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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Expressed interest and participation in adult education. Jackson, Renee Phyllis 1970

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EXPRESSED INTEREST AND PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION  by RENEE PHYLLIS JACKSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  In the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n (Adult  We accept t h i s required  THE  Education)  t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1970  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  purposes  thesis  written  may  for  financial  is  C  L  ^  r  -  of  Columbia,  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  Date  freely  that permission  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  of  this  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  The d u a l s who  study problem was  reported interest  t o a n a l y s e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n from d a t a  by means of i n t e r v i e w s conducted North  Okanagan.  Two  not t h e r e were any dents  collected  i n a survey of r u r a l r e s i d e n t s i n the  hypotheses were t e s t e d to a s c e r t a i n whether or  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between i n t e r e s t e d  and u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents  significant  ences between i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and Data from two  respon-  with respect to socio-psychological  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and whether or not t h e r e were any  non-participants.  indivi-  hundred and  differ-  interested  t h i r t y - n i n e household  heads  were a n a l y s e d . There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between  e s t e d and u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents characteristics.  inter-  w i t h r e s p e c t t o twelve p s y c h o - s o c i a l  Of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n t e r e s t e d  respondents  s t u d i e d t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s  and  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o f o u r : i n c l u d i n g , l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g , w i f e ' s s c h o o l i n g , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and The  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study  i n g e d u c a t i o n was  living.  i n d i c a t e d that i n t e r e s t  h i g h e r f o r younger respondents,  y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g and school.  l e v e l of  in continu-  f o r those w i t h more  those whose wives had completed more y e a r s  Respondents who  expressed  interest  t r a i n i n g had a h i g h e r l e v e l of l i v i n g  index and  were more a c t i v e i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  ii  i n f u r t h e r education  of or  a h i g h e r income; they  i n adult education  courses;  they were more l i k e l y  t o have been born  i n Canada o u t s i d e of the s u r -  vey a r e a than i n the North Okanagan d i s t r i c t or i n other c o u n t r i e s . I n t e r e s t was  h i g h e r f o r farm respondents  who  had more p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s  with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension personnel. Interest who  i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n was  were more a l i e n a t e d , and those who  change.  I t was  the l a s t  three y e a r s and those who  sent  lower  for  respondents  had a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e  a l s o f o r those who had  lower  toward  had been unemployed l o n g e r i n  spent fewer y e a r s i n t h e i r  pre-  occupation. Expressed  i n t e r e s t appears  t e r i s t i c s which may  be expected  t o be one of the measurable c h a r a c -  t o a f f e c t the f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  i n d i v i d u a l s i n adult education. The ents who  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t among those  were i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g , t h o s e who  had p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses were more l i k e l y  had more s c h o o l i n g and  t h e i r wives t o have completed  s c h o o l ; were more a c t i v e l e v e l of  respond-  t o have  more y e a r s of  i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d had a h i g h e r  living. Age,  s c h o o l i n g and w i f e ' s s c h o o l i n g are important  a l l s t u d i e s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The  factors i n  i n d i c a t i o n s of  study are t h a t the k i n d s of a t t i t u d e s or a b i l i t i e s which l e a d a to  earn s o c i a l l y approved  to  participation  membership i n the community are a l s o  i n adult education.  iii  this  respondent related  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER I  vi  INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose  2  Hypotheses  2  Procedure  3  Analysis  ,  7  Limitations  8  Plan  8  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e  9  CHAPTER I I  CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH INTEREST  15  Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  17  Social Characteristics  22  Educational Factors  31  Economic F a c t o r s  37  Summary  45  CHAPTER I I I PARTICIPATION AND INTEREST  46  Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  48  Social Characteristics  52  Educational Characteristics  57  Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  59  Summary  •  iv  63  0  PAGE CHAPTER IV  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Interest  i n Continuing Education  65 65  Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  66  Social Characteristics  66  Educational Characteristics  66  Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  67  P a r t i c i p a t i o n and I n t e r e s t  68  Implications  69  BIBLIOGRAPHY  72  APPENDIX ONE  74  APPENDIX TWO  75  v  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  Hi',  12.  13.  14.  15.  LIST OF TABLES \ " " C h i Square V a l u e s F o r D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a c t o r s Between I n t e r e s t e d and Not I n t e r e s t e d Respondents  16  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by M a r i t a l S t a t u s and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  17  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Age and Interest i n Continuing Education  18  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents By Number o f C h i l d r e n and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  19  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Years i n L o c a l i t y and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  20  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by P l a c e of B i r t h and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  21  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by P r e v i o u s Residence and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  23  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by L e v e l of L i v i n g Scores and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  25  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g Education  26  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by A l i e n a t i o n Score and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  28  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by A t t i t u d e t o Change S c a l e and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  29  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by A t t i t u d e t o R u r a l L i v i n g and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  30  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years of S c h o o l i n g and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  31  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by W i f e ' s S c h o o l i n g and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n .  32  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n and I n t e r e s t i n Continuing Education  34  vi  PAGE  PAGE 16.  17.  18.  19.  20.  21.  22.  23.  24.  25.  26.  27.  28.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Farm Respondents by Number of Impersonal C o n t a c t s w i t h A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . .  35  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Farm Respondents by Number of P e r s o n a l C o n t a c t s w i t h A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  36  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by T o t a l Category and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  38  Income  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Job S a t i s f a c t i o n and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  39  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Money Received f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Products and I n t e r e s t In C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  40  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Months Worked i n 1968 and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  41  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Number of A c r e s Owned or Operated and I n t e r e s t i n Continuing Education  42  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Months Unemployed i n L a s t Three Years and I n t e r e s t i n Continuing Education  43  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Y e a r s i n P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n and I n t e r e s t i n C o n t i n u i n g Education  44  C h i Square V a l u e s f o r D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a c t o r s Between I n t e r e s t e d Respondents Who Had P a r t i c i p a t e d i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Courses and Those Who Had Not P a r t i c i p a t e d  47  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and Age  48  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and M a r i t a l S t a t u s . . . . . .  49  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and Number o f C h i l d r e n . .  50  vii  PAGE 29.  30.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and P l a c e of B i r t h  50  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and Y e a r s Resident i n  <ArS^?^ 31. 32.  33.  34.  35.  36.  37.  38.  39.  40.  41.  42.  51  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and L e v e l of L i v i n g  53  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n  53  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and A t t i t u d e t o R u r a l Living.....  55  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and A t t i t u d e t o Change..  55  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and A l i e n a t i o n  56  By  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and S c h o o l i n g . . . .  v  58  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and W i f e ' s S c h o o l i n g . . . .  59  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and T o t a l Income.  60  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and Amount Received from A g r i c u l t u r a l Products  60  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and Y e a r s i n Occupation  62  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . . . .  62  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e r e s t e d Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and Months Unemployed i n L a s t Three Years  64  viii  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Who comes t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses and why they come a r e quest i o n s important  t o those who t r y t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and  to those whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i t i s t o be concerned  communities.  assume t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a i d  A d u l t educators  w i t h the h e a l t h of  i n d i v i d u a l s e c o n o m i c a l l y by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r e m p l o y a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l l y by e n r i c h i n g t h e i r  lives.  But they a r e aware t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s seek h e l p  only when they r e c o g n i z e t h a t they need i t and when they know where t o seek i t .  I f they view e d u c a t i o n as v a l u a b l e t o s o l v e t h e i r  problems, they w i l l e n r o l l i n c o u r s e s . programs must t h e r e f o r e understand individuals i n specific  specific  Those who p r o v i d e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  how t o make them r e l e v a n t t o p a r t i c u l a r  communities.  Many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e r e are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s from n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s so i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y those who are most l i k e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e activities.  i n educational  Many of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as past s c h o o l i n g and  income l e v e l , a r e d e s c r i p t i v e of past e x p e r i e n c e they cannot be changed by any e f f o r t  and l i f e  of adult educators.  s i t u a t i o n so The s e a r c h  f o r f a c t o r s which b r i n g some i n d i v i d u a l s t o e d u c a t i o n courses More u n d e r s t a n d i n g insight  continues.  of the p e r s o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l dynamics may p r o v i d e  i n t o f a c t o r s which a r e a c c e s s i b l e t o change such as i n t e r e s t s ,  a t t i t u d e s and i n f o r m a t i o n .  /  2  I f an a d u l t educator  i s to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p with  clients  he must be seen as the source of something which i s v a l u e d by an i n d i v i dual.  The educator needs i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l h e l p him b r i n g about  this relationship. or  People who express an i n t e r e s t  t r a i n i n g may be among those who a r e most l i k e l y  pants.  i n further  t o be f u t u r e  As there i s r e s e a r c h which lends weight t o t h i s  knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n t e r e s t e d some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  education partici-  assumption,  i n d i v i d u a l s may p r o v i d e  of the m o t i v a t i o n which b r i n g s c l i e n t s t o e n r o l i n  programs.  PURPOSE  The  purpose o f t h i s study was t o a n a l y z e r u r a l household  w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t or d i s i n t e r e s t i n adult education courses.  heads  i n future participation  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r u r a l r e s i d e n t s i n  the North Okanagan area of B r i t i s h Columbia who were i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n were compared t o those not i n t e r e s t e d t o determine The  whether or not any d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the two groups.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the same i n d i v i d u a l s who r e p o r t e d an i n t e r e s t i n  c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n were a l s o a n a l y z e d they had p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n terms o f whether or not  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses  recently.  HYPOTHESES  Two n u l l hypotheses  were t e s t e d i n t h i s study as i n d i c a t e d  below. 1.  There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  differences  3  between s p e c i f i e d p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people who e x p r e s s an i n t e r e s t i n f u t u r e t i o n and those who do not r e p o r t t h a t  2.  participa-  interest.  There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s p e c i f i c p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f people who e x p r e s s i n t e r e s t and have n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n future  participation  i n the past and those who  e x p r e s s i n t e r e s t i n f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and have participated  i n the p a s t .  PROCEDURE The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s concerned w i t h a n a l y z i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n a socio-economic s u r v e y of the N o r t h Okanagan a r e a i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The s a m p l i n g procedures used i n the s t u d y a r e f u l l y r e -  p o r t e d by Verner.'''  The u n i v e r s e from which a random sample was  drawn c o n s i s t e d of the r u r a l pre-empted l o t s i n the a r e a . . The  1,099  pre-empted l o t s i n the N o r t h Okanagan a t the time o f the s u r v e y were l i s t e d according to school d i s t r i c t .  A random sample was drawn from 2  each d i s t r i c t u s i n g a t a b l e of random numbers.  The t o t a l sample o f  138 l o t s was 12.5 per c e n t of the l o t s i n each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and  Verner, Coolie. P l a n n i n g and C o n d u c t i n g a Survey: A Case Study. Ottawa: R u r a l Development B r a n c h , Department of F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, 1967. ( P r o j e c t No. 16018) K e n d a l l , M.G. and B. B a b i n g t o n Smith. T a b l e s of Random Sampling Numbers. London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951.  4  56 of the l o t s were o c c u p i e d by 260 households. completed w i t h 240 household heads.  I n t e r v i e w s were  S i x t e e n (6.2 per c e n t ) of the  household heads c o u l d not be c o n t a c t e d i n t h r e e attempts and f o u r (1.5 per c e n t ) r e f u s e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . The a r e a i n w h i c h the data were g a t h e r e d i s the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n of a v a l l e y i n the south c e n t r a l r e g i o n of B r i t i s h The  Columbia.  survey a r e a measures about 50 by 50 m i l e s and i n c l u d e s the c i t i e s  of Vernon and Kelowna and the town of Armstrong.  I t i s i n the most  h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d s e c t i o n of the i n t e r i o r w i t h 58,005 r e s i d e n t s i n  3  1966.  The Kelowna s c h o o l d i s t r i c t c o n s i s t e d of 1,100  w i t h 33,576 r e s i d e n t s i n 1966, w h i l e Vernon has 2,156 w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 20,927, and Armstrong 4  square m i l e s square m i l e s  has 88 square m i l e s and a  p o p u l a t i o n of 3,052.. Of the r u r a l household heads i n t e r v i e w e d i n the s u r v e y of the N o r t h Okanagan, 34.2  per c e n t were c l a s s i f i e d as farm and 65.8  cent were c l a s s i f i e d as non-farm.  A respondent was  classified  per as  farm i f he s o l d more than $250 w o r t h of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s r a i s e d on h i s l a n d i n 1967.  Age Group D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's P o p u l a t i o n by School D i s t r i c t s . Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , 1968. 4 V e r n e r , C o o l i e and Gary D i c k i n s o n . A Socio-Economic Survey of the N o r t h Okanagan A r e a . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r , 1969. p. 3.  5  The  a n a l y s i s of the survey data r e p o r t e d by V e r n e r and  Dickinson,  d e s c r i b e d the North Okanagan respondents  f a v o u r a b l y w i t h those  i n other r u r a l areas  as comparing  i n the p r o v i n c e i n amount  of e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g ; b e i n g i n favour of c o n t i n u e d earning their  education;  l i v i n g from a v a r i e t y of s e m i - s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d  o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h which they were f a i r l y w e l l - s a t i s f i e d ; having a socio-economic  s t a t u s which compares r e a s o n a b l y w e l l w i t h t h a t of  r e s i d e n t s i n other r u r a l  areas.  I n t e r v i e w s were c o l l e c t e d by means of an i n t e r v i e w schedule^, a d m i n i s t e r e d by t r a i n e d i n t e r v i e w e r s .  The i n t e r v i e w s were c o l l e c t e d  between May and J u l y , 1968, and took from Socio-economic  twenty t o f o r t y minutes  each.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d farm or non-farm  o c c u p a t i o n , job s a t i s f a c t i o n , number  of years  t o t a l f a m i l y income, and l e v e l of l i v i n g .  i n the present  Other  occupation,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied  were age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , years of s c h o o l i n g , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , number  of months unemployed i n the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s and  contact with a g r i c u l t u r e extension  service.  I n f o r m a t i o n about a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s was c o l l e c t e d by the survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e . by  Interest  i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n was  sought  the q u e s t i o n , "Would you l i k e t o take some k i n d of f u r t h e r educa-  t i o n or t r a i n i n g ? "  5  I b i d . , pp. 34-35, 47-48, 88.  ^Copies of the i n t e r v i e w schedule are a v a i l a b l e from the Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver.  6  A f i v e - s t e p s c a l e was  used t o measure the a t t i t u d e of respondents  toward l i v i n g i n a r u r a l r a t h e r than an urban a r e a . A s i x - i t e m s c a l e t o assess and  administered  data gathered  a t t i t u d e s toward change was  as p a r t of the survey.  i n one  of the areas  The  surveyed  showed a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of coefficient The  of  s c a l e was  constructed  constructed  using  i n 1967'.  A scalogram a n a l y s i s  .9103  a  and  consistency  .5400.^  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of respondents i n formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s  measured by Chapin's S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e .  Social  participation  i s measured by the number of memberships h e l d d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s each membership c o u n t i n g  as one  was  year,  p o i n t toward the t o t a l s c a l e s c o r e .  I n t e n s i t y of involvement i s measured by attendance at meetings, f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , committee memberships, and  the h o l d i n g of  offices. g  A higher  s c a l e score r e f l e c t s a h i g h e r r a t e of  Data were gathered  participation.  to d e s c r i b e the f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n , of  b e i n g c u t - o f f or i s o l a t e d from s o c i e t y .  A f i v e - i t e m scale constructed  9 by S r o l e  t o measure i n t e r p e r s o n a l a l i e n a t i o n was  administered.  See: L o u i s Guttman, "The B a s i s f o r Scalogram A n a l y s i s , " i n S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l Psychology i n World War I I : Volume IV, Measurement and P r e d i c t i o n . New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 1966, pp. 60-90. ^Chapin, F.S. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , J.938.  Minneapolis:  9 S r o l e , Leo. E x p l o r a t o r y Study," 1956).  " S o c i a l I n t e g r a t i o n and C e r t a i n C o r r o l a r i e s : An American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 21:709-716, (Dec.  7  A h i g h s c o r e on the s c a l e i s i n d i c a t i v e of a h i g h f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n . The  l e v e l of l i v i n g was  measured by the S e w e l l Farm F a m i l y  Socio-Economic S t a t u s S c a l e . ^  The  w h i c h e f f e c t the ease of l i v i n g :  i n d e x i s made up of items  possessed  e x t e r i o r f i n i s h of house, room-person  r a t i o , l i g h t i n g , w a t e r , r e f r i g e r a t i o n and l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s ;  ownership  of r a d i o , newspaper, t e l e p h o n e , c a r , and the church attendance  of r e s -  pondent and w i f e . F o r those respondents  who  were c a t e g o r i z e d as f a r m e r s ,  two  s c o r e s were used of p e r s o n a l and i m p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l extension personnel. ANALYSIS The to  data r e p o r t e d here compares respondents  the q u e s t i o n , "Would you  who  answered  "Yes"  l i k e t o t a k e some k i n d of f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n  or t r a i n i n g ? " , w i t h those respondents  who  answered "No".  Characteris-  t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g were compared w i t h those who were not i n t e r e s t e d , t o f i n d i f they  differed  i n o t h e r ways d e s c r i b e d by the d a t a . B i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n s were prepared and t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .01 and  .05 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e , u s i n g the c h i  square s t a t i s t i c . ' ' " *  S e w e l l , W.H. "A S h o r t Form of the Farm F a m i l y Socio-Economic S t a t u s S c a l e , " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 8:161-170, (June, 1943).  New  ^ G a r r e t , Henry E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and York: D a v i d McKay Co., I n c . , 1964, pp. 253-265.  Education.  8 The  data g i v e n by respondents who answered, "Yes", t o the q u e s t i o n ,  "Would you l i k e  t o take some k i n d  subjected t o further  o f f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g ? " was  a n a l y s i s by examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r -  t i c i p a t i o n and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . tested chi  f o r s i g n i f i c a n t differences  square  T a b u l a t i o n s were prepared and  a t the .01 and .05 l e v e l s u s i n g the  statistic.  LIMITATIONS The  findings  population studied  t o be p r e s e n t e d must be taken as r e f e r r i n g o n l y t o the although t h e r e i s reason t o suggest that  may be i n d i c a t i v e of t r e n d s i n o t h e r r u r a l areas of B r i t i s h  the f i n d i n g s Columbia.  S i n c e heads o f households were i n t e r v i e w e d , most of t h e respondents were male. I t was not p o s s i b l e  t o determine whether o r n o t the type of educa-  t i o n the respondent was i n t e r e s t e d the North Okanagan r e g i o n The ship. be  supplied  with adult  education resources.  survey method does not a l l o w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a c a u s a l  relation-  I t cannot be assumed t h a t because some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e found t o  related  to expressed i n t e r e s t that  or v i c e v e r s a . has  i swell  i n i s i n f a c t a v a i l a b l e f o r him although  I t may be t h a t  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s cause i n t e r e s t  there i s a more b a s i c  characteristic  that  a tendency t o e f f e c t both i n t e r e s t and other measurable f a c t o r s . PLAN Chapter I I p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis  i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t and p e r s o n a l , economic and e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis  exam-  social,  Chapter I I I p r e s e n t s the r e -  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n and p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of interested  participants.  9  In Chapter  IV the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study are summarized.  These  are then i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  Two  summaries  '  of the r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h y i e l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s are d i s c u s s e d by  in adult educational a c t i v i t i e s  Houle,*^  The people a c t u a l l y served (by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ) , t u r n out t o be drawn c h i e f l y or e n t i r e l y from the middle c l a s s , the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l y educated, and the p r o f e s s i o n a l or c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n , Q & h i g h income groups are more l i k e l y t o take p a r t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s than low income groups. Participation is also positively r e l a t e d to the s i z e of the community, the l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n i t , and the number of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of educational a c t i v i t y available. People w i t h c e r t a i n n a t i o n a l i t y or r e l i g i o u s backgrounds are more a c t i v e than those w i t h o t h e r backgrounds. Age i s important: the v e r y young a d u l t seldom takes p a r t , but t h e r e i s a sharp upturn i n the l a t e t w e n t i e s , a f a i r l y c o n s t a n t l e v e l of a c t i v i t y u n t i l the age of f i f t y , and a d e c l i n e a f t e r w a r d . M a r r i e d people p a r t i c i p a t e more than s i n g l e people and f a m i l i e s w i t h school-age c h i l d r e n more than f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t them. But the most u n i v e r s a l l y important f a c t o r i s s c h o o l i n g . The h i g h e r the f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n of the a d u l t , the more l i k e l y i t i s t h a t he w i l l take p a r t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The amount of s c h o o l i n g i s , i n f a c t , so s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i t u n d e r l i e s or r e i n f o r c e s many of the o t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s , such as o c c u p a t i o n , s i z e of community, l e n g t h of s t a y i n i t , and n a t i o n a l i t y and r e l i g i o u s backgrounds.  12 V e r n e r , C o o l i e and John S. Newberry, J r . "The Nature of A d u l t Participation, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . V I I I , pp. 208-222 (Summer, 1958). 1 1  13 Brunner, Edmund de S., D. S. W i l d e r , C. K i r c h n e r and J . S. Newberry, J r . An Overview of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research. Chicago: A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959. •^Houle, C y r i l 0. The of W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1961.  I n q u i r i n g Mind.  Madison:  University  10  Kaplan  agrees t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n about the above f a c t o r s  r e l a t i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , but suggested t h a t such f a c t o r s are n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . he found people who ing.  In h i s research  d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e because of a sense of not b e l o n g -  K a p l a n a l s o r e p o r t e d c l e a r p a t t e r n s of d i f f e r e n c e s of i n t e r e s t  between neighbourhoods  of h i g h e r and lower socio-economic s t a t u s ; the  h i g h e r r e p o r t i n g more i n t e r e s t i n a r t s , c r a f t s and h o b b i e s and the lower r e p o r t i n g more i n t e r e s t i n v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . There  i s c o n s i d e r a b l e b a s i s i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o s u p p o r t the  o p i n i o n t h a t i n t e r e s t i s i n d i c a t i v e of f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Loewenstein  16 and Lewis  summarize the l i t e r a t u r e which bears on  this:  T h o r n d i k e proposed t h a t i f one i n c r e a s e s i n t e r e s t , one i n c r e a s e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M a c l v e r and Page s t a t e d t h a t , 'man's i n t e r e s t s a r e those items t o which he d i r e c t s h i s a t t e n t i o n . Our own e x t e r n a l b e h a v i o r i s an e x p r e s s i o n of our own a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s . ' Dennis c o n c l u d e d t h a t the s t u d y o f human i n t e r e s t s was f o r the most p a r t the study of a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t these a c t i v i t i e s are the b e s t i n d i c a t o r of i n t e r e s t s . F u r t h e r , he i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t s v / i l l determine f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g i v e n a c t i v i t y . A c c o r d i n g t o Knox, i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e a c h o i c e between a c t i v i t i e s on' the p a r t of the participant. I f i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e a c h o i c e among a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n , then what a person does i s a good i n d e x of h i s i n t e r e s t and v i c e v e r s a .  15 K a p l a n , Abraham A. "Socio-Economic C i r c u m s t a n c e s and A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C e r t a i n C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . " Contrib u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n No. 889. New Y o r k : Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1943. 16 L o e w e n s t e i n , D.E. and S. S. L e w i s . "A Study of the Components of F u t u r e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Programs." C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y of N e b r a s k a , 1966.  11  Johnstone American to  and R i v e r a , i n a study of the e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s of  a d u l t s , were concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n of l e a r n i n g  educational behavior.  interest  They asked of the s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r study the  q u e s t i o n , "Most people have t h i n g s they'd l i k e t o l e a r n more about would l i k e t o do b e t t e r .  Is t h e r e a n y t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t you would  l i k e t o l e a r n more about, or would l i k e three per cent of t h e i r respondents The  t o l e a r n t o do b e t t e r ? "  is likely  to represent  i n t o an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program.  found an a s s o c i a t i o n between wanting h a v i n g taken a course i n the l a s t study or s a y i n g they would l i k e  t o l e a r n more and the  little  They  percentage  f i v e y e a r s or engaged i n independent  t o take another c o u r s e .  The e x i s t e n c e  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p suggested t o the authors t h a t l e a r n i n g  do r e p r e s e n t important p r e c o n d i t i o n s t o enrolment.  interests  They were not  c i e n t p r e c o n d i t i o n s , however, s i n c e o n l y o n e - t h i r d of those w i t h i n t e r e s t had p a r t i c i p a t e d  Twenty-  gave n e g a t i v e answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n .  authors suggest t h a t a n e g a t i v e response  hope of g e t t i n g the respondent  of  or  suffilearning  i n f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s i n  the l a s t f i v e y e a r s and more than o n e - t h i r d had n o t even thought  of t a k i n g  a course.  18 Kuhlen  s t a t e s t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs p a r t l y determine what  a s p e c t s of the environment are  expended and the energy  a t i o n changes as l i f e  we  respond t o , the d i r e c t i o n i n which e f f o r t s  thrown i n t o a t a s k .  He p o i n t s out t h a t  motiv-  s i t u a t i o n s change and that expressed i n t e r e s t i s  ^ J o h n s t o n e , J.W.C. and R.J. R i v e r a . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1965.  Volunteers for Learning.  ^ K u h l e n , Raymond G. " M o t i v a t i o n a l Changes D u r i n g the A d u l t Y e a r s , " i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l Backgrounds of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . R.G. Kuhlen, e d i t o r , C e n t e r f o r the Study of L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1963.  12  l i k e l y t o r e f l e c t t h e needs of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . needs may be a f f e c t e d by e x p e r i e n c e .  Kuhlen s u g g e s t s t h a t  F o r example, c u r i o u s i t y may be  d e c r e a s e d by sameness o f s t i m u l a t i o n and need t o a c h i e v e may be a f f e c t e d by c h r o n i c f a i l u r e .  He suggests t h a t achievement needs decrease  when s e c u r i t y and success a r e g a i n e d , and t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n o r s e r v i c e needs become more  important.  19 Maslow  reported  t h a t as t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs a r e s a t i s f i e d ,  needs f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n become dominant.  T h i s w o u l d l e a d us t o  e x p e c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t types o f i n t e r e s t would o p e r a t e i n i n d u c i n g 20 t i o n toward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Houle  raotiva-  - c o n c l u d e s t h a t people seek t o  s a t i s f y v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l needs by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and so can be e x p e c t e d t o e n r o l i n p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f c o u r s e s . 21 Douglah and Moss  found e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e view t h a t m o t i v -  a t i o n s h o u l d be s t u d i e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e The  variables,income,  t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s background.  s t a t u s , and number o f c h i l d r e n i n d u c e d  t o p a r t i c i p a t e among a d u l t s o f low e d u c a t i o n .  motivation  The a u t h o r s suggest t h a t  among t h e h i g h l y educated t h e p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n may be a s s o c i a t e d  with  a d e s i r e f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , such people a r e growth m o t i v a t e d r a t h e r t h a n d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d . Douglah and Moss c o n c l u d e t h a t 19 Maslow, A.H. "A Theory o f Human M o t i v a t i o n . " Psychological Review, 50, pp. 370-96, 1943. 20 H o u l e , C y r i l 0., op_. c i t . 21 Douglah, Mohammed and Gwenna Moss. " D i f f e r e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n P a t t e r n s o f A d u l t s of Low and High E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 18:247-259, (Summer, 1968).  13  the f u n c t i o n s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n are v a r i e d and a p p e a l t o i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y depending on t h e i r needs and  interests.  22 London, Wenkert and Hagstrom  a n a l y z e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t l e i s u r e s t y l e s and found t h r e e themes. F i r s t , t h e r e tended t o be a l e i s u r e s t y l e c o n s i s t i n g of membership and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h was adult education. expressed  Second, t h e r e was  a s t y l e of broad l e i s u r e  by the p u r s u i t of a l a r g e number and v a r i e t y of  tional activities. education.  congenial to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  T h i s a l s o was  interest,  non-organiza-  congenial to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult  T h i r d , they found t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made w i t h  r e s p e c t t o the c o n t e n t of the a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n f r e q u e n t l y .  Fre-  quent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o u t s i d e the immediate f a m i l y or neighbourhood or immediate work s i t u a t i o n ,  and  a c t i v e engagement i n s p o r t s tended t o be h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education.  In c o n t r a s t , frequent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s  s i t u a t e d i n one's immediate s u r r o u n d i n g s , f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t i o n s i n more r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l c i r c l e s , and a p a s s i v e engagement i n s p o r t s and  the  mass media t e n d t o be n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education. 23 Goard and D i c k i n s o n  e x p l o r e d a t t i t u d e s w h i c h might be  to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education.  related  They r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s have markedly d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward change. 22 London, J a c k , Robert Wenkert and W.O. Hagstrom. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s . Survey R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , P r o j e c t No. 1017. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1963, pp. 145. 23 Goard, Dean S. and Gary D i c k i n s o n . The I n f l u e n c e of E d u c a t i o n and Age on P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n R u r a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . S p e c i a l Study No. 2. Vancouver: F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968.  14  On t h e b a s i s a f f e c t i n g overt  of e x i s t i n g knowledge of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  behaviour, there i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n  factors  f o r the study of those  who express i n t e r e s t i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g .  I n t e r e s t may be a  v a r i a b l e which would l e a d t o f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e l i k e l y  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult  education.  I f as  24 Johnstone  and R i v e r a  preconditions  state, learning  i n t e r e s t s do r e p r e s e n t important  t o enrolment, we may l e a r n more about  people who are l i k e l y  t o become p a r t i c i p a n t s by f i n d i n g i f they can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l s who do not express i n t e r e s t .  I f respondents  from  grouped  accord-  i n g t o e x p r e s s e d l a c k o f i n t e r e s t are found t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from respondents interest  grouped  a c c o r d i n g t o expressed i n t e r e s t , i t i s l i k e l y  i s a r e a l f a c t o r ; t h a t our s c a l e s  something which makes a d i f f e r e n c e . who are i n t e r e s t e d studies their  respondents  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n may p r o v i d e the b a s i s  f o r further  add t o the a b i l i t y  clientele.  Johnstone  and q u e s t i o n s a r e measuring  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g about  and u l t i m a t e l y  24  that  and R i v e r a ,  op_. c i t .  of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t o reach  /  CHAPTER I I  CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH INTEREST  A number of f a c t o r s were found t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between respondents interested  i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g and respondents who were not  i n t e r e s t e d or undecided.  Data r e g a r d i n g c e r t a i n socio-economic  i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d from each respondent to  character-  i n the survey and are used here  compare the two groups. A summary of the f a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the i n t e r e s t e d  and the u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents statistic  i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1.  i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l f o r two  p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , age and p l a c e of b i r t h . teristics, to All  The c h i square  l e v e l of l i v i n g ,  Of the s o c i a l c h a r a c -  s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n and a t t i t u d e  change d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between i n t e r e s t e d and u n i n t e r e s t e d  respondents.  of the e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g ,  w i f e ' s s c h o o l i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the two groups of respondents.  Less than h a l f of the economic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between respondents and u n i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . in  the l a s t  interested  T o t a l income, months unemployed  t h r e e y e a r s , and the y e a r s worked i n the present o c c u p a t i o n  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the groups at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  15  16  TABLE I CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORS BETWEEN INTERESTED AND NOT INTERESTED RESPONDENTS .  Factor  Chi Square  Degrees of Freedom  Personal: M a r i t a l status Age Number o f c h i l d r e n Years i n l o c a l i t y Place of b i r t h Previous residence  1.72 34.55 4.04 10.27 12.74 1.74  1 4 5 6 5 3  NS > .05 < .01 NS >. 05 NS > .05 < .05 N S > .05  Social: Level of l i v i n g Social participation Alienation Attitude to rural living A t t i t u d e t o change  11.14 7.87 12.49 3.32 60.90  Educational: Years of schooling Wife's schooling A. E. p a r t i c i p a t i o n  22.16 12.99 16.34  4 4 1  ^.01 <.05 <".01  15.69 .00 .03  3 1 3  <r.oi NS >.05 NS >.05  9.02 1.01 7.08 16.73  3 2 4 6  <r.05  Economic: T o t a l income Farm income Months worked i n 1968 Months unemployed i n l a s t three years Job s a t i s f a c t i o n A c r e s owned o r o p e r a t e d Years i n occupation  <.05 <T.05 <.05 NS >.05 <.01  NS >.05 NS >.05 <.05  17 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS  Most of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were m a r r i e d ( T a b l e 2) w i t h 12.6 per cent of those not i n t e r e s t e d and 7.5 per cent of those who were i n t e r e s t e d b e i n g s i n g l e o r widowed, d i v o r c e d or s e p a r a t e d from t h e i r spouses.  A somewhat g r e a t e r percentage of the i n t e r e s t e d  TABLE 2 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND INTEREST IN^CONTINUING.EDUCATION  M a r i t a l Status ^  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. . %  Interested No. %_  widowed  15  12.6  9  7.5  Married  104  87.4  111  92.5  TOTALS  119  100.0  120  100.0  Single, divorced, s e p a r a t e d or  2 X  = 1.72, d . f . = 1, p>.05  respondents  (92.5)) per c e n t ) were m a r r i e d than the percentage o f the  u n i n t e r e s t e d (87.4 per c e n t ) , but the data i n d i c a t e d no tendency f o r marriage and i n t e r e s t t o v a r y t o g e t h e r . The to  d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the groups a c c o r d i n g  age was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t , showing t h a t respondents  inter-  e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n were younger than those who were not interested  (Table 3 ) .  Up t o the age o f 44, many more respondents were  18  i n t e r e s t e d (55 p e r c e n t ) , than were u n i n t e r e s t e d suggests t h a t t h e r e i n the p o p u l a t i o n as d e s i r a b l e .  i s a considerable  (36 p e r c e n t ) .  number of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s  s t u d i e d as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s known about and seen  Between the ages of 45 and 54 almost as many were u n i n -  t e r e s t e d (22.7 p e r c e n t ) as were i n t e r e s t e d (25 per c e n t ) . age of 55, 51.3 per cent were u n i n t e r e s t e d ested  This  i n continuing  t h e i r education.  A f t e r the  and 20 per c e n t were i n t e r -  Some respondents i n e v e r y age  group were i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or e d u c a t i o n and 4.2 per c e n t of the i n t e r e s t e d were over 65, thus advanced age d i d not p r e c l u d e i n terest  entirely.  TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Age  Not I n t e r e s t e d No.  15 - 34 y e a r s  10  8.4  35  29.2  35 - 44  21  17.6  31  25.8  45 - 54  27  22.7  30  25.0  55-  36  30.3  19  15.8  25  21.0  5  4.2  119  100.0  120  100.0  64  65 and over  TOTALS  X  = 34.55, d . f . = 1, p<".01  Interested No. %  19  The the  number of c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d  two groups.  d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between  I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h few c h i l d r e n were as l i k e l y  i n t e r e s t e d as they were t o be u n i n t e r e s t e d , c h i l d r e n were a l s o as l i k e l y  and i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h more  t o be i n t e r e s t e d as n o t . The d a t a p r o -  v i d e s no grounds t o suggest t h a t a l a r g e f a m i l y adult education,  t o be  lowers i n t e r e s t i n  nor t h a t i t tends t o produce a f e e l i n g of inadequacy  which i s r e f l e c t e d i n a d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r  education.  TABLE 4 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  No. of C h i l d r e n  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. %  None  14  11, .9  16  13, .3  1  11  9..3  18  15..0  2  26  21. .8  25  20, .9  3  26  21, .8  21  17. ,5  4-5  26  21, .8  30  25. ,0  16  13. .4  10  8..3  100. .0  120  100. .0  6 or more  TOTALS  X  2  ,  119  = 4.04, d . f . = 5, p>.05  S i n c e those c o u l d be expected  interested  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were younger, i t  t h a t the i n t e r e s t e d group would have l i v e d fewer  y e a r s i n the community, however, t h i s d i d not appear t o be the case.^ Some 18.5  per cent of those not i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n  had been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a l i t y f o r f i v e or fewer y e a r s , w h i l e 49.6  per cent had been t h e r e f o r twenty or more y e a r s  Of those who and 40.8  were i n t e r e s t e d , 32.5  per cent were r e l a t i v e newcomers  per cent had been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t community f o r more than  twenty y e a r s . resident  (Table 5 ) .  The  d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by number of y e a r s  i n the a r e a and  statistically  interest  i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n was  not  significant.  TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS IN LOCALITY AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Years  here  Not No.  Interested  Interested No. %  13  10.9  24  20.0  9  7.6  15  12.5  6-10  14  11.8  15  12.5  11 - 16  14  11.8  10  8.3  17  - 20  10  8.4  7  5.8  20 or more  41  34.5  34  28.4  Life  18  15.1  15  12.5  120  100.0  2 years  or l e s s  3-5  TOTALS X  2  =  10.27 , d . f . = 6,  119  ,  100.0  p>. 05  ^Verner and D i c k i n s o n , op_. c i t . P e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r i n t the c o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e was g r a n t e d and i t w i l l be found i n the appendix.  21  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the respondents a c c o r d i n g  indicated a significant  t o p l a c e of b i r t h  d i f f e r e n c e between the groups ( T a b l e 6 ) .  pondents born i n p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia other than the survey were more l i k e l y  to be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n .  Resarea  They made  up 43.7 per cent of the u n i n t e r e s t e d and 65.0 per cent of the i n t e r ested respondents, while  those born i n the survey  per cent o f the u n i n t e r e s t e d and 13.3 per cent  area made up 16.0  of the i n t e r e s t e d groups.  In a l l other c a t e g o r i e s of p l a c e of b i r t h respondents were more t o be u n i n t e r e s t e d than i n t e r e s t e d .  The data suggest t h a t people who  TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . .  P l a c e of B i r t h  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Here  19  16,.0  16  13.3  10  8.,4  17  14^2;*!  Elsewhere i n Canada  42  35..3  61  50.8  United  10  8..4  4  3.3  U n i t e d Kingdom  11  9,.2  8  6.7  Other  27  22. .7  14  11.7  TOTALS  119  100.0  120  100.0  British  X  2  Columbia  States  = 12.74, d . f . = 5, p<.05  likely  Interested No. %  22  do not move from the p l a c e of b i r t h are l e s s m o t i v a t e d t o seek improvement than are those who w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e .  do move, even i f the movement i s o n l y  People who  move from other c u l t u r e s may  v o l v e d w i t h i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g of the new  Those from elsewhere  l e s s e r change i n t h e i r environment  be i n -  c u l t u r e t o such an e x t e n t  that they do not wish t o e n r o l l i n c o u r s e s or they may where c o u r s e s are o f f e r e d .  self-  and may  not have l e a r n e d  i n Canada make a  f i n d s t i m u l a t i o n i n the  newness. The  above s u g g e s t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the data r e s p e c t i n g  previous residence (Table 7).  People who  had l i v e d elsewhere  b e f o r e coming t o t h e i r p r e s e n t community were no more l i k e l y  i n Canada t o be i n -  t e r e s t e d than u n i n t e r e s t e d . T h i s group would i n c l u d e those moving from the p l a c e of b i r t h d i r e c t l y t o North Okanagan as w e l l as those moving another time s i n c e they had l e f t t i o n of respondents  t h e i r p l a c e of b i r t h .  The  distribu-  a c c o r d i n g t o where they had l i v e d p r e v i o u s l y d i d  not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the groups  of i n t e r e s t e d and not  interested  respondents.  SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS  The  s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d i n c l u d i n g l e v e l of  living,  s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and a t t i t u d e t o change, a l l d i s c r i m i n a t e between respondents who in adult education. and r e f l e c t  were i n t e r e s t e d and those u n i n t e r e s t e d  Those are a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may  interpersonal  interaction.  affect  23  TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PREVIOUS RESIDENCE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Previous Place of Residence  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. %  Lifetime resident  17  14.3  14  11.7  B r i t i s h Columbia  42  35.3  51  42.5  Elsewhere i n Canada  44  37.0  43  35.8  16  13.4  12  10.0  119  100.0  120  100.0  U.S.,  U.K.  or  other  TOTALS X  2  = 1.74,  d . f . = 3, p>.05  The  l e v e l of l i v i n g  ease of l i v i n g : water  index i s made up of items which a f f e c t  exterior finish  of house, room-person  and r e f r i g e r a t i o n and l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s :  ratio,  the  lighting,  ownership of communi-  c a t i o n s media: r a d i o , newspaper, t e l e p h o n e ; ownership of a c a r ; and the  c h u r c h attendance of respondent and spouse.  I t i s an index of  2 socio-economic s t a t u s ,  a s s e s s i n g the p o s i t i o n of the f a m i l y i n the  eyes of the neighbours and presumably own  of the f a m i l i e s ' i d e a of t h e i r  s t a t u s or p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s . The L e v e l of L i v i n g Score f o r a l l North Okanagan respondents  2 S e w e l l , W.H. "A S h o r t Form of the Farm F a m i l y Socio-Economic S t a t u s S c a l e , " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 8:161-170, June, 1943.  24  was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  y e a r s i n present job ( r = .16), job s a t i s f a c t i o n income ( r = The  (r =  .23),  ( r = .33), and  total  .24). c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d here are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a study by 3  Douglah and Moss  i n which i t was  ward a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was respondents  concluded t h a t some m o t i v a t i o n t o -  growth r a t h e r than d e f i c i e n c y based.  i n the North Okanagan who  Those  were more s e t t l e d i n t h e i r j o b s ,  had h i g h e r incomes, possessed the conveniences  of modern l i v i n g ,  and  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r community members would appear t o be i n t e g r a t e d possess  status i n t h e i r  i n t o t h e i r community and would  likely  community.  The L e v e l of L i v i n g Score d i s c r i m i n a t e d between the two of respondents  (Table 8).  Of the e l e v e n respondents  lowest L e v e l of L i v i n g S c o r e , ten were not  receiving  groups the  interested i n futther  e d u c a t i o n and of the t h i r t e e n r e c e i v i n g 75 t o 79 p o i n t s , e i g h t were not i n t e r e s t e d .  But at the h i g h end of the L e v e l of L i v i n g S c a l e ,  n i n e t e e n respondents were i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n whereas t e n were n o t .  That  the respondents w i t h a h i g h e r l e v e l o f  s c o r e are more l i k e l y  t o be  living  i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n i s con-  s i s t e n t w i t h growth o r i e n t a t e d m o t i v a t i o n r a t h e r than w i t h a need t o overcome d e p r i v a t i o n s .  Douglah and Moss, op_. c i t .  TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY LEVEL OF LIVING SCORES AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION. .  L e v e l of L i v i n g  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  74 or l e s s  10  8.4  1  .1  75 - 79  8  6.7  5  4.3  80 - 84  20  16.8  23  19.4  85-89  27  22.7  29  24.4  90 - 94  44  37.0  43  35.9  95 o r more  10  8.4  19  15.9  119  100.0  120  100.0  TOTALS  X  2  Interested No.  = 11.14, d . f . = 5, p<.05  Respondents s c o r i n g h i g h e r i n s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n were more likely  t o be i n t e r e s t e d  i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n than respondents w i t h a  low s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e . ( T a b l e 9 ) .  Respondents w i t h a s c o r e  of z e r o i n c l u d e d 64.7 per cent o f the u n i n t e r e s t e d and 50.8 per cent of the i n t e r e s t e d .  Respondents s c o r i n g 11 or more i n c l u d e d 15.1 per  cent o f the u n i n t e r e s t e d and 30.0 per cent o f the i n t e r e s t e d dents.  respon-  26  TABLE 9 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCALE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Social Participation Scores  Not Interested No.  Interested No. %  0  77  64.7  61  50.8  1-10  24  20.2  23  19.2  11 - 20  11  9.2  22  18.3  7  5.9  14  11.7  119  100.0  120  100.0  21 and over TOTALS  X 2 = 7.87, d . f . = 3, p<.05  The relationship between interest  in adult education and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and contributing to organizations  i s relevant to the  finding of London, Wenkert and Hagstrom that a leisure style  consist-  ing of membership and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n organizations was congenial to p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education.  A style or pattern of spending l e i -  sure time i s a complicated dimension, yet further understanding of how to improve a b i l i t y to predict which people are most l i k e l y to p a r t i c i pate may be gained by consideration of such a dimension. The relationship between interest  i n adult education and s o c i a l  p a r t i c i p a t i o n suggests that organizations could be approached by adult educators with an offer of courses t a i l o r e d for their membership or to give information which would be pertinent to the solution of problems  27  which the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d i n s o l v i n g . I t i s f e l t by many a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t h a t one f u n c t i o n a d u l t educ a t i o n may s e r v e i s t o d e v e l o p b e t t e r c i t i z e n s h i p and a c c e p t a n c e o f 4  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r community problems.  T r a i n i n g i n l o g i c a l problem  s o l v i n g , group e f f e c t i v e n e s s and l e a d e r s h i p o f f e r s advantages t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s and communities. organizations  I f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e members o f  a r e more l i k e l y t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r  education  or t r a i n i n g , an approach through o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e means o f expanding a d u l t e d u c a t i o n The  clientele.  a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e was r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t i n f u r t h e r educa-  t i o n and respondents who were more a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r s o c i e t y were l e s s l i k e l y t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n  or t r a i n i n g .  As  i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 10, 31.7 per c e n t o f the i n t e r e s t e d respondents compared w i t h 16.0 per c e n t o f the u n i n t e r e s t e d of z e r o a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e .  fell  i n t o the c a t e g o r y  Respondents r e c e i v i n g a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s o f  f o u r o r f i v e made up a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f the u n i n t e r e s t e d c e n t ) t h a n o f t h e i n t e r e s t e d (17.5 per c e n t ) .  (29.4 per  The a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( r = - . 2 1 ) , and  t o t a l income ( r = - . 2 0 ) , r e v e a l i n g a tendency f o r low income, low  job s a t i s f a c t i o n and h i g h a l i e n a t i o n t o v a r y  together."*  F e s s l e r , Donald R. "Maximum F e a s i b l e P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " L e a d e r s h i p 18: Number 7, 1970.  Adult  "*The f i v e statements i n t h e a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e a r e found as Items 60 through 64 o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e i n t h e Appendix.  28  TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ALIENATION SCORE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Alienation Score  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. 7,  Interested No. %  0  19  16.0  38  31.7  1  29  24.4  33  27.5  2  18  15.1  18  15.0  3  18  15.1  10  8.3  4  20  16.8  13  10.8  5  15  12.6  8  6.7  119  100.0  120  100.0  TOTALS X  2  = 12.49, d . f . = 5, p<.05  The a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e i s c o n s t r u c t e d  t o r e f l e c t a concept o f  6  b e i n g c u t o f f from t h e w o r l d .  F e s s l e r suggests t h a t a l i e n a t i o n i s the  r e s u l t o f men b e i n g unable t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n making which a f f e c t s t h e i r l i v e s .  The presence o f a l i e n a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n  a community suggests t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s might make an approach t o i m p r o v i n g group l e a d e r s h i p i n a way t h a t leads t o members b e i n g i n volved  i n decision  making.  F e s s l e r , Donald R., op_. c i t .  The a t t i t u d e t o change s c o r e y i e l d e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  signifi-  c a n t c h i square v a l u e w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n t e r e s t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . Respondents who were more a c c e p t i n g of change were more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i t h 68.2 per cent of those  who  were n o t i n t e r e s t e d h a v i n g s c o r e s of 2, 3, o r 4, w h i l e 31.8 per c e n t o f those not i n t e r e s t e d had s c o r e s of 5, 6, o r 7.  I n c o n t r a s t , 74.8  per c e n t of those who were i n t e r e s t e d had s c o r e s of 5, 6, or 7, and 25.2 per cent had s c o r e s of 2, 3, or 4.  S i n c e l e a r n i n g b r i n g s about  TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ATTITUDE TO CHANGE SCALE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Attitude to change s c o r e  Not I n t e r e s t e d No.  2  33  30.0  3  2.5  3  21  19.1  10  8.4  4  21  19.1  17  14.3  5  20  18.2  24  20.2  6  8  7.2  29  24.4  7  7  6.4  36  30.2  110  100.0  119  100.0  TOTALS X  2  = 60.90, d . f . = 5, p<.01  Interested No.  30  change, i t was  e x p e c t e d t h a t respondents who  about change would more l i k e l y be  had  positive attitudes  i n t e r e s t e d i n education.  respondents whose acceptance of change was  low and who  ested i n f u r t h e r education  not expect t h a t  or t r a i n i n g may  Those  were i n t e r taking  f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n w i l l i n v o l v e change. The was 12).  f i f t h s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a t t i t u d e to r u r a l  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n The  t a b l e of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s shows i t t o be  r e l a t e d t o age  That people who  negatively  l i v i n g i n the  f a v o u r r u r a l r a t h e r t h a n urban l i v i n g  l i k e l y t o f e e l n e g a t i v e l y toward change may by  positively  There i s a tendency  o l d e r people or people w i t h more c h i l d r e n t o favour  country.  (Table  ( r = .14), number of c h i l d r e n ( r = .15), and  r e l a t e d t o the a t t i t u d e toward change ( r = -.25). for  living,  are  be p a r t l y accounted f o r  age.  TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ATTITUDE TO RURAL LIVING AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  A t t i t u d e to Rural L i v i n g  Not No.  Interested 7<,  Interested No. %  F a v o u r a b l e t o urban or r u r a l l i v i n g or neutral Strongly  2  17.6  33  27.5  98  82.4  87  72.5  100.0  120  100.0  favourable  to r u r a l l i v i n g  TOTALS X = 3.32,  21  119 d.f. = 1, p>.05  31  EDUCATIONAL FACTORS  Three e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s  i n c l u d i n g years of s c h o o l i n g , of  w i f e ' s s c h o o l i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n adult education  between i n t e r e s t e d and u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents.  differentiated  Those  respondents  who had fewer y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g were l e s s l i k e l y t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 13). Respondents w i t h 8 or fewer  TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Schooling  Not I n t e r e s t e d No.  5 years or l e s s  18  15.1  7  6-8  47  39.5  26  21.7  9-11  35  29.4  57  47.5 17.5  12 13 or more  TOTALS  X  2  Interested No. %  5.8  8  6.7  21  11  9.3  9  7.5  119  100.0  120  100.0  = 22.16, d . f . = 4, p<.01  y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g accounted  f o r 54.6 per cent of respondents  uninter-  e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n and 27.5 per cent of those who were i n t e r ested.  Respondents w i t h 12 or more y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g accounted f o r  32  16.0 The  per cent  of those u n i n t e r e s t e d  and 25 per cent  o f the i n t e r e s t e d .  d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by y e a r s of s c h o o l  tween the two groups was s t a t i s t i c a l l y This  f i n d i n g should  significant.  not be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h e r e  chance o f drawing i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l e s s s c h o o l i n g courses.  completed be-  is little  into adult  education  I t does mean t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s w i l l have t o f i n d how t o  communicate the f a c t t h a t some a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  c o u r s e s f i t w i t h the  i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s who have n o t r e c e i v e d much f o r m a l In f a c t , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  o f f e r s the o p p o r t u n i t y  ing which are u n l i k e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  education.  f o r many kinds  of l e a r n -  offered i n school.  TABLE 14 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY WIFE'S SCHOOLING AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Wife's Schooling  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. %  8 y r s . or l e s s  41  39.0  21  19.3  9-11  30  28.6  47  43.1  12  25  23.8  24  22.0  9  8.6  17  15.6  105  100.0  109  100.0  13  or more  TOTALS  X  2  = 12.6, d . f . = 3, p<.01  33  The  spouse's s c h o o l i n g c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h  s c h o o l i n g ( r = .45) and was a l s o r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t Table  14 i l l u s t r a t e s  t h a t respondents  respondents  i n education.  whose spouses had 8 or fewer y e a r s  of s c h o o l i n g i n c l u d e d 39 per cent of those u n i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r c a t i o n and 19.3 per cent of those  interested.  edu-  Respondents whose spouses  had  12 or more y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g i n c l u d e d 32.4 per cent of u n i n t e r e s t e d  and  37.6 per cent o f i n t e r e s t e d respondents.  The d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s -  t r i b u t i o n by spouse's s c h o o l i n g between the two groups of was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  respondents  significant.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s c h o o l i n g or w i t h spouse's s c h o o l i n g i n the a r e a s t u d i e d . gathered  correlated In d a t a  i n other r u r a l areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia^ p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l i n g and w i f e ' s schooling.  However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d i s c r i m i n a t e d  between i n t e r e s t e d and u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents istically  significant  courses accounted  level.  Those who had taken no a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  f o r 89.1 per cent o f the u n i n t e r e s t e d and 67.5 per  cent o f the i n t e r e s t e d r e s p o n d e n t s . a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses accounted  i n t e r v i e w schedules  Those who had taken one or more  f o r 10.9 per cent of the u n i n t e r e s t e d  and 32.5 per cent of the i n t e r e s t e d The  ( T a b l e 15) at a s t a t -  respondents.  of farm respondents  were examined t o  a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount o f c o n t a c t w i t h t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and i n t e r e s t  i n adult education.  7 Goard and D i c k i n s o n , op_. c i t . , p. 9.  Of those  agricul-  farmers  34  TABLE 15 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPATION AND.INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION .  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Adult Education Participation  None  106  89.1  81  67.5  13  10.9  39  32.5  119  100.0  120  100.0  One o r more courses  TOTALS  X  2  Interested No. %  = 16.34, d . f . = 1, p<.01  who were i n t e r e s t e d , 67.5 per cent had taken no c o u r s e s .  This reveals  that i n t e r e s t  enrolment.  The  i s not a s u f f i c i e n t  p r e r e q u i s i t e t o ensure  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of respondents who were i n t e r e s t e d but d i d n o t e n r o l l  suggests the f o c a l p o i n t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These respondents  are informed of the advantages of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and  p e r c e i v e p o t e n t i a l need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  This finding  i s s i m i l a r t o that of Johnstone  and R i v i e r a  of those who e x p r e s s e d  i n e d u c a t i o n had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c o u r s e s .  interest  Farm respondents were asked  who r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e - t h i r d  the number of impersonal c o n t a c t s  they had i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l  9  through r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , newspaper or m a i l i n g s .  ^Johnstone  Respondents who were  and R i v e r a , op_. c i t .  9 The  statements  of impersonal and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t are found as  Item 58 i n the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , page 16.  (See Appendix 2 ) .  35  not  i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g had as many  c o n t a c t s as had those respondents 41.4  impersonal  who were i n t e r e s t e d (Table 16). Some  per cent of the u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents  per cent o f i n t e r e s t e d respondents  had 5 c o n t a c t s and 57.5  had 5 c o n t a c t s .  TABLE 16 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF IMPERSONAL CONTACTS WITH AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Number of Contacts  Interested No. %  0-2  9  22.0  7  17.5  3-4  15  36.6  10  25.0  5  17  41.4  23  57.5  TOTALS  41  100.0  40  100.0  X  2  = 2.14, d . f . = 2, p>.05  Respondents who are i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h s o n n e l through  a g r i c u l t u r a l extension  per-  a t t e n d i n g meetings, v i s i t i n g and b e i n g v i s i t e d by p e r -  s o n n e l and speaking  t o them on the telephone  per cent of the u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents  ( T a b l e 17). Thus, 61  had no p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s and  25 per cent of the i n t e r e s t e d had no c o n t a c t s .  Of those  respondents  36  TABLE 17 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF PERSONAL CONTACTS WITH ..AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING.EDUCATION  Number of Contacts  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. %  0  25  61.0  10  25.0  1-2  9  22.0  5  12.5  3 - 7  3  7.3  15  37.5  8 - 9  4  9.7  10  25.0  41  100.0  40  100.0  TOTALS  X  2  = 18.12, d . f . = 3, p<.01  who were not i n t e r e s t e d 17 per cent had more than 2 c o n t a c t s compared w i t h 25 per cent of those who were i n t e r e s t e d and had more than 2 con tacts. There i s a c l e a r tendency  for interest  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and  .10 p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n t o v a r y t o g e t h e r . Akinbode's work i s r e l e v a n t t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g .  He r e p o r t e d t h a t  farmers w i t h more y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g , more a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and h i g h e r socio-economic w i t h the D i s t r i c t  s t a t u s had more p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s  Agriculturalist.  Akinbode, I.A. The R e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and T h e i r C o n t a c t s w i t h . District Agriculturalists. U n p u b l i s h e d M. S c . T h e s i s , Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969, p. 113.  37  If  interest  i s evidence  then we would expect  of p e r c e i v e d need s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n t e r e s t e d respondents  potential,  t o seek e d u c a t i o n  from  a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i f they see i t as a source of e d u c a t i o n or training. The  T h i s cannot  be c o n f i r m e d from the data p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n .  r e s u l t s are e q u a l l y w e l l understood  farmers  by c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t those  c o n t a c t e d by the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n agents  are more  inter-  a significant  factor  e s t e d as a r e s u l t of e x p e r i e n c i n g p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t .  ECONOMIC FACTORS  The  t o t a l f a m i l y income of respondents  influencing interest  was  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w i t h those i n the h i g h e r i n -  come c a t e g o r i e s more l i k e l y t o want f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g those  i n the low  income groups.  of the i n t e r e s t e d respondents  As T a b l e  18 i l l u s t r a t e s , 48.7  as a g a i n s t 23.9  The  income c a t e g o r y of l e s s than $3,000 per year c o n t a i n e d 17.4 i n t e r e s t e d compared t o 24.8  f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g .  lowest per c e n t of  per cent of those not i n t e r e s t e d i n  The  t o t a l f a m i l y income between the two ally  per cent  per cent of those not i n -  t e r e s t e d r e p o r t e d incomes of more than $6,000 per y e a r .  those  than  d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n groups of respondents  was  by  statistic-  significant. F a c t o r s other than i n t e r e s t  i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n were  i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t o t a l f a m i l y income. c o r r e l a t i o n s between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and  There were s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of l i v i n g  (r =  signifpositive .33),  and between the former c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and number of y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t  38  TABLE 18 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY TOTAL INCOME CATEGORY AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Total  Income  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. 7o  Less than $3,000  28  24.8  20  17.4  $3,000 t o $5,999  58  51.3  39  33.9  $6,000 t o $8,999  16  14.2  38  33.0  $9,000 or more  11  9.7  18  15.7  113  100.0  115  100.0  TOTALS  X  2  job  - 15.69, d . f . = 3, p<.01  ( r = .15), but j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d  alienation job  ( r = -.21).  experience  Thus, j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n tended  and l e v e l of l i v i n g of lower  t o i n c r e a s e as  i n c r e a s e d , but a h i g h e r l e v e l of  alienation  was i n d i c a t i v e  indicates,  t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  job s a t i s f a c t i o n . significant  As T a b l e 19  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  d i s t r i b u t i o n by j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n between those respondents interested  and those not i n t e r e s t e d  the respondents  who were  i n continuing education.  i n both groups were e i t h e r  with t h e i r present jobs.  with  Most of  s a t i s f i e d or v e r y s a t i s f i e d  39  TABLE 19 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY JOB SATISFACTION AND. INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . .  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. %  Very d i s s a t i s f i e d , d i s s a t i s f i e d or neutral  1153  14.9  18  15.4  Satisfied  54  53.5  55  47.0  Very s a t i s f i e d  32  31.7  44  37.6  101  100.0  117  100.0  TOTALS  X  2  = 1.01, d . f . = 2, p>.05  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents a c c o r d i n g t o the amount of  money r e c e i v e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e between the i n t e r e s t e d and u n i n t e r e s t e d groups  (Table 20).  Of respondents  e a r n i n g l e s s than $250 a y e a r f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , as many were u n i n t e r e s t e d (66.4 per c e n t ) as i n t e r e s t e d (66.7 per cent) i n f u r t h e r education.  Among the farm respondents were 33.6 per cent of the u n i n -  t e r e s t e d and 33.3 per c e n t of the i n t e r e s t e d . r u r a l farm household heads were l e s s l i k e l y e d u c a t i o n than the non-farm heads.  Goard*'*' found t h a t the  to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n adult  S i n c e i t appears t h a t they are as  i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g , i t may be t h a t farmers simply have more c a l l on t h e i r time than do non-farmers.  ^ G o a r d , Dean S., op_. c i t . , p. 30.  TABLE 20 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MONEY RECEIVED FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Amount R e c e i v e d f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Products  Not No.  Less than $250  79  66.4  80  66.7  More than $250  40  33.6  40  33.3  119  100.0  120  100.0  TOTALS  X  2  Interested %  Interested No. %  = .002, d . f . = 1, p>.05  The number of months worked i n 1968 d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the groups.  I n d i v i d u a l s who had worked 6 months or l e s s and  those who had worked 12 months, were n e i t h e r more nor l e s s l i k e l y t o be  i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g ( T a b l e  21).  In each  c a t e g o r y of respondents by months worked i n 1968 the percentages of i n t e r e s t e d and u n i n t e r e s t e d  respondents were s i m i l a r .  Thus,  respond-  ents who had months i n which they were not working were not drawn t o adult education e i t h e r to increase their  leisure.  their employability  or t o e n r i c h  TABLE 21 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MONTHS WORKED IN 1968 AND.INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION .  Months Worked 1968  1-6  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. 7.  months  Interested No. %  7  6.9  8  6.9  9  8.9  10  8.6  10 - 11  11  10.9  12  10.3  12  74  73.3  86  74.2  101  100.0  116  100.0  7-9  TOTALS  X  2  = .03, d . f . = 3, p>.05  The  number of acres  owned or operated  d i d not y i e l d  b u t i o n which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the groups arranged to  interest  i n f u r t h e r education  (Table 22).  acre o r l e s s were somewhat more l i k e l y cent) than u n i n t e r e s t e d t r a i n i n g , although  a distri-  according  Respondents owning one  t o be i n t e r e s t e d (39.5 p e r  (27.1 per c e n t ) i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or  the d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  Respondents owning o r o p e r a t i n g  significant.  100 acres o r more were as l i k e l y t o  be u n i n t e r e s t e d (15.2 p e r c e n t ) as i n t e r e s t e d (13.4 p e r c e n t ) .  TABLE 22 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF ACRES OWNED OR OPERATED AND INTEREST . IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  A c r e s owned or operated  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. %  1 or l e s s  32  27.1  47  39.5  2-9  34  28.8  25  21.1  10 - 39  15  12.7  20  16.8  40-99  19  16.1  11  9.2  100 and over  18  15.3  16  13.4  118  100.0  119  100.0  TOTALS  X  2  = 7.08, d . f . = 4, p>.05  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents t a b u l a t e d number of months unemployed  on the b a s i s o f the  i n the l a s t t h r e e years  discriminated  between i n t e r e s t e d and u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant  level.  been unemployed  As i s seen i n T a b l e  i n the l a s t three years  23 respondents who had not i n c l u d e d 76.5 per cent of  the respondents not i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n of those i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . unemployed  and 68.3 per cent  Respondents who had been  6 months or l e s s i n c l u d e d 8.4 per cent  of the u n i n t e r e s t e d  TABLE 23 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MONTHS UNEMPLOYED IN LAST THREE YEARS AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . .  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. 7o  Months Unemployed i n l a s t 3 years  up t o 6 months  91  76.5  82  68.3  10  8.4  24  20.1  8  6.7  10  8.3  10  8.4  4  3.3  119  100.0  120  100.0  7-12 13 - 36  TOTALS  X  Interested No. 7o  = 9.02, d . f . = 3, p<.05  and 20 per cent of the i n t e r e s t e d respondents. unemployed over  13 months accounted  Those who had been  f o r 8.4 per cent of the u n i n t e r -  e s t e d and 3.3 per c e n t of the i n t e r e s t e d . It  appears  t h a t some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h f i n d i n g employment  to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n t e r e s t  i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g ,  but w i t h severe unemployment there i s a d i s i n t e r e s t t i o n or t r a i n i n g . attempt  to interest  tends  T h i s f i n d i n g suggests  i n f u r t h e r educa-  t h a t a d u l t educators  should  i n d i v i d u a l s who are newly e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y  i n f i n d i n g unemployment.  Unemployment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y  correlated with  a t t i t u d e toward change ( r = .55), which f i n d i n g may r e s u l t from the f a c t t h a t o l d e r people  s u f f e r more unemployment and do not r e p o r t a  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward change.  TABLE 24 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS IN PRESENT OCCUPATION,AND INTEREST. IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  Years Worked i n Present O c c u p a t i o n  Not I n t e r e s t e d No. %  Interested No. %  2 or l e s s  17  16.8  19  16.4  3 - 5  9  8.9  22  19.0  6-10  183  17.8  22  19.0  11 - 15  13  12.9  14  12.0  16-20  9  8.9  22  19.0  21 - 25  8.  7.9  4  3.4  27  26.7  13  11.2  101  100.0  116  100.0  26 or more  TOTALS  X  2  = 16.73, d . f . = 6, p<.05  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents  on the b a s i s of the number of  years they have worked i n t h e i r present o c c u p a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between those  i n t e r e s t e d and those not i n t e r e s t e d i n a d u l t  education  45  at  a statistically  significant  level  ( T a b l e 24).  Respondents who  worked i n t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n 21 y e a r s or more were l e s s ested i n adult education.  In two c a t e g o r i e s :  had  inter-  3 t o 5 y e a r s and  16 t o  20 y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t j o b , the number of i n t e r e s t e d respondents twice t h a t of u n i n t e r e s t e d respondents.  T h i s may  indicate that after  two  or three y e a r s i n an o c c u p a t i o n a respondent  his  environment, i f he remains i n the same o c c u p a t i o n he  to  search a g a i n t o develop h i m s e l f .  p a t i o n may  f e e l s a need t o widen i s stimulated  Thus, y e a r s i n the present  be a u s e f u l index t o mark the l i f e  was  p e r i o d s i n which  ents are most a c c e s s i b l e t o the o f f e r of f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or  occurespond-  training.  SUMMARY  The  respondents  i n t h i s study who  r e p o r t e d t h a t they were  e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g were younger and wives had more s c h o o l i n g than respondents i n t e r e s t e d or were undecided. likely had  t o have been born  Those who  who  they and  intertheir  r e p o r t e d they were not  were i n t e r e s t e d were more  i n Canada o u t s i d e of the survey a r e a , they  a h i g h e r l e v e l of l i v i n g , were more a c t i v e  in social organizations,  had a h i g h e r income and p a r t i c i p a t e d more i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The  u n i n t e r e s t e d were more l i k e l y  t o be a l i e n a t e d , t o have a  n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o change, t o have been unemployed longer i n the t h r e e y e a r s , and t o have spent fewer y e a r s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t than those who  were i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r  last  occupation  education.  CHAPTER I I I PARTICIPATION AND  The  purpose  i n d i v i d u a l s who  INTEREST  o f t h i s study o f p r o v i d i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n about  express an i n t e r e s t  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n may  by an examination of t h i s d a t a t o d i s c e r n i f those who and who  do p a r t i c i p a t e can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on any  from those who  courses.  are  Those who  interested  People  or may  have not taken c o u r s e s .  who  not have taken  are i n t e r e s t e d and have taken c o u r s e s may  d i f f e r on any o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c from those who  pursued  characteristics  are i n t e r e s t e d and do not p a r t i c i p a t e .  say they are i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n may  be  not  are i n t e r e s t e d  and  A d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s of these two groups of respondents c o u l d suggest f u r t h e r unders t a n d i n g o f the f a c t o r s which support the l i k e l i h o o d w i l l result  that  interest  in participation.  Of the respondents who  r e p o r t e d i n t e r e s t , 67.5  taken no c o u r s e , whereas the r e m a i n i n g 32.5 more c o u r s e s .  The  per cent had  per cent had taken one  f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s i s of i n t e r e s t e d  tabulated according to their p a r t i c i p a t i o n  or  respondents  i n adult education courses,  and a c c o r d i n g t o o t h e r p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l aid economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s from the i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were:  social  c i p a t i o n , l e v e l of l i v i n g , s c h o o l i n g , and w i f e ' s s c h o o l i n g . economic and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s g e n e r a l l y d i d not between the  groups. 46  interested parti-  The  differentiate  47  TABLE 25 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORS BETWEEN INTERESTED RESPONDENTS WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN ADULT EDUCATION COURSES AND THOSE WHO HAD NOT PARTICIPATED  Factor  Chi Square  Degrees o f Freedom  Personal: Age Marital status Number o f c h i l d r e n Place o f b i r t h Years r e s i d e n t i n area  5.38 .47 1.54 5.48 1.68  2 1 3 3 3  NSX05 NS>.05 NS>.05 NS>.05 NS>.05  Social: L e v e l of l i v i n g Social participation Attitude to r u r a l l i v i n g A t t i t u d e t o change Alienation  8.76 8.53 .10 6.67 3.84  3 3 1 4 4  <.05 <.05 NSX05 NS>.05 NS>.05  9.24 10.59  3 2  <.05 <.01  1.85 .17 4.60 1.60  3 1 5 2  NSX05 NSV05 NS>.05 NS>.05  Educational: Y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g Wife's schooling Economic: T o t a l income Farm income Years i n o c c u p a t i o n Job s a t i s f a c t i o n Months unemployed i n l a s t three years  5.68  NS>.05  48  PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS  Age i s not a f a c t o r which d i s c r i m i n a t e s between the i n t e r e s t e d respondents  who had and those who had not taken a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  courses.  T h i r t y - s i x per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 25.9 p e r cent o f the nonp a r t i c i p a n t s were under the age o f t h i r t y - f o u r , w h i l e 36 per cent o f the former  group and 58 p e r cent of the l a t t e r were between the ages o f  t h i r t y - f i v e and f i f t y - f o u r . over the age o f f i f t y - f i v e ,  Somewhat unexpected  28 per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 16.1  per cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were found of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o l d e r people p a r t i c i p a t e d  people p a r t i c i p a t e d more.  was the f i n d i n g t h a t  (Table 26).  In most s t u d i e s  l e s s but i n t h i s case o l d e r  These data suggest  t h a t i n the h i g h e r age  group i n t e r e s t may be more e f f e c t i v e as m o t i v a t i o n or c o n v e r s e l y t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n arouses more i n t e r e s t , although c o u l d not be  the p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  determined. TABLE 26 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND AGE  Age  Participants No. %  Non-participants No. 7o  15-34 y e a r s  14  36.0  21  25.9  35-54  14  36.0  47  58.0  55 or more  11  28.0  13  16.1  TOTALS  39  100.0  81  100.0  X  2  = 5V38, d. f.  = 2, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  49  TABLE 27 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND MARITAL STATUS  M a r i t a l Status  Participants No. 7o  Non-participants N£. %  S i n g l e , widowed or divorced, separated  2  5.0  7  8.6  Married  37  95.0  74  91.4  TOTALS  39  100.0  81  100.0  2 X  = .47, d . f . = 1, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  M a r i t a l s t a t u s d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two groups of i n t e r e s t e d respondents (Table 2 7 ) , and the number of r e s p o n d e n t s ' c h i l d r e n made no d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n by respondents who were i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n ing.  or t r a i n -  Those who had up t o two c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d 48.8 per cent o f the  p a r t i c i p a n t s and 49.3 per cent  o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Those w i t h  t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d 51.2 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 50.7 p e r cent o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  (Table 28).  I t cannot be demonstrated t h a t p l a c e o f b i r t h a f f e c t s p a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t e d respondents (Table 2 9 ) . B r i t i s h Columbia o u t s i d e the survey p a r t i c i p a n t s and 11.1 per cent  partici-  Respondents born i n  a r e a i n c l u d e 20.6 per cent  o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  born o u t s i d e of Canada i n c l u d e 10.2 per cent  o f the  Respondents  o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s and  50  27.2 per cent o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Although some s l i g h t  t i o n s appeared t o e x i s t , the d i f f e r e n c e  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by  of b i r t h between i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n t e r e s t e d  varia-  non-partici-  pants was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  TABLE 28 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN  Number o f C h i l d r e n  Participants No. 7o  Non-participants No. 7o  7  18.0  9  11.1  1 or 2  12  30.8  31  38.2  3 or 4  12  30.8  27  33.3  8  20.4  14  17.4  100.0  81  100.0  None  5 or more  TOTALS  X  2  39  = 1.54, d . f . = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 29 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND PLACE OF BIRTH  Place of b i r t h  Participants No. Jo  Non-participants No. %  Here  5  12.8  11  13.6  B.C.  8  20.6  9  11.1  Elsewhere i n Canada  22  56.4  39  48.1  U.S., U.K. or o t h e r  4  10.2  22  27.2  100.0  81  100.0  TOTALS  39  X^ = 5.48, d . f . = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t  place  51  Years r e s i d e n t i n the a r e a used as a f a c t o r t o t a b u l a t e i n t e r e s t e d respondents  d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e between the groups of respondents.  Some 15.4 per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e s i d e n t i n the a r e a f o r two or l e s s y e a r s , w h i l e 46.1 per c e n t of them were twenty or more years r e s i d e n t .  Of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , 22.2 per cent were two or  l e s s y e a r s r e s i d e n t and 38.3 p e r cent had l i v e d  twenty or more y e a r s  i n the area ( T a b l e 3 0 ) .  TABLE 30 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND YEARS RESIDENT IN AREA  Years R e s i d e n t  i n Area  Participants No. %  Non-Participants No. %  2 y e a r s or l e s s  6  15.4  18  22.2  3-5  6  15.4  9  11.1  6-20  9  23.1  23  28.4  more than 20  18  46.1  31  38.3  TOTALS  39  100.0  81  100.0  X  2  = 1.68, d . f . = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  52  SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d a t a of i n t e r e s t e d respondents a c c o r d -  i n g t o t h e i r l e v e l of l i v i n g ally  significant  statistic-  l e v e l between the groups, as shown i n T a b l e 31.  Those respondents who  had the lowest l e v e l of l i v i n g were more  t o be n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . of l i v i n g  index does d i s c r i m i n a t e at a  In a l l o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s based on the  index, the percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s was  of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  likely level  h i g h e r than t h a t  :''<  The meaning of a low l e v e l of l i v i n g must be sought  i n psycho-  l o g i c a l terms, f o r i t i s apparent t h a t t h i s i s not the same as a l a c k o f money.  In t h i s case money i s not spent on those t h i n g s which  are  s t a t u s s i g n s i n a community. The  i n d i v i d u a l who  does not buy h i m s e l f a r a d i o , c a r , or news-  paper, does not p r o v i d e h i s house w i t h telephone and e l e c t r i c i t y , i s likely  t o be the i n d i v i d u a l whose r e p o r t of i n t e r e s t  does not c o i n c i d e w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  i n adult education  H i s i d e a o f h i m s e l f and what  h i s neighbours see i n h i s home might be subsumed under the term  "morale".  It  who  appears t h a t such a concept may  be used t o d e s c r i b e a person  does not get h i m s e l f t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s a l t h o u g h he sees them as p o t e n t i a l l y  satisfying.  I n t e r e s t e d respondents whose s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e was the h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y were much more l i k e l y t o be p a r t i c i p a n t s per c e n t ) than n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e was  (7.4^) per c e n t ) .  in  (20.5  Respondents whose  i n the next h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y were a l s o  TABLE 31 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND LEVEL OF LIVING  L e v e l of l i v i n g  Participants No. %  Non-participants No. %  3  7.7  26  32.1  85 - 89  12  30.8  17  21.0  90 - 94  16  41.0  27  33.3  8  20.5  11  13.6  39  100.0  81  100.0  84 or l e s s  95 or more  TOTALS  X  = 8.76, d . f . = 3, p<.05  TABLE 32 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION  Participants No. %  Non-participants No. 7,  13  33.3  48  59.3  2-3  9  23.1  14  17.3  4-5  9  23.1  13  16.0  6-9  8  20.5  6  7.4  39  100.0  81  100.0  Social Score  Participation  1  TOTALS  X  = 8.53, d . f . = 3, p<.05  54  more l i k e l y (16  per  to be  cent).  participants  were more l i k e l y  per c e n t ) than p a r t i c i p a n t s  (33.3  per  d i s t r i b u t i o n between the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e was I t may  cent than  Those i n t e r e s t e d respondents who  s o c i a l organizations  ence i n the  (23.1) per  be  non-participants  were not  active  t o be n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  (59.3  c e n t ) (Table  differ-  two  32).  The  groups a n a l y z e d by s o c i a l  statistically significant.  t h a t respondents who  munity are more l i k e l y t o c a r r y  out  are  generally  active  i n the com-  that b e h a v i o r which they  as p o t e n t i a l l y s a t i s f y i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g e d u c a t i o n . g e s t s a g a i n the  advantage of a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t a c t  c l i e n t e l e through f o r m a l s o c i a l The  tabulation,  p a r t i c i p a n t s and  not  they are  i n T a b l e 33,  be  a t t i t u d e t o change s c a l e  non-participation  between  they are  as l i k e l y  to  so t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems t o  highest  (Table  34)  showing p a r t i c i p a t i o n  d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the  centage of p a r t i c i p a n t s two  discriminate  of i n t e r e s t e d respondents i n d i c a t e s t h a t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i d not  the  education  r e l a t i o n s h i p to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The  and  sug-  R e g a r d l e s s of whether or  favourable to r u r a l l i v i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s as n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  bear no  This  of i n t e r e s t e d respondents a c c o r d -  the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  strongly  adult  perceive  organizations.  i n g t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward r u r a l l i v i n g d i d not the  in  increases  categories  as  the  two  groups.  this The  a t t i t u d e t o change r i s e s .  of a t t i t u d e t o change the  percentages  p a r t i c i p a n t s were l a r g e r than the  percentages of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  the  show t h a t  c h i square s t a t i s t i c  i c a n t l y greater  does not  than chance.  per-  this is a difference  In  of but signif-  TABLE 33 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND ATTITUDE TO RURAL LIVING  Attitude Living  to Rural  Participants No. %  Non-par t i c i p a n t s No. A  Favourable to r u r a l or urban, o r n e u t r a l  10  25.6  23  28.4  Strongly  29  74.4  58  71.6  39  100.0  81  100.0  favour r u r a l  TOTALS  X  2  a  = . 1 0 , d . f . = 1 , p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t  TABLE 34 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND ATTITUDE TO CHANGE  Attitude to Change Score  Participants No. %  Non-participants No. 7,  1-3  3  8.0  10  12.4  4  4  10.5  13  16.0  5  4  10.5  20  24.7  6  11  29.0  18  22.2  7  16  42.0  20  24.7  TOTALS  38  100.0  81  100.0  X  2  = 6.67, d . f . = 4, p i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  56  The  data measuring  a l i e n a t i o n of interested  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n showedno s i g n i f i c a n t tendency t o change t o g e t h e r ( T a b l e 3 5 ) . pondents, who were i n t e r e s t e d  respondents and f o r those  variables  The l e a s t and the most a l i e n a t e d  i n further  t r a i n i n g or e d u c a t i o n , were  r o u g h l y twice as l i k e l y not t o have taken any c o u r s e s .  A f e e l i n g of  b e i n g c u t o f f from the w o r l d d i d not a f f e c t the l i k e l i h o o d that e s t e d respondents  participated.  TABLE 35 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND ALIENATION  Alienation  Participants No. %  Non-par t i c i p a n t s No. %  0  16  41.0  22  27.2  1  11  28.2  22  27.2  2  3  7.7  15  18.5  3  3  7.7  7  8.6  4-5  6  15.4  15  18.5  49  100.0  81  100.0  TOTALS  X  Score  res-  = 3.84, d . f . = 4, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  inter-  57  EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  As respondents'  l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g r i s e s so does the  hood t h a t he w i l l be a p a r t i c i p a n t I n t e r e s t e d respondents i n c l u d e d 10.2  had e i g h t or l e s s y e a r s of s c h o o l  I n t e r e s t e d respondents  s c h o o l i n c l u d e d 61.5  who  completed  per cent of the  had n i n e t o e l e v e n y e a r s  per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and o n l y 40.7  cent of the n o n - p a r t i e i p a n t s . counted  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e 36).  per c e n t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 35.8  non-participants. of  who  likeli-  per  Those w i t h twelve y e a r s of s c h o o l a c -  f o r 18 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and  p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e respondents  14 per cent of the  non-  w i t h t h i r t e e n or more y e a r s of s c h o o l  were somewhat more l i k e l y t o be p a r t i c i p a n t s  (10.3  participants  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between  (6.2 per c e n t ) .  The  difference  the two groups by years of s c h o o l i n g was Respondents who  had  to p a r t i c i p a t e  than respondents  who  had n i n e or more y e a r s .  formal s c h o o l i n g .  non-  significant.  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (10.2  a g a i n the d i f f i c u l t y of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  completed  per  This finding  cent)  reflects  i n r e a c h i n g people who  have  Some d i f f e r e n t approach i s needed t o communi-  cate t o those p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s how ing  statistically  l e s s than e i g h t y e a r s of s c h o o l  were l e s s l i k e l y  little  per cent) than  they may  a c q u i r e the f u r t h e r  or e d u c a t i o n i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d .  train-  The jump i n percentage  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s compared w i t h n o n - p a r t i e i p a n t s at the c a t e g o r y of n i n e  or  more y e a r s of s c h o o l i s a f o c a l p o i n t where the s t r o n g e f f e c t  e d u c a t i o n can be The  of  seen.  l e v e l of the w i f e ' s s c h o o l i n g i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t e d respondents  and  this finding  was  58  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( T a b l e 3 7 ) . Those whose w i v e s had e l e v e n y e a r s or l e s s of s c h o o l i n g accounted f o r 72.6 p e r c e n t o f the nonp a r t i c i p a n t s and 41.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e those whose w i v e s had t w e l v e o r more y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g accounted f o r 58.3 p e r c e n t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 27.4 p e r cent o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n t e r e s t e d respondents whose w i v e s had t w e l v e o r more y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d were, t h e r e f o r e , more l i k e l y t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t education courses.  TABLE 36 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND SCHOOLING  Schooling  8 years or l e s s  Participants No. %  Non-participants No. %  4  10.2  29  35.8  24  61.5  33  40.7  12  7  18.0  14  17.3  13 o r more  4  10.3  5  6.2  39  100.0  81  100.0  9-11  TOTALS X  2  = 9.24, d . f . = 3, p<.05  59  TABLE 37 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND. WIFE'S SCHOOLING  Wife's Schooling  Participants No. %  11 y e a r s  15  41.7  53  72.6  12  11  30.5  13  17.8  13 o r more  10  27.8  7  9.6  TOTALS  36  100.0  73  100.0  X  2  or less  = 10.59, d . f . = 2 ,  Non-Participants No. %  p<.01  \ ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS  I n t e r e s t e d respondents were n e i t h e r more nor l e s s l i k e l y t o be p a r t i c i p a n t s i f t h e i r t o t a l income was below $3,000 or above $9,000 (Table 38).  Respondents whose income was below $6,000 i n c l u d e d 48.6  per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 43.2 per cent  of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Respondents r e c e i v i n g $6,000 or more made up 51.4 per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 46.8 per cent  o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Of the respondents c l a s s i f i e d as farmers, fell  i n t o the c a t e g o r y  35.9 per cent o f them  of p a r t i c i p a n t s and 32.1 per c e n t  i n t o the c a t e -  gory of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , which was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t the p r o p o r t i o n s r e p o r t e d  than  f o r the non-farm respondents (Table 3 9 ) .  60  TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND TOTAL INCOME  Participants No.  Income  Up t o $2,999  7  Non-par t i c i p a n t s NO.  18.9  13  16.9  3,000 - 5,999  11  29.7  28  36.3  6,000 - 8,999  155  40.6  23  29.9  4  10.8  13  16.9  37  100.0  77  100.0  9,000 and over  TOTALS  X  2  = 1.85, d . f . = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t  TABLE 39 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND AMOUNT RECEIVED FROM AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  Amount R e c e i v e d  Participants No. %  L e s s than $250  25  64.1  55 ,  67.9  More than $250  14  35.9  26  32.1  TOTALS  39  100.0  81  100.0  X  2  = .17, d . f . = 1, p i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  Non-participants . No. %  61  I n t e r e s t e d respondents who had spent up t o f i f t e e n y e a r s i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n appeared t o be as l i k e l y p a r t i c i p a n t s ( T a b l e 40).  t o be p a r t i c i p a n t s as non-  Those who had spent between s i x t e e n and  twenty y e a r s i n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n i n c l u d e d almost t h r e e times as many n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s (24.0 per c e n t ) as p a r t i c i p a n t s  (8.2 per c e n t ) .  In the h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y o f y e a r s spent i n o c c u p a t i o n we f i n d many o f the o l d e s t respondents; we do n o t f i n d a l a r g e r percentage o f nonp a r t i c i p a n t s (14.0V)per c e n t ) than o f p a r t i c i p a n t s T h i s i s unexpected because  age has been shown i n many s t u d i e s t o  have a p o w e r f u l e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . is attributable to this The  (16.2 p e r c e n t ) .  No s t a t i s t i c a l  significance  finding.  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e r e s t e d respondents a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r  job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d , the d i s s a t i s f i e d ,  and the n e u t r a l , were as l i k e l y t o be i n the p a r t i c i p a n t group (13.5 per c e n t ) as i n the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t group  (16.3 per c e n t ) .  The v e r y  s a t i s f i e d were a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d almost e q u a l l y i n the p a r t i c i p a n t and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t groups, (46.0 and 33.7 per c e n t ) ( T a b l e 41). The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e r e s t e d respondents by the months they had been unemployed d u r i n g the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s and t h e i r t i o n i n c o u r s e s r e v e a l s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t between the groups.  participa-  differences  Although the c h i square v a l u e d i d approach  s i g n i f i c a n c e , respondents who had n o t been unemployed i n c l u d e d 76.9 per cent o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 64.2 per c e n t o f the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  TABLE 40 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND YEARS IN OCCUPATION  Years i n Occupation  Participants No. %  Non-participants No. %  2 or less  7  18.9  12  15.2  3-5  7  18.9  15  19.0  6-10  9  24.3  13  16.4  11 - 15  5  13.5  9  11.4  16 - 20  3  8.2  19  24.0  21 o r more  6  16.2  11  14.0  37  100.0  79  100.0  TOTALS X  = 4.60, d . f . = 5, p i s not  significant.  TABLE 41 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND JOB SATISFACTION  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Participants No. %  Non-participants No. %  Very d i s s a t i s f i e d , d i s s a t i s f i e d or neutral  5  13.5  13  16.3  Satisfied  15  40.5  40  50.0  Very s a t i s f i e d  17  46.0  27  33.7  TOTALS  37  100.0  80  100.0  X  = 1.60, d . f . 2, p i s not  significant.  63  Those who had been unemployed l e s s than s i x months i n c l u d e d a s m a l l e r percentage o f p a r t i c i p a n t s (7.7 per c e n t ) than o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s (25.9'^per c e n t ) .  Those who had been unemployed f o r seven months or  more i n c l u d e d a l a r g e r percentage o f p a r t i c i p a n t s (15.4 per cent) than o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s (9.9 per c e n t )  (Table 4 2 ) .  SUMMARY ) I n t e r e s t e d respondents were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f past p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n adult education  and c e r t a i n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , own e d u c a t i o n i n g , and l e v e l o f l i v i n g .  and w i f e ' s  school-  I n t e r e s t e d respondents were rioc'ddif f-e'r.eriei!ated  on the b a s i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s p e c i f i c other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , number o f c h i l d r e n , p l a c e of b i r t h , y e a r s r e s i d e n t i n the a r e a , a t t i t u d e t o r u r a l l i v i n g , a t t i t u d e t o change, a l i e n a t i o n , t o t a l income, amount r e c e i v e d from production, years f o r the l a s t had  i n occupation,  three y e a r s .  agricultural  j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , months unemployed  In g e n e r a l , the i n t e r e s t e d respondents who  p a r t i c i p a t e d were more a c t i v e i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , had a  higher  l e v e l o f l i v i n g index, more y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and were m a r r i e d  t o wives who had completed more y e a r s  of school.  TABLE 42 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND MONTHS UNEMPLOYED IN LAST THREE YEARS  Months Unemployed i n L a s t Three Years  Participants No.  Non-participants No. 1  0  30  76.9  52  64.2  6 months or l e s s  3  7.7  21  25.9  7 months or more  6  15.4  8  9.9  39  100.0  81  100.0  TOTALS  X  2  = 5.68, d . f . = 2, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  CHAPTER IV  SUMMARY AND  T h i s study i s an a n a l y s i s  CONCLUSIONS  of data c o l l e c t e d  survey under the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y . est  i n a Socio-Economic  I t i s concerned w i t h the i n t e r -  i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t s i n the North Okanagan a r e a of  B r i t i s h Columbia.  The study has d e s c r i b e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p  psycho-social characteristics  to interest  of s p e c i f i c  i n continuing education.  A t o t a l o f 239 household heads were i n t e r v i e w e d i n the North Okanagan survey a r e a . education.  Of .these, h a l f were i n t e r e s t e d  Distributions  i n continuing  f o r twenty-one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  in r e l a t i o n to their interest  or d i s i n t e r e s t  i n adult  o f respondents  e d u c a t i o n were  d e s c r i b e d and c h i square was used t o t e s t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s of no significant interested  difference.  Distributions  f o r seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  respondents i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r n o n - p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n were a l s o  d e s c r i b e d and  tested.  INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION  The no  f i r s t hypothesis tested  statistically  i n t h i s study was t h a t  significant differences  social characteristics  i n certain  t h e r e were  specified  of respondents who e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and those who d i d not r e p o r t such an i n t e r e s t . the  twenty-one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  differences  psycho-  tested  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  by i n t e r e s t  ; 65  i n continuing  i n future  Twelve of  significant education.  66  PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS  There were p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d t o expressed interest  i n adult education.  Younger people were more l i k e l y  i n t e r e s t e d ; those born i n Canada o u t s i d e of the survey a r e a more i n t e r e s t Okanagan.  than respondents  born  t o be  expressed  i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s or i n the North  M a r i t a l s t a t u s , number of c h i l d r e n , p l a c e o f p r e v i o u s  res-  idence and the number of y e a r s r e s i d e n t i n the survey area d i d not affect  interest  i n continuing education.  SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS  L e v e l o f l i v i n g was r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t and those who had more of  the a m e n i t i e s were more l i k e l y  tion.  t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g educa-  Respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d more i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  were more l i k e l y  t o d e s i r e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g .  Respondents  who r e p o r t e d a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward change and those who were a l i e n a t e d were more l i k e l y training.  The r e s p o n d e n t s '  t o be u n i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n o r a t t i t u d e toward r u r a l l i v i n g  d i d not a f f e c t  t h e i r reported i n t e r e s t .  EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  The y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g which the respondents i n t e r e s t , w i t h those who had completed likely  to desire further t r a i n i n g .  the respondent's  had d i d a f f e c t  more s c h o o l y e a r s b e i n g more  The y e a r s o f s c h o o l completed  w i f e was a l s o p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t .  by  Res-  pondents who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses were more  67  l i k e l y t o be i n t e r e s t e d than those who had n o t . A n a l y s i s o f the farm respondents  showed t h a t those who had a  g r e a t e r number o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l were more l i k e l y t o be i n t e r e s t e d .  The number of impersonal  contacts with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension personnel d i d not i n f l u e n c e i n terest i n further education.  ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS  The  t o t a l income of respondents  was r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t .  Those r e p o r t i n g h i g h e r incomes were more l i k e l y t o express i n further education.  Amount earned  interest  from the s a l e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  products and t h e number o f a c r e s owned o r o p e r a t e d d i d not i n f l u e n c e interest  i n continuing education.  Months unemployed during the l a s t  t h r e e y e a r s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i t h respondents  who had e x p e r i e n c e d some months of unemployment b e i n g  more l i k e l y t o express  i n t e r e s t than those who had e x p e r i e n c e d no  unemployment o r those who had been unemployed t h i r t e e n months o r more. Number o f y e a r s worked i n p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n was r e l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t ; respondents  having worked t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s , and those  who had worked s i x t e e n t o twenty y e a r s were more l i k e l y e s t e d than respondents The  t o be i n t e r -  i n other c a t e g o r i e s of number o f y e a r s worked.  f a c t o r o f job s a t i s f a c t i o n arid the number o f months worked i n 1968  d i d not i n f l u e n c e i n t e r e s t  i n further education.  68  PARTICIPATION AND  The  second h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d  no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  c i p a t i o n and have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n future  significant differences  between s p e c i f i e d psycho-  express  i n t e r e s t i n future  i n the past and those who  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed  n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  express  i n the p a s t .  statistically  tude t o r u r a l l i v i n g ; a t t i t u d e  accepted f o r :  age; m a r i t a l  status;  i n the a r e a ;  from a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s ; y e a r s i n o c c u p a t i o n ; job  rejected  f o r y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g ,  s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i s most l i k e l y  l e v e l of l i v i n g .  t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d  w i t h more than n i n e years of s c h o o l i n g , y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g , who  who  has  analysis  pertinent  f a c t o r s which determine  null  schooling,  interested  i n adult  respondent  e d u c a t i o n i s one  whose w i f e has  twelve or more and  organizations.  t o the second  whether respondents  t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w i l l be  The  wife's  The  a l e v e l of l i v i n g index of 85 or over  participates i n formal s o c i a l The  atti-  t o change; a l i e n a t i o n ; t o t a l income;  s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and months unemployed i n the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s .  who  non-  respondents.  number of c h i l d r e n ; p l a c e of b i r t h ; y e a r s r e s i d e n t  h y p o t h e s i s was  parti-  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s by p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the i n t e r e s t e d  amount r e c e i v e d  t h a t t h e r e are  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and have p a r t i c i p a t e d  Four of the seventeen  The  i n t h i s study was  significant differences  s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people who  interest  INTEREST  participants.  h y p o t h e s i s suggests who  are i n t e r e s t e d  the  i n con-  69  Schooling  and w i f e ' s  pants and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . ing education,  schooling  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between  Those r e s p o n d e n t s , i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u -  who had not completed Grade Nine were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  l i k e l y n o t t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d .  T h i s repeats  the most c o n s i s t e n t  f i n d i n g i n studies of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education,* i s a strong  partici-  a s s o c i a t i o n between the l e v e l of f o r m a l  that  education  there and  participation. L e v e l o f l i v i n g and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i s c r i m i n a t e d between the groups o f i n t e r e s t e d n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  and i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s .  IMPLICATIONS  The  method of measuring i n t e r e s t may be used w i t h some  t i o n t h a t the answers g i v e n  are s i g n s of a r e a l v a r i a b l e .  "Would you l i k e t o take some k i n d of f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n  convic-  The q u e s t i o n ,  or t r a i n i n g ? " i s  u s e f u l i n d i s c o v e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s most a c c e s s i b l e t o some a d u l t educat i o n courses.  F o r i t does appear from the data a n a l y s e d  herein,  that  e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i s a f a c t o r which adds t o the f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g t o bring participants to adult This question increase  interest.  education.  then o f f e r s a t o o l f o r an e x p e r i m e n t a l attempt t o  The use o f knowledge of group i n t e r a c t i o n t o develop  group c o h e s i o n i s one way an i n f l u e n c e attempt might be made. by  the use o f the methods of group dynamics t o teach  d e c i s i o n making.  Motivation  skills  Another i s  i n shared  t o l e a r n such s k i l l s c o u l d be aroused by  d i r e c t i n g t h e problem s o l v i n g attempt toward problems e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a l  1  V e r n e r , C. and Newberry, John S., J r . op_. c i t .  70  social organizations.  The q u e s t i o n quoted  above may be used as an  instrument b e f o r e and a f t e r e x p e r i m e n t a l measures t o a f f e c t The  importance  of the s o c i a l f a c t o r s suggested  cant r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t e r e s t  s h o u l d be kept  s h i p between respondents h i s community r e f l e c t s  and o t h e r s .  by t h e i r  signifi-  i n mind by a d u l t educa-  t o r s d e v e l o p i n g communication w i t h p o s s i b l e c l i e n t s . of l i v i n g and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e both  interest.  The f a c t o r s ,  level  involved with the r e l a t i o n -  The s t a t u s of t h e respondent i n  i n the l e v e l of l i v i n g  score.  What o t h e r s t h i n k  of him, and what he t h i n k s o t h e r s t h i n k o f him, have t o do w i t h the way he f i t s  i n t o h i s community.  The respondent's  associating with  others  i n f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t he takes a p l a c e as a member o f a group w i t h shared g o a l s . to p a r t i c i p a t i o n  That these f a c t o r s are r e l a t e d  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n suggests t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l who i s  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s membership i n the community i s the most l i k e l y  parti-  cipant. T h i s study s h o u l d n o t be used i n a way which would l e a d t o a self-fulfilling  prediction.  I f i t were assumed t h a t people w i t h  c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are most l i k e l y t o be i n t e r e s t e d  i n a d u l t educa-  t i o n and t h e r e f o r e these a r e the i n d i v i d u a l s t o be addressed i s i n g and i n d e t e r m i n i n g would be t o decrease  parti-  i n advert-  the types o f courses t o be g i v e n , the r e s u l t  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g a way t o new c l i e n t e l e .  These f i n d i n g s suggest  the n a t u r e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as i t i s  p r a c t i s e d , does n o t appeal t o people who do n o t i d e n t i f y themselves members of the community.  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s n o t a change agent  as  or a  71  l e v e l i n g agent.  I t i s attended by  who  have a c h i e v e d a s o c i a l s e l f  and  values.  individuals  i n accord with t h e i r neighbours'  T h i s study o f f e r s more u n d e r s t a n d i n g ble  affecting participation.  Those who  e d u c a t i o n w i l l be aware t h a t i n t e r e s t aroused by  experience.  of the m i d d l e - c l a s s  of i n t e r e s t  as one  norms  varia-  would widen the e f f e c t of a d u l t  i s not a f i x e d f a c t o r ,  i t may  be  72 BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  Akinbode, I.A. The R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between the Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and T h e i r C o n t a c t s With D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . Unpublished M. S c . T h e s i s . Vancouver: A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969.  2.  Brunner, E . deS., D. S. W i l d e r , C. K i r c h n e r , and J . S. Newberry, Jr. An Overview o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research. Chicago: A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959.  3.  Douglah, Mohammed and Gwenna Moss. " D i f f e r e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i b n P a t t e r n s of A d u l t s of Low and High E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment," A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 18:247-259, Summer, 1968.  4.  Goard, D.S. A n a l y s i s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n R u r a l A d u l t U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . Vancouver, 1968.  5.  Board, Dean S « and Gary D i c k i n s o n . The I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n and Age on ' P a r t i c i p a t i o n : i n R u r a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Vancouver: F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 ( S p e c i a l Study No. 2 ) .  6.  Houle, C y r i l 0. of W i s c o n s i n  7.  Johnstone, J.W.C. and R.J. R i v e r a . V o l u n t e e r s -for L e a r n i n g . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1965.  8.  K a p l a n , Abraham A. Socio-Economic Circumstances and A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C e r t a i n C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e , 1943.  9.  Kuhlen, Raymond G. " M o t i v a t i o n a l Changes D u r i n g the A d u l t Y e a r s , " i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l Backgrounds of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , R.G. Kuhlen, e d i t o r . Centre f o r the Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1963.  10.  11.  The I n q u i r i n g Mind. Press,. 1961.  Madison:  Education.  The U n i v e r s i t y  Loewenstein, D.E. and S. S. Lewis. "A Study o f t h e Components of F u t u r e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Programs," Cooperative E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska, 1966. . London, Jack, Robert Wenkert and W. 0. Hagstrom. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Survey Research C e n t e r , 1963.  73  12.  Maslow, A.H. "A Theory o f Human M o t i v a t i o n , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 50: 370-96,.1943. .  13.  S e w e l l , W.H. "A Short Form o f the Farm F a m i l y Socio-Economic S c a l e . " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 8:161-170, June, 1943.  14.  V e r n e r , C o o l i e and Gary D i c k i n s o n . A Socio-Ecoribmic Survey o f the Pemberton V a l l e y . Vancouver: F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968.  15.  V e r n e r , C o o l i e , and John S. Newberry, J r . "The Nature o f A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 8:208-222, Summer, 1958.  Status  APPENDIX ONE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR ALL RESPONDENTS 1 1.  1.00  2.  -.24  3.  -.21  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  L i s t of F a c t o r s : 1.00 .45  1.00  13  No. i: 2. 3; 4. 5. 6; 7. 8; 9; 10; 11; 12. 13. 14. 15; 16.  14  15  Factor Age Husband's E d u c a t i o n Wife's Education Adult Education Number o f C h i l d r e n Years i n the Area Level of L i v i n g Social Participation Rural Attitude A t t i t u d e Toward Change Years i n Present Job Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Unemployment T o t a l Income Total Acres Alienation  4.  .19  .18  -.00  1.00  5.  .28  -.11  -.16  .14  1.00  6.  .18  -.06  -.05  .07  -.03  1.00  7.  .06  .44  .40  .19  -.03  .12  8.  -.14  .29  .23  .23  -.17  .16  .23  1.00  9.  .14  -.13  -.09  .17  .15  .02  -.08  .02  1.00  10.  -.53  .25  .14  -.24  -.14  -.05  .09  .04  -.25  1.00  11.  .43  -.01  .08  .13  .07  .11  .16  -.05  .05  -.36  1.00  12.  .12  .22  •1.3  .07  .03  .05  .33  .08  .09  -.07  .15  1.00  13.  .55  -.20  -.06  -.19  .21  .10  -.22  -.04  -.29  .09  .00  1. 00  14.  -.31  .29  .15  .01  -.12  -.04  .24  .13  -.09  .18  -.05  .16  -. 50  1.00  15.  .03  -.01  .15  .31  .10  .04  .01  -.04  .08  -.10  .21  .00  -. 08  -.02  1.00  16.  .10  -.28  -.19  .24  .04  .06  -.13  -.19  .09  -.22  .01  -.21  13  -.20  -.12  1.00  -.21  16  1.00  

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