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Expressed interest and participation in adult education. Jackson, Renee Phyllis 1970

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EXPRESSED INTEREST AND PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION by RENEE PHYLLIS JACKSON B.A., Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Faculty of Education (Adult Education) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb i a , I a g ree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date C L ^ r -ABSTRACT The study problem was to analyse the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i -duals who reported i n t e r e s t i n continuing education from data c o l l e c t e d by means of interviews conducted i n a survey of r u r a l residents i n the North Okanagan. Two hypotheses were tested to a s c e r t a i n whether or not there were any s i g n i f i c a n t differences between interested respon-dents and uninterested respondents with respect to socio-psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and whether or not there were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between interes t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n adult education and interested non-participants. Data from two hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e household heads were analysed. There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between i n t e r -ested and uninterested respondents with respect to twelve psycho-social c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of interested respondents studied there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences between p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-participants with respect to four: including, l e v e l of schooling, wife's schooling, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e v e l of l i v i n g . The findings of this study indicated that i n t e r e s t i n continu-ing education was higher f o r younger respondents, for those with more years of schooling and those whose wives had completed more years of school. Respondents who expressed i n t e r e s t i n further education or t r a i n i n g had a higher l e v e l of l i v i n g index and a higher income; they were more active i n s o c i a l organizations and i n adult education courses; i i they were more l i k e l y to have been born i n Canada outside of the sur-vey area than i n the North Okanagan d i s t r i c t or i n other countries. Interest was higher for farm respondents who had more personal contacts with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension personnel. Interest i n continuing education was lower for respondents who were more alienated, and those who had a negative attitude toward change. I t was lower also for those who had been unemployed longer in the l a s t three years and those who had spent fewer years in t h e i r pre-sent occupation. Expressed i n t e r e s t appears to be one of the measurable charac-t e r i s t i c s which may be expected to a f f e c t the future p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n adult education. The findings of t h i s study indicated that among those respond-ents who were interested i n continuing education or training,those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult education courses were more l i k e l y to have had more schooling and t h e i r wives to have completed more years of school; were more active i n s o c i a l organizations;and had a higher l e v e l of l i v i n g . Age, schooling and wife's schooling are important factors i n a l l studies of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The i n d i c a t i o n s of t h i s study are that the kinds of attitudes or a b i l i t i e s which lead a respondent to earn s o c i a l l y approved membership i n the community are also r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose 2 Hypotheses 2 Procedure 3 Analysis , 7 Limitations 8 Plan 8 Review of L i t e r a t u r e 9 CHAPTER I I CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH INTEREST 15 Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 17 S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 22 Educational Factors 31 Economic Factors 37 Summary 45 CHAPTER I I I PARTICIPATION AND INTEREST 46 Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 48 S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 52 Educational C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 57 Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 59 Summary • 63 i v 0 PAGE CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 65 Interest i n Continuing Education 65 Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 66 S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 66 Educational C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 66 Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 67 P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Interest 68 Implications 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 72 APPENDIX ONE 74 APPENDIX TWO 75 v LIST OF TABLES \ " " PAGE 1. Chi Square Values For D i s t r i b u t i o n of Factors Between Interested and Not Interested Respondents 16 2. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by M a r i t a l Status and Interest i n Continuing Education 17 3. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Age and Interest i n Continuing Education 18 4. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents By Number of Children and Interest i n Continuing Education 19 5. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years i n L o c a l i t y and Interest i n Continuing Education 20 6. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Place of B i r t h and Interest i n Continuing Education 21 7. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Previous Residence and Interest i n Continuing Education 23 8. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Level of L i v i n g Scores and Interest i n Continuing Education 25 9. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale and Interest i n Continuing Education 26 10. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by A l i e n a t i o n Score and Interest i n Continuing Education 28 Hi', Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Attitude to Change Scale and Interest i n Continuing Education 29 12. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Attitude to Rural L i v i n g and Interest i n Continuing Education 30 13. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years of Schooling and Interest i n Continuing Education 31 14. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Wife's Schooling and Interest i n Continuing Education. 32 15. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Adult Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Interest i n Continuing Education 34 v i PAGE 16. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Number of Impersonal Contacts with A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension and Interest i n Continuing Education.. 35 17. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Number of Personal Contacts with A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension and Interest i n Continuing Education 36 18. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by T o t a l Income Category and Interest i n Continuing Education 38 19. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Job S a t i s -f a c t i o n and Interest i n Continuing Education 39 20. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Money Received f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Products and Interest In Continuing Education 40 21. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Months Worked i n 1968 and Interest i n Continuing Education 41 22. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Number of Acres Owned or Operated and Interest i n Continuing Education 42 23. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Months Unemployed i n Last Three Years and Interest i n Continuing Education 43 24. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years i n Present Occupation and Interest i n Continuing Education 44 25. Chi Square Values f o r D i s t r i b u t i o n of Factors Between Interested Respondents Who Had Pa r t i c i p a t e d i n Adult Education Courses and Those Who Had Not Pa r t i c i p a t e d 47 26. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Age 48 27. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and M a r i t a l Status...... 49 28. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Number of Children.. 50 v i i PAGE 29. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Place of B i r t h 50 30. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Years Resident i n <ArS^?^ 51 31. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Adult Education and Level of L i v i n g 53 32. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 53 33. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Attitude to Rural L i v i n g . . . . . 55 34. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and A t t i t u d e to Change.. 55 35. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and A l i e n a t i o n 56 36. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Schooling.... v 58 37. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Wife's Schooling.... 59 38. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Adult Education and T o t a l Income. 60 39. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Amount Received from A g r i c u l t u r a l Products 60 40. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Adult Education and Years i n Occupation 62 41. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . . . . 62 42. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Interested Respondents By P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education and Months Unemployed i n Last Three Years 64 v i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Who comes to adult education courses and why they come are ques-tions important to those who t r y to provide educational resources and to those whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to be concerned with the health of communities. Adult educators assume that educational resources a i d indi v i d u a l s economically by increasing t h e i r employability and personally by enriching t h e i r l i v e s . But they are aware that i n d i v i d u a l s seek help only when they recognize that they need i t and when they know where to seek i t . If they view education as valuable to solve t h e i r s p e c i f i c problems, they w i l l e n r o l l i n courses. Those who provide adult education programs must therefore understand how to make them relevant to p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s i n s p e c i f i c communities. Many research studies have shown that there are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s from non-participants so i t i s possible to i d e n t i f y those who are most l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n educational a c t i v i t i e s . Many of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as past schooling and income l e v e l , are de s c r i p t i v e of past experience and l i f e s i t u a t i o n so they cannot be changed by any e f f o r t of adult educators. The search f o r factors which bring some ind i v i d u a l s to education courses continues. More understanding of the personal and interpersonal dynamics may provide i n s i g h t into factors which are accessible to change such as i n t e r e s t s , attitudes and information. / 2 If an adult educator i s to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p with c l i e n t s he must be seen as the source of something which i s valued by an i n d i v i -dual. The educator needs information which w i l l help him bring about t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . People who express an i n t e r e s t i n further education or t r a i n i n g may be among those who are most l i k e l y to be future p a r t i c i -pants. As there i s research which lends weight to th i s assumption, knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of interested i n d i v i d u a l s may provide some understanding of the motivation which brings c l i e n t s to enrol i n programs. PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s study was to analyze r u r a l household heads with respect to t h e i r i n t e r e s t or d i s i n t e r e s t i n future p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education courses. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r u r a l residents i n the North Okanagan area of B r i t i s h Columbia who were interested i n continuing t h e i r education were compared to those not interested to determine whether or not any differences existed between the two groups. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the same in d i v i d u a l s who reported an in t e r e s t i n continuing education were also analyzed i n terms of whether or not they had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult education courses recently. HYPOTHESES Two n u l l hypotheses were tested i n th i s study as indicated below. 1. There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences 3 between s p e c i f i e d p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people who express an i n t e r e s t i n f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a -t i o n and those who do not report that i n t e r e s t . 2. There are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s p e c i f i c p s y c h o - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people who express i n t e r e s t i n future p a r t i c i p a t i o n and have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the past and those who express i n t e r e s t i n future p a r t i c i p a t i o n and have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the past. PROCEDURE The present study i s concerned w i t h a n a l y z i n g data c o l l e c t e d i n a socio-economic survey of the North Okanagan area i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The sampling procedures used i n the study are f u l l y r e -ported by Verner.''' The universe from which a random sample was drawn c o n s i s t e d of the r u r a l pre-empted l o t s i n the area. . The 1,099 pre-empted l o t s i n the North Okanagan at the time of the survey were l i s t e d according to school d i s t r i c t . A random sample was drawn from 2 each d i s t r i c t u s i n g a t a b l e of random numbers. The t o t a l sample of 138 l o t s was 12.5 per cent of the l o t s i n each school d i s t r i c t and Verner, C o o l i e . Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case  Study. Ottawa: R u r a l Development Branch, Department of F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, 1967. ( P r o j e c t No. 16018) K e n d a l l , M.G. and B. Babington Smith. Tables of Random  Sampling Numbers. London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951. 4 56 of the l o t s were occupied by 260 households. Interviews were completed w i t h 240 household heads. S i x t e e n (6.2 per cent) of the household heads could not be contacted i n three attempts and four (1.5 per cent) refused t o be interviewed. The area i n which the data were gathered i s the northern s e c t i o n of a v a l l e y i n the south c e n t r a l r e g i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. The survey area measures about 50 by 50 miles and includes the c i t i e s of Vernon and Kelowna and the town of Armstrong. I t i s i n the most h e a v i l y populated s e c t i o n of the i n t e r i o r w i t h 58,005 r e s i d e n t s i n 3 1966. The Kelowna school d i s t r i c t c o n s i s t e d of 1,100 square miles w i t h 33,576 r e s i d e n t s i n 1966, w h i l e Vernon has 2,156 square miles w i t h a population of 20,927, and Armstrong has 88 square miles and a 4 po p u l a t i o n of 3,052.. Of the r u r a l household heads interviewed i n the survey of the North Okanagan, 34.2 per cent were c l a s s i f i e d as farm and 65.8 per cent were c l a s s i f i e d as non-farm. A respondent was c l a s s i f i e d as farm i f he s o l d more than $250 worth of a g r i c u l t u r a l products r a i s e d on h i s land i n 1967. Age Group D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's Population by  School D i s t r i c t s . Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , 1968. 4 Verner, C o o l i e and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Economic Survey  of the North Okanagan Area. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of Education, Vancouver, 1969. p. 3. 5 The analysis of the survey data reported by Verner and Dickinson, described the North Okanagan respondents as comparing favourably with those i n other r u r a l areas i n the province i n amount of education and t r a i n i n g ; being i n favour of continued education; earning t h e i r l i v i n g from a v a r i e t y of se m i - s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d occupations with which they were f a i r l y w e l l - s a t i s f i e d ; having a socio-economic status which compares reasonably w e l l with that of residents i n other r u r a l areas. Interviews were c o l l e c t e d by means of an interview schedule^, administered by trained interviewers. The interviews were c o l l e c t e d between May and July, 1968, and took from twenty to f o r t y minutes each. Socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied included farm or non-farm occupation, job s a t i s f a c t i o n , number of years i n the present occupation, t o t a l family income, and l e v e l of l i v i n g . Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied were age, m a r i t a l status, years of schooling, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education, number of months unemployed i n the l a s t three years and contact with a g r i c u l t u r e extension service. Information about attitudes and in t e r e s t s was c o l l e c t e d by the survey questionnaire. Interest i n further education was sought by the question, "Would you l i k e to take some kind of further educa-t i o n or t r a i n i n g ? " 5 I b i d . , pp. 34-35, 47-48, 88. ^Copies of the interview schedule are available from the Depart-ment of Adult Education, Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. 6 A f i v e - s t e p scale was used to measure the a t t i t u d e of respondents toward l i v i n g i n a r u r a l rather than an urban area. A six-item scale to assess attitudes toward change was constructed and administered as part of the survey. The scale was constructed using data gathered in one of the areas surveyed i n 1967'. A scalogram analysis showed a c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of .9103 and a consistency c o e f f i c i e n t of .5400.^ The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of respondents i n formal organizations was measured by Chapin's S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale. S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s measured by the number of memberships held during the previous year, each membership counting as one point toward the t o t a l scale score. Intensity of involvement i s measured by attendance at meetings, f i n a n -c i a l contributions, committee memberships, and the holding of o f f i c e s . g A higher scale score r e f l e c t s a higher rate of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Data were gathered to describe the f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n , of being cut-off or i s o l a t e d from society. A f i v e - i t e m scale constructed 9 by Srole to measure interpersonal a l i e n a t i o n was administered. See: Louis Guttman, "The Basis for Scalogram A n a l y s i s , " i n Studies in S o c i a l Psychology i n World War I I : Volume IV, Measurement  and P r e d i c t i o n . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1966, pp. 60-90. ^Chapin, F.S. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale, Minneapolis: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, J.938. 9 Srole, Leo. " S o c i a l Integration and Certain C o r r o l a r i e s : An Exploratory Study," American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 21:709-716, (Dec. 1956). 7 A high score on the s c a l e i s i n d i c a t i v e of a high f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n . The l e v e l of l i v i n g was measured by the Sewell Farm Family Socio-Economic Status S c a l e . ^ The index i s made up of items possessed which e f f e c t the ease of l i v i n g : e x t e r i o r f i n i s h of house, room-person r a t i o , l i g h t i n g , water, r e f r i g e r a t i o n and laundry f a c i l i t i e s ; ownership of r a d i o , newspaper, telephone, c a r , and the church attendance of r e s -pondent and w i f e . For those respondents who were c a t e g o r i z e d as farmers, two scores were used of personal and impersonal contact w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l extension personnel. ANALYSIS The data reported here compares respondents who answered "Yes" to the q u e s t i o n , "Would you l i k e to take some k i n d of f u r t h e r education or t r a i n i n g ? " , w i t h those respondents who answered "No". C h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r education or t r a i n i n g were compared w i t h those who were not i n t e r e s t e d , to f i n d i f they d i f f e r e d i n other ways described by the data. B i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n s were prepared and t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at the .01 and .05 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e , u s i n g the c h i square s t a t i s t i c . ' ' " * S e w e l l , W.H. "A Short Form of the Farm Family Socio-Economic Status S c a l e , " R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 8:161-170, (June, 1943). ^ G a r r e t , Henry E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1964, pp. 253-265. 8 The data given by respondents who answered, "Yes", to the question, "Would you l i k e to take some kind of further education or t r a i n i n g ? " was subjected to further analysis by examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between par-t i c i p a t i o n and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Tabulations were prepared and tested f o r s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 and .05 l e v e l s using the ch i square s t a t i s t i c . LIMITATIONS The findings to be presented must be taken as r e f e r r i n g only to the population studied although there i s reason to suggest that the findings may be i n d i c a t i v e of trends i n other r u r a l areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. Since heads of households were interviewed, most of the respondents were male. I t was not possible to determine whether or not the type of educa-t i o n the respondent was interested i n i s i n fac t a v a i l a b l e for him although the North Okanagan region i s w e l l supplied with adult education resources. The survey method does not allow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a causal r e l a t i o n -ship. I t cannot be assumed that because some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are found to be r e l a t e d to expressed i n t e r e s t that those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s cause i n t e r e s t or v i c e versa. I t may be that there i s a more basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that has a tendency to e f f e c t both i n t e r e s t and other measurable f a c t o r s . PLAN Chapter II presents the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis exam-i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between expressed i n t e r e s t and personal, s o c i a l , economic and educational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Chapter I I I presents the r e -s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a -t i o n and personal, s o c i a l , educational and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of inte r e s t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . 9 In Chapter IV the findings of t h i s study are summarized. These are then interpreted i n the l i g h t of t h e i r usefulness to adult education. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Two summaries ' of the r e s u l t s of research y i e l d i n g information about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s in adult educational a c t i v i t i e s are discussed by Houle,*^ The people a c t u a l l y served (by adult education), turn out to be drawn c h i e f l y or e n t i r e l y from the middle c l a s s , the r e l a t i v e l y highly educated, and the profes-s i o n a l or c l e r i c a l occupation, Q&high income groups are more l i k e l y to take part i n educational a c t i v i t i e s than low income groups. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s also p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the si z e of the community, the length of residence i n i t , and the number of d i f f e r e n t kinds of educational a c t i v i t y a v a i l a b l e . People with c e r t a i n n a t i o n a l i t y or r e l i g i o u s backgrounds are more active than those with other backgrounds. Age i s important: the very young adult seldom takes part, but there i s a sharp upturn i n the late twenties, a f a i r l y constant l e v e l of a c t i v i t y u n t i l the age of f i f t y , and a decline afterward. Married people p a r t i c i p a t e more than single people and f a m i l i e s with school-age c h i l d r e n more than f a m i l i e s without them. But the most u n i v e r s a l l y important fa c t o r i s schooling. The higher the formal education of the adult, the more l i k e l y i t i s that he w i l l take part i n continuing education. The amount of schooling i s , i n f a c t , so s i g n i f i c a n t that i t underlies or r e i n f o r c e s many of the other determinants, such as occupation, s i z e of community, length of stay in i t , and n a t i o n a l i t y and r e l i g i o u s backgrounds. 12 Verner, Coolie and John S. Newberry, J r . "The Nature of Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n , 1 1 Adult Education. V I I I , pp. 208-222 (Summer, 1958). 13 Brunner, Edmund de S., D. S. Wilder, C. Kirchner and J . S. Newberry, J r . An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959. •^Houle, C y r i l 0. The Inquiring Mind. Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1961. 10 Kaplan agrees there i s no question about the above f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education, but suggested that such f a c t o r s are not s u f f i c i e n t to understand p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In h i s research he found people who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e because of a sense of not belong-in g . Kaplan a l s o reported c l e a r patterns of d i f f e r e n c e s of i n t e r e s t between neighbourhoods of higher and lower socio-economic s t a t u s ; the higher r e p o r t i n g more i n t e r e s t i n a r t s , c r a f t s and hobbies and the lower r e p o r t i n g more i n t e r e s t i n v o c a t i o n a l choices. There i s considerable b a s i s i n the l i t e r a t u r e to support the o p i n i o n that i n t e r e s t i s i n d i c a t i v e of future p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Loewenstein 16 and Lewis summarize the l i t e r a t u r e which bears on t h i s : Thorndike proposed that i f one increases i n t e r e s t , one increases p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Maclver and Page stat e d t h a t , 'man's i n t e r e s t s are those items to which he d i r e c t s h i s a t t e n t i o n . Our own e x t e r n a l behavior i s an expression of our own a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s . ' Dennis concluded that the study of human i n t e r e s t s was f o r the most part the study of a c t i v i t i e s and that these a c t i v i -t i e s are the best i n d i c a t o r of i n t e r e s t s . F u r t h e r , he i n d i c a t e d that i n t e r e s t s v / i l l determine f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n a given a c t i v i t y . According to Knox, i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e a choice between a c t i v i t i e s on' the part of the p a r t i c i p a n t . I f i n t e r e s t s involve a choice among a l t e r n a -t i v e courses of a c t i o n , then what a person does i s a good index of h i s i n t e r e s t and v i c e versa. 15 Kaplan, Abraham A. "Socio-Economic Circumstances and Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C e r t a i n C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . " C o n t r i -butions to Education No. 889. New York: Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1943. 16 Loewenstein, D.E. and S. S. Lewis. "A Study of the Components of Future P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education Programs." Cooperative Extension S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska, 1966. 11 Johnstone and Rivera, i n a study of the educational pursuits of American adults, were concerned with the r e l a t i o n of learning i n t e r e s t to educational behavior. They asked of the subjects i n t h e i r study the question, "Most people have things they'd l i k e to learn more about or would l i k e to do better. Is there anything in p a r t i c u l a r that you would l i k e to learn more about, or would l i k e to learn to do better?" Twenty-three per cent of t h e i r respondents gave negative answers to t h i s question. The authors suggest that a negative response i s l i k e l y to represent l i t t l e hope of getting the respondent into an adult education program. They found an a s s o c i a t i o n between wanting to learn more and the percentage having taken a course i n the l a s t f i v e years or engaged i n independent study or saying they would l i k e to take another course. The existence of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p suggested to the authors that learning i n t e r e s t s do represent important preconditions to enrolment. They were not s u f f i -cient preconditions, however, since only one-third of those with learning i n t e r e s t had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n formal or informal educational pursuits i n the l a s t f i v e years and more than one-third had not even thought of taking a course. 18 Kuhlen states that psychological needs p a r t l y determine what aspects of the environment we respond to, the d i r e c t i o n i n which e f f o r t s are expended and the energy thrown into a task. He points out that motiv-a t i o n changes as l i f e s i t u a t i o n s change and that expressed i n t e r e s t i s ^Johnstone, J.W.C. and R.J. Rivera. Volunteers for Learning. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965. ^Kuhlen, Raymond G. "Motivational Changes During the Adult Years," in Psychological Backgrounds of Adult Education. R.G. Kuhlen, e d i t o r , Center for the Study of L i b e r a l Education for Adults, 1963. 12 l i k e l y to r e f l e c t the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . Kuhlen suggests that needs may be a f f e c t e d by experience. For example, c u r i o u s i t y may be decreased by sameness of s t i m u l a t i o n and need t o achieve may be a f -fec t e d by chronic f a i l u r e . He suggests that achievement needs decrease when s e c u r i t y and success are gained, and that a f f i l i a t i o n or s e r v i c e needs become more important. 19 Maslow reported that as the p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs are s a t i s f i e d , needs f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n become dominant. This would lead us to expect that d i f f e r e n t types of i n t e r e s t would operate i n inducing raotiva-20 t i o n toward ad u l t education. Houle - concludes that people seek to s a t i s f y v a r i ous personal needs by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adul t education and so can be expected to e n r o l i n p a r t i c u l a r kinds of courses. 21 Douglah and Moss found evidence to support the view that motiv-a t i o n should be st u d i e d w i t h reference to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s background. The variables,income, s t a t u s , and number of c h i l d r e n induced m o t i v a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e among a d u l t s of low education. The authors suggest that among the h i g h l y educated the primary m o t i v a t i o n may be ass o c i a t e d w i t h a d e s i r e f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , that i s , such people are growth motiv-ated r a t h e r than d e f i c i e n c y motivated. Douglah and Moss conclude that 19 Maslow, A.H. "A Theory of Human M o t i v a t i o n . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Review, 50, pp. 370-96, 1943. 20 Houle, C y r i l 0., op_. c i t . 21 Douglah, Mohammed and Gwenna Moss. " D i f f e r e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Patterns of Adults of Low and High Ed u c a t i o n a l Attainment," Adult  Education, 18:247-259, (Summer, 1968). 13 the f u n c t i o n s of adult education are v a r i e d and appeal to i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y depending on t h e i r needs and i n t e r e s t s . 22 London, Wenkert and Hagstrom analyzed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t l e i s u r e s t y l e s and found three themes. F i r s t , there tended to be a l e i s u r e s t y l e c o n s i s t i n g of membership and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s which was congenial to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education. Second, there was a s t y l e of broad l e i s u r e i n t e r e s t , expressed by the p u r s u i t of a large number and v a r i e t y of non-organiza-t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . This a l s o was congenial to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education. T h i r d , they found that a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made w i t h respect to the content of the a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n f r e q u e n t l y . F r e -quent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u l t u r a l matters, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s outside the immediate f a m i l y or neighbourhood or immediate work s i t u a t i o n , and a c t i v e engagement i n sports tended to be h i g h l y r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education. In c o n t r a s t , frequent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s s i t u a t e d i n one's immediate surroundings, f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t i o n s i n more r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l c i r c l e s , and a passive engagement i n sports and the mass media tend t o be n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education. 23 Goard and Dickinson explored a t t i t u d e s which might be r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education. They reported that p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s have markedly d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward change. 22 London, Jack, Robert Wenkert and W.O. Hagstrom. Adult Education  and S o c i a l C l a s s . Survey Research Center, P r o j e c t No. 1017. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1963, pp. 145. 23 Goard, Dean S. and Gary D i c k i n s o n . The Influence of Education  and Age on P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n R u r a l A d u l t Education. S p e c i a l Study No. 2. Vancouver: F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. 14 On the basis of e x i s t i n g knowledge of psychological factors a f f e c t i n g overt behaviour, there i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the study of those who express i n t e r e s t i n further education or t r a i n i n g . Interest may be a variable which would lead to further understanding of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s who are l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult education. If as 24 Johnstone and Rivera state, learning interests do represent important preconditions to enrolment, we may learn more about people who are l i k e l y to become par t i c i p a n t s by f i n d i n g i f they can be distinguished from i n d i v i d u a l s who do not express i n t e r e s t . I f respondents grouped accord-ing to expressed lack of in t e r e s t are found to be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from respondents grouped according to expressed i n t e r e s t , i t i s l i k e l y that i n t e r e s t i s a r e a l f a c t o r ; that our scales and questions are measuring something which makes a difference. An understanding about respondents who are interested i n adult education may provide the basis f o r further studies and ultim a t e l y add to the a b i l i t y of adult educators to reach t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . 24 Johnstone and Rivera, op_. c i t . / CHAPTER II CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH INTEREST A number of factors were found to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between respondents interested i n further education or t r a i n i n g and respondents who were not interested or undecided. Data regarding c e r t a i n socio-economic character-i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d from each respondent i n the survey and are used here to compare the two groups. A summary of the factors d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the interested and the uninterested respondents i s presented in Table 1. The c h i square s t a t i s t i c indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .05 l e v e l for two personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , age and place of b i r t h . Of the s o c i a l charac-t e r i s t i c s , l e v e l of l i v i n g , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n and attitude to change d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between interested and uninterested respondents. A l l of the educational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , including years of schooling, wife's schooling and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education, d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the two groups of respondents. Less than ha l f of the economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between respondents interested and uninterested i n further education. T o t a l income, months unemployed i n the l a s t three years, and the years worked i n the present occupation d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the groups at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 15 16 TABLE I CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORS BETWEEN INTERESTED AND NOT INTERESTED RESPONDENTS . Fac t o r C h i Square Degrees of Freedom Personal: M a r i t a l s t a tus Age Number of c h i l d r e n Years i n l o c a l i t y Place of b i r t h Previous residence 1.72 34.55 4.04 10.27 12.74 1.74 1 4 5 6 5 3 NS > .05 < .01 NS >. 05 NS > .05 < .05 NS> .05 S o c i a l : L e v e l of l i v i n g S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n A l i e n a t i o n A t t i t u d e to r u r a l l i v i n g A t t i t u d e to change E d u c a t i o n a l : Years of sch o o l i n g Wife's s c h o o l i n g A. E. p a r t i c i p a t i o n 11.14 7.87 12.49 3.32 60.90 22.16 12.99 16.34 4 4 1 <.05 <T.05 <.05 NS >.05 <.01 ^.01 <.05 <".01 Economic: T o t a l income Farm income Months worked i n 1968 Months unemployed i n l a s t three years Job s a t i s f a c t i o n Acres owned or operated Years i n occupation 15.69 .00 .03 9.02 1.01 7.08 16.73 3 1 3 3 2 4 6 <r.oi NS >.05 NS >.05 <r.05 NS >.05 NS >.05 <.05 17 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Most of the pa r t i c i p a n t s i n the study were married (Table 2) with 12.6 per cent of those not interested and 7.5 per cent of those who were interested being single or widowed, divorced or separated from t h e i r spouses. A somewhat greater percentage of the interested TABLE 2 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS AND INTEREST IN^CONTINUING.EDUCATION M a r i t a l Status Not Interested Interested ^ No. . % No. % _ Single, divorced, separated or widowed 15 12.6 9 7.5 Married 104 87.4 111 92.5 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 2 X = 1.72, d.f. = 1, p>.05 respondents (92.5)) per cent) were married than the percentage of the uninterested (87.4 per cent), but the data indicated no tendency for marriage and i n t e r e s t to vary together. The difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the groups according to age was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , showing that respondents i n t e r -ested i n continuing education were younger than those who were not interested (Table 3). Up to the age of 44, many more respondents were 18 i n t e r e s t e d (55 per c e n t ) , than were u n i n t e r e s t e d (36 per c e n t ) . This suggests that there i s a considerable number of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the po p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d as adult education i s known about and seen as d e s i r a b l e . Between the ages of 45 and 54 almost as many were u n i n -t e r e s t e d (22.7 per cent) as were i n t e r e s t e d (25 per c e n t ) . A f t e r the age of 55, 51.3 per cent were u n i n t e r e s t e d and 20 per cent were i n t e r -ested i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r education. Some respondents i n every age group were i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or education and 4.2 per cent of the i n t e r e s t e d were over 65, thus advanced age d i d not preclude i n -t e r e s t e n t i r e l y . TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Age Not I n t e r e s t e d I n t e r e s t e d No. No. % 15 - 34 years 10 8.4 35 29.2 35 - 44 21 17.6 31 25.8 45 - 54 27 22.7 30 25.0 55- 64 36 30.3 19 15.8 65 and over 25 21.0 5 4.2 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X = 34.55, d.f. = 1, p<".01 19 The number of c h i l d r e n reported did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two groups. Individuals with few chi l d r e n were as l i k e l y to be interested as they were to be uninterested, and in d i v i d u a l s with more chi l d r e n were also as l i k e l y to be interested as not. The data pro-vides no grounds to suggest that a large family lowers i n t e r e s t i n adult education, nor that i t tends to produce a f e e l i n g of inadequacy which i s r e f l e c t e d i n a desire f o r further education. TABLE 4 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION No. of Children Not Interested Interested No. % No. % None 14 11, .9 16 13, .3 1 11 9. .3 18 15. .0 2 26 21. .8 25 20, .9 3 26 21, .8 21 17. ,5 4 - 5 26 21, .8 30 25. ,0 6 or more , 16 13. .4 10 8. .3 TOTALS 119 100. .0 120 100. .0 X 2 = 4.04, d.f. = 5, p>.05 Since those interested i n adult education were younger, i t could be expected that the interested group would have l i v e d fewer years i n the community, however, t h i s did not appear to be the case.^ Some 18.5 per cent of those not interested i n continuing education had been i n t h e i r present l o c a l i t y for f i v e or fewer years, while 49.6 per cent had been there for twenty or more years (Table 5). Of those who were interested, 32.5 per cent were r e l a t i v e newcomers and 40.8 per cent had been i n t h e i r present community for more than twenty years. The difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by number of years resident i n the area and i n t e r e s t i n continuing education was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS IN LOCALITY AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Years here Not No. Interested Interested No. % 2 years or less 13 10.9 24 20.0 3 - 5 9 7.6 15 12.5 6 - 1 0 14 11.8 15 12.5 11 - 16 14 11.8 10 8.3 17 - 20 10 8.4 7 5.8 20 or more 41 34.5 34 28.4 L i f e 18 15.1 15 12.5 TOTALS 119 , 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 10.27 , d.f. = 6, p>. 05 ^Verner and Dickinson, op_. c i t . Permission to r e p r i n t the c o r r e l a t i o n table was granted and i t w i l l be found in the appendix. 21 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the respondents according to place of b i r t h indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups (Table 6). Res-pondents born i n parts of B r i t i s h Columbia other than the survey area were more l i k e l y to be interes t e d i n continuing education. They made up 43.7 per cent of the uninterested and 65.0 per cent of the i n t e r -ested respondents, while those born i n the survey area made up 16.0 per cent of the uninterested and 13.3 per cent of the interested groups. In a l l other categories of place of b i r t h respondents were more l i k e l y to be uninterested than interested. The data suggest that people who TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . . Place of B i r t h Not Interested Interested No. % No. % Here 19 16, .0 16 13.3 B r i t i s h Columbia 10 8. ,4 17 14^ 2;*! Elsewhere i n Canada 42 35. .3 61 50.8 United States 10 8. .4 4 3.3 United Kingdom 11 9, .2 8 6.7 Other 27 22. .7 14 11.7 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 12.74, d.f. = 5, p<.05 22 do not move from the place of b i r t h are less motivated to seek s e l f -improvement than are those who do move, even i f the movement i s only wit h i n the province. People who move from other cultures may be i n -volved with informal learning of the new culture to such an extent that they do not wish to e n r o l l i n courses or they may not have learned where courses are offered. Those from elsewhere in Canada make a lesser change i n t h e i r environment and may f i n d stimulation in the newness. The above suggestion i s consistent with the data respecting previous residence (Table 7). People who had l i v e d elsewhere i n Canada before coming to t h e i r present community were no more l i k e l y to be i n -terested than uninterested. This group would include those moving from the place of b i r t h d i r e c t l y to North Okanagan as w e l l as those moving another time since they had l e f t t h e i r place of b i r t h . The d i s t r i b u -t i o n of respondents according to where they had l i v e d previously did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the groups of interested and not interested respondents. SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS The s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s studied including l e v e l of l i v i n g , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and attitude to change, a l l discrim-inate between respondents who were interested and those uninterested in adult education. Those are a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may a f f e c t and r e f l e c t interpersonal i n t e r a c t i o n . 23 TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PREVIOUS RESIDENCE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Previous Place Not Interested Interested of Residence No. % No. % Lifetime resident 17 14.3 14 11.7 B r i t i s h Columbia 42 35.3 51 42.5 Elsewhere i n Canada 44 37.0 43 35.8 U.S., U.K. or other 16 13.4 12 10.0 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 1.74, d.f. = 3, p>.05 The l e v e l of l i v i n g index i s made up of items which a f f e c t the ease of l i v i n g : e x t e r i o r f i n i s h of house, room-person r a t i o , l i g h t i n g , water and r e f r i g e r a t i o n and laundry f a c i l i t i e s : ownership of communi-cations media: radio, newspaper, telephone; ownership of a car; and the church attendance of respondent and spouse. It i s an index of 2 socio-economic status, assessing the p o s i t i o n of the family i n the eyes of the neighbours and presumably of the f a m i l i e s ' idea of t h e i r own status or p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e to others. The Level of L i v i n g Score for a l l North Okanagan respondents 2 Sewell, W.H. "A Short Form of the Farm Family Socio-Economic Status Scale," Rural Sociology, 8:161-170, June, 1943. 24 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (r = .23), years i n present job (r = .16), job s a t i s f a c t i o n (r = .33), and t o t a l income (r = .24). The c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained here are consistent with a study by 3 Douglah and Moss in which i t was concluded that some motivation t o -ward adult education was growth rather than deficiency based. Those respondents in the North Okanagan who were more s e t t l e d i n t h e i r jobs, had higher incomes, possessed the conveniences of modern l i v i n g , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n clubs and organizations with other community members would appear to be integrated into t h e i r community and would l i k e l y possess status i n t h e i r community. The Level of L i v i n g Score discriminated between the two groups of respondents (Table 8). Of the eleven respondents r e c e i v i n g the lowest Level of L i v i n g Score, ten were not interested i n futther education and of the t h i r t e e n r e c e i v i n g 75 to 79 points, eight were not interested. But at the high end of the Level of L i v i n g Scale, nineteen respondents were interested in further education whereas ten were not. That the respondents with a higher l e v e l of l i v i n g score are more l i k e l y to be interested i n further education i s con-s i s t e n t with growth orientated motivation rather than with a need to overcome deprivations. Douglah and Moss, op_. c i t . TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY LEVEL OF LIVING SCORES AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION. . Level of L i v i n g Not Interested Interested No. % No. 74 or less 10 8.4 1 .1 75 - 79 8 6.7 5 4.3 80 - 84 20 16.8 23 19.4 8 5 - 8 9 27 22.7 29 24.4 90 - 94 44 37.0 43 35.9 95 or more 10 8.4 19 15.9 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 11.14, d.f. = 5, p<. 05 Respondents scoring higher i n s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n were more l i k e l y to be interested i n further education than respondents with a low s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score. (Table 9). Respondents with a score of zero included 64.7 per cent of the uninterested and 50.8 per cent of the interested. Respondents scoring 11 or more included 15.1 per cent of the uninterested and 30.0 per cent of the interested respon-dents. 26 TABLE 9 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCALE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Social Particip- Not Interested Interested ation Scores No. No. % 0 77 64.7 61 50.8 1 - 1 0 24 20.2 23 19.2 11 - 20 11 9.2 22 18.3 21 and over 7 5.9 14 11.7 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 7.87, d.f. = 3, p<.05 The relationship between interest in adult education and participation in and contributing to organizations is relevant to the finding of London, Wenkert and Hagstrom that a leisure style consist-ing of membership and participation in organizations was congenial to participation in adult education. A style or pattern of spending l e i -sure time is a complicated dimension, yet further understanding of how to improve ab i l i ty to predict which people are most l ike ly to p a r t i c i -pate may be gained by consideration of such a dimension. The relationship between interest in adult education and social participation suggests that organizations could be approached by adult educators with an offer of courses tailored for their membership or to give information which would be pertinent to the solution of problems 27 which the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s inv o l v e d i n s o l v i n g . I t i s f e l t by many adul t educators that one f u n c t i o n a d u l t edu-c a t i o n may serve i s t o develop b e t t e r c i t i z e n s h i p and acceptance of 4 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r community problems. T r a i n i n g i n l o g i c a l problem s o l v i n g , group e f f e c t i v e n e s s and le a d e r s h i p o f f e r s advantages to o r -ga n i z a t i o n s and communities. I f i n d i v i d u a l s who are members of org a n i z a t i o n s are more l i k e l y to be i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r education or t r a i n i n g , an approach through other o r g a n i z a t i o n s could be an e f f e c -t i v e means of expanding ad u l t education c l i e n t e l e . The a l i e n a t i o n score was r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t i n f u r t h e r educa-t i o n and respondents who were more a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r s o c i e t y were l e s s l i k e l y to be i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r education or t r a i n i n g . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 10, 31.7 per cent of the i n t e r e s t e d respondents compared w i t h 16.0 per cent of the un i n t e r e s t e d f e l l i n t o the category of zero a l i e n a t i o n score. Respondents r e c e i v i n g a l i e n a t i o n scores of four or f i v e made up a higher percentage of the u n i n t e r e s t e d (29.4 per cent) than of the i n t e r e s t e d (17.5 per c e n t ) . The a l i e n a t i o n scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h job s a t i s f a c t i o n ( r = -.21), and t o t a l income ( r = -.20), r e v e a l i n g a tendency f o r low income, low job s a t i s f a c t i o n and high a l i e n a t i o n to vary together."* F e s s l e r , Donald R. "Maximum F e a s i b l e P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Adult  Leadership 18: Number 7, 1970. "*The f i v e statements i n the a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e are found as Items 60 through 64 of the in t e r v i e w schedule i n the Appendix. 28 TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION AND INTEREST OF RESPONDENTS IN CONTINUING BY ALIENATION EDUCATION SCORE A l i e n a t i o n Score Not I n t e r e s t e d No. 7, I n t e r e s t e d No. % 0 19 16.0 38 31.7 1 29 24.4 33 27.5 2 18 15.1 18 15.0 3 18 15.1 10 8.3 4 20 16.8 13 10.8 5 15 12.6 8 6.7 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 12.49, d.f. = 5, p<.05 The a l i e n a t i o n s c a l e i s constructed to r e f l e c t a concept of 6 being cut o f f from the world. F e s s l e r suggests that a l i e n a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of men being unable t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n making which a f f e c t s t h e i r l i v e s . The presence of a l i e n a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n a community suggests that adult educators might make an approach to improving group l e a d e r s h i p i n a way that leads to members being i n -volved i n d e c i s i o n making. F e s s l e r , Donald R., op_. c i t . The a t t i t u d e t o change score y i e l d e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant c h i square value w i t h respect to i n t e r e s t i n ad u l t education (Table 11). Respondents who were more accepting of change were more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g education w i t h 68.2 per cent of those who were not i n t e r e s t e d having scores of 2, 3, or 4, w h i l e 31.8 per cent of those not i n t e r e s t e d had scores of 5, 6, or 7. In c o n t r a s t , 74.8 per cent of those who were i n t e r e s t e d had scores of 5, 6, or 7, and 25.2 per cent had scores of 2, 3, or 4. Since l e a r n i n g brings about TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ATTITUDE TO CHANGE SCALE AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION A t t i t u d e t o Not I n t e r e s t e d I n t e r e s t e d change score No. No. 2 33 30.0 3 2.5 3 21 19.1 10 8.4 4 21 19.1 17 14.3 5 20 18.2 24 20.2 6 8 7.2 29 24.4 7 7 6.4 36 30.2 TOTALS 110 100.0 119 100.0 X 2 = 60.90, d.f. = 5, p<.01 30 change, i t was expected that respondents who had p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s about change would more l i k e l y be i n t e r e s t e d i n education. Those respondents whose acceptance of change was low and who were i n t e r -ested i n f u r t h e r education or t r a i n i n g may not expect that t a k i n g f u r t h e r education w i l l i n v o l v e change. The f i f t h s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a t t i t u d e to r u r a l l i v i n g , was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t i n a d u l t education (Table 12). The t a b l e of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s shows i t to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to age ( r = .14), number of c h i l d r e n (r = .15), and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the a t t i t u d e toward change (r = -.25). There i s a tendency f o r o l d e r people or people w i t h more c h i l d r e n to favour l i v i n g i n the country. That people who favour r u r a l r a t h e r than urban l i v i n g are l i k e l y to f e e l n e g a t i v e l y toward change may be p a r t l y accounted f o r by age. TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ATTITUDE TO RURAL LIVING AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION A t t i t u d e to Not I n t e r e s t e d I n t e r e s t e d R u r a l L i v i n g No. 7<, No. % Favourable to urban or r u r a l l i v i n g or n e u t r a l 21 17.6 33 27.5 S t r o n g l y favourable to r u r a l l i v i n g 98 82.4 87 72.5 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 3.32, d.f. = 1, p>.05 31 EDUCATIONAL FACTORS Three educational factors including years of schooling, of wife's schooling and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between interested and uninterested respondents. Those respondents who had fewer years of schooling were less l i k e l y to be interested i n continuing education (Table 13). Respondents with 8 or fewer TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Schooling Not No. Interested Interested No. % 5 years or les s 18 15.1 7 5.8 6 - 8 47 39.5 26 21.7 9 - 1 1 35 29.4 57 47.5 12 8 6.7 21 17.5 13 or more 11 9.3 9 7.5 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = 22.16, d.f. = 4, p<.01 years of schooling accounted for 54.6 per cent of respondents uninter-ested i n further education and 27.5 per cent of those who were i n t e r -ested. Respondents with 12 or more years of schooling accounted for 32 16.0 per cent of those uninterested and 25 per cent of the interested. The difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by years of school completed be-tween the two groups was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This f i n d i n g should not be interpreted to mean there i s l i t t l e chance of drawing i n d i v i d u a l s with less schooling into adult education courses. I t does mean that adult educators w i l l have to f i n d how to communicate the f a c t that some adult education courses f i t with the inter e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s who have not received much formal education. In f a c t , adult education o f f e r s the opportunity for many kinds of learn-ing which are unlike the opportunities offered i n school. TABLE 14 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY WIFE'S SCHOOLING AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Wife's Not Interested Interested Schooling No. % No. % 8 y r s . or less 41 39.0 21 19.3 9 - 1 1 30 28.6 47 43.1 12 25 23.8 24 22.0 13 or more 9 8.6 17 15.6 TOTALS 105 100.0 109 100.0 X 2 = 12.6, d.f. = 3, p<.01 33 The spouse's schooling co r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with respondents schooling (r = .45) and was also r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t i n education. Table 14 i l l u s t r a t e s that respondents whose spouses had 8 or fewer years of schooling included 39 per cent of those uninterested i n further edu-cation and 19.3 per cent of those interested. Respondents whose spouses had 12 or more years of schooling included 32.4 per cent of uninterested and 37.6 per cent of interested respondents. The difference i n the d i s -t r i b u t i o n by spouse's schooling between the two groups of respondents was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with schooling or with spouse's schooling i n the area studied. In data gathered i n other r u r a l areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia^ p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to schooling and wife's schooling. However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education discriminated between in t e r e s t e d and uninterested respondents (Table 15) at a s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . Those who had taken no adult education courses accounted f o r 89.1 per cent of the uninterested and 67.5 per cent of the interested respondents. Those who had taken one or more adult education courses accounted f o r 10.9 per cent of the uninterested and 32.5 per cent of the interes t e d respondents. The interview schedules of farm respondents were examined to ascertain the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of contact with a g r i c u l -t u r a l extension and i n t e r e s t i n adult education. Of those farmers 7 Goard and Dickinson, op_. c i t . , p. 9. 34 TABLE 15 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPATION AND.INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . Adult Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Not Interested No. % Interested No. % None One or more courses TOTALS 106 13 119 89.1 10.9 100.0 81 39 120 67.5 32.5 100.0 X 2 = 16.34, d.f. = 1, p<.01 who were inter e s t e d , 67.5 per cent had taken no courses. This reveals that i n t e r e s t i s not a s u f f i c i e n t prerequisite to ensure enrolment. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of respondents who were interested but did not e n r o l l suggests the f o c a l point f o r understanding adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These respondents are informed of the advantages of adult education and perceive p o t e n t i a l need s a t i s f a c t i o n i n adult education. This f i n d i n g i s s i m i l a r to that of Johnstone and R i v i e r a who reported that one-third of those who expressed i n t e r e s t i n education had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n courses. Farm respondents were asked the number of impersonal contacts they had in the previous year with the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension personnel 9 through radio, t e l e v i s i o n , newspaper or mailings. Respondents who were ^Johnstone and Rivera, op_. c i t . 9 The statements of impersonal and personal contact are found as Item 58 i n the interview schedule, page 16. (See Appendix 2). 35 not interested i n further education or t r a i n i n g had as many impersonal contacts as had those respondents who were interested (Table 16). Some 41.4 per cent of the uninterested respondents had 5 contacts and 57.5 per cent of interested respondents had 5 contacts. TABLE 16 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF IMPERSONAL CONTACTS WITH AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Number of Not Interested Interested Contacts No. % No. % 0 - 2 9 22.0 7 17.5 3 - 4 15 36.6 10 25.0 5 17 41.4 23 57.5 TOTALS 41 100.0 40 100.0 X 2 = 2.14, d.f. = 2, p>.05 Respondents who are interest e d i n further education reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y more personal contacts with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension per-sonnel through attending meetings, v i s i t i n g and being v i s i t e d by per-sonnel and speaking to them on the telephone (Table 17). Thus, 61 per cent of the uninterested respondents had no personal contacts and 25 per cent of the interested had no contacts. Of those respondents 36 TABLE 17 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF PERSONAL CONTACTS WITH ..AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING.EDUCATION Number of Contacts Not Interested No. % Interested No. % 0 1 - 2 3 - 7 8 - 9 TOTALS 25 9 3 4 61.0 22.0 7.3 9.7 10 5 15 10 25.0 12.5 37.5 25.0 41 100.0 40 100.0 X 2 = 18.12, d.f. = 3, p<.01 who were not interested 17 per cent had more than 2 contacts compared with 25 per cent of those who were interested and had more than 2 con t a c t s . There i s a clear tendency f o r in t e r e s t i n adult education and personal contact with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension to vary together. Akinbode's work i s relevant to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th i s f i n d i n g . He reported that farmers with more years of schooling, more active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education and higher socio-economic status had more personal contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t . .10 Akinbode, I.A. The Relationships between the Socio-Economic  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Their Contacts with . D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis, Vancouver, Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969, p. 113. 37 If i n t e r e s t i s evidence of perceived need s a t i s f a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l , then we would expect interested respondents to seek education from a g r i c u l t u r a l extension i f they see i t as a source of education or t r a i n i n g . This cannot be confirmed from the data presented herein. The r e s u l t s are equally w e l l understood by considering that those farmers contacted by the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension agents are more i n t e r -ested as a r e s u l t of experiencing personal contact. ECONOMIC FACTORS The t o t a l family income of respondents was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g i n t e r e s t i n adult education, with those i n the higher i n -come categories more l i k e l y to want further education or t r a i n i n g than those in the low income groups. As Table 18 i l l u s t r a t e s , 48.7 per cent of the interested respondents as against 23.9 per cent of those not i n -terested reported incomes of more than $6,000 per year. The lowest income category of less than $3,000 per year contained 17.4 per cent of those intere s t e d compared to 24.8 per cent of those not interested i n further education or t r a i n i n g . The difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by t o t a l family income between the two groups of respondents was s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Factors other than i n t e r e s t i n continuing education were s i g n i f -i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t o t a l family income. There were s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e v e l of l i v i n g (r = .33), and between the former c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and number of years i n the present 38 TABLE 18 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY TOTAL INCOME CATEGORY AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION To t a l Income Not Interested Interested No. % No. 7o Less than $3,000 28 24.8 20 17.4 $3,000 to $5,999 58 51.3 39 33.9 $6,000 to $8,999 16 14.2 38 33.0 $9,000 or more 11 9.7 18 15.7 TOTALS 113 100.0 115 100.0 X 2 - 15.69, d.f. = 3, p<.01 job (r = .15), but job s a t i s f a c t i o n was negatively cor r e l a t e d with a l i e n a t i o n (r = -.21). Thus, job s a t i s f a c t i o n tended to increase as job experience and l e v e l of l i v i n g increased, but a higher l e v e l of a l i e n a t i o n was i n d i c a t i v e of lower job s a t i s f a c t i o n . As Table 19 indi c a t e s , there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by job s a t i s f a c t i o n between those respondents who were interested and those not interested i n continuing education. Most of the respondents i n both groups were e i t h e r s a t i s f i e d or very s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r present jobs. 39 TABLE 19 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY JOB SATISFACTION AND. INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . . Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Not Interested Interested No. % No. % Very d i s s a t i s f i e d , d i s s a t i s f i e d or neutral 1153 14.9 18 15.4 S a t i s f i e d 54 53.5 55 47.0 Very s a t i s f i e d 32 31.7 44 37.6 TOTALS 101 100.0 117 100.0 X 2 = 1.01, d.f. = 2, p>.05 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents according to the amount of money received f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products indicated no difference be-tween the interested and uninterested groups (Table 20). Of respondents earning less than $250 a year f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products, as many were uninterested (66.4 per cent) as interested (66.7 per cent) i n further education. Among the farm respondents were 33.6 per cent of the unin-terested and 33.3 per cent of the interested. Goard*'*' found that the r u r a l farm household heads were less l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult education than the non-farm heads. Since i t appears that they are as interested i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g , i t may be that farmers simply have more c a l l on t h e i r time than do non-farmers. ^Goard, Dean S., op_. c i t . , p. 30. TABLE 20 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MONEY RECEIVED FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Amount Received f o r Not Interested A g r i c u l t u r a l Products No. % Less than $250 79 66.4 80 66.7 More than $250 40 33.6 40 33.3 TOTALS 119 100.0 120 100.0 X 2 = .002, d.f. = 1, p>.05 Interested No. % The number of months worked i n 1968 did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e be-tween the groups. Individuals who had worked 6 months or less and those who had worked 12 months, were neither more nor less l i k e l y to be interested i n further education or t r a i n i n g (Table 21). In each category of respondents by months worked i n 1968 the percentages of interested and uninterested respondents were s i m i l a r . Thus, respond-ents who had months i n which they were not working were not drawn to adult education e i t h e r to increase t h e i r employability or to enrich t h e i r l e i s u r e . TABLE 21 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MONTHS WORKED IN 1968 AND.INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . Months Worked 1968 Not Interested Interested No. 7. No. % 1 - 6 months 7 6.9 8 6.9 7 - 9 9 8.9 10 8.6 10 - 11 11 10.9 12 10.3 12 74 73.3 86 74.2 TOTALS 101 100.0 116 100.0 X 2 = .03, d.f. = 3, p>.05 The number of acres owned or operated did not y i e l d a d i s t r i -bution which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the groups arranged according to i n t e r e s t i n further education (Table 22). Respondents owning one acre or less were somewhat more l i k e l y to be interested (39.5 per cent) than uninterested (27.1 per cent) i n further education or t r a i n i n g , although the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Respondents owning or operating 100 acres or more were as l i k e l y to be uninterested (15.2 per cent) as interested (13.4 per cent). TABLE 22 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF ACRES OWNED OR OPERATED AND INTEREST . IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Acres owned or Not Interested Interested operated No. % No. % 1 or less 32 27.1 47 39.5 2 - 9 34 28.8 25 21.1 10 - 39 15 12.7 20 16.8 4 0 - 9 9 19 16.1 11 9.2 100 and over 18 15.3 16 13.4 TOTALS 118 100.0 119 100.0 X 2 = 7.08, d.f. = 4, p>.05 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents tabulated on the basis of the number of months unemployed i n the l a s t three years discriminated between interested and uninterested respondents at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . As i s seen i n Table 23 respondents who had not been unemployed in the l a s t three years included 76.5 per cent of the respondents not interested in further education and 68.3 per cent of those interested i n further education. Respondents who had been unemployed 6 months or less included 8.4 per cent of the uninterested TABLE 23 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MONTHS UNEMPLOYED IN LAST THREE YEARS AND INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION . . Months Unemployed in l a s t 3 years Not Interested No. 7o Interested No. 7o up to 6 months 7 - 1 2 13 - 36 TOTALS 91 10 8 10 76.5 8.4 6.7 8.4 82 24 10 4 68.3 20.1 8.3 3.3 119 100.0 120 100.0 X = 9.02, d.f. = 3, p<.05 and 20 per cent of the interested respondents. Those who had been unemployed over 13 months accounted f o r 8.4 per cent of the uninter-ested and 3.3 per cent of the interested. It appears that some d i f f i c u l t y with f i n d i n g employment tends to be associated with an i n t e r e s t i n further education or t r a i n i n g , but with severe unemployment there i s a d i s i n t e r e s t i n further educa-t i o n or t r a i n i n g . This f i n d i n g suggests that adult educators should attempt to in t e r e s t i n d i v i d u a l s who are newly experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g unemployment. Unemployment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y negatively c o r r e l a t e d with attitude toward change (r = .55), which f i n d i n g may r e s u l t from the fact that older people s u f f e r more unemployment and do not report a po s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward change. TABLE 24 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS IN PRESENT OCCUPATION,AND INTEREST. IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Years Worked i n Not Interested Interested Present Occupation No. % No. % 2 or less 17 16.8 19 16.4 3 - 5 9 8.9 22 19.0 6 - 1 0 183 17.8 22 19.0 11 - 15 13 12.9 14 12.0 1 6 - 2 0 9 8.9 22 19.0 21 - 25 8. 7.9 4 3.4 26 or more 27 26.7 13 11.2 TOTALS 101 100.0 116 100.0 X 2 = 16.73, d.f. = 6, p<.05 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents on the basis of the number of years they have worked i n t h e i r present occupation d i f f e r e n t i a t e d be-tween those interested and those not interested i n adult education 45 at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l (Table 24). Respondents who had worked i n t h e i r present occupation 21 years or more were less i n t e r -ested i n adult education. In two categories: 3 to 5 years and 16 to 20 years i n the present job, the number of interested respondents was twice that of uninterested respondents. This may indicate that a f t e r two or three years i n an occupation a respondent f e e l s a need to widen his environment, i f he remains i n the same occupation he i s stimulated to search again to develop himself. Thus, years in the present occu-pation may be a u s e f u l index to mark the l i f e periods in which respond-ents are most accessible to the o f f e r of further education or t r a i n i n g . SUMMARY The respondents i n t h i s study who reported that they were i n t e r -ested i n further education or t r a i n i n g were younger and they and t h e i r wives had more schooling than respondents who reported they were not interested or were undecided. Those who were interes t e d were more l i k e l y to have been born i n Canada outside of the survey area, they had a higher l e v e l of l i v i n g , were more active in s o c i a l organizations, had a higher income and p a r t i c i p a t e d more in adult education. The uninterested were more l i k e l y to be alienated, to have a negative attitude to change, to have been unemployed longer i n the l a s t three years, and to have spent fewer years i n t h e i r present occupation than those who were interested i n continuing t h e i r education. CHAPTER I I I PARTICIPATION AND INTEREST The purpose of t h i s study of providing more information about i n d i v i d u a l s who express an i n t e r e s t i n adult education may be pursued by an examination of t h i s data to discern i f those who are interested and who do p a r t i c i p a t e can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from those who are interested and do not p a r t i c i p a t e . People who say they are interested i n further education may or may not have taken courses. Those who are interested and have taken courses may not d i f f e r on any other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c from those who are interested and have not taken courses. A d i s c e r n i b l e difference i n the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of these two groups of respondents could suggest further under-standing of the factors which support the l i k e l i h o o d that i n t e r e s t w i l l r e s u l t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Of the respondents who reported i n t e r e s t , 67.5 per cent had taken no course, whereas the remaining 32.5 per cent had taken one or more courses. The following analysis i s of interested respondents tabulated according to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education courses, and according to other personal, s o c i a l , educational aid economic char-a c t e r i s t i c s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the interested non-participants from the interested p a r t i c i p a n t s were: s o c i a l p a r t i -c i p a t i o n , l e v e l of l i v i n g , schooling, and wife's schooling. The economic and personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s generally did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the groups. 46 TABLE 25 CHI SQUARE VALUES FOR DISTRIBUTION OF FACTORS BETWEEN INTERESTED RESPONDENTS WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN ADULT EDUCATION COURSES AND THOSE WHO HAD NOT PARTICIPATED 47 Factor Chi Square Degrees of Freedom Personal: Age 5.38 M a r i t a l status .47 Number of c h i l d r e n 1.54 Place of b i r t h 5.48 Years resident i n area 1.68 2 1 3 3 3 NSX05 NS>.05 NS>.05 NS>.05 NS>.05 S o c i a l : Level of l i v i n g 8.76 S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n 8.53 Attitude to r u r a l l i v i n g .10 Atti t u d e to change 6.67 Ali e n a t i o n 3.84 3 3 1 4 4 <.05 <.05 NSX05 NS>.05 NS>.05 Educational: Years of schooling 9.24 Wife's schooling 10.59 3 2 <.05 <.01 Economic: T o t a l income 1.85 Farm income .17 Years i n occupation 4.60 Job s a t i s f a c t i o n 1.60 Months unemployed i n l a s t three years 5.68 3 1 5 2 NSX05 NSV05 NS>.05 NS>.05 NS>.05 48 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Age i s not a fa c t o r which discriminates between the interested respondents who had and those who had not taken adult education courses. T h i r t y - s i x per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 25.9 per cent of the non-par t i c i p a n t s were under the age of t h i r t y - f o u r , while 36 per cent of the former group and 58 per cent of the l a t t e r were between the ages of t h i r t y - f i v e and f i f t y - f o u r . Somewhat unexpected was the fi n d i n g that over the age of f i f t y - f i v e , 28 per cent of the pa r t i c i p a n t s and 16.1 per cent of the non-participants were found (Table 26). In most studies of p a r t i c i p a t i o n older people p a r t i c i p a t e d less but i n th i s case older people p a r t i c i p a t e d more. These data suggest that i n the higher age group i n t e r e s t may be more e f f e c t i v e as motivation or conversely that p a r t i c i p a t i o n arouses more i n t e r e s t , although the precise r e l a t i o n s h i p could not be determined. TABLE 26 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND AGE Age Par t i c i p a n t s Non-participants No. % No. 7o 15-34 years 14 36.0 21 25.9 35-54 14 36.0 47 58.0 55 or more 11 28.0 13 16.1 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 X 2 = 5V38, d. f. = 2, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . 49 TABLE 27 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND MARITAL STATUS M a r i t a l Status P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-participants No. 7o N£. % Single, widowed or divorced, separated 2 5.0 7 8.6 Married 37 95.0 74 91.4 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 2 X = .47, d.f. = 1, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . M a r i t a l status did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two groups of interested respondents (Table 27), and the number of respondents' chi l d r e n made no difference between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and non-participa-t i o n by respondents who were interested i n further education or t r a i n -ing. Those who had up to two c h i l d r e n included 48.8 per cent of the pa r t i c i p a n t s and 49.3 per cent of the non-participants. Those with three or more c h i l d r e n included 51.2 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 50.7 per cent of the non-participants (Table 28). It cannot be demonstrated that place of b i r t h a f f e c t s p a r t i c i -pation of interested respondents (Table 29). Respondents born i n B r i t i s h Columbia outside the survey area include 20.6 per cent of the pa r t i c i p a n t s and 11.1 per cent of the non-participants. Respondents born outside of Canada include 10.2 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 50 27.2 per cent of the non-participants. Although some s l i g h t v a r i a -tions appeared to e x i s t , the difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by place of b i r t h between interested p a r t i c i p a n t s and interested n o n - p a r t i c i -pants was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 28 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN Number of Children P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-participants No. 7o No. 7o None 7 18.0 9 11.1 1 or 2 12 30.8 31 38.2 3 or 4 12 30.8 27 33.3 5 or more 8 20.4 14 17.4 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 X 2 = 1.54, d.f. = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 29 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND PLACE OF BIRTH Place of b i r t h P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-participants No. Jo No. % Here 5 12.8 11 13.6 B.C. 8 20.6 9 11.1 Elsewhere i n Canada 22 56.4 39 48.1 U.S., U.K. or other 4 10.2 22 27.2 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 X^ = 5.48, d.f. = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t 51 Years resident i n the area used as a factor to tabulate i n t e r -ested respondents did not discriminate between the groups of respondents. Some 15.4 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were resident i n the area for two or less years, while 46.1 per cent of them were twenty or more years resident. Of the non-participants, 22.2 per cent were two or less years resident and 38.3 per cent had l i v e d twenty or more years i n the area (Table 30). TABLE 30 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND YEARS RESIDENT IN AREA Years Resident i n Area P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-Participants No. % No. % 2 years or less 6 15.4 18 22.2 3 - 5 6 15.4 9 11.1 6 - 2 0 9 23.1 23 28.4 more than 20 18 46.1 31 38.3 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 2 X = 1.68, d.f. = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . 52 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the data of interested respondents accord-ing to t h e i r l e v e l of l i v i n g index does discriminate at a s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l between the groups, as shown in Table 31. Those respondents who had the lowest l e v e l of l i v i n g were more l i k e l y to be non-participants. In a l l other categories based on the l e v e l of l i v i n g index, the percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s was higher than that of non-participants. :''< The meaning of a low l e v e l of l i v i n g must be sought i n psycho-l o g i c a l terms, for i t i s apparent that t h i s i s not the same as a lack of money. In t h i s case money i s not spent on those things which are status signs in a community. The i n d i v i d u a l who does not buy himself a radio, car, or news-paper, does not provide his house with telephone and e l e c t r i c i t y , i s l i k e l y to be the i n d i v i d u a l whose report of in t e r e s t i n adult education does not coincide with p a r t i c i p a t i o n . His idea of himself and what his neighbours see in h i s home might be subsumed under the term "morale". It appears that such a concept may be used to describe a person who does not get himself to adult education courses although he sees them as p o t e n t i a l l y s a t i s f y i n g . Interested respondents whose s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score was i n the highest category were much more l i k e l y to be p a r t i c i p a n t s (20.5 per cent) than non-participants (7.4^) per cent). Respondents whose s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score was in the next highest category were a l s o TABLE 31 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND LEVEL OF LIVING Level of l i v i n g P a r t icipants No. % Non-participants No. % 84 or less 85 - 89 90 - 94 95 or more TOTALS 3 12 16 8 7.7 30.8 41.0 20.5 26 17 27 11 32.1 21.0 33.3 13.6 39 100.0 81 100.0 X = 8.76, d.f. = 3, p<.05 TABLE 32 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score Pa r t i c i p a n t s No. % Non-participants No. 7, 1 2 - 3 4 - 5 6 - 9 13 9 9 8 33.3 23.1 23.1 20.5 48 14 13 6 59.3 17.3 16.0 7.4 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 X = 8.53, d.f. = 3, p<.05 54 more l i k e l y to be p a r t i c i p a n t s (23.1) per cent than non-participants (16 per cent). Those interested respondents who were not active i n s o c i a l organizations were more l i k e l y to be non-participants (59.3 per cent) than p a r t i c i p a n t s (33.3 per cent) (Table 32). The d i f f e r -ence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two groups analyzed by s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n score was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . It may be that respondents who are generally active in the com-munity are more l i k e l y to carry out that behavior which they perceive as p o t e n t i a l l y s a t i s f y i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s involving education. This sug-gests again the advantage of attempting to contact adult education c l i e n t e l e through formal s o c i a l organizations. The tabulation, i n Table 33, of interested respondents accord-ing to t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward r u r a l l i v i n g did not discriminate between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the non-participants. Regardless of whether or not they are strongly favourable to r u r a l l i v i n g they are as l i k e l y to be p a r t i c i p a n t s as non-participants, so t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seems to bear no r e l a t i o n s h i p to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The a t t i t u d e to change scale (Table 34) showing p a r t i c i p a t i o n and non-participation of interested respondents indicates that t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two groups. The per-centage of p a r t i c i p a n t s increases as the a t t i t u d e to change r i s e s . In the two highest categories of attitude to change the percentages of p a r t i c i p a n t s were larger than the percentages of non-participants, but the c h i square s t a t i s t i c does not show that t h i s i s a difference s i g n i f -i c a n t l y greater than chance. TABLE 33 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND ATTITUDE TO RURAL LIVING Attitude to Rural L i v i n g P a r t i c i p a n t s No. % Non-par t i c ipant s No. aA Favourable to r u r a l or urban, or neutral 10 25.6 23 28.4 Strongly favour r u r a l 29 74.4 58 71.6 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 2 X =.10, d.f. =1, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE 34 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND ATTITUDE TO CHANGE Attitude to P a r t i c i p a n t s Change Score No. % Non-participants No. 7, 1 - 3 3 8.0 10 12.4 4 4 10.5 13 16.0 5 4 10.5 20 24.7 6 11 29.0 18 22.2 7 16 42.0 20 24.7 TOTALS 38 100.0 81 100.0 2 X = 6.67, d.f. = 4, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . 56 The data measuring a l i e n a t i o n of interested respondents and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n showedno s i g n i f i c a n t tendency for those variables to change together (Table 35). The least and the most alienated r e s -pondents, who were interested i n further t r a i n i n g or education, were roughly twice as l i k e l y not to have taken any courses. A f e e l i n g of being cut off from the world did not a f f e c t the l i k e l i h o o d that i n t e r -ested respondents p a r t i c i p a t e d . TABLE 35 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND ALIENATION A l i e n a t i o n Score Par t i c i p a n t s No. % Non-par t i c ipant s No. % 0 16 41.0 22 27.2 1 11 28.2 22 27.2 2 3 7.7 15 18.5 3 3 7.7 7 8.6 4 - 5 6 15.4 15 18.5 TOTALS 49 100.0 81 100.0 X = 3.84, d.f. = 4, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . 57 EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS As respondents' l e v e l of schooling r i s e s so does the l i k e l i -hood that he w i l l be a p a r t i c i p a n t in adult education (Table 36). Interested respondents who had eight or less years of school completed included 10.2 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 35.8 per cent of the non-participants. Interested respondents who had nine to eleven years of school included 61.5 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and only 40.7 per cent of the non-partieipants. Those with twelve years of school ac-counted for 18 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 14 per cent of the non-p a r t i c i p a n t s , while respondents with t h i r t e e n or more years of school were somewhat more l i k e l y to be p a r t i c i p a n t s (10.3 per cent) than non-p a r t i c i p a n t s (6.2 per cent). The difference in the d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two groups by years of schooling was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Respondents who had less than eight years of school completed were less l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult education (10.2 per cent) than respondents who had nine or more years. This f i n d i n g r e f l e c t s again the d i f f i c u l t y of adult educators in reaching people who have l i t t l e formal schooling. Some d i f f e r e n t approach i s needed to communi-cate to those p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s how they may acquire the further t r a i n -ing or education i n which they are interested. The jump in percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s compared with non-partieipants at the category of nine or more years of school i s a f o c a l point where the strong e f f e c t of education can be seen. The l e v e l of the wife's schooling i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of interested respondents and t h i s f i n d i n g was 58 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 37). Those whose wives had eleven years or l e s s of s c h o o l i n g accounted f o r 72.6 per cent of the non-p a r t i c i p a n t s and 41.7 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e those whose wives had twelve or more years of sc h o o l i n g accounted f o r 58.3 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 27.4 per cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n t e r e s t e d respondents whose wives had twelve or more years of school completed were, t h e r e f o r e , more l i k e l y t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult education courses. TABLE 36 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND SCHOOLING Schooling P a r t i c i p a n t s N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s No. % No. % 8 years or l e s s 4 10.2 29 35.8 9 - 1 1 24 61.5 33 40.7 12 7 18.0 14 17.3 13 or more 4 10.3 5 6.2 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 X 2 = 9.24, d.f. = 3, p<.05 59 TABLE 37 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND. WIFE'S SCHOOLING Wife's Schooling P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-Participants No. % No. % 11 years or less 15 41.7 53 72.6 12 11 30.5 13 17.8 13 or more 10 27.8 7 9.6 TOTALS 36 100.0 73 100.0 X 2 = 10.59, d.f. =2, p<.01 \ ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS Interested respondents were neither more nor less l i k e l y to be par t i c i p a n t s i f t h e i r t o t a l income was below $3,000 or above $9,000 (Table 38). Respondents whose income was below $6,000 included 48.6 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 43.2 per cent of the non-participants. Respondents r e c e i v i n g $6,000 or more made up 51.4 per cent of the p a r t i -cipants and 46.8 per cent of the non-participants. Of the respondents c l a s s i f i e d as farmers, 35.9 per cent of them f e l l i nto the category of p a r t i c i p a n t s and 32.1 per cent into the cate-gory of non-participants, which was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than the proportions reported for the non-farm respondents (Table 39). 60 TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICI-PATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND TOTAL INCOME Income Par t i c i p a n t s Non-par t i c ipant s No. NO. Up to $2,999 7 18.9 13 16.9 3,000 - 5,999 11 29.7 28 36.3 6,000 - 8,999 155 40.6 23 29.9 9,000 and over 4 10.8 13 16.9 TOTALS 37 100.0 77 100.0 X 2 = 1.85, d.f. = 3, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE 39 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND AMOUNT RECEIVED FROM AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS Amount Received Pa r t i c i p a n t s Non-participants No. % . No. % Less than $250 25 64.1 55 , 67.9 More than $250 14 35.9 26 32.1 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 2 X = .17, d.f. = 1, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . 61 Interested respondents who had spent up to f i f t e e n years i n t h e i r occupation appeared to be as l i k e l y to be pa r t i c i p a n t s as non-pa r t i c i p a n t s (Table 40). Those who had spent between sixteen and twenty years i n t h e i r occupation included almost three times as many non-participants (24.0 per cent) as pa r t i c i p a n t s (8.2 per cent). In the highest category of years spent i n occupation we f i n d many of the oldest respondents; we do not f i n d a larger percentage of non-par t i c i p a n t s (14.0V)per cent) than of par t i c i p a n t s (16.2 per cent). This i s unexpected because age has been shown i n many studies to have a powerful e f f e c t on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . No s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h i s f i n d i n g . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of interested respondents according to t h e i r job s a t i s f a c t i o n score did not discriminate between the pa r t i c i p a n t s and the non-participants. The very d i s s a t i s f i e d , the d i s s a t i s f i e d , and the n e u t r a l , were as l i k e l y to be i n the pa r t i c i p a n t group (13.5 per cent) as i n the non-participant group (16.3 per cent). The very s a t i s f i e d were also d i s t r i b u t e d almost equally i n the par t i c i p a n t and non-participant groups, (46.0 and 33.7 per cent) (Table 41). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of interested respondents by the months they had been unemployed during the l a s t three years and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n courses reveals no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the groups. Although the c h i square value did approach s i g n i f i c a n c e , respondents who had not been unemployed included 76.9 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 64.2 per cent of the non-participants. TABLE 40 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND YEARS IN OCCUPATION Years i n Occupation Pa r t i c i p a n t s Non-participants No. % No. % 2 or less 7 18.9 12 15.2 3 - 5 7 18.9 15 19.0 6 - 1 0 9 24.3 13 16.4 11 - 15 5 13.5 9 11.4 16 - 20 3 8.2 19 24.0 21 or more 6 16.2 11 14.0 TOTALS 37 100.0 79 100.0 X = 4.60, d.f. = 5, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 41 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND JOB SATISFACTION Job S a t i s f a c t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s Non-participants No. % No. % Very d i s s a t i s f i e d , d i s s a t i s f i e d or neutral 5 13.5 13 16.3 S a t i s f i e d 15 40.5 40 50.0 Very s a t i s f i e d 17 46.0 27 33.7 TOTALS 37 100.0 80 100.0 X = 1.60, d.f. 2, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . 63 Those who had been unemployed less than s i x months included a smaller percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s (7.7 per cent) than of non-participants (25.9'^per cent). Those who had been unemployed for seven months or more included a larger percentage of p a r t i c i p a n t s (15.4 per cent) than of non-participants (9.9 per cent) (Table 42). SUMMARY ) Interested respondents were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the basis of past p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education and c e r t a i n other c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s i ncluding s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , own education and wife's school-ing, and l e v e l of l i v i n g . Interested respondents were rioc'ddif f-e'r.eriei!ated on the basis of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s p e c i f i c other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n -cluding age, ma r i t a l status, number of c h i l d r e n , place of b i r t h , years resident i n the area, a t t i t u d e to r u r a l l i v i n g , attitude to change, a l i e n a t i o n , t o t a l income, amount received from a g r i c u l t u r a l production, years i n occupation, job s a t i s f a c t i o n , months unemployed for the l a s t three years. In general, the interested respondents who had p a r t i c i p a t e d were more active i n s o c i a l organizations, had a higher l e v e l of l i v i n g index, more years of schooling and were married to wives who had completed more years of school. TABLE 42 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF INTERESTED RESPONDENTS BY PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AND MONTHS UNEMPLOYED IN LAST THREE YEARS Months Unemployed i n Par t i c i p a n t s Non-participants Last Three Years No. No. 1 0 30 76.9 52 64.2 6 months or less 3 7.7 21 25.9 7 months or more 6 15.4 8 9.9 TOTALS 39 100.0 81 100.0 X 2 = 5.68, d.f. = 2, p i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This study i s an analysis of data c o l l e c t e d i n a Socio-Economic survey under the Canada Land Inventory. I t i s concerned with the i n t e r -est i n continuing education of residents i n the North Okanagan area of B r i t i s h Columbia. The study has described the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s p e c i f i c psycho-social c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to i n t e r e s t i n continuing education. A t o t a l of 239 household heads were interviewed i n the North Okanagan survey area. Of .these, ha l f were interested i n continuing education. D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r twenty-one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r i n t e r e s t or d i s i n t e r e s t i n adult education were described and c h i square was used to test the n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . D i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of interested respondents i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n or non-parti-c i p a t i o n were also described and tested. INTEREST IN CONTINUING EDUCATION The f i r s t hypothesis tested i n t h i s study was that there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d psycho-s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents who expressed an in t e r e s t i n future p a r t i c i p a t i o n and those who did not report such an i n t e r e s t . Twelve of the twenty-one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tested showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s by i n t e r e s t i n continuing education. ; 65 66 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS There were personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to expressed i n t e r e s t i n adult education. Younger people were more l i k e l y to be interested; those born i n Canada outside of the survey area expressed more i n t e r e s t than respondents born i n other countries or i n the North Okanagan. M a r i t a l status, number of c h i l d r e n , place of previous res-idence and the number of years resident i n the survey area d i d not af f e c t i n t e r e s t i n continuing education. SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS Level of l i v i n g was r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t and those who had more of the amenities were more l i k e l y to be interested i n continuing educa-t i o n . Respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d more i n formal s o c i a l organizations were more l i k e l y to desire further education or t r a i n i n g . Respondents who reported a negative attitu d e toward change and those who were alienated were more l i k e l y to be uninterested i n further education or t r a i n i n g . The respondents' attitu d e toward r u r a l l i v i n g did not a f f e c t t h e i r reported i n t e r e s t . EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS The years of schooling which the respondents had did a f f e c t i n t e r e s t , with those who had completed more school years being more l i k e l y to desire further t r a i n i n g . The years of school completed by the respondent's wife was al s o p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t . Res-pondents who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult education courses were more 67 l i k e l y to be interested than those who had not. Analysis of the farm respondents showed that those who had a greater number of personal contacts with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension per-sonnel were more l i k e l y to be interested. The number of impersonal contacts with a g r i c u l t u r a l extension personnel did not influence i n -terest i n further education. ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS The t o t a l income of respondents was r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t . Those reporting higher incomes were more l i k e l y to express i n t e r e s t i n further education. Amount earned from the sale of a g r i c u l t u r a l products and the number of acres owned or operated did not influence i n t e r e s t i n continuing education. Months unemployed during the l a s t three years was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to continuing education with respondents who had experienced some months of unemployment being more l i k e l y to express i n t e r e s t than those who had experienced no unemployment or those who had been unemployed t h i r t e e n months or more. Number of years worked i n present occupation was r e l a t e d to i n t e r e s t ; respondents having worked three to f i v e years, and those who had worked sixteen to twenty years were more l i k e l y to be i n t e r -ested than respondents i n other categories of number of years worked. The factor of job s a t i s f a c t i o n arid the number of months worked i n 1968 did not influence i n t e r e s t i n further education. 68 PARTICIPATION AND INTEREST The second hypothesis tested i n t h i s study was that there are no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between s p e c i f i e d psycho-s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of people who express i n t e r e s t i n future p a r t i -c i p a t i o n and have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the past and those who express i n t e r e s t i n future p a r t i c i p a t i o n and have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the past. Four of the seventeen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s by p a r t i c i p a t i o n and non-p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the interested respondents. The n u l l hypothesis was accepted f o r : age; m a r i t a l status; number of c h i l d r e n ; place of b i r t h ; years resident i n the area; a t t i -tude to r u r a l l i v i n g ; attitude to change; a l i e n a t i o n ; t o t a l income; amount received from a g r i c u l t u r a l products; years i n occupation; job s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and months unemployed i n the l a s t three years. The n u l l hypothesis was rejected f or years of schooling, wife's schooling, s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e v e l of l i v i n g . The intere s t e d respondent who i s most l i k e l y to have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult education i s one with more than nine years of schooling, whose wife has twelve or more years of schooling, who has a l e v e l of l i v i n g index of 85 or over and who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n formal s o c i a l organizations. The analysis pertinent to the second hypothesis suggests the factors which determine whether respondents who are interested i n con-tinuing education w i l l be p a r t i c i p a n t s . 69 Schooling and wife's schooling d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p a r t i c i -pants and non-participants. Those respondents, interested i n continu-ing education, who had not completed Grade Nine were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y not to have p a r t i c i p a t e d . This repeats the most consistent f i n d i n g i n studies of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education,* that there i s a strong association between the l e v e l of formal education and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Level of l i v i n g and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n discriminated between the groups of interes t e d non-participants and interested p a r t i c i p a n t s . IMPLICATIONS The method of measuring i n t e r e s t may be used with some convic-t i o n that the answers given are signs of a r e a l v a r i a b l e . The question, "Would you l i k e to take some kind of further education or t r a i n i n g ? " i s useful i n discovering i n d i v i d u a l s most accessible to some adult educa-t i o n courses. For i t does appear from the data analysed herein, that expressed i n t e r e s t i s a factor which adds to the forces operating to bring p a r t i c i p a n t s to adult education. This question then o f f e r s a t o o l f o r an experimental attempt to increase i n t e r e s t . The use of knowledge of group i n t e r a c t i o n to develop group cohesion i s one way an influence attempt might be made. Another i s by the use of the methods of group dynamics to teach s k i l l s i n shared decision making. Motivation to learn such s k i l l s could be aroused by d i r e c t i n g the problem so l v i n g attempt toward problems e x i s t i n g i n formal 1 Verner, C. and Newberry, John S., J r . op_. c i t . 70 s o c i a l organizations. The question quoted above may be used as an instrument before and aft e r experimental measures to a f f e c t i n t e r e s t . The importance of the s o c i a l factors suggested by t h e i r s i g n i f i -cant r e l a t i o n s h i p s with i n t e r e s t should be kept i n mind by adult educa-tors developing communication with possible c l i e n t s . The f a c t o r s , l e v e l of l i v i n g and s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n are both involved with the r e l a t i o n -ship between respondents and others. The status of the respondent i n his community r e f l e c t s i n the l e v e l of l i v i n g score. What others think of him, and what he thinks others think of him, have to do with the way he f i t s i n t o his community. The respondent's associating with others i n formal s o c i a l organizations indicates that he takes a place as a member of a group with shared goals. That these factors are r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education suggests that the i n d i v i d u a l who i s i d e n t i f i e d with his membership i n the community i s the most l i k e l y p a r t i -cipant. This study should not be used i n a way which would lead to a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r e d i c t i o n . I f i t were assumed that people with p a r t i -cular c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are most l i k e l y to be interested i n adult educa-t i o n and therefore these are the i n d i v i d u a l s to be addressed i n advert-i s i n g and i n determining the types of courses to be given, the r e s u l t would be to decrease the p o s s i b i l i t y of fi n d i n g a way to new c l i e n t e l e . These findings suggest the nature of adult education, as i t i s practised, does not appeal to people who do not i d e n t i f y themselves as members of the community. Adult education i s not a change agent or a 71 l e v e l i n g agent. I t i s attended by i n d i v i d u a l s of the middle-class who have achieved a s o c i a l s e l f i n accord with t h e i r neighbours' norms and values. This study o f f e r s more understanding of i n t e r e s t as one v a r i a -ble a f f e c t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Those who would widen the e f f e c t of adult education w i l l be aware that i n t e r e s t i s not a f i x e d f a c t o r , i t may be aroused by experience. 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Akinbode, I.A. The Relationships Between the Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Their Contacts With D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis. Vancouver: A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. 2. Brunner, E. deS., D. S. Wilder, C. Kirchner, and J . S. Newberry, J r . An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education Association, 1959. 3. Douglah, Mohammed and Gwenna Moss. " D i f f e r e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i b n Patterns of Adults of Low and High Educational Attainment," Adult Education, 18:247-259, Summer, 1968. 4. Goard, D.S. Analysis of Participants i n Rural Adult Education. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Vancouver, 1968. 5. Board, Dean S« and Gary Dickinson. The Influence of Education and Age on 'Participation: i n Rural Adult Education. Vancouver: Faculty of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 ( S p e c i a l Study No. 2 ) . 6. Houle, C y r i l 0. The Inquiring Mind. Madison: The Un i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press,. 1961. 7. Johnstone, J.W.C. and R.J. Rivera. Volunteers -for Learning. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965. 8. Kaplan, Abraham A. Socio-Economic Circumstances and Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Certain C u l t u r a l and Educational A c t i v i t i e s . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers' College, 1943. 9. Kuhlen, Raymond G. "Motivational Changes During the Adult Years," i n Psychological Backgrounds of Adult Education, R.G. Kuhlen, e d i t o r . Centre for the Study of L i b e r a l Education f o r Adults, 1963. 10. Loewenstein, D.E. and S. S. Lewis. "A Study of the Components of Future P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education Programs," Cooperative Extension Service, U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska, 1966. . 11. London, Jack, Robert Wenkert and W. 0. Hagstrom. Adult Education  and S o c i a l Class. Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Survey Research Center, 1963. 73 12. Maslow, A.H. "A Theory of Human Motivation," Psychological Review, 50: 370-96,.1943. . 13. Sewell, W.H. "A Short Form of the Farm Family Socio-Economic Status Scale." Rural Sociology, 8:161-170, June, 1943. 14. Verner, Coolie and Gary Dickinson. A Socio-Ecoribmic Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y . Vancouver: Faculty of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. 15. Verner, C o o l i e , and John S. Newberry, J r . "The Nature of Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " Adult Education, 8:208-222, Summer, 1958. APPENDIX ONE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR ALL RESPONDENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1. 1.00 L i s t of F a c t o r s : No. Factor -.24 1.00 i : Age 2. 2. Husband's Education 3; Wife's Education 3. -.21 .45 1.00 4. Adult Education 5. Number of C h i l d r e n 4. .19 .18 -.00 1.00 6; Years i n the Area .14 7. L e v e l of L i v i n g 5. .28 -.11 -.16 1.00 8; S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 9; Rural A t t i t u d e 6. .18 -.06 -.05 .07 -.03 1.00 10; A t t i t u d e Toward Change 11; Years i n Present Job 7. .06 .44 .40 .19 -.03 .12 1.00 12. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n .16 .23 1.00 13. Unemployment 8. -.14 .29 .23 .23 -.17 14. T o t a l Income 15; T o t a l Acres 9. .14 -.13 -.09 .17 .15 .02 -.08 .02 1.00 16. A l i e n a t i o n 10. -.53 .25 .14 -.24 -.14 -.05 .09 .04 -.25 1.00 11. .43 -.01 .08 .13 .07 .11 .16 -.05 .05 -.36 1.00 12. .12 .22 •1.3 .07 .03 .05 .33 .08 .09 -.07 .15 1.00 13. .55 -.20 -.06 -.19 .21 .10 -.21 -.22 -.04 -.29 .09 .00 1. 00 14. -.31 .29 .15 .01 -.12 -.04 .24 .13 -.09 .18 -.05 .16 -. 50 1.00 15. .03 -.01 .15 .31 .10 .04 .01 -.04 .08 -.10 .21 .00 -. 08 -.02 1.00 16. .10 -.28 -.19 .24 .04 .06 -.13 -.19 .09 -.22 .01 -.21 13 -.20 -.12 1.00 

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