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The real and the ideal -- a study of Henry James's use of art objects and art imagery in the delineation… Alder, Phyllis Kathleen 1969

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THE REAL AND THE IDEAL: A STUDY OF HENRY JAMES'S USE OF ART OBJECTS AND ART IMAGERY IN THE DELINEATION OF CHARACTER by PHYLLIS KATHLEEN ALDER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E n g l i s h  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May 1 6 , 1969 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o study Henry James's use of a r t ob j e c t s and a r t imagery i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of character. I have f i r s t endeavoured t o b r i e f l y o u t l i n e the b a s i c concepts o f a r t which James embraced and a p p l i e d i n h i s t a l e s and novels, and have t r a c e d , i n h i s l i t e r a r y and a r t c r i t i c i s m , h i s developing views of the " r e a l , " the "romantic," and the " i d e a l . " James's change i n a t t i t u d e toward the " r e a l " and the "romantic" has been noted i n h i s own work published between 1876 and 189^, and the p r i n c i p a l techniques of the p a i n t e r which he employs have been set f o r t h . In an a n a l y s i s of three t a l e s : "The Madonna of the Future," "The L i a r , " and "The Real Thing" I have attempted to i l l u s t r a t e James's view of the nature and f u n c t i o n o f a r t and the a r t i s t and the problems i n v o l v e d i n a c h i e v i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance between the r e a l and the i d e a l . The conclusions reached have been a p p l i e d t o two of James's major novels of h i s l a t e r phase: The Wings of the Dove and The Golden Bowl i n an attempt t o demonstrate t h a t , u s i n g the objet  d'art and a r t imagery (as i n the s t o r i e s examined), James achieves r e a l i t y of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and the complete r e a l i z a t i o n o f the i d e a l i n the r e a l . No themes are so human as those t h a t r e f l e c t f o r us, out o f the confusion o f l i f e , the close connexion of b l i s s and bale, o f the t h i n g s t h a t help w i t h the th i n g s t h a t hurt, so dangling before us f o r ever t h a t b r i g h t hard medal, of so strange an a l l o y , one face of which i s somebody 1s r i g h t and ease and the other somebody's p a i n and wrong. — H e n r y James, Preface, What M a i s i e Knew. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 I. James's P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t : "The Madonna of the Future," "The L i a r , " "The Real-Thing" 24 I I . The Two Sides of the Medal: The Wings of the Dove . . . . 4 l I I I . The V e s s e l of Consciousness: The Golden Bowl 68 CONCLUSION 107 BIBLIOGRAPHY H-5 INTRODUCTION To Henry James "the analogy between the a r t of the p a i n t e r and the a r t of' the n o v e l i s t i s . . . complete;" both "attempt t o represent l i f e " * i n i t s c l o s e l y commingled " b l i s s and b a l e . " ^ Because he b e l i e v e s t h a t each may l e a r n from and support the other, James combines t h e i r techniques i n the c r e a t i o n o f v i t a l l i v i n g c haracters. The o l d m a s t e r s — Michaelangelo, Raphael, B e l l i n i , Giorgione, G i o t t o , Carpaccio, Veronese, T i t i a n , T i n t o r e t t o , Correggio, Bronzino and others taught James lessons as important as those of Balzac and Turgenev. From them he learned the p r i n c i p l e s o f l i n e , form, movement, space, l i g h t and shade, c o l o u r — i n b r i e f , composition and s t y l e . He learned t o recognize the d i f f e r e n c e between an i l l u s t r a t i o n , a l i k e n e s s , and a p o r t r a i t ; between the r e a l and the i d e a l ; and t o appreciate the rare harmony when, as i n the p a i n t i n g s of T i n t o r e t t o , the c o n f l i c t i s r e s o l v e d and r e a l i s m and i d e a l i s m are i n t e r f u s e d . P o r t r a i t u r e , the a r t p e c u l i a r t o humanistic periods when the focus i s on man, i s concerned w i t h the t r u t h f u l d e l i n e a t i o n of character. The p r i n c i p a l i n t e r e s t i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and the f a i t h f u l a r t i s t maintains a f i n e detachment; he does not permit moral judgments t o i n t r u d e . However, the mere p o r t r a y a l o f " s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h " guarantees only a good l i k e n e s s . The p o r t r a i t which i s a work of a r t goes beyond the r e a l t o the i d e a l — i t possesses a c e r t a i n p h i l o s o p h i c q u a l i t y . The imagination o f the a r t i s t gives i t an added dimension—an i n t e n s i t y , an i n d i v i d u a l i t y which 2 cause us t o exclaim: " I t i s l i f e i t s e l f I " 5 I t was t h i s i n t e n s i t y o f " f e l t l i f e " t h a t James admired i n the p a i n t i n g s o f T i n t o r e t t o , the dramas of Shakespeare, the novels of Turgenev, and which he strove t o achieve i n h i s own work. As James r e a l i z e d , the problem of the i d e a l and the r e a l pervades a l l a r t , a l l l i f e . The " i d e a l " has always been c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "beauty," but what i s beauty? Is i t absolute or r e l a t i v e ? Perhaps we can best define i t as "the sense of pleasurable r e l a t i o n s " while "the opposite sense i s the sense of u g l i n e s s . " ^ Man i n s t i n c t i v e l y responds t o the "shape" and "surface" and "mass" of t h i n g s ; they continuously impinge upon h i s senses, but the sense of beauty i s an u n c e r t a i n f l u c t u a t i n g phenomena which v a r i e s from person t o person, from age t o age, from c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e . James, l i k e the p a i n t e r and the s c u l p t o r , concerns h i m s e l f i n each of h i s works w i t h r e l a t i o n s and s t r i v e s t o achieve balance, rhythm, harmony—to r e a l i z e the i d e a l i n the r e a l . The characters he p a i n t s on h i s canvas are seldom, i f ever, symmetrical, and i t i s i n p r e c i s e l y t h i s l a c k of p e r f e c t i o n t h a t t h e i r humanity, t h e i r r e a l i t y l i e s . I f , as i n c e r t a i n of the t a l e s , i t i s the " i d e a , " the a e s t h e t i c which mainly concerns James, the f i g u r e s w i l l tend to become more symbolic. I n the l a t e r works characters may f u n c t i o n at two l e v e l s — t h e symbolic and the r e a l . Although James sought from the beginning t o s t r i k e a p e r f e c t balance, h i s a t t i t u d e toward the r e a l and the romantic underwent a marked change between h i s e a r l y and h i s mature work, as may be seen by a b r i e f study of h i s l i t e r a r y and a r t c r i t i c i s m and c e r t a i n o f h i s t a l e s and novels. 5 To James the " r e a l " c o n s i s t s of . . . the t h i n g s we cannot p o s s i b l y not know, sooner or l a t e r , i n one way or another . . . . The romantic stands, on the other hand, f o r the t h i n g s t h a t , w i t h a l l the f a c i l i t i e s i n the world, a l l the wealth and a l l the courage and a l l the wit and a l l the adventure, we never can d i r e c t l y know . . . .5 James a s s e r t s t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t , r e g a r d l e s s of h i s medium, w i l l give t o h i s subject a l u c i d , i n t e l l i g i b l e form. To do t h i s , he f e e l s , the a r t i s t must possess the sense of r e a l i t y . I n h i s book on Hawthorne (1879)> James i s pointed i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f a l l e g o r y , the prevalent method employed i n the American romance of the p e r i o d . He accuses the author of The S c a r l e t L e t t e r of "a want of r e a l i t y and an abuse of the f a n c i f u l e l e m e n t — o f a c e r t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l symbolism." James declares t h a t Hawthorne creates not "characters,", but " f i g u r e s , 1 1 " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , very p i c t u r e s q u e l y arranged, of a s i n g l e s t a t e o f mind . . . . "^ Even more c a u s t i c charges are brought by James against Hardy's Far From the Madding Crowd. I n an essay i n The N a t i o n (1874), James declares t h a t Hardy l a c k s r e a l i t y and . . . r a r e l y gets beyond ambitious a r t i f i c e — t h e mechanical s i m u l a t i o n of heat and depth and wisdom t h a t are absent . . . . E v e r y t h i n g human i n the book s t r i k e s us as f a c t i t i o u s and i n s u b s t a n t i a l ; the only t h i n g s we b e l i e v e i n are the sheep and the dogs.7 I n c o n t r a s t , George E l i o t wins James's approbation f o r her s u c c e s s f u l union o f r e a l i s m and romance. James w r i t e s of The Spanish Gypsy: The author has not f e l t i t necessary, because she was w r i t i n g a picturesque romance, t o eschew psychology and morals. She has remembered t h a t she was w r i t i n g a drama, and t h a t she would have w r i t t e n i n v a i n unless each of her l e a d i n g f i g u r e s was f u l l y rounded and defined. They are very human . . . But r e a l i s m per se o f t e n l e f t James w i t h a f e e l i n g o f d i s g u s t . While he f i n d s the French n o v e l i s t s , w i t h few exceptions, the most adept i n t h e i r r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of l i f e , he censures t h e i r frequent probing of the scabreux depths. James i s s c a t h i n g i n h i s c r i t i c i s m of Emile Z o l a and Edmond and J u l e s de Goncourt who, though masters of v i s u a l observation, h a b i t u a l l y choose t o t r e a t "the baser forms o f s u f f e r i n g and the meaner forms o f vice."9 He declares t h a t Honore de Balzac has "a sense of t h i s present t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e which has never been s u r p a s s e d " — "a superb foundation f o r the work of a r e a l i s t i c romancer."^ He excels i n p o r t r a i t u r e ; "the whole person springs i n t o being at once; the character i s never l e f t s h i v e r i n g f o r i t s f l e s h l y envelope . . . . "H But despite Balzac's success as a r e a l i s t i c romancer, James f i n d s him l a c k i n g i n i d e a l i t y . L i k e T u r g e n i e f f and James himself, h i s greatest achievement i s h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f women, but Balzac c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y emphasizes t h e i r p h y s i c a l , sexual q u a l i t y . He i s h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n rendering "profoundly simple people," "simple v i r t u e , and v i c e simple or complex . . . . I n s u p e r i o r v i r t u e , i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e , he f a i l s . . . ."•'•' He deals w i t h a l l the passions and p r e f e r s "strong" f e e l i n g s t o " s u p e r f i c i a l " ones. But he i s incapable of m a i n t a i n i n g a s u f f i c i e n t l y detached a t t i t u d e ; h i s philosophy i s meagre, and "money" as a subject occupies too l a r g e a p o r t i o n of h i s canvas. Yet h i s great power o f i n v e n t i o n and the sweep of h i s i m a g i n a t i o n win James's p r a i s e . Unlike most o f her French compatriots, George Sand i s not a r e a l i s t , but a romantic i d e a l i s t . James a s s e r t s t h a t her novels " c o n t a i n no l i v i n g f i g u r e s ; " t h e y are "vague i n o u t l i n e , d e f i c i e n t i n d e t a i l . 1 1 ^ 5 She w r i t e s " s t o r i e s f o r the sto r y ' s sake"—"improbable romances f o r i n i t i a t e d persons o f the o p t i m i s t i c class."1^ Madame Sand never describes the a c t u a l ; she i s too i d e a l i s t i c , and her i d e a l i s m , or as James p r e f e r s t o c a l l i t , "optimism, 1 1 keeps her from t r u t h f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; i n s t e a d , she embroiders the t r u t h . She f e e l s r a t h e r than knows human nature. Madame Sand i s a " s e n t i m e n t a l i s t , " not a " m o r a l i s t , " "contemplative," not "observant." James agrees t h a t she celebr a t e s "a s i n g l e p a s s i o n " — l o v e , but he adds t h a t " i n d e p i c t i n g i t she has i n c i d e n t a l l y portrayed so many others t h a t she: may be s a i d to have p r e t t y thoroughly explored the human soul."15 While she l a c k s d i s c r e t i o n and moral t a s t e , her novels d i s p l a y an " i n t e l l e c t u a l freshness," a "sentimental f o r c e , " an " i r r e s i s t i b l e c h a r m , a superb s t y l e , and "the d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s of a great imagination. "17 But James's f i n e s t t r i b u t e i s reserved f o r the great Russian master. Of T u r g e n i e f f he w r i t e s : No romancer has created a greater number of the f i g u r e s t h a t breathe and move and speak, i n t h e i r h a b i t s as they might have l i v e d ; none, on the whole, seems t o us t o have had such a masterly touch i n p o r t r a i t u r e , none has mingled so much i d e a l beauty w i t h so much unsparing r e a l i t y . I S "A searching r e a l i s t " and "an e a r n e s t l y a t t e n t i v e observer," T u r g e n i e f f views i m p a r t i a l l y , p e r c e p t i v e l y , "the great s p e c t a c l e o f human life."l° Nothing i s missed; he takes c a r e f u l note o f every a t t i t u d e , gesture, f e a t u r e , p e c u l i a r i t y of character, and each takes i t s proper place on h i s broad canvas. Yet he has the d i s c r e t i o n t o avo i d the exaggeration of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e types, and he never s p e c i a l i z e s h i s characters by 6 f a n t a s t i c o d d i t i e s as does Dickens. A l l T u r g e n i e f f ' s themes are Russian, h i s c h a r a c t e r s , t r u e Muscovites; he f e e l s the Russian ethos i n t e n s e l y and renders i t f a i t h f u l l y and d r a m a t i c a l l y . He i s h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l , deeply sympathetic, f i n e l y aware. He looks deep i n t o the heart of man w i t h a l l i t s c o m p l e x i t y — o f t e n w i t h a profound sense of sadness. I n h i s treatment of.simpletons and i d i o t s i t i s not merely t h e i r "quaintness" and "picturesqueness" which a t t r a c t him, but "the opportunity of watching the machinery of character, as i t were, through a broken windowpane."20 I t i s h i s women and young g i r l s who e x h i b i t the greatest s t r e n g t h i n t h e i r power t o w i l l , t o r e s i s t , t o endure, t o renounce, t o s a c r i f i c e , t o a t t a i n . T u r g e n i e f f ' s main purpose may be s a i d t o be h i s search f o r " p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r u t h , " and h i s f i n i s h e d p o r t r a i t s are evidence of the consummate s k i l l of the t r u e a r t i s t . These essays i n French Poets and N o v e l i s t s (1878), together w i t h those p u b l i s h e d i n The N a t i o n a few years e a r l i e r (and r e f e r r e d t o above), i n d i c a t e James's p o s i t i o n at t h i s stage of h i s career. G e n e r a l l y speaking, he d i s t r u s t e d romance because he b e l i e v e d i t seldom provided a t r u t h f u l , r e a l i s t i c , comprehensive view of l i f e . He f e l t i t t o be s u p e r f i c i a l , o f t e n prompted by and a c t i n g upon the emotions t o the e x c l u s i o n of the i n t e l l i g e n c e . Romance f a i l e d t o sound "the deeper psychology." James was a t t r a c t e d t o r e a l i s m , but, here too, there were serious l i m i t a t i o n s . Realism, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the hands of the French, o f t e n degenerated i n t o mere n a t u r a l i s m which dwelt on the s o r d i d , mean, u g l y side of existence. James'was w e l l aware of the dark underside of l i f e , the ever-present abyss, the d u a l i t y o f human nature, the c a p a c i t y f o r e v i l t h a t e x i s t s i n the best 7 of u s — t h e "bale" as w e l l as the " b l i s s . " He once acknowledged: " I have the imagination o f d i s a s t e r — a n d see l i f e indeed as f e r o c i o u s and s i n i s t e r . Y e t beauty, t o James, was e s s e n t i a l t o l i f e . J ust as much, perhaps more than u g l i n e s s , i t formed a great part of experience, a p a r t which could not be denied i f the i d e a l consciousness was t o be achieved. I n almost a l l h i s reviews, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h a t on T u r g e n i e f f , i t may be seen t h a t he was a s p i r i n g toward i d e a l i s m , but to an i d e a l t h a t would embrace the r e a l , s t r i k e a balance between l i f e and a r t — g i v e form and meaning t o e x i s t e n c e . With the passage of time, James's a t t i t u d e toward romance underwent a decided change. I n 1887 he declared: "The n o v e l i s t who leaves the e x t r a o r d i n a r y out of h i s account i s l i a b l e t o awkward c o n f r o n t a t i o n s , as we are compelled t o r e f l e c t i n t h i s age of newspapers and of u n i v e r s a l p u b l i c i t y . 1 1 He came i n c r e a s i n g l y t o admire R. L. Stevenson's t a l e s of adventure and romance and s a i d of Treasure I s l a n d t h a t i t not only "embodies a boy's v i s i o n o f the e x t r a o r d i n a r y ; " i t i s also unique i n i t s power "to f a s c i n a t e the weary mind of experience. . . . There i s a moral s i d e i n i t , and the f i g u r e s are not puppets w i t h vague f a c e s . " 2 5 i n Kidnapped James recognized Stevenson's " t a l e n t f o r seeing the a c t u a l i n the marvellous, and reducing the extravagant t o p l a u s i b l e d e t a i l . " 2 ^ James's a r t reviews r e f l e c t e s s e n t i a l l y the same change i n a t t i t u d e toward the r e a l and the romantic as does h i s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . T his change of o p i n i o n concerning the r e a l can be c l e a r l y t r a c e d i n h i s comments on the p a i n t i n g s of a s i n g l e a r t i s t — J a m e s Abbott M c N e i l l W h i s t l e r , the leader of the E n g l i s h a e s t h e t i c movement. Although W h i s t l e r , l i k e 8 Degas, appears t o have been more i n t e r e s t e d i n arrangement and p i c t o r i a l harmony than i n the " s c i e n t i f i c method" of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , James as s o c i a t e s h i s p a i n t i n g s w i t h the Impressionist Movement, and John L. Sweeney declares t h a t Henry James's i n i t i a l a t t i t u d e toward Impressionism was " d i s l i k e at f i r s t s i g h t . " Sweeney b e l i e v e s "the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s r a i s e d f o r him a 'moral' question o f subject and treatment which b l u r r e d h i s view of t h e i r t e c h n i c a l experiment and p i c t o r i a l accomplishment. I n h i s review of the 1876 e x h i b i t i o n o f I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g s at Durand Ruel's James r e f e r r e d t o the c o n t r i b u t o r s as " p a r t i s a n s of unadorned r e a l i t y and absolute foes t o arrangement, embellishment, s e l e c t i o n , t o the a r t i s t ' s a l l o w i n g h i m s e l f . . . t o be preoccupied w i t h the i d e a of the b e a u t i f u l . " He declared: "The 'Impressionist' d o c t r i n e s s t r i k e me as incompatible, i n an a r t i s t ' s mind, w i t h the existence of f i r s t - r a t e t a l e n t . To embrace them you must be provided w i t h a p l e n t i f u l absence of imagination." James f u r t h e r i n s i s t e d : "The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . . . abjure v i r t u e a l t o g e t h e r , and declare t h a t a subject which has been cru d e l y chosen s h a l l be l o o s e l y t r e a t e d . " 2 6 Why d i d James react so v i o l e n t l y against t h i s new form of a r t ? To answer t h i s question i t i s necessary t o understand the p r i n c i p a l aims and techniques of n i n e t e e n t h century Impressionism. I n t h e i r attempt to render l i f e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , the Impressionists confined themselves to exact v i s u a l experience and attempted t o record each impression i n s t a n t l y and d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y without (at l e a s t i n theory) arrangement or s e l e c t i o n . R e a l i t y was- experienced as a " s t a t e of constant f l u x and t r a n s i t i o n , " "a continuum i n which e v e r y t h i n g coalesces and i n which there are no other d i f f e r e n c e s but the v a r i o u s approaches and points of view of the beholder. " 2 7 There was a concentration on the instantaneous, 9 the f l e e t i n g , the unique; a breaking down of colour i n t o i t s v a l e u r s , a rendering of " r e f l e c t e d l i g h t " and " i l l u m i n a t e d shadows," an emphasis on d i r e c t o p t i c a l experience as opposed t o the conception of r e a l i t y which deriv e s from l o g i c a l l y organized sense impressions. By "reductions," " r e s t r i c t i o n s , " and " s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s " a r t i s t s strove f o r a harmony of c o l o u r and l i g h t . Space was absorbed, s o l i d s t r u c t u r e s d i s s o l v e d , w i t h the consequent b l u r r i n g o f o u t l i n e s and the merging of objects i n t o t h e i r surroundings. " R e a l i t y " was reduced t o a two-dimensional s u r f a c e ; p l a s t i c i t y , design, s p a t i a l and l i n e a r form were abandoned t o loose, abrupt brush strokes and shapeless dots. I t was the "tones," not the subject i t s e l f which were important. Impressionism was an a r t based s t r i c t l y on personal experience without reference t o h i s t o r y or t r a d i t i o n — a photographic record of nature, i n f l u e n c e d , perhaps, by the new d i s c o v e r i e s i n o p t i c s . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o see why James would be r e p e l l e d by an " a r t " which eschewed s e l e c t i o n and arrangement, refused t o submit impressions t o the " c r u c i b l e of the imagination,"28 reduced r e a l i t y t o two dimensions, ignored "form" (as James conceived i t ) , showed complete i n d i f f e r e n c e t o the q u a l i t y of subject, lacked a "sense of the past," and o f f e r e d the observer a mere camera 1s-eye-view o f l i f e . Yet, was h i s c r i t i c i s m — t h e same censure he was t o apply t o W h i s t l e r , e n t i r e l y j u s t , or was he perhaps biased by the reported d o c t r i n e s of t h i s group of r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s even before he viewed the 1876 e x h i b i t i o n at Durand Ruel's? Whatever the answer, James's opinions were l a t e r t o moderate, perhaps because he g r a d u a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t , regardless of theory, the best of the 10 I m p r e s s i o n i s t s d i d , i n f a c t , continue t o s e l e c t and arrange and compose. However, many modern c r i t i c s agree w i t h James's a s s e r t i o n t h a t : "A p a i n t i n g i s not an 'Impression' but an e x p r e s s i o n — j u s t as a poem or a piece of music i s . " 2 ^ I t was t h i s concern w i t h impression vs. expression, the r e l a t i o n of a r t t o l i f e , the problem of the r e a l and the i d e a l which drew f o r t h James's comments on W h i s t l e r . I n 1877 James wrote: I w i l l not speak of Mr. W h i s t l e r ' s 'Nocturnes i n Black and .Gold' and i n 'Blue and S i l v e r ' , of h i s 'Arrangements', 'Harmonies', and 'Impressions', because I f r a n k l y confess they do not amuse me. . . . t o be i n t e r e s t i n g i t seems t o me t h a t a p i c t u r e should have some r e l a t i o n t o l i f e as w e l l as t o p a i n t i n g . Mr. W h i s t l e r ' s experiments have no r e l a t i o n whatever t o l i f e ; they have only a r e l a t i o n t o p a i n t i n g . 50 A year l a t e r h i s o p i n i o n i s b a s i c a l l y unaltered. He says: Mr. W h i s t l e r ' s productions are pleasant t h i n g s t o have about, so long as one regards them as simple o b j e c t s — a s i n c i d e n t s of f u r n i t u r e or decoration. The spectator's q u a r r e l w i t h them begins when he f e e l s i t t o be expected of him t o regard them as p i c t u r e s . 5 1 But i n 1882 James admits t h a t the l a d y i n W h i s t l e r ' s 'Harmony i n Black and Red' has at l e a s t "the appearance of l i f e . " 5 2 However, i t i s W h i s t l e r ' s p o r t r a i t o f h i s mother which wins James's unconditioned p r a i s e . He regards i t as "a masterpiece of tone, of f e e l i n g , o f the power t o render l i f e . " 5 5 And i n 1897 he declares t h a t t o t u r n from W h i s t l e r ' s p o r t r a i t o f Henry I r v i n g as the P h i l i p of Tennyson's "Queen Mary" t o the other e x h i b i t s i n the Grafton G a l l e r i e s i s "to drop from the world of d i s t i n c t i o n , o f p e r c e p t i o n , of beauty and mystery and p e r p e t u i t y , i n t o — w e l l , a very o r d i n a r y p l a c e . " 5 ^ Although i t i s doubtful whether Whistler 11 a c t u a l l y intended t o "render l i f e , " or merely used h i s mother and Henry I r v i n g as f i g u r e s i n a t o t a l arrangement, i t i s obvious t h a t Henry James's per s p e c t i v e had a l t e r e d . But while he learned t o appreciate (and e v e n t u a l l y h i m s e l f employed) c e r t a i n o f t h e i r techniques, James never mo d i f i e d h i s o p i n i o n of the Impressionist theory. He makes h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r i n an essay on John Singer Sargent. To render the impression of an object may be a very f r u i t f u l e f f o r t , but i t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y so; t h a t w i l l depend upon what . . . the impression may have been.55 And what the impression may have been w i l l depend on the q u a l i t y o f the mind t h a t r e c e i v e s and reproduces i t . T his accounts f o r James's opposite r e a c t i o n to the works of Gerome and D e l a c r o i x . He viewed the p a i n t i n g s of Gerome, a leader i n the R e a l i s t movement of the seventies, w i t h d i s g u s t . Commenting on the 'Combat de Coqs', he declares t h a t t h i s p a i n t i n g i s . . . a c a p i t a l example of the master, and presents i n remarkably convenient shape the substance of h i s t a l e n t — t h e i n d e f i n a b l e hardness of h i s work. The p i c t u r e i s e q u a l l y hard i n subject and treatment, i n f e e l i n g and i n t a s t e . . . . There i s a t o t a l l a c k of what we may c a l l moral atmosphere, of sentimental redundancy or emotional by-play. James f e e l s the p i c t u r e i s immoral because i t i s both i n s i n c e r e and ugly. The a r t i s t i s c l e v e r , but s u p e r f i c i a l — i n t e n t s o l e l y on d i s p l a y i n g h i s s k i l l , not on rendering humanity. But Eugene D e l a c r o i x ( 1 7 9 9 - 1 8 6 5 ) , the most eminent r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n French a r t , and reputed t o be the f a t h e r of Romanticism i n p a i n t i n g , commands James's admiration not only f o r h i s a b i l i t y as a great c o l o u r i s t and composer, but f o r h i s sense of 12 beauty, h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t , and h i s f i n e awareness of the complexity and mystery of l i f e — t h e mingled " b l i s s and bale" o f humanity. He i s , James admits, an imperfect draughtsman, t o t a l l y unconcerned w i t h the " c l a s s i c a l " emphasis on " l i n e , " but the q u a l i t y o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n i s such t h a t i t f a r outweighs h i s d e f e c t s . James regards him as "a man who not only sees, but r e f l e c t s as w e l l as he sees. "57 Although i n many respects he f a l l s f a r short of the great p a i n t e r s of the past, l i k e them, he captures on h i s canvas the i n t e n s i t y o f " f e l t l i f e . " Gerome represents the surface, D e l a c r o i x , the substance. I t i s here the Romantic, not the R e a l i s t , who i s most deeply aware of the " r e a l . " James sees i n D e l a c r o i x "the presence o f a high a r t i s t i c i d e a l , untouched by the vulgar or the t r i v i a l . " ^ But i t i s the o l d masters, James f e e l s , who most n e a r l y achieve the " i d e a l . " He f i n d s "Carpaccio d e l i g h t f u l , Veronese magnificent, T i t i a n supremely b e a u t i f u l , " yet t h e i r utmost s t r i v i n g s "leave a v i s i b l e space i n which T i n t o r e t alone i s master. " 5 9 He says; T i n t o r e t ' s great m e r i t , t o my mind, was h i s unequalled d i s t i n c t n e s s of v i s i o n . V/hen once he had conceived the germ of a scene, i t defined i t s e l f t o h i s imagination w i t h an i n t e n s i t y , an amplitude, an i n d i v i d u a l i t y of expression, which makes one's observation of h i s p i c t u r e s seem l e s s an o p e r a t i o n of the mind than a k i n d of supplementary experience of l i f e . You get from T i n t o r e t ' s work the impression t h a t he f e l t , p i c t o r i a l l y , the great, b e a u t i f u l , t e r r i b l e s p e c t a c l e of human l i f e very much as Shakespeare f e l t i t p o e t i c a l l y — w i t h a heart t h a t never ceased t o beat a passionate accompaniment t o every s t r o k e of h i s brush.™ I t was t h i s i d e a l rendering o f "the great, b e a u t i f u l , t e r r i b l e s p e ctacle of human l i f e " which James strove t o achieve i n h i s own t a l e s and novels. But between h i s e a r l y and h i s mature work there i s the same 15 change i n a t t i t u d e toward the r e a l and the romantic which we observed i n h i s l i t e r a r y and a r t c r i t i c i s m . Although James charged Hawthorne w i t h "a want o f r e a l i t y and an abuse of the f a n c i f u l element," "The Last o f the V a l e r i i " ( 1 8 7 4 ) i s d e c i d e d l y Hawthornian i n i t s romantic theme and f a n c i f u l treatment. The f i g u r e of the I t a l i a n count i s s t r o n g l y reminiscent of Donatello of The  Marble Faun—charming, but improbable, and d e c i d e d l y two-dimensional. The only attempt at r e a l i s m i s i n the p i c t u r e of the young American b r i d e , but even she can s c a r c e l y be regarded as a f u l l y rounded character and might, q u i t e e a s i l y , be patterned on Hawthorne's a l l e g o r i c a l H i l d a . I n h i s book on Hawthorne, James spoke of "the p a s s i o n l e s s q u a l i t y " o f The  S c a r l e t L e t t e r , " i t s element of c o l d and ingenious fantasy, i t s elaborate imaginative d e l i c a c y , " ^ l and t h i s v e r y c r i t i c i s m might a l s o be a p p l i e d t o "The Last of the V a l e r i i . " I t i s "picturesque," "charming"—words James f r e q u e n t l y used t o describe the works o f Hawthorne, but i t does not " l i v e and breathe." However, we have noted t h a t when i t i s an "idea" r a t h e r than the d e l i n e a t i o n of character w i t h which James i s concerned, h i s t a l e s and novels tend t o become more symbolic and l e s s r e a l i s t i c . Even i n t h i s e a r l y t a l e James i s preoccupied w i t h the nature and f u n c t i o n of a r t and the a r t i s t (or c o l l e c t o r ) and the problems i n v o l v e d i n a c h i e v i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance between the r e a l and the i d e a l . Here he suggests t h a t when a r t i s worshipped t o the e x c l u s i o n o f humanity, a r t can become a t e r r i b l e master, dehumanizing the worshipper and d i s r u p t i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h others. To achieve the i d e a l there must be a balance between a r t and l i f e . I n Roderick Hudson ( 1 8 7 6 ) , James's f i r s t "acknowledged" novel 14 he i m p l i e s h i s d i s t a s t e f o r the r e a l i s t ( G l o r i a n i ) who i s completely-l a c k i n g i n i d e a l i s m , the mere c l e v e r p r a c t i c a l c o p y i s t who p a i n t s , w i t h equal i n d i f f e r e n c e , a b e a u t i f u l subject or an u g l y one. Rowland M a l l e t , on the other hand, represents the romantic i d e a l i s t who f a i l s t o take account of r e a l i t y u n t i l i t i s too l a t e — t h e would-be a r t i s t o f l i f e who, w i t h the best i n t e n t i o n s , v i o l a t e s the freedom o f another because of h i s own l i m i t a t i o n of v i s i o n . The r e s u l t i s complete d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and tragedy, both f o r the supposed benefactor and h i s protege^. Roderick Hudson's problem i s s i m i l a r — u p t o a p o i n t . He commences h i s career as a romantic i d e a l i s t , but h i s l i t t l e s t a t u e t t e o f a naked youth d r i n k i n g from a gourd i s both i d e a l i s t i c and r e a l i s t i c i n i t s simple beauty and t r u t h . However, i t i s not l o n g before the i d e a l and the r e a l c o n f l i c t . Hudson d r i n k s too deeply of l i f e , f a i l s t o remain d i s i n t e r e s t e d , sees h i m s e l f not as a part of the whole, but as an i s o l a t e d , sharp-edged i n d i v i d u a l , and i s f i n a l l y destroyed both a r t i s t i c a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y by h i s f a i l u r e t o s t r i k e a balance between l i f e and a r t , t o r e c o n c i l e the r e a l and the i d e a l . Both Rowland and Roderick are incomplete. M a l l e t possesses the w i l l , the power of a p p l i c a t i o n , but not the t a l e n t ; Hudson, the genius, but not the w i l l t o perform. James's a t t i t u d e i n t h i s novel i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i - r o m a n t i c — t h e would-be i d e a l a r t i s t i s destroyed by h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the r e a l . At t h i s p o i n t i n h i s career James i s s t r i v i n g t o create more f u l l y rounded c h a r a c t e r s — t o represent l i f e , but, as he h i m s e l f r e a l i z e d , he i s not completely s u c c e s s f u l . N e i t h e r Roderick Hudson, Rowland M a l l e t , nor Mary Garland i s e n t i r e l y convincing; Mrs. Hudson, Sam S i n g l e t o n , and Miss 15 Blanchard are mere shadows; Mr. Leavenworth i s purposely an almost Dickensian grotesque. I t i s C h r i s t i n a L i g h t and a few minor f i g u r e s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r Madame Grandoni), who are the most l i f e - l i k e . But even C h r i s t i n a , by her very surname alone, suggests a symbolic as w e l l as a r e a l i s t i c r o l e . Here again, i t i s the " i d e a , " the "theory," i f we may c a l l i t such, which predominates, although there i s a d e f i n i t e gesture toward r e a l i s m i n the rendering o f theme and character. "A New England Winter" (1884), expresses the same c r i t i c i s m of Impressionism which we f i n d i n James's a r t reviews and p o i n t s up h i s b e l i e f t h a t no s u p e r i o r work can come from a s u p e r f i c i a l mind. He i s contemptuous o f the " a r t i s t " who p r i d e s h i m s e l f on "a great deal of eye," but whose "execution" i s "pretentious and f e e b l e . Florimund D a i n t r y i s drawn w i t h considerable wit and s k i l l — a conceited, s t r u t t i n g l i t t l e man, i n f l a t e d by h i s i l l u s i o n o f o r i g i n a l i t y and "rareness." James's mocking lau g h t e r may be heard as he describes the young Impressionist . . . c o n s t a n t l y s h u t t i n g one eye, t o see the b e t t e r w i t h the other, making a l i t t l e t elescope by curving one of h i s hands together, waving these members i n the a i r w i t h vague p i c t o r i a l gestures, p o i n t i n g at t h i n g s which, when people turned to f o l l o w h i s d i r e c t i o n , seemed t o mock the v u l g a r v i s i o n by e l u d i n g i t . 4^ Yet, d e s p i t e h i s d i s t r u s t o f the Impressionist theory, James gives h i s own "impressions" of Boston and Boston l i f e , w i t h i t s unique combination of d i s t i n c t i v e fashionableness and marked p r a c t i c a l i t y , through the eyes of the returned e x p a t r i o t . But James's impressions have passed through "the c r u c i b l e o f the imagination" with, a r e s u l t a n t evidence of c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and arrangement. He i s s t i l l more a t t r a c t e d t o r e a l i s m than romance, but h i s characters are more rounded than those of h i s e a r l i e r 16 t a l e s . They are marked by i n d i v i d u a l i d i o s y n c r a s i e s without becoming grotesques. But as e a r l y as 1876 James had w r i t t e n i n h i s preface t o The American: The b a l l o o n of experience i s i n f a c t of course t i e d t o the e a r t h , and under t h a t n e c e s s i t y we swing, thanks t o a rope of remarkable length, i n the more or l e s s commodious car of the imagination; but i t i s by the rope we know where we are, and from the moment t h a t cable i s cut we are at large and u n r e l a t e d ...... The a r t o f the romancer i s 'for the fun of i t , ' t o cut the cable, t o cut i t without our d e t e c t i n g him ; . . . . There i s our general sense o f the way t h i n g s happen . . . . and there i s our p a r t i c u l a r sense of the way they don't happen, which i s l i a b l e to wake up unless r e f l e x i o n and c r i t i c i s m , i n us, have been s k i l f u l l y drugged. There are drugs enough, c l e a r l y — i t i s a l l a question of a p p l y i n g them w i t h t a c t ; i n which case the way t h i n g s don't happen may be a r t f u l l y made to pass f o r the way t h i n g s do.^5 By the time he came t o w r i t e The Aspern Papers (1888), James had chosen t o "cut the cable" and make "the way t h i n g s don't happen a r t f u l l y pass f o r the way t h i n g s do." There are many elements o f the improbable i n t h i s s t o r y , but James attempts t o l u l l our c r i t i c a l s u s p i c i o n s and draw us i n t o the n a r r a t i v e by appealing t o t h a t most i n s a t i a b l e of human e m o t i o n s — c u r i o s i t y , love of mystery, the yearning t o f i n d out the t r u t h , and he does so w i t h great charm and i n t e r e s t . He i s moving toward a f u s i o n of the romantic and the r e a l i n h i s rendering of the humour and pathos of l i f e , the " b l i s s and the b a l e , " the unknown and the unknowable. J u l i a n a i s a strange blend o f the romantic and the r e a l — f a n t a s t i c , yet, as James presents her, b e l i e v a b l e . Despite her n a i v e t e , Miss T i n a i s a r e a l i s t i n her p i t i f u l acceptance of the "bale" of l i f e which i s her i n e v i t a b l e l o t . But the c o n f l i c t between the r e a l and the romantic i s 17 never resolved by the n a r r a t o r himself, although romanticism i s the l a s t note sounded.^6 Both theme and characters are based on f a c t , but the imagination of the creator gives t o h i s t o r y an added dimension when ha admits romance. The f i g u r e s l i v e and breathe by the very r e a l i t y o f t h e i r emotions and d r i v e s . I t i s , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , James's intense awareness o f l i f e which captures and holds our i n t e r e s t . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e o f "The Coxon Fund" ( 1 8 9 4 ) , l i k e J u l i a n a of The Aspern Papers, i s based on f a c t , ^ 7 but James makes i t c l e a r i n h i s preface t h a t h i s character comes from the c r u c i b l e of the s t o r y - t e l l e r ' s i magination a new c r e a t i o n , enters i n t o "new r e l a t i o n s , " " i t s prime i d e n t i t y d e s t r o y e d . " ^ T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h James's b e l i e f i n the absolute n e c e s s i t y f o r the a r t i s t t o "render" l i f e , not merely "copy" i t . At t h i s stage o f h i s career James's concern w i t h the problem o f the i d e a l a r t i s t has i n no degree abated, but h i s work i s now marked by an increased c o m p l e x i t y — a complexity which r e f l e c t s the mingled " b l i s s and bale" of human l i f e . I t i s now not the " i d e a " alone which p r i n c i p a l l y occupies him, but also the d e l i n e a t i o n o f character w i t h i t s mixed motives and c a p a c i t y f o r e v i l as w e l l as f o r good. As a r e s u l t , h i s dramatis personae become more f u l l y rounded; they l i v e and breathe, and, as i n l i f e , those w i t h the most f u l l y developed consciousness are o f t e n the most d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend. I t i s not hard t o "place" George Gravener and Mrs. Saltram as u n q u a l i f i e d r e a l i s t s , the Pudneys as more r e a l i s t i c than romantic, and the M u l v i l l e s , Ruth Anvoy, and the n a r r a t o r as romantic i d e a l i s t s , but what about Frank Saltram? One t h i n g i s c e r t a i n , Mr. Saltram i s an a r t i s t i n h i s own r i g h t — i n h i s c a p a c i t y t o render l i f e 18 b e a u t i f u l (though admittedly he f r e q u e n t l y renders i t u g l y ) . He knows how t o "use" the world t o e n r i c h h i s own l i f e without being unduly "used" i n t u r n . He has the "genius," the detachment, but, l i k e Roderick Hudson, he l a c k s the power of a p p l i c a t i o n , and f i n a l l y s a t u r a t i o n i n the " r e a l " q u i t e quenches the " i d e a l . " I s he a supreme r e a l i s t who uses h i s s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e t o manipulate the romantic i d e a l i s t s f o r h i s own gain? Or i s he too a romantic i d e a l i s t who i s destroyed when he s a c r i f i c e s a r t t o l i f e ? By James's tone o f i r o n y we must suspect the former, but there i s , of course, "the p o s s i b l e other case. ..49 I n t h i s t a l e James again a f f i r m s the n e c e s s i t y f o r the a r t i s t t o be i n the world but not o f i t — t o m a i n t a i n the necessary detachment i n order t o preserve h i s a r t . He s t r e s s e s the need t o balance genius w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n and, i n the p o r t r a i t o f Frank Saltram, he suggests t h a t l i f e possesses few absolutes, t h a t there i s seldom a f i n a l , d e f i n i t e answer. The f u s i o n o f the r e a l and the romantic i n the i d e a l which James sought i n Roderick Hudson i s here achieved, p r i n c i p a l l y through the use of operative i r o n y . I n h i s p o r t r a i t u r e James combines the technique of the p a i n t e r w i t h t h a t o f the n o v e l i s t i n the c r e a t i o n o f l i v i n g characters. We have seen t h a t he learned from the o l d masters the p r i n c i p l e s of composition and s t y l e , the d i f f e r e n c e between an i l l u s t r a t i o n , a l i k e n e s s , and a p o r t r a i t , between the r e a l and the i d e a l , and t h a t he s t r i v e s t o achieve balance, rhythm, and harmony i n h i s own works. But there are c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c methods which James employs t h a t should be noted. V i o l a Hopkins o u t l i n e s James's "framing" d e v i c e — h i s 19 . . . habit o f seeing a landscape or f i g u r e s 'composed' so t h a t the scene appears t o the spectator as a l i v i n g p i c t u r e perhaps r e c a l l i n g a r e a l one or as a subject f o r a p i c t u r e . . . . Any scene or part of a scene may be considered framed i f through v i s u a l imagery or d e s c r i p t i o n i t i s circumscribed and set apart from the r e s t of the n a r r a t i v e . Framing may serve various purposes: i t may-integrate d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h a c t i o n or w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f the scene i s presented through the consciousness of a character w i t h a p a i n t e r ' s eye; i t may convey w i t h great p r e c i s i o n the p a r t i c u l a r tone o f the s e t t i n g or appearance of a character. Most important of a l l , i t may symbolize r e l a t i o n s h i p s and u n d e r l i n e themes.50 The objet d'art (which f r e q u e n t l y occupies the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n James's p i c t u r e s ) , i s used i n v a r i o u s ways: as a p l o t device, t o r e i n f o r c e theme, as a c u l t u r a l symbol, and, most important, t o r e v e a l character. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the use o f s p e c i f i c p a i n t i n g s by a c t u a l a r t i s t s . The preference f o r a c e r t a i n p i c t u r e or school of p a i n t i n g may d e f i n e character or evoke emotion which gives sudden i n s i g h t i n t o a person's s t a t e of mind, m o t i v a t i o n , or p o s s i b l e a c t i o n . When, as f r e q u e n t l y occurs, the a r t object fuses s e t t i n g w i t h a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , we see James's consummate s k i l l i n a c h i e v i n g , by a s i n g l e s t r o k e , a r i c h e f f e c t i v e economy. I n h i s l a t e r f i c t i o n James uses framing devices and the objet d'art more s u b t l y and s u g g e s t i v e l y . The p r e c i s e v i s u a l impression i s merged w i t h the f e e l i n g which t h i s impression evokes. D e s c r i p t i o n becomes more i n d i r e c t and serves numerous ends, and "point of view" modifies what i s seen. When, i n moments of sudden r e c o g n i t i o n , s i g h t and i n s i g h t merge, the framing device i s most e f f e c t i v e l y employed. On the basis of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of James's a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a and the techniques of the p a i n t e r which he employs i n h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , 20 we may now t u r n t o an a n a l y s i s of three t a l e s : "The Madonna of the Future," "The L i a r , " and "The Real Thing" where James 1s view o f the nature and f u n c t i o n of a r t and the a r t i s t and the problems i n v o l v e d i n a c h i e v i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance between the r e a l and the i d e a l are c l e a r l y set f o r t h . 21 FOOTNOTES •'•Henry James, "The A r t of F i c t i o n , " The House of F i c t i o n : Essays  on the Novel, ed. w i t h an I n t r o d . by Leon Edel (London, 1957)> P« 2J?. 2 H e n r y James, The A r t of the Novel: C r i t i c a l Prefaces, I n t r o d . by Richard P. Blackmur (London, 1 9 5 4 ) , p. l4j. 5 H e n r y James, French Poets and N o v e l i s t s (London, 1 8 7 8 ) , p. 2 2 2 . ^Herbert Edward Read, The Meaning of A r t (London, 1936), p. 18. 5The A r t of the Novel, pp. 5 1 , 5 2 . ^Henry James, Representative S e l e c t i o n s , ed. w i t h an I n t r o d . by Lyon N. Richardson (New York, C i n c i n n a t i , 1941), p. 49. 7 H e n r y James, L i t e r a r y Reviews and Essays on American, E n g l i s h , and  French L i t e r a t u r e , ed. A l b e r t M ordell (New York, 1 9 5 7 ) . p. 2 9 7 . 8lbid., p. 2 8 7 . ? I b i d . , p. 1 6 2 . 1 0 F r e n c h Poets and N o v e l i s t s , pp. 89, 9 2 . 'Ulbid.,; p. 97. 1 2 l b i d . , p. 8 4 . 1 5 l b i d . , pp. 1 5 6 , 157 . l 4 I b i d . , p. 1 6 8 . ^ 5 L i t e r a r y Reviews and Essays, p. 1 2 7 . ^ F r e n c h Poets and N o v e l i s t s , p. I 6 9 . ^ I b i d . , p. 158. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 2 5 0 . ^ I b i d . , p. 2 1 6 . 2 0 l b i d . , p. 218. 2 l H e n r y James, L e t t e r s t o A. C. Benson and Auguste Monod, ed. E. F. Benson (London, 1950)> P. 55« 22 22Henry James and Robert Louis Stevenson, Henry James and Robert  Loui3 Stevenson: A Record of Fr i e n d s h i p and C r i t i c i s m , ed. Janet Adam Smith (London, 1948), p. 1 5 1 . 2 5 l b i d . James c o n s i s t e n t l y uses the words "moral" and " m o r a l i t y " i n both the r e l i g i o u s and the a e s t h e t i c sense. As.such, .they have the connotation of "beauty." 2 4 I b i d . , p. 158. 25Henry James, The P a i n t e r 1 s Eye: Notes and Essays on the P i c t o r i a l  A r t s , s e l and ed. w i t h an Int r o d . by John L. Sweeney (London, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 2 7 . A l l f u t u r e references t o t h i s work w i l l be taken from the same e d i t i o n and w i l l be designated P.E. 2 6"The I m p r e s s i o n i s t s " ( I 8 7 6 ) , P.E., pp. I l 4 , 1 15 . 2 7 A r n o l d Hauser, The S o c i a l H i s t o r y of A r t , 2 v o l s . (London, 1951), I I , 875-28Henry James and H. G. Wells, Henry James and H. G. Wells: A Record of T h e i r F r i e n d s h i p , T h e i r Debate on the A r t of F i c t i o n , and T h e i r  Q u a r r e l , eds. Leon Edel and Gordon N. Ray (London, 1 9 5 8 ) , P« 128. 29"The Grosvenor G a l l e r y " (1878), P.E., p. 1 6 5 . 5°"The P i c t u r e Season i n London," P.E., p. 1 4 ? . _51"The Grosvenor G a l l e r y , " P.E., p. I 6 5 . 5 2 "London P i c t u r e s , " P.E,, p. 2 0 9 . 5 5 i b i d . 5^"The Grafton G a l l e r i e s " ( 1 8 9 7 ) , P.E., p. 2 5 9 . 55"John S. Sargent" ( 1 8 9 5 ) , hh > P- 2 i 7 . ^ " P i c t u r e s by W i l l i a m M o r r i s Hunt, Gerome and Others" (1872), P. E., p. 5 1 . 57«The L e t t e r s of Eugene D e l a c r o i x " (1880), P.E., p. 184. 5 8 l b i d . , p. 201. 59Henry James, T r a n s a t l a n t i c Sketches (Boston, 1 8 7 5 ) , P* 9 0 . ^ I b i d . , pp. 9 2 , 9 5 . 25 ^ H e n r y James, Hawthorne (New York, 1887), P- 6 l . ^•2James disowned Watch and Ward (1871) and r e f e r r e d t o Roderick  Hudson' as h i s first'..novel. /••5Henry James, "A New England Winter," The Complete Tales of Henry  James, ed. w i t h an I n t r o d . by Leon E d e l , 12 v o l s . (London, 196J), V I, 114. ^ I b i d . ^5The A r t of the Novel, pp. 55, 54. ^ T h e n a r r a t o r w i l l i n g l y pays an e x o r b i t a n t p r i c e f o r J e f f r e y Aspern's mi n i a t u r e a f t e r i t was o f f e r e d t o him f r e e by Miss Tina. ^ 7 J u l i a n a i s based on Jane Clairmont, one-time m i s t r e s s o f Byron and mother of. h i s daughter A l l e g r a . Jane Clairmont was the h a l f - s i s t e r o f Mary Godwin, S h e l l e y ' s second wife. Frank Saltram was i n s p i r e d by S. T. Coleridge. ^ T h e A r t o f the Novel, p. 250. ^ I b i d . , P. 222. 50vio la Hopkins, " V i s u a l A r t Devices and P a r a l l e l s i n the F i c t i o n of Henry James," PMLA,.LXXVI (196l) , p. 561. CHAPTER I JAMES'S PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST In "The Madonna of the Future" (1875), James uses a r t imagery and a r t o b j ects t o set the tone, u n d e r l i n e theme, and r e v e a l character. "Framing" and a l l u s i o n t o s p e c i f i c a r t i s t s and t h e i r work are the p r i n c i p a l methods employed. The problem of the i d e a l a r t i s t which was t o engage James's a t t e n t i o n i n most, i f not a l l , o f h i s t a l e s and novels,^ i s here set f o r t h . Theobald, the romantic i d e a l i s t and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l genius, possesses the "heart" but not the "hand" of Raphael. He l a c k s the w i l l , the power t o a c t , and wastes h i s l i f e " i n t a l k , i n plans and promises, i n study, i n v i s i o n s . " 2 He dreams of p a i n t i n g an " i d e a l " Madonna which w i l l r e f l e c t the same "noble tenderness and human s u b l i m i t y " ? as Raphael's "Madonna of the C h a i r " — t h e p e r f e c t f u s i o n of body and s o u l , of p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l beauty, but h i s dread o f f a l l i n g short of h i s i d e a l conception paralyzes h i s hand, and h i s canvas remains blank. Yet Theobald i s not an i d l e boaster; he recognizes the " i d e a l " i n the " r e a l " when he sees the outcast maiden mother and c h i l d , and h i s hasty sketch of the dying i n f a n t i s regarded by even the c y n i c a l l i t t l e I t a l i a n s c u l p t o r as "a masterpiece, a pure C o r r e g g i o . T h e o b a l d a s p i r e s t o the e x c e l l e n c e of the o l d masters, but h i s romantic "sense of the past," h i s "purism," and h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e present i s "void of a l l t h a t nourishes and prompts and i n s p i r e s the a r t i s t " 5 prevent him from m a i n t a i n i n g a proper p e r s p e c t i v e . Thus h i s 25 preference f o r c e r t a i n a r t i s t s and h i s r e j e c t i o n of others c o n s t i t u t e s a more s i g n i f i c a n t r e v e l a t i o n of h i s own character than a v a l i d judgment of the a r t i s t s and works concerned. His reverence f o r Michael Angelo, the great master of "form™ and "movement," the genius who achieves the i d e a l i n p o r t r a y i n g a "great s o u l " i n a " b e a u t i f u l body" marks Theobald as both a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t and an i d e a l i s t , as does h i s admiration of Benvenuto C e l l i n i whose smaller f i g u r e s suggest the same m o b i l i t y and power as those of h i s master. ^  This i s a l s o t r u e of h i s love of T i t i a n whose greatness l i e s i n h i s a b i l i t y t o achieve " r e a l i t y " i n h i s f i g u r e s by the s k i l f u l treatment of l i g h t and shadow, and h i s worship of Raphael whose p o r t r a i t s surpass a l l others i n the f a i t h f u l rendering of soul and body. But there i s a suggestion of bi a s i n Theobald's contempt f o r Perugino who was surpassed only by h i s p u p i l Raphael i n space composition."'' Theobald's d i s l i k e may be based on the f a c t t h a t although Perugino's p i c t u r e s p e r f e c t l y express r e l i g i o u s emotion, the a r t i s t h i m s e l f was "an a t h e i s t and a villain."® Theobald's romanticism and l a c k of r e a l i t y are a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r c e r t a i n a r t i s t s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t while T i t i a n maintained a f i n e grasp of r e a l i t y by changing w i t h the times and acknowledging the "bale" as w e l l as the " b l i s s " of humanity, F r a Angelico (who, we are t o assume from the n a r r a t o r ' s account, i s a l s o revered by Theobald), was t o t a l l y unable t o p o r t r a y e v i l , but only the " b l i t h e n e s s " and beauty of l i f e . Add t o t h i s the f a c t t h a t Andrea Mantegna (whose t r i p t y c h Theobald admires),9 w a s a romantic i d e a l i s t who drew h i s i n s p i r a t i o n from " I t a l y ' s g l o r i o u s past" and " n a i v e l y f o r g o t t h a t Romans 26 were creatures of f l e s h and b l o o d , " l ^ and you have a r e f l e c t i o n of Theobald's problem and an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s cause. U n l i k e T i t i a n , Theobald cannot adjust t o r e a l i t y ; and l i k e F ra Angelico he cannot admit u g l i n e s s , so he p e r s i s t s i n regarding S e r a f i n a as "a beauty w i t h a s o u l , although the " s o u l " i s much i n question and the "beauty" has grown o l d , stout, and coarse. Theobald i s a romantic i d e a l i s t who, l i k e Mantegna, l i v e s i n the past, and the c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h present r e a l i t y destroys him. In the most s u c c e s s f u l instance of "framing" i n t h i s t a l e the a r t object (a p a i n t e r ' s canvas), fuses s e t t i n g w i t h a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The scene takes on the q u a l i t y of r e a l l i f e as we view, through the eyes of the n a r r a t o r , Theobald's poor room w i t h i t s "vacant misery" and "abject poverty, " and the a r t i s t h i m s e l f seated near the s i n g l e window before an e a s e l on which r e s t s a large canvas. He i s "pale," "haggard, " "unshaven"—the p i c t u r e of "absolute l a s s i t u d e and d e j e c t i o n " — " h i s arms l o o s e l y f o l d e d , h i s legs s t r e t c h e d before him, h i s head hanging on h i s b r e a s t . " l ^ As the n a r r a t o r passes behind him w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of at l a s t v i ewing the i d e a l Madonna, s i g h t and i n s i g h t merge. We see the blank canvas, "cracked and d i s c o l o u r e d by time," and grasp i t s f u l l import as Theobald, suddenly roused from h i s stupor, pours f o r t h h i s p i t i f u l c o n f e s s i o n of f a i l u r e : 'I'm the h a l f of a genius.' Where i n the wide world i s my other h a l f ? Lodged perhaps i n the v u l g a r s o u l , the cunning, ready f i n g e r s of some' d u l l copyist or some t r i v i a l a r t i s a n who turns out by the dozen h i s easy p r o d i g i e s of touch.' ^ 5 27 Yet, j u s t before h i s death, he exclaims: 'But our v i s i o n s . . . have a way of being b r i l l i a n t , and a man hasn't l i v e d i n v a i n who has seen the t h i n g s I h a v e . ' ^ The other h a l f of the genius i s , i n t r u t h , a "vulgar s o u l " w i t h "cunning ready f i n g e r s , " a " t r i v i a l a r t i s a n who t u r n s out by the dozen" —"monkeys and c a t s " i n a c a r i c a t u r e of men and women i n v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s of the game of love. This l i t t l e I t a l i a n combines s c u l p t u r e and s a t i r e and i s as proud of h i s "chemical i n g e n u i t y " i n producing "a p e c u l i a r p l a s t i c compound" as he i s of h i s "types" themselves. He i s f r a n k l y and v u l g a r l y p r a c t i c a l t o the p o i n t where h i s " r e a l i s m " can only be regarded as "naturalism," but there i s no denying the cleverness of h i s " i m i t a t i v e f e l i c i t y . " He i s the d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s of Theo b a l d — a man of a c t i o n , not a dreamer, a success by the world's standard. His c y n i c a l : "Cats and monkeys,—monkeys'and c a t s , — a l l human l i f e i s there . ' " 1 5 echoes r e v o l t i n g l y again and again i n the n a r r a t o r ' s mind as he t r i e s t o shut out the "poignant memory of Theobald's transcendent i l l u s i o n s and deplorable f a i l u r e . " 1 ^ Theobald and the l i t t l e I t a l i a n s c u l p t o r of monkeys and cats not only p r e f i g u r e Roderick Hudson and G l o r i a n i (the i d e a l i s t and the r e a l i s t , the "heart" and the "hand," the dreamer and the doer), but they i l l u s t r a t e James's most important concepts of a r t and the a r t i s t . L i k e Raphael, Theobald i s both grand i n h i s conceptions and single-minded i n h i s d e s i r e t o f a i t h f u l l y i n t e r p r e t h i s chosen subject, but h i s subject must express i d e a l b e a u t y — n o t h i n g e l s e w i l l s u f f i c e . His l o n g i n g t o achieve the i d e a l causes him, l i k e Raphael, t o pass from i n f l u e n c e t o i n f l u e n c e i n an e f f o r t V 28 to r e a l i z e i n h i s Madonna the f i n e s t q u a l i t i e s of the o l d masters. Theobald's problem a r i s e s from h i s i n s i s t e n c e on a b s o l u t e s — h i s f a i l u r e t o r e a l i z e t h a t i d e a l beauty, whether of body or s o u l , can e x i s t only i n the mind of the a r t i s t . He refuses t o admit t h a t "the province of a r t i s a l l l i f e , " 1 7 t h e r e f o r e he can see only the b e a u t i f u l , the i d e a l , "the Madonna," not the r e a l l i v i n g woman. Moreover, the goal he sets himself i s so h i g h t h a t , f e a r i n g l e s t he f a i l t o a t t a i n i t , he wastes h i s l i f e i n "charmed i n a c t i o n . " The t r i v i a l a r t i s a n , on the other hand, i s a r e a l i s t whose prime concern i s "technique," not subject. The g l o r i e s of the past hold no charms f o r him; he cares o n l y f o r the present and the g r a t i f i c a t i o n s i t can provide. He has no d e s i r e t o p a t t e r n h i m s e l f on the o l d masters, f o r he f i n d s h i s subject matter i n r e a l l i f e , and h i s i n v e n t i v e imagination s u p p l i e s the r e s t . He i s the master of c a r i c a t u r e , not of the p o r t r a i t , and he i s amply s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i m s e l f and with the p u b l i c demand f o r h i s c l e v e r , suggestive l i t t l e f i g u r e s . The cunning a r t i s a n i s devoid of s i n c e r i t y and t a s t e ; he n e i t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t e s nor s e l e c t s — except w i t h an eye t o "business." The l i t t l e I t a l i a n has no i l l u s i o n s t o be shattered. To him S e r a f i n a i s h a r d l y " d i v i n e , " but rat h e r a f l e s h and blood woman as "earthy" as himself. While he l a c k s "genius," he i s the master of " a p p l i c a t i o n , " and h i s cleverness and p r a c t i c a l i t y "pay o f f " from a p u r e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c point of view. Each a r t i s t i s incomplete, inadequate. Theobald possesses the genius, but not the a p p l i c a t i o n ; he recognizes the importance of subject, s e l e c t i o n , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; he i s sin c e r e and w i l l do not h i n g without 29 t a s t e , but h i s i n a b i l i t y t o come t o g r i p s w i t h r e a l i t y renders him i n e f f e c t i v e , impotent. He possesses a f i n e i n t e l l i g e n c e , but h i s "impressions" remain j u s t t h a t — t h e y never is s u e i n expression. The I t a l i a n s c u l p t o r p e r f e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s James's b e l i e f t h a t no work of q u a l i t y can "ever proceed from a s u p e r f i c i a l m i n d . H e i s t r i v i a l , i n s i n c e r e , without t a s t e , " i n t e r e s t e d , " but he achieves a l i m i t e d success by h i s awareness of r e a l i t y , a p p l i c a t i o n , and c l e v e r n e s s — a s opposed t o genius. While James shows h i s contempt f o r the u n q u a l i f i e d r e a l i s t , he a l s o has a word.of warning f o r the i d e a l i s t who f a i l s t o take r e a l i t y i n t o account. James b e l i e v e s the s u c c e s s f u l a r t i s t must possess both "heart" and "hand;" he must dream and d o — b a l a n c e the r e a l and the i d e a l . He must recognize u g l i n e s s as w e l l as beauty, the "bale" as w e l l as the " b l i s s , " and, by the power of h i s w i l l and imagination, achieve a work of a r t . In "The L i a r " (1888), James deals not only w i t h the problem of the a r t i s t , but a l s o w i t h the nature and f u n c t i o n of a r t . A r t objects are again employed t o r e i n f o r c e theme and d e l i n e a t e character, and "operative i r o n y " enhances the r e a l i t y and i n t e r e s t of the t a l e s . The s t o r y has commonly been regarded as concerned w i t h three p o r t r a i t s , two a r t i s t s , and two l i a r s , but c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n r e v e a l s three l i t e r a l p o r t r a i t s , a f i g u r a t i v e p o r t r a i t and sketch, and a scene which a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s a p o r t r a i t , three kinds of a r t i s t and three v a r i e t i e s of l i a r . I t i s a t a l e of l o v e — a n d of hate, of " b l i s s " and of "bale," o f "the r e a l , " "the romantic," and "the i d e a l . " 50 O l i v e r Lyon at f i r s t appears t o be the type o f a r t i s t t o win James's approval. He i s "too occupied w i t h h i s p r o f e s s i o n o f t e n t o pay country v i s i t s , "^9 a n < i while p a i n t i n g S i r David's p o r t r a i t he i s both d i l i g e n t and d i s i n t e r e s t e d — i n t e n t on a f a i t h f u l rendering of the "whole man." We l e a r n t h a t he "sketched w i t h a f i n e p o i n t and d i d not c a r i c a t u r e , and although t h i s r e f e r s t o h i s accounts t o S i r David of the a c t i v i t i e s at Stayes, i t i s e q u a l l y t r u e o f Lyon as an a r t i s t . However, qu i t e apart from the suggestiveness of h i s name, i t appears t h a t he has two serious flaws which may be a t t r i b u t e d t o uncontrolled- romanticism and i d e a l i s m . Mr. L y a l l Powers notes Lyon's s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o the s e n s a t i o n a l i n h i s a v i d i t y f o r the novel of Mr. Le Fanu, and h i s so e a s i l y becoming a prey t o Col o n e l Capadose's "long bow;"21 and Lyon's j e a l o u s y becomes apparent when Ev e r i n a f a i l s t o recognize him at the dinner t a b l e but gazes a f f e c t i o n a t e l y at the Colonel. Ever since h i s student days i n Munich Lyon has so i d e a l i z e d E v e r i n a t h a t he refuses t o b e l i e v e her capable of any human f o l l y or v i c e , and t h i s excessive i d e a l i s m , coupled w i t h romanticism, opens the way f o r j e a l o u s y t o b l i n d the eye of both l o v e r and a r t i s t . When he f i r s t l e a rns of C o l o n e l Capadose's "monatrous f o i b l e " and the apparent "backing" he rec e i v e s from h i s wife E v e r i n a , Lyon i s both incensed w i t h the Co l o n e l and i n t r i g u e d by the p s y c h o l o g i c a l nature of the problem. Does E v e r i n a a c t u a l l y a i d and abet her husband, or does she s u f f e r i n s i l e n t d i s g u s t ? Lyon begins t o hope the l a t t e r , but he i s "too a f r a i d of exposing the woman he once had l o v e d " 2 2 t o make any overt i n q u i r y . Moreover, h i s observation convinces him t h a t 51 . . . i f Capadose was an abundant he was not a malignant l i a r and t h a t h i s f i n e f a c u l t y e x e r c i s e d i t s e l f mainly on subjects of small d i r e c t importance. 'He i s the l i a r p l a t o n i c , 1 he s a i d t o h i m s e l f ; 'he i s d i s i n t e r e s t e d , he doesn't operate w i t h a hope of gain or w i t h a d e s i r e to i n j u r e . I t i s a r t f o r a r t and he i s prompted by the love of beauty. He has an inner v i s i o n o f what might have been, of what ought t o be, and he helps on the good cause by the simple s u b s t i t u t i o n of a nuance. He p a i n t s , as i t were, and so do l ! ' 2 3 At t h i s stage Lyon accepts the Colonel as a f e l l o w a r t i s t , an i d e a l i s t l i k e h imself. But soon the resentment of the disappointed l o v e r begins t o a l t e r Lyon's p e r s p e c t i v e , and he determines t o p a i n t the Colonel "as he i s " — a l i a r . ' With t h i s d e c i s i o n , Lyon renounces h i s r i g h t t o the name of " a r t i s t , " f o r he i s no longer " d i s i n t e r e s t e d . " In order t o more e a s i l y achieve h i s aim, he f i r s t o f f e r s t o p a i n t , as a g i f t , the p o r t r a i t of the Capadose's l i t t l e daughter. "The c h i l d was b e a u t i f u l and had the p r e t t i e s t eyes of innocence he had ever seen,"24 but having l o s t h i s a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y , Lyon i s unable t o capture the c h i l d ' s innocence and beauty on canvas. He can only regard her c y n i c a l l y as an extension of her f a t h e r . Lyon prolongs and m u l t i p l i e s the s i t t i n g s and neg l e c t s other important orders so t h a t he may be w i t h E v e r i n a (who always accompanies Amy), f o r he hopes Mrs. Capadose w i l l e v e n t u a l l y confess t h a t she i s unhappy w i t h her husband. Sometimes Lyon's strokes are "a l i t t l e w i l d , " since he i s " t h i n k i n g so much more of h i s heart than of h i s hand. .125 But Lyon's "masterpiece . . . of l e g i t i m a t e treachery"26' i s q u i c k l y f i n i s h e d . Not only does the Colonel come alone, but he i s a "rare model." He l i k e s t o t a l k , and Lyon e x p l o i t s h i s f o i b l e : "He encouraged, beguiled, e x c i t e d him," and "lashed him on when he flagged . . . . " 2 7 At f i r s t Lyon contemplates a "subtle c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n " t o be recognized only by 52 "the i n i t i a t e d , " but h i s obsession i s so great t h a t he soon determines t h a t " t h i s character should be p e r c e p t i b l e even t o the meanest i n t e l l i g e n c e , " and h i s only regret i s t h a t he cannot l i s t the p o r t r a i t i n the Academy's catalogue "simply as 'The L i a r . ' " He now sees only one side of the C o l o n e l , so he gives himself up "to the joy of p a i n t i n g nothing e l s e . " 2 ^ Lyon's degeneration as an a r t i s t i s apparent. S i r David's p o r t r a i t was "sketched with a f i n e p o i n t , " Amy's betrayed some " w i l d s t r o k e s , " t h a t of the Colonel amounts t o c a r i c a t u r e . Lyon once cared f o r the q u a l i t y of h i s a r t alone and became s c e p t i c a l of h i s success when the p o r t r a i t of S i r David was admired by a l l who saw i t . But he simply "used" l i t t l e Amy, and while he f i r s t sought r e c o g n i t i o n of the Colonel's p i c t u r e from a "selectf audience, he now t h i r s t s f o r the applause of the v u l g a r m u l t i t u d e . Lyon not only d e t e r i o r a t e s as an a r t i s t , but m o r a l l y — a s a man. ' Far from f e a r i n g t o "expose the woman he once loved," he now e x u l t s i n the b e l i e f t h a t E v e r i n a has been f o r c e d t o acknowledge t h a t she i s ashamed of her husband. Messrs. West and Stallman ( i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the scene i n which the Colonel slashes h i s p o r t r a i t ) , f a l l i n t o the t r a p of viewing the other characters through Lyon's eyes and thus agree w i t h the a r t i s t t h a t E v e r i n a i s . ashamed of her husband. They f u r t h e r s t a t e : "The Colonel at t h i s point comes t o g r i p s , at l e a s t momentarily, w i t h h i s 'true' s e l f ( a c t u a l l y h i s ' f a l s e ' s e l f ) f o r the f i r s t t ime." 29 T h i s , I b e l i e v e , i s a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which f a i l s t o take i n t o account t h e "deeper psychology." I t i s important t o remember t h a t ' n e i t h e r Lyon nor the Colonel i s ever i n need of much c l a r i f i c a t i o n ; i t i s E v e r i n a who 5? i s somewhat of an enigma. But even i n her case we are given d e f i n i t e clues which help us t o a r r i v e at a reasonably accurate estimate of her character. From the outset we are t o l d by E v e r i n a h e r s e l f and by otherr characters t h a t she loves her husband, and Lyon has ample opportunity t o observe her a f f e c t i o n and l o y a l t y . The l i e s she t e l l s are e s s e n t i a l l y harmless and p r o t e c t i v e . Even t h a t which i n v o l v e s Miss Geraldine (Grenadine, H a r r i e t Pearson) f a l l s i n t o t h i s category, f o r Lyon, the Co l o n e l , and E v e r i n a s u r e l y know t h a t a person of her c l a s s and type i s as s a f e l y anonymous as her name. Despite Lyon's estimate of E v e r i n a as "simple," she appears t o be f a i r l y a stute and'may w e l l have taken Lyon's measure twelve years before when he proposed t o her and been p e r c e p t i v e enough t o judge what she might have t o f e a r from such a j e a l o u s , p u r i t a n i c a l l y i d e a l i s t i c man. She asks Lyon what good i t w i l l do him t o p a i n t the C o l o n e l , and when Lyon r e p l i e s t h a t he wants t o p o r t r a y the Colonel's "nature, 1 1 E v e r i n a d e c l a r e s : "Nothing would induce me t o l e t you. p r y i n t o me t h a t way."50 Thus the scene of v i o l e n c e (which i s e x c e l l e n t l y framed w i t h Lyon spying through the balcony c u r t a i n s on the two d i s t r a u g h t v i c t i m s below him), i s i t s e l f a m a s t e r l y d e l i n e a t i o n of the character of a l l t h r e e . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the Colonel recognizes the defamation u n t i l h i s wife p o i n t s i t out, and h i s a t t a c k on the p i c t u r e expresses not only h i s anger at what Lyon has made of him, but h i s rage and g r i e f at the p a i n and h u m i l i a t i o n which Lyon has caused Everina. I n c o n t r a s t , Everina's t e r r i b l e c r i e s make Lyon tremble w i t h a happy sense of success, and weighed against t h i s triumph, the d e s t r u c t i o n of the p i c t u r e means nothing. I r o n i c a l l y , h i s own nature has been so 54 perverted t h a t he does not know whether the Colonel i s damning the p o r t r a i t or the a r t i s t . Nor does he r e a l i z e t h a t h i s f i n e s t d e l i n e a t i o n of character i s not t h a t of S i r David, or Amy, or even the C o l o n e l , nor i s i t h i s mental sketch of Eve r i n a . I t i s the f r i g h t f u l p o r t r a i t f a i t h f u l l y created stroke by stroke o f — h i m s e l f . ' While he has been probing f o r the mote i n the eye of Colonel Capadose, the beam i n h i s own eye has b l i n d e d him. Of E v e r i n a he can only say: "Truly her husband had t r a i n e d her w e l l , " l i t t l e r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h i s " t r a i n i n g " may have been the d i s c i p l i n e of love t h a t has enabled Mrs. Capadose t o see the " i d e a l " i n the " r e a l . " She i s f u l l y aware of her husband's weakness (or f o r t e ) but, l i k e S i r David, she recognizes i t f o r what i t i s and f o r what, i n honesty, Lyon f i r s t took i t — a n i d e a l i s t i c "embroidering" of the t r u t h . The Colonel has t o l d o n ly one " i n t e r e s t e d " l i e , and i t i s Lyon who has d r i v e n him t o t h a t . Lyon alone t e l l s and l i v e s a m a l i c i o u s , " i n t e r e s t e d " l i e . He has not rendered the "whole man," but has painted the Colonel as type, as l i a r only. Lyon has f o r f e i t e d h i s a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y by rendering the "surface, not the "substance." He has s a c r i f i c e d h i s a r t t o personal ends and has committed the unpardonable s i n of v i o l a t i n g a human s o u l . He has ignored the importance of "form"---the f a c t t h a t , f o r the welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l and the p r e s e r v a t i o n of s o c i e t y , l i f e must o f t e n be "a masking." In h i s e f f o r t t o "unmask" others, he has exposed h i s own miserable s o u l . O l i v e r Lyon has not learned the l e s s o n of the master—he has f a i l e d t o balance l i f e and a r t , the r e a l and the i d e a l . 5 2 E v e r i n a , on the other hand, i s the a r t i s t o f l i f e . She accepts the r e a l and transforms i t i n t o the i d e a l by the power of i n s i g h t and love. 35 A p p r o p r i a t e l y , hers i s the f i n a l word i n the best sense. Turning t o t h e i r persecutor she smiles and says: n , Y o u see the f a t e s are against you. Providence won't l e t you be so d i s i n t e r e s t e d — p a i n t i n g masterpieces f o r n o t h i n g . " 1 "'For you, I am very sorry. But you must remember t h a t I possess the o r i g i n a l . 1 ' "33 I n "The Real Thing" (1892), James once again considers the nature and f u n c t i o n of a r t and the a r t i s t and the problems i n v o l v e d i n a c h i e v i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance between the r e a l and the i d e a l . The t a l e examines the d i f f e r e n c e between an i l l u s t r a t i o n , a l i k e n e s s , and a p o r t r a i t ; between type and character, and weighs the a r t i s t ' s r i g h t t o "use" or " s a c r i f i c e " people i n the i n t e r e s t of h i s a r t . The Monarchs are i n d i s p u t a b l y "the r e a l t h i n g " — a lady and gentleman i n every sense of the word. They are immaculately groomed, t a s t e f u l l y dressed, genteely d i s c r e e t , s o c i a l l y c o r r e c t w i t h the ease and n a t u r a l grace which c h a r a c t e r i z e those who are born t o the drawing room, the chase, and the s o c i e t y of "the best types." As t o " s t a t u r e , complexion and form," they leave nothing t o be d e s i r e d . They grace every room they enter, and t h e i r f i n e appearance and charming demeanour have been t h e i r c a p i t a l . They have been much photographed, and Mrs. Monarch, at the time of her marriage, "was known as the B e a u t i f u l Statue. «34 However, a reverse i n f ortune has made i t necessary f o r them t o seek remunerative employment, and since t h e i r strong p o i n t i s " f i g u r e , " they, have o f f e r e d themselves as p a i n t e r ' s models. But despite t h e i r f i n e " l i n e s , " the a r t i s t can make nothing of them. They l a c k " p l a s t i c i t y " and "expression," and each drawing of them has the q u a l i t y of a photograph—an exact reproduction. 56 The Major and h i s wife are s u p e r f i c i a l ; they nave p l a c i d l y accepted them-selv e s as " l a d y and gentleman" and see no need t o be anything e l s e . From long custom they have become mere, "types." Thus the p a i n t e r , who has d e s i r e d above a l l t o d e l i n e a t e character, f i n d s the Monarchs s u i t e d only f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s , not p o r t r a i t s . In c o n t r a s t t o the Monarchs, Miss Churm and Oronte are not "the r e a l t h i n g . " Miss Churm i s a meagre, untidy, f r e c k l e d l i t t l e cockney, but she can "represent everything, from a f i n e l a d y t o a shepherdess, "55 and her value as a model c o n s i s t s i n her having "no p o s i t i v e stamp," but "a curious and i n e x p l i c a b l e t a l e n t f o r i m i t a t i o n . «56 While the Monarchs p r i d e themselves on t h e i r absolute a u t h e n t i c i t y , Miss Churm d e l i g h t s i n r e p r e s e n t i n g an endless v a r i e t y of characters f a r removed from her own common l i f e . Oronte, l i k e Miss Churm, has the g i f t o f mimicry. The bankrupt l i t t l e I t a l i a n s t r e e t vendor can as e a s i l y assume the character of an E n g l i s h gentleman as Miss Churm can p o r t r a y t h a t of a Russian p r i n c e s s . They are a r t i s t s i n t h e i r own r i g h t — i n t h e i r a b i l i t y , by the power of the imagination, t o transform themselves i n t o the i d e a l . The Monarchs cannot understand t h i s "alchemy of art; " 5 7 they are convinced t h a t t h e i r own r e a l i t y as "lady " and "gentleman" i s i t s e l f " i d e a l . " But the a r t i s t knows t h a t whereas Miss Churm and Oronte are "round, " " p l a s t i c , " "makeable," the Monarchs are " f l a t " and " f i n i s h e d " types i n whom the "stamp" i s set. The very a t t r i b u t e s which q u a l i f y them f o r the photograph u n f i t them f o r the p o r t r a i t . The photograph i s two-dimensional, " f i x e d , " but the t r u e p o r t r a i t has the e x t r a dimension which gives i t l i f e . I t conveys not merely "surface" but "depth." P e r f e c t form and p r o p o r t i o n can be a handicap t o the a r t i s t who 37 attempts t o d e l i n e a t e character, f o r p e r f e c t i o n i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n of humanity. For t h i s reason the b e a u t i f u l woman u s u a l l y makes a poor model; her f e a t u r e s are too r e g u l a r , and i n p o r t r a i t u r e she tends t o appear u n r e a l , not t r u e t o l i f e . Thus "the B e a u t i f u l Statue" impresses the a r t i s t as being " s i n g u l a r l y l i k e a bad i l l u s t r a t i o n . He r e a l i z e s t h a t the Monarchs, by t h e i r very p e r f e c t i o n of form, have become types, and since i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the a r t i s t t o "render" l i f e , not merely "copy" i t , they are useless t o him as s u b j e c t s . Although he p i t i e s t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , he cannot a f f o r d t o " s a c r i f i c e " h i s a r t t o t h e i r need, nor i s i t conceivable t h a t he r e t a i n a r e a l "lady and gentleman" as servants. In t h i s b r i e f a n a l y s i s of three t a l e s we have noted James's concepts of a r t and the a r t i s t , the r e a l and the i d e a l , and the p r i n c i p a l techniques of the p a i n t e r which he employs i n s e t t i n g f o r t h h i s a e s t h e t i c and i n d e l i n e a t i n g character. Our observations may now be a p p l i e d t o two of James's major novels of h i s l a t e r phase: The Wings of the Dove and The Golden Bowl t o see how he achieves r e a l i t y of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and the complete r e a l i z a t i o n of the i d e a l i n the r e a l . 58 FOOTNOTES •'•James's concern w i t h the i d e a l a r t i s t extends not merely t o the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p a i n t e r , s c u l p t o r , and c o l l e c t o r , but t o "the a r t i s t of l i f e . " 2Henry James, "The Madonna of the Future," The Complete Tales o f Henry James, ed. Leon E d e l , 12 v o l s . (London, 196277 I I I , 48. A l l f u r t h e r references t o Henry James's Tales w i l l be from t h i s e d i t i o n . 3 Be rnard Berenson, The I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s o f the Renaissance (London, 1952), p. 129. ^"The Madonna o f the Future," p. 40. I t should be noted t h a t Bernard Berenson and Henry James are both products of the same general k i n d of i n t e l l e c t u a l c limate (cosmopolite Americans), and t h e i r e s s e n t i a l a e s t h e t i c view i s almost i d e n t i c a l . Bernard Berenson s t a t e s t h a t "Correggio was a much f i n e r and s u b t l e r master of movement" than Raphael; " h i s contours are s o f t and f l o w i n g " and " h i s a c t i o n a t - i t s best i s unsurpassable." " Y e t . f o r a l l h i s s u p e r i o r i t y , . - h i s movement seldom counts as i n Raphael," and h i s "form" i s decidedly i n f e r i o r . He "d i s p l a y s l e s s f e e l i n g f o r the firmness o f in n e r substance than any of h i s contem-p o r a r i e s , " but he ranks among the best i n h i s p a i n t i n g of the surface of the human.skin. The I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s of the Renaissance, pp. 192-194. ( I t a l i c s mine). This i s s i g n i f i c a n t when a p p l i e d t o Theobald, as i t r e f l e c t s h i s s k i l l i n the execution o f the "bambino," h i s f a i l u r e t o "count" as d i d Raphael, and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o r e a l i z e . t h e " i n n e r substance" o f S e r a f i n a . 5"The Madonna of the Future," p. 15. ^Benvenuto C e l l i n i i s renowned as a master s c u l p t o r and goldsmith, but he avoids the "massiveness" and " f o r c e " which became more and more apparent i n Michael Angelo's l a t e r work. The "Perseus" i n bronze at Florence i s one of h i s f i n e s t masterpieces. 7"Space composition" i s composition i n three dimensions r a t h e r than two as i n o r d i n a r y composition. Space composition gives a greater sense of " r e a l i t y " by c r e a t i n g an impression o f depth. ^ I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s o f the Renaissance, p. 122. 9The t r i p t y c h i n the U f f i z i , d espite i t s r e l i g i o u s subjects (the C r u c i f i x i o n , the Ci r c u m c i s i o n , the Ascension), i s t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g and serves Mantegna s o l e l y as a reproduction of the "Antique world," being i n every a s p e c t — f i g u r e and setting—"Roman." I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s of the Renaissance, p. 148. I t i s a l s o o f i n t e r e s t 59 t h a t Mantegna f a i l e d t o achieve f u l l contour, but stopped short at o u t l i n e and made no progress i n "form" or "movement" a f t e r he was twenty-f i v e . Theobald does not go beyond the "sketch" o f the bambino and, l i k e Mantegna, makes no progress i n h i s a r t . l°Italian P a i n t e r s of the Renaissance, p. l47. 1 1"The Madonna of the Future," p. 50. ^ I b i d . , p. 46. i ^ I b i d . , p. 48. I4lbid. x5lbid., p. 44. l 6 I b i d . , p. 52. 17The A r t o f the Novel, p. 59. 1 8"The A r t o f F i c t i o n , " p. 44. ^ H e n r y James, "The L i a r , " The Complete Tales of Henry James, VI, 585. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 406. 2 1 L y a l l H. Powers, "Henry James and the E t h i c s o f the A r t i s t : "The Real Thing' and 'The L i a r , ' " Texas Studies i n L i t e r a t u r e and Language, I I I (Autumn, 1961), p. 564.. 2 2"The L i a r , P. 409. 2 5 l b i d . , pp. , 411, 412. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 4l4. 2 5 l b i d . , p. 417. ( I t a l i c s mine). 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 415. ( i t a l i c s mine). 2 7 l b i d . , p. 420. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 419. 2^Ray Benedict West, J r . and R. W. Stallman, The A r t o f Modern  F i c t i o n (New York, 1949), p. 210. 50"The L i a r , " p. 4l9. 40 5libid., p. 459. c o n t r a s t t o O l i v e r Lyon, Mary Tredick, a r t i s t of "The Tone of Time" (1900), views her subject w i t h both hate and love. She sees both the "infamy" and the inescapable "beauty," and, by t o t a l involvement w i t h the "whole man," she achieves a v i t a l l i v i n g p o r t r a i t . 55»The L i a r , " pp. 457, 440. I n h i s o r i g i n a l sketch i n the Notebooks James envisaged an embarrassing c r i s i s which would be met by a supporting l i e from the w i f e , but would t u r n her love f o r her husband to. hate. But when James f i n a l l y composed the s t o r y , he r e a l i z e d t h a t t o permit E v e r i n a 1 s d e f e c t i o n would be to s a n c t i o n the ignoble designs of her f r u s t r a t e d l o v e r — t o condemn a minor deception while condoning a major. 5%3nry James, "The Real Thing, " The Complete Tales of Henry James, V I I I , 254. 55lbid., p. 259. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 245. 57lbid., p. 241. 5 8 I b i d . , p. 255. Both "The L i a r " and "The Real Thing" are based on f a c t . "The L i a r " had i t s - i n c e p t i o n i n a-personal encounter between James and a charming " c o l l o q u i a l romancer" and h i s "serene," "veracious" wife who " d i d her duty" by her husband's t a l l t a l e s . " w i t h o u t so much as. t u r n i n g a - h a i r . " The A r t of the Novel, pp. 178, 179. "The Real Thing" was based on an.anecdote r e l a t e d t o James by George du Maurier concerning two couples who had o f f e r e d themselves "as a r t i s t ' s models f o r Du Maurier's weekly ' s o c i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s ' t o Punch." The A r t of  the Novel, pp. 285, 284. CHAPTER I I THE TWO SIDES OF THE MEDAL In The Wings of the Dove James i n v i t e s us t o view both sides of the "medal" of each i n d i v i d u a l — " i t s obverse and i t s reverse, i t s face and i t s back, " l the side i n the s u n l i g h t and the side i n the shadow, i n order t h a t we may appreciate the i n f i n i t e complexity of human nature. Through the use of successive centres of consciousness, operative i r o n y , framing, and the ob.jet d'art James creates v i t a l l i v i n g characters. M i l l y Theale, the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n James's p i c t u r e , f i r s t comes i n t o sharp focus i n a scene which i n t e g r a t e s d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i n d i c a t e s r e l a t i o n s , and suggests theme. We view M i l l y through the eyes of Susan Stringham, her New England confidante and t r a v e l l i n g companion. The two American women, who are t o u r i n g Europe, have stopped at an i n n on the Brunig Pass. M i l l y has chosen t o take a s o l i t a r y walk, and Mrs. Stringham, who has become alarmed at her lengthy absence, has gone i n search of her. Rounding a sharp t u r n on an a l p i n e path, Susan suddenly catches s i g h t of her young companion at the " d i z z y edge" of a p r e c i p i c e — " s e a t e d at her ease" on "a slab of rock at the end of a short promontory . . . t h a t merely pointed o f f t o the r i g h t i n t o g u l f s of a i r . " ^ Susan i s seized w i t h horror at the danger of the g i r l ' s p o s i t i o n and her p o s s i b l e i n t e n t i o n , f o r M i l l y has l o s t parents, brothers, s i s t e r s . She i s "alone," " s t r i c k e n , " " r i c h , " "strange."3 But i n the moment when s i g h t and i n s i g h t merge, Susan r e a l i z e s t h a t though 42 M i l l y may be " l o o k i n g down on the kingdoms of the eart h , . . . i t wouldn't be wi t h a view of renouncing them."^ For she now saw . . . th a t the f u t u r e was not t o e x i s t f o r her pr i n c e s s i n the form of any sharp or simple r e l i e f from the human predicament. I t wouldn't be f o r her a question of a f l y i n g leap and thereby of a quick escape. I t would be a question of t a k i n g f u l l i n the face the whole a s s a u l t of l i f e . . . . She wouldn't cut short the thread. . . . she knew h e r s e l f unmistakably reserved f o r some more complicated passage . . . .5 Later, i n a h i g h l y ambiguous speech, M i l l y ponders whether she w i l l have much "of everything" and then expresses the doubt t h a t she has "everything." When Susan presses her to know her meaning, M i l l y e x p l a i n s : "The power t o r e s i s t the b l i s s of what I have.' "6" This may merely imply (as Mrs. Stringham would l i k e t o b e l i e v e ) , sheer "excess o f the joy of l i f e . " 7 However, i t may e q u a l l y mean the power t o r e s i s t the temptation to use wealth t o purchase happiness and, as Mr. Firebaugh p o i n t s out, "to purchase happiness may mean t o purchase p e o p l e — t o acquire them, as a pr i n c e s s does her r e t i n u e , through a complicated system of c o u r t l y acts . . . ." 8 T h i s i n t e n t i o n i s , I b e l i e v e , t a k i n g shape i n M i l l y ' s mind, f o r , coupled w i t h a suggestion of f e a r as t o the dur a t i o n of her l i f e and a marked d e s i r e f o r experience, M i l l y d e f i n i t e l y s t a t e s t h a t what she wants i s "'people,' so f a r as they were t o be had," and she determines t o "go s t r a i g h t t o London."^ We may, I b e l i e v e , s a f e l y assume t h a t when M i l l y went d i r e c t l y down t o the edge of the p r e c i p i c e and calmly contemplated a l l that l a y before her she faced r e a l i t y , and her subsequent d e c i s i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t she does not have "the power t o r e s i s t the b l i s s " of what she has and of what she may s t i l l have. 45 At the dinner p a r t y at Lancaster Gate a l l the characters are brought i n t o r e l a t i o n . M i l l y Theale has been introduced i n t o Mrs. Lowder's c i r c l e , and there i s a sharpening and heightening of her consciousness as she f e e l s h e r s e l f completely i n v o l v e d . The elements i n t h i s E n g l i s h s i t u a t i o n are " r i c h and strange," and M i l l y senses a "complicated . . . p o s s i b l y s i n i s t e r m o t i v e " ^ when, i n conversation w i t h the blase Lord Mark and the handsome Kate Croy, she learns t h a t here people "work" people, sharp bargains are d r i v e n , and the highest p o s s i b l e value i s gained i n r e t u r n . The Matcham r e c e p t i o n i n Book F i f t h marks the peak of M i l l y 1 s s o c i a l success and joy which began w i t h the dinner party three weeks before at Lancaster Gate. Although M i l l y was made aware at Maud Lowder's of the s o c i a l system i n which everyone "works" everyone e l s e , i t i s i n d i c a t i v e of her innocence t h a t she sees the guests at Matcham as f i g u r e s from a Watteau p a i n t i n g — " g e n t l e f o l k s a l l , " g r a c e f u l , charming, elegant, n a t u r a l , i n n o c e n t . 1 1 Like Watteau, M i l l y b e l i e v e s i n the beauty and splendour; she f a i l s t o see the dark underside of greed and s e l f i s h n e s s and s o c i a l i n t r i g u e . Her present view of l i f e i s romantic, i d e a l i s t i c , y e t poignant i n i t s u n r e a l i t y . Placed as i t i s between two i n c i d e n t s which evoke f e a r and g r i e f , t h i s i d y l l i c scene i s an i r o n i c comment on s o c i e t y and, by reason of contrast, i t heightens our response t o M i l l y i n the c e n t r a l scene which i s t o f o l l o w . The moment of supreme r e a l i z a t i o n comes as M i l l y stands w i t h Lord Mark before her l i k e n e s s i n the Bronzino p o r t r a i t . F ollowing, as i t does, the Watteau p i c t u r e which depic t s an imaginary world of d e l i g h t where p a i n and time do not i n t r u d e , the Bronzino becomes a symbol of m o r t a l i t y . 44 Refinement and elegance but t h i n l y v e i l the pervasive sadness and m u t a b i l i t y . M i l l y found h e r s e l f , f o r the f i r s t moment, l o o k i n g at the mysterious p o r t r a i t through t e a r s . . . . the face of a young woman, a l l m a g n i f i c e n t l y drawn, down t o the hands, and m a g n i f i c e n t l y dressed; a face almost l i v i d i n hue, yet handsome i n sadness and crowned w i t h a mass of h a i r r o l l e d back and high, t h a t must, before f a d i n g w i t h time, have had a f a m i l y resemblance t o her own. The lady . . . w i t h her s l i g h t l y Michaelangelesque squareness, her eyes of other days, her f u l l l i p s , her long neck, her recorded jewels, her brocaded and wasted reds, was a very great p e r s o n a g e — o n l y unaccompanied by a joy.- And she was dead, dead, dead. M i l l y recognized her e x a c t l y i n words t h a t had nothing t o do w i t h her. ' I s h a l l never be b e t t e r than t h i s . ' ^ Lord Mark does not understand. He t h i n k s t h a t by " t h i s " M i l l y means the magnificence and grandeur of the "personage" i n the p i c t u r e , whereas, by a sudden i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the dead lady, M i l l y has a foreboding of her own doom. As she s t u d i e s the p o r t r a i t , M i l l y i s once again brought face t o face w i t h r e a l i t y . On the edge of the p r e c i p i c e she contemplated u s i n g her power t o g a i n happiness; now her h o l d on j o y — o n l i f e i t s e l f , seems even more pr e c a r i o u s . She r e a l i z e s t h a t she no longer has a choice — s h e must "manipulate" others or become a v i c t i m of t h e i r manipulation. M i l l y the romantic i d e a l i s t , who has s e l e c t e d and cherished only the beauty and joy of l i f e , must now come t o g r i p s w i t h l i f e ' s u g l i n e s s and pain. The Bronzino p o r t r a i t occupies the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the c e n t r a l scene of the novel. I t advances p l o t by p l a c i n g Lord Mark and M i l l y i n c l o s e r r e l a t i o n and a l s o prepares the way f o r M i l l y ' s v i s i t t o S i r Luke S t r e t t . The p a i n t i n g and M i l l y ' s r e a c t i o n t o i t r e i n f o r c e the theme of La Mourante who d e s i r e s desperately t o l i v e and whose v e r y wealth and 45 misfortune make her a v i c t i m of the designs of the other persons in v o l v e d i n the drama. F i n a l l y , i t reveals character. Bronzino's subjects are most o f t e n r o y a l personages who have an a i r of d i s t i n c t i o n ; ^ 3 they suggest "an a r i s t o c r a c y a l i k e of the i n t e l l e c t and senses. " ^ Miriam A l l o t t , who has i d e n t i f i e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o r t r a i t , p o i n t s out t h a t "the expressive s t i l l n e s s of the pose suggests s e l f - c o n t r o l a l l i e d t o a c a p a c i t y f o r intense f e e l i n g . M i l l y i s r e g a l and a r i s t o c r a t i c i n her super i o r m a t e r i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a t u s , i n her acceptance of wealth and power, i n her love o f luxury, elegance, refinement. She i s an a r i s t o c r a t i n her pois e , r e s t r a i n t , and observance of form, and, l i k e the Bronzino subject,-she gives evidence of intense f e e l i n g s and an u n d e r l y i n g l a c k of repose which are c a r e f u l l y kept under c o n t r o l by her st r e n g t h of w i l l and power of endurance. When her worst f e a r s become s e t t l e d c o n v i c t i o n s , not through what S i r Luke says but through what he r e f r a i n s from saying, M i l l y begins t o romanticize her doom i n order t o gain courage t o l i v e . She sees h e r s e l f "as one of the c i r c l e of eminent contemporaries, photographed, engraved, signatured, and i n p a r t i c u l a r framed and glazed, who made up the r e s t of the d e c o r a t i o n " - ^ i n S i r Luke's handsome back c o n s u l t i n g room. Once again, as w i t h the Bronzino, there i s the double connotation of death, yet i m m o r t a l i t y through a r t . But i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t M i l l y sees h e r s e l f not as a p o r t r a i t but as a two-dimensional photograph which suggests a f a i l u r e ( despite her longing) t o a c t u a l l y experience l i f e . On v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s M i l l y has had i n t i m a t i o n s of the other side of Kate's "medal," an aspect of which i s the look which M i l l y i n t e r p r e t s as 46 Kate's "other i d e n t i t y , the i d e n t i t y she would have f o r Mr. Densher,"17 but M i l l y has refused t o b e l i e v e t h a t the two are i n love, a l l appearances to t h e contrary.18 M i l l y has wanted, almost from the f i r s t , t o work Merton Densher i n t o her own p i c t u r e , but the s u r p r i s e encounter between M i l l y , Kate, and Densher at the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y c o n c l u s i v e l y p o i n t s t o the f a c t t h a t Kate and Merton are l o v e r s . M i l l y , however, s t i l l i n t e n t on p r e s e r v i n g her i l l u s i o n i n t a c t , refuses t o admit the evidence. She has sought out the g a l l e r y t o b e l a t e d l y absorb some c u l t u r e and more p a r t i c u l a r l y t o f i n d a temporary refuge from her problem. Kate and Merton have entered the g a l l e r y merely seeking l o v e r s ' p r i v a c y i n p u b l i c anonymity. Overhearing an American t o u r i s t comment on something " i n the E n g l i s h s t y l e , " M i l l y t u r n s and sees, not a p a i n t i n g , but Kate w i t h Densher. The sudden sharp encounter d i s c l o s e s an aspect of the character of each which i s r e v e l a t o r y of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l methods of handling a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . Densher i s embarrassed and r e l i e s on Kate t o e x t r i c a t e him from h i s predicament. Kate, whom M i l l y regards as "prodigious," simply "reduces" the s i t u a t i o n t o "easy t e r m s " — t h e y are a l l f r i e n d s ; the meeting i s a pleasant coincidence. M i l l y . . . knew h e r s e l f handled and . . . d e a l t w i t h . . . A minute . . . hadn't elapsed before Kate had somehow made her p r o v i s i o n a l l y take e v e r y t h i n g as n a t u r a l . . . . The handsome g i r l was thus l i t e r a l l y i n c o n t r o l of the scene . . . . 19 M i l l y , who has been c a l l e d a " p r i n c e s s " and t r e a t e d as one by Susan, now assumes the r o l e of the "dove" (an e p i t h e t p r e v i o u s l y bestowed upon her by Kate). With quick p e r c e p t i o n she "takes i n " the s i t u a t i o n and covers her dismay and confusion by adopting the spontaneity of the n a t u r a l 47 American g i r l . Kate had, by a look, asked f o r time, "and the American g i r l could give time as nobody e l s e could. What M i l l y thus gave she t h e r e f o r e made them t a k e — e v e n i f . . . i t was r a t h e r more than they wanted. 1 , 2 0 Kate's a b i l i t y t o "reduce" s i t u a t i o n s t o "easy terms," t o "handle" people i s apparent. She has been "manipulated" by her f a t h e r , s i s t e r , and Aunt Maud, and i t i s not-? evident t h a t she h e r s e l f i s a master i n the a r t of manipulation. Densher's vagueness and w i l l i n g n e s s t o submit t o Kate come i n t o view. M i l l y ' s r o l e i s one of passive r e s i s t a n c e , but, by her mere p a s s i v i t y , by the sheer f o r c e of her w i l l , she w i l l drax-f others i n t o the w h i r l p o o l of her tragedy. This scene forms a l i n k w i t h t h a t which centred around the Bronzino p o r t r a i t and w i t h the scenes i n the Palazzo L e p o r e l l i i n Venice. M i l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Bronzino w i t h i t s suggestion of sadness and m u t a b i l i t y , but she f i n d s h e r s e l f "too weak" f o r the b r i l l i a n c e of the Turners and T i t i a n s , 2 1 and t u r n s from them t o watch the lady c o p y i s t s . L i k e them, M i l l y i s ' unable t o "render" l i f e — s h e can only copy i t , and t h e i r work suggests the escape t o be found i n mere perseverance and detachment. The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , a f t e r a l l , becomes merely a "refuge." I t was the a i r she wanted and the world she would now e x c l u s i v e l y choose; the q u i e t chambers, nobly overwhelming, r i c h but s l i g h t l y v e i l e d , opened out round her and made her p r e s e n t l y say: ' I f I could l o s e myself here!' There were people, people i n p l e n t y , but admirably no personal question. I t was immense, outside, the personal question . . . .22 In Venice M i l l y w i l l again seek out "the qu i e t chambers, nobly overwhelming, r i c h but s l i g h t l y v e i l e d , " and t h i s time she w i l l not go out again t o "the personal question" but w i l l , when the i l l u s i o n breaks down, meet r e a l i t y 45 " f u l l i n the f a c e " w i t h i n her tower. In "the gathering dusk of her personal world" 25 M i l l y seeks refuge i n the Palazzo L e p o r e l l i . 2 4 The romance f o r her would be to. s i t there f o r ever, through a l l her time, as i n a f o r t r e s s ; and the idea became an image of never going down, of remaining a l o f t i n the d i v i n e , d u s t l e s s a i r , where she would hear but the p l a s h of the water against stone. 25 To "go down" can only mean t o face r e a l i t y , and M i l l y again t u r n s her back on the "abyss." I n her need t o preserve the i l l u s i o n . o f l i f e , she surrounds h e r s e l f w i t h beauty and a n t i q u i t y — t h e enduring q u a l i t y o f a r t which she sensed i n the p o r t r a i t s i n the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . But w i t h the advent of Lord Mark w i t h h i s c a l l o u s proposal "the charm turned on them a face t h a t was cold i n i t s beauty, t h a t was f u l l of a poetry never t o be t h e i r ' s , t h a t spoke w i t h an i r o n i c smile of a p o s s i b l e but forbidden l i f e . " 2 ^ M i l l y i s s w i f t l y t r ansported i n memory t o t h e i r moments together before the Bronzino and, i n a sudden f l a s h of i n s i g h t , she r e a l i z e s t h a t "she mightn't l a s t , but her money would. With t h a t there came to her' a l i g h t : wouldn't her value, f o r the man who should marry her, be p r e c i s e l y i n the ravage of her disease?"^7 I t i s i n Book V I I I , Chapter XXVIII t h a t M i l l y makes her l a s t p u b l i c appearance at a p a r t y i n honour of S i r Luke S t r e t t . The ceremony and splendour of the scene suggests t o Susan "a Veronese p i c t u r e , " and she e x u l t s t h a t her " p r i n c e s s " i s "lodged f o r the f i r s t time as she ought, from her type, t o be . . . ." Susan sees h e r s e l f as "the i n e v i t a b l e dwarf, the small blackamoor, put i n t o a corner of the foreground f o r e f f e c t . " 2 8 As u s u a l , she f e e l s h e r s e l f both "dwarfed" by M i l l y ' s h9 magnificence and r e l e g a t e d t o a minor, though s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t corner of M i l l y 1 s p i c t u r e . Laurence Holland has i d e n t i f i e d the p a i n t i n g t o which Susan r e f e r s as "the Supper i n the House of Levi."29 He observes: In Veronese's treatment of the t a l e , a dwarf stands i n the l e f t foreground (placed t h e r e , Veronese informed the I n q u i s i t o r s , 'For ornament as i s u s u a l l y done.') A blackamoor reaches out f o r the b i r d perched on the dwarf's w r i s t , above them on a l a n d i n g of a s t a i r c a s e i n a Venetian palace, i n a s t r i k i n g l y mannered pose, stands a f i g u r e i n green who seems about t o descend the s t a i r s and depart; he a f f o r d s an analogy t o Densher. At dinner, f a r i n the background but centred, i s the doomed and sacred f i g u r e of C h r i s t ; he, and h i s wealthy host, a f f o r d analogies t o Milly.50 Densher wonders "what p a r t there was f o r him w i t h h i s a t t i t u d e t h a t lacked the highest s t y l e , i n a composition i n which everything e l s e would have i t , " but Mrs. Stringham informs him t h a t he w i l l be i n the p i c t u r e . " Y o u ' l l be the grand young man who surpasses a l l the others and holds up h i s head and the wine cup."5^ This second p a i n t i n g t o which Susan a l l u d e s i s , according t o Mr. Holland, "The Marriage Feast at Cana."52 He says: In Veronese's p i c t u r e (the Louvre v e r s i o n , which James knew), a dark-skinned dwarf, w i t h h i s b i r d , stands i n c o n s p i c u o u s l y i n the l e f t foreground of a sumptuous banquet scene. On the r i g h t , h o l d i n g up a wine cup, stands the steward; he i s the f i g u r e Susan a s s o c i a t e s w i t h Densher. Dominating the composition i n the center foreground i s a small group o f musicians, i n c l u d i n g a p o r t r a i t of T i t i a n and a s e l f -p o r t r a i t of Veronese. They draw the eye i n the d i r e c t i o n of the f i g u r e s d i r e c t l y behind, but, i n t h e i r business as performing a r t i s t s , they d i s t r a c t a t t e n t i o n from the others; behind them at dinner, analogous i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o M i l l y , are Mary and Christ.35 The analogies which Mr. Holland notes have l e d c r i t i c s t o regard M i l l y as a C h r i s t f i g u r e ^ — o n e who e n t e r t a i n s , e n riches, gives a l l , only to be r e p a i d by b e t r a y a l and death, but who, by her s a c r i f i c e , brings 50 about Densher 1s s a l v a t i o n . This i s a very tempting and, t o an extent, p l a u s i b l e e x p l anation. Densher may r e a d i l y be i d e n t i f i e d as a " J u d a s " — the " f i g u r e i n green who seems about t o descend the s t a i r s and depart." The apparent m o t i v a t i o n i s the same i n each case—Judas's d e s i r e f o r the t h i r t y pieces of s i l v e r and Densher's f o r M i l l y ' s money. The steward w i t h the wine cup suggests t h a t M i l l y , l i k e C h r i s t , has changed the water of her guests' l i v e s i n t o wine, and Densher, as c h i e f steward, w i l l have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a s t e the best wine which i s reserved t i l l the l a s t ( M i l l y ' s Christmas g i f t ) . "Wine" a l s o c a r r i e s the double connotation of s a c r i f i c e and redemption. M i l l y ' s white robes and the e p i t h e t "the dove" f u r t h e r extend the analogy, and viewed thus, M i l l y becomes a type or m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the Holy S p i r i t . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n might s u f f i c e were i t not f o r James's s t a t e d a i m — t o render l i f e and h i s i n v i t a t i o n i n the Preface t o view both sides of the medal. To f a i l t o do so must, of n e c e s s i t y , r e s u l t i n a one-sided approach t o the problem. We have had i n t i m a t i o n s of the humanity not merely of Kate and Densher, but a l s o of M i l l y . She appears unable t o r e s i s t the " b l i s s " of what she h a s — t h e power of her wealth; she covets the love of Densher, and she i s prepared, i f necessary, t o "manipulate" those around her. This i s evident i n the way she studies "the d o v e l i k e " w i t h "the wisdom of the serpent." M i l l y a d r o i t l y arranges a meeting between Susan and S i r Luke so t h a t her companion may l e a r n from another the f a c t s of M i l l y ' s "case." With a show of spontaneity, M i l l y whisks Kate and Densher home t o luncheon f o l l o w i n g the encounter i n the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y and uses them as a temporary b a r r i e r between h e r s e l f and 51 and Susan's p i t y . She answers Mrs. Lowder's question regarding the r e l a t i o n of Kate and Densher with p e r f e c t honesty, yet r e v e a l s nothing. But when Lord Mark makes h i s c a l l o u s proposal, M i l l y t e l l s him her t r u e c o n d i t i o n because she does not love him and i s p e r f e c t l y aware of h i s r e a l i n t e n t i o n . Thus i t would appear more probable t h a t , i n i n t r o d u c i n g two p a i n t i n g s by Veronese, James i s i m p l y i n g M i l l y ' s d e s i r e t o l i v e , even i f b r i e f l y , i n the Veronese s t y l e — t o enjoy the "ceremony and splendour" w i t h a "frank and joyous worldliness,"55 t o seek temporary refuge i n the i l l u s i o n of h e a l t h and s i m p l i c i t y . This i s s u r e l y M i l l y ' s f i n a l attempt t o experience l i f e . The analogy between M i l l y and C h r i s t may imply not simply b e t r a y a l , martyrdom, s a c r i f i c e , and redemption, but power—the power t o u n i t e and t o d i v i d e . For while i t i s t r u e t h a t M i l l y brings her guests " i n t o r e l a t i o n , " makes them "more f i n e l y g e n i a l , ••56 she i s the f i n a l cause of the great g u l f f i x e d between Kate and Densher. The scene of M i l l y 1 s p a r t y resembles a Veronese p a i n t i n g w i t h the great golden saloon l i g h t e d by myriad candles, the musicians t a k i n g t h e i r p l a c e s , and the guests i n gay a t t i r e moving t o and f r o . M i l l y i s i n the m i d s t — f o r the f i r s t time a l l i n white, her p a l l o r and red h a i r accentuated by the l i g h t s , the p u r i t y of her dress w i t h i t s r i c h l a c e , and her long, l u s t r o u s , double strand of p r i c e l e s s p e a r l s . At the other side of the room, apart from the r e s t , stand Kate and Densher watching M i l l y i n t e n t l y . By the very power of her presence, without t a k i n g a c t i o n of any k i n d , M i l l y draws Kate and Densher t o the edge of the abyss. For the f i r s t time Densher sees M i l l y i n a new l i g h t , and Kate 52 s u f f e r s by comparison. Densher i s impressed by M i l l y ' s beauty and charm, Kate, by her p r i c e l e s s p e a r l s . "'She's a dove,'" Kate murmurs, "'and one somehow doesn't t h i n k of doves as bejewelled. Yet they s u i t her down t o the ground.'"37 Densher a p p l i e s the e p i t h e t t o M i l l y ' s s p i r i t , but he has a sudden i n t u i t i o n t h a t "Kate was . . . e x c e p t i o n a l l y under the impression o f t h a t element of wealth i n her . . . which was a great power, and which was dove-like only so f a r as one remembered th a t doves have wings and wondrous flights."38 M i l l y ' s p e a r l s symbolize the d i f f e r e n c e f o r Kate, and Densher i s p a i n f u l l y aware t h a t she i s t h i n k i n g t h a t p e a r l s are e x a c t l y what he, as a poor j o u r n a l i s t , w i l l never be able t o give her. I t i s at t h i s point t h a t Kate r e v e a l s the f u l l range of her i n t e n t i o n . Since M i l l y can't l i v e , Densher i s t o marry her f o r her money, and they w i l l then " i n the n a t u r a l course be f r e e . " Densher i s unable t o understand how, l o v i n g him, Kate could bear h i s marriage t o M i l l y , but Kate shows h e r s e l f t o be a complete r e a l i s t as she r e p l i e s : n ' I don't l i k e i t , but I'm a person, thank goodness,, who can do what I don't like.'"39 Kate has j u s t made her proposal when M i l l y sends across the room t o them " a l l the candour of her smile."^O Almost immediately Densher e x t o r t s a promise from Kate t h a t she w i l l go t o h i s rooms. Thus M i l l y ' s "occasion," which represents her a f f i r m a t i o n of the w i l l t o l i v e , reaches a sombre climax. By her innocence, r e s t r a i n t , and wealth M i l l y has unconsciously u n i t e d Kate and Densher i n t h e i r p l o t against her. Although Kate i s completely r e a l i s t i c i n her determination t o have both M i l l y ' s money and l a t e r marriage t o Densher, she appears t o be i d e a l i s t i c i n her concern f o r M i l l y . Kate maintains t h a t they must 55 continue t h e i r a c t , f o r i f they destroy M i l l y 1 s i l l u s i o n of Densher's love i t w i l l k i l l her. Yet even t h i s apparent i d e a l i s m creates a f e e l i n g of doubt and uneasiness, f o r i t cannot be denied t h a t Kate seemingly has ever y t h i n g t o gain by d e c e i v i n g M i l l y and very l i t t l e t o l o s e . Kate has "a d i r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y " t o the pleasures of "m a t e r i a l t h i n g s " 4 l — t h e t h i n g s which only Aunt Maud can provide, y e t she i s u n w i l l i n g t o pay the re q u i r e d p r i c e — m a r r i a g e t o Lord Mark, a man she does not love, i n order to g r a t i f y Mrs. Lowder's d e s i r e f o r a t i t l e . Kate i s f u l l y aware t h a t Maud Lowder p r i z e s her p u r e l y as a s o c i a l asset (on the b a s i s of her beauty and charm), while her f a t h e r and s i s t e r Marian value her s o l e l y f o r the monetary b e n e f i t s she can provide through her share of Aunt Maud's wealth. Kate has a l r e a d y declared and proved t h a t she can do what she doesn't l i k e — i f i t appears t o be t o her eventual advantage, but f o r Densher i t i s another matter. He has always p r i d e d h i m s e l f on h i s " i d e a l s t r a i g h t n e s s , " yet now he f i n d s h i s i d e a l i s m i n c o n f l i c t w i t h Kate's r e a l i s m . He loves Kate and i s determined t o remain l o y a l t o her, and he s i n c e r e l y wants t o spare M i l l y p a i n , but he i s u n w i l l i n g t o l i e t o her e i t h e r t o f u r t h e r Kate's p l a n or t o preserve M i l l y ' s i l l u s i o n . Densher t r i e s t o remain " s t r a i g h t " by merely adopting a passive r o l e . He w i l l make no advances but w i l l simply leave a c t i o n t o M i l l y . M i l l y ' s unquestioning acceptance of him and the f a c t t h a t she never makes i t necessary f o r him t o commit h i m s e l f both f a c i l i t a t e s Densher's course and increases h i s u n d e r l y i n g sense o f g u i l t . He r e a l i z e s t h a t by h i s very s i l e n c e he has turned a corner, yet "the f e e l i n g o f how f a r he had gone came back to him not i n repentance, but i n t h i s v e r y v i s i o n of an escape. "42 54 L i k e M i l l y , Densher attempts t o m a i n t a i n h i s i d e a l i s m at a l l c o s t s . He, too, has f l a s h e s of r e c o g n i t i o n when he looks i n t o the abyss of h i s own heart, but these moments o f i n s i g h t are always f o l l o w e d by withdrawal and evasion. The scene of the f i r s t autumn sea storm which c h i l l s and drenches Venice i s set between two c r i s e s . I t i s preceded by M i l l y ' s r e f u s a l t o admit Densher and f o l l o w e d by Densher's sudden unexpected view of Lord Mark. Again James uses "framing" t o give f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o character. As Densher peers through the window of F l o r i a n ' s cafe and glimpses Lord Mark seated at a t a b l e reading the Figaro s i g h t and i n s i g h t merge, and he immediately a s s o c i a t e s M i l l y ' s r e j e c t i o n of him w i t h the man he now regards as a r i v a l . Densher i r o n i c a l l y s h i f t s the blame f o r M i l l y ' s apparent d i s t r e s s t o Lord Mark's shoulders and, w i t h a sense of r e l i e f and escape, he m e n t a l l y accuses Lord Mark of the s t u p i d i t y and c r u e l t y of which he h i m s e l f i s g u i l t y . When Susan Stringham comes w i t h word t h a t M i l l y "has turned her face t o the wall"43 and asks Densher, out of mercy, t o deny h i s engagement t o Kate Oroy, he i s once again saved from a commitment, t h i s time by Susan's r e s t r a i n t , nor does S i r Luke, on h i s a r r i v a l , r e q u i r e a pledge, much t o Densher.' s r e l i e f . But as the gondola bears the great doctor away t o the Palazzo L e p o r e l l i , [DensherJ found himself, as never yet, . . . i n the presence of the t r u t h t h a t was the t r u e s t about M i l l y . . . . I t was a l l i n the a i r as he heard Pasquale's c r y and saw the boat t o d i s a p p e a r — b y the mere v i s i b i l i t y on the spot, of the personage summoned t o her a i d . He had not only never been near the f a c t s of her c o n d i t i o n — w h i c h had been such a b l e s s i n g f o r 55 him; he had not only, w i t h a l l the world, hovered outside an impenetrable r i n g fence, w i t h i n which there reigned a k i n d of expensive vagueness, made up of smiles and s i l e n c e s and b e a u t i f u l f i c t i o n s and p r i c e l e s s arrangements, a l l s t r a i n e d t o breaking; but he had a l s o , w i t h everyone e l s e , as he now f e l t , a c t i v e l y f o s t e r e d suppressions which were i n the d i r e c t i n t e r e s t of everyone's good manner, everyone's p i t y , everyone's r e a l l y q u i t e generous i d e a l . I t was a conspiracy of s i l e n c e . . . t o which no one made an exception, the great smudge of m o r t a l i t y across the p i c t u r e , the shadow of p a i n and horror, f i n d i n g i n no quarter a surface of s p i r i t or of speech t h a t consented t o r e f l e c t i t . 'The mere a e s t h e t i c i n s t i n c t of mankind— While the p r e s e r v a t i o n of form has been necessary and a l l have co n t r i b u t e d t o i t , Densher i s becoming aware th a t M i l l y has been consigned t o a l o n e l y eminence (the p o s i t i o n she f i r s t chose of her own accord i n the A l p s ) . But Densher i s not yet w i l l i n g t o take a clos e l o o k at both s i d e s o f the medal. He admits the " b e a u t i f u l f i c t i o n s , " the ^conspiracy of s i l e n c e , " h i s r e l i e f at not having "been near the f a c t s " of M i l l y ' s " c o n d i t i o n , " but he continues t o regard everyone's behaviour as a " r e a l l y q u i t e generous i d e a l . " He e i t h e r cannot or w i l l not face r e a l i t y — t h e f a c t t h a t everyone has used M i l l y f o r h i s own s e l f i s h ends. A f t e r a f i n a l b r i e f v i s i t w i t h M i l l y at her request (a meeting which James d i s c r e e t l y v e i l s ) , Densher returns t o London, but i t i s a f o r t n i g h t before he c a l l s on Kate. The scenes which f o l l o w show the g u l f widening between them. Densher immediately n o t i c e s a d i f f e r e n c e i n Kate — s h e i s g l i b , and her concern as t o what M i l l y has done f o r Densher i s uppermost. Densher a l s o becomes aware t h a t Mrs. Lowder has used h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h M i l l y t o leave Kate f r e e f o r a b r i l l i a n t marriage. His resentment grows. He r e a l i z e s t h a t t h ere i s a t e r r i b l e d i f f e r e n c e between h i s view of the s i t u a t i o n and Kate's. Kate admits she would have l i e d t o M i l l y , and t h i s , Densher f e e l s , i s but another instance of her tendency 56 t o " s i m p l i f y " f o r her own ends. T h i s i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s i d e a l i s m . He d e c l a r e s : ' I f I had denied you . . . I would have stuck t o i t . . . . I wouldn't have made my d e n i a l , i n such c o n d i t i o n s , only t o take i t back afterwards.' With t h i s q u i c k l y l i g h t came f o r her, and w i t h i t a l s o her c o l o u r flamed. 'Oh, you would have broken w i t h me t o make your d e n i a l a t r u t h ? . . . t o save your conscience?' ' I couldn't have done anything e l s e , ' s a i d Merton Densher. . . . Kate again considered . . . . 'You have f a l l e n i n love w i t h her.'^5 Densher does not deny the charge but merely says t h a t , though she asked nothing, M i l l y wanted the t r u t h . Kate f l a t l y denies t h i s . 'She never wanted the t r u t h . . . . She wanted you. She would have taken from you what you, could give her, and been glad of i t even i f she had known i t f a l s e . You might have l i e d t o her from p i t y , and she have seen you and f e l t you l i e , and y e t — s i n c e i t was a l l f o r the t e n d e r n e s s — s h e would have thanked you and blessed you and clung t o you but the more. For t h a t was your strength, my dear man—that she loves you w i t h passion.' This amounts t o a d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n between i d e a l i s m and r e a l i s m . Time and again Densher has attempted t o take an i d e a l view of h i s motives and a c t i o n s — a view which f r e q u e n t l y does not "square" w i t h r e a l i t y . In h i s e f f o r t t o be p e r f e c t l y " s t r a i g h t , " t o "save h i s own conscience," as Kate puts i t , Densher deeply wrongs both the women who love him. In Venice h i s scr u p l e s l e d him t o r e j e c t the l i e which might have brightened M i l l y ' s l a s t days, and he f e l t p o s i t i v e l y r e l i e v e d t h a t Lord Mark, by h i s " b r u t a l " i n t e r v e n t i o n , should have made h i s own behaviour look r e l a t i v e l y decent. Densher allowed Kate t o "manipulate" h i m — t o lea d him i n t o a course which he knew t o be wrong, yet he t r i e d t o remain m o r a l l y a l o o f from the p l o t by mere p a s s i v i t y . However, he d i d not h e s i t a t e t o exact h i s p r i c e — K a t e ' s honour. Now he i s convinced 57 (or would l i k e t o be), t h a t h i s a c t i o n s are j u s t i f i e d — M i l l y wanted the t r u t h (even though the t r u t h caused her t o "turn her face t o the w a l l " ) . Kate, on the other hand, appears t o have had few i l l u s i o n s about h e r s e l f or others. She never indulges i n s e l f - p i t y , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , or r e c r i m i n a t i o n ; she simply " s i z e s up" the s i t u a t i o n , makes her plans, puts them i n t o e f f e c t , and calmly accepts the outcome. Given M i l l y 1 s r e a c t i o n t o the obvious r e l a t i o n between Kate and Densher at the time of the s u r p r i s e encounter i n the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y and her unquestioning acceptance of Densher's a t t e n t i o n s i n Venice, i t seems quite l i k e l y t h a t Kate's. present estimate of her i s c o r r e c t . Kate and Densher have been u n l i k e from the beginning, and the s t r e s s e s and t e n s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r machinations against M i l l y have g r a d u a l l y increased u n t i l t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s threatened. Densher spends more and more time w i t h Mrs. Lowder because she doesn't know the t r u t h and l e s s and l e s s w i t h Kate because she does_.^7 But when Mrs. Lowder informs him of M i l l y ' s death i n the words: "'Our dear dove . . . has f o l d e d her wonderful wings. . . . Unless i t ' s more t r u e . . . t h a t she has spread them the wider,"48 Densher r e a l i z e s t h a t she, l i k e Kate, i s t h i n k i n g merely i n terms of M i l l y ' s money. In a f i n a l attempt t o mai n t a i n h i s " i d e a l s t r a i g h t n e s s , " Densher suggests an immediate marriage, but Kate i s "immovable," and her reasons s i c k e n him. She wants f i r s t t o be sure of M i l l y ' s money. His horror of her " l u c i d i t y " turns t o "rage," then "to mere c o l d thought. Yet Kate s t i l l e x e r t s a strange power over him. I n t r i b u t e t o her submission t o h i s - w i l l i n Venice and as a f i n a l proof of h i s l o y a l t y , Densher takes her M i l l y ' s l e t t e r ( received on 58 Christmas Eve), w i t h the s e a l s t i l l unbroken. Kate f l i n g s i t , unopened, i n t o the f i r e . I t i s an act of pure jealousy. Kate i s becoming aware of M i l l y ' s i n f l u e n c e over Densher, and she resents her ac c o r d i n g l y . I t i s a l s o probable t h a t Kate i s f a i r l y c e r t a i n of the general purport of the l e t t e r — M i l l y has l e f t her money t o Densher, and i f t h i s i s the case, they need only wait f o r l e g a l c o n f i r m a t i o n . When the second l e t t e r comes, an o f f i c i a l communication from New York, Kate does not h e s i t a t e t o break the s e a l . This foreshadows and i s symbolic of the d e s t r u c t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Densher would have sent the document back " i n t a c t and inviolate,"50 and Kate's act has destroyed the i d e a l beauty of r e n u n c i a t i o n and i r r e p a r a b l y flawed her image i n h i s eyes. In the f i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n between Kate and Densher the problem of s e l e c t i o n becomes uppermost. Densher w i l l marry Kate without the money; he w i l l not marry her w i t h i t ; To do so would c o n s t i t u t e a v i o l a t i o n of M i l l y ' s t r u s t and beauty, of her sacred memory, of h i s own i d e a l i s m . Kate has s a i d : " ' I used t o c a l l her, i n my s t u p i d i t y — f r o m want of anything b e t t e r — a dove. Well she s t r e t c h e d out her wings, and i t was t o t h a t they reached. They cover u s . , n Densher concurs: "'They cover us.'"51 But there i s an i r o n i c immensity of d i f f e r e n c e i n the view taken by Kate and Densher"of M i l l y ' s s h e l t e r i n g wings. For Kate the p r o t e c t i o n w i l l always be seen as m a t e r i a l — t h e p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d by wealth; f o r Densher i t i s s p i r i t u a l — t h e wings have str e t c h e d over them i n love and forg i v e n e s s . M i l l y has seen w i t h l a r g e r other eyes and made allowance f o r them both. 59 Kate knows the t r u t h — M i l l y ' s memory i s Densher's l o v e ; he wants no other. Yet Kate i s s t i l l u n w i l l i n g t o r e l i n q u i s h him—whether from l o v e , or j e a l o u s y , or both. She i s s u e s a f i n a l ultimatum: she w i l l marry Densher i f he w i l l renounce t h i s love. But Densher s t i l l c l i n g s d e s p e r ately t o h i s i d e a l i s m ; he w i l l marry K a t e — " a s they were." He must r e t a i n h i s concept of h i m s e l f as " s t r a i g h t . " Kate, however, i s above a l l a r e a l i s t ; she knows too w e l l t h a t a l l has been f o r e v e r changed by M i l l y ' s g r e a t e r , though passive power. Kate "turned t o the door, and her head-shake was now the end. 'We s h a l l never be again as we were.'' »52 James's medal hangs f r e e — " t h e b r i g h t hard medal, of so strange an a l l o y , one face of which i s somebody 1s r i g h t and ease and the other some-body' s p a i n and wrong."55 As the medal r o t a t e s we see both sides of the case, both sides of each i n d i v i d u a l — t h e strange d u a l i t y of human l i f e . I f we view i m p a r t i a l l y , o b j e c t i v e l y , we must agree t h a t the characters are very r e a l , i n t e n s e l y human. Not one can be c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r an absolute s a i n t or an u n q u a l i f i e d sinner. As Kate p o i n t s out, people "work" people. "The worker i n one connection was the worked i n another . . .'•54 The devoted Susan "uses" M i l l y as a "trophy" t o g a i n admittance t o Maud Lowder's s o c i a l c i r c l e and t o compensate f o r her own "small marriage" which i s i n such c o n t r a s t t o Maud's "great one. 1 1 Her starved P u r i t a n conscience feeds on the romance of M i l l y who s t r i k e s her as a "Byzantine p r i n c e s s . "55 She l i v e s v i c a r i o u s l y i n M i l l y ' s triumphs, yet she s a t i s f i e s her conscience by " g i v i n g up," by " s u f f e r i n g " w i t h M i l l y . Maud Lowder "manipulates" Kate and Densher only t o be deceived and manipulated i n r e t u r n . Yet she i s not e n t i r e l y s e l f i s h , since i n 60 t r y i n g t o arrange a b r i l l i a n t marriage f o r Kate she i s t l i i n k i n g of her niece's welfare as w e l l as her own. Kate has known only "the f a i l u r e of fortune and . . . honour «56 w i t h her f a t h e r and Marian, but Mrs. Lowder knows s o c i a l honour can be bought, and she i s out t o "buy" i t w i t h Kate's beauty and charm. Densher i s a curious mixture of s t r e n g t h and weakness. He wants t o be p e r f e c t l y " s t r a i g h t , " but the road he walks i s more o f t e n "crooked." He s u f f e r s under Kate's manipulation, and he bri n g s s u f f e r i n g t o both M i l l y and Kate. Yet, at the end, the stamp of h i s medal i s f i x e d , h i s value s e t , not by Kate, but by M i l l y , "the l i t t l e American g i r l " whom he f i r s t consented t o e x p l o i t o n ly t o e v e n t u a l l y f i n d her the "dove" whose pervasive i n f l u e n c e changes the e n t i r e course of h i s l i f e . Kate seems unscrupulous i n her deception o f Aunt Maud, her manipulation of Densher, and her e x p l o i t a t i o n of M i l l y , yet she i s "used" by each of them, as w e l l as by her f a t h e r and Marian. She appears t o be the dark lady, "magnificent i n sin,"57 yet when we co n t r a s t her s t r e n g t h of w i l l , p r i d e , and " t a l e n t f o r l i f e " w i t h her s o r d i d background and the wretched f a t h e r and miserable s i s t e r t o whom she r e t u r n s , when we observe the qu i e t d i g n i t y w i t h which she accepts her f i n a l defeat, the " s i n " i s toned down and merges i n t o her background, and she stands f o r t h magnificent i n v i t a l i t y and beauty. Kate has been f a l s e , but she has a l s o been t r u e , and she, perhaps more than any other character, has been able t o face r e a l i t y . M i l l y has been regarded by many c r i t i c s as the l e a s t r e a l i s t i c character i n the novel, perhaps the l e a s t r e a l of a l l James's heroines, yet t h i s judgment of her a r i s e s , I b e l i e v e , from a t o t a l m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a most human q u a l i t y . M i l l y i s not a pu r e l y a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e ; she 61 i s merely i n s c r u t a b l e . She has t o be, both f o r her own p r o t e c t i o n and t o p r o t e c t others from the r e a l i t y they shun. M i l l y i s not pure s p i r i t . She adopts the r o l e of the "dove" and uses "the wisdom of the serpent" t o a t t a i n her ends. I t i s true t h a t she i s e x p l o i t e d , betrayed, s a c r i f i c e d , but M i l l y h e r s e l f i s the most c l e v e r of manipulators. By doing nothing o v e r t l y she draws a l l the characters i n t o the w h i r l p o o l , brings them a l l t o the edge of her abyss i n one way or another. They are a l l necessary t o her i l l u s i o n , and they are "worked" as w e l l as she. M i l l y i s an enigma,58 l i k e l i f e i t s e l f . I t i s impossible t o know whether her posthumous Christmas g i f t t o Densher i s a token of love (as he and Kate b e l i e v e ) , or an act of revenge; whether, i n her p u r i t y of heart, M i l l y f o r g i v e s a l l " a n d attempts t o provide f o r the m a r i t a l b l i s s of Densher and Kate, or whether, w i t h her f i n e l y developed consciousness, she understands Densher b e t t e r than he understands h i m s e l f and knows t h a t her g i f t w i l l d i v i d e the l o v e r s f o r e v e r . Does she r e a l i z e the " i d e a l " i n the " r e a l " by accepting the t r u t h and meeting i t w i t h generosity and forgiveness? or i s she "destroyed" by her c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h r e a l i t y ? When she "turns her face t o the w a l l " does she r e s i g n h e r s e l f t o the "bale" of l i f e ? or does she despair at her l o s s of the " b l i s s " ? We may assume the l a t t e r , but the medal r o t a t e s , and we cannot be sure. James knew t h a t l i f e contains few absolutes, and i n p r e s e n t i n g both sides of h i s characters he renders r e a l i t y — l i f e and humanity as they are—unknown and unknowable. 62 FOOTNOTES ^Henry James, The Wings of the Dove (New York: The Modern L i b r a r y , 1930)> P. x i i i . A l l f u r t h e r references t o t h i s novel w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n . 2 I b i d . , I , 158. 3lbid., p. 118. ^ I b i d . , p. 139. 5lbid., p. l4o. 6 I b i d . , pp. 146, 147. 7lbid., p. 148. ^Joseph J . Firebaugh, "The I d e a l i s m of Merton Densher," U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas Studies i n E n g l i s h , JEXXVII (1958), p. ?The Wings of the Dove, I , 150, 149. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 171. n H e n r y James, "The Wallace C o l l e c t i o n " (1873)» The P a i n t e r 1 s Eye, p. 76. James says of Watteau 1s p a i n t i n g : "What elegance and innocence combined," y e t "so extremely i m p r a c t i c a b l e : a scheme of lounging through endless summer days i n grassy glades i n a company always s e l e c t , . . . i n which s a t i s f a c t i o n should never be s a t i e t y . Watteau was a genuine poet; he has an i r r e s i s t i b l e a i r of b e l i e v i n g i n these v i s i o n a r y p i c n i c s . . . . But oddly enough, the dusky tone of h i s p i c t u r e s deepens t h e i r dramatic charm and gives a c e r t a i n poignancy t o t h e i r u n r e a l i t y . " P.E., PP. 76, 77. l 2 T h e Wings of the Dove, I , 242. The resemblance between M i l l y and the subject of the Bronzino p o r t r a i t i s unmistakable. See the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f her on pp. 118, 132. On p. 118 she i s described as a " s l i m , c o n s t a n t l y p a l e , d e l i c a t e l y haggard, anomalously, agreeably angular young person, of not more than two-and-twenty i n s p i t e of her marks, whose h a i r was somehow e x c e p t i o n a l l y red even f o r the r e a l t h i n g , . . . and whose clo t h e s were remarkably black even f o r robes of mourning . . . ." P. 132 describes her f e a t u r e s i n d e t a i l , and the s i m i l a r i t y i s marked.-?-3Bernard Berenson, I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s of the Renaissance, p. 72. ^ A r t h u r McComb, Agnolo Bronzino: His L i f e and Works (Cambridge, Mass., 1928), p. 9. 65 ^ M i r i a m A l l o t t , "The Bronzino P o r t r a i t i n The Wings of the Dove," Modern Language Notes, LXVIII (January, 1955), P* 24. Miss A l l o t t has. i d e n t i f i e d t h i s p o r t r a i t as t h a t of L u c r e z i a P a n c i a t i c h i i n the U f f i z i G a l l e r y at Florence. She poi n t s out t h a t i t was "painted between 1552. and 154o" and " i s r e p r o d u c e d — u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y — i n the E n c i c l o p e d i a  I t a l i a n a - ( V I I , f a c i n g p. 928, 1950), but i t i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e as a Medici S o c i e t y p r i n t . The pale face of the s i t t e r s t a r e s out of the now dark s e t t i n g — o n c e probably deep green—and confronts the world w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c aloofness of Bron z i n o 1 s a r i s t o c r a t i c s ubjects. . . . The p a l l o r of the face combined with the red h a i r ' r o l l e d back and high,' 'the long neck,' 'the Michaelangelesque squareness,' the 'brocaded and wasted reds' and 'the recorded jewels' makes the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i r r e s i s t i b l e . " ' Miss A l l o t t b e l i e v e s t h a t "James must have looked hard and long at the p o r t r a i t i n the U f f i z i . The phrase 'her recorded jewels' r e v e a l s t h i s . Carved i n t o the longer green 'beads' of the second and l a r g e r necklace worn by Bronzino 1s L u c r e z i a i s the legend 'Amour dure  sans f i n . ' " pp. 24, 25. 16The Wings of the Dove, I , 260. ^ I b i d . , p. 255. 18MiHy has even been informed of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kate and Densher by Kate's s i s t e r , Marian. 1 9The Wings of the Dove, I , 520. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 525. ^ T u r n e r i s noted f o r h i s "pale b r i l l i a n c e of col o u r , " what he termed h i s " t i n t e d steam." Peter and Linda Murray, eds. The D i c t i o n a r y o f A r t  and A r t i s t s (London, 1965), p. 205. The p a i n t i n g s of Titian's e a r l y p e r i o d are noted f o r t h e i r "spontaneous joy of l i f e " i n which there i s "no s i g n of a s t r u g g l e of inner and outer c o n d i t i o n s . " During T i t i a n ' s l a s t t h ree decades he represents man "as a c t i n g on h i s environment and s u f f e r i n g from h i s r e a c t i o n s . He made the faces and f i g u r e s show c l e a r l y what l i f e had done t o them." I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s of the Renaissance, pp. 19, 22. M i l l y , w i t h her consciousness heightened by f e a r and pa i n , would sense the f e e l i n g s expressed i n T i t i a n ' s p i c t u r e s and would t u r n away from both the "exuberant joy," the l i f e without s t r u g g l e , and the suggestion of man "humbled," "broken, " "almost b r u t a l i z e d by p a i n and s u f f e r i n g . " The e a r l y p i c t u r e s would i n t e n s i f y , by con t r a s t , her own misery; the l a t e r works would evoke a t e r r o r of what might l i e ahead. 2 2The Wings o f the Dove, I , 5l4. 25lbid., I I , 175. 64 ^ 4The d e s c r i p t i o n of the Palazzo L e p o r e l l i w i t h i t s "pompous Tiepo l o c e i l i n g , " Gothic windows, and court w i t h outside s t a i r c a s e i s based on James's memory of the Palazzo Barbaro, home of h i s f r i e n d s the Daniel C u r t i s e s whom he v i s i t e d i n Venice i n 1887. The account of h i s v i s i t i s recorded" i n the preface t o The S p o i l s of Poynton i n The A r t of the Novel, pp. 135» 136. V i o l a Hopkins observes: "Perhaps through a s s o c i a t i o n the Veronese images sprang t o mind; according t o a p a i n t i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r i o r of one of the Palazzo Barbaro salons there were at the t u r n of the century two Veroneses—'The Rape of the Sabines 1 and 'The Continence of S c i p i o ' — o n i t s w a l l s . (This p a i n t i n g , which i s i n the Boston Museum of Fine A r t s , i s by Walter A. Gay. Sargent's ' I n t e r i o r of a Palazzo i n Venice' i s of the grand s a l a of the Palazzo Barbaro w i t h i t s representa-t i o n o f f i g u r e s £the Da n i e l C u r t i s e s , t h e i r son and h i s w i f e ] i n i n f o r m a l poses . . . . ) " I t appears t h a t on h i s f i r s t v i s i t t o Venice James was introduced t o Veronese. " V i s u a l A r t Devices and P a r a l l e l s i n the F i c t i o n of Henry James," p. 569. 25The Wings of the Dove, I I , 162. 2 6 I b i d . .. 2 ? I b i d . , p. 164. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 225. 2?See Luke V, 27-35* The Holy B i b l e , King James v e r s i o n , l 6 l l . A l l f u r t h e r references t o The Holy B i b l e w i l l be taken from t h i s v e r s i o n . 30Laurence B. Holland, "The Wings of the Dove," E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y  H i s t o r y , XXVI (December, 1959), p. 560. 51The Wings of the Dove, I I , 225, 226. 3 2See John I I , 1-11, The Holy B i b l e . 53Holland, "The Wings of the Dove," p. 560. 54-Quentin Anderson regards M i l l y as " d i v i n e l o v e " and says t h a t "Merton Densher i s redeemed and r e c o n c i l e d t o the d i v i n i t y . " "Henry James and the New Jerusalem," The Kenyon Review, V I I I (Autumn,-1946), p. 547. Reprinted i n The American Henry James (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1957). F r a n c i s Fergusson s u b s t a n t i a l l y agrees w i t h Mr. Anderson i n "The Golden Bowl R e v i s i t e d , " Sewanee Review, L X I I I (Winter, 1955)> PP» 13^28. Fr e d e r i c k C. Crews, on.the other hand, observes t h a t while " M i l l y i s o c c a s i o n a l l y l i k e n e d t o C h r i s t , . . . James has made no attempt t o draw a c o n s i s t e n t analogy between the two careers." The Tragedy of Manners: Moral Drama i n the Later Novels of Henry James (New Haven, Connecticut, 1957), P. 76. 65 35Be rnard Berenson draws a t t e n t i o n t o Veronese's " s i n g u l a r l y happy combination of ceremony and splendour w i t h an almost c h i l d l i k e naturalness of f e e l i n g . " Berenson says: "His cheerfulness, and h i s f r a n k joyous w o r l d l i n e s s , the q u a l i t i e s . . . which we f i n d i n h i s huge p i c t u r e s of f e a s t s , seem t o have been p a r t i c u l a r l y welcome t o those who were expected to make t h e i r meat and d r i n k of the very opposite q u a l i t i e s " (the monks). He f u r t h e r notes t h a t "there were no p a i n t e r s i n the Worth o f I t a l y , and few even i n Florence, who were not touched by the i n f l u e n c e o f Veronese." I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s of the Renaissance, p. 29. James w r i t e s : "Never was a -p a i n t e r more nobly joyous, never d i d an a r t i s t take a greater d e l i g h t i n l i f e , seeing i t a l l as a k i n d of breezy f e s t i v a l and f e e l i n g i t through the medium o f perpetual success. . . . He was the happiest o f p a i n t e r s and produced the happiest p i c t u r e i n the world ('The Rape of Europa'). . .. . Nowhere e l s e i n a r t i s - s u c h a temperament revealed} never, d i d i n c l i n a t i o n and oppo r t u n i t y combine to express such enjoyment. The mixture o f flowers and gems and brocade, of blooming f l e s h , . . . of youth, h e a l t h , movement, d e s i r e — a l l t h i s i s the b r i g h t e s t v i s i o n t h a t ever descended upon the soul of a p a i n t e r . " James r e f e r s t o "the usual s p l e n d i d combination of brocades, grandees and marble colonnades" i n the 'Feast at the House of L e v i . ' He c a l l s Veronese "the dealer i n s i l v e r hues" who "thrones i n an e t e r n a l morning" and declares t h a t h i s " p a i n t i n g seems . . . t o have proposed t o i t s e l f t o d i s c r e d i t and a n n i h i l a t e . . . everything but the l o v e l i n e s s o f l i f e . " I n h i s a r t "the hard o u t l i n e s melted together and the blank i n t e r v a l s bloomed with.meaning." Comparing the work of T i n t o r e t t o , Veronese, and T i t i a n , James says: "Veronese and T i t i a n are content w i t h a much l o o s e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n . . . .-There are few more suggestive contrasts than t h a t between the absence of a t o t a l character at a l l commensurate w i t h i t s s c a t t e r e d v a r i e t y and b r i l l i a n c y i n Veronese's 'Marriage o f Cana,' at the Louvre, and the poignant, almost s t a r t l i n g , completeness of T i n t o r e t ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the theme at the Salute church." I t a l i a n Hours (London, 1909), PP. 23, 24, 58, 59, 87, 291, 292. The a s s o c i a t i o n of M i l l y w i t h Veronese u n d e r l i n e s the t r a g i c i r o n y i n her intense d e s i r e t o l i v e which i s r e f l e c t e d i n her sp l e n d i d f i n a l p a r t y . M i l l y ' s n aivete i s a k i n t o Veronese's "almost c h i l d l i k e naturalness of f e e l i n g , " the same q u a l i t y which we perceived i n her comparison o f the Matcham r e c e p t i o n t o a Watteau p a i n t i n g . L i k e Veronese, M i l l y d e l i g h t s i n "ceremony and splendour;" she too has the " i n c l i n a t i o n " t o enjoy l i f e , but her "opportunity" i s t r a g i c a l l y l i m i t e d . There i s a great sadness i n the f a c t - t h a t the g i r l who i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the m u t a b i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y of the Bronzino i s now attempting t o preserve the i l l u s i o n o f the beauty and joy of l i f e as seen by "the happiest of p a i n t e r s . " I r o n i c a l l y , she has an abundance of "flowers and gems and brocades," of "youth" and " d e s i r e , " but the "blooming f l e s h " ; — t h e "health" are f o r e v e r denied her. She can only look w i t h l o n g i n g at.the magnificent spectacle o f " l i f e which she i s so soon t o leave. M i l l y would "throne i n an e t e r n a l morning," and she s e l e c t s f o r t h i s one occasion the b e a u t i f u l " s i l v e r h u e s " — t h e white gown and l u s t r o u s p e a r l s i n a f i n a l f u t i l e attempt t o deny the coming shadows and darkness. She i s v a l i a n t l y t r y i n g t o give l i f e meaning, and her b r i e f sojourn i s t o i n f l u e n c e the l i v e s o f a l l her a s s o c i a t e s . James's choice of Veronese's 'Marriage of Cana' r a t h e r than T i n t o r e t t o ' s 66 more powerful p a i n t i n g i s suggestive o f M i l l y * s i n a b i l i t y ( l i k e Veronese), to achieve "a t o t a l c h a r a c t e r " — a complete r e a l i z a t i o n of l i f e "at a l l commensurate" w i t h the "s c a t t e r e d v a r i e t y and b r i l l i a n c y " of the scene before her. ..We are reminded o f M i l l y 1 s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the lady c o p y i s t s at the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y a f t e r she found the T i t i a n s and Turners "too r i c h . " 5*%he Wings of the Dove, I I , 255. 57ibid.f P. 258. 5 f iIbid. 59ibid., P- 247. 4 o I b i d . , P. 250. 4llbid., I , 51. 4 2 I b i d . , I I , , 105. % b i d . , P- 294. ^ I b i d . , P- 525. ^ I b i d . , PP> . 552, 555. ^ i b i d . , P. 554. 47 M r s . Lowder views Densher as M i l l y ' s s t r i c k e n s u i t o r and Densher t a c i t l y acquiesces. 4&rhe Wings of the Dove, I I , 587. 4 ? I b i d . , p. 579. 50ibid., p. 452. 51lbid., p. 458. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 459. 53The A r t of the Novel, p. 145. 54?he Wings of the Dove, I , 198. 55The comparison of M i l l y t o a Byzantine p r i n c e s s suggests not merely her beauty and a r i s t o c r a c y of manner, but Susan's u n r e a l i s t i c , i s o l a t i n g view of her, since Byzantine a r t emphasizes the " d i v i n e " r a t h e r than the 67 "human." There are a l s o connotations of two dimensions, a n g u l a r i t y , and f i x i t y . - M i l l y i s unable t o experience a f u l l y rounded l i f e ; she i s angular i n appearance, and " f i x e d " by her mortal i l l n e s s . 56rhe Wings of the Dove, I , 4. 57Robert Browning, "Pippa Passes," V i c t o r i a n Poetry and P o e t i c s ^ eds. Walter E. Houghton and Robert Stange (Cambridge, Mass., 1959), P' 6^2. 58in the second h a l f of the novel M i l l y i s d e l i b e r a t e l y enigmatic, and her p a s s i v i t y acquires the q u a l i t y of c a l c u l a t i o n . CHAPTER I I I THE VESSEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS In The Golden Bowl James u n r o l l s "the great, b e a u t i f u l , t e r r i b l e s pectacle of human l i f e " ! through the f i n e consciousness of two highly-i n t e l l i g e n t intense p e r c e i v e r s — P r i n c e Amerigo and Maggie Verver. Once again he combines the technique of the p a i n t e r w i t h t h a t of the n o v e l i s t i n rendering the "deeper psychology." This novel marks James's supreme achievement i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of character and the complete r e a l i z a t i o n of the i d e a l i n the r e a l . The s t o r y opens on a scene which i n t e g r a t e s d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i n d i c a t e s r e l a t i o n s , and suggests theme. P r i n c e Amerigo i s seen wandering a i m l e s s l y down London's Bond S t r e e t , o c c a s i o n a l l y stopping before a shop window t o glance abs e n t l y at "objects massive and lumpish, i n s i l v e r and gol d " which speak of "the l o o t of f a r -o f f v i c t o r i e s " 2 of the Roman Empire, then t u r n i n g t o catch a glimpse of a p r e t t y face shaded by a "huge beribboned" hat. At the outset James i n d i c a t e s two elements which are t o i n f l u e n c e the P r i n c e ' s f u t u r e a c t i o n s — w e a l t h and feminine beauty. We l e a r n from Amerigo's musing t h a t he has pursued and won Maggie Verver, a t t r a c t i v e daughter of an American b i l l i o n a i r e , but h i s triumph has l e f t him w i t h a sense of uneasiness, f o r he r e a l i z e s t h a t the romantic Americans value him not f o r h i m s e l f , but f o r h i s t i t l e , h i s s t y l e , h i s dark and mysterious h i s t o r y . Maggie has b l i t h e l y informed him t h a t he i s "a r a r i t y , an object of beauty, an object of p r i c e , " " a b s o l u t e l y unique," " c u r i o u s , " "eminent," i n short, "a morceau 69 de musee" which w i l l be added t o her f a t h e r ' s " c o l l e c t i o n . " 5 The P r i n c e ' s r e s t l e s s n e s s r e f l e c t s h i s sense of the l o s s of d i g n i t y and f r e e d o m — h i s awareness t h a t he i s t o c o n s t i t u t e a mere possession, and the impulse comes over him t o once more a s s e r t h i m s e l f before i t i s too l a t e . Amerigo's motives f o r marrying Maggie are both r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c . He d e s i r e s Adam Verver's money f o r s e l f i s h reasons, but a l s o as a means of escape from a t r a d i t i o n of crime and f o l l y which has centred around power and wealth. To be powerful and wealthy, yet r e f r a i n from arrogance and greed w i l l , he b e l i e v e s , give him a f r e s h s t a r t . A product of the Old World, the P r i n c e i s unable t o understand the apparent innocence and good f a i t h of the New; the motives of Americans seem alarm-i n g l y obscure. Adam Verver's "form" and "tone" leave Amerigo i n doubt, and he perceives t h a t f o r Maggie any serious d i s c u s s i o n of such matters as v e r a c i t y or l o y a l t y are out of the question. He doesn't know e x a c t l y what the Ververs expect of him other than "a l a r g e bland blank assumption o f merits almost beyond n o t a t i o n . . . ." I t was as i f he had been some o l d embossed c o i n , of a p u r i t y of gold no longer used, stamped w i t h g l o r i o u s arms, mediaeval, wonderful, of which the 'worth' i n mere modern change, sovereigns and half-crowns, would be great enough, but as t o which, since there were f i n e r ways of u s i n g i t , such t a k i n g t o pieces was superfluous. . . . he was t o c o n s t i t u t e a possession, yet was t o escape being reduced t o h i s component p a r t s . What would t h i s mean but t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y he was never t o be t r i e d or tested? What would i t mean but t h a t i f they didn' t 'change' him they r e a l l y wouldn't know—he wouldn't know hi m s e l f — h o w many pounds, s h i l l i n g s and pence he had t o give?4 _ From the P r i n c e ' s p o i n t of view the Ververs expect p e r f e c t i o n . He i s t o be pure g o l d — m a l l e a b l e , p r e c i o u s — a wonderful antique w i t h a g l o r i o u s pedigree, but of no p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e as a human being. There i s 70 a sense of s e c u r i t y i n the f a c t t h a t h i s a c t u a l worth i s not l i k e l y t o be questioned, but, on the other hand, h i s t r u e value may remain.forever unknown. Despite h i s " s o l i d prospects," P r i n c e Amerigo has "an impulse t o look the other way—the other way from where h i s pledges had accumulated and he takes a cab t o Oadogan Place t o v i s i t Mrs. Assingham, the " i r o n i c " f r i e n d who, f o r unknown reasons, has "made" h i s marriage. I t i s at Mrs. Assingham's t h a t the P r i n c e meets C h a r l o t t e Stant and f i n d s her as i r r e s i s t i b l e as ever. He saw the sleeves of her jacket drawn t o her w r i s t s , but he again made out the f r e e arms w i t h i n them t o be of the completely rounded, the p o l i s h e d slimness t h a t F l o r e n t i n e s c u l p t o r s i n the great time had loved and of which the apparent firmness i s expressed i n t h e i r o l d s i l v e r and o l d bronze. He knew her narrow hands, he knew her long f i n g e r s and the shape and colour of her f i n g e r - n a i l s , he knew her s p e c i a l beauty of movement and l i n e when she turned her back, and the p e r f e c t working of a l l her main attachments, t h a t of some wonderful f i n i s h e d instrument, something i n t e n t l y made f o r e x h i b i t i o n , f o r a p r i z e . He knew above a l l the e x t r a o r d i n a r y fineness of her f l e x i b l e waist . . . which gave her'a l i k e n e s s t o some long loose s i l k purse, w e l l f i l l e d w i t h gold-pieces, but having been passed empty through a f i n g e r - r i n g t h a t h e l d i t together. I t was as i f , before she turned t o him, he had weighed the whole t h i n g i n h i s open palm and even heard a l i t t l e the chink of the m e t a l . ^ The combination of sexual, f i s c a l , and a r t imagery which Amerigo uses t o describe C h a r l o t t e marks him as passionate, e x c e s s i v e l y preoccupied w i t h wealth, and a connoisseur of works of a r t . But there i s a l s o the suggestion t h a t , l i k e h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , Amerigo regards people as mere objects and values them according t o the degree t o which they g r a t i f y h i s t a s t e f o r the b e a u t i f u l or h i s love of luxury. His comparison of C h a r l o t t e to F l o r e n t i n e s c u l p t u r e of "the great time" (a b e a u t i f u l statue i n " s i l v e r " or "bronze"), . l i k e h i s view of Maggie as of "the cinquecento at i t s most golden hour"? while i n d i c a t i v e o f t a s t e , i s a l s o c o l d and 71 dehumanizing. The P r i n c e ' s a t t i t u d e toward C h a r l o t t e and the Ververs i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Yervers t o himself. I t i s evident t h a t when Amerigo r e f e r s t o C h a r l o t t e as a "purse" "passed empty through the f i n g e r -r i n g , " he i s r e c o g n i z i n g her poverty as the obstacle t o her ever becoming h i s wife. The "purse" i s t o be " w e l l f i l l e d w i t h gold p i e c e s " only through marriage t o Adam Yerver. C h a r l o t t e ' s c a l c u l a t i o n i s apparent i n the d e l i b e r a t e manner i n which she enters the room and c o o l l y l e t s Amerigo "take her i n " before she turns and says: "'You, see you're not r i d of me.'"8 From the beginning she i s prepared, purposeful, pointed. The P r i n c e twice r e f e r s t o her as a "huntress," but "having known many women," he b e l i e v e s t h a t a man i n f a l l i b l y has the advantage, and he r a t h e r b r u t a l l y waits f o r C h a r l o t t e t o show her " a b j e c t i o n . " C h a r l o t t e , however, proves h e r s e l f equal t o the s i t u a t i o n and wins Amerigo's admiration f o r her p o i s e , "amusing t a s t e , " and a b i l i t y t o arrange appearances. Although he regards her merely as "the t w e n t i e t h woman,"9 the P r i n c e i s quick t o adopt C h a r l o t t e ' s "note of p u b l i c i t y as b e t t e r than any other" i f they are t o "put t h e i r r e l a t i o n on the r i g h t f o o t i n g . "10 L a t e r , i n the park, C h a r l o t t e openly d e c l a r e s : tt'I came back f o r t h i s . . . . To have one hour alone w i t h you.'"H "'V/hat I want i s t h a t i t s h a l l always be w i t h y o u — so that y o u ' l l never be able q u i t e to get r i d of i t . . . . ' "12 As E l i z a b e t h Owen p o i n t s out: She has come back e x p r e s s l y t o exact an i n t i m a t e reunion w i t h her l o v e r on the eve of h i s marriage, and the 'always' and 'never able t o get r i d of i t ' . . . imply an i n t e n t i o n t o extend her power r i g h t i n t o the f u t u r e of the marriage. 1? 72 When Amerigo h e s i t a t e s , C h a r l o t t e challenges him: "'Do you want then t o go and t e l l her?'" This makes the P r i n c e f e e l f o o l i s h , and he f a l l s back on "minimising ' f u s s . ' Apparent scruples were ob v i o u s l y f u s s . "14 Ch a r l o t t e at t h i s point gives every i n d i c a t i o n of being an absolute r e a l i s t , and Amerigo's m a l l e a b i l i t y appears t o be t a k i n g the form of her design. The scene i n the l i t t l e antique shop i n Bloomsbury introduces the c e n t r a l symbol of the novel. P l o t i s advanced, the note of the ominous i s deepened, our view of r e l a t i o n s i s sharpened, and Amerigo and Ch a r l o t t e f u r t h e r r e v e a l t h e i r characters through speech and a c t i o n . The couple have entered the shop i n t h e i r search f o r a wedding present f o r Maggie—something w i t h a s p e c i a l "charm," but not too expensive f o r C h a r l o t t e ' s purse. Nothing s u i t s u n t i l the l i t t l e a n t i q u a r i o produces h i s "Golden Bowl"--. . . a d r i n k i n g - v e s s e l l a r g e r than a common cup, yet not of ex o r b i t a n t s i z e , and formed, t o appearance, e i t h e r of o l d f i n e gold or of some m a t e r i a l once r i c h l y g i l t . . . . Simple but s i n g u l a r l y elegant, i t stood on a c i r c u l a r f o o t , a short pedestal w i t h a s l i g h t l y spreading base, and, though not of s i g n a l depth, j u s t i f i e d i t s t i t l e by the charm of i t s shape as w e l l as by the tone of i t s surface. C h a r l o t t e i s immediately taken w i t h the piece and l i f t s i t w i t h care, but the P r i n c e regards i t from a dist a n c e . The conversation which ensues i s among the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n the e n t i r e s t o r y . C h a r l o t t e asks i f the cup i s " r e a l l y g o l d," and the shopkeeper, at Amerigo's i n s i s t e n c e , r e p l i e s : " ' I t ' s j u s t a p e r f e c t c r y s t a l . ' " C h a r l o t t e wonders whether she would f i n d "any j o i n t or any p i e c i n g " i f she were "to scrape o f f the gold." The a n t i q u a r i o answers: "'You couldn't scrape i t o f f — i t has been too w e l l 75 put on . . . by some very f i n e o l d worker and by some b e a u t i f u l o l d process.'" He adds t h a t i t i s a product of "a l o s t a r t " and "a l o s t time." C h a r l o t t e i r o n i c a l l y d e c l a r e s : " ' I t may be cheap f o r what i t i s , but i t w i l l be dear, I'm a f r a i d , f o r me.1" The dealer says he i s w i l l i n g t o p a r t w i t h the bowl f o r l e s s than i t s value, but C h a r l o t t e now suspects t h a t there may be something wrong w i t h i t . At t h i s p o i n t the P r i n c e l o s e s patience and leaves the shop, but C h a r l o t t e s t i l l wants the v e s s e l and resumes her conversation w i t h the shopkeeper who now maintains t h a t he has been savin g the bowl f o r her. 'You've kept i t f o r me because you've thought I mightn't see what's the matter w i t h i t ? ' 'But i f i t ' s something you can't f i n d out i s n ' t t h a t as good as i f i t were nothing?' ' I probably should f i n d out as soon as I had p a i d f o r i t . ' 'Not,' her host l u c i d l y i n s i s t e d , ' i f you hadn't p a i d too much.' 'Does one make a present,' she asked, 'of an object t h a t contains t o one's knowledge a flaw?' 'Well, i f one knows of i t one has only t o mention i t . The good f a i t h , ' t h e man smiled, ' i s always t h e r e . 1 . . . 'Does c r y s t a l then break—when i t i s c r y s t a l ? I thought i t s beauty was-its hardness.' Her f r i e n d , i n h i s way d i s c r i m i n a t e d . ' I t s beauty i s i t s being c r y s t a l . But i t s hardness i s c e r t a i n l y i t s s a f e t y . I t doesn't break . . . l i k e v i l e g l a s s . I t s p l i t s — i f there i s a s p l i t . . . . On l i n e s and by laws of i t s own.1 'You mean i f there's a weak place?' For a l l answer, a f t e r an h e s i t a t i o n , he took the bowl up again, h o l d i n g i t a l o f t and t a p p i n g i t w i t h a key. I t rang w i t h the f i n e s t sweetest sound. 'Where's the weak place?' 'Well, f o r me only the price.- I'm poor, you s e e — v e r y poor.'! 0* With t h i s C h a r l o t t e leaves the shop and r e j o i n s the P r i n c e out i n the s t r e e t . No words pass between them on the matter, but the search f o r Maggie's g i f t i s t a c i t l y abandoned. However, the P r i n c e soon r e v e r t s t o the subject of the bowl i t s e l f . He declares t h a t he saw from the f i r s t 74 t h a t i t had a crack, and he regards the crack as an i l l omen. He would n e i t h e r give, nor accept the v e s s e l as a g i f t ; he would be a f r a i d f o r h i s "happiness," h i s " s a f e t y , " h i s "marriage." C h a r l o t t e r e p l i e s : "'Thank goodness then t h a t i f there be a crack we know i t . ' But i f we may p e r i s h by cracks i n t h i n g s we don't know—.' . . . We can never then give each other anything.' "^ 7 In t h i s scene the P r i n c e d i s p l a y s h i s power f o r r e s i s t a n c e , C h a r l o t t e , her power f o r a c t i o n . Amerigo stands o f f , views from a dis t a n c e , r e t r e a t s , and w a i t s ; C h a r l o t t e approaches, takes up, pursues, p e r s i s t s , and f i n a l l y r e l i n q u i s h e s w i t h r e l u c t a n c e . The P r i n c e i s both an intense p e r c e i v e r and a connoisseur. He q u i c k l y becomes aware of the g i l t and the f l a w , whereas C h a r l o t t e only suspects t h a t the object i s not what i t appears because- o f i t s r e l a t i v e cheapness. Amerigo r e j e c t s the v e s s e l , but even a f t e r she knows of the g i l t and the crack C h a r l o t t e s t i l l considers the bowl " e x q u i s i t e " and continues t o want i t . Her l a c k of p e r c e p t i o n and u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o renounce are t o make her the most vu l n e r a b l e of a l l the p r i n c i p a l c haracters, w h i l e the P r i n c e ' s intense awareness e v e n t u a l l y saves him. A wealth of concepts c l u s t e r around the golden bowl. S u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t i s a mere p l o t device which b r i n g s about a c r i s i s and denouement, but the overtones are almost l i m i t l e s s . As Lotus Snow observes: To C h a r l o t t e , the cup i s a r i c o r d o of her love, indeed of h e r s e l f , some-t h i n g she cannot give the P r i n c e because she i s , as she t e l l s the shop-keeper, 'very poor.' By the same in f e r e n c e , i t i s a l s o the P r i n c e , whose p r i c e , i n the o l d time i n Rome, C h a r l o t t e could not meet. To the P r i n c e , . . . the golden bowl represents h i s contract w i t h the Ververs, whose g i f t he i s from f a t h e r t o daughter; the crack, the b e t r a y a l o f h i s pledge t h a t acceptance of C h a r l o t t e ' s g i f t would mean.^ 8 75 Oscar C a r g i l l regards the P r i n c e ' s r e f u s a l of the golden bowl as a symbolic r e j e c t i o n of C h a r l o t t e h e r s e l f . 19 The symbolism of the cup or bowl reaches i n t o a n t i q u i t y , but space permits me t o c i t e only a few examples. In E c c l e s i a s t e s the "golden bowl" represents l i f e i t s e l f and i t s d e s t r u c t i o n , death. 20 C h r i s t prayed: "'0 my Father, i f i t be p o s s i b l e , l e t t h i s cup pass from me . . . .'"21 s i g n i f y i n g , i n p a r t , a d e s i r e t o escape p h y s i c a l and mental anguish and, i n the words t h a t f o l l o w , a w i l l i n g n e s s f o r s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n . In "The Mental T r a v e l l e r " Blake's "cups of g o l d " again symbolize l i f e — l i f e i n which the p a i n of human experience i s gathered.22 The image recurs throughout James's works w i t h various connotations commencing w i t h h i s f i r s t acknowledged novel, Roderick Hudson (l&75)« Rowland M a l l e t questions Roderick concerning h i s s t a t u e t t e of "a naked youth d r i n k i n g from a gourd." 'Does he represent an idea? Is he a pointed symbol?' 'Why, he's youth, you know; he's innocence, he's strength, he's c u r i o s i t y . ' 'And i s the cup a l s o a symbol?' 'The cup i s knowledge, pleasure, experience.'25 In "The Author o f B e l t r a f f i o " (1884), the cup i s enriched and becomes "a golden bowl." This i s the cup of a r t , "a golden v e s s e l , f i l l e d w i t h the purest d i s t i l l a t i o n of the actual,"24 the v e s s e l i n which l i f e i s held. In The Golden Bowl the v e s s e l loses i t s massiveness and becomes an object of c r y s t a l covered w i t h g i l t . The e a r l i e r connotations of l i f e and a r t are u n i t e d i n a r i c h l y a l l u s i v e image. The golden bowl now suggests r e l a t i o n s and serves as a means t o and a t e s t of perception. The r e a c t i o n s 76 i t evokes r e v e a l i n t e g r i t y or the l a c k of i t . I t c o n s t i t u t e s a love t e s t and, most important, i t p o i n t s up the d i f f e r e n c e between the " r e a l " and the " i d e a l . " C h a r l o t t e i r o n i c a l l y wants t o know the absolute value of the bowl, but the shopkeeper l u c i d l y p o i n t s out t h a t i t s value i s r e l a t i v e t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e i t has f o r i t s possessor. To the one who i s unaware of the flaw the v e s s e l i s p e r f e c t , and even i f he should l e a r n of i t , the object may r e t a i n i t s value i f good f a i t h i s maintained between the g i v e r and the r e c e i v e r . In the scenes which f o l l o w , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t i n which the golden bowl i s broken, f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s come i n t o view, and a d d i t i o n a l meanings accrue t o the bowl. Book I I introduces Adam Verver, reveals aspects of h i s character, and places him i n r e l a t i o n t o the other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the drama. I t soon becomes apparent t h a t h i s r u l i n g passion i s the c o l l e c t i o n of f i n e p i e c e s , but he makes no d i s t i n c t i o n between c o l l e c t i n g objects and c o l l e c t i n g people. He a p p l i e s "the same measure of value t o such d i f f e r e n t p i eces of propert y as o l d P e r s i a n carpets . . . and new human a c q u i s i t i o n s II • • • • He put i n t o h i s one l i t t l e g lass everything he r a i s e d t o h i s l i p s . . . . As i t had served him t o s a t i s f y h i m s e l f . . . both about Amerigo and about the Bernardino L u i n i he had happened t o come t o knowledge of at the time he was consenting t o the announcement of h i s daughter's b e t r o t h a l , so i t served him . . . t o s a t i s f y h i m s e l f about C h a r l o t t e Stant and an e x t r a o r d i n a r y set of o r i e n t a l t i l e s . . . .25 Even Maggie i s regarded as an objet d ' a r t — . . . some s l i m draped 'antique' of V a t i c a n or C a p i t o l i n e h a l l s . . . keeping s t i l l the q u a l i t y , the p e r f e c t f e l i c i t y , of the sta t u e ; the b l u r r e d absent eyes, the smoothed elegant nameless head, the impersonal f l i t of a creature l o s t i n an a l i e n age and passing as an image i n worn r e l i e f round and round a precious vase.26 77 Maggie's f i r s t - b o r n , the l i t t l e P r i n c i p i n o , s t r i k e s h i s fond grandfather not as a d e l i g h t f u l morsel of humanity, but as the f i n e s t of h i s small pieces. Adam Verver's "passion f o r p e r f e c t i o n at any p r i c e " 2 7 threatens t o make him i n d i f f e r e n t t o the humanity of h i s animate a c q u i s i t i o n s , and h i s t a s t e i n a r t heightens t h i s impression. Each of the objects mentioned i s l a c k i n g i n movement, depth, and l i f e . The " L u i n i , " Damascene t i l e s , and "image i n worn r e l i e f " are a l l two-dimensional and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by surface beauty. L u i n i ' s f i g u r e s are "sweet, gent l e , a t t r a c t i v e , " but "boring" i n t h e i r "uneventfulness." "There i s no movement; no hand grasps, no f o o t stands, no f i g u r e o f f e r s r e s i s t a n c e . 1 , 2 8 The Damascene t i l e s suggest splendour and harmony i n t h e i r b e a u t i f u l "amethystine blue," f i x i t y i n t h e i r "glaze," and order i n t h e i r "matched array. ,,29 The f i g u r e passing round and round the vase i s "elegant," "impersonal," and, l i k e the t i l e s , " f i x e d . " I t appears t h a t Adam Verver may wish h i s human objets  d'art t o possess s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s — t o be b e a u t i f u l , d e c o r a t i v e , harmonious, " f i x e d , " t o "be" r a t h e r than "do," t o o f f e r no r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e i r possessor. Yet there i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Adam's preference f o r impersonal, s i m p l i f i e d , g e n e r a l i z e d beauty, f o r beauty which does not demand deep personal involvement (the k i n d of involvement which i s req u i r e d f o r a p p r e c i a t i o n of a p o r t r a i t i n contrast t o the l e s s e r demand made by two-dimensional a r t ) , may represent h i s need f o r detachment from the multitudinous human appeals which continuously impinge upon him. For, we are t o l d , 78 . . . i t had never f o r many minutes together been h i s p o r t i o n not t o f e e l h i m s e l f surrounded and committed, never q u i t e been h i s refreshment t o make out where the many-coloured human appeal, represented by gradations of t i n t , d i m i n i s h i n g concentric zones of i n t e n s i t y , of importunity, r e a l l y faded t o the impersonal whiteness f o r which h i s v i s i o n sometimes ached.30 Thus the P r i n c e f i t s admirably i n t o Adam Verver 1 s p i c t u r e . He simply'-, accepts the b e n e f i t s of h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' s wealth without making any f u r t h e r demands upon him'or d i s t u r b i n g the even tenor of h i s l i f e . While Amerigo s t r i k e s Adam as "a great P a l l a d i a n church" which occupies considerable space i n the l i f e of the Ververs, he does not c o n s t i t u t e "a block." Mr. Verver f e e l s he has no cause t o f e a r the "sharp corners," "hard edges," and "stony pointedness" u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such a s t r u c t u r e . To h i s r e l i e f , Amerigo seems t o present no problem of " f r i c t i o n . " "The P r i n c e , by good fo r t u n e , hadn't proved angular," and t h e i r "contact" i s one o f " p r a c t i c a l l y y i e l d i n g l i n e s and curved surfaces." 'You're round, my boy,' he had s a i d — ' y o u ' r e a l l , you're v a r i o u s l y and i n e x h a u s t i b l y round, when you might . . . have been abominably square. . . . You're a pure and p e r f e c t c r y s t a l . '31 Mr. Verver considers h i m s e l f a connoisseur, p r a c t i c a l l y incapable of e r r o r s , y e t He cared t h a t a work of a r t of p r i c e should 'look l i k e ' the master t o whom i t might perhaps be d e c e i t f u l l y a t t r i b u t e d ; but he had ceased on the whole t o know any matter of the r e s t of l i f e by i t s looks. He took l i f e i n general higher up the stream . . . .32 Does t h i s mean t h a t Adam Verver's t a s t e i n a r t i s questionable, but h i s judgment of people i s sound? Or i s he completely deceived when he considers h i m s e l f a connoisseur of f i n e p i e c e s — a n i m a t e or inanimate? 79 The " L u i n i " i s d e f i n i t e l y i n f e r i o r , but the precious vase i s not. At f i r s t glance i t appears t h a t Adam judges only surface a t t r i b u t e s , yet i t must be remembered t h a t the symmetrical planes of the c r y s t a l are the e x t e r n a l expression of a d e f i n i t e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . The scene of the purchase of the Damascene t i l e s sheds f u r t h e r l i g h t upon the characters of Adam Verver and C h a r l o t t e Stant. For the f i r s t time i n h i s l i f e Adam's whole being i s not devoted t o the undivided a p p r e c i a t i o n of a va l u a b l e objet d'art, since C h a r l o t t e and h i s intended proposal t o her c l a i m a la r g e p o r t i o n of h i s a t t e n t i o n . He has r e a l i s t i c a l l y contemplated t h i s union w i t h the d e l i b e r a t e p l a n of p r o v i d i n g f o r a l l contingencies, i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r Maggie's peace of mind, i n order t h a t she w i l l not f e e l t h a t by marrying the P r i n c e she has deserted her f a t h e r . Yet C h a r l o t t e ' s "free range" of observation, her g a i e t y , l i v e l y c u r i o s i t y , i n t e n s i t y , sense of i r o n y , and above a l l , her apparent concern f o r him now promise t o add a new dimension t o h i s l i f e . Formerly Adam has taken others ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Maggie) about, now i t seems t h a t C h a r l o t t e i s t a k i n g him. The experience i s nove l , f l a t t e r i n g , and Adam's temporary view of h i s s i t u a t i o n i s almost p a t h e t i c a l l y r o m a n t i c — s o much so t h a t the formerly a l o o f connoisseur momentarily f e e l s himself merged i n the clo s e f a m i l y group t o whose admiration and h o s p i t a l i t y C h a r l o t t e f r e e l y responds at the close of h i s t r a n s a c t i o n w i t h Mr. Gutermann-Seuss. Contrary t o custom, Adam has foregone the pleasure of bar g a i n i n g and has unqu e s t i o n i n g l y p a i d a h i g h p r i c e , and h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of Ch a r l o t t e has been enhanced by the "ease" and " f e l i c i t y of s i l e n c e " w i t h which she has witnessed the proceedings. Like Mr. Guterman-Seuss, she impresses Adam by her "rare manner" and her i n s t i n c t i v e knowledge "of 80 what not t o say; »33 l i k e the P r i n c e , she d i s p l a y s p e r f e c t t a s t e and appears t o present no problem of " f r i c t i o n . " But upon r e f l e c t i o n , Mr. Verver r e a l i z e s t h a t he has exposed C h a r l o t t e t o "the n o r t h l i g h t , the qu i t e p r o p e r l y hard business-light,"34 ^ r o m a n t i c a l l y and i d e a l i s t i c a l l y he f e e l s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y attached t o making such a d i s p l a y of h i s wealth before a poor g i r l . Thus h i s o f f e r of marriage appears t o a r i s e from mixed motives, and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t h i s g r a t i t u d e and good f a i t h b l i n d him t o the i r o n i c overtones i n C h a r l o t t e ' s response. Her r e p l y t o Adam's b u s i n e s s - l i k e proposal i s marked by i t " s t r a i g h t n e s s " — a s t r a i g h t n e s s matched by Adam's c l e a r statement o f h i s reasons f o r m a r r y i n g — h e " l i k e s " C h a r l o t t e , and he wants t o make t h i n g s easy f o r Maggie. C h a r l o t t e t e l l s Adam t h a t she t h i n k s i t "a great d e a l " f o r her t o marry h i m — t h a t f o r what she wants she need not do "quite so much." She asks: "'Do you t h i n k you've 'known' me?'" then adds: "'How can you t e l l i f you d i d [know me] you would [ l i k e me]? I mean when i t ' s a question of l e a r n i n g one l e a r n s sometimes too l a t e . ' " "She faced him a l w a y s — k e p t i t up as f o r honesty, and yet at the same time, i n her odd way, as f o r mercy." C h a r l o t t e d e l i b e r a t e l y gives Adam time and doesn't withdraw from h i s view "a s i n g l e i n c h of her surface. This at l e a s t she was f u l l y t o have exposed."35 But there i s a suggestion t h a t Adam may have some i n t i m a t i o n of the depths, f o r C h a r l o t t e impresses him as "oddly c o n s c i e n t i o u s , " and h i s r e p l y : "'You're very, very honourable'"36 may a l s o be i r o n i c . Yet i t appears t h a t regardless of any doubt r a i s e d by C h a r l o t t e ' s "tone" or "look, Adam i s i m p e l l e d by h i s own romanticism and i d e a l i s m and qui t e probably by h i s admiration f o r C h a r l o t t e h e r s e l f . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t even i f he 81 i s aware of her t r u e reason f o r accepting him, he may f e e l t h a t she, l i k e the P r i n c e , i s w e l l worth the p r i c e . How much of the t r u t h Adam perceives i s open t o s p e c u l a t i o n , but C h a r l o t t e i s f u l l y aware t h a t i t i s Maggie, not she, who takes pre-eminence i n Adam's sc a l e of values, and i n accepting her p o s i t i o n she i s completely r e a l i s t i c . I t i s almost c e r t a i n t h a t at the time of the purchase of the Damascene t i l e s C h a r l o t t e counted the cost, saw how l i t t l e the human element mattered t o Adam Verver, recognized the t e r r i b l e c o n t r a s t between the warmth and communion o f the Gutermann-Seuss f a m i l y and the c o l d impersonal a t t i t u d e of the man whose property she might become, and was s t i l l w i l l i n g t o pay the p r i c e i n r e t u r n f o r Adam's wealth. But the motive behind her " s t r a i g h t n e s s " cannot d e f i n i t e l y be e s t a b l i s h e d . She may wish to.be honest, f a i r , m e r c i f u l — t o suggest t o Adam t h a t she i s accepting him w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s , or she may be d e l i b e r a t e l y warning him so t h a t he can have no grounds f o r complaint i f her f u t u r e a c t i o n s d i s p l e a s e him. F i r s t a t the Embassy r e c e p t i o n and l a t e r at the Matcham house p a r t y C h a r l o t t e and Amerigo are placed i n clos e r e l a t i o n . On each occasion the Ververs decide t o remain at home together and urge t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s p o s i t o "do the 'worldly'" f o r them. Amerigo f e e l s a sense of i r r i t a t i o n at the f a l s i t y of h i s p o s i t i o n . I t s t r i k e s him as "grotesque" t h a t a "galantuomo," as he regards himself, can be " t h r u s t , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , w i t h another woman," a woman he happens "exceedingly t o l i k e , " and yet be expected t o "'go about' . . . i n a s t a t e of c h i l d l i k e innocence . . . ." He resents being "held cheap and made l i g h t of"58 f o r h i s wife's 82 convenience. Maggie impresses him as unimaginative and l a c k i n g i n perception. C h a r l o t t e , too, f e e l s the i r o n y and i n j u s t i c e of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the P r i n c e and C h a r l o t t e decide t o prolong t h e i r time together a f t e r the p a r t y has broken up and the others have returned t o London. The scene which f o l l o w s draws the couple even c l o s e r together i n t h e i r sense of c o m p l i c i t y , yet, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t prepares f o r the c r i s i s which i s t o separate them. The P r i n c e i s seen s t r o l l i n g on the t e r r a c e , p l a c i d l y smoking, and d r i n k i n g i n the beauty of the day. As he turns toward the house, he sees C h a r l o t t e at a window dressed t o go out, and her appearance suggests t o Amerigo t h a t she i s prepared t o take "some l a r g e r step" w i t h him. They seem t o have " i d e n t i t i e s of impulse," and the P r i n c e i s now convinced t h a t they are "meant f o r each other." His c e r t a i n t y t h a t he can count on C h a r l o t t e increases h i s confidence. As she comes t o meet him, Amerigo regards h i s freedom . . . as p e r f e c t and rounded and l u s t r o u s as some huge precious p e a r l . He hadn't s t r u g g l e d nor snatched; he was t a k i n g but what had been given him; the p e a r l dropped i t s e l f , w i t h i t s e x q u i s i t e q u a l i t y and r a r i t y , s t r a i g h t i n t o h i s hand. Here p r e c i s e l y i t was, i n c a r n a t e ; i t s s i z e and i t s value grew as Mrs. Verver appeared, a f a r o f f , i n one of the smaller doorways. She came toward him i n s i l e n c e while he moved t o meet her . . . .39 Amerigo takes i n her "long look" and exclaims: " ' I f e e l the day l i k e a great gold cup t h a t we must somehow d r a i n together.'"^O C h a r l o t t e reminds him of the bowl w i t h the crack which he refused t o accept from her, and the P r i n c e i r o n i c a l l y r e p l i e s t h a t he hopes she doesn't mean t h a t t h i s "occasion" i s " a l s o cracked." C h a r l o t t e asks: "'Don't you t h i n k too much of 'cracks' and aren't you too a f r a i d o f them? I r i s k the c r a c k s . ' " Amerigo r e t o r t s : "'Risk them as much as you l i k e f o r y o u r s e l f , but don't r i s k them f o r me.'"4l The P r i n c e i s governed by h i s s u p e r s t i t i o n s , but C h a r l o t t e r e l i e s on her a b i l i t y t o "arrange." While Amerigo has been wishing f o r a day alone together at Gloucester, C h a r l o t t e has "looked up" t r a i n t i m e t a b l e s and chosen the " r i g h t " inn. Amerigo i s i n t e n s e l y aware of the power of h i s charm and pur e l y passive i n the means he employs t o g a i n h i s ends. His view of h i s freedom (embodied i n C h a r l o t t e ) as a p e r f e c t p e a r l i s both u n r e a l i s t i c and suggestive of a dangerous degree of overconfidence. I t i s an absolute viev; which disregards the f a c t t h a t few p e a r l s are both "huge" and " p e r f e c t . " The la r g e p e a r l , l i k e the large freedom, u s u a l l y has a fl a w , and Amerigo has repeatedly shown himself t o have an i n o r d i n a t e f e a r of f l a w s — " c r a c k s " i n an occasion or r e l a t i o n which could t h r e a t e n h i s s e c u r i t y . His de s i r e t o d r a i n the "great gold cup" w i t h C h a r l o t t e i s e q u a l l y i r o n i c , f o r he cannot know how b i t t e r the dregs w i l l be f o r both o f them. C h a r l o t t e , on the other hand, has had t o make her own "l u c k , " and i n t h i s , as i n previous s i t u a t i o n s , she takes the i n i t i a t i v e and shows h e r s e l f t o be prepared, c a l c u l a t i n g , r e s o u r c e f u l . She knows what she wants, and she i s r e a l i s t i c a l l y prepared t o " r i s k the c r a c k s " — take her chances and face the consequences. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Maggie's s e c t i o n opens w i t h her v i s i o n of her s i t u a t i o n as an "o u t l a n d i s h pagoda." This s i t u a t i o n had been occupying f o r months and months the very centre of the garden of her l i f e , but i t had reared i t s e l f there l i k e some strange t a l l tower of i v o r y , or perhaps rather some wonderful b e a u t i f u l 84 but o u t l a n d i s h pagoda, a s t r u c t u r e p l a t e d w i t h hard b r i g h t p o r c e l a i n , coloured and f i g u r e d and adorned at the overhanging eaves w i t h s i l v e r b e l l s t h a t t i n k l e d ever so charmingly when s t i r r e d by chance a i r s . She had walked round and round i t — t h a t was what she f e l t ; she had c a r r i e d on her ex i s t e n c e i n the space l e f t her f o r c i r c u l a t i o n , a space t h a t sometimes seemed ample and sometimes narrow: l o o k i n g up a l l the while at the f a i r s t r u c t u r e t h a t spread i t s e l f so amply and rose so high, but never q u i t e making out as yet where she might have entered had she wished. She hadn't wished t i l l now—such was the odd case; and what was doubtless e q u a l l y odd beside was t h a t though her r a i s e d eyes seemed t o d i s t i n g u i s h p l aces t h a t must serve from w i t h i n , and e s p e c i a l l y f a r a l o f t , as apertures and outlooks, no door appeared t o give access from her convenient garden l e v e l . The great decorated surface had remained c o n s i s t e n t l y impenetrable and inscrutable.42 For some time Maggie has sensed a l a c k of balance and harmony i n a s i t u a t i o n which she i d e a l i s t i c a l l y used t o regard as p e r f e c t — t h e arrangement by which she and her f a t h e r have been able t o marry Amerigo and C h a r l o t t e without g i v i n g up t h e i r o l d r e l a t i o n . Now, however, the s i t u a t i o n has assumed a new, p u z z l i n g , almost f r i g h t e n i n g dimension. Maggie has g r a d u a l l y become aware t h a t the strange s t r u c t u r e which threatens t o usurp too l a r g e a space i n "her garden of l i f e " has been p a r t l y of her own c o n s t r u c t i o n . She has allowed i t t o r i s e t o an alarm-i n g height by r e f u s i n g t o face the f a c t s which might destroy her i l l u s i o n of p e r f e c t i o n . The c a r e f u l observance of "form" by each of the p a r t i e s concerned has created a b e a u t i f u l , but impenetrable surface which Maggie has been content t o admire without experiencing any d e s i r e t o penetrate i t . She has been s a t i s f i e d t o l i s t e n t o the t i n k l i n g s i l v e r b e l l s of the P r i n c e ' s and C h a r l o t t e ' s charming accounts of t h e i r l i t t l e adventures together; the beauty of t h e i r manners and the splendour of t h e i r s o c i a l accomplishments have d e l i g h t e d her, but now t h e i r r e l a t i o n seems vaguely d i s t u r b i n g . Maggie can no longer ignore the strange s t r u c t u r e , and she 85 f i n d s h e r s e l f "pausing," " l i n g e r i n g , " "stepping unprecedentally near," even "knocking" f o r admission. Maggie has, i n short, suddenly r e a l i z e d t h a t her innocence and ignorance, her r e f u s a l t o accept a change i n her r e l a t i o n w i t h her f a t h e r , has made her an o u t s i d e r , and her "tap" amounts t o a request f o r admittance t o Amerigo's l i f e . The f a i n t answering sound i n d i c a t e s t h a t he has heard and taken note. 'The p o i n t of c r i s i s i s reached w i t h the second appearance of the golden bowl. Maggie chances upon i t i n the l i t t l e shop i n Bloomsbury and purchases the v e s s e l at an e x o r b i t a n t p r i c e as a b i r t h d a y g i f t f o r her f a t h e r . Whether moved by conscience, s u p e r s t i t i o n , l i k i n g f o r Maggie, or the sudden r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the bowl i s t o c o n s t i t u t e a g i f t f o r a wealthy and renowned c o l l e c t o r , the a n t i q u a r i o c a l l s t o confess t h a t the object i s not worth the p r i c e p a i d ; i t has a flaw and could b r i n g i l l l u c k t o the r e c i p i e n t . ' During the v i s i t the shopkeeper recognizes the photographs of the P r i n c e and C h a r l o t t e and connects them w i t h the v e s s e l . Maggie i s now confronted by r e a l i t y — t h e ugly t r u t h . Successive f l a s h e s of insight—moments of intense awareness when she has read the meaning of a f l e e t i n g expression on the face of the P r i n c e , C h a r l o t t e , Mrs. Assingham, a l l blend together i n t o f u l l consciousness. The P r i n c e s s has passed from innocence to experience. Her f i r s t thought i s f o r her f a t h e r — t h a t he may be spared the knowledge which has come t o her. Mrs. Assingham i s summoned, and though no word of reproach i s u t t e r e d , Fanny immediately perceives t h a t the P r i n c e s s knows t h a t she has w i t h h e l d the t r u t h concerning the p r e - e x i s t e n t r e l a t i o n of the P r i n c e and 86 C h a r l o t t e . She i s a l s o aware th a t Maggie counts on her t o "see her t h r o u g h " — t o preserve appearances and pr o t e c t Adam Verver. Maggie i n d i c a t e s , as proof of her knowledge, the g i l t cup w i t h i t s crack. Fanny denies the v a l i d i t y of Maggie's s u s p i c i o n s and, w i t h a sudden i n s p i r a t i o n , she l i f t s the golden bowl above her head, pauses t o s i g n i f y her i n t e n t i o n , then dashes i t t o the f l o o r where i t s p l i t s i n t o three pieces. At th a t moment the P r i n c e - e n t e r s . Sight and i n s i g h t merge. Amerigo meets the ,• eyes o f Mrs. Assingham; there i s a " r a p i d p l a y of suppressed appeal and di s g u i s e d response, "44 and the P r i n c e knows t h a t Fanny Assingham has t r i e d t o defend him. With no exp l a n a t i o n of her a c t i o n , Fanny leaves the room, and husband and wife confront each other. Maggie's cup of p a i n and t e r r o r has been f i l l e d t o the brim, but she has not allowed i t t o overflow. F u l l exposure t o the "bale" of l i f e has i n t e n s i f i e d her v i s i o n , but a f t e r the i n i t i a l shock of r e c o g n i t i o n she has maintained the f i n e detachment so necessary f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of "form" and the r e s t o r a t i o n of order and harmony. The r e a l and the i d e a l have come i n t o c o n f l i c t , but i n the moment of f u l l consciousness a balance has been struck. Maggie's love f o r her f a t h e r and her love f o r her husband have s t r u g g l e d w i t h i n her w i t h the former t h r e a t e n i n g t o gain the ascendancy, but now, as she turns t o Amerigo, many impressions combine t o create a strong new bond between husband and wife. Maggie perceives Amerigo's r e c o g n i t i o n of the p o s s i b l e import of the shattered bowl. He s i l e n t l y views the three fragments from across the room, and . the P r i n c e s s , unable t o bear the expression o f p a i n and c o n v i c t i o n on h i s f a ce, stoops i n her r u s t l i n g f i n e r y and jewels and attempts t o gather 87 up the pieces. She can c a r r y but two at a time and has t o r e t u r n f o r "the s o l i d detached f o o t " which she c a r e f u l l y arranges w i t h the others on the mantelshelf. The s p l i t determined by the unseen flaw i s so sharp and p r e c i s e t h a t , i f there had been any means of h o l d i n g the fragments together, the bowl, seen from a short distance, would have appeared p e r f e c t . Maggie's i n a b i l i t y t o look upon the P r i n c e ' s p a i n and embarrassment i s i n d i c a t i v e of her i d e a l i s m which shuns u g l i n e s s — t h e marring of surface p e r f e c t i o n and the d i s r u p t i o n of form. But even more, i t r e v e a l s her compassion, l o v e , and depth of understanding. While she knows the p a i n i s necessary t o a change i n Amerigo's a t t i t u d e , she i s deeply d i s t r e s s e d by her husband's s u f f e r i n g . The P r i n c e ' s s i l e n c e s i g n i f i e s h i s growing awareness of h i s wife's knowledge and the d i f f e r e n c e t h i s must make i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n . Maggie knows t h a t up t o the present her husband has merely "used" and "enjoyed" her; now she senses t h a t he w i l l need her t o guide him out of h i s l a b y r i n t h . By "helping him t o help h i m s e l f " she w i l l "help him t o help her. "45 Herein l i e s her advantage and her hope. The broken bowl s t i l l r e t a i n s i t s e s s e n t i a l value f o r Maggie since i t r e v e a l s the t r u t h , and she now b e l i e v e s t h a t she w i l l no longer need t o "arrange," " a l t e r , " " f a l s i f y , " but simply t o be p e r f e c t l y " s t r a i g h t . " Her " s t r a i g h t n e s s , " however, i s both i d e a l i s t i c and r e a l i s t i c . L i k e t h a t of C h a r l o t t e , i t too may be seen as a weapon. Maggie confronts Amerigo w i t h her knowledge — i n p a r t i c u l a r her knowledge of h i s hours alone w i t h C h a r l o t t e on the eve of t h e i r m a r r i a g e — t h e day he and C h a r l o t t e bought her no g i f t . The 88' P r i n c e q u i e t l y remarks: "'You've never been more sacred t o me than you were at t h a t h o u r — u n l e s s perhaps you've become so at t h i s one.'"46 \<je must ask whether the P r i n c e i s making an a f f i r m a t i o n i n good f a i t h , or merely l y i n g i n sheer bravado. Maggie i s c h i l l e d by h i s "assurance" and "consistency" and p o i n t e d l y d e c l a r e s : 'Oh the t h i n g I've known best of a l l i s t h a t you've never wanted together t o offend us. You've wanted quite i n t e n s e l y not t o , and the precautions you've had t o take f o r i t have been f o r a long time one of the strongest of my impressions.'47 Amerigo p a t i e n t l y hears her out, even r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n q u i r i n g i n t o d e t a i l s so t h a t he may know e x a c t l y where he stands. He s i g n i f i c a n t l y asks the p r i c e of the bowl and wonders whether Maggie w i l l get her money b a c k — a question which i s t o take on a wealth of meaning. However, the P r i n c e i s unable t o name C h a r l o t t e without b r i n g i n g i n Adam Verver, and t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s Maggie's note of safety. Maggie p i t i e s the P r i n c e , but she refuses t o e n l i g h t e n him, and when she f i n d s t h a t C h a r l o t t e i s a l s o bound by the same ignorance the P r i n c e s s suddenly r e a l i z e s t h a t her f a t h e r ' s p l a n and motive may be i d e n t i c a l t o her own. He may already know the s i t u a t i o n , y e t , i n h i s love and i n s c r u t a b i l i t y , he may be s t r i v i n g t o p r o t e c t h i s daughter. With t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , Maggie's course i s u n a l t e r a b l y determined. She turns t o the P r i n c e w i t h words t h a t seem s t r a n g e l y harsh: "'I've t o l d you a l l I intended. Find out the rest—•>" 48 The P r i n c e s s i s f u l l y aware t h a t she must not permit p i t y and love t o deter her from her purpose; she must r e s i s t and endure; above a l l , she must t r u s t t o knowledge and i n s c r u t a b i l i t y t o achieve her i d e a l . In t h i s scene the golden bowl takes on added s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t s 89 primary f u n c t i o n i s t o serve as a t e s t or measure of perception. Mrs. Assingham 1s i n i t i a l r e l u c t a n c e t o touch i t suggests her f e a r of the consequences t o each of them of Maggie's discovery. She i s both r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c when she breaks the bowl i n an e f f o r t t o convince Maggie t h a t i t i s her idea about the P r i n c e and C h a r l o t t e which i s "cracked. " To Amerigo the broken bowl represents the breaking of h i s pledge t o the Ververs, the breach i n r e l a t i o n s , the d e s t r u c t i o n of harmony, the t h r e a t t o h i s s e c u r i t y . Maggie regards the crack as b e t r a y a l . She may see the golden bowl as the P r i n c e j u s t as C h a r l o t t e d i d on an e a r l i e r occasion. He may thus be regarded e i t h e r as the t r e a s u r e t h a t was l e f t f o r Maggie — t h e v e s s e l she b e l i e v e d i n i n s t i n c t i v e l y and f o r which she was w i l l i n g t o pay a h i g h p r i c e , or as the g i f t from her f a t h e r — t h o u g h t by both t o be pure gold, but i n r e a l i t y flawed and possessed of surface beauty only. C h a r l o t t e appears t o her as the cracked cup—"an o f f e r i n g t o a loved parent, a t h i n g of s i n i s t e r meaning and e v i l effect."49 But above a l l , i t i s evident t h a t Maggie regards the golden bowl as her marriage. The two pieces represent h e r s e l f and the P r i n c e , the s o l i d base her f a t h e r , the s p l i t , C h a r l o t t e . But while Maggie recognizes the flaw i n Amerigo and C h a r l o t t e , the golden bowl has helped her t o see her own c u l p a b i l i t y ; her innocence may e q u a l l y be the flaw i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n . With t h i s knowledge, she determines t o r e a l i z e the i d e a l i n the r e a l as her words to Fanny Assingham prove: " ' I want . . . the golden b o w l — a s i t was t o have been. . . . The bowl w i t h a l l our happiness i n i t . The bowl without the crack. '"50 James's consummate s k i l l i n "framing" i s best seen i n the f i f t h : book. P l o t i s advanced, theme underlined, d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n t e g r a t e d 90 w i t h a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and the p r e c i s e v i s u a l impression i s merged w i t h the f e e l i n g t h i s impression evokes. Maggie stands alone on the t e r r a c e observing, through the l i g h t e d window of the smoking-room, the l i v i n g p i c t u r e w i t h i n . The others are p l a y i n g bridge, and as she watches them,the P r i n c e s s i s i n t e n s e l y conscious of her power t o b r i n g b l i s s or bale t o every p a r t i c i p a n t i n the drama. . . . the f a c t s of the s i t u a t i o n were upright f o r her round the green c l o t h and the s i l v e r flambeaux; the f a c t of her f a t h e r ' s wife's l o v e r f a c i n g h i s m i s t r e s s ; the f a c t of her f a t h e r s i t t i n g , a l l unsounded and u n b l i n k i n g , between them; the f a c t of C h a r l o t t e keeping i t up, keeping up everything, across the t a b l e , w i t h her husband beside her; the f a c t of Fanny Assingham, wonderful creature, placed opposite t o the three and knowing more about each, probably, when one came t o t h i n k , than e i t h e r of them knew of e i t h e r . E r e c t above a l l f o r her was the sharp-edged f a c t of the r e l a t i o n of the whole group, i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , t o h e r s e l f — h e r s e l f so s p e c i o u s l y e l i m i n a t e d f o r the hour, but presumably more present t o the a t t e n t i o n of each than the next card t o be played. 51 For the f i r s t time i n her l i f e Maggie knows "the horror of f i n d i n g e v i l seated a l l at i t s ease where she had only dreamed of good; the horror of the t h i n g hideously behind, behind so much t r u s t e d , so much pretended, nobleness, cleverness, tenderness."52 As she paces back and f o r t h around the house, Maggie i s aware of "the secret behind every face, " aware too t h a t before she l e f t the room each p a i r of eyes had mutely appealed t o her t o m a i n t a i n appearances—to p r o t e c t each from a d i s t u r b i n g r e l a t i o n w i t h the others. They expect her t o " s i m p l i f y , " t o take upon h e r s e l f the "complexity of t h e i r p e r i l . " The P r i n c e s s knows t h a t by a mere stroke she can people the scene " e i t h e r w i t h s e r e n i t i e s and d i g n i t i e s and decencies, or w i t h t e r r o r s and shames and r u i n s , t h i n g s as u g l y as those formless fragments of her golden bowl she was t r y i n g so hard t o p i c k up."55 The 91 temptation t o use her power struggles b r i e f l y f o r expression and i s as q u i c k l y renounced. As she again passes before the window, Maggie sees, "as i n a picture," why she had not given i n t o "the v u l g a r heat of her wrong." "The s t r a i g h t v i n d i c t i v e view, the rages of jealousy, the p r o t e s t s of p a s s i o n " — t h e s e were "a range of f e e l i n g " which . . . f i g u r e d nothing nearer t o experience than a w i l d eastern caravan, looming i n t o view w i t h crude colours i n the sun, f i e r c e pipes i n the a i r , h i g h spears against the sky, a l l a t h r i l l , a n a t u r a l j o y t o mingle with, but t u r n i n g o f f short before i t reached her and plunging i n t o other defiles.54 V i o l a Hopkins b e l i e v e s t h i s image deriv e s from James's memory of Decamps's famous 'Arabs Fording a Stream.'55 Maggie, l i k e Decamps, " p a i n t s " "not the t h i n g regarded, but the t h i n g . . . imagined, d e s i r e d — i n some degree or other i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d . " She, too, imparts t o a subject "that f a n c i f u l t u r n which makes i t a p i c t u r e , even at the cost of a c e r t a i n happy compromise w i t h r e a l i t y . " 5 6 While she watches the apparently t r a n q u i l bridge p l a y e r s , Maggie's mind i s occupied w i t h a f i e r c e imaginary s i t u a t i o n i n which, animated by her sense of power, she confronts the defenceless p l a y e r s w i t h her knowledge and causes faces t o t u r n pale and cards t o drop l i m p l y from t h e i r hands. Then, her f u r y turned aside by t h i s r e s o r t t o fantasy, she regains her detachment and s e l f - c o n t r o l . Each time she i s brought face t o face w i t h u g l i n e s s Maggie b r i e f l y t u r n s away and suspends judgment, only t o t u r n again, accept r e a l i t y , and seek a means of a c h i e v i n g the i d e a l . As Maggie decides t o bear the f u l l burden of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , C h a r l o t t e comes i n quest of her through the darkness. L i k e some predatory 92 animal, C h a r l o t t e waits, watches, and times her approach by her v i c t i m ' s show of i n d e c i s i o n and f e a r . She has the advantage, and both of them know i t . Maggie i s again r e s t r a i n e d and on the defensive because of her t e r r o r of what her step-mother may r e v e a l t o her f a t h e r . C h a r l o t t e draws her back t o the l i g h t e d window, and Maggie views the card p l a y e r s from another p e r s p e c t i v e — t h a t of C h a r l o t t e ' s power. Both c l o s e l y observe Adam Verver, but he does not look up. He i s i n s c r u t a b l e . Maggie f e e l s her possession of him"divided and contested." Returning t o the l i g h t e d drawingroom (which Maggie formerly saw as a stage under her d i r e c t i o n ) , C h a r l o t t e puts her q u e s t i o n — s t r a i g h t , as i s her custom. A f t e r a momentary h e s i t a t i o n , Maggie r e a l i z e s t h a t d u p l i c i t y i s a l s o her note of sa f e t y , and she, too, r e s o r t s t o " s t r a i g h t n e s s . " Her calm d e n i a l t h a t she f e e l s h e r s e l f t o have been wronged by C h a r l o t t e i s made e a s i e r by her knowledge t h a t the P r i n c e has l i e d t o h i s m i s t r e s s t o prove h i s l o y a l t y t o h i s wife. Maggie's p e r j u r y i s sealed by C h a r l o t t e ' s k i s s of b e t r a y a l — p a s s i v e l y accepted i n the eyes o f a l l , f o r the others have come i n search of them—Maggie's father: and husband i n the f r o n t . I f Maggie was i n ignorance of how t o p l a y the game of l i f e before, she i s not so now.57 C h a r l o t t e and Amerigo have helped t o expand and i n t e n s i f y her consciousness. The P r i n c e s s has had t o experience the f u l l b i t t e r n e s s , the bale o f l i f e , before she can f u l l y appreciate the b l i s s . The "strange a l l o y " of human l i f e i s revealed i n a l l i t s poignancy i n Book F i f t h , Chapter XV. Framed i n doorways at opposite ends of the long g a l l e r y at Fawns, Adam Verver and Maggie stand i n s i l e n c e watching C h a r l o t t e , halfway down the v i s t a , l e c t u r i n g t o a c l u s t e r of v i s i t o r s who 93 have come to tour the c o l l e c t i o n . Fanny Assingham, "rapt i n devotion," stands on the periphery. C h a r l o t t e i s "almost austere i n the grace of her a u t h o r i t y , " and the group l i s t e n s as q u i e t l y "as i f i t had been a church ablaze w i t h tapers and she were t a k i n g her p a r t i n some hymn of p r a i s e . "58 I n d i c a t i n g an ob.jet d'art, C h a r l o t t e intones: 'The l a r g e s t of the three pieces has the rare p e c u l i a r i t y t h a t the garlands looped round i t , which as you see are the f i n e s t p o s s i b l e vieux  Saxe, aren't of the same o r i g i n or p e r i o d , or even, wonderful as they are, of a t a s t e q u i t e so p e r f e c t . They've been put on at a l a t e r time by a process known through very few examples, and through none so important as t h i s , which i s " r e a l l y q u i t e u n i q u e — s o that though the whole t h i n g i s a l i t t l e baroque i t s value as a specimen i s I b e l i e v e almost inestimable.'59 Mrs. Assingham, who has s t e a d f a s t l y maintained an a t t i t u d e of i n s c r u t a b i l i t y , now looks at Maggie w i t h "a mute appeal." Suddenly the P r i n c e s s turns away t o the window, her eyes b l u r r e d w i t h t e a r s . "The h i g h v o i c e went on; i t s quaver was doubtless f o r conscious ears only, but there were v e r i l y t h i r t y seconds during which i t sounded ... . l i k e the s h r i e k of a soul i n pain."60 Maggie looks at her f a t h e r , and the t e a r s i n h i s eyes confess t o a "sharp i d e n t i t y of emotion." For a s t r a i n e d moment f a t h e r and daughter are held together by t h e i r mutual awareness. " A f t e r which, . . . the shame, the p i t y , the b e t t e r knowledge, the smothered p r o t e s t , the d i v i n e d anguish even, so overcame him t h a t , blushing t o h i s eyes, he turned short away."61 I r o n i c a l l y , C h a r l o t t e appears t o be u n w i t t i n g l y d e l i v e r i n g a l e c t u r e on h e r s e l f and the P r i n c e and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o Adam Verver. Adam may be regarded as "the l a r g e s t of the three p i e c e s " around which C h a r l o t t e and Amerigo (the garlands) are looped. Although f i n e , they are 94 not of the same "perfect t a s t e , " " o r i g i n or p e r i o d . " Both are of another generation; Amerigo i s I t a l i a n , and C h a r l o t t e i s more European than American. They have been "put on" by a marriage which' i s unique, since each has been acquired as a work of a r t . The f a c t t h a t the specimen i s baroque suggests Adam Verver's power by means of which C h a r l o t t e and the P r i n c e have been subordinated t o the dominant element i n h i s l i f e — M a g g i e ' s happiness. The image of the "long s i l k e n h a l t e r " by which Adam Verver c o n t r o l s C h a r l o t t e has l e d many c r i t i c s t o charge him (and James) w i t h callousness or c r u e l t y . ^ 2 While there i s some evidence t o support t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c l o s e r a n a l y s i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s view i s mistaken. On meeting Maggie's eyes, Adam blushes w i t h "shame" and t u r n s away, and there can be l i t t l e doubt but t h a t , given t h e i r f i n e awareness, he and Maggie recognize t h e i r c u l p a b i l i t y . C h a r l o t t e was "bought," presumably f o r Maggie's comfort, and Maggie has seen her own innocence as the f l a w i n the golden bowl. In one o f t h e i r p r i v a t e conversations Adam spoke of t h e i r s e l f i s h n e s s , and t h e unspoken agreement- t o keep C h a r l o t t e i n ' ignorance of her t r u e s i t u a t i o n and eventual f a t e does seem b r u t a l . However, the t e a r s , "shame," " p i t y , " " b e t t e r knowledge," "smothered p r o t e s t , " " d i v i n e d a n g u i s h " — t h e t u r n i n g away may e q u a l l y suggest the f i n e consciousness which i d e a l i s t i c a l l y s h r i n k s from the v i s i o n of the u g l i n e s s and i n e v i t a b l e s u f f e r i n g which C h a r l o t t e has brought upon h e r s e l f . We must remember th a t Amerigo saw her as "a huntress," Mrs. Assingham, as "a B o r g i a , " Maggie, as a beast of prey. C h a r l o t t e has c o n s i s t e n t l y shown h e r s e l f t o be c a l c u l a t i n g , d e c e i t f u l , r u t h l e s s . Most of her l i e s have been " i n t e r e s t e d . " With f u l l 95 comprehension of the t r u e nature of t h e i r innocence and good f a i t h , she took advantage of the Ververs and attempted t o manipulate them f o r her own ends. She has been p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s r u p t i o n of r e l a t i o n s , and, f o r the good of a l l , Adam Verver must keep her under c o n t r o l — m u s t e v e n t u a l l y remove her t o American G i t y . He may and does p i t y C h a r l o t t e , but the r e s t o r a t i o n of balance and harmony depends on h i s a b i l i t y (and Maggie's) t o remain detached and i n s c r u t a b l e . C h a r l o t t e has used her own t a s t e f o r the b e a u t i f u l t o "work" Adam Verver, y e t she has sc r u p u l o u s l y kept her side of the bargain by "doing the 'worldly'," and her attempt t o p r o t e c t the Ververs's innocence may have been, at l e a s t i n p a r t , i d e a l i s t i c . Now, as cicerone, she i s t r u l y magnificent i n her quiet d i g n i t y and observance of form. I n s p i t e of her t e r r o r and despair, C h a r l o t t e maintains appearances and w i l l continue to do so t o the end. The scene of the second c o n f r o n t a t i o n between Maggie and C h a r l o t t e prepares f o r the f i n a l denouement and the complete r e a l i z a t i o n of the i d e a l i n the r e a l . Framing i s again employed t o i n t e g r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . On t h i s occasion the e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n i s reversed. C h a r l o t t e pursued Maggie through the s t a r l e s s n i g h t i n t e n t on i n t i m i d a t i o n and "manipulation;" Maggie goes i n quest of C h a r l o t t e i n b r i g h t s u n l i g h t w i t h a d e s i r e t o b r i n g c o n s o l a t i o n t o the poor tormented creature. Yet the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n i s the same i n each c a s e — f r i g h t , i n d e c i s i o n , and f i n a l l y a desperate attempt on the p a r t of the one "at bay" t o mainta i n appearances at any cost. From her window Maggie sees C h a r l o t t e descend the steps. A c t i n g 96 on impulse, she f o l l o w s the white dress and green p a r a s o l across hot open spaces and down long shady avenues of t r e e s u n t i l the f u g i t i v e f i n a l l y seeks refuge i n an ancient, p i l l a r e d , t e m p l e - l i k e s t r u c t u r e . Approaching s l o w l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y t o give C h a r l o t t e time, Maggie t e n t a t i v e l y holds out the f i r s t volume o f the romance which C h a r l o t t e , i n her a b s t r a c t i o n , has l e f t i n the house, t a k i n g the second by mistake. I t has served as a pretext f o r f o l l o w i n g her stepmother. As they face each other, s i g h t and i n s i g h t merge. The P r i n c e s s watches C h a r l o t t e ' s f e a r subside, change t o s u s p i c i o n , then wonder, then determination. With s w i f t perception, she sees t h a t C h a r l o t t e has chosen t o regard her as "a b j e c t , " and she q u i c k l y adopts the r o l e of supreme a b j e c t i o n . C h a r l o t t e s t i f f e n s h e r s e l f f o r defence or aggression, f l i n g i n g about her the mantle of p r i d e , and Maggie prepares, i f need be, t o "grovel. " C h a r l o t t e grandly r e v e a l s her grievance and her plan—Maggie has come between C h a r l o t t e and her husband; now she i s determined t o f u l l y possess h i m — t o take him back t o American C i t y t o the l i f e she has chosen. Maggie's w a i l of d i s t r e s s , her p l a i n t i v e "'You want t o take my f a t h e r from me?' i s f o l l o w e d by C h a r l o t t e ' s a c c u s a t i o n t h a t Maggie has worked against her. Maggie's studi e d c o n f e s s i o n : "'I've f a i l e d ! ' " marks the p e r f e c t i o n of her dec e i t . She has, indeed, "done a l l . " ° ^ At the cost o f her own d i g n i t y the P r i n c e s s has enabled C h a r l o t t e t o preserve her's. By appearing t o r e s i s t C h a r l o t t e ' s complete possession of Adam Verver Maggie has guaranteed C h a r l o t t e ' s l o y a l t y t o him. Lacking p e r c e p t i o n , C h a r l o t t e has misjudged Maggie's true motive. In her d e s i r e t o be p e r f e c t l y r i g h t she has committed h e r s e l f t o a course of a c t i o n and an a t t i t u d e from which she 97 cannot withdraw. Her triumph i s defeat, j u s t as Maggie's defeat i s triumph, but i n the "strange a l l o y " of human l i f e " b l i s s and b a l e " are fo r e v e r mingled. C h a r l o t t e has gained the luxury and s e c u r i t y her soul craves, but she has l o s t her freedom. She i s e x i l e d t o a country she hates w i t h a man she does not appear t o love. Maggie, i n t u r n , has r e l i n q u i s h e d her beloved f a t h e r t o keep her cherished husband. The great f i n a l scene centres around three p r i c e l e s s o bjets d'art — o n e inanimate, two a n i m a t e — a l l viewed through the eyes of t h e i r c o l l e c t o r . The occasion i s the f i n a l t e a and l e a v e - t a k i n g of Mr. and Mrs. Verver before t h e i r departure f o r American C i t y . The P r i n c e and C h a r l o t t e are seated together at the t e a t a b l e . Adam Verver moves n o i s e l e s s l y about the room i n s p e c t i n g i t s contents f o r the l a s t time. F i n a l l y he stops before a p a i n t i n g — a n e a r l y F l o r e n t i n e sacred subject which he had given Maggie as a wedding g i f t . His daughter j o i n s him; she knows how much he values the p i c t u r e , and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o leave i t w i t h her i s as near as he can come t o l e a v i n g himself. The moment of p a r t i n g i s charged w i t h emotion, but the words spoken have a surface l i g h t n e s s : " ' I t ' s a l l r i g h t , eh?' 'Oh my d e a r — r a t h e r . " Both f a t h e r and daughter r e f e r t o the p i c t u r e , but as they l i n k arms and glance about them t h e i r words take on a deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e i r eyes pass from "sofas," " c h a i r s , " " t a b l e s , " "cabinets" t o the "'important' p i e c e s , " and f i n a l l y come t o r e s t on C h a r l o t t e and Amerigo. The two noble persons seated i n conversation and at t e a f e l l thus i n t o the splendid e f f e c t and the general harmony: Mrs. Verver and the Pr i n c e f a i r l y 'placed' themselves, however u n w i t t i n g l y , as high expressions of the k i n d of human f u r n i t u r e r e q uired a e s t h e t i c a l l y by such a scene. The 98 f u s i o n of t h e i r presence w i t h the decorative elements, t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the triumph of s e l e c t i o n , was complete and admirable; though t o a l i n g e r i n g view . . . they a l s o might have f i g u r e d as concrete a t t e s t a t i o n s of a rare power of purchase.6 6 Adam's "'Le compte y est. You've got some good t h i n g s , ' " and Maggie's "'Ah, don't they look w e l l ? 1 " again have a double connotation and s t r i k e the ear harshly. The impression i s i n t e n s i f i e d w i t h the comparison of the P r i n c e and C h a r l o t t e t o "a p a i r of e f f i g i e s of the contemporary great on one of the platforms of Madame Tussaud."67 Once more i t appears t h a t Adam Verver makes no d i s t i n c t i o n between c o l l e c t i n g objects and c o l l e c t i n g people. Amerigo and C h a r l o t t e c o n t r i b u t e t o the "spl e n d i d e f f e c t and general harmony;" they are the "kind of human f u r n i t u r e " which Adam's a e s t h e t i c sense craves. D i s t u r b i n g echoes from the past remind us t h a t Adam a p p l i e d the same standard of value t o the a c q u i s i t i o n o f the P r i n c e and the Bernardino L u i n i and negotiated f o r the Damascene t i l e s at the same time t h a t he proposed t o C h a r l o t t e . Adam* s passion f o r f i n e pieces i s c a r e f u l l y contained; i t burns deep w i t h i n him, feeding upon the "supreme i d e a , " and i s s u i n g i n the "a p p r o p r i a t i o n " o f p e r f e c t works of a r t , but i t i s not allowed t o spread and destroy the harmony of h i s l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h i s centres around Maggie's welfare. Maggie's mother f a i l e d him by her l a c k of t a s t e , but C h a r l o t t e ' s t a s t e i s e x q u i s i t e and her beauty rare. This appears t o c o n s t i t u t e her value and a l s o Amerigo's. Vftien Adam says of C h a r l o t t e : "'She's b e a u t i f u l , b e a u t i f u l . ' 1 " Maggie recognizes the "note of possession and c o n t r o l . " 6 8 C h a r l o t t e i s not t o be wasted i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of Adam's plan, and t h i s f o r him may w e l l c o n s t i t u t e her "greatness." She p e r f e c t l y f u l f i l l e d her r o l e as cicerone 99 at Fawns, and she w i l l show t o even b e t t e r advantage i n American C i t y . I t i s doubtful whether Adam i s capable of deep a f f e c t i o n , except where Maggie i s concerned. During one of t h e i r conversations Maggie explained: 'My idea i s t h i s , when you only love a l i t t l e you're n a t u r a l l y not jealous — o r are only jealous a l s o a l i t t l e , so th a t i t doesn't matter. But when you love i n a deeper and i n t e n s e r way, then you're i n the ve r y same pr o p o r t i o n j e a l o u s ; your je a l o u s y has i n t e n s i t y and, no doubt, f e r o c i t y . When however you love i n the most abysmal and unutterable way of a l l — w h y then you're beyond everything, and nothing can p u l l you down. 69 Adam ra t h e r sadly r e p l i e s : " ' I guess I've never been jealous.'"70 As "a t a s t e r of l i f e , economically constructed," Adam's passion (apart from h i s love f o r Maggie), has been confined f i r s t t o the a c q u i s i t i o n of wealth, then t o the a c q u i s i t i o n of works o f a r t , of which C h a r l o t t e and Amerigo represent the f i n e s t . In t h i s Adam i s an i d e a l i s t , y e t i n h i s judgment of people he i s a r e a l i s t . He recognized Amerigo f o r the p e r f e c t c r y s t a l which he becomes, and he knows t h a t , given her d e s i r e s and p r o p e n s i t i e s , there can be no other f u t u r e f o r C h a r l o t t e than the one he has marked out. He r e a l i z e s t h a t she and Amerigo have been necessary t o Maggie's f u l l development. Above a l l , he i s f u l l y aware t h a t t h e i r p a r t i n g , the d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r old-time union i s e s s e n t i a l t o Maggie's happiness and the r e s t o r a t i o n of balance and harmony. Adam Verver may be l i m i t e d i n h i s c a p a c i t y f o r deep human a f f e c t i o n , but we cannot be sure. He knows C h a r l o t t e best; he may love her both r e a l i s t i c a l l y and i d e a l i s t i c a l l y i n a way t h a t even Maggie may or may not su s p e c t — h e could not keep h i s eyes from l i g h t i n g when Maggie r e f e r r e d t o C h a r l o t t e as "incomparable. " Adam Verver i s i n s c r u t a b l e , and h i s very i n s c r u t a b i l i t y marks him as i n t e n s e l y i n t e l l i g e n t — b u t a l s o as i n t e n s e l y human. 100 When Maggie exclaims: " ' C h a r l o t t e ' s great'"71 she i s paying t r i b u t e t o her stepmother's courageous and d i g n i f i e d acceptance of her f a t e and observance of "form, " despite her in n e r torment. C h a r l o t t e has accepted r e a l i t y — t h e "bale" of l i f e which i s at present her p o r t i o n , but she i s t r y i n g t o r e a l i z e i n i t the i d e a l . She already r e f e r s t o her " e x i l e " t o American C i t y as her "mission" t o represent "the a r t s and graces t o a people l a n g u i s h i n g a f a r o f f and i n ignorance."72 C h a r l o t t e ' s mixed motives are t e r r i b l y human. She i s a v a r i c i o u s , c a l c u l a t i n g , r u t h l e s s , cunning, yet she i s a l s o magnificent i n her p r i d e , courage, r e t i c e n c e , endurance. She has taken advantage o f the Ververs's good f a i t h , but she has been taken advantage o f i n t u r n , and her p l i g h t i s the most p i t i a b l e s i n c e she i s condemned t o s u f f e r i n complete ignorance. Amerigo, too, has been l e f t t o " f i n d out f o r h i m s e l f " and has l i k e w i s e f a l l e n back on p r i d e and s i l e n c e , but whereas C h a r l o t t e reacted a g g r e s s i v e l y w i t h d u p l i c i t y , the P r i n c e has remained passive and " s t r a i g h t " i n h i s r e l a t i o n w i t h the Ververs. He has asked no f u r t h e r questions, shown no i r r i t a t i o n , allowed no lapse of form, and h i s omissions i n d i c a t e a beauty of i n t e n t i o n . He has spent the months t r y i n g t o " f i n d out" Adam Verver's view of him regardless of how p a i n f u l or di s a s t r o u s such knowledge might prove. The P r i n c e has faced r e a l i t y and yet maintained h i s i d e a l i s m . He has q u i e t l y awaited the issu e of h i s a c t i o n w i t h p e r f e c t t a s t e . Amerigo has not understood the Ververs, and he has wronged them and C h a r l o t t e , but C h a r l o t t e , i t must be remembered, both understood and i n i t i a t e d the deception, and she cheapened h e r s e l f from the beginning by appearing too "easy. " The P r i n c e i s r e p e l l e d by her l a c k of p e r c e p t i o n — 101 her f a i l u r e , even beyond h i s f a i l u r e t o understand Maggie. Now he i s f i n a l l y aware of Maggie's compassion, generosity, comprehension. His f i n a l words: " ' I see nothing but you'"7? would thus seem t o s i g n i f y f u l l consciousness of h i s w i f e ' s t r u e value and h i s deep love and respect f o r her.74 Maggie has been as d e l i b e r a t e and c a l c u l a t i n g i n her deception as C h a r l o t t e , but she has l i e d i n the i n t e r e s t of a higher t r u t h . The cost t o her has been great, but great a l s o has been her reward. She has drained her cup of h u m i l i a t i o n , b i t t e r n e s s , sorrow t o the dregs, but she has a l s o t a s t e d the sweetness of triumph and joy. Maggie has passed from innocence to experience; her v e s s e l of consciousness i s f i l l e d t o o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h the mingled " b l i s s and bale" of l i f e . Above a l l , she has r e a l i z e d the i d e a l i n the r e a l . The P r i n c e s s has found her P r i n c e t o be a creature of f l e s h and blood, not the romantic phantom of her dreams. She has become aware of h i s f l a w and has accepted i t . Yet, through the power of love and understanding, she has a l s o seen the l a t e n t beauty i n the marred v e s s e l and has helped her husband t o achieve complete r e s t o r a t i o n . Maggie now has "the golden b o w l — a s i t was t o have been. . . . The bowl w i t h a l l [ t h e i r ] happiness i n i t . The bowl without the crack." As the a n t i q u a r i o observed, the flaw and the g i l t are r e l a t i v e . The good f a i t h of Amerigo and Maggie has kept the value of the bowl high. The question of p r i c e has been answered—the Ververs have not p a i d too much f o r t h e i r P r i n c e . Three persons, i n t e n s e l y aware, have rendered the bowl (the marriage) b e a u t i f u l . The f i n e p e r c e p t i o n of Adam Verver has c o n s t i t u t e d the s o l i d base upon which Maggie and the P r i n c e have 102 achieved, through t h e i r own f u l l y developed consciousness, a union which r e v e a l s no flaw. The P r i n c i p i n o (the only c h i l d born i n a James no v e l ) , i s the embodiment of the r e a l and the i d e a l . He represents the u n i t e d hopes of Adam, Maggie, and the P r i n c e f o r t h e i r f u t u r e . 103 FOOTNOTES xHenry James, T r a n s a t l a n t i c Sketches, p. 93 • 2Henry James, The Golden Bowl, 2 v o l s . (New York, 1909), I , 3. 3lbid., p. 12. ^ I b i d . , p. 23. 5lbid., p. 20. 6 I b i d . , pp. 46, 47. 7Ibid., p. 13- "Oinquecento" (1500)--a term a p p l i e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o I t a l i a n a r t o f the s i x t e e n t h century, a b r i l l i a n t p e r i o d when the c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l was at i t s height i n I t a l y . I t i s noted f o r such a r t i s t s as Benvenuto C e l l i n i , goldsmith and s c u l p t o r ( c f . h i s "Perseus"), and Michael Angelo who was renowned as much f o r h i s sc u l p t u r e as f o r h i s p a i n t i n g ( c f . h i s "David" and "Moses"). This i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t the P r i n c e tends t o view people i n terms.of c o l d s t a t u a r y r a t h e r than as l i v i n g p o r t r a i t s . 8The Golden Bowl, I , 47. 9 I b i d . , p. 50. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 61. n I b i d . , p. 89. 12lbid., p. 97. 15Elizabeth Owen, "'The Given Appearance' o f Ch a r l o t t e Verver," Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , .XIII (October, I963), p. 369. i^The Golden Bowl, I , 95. ^ I b i d . , p. 112. l 6 I b i d . , pp. 113-117. ^ I b i d . , pp. 119, 120. •^Lotus Snow, "'A Story of Cabinets and Chairs and Tables': Images of M o r a l i t y i n The S p o i l s o f Poynton and The Golden Bowl," E n g l i s h  L i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , XXX (December, 1963), p. 430. 104 l ° 0 s car C a r g i l l , The Novels of Henry James (New York, 1 9 6 l ) , p. 5 9 6 . 2 0 E c c l e s i a s t e s 1 2 : 6 , The Holy B i b l e . "Or ever the s i l v e r cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or t h e , p i t c h e r be broken at the f o u n t a i n , or the wheel broken at the c i s t e r n . " T his verse contains f o u r symbols o f death, and i n the next verse the f a c t of death i s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d : "Then s h a l l the dust r e t u r n t o the e a r t h as i t was . . . ." 2 1Matthew 2 6 : 5 9 , The Holy B i b l e . r 2 2 W i l l i a m Blake, "The Mental T r a v e l l e r , " E n g l i s h Romantic Poetry  and Prose, ed. Russell.Noyes (New York, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 2 2 1 . 25Henry James, Roderick Hudson, I n t r o d . Leon E d e l (New York, i 9 6 0 ) , P. 5 6 . 2^Henry James, "The Author of B e l t r a f f i o , " The Complete Tales of Henry James, V, 5 5 2 . . 25The Golden Bowl, I , 1 9 6 , 1 9 7 . 2 6 I b i d . , p. 1 8 7 . 2 ? I b i d . , p. 146. 2 8 B e m a r d Berenson, The I t a l i a n P a i n t e r s o f the Renaissance, p. 5 0 7 . 29The Golden Bowl, I , 2 1 5 , 5 0 i b i d . , P. 1 2 6 . 5 1 l b i d . , PP 157 , 1 5 8 . 5 2 l b i d . , P. 147. 5 5 i b i d . , P. 2 1 4 . 5 4 l b i d . f P. 2 1 6 . 5 5 i b i d . , PP . 2 1 9 - 2 2 2 . ( I t a l i c s mine) 5 6 i b i d . , P. 2 2 2 . 5 7 i b i d . , P. 5 5 5 . 5 & i b i d . , p. 5 5 5 . 5 9 i b i d . , p. 5 5 8 . 4 0 i b i d . , p. 5 5 9 . 105 4 ! l b i d . , PP 3 5 9 , 3 6 0 . 4 2 I b i d . , I I i 3 , 4. 43Ibid., p. 4. 44Ibid., p. 180. 4 5 i b i d . , p. 187. 4 6 i b i d . , P- 1 9 9 . 4 7 i b i d . , PP . 1 9 9 , 1 2 0 . 4 8 i b i d . , P. 2 0 3 . 4 ? I b i d . , p. 2 2 3 . 5°Ibid., PP 2 1 6 , 2 1 7 . 5 1 i b i d . , p. 2 3 2 . 5 2 i b i d . , p. 2 3 7 . 5 5 i b i d . , p. 2 3 6 . 5 4 i b i d . , PP 2 3 6 , 2 3 7 . 5 5 v i o l a Hopkins, " V i s u a l A r t Devices and P a r a l l e l s i n the F i c t i o n of Henry James," PMLA, LXXVI (December, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 5 7 0 , 5 7 1 . 3^Henry James, The P a i n t e r ' s Eye, p. 7 4 . I n a review of "The Wallace C o l l e c t i o n " ( 1 8 7 3 ) » "James wrote: "Decamps p a i n t s movement t o p e r f e c t i o n ; the animated gorgeousness of h i s famous 'Arabs Fording a Stream' (a most powerful piece of water-colour) i s a c a p i t a l proof. . . . The picturesqueness—we might almost say the g r o t e s q u e n e s s — o f the East no one has rendered l i k e Decamps . . . ." P.E., p. 7 4 . 5 7 j e a j i K i m b a l l f i n d s Maggie "very much a c h i l d , but c r u e l and ins e n s a t e . " Miss K i m b a l l declares t h a t Maggie'.s " l a c k of understanding i s underscored by a repeated image i n the second volume, the image of the card game" i n which she i s unable t o " f o l l o w the moves." She continues: " I f Maggie has an imperfect understanding of the.game of l i f e , then she has serious weaknesses as a witness of the a c t i o n i n which she p a r t i c i p a t e s . " "Henry James's Last P o r t r a i t of a Lady: C h a r l o t t e Stant i n The Golden.Bowl," American L i t e r a t u r e , XXVIII (January, 1 9 5 7 ) , PP. 4 6 3 , 464.- Oscar C a r g i l l . d i s a g r e e s . While he concedes t h a t Maggie i s immature i n Book I , he maintains t h a t "the second h a l f o f The Golden Bowl i s . . . the s t o r y o f her development i n t o maturity." The Novels of Henry James, p. 4o6. 106 5&The golden Bowl, I I , 290. 59ibid., p. 291. 6 o I b i d . , p. 292. 6 l I b i d . ^Foremost among such c r i t i c s i s F. 0. Matthiessen who declares t h a t "James's neglect of the c r u e l t y i n such a cord, s i l k e n though i t be, i s n o t h i n g short of obscene." Henry James: The Major Phase (New York, 1944), p. 100. ^5fhe Golden Bowl, I I , 516. 64 T, . A Ibxd., PP. 517. 518. 65lbid., P. 559. 6 6 I b i d . , P. 560. 67lbid., PP. 560, 561. 6 8 I b i d . , P. 565. % b i d . , P. 262. 70ibid., P. 264. " ^ I b i d . , P. 564. 7 2 I b i d . , P. 557-75ibid., P. 569. "Dorothea Krook b e l i e v e s t h a t Maggie "gains the P r i n c e ' s 'respect' f o r her purposefulness, her shrewdness, her coolness, her s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n . . . . Maggie's s i l e n c e s a t i s f i e s the P r i n c e ' s ' t a s t e ' — d e l i c a c y , r e s t r a i n t , forbearance, a b s t e n t i o n from every k i n d o f tediousness. No reproaches, no r e c r i m i n a t i o n s , no martyred a i r s , no m o r a l i s i n g , no d i s c u s s i o n or a n a l y s i s . . . . P e r f e c t s i l e n c e expressive of p e r f e c t c i v i l i t y , p e r f e c t composure, p e r f e c t good manners." The Ordeal of  Consciousness i n Henry James (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962), p. 270. CONCLUSION Henry James a s p i r e d t o the excellence he found i n Turgenev's p o r t r a i t u r e — f i g u r e s t h a t l i v e and breathe, the union of " i d e a l beauty" w i t h "unsparing r e a l i t y . " L i k e the great Russian master, James sought t o render " p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r u t h , " and he d i d not f a l l short of h i s goal. While many of h i s e a r l y t a l e s show a greater preoccupation w i t h "idea" or " a e s t h e t i c " than w i t h the d e l i n e a t i o n of character, the f i g u r e s of h i s mature work are f u l l y rounded, and we exclaim i n the words he used of Turgenev: " I t i s . l i f e i t s e l f . ' " 1 In order t o achieve t h i s i n t e n s i t y of " f e l t l i f e " James combines the technique of the p a i n t e r w i t h t h a t of the n o v e l i s t . "Framing" and the ob.jet d'art are used i n a r e l a t i v e l y simple and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner i n James's e a r l y work, but i n h i s l a t e r f i c t i o n t h e y are employed w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s u b t l e t y and suggestiveness. Thus, i n "The Madonna of the Future," the blank canvas merely connotes Theobald's excessive i d e a l i s m and wasted l i f e , and even the numerous a l l u s i o n s t o s p e c i f i c a r t i s t s present no d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The t a l e sets f o r t h c l e a r l y and d i r e c t l y the problem of the i d e a l a r t i s t . The t r e a t -ment of a r t i n "The L i a r " i s more complex and suggestive. Instead of a s i n g l e concrete a r t object there are three l i t e r a l p o r t r a i t s , a f i g u r a t i v e p o r t r a i t and sketch, and a scene which c o n s t i t u t e s a l i v i n g p i c t u r e . In contrast t o the simple, almost a l l e g o r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the rather s t a t i c f i g u r e s i n "The Madonna of the Future," the p o r t r a i t s i n t h i s t a l e d e l i n e a t e character more f u l l y and show development by r e v e a l i n g l i f e - l i k e 10$ emotions and d r i v e s . "The L i a r " deals not only w i t h the problem of the a r t i s t , but a l s o w i t h the nature and f u n c t i o n of a r t . In "The Real Thing" James does not employ a l i t e r a l a r t object, but r a t h e r four persons based on a c t u a l i n d i v i d u a l s . Two are mere types, the other two, character The a r t i s t ' s a t t i t u d e t o them r e f l e c t s James's b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y t o "render" not merely "copy" l i f e . Again i t i s the " i d e a " which predominate and there i s consequently l e s s attempt at d e l i n e a t i o n of character. With The Wings of the Dove we move i n t o James's mature phase, and a r t objects and a r t imagery become r i c h l y a l l u s i v e and serve numerous fun c t i o n s (as noted e a r l i e r i n t h i s essay). In t h i s novel James uses a c t u a l p a i n t i n g s by known a r t i s t s t o a i d i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of character, and the emotions which the p o r t r a i t s and scene evoke are perhaps even more r e v e l a t o r y than the connotations p e r t a i n i n g t o the a r t i s t s and t h e i r work. D e s c r i p t i o n i s more i n d i r e c t , and the characters .react t o objets d'art w i t h greater s u b t l e t y and complexity. Thus we may t r a c e M i l l y Theale's growth i n awareness, her v a c i l l a t i n g a t t i t u d e toward r e a l i t y , her. eventual d e c i s i o n t o "manipulate" others i n the i n t e r e s t of s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n , her desperate attempt t o " l i v e , " and her f i n a l defeat or triumph (we cannot be c e r t a i n which), l a r g e l y through her i n t e n s e l y personal views of the Watteau scene, Bronzino p o r t r a i t , T i t i a n s and Turners i n the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , and f i n a l l y the author's a l l u s i o n s to Veronese p a i n t i n g s . A l l the characters " l i v e and breathe," and the i n s c r u t a b i l i t y of M i l l y i s i n t e n s e l y l i f e - l i k e . The Golden Bowl marks the acme of James's s k i l l i n the use of objets d'art t o d e l i n e a t e character. In t h i s novel James draws not only upon the a r t of p a i n t i n g , but a l s o upon sculpture and a r c h i t e c t u r e f o r 109 h i s m a t e r i a l . There i s an increased wealth of meaning proportionate t o the great number and v a r i e t y of a r t o b j e c t s and a r t images which range from the golden c o i n t o the golden bowl i t s e l f . The characters view each other i n terms of works of a r t (to a f a r greater extent than d i d those i n The Wings of the Dove), and r e v e a l aspects of t h e i r own natures w h i l e passing judgment on others. Each f i g u r e i s presented from a number of d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s , and the composite p i c t u r e i s thus wonderfully r i c h and complex. The P r i n c e i s v a r i o u s l y regarded as "a morceau, de musee," an. o l d gold c o i n "embossed w i t h g l o r i o u s arms," "a great P a l l a d i a n church," "a pure and per f e c t c r y s t a l , " and "the golden bowl." C h a r l o t t e i s seen as a "long loose s i l k purse, w e l l f i l l e d w i t h gold p i e c e s , " and a b e a u t i f u l F l o r e n t i n e statue i n s i l v e r or bronze. Maggie c a l l s t o mind a work of "the cinquecento at i t s most golden hour," "some s l i m draped 'antique' of V a t i c a n or C a p i t o l i n e h a l l s , " "an image i n worn r e l i e f p a s s ing round and round a precious vase." Adam Verver the connoisseur s t r i k e s h i s daughter as a great work of a r t . She equates him w i t h an e a r l y F l o r e n t i n e sacred subject. He i s a l s o l i k e n e d t o "the s o l i d detached f o o t " of the golden bowl. Adam views the P r i n c e and C h a r l o t t e i n the same l i g h t as a Bernardino L u i n i and Damascene t i l e s . They a l s o appear as the "garlands" looped around Adam (the l a r g e s t of three pieces i n a baroque objet d ' a r t ) . F i n a l l y , Adam and Maggie see t h e i r s p o s i as " a p a i r of e f f i g i e s of the contemporary great on one of the platforms of Madame Tussaud." Occasions and s i t u a t i o n s appear as a "huge precious p e a r l , " a t a l l i v o r y pagoda, a p a i n t i n g by Decamps, and both Maggie and the P r i n c e view t h e i r marriage as the golden bowl. The connotations are almost endless and r e f l e c t the i n f i n i t e complexity and 110 ambiguity o f human nature and l i f e i t s e l f . Through the use of a r t objects and a r t imagery James creates characters who are unquestionably human—a curio u s mixture o f st r e n g t h and weakness, moral beauty and u g l i n e s s . They s u f f e r and cause s u f f e r i n g while seeking t o p r o t e c t themselves and others from the harsher aspects of r e a l i t y . They d e s i r e t o escape involvement or commitment which could t h r e a t e n t h e i r s e c u r i t y , y e t they cannot or w i l l not r e f r a i n from "manipulating" other p e o p l e — o f t e n f o r t h e i r own personal b e n e f i t . They deceive both t o gain t h e i r own ends and t o s h i e l d others from d i s q u i e t i n g knowledge. With the very best i n t e n t i o n s , the innocent and the l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t f r e q u e n t l y v i o l a t e the freedom of those they are t r y i n g t o help and u n w i t t i n g l y b r i n g tragedy i n t o t h e i r l i v e s . Yet even those who appear most reprehensible i n t h e i r c r u e l or thoughtless i n f l i c t i o n of s u f f e r i n g are o f t e n magnificent i n t h e i r s t r e n g t h o f w i l l , power of endurance, s e l f - c o n t r o l , q u i e t d i g n i t y , poise, t a s t e , observance of form. James's a t t i t u d e toward a r t and l i f e i s one. I t i s h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t both can r e a l i z e the i d e a l i n the r e a l i n the same way—by a c h i e v i n g balance, rhythm, harmony. The a r t i s t of l i f e , l i k e the a r t i s t of the brush or the pen, must be si n c e r e , i n t e l l i g e n t , s u f f i c i e n t l y detached; he must possess a sense of r e a l i t y , a love of beauty, and imagination. I f he i s t o create a tr u e work o f a r t he must l e a r n t o d i s c r i m i n a t e , s e l e c t , compose. Yet he must never f o r g e t t h a t "the province of a r t i s a l l l i f e , a l l f e e l i n g , a l l observation, a l l v i s i o n . . . . i t i s a l l e x p e r i e n c e . " 2 Only the a r t i s t w i t h the f u l l y developed consciousness can achieve a tr u e * f u s i o n of the r e a l and the i d e a l . F u l l consciousness, James a s s e r t s , can only be achieved by complete exposure t o experience w i t h a l l i t s beauty I l l and u g l i n e s s , i t s joy and sorrow, but there must always be a f i n e detachment i f l i f e i s t o become a work of a r t . Intense awareness i s the f i n a l r e s u l t of the "process of v i s i o n " — t h e gradual accumulation of i n d i v i d u a l moments of i n s i g h t . The r e j e c t i o n of knowledge t h a t might prove p a i n f u l , the r e f u s a l t o admit u g l i n e s s l i m i t s the growth of the s e l f and renders the i n d i v i d u a l i n e f f e c t i v e . The one who i s f i n e l y p e rceptive r e a l i z e s t h a t moral judgment, beauty and u g l i n e s s are purely r e l a t i v e ; he knows th a t what one sees depends on what one d e s i r e s t o see and intends t o s e e — t h a t i d e a l beauty can e x i s t o n ly i n the mind of the beholder. Thus he accepts the r e a l and, by the power of the c r e a t i v e imagination, transforms i t i n t o the i d e a l . Mrs. Oapadose, the P r i n c e , Maggie, and Adam Verver are among James's a r t i s t s of l i f e — t h o s e rare i n d i v i d u a l s whose h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e has enabled them t o r e a l i z e t h e " i d e a l " i n the " r e a l . " But we w i l l never know the f u l l reach of t h e i r consciousness, the absolute nature of t h e i r motives, nor can we pass d e f i n i t e judgment on Frank Saltram, M i l l y Theale, Merton Densher, Kate Croy, C h a r l o t t e Stant, f o r , as Joseph Conrad observes: One i s never set at r e s t by Mr. Henry James's novels. His books end as an episode i n l i f e ends. You remain w i t h the sense of the l i f e s t i l l going on; and even the s u b t l e presence of the dead i s f e l t i n t h a t s i l e n c e t h a t comes upon the a r t i s t - c r e a t i o n when the l a s t word has been read. I t i s eminently s a t i s f y i n g , but i t i s never f i n a l . Mr. Henry James, great: a r t i s t and f a i t h f u l h i s t o r i a n , never attempts the impossible.3 112 FOOTNOTES iFrench Poets and N o v e l i s t s , p. 222. 2"The A r t of F i c t i o n , " p. 39. 3 J o seph Conrad, "Henry James: An A p p r e c i a t i o n , " i n h i s Notes on L i f e and L e t t e r s (New York, 1921), p. 19. 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l o t t , Miriam. "The Bronzino P o r t r a i t i n The Wings of the Dove," Modern Language Notes, LXVIII (January, 1955)» 25-25. . "Form versus Substance i n Henry James." Review of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , I I I (January, 1962), 55-66. . "Romola and The Golden Bowl," Notes and Queries, CXOYIII (March, 1955), 124. . "Symbol and Image i n the L a t e r Work of Henry James," Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , I I I ( J u l y , 1955), 521-556. Amaya, Mario. A r t Nouveau. Ed. David Herbert. London, 1966. Anderson, Quentin. The American Henry James. 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