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Concept of truth and artifact in the fiction of John Fowles Mercer, Michael George 1970

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THE CONCEPT OF TRUTH AND ARTIFACT IN THE FICTION OF JOHN FOWLES By MICHAEL GEORGE MERCER B.A., S i r George Williams University, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 19?0 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e T & / C Z T . 2 0/ 7Q 1 ABSTRACT The aims of t h i s thesis are to investigate the use of a r t i f i c e i n John Fowles' The Collector, The Magus, and The  French Lieutenant's Woman, and show how, through the mani--pulation of i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y , Fowles explores h i s own b e l i e f that the purpose of the a r t i f a c t i s i n r e v e a l l i n g the truth. In the Introduction, Fowles' v i s i o n of r e a l i t y i s examined with p a r t i c u l a r reference to his philosophical work, The Aristos> A S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n Ideas. To Fowles, the universe i s ruled only by.hazard and fl u x ; and. therefore, the meaning of l i f e i s , i n the absence,of a comprehensible force of causality, an eter--nal mystery to man. But i t i s a posi t i v e and omnipresent mystery that can bring to the i n d i v i d u a l an e x i s t e n t i a l aware--ness of his own freedom to create meaning through choice and action. In Fowles' v i s i o n , the truth that the a r t i f a c t conveys i s t h i s transcendent r e a l i t y of mystery that l i e s behind the appearance of the phenomenal world. In his novels, John Fowles i s c h i e f l y concerned with the manner i n which conscious a r t i f i c e brings the knowledge of this truth. Toward t h i s end he imposes a pattern upon his novels that involves the creation of two central characters i n a i i complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p . One serves as the agent of a f i c t i o n within the t a l e , the other as the elected v i c t i m who, through the imposition of that f i c t i o n , i s "brought to an aware--ness of the truth. Powles' three novels to date, a l l moving toward a s i m i l a r r e v e l a t i o n i n e v i t a b l y reveal the recurrent , pattern of the search f o r truth. Chapter II examines the quest f o r t h i s truth i n The  Coll e c t o r. When Clegg, himself a v i c t i m of self-imposed i l l u s i o n s , becomes the agent of a fabricated s i t u a t i o n into, which he brings Miranda, he unwittingly plays the "godgame", and becomes the l i v i n g embodiment of the absent 'God.'. Through him Miranda finds the truth of the mystery posed by the absent 'God*. Chapter III examines The Magus and considers the expanded form that Fowles employs to bring the reader a d i f f e r e n t per-s p e c t i v e . Conchis i s examined as the confidant of the author and as the agent i n the "godgame". Through his mask of i l l u s i o n and his portrayal of the "god-novelist" i n the t a l e , he brings to Nicholas the truth that the a r t i f a c t can o f f e r - the truth of the omnipresent mystery created by the absent 'God'. Nicholas, l i k e Miranda before him, loses him selfhood and i i i enters into, an understanding of the greater truth which Conchis brings him. Chapter IV examines the nature of the quest i n The French. lieutenant's Woman. The central problem of time and hi s t o r y i s considered and the novel's relevance to the present i s affirmed. The r o l e of the authorial narrator i s discussed as a further expansion of Fowles* in v e s t i g a t i o n of the a r t i f a c t , . and Sarah's roled as the embodiment of mystery i s examined i n her approach to the "godgame". In t h i s , the most advanced point of develop--ment i n Fowles' scheme, the reader shares the quest with Charles and i s not provided with the p r i v i l e g e d information that w i l l give meaning to the mystery that Sarah poses. TABLE OF CONTENTS i v CHAPTER I . I n t r o d u c t i o n ....1 I I . The C o l l e c t o r . . . . I 1 * I I I . The Magus ; kl I V . The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman.......,?6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 CHAPTER I Introduction One of the primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that has distinguished the twentieth century novel, as Harry Levin has pointed out, i s the increasing self-consciousness of the writer. "The forces which make him an outsider forces his observation upon himself. Those a r t i s t s , l i k e Joyce, Proust, Lawrence or Gide, who have turned inward i n search of t h e i r themes are the major experi--mentalists of our age. To John Fowles, one of the most recent of the self-conscious n o v e l i s t s , the phenomenon of "inward-f e e l i n g a r t " i s the necessary r e s u l t of the a r t i s t ' s awareness of external pressures that threaten his i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . 2 "The a r t i s t ' s main need today," writes Fowles, "seems to him to be the expression of his signed feelings about himself and his world." 3 Fowles' philosophical t r a c t , The A r i s t o s ; A S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n Ideas, i s the most succinct statement-of his own "signed f e e l i n g s " "to preserve the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l against a l l those pressures-to-conform that threaten our century."^ The work i t s e l f i s an ambitious c o l l e c t i o n of notes intended to present i t s author's views on man and the condition of his existence i n the twentieth century. By i t s very nature i t 2 reveals that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c inward searching of the s e l f -conscious and alienated a r t i s t f o r a systematic and unique v i s i o n upon which he can base his own f i c t i o n a l universe. Assembled over a period of ten years and published one year following the appearance of his f i r s t novel, The Collector, The Aristos represents the end of Fowles' quest f o r truth i n l i f e . As a cl e a r and achieved statement of his v i s i o n of r e a l -- i t y , the book i s i n e v i t a b l y a compendium of the ideas that inform the world of his f i c t i o n . This i s not to say, however, that Fowles' novels are simply parables that serve to i l l u s t r a t e his private philosophy, f o r i n h i s f i c t i o n , his primary concern i s not with the truth of l i f e , but with the truth of a r t . To Fowles, the l i t e r a r y a r t i f a c t serves the unique function of providing f o r the "expression of truths too complex f o r science to express, or to conveniently express. "-^  In his novels, Fowles p r i n c i p l e concern i s with an examination of the nature of f i c t i o n i t s e l f , and the manner i n which i t communicates truth. In view of his aims, i t i s not surprising that one of the recurrent patterns i n the f i c t i o n of John Fowles i s the search f o r that truth. In each of his three novels to date, The  Collector, The Magus, and The French Lieutenant's Woman, the 3 pattern i s repeated with v a r i a t i o n , but the nature of the "truth sought i n each i s constant. The quest, taking place on the l e v e l of character, i s toward an awareness of the lmmu--table truth that the.author possesses i n advance and wishes to communicate through h i s creation. " A l l s e r i o u s . . . a r t i s t s want the same," Fowles asserts, "a truth that no one w i l l need to change."^ The object of the quest i n Fowles' f i c t i o n i s the onto-- l o g i c a l truth of his private v i s i o n that i s based, i n a rad-- i c a l r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the nature of God. When the word 'God' appears i n The Ari s t o s , i t i s demarcated with "inverted commas in,order to except i t from i t s common meanings; to purge i t of i t s human association." 'God* i s a s i t u a t i o n . Not a power, or a being, or an influence. Not a 'he* or a 'she', but an ' i t ' . Not entity or non-entity, but the s i t u a t i o n i n which there can be both entity and non-e n t i t y . 7 The de s c r i p t i o n i s l a t e r echoed i n The French Lieutenant's  Woman when the author asserts that "There i s only one good d e f i n i t i o n of God, the freedom that allows other freedoms to ex i s t . " (FLW,97) Fowles appears, i n i t i a l l y at lea s t , to be postulating the f a m i l i a r e x i s t e n t i a l v i s i o n of a t o t a l l y Godless universe - or at lea s t one- i n which God has withdrawn 4 so completely that he no longer, In r e l a t i v e terms, e x i s t s . The " s i t u a t i o n " thus created by the absent 'God' would be one of t o t a l freedom i n an i n d i f f e r e n t universe; The f i n a l proof of the sympathy i n 'God' l i e s i n the fact that we are - or can by exercise become - free to choose courses of action and so at le a s t combat some of the h o s t i l e indifference of the process to the i n d i v i d u a l . " Fowles, however, goes beyond t h i s Sartrean postulation to assert a po s i t i v e and transcendental truth i n the *God' who i s absent from the universe. In t h i s absence, a l l who seek an "agent" and who ra i s e the question of causality w i l l f i n d no answer i n the silence of an i n d i f f e r e n t universe. The very meaning of the whole becomes, then, a mystery beyond man's powers of comprehension; since there i s no one f i n a l l y to ans--wer his questions, l i f e remains a mystery. I t i s a mystery, ultimately that informs "every thing and every moment. I t i s the dark core, the mystery, the being-not-being of even the simplest objects."9 This v i s i o n of the pos i t i v e and omnipresent mystery of l i f e permits Fowles to avoid the philosophical scepticism of so many poets and writers who, confronting the same i n d i f f e r e n t universe turned i n confusion and fear from i t s implications. 5 Fowles finds a l l doubts resolved through an escape from s e l f --hood into an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the r e a l and l i v i n g mystery of the universe. For t h i s reason, Fowles, though sharing an i n t e l l e c t u a l kinship with the French e x i s t e n t i a l i s t s , does not create a f i c t i o n a l world anchored i n the concrete r e a l i t y of the world perceived through the senses. Reality, f o r him, l i e s ultimately behind the v i s i b l e world, and i s accessible only to those who recognize phenomenal r e a l i t y f o r what i t Is, a world of appearances. . This conception of a transcendent r e a l i t y informs his f i c t i o n with a d i s t i n c t quality that i s unique. Responding to t h i s q u a l i t y i n a negative manner, one c r i t i c (speaking p a r t i c u l a r l y of The Magus) concludes that Fowles i s an example of " f i c t i o n as opposed to the novel," f i c t i o n , that, i s , as the quite a r b i t a r y invention of a world haying l i t t l e or nothing to do with the world we l i v e i n as commonly observed. I t i s a legitimate form of f i c t i o n , but since the world i t presents i s an a r b i t r a r y invention i t i s u n l i k e l y to throw much l i g h t on the facts of existence and the laws governing I t i n what we c a l l , for want of a better phrase, r e a l l i f e . 1 0 This l i m i t e d judgement i s made by a c r i t i c whose own dogmatic conception of r e a l i t y r ests upon the world "as commonly observed." In The Magus, Conchis advises Nicholas that: " V e r i f i c a t i o n i s the only c r i t e r i o n of r e a l i t y . . That does j 6 not mean that there may not be r e a l i t i e s that are u n v e r i f i a b l e . " (M,221) Upon t h i s v i s i o n of the r e a l i t y that l i e s behind the appearance of l i f e , Fowles establishes his concept of a r t . Art, to him serves the unique purpose of r e v e a l l i n g and convey--Ing the "unverifiable" truth of mystery because the world created by art i s not the actual world. As a form liberated from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of r e a l i t y , a r t provides a revelation of truths that cannot be apprehended i n the actual world. » Man does not, under normal circumstances seek the truth behind the actual world because he takes i t s appearance as the r e a l i t y . Only when he i s confronted with the knowledge that t h i s r e a l i t y i s i t s e l f an i l l u s i o n , i s he urged to seek the r e a l i t y that l i e s behind the i l l u s i o n . Art, therefore, which i s a conscious i l l u s i o n c a l l i n g f o r - to use Coleridge's famous dictum - the "suspension of d i s b e l i e f " to be accepted as r e a l -- i t y , confronts the observer with a world of declared appear--ance. To Fowles, even the "simplest and most unemotional realism" involves the use and se l e c t i o n of language that reveals the a r t i s t ' s presence. 1^ A r t i f i c e i s , to him, always present and obvious. Art, then, by posing a conscious i l l u s i o n implic-- i t l y suggests a meaning and purpose behind I t s appearance. In Fowles' f i c t i o n that meaning i s the "unverifiable" r e a l i t y of 7 the mystery that informs l i f e . When he asserts that " A l l s e r i o u s . . . a r t i s t s want the same, a truth that no one w i l l need to change," 1^ he also suggests that the permanent truth he finds i n the l i v i n g mystery, i s the truth that he wishes to reveal behind his a r t . In " t h i s century," Wayne Booth observes, men began to take seriously the p o s s i b i l i t y that the power of a r t i f i c e to keep us at a distance from r e a l i t y could, be a v i r t u e rather than an obstacle to f u l l realism. 3 Here we may observe another factor that plays a large part i n Fowles' f i c t i o n . A r t i f i c e i s desirable because I t distances ,. r e a l i t y , and. hence permits the creation of a world that, l i k e dream, gives pleasure free from the r e s t r i c t i o n s that r e a l i t y Imposes. Freud, i n fact, was one of the f i r s t to connect the world of f i c t i o n to that of the dream, and recognize the value of f i c t i o n as escape: The u n r e a l i t y of the writer's imaginative world, however, has very important consequences fo r the technique of his art; for many things which, i f they were r e a l , could give no enjoyment, can do so i n the play of phantasy, and many excitements which, i n themselves, are ac t u a l l y d i s t r e s s i n g , can become a source of pleasure for the hearers and spectators at the performance of the writer's work. 1^ Thus, i n Fowles' scheme, l i t e r a r y a rt by displaying obvious a r t i f i c e f u l f i l s two purposes. I t of f e r s a dream world free from r e a l i t y , and hence y i e l d i n g pleasure; and i t provides 8 the conscious i l l u s i o n that masks the unchangeable and "un-- v e r i f i a b l e " truth of the mystery posed by the absent 'God'. Fowles* f i c t i o n i s so constructed that the^moment we attempt to remove the mask of the i l l u s i o n , we confront the mystery of the absent 'God'. This fundamentally i s both the primary c r i t i c a l problem that Fowles* f i c t i o n poses, and the f i n a l proof o f . i t s success. The reader i s in v i t e d to search out, l i k e Nicholas of The Magust the meaning that l i e s behind the world of appearances; but, onee the "unverifiable" r e a l i t y i s confronted, It Is discovered to be without meaning. That i n f a c t , _l_s the meaning - the absence of meaning that evokes a sense of mystery. Herein rests the elusive quality of the conundrum that i s so much a part of Fowles* f i c t i o n . The mystery of ultimate meaning and causality cannot f i n a l l y be described nor explained because l i k e Sarah of The French  Lieutenant's Woman, i t i s not Intended to be comprehended. I t i s simply an ontological mystery, and must so remain f o r , "As soon as a mystery i s explained, i t ceases to be a source of energy." 1^ As Mrs., de Sietas informs Nicholas of The  Magus; "An answer i s always a form of death." (M.575) Man w i l l only search f o r meaning within himself when he r e a l i z e s that i t i s not without. This i s the chief value of the mystery. 9 In his three novels (at the writing of t h i s t h e s i s ) , Fowles employs the recurrent pattern of the search for the truth of t h i s mystery of the "unverifiable" r e a l i t y . A l l of Fowles* novels move 'toward one great goal' (to dislocate a phrase of Joyce's Deasy) 'the manifestation of God.' In each of the novels, a character moves toward a consciousness of of the absent 'God', and as a r e s u l t , a recognition of the mystery posed by a vast and i n d i f f e r e n t universe. In Fowles' scheme, the r o l e of the novelist takes on the quali t y of the p r i e s t l y function of leading man to the mystery that l i e s behind the v e i l of I s i s . The "novelist i s a kind of mystic and his science i s a kind of alchemy. The elaborate "godgame" of another "kind" of mystic, Maurice Conchis - whom Nicholas comes to recognize as "a sort of novelist sans novel, creating with people, not words" (M,229) - i s i n fact a metaphor for the act of f i c t i o n a l creation, i t s e l f . Fowles employs the term i n thi s context when he speaks of the, vanity about i t , a wish to play the godgame, which a l l the random and author removing devices of avant-garde technique cannot hide. 1? The concept of the "godgame" provides, i n fact, an explanation of the manner i n which Fowles creates his unique 10 world. As the "god-novelist" he adopts the mask of the absent •God* and assumes a r e l a t i o n s h i p with his characters that approximates that of 'God' and man i n the r e a l world. His concept, to t h i s point,- does not d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from that of Joyce's v i s i o n of the a r t i s t , who, l i k e the God of creation, remains within or behind or beyond or above his handiwork, i n v i s i b l e , refined out of existence, i n d i f f e r e n t , paring his fingernails.•° Both maintain a s i t u a t i o n within t h e i r novels with the inten-s i o n of approximating that of the r e a l i t y outside. On the character'level of his f i c t i o n , however, Fowles imposes a pattern that both f a c i l i t a t e s and impels the quest for truth. Each of the novels features a magian 19 figure who-plays the "godgame" within the novel, and an elect figure who i s urged to seek out the truth. In his novels, Clegg, Conchis, and Sarah, the magians fabricate a f i c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n which they impose upon t h e i r respective elect - Miranda, Nicholas, and Charles. The important factor i s that the elect are confronted with a conscious i l l u s i o n which they are then urged to investigate In order to discover the r e a l i t y that l i e s behind the obvious appearance before them. Each of the elect comes f i n a l l y to an awareness of the truth that within 11 Fowles' scheme, abides behind the mask of i l l u s i o n . They each confront and share i n the mystery posed by the absent 'God', and i n doing so lose the l i m i t i n g selfhood that t h e i r past r e a l -- i t i e s imposed upon them. In t h i s thesis, I intend to investigate the manner i n which the conscious i l l u s i o n serves ultimately, i n Fowles' world, to bring the knowledge of truth. Although the use of the magian and-elect figures provide a similar patterning through the three novels, I w i l l draw attention to i t only when i t seems of value to do so. The achievement of Fowles' f i c t i o n does not r e s t upon the consistent a p p l i c a t i o n of a formula to his f i c t i o n , nor upon the novelty of his theories. What value his f i c t i o n does possess i s i n his novels, not his philosophy. Fowles' ideas, of course, are of importance i n t h i s thesis because Fowles i s the common l i n k between his novels; but, his ideas w i l l be discussed only insofar as they help i n i l l u m i n a t i n g and defining the nature of the a r t i f a c t i t s e l f . 12 NOTES TO CHAPTER I 2 H a r r y L e v i n , "The A r t i s t , " Modern B r i t i s h F i c t i o n , Ed. Mark S c h o r e r (New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p.322. John F o w l e s , The A r i s t o s , r e v . ed. (T o r o n t o : S i g n e t , 1970), PP .191 -192. 3 I b i d . , P.193. 4 I b i d . , p.7. . 5 I b i d . , P.151. 6 I b i d . , P. 153. 7 I b i d . . p. 22 . 8 I b i d . , p.26. 9 I b i d . , p.27. 10 11, 12 W a l t e r A i l e n , "The Achievement'of John Fowles," E n c o u n t e r , v o l . x xv, no. 2 (August, 1970), p.66. F o w l e s , The A r i s t o s . p . 1 9 0 . I b i d . , p.28. Wayne C. Bo o t h , The R h e t o r i c o f F i c t i o n . ( C h i c a g o i U n i v e r s i t y of C hicago P r e s s , . 1 9 6 8 ) , p.122. 14 Sigmund F r e u d , " C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g and Day-Drearning," Modern  C o n t i n e n t a l L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , Ed. 0,B. H a r d i s o n , J r . (New Yor k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1962), pp.241-242. Fo w l e s , The A r i s t o s . p.28. John F o w l e s , The A r i s t o s : A S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n I d e a s , ( T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1964), p . 1 3 6 . 1 ? John F o w l e s , "On W r i t i n g a N o v e l , " The C o r n h i l l . Summer 1969, p.281. 15 16 13 James Joyce, A P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man (England: Peguin Books, 1963). p.215. Fowles, The Ar l s t o s : A S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n Ideas, p.233. The term magian i s one that I have borrowed from Fowles, who in- turn borrowed i t from Heraclites. J t Implies a p r i e s t l y r o l e , or that of the "professional m y s t i f i e r . " The term elect i s also Fowles', and may be understood as the i n i t i a t e i n the ceremony conducted by the magian. lk CHAPTER I I The C o l l e c t o r The f e a t u r e t h a t most c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s John Fowles* The C o l l e c t o r from h i s l a t e r n o v e l s , i s t h e l a c k of an e x p l i c i t 'I a u t h o r i a l p r e s e n c e . I n the f i n a l c h a p t e r o f The Magus, Fowles I n t r u d e s i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e o f N i c h o l a s U r f e t o . d i s c u s s the f a t e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r , and i n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, he p r o -v i d e s a c o n s t a n t a u t h o r i a l commentary: b u t , i n The C o l l e c t o r , h i s g o d - n o v e l i s t r e m a i n s , l i k e t h a t o f F l a u b e r t o r J o y c e , " r e -- f i n e d out o f e x i s t e n c e , i n d i f f e r e n t , p a r i n g h i s f i n g e r n a i l s . " 1 Fowles draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h i s r o l e he i s assuming i n t h e one o v e r t s i g n o f h i s presence - the Old F r e n c h epigram t h a t i n t r o d u c e s the n o v e l . The fragment t r a n s l a -t e s : " a p a r t from t h e m s e l v e s , no p e r s o n b o r n knew of i t . " 2 The r e f e r e n c e i s p a t e n t l y t o the a b d u c t i o n and d e a t h o f M i r a n d a Grey, f o r the o n l y s u r v i v i n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f h e r f a t e - t h e e v i d e n c e o f h e r d i a r y - i s l o c k e d up i n C l e g g ' s deed-box u n t i l h i s d e a t h . (C, 228) O b v i o u s l y , the r e a d e r i s aware of the f i c t i o n a l i t y of the t a l e and i s not e x p e c t e d t o q u e s t i o n the presence o f f a c t s o t h e r -- w i s e unknowable. The r e a d e r and the a u t h o r i m p l i c i t l y agree t o share the c o n v e n t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t depends upon the q u e s t i o n o f f i c t i o n a l c a u s a l i t y not b e i n g r a i s e d . By adopting the r o l e of the i n v i s i b l e author, Fowles i s able to explore the c o n f l i c t of i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y i n l i f e while allowing t h e - i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y created by the novel to remain unquestioned. In the author's absencej moreover, the reader may witness the f i c t i o n a l event unconscious:- of either his^ own r o l e or the author's. The reader's attention i s not directed, as i n Fowles' l a t e r .works,, to an examination of the nature of the i l l u s i o n posed by the a r t i f a c t I t s e l f , , and i s therefore.able to regard. The Collector as'a trans- . - c r i p t i o n of r e a l i t y . , • The es s e n t i a l pattern of Fowles* l a t e r noveTs, however, i s ..evident i n The C o l l e c t o r . The plot of the novel i s c h i e f l y concerned with the actions of two characters who enter into a ' complementary relationship' that approximates that of the magi an • and e l e c t . •- Miranda, l i k e Nicholas of The Magus and Charles of The French Lieutenant's Woman, .becomes• the chosen, or.elect--ed v i c t i m of her opposite. She i s led through the power of her victimizer,. from a world that she has always known and taken'-f o r granted and i s confronted in; the extreme with a s i t u a t i o n so extraordinary, that i t brings her sense of r e a l i t y to ques-t i o n . Isolated., both p h y s i c a l l y and mentally, from the world i n which she onc£ believed, Miranda i s compelled to seek out % and r e a l i z e the unchangeable truth that l i e s behind the decep-t i o n 'of the appearances she has always taken as r e a l i t y . As i n the case of her successors,,Nicholas, and Charles, her search involves a moral quest f o r truth In which she i s f i n a l l y allbw--ed to' draw back the v e i l of appearances and confront; the im- . • -mutable' and l i v i n g mystery of life..behind i t . -Like them, she must cast off her old i d e n t i t y and the i l l u s o r y sense of r e a l i t y that defined her,' before obtaining the new. perception of s e l f ,. and other that comes with,the ;true v i s i o n ; she must 'lose her-- s e l f i n order to f i n d h e r s e l f . ,.; Clegg, l i k e Conchis and Sarah, i s a magian figure, but he d i f f e r s from them, most perceptibly i n the fac t that he plays . the r o l e unconsciously. i n an attempt to actualize a fantasy, to' make h i s own dream come true, he unwittingly creates the circumstances that lead Miranda to the true v i s i o n of r e a l i t y . Adamantly refusing to free her from the small prison that he has created, Clegg confesses, p r i v a t e l y to f e e l i n g " l i k e a cruel k i n g " ( C , 4 L ) The ..Ironical nature of' h i s r o l e i s further emphasized l a t e r when, Miranda •gets\-oXvher/..?iniees i n f r o n t u o f .him and performs an elaborate and 'comic r i t u a l of veneration;.' ' " W i l l the mysterious great master accept apologies of very humble slave?" (C , 77 ) The tone of the suggested r o l e i s highly . appropriate, f o r Clegg performs a parodical version" of.the "godgame", he i s a type of magian even though l i m i t e d , s e l f -seeking and crippled by self-deception and ignorance. As the maker of a l i v i n g fantasy, Clegg r e f l e c t s i n his actions the sense of the judgement, that Nicholas passes upon Conchi s,. f o r he too i s "a sort of n o v e l i s t sans novel,, creat-i n g with people, not words".. fM , 2 2 9 ) But unlike Conchis, Clegg. does not function i n the authorial or p r i e s t l y capacity; he is-not motivated by a desire to create f o r others, and hence does not intend consciously to communicate truth through his creation. Clegg i s motivated;simply by a desire to escape r e a l i t y and to s a t i s f y his own Unconscious sexual desires, and thus, must f i n a l l y become the victim' of the creation that em--bodies those unrecognized desires. As.both a creator: and a victim, Clegg represents within the greater scheme of Fowles' f i c t i o n , a synthesis of the magian figure, and the elect as portrayed l a t e r in.the char-a c t e r s of Nicholas and Charles. Like them, , he is- lured" from r e a l i t y by a dream that promises the pleasures of an i d e a l world.. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t Is f o r a l l three of them a dream th a t , . i n essence, i s : a sexual fantasy that promises the i d e a l f u l f i l l m e n t of desires, Clegg i s drawn to h i s own. i d e a l image of Miranda, Nicholas to the ideal''Lily, and Charles to the i d e a l Sarah; each becomes .the v i c t i m of a dream,' but a dream that i s no• more than a-.projection of t h e i r own desires upon the r e a l object. In one sense, Clegg, Nicholas, and Charles are victims by. v i r t u e of t h e i r gender alone.. "My female 'char' -acters," Fowles comments elsewhere, "tend to dominate the male. I see man as a kind of a r t i f i c e , and woman as a Kind of r e a l i t y . " 3 . Like h i s male cputerparts, Clegg's i l l u s o r y projection must., ine v i t a b l y , be denied by the steadfast-real-- i t y of the female. •.•• Clegg desires i n h i s escape into the world of i l l u s i o n , to negate the circumstances and l i m i t a t i o n s that r e a l i t y im-- poses upon him. A self-conscibus. v i c t i m of his society,' he exhibits the "resentful feeling-of i n f e r i o r i t y " that Fowles holds as one of the chief c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the'twentieth, century.^ . "My l o t , " he complains to Miranda, "just.do what they're told.;, .and better look out i f they don't". ( C , l 4 3 ) Even his., .newly .won fortune from: the, f o o t b a l l pools f a i l s to . appreciably a l t e r his p o s i t i o n i n society. "They, s t i l l ; . t r e a t ' -ed. me behind the scenes f o r what I'was - a clerk," ( C , l l ) Victimized by f e e l i n g s of impotence and i n f e r i o r i t y , ^ C l e g g ' s resentment takes the form of a class h o s t i l i t y directed to-ward those he believes to have.the s o c i a l advantages; "the 1'9 people.who-can act l i k e pub and who speak with "the r i g h t la-di-da voice.".. ( C , l l ) \ ] ' . : ; : . " • . When ..Miranda demands to know'why he kidnapped her, Clegg, self-blinded to his r e a l sexual desires, qutckly fabricates the story that he i s i n the power of Mr. Singleton, the man--ager of Barclay's Bank.(C,32) The response i s , without Clegg's meaning i t -.so,. a highly Ironic one, f o r he i s indeed, the v i c -. -tim of the "money-obsessed" society. 5 ' Clegg a r t i c u l a t e s the cardinal philosophy of his society and betrays his own:choice of. gods, : i n the words of one of his teachers - "Money i s Power". (C,26)' In an example of misplaced f a i t h , he believes that h i s wealth brings also.vthe unlimited power of a god to make .concrete substance of a dream. . In the creation of his daydreams, Clegg acts as the maker . of a f i c t i o n a l world that i s i d e a l , fabricated to his own spec-- i f i c a t i o n s and distanced "from the r e a l world. Here, he reigns omnipotently, as the' master of the s i t u a t i o n , the. daydream negat-i n g the feelings of impotence and i n f e r i o r i t y that he must endure i n . l i f e . Within his fantasy world, he can preserve an Ideal r e l a t i o n s h i p .with ah i d e a l Miranda, and most important, •".-.,-' the-image of an i d e a l C l e g g . B u t , as long as he i s part of ,; '.; • ':• ' . ' '" ":. . . • v . • •;".. ., ' '20 . society, he mu'st. suffer the tensions of. being caught 'between ; .the world he wishes and the one he does not. When the Miranda of r e a l i t y contradicts the purity :ahd obedience of the imagin-a r y creation'- as when he sees her with the "public-school, •type" (a pai n f u l reminder of his class i n f e r i o r i t y ) - Clegg .". retreats i n t o the world of h i s fantasy to punish her. (C,7) His desire f o r Miranda i s s p i r i t u a l i z e d and separated., from th<3 real1.'.physical desire that informs i t . The element' . of sexuality i s consciously omitted from the dream because i t contradicts Clegg's i d e a l image of himself,, and serve's to remind, him of h i s own r e a l impptency. In r e a l i t y , he i s unable to experience any form of sexual contact. "I dream, about i t : / " he, 'confesses to Miranda a f t e r his abortive attempt with her, " b u t : i t can't ever be r e a l . " (C,110) Through the • influence of h i s aunt, : an excessively-.puritanical woman with . ' an obsessive hatred of d i r t that i n e v i t a b l y extends i t s e l f to matters of sex, Clegg learns to. regard his sexual desires as "some animal thing that 1 was born without." (C,10) Thus, in" order ..to maintain the i d e a l .character of his dream, he, de--sexualizes h i s re l a t i o n s h i p with Miranda. He finds an outlet, however, f o r his repressed sexual desire, and circumvents the problem of having to face i t i n r e a l i t y by pushing i t one remove from the r e a l world. Rather than be an actor, he chooses to become a spectator - a voyeur. After his.sexual f a i l u r e and subsequent d i s g u s t . w i t h a pros-- t i t u t e following his winning of the.pools, Clegg takes an. 'interest i n "books of stark women and a l l . , t h a t " a n d with the-c l e a r l y false* j u s t i f i c a t i o n of photographing b u t t e r f l i e s , he : purchases a camera complete with telephoto lens, to c o l l e c t views of "the things,people get up to In places\you think they would know better than to do i t i n " . (C,12) Clegg i s not i n i t i a l l y .' aware, .however, that' the' vo y e u r i s t i c l e v e l of his sexual desires paradoxically allows him tqfv.iew Miranda as a sexual object while simultaneously" denying the sexual motive. .1 Aft e r .his chance winning of the f o o t b a l l pools, Clegg chooses to act rather than remain caught between the fac t and •the f i c t i o n , and sets out to make h i s dream a r e a l i t y , . The' c e l l a r of the; country house he purchases, l i k e Bourani in:The  Magus and the Unde r c l i f f i n The French Lieutenant's woman j re-., -presents the place,where the i l l u s i o n " t a k e s On the appearance of the r e a l i t y ; i t i s , on one l e v e l , a symbol for the realm of f i c t i o n i t s e l f . : Appropriately,. Clegg's realm has neither the l i g h t and openness'of.Ccnchis' Bourani, nor the natural beauty, of Sarah's Undercliff;. but, a r e f l e c t i o n of his own lurking 22 and subconscious desires, l i e s beneath :the earth i n darkness. . Within his-own mind Clegg separates the c e l l a r from the phen-omenal world and.isolates i t . i n the dimension of the dream: i t was l i k e down/there didn't e x i s t . . . I t ' s always been l i k e that.' Some days I've woken up and i t ' s a l l been l i k e a • • ; !: . dream, t i l l I went down again. (C ,19) ;.'•'%..• ;\''•;'' . As he develops this plan, he progressively i s o l a t e s himself .' from 'the -World of., r e a l i t y and begins to take up residence i n , his own dream. (C,21). .:-'-^ ; .'"'/•'>•• -.•'*..;•'•.-.''• • ,: 'Miranda'^^s .abduction, i n i t i a l provides the s a t i s f a c t i o n ; that Ciegg's dreams of omnipotence demanded-and. that r e a l i t y ... had-denied. I t i s of Crutchley-from the Annex that he thinks . when he considers h i s triumph,'for Crutchley with his acclaim--ed success- with women had always e l i c i t e d Ciegg's jealousy. '•" "I would l i k e to see Crutfchley-organize what I organized last, summer .and., carry i t through, " he. announces. (C ,20). . Looking at the newspapers l a t e r , he i s struck with, "a f e e l i n g of power" i n the knowledge that,he i s the only person who,knows of Miranda's whereabouts. But his triumph i s short-lived, for l i k e Nicholas i n The' Magus., Clegg makes the error of attempting to project . upon the r e a l person the f i c t i o n a l r o l e that he wishes her to play... Like. Alison, Miranda becomes the; i n t r u s i o n of unwanted ;• ... '" r e a l i t y into the ideal' world when she refuses the context of his dream. ," -'.-In her unwitting r e f u s a l toy be what Clegg wishes her to be, she brings" to';him ironically/enough, part of "the lesson : y - that Conchls attempts - through L i l y - to bring to Nicholas: • the knowledge of his own f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n of l i f e . Oh the morning following the kidnapping, Clegg goes into the c e l l a r and immediately notices that "she. didn't look l i k e I'd always., remembered her." (C,3D From t h i s point on, he i s kept con--s t a n t l y aware that t h i s i s not the imaginary Miranda that he  created, but a very r e a l one, a l i v i n g i n t r u s i o n of the r e a l world that w i l l continually .deny the. f u l f i l m e n t of his i d e a l . "In my dreams," he complains, f i n d i n g himself urged by Miranda to defend his actions, " i t was always the other way round." (c ,37) ;. .. -When Miranda, fails;,to play-her part i n Clegg's imaginary world, his dream ofomnipotence, collapses, and he r e a l i z e s that the only'true power he possesses i s that of warden, not the dominant r o l e of the master. (C,118) Since fundamentally the dream depends upon Miranda responding as Clegg imagines she should, he i s at the beginning a negative e n t i t y waiting . and hoping f o r a posi t i v e response. In an e f f o r t to encourage her r o l e , Clegg i s w i l l i n g to serve her i n any. way to actualize his i d e a l image of her. He in e v i t a b l y , then, becomes the v i c --tim of his victim, or more properly, the v i c t i m of the inner desires that he. i s projecting upon her. Although Clegg attempts to deny his, sexual i n t e r e s t i n Miranda, his r e a l desire i s evident from the beginning. When .she f i r s t - a r r i v e s i n the c e l l a r , she finds "an extraordinary' selection of weekend-in-Paris.underwear" (C,128) provided for ' her .along with the other clothing. This information i s s i g n i f -i c a n t l y absent from Clegg's own narrative, for ...though' he - men- .;:'; -tions his.purchase of clothes:for her, he f a i l s to specify . the nature, i n an e f f o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of him.in the early., half of the novel, to separate any thought of a physical nature from Miranda. : In spite of his attempt to supress i t , his sexual excitement i s apparent from her f i r s t a r r i v a l . Speechless and -,; nervous, he has a desire "to look, at-her face, at her lovely -h a i r , a l l of her small and pretty, but I couldn*t, she' stared ,so'at .me.'\ (C, 32) His r e a c t i p n ^ i s that of' the voyeur-who wish-' -es to: see rather "than experience, her real, presence f r u s t r a t - --ing his i n t e n t i o n s . Later, when her attempted seduction.of him serves to remind him of his'.-impotence, he retreats to the photographs of her, because " I : could take, my time, with them. < They didn'.-t.Stalk back' at.me. " (C, 113) • • ; ; , ' " } ',' Miranda i s unaware that she i s p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l l i n g Cl.egg's sexual need simply with her presence and by posing for the constant photographs upon which he i n s i s t s . "Es that why he keeps me?" she asks,, "Hoping the dream Miranda .will... "appear?" (C,246) Wherrhe g i v e s h e r c h l o r a f o r m and undresses; . h e r on the n%ght ;bf'\1bh^;intended farewell:-4irm-eir:.,;. his .reveals •. t h a t t h e v o y e u r i s t i c ^ heed f o r t h e photographs has always been •; [ c l o s e t o t h e s u r f a c e of. h i s : C o n s c i o u s n e s s . ' " I t was my chance I had. been . w a i t i n g for:,"/he a d m i t s r u n n i n g u p s t a i r s t o g e t h i s . camera, t h e n :goe s i mme.di a t e l y t o d e v e l o p rand . p r i n t t h e p i c t u r e s . •' On the n i g h t t h a t Miranda. attempts' t o seduce him i n hopes • o f o b t a i n i n g h e r freedom:;, she succeeds' o n l y i n d e s t r o y i n g i n / . - h i s eyes t h e p o s s i b i l i t y .of t h e ldea:i:'-Mii?.a^ aV;>ar]d;- worse, by. '.• ^ c o n f r o n t i n g him w i t h . h i s r e a l impotence, she d e n i e s t h e ideal.,-' /.- -: i n C l e g g . .He.; t h e n becomes the; p u n i s h i n g C l e g g o f t h e revenge: ":./• . f a n t a s i e s . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e dream i s d i s c a r d e d and C l e g g i s I x ; a b l e t o ' use her t o serve- h i s r e a l s e x u a l ends arid j u s t i f y i t . "* •: -1 as p u n i shment:. " I • f e l t happy, I c a n ' t e x p l a i n , ' I saw I was weak .. b e f o r e , now T was •paying h e r back f o r ' a J L l ;the^ ".",;.:, :and thought about me. " . (C,118) The . e a r l i e r resentment t h a t he -: }\-: :, f e l t toward t h o s e who had t h e advantages t h a t he l a c k e d i s d i r - : '.,: v ' ' - e c t e d at-Miranda'.";'- : '.;-'. . .-'V...'' :••.''"V--y'.•<•'.. • •  ' v - • ' . ' - ' , W i ' t h J h e r ; d e a t h , M i r a n d a b r i n g s about the; i n e v i t a b l e . •"•...: - t i o n of t h e ; f a l s i f y i n g v i s i o n t h a t C l e g g possesses.' He becomes . ; 2 , 6 conscious of h i s ' f I c t i o n a l i z a t i o n ; , o f l i f e, and grasps,: f i n a l - -- l y the u n r e a l i t y of his desires. With the loss of h i s ' i d e a l --ized self-conception, Clegg momentarily loses his own-sense '• of i d e n t i t y . Turning to confront the new-found un r e a l i t y that lie s , within him, Clegg. sees himself-without his mask of f i c t i o n -- a l i z a t i o n f o r the. f i r s t time: I thought I was: going mad, I .kept, on looking i n the mirror and -.. t r y i n g to see my face. I had this, h o r r i b l e idea, I was mad, "everyone else could see i t , only I couldn't. (C,282) Clegg seeks v a i n l y f o r .the r e a l i t y .that l i e s behind the appear--ahce - the appearance that he now suspects i s a l l i l l u s i o n . R e a lizing that he "wanted what money couldn't buy," he v o l u n t a r i l y dismisses the. potency of the god, Mammon, that had sustained him and turns for"comfort to the days when the dream was only a dream untainted by. the actual: - A l l sorts of nice things came back. I. remembered the beginn-i n g , the days i n the Annex just seeing.her-come out of the front door, or. passing her the other.side of the street...(C, 28i) '• '..;• Abruptly he wakes from, the pleasurable dream with an aware-n e s s of the r e a l i t y , of Miranda's death, and l i k e an e a r l i e r j-^Cai.iban awaking from a dream,of delight, he c r i e s "to: dream •. again."^ Clegg accepts, .then, the bleak world that l i e s be- : -hlnd^the self-deceiving appearances that he imposed upon i t ; Because what i t i s , i t ' s luck. I t ' s lifce the pools - worse, 27 there aren't even good teams and bad teams and l i k e l y draws. You can't ever t e l l how i t w i l l turn out...That's why I never believed i n God. I think we are insects, we l i v e a b i t and then die and that's the l o t . There's no mercy i n things. There's not even a Great Beyond. There's nothing. (C , 2 8 4 ) But unlike Nicholas, Clegg i s never able to perceive the v i t a l truth that l i e s behind t h i s r e a l i t y ; the positive truth, u l t l --mately that l i e s behind Conchls' mask of f i c t i o n , the mystery posed by the God who i s not present. But Clegg f e e l s no com--pulsion to question, h i s natural state Is one of acceptance: "It's In my character, i t ' s how I was made. I can't help i t . " (C ,277) Clegg's f a i l u r e , i n the f i n a l analysis l i e s i n his literai-mindedness, f o r he i s incapable of perceiving meaning beyond the appearance of things. During the dinner party on the day that Miranda i s supposed to be released they play Charades; I wasn't any good at i t , either acting or guessing. I r e --member one word she did was 'bu t t e r f l y ' . She kept on doing i t again and again and I couldn't guess. (C,90) Later, when Miranda asks him to pick out his favourite of a number of s t i l l - l i ' f e s that she has done, he picks the one closest to the r e a l i t y , the most photographic and neglects her abstracts. Clegg's incapacity to understand, or even sense a l e v e l beyond what i s immediately apparent creates the l i m i t a t i o n , 28 "the small room", he must Inhabit. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , h is • reaction to Salinger's Catcher i n the Rye reveals his tendency to give credence to that r e a l i t y alone that abides i n the appearance of l i f e . He condemns i t as a f a i l u r e of realism because Holden C a u l f i e l d comes from a wealthy home, and people . from that sort of background "wouldn't behave l i k e that". (C, 217-218) Miranda c o r r e c t l y observes that "He doesn't believe In any other world but the one he l i v e s i n and sees." (C ,223) In his literal-mindedness, Clegg f i n a l l y refuses to accept the truth of his own madness. With the coming of a new day, and his discovery of Miranda's diary, he discards his e a r l -- i e r dark insights into his character and begins "to have more sensible ideas". (C,286) I t i s not, however, a reversion to his old s e l f , f o r the Incident with Miranda has made, him con--scious of the r e a l sexual motives that had energized his search for an impossible.ideal. When he selects his next victim, i t i s i&ot done with a. desire to f u l f i l the i d e a l conception represent-e d i n his early dreams of Miranda. He chooses a "common shop-g i r l " who bears only a vague s i m i l a r i t y _to Miranda, and resolves that "thi s time i t won't be love, i t would just be for the in t e r e s t of the thing." (C,286-287) The id e a l of Clegg's dream w i l l not be revived, for he has learned, i f nothing more, to f 29 accept the l i m i t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y . Through choosing to s a t i s f y his r e a l i s t i c sexual needs, he avoids the anguish created "by a dream that can never become the r e a l i t y . Unlike Clegg, or her l a t e r male counterparts, Nicholas and Charles, Miranda i s not led into the fabricated s i t u a t i o n by the i d e a l pleasures that i t o f f e r s . The moment of her abduction marks an abrupt departure from the world that she knows, and her i n i t i a l r eaction i s one of i n c r e d u l i t y at the hazard of l i f e : I t i s "Like f a l l i n g o f f the edge of the world. There suddenly being an edge." (C,128) To her Ciegg's f a b r i c a t i o n i s both "a h e l l " and a f l a t denial of her own desires. (C,133) T e r r i f i e d i n a darkness and an i s o l a t i o n that she has never faced before, her f i r s t reaction i s to pray - "something I haven't done f o r years" - to a God whose true existence she can only partly accept. Her prayer i s simply f o r "daylight" (C . 1 2 9 ) , f o r Miranda poss--esses an i n s t i n c t and a desire for the natural and the r e a l that i s the informing quality of Fowles' female characters. She abhors the " a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t " of the c e l l a r , f o r i t f a l s i f i e s her own a r t . (C .133) I r o n i c a l l y , when Clegg i s o l a t e s Miranda from the outside world with the intention of f u l f i l l i n g his own fantasy - a 30 f a n t a s y c r e a t e d t o c a t h e c t t h e r e a l i t y - he imposes upon h e r t h e r e a l c o n d i t i o n o f h i s own l i f e . L o cked i n the. c e l l a r , i t s e l f a p r o j e c t i o n and image o f the " s m a l l room" of C l e g g ' s l i m i t e d w o r l d , M i r a n d a f a c e s t h e i s o l a t i o n and impotence t h a t a r e t h e l o t o f t h e v i c t i m . I n h e r s e a r c h f o r t h e t r u e meaning t h a t l i e s b e h i n d t h e r e l a t i v e u n r e a l i t y imposed upon her,,, and t h e manner i n w h i c h she c o n t e nds, b o t h m o r a l l y and p h i l o s O p h i c -- a l l y w i t h t h a t t r u t h , M i r a n d a s e r v e s as an exemplum f o r the p o s s i b l e way i n w h i c h C l e g g can d e a l w i t h h i s own p r e d i c a m e n t . But M i r a n d a and C l e g g , f r e q u e n t l y imaged i n the n o v e l as two o p p o s i n g p a r t s o f a whole, move i n c o n f l i c t i n g d i r e c t i o n s ; he s t r i v e s t o escape t h e r e a l w o r l d , she seeks t o engage i t . -I s o l a t e d from th e w o r l d t h a t she has known and made-aware of h e r own p h y s i c a l i n f e r i o r i t y , M i r a n d a i s f o r c e d i n t o the r o l e o f t h e v i c t i m . E v e n t u a l l y , she comes t o r e c o g n i z e - t h i s r o l e , and the' c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h e r c a p t i v i t y as the o n l y Immed-- i a t e and v e r i f i a b l e r e a l i t y I n h e r l i f e . The w o r l d beyond the c e l l a r "has ceased t o e x i s t " as a l i v i n g r e a l i t y , and to. M i r a n d a i t moves i n t o an i l l u s o r y d i m e n s i o n : ( C , l 4 8 ) I t i s not t h a t I have f o r g o t t e n what o t h e r p e o p l e a r e l i k e . B u t o t h e r p e o p l e seem t o have l o s t r e a l i t y . The o n l y r e a l p e r s o n i n ' my w o r l d i s C a l i b a n . (C, 149-150) 31 This inversion of values i s an i r o n i c one demonstrating the mirro r - l i k e contrasts posed by Clegg and Miranda. When he stri v e s to make his dream a r e a l i t y by abducting her, he sub-s e q u e n t l y forces her r e a l i t y to become a dream. When Miranda i s forced into the r o l e of the victim, her immediate desire to escape i s a r e f l e c t i o n of Ciegg's own objective i n the outer world. When she f a i l s to do so physic-- a l l y , she turns to her diary and the power of language to evoke the non-present world she desires: I f e l t I was going mad l a s t nightj so I wrote and wrote myself int o the other world. To escape i n s p i r i t , i f not i n f a c t . To prove i t s t i l l e x i s t s . (C, 167) Unencumbered by the literal-mindedness that characterizes Clegg, Miranda finds i n language the power of evocation that Clegg only finds through possession of the r e a l i t y . She discovers that "writing here i s a sort of drug". This afternoon I read what I wrote about G..P. the day bef ore yesterday. And i t seemed v i v i d . I know i t seems v i v i d be--cause my imagination f i l l s i n a l l ' the b i t s that another per-s o n wouldn't understand. I mean, i t ' s vanity. But i t seems a sort of magic, to be able to c a l l my past-back. And I just can't l i v e i n the present. (C,175-176) In i t s power to f u l f i l her desires, Miranda's diary serves a si m i l a r function to her, as the c e l l a r to Clegg. Both repres-e n t to t h e i r creators, the place where the i l l u s o r y and non-32 present world i s given r e a l i t y . Both the diary and the c e l l a r are the f i c t i a n a l projections of t h e i r makers and i n both the same movement may be observed. As Clegg comes, eventually, to recognize that the dream he wishes to create Is an i l l u s i o n that cannot be made r e a l , so Miranda becomes conscious that the world she creates i n her diary - a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e a l i t y of her past - i s only a world of appearances. Unlike Clegg, who must learn of his own f i c t i o n a l l z a t i o n through Miranda's I n s i s t -e n t denial of his desires, Miranda i s able to penetrate the i l l u s i o n that informed her l i f e before her abduction. Her early s e l f - f i c t i o n a l l z a t i o n centers upon the figure of G.P., a re b e l l i o u s and cy n i c a l a r t i s t who stood against the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of her Ladymont environment. "I've never been the same," Miranda confesses, "since he t o l d me how he hated fey-women. I even learnt the word from him." (C .153) In the i s o l a -t i o n of the c e l l a r she prepares a l i s t of "the ways i n which he has altered me". (C ,153) In t o t a l i t represents a rather naive formula of the attitudes that the Ideal a r t i s t must possess. I t s s u p e r f i c i a l tenets (as, for example, the insistence that an a r t i s t must be "Left p o l i t i c a l l y because the S o c i a l i s t s are the only people who care") r e f l e c t Miranda's imperfect and superfic-i a l understanding of what G..P. was t e l l i n g her. Taking G.P. 33 as her exemplum, she considers ..the lessons that she has learned from him as moral commandments of conduct, and she attempts to emulate his actions and his ideas. In truth, as Miranda f i n a l l y comes to understand i t , she i s merely miming the appearance of her 'ideal* a r t i s t . In her elevation of G.P., Miranda projects upon him,the guise of a god with the power of ultimate judgement. In his omnipresent shadow, she regards herself as both his creation and subject: I t ' s the thought of him that makes me f e e l g u i l t y when I break the r u l e s . I f he's made me believe them, that means he's made a large part of.the new me. (C,154) Miranda's i l l u s o r y conception of s e l f , then, i s based i n the s u p e r f i c i a l a l t e r a t i o n of her own character to please G.P. She acts as she believes he wishes her to act. While looking through some of Miranda's work, G.P. c r i t i c i z e s her f o r "paint--ing someone else's s t y l e " . (C ,170) Only l a t e r , when her im-,-posed solitude forces her to re-examine her.past does she r e a l -i z e that her own i d e n t i t y i s nothing more than a copy of the abstract i d e a l that she sees i n G.P. •Parallel to Clegg i n her v i s i o n of the i d e a l i n d i v i d u a l , Miranda desexualizes her image of G.P. -Though she wishes "to 34 marry, someone with a mind l i k e G.P.'s", she i n s i s t s on i t being someone "much nearer my own age, and with looks I l i k e . " (C , 1 5 l ) Miranda's- attitude i s a r e f l e c t i o n of her own highly abstracted idealism; she i s a creature of the abstract, s p i r i t u a l i z e d world of beauty, as Clegg i s one of the world of concrete p h y s i c a l l t y . In her r e j e c t i o n of the physical i n G.P., Miranda denies his t o t a l r e a l i t y , and elevates him to a god-like r o l e that she, i n turn, attempts to emulate. Her denial, i n the f i n a l analysis, i s the denial of her own physical r e a l i t y . G.P. draws attention to her i l l u s o r y v i s i o n of hims At your age one Is bursting with i d e a l s . You think that because I can sometimes see what's t r i v i a l and what's important i n art I ought to be more virtuous. My charm... f o r you i s simply frank--ness. And experience. Not goodness. I'm not a good man. Per-h a p s morally I'm even younger than you are. (C ,190) In the solitude of the c e l l a r , Miranda comes, eventually, to an awareness of her denial of the physical r e a l i t y of h e r s e l f . Like Clegg, she begins to perceive the truth that l i e s behing her appearances Staring at myself i n the mirror., Sometimes I don't seem r e a l to myself, i t suddenly seems that i t i s n ' t my r e f l e c t i o n only a foot or two away. I have to look aside. I look a l l over my face, at my eyes, I try to see what my eyes say. What I am. Why I'm ;here. (C,235-236) When Miranda attempts to seduce Clegg i n her hopes of obtaining her freedom, she abruptly confronts the physical r e a l -i t y that she had previously denied, and loses the innocence 35 that had informed her i l l u s o r y idealism, The act, above a l l , a l t e r s her own perception of herself by severing her from her past: "I've done something for the f i r s t time i n my.life some--thing o r i g i n a l . ...The l a s t of the Ladymont me. I t ' s dead." (G, 254) I r o n i c a l l y she repeats one of the lessons of G.P. that she i n turn attempts to pass on to Clegg: you could become whatever you l i k e d . Only you've got to shake off the past. You've got to k i l l your aunt and the house you l i v e d i n and the people you lived'with. You've got to be a new human being. (C,82) After her experience with Clegg, Miranda embraces her t o t a l r e a l i t y , and i s aware f o r the f i r s t time of "The power of women! I've never f e l t so f u l l of mysterious power." (C ,258) Her.old s e l f and the i l l u s i o n s of her past are discarded as childhood . pursuits: I t ' s l i k e the day you r e a l i z e d o l l s are d o l l s . I pick up my old s e l f and I see i t ' s s i l l y . A toy I've played with too often. I t ' s a l i t t l e sad, l i k e an old golliwog at the bottom of the cupboard. (C ,257) Miranda, then, comes to an awareness of her r e a l s e l f , free from the mask of i l l u s i o n . But t h i s i s only a part of her t o t a l . quest,-for she also looks into the world beyond herself. "Where i s t h i s , who are you, why have you brought me here?" ( C ; 3 D " Miranda's f i r s t words to Clegg'embody the pervasive questions in'the i n i t i a l stage of her search for enlightenment. 36 She wishes to know the meaning that l i e s behind the bizzare s i t u a t i o n into which she i s placed, i n short, Clegg's motive. Through her own quizzing and car e f u l analysis of her captor, she penetrates the appearance of Clegg's f a b r i c a t i o n and comes to r e a l i z e what he himself w i l l not face. On her a r r i v a l she judges him i n i t i a l l y by appearances, fi n d i n g him "Absolutely sexless", a " l i l y - w h i t e boy." (C, 130-131) In hi s e f f o r t to suppress his own desires,, t h i s i s prec i s e l y the appearance that Clegg wishes to give, but Miranda eventually sees beyond the exterior, and confronts him with the r e a l i t y that he w i l l not accept himself: You've had a l i t t l e dream, the sort of dream I suppose l i t t l e boys have and masturbate about...you won't admit to yourself that the whole thing i s nasty/ nasty, nasty. (C,82) Although' she comes to understand Clegg's motive i n creating a l i v i n g s fantasy, Miranda f a i l s to successfully grasp the u l t l --mate -meaning why she i s chosen to play a part i n i t . When she f i r s t , a r r i v e s , she r e a l i z e s on examining the art books he has supplied "that they were there f o r me. That I wasn't a haphazard vi c t i m a f t e r a l l . " (C,128) Here, the f a m i l i a r pattern of the elect i n Fowles' novels takes form, the pattern that provides the d i r e c t i o n and energy f o r the quest. Miranda i s confronted with the fact that her presence i n the c e l l a r i s not an accident, but rather, the r e s u l t of a plan. She i s a chosen victim. I f i t i s 3? part of a plan, i t must then have both a reason and a meaning behind i t . . Miranda, l i k e Nicholas and Charles a f t e r her, struggles to perceive the larger picture, and poses f i n a l l y the ontological question, "Why?" (C.13.6.) The question I t s e l f i s evoked by appearances. The small world of fantasy that Clegg creates appears i n Miranda's eyes to have both order and purpose, d i r e c t i o n and meaning. She i s i n the f i n a l analysis, an i n t e g r a l part of the whole meaning. Most immediately, she can perceive Clegg as the d i r e c t agent of the s i t u a t i o n , for she soon discards the explanation that he i s under the control of a t h i r d person. But Miranda turns inev i t a b l y , once the question i s evoked, to search put the agent who i s behind the s i t u a t i o n of which they are both a part; she seeks, I r o n i c a l l y , for. a t h i r d all-knowing person who w i l l answer the ultimate question that she poses. In Miranda's search, there i s the suggestion of the vanish-i n g planes that p o t e n t i a l l y are present i n The Collector, and are progressively explored i n Fowles' l a t e r novels. As Miranda i s part of a s i t u a t i o n that Clegg has created i n his version of the "godgame", so both Miranda and Clegg are a part of the s i t --uation that Fowles has created with the novel i t s e l f , i n his a p p l i c a t i o n of the "godgame". The problem of agency and mean-i n g i s resolved as the question moves from l e v e l to l e v e l . 38 F i n a l l y , though the question i t s e l f i s not overtly posed u n t i l The French Lieutenant's Woman, the reader and the author also create a s i t u a t i o n which i s the f i n a l experience of the novel. Who ultimately i s the agent of t h i s situation? The question i s resolved i n Fowles' concept of "mystery", there i s ultimately no agent, and no meaning, there i s only the question that the ab-s e n c e of an agent can evoke. The Important point i n Fowles' f i c t i o n , i s not the answer to the question, but that the ques-t i o n i t s e l f be evoked and asked. The knowledge of the mystery comes only with the knowledge that the question cannot be answer-e d . Compelled through circumstance to seek out an answer to her unanswered question, Miranda i s faced f i n a l l y with the knowledge that i t cannpt, or w i l l not, be answered. "I don't think I be-- l l e v e i n God anymore," she concludes i n her assessment: What I f e e l I know now i s that God doesn't intervene. He l e t s us suffer. I f you pray f o r l i b e r t y then you may get r e l i e f just because you pray...But God can't hear. There's nothing l i k e human hearing or seeing or p i t y i n g or helping about him. (C ,233) Miranda, i t must be noticed, does not rej e c t a 'God', what she does r e j e c t -> and i n t h i s she i s a small version of her author -i s a t h i r d person God. Though He may have created the universe, Miranda concludes that he i s no longer present i n i t ; "we have to l i v e as i f there Is no God." With the cold truth of t h i s 39 r e a l i t y comes the image of a sky that Is "absolutely empty," "pure and empty".. It! i s at t h i s point that Miranda i r o n i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e s Ciegg's r o l e i n the novel as that of the s e l f --appointed god, the self-created representative of the absent Gods "He's not human; he's an empty space disguised as a human." (C,234) (emphasis mine) Through Clegg and the world of i l l u s i o n he creates, Miranda thus comes to an awareness of the truth that Fowles wishes to make evident i n h i s own assumption of the r o l e of the tale' s absent 'God'. She comes, as a l l of Fowles' elect characters, to f i n a l l y sharing her author's v i s i o n . There i s no "God' who w i l l intervene i n the a f f a i r s of men. Behind the world of appearance there i s only an abiding silence that evokes the search. 40 NOTES TO CHAPTER II James Joyce, P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t as a Young Man (England: Penguin Books,-, 1963), p.215. 2 I am indebted to Professor F. Holdaway of the French Depart--ment of the University fo B r i t i s h Columbia for t r a n s l a t i n g and dating Fowles' epigram. The phrase, "que fors aus,.ne l e  sot riens nee"' may be placed sometime i n the l a t e 1 1 t h or early 1 2 t h century. I t does not, however, contain any key words that would connect i t to a known source. I can there--fore conclude that Fowles did not expect his reader to recognize I t . I am even tempted to add that he probably did not expect them to understand i t . 3 John Fowles, "On Writing a Novel," The C o r n h i l l . Summer 1 9 6 9 , p.292. h. John Fowles, The A r i s t o s : A S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n Ideas (Toronto; L i t t l e , - Brown and Company, 1964), p. 14. I b i d . p . 3 « 1 "1 41 CHAPTER I I I The Magus Trapped i n „the m y s t i f y i n g w o r l d of 'Wonderland', where a n y t h i n g seems p o s s i b l e , l i t t l e A l i c e c o n s i d e r s h e r p l i g h t ; I a l m o s t w i s h I hadn't gone down t h e r a b b i t h o l e - and y e t -and y e t -- i t ' s r a t h e r c u r i o u s , you know, " t h i s s o r t o f l i f e ! T do wonder what can have happened -to me! When I used t o r e a d f a i r y t a l e s ' , I f a n c i e d t h a t k i n d of t h i n g n e v e r happen-ed., and now here I am i n the m i d d l e o f one!-1-A t t h i s p o i n t i n A l i c e ' s r e a s o n i n g , t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . i s drawn a b r u p t l y t o t h e f i c t i o n as an, i l l u s i o n . A l i c e i s , i n th e r e a d e r ' s c o n s c i o u s p e r c e p t i o n , s t r a n d e d i n the mi d s t o f a f a i r y - t a l e , and i f t h e passage went no f u r t h e r , she appears t o be m o m e n t a r i l y a d d r e s s i n g d i r e c t l y , and s h a r i n g w i t h t h e r e a d e r a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h e r own f i c t i o n a l r o l e . As the passage c o n t i n u e s , however, t h e p e r c e p t i o n i s r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d : "There ought t o be a book w r i t t e n about me...That t h e r e ought! When I grow up I ' l l w r i t e one..." Now A l i c e i s no l o n g e r a d d r e s s i n g h e r s e l f t o t h e r e a d e r w i t h a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h e r own f i c t i o n -- a l i t y . She i s p r e s e n t i n g h e r s e l f as a r e a l p e r s o n t a l k i n g , q u i t e l i t e r a l l y t o h e r s e l f - t h a t i s , someone who c o n s i d e r s h e r -- s e l f t o be i n a r e a l w o r l d t h a t o n l y r esembles a f i c t i o n . The i r o n y i s o v e r h e a r d and shared o n l y by t h e r e a d e r and the a u t h o r . A l t h o u g h A l i c e i s t h e n a r r a t o r of t h e t a l e , and t h e a u t h o r i s not o b v i o u s l y i n t r u d i n g , she i s i n c a p a b l e of p o s s e s s i n g t h e i n f o r m -- a t i o n t h a t she i s f i c t i o n a l . 42 Sim i l a r l y , when mid-way through The Magus, Nicholas, speak-i n g to Alison, pleads the necessity of returning to Phraxos "because "It's l i k e being halfway through a book. I can't just throw i t i n the dustbin" (M,259)» the reader's perception i s a sim i l a r one to A l i c e ' s statement. The reader, i n other words, i s the possessor of p r i v i l e g e d information which i s immediately shared only with the author himself, for.the two are aware ..that the character i s i n fa c t a f i c t i o n a l creation. When a writer resorts, as i n the above examples, to drawing attention to the i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y , the e f f e c t , as Louis Rubin suggests, i s to i n t e n s i f y t h e i l l u s i o n , not to destroy i t . 3 - The reader's princ-i p l e demand, that the characters view themselves as r e a l people i n a r e a l s i t u a t i o n i s f u l f i l l e d . "I wonder what sort of a tale we've f a l l e n Into?" Tolkien's Master Samwise asks Frodo, the immortal'hobbit; "I wonder," said Frodo. "But I don't, know. And that's the way of a r e a l t a l e . Take any one that you're fond of. You know, or guess what kind of a t a l e 1 i t i s , happy-ending or sad-ending, but the people i n i t don't know. And you don't want them to." (emphasis mine) In another passage, th i s time from A l i c e Through the Looking- Glass -• a passage that Fowles employs as a chapter epigraph i n The French Lieutenant's Woman (FLW.403) - there appears a f u r -t h e r v a r i a t i o n upon the reader's i r o n i c perception, \ 43 "Why, about you? " Tweedledee exclaimed., clapping-his hands truimphantly. "And i f he l e f t o f f dreaming about you, where do you suppose you'd be?" "Where I am now, of course," said A l i c e . "Not you! " Tweedledee retorted contemptuously. "You'd be nowhere. Why, you're only a sort of thing i n his dream!" "If that there King was to wake," added'Tweedledum, "You'd go out - bang! - just l i k e a candle!" "I shouldn't!" A l i c e exclaimed indignantly.5 Again, the reader can share with the author the irony that A l i c e i s indeed merely a creation of the mind, an i l l u s i o n , but here, there i s one difference, f o r b r i e f l y , Tweedledee and Tweedledum appear to possess, also, the pri v i l a g e d information that both the reader and the author share - the knowledge of the ta l e as i l l u s i o n . In The Magus, Fowles draws the conscious attention of the reader to his own presence as author by breaking the silence that he maintains throughout The Collector . In addition to employing, a single and obvious chapter heading i n a book that otherwise has no chapter headings (M,374) - he blat a n t l y intrudes into the f i n a l chapter of the novel and addresses the reader d i r -e c t l y . (M,594) By breaking into Nicholas* narrative and discuss-i n g him as f i c t i o n a l character, Fowles makes the reader immed-i a t e l y aware that the ta l e he has been reading and conventionally accepting as r e a l i t y (as i n the case of The Co l l e c t o r ) , i s , a f t e r a l l only an i l l u s i o n i t s e l f . . Even though the in t r u s i o n comes at the end of the novel, i t provides a retrospective view that 44 r a d i c a l l y . a l t e r s the reader's perception of The Magus, and, most p a r t i c u l a r l y of the r o l e of Conchis i n the f i c t i o n . In the novel, John Fowles draws his reader back one remove from the perspective offered by The Collector and includes with-i n ' the immediate pattern of the mise en scene of the novel, a magian figure, Maurice Conchis, who serves as the author's d i r e c t agent and confidant. In The Collector, I t w i l l be remembered, Clegg serves as the agent of the f i c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n within the t a l e when he undertakes his version of the "godgame". But Clegg quite patently does not represent either Fowles' approach or v i s i o n of r e a l i t y . Conchis, on the other hand, offers to the reader a l e v e l of,..causality that The Collector lacks. In the l a t t e r , "Caliban" and Miranda stand alone i n the greater i l l u s i o n that only the reader and author can share, f o r Prospero i s , i n the conventional sense of the.novel, absent from the t a l e . In The Magus. however, Prospero - self-announced and revealed -appears i n the novel i n the guise of Maurice Conchis. (M ,79) On one of the occasions when Conchis is. absent from his domaine, Nicholas, i n s i s t e n t i n his pledge to search out the s. " r e a l i t y behind a l l the mystery", investigates the lands of Bourani. (M,1.52) Although, to his disappointment he finds them j k5 empty, he discovers a trace of the old man's presence, in.a, spider I l a i d my hands i n i t s path and i t jumped onto i t ; holding i t up close I could see i t s minute black eyes, l i k e giglamps. I t swiv--eled i t s massive square head from side to side i n an arachnoidal parody of Conchis* quizzing; and once again, as with the owl, I had an uncanny apprehension of the r e a l i t y of witchcraft; Conchis haunting brooding omnipresence. (M,349) The image of the spider - a suggestive symbol f o r the creator of the f i c t i o n , which appears also as a designation f o r the novelist god of The Collector (C,264) - again finds expression during the • t r i a l scene'. Momentarily struck by the apparent s e l f - e f f a c e --ment of Conchis, who has assumed a secondary r o l e in-the proceedings, Nicholas i s "not misled by the new mask. He (Conchis was s t i l l the master of ceremonies, the man behind i t a l l ; at  web center." (emphasis mine) The comment i s an i r o n i c one, but i t i s an irony that only the reader can f u l l y recognize, f o r he i s aware that "the man behind i t a l l , " absent from his domaine and "at web center", i s Fowles himself. (M,460) The reader, though on the dramatic l e v e l compelled to follow Nicholas' searchings, as narrator, and misled as Nicholas i s misled, i s nonetheless i n possession of the greater conscious--ness that Nicholas himself i s a f i c t i o n . The irony i s intens-i f i e d and made obvious by Conchis* "smile of dramatic irony" -the smile "of those who have pr i v i l a g e d information," (M,l43) The p r i v i l a g e d information that Conchis possesses, i s the 46 knowledge t h a t he i s a c h a r a c t e r i n a n o v e l , t h a t he, l i k e N i c h o l a s , i s a f a b r i c a t i o n of t h e a u t h o r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n (hence t h e heavy i r o n y of h i s name, an o b v i o u s homynym f o r ' c o n s c i o u s ' ) . "And a r e you t h e p r o d u c e r ? " N i c h o l a s a s k s C o n c h i s , i n an e f f o r t t o know more about t h e "new m e t a - t h e a t e r " : "No. T h i s y e a r t h e d i r e c t o r i s a v e r y o l d f r i e n d o f mine. He used t o come here b e f o r e t h e war." " S h a l l I meet him?" "That depends on him. B u t I t h i n k n o t . " "Why on him?" "Because I am an a c t o r t o o , N i c h o l a s , i n t h i s s t r a n g e new in e t a - t h e a t e r . That i s why I say t h i n g s b o t h o f us know cannot be t r u e . Why I am p e r m i t t e d t o l i e . . . " (M,367) There i s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l no f u r t h e r mention made o f t h e d i r e c t o r . The d i s c u s s i o n , t h e n , would appear t o be an i r r e l -e v a n c y u n l e s s i t be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s i n t e n d e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e d i r e c t o r i s none o t h e r t h a n Fowles h i m s e l f . He i s n o t , C o n c h i s i m p l i e s , an a c t o r i n t h e t h e a t e r b u t some-- t h i n g e l s e . I n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman. C h a r l e s does have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet the d i r e c t o r , but he i s unaware of t h e i d e n t i t y o f the man s i t t i n g a c r o s s from him on the t r a i n t o London. (FLW.403) G i v e n the open c o l l a b o r a t i o n between Co n c h i s and h i s • d i r e c t o r ' , t h e r e a d e r i s p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t C o n c h i s ' d e s c r i p -t i o n of t h e "new m e t a - t h e a t e r " f o r what i s - a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e n o v e l form i t s e l f : 47 I c o n c e i v e d a new k i n d o f drama. One i n w h i c h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between a u d i e n c e and a c t o r s were f o r g o t t e n . I n w h i c h the c o n v e n t i o n a l s c e n i c geography, th e n o t i o n s o f proscenium, s t a g e , a u d i t o r i u m , were c o m p l e t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d . I n which t h e  a c t i o n , • the n a r r a t i v e was f l u i d , w i t h o n l y a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e .  and a f i x e d p o i n t o f c o n c l u s i o n . (M,366) (emphasis mine) The d e s c r i p t i o n i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f James' d e l i n e a t i o n o f n o v e l s as " f l u i d p u d d i n g s " ^ o r t h a t o f J o y c e ' s D e d a l u s , who speaks of t h e n o v e l as t h e " f l u i d and lambent n a r r a t i v e " y i e l d e d when the " p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t p asses i n t o t h e n a r r a t i o n i t s e l f , f l o w i n g round and round the p ersons and t h e a c t i o n l i k e a v i t a l sea."? . P a t e n t l y , C o n c h i s as the agent of the f i c t i o n w i t h i n t h e t a l e , i s c o n s c i o u s l y w o r k i n g t o c r e a t e t h e n o y e l t h a t Fowles i s w r i t i n g . N i c h o l a s , q u i t e j u s t i f i a b l y f e e l s h i m s e l f t o be the v i c t i m o f a c o n s p i r a c y (M,440), f o r as a c o n f i d a n t o f C o n c h i s , L i l y a l s o p o s s e s s e s an awareness o f t h e p r i v i l e g e d I n f o r m a t i o n s "We a r e a l l a c t o r s 1 and a c t r e s s e s Mr. U r f e , " she a d v i s e s him, "You i n c l u d e d . " N i c h o l a s , however, u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r o n y , t a k e s h e r comment as a s i m p l e c l i c h e and answers f a c e t ! o u s l y s "Of c o u r s e . On t h e s t a g e of, t h e w o r l d . " (M,170) Even Mrs. de S e i t a s i s an .^'aspect o f h i s ( C o n c h i s ' ) c h a r a c t e r . " 8 I t i s Mrs. de S e i t a s , i n f a c t , who p r o v i d e s t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e t h a t l i e s b e h i n d C o n c h i s ' e l a b o r a t e 'masque' and the m otive b e h i n d the f i c t i o n a l 48 c r e a t i o n . " I s h o u l d l i k e t h e whole w o r l d . I c o u l d g i v e i t some-- t h i n g so much b e t t e r t h a n what p o s s e s s e s i t now." (M,572) Here, s i m p l i f i e d , i s embodied the a l t r u i s t i c purpose t h a t c o n t r a s t s t h e c r e a t i o n o f C o n c h i s w i t h t h a t o f the s e l f - s e e k i n g Clegg? Conchis c r e a t e s f o r o t h e r s w i t h t h e c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e t o improve man's c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . A t t e m p t i n g t o s e a r c h out t h e meaning o f t h e 'masque', N i c h o l a s o b s e r v e s e a r l y i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e "two.elements i n h i s •game* - one d i d a c t i c , t h e o t h e r a e s t h e t i c . " (M,157) I n t r u t h , C o n c h i s r e f l e c t s h i s a u t h o r ' s d e s i r e - s t a t e d i n The A r i s t o s -" t o a pproach a r e a l i t y , t o convey a r e a l i t y , t o s y m b o l i z e a r e a l -i t y , t o summarize a r e a l i t y , t o c o n v i n c e o f a r e a l i t y . " 9 T h i s i s t h e d i d a c t i c aim o f h i s c r e a t i o n , t o communicate t o N i c h o l a s (as Fowles does t o the r e a d e r ) t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f human r e a l i t y . E a r l y i n h i s n a r r a t i v e , C o n c h i s i n f o r m s N i c h o l a s o f t h e n a t u r e of phenomenal r e a l i t y . S p e a k i n g o f the l e s s o n t h a t he l e a r n e d from t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f Aubers R i d g e , he c o n f e s s e s t h a t h i s e r r o r t h e n had been h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e h o r r o r o f t h e war was "an e x p i a t i o n f o r . some b a r b a r o u s crime o f c i v i l i z a t i o n " , t t h a t i t had meaning; I know now i t was our b e l i e v i n g t h a t we were f u l f i l l i n g some end, s e r v i n g some p l a n . . . I n s t e a d of t h e r e a l i t y . There i s no p l a n . A l l I s h a z a r d . And t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t w i l l p r e s e r v e us i s o u r s e l v e s . (M,124 49 Here t h e . p h i l o s o p h i c v o i c e of Fowles . t h e .voice o f The A r i s t o s 1 o - even t o t h e i d e n t i c a l w o r d i n g x v - a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f - t o t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f the w o r l d . I t i s t h a t e x p e r i e n t i a l p a r t ' o f t h e t r u t h o f man's c o n d i t i o n t h a t C l e g g a r t i c u l a t e s a t the end o f The C o l l e c t o r (C,284) and t h a t M i r a n d a moves toward r e c o g n i z i n g . I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s t h e t r u t h . t h a t d r i v e s man t o c r e a t e i l l u s i o n s ; "We a r e a l l I n f l i g h t f r o m t h e r e a l r e a l i t y . " , . Fowles c l a i m s i n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman. (FLW,97) L i k e M i r a n d a and C l e g g "before t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , N i c h o l a s , embraces a f a c t i t i o u s v i s i o n of r e a l i t y t h a t has never been q u e s t i o n e d o r t r u l y t e s t e d . I n s p i t e o f t h e a t h e i s m he c l a i m s . t o espouse (M,106), he comes .to r e a l i z e t h a t he does p o s s e s s the b e l i e f i n a t h i r d p e r s o n god. Drawing t o a more complete awareness of h i m s e l f l a t e i n t h e 'masque', he f i n d s the words t o d e s c r i b e t h i s ' o t h e r ' b e i n g : A l l my l i f e I had t r i e d t o t u r n l i f e i n t o a f i c t i o n , t o h o l d r e a l i t y away; always I had a c t e d as i f a t h i r d p e r s o n was w a t c h i n g and l i s t e n i n g and g i v i n g me marks f o r good and bad b e h a v i o u r - a god l i k e a n o v e l i s t , t o whom I t u r n e d , l i k e a c h a r a c t e r w i t h the power t o p l e a s e , t h e s e n s i b i l i t y t o f e e l s l i g h t e d , t h e a b i l i t y t o adapt h i m s e l f t o whatever he b e l i e v e d t h e the g o d - n o v e l i s t wanted. (M,487) B a s i c a l l y , t h e v i s i o n i s not one o f a god t r a n s c e n d e n t , b u t s. more a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s e l f d i v i d e d . S p e a k i n g o f h i s y o u t h and h i s f o r c e d e n l i s t m e n t i n t o t h e army, Co n c h i s d e s c r i b e s the c o n f i g u r a t i o n : "There I became two pe o p l e - one who watched 50 and one who t r i e d to forget that the other watched." (M,ll4) The concept i s best understood i n terms of the Sartrean post-- u l a t i o n of 'posing': Man i s faced with the d i f f i c u l t y of existing, t h i s i s his  situation...To cope with i t , man- must never cease w i l l i n g and choosing; he must be forever renewing, forever free. Rather..than make the r e q u i s i t e exertion most men prefer to fashion a d e f i n i t e image of themselves, -to see themselves congealed into a stable e x i s t e n c e . 1 1 Sartre, discussing Baudelaire, suggests a form of escape from the r e a l s i t u a t i o n , that i s achieved through the conscious f a b r i c a t i o n of personality: He i s a man who, most acutely aware of his human predicament, sought most avidly to hide i t . from himself. Since his 'nature' escaped him, he t r i e d to ensnare i t i n the eyes of others.12 E s s e n t i a l l y i t involves escaping the consciousness of s e l f through the eyes of another - a self-created other. According to Sartre our l i f e often consists of 'posing' of exhibiting ourselves to others not through s u p e r f i c i a l vanity but because the image that they fashion of us from without seems l i k e a s o l i d r e a l i t y which can reassure us concerning ourselves and keep us from having to exert o u r s e l v e s . 1 3 "Thus", says Sartre, "we escape anguish by tr y i n g to apprehend ourselves from.without as we would the Other or a thing."^^ The ap p l i c a t i o n of t h i s concept to Nicholas, i s Fowles* further development and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the type of s e l f -f i c t i o n a l l z a t i o n that i s apparent i n Miranda of The Collector. 51 Like Nicholas, she f a l s i f i e s her true i d e n t i t y by seeing-her-- s e l f through the eyes of a fabricated t h i r d person. When she f a l s i f i e s G.P'. 's r e a l i t y and i d e a l i z e s him, she provides for the f a l s i f i c a t i o n of herself. The configuration i s perhaps best described as a mirror; i n the r e f l e c t i o n , one views s e l f - as object and .is able as a r e s u l t to escape the r e a l i t y of s e l f . In a conversation with L i l y , Nicholas reveals the process at work: So we taiked about Nicholas: his family, his ambitions and his f a i l i n g s . The t h i r d person was r i g h t , because I presented a • sort of i d e a l s e l f to her, a v i c t i m of circumstances, a mixture of a t t r a c t i v e raffishness and essential inner decency..(M,23^) Nicholas, i n other words, sees himself from without; his fab-r i c a t e d i d e n t i t y i s a pose to f u l f i l the i d e a l he postulates for himself. During his suicide.attempt, he f e e l s that he i s "being watched...putting on an act f o r the benefit of" someone." (M,58) and f o r that reason he feels incapable of carrying i t through: I was t r y i n g to commit not a moral action, but a fundamentally aesthetic one; to do something that would end my l i f e sensa-t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y , consistently. I t was a Mercutio death I was looking f o r , not a r e a l one. A death to be remembered, not the true death of a true suicide, the. death o b l i t e r a t e . \M, 58) The "someone" f o r whom he f e e l s he i s attempting the a c t , . i s his second s e l f , l i k e Miranda's G.P., the one who watches, and 52 judges. Nicholas' self-created "god-novelist" i s i n f a c t , a t h i r d person creation who w i l l meaningfully relate s e l f to a l l external to s e l f . Both Sartre and Fowles corr e c t l y condemn t h i s as an escape from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of facing man's true freedom. I t i s a " f l i g h t from the r e a l r e a l i t y " . (FLW.97) Nicholas recognizes t h i s f o r i n his f a i l u r e he f e e l s "inten-s e l y f a l s e ; i n e x i s t e n t i a l i s t terms, unauthentic." (M,58) Nicholas' pose Is f i c t i o n a l and h i s t r i o n i c , f o r he 'acts' i n the meaningful manner of a.character, f o r an observer - a self-created observer. His role-playing develops e s s e n t i a l l y from a f a i l u r e consciously to d i s t i n g u i s h between reality,and appearance, thus allowing the a n t i t h e t i c a l realms of l i f e and f i c t i o n to be blurred. In his youthful p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Les  Hommes Eevoltes, an Oxford e x i s t e n t i a l i s t club, Nicholas con-f e s s e s to taking the appearance of f i c t i o n f o r r e a l i t y : ...we didn't r e a l i z e that the heroes, or anti-heroes, of the ' French e x i s t e n t i a l i s t novels we read were not supposed to be r e a l i s t i c . We.tried to imitate them, mistaking metaphorical descriptions of complex modes of f e e l i n g f o r straight forward prescriptions of behaviour. (M,1.3) Like Miranda, Nicholas can l i v e a f i c t i o n - a self-created dream -. because he accepts the appearance as the r e a l i t y . The character of h i s dream world i s most f u l l y revealled i n his own mind, when he examines the manner i n which he treats "the f a c t of Alison's death": 53 (I) had-begun to edge i t out of the moral world into the aesthetic, where i t was easier to l i v e with. By th i s s i n i s t e r e l i s i o n , t h i s s l i p p i n g from true remorse, the b e l i e f that the suffering we have precipitated ought to enoble us, or at least" make us less ignoble from then on, to disguised self-forgiveness, the b e l i e f that suffering i n some way ennobles l i f e , so that the p r e c i p i t a t i o n of pain comes by such a cockeyed algebra, to equal ennoblement, or at any rate enrich--ment, of l i f e , by t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y twentieth century retreat, .from content. Into, form, from meaning into appearance, from ethics Into aesthetics, from" aqua i n t o unda, I - dulled the pain of accusing death..." (M,364) (emphasis mine) The transposition of values that he observes here, i s funda--mentally that which,had produced his f i c t i o n a l perception of r e a l i t y . Unable to face the unmasked truth of l i f e , Nicholas effaces the r e a l i t y . w i t h a representational world that he creates through h i s ' n o v e l i s t - g o d * (his observing second s e l f ) , Through those objective eyes he views himself from without; he then can distance the r e a l i t y of the r e a l world he w i s h e s t o escape, and endow the world_of appearances, thus produced with i d e a l values. Nicholas t r i e s l i t e r a l l y "to turn l i f e into a f i c t i o n " . (1,487) The representational world that Nicholas creates f o r him-- s e l f i s defined, i n f a c t , i n the terms of a l i t e r a r y f i c t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n that he i s drawing between content and form i s perhaps, best explained i n the following l i n e s of Mark Schorer's: Modern c r i t i c i s m has shown us that to speak of content as such i s not to speak of art at a l l , but of experience; and that i t i s only when we speak of achieved content, the form, the work of a r t as work," that we speak as c r i t i c s . * 5 The r e a l experience of l i f e becomes mutatis mutandis, the 54 experience of f i c t i o n . The meaning that event possesses i n l i f e , then, i s exchanged fo r the appearance of meaning offered by the i l l u s i o n . Here,, the e t h i c a l and moral considerations that pre--dominate i n the r e a l world of r e a l actions - judging ultimately the means and the ends - are discarded i n favour of the aesthe-t i c world which i s beyond action and serves as an end i n i n s e l f : I f the mind penetrates deeply into the facts-of aesthetics, i t w i l l f i n d more and more, that these facts are-.based upon an i d e a l i d e n t i t y between the mind i t s e l f and things. Thus, i n his' representational world of appearance, vMicholas i s free to impose at w i l l only those relationships that r e f l e c t his conception of his own i d e a l i d e n t i t y . The world of appear-a n c e s that he creates f o r himself i s then l i k e a mirror that w i l l r e f l e c t , not his r e a l s e l f , but what i d e a l l y he conceives himself to be. The process of f i c t l o n a l i z a t i o n that supplants r e a l i t y with i l l u s i o n , i s f o r Nicholas one. of s e l f - f a l s i f i c a t i o n , for, l i k e ..Miranda's indulgent and d i s t o r t i n g idealism,, i t i s a self-cent-e r e d creation that obviates truth and grossly l i m i t s the i n d i v i d u a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s the unda which b e l i e s the aqua, ' 1 7 the appearance of meaning that denies the true meaning. ' On his return from Athens and his parting with Alison, 55 Nicholas looks forward to an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of his r e l a t i o n -s h i p with L i l y . On meeting her again, he immediately projects his own desires upon .hen There grew i n me an i n t u i t i o n that she had, r i g h t from the beginning, found me p h y s i c a l l y more a t t r a c t i v e than she wanted to admit. Narcissus-like I saw my own face r e f l e c t e d deep i n her Indecision, her restlessness. (M,269) Again deceiving himself with a r e f l e c t i o n of his own desired projections, he finds A l i s o n "a mirror that did not l i e " . (M,487) In d i s p l a c i n g the r e a l world with his i l l u s o r y representation, Nicholas becomes the agent of his own deception. Early i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Nicholas, Conchis frequently d i r e c t s his guest's attention to the true nature of human r e a l i t y , and to the unlimited freedom offered by a world that i s ruled only by planless hazard. But that freedom can only be achieved when Nicholas casts off his old i d e n t i t y and the i l l u s o r y 'god' that provides him with his f i c t i o n a l v i s i o n of r e a l i t y . Conchis advises him to act and return to A l i s o n while he may. "We no more have to leave everything to hazard than we have to drown i n the sea...Swim!" (M,4l) But Nicholas chooses to remain on Phrazos and become part of the organized experience offered by the 'masque' of Conchis Nicholas allows himself to be drawn into the i l l u s o r y world. 56 that Conchis o f f e r s , for the same reason he takes refuge from the world of r e a l i t y i n his own i l l u s i o n s . Conchis* Bourani offers the f i c t i o n a l promise of a world of adventure and mystery - free from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of r e a l i t y - that i s organized and staged f o r Nicholas' benefit alone. As the creator of a world of f i c t i o n a l form and values, Conchis i r o n i c a l l y usurps the rol e previously played by Nicholas' "god-novelist". During his early v i s i t s to the domaine of Bourani.,; Nicholas i s constantly aware of the same f e e l i n g of "being watched" (M,64,66) that he had experienced during his abortive and h i s t r i o n i c suicide attempt. (M,58) Upon meeting Conchis, he i s informed that he had indeed been secretly observed while near the domaine (M,77) Later, L i l y impresses upon Nicholas the omniscient and omnipresence that characterizes Conchis: "Everything you say to me and I say to you, he hears, he knows." (M,193) Inevitably the old man becomes consciously associated i n Nicholas' mind with the rol e of the "god-novelist" always near or above his l i v i n g f i c t i o n : "Now I saw Conchis as a sort of novelist sans novel, creating with people, not words." (M ,229) When Conchis becomes Nicholas' "god-nov e l i s t " creating an i l l u s o r y world of mystery and adventure f o r him, the youth gradually relegates the control of his l i f e to the magus and waits expectantly for developments that w i l l be provided from without. 57 E a r l y i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e , when L i l y makes h e r e n t r a n c e upon t h e s t a g e o f C o n c h i s ' f a b r i c a t i o n , N i c h o l a s ' s e d u c t i o n i n t o the w o r l d o f i l l u s i o n i s a c c e l e r a t e d . L i k e C l e g g , he f i n d s i n . t h e f i c t i o n a l realm, an i d e a l w o r l d o f - p l a y t h a t promises t o f u l f i l h i s d e s i r e f o r p l e a s u r e s denied, him by r e a l i t y . I n essence, t h e s e p l e a s u r e s a r e o f t h e body, and, as such, a r e o f a marked s e x u a l c h a r a c t e r . W i t h L i l y and the s u g g e s t i v e P r i a p u s t h a t s t a n d s i n t h e c e n t r e o f B o u r a n i , C o n c h i s l u r e s N i c h o l a s w i t h t h e p r o m i s i n g image o f a dream w o r l d i n which :he,may s a t i s f y h i s n a r c i s s i s t i c d e s i r e s f o r pure p l e a s u r e u n i n h i b i t e d by : r e a l i t y . N i c h o l a s i s drawn i n t o the w o r l d of I l l u s i o n by t h e element o f pure p l e a s u r e t h a t i s common t o b o t h t h e f i c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and the daydream... C o n c h i s , t h e 'maker' o f the'dream, draws a t t e n t i o n ' t o t h a t element w i t h h i s m e t a p h o r i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e octopus he c a t c h e s w i t h a p i e c e o f w h i t e c l o t h ; "You n o t i c e r e a l i t y i s not n e c e s s a r y . Even'the octopus p r e f e r s t h e i d e a l . " (M.134) I n h i s becoming, t h e v i c t i m o f a dream t h a t promises p l e a s --ures' d e n i e d b y r e a l i t y , -Nicholas echoes the e x p e r i e n c e o f F r e d r i c k C l e g g . Because of h i s s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t -i v e i n s i g h t , however, h i s e v e n t u a l s e a r c h f o r t h e r e a l i t y t h a t l i e s b e h i n d the w o r l d of appearance, a l l i e s him more c l o s e l y 58 w i t h M i r a n d a . L i k e b o t h of them, however, he becomes i s o l a t e d f r om t h e r e l a t i v e r e a l i t y o f the w o r l d he has known' and i s < c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a s i t u a t i o n t h a t ' h e c o n s c i o u s l y f i n d s c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by i t s o b v i o u s u n r e a l i t y . The movement f o r him, i n i t i a l l y , i s a movement from E n g l a n d t o Greece. Upon h i s a r r i v a l i n A t h e n s , he f i n d s h i m s e l f " a l o n e , as A l i c e i n Wonderland" i n a p l a c e t h a t i s f a r from London and A l i s o n , "not i n d i s t a n c e , n o t i n t i m e , b u t i n some d i m e n s i o n f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s no name. B e a l i t y p e r haps." (M ,45). The d i v i s i o n l i k e t h a t between C i e g g ' s c e l l a r and t h e o u t e r w o r l d i s t h a t o f the r e a l i t y and the dream. As he s e t t l e s i n t o l i f e on P h r a x o s , N i c h o l a s p e r c e i v e s h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s more c l e a r l y , as an " e x i l e from contemporary r e a l -i t y " (M, 52) , and l a t e r , when he i s drawn i n t o t h e e l a b o r a t e l y o r g a n i z e d f a b r i c a t i o n s t a g e d by C o n c h i s , he becomes aware o f c o n f r o n t i n g a f o r c e t h a t i s o p e n l y a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e r e a l w o r l d he knows. "You r e a l i z e , " l i l y t e l l s him l a t e r , " t h a t M a u r i c e ' s aim i s t o d e s t r o y r e a l i t y . " (M.307) U l t i m a t e l y , of c o u r s e , i t i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s c i o u s f i c t i o n i t s e l f t h a t t h r e a t e n s N i c h o l a s ' h o l d on h i s f a l s i f i e d v i s i o n of t h e r e a l w o r l d . S i t -t i n g on the t e r r a c e , l i s t e n i n g t o C o n c h i s ' n a r r a t i v e , he i s aware o f the f o r c e i m p a r t e d by t h e agent - the f o r c e o f f i c t i o n i t s e l f ; 5 9 As he began to speak again I smelt the night a i r , I ' f e l t the hard concrete under my feet, I touched a piece of chalk i n my pocket-. But a strong f e e l i n g persisted, when I swung my feet o f f the ground and lay back, that something was t r y i n g to s l i p between me and r e a l i t y . (M,ll6) Nicholas i s the voluntary v i c t i m of the fantasy and can f r e e l y give himself to the pleasures i t o f f e r s . But l i k e Miranda, he struggles in. the face of an unreality, to maintain his own i d e n t i t y , his own sense of r e a l i t y which he finds threatened* As his female, counterpart, Miranda, embodies her past r e a l i t y i n G.P-. - and through his memory seeks to remain sane - Nicholas attempts to maintain his sense of r e a l i t y by c a l l i n g to mind his single connection with the outer world - A l i s o n . Like the school chalk that he touches i n his pocket - i t s e l f a remnant of,the_world beyond Bourani - A l i s o n serves' as a l i n k with his past_ r e a l i t y ; __ ........ ; , . she was. human warmth, ^ normality", standard to go by. ~I had" always seen myself as p o t e n t i a l l y a sort of protector of her ...I saw. that perhaps she had been, or could have been, a protector'of me. (M,107) Faced with the r e l a t i v e u n r e a l i t y of Clegg's world, Miranda of The Collector emulates G.P., f o r he i s to her an immutable and constant symbol of her own i d e a l i z e d conception of r e a l i t y . Nicholas endows A l i s o n with a s i m i l a r value of constancy and, l i k e Miranda, seeks to negate the force of unreality through 6o e m u l a t i o n ; a t t h a t moment he h i g h t s "a c i g a r e t t e , as A l i s o n , a t such a moment, would have l i t a c i g a r e t t e . " (M,107) E s s e n t i a l l y , N i c h o l a s ' g r a s p on h i s o l d s e l f i s m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h a s i m p l e f a i t h i n t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e senses t o p r o v i d e a f i n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n o f u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , A l i s o n ' s c o n s t a n t p h y s i c a l i t y i s c e n t r a l t o t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f h i s e rroneous v i s i o n o f l i f e . S h e i s . t o him a - f i x e d and v e r i f i -a b l e f a c t and t h e r e f o r e , . an o b j e c t o f h i s a b s o l u t e f a i t h i n f a c t . . Faced w i t h t h e u n r e a l i t y posed by, C o n c h i s ' f a b r i c a t i o n , N i c h o l a s i n s t i c t i v e l y s e a r c h e s f o r t h e v e r i f i a b l e f a c t t h a t l i e s b e h i n d the o b v i o u s i l l u s i o n o f t h e appearance. To him, a l l t h a t e x i s t s can.be r a t i o n a l l y . . e x p l a i n e d . I n res p o n s e t o h i s p r o b i n g q u e s t i o n s , C o n c h i s rebukes- him: Your f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c one o f yo u r c o n t r a -s u g g e s t i b l e c e n t u r y : t o d i s b e l i e v e , t o d i s p r o v e . . . Y o u a r e l i k e a„ p o r c u p i n e . When t h e a n i m a l has i t s s p i n e s e r e c t , i t cannot e a t . '(M-, 101-102). ' ' -In o r d e r - t o come t o an awareness o f t h e t r u t h and mystery of _ l i f e , , . . N i c h o l a s , l i k e Miranda, b e f o r e him, -and C h a r l e s a f t e r , m u s t — ' l o s e h i m s e l f j i n _ o r d e r t o f i n d h i m s e l f ;.or,. i n t h e words o f t h e -poem he f i n d s on the r o u g h s d r a f t s i n the underground room t h a t r e v e a l t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e 'masque': "Spare him 61 t i l l he d i e s . Torment him t i l l he l i v e s . " (M .498). But as l o n g as N i c h o l a s i s , a b l e t o m a i n t a i n h i s image of A l i s o n as a " c o n s t a n t r e a l i t y " , he I s a b l e t o d e f e n d h i m s e l f from w i t h i n a g a i n s t t h e rOutward a s s a u l t o f C o n c h i s ' i l l o g i c a l w o r l d . W i t h t h i s f i x e d p o i n t i n t h e o u t e r w o r l d , he i s a b l e t o r e t a i n h i s ' o l d s e l f and t h e i l l u s i o n s o f h i s p a s t . He answers L i l y w i t h c o n f i d e n c e ; ...you've no i d e a how s t r a n g e t h i s e x p e r i e n c e has been I mean, b e a u t i f u l l y s t r a n g e . -Only, you know, i t ' s one's sense of r e a l -- i t y . I t ' s l i k e g r a v i t y . One can r e s i s t i t o n l y so l o n g . (M,205) • I n t h e manner o f " S c i r o n , a m i d - a i r man", t o whom he l i k e n s h i m s e l f e a r l y I n t h e n o v e l (M , 5 2 ) , N i c h o l a s f i n d s h i m s e l f caught between the two w o r l d s . On one hand, he w i s h e s t o p r e s e r v e t h e " c o n s t a n t r e a l i t y " t h a t he sees r e f l e c t e d i n A l i s o n , and on the o t h e r , t h e f i c t i o n a l i d e a l embodied i n L i l y . The f i r s t i s dep-e n d a b l e and anchored f i r m l y i n p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , b u t the second, though p a r t o f t h e u n c e r t a i n and m y s t e r i o u s 'masque*, o f f e r s the p l e a s u r e s o f dream. R a t h e r t h a n choose, N i c h o l a s m a i n t a i n s a d u p l i c i t y i n h i s v i s i o n . On t h e weekend t h a t A l i s o n i s coming t o A t h e n s , he e x p l o r e s the t w o - f o l d p o s s i b i l i t i e s : I f heK ( C o n c h i s ) i n v i t e d me, I c o u l d e a s i l y make some excuse and riot go.' But i f he d i d n ' t t h e n a f t e r a l l I "would- have A l i s o n t o f a l l , b a c k on. I won e i t h e r way. (1 , 1 9 9 ) . . . A l i s o n , however, i s q u i c k t o see t h r o u g h h i s d e c e i t and a c c u s e s him w i t h I t d i r e c t l y : 62 T a r t i t up so i t makes you seem the i n n o c e n t one, t h e g r e a t i n t e l l e c t u a l who must have h i s e x p e r i e n c e . Always - b o t h ways. Always cake and eat i t . (M,26l) W a l k i n g i n P i r a e u s w i t h A l i s o n , who draws the n o i s y a t t e n -t i o n o f males i n the s t r e e t , N i c h o l a s cannot h e l p making a c omparison t h a t i n e v i t a b l y i s a t h e r c o s t : "I had a v i s i o n o f L i l y w a l k i n g t h r o u g h t h a t s t r e e t , and s i l e n c i n g e v e r y t h i n g , p u r i f y i n g e v e r y t h i n g ; n o t p r o v o k i n g and a d d i n g t o t h e v u l g a r i t y . " (M,.237.). • _ L i l y ' _ s immediate supremacy .oyer A l i s o n , l i k e the dream Miranda's o v e r th e p r o s t i t u t e t h a t c o n f r o n t s C l e g g w i t h h i s own impotence, l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t , s h e o f f e r s , N i c h o l a s an i d e a l image o f h i m s e l f . Though h i s t r u e i n t e r e s t i n h e r i s i n f o r m e d by h i s s e x u a l ..desire, N i c h p l a s a t t e m p t s t o d e s e x u a l i z e h i s v i e w o f L i l y . ..While w i t h h e r on B o u r a n i , h e _ i s s t r u c k by "the nape of h e r neck, h e r s l i m s h o u l d e r s , h e r t o t a l r e a l i t y " . (M ,202) a . . . " Here he r e v e a l s t h e t r u e p h y s i c a l i n t e r e s t i n h e r appearance b u t , l a t e r w i t h A l i s o n i n P i r a e u s , he t h i n k s of, how L i l y would " p u r i f y " t h e s e x u a l a t t e n t i o n t h a t A l i s o n evokes. N i c h o l a s i s a b l e t o f e e l "a p a s s i o n a t e wave o f d e s i r e " f o r A l i s o n , o n l y when he has s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s p o s e d h e r i n t o t h e v a e s t h e t i c c o n t e x t o f t h e f i c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . . She ( A l i s o n ) d i d not know i t , b u t i t was f o r me. a n - i n t e n s e l y l i t e r a r y moment. I c o u l d p l a c e i t e x a c t l y : E ngland's H e l i c o n . 63. I had f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e r e a r e metaphors and metaphors, and t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t l y r i c s a r e v e r y r a r e l y a n y t h i n g b u t d i r e c t and un-- m e t a p h y s i c a l . , Suddenly she was l i k e such a poem and I f e l t a p a s s i o n a t e wave o f d e s i r e f o r h e r . (M ,255) N i c h o l a s can o n l y f u l l y r e l a t e t o A l i s o n w i t h i n a c o n t e s t t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s e l f - i m p o s e d i l l u s i o n . W h i l e w a t c h i n g h e r s l e e p i n g i n t h e c a b i n on P a r n a s s u s , however, he pays t r i b u t e t o th e g r e a t e r t r u t h t h a t he i s e v e n t u a l l y t o i n t e r n a l i z e , a t r u t h ^ t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a s y n t h e s i s o f the d u a l i t y he poses i n the p o l -- a r i z e d f i g u r e s , o f A l i s o n and L i l y . He o b s e r v e s i n the s l e e p i n g A l i s o n : "Young and a n c i e n t ; i n n o c e n t and c o r r u p t ; i n e v e r y woman, a mystery." (M,250) T h i s i s t h e f i g u r e t h a t N i c h o l a s cannot u l t i m a t e l y a c c e p t as one, and chooses i n h i s p r a g m a t i c sense o f r e a l i t y t o s e p a r a t e i n t o two. On one s i d e he sees A l i s o n , s e l f -a c c l a i m e d "Queen o f the May" (M,255)» an image of t h e p h y s i c a l and w o r l d l y and on t h e o t h e r , L i l y , " A s t a r t e , mother o f mys t e r y " (M,202), t h e embodiment o f t h e s p i r i t u a l and t h e m y s t e r i o u s . L i k e . C o n c h i s ' o c t o p u s , N i c h o l a s " p r e f e r s t h e i d e a l " o f f e r e d by th e i l l u s o r y L i l y , and hence a t t e m p t s t o d i s t a n c e A l i s o n . She i s "an i n t r u s i o n - o f d i s p e n s a b l e r e a l i t y i n t o pleasure"... (M, 199); b u t , ..even as such, he does n ot w i s h t o d i s c a r d h e r e n t i r e l y . A f t e r _ s h e : l e a v e s . h i m i n At h e n s , he w r i t e s h e r . a l e t t e r composed w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f m a i n t a i n i n g h e r i n r e s e r v e . (M ,266) When N i c h o l a s r e t u r n s t o B o u r a n i a f t e r h i s s e p a r a t i o n from A l i s o n , he a t t e m p t s t o impose upon L i l y * the r o l e t h a t he had p r e v i o u s l y d e s i r e d o f A l i s o n . H i s i n t e r e s t i n L i l y becomes more c o n s c i o u s l y p h y s i c a l , and he u n h e s i t a t i n g l y p r o j e c t s t h o s e d e s i r e s upon h e r . (M,269) I n s p i t e o f the numerous d e c e p t i o n s t h a t c o n f r o n t him i n t h e 'masque', N i c h o l a s chooses t o b e l i e v e L i l y when she t e l l s him the f a b r i c a t e d t a l e o f h e r p a s t . He b e l i e v e s h e r because he wants h e r i n t e r e s t i n him t o be r e a l ; I knew documents can l i e , v o i c e s can l i e , even tones o f v o i c e can l i e . B u t t h e r e i s something naked about eyes; t h e y seem the o n l y organs of t h e human body t h a t have never r e a l l y , l e a r n e d t o d i s s i m u l a t e . (M .313) Once a g a i n , N i c h o l a s d e c e i v e s h i m s e l f , f o r L i l y ' s eyes s e r v e as a m i r r o r showing him o n l y what he w i s h e s t o see. (M ,269) He becomes, t h e n , l i k e C l e g g , t h e u n w i t t i n g v i c t i m of h i s own -d e s i r e s , and t o t a l l y a t the mercy o f C o n c h i s ' m a n i p u l a t i o n s . When Co n c h i s ' s t a g e s ' A l i s o n ' s s u i c i d e , he b r e a k s N i c h o l a s ' c o n t a c t w i t h h i s p a s t s e l f and t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . W i t h h i s i s o l a t i o n i n t e n s i f i e d and h i s f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h A l i s o n p ermanently d e s t r o y e d , the y o u t h t u r n s t o L i l y as a " t o t a l nec-e s s i t y " . (M .362) When she f i n a l l y b e t r a y s him, he i s l e f t c o m p l e t e l y a l o n e i n t h e w o r l d s t r i p p e d of h i s hopes and i d e a l s . The c o p u l a t i o n scene i n t h e r i t u a l i s t i c " d i s i n t o x i c a t i o n " s e r v e s a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n i n The Magus as Miranda's attempted s e d u c t i o n o f C l e g g i n The C o l l e c t o r . S e e i n g L i l y and Joe t o g e t h e r i n the i n t h e s e x u a l a c t , has t h e e f f e c t on N i c h o l a s t h a t M iranda's s e d u c t i o n has on C l e g g . From t h i s p o i n t , N i c h o l a s i s d i s p o s s -essed of h i s dream, arid L i l y i s r e d u c e d i n h i s eyes t o the l e v e l o f a whore. • R e g a i n i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s a f t e r t h e " d i s i n t o x i c a t i o n " , N i c h o l a s f i n d s h i m s e l f i n t h e r u i n e d c i t y o f Monemvasia. The r u i n s a r e an image o f h i s p a s t hopes and i l l u s i o n s ; robbed o f the m ' N i c h o l a s f e e l s " a b s o l u t e l y a l o n e , the l a s t man on e a r t h , between sea and sky o f some m e d i e v a l H i r o s h i m a . " (M,429) L a t e r when A l i s o n ' s s t a g e d r e a p p e a r a n c e r o b s him o f even the memory o f he r v i r t u e of c o n s t a n c y , he f i n d s h i m s e l f t o t a l l y a d r i f t i n an a l i e n w o r l d t h a t cannot be masked w i t h i l l u s i o n . E a r l y i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e , C o n c h i s ...had t o l d .him, t h a t : "A woman i s l i k e a k e e l . " (K,220) Now,.in. a t e r r i f y i n g l y empty and h o s t i l e s e a , N i c h o l a s d e s i r e s t o r e g a i n A l i s o n . He, i s thus made aware o f h i s s e l f - f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , b u t , as w i t h M i r a n d a , t h i s l e s s o n _ i s o n l y p a r t - o f t h e t r u t h t h a t N i c h o l a s c o n f r o n t s , . The purpose o f the 'masque' i s t w o - f o l d , f o r C o n c h i s w i s h e s a l s o t o b r i n g h i s guest t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e "unver-i f i a b l e " t r u t h o f mystery t h a t a b i d e s b e h i n d the appearance o f l i f e . Toward t h i s end, C o n c h i s ' e l a b o r a t e w o r l d of i l l u s i o n i s 66 s t r u c t u r e d as a r i t e o f i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e t r u e m y s t e r i e s , and t a k e s t h e form of a s e c r e t r i t u a l i n which the e l e c t . N i c h o l a s , i s . g u i d e d t o t h e t r u e v i s i o n by t h e magian and p r i e s t , C o n c h i s . From t h e f i r s t moment he c o n f r o n t s C o n c h i s , N i c h o l a s i s aware o f t h e " r e h e a r s e d " e f f e c t o f a l l t h e magus does,, and he nev e r u l t i m a t e l y l o s e s s i g h t o f t h e 'maker' b e h i n d h i s c r e a t i o n . C o n c h i s , i n f a c t , works a c t i v e l y t o make h i s m a n i p u l a t i n g p r e s -e n c e o b v i o u s . "Come now," he urg e s N i c h o l a s , " P r o s p e r o w i l l show you h i s domaine." (M ,79) By g i v i n g t h e emphatic appearance t h a t - i n t h e words o f t h e poem N i c h o l a s w r i t e s s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g - "the man i n t h e mask m a n i p u l a t e s " (M,91) , C o n c h i s evokes t h e conundrum t h a t i m p e l s N i c h o l a s ' q u e s t . The r e a c t i o n t h a t he f i r s t m a n i f e s t s i s p a r a l l e l t o M i r a n d a ' s ; he wish e s t o know Conc h i s * m o t i v e , and t h e immediate r e a l i t y b e h i n d t h e mask of appearance. - H i s e a r l y m y s t i f i c a t i o n a r i s e s from t h e "absence o f any v i s i b l e machinery - no s e c r e t rooms, nowhere t o d i s a p p e a r - o r o f any m o t i v e " . S t i m u l a t e d by t h e knowledge t h a t a meaning a b i d e s b e h i n d the d a z z l i n g and ob v i o u s i l l u s i o n o f whic h he i s a p a r t , N i c h o l a s d e s i r e s t o f i n d t h e r e a l m o t i v e , "the r e a l i t y b e h i n d a l l t h e mys t e r y " . (M . 152) There i s , t o h i s immediate knowledge, but one agent who can p r o v i d e an answer t o h i s q u e s t i o n - C o n c h i s . 67 "I f e e l I ' d . e n j o y i t more," N i c h o l a s asks one e v e n i n g ^ " i f I know ( s i c ) what i t a l l meant." C o n c h i s * answer e x p l i c i t l y p r o v i d e s the 'reaT'-'l c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e t h a t he wis h e s h i s "god--game" t o r e f l e c t : My d e a r N i c h o l a s , man has been s a y i n g what you have j u s t s a i d f o r t h e l a s t t e n thousand y e a r s . And the one- common f e a t u r e o f a l l those gods he has s a i d i t t o i s t h a t not one o f them has  eve r r e t u r n e d an answer. (M, 181) (emphasis • mine) C o n f i d a n t t h a t t h e agent of h i s s i t u a t i o n i s b e f o r e him, N i c h o l a s c o n t i n u e s t o probe: "Gods don't e x i s t t o answer. You do." " I n t h i s r e s p e c t , " C o n c h i s r e s p o n d s , " t r e a t me as i f I d i d not e x i s t . " ( M , l 8 l ) The magus, t h e n , w i s h e s t o be t a k e n , l i t e r a l l y , as the a u t h o r absent from h i s t a l e . H i s a d v i c e , i r o n i c a l l y , i s t h a t o f the a u t h o r t o h i s r e a d e r . E a r l y i n the e x p e r i e n c e , Conchis sug-g e s t s ' t o N i c h o l a s : " I do not ask you t o b e l i e v e . A l l I ask you i s t o p r e t e n d t o b e l i e v e . " (M,133) The remark, a g a i n , " i s t h a t o f t he a u t h o r made v i s i b l e t h r o u g h C o n c h i s , t o t h e r e a d e r made v i s i b l e t h r o u g h N i c h o l a s . Through h i s e n i g m a t i c remarks and h i s m a n i p u l a t i n g p r e s e n c e , C o n c h i s provokes N i c h o l a s ' s e a r c h f o r t h e meaning and c a u s a l i t y t h a t r e s i d e s u l t i m a t e l y b e h i n d t h e o b v i o u s w o r l d of i l l u s i o n he c r e a t e s . E v e n t u a l l y , N i c h o l a s p i e r c e s the v e i l o f i l l u s i o n and c o m e s _ f a c e _ t o . f a c e w i t h t h e o n e g r e a t mystery - , t h e _ " u n v e r i f i a b l e " r e a l i t y t h a t i n f o r m s a l l l i f e . There i s no f o r c e o f c a u s a l i t y 6 8 t h a t w i l l answer, h i s q u e s t i o n s , and u l t i m a t e l y , t h e r e i s no meaning t h a t can be a r t i c u l a t e d . B u t , l i k e M i r a n d a , he must, d i s c o v e r t h i s f o r h i m s e l f . "The most i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s i n l i f e can n e v e r be answered by anyone e x c e p t o n e s e l f , " C o n c h i s t e l l s N i c h o l a s , and t h e n s t a t e s b l u n t l y t h a t t h i s i s what he i s t r y i n g t o "show" him t h r o u g h h i s f i c t i o n . (M , l49) One o f t h e . c e n t r a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n Conchis* 'masque', I s t h e "mind-voyage" t h a t N i c h o l a s i s t a k e n on by h i s h o s t . The event f o l l o w s the a n c i e n t p a t t e r n o f the " r i t e o f a d m i s s i o n i n t o the O r p h i c M y s t e r i e s " ; I t I s b e l i e v e d by some a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t the neophyte may have been c a s t i n t o a h y p n o t i c s l e e p by h i s " i n i t i a t o r " , and w h i l s t i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n a v i s i o n o f t h e " g l o r i e s of t h e o t h e r w o r l d " s u g g e sted t o him.19 N i c h o l a s ' e x p e r i e n c e i s i n essence m y s t i c a l , and as such, can o n l y i m p e r f e c t l y be a r t i c u l a t e d : I was h a v i n g f e e l i n g s t h a t no language based on c o n c r e t e phys-- I c a l o b j e c t s , on a c t u a l f e e l i n g , can d e s c r i b e . I think- I was aware, of the m e t a p h o r i c a l i t y o f what I f e l t . I knew words were  l i k e chains,- t h e y h e l d me back; and l i k e w a l l s w i t h h o l e s i n them. R e a l i t y k e p t r u s h i n g t h r o u g h ; and y e t I c o u l d not get out t o f u l l y e x i s t i n i t . (M,225-226) temphasis mine) Here, N i c h o l a s e x p e r i e n c e s d i r e c t l y the mystery t h a t l i e s b e h i n d .the appearance of l i f e . I t i s the " u n v e r i f i a b l e " r e a l i t y t h a t i n f o r m s the u n i v e r s e - t h e "dark c o r e " , the " d i m e n s i o n i n 6 9 and by which a l l o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s e x i s t " . T h i s i s t h e mys t e r y t h a t C onchis w i s h e s h i s guest t o seek out and embrace. I t i s the answer, w h i c h i s no answer, t o the q u e s t i o n s t h a t N i c h o l a s w i s h e s t o r e s o l v e w i t h r e a s o n . As C o n c h i s t e l l s him, " V e r i f i c -- a t i o n i s the o n l y c r i t e r i o n of r e a l i t y . That does not mean t h a t t h e r e may not be r e a l i t i e s t h a t a r e u n v e r i f i a b l e . " (M,221) L i k e M i r a n d a , N i c h o l a s i s urged t o seek out the t r u e mean-i n g b e h i n d appearances when he becomes aware t h a t he i s con-f r o n t e d by i l l u s i o n . By c r e a t i n g a s e e m i n g l y planned w o r l d , C o n c h i s evokes, c o n s c i o u s l y , t h e same q u e s t i o n t h a t C l e g g u n w i t t i n g l y evokes i n M i r a n d a . I f the i l l u s o r y w o r l d i s plan n e d f o r him, t h e n he must seek out the meaning. N i c h o l a s r e g a r d s the 'masque* as a "maze" t h a t he must e x p l o r e i n o r d e r t o " r e a c h the c e n t e r " . (M ,301) Not u n t i l the f i n a l scene o f t h e n o v e l does he r e a l i z e t h e answer. Fowles i n t r u d e s t o draw^ a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t r u t h o f the 'masque': "the maze has no c e n t e r " . (M,59^) T h i s i s the t r u t h t h a t C o n c h i s w i s h e s t o make e v i d e n t t o N i c h o l a s i n h i s c e n t r a l n a r r a t i v e o f the i n c i d e n t a t S e i d e v a r r e . Watching H e n r i k "meeting h i s god," he i s sud d e n l y s t r u c k by the omnipresent mystery t h a t looms b e h i n d the w o r l d o f appearances: I 70 But i n a f l a s h of t e r r i b l e l i g h t a l l our e x p l a n a t i o n s , a l l our c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and d e r i v a t i o n s , our e t i o l o g i e s , s u d d e n l y appear-e d t o me l i k e a t h i n n e t . That g r e a t p a s s i v e monster, r e a l i t y , was no l o n g e r dead, easy t o h a n d l e . I t was f u l l o f a m y s t e r i o u s v i g o r , new forms, new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The net was n o t h i n g , r e a l -i t y b u r s t t h r o u g h i t . . . T h a t s i m p l e p h r a s e , I do not know, was my own p i l l a r o f f i r e . (M,28?) The e x p e r i e n c e , an i n t e n d e d ' . r e f l e c t i o n o f N i c h o l a s ' "mind-vioyage", i s one o f an a p p r e h e n s i o n of the " u n v e r i f i a b l e " r e a l i t y . Standing i n Regent's P a r k , N i c h o l a s e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e v -e l a t i o n that.Conchis..has..been l e a d i n g him toward. A l t h o u g h Mrs, d e S i e t a s i n f o r m s him e a r l i e r o f the t r u t h - as C o n c h i s does f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e 'masque' - i t does not become a . r e a l i t y f o r him u n t i l he e x p e r i e n c e s i t as f a c t . "The god--game i s ended." "Because t h e r e a r e no gods. And i t i s not a game." (M,575) The mask i s removed f o r e v e r when N i c h o l a s a b r u p t l y r e a l i z e s t h a t n e i t h e r he nor A l i s o n a r e b e i n g watched. The t h e a t r e was empty. I t was not a t h e a t r e . They t o l d h e r i t was a t h e a t r e , and she had b e l i e v e d them, and I had b e l i e v e d h e r . To b r i n g us t o t h i s - not f o r t h e m s e l v e s , but f o r u s . (M,.6o4) There i s no t h i r d p e r s o n god, and u l t i m a t e l y , t h e r e i s no mean-i n g b e h i n d t h e appearance o f l i f e - o n l y an e t e r n a l and a b i d i n g mystery t h a t w i l l a l ways evoke t h e q u e s t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y . I t i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t w i l l not be answered, and because i t w i l l n o t be answered, i t w i l l always be asked. 71 The t r u t h t h a t N i c h o l a s f i n a l l y f a c e s i s t h e knowledge t h a t l i f e unmasked i s a mystery - an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e maze w i t h o u t a c e n t e r . I n Fowles* words o f The A r i s t o s ; "Man i s an e v e r l a c k , an i n f i n i t e w i t h o u t n e s s , a f l o a t on an a p p a r e n t l y e n d l e s s ocean o f a p p a r e n t l y e n d l e s s i n d i f f e r e n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s . " 2 1 But N i c h o l a s does n ot c o n c l u d e , as F i e l d i n g o f E.M; F o r s t e r ' s A Pass-= -age t o I n d i a , t h a t "mystery i s o n l y a h i g h - s o u n d i n g term f o r t a m u d d l e . " 2 2 Though b o t h F o r s t e r and Fowles have i n common the v i s i o n o f w o r l d o f f l u x and h a z a r d , t h e y come t o o p p o s i t e con-- c l u s i o n s o f man's c o n d i t i o n . Whereas F o r s t e r was a s c e p t i c a l humanist who r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f t o a v i s i o n o f u n i v e r s a l c o n f u s i o n t h a t must be f i n a l l y endured, Fowles i s an e x i s t e n t i a l i s t who' m a i n t a i n s t h a t : I n o r d e r t h a t we s h o u l d have meaning, purpose and p l e a s u r e i t has been, i s , and always w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t h a t we l i v e i n a whole t h a t i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o eve r y I n d i v i d u a l t h i n g i n I t . 2 3 W i t h the knowledge of the r e a l s i t u a t i o n created- by the absent 'God', comes t h e awareness o f the p o s i t i v e c o n d i t i o n of freedom t h a t p l a c e s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own c h o i c e of meanings and a c t i o n s . W h i l e F o r s t e r ' s F i e l d i n g remains a v i c t i m o f the w o r l d o f h a z a r d , N i c h o l a s t r u i m p h s by a s s e r t i n g h i s own freedom t h r o u g h a c t i o n . Conchis,had emphasized t h i s s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f b e i n g " a f l o a t on an a p p a r e n t l y 7 2 e n d l e s s ocean of a p p a r e n t l y e n d l e s s i n d i f f e r e n c e " , when he had, e a r l y i n the 'masque*, a d v i s e d h i s g u e s t t h a t "We no more have t o l e a v e e v e r y t h i n g t o h a z a r d t h a n we have t o drown i n the sea ...Swim!" (M.141) N i c h o l a s ' f i n a l c h o i c e i s , i r o n i c a l l y , t o p l a y a form of t h e "godgame". He i n s t r u c t s A l i s o n t o meet him i n the w a i t i n g room o f P a d d i n g t o n S t a t i o n (an echo of C o n c h i s ' w a i t i n g room s i g n on B o u r a n i ) and t h e n l e a v e s h e r t o make he r own c h o i c e by i m p o s i n g freedom upon h e r . " E l e u t h e r i a , " he t h i n k s as she p u r r -sues him "her t u r n t o know". (M .603) As he f i n a l l y l e a v e s Regent's. P a r k w i t h h i s new awareness of the t r u t h , N i c h o l a s sees h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s as s i m p l e o b j e c t s o f t h e w o r l d o f appear--ance. The autumn g r a s s , t h e autumn sky. P e o p l e . A B l a c k b i r d , poor f o o l , s i n g i n g out o f season from th e w i l l o w s by t h e l a k e . A f l i g h t o f g r a y p i g e o n s over the houses. Fragments of freedom, an anagram made f l e s h . (M,6o4) They_ a r e a l l p a r t o f t h e mystery of l i f e ; l i n k s i n a v i s i b l e 9k- ' c h a i n _ t h r o u g h w h i c h - as he l e a r n e d from the "mind-voyage" - the u n v e r i f i a b l e r e a l i t y can be apprehended. A t t h i s p o i n t f i c t i o n b l e n d s w i t h l i f e f o r , t h e r e a l o b j e c t s t h a t N i c h o l a s sees about him a r e t o the r e a d e r , .the words upon t h e page. "One cannot d e s c r i b e r e a l i t y , " Fowles i n s i s t s s p e a k i n g o f t h e 73 r e a l i t y o f mystery, " o n l y g i v e metaphors t h a t i n d i c a t e i t . " 2 5 S h a r i n g t h e v i s i o n of h i s a u t h o r , N i c h o l a s p e r c e i v e s t h e phen-o m e n a l w o r l d about him as s i g n s o f t h e unknowable mystery t h a t a b i d e s b e h i n d the appearance. 74 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 1 L e w i s C a r r o l l , A l i c e i n Wonderland (London: Wm. C o l l i n s Sons and Company. L t d . , 195^)» P . 3 7 . 2 I b i d . 3 L o u i s D. R u b i n , J r . , The T e l l e r i n the T a l e ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) . p.6 . J.R.R. T o l k i e n , The Two Towers (New Yo r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1 9 6 7 ), pp.4 0 7 - 4 0 8 . • 5 L e w i s C a r r o l l , A l i c e Through the L o o k i n g - G l a s s . ° Henry James, The A r t o f the N o v e l . James J o y c e , P o r t r a i t o f t h e A r t i s t as a Young Man ( E n g l a n d j P e n g u i n Books, 1 9 6 3 ) , p.214. 8 John'Fowles, "On W r i t i n g a N o v e l , " The C o r n h i l l , Summer 1 9 6 9 , P.292. 9 John F o w l e s , The A r i s t o s , r e v . ed. ( T o r o n t o : S i g n e t , 1 9 7 0 ) , P.153. 1 0 John F o w l e s , The A r i s t o s : A ' S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n Id e a s ' ( T o r o n t o : •• L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1 9 6 4), p.18. 1 1 -. .- • •, Rene- M a r i l l - A l b e r e s , J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e : P h i l o s o i D h e r W i t h o u t F a i t h (New York: The P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 1), p.6 2 . 1 2 I b i d . . 1 3 I b i d . , p . 6 3 . x ^ J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , B e i n g and N o t h i n g n e s s (New York: The P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 6 ), p.8 1 . J Mark--Schorer, "Technique as D i s c o v e r y , " Forms o f Modem  F i c t i o n . Ed. W i l i i a m Van 0'Conner. ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p.9 . 1 75 E. R e c e j a c , Fondements de l a Connaissance. M y s t i q u e ( T h i s passage c i t e d f r o m E v e l y n U n d e r h i l l , M y s t i c i s m (London: Methuen, i 9 6 0 ) , p.-21.) ^7 The terms unda and aqua a r e used by Con c h i s i n The Magus f o r f o rm and c o n t e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . See M, 1 8 3 . L i k e James J o y c e , John F o w l e s • p o s t u l a t e s a p r i e s t l y r o l e f o r the a r t i s t . I n The A r l s t o s , he t h e o r i z e s t h a t t h e " a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e , from the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y onwards, u s u r p s the r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . J u s t as t h e me d i e v a l c h u r c h was f u l l o f p r i e s t s who s h o u l d have been a r t i s t s , so our age i s f i l l e d w i t h a r t i s t s who s h o u l d have been p r i e s t s . " F o w l e s , The A r l s t o s . r e v . ed. ( T o r o n t o : S i g n e t , 19'?0), p . 1 9 6 . 7 E v e l y n U n d e r h i l l . - M y s t i c i s m : A Study. In. the- N a t u r e and  Development o f Man's S p i r i t u a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s (London: Methuen, I 9 6 0 T , p . 2 2 f . 2 0 John F o w l e s , The A r l s t o s , r e v . ed. ( T o r o n t o : S i g n e t , 1 9 7 0 ) , p.2 7 . I b i d . , p.17. E.M. F o r s t e r , A Passage t o I n d i a ( E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1 9 6 7 ), P.68. 2 3 F o w l e s , The A r i s t o s , p.18. The Image of the c h a i n i s a f r e q u e n t one thro u g h o u t The Magus, a p p e a r i n g c h i e f l y i n N i c h o l a s "mind-voyage" and C o n c h i s ' t r i p t o S e i d e v a r r e . (M, 2 2 5 , 287) I n an anagram t h a t A l i s o n poses t o N i c h o l a s T " a l l mixed up but the b e t t e r p a r t o f N i c h o l a s ' . . . s i x l e t t e r s " M, 252) the word " c h a i n s " i s . o n e p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n I have fou n d . I t would connect "moreover, t h e "anagram made f l e s h " w i t h the d e s c r i b e d con-f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h mystery. 21 25 John F o w l e s , "On W r i t i n g a N o v e l , " The C o r n h l l l . Summer 1 9 6 9 , p.184. , " 76 CHAPTER IV The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t * s Woman To say,, as one c r i t i c does, t h a t the " s i g n i f i c a n c e o f The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman" l i e s " i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s "a remark-- a b l y s o l i d h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i n w h i c h Fowles r e c r e a t e s a l a r g e p a r t o f the ferment i n E n g l i s h l i f e a c e n t u r y age".,A i s a mis-- p l a c e d emphasis t h a t d i s p l a y s an e s s e n t i a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Fowles* immediate purpose i n t h e n o v e l . I t i s a judgement, i r o n i c a l l y , t h a t a r i s e s from a p r o c e s s of e x p l i c a t i o n t h a t i s demonstrated and. Rejected i n The Magus - t h a t o f r e s p o n d i n g t o appearance a l o n e . "By s e a r c h i n g so f a n a t i c a l l y , " N i c h o l a s con--c l u d e s . o f h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e 'masque', I was ^ making a :detectiy.e-. s t o r y , out o f the summer' s e v e n t s , and t o v i e w l i f e as a d e t e c t i v e s t o r y , a s . s o m e t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be deduced, hunted a n d ' a r r e s t e d , _ was.no more r e a l i s t i c ( l e t a l o n e p o e t i c ) t h a n t o vi e w the d e t e c t i v e s t o r y as the most i m p o r t a n t l i t e r a r y genre, i n s t e a d o f what i t r e a l l y was, one o f the l e a s t . (M.501-) (emphasis mine) To v i e w the most r e c e n t n o v e l by John Fowles as a h i s t o r -i c a l n o v e l , i s t o p e r m i t one o f thos e " p a i n t e d s c r e e n s erected, by man t o shut out r e a l i t y " (FLW,206) - the h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g - t o t a k e precedence over r e a l meaning. As 1 N i c h o l a s d i s c o v e r s , t h e meaning can o n l y be c o n f r o n t e d by p a s s i n g beyond appearances. " I don't thlBk o f i t as a h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l " , Fowles h i m s e l f 77 declared and dismissed i t as "a genre i n which I have very p l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . C h a r l e s , Fowles* gentleman a n t i - h e r o , pro--vides the e x p l a n a t i o n of the obvious a n t i - h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s of the novel when, gazing at the p r o s t i t u t e ' s c h i l d , he had a f a r mor,e profound and genuine i n t u i t i o n of the great human i l l u s i o n about time, which i s that i t s r e a l i t y i s l i k e t hat of a road - on which one can c o n s t a n t l y see where one was and where one probably w i l l be - i n s t e a d of the t r u t h : that time i s a room, a now so c l o s e to- us that we r e g u l a r l y f a i l to see i t . (FLW.320) The v i s i o n bears an obvious s i m i l a r i t y to that of E l i o t ' s Four Quartets; Time present and time past Are both perhaps present i n time f u t u r e , And time f u t u r e contained i n time past3 F i t t i n g l y , Conchis of The Magus leaves upon the beach f o r Nicholas to d i s c o v e r upon the beach, an underlined passage from " L i t t l e Gidding" to serve as an epigrammatic i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s experience, f o r Fowles' v i s i o n of time i s s i m i l a r , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , to t h a t of E l i o t . D e s c r i b i n g h i s d i s c o v e r y of Bourani, Conchis r e v e a l s i t as the realm of the t i m e l e s s , the place where a l l times i n t e r s e c t and r e s o l v e one another i n an echo of the garden i n E l i o t ' s "Burnt Norton": Something had been w a i t i n g there a l l my l i f e . I stood there, and I knew who waited, who expected. I t was myself. I was here and t h i s house was here, you and I and t h i s evening were here, and they had always been here, l i k e r e f l e c t i o n s of my 7 8 own coming. I t was l i k e a dream. I had been w a l k i n g towards a c l o s e d d o o r , and by a sudden magic i t s i m p e n e t r a b l e wood became g l a s s , t h r o u g h w h i c h I saw m y s e l f coming from the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , t h e f u t u r e . (M , 105) Through h i s n a r r a t i v e s , C o n c h i s f r e q u e n t l y draws N i c h o l a s back t h r o u g h time t o s e t t i n g s i n h i s p a s t . H i s Edwardian c h i l d --hood, l i k e t h e ominous w i l d e r n e s s of S e i d e v a r r e , i s i s o l a t e d i n a space and time t h a t i s a p p a r a n t l y d i s t a n t from the urbane com-- f o r t s o f t h e t e r r a c e on B o u r a n i . B u t , as Conchis makes p l a i n l y e v i d e n t t o h i s g u e s t , t h a t a p p a r e n t d i s t a n c e i s l a r g e l y an i l l u s o r y dimensions A l l t h a t i s p a s t p o s s e s s e s .our. p r e s e n t . S e i d e v a r r e p o s s e s s e s B o u r a n i . Whatever happens, here now, whatever governs what happens i s p a r t l y , no, i s e s s e n t i a l l y . , what happened t h i r t y y e a r s a g q _ i n ..that Norwegian f o r e s t . (M, 290) F o r Fowles, as f o r E l i o t " h i s t o r y i s a p a t t e r n of t i m e l e s s moments".^ I n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Fowles employs a s e t t i n g one hundred.years d i s t a n t f r om t h e p r e s e n t f o r the purpose, n ot p r i m a r i l y o f c a p t u r i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y and p e r s p e c t i v e s of ..the . V i c t p r i a n Age, but t o emphasize, and re veal..man* s r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s t o r y and t i m e . ..The r e a d e r i s not t o l o o k back a l o n g a p l a n e a t t h e d i s t a n t age b e h i n d him - f o r t h i s i s the r e a l i l l u s i o n t he n o v e l poses - he i s t o s h a r e , f o r t h e 79 d u r a t i o n o f the f i c t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , the sense o f the s i m u l -t a n e i t y of h i s t o r y . The n o v e l must u l t i m a t e l y be r e g a r d e d i n terms of the r e a l i t i e s t h a t i t c r e a t e s f o r i t s e l f , and a t t e m p t s t o communicate: so i f you t h i n k a l l t h i s u n l u c k y . . . d i g r e s s i o n has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h your t i m e , P r o g r e s s , S o c i e t y , E v o l u t i o n and a l l t h o s e o t h e r c a p i t a l i z e d g h o s t s i n t h e n i g h t t h a t a r e r a t t l i n g t h e i r c h a i n s b e h i n d t h e scenes o f t h i s book...I w i l l n o t argue. B u t I s h a l l s u s p e c t you. ( F L W . 9 7 - 9 8 ) I t i s a m i s c o n c e p t i o n t o r e g a r d Fowles* n o v e l as a " d i g r e s s i o n " f r om the p r e s e n t , f o r i t i s n o t s i m p l y a p o r t r a y a l , however v i v i d , of an age p a s t . A t the h e a r t o f h i s purpose i s the des-- i r e t o p r e s e n t the t i m e l e s s t r u t h p o s i t e d i n a l l ages. Throughout the n o v e l , Fowles a c h i e v e s a c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n between th e p a s t and the p r e s e n t t h r o u g h t h e employment o f the a u t h o r i a l commentator. S p e a k i n g from the d e c l a r e d vantage o f the p r e s e n t , he draws the r e a d e r ' s c o n s c i o u s ' a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t h i s t a l e i s only, the i l l u s o r y p r o d u c t o f h i s own imag-i n a t i o n . " ' I n t h i s o v e r t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s r e a d e r , Fowles o p e n l y s h a r e s the p r i v i l e g e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f the t a l e ' s f i c t i o n -- a l i t y t h a t i n The Magus ( u n t i l t he I n t r u s i o n of the l a s t chap-t e r ) i s communicated o n l y t h r o u g h t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s u b t l e t y o f i r o n y . I n o p e n l y a c k n o w l e d g i n g h i s m a n i p u l a t i n g presence as a u t h o r , Fowles assumes a r o l e l i k e t h a t o f Con c h i s - the-. \ 8 0 omnipresent and o m n i s c i e n t c r e a t o r " a t web c e n t e r " . The r e a d e r , i n a c a p a c i t y analogous w i t h N i c h o l a s ' r o l e , i s f r e q u e n t l y r e --minded t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n he w i t n e s s e s i s a f i c t i o n a l i l l u s i o n , a f a b r i c a t e d w o r l d o f appearances c r e a t e d f o r h i s b e n e f i t . I n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Fowles e n l a r g e s upon the p e r s p e c t i v e he p r e v i o u s l y o f f e r s i n The Magus, and i n c l u d e s w i t h i n t h e mise en scene of the n o v e l , h i s own d e c l a r e d presence as t h e t r u e agent of the f i c t i o n . A l t h o u g h as one c r i t i c has p o i n t e d p u t , the unmasked a u t h o r i a l i n t r u s i o n i s a " t h o r o u g h l y • V i c t o r i a n " c r e a t i o n , ^ i t r e p r e s e n t s , w i t h i n the l a r g e r p a t t -e r n o f F o w l e s ' f i c t i o n , a p r o g r e s s i o n t h a t i n v o l v e s a f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y t h r o u g h an expanded form. The r e a d e r , p r e v i o u s l y the unacknowledged w i t n e s s of the f i c t i o n a l e v e n t , i s d i r e c t l y . c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the r i d d l e o f f e r e d by the w o r l d of appearance. Through th e e p i g r a p h s p r e c e e d i n g each c h a p t e r , the f r e q u e s t i n f o r m a t i v e f o o t n o t e s , and the c o n s t a n t a u t h o r i a l commentary, Fowles keeps, .hispreader aware of h i s presence from c o v e r t o - - - - • r . . . . . . c o v e r . The a u t h o r ' s presence moreover, i s not s i m p l y i n the cap-- a c i t y o f f e l l o w w i t n e s s w i t h t h e r e a d e r , but - an echo o f Conchi method - i s t h a t o f the s e l f - a c c l a i m e d c r e a t o r and m a n i p u l a t o r o f 81 t h e f i c t i o n a l w o r l d he p r e s e n t s . He m a t e r i a l i z e s i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r o f the n o v e l , w i t h "more t h a n a t o u c h o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p r e s a r i o about him." He gazes upon Mr. E o s s e t t i ' s house where the f i n a l drama of h i s f i c t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e , "as i f i t i s some new t h e a t e r he has j u s t bought and i s p r e t t y c o n f i d e n t he can f i l l . " (FLW.462) 'The m e t a p h o r i c d e l i n e a t i o n o f h i s f i c t i o n -- a l drama i s an echo of C o n c h i s ' " m e t a - t h e a t e r " , and l i k e the magus, he s t a n d s as the u n c o n t e s t e d master of h i s w o r l d . I n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Fowles o p e n l y p l a y s t h e "godgame" t h a t i n h i s e a r l i e r n o v e l s he p l a y s b e h i n d t h e scenes out of the r e a d e r ' s s i g h t . H i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r u l e s g overn-i n g the game does not r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r f r o m t h a t o f The C o l l -- e c t o r and The Magus. I n a l l t h r e e , Fowles assumes the mask of t h e a b s e n t 'God' and m a i n t a i n s i t w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r s . I n the words of the s i g n i f i c a n t epigram t h a t opens the f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h i s l a t e s t n o v e l : "True p i e t y i s a c t i n g what one knows." (FLW, 4 6 l ) Fowles s i m p l y p l a y s t h e r o l e o f 'God' as he knows and u n d e r s t a n d s i t : 'God' i s a s i t u a t i o n . Not a power, o r a b e i n g , o r an i n f l u e n c e . Not a 'he' o r a 'she', b u t an ' i t ' . Not e n t i t y o r n o n - e n t i t y , b u t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Which t h e r e can be b o t h e n t i t y and non-e n t i t y . ? "There i s o n l y one good d e f i n i t i o n o f God," he announces i n The 82 F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, "the freedom t h a t a l l o w s o t h e r f r e e --doms t o e x i s t . And I must conform t o t h a t d e f i n i t i o n . " (FLW,97) Throughout h i s f i c t i o n , Fowles assumes t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s c h a r a c t e r s . He i s not "as t h e gods o f the V i c t o r i a n image, o m n i s c i e n t and d e c r e e i n g " , b u t c o n s t r u c t s f o r h i s c h a r a -- c t e r s a w o r l d governed by t h e "new t h e o l o g i c a l image" of 'God* - a 'God' who does n o t i n t e r v e n e but a l l o w s h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o f a c e a w o r l d t h a t i s l i k e t h e r e a l w o r l d . (FLW,97) B o t h C l e g g and M i r a n d a of The C o l l e c t o r and N i c h o l a s o f The Magus, come t o an awareness of t h e r e a l n a t u r e of t h i s 'God*. He i s n o t p r e s e n t w a t c h i n g o r j u d g i n g , and he w i l l n o t i n t e r v e n e . As Miranda" p u t s i . t j - and i t may be a c c e p t e d f o r a l l Fowles* c h a r a c t e r s , as f o r s the a u t h o r h i m s e l f - "we have t o l i v e as i f t h e r e i s no God." (C, 234) S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s not the a u t h o r who b r i n g s h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o an awareness o f t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f 'God*' (and hence, r e a l i t y ) , b u t a c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , who, e c h o i n g t h e a u t h o r , p l a y s t h e "god.game". C l e g g becomes Miranda's Image o f t h e ab-- s e n t 'God' when he p l a y s h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e "godgame" w i t h h e r . C o nchis u s u r p s th e r o l e o f N i c h o l a s ' " g o d - n o v e l i s t " and. p l a y i n g the "godgame" w i t h him b r i n g s him t o a r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e r e a l 83 n a t u r e of 'God*. I n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Sarah s e r v e s as the f i c t i o n a l agent who b r i n g s t h e knowledge o f r e a l i t y t o C h a r l e s by p l a y i n g t h e r o l e o f the 'God'. The l e v e l s o f awareness suggested i n t h i s p a t t e r n a r e o b v i o u s . W i t h i n t h e n o v e l , a c h a r a c t e r p l a y s a v i s i b l e v e r s i o n o f the "godgame" t h a t t h e a u t h o r p l a y s beyond t h e s i g h t o f t h e r e a d e r - i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l s - and c h a r a c t e r s . I n t u r n , the l i v i n g r e a l i t y t h a t i n f o r m s the r e a l w o r l d o f w h i c h the a u t h o r i s a p a r t c o n t a i n s the t r u e v i s i o n b e h i n d the r o l e s b o t h he and h i s c h a r a c t e r s . p l a y . I n t h e words o f Mrs. de S i e t a s of The Magus: " t h e r e a r e no gods. I t i s not a game." (M,575). B e h i n d a l o g -- i c a l sequence of assumed r o l e s i s t h e v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y t h a t Fowles u l t i m a t e l y embraces. I n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Fowles a t t e m p t s t o r e --move the l a s t mask. H i s purpose would seem t o be suggested i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l s . The c h a r a c t e r p l a y i n g the "godgame" w i t h i n the f i c t i o n i s a b l e t o b r i n g t h e knowledge of r e a l i t y t o h i s o p p o s i t e by making him ( o r her) aware t h a t he i s c o n f r o n t e d by a f a b r i c a t e d s i t u a t i o n . Faced w i t h a w o r l d o f o b v i o u s appear--ance, the e l e c t c h a r a c t e r i s drawn t o s e a r c h out the r e a l i t y t h a t l i e s b e h i n d t h e appearance. By assuming t h e r o l e o f the 84 a b s e n t 'God' o f Fowles' r e a l i t y , t he agent i m p r e s s e s upon t h e e l e c t the f a c t t h a t he must seek t h e answer f o r h i m s e l f , and t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e r e i s no one t o p r o v i d e an answer. I n The  F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Fowles a t t e m p t s t o t u r n t h e "game" upon t h e r e a d e r by p r e s e n t i n g him w i t h a w o r l d o f i l l u s i o n t h a t i s p a t e n t l y m a n i p u l a t e d . The a u t h o r d e c l a r e s h i m s e l f the agent, and t h r o u g h Sarah poses a mystery t h a t he does n ot o f f e r t o s o l v e . Whether t h e "game" Fowles would seem t o p l a y w i t h h i s r e a d e r i s , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , as s u c c e s s f u l as the "game" h i s c h a r -a c t e r s p l a y , can o n l y be answered by t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e a d e r . The c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n of i t s s u c c e s s depends on whether t h e r e a d e r , l i k e N i c h o l a s , w i l l a t t e mpt t o s e a r c h out t h e meaning b e h i n d the appearance. The matter* o f t h i s p roblem i n Fowl e s ' most r e c e n t n o v e l , however, i s perhaps o n l y p e r i p h e r a l , f o r the s u c c e s s o f the n o v e l i t s e l f does n ot r e s t on h i s e v o k i n g the r e a d e r ' s d e s i r e t o p e n e t r a t e t h e mask o f the f i c t i o n . B u t , i f n o t h i n g e l s e , The  F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman o f f e r s Fowles' most expanded e x p l o r -- a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e , o f i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y , and, t h r o u g h Sarah, t h e most e x p l i c i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y . S a r a h , t h e l y r i c a l " f i g u r e f r om myth" (FLW,5)» s e r v e s t h e r o l e o f t h e magian, the " p r o f e s s i o n a l m y s t i f i e r " 8 , and, i n the 85 f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n of Fowles' e a r l i e r n o v e l s , she poses a l i v i n g conundrum i n t h e f a c e of h e r e l e c t e d v i c t i m , C h a r l e s S mithson. But i t i s a p u z z l e t h a t a l s o c o n f r o n t s t h e r e a d e r , f o r u n l i k e h i s e a r l i e r magians, Fowles does not s u p p l y a motive f o r h e r i n e x p l i c a b l e a c t i o n s . When Sa r a h f i n a l l y i n f o r m s h e r h a p l e s s v i c t i m - t h a t t h e r e i s no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h e r conduct, t h a t she i s "not t o be u n d e r s t o o d " (FLW.,4-52), i t i s a comment t h a t i s e q u a l l y l e v e l l e d a t the r e a d e r . Throughout the n o v e l , Fowles p r o v i d e s no i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l r a t i o n a l l y e x p l a i n t h e mys-t e r y o f h e r m o t i v e s . W i t h Sarah, Fowles r e t r e a t s from the o m n i s c i e n t v i e w t h a t p e r m i t s him t o e x p l o r e t h e th o u g h t s o f h i s o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . He r e p o r t s o n l y h e r a c t i o n s and t h e "outward f a c t s " o f h e r app-e a r a n c e . (FLW,98) The r e a d e r i s not p e r m i t t e d , as w i t h C h a r l e s , E r n e s t i n a , o r even Mrs. P o u l t e n e y , t o examine Sarah's t h o u g h t s , f o r t h e r e i s l i t t l e a u t h o r i a l commentary t o r e v e a l h e r m o t i v e s , d e s i r e s , o r e b j e c t i v e s . T h i s , of c o u r s e , i s s i m i l a r t o the p o r t r a y a l of C o n c h i s i n The Maguss b u t he, u n l i k e S a r a h , makes h i s o b j e c t i v e s c l e a r i n h i s d i a l o g u e s w i t h N i c h o l a s , and t h r o u g h h i s . a s s o c i a t e Mrs. de S i e t a s . S a r a h , however,- i s n o t , l i k e C o n c h i s , o p e n l y s h a r i n g the c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and d i d a c t i c a s p i r -- a t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r , n or l i k e C l e g g , d r i v e n by a t r a n s p a r e n t l y 86 o b v i o u s u n c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e . ' I n p r a c t i c e , Dr. Grogan's t h e o r y o f Sarah's p s y c h o l o g i c a l a b n o r m a l i t y s a t i s f i e s n e i t h e r C h a r l e s nor the r e a d e r , f o r i t f a i l s u l t i m a t e l y t o e x p l a i n her r e a l a c t i o n s . The answer t o the r i d d l e Sarah poses i n h e r u n e x p l a i n e d a c t i o n s r i s e s out o f Fowles' concept o f the omnipresent mystery of l i f e i t s e l f . B e h i n d h e r appearance, her d e c e p t i o n s , and her m a n i p u l a t i o n s , t h e r e i s no meaning t o be a r t i c u l a t e d . .Unlike C o n c h i s , she does not need t o evoke m y s t e r y t h r o u g h e l a b o r a t e l y s t a g e d e v e n t s , f o r , i n one sense, she i s , m y stery. On f i r s t see-i n g h e r , C h a r l e s i s s t r u c k by h e r f a c e : "There was no a r t i f i c e t h e r e , no h y p o c r i s y , no h y s t e r i a , no mask." (FLW,10) (emphasis mine) Sa r a h , above a l l , embodies t h e power of mystery t h a t i s , w i t h i n Fowles' scheme, f r e q u e n t l y s y m b o l i z e d i n the form o f the f e m a l e . L i k e Jung's anima, she i s a t once an e x p r e s s i o n of e l u -s i v e m ystery and the e t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e o f c r e a t i o n . I n The  Magus, L i l y ' p l a y s ' the r o l e of " A s t a r t e , the mother of mystery", b u t i n The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman, Sarah i s r e a l i z e d i n t h i s f orm w i t h o u t t h e a r t i f i c e . Sarah i s A s t a r t e . -I n a d i s c u s s i o n on the n a t u r e o f God, i n The Magus, L i l y e x p l a i n s t o N i c h o l a s the mystery t h a t she demands o f h e r c r e a t o r . 87 She w i s h e s him t o p r o v i d e "no c l u e s . No c e r t a i n t i e s . No s i g h t s . No r e a s o n s . No m o t i v e s . " " I ask God n e v e r t o r e v e a l h i m s e l f t o me. Because i f he d i d I s h o u l d know t h a t he was not God. But a l i a r . " (15,27*0 The comment t h a t C o n c h i s t h e n makes p r o v i d e s a p r e f i g u r a t i o n o f the s y m b o l i c r o l e t h a t Sarah s e r v e s i n The  F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman: J u s t t h e n she p a i d us the compliment of making'God male. But I t h i n k she knows, as a l l , i n t e l l i g e n t women.do,..that a l l p r o -- f o u n d d e f i n i t i o n s of God a r e e s s e n t i a l l y d e f i n i t i o n s of the mother. Of g i v i n g t h i n g s . Sometimes, the s t r a n g e s t g i f t s . (M, 275) The a b s e nt 'God' of Fowles' " u n v e r i f i a b l e " r e a l i t y , becomes s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e form of Sarah, who b r i n g s t o C h a r l e s , as C o n c h i s d i d t o N i c h o l a s , t h e g i f t o f t h e knowledge o f t r u t h . ) The n a t u r e o f Sarah's r o l e i s emphasized e a r l y i n the n o v e l . I n h e r . c h i l d h o o d , "she had r e a d f a r more f i c t i o n , and f a r more p o e t r y . . . t h a n most o f h e r k i n d . " As a r e s u l t : They s e r v e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r e x p e r i e n c e . W i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g i t she judged p e o p l e as much by t h e s t a n d a r d s of W a l t e r S c o t t and Jane A u s t e n as by any e m p i r a c a i l y a r r i v e d a t ; s e e i n g t h o s e around h e r as f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s , and making p o e t i c judge-m e n t s on them. (FLW^'53) From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , she would seem, l i k e N i c h o l a s o f The Magus, t o p e t h e p o s s e s s o r of a h i g h l y i l l u s o r y v i s i o n o f l i f e . But t o the c o n t r a r y , 88 She c o u l d sense the p r e t e n s i o n s o f a h o l l o w arguement, a f a l s e s c h o l a r s h i p , a "biased l o g i c when she came a c r o s s them; "but she a l s o saw t h r o u g h p e o p l e i n s u b t l e r ways. W i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o say how, any more t h a n a computer can e x p l a i n i t s own p r o c e s s e s , she saw them as t h e y were and n o t as t h e y t r i e d t o seem. (FLW, 52) The " i n s t i n c t u a l p r o f u n d i t y o f i n s i g h t " t h a t Sarah p o s s e s s e s a r i s e s from the f a c t t h a t her judgements r e f l e c t , n o t the i l l u s o r y a s p e c t s o f f i c t i o n , b u t the permanent t r u t h i t c o n t a i n s . 9 Sarah's i n s i g h t i s c h i e f l y i n t o the n a t u r e o f u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . W i t h h e r " i n s t i n c t u a l " a b i l i t y t o see t h r o u g h appear--ances, she i s a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e the mask o f the age and b e h o l d t h e t r u t h t h a t l i e s b e h i n d i t . U n l i k e Mrs. P o u l t e n e y who "be-- l i e v e d i n a God t h a t had never e x i s t e d " , S arah "knew a God t h a t d i d . " (FLW,57) When she u n d e r t a k e s the "godgame" w i t h C h a r l e s , she assumes t h e r o l e , l i k e t h e e a r l i e r magians, o f t h e " p r o f -s e s s i o n a l m y s t i f i e r " and c o n f r o n t s him w i t h a f i c t i o n a l w o r l d . Sarah does not however, assume a mask. Her f a b r i c a t e d t a l e t o C h a r l e s i s n o t , l i k e C o n c h i s ' d e c e p t i o n s , a c o n s c i o u s h i s t r i o n i c l i e , f o r Sarah r e f l e c t i n g h er c h a r a c t e r , i n s t i n c t i v e l y does what she does. She i s n e v e r a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e h e r m o t i v e s ; she i s o n l y a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h a t she i s "not t o be u n d e r s t o o d . " (FLW, 452) S a r a h , l i k e t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f , emulates* t h e epigram o f t h e l a s t c h a p t e r - "True p i e t y i s a c t i n g what one knows (Fowles a l s o s u g g e s t s "humanity" and the e x i s t e n t i a l phrase " a u t h e n t i c i t y " 89 as p o s s i b l e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r . " p i e t y " ) (FLW,467). But i n h e r p o r t r a y a l o f t h e 'God' t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f r e a l i t y , . S a r a h r e v e a l s an i n s t i n c t u a l , r a t h e r t h a n a- r a t i o c i n a t i v e awareness o f t h e t r u t h . U n l i k e C o n c h i s , she i s u n a b l e t o v e r -- g a l i z e on t h e c o n d i t i o n of r e a l i t y , she can o n l y , i n the e x i s -- t e n t i a l p h r a s e , ' a c t i t o u t ' . She i s not d e c e i v i n g C h a r l e s when she t e l l s him: "Do not ask me t o e x p l a i n what I have done. I cannot e x p l a i n i t . I t i s not t o be e x p l a i n e d ; " (FLW', 355) ) • .' Sarah's r e a l m o f t h e U n d e r c l i f f , t h e " E n g l i s h Garden o f Eden" (FLW,67) i s a symbol, u l t i m a t e l y , l i k e C i e g g ' s c e l l a r , o r ' C o n c h i s ' B o u r a n i , f o r t h e i d e a l w o r l d o f i l l u s i o n , b u t u n l i k e i t s p r e d e s s e s s o r s , t h i s r e a l m i n wh i c h Sarah r e i g n s i s not a f a b r i c a t i o n , b u t a n a t u r a l " u n a l l o y e d w i l d n e s s of growth and b u r g e o n i n g f e r t i l i t y " . (FLW,68) The image p r o v i d e s an e x p r e s -s i o n o f energy and growth, b u t i t cannot be s i m p l y a c c e p t e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense o f one r e p r e s e n t i n g the n a t u r a l and c y c l -- i c a l w o r l d o f N a t u r e . "Only one a r t has e v e r caught such scenes", Fowles adds, " t h a t of the R e n a i s s a n c e . I t s d e v i c e was the o n l y d e v i c e ; What i s , i s good," (FLW,68) The U n d e r c l i f f i s t h e n a t -- u r a l i n a r t , o r an e x p r e s s i o n o f the essence of the t r u t h i n f o r m i n g a r t w i t h o u t the mask o f a r t i f i c e . The i n n e r sanctum o f the U n d e r c l i f f - t h e " s e c l u d e d p l a c e " t o which Sarah l e a d s 90 C h a r l e s i n o r d e r t o t e l l him h e r s t o r y - p o s s e s s e s o n l y the s u g g e s t i o n of the a r t i f i c i a l o r d e r i n g o f n a t u r a l elements, a p p e a r i n g as "a k i n d of green a m p h i t h e a t e r " , where b e f o r e a " s t u n t e d t h o r n " , someone had p l a c e d "a f l a t - t o p p e d b l o c k o f f l i n t " . (FLW,166) From t h i s " r u s t i c t h r o n e " , Sarah r e i g n s as the l i v i n g embodiment of t h e mystery posed by t h e absent 'God', and as such, the b e a r e r of the t r u t h o f a r t . As i n t h e e a r l i e r n o v e l s , S a r a h , as magian b r i n g s the knowledge o f t r u t h t o a chosen e l e c t , C h a r l e s Smithsoh, whose own v i s i o n f a l s i f i e s r e a l i t y . The c e n t r a l symbol o f C h a r l e s i l l u s o r y f a i t h i n the age, and i t s demand f o r a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e c r e e d o f d u t y , i s W i n s y a t t , h i s u n c l e ' s r a m b l i n g W i l t -- s h i r e e s t a t e . W i t h i t s " s y m b o l i c . . . s t a b l e c l o c k " r i s i n g o v er a l l j , i t i s f i x e d s o l i d l y i n the t r a n s i e n t w o r l d o f man; b u t , i t a l s o p o s s e s s e s a v a l u e f o r C h a r l e s o f an i d e a l w o r l d t h a t time has not decayed. I t i s an i d y l l i c p l a c e where "green tod a y s f l o w i n t o g r e e n tomorrows, the o n l y r e a l hours were t h e s o l a r h o u r s . " U n l i k e t h e " u n a l l o y e d w i l d n e s s " o f the U n d e r c l i f f , W i n s y a t t pervades "a sense o f o r d e r " w h i c h i s "almost m e c h a n i c a l i n i t s p r o f u n d i t y , i n one's f e e l i n g t h a t i t c o u l d n ot be d i s -- t u r b e d , t h a t i t would always r e m a i n t h u s : b e n e v o l e n t and d i v -- i n e . " (FLW,196) F o r C h a r l e s , W i n s y a t t i s t h e v i s i o n o f a con-- t r o l l e d and permanent w o r l d t h a t h i d e s a r e a l w o r l d o f 91 impermanence and f l u x . Upon the f a m i l y s e a t o f W i n s y a t t , C h a r l e s i n h e r i t s "Immense d u t i e s " t h a t c a l l f o r the " p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s peace and o r d e r " . (FLW,197) The b e n e v o l e n t p a t e r n a l i s m o f t h e r o l e , p l a c e s upon h i s s h o u l d e r s t h e d u t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g an i l l u s i o n t h a t d i s t a n c e s t h e r e a l w o r l d . I n the p u r s u i t o f h i s n a t u r a l s t u d i e s , he dem-- q n s t r a t e s ...what i s , . . i n . . e f f e c t , . o n l y an e x t e n s i o n o f .the f a i t h i n t h e o r d e r t h a t W i n s y a t t r e p r e s e n t s - "the L i n n a e a n o b s e s s i o n w i t h c l a s s i f y i n g and naming, w i t h f o s s i l i z i n g t h e e x i s t e n t ' ' . I n a d e s i r e t o d i s t a n c e _ t h e _ t r u t h , " t o s t a b i l i z e and f i x what i s i n re . a l . i t y _ a. continuous; f l u x " , , he p r o j e c t s h i s i l l u s i o n s upon the " c r u m b l i n g " c l i f f - f a c e i o f .the Devon s e a c o a s t , and sees "an immen-- s e l y r e a s s u r i n g o r d e r l i n e s s i n e x i s t e n c e " . (FLW,49) L i k e C l e g g , M i r a n d a , and N i c h o l a s o f the e a r l i e r n o v e l s , r C h a r l e s t a k e s r e f u g e from r e a l i t y i n a w o r l d of i l l u s i o n . B e f o r e h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h S a r a h , he u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y s h a r e s w i t h h i s age, "those p a i n t e d s c r e e n s e r e c t e d by man t o shut out r e a l i t y - h l s -- t o r y , r e l i g i o n , d u t y , s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s . " unaware t h a t t h e y a r e ."illusions.,..mere_opium, f a n t a s i e s " (FLW, 2 0 6 ) , t h a t s e r v e o n l y t o h i d e the t r u e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y . C h a r l e s , more f o r t u n a t e t h a n N i c h o l a s o f The Magus, who c o u l d w i t h d r a w o n l y i n t o a s e l f -92 c r e a t e d w o r l d , can d i s t a n c e r e a l i t y t h r o u g h m e r e l y c o n c e d i n g and c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l i l l u s i o n of the age. Through " c r y p t i c c o l o u r a t i o n " - Fowles' loanword from D a r w i n C h a r l e s i s a b l e t o g u a r a n t e e h i s " s u r v i v a l by l e a r n i n g t o b l e n d w i t h ( h i s ) s u r r o u n d i n g s " . (FLW , 145) But C h a r l e s does n o t f u l l y a c c e p t the p r o t e c t i o n o f f e r e d by the c o n v e n t i o n s o f the age, f o r he be-- l i e v e s h i m s e l f t o be "not l i k e a m a j o r i t y o f h i s . p eers and c o n t e m p o r a r i e s " . (FLW , 129) T h i s a s s e r t i o n o f h i s own unique I d e n t i t y prompts C h a r l e s t o l o o k beyond the a s p i r a t i o n s o f h i s age, and hence, r e n d e r s him v u l n e r a b l e t o the mystery posed by S a r a h . A f t e r m e e t i n g h e r on t h e Cobb, C h a r l e s e x p r e s s e s h i s d i s -- s a t i s f a c t i o n a t t h e absence o f "mystery" and "romance" i n the town, and r e t u r n i n g t o h i s rooms he v a g u e l y p e r c e i v e s "myster-- i o u s elements" t h a t the l o n e woman has s t i r r e d i n him. L i k e N i c h o l a s o f The Magus, he i s u n a b l e t o know a t t h a t moment t h a t he y e a r n s f o r a "new l a n d " a "new mystery", (M , 15) and S a r a h o f f e r s t h a t p o s s i b i l i t y . T y p i c a l l y he p e r c e i v e s t h e s e "myster-- i o u s elements" w h i l e g a z i n g a t h i m s e l f i n the m i r r o r - t h a t f r e q u e n t symbol o f t h e o t h e r w o r l d i n Fowles' f i c t i o n . (FLW,10-11) 93 W a l k i n g down the beach i n s e a r c h of f o s s i l s and moving p r o g r e s s i v e l y c l o s e r t o the r e a l m o f the U n d e r c l i f f , C h a r l e s moves s y m b o l i c a l l y d i s t a n t from h i s age, 'and i n h i s d i s t r a c t e d t h o u g h t , l o s e s t r a c k of the t i m e . (FLW,50) When he b e g i n s h i s c l i m b up toward the U n d e r c l i f f , he becomes aware o f a f o r c e ' i t p e r v a d e s , a f o r c e t h a t i s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o h i s " l u s t " f o r s c i e n -t i f i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and o r d e r ; "the p r o s p e c t b e f o r e him, the sounds, the s c e n t s , t h e u n a l l o y e d w i l d n e s s o f growth and bur-g e o n i n g f e r t i l i t y , f o r c e d him i n t o a n t i - s c i e n c e . " (FLW,68) F o r C h a r l e s i t i s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h something he has never b e f o r e f a c e d ; " I had no i d e a " , he l a t e r t e l l s E r n e s t i n a , " t h a t such p l a c e s e x i s t e d i n . E n g l a n d " . (FLW,88) But above a l l , he i s c o n s c i o u s o f t h e f a c t t h a t what i s b e f o r e him e f f e c t i n g him so p o w e r f u l l y i s " a l l , i n s h o r t , t h a t ( h i s ) age was n o t " . (FLW,68) When he s p i e s Sarah s h e . i s i n e x t r i c a b l y p a r t o f a l l b e f o r e him. M o m e n t a r i l y the power o f the U n d e r c l i f f overcomes him and "the whole V i c t o r i a n Age.was l o s t " . (FLW,72) L i k e B o u r a n i t o N i c h o l a s , t h e U n d e r c l i f f i s t o C h a r l e s a d i m e n s i o n f a r from the r e a l i t y o f h i s age. E m p h a s i z i n g and e x t e n d i n g the p o l a r v a l u e s o f the U n d e r c l i f f and age, Sarah and E r n e s t i n a o f f e r an embodiment o f the c h o i c e t h a t C h a r l e s must make. From t h e moment of h e r appearance i n the 94 n o v e l , Sarah i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a l m o f a r t and i l l u s i o n . She s t a n d s , when C h a r l e s f i r s t approaches h e r , on the Cobb, "a superb fragment of f o l k a r t , " (FLW,4) t h a t i s b o t h d i s t a n c e d and i s o l -- a t e d from the town of Lyme R e g i s . L o o k i n g upon h e r f a c e , C h a r l e s i s s t r u c k by t h e "sorrow ( t h a t ) w e l l e d out o f i t as p u r e l y , n a t -u r a l l y and u n s t o p p a b l y as w a t e r out o f a woodland s p r i n g " . (FLW, 10) She s t a n d s , as t h e U n d e r c l i f f , f a r from the c o n t r o l and f o r m a l i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the i l l u s i o n s o f h i s age. E r n e s t i n a , a " s hallow-minded" g i r l i n the t e s t i m o n y o f the a u t h o r h i m s e l f (FLW,264) embodies the i l l u s o r y v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y demanded by the age; she i s a g i r l o f appearances, h e r own s e n s i t i v i t y d i r e c t e d c h i e f l y t o t h e c h o i c e of masks r e q u i r e d by the c i r c u m s t a n c e o f t h e moment. A r e f l e c t i o n o f h e r own tendancy t o judge by appearance o n l y , h e r a t t r a c t i o n t o C h a r l e s i s s u p e r -- f i c i a l , e x p r e s s e d i n h e r a d m i r a t i o n o f "the way he walked and e s p e c i a l l y the manner i n w h i c h he r a i s e d h i s t o p hat t o Aunt T r a n t e r ' s maid". ( F L W , 2 6 ) As she l o o k s a t h e r s e l f i n t h e m i r r o r , she does not p e r c e i v e , as C h a r l e s , the " m y s t e r i o u s elements" t h a t abound i n l i f e , she sees o n l y h e r outward form and becomes " l o s t i n h i g h l y n a r c i s s i s t i c s e l f - c o n t e m p l a t i o n " . (FLW,28) F i t t i n g l y the E r n e s t i n a t o whom C h a r l e s chooses, i n h i s dream v i s i o n , t o r e t u r n and marry, s i t s e m b r o i d e r i n g a "watch pocket f o r him". 95 (FLW,335) She r e p r e s e n t s the r e a l w o r l d o f time and change t h a t C h a r l e s wishes t o escape. The r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of E r n e s t i n a and Sarah a r e f r e q u e n t l y -r e a l i z e d i n the n o v e l t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of c o n t r a p u n t a l images t h a t m i r r o r one a n o t h e r and s e r v e t o p r o v i d e a comparison o f the two. W h i l e C h a r l e s i s i n the n a t u r a l r i c h n e s s o f the Under-- c l i f f l o o k i n g down upon S a r a h s l e e p i n g i n the open, E r n e s t i n a r i s e s from h e r bed i n Aunt T r a n t e r ' s house t o u s h e r i n Mary, the maid who c a r r i e s "a p o s i t i v e f o u n t a i n o f s p r i n g f l o w e r s " from C h a r l e s . To E r n e s t i n a i t i s an "unwelcome v i s i o n of F l o r a " , and i n h e r r e a c t i o n she poses a f i g u r e o p p o s i t e t o Sarah's (FLW, 7 5 ) . She t e l l s t he maid t h a t she does not l i k e them so c l o s e . (FLW,76) D i s t a n c i n g t h e n a t u r a l , E r n e s t i n a p l a c e s h e r s e l f i n an a r t i f i c i a l w o r l d f a r from the U n d e r c l i f f . C h a r l e s , a p p r o p r i a t e l y , had proposed t o h e r am i d s t the f o r c e d blooms o f a hothouse. I n two s e p a r a t e scenes, w h i c h a g a i n m i r r o r one a n o t h e r , Sarah r e a d s t o Mrs. P o u l t e n e y from the B i b l e , and E r n e s t i n a r e a d s . t o C h a r l e s , from The Lady o f L a Garaye. The v e r y books from which each r e a d s s e r v e s t o i n f o r m of the c h a r a c t e r s of t h e women - the l a t t e r , a s e n t i m e n t a l and " i n s i p i d " n a r r a t i v e poem, and the f o r m e r a compendium o f t i m e l e s s t r u t h and myth. 96 W i t h a v o i c e , " c o n t r o l l e d and c l e a r , " Sarah spoke d i r e c t l y o f the s u f f e r i n g of C h r i s t , of a man b o r n i n N a z a r e t h , a s 1 i f t h e r e was no time i n h i s t o r y , a l m o s t , a t t i m e s , when the l i g h t i n the room was d a r k , and she seemed t o f o r g e t Mrs. P o u l t e n e y ' s p r e s e n c e , as i f she saw C h r i s t on the C r o s s be-f o r e h e r . (FLW,57) Her i n t e n s i t y and s i n c e r i t y o f f e r s a p o w e r f u l c o n t r a s t t o E r n e s -- t i n a ' s r e c i t a t i o n t o a b o r e d and n o d d i n g C h a r l e s who watches w i t h " s u i t a b l y solemn eyes, a t E r n e s t i n a ' s grave f a c e . " (FLW,115) Her r e a d i n g i s a r t i f i c i a l , a t t e m p t i n g t o e f f e c t a t r a g i c tone 1 f o r the s e n t i m e n t a l scene she r e a d s . C h a r l e s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i m s e l f , E r n e s t i n a , and, i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , w i t h the age i n w h i c h he l i v e s , a r i s e s from h i s m e e t i n g S a r a h . W i t h h e r n a t u r a l n e s s , h e r freedom from a r t -i f i c e , she p r o v i d e s a s t a r k c o n t r a s t t o a l l he knows, and b r i n g s t o him a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the mask of appearance assumed by him-- s e l f and a l l about him: " E r n e s t i n a and h e r l i k e . . . encouraged the mask, the s a f e d i s t a n c e ; and t h i s g i r l , b e h i n d h e r f a c a d e o f h u m i l i t y , f o r b a d e i t . " (FLW.145) C h a r l e s sees E r n e s t i n a with'^a, new awareness t h a t Sarah evokes; .he p e r c e i v e s w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n " t h a t there.was something .shallow i n h e r -; t h a t h e r a c u t e n e s s was l a r g e l y c o n s t i t u t e d . i n t e l l e c t u a l l y as a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , b y _ a ..mere c u t e n e s s . " Above a l l , he p e r c e i v e s a m e c h a n i c a l and a r t i f i c i a l q u a l i t y , "something of an automaton about h e r " , l i k e "those 97 ingenious girl-machines from Hoffmann's Tales". (FLW,1^9) \ On the U n d e r c l i f f with Sarah, l i s t e n i n g to her r e c a l l the story of her r e l a t i o n s h i p with Varguennes, Charles - l i k e Nicho-- l a s l i s t e n i n g to Conchis' narrative - becomes aware that he i s confronting an unreal world that threatens to draw him from r e a l -i t y : Thus to Charles the openness of Sarah's confession - both so open i n i t s e l f and i n the open sunlight - seemed l e s s to pres-e n t a sharper r e a l i t y than to o f f e r a glimpse of; an i d e a l , world. I t was not-so strange because i t was more r e a l , but because i t was l e s s r e a l ; a mythical world where naked beauty mattered f a r more than naked truth. (FLW,176) (emphasis mine) Through Sarah's narrative, Charles perceives an aesthetic world that l i e s ' - . a s Nicholas of The Magus learns - f a r from the moral world of a c t u a l i t y . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y the world of the imagin--ation manifested In f i c t i o n - a.jrealm of the i d e a l distanced and l i b e r a t e d from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of r e a l i t y . I t i s t h i s world that Sarah evokes, and Charles, turning, projects upon the d i s -t a n t clouds above the sea, l i k e the gorgeous crests of some mountain range...and yet so remote - as remote as some abbey of Theleme, some land of s i n -- l e s s swooning i d y l l , in. which Charles and Sarah and Ernestina could have wandered...(FLW,177) In t h i s aesthetic world, Charles i s able to envision him-- s e l f with Sarah and Ernestina, f o r t h i s i s not a moral world 98 that demands choice and action, but rather, one that resolves a l l tensions and obstacles. The v i s i o n evokes i n Charles a reminder "of h i s own d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s " , and he longs f o r the mystery of the remote lands that r e f l e c t the i d e a l i t y of the dream. (FLW,177) Through her narrative on the U n d e r c l i f f , Sarah confronts him with the knowledge that he i s not what he wishes to be. Like the dream of both Clegg and Nicholas, Charles' i s one of t o t a l l i b e r a t i o n from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of r e a l i t y and time. The sight of Sarah disturbs h i s repressed desires and her image "unsettled him and haunted him, by c a l l i n g to some hidden s e l f he hardly knew existed". The " p o s s i b i l i t y she symbolized" i s the promise of an I l l u s o r y world of pleasure o f f e r i n g both emo-- t i o n a l and physical release from the burdensome l i m i t a t i o n s he shares with his age. Ernestina, with her mechanical and a r t i f -i c i a l a t t r i b u t e s , offers him the alternative of the age's ob-s t r u c t i n g , "painted screens". He becomes uncomfortably aware that his future with her i s without the promise of mystery of adventure; i t i s "a fixed voyage to a known place." (FLW,130) Disturbed by his disillusionment i n the aspirations he shares with h i s age, Charles, l i k e those characters of Fowles' 99 e a r l i e r n o v e l s , f i n d s h i m s e l f caught between the dream and t h e r e a l i t y : he f e l t h i m s e l f i n s u s p e n s i o n between two w o r l d s , t h e warm, n e a t c i v i l i z a t i o n b e h i n d h i s back, the c o o l , d a r k mystery o u t s i d e . (FLW, 151) He i s i n the d i l e m n a o f - i n the words of one o f the age's g r e a t p o e t s - "Wandering between two w o r l d s , one dead, / The o t h e r p o w e r l e s s t o be b o r n , " 1 0 I n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n , C l e g g o f The C o l l e c t o r r e s o l v e s t h e t e n s i o n s by a t t e m p t i n g t o move c o m p l e t e l y i n t o the w o r l d o f the dream; N i c h o l a s , on t h e o t h e r hand, t a k e s the p a t h o f d u p l i c i t y and a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e r v e b o t h w o r l d s . C h a r l e s , however, has a t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e - W i n s y a t t , Un-- l i k e Sarah's r e a l m , i t does n o t o f f e r t h e l i b e r a t i n g v i s i o n o f t h e dream, f o r h i s u n c l e ' s e s t a t e i s "almost m e c h a n i c a l i n i t s p r o f o u n d i t y " . (FLW,196) But W i n s y a t t does, n o n e t h e l e s s , o f f e r him a unique and i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y t h a t w i l l f r e e him from the homogeneity of h i s age, w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l l o w i n g him t o p l a y a l e a d i n g p a r t i n i t . Here he t a k e s the r o l e o f a b e n e v o l -e n t god whose d u t y i t i s t o m a i n t a i n the age's i l l u s o r y f a i t h i n "peace and o r d e r " . (FLW,197) R e t u r n i n g from h i s e v e n i n g w i t h Grogan, C h a r l e s e x h i b i t s h i s p o s i t i v e f a i t h i n the i l l u s i o n o f o r d e r t h a t W i n s y a t t and h i s f u t u r e r o l e o f f e r : 100 U n l i t Lyme was the ordinary mass of mankind, most evidently sunk i n immemorial sleep; while Charles...was pure i n t e l l e c t , walking awake, free as a god, one with the unslumbering stars and under-s t a n d i n g a l l . (FLW,162) The promise of the i d e a l world of Winsyatt would undoubtedly have triumphed over Charles* temptations to y i e l d to the promis-e s of Sarah's realm, i f the circumstances of h i s uncle's marr-i a g e had not forever robbed him of the estate. As Charles approaches Winsyatt and considers h i s future role on the family seat, the scene imparts a force that negates the powerful i n f l -u e nce of the U n d e r c l i f f and Sarah - "that was his r e a l wife, his Ernestina and his Sarah". (FLW,197) With the loss of Winsyatt, Charles becomes l e s s sure of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l b e l i e f i n the meaning and order of l i f e . The bene--volent forces of universal order become those of malevolent i n -t e n t . An ammonite serves as a mirror f o r his own misfortunes, for i t too has been subject to the forces of some "catastrophe". I t brings Charles a v i s i o n of a dark r e a l i t y : In a v i v i d insight, a f l a s h of black lightening, he saw a l l l i f e was paralled: that evolution was not v e r t i c a l , ascending to per-f e c t i o n , but hori z o n t a l . Time was the great f a l l a c y ; existence was without history,, was-always now, was always being caught i n some fiendish machine. (FLW,206) (emphasis mine) t Charles finds himself abruptly trapped i n the small room of the 101 the present, and l i k e Miranda of The Collector, he struggles to escape the new r e a l i t y he confronts. Behind the appearance of l i f e , which Charles attempts to penetrate f o r the f i r s t time, he sees a malevolent process at work. When Charles loses his f a i t h i n the r a t i o n a l comprehensib-- i l i t y of l i f e , his i l l u s o r y f a i t h i n the "immensely reassuring orderliness of existence" i s supplanted by a b e l i e f i n a dark and d i a b o l i c force of causality that, l i k e Hardy's "purblind 11 Doomsters , s i l e n t l y w i l l s his predicament. A l l the powers of reason and science that had e a r l i e r made the world seem an imminently knowable quantity are negated i n a greater confusion. A l l l i f e takes on, l i k e the ammonite, a mysterious significance that only serves to remind him of the inevi t a b l e destructive force that l i e s behind appearance. Like the ammonite, the case--book on psychology that Dr. Grogan gives him becomes a mirror. Struck by the coincidence that a French Lieutenant was sentenc--ed on the day of his b i r t h and that Charles now r i s k s an i n --volvement with a g i r l , who i n turn, has been abandoned by a French Lieutenant (not the same one), Charles i s overwhelmed with awe: For a moment, i n that s i l e n t Dorset night, reason and science dissolved; l i f e was a dark machine, a s i n i s t e r a s t r o l o g y a v e r d i c t at b i r t h and without appeal, a.zero over a l l . (FLW, 235) "(emphasis mine) 102 Victimized by what he believes i s the mechanical movement of inevitable forces at work, Charles begins to turn f o r escape to the l i b e r a t i n g world of i l l u s i o n that Sarah o f f e r s . Although he i s forewarned of a possible deception of Sarah's part, by Dr. Grogan, Charles, l i k e Nicholas of The Magus, believes only what he wishes to believe. In a scene s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to one i n The Magus, Dr. Grogan marks a passage f o r Charles' attention i n a casebook of psychology that he claims provides an explanation of Sarah's behaviour. (FLW,228) (see also M,215) But Charles ultimately r e j e c t s the c l i n i c a l description as an inadequate portrayal of the Sarah he knows, and he chooses to allow himself to experience the dream. In the s i m i l a r s i t u --ation, Nicholas explains h i s r e j e c t i o n of Conchis' warning as a desire f o r hazards "you can't warn off a man with gambling i s h i s ancestry." (M .220) S i g n i f i c a n t l y p a r a l l e l to his counterpart i n The Magus, Charles shares t h i s background; his father l o s t most of the family fortune at the baccarat tables. (FLW,13) With Winsyatt gone as a future hope of release from the predicament of the present, Charles becomes the unwilling h e i r to another seat of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - that of Mr. Freeman's expan-ding business. During h i s London v i s i t , Charles approaches the 103 store, and finds i t a l i v i n g embodiment of the dark machinery-he f e e l s operating through existences i t i s "a great engine, a behemoth that stood waiting to suck i n and grind a l l that came near i t " . (FLW,193) Freeman's store i s a powerful force that threatens Charles with ignominious extinction. He r e s i s t s i t through the i n s t i n c t to preserve his i d e n t i t y . "His whole past, the best of his past s e l f , seemed the price he was asked to pay." (FLW,295) To give himself t o t a l l y to the inevitable movement of the age and surrender his Own desires, means to Charles a form of death. He turns to Sarah f i n a l l y because she offers an escape from the inev i t a b l e course upon which he f e e l s impelled. Although, on the conscious l e v e l , he believes his actions to be an asser-t i o n of h i s own freedom i n the face of fate - an attempt to escape "the prison of his future" (FLW,362) - he goes to Sarah f o r the escape she off e r s from the r e a l world of time and change. When he discovers that she has been deceiving, him from the beg-i n n i n g , he loses his l a s t refuge from r e a l i t y . When Sarah re-v e a l s her deception, she denies Charles the ful f i l m e n t of the dream that he has projected upon her. Abruptly aware that he has only been confronted with a world of appearances, Charles, l i k e Miranda and Nicholas, demands to understand the motive 104 behind.the f a b r i c a t i o n . In declaring that she "cannot explain i t " , Sarah leaves her chosen victim with an unsolved puzzle that evokes the f a m i l i a r question •- "Why?" The residue of his f a i t h i n the age's "painted screens" i s evident i n Charles, f o r i n h i s moment of confusion and doubt -heightened by h i s f a i l u r e to understand why Sarah has l i e d and led him to apparent r u i n - he goes to a church to f i n d comfort. But there he r e a l i z e s that he w i l l receive no answer to the vast puzzle that l i f e has become f o r him; "He knew, i n the dark church, that the wires were down. No communication was possible." (FLW, 360) Forced to search out the meaning himself, he comes to a r e v e l a t i o n of the truth that Nicholas grasped i n Regent's Park at the end of The Magus. The sense of g u i l t that Charles f e e l s f o r what he has done, l i k e the need to assert a unique i d e n t i t y , i s based upon the b e l i e f that he i s being watched and judged by something beyond himself. He imagines "a dense congregation of others...behind him" i n the church; but when he looks there i s nothing but " S i l e n t , empty pews". Abruptly, Charles penetrates the appearance of l i f e and r e a l i z e s the true 'God' that i s be-h i n d the masks "They do not know, they cannot judge." (FLW,364) This i s the " g i f t " that Sarah brings him, the g i f t of truth i n Fowles' scheme. (FLW,36l) "The f a l s e version of her betrayal by 105 Vargueness, her other devices, were but stratagems to unbllnd him." (FLW.368) When Charles leaves the church, he does so with an awareness of the absolute freedom possible to man -his actions can be judged by himself alone, there are no omni-scient observers watching him. "He was shriven of established r e l i g i o n f o r the res t of h i s l i f e . " (FLW.367) When he returns to Lyme Regis to inform Ernestina of his decision not to marry her, he i s a new Charles shriven also of his old s e l f : He caught sight of himself i n the mirror; and the man i n the mirror, Charles i n another world, seemed the true s e l f . The one i n the room was what she said, an imposter; had always-been...an observed other. (FLW,382) With his new awareness, Charles must consciously confront the e x i s t e n t i a l truth of freedom - the knowledge of being absolut-e l y alone. This becomes a r e a l i t y that he must physically experience when he i s unable to f i n d Sarah again. In his mom--ent of ill u m i n a t i o n "he had not re a l i z e d how much the freedom was embodied i n Sarah; i n the assumption of a shared, e x i l e . " (FLW,427) By refusing to reappear and rescue Charles from h i s e x i l e and loneliness, Sarah, herself, l i v e s out her chosen r o l e -that of the absent 'God' who does not intervene. Leaving him 106 In his i s o l a t i o n she forces him to l i v e with the truth of the r e a l world. When circumstance brings them together again, she maintains her chosen r o l e as 'God', and her indifference toward him. In a momentary insight, Charles emphasizes the role she portrays when he recognizes that "To her he might be no more than a grain of sand among countless m i l l i o n s , a mere d u l l weed i n t h i s exotic garden of..." (FLW,456) Fowles does not supply the missing word, and the reader i s l e f t to imply what he wishes. Is It an "exotic garden of" l i f e or f i c t i o n ? In the f i n a l chapter of the novel, Fowles considers the ultimate meaning of Sarah, as the rejected Charles makes h i s way out of the f i c t i o n a l world of the novel: He (Charles) walks towards an imminent, self-given death? I think not; for he has at l a s t found an atom of f a i t h i n himself, a true uniqueness, on which to b u i l d ; has already begun, though he would s t i l l b i t t e r l y deny i t , though there are tears i n his eyes to support his denial, to r e a l i z e that l i f e , however advan-t a g e o u s l y Sarah may i n some ways seem to f i t the r o l e of Sphinx, i s not a symbol, i s not one r i d d l e and one f a i l u r e to guess i t , i s not to inhabit one face alone Or to be given up a f t e r one l o s i n g throw of the dice; but i s to be, however inadequately, emptily, hopelessly into the c i t y ' s i r o n heart, endured.- And out again, upon the unplumb'd, s a l t , estranging sea. (FLW.467) Thus the truth of the f i c t i o n that Sarah embodies flows into that of l i f e and the two become one. As Fowles returns his reader to l i f e , he reminds him of the greater r e a l i t y that 107 l i e s behind the "game" of the n o v e l i s t . His closing echoes Mrs, de Sietas* message to Nicholas: "there are no gods. I t i s not a game." (M.,575) In the f i n a l analysis there i s no answer to the r i d d l e Sarah poses: l i f e i s not a conundrum that can ever be solved by guesses and investigations. I t i s , f o r Fowles, a mystery that must forever be "endured". Like another exponent of the "godgame", Fowles cannot usher his creation o f f the stage without reminding his reader that the mystery of the dream i t -s e l f i s that of l i f e : Our revels now are ended. These our actors, As I fore t o l d you, were a l l s p i r i t s and Are. melted into a i r , into thin a i r ; And, l i k e the ^baseless f a b r i c of t h i s vision,. The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe i t s e l f , Yea, a l l which i t i n h e r i t , s h a l l dissolve, And, l i k e t h i s i n s u b s t a n t i a l pageant faded, Leave not a rack behind. We are such st u f f As dreams are made on, and our l i t t l e l i f e Is rounded with a sleep.12 108 NOTES TO CHAPTER IV * Walter A l l e n , "The Achievement of John Fowles," Encounter, v o l . xxv, no.2 (August, 1970), p.67. 2 John Fowles, "On Writing a Novel," The C o r n h l l l . Summer 1969, p.281. 3 T.S. E l i o t , Four Quartets (London: Faber and Faber, 1959), P. 1 3 . ^ Ibid.. p.58. ^ In his memorandum that appears i n Fowles' "On Writing a Novel", he makes clear h i s own conscious intention of revealing the author's mask to the reader. "A novel Is something new. I t must have relevance to the writer's now - so don't pretend you l i v e i n 1867; or make sure the reader knows i t s a pretence." See "On Writing A Novel," pp.283-284. ^ A l l e n , p.67. The c r i t i c c i t e s E l i o t ' s Adam 3ede. To-this I might add Thackeray's The Newcomes or Lovel the Widower. ? Fowles, The-Aristos, p.22. 8 Ibid., p .217i 9 Ibid., p.153. The "permanent truth" for Fowles i s the touch-s t o n e of "serious" a r t . " A l l serious s c i e n t i s t s and a r t i s t s want the same: a truth that no one w i l l need to change." The truth that Fowles wishes to communicate l i e s , of course, i n the everpresent mystery posed by the absent 'God'. 10 Matthew Arnold, "Stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse," 1 1 . 8 6 - 8 7 . 1 1 Thomas Hardy, "Hap," 1 . 1 3 . 1 2 William Shakespeare, The Tempest. IV, 11.148-158, \ 1 109 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY. WORKS Fowl e s , John. The A r l s t o s s A S e l f - P o r t r a i t i n I d e a s . T o r o n t o ; L i t t l e Brown and Company, 1 9 6 4 . . The A r i s t o s . r e v . ed. T o r o n t o : S i g n e t , 1 9 7 0 . _. The C o l l e c t o r . London: Pan Books L t d . , I 9 6 5 . The F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t ' s Woman. T o r o n t o : L i t t l e Brown and Company, 19^9. _ _ _ _ _ _ The Magus. New York: D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Company I n c . , 1 9 6 9 . . "On W r i t i n g a N o v e l . " The C o r n h i l l . Summer 1 9 6 9 , pp.281 - 2 9 5 . SECONDARY WORKS A l b e r e s , R.M. J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e : P h i l o s o p h e r W i t h o u t F a i t h . New York: The P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1961. A l l e n , W a l t e r . "The Achievement o f John F o w l e s . " E n c o u n t e r . August 1970, pp. 64 - 6 7 . B o o t h , Wayne C. The R h e t o r i c o f F i c t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicage P r e s s , I 9 6 8 . Brown,. Norman 0. L i f e A g a i n s t Death: The P s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l  Meaning o f H i s t o r y . New Yo r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1959. Camus, A l b e r t . The Myth o f S i s y p h u s and Other E s s a y s . New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1955* H a r d i s o n J r . , O.B. Modern C o n t i n e n t a l L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m . New York : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 6 2 . 110 Modern B r i t i s h F i c t i o n . Ed. Mark S c h o r e r . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 l . R u b i n J r . \ L o u i s D. The T e l l e r i n t h e T a l e . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . S a l van, Jacques.. To Be And Not To Be: An A n a l y s i s o f J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e ' s O n t o l o g y . D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , . 1 9 6 2 . ' Schorer-, Mark. "Technique as D i s c o v e r y . " Forms of Modern F i c t i o n . Ed. W i l l i a m Van 0'Conner. B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 . U n d e r h i l l - , • Evelyn. M y s t i c i s m : A 1 Study, i n the. Nature and Development o f Man's S p i r i t u a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s . London: Methuen and Company L t d . , i 9 6 0 . W a i t e , A r t h u r Edward. The P i c t o r i a l Key t o t h e T a r o t . New York: U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1966., Young, G.M. V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d : P o r t r a i t Of An Age. New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. • V i c t o r i a n E s s a y s . London: Ox f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 196*27 

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