p r o p r i a t e . In general the f e d e r a l government has l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e x e r c i s e d through the N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y through such s t a t u t e s as the Railway Act. The f o l l o w i n g are the p r i n c i p a l r e l e v a n t f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s , being p a r t of the Revised Statutes of.Canada, 1952: Statut e Canada Shipping A c t , (Chap. -29) Department of Transport Act (Chap. 79) F i s h e r i e s Act (Chap. 119) Government Harbours and P i e r s Act (Chap. 135) Harbour Commissioners Act (Chap..32, Statutes of 1964-65) N a t i o n a l Harbours Board Act (Chap. 187) N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Act (Chap. 69, Statutes of 1966-67) Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act (Chap. 193) New Westminster Harbour Commission Act (Chap. 158, Statutes of 1913) North Fraser Harbour Commissioners Act (Chap. 162, Statutes of 1913) M i n i s t r y - Transport Transport F i s h e r i e s Transport Transport . Transport . Transport P u b l i c Works . Transport . Transport 199 (2) P r o v i n c i a l Government Owner of most of' the lands seaward from high water mark from the F i r s t Narrows to the Port of Vancouver l i m i t s , and of most of.the remaining lands below high water mark i n the metropolitan Vancouver area, i n c l u d i n g the Fraser River and.False Creek. As was the case i n the inner harbour, there are.some lands under separate ownership, i n which the three main owners are the. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, the C i t y of Vancouver, and the Federal Government. Their holdings are i n False.Creek, and i n the Fraser River at New Westminster. On land the province i s the.owner of a l l land that has not been alienated, of a l l s t r e e t s and roads i n unorganized territory..and mun-i c i p a l i t i e s except -Vancouver. With the exception .of ..the -upland .and foreshore adjoining Roberts Bank, the province has not acted as a port developer, and i t s main r o l e has been that of leasing land and i n administering secondary roads and a r t e r i a l highways. However i t occupies.a pre-eminent r o l e i n that i t i s the sole authority for m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and has the. power to amend or innovate a l l municipal l e g i s l a t i o n . The following are the p r i n c i p a l relevant p r o v i n c i a l statutes r e l a t e d to port administration, a l l being part of the.Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1960. 200 Statute M i n i s t r y Highway Act (Chap. 172) Highways Land Act (Chap. 206) Lands, Forests and Water Resources M u n i c i p a l Act (Chap. 255) M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Vancouver Charter (Chap. 55, Statutes of 1953. (3) S u b - P r o v i n c i a l Government Wit h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area are ,14 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , c o n s i s t i n g of the C i t i e s of Vancouver, North Vancouver, New Westminster, Port. Moody, Po r t Coquitlam, and White Rock, and the D i s t r i c t s of West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Coquitlam, F r a s e r M i l l s , Burnaby, Surrey, D e l t a and Richmond; and shown.in Figures 28 and 29. These m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are, w i t h the exception of Vancouver, gov-erned by the M u n i c i p a l Act, Vancouver comes under the Vancouver Charter. In e i t h e r case the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are empowered to reg u l a t e land use through o f f i c i a l community plans and zoning by-laws. In a d d i t i o n to these r e g u l a t o r y powers the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have the important respon-s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g f o r l o c a l roads and f o r p u b l i c access to a l l lands. They may, and commonly do, undertake to provide s e r v i c e s of water and sewerage. At a stage above the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , but below.the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , a f u r t h e r l e v e l of government was r e c e n t l y created, c a l l e d the r e g i o n a l government. I t s j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , i n the case of the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t corresponding to 201 the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, plus the i n c l u s i o n of some unorganized t e r r i t o r y , mostly i n the northern part of the d i s t r i c t . At present the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t f u n c t i o n s are l i m i t e d to h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s and planning. The l a t t e r f u n c t i o n i s centered around the o f f i c i a l Regional Plan adopted by the Lower Main-land Regional Planning Board, the predecessor of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , i n 1966. This p l a n was not r e t r o a c t i v e and allowed e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l zoning to stand. However, i n the event of change, i t r e q u i r e d that the proposed change must be toward that use s p e c i f i e d i n the O f f i c i a l Regional P l a n . (4) Railways The l a s t s i n g l e , agency to be considered, the r a i l w a y s , operate as l i n k s i n the n a t i o n a l - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network.. They were an essen-t i a l instrument i n developing the n a t i o n , and were given l a r g e f i n a n c i a l and land grants to encourage construction.... Under t h e i r acts of i n c o r p o r a t i o n they were given broad powers,. i n c l u d i n g the r i g h t to acquire l a n d , and the r i g h t of e x p r o p r i a t i o n . In. a d d i t i o n to t h e i r i n c o r p o r a t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , they operate,under both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n -c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . " ' Many of the lands that were ac q u i r e d , e i t h e r through purchase, or as a subsidy, are i n the urban c e n t r e s , and have great value i n today's market. In p a r t i c u l a r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company has 5 R a i l w a y Act (R.S.C., 1952, Chap. 234). Railway Act (R.S.B^C, 1960, Chap. 329). l a r g e holdings along Burrard I n l e t a d j o i n i n g the CBD, and i n F a l s e Creek. This r a i l w a y , along.with the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways, are the owners of the bulk of the 500 acres taken up f o r r a i l w a y yards, e x c l u s i v e of main l i n e t r a c k , i n the C i t y of Vancouver. (5) Others The remaining land i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s i n p r i v a t e ownership, i n p a r c e l s of v a r i o u s dimensions and areas, and h e l d under l i t e r a l l y thousands of c e r t i f i c a t e s of t i t l e i n the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e s of the Province. . Much of t h i s land borders on water and as such has the r i g h t of r i p a r i a n ownership. T h i s . r i g h t cannot be,abro-gated without.the consent of the upland owner, o f t e n r e q u i r i n g an ex-pensive c o n s i d e r a t i o n . . B. PLANNING ADMINISTRATION. IN THE REGION (1) F e d e r a l and. P r o v i n c i a l The trends i n the past regarding port a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have been to separate i t from the urban area, and manage i t e i t h e r as a branch of the government, a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n under contract or l e a s e , a j o i n t stock company i n which the government r e t a i n s m a j o r i t y c o n t r o l , 7 or as a separate p u b l i c e n t i t y . In Canada the s e n i o r port agency has ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Research.Council, Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, May 1963, p. 4. ^Walter P. Heddon, Mission: Port Development, Washington: The American A s s o c i a t i o n of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1967, p. 73. always been under the f e d e r a l government. I n i t i a l l y the Harbour Commission form of management p r e v a i l e d , although t h i s trend was a l -tered as the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board assumed c o n t r o l of the major Canadian o u t l e t s i n 1936. In the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n area, the Board has j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Po r t of Vancouver, o r i g i n a l l y defined i n 1936 as a l l t i d a l waters l y i n g east of the l i n e between P o i n t Atkinson and P o i n t Grey. This area was extended i n 1967 to i n c l u d e Roberts Bank, Sturgeon Bank g and Boundary Bay. The area under the Harbour.Commissioners i n c l u d e s the Fraser R i v e r e a s t e r l y and upstream from the mouth to beyond New Westminster. I t i s served under two f e d e r a l agencies, The North Fraser Harbour Commissioners, and the.Fraser R i v e r Harbour .Commission. The c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by these three f e d e r a l agencies v a r i e s w i t h the nature of ownership of the sea bottom,., l i s t e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter.. In the in n e r harbour N a t i o n a l Harbours Board c o n t r o l i s s t r o n g e s t , as possession of the sea bottom,,as w e l l as c o n t r o l of n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g , gives t h i s s e n i o r government agency a f r e e hand to lease these lands f o r a s p e c i f i e d use. Elsewhere i n the P o r t , the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board e x e r c i s e s j o i n t a u t h o r i t y of a p p l i c a t i o n s made under the Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n A c t , through 9 p r o v i s i o n contained i n the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board Act. As the name i m p l i e s , the Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act i s l i m i t e d to navigable g Governor General i n C o u n c i l , Ottawa, P.C. 1967-1581, August 11, 1967. 9 N a t i o n a l Harbours Board Act,(R.S.C. 195, Chap. 187), Sec. 38. 204 water, and does not i n c l u d e upland. In the case of those p a r t s of Vancouver Harbour and the F r a s e r R i v e r i n which the sea, r i v e r bottom or foreshore i s owned by the P r o v i n c i a l Government, or i s p r i v a t e l y h e l d , the c o n t r o l of the s e n i o r government i s lessened. Although the r e l e v a n t s t a t u t e s s t a t e that j u r i s d i c t i o n of these areas i s w i t h the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y , the e x p l i c i t nature of t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n has not been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Notwithstanding.that the f e d e r a l government has absolute a u t h o r i t y over n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g , i t would appear that any extension of c o n t r o l beyond t h i s stage would be l i m i t e d , and would r e q u i r e the approval and cooperation of the owner of the sea bottom as w e l l as the r i p a r i a n owner. Lacking such an arrangement, each government would then be able to e x e r c i s e a veto over proposed development. (a) N a t i o n a l Harbours Board-Management The report.which l e d to the enabling l e g i s l a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board i n 1 9 3 6 , r e c o g n i z e d the shortcomings of the Harbour. Commission form of p o r t . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that was prevalent i n Canada at that time. To a l a r g e extent p o l i t i c a l patronage was used i n the choice of appointments i n the v a r i o u s Harbour Commissioners, and r e -s u l t e d i n i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n engineering work and i n management. S i r Alexander Gibb f u r t h e r recognized the n e c e s s i t y of the ports as a p a r t of the n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, i n which he " ^ S i r Alexander Gibb, Dominion of Canada:- National Ports Survey,.1931-1932, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , . 1 9 3 2 . 205 s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d : "The main l i n e s of communication i n Canada t r a v e r s e the country from A t l a n t i c to P a c i f i c . The 'East and West' route i s the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , d i c t a t e d not only to a s s i s t i n g the i n t e r i o r prov-inces to compete i n the markets of the w o r l d , but d i r e c t e d even more i n t o l i n k i n g the whole Dominion i n t o a s i n g l e u n i t . And the n a t u r a l c o r o l l a r y i s the demand by the seaboard provinces that Canadian t r a f f i c should flow by Canadian channels. The recommended form-of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the c o n d i t i o n s mentioned above was s p e c i f i e d i n the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t , i n which c e n t r a l control-was vested i n the head o f f i c e of the Board at Ottawa, and some measure of l o c a l c o n t r o l remained at the p o r t . The i n t e n t i o n was to e s t a b l i s h a system o f . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that " w i l l g i v e the p o r t s f u l l opportunity to-develop on i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s i n accordance w i t h l o c a l requirements, and at the same time to 12 pla y t h e i r p a r t i n the n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system." While t h i s concept of p o r t . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o c e n t r a l and. l o c a l areas of c o n t r o l may be v a l i d i n . theory, and was c e r t a i n l y necessary at the time of the Gibb r e p o r t , l o c a l . c o n t r o l i s minimal and has been dominated by.the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n . Today the main task of the l o c a l port o f f i c e i s i n making operating d e c i s i o n s , w h i l e the planning of p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i s undertaken at the head o f f i c e of the 13 N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. ^Ibid.3 p. 9. 12Ibid. 3 p. 12. 13 . . . Wallace Edward McMullen, Port...Adrmmstration ..Structures3 206 The remoteness of the c e n t r a l o f f i c e from the port has worked against development i n response to l o c a l needs. On the contrary N a t i o n a l Harbours Board p o l i c y i s to remain i n e r t u n t i l the need f o r 14 f u r t h e r f a c i l i t i e s has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . 15 (b) Harbour Commission Management Co n t r a s t i n g w i t h the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s that o f f e r e d by the two Harbour Commissions i n the met r o p o l i t a n area. Although the commissioners are appointed.by the Governor-General i n C o u n c i l , there i s l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n beyond t h i s s t e p, as long as the Commission i s operating at a p r o f i t . The thre a t of i n t e r f e r e n c e from the head o f f i c e appears to be e f f e c t i v e i n inducing both these Commissions to operate p r o f i t a b l y , and both have c o n s i s t e n t l y stayed."in.the b l a c k " . Furthermore, i t was s t a t e d that the Harbour Commissions are able to handle goods at lower cost than those i n the P o r t of Vancouver by v i r t u e of higher ship unloading rates and s u p e r i o r unloading equipment. The v i t a l i t y of these Harbour Commissions stems from two sources. F i r s t l y , the p r o f i t motive has been e f f e c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g an Unpublished M.B.A. Th e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, J u l y 1968, p. 91, 99, 100. 14 Interview w i t h Mr. J . E. Chadwick, Port of Vancouver Develop-ment Committee, March 9, 1970. Information i n t h i s s e c t i o n was obtained from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. N. D. Eastman, Port Manager, The North Fraser Harbour Commissioners, Vancouver, March 26, 1970; and Captain J . W. Kavanagh, Port Manager, Fra s e r R i v e r Harbour Commission, New Westminster, March 30, 1970. 207 e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n . Secondly, the composition of the commissioners w i t h l o c a l l y based, members has made the operation ''sensitive and r e s -ponsive to l o c a l pressures. Cooperation w i t h the Province has been undertaken, i n which both Commissions have had delegated to them by the P r o v i n c e , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of water lands under p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l , i n r e t u r n f o r a share of the revenue. This undertaking has been s u c c e s s f u l . (2) Municipal: C o n t r o l The planning f u n c t i o n i s a comparatively recent a d d i t i o n to m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s but has become recognized.for i t s important r o l e , i n most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s forming a separate department of the adminis-t r a t i o n . As an a i d to implementation of planning and land use, a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have adopted zoning by-laws. With few exceptions t h e . l e g a l i t y of these by-laws has been upheld i n the.courts. A l l of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the area border on, or extend i n t o navigable water, be i t p a r t of.the Fraser R i v e r or an i n l e t of the sea. I t would appear that i n the case of those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s whose l i m i t s extend i n t o navigable areas, that the land use i n these areas could be determined m u n i c i p a l l y , even though f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n s t a t e s that j u r i s d i c t i o n i s under the s e n i o r government. While, w i t h i n the study area, the C i t y of Vancouver zoning i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board use, i t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e that d i f f e r e n c e s could a r i s e between m u n i c i p a l and s e n i o r governments. This p o t e n t i a l dispute has never been t e s t e d i n t h e : c o u r t s , an i n d i c a t i o n that the 208 16 m u n i c i p a l governments concede t h i s r i g h t to the senior governments. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , to a greater extent than the p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l government, are dependent upon the l o c a l tax d o l l a r and are s e n s i t i v e to pressure t o . e f f e c t a change i n land use which w i l l r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r assessments and increased tax r e t u r n s . In such s i t u a t i o n s the zoning r e g u l a t i o n s are v i r t u a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e against the market demands f o r a change i n land use or an increased i n t e n s i t y of develop-ment , In determining land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes there has been l i t t l e comprehensive planning between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the s e n i o r governments despite-the success of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board i n enacting a general p l a n . • To a c e r t a i n . e x t e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have been f r u s t r a t e d by the two s e n i o r governments who are not bound by zoning by-laws.and have i n s t i t u t e d land use changes without the cooperation of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Notable of fenders i n t h i s respect are.the Department of Highways"''7 and the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y — a p r o v i n c i a l government c o r p o r a t i o n . Above the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , the i n f l u e n c e of the r e g i o n a l form of government has yet to be f e l t . However i t appears that i t s 16 In t e r v i e w , Mr. W. ,T. Lane, S o l i c i t o r , Township of Richmond, A p r i l 4, 1970. 17 . . . . See Gary C. Harkness, Criteria for River Crossing Location: A Case Study Approach, Unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l 1964, p. 101. 18 See "Superport Railway Faces Roadblock", .Vancouver Sun, August 29, 1968. e f f e c t i v e n e s s l i e s i n a c o o r d i n a t i n g r o l e , assuming func t i o n s that i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s cannot undertake, e i t h e r because they ex-tend across s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , or because they need a stronger f i n a n c i a l base. Recently passed amendments to the M u n i c i p a l Act have given the M i n i s t e r a stronger hand i n imposing a f u n c t i o n upon a. r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . C. SUMMARY This chapter has o u t l i n e d the planning and.administrative framework i n the me t r o p o l i t a n port. area. I t commenced w i t h an i n t r o -d u c t i o n of the s t a t u t o r y r i g h t s of the va r i o u s i n t e r e s t s connected w i t h land and water use. Fo l l o w i n g t h i s a more d e t a i l e d study was made of the v a r i o u s agencies having planning a u t h o r i t y . These agencies were: 1. N a t i o n a l Harbours Board 2. The North Fraser Harbour Commissioners 3. Fraser R i v e r Harbour Commission 4. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia 5. Fourteen M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Metropolitan-Vancouver 6. Greater V a n c o u v e r - R e g i o n a l - D i s t r i c t 7. Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company and other r a i l w a y s . Three s p e c i f i c . c o n c l u s i o n s are reached i n t h i s chapter. F i r s t l y , there i s no o v e r a l l p o r t a u t h o r i t y . Although the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board comes c l o s e s t to t h i s f u n c t i o n , i t i s imbalanced 210 i n favour of maritime f a c i l i t i e s , and i t s primary i n t e r e s t has been on the marine side of the waterfront. Secondly, the above,agencies are generally uncoordinated. The best e f f o r t s at coordination are between the regional d i s t r i c t and< the fourteen m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The remainder of the agencies are con-t r o l l e d e i t h e r at the c a p i t a l of B r i t i s h Columbia or Canada, or at the head o f f i c e of the railways outside the region. L a s t l y , the. j u r i s d i c t i o n of land use i n parts of the port have not been resolved. At present both municipal and senior governments claim j u r i s d i c t i o n over navigable water, although the senior government decisions have generally prevailed i n case of c o n f l i c t . Under this^ condition the l i n e of d i v i s i o n between muni-c i p a l and' f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the high water mark, a l i n e along which port a c t i v i t y . i s concentrated.. t CHAPTER V I I ' CONCLUSIONS A, SUMMARY This research has focused p r i m a r i l y upon the study area, that narrow s t r i p of land w i t h i n the C i t y of Vancouver, shown i n Figure 4 (page 26), between the r a i l w a y and the sea, about four and a h a l f m i l e s l o n g j and va r y i n g i n width from a few feet up to a quarter of a m i l e . When compared w i t h the c i t y or m e t r o p o l i t a n area, i t r e p r e -sents only a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the aggregate area. I f other i n d i c a t i o n s , such as employment and land values are used i n place of area, then d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are evidenced, which are not revealed i n a comparison on the b a s i s of area. T o t a l employment, land values and economic impact are s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i n g a greater i n t e n s i t y of a c t i v i t y i n t h i s area than i n other p a r t s of the c i t y . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are important to the l o c a l l e v e l of government concerned w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of l o c a l s e r v i c e s and c o l l e c t i n g revenues through t a x a t i o n . The h i n t e r l a n d of the p o r t , an area simple i n concept but d i f f e r e n t to d e f i n e r i g o r o u s l y , has an i n t e r e s t d i f f e r i n g from the l o c a l viewpoint and i s d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the maintenance of export and import flows. As a r e s u l t t h i s h i n t e r l a n d r e g i o n has an important stake i n the study area, as the m a j o r i t y of trade flows pass through t h i s s e c t i o n of the w a t e r f r o n t . 212 Going beyond the two levels of concern mentioned above, the study area may be viewed from a national point of view, in which i t s significance is equally apparent. While in some respects i t resembles the natural transportation corridors found in Br i t i sh Columbia con-taining the two transcontinental railways, a national highway, and a communication network, i t differs from these corridors in that i t i s not a point of movement along, but an area for transshipment and change of mode for goods. In.this sense i t takes on importance not only as a center of employment requiring services, generating income, and commanding high land values, not only as point of shipment of goods from various parts of the hinterland, but in addition as a par t i -cularly v i t a l l ink of the total transportation network in the fabric of external trade of the nation, upon which Canada rel ies heavily. From the latter point of view i t deserves careful attention and con-sideration from the whole country, elucidated in the National Trans-portation Policy as the declaration "that an economic, e f f ic ient , and adequate transportation system making the best use of a l l available modes of transportation at the lowest total cost i s essential to protect the interests of the users of .transportation and to maintain the economic well-being and growth of Canada . . , The importance of the study area does not rest exclusively with the local municipal or regional government, nor at the level of port and hinterland, and neither i s i t the.sole.concern of the national 'National Transportation Act (S.C. 1967, Chap. 69), Sec. 1 (part). 213 government. Rather i t i s an amalgam of a l l these p o s i t i o n s , each of which has i t s own sphere of i n t e r e s t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In t h i s context the r o l e of planning becomes s i g n i f i c a n t not only f o r the manifold i n t e r e s t s that are represented, but a l s o because of the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t that e x i s t s . I t was i n t h i s connection that the hypothesis was formulated, mentioning seven p o i n t s that may impede the port i n the present and f u t u r e , and which i s repeated below: The c o n f l i c t between the shipping a c t i v i t y and the a d j o i n i n g urban area ( 1 ) , i n terms of disarrangement of w a t e r f r o n t s i t e s ( 2 ) , l a c k of a v a i l a b l e land ( 3 ) , i n t e r f e r i n g land uses ( 4 ) , congestion of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ( 5 ) , expanding shipping requirements ( 6 ) , and port a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 7 ) , i s a s i g n i f i c a n t impediment to the present operation and f u t u r e development of the P o r t of Vancouver. The p a r t s of the study that followed the hypothesis are r e l a t e d to the t e s t i n g of each of the seven terms mentioned above. The remain-in g p a r t s of t h i s chapter consider each term and conclude as to t h e i r e f f e c t upon the present operation and f u t u r e development. (1) The C o n f l i c t Between Shipping A c t i v i t y and the A d j o i n i n g  Urban Area The transshipment process that occurs i n ports i s a major item i n the t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , e s t i m a t e s , discussed i n Chapter IV, p l a c e t h i s between 45 - 60 per cent of the t o t a l s h i pping c o s t s . Because of these l a r g e transshipment c o s t s , i t would appear that any minor improvement i n t h i s area could produce major returns to t o t a l s h i p ping c o s t s . U n t i l now, a l l e f f o r t s of improving investment r e t u r n s i n s h i p ping have been focused on the v e s s e l s . 214 A t t e n t i o n has yet to be paid to t h i s former problem, that of transshipment, i n Vancouver and i t appears that the expanding trade s i t u a t i o n and the r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n are two f o r c e s that w i l l f u r t h e r aggravate the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . The Far E a s t , w i t h which the Vancouver port p r e s e n t l y does two-thirds of i t s t r a d e , i s expected to double i t s p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the next t h i r t y years to 4 b i l l i o n persons, or 60 p e r c e n t of the world's p o p u l a t i o n . According to the 1967 B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l ' s r e p o r t discussed i n Chapters I and IV, t h i s i s bound to produce a s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n trade through Vancouver. For the same t h i r t y year p e r i o d the Economic C o u n c i l of Canada p r e d i c t s a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n growth f o r a number of c i t i e s , Vancouver being one. I f both trends are c o r r e c t l a r g e r volumes of cargo w i l l be passing through.this r a p i d l y u r b a n i z i n g area, given that the present p o r t t e r m i n a l w i l l remain where i t i s . One can only conclude that w i t h r i s i n g urban land and congestion c o s t s , the transshipment costs are d e s t i n e d to increase and represent an even greater propor-t i o n of the t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t . This has come about as a r e s u l t of the c o n f l i c t between sh i p p i n g a c t i v i t y and the a d j o i n i n g urban development. The r o l e of the port and i t s changing r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t s ; c i t y gives r i s e to an a d d i t i o n a l source of u r b a n / p o r t - c o n f l i c t . ' At .its-i n c e p t i o n one hundred years ago the p o r t ' s f u n c t i o n was e n t i r e l y one of s e r v i c i n g the c i t y of Vancouver. Now only 0.6 per cent of i t s exports o r i g i n a t e s from the c i t y and only 10 per cent of i t s imports 215 i s destined f o r the c i t y . Thus i n terms of commodity flows the port appears not to be dependent upon the c i t y of Vancouver f o r i t s s u r v i v a l . This s e p a r a t i o n of port and urban f u n c t i o n can a l s o be seen i n the l o c a t i o n patterns of the Port Service Sector. For example Steamship Companies, Customs Brokers and Shipping Agents are l o c a t e d i n that p a r t of the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t which i s adjacent to the l e a s t a c t i v e s h i p p i n g area of the wa t e r f r o n t . S i m i l a r l y Importers and Exporters are not concentrated around the major shipping t e r m i n a l s , i n f a c t , many are dispersed through the c i t y i n what appears to be an attempt to optimize d i s t r i b u t i o n l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r warehouses. Ship Chandlers, Marine -Equipment and Supplies have l o c -ated.along the water f r o n t and adjacent to shipping t e r m i n a l s , however, when asked i f they would r e l o c a t e t h e i r businesses to Roberts Bank should the e n t i r e port f u n c t i o n be r e l o c a t e d t h e r e , they f e l t the move would be unnecessary and that they could continue t h e i r opera-t i o n s from t h e i r present l o c a t i o n s . In a l l only 18 per cent (50 companies) i n the t o t a l Port S e r v i c e Sector i n d i c a t e d that they would move w i t h the shipping f u n c t i o n . I t would appear that the c o n f l i c t i n g marine and urban develop-ments , as w e l l as the l a c k of dependency between c i t y and por t i n terms of commodity flows.and s e r v i c e f l o w s , i s such that p r o x i m i t y to each other i s not e s s e n t i a l . 216 (2) Disarrangement of Waterfront S i t e s Waterfront users l o c a t e d adjacent to the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t do not n e c e s s a r i l y t r a n s a c t business w i t h that area, n e i t h e r are businesses l o c a t e d at the edge of the c i t y ' s w a t e r f r o n t , t r a d i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h the met r o p o l i t a n area. I t appears that the l o c a t i o n a l advantages of p r o x i m i t y have not been made use o f . Neither has advantage been taken of from concentrating i n d u s t r i e s of a s i m i l a r type. Some con c e n t r a t i o n has occurred w i t h the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y a t . Fisherman's Wharf, however, there are s t i l l three separate f i s h i n g areas e x i s t i n g along t h i s w a t e r f r o n t . Other uses such as shipping t e r m i n a l s , passenger t e r m i n a l s , marine r e p a i r yards, marinas and shallow d r a f t users could each b e n e f i t through greater c o n s o l i d a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s . For example, economies i n s e r v i c i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , . s t o r a g e and parking are some of the d i r e c t b e n e f i t s a t t a i n a b l e t h r o u g h ; c o n s o l i d a -t i o n . In t h i s aspect w a t e r f r o n t s i t e s and land uses are seen to be i n a s t a t e i f disarrangement. (3) Lack of A v a i l a b l e Land The e n t i r e Vancouver me t r o p o l i t a n w a t e r f r o n t measures 330 miles and according to C. N. Forward's Report, discussed i n Chapter I I , the supply w i l l meet the demands i f p r o p e r l y managed, d e s p i t e the growing pressures placed on i t . Along Vancouver's Inner Harbour there remain a few sm a l l p a r c e l s of vacant l a n d , t o t a l l i n g no more than 10 acres. Apart from t h i s there are other, s m a l l .parcels w i t h steep back-up lands f a c i n g deep w a t e r l o t s that p r e s e n t l y have marginal p o t e n t i a l use f o r 217 shipping f a c i l i t i e s . In the remaining area which i s designated as the major deep-sea t e r m i n a l , there i s a severe shortage of a v a i l a b l e l a n d . Of the 74 businesses i n t e r v i e w e d , 34 per cent r e q u i r e d an increased s i t e area w i t h i n the next f i v e years, the t o t a l requirements amounted to 84 acres. In a d d i t i o n 60 per cent of the businesses a l s o i n d i c a t e d that adjacent space f o r expansion was not a v a i l a b l e . As a r e s u l t of t h i s and other reasons t h i r t e e n firms are c o n s i d e r i n g a move to another s i t e . I t would appear that to accommodate the f u t u r e land r e q u i r e -ments, the present p o l i c y of " l a n d - f i l l " on which the e n t i r e harbor has been b u i l t s i n c e 1867, w i l l be continued. This i s a d i r e c t r e -f l e c t i o n of a s h r i n k i n g land supply brought about by .the adjacent urban development. (4) I n t e r f e r i n g Land Uses Approximately 25 per cent of the users of the Vancouver water-f r o n t area can be c l a s s e d as non-harbour o r i e n t a t e d , i . e . , c o n s t r u c t i o n , . p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and other manufacturing and processing indus-t r i e s . A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s non-waterfront o r i e n t a t i o n i s that 28 out of 74 f i r m s i n d i c a t e d having no deep-sea access and 28 i n d i c a t e d no r a i l access. Thus throughout the study area approximately one quarter of the.present businesses are non-compatible and are l a b e l l e d as " i n t e r f e r i n g land uses", i n terms of f u t u r e port develop-ment. . 218 In a d d i t i o n to these e x i s t i n g mixed uses are a number of proposals that w i l l u t i l i z e w a t e r f r o n t lands to the e x c l u s i o n of marine f u n c t i o n s . These are Harbour Park development, the proposed F i r s t Narrows Crossing approaches, and P r o j e c t 200. These p r o j e c t s e f f e c t i v e l y use o n e - t h i r d of the Inner Harbour wat e r f r o n t and are seen as a major i n t e r f e r i n g land use. The e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s expected to worsen over the next ten years as marina demands w i l l i n c r e a s e f i v e f o l d , as i n d u s t r i a l and hi g h d e n s i t y apartment zones become f i l l e d - and.as commercial developments continue to be b u i l t a t t h i s i n t e r f a c e - c a p i t a l i z i n g on an a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n . In an a b s t r a c t and yet very r e a l sense, p o l l u t i o n i s i n t e r -f e r i n g w i t h a l l e x i s t i n g land uses. Most wate r f r o n t users dump untreated waste and sewage i n t o the i n l e t i n . a d d i t i o n to the four o u t f a l l s that the c i t y has that empty i n t o t h i s area. Thus a l l e x i s t i n g and, f u t u r e developments compatible or incompatible w i t h the e x i s t i n g area w i l l have to contend w i t h the b l i g h t e f f e c t s i n -fluenced by p o l l u t i o n . F i n a l l y , the urban area i t s e l f i s seen as an i n t e r f e r i n g land use. Major developments and,renewal p r o j e c t s -have taken place along, three-quarters o f . t h e p o r t i n t e r f a c e , and these l a r g e investments have e f f e c t i v e l y prevented any expansion of port f u n c t i o n s i n t o the back-up land area. This i s seen as a d e f i n i t e b a r r i e r i n f l u e n c i n g the d i r e c t i o n of p o r t development. In a d d i t i o n the r e l a t i v e value of these developments appears a l s o to have i n f l u e n c e d tax assessments 219 on the water f r o n t lands.wliT-he highest assessments.are found, in.; the western portion,, s i m i l a r l y the highest c i t y taxes are a l s o found i n the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t and the West End. Thus i n many aspects there have been i n t e r f e r e n c e s or i n f l u e n c e s on the waterfront lands, w i t h reference to the port f u n c t i o n . • (5) Congestion of Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s The major d i f f i c u l t y faced i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from the study area r e s u l t s from i t s p r o x i m i t y to the C e n t r a l Business D i s t r i c t , i n which the t r a f f i c flows are i n o r d i n a t e l y - l a r g e r than those gener-ated at the w a t e r f r o n t . The present system of a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s s e r v i n g t h i s d i s t r i c t i s over c a p a c i t y and r e s u l t s i n an average speed w i t h i n the CBD of about,15 mph. i n non-peak.hours, and somewhat l e s s than 13 mph. i n peak p e r i o d s . This congested c o n d i t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e not only i n that part of the study area a d j o i n i n g the CBD, but has a "back-up" e f f e c t which extends east to V i c t o r i a D r i v e , and thus a p p l i e s to about 60 per cent of the length of the study area, and a higher p r o p o r t i o n of users. T r a f f i c e n t e r i n g or l e a v i n g the waterfront i s r e q u i r e d to use the same s t r e e t s that CBD t r a f f i c uses, as there i s no a l t e r n a t i v e access. Not only i s e x t e r n a l t r a f f i c a f f e c t e d , but a l s o i n t e r n a l t r a f f i c faces the same.conditions because there i s no continuous s e r v i c e r o a d , w i t h i n the study area. The a d d i t i o n a l cost r e s u l t i n g to a general cargo t e r m i n a l from the congested s t r e e t "system amounted 220 to a 27 per cent surcharge from the c o n d i t i o n e x i s t i n g w i t h uncon-gested t r a f f i c . While r a i l w a y t r a f f i c has not reached the c o n d i t i o n of highway t r a f f i c , n e vertheless i t i s faced w i t h the same problems, not r e s u l t -i n g from an upsurge i n downtown t r a f f i c , but from a general increase i n s h i p ping along and beyond the.waterfront area. The present l i n e s are inadequate i f the maximum e l e v a t o r . i n p u t of 600 cars per day i s r e q u i r e d . The present s w i t c h i n g methods and the arrangement of r a i l w a y l i n e s as discussed i n Chapter IV, impose a d d i t i o n a l costs on the wat e r f r o n t users. Interchanges between the two main r a i l w a y s con-t r i b u t e to delays of d e l i v e r y and double the cost of handling. The combined e f f e c t of these r e s t r i c t i o n s r e s u l t s i n a d d i t i o n a l costs of about $400,000 per year. D i r e c t shipments of r a i l cars between the north and south shores of Burrard I n l e t are now i m p o s s i b l e , and a 30 m i l e detour i s r e q u i r e d to make t h i s one-half m i l e t r i p . Because of the unique p o s i t i o n of the Vancouver CBD, a l l e v -i a t i o n of congestion i s both d i f f i c u l t and.expensive. To maintain the present l e v e l of s e r v i c e alone, l e t alone improve i t , f o r the increase i n t r a f f i c accruing from a current downtown undertaking, P r o j e c t 200, would r e q u i r e s i x grade s t r e e t s l e a d i n g .to the eastern p a r t of the c i t y , c o s t i n g approximately $15 m i l l i o n , (6) Expanding Shipping Requirements . . Forecasts f o r port s h i p p i n g show, an annual i n c r e a s e of about 7 per cent, which w i l l double the volume shipped i n . t h e next decade. 221 Of the v a r i o u s commodities, the bulk users w i l l show a marked r i s e , and i n demands above,those of other commodities. The 19.68 c a p a c i t y of the port -was b a r e l y adequate to handle flows'of that year. In the next decade an expansion of almost two-f o l d w i l l have to be provided i f the p r o j e c t e d flows are to be accom-modated, and w i l l r e q u i r e more b e r t h s , and f a s t e r turn around time. . The maj or component f o r higher unloading r a t e s and expanded f a c i l i t i e s , i s the need f o r more land . Elsewhere container terminals are being constructed o n . s i t e of 120 acres each, and bulk l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s u t i l i z i n g u n i t t r a i n s r e q u i r e about 80 acres. The land r e q u i r e d to accommodate operation of these proportions i s simply not a v a i l a b l e i n the Inner Harbour without major -disruption of a d j o i n i n g urban, commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s . (7) Port A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Management of the port i s impeded, i n that no s i n g l e agency e x e r c i s e s j u r i s d i c t i o n over port lands to provide coordinated planning. In the study area both m u n i c i p a l and f e d e r a l governments are i n v o l v e d , w h i l e o u t s i d e of Burrard I n l e t a l l . t h r e e l e v e l s of government exert some a u t h o r i t y . While the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board comes, c l o s e s t to o v e r a l l management, much of i t s a u t h o r i t y , and the a u t h o r i t y of f e d e r a l statutes., i s l i m i t e d to lands covered by water and foreshore. The very important aspect of j u r i s d i c t i o n over the upland remains a p r o v i n c i a l or m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The l a c k of a . s u i t a b l e o v e r a l l agency has been.mentioned and emphasized i n o t h e r - s t u d i e s , and ample evidence of disharmonious 222 r e l a t i o n s have been recounted i n , t h e press regarding port f a c i l i t i e s at Roberts Bank. At best such an arrangement can r e s u l t i n a sympa-t h e t i c c o l l a b o r a t i o n of r e g u l a t o r y agencies, at worst i n a complete divergence of a c t i o n s , and the breakdown of the o v e r a l l port f u n c t i o n . (b) Further Study This study has demonstrated the complexity of i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n Vancouver's f u t u r e p o r t development. The data and a n a l y s i s has a l s o i n d i c a t e d that t h i s l o c a t i o n i s d e t r i m e n t a l to the o v e r a l l port operation. However, the study has a l s o demonstrated the need to ex-tend t h i s p i l o t p r o j e c t to a s c e r t a i n i f s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t throughout the.port system. Therefore, the -following areas are of relevance f o r f u r t h e r study: (1) The development of a systematic approach to a l l o c a t i n g s h i p ping and w a t e r f r o n t f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n port areas. The b a s i s of such an approach would be founded i n the t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs of goods moving from t h e i r o r i g i n to t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , using a l t e r n a t i v e shipping or port t e r m i n a l s . Such a model i s developed i n Appendix IX, en-t i t l e d the.Commodity Flow Model. (2) A b e n e f i t cost study of a waterfront-access road. (3) The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n requirements of p r o s p e c t i v e Roberts Bank tenants, measured i n terms of the added,congestion t h i s w i l l have :on.the e x i s t i n g - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, 223 (A) The e f f e c t s on the nationa l economy of reducing trans-shipment costs by 10 per cent. (5) Establishment of a coordinating body at the regional l e v e l f o r a l l port management. , (6) Amendments to the National Harbours Board Act to allow f o r zoning powers for the use of land c o n s t i t u t i n g the immediate port service area to protect the na t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , s i m i l a r to the a i r p o r t zoning l e g i s l a t i o n . (7) The ultimate destinations of.cargo i n i t i a l l y destined for Vancouver C i t y warehouses, i n order to a r r i v e at more precise o r i g i n and.destination f i g u r e s . This l i s t i s by no means endless, however, i t s purpose i s to demonstrate the need for a d d i t i o n a l study i n t h i s area by a l l l e v e l s of government, C i t y , P r o v i n c i a l and National. 224 Bibliography A. BOOKS American Association of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated (The). Port Design and Construction. Washington: The American I n s t i t u t e of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1964. C h i n i t z , Benjamin. City and Suburb, The Economics of Metropolitan Growth. Englewood, New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1964. Chorley, R. J . and P. Haggett. Models in.Geography. London: Methuen and Company Limited, 1967. Fromm, G. Transportation Investment and Economic Development. Washington: The Brookings I n s t i t u t e , 1965. Gibb, S i r Alexander. Dominion of Canada : National Ports Survey, 1931-1932. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1932. Goldberg, Michael. Intrametropolitan Industrial Location : Plant Size and the Theory of Production. Berkeley: Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics I n s t i t u t e of Urban and Regional Development, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1969. Haggett, Peter. Locational Analysis in Human Geography, London: E. Arnold.Ltd., 1965. Heddon, Walter P. Mission : Port Development. Washington: The American I n s t i t u t e of Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Incorporated, 1967. K o s t i e r , John.C., Norman H. T i l s l e y . Container Guide, London: National Magazine Co. L t d . , 1969. Le o n f i e f , W. Input-Output Economics. New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966. McKeeves, J . Ross, ed. The Community Builders Handbook, Washington: Community Builders Council of Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1968. Mayer, H. M.i C. F. Kohn, eds.. Readings in Urban Geography. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959. Miernyk, W. The Elements of Input-Output Analysis, New York: Random House, 1965. Oram, R. B. Cargo Handling and the Modern Port, Oxford: Pergamon Press Ltd., 1965. 225 Schenker, E r i c . The Port of Milwaukee. An Economic Review. Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1967. Smith, R. T. M., E. J . Taaffe, L. J . King. Readings in Economic Geography. The Location of Economic Activity. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1968. Vancouver City Directory, 1969. Vancouver: B. C. D i r e c t o r i e s , 1969. Weigend, Guido, G. "Some Elements i n the Study of Port Geography," Readings in Urban Geography. H. M. Mayer and C. F. Kohn, eds. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959. B. PERIODICALS Addison, J . A. "A New Major Deep Water Port,Development on Canada's Eastern Seaboard," Ports and Harbours, Volume 4; No. 6, June, 1969. Baumol, William J . , and P h i l i p Wolfe. "A Warehouse-Location Problem," Operation Research,. Volume 6, 1958, pp. 253-263. Brant, Austin E. "The Port of Chicago," Waters and Harbours Division. Proceeding of the American Society of C i v i l Engineers, paper 1768, September, 1958. Brink, Edward L. and John S.de Cani. "An Anologue Solution of the Generalized Transportation Problem with S p e c i f i c A p p l i c a t i o n to Marketing Location," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Operational Research.. Baltimore: Operations Research Society of America, 1957, pp. 123-136. Camu, P i e r r e . "Notes on Port Studies," The Canadian Geographer, V o l . VI, 1955. C l a f f e y , Paul J . "Planning Rapid R a i l Service f o r Intra-Urban T r a v e l , " Traffic Quarterly, Volume XVII, No. 4, October, 1963. Englemann, Peter.' "Changing S i t e Requirements for Port Operations," Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 84, No. WW4, Proc. Paper 1769, September, 1958. Foss, B. "A Cost Model for Coastal Shipping," J.T.E.P. May, 1969. 226 Foster, M i n a r d i . "Broad Scope of Navigation's Economic Impact," Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 95, No. WW1, Proc. Paper 6389, February, 1969. Frankel, E. G. "Containerized Shipping and Integrated Transportation," Proceedings of- the IEEE. Proceedings of the I n s t i t u t e of E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s Engineers, V o l . 56, No, 4, A p r i l , 1968. Gaither, William S. and John P a t r i c k Sides. "Systems Approach.to Petroleum Port S i t e S e l e c t i o n , " Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 95, No. WW3, Proc- Paper 6750, August, 1969. Gilman, R. H. "The Port, A Focal Point," American Society of Civil Engineers, Transactions. Paper 2924, Volume 123, 1958. Goss, R. 0. "Towards an Economic Appraisal of Port Investments," Journal of Transportation and. Economic Policy. Sept. 1967. Ha r r i s , C. D. "The C i t i e s of the Soviet Union," Geographical Review, Volume 35, 1945. Isard, Walter. "Interregional and Regional Input-Output Analysis : A Model of a Space Economy," Review of Economics and Statistics. Novemberj 1951. Johnson, S. "The Seaports of,the Future," Ports and Harbours, Volume 14, No. 6, June, 1969. King, A. L. "A Method of Computing Costs of C a p i t a l Investment i n P i e r s , " World Port' and Marine News, June, 1964. Lunch, E. P. J . "Berth Economies," The Dock and Harbour Authority, Number 528, Vol.XLV, October, 1964; MacMillan, Douglas C. " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of New Type Cargo Ships," Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, V o l . 83, Proc. Paper 1237, May, 1957. Marsden, Howard J . "Shoreside F a c i l i t i e s for Special Purpose Ships," Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, V o l , 83, No. WW2, Proc. Paper 1248, May, 1957. Nagorski, B. "Lay-out of Port F a c i l i t i e s , " The Dock and Harbour Authority, V o l . XLIV, No, 512, June, 1963 and V o l . XLIV, No. 513, Ju l y , 1963. 227 N e i l , Alfred H. and P h i l i p Mandel. "Transportation by Sea — Today and Tomorrow," Proceedings of • the IEEE. Proceedings of the Ins t i t u t e of E l e c t r i c a l and Electronics Engineers, Vol. 56, No. 4, A p r i l , 1968. Oberman, Leonard S. "Functional Planning of Bulk Material Ports," Journal of the Waterways and Harbors Division, American Society, of C i v i l Engineers, Vol. 91, No. WW2, Proc. Paper 4310, May, 1965. Pender, D. R. "South Carolina Ports and the State's Economy," Business and'Economic Review, Volume 13, No. 8, May, 1967, Plumlee, C. H. "Optimum Size Sea Port," Journal of the Waterways and Harbours Division, American Society of C i v i l Engineers, Volume 93, Number WW4, November, 1967; . "Port Economics," The Dock and Harbour Authority, Number 502, Volume XLIII, August, 1962. Ullman, Edward. "Amenity as a Factor i n Regional Growth," Geographic Review, 44, January, 1954. C. REPORTS, GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS, ETC. Atamenenko, G. T;, et a l . The Port of Vancouver. School of Community and Regional Planning, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, May, 1961. ' Barnstead, R. C. "Congestion Costs and F l e x i b i l i t y of Goods Move-ment," i n Proceedings of the First Canadian Urban Transporta-tion Conference, ed. John Steel, Canadian Federation of Mayors and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ottawa, 1969. Bartholomew, H. and Associates. Railway and Harbour Report. Vancouver, 1927. B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council. Freight Movements Through Greater Vancouver. Vancouver, May, 1963. . Vancouver Harbour Traffic Trends and Facility Analysis. Vancouver, A p r i l , 1967. Clapham, J . C , W. J . Sheriff. Computer Simulation — A Tool in Port Planning. Paper presented to the C.T.R.F., Vancouver, B. C. May 1-3, 1968. 228 Clark, Barry K. The Formulation and Application of a Marine Recreation Planning Methodology. A Case Study of the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands. M. -A. Thesis in Community and Regional Planning, The University of British Columbia, 1969. C o l l i e r , R. W. ed. Symposium on the Port of Vancouver. Department of Extension, The University of British Columbia, 1966. Delaware River Port Authority. The Value of a Ton of Cargo to the Area's Economy. Philadelphia, 1953. -. The Economic Impact of the Delaware River Ports. P h i l -adelphia, 1959. Eyre, John L. The Seventies at Sea. A paper presented to the Canadian Industrial Traffic League, February 20, 1969. Forward, Charles N, Waterfront Land Use in Metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia. Geographical Paper No. 41, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1968. Fraser River Harbour Commission. Annual Reports, 1967, 1968, 1969. Government of California, San Francisco Bay Conservation and Develop-ment Commission. Waterfront Development. San Francisco, 1967; Government of Canada. Report of the Federal Task' Force on Rousing and Urban Development. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1969. Greater Vancouver Real Estate Board. Real Estate Trends in Metro-politan Vancouver. Vancouver: Sta t i s t i c a l and Survey Committees, 1968, Griggs, Neil J. The History of.Planning in Victoria. Unpublished paper, School of Community and Regional Planning, The Univer-sity of British Columbia, 1969. Harkness, Gary C. Criteria for- River Crossing Location : A-Case' Study Approach. Unpublished M. A. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, A p r i l , 1964. Hodge, G., and I. M. Robinson. Jobs, People•and Transportation. Vancouver: Report to the Metropolitan Joint Committee, 1960. Johnston Terminals Limited.. Greater Vancouver Local and Joint Freight Tariff No. I , effective February.19, 1970. 229 Kates, J. West Coast Commodity Transportation Study, Part I, The Transportation and Handling of Grains; Short Term Recommen-dations. Kates, Peat, Marwick & Co., Toronto, 1967. Kerfott, D. E. Maritime Foreign Trade for B.C. M. A. Thesis, Depart-ment of Geography, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Lea, N. D. and Associates. Recreation Boating Study in Georgia Strait Area of B.C., for the Government of Canada. Department of Public Works, 1966. (In the f i l e s of the department). . Transportation Systems for the City of - Vancouver : An Appraisal. Vancouver, November 1968. Leighton, F.C. A Brief on Development Problems of the Greater Vancouver Port Area. March 7, 1966. :—. Economic Forces Behind the Roberts Bank Super Port Development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Professional Engineers of B.C., Vancouver, December 6, 1968. L i t t l e , A.D., Inc.. The Port, of San Francisco, for San Francisco Port Authority, 1966. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board. Industrial Prospects in the Lower Mainland. New Westminster, 1961. . Population Trends in the Lower Mainland-1921-1986. New Westminster, 1968. McCullough, John T. "The Impact of Containerization i n the World's Ports,", Proceedings of the Fifth Conference; 1967. The International Association of Ports and Harbors, Toyko, 1967. McMullen, Wallace Edward. Port Administration Structures. Unpub-lished M.B.A. Thesis, The University o f . B r i t i s h Columbia, July, 1968. Matheson, M.H. "The Hinterlands of Saint John," Geographical Bulletin, No. 7. Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955. National Harbours Board. Annual Reports. 1945, 1968. r. Supplement to the 1968 Annual Report, North Fraser Harbour,Commissioners, The. Annual Report, 1968. 230 Pendakur, V. Setty, N e i l J . Griggs, Peter l a s s i e . Multi-pie Use of Transportation Corridors in Canada, Part I : Conceptual and Legal Aspects; Part II : Socio-Economic Impact and Transport Consequences. School of Community and Regional Planning, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. Port of New York Authority, The. The Port and the Community. New York, 1956. Posthuma, I r . F, "Impact on Port Development of Modern Trends i n Ship Design," Proceedings of the Fifth. Conference, 1967. The International Association of Ports and Harbor, Toyko, 1967. Province of . B r i t i s h Columbia, British Columbia Financial and Economic Reviews, 29th Edition. V i c t o r i a , Department of Finance, June, 1968, — -, Municipal Statistics for Year Ended 1968. Department of Municipal A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1969. Rienstra, J . M. Port development and Planning in the Lower Mainland. Speech to Vancouver Branch, I n s t i t u t e of Public Administra-t i o n of Canada, Vancouver, January 28, 1970. Robinson, Ross. Spatial Patterns of Port Linked Flows : General Cargo Imports Through the Port of Vancouver, 1965. (Paper i n the., f i l e s of the Port of Vancouver Development Committee). :—. Spatial Structuring of Port-Linked Flows; The Port of Vancouver, Canada, 1965. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968, Roer, P. 0. Memorandum Re Access to Project 200. Planning Depart-ment, C i t y of Vancouver, June 12, 1969, S h e r i f f , W, J . The Port of Vancouver General Cargo Requirements* B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council, Vancouver, January, 1963. U. S. Department of Commerce. Developing Small Boat Harbours in Six Oregon Counties. Washington: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle D i s t r i c t , November 1968, . The Economic Impact of the United States Ports. Maritime Administration, Washington, 1966, Vancouver City Assessment Roll, 1969, Assessment Department, C i t y of Vancouver, 1969. Vancouver C i t y Planning Department. Downtown Vancouver, Part I. The Issues. Vancouver, 1968. 231 Vancouver C i t y Planning Department. Land Values 1961-1967, Vancouver, March, 1968. . Restoration Report : A Case for Renewed Life in the Old City. Vancouver, 1969. •• . Proposed Arbutus Park Regional Shopping Center; King Edward Avenue and Arbutus Street, No. C58.14.2. Vancouver, 1968. -. Vancouver Urban Renewal Study Technical Report, Numbers 2, 4 & 6. Vancouver, 1969. Vancouver Harbour.Commissioners. Annual Reports. 1925, 1935. Vickers, Charles L. "Containerization 1967," Proceedings of the Fifth Conference, 1967, The International A s s o c i a t i o n of Ports and Harbors, Toyko, 1967. Ward, J . B. and Associates International. Port of Vancouver Inven-tory. Report prepared f or the National Harbours Board, Vancouver, 1966. Washington Bureau of Business Research. The Impact of Harbour Activity on Portland's Economy. Washington, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1960. Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. Pleasure Boating Study, Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters. Washington: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle D i s t r i c t , November, 1968, Wisconsin Department.of Housing and Urban Renewal.. Waterfront Renewal. Madison, 1966. D. STATUTES Governor General i n Council. P.C, 741. June 7, 1924. . P.C. -1967-1SB1. August 11, 1967. Great B r i t a i n . British North America Act, 1867. 30 V i c t o r i a , C.3. . Order of Her Majesty in.Council Admitting British Columbia into the Union. Court of Windsor, May 16, 1871. National Transportation Act. (S.Ci 1967, Chap. 69). Sec. l . ( P a r t ) . 232 Railway Act. (R.S.C. 1952, Chap. 234). : . (R.S.B.C. 1960, Chap. 329). The Supreme Court of Canada. Decision over Offshore Mineral Rights as-Set out in Order of Council P.C, 1965-750. November 7, 1967. Zoning and' Development By-Law No, 357 5 ^  and amending by-laws, C i t y of Vancouver, 1956. E. INTERVIEWS Mr. R. M. Brink, President. Johnston Terminals L t d . , November 21, 1969. Mr. L. C a r l y l e , Port Engineer. Port of Vancouver, Ju l y 17, 1969. Mr. J . E. Chadwick, Secretary. Port of Vancouver Development Committee, March 9, 1970. Mr. N. D. Eastman, Port Manager, The North Fraser Harbour Commission-ers, March 26, 1970. Mr. P. George. Research D i v i s i o n , C i t y of Vancouver Planning Depart-ment, March 12, 1970. Mr. R.~ Hughes, Yardmaster, Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company, Vancouver, March 13, 1970. Mr. Jack Hutchinson. T r a f f i c D i v i s i o n , Engineering Department, C i t y of Vancouver, June 3, 1969; Captain J . W. Kavanagh, Port Manager. Fraser River Harbour Commission, March 30, 1970. Mr. T. Barrie Lindsay, Manager, Export-Import Services, Johnston Terminals Limited, February 16, 1970. Mr. L. Minock, Ph.D. student. Department of Geography, The Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, March 14, 1970. Mr. D. J . Mooney, General Manager. Marathon Realty Company Ltd., Vancouver, June 12, 1969. Mr. D. Purdon, Chief Engineer. Greater Vancouver Sewerage.District, March 13, 1970. 233 Mr. H. Urquhart. Assessment Department, C i t y of Vancouver, June 3, 1969. Mr. J . S. Wood. Swan Wooster Engineering Co. L t d . , February 11, 1970, Main gate checkers. Centennial P i e r , January 19, 1970. F. UNSIGNED ARTICLES Bank of Montreal. Business Review. August 29, 1969. Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, Commercial Letter. May-June, 1969. Engineering Journal. V o l . 53, No, 2, February, 1970, National Harbours Board: Vancouver Harbour. C i r c u l a r issued by National Harbours Board, Vancouver (no date). Vancouver Express. A p r i l 14, 1970, Vancouver Sun. August 29, 1968, G. CARTOGRAPHIC SOURCES Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board; Development May June, C i t y of Vancouver Sheets, 4,7,8,10,11,13. Mainland Harbours Board. Vancouver Harbour; Plan of South Shore. Sheets 1 to 5, Scale 1 inch to 400 feet . APPENDIX I WATERFRONT QUESTIONNAIRE, NOVEMBER, 1969 VANCOUVER HARBOUR QUESTIONNAIRE Conducted by the School of Community and Regional Planning University of B r i t i s h Columbia In conjunction with the P o l i c y and Research Branch, Canada Department of Transport 235 8. 22-27 9. 10. PLEASE INDICATE THE PRODUCT CATEGORIES '.*:ICV. DOMINATE THE SITE BASED ON VALUE OF BUSINESS (IAAI'UM OF 3) TYPE OF BUSINESS Industries Foods and beverages Servicea Transportation Column I - f i s h 1 [ ] - marine i i C ] - other foods 2 [ ] - land 12 [ ] Primary metals 3 [ J Storage Machinery industries nan- - f i s h & f i s h products 13 C ] ufacture and repair - cereal and grain 1* C ] - marine 4 t ] - meat f r u i t 4 vegetableslS [ ] - land 5 [ ] - container & general Transportation equipment cargo 16 [ ] - marine 6 [ ] - moorage 17 [ ] - land 7 [ ] - auto and other 18 [ ] Non m e t a l l i c minerals 8 [ T J Communication 19 C ] Chemical products 9 [ ] Wholesale trade 20 [ ] Construction 10 [ ] R e t a i l trade 21 [ ] Public administration 22 [ ] recreation 23 [ ] Business to management 24 C ] Hotels and restaurants 25 [•] Other - (Please specify) 26 [ ] 7-8 11-12 WHEN DID YOU BEGIN OPERATIONS A T THIS SITE? year WHEN l i A S T H E IIAIH PLANT A1ID/OR BUILDING CONSTRUCTED? year •WHEN WEUE THE ;TUOR CAPITAL INVESTMENTS CONSTRUCTION? year 13-14 15-16 17-18 IS THIS SITE THE ORIGINAL LOCATION FOR YOUR FIRM IN THE METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER ARFA? Yes 1 [ ] Ho 2 [ ] 19 IF NOT, WHERE WAS THE PREVIOUS LOCATION? 20 Also on Burrard Inlet Water front 1 [ ] Elsewhere C i t y of Vancouver 2 [ ] Elsewhere Metropolitan Vancouver 3 [ ] PLEASE INDICATE WHICH OF THE FOLLOUINC CATEGORIES ACCURATELY DESCRIBES THE SITUATION OF YOUR BUSINESS: (SEE ALSO QUESTION #34) 21 Own Land and Buildings 1 [ ] Lease Portion o l Building 3 L ] Lease Land and Bulldinp.s 2 [ ] Lease Land, Own Building 4 [ ] HOW IIUCK FLOor. APRA DO Y:>U occur.'? square feet; no. of f l o o r s 28 WHAT IS THE TOTAL AREA OF THE SITE? (PLKASE GIVE TO NEAREST TENTH OF AN ACRE) acres 29-33 HOW MA1JY FEET OF SHORELINE DO YOU OCCUPY, EXCLUDING FILL, BUILDING EXTENSIONS, ETC.? feet 34-37 236 l i . 12. - 2 -HOW HANY FEET OF THIS SHORELINE IS DOCK FRONT ACE T feet HOW 2-iANT PARKING SPACES DO YOU MAKE AVAILABLE ON SITE FOR THE FOLLOW INC PURPOSEST Employee Parking - number Company Vehicles number V i s i t o r Parking number 13 PLEASE INDICATE THE PRESENT NUMBER OF YOUR EMPLOYEES AT THIS SITE ENCAGED IN THE rOLLOUINC CATEGORIES: Management and professional number C l e r i c a l , Sales and Service number Craftsmen, production, processing and related workers number Transport operators and communication number Other number Total employment (Not Including casual or temporary employees) number HOW MANY OF YOUR EMPLOYEES SPEND THE CREATE!* PAI5T OF THE WORK DAY OFT THE SITE? number 15. DO YOU HAVE ON-SITE ACCESS TO THE FOLLOWING TRANSFORATION MODEST 14 38-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 50-51 52-53 54-55 56-57 58-60 61-62 No Yes Adequate Inadequate R a i l 1 C ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] 4 [ ] 63 Truck 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] 4 [ ] 64 Sea - Deepsea Draught 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] * [ 3 65 - Barges or Shallow Draught 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] 4 [ ] 66 16. PLEASE LIST THE TOTAL ANNUAL IMPORT TONWACE HANDLED BY THE FOLLOWING METHODS: (USE SHORT TONS) 207-•213 R a i l tons Sca-Deepsea Vessels tons 226--232 214--216 Truck-GVW under 10,000 lbs. tons -Barges tons 233--236 217--221 -GVW over 10,000 l b s . tons Other tons 237--240 222-•225 Piggyback tons 17. PLEASE LIST THK IOTAI. ANNUAL EXPORT TONNAGE HANDLED BY THE FOLLOWING MF.Tiioos: 2*1- •247 R a i l tons Sea-Deepsea Veoocla _ tons 260--266 248-•250 Truck-GVW under 10,000 lbs. tons -Barges tons 267--270 251- 255 -GVW over 10,000 l b s . tons Other tons 271--274 256- 259 Piggyback tons end of 18. 307-310 311-312 313-315 THE FOLLOWING TWO OUESTIONS ASK FOR INFORMATION ON INCOMING AND OUT-GOING TRIPS TO OR FROM YOUR .".USINESS. PL£ASE LIST ALL TRIPS TO YOU* SITE BY VEHICLE, SHIP OR BARGE, IRRESPECTIVE OF WHETHEIi THE VEHICLE, SHIP OR BARGE IS EMPTY, PARTIALLY LOADED, OR FULL, AS INCOMING TRIPS. IN THE SAME MANNER PLEASE LIST ALL TRIPS FROM YOUR SITE, WHETHER EMPTY, PARTIALLY LOADED, OR FULL, AS OUTGOING TRIPS. IN AN AVERAGE MONTH OF 1969 WHAT WOULD BE THE tlUMISER OF INCOMING TRIPS BYT R a i l Car number Truck-GVW under 10,000 l b s . number Ship number Barge number card 2 -CVW over 10,000 l b s . Playback number number 316-316 319-321 322-323 - 3 -20. OF ALL YOUR INCOMING GOODS AND MATERIALS, INDICATE BY PERCENTAGE, WHERE ARE THE MAJOR ORIGINS? Waterfront Zone Number 341 Waterfront Z of Good* X 342-343 Within 5 Blocks of Waterfront Z of Goods X 344-345 C i t y of Vancouver Zone Number 346 Ci t y of Vancouver 1 of Goods Z 347-348 Metropolitan Vancouver Z of Goods Z 349-350 Remainder of B.C. 1 of Goods Z 351-352 • Yukon, N.W.T., Al b e r t a , Sask. , Kan. Z of Goods Z 353-354 Remainder of Canada Z of Goods Z 355-356 United States Z of Coods Z 357-358 Outside Canada Z of Goods Z 359-360 Specify Z .Z z 21. OF ALL YOUR OUTGOING COODS AND MATERIALS, INDICATE BY PERCENTAGE, WHERE ARE THE riAJOR DESTINATIONS? Waterfront Zone Number Waterfront Z of Goods Within 5 Blocks of Waterfront X of Goods Ci t y of Vancouver Zone Number City of Vancouver Z of Goods Metropolitan Vancouver Z of Goods Remainder of B.C. Z of Goods Yukon, N.W.T., Al b e r t a , Sask., llan. Z of Goods Remainder of Canada Z of Coods United States Z of Goods Outside Canada Z of Goods Specify Z Z z IN ADDITION TO GOODS AND MATERIALS, '.VE WOULD LIKE TO EVALUATE THE DE-PENDENCY OF THE WATEP. FRONT BUSINESSES UPON CONTACT PERSONALLY WITH OTHER BUSINESSES AND PEOPLE (SUCH AS CUSTOMERS, SALESMEN, SPECIAL SERVICES AND SKILLS) RATHER THAN COMMUNICATION BY TELEPHONE OR THROUGH THE"MAIL. THE FOLLOWING TWO QUESTIONS DEAL WITH THIS TYPE OP CONTACT. 22. FOR AN AVERAGE DAY, PLEASE LIST THE APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF INCOMING DAILY TRIPS (OTHER THAN DIPLOYEES) TO YOUR BUSINESS: The o r i g i n of the t r i p : Waterfront . number Downtown business d i s t r i c t (other than water front) number Other than water front or downtown business d i s t r i c t but w i t h i n H mile number Metropolitan Vancouver number 23. FOR AN AVERACE DAY, PLEASE LIST THE APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF OUTGOING DAILY TRIPS (OTHER THAN DIPLOYEES) FROM YOUR BUSINESS: The destination of the t r i p : Waterfront number Downtown business d i s t r i c t (other than water front) number Other than water front or downtown business d i s t r i c t but w i t h i n 4 mile number Metropolitan Vancouver number 237 361 362-363 364-365 366 367-368 369-370 371-372 373-374 375-376 377-378 379-380 end of card 3 40-7-408 409-410 411-412 413-414 415-416 417-418 419-420 421-422 - 4 -24. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE, IN YOUR OPINION WILL EMPLOYMENT AT THIS SITE INCREASE OR DECREASE? 1 [ ] increase 2 [ ] decrease 423 Please estimate the approximate percentage of Increase or decrease by 1975, and 1980: 1975 Increase X; decrease . X 424-426 1980 Increase X; decrease X 427-429 25. DOES YOUR BUSINESS HAVE DEFINITE PLANS TO INCREASE ITS FLOOR AREA? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] 430 26. IF YES, ARE THESE EXPANSION FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT THIS SITE* Yes 1 [ ] "o 2 [ ] 431 27. IS THE PRESENT STRUCTURE SUITABLE TO ACCOMMODATE THESE ADDITIONS? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] 432 28. DOES YOUR BUSINESS REQUIRE TO INCREASE ITS OUTSIDE AREA, e.g. STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION BAYS, SIDINGS, ETC.? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] 433 29. IS THERE ADJACENT SPACE FOR THESE UO!l-UU!LDING EXPANSIONS? Yes 1 [ ] Co 2 [ ] 434 30. APPROXIMATELY WHAT X OF INCREASE IN TOTAL SITE AREA WILL YOU REQUIRE OVER THE NEXT 5 YEARS? No Increase 1 [ ] 51% - 75X 5 [ ] 0 - 10X 2 [ ] 76X -100X 6 [ ] 11X - 25X 3 [ ] over 100X 7 [ ] 26X - SOX 4 [ ) 31. DOES YOUR BUSINESS EXPECT TO INCREASE ITS VOLUME OP BUSINESS? Yes 1 [ ] No 2 [ ] Anticipated Increase • . X by 1975 X by 1980 32. PLEASE RATE THE FREQUENCY OF PERSONAL CONTACT OF YOUR BUSINESS WITH THE 238 435 436 437-438 439-440 FOLLOWING SERVICES: Marine Services Personnel - deep sea - coastal - p i l o t s - tugs Stevedoring Shipyards Agents - railway - trucking - shipping v - public transportation a u t h o r i t i e s Finance Services - customs brokers - marine insurance - f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , banks, etc. Labour Market - sem i - s k i l l e d - highly s k i l l e d - labour organisations - wholesale trade salesmen Urban Consumer Market (Vancouver) (1) (2) (3) Dal ly Weekly Monthly Personal Personal Personal Contact Contact Contact 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 « 3 454 455 456 457 458 239 " 5 " (1) ' (2) (3) Dally Weekly Monthly Personal Personal Personal Contact Contact Contact Business with a l l levels of Govertwwnt 19 [ ] [ ] [ ] 459 OF THE ABOVE SERVICES. WH ICH DO YOU CONSIDER THE 3 MOST I!TORTANT FOR THE EFFICIENT OPERATION OF YOUR BUSINESS? [ ] nucber, [ ] number, [ ] number 460-465 33. HAVE YOU CONSIDERED ICVING TO EITHER: Another Industrial Site? Yes No 466 or Roberts Bank? Yes No 467 ,_ . (code in "hyf _ — _ s.ooo) 34. VALUE - LAND $ 468-470 BUILDING $ 471-473 MACHINERY $ 474-476 APPENDIX II CONTACT LETTER TO BUSINESSES IN STUDY. AREA NOVEMBER, 1969 241 THE UN I VERS ITY OF•BR ITISH .COLUMBIA Vancouver '8, Canada' School of Community & Regional.Planning November 13, 1969 Gentlemen: The School of Community and,Regional Planning, i n cooperation with the P o l i c y and Research Branch of the Canada Department of Transport, i s studying urban development pressures and land use patterns i n the Port of Vancouver environment. The research i s concerned with present adequacies of transportation and other ser v i c e s , and port user requirements. This concern stems from the f a c t that the Port.of Vancouver w i l l continue to grow i n i t s importance as an outl e t f o r external trade between Canada and other countries. The quantity and q u a l i t y of t h i s trade and the ease and economics of trans-shipment, of goods and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of land and services f o r the expansion of the port function i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the e f f i c i e n t opera-t i o n of the Port.. The Port of Vancouver and i t s economic e f f i c i e n c y i s of nationa l concern and s i g n i f i c a n c e and the purpose of the study i s to assess current port user requirements to form the basis f o r an understanding of the elements of the Port of Vancouver i n the '70's and the '80's, As a part of t h i s research two of our. research a s s i s t a n t s , Mr. N e i l J , Griggs, and Mr. Peter Tassie would be coming to your, o f f i c e to,interview one of your o f f i c i a l s on re l a t e d questions. We expect to s t a r t on the interviews during the week of November 17, 1969. The interview should take approximately 20 to 30.minutes and i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e - r e q u i s i t e to the success of our research. We would appreciate i t very much i f you would be good enough to cooperate with Mr. Griggs and/or Mr. Tassie when they v i s i t you to obtain relevant data. The r e s u l t s of the study w i l l be made av a i l a b l e to.you when the study i s completed. Thank you very much for your cooperation, Sincerely yours, V. Setty Pendakur Acting Director VSP/nm APPENDIX I I I TRUCKING QUESTIONNAIRE, FEBRUARY 1970 o T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 24-3 VANCOUVER 8, CANADA SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY & REGIONAL PLANNING Good d a y The S c h o o l of Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, with the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the Automative T r a n s p o r t A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C., i s s t u d y i n g the o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n o f t r u c k s e n t e r i n g t h i s p i e r . We would l i k e you to h e l p us by answering the f o l l o w i n g f i v e q u e s t i o n s : 1. No. o f a x l e s o f v e h i c l e . 2. GVW R e g i s t r a t i o n o f v e h i c l e . l b s . 3. I f you are d e l i v e r i n g a l o a d to t h i s p i e r What i s the type o f l o a d What i s the weight o f load l b s 4. I f you a r e p i c k i n g up a l o a d a t t h i s p i e r What i s the type o f l o a d What i s the weight o f l o a d l b s 5. On the map below p l e a s e mark the o r i g i n o f t h i s t r i p w i t h an "0", and your next s t o p ( e i t h e r to l o a d o r ay out. Your c o - o p e r a t i o n i s a p p r e c i a t e d . APPENDIX IV QUESTIONNAIRE SAMPLE: SERVICE SECTOR SURVEY, 1970 / 245 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver 8, Canada School of Community § Regional Planning January .23, 1970 Dear S i r : The School of Community and Regional Planning i n cooperation with the P o l i c y and Research Branch of the Canada Department of Transport, i s studying urban development pressures and land use patterns i n the port of Vancouver environment. The research i s also concerned with the port linkages and i t s economic influence i n Vancouver and i n t h i s regard I w i l l be telephoning you next week to obtain information on the following questions. I would appreciate i t very much i f you would be good enough to cooperate with me i n giving me the relevant data which i s an e s s e n t i a l pre-r e q u i s i t e to the success of my research. The r e s u l t s of the study w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to you when i t i s completed. If exact figures are not immediately a v a i l a b l e an.estimate w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t . Sincerely yours, N e i l Griggs 1. How many ( f u l l time) persons did you employ i n 1969? 1968? 1967? 2. What i s the annual p a y r o l l , 1969? 3. What percent of your business i s ex c l u s i v e l y marine? 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Don't know » 4. If the en t i r e port operation was moved to Roberts Bank, could you continue serving the new port from your present location? 5. What percent of your business i s connected with general cargo, as compared with bulk cargo? APPENDIX V INDUSTRIAL LAND AVAILABILITY AND RATE OF TAKE-UP CITY OF VANCOUVER, 1969 INDUSTRIAL LAND AVAILABILITY AND RATE OF TAKE-UP, VANCOUVER CITY, 1969 D i s t r i c t Vacant Open Total Annual Take-up Year's Residential Storage Available 1964-1968 Supply 1 G r a n v i l l e Island _ . 1.34 1.34 .10 13.4 2 G r a n v i l l e to Burrard 12.72 .07 12.79 1.08 11.8 3 Fairview 25.99 .69 26.68 1.18 22.5 4 Cambie - 2nd Avenue 42.39 4.50 46.89 4.17 11.2 5 False Creek F l a t s 14.48 12.06 26.54 3.60 7.7 1. 6 False Creek North.Side 2.84 27.92 30.76 - * 2. 7 False Creek East End 10.71 31.57 42.28 .41 2. 8 False Creek South Side 4.68 12.66 17.34 - * 2. 9 Arbutus & 12th Avenue 3.88 .57 4.45 .38 12.1 10 Powell Street 45.92 3.24 49.16 1.25 39,3 11 Clark Drive 32.63 4.66 37.29 3.96 9.4 12 Lougheed & Boundary 47.56 - 47.56 3.47 13,7 13 Cedar Cottage 2.13 - 2.13 • ,30 7.1 14 Joyce Road 8.13 - 8.13 2.11 3.9 15 Hudson Street 6.38 .40 6.78 .26 26.1 16 Marine Drive - West 46.91 9.58 56.49 6.92 8.2 3. 17 Marine Drive - Centre 36.26 .62 36.88 5.28 7.0 18 Marine Drive - East 48.43 .60 49.03 5.23 9,4 TOTAL 392.04 110.48 502.52 39.7 12.7 * No estimate made. 1. The supply of suitable and available acreage which may become a v a i l a b l e i n the future tends to be understated because of the large amount of railway land excluded. This railway land may become available i n the future. 2. The i n d u s t r i a l take-up 1964-1968 i n ; t h o s e . d i s t r i c t s was n i l or extremely small thereby making projection by t h i s method impossible. 3. The 28 acre s i t e of the Manitoba Works Yard was excluded i n assessing annual i n d u s t r i a l take-up. Source: C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study, Technical Report Number 4, 1969, p, 14. APPENDIX VI INDUSTRIAL LAND, METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER, 1969 INDUSTRIAL LAND — METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER, 1969 ' • • • — — • - UM. | D i s t r i c t T otal Developed Vacant % Occupied Approximate Acreage Acreage Acreage Price/Acre Vancouver 2,834.81 2*332.29 502.52 82,3 50,000 - 175,000 Burnaby 3,028.70 1,989.66 1,039.04 65,7 20,000 - 70,000 New Westminster 581.94 445.43 236,51 76,5 N.A. Fraser M i l l s 212.36 212.36 - 100.0 N.A; Coquitlam 719.28 460.66 258.62 64.0 N.A. Port Moody. 772.25 675.54 96.71 87.5 N.A. Buntzen 364.59 364.59 - 100.0 N.A. Port Coquitlam 1,631.42 845.30 786.12 51.8 2,500 - 3,500 Richmond 4,743.71 1,172.99 3,570.72 24.7 7,500 - 15,000 North Vancouver C i t y 456.43 240.25 216.18 52.6 25,000 - 40,000 North Vancouver D i s t r i c t 617.95 503.29 114.66 81.4 20,000 - 50,000 Delta 2,412.39 356.29 2i056.10 14.8 N.A. Surrey 3,611.63 1,931.95 1,679.68 53.5 N.A, TOTAL 21,987.46 11,530.60 10,456,86 53.5 N.A. Not Available Source: Ci t y of Vancouver Planning Department, Urban Renewal Study. Technical Report Number 4, 1969, p, 17. APPENDIX VII CARGO TONNAGE, PORT;OF VANCOUVER AND CITY OF VANCOUVER STUDY AREA, 1968 251 CARGO TONNAGE, PORT OF VANCOUVER AND CITY OF VANCOUVER STUDY AREA, 1968 BULK CARGO . 1 GENERAL CARGO Port of Vancouver Port of Vancouver Vancouver Study Area Vancouver Study Area (estimates) (estimates) Wheat 4,943,500 2,034*000 Flour- 46,000 46,000 Sugar & Meats & Molasses 125,000 125,000 F i s h 40,000 20,000 Fodder 118,500 100,000 F r u i t 37,500 30,000 Seeds 503,500 503,500 Nuts 10,000 8,000 F e r t i l i z e r 124,000 100,000 Coffee 21,000 12,000 Scrap Metal 12,000 10,000 Foods 48,000 30,000 Coal 1,247*000 - Materials Scrap 497,000 350,000 Asbestos 207,000 - Fabrics 12,000 10,000 Sand & Gravel 2,274,000 50,000 Tallow 36,000 36,000 Stone 319,000 50,000 Chemicals 150,000 50,000 Phosphate Rock 402,000 80,000 Chem. Product. 51,000 30,000 Salt 410,000 - Metal & Glass 369,000 260,000 Sulphur 1,178,000 - Machinery 97,000 80,000 Ores 266,500 - Autos 43,000 43,000 Potash 1,656,000 - ' Equipment 143,000 100,000 Gas & Fuel O i l 2,117,000 500,000 News P r i n t 272,000 70,000 Cement 160:, 000 100,000 Lumber 2,148,000 1,000,000 Logs 826,000 - Wood Pulp 852,000 200,000 Pulp Chips 1,158,000 - Paper 96,000 50,000 Misc. 1,267,500 800,000 T o t a l 17,847,000 3,652,500 6,326,000 3,225,000 —————— T o t a l Port of Vancouver 24,173,000 To t a l Study Area 6,877,500 Source: N.H.B. Annual Report, 1968. Waterfront Survey, 1969. APPENDIX VIII ESTIMATE OF WATERFRONT DAILY TRUCK TRAFFIC (STUDY AREA) ESTIMATE OF WATERFRONT DAILY TRUCK TRAFFIC (STUDY AREA) 40,000 monthly t r i p s to the waterfront. 2,000 d a i l y t r i p s , 5-day week. 3% hour average t r i p length, (2 hours at p o r t ) . 1% a d d i t i o n a l man-hours per t r i p for unloading, s e r v i c i n g , o f f i c e time, etc. (estimated). 5 man-hours per waterfront t r i p . 5 x 2,000 d a i l y t r i p s =10,000 man-hours. 1,340 estimated employees engaged f u l l time on.8-hour weekday. * 26,000 from survey and additional,14,000 estimated from incomplete surveys, for example, Pier s B and C, Ballentyne P i e r , and Terminal Dock. APPENDIX IX COMMODITY FLOW MODEL 255 COMMODITY FLOW MODEL This study has attempted to demonstrate what the e x i s t i n g conditions are along one portion of the Vancouver waterfront. I t has not attempted to produce any solutions or recommendations. To do t h i s would require considerably more.information as w e l l as study on the implications of any such recommendations. What follows i s a proposal that could provide the f i r s t step or foundation for a waterfront a l l o c a -t i o n p o l i c y f o r port lands. I t i s simply a t h e o r e t i c a l concept and as yet i s untested, but i s based on the information gained from t h i s study. As no comprehensive p o l i c y e x i s t s that systematically a l l o c a t e s port lands to i t s optimum use i n terms of a t o t a l transportation system, the following provides such a,base upon which other s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l conditions can be added. The model i s based on a.simple Route Theory p r i n c i p l e that s e l e c t s a route with the l e a s t cost for the d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n of goods. Presently Freight Forwarders and Shippers apply various models as to optimum routes, load factors and warehouse locations.^" S i m i l a r l y Shipowners operate t h e i r own models of co s t / p r o d u c t i v i t y , William J . Baumol and P h i l i p Wolfe, "A Warehouse-Location Problem," Operation Research, Vol..6, 1958, pp. 252-63; also Edward L. Brink and John S. de Cani, "An Analogue Solution of the Generalized Transportation Problem with S p e c i f i c A p p l i c a t i o n to Marketing Location," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Operational Research, Baltimore: Operations Research Society of America, 1957, pp. 123-36. 256 2 cost/revenue and ship s i z e and speed. Industries likewise have 3 optimum l o c a t i o n models. In i t s basic form t h i s theory considers the l o c a t i o n of a s i n g l e route. August Lo'sch (1954, p. 184), applied the "Laws of Refraction" to the route s e l e c t i o n of a port s i t e . The problem was to f i n d the l e a s t cost route t o s h i p goods from s i t e A 4 to s i t e B. Figure 30-A shows the influence of transportation costs i n the s e l e c t i o n of a s i t e , assuming that port construction i s equally favourable at any point. As land transport costs increase over ocean costs the length of the land haul decreases, Losch showed that the l e a s t - c o s t l o c a t i o n of the port, using one route would be where s i n x - s i n y = 0, where x and y are the angles that the two transport routes make with the c o a s t l i n e . Figure 30-B shows examples of l e a s t - c o s t port s i t e s . For example, S i t e No, 1 r e f l e c t s proportionately higher land transportation costs, and S i t e No, 2 r e f l e c t s proportionately higher marine transportation costs. This t h e o r e t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n would only be possible where there i s one point of o r i g i n , one point of d e s t i n a t i o n and one commodity. Situations such as t h i s could e x i s t i n mining communities close to the coast engaged i n the export of the raw materials. B. Foss, "A cost.Model for Coastal Shipping," JoT.E.P,, May, 1969. 3 Michael Goldberg, Intrametropolitan Industrial Location: Plant Size and the Theory of Production, Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics I n s t i t u t e of Urban and Regional Development, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1969. 4 Peter Haggett, Locational Analysis in ..Human Geography, E. Arnold L t d . , London, 1965, p..63. to 258 Although the s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver i s more complex, t h i s p r i n c i p l e can s t i l l be a p p l i e d , and i n s t e a d of c o n s i d e r i n g the s e l e c t i o n of a s i n g l e route and a s i n g l e commodity, a route network i s developed accommodating a v a r i e t y of commodities,, The Model,now becomes a dynamic s t o c h a s t i c l i n e a r programming model based on network a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t i s a Commodity Flow Model which s e l e c t s routes that a l l o w f o r the maximum flow of goods w i t h the minimum c o s t s . The Model i s a modified v e r s i o n of "Maximum Flow Paths," one of s e v e r a l network models used i n Geography.^ The problem of d e f i n i n g maximum flow was solved i n 1955 by Dantzig and Fulkerson through t h e i r "Maxflow-mincut" theorem, which showed that the maximum flow through a network was equal to the sum of the c a p a c i t y of the branches of the minimum cut. A " c u t " i s any c o l l e c t i o n of branches which completely separates two terminals ..in the network. In Figure 31, there are four. p o s s i b l e cuts which separate A from D. The c a p a c i t y of these cuts are 7, 8, 15, and 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y , see Figure 31-B, The maximum cut i s the l i n e ACBD w i t h a t o t a l c a p a c i t y of 6 u n i t s , which i s a l s o the maximum flpw.^ Once accepting t h i s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of maximizing flows and . minimizing c o s t s , the next step i s to look at a l o c a l area and apply t h i s concept. Richard J , Charley and Peter Haggett, eds., Integrated Models in Geography, London: Methuen & Co., U n i v e r s i t y Paperbacks, 1969. 6 Op. ait,, p. 617. S o u r c e : A k e r s , I960. In Greater Vancouver we now have three a l te rnat ive port s i t e s , Burrard I n l e t , the Fraser River and Roberts Bank. Feeding each of these s i t e s i s a transportat ion network of roads and ra i lways . Figure 32 i s a hypothet ical example of the road transportat ion network of Southern. B r i t i s h Columbia and i s presented i n the form o f , a Decis ion Tree Network, faced by a shipper.^ The example i n th i s case i s the export.flows of Okanagan canned f r u i t . The o r i g i n i s known, a canning plant or ware-house i n Pent ic ton , and the dest inat ion i s known, for example, the United Kingdom. In the reverse s i t u a t i o n , that of Import Flows, the o r i g i n of a good i s known, for example, t rans i s tor radios from Japan, and the des t inat ion i s also known from the b i l l s of l ad ing . However, i n most cases when importing goods, the immediate receiver i s usual ly an agent with the goods being warehoused, so i n th i s case the warehouses would be used as dest inat ion points . The next step i s to take each import and export commodity, for example, canned f r u i t from the Okanagan, and trace.the ex i s t ing flow pattern through the Burrard In le t Terminal and ca lculate i t s transpor-t a t ion costs . Figure 33 i s a hypothetical network of the ex i s t ing flow g capacit ies and costs . A s imi l a r process would be completed for each of the three Port s i t e s , and as the Model i s a dynamic program, both E. G. Frankel , "Containerized Shipping and Integrated Transpor-t a t i o n , " Proceedings of the Institute of the Electrical and Electronic Engineers, V o l . 56, No. 4 ( A p r i l 1968), p. 716. (Figure 32 i s a modi-f i ed vers ion of that presented by Frankel ) . g Richard J . Charley and Peter Haggett, eds . , op, cit.., p. 618. TS SHORT HAUL LONG HAUL SHORT HAUL 32 EXPORT FLOW IN TRANSPORTATION DECISION TREE NETWORK-TRUCKING MINIMAL-COST FLOW THROUGH 1 A COMPLEX NETWORK Source: f o r d and F u l k e r s o n , 1962 @ MAXIMUM FLOW C A P A C I T Y OF EACH L I N K ( § ) U N I T S H I P P I N G C O S T S ALONG EACH L I N K I N I T I A L FLOW P A T T E R N Dj) MAXIMUM FLOW P A T T E R N . L I N K S Nu I F U L L Y S A T U R A T E D WITH FLOW SHOWN BY BROKEN L I N E S i i I J 263 the e x i s t i n g s t r e e t . u s e and c a p a c i t y as w e l l as any added usage would be a continuous i n p u t . An out-put from t h i s program would be a suggested l e a s t cost and maximum flow route to one of the three p o r t s f o r each commodity. F i g u r e 33-C would be the i n i t i a l flow p a t t e r n of the suggested canned f r u i t , and the t e r m i n a l could be, f o r example, a Fraser R i v e r s i t e . Two assumptions are made that would enable t h i s Commodity Flow Model to work. 1. There i s to be one port a u t h o r i t y to manage a l l port operations on the West Coast. 2. That money be made a v a i l a b l e to develop the r e q u i r e d f a c i l i t i e s and improvements i n access to- any or a l l three port s i t e s . I t i s assumed that any a l l o c a t i o n of resources to improve one port s i t e over another would be subjected to an economic a n a l y s i s based on the premise that the goal i s to provide the l e a s t cost maximum fl o w i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. The s i n g l e port a u t h o r i t y would r e c e i v e a l l b i l l s of l a d i n g p r i o r to any shipment. These could be fed i n t o computer terminals througho.ut B r i t i s h Columbia and on the entry p o i n t s along the p r o v i n c i a l border. Each t r u c k i n g company would be given a r o u t e , a port s i t e and d e l i v e r y time f o r the loa d . S i m i l a r l y the shipping companies would be r e q u i r e d to forward t h e i r b i l l s of l a d i n g so as to determine the " o p t i -mum discharge p o r t " , i n terms of the cargo d e s t i n a t i o n , again based on 264 i •> ^'3 ( l e a s t cost maximum flow routes,'. In cases of mixed cargoes.the "optimum p o r t " would be chosen, based on the " c r i t i c a l " cargo or cargoes c a r r i e d . This d e c i s i o n could be simply handled by the computer. In the same way that t e r m i n a l s would be a l l o c a t e d f o r use, so too could t h i s model be a p p l i e d to w a t e r - o r i e n t a t e d i n d u s t r i e s . Each i n d u s t r y would be measured i n terms of i t s commodity flows.and a b a s i c s i t e s e l e c t e d i n terms of access that allows f o r maximum commodity flows w i t h minimum c o s t s . I t i s cautioned that t h i s model i s not to r e p l a c e the e x i s t i n g I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n Models but r a t h e r to supple-ment them i n terms of p r o v i d i n g a b a s i c and e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n input which i s c r i t i c a l to a n y . l o c a t i o n model. The most obvious a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s model i s w i t h road t r a n s -p o r t . However, i t could a l s o be a p p l i e d to the r a i l w a y systems, e s p e c i a l l y when there are now three s i t e s to choose from, each of which could have d i f f e r i n g r a i l s e r v i c e . I t could provide s h i p p e r s , using road, r a i l and sea w i t h more e f f e c t i v e techniques f o r p l a n n i n g , schedul-i n g , r o u t i n g , cost accounting and document.control, For the consumer or the n a t i o n as a whole, i t would provide a more e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n system and i n t u r n a b e t t e r a l l o c a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of resources. V \ 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104015/manifest

Comment

Related Items