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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psychopathy and the conditioning of autonomic responses Quinn, Michael James 1969

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PSYCHOPATHY AND THE CONDITIONING OF  AUTONOMIC  RESPONSES  by M i c h a e l James Q u i n n M.A.,  University  of British  C o l u m b i a , 1959  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in  t h e Department of Psychology  We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H October,  1969  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the I  Library  further  for  shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  at  University  of  Columbia,  the  make  tha  it  permission  available  for  It  financial  is  gain  Department  Date  { 9 6 9  by  the  Columbia  shall  not  requirements  reference copying o f  I  agree  and  copying or  be a l l o w e d  for  that  study.  this  thesis  Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  understood that  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  for  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  representatives. thesis  freely  British  the  or  publication  without  my  Abstract A  delayed, d i f f e r e n t i a l ,  digm was ing  used to i n v e s t i g a t e  o f autonomic  t o n e s and  responses  classical d e f e n s e and  t h e UCSs were s h o c k  and  inmate  urity  penitentiary  and  were c l a s s i f i e d  paths  ( P ) , secondary  GSR,  HR,  t h r e e dependent and  on an  ditioning  was  reinforced inforced  CS  CS.  The  variables  by  minus t h e a m p l i t u d e primary  cardiac, secondary  of c h i e f  simul-  Differential of response  of response  to the  con-  to  defense  conditioning  of  that  electroder-  hypothesis predicted  significant  no  of the autonomic  studied  showed t h a t only the  conditioning;  of b a s a l  skin  differen-  condition-  physiological  electrodermal differentiated ( l ) showing  ( 2 ) giving and  between  significantly  smaller conditioned  ( 3 ) having a  conductance  NP.  investigated.  of the t h r e e  w i t h G r o u p P;  a  unre-  t h a n would Group  results  level  the  h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e s t u d y was  s m a l l e r UCRs t o s h o c k ;  lower  Karp-  and v a s o m o t o r r e s p o n s e s  G r o u p s P and NP  and  and  were r e c o r d e d  measures  defense  psycho-  interest,  ing  systems  The  nonpsychopaths  i n amount o f r e w a r d  The  were  of nudes.  c e s b e t w e e n G r o u p s P and NP on any  CSs  Cleckley  e x p r e s s e d as t h e a m p l i t u d e  G r o u p P w o u l d show l e s s mal,  proposed  O f f n e r Type R Dynograph.  The  condition-  as p r i m a r y  ( S ) , and  finger vasoconstriction,  taneously  para-  p o p u l a t i o n o f a maximum s e c -  psychopaths  (NP), a c c o r d i n g to c r i t e r i a  The  pictures  the  The  reward  i n psychopaths.  Ss were drawn f r o m  man.  conditioning  less  ORs,  significantly  midway t h r o u g h  the  experiment. t h e two was  There  groups  was  no  i n reward  f o r Group P t o g i v e  than  t h o s e g i v e n hy  level  conditioning ORs  and ARs  G r o u p NP.  found between groups tolerance  significant  No  i n shock  - hence these v a r i a b l e s  ditioning.  I t was  conductance  b e t w e e n G r o u p s P and NP  both  also  to the  difference  reward  stimulus  showed e v i d e n c e o f c o n d i t i o n e d  no  i n the a m p l i t u d e  significant  The  GSR  findings  pertaining  as  mary p s y c h o p a t h s  are d e f i c i e n t  fear responses.  indicate  that  chopaths  differ  reward  there  The  is still  and  The  There on  defense  no  evidence  conditioning  evidence  cardiovascular  r e s u l t s of t h i s  systems study  was  any  conditioning that  that  pricondi-  results  primary  psy-  i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e amount  tween t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l  an i n -  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of  reward  r e l a t e d t o s t r u c t u r a l and  The  and  activity.  additional  from nonpsychopaths  responses.  electrodermal P was  providing  Under  a l l groups  deceleration,  to  con-  significantly  i n conditioning.  or vasomotor  as  i n basal  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s P and NP  were i n t e r p r e t e d  tioned  not  was  shock  i n defense  of vasomotor responses.  index of either cardiac  or  were r u l e d o u t  conditions  HR  difference  a difference was  tendency  amplitude  threshold  difference  shown t h a t  to the observed  d e f e n s e and  crease  of smaller  detection  contributors  between  although the  significant  significant  related  difference  conditioning functional  of  of  shown by  differences  Group be-  investigated. seem t o p e r m i t  the  following  iv tentative (1)  The  conclusions: GSR  may  he  of  the psychopath's  or  finger  (2) cit  The may  (3) are  a more a p p r o p r i a t e  autonomic  emotional r e a c t i v i t y  correlate  than i s e i t h e r  vasoconstriction. primary psychopath's  be r e s t r i c t e d  In comparison deficient  to the  autonomic  conditioning  w i t h nonpsychopaths  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n  primary  of c l a s s i c a l l y  psychopaths conditioned  r e s p o n s e s e x p r e s s e d as e l e c t r o d e r m a l m e a s u r e s .  (k)  There  psychopaths  (5) t o be  i s no  evidence that  differ  conditioned  Relative  primary  significantly reward  defi-  GSR.  fear  sically  HR  psychopaths  i n the a c q u i s i t i o n  and of  nonclas-  responses.  to nonpsychopaths  primary psychopaths  e.lectro dermal l y h y p o r e a c t i v e .  appear  v Table of  Contents  Title  i  Abstract  Table  i i  of Contents  List  of Tables  List  of Figures  List  o f Appendices  v  v i i  ix  x  Acknowledgements Chapter  One.  xi Introduction  and Review o f  the  Literature C h a p t e r Two.  The  Chapter Three.  Method  33  Subjects Apparatus Procedure Measurements Shock D e t e c t i o n T h r e s h o l d . Shock T o l e r a n c e L e v e l The GSR Heart Rate .. Digital Vasoconstriction.. Results GSR C o n d i t i o n i n g B a s a l S k i n Conductance GSR H a b i t u a t i o n t o t h e UCS Cardiac Conditioning The C a r d i a c UCR Vasomotor C o n d i t i o n i n g The V a s o m o t o r UCR  33 34 37 41 41 42 42 43 44 47 49 59 63 67 75 80 81  Chapter Four.  Purpose  1 of the Study  19  vi Chapter F i v e .  Discussion E l e c t r o d e r m a l Measures C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Measures  Chapter S i x .  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  Bibliography  92 92 97 107 H i  List  of Tables  G r o u p Means a n d F - V a l u e s f o r Age, E d u c a t i o n , a n d IQ G r o u p Means a n d F - V a l u e s f o r Shock D e t e c t i o n T h r e s h o l d , and Shock Tolerance Level Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l A n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs t o C S - S h o c k f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l A n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs t o C S - P i c t u r e s f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f B a s a l S k i n Conductance f o r Three Groups ( F a c t o r A) Taken as Repeated Measures a t Three P o i n t s i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t ( F a c t o r C) Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f Simple E f f e c t s of b a s a l Conductance f o r T h r e e Groups ( F a c t o r A) Taken as R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s a t T h r e e P o i n t s i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t ( F a c t o r C) Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the A b s o l u t e Amplitude o f the E l e c t r o d e r m a l UCR t o t h e Shock UCS f o r T h r e e G r o u p s (A) T a k e n a s R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r Three T r i a l s (T) Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e E l e c t r o d e r m a l UCR t o t h e P i c t u r e UCSs f o r Three Groups ( A ) Taken as Repeated Measures f o r Three T r i a l s (T) Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f the Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CRs t o C S - S h o c k D u r i n g t h e F i r s t CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP... Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CRs t o CS-Shock D u r i n g t h e S e c o n d CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP..  viii XI.  XII.  XIII.  XIV.  XV.  XVI.  XVII.  XVIII.  XIX.  XX.  11.  12,  13.  14.  15.  16.  17.  18.  19.  20.  Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f the Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CRs t o C S - P i c t u r e s D u r i n g t h e F i r s t CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  73  Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f the Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CRs t o C S - P i c t u r e s D u r i n g t h e S e c o n d CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP......  74  Summary o f A n a l y s i s R e s t i n g Heart Rate  76  of Variance f o r  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the A b s o l u t e M a g n i t u d e o f t h e C a r d i a c UCR t o Shock f o r T h r e e G r o u p s (A) Taken as Repeated Measures f o r Three T r i a l s (T)  78  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f the A b s o l u t e Amplitude o f t h e C a r d i a c UCR t o P i c t u r e s o f Nudes f o r T h r e e G r o u p s (A) T a k e n a s R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r Three T r i a l s (T)  79  Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f the Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l V a s o m o t o r CRs t o C S - S h o c k f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  83  Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f the Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l V a s o m o t o r CRs t o C S - P i c t u r e s f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  85  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e V a s o m o t o r UCR to Shock f o r T h r e e Groups ( A ) Taken as R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r T h r e e T r i a l s (T)  88  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e V a s o m o t o r UCR t o P i c t u r e s o f Nudes f o r T h r e e G r o u p s (A) T a k e n a s R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r Three T r i a l s (T)  89  The Means f o r Group P, Group Group NP on 20 M e a s u r e s  90  S, and  ix List 1.  2.  3.  k.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9. 10. 11. 12.  of Figures  Mean A m p l i t u d e t o CS-Shock  of D i f f e r e n t i a l  Mean A m p l i t u d e to C S - P i c t u r e s  of D i f f e r e n t i a l  Mean A m p l i t u d e t o CS-Shock  of Differential  Mean A m p l i t u d e to C S - P i c t u r e s  of Differential  A n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs 51 A n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs 54 Electrodermal  ORs 56  Electrodermal  ORs 57  Mean B a s a l S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e f o r T h r e e G r o u p s a t T h r e e P o i n t s o f Measurement ( l e f t ) , a n d f o r T h r e e P o i n t s o f Measurement a t T h r e e G r o u p s (right)  62  Mean A b s o l u t e UCR t o Shock  65  Amplitude  Mean A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e UCR t o P i c t u r e s  of the Electrodermal  of the Electrodermal 68  Mean A m p l i t u d e o f t h e D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CR t o C S - S h o c k ( l e f t ) , a n d t o C S - P i c t u r e s (right)  70  Mean A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e C a r d i a c UCR to Shock ( l e f t ) , and t o P i c t u r e s ( r i g h t )  77  Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l A n t i c i p a t o r y V a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n t o CS-Shock  82  Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l A n t i c i p a t o r y Vasoconstriction to CS-Pictures  &k  Mean A m p l i t u d e o f t h e V a s o m o t o r UCR t o Shock ( l e f t ) , a n d t o P i c t u r e s o f Nudes ( r i g h t )  87  X  List  of Appendices  Appendix A  Subject S e l e c t i o n Procedures  120  Appendix B  Cleckley's  135  Appendix C  R e i n f o r c i n g E f f e c t s of P i c t u r e s of N u d e s on t h e O p e r a n t B e h a v i o r o f Psychopaths  Descriptive  Items  140  xi Acknowledgments The D.  Hare,  author wishes chairman  Dr. Robert  help,  their helpful  wishes tance  committee,  expresses  throughout  h i s thanks.  suggestions  l a t e Warden C. E .  t h e B.C.  Penitentiary,  extended  to a l l those  and  Due  I. Signori, and  this  thanks and  criticisms.  to acknowledge the e x c e l l e n t of the  for his  Robert  inval-  research.  provided valuable methodological  t o D r . D o u g l a s Kenny, Dr. Edro for  h i s g r a t i t u d e to Dr.  encouragement  E . Knox, who  the author  express  of his doctoral  u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and To  to  The  c o o p e r a t i o n and  D e s r o s i e r s , and  finally,  Dr.  the  i s offered J o h n Wada author assisstaff  of  a vote of g r a t i t u d e i s  i n d i v i d u a l s who  s e r v e d as s u b j e c t s .  1 Introduction W h i l e an clinical to  and  extensive  descriptions  etiology  Review of  body of  of  i t i s only  the  The  b e h a v i o r of the  Literature  literature  years  that  (1964, 1 9 5 9 ) , who  believes  addition  to being  from n e u r o s i s  flects  a blocking,  emotional tally the  absence or  accompaniments o f  undisturbed  by  the  that  presence of  psychopathy, or  ( i f not  judgment ficit.  despite The  the  psychopath's behavior,  lack r a t i o n a l motivation;  perience  anxiety,  remorse or  learn  from experience.  as  the  chopathy tisocial,  existence  characterized  m o d i f y b e h a v i o r as 1959,  Karpman, 1941;  1952,  Maughs, 1955,  G r a y and  of  aggressive  Hutchison,  in  or  re-  major i s men-  anxiety  distasteful  indicates  according he  does n o t  shame, n o r  Wide a g r e e m e n t a basic by  core  or  seem t o  does he  an  appear  e x i s t s among  a r e s u l t of past M c C o r d and  experience  McCord,  1964;  Albert, Brigante  and  to  psy-  inability  anto  (Cleckley, Gurvitz, Chase,  1964).  Karpman (1941) d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n two  ex-  writers  "syndrome" o f  apparent  de-  Cleckley,  guiltlessness, impulsivity,  b e h a v i o r and  1961;  to  and  poor  absence of demonstrable c o g n i t i v e  seems t o  to  the  conflict  a c t u a l l y c r i m i n a l ) , and  by  psychosis,  A l t h o u g h he  psychopath's b e h a v i o r i s o f t e n unwise,  bizarre  problem.  described  d i s s o c i a t i o n of  experience.  as  experimental  been w e l l  Cleckley  to  speculation  a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the  p s y c h o p a t h has  distinct  i s devoted  p s y c h o p a t h and  i n recent  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have t a k e n an  the  types  of  1959;  psychopaths,  the i d i o p a t h i c  chopath,  the secondary  and  (constitutional  (neurotic) psychopath.  chopathic behavior of the l a t t e r of or secondary neurosis  psychopath It  to underlying  or psychosis,  was  He  that  conscience, could  in  and  the use  on  that  t h e two  the b a s i s  an a b s e n c e to true  (1969) has  drawn a t t e n t i o n neurotic  s i n c e the l i f e - h i s t o r y ,  the m o t i v a t i o n s o f the n e u r o t i c  anxiety  to the  Several  neurotic  clinical  (1964,  and  psycho-  In this  re-  contradiction He  the p e r s o n a l i t y  points structure,  psychopath are probably  from those o f the p r i m a r y psychopath, to emphasize  be  of observable behavior.  psychopath.  and  acting-out neurotic,  as  could not  of underlying neurosis or  that,  Cleckley  groups  (primary) psychopathy.  of the l a b e l ,  more a p p r o p r i a t e  such  terms.  lack of g u i l t ,  out  different  psy-  symptomatic  psychogenic causes  only a demonstrable  point  gard Hare  t o be  The  psy-  whereas the b e h a v i o r o f the p r i m a r y  Karpman's v i e w  differentiated  sis  i s said  c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e s e  readily held  or primary)  the n e u r o t i c  i t would  component,  e.g.,  delinquent, etc.  o b s e r v e r s e . g . , Karpman (1941,  1961),  1959),  and Henderson  (1947), view  psycho-  p a t h y as b e i n g r e l a t e d  to a learning  disability.  These  authors v a r i o u s l y learn able fied,  the s o c i a l l y to p r o f i t one  who  describe  t h e p s y c h o p a t h a s one  a c c e p t a b l e forms  who  cannot  o f b e h a v i o r , who  i s un-  from e x p e r i e n c e o r , f o r reasons never i s incapable of learning  (1964) e x p r e s s e s the o p i n i o n  be  that  per se.  punishment  speci-  Cleckley  is ineffective  3 in  changing  that  psychopathic behavior.  the psychopath's  cantly  i n f l u e n c e d by  treatment.  Dollard  antisocial social,  and  as an u n s u i t a b l e c a n d i d a t e cit  statement  i s that  constitutionally tionability Lykken ficient  determined  conditioning  i s not  or medical  (1953),  who  general factor Other  (1965a),  methods  of f e a r responses  of  psychopath  A more  expli-  postulates a  of poor  investigators  relate  notes  signifi-  (1950) r e g a r d t h e  of Eysenck  and H a r e  (1947)  f o r psychotherapy.  i n psychopaths.  (1955),  behavior  penal  Miller  Henderson  condie.g.,  the d i s o r d e r to and  autonomic  de-  under-  arousal. Much o f t h e r e c e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l dealt The  with the s o - c a l l e d  r e l e v a n t studies are Experimental Verbal  thesis  that  special  "learning  d i s c u s s e d i n the  Fairweather  the psychopath  normal.  staff  tions  only);  packages of c i g a r e t t e s and  Psychopaths  motivated  inmates  The  classified  ( l ) no  incentive  incentive  ( t h e S_ was  f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n the  (3) u n c e r t a i n t y i n c e n t i v e  packages of c i g a r e t t e s  hypo-  to l e a r n  under  subjects by  o f nonsense s y l l a b l e s  conditions:  (2) n o r m a t i v e  section.  the i n -  as p s y c h o p a t h i c , n e u r o t i c , a n d  They l e a r n e d a l i s t  experimental  in  has  psychopaths.  following  conditions of u n c e r t a i n t y .  clinical  three  in  area  (1953) t e s t e d t h e  c o u l d be  ( S s ) o f t h e s t u d y were p r i s o n stitution's  deficit"  Studies of Learning  Learning.  incentive  work i n t h i s  ( t h e S was  p r o v i d e d he  (instrucgiven  a  two  experiment);  to receive  reached  under  two  criterion  4 s c o r e unknown t o h i m showed t h a t poorest  a t the time o f l e a r n i n g ) .  a l l groups  under  "no  incentive",  c h o p a t h s were s i m i l a r perior  l e a r n e d best under and  that  The  results  "uncertainty",  neurotics  and  psy-  i n p e r f o r m a n c e w h i l e n o r m a l s were  su-  to both.  While P a i r w e a t h e r s study i s suggestive of poorer than 1  normal using  performance a similar  on  the p a r t  design,  f o u n d no  paths and nonpsychopaths either  cigarettes  tives. tinuum  of s o c i a l  psychopathic ary  types.  T h i s would  Some c l i n i c i a n s  a p p r o v a l f u n c t i o n e d as  and  t e n d t o a t t e n u a t e any  ( e . g . , L i n d n e r , 1944)  h y p o t h e s i s Sherman  neurotics.  The  h y p o t h e s i s was  and m e a n i n g f u l v e r b a l m a t e r i a l groups.  rotic  The  greater  effect  Ss p e r f o r m e d  that h i s second-  In a  and  noncrimpsy-  of both  than d i d e i t h e r  author i n t e r p r e t e d  the  1951)  o f a n x i e t y on p e r f o r m a n c e .  inefficiently  test  performances  retention  o f the t h e o r y (Spence and T a y l o r ,  the d e l e t e r i o u s  con-  confirmed i n that  nonsense  terms  incen-  have s u g g e s t e d  (1957) c o m p a r e d t h e  showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  in  i n which  differences  g o o d memory.  chopaths  t h e o t h e r two  psycho-  groups.  o f p s y c h o p a t h i c and n o n p s y c h o p a t h i c c r i m i n a l s inal  (1956),  of a  i t i s conceivable  p s y c h o p a t h s have an u n u s u a l l y  of t h i s  task  i n c l u d e d a m i x t u r e o f p r i m a r y and  between t h e comparison  that  learning  r e p r e s e n t e d the extremes  adjustment  group  d i f f e r e n c e s between  on a s e r i a l  or v e r b a l  Kadlub's groups  o f psychopaths, Kadlub  of  results concerning The  w h i l e the psychopaths,  neu-  being  non-anxious,  performed  Somewhat d i f f e r e n t  well.  results  ( 1 9 5 8 ) , who u s e d a s i m i l a r  t h r e e groups o f p r i s o n e r s  ic,  and p s y c h o p a t h i c .  slower rate  observation variety  that  psychopaths. into of  their  ed.  In order to test display  (e.g., goal learning  p o o r judgment  setting),  group  two-choice p a r t i a l which  ment  to e l i c i t  (loss The  (1961)  addicts  divided on t h e b a s i s  ( I R ) , a n MMPI  anxiety  i s express-  students.  A  reward  t o l e a r n which (cigarettes),  o f two s w i t c h e s was  or result  i n punish-  of cigarettes).  results  showed f i r s t ,  was e i t h e r r a n d o m l y  immediately  in a  Painting  of college  that  b e t w e e n g r o u p s when t h e c o r r e c t  trial  lists.  r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r o c e d u r e was e m p l o y e d i n  t h e S was r e q u i r e d  likely  i n which  of Ssconsisted  There  o f psychopaths and non-  The S s were p o s t - n a r c o t i c  index of the d i r e c t i o n  at a  the c l i n i c a l  s c o r e s on t h e I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n R a t i o ,  A third  list  o f t h e word  p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y p s y c h o p a t h i c groups  derived  ces  the o r i g i n a l  i n retention  psychopaths  compared t h e p r o b a b i l i t y  d i f f e r e n c e ob-  o f t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s .  Learning.  of situations  design,  as normal, n e u r o t -  significant  Ss l e a r n e d  differences  Probability  classified  The o n l y  than d i d e i t h e r  were no g r o u p  Schoper  retroactive-inhibition  and  s e r v e d was t h a t n e u r o t i c  were o b t a i n e d by  differen-  r e s p o n s e on any g i v e n  d e t e r m i n e d o r dependent  preceding t r i a l .  c o n d i t i o n , when t h e c o r r e c t  t h e r e were no  Secondly, under  r e s p o n s e on t r i a l  upon t h e  the reward n was  dependent  6  upon t r i a l strategy  n-1, primary psychopaths adopted a "gambling"  t h a t was s u p e r i o r t o that employed by e i t h e r o f the  o t h e r groups.  T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the assump-  t i o n t h a t the psychopath i s unable to p r o f i t ence.  from e x p e r i -  F i n a l l y , when the c o r r e c t response was dependent upon  what happened two t r i a l s performance  e a r l i e r the primary psychopath's  showed a g e n e r a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  Painting's  study suggests t h a t psychopaths perform as w e l l o r b e t t e r than do normal  i n d i v i d u a l s when the s t i m u l u s and response  are i n c l o s e temporal p r o x i m i t y but t h a t they do not l e a r n as w e l l when the c o r r e c t response i s dependent upon p a s t events. The s t u d i e s reviewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e l i t t l e convincing  evidence t h a t psychopaths a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a  general l e a r n i n g d e f i c i t .  On the c o n t r a r y ,  i t appears  that  at l e a s t as regards r o t e l e a r n i n g , memory f u n c t i o n and the l e a r n i n g o f c e r t a i n p r o b a b i l i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , psychopaths do as w e l l i f n o t b e t t e r than do nonpsychopaths. Verbal Conditioning.  Verbal conditioning studies  usu-  a l l y involve a c l o s e r i n t e r a c t i o n or s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the experimenter and the S than do o t h e r types o f experiments.  In a d d i t i o n , reinforcement i s often s o c i a l i n  nature so t h a t v e r b a l c o n d i t i o n i n g paradigms would appear t o be e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r the study o f psychopathy, a  d i s o r d e r t h a t seems to i n v o l v e some form o f s o c i a l m a l a d j u s t ment o r l a c k o f response t o s o c i a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  Clinical  7 statements about reactivity  the  (Cleckley,  from psychotherapy and  his inability  responses  psychopath's attenuated 1964,  1959), h i s f a i l u r e  (Bender, to r e a c t  i n normal people  studies  of v e r b a l  Blaylock talized  scores and  on  (Cleckley*s the  and  MMPI.  two  The  experimenter.  increase  were no or  i n the  Findings J o h n s and  a  Quay  i n the  use  conditioning  and  poorly  in  hospi-  The  latter  t h o s e w i t h low  comment  followed  A l l groups  of the  no  opposite  by  no  Pd  singular "good", comment  showed a  on  signifi-  r e i n f o r c e d pronouns.  There reward  d i r e c t i o n were r e p o r t e d  Quay a n d  s e l e c t e d on  of  s t a r t i n g with  obtained  No  ( 1 9 6 5 ) , who  basis  of  Ss  and  their  d e v e l o p e d by  Experimental  reinforcement.  Hunt  psychopathic  the  delinquency proneness  "good" f o r s e n t e n c e s  i n g was  good" o r  conditioning  T i f f a n y (1961).  received  so  ( 1 9 6 2 ) , and  offenders  s c a l e of  and  do  conditions.  pared the v e r b a l military  semantic  d i f f e r e n c e s between groups under e i t h e r the  punishment  1950),  emotional of  c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s were  the cant  elicit  groups of p r i s o n e r s .  "not  the  Miller,  concept  pronouns r e i n f o r c e d w i t h the  of  benefit  conditioning.  "punished" with part  to  psychopath should  i n t o those w i t h high  the  plural  D o l l a r d and  ( i 9 6 0 ) compared v e r b a l  n o r m a l Ss  were d i v i d e d  1947;  t o words t h a t  dementia), a l l suggest that in  emotional  by com-  neurotic scores  Peterson,  on Quay  were r e i n f o r c e d w i t h  " I " or  evidence  "We".  of verbal  Control  Ss  condition-  f o r psychopaths while nonpsychopathic  Ss  8 showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n c r e a s e i n the use  pronouns over t r i a l s . studies  t h e p s y c h o p a t h i c Ss h a d  personal  pronouns,  the r e i n f o r c e d small. ting  and  Nonetheless,  generalized  the r e s u l t s  reinforcers  conditioning  actual  of female  of psychopathy Two  sults  showed t h a t  under b o t h  paths  social  reward. cial  and  Persons o f an  that  more e f f e c t i v e  authors  that  h a v e b e e n due  that  and  this  may  f r o m male  Bruning  delinquents.  indica-  monetary,  "I".  " g o o d " and  r e i n f o r c e m e n t was suggested  or  verbal  and  In  the  i n t h e mon-  conditioned better  The  re-  than for  than  to the f a c t  norm-  psychomonetary  the s u p e r i o r i t y  of  that  sothe  companionship  h a v e made them  particularly  experimenters.  (1966) i n v e s t i g a t e d  instrumental response  sociopathic"  the  p l a c e d b e s i d e t h e S.  psychopaths  responsive to p r a i s e  ing  was  said  t y p e s o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t , and  and  indica-  to secondary  beginning with E  quite  nonpsychopathic  p r i s o n e r s h a d b e e n d e p r i v e d o f male  some t i m e  as  of  nature.  student nurses with  a nickel  r e i n f o r c e m e n t may  female for  The  for  p r i s o n e r s w i t h MMPI p r o f i l e s  reinforcement condition condition  level  understandably  types of reinforcement, s o c i a l  etary  als  was  (1967) i n v e s t i g a t e d  were a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r s e n t e n c e s social  i n these  i n c r e a s e i n the use  to respond  of a s o c i a l  Eisenman  that  reinforced  were i n t e r p r e t e d  o f p s y c h o p a t h i c Ss  B e r n a r d and  profiles.  their  noted  a h i g h operant  pronouns over t r i a l s  a failure  tive  I t s h o u l d he  o f the  the  i n "sociopathic"  A normal  control  group  conditionand was  "noncom-  posed o f c o l l e g e  students.  S t o draw a 3 - i n c h  The l e a r n i n g  task r e q u i r e d the  l i n e while b l i n d f o l d e d .  Reinforcement  consisted  o f knowledge o f r e s u l t s  p l u s a m i l d shock f o r  incorrect  responses.  showed t h a t a l l g r o u p s i m -  proved  i n performance over  t h e most r a p i d Allowing  trials,  acquisition  i n this  procedures  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l e a r n i n g  learning that  the psychopathic  of studies  that the psychopath i s  deficit  (Kimble,  Ssin  reasons  hostility menter, ter"  and an i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o  some o f t h e a b o v e s t u d i e s m i g h t  o r make a n y e f f o r t  (Karpman, If  this  anxiety  suspicion of the e x p e r i the experimen-  t o p l e a s e him.  Learning.  One o f t h e m a i n  psychopath  i s said  characteristics  t o be a l a c k o f a n x i e t y  1941, 1961; C l e c k l e y , 1964, 1959; A r i e t i ,  observation i s correct,  i t would o f f e r  the primary  psychopath's  at least failure  1963).  a n d i f i t i s assumed t h a t  r e d u c t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t  learning,  but f o r  (e.g., l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n t o r e c e i v e reward,  e t c . , ) t h e y w o u l d n o t "go a l o n g w i t h  of the primary  between  1961) i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e  towards the experimenter,  Avoidance  dis-  s e c t i o n s a p p e a r t o be  v e r y w e l l have l e a r n e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e several  classifica-  I n terms o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n  and performance  showing  the slowest.  of subject  the results  the hypothesis  reinforcement.  sociopaths  and n o n s o c i o p a t h s  and i n t h e preceding  inconsistent with  social  with  f o r the heterogeneity  t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a l cussed  The r e s u l t s  mediator a partial  of  avoidance  explanation of  to avoid repeated  punishment  10 and,  by i n f e r e n c e ,  vior.  This  the persistence  beha-  means t h a t p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h s , i n c o m p a r i s o n  w i t h nonpsychopaths, should learning  of h i s a n t i s o c i a l  perform poorly  i n avoidance  tasks.  L y k k e n (1955) s t u d i e d a v o i d a n c e l e a r n i n g i n p r i m a r y and neurotic  psychopathic c r i m i n a l s , defined  Cleckley's  by L y k k e n was r a t h e r  of 4 switches  a n d 20 c h o i c e  c o n s t i t u t e a " m e n t a l maze".  arbitrarily  correct switch.  e x p e r i m e n t one o f t h r e e  ingenious  point  point  only  I n the avoidance part  i n c o r r e c t switches  the S  was  an  of the  arbitrarily choice  T h e S's t a s k was o s t e n s i b l y t o l e a r n t h e c o r r e c t  sequence o f responses ( t h e " m a n i f e s t " t i m e he c o u l d  avoid  of punished e r r o r s  task).  through anxiety  A t t h e same  shock by l e a r n i n g t h e c o r r e c t (the "latent" task).  was t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e l a t e n t t a s k reduction.  The r a t i o  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e between g r o u p s on t h e m a n i f e s t t a s k per se.  sequence  The a s s u m p t i o n was  of shock e r r o r s t o  w e r e no  learning.  differences  i . e . , i n maze-learning  However, on t h e " l a t e n t " t a s k p r i m a r y  c h o p a t h s showed t h e l e a s t a v o i d a n c e l e a r n i n g w h i l e were t h e most p r o f i c i e n t .  here  reinforced  n o n s h o c k e r r o r s was t a k e n a s a n i n d e x o f a v o i d a n c e  Ss  and  by p r e s s i n g  programmed t o d e l i v e r s h o c k t o t h e f i n g e r s a t e a c h  ability  The  p o i n t s programmed t o  A t each c h o i c e  c o u l d advance t o the next choice  point.  with  (1941) c r i t e r i a , and a normal c o n t r o l g r o u p .  apparatus constructed consisted  i n accordance  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s  psy-  normal study  11 provide are  support f o r the h y p o t h e s i s that  deficient Several  variants  i n avoidance  psychopaths. classify  normal  task consisted  that  Ss  secondary  "mental  The  mazes" s i m i l a r  c o n f i r m e d Lykken's  findings  as r e g a r d s b o t h a v o i d a n c e  S c h a c t e r and  Latane* ( 1 9 6 4 ) , u s i n g p r i s o n e r s  tions.  The  results  were s i m i l a r herr  study under  of  avoidance  arousal  three studies  epinephrine condi-  the placebo  learning  condition  (1955) and in  Schoen-  psychopaths.  w i t h e p i n e p h r i n e , however, learning,  a  primary result state  i n psychopathic Ss.  d i s c u s s e d above p r o v i d e  support  f o r the hypothesis that  ficient  i n learning  to i n h i b i t  e a c h c a s e t h e p u n i s h m e n t was question  as  repli-  t h e a u t h o r s t o an h y p o t h e s i z e d c h r o n i c  h i g h autonomic The  p l a c e b o and  showed " e x c e l l e n t " a v o i d a n c e  a t t r i b u t e d by  learn-  defined  a "mixed" group,  t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d by L y k k e n  When t h e S s were i n j e c t e d psychopaths  and  secured under  (1964) i . e . , poor  Schoenherr  ability.  psychopathic, nonpsychopathic, c a t e d Lykken's  choice points.  to  fewer  s i m p l e maze l e a r n i n g  to  learn-  involved  and  in  psychopaths.  s e r v e d as c o n t r o l s .  of several  or  criteria  but  ing  of Lykken  learning  (1964) u s e d C l e c k l e y ' s  p r i s o n e r s as p r i m a r y and  Non-institutional ing  have u s e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s  design to study avoidance  Schoenherr  psychopaths  learning.  other investigators  of Lykken's  primary  primary psychopaths  are  a punished response.  In  electric  i s whether psychopaths  consistent  shock.  would d i s p l a y  An  obvious  deficient  de-  12 avoidance  l e a r n i n g with other types of  Schmauk's  ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t u d y was  punishment.  designed i n part  t o examine  this  question. Schmauk (1968) u s e d C l e c k l e y ' s several  descriptive  p s y c h o m e t r i c measures t o c l a s s i f y  mary a n d  secondary  s e r v e d as  psychopaths.  controls.  A group  d e v e l o p e d by L y k k e n .  ishment  for incorrect  o f normal task  identical  T h e r e were t h r e e t y p e s o f p u n -  r e s p o n s e s ; shock, Schmauk f o u n d t h a t  loss  o f money,  disapproval.  dition  t h e r e s u l t s were t h e same as t h o s e o b t a i n e d by  under  i n v e s t i g a t o r s v i z . , primary psychopaths  ficantly  l e s s avoidance  mary p s y c h o p a t h s social  learning  were a l s o  punishment  f e r e n c e s between groups ment c o n s i s t e d paths  of loss  to normal  than under  showed  con-  presigni-  Ss.  Pri-  Ss u n d e r  However, t h e r e were no  the  dif-  i n a v o i d a n c e l e a r n i n g when p u n i s h o f money.  Moreover,  showed b e t t e r a v o i d a n c e when l o s s  volved  and  the shock  than d i d normal  inferior  condition.  pri-  Ss  verbal  vious  and  p r i s o n e r s as  Schmauk u s e d a l e a r n i n g  to that  items  either  shock  or s o c i a l  primary  psycho-  o f money was punishment  incondi-  tions. I n summary, t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d convincing  evidence that  i n avoidance shock.  The  avoidance  learning  type o f punishment  section provide  the primary psychopath  l e a r n i n g when p u n i s h m e n t results  in this  consists  of  o f Schmauk's s t u d y i n d i c a t e i n the psychopath employed.  may  be  is deficient electric  that  related  I t would appear  that  poor to  the  the  13 psychopath places physical  a higher value  punishment or  Eyeblink  social  Conditioning.  on  money t h a n on  either  disapproval. (1953) c o n s i d e r s  the  p s y c h o p a t h ' s most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o he  the  failure  or n e a r - f a i l u r e to  related  to  this  condition.  hypothesis.  MMPI t o m a l e p a t i e n t s  Miller  confined  s t a t e h o s p i t a l and  selected  p a t h s on  of  related  the to  s e r v e d as  basis  the  of  anxiety).  Ward  CS  of  number o f secutive  and  the  eye.  trials.  No  CS  designed  was  criterion  of  an  trials  significant  to  investigate  eyeblink  Franks GSR  and  cluded  be-  Grant  that  conditioning  conditioning  or  between c o l l e g e  generalisomewhat  than f o r n e u r o t i c not  extraverts  psycho-  significant. showed  less  t h a n d i d i n t r o v e r t s , and  p s y c h o p a t h s were p o o r c o n d i t i o n e r s .  ( 1 9 5 5 ) f o u n d no  the  were f o u n d  d i f f e r e n c e was  (1956) r e p o r t e d  eyeblink that  the  was  differences  f o r primary psychopaths but  per  con-  p e r c e n t a g e o f n o n - c o n d i t i o n e r s was  controls  70  was  reach f i v e  zation.  paths or  UCS  to  i n e i t h e r amount o f  greater  response.  the  on  tween g r o u p s The  psycho-  conditioning  necessary  a  attendants  reinforced of  the  presumably  s t i m u l i were t o n e s and The  The  conditioning CRs.  s t u d y was  generalization  generalization  the  secondary  expression  The  cent  and  score  The  are  c r i m i n a l wards o f  (a d e r i v e d  conditioning  a i r .puff t o  the  primary  studies  (1966) a d m i n i s t e r e d  IR  the  an  to  Several  the  controls.  and  Eysenck  difference  i n eyeblink  students with high  or  low  Warren  conand  conditioning  scores  on  the  Ik MMPI Pd s c a l e , crimination  a l t h o u g h t h e h i g h Pd g r o u p  i n the second p a r t  r e g a r d e d as a c r u c i a l  most r e l e v a n t  test  of eyeblink  conditioning  can  of Eysenck's  hypothesis.  The  of these i s that  of M i l l e r  (1966), but  q u e s t i o n a b l e whether M i l l e r ' s  :Ss i n c l u d e d  number o f p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h s  as t h i s  other  investigators  Hare,  1965;  usually  (e.g., Cleckley,  Schmauk, 1 9 6 8 ) .  found i n mental  applicable  to Frank's  these experiments r e s p o n d e r s and GSR  conditioning different having ered  One  part  and  reactivity  poses  suffice  directly  reflected  significantly  1955;  are not  shortcomings  to exclude  The  and  of  voluntary  UCS  to note  (1955) s t u d y , differential Two  T h e r e were e l e v e n  that  each  ( s h o c k ) was  Several  delivtrials  indices  of  f o r present pur-  on t h o s e t h r e e t h a t  primary psychopaths  than d i d nonpsychopaths  were i n t e r m e d i a t e .  extinguished  buzzers of  t h e CS-,  were d e r i v e d b u t  conditioning,  secondary psychopaths mary p s y c h o p a t h s  Other  t h e CS+  offset.  s m a l l e r CRs  by  same c r i t i c i s m i s  of Lykken's  f o u r w i t h t h e CS-.  electrodermal i t will  Lykken,  i n p s y c h o p a t h i c Sis.  a duration of 5 seconds.  c o i n c i d e n t w i t h CS  significant  i s defined  designed to i n v e s t i g a t e  o f t h e GSR  i t is  for pseudoconditioning.  t i m b r e were u s e d a s  w i t h t h e CS+  The  include the f a i l u r e  d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , was  term 1959;  (1956) s t u d y .  Conditioning.  any  Primary psychopaths  hospitals.  to control  dis-  o f the study.  None o f t h e a b o v e s t u d i e s he  showed p o o r e r  more r a p i d l y  most  gave  while  In a d d i t i o n ,  pri-  than d i d e i t h e r  15 of the other not provide  two  groups.  Lykken's d e f i n i t i o n of a CR  f o r d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the p o s s i b l e  of the o r i e n t i n g r e f l e x (OR)  to the CR  did  contribution  a l t h o u g h the  indices  o f c o n d i t i o n i n g employed attempted to take t h i s f a c t o r i n t o consideration.  T h i s study n o n e t h e l e s s p r o v i d e s  the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t primary psychopaths are  support f o r  i n f e r i o r to non-  psychopaths i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of c l a s s i c a l l y  conditioned  fear responses. In a more r e c e n t  study of GSR  c o n d i t i o n i n g and  i z a t i o n i n psychopaths, Hare (1965b) separated the CR  on the b a s i s of l a t e n c y  criteria.  The  soners c l a s s i f i e d as primary psychopaths and on the b a s i s of C l e c k l e y ' s tone and  the UCS  was  check-list.  shock d e l i v e r e d at CS  t e n s i t y which the S i n d i c a t e d was Two  The  general-  the OR  Ss were p r i nonpsychopaths  CS was  a 7-second  o f f s e t at an i n -  b e g i n n i n g to f e e l p a i n f u l .  tones that d i f f e r e d from each other and  from the CS  frequency c o n s t i t u t e d the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t i m u l i .  and  in  Hare  found that the p s y c h o p a t h i c group gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y CRs,  and  fewer  showed l e s s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n than d i d nonpsychopaths.  Several S c h a l l i n g and  studies  (Hare, 1965c; L i p p e r t and  Levander, 1967)  of e l e c t r o d e r m a l  Senter,  reactivity in  a n t i c i p a t i o n of p a i n f u l s t i m u l a t i o n among p s y c h o p a t h i c nonpsychopathic Ss may  be viewed as examples o f  1966;  and  long-delay  c o n d i t i o n i n g w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s about the CS-UCS contingency. These s t u d i e s a l s o y i e l d r e s u l t s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the hypot h e s i s that psychopaths are i n f e r i o r to nonpsychopaths i n  16 the  conditioning Schmauk's  ditioning  of fear  responses.  (1968) e x p e r i m e n t ,  study, i s relevant  a l t h o u g h i t was  to t h i s  Ss p e r f o r m e d  the avoidance l e a r n i n g  GSR  activity  prior  He  found t h a t  t o punishment  when s h o c k  primary psychopaths anticipation"  discussion.  less  Ss, a f i n d i n g  loss  a n t i c i p a t e d primary psychopaths  anticipatory  GSR  as d i d s e c o n d a r y  or nonpsychopath.  s e n t e d f o r 60  seconds,  the S r e c e i v e d  1943)  o f autonomic  a shock  psychopaths  and  30  A  t o n e o f 500  seconds  on t h e arm.  after  The  or  the temporal  However, c o n c l u s i o n s  study  be  should perhaps  o f Ss  c p s was  pre-  termination indicated  d i s p l a y e d more e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y  t h e tone p r e s e n t a t i o n and  the procedures  reac-  diagnosis  tone  results  d i d nonpsychopaths.  sis  psychopaths  .the Ss were p r i s o n e r s w i t h a p s y c h i a t r i c  of psychopath  ing  showed as much  controls.  I n L i n d n e r ' s study (Lindner,  that  "autonomic  t h e o t h e r h a n d , when  o f money was  tivity  involved  with  d i s c u s s e d above.  normal  was  consistent  the r e s e a r c h  activity  On  AVhile h i s  anticipation").  disapproval  showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  than d i d normal  con-  t a s k , Schmauk r e c o r d e d  ("autonomic  or v e r b a l  not a  employed  r e g a r d e d as  interval  than  d e r i v e d from  suggestive at best  were u n c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d  dur-  the  this since  diagno-  uncertain.  Summary. considerably  The  studies  discussed  i n p r o c e d u r e s and  making i t d i f f i c u l t  t o draw any  in this  i n diagnostic firm  section  differ  criteria,  conclusions.  However,  17 a  few  tentative  conclusions  A l t h o u g h the a r e a s has cept cal In  not  findings  learning,  be  psychopath's  of  e.g.,  paired-associate  contradict serial-,  psychopaths  the  drawn:  learning  been i n v e s t i g a t e d  formation,  studies  may  ability  several  problem-solving,  learning  "learning  etc.,  the  deficit"  p r o b a b i l i t y - , and seem t o  in  perform  as  con-  empiri-  hypothesis.  instrumentalwell  as  do  nonpsy-  chopaths. The not  bulk  of  the  significantly  conditioning. particularly procedural, No  Where d i s c r e p a n t striking,  q u a l i t y and  consistent  c h o p a t h s do  the  that  tion  of  be  as  or  are  verbal are  not  i n terms  subject  regards  available research  in  e x i s t they  explainable  seem p o s s i b l e  of  variables.  eyeblink  con-  i s l i m i t e d i n both  not  investigate  evidence which readily learn  indicates  to  of autonomic  inhibit  conditioned  i s some s u g g e s t i o n  autonomic c o n d i t i o n i n g type of punishment determine the  e f f e c t s of  that  fear  that  learning  primary  a punished  response.  acquisi-  responses.  avoidance l e a r n i n g  Further  psy-  consistently  d e f i c i e n t i n the  i n p s y c h o p a t h s may  employed.  avoidance  conditioning  primary psychopaths are  classically  There  may  designed to  Investigators find  psychopaths  quantity.  Experiments yield  and  findings  situational, motivational  since  that  d i f f e r e n t from nonpsychopaths  conclusions  ditioning  evidence suggests  be  and  r e l a t e d to  research  the  i s needed  d i f f e r e n t types of punishment  on  to  18 both avoidance l e a r n i n g and c o n d i t i o n i n g , and to f i n d whether the psychopath's c o n d i t i o n i n g d e f i c i t extends to p h y s i o logical  systems o t h e r than the  GSR.  The The there  Purpose  o f t h e Study  preceding review o f the l i t e r a t u r e  is still  some u n c e r t a i n t y  tween p s y c h o p a t h y  ( B e r n a r d a n d Eisenraan,  tioning  (Miller,  ditioned  o f poor  tions  Eysenck's  Studies 1967),  show t h a t  responses as r e a d i l y  contradicting tor  1966),  sistent  tioning  which used p a i n f u l results  which  findings.  out of f i v e  of loss  Moreover,  suggest that that  o f autonomic the e m p i r i c a l  psychopaths  condi-  fairly  show l e s s  Schoenherr  con-  condi-  (1964) found  i n psychopaths  on o n l y  Schmauk's ( 1 9 6 8 ) r e -  learn  differential,  to i n h i b i t  a punished  when p u n i s h m e n t  punishment  conditions  and a p p r o p r i a t e ,  demonstrates  a lack  i s restricted  the psychopath's a b i l i t y  con-  shock.  patterns  I t i s important to note  i n psychopaths  fac-  However, t h e s e a r e n o t  these d i f f e r e n t i a l  evidence which  about  thus  i t may b e m a i n l y i n  psychopaths  F o r example,  anticipation.  anticipation  Hypotheses  and f e a r  stimulation, yield  a s do n o n p s y c h o p a t h s  exhibit  con-  Investiga-  o f money b u t n o t when i t i s e l e c t r i c  under  psychopaths  acquire  i n psychopaths.  avoidance measures.  suggest that  r e s p o n s e as w e l l  mic  condi-  psychopaths  evidence o f poor avoidance l e a r n i n g  sists  and e y e b l i n k  a s do n o n p s y c h o p a t h s ,  t h a n do n o n p s y c h o p a t h s .  universal  sults  condi-  (1953) h y p o t h e s i s o f a g e n e r a l  conditionability  these areas o f l e a r n i n g  two  of verbal  of instrumental-avoidance learning  tioning,  that  as t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  and l e a r n i n g .  tioning  indicates  that  o f autono-  t o t h e GSR.  to acquire  20 conditioned greater  e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s c o u l d p e r h a p s he made w i t h  confidence i f several  physiological  investigated  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y under  conditions.  One  major  purpose  determine whether psychopaths in  autonomic  also  that  systems  no  psychopaths  differ  concepts  responses.  i n several  these t h e o r i e s w i l l Cleckley  now  (1964,  A  be  1959)  here i s that  to nonpsychopaths  ing  garding  recent  Cleckley's viewed  i n the  theories  reviewed  acquisition purpose  question.  o f psychopathy  primary  psychopathy  i n general.  primary psychopaths  i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g  was  of anxiety  the f i r s t  assertions  psychopathy  The  s h o u l d be  of both  defect  anticipatory  reward r e s p o n s e s .  1940;  Miller,  reduction  investigator  to e m p i r i c a l  as b e i n g r e l a t e d  i s implied  impli-  inferior  1948,  of  learn-  1951)  re-  i n mediating avoidance to submit  test.  some o f  However,  t o an a b s e n c e  only. No  of  briefly.  associates  (Mowrer, 1939,  the r o l e  learning,  as t o w h e t h e r  (1955), d r a w i n g upon the f o r m u l a t i o n s  theorists  noted  position "conditioned-emotional"  f e a r r e s p o n s e s and a n t i c i p a t o r y Lykken  he  second major  w i t h an a t t e n u a t i o n o f e m o t i o n a l i t y cation  conditioning  I t may  i s t o answer t h i s  of the c e n t r a l  occupy  show d e f i c i e n t  data are a v a i l a b l e  the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n Because  of the present study i s to  from nonpsychopaths  o f c o n d i t i o n e d reward  were  t h e same e x p e r i m e n t a l  o t h e r t h a n t h e GSR.  empirical  systems  i n the c a p a c i t y f o r  Lykken of  anxiety  21 e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e as such b u t r a t h e r a s p e c i f i c i n a b i l i t y to l e a r n to a n t i c i p a t e the a f f e c t n a t u r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a i n f u l or other i n t r i n s i c a l l y unpleasant situations. ( L y k k e n , 1955, pp.16). Several variants  recent  s t u d i e s may  o f Lykken's  S c h a c t e r and L a t a n e these s t u d i e s psychopaths  be v i e w e d  experiment  e.g.,  ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and  c o n f i r m Lykken's  are i n f e r i o r  l e a r n i n g when p u n i s h m e n t  consists  additional  nonpsychopathic Ss. f o r Lykken's  to f e a r  the r e l e v a n t would  be  1967).  While  primary psychopaths  do  and  as  S e n t e r , 1966;  i n psychopaths  are  i n number so t h a t  Moreover,  t o t h e GSR  of  do support  Schalling  the experimental r e s u l t s  s t u d i e s a r e few  were r e s t r i c t e d  Hare's  confirmation  studies provide indirect  conditioning  desirable.  shock.  r e s p o n s e s as r e a d i l y  hypothesis (Lippert  and L e v a n d e r , taining  Other  that  primary  i n avoidance  of e l e c t r i c  Lykken's  fear  In g e n e r a l  findings v i z . , that  ( H a r e , 1965b,c) p r o v i d e s d i r e c t  conditioned  (1964),  Schmauk ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  to nonpsychopaths  findings  extensions or  Schoenherr  research  not acquire  as  the above  and p h y s i c a l  consistent, verification  investigations punishment.  this  c o n n e c t i o n Schmauk's (1968) r e s u l t s  suggest that  ance  learning  i n the  and autonomic  anticipation  are r e l a t e d  t o t h e t y p e o f punishment  employed.  Hare's  (1965a) t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s  that  a  steeper-than-normal temporal g r a d i e n t  a r o u s a l ) and  response  the assumption,  inhibition.  "...that  This  the tendency  per-  In avoid-  psychopath  psychopaths  of avoidance  have  (fear  model i s b a s e d  upon  to avoid or i n h i b i t  a  22 punished fear  response  elicited  1969,  hy  i s a function cues  pp.117-118).  The  hypothesis that  temporal  w i t h what H a r e  " s h o r t - r a n g e " hedonism gratification discomfort  despite  at a l a t e r  the psychopath's  the p r o b a b i l i t y date.  One  behavior i s not  ment.  postulate  i s lower  chopaths path's  of fear the  i . e . , h i s tendency  the p o s s i b i l i t y  arousal  that  conditioned  partly fear  implication likely  or t h r e a t  t o be  of future  the temporal  that  the  psycho-  to  shock  (Lykken,  1955;  1965c). Empirical  support f o r Hare's  results  of several  Senter,  1966;  studies  Schalling  p s y c h o p a t h i c Ss  anticipation  are  fear  responses are smaller i n amplitude,  Ss  be v i e w e d  sults  of  than f o r nonpsy-  those of nonpsychopathic  may  punish-  gradient  upon t h e f i n d i n g s  i s that  significantly  onset),  that  immediate  of t h i s  (closer  Hare,  is  of experiencing severe  i n t h e s t i m u l u s sequence  do  has  arousal  t o seek  and b e g i n l a t e r than  (Hare,  psychopath's  i n h e i g h t f o r psychopaths  i s based  conditioned  the psychopath  gradient  ( 1 9 6 5 a ) terms  i n f l u e n c e d by Hare's  of  a s s o c i a t e d with the response."  a steeper-than-normal analogous  o f the degree  inferior  and  which  and indicate  Since these  with the hypothesis that  responses.  in  studies  of long-delay conditioning  to nonpsychopaths fear  1967)  the  electrodermal reactivity  stimulation.  as e x a m p l e s  or a n t i c i p a t o r y  1965b,c; L i p p e r t  Levander,  show l i t t l e  of painful  are consistent  (Hare,  t h e o r y i s p r o v i d e d by  the r e -  psychopaths  i n the c o n d i t i o n i n g  of a n x i e t y  23 Hare (1965a) o r i g i n a l l y assumed the temporal approach or reward g r a d i e n t s t o be the same f o r b o t h psychopaths and nonpsychopaths but a l s o acknowledged  t h a t i n the absence of  r e l e v a n t data no f i r m p r e d i c t i o n s were p o s s i b l e . Quay (1965) s p e c u l a t e s t h a t p s y c h o p a t h i c b e h a v i o r i s r e l a t e d t o b a s a l l e v e l and/or a d a p t a t i o n to sensory i n p u t s of a l l  types.  He suggests ( l ) t h a t because o f h i s lowered  b a s a l a c t i v i t y the psychopath r e q u i r e s more sensory i n p u t i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n p l e a s a n t a f f e c t and e f f i c i e n t  cortical  f u n c t i o n i n g , and/or (2) the psychopath adapts r a p i d l y to s t i m u l a t i o n thus i n c r e a s i n g the need f o r g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n and g r e a t e r s t i m u l u s i n t e n s i t y .  The  stimulus  psychopath's  d e f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n i n g and poor avoidance l e a r n i n g , a c c o r d i n g to Quay, may  be i n t e r p r e t e d as f a i l u r e of noxious o r  p l e a s a n t s t i m u l a t i o n to arouse e x c i t a t o r y p r o c e s s e s . cit  Impli-  i n Quay's n o t i o n s i s the assumption t h a t w i t h h i g h e r  l e v e l s o f shock i n t e n s i t y psychopaths s h o u l d c o n d i t i o n as w e l l as do  nonpsychopaths.  Quay's n o t i o n o f reduced b a s a l l e v e l  i s s i m i l a r i n some  r e s p e c t s t o the p o s i t i o n s taken by C l e c k l e y , Lykken, and Hare.  A l l argue i n f a v o r o f autonomic h y p o r e a c t i v i t y i n the  psychopath.  Data o f d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e to Quay's h y p o t h e s i s  c o n s i s t s o f measures of b a s a l l e v e l and h a b i t u a t i o n to s t i m ulation.  I n an experiment i n v o l v i n g shock Hare  (1965c)  found t h a t primary psychopaths had ( l ) a lower l e v e l o f bas a l s k i n conductance than d i d e i t h e r n e u r o t i c psychopaths  2k  or normal  c o n t r o l s , and  ( 2 ) showed g r e a t e r  to shock than d i d n e u r o t i c from normal  controls.  which included  s h o w e d no  s h o c k , b o t h p r i m a r y and  the  decrease i n basal  the experiment while  significant  between groups  change.  i n r a t e o f GSR  While Hare's  f o r Q u a y ' s h y p o t h e s i s , two  no  Schmauk, 1968)  s k i n conductance  riety  of stimulus  showed l e s s  other studies  f a i l e d t o r e v e a l any  o r r a t e o f GSR  conditions.  c h o p a t h s showed t h e g r e a t e s t tance during  greatest  con-  prison-  difference On  habituation  results provide partial  support  ( L i p p e r t and S e n t e r , significant  dif-  i n e i t h e r ba-  h a b i t u a t i o n under a v a -  Lykken  f i n d i n g s i n t h i s a r e a as p a r a d o x i c a l  least.  skin  h a b i t u a t i o n to the t o n e s .  f e r e n c e between p s y c h o p a t h s and n o n p s y c h o p a t h s sal  neurotic  d e c e l e r a t i o n t h a n d i d e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two i n -  mate g r o u p s .  1966;  1968b),  nonpsychopathic  T h e r e was  o t h e r hand, p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h s  of c a r d i a c  differ  In another experiment, (Hare,  p s y c h o p a t h s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  ers  habituation  psychopaths but d i d not  t o n e s b u t no  ductance during  GSR  increase  (1955) r e g a r d e d h i s i n that primary psyi n basal  skin  conduc-  t h e e x p e r i m e n t and n e u r o t i c p s y c h o p a t h s  the  A t t h e same t i m e , n e u r o t i c p s y c h o p a t h s d i s p l a y e d GSR  habituation  t o shock and normal  controls  the  the  least.  vity tle  When t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e m e a s u r e s o f b a s a l  acti-  and h a b i t u a t i o n  lit-  t o s t i m u l a t i o n t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be  e m p i r i c a l support f o r the hypothesis that psychopathy i s  associated  w i t h autonomic  hyporeactivity.  However,  Hare's  25 (1968b) f i n d i n g s o f fewer n o n s p e c i f i c GSRs and l e s s r a t e f l u c t u a t i o n i n psychopaths p r o v i d e In t h e present  a d d i t i o n a l support.  study b a s a l l e v e l s and h a b i t u a t i o n  l a t i o n w i l l be examined i n an e f f o r t t o c l a r i f y foregoing  heart-  to stimu-  some o f t h e  issues.  In summary, the t h e o r i e s o u t l i n e d above a l l seem t o be i n agreement on the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s .  I n comparison w i t h  n e u r o t i c psychopaths and normals the primary psychopath i s ( l ) p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y underaroused, (2) shows poor avoidance l e a r n i n g , and (3) shows l e s s c o n d i t i o n i n g o f f e a r r e s p o n s e s . I n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the above t h e o r i e s i s t h e not i o n advanced by S c h a c t e r and Latand (1964) t h a t the psychopath i s autonoraically h y p e r r e a c t i v e .  The only evidence  pre-  sented .in support o f t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i s an i n c r e a s e i n p u l s e r a t e f o r psychopaths f o l l o w i n g e p i n e p h r i n e In view o f t h i s and o t h e r  shortcomings i n t h e i r study  r e s u l t s a r e perhaps more s u g g e s t i v e While r e c e n t  theory  sized a lack of anxiety  than  and experimental study have emphaas an e x p l a n a t i o n  o f the psychopath's  1961) has long contended t h a t  have g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e mals.  are p o s s i b l e . extraverts  f o r p a i n than have n e u r o t i c s o r n o r -  I n Eysenck's theory  comparable t o C l e c k l e y ' s psychopath.  these  conclusive.  c o n d i t i o n i n g d e f i c i t , a l t e r n a t i v e explanations Eysenck (1955,  injection.  the s t a b l e e x t r a v e r t i s probably  (1964, 1959) concept o f the primary  Two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s that a r e r e l a t e d t o  each other and to p a i n t o l e r a n c e a r e d e t e c t i o n t h r e s h o l d f o r  26 s h o c k and  preference  Petrie, high  Collins  tolerance scores  thermal  stimulation  e r a n c e L y n n and  a negative cism ted  and  than those with of the  Eysenck  tolerance  electrical  pain  delinquents  stimulation  fact  because of  tolerance  differences  (1964) f o u n d t h a t  nificantly  higher  using  threshold  psychopaths  a more p r e c i s e  extra-  Using  index of pain  tol-  (r=.69, p < . 0 l ) , and  Levander a higher  for  repor-  tolerance  1965c, 1966;  Schoenherr,  psychopaths  shock.* do  for painful stimulation, i t i n detection  for detection  procedure,  for  delinquents.  threshold.  p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h s had  or normal  and  neuroti-  (1964)  d i f f e r e n c e between  Schoenherr  neurotic  with  i n comparison w i t h nonpsychopaths,  have a h i g h e r  m i g h t be  an  tolerance  had  (Hare,  nonpsychopaths i n t o l e r a n c e psychopaths,  tolerance.  than d i d n e u r o t i c  significant  in  pain  S c h a l l i n g and  1964)  If  low  extraversion  investigators  and  Ss  t e n d e d t o have h i g h e r  f o r e h e a d as  However, o t h e r f o u n d no  shock.  (i960) found t h a t  c o r r e l a t i o n between p a i n  psychopathic  delayed  (1961) f o u n d a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n and  (r=-.36, p<.05). that  Solomon  f o r thermal pain  version  between p a i n  f o r immediate v e r s u s  controls.  of  a  shock than  Hare  sigdid  (1968a),  confirmed Schoenherr's  re-  sults. T h e s e f i n d i n g s may sitive  to  increases  mean t h a t  psychopaths are  more  sen-  i n shock i n t e n s i t y above t h r e s h o l d  than  * I n t h e l a t t e r t h r e e s t u d i e s f i n d i n g s on s h o c k t o l e r a n c e l e v e l were i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e m a i n p u r p o s e s o f t h e e x p e r i ments.  27 are nonpsychopaths. ately  Alternatively,  avoid receiving  tolerance  level,  even though  shock  tion  this  nonpsychopathic ditions. by  their  shock  "unmotivated"  as  condition  results  f e r e n c e s between g r o u p s  f e r e n c e between groups the motivated  latter that  One  by  to  shock  detecand  con-  cigarettes  raising  s t u d y may  be  sum-  threshold.  psychopaths  (Hare,  f o r immediate  implication  1966) shock  of these  shock,  clinical  ment" t h a n do n o n p s y c h o p a t h s . a partial  they do  studies  psychopaths  no  dif-  Under toler-  of nonpsychopaths.  that than  (3)  increased their  above t h a t  dif-  or tolerance  t h e r e was  t e n d t o a v o i d d i s c o m f o r t and  findings  at least  t h e r e were no  threshold  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the  ments i n v o l v i n g  offer  and/or  condition  i n detection  condition  psychopaths  preference  tends  "motivated"  of t h i s  i n detection  significantly  result  empirical  enough  could earn  condition  (2) U n d e r t h e m o t i v a t e d  ance l e v e l  their  follows:  ( l ) Under t h e unmotivated  level.  to  i n psychopathic  and  Ss  detection threshold The  1969)  deliber-  Some r e -  determined  tolerance level  Under the l a t t e r  tolerance level.  marized  t h e y have had  Thorvaldson  Ss u n d e r  lowering t h e i r  at or close  (e.g., Thorvaldson,  assumption.  t h r e s h o l d and  say  may  c a p a b l e o f t o l e r a t i n g more.  cent unpublished data support  intensities  i . e . , t h e y may  they a r e  psychopaths  may  I f this  The  observation also with  show l e s s  the  of a  nonpsychopaths. i s that receive  in  less  i s correct  explanation for their  experi"punish-  i t might  poor  avoidance  28 learning aim on  and d e f i c i e n t f e a r c o n d i t i o n i n g .  of the present  research  further  evidence  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p s y c h o p a t h s and nonpsychopaths i n  detection It ety  threshold  i s evident  i s a concept  f o r shock and shock t o l e r a n c e from t h e p r e c e d i n g  o f major  psychopathic behavior. is  i s to obtain  An a d d i t i o n a l  briefly  discussed  consideration terest rate  The c o n c e p t  below.  of the three  i n this  This  In several of anxiety  i s followed  design  anxi-  theories of as used  here  by a b r i e f  T h e s e a r e t h e GSR,  volume  (FBV).  measure o f v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n .  experimental  that  dependent v a r i a b l e s o f c h i e f i n -  investigation.  (HR), and f i n g e r b l o o d  indirect the  importance  discussion  level.  heart  The l a t t e r  A brief  i s an  overview of  i s then p r e s e n t e d and f i n a l l y , t h e  hypotheses o f major i n t e r e s t a r e s t a t e d . The and  concept  research  1960;  of anxiety  of several  used here  investigators (Miller,  Solomon a n d Wynne, 1 9 5 4 ) .  that  f e a r i s an innate  cess  of classical  conditioning  called  previously learning  neutral  a neutral  comes t o e l i c i t  anxiety. stimulus  On f u t u r e  stimulus  of  i s unobservable  changes i n v a r i o u s  i t s presence  paired  anticipatory  occasions,  i s presented  situation, i tinitiates  Through the pro-  fear  when t h e  i n an a v o i d a n c e  escape o r avoidance  t i o n s which a r e r e i n f o r c e d through a n x i e t y fear  1951; Mowrer,  T h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s assume  response to pain.  with a p a i n f u l stimulus responses  i s b a s e d on t h e t h e o r y  reduction.  reacSince  i s i n f e r r e d on t h e b a s i s  indexes o f autonomic a c t i v i t y ,  skele-  29 tal-motor  responses,  situation  or  experimental  When t h e as  or gross  according  r e s p o n s e t o be  only  conditioned  from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  This  i s because  pain  s t i m u l a t i o n , a l s o occurs  that  c o u l d not  ing  or  tures  GSR,  although  reasonably  fear-evoking.  be  i s t h e GSR  1 9 6 8 b ) , and  which pain In the  or  According stimulus intake  and  presents  evidence  path  be  mean l e s s thesis sible  response  meaningfully  be  the  is still  context.  response  pain-produc-  i n response  to  everyday  circumstances  a s s u m e d t o be the  present.  situation  not  Lacey,  which suggests  parasympathetically  fully  that  1959). the  c o n s e q u e n c e m i g h t be  i n sensory  attenuation  of  car-  understood. to  attenuate sensory  Hare  primary  hyporeactive.  r a p i d c a r d i a c d e c e l e r a t i o n and,  i s correct, a reduction  i s more  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  c a r d i a c d e c e l e r a t i o n enhances 1958;  pic-  problem-solving  cardiac a c c e l e r a t i o n serves  Lacey,  to  conditions  t o be  during  cardiac responses  input while  (Lacey  may  f e a r would not  to Lacey  the  i t seems  stimulus  innate  e.g.,  1963),  f o r that matter,  conditioned  the  considered  i n a v a r i e t y of  case of  c o m p l e x , and,  an  be  under stimulus  I t occurs  o f nudes ( L o v i b o n d ,  (Hare,  diac  the  to  context.  i f i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e can  inferred  in  behavior,  (1968b) psycho-  This  could  i f Lacey's input.  hypo-  One  emotionality  posin  psychopaths. F i n g e r v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n can Stern,  1968)  but  be  conditioned  (Gale  i t s psychological significance i s  and  unclear.  30 However, s i n c e sumed t o he as  are  the  The fied  as  i t i s sympathetically  c o r r e l a t e d with emotional GSR  and  subjects  (Ss)  ( S ) , and  of  (P),  sisting  custodial  A  officers,  possible  institutionalization  cephalic  vasomotor a c t i v i t y ,  and of  an  Offner  i n part,  state  as  autonomic  this i s defined  situation.  A  p a r a d i g m was t o n e s was  delayed, used  paired  a nude, w h i l e a  included  the  as  The  three are  correlates  a  t h i r d was  of  (NC),  HR,  S's  GSR,  variables  easily  conditioning discriminable  shock, another w i t h a  presented alone.  used here r e f e r s to  The  anticipatory  shock.  a u t o n o m i c r e s p o n s e s , m e d i a t e d by  be  indicants  fers of  and  to  a CS  p a i r i n g o f a CS  observed under t h i s c o n d i t i o n of  anxiety.  anticipatory  The  (tone)  are  with SNS  assumed  term, reward c o n d i t i o n i n g ,  responses a s s o c i a t e d  with a picture  picture  term,  w i t h the  activity,  at  experimental  responses associated Anticipatory  HR,  emotional  classical  three  of a nude.  with the  S i n c e the  for  FBV,  p r e s u m e d t o be, the  con-  recorded  The  dependent  of  psy-  control  GSR,  i n r e l a t i o n to the  of  classi-  basis  r e s p i r a t i o n were  discriminative  as  the  Type R Dynograph.  electric  defense c o n d i t i o n i n g ,  on  effects.  i n w h i c h one with  (NP),  was  i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study,  least  of  on  anxiety  or n e u r o t i c  n o n - p r i s o n e r group  and  finger vasoconstriction, chief  secondary  nonpsychopaths  (1959) c r i t e r i a .  simultaneously  pre-  s u c h as  t h i s s t u d y were p r i s o n e r s  Cleckley^ of  states  i t is  HR.  primary psychopaths  chopaths  innervated  to re-  pairing  experiment  was  31  designed to i n v e s t i g a t e c o n d i t i o n i n g and nonpsychopaths an a p r i o r i  i n primary psychopaths  the main s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s  involved  comparison o f the means of Group P and Group NP  on a l l c o n d i t i o n i n g  indices.  32 Hypotheses  The p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s fense c o n d i t i o n i n g .  A  Defense  of this  study  pertains  t o de-  Conditioning  When t h e UCS i s s h o c k , G r o u p P w i l l show l e s s c o n d i t i o n i n g t h a n w i l l G r o u p NP o n t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c e s o f autonomic a c t i v i t y : 1  T h e GSR  2  Heart  3  Finger  Rate Vasoconstriction  The s e c o n d a r y h y p o t h e s i s p e r t a i n s t o r e w a r d c o n d i t i o n ing. S i n c e t h e r e i s no t h e o r e t i c a l o r e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r making p r e d i c t i o n s about r e w a r d c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e comparisons h e r e a r e s t a t e d i n n u l l t e r m s i . e . , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ences a r e p r e d i c t e d .  B  Reward  Conditioning  When t h e UCS i s a p i c t u r e o f a nude t h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n c o n d i t i o n i n g between Group P and G r o u p NP o n t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c e s o f a u t o n o m i c a c t i v i t y : 1  T h e GSR  2  Heart  3  Finger  Rate Vasoconstriction  33 Method Subjects ulation tution  o f t h e B.C. housing  procedures of (E)  (Ss).  The  approximately  are  pathy,  500  discussed f u l l y  prisoners.  i n A p p e n d i x A.  i n the  S's  Karpman's ( 1 9 4 1 ,  independently  outcome o f t h i s diagnostic  procedure  was  c a t e g o r i e s o f Ss,  nonpsychopaths r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . computed f o r an  (Scott  and  Wertheimer,  values  assigned  the  remaining  and  two  was  63  one  Ss,  The  o r 70  on  2.  The  raters  per  cent  index  The  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n an  of  Group  agreed of the  Ss  on  of o v e r a l l  on  12  18 p e r  cent.  A  derived for  inter-item correlation,  i t e m and  officers  assignment  ded  for possible institutionalization for a final  Of  agreement  of c u s t o d i a l  D a t a were a v a i l a b l e  the  total.  o f t h e S>  d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s were computed.  a control  S,  inter-rater  group c o n s i s t i n g as  The  psychopaths of  was  psycho-  three  step apart  of each of C l e c k l e y ' s items  basis  scale.  sample o f 46  c h a n c e a g r e e m e n t was  f o r c e d agreement.  of the  index  initial  1962).  of  Group P,  t h e r a t e r s were one  cent while  rating  e a c h S by  to  Ss  steps apart per  the  14  t o 32  a 7-point  An  the  criteria  concept  secondary  insti-  experimenter  establishment  psychopaths,  pop-  selection  On  the  1961)  designated  and  a g r e e m e n t was  (primary  the  G r o u p NP  and  file  r a t e d e a c h S_ on  and  final  The  a c o l l e a g u e , u s i n g C l e c k l e y ' s (1959)  (Appendix B ) , and  inmate  P e n i t e n t i a r y , a maximum s e c u r i t y  information contained and  Ss were drawn f r o m t h e  ( G r o u p NC)  s a m p l e o f 18  Ss  A  fourth  was  inclu-  per  effects. group  34 on  a l l variables  investigated with  motor a c t i v i t y . able  f o r lk Age,  tested  this  i n each  for significant The  1.  A  latter  IQ  differences  F values  significant  and  not  to  cephalic heart  obtain  rate  was  and  groups that  crucial  shown  found f o r  S c h e f f e ' method  only  considered  f o r the  tensity  An  (HR),  8 channel Offner  and  record  to  of  in  education.  (Hays,  1963,  differed  sig-  G r o u p NC.  the  main  This  purpose  t o be  by  stimulus  area  a D.C.  O'Connell,  reward c o n d i t i o n i n g E a c h s l i d e was  p r o c e d u r e was  ma  concentric  and  33  ma.  electrode  designed  constant  were 16  projected  The  channels CSs  were  so  as  to  f o r a l l Ss.  different  onto a s c r e e n  slides  The  electric  source which permitted  1965)  was  (FBV),  Additional  presentations.  .10  was  respiration cycle,  through padded earphones.  v a r i e d between  stimulated  of  f i n g e r b l o o d volume  conditioning  d e l i v e r e d through a  W a t s o n and  Type R Dynograph  skin resistance.  delivered  defense  shock provided  the  avail-  means o f a n a l y s i s  g r o u p means a r e  simultaneous records  10-second tones  was  the  the  vasomotor a c t i v i t y ,  were u s e d t o  UCS  were  vaso-  study.  Apparatus. used  of  f o r a l l Ss,  f r o m e a c h o t h e r were G r o u p S and  d i f f e r e n c e was the  the  by  difference  p p . 4 8 3 - 4 8 9 ) , showed t h a t  of  measure s c o r e s  were o b t a i n e d  Post-hoc comparisons, using  nificantly  exception  group.  e d u c a t i o n and  variance. Table  Ss  On  the  current The  in-  current  (Tursky, ensure The  that  UCSs  for  o f nude women.  f o r 2 seconds.  The  35 Table 1 G r o u p Means a n d F - V a l u e s f o r A g e , E d u c a t i o n , a n d IQ  Groups Variable  Age Education (Grade) IQ ( R e v i s e d Beta)  P  S  NP  NC  F  31.17  33.11  28.39  35.00  1.98  .12  9.50  8.05  9.22  11.11  3.24  .03  109.22  106.11  107.94  110.33  36 intertrial mer.  intervals  were c o n t r o l l e d by a G e r b r a n d  The CS-UCS i n t e r v a l s ,  stimulus onset  offset,  and t h e pens r e c o r d i n g t h e s e  trolled  by a u t o m a t i c  timers.  stimulus combinations  determined  schedule.  sound  The e x p e r i m e n t  A i r temperature  degrees recliner  was  panel  enabled E to  i n accordance  d e a d e n e d room i n t h e h o s p i t a l  tion.  and s t i m u l u s  e v e n t s , were a l l c o n -  A control  administer  was  with a pre-  conducted  section  maintained  F by an a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g  program-  in a  of the i n s t i t u -  at approximately  unit.  The  70  relaxed i n a  c h a i r w i t h h i s back towards the apparatus  and t h e  experimenter. A delayed was  differential c l a s s i c a l conditioning  paradigm  u s e d w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f two r e i n f o r c e d CSs a n d one u n -  r e i n f o r c e d CS.  T h e CSs were t o n e s  designated high (H),  1260 c p s , 59 db; medium ( M ) , 590 c p s , 61 db; a n d low ( L ) , 200 c p s , 47 db.* and of  t h e p i c t u r e UCS was e a c h UCS  interval about  50  with  from  was  2 seconds  c o i n c i d e d w i t h CS  ranged  .5 s e c o n d s  i n duration.  termination.  20 t o 70 s e c o n d s  i n duration The  onset  The i n t e r t r i a l  w i t h an average  of  seconds.  There  The  The s h o c k UCS  were 16 c o n d i t i o n i n g  trials  with  tone-shock,  t o n e - p i c t u r e , a n d 16 p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e n e u t r a l trials  were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e d  16 CS.  random  order with  two r e s t r i c t i o n s .  F i r s t , p r e l i m i n a r y work h a d  shown t h a t  i f the f i r s t  i n c l u d e d a s h o c k UCS  trial  * T h e s e db v a l u e s r e s u l t e d f r o m for subjective loudness.  equating  some Ss  the frequencies  37 r e a c t e d w i t h g r o s s movements a n d l a r g e GSR This  produced  result was  marked  i n loss  of data.  e x c l u d e d from  combination adaptation control  interference  deflections.  i n t h e r e c o r d and  could  For these reasons t h e r e f o r e ,  the f i r s t  trial.  shock  S e c o n d l y , no CS-UCS  c o u l d o c c u r more t h a n t w i c e i n s u c c e s s i o n . trials  were p r e s e n t e d s i n c e  the i n c l u s i o n  No  of a  f o r pseudoconditioning p r e c l u d e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r  such a procedure.  The p r e s e n c e  o f t h r e e CSs a n d two  generated s i x stimulus combinations.  One  e.g.,  The s i x c o m b i n a t i o n s  were  was H - s h o c k M - p i c t u r e , a n d L - . distributed  administered It study  was  assumed t h a t  responses  the  The s l i d e s  experiment  completion  UCS Prior  t h e 16 s l i d e s  i n order to minimize  of the experiment to test  set  of slides,  who  had p a r t i c i p a t e d  told  o f nudes u s e d  to t h e experiment from  least  of  three  t o most  attrac  order during  adaptation.  Following  conditioning  study  u s i n g t h e same  the three prison  i n the c l a s s i c a l study  i n this  f o r the c o n d i t i o n i n g  t h e above assumption  The o p e r a n t c o n d i t i o n i n g Procedure.  order.  an o p e r a n t  a n d Ss drawn f r o m  combination  o f 18 S s , b u t were  were t h e n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s  conducted  to  the p i c t u r e s  i n inmates.  was  room he was  i n a random  an e f f e c t i v e  psychologists ranked tive.  among e a c h g r o u p  t o each group  constituted  reward  equally  such  UCSs  conditioning  groups study.  i s d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix  C.  When a S r e p o r t e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l ( l ) that  the purpose  secure records of p h y s i o l o g i c a l  of the experiment  activity;  (2) t h a t  was  38  during  the course of the experiment he would r e c e i v e e l e c -  trical  shocks on h i s forearm; and (3) t h a t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n  was v o l u n t a r y . al  Questions by Ss aimed a t e l i c i t i n g  addition-  i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature of the experiment were evad-  ed.  Inmate Sis were scheduled  on a random b a s i s but t h i s  c o u l d not be done f o r Ss i n Group NC who u s u a l l y a r r i v e d i n the experimental  room at 8:00 a.m.  o r a f t e r 4:30  p.m.  Beckman B i o p o t e n t i a l e l e c t r o d e s one centimeter  i n dia-  meter and f i l l e d w i t h Beckman e l e c t r o d e paste were used to secure  c a r d i a c and s k i n r e s i s t a n c e measures.  Each  electrode  was f i t t e d w i t h an adhesive c o l l a r which, i n a d d i t i o n t o maintaining  the e l e c t r o d e i n a f i r m p o s i t i o n , a l s o prevented  seepage o f the e l e c t r o l y t e beyond the e f f e c t i v e area.  electrode  An a d d i t i o n a l advantage was t h a t the c o l l a r prevented  the paste from d r y i n g out d u r i n g t h e course of the e x p e r i ment . The left  c a r d i a c e l e c t r o d e s were a t t a c h e d  t o the sternum and  s i d e as t h i s s i t e was found to produce a s t r o n g EKG  s i g n a l , thus a v o i d i n g  the need f o r e x c e s s i v e a m p l i f i c a t i o n .  These areas a l s o appeared to be l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o movement - induced the  artifact.  experimental  Since most Ss came d i r e c t l y to  room from v a r i o u s workshop areas  their  hands tended to be grimy; t h e r e f o r e the f i n g e r s of the l e f t hand, t o which the GSR  e l e c t r o d e s were to be a t t a c h e d ,  washed w i t h soap and water.  The GSR  were  e l e c t r o d e s were taped  to the v o l a r s u r f a c e o f the t i p o f the f i r s t f i n g e r and the  39 base of the in  the  rent  second  finger  d e n s i t y , s u p p l i e d by  c y c l e was  (Venables  r e c o r d e d by  photocell  pickups  hand and  with  pickups during  time  1967).  constants  resistance briskly  at the  light  t o t h e S's  site  had  impedance  This  results  the  The  to  this  1964).  variables  being  skin  r e s i s t a n c e at the  measures  A.C.  wrist by  from  the  ampliBoth  the  One  screen  ground  after  the  rubbing  skin  the  area  strapped  forearm.  shock produces a decrease  in  electrode-skin circuit. the  physical  of shock  intensity  intensity.  Because of the nature  of  investigated  experiment  In attempting Tursky  of  were u s e d .  stimuli.  considered d e s i r a b l e to reduce shock f a c t o r .  fastened  finger  Two  reflected  increase i n both  method recommended by The  second  s u b j e c t i v e estimates  and Watson,  personality was  i n an  Respiratory  s h o c k e l e c t r o d e was  ( r e s i s t a n c e ) o f an  shock and  (Tursky  it  areas.  right  s u r f a c e of the r i g h t  the  second  been reduced  Repeated s t i m u l a t i o n with  of  two  o f one  w i t h Redux p a s t e .  the v o l a r  approximately  i n order to secure  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p i c t u r e taped  was  Cur-  constructed lightweight  to the  i n these  were s h i e l d e d f r o m  e l e c t r o d e was  to  & Martin,  forehead  vasomotor a c t i v i t y  fiers  cell,  Specially  breaks  were u s e d .  a 15 v o l t  were t a p e d  to the  digits  means o f a s t r a i n - g a g e b e l t  around the upper c h e s t .  left  t h a t where c u t s o r  s k i n were e v i d e n t a d j a c e n t  9 microaraps/cm  of  except  in this  the v a r i a b i l i t y to achieve  and W a t s o n  this  (1964) was  s h o c k e l e c t r o d e s i t e was  the  due the  used. reduced  40  by rubbing the a r e a b r i s k l y w i t h Redux p a s t e . e l e c t r o d e paste was trode was  A f i l m of  then spread over the a r e a .  a t t a c h e d and the amount o f paste was  the ohmeter r e g i s t e r e d a s t a b l e 5000 ohms.  varied  until  procedure  t o m a i n t a i n a s t a b l e s u b j e c t i v e estimate  of shock i n t e n s i t y throughout  the experiment.  tance of the e l e c t r o d e - s k i n c i r c u i t was out the experiment  elec-  According to  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by Tursky and Watson t h i s c o u l d be expected  The  and was  The  monitored  resisthrough-  found to v a r y between 3000 and  7000 ohms. When a l l c o n n e c t i o n s had been made the S was  told:  A f t e r I p l a c e these earphones on your head I want you to l e a n back i n your c h a i r and r e l a x . A v o i d movement as much as p o s s i b l e and t r y to s t a y awake. A f t e r a w h i l e you w i l l hear tones i n the earphones. There w i l l be t h r e e d i f f e r e n t tones, a h i g h tone, a medium tone and a low tone but they w i l l occur a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . The h i g h tone w i l l always be f o l l o w e d by shock t o your arm, and the i n t e n s i t y of the shock w i l l be the same as the l a s t one you r e c e i v e d . The medium tone w i l l always be f o l l o w e d by a p i c t u r e of a nude p r o j e c t e d onto the s c r e e n , and the low tone w i l l always occur by i t s e l f . The l a t t e r p a r t of these I n s t r u c t i o n s was  v a r i e d ac-  c o r d i n g to the s t i m u l u s sequence to which the S had been assigned. The  earphones were a t t a c h e d and  to a r e c l i n i n g p o s i t i o n .  The  the S's  room was  a s h i e l d e d l i g h t above the c h a r t .  c h a i r adjusted  darkened except f o r  A l l p i e c e s of equipment  to be used d u r i n g the c o n d i t i o n i n g t r i a l s were switched  on  41 so a s t o a v o i d p r o v i d i n g t h e S w i t h that might s i g n a l During  the f i r s t  were p r e s e n t e d mental  trial  before  while The  other 90  by d e p r e s s i n g  of the l a s t  without  this  trial  trial.  and a s k e d  stimuli  to the e x p e r i -  p e r i o d the f i r s t p r i o r warning.  one o f t h r e e  e x p e r i m e n t was t e r m i n a t e d  cigarettes  the S to adapt  o f 48 r a n d o m i z e d t r i a l s .  a t t h e same t i m e  istration of  was p r e s e n t e d  cues  trial.  10 m i n u t e s o f r e c o r d i n g no  A t t h e end o f t h i s  him a l i s t  administered  of the f i r s t  so a s t o a l l o w  situation.  ditioning had  the onset  a u d i t o r y o r other  The E  A trial  silent  was  switches  was c r o s s e d o f f t h e l i s t .  a b o u t one m i n u t e a f t e r T h e S_ was g i v e n  admin-  two p a c k a g e s  n o t to d i s c u s s t h e experiment  inmates o r s t a f f .  con-  The t o t a l  time  r e q u i r e d was  with about  minutes. Measurements The  method o f l i m i t s  was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e  detec-  tion  threshold.  mild  s h o c k s a n d t h a t he was t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r he d e t e c t e d  any  T h e S_ was t o l d  shock  s e n s a t i o n by r e s p o n d i n g  s u r e " , when t h e E s a i d counted  as a s h i f t  .10  o r "no", o r " n o t  The " n o t s u r e "  with  and descending  stimulus  intensity  The procedure  and a c u r r e n t i n t e n s i t y  threshold  "yes",  i n s i g n from t h e p r e v i o u s  ma a t e a c h s t e p .  series  with  "now".  Three a l t e r n a t e ascending were a d m i n i s t e r e d  t h a t he w o u l d r e c e i v e some  category judgment.  series being  began w i t h  o f .10 ma.  f o r t h e s i x s e r i e s was t a k e n  was  of  trials  v a r i e d by an  ascending  T h e S's mean  as an e s t i m a t e  ofh i s  42 detection  threshold.  When d e t e c t i o n t h r e s h o l d was o b t a i n e d l e v e l was estimated going  as f o l l o w s .  shock t o l e r a n c e  The S was t o l d , " I am now  to i n c r e a s e the s t r e n g t h o f the shock one step a t a  time.  When you f e e l  t h a t i t i s strong  enough i . e . , when  you  decide  you  do not wish i t i n c r e a s e d f u r t h e r l e t me know". The  first  t h a t i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y annoying o r p a i n f u l t h a t  shock was a d m i n i s t e r e d  proximately  at a current  i n t e n s i t y o f ap-  one ma above d e t e c t i o n t h r e s h o l d w i t h  u l a t i o n t h e r e a f t e r being  i n c r e a s e d by one ma.  i n t e r v a l between s t i m u l a t i o n s was 10 seconds. c u r r e n t i n t e n s i t y accepted  each  stim-  The temporal The h i g h e s t  by the S was d e f i n e d as h i s t o l -  erance l e v e l and was subsequently a d m i n i s t e r e d  during the  c o n d i t i o n i n g phase o f t h e experiment. The  dependent v a r i a b l e s o f c h i e f i n t e r e s t were t h e GSR,  HR, and f i n g e r v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n . The  GSR.  A l l s k i n r e s i s t a n c e measures were  to conductance b e f o r e formed.  any s t a t i s t i c a l  converted  computations were  Three i n d i c e s o f e l e c t r o d e r m a l  a c t i v i t y were  per-  scored  f o r each S on a l l t r i a l s v i z . , t h e o r i e n t i n g r e f l e x (OR), the a n t i c i p a t o r y response (AR), sponse (UCR).  and the u n c o n d i t i o n e d r e -  The minimal change i n s k i n r e s i s t a n c e r e -  q u i r e d f o r each o f these responses was a decrease o f 200 ohms.  T h i s d e c i s i o n was made b e f o r e  the data were  converted  to micromohs and was based on t h e f a c t t h a t f o r some Ss changes i n r e s i s t a n c e o f l e s s than 200 ohms c o u l d not be  43 m e a s u r e d w i t h any d e g r e e  of accuracy.  were one t o f o u r  after  seconds  The l a t e n c y  criteria  CS o n s e t f o r a n OR, a n d b e -  tween f o u r a n d e l e v e n s e c o n d s  f o r anAR ( S t e w a r t , S t e r n ,  W i n o k u r , a n d Fredman,  1961).  Basal  sured a t three points  i n the experiment.  just the  b e f o r e the onset o f the f i r s t "resting"  level.  through t h e t r i a l s , ment.  and t h e t h i r d  Heart Rate that  (HR).  the cardiac  taken  was d e s i g n a t e d half-way  a t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i -  A GSR t e n d s t o accompany b o d i l y  w i t h t h e s e changes  gest  trial,  The f i r s t ,  The s e c o n d was t a k e n a b o u t  yawns, e t c . , t h e r e f o r e ed  s k i n r e s i s t a n c e was mea-  movements,  a GSR was n o t c o u n t e d  sighs,  i fi t coincid-  as i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e c o r d . The r e s u l t s CR c o n s i s t s  of several  studies  o f an a c c e l e r a t i v e  sugcompo-  n e n t p e a k i n g f r o m 4 t o 6 s e c o n d s a f t e r CS o n s e t , and a d e celerative and  component r e a c h i n g  10 s e c o n d s  Hnatiow,  a f t e r CS o n s e t  Wood,  Feld,  1966).  1963; Zeaman a n d S m i t h , On t h e b a s i s  10 s e c o n d CS-UCS i n t e r v a l t i o n being that  onds, the  (Deane,  1964; L a n g a n d  1962; O b r i s t , Wood, a n d P e r e z - R e y e s ,  1966;  quately  i t s minimal v a l u e between 7  1965; Zimny, S t e r n a n d  of these f i n d i n g s seemed a p p r o p r i a t e ,  the a c c e l e r a t i v e  component  r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e mean HR d u r i n g  and t h e d e c e l e r a t i v e  second  5 seconds.  as t h e mean HR  1965; S m i t h ,  the use o f a t h e assump-  c o u l d be  ade-  the f i r s t  5 sec-  component b y t h e mean HR  during  The p r e - s t i m u l u s l e v e l  f o r the 5 seconds  was  defined  i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g CS  o n s e t w h i l e t h e UCR was t a k e n a s t h e mean f o r t h e 5 s e c o n d s  kk following activity  CS t e r m i n a t i o n . were s c o r e d  These  f o r a l l Ss on a l l t r i a l s .  Because o f the q u a n t i t y quired  four i n d i c e s of cardiac  of cardiac data  f o r r o u t i n e computations would have been  A device  was  t h e means.  therefore constructed Two  fine  a piece of clear  lines  to provide  12.5 mm  plastic.  Since  apart  s e c o n d , a n d s i n c e t h e CS-UCS i n t e r v a l  the  d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e two l i n e s  seconds o f c h a r t  val  time.  drawn a t r i g h t  angles  mean t h e d e v i c e was  tracing third  and a d j u s t e d u n t i l  line  mate o f t h e mean f o r t h a t of this  timated cords  the areas  to this  was  for a total was  first  was  then  o f 6h i n t e r v a l s .  estimated  using  Digital  mm  to exactly 5  over  inter-  the tachometer  on e i t h e r  side of the  taken  as an  per esti-  A s a c h e c k on t h e a c c u r b e t w e e n computed a n d e s -  f o r a random s a m p l e .  each r e c o r d .  Two r e trials  This  provided  The mean f o r e a c h  interval  the device  computed by a c t u a l c o u n t .  m e a s u r e s was  2.5  10 s e c o n d s ,  were drawn a t random f r o m e a c h g r o u p a n d two  were s e l e c t e d a t random f r o m  these  s p e e d was  were c o n n e c t e d by a  p o s i t i o n was  interval.  determined  on  The number o f b e a t s  method t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  means was  were i n s c r i b e d  I n e s t i m a t i n g an  directly  a p p e a r e d t o be e q u a l .  minute corresponding  acy  t o them.  placed  of  corresponded  T h e s e two l i n e s  prohibitive.  estimates  the chart  per  third  t h e time r e -  d e s c r i b e d above and The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n  .996.  Vasoconstriction.  v o l u m e were u s e d as an i n d i r e c t  Changes i n f i n g e r  blood  measure o f v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n .  A v a s o c o n s t r i c t i v e r e s p o n s e was from  the b a s e l i n e  in  pulse  all  Ss  amplitude.  mm  An  on a l l t r i a l s .  d l e of the three set.  accompanied  ted  The  shift  t o mv  gain  was  10 mv  u s e d by In  computing  A  purpose  c a n be of t h i s  ditioning was  b e t w e e n a n OR  s t u d y was  OR  a latency  tude  of response  response As  in  c h a n g e i n mm  was  gain,  e.g.,  mm  was  the  converi f the  interpre-  attempt  a n AR.  Gale  the p e r i p h e r a l  conditioned,  to i n v e s t i g a t e  and  was  The  criteria  b e t w e e n two  and  eleven  conditioning  one  was  t o a r e i n f o r c e d CS  to the u n r e i n f o r c e d  since  for a  the conthe vaso-  seconds,  and  mm.  e x p r e s s e d as t h e  magni-  minus the magnitude  of  CS.  indices of habituation,  and v a s o m o t o r UCRs t o s h o c k  vaso-  whether  o r an AR.  was  and  differential  i t seemed i r r e l e v a n t  a change i n magnitude o f a t l e a s t Differential  on-  showing  and  that  differentially  i n psychopaths  was  response  of the pulse  v a s o c o n s t r i c t i v e c h a n g e s no  a conditioned  m o t o r CR  mid-  somewhat s i m i l a r measure  (1968) have d e m o n s t r a t e d  m o t o r OR  as t h e  the distance  t h e n a change o f one mv.  reduction  (1964).  made t o d i s c r i m i n a t e Stern  The  shift  computed f o r  defined  preceding  of the p r e a m p l i f i e r  p e r CM  Sternbach  was  e x p r e s s e d as  to the middle  t e d a s a c h a n g e o f one  CR  immediately  from b a s e l i n e .  i n terms  a corresponding  baseline  R e s p o n s e a m p l i t u d e was  greatest  by  as an upward  a m p l i t u d e m e a s u r e was  pulses  from the b a s e l i n e  defined  and  the electrodermal,  cardiac,  to p i c t u r e  at  stimuli  the  b e g i n n i n g , i n the middle, and at the end of the experiment, were s e l e c t e d .  Results Before quacy  o f Group NC  stated dial  reporting as  experiment.  who  I t was  absence of tioning  G r o u p NC  ed  little  no  GSR  and  of  one  a number o f  no  only  attenuated.  and  occupation  include  discipline,  as  and  close  also  and and  no  other  the  associated  constant  ed  a l s o be  Most Ss end  of  contact  time at which p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s  the  on  the  fac-  consist-  traits  in  g r o u p as with  with  inmate  i n G r o u p NC of  re-  a  this to  the  physical training  The  e x p e r i m e n t a l room a t  and  causal  have c o n t r i b u t e d  rigorous  proportion  of  tion.  the  NC  that  groups  t h a t G r o u p NC  "prison-wise"  relevant.  the  condi-  f o r these  hard-core,  may  in  evidence  psychopathic  Factors  consistent  that  in-  i n general  to possible  reactivity  t h a t may  the  similar in  explanation  individuals with  w h o l e w o u l d be  custo-  indices.  possibility  electrodermal  of  found t h a t Group  from the  ready  which case the  particular  expectation  reactivity  speculate  the  As  for possible  T h e r e was  conditioning  inade-  participate in  w o u l d be  electrodermal  These i n c l u d e  results  the  conditioning.  can  to  the  noted.  consisted  However, i t was  seems t o be  study  a control  differed significantly  There  tors.  as  e f f e c t s with  cardiovascular  sults  included  s u c h e f f e c t s G r o u p NC  showed v e r y  this  c o n t r o l g r o u p must he  volunteered  t o G r o u p NP.  virtually  r e s u l t s of  s e c t i o n G r o u p NC  had  stitutionalization  the  a  i n a previous  officers  the  a shift,  the  popula-  were  obtain-  reported usually  at  to  48 4:30  p.m.  but  i n some c a s e s  were s c h e d u l e d conceivable tion  that  event  considered to render  which to NP.  h o u r s 8:00  these  under the  I n any  as  8:00  present  the  t o be  this  This  leaves  group  covered  until  as  the  analyses.  The  scores  ded  statistical  "shock t o l e r a n c e  the  from  c o n d u c t a n c e , and UCR  data.  The  detection will nor  not will The  ing  the  any  order;  o f Group  of the  NC  normal  a control  and  group,  against o r Group  not  dis-  of  statistical  of t h i s  scores  are  f o r Group  c a r d i a c and are  shock t o l e r a n c e  study  cardiac,  a n a l y s i s of b a s a l  electrodermal,  be  statistical inclu-  detection threshold  The  other  to  three  t h e r e f o r e , were  a l l electrodermal,  f o r any  so  nonpsychopathic  a c o n t r o l was  been submitted  further reference  results  electrodermal  e i t h e r Group P  f i n d i n g s f o r G r o u p NC  reported  combina-  c o n d i t i o n i n g measures f o r the  t h r e s h o l d and be  atypical  as  analyses  the  in  It is  conditions.  "normal" or  vasomotor c o n d i t i o n i n g i n d i c e s . were e x c l u d e d  or  Ss  i s compared.  for this  data,  inmate  p.m.  of  behavior  performance of  m a i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s had  i n the  experimental  o f G r o u p NC  after  t o 4:30  i n a p p r o p r i a t e as  G r o u p NP  inadequacy  whereas  inhibition  electrodermal  group a g a i n s t which Group P The  a.m.  sufficiently  compare t h e  a.m.,  factors either singly  c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n t h e  reactivity  was  f o r the  at  and NC skin  vasomotor  reported data  and  only.  for  the  They  variable investigated made t o  this  reported  s h o c k d e t e c t i o n t h r e s h o l d and  group.  i n the  shock  follow-  tolerance  49 level  f o l l o w e d by t h e e l e c t r o d e r m a l ,  c a r d i a c , and vasomotor  data. Detection Threshold A simple  and Tolerance f o r E l e c t r i c  analysis of variance  variables. presented  The o b t a i n e d i n T a b l e 2.  Shock.  was p e r f o r m e d o n e a c h o f t h e s e  F - v a l u e s a n d t h e g r o u p means a r e  T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  between groups i n e i t h e r d e t e c t i o n t h r e s h o l d o r t o l e r a n c e level. GSR C o n d i t i o n i n g .  The l a t e n c y  c r i t e r i o n f o r an a n t i -  c i p a t o r y r e s p o n s e ( A R ) was 4 t o 11 s e c o n d s a f t e r CS  onset.  A d i f f e r e n t i a l AR was d e f i n e d a s t h e a m p l i t u d e o f r e s p o n s e ( m i c r o m o h s ) t o a p o s i t i v e CS m i n u s t h e a m p l i t u d e o f r e s p o n s e t o t h e n e u t r a l CS. P a n d G r o u p NP.  The g r o u p s o f c h i e f i n t e r e s t w e r e G r o u p  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n  t h e s e g r o u p s was t e s t e d b y a n a p r i o r i means.  comparison o f t h e i r  T h i s p r o c e d u r e was a d o p t e d i n o r d e r  to minimize  Type 2 e r r o r s (Hays, 1963, pp.459-483). The  mean a m p l i t u d e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l a n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs  t o t h e CS f o l l o w e d b y s h o c k i s shown i n F i g u r e point plotted i n Figure amplitude f o r4 t r i a l s an  a priori  1 represents  t h e mean  a n d 18 S s p e r g r o u p .  comparison, presented  1.  Each  differential The r e s u l t s o f  i n T a b l e 3, show t h a t t h e  d i f f e r e n c e i n o v e r a l l mean a m p l i t u d e b e t w e e n G r o u p P a n d G r o u p NP was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , e c t i o n , thus confirming  and i n t h e p r e d i c t e d  hypothesis  A^.  dir-  The mean a m p l i t u d e  o f a n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs t o t h e CS f o l l o w e d b y p i c t u r e s o f  50  Table 2 Group Means and F - V a l u e s f o r Shock D e t e c t i o n T h r e s h o l d and Shock T o l e r a n c e L e v e l  Groups Variable  P  S  NP  NC  Shock Detection Threshold (ma)  2.01  1.88  1.70  1.90  Shock Tolerance Level (ma)  13.82  12.72  16.55  11.87  F  P  1.34  .26  51  Fig.l. Anticipatory  Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l GSRs t o C S - S h o c l c .  52  Table 3 Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l A n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs t o CS-Shoclc f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  Source  Between Groups  df  SS  3  Comparison: G r o u p s P v s NP  MS  F  10484.98  1  8205.10  8205.10 950.70  Error  68  64647.81  Total  71  75132.79  8.63  <.O05  53 nudes  i s shown i n F i g u r e  comparison,  presented  2.  to r e j e c t  The  of  the  and  a  change i n t h e  alerting  crease  the  role  1966;  process  sensitivity  Russian  tant  hypothesis  research  was  i s an  quality o f an  i n d i c a t e that  Hord,  al  OR  was  tial  OR  AR.  The  was  ference  ferential  ORs  NC  the k.  data but  CS No  CS  and  Stern  component  useful therefore  o f an  onset.  same manner as  3. NP  differ  f o l l o w e d by  i t i s obvious  electrodermA  differen-  differential to the  a priori  CS  P<.05).  fol-  compari-  showed t h a t t h e  included i n this  statistical  a  ORs  An  (F(l,34)=4.97,  were n o t  to  impor-  Miller,  nonpsychopaths  of d i f f e r e n t i a l  significant  shown i n F i g u r e these  i n the  means o f G r o u p s P and  was  Western  p l a y an  Gale  latency criterion  to f o u r seconds a f t e r  defined  Groups S and  on  the  s h o c k i s shown i n F i g u r e  of the  Recent  may  I t w o u l d be  to i n -  c o n d i t i o n i n g of t h i s v a r i a b l e .  mean a m p l i t u d e  l o w e d by son  one  It i s part  serves  electrodermal  d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r p s y c h o p a t h s and  study  OR  1963).  to  In t h i s  pro-  l e a r n i n g ( Z i m n y and  conditioned.  to the  unspecific reflex  the  the  respect  thus  systems.  of  with  c a n be  significant,  o r g a n i s m and  (1967) have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e OR  not  differ-  of s t i m u l a t i o n .  of receptor  M c D o n a l d , J o h n s o n and  priori  B^.  (OR)  i n p e r c e p t i o n and  a  showed t h a t t h e  G r o u p NP  orienting reflex  d u c e d by  corresponding  k,  i n Table  e n c e b e t w e e n Group P and failing  The  The  analysis.  difdata  for  The  dif-  p i c t u r e s o f nudes i s tests  that  were p e r f o r m e d  o n l y G r o u p NP  on  showed  5 4  3.0  h  2.0 0)  a C  a  -t-> O  0  o o  BLOCKS OF FOUR T R I A L S Fig.2. Anticipatory  Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l GSRs t o C S - P i c t u r e s .  55 Table  4  Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l A n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs t o C S - P i c t u r e s f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  Source  df  Between Groups  SS  MS  349.68  Comparison: G r o u p s P v s NP  249.96  249.96 85.76  Error  68  5832.02  Total  71  6181.70  2.91  <.10  56  1  1  i  i  I  2  3  /j  BLOCKS OF FOUR TRIALS Fig.3. Mean A m p l i t u d e ORs t o C S - S h o c k .  of Differential  Electrodermal  57  58 evidence  o f c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t h e OR.  Inspection consistently did  G r o u p P.  difference related  of the data  higher  level  This raised  t h a t G r o u p NP h a d a  of basal skin  conductance  the p o s s i b i l i t y  i n c o n d i t i o n i n g between t h e s e  to a difference  Sternbach, 1961) .  indicated  i n b a s a l conductance  between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s  differential  and a b s o l u t e ARs.  and  1956;  the degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n be-  correlations  o f ARs, r a n k  order  were computed f o r b o t h  T h i s was done f o r G r o u p s P  NP c o m b i n e d f o r t h e mean o f t h e f i r s t  The  (Lacey,  1966; Wenger, C l e m e n s , C o l e m a n , C u l l e n a n d E n g e l ,  In order to estimate  ditioning  that the observed g r o u p s m i g h t be  tween b a s a l c o n d u c t a n c e a n d t h e a m p l i t u d e  and  than  two d e f e n s e  con-  trials. c o r r e l a t i o n between d i f f e r e n t i a l  differential  AR a m p l i t u d e  basal  conductance  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  ( r =.14),  s while  t h a t between a b s o l u t e b a s a l c o n d u c t a n c e and a b s o l u t e  AR a m p l i t u d e this  latter  relational  was s i g n i f i c a n t finding  t h e same d a t a  computations  s u r e s were s u b m i t t e d  ( r =.42, p < . 0 5 ) . s that entered  to a n a l y s i s  as the c r i t e r i o n .  tested ues  of covariance  adjusted values  For this  a n d AR  sample o f d a t a  a n d t h e a d j u s t e d AR means  i n b r a c k e t s ) were:  Group NP=1.47(l.43).  the cor-  (Winer,  T h e a d j u s t e d AR means were  f o r significance.  of the unadjusted  into  f o r t h e a b s o l u t e c o n d i t i o n i n g mea-  1962) , w i t h b a s a l c o n d u c t a n c e as t h e v a r i a t e tude  In view of  An a p r i o r i  amplithen  the v a l -  (with the  Group P = . 3 7 ( . 4 l ) , test,  performed  and  on t h e  59  adjusted  means, showed t h a t they d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (F(1,33)=7.26 p<.02). in  amount of GSR  This  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  difference  c o n d i t i o n i n g between Group P and  remained even a f t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n b a s a l  Group  conductance  NP  had  been taken i n t o a c c o u n t . Basal  S k i n Conductance.  conductance was in  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  in the  The  first  of t r i a l  skin points  ( C ^ ) , measured j u s t p r i o r to  one,  was  taken as an i n d e x o f  l e v e l under r e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  However, " r e s t i n g "  t h i s context i s probably something of a misnomer s i n c e experiment i t s e l f  most Ss. the  a n a l y s i s of b a s a l  based upon measures taken at t h r e e  the experiment.  basal  The  The  constitutes a stressful situation for  second p o i n t  experiment, and  (C ) 2  the t h i r d  was  (Cg)  measured midway through at the end  of the  experi-  ment. A t w o - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  f o r Groups ( A ) ,  Conductance ( C ) , w i t h repeared measures on the computed f o r these d a t a .  The  5, show that t h e r e were no ever, the AC  significant;  computation, p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6, d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on Cg,  and  change over t r i a l s .  d i f f e r e n c e s were found. i n d i c a t e t h a t Group P had  The  was  r e s u l t s , summarized i n T a b l e  were performed on the simple e f f e c t s .  a significant  latter,  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s .  i n t e r a c t i o n was  and  How-  therefore,  The  tests  r e s u l t s of  this  show that the Groups t h a t only Group S showed No  other  significant  r e s u l t s , plotted i n Figure  the lowest l e v e l of b a s a l  skin  5,  60  Tabic 5  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f B a s a l S k i n Conductance f o r Three Groups ( F a c t o r A) Taken as Repeated Measures a t Three P o i n t s i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t ( F a c t o r C)  Source  df  MS  F  P  Between S u b j e c t s  53 2  408.88  1.08  >.20  Subj e c t s W i t h i n Groups  51  370.77  Within Subjects  108  Groups (A)  Conductance Samples (C)  2  44.34  1.11  >.20  AC C x Subjects W i t h i n Groups  4  537.33  13.61  <.001  102  39.48  61  Table  6  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f S i m p l e E f f e c t s o f B a s a l C o n d u c t a n c e f o r T h r e e G r o u p s ( F a c t o r A) T a k e n as R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s a t T h r e e P o i n t s i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t ( F a c t o r C)  Source  df  MS  A at C l  2  136,71  .91  A at  C2  2  1166 77  7.78  <.005  A a t C3  2  175.05  1.10  >.20  153  149.91  C a t A l (P)  2  21.03  .53  C a t A2  (S)  2  1045.99  26.49  C a t A3  (NP)  2  Pooled  Error*  C x Subjects W i t h i n Groups  * Winer  0  1.96  102  ( 1 9 6 2 , p.  39.48  310)  <.001  13 >  ot  CI  C2 MEASUREMENTS  Fig.5. ment ( l e f t ) ,  C3  N P  to  GROUPS  Mean B a s a l S k i n C o n d u c t a n c e f o r T h r e e G r o u p s a t T h r e e P o i n t s o f M e a s u r e and f o r Three P o i n t s o f Measurement a t Three Groups ( r i g h t ) .  63 conductance,  a n d showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  change  the experiment.  The l e v e l  higher  f o r Group P, h u t G r o u p NP  than that  show any s i g n i f i c a n t steady  change o v e r  trials.  i n c r e a s e as t h e e x p e r i m e n t  determine was  f o r G r o u p NP was  whether the d i f f e r e n c e  significant  an a p r i o r i  also  progressed.  failed  to  In order to  b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP  comparison  The d i f f e r e n c e was  consistently  Group S showed a  of t h e i r  computed w i t h t h e d a t a f o r G r o u p S b e i n g analysis.  throughout  means  was  excluded from t h e  not s i g n i f i c a n t  ( F ( 1,3*0=1.74,  P>.10). GSR  H a b i t u a t i o n t o t h e UCS.  was  based  UCR  on c o n d i t i o n i n g  ysis  upon t h e a b s o l u t e a m p l i t u d e trials  p e a t e d m e a s u r e s on T was  a n d 15.  the Groups e f f e c t  S e q u e n t i a l Range T e s t  was  the source of the d i f f e r e n c e .  trials.  i n T a b l e 7,  significant. 1962) was  anal-  (T), with r e -  on t h e s e d a t a .  summarized  (Winer,  variable  A two-factor  ( A ) , and T r i a l s  performed  f o r the shock t r i a l s ,  of this  of the e l e c t r o d e r m a l  s e p a r a t e l y f o r shock and f o r p i c t u r e  sults that  1,8  of. v a r i a n c e f o r G r o u p s  done  Analysis  This  The r e show  The Newman-Keuls used  The mean UCR  to d i s c o v e r amplitudes  were; G r o u p P=1.20, G r o u p S=2.18, a n d G r o u p NP=11.25. was  found  t h a t Group NP  differed  f r o m G r o u p P and f r o m G r o u p S. G r o u p P a n d Group S was plotted ture  i n F i g u r e 6.  trials  significantly  (P<,05)  The d i f f e r e n c e  between  not s i g n i f i c a n t .  The s t a t i s t i c a l  i s summarized  was  It  These r e s u l t s  analysis  of the  are  pic-  i n T a b l e 8, and t h e c u r v e s a r e  64  Table  7  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e E l e c t r o d e r m a l UCR t o t h e S h o c k UCS f o r T h r e e G r o u p s ( A ) T a k e n as R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r T h r e e T r i a l s ( T )  Source  Bet\veen S u b j e c t s Groups  (A)  Subj e c t s W i t h i n Groups  Within  Subjects  Trials  (T)  AT T x Subj e c t s W i t h i n Groups  df  MS  F  P  53 2  51  1 7 0 7 . 1 8  4 1 5 . 6 1  1 0 8 2  7 0 . 3 5  4  5 0 . 8 1  102  9 8 . 3 9  4.09  <.02  65  TRIALS Fig.6. Mean A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e E l e c t r o d e r m a l UCR t o S h o c k .  of the  66  Table  8  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e E l e c t r o d e r m a l UCR t o t h e P i c t u r e UCSs f o r T h r e e Groups (A) Taken as Repeated Measures f o r Three T r i a l s (T)  Source  Between S u b j e c t s Groups  MS  53 2  195.01  Subj e c t s W i t h i n Groups  51  113.83  Within Subjects  108  Trials AT  (A)  df  (T)  '  T x Subjects W i t h i n Groups  2  1.85  4  25.85  102  26.31  1.71  >.10  67 shown i n F i g u r e 7. or  interaction.  T h e r e were  An a p r i o r i  f o r G r o u p s P and NP nificant  w h i l e G r o u p NP  Summary.  These f i n d i n g s  a steady  increase  a n d ORs  but the d i f f e r e n c e s T h e r e was  G r o u p s P a n d NP  no  i n basal  failed  T h e r e was in  increase.  On UCR  Group  P  also  than d i d  statistical between  conductance under r e s t i n g  trials  no s i g n i f i c a n t  con-  midway t h r o u g h t h e  conductance.  Neither  change i n b a s a l  w h i l e G r o u p S showed  amplitude  a  sig-  t o s h o c k G r o u p NP  gave  d i f f e r e n c e between Groups P and  o f t h e UCR  5-second p e r i o d s  each p e r i o d .  ampli-  condition-  difference  any s i g n i f i c a n t  Cardiac Conditioning. two  UCSs  l a r g e r r e s p o n s e s than d i d Group P o r Group  the amplitude  into  smaller  to reach  significantly  showed  conductance across  significantly  sig-  that  i n response  significant  skin  but they d i f f e r e d  G r o u p P n o r G r o u p NP  nificant  not  show  to CS-picture  experiment w i t h Group P showing l e s s  skin  means  the experiment.  s m a l l e r ARs  significance.  effects  shock and p i c t u r e  t o C S - s h o c k t h a n d i d G r o u p NP.  tended t o give  ditions,  main  t h e d i f f e r e n c e was  Group P gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y  a n d ARs  G r o u p NP  that  s m a l l UCRs t o b o t h  showed  tude throughout  significant  c o m p a r i s o n on t h e o v e r a l l  ( F ( l , 3 4 ) = 1 . 9 6 , P>10).  Group P gave v e r y  e d ORs  showed  no  I t was  w o u l d p r o v i d e an e s t i m a t e t e d by p r e v i o u s  NP  to p i c t u r e s . The CS-UCS i n t e r v a l was  a n d t h e mean HR  assumed  S.  that  this  method  of the b i p h a s i c  investigators.  was  obtained f o r of scoring  c a r d i a c CR  A differential  divided  repor-  cardiac  CR  8  15  TRIALS Fig.7. Mean A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e E l e c t r o d e r m a l UCR t o P i c t u r e s .  o i the  69 was e x p r e s s e d a s t h e mean HR t o a p o s i t i v e CS m i n u s t h e mean HR  to the n e u t r a l  and  second The  CS.  ( C S g ) CS  This  was done f o r t h e f i r s t ( C S ^ ,  periods.  mean a m p l i t u d e  of d i f f e r e n t i a l  r e s p o n s e s t o t h e CS f o l l o w e d lowed by p i c t u r e s point for  16 c o n d i t i o n i n g  8 represents  trials  CS  period  of  these analyses,  comparison  i n Tables  during  o f t h e i r means a t e a c h  d i f f e r e n c e between Group P and  defense  NP.  The r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g  conditioning  cardiac  o r s e c o n d CS  hypothesis  o f HR  periods. which  f o r Group P t h a n  t o reward  decel-  conditioning  predicted f o r Group a r e sum-  11 a n d 12 f o r CS^ a n d C S , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2  T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t t h e mean a m p l i t u d e  not r e j e c t the n u l l  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP  of differential  e i t h e r the f i r s t  significant  of d i f f e r e n t i a l  to support  less  marized i n Tables  The r e s u l t s  t o defense c o n d i t i o n i n g , are  e i t h e r the f i r s t  These r e s u l t s f a i l  do  The  9 a n d 10 f o r CS^ a n d C S g , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  G r o u p NP i n mean a m p l i t u d e  during  a n d f o r 18 Ss p e r g r o u p .  relating  T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t  in  Each  t h e o v e r a l l mean HR  f o r shock, and f o r p i c t u r e t r i a l s .  summarized  8.  fol-  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p P a n d G r o u p NP  was t e s t e d b y a n a p r i o r i  eration  h y s h o c k , a n d t o t h e CS  o f n u d e s , i s shown i n F i g u r e  plotted i n Figure  significance  a n t i c i p a t o r y HR  cardiac  o r s e c o n d CS p e r i o d s .  deceleration These r e s u l t s  h y p o t h e s i s B , which p r e d i c t e d 2  no  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP i n t h e r e -  ward c o n d i t i o n i n g  of cardiac  responses.  71 Table 9 Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CRs t o C S - S h o c k d u r i n g t h e F i r s t CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  Source  df  SS  MS  1078.94  Between Groups Comparison: G r o u p s P v s NP  738.75  738.75 621.79  Error  68  42281.67  Total  71  43360.61  1.18  >.20  72 Table  10  Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CRs t o C S - S h o c k D u r i n g t h e S e c o n d CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  Source  df  SS  MS  Between  Groups  3  1055.17  Comparison: Groups  P v s NP  1  210.83  210.83 832.22  Error  68  56591.11  Total  71  57646.28  F  P  73  Table  11  Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e Mean A m j i l i t u . d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CUs t o C S - P i c t u r e s D u r i n g t h e F i r s t CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  Source  df  SS  Between  Groups  MS  3842.50 3 182.25  182.25  43069.45  633.37  Comparison: G r o u p s P v s NP  1 46911.95  Error  68  Total  71  F  P  74 T a b l e 12 Summary o f O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C a r d i a c CRs t o C S - P i c t u r e s D u r i n g t h e S e c o n d CS P e r i o d f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  Source  df  Between Groups  SS  MS  F  6677.33  Comparison: G r o u p s P v s Np  1518.66  Error  68  47336.40  Total  71  54013.78  1518.66 696.12  2.18  >.10  The  mean HR  the f i r s t ty was  trial  d u r i n g the 5 seconds immediately was  under r e s t i n g performed  Table  13,  t a k e n as an  conditions.  estimate of c a r d i a c a c t i v i -  A simple a n a l y s i s of variance  on t h i s m e a s u r e . *  The  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was  results,  no  summarized i n  significant  b e t w e e n G r o u p s i n r e s t i n g HR  as d e f i n e d above.  for  i n Table  these data are presented The  C a r d i a c UCR.  expressed means.  difference The  20.  as t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p o s t - C S ,  and  1,8,  and  The  those f o r p i c t u r e t r i a l s  separ-  results  p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 9 w i t h the data f o r shock t r i a l s and  are  on  on t h e r i g h t .  the  In Figure  9 a p o s i t i v e v a l u e i n d i c a t e s c a r d i a c a c c e l e r a t i o n , and negative value indicates  m e a s u r e s on T,  was  r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s , i z e d i n Table  Ik.  No  ( A ) , and T r i a l s  performed  significant  Groups, f o r T r i a l s ,  cal  a n a l y s i s of the p i c t u r e t r i a l s T h e r e was  no  cant i n t e r a c t i o n . for  Trials.  * The  (T), with re-  on t h e s e  data.  f o r the shock t r i a l s ,  for  15.  are  d i f f e r e n c e s were  or f o r I n t e r a c t i o n .  The  The summarfound  statisti-  i s summarized i n Table  s i g n i f i c a n t G r o u p s e f f e c t a n d no However, a s i g n i f i c a n t  signifi-  e f f e c t was  found  A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Newraan-Keuls p r o c e d u r e  d a t a f o r G r o u p NC  a  deceleration. A two-factor anal-  y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r Groups peated  HR  experi-  15, and w e r e a n a l y z e d  for picture trials.  was  pre-CS,  Measures were t a k e n a t t h r e e p o i n t s i n t h e  f o r shock and  left,  means  This index of cardiac a c t i v i t y  ment v i z . , on T r i a l s ately  preceding  were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  analysis.  to  76 Tabic Analysis  Source  Groups (Between)  of Variance  Df  3  13  f o r Resting Heart  SS  191.48  Error (Within)  68  11135.32  Total  71  11327.32  MS  63.82  163.76  Rate  F  P  I  8  15  I  8  TRIALS Fig.9. (right).  Mean A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e  15  TRIALS o f the Cardiac  UCR  t o Shock  (left),  and t o  Pictures  78  Table  14  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e C a r d i a c UCl't t o S h o c k f o r T h r e e G r o u p s ( A ) T a k e n as R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r T h r e e T r i a l s ( T )  Source  df  Between S u b j e c t s  53  Groups  (A)  Subj e c t s W i t h i n Groups  Within  Subjects  Trials  (T)  AT T x Subjects W i t h i n Groups  MS  2  34.39  51  45.29  F  P  108 2  33.46  1.84  >.10  4  32.21  1.77  >.10  102  18.13  79 Table  15  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e C a r d i a c UCR t o P i c t u r e s o f Nudes f o r T h r e e G r o u p s (A) T a k e n as R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r T h r e e T r i a l s ( T )  Source  Between  Subjects  Groups  (A)  Subj e c t s W i t h i n Groups  Within  Subjects  Trials  (T)  AT T x Subjects W i t h i n Groups  df  MS  53 2  38.59  51  39.81  108 2  79.25  4  14.25  102  20.90  3.79  <.05  80 t h e s e d a t a showed t h a t ly  (P<.05), w i t h  on  trial  15.  the  trials  8 and  c e s b e t w e e n G r o u p s on  w e r e no  d e c e l e r a t i v e UCR  dence of c o n d i t i o n e d ditioning  and  significant  cardiac HR  (3)  i n the  to the data,  picture  stimuli.  a l l g r o u p s showed  d e c e l e r a t i o n on b o t h d e f e n s e  conditioning;  (4)  i n the  to the p i c t u r e  The  and  cardiac  UCR  cardiac  cutaneous vasomotor  temperature r e g u l a t i o n .  show v a r y i n g  p e r i p h e r a l vasomotor a c t i v i t y  in  the  Ss  fell  in  e a c h g r o u p was;  evaluation  of r e c o r d s .  i n t o this category.  The  G r o u p P=2, records  findings  degrees of  in  G r o u p NC=4.  HR;  sys-  t o c o n t i n u o u s c h a n g e s i n t o n e p a r t l y as  distribution,  some Ss  (l)  stimuli.  account, at l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r the that  on  ( 2 ) mean r e s t i n g  f u n c t i o n of i t s r o l e i n the maintenance of blood blood  conno  G r o u p NP  o v e r a l l magnitude of the  Vasomotor C o n d i t i o n i n g . i s subject  evi-  T h e r e was  mean m a g n i t u d e o r d i r e c t i o n o f t h e  to shock; or  that while a l l  t o s h o c k o n l y G r o u p P showed '  d i f f e r e n c e between Group P and  index of cardiac  tem  T a b l e 20  reward c o n d i t i o n i n g t r i a l s .  any  UCR  significant differen-  9 and  g r o u p s g a v e an a c c e l e r a t i v e UCR  summarize the  greater  t h i s measure i t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o  note from i n s p e c t i o n of F i g u r e  To  differed significant-  amount o f d e c e l e r a t i o n b e i n g  Although there  a consistent  15  In the The  (Unger,  "spontaneous" a  G r o u p S=4,  may 1964)  changes problem  present study  number o f  o f t h e s e Ss  pressure, This  thus presenting  a  several  "hyperreactors"  G r o u p NP=3,  c o u l d not  be  and  evaluated  81 because  o f continuous and seemingly  i n vasomotor tone. cluded  indiscrirainative  A f t e r the unusable records  and t h e r e m a i n d e r b a l a n c e d by randomly  f r o m G r o u p P a n d one f r o m Group NP, so t h a t would  contain  available The  mean a m p l i t u d e  Figure  10.  of differential  Table This  means t h a t  stimulus  a n a l y s i s , summarized i n  conditioning  o f vasomotor  i s not supported. interval  statistical  are p l o t t e d i n Figure analysis  thus  failing  V a s o m o t o r UCR.  baseline  pulses  of this  immediately  responses  11, a n d  i s summarized i n  to reject the n u l l The l a t e n c y  hypothesis,  criterion  preceding  response onset.  and the middle o f the pulse  upward d e v i a t i o n  B^.  of a vaso-  termination.  r e s p o n s e was t h e m i d d l e o f t h e two  p l i t u d e was e x p r e s s e d as t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n mm baseline  Group P  The r e s u l t s f o r t h e  m o t o r UCR was a t l e a s t two s e c o n d s a f t e r CS The  that  The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP was n o t  significant The  NP  o v e r a l l mean  g  corresponding 17.  by s h o c k i s shown  hypothesis A , which p r e d i c t e d  t h a n w o u l d Group NP,  Table  were  t h e d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  w o u l d show l e s s d e f e n s e  the  group  vasoconstrictive  comparison o f t h e i r  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s  16, show t h a t  CS-picture  each  two  The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p P a n d G r o u p  was t e s t e d by a n a p r i o r i amplitude.  excluding  group.  c h a n g e s i n t h e f i n g e r t o t h e CS f o l l o w e d in  had been ex-  t h e same number o f S s , u s a b l e r e c o r d s  f o r lk S s i n e a c h  changes  from t h e b a s e l i n e .  Response  am-  between t h e  showing t h e g r e a t e s t The d i s t a n c e  i n mm  i  i  I  2  .  :  i  i  3  4  BLOCKS OF FOUR T R I A L S Fig.10. Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l A n t i c i p a t o r y V a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n t o CS-Shock.  83  T a b l e 16 Summary of Orthogonal Comparisons o f the Mean Amplitude o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Vasomotor CRs to CS-Shock f o r Groups P and NP  Source  Between Groups  df  SS  3  Comparison: Groups P vs NP  MS  3096.16  1  726.85  726.85 475.56  Error  52  23793.12  Total  55  26886.28  1.52  >.10  BLOCKS OF FOUR T R I A L S Fig.11. Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l cipatory Vasoconstriction to CS-Pictures.  85 Table  17  Summary o l O r t h o g o n a l C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e Mean A m p l i t u d e o f D i f f e r e n t i a l V a s o m o t o r CRs t o C S - P i c t u r c s f o r G r o u p s P a n d NP  Source  Between Groups  df  SS  3  Comparison: G r o u p s P v s NP  MS  170.56  1  56.46  56.46 370.84  Error  52  19283.76  Total  55  19454.32  86 was t h e n As  converted  as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y .  f o r t h e e l e c t r o d e r m a l a n d c a r d i a c UCRs t h e v a s o m o t o r UCR  was e x p r e s s e d the od  to m i l l i v o l t s  a s a change i n a b s o l u t e a m p l i t u d e .  terra " a b s o l u t e " i s u s e d  here  o n l y t o d e s c r i b e t h e meth-  o f s c o r i n g s i n c e a b s o l u t e measures o f v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n  were n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h The  plotted  v i z . , on t r i a l s  i n F i g u r e 12 w i t h  the  left,  The  statistical  factor with  ture  and those  analysis  repeated  trials  the procedures  trials  analyses  the data  i n this  o f these  m e a s u r e s o n T. i n Table  are presented  The r e s u l t s a r e  trials  data  on t h e r i g h t .  ( A ) , and T r i a l s ( T ) , f o r the shock  18, a n d t h o s e  i n Table  19.  f o r the p i c -  No s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t e r a c t i o n s were r e v e a l e d by  main  either  analyses. d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e -  tween G r o u p P a n d G r o u p NP i n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l defense  striction.  amplitude  or reward c o n d i t i o n i n g o f f i n g e r  Similarily,  c e s between Groups shock o r p i c t u r e  t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t h e mean a m p l i t u d e  vasocondifferen-  o f v a s o m o t o r UCRs  comparisons  t h e means f o r  G r o u p s P,S, a n d NP, on 20 o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n Table  of  stimuli.  In order t o f a c i l i t a t e  presented  on  c o n s i s t e d o f a two-  The r e s u l t s  I n summary,, no s i g n i f i c a n t  either  study.  f o r the shock t r i a l s  o f v a r i a n c e f o r Groups  or significant  pf these  1,8, a n d 15.  f o r the p i c t u r e  a r e summarized  effects  used  v a s o m o t o r UCR was m e a s u r e d a t t h r e e p o i n t s i n t h e  experiment  to  However,  20.  investigated are  88 Table  18  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e V a s o m o t o r UCR t o S h o c k f o r T h r e e G r o u p s ( A ) T a k e n as R e p e a t e d Measures f o r T h r e e T r i a l s (T)  Source  Between  Subjects  Groups  (A)  Subj e c t s W i t h i n Groups  Within  Subjects  Trials  (T)  AT T x Subjects W i t h i n Groups  MS  F  2  48.18  1.43  >.io  39  33.65  df  P  41  8k 2  13.37  1.89  >.10  k  8.75  1.23  >.10  78  7.06  89 Table  19  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f t h e A m p l i t u d e o f t h e V a s o m o t o r UCR t o P i c t u r e s o f Nudes f o r T h r e e G r o u p s (A) T a k e n as R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s f o r T h r e e T r i a l s ( T )  Source  Between  Subjects  Groups  (A)  Subjects W i t h i n Groups  Within  Subjects  Trials  (T)  AT T x Subjects W i t h i n Groups  df  MS  J  F  P  1.93  >.10  41 2  13.41  39  6.93  84 2  .08  4  3.29  78  3.60  90  Table  20  The Means f o r Groups P, S, and NP on 2 0 Measures. The E l e c t r o d e r m a l Measures a r e E x p r e s s e d i n Micromohs, t h e C a r d i a c Measures i n B e a t s P e r M i n u t e , and the Vasomotor Measures i n M i l l i v o l t s . The Shock D e t e c t i o n T h r e s h o l d and Shock T o l e r a n c e D a t a a r e E x p r e s s e d i n M i l l i a m p e r e s . The Measures I n d i c a t e d i n the Table by t h e L e t t e r s a Through t a r e I d e n t i f i e d as F o l l o w s : a  Shock D e t e c t i o n  Threshold  b  Shock T o l e r a n c e  Level  c  B a s a l S k i n Conductance  d  D i f f e r e n t i a l A m p l i t u d e o f E l e c t r o d e r m a l AR t o CS-Shock  e  "  "  "  "  "  "  AR t o C S - P i c t u r e s  f  "  "  "  "  "  "  OR t o CS-Shock  g  "  "  "  "  "  »  OR t o C S - P i c t u r e s  h i  A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f E l e c t r o d e r m a l UCR "  "  "  "  "  t o Shock  UCR t o P i c t u r e s  j  R e s t i n g Heart Rate  k  D i f f e r e n t i a l A m p l i t u d e o f C a r d i a c CR D u r i n g  I  m n  11  II  tl  tt  It  tl  tt  CS^ t o CS-Shock Q g  II  tt  2  D i f f e r e n t i a l A m p l i t u d e o f C a r d i a c CR D u r i n g CS. t o CSPictures D i f f e r e n t i a l A m p l i t u d e o f C a r d i a c CR D u r i n g C S t o CSPictures 2  o  A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f C a r d i a c UCR  p q  " " " " " " Pictures D i f f e r e n t i a l A m p l i t u d e o f Vasomotor CR t o CS-Shock  r s  " " " " " " " " CS-Pictures A b s o l u t e A m p l i t u d e o f Vasomotor UCR t o Shock tt it it „ „ „ „ pictures  t  t o Shock  tt  Table 20 (continued)  Group  a  b  o  d e  f  g  h  i  j  k  l  n  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  1.07  .67  4.03  .83  P  2.01  13.82  13.95  .04 -.01  .12  .06  1.20  .73  71.50  .00 -.62  .32 -.45  3.74 -1.02  S  1.88  12.72  18.60  .25  .14  .25  .22  2.18  .89  74.94  .12 -.57  .90  .37  1.93  .14  .91  .52  5.98  2.11  NP  1.70  16.55  18.60  1.99  .41  2.40  1.07  11.25  4.10  .00 -.67  2.19  .62  .74  .62  4.15  1.31  73.39 -.50  -.32  Discussion To  r e c a p i t u l a t e the main f i n d i n g s of the  f o u n d t h a t Group P d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y only The  one  index  following  i t  was  i n the  for  f o r defense c o n d i t i o n i n g .  discussion i s organized  those used i n r e p o r t i n g the Electrodermal  on  GSR.  d i r e c t i o n o f s m a l l e r CRs  found only  along  The  lines similar  to  results.  Measures.  Several  v a r i a b l e s , other  than  psychopathy, t h a t might p o s s i b l y have been r e l a t e d to ferences these,  i n GSR  c o n d i t i o n i n g were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  s h o c k d e t e c t i o n t h r e s h o l d , t h e r e was  d i f f e r e n c e between groups.  This  r e p o r t e d by  holds  stitution  served  as  t h o s e c o n d u c t e d by  A no  Ss  i n this  invoked  s e c o n d v a r i a b l e was  1964; son  to account f o r  thres-  same i n -  tolerance  previous  in dis-  unless  explanation. f o r shock.  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n g r o u p s on  a r e s u l t consistent with  higher  H a r e so t h a t t h e  as an  re-  (1968a)  e x p e r i m e n t a s w e l l as  T h o r v a l d s o n and  f a c t o r s are  significant  Hare  of  with  with  Inmates from the  crepancy i n r e s u l t s i s d i f f i c u l t procedural  and  p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h s had  than d i d normal c o n t r o l s .  one  significant  i s at variance  Schoenherr (1964),  which i n d i c a t e d that  no  On  dif-  result i s consistent  T h o r v a l d s o n ' s (1969) f i n d i n g s but search  was  f r o m G r o u p NP  of autonomic c o n d i t i o n i n g v i z . , the  d i f f e r e n c e was  G r o u p P and  study,  research  H a r e , 1965c; T h o r v a l d s o n , 1969).  this  There  measure,  (Schoenherr,  However,  found that primary psychopaths increased  was  their  Thorvaldtolerance  level cial  significantly  above t h a t  incentive conditions.  o f nonpsychopaths under  I t i s thus probable t h a t , i f  s u f f i c i e n t l y m o t i v a t e d , t h e p r e s e n t Ss o f Group P have t o l e r a t e d h i g h e r indicated.  could  l e v e l s o f shock i n t e n s i t y than  amount o f GSR  conditioning  the r e l a t i v e l y  shown b y G r o u p P.  small  I f the l e v e l  o f s h o c k i n t e n s i t y a c c e p t e d b y t h e S s o f G r o u p P was to e l i c i t  a n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs i t s h o u l d a l s o  proved inadequate f o r the c o n d i t i o n i n g responses.  Contrary to t h i s  no s i g n i f i c a n t  A .difference i n basal c l u d e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n conditioning.  of  expectation  insuf-  have  cardiovascular  however t h e r e  was  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP i n t h e  amplitude of either cardiac  the  those  Even i f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s c o r r e c t however i t  would not e x p l a i n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  ficient  spe-  o r vasomotor CRs. s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e can a l s o be e x -  of the difference  i n amount o f  The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP i n  a m p l i t u d e o f a n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs r e m a i n e d a f t e r t h e d i f -  ference i n basal  l e v e l s had been s t a t i s t i c a l l y  controlled.  T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two m a i n g r o u p s i n GSR conditioning cy  criteria  finding  c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t e r m s o f t h e l a t e n of electrodermal  ARs.  t h a t Group P gave s m a l l e r  This  i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e  conditioned  ORs t h a n d i d  G r o u p NP. It this  seems a r e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n t h e r e f o r e  study, the difference  i n GSR  conditioning  that, i n between  G r o u p s P a n d NP i s r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i a b l e o f p s y c h o p a t h y .  9k The  results  of t h i s p a r t o f the study c l e a r l y  t h a t G r o u p P, i n c o m p a r i s o n i n the a b i l i t y sponses. search.  to acquire c l a s s i c a l l y  deficient  conditioned fear r e -  These r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e Thus Lykken  gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y al  w i t h G r o u p NP, was  demonstrate  (1955) found t h a t p r i m a r y  psychopaths  s m a l l e r a n t i c i p a t o r y GSRs t h a n d i d n o r m -  c o n t r o l s when t h e UCS was s h o c k .  Hare (1965c) o b t a i n e d  s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s f o r p s y c h o p a t h i c and nonpsychopathic inals.  Schmauk's ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t u d y showed t h a t p r i m a r y  p a t h s d i s p l a y e d l e s s GSR a c t i v i t y when s h o c k was t e d than d i d normal  Ss.  crim-  psycho-  anticipa-  The r e s u l t s a r e i n agreement w i t h  o t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h may b e v i e w e d  as i n v o l v i n g a form o f  l o n g - d e l a y c o n d i t i o n i n g w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t t h e CS-UCS contingency.  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s  (Hare, 1965b; L i p p e r t and  S e n t e r , 1966; S c h a l l i n g a n d L e v a n d e r , c h o p a t h i c S s showed a r e l a t i v e tivity  1967) f o u n d t h a t  psy-  lack of electrodermal reac-  i n anticipation of painful  stimulation.  The p r e s e n t  f i n d i n g s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s c o n f i r m i n g h y p o t h e s i s A^, a n d as p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l  support f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l  t i o n s o f C l e c k l e y (1941), Lykken that the primary psychopath of c l a s s i c a l l y  (1955), and Hare  i s deficient  posi-  (1965a)  i n the acquisition  conditioned fear responses.  By  implication,  these r e s u l t s a l s o s u p p o r t Hare's (1965a) h y p o t h e s i s o f a steeper-than-normal No r e w a r d  gradient of fear a r o u s a l i n psychopaths.  conditioning  ted f o r psychopathic Ss.  d a t a have p r e v i o u s l y been r e p o r -  The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s  do n o t p e r m i t  95 rejection  of the n u l l  ence b e t w e e n G r o u p s Group P g i v i n g consistent  h y p o t h e s i s (B^) a l t h o u g h t h e  P and NP  w i t h the r e s u l t s i n Appendix  C, w h i c h  chopathy  w i t h Lykken's  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by general.  of  It i s possible are rather  rewards  system  and  punishments The  o f Schmauk ( 1 9 6 8 ) l e n d  basal was  skin  no  consistently  n e i t h e r group  that  al  that  basal  reactivity  conductance  s i s t e n t w i t h the r a t i o n a l e  are in  physiological  as w e l l  as  those  assumption.  c o n d i t i o n s but  midway t h r o u g h t h e  significant  but  conditioning  d i f f e r e n c e between groups  h i g h e r f o r G r o u p NP  (Malmo, 1962)  only,  to both the types  and t h e  the lowest l e v e l .  skin  psy-  psychopaths  Basal  in  there  experiment  conductance  t h a n f o r Group P b u t change d u r i n g  p e r i m e n t w h i l e G r o u p S showed a s i g n i f i c a n t suming  that  of anxiety  some s u p p o r t t o t h i s  showed any  conditioning  the psychopath's  resting  pic-  instrumental  reward  present results  difference  that  of emotional r e a c t i v i t y  employed,  conductance under  a significant  of  with respect  significant  w i t h Group P s h o w i n g was  that  specific  investigated.  T h e r e was  assertion  an a t t e n u a t i o n  conditioning  assumption  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a b s e n c e  at variance with Cleckley's  deficits  The  with  finding i s  demonstrated  reinforcers  i n primary psychopaths.  are consistent  This  of the operant  t u r e s o f nudes a r e adequate  results  significance  somewhat s m a l l e r r e s p o n s e s .  study, reported  responses  approached  differ-  i s an  these r e s u l t s  the  increase.  index of appear  exAs-  emotiont o be  of the s e l e c t i o n procedures.  con-  96 The  non-anxious  while  Ss o f G r o u p  the presumably  increase cative  i n basal  While the basal theories  w h i c h m i g h t be  tension.  ( e . g . , Hare,  (e.g.,  partial  1965c).  and s e c o n d a r y p s y c h o p a t h s basal  s k i n conductance  during  change.  no  so i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e  1965a)  with previous research found that  both primary decrease i n  that  study i n v o l v e d the f a i l u r e  due  to the presence o f shock.  (1955) f o u n d t h a t  primary psychopaths  increase  conductance, and  here.  Hare,  i n basal results  Lykken  exactly  nonpsytones but  o f any  have been  showed t h e  secondary  due  greatest  psychopaths found  as p a r a d o x i c a l  Other  Schmauk, 1968)  investigators  f o u n d no  (Lippert  significant  and  Group NP  of stimulus  gave  Senter,  difference  c o n d u c t a n c e b e t w e e n p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h s and under a v a r i e t y  and  sug-  to seasonal v a r i a t i o n s  t e m p e r a t u r e a s h i s g r o u p s were t e s t e d a t d i f f e r e n t  to  of  Lykken  the opposite of those  regarded h i s findings  g e s t e d they might  the y e a r .  with  i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o show a d e c r e a s e i n b a s a l  c o n d u c t a n c e was  the l e a s t ,  1955;  the experiment w h i l e  Hare's  indi-  intermediate.  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  showed no  the groups  Lykken,  (1968a)  chopaths shock  was  data are consistent  agreement  Hare  i n t e r p r e t e d as  G r o u p NP  conductance  of psychopathy  they are i n only  reactivity  a n x i o u s Ss o f G r o u p S showed a s t e a d y  level  of increasing  P showed t h e l e a s t  in  times of 1966;  i n basal  nonpsychopaths  conditions.  significantly  shock than d i d e i t h e r Groups  larger P o r S.  electrodermal Moreover,  UCRs  Group  NP  97 showed a n i n c r e a s e other  i n UCR a m p l i t u d e  over t r i a l s while the  two g r o u p s showed no c h a n g e .  These f i n d i n g s a r e i n  agreement w i t h Lykken's (1955) r e s e a r c h w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t n o r m a l S s showed t h e l e a s t GSR h a b i t u a t i o n t o s h o c k and  secondary psychopaths t h e most.  However H a r e  f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r i m a r y and  psychopaths  n o r m a l c o n t r o l s i n r a t e o f GSR h a b i t u a t i o n t o s h o c k .  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some o f t h e s e procedural  d i f f e r e n c e s e . g . , a s t o w h e t h e r s h o c k was  Table 2 i n d i c a t e s that i n t h i s comparatively The  nonpsychopaths.  The r e s u l t s  ( a t l e a s t as regards  also provide regarding  some s u p p o r t  accepted  intensity. psychopaths  t o s t i m u l a t i o n t h a n do the hypothesis  Ss a r e a u t o n o m i c a l l y electrodermal  f o r Quay's (1965)  reduced basal l e v e l s  i n g s however p r o v i d e (Schacter  a l l groups  thus support  1968b) t h a t p s y c h o p a t h i c  reactive  cally  reactivity  hypo-  a c t i v i t y ) , and speculations  i n psychopaths.  no s u p p o r t  present  Inspection of  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that primary  show l e s s e l e c t r o d e r m a l  (Hare,  study  h i g h l e v e l s o f shock  present  It  discrepancies are related to  or absent, o r t o t h e shock i n t e n s i t i e s used.  These  find-  f o r the proposition  and L a t a n e , 1964) t h a t p s y c h o p a t h s a r e a u t o n o m i -  hyperreactive. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Measures.  obtained  Since  similar results  f o r c a r d i a c and vasomotor c o n d i t i o n i n g both  a b l e s a r e d i s c u s s e d u n d e r t h e same h e a d i n g . the  (1965c)  findings:  No s i g n i f i c a n t  were vari-  To s u m m a r i z e  d i f f e r e n c e s were found between  98 G r o u p P a n d G r o u p NP i n ; ( l ) r e s t i n g HE; ( 2 ) a n y i n d e x o f either cardiac cardiac  o r vasomotor  o r vasomotor  conditioning  habituation  showed c o n d i t i o n e d  t o s h o c k o r p i c t u r e UCSs.  All  groups  the  s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e CS-UCS i n t e r v a l  picture t r i a l s .  A l l groups  o r ; (3) rate of  cardiac  deceleration  on b o t h shock and  showed a n i n c r e a s e  tude o f f i n g e r v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n  during  on b o t h shock a n d p i c t u r e t r i a l s .  during  i n the ampli-  t h e CS-UCS  I n scoring  interval  vasomotor r e -  s p o n s e s no a t t e m p t was made t o s e p a r a t e ORs a n d A R s . ever, the d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g s t r i c t i o n appear and S t e r n their  t o be i d e n t i c a l  definition  o f a vasomotor  scoring, vasomotor n o t have changed  curves f o r vasocon-  t o those obtained  ( 1 9 6 8 ) who u s e d a l o n g e r  latency  CR.  This  ORs a n d A R s s e p a r a t e l y  by G a l e  criterion i n suggests  i n this  the r e s u l t s appreciably.  that  study would  The r e s u l t s o b -  tained  f o rthe electrodermal  responses support t h i s  tion.  I n any e v e n t t h e f a i l u r e t o s e p a r a t e p o s s i b l e  m o t o r ORs a n d ARs i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d purpose  of this  ability  o f autonomic  are  vasomotor  differences  vaso-  t o t h e main  responses i n psychopaths.  The r e s u l t s  h y p o t h e s e s A^ a n d A^  l e s s defense c o n d i t i o n i n g  of c a r d i a c and  r e s p o n s e s f o r G r o u p P t h a n f o r G r o u p NP.  hypotheses  assump-  s t u d y w h i c h was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n -  o t h e r hand, these f i n d i n g s null  crucial  i n t e r p r e t e d as f a i l u r e t o c o n f i r m  which predicted  How-  On t h e  do n o t p e r m i t r e j e c t i o n o f t h e  a n d B^, w h i c h p r e d i c t e d  i n reward c o n d i t i o n i n g  no  significant  b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP.  99  The would  primary hypothesis of t h i s  s t u d y was t h a t G r o u p P  show l e s s d e f e n s e c o n d i t i o n i n g  t h a n w o u l d G r o u p NP.  of a relevant  o r vasomotor  measures.  The s e c o n d a r y h y p o t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e  as a n u l l theory.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s f a i l  from nonpsychopaths responses.  i n psycho-  was f o r m u l a t e d  psychopaths  i n the reward c o n d i t i o n i n g  that  and t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g  differ  ther e o f emo-  than p r e v i o u s l y  Secondly, simple g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  hypo-  o f autonomic  The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t f i r s t ,  r e s p o n s e s may be more c o m p l e x  ditioning  to reject this  no e v i d e n c e t h a t  l a t i o n s h i p between psychopathy  ed.  no  h y p o t h e s i s a n d n o t as a t e s t o f any p a r t i c u l a r  t h e s i s so t h e r e i s s t i l l  tional  In the  t h e o r e t i c a l or empirical basis  p r e d i c t i o n s w e r e made a b o u t r e w a r d c o n d i t i o n i n g paths.  responses  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was c o n f i r m e d f o r t h e  GSR h u t n o t f o r t h e c a r d i a c absence  o f autonomic  assum-  about autonomic  i n psychopaths a r e probably unwarranted.  con-  Finally,  assumptions about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t i n d i c e s of autonomic The  conditioning  may be o v e r s i m p l i f i e d .  following discussion  c o n s i d e r s some o f t h e known  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s in this  study.  The a i m o f t h i s  discussion  investigated  i s to t r y to r e -  c o n c i l e the seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y  results of electroder-  mal a n d c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  o b t a i n e d f o r G r o u p P.  conditioning  Conflicting reports  appear  ing t h e form o f the c a r d i a c of c a r d i a c  changes  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  concern-  CR, a n d t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l  i n human Ss d u r i n g c l a s s i c a l  basis  conditioning  100 procedures  (Lang and H n a t i o w , 1962; O b r i s t ,  1963; O b r i s t ,  Wood a n d P e r e z - R e y e s , 1 9 6 5 ; S m i t h , 1 9 6 6 ; Wood, 1 9 6 3 ; Wood and  Obrist,  1 9 6 7 ; Zeaman a n d S m i t h , 1 9 6 5 ) .  contradictory  r e s u l t s may b e p a r t l y due t o p r o c e d u r a l  f e r e n c e s as w e l l as t o t h e v a r i o u s investigators. the  mal  with  purposes of d i f f e r e n t  system i t s e l f  other autonomic s t r u c t u r e s .  fibers,  the cardiac  system i s innervated  e r a t i o n i s a function of vagal i s regulated  an increase  Cardiac  Heart rate  mediated response.  tion i s p o s i t i v e l y correlated with that  by b o t h  However,  accelera-  r e s p i r a t i o n a m p l i t u d e so  i n HR may o c c u r ( a s a f u n c t i o n o f r e s p i r a -  Furthermore, cardiac decrease i n vagal  discharge.  a c c e l e r a t i o n may r e f l e c t a momentary  r e s t r a i n t with  This  means f i r s t ,  t i o n i n g paradigms t h e only thetic activity  activi-  acceleration  t o r y c h a n g e s ) i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t SNS  involvement.  sym-  decel-  i n h i b i t i o n , and vagal  b y PNS i n n e r v a t i o n .  is a sympathetically  electroder-  by s y m p a t h e t i c  p a t h e t i c a n d p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c (PNS) f i b e r s .  ty  and i t s i n t e r -  While  mechanisms a r e e x c l u s i v e l y i n n e r v a t e d  (SNS)  dif-  A n a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f v a r i a b i l i t y may b e  complexity of the cardiac  actions  Some o f t h e  little that  possible  i s acceleration.  o r no s y m p a t h e t i c  i n classical cardiac  condi-  i n d e x o f sympa-  Secondly, i n order t o  assume SNS i n v o l v e m e n t i n HR a c c e l e r a t i o n , r e s p i r a t o r y a n d vagal  influences  must b e c o n t r o l l e d .  Recent e m p i r i c a l 1964;  Obrist  findings  (Wood, 1 9 6 3 ; Wood a n d O b r i s t ,  e t a l , 1965) i n d i c a t e t h a t  under t h e usual  101 classical  c o n d i t i o n i n g procedures the only  CR i s d e c e l e r a t i o n .  This  e t i c a l l y mediated response  ( a c c e l e r a t i o n ) w o u l d be e x p e c t e d  a n o x i o u s o r p a i n f u l UCS.  cording  t o e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by O b r i s t conventional  sympathetic cardiac  cardiac  i s t h e c a s e e v e n when a s y m p a t h -  as w i t h  that with  possible  classical  activity  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s , a c et a l (1965), i s  conditioning  procedures  i s masked by v a g a l  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s found t h a t c o n d i t i o n e d  inhibition.  sympathetic  d i a c a c t i v i t y was c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t e d o n l y w i t h a v e r y t e n s e UCS ( s h o c k ) , blocked.  a n d t h e n o n l y when v a g a l  I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l  observed i n c l a s s i c a l and  high  vagal for  intensity  restraint  this  conditioning  shock, r e f l e c t s  and  p e a k e d much e a r l i e r  sympathetically blockade.  acceleration  studies with  intact  a c c e l e r a t i o n had a shorter i n t h e CS-UCS i n t e r v a l  The b a s i s i n their  latency  than d i d the  mediated a c c e l e r a t i o n observed with  Moreover, the i n i t i a l ,  t i o n was f o u n d t o b e p o s i t i v e l y  vagus  a momentary d e c r e a s e i n  b y O b r i s t e t a l ( 1 9 6 5 ) was t h a t  experiment the i n i t i a l  in-  i n n e r v a t i o n was  rather than a sympathetic e f f e c t .  conclusion  car-  short-latency  correlated with  vagal  accelerarespiration  w h e r e a s no c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e l a t e r  acceler-  a t i o n and r e s p i r a t i o n amplitude.  deceler-  a t i o n as a p o s s i b l e If  This  leaves  only  CR.  the cardiac r e s u l t s of the present experiment a r e  i n t e r p r e t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o u t l i n e d a b o v e i t seems unlikely  t h a t t h e changes observed d u r i n g  t h e CS-UCS  102 i n t e r v a l were m a n i f e s t a t i o n s activity.  Inspection  of sympathetically  of Figure  mediated  8 i n d i c a t e s that the only  g r o u p w h i c h showed a n y e v i d e n c e o f a c c e l e r a t i o n was G r o u p S during  t h e reward c o n d i t i o n i n g procedure.  This  does  n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t SNS m e d i a t e d c a r d i a c a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d - t h a t SNS a c t i v i t y  was p r e s e n t  the  a c c e l e r a t o r y UCR t o s h o c k  any  conditioned  curred  l a t e i n t h e CS-UCS i n t e r v a l  masked by t h e d o m i n a n t v a g a l is  was n o t  i s i n d i c a t e d by  (Figure 9 ) .  sympathetic a c t i v i t y  ngtr^  I t means  present  that  would have o c -  and would have been  response.  Therefore,  since i t  g e n e r a l l y a s s u m e d t h a t t h e a u t o n o m i c c o r r e l a t e s o f emo-  tional there  s t a t e s such as f e a r a r e s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be a n y n e c e s s a r y  the present  electrodermal  that psychopathic  conflict  between  a n d c a r d i a c f i n d i n g s as they  t a i n t o d e f e n s e c o n d i t i o n i n g i n G r o u p P. thesis,  mediated  The p r i m a r y  S s do n o t r e a d i l y  acquire  perhypo-  condi-  t i o n e d f e a r r e s p o n s e s , i s n o t c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e c a r d i a c conditioning results. priateness emotional The heart and  What may b e a t i s s u e i s t h e a p p r o -  o f c a r d i a c measures as c o r r e l a t e s o f c o n d i t i o n e d responses.  activities  r a t e , blood  of t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system  pressure,  blood  include  volume and s t r o k e  volume,  because o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s e f u n c t i o n s i t  is d i f f i c u l t conditioning. 1959;  t o know e x a c t l y t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c a r d i a c A theory  p r o p o s e d by L a c e y  (Lacey,  1956,  L a c e y , K a g a n , L a c e y a n d M o s s , 1 9 6 3 ) r e l a t e s HR  103 a c c e l e r a t i o n to stimulus sory  intake.  One  r e j e c t i o n and  problem w i t h  t h a t m a t t e r an u n r e s o l v e d is  that while  the  c a r d i a c CR  On  the  other  w a r d i n g b o t h the  and  UCR  suggested that  conditioned  inhibitory  facilitory  p o s e d by ly.  and  pleasant  stimula-  i s always r e p o r t e d  accelera-  are  as  i s pleasant  deceleratory.  or  functions  o f t h e UCS UCS  correct  they imply  e r a t i o n and  an  complex and  as y e t  The  clear.  little and  serve  deceleration  Why  pro-  respectivenoxious  reception  deceleration  I f these  of  speculations decel-  However, i n v i e w o f  time i s probably  further  specula-  unwarranted.  f o r the  differential  amplitude  m e a s u r e s o f f i n g e r v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n show t h a t G r o u p P d i t i o n e d a s w e l l o r b e t t e r t h a n d i d G r o u p NP shock and  CS-picture  trials.  crepancy between e l e c t r o d e r m a l shown by  Group P i s not  r e a s o n a b l e and  the  u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r a c t i o n s between  autonomic a c t i v i t y ,  r e s u l t s obtained  a  should  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a r d i a c  attention process.  cardiac, c o r t i c a l , t i o n at t h i s  i s not  (1968)  s i m i l a r to those  ( s h o c k ) o r enhance the  ( p i c t u r e s of nudes).  re-  Obrist  c a r d i a c d e c e l e r a t i o n may  L a c e y f o r a c c e l e r a t i o n and  have t h e s e f u n c t i o n s are  conditioning,  Thus, d e c e l e r a t i o n would s e r v e to reduce the  qualities  for  to noxious or p a i n f u l  h a n d , when t h e UCS  CR  sen-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and  paradox of c a r d i a c  t i o n i s d e c e l e r a t i o n t h e UCR tory.  this  d e c e l e r a t i o n to  W h i l e the and  on b o t h  CS-  reason f o r the  vasomotor  i s one  dis-  conditioning  r e a d i l y apparent, perhaps the  parsimonious explanation  con-  based  most on  104 functional The  differences  principal  between the  source  f o r the  two  systems.  following observations i s  Sternbach  (1966).  L i k e the  trodermal  activity  the p e r i p h e r a l b l o o d v e s s e l s i n v o l v e d i n  vasomotor a c t i v i t y  receive only  however, s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t tems.  the a c t i v i t y  ergically  At  is cholinergically  least  t r a n s m i t t e r substances  sweat g l a n d s  do n o t  SNS  produced  one  at the  participate  of t h i s  effector  sites  o f the  balance.  involved. function tory  t h a t two One  skin, The  kinds  of these  resulting  and  fact  1966).  evidence  t h a t sympathetic vasodilation  difference i s that  The  of t h i s this  the  cutan-  regulation, in  fibers  re-  suggests  the  of adrenergic substances  and  in dilation.  In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  adren-  blood distribution,  i s p r e s u m e d t o have an  i n support  sys-  i n general i n maintaining  in constriction  function resulting  direct  secretions.  i s i n v o l v e d i n temperature  g u l a t e b o t h v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n and possibility  two  are,  i n t h e mass i n n e r v a t i o n o f  i n m a i n t a i n i n g b l o o d p r e s s u r e , and  homeostatic  There  mediated  result  by m e d u l l a r y  eous v a s o m o t o r s y s t e m  the nourishment  innervation.  elec-  of the p e r i p h e r a l b l o o d v e s s e l s i s  mediated.  activity  SNS  involved i n  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  Sweat g l a n d a c t i v i t y  while  in  sweat g l a n d s  latter  inhibi-  i s however  assumption  be  excitatory  the o t h e r an There  may  no  (Sternbach,  p o i n t Darrow  has  stated: And t h e f r e q u e n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n w i t h s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v i t y and o f v a s o d i l a t i o n with parasympathetic a c t i o n i s  105 likewise often i n disregard to the f a c t s . Not o n l y do v a s o m o t o r f u n c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n many i n s t a n c e s t h e r e s u l t a n t o f a b a l ance between opposed neurohumoral i n f l u e n c e s , a c h a n g e i n e i t h e r one o f w h i c h may a l t e r the vasomotor tone, but the e x i s t e n c e of both sympathetic c h o l i n e r g i c v a s o d i l a tors ( ) and a d r e n e r g i c v a s o d i l a t o r s ( ) i s always a t h r e a t t o such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (Darrow, 1966, p . 6 ) . E l e c t r o d e r m a l and vasomotor a c t i v i t y The  differ  i n another  sense.  s w e a t g l a n d s a p p e a r t o be t h e o n l y S N S - i n n e r v a t e d e f -  fectors and  that  are insensitive to injections of adrenaline  noradrenaline  (Sternbach, 1966).  This suggests that  skin resistance  as  an  index o f autonomic a c t i v i t y  in  c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s a t y p i c a l , a n d may n o t p r o v i d e a s i m p l e  measure o f s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i o n . these differences correlate  the  t h e GSR  implication of  i s a more a p p r o p r i a t e  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e m o t i o n a l s t a t e  vasoconstriction. sults  may be t h a t  One p o s s i b l e  than i s finger  These o b s e r v a t i o n s , as w e l l  of t h i s experiment, suggest that  GSR a b o u t a c t i v i t y  i n the rest  changes a r e  as t h e r e -  generalizations  of the sympathetic  from ner-  v o u s s y s t e m may be u n w a r r a n t e d . I n summary, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e s u f f i c i e n t c o m p l e x i t y and  variability within  and between the e l e c t r o d e r m a l and  vasomotor systems t o account f o r t h e present r e s u l t s . addition,  i t i s w e l l known t h a t  various indices  of conditioning  insignificant.  Martin  ship  between s e v e r a l  the correlations are small  and  In  between  statistically  ( 1 9 6 3 ) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -  measures o f e l e c t r o d e r m a l a c t i v i t y and  106  eyelid al,  conditioning.  1952,  Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s  1953; Wenger e t a l , 1961;  reported a similar lack indices  o f autonomic  (e.g., Lacey  S t e r n b a c h , 1966)  et  have  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t  conditioning.  107 Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s This  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e d e f e n s e a n d r e -  ward c o n d i t i o n i n g The  of autonomic responses i n psychopaths.  S s w e r e drawn f r o m t h e i n m a t e p o p u l a t i o n  security (P),  p e n i t e n t i a r y and c l a s s i f i e d as p r i m a r y  t o c r i t e r i a p r o p o s e d hy C l e c k l e y  group o f c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r s possible  was i n c l u d e d  institutionalization  each group.  effects.  paired  16 t i m e s w i t h  tion.  o f nudes,  dependent v a r i a b l e s o f  These were r e c o r d e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y Differential  C S s was  pictures  i n t e r e s t w e r e t h e GSR, HR, a n d f i n g e r  R Dynograph.  conditioning  auditory  e l e c t r i c shock, w i t h The t h r e e  A  T h e r e w e r e 18 S s i n  A delayed, d i f f e r e n t i a l , c l a s s i c a l  presented alone.  chief  and Karpman.  as a c o n t r o l f o r  p a r a d i g m was u s e d i n w h i c h e a c h o f t h r e e  the  psychopaths  secondary psychopaths ( S ) , and nonpsychopaths ( N P ) ,  according  and  o f a maximum  conditioning  vasoconstric-  on a n O f f n e r Type was e x p r e s s e d a s  a m p l i t u d e o f r e s p o n s e t o a r e i n f o r c e d CS m i n u s t h e am-  p l i t u d e of response t o the unreinforced In keeping with predicted  CS.  p r e v i o u s t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h  t h a t G r o u p P w o u l d show l e s s d e f e n s e  of e l e c t r o d e r m a l , w o u l d G r o u p NP.  cardiac,  i t was  conditioning  and vasomotor responses  I n the absence o f a r e l e v a n t  than  theoretical  o r e m p i r i c a l b a s i s no p r e d i c t i o n s w e r e made a s t o t h e d i r ection of differences null  i n reward c o n d i t i o n i n g .  h y p o t h e s i s was f o r m u l a t e d w h i c h p r e d i c t e d  A no  c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s P a n d NP i n r e w a r d  simple significondi-  108 tioning  on any  The cable  f o r e was  three  (l)  of e l e c t r o d e r m a l  This  showing  the groups  significantly  significantly  UCRs t o s h o c k ; a n d  (3)  conditioning,  reward  significant  G r o u p P. t o g i v e  ORs  by Group NP.  tween groups level  ing.  I t was  t a n c e was  also  ORs,  and  smaller  lower  level  experiment.  for  of smaller no  i n conditioning  significant threshold  difference  o r shock  b e t w e e n G r o u p P and G r o u p  HR  conditions  deceleration,  i n the amplitude of vasomotor  index of e i t h e r c a r d i a c  conduc-  or vasomotor  P and NP  activity.  dif-  NP. a l l groups  and  responses.  d i f f e r e n c e between Groups  signi-  condition-  r e l a t e d to the observed  stimulus  be-  toler-  a difference i n basal  reward  NP  amplitude than those  to the d i f f e r e n c e i n defense  shown t h a t  P;  (2)  a l t h o u g h t h e t e n d e n c y was  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  significant  w i t h Group  P and  showed e v i d e n c e o f c o n d i t i o n e d  no  the  d i f f e r e n c e between Groups  detection  Under b o t h d e f e n s e and  crease  Of  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were r u l e d o u t as  contributors  ference  conditioned  T h e r e was  - hence  left  l e s s defense c o n d i t i o n i n g ;  a n d ARs  i n shock  there-  the e l e c t r o -  P and NP  s k i n c o n d u c t a n c e midway t h r o u g h t h e  in  ficant  only  having a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  no  ance  of c h i e f i n t e r e s t .  investigated  smaller  T h e r e was  given  inexpli-  excluded from f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . as  reactivity.  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between Groups  of basal  showed an group  p h y s i o l o g i c a l systems  giving  investigated.  This  P and NP  dermal  measures  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t Group N  lack  Groups  of the autonomic  an i n -  There on  was  any  109  The  GSR  findings  were i n t e r p r e t e d as  pertaining  providing  mary p s y c h o p a t h s a r e tioned  fear  indicate  there  chopaths d i f f e r  The  The  structural  functional  systems  previous  tative that  research  concerning  The  the  sions  of  differs  do  tioned  ORs;  and  shows l e s s  he  ulation. w i t h the reactive,  and  The  not  has  a  psy-  conditioning  of and  related  between the  confirm  to  physio-  may  the  hypothesis  primary  nonpsychopath, appears l e a s t i n response  he  gives  the  other  smaller  of basal  skin  reactivity  to  psychopath, t o be  the  in  priextend  r e s t r i c t e d to that  elecprimary  dimencondi-  conductance, painful  stim-  comparison  electrodermally  to p a i n f u l  ten-  conditioned  ( l ) does n o t  n o n p s y c h o p a t h on  lower l e v e l  the  be  psy-  following  shows a l s o  activity;  extends  the  i n d i c a t e that  deficit;  (2)  electrodermal  In b r i e f ,  at  primary  readily acquire  study  from the  electrodermal he  results  G r o u p P was  seem t o p e r m i t  These r e s u l t s a l s o  responses.  psychopath  i n the  pricondi-  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  findings  psychopaths  conditioning;  trodermal  evidence that  shown by  mary p s y c h o p a t h ' s c o n d i t i o n i n g reward  conditioning  differences  conditioning,  fear responses.  to  a c q u i s i t i o n of  t h i s s t u d y , w h i c h r e p l i c a t e s and  conclusions.  primary  evidence that  investigated.  r e s u l t s of  c h o p a t h y and  no  conditioning  d i f f e r e n c e between e l e c t r o d e r m a l  conditioning  The  reward  is s t i l l  cardiovascular  logical  additional  from nonpsychopaths  reward r e s p o n s e s .  and  defense  d e f i c i e n t i n the  responses.  that  to  stimulation,  hypoand  110  possibly  i n general.  nomic a c t i v i t y  To t h e e x t e n t  t h a t measures o f a u t o -  c a n be t a k e n a s c o r r e l a t e s o f e m o t i o n a l  s t a t e s t h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e GSR may be a  "purer"  o f more a d e q u a t e i n d e x o f s u c h s t a t e s t h a n e i t h e r HR o r d i gital vasoconstriction.  The GSR may be a more  i n d i c a t o r of emotional r e a c t i v i t y  i n that  appropriate  i t seems t o be  less "contaminated", or l e s s involved i n c o g n i t i v e and  homeostatic functions These c o n c l u s i o n s  than i s the cardiovascular  may o f c o u r s e be t e n a b l e  the p r e s e n t experimental  context.  I t must be  t h a t t h e r e s u l t s a r e b a s e d on samples o b t a i n e d population other  only  system. within  emphasized from the  o f a p a r t i c u l a r p e n i t e n t i a r y a n d may n o t h o l d f o r  prison populations,  to n o n i n c a r c e r a t e d  findings.  a n d may be e v e n l e s s  populations.  NC e m p h a s i z e t h i s p o s s i b l e the  activity  applicable  The r e s u l t s f o u n d f o r G r o u p  limitation  i n the generality of  ill BibliographyA l b e r t , R. S., B r i g a n t e , T. R., & C h a s e , M. T h e p s y c h o pathic personality: A content a n a l y s i s o f t h e concept. 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New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1965. Z i m n y , G. H , & M i l l e r , F. L . O r i e n t i n g a n d a d a p t i v e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r responses t o heat and c o l d . Psychophysio l o g y . 1 9 6 6 , 3, 8 1 - 9 2 . 0  Z i m n y , G. I I . , S t e r n , J . A., & F e l d , S. P. E f f e c t s o f CS a n d UCS r e l a t i o n s h i p s o n e l e c t r o d e r m a l r e s p o n s e a n d heart rate. J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, 72, 177-181.  Appendix A  Subject  Selection  Procedures  121 Selection of Subjects The S_s w e r e d r a w n f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 i n m a t e s o f t h e B.C. institution.  P e n i t e n t i a r y , a maximum  The i n i t i a l  step i n the s e l e c t i o n  security procedures  was t o o b t a i n t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s staff.  The c o n c e p t s o f p s y c h o p a t h y  ( 1 9 4 1 , 1961) and C l e c k l e y  p r o p o s e d by  clinical  Karpman  ( 1 9 5 9 , 1964) w e r e d i s c u s s e d  t h r e e members o f t h e c l i n i c a l  staff consisting  o g i s t , a p s y c h i a t r i s t and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  with  of a psychol-  officer.  Each  was r e q u e s t e d t o s u b m i t t h e names o f i n m a t e s known t o them p e r s o n a l l y a n d whom t h e y c o u l d r o u g h l y c a t e g o r i z e a s mary p s y c h o p a t h s , s e c o n d a r y p s y c h o p a t h s a n d  nonpsychopaths.  The e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d a c o l l e a g u e t h e n r e a d e a c h S's f i l e  and i n d e p e n d e n t l y checked C l e c k l e y ' s  e a c h S_.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e c h e c k l i s t  was t h e n r a t e d o n a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e . contained i n a f i l e  reports,  was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n i t e m  evaluations,  F o r most Ss t h e  custodial  assessments,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n reports, medical  s t a t e m e n t s by p o l i c e ,  records, l e t t e r s  15 i t e m s f o r  A l l the information  included psychometric data, psychological  psychiatric  potential  evaluations the S  was a p p l i c a b l e o r i n a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e S. file  pri-  a d u l t and j u v e n i l e  or other communications  criminal  b y a n d t o t h e S,  o f f i c e r ' s r e p o r t s on t h e S's i n s t i t u t i o n a l  beha-  v i o r , a n d i n some c a s e s s t a t e m e n t s made by p r o b a t i o n  offi-  cers. cipal  I f the rater f e l t criteria  c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e S met t h e p r i n -  o f p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h y he was g i v e n a  rating  122 o f one  on t h e 7 - p o i n t  the degree of primary rating  o f 2.  felt who  fell  felt  c e r t a i n was  o f 7,  and  two  t o be  one  sexuals,  drug  a b o u t whom t h e o f 6.  also  4 o r 5.  dis-  adjustment,  Excluded  i n d i v i d u a l s whose f i l e s  t h e thr.ee d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r i e s .  were  did  not  a s s i g n m e n t t o one  Subjects  f o r Group  w e r e s e l e c t e d more o r l e s s a t random f r o m a t o t a l had  rater  o f b r a i n damage, p s y c h o t i c s , homo-  a d d i c t s , and  o f f i c e r s who  none  Individuals  i n d i c a t i v e of neurotic  c o n t a i n enough i n f o r m a t i o n t o p e r m i t  todial  a  psychopathy  b e h a v i o r b u t who  w e r e a s s i g n e d r a t i n g s o f e i t h e r 3, cases  assigned  about  extremes, i n t h a t they e x h i b i t e d  v a r y i n g degrees of psychopathic  known o r s u s p e c t e d  less certain  or secondary  assigned a rating  between these  played s i g n s judged  felt  c o n f i d e n t t h a t a S met  of e i t h e r primary  given a rating  less  I f he  p s y c h o p a t h y t h e S_ was  I f the r a t e r  of the c r i t e r i a he was  scale.  of NC  o f 40  volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e  cus-  i n the  experiment. When a s u f f i c i e n t number o f i n m a t e Ss h a d b e e n s e l e c t e d in  t h e manner d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , i n d e x e s  ment w e r e c o m p u t e d f o r b o t h o f C l e c k l e y ' s 15 i t e m s . for  the 7-point  s c a l e and  In order to provide a f i n a l  f o r c e d agreement, and  computing i n t e r i t e m  b e t w e e n an  i t e m and  this  final  c o r r e l a t i o n s , and  the  a s s i g n m e n t o f a S t o one  extreme c a t e g o r i e s of  psychopathy.  agree-  f o r each  e a c h i t e m f o r e a c h S_, d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n r a t e r s  r e s o l v e d by in  of i n t e r - r a t e r  rating were  r a t i n g was  used  correlations or the  other  123 The  personality  descriptive  characteristics  i t e m s e.g.,  d e n o t e d hy  Cleckley's  l a c k of a n x i e t y , f a i l u r e  to  learn  f r o m e x p e r i e n c e e t c . , w e r e v i e w e d as b e i n g l o g i c a l l y uous v a r i a b l e s  f o r which o n l y dichotomous  able i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  s c o r e s were  P s y c h o p a t h y was  assumed t o r e p r e s e n t a c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e categorical possible  d a t a were a v a i l a b l e .  t o use the t e t r a c h o r i c  L e v , 1953)  r e l a t i o n was  also  f o r which  correlation  only  ( r t ) (Walker  to e s t i m a t e the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n  extreme  avail-  T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s made i t  i t e m s , and between an i t e m and a s s i g n m e n t t h e two  contin-  r e s t r i c t e d t o G r o u p s P a n d NP  between  o f a S t o one  categories of psychopathy.  and  of  This latter  cor-  since the r t i s  a p p l i c a b l e only to dichotomously scored data. Results A total ological  o f 104  files  were r e a d b e f o r e a c c e p t a b l e p h y s i -  r e c o r d s were s e c u r e d f o r a f i n a l  sample  o f 54 i n -  m a t e s w i t h 18 Ss i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , p r i m a r y p s y chopaths  (Group P ) , s e c o n d a r y p s y c h o p a t h s  nonpsychopaths  (Group N P ) .  r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r b e f o r e any  F o r t y - f o u r Ss w e r e l o s t  Ss who  r e c o r d was An  Of  f o r the reasons  I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note that of the 9  r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e x p e r i m e n t , 7 had  a s s i g n e d t o G r o u p P. S's  f o r one  r e c o r d s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .  t h e 60 r e c o r d s s e c u r e d , 6 w e r e r e j e c t e d s t a t e d i n T a b l e 4.  (Group S ) , and  Of t h e c u s t o d i a l  r e j e c t e d because  staff  ( G r o u p NC)  o f an i r r e g u l a r  i n d e x o f i n t e r - r a t e r agreement ( S c o t t and  been one  EKG. Wertheimer,  124 1962)  on t h e 7 - p o i n t  initial able.  s c a l e was  s a m p l e o f 50, The  a p a r t on  e x a c t l y on 32 Ss o r 70 p e r c e n t  Of t h e r e m a i n i n g  12 a n d  two  14 Ss t h e r a t e r s w e r e one  s t e p s a p a r t on  a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n r a t e r s was ment was  t a b u l a t e d and  2.  The  index of  step  agree-  cent.  e v a l u a t i o n s of C l e c k l e y ' s items  entered i n f o u r f o l d tables  i t was  were  found  that  i n many i n s t a n c e s t h e f r e q u e n c i e s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n c e l l w h i l e the remaining a few  entries.  unnecessary,  t o compute c o r r e l a t i o n  each  group.  The  agreement ranged vidual  T h i s was  results, from  done f o r e a c h  shown i n T a b l e  66 p e r c e n t t o 100  The  course degree  percen-  i t e m and  for  1, i n d i c a t e  that  per cent f o r  indi-  of agreement f o r  G r o u p P=95.7, G r o u p S=90.7 a n d G r o u p NP=96.8.  tetrachoric  mate o f t h e P e a r s o n t w e e n two  of  the  e x p r e s s e d as  i t e m s w h i l e t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e  g r o u p s was  correlation coefficient  theoretically  t h e r t p r o v i d e s an ranges  frequencies  an  esti-  continuous v a r i a b l e s f o r which U n l i k e the phi  beonly  coefficient  estimate of the p o p u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n  f r o m -1.00 (Walker  (rt),  r , i s a measure o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  dichotomous data are a v a i l a b l e .  and  coefficients  b e t w e e n r a t e r s was  tage of agreement.  one  c e l l s w e r e empty o r c o n t a i n e d o n l y  S i n c e t h i s made i t i m p o s s i b l e , and  of correspondence  of  overall  63 p e r c e n t w h i l e c h a n c e  e s t i m a t e d as b e i n g 18 p e r  When t h e r a t e r s '  an  f o u r o f whom w e r e r e j e c t e d a s u n s u i t -  r a t e r s agreed  the cases.  c o m p u t e d f o r 46 Ss o u t o f  t o 1.00  and  Lev,  r e g a r d l e s s of the 1953;  McNemar,  marginal  1962).  125 Table 1 P e r c e n t o f Agreement Between R a t e r s on S c o r i n g o f C l e c k l e y * s Items  GROUPS ITEMS  P  S  NP  MEAN  1  100  100  100  100  2  100  89  100  96  3  89  9k  83  89  k  100  78  100  93  5  100  72  9k  89  6  9k  89  9k  92  7  100  100  9k  98  8  100  100  9k  98  9  89  89  100  93  10  100  100  9k  98  11  100  66  100  89  12  100  100  100  100  13  66  89  100  85  100  9k  100  98  100  100  100  100  15  MEAN  95.7  90.7  96.8  126 The of 105  tetrachoric  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e f i n a l  e a c h o f C l e c k l e y ' s i t e m s f o r 54 S s p r o d u c e d  a matrix of  c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h v a l u e s r a n g i n g f r o m - . 9 3 t o 1.00 a s  shown i n T a b l e 2.  The c o r r e l a t i o n  53 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l w i t h P<«01. In Table  f o r 56 p a i r s  differed significantly  The r e m a i n d e r w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  2 a positive  correlation  indicates  b o t h o f a p a i r o f items t o be e i t h e r or  ratings  inapplicable  from  zero  (P>.05).  a tendency f o r  applicable  (scored l )  ( s c o r e d 0 ) , and t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o p o r t i o n  o f S s f o r whom b o t h i t e m s a r e s c o r e d e i t h e r ger the c o r r e l a t i o n . tendency  of items o r  A negative correlation  1 or 0 the larindicates  a  f o r one o f a p a i r o f i t e m s t o b e a p p l i c a b l e a n d  the o t h e r i n a p p l i c a b l e ,  and t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  Ss f o r whom one o f t h e i t e m s i s s c o r e d 1 o r t h e o t h e r s c o r e d 0 the larger  the correlation.  In order t o f a c i l i t a t e tween an i t e m and a s s i g n m e n t diagnostic  categories,  t h e computation  of the r t be-  o f t h e S t o one o f t h e f i n a l  i t was a s s u m e d t h a t G r o u p s P a n d NP  r e p r e s e n t e d t h e extremes  o f a dimension  o f psychopathy, and  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e s e two g r o u p s . r t s between each o f C l e c k l e y ' s i t e m s and assignment t o G r o u p s P o r NP a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3. range  o f a S_  The v a l u e s  f r o m -.60 t o 1.00 a n d 12 o f t h e 15 c o e f f i c i e n t s  fer significantly Table 3 a p o s i t i v e Ss  The  f r o m z e r o a t t h e .01 o r .05 l e v e l s .  difIn  c o r r e l a t i o n means t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  i n G r o u p NP f o r whom a n i t e m i s i n a p p l i c a b l e  ( s c o r e d 0)  Table 2 Tetrachoric  C o r r e l a t i o n Between Each o f C l e c k l e y s  Items Based on t h e F i n a l  1  Rating  ' ITEMS 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  1 1.00* 1.00* - . 6 8 * 1.00* 1 . 0 0 * 1.00* - . 7 0 * -.42 2  ,04  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  10 -.60  11  12  13  14  15  . 9 4 * -.52  1.00*  ,59  -.59  1.00*  ,63  -.62  .27  .04  .04  .06  - . 9 3 * 1.00* - . 6 4 * 1.00* -.72  -.13  .39  .39  .33  -.19  .95*  .86*  .96*  .97*  .91*  . 4 5 * -.28  .35  .04  .10  .55*  .19  .84*  .65*  .92*  .27  .35  ,21  .46  .94*  . 8 8 * 1.00*  .86*  . 9 5 * 1.00*  .47*  ,30  .85*  .88*  .88*  .94*  .86*  .89*  .04  .22  ,05  .48  .97*  .85*  .62*  .93*  .06  .55*  32  .50  .95*  .87*  .93*  .24  .54*  ,06  .67-  .85*  .91*  .86*  .39*  ,27  .84'  .85*  .52  .38  10  .17  -.02  .35  22  .41  .80*  ,63*  .96-  ,32  .25 22  14  *P<.01  128 Table  3  T e t r a c h o r i c C o r r e l a t i o n Between Each Item and A s s i g n m e n t o i S s t o G r o u p P a n d Grouj^ NP  ITEM  **P<.01 *P<.05  rt  1  .00  2  .00  3  -.73**  k  -.99**  5  1.00**  6  1.00**  7  1.00**  8  1.00**  9  1.00**  10  -.87**  11  1.00**  12  1.00*  13  -.60**  lk  .00  15  -.84**  129  4  Table Disposition  of Innate  Sample  Freq.  Totals  R e a s o n s f o r l o s s o r r e j e c t i o n o f Ss b e f o r e p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e c o r d s were secured Refused Transferred Paroled 12  Discharged Deported . Homosexual  4  Psychoses  1  Drug A d d i c t i o n  1  Low IQ ( e p i l e p s y )  1  Considered  1  Failed Not  dangerous  to f i t r e q u i r e d  category  11 4  needed  44  Reasons f o r r e j e c t i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l records S u b j e c t s j u d g e d t o be Instrument  psychotic  failure  E x c l u d e d a t random t h e Ns  2 to equalize  F i n a l number o f u s a b l e r e c o r d s Total  number o f f i l e s  2  read  obtained  54  54  130 exceeds t h e p r o p o r t i o n plicable  (scored  i n G r o u p P t o whom t h e i t e m i s a p -  l ) . T h u s i t e m 11 e . g . , i s a p p l i c a b l e t o  17/18 S s i n G r o u p P a n d i s i n a p p l i c a b l e t o 1 8 / 1 8 S s i n G r o u p NP. the  T h e r t b e t w e e n i t e m 11 a n d a s s i g n m e n t t o one o f  two c a t e g o r i e s  level  i s 1.00, a n d i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01  i n d i c a t i n g h i g h d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power.  c o r r e l a t i o n means t h a t  the proportion  whom a n i t e m i s a p p l i c a b l e  (scored  A negative  o f Ss i n Group P f o r  l ) exceeds t h e p r o p o r -  t i o n i n G r o u p NP f o r whom t h e i t e m i s i n a p p l i c a b l e 0). is  Item 4 e.g., i s a p p l i c a b l e  t o 18/18 J3s i n G r o u p P a n d  i n a p p l i c a b l e t o 13/18 S s i n G r o u p NP.  -.99  (scored  For item 4 r t =  ( P < . 0 l ) t h u s i n d i c a t i n g r e a s o n a b l y good  discrimina-  tion. However, that  a s i g n i f i c a n t r t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  an i t e m has d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power.  distributions  indicates  that  Inspection  the following  some h i g h a n d s i g n i f i c a n t r t s , f a i l  items,  mean of the despite  to discriminate  g r o u p s ; i t e m s 1, 2, 1 0 , 1 2 , 1 4 , a n d 1 5 .  t h e two  I t e m 12 e . g . , i s  applicable  t o 18/18 Ss i n Group P a n d t o 17/18 Ss i n Group  NP s o t h a t  i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i v e power i s n i l d e s p i t e  relation  coefficient of unity.  a  cor-  O f t h e 15 i t e m s , i t e m s 3, 4,  5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 a n d 13 d i s c r i m i n a t e  significantly  between  G r o u p s P a n d NP. Discussion Inspection  of Table 1 indicates  that  the lowest  percen-  t a g e o f i n t e r - r a t e r a g r e e m e n t o c c u r r e d o n i t e m 13 a s i t  131 a p p l i e d t o G r o u p P, a n d o n i t e m 11 a s i t a p p l i e d t o G r o u p S.  Item  13 r e f e r s t o t h e p r i m a r y p s y c h o p a t h ' s  peculiarities"  and p r o v e d t o he  r a t e f o r t h i s group. ty,  and  t h e most d i f f i c u l t  I t seems l i k e l y  t h e l o w a g r e e m e n t , was  due  i t e m i t s e l f , and t o t h e d i f f e r e n t u p o n i t by t h e r a t e r s .  "sexual  that this  item to  difficul-  to the ambiguity of the interpretations placed  I t i s of i n t e r e s t  to note i n Table  3 t h a t i t e m 13 shows o n l y m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h ment o f S s t o G r o u p s P and NP. chopath's  assign-  I t e m 11 r e f e r s t o t h e  l a c k of "response to s p e c i a l  consideration  psy-  or  k i n d n e s s " , and the low p e r c e n t a g e o f agreement between r a t e r s on t h i s  i t e m as i t a p p l i e d t o G r o u p S r e f l e c t s  the  f a c t t h a t o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s Group S p r o v e d t o be most d i f f i c u l t  to r a t e .  the  This i s further indicated i n the  l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e o f i n t e r - r a t e r agreement f o r Group S i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h G r o u p s P and NP difficulty  i s perhaps  t i o n t o G r o u p S's  felt  a s s u m e d p o s i t i o n on t h e p s y c h o p a t h i c of the c r i t e r i a  I t i s of i n t e r e s t  involved i n i t s  to note that both  t h a t t h e e a s i e s t S_ t o i d e n t i f y was  psychopath.  This  n o t s u r p r i s i n g when v i e w e d i n r e l a -  d i m e n s i o n , and i n terms selection.  a s shown i n T a b l e 1.  raters  t h e extreme  H o w e v e r , when t h e S_ a p p e a r e d  to f a l l  primary  somewhere  between the p r i m a r y and n e u r o t i c or secondary t y p e s , i d e n tification The  was  difficult.  f i n d i n g t h a t o n l y 53 p e r c e n t o f t h e  correlations  differed  significantly  interitem  from zero, taken  132 t o g e t h e r w i t h the data presented t h a t o n l y 60 p e r c e n t t h e two  of the  i n Table  items  d i s c r i m i n a t e between  extreme c a t e g o r i e s , suggests  Cleckley's  items  contribute l i t t l e  3, w h i c h shows  that certain  or nothing to the  n o s i s of psychopathy, a t l e a s t under the present procedures.  of diag-  selection  I t i s p o s s i b l e h o w e v e r t h a t more i t e m s  would  show d i s c r i m i n a t i v e p o w e r i f a l l t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e i n cluded i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n an  i t e m and  In this c h o r i c r has  a s s i g n m e n t t o one  connection  i t must be  noted  a much l a r g e r s a m p l i n g  moment r f o r t h e same s i z e N. l e s s s t a b l e than  of the c a t e g o r i e s . t h a t the  e r r o r than  the  for high correlations  extreme cuts i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  (McNemar, 1 9 6 2 ) .  over,  s i n c e no  pling  e r r o r s of high t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n s the  transformation exists  L y o n s , 1942)  first  a n d was  approximated.  p u b l i s h e d i n 1924 reproduced  by  More-  The  a suitable alternative.  formula  e r r o r i n the (Guilford  pre-  and  McNemar ( 1 9 6 2 ) .  the t e t r a c h o r i c  In addition,  How-  and  and  t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n s are l i n e a r .  considerations the t e t r a c h o r i c  normally  to  the use  r r e q u i r e s the assumptions t h a t the  tomized v a r i a b l e s are continuous  sam-  standard  ever, a search of the l i t e r a t u r e back to i960 f a i l e d t u r n up  and  f o r handling the  u s e d t o c o m p u t e an a p p r o x i m a t e s t a n d a r d s e n t s t u d y was  product  T h i s means t h a t r t i s much  r particularly  e r r o r o f t h e r t c a n o n l y be  tetra-  of  dicho-  distributed,  In view of  these  correlations presented  in  133 T a b l e s 2 and 3 should The p o s s i b i l i t y  be i n t e r p r e t e d of rater bias  t e r s were f a m i l i a r w i t h posed by C l e c k l e y  conservatively.  must b e n o t e d .  The r a -  the concepts o f psychopathy  ( 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 5 9 ) a n d Karpman ( 1 9 4 1 ,  pro-  1961).  Acceptance of the p r o p o s i t i o n that primary psychopathy i s related to a particular set or pattern traits the  could  conceivably  primary group only  in totality.  of personality  result i n the rater assigning to  t h o s e S s who d i s p l a y e d  this  pattern  One p o s s i b l e o u t c o m e o f s u c h a p r o c e d u r e  m i g h t be t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s who demonstrated  an extreme degree o f p r i m a r y psychopathy.  t h e r , acceptance o f t h e above p r o p o s i t i o n c o u l d the r a t e r i n f e r r i n g  the presence  may b e ) o f t h e t r a i t s tification. that  without s u f f i c i e n t  I f e.g., t h e a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n  jus-  indicated  i n t h e c a s e o f a p a r t i c u l a r S 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e ( o rabsent),  i n f e r r e d t h e r e m a i n d e r no g r e a t  and i f the r a t e r  h a r m w o u l d b e done  probability of h i s inference  reasonably high. the  result i n  ( o r absence as t h e case  i n question  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were p r e s e n t  the  Fur-  being  However, i f o n l y  since  w a r r a n t e d w o u l d be  a b o u t 50 p e r c e n t o f  t r a i t s were a p p l i c a b l e and t h e r a t e r were t o i n f e r t h e  balance there  would be a h i g h  probability of m i s c l a s s i f i -  cation. Thus, a l t h o u g h b o t h r a t e r s were aware o f t h e s e falls  a n d made a c o n s c i e n t i o u s  possibility  still  exists that  effort to avoid  pit-  them t h e  some S s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o n  134 the h o r d e r l i n e , were m i s c l a s s i f i e d .  Nonetheless, d e s p i t e  these drawbacks the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of the s e l e c t i o n p r o cedures c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the r e s u l t s of the major study i n d i c a t e that a r e a s o n a b l e degree of success was  a c h i e v e d i n s e p a r a t i n g the p r i s o n sample i n t o t h r e e  diagnostic categories.  Appendix B  eckley's D e s c r i p t i v e  Items  136 Your c o o p e r a t i o n i s requested for  the personality  note  conducted.  subjects Please  o f 15 d e s c r i p t i v e i t e m s  p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o those  asterisk. be  s t u d y now b e i n g  c a r e f u l l y the l i s t  paying  i n selecting  below,  items marked w i t h an  These a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a .  The l i s t  will  used t o s e l e c t t h r e e groups a c c o r d i n g t o whether o r n o t  the c r i t e r i a clearly  apply  t o them.  I n m a t e s who, i n y o u r  f i ta l l the principal c r i t e r i a  judgment,  are eligible f o r  i n c l u s i o n i n G r o u p I ; t h o s e who do n o t f i t o n e o r more o f the p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a II;  and those  are e l i g i b l e On  apply  f o r Group I I I .  the attached chart please l i s t  the top of t h e chart.  t h e names o f i n -  T h e n c h e c k e a c h name a g a i n s t e a c h o f  15 d e s c r i p t i v e i t e m s  lar  f o r i n c l u s i o n i n Group  t o whom f e w o r n o n e o f t h e c r i t e r i a  m a t e s known t o y o u . the  are eligible  d e n o t e d b y t h e n u m b e r s 1 t o 15 a t  When a n i t e m a p p l i e s  to a particu-  s u b j e c t p l a c e a c h e c k mark i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  square;  when a n i t e m d o e s n o t a p p l y l e a v e t h e s q u a r e b l a n k ; you  a r e d o u b t f u l p l a c e a q u e s t i o n mark i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  s q u a r e b u t u s e t h e q u e s t i o n mark a s s p a r i n g l y  A general  description of the sociopathic  t a k e n f r o m t h e APA D i a g n o s t i c a n d S t a t i s t i c a l is  when  as f o l l o w s :  social reaction: cial  Sociopathic Personality T h i s term  as p o s s i b l e .  personality, Manual, 1952,  Disturbance,  refers to chronically  i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a l w a y s i n t r o u b l e ,  Anti-  antiso-  profiting  137 n e i t h e r from e x p e r i e n c e nor punishment, real  loyalties  t o any p e r s o n , g r o u p , o r c o d e .  f r e q u e n t l y c a l l o u s and h e d o n i s t i c , al  and m a i n t a i n i n g They a r e  showing marked  emotion-  i m m a t u r i t y , w i t h l a c k of sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  o f judgment, and an a b i l i t y  term i n c l u d e s cases p r e v i o u s l y  c l a s s i f i e d as  psychopathic state"  ality".  d e f i n e d h e r e t h e t e r m i s more l i m i t e d ,  a s more s p e c i f i c  and  justified.  stitutional As  lack  to r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r behavior  so t h a t i t a p p e a r s w a r r a n t e d , r e a s o n a b l e , a n d The  no  "con-  "psychopathic personas  well  i n i t s application.  Criteria 1.  Average  or s u p e r i o r  intelligence.  *2.  .Free f r o m i r r a t i o n a l i t y symptoms o f p s y c h o s i s .  and o t h e r  commonly-accepted  *3.  F r e e f r o m any m a r k e d n e r v o u s n e s s o r o t h e r common symptoms o f p s y c h o n e u r o s i s .  k.  No s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "Though he may g i v e a n e a r l y i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g a most r e l i a b l e p e r s o n , i t w i l l s o o n be f o u n d t h a t he h a s no s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y whatsoever to others. Furthermore, t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r n o t he i s t o be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h h i s f a i l u r e o r h i s d i s l o y a l t y and c a l l e d t o a c c o u n t f o r i t a p p e a r s t o h a v e no e f f e c t a t a l l on h i s a t t i t u d e . "  5.  Disregard for truth. " . . . i s t o be t r u s t e d no more i n h i s accounts of the past than i n h i s promises f o r the f u t u r e or h i s statement of present i n t e n t i o n s . . . h o w e v e r . . . n o m a t t e r how v i v i d l y o r how repeatedly h i s u t t e r f a l s i t y i s demonstrated to h i m , he i s n o t c o n f o u n d e d b u t c o n t i n u e s t o e x p e c t h i s w o r k t o be r e g a r d e d a s a v e r y s e r i o u s m a t t e r . "  138 *6.  No s e n s e o f shame. " . . . d o e s n o t show t h e s l i g h t e s t evidence of h u m i l i a t i o n or r e g r e t . T h i s i s t r u e of m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o h i s p e r s o n a l and s e l f i s h p r i d e and t o e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s t h a t he avows as w e l l as t o t h e m o r a l o r h u m a n i t a r i a n m a t t e r s . "  *7.  A n t i s o c i a l behavior without apparent compunction. "He w i l l commit t h e f t , f r a u d , a n d o t h e r d e e d s f o r a s t o n i s h i n g l y s m a l l s t a k e s and u n d e r much g r e a t e r r i s k s of being d i s c o v e r e d than w i l l the o r d i n a r y scoundrel. He w i l l , i n f a c t , commit s u c h d e e d s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f any a p p a r e n t g o a l a t a l l . "  *8.  I n a b i l i t y to l e a r n from experience. "Despite h i s e x c e l l e n t r a t i o n a l poAvers he c o n t i n u e s t o show t h e most e x e r c r a b l e j u d g m e n t a b o u t a t t a i n i n g w h a t one m i g h t p r e s u m e t o be h i s e n d s . It is this w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t no p u n i s h m e n t w i l l make (him) change h i s ways."  *9.  General poverty of a f f e c t . "Vexation, s p i t e , q u i c k and l a b i l e f l a s h e s o f q u a s i a f f e c t i o n , p e e v i s h r e s e n t m e n t , s h a l l o w moods o f s e l f - p i t y , p u e r i l e a t t i t u d e s o f v a n i t y , a b s u r d and showy poses of i n d i g n a t i o n are a l l w i t h i n h i s emotional s c a l e . . . b u t mature, wholehearted anger, t r u e or .consistent i n d i g n a t i o n , honest, s o l i d g r i e f , sust a i n i n g p r i d e , deep j o y , d e s p a i r a r e n e v e r f o u n d within this scale."  *10.  Lack of genuine i n s i g h t . " I n a s p e c i a l sense (he) l a c k s i n s i g h t t o a degree seldom i f e v e r found i n other mental d i s o r d e r . He h a s a b s o l u t e l y no c a p a c i t y t o see h i m s e l f a s o t h e r s s e e him. O c c a s i o n a l l y , h o w e v e r , he w i l l p e r f u n c t o r i l y a d m i t h i m s e l f t o blame f o r e v e r y t h i n g and a n a l y z e h i s c a s e f r o m what seems a l m o s t t o be a p s y c h i a t r i c viewpoint. Y e t ( h e ) , shows n o t o n l y a d e f i c i e n c y b u t a p p a r e n t l y a t o t a l a b s e n c e o f i n s i g h t as a r e a l and moving experience."  *11.  L i t t l e r e s p o n s e t o s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o r kind-^ness. "No m a t t e r how w e l l he i s t r e a t e d . . . h e shows no r e a c t i o n o f a p p r e c i a t i o n e x c e p t s u p e r f i c i a l and t r a n s p a r e n t p r o t e s t a t i o n s . "  *12.  No  h i s t o r y of s i n c e r e attempts at s u i c i d e .  139 13.  Sex l i f e shows p e c u l i a r i t i e s , "...they regard sexual a c t i v i t y very casually. None...(seem t o h a v e ) . . . p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g s e x - c r a v i n g s even i n ( t h e ) u n c o m p l i c a t e d and p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n sense ( o f l i t e r a l p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t ) . They u s u a l l y have records of great promiscuity which i s r e a d i l y understandable i n view of t h e i r almost t o t a l l a c k of self-imposed r e s t r a i n t . "  Ih.  No s t r o n g l y a d v e r s e o r n e u r o p a t h i c h e r e d i t y ; f a m i l y background not markedly s o c i o p a t h i c or d e v i a n t .  15.  Onset of p s y c h o p a t h i c than e a r l y twenties.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s no  later  Appendix C  R e i n f o r c i n g E f f e c t s o f P i c t u r e s of Nudes on the Operant B e h a v i o r of Psychopaths  R e i n f o r c i n g E f f e c t s o f P i c t u r e s o f Nudes on t h e O p e r a n t B e h a v i o r o f P s y c h o p a t h s Several  i n v e s t i g a t o r s (e.g.,  1966;  Wood and  t o be  an  ing.  One  is  e f f e c t i v e UCS c o u l d be  i n studies  more c e r t a i n t h a t  it S.  reward  i f i t c o u l d be  increase may  be  nudes  condition-  conditioning shown t h a t  h i s r a t e of a g i v e n  i n r a t e i s f o l l o w e d by  assumed t h a t  instrumen-  the  r e s p o n s e when  a p a r t i c u l a r stimulus,  stimulus  was  r e i n f o r c i n g to  I n o t h e r words, i f p i c t u r e s of nudes c o n s t i t u t e a  ward f o r the  S i . e . , s o m e t h i n g he  will  expend e f f o r t  g a i n , he  w o u l d be  expected to increase  when t h e  increase  i n rate i s reinforced with  nudes.  To  test t h i s hypothesis  e x p e r i m e n t was  an  h i s r a t e of  operant  increase  sponse.  s t u d y was  primary psychopaths (Group S ) , and  nonpsychopaths  (Group  of  conditioning  to p r i s o n e r s  (Group P ) , s e c o n d a r y  re-  response  was  contin-  i n the r a t e of a b u t t o n - p r e s s i n g restricted  the  to  pictures  designed i n which reinforcement  g e n t u p o n an The  pic-  paradigm.  I f a S increases the  of autonomic  o f nudes were e f f e c t i v e r e i n f o r c e r s i n an  conditioning  Davis,  have found p i c t u r e s o f  i n v o l v e d i n such s t u d i e s  tures tal  O b r i s t , 1967)  L o v i b o n d , 1963;  re-  designated  psychopaths  NP).  Method Subj e c t s  (Ss) .  Of  the  30  Ss who  present study  28 h a d  served  as  Ss  tioning  experiment described  participated in  i n the  i n the  classical  preceding  the  condi-  pages.  Ten  142  Ss w e r e d r a w n more o r l e s s a t r a n d o m f r o m  each o f Groups P  a n d S h u t s i n c e G r o u p NP h a d b e e n r e d u c e d  i n numbers a s a  result of transfers to other parts of the i n s t i t u t i o n 8 of the o r i g i n a l s e l e c t i o n from  g r o u p o f 18 w e r e a v a i l a b l e ,  this  g r o u p was n o t p o s s i b l e .  bers, s e l e c t e d i n accordance previously tal  only  h e n c e random Two new mem-  with the selection  procedures  d e s c r i b e d , w e r e a d d e d t o G r o u p NP t o make a t o -  o f 10. Apparatus.  The e x p e r i m e n t  was c o n d u c t e d  room a s t h a t u s e d i n t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l non-essential  i n t h e same  experiment  equipment b e i n g removed.  with a l l  A spring-loaded  p u s h b u t t o n f a s t e n e d t o t h e s u r f a c e o f a t a b l e was w i r e d to an impulse  counter.  The e x p e r i m e n t e r ,  t h e impulse  c o u n t e r , a s i x v o l t b a t t e r y and a s l i d e p r o j e c t o r were l o cated behind  a 4x8 sheet  o f w a l l b o a r d w h i l e t h e S was s e a -  t e d a t a t a b l e c o n t a i n i n g t h e push b u t t o n on t h e o p p o s i t e side of the wallboard. board  A h o l e had been c u t i n the w a l l -  t o accommodate t h e p r o j e c t o r l e n s .  p r o j e c t e d onto always  The p i c t u r e Avas  a b l a n k w a l l p a i n t e d w h i t e , t h e room was  i n semi-darkness  a n d a n e f f o r t was made t o d i s g u i s e  the t r u e nature o f the experiment  a s much a s p o s s i b l e .  The same s e t o f p i c t u r e s t h a t w e r e u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s study were used i n t h e p r e s e n t  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and were p r e -  s e n t e d i n t h e same o r d e r . Procedure.  When t h e S_ e n t e r e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  room  he was t o l d t h a t a l l he w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o do was p r e s s  143 a b u t t o n , t h a t he w o u l d r e c e i v e no e l e c t r i c q u e s t i o n s w o u l d be asked. that every  shock,  I n a d d i t i o n , he was  t i m e he d e p r e s s e d  the counter r e g i s t e r .  t h a t he s h o u l d d e p r e s s  press t h e b u t t o n a few times  "When I s a y ' s t a r t '  him and  I t was e m p h a s i z e d  t h e b u t t o n a l l t h e way o t h e r w i s e i t  w o u l d n o t r e g i s t e r on t h e c o u n t e r .  The e x p e r i m e n t e r  informed  t h e b u t t o n a number w o u l d r e -  g i s t e r on a c o u n t e r l o c a t e d on t h e t a b l e b e h i n d t h a t he w o u l d h e a r  a n d no  He was t h e n a s k e d t o  so as t o g e t t h e " f e e l "  of i t .  t o o k h i s p l a c e a n d i n s t r u c t e d t h e S;  I want y o u t o b e g i n p r e s s i n g t h e b u t -  t o n as f a s t as y o u can and c o n t i n u e u n t i l  I say 'stop'".  The c o u n t e r was s e t t o z e r o a n d t h e S was t o l d  to start.  A f t e r 15 s e c o n d s he was t o l d t o s t o p a n d t h e c u m u l a t i v e total  a f b u t t o n p r e s s e s was r e c o r d e d .  a "maximum r a t e "  trial.  Four  such  T h i s was d e f i n e d a s  trials  were a d m i n i s t e r -  ed t o e a c h S w i t h t h e c o u n t e r b e i n g s e t t o z e r o a f t e r trial  and t h e t o t a l  per t r i a l  recorded.  A l l trials  15 s e c o n d s i n d u r a t i o n a n d t h e i n t e r t r i a l seconds.  Temporal i n t e r v a l s were t i m e d w i t h a s t o p w a t c h .  t h e S was t o l d ;  B e g i n when I s a y ' s t a r t '  I say ' s t o p ' " .  ed a s t h e o p e r a n t  trials  "From now o n y o u may p r e s s t h e b u t t o n a t  rate you wish.  until  were  i n t e r v a l was 10  F o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f o u r "maximum r a t e "  any  each  Trials  level.  and c o n t i n u e  5 t o 14 i n c l u s i v e w e r e  Beginning with t r i a l  was r e i n f o r c e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e t r i a l es i n r a t e a b o v e h i s mean o p e r a n t  rate.  defin-  15 t h e S  f o rslight  increas-  Reinforcement  ranged was  from  "minimum" t o "maximum".  Minimum r e i n f o r c e m e n t  d e f i n e d as exposing a p i c t u r e f o r t h e s h o r t e s t  t i o n of which  t h e p r o j e c t o r was c a p a b l e  (about  .5 s e c ) ,  a n d was c o n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e S's r a t e o f r e s p o n s e his if  average  trial  exceeding  o p e r a n t r a t e b y two o r t h r e e p r e s s e s .  a S's a v e r a g e  dura-  Thus,  o p e r a n t r a t e was 67 a n d i f h i s r a t e o n  15 o r on s u b s e q u e n t  mum r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  trials  was 69 he r e c e i v e d m i n i -  No r e i n f o r c e m e n t was p r o v i d e d f o r a  r a t e l e s s than operant r a t e . exposure,  Maximum r e i n f o r c e m e n t c o n s i s -  ted  o f a 10 s e c o n d  S's  r a t e e q u a l l i n g o r e x c e e d i n g h i s h i g h e s t maximum  B e t w e e n t h e s e two e x t r e m e s  a n d was c o n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e rate.  t h e amount o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t  d e l i v e r e d was r o u g h l y p r o p o r t i o n a l  t o t h e S's i n c r e a s e i n  rate of response. The  S's maximum r a t e , o b t a i n e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  t h e e x p e r i m e n t , was u s e d a s t h e u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n o f c o n d i t i o n i n g , and helped determine ment t o d e l i v e r . S's  t h e amount o f r e i n f o r c e -  I f , during the conditioning  t r i a l s , the  r a t e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f - w a y b e t w e e n h i s mean o p -  e r a n t r a t e a n d h i s maximum r a t e he r e c e i v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 p e r c e n t r e i n f o r c e m e n t .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f t h e S's  r a t e d e c r e a s e d , r e i n f o r c e m e n t was d e c r e a s e d , a n d i f h i s r a t e showed a n a b r u p t a n d m a r k e d d r o p , r e i n f o r c e m e n t was w i t h h e l d even though level.  h i s r a t e was s t i l l  above h i s o p e r a n t  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e a i m o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t was t o  s h a p e t h e S_'s r e s p o n s e  towards  a constant increase i n  145 rate u n t i l was  i t approximated  h i s maximum.  The  t e r m i n a t e d when one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  experiment  c o n d i t i o n s had  b e e n met. (A)  When t h e S's r a t e a p p r o x i m a t e d  "maximum" r a t e a n d h a d b e e n m a i n t a i n e d the l a s t  three  (B)  and  two o f  a p l a t e a u a n d seemed  unable  t o go b e y o n d i t e v e n t h o u g h i t was s t i l l  t h a n h i s "maximum" (C)  f o rat least  trials.  When t h e S r e a c h e d  or u n w i l l i n g  o r exceeded h i s  less  rate.  When 25 c o n d i t i o n i n g t r i a l s  had been  administered  t h e S had r e c e i v e d o n l y a few s c a t t e r e d r e i n f o r c e m e n t s  o r no r e i n f o r c e m e n t s In  (essentially  order to prevent,  responses  a failure to condition).  as f a r as p o s s i b l e , b i a s i n g t h e  o f f u t u r e S_s, e a c h i n d i v i d u a l was a s k e d  d i s c u s s i n g t h e experiment same r e a s o n  w i t h other inmates.  no s y s t e m a t i c a t t e m p t  to avoid  Forthe  was made t o q u e s t i o n t h e  S as t o h i s awareness o f t h e r e s p o n s e - r e i n f o r c e m e n t  con-  tingency. Results S i n c e d i f f e r e n t S s r e q u i r e d d i f f e r e n t numbers o f trials  t o reach c r i t e r i o n ,  or until  the experiment  minated,  t h e r e s u l t s were c o n v e r t e d  (Kimble,  1961; Woodworth and S c h l o s b e r g ,  1954) i n o r d e r t o The t o t a l  of t r i a l s  operant  administered to a S including  "maximum r a t e "  trials,  ter-  to Vincent units  p r o v i d e a common b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n .  not  was  number  t r i a l s but  was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x t e e n t h s ,  146 thus p r o v i d i n g rate"  16 e q u a l u n i t s f o r e a c h S.  t r i a l s were a l s o  dependently  o f operant  a S received  32 t r i a l s  converted to Vincent units but i n and c o n d i t i o n i n g exclusive  b a s e u n i t was 32/16=2 t r i a l s . highest his  "maximum r a t e " t r i a l s  response  expressed first  trials.  Thus, i f  o f "maximum" t r i a l s h i s  T h i s meant t h a t h i s two were t a k e n as an e s t i m a t e o f  c a p a b i l i t y , a n d e a c h o f h i s 16 b a s e u n i t s was  as a percentage  o f h i s "maximum" r a t e .  f i v e u n i t s were d e s i g n a t e d o p e r a n t  remaining  The "maximum  level,  The and t h e  e l e v e n u n i t s were d e s i g n a t e d c o n d i t i o n i n g  level.  Because o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n t o V i n c e n t u n i t s , u n i t 5  compri-  ses d a t a from both operant  and c o n d i t i o n i n g  trials for  some S s . In, o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e from  whether t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g  differed  significantly  the operant  ant r a t e  (the f i r s t 5 units)  with  factor.  r a t e t h e mean  A n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was t h e n  i n Table  1, show t h a t  5  These were d e s i g n a t e d t h e  L e v e l s and Groups as t h e two f a c t o r s .  presented  oper-  a n d t h e mean o f t h e l a s t  u n i t s w e r e o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h S. levels  rate  computed  The r e s u l t s ,  the Levels d i f f e r e d  sig-  n i f i c a n t l y w h i l e t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n G r o u p s a n d no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n . Groups i n c r e a s e d  t h e i r rate  above t h e i r o p e r a n t with pictures u r e 1.  This indicates that a l l  o f response  significantly  l e v e l as a f u n c t i o n o f reinforcement  o f nudes.  These r e s u l t s a r e p l o t t e d i n F i g -  The number o f S s i n e a c h g r o u p f a l l i n g  i n each of  147 Table 1 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on D i f f e r e n c e i n Response R a t e s Between F i r s t F i v e Operant L e v e l s and L a s t F i v e R e i n f o r c e d L e v e l s f o r G r o u p s P, S a n d NP  Source  df  SS  MS  F  Groups  349.93  174.97  .37  Levels  9647.00  9647.00  20.40  Levels x Groups  1459.00  729.51  1.54  427.86  Error  54  25534.00  Total  59  36990.00  .001  .22  50 Ot  6  JL  Base U n i t s Operant  JL  8  10  12  i n 16ths  Rate  Fig.l. Increase i n rate of a button-pressing r e i n f o r c e m e n t w i t h p i c t u r e s o f nudes.  Reinforced  14 Rate  r e s p o n s e as a f u n c t i o n o f  16  149 the  termination  of the small  categories  i s shown i n T a b l e 2.  expected frequencies  i n a p p l i c a b l e to these data, the Groups d i f f e r e d ous c a t e g o r i e s .  Because  the c h i square t e s t  was  h o w e v e r , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t  significantly  with respect  The mean n u m b e r o f t r i a l s  to the v a r i -  f o r each group  was, G r o u p P=22.3, G r o u p S=27.5, a n d G r o u p NP=26.0.  The  means f o r G r o u p s S a n d NP w e r e i n f l a t e d b y one S i n e a c h g r o u p who  r e q u i r e d 43 a n d 41 t r i a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Discussion  The r e s u l t s c o n f i r m w i t h i n the present  the hypothesis  experimental  c o n s t i t u t e d a reward stimulus spection of Figure  context,  that, at least p i c t u r e s o f nudes  f o r primary psychopaths.  In-  1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t Group P i n c r e a s e d i t s  r a t e of response e a r l i e r i n t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g s e r i e s , and reached a higher o r NP a l t h o u g h ever,  level  o f r e s p o n d i n g t h a n e i t h e r Groups S  t h e d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  How-  n o t a l l Ss r e s p o n d e d i n t h i s manner - t h u s one jS i n  G r o u p P, t h r e e condition.  i n G r o u p S, a n d two i n G r o u p NP  f a i l e d to  These f i n d i n g s a r e i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e  r e s u l t s o f some p r e v i o u s 1964; S c h a c t e r  studies  ( L y k k e n , 1957;  Schoenherr,  a n d L a t a n e , 1964) o f i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n psychopaths i n v o l v i n g p a i n f u l reinforcement. the r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h tioning  reinforcers  >  and  ( B l a y l o c k , 1960; B r y a n a n d K a p c h e ,  B e r n a r d and Eisenraan,  However,  studies of verbal  i n psychopaths i n v o l v i n g both s o c i a l  1967, and o f n o n v e r b a l  learning  condinon-social  1967;  conditioning  150 Table  2  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ss i n e a c h o f Termination Categories  the  Groups  Termination Categories  P  S  NP  A  3  h  k  B  6  3  k  C  1  3  2  151 with verbal r e i n f o r c e r s  (Persons and Bruning, 1966).  Ta-  ken together these r e s u l t s p r o v i d e support f o r the hypot h e s i s (Hare, 1969) performance  that the psychopath's  relatively  on c e r t a i n types of l e a r n i n g t a s k s may  poor  be r e -  l a t e d to m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s e.g., l a c k o f p r o p e r i n c e n t i v e r a t h e r than a l e a r n i n g d e f i c i t per se.  

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