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Chinese education in Malaya : one dimension of the problems of Malayan motherhood Hsu, William Chang Nang 1969

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CHINESE EDUCATION IN MALAYA ONE DIMENSION OF THE PROBLEMS OF MALAYAN NATIONHOOD by WILLIAM HSU CHANG NANG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Western A u s t r a l i a , 1962 Dip. E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f Sydney, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l , BRITISH COLUMBIA 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT I n 195 7 Malaya a c h i e v e d h e r Independence from the B r i t i s h . T h i s was a t r i u m p h o f r a c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The new Malayan n a t i o n i s above a l l an e x p e r i m e n t i n c o n t i n u i n g r a c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n . I t i n v o l v e s t h e coming t o g e t h e r o f p e o p l e s o f d i v e r s e l a n g u a g e s , r e l i g i o n s , customs, v a l u e systems — i n a word, o f d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s — i n an e f f o r t t o master t h e i r f u t u r e . The exp e r i m e n t i s b e s e t w i t h problems w h i c h the i n t e r a c t i o n o f d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s beyond a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l i s bound t o c r e a t e , and i t c o n s i s t s i n e f f o r t s t o r e s o l v e o r a t l e a s t t o m i n i m i s e c o n f l i c t and t o form new r e l a t i o n s . The b a s i c problems i n t h e ex p e r i m e n t are how t o r e s o l v e o r m i n i m i z e c o n f l i c t and what new r e l a t i o n s t o form. T h i s e x e r c i s e s t u d i e s one d i m e n s i o n o f t h e problems o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , namely, C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . Because e d u c a t i o n i s c l o s e l y bound up w i t h language and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , i t throws up the f u l l c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e problems o f the expe r i m e n t and o f f e r s a r e w a r d i n g s t u d y o f t h e n a t u r e , t h a t i s , the-how-and-the-what, o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i s here t a k e n t o mean e d u c a t i o n i n t h e Ch i n e s e language r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i o n o f the Chinese p e o p l e i n Mala y a . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e most Chinese i n Malaya have been e d u c a t e d i n t h e Chi n e s e l a n g u a g e , t h e r e have been many C h i n e s e who have been p r e d o m i n a n t l y o r e n t i r e l y E n g l i s h -e d u c a t e d . T h i s d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t o f the s t u d y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h a t t h e problem o f Malayan u n i t y i s l i m i t e d t o the C h i n e s e whose e d u c a t i o n has been i n t h e Chi n e s e l a n g u a g e , a l t h o u g h between t h e C h i n e s e - e d u c a t e d and t h e E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d t h e p r o b l e m may be d i f f e r e n t . However, e d u c a t i o n i n t h e C h i n e s e language has p r e s e n t e d an a c u t e problem i n e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e a Malayan u n i t y , and i t w e l l d e s e r v e s a c l o s e s t u d y . The s t u d y c o v e r s t h e p e r i o d m a i n l y from 1946 t o 1962 when Ch i n e s e e d u c a t i o n f i r s t became an a c u t e problem f o r Malayan u n i t y and when a Malayan n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n system i n t o w h i c h C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n was t o be i n t e g r a t e d c o u l d be s a i d t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d . However, the r o o t s o f t h e problem had been p l a n t e d l o n g b e f o r e the P a c i f i c War, and t h e s e have been r e c o u n t e d i n some d e t a i l so as t o e x p l a i n the e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r e o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya b e f o r e i t was c a l l e d upon t o adapt i t s e l f t o change. F o r t h i s purpose Malaya i n t h i s s t u d y c o v e r s the a r e a f o r m e r l y known as B r i t i s h M a l a y a , c o m p r i s i n g t h e Malay S t a t e s and t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g S i n g a p o r e , u n t i l t h e l a t t e r was made i n t o a s e p a r a t e c o l o n y a f t e r W orld War I I , a f t e r w h i c h t h e term r e f e r s t o what was t o become t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a . The c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a were s e g r e g a t e d s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y from t h e g r e a t e r s o c i e t y , and t h e C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m w i t h w h i c h Chinese s c h o o l s i n M alaya had been s a t u r a t e d and w h i c h s t r o n g l y drew th e C h i n e s e i n Malaya towards C h i n a , have been t r e a t e d as t w i n r o o t s o f t h e problem o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y . T h i s was a c u l t u r a l - p o l i t i c a l p roblem w h i c h , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f post-war Malaya i n w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h were r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e i r r u l e , s e v e r e l y t e s t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e Malayans t o c o o p e r a t e i n o r d e r t o master t h e i r d e s t i n y . The B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i v a u t h o r i t i e s had f a i l e d t o overcome i t because t h e y were o b l i g e d , by t h e i r commitment t o t h e M a l a y s , t o approach Malayan u n i t y t h r o u g h a d i v i s i o n o f t h e problem. The P a c i f i c War, t h e p a s s i n g o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s m , and t h e r i s e o f Communist C h i n a have been f a c t o r s e n c o u r a g i n g t h e C h i n e s e towards a c q u i r i n g a l o c a l i d e n t i t y , w h i l e the advent o f independence, t h e rough b a l a n c e o f f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e Malayan p o l i t y , and t h e moderate and e n l i g h t e n e d l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n o f Malayan n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s , have made f o r r a c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n on the b a s i s o f a compromise of the c l a i m s o f t h e v a r i o u s communities. T h i s c o o p e r a t i o n has been d i c t a t e d by n e c e s s i t y r a t h e r t h a n by c h o i c e , and i t has been reached o n l y a f t e r h a r d b a r g a i n i n g between t h e Malays and t h e C h i n e s e . The whole gamut o f t h e p r o c e s s o f t h i s b a r g a i n i n g and t h e need f o r compromise are b r o u g h t i n t o p l a y i n t h e e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h would r e s o l v e t h e problem o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . The s o l u t i o n o f t h e problem o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n so f a r has i n d i c a t e d t h a t a complete a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the Chinese i n t o Malay ways can o n l y be a d i s t a n t g o a l . The s h o r t - t e r m p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the Government's e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y have been d i r e c t e d towards h a s t e n i n g t h e growth o f Malay economic s t r e n g t h and d e l a y i n g the d i l u t i o n o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power. T h i s i s done by e l e v a t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e Malay language and by e n f o r c i n g a l i m i t e d b u t i n c r e a s i n g degree o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f Malay c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the C h i n e s e , w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g a measure o f c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i t y . I n t h i s way e d u c a t i o n i n Malay i s w e i g h t e d V with an economic value and a symbolic significance i n the national system. The national system of education could be said to have been established by 1962. However, the Government's educational p o l i c y continues to divide the various communities, and the future of Malayan education promises to be f u l l of controversy which only time can resolve. v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT T h i s s t u d y h a s . i n v o l v e d t h e e f f o r t o f many p e r s o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I w i s h t o thank P r o f e s s o r B r i a n H a r r i s o n f o r h i s encouragement and f o r many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement, e s p e c i a l l y i n c o r r e c t i n g many o f my g l a r i n g m i s t a k e s i n E n g l i s h e x p r e s s i o n ; the s t a f f o f the U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n t h e I n t e r l i b r a r y Loan O f f i c e , t h e Hum a n i t i e s and the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s D i v i s i o n s , f o r t h e i r t i r e l e s s s e a r c h a l l o v e r t h e c o n t i n e n t f o r t h e b u l k o f t h e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s s t u d y ; and my w i f e f o r h e r p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT v i CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION: SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF STUDY. . . . 1 I I . HISTORICAL ROOTS OF THE PROBLEM OF CHINESE EDUCATION IN MALAYA 8 O f f i c i a l A t t i t u d e Towards C h i n e s e V e r n a c u l a r E d u c a t i o n 12 Chin e s e N a t i o n a l i s m and t h e C h a r a c t e r o f Chin e s e E d u c a t i o n i n Malaya 31 C o n c l u s i o n 55 I I I . THE PROBLEM OF CHINESE EDUCATION IN THE POST-WAR POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALAYA. . . . 60 The C h i n e s e and t h e Malay 'Quest f o r L e g i t i m a c y 1 o f t h e i r P l a c e i n t h e Emerging Malayan N a t i o n 61 Chin e s e E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Immediate Post-war Y e a r s 71 IV. A UNITED OR A UNIFIED NATION? PART I : THE POLICY OF 1MALAYANIZATION ' 93 ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' o f E d u c a t i o n and Chinese Language and C u l t u r e 94 The C r i s i s o f Malayan E d u c a t i o n : The Barnes Committee v e r s u s The Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n . . . . . . 101 The Barnes Report 10 8 v i i i Page V. A UNITED OR A UNIFIED NATION? PART I I : THE DILEMMA OF THE BRITISH IN MALAYA 12 8 The Fenn-Wu Report 128 The F a i l u r e o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l 145 C o n c l u s i o n : B r i t i s h Embarrassment o v e r t h e i r I l l e g i t i m a t e C h i l d 164 V I . THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION . 168 The Razak R e p o r t : A B l u e - p r i n t and a V i s i o n . . . 170 The B i r t h - p a n g s o f the N a t i o n a l System o f E d u c a t i o n 182 The A l l i a n c e Review o f N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n : The T a l i b Report . 204 V I I . CONCLUSION 221 BIBLIOGRAPHY 229 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION; SCOPE AND.IMPORTANCE OF STUDY I n the f o l l o w i n g pages, Malaya r e f e r s t o the a r e a f o r m e r l y known as B r i t i s h M a l a y a , c o m p r i s i n g the Malay S t a t e s and the S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g S i n g a p o r e , u n t i l t h e l a t t e r was made i n t o a s e p a r a t e c o l o n y a f t e r World War I I , a f t e r w h i c h t h e term r e f e r s t o what was t o become the F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , The s t u d y c o v e r s the p e r i o d m a i n l y from 1946 t o 1962, a f t e r w h i c h , w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y s i a i n 1963, i t becomes i l l o g i c a l t o c o n f i n e the s t u d y t o the p r e -M a l a y s i a n F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a . On the o t h e r hand, t o e x t e n d the s t u d y t o i n c l u d e t h e whole o f t h e M a l a y s i a n t e r r i t o r i e s would make the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f a s t u d y o f t h i s scope u n w i e l d l y . I t has been t h o u g h t ' n e c e s s a r y , however, t o r e c o u n t t h e a n t e c e d e n t s of t h e postwar s t o r y i n some d e t a i l so as t o e x p l a i n the e a r l i e r s t r u c t u r e o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a b e f o r e i t was c a l l e d upon t o adapt i t s e l f t o change. I n t h i s s t u d y , C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya i s t a k e n t o mean e d u c a t i o n i n t h e C h i n e s e language r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e i n ' M a l a y a . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e most C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a who r e c e i v e d an e d u c a t i o n were edu c a t e d i n t h e C h i n e s e language, t h e r e have been many C h i n e s e who have been p r e d o m i n a n t l y o r e n t i r e l y E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n d e l i n e a t e s the s u b j e c t of t h i s s t u d y b u t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i s o l a t e among .the C h i n e s e t h e problem o f Malayan u n i t y . I t does not i m p l y t h a t t h e problem i s l i m i t e d t o the C h i n e s e whose e d u c a t i o n has been i n t h e C h i n e s e language, a l t h o u g h between - 2 -the Chinese-^educated and the En g l i s h - e d u c a t e d the problem i s d i f f e r e n t . Indeed the d i f f e r e n c e i s so obvious as t o confuse the i s s u e . I t i s w i d e l y admitted t h a t the E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d Chinese have d i s p l a y e d a Malayan outlook which has not been observable g e n e r a l l y among the Chinese-educated. The d i f f e r e n c e i s o f t e n accounted f o r by the type of ed u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n s c h o o l s . I t seems, however, t h a t such an e x p l a n a t i o n , though c o r r e c t , i s s u p e r f i c i a l . I t would be strange i f ed u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h , w i t h i t s focus on England and Europe, should have succeeded i n promoting a Malayan o u t l o o k , w h i l e e d u c a t i o n i n Chinese, which was c e n t r e d on China, should not, unless f a c t o r s other than e d u c a t i o n a l were o p e r a t i v e . I f Chinese e d u c a t i o n taught l o y a l t y to China, E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n 1 taught l o y a l t y t o the Empire. I t has been argued t h a t E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , where p u p i l s of a l l races i n Malaya s t u d i e d t o g e t h e r , were t r u l y the nur s e r y of Malayan u n i t y . T h i s seemed to assume t h a t i n the Malayan s i t u a t i o n , schoolboy a s s o c i a t i o n was the cure f o r the c o n f l i c t o f economic and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s . I t may be s a i d t h a t Chinese e d u c a t i o n f o r g e d a n a t u r a l bond of race and c u l t u r e . But few have s a i d t h a t t h i s was wholly bad i n the context of Malaya or t h a t the Chinese i n Malaya should be d e - c u l t u r a l i z e d , The u n d e r l y i n g f e a r seemed t o be t h a t such a bond would produce a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t y , a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n , l i k e Chinese e d u c a t i o n , r e f e r s to ed u c a t i o n i n the E n g l i s h language. In the same way, Malay or Tamil e d u c a t i o n r e f e r s to ed u c a t i o n i n Malay or Tam i l , A c c o r d i n g t o the language of i n s t r u c t i o n , schools are u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d as E n g l i s h , Malay, Chinese or Tamil s c h o o l s . Before the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n a t i o n a l system of educat i o n , Malayan e d u c a t i o n means any or a l l of E n g l i s h , : M a l a y , Chinese and Tamil e d u c a t i o n . - 2 -p o l i t i c a l animal, which would f i t but poorly i n the Malayan nation. I t has been said that a Chinese, e s p e c i a l l y i f he were Chinese-educated, could seldom be anything but a Chinese owing allegiance to China. The truth of t h i s assumption has become increasingly open to question. This i s not to say that the type of education given i n schools and the opportunities provided for i n t e r r a c i a l contact could play no part i n b u i l d i n g a Malayan consciousness, Obviously they must play a most important part. However,.it would be an o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n to argue that English schools as such had fostered a Malayan outlook, English education was c l o s e l y associated with the Government; i t opened up economic and s o c i a l opportunities for pupils who graduated from English schools as valued members of society. I t was this o f f i c i a l patronage and the economic advantages and s o c i a l recognition which an English education led to which formed the basis of the l o c a l i d e n t i t y of English-school graduates. Chinese education, on the other hand, received scant o f f i c i a l attention. I t was exposed to China-inspired p o l i t i c a l propaganda, and i t could master none of the economic and s o c i a l advantages of the greater society. If Chinese education had not encouraged a Chinese i d e n t i t y , this r e j e c t i o n by the greater society would have forced i t inward, Thus, i f the reading of history i s any help i n e f f o r t s to reorient Chinese education, i t would seem that the f i r s t step would be to extend to i t the o f f i c i a l patronage and the economic advantages and the s o c i a l recognition which English education commanded. I t seems that the degree of difference i n outlook towards Malaya as a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y between Chinese with an English _ 4 -e d u c a t i o n and t h o s e w i t h a C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n was more assumed t h a n demonstrated. U n t i l t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e Razak e d u c a t i o n p l a n i n 1956 and the a d o p t i o n o f t h e Malayan c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1957, i t seems t h a t t h e v i s i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d C h i n e s e o f t he p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e o f t h e f u t u r e Malayan n a t i o n was c l o s e r t o t h e i r C h i n e s e - e d u c a t e d c o u s i n s t h a n t o the M a l a y s . I t may be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d C h i n e s e i n t e r a c t e d more e a s i l y and r e a d i l y w i t h t h e Malays t h a n the C h i n e s e - e d u c a t e d , b u t t h i s seems t o have been due t o t h e i r common p o l i t i c a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n under the B r i t i s h t u t e l a g e r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e i r s h a r e d community o f i n t e r e s t s . Moreover, the E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d C h i n e s e were p l a c e d i n h a p p i e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a n t h e C h i n e s e ^ e d u c a t e d . The B r i t i s h had d e c i d e d t h a t t h e g o a l o f Malayan-^ i z a t i o n s h o u l d be r e a c h e d t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f Malay and E n g l i s h . Had t h e y d e c i d e d t o M a l a y a n i z e t h e v a r i o u s p e o p l e s t h r o u g h t h e Malay language a l o n e , t h e y would have t o f a c e no l e s s s t i f f o p p o s i t i o n from E n g l i s h s c h o o l s and the E n g l i s h ^ e d u c a t e d C h i n e s e t h a n from C h i n e s e schools.. The f a c t i s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e may be degrees i n w h i c h Malay, E n g l i s h , C h i n e s e and T a m i l may c l a i m t o be a Malayan language i n more th a n m e r e l y a g e o g r a p h i c a l sense, none i s t r u l y one i n t h e socio--p o l i t i c a l sense Even Malay had t o be a c c e p t e d as t h e v e h i c l e o f a Malayan i d e n t i t y , and i t was a c c e p t a b l e o n l y i f i t d i d n o t p r e c l u d e t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and s c h o l a s t i c r o l e o f t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . Thus w h i l e the C h i n e s e acknowledged t h e need f o r a common v e h i c l e o f n a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , t h e y r e j e c t e d t h e argument t h a t M a l a y a n i z a t i o n might be l e d a s t r a y i f t h e M a j a y a n i z i n g medium was non^-Malayan i n t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l sense... F o r l o g i c a l l y , such an argument would make A n g l i c i s a t i o n o r Malays i z a t i o n t h e g o a l o f t h e o f f i c i a l p o l i c y o f M a l a y a n i z a t i o n , and t h a t would be anathema t o most Ch i n e s e # The e d u c a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e i r own language i n Malaya has been a c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t from t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g s e a r l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t has e x c i t e d w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t , and s c h o l a r s have p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s and w r i t t e n c h a p t e r s on i t i n t h e i r more g e n e r a l works on Malayan C h i n e s e o r Malayan h i s t o r y o r p o l i t i c s . However, o n l y one extended 2 s t u d y has been made o f i t . There have been s e v e r a l s t u d i e s on th e e d u c a t i o n a l system o f B r i t i s h M a l a y a , but t h e s e gave o n l y b r i e f s e c t i o n s on C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n w h i c h was i n c l u d e d l a r g e l y f o r t h e sake o f co m p l e t e n e s s . T h i s i s t r u e even o f Dr. Ho Seng Ong^s E d u c a t i o n f o r U n i t y i n M a l a y a , w h i c h e r r e d i n much t h e same way as t h e Barnes R e p o r t on Malay E d u c a t i o n i n recommending a common e d u c a t i o n system which r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n w i t h o u t due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r o r i t s a c c e p t a b i l i t y by t h e C h i n e s e w i t h t h e i r c u l t u r a l background. T h i s s t u d y i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d i n scope., C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i s here s t u d i e d as a c u l t u r a l - p o l i t i c a l p r o b lem i n t h e c o n t e x t o f postwar Malaya i n w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h were r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e i r r u l e and t h e Malayans were b u i l d i n g a n a t i o n o u t o f d i v e r s e r a c i a l e l e m e n t s . The a t t e m p t i s t o s t u d y the problem o f the p l a c e o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n the Malayan s o c i e t y . T h i s i s s t i l l a l i v e p r o b l e m , so t h a t what can be hoped f o r i n a s t u d y o f t h i s n a t u r e i s no more t h a n a p r o g r e s s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e problem., 2 Lee Ah^-chai, " P o l i c i e s and P o l i t i c s i n C h i n e s e S c h o o l s i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , 1788-1941," ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a l a y a , S i n g a p o r e , 1957). I t has not been p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t h i s t i t l e f o r s t u d y . - 6 -I t i s hoped t h a t such a p r o g r e s s i o n w i l l be demonstrated., For a long time Chinese e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya was f o r e i g n i n i n s p i r a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n . There were reasons f o r t h i s , and they were not immutable. Those who had c o n f i d e n t l y d i s c o u n t e d any p o s s i b i l i t y of Chinese e d u c a t i o n to adapt i t s e l f t o new s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be s u r p r i s e d a t the e d u c a t i o n a l experiments i n Malaya and Singapore today. Chinese e d u c a t i o n has proved i t s e l f adaptable, even though the process has been p a i n f u l a t many p o i n t s . The a d a p t a t i o n has taken the form o f a p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of Chinese e d u c a t i o n i n t o the Malayan n a t i o n a l system. T h i s i s the b i g g e s t adjustment the Chinese i n Malaya have been c a l l e d on to make, but i n the process they have been able t o h e l p shape the Malayan n a t i o n . B i g c laims of importance have been made f o r the study of the problems o f the Chinese i n Southeast A s i a , I t has been claime d t h a t i n s e c u r i t y of the overseas Chinese endangers p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and s t u n t s economic growth i n a l l Southeast A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , so t h a t s t u d i e s on the Chinese t o understand t h e i r problems may serve the cause o f peace and p r o s p e r i t y i n the r e g i o n by opening up new p r o s p e c t s f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e 3 p o l i c y e f f o r t s . However, t h i s modest study cannot pretend t o make such c l a i m to importance. I t i s undertaken i n a d e s i r e t o understand the working out of a very d i f f i c u l t problem i n the course of b u i l d i n g a v i a b l e Malayan n a t i o n . The p r e s e n t study s u f f e r s from a d e a r t h of r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s . Chapters two and f i v e have had t o make use of the Lea E. W i l l i a m s , The Future o f the Overseas Chinese i n Southeast A s i a , New York, 1966. - 7 -f r u i t s of other researchers who w i l l be g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged i n the appropriate places. For the rest the main sources used are annual and special o f f i c i a l reports, documents prepared by Chinese associations and some Chinese^language newspapers. These sources prescribe the method of approach of th i s study. The body of materials i s here presented largely as Chinese reaction to the Governments po l i c y to weld the diverse r a c i a l elements into some sort of unity. I t gives the Chinese point of view but not, i t i s hoped, from a narrow standpoint^ The purpose i s not to argue the Chinese case, but to describe the Government's p o l i c y as i t was and as the Chinese saw i t , to present Chinese arguments and to record progress towards a national i d e a l . The writer i s aware that his p o s i t i o n i s a very d i f f i c u l t one and he can only t r y his best to be on his guard. However, he i s conscious of taking one p o s i t i o n . He believes that decisions a f f e c t i n g any sizeable number of people should give due consideration to the e f f e c t s they may have on these people. He understands that i n the circumstances of Malaya, such consideration must be graduated to the degrees of command the d i f f e r e n t groups of people have over t h e i r environment, and must be q u a l i f i e d by the c a l l for national unity. Nevertheless, within these l i m i t s , there must s t i l l be room for an adjustment of claims and f o r r e c o n c i l i n g these claims to the national goal. CHAPTER I I HISTORICAL ROOTS OF THE PROBLEM OF CHINESE EDUCATION IN MALAYA Modern e d u c a t i o n as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t r a d i t i o n a l 1 e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a began i n Penang w i t h t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e 2 Penang F r e e S c h o o l by t h e C o l o n i a l C h a p l a i n , t h e Rev. R.S, H u t c h i n g s , i n 1816, The B r i t i s h S e t t l e m e n t was t h e n t h i r t y 3 y e a r s o l d , and t h e p l u r a l s o c i e t y w h i c h had grown up t h e r e made an u n m i s t a k a b l e i m p r i n t on even t h i s f i r s t v e n t u r e i n modern e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a . I n t h e "Address t o t h e P u b l i c i n b e h a l f o f a S c h o o l t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n P r i n c e o f Wales I s l a n d " d a t e d F e b r u a r y 6, 1816, t h e government-appointed Committee headed by t h e Rev, H u t c h i n g s t o c o n s i d e r ways and means o f s t a r t i n g t h e s c h o o l made known t h e i r p l a n which s t a t e d , among o t h e r d e t a i l s , I n August 1815 Dr. W i l l i a m M i l n e o f the London M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y opened a C h r i s t i a n s c h o o l f o r C h i n e s e boys i n M a l a c c a . But l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s c h o o l came t o hand. See D,D. C h e l l i a h , A H i s t o r y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , 1800^1925^ K u a l a Lumpur, 1947, p. 84, 2 . The s c h o o l was so c a l l e d because i t was open t o c h i l d r e n " o f e v e r y d e s c r i p t i o n . " Fees were c o l l e c t e d from p a r e n t s who c o u l d a f f o r d them. See "Address t o t h e P u b l i c i n b e h a l f o f a S c h o o l t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n P r i n c e o f Wales I s l a n d , F e b r u a r y 6, 1816," s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d i n I b i d , , p. 37, The M a l a c c a F r e e S c h o o l , w h i c h w i l l be mentioned" l a t e r , , p r o v i d e d f r e e t u i t i o n i n t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f i t s e x i s t e n c e . See I b i d , p, 42, 3 The c o n c e p t o f " p l u r a l s o c i e t y " was d e s c r i b e d by J.S. F u r n i v a l l as a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h p e o p l e s o f d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s , , languages and customs l i v e d " s i d e by s i d e , b u t s e p a r a t e l y , w i t h i n t h e same p o l i t i c a l u n i t . " See J.S, F u r n i v a l l , C o l o n i a l  P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e : A Comparative Study o f Burma and N e t h e r ^  l a n d s I n d i a , New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956, p, 304, F i g u r e s o f Penang''s p o p u l a t i o n i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were n o t a v a i l a b l e , b u t P r o f . T r e g o n n i n g d e s c r i b e d i t i n t h e s e words: "These i n h a b i t a n t s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r a c i a l s t r u c t u r e t h e new M a l a y a , th e M a l a y a o f t o d a y , M a l a y s , C h i n e s e , I n d i a n s , - 9 -That th e S c h o o l may be open t o t h e r e c e p t i o n o f a l l c h i l d r e n i n t h i s i s l a n d , o f e v e r y d e s c r i p t i o n , whose p a r e n t s o r f r i e n d s a r e w i l l i n g t o submit them t o the r u l e s o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n . That any p a r t o r a l l o f the c h i l d r e n may be i n s t r u c t e d i n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g E n g l i s h and i n t h e common r u l e s o f a r i t h m e t i c . That the c h i l d r e n o f Malay p a r e n t s who a r e not d e s i r o u s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d l e a r n E n g l i s h be i n s t r u c t e d by a Malay t e a c h e r t o r e a d and w r i t e t h e i r own language, That the same p l a n be adopted, as f a r as c i r c u m -s t a n c e s w i l l p e r m i t , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f C h u l i a h and H i n d u s t a n i p a r e n t s . 4 The Penang Fr e e S c h o o l began as an E n g l i s h s c h o o l , b u t two v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s , one Malay and t h e o t h e r T a m i l , were opened on the F r e e S c h o o l p r e m i s e s i n 1821. A l t h o u g h the A ddress d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n t o r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r own l a n g u a g e , the t e a c h i n g o f C h i n e s e was i n f a c t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e F r e e School,.^ However, a l l t h e s e e f f o r t s a t v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n p r o v e d s h o r t - l i v e d , and t h e F r e e S c h o o l soon s e t t l e d on an E n g l i s h c o u r s e . The p a t t e r n s e t by t h e Penang Fr e e S c h o o l was f o l l o w e d by the f r e e s c h o o l s a t M a l a c c a and. S i n g a p o r e . The M a l a c c a F r e e S c h o o l was opened i n December 1826 " t o g i v e t h e c h i l d r e n a l i t t l e knowledge o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v e r n a c u l a r tongues and t h e n t r a n s ^ p l a n t them i n t o t h e E n g l i s h o r C e n t r a l S c h o o l f o r the purpose of l e a r n i n g the E n g l i s h language and of a t t e n d i n g t o the h i g h e r E u r a s i a n s and Europeans a l l mixed and worked t o g e t h e r as: t h e f i r s t s t r e e t s o f t h e new town took shape ^ See K tG, T r e g o n n i n g , A H i s t o r y o f Modern M a l a y a , New Y o r k , 1964, p., 78, "Address t o the P u b l i c i n b e h a l f o f a s c h o o l t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n P r i n c e of Wales I s l a n d , F e b r u a r y 6, 1816," s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d i n C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , , p, 37,, 5 C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , pp. 42-^3. - 10 -branches of education." In Singapore, the Colonial Chaplain, the Rev.. F,J, Darrah, proposed to e s t a b l i s h elementary vernacular schools with native masters i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the town with a central English school at which the descendants of Europeans could attend with some of the more advanced boys from the vernacular schools who had acquired a s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of 7 t h e i r own language. The sequel was the Singapore Free Schools, consisting of a main English school with vernacular departments i n Malay, Chinese and Tamil, which were opened i n August 1834. However, the vernacular i n s t r u c t i o n i n these schools was none too successful, and, l i k e the Penang Free School the Malacca and the Singapore Free Schools eventually confined g themselves to i n s t r u c t i o n i h English only. The points of i n t e r e s t may be noted here. F i r s t , education i n Malaya took on the complex picture i t has assumed, with i t s English and vernacular branches, early i n i t s history. Secondly, Chinese vernacular i n s t r u c t i o n has had a place i n the scheme of education i n Malaya from the very beginning. I t engaged the attention not only of the Free Schools but also of the missionary organizations whose e f f o r t s at Chinese education have continued to t h i s day. The f i r s t missionary group i n the f i e l d was the London Missionary Society which worked i n the S t r a i t s Settlements from 1815 to 1847, a f t e r which i t transferred i t s a c t i v i t i e s to Quoted i n Ibid,, p, 41, 7 I b i d , , p. 40, q The Singapore Free Schools, known as Raffles I n s t i t u t i o n a f t e r 1863, maintained a Chinese class from 1864 to 1894 for non^Chinese students to t r a i n them as i n t e r p r e t e r s . See Ibid,, p. 43, - 11 -China, The Society sent many learned and pious men l i k e Doctors William Milne and Robert Morrison to Malaya, and these men learned the Chinese language to preach i n i t and to conduct schools. They also employed Chinese masters, and t h e i r main object was to teach Chinese children to read portions of the . Scripture i n t h e i r own language or d i a l e c t s . The Roman Catholics also engaged themselves i n Chinese education, and they were p a r t i c u l a r l y active i n the country d i s t r i c t s . The American Methodists, on the other hand, seemed to have concentrated 9 t h e i r energies on providing an English education. The main e f f o r t at Chinese education naturally came from the Chinese themselves. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the Chinese venerate learning, but i t i s well to keep i n mind that the p r a c t i c a l zeal they have displayed for education was a recent growth. In Malaya, u n t i l the end of the l a s t century, Chinese education was i n a backward state, and the Chinese were generally apathetic towards the 'old-style* schools. The r i s e of Chinese nationalism at the turn of the century changed th i s completely. An i n t e r e s t of great i n t e n s i t y was awakened which, i n the la i s s e z f a i r e conditions which the B r i t i s h authorities allowed the Chinese i n Malaya, f r u c t i f i e d into a mushrooming of Chinese schools and created the problem of the place of Chinese education i n Malayan society. The following discussion w i l l explore t h i s l a s t point i n some d e t a i l . Many schools run by the American Methodists- were c a l l e d ^Angle-Chinese Schools," meaning schools i n which English was taught mainly to Chinese pupils. See Ibid,, p. 91, - 12 -O f f i c i a l A t t i t u d e Towards C h i n e s e V e r n a c u l a r E d u c a t i o n The t e a c h i n g o f C h i n e s e i n the F r e e S c h o o l s d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e has been n o t e d . From t h e i r i n c e p t i o n u n t i l t h e y were t a k e n o v e r by t h e Government, t h e s e s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d p a t r o n a g e and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the . Government w h i c h was r e p r e s e n t e d by r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l s on t h e i r C o m m i t t e e s . 1 0 The Government t h e r e f o r e c o u l d be s a i d t o have countenanced C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r t e a c h i n g . However, the p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a t t h i s time was r e g a r d e d p u r e l y as an a c t o f c h a r i t y , 1 1 and the Government's p a r t i n i t i m p l i e d no o f f i c i a l s t a n d o r p o l i c y (and i t had none) on C h i n e s e o r any o t h e r b r a n c h o f e d u c a t i o n . expounded by S i r S t a m f o r d R a f f l e s , t h e f o u n d e r o f the B r i t i s h S e t t l e m e n t o f S i n g a p o r e i n 1819. I n a minute r e a d t o a g a t h e r i n g o f t h e l e a d i n g S i n g a p o r e r e s i d e n t s a t t h e l a y i n g o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e o f the S i n g a p o r e I n s t i t u t i o n oh A p r i l 1, 1823, he u r g e d "the advantage and n e c e s s i t y o f f o r m i n g under th e immediate c o n t r o l and s u p e r i n t e n d a n c e o f government an I n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f a N a t i v e C o l l e g e ... a f f o r d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ... i n t h e n a t i v e languages and ... f a c i l i t a t i n g our more g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h e s i n t o t h e h i s t o r y , c o n d i t i o n and 12 r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . " The I n s t i t u t i o n was t o con-s i s t o f t h r e e d e p a r t m e n t s , namely, "a s c i e n t i f i c department f o r the common advantage o f the s e v e r a l c o l l e g e s t h a t may be The most e n l i g h t e n e d v i e w on v e r n a c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n was 10 I b i d . , p. 46. I b i d . , p. 98. Quoted i n I b i d . 11 12 16. r P. - 13 -e s t a b l i s h e d ; a l i t e r a r y and m o r a l department f o r t h e C h i n e s e ; and a l i t e r a r y and m o r a l department f o r t h e Siamese, M a l a y s , e t c , " 1 3 R a f f l e s r i c h l y endowed th e I n s t i t u t i o n w i t h ample grounds "on ithe u s u a l terms and s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e Supreme Government" and s u b s c r i b e d , on a c c o u n t o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Company, a d o n a t i o n o f $3,000 and a monthly c o n t r i b u t i o n 14 o f $300. The l o c a l p e o p l e were e x p e c t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n as f a r as t h e i r means would p e r m i t . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r i c h e r c l a s s e s o f t h e C h i n e s e who were t h e n s e n d i n g t h e i r sons t o C h i n a f o r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e absence o f such an I n s t i t u t i o n would be e x p e c t e d t o b e a r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the expenses o f t h e C h i n e s e b r a n c h o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n , ^ R a f f l e s e n t e r t a i n e d g r e a t hope t h a t t h e I n s t i t u t i o n would a c t as t h e l e a v e n o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e Malayan w o r l d . He argued t h a t The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w o r l d i n f o r m s us t h a t e d u c a t i o n a f f o r d s t h e o n l y means o f e f f e c t i n g any c o n s i d e r a b l e a m e l i o r a t i o n , o r o f e x p a n d i n g t h e powers o f t h e human mind. ... One s i n g l e f a m i l y o f rank r a i s e d i n t o i m p o r t a n c e and energy by means o f t h e proposed i n s t i t u t i o n may a b u n d a n t l y r e p a y o u r l a b o u r by t h e e s t a b l i s h - ^ ment o f a b e t t e r s o c i e t y i n i t s neighbourhood. 13 Quoted i n J , S t e w a r t N a g l e , E d u c a t i o n a l Needs o f t h e  S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s and F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , B a l t i m o r e , 1428, p, 44. : "~ 14 C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , , p. 39. 1 5 I b i d w p. 17, , 1 6 L a d y R a f f l e s , Memoir o f S i r T.S, R a f f l e s , , p. 23. Quoted i n N a g l e , o p t c i t . , p, 43, - 14 -U n f o r t u n a t e l y , R a f f l e s * hope was t o l a n g u i s h t h r o u g h o f f i c i a l apathy and n e g l e c t o f t h e t r u s t e e s and t h e i r l a c k o f e n t e r p r i s e and v i s i o n . W h i l e t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f I n d i a and the C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Company g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d R a f f l e s ' arrangements f o r t h e S i n g a p o r e I n s t i t u t i o n i n p r i n c i p l e and c o n f i r m e d t h e g r a n t o f l a n d and t h e monthly c o n -t r i b u t i o n , t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n "premature" i n v i e w o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e permanence o f B r i t i s h o c c u p a t i o n o f S i n g a p o r e , Thus, i n s t e a d o f t h e e n l i g h t e n e d p a t r o n a g e R a f f l e s had e x p e c t e d from t h e Government o f I n d i a , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l showed a l a c k o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r th e scheme, s a y i n g t h a t he c o u l d n o t "concur i n t h e prudence o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e on the p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n w h i l e i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h e r e s u l t o f t h e impending n e g o t i a t i o n 17 w i l l l e a v e S i n g a p o r e under o ur d o m i n a t i o n . " On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i n a c t i v i t y o f t h e t r u s t e e s was s c a n d a l o u s . They had v o t e d $15,000 f o r t h e e r e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s on A p r i l 15, 1823, b u t t h e y had so f a i l e d t h e i r t r u s t t h a t i n 1832 t h e S i n g a p o r e  F r e e P r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t " the u n f i n i s h e d b u i l d i n g o r r u i n was an e y e s o r e t o t h e S e t t l e m e n t , a f f o r d i n g a c o n v e n i e n t s h e l t e r f o r t h i e v e s . " 1 8 Under s u c h u n p r o p i t i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , Mr, John C r a w f u r d , t h e R e s i d e n t o f S i n g a p o r e (1823-6), who d i d n o t see eye t o eye w i t h R a f f l e s on many t h i n g s , sounded t h e d e a t h k n e l l o f R a f f l e s * Quoted i n C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p, 19, 18 Quoted i n W a l t e r Makepeace, G i l b e r t E. Br o o k e , and R o l a n d S t . J . B r a d d e l l , e d s , , One Hundred Years Q f S i n g a p o r e , London, 1921, p, 431. - 15 -grand scheme. He i n t i m a t e d t h a t "the n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s o f S i n g a p o r e have n o t y e t a t t a i n e d t h a t s t a t e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and knowledge w h i c h would q u a l i f y them t o d e r i v e advantage from the e n l a r g e d system o f e d u c a t i o n h e l d up by t h e S i n g a p o r e I n s t i t u t i o n and t h a t t o p r o s e c u t e under p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t on t h e f o o t i n g o r i g i n a l l y c o n t e m p l a t e d would be t o i n c u r a heavy expense w i t h o u t any e a r l y p r o s p e c t o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g and adequate b e n e f i t . " He recommended government a s s i s t a n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s c h o o l s a f f o r d i n g t h e n a t i v e s o f S i n g a p o r e an e l e m e n t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n " t o communicate knowledge t h r o u g h th e medium o f n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s , " e s p e c i a l l y Malay and C h i n e s e , h o p i n g t h a t i n t i m e t h e s e s c h o o l s m i g h t , w i f e x p e d i e n t , be u n i t e d t o t h a t b r a n c h o f t h e S i n g a p o r e I n s t i t u t i o n embracing 19 t h e Malayan and C h i n e s e S c h o o l s . " T h i s v i e w was a c c e p t e d by t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f I n d i a , b u t as C r a w f u r d was p r e s e n t l y on l e a v e o f absence and d i d n o t r e t u r n t o S i n g a p o r e a f t e r w a r d s f even h i s modest recommendation was n o t proceeded w i t h , C r a w f u r d ' s i n t e r c e s s i o n was a f a t e f u l s t r o k e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n o f M a l a y a , I t sapped the e d u c a t i o n a l advancement o f t h e c o u n t r y . R a f f l e s ' i d e a o f e d u c a t i o n as t h e l e a v e n o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t t o r a i s e t h e n a t i v e s o c i e t y i n t h e s c a l e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n was j e t t i s o n e d , and t h e Government s t r a d d l e d down t o a m o r a l i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o the u n p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e c o u n t r y i n t h e c o m f o r t a b l e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e " s t a t e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and knowledge" o f t h e n a t i v e s would w a r r a n t no f u r t h e r advancement. Quoted i n C h e l l i a h , op. c i t ^ , pp. 19^20, - 16 -Cr a w f u r d had recommended government a s s i s t a n c e f o r e l e m e n t a r y C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n b u t he d i d n o t s t a y t o see h i s recommendation implemented. I n t h e 1850's the Government u n o b s t r u s i v e l y s h e l v e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a g a i n s t the b e t t e r judgment o f t h e C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s . I n 1854 t h e C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s i n a d e s p a t c h t o 20 the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f I n d i a r e c o g n i z e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t s 'sacred d u t y " t o educate t h e g r e a t masses o f t h e n a t i v e s . They p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t t h e Government c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y p r o v i d e t h e means f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e whole c o u n t r y , and t h a t t h e y welcomed v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and m i s s i o n a r y and o t h e r s o c i e t i e s i n t h i s f i e l d . They f a v o u r e d e d u c a t i o n t o d i f f u s e European knowledge t h r o u g h b o t h t h e E n g l i s h and t h e v e r n a c u l a r l a n g u a g e s , w h i c h t h e y d e s i r e d t o see c u l t i v a t e d t o g e t h e r i n a l l t h e s c h o o l s . They d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was n e i t h e r t h e i r aim n o r t h e i r d e s i r e t o s u b s t i t u t e t h e E n g l i s h language f o r t h e v e r n a c u l a r s o f t h e c o u n t r y , and t h e y 21 condemned l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h a l o n e i n s c h o o l s . To implement t h i s p o l i c y i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , t h e Governor was asked t o r e p o r t on t h e s t a t e o f e d u c a t i o n t h e r e and t o a d v i s e the Government o f I n d i a on t h e a c t i o n t o be t a k e n . Governor E.A. B l u n d e l l r e p o r t e d s a t i s f a c t o r y E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n b u t d e p l o r e d t h e s t a t e o f v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n . He r e q u e s t e d a sum o f Rsl3,000 f o r t h e cause o f v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n i n Malay and C h i n e s e , and r e j o i c e d i n "the b r i g h t p r o s p e c t s h e l d o u t f o r U n t i l 1867 t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d as p a r t o f B r i t i s h I n d i a , and t h e Government o f I n d i a was t h e Supreme Government o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s . I n 1867 t h e y became a Crown C o l o n y , 2 1 I b i d . , p. 22. - 17 -22 t h e cause o f e d u c a t i o n o f the n a t i v e s . " The Governor was d i s a p p o i n t e d . The Government o f I n d i a would n o t a u t h o r i z e "the l a r g e sum" r e q u e s t e d , and t h e y were opposed t o g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f C h i n e s e as a v e r n a c u l a r language when "the i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n 23 and t h e n a t u r a l v e r n a c u l a r " were Malay. They asked t h e Governor t o submit a r e v i s e d e s t i m a t e . I n 1857 t h e C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s approved t h e Governor-G e n e r a l ' s r e f u s a l t o g r a n t "the l a r g e sum" w h i c h Governor B l u n d e l l had r e q u e s t e d , b u t d i s a g r e e d t h a t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e o f C h i n e s e n o t b e i n g an i n d i g e n o u s language o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t s was i n i t s e l f a s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r r e f u s i n g a g r a n t f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e language. To them, "the p r o p r i e t y o f such a -g r a n t " s h o u l d depend, i f f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n would p e r m i t i t , upon t h e number o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n "permanently r e s i d i n g i n t h e S t r a i t s " under B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n and "con-t r i b u t i n g t o t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e S t a t e . " They d e p l o r e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h f o r t h e employment premium i t earned and t h e consequent n e g l e c t o f v e r n a c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e y s u g g e s t e d t h a t a knowledge a t l e a s t o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g and k e e p i n g a c c o u n t s i n h i s own language s h o u l d form t h e f i r s t p a r t o f a boy's s c h o o l i n g and a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f h i s o b t a i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t o f t h e Government 24 s h o u l d be t o p r o v i d e e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r . The Government o f I n d i a remained u n c o n v i n c e d o f t h e p r o p r i e t y o f a g r a n t f o r C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n i n the 22 I b i d , , pp, 23-4, q u o t i n g Governor E.A* B l u n d e l l , 23 Quoted i n I b i d . , p, 25. 24 . I b i d , , pp. 26-7, q u o t i n g t h e D i r e c t o r s . - 18 -S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s and j u d i c i o u s l y l e t the q u e s t i o n l i e . Thus i n 1858 t h e y d e c i d e d t h a t encouragement o f v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e S t r a i t s s h o u l d be c o n f i n e d a t l e a s t f o r t h e time b e i n g t o the Malay language, which t h e y r e g a r d e d as b e i n g the v e r n a c u l a r 25 o f a l l C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n b o r n i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s . T h i s d e c i s i o n was l o y a l l y s u p p o r t e d by Governor O r f e u r Cavenagh, who b e l i e v e d t h a t v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s i n t h e v i l l a g e s i n the i n t e r i o r and t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be i n Malay, "the tongue c u r r e n t amongst a l l c l a s s e s i n the S t r a i t s , " He f e l t s u r e t h a t t h e C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n the v i c i n i t y would be most eager t o a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f "the b l e s s i n g s d i s p e n s e d by such 2 6 I n s t i t u t i o n s . " E f f o r t s were made t o e s t a b l i s h Malay v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s i n the S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , and i n 1863 Governor Cavenagh r e p o r t e d "most f a v o u r a b l y o f t h e s u c c e s s o f 27 the scheme f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g v e r n a c u l a r schools'* I n M a l a c c a . Y e t i t was c l e a r t h a t government e f f o r t s on b e h a l f o f v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n were w a n t i n g . I n 1870 a S e l e c t Committee o f the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l r e p o r t e d "a backward s t a t e " o f e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s . They p o i n t e d out i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t "the v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s have h i t h e r t o done l i t t l e o r no good," They recommended "a l a r g e e x t e n s i o n o f V e r n a c u l a r S c h o o l s " where c h i l d r e n would be t a u g h t n o t j u s t "a few v e r s e s o f the Koran" b u t "the rudiments o f sound knowledge" 25 I b i d . , p. 27. 2 6 Quoted i n I b i d . , p. 29. 27 Quoted i n I b i d . , p, 30. - 19 -t o g e t h e r w i t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n t h e i r own language, a r g u i n g t h a t "a boy, whether he be C h i n e s e o r M alay, can make no r e a l 2 8 p r o g r e s s i n e d u c a t i o n u n t i l w e l l grounded i n h i s own language." Thus the p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g government p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h was f i r s t e n u n c i a t e d by t h e C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s i n 1857, t h a t a boy's e a r l y e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be i n h i s mother tongue and t h a t h i s p r o g r e s s t o e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h s h o u l d w a i t u n t i l he had been w e l l grounded i n h i s own language, had become w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e , however, had been s e l e c t i v e . I n 1858, as has been n o t e d , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l d e c i d e d t o a p p l y i t t o t h e Malays o n l y , a t l e a s t f o r t h e time b e i n g - I n 1870 t h e R e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t Committee o f the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s mentioned th e C h i n e s e o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y t o e x p l a i n t h e p r i n c i p l e r a t h e r t h a n t o b r i n g t h e C h i n e s e i n t o i t s o p e r a t i o n . When Mr. A.M. S k i n n e r was a p p o i n t e d t h e f i r s t I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s i n 1872 f o l l o w i n g t h e recommendation o f t h e S e l e c t Committee, he urged government p r o v i s i o n o f v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e Malays and none, f o r t h e p r e s e n t , f o r the C h i n e s e . The Government a c c e p t e d h i s v i e w s , and i n 1876 29 d e c i d e d n o t t o s u p p o r t Chinese s c h o o l s . The p o l i c y was e s t a b l i s h e d o f a f f o r d i n g under d i r e c t government c o n t r o l a f r e e e d u c a t i o n t o Malays i n t h e i r own language and o f e n c o u r a g i n g E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n under government s u p e r v i s o r y c o n t r o l by t h e payment o f g r a n t s - i n - a i d . 3 0 28 Report o f t h e S e l e c t Committee o f L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1870, s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d i n J.B. Elcum, "The System o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , " i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , Board o f E d u c a t i o n , S p e c i a l R e p o r t s on E d u c a t i o n a l S u b j e c t s (Cd. 2379), v o l . 14, P a r t I I I , London, 1905, p. 139. 29 C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , pp. 63, 80. 30 Elcum, op. c i t . , p. 140. - 20 -The p o l i c y was t o be m o d i f i e d i n one i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t . The E d u c a t i o n R e p o r t f o r 1882 n o t e d t h a t A d e p a r t u r e from t h i s p r a c t i c e Cthe p o l i c y ] was f i r s t made i n the case o f the E s t a t e M i s s i o n S c h o o l s i n P r o v i n c e W e l l e s l e y i n w h i c h i t was found n e c e s s a r y t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n T a m i l s h o u l d be g i v e n and the manager o f t h e s e s c h o o l s i n 1879 was prom i s e d Government a s s i s t a n c e . ... S u b s e q u e n t l y a p p l i c a t i o n s from o t h e r M i s s i o n s c h o o l s where no E n g l i s h i s t a u g h t were r e c e i v e d . I t was d e c i d e d t o e x t e n d t o o t h e r V e r n a c u l a r S c h o o l s the p r i n c i p l e w h i c h had been adopted i n the case o f T a m i l C o o l i e S c h o o l s , and t o encourage by g r a n t s f o r r e s u l t s , i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r own language t o a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t r a c e s o f the Colony.31 T h i s " d e p a r t u r e " matured i n t o a new p o l i c y on Indian, v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n , f o r i n 1902 t h e Government o f the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s d e c i d e d " t o open Government S c h o o l s f o r t e a c h i n g T a m i l , " w h i l e l a t e r on t h e Labour Ordinance r e q u i r e d e s t a t e owners t o b u i l d and m a i n t a i n s c h o o l s f o r the c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r T a m i l l a b o u r e r s w i t h government a s s i s t a n c e . But the " d e p a r t u r e " remained as such where C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n was co n c e r n e d . I n 1902, t h e A c t i n g I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s f Mr, R,J, W i l k i n s o n , defended v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n i n a s p e c i a l r e p o r t on 33 "the E d u c a t i o n o f A s i a t i c s , " b u t m a m a s t e r l y s t r o k e he equated the Malays w i t h h i s s t r a n g e c o l l e c t i v e c a l l e d t h e " A s i a t i c s , ! , ' U n t i l a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n C h i n e s e 31 A n n u a l R e p o r t on E d u c a t i o n f o r the Year 1882, quoted i n C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p. 80. 32 The R e p o r t on the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s f o r 1902 (Cd. 1819), quoted i n the F e d e r a l E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e , F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , "The System of E d u c a t i o n i n t h e F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , " i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , Board o f E d u c a t i o n , op. c i t . , p. l l n . 33 R.J. W i l k i n s o n , "The E d u c a t i o n o f A s i a t i c s , " i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , Board o f E d u c a t i o n , S p e c i a l R e p o r t s on E d u c a t i o n a l  S u b j e c t s (Cd.835), v o l . 8, London, 1902. - 21 -s c h o o l s prompted a change o f p o l i c y i n t h e e a r l y 1920's o n l y a h a n d f u l o f t h e s e s c h o o l s were r e c e i v i n g g r a n t s - i n - a i d from t h e Government. Two C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s were r e p o r t e d as 34 r e c e i v i n g g r a n t s - i n - a i d i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s i n 190 0 w h i l e two o t h e r s were " m a i n t a i n e d o r h e l p e d " by t h e Government 35 o f the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s i n 1905. What was the r a t i o n a l e o f the Government's e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y ? I f i t s e f f o r t i n Malay v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n , which was founded on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a c h i l d ' s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be i n i t s mother tongue, c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the Malays c o n t r a c t e d by t r e a t y r e l a t i o n s , what p r i n c i p l e governed o f f i c i a l encouragement and p r o v i s i o n o f 3 6 E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n from the l o w e s t grade among a l l the r a c e s i n Malaya? E n g l i s h was o f c o u r s e t h e language o f the Government, and many and perhaps most p u p i l s i n E n g l i s h s c h o o l s were B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . I t was sometimes c l a i m e d t h a t E n g l i s h was the mother tongue o f many B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e E u r a s i a n s and the S t r a i t s - b o r n C h i n e s e . Even i f t h i s c l a i m were t r u e , i t c o u l d h a r d l y be s a i d t h a t t h e mother tongue o f the s t r a n g e c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t y p e s i n E n g l i s h s c h o o l s was E n g l i s h , N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was o n l y n a t u r a l , so the argument went on, t h a t the Government s h o u l d w i s h t o f o s t e r t h e s t u d y o f i t s own language and f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w e l l b e i n g o f Elcum, op. c i t . , p. 143. 3 5 The F e d e r a l E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e , F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , l o c . c i t . 3 6 N o r m a l l y Malay c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d a t E n g l i s h s c h o o l s a f t e r t hey had a t t e n d e d Malay v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s f o r t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s . - 22 -i t s s u b j e c t s . T h i s d i d n o t e x p l a i n , however, why t h e r e was not g r e a t e r e x p a n s i o n o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n a t l e a s t t o meet t h e demand f o r i t and why a l i e n s . w e r e i n c l u d e d among i t s bene-f i c i a r i e s . A l s o , why was t h e r e o f f i c i a l c o n c e r n o v e r I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n b u t o n l y d i s r e g a r d f o r C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n ? There were i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r e d ucaton. The u n s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s o f t h e Fr e e S c h o o l s on b e h a l f o f C h i n e s e t e a c h i n g i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . Governor B l u n d e l l i n h i s r e p o r t e x p l a i n e d t h a t the e f f o r t was g i v e n up i n th e Penang Fr e e S c h o o l f o r "want o f masters competent t o t e a c h t h e language i n a r a t i o n a l manner." Moreover, t h e C h i n e s e language w i t h i t s many d i a l e c t s was c o n s i d e r e d b o t h i m p r a c t i c a l and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h e purpose o f p u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n . Governor B l u n d e l l a l s o a l l u d e d t o a d i s t r u s t or. l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f the C h i n e s e o f any l o c a l e f f o r t s i n the cause o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . He•complained t h a t "With r e g a r d t o t h e C h i n e s e , a l l e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s i n t h i s q u a r t e r seem 3 n a t u r a l l y t o r e q u i r e t h a t t h e i r o r i g i n s h o u l d be i n Hong Kong." A c t u a l l y , t h e C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s a t t h a t t i m e c o u l d n o t have been too c o ncerned about t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r education.. The u p r o o t e d i mmigrant l a b o u r e r s were t o o busy making t h e i r l i v i n g . Among the e s t a b l i s h e d C h i n e s e s e t t l e r s , many would have p r e f e r r e d an E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s economic v a l u e . Those who d e s i r e d a C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i r sons would no doubt f e e l t h a t Quoted i n C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p. 79. - 23 -s c h o o l s r u n by Europeans o r m i s s i o n a r i e s were n o t the p l a c e t o l e a r n C h i n e s e p r o p e r l y and would r e p a t r i a t e t h e i r sons t o C h i n a f o r e d u c a t i o n i f t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d i t . The p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y o v e r t h e Chi n e s e language soon l a p s e d i n t o a d i f f i c u l t y o v e r i t s s t a t u s . I n t h e mid 1850's, as has been n o t e d , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f I n d i a o b j e c t e d t o g i v i n g g r a n t s f o r C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n a g a i n s t the wishes o f the C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s on the ground t h a t t h e language was n o t i n d i g e n o u s . I t was argued t h a t the i n c r e a s i n g number o f a l i e n s s h o u l d be t a u g h t t h e language o f the c o u n t r y o f t h e i r a d o p t i o n t o b r eak down "the b a r r i e r s o f r a c e " and t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r "commercial o r o t h e r i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h each o t h e r , " f o r "the v e r n a c u l a r o f the c o u n t r y o f t h e i r a d o p t i o n " was "the o n l y 3 8 medium by which such i n t e r c o u r s e can be m a i n t a i n e d , " Or t h e y s h o u l d be t a u g h t t h e E n g l i s h language and E n g l i s h laws and i n s t i t u t i o n s t o i n s t i l i n them "an a d m i r a t i o n f o r most o f 39 what b e l o n g s t o us." Any e x t e n s i o n o f a i d t o C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n would be " c o m m i t t i n g t h e f a t a l e r r o r o f t e n d i n g t o keep them a l i e n s , and e n c o u r a g i n g them i n the i d e a 40 t h a t C h i n a ... i s t h e i r home." There was no r e a s o n why t h e Government s h o u l d educate c h i l d r e n t o make them c i t i z e n s f o r C h i n a , ' The F e d e r a l E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e , F e d e r a t e d M a l a y S t a t e s , l o c . c i t . 39 n . Quoted i n N a g l e , E d u c a t i o n a l Needs o f t h e S t r a i t s  S e t t l e m e n t s and F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , p. 105, 40 The F e d e r a l E d u c a t i o n a l O f f i c e , F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , l o c . c i t . - 24 -These arguments l o s t much o f t h e i r f o r c e when m i r r o r e d a g a i n s t t h e Government's p o l i c y on I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n . The R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s f o r 1902 r e c o r d e d t h a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e o f R e s i d e n t s had r e c e n t l y r e s o l v e d t h a t " i t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be a f f o r d e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f T a m i l i m m i g r a n t s t o a c q u i r e a knowledge o f t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r l anguage, w i t h the o b j e c t o f making the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f the I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t , an o u t l y i n g 41 p o r t i o n o f I n d i a , l i k e C e y l o n , " I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s had thus grown up m a i n l y as a government s u p p o r t e d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e 42 f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f T a m i l immigrant l a b o u r e r s , ••. Was t h e r e a s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e Government's e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y ? One s t u d e n t o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n , t h e Rev. Dr. D ,D. C h e l l i a h , t o whom t h e i n d e b t e d n e s s o f the p r e s e n t w r i t e r i s o b v i o u s i n t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n , argued t h a t t h e Govern^-ment was n o t a g a i n s t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e C h i n e s e o r T a m i l s and t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n was t h e language i n w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d . S e e i n g t h a t some C h i n e s e and I n d i a n , v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s were i n f a c t r e c e i v i n g a i d from t h e Government, he c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was "no ha r d and f a s t r u l e r e g a r d i n g 43 Government a i d f o r C h i n e s e and T a m i l S c h o o l s . " I t must be agreed t h a t t h e Government was.-.not a g a i n s t e d u c a t i o n f o r the C h i n e s e o r T a m i l s , b u t was t h e r e "no h a r d and f a s t r u l e r e g a r d i n g Government a i d f o r C h i n e s e and T a m i l s c h o o l s ? " * 41 Quoted i n I b i d . , p. l l n . 42 F r e d e r i c Mason, The S c h o o l s o f M a l a y a , S i n g a p o r e , 1959, p. 13. 43 C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p. 80, - 25 -P r o v i s i o n o f v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n f o r immigrant r a c e s has been seen as a new f e a t u r e o f B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y i n 44 M a l a y a xn t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . E d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t t h e r e was c o n d i t i o n e d by economic env i r o n m e n t , the key note o f w h i c h was economic e f f i c i e n c y , and economic i m p e r a t i v e s s i l e n c e d the argument t h a t v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n tended t o keep immi g r a n t s f o r e i g n e r s and was t h e r e f o r e i n s u f f e r a b l e . Thus i t was found t h a t p r o v i s i o n o f T a m i l s c h o o l s encouraged i m m i g r a t i o n , and p l a n t e r s r e c o g n i z e d the advantage o f o p e n i n g s c h o o l s on t h e i r 45 e s t a t e s , C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s , on the o t h e r hand, found s u f f i c i e n t inducement i n the economic p r o s p e c t i n the new c o u n t r y . I t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s t o encourage them. They c o u l d w e l l p r o v i d e them, and would much p r e f e r t o p r o v i d e them t h e m s e l v e s . The q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e was not s i m p l y language. I n 1892 t h e Government o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s o r g a n i z e d n i g h t s c h o o l s i n C h i n e s e f o r the a d u l t immigrants who e n t e r e d t h e C o l o n y y e a r l y i n l a r g e numbers, and a g a i n i n 1894 the I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t n i g h t c l a s s e s f o r the e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t immigrants i n t h e i r n a t i v e languages " s h o u l d form an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e 46 e d u c a t i o n a l system o f t h e C o l o n y . " These e f f o r t s were c l e a r l y d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e economic e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e immigrants as l a b o u r e r s i n the new l a n d . Thus t h e C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s ' i n s t r u c t i o n i n 1857 on the p r o p r i e t y o f a g r a n t f o r C h i n e s e 44 J.S. F u r n i v a l l , E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a , New Y o r k , 1943, p. 66. 45 I b i d . , p. 67 . 4 6 C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , pp. 80-1, q u o t i n g from o f f i c i a l r e p o r t . - 26 -v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n p r o v e d i t s c o m p e l l i n g l o g i c . The q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e was l a r g e l y economic. The g o v e r n i n g f a c t o r was whether t h e r e was economic need t o p r o v i d e v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i m m i g r a n t s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h o u l d n o t be l i g h t l y i n c u r r e d , and wherever p o s s i b l e t h e expense s h o u l d be saved. H a p p i l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was e a s i l y a v o i d e d i n the c a s e o f t h e C h i n e s e , n o t o n l y because t h e y were s e l f - r e l i a n t and i n d e p e n d e n t , b u t a l s o because t h e y were weak and i s o l a t e d on a c c o u n t o f the i n a b i l i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e Government t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . I t was i n the a v o i d a n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the C h i n e s e t h a t language became a f a c t o r , a c o n v e n i e n t excuse w h i c h the Government used t o advantage. In 1923 "the most i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n o f t h e y e a r " was made. I t was d e c i d e d t o i n t r o d u c e g r a n t s - i n - a i d f o r such C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s and the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s as a p p l i e d f o r them and were w i l l i n g t o submit t o i n s p e c t i o n . The g r a n t s , w h i c h were of nominal amounts but n o n e t h e l e s s i n v a l u a b l e d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , were based on t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f a s c h o o l a s s e s s e d a t i n s p e c t i o n . The Governments c o n s i d e r e d i t " d e s i r a b l e t o encourage and a s s i s t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f C h i n e s e - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h t h e i r own d i a l e c t s w h i c h t h e y u n d e r s t a n d " b u t "unnecessary t o a s s i s t by g r a n t s - i n - a i d the t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h i n C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s . " They had no o b j e c t i o n t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f M a n d a r i n o r E n g l i s h i n such s c h o o l s , b u t t h e s e s u b j e c t s would n o t be c o n -s i d e r e d as g r a n t - e a r n i n g . P r o m i s i n g C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n o f s u i t a b l e age and o f poor p a r e n t s who proceeded t o E n g l i s h s c h o o l s a f t e r h a v i n g s p e n t a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s a t an approved v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l would be g i v e n f r e e p l a c e s i n E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , b u t f o r thos e n o t p r o c e e d i n g t o E n g l i s h s c h o o l s a t t h e age o f t e n , t h e Governments d e s i r e d t o a s s i s t by g r a n t s t h e i r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r d o m e s t i c d i a l e c t s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t a i d e d C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s w ould, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , a r r a n g e t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m t o make i t a u s e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r an E n g l i s h 47 e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y as r e g a r d s A r i t h m e t i c and Geography. The " i n n o v a t i o n " was a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i c h an e x t e n s i o n o f " p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l " o v e r C h i n e s e s c h o o l s some y e a r s b e f o r e 48 had b r o u g h t . C h i n e s e s c h o o l s had grown up a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y under the impetus o f C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m w i t h which t h e y had become s a t u r a t e d . In the wake o f t h e P a r i s Peace C o n f e r e n c e i n 1919 i n w h i c h C h i n a f a i l e d t o s e c u r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a n c t i o n a g a i n s t a g g r e s s i v e Japanese demands on h e r , t h e s e s c h o o l s fermented s t r o n g a n t i - J a p a n e s e a g i t a t i o n w h i c h n o t o n l y posed a s e r i o u s problem o f law and o r d e r f o r the a u t h o r i t i e s b u t w h i c h th e a u t h o r i t i e s , p o l i t i c a l l y f r i e n d l y d i s p o s e d towards Japan, c o u l d n o t a l l o w . I n 1920 t h e R e g i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s O r dinance was en a c t e d t o e f f e c t a measure o f c o n t r o l . The Ordinance r e q u i r e d a l l s c h o o l s w i t h t e n o r more p u p i l s t o r e g i s t e r w i t h t h e names o f t h e i r t e a c h e r s and t h e members o f t h e i r management 49 committees. L a t e r amendments a m p l i f i e d t h e Government's 4 7 F e d e r a t e d M a l a y S t a t e s , A n n u a l Report on E d u c a t i o n i n the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s f o r t h e Year 1923, ppV 14-5,' ________ —• • • . • : V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a , London, 1967, p. 230. 49 Lennox A. M i l l s , B r i t i s h Rule, i n E a s t e r n A s i a ; A Study  o f Contemporary Government' and Economic Development i n B r i t i s h  M a l a y a and Hong Kong, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1942, p. 346. - 28 -power o f c o n t r o l . The R e g i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s O r d i n a n c e , 1926, empowered t h e D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n t o r e f u s e o r c a n c e l r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a s c h o o l i f the s c h o o l p r e m i s e s were i n s a n i t a r y o r dangerous o r i f t h e y would be o r were b e i n g used as a m e e t i n g p l a c e o f an u n l a w f u l s o c i e t y o r f o r p o l i t i c a l propaganda d e t r i m e n t a l t o the i n t e r e s t s o f the C o l o n y o r t h e Malay S t a t e s . The D i r e c t o r c o u l d a l s o r e f u s e t o r e g i s t e r a p e r s o n as a t e a c h e r , a s u p e r v i s o r , o r a member of a management committee. O t h e r w i s e , the D i r e c t o r would i n t e r f e r e as l i t t l e and as seldom .,, 50 as p o s s i b l e . Thus t h e a u t h o r i t i e s were n o t concerned i f the;;Qhinese remained C h i n e s e and d i d n o t l e a r n t o become Malayans o r whether o r n o t t h e y l e a r n t E n g l i s h o r Malay i n a i d e d C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . I n 1932 Governor S i r C e c i l C l e m e n t i d e c i d e d t o " a f f o r d a l l c h i l d r e n i n t h i s p e n i n s u l a an o p p o r t u n i t y o f l e a r n i n g t h e Malay 51 language f r e e o f c o s t — b u t a l s o w i t h o u t c o m p u l s i o n " t o 52 " M a l a y a n i z e t h e c h i l d r e n o f the permanent p o p u l a t i o n . " I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e Government would no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r any new a p p l i c a t i o n s from C h i n e s e and T a m i l v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n f u t u r e and t h a t s c h o o l f e e s . f o r b o t h e l e m e n t a r y and secondary E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n would be i n c r e a s e d The S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , Annual R e p o r t on t h e S o c i a l  and Economic P r o g r e s s o f t h e P e o p l e o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , 1935, S i n g a p o r e , 1936, p. 46. 51 Quoted by the S t r a i t s Times, S i n g a p o r e , F e b r u a r y 17, 1934. E x c e r p t r e p r i n t e d i n Tan Cheng Lock, Malayan.Problems  from a C h i n e s e P o i n t o f View, S i n g a p o r e , 1947, p. I l l , 52 Quoted by Tan Cheng Lock i n h i s speech a t t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l m e e t i n g h e l d a t M a l a c c a , F e b r u a r y 12, 1934, Speech r e p r i n t e d i n I b i d . , p. 95, a f t e r 1933. The p o l i c y was a c o n c e s s i o n t o Malay o p i n i o n , b u t i t s f o r m u l a t i o n was l e s s t o promote M a l a y a n i z a t i o n than as a shrewd measure o f economic r e t r e n c h m e n t i n an economy h a r d h i t by the D e p r e s s i o n . The C h i n e s e would n o t a c c e p t even a f r e e e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y , and t h e y c o u l d not pay f o r an E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r e d u c a t i o n t h e r e f o r e would f a l l m a i n l y on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . The encouragement o f Malay e d u c a t i o n and t h e g e n e r a l l y p r o - M a l a y p o l i c y o f t h e Government a c h i e v e d t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t o f making Ch i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n , a l r e a d y u n a t t r a c t i v e because o f the D e p r e s s i o n , even l e s s s o . I n the words o f Mr. Tan Cheng Lock, "the axe o f economy" was a p p l i e d i n 54 the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , and i t k i l l e d t h e Government's d e c l a r e d aim t o promote M a l a y a n i z a t i o n . But were the Government r e a l l y s e r i o u s about M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ? They were o n l y concerned t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d s p r e a d p o l i t i c a l propaganda a g a i n s t them or t h e i r a l l i e s . T h i s was t h e e x t e n t o f t h e Government's i n t e r e s t i n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s , t o c o n t r o l t h e i r p o l i t i c a l propaganda and, i n compensation f o r such c o n t r o l , t o e x t e n d some g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o them. But the d i s c l a i m o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b e f o r e 1920 had been d e m o r a l i s i n g f o r t h e Government. The E d u c a t i o n Department a p p a r e n t l y f e l t t h a t t h e C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s w h i c h were s p r i n g i n g up a l l over t h e c o u n t r y a f t e r 1900 w i t h o u t any expense t o the Government were o u t s i d e t h e p a l e o f i t s a u t h o r i t y . I n 1915 t h e Government o f the S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s a d m i t t e d The S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Paper  No, 93 o f 1932, summarised i n I b i d . , p, 81. 54 I b i d . , p. 83. - 30 -h a v i n g no o f f i c i a l knowledge o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f the i n d i g e n o u s 55 C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s w h i l e the a u t h o r i t y i n the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s v a g u e l y f e l t uneasy about a l l o w i n g t h e s e s c h o o l s " t o be c a r r i e d on, f r e e o f Government c o n t r o l and s u p e r v i s i o n . " " ^ L i t t l e was t o be done. I n 1916, a C h i n e s e boys' v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l a t T e l o k Anson i n Perak w i t h an e nrolment o f 57 r e c e i v e d a i d and was t h e r e f o r e i n s p e c t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . I t was f a v o u r a b l y r e p o r t e d on, b u t i t d e c i d e d t h a t i t would n o t submit t o a n o t h e r i n s p e c t i o n . I t " i n t i m a t e d t h a t i t d i d n o t r e q u i r e 57 the Government g r a n t - i n - a i d . " Thereupon th e E d u c a t i o n Department stopped i n s p e c t i n g i t w i t h o u t f u r t h e r ado. The Department mused t h a t i t was n o t equipped f o r i n s p e c t i o n o f C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s , b u t i t s l a i s s e z f a i r e a t t i t u d e had e a t e n up i t s sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and urgency. T h i s a t t i t u d e was t o have s e r i o u s consequences f o r Malayan e d u c a t i o n . I t gave t h e C h i n e s e f r e e r e i n i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t i n s p i t e o f o f f i c i a l m i s g i v i n g s t h a t v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n tended t o keep imm i g r a n t s a l i e n s . Moreover, th e C h i n e s e were abandoned t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s a t a t i m e when t h e i r n a t i o n a l f e r v o u r was s u r g i n g t o a head. N a t u r a l l y t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t e x p r e s s e d t h e n a s c e n t C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m and r e n a i s s a n c e . C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a was t h u s wedded t o China-Abased• p o l i t i c s . T h i s was t h e problem. The B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p. 82. F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , A n n u a l R e p o r t on E d u c a t i o n i n  the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s f o r t h e Year 1915, p. 7. 57 . • F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , A nnual R e p o r t o n . E d u c a t i o n i n the F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s f o r t h e Y e a r 1917, p. 16. - 31 -a u t h o r i t i e s might n o t have been a b l e t o p r e v e n t t h i s p o l i t -5 8 i c i z a t i o n o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n , b u t i t cannot be d e n i e d t h a t t h e problem took r o o t i n t h e u n c o n c e r n and s h o r t - s i g h t e d n e s s o f the a u t h o r i t i e s d u r i n g the f i r s t two decades o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y . C h i n e s e N a t i o n a l i s m and the C h a r a c t e r o f C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n i n  Malaya I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o document the p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n by the C h i n e s e i n t h e i r own language o r d i a l e c t s i n Malaya b e f o r e t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Only a few s c a t t e r e d 59 r e f e r e n c e s are a v a i l a b l e . Dr. Lim Boon Keng, i n a passage w h i c h can be t a k e n as an a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t on the C h i n e s e i n M a l a c c a , s a i d t h a t the C h i n e s e i n M a l a c c a i n s i x c e n t u r i e s o f c o n t i n u o u s s e t t l e m e n t had d e v e l o p e d , by t h e f u s i o n o f C h i n e s e and Malay b l o o d , many d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s and e t h n i c and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o c o n s t i t u t e a c l a s s by t h e m s e l v e s . However, t h e s e C h i n e s e c o n t i n u e d t o u p h o l d C h i n e s e customs and t r a d i t i o n s and t o p r a c t i s e , i n v a r i o u s l y m o d i f i e d f o r m s , the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s o b s e r v a n c e s o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e i r womenfolk had e n t i r e l y dropped t h e use o f C h i n e s e , t h e males a c q u i r e d the Hokkien d i a l e c t c o l l o q u i a l l y f o r t h e purpose o f t r a d e w h i l e t h e sons o f t h e r i c h were r e p a t r i a t e d f o r e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a o r were always d u l y p r o v i d e d w i t h a 5 8 However, th e absence o f t h e problem from I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s i s worthy o f n o t e . 59 Reproduced i n Song Ong S i a n g , One Hundred Y e a r s ' H i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n S i n g a p o r e , London, 19 23, pp. 3^4, - 32 -C h i n e s e t e a c h e r t o t e a c h them t h e w r i t i n g s and t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e sages. Other r e f e r e n c e s a l s o a t t e s t e d t o the p r e s e n c e o f t e a c h e r s among Chi n e s e s e t t l e r s i n the S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s . On J a n u a r y 25, 1794, F r a n c i s L i g h t i n Penang w r o t e , i n a l e t t e r p r o b a b l y a d d r e s s e d t o the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l o f B e n g a l , t h a t the C h i n e s e "have everywhere p e o p l e t o t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and 60 sometimes they send males t o C h i n a t o complete t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . " I n 1848 Mr. Seah Eu C h i n , a n a t i v e o f Swatow w i t h an " i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the C h i n e s e w r i t t e n language," who i n twenty f i v e y e a r s e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a commission agent i n S i n g a p o r e , mentioned s c h o o l m a s t e r s among the many p r o f e s s i o n s o f the C h i n e s e i n S i n g a p o r e i n a paper on the s u b j e c t he wrote f o r 61 Logan's J o u r n a l . R e f e r e n c e s as t o the e x i s t e n c e o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . I n 1829 the Rev. G.H. Thomson o f the London M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y r e p o r t e d t h r e e C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n S i n g a p o r e : a Cantonese s c h o o l a t Kampong Glam w i t h 12 b o y s , a n o t h e r Cantonese s c h o o l a t P e k i n S t r e e t w i t h 8 b o y s , 6 2 and a H o k k i e n s c h o o l a l s o a t P e k i n S t r e e t w i t h 22 boys. There i s no way t o v e r i f y t h e Rev. Thomson's r e p o r t , f o r e a r l y Chinese s c h o o l s i n the S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , where t h e y e x i s t e d , were 6 3 p r o b a b l y unnamed, as was t h e p r a c t i c e i n C h i n a , so t h a t when they 6 0 Quoted i n V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a , London, 1967, p. 41. 61 Song Ong S i a n g , op. c i t . , pp. 19, 73. ^ I b i d . , p. 26 , 3 H s u Y i i n - c h ' i a o "&f 'C ML , " M a - l a i - y a Hua-wen C h i a o - y u - t e S h i h - t e Hui-ku".^^LA^^^»^st^\574| , i n Nan-ta C h i a o - y l i Hsiieh-h u i ,£/ Nanyang C h i a o - y u > 1958, p. 41. Mr. Hsu p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h e p a s t o n l y two k i n d s o f s c h o o l s were named i n C h i n a , a f r e e o r government~^md an academy where a s c h o o l o f p h i l o s o p h e r s l e c t u r e d . - 33 -p e r i s h e d , t h e y s i m p l y v a n i s h e d , l e a v i n g no memory b e h i n d . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e y were s i m p l e a f f a i r s , perhaps no more than a t e a c h e r and h i s c l a s s o f a s s o r t e d p u p i l s i n a r e n t e d d i n g y room i n a shophouse o r i n the p r i v a t e abode o f the t e a c h e r . A number o f such ' s c h o o l s ' c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y have e x i s t e d i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and Governor B l u n d e l l seemed t o be r e f e r r i n g t o them when, i n recommending a c t i o n t o be t a k e n t o improve C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n , he s u g g e s t e d t h a t " A l l t h a t seems wanted here i s a b e t t e r system of t e a c h i n g t h a n t h a t which o b t a i n s among t h e 64 C h i n e s e t h e m s e l v e s . " The o l d e s t C h i n e s e s c h o o l i n M a l a y a of which r e c o r d i s e x t e n t i s t h e T s ' u i Y i n g Shu Yuan ( % Jfr ^ i \ j ) . 6 5 I t i s s t i l l s t a n d i n g i n Amoy S t e e t , S i n g a p o r e . I t s e a r l y h i s t o r y i s t o l d i n 6 6 t h r e e r o c k i n s c r i p t i o n s , p r e s e r v e d i n t h e s c h o o l , w h i c h i m m o r t a l i z e t h e b e n e f a c t o r s who founded and extended the i n s t i t u t i o n . One i n s c r i p t i o n , w hich was made i n 1861, r e c o r d s t h a t the s c h o o l , w h i c h was completed i n 1854, owed i t s e x i s t e n c e t o the m u n i f i c e n c e o f Mr. Ch'en Chu-ch'uan ( t]^t0L>i| ) , b e t t e r known as Tan Kim Seng ( C^i^^ ) , and t w e l v e o t h e r persons from h i s d i s t r i c t , Amoy, i n C h i n a . I t e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e s c h o o l was 64 Quoted i n C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p. 79. R o m a n i z a t i o n o f C h i n e s e names f o l l o w s Mathews' C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963, e x c e p t t h o s e w e l l known i n E n g l i s h . C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n i n t h e i r f i r s t appearance. 66 The t e x t s o f t h e s e i n s c r i p t i o n s may be found i n Hsu Yiin-c h ' i a o , op. c i t . , pp. 41-2, o r i n Hsu Su-wu "|z!jf , H s i n - c h i a -p;o Hua-ch'iao C h i a o - y u Ch'uan-mao jft j. ^ fa^ ^ ^ S i n g a p o r e , 1950, pp. 14-6. ^ J ,J - 34 -named T s ' u i Y i n g , w h i c h means a g a t h e r i n g o f s c h o l a r s , because i t was a happy t h i n g t o g a t h e r t o g e t h e r f i n e minds f o r e d u c a t i o n . A few o t h e r s c h o o l s have a l s o s u r v i v e d . The Tao Nan Hsiieh T'ang ( i|_,^<^"^r ) , the o l d e s t c o u n t r y s c h o o l i n S i n g a p o r e , was founded by t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h i n e s e i n 1872 and has s u r -6 7 v i v e d as the H o l y Innocent C h i n e s e Boys' S c h o o l s i n c e 1913. The Yu Lan Shu S h i h {$J$^%'%. ), founded by t h e sons o f the renowned Mr. Tan Tock Seng and Mr. Tan Kim Seng i n 1889 as a c l a n s c h o o l , was housed i n the temple o f t h e Tan c l a n , the Pao C h ' i h Kung ( ) . I t was renamed Pao C h ' i h S c h o o l a f t e r 6 8 World War I I t o admit a l l C h i n e s e p u p i l s . A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g s c h o o l i n S i n g a p o r e was founded i n 1885 by Mr. Gan Eng Seng f o r the f r e e e d u c a t i o n o f h i s f e l l o w countrymen. The Gan Eng Seng F r e e S c h o o l was o r i g i n a l l y housed i n one o f - M r . Gan's shop-houses, b u t some y e a r s l a t e r he e r e c t e d a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g on a 69 s i t e g i v e n by the Government. The new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g was opened i n 1893 by Governor S i r C e c i l S m i t h , who g r a c e d t h e o c c a s i o n by a speech w h i c h r a n , i n p a r t , as f o l l o w s : T h i s s c h o o l i s , I t h i n k , t h e o n l y s c h o o l . i n t h e S e t t l e -ment wh i c h has been founded by the C h i n e s e f o r t e a c h i n g t h e i r boys t h e language of. the c o u n t r y t o w h i c h t h e y owe t h e i r p r e s e n c e h e r e . ...The s c h o o l might be d e v o t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f E n g l i s h , b u t I am g l a d t o know t h a t a knowledge o f C h i n e s e w i l l a l s o be g a i n e d t h e r e , which t o me appears an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the e d u c a t i o n o f a C h i n e s e boy. ... The boys who grow up w i t h a knowledge o f t h a t language and a l s o a t t a c h t o i t a knowledge of E n g l i s h w i l l p r o v e b e t t e r c i t i z e n s t h e n t h o s e boys who throw o f f t h e language o f the c o u n t r y t o which t h e y n a t u r a l l y b e l o n g and adopt t h e E n g l i s h language s i m p l y from a u t i l i t a r i a n sense o f t h e time t h e y are g o i n g t o spend i n t h i s S e t t l e m e n t . 7 0 Hsu Su-wu, op. c i t . , p. 16. I b i d . , p. 17. C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p. 96. Quoted i n Song Ong S i a n g , op. c i t . , p. 275. - 35 -The s c h o o l became an a i d e d s c h o o l in.1888 and a p u r e l y E n g l i s h s c h o o l a f t e r the f o u n d e r ' s d e a t h . I n 1913 t h e s t u d y o f Chi n e s e was r e s t o r e d , b u t i t was dropped a g a i n l a t e r . I t was f i n a l l y t a k e n over by thef Government i n 1938 because o f f i n a n c i a l e m b a r r a s s m e n t . 7 1 These s c h o o l s were i n t h e i r e a r l y forms c a l l e d t h e ' o l d - , s t y l e ' s c h o o l s . They were w r i t i n g s c h o o l s i n which p u p i l s were t a u g h t r e a d i n g ( o f t e n w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g ) , w r i t i n g w i t h a b r u s h , and c o u n t i n g w i t h t h e C h i n e s e abacus_ These were u s e f u l s k i l l s i n b u s i n e s s and i n making a l i v i n g g e n e r a l l y i n t h e bou r g e o n i n g economies o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s ^ There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t such s k i l l s were h i g h l y p r i z e d by the many i l l i t e r a t e p a r e n t s i n b u s i n e s s , and many would p r o b a b l y s u f f e r g r e a t f i n a n c i a l h a r d s h i p i n o r d e r t o send t h e i r sons t o s c h o o l t o a c q u i r e them. But i t would be q u i t e wrong t o t h i n k t h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s e x i s t e d s o l e l y o r even m a i n l y t o t e a c h such s k i l l s . Many l e a r n e d t h e s k i l l s i n f o r m a l l y from t h e i r e l d e r s o r as a p p r e n t i c e s i n t h e i r f a t h e r s ' b u s i n e s s , as f o r example, t h e most i m p o r t a n t s k i l l f o r many t r a d e r s , t h a t o f an i n d i g e n o u s language, was l e a r n e d i n t h i s way and v e r y r a r e l y i n s c h o o l s . I t c o u l d be t h a t , as a p l a c e t o l e a r n the s k i l l s o f l i v e l i h o o d , t h e s c h o o l was f r e q u e n t l y f e l t t o be i n a d e q u a t e . T h i s would p a r t l y e x p l a i n why t h e r e were n o t more C h i n e s e s c h o o l s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A c t u a l l y , the s c h o o l was r e g a r d e d as an agent o f Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n , , as the r o c k i n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e T s ' u i Y i n g Shu Yuan amply made c l e a r . I t was t o pass on t h e a n c i e n t l o r e C h e l l i a h , op. c i t . , p. 9 6 # - 3 6 _ of China, the t e a c h i n g s of the g r e a t t e a c h e r s , and to c u l t i v a t e the v i r t u e s of the sages, to save younger gener a t i o n s of the Chinese from the u n c i v i l i t y of t h e i r land of r e s i d e n c e , and to t r a n s f o r m the w i l d o u t l a n d i s h country i n which they l i v e d i n t o a c i v i l i z e d s t a t e . These were l o f t y i d e a l s to which the e f f o r t s made were unequal. " F a c i l i t i e s were few and t e a c h e r s hard to come by,» 72 thus Dr. V i c t o r P u r c e l l has w r i t t e n . T h i s s c h o l a r has a l s o l e f t a v i v i d account of the ' o l d - s t y l e ' s c h o o l . Anyone who c o u l d read and w r i t e f l u e n t l y would q u a l i f y f u l l y as a teacher, and o f t e n he was the o n l y l e a r n e d o l d man i n h i s l o c a l i t y . He might be a t once a teacher, a f o r t u n e t e l l e r , a geomantic d i v i n e r , and a l e t t e r w r i t e r , and he g e n e r a l l y represented the a u t h o r i t y on knowledge and was r e s p e c t e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l v e n e r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g . He was h a r d l y the l e a r n e d man he was reputed to be, f o r o f t e n he was an u n s u c c e s s f u l candidate f o r the i m p e r i a l d i s t r i c t examination i n China who had migrated to make a l i v i n g . He was i n f a c t a degenerate; a more p r o g r e s s i v e man would have turned to some oth e r p u r s u i t and prospered. Thus he c o u l d h a r d l y be expected to run a good s c h o o l . As h i s s t o r e . o f knowledge extended l i t t l e beyond the Four Books and the F i v e Chings ( \£3^ Jz-t.i. ) , these became the s t a p l e d i e t of h i s p u p i l s whose i n t e l l e c t u a l odyssey began w i t h the San /Tzu Ching (-J- "% ) , the P a i Chia Hsing ( ~Hj%-4&. ) , the Ch'ien Tzu Wen ( Jr X ) , the Yu Hsiieh S h i h - t ' i e h ( 4p ^ &\z ) , and the Hsiao Ching ( ^ ), supplemented by l e t t e r w r i t i n g and the P u r c e l l , op. c i t . , p. 228. - 37 -abacus. The whole p r o c e s s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as v e n e r a t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r s , t h e C l a s s i c s , and t h e o l d t e a c h e r were a l l o b j e c t s o f v e n e r a t i o n and endowed w i t h m y s t e r i o u s p o t e n c y . The supreme e f f o r t o f e d u c a t i o n was by u n f a l t e r i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n and u n e r r i n g i m i t a t i o n . P u p i l s r e c i t e d t h e i r l e s s o n s by h e a r t ; i t was thought t h a t knowledge and v i r t u e would a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r work. B u t , ' i n a w o n d e r f u l way, some p u p i l s d i d i n f a c t a c q u i r e a mastery o f t h e language and become e d u c a t e d . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l l a n d s c a p e had s t a g n a t e d i n t o a dead sea and i t would have p e r s i s t e d t o t h i s day but f o r an upsurge o f C h i n e s e modernism and n a t i o n a l i s m a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . The Chinese awakening was an awakening o f t h e e n t i r e Chinese, p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e C h i n e s e abroad. One o f i t s e f f e c t s was t o draw t h e Overseas C h i n e s e , u n t i l t h e n r e g a r d e d as o u t c a s t s by Manchu C h i n a , i n t o t h e body p o l i t i c o f C h i n a , so t h a t t h e s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e f o r m and r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements which swept C h i n a animated t h e Overseas C h i n e s e communities w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e n s i t y and e x c i t e m e n t . Manchu C h i n a s u f f e r e d r e p e a t e d h u m i l i a t i o n a t t h e hands of f o r e i g n c o n c e s s i o n h u n t e r s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t was weak and seemed i n c a p a b l e o f r e f o r m . I n 1898, however, t h e Manchus b e l a t e d l y awoke t o a sense o f u r g e n c y , and a group o f l o y a l i s t r e f o r m e r s headed by Kang Yu-wei and L i a n g C h i - c h ' a o f i n a l l y p r e v a i l e d upon th e young Emperor Kuang Hsti t o put h i s empire i n o r d e r i n an e f f o r t t o save n a t i o n a l honour and t o r e v i v e C h i n a - A l t h o u g h t h e r e f o r m was i g n o m i n i o u s l y ended b e f o r e i t was a hundred days o l d by t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e Empress Dowager Tzu H s i , i t was an i m p o r t a n t event i n the h i s t o r y - 38 -of e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Overseas Ch i n e s e as w e l l as i n C h i n a . M o d e r n i z a t i o n o f the age o l d system o f e d u c a t i o n t o encourage 'New Learning-'- i^r^r) f e a t u r e d p r o m i n a n t l y i n the r e f o r m e r s ' programme. The S t a t e was t o grow s t r o n g t h r o u g h a scheme o f modern e d u c a t i o n . Thus i n 1898 a r e f o r m was decreed t o e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l s f o r t h e s t u d y o f Chin e s e and Western l e a r n i n g i n e v e r y p r o v i n c e , c i t y and d i s t r i c t o f C h i n a . Of g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was an e d i c t which d e c r e e d t h a t C h i n e s e l e g a t i o n s abroad s h o u l d encourage e d u c a t i o n among t h e 73 Overseas C h i n e s e . Some y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y the Manchu Government had, under f o r e i g n p r e s s u r e , r e c o g n i z e d the r i g h t o f Ch i n e s e s u b j e c t s t o change t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e o r d o m i c i l e and had ab r o g a t e d t h e o l d laws p r o h i b i t i n g C h i n e s e e m i g r a t i o n and p r o s e c u t i n g r e t u r n e d e m i g r a n t s . That S t r a i t s Times i n Sin g a p o r e had p r i n t e d a Manchu I m p e r i a l Decree, p u b l i s h e d on Ja n u a r y 13, . 1894, announcing t h a t "Chinese from t h e Malayan Seas may r e t u r n 74 i n s a f e t y t o t h e i r own l a n d , whether permanently o r on a v i s i t . " Now t h e Manchu C o u r t began t o ex t e n d a p a t e r n a l c o n c e r n o v e r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l w e l l b e i n g o f i t s o v e r s e a s s u b j e c t s . The Manchus r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e Overseas Chinese whom they had f o r l o n g viewed as p o t e n t i a l r e b e l s and, among whom t h e n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were d a i l y w i n n i n g i n c r e a s i n g numbers of c o n v e r t s , s h o u l d be p l a c a t e d by a p o l i c y o f i n e x p e n s i v e p a t e r n a l i s m . I n 1907 t h e s e n i o r A d v i s e r o f E d u c a t i o n (/(f^^^S?^ i Mr. L i a n g C h ' i n g - k u e i ( $M^%£~ ) , s u b m i t t e d a memorandum Hsu Y i i n - c h ' i a o , op. c i t . , p. 42. Quoted i n Song Ong S i a n g , op. c i t . , p. 279. - 39 -t o t h e Manchu I m p e r i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n , which s a y s , i n p a r t : ... E v e r y n a t i o n has i t s own customs, and d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t c o n v e n t i o n s and e t h i c a l t e a c h i n g s . I f t h e C h i n e s e s o j o u r n e r s abroad were t o know n o t h i n g o f t h e language, l i t e r a t u r e , e t h i c s and customs o f t h e i r f a t h e r l a n d , t h e y w i l l be d e e p l y imbued w i t h f o r e i g n i d e a s and t h e i r p a t r i o t i s m would wear t h i n . The purpose o f e n c o u r a g i n g e d u c a t i o n among the C h i n e s e abroad i s t o e n l i s t t h e i r good w i l l t o s a f e g u a r d n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y . 7 5 Mr. L i a n g was s e n t t o encourage e d u c a t i o n among the Overseas C h i n e s e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . Other d e l e g a t i o n s were despatched t o S o u t h - e a s t A s i a f o r t h e same purpose. The Manchus were thus engaged i n c u l t i v a t i n g t h e good w i l l and f o s t e r i n g t h e p a t r i o t -i s m o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e and t o i n v o l v e them i n t h e t a s k o f r e v i v i n g C h i n a . The i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r r e n t s o f C h i n a i n t h i s p e r i o d r e a c h e d M a l a y a . Mr. Song Ong S i a n g , who w i t n e s s e d t h e e v e n t , wrote t h a t t h e r e was "a C o n f u c i a n r e v i v a l t h r o u g h o u t M a l a y a , w i t h i t s 7 6 r e f l e x a c t i o n upon C h i n a h e r s e l f . " T h i s C o n f u c i a n r e v i v a l was m a i n l y t h e work o f Dr. Lim Boon Keng. Born i n S i n g a p o r e i n 1869, Lim r e c e i v e d a f o r m a l E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n and i n 1887 won h i m s e l f t h e f i r s t H i g h e r S c h o l a r s h i p i n s t i t u t e d by Governor S i r C e c i l Smith t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r f o r m e d i c a l s t u d i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f E d i n b u r g h . But h i s C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n was not Quoted i n L i a n g Shao Kang j£ , Hua-ch'iao c h i a o - y u t a o - > u « o &$39, ( E n g l i s h t i t l e : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Overseas C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n ) , T a i p e i , 1959, p. 52. 7 6 Song Ong S i a n g , op. c i t . , p. 234. n e g l e c t e d . He l e a r n e d C h i n e s e under a p r i v a t e t u t o r , and w h i l e i n S c o t l a n d he c o n t i n u e d t o pursue C h i n e s e s t u d i e s on h i s own 77 and became a C o n f u c i a n s c h o l a r i n h i s own r i g h t . He was an e n t h u s i a s t i n a l l m o r a l , s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s among t h e Chin e s e i n S i n g a p o r e , and he a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f t o t h e s e problems i n a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s he d e l i v e r e d between 1894 and 1910. I n one l e c t u r e on " E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e C h i n e s e " he gave a t t h e Town H a l l on August 20, 1895, he urged t h a t t h e common p e o p l e s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o " a p p r e c i a t e t h e t e a c h i n g s o f Mencius" and t o 7 8 " p r o f i t by the e x p e r i e n c e o f Europe-." T h i s was t h e 'New L e a r n i n g 1 o f t h e l o y a l i s t r e f o r m e r s . He p r a c t i s e d what he preached and conducted a n i g h t s c h o o l f o r t e a c h i n g t h e Mandarin d i a l e c t t o t h e S t r a i t s C h i n e s e . I n 1899 h i s e f f o r t c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e op e n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s c h o o l f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f C h i n e s e g i r l s . The S i n g a p o r e C h i n e s e G i r l s ' S c h o o l , founded by Dr. Lim Boon Keng and Messrs Khoo Seok Wan and Song Ong S i a n g among o t h e r s , w i t h t h e Chi n e s e C o n s u l , Mr. L i u Y u - l i n (j^\$f\J$%J) , as P r e s i d e n t o f i t s f i r s t Committee, was ... t o demonstrate t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f r e f o r m i n g C h i n e s e c o n d u c t i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n on improved and modern systems, d i s t i n c t i v e l y i n con-sonance w i t h C h i n e s e p r i n c i p l e s as l a i d down i n t h e c l a s s i c a l works o f C o n f u c i u s , b u t e n t i r e l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h e x i s t i n g methods.79 7 7 T a n g C h i - y a o ft , H s i n - c h i a - p ' o Hua-ch' i a o - c h i ^ pa-totM 4k<&, T a i p e i , 1960, p. 277. 7 8 Quoted i n Song Ong S i a n g , op. c i t . , p. 2 86. 79 Quoted i n I b i d . , p. 305. The g i r l s a t t h e s c h o o l were t a u g h t Romanized Malay, C h i n e s e , E n g l i s h , A r i t h m e t i c , Geography, M u s i c and Sewing, t h e l e s s o n s i n C h i n e s e b e i n g g i v e n by Mrs. Lim Boon Keng, daughter o f Mr. Wong N a i - s i o n g i^fi'^) r t h e renowned Foochow who o b t a i n e d a com-m i s s i o n from Rajah C h a r l e s Brooke o f Sarawak t o b r i n g o ut a group o f Foochow f a r m e r s t o found t h e town o f S i b u i n 1900. T h i s commendable p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t a t female e d u c a t i o n was frowned upon by t h e C h i n e s e community a t l a r g e , and many l e a d i n g C h i n e s e , i n c l u d i n g Mr. Tan J i a k Kim ( )/8° r e f u s e d t o g i v e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The d e e p - r o o t e d s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e o f the C h i n e s e a g a i n s t female e d u c a t i o n was not t o be l i f t e d f o r many more y e a r s t o come. I t r e q u i r e d a bout o f C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l -i s m t o l i b e r a t e C h i n e s e women. The new z e a l f o r C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n among the C h i n e s e i n Malaya was r e a l l y b o r n o f t h e p r o p a g a n d i s t a c t i v i t i e s o f p o l i t i c a l r e f u g e e s from C h i n a . The a b o r t i o n o f t h e r e f o r m i n 1898 drove Kang Yu-wei and h i s c o l l e a g u e s abroad f o r s a f e t y , but f o r sometime t h e s e r e f o r m e r s d i d n o t d e s p a i r o f t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e r e f o r m i s t Emperor Kuang Hsu and o f t h e i r r e t u r n t o i n f l u e n c e a g a i n one day. I n t h e i r e x i l e t h ey were b u s i l y p r e p a r i n g f o r t h i s day, t r a v e l l i n g w i d e l y t h r o u g h o u t S o u t h - e a s t A s i a t o p r o p a g a t e and t o whip up s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r cause. The s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l backwardness o f the Overseas C h i n e s e communities p i q u e d them, and t h e y urged t h e C h i n e s e t o b u i l d s c h o o l s t o t e a c h t h e 'New L e a r n i n g ' t o widen t h e i r knowledge, promote C h i n e s e c u l t u r e , and t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r t i e s w i t h Mr. Tan w i t h d r e w h i s o b j e c t i o n t o female e d u c a t i o n a f t e r h i s r e t u r n from a t r i p t o Europe. - 42 -C h i n a . T h e i r asylum was i n J a p a n , where t h e y managed a model s c h o o l , t h e Ta T'ung S c h o o l which became the p r o t o t y p e o f Chinese s c h o o l s w h i c h sprang up a l l over South-e a s t A s i a from t h i s t i me onward and which f o r a t i m e p r o v i d e d many t e a c h e r s f o r t h e s e s c h o o l s . The l o y a l i s t r e f o r m e r s found n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s roaming the i s l a n d s o f S o u t h - e a s t A s i a . The r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s sought u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o w i n o v e r t h e l o y a l i s t s t o t h e i r c a u s e , b u t t h e y were e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r f i r m h o l d o v e r the Overseas C h i n e s e . They were i m p r e s s e d by the e d u c a t i o n a l work of t h e l o y a l i s t s among t h e Overseas C h i n e s e , and t h e y r e d o u b l e d t h e i r own e f f o r t i n t h i s f i e l d , p u b l i s h i n g newspapers, e s t a b l i s h i n g r e a d i n g - r o o m s , and f o u n d i n g s c h o o l s n o t o n l y t o s e r v e as con-v e n i e n t c o v e r f o r t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s b u t a l s o t o p r o p a g a t e t h e i r i d e a s , e n l i g h t e n C h i n e s e o p i n i o n , and arouse C h i n e s e p a t r i o t i s m . I t was under t h i s t h r e e - p r o n g e d push, e x e r t e d by t h e Manchu C o u r t , t h e e x i l e d l o y a l i s t s and t h e f u g i t i v e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , t h a t C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya g a i n e d momentum. I n 1900 S i n g a p o r e was v i s i t e d by b o t h Kang Yu-wei and Dr. Sun Y a t - s e n . Kang was r e c e i v e d by Mr. Khoo Seok Wan (Jt-p-$L$ ) , w i t h whose s u p p o r t he formed a R o y a l i s t P a r t y ( ^ . J v ^ ) i n S i n g a p o r e , and Mr. Khoo 1 s newspaper, the T ' i e n Nan H s i n Pao ( $J - f . i f ) / l a t e r s u perceded by the Union Times, became the organ f o r t h e s p r e a d o f 81 R o y a l i s t i d e a . The l o y a l i s t s a p p a r e n t l y had g a i n e d a q i Png Poh Seng, "The Kuomintang i n M a l a y a , 1912-1941," J o u r n a l o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a n H i s t o r y , I I , 1 (March 1961), p. 2. c o n s i d e r a b l e f o l l o w i n g i n S i n g a p o r e , e s p e c i a l l y among t h e upper c l a s s e s o f t h e C h i n e s e . The r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s g a i n e d a f o o t h o l d i n S i n g a p o r e i n 1901 when Y i u L i e h ) , a member o f t h e H s i n g 8 2 Chung H u i U&$'/^~) , a r r i v e d from Japan t o work among the l o w l y C h i n e s e and succeeded i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e Chung Ho T'ang ( <t 74 ( 2 /^ ) . 8 3 Both the R o y a l i s t P a r t y and t h e Chung Ho T'ang were a c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t C h i n e s e s c h o o l i n Malaya e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e w e l t e r o f t h e s e p o l i t i c a l c u r r e n t s was the Chung Hua S c h o o l ) i n Penang. I n 1906 t h e C h i n e s e C o n s u l G e n e r a l i n S i n g a p o r e , who was t h e Governor o f t h e Board o f Management, r e p o r t e d t h a t i t was founded i n 190 4 i n t h e p r e m i s e s o f t h e P' i n g Chang H u i Kuan (•^"dp/^$$T) , i t s new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g b e i n g t h e n s c h e d u l e d f o r c o m p l e t i o n i n 1907. He s a i d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e c u r r i c u l u m had y e t t o be p e r f e c t e d , t h e s c h o o l was p l a n n e d on 84 a b i g s c a l e . I t was a p p a r e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a model s c h o o l by H o k k i e n and Cantonese s c h o l a r s and merchants under t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d p a t r o n a g e o f t h e Manchu I m p e r i a l Commissioner f o r F o r e i g n Trade and f o r E d u c a t i o n A f f a i r s i n S o u t h - e a s t A s i a , Mr. Chang P i h - s h i h (:$JjP}£ ) , who had been th e f i r s t C h i n e s e C o n s u l i n Penang a p p o i n t e d i n 1890, and who was seconded by t h e Manchu I m p e r i a l Department of Trade t o be the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e The H s i n g Chung Hui was t h e f i r s t p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y Dr. Sun founded i n 1894 i n H o n o l u l u . I t seemed t o have been i n t r o d u c e d t o S i n g a p o r e i n 1900 by Yang Ch'u-yun ^ £f!f'fC a n d t o have f a i l e d . See Png Poh Seng, i b i d . 8 3 T a n g Su-min $Lfcj , M a - l a i - y a Hua-ch' i a o - c h i %^&Ljfetfgj'h? T a i p e i , 1959, p. 261. ^ ^ 84 The C h i n e s e C o n s u l G e n e r a l ' s r e p o r t i s r e p r o d u c e d m Hsu Y u n - c h ' i a o , op. c i t . , p. 42; - 44 -s c h o o l soon a f t e r i t s f o u n d a t i o n towards w h i c h he donated 8 5 $80,000. The s c h o o l r e c e i v e d an I m p e r i a l g i f t o f a complete l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n and was awarded a t a b l e t w i t h a f o u r - c h a r a c t e r r e g a l a u tograph w h i c h says "The V o i c e o f C i v i l i z a t i o n Reaches t h e South" ( %it$Lfol^) . 8 S Thus t h e f i r s t modern Ch i n e s e s c h o o l i n Malaya was e s t a b l i s h e d under Manchu a u s p i c e s . The i d e a o f the need t o e s t a b l i s h modern s c h o o l s f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n had caught on i n t h e C h i n e s e communities, and t h e d i f f e r e n t groups o f C h i n e s e i n Malaya now competed t o e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l s i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i r group o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as temples and h u i - k u a n s (^T-'&fi ) • I n 1905 t h e r e were founded i n S i n g a p o r e the Yang Cheng Hsiieh T'ang ( ijt j j . ^ ' l r * ) , renamed th e Ch'ung Cheng S c h o o l i n 1909, by t h e Hokkiens who a p p r o p r i a t e d a p a r t o f t h e income o f t h e i r t e m p l e , t h e Shun T ' i e n Kung , t h a t w h i c h was d e r i v e d from t h e s a l e o f i n c e n s e , t o supplement the r e c u r r e n t e x p e n d i t u r e o f the s c h o o l ; and t h e Kuang Chao Hsiieh T'ang , renamed th e Yang Cheng S c h o o l ( | . i ^ J L ) i n 1907, by t h e Cantonese who o r i g i n a l l y came from t h e d i s t r i c t s o f Kuang-chou (Canton) and Chao-ch'ing ( ^ ) i n Kwangtung 8 7 P r o v i n c e . T h i s i n c i p i e n t e n t h u s i a s m was g i v e n f u r t h e r encouragement i n 1907 when t h e Manchu I m p e r i a l Department o f Works and Governor Ch'en Ch'un-hsiang ( /?J^t% ) o f Kwangtung s e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e I m p e r i a l Commissioner f o r F o r e i g n Trade Chang P i h - s h i h and an I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s , Mr. L i u S h i h - c h i h 8 5 Tang Su-min, op. c i t . , p. 295. ft fi Hsu Y u n - c h ' i a o , l o c . c i t . 8 7 Tang C h i - y a o , H s i n - c h i a - p ' o H u a - c h ' i a o - c h i , T a i p e i , 1960, pp. 94-5. - 45 -), t o S o u t h - e a s t A s i a t o urge t h e C h i n e s e t o e s t a b l i s h 8 8 chambers o f commerce and s c h o o l s . Other s c h o o l s s p r a n g up, <. among w h i c h t h e b e t t e r known were, i n 1906, t h e Y i n g H s i n S c h o o l £if^T^tL) , e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e p r e m i s e s o f the Y i n g Ho Hui-kuan (^^Mfili) by the C h i n e s e from t h e C h i a - y i n g d i s t r i c t ) i n Kwangtung; t h e C h ' i Fa S c h o o l ( J £ ^ $ L ' ) , e s t a b l i s h e d by the Hakkas o f the Cha Yang H u i -kuan ( ^ ^Sjp$f[ ); and the Tuan Mung S c h o o l e s t a b l i s h e d by the T e o c h i u s ; a l l i n S i n g a p o r e ; i n 1907, t h e Tao Nan S c h o o l ( $ J A - ^ J - * ) i n S i n g a p o r e , e s t a b l i s h e d by the Hokkiens a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e T ' i e n Fu Kung (^-^<&^); and the C o n f u c i a n S c h o o l ( J^ - ^ U ' I P " ^ - :): i n K u a l a Lumpur; i n 1908, t h e Y i i Ts' a i S c h o o l ( i n I p o h , P e r a k ; t h e Yii Hua S c h o o l ( ig JjMf^r*-) i n Pahang; and the S h i h Chung S c h o o l ( i f <f $jjr ) i n P e n a n g . 8 9 The l i s t need n o t be l e n g t h e n e d f u r t h e r ; i t must s u f f i c e t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t o f the new-born Ch i n e s e e n t h u s i a s m f o r e d u c a t i o n . I t i s e s t i m a t e d i n one a c c o u n t , perhaps a l i t t l e l i b e r a l l y , t h a t t h e r e were c l o s e t o one hundred C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n M a l a y a by 1911 when the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d t h e 8 8 Tang Su-min, op. c i t . , p. 176. 89 The l i s t was c o m p i l e d from Tang Su-min, i b i d . , pp. 176-7; Tang C h i - y a o , op. c i t . , p. 95; Hsu Su-wu, op. c i t . , pp. 24-6; and C h ' i e n Eo/p^^ , Nan-yang Hua-ch'iao h s u e h - h s _ a o - c h i h  t ' i a o - c h ' a yu tung - ch± ^ ^^M^ LiM-Mi^ f Shanghai, 1930, p. 20. 90 R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . The e n t h u s i a s m r e a c h e d a new h e i g h t w i t h the s u c c e s s o f 91 the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n i n 1911. The Overseas C h i n e s e had m a t e r i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n , w h i c h had meant t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e Ch i n e s e p e o p l e from s t r a n g l i n g backwardness. Now t h e Chi n e s e would become e n l i g h t e n e d , " p r o g r e s s i v e and g r e a t . They must shake o f f t h e s h a c k l e s o f unreason. They must educate n o t o n l y t h e i r m a les, b u t a l s o t h e i r f e m a l e s . I n 189 9 t h e Chi n e s e i n Si n g a p o r e had made t h e f i r s t e f f o r t t o educate t h e i r g i r l s " i n consonance w i t h C h i n e s e p r i n c i p l e s , " b u t i t had f a i l e d t o c a t c h on, and i t s w e l l con-c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n a l programme was soon t o l o o k v e r y un-Chinese. A n o t h e r s t a r t was made i n 1905 by a Cantonese l a d y , Madame Huang T i e n - h s i e n ^#^| ) , who founded the Hua Ch'iao G i r l s ' S c h o o l <( Jfi^^ktrkj) i n S i n g a p o r e s o l e l y t o t e a c h C h i n e s e . ^  The s c h o o l l a s t e d f o r l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s . The Chi n e s e C o n s u l G e n e r a l i n Si n g a p o r e r e p o r t e d i n 1906 a Ch i n e s e g i r l s ' s c h o o l i n Ipoh, founded by a Hokkien merchant named Hu K u o - l i e n (^j£J djjy^ ) , w h i l e i n K u a l a Lumpur the Kan Ch'eng G i r l s ' S c h o o l ( i ^ ^ - i ^ i ) 94 was founded i n 190 8. But t h e r e a l advance i n Chi n e s e female e d u c a t i o n was made i n 1911. On the eve o f t h e Chi n e s e R e v o l u t i o n Dr. Sun Y a t - s e n was i n S i n g a p o r e . I n a speech he d e l i v e r e d a t the Hsing-chou Reading Room ( -fypjfci- ) i n September, 90 Tang Su-min, op. c i t . , p. 177. 91 Economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e growth o f Ch i n e s e e d u c a t i o n do not c o n c e r n t h i s s t u d y . 92 Tang C h i - y a o , op. c i t . , p. 96. 9 3 Hsu Y u n - c h ' i a o , l o c . c i t . 4 Tang Su-min, op. c i t . , p. 177. a d v o c a t i n g r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a , he had o c c a s i o n t o e x p r e s s 95 r e g r e t o v e r t h e s c a r c i t y o f Chin e s e g i r l s ' s c h o o l s i n S i n g a p o r e . H i s a d m o n i t i o n d i d not f a l l on deaf e a r s . A f t e r the speech, t h e Rev. Tay Sek T i n (J[j3/^"*) , who had founded t h e Hsing-chou Reading Room i n 1902 as an a i d t o C h r i s t i a n e v a n g e l i s m b u t whose c r e a t i o n soon became the f i r s t o f many t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s , and Mr. Pang Ch'ab-p'eng i n v i t e d Dr. Sun t o l e n d h i s w e i g h t i n an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h a Chinese g i r l s ' s c h o o l . T h i s was the Chung Hua G i r l s ' S c h o o l nese female e d u c a t i o n began t o s p r e a d a f t e r t h e Chine s e R e v o l u t i o n . G i r l s ' departments.were e s t a b l i s h e d i n some of t h e o l d e r s c h o o l s w h i l e o t h e r g i r l s ' s c h o o l s were founded, f o r example, th e Ch'ung Fu G i r l s ' S c h o o l ( i n 1915, the Ch'ung Pen G i r l s ' S c h o o l {%Jh-~JL%3L) i n 1916, and the Nanyang G i r l s ' S c h o o l (ft}yifJjLJfk^ ) i n 1917, a l l i n S i n g a p o r e . 9 6 The most re m a r k a b l e development, however, was the e d u c a t i o n o f bo t h boys and g i r l s i n t h e same s c h o o l s . N a t u r a l l y t h e s e s c h o o l s p r o v i d e d o n l y p r i m a r y c l a s s e s a t f i r s t , b u t j u s t as n a t u r a l l y , t h e i r s u c c e s s c r e a t e d demand f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r secondary o r h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t 97 j u n i o r m i d d l e c l a s s was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1917 i n t h e Chung L i n g S c h o o l ( 4t 'If $h ) i n Penang, founded i n 1912. I n 1919 t h e Hsu Su-wu, op. c i t . , p. 47. 96 Tang C h i - y a o , op. c i t . , p. 97. 97 . • Chi n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya was o r g a n i z e d i n t o p r i m a r y and m i d d l e o r h i g h s c h o o l s . The p r i m a r y s c h o o l was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r l o w e r p r i m a r y s t a n d a r d s and two upper p r i m a r y s t a n d a r d s . The m i d d l e o r h i g h s c h o o l was d i v i d e d i n t o j u n i o r m i d d l e and s e n i o r m i d d l e , each o f t h r e e y e a r s ' d u r a t i o n . - 48 -Chi n e s e H i g h S c h o o l ) was founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee and o t h e r s i n S i n g a p o r e . The Penang Hig h S c h o o l ( ^ f t J ^ ' f , ^ ) was a l s o founded i n 1919. Other h i g h s c h o o l s o r m i d d l e c l a s s e s were e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e r e was a demand f o r them. The Yu T s ' a i S c h o o l , I p o h , s t a r t e d a m i d d l e c l a s s i n 192 4, and the Nanyang G i r l s ' S c h o o l , S i n g a p o r e , i n 1929. I n 1935 t h e C a t h o l i c High S c h o o l ( ' ^ f y - ^ ^ ) , S i n g a p o r e , was founded, w h i l e the w e l l -known Chung Cheng High S c h o o l (*pJ&-<fJ&r ) , a l s o i n S i n g a p o r e , 9 8 was e s t a b l i s h e d by Dr. Lim Boon Keng and o t h e r s i n 1939. An a r t i c u l a t e system o f Chi n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya was e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r t h e war when th e Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y ( (% >J^  ^ L ^ * ) was founded i n S i n g a p o r e i n 1956. The p a t t e r n o f Ch i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya was formed i n th e e a r l y 1920's when t h e n o r t h e r n C h i n e s e d i a l e c t , the M a n d a r i n , n a t i o n a l i z e d as Kuo Yu (the N a t i o n a l Language) d u r i n g t h e 99 N a t i o n a l Language Movement w h i c h s t a r t e d xn Chxna xn 1917, was adopted as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n Malaya. Mandarin had found i t s way i n t o some s c h o o l s b e f o r e t h e n , b u t i t s u n i v e r s a l use i n a l l C h i n e s e s c h o o l s was a r e s u l t o f t h e s u c c e s s o f the N a t i o n a l Language Movement i n C h i n a . I t soon became the l i n g u a f r a n c a o f t h e l i t e r a t e C h inese i n Malaya and p r o v i d e d a s t r o n g f o r c e b i n d i n g them t o g e t h e r . I t was t o p r e s e n t an a c u t e problem f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a system o f n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya. 9 8 .... The c h r o n o l o g y was c o m p i l e d from Hsu Y u n - c h ' i a o , op. e x t . , p. 43; Hsu Su-wu, op. c i t . , pp. 49-55; Tang C h i - y a o , op. c i t . , p. 97; C h ' i e n Ho, op. c i t . , p. 21. 99 P u r c e l l , op. c x t . , p. 228. - 49 -Chi n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya d i s p l a y e d a b e w i l d e r i n g range o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . and e d u c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y . Some C h i n e s e s c h o o l s r a n k e d among t h e b e s t i n t h e c o u n t r y and r e c e i v e d Grade 1 g r a n t s - i n - a i d from t h e Government, w h i l e o t h e r s b a r e l y met the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n . T h i s b e t r a y s a weakness c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l C h i n e s e community e f f o r t s w h i c h o f t e n e x p r e s s l o c a l o r c l a n s o l i d a r i t y . The f o r e g o i n g p aragraphs have shown t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s grew up i n d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s from l o c a l e f f o r t s , e i t h e r i n response t o a genuine demand o r i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g d i s t r i c t s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . There was no c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g . The r e s u l t was t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n b o t h i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y among t h e Ch i n e s e was v e r y u n e q u a l . Some c o u n t r y a r e a s were s t a r v e d o f any e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o r c o u l d a f f o r d o n l y t h e p o o r e s t o f them w h i l e i n some urban d i s t r i c t s , t h e r e was much r e p e t i t i o n and wastage o f such f a c i l i t i e s . The need f o r some o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e s e l o c a l e f f o r t s was e a r l y r e a l i z e d . The Manchu I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s , Mr. L i u , had urged the f o r m a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n f o r Malaya d u r i n g h i s t o u r o f i n s p e c t i o n i n 1907. The Chi n e s e C o n s u l i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s b r o u g h t back t h e i d e a t o l i f e i n 1913, and the G e n e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Chi n e s e E d u c a t i o n o f Malaya was formed i n Si n g a p o r e t h e f o l l o w i n g year."*"^ 1 But i t was l i t t l e more tha n a communication c e n t r e , l a r g e l y a t the d i s p o s a l o f t h e Chinese C o n s u l . I t never a c h i e v e d o r even s e r i o u s l y attempted t o 100 101 Hsu Y u n - c h ' i a o , op. c i t . , p. 42. Hsu Su-wu, op. c i t . , p. 122. - 50 -a c h i e v e t h e aim o f c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g , p r o v i s i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya. The G e n e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was d i s s o l v e d i n 1920 as a r e s u l t o f the i n e f f e c t u a l p r o t e s t i t o r g a n i z e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e R e g i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s O r d i n a n c e , and never was a n o t h e r attempt made t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n one o r g a n i z a t i o n b e f o r e the war.-One s t r i k i n g t h i n g about C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya was t h a t , d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and e d u c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y and t h e l a c k o f communication and c o o r d i n a t i o n among Chin e s e s c h o o l s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l programme o f t h e s e s c h o o l s was s u r p r i s i n g l y u n i f o r m . T h i s was r e v e a l e d by a r a r e s u r v e y o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n t h e Nanyang conducted by Mr. C h ' i e n Ho ) o f t h e Department o f Nanyang C u l t u r e s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Chi-nan ( Sf^&Mhfc'^^J^P ) r i n 1928-29. Mr. C h ' i e n e x p l a i n e d t h a t i n two m a i l i n g s he s e n t out more than a thousand forms t o C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n the Nanyang. He a l s o asked t h r e e o r f o u r f r i e n d s t o urge s c h o o l s t o complete and r e t u r n t h e s e forms. The r e s p o n s e was a . l i t t l e d i s a p p o i n t i n g . I n a l l o n l y 10 8 forms were 102 r e t u r n e d , o f w h i c h 38 were from M a l a y a . The 38 r e t u r n s from Malaya gave a f a i r sample o f the C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . i n t h e c o u n t r y . They were f a i r l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t M a l a y a , 18 i n t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , 18 i n t h e F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , and 2 i n t h e o t h e r Malay S t a t e s . T h e i r e n r o l m e n t s ranged from, below 50 t o o v e r 600, w i t h a heavy con-c e n t r a t i o n on the 100-350 range. They were m o s t l y f u l l p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , b u t t h e y i n c l u d e d l ower p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , and p r i m a r y C h ' i e n Ho, op. c i t . , pp. i i , 4 83. Each form r e q u e s t e d 12 i t e m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a s c h o o l namely, h i s t o r y o f i t s - 51 -s c h o o l s w i t h m i d d l e , normal o r commercial c l a s s e s . The sample showed t h a t 25 s c h o o l s used Kuo Yii as t h e s o l e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n , 9 s c h o o l s used b o t h Kuo Yu and a d i a l e c t , 5 s c h o o l s used a d i a l e c t i n t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s , and o n l y one s c h o o l used o n l y a d i a l e c t . A l l s c h o o l s used t e x t b o o k s p u b l i s h e d by e i t h e r t h e Commercial P r e s s o r t h e Chung Hua P r e s s , b o t h o f S h a n g h a i , w i t h t h e former b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o p u l a r . I n t h e sample o n l y 20 s c h o o l s s u p p l i e d f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t s t h e y o f f e r e d . A l l o f them o f f e r e d a wide range o f s u b j e c t s , as many as 15 s u b j e c t s e x c l u d i n g C o m p o s i t i o n and Hand-w r i t i n g i n some s c h o o l s . A l l o f them o f f e r e d Kuo Yu, E n g l i s h , A r i t h m e t i c , H i s t o r y and Geography. C i v i c s and N a t u r e S t u d i e s were each o f f e r e d i n 16 s c h o o l s , G e n e r a l Knowledge i n 13, Hygiene i n 12, S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n 10, Commerce and Bookkeeping i n 4 e a c h , Abacus i n 5 , . L e t t e r - w r i t i n g i n 6, M u s i c o r S i n g i n g i n 17, A r t o r Drawing i n 13, C r a f t o r Handwork i n 12, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n o r P h y s i c a l D r i l l i n 13. Seven s c h o o l s t a u g h t t h e San Min Chu I ) , w h i l e o n l y one s c h o o l o f f e r e d Geography o f t h e Malay P e n i n s u l a . Other s u b j e c t s o c c a s i o n a l l y o f f e r e d i n c l u d e d C o n v e r s a t i o n , S t o r y T e l l i n g , Games, Gar d e n i n g and C h i n e s e P h o n e t i c s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m , as f o l l o w s : f o u n d a t i o n , i t s a d d r e s s , i t s management and managers, i t s s t a f f , number o f p u p i l s , academic o r g a n i z a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , s c h o o l equipments, s u b j e c t s and t e x t b o o k s , p l a c e o f o r i g i n ( i n China) o f p u p i l s , o t h e r s , and o p i n i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n on most it e m s r e q u i r e d l e n g t h y d e s c r i p t i o n and was v e r y i n c o m p l e t e l y s u p p l i e d . - 52 -A c o r e o f Group A p l u s o p t i o n s o f Groups B, C, D and E: Group B Group C *Commerce or / a n d Drawing o r A r t o r C r a f t o r Handwork Group D Group E Mu s i c o r P h y s i c a l Ed. S i n g i n g o r P h y s i c a l D r i l l o r *Gardening o r **Games Group A Kuo Yu E n g l i s h * L e t t e r A r i t h m e t i c w r i t i n g o r * H i s t o r y *Bookkeeping *Geography or/and * * C i v i c s *Abacus o r **Nature * C i v i c s o r S t u d i e s * * G e n e r a l Knowledge or / a n d * * S o c i a l S t u d i e s or/and Hygiene *For upper p r i m a r y c l a s s e s o n l y . **For l o w e r p r i m a r y c l a s s e s o n l y . What were t h e e d u c a t i o n a l aims o f su c h a c u r r i c u l u m ? I n one sense i t i s m i s l e a d i n g t o a s s i g n any c o n s c i o u s aims t o Chin e s e e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a , f o r not o n l y were Ch i n e s e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s u n c o o r d i n a t e d , t h e r e were no e d u c a t i o n i s t s t o f o r m u l a t e and e v a l u a t e aims. But t h e r e were c e r t a i n t e n d e n c i e s u n d e r l y i n g a l l C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s . E a r l i e r i h t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i t was s a i d t h a t t h e ' o l d - s t y l e 1 s c h o o l was m a i n l y an a g e n t ' o f C h i n e s e c i v i l i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o i m p a r t some s k i l l s o f l i v i n g . The same c o u l d be s a i d o f t h e s c h o o l s t h a t grew up a f t e r 1900. These s c h o o l s a l s o attempted t o i m p a r t t h e b a s i c s k i l l s of l i v i n g , namely, r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and c o u n t i n g , and perhaps t h e y were d o i n g i t more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n t h e ' o l d -s t y l e ' s c h o o l s as t h e use o f modern t e x t b o o k s and o f t h e c o l l o q u i a l speech i n p l a c e o f the d i f f i c u l t C l a s s i c a l Language made t h e l e a r n i n g o f such s k i l l s a p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . L i m i t e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was p r o v i d e d i n some commercial s u b j e c t s i n a few s c h o o l s , w h i l e many s c h o o l s p r o v i d e d v a r i o u s e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r p u p i l s s u c h as s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , s t u d e n t s ' s a v i n g s b a n k i n g c l u b , s t u d e n t t u c k shops, - 53 -and s t u d e n t s ' consumer c o o p e r a t i v e s . The i m p o r t a n t p l a c e o f E n g l i s h i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m was a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p r a c t i c a l v a l u e o f t h e language i n the c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y , though t h e l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h was academic. That was t h e h a l l m a r k o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n ; t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l p r e p a r e d i t s s t u d e n t s f o r t h e j u n i o r m i d d l e s c h o o l , w h i c h i n t u r n p r e p a r e d them f o r the s e n i o r m i d d l e s c h o o l , w h i c h t h e n p r e p a r e d them f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y , even though f a c i l i t i e s f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n were n ot l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e and o n l y a v e r y few c o u l d a s p i r e t o c l i m b up the whole l a d d e r o f e d u c a t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d i n Chin e s e s c h o o l s was t o t a l l y i n a d e q u a t e and i n e f f e c t u a l . Where i t e x i s t e d , i t was l e a r n e d i n an academic way. No e f f o r t was made t o adapt s c h o o l l e s s o n s t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . P u p i l s were t a u g h t no i n d i g e n o u s language o r l o c a l h i s t o r y o r geography. Even the Ga r d e n i n g c l a s s was s i m p l y a way o f p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t l a b o u r t o keep s c h o o l compounds i n shape. Q u i t e c l e a r l y C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were n o t p r i m a r i l y t h e p l a c e t o l e a r n t h e s k i l l s o f l i v i n g . Many p e o p l e r e g a r d e d C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n as a waste o f e f f o r t . They p o i n t e d o u t t h a t few l e a d e r s o f the C h i n e s e com-munity had been e d u c a t e d i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , w i t h the i m p l i e d a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e y had been i n v a r i a b l y E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d . Such an a p p r a i s a l seems t o be v e r y p a r t i a l . The problem cannot be e x p r e s s e d so n e a t l y . C h i n e s e s c h o o l s had produced l e a d e r s . Only t h e s e l e a d e r s c o u l d n o t a t t a i n Malayan s t a t u r e because t h e i r c r e d e n t i a l s o f l e a d e r s h i p were s u s p e c t t o the a u t h o r i t i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d Chinese l e a d e r s whose a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s e n a b l e d them t o move on t h e n a t i o n a l s t a g e - 54 -o f t e n c o u l d n o t l e a d t h e masses o f the C h i n e s e p e o p l e because t h e i r c r e d e n t i a l s o f l e a d e r s h i p were s u s p e c t t o t h e C h i n e s e . F r e q u e n t l y t h e r e f o r e t h e e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s o f t h e Chinese were e d u c a t e d i n b o t h E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e . They a l o n e c o u l d o f f i c i a t e o r b r i d g e t h e communication between the a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e Ch i n e s e because they had t h e good w i l l o f the one and c o u l d i n s p i r e t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e o t h e r . Thus t h e problem d i d n o t l i e e n t i r e l y w i t h C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . Chinese s c h o o l s had f a i l e d t o adapt t h e m s e l v e s t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , b u t the c o l o n i a l 103 a u t h o r i t i e s had s e g r e g a t e d t h e C h i n e s e b e f o r e hand. Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s were r e g a r d e d as a l i e n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f an a l i e n p e o p l e i n a c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y . C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were t r a n s m i t t e r s o f Chi n e s e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , and p u p i l s i n Chinese s c h o o l s were t a u g h t t o remain C h i n e s e . There was supreme v i r t u e i n b e i n g a C h i n e s e , because t o be a Chi n e s e was t o be a w i s e man. The g e n e r a l o p i n i o n among t h e C h i n e s e was t h a t the n a t i v e s were u n c i v i l i z e d , and the Europeans uncouth. T h i s v e n e r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e c u l t u r e was age o l d and c o u l d n o t be e a s i l y r e s t r a i n e d . There were many i n f l u e n c e s i n Chi n e s e s c h o o l s t o mould t h e C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r . P u p i l s were t a u g h t t h e Chi n e s e l a n g u a g e , C h i n e s e l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y and geography, and C o n f u c i a n e t h i c s i n c l a s s o r i n m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s d u r i n g weekly a s s e m b l i e s . T h i s c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y was more e f f e c t i v e l y c u l t i v a t e d t h a n i n the ' o l d - s t y l e ' s c h o o l s because i t was p o w e r f u l l y evoked by n a t i o n a l i s t e f f e r v e s c e n c e . C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s had sought t o ^ r e v i v e C h i n a and h e r c u l t u r e See Lea E. W i l l i a m s , The F u t u r e o f the Overseas C h i n e s e  i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a , New Y o r k , 1966, pp. 89-92. - 55 -t h r o u g h the medium o f t h e s c h o o l , and many o f them, e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e Kuomintang b r a n d , became c u s t o d i a n s o f Chinese n a t i o n a l i s m and c u l t u r e i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n M a l a y a . I t was t h i s n a t i o n a l i s t and c u l t u r a l c h a u v i n i s m w h i c h gave C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya t h e s p o n t a n e i t y i t d i s p l a y e d . C o n c l u s i o n T h i s c h a p t e r has a t t e m p t e d t o show t h a t the problem o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya was r o o t e d i n t h e u n t i m e l y c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e l a i s s e z f a i r e a t t i t u d e o f t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s i n M a l aya towards C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g i t s f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d and t h e r i s e o f C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m under t h e impetus o f w h i c h C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were b u i l t i n l a r g e numbers a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y . I t i s argued t h a t t h e r e were no good r e a s o n s why t h e B r i t i s h Governments i n M a l a y a d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r Chinese e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l l y , t h e i r p o l i c y had always been t h a t t h e e a r l y e d u c a t i o n o f a c h i l d s h o u l d be i n i t s mother tongue. P o l i t i c a l l y , t h e y had not o b j e c t e d t o "making t h e F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , from t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t , an o u t l y i n g p o r t i o n o f I n d i a , l i k e C e y l o n . " Indeed, i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o see the wisdom o f an e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y w h i c h , s e e k i n g t o a v o i d e n c o u r a g i n g t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e i d e a t h a t C h i n a i s t h e i r home, n e v e r t h e l e s s abandoned them t o t h e i r i n c l i n a t i o n s , . I t i s argued t h a t t h e o n l y r e a s o n why the Governments d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n was t h a t t h e r e was no economic n e c e s s i t y f o r i t . The C h i n e s e c o u l d l o o k a f t e r t h e m s e l v e s , so l e t them; th e Government s h o u l d save the c o s t . T h i s was a s h o r t - s i g h t e d and i r r e s p o n s i b l e a t t i t u d e , and i t a c c e n t u a t e d t h e e t h n o c e n t r i s m o f the C h i n e s e . I t i s r e m a r k a b l e how t h e Government c o m p l e t e l y t u r n e d t h e i r eyes - 56 -from C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . One s e a r c h e d i n v a i n f o r any i n f o r m a t i o n on C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n the o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s i n t h i s p e r i o d y e a r a f t e r y e a r w h i l e C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n raged l i k e a b l a z e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . The most r e m a r k a b l e t h i n g about C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya was i t s deep entanglement w i t h t h e p o l i t i c s o f C h i n a . The l i n k was f o r g e d by Ch i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m . The Manchus had attem p t e d t o c u l t i v a t e t h e p a t r i o t i s m o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e by e n c d u r a g i n g and p r o m o t i n g e d u c a t i o n among them, but C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m was b o r n o f t h e h u m i l i a t i o n w h i c h t h e Manchu Govern-ment r e p e a t e d l y s u f f e r e d a t the hands o f f o r e i g n powers and o f the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the Han Ch i n e s e t o r e s t o r e C h i n a t o g r e a t n e s s under t h e i r r u l e , a l t h o u g h Dr. Sun Y a t - s e n was l a t e r t o expound an i d e o l o g y r e g a r d i n g C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i t y as c o m p r i s i n g the Hans, the Manchus, t h e Mongols, t h e H u i s , t h e T i b e t a n s and o t h e r s . The Overseas C h i n e s e were n a t u r a l l y a t t a c h e d t o C h i n a by k i n s h i p and c u l t u r e . T h e i r e m i g r a t i o n was never an o r g a n i z e d p l a n f o r s e t t l e m e n t b u t a s e l f - i m p o s e d temporary e x i l e i n s e a r c h o f economic g a i n . The d u t i e s t o the f a m i l i e s l e f t b e h i n d and t h e a n c e s t r a l l a n d o f a l o n g memory and o f a- g r e a t c i v i l i z a t i o n p u l l e d them s t r o n g l y towards C h i n a . But C h i n a under Manchu r u l e had become an a f f r o n t t o t h e i r p r i d e and l o y a l t y . The Overseas C h i n e s e were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y from s o u t h e r n C h i n a , where the l a t e Ming l o y a l i s t s h e l d o u t t o t h e l a s t a g a i n s t t h e Manchu conquest. These Ming l o y a l i s t s were among th e C h i n e s e e m i g r a n t s , and t h e i r avowed a m b i t i o n was t o " D e s t r o y the Ch'ings and R e s t o r e the Mings." The Manchus ( i . e . t h e c h ' i n g s ) r i g h t l y d i s t r u s t e d t h e s e d i s s i d e n t s , and t h e y r e g a r d e d a l l e m i g r a n t s as c r i m i n a l s and - 57 -p o t e n t i a l r e b e l s f l e e i n g from j u s t i c e and t h e y t r i e d h a r d t o p r o h i b i t e m i g r a t i o n . T h e i r p e r s e c u t i o n o f e m i g r a n t s a l i e n a t e d t h e l a t t e r f u r t h e r , and t h e i r h o p e l e s s p o s i t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s e m b i t t e r e d t h e Overseas C h i n e s e . Thus when the n a t i o n a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a d vocated o v e r t h r o w o f the Manchus, the Overseas Chinese f l o c k e d t o t h e i r c a l l . The Overseas C h i n e s e , abandoned by t h e i r Government, knew t h e i r p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . There had been a few cases o f mass massacre of t h e Overseas C h i n e s e w i t h o u t r e d r e s s , and t h e y l o n g e d f o r a s t r o n g C h i n a t o p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s abroad. F o r a l o n g time t h e y had remained o u t s i d e any p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y ; t h e y had no r i g h t and no r e a s o n t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e f o r e i g n l a n d s — c o l o n i a l r u l e had b r o u g h t o r d e r , removed 104 o f f i c i a l b r i b e r y and e x t o r t i o n , and opened t r a d e . The C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t t i me gave them a p o l i t i c a l 105 cause which a r o u s e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t and engaged t h e i r l o y a l t y . The s u c c e s s o f the C h i n e s e R e v o l u t i o n d i d not r e s o l v e the p a t r i o t i s m o f the Overseas C h i n e s e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t added f u e l t o f i r e . The m a t e r i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the Overseas C h i n e s e t o i t e n a b l e d them t o c l a i m t h a t t h e new C h i n a was i n p a r t t h e i r c r e a t i o n and t o i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e f a t e o f C h i n a . T h i s c l a i m was acknowledged by b o t h the P e k i n g and l a t e r the Nanking Governments, w h i c h assumed, i n e f f e c t i v e l y , a p a t e r n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y -for;:the w e l l b e i n g o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e , g r e a t l y t o t h e i r own p r o f i t , and earned t h e i r g r a t i t u d e , which was always 104 C P . F i t z G e r a l d , The T h i r d C h i n a . The C h i n e s e Communities i n S o u t h - E a s t ' A s i a , Sydney, 1965, p. 18. 105 T, , 0 1 I b i d . , p. 21. - 58 -g e n e r o u s l y g i v e n . Thus i n 1917 the E d u c a t i o n Department i n P e k i n g s e n t M e s s r s . Huang Y e n - p ' e i and L i n Ting-hua ( ^ - . ^ J p ) t o fefee S o u t h - e a s t A s i a t o i n v e s t i g a t e C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n and t o 106 encourage the C h i n e s e t o e s t a b l i s h v o c a t i o n a l and h i g h s c h o o l s . T h i s u n d o u b t e d l y gave a f i l l i p t o C h i n e s e e f f o r t . The Nanking Government was l a t e r t o attempt t o e x t e n d an unwonted degree o f c o n t r o l o v e r C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n S o u t h - e a s t A s i a , i n c l u d i n g M a l a y a , 107 b u t w i t h o u t much s u c c e s s . A l l t h e s e were t o s t r e n g t h e n an a l r e a d y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between C h i n a and t h e Overseas C h i n e s e . But t h e r e a l f a c t o r i n t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e 10 8 i n C h i n a ' s a f f a i r s was p o l i t i c a l . The i l l s o f C h i n a were not o v e r . C h i n a had been f r e e d from t h e Manchu yoke, b u t h e r f o r e i g n yoke hung on. I n p a r t i c u l a r , Japan t h r e a t e n e d t o s u b j u g a t e t h e i n f a n t new C h i n a , and t h e p a r t p a r e n t , the Overseas C h i n e s e , c o u l d n o t l o o k on unconcerned. Thus China's d e s p e r a t e s t r u g g l e t o p r e s e r v e h e r p o l i t i c a l and t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y a g a i n s t Japanese a g g r e s s i o n d u r i n g t h e P a r i s Peace Conference i n 1919 aroused t h e Overseas C h i n e s e . I n Malaya the C h i n e s e r e f u s e d t o t a k e p a r t i n c e l e b r a t i o n s commemorating t h e end o f t h e European War, and t h e y b o y c o t t e d Japanese goods and s u b j e c t e d u n p a t r i o t i c . C h i n e s e d e a l e r s i n enemy goods t o i n s u l t s and v i o l e n c e . I n S i n g a p o r e , a d e p u t a t i o n o f two s t u d e n t s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f P e k i n g t o p u b l i c i s e t h e May F o u r t h Movement i n S o u t h - e a s t A s i a 106 Tang Su-min, op. c i t . , p. 178. 1 0 7 C h i n a . Hsing-cheng-yuan hsin-wen-chu £t i#Lfd-^nj" i Ch'iao-pao c h i a o - y i i jfe , n.p., 1947, p. 4. 1 0 ^ I n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n s i o n s i n C h i n a do not c o n c e r n t h i s s t u d y . - 59 -was r e c e i v e d a t the Ch i n e s e High S c h o o l . Emotions r a n h i g h , and th e i n f l a m e d speeches i n c i t e d s e v e r a l s c h o o l m a s t e r s t o t a k e t h e law i n t o t h e i r hands. They c o l l e c t e d a gang o f f i g h t e r s and rava g e d t h e s t r e e t s o f S i n g a p o r e , b r e a k i n g i n t o s t o r e s s e l l i n g 109 Japanese goods and b u r n i n g t h e i r goods. I t was i n t h i s atmosphere t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s e n a c t e d the R e g i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s O r d i n a n c e i n 1920 t o e f f e c t some measure o f c o n t r o l , a g a i n s t s t r o n g C h i n e s e o p p o s i t i o n . The G e n e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Chi n e s e E d u c a t i o n o f Malaya l e d t h e Chi n e s e s c h o o l s i n p r o t e s t . I t s e n t Madame Yii P ' e i - k a o ( /jf> 4i^^- ) o f the Nanyang G i r l s ' S c h o o l t o P e k i n g t o r e q u e s t d i p l o m a t i c a s s i s t a n c e from t h e Chi n e s e Government and Mr. Chung Yueh-ch'en ( j j| f ) o f i Penang t o London t o see t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y i n an e f f o r t t o change t h e Government's d e c i s i o n . 1 1 ^ T h e i r e f f o r t s were i n e f f e c t u a l . S e v e r a l C h i n e s e s c h o o l m a s t e r s , i n c l u d i n g Madame Yu and Mr. Chung, were b a n i s h e d from M a l a y a , and t h e G e n e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Chi n e s e E d u c a t i o n o f Malaya was d i s s o l v e d . But i t took more th a n t h e R e g i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s Ordinance t o stamp out p o l i t i c s from C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , and the B r i t i s h Governments i n Malaya n e v e r r e a l l y succeeded i n i t . As l o n g as t h e C h i n a w h i c h t h e Overseas C h i n e s e had a p a r t i n c r e a t i n g remained weak but v i a b l e , t he Overseas C h i n e s e , who had no p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s i n the c o u n t r i e s o f t h e i r r e s i d e n c e , would c o n t i n u e t o i n v o l v e them-s e l v e s i n t h e a f f a i r s o f C h i n a . 109 Tang Su-min, op. c i t . , pp. 96-7. "'"''"^ Hsu Su-wu, op. c i t . , p. 131. CHAPTER I I I THE PROBLEM OF CHINESE EDUCATION IN THE POST-WAR POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MALAYA The problem o f Malayan n a t i o n h o o d became m a n i f e s t o n l y a f t e r World War I I . B e f o r e the war l i t t l e t h ought was g i v e n t o t h i s p r o b lem as Malaya was t h e n m e r e l y a g e o g r a p h i c a l name d e s i g n a t i n g no p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y . I n f a c t i t seemed t h a t no amount o f inducement c o u l d persuade t h e Malay S t a t e s t o end t h e i r mutual i s o l a t i o n . ' ' " The B r i t i s h t h u s c o n v e n i e n t l y s e t a s i d e t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e l f - r u l e and n a t i o n h o o d , p l e d g i n g o n l y t o keep Malaya a Malay l a n d , i n f i c t i o n a t l e a s t . I n t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya p r e s e n t e d no more s e r i o u s problems t h a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ones. C h i n e s e immigrants were a l i e n s , and s h o u l d conduct t h e m s e l v e s l i k e a l i e n s , r e s p e c t i n g l o c a l a u t h o r -i t i e s . They might be p a t r i o t i c towards t h e i r f a t h e r l a n d , but t h e y would be g r o s s l y m i s b e h a v i n g themselves t o use t h e i r s c h o o l s t o s p r e a d d i s a f f e c t i o n towards t h e governments o f t h e i r h o s t c o u n t r i e s . They must be r e s t r a i n e d from t h i s . However, t h e same problem was t o appear i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t l i g h t i n t h e changed c o n t e x t " o f post-war M a l a y a . The c o u n t r y was g e t t i n g r eady t o s t r i d e towards s e l f - r u l e , and i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e new n a t i o n c o u l d not be r i d o f t h e C h i n e s e . C h i n a - i n s p i r e d p o l i t i c s and p a t r i o t i s m i n Chinese s c h o o l s became i n t o l e r a b l e i n t h i s new v i s t a , and t h e problem a r o s e n o t o n l y t o e f f a c e t h i s f o r e i g n F o r example, t h e attempt t o a t t r a c t the U n f e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s i n t o F e d e r a t i o n by a p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t h e F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s was not s u c c e s s f u l . - 61 -a l l e g i a n c e from C h i n e s e s c h o o l s and t o r e f a s h i o n them so as t o f o s t e r a Malayan c o n s c i o u s n e s s and l o y a l t y among the C h i n e s e , b u t a l s o t o i n t e g r a t e C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n t o a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h would d e f i n e t h e p l a c e o f Malay and C h i n e s e c u l t u r e s i n t h e Malayan s o c i e t y now growing i n t o n a t i o n h o o d . A l l t h i s was attempted i n t h e f u l l impact o f c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s o f t h e Malay and the Chinese communities o f t h e Malayan p l u r a l s o c i e t y . The B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n g r a p p l e d w i t h t h e problem and f a i l e d . R i g h t l y , Malayans s h o u l d be a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e i r own n a t i o n . The C h i n e s e and t h e Malay 'Quest f o r L e g i t i m a c y ' o f t h e i r P l a c e  i n t h e Emerging Malayan N a t i o n I n 1943, a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e Japanese power i n South-e a s t A s i a , C o l o n e l O l i v e r S t a n l e y , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s , announced t h a t "the main aim o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s Government as r e g a r d s t h e p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e o f Malaya Q a f t e r i t s l i b e r a t i o n ] ] w i l l be t h e development o f i t s c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f -2 government w i t h i n the Empire." T h i s announcement, t o g e t h e r w i t h e a r l i e r B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y d e f e a t by the Japanese, r e v o l u t i o n i z e d t h e post-war p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n M a l a y a . I n t h e p o l i t i c a l l y awakened Malaya a f t e r the war, t h e q u e s t i o n f o r e m o s t i n t h e mind o f b o t h t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e p e o p l e was how power would be d e v o l v e d when the t i m e came. The B r i t i s h r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e had earned t h e m s e l v e s a p l a c e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e o f M a l a y a , as t h e C h i n e s e u n d o u b t e d l y t h o u g h t t h e y had, b u t how would t h e Malays t a k e t h i s ? I n t h e hour o f a G r e a t B r i t a i n , House o f Commons, P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates  ( H a n s a r d ) , V o l . 395, 5 t h s e r i e s , December 1, 1943, p. 384. - 62 -p r o j e c t e d m i l i t a r y r e c o n q u e s t o f M a l a y a , i n w h i c h C h i n e s e communist g u e r r i l l a s would be c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h the A l l i e d "Force 136" i n t h e Japanese r e a r , w h i l e t h e Malays would, i t was s u s p e c t e d , c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h t h e Japanese, t h e B r i t i s h were 3 p r e p a r e d t o f o r c e a s e t t l e m e n t on t h e M a l a y s . Thus the f i r s t s t e p towards t h e announced p o l i t i c a l g o a l f o r M alaya took t h e shape o f a scheme t o b r i n g t h e s e p a r a t e Malay S t a t e s under a s t r o n g c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t o c r e a t e a l i b e r a l common c i t i z e n s h i p c o m p r i s i n g Malays and non-Malays a l i k e . T h i s touched th e Malays t o t h e q u i c k . Malaya had been saved from t h e p r o -j e c t e d m i l i t a r y campaign w h i c h might have compromised t h e Malay p o s i t i o n . As t h i n g s t u r n e d o u t , t h e ' o l d Malaya hands' j o i n e d t h e Malays i n l o u d d e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e Malayan Union scheme as a b e t r a y a l o f t h e Malay t r u s t . Malay o p i n i o n t h r o u g h -o u t t h e l e n g t h and b r e a d t h o f t h e c o u n t r y was m o b i l i z e d , and t h e Malayan Union scheme was d e f e a t e d . T h i s , however, d i d n ot r e s t o r e t h e o l d o r d e r . By t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya Agreement, 1948, a c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e whole c o u n t r y and non-Malays were a d m i t t e d t o c i t i z e n s h i p on a r e s t r i c t e d b a s i s . What had br o u g h t about t h e change i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s o f the C h i n e s e i n Malaya? B e f o r e t h e war t h e B r i t i s h had m a i n t a i n e d t h a t C h i n e s e immigrants were t r a n s i e n t a l i e n s h a v i n g 4 no r o o t s i n the c o u n t r y and n e e d i n g no l o n g - t e r m c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 3 T.H. S i l c o c k and Ungku A b d u l A z i z , " N a t i o n a l i s m i n Malaya," i n W i l l i a m L. H o l l a n d , ed., A s i a n N a t i o n a l i s m and t h e West, New Yo r k , 1953, pp. 300-301. 4 C P . F i t z G e r a l d , The T h i r d C h i n a . The Chinese Com- m u n i t i e s i n S o u t h - E a s t A s i a , Sydney, 1965, p. 16. - 63 -T h i s v i e w was f o r t i f i e d by two f a c t s . F i r s t , t h e avowed o b j e c t o f C h i n e s e immigrants was economic g a i n , and t h e i r o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n was t o r e t i r e t o t h e i r homeland once, t h e y had made t h e i r f o r t u n e . Many i n f a c t d i d so r e t i r e t o C h i n a . S e c o n d l y , C h i n e s e immigrants were l i t t l e i n t e r e s t e d i n l o c a l a f f a i r s , t h e i r c o n c e r n b e i n g w h o l l y w i t h C h i n a . These f a c t s , however, do n o t t e l l t h e whole s t o r y . C h i n e s e n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l a f f a i r s d i d n o t s i g n i f y C h i n e s e d i s i n t e r e s t . The c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n i n M a l a y a was i d e a l f o r m a x i m i s i n g t h e i r economic g a i n , and no o c c a s i o n had a r i s e n f o r them t o a c q u i r e l o c a l p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s . A c t u a l l y C h i n e s e dominated t h e c o u n t r y ' s economic l i f e , and many o f them had become s e t t l e d . W i t h e v e r y b a t c h o f new a r r i v a l s , w h i l e many would e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n t o C h i n a , a c o n s i d e r a b l e number would s e t t l e down, e i t h e r because t h e y c o u l d n o t make enough t o pay t h e i r voyage home o r because t h e y had made so much t h a t t h e y c o u l d not l e a v e i t and go home. The B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s d i d n o t always remember t h a t C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s were f r e e agents once t h e y had p a i d t h e i r passage money. There was n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t them t o amass s i z e a b l e economic i n t e r e s t s and s e t t l e down. Thus i t so o f t e n happened t h a t i n s t e a d o f an immigrant r e t i r i n g t o C h i n a he b r o u g h t out; a w i f e t o s e t t l e down i n M a l a y a . Wars i n C h i n a s t r o n g l y i n d u c e d t h i s tendency t o s e t t l e m e n t , and t h e P a c i f i c War f i n a l l y h e l p e d t o s t a b i l i z e the Malayan C h i n e s e community by c u t t i n g t h e movement between C h i n a and M a l a y a . The growing degree o f C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t " w a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r a i s i n g o f C h i n e s e f a m i l i e s . F o r e v e r y thousand C h i n e s e males i n M a l a y a , t h e r e were 247 C h i n e s e females i n 1911, 384 i n 1921, 531 i n 1931 and - 64 -833 i n 1947. 5 The 1937 census gave 29.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e Ch i n e s e as M a l a y a - b o r n , w h i l e t h e census i n 1947 showed 63.5 per c e n t . By 1947 t h e number o f C h i n e s e had grown t o account f o r 38.4 per c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f M a l a y a , w i t h the Malays c o m p r i s i n g 7 49.5 p e r c e n t . I t was t h i s f a c t o f s e t t l e m e n t and t h e i n c r e a s i n g C h i n e s e h o l d on the Malayan economy t h a t earned t h e C h i n e s e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s i n t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h t h e y had h e l p e d t o d e v e l o p . The C h i n e s e would have p r e f e r r e d n o t t o a s s e r t t h e i r c l a i m s o f p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s , w h i c h t h e y t o o k f o r g r a n t e d , b u t f o r the exposed p o s i t i o n t h e y began t o f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n as a r e s u l t o f t h e B r i t i s h d e c i s i o n t o l e a d Malaya towards s e l f - r u l e . The B r i t i s h had been t h e i r p r o t e c t o r as much as t h e M a l a y s ' , and under i m p a r t i a l B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e y had e n j o y e d maximum economic s e c u r i t y . However, Ch i n e s e r e l i a n c e on B r i t i s h i m p a r t i a l i t y r e s t e d on the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h power was a c o l o n i a l monopoly and t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e Chinese and t h e Malays were complementary and d i d n o t c o n f l i c t . I n t h e p o s t -war g r a d u a l p h a s i n g out o f t h e c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n , B r i t i s h i m p a r t i a l i t y p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e c e d e d i n t o t h e p a s t as t h e Malays were t a k e n i n t o power i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h i s d e v o l u t i o n o f power p r e s s e d on t h e Ch i n e s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i r f u t u r e i n Ma l a y a . V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The C h i n e s e i n Modern M a l a y a , 2nd (Revised) edn., S i n g a p o r e , 1960, p. 15. Malaya h e r e i n c l u d e s S i n g a p o r e . E x c l u d i n g S i n g a p o r e , t h e f i g u r e s a r e : 215 C h i n e s e females i n 1911, 371 i n 1921, 486 i n 1931, and 815 i n 1947. See K . J . Ratnam, Communalism and t h e P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s i n  M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur, 1965, p. 8. Ratnam, i b i d . , p. 9. 7 F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , O f f i c i a l Year Book, 1962, K u a l a Lumpur, 1963, p. 40. T h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h Malay a u t h o r i t i e s b e f o r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e B r i t i s h c o n t r o l had not always been happy, and t h e y c o u l d n o t l o o k t o t h e f u t u r e w i t h any a s s u r a n c e t h a t the Malays would e x e r c i s e power i m p a r t i a l l y i n the t r a d i t i o n o f B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l r u l e . They had a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d a n x i e t y b e f o r e t h e war when the p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was implemented i n t h e F e d e r a t e d Malay S t a t e s , b u t t h e r e a l t h r e a t t o t h e i r f u t u r e was t h e promise o f s e l f - r u l e f o r M a l a y a . C h i n e s e were n o t good n a t i o n a l i s t s i n t h e l o c a l c o n t e x t , b u t t h e y were e n l i g h t e n e d enough t o r e a l i z e t h a t the hours o f c o l o n i a l i s m were r u n n i n g out and t h a t t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t r e q u i r e d them t o i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h M a l a y a . They a c c e p t e d the common c i t i z e n s h i p p r o p o s a l s o f t h e Malayan Union scheme as something l o n g overdue t o them, and o n l y d e p l o r e d t h e u n d e m o c r a t i c manner i n w h i c h the B r i t i s h chose t o c o n c l u d e agreements w i t h t h e S u l t a n s w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g g them. They had not c o n s i d e r e d i t n e c e s s a r y t o p i t themselves a g a i n s t t h e Malays i n d e f e n c e o f what t h e y r e g a r d e d as t h e i r u n d i s p u t e d s t a t u s . T h i s might be p o l i t i c a l n a i v e t y and i n e p t i t u d e , b u t t h e b l u n d e r appeared t o have p a i d o f f , A d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n between t h e C h i n e s e and t h e Malays a t t h i s time would have caused deep wounds i n t h e i r a l r e a d y unhappy r e l a t i o n s , whereas the apparent C h i n e s e i n d i f f e r e n c e had t h e e f f e c t o f p u t t i n g t h e blame o f what was e s s e n t i a l l y a S i n o -Malay q u a r r e l on t h e c o l o n i a l power. T h i s c o u l d not b u t h e l p ease S i n o - M a l a y r e l a t i o n s . Meanwhile t h e f a t e o f t h e Malayan Union d i s p e l l e d t h e unworthy b u t u n m i s t a k a b l e C h i n e s e d i s d a i n . Ratnam, op. c i t . , pp. 49-50. - 66 -The replacement of the Malayan Union by the F e d e r a t i o n of Malaya Agreement, 1948, drove home to the Chinese t h a t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s c o u l d not be taken f o r granted, t h a t they must prove themselves and f i g h t f o r i t . The advent of s e l f - r u l e a l s o found the Malays uncomfortably p l a c e d t o fend f o r themselves.. They had enjoyed s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s as the 'sons of the s o i l ' under B r i t i s h r u l e which had p r e s e r v e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l preeminence. But B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n , which s h i e l d e d them from f o r e i g n c o m p e t i t i o n , had l e f t them stranded o u t s i d e the main stream of t h e i r country's 9 economic development. Malay complacency was s h a t t e r e d by the Japanese Occupation, which aroused i n t e n s e n a t i o n a l i s t f e e l i n g s and i n s p i r e d a new sense of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e among Malays whose i n i t i a t i v e had been a t r o p h i e d under constant European s u p e r v i s i o n but who now e x e r c i s e d genuine c o n t r o l f o r a while.''" 0 However, the exuberance of the nascent Malay n a t i o n a l i s m was u n r e a l . In a more sober frame of mind, the Malays became p a i n f u l l y aware of t h e i r "predicament." A sense of profound "bewilderment" came over them, and " p a i n f u l t e n s i o n s of a n x i e t y and disenchantment" and of "apprehension and doubt" g r i p p e d them. T h i s i s how they saw t h e i r s i t u a t i o n as they " t e l e s c o p e d the y e a r s . " "The immigrant r a c e s , t a k i n g f u l l advantage of the improvidence of the simple Malay, tempted him w i t h a system of forward s e l l i n g of crop and c a t c h f o r ready cash [and} thus began the economic s l a v e r y of the Malay i n 9 See Rupert Emerson, M a l a y s i a : A Study i n D i r e c t and  I n d i r e c t Rule, Kuala Lumpur, 1964, pp. 487-99. 1 0 S i l c o c k and Ungku, op. c i t . , p. 290. - 67 -f u l l v i e w o f t h e p r o t e c t i n g power" u n t i l M a l a y a became th e '19th p r o v i n c e 1 (of China) i n e v e r y t h i n g save Government, i n w h i c h a few Malay o f f i c e r s were employed t o " b o l s t e r t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t M a l a y a was s t i l l t h e l a n d o f t h e M a l a y s . " Then came L i b e r a t i o n from Japanese O c c u p a t i o n , "but o n l y t o b l a s t Malay hopes .... The Americans had atom-bombed Japan o n l y t o e n a b l e M a c M i c h a e l i s m t o t r a n s f o r m M a l a y a i n t o a B r i t i s h Crown Colony . . . ([and] t h e b e t t e r e q u i p p e d i m m i g r a n t s and f o r e i g n e r s were even i n v i t e d t o j o i n i n g o v e r n i n g t h e Malay i n h i s own homeland. What caused t h i s Malay "bewilderment" and resentment was no t o n l y t h a t t h e Malays had l o s t economic c o n t r o l o f t h e i r c o u n t r y t o non-Malays b u t a l s o t h a t t h e y were s l i g h t l y o u t -numbered by non-Malays. P o l i t i c a l power w i t h o u t economic s u p p o r t r a n g h o l l o w enough, y e t t h e y c o u l d not even have t h a t , as t h e C h i n e s e and t h e I n d i a n s began t o p r e s s f o r a s h a r e o f i t " t o do j u s t i c e t o t h e i r economic and n u m e r i c a l s t r e n g t h " and t o " s a f e g u a r d t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n . " Malay e f f o r t a t n a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r the war was t h e r e f o r e d i r e c t e d towards i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r economic s t r e n g t h t o g i v e s u b s t a n c e t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power, and t o " l e s s e n t h e dangers o f p o l i t i c a l 12 d i l u t i o n (and perhaps t o o b v i a t e t h e need f o r i t ) . " They were a n x i o u s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l preeminence, m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t d i l u t i o n o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power s h o u l d not p r o c e e d a t a g r e a t e r speed t h a n t h e i r economic s t a t u s c o u l d be improved. T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n d e r l a y e v e r y Malay approach t o n a t i o n a l " ^ F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , R e p o r t o f t h e Committee on M a l a y  Education,. (Chairman: L . J . B a r n e s ) , K u a l a Lumpur, 1951, pp. 8-10, 14. 12 Ratnam, op. e x t . , p. 32. - 68 -i s s u e s . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l advance, c i t i z e n s h i p p r o v i s i o n s , and e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y , were a l l c a r e f u l l y w e i g h t e d t o h a s t e n t h e growth o f Malay economic s t r e n g t h and t o d e l a y d i l u t i o n o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power. The impact o f t h i s d e l i c a t e communal b a l a n c i n g c l e a r l y made i t s e l f f e l t i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . I n 1948 t h e Commission on U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n Malaya r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e was "some a p p r e h e n s i o n among Malays t h a t [ e s t a b l i s h m e n t of]] a u n i v e r s i t y o r u n i v e r s i t y c o l l e g e may cause a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n th e r e l a t i v e economic and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s o f members o f t h e i r community" because i t would i n c r e a s e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l d i s t a n c e between t h e i r community and t h e C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s . E v i d e n c e was h e a r d , f r e q u e n t l y i n r a c i a l t e r m s , t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be "a c e r t a i n b a l a n c e o f s o c i a l elements w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t body" a t the proposed u n i v e r s i t y t o ensure a "proper r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Malays r e l a t i v e l y t o C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s . " The Commission d i s c o u n t e d t h a t t h e o p i n i o n was "by no means unanimous" and seemed t o be "based on a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g " as two c o l l e g e s , t h e K i n g Edward V I I C o l l e g e o f M e d i c i n e and t h e R a f f l e s C o l l e g e , were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e and were p r o d u c i n g g r a d u a t e s f , . ' They c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f a u n i v e r s i t y and t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y c o u l d o n l y " s t r e n g t h e n t h e hand o f t h e Malay p e o p l e " and o f f e r e d them t h e i r " b e s t chance o f making up t h a t d i s t a n c e " because i t " c a l l e d f o r t h from t h e Malay p e o p l e t h e s e l f - r e l i a n c e ... t h e venturesome and t h e c o m p e t i t i v e i n t h e i r n a t u r e " t o d i s p l a y a h i g h o r d e r o f morale w h i c h would be " e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e l i f e o f the Malay community" i n the post-war y e a r s . The Commission - 69 -p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e l a c k o f b a l a n c e o f s o c i a l elements a t the upper e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s was "grounded i n f a c t s o f economics, geography and s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n " and s h o u l d be c o r r e c t e d i n the p o s t - p r i m a r y s c h o o l s ' b y adjustment t o t h e s e f a c t s r a t h e r t h a n by measures " t o w e i g h t t h e chances o f one r a c i a l group 13 r e l a t i v e l y t o a n o t h e r . " They m a i n t a i n e d t h a t "a u n i v e r s i t y cannot be e x p e c t e d t o use i t s machinery t o c o r r e c t e r r o r s o r i n j u s t i c e i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r o r i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system," and d e c l a r e d t h a t a d m i s s i o n o f s t u d e n t s t o u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s s h o u l d be based on a b i l i t y and c h a r a c t e r a l o n e w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o r a c e , r e l i g i o n o r means. However, i n s p i t e o f a l l t h i s , the Commission f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o concede t h a t " i n Malaya the p r i n c i p l e c l e a r l y cannot be c a r r i e d i n t o e f f e c t i n a day" and t h a t "as a temporary measure i t may be n e c e s s a r y ... t o a l l o w some p r e f e r e n c e t o Malay p u p i l s " t o a s s i s t t h e i r passage t o t h e upper e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . 1 4 Adjustment t o r e d r e s s economic and p o l i t i c a l i mbalance between the Malay and non-Malay communities r e f r a c t e d many r u l e s o f normal p r a c t i c e . E q u a l i t y f o r t h e Malays and t h e i r s y m p a t h i z e r s meant s p e c i a l Malay r i g h t s c a l c u l a t e d t o remove i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e i r advancement i n t h e economic and e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d s and t o s a f e g u a r d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p r e -eminence. Many non-Malays o b j e c t e d s t r o n g l y t o t h e s e s p e c i a l Malay r i g h t s as c o n t r a r y t o d e m o c r a t i c p r a c t i c e , w h i l e many Malays q u e s t i o n e d t h a t t h e i r opponents had the r i g h t t o o b j e c t F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , R e p o r t o f t h e Commission on  U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i h M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur, 1948, pp. 7, 17-19. 1 4 I b i d . , pp. 13, 99. - 70 -at a l l . In t h i s counter a s s e r t i o n of c l a i m s , each s i d e was o b l i g e d to j u s t i f y i t s own demands. The 'quest f o r l e g i t i m a c y 1 thus dominated the post-war p o l i t i c a l development of Malaya towards nationhood. The Malays made much of the c l a i m t h a t they were the 'sons of the s o i l ' and were t h e r e f o r e e n t i t l e d t o s p e c i a l treatment. The Chinese co n t e s t e d t h a t many of them had s e t t l e d longer than many Malays and t h e r e f o r e should be as much e n t i t l e d t o any s p e c i a l r i g h t s as these Malays. To the Chinese c l a i m t h a t t h e i r economic and numerical s t r e n g t h e n t i t l e d them t o p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s , the Malays argued t h a t numbers and p r o p e r t y ownership were p o l i t i c a l l y i r r e l e v a n t i f the Chinese remained Chinese at h e a r t . T h i s d i d not, however, prevent the Malays from demanding s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r economic back-wardness on the ground t h a t a democracy c o u l d not endure to s u f f e r h a l f of i t s people i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y depressed s t a t e w h i l e the other h a l f basked i n p l e n t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s appeal was met by a counter p l e a t h a t n e i t h e r c o u l d a democracy endure t o s u f f e r the more a f f l u e n t h a l f of i t s people t o remain p o l i t i c a l l y a g grieved and embittered. In the end the s u p e r i o r claims of the Malays had t o be based on the i n t a n g i b l e t h i n g c a l l e d l o y a l t y . The l o y a l t y of the.Malays to t h e i r country was s a i d t o be ' n a t u r a l ' or 'genuine' In t h a t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a l l e g i a n c e was r e i n f o r c e d by "an added f e e l i n g of c u l t u r a l b e l o n g i n g , " w h i l e t h a t of the non-Malays was ' a r t i f i c i a l ' because t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e was more p a r t i c u l a r l y p o l i t i c a l , separate 15 from t h e i r s o c i a l i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r a l groups Ratnam, op. c i t . , p. 28. - 71 -wh i c h were extended from n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e s i n o t h e r l a n d s . The non-Malays might doubt the adequacy o f Malay l o y a l t y , w h i c h was t o a Malay n a t i o n , i n t h e Malayan p l u r a l s o c i e t y , b u t t h e i r l o y a l t y was c l e a r l y s u s p e c t t o t h e M a l a y s . Even i f i n d i v i d u a l Malays might be accused o f w o r k i n g towards p o l i t i c a l a b s o r p t i o n o f t h e i r c o u n t r y by an o t h e r n a t i o n , t h e Malays as a community owed t h e i r l o y a l t y t o Malaya and no o t h e r l a n d . The non-Malays must c l e a r l y demonstrate t h a t t h e i r communities c o u l d do l i k e -w i s e , and t h e Malays c a l l e d on them t o do so. S e v e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s had come t o be t a k e n as s y m b o l i c o f th e p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e o f M a l a y a , t h e most p e r v a s i v e " o n e b e i n g C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n and i t s s c h o o l s . F o r h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e a s o n s C h i n e s e s c h o o l s had h i t h e r t o d i l i g e n t l y e x p r e s s e d an a l i e n i d e o l o g y . Now, how would t h e y respond t o t h e changed s i t u a t i o n ? What e f f o r t s were made t o r e - o r i e n t t h e i r o u t l o o k so t h a t t h e y would be r e l e v a n t i n t h e emerging n a t i o n ? And how d i d t h e C h i n e s e v i e w s u c h e f f o r t s ? The answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s would d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e emerging Malayan n a t i o n and t h e p l a c e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n " i t . C h i n e s e ' E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Immediate Post-war Years I n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , two t a s k s a w a i t e d t h e B r i t i s h Government i n Malaya a f t e r t h e war, namely, r e s t o r a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s " f o r a l l who were d e p r i v e d o f e d u c a t i o n owing t o t h e war," and f o r m u l a t i o n o f a l o n g - t e r m e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y " t o ensure t h e f u l l e s t e d u c a t i o n a l development 16 f o r e v e r y s e c t i o n o f t h e (Malayan) community." The t a s k o f 1 6 M a l a y a n U n i o n , C o u n c i l Paper No. 53 o f 1946, i n Annual Report on E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Malayan.Union f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 s t A p r i l , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was g i g a n t i c , b u t i t was t a c k l e d w i t h energy. I t was t o absorb t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s f o r some ti m e b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d g e t on w i t h development p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , w h i c h th e hard-worked E d u c a t i o n Department was l i t t l e a b l e t o d e a l w i t h i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s even a f t e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was completed. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n proceeded e n e r g e t i c a l l y i n Chinese s c h o o l s . There had been s e v e r e l o s s e s o f s t a f f , equipment and books d u r i n g t h e Japanese O c c u p a t i o n , b u t t h e r e was a r u s h t o open th e s c h o o l s on the a r r i v a l o f t h e B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 17 September 1945. The y e a r s o f h a r d s h i p s had d e v e l o p e d m a t u r i t y o f a - s o r t i n t h e a d o l e s c e n t , and t h e energy w h i c h the L i b e r a t i o n r e l e a s e d a p p l i e d i t s e l f e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t o t h e t a s k o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n e d u c a t i o n as i n o t h e r f i e l d s . Generous d o n a t i o n s and s u b s c r i p t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d from t h e C h i n e s e community t o r e s t o r e o l d s c h o o l s and t o b u i l d new ones t o accommodate the f l o o d t i d e o f p u p i l s . The problem o f o v e r -crowding- was a c u t e , as t h e r e was an abnormal i n c r e a s e i n e n r o l -ment as a r e s u l t o f an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f over-aged p u p i l s w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a r v a t i o n under enemy o c c u p a t i o n had produced. Many s c h o o l s conducted morning and a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s t o meet t h e demand f o r a d m i s s i o n . V a l u a b l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n g r a n t s t o t a l l i n g $1,000,000 f o r 1945 and 1946 were made by t h e Govern-18 ment t o a s s i s t t h e C h i n e s e t o reopen t h e i r s c h o o l s , 44 p e r c e n t 1946, t o 3 1 s t December, 1946, K u a l a Lumpur, 19 47, p. 139. 17 Malayan U n i o n , A n n u a l Report on E d u c a t i o n , 1946, p. 25. 18 A n n u a l Report on t h e Malayan U n i o n , 1947, p. 54. o f t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Department on S p e c i a l 19 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n m 1946 b e i n g g i v e n t o a i d e d C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . Enrolment f i g u r e s r o s e q u i c k l y . I n December 1941, 83,200 p u p i l s had been e n r o l l e d i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . I n J a n u a r y 1946, t h e f i g u r e was 77,337, and i t jumped t o 110,195 i n March 1946 and 172,000 i n November 1946. I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1941 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n between the ages o f 6 and 12 were a t t e n d i n g C h i n e s e s c h o o l s ; i n 1946 20 t h e f i g u r e seemed n e a r e r 60 p e r c e n t . A t f i r s t s h o r t a g e o f t e a c h e r s , equipment and t e x t b o o k s n e c e s s i t a t e d a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . By t h e end o f 1946, however, t h e pre-war c u r r i c u l u m 21 and s y l l a b u s e s had been r e s t o r e d . L i t t l e change had come ov e r C h i n e s e s c h o o l s from t h e pre-war y e a r s . Textbooks c o n t i n u e d t o he i m p o r t e d from C h i n a , t h e i r c o n t e n t s d e a l i n g e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h C h i n a and C h i n e s e c i v i l i z a t i o n , and t h e s c h o o l c a l e n d a r o b s e r v e d t h e n a t i o n a l h o l i d a y s o f C h i n a . One o r two p u b l i s h i n g f i r m s i n S i n g a p o r e , n o t a b l y t h e Nanyang Book Company ( v^-^"^) ), had begun t o t a k e an i n t e r e s t i n p r o d u c i n g t e x t b o o k s w i t h a Malayan background f o r use i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , and t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f r e c r u i t i n g t e a c h e r s from C h i n a had l e d t o i n c r e a s i n g employment o f g r a d u a t e s o f l o c a l m i d d l e s c h o o l s o r even upper p r i m a r y s c h o o l s . But t h e s e were s m a l l b e g i n n i n g s , o f t e n as v e r y poor s u b s t i t u t e s , w h i c h d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f C h i n e s e 19 Malayan U n i o n , Annual R e p o r t on E d u c a t i o n , 1946, p. 13. 20 I b i d . , pp. 5, 26. 21 I b i d . , p. 28. - 74 -e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the p o l i t i c a l c o m p l e x i o n of C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . Communist i d e o l o g y had found i t s way i n t o 22 some C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e H a i l a m n i g h t s c h o o l s , even b e f o r e t h e war, but i t s i n f l u e n c e t h e r e became a l a r m i n g o n l y a f t e r t h e war. The Kuomintang i n f l u e n c e was waning. A l t h o u g h t h i s d i d n o t mean a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e Communist f o l l o w i n g , (and not a l l C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were i n f i l t r a t e d by t h e Communists), Communist a c t i v i s t s i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s c r e a t e d a s e r i o u s problem n o t o n l y f o r the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u t a l s o f o r the C h i n e s e community i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e o f t h e Malayan Emergency. The Communists advocated r e v o l t a g a i n s t the e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s . They posed as Malayan n a t i o n a l i s t s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Malayan P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c , and t h e y were not l o a t h t o r e s o r t t o a n a r c h i s t methods t o a t t a i n t h e i r g o a l . They were almost e n t i r e l y C h inese,.and a l t h o u g h t h e i r l i n k w i t h Communist C h i n a was by no means c l e a r , t h e y i m p l i c a t e d t h e whole C h i n e s e community i n M a l a y a . I t was w i d e l y doubted whether a C h i n e s e c o u l d be a n y t h i n g b u t a Communist owing a l l e g i a n c e t o P e k i n g . As r e c e n t l y as 1965, one r e s p e c t e d a u t h o r i t y on C h i n e s e h i s t o r y wrote about t h e Overseas C h i n e s e i n t h e s e words: So l o n g as C h i n a , t h e immense, a n c i e n t , and now once more p o w e r f u l homeland o f t h e C h i n e s e communities i s under a Communist government, t h a t system w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e x e r c i s e an a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h o s e whose e d u c a t i o n and o u t l o o k i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y , o r e n t i r e l y , C h i n e s e . What came from C h i n a was a c c e p t a b l e , even i f i t was w h o l l y u n f a m i l i a r . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t when the C h i n e s e V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a , London, 1967, p. 232. - 75 -r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement t u r n e d from r e f o r m o f the monarchy t o r e p u b l i c a n i s m , t h i s d r a s t i c aim was p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t e d by the C h i n e s e communities, i n S o u t h - E a s t A s i a ... as r e p u b l i c a n i s m and democracy were what t h e C h i n e s e were now a d o p t i n g i n C h i n a (or t r y i n g t o ) , t h e s e s t r a n g e d o c t r i n e s were a t once a s s i m i l a t e d , and became 'Chinese'. 3 1 I t i s h a r d t o see how, o r why, t h i s m e n t a l p a t t e r n s h o u l d be broke n now. C h i n a i s Communist, so Communism i s C h i n e s e , t o o , and t h e C h i n e s e Communists are busy p r o v i n g t h a t i t i s much more Ch i n e s e t h a n R u s s i a n . . . . 23 P r o f e s s o r F i t z G e r a l d p o i n t e d o ut t h a t Communism among t h e Overseas C h i n e s e a p p e a l e d t o t h e young e d u c a t e d c l a s s and t h a t t h e r e a s o n was p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n economic o r s o c i a l . 2 4 H o w e v e r , . i t was t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f a l i e n a t i o n a r i s i n g from economic o r s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n o f C h i n e s e - e d u c a t e d youths more th a n t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f e m o t i o n a l attachment t o C h i n a w h i c h drove many Ch i n e s e t o embrace Communism, e x c e p t perhaps i n the f i r s t y e a r s o f Communist t r i u m p h i n C h i n a when t h e new j u b i l a n t l e a d e r s i n P e k i n g i n s p i r e d w i d e s p r e a d y o u t h f u l e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e New C h i n a w h i c h e a r l y p r o m i s e d t o command r e s p e c t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . I n M a l a y a , a l t h o u g h the Communist t h r e a t i s not y e t e l i m i n a t e d , t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e Communist i n s u r g e n c e has r e t r i e v e d t h e C h i n e s e as a community from t h e bugbear"of an unn e c e s s a r y l a b e l w h i c h i n c r i m i n a t e d them i n t h e eyes o f t h e o t h e r communities. They s h o u l d n e v e r have d e s e r v e d t h e name. Had t h e y been generous and e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t e r s and s u p p l i e r s o f the Communist t e r r o r i s t s , t he i n s u r g e n t war would c e r t a i n l y have been more t r a g i c t h a n i t was. I t has been w e l l s a i d t h a t i n t h e 23 C P . F i t z G e r a l d , The T h i r d C h i n a . The Chinese Com-m u n i t i e s i n S o u t h - E a s t A s i a , Sydney, 1965, pp. 72-3. 24 I b i d . , p. 62. - 76 -Malayan i n s u r g e n c y , " B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s won t h e b a t t l e s w h i l e 25 C h i n e s e c i v i l i a n s won t h e war." I t would have been p o l i t i c a l s u i c i d e f o r t h e C h i n e s e community t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e Communist movement, and t h a t was p r e c i s e l y t h e r e a s o n why t h e y were a n x i o u s t o d i s p e l any s u s p i c i o n a g a i n s t them. Thus i n 1951, a remark by t h e D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n i n h i s r e p o r t t h a t a l t h o u g h n o t a l l C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were bad, "even t h e most r o b u s t champion o f t h e C h i n e s e s c h o o l s must admit t h a t i n t h e i r p r e s e n t -form 2 6 many o f them are a most s e r i o u s danger t o the c o u n t r y , " caused an o u t b u r s t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e resentment among Chi n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . Dr. V i c t o r P u r c e l l f e l t t h a t the r e a c t i o n o f the t e a c h e r s towards t h e D i r e c t o r ' s f a i r remark was u n j u s t i f i e d , s i n c e even t h e Fenn-Wu Rep o r t a d m i t t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s h o r t -27 comings i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . However, t h e Chi n e s e f e l t t h a t t h e f a u l t was as much t h e Government's as t h e i r s . The p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n was t h a t n o t o n l y d i d t h e Government g i v e l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e t o C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , i t d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t them. I t found f a u l t w i t h them and d i d not r e c o g n i z e t h e i r s t r e n g t h . And when a m i n o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s were m i s l e d , t h e C h i n e s e s c h o o l s 2 8 as a whole became the s a c r i f i c i a l lamb. F a u l t s t h e r e were, and many and s e r i o u s , t o o ; b u t t h e Government s h o u l d e x t e n d a h e l p i n g hand. What d i d t h e Government do t o h e l p ? 25 See Lea E. W i l l i a m s , The F u t u r e o f t h e Overseas C h i n e s e  i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a , New Y o r k , 1966, pp. 93-5. 9 ft A n n u a l Report on the F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1951, p. 139. 27 V i c t o r P u r c e l l , "The C r i s i s i n Malayan E d u c a t i o n , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . XXVI, no. 1 (March 1953), p. 75. Nanyang S i a n g Pau ( £j -M. ;fg ^ j i L ) , Sunday E s s a y , March 18, 1951, p. 2. - 77 -In 1946 a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t on Malayan e d u c a t i o n , 29 p u b l i s h e d as C o u n c i l Paper No. 53 o f 1946, was l a i d b e f o r e and adopted by t h e ( L e g i s l a t i v e ) A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l o f the Government o f t h e Malayan Union. I t was p r oposed t o p r o v i d e " f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l g i r l s and boys i n a minimum s c h o o l c o u r s e o f s i x y e a r s , w i t h t h e mother tongue as the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n and w i t h E n g l i s h as one o f t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n s c h o o l s where t h e mother tongue i s not E n g l i s h . " P o s t p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r g i r l s and b o y s , i n s c h o o l c o u r s e s v a r y i n g from two t o seven y e a r s i n d u r a t i o n , was t o be p r o v i d e d i n " s c h o o l s i n w h i c h E n g l i s h i s t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e s t u d y o f t h e mother tongue c o n t i n u i n g " and i n " s c h o o l s i n w h i c h t h e mother tongue remains the medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e s t u d y o f E n g l i s h c o n t i n u i n g . " P u p i l s from t h e M alay, Ch i n e s e and I n d i a n s e c t i o n s o f t h e P r i m a r y S c h o o l c o u l d t r a n s f e r t o t h e E n g l i s h s e c t i o n e i t h e r as f r e e o r as f e e - p a y i n g p u p i l s depending on t h e i r s t a n d a r d o f a t t a i n m e n t when th e y had completed t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r s e c t i o n s , e x c e p t t h a t p a r e n t s might o p t t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n whose mother tongue was n o t E n g l i s h t o t h e E n g l i s h s e c t i o n from t h e s t a r t as f e e - p a y i n g p u p i l s , s u b j e c t t o accommodation b e i n g a v a i l a b l e . P o s t - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n would n o t be f r e e , b u t a generous p r o v i s i o n o f f r e e p l a c e s would be a v a i l a b l e f o r p u p i l s s e l e c t e d by m e r i t from t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r s e c t i o n s o f the P r i m a r y S c h o o l . The p o l i c y 29 T h i s document may be found i n Annual Report on E d u c a t i o n  i n t h e Malayan Union f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 s t A p r i l , 1946, t o 3 1 s t  December, 1946, K u a l a Lumpur, 1947, pp. 139-140; o r i n H.R. Cheeseman, "Malaya: Post-war P o l i c y i n E d u c a t i o n , " The Year  Book o f E d u c a t i o n , 1949, London, pp. 546-7. - 78 -a l s o s t a t e d t h a t " i n e v e r y p o s s i b l e way the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e P r i m a r y S c h o o l w i l l be s t r e s s e d so t h a t t h e s c h o o l may p r o v i d e a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r u n i t e d s e r v i c e f o r t h e c o u n t r y and f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a sense o f common c i t i z e n s h i p . " Towards t h a t end i t was p r o v i d e d t h a t "as soon as p o s s i b l e the P r i m a r y and P o s t - p r i m a r y S c h o o l s w i l l be s t a f f e d by t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n Malaya" and t h a t t e a c h e r s o f s i m i l a r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s would be p l a c e d on t h e same s a l a r y s c a l e whether th e y s e r v e d t h e Government o r a i d e d s c h o o l s . I t was noted t h a t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y would have t o s p r e a d o v e r a number o f y e a r s i n accordance w i t h t h e f u n d s , t h e s u p p l y o f t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s , and t h e s c h o o l accommodation b e i n g a v a i l a b l e , and i t was i n t e n d e d t o a p p o i n t a C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the c h i e f e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and i n f l u e n c e s i n Malaya as w e l l as t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e ( L e g i s l a t i v e ) A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l t o a d v i s e t h e Government on i t s e d u c a t i o n programme. T h i s p o l i c y was a l l o f a p i e c e o f t h e Malayan Union scheme. I t a f f o r d e d e q u a l t r e a t m e n t t o t h e d i f f e r e n t language streams o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n , Government c o n c e r n b e i n g no l o n g e r p r i m a r i l y w i t h Malay e d u c a t i o n o n l y , on paper a t l e a s t . I t a p p l i e d t h e p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g Government p r o v i s i o n o f Malay e d u c a t i o n t o Chinese and T a m i l s c h o o l s . F o r t h e f i r s t t i me i t was d e c l a r e d t h a t a l l r a c e s s h o u l d r e c e i v e f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e mother tongue, and t h i s t h e D i r e c t o r o f 30 E d u c a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d t o be "a g r e a t s t e p f o r w a r d . " The Cheeseman, i b i d . , p. 54 8. - 79 -Government's r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a l l s e c t i o n s o f i t s p e o p l e was i n d e e d a momentous s t e p even though t h e o b j e c t i v e o f f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n was not a c h i e v e d u n t i l 1962. However, t h e o t h e r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e , t h a t o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f a sense o f common c i t i z e n s h i p , rang h o l l o w . I t d i d n o t e n v i s a g e more t h a n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t y o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n . I f by an e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d i f f e r e n t " s e c t i o n s " o f Malayan' e d u c a t i o n , and by t h e common l e a r n i n g o f E n g l i s h i n a l l " s e c t i o n s , " a sense o f common c i t i z e n s h i p m ight be c r e a t e d , t h e r e was n o t h i n g i n t h e p o l i c y t h a t would g i v e s u b s t a n c e t o t h a t sense o f common c i t i z e n s h i p . A l t h o u g h s c h o o l s were t o be s t a f f e d by t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n M a l a y a as soon as p o s s i b l e , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s c h o o l curricula:',?, and s y l l a b u s e s t o t h e g o a l was n o t c o n s i d e r e d . The p o l i c y s t a t e d t h a t s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a r r . and s y l l a b u s e s would be "a r r a n g e d i n the l i g h t o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and r e s e a r c h , " b u t nowhere was i t s t a t e d t h a t t h e y would be a r r a n g e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e needs o f th e emerging n a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e p o l i c y was f o r m u l a t e d from the p o i n t o f vi e w o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p e d a g o g i c a l e f f i c i e n c y r a t h e r t h a n from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n towards t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new n a t i o n . I t might be argued t h a t f o r m a l u n i o n would p r e p a r e f o r s u b s t a n t i v e u n i o n l a t e r and t h a t t h e B r i t i s h approach t o Malayan u n i t y was m e t h o d i c a l and w i s e l y g r a d u a l . Perhaps t h i s m e t h o d i c a l g r a d u a l i s m was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e common Malayan Union c i t i z e n s h i p w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g a Malayan Union n a t i o n a l i t y . However, i n e d u c a t i o n t h e Government c l e a r l y s u f f e r e d from a l a c k o f v i s i o n and o f a l o n g - t e r m o v e r - a l l p l a n n i n g . The - 80 -e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t n o t e d t h a t t h e l o n g - t e r m p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was s t i l l under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , b u t i t gave a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e work and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e h i g h e s t c l a s s e s i n t h e p o s t - p r i m a r y s c h o o l s would be l i n k e d t o u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s . However, t h e d e c l a r e d p o l i c y had i m p o r t a n t consequence f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . Thus t h e Commission f o r U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n Malaya found the whole q u e s t i o n o f l i n k i n g v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l t o u n i v e r s i t y " b e s e t w i t h p e r p l e x i t i e s . " A l t h o u g h i n t e n s i v e b r i d g e c o u r s e s i n E n g l i s h might e v e n t u a l l y d i g a d i r e c t c h a n n e l from e v e r y v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l t o t h e main stream o f E n g l i s h p o s t - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , t h e Commission n o t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t p o l i c y t o e x t e n d v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l i n g i n t o t h e p o s t -p r i m a r y s t a g e would c o n s e q u e n t l y e x c l u d e p a r t o f t h e secondary 31 s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n from an English-medium u n i v e r s i t y . The l o g i c a l development o f t h e p o l i c y would be t h e cr o w n i n g of a Ch i n e s e - l a n g u a g e u n i v e r s i t y . Y e t when t h e J I h i n e s e communities i n S i n g a p o r e and Malaya e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y i n *1956, t h e y i n c u r r e d t h e d i s p l e a s u r e o f t h e Malayan Government, w h i c h has i n s i s t e d on n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s academic awards. The Government's l a c k o f a c l e a r and f i r m p o l i c y on Ch i n e s e e d u c a t i o n caused c o n s i d e r a b l e b e w i l d e r m e n t and t e n s i o n among t h e C h i n e s e . The r e l a t i o n s between C h i n e s e s c h o o l s and the E d u c a t i o n Department had n o t always been happy. The Government had been accustomed t o l e a v i n g w e l l a l o n e . I t a c t e d o n l y when i n a c t i o n would have a l l o w e d a dangerous s i t u a t i o n t o d e v e l o p . I t s a c t i o n was t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y p u n i t i v e o r a t l e a s t R e p o r t o f t h e Commission on U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a , p. 17. r e s t r i c t i v e . Dr. V. P u r c e l l r e c a l l e d h i s d u t y aa the f i r s t I n s p e c t o r o f Chi n e s e S c h o o l s i n S i n g a p o r e i n t h e s e words: My j o b , i t cannot be d e n i e d , was i n essence p o l i c e work. I t e n t a i l e d i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e sub-j e c t t o t e a c h what he l i k e d , t o r e a d what he l i k e d , and t o l e a r n what he l i k e d . C e r t a i n l y , when n e c e s s a r y , we d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o use our powers o f c a n c e l l i n g a t e a c h e r ' s c e r t i f i c a t e , w i t h h o l d i n g a g r a n t - i n - a i d , o r c l o s i n g down a s c h o o l , and even, i n many c a s e s , r e t u r n i n g a t e a c h e r t o t h e c o u n t r y o f h i s b i r t h ( r e g a r d e d as t h e s e v e r e s t o f a l l p e n a l t i e s ) . 3 2 T h i s had produced i n t h e Ch i n e s e a s t a t e o f mind w h i c h r e c o i l e d on i t s e l f , s e l f - r e l i a n t b ut with d r a w n . The Chi n e s e f e l t a p a t e r n a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and t h e i r s c h o o l s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s were t h e i r s , b u i l t and f i n a n c e d by them and f o r themse l v e s i n t h e f a c e o f Government apathy. I n t h i s d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n between Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s and t h e Government, t h e Chi n e s e h a r b o u r e d a deep s u s p i c i o n o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s d i s p o s i t i o n towards t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e . As a r e s u l t t h e Government's i n t e n t i o n was n o t always u n d e r s t o o d o r , r a t h e r , i t was o f t e n u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e w o r s t l i g h t f o r i t s consequence f o r C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e . F r e q u e n t l y t h e a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n ' s a s s u r a n c e s t h a t i t had t h e i n t e r e s t o f Chi n e s e e d u c a t i o n v e r y much a t h e a r t and had no i n t e n t i o n o f d e s t r o y i n g i t were r e g a r d e d as a r t f u l m a c h i n a t i o n s t o b l i n d f o l d t h e Chinese so t h a t i t c o u l d d e s t r o y t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e a t l e i s u r e . The C h i n e s e p r e s s was f u l l o f a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t t h e Government was i n c o n s i s t e n t and d e c e p t i v e i n i t s a t t i t u d e towards C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . I t s d e c l a r e d p o l i c y was t o p r o v i d e f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e mother tongue f o r a l l t h e r a c e s V i c t o r P u r c e l l , The,Memoirs o f a Malayan O f f i c i a l , London, 1965, p. 157. - 82 -e q u a l l y i n t h e c o u n t r y . But b e f o r e t h e i n k i n which t h i s p o l i c y was w r i t t e n was d r y , i t began a programme o f " M a l a y a n i z a t i o n " r w h i c h was r e g a r d e d as a i m i n g i n d i r e c t l y a t c r i p p l i n g C hinese e d u c a t i o n t o promote the development of E n g l i s h and Malay 33 e d u c a t i o n . The r e s t r i c t i o n on the e n t r y o f t e a c h e r s from C h i n a a f t e r the war and the p l a n t o t r a i n C h inese s c h o o l t e a c h e r s l o c a l l y were c r i t i c i s e d as a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d and e f f i c i e n c y o f Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y m i d d l e s c h o o l s , r e n d e r i n g them u n f i t f o r s u r v i v a l l e t a l o n e d e v e l o p -34 ment. The d i s p a r i t y o f Government a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a i d e d s c h o o l s drew a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n . I n 1949 p u p i l s i n Government and a i d e d s c h o o l s c o s t the Government, on average, $187.83 each f o r E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , $67.88 f o r Malay s c h o o l s , $55.34 f o r I n d i a n s c h o o l s , and o n l y $8.72 f o r Chinese s c h o o l s . Not o n l y d i d the Chi n e s e have t o meet some 90 per c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , t h e y c o n t r i b u t e d , t h r o u g h t a x a t i o n , a major share o f the c o s t o f o t h e r s c h o o l s , i n which C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y some 15 per c e n t o f the 35 en r o l m e n t . T h i s was t a k e n as a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and o p p r e s s i o n a g a i n s t C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . I t was a l l e g e d t h a t t h e Government i n t e n d e d t o s u b j e c t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , F e b r u a r y 24, 1951, p. 1. 34 Nanyang S i a n g Pau, Sunday E s s a y , March 18, 1951, p. 2. 35 F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , C h i n e s e S c h o o l s and the E d u c a t i o n  o f C h i n e s e Malayans: The Report o f a M i s s i o n I n v i t e d by t h e  F e d e r a t i o n Government t o Study t h e Problem o f the E d u c a t i o n o f  Chin e s e i n Malaya (by W i l l i a m P. Fenn and Wu Teh-yao), K u a l a Lumpur, 1951, p. 11. H e r e a f t e r t h i s t i t l e w i l l be c i t e d as The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t . - 83 -t o i n c r e a s i n g l y i rksome f i n a n c i a l burdens i n t h e r a p i d l y r i s i n g c o s t o f l i v i n g i n t h e post-war y e a r s t o g r a d u a l l y s t a r v e them out o f e x i s t e n c e . I n t h i s way C h i n e s e c u l t u r e i n M a l a y a would w i t h e r away i n t h e f u l l n e s s o f t i m e , as a l r e a d y many Chi n e s e were f o r c e d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o E n g l i s h s c h o o l s because Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s were o b l i g e d t o charge f e e s beyond t h e i r r e a c h . A hundred p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n g r a n t s t o a i d e d C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n M a l a y a from J u l y 1, 1951, d i d not b r i n g Government a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e s e s c h o o l s anywhere near p a r i t y w i t h t h a t t o E n g l i s h , Malay o r I n d i a n s c h o o l s . Yet i t e n t a i l e d s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h imposed r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e c u r r i c u l u m and i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f such s c h o o l s . I t was s t i p u l a t e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e o f g r a n t was s u b j e c t t o a s c h o o l making s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s i n E n g l i s h o r Malay and A r i t h m e t i c , and t h a t t h e appointment and d i s m i s s a l o f t e a c h e r s i n E n g l i s h and Malay by t h e s c h o o l must have p r i o r a p p r o v a l o f t h e 37 E d u c a t i o n Department. T h i s was r e g a r d e d as u n r e a s o n a b l e and even p r o v o c a t i v e , as i t not o n l y made i n r o a d s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t o t h e power o f t h e s c h o o l . c o m m i t t e e and t h e headmaster t o a p p o i n t and d i s m i s s t e a c h e r s , i t p l a c e d E n g l i s h o r Malay above C h i n e s e i n a Chinese s c h o o l ! I n 1952 t h e Government proposed a new s a l a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n scheme f o r a i d e d C h i n e s e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s . I t would lower s c h o o l f e e s and pay t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e f e e s and s a l a r i e s o f t e a c h e r s and t h e i r i n c r e m e n t s , s a l a r i e s b e i n g a s s e s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e n g t h o f approved t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 3 6 Nanyang S i a n g Pau, May 14, 1951, p. 5. 37 Nanyang S i a n g Pau, J u l y 12, 1951, p. 6. - 84 -The Government e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e scheme was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e f o r t e a c h e r s i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , t o r a i s e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l d i g n i t y and s o c i a l s t a t u s , and t o r e g u l a r i z e t h e i r p r o m o t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b t a i n i n g i n o t h e r k i n d s o f a i d e d s c h o o l s . I t was n o t e d t h a t i n s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e f o r C h i n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s l e d t o t h e i r a n n u a l mass m i g r a t i o n l i k e poor i t i n e r a n t s w i t h t h e i r bag and baggage t o t h e i r new j o b s i n o t h e r s c h o o l s and t h i s n ot o n l y l o w e r e d t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s b u t a l s o emphasised th e d i s p a r i t y between them and t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n E n g l i s h , Malay o r I n d i a n s c h o o l s , t h u s c r e a t i n g a d i s c o n t e n t e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . However, i n s p i t e o f t h e s e b e n e f i t s , g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e of the scheme "came the h a r d way, i n t h e c u t and t h r u s t o f f r e e d i s c u s s i o n , by l o n g n e g o t i a t i o n and t h e 3 8 g r a d u a l d i s s o l u t i o n o f s u s p i c i o n . " E v e n t u a l l y t h e scheme proved p o p u l a r , b u t t h e E d u c a t i o n Department c o u l d not h e l p n o t i n g t h a t t h e C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n a l w o r l d approached any i n n o v a t i o n w i t h 39 c a u t i o n . No i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e w r i t e r on the r e a s o n s o f C h i n e s e s u s p i c i o n towards th e scheme. But,: as i t imposed c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s " a l l d e s i g n e d t o improve th e s t a n d a r d s and tone o f t h e s c h o o l s , " and as i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e E d u c a t i o n Department n o t e d t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h improved " i n 40 q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y i n many p l a c e s , " i t was c l e a r l y r e g a r d e d as y e t a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f o f f i c i a l p r e s s u r e t o tamper w i t h t h e c u r r i c u l u m and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , t h r e a t e n i n g A n nual Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1952, pp. 160-1. 39 A nnual Report on the F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1953, p. 180. I b i d . - 85 -t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f Chinese e d u c a t i o n . Thus Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s and t h e E d u c a t i o n Department were a t c r o s s p u r p o s e s . The Government had c l e a r l y moved away from i t s 1946 p o s i t i o n o f e q u a l p r o v i s i o n o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e v e r a l mother tongues t o e n c o u r a g i n g E n g l i s h and Malay e d u c a t i o n . T h i s s h i f t o f emphasis was e f f e c t e d by two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e need t o d e v e l o p "a sense o f common c i t i z e n s h i p " and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e new U n i v e r s i t y o f M a l a y a , w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d i n S i n g a p o r e i n 1949. I n 1951 t h e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t -ment began t o r e p o r t "an e n c o u r a g i n g s i g n " o f a s t e a d y t r i c k l e o f 41 m i d d l e s c h o o l s t u d e n t s g a i n i n g a d m i s s i o n t o E n g l i s h s c h o o l s 42 where t h e i r performance was "by no means unencouraging. 1 1 The Chung L i n g H i g h S c h o o l o f Penang, whose s t u d e n t s s c o r e d some rem a r k a b l e s u c c e s s e s a t t h e S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e e x a m i n a t i o n s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was even p o s s i b l e t o s u i t a b l y m o d i f y t h e s y l l a b u s e s o f C h i n e s e m i d d l e s c h o o l s t o e n a b l e t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o e n t e r f o r b o t h t h e S e n i o r M i d d l e I I I and t h e Cambridge Overseas 43 S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e e x a m i n a t i o n s . T h i s s h i f t o f emphasis had l e d t o much u n n e c e s s a r y d i f f i c u l t y o v e r t h e p r i d e - o f p l a c e o f t h e s e v e r a l languages i n Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s i n t h e p r e v a i l i n g atmosphere o f s u s p i c i o n and d i s t r u s t . I n 1946 t h e D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n had "hoped t o i n t r o d u c e a r e - o r i e n t a t i o h o f t h e a t t i t u d e o f the department towards C h i n e s e s c h o o l s by g r a f t i n g an a d v i s o r y on t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n , " and he t r i e d t o b r i n g t h e s e s c h o o l s "more w i t h i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r v i e w o f 41 42 43 A n n u a l R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1951, P. 139. 'Annual. Report on the F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1952, P- 161. 'Annual R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1953, p. 181. - 86 -t h e department t h a n f o r m e r l y , w i t h o u t , a t t h e same t i m e , i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e i r systems o f management o r t h e i r p e c u l i a r 44 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " These hopes p r o v e d unfounded. A l t h o u g h C h i n e s e S c h o o l s A d v i s o r y Committees c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e S e c r e t a r y f o r C h i n e s e A f f i a r s , t h e S e n i o r I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s and some 45 prominent C h i n e s e were s e t up i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t s and t h e S t a t e s , t h e E d u c a t i o n Department never r e a l l y d i s p e l l e d C h i n e s e s u s p i c i o n and seemed r a t h e r t o have i n t e n s i f i e d i t . I n i t s d e a l i n g w i t h C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i t showed a s i n g u l a r l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f mind o f t h e C h i n e s e and o f t h e i r p e c u l i a r method o f managing t h e i r s c h o o l s . The C h i n e s e main-t a i n e d t h a t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r e d u c a t i o n was g i v e n f r e e l y and w i t h o u t c o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the b i g g e s t s u b s c r i b e r s o r donors o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n v a r i a b l y d i r e c t e d t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e s e s c h o o l s , t h e y d i d so by v i r t u e o f t h e i r b e i n g e l e c t e d t o t h e s c h o o l committees. Thus i t c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d t h a t f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n a l o n e c o n f e r r e d no power o f c o n t r o l o v e r s c h o o l a f f a i r s . The E d u c a t i o n Department r e a l i z e d t h a t i t c o u l d n o t b r i n g C h i n e s e s c h o o l s w i t h i n i t s " p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r v i e w " w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e i r management, and i t d i d so by f i n a n c i a l inducement w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g C h i n e s e w i s h e s and o p i n i o n s . T h i s was c o n t r a r y t o C h i n e s e t r a d i t i o n and was s t r o n g l y r e s e n t e d . What d i d the E d u c a t i o n Department do t o d e v e l o p "a sense o f common c i t i z e n s h i p " among the p u p i l s o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s ? I n 4 4 M a l a y a n U n i o n , Annual R e p o r t on E d u c a t i o n , 1946,. p. 26. 45 Annual Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1951, p..14. On t h e work of t h e s e committees t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r had no know-l e d g e . 1946 t h e D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f th e Department i n t h i s r e s p e c t was d i r e c t e d towards "such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s as the p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s , f i x i n g o f terms and h o l i d a y s , r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the i n s p e c t o r a t e , t e x t b o o k s , p l a n s f o r t h e 46 t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s and t h e r e v i s i o n o f s y l l a b u s e s . " The enumeration o f t h e headings i n t h i s o r d e r r e f l e c t e d n o t o n l y t h e r e l a t i v e magnitude o f the t a s k s demanding s o l u t i o n b u t a l s o t h e Department's c o n c e r n w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f o r m a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f the - r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Ch i n e s e e d u c a t i o n as t h e f i r s t s t e p towards i t s ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n . ' C o n s t i t u t i o n a l developments a f t e r t h e war had made f o r u n i f o r m i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y . I n 1946, under the Malayan Union C o n s t i t u t i o n , a c e n t r a l i z e d department w i t h l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r e d u c a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d . A l t h o u g h t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya Agreements, 1948, ended the c e n t r a l i z e d e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e F e d e r a l L e g i s l a t u r e r e t a i n e d power t o make laws t o ensure "a common 47 p o l i c y and a common system o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " The Govern-ment's e f f o r t s t o b r i n g C h i n e s e s c h o o l s " w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r v i e w " o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Department c o u l d b e s t be seen as p a r t o f t h i s g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f u n i f y i n g t h e c o u n t r y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Thus i n 1950 a new R e g i s t r a t i o n o f S c h o o l s O r d i n a n c e was passed w h i c h a p p l i e d t h e law u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e F e d e r a t i o n . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were Malayan U n i o n , Annual R e p o r t on E d u c a t i o n , 1946, p. 26. Annual Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1948, p. 71. - 88 -7 asked t o adopt a t h r e e - t e r m i n s t e a d o f t h e i r two-term system 4 8 • t o b r i n g t h e i r s c h o o l y e a r i n l i n e w i t h E n g l i s h s c h o o l s . W i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e new t h r e e - t e r m system, t h e Government p u b l i s h e d a s c h o o l c a l e n d a r w h i c h p r o c l a i m e d s c h o o l h o l i d a y s on t h e r e d - l e t t e r days o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n , d o i n g away w i t h t h e o l d p o l i t i c a l h o l i d a y s w h i c h C h i n e s e s c h o o l s had h i t h e r t o k e p t t o 49 commemorate n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s o f C h i n a . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s e fundamental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes i n C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n , t h e Government had no l o n g - t e r m p l a n s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s y l l a b u s e s and t e x t b o o k s f o r C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . These m a t t e r s i n e v i t a b l y r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t -ment, but t h e Department's e f f o r t s t o d e a l w i t h them were i n t h e n a t u r e o f temporary m a k e - s h i f t arrangements, i n a d e q u a t e and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n 1946 t h e C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Committee was c o n s t i t u t e d t o r e v i e w r e a d e r s and t o 50 s u g g e s t improvements t o t e x t b o o k s t o t h e p u b l i s h e r s . S i n c e a f t e r t h e Communist t a k e - o v e r o f m a i n l a n d C h i n a , t e x t b o o k s f o r C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n Malaya had been p r i n t e d i n t h e p r e s s e s o f Hongkong, a l t h o u g h a S i n g a p o r e f i r m , t h e Nanyang Book Company, had begun p r o d u c i n g t e x t b o o k s f o r the Lower P r i m a r y c l a s s e s . C l e a r l y such f o r e i g n produced t e x t b o o k s were not i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o t h e needs o f Malaya. They d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c h i l d ' s a djustment t o t h e l a n d i n which he l i v e d and might be the v e h i c l e s o f i d e a s i n i m i c a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a u n i t e d M a l a y a . 48 Annual R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1950, pp. 103, 107. 4 9 Nanyang S i a n g Pau, Sunday E s s a y , March 18, 1951, p. 2. -^Malayan U n i o n , Annual Report on E d u c a t i o n , 1946, p. 29. - 89 -The Committee's e f f o r t s were t h e r e f o r e d i r e c t e d towards r e d u c i n g t h e i r emphasis on t h e l a n d o f the c h i l d ' s a n c e s t r a l home and p l a c i n g what he l e a r n t i n t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e l a n d o f h i s d o m i c i l e by " c o r r e c t i o n s , d e l e t i o n s , and a d d i t i o n s " t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n new e d i t i o n s . The r e v i s e d e d i t i o n s were " w i d e l y welcomed" i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , b u t t h e y were not c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . A l t h o u g h t h e y had been r e n d e r e d " a t l e a s t h a r m l e s s " " i n t h e hands o f good t e a c h e r s , " t h e E d u c a t i o n Department f e l t t h a t more t h o r o u g h r e v i s i o n was needed. T h i s aroused C h i n e s e f e a r t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e was t o e l i m i n a t e C h i n a and C h i n e s e c u l t u r e c o m p l e t e l y . The t e x t b o o k s t h e m s e l v e s s u f f e r e d from s e v e r e r e v i s i o n s . H aving been r e v i s e d from "a c o r r e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a c o n s t r u c t i v e p o i n t o f view," t h e y f a i l e d t o " p r e s e n t a n a t u r a l and harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p between two i n t e r r e l a t e d backgrounds," C h i n a and M a l a y a , b o t h o f w h i c h were 51 i m p o r t a n t t o t h e C h i n e s e c h i l d i n M a l a y a . The C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Committee a l s o h e l p e d t o draw up p l a n s and s y l l a b u s e s f o r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s . B e f o r e t h e war, t h e Government had a i d e d t h e t r a i n i n g o f a s m a l l number o f Ch i n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Normal C l a s s e s , b u t t h e f i r s t Government t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s f o r C h i n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s were s t a r t e d i n Penang, P e r a k , S e l a n g o r and 52 N e g r i S e m b i l a n i n 1947. These c l a s s e s f o l l o w e d a two-year p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e and t h e y were f o r s e r v i n g t e a c h e r s who had n o t the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n . The c o u r s e was The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , pp. 16-17. An n u a l Report on t h e Malayan U n i o n , 1947, p. 63. - 90 -extended t o t h r e e y e a r s i n 1950. I n 1948 t h e Government f i n a n c e d and s u p e r v i s e d two o t h e r t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s , a two-year f u l l - t i m e S e n i o r Normal Course f o r J u n i o r M i d d l e I I I g r a d u a t e s and a two-year p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g c l a s s f o r s e r v i n g 53 t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h i n v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s . E x c e p t t h e f u l l -t i m e S e n i o r Normal C o u r s e , t h e s e t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s were a m a k e - s h i f t t o up-grade s e r v i n g t e a c h e r s r a t h e r t h a n t o t r a i n q u a l i f i e d new t e a c h e r s . They were c r i t c i s e d as "unsound and l a r g e l y u n p r o d u c t i v e , " f o r as a m a k e - s h i f t , t h e y s h o u l d be used "as a means o f c o r r e c t i n g an e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and n o t as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e employment o f a d d i t i o n a l u n t r a i n e d 54 p e r s o n n e l . " I n 1951 t h e r e were 1,157 ' s t u d e n t s ' i n a l l t h e t h r e e t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , o f whom 367 were i n S e n i o r Normal C l a s s e s and 790 were p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g i n u p - g r a d i n g c o u r s e s e x t e n d i n g • 55 ' ov e r two o r t h r e e y e a r s . A t t h i s r a t e t h e end o f t h e e x i s t i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h some 4,500 t e a c h e r s had had l i t t l e o r no t r a i n i n g , i n c l u d i n g some. 2,000 whom t h e E d u c a t i o n 56 Department c l a s s i f i e d as u n r e g i s t e r e d , would be v e r y d i s t a n t . I n 1950 t h e Government made p l a n s t o b u i l d f o u r Normal S c h o o l s 57 a t P e n a n g , ; I p o h , K u a l a Lumpur and M a l a c c a . Only t h e one a t Penang, t h e Green Lane S c h o o l , was opened i n 1952; t h e o t h e r s were s h e l v e d . 53 54; 55 56 57 !Annual Re p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1948, P- •77. ^The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , p. 24. 'Annual Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1951, P- 150. 'The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , p. 24. Annual Re p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1950, P- 116, - 91 -Thus t h e Government's p l a n s f o r the t r a i n i n g o f Ch i n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , l i k e i t s e f f o r t s a t t e x t b o o k s r e v i s i o n s , were c o r r e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n c o n s t r u c t i v e . T h e i r aims were modest, t o t r a i n t e a c h e r s w i t h a s u i t a b l e Malayan background i n l o c a l 5 8 -i n s t i t u t i o n s . They conformed to.no n a t i o n a l scheme o f e d u c a t i o n , f o r t h e Government had n o t such a scheme. There were d i s c u s s i o n s on ' e d u c a t i o n a l M a l a y a n i z a t i o n , ' b u t t h i s had meant l i t t l e more t h a n a u n i f i e d e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l o c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , and t h e l e a r n i n g o f a common langu a g e , E n g l i s h . Problems o f t h e d i f f e r e n t language-medium s c h o o l s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n common. No change was attempt e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s e x c e p t t h a t i n 1950 Malay was i n t r o d u c e d and s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e '? 59 t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , handwork and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . I n 1948 th e E d u c a t i o n Department undertook t o t r a n s l a t e a c i v i c t e x t b o o k , How Malaya i s Governed, f o r use i n Chin e s e m i d d l e s c h o o l s . The t r a n s l a t i o n t o o k t h r e e y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e , and t h e t e x t b o o k was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1951. T h i s then p r o v i d e d t h e o n l y common l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . F o r t h e r e s t , t h e development o f "a sense o f common c i t i z e n s h i p " had t o r e l y on such o c c a s i o n s as th e c e l e b r a t i o n o f Her M a j e s t y ' s C o r o n a t i o n , w h i c h i n s p i r e d a " m a g n i f i c e n t s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n " o f t h e s c h o o l s i n "the p r o d u c t i o n o f p a g e a n t s , t o r c h l i g h t p r o c e s s i o n s , e t c . , i n w h i c h t h e r e was no l o s s o f c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f any s e c t i o n o f t h e Malayan U n i o n , Annual Re p o r t on E d u c a t i o n , 19 46, p. 31. Annual Report on the F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1950, p. 106. - 92 -community, w h i l e t h e C o r o n a t i o n i t s e l f s u p p l i e d the s i n g l e u n i f y i n g m o t i v e . " 6 0 Annual R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 195 3, p. 177. CHAPTER IV A UNITED OR A UNIFIED NATION? PART I : THE POLICY OF 'MALAYANIZATION' I n 1951 t h e Government o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya p u b l i s h e d two r e p o r t s on e d u c a t i o n , t h e Barnes Report on Malay E d u c a t i o n and t h e Fenn-Wu Report on C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , 1 w h i c h threw i n t o s h a r p r e l i e f the gulf, s e p a r a t i n g o f f i c i a l and Malay t h i n k i n g on, and C h i n e s e a s p i r a t i o n s t o , the n a t u r e o f t h e f u t u r e Malayan n a t i o n . They b r o u g h t t o a c l i m a x t h e y e a r - l o n g h e a t e d debate on e d u c a t i o n a l ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' . ' A l t h o u g h t h e Fenn-Wu Report was l a r g e l y i g n o r e d by t h e Government o f t h e day and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t , somewhat m o d i f i e d , ended i n d i s m a l f a i l u r e , t h e y were i m p o r t a n t documents f o r Malayan e d u c a t i o n n o t o n l y because t h e y r e a l l y s t a r t e d t h e b a l l r o l l i n g i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n b u t a l s o because t o g e t h e r they' c o n t a i n e d many s e m i n a l i d e a s o f what an a c c e p t a b l e system o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n might be. I t seems i n t r i g u i n g and p a r a d o x i c a l t h a t such s e m i n a l R e p o r t s s h o u l d c r e a t e a c r i s i s i n Malayan e d u c a t i o n , and i t i s t o t h e b e g i n n i n g and the end o f t h e whole o f t h i s q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a d dress i t s e l f . F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , Report o f t h e Committee on Malay  E d u c a t i o n , K u a l a Lumpur, 1951. H e r e a f t e r , r e f e r r e d t o as t h e  Barnes R e p o r t . F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , C h i n e s e S c h o o l s and t h e E d u c a t i o n  o f C h i n e s e M a layans; The R e p o r t o f a M i s s i o n i n v i t e d a t the"  F e d e r a t i o n Government t o s t u d y the Problem of t h e E d u c a t i o n o f  C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur, 1951. H e r e a f t e r , r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Fenn-Wu R e p o r t . - 94 -' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' o f E d u c a t i o n and C h i n e s e Language and C u l t u r e I n 1949 t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n con-s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , t h e Government, and " a l l e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s " as e n v i s a g e d i n C o u n c i l Paper No. 53 o f 1946 was e s t a b l i s h e d " t o a d v i s e t h e Government on t h e g e n e r a l common p o l i c y and wide p r i n c i p l e s t o 2 be f o l l o w e d i n E d u c a t i o n . " I t p r e s e n t e d i t s f i r s t r e p o r t i n May 1950, a d v o c a t i n g t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e aim s h o u l d be t o e s t a b l i s h E n g l i s h as t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n Malayan s c h o o l s . The p r o p o s a l was g i v e n "a stormy r e c e p t i o n " i n t h e F e d e r a l 3 L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n J u l y . Meanwhile t h e Government had, as had been n o t e d e a r l i e r , i n t r o d u c e d Malay i n t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s and g i v e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h t h e r e . These i n a u g u r a t e d what had been c a l l e d ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' o f e d u c a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f . t h e s e developments was n o t l o s t t o th e C h i n e s e . They began t o c a l l i n q u e s t i o n t h e i n t e n t i o n o f the Government. Ch i n e s e s c h o o l s had been l a b o u r i n g under g r e a t f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , w i t h o n l y n o m i n a l a s s i s t a n c e from the Government, and t h e Chi n e s e began t o have m i s g i v i n g s whether the Government was not p u r s u i n g a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c y a g a i n s t t h e i r s c h o o l s . They l a i d bare t h e i r c o n c e r n b e f o r e S i r C h r i s t o p h e r Cox, t h e A d v i s o r on E d u c a t i o n t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , who was i n Ma l a y a towards t h e end o f 1950, v i s i t i n g many e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Chinese s c h o o l s , i n an Annual Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1949, p. 84. F r e d e r i c Mason, The S c h o o l s o f M a l a y a , S i n g a p o r e , 1959, p. 29. - 95 -i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n . They made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and s u b m i t t e d memoranda t o him wherever he went, a p p e a l i n g t o j u s t i c e , r e a s o n and n e c e s s i t y t o p l e a d f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f 4 C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . They asked t h e Government t o i n c r e a s e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e i r s c h o o l s , a r g u i n g t h a t i t s h o u l d t r e a t f a i r l y t h e d i f f e r e n t language-medium s c h o o l s . They e x p r e s s e d a n x i e t y o v e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Malay i n t o t h e c u r r i c u l a o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s because t h e y f e l t t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h r e e languages would be t o o heavy a burden f o r t h e p u p i l s . ^ They were eager t o r a i s e t h e s t a n d a r d o f E n g l i s h i n t h e i r s c h o o l s and were much concerned about o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r C h i n e s e s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s . Government a s s i s t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n s u p p l y i n g q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , would be welcome, and t h e y asked t h e Government t o open a way f o r S e n i o r M i d d l e I I I g r a d u a t e s t o g a i n a d m i s s i o n t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Ma l a y a . ^ The-response o f S i r C h r i s t o p h e r Cox t o . C h i n e s e a p p e a l s threw t h e C h i n e s e on t h e d e f e n s i v e . I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the S i n g a p o r e C h i n e s e S c h o o l s F e d e r a t i o n C J2£ $L 8$ )r he s a i d t h a t C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be adapted t o t h e Malayan environment and s h o u l d t r a i n Malayan c i t i z e n s and i n c u l c a t e t h e i d e a t h a t M a l a y a was 'home'. •' He "Statement o f O p i n i o n s u b m i t t e d t o S i r C h r i s t o p h e r Cox by C h i n e s e S c h o o l Committees, Perak , " i n t h e Kwong Wah Y i t Poh, November 25, 1950, p. 6. ^"Memorandum s u b m i t t e d ' t o S i r C h r i s t o p h e r Cox by Chi n e s e S c h o o l T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , K u a l a Lumpur," i n I b i d . , November 21, 1950, p. 6. 6The Kwong Wah Y i t Poh, November 30, 1950, p. 5. - 96 -s a i d t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s c o u l d e x p e c t e q u a l t r e a t m e n t from t h e E d u c a t i o n Department i f t h e y f e l l i n l i n e w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l 7 o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Department bu t n o t o t h e r w i s e . T h i s prompted an e d i t o r i a l i n t h e Kwong Wah . Y i t Poh ( ^ 9 ^ lO w h i c h t o o k S i r C h r i s t o p h e r Cox's remarks as a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e Chinese t o s t a r t r e t h i n k i n g on t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e i r s c h o o l s . The e d i t o r i a l i n v i t e d i t s r e a d e r s t o c o n s i d e r what th e aims and programmes o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be and whether t h e s e s c h o o l s as t h e y were th e n c o u l d s t a n d up t o e x a m i n a t i o n i n the c o n t e x t o f Malaya. I t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e must have t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r r a c e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o p r e s e r v e C h i n e s e c u l t u r e i n M a l a y a , and warned t h a t t h e y must e x p e c t d i f f i c u l t i e s and be p r e p a r e d t o f i g h t t e n , twenty o r even g f i f t y y e a r s f o r t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . The p s y c h o l o g y o f many t h i n k i n g C h i n e s e was c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n a n o t h e r e d i t o r i a l o f t h e newspaper. There i t was s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e t a s k o f p r e s e r v i n g C h i n e s e c u l t u r e i n M a laya would i n v o l v e e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d t a k e r o o t i n Malayan s o i l , t o s e c u r e t h e r i g h t f u l p l a c e f o r C h i n e s e c u l t u r e i n Malayan s o c i e t y and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e Government t h a t C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n formed p a r t o f the system o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n , and t o p r o v i d e s i x y e a r s o f s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e mother tongue as t h e b a s i s o f t r a i n i n g i n Malayan c i t i z e n s h i p . At t h e moment the fundamental problems c o n f r o n t i n g C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n were, th e e d i t o r i a l s u b m i t t e d , whether i n t h e v i e w o f t h e Government Chi n e s e s c h o o l s c o u l d e v e r become p a r t o f t h e system o f Malayan 7 I b i d . , November 2, 1950, p. 6. 8 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , November 7, 1950. - 97 -e d u c a t i o n , whether Chinese c u l t u r e s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as a l i e n c u l t u r e , and whether C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be g i v e n s i x y e a r s 9 o f f r e e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e mother tongue. The C h i n e s e seemed t o o b t a i n an answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s i n a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h t h e C h i e f S e c r e t a r y o f the F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya made i n a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e on F e b r u a r y 8, 1951. He s a i d t h a t t h e aim o f ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' o f e d u c a t i o n was t o make E n g l i s h and Malay t h e main media o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e o t h e r languages o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s o f s t u d y , and t h a t i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d t h e problem was c o m p l i c a t e d and t h e s h o r t a g e o f p e r s o n n e l p r e v e n t e d t h e Government from d e a l i n g w i t h i t w i t h a f r e e h a n d . 1 0 T h i s s t a t e m e n t s t a r t e d t h e debate on e d u c a t i o n a l ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' i n e a r n e s t . The C h i n e s e took a gloomy view o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . They viewed t h e C h i e f S e c r e t a r y ' s p r e s s s t a t e m e n t as a v i r t u a l d e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e u l t i m a t e e l i m i n a t i o n o f Chinese e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e i n M a l a y a , f o r i t was contended t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , t h e n u r s e r y o f Chi n e s e c u l t u r e , c o u l d n o t have an independent e x i s t e n c e where C h i n e s e p u p i l s c o u l d n o t s t u d y i n t h e i r own language. They c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Government's programme o f ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' as " s h o r t - s i g h t e d , i n f a n t i l e and f o o l i s h , " 1 1 12 a f i g m e n t o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and a f a n t a s y o f U t o p i a n dreamland. They p r e d i c t e d t h a t i t was bound t o f a i l . The C h i n e s e sounded a l a r m i n g l y s e p a r a t i s t . But th e y d e n i e d t h a t t h e y were s e e k i n g e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s . They never 9 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , December 5, 1950. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , F e b r u a r y 24, 1951 11 T, . , I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , A p r i l 16, 1951. - 98 -j u s t i f i e d t h e i r demand s o l e l y on t h e ground o f Chinese w e l f a r e b u t on something b i g g e r , such as t h e i d e a l o f democracy and t h e w e l f a r e o f the Malayan p e o p l e s . They argued t h a t r e s p e c t f o r the c u l t u r e s o f m i n o r i t y p e o p l e s and t h e r i g h t t o l e a r n one's mother tongue were r e c o g n i z e d by t h e C h a r t e r o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and were fundamental r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a d e m o c r a t i c 13 s o c i e t y . No s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g C h i n e s e would a c c e p t an i n f e r i o r s t a t u s f o r t h e i r language i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . I t was a s s e r t e d t h a t no f o r c e c o u l d succeed i n any attempt t o A n g l i c i s e o r Malay-14 i z e t h e C h i n e s e t h i r d o f the Malayan p o p u l a t i o n , and" t h a t i t would be q u i t e p o i n t l e s s even i f i t s h o u l d succeed f o r t h e r e would s t i l l be two o f f i c i a l languages and n o t u n i t y . The Ch i n e s e c a u t i o n e d t h a t c u l t u r a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o r r e c r i m i n a t i o n 15 c o u l d n o t f a i l t o s t i r up i l l - f e e l i n g between t h e r a c e s , and t h a t d e - c u l t u r a l i z e d C h i n e s e would be so d e s p i s e d and would f e e l so ashamed o f th e m s e l v e s t h a t t h e y would become e m b i t t e r e d m a l c o n t e n t s , e s t r a n g e d from t h e r e s t o f the Malayan s o c i e t y , 16 t h u s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e f u t u r e o f Mal a y a . Thus, t o t h e C h i n e s e , t h e Government's programme o f ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' m i s s e d t h e whole p o i n t . I t was an o t h e r name f o r A n g l i c i s a t i o n o r M a l a y - i z a t i o n and i t f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e the p l u r a l n a t u r e o f Malayan s o c i e t y . M a l a y a had become t h e l a n d o f many p e o p l e s . I t s f u t u r e s h o u l d be a Malayan n a t i o n i n w h i c h a l l i t s p e o p l e s would be e q u a l p a r t n e r s and not a 1 3 I b i d . , Sunday E s s a y , March 18, 1951. 1 4 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , F e b r u a r y 24, 1951. 15 I b i d . , Sunday E s s a y , March 18, 1951. 1 6 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , May 16, 1951. - 99 -Malay o r an A n g l i c i s e d Malay n a t i o n w h e r e i n t h e r e would be d o m i n a t i o n by one community o v e r t h e o t h e r s . The p a r t n e r s h i p s h o u l d e x t e n d i n t o a l l f i e l d s o f human endeavour, i n c l u d i n g c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i o n . M a l a y a had y e t t o e v o l v e a c u l t u r e o f h e r own. The components o f t h i s c u l t u r e were t h e r e , b u t t h e y had no t e v o l v e d i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l p a t t e r n . T h i s would come about i n th e l o n g p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g and e x p e r i m e n t i n g and mutual under-s t a n d i n g . F o r t h e moment t h e Government s h o u l d e q u a l l y encourage t h e development o f t h e component p a r t s . F o r i f Chi n e s e c u l t u r e formed a n e c e s s a r y s t r a i n i n any f l o w e r i n g o f t h e f u t u r e Malayan c u l t u r e , i t s h o u l d be f o s t e r e d r a t h e r t h a n s u p p r e s s e d i f i t was t o be e n a b l e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e en r i c h m e n t and g r e a t n e s s o f 17 t h e Malayan c u l t u r e s t i l l i n t h e o f f i n g . I t was argued t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g o f a n a t i o n r e q u i r e d o n l y t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f an i d e n t i t y and t h e l o y a l t y t o t h a t i d e n t i t y . Common i d e n t i t y and l o y a l t y was n o t f o s t e r e d by s u p p r e s s i n g any o f t h e c u l t u r e s o f component p e o p l e s but by s e c u r i n g c u l t u r a l e q u a l i t y and c o o p e r a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d i n s p i r e Malayan c o n s c i o u s n e s s . ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d n o t pr o c e e d w i t h t h e language o f e d u c a t i o n , b u t w i t h t h e form, t h e c o n t e n t , and t h e purpose o f e d u c a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n was o n l y one o f t h e agents p r o m o t i n g n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t must t e a c h t h e young a common Malayan o u t l o o k , b u t t h e i r Malayan e x p e r i e n c e had meaning o n l y i f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f p r i v i l e g e s and o b l i g a t i o n s o f a l l c i t i z e n s was u p h e l d i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y "Memorandum on Ch i n e s e E d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a , s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n by the S i n g a p o r e Book P u b l i s h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , " i n I b i d . , A p r i l 13, 1951, p. 5. - 100 -w i t h a d e m o c r a t i c government, a d e m o c r a t i c economy, and a d e m o c r a t i c c u l t u r e . 1 8 The C h i n e s e case was n o t g i v e n a f a i r h e a r i n g . I t was no t t a k e n s e r i o u s l y i n t h e o f f i c i a l c i r c l e s where i t was r e g a r d e d as a mere academic e x e r c i s e . What t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e c o u l d t h e Chin e s e adduce t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r argument t h a t t h e y were s t e e r i n g a l o n g a Malayan c o u r s e ? The c a l l up f o r n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e i n 1950 was answered by an exodus o f many thousands o f 19 young C h i n e s e t o C h i n a , and t h e Government's e f f o r t s t o combat t h e Communist i n s u r g e n c y drew g e n e r a l l y an a p a t h e t i c response from t h e C h i n e s e . E v e n t s l i k e t h e s e s e r i o u s l y embarrassed t h e Ch i n e s e community. Undoubtedly many Ch i n e s e were s i m p l y n o t p r e p a r e d t o l a y down t h e i r l i v e s f o r a Malaya w h i c h d i d n o t a s s u r e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f u t u r e . They were a t t h a t v e r y moment engaged i n s e c u r i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s a s t a k e i n the c o u n t r y w h i c h would make Malaya w o r t h d y i n g f o r . Many o f them were n o t even a c c e p t e d as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e c o u n t r y ( i n 1951). I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e Ch i n e s e a p o l o g e t i c a l l y excused themselves i n t h e tho u g h t t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o e x e c u t e t h e o b l i g a t i o n s w i t h o u t e n j o y i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y were showing t h e i r a d a p t a b i l i t y . I n e d u c a t i o n , C h i n e s e s c h o o l s had c o o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e E d u c a t i o n Department i n t h e r e f o r m o f s c h o o l c a l e n d a r and t h e r e v i s i o n o f s y l l a b u s e s and t e x t b o o k s , and had a c c e p t e d the need o f t e a c h i n g Malay t o 18 The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , A p r i l 16, 1951. 19 K . J . Ratnam, Communalism and t h e P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s i n  M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur, 1965, p. 20. - 101 -t h e i r p u p i l s who were made t o c a r r y t h e burden o f l e a r n i n g t h r e e l a n g u a g e s . But t h e Government was unimpressed. I t chose e i t h e r t o i g n o r e t h e C h i n e s e p o i n t o f view o r t o r e g a r d i t as i r r e l e v a n t . The C h i n e s e were i n Ma l a y a on s u f f e r a n c e . They c o u l d n o t be Malayans and remained C h i n e s e , and t h e i r b a t t l e c r y o f 'Chinese language and c u l t u r e ' sounded d i s a g r e e a b l y c h a u v i n i s t i c . The Government c o u l d n o t f o l l o w t h e Chinese argument t h a t p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t y and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y were two d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . S u r e l y the C h i n e s e c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o want Malaya w e l l enough t o make a c u l t u r a l a djustment? T h i s was t h e t h e s i s o f the Barnes R e p o r t , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o f f i c i a l and t h e Malay v i e w p o i n t . I t s tone was h i g h l y i n t o l e r a n t . The C h i n e s e answer was u n m i s t a k a b l e . They wanted Malaya t o be a f r e e c o u n t r y where t h e y c o u l d l i v e t h e i r l i v e s f u l l y , n o t as Chi n e s e i n C h i n a , but as C h i n e s e Malayans. The C r i s i s o f Malayan E d u c a t i o n : The Barnes Committee v e r s u s  The Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n The Barnes Committee was a p p o i n t e d i n August 1950 by H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e H i g h Commissioner f o r t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya " t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e adequacy o r o t h e r w i s e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r M a l a y s , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e p r o p o s a l s c o n t a i n e d ... i n t h e F i r s t R e p o r t o f t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y 20 Committee on E d u c a t i o n ... and t o make recommendations." Some Malay d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Government p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n f o r the Malays was o f l o n g s t a n d i n g . I n 1929 t h e Malay member o f the The Barnes R e p o r t , p. v. - 102 -L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l o f t h e S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , Enche Mohamed Unus b i n A b d u l l a h , c r i t i c i s e d t h e government's e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y b l u n t l y i n t h e s e words: I n t h e fe w e s t p o s s i b l e words, t h e Malay boy i s t o l d , 'You have been t r a i n e d t o remain a t t h e bottom, and t h e r e you must always rem a i n " . Why, I ask, waste so much ti m e t o a t t a i n t h i s end when w i t h o u t any v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l and w i t h o u t any s p e c i a l e f f o r t , t he Malay boy c o u l d h i m s e l f a c c o m p l i s h t h i s f e a t ? 2 1 The Barnes Committee r e p o r t e d t h e same f e e l i n g o f d i s c o n t e n t among t h e M a l a y s . A l t h o u g h t h e y n o t e d t h a t t h e E d u c a t i o n Department had made " g r e a t e f f o r t s , " and i n d e e d " a s t o n i s h i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s , " t o d e v e l o p "a modern e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s among t h e Malay p e o p l e " and t h a t Malay e d u c a t i o n , f a r from h a v i n g been n e g l e c t e d , had been " p r e f e r e n t i a l l y f o s t e r e d " f o r a l o n g t i m e and " t o a h i g h degree o f e l a b o r a t i o n , " t h e y c o n f e s s e d t h a t t h i s " e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f M a l a y s " had done " l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o p r e d i s p o s e t h e Malay community" towards t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t i t had r e c e i v e d — a 22 " p a r a d o x i c a l and even u n n a t u r a l " r e s u l t . The Malays were d i s c o n c e r t e d t h a t t h e i r , e d u c a t i o n had n o t promoted t h e i r economic and p o l i t i c a l advancement i n t h e c o u n t r y . A t t e m p t s t o improve Malay e d u c a t i o n were made a f t e r t h e war. I t was d e c i d e d t h a t Malay s c h o o l s s h o u l d t e a c h E n g l i s h , "the key t o a whole w o r l d o f u s e f u l knowledge," t o en a b l e " a l l kampong boys t o l e a r n more about t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , and t h e b r i g h t e r s t u d e n t s t o make more r a p i d and more e f f e c t i v e p r o g r e s s 21 The S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t s , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l P r o c e e d i n g s , October 28, 1929. Quoted i n R. Emerson, M a l a y s i a : A Study i n D i r e c t and I n d i r e c t R u l e , K u a l a Lumpur, 196 4, p. 516. 22 The Barnes R e p o r t , p. 7. - 103 -i 23 l a t e r i n s econdary and t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . " The Government u n d e r s t o o d t h e Malay d e s i r e f o r economic and p o l i t i c a l advance-ment, but i t was moving t o o s l o w l y f o r t h e M a l a y s . Thus i n 1950 t h e f i r s t r e p o r t o f t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n on ways t o implement th e p o l i c y on t h e t e a c h i n g o f Malay and E n g l i s h i n a l l s c h o o l s was b i t t e r l y c r i t i c i s e d i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l and the Malay p r e s s f o r f a i l u r e t o g i v e 24 enough a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e M a l a y s . T h i s l e d t o t h e appointment o f t h e Barnes Committee. The Barnes Committee, by i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e , i t s c o m p o s i t i o n and i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s h o u l d have c o n f i n e d i t s e l f t o making recommendations f o r Malay s c h o o l s . I n s t e a d i t v e n t u r e d beyond i t s f i e l d of. competence and recommended f a r -r e a c h i n g changes a f f e c t i n g the whole o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n . I t was a p p o i n t e d t o c o n s i d e r s p e c i f i c a l l y the problem o f Malay e d u c a t i o n , and i t had as i t s members f i v e Europeans and n i n e M a l a y s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Chairman, Mr. L . J . B a r n e s , who was t h e D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l T r a i n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d . I t i n t e r v i e w e d twenty-seven w i t n e s s e s and " r e c e i v e d w r i t t e n e v i d e n c e from p e r s o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n many d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n " b u t none r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e non-Malay communities, and i t h e l d i t s e l f a l o o f from t h e b o i s t e r o u s w o r l d o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . I t s t r a n s g r e s s i o n i n t o non-Malay e d u c a t i o n c o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d as an o v e r s i g h t b u t must be t a k e n as a c o n s c i o u s A n n u a l R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1948, p. 72. 24 .T.H. S i l c o c k and Ungku A b d u l A z i z , " N a t i o n a l i s m i n M a l a y a," i n W i l l i a m L. H o l l a n d , ed., A s i a n N a t i o n a l i s m and t h e  West, New Y o r k , 1953, p. 336.. - 104 -a c t . I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t the Committee was alm o s t e n t i r e l y -composed o f o f f i c i a l s a n d . r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Malay community, t h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t . I t meant t h a t t h e Government deemed i t r i g h t and p r o p e r t o make p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e whole o f Malaya i f i t had t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e M a l a y s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n does n ot seem t o be i n v a l i d a t e d by the Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n . E a r l y i n J a n u a r y 1951, Dr. W i l l i a m P. Fenn, A s s o c i a t e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Board o f T r u s t e e s o f a dozen m i s s i o n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n C h i n a , who was b r o u g h t up i n P e k i n g and spoke p e r f e c t Kuo Yu and had t a u g h t a t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n N a n k i n g , Shanghai and Chengtu, and Dr. Wu Teh-yao, an o f f i c i a l o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , who was an o l d boy of t h e A n g l o - C h i n e s e S c h o o l and the Chung L i n g High S c h o o l i n Penang, and had s t u d i e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T s i n - l i n 2 5 ( /SL~C1L£J^) r N a n k i n g , under Dr. Fenn and i n H a r v a r d , were i n v i t e d by t h e H i g h Commissioner t o s t u d y C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n Mala y a . The M i s s i o n seemed t o have been i n v i t e d t o assuage •Chinese f e a r s . The Government c o u l d n o t be o b l i v i o u s t o Chin e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o S i r C h r i s t o p h e r Cox and c r i t i c i s m s i n the C h i n e s e p r e s s t h a t t h e Barnes R e p o r t was b e i n g w r i t t e n , from 2 6 an e x c l u s i v e l y A nglo-Malay p o i n t o f view. I t would have been bad p o l i t i c s t o deny the C h i n e s e t o have t h e i r case h e a r d . But was t h e M i s s i o n merely an empty show? I t was i n d e e d an odd m i s s i o n , one t h a t had n o t an a u t h o r i t a t i v e mandate. I t had u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i t s o b j e c t i v e s were t o make "recommendations JThe Nanyang S i a n g Pau, March 25, 1951, p. 11. V i c t o r P u r c e l l , "The C r i s i s i n Malayan E d u c a t i o n , " P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , V o l . XXVI, no. 1 (March 1953), p. 72. - 105 -t h a t would l e a d t o a g r e a t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n by Chinese s c h o o l s i n Malaya t o the g o a l o f an independent Malayan n a t i o n composed of p e o p l e o f many r a c e s b u t h a v i n g a common l o y a l t y " and t h a t i t would not be e x p e c t e d t o conform t o any " p r i o r commitments" o r t o 27 " f o l l o w any p r e c o n c e i v e d p a t t e r n . " But b e f o r e t h e M i s s i o n a r r i v e d i n M a l a y a , t h e F e d e r a t i o n S e c r e t a r i a t announced t h a t i t would be concerned w i t h making a p r e l i m i n a r y s u r v e y o f the whole f i e l d o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n ... w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o ( i ) b r i d g i n g t h e gap between t h e p r e s e n t communal system o f s c h o o l s and t h e t i m e when e d u c a t i o n w i l l be on a non-communal b a s i s w i t h E n g l i s h o r Malay as medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n and o t h e r language as o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t , and a d v i s i n g on ( i i ) p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e x t books f o r p r e s e n t use w i t h a Malayan as d i s t i n c t from a C h i n e s e background and con-t e n t . 28 T h i s pronouncement b r o u g h t f o r t h a " v i g o r o u s r e a c t i o n " i n t h e C h i n e s e p r e s s " e x p r e s s i n g i n no u n c e r t a i n terms Chinese c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , w h i c h seemed t o them t o be a n t i -C h i n e s e . " I t was f e l t t h a t t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e suggested by the o f f i c i a l announcement were "too r e s t r i c t i v e t o p e r m i t o f c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s u l t s . " The M i s s i o n b r o u g h t t h e m a t t e r t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f S i r Henry Gurney, the H i g h Commissioner f o r t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , who "showed h i m s e l f t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s y m p a t h e t i c " and gave t h e M i s s i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t " i t was n o t l i m i t e d i n any way and was encouraged t o make a s u r v e y o f the whole f i e l d o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya w i t h a v i e w t o The.Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , p. 1. I b i d . , p. 2. - 106 -making whatever e v a l u a t i o n s and recommendations i t deemed 29 n e c e s s a r y . " The M i s s i o n t h e n i n t e r p r e t e d i t s own purpose as b e i n g t o s u r v e y s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y b u t o b j e c t i v e l y t h e e n t i r e f i e l d o f the e d u c a t i o n o f . C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a , and t o recommend such c o n s t r u c t i v e changes and improve-ments as would l e a d t o the C hinese s c h o o l s making t h e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f u t u r e w e l f a r e and h a p p i n e s s o f the p e o p l e o f Malaya and i n p a r t i c u l a r o f t h e C h i n e s e who have chosen t h a t p r o s p e r o u s l a n d as t h e i r home.30 The whole e p i s o d e makes one s u s p e c t whether t h e Government was n o t t h o r o u g h l y t i r e d o f the b i c k e r i n g s o f t h e C h i n e s e , who succeeded i n making a n u i s a n c e o f t h e m s e l v e s . One s u s p e c t s , t o o , t h a t the Government was not r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the work o f t h e M i s s i o n and c a r e d l i t t l e what the m i s s i o n might do p r o v i d e d i t " c o u l d s i l e n c e t h e C h i n e s e and a l l o w t h e Government t o ge t on w i t h i t s b u s i n e s s . • I n v i e w o f t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t t h e Government had i n hand, i t s d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s i n t h e mandate o f t h e M i s s i o n i t had i n v i t e d i n c l i n e s one t o doubt whether the M i s s i o n ' s work would be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y . I n f a c t i t was n o t . The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e M i s s i o n i n c l u d e d a s t u d y o f p e r -t i n e n t documents and o t h e r s o u r c e s o f d a t a , v i s i t s t o s c h o o l s f o r f i r s t - h a n d e v i d e n c e o f c o n d i t i o n s , and group c o n f e r e n c e s and i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s . The m a j o r i t y o f i t s c o n t a c t s were w i t h t h e C h i n e s e , bu t s p e c i a l e f f o r t was made t o see r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o t h e r r a c e s , i n c l u d i n g Malay p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , I n d i a n e d u c a t o r s as w e l l as B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s and American m i s s i o n a r i e s . 29 I b i d . , pp. 2-3. 3 0 T K . , _ I b i d . , p. 3. - 107 -The M i s s i o n was g r e e t e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n by t h e C h i n e s e t h r o u g h -out i t s t o u r o f Malaya. I t was r e g a r d e d as "a mere t o o l d e s i g n e d 31 t o f u r t h e r an e s t a b l i s h e d government p o l i c y . " Many e d i t o r i a l s i n t h e C h i n e s e p r e s s r e p e a t e d l y reminded th e M i s s i o n o f i t s heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and e x p r e s s e d t h e hope t h a t i t would be i m p a r t i a l i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n . The a i r o f s u s p i c i o n was so p e r v a s i v e t h a t t h e M i s s i o n f e l t o b l i g e d t o i s s u e a s t atement t o d i s p e l i t b e f o r e i t l e f t S i n g a p o r e , t h e l a s t l a p o f i t s t o u r . I t r e a s s u r e d t h e C h i n e s e t h a t t h e M i s s i o n had come t o make an e d u c a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n Malaya w i t h o u t any p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and t h a t i t s purpose was t o h e l p r a i s e the s t a n d a r d o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o 32 d e s t r o y i t . T h i s c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n w i t h t h a t o f t h e Barnes Committee. The M i s s i o n viewed i t s t a s k as p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l w h i l e the Committee's approach was above a l l p o l i t i c a l . The M i s s i o n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e aim o f t h e p e o p l e s i n M a l a y a was " r i g h t l y an u l t i m a t e Malayan n a t i o n " and t h a t Malaya's e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y s h o u l d n a t u r a l l y be d i r e c t e d " c o n s c i o u s l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y toward such a g o a l . " I t r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e new Malayan n a t i o n would r e q u i r e a new e d u c a t i o n ,and t h a t e d u c a t i o n was "the most e f f e c t i v e , perhaps th e o n l y p o s s i b l e , b r i d g e between c u l t u r e s . " However, i t warned t h a t " c a r e must be t a k e n n o t t o p r o s t i t u t e e d u c a t i o n t o p o l i t i c a l p u rpose," f o r the new e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d " p r o v i d e I b i d . , p. 2. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, A p r i l 14, 1951, p. 5. - 108 -adequate and s u i t a b l e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a l l phases o f l i f e as i t w i l l be l i v e d i n Malaya." I t e x p l a i n e d t h a t none of the schools i n Malaya had been designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the new s i t u a t i o n and t h a t t h e r e f o r e " a l l s c h o ols should e v a l u a t e c r i t i c a l l y 33 t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s " towards the g o a l o f Malayan nationhood. The Barnes Report The Barnes Committee, on the other hand, e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t s recommendations were mere " i n f e r e n c e s " drawn from "a p a r t i c u l a r view of the f u n c t i o n o f an e d u c a t i o n a l system i n the circumstances of present-day Malaya." T h i s view p o s t u l a t e d t h a t ... Malay E d u c a t i o n ought (a) to f o s t e r the growth o f i n d i v i d u a l s towards the be s t i n knowledge, s k i l l and c h a r a c t e r which they have i n them t o a t t a i n ; (b) t o encourage and enable the Malay community t o occupy i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n r e l a t i o n t o oth e r communal groups i n the mixed s o c i e t y of Malaya; (c) t o a s s i s t the formation o f a u n i f i e d c i t i z e n body, or n a t i o n , composed of a l l such groups.34 In accordance w i t h t h i s p o s t u l a t i o n , the Barnes Committee b e l i e v e d t h a t ... the primary s c h o o l should be t r e a t e d avowedly and with f u l l d e l i b e r a t i o n as an instrument f o r b u i l d i n g up a common Malayan n a t i o n a l i t y on the b a s i s of those elements i n the p o p u l a t i o n who re g a r d Malaya as t h e i r permanent home and as the o b j e c t of t h e i r l o y a l t y . 3 5 and t h a t i t should enable the Malay community t o improve i t s s t a t u s r e l a t i v e l y t o the other communities i n the p o p u l a t i o n . 33 The Fenn-Wu Report, p. 7. 34 The Barnes Report, p. i x . 35 I b i d . , p. 20. - 109 -S e e i n g t h a t the e x i s t i n g p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n w h i c h Malay p u p i l s were " s e g r e g a t e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n by Malay t e a c h e r s ( o f t e n t h e m s e l v e s of.no s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t ) " c o u l d n o t a c h i e v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , t h e Committee recommended "a s i n g l e - t y p e p r i m a r y s c h o o l " t o be c a l l e d t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l w h i c h would be open t o p u p i l s o f a l l r a c e s and s t a f f e d by p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s o f any r a c e who were f e d e r a l c i t i z e n s . T h i s i n t e r r a c i a l N a t i o n a l S c h o o l would p r o v i d e a s i x - y e a r c o u r s e o f f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r boys and g i r l s between 6 and 12 y e a r s o l d . I t would " g i v e , i n p o i n t o f s t a f f i n g , p r e m i s e s and equipment, the b e s t p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e anywhere i n Malaya," and i t would "form t h e b r o a d highway o f a d m i s s i o n t o p o s t - p r i m a r y r e a c h e s o f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s a m b i t i o u s scheme was b i t t e r l y a t t a c k e d by t h e C h i n e s e f o r i t s u n d e n i a b l y and i n d e e d f r a n k l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c h a r a c t e r . The Barnes Committee c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t t h r o u g h o u t had been t o p o i n t a way t o e n a b l e t h e M a l a y s , "a proud p e o p l e now c o n s c i o u s o f s t a n d i n g a t a t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n t h e i r d e s t i n y , " t o promote t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l advancement. They b e l i e v e d t h e y had s e t out "a 37 good e d u c a t i o n a l system f o r t h e Malay p e o p l e , " and i n the p r o c e s s t h e y had t o t a p t h e r e s o u r c e s o f non-Malay communities. The C h i n e s e were not slow t o see t h i s and asked p o i n t e d l y who was t o f i n a n c e t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . I t would have been r i g h t and p r o p e r , i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , f o r t h e r i c h e r members o f 3 6 I b i d . , pp. 20, 24. 37 I b i d . , p. i x . - 110 -t h e community t o have t h e i r r e s o u r c e s tapped t o h e l p a m e l i o r a t e t h e p o o r e r members, but t h e Committee's (and t h e Government's) approach t o t h e problem o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n c o u l d h a r d l y be d e s c r i b e d as d e m o c r a t i c . I t s recommendations as t h e y a f f e c t e d t h e C h i n e s e were f r e q u e n t l y branded as n a r r o w l y r a c i s t and even as s u r p a s s i n g a n y t h i n g t h a t t h e Roman 3 8 d i c t a t o r J u l i u s C a e s ar e v e r a t t e m p t e d . To make t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l "the main v e h i c l e o f t h e n a t i o n a l i d e a , " t h e Barnes Committee c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e " f i r s t s t e p [ w o u l d be} t o c a l l i n q u e s t i o n t h e p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n o f maintenance o f s e p a r a t e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s f o r any r a c i a l community," and i t recommended i n p r i n c i p l e t h e e v e n t u a l d i s -appearance o f t h e s e s c h o o l s and t h e i r r e p l a c e m e n t by the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l , w h i c h was c o n c e i v e d as "a s c h o o l o f c i t i z e n -39 s h i p , a n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g s c h o o l . " There were no l a c k o f a d v o c a t e s o f i n t e r r a c i a l n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s among the C h i n e s e i n M a l a y a . One o u t s t a n d i n g example was Dr. Ho Seng Ong, who r e c e i v e d a D o c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n degree from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver i n 1949 f o r h i s s t u d y on "the E d u c a t i o n a l System o f B r i t i s h M a l a y a w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o the Need f o r U n i t y i n t h e P l u r a l S o c i e t y . " Dr. Ho's r e s e a r c h was p u b l i s h e d as E d u c a t i o n f o r U n i t y i n M a l a y a i n 1952. He summarised h i s t h e s i s i n t h i s way: ... s c h o o l s can, as no o t h e r s i n g l e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s a b l e t o do, w e l d t h e d i f f e r e n t r a c e s t o g e t h e r . But t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s w o r t h w h i l e o b j e c t i v e we must n o t s e p a r a t e t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o the The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, Sunday E s s a y , J u l y 1, 1951. The Barnes R e p o r t , pp. 20-21, 24, 75. - I l l -d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l o r language s c h o o l s ; we must b r i n g them t o g e t h e r and p r o v i d e f o r e v e r y c h i l d a common Malayan environment. S c h o o l l i f e and a c t i v i t y ... must mean the d a i l y i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t r a c e s . So o n l y w i l l t h e y grow up t o work and p l a y t o g e t h e r as Malayans f i r s t and f o r e m o s t . The b e s t and most e f f e c t i v e p l a c e t o b e g i n p r a c t i s i n g good c i t i z e n s h i p ... i s i n t h e p r i m a r y and j u n i o r s c h o o l s where s o c i a l p a t t e r n s and b e h a v i o u r a l a t t i t u d e s are b e i n g formed, and when i t i s easy t o d e v e l o p f r i e n d s h i p s w h i c h know no b a r r i e r s o f r a c e , r e l i g i o n , l a nguage, c u l t u r e , and c l a s s . 4 0 He recommended t h e r e f o r e a system o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h would p r o v i d e s i x y e a r s o f u n i v e r s a l , f r e e , and u l t i m a t e l y compulsory, p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e medium o f E n g l i s h , w i t h t h e mother tongue as a s u b j e c t (where s t a f f i n g arrangements would p e r m i t ) f o r t h o s e who needed i t . The p r i m a r y s c h o o l would be a t t e n d e d by a l l r a c e s . No p u r e l y communal s c h o o l s would be a s s i s t e d w i t h Government funds o r be r e g i s t e r e d w h i c h " c l o s e £theirj doors 41 t o any p u p i l on grounds o f r a c i a l o r r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s . " Dr. Ho was aware t h a t h i s c r i t i c s might say t h a t h i s t h e s i s " i s t h e s i m p l e f a i t h o f o n l y n a i v e p e r s o n s " o r might w r i t e him down as a " p o l i t i c a l d o c t r i n a i r e who d e s i r e s t o compel o t h e r s t o a c c e p t a p o l i c y w h i c h i s d e c l a r e d t o be e d u c a t i o n a l l y unsound and e c o n o m i c a l l y I m p o s s i b l e . " But he was not dismayed by such c r i t i c i s m s and m a i n t a i n e d t h a t " t h e r e i s a l r e a d y a growing consensus of o p i n i o n i n t h e M a l a y a of today t h a t i n t h e non-communal s c h o o l s we p o s s e s s our o n l y n u r s e r y f o r t h e b u i l d i n g up o f our Malayan N a t i o n . " I n answer t o t h e charge t h a t t h e system o f e d u c a t i o n he recommended would l i k e l y l e a d t o t h e Ho Seng Ong, E d u c a t i o n f o r U n i t y i n M a l a y a , Penang, 1952, p. v. 41 Ho Seng Ong, "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l System o f B r i t i s h M a l a y a w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o t h e Need f o r U n i t y i n t h e P l u r a l S o c i e t y , " (a D o c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n t h e s i s ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver, 1949, pp. 125-6. - 112 -d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e mother tongue, he d e c l a r e d t h a t i f the g o a l was "a u n i t e d p e o p l e l o v i n g and owing a l l e g i a n c e t o M alaya," t h e n "no p r i c e i s h i g h enough f o r any r a c i a l group i n 42 Malaya t o pay." But Dr. Ho s a i d i t t o o q u i c k l y , f o r even he h i m s e l f found the e x c l u s i o n o f languages o t h e r t h a n Malay and E n g l i s h from t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l as recommended 43 r n t h e Barnes R e p o r t o b j e c t i o n a b l e , a l t h o u g h the t e a c h i n g o f t h e mother tongue i n t h e s c h o o l s he e n v i s a g e d i n h i s t h e s i s was p r e t t y n o m i n a l . The language i s s u e dominated t h e problem o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n . F o r l o n g s c h o o l s i n M a laya had been c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t° t h e language used i n i n s t r u c t i o n . Now i n a grand c o n c e p t i o n t h e Barnes Committee t r i e d b o l d l y t o w r i t e two o f t h e Malayan languages out o f a c c o u n t . The N a t i o n a l S c h o o l would be b i l i n g u a l . "Two l a n g u a g e s , and o n l y two l a n g u a g e s , s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s , and t h e s e two must be t h e 44 o f f i c i a l languages o f the c o u n t r y , namely,-Malay and E n g l i s h . " Thus h a l f o f t h e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f M a l aya -were t o be d e p r i v e d o f t h e b e n e f i t and t h e i r r i g h t o f h a v i n g t h e i r e a r l y e d u c a t i o n i n the mother tongue. The Barnes Committee, w h i c h had as i t s chairman t h e D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l T r a i n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O x f o r d , was f u l l y aware t h a t "the w e i g h t o f a u t h o r i t y , i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p i n i o n i s h e a v i l y on t h e s i d e o f t h e view t h a t a c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l development i s b e s t promoted when h i s e a r l y Ho, E d u c a t i o n f o r U n i t y i n M a l a y a , p. v i . 4 3 I b i d . , p. 174. 44 The Barnes R e p o r t , p. 21. - 113 -e d u c a t i o n i s i n t h e language o f h i s home," and i t d u l y acknow-l e d g e d "the i m p o r t a n c e and t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Malayan c o n d i t i o n s . " However, i t s u b m i t t e d t h a t "the advantages i n q u e s t i o n " s h o u l d be s e c u r e d " w i t h i n l i m i t s s e t by the o v e r r i d i n g n e c e s s i t y , on c i t i z e n s h i p g rounds, f o r an a l l -r a c e p r i m a r y s c h o o l o f a s i n g l e t y p e . " Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s "the u n i v e r s a l t e a c h i n g o f t h e Malay language" would o f f e r "the b e n e f i t s o f mother-tongue e d u c a t i o n t o the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n 45 o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n " w h i c h was j u s t h a l f o f the t o t a l . .... 46 p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s t y p i f i e s the approach o f t h e Barnes Committee t o t h e p r o b l e m o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n . Where i t concerned th e Malay community, the problem was a t t e n d e d t o from a l l a n g l e s , e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l ; t h e non-Malay com-m u n i t i e s were mere pawns i n a grand d e s i g n . The Committee viewed i t s e l f as c o n s t i t u t e d l i k e a c r a b t h a t w a l k s b o t h ways and i t took f u l l advantage o f t h i s . I t was a p p o i n t e d t o c o n s i d e r Malay e d u c a t i o n , and i t had t a k e n upon i t s e l f t h e t a s k o f d e v i s i n g f o r Malayan u n i t y . B o t h ; w e r e l e g i t i m a t e s u b j e c t s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and t h e i r c o m b i n a t i o n gave the Committee the p r o t e c t i v e c o l o u r s t o appear i n d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s . Thus i n one p l a c e i t s a i d t h a t i t was not concerned w i t h t h e Chinese and 47 I n d i a n v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s ; i n a n o t h e r , i t d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was 45 I b i d . , p. 23. 46 The p o p u l a t i o n o f M a l a y a by r a c e i n 1951 was: M a l a y s i a n s 2,631,154, Ch i n e s e 2,043,971, I n d i a n s and P a k i s t a n i s 586,371, o t h e r s 75,726; t o t a l 5,337,222. Annual R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n  o f M a l a y a , 1951, p. 21. 47 The Barnes R e p o r t , p. 33. - 114 -not p o s s i b l e t o l i m i t i t s e l f t o " p r o p o s a l s t o u c h i n g t h e Malays 48 a l o n e . " The r e s u l t was t h a t w h i l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f recommended changes f o r t h e Malays were c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d , t h e y were i g n o r e d f o r t h e non-Malays. The Committee c o n s i d e r e d a t l e n g t h t h e imp o r t a n c e o f . a g e a r i n g t o g e t h e r o f "the f o r m a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e s c h o o l " and "the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e - s y s t e m s o f ' the home" f o r "the b e s t e f f e c t s o f s c h o o l i n g . " I t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e d i v o r c e o f t h e two s e t s o f i n f l u e n c e would n u l l i f y "the mut u a l s u p p o r t o f d o m e s t i c and s c h o l a s t i c l i f e " and l e a d t o " c o n f l i c t i n p l a c e o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t , r e s u l t i n g i n c o n f u s i o n i n the c h i l d , m i s t r u s t between p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , and tendency f o r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s o f b o t h t o c a n c e l o u t , " e s p e c i a l l y i n the Malayan scene w h i c h p r e s e n t s a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r e s , i n w h i c h "the c h i l d f i n d s one complex o f b e l i e f s and d e s i r e s approved i n h i s own home, a n o t h e r recommended t o him i n s c h o o l , and y e t o t h e r s a c c e p t e d by l a r g e numbers o f f e l l o w c i t i z e n s f u r t h e r 49 a f i e l d . " These w e i g h t y p r i n c i p l e s were c o n s i d e r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e Malays i n v i e w , and c a r e was t a k e n t o a p p l y them t o t h e Malays i n g r e a t d e t a i l . I t was n o t e d , f o r example, t h a t " i n many kampongs up and down t h e c o u n t r y t h e l o c a l d i a l e c t d i f f e r s so much from ... S t a n d a r d Malay t h a t even t o Malay t e a c h e r s themselves i t appears almost a d i s t i n c t language." I n such cases t e a c h e r s " f a m i l i a r w i t h l o c a l d i a l e c t and customs" would have t o be employed i n o r d e r t h a t "good u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n may d e v e l o p between t e a c h e r s I b i d . , p. 65. 49 I b i d . , p. 15. - 115 -50 ... and p a r e n t s . " I n e x p l i c a b l y , however, t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s were a p p a r e n t l y r e g a r d e d as r e l e v a n t o n l y t o t h e M a l a y s . To t h e C h i n e s e , t h e Barnes R e p o r t r e a d l i k e an A n g l o -Malay e n t e n t e a g a i n s t them. I t r e p r e s e n t e d a s e t t l e m e n t between the r e t i r i n g c o l o n i a l master and h i s Malay p r o t e g e now coming o f age. I t was a - . f i e r c e l y s t r u c k s e t t l e m e n t i n w h i c h t h e age-mellowed m a s t e r , o b l i g e d t o be condescending towards h i s touchy i n h e r i t o r o f t h e morrow, managed t o r e t a i n h i s d i g n i t y and a u t h o r i t y . The Malays had h e l d t h e B r i t i s h , t h e i r p r o t e c t o r , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l i g h t i n w h i c h t h e y found t h e m s e l v e s ; t h e y were e d u c a t i o n a l l y u n p r o g r e s s i v e and e c o n o m i c a l l y dependent. I n d e f e n c e t h e B r i t i s h e x t r a c t e d from t h e Malays an acknowledge-51 ment t h a t , i n e d u c a t i o n a t l e a s t , t h e y had not b e e n " n e g l e c t e d . A d m i t t i n g , however, t h a t B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of t h e Malays had not produced t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , t h e B r i t i s h n e v e r t h e l e s s gave th e Malays the s h o r t answer t h a t they themselves had l a c k e d c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e , p e r s e v e r a n c e and a p p l i c a t i o n , and t h a t t h e i r whole s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n had l a c k e d dynamism. The Malays were admonished t h a t u n l e s s t h e y underwent a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n no e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m would be a b l e t o " h e l p 52 them much i n h a n d l i n g t h e i r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p roblems." Meanwhile the B r i t i s h would e s t a b l i s h an e d u c a t i o n a l system w h i c h would open up t o t h e Malay p e o p l e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e y had been y e a r n i n g f o r . I b i d . , p. 47. 51 I b i d . , pp. 7-9. 5 2 I b i d . , pp. 14-19, 39. - 116 -The same s e t t l e m e n t was apparent i n t h e language a r r a n g e -ments o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . The r e l a t i o n between E n g l i s h and Malay i n t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l was s a i d t o be t h a t o f e q u a l p a r t n e r s h a v i n g e q u a l s t a t u s . I t was s a i d t h a t i n the c o n t e x t o f Malayan l i f e , i t was " i n a p p o s i t e and u n r e a l " t o make a d i s -t i n c t i o n between w h i c h o f t h e two languages s h o u l d be t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n and which t h e compulsory s u b j e c t o f s t u d y because t h e d i s t i n c t i o n was based on t h e d i f f e r e n c e between home language and f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , and i n Malaya n e i t h e r E n g l i s h n o r Malay was r e a l l y a f o r e i g n language f o r any c i t i z e n , as c h i l d r e n o f a l l r a c e s " i n c r e a s i n g l y see b o t h languages i n w r i t t e n form a l l round them and i n c r e a s i n g l y hear b o t h o f them spoken" and might one day "see a home language i n b o t h . " The Barnes Committee t h e r e f o r e found i t "more p r o f i t a b l e t o l o o k t o t h e end t h a n t o t h e means i n r e g a r d t o language t e a c h i n g " i n the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . The end was " e f f e c t i v e b i l i n g u a l i s m by t h e age  o f 12 p l u s , " meaning t h e a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n t o r e a d , w r i t e and c a r r y .on a c o n v e r s a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r y e a r s i n b o t h Malay and E n g l i s h w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l freedom. P r o v i d e d t h i s aim was k e p t i n s i g h t , t h e two languages might be " f r e e l y and i n t e r -c hangeably used" i n any ways c o n v e n i e n t i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n t o a c q u i r e f a c i l i t y i n b o t h , f o r "the a r t o f t e a c h i n g i s n o t t o be 53 s t r a i t - j a c k e t e d by a r b i t r a r y language r e q u i r e m e n t s . " T h i s was c l e a r l y p o l i t i c a l t a l k r a t h e r t h a n an e d u c a t i o n a l e x p o s i t i o n . F o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l would be an English-medium s c h o o l w i t h Malay as t h e compulsory s u b j e c t o f 5 3 I b i d . , pp. 21-23, 31. - 117 -s t u d y . But i t would be i m p o l i t i c t o say t h i s , f o r as the compulsory s u b j e c t r a t h e r t h a n t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n Malay would have appeared as a j u n i o r p a r t n e r t o E n g l i s h i n the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . There was g r e a t c o n c e r n t o prop up t h e s t a t u s o f t h e Malay language. "At a l l t i m e s i t w i l l be a main f u n c t i o n o f e v e r y s c h o o l t o s a f e g u a r d t h e p o s i t i o n and s t a t u s o f t h e 54 Malay language." F o r t h i s r e a s o n what went by t h e name o f ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' was r e a l l y A n g l i c i s a t i o n t o t h e C h i n e s e , who r e g a r d e d the Barnes Re p o r t as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l propaganda and t h e c o n c r e t e p l a n o f t h e f i r s t r e p o r t o f t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n , ^ which had recommended t h a t e i t h e r E n g l i s h o r Malay s h o u l d be t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h the o t h e r language as an " o b l i g a t o r y s u b j e c t " and t h a t "the u l t i m a t e d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d be ... e d u c a t i o n i n t h e 57 medium o f E n g l i s h . " The Barnes Committee had no i l l u s i o n about th e d i f f i c u l t y o f i m p l e m e n t i n g i t s scheme o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . I t e x p l a i n e d a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t i t s scheme ... o f f e r s a n o b l e and a g r e a t reward; i t a l s o demands a h i g h p r i c e . I t c a l l s f o r l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e s o f s o c i a l energy and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s ; e x p e n d i t u r e s beyond t h e c a p a c i t y o f any c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y , however w e a l t h y and however l o y a l l y s u p p o r t e d ; e x p e n d i t u r e s w h i c h can be met ... o n l y by t h e s u s t a i n e d endeavour and t h e d e v o t e d s a c r i f i c e o f Malay p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s , by t h e c h e e r f u l and d i s c i p l i n e d e f f o r t s o f Malay s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and s t u d e n t s , and by the under-s t a n d i n g c o o p e r a t i o n o f the non-Malay communities.58 54 I b i d . , p. 22. 55 I b i d . , p. 20. ^ T h e Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , June 30, 1951. 57 Quoted i n Ho, E d u c a t i o n f o r U n i t y i n M a l a y a , p. 173. - 118 -One wonders whether th e scheme was n o t foredoomed i n i t s con-c e p t i o n . A p p a r e n t l y Chinese o p p o s i t i o n , w h i c h was e x p e c t e d , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e l e a s t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s . P r o v i d e d Malay s u p p o r t and e n t h u s i a s m was f o r t h c o m i n g , t h e C h i n e s e c o u l d be b r o u g h t i n t o l i n e by t h r e a t and i n t i m i d a t i o n i f t h e y would not a v a i l t hemselves o f t h e advantages w h i c h t h e scheme o f f e r e d them. The C h i n e s e must g i v e up g r a d u a l l y t h e i r own v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s and send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l , and "they must do t h i s under no k i n d o f p r e s s u r e , b u t because t h e y f r e e l y d e c i d e t h a t , from t h e i r own a n g l e o f v i s i o n and i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r own v a l u e - s y s t e m s , t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l i s t h e b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t . " I t was s a i d t h a t a l l p a r e n t s who r r e g a r d e d Malaya as t h e i r permanent home and the o b j e c t o f t h e i r u n d i v i d e d l o y a l t y s h o u l d be happy t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n e d u c a t e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l , w h i c h was c o n c e i v e d as a s c h o o l o f c i t i z e n s h i p . " I f any p a r e n t s were n o t happy about t h i s , t h e i r unhappiness would p r o p e r l y be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n . t h a t t h e y d i d not so r e g a r d Malaya. On the o t h e r hand, a l l non-Malay p a r e n t s who a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f the new f a c i l i t i e s , and who s e t a s i d e t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r attachments i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f a new s o c i a l u n i t y , have a r i g h t t o be welcomed w i t h o u t r e s e r v e 59 by the Malay p e o p l e as f e l l o w - b u i l d e r s and f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s . " C o n v e r s i o n o f e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s t o N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s would p r o c e e d from a r e a t o a r e a and no c o n v e r s i o n would be attempted u n t i l an a r e a had been d e c l a r e d a " r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e a . " The complete r e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e whole c o u n t r y would n e c e s s a r i l y 59 I b i d . , pp. 23-4. - 119 -be a s l o w and l o n g p r o c e s s , depending on t h e s u p p l y o f t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s and t e x t b o o k s , t h e f i n a n c i a l c o s t , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , b u t once r e o r g a n i z a t i o n began i n an a r e a , i t would t a k e s i x y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e . I n a d e c l a r e d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e a t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s would be a c c o r d e d "the f u l l e s t p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t " and t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f Government g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o s c h o o l s would become c o n d i t i o n a l upon t h e i r e n t r y i n t o t h e scheme 6 0 o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Meanwhile Government f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o u n c o n v e r t e d v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s o u t s i d e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e a s would be c o n t i n u e d as b e f o r e . I f a l l went w e l l , t h e Barnes Committee e s t i m a t e d t h a t w i t h an i n c r e a s e o f p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e on e d u c a t i o n from $33 m i l l i o n i n 1949 t o $129 m i l l i o n i n 1965 and a f t e r more t h a n a dozen y e a r s o f t h e g r e a t s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t , "some 5/8 o f t h e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n w o u l d , even i n 1965, be w i t h o u t p l a c e s i n t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . " The Committee a s s e r t e d , however, t h a t t h e r e was no cause f o r b e i n g " d i s h e a r t e n e d " a t t h i s d r a s t i c g r a d u a l i s m because " l o n g term c o n s t r u c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s ... c annot be made t o y i e l d q u i c k 61 r e s u l t s . " c h orus o f condemnation i n t h e C h i n e s e p r e s s even though i t s A n g l o - M a l a y p o i n t o f v i e w had l o n g been a n t i c i p a t e d . An e d i t o r i a l o f t h e Kwong Wah Y i t Poh o f Penang opened w i t h a p r o l o g u e d e c l a r i n g t h a t " Y e s t e r d a y a n o t h e r bomb e x p l o d e d i n t h e f i e l d o f c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s among t h e r a c e s o f M a l a ya." I t s a i d t h a t The p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e Barnes Re p o r t was g r e e t e d w i t h a 60 I b i d pp. 65-7, 33. pp. 71-3. r 61 I b i d - 120 -the Barnes R e p o r t must be r e g a r d e d as most r e g r e t t a b l e by a l l who t r u l y had the f u t u r e h a p p i n e s s o f Malaya a t h e a r t . The Nanyang S i a n g Pau o f S i n g a p o r e condemned t h e Barnes Report i n one e d i t o r i a l .as an e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n t o d i s s o l v e t h e u n i t y o f 6 3 the r a c e s o f Malaya and i n a n o t h e r as t h e p r e j u d i c e d and one-s i d e d v i e w o f a few s h o r t - s i g h t e d Englishmen and Malays who 64 proposed t o d e s t r o y Chinese and I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . The S i n g a p o r e S t a n d a r d commented t h a t t h e s p e l t - o u t s t r a n g u l a t i o n o f c u l t u r e s o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h and Malay was a u s e l e s s and a 6 5 dangerous a c t i o n . The competence o f t h e Barnes Committee t o d e a l w i t h C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n d i d not go u n q u e s t i o n e d . The Nanyang S i a n g Pau co m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e name o f t h e Committee made one r e b e l — c a l l i n g i t s e l f a Committee on Malay E d u c a t i o n / y e t i n t r u d i n g upon a l l v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s and even recommending t h e i r a b o l i t i o n . 6 6 The C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l Committee o f the Malayan Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e recommendations o f t h e Barnes Report f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l and the r e p l a c e m e n t o f v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s by N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s were u l t r a v i r e s s i n c e t h e y went o u t s i d e t h e Committee's terms o f r e f e r e n c e . 6 7 6 2 T h e Kwong Wah Y i t Poh, E d i t o r i a l , June 11, 1951. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , June 13, 1951. 6 4 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , June 30, 1951. 6 5 I b i d . , P r e s s Summary, June 17, 1951, p. 3. 6 6 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , June 13, 1951. Malayan C h i n e s e A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l Committee, Memorandum on Chi n e s e E d u c a t i o n i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , K u a l a Lumpur, 1954, p. 20. H e r e a f t e r , r e f e r r e d t o as the MCA Memorandum. - 121 -The C h i n e s e community was b o i l i n g o v e r . I t was con-f r o n t e d w i t h a c r i s i s . Throughout t h e l e n g t h and b r e a d t h o f Malaya C h i n e s e S c h o o l T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s , F e d e r a t i o n s o f C h i n e s e S c h o o l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f C h i n e s e S c h o o l Committees, Chinese Chambers o f Commerce, and C h i n e s e c l a n a s s o c i a t i o n s e i t h e r s i n g l y o r s e v e r a l l y under t h e c a l l o f the Chambers o f Commerce i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e S t a t e s o r S e t t l e m e n t s , one f o l l o w i n g a n o t h e r , c a l l e d emergency meetings t o d i s c u s s the Barnes R e p o r t and p r e p a r e memoranda o r s t a t e m e n t s o f o p i n i o n t o p r e s e n t t o t h e Government. These s t a t e m e n t s were o f t e n r e p e t i t i v e i n t h e i r arguments and t h e y i n v a r i a b l y r e f u t e d and condemned th e recommendations o f the Barnes Report and e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s . However, t h e r e was no h a r t e l , t h e c l o s i n g down o f a l l b u s i n e s s e s i n mourning. I f the w o r s t s h o u l d come, the Chinese would assume f u l l f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own s c h o o l s . C a l l s f o r C h i n e s e s o l i d a r i t y went up and C h i n e s e c h a u v i n i s m , never v e r y f a r beneath t h e s u r f a c e , r e a p p e a r e d i n v i g o u r . I t i s perhaps u n n e c e s s a r y t o i n s i s t t h a t t h e C h i n e s e would i n f a c t m a i n t a i n t h e i r own s c h o o l s i f t h e recommendations o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t were pushed t h r o u g h .or t h a t C h i n e s e c h a u v i n i s m would be on i t s way out i f t h e r e were not t h e Barnes R e p o r t . What i s b e i n g o b s e r v e d i s t h a t t h e s e had been Ch i n e s e r e a c t i o n s and t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t , i f any, must have been t o r e t a r d C h i n e s e adjustment t o t h e changed s i t u a t i o n i n the p o s t -war Malaya. Thus the e d i t o r i a l o f t h e Nanyang S i a n g Pau on June 26, 1951 urged the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a C h i n e s e u n i v e r s i t y - 122 -f o r t h e two o r t h r e e hundred C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s who g r a d u a t e d from C h i n e s e S e n i o r M i d d l e S c h o o l s i n S i n g a p o r e e v e r y y e a r . A l t h o u g h Mr. Tan L a r k Sye had broached the i d e a t h e y e a r b e f o r e , i t g a i n e d impetus under t h e s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d by t h e Barnes R e p o r t , and i n 19 52 Mr. Tan, by a p e r s o n a l d o n a t i o n o f f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , was a b l e t o make i t a w o r k i n g p r o p o s i t i o n w h i c h l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y i n 1956. W i t h r e g a r d t o the f u t u r e o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s , spokesmen and g u a r d i a n s o f Chi n e s e e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e u r ged t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be p l a c e d on the b a s i s o f f i n a n c i a l independence from t h e Government, i f n e c e s s a r y , by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a community-wide e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g and 6 8 f i n a n c i n g o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s . No such o r g a n i z a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t f u r t h e r encouraged by the recommendation o f the Fenn-Wu R e p o r t t h a t t h e Chi n e s e form a Committee f o r t h e Improvement o f Chi n e s e S c h o o l s i n Malaya t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r own problems (such as f o r e i g n p o l i t i c s , s c h o o l management, com-p e t i t i o n between s c h o o l s and o t h e r i l l - p r a c t i c e s ) and t o 69 c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Government, Ch i n e s e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a l l o v e r Malaya made an unprecedented move f o r u n i t y . A c o n f e r e n c e a t t e n d e d by 32 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f 17 C h i n e s e S c h o o l T e a c h e r s 1 A s s o c i a t i o n s from n i n e S t a t e s and S e t t l e m e n t s was c a l l e d . I n i t s two-day m e e t i n g h e l d a t t h e Hokien Hui-kuan ) i n K u a l a Lumpur on August 24 and 25, 1951, i t pa s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n t o form a U n i t e d C h i n e s e S c h o o l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n o f Malaya The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , J u l y 5, 1951. The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , pp. 14, 40. (which came i n t o e x i s t e n c e towards the end o f t h e year) t o f a c i l i t a t e communication, promote p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and s t u d y e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , and p u b l i s h e d a M a n i f e s t o which d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e Barnes R e p o r t was p r e j u d i c e d and u n r e a l i s t i c , n e g l e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , and might i n c i t e r a c i a l con-f l i c t , and t h a t t h e Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , w h i c h admired C h i n e s e c u l t u r e and r e s p e c t e d C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n , d i s p l a y e d an o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e towards and gave an a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s . The C h i n e s e were accused o f Ch a u v i n i s m i n t h e i r condemn-a t i o n o f t h e Barnes Report and i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . An o f f i c i a l communication s t a t e d t h a t the C h i n e s e seemed t o be s e e k i n g an " e x c l u s i v e and s e p a r a t i s t p o s i t i o n " f o r t h e i r l anguage, c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n i n a Malayan s o c i e t y and t h a t "many Chi n e s e s c h o o l s ... i n c u l c a t e and d e v e l o p a s p i r i t and sense o f 71 p a r t i t i o n from t h e r e s t o f t h e Malayan community." The a c c u s a t i o n was r e s o l u t e l y d e n i e d . The Chi n e s e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be g e n e r a l i z e d and t h a t , " i f t r u e , £itj s h o u l d a p p l y t o E n g l i s h , I n d i a n and even Malay s c h o o l s as w e l l " as t h e Fenn-Wu Rep o r t had made c l e a r and t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n had r e c o g n i z e d . They charged t h a t t h e Government was b l a m i n g i t s own n e g l e c t i n f o s t e r i n g t h e growth o f a Malayan n a t i o n on C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . They c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y were s e e k i n g m e r e l y " e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e " and t h a t t h e y sought 70 " M a n i f e s t o o f t h e Co n f e r e n c e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f C h i n e s e S c h o o l T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s i n Malaya," i n Nanyang  S i a n g Pau, August 30, 1951, p. 7. 71 Government Statements (10) and ( 1 1 ) , i n the MCA  Memorandum, pp. 17, 18. - 124 -"the use o f t h e C h i n e s e language as the b e s t medium o f r e -72 o r i e n t a t i n g Malayan C h i n e s e i n t o C hinese Malayans." F a r from b e i n g e x c l u s i v e and s e p a r a t i s t , t h e y had a c c e p t e d t h e need o f l e a r n i n g Malay and r e a l i z e d t h e im p o r t a n c e o f a common medium o f communication. A m e e t i n g o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f C h i n e s e S c h o o l Committees and t e a c h e r s i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n on November 9, 1952, unanimously d e c i d e d t o urge ... t h e use o f mother tongues o f t h e composite r a c e s as t h e main t e a c h i n g media f o r t h e proposed N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s , g r a n t i n g e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f Ma l a y , C h i n e s e and I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n , and a d o p t i n g E n g l i s h as a compulsory s u b j e c t w i t h t h e v i e w  t o making i t a common language f o r a l l . 7 3 W h i l e C h i n e s e a g i t a t i o n on t h e s e n s i t i v e language and c u l t u r e i s s u e i n t h e c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n u n d o u b t e d l y l e n t i t s e l f t o e x p l o i t a t i o n by c h a u v i n i s t i c elements i n t h e Chi n e s e com-mu n i t y , t h e burden o f Chi n e s e c o m p l a i n t s was c l e a r . They were f i g h t i n g f o r t h e i r n a t u r a l and d e m o c r a t i c r i g h t s t o t h e i r whole-some c u l t u r a l p e r s o n a l i t y , n o t as C h i n e s e , b u t as C h i n e s e Malayans. They u n d e r s t o o d t h e u r g e n t need f o r Malayan u n i t y w h i c h , t h e y s u b m i t t e d , must r e s t on u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o o p e r a t i o n and t o l e r a n c e among the r a c e s . C u l t u r a l e q u a l i t y was a p r e -r e q u i s i t e o f t h i s u n i t y , f o r i t was s a i d t h a t o n l y t h o s e who were proud o f t h e d i g n i t y o f t h e i r own p e o p l e c o u l d r e s p e c t t h e 74 d i g n i t y o f o t h e r p e o p l e s . The recommendations o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t f o r Malayan u n i t y t h e r e f o r e d e f e a t e d i t s own purpose. The Kwong Wah Y i t Poh d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e g o a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l The MCA Memorandum, pp. 18-19. Quoted i n I b i d . . , p. 18. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , J u l y 19, 1951. - 125 -S c h o o l was c o n t r a r y t o t h e s p i r i t . o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y , f o r u n t i l p o l i t i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Malaya reached a Malayan n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o implement 75 a system o f common Malayan e d u c a t i o n . The Barnes Committee t h e r e f o r e began a t the wrong end. E d u c a t i o n f o r Malayan u n i t y s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o gu i d e t h e development o f the c u l t u r e s o f Mal a y a towards a c o n f l u e n c e by e m p h a s i s i n g common e l e m e n t s , by l e a r n i n g t o a p p r e c i a t e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and by c u l t i v a t i n g a Malayan o u t l o o k . T h i s s h o u l d be done i n t h e c o n t e n t , and not the l a n g u a g e , o f e d u c a t i o n . The Fenn-Wu Rep o r t c a p t u r e d the s e n t i m e n t o f the C h i n e s e when i t d e c l a r e d t h a t "The u n i t y o f a n a t i o n depends n o t upon t h e s i n g l e n e s s o f tongue o r s i m p l i c i t y 7 6 of c u l t u r e ; i t l i e s i n t h e h e a r t s o f i t s c i t i z e n s . " " U n i t y o f h e a r t s and minds i n Malaya," t h e Chi n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l Committee o f t h e Malayan Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n s u b m i t t e d , "can b e s t be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h Malayan o r i e n t a t i o n o f t e x t b o o k s and c u r r i c u l a common t o a l l s c h o o l s i n M a l a y a , whatever t h e i r 77 language-medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . " The Barnes Committee f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r the a l l i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n o f t h e t e x t b o o k s . I t was aware t h a t a problem e x i s t e d here and su g g e s t e d t h a t a s p e c i a l committee s h o u l d s t u d y i t , b u t i t seemed t o have t r e a t e d t h e problem e x c l u s i v e l y from t h e p o i n t o f view o f the s u i t a b i l i t y o f 7 8 language s t y l e r a t h e r t h a n o f c o n t e n t . The Chi n e s e argued t h a t " s i n g l e n e s s o f tongue" was h o c r i t e r i o n f o r n a t i o n a l unity;., as 7 5 T h e Kwong Wah Y i t Poh, E d i t o r i a l , June 13, 1951. 76 The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , p. 6. 77 The MCA Memorandum, p. 16. 7 8 The Barnes R e p o r t , pp. 32-3. - 126 -I r e l a n d and E n g l a n d i l l u s t r a t e d , and t h a t i f Germany s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be d i v i d e d , i n a n o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n t h e c h i l d r e n on t h e E a s t and t h e West o f t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e would p r o b a b l y d e v e l o p v e r y d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k s . On t h e o t h e r hand, S w i t z e r l a n d was o f t e n mentioned t o show t h a t the e x i s t e n c e o f s e v e r a l languages 79 was no o b s t a c l e t o n a t i o n a l u n i t y . I t was argued t h a t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e was a slow and n a t u r a l p r o c e s s and c o u l d n o t be f o r c e d . Any attempt t o f o r c e t h e C h i n e s e and t h e I n d i a n s t o abandon t h e i r a n c i e n t c u l t u r e s and embrace t h e p r i m i t i v e Malay c u l t u r e would be l i k e w o r k i n g t h e m i r a c l e o f making a s e r p e n t s w a l l o w an 80 e l e p h a n t . The p a t t e r n s o f l i f e o f t h e p e o p l e s o f Malaya had l o n g been f i x e d , and no d ecree o r propaganda c o u l d change them o v e r n i g h t . The whole i d e a o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l was t h e r e f o r e r i d i c u l o u s . The p r e v i o u s l y quoted e d i t o r i a l o f t h e Kwbng Wah  Y i t Poh commented t h a t t h e most u n f o r t u n a t e f e a t u r e o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l was t h e p r o u d l y paraded i d e a o f b r i n g i n g c h i l d r e n o f a l l r a c e s t o g e t h e r f o r e d u c a t i o n I n t h e same s c h o o l house w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l needs due t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l backgrounds. I f e d u c a t i o n were d i v o r c e d from th e f i x e d p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l l i f e , what would be i t s p r o d u c t ? Would n o t t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l produce d i s l o c a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s who m ight l o o k E n g l i s h , M a l a y , C h i n e s e and I n d i a n b u t were r e a l l y The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, Sunday E s s a y , J u l y 1, 1951; The MCA Memorandum, p. 16. 80 The Nanyang S i a n g Pau; Sunday E s s a y , J u l y 1, 1951. - 127 -81 none o f t h e s e ? A t t i m e s t h e d r a s t i c measures recommended by t h e Barnes Committee were condemned i n a tone o f r i g h t e o u s anger. The q u e s t i o n was p u t t h a t i f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y a , which had been c u l t i v a t e d w i t h c o u n t l e s s sweat.and b l o o d , s h o u l d n o t 8 2 e x i s t , what e l s e would be w o r t h p r e s e r v i n g t h e r e ? The con-t e n t i o n o f the Barnes Report t h a t t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s would d e f e a t t h e aim o f ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n ' was c o n t e s t e d . Was not t h e i d e a o f s e l f - r u l e f o r M a l a y a c u r r e n t i n t h e minds o f Malayans o f a l l r a c e s , who t h u s demonstrated t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s common Malayan c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t h e i r v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s c l o s e d down o r a s i n g l e language Imposed on them? The purpose o f the Barnes R e p o r t , i t was a l l e g e d , was n o t n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n ; r a t h e r , ' n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n ' 83 was t h e s h i e l d t o e x t e n d E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n . The Government was asked t o a s s i s t t h e development o f v e r n a c u l a r e d u c a t i o n and l e a v e t h e p l a n n i n g o f a n a t i o n a l system o f e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l 84 t h e r a c e s t o a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g and independent M a l a y a . The Kwong Wah Y i t Poh, E d i t o r i a l , June 13, 1951. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, E d i t o r i a l , J u l y 9, 1951. I b i d . , Sunday E s s a y , J u l y 1, 1951. I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , June 13, 1951. \ CHAPTER V A UNITED OR A UNIFIED NATION? PART I I : THE DILEMMA OF THE BRITISH IN MALAYA The Fenn-Wu Repo r t The Fenn-Wu Repo r t was p u b l i s h e d about one month a f t e r t h e Barnes R e p o r t . I t was r e c e i v e d w i t h a c c l a i m . The Nanyang S i a n g Pau c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t was a j u s t r e p o r t , t h o u g h t f u l and c l o s e l y a rgued, and t h a t i t s f a i r and a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t i c i s m s o f Chin e s e e d u c a t i o n c o u l d n o t b u t d e l i g h t t h o s e concerned w i t h t h e f a t e o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n as though t h e y had h e a r d t h e sound o f f o o t s t e p s i n an empty v a l l e y . 1 I n a n o t h e r e d i t o r i a l t he same newspaper s a i d t h a t the s i n c e r e , t r u t h f u l and p r o f o u n d e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e Fenn-Wu Repo r t s h o u l d s e r v e as a motto f o r 2 the Government. The Chi n e s e had found someone who u n d e r s t o o d them. The Fenn-Wu Repo r t was s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e Chi n e s e p o i n t o f v i e w as t h e Barnes Report was t o t h a t o f t h e M a l a y s . I t f a i t h f u l l y r e f l e c t e d the f e e l i n g s o f t h e Chi n e s e community and saw t h i n g s t h r o u g h Chinese e y e s , " o b j e c t i v e l y , " i t c l a i m e d . I t r e a d s l i k e an e x c e l l e n t , r easoned and moderated summary o f the v i o l e n t C h i n e s e r e a c t i o n t o t h e Barnes Report w h i c h had appeared i n t h e Chi n e s e p r e s s . Had t h e Fenn-Wu Report been p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e t h e s e p r e s s comments were p r i n t e d , i t would have been r e g a r d e d by many as the s o u r c e o f C h i n e s e arguments. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, J u l y 9, 1951. I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , J u l y 10, 1951. - 129 -The Fenn-Wu Rep o r t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya must t a k e "new forms and d i r e c t i o n s " as t h e c o u n t r y moved towards independence and n a t i o n h o o d , s i n c e e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s , whether E n g l i s h , M a lay, C h i n e s e o r I n d i a n , were a l l " m a k e - s h i f t i n s t i t u t i o n s " w h i c h d i d not e x p r e s s t h e new Malayan needs. They must a l l r e o r i e n t t h e i r o u t l o o k and c e n t r e t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e and a c t i v i t i e s on M a l a y a . The Report p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e b e s t s e r v i c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e new Malaya would be i n b r i d g i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , b u t i t warned t h a t e d u c a t i o n 3 s h o u l d n o t be p r o s t i t u t e d t o p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e s . The new Malayan n a t i o n c o u l d n o t be b u i l t i n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n ; i t must r e s t on t h e f a c t s o f t h e Malayan s o c i e t y . These f a c t s a re ( i ) t h a t "Malaya i s a l a n d o f s e v e r a l r a c e s and s e v e r a l c u l t u r e s , " w h i c h "have f o r many y e a r s d e f i n e d the p a t t e r n o f l i f e i n Malaya" and w h i c h "seem d e s t i n e d t o do so f o r many y e a r s t o come," and ( i i ) t h a t "a Malayan n a t i o n and a Malayan c u l t u r e a re f u t u r e hopes r a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t r e a l i t i e s " and t h e y c o u l d not be a r t i f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d o u t o f s e v e r a l r a c e s and c u l t u r e s , c e r t a i n l y n o t q u i c k l y . The Rep o r t argued t h a t , g i v e n t h e s e f a c t s , "what can be hoped f o r i s a p e a c e f u l and c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among d i v e r s e e l e m e n t s , " f o r "because o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l attachments o f t h e r a c i a l g r o u p s , any attempt at. the moment t o f o r c e u n w i l l i n g f u s i o n w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y l e a d t o f u r t h e r c l e a v a g e . " "There can be no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t u r n i n g M a l a y a i n t o a c o c k p i t f o r a g g r e s s i v e c u l t u r e s , " and "the p e o p l e o f M a l a y a w i l l have t o l e a r n t o u n d e r s t a n d and a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r The Fenn-Wu R e p o r t , p. 7. - 130 -4 -c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . " The R e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t t h e absence o f a Malayan p a t t e r n made ' M a l a y a n i z a t i o n " anathema t o most C h i n e s e who i n t e r p r e t e d i t as "meaning t o make Malay r a t h e r t h a n Malayan." The Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n f e l t t h a t i t was "an u n f o r t u n a t e term because i t seems t o i m p l y what cannot be a c h i e v e d , C a s 3 n o element o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n can be ' M a l a y a n i z e d 1 f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t t h e r e i s no 'Malayan' p a t t e r n t o w h i c h t o mould i t and because such m o u l d i n g i s not produced by f i a t . " N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e term " e x p r e s s e s a d e s i r a b l e g o a l " and must t h e r e f o r e be used. I t s h o u l d , however, be k e p t " f r e e from c o n n o t a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g s p e c i f i c methods o f p r o c e d u r e w h i c h themselves a r e based on p r e -c o n c e p t i o n s as t o what t h e 'Malayan' c u l t u r e o f t h e f u t u r e i s t o b e . " 5 I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e M i s s i o n , t h e new Malayan c u l t u r e s h o u l d come from "the n a t u r a l m i n g l i n g o f d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l elements f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . " I t s h o u l d be t h e r e s u l t o f a g i v e and t a k e based on " i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f community o f i n t e r e s t and t h e need f o r mutual t o l e r a n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n . " " I n t h i s p r o c e s s , elements w h i c h do not command a p p r e c i a t i o n d i s a p p e a r , w h i l e t h o s e w h i c h do need no p o l i t i c a l o r e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t . " The p e o p l e o f Malaya were urged t o " c h e r i s h what i s f i n e and n o n - d i v i s i v e i n e v e r y c u l t u r a l s t r a i n , f o r out o f p r e s e n t d i v e r s i t y g may come f u t u r e g l o r y . " 4 I b i d . , p. 4. 5 I b i d . , pp. 4-5 . I b i d . , p. 5. - 131 -H a v i n g a n a l y s e d t h e Malayan s i t u a t i o n i n t h e s e terms the M i s s i o n t h e n d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c problems o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n . These may be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : e d u c a t i o n a l , f i n a n c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l . E d u c a t i o n a l l y , C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were c r i t i c i s e d as g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g " s u i t a b l e p h y s i c a l e q u i p -ment" and as " i n many cases a c a d e m i c a l l y weak and p e d a g o g i c a l l y backward." F i n a n c i a l l y , t h e C h i n e s e were found t o be c a r r y i n g a v e r y heavy burden o f e d u c a t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h o n l y t o k e n Government a s s i s t a n c e . I t was recommended t h a t Government a s s i s t a n c e , b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l , f o r C h i n e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d , i n c l u d i n g a 200 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n 7 g r a n t s - i n - a i d o v e r t h e two y e a r s 1952 and 1953. Other measures f o r improvement were a l s o s u g g e s t e d but t h e y need not be d e t a i l e d h e r e . P o l i t i c a l l y , C h i n e s e s c h o o l s were s a i d t o be " C h i n a -c o n s c i o u s t o a degree t h a t i s n o t r e q u i r e d by the. p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and t h a t l i m i t s t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s of b e i n g a p a r t o f Malaya." They were, however, "not e n t i r e l y t o blame" f o r t h i s as t h e y were almost w h o l l y t h e r e s u l t o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w h i c h Government n e g l e c t had f o r c e d on t h e C h i n e s e . The M i s s i o n contended t h a t "had t h e y n o t been n e g l e c t e d i n t h e p a s t , i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h e y would e v e r have become so p r o - C h i n e s e o r so s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e Government." I t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e y had not d e v e l o p e d a Malayan o u t l o o k , " e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f t h e B r i t i s h c a s t o f E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , and t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y Malay (as con-t r a s t e d w i t h Malayan) o u t l o o k o f Malay s c h o o l s , not t o mention 7 I b i d . , pp. 9, 11-12. t h e I n d i a n - n e s s o f t h e I n d i a n s c h o o l s . " T h i s , however, was not t o j u s t i f y t h e i n d e f i n i t e .con-t i n u a t i o n o f p a s t p r a c t i c e , and t h e M i s s i o n c a u t i o n e d " a g a i n s t t h e danger o f o v e r - e m p h a s i s i n g t h e Ch i n e s e n e s s o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s . These s c h o o l s , as a response o f t h e Chi n e s e community t o t h e needs o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , s h o u l d g i v e "adequate a t t e n t i o n b o t h t o Ch i n e s e language and c u l t u r e and t o o t h e r elements l i k e l y t o make up t h e c u l t u r e o f Malaya." O t h e r w i s e , t h e r e was "no r e a l advantage f o r C h i n e s e c u l t u r e i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e forms, o r 9 i n d e e d most o f t h e methods and c o n t e n t , o f s c h o o l s i n C h i n a . " The Re p o r t p o i n t e d o ut t h a t " t h o u g h t f u l C h i n e s e a r e as f u l l y aware as are t h e i r c r i t i c s " o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , and t h a t t h e y were d e s i r o u s o f improvement and w i l l i n g t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Government and t o a c c e p t r e a s o n a b l e and c o n s t r u c t i v e changes. However, t h e M i s s i o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e were many ways i n w h i c h t h e C h i n e s e c o u l d and s h o u l d s e t " t h e i r own house i n o r d e r , " and recommended t h a t t h e y took t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o form a Committee f o r t h e Improvement o f Chi n e s e S c h o o l s i n Malaya t o d e a l w i t h them. One o f t h e ways was "the e l i m i n a t i o n o f f o r e i g n p o l i t i c s i n any form from C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , " f o r t h e r e was no p l a c e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e Chi n e s e i n Malaya f o r " C h i n a - c e n t r e d p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s o r c o n t r o l s , " and t h e m i x i n g o f f o r e i g n p o l i t i c s w i t h e d u c a t i o n had c r e a t e d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r w h i c h t h e Chi n e s e were the m s e l v e s l a r g e l y t o blame. I b i d . , pp. 9-10. I b i d . , p. 13. ^ I b i d . , pp. 9, 13. - 133 -Thus t h e M i s s i o n sought t o r e o r i e n t t h e o u t l o o k o f Chin e s e s c h o o l s t o s o l v e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l problems. A l t h o u g h t h e Chi n e s e were urged t o make n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t , t h e M i s s i o n i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e problems were " l a r g e l y one" f o r a l l s c h o o l s i n Malaya and s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as such. They s h o u l d be approached t h r o u g h a common t e x t b o o k t o " f u r t h e r communal u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n i n b u i l d i n g a t r u l y Malayan community." The argument was t h a t "the n e a r e r a l l s t u d e n t s come t o s t u d y i n g the same c o n t e n t , though i n d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s , t h e n e a r e r t h e y w i l l come t o common t h i n k i n g . " Thus "the b a s i c c o n t e n t and methods most d e s i r a b l e f o r one group o f s c h o o l s ^ s h o u l d } be, w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t a d a p t a t i o n s , d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e o t h e r s ; " t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s h o u l d be i n language r a t h e r t h a n i n c o n t e n t o r method. I n g e n e r a l , t e x t b o o k s s h o u l d be " d e s i g n e d , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e most approved p e d a g o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , t o g i v e t h e c h i l d q u i c k l y and e f f e c t i v e l y t h e f a c t s o f h i s background and e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e s k i l l s needed f o r l i v e l i h o o d and f o r s e r v i c e , and t h e a t t i t u d e s and i d e a l s w h i c h w i l l make him a c r e a t i v e and happy member o f t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h he l i v e s . " W i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o u s i n g t e x t b o o k s t o f o s t e r a common Malayan o u t l o o k , two p o i n t s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r c o n t e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d . F i r s t , i t was recommended t h a t "a s e r i e s o f s i m p l e t e x t b o o k s d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l , e t h i c a l , and m o r a l v a l u e s " f o r use i n t h e f i r s t s i x y e a r s o f a l l s c h o o l s s h o u l d be q u i c k l y p r e p a r e d t o p r o v i d e c o n s c i o u s l y "the m o r a l and e t h i c a l t e a c h i n g now g e n e r a l l y c o n s p i c u o u s by i t s absence." S e c o n d l y , i t was l a i d down g e n e r a l l y t h a t " t e x t b o o k s f o r a l l s c h o o l s must be p r e p a r e d f o r O r i e n t a l s l i v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n o f A s i a . " - 134 -S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was. e x p l a i n e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e major emphasis s h o u l d n o t be Europe o r C h i n a o r I n d i a , n e i t h e r s h o u l d i t be e x c l u s i v e l y M a l a y a , f o r Europe, C h i n a and I n d i a were a l l i m p o r t a n t f o r a l l Malayans. Geography and H i s t o r y , f o r example, s h o u l d s t a r t w i t h M a l a y a and move t h r o u g h A s i a u n t i l t h e y had c o v e r e d the w o r l d , g i v i n g due a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a r e a s from w h i c h the i n h a b i t a n t s o f M a l a y a have come."'"1 T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f Malaya's c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i t y t y p i f i e s t h e approach o f t h e Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n t o t h e problem o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n . I t was p r a g m a t i c and d e m o c r a t i c . Thus the M i s s i o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t " e f f o r t s t o f o r e c a s t and p r e d e t e r m i n e th e f u t u r e " s h o u l d be abandoned and t h a t " a l l c o n c e r n e d c o n c e n t r a t e on p r e s e n t r e a l i t i e s . " I t s a i d t h a t "the f i n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s " s h o u l d be " p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and d e v e l o p i n g needs" and t h a t u n i t y i n M a l a y a s h o u l d be sought i n "the c o l l e c t i v e wisdom and c o n s e n t " of i t s p e o p l e s . T h i s i s t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e M i s s i o n ' s s o l u t i o n o f t h e language i s s u e o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n . There i s a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f languages i n everyday use i n M a l a y a : C h i n e s e , E n g l i s h , Malay and T a m i l are t h e f i r s t o r second tongues o f g r e a t numbers of Malayans. The M i s s i o n p o i n t e d out t h a t Malay and E n g l i s h were o f f i c i a l languages and were r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s o f s t u d y i n a l l s c h o o l s , and t h a t t h e r e were advantages i n l e a r n i n g them; the former i s spoken e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h o u t the Malayan a r c h i p e l a g o , and a common knowledge o f i t c o u l d " c o n t r i b u t e t o communal u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o o p e r a t i o n , " and t h e l a t t e r i s a w o r l d language and o f f e r s i t s u s e r s " s o c i a l , I b i d . , pp. 15-6, 18. - 135 -academic, s c i e n t i f i c , c u l t u r a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l advantages." I t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t "the p r a c t i c a l wisdom o f the C h i n e s e " had prompted them t o a c c e p t t h e t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h and Malay i n t h e i r p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , M a l a y . i n the l a s t two y e a r s o f t h e c o u r s e . T h i s means t r i l i n g u a l i s m f o r most C h i n e s e Malayans and 12 b i l m g u a l i s m f o r a l l . The M i s s i o n spoke a g a i n s t any attempt t o d r i v e t h e C h i n e s e language out o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s , because i t b e l i e v e d t h a t a c h i l d ' s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be i n h i s mother tongue, t h a t "Chinese i s one o f t h e g r e a t languages o f t h e w o r l d , key t o one o f t h e w o r l d ' s g r e a t c u l t u r e s , " and t h a t most Chi n e s e "are more l i k e l y t o r e s e n t any e f f o r t t o r e s t r i c t them t o one o r two languages t h a n t h e n e c e s s i t y w h i c h r e q u i r e s them t o s t u d y t h r e e . " The M i s s i o n d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was not " f r i g h t e n e d " by t r i l i n g u a l -i s m , " p r o v i d e d t o o g r e a t demands a r e not made on t h e c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t any one t i m e . " I t t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t f o r t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f the p r i m a r y c o u r s e , a c h i l d s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d s o l e l y i n h i s mother tongue, w i t h t h e second language t o be i n t r o d u c e d from t h e t h i r d y e a r and t h e t h i r d language by 13 t h e f i f t h y e a r . F o r p o s t - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , w i t h w h i c h t h e M i s s i o n g e n e r a l l y d i d n o t c o n c e r n i t s e l f because "not enough c h i l d r e n are a f f e c t e d t o j u s t i f y the e x p e n d i t u r e o f r e s o u r c e s 14 more b a d l y needed e l s e w h e r e , " i t was recommended t h a t t h e language r e q u i r e m e n t s t h e n i n f o r c e i n E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , w h i c h s p e c i f i e d one language o t h e r t h a n t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n , 1 2 l b i d . , p. 6. 13 I b i d . , pp. 6, 33 . I b i d . , p. 21. - 136 -s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t . As t o t h e c h o i c e o f t h e second language, i t was s t a t e d t h a t because o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e language and the extended s t u d y o f i t l i k e l y t o be p u r s u e d , i t would p r o b a b l y be E n g l i s h f o r t h e Chi n e s e c h i l d . M a l a y , an e a s i e r language t o l e a r n , o f w h i c h many Chinese c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age would a l r e a d y have some knowledge, would t h u s be s t u d i e d i n C h i n e s e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s f o r two y e a r s , an amount o f time w h i c h t h e M i s s i o n c o n s i d e r e d would p r o b a b l y be adequate t o a c q u i r e a command o f Malay e x c e p t i n cases where s t u d e n t s might w i s h t o pursue t h e s u b j e c t as an e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r s e condary s c h o o l y e a r s . Thus the M i s s i o n was t h i n k i n g o f not m e r e l y a p e r f u n c t o r y a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s m a t t e r i n g o f l a n g u a g e s , and i t b e l i e v e d t h a t w i t h t h e use o f modern t e x t s and modern methods t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f language i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be d o u b l e d , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n -a t e amount o f t i m e t h e n consumed i n t h e s t u d y o f languages and 15 r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l o f achievement. What t h e n was t h e answer t o Chi n e s e s c h o o l s ? I t was not t h e i r " e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e e l i m i n a t i o n . " R a t h e r , i t was t o r e c o g n i z e the need f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and t o s t r e n g t h e n them and f i n d f o r them t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system o f Ma l a y a . The M i s s i o n argued t h a t "Chinese s c h o o l s w i l l p e r s i s t i n M alaya f o r a l o n g t i m e t o come, £and t h a t ] any attempt t o c r u s h them w i l l r e s u l t , as i t has a l r e a d y done, i n g r e a t e r d e t e r -m i n a t i o n t o p r e s e r v e them." I t was f u r t h e r argued t h a t "they cannot be e l i m i n a t e d u n t i l t h e C h i n e s e t h e m s e l v e s d e c i d e t h a t t h e y a r e n o t needed, w h i c h w i l l happen o n l y i f and when t h e r e i s I b i d . , pp. 33, 35, 39. - 137 -an adequate and s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e . " I t was s a i d t h a t " t h a t day may never come, f o r i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of' any e d u c a t i o n a l program 16 o f t h e f u t u r e M a l a ya." Indeed t h e M i s s i o n d i d not t h i n k i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t i t s h o u l d come. I t d i d not recommend complete Government s u p p o r t o f a l l C h i n e s e s c h o o l s because t h i s was " n e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y p r a c t i c a b l e n or u l t i m a t e l y d e s i r a b l e . " I n s t e a d i t s u g g e s t e d t h a t Government s u p p o r t s h o u l d supplement and n o t s u b s t i t u t e f o r C h i n e s e e f f o r t s , and t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be " p r o t e c t e d from t h e t h r e a t o f u n d e s i r e d a b s o r p t i o n by the Government by t h e i r p r i v i l e g e o f a c c e p t i n g o n l y such a s s i s t a n c e as t h e y d e s i r e d , and even o f r e f u s i n g i t e n t i r e l y when the y were a b l e t h e m s e l v e s t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e l y f o r t h e i r 17 t e a c h e r s . " The M i s s i o n c o n s i d e r e d t h a t "the e x i s t e n c e o f p r i v a t e academic i n s t i t u t i o n s i s an i m p o r t a n t r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e development o f a f r e e s o c i e t y " i n p r o v i d i n g room f o r h e a l t h y c o m p e t i t i o n and improvement. These p r i v a t e s c h o o l s would be " f i n a n c i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t , r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e Government o n l y f o r the maintenance o f h i g h , b u t n o t r i g i d , academic and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a n d a r d s , " and t h e y would be s u b j e c t t o Government s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . They would t h e r e f o r e be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t , a c a d e m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y , from one a n o t h e r and from Government s c h o o l s . B u t , t h e M i s s i o n p o i n t e d o u t , "good, M a l a y a - c e n t r e d , C h i n e s e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s w i l l o f f e r a v a l u a b l e o u t l e t f o r C h i n e s e i n i t i a t i v e and p u b l i c - s p i r i t . " I b i d . , pp. 10-11. I b i d . , p. 32. - 138 -"A f r e e and independent "Malaya must [/therefore]] a l l o w and encourage t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f r e e s c h o o l s , o f w h i c h t h e C h i n e s e s c h o o l s appear d e s t i n e d t o be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t . " However, C h i n e s e Malayans s h o u l d m a i n t a i n , as c o m p l e t e l y p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , o n l y "such s c h o o l s as a r e a c t u a l l y needed and as 18 t h e y can keep a t a l e v e l o f whi c h t h e y can be proud." I t seems t h a t t h e M i s s i o n ' s s t a t e m e n t on t h e u l t i m a t e d e s t i n y o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s i n t h e Malayan n a t i o n was none t o o c l e a r . I t was hoped t h a t e v e n t u a l l y , " a l l v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s [would be] p r i v a t e , w i t h a l l Government s c h o o l s , by whatever name, t r u l y common i n t h e sense t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e d Malayan e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l , " and t h a t "Government s c h o o l s ( ' E n g l i s h ' o r ' N a t i o n a l ' ) w i l l have t a k e n a s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c r e a s e d s h a r e o f t h e l o a d o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n t o e n a b l e 19 p r i v a t e C h i n e s e s c h o o l s t o c a r r y t h e i r s h a r e more e f f e c t i v e l y . " I t seems l e g i t i m a t e t o ask whether t h i s meant t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o o l s would e x i s t o n l y as p r i v a t e and n o t as Government i n s t i t u t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n was, w h i c h would be Government s c h o o l s ? The g e n e r a l t h e s i s o f t h e Repo r t would seem t o su g g e s t t h a t t h e y would be s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n e d by t h e Government and p r o v i d i n g a common b a l a n c e d Malayan e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l i n th e d i f f e r e n t mother tongues. However, some c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t e d from t h e use o f the words "Government s c h o o l s ( ' E n g l i s h ' o r ' N a t i o n a l ' ) . " Would ' N a t i o n a l ' s c h o o l s be ' E n g l i s h ' s c h o o l s , o r was t h e phrase m e r e l y a c a r e l e s s s l i p on t h e p a r t o f the a u t h o r s ? 1 8 I b . i d . , pp. 10-12, 22. 19 I b i d . , p. 32. - 1 3 9 -El s e w h e r e t h e Report was concerned w i t h i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h . i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , n o t o n l y t o make d i r e c t t r a n s f e r o f p u p i l s from C h i n e s e p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n t o E n g l i s h s e condary s c h o o l s t h e o b j e c t i v e , but a l s o t o make i t p o s s i b l e t h a t " e v e n t u a l l y p r a c t i c a l l y a l l secondary e d u c a t i o n f o r C h i n e s e Malayans w i l l be i n s c h o o l s i n w h i c h , whatever t h e i r 20 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , E n g l i s h i s the language o f i n s t r u c t i o n . " The M i s s i o n a l s o made c l e a r t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t e v e n t u a l l y a l l T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e s must be " n o n - r a c i a l and t r u l y Malayan," t r a i n i n g a l l r a c e s and s u p p l y i n g a l l s c h o o l s , and t h e y thought i t " i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e s w i l l be E n g l i s h , p r o v i d i n g a common ground o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and opening up t o a l l t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e advance i n t h e i r 21 p r o f e s s i o n . " D i d t h i s mean t h a t t e a c h e r s o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , w hatever t h e i r medium o f . i n s t r u c t i o n , would be t r a i n e d i n English-medium T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e s ? A l l t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s d i d not seem t o add up t o a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f what Government s c h o o l s would be and hence t h e u l t i m a t e - d e s t i n y o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s i n t h e scheme o f t h i n g s . T h i s a m b i g u i t y c o u l d n o t have been v e r y r e a s s u r i n g f o r th e C h i n e s e , .yet i t a l m o s t escaped n o t i c e by them.. Spokesmen o f Chin e s e s c h o o l s were d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h t h e recommended 200 p e r ce n t i n c r e a s e o f g r a n t s - i n - a i d o v e r a t w o - y e a r ' p e r i o d as f a r from 22 b e i n g e q u i t a b l e . They e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n o v e r t h e burden o f I b i d . , p. 35. I b i d . , p. 28. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, J u l y 10, 1951, p. 5. - 140 -t r i l i n g u a l i s m f o r p r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , and i n s i s t e d t h a t i n t h e common t e x t b o o k s C h i n e s e c u l t u r e must be g i v e n adequate 23 c o verage. O t h e r w i s e t h e y welcomed the Fenn-Wu Repo r t as gen-e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . However, the C h i n e s e S c h o o l T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n o f K u a l a Lumpur r e c e i v e d the R e p o r t l e s s k i n d l y . They had t r a i l e d b e h i n d t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n o t h e r p l a c e s i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e v i e w s , b u t i t seems t h a t they a l o n e among C h i n e s e c r i t i c s had s t u d i e d t h e R e p o r t c a r e f u l l y and c r i t i c a l l y . T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t t h e g o a l o f b o t h the Barnes and t h e Fenn-Wu R e p o r t s was one and t h e same — t h e t e l e s c o p i n g o f t h e f u t u r e Malayan n a t i o n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g i n p r o c e d u r e s o n l y . They p r a i s e d t h e o b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e w i t h w h i c h th e M i s s i o n s t u d i e d t h e whole f i e l d o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n from th e e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w , r e f u s i n g t o a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s t o be l i m i t e d by any o f f i c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , b u t t h e y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t Dr. Fenn and Dr. Wu n e v e r t h e l e s s approached t h e i r s u b j e c t w i t h c e r t a i n p r e c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h had p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , thus o v e r s t e p p i n g t h e bounds o f e d u c a t i o n . The 'new Malayan e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y ' w h i c h t h e y recommended was t h e r e f o r e s t i l l a s u b j e c t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n based on c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l g u i d e l i n e s . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e M i s s i o n ' s own w a r n i n g t h a t e f f o r t s t o d e v i s e a new e d u c a t i o n f o r Malaya must be, k e p t " f r e e from c o n n o t a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g s p e c i f i c methods o f p r o c e d u r e w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s are based on p r e c o n c e p t i o n s as t o what the 'Malayan' c u l t u r e o f t h e f u t u r e i s t o be." The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s s t u d y e x p r e s s e d th e v i e w t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e Malayan n a t i o n 2 3 I b i d . , J u l y 11, 1951, p. 5. - 141 -was a d i s t a n t p o l i t i c a l g o a l towards w h i c h e d u c a t i o n c o u l d p l a y o n l y an i n d i r e c t r o l e i n f o s t e r i n g a Malayan c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h s h o u l d be p r o m o t e d . c h i e f l y by d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s and e q u a l economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 2 4 Only one l o n e C h i n e s e spoke out i n o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i o n o f the Fenn-Wu Repo r t and i n warm endorsement o f t h e i d e a o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . He was Mr. L i e n Y i i - s i o n g ^i^_iXri'^ ) , chairman o f t h e Rubber M e r c h a n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , and a number o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l committees i n Penang. He b r u s h e d a s i d e t h e a l l e g a t i o n t h a t t h e Government was i n t e n t on d e s t r o y i n g C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n as b a s e l e s s , and d e c l a r e d t h a t C h i n e s e who had mastered t h e E n g l i s h language might drop t h e i r mother tongue. He s u g g e s t e d t h a t the members o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l committees knew l i t t l e about r u n n i n g s c h o o l s and d i s p u t e d t h a t Kuo Yii was t h e mother tongue o f t h e C h i n e s e , who t h e r e f o r e need not l e a r n t o speak i t . He asked.whether C h i n e s e p a r e n t s were not unhappy about s e n d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , b e i n g f o r c e d t o do so because o f l a c k o f p l a c e s i n E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , whether C h i n e s e p a r e n t s were n o t demanding t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be e d u c a t e d t o be good Malayan c i t i z e n s , t o adapt them t o Malayan s o c i e t y , and t o t r a i n them t o h e l p d e v e l o p M a l a y a , and whether i t was n o t i d e a l f o r t h e C h i n e s e t o become p a r t o f a common e d u c a t i o n a l system i n w h i c h t o work towards 25 Malayan s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and a common n a t i o n . The Nanyang S i a n g 24 "Statement o f O p i n i o n on t h e Barnes Report and t h e Fenn-Wu R e p o r t by the C h i n e s e S c h o o l Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n o f K u a l a Lumpur," i n I b i d . , August 24, 1951, p. 6, and August 25, 1951, p. 7. 2 5 The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, J u l y 11, 1951, p. 7. - 142 -Pau i n an e d i t o r i a l w h i c h expounded the i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e mother tongue, rebuked Mr. L i e n f o r not knowing t h a t Kuo Yii i s a w r i t t e n language w i t h a v a r i e t y o f speeches w h i c h are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a l i t y and not by d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a c e . I t remarked t h a t Mr. L i e n was E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d . That a p p a r e n t l y e x p l a i n e d h i s v e r y un-Chinese v i e w s , and he was reminded 2 6 t h a t l e a d e r s o f t h e C h i n e s e were n o t a l l E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d . Mr.-L i e n might not be a l o n e i n h i s c o n v i c t i o n s , but o n l y he had t h e courage t o i n c u r the d i s p l e a s u r e o f the C hinese community. T h i s perhaps i n d i c a t e d t h e e x t e n t " o f communal f e e l i n g o f t h e C h i n e s e on t h e e d u c a t i o n i s s u e . Dr. Ho Seng Ong a l s o had some h a r s h .words t o say a g a i n s t t h e Fenn-Wu R e p o r t . However, as h i s v i e w s became known t h r o u g h h i s own w r i t i n g s r a t h e r t h a n i n the p o p u l a r p r e s s , t h e y may perhaps be n o t ed t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r s e x p r e s s e d by s t u d e n t s and o b s e r v e r s o f Malayan a f f a i r s . Dr. Ho had been a headmaster o f a M e t h o d i s t E n g l i s h s c h o o l i n Malaya and had f i r m c o n v i c t i o n s on t h e non-communal E n g l i s h s c h o o l s as t h e n u r s e r y o f Malayan c o n s c i o u s n e s s . He c o u l d n o t endorse th e v i e w t h a t E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , not l e s s t h a n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , were " e s s e n t i a l l y f o r e i g n i n s t i t u t i o n s b r o u g h t i n from o u t s i d e " and " h e a v i l y o r i e n t e d i n o u t l o o k toward E n g l a n d and Europe." He t h o u g h t t h a t Drs. Fenn and Wu, "coming as they do from an e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d c h i e f l y i n t h e U.S.A. and C h i n a ... do n o t u n d e r s t a n d Malaya" and t h a t t h e i r p r o p o s a l s were " i r r e l e v a n t t o the c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n M a l aya" and w o uld, i f implemented, f a i l t o make s t u d e n t s o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s "the 2 6 I b i d . , E d i t o r i a l , J u l y 19, 1951. - 143 -c i t i z e n s we w i s h them t o be." Y e t f o r a l l h i s i n s i s t e n c e on non-communal E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , he was e q u i v o c a l on the q u e s t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i t y w h i c h he d e c l a r e d t o be " c e r t a i n l y a worthy one." " L e t us have a l l the c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y we c a r e t o p r e s e r v e — our customs and our s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , " he d e c l a r e d . Y e t i n t h e n e x t b r e a t h he s a i d t h a t because o f t h e "extreme urgency" o f t h e problem o f Malayan u n i t y , "we cannot a f f o r d t o bespeak o f d i v e r s i t y and hope f o r t i m e t o b i n d t h e 27 d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l groups i n t o a u n i t e d p e o p l e . " P r o f e s s o r s T.H. S i l c o c k and Ungku A b d u l A z i z b e l i e v e d t h a t the p o l i c y s u g g e s t e d i n the Fenn-Wu Repo r t c o u l d not have c r e a t e d a Malayan c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n l e s s t h a n two o r t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s . They r e g a r d e d t h e Barnes Report as r e p r e s e n t i n g "a h i g h l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t , " a l t h o u g h t h e y f e l t t h a t i t was unwise and t a c t l e s s o f t h e Barnes Committee t o d e c l a r e as an aim o f p o l i c y the c e s s a t i o n o f communal e d u c a t i o n and a m i s t a k e f o r i t t o go'beyond i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k i n g f o r t h o s e terms t o be widened and t a k i n g e v i d e n c e from o t h e r communities. They c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e w h o l e - h e a r t e d a c c e p t a n c e by t h e Malays o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t , w h i c h p l a c e d E n g l i s h on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h Malay and w h i c h ended t h e s p e c i a l advantages e n j o y e d by t h e Malay community i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f Malay s c h o o l s , was "a major achievement" w h i c h would not have been p o s s i b l e b u t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e system recommended was " p r e s e n t e d p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e Malays t h e m s e l v e s . " They e x p l a i n e d t h a t C h i n e s e t e a c h e r s , u n q u e s t i o n a b l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n Ho, E d u c a t i o n f o r U n i t y i n M a l a y a , pp. 175-7. - 144 -t h e f o r m a t i o n o f C h i n e s e o p i n i o n . a n d f e e l i n g t h emselves t h r e a t e n e d b o t h i n t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d and i n t h e i r c u l t u r e by the t r e n d o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , "succeeded i n a r o u s i n g among the C h i n e s e 28 community an e x a g g e r a t e d h o s t i l i t y t o any form o f M a l a y a n i z a t i o n . " P r o f e s s o r S i l c o c k , i t may be n o t e d , had w r i t t e n i n 1949 a F a b i a n pamphlet e n t i t l e d Dilemma i n M a l a y a i n w h i c h he had t r i e d t o p r o p a g a t e t h e i d e a t h a t m u l t i l i n g u a l i s m i n Malaya " i s based on a 29 r e f u s a l t o t a k e t h e problem o f u n i t y s e r i o u s l y " and t h a t "the o n l y chance o f a v o i d i n g r a c i a l c o n f l i c t w h i c h w i l l p e r p e t u a t e .Malaya's dependent s t a t u s i s t o f o s t e r i n t e r - r a c i a l u n i t y w i t h 30 t h e maximum p o s s i b l e consent t h r o u g h E n g l i s h . " On t h e o t h e r hand, Mr. H.R. Cheeseman d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e 31 Barnes R e p o r t was based on e d u c a t i o n a l l y unsound p r i n c i p l e s . On September 8, 1951, t h e B i s h o p o f S i n g a p o r e was r e p o r t e d i n t h e S t r a i t s Times as s a y i n g , "To impose one.language on m u l t i -r a c i a l s o c i e t y i s the mark o f a t i r e d and moribund c o n d i t i o n and 32 n e v e r o f a l i v i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n . " Thus i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n s were d i v i d e d on t h e q u e s t i o n o f the p r o p e r f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f M a l a y a . However, t h e R e p o r t s r e p r e s e n t e d not o n l y two f u n c t i o n a l b u t a l s o two communal p o i n t s o f v i e w . The Nanyang S i a n g Pau r e p o r t e d t h e F r e e P r e s s ( ^ " l l i . ) as 33 s a y i n g t h a t t h e R e p o r t s were i r r e c o n c i l a b l e . That would seem 2 8 S i l c o c k and Ungku A. A z i z , " N a t i o n a l i s m i n M a l a y a , " i n W i l l i a m L. H o l l a n d , ed., A s i a n N a t i o n a l i s m and t h e West, pp. 337-8. 29 T.H. S i l c o c k , Dilemma i n . M a l a y a , London, 1949, p. 27. 3 0 T , . , 0 1  I b i d . , p. 31. 31 . Ho, E d u c a t i o n f o r U n i t y i n M a l a y a , p. 171. 32 Quoted i n t h e MCA Memorandum, p. 3. 33 ' The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, P r e s s Summary, August 29, 1951, p. 2. - 145 -t r a g i c because i t would mean a permanent c o n f r o n t a t i o n between t h e Malay and t h e C h i n e s e communities. I f i n t h e o r y t h e r e c o u l d be no compromise, i n p o l i t i c s t h e r e c o u l d be no dogma. The two communities, and hence t h e two R e p o r t s , must be r e g a r d e d as s t a n d i n g i n complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each o t h e r . Each must c o r r e c t t h e o t h e r i n an e f f o r t t o work out a common ground, o r no r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e problem o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y would be p o s s i b l e . The F a i l u r e o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l The Government was c o n f u s e d . I t d i d not q u i t e know what t o do w i t h t h e R e p o r t s . I t had a p p o i n t e d committees t o s t u d y Malayan e d u c a t i o n a l problems and t o make recommendations, presumably f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . I n s t e a d i t had t o a p p o i n t f u r t h e r committees t o s t u d y t h e f i n d i n g s o f e a r l i e r committees. P r o f e s s o r s S i l c o c k and Ungku A z i z conceded t h a t t h e phenomenon o f r e p o r t s on r e p o r t s "may be an i n e v i t a b l e f e a t u r e o f p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n " b u t warned t h a t t h e " o r d e a l by committee" was a "severe t e s t o f Malaya's 34 f r u s t r a t i o n - t o l e r a n c e . " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see why the i n e v i t a b i l i t y s h o u l d e x i s t , and t h e P r o f e s s o r s d i d not make c l e a r o f what Malaya's, f r u s t r a t i o n - t o l e r a n c e was b e i n g t e s t e d . Would i t n o t be o f B r i t i s h a b i l i t y and g o o d w i l l t o d e a l w i t h t h e problem o f Malayan u n i t y s q u a r e l y ? W h i l e t h e C h i n e s e were busy s t u d y i n g t h e.Barnes and t h e Fenn-Wu R e p o r t s and s u b m i t t i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f o p i n i o n t o t h e • Government, t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n i n a s e r i e s o f meetings h e l d between J u l y 23 and September 10, 1951, were a l s o q u i e t l y c o n s i d e r i n g and r e p o r t i n g on t h e two R e p o r t s . S i l c o c k and Ungku A. A z i z , op. c i t . , p. 339. - 146 -The Committee had twenty members, i n c l u d i n g f o u r C h i n e s e , w i t h the A c t i n g D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n , Mr. L.D. W h i t f i e l d , who a l s o s e r v e d on t h e Barnes Committee, as chairman. I t s r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d i n September 1951 b e f o r e t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l met 35 l a t e r i n t h e month, and i t "poured o i l on t r o u b l e d w a t e r s . " The Committee endorsed t h e " b a s i c p u r p o s e s " o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t , t h a t Malay e d u c a t i o n ought t o f o s t e r t h e growth of i n d i v i d u a l s towards the b e s t i n knowledge, s k i l l s and c h a r a c t e r , t o encourage and e n a b l e t h e Malay community t o occupy i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n t h e mixed Malayan s o c i e t y , and t o a s s i s t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a u n i f i e d c i t i z e n body, o r n a t i o n , composed o f a l l communal g r o u p s , and d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y were "not p e c u l i a r t o Malay e d u c a t i o n b u t s h o u l d a l s o be t h e e s s e n t i a l purposes o f a l l e d u c a t i o n i n Malaya." They.looked f o r w a r d t o t h e t i m e when t h e s e purposes would be a c h i e v e d and when Government-maintained 36 or a s s i s t e d p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n would be m u l t i - r a c i a l . The Committee commended t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t , a c h i l d ' s e a r l i e s t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be i n i t s mother tongue. They c o n s i d e r e d t h a t on p u r e l y e d u c a t i o n a l grounds, c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d " I n and t h r o u g h t h e mother tongue and ... i n no more t h a n one o t h e r language" d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f t h e i r p r i m a r y c o u r s e . They were d i v i d e d on what t h e o t h e r language s h o u l d be, a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f them f a v o u r i n g E n g l i s h f o r a l l p u p i l s and a m i n o r i t y c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i t s h o u l d be E n g l i s h f o r Malay p u p i l s and Malay f o r o t h e r p u p i l s . They were a g r e e d , 35 Annual R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1951, p. 135. 36 Re p o r t on,the Barnes Report on Malay E d u c a t i o n and t h e  Fenn-Wu Rep o r t on Ch i n e s e E d u c a t i o n , p. 3. - 147 -however, t h a t "no s e r i o u s harm" would r e s u l t e d u c a t i o n a l l y "by r e q u i r i n g a l l C h i n e s e and I n d i a n p u p i l s t o l e a r n t h e i r mother tongue and Malay and E n g l i s h from t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r t h i r d 37 y e a r . " However, t h e y a s s e r t e d t h a t "the p r e s e n t day c i r c u m s t a n c e s and c o n d i t i o n s i n Malaya" d i d not p e r m i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n on p u r e l y e d u c a t i o n a l grounds. They t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t " a l l p u p i l s s h o u l d l e a r n Malay and E n g l i s h t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i x y e a r s o f t h e i r p r i m a r y c o u r s e and t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n , p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made i n a l l p r i m a r y c l a s s e s f o r C h i n e s e and I n d i a n p u p i l s t o r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n Kuo Yu and T a m i l r e s p e c t i v e l y . " The medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n " s h o u l d be Malay o r E n g l i s h o r , p e r h a p s , i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s , b o t h t h e s e languages." They s p e c i f i e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two y e a r s i n s t r u c t i o n i n Kuo Yli and T a m i l " s h o u l d t a k e t h e form o f one p e r i o d d a i l y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f - a n - h o u r spent i n c o n v e r s a t i o n l e s s o n s " and t h a t " a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e w r i t t e n forms o f Chi n e s e and T a m i l s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d g r a d u a l l y 3 8 from t h e t h i r d y e a r o f t h e p r i m a r y c o u r s e . " The Committee p r o f e s s e d t h a t t h e y were p e r t u r b e d t h a t t h e Barnes R e p o r t s h o u l d have been so i n t e r p r e t e d as t o have caused, i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s . o f t h e community, w i d e s p r e a d f e a r s t h a t a l l Government a s s i s t a n c e t o v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s would be withdrawn i n t h e near f u t u r e and t h a t many t e a c h e r s i n v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s would be thrown o ut o f employment. They a s s u r e d t h a t t h e Government had no i n t e n t i o n o f w i t h d r a w i n g such I b i d . , pp. 3-4. Ibid..,. ,p. 4. - 148 -a s s i s t a n c e u n t i l t h e r e were " s u f f i c i e n t a c c e p t a b l e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s " t o r e p l a c e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s and t h a t "the p r o c e s s o f r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n would be so c a r r i e d out t h a t no one's ' r i c e bowl 39 w i l l be b r o k e n ' . " However, t h e y d i s p u t e d t h e Fenn-Wu Repo r t f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t r a c i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d v e r n a c u l a r p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n M alaya m i g h t ' n e v e r cease t o e x i s t a l t h o u g h t h e y agreed t h a t a t a l l t i m e s Malayans o f any r a c e s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o o p e r a t e as p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a ' h i g h s t a n d a r d approved by the Govern-ment a s m a l l number o f such s c h o o l s as would be a c t u a l l y needed. They b e l i e v e d t h a t communal v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s would no l o n g e r be needed when p a r e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s would p r o v i d e a more a c c e p t a b l e e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n Malay and E n g l i s h and t h e mother tongue as d e s c r i b e d above. They a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l might be "hastened by p e r s u a s i o n and inducement b u t d e l a y e d by d i c t a t i o n and c o m p u l s i o n . " They r e c o g n i z e d t h a t . t h i s was "an event o f t h e undated f u t u r e " and t h a t i t would be u n w i s e " t o r e g a r d t h e problems o f v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s " o n l y as s h o r t - t e r m i s s u e s . " They b e l i e v e d t h a t s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e problems s h o u l d be sought' i n " m o d u l a t i n g " v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s so t h a t " t h e i r e v e n t u a l t r a n s -m u t a t i o n i n t o a c c e p t a b l e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s w i l l be n a t u r a l and 40 v o l u n t a r y and welcomed" by p a r e n t s . Thus the Committee had found t h e Fenn-Wu Re p o r t a u s e f u l c o r r e c t i v e o f some o f t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t . I t c o n s i d e r a b l y s o f t e n e d the tone o f t h e l a t t e r R eport and made a few c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e C h i n e s e . I t saw the f o l l y o f a r e s o r t t o 39 J I b i d . I b i d . , p. 6 . - 149 -t h r e a t and i n t i m i d a t i o n i n an e n t e r p r i s e w h i c h had as i t s p r o c l a i m e d o b j e c t t h e f o s t e r i n g o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y , and i t r e i n -s t a t e d t h e mother tongue i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . I t acknowledged t h a t o f f i c i a l n e g l e c t o f Chi n e s e s c h o o l s i n the p a s t had a c c e n t u a t e d t h e i r C h i n e s e i d e n t i t y , and t h a t improved s e r v i c e o f C h i n e s e t e a c h e r s would do much t o change t h e tone o f t h e s e s c h o o l s f o r t h e b e t t e r . However, i t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , d e s p i t e t h e i r f o r e i g n o r i g i n s , "have been and a r e b e i n g , on t h e whole, s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o m o t i n g a Malayan o u t l o o k " and t h a t the N a t i o n a l S c h o o l would e x t e n d and a c c e l e r a t e t h i s 41 p r o c e s s . S e v e r a l recommendations o f the. Fenn-Wu Repo r t were endorsed by t h e Committee. I t a c c e p t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e b a s i c c o n t e n t o f t e x t b o o k s f o r a l l t y p e s o f s c h o o l s s h o u l d be the same, though i t warned t h a t s k i l f u l a d a p t a t i o n , and not o n l y t r a n s l a t i o n , would be n e c e s s a r y when r e n d e r i n g t e x t b o o k s from one language t o a n o t h e r . I t agreed t h a t s o c i a l , e t h i c a l and m o r a l v a l u e s s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n s c h o o l s and t h a t a s e r i e s o f r e a d e r s d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l customs and c i v i c d u t i e s would be u s e f u l , even though i t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t e t h i c a l and mor a l v a l u e s c o u l d be 42 b e t t e r t a u g h t by example and p r a c t i c e t h a n t h r o u g h t e x t b o o k s . However, t h e Committee had n o t b r o u g h t t h e Chi n e s e a s t e p c l o s e r t o t h e Government t h a n the Barnes R e p o r t . I t s language con-c e s s i o n f e l l f a r s h o r t o f the unhappy recommendation even o f t h e Fenn-Wu Re p o r t . I t d i d n o t make t h e mother tongue t h e medium o f 41 I b i d . , pp. 6 , 8 . 42 I b i d . , p. 7. - 150 -i n s t r u c t i o n , and i t imposed t f i l i h g u a l i s m from t h e v e r y f i r s t y e a r o f t h e p r i m a r y c o u r s e . When t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l met on September 19 and 20, 1951, t h e Member f o r E d u c a t i o n , t h e Hon'ble Dato E.E.C. T h u r a i s i n g h a m , p r o p o s e d , and t h e C o u n c i l unanimously d e c i d e d , t o s e t up a S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l t o c o n s i d e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on E d u c a t i o n and t o make recommendations " f o r s u i t a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n t o c o v e r a l l 43 a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r the F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya." Dato T h u r a i s i n g h a m spoke i n f a v o u r o f t h e i d e a o f t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l , s a y i n g t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a c c e p t a b l e non-communal s c h o o l s o f a s i n g l e t y p e t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r c h i l d r e n o f a l l r a c e s f o r e d u c a t i o n t o f o s t e r a common Malayan con-s c i o u s n e s s . He p r a i s e d t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s f o r t h e i r happy m u l t i - r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r and p o i n t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n t o d i s p u t e t h e m i s t a k e n n o t i o n t h a t a c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n c o u l d not be d i v o r c e d from i t s mother tongue. He s t r e s s e d t h e need t o l e a r n E n g l i s h and Malay i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l s , and p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e Report o f t h e C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y Committee on 44 E d u c a t i o n had p r o v i d e d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e mother tongue. The S p e c i a l Committee c o n s i s t e d o f e l e v e n members, i n c l u d i n g t h r e e o f f i c i a l s , f o u r M a l a y s , and two C h i n e s e , and i t was empowered t o r e q u i r e any o f f i c e r s o f t h e F e d e r a l o r any S t a t e . 4 5 Government t o t a k e p a r t i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n . I t s Report on A n n u a l Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1951, p. 135. The Nanyang S i a n g Pau, September 20, 1951, p. 6. A n n u a l R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1951, p. 136. - 151 -E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y , p u b l i s h e d as C o u n c i l Paper No. 70 o f 1952, was "unanimously a c c e p t e d " by t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n November 46 1952. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s document i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y . A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. V i c t o r P u r c e l l , i t d i s c u s s e d e v e r y a s p e c t o f Malayan e d u c a t i o n and "came down d e c i d e d l y on t h e s i d e o f t h e 47 Barnes R e p o r t . " I t c o n c l u d e d t h a t ... t h e o b j e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h we have a c c e p t e d can be b e s t a c h i e v e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m u l t i - r a c i a l s c h o o l s o f a ' n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , and we have p r o v i d e d f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a t i o n a l S c h o o l i n t h e d r a f t o r d i n a n c e . We c o n c e i v e t h e f u n c t i o n o f a N a t i o n a l S c h o o l t o be t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a s i x - y e a r c o u r s e o f f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n w i t h a Malayan o r i e n t a t i o n f o r p u p i l s o f a l l r a c e s . We c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be t h e o f f i c i a l language o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n and t h a t f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d a l s o be p r o v i d e d f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f Kuo Yii and T a m i l t o those' c h i l d r e n who so d e s i r e when t h e r e a re a t l e a s t 15 p u p i l s i n any s t a n d a r d who w i s h t o t a k e advantage o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s . 4 8 As t o the q u e s t i o n o f how much o f t h e l i m i t e d p r i m a r y s c h o o l hours s h o u l d be de v o t e d t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f Kuo Yii o r T a m i l , the S p e c i a l Committee, a c c e p t i n g t h e a d v i c e o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f Educa-t i o n , c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e f i n a l answer c o u l d o n l y be found by e x p e r i e n c e , and t h a t t h e E d u c a t i o n Department should.be a l l o w e d a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f e l a s t i c i t y i n t h i s m a t t e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t recommended h a l f - a n - h o u r a day d u r i n g s c h o o l hours and 49 ano t h e r h a l f - a n - h o u r a day a f t e r s c h o o l . However, t h e S p e c i a l Committee saw t h a t t h e r e was a p l a c e f o r v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s i n t h e n a t i o n a l system. I t r e f e r r e d t o Annual R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1952, p. 156. P u r c e l l , "The C r i s i s i n Malayan E d u c a t i o n , " p. 74. Quoted i n I b i d . The MCA Memorandum, pp. 3, 10. - 152 -50 v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s as v a l u a b l e n u r s e r i e s o f e x i s t i n g c u l t u r e s , and s t a t e d i t s b e l i e f t h a t ... v e r n a c u l a r and E n g l i s h s c h o o l s w h i c h remain o u t s i d e t h e N a t i o n a l p a t t e r n can s t i l l make a v a l u a b l e con-t r i b u t i o n towards t h e achievement o f our e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t s , and we deem i t t o be one o f t h e purposes o f t h e proposed l e g i s l a t i o n t o c r e a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n can most e f f e c t i v e l y be made.51 T h i s would appear t o be a l a r g e c o n c e s s i o n w h i c h would go f a r t o a l l a y C hinese f e a r s i f such c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be c r e a t e d . D i d the r e s u l t a n t l e g i s l a t i o n c r e a t e t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s ? "The E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1952, has been o f f i c i a l l y d e s c r i b e d as an " e n l i g h t e n e d and f a r - r e a c h i n g i n s t r u m e n t o f l e g i s l a t i o n [ w h i c h 3 , d e s i g n e d t o g i v e new f o r c e and d i r e c t i o n ' t o e d u c a t i o n i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n , c o v e r s a l l a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t e s f o r f r e e and compulsory p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n 52 o f a l l r a c e s . " I t l e g i s l a t e d f o r two t y p e s o f N a t i o n a l S c h o o l : "(a) t h o s e i n w h i c h Malay i s t h e main medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; and (b) t h o s e i n w h i c h E n g l i s h i s t h e main medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n . " I n t h e English-medium N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s , " i n s t r u c t i o n i n Malay s h a l l be g i v e n t o a l l p u p i l s as and from t h e commencement o f t h e t h i r d y e a r o f t h e s c h o o l c o u r s e . " I n s t r u c t i o n i h Kuo Yii o r T a m i l would be made a v a i l a b l e a t a N a t i o n a l S c h o o l p r o v i d e d t h e r e were " f i f t e e n o r more p u p i l s o f t h e same l i n g u i s t i c s t a n d a r d i n such language and whose p a r e n t s r e q u e s t i n s t r u c t i o n i n i t , " and "such i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e i n a l l y e a r s o f t h e s c h o o l c o u r s e . " 53 50 Government Statement (1) i n I b i d . , p. 10. Quoted i n t h e MCA Memorandum, p. 2. Annual R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1952, p. 156. Quoted i n the MCA Memorandum, p. 3. 51 52 53 - 153 -The O r d i n a n c e s t a t e d t h a t when s u f f i c i e n t N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s had been e s t a b l i s h e d , Government g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o v e r n a c u l a r 54 s c h o o l s m t h e v i c i n i t y would c e a s e . I t a l s o l a i d down a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e w h i c h , f o r what i t was w o r t h , s t a t e d : I n t h e e x e r c i s e and performance o f a l l powers and d u t i e s c o n f e r r e d and imposed on them by t h i s O r d i n a n c e , the Member and t h e Department s h a l l have r e g a r d t o the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t , so f a r as i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , the p r o v i s i o n o f e f f i c i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e av o i d a n c e of u n r e a s o n a b l e p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e , p u p i l s a re t o be educa t e d i n accordance w i t h t h e w i s h e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . 5 5 T h i s " e n l i g h t e n e d and f a r - r e a c h i n g i n s t r u m e n t o f l e g i s -l a t i o n " was b i t t e r l y opposed by t h e Chi n e s e community. A Memorandum s u b m i t t e d by t h e Malayan C h i n e s e A s s o c i a t i o n C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l Committee, w h i c h was formed i n November 1952 a f t e r t h e passage o f t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e t o r e p r e s e n t C h i n e s e s c h o o l committees, Chinese t e a c h e r s , and t h e C h i n e s e community t o espouse t h e cause o f C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n , denounced i t as " i l l -a d v i s e d and i l l - c o n c e i v e d . " I t complained t h a t t h e Or d i n a n c e was based on t h e recommendations o f t h e Barnes R e p o r t , w h i c h were " u l t r a v i r e s t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e Barnes Committee" and s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be n o n - a c t i o n a b l e , and t h a t i t i g n o r e d t h e Repo r t o f the Fenn-Wu M i s s i o n , w h i c h t h e Government had i n v i t e d , and some o f t h e recommendations o f i t s own S p e c i a l Committee, w h i c h had urged l e g i s l a t i o n t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s t o e n a b l e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s t o c o n t r i b u t e e f f e c t i v e l y t o n a t i o n a l The MCA Memorandum, p. 1. Quoted i n I b i d . , p. 9. e d u c a t i o n . 56 The O r d i n a n c e was r e g a r d e d as "the f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e c l o s u r e o f C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s and t h e end o f Chi n e s e 5 e d u c a t i o n i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n , " "an o b i t u a r y o f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s . " Committee was t h a t under t h e O r d i n a n c e , p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e t e a c h i n g o f Chi n e s e was h o p e l e s s l y i n a d e q u a t e . I t was t o be c o n d i t i o n a l upon a r e q u e s t by p a r e n t s o f a t l e a s t f i f t e e n p u p i l s o f t h e same l i n g u i s t i c s t a n d a r d a t a N a t i o n a l S c h o o l . Even when t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were s a t i s f i e d t h e Or d i n a n c e d i d n o t s p e c i f y t h e amount o f t u i t i o n t i me t o be devo t e d t o Chi n e s e b u t l e f t t h i s t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s . The Government l a t e r q u o t e d s t a t i s t i c s showing r a p i d d e c l i n e i n enrolment as t h e s t a n d a r d advanced t o a h i g h e r grade i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s as i n d i c a t i n g l i t t l e d e s i r e among Chi n e s e p a r e n t s " t o a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o complete t h e i r p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h the.medium o f Kuo Y i i . " The MCA C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l Committee o b j e c t e d t o t h e u n f a i r use o f s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s way, f o r i n s p i t e o f t h e d i s -c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c y towards C h i n e s e s c h o o l s and t h e i r , g r a d u a t e s , t h e g e n e r a l enrolment i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s had g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . They p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e wastage i n enrolment was " u n a v o i d a b l e " i n t h e "economic and o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s " o f t h e post-war y e a r s and n o t e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Malay s c h o o l s d i d "not appear t o be more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n i n C h i n e s e s c h o o l s i n s p i t e o f t h e much more f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h Malay s c h o o l s 58 f u n c t i o n . " I n any c a s e , d r a w i n g an ana l o g y from compulsory The g r i e v a n c e o f t h e MCA C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l 56 The MCA Memorandum, pp. 4-6. I b i d . , pp, 1, 11. I b i d . , p. 19. 57 58 - 155 -p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , t h e y argued t h a t whether o r not C h i n e s e p a r e n t s were a n x i o u s t o have t h e i r c h i l d r e n e d u c a t e d i n C h i n e s e , t h i s was no r e a s o n f o r n o t making i t s l e a r n i n g by t h e C h i n e s e 59 compulsory. The MCA Memorandum argued t h a t t o v i s u a l i z e . t h e end o f C h i n e s e v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s , and t h e r e f o r e t o deny th e con-t r i b u t i o n o f C h i n e s e c i v i l i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e t o the f u t u r e Malayan n a t i o n , would be "a c a l a m i t y o f t h e f i r s t o r d e r t o Malay I t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t "the q u i c k e s t and most e f f e c t i v e medium f o r m a l a y a n i z i n g any r a c i a l group i s the language o f t h a t group, and t h a t t h e C h i n e s e language s h o u l d be used t o m a l a y a n i z e t h e C h i n e s e t h r o u g h m a l a y a n i z e d t e x t b o o k s s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l s c h o o l s . " I t f u r t h e r argued t h a t C h i n e s e c u l t u r e "has a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make towards t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a common Malayan c i v i l i z a t i o n , c u l t u r e and way o f l i f e t o be a t t a i n e d by a u n i t e d Malayan n a t i o n now i n t h e c o u r s e o f f o r m a t i o n . " 6 1 The Government had no c o n v i n c i n g argument t o c o u n t e r t h e C h i n e s e e x c e p t i t s a p p e a l t o t h e o v e r r i d i n g n e c e s s i t y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f Malayan u n i t y w h i c h was anathema t o most Chinese. I t was embarrassed because a l t h o u g h i t might have r e g a r d e d t h e C h i n e s e argument as l a r g e l y s p u r i o u s i t c o u l d not v e r y w e l l say so w i t h o u t p r o c l a i m i n g i t s pro-Malay p o l i c y and t h u s u n d e r m i n i n g i t s a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e C h i n e s e . Thus t h e 59 I b i d . , p. 11. 6 0 I b i d . , p. 4. 6 1 I b i d , , pp. 8-9. - 156 -a s s u r a n c e g i v e n by t h e H i g h Commissioner t h a t "The C h i n e s e t e a c h e r w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f i n d a u s e f u l p l a c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n system o f t h i s c o u n t r y f o r v e r y many y e a r s t o come" was t a k e n a t i t s f a c e v a l u e t o mean " p r e c i s e l y the time i t t a k e s t o b r i n g N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s i n t o b e i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers t o r e p l a c e C h i n e s e and T a m i l v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s , " w h i c h was a m a t t e r o n l y o f the " a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Government f u n d s . " An o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e E d u c a t i o n O r dinance 1952 d i d n o t deny t h a t "the C h i n e s e language and c u l t u r e have a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make towards Malayan e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e " as i t a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r "the t e a c h i n g o f Kuo Yii i n N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s , " and t h a t " t h e r e has been no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e C h i n e s e language and c u l t u r e s h o u l d not be p r e s e r v e d and g i v e n i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n Malayan s o c i e t y , " was r e g a r d e d as m e a n i n g l e s s s i n c e c o n d i t i o n s f o r s u c h 6 2 c o n t r i b u t i o n were not c r e a t e d . I t seems t h a t t h e Government.was not r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a s o n i n g w i t h t h e C h i n e s e , t h a t i t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t i t had t o be r e a s o n a b l e w i t h them. I n a number o f s t a t e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e one j u s t q u o t e d , i n r e p l y t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s by Dato S i r Cheng-lock Tan, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Malayan Ch i n e s e A s s o c i a t i o n and Chairman o f t h e MCA C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l Committee, th e Government was b e i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y e x a s p e r a t i n g . One s t a t e m e n t c o u l d o n l y be a d e r i s i o n o f the C h i n e s e e f f o r t t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . "To argue t h a t t h e C h i n e s e language and c u l t u r e w i l l d i s a p p e a r i f C h i n e s e s c h o o l s as we know them a t p r e s e n t d i s a p p e a r shows l i t t l e f a i t h i n t h e i n h e r e n t 6 2 l b i d . , pp. 10-11. - 157 -d u r a b i l i t y o f t h e Ch i n e s e language and c u l t u r e , " i t q u i p p e d . T h i s was d e s c r i b e d as "tantamount t o h i t t i n g a man w i t h a b i g s t i c k and s a y i n g : "A b i g , h e f t y man l i k e you s u r e l y can s u r v i v e t h i s l i t t l e blow.'" A n o t h e r statement attempted t o j u s t i f y o p t i o n a l t e a c h i n g o f Kuo Yii i n N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s . I t s t a t e d t h a t t e a c h i n g t h r o u g h t h e mother tongue as an e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e "had i t s o r i g i n i n t h e West and i t was a p p l i e d t o b i l i n g u a l s o c i e t i e s o r t o t h e development o f b i l i n g u a l i s m among p e o p l e s whose languages a l l b e l o n g t o t h e same language group and whose tho u g h t p r o c e s s e s are t h e r e f o r e v e r y much a k i n .... [and] s h o u l d n ot be a p p l i e d t o p e o p l e whose language groups d i f f e r w i d e l y and f u n d a m e n t a l l y . " The MCA Memorandum p l a i n l y a d m i t t e d t h a t t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n was " a s t o n i s h i n g , " f o r " i t would appear t o be commonsense" t h a t t h e f u r t h e r a p a r t t h e languages and tho u g h t p r o c e s s e s o f t h e p e o p l e s , the more r e a s o n t h e r e would be " t o r e f r a i n from i m p o s i n g on them a s i n g l e language and a s i n g l e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s . " The Memorandum u n d e r s t o o d t h e p o l i t i c a l under-tone o f t h e st a t e m e n t and p o i n t e d o ut t h a t i f Malay> ,,Kuo Yu and T a m i l "are o b j e c t i o n a b l e on t h e ground t h a t t h e y stem from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s and have f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t t hought p r o c e s s e s , t h e n t h e E n g l i s h language must be e q u a l l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e . " On t h e o t h e r hand i t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t "people s p e a k i n g t h e same language may not n e c e s s a r i l y have t h e same t h o u g h t p r o c e s s , " as I r e l a n d and E n g l a n d had i l l u s t r a t e d , and E a s t and West Germany might a l s o i l l u s t r a t e . T h e r e f o r e , what was i m p o r t a n t was, i t 6 3 s u b m i t t e d , u n i t y o f h e a r t s and minds, and not o f language. 6 3 I b i d . , pp. 14-6. - 158 -The Government spoke i t s t r u e mind when i t s t a t e d t h a t Kuo Y i i , w h i c h " i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as t h e N a t i o n a l Language and [ w h i c h ] i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e N a t i o n a l Language o f a u n i f i e d C h i n a , " c o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d i n "a u n i t e d Malaya as a n a t i o n a l language," and t h a t "There can be no comparison between t h e l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s o f t h e Malays t o have a Malay medium N a t i o n a l S c h o o l on th e one hand, and t h e Chi n e s e t o have a Chinese medium N a t i o n a l 6 4 S c h o o l on t h e o t h e r . " To t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s t h e MCA Memorandum r e p l i e d t h a t "The F e d e r a t i o n o f Malaya Agreement speaks o n l y o f o f f i c i a l languages and not t h e n a t i o n a l language" and t h a t i t would be "up t o t h e f u t u r e Malayan n a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e what w i l l be i t s n a t i o n a l language." I t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a l t h o u g h com-p a r i s o n was " o d i o u s , " t h e r e were 2.1 m i l l i o n C h i n e s e and 0.6 m i l l i o n I n d i a n s as a g a i n s t 2.8 m i l l i o n Malays i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n , and t h e languages o f 2.7 m i l l i o n C h i n e s e and I n d i a n s c o u l d n o t be o f no consequence t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t . ^ Meanwhile, t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e 1952 was b e i n g implemented. I n i t s a n n u a l r e p o r t , 1953, w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d i n the same for m a t as i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s , t h e Government was a n x i o u s t o p r e v e n t any i m p r e s s i o n t h a t no p r o g r e s s had been made towards t h e development o f N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s . I t r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e y e a r , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e l y r e v i s e d s y l l a b u s ( c u r r i c u l u m ? ) f o r the English-medium N a t i o n a l S c h o o l was under-t a k e n , and t h a t wherever t e a c h e r s were a v a i l a b l e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s made arrangements f o r the p r e s c r i b e d language t e a c h i n g . Government Statements (6) and {9\, i n t h e MCA Memorandum, pp. 15, 17. 6 5 The MCA Memorandum, pp. 15, 17. - 159 -Requirements f o r N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s were borne i n mind when new b u i l d i n g s f o r p r i m a r y s c h o o l s were d e s i g n e d and when s y l l a b u s e s f o r any form o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g were under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 6 6 I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t c o n v e r s i o n o f E n g l i s h s c h o o l s t o s c h o o l s o f t h e N a t i o n a l t y p e p r e s e n t e d no s e r i o u s problems and was w e l l i n hand by t h e end o f 1953. The d e s c r i p t i o n ' N a t i o n a l t y p e ' was used because t u i t i o n i n t h e s e s c h o o l s was n o t f r e e . However, c o n v e r s i o n o f v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g Malay s c h o o l s , p r e s e n t e d c e r t a i n o b s t a c l e s . I n almost e v e r y case t h e development o f a N a t i o n a l t y p e s c h o o l from an e x i s t i n g v e r n a c u l a r s c h o o l would i n v o l v e an e x p e n s i v e b u i l d i n g programme t o a l l o w a m u l t i - r a c i a l i n t a k e w i t h o u t d e n y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e community f o r whom the s c h o o l was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d . I n the case o f a Malay s c h o o l , i t f u r t h e r i n v o l v e d t h e s u p p l y o f t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s o f more t h a n one r a c e w i t h knowledge o f b o t h t h e 6 7 o f f i c i a l l a n guages. No f i g u r e was a v a i l a b l e g i v i n g t h e number o f s c h o o l s w h i c h had been c o n v e r t e d t o N a t i o n a l t y p e s c h o o l s , b u t o n l y one English-medium N a t i o n a l S c h o o l , p l a n n e d and b u i l t as s u c h , was opened a t P e t a l i n g J a y a , near K u a l a Lumpur, i n October 1 9 5 4 . 6 8 I t soon became e v i d e n t t h a t "immediate i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n was nowhere p o s s i b l e . " To h e l p f i n a n c e t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and development o f N a t i o n a l t y p e s c h o o l s , t h e E d u c a t i o n Development Fund Board was i n s t i t u t e d i n June 195 3 i n t o w h i c h t h e proceeds o f t h e l i c e n c e f e e s c o l l e c t e d under th e A nnual Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1953, pp. 174-5. I b i d . , p. 175. A n n u a l Re p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1954, p. 206. - 160 -R e g i s t r a t i o n and L i c e n s i n g o f B u s i n e s s e s O r d i n a n c e , 1953, were 69 . p a i d . T h i s was t o make t h e C h i n e s e f i n a n c e t h e scheme of t h e N a t i o n a l S c h o o l , and as the MCA C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r a l Committee s p a r e d no e f f o r t t h r o u g h o u t 1953 t o a t t a c k t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e and t o demand f o r i t s amendment, i t was r e g a r d e d as "a w i l f u l i n s u l t . " However, by t h e end o f 1953 t h e r e was l i t t l e money f o r f u r t h e r development, and P r o f e s s o r Mason o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e M a l a y s , who had hoped t o g a i n much by t h e s e t t i n g up o f t h e Barnes Committee, had g a i n e d l i t t l e o t h e r t h a n 70 i n c r e a s e d h o s t i l i t y from t h e C h i n e s e . I n November 1953 a S p e c i a l Committee was a p p o i n t e d by t h e H i g h Commissioner i n C o u n c i l t o c o n s i d e r "ways and means of i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p o l i c y o u t l i n e d i n t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e , 1952, i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e d i m i n i s h i n g f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f 71 the F e d e r a t i o n . " P r o f e s s o r Mason p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e were m i s l e a d i n g , f o r i n the f i r s t p l a c e t h e n a t i o n a l revenue was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o c a r r y out t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e 72 1952, w h i c h gave no i n d i c a t i o n o f how money was t o be r a i s e d . The R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee was p u b l i s h e d i n September 1954 and p r e s e n t e d t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l as C o u n c i l Paper No. 67 o f 1954 i n O c t o b e r . I t a c c e p t e d t h e p o l i c y of t h e E d u c a t i o n Ordinance 1952 and " r e a f f i r m e d unanimously" ( i ) That m u l t i - r a c i a l s c h o o l s are e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e f u t u r e c i t i z e n s o f a u n i t e d Malayan n a t i o n ; 69 A n n u a l Report on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1953, p. 175. 70 Mason, The S c h o o l s o f M a l a y a , p. 31. 71 A n n u a l R e p o r t on t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a , 1954, p. 205. 72 Mason, op. c i t . , pp. 30-31. - 161 -( i i ) That t h e r e a re two o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e s , E n g l i s h and M alay, and b o t h must be t a u g h t ; and ( i i i ) That t h e r e must be a s i n g l e system o f e d u c a t i o n and a common c o n t e n t i n t h e t e a c h i n g i n a l l s c h o o l s . 7 3 I n i t s main d e l i b e r a t i o n on f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s , t h e S p e c i a l Committee recommended t h a t E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be ac c o r d e d one o f th e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t i e s i n t h e n a t i o n a l budget and s h o u l d be one of t h e l a s t o f t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s t o s u f f e r from r e t r e n c h m e n t i f a g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f ret r e n c h m e n t s h o u l d become n e c e s s a r y . However, i t was u n a b l e t o f i n d any l a r g e s c a l e s o u r c e s o f income, and i t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n t h e f a c e o f a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n and d e c r e a s i n g r e s o u r c e s , p r o g r e s s i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n O r d i n a n c e c o u l d o n l y be made t h r o u g h v i g o r o u s c o n t r o l and s e l e c t i o n a t a l l s t a g e s . I t recommended t h a t income from s c h o o l f e e s might be i n c r e a s e d by r e d u c i n g t h e number o f f r e e p l a c e s i n s c h o o l s and by r a i s i n g t h e f e e s i n secondary s c h o o l s , and t h a t E d u c a t i o n Rates might be l e v i e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 7 4 P r o f e s s o r Mason p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l .to. i n c r e a s e s c h o o l f e e s was "a t a c t i c a l b l u n d e r " because w h i l e t h e i n c r e a s e s were n ot s u f f i c i e n t t o make a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l income, t h e y were c o n t r a r y t o what t h e p u b l i c had been l e d t o e x p e c t from t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f N a t i o n a l S c h o o l s — f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . The Repo r t was t h e r e f o r e u n p o p u l a r and i t was debated a t l e n g t h i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l