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University housing : an assessment of current policies and practices at the University of British Columbia Innes, David Murray 1969

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UNIVERSITY HOUSING: AN ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT POLICIES AND PRACTICES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by DAVID MURRAY INNES B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, 1966 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date "We found few examples o f r e s i d e n c e s w h i c h c o u l d be s a i d t o be t r u l y p a r t o f a c o n t i n u i t y o f u n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g s and space s , i n w h i c h l i v i n g and l e a r n i n g were i n t e g r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole u n i v e r s i t y . I n s m a l l town u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h i s i d e a l was more o f t e n approached, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e o l d e r b u i l d i n g s , b u t i n t h e c i t y u n i v e r s i t i e s s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s appeared t o be e r e c t e d w h erever space p e r m i t t e d , w i t h l i t t l e a t t e m pt t o make a c o n s c i o u s p a t t e r n , e x c e p t perhaps t o s e p a r a t e men from women." From t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a s u r v e y o f contemporary u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e f a c i l i t i e s i n Canada: John B l a n d and N o r b e r t Schoenauer: U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i n g i n Canada. M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. i i i A b s t r a c t The p r e s s u r e s o r u r b a n i z a t i o n a r e f e l t t h r o u g h o u t a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y N o r t h American s o c -i e t y . The gap c r e a t e d by t h e unprecedented r a t e o f change accompanying t h i s p r o c e s s between e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and de-mands has e x e r t e d a p r o f o u n d impact i n many f a c e t s o r u r b a n -i z e d s o c i e t y , c e r t a i n l y i n t h e a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g i s one p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f e d u c a t i o n w h i c h has e x p e r -i e n c e d t h e demanding p r e s s u r e s o f u r b a n i z e d change, l a r g e l y due t o t h e expanded r o l e o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i n contemporary s o c i e t y , and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t i n c r e a s e s i n e n r o l l m e n t t h i s has f o s t e r e d . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g i n t h e N o r t h American c o n t e x t , and t o r e l a t e t h e s e t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia as a case s t u d y . From t h i s p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n , s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s and recommendations i n r e l a t i o n t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t U.B.C. w i l l be made. The t h e s i s h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p o l -i c y a t t h e case s t u d y l e v e l i s l i m i t e d by economic and qu a n t -i t a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f accommodation on a s c a l e l a r g e l y d i s r e g a r d i n g b o t h t h e d i v e r s i t y o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s and the l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t y community as a whole, c o i n c i d i n g c l o s e l y w i t h h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s a t u n i v e r s i t i e s i v e l s e w h e r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n t i n e n t . U n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g t r e n d s and developments i n t h e N o r t h American c o n t e x t a r e examined t h r o u g h a r e v i e w o f c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n terms o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , c u r r e n t r e -a c t i o n s t o t h e p r e s s u r e s o f growth and u r b a n i z a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e c i t y . S t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t t h e case s t u d y l e v e l i s examined i n terms o f c u r r e n t u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p o l i c y , h o u s i n g demand, and e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s and l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . The b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e t h e s i s recommend g r e a t e r u n i v e r s i t y i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e a l i s t i c and comprehensive h o u s i n g p o l i c y a t U.B.C, r e f l e c t i n g s t u d e n t de-mand as w e l l as t h e b r o a d e r development g o a l s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f , and s u g g e s t a method o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a comprehensive development a u t h o r i t y . V T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page A b s t r a c t • • • i i i Tel),)--,© O f COntGntS o o o * e a o e o o o * o o o o « o * > 4 » o o a o - - o o « o o o e a - > o a o o » V L i s t o f T a b l e s . v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s . x Acknowledgement x i CHAPTER 1 — U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i n g . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1. Methodology. 3 2 . H y p o t h e s i s 3 Ho u s i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t -- A D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e Problems and I t s Scope 5 I t s v a r i o u s A s p e c t s 1. The I n i d i v i d u a l 5 2. P r i o r i t i e s . . . . . . 5 3. Changing U n i v e r s i t y A t t i t u d e s toward S t u d e n t H o u s i n g . . . . . . 6 4. S t u d e n t Growth 6 5. The Changing R o l e o f E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . 7 6. The U n i v e r s i t y and t h e C i t y . . . . 8 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e : S t u d e n t Housing i n Canada and t h e U.S. 11 1. Canada. . 11 2. The U.S.. . 13 S t u d e n t Growth 16 F i n a n c e 18 Recent Developments i n S t u d e n t H o u s i n g . . 21 1. D e s i g n Concepts 21 2. H o u s i n g C o o p e r a t i v e s 23 3. C l u s t e r D e s i g n i n Canadian Campuses... 24 4. The House System. 26 5. Government A c t i v i t y i n S t u d e n t H o u s i n g . 27 The U r b a n - U n i v e r s i t y R e l a t i o n s h i p and U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i n g 29 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s — H o u s i n g P o l i c y and E d u c a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h y 32 v i Page CHAPTER 2 — The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A Case Study i n S t u d e n t H o u s i n g . 35 The U n i v e r s i t y . 36 E x i s t i n g S t u d e n t H o u s i n g a t U.B.C...... 41 1. Accommodation on Campus 41 2. H i s t o r y o f S t u d e n t H o u s i n g a t U.B.C 43 3. P l a n n e d E x p a n s i o n . 45 4. Off-Campus S t u d e n t H o u s i n g 46 U.B.C. H o u s i n g P o l i c y . . . . . . 51 1. Pees. • • 53 2 „ F i n a n c e 54 3. Off-Campus H o u s i n g . . . . . 55 A n a l y s i s : H o u s i n g D e t e r m i n a n t s and L o c a t i o n a l F a c t o r s 56 1. M a r i t a l S t a t u s , S t u d e n t Income and Rent 56 2. S t u d e n t H o u s i n g C h o i c e s by Accommod-a t i o n Type and Rent 60 3. L o c a t i o n a l C r i t e r i a . 63 4. Ho u s i n g D e t e r m i n a n t s and U n i v e r s i t y R e s i d e n c e . . 70 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 80 CHAPTER 3 — H o u s i n g P o l i c y a t U.B.C. — Recommendations and P r o p o s a l s 83 U n i v e r s i t y Sponsored S t u d e n t H o u s i n g 84 Hou s i n g and t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t 90 B i b l i o g r a p h y 95 v i i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e Page 1 Gross R e g i s t r a t i o n a t U.B.C. 1964-69... 39 2 I n c r e a s e i n Perc e n t a g e o f M a r r i e d S t u d e n t s i n t o t a l S t u d e n t P o p u l a t i o n a t U.B.C, 1967-68 3 Change i n p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n a t U.B.C, 1967-68 and 1968-69... 40 4 U.B.C. Residences...'. 42 S i n g l e S t u d e n t occupancy by r e s i d e n c e and t y p e , November, 1968. F a m i l y Accommodation by r e s i d e n c e and t y p e , November, 1968. 5 Pe r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C, l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation, by t y p e 48 6 P e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation, by p o s t a l zone. 49 7 T o t a l income f o r t h e academic y e a r 1967-68 (Sept. 1 - A p r i l 3 0 ) , i n c l u d i n g s c h o l a r s h i p s and b u r s a r -i e s b u t e x c l u d i n g l o a n s and s u p p o r t from r e l a -t i v e s , f o r s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C 57 8 Co s t p e r month o f p r e s e n t accommodation f o r s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C, l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation, by p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e 59 9 Type o f accommodation most s u i t a b l e t o s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C, by p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e 61 10 Reasonable and maximum r e n t s p e r month f o r most s u i t a b l e accommodation, f o r s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C, by p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e 62 v i i i T a b l e Page 11A P e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. w i l l i n g t o move i n t o t h e t y p e o f accom-modation t h e y have i n d i c a t e d as most s u i t a b l e , i f i t were c o n s t r u c t e d on o r near t h e campus and r e n t e d a t t h e maximum r a t e t h e y i n d i c a t e d 11B P e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e and und e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. w i l l i n g t o move i n t o t h e t y p e o f accommodation t h e y have i n d i c a t e d as most s u i t a b l e , i f i t were c o n s t r u c t e d on o r near t h e campus and r e n t e d a t t h e maximum r a t e t h e y have i n d i c a t e d t h e y w o u l d pay........... 64 12A D e t e r m i n a n t s o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , b y degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s -ponse, f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. ............ 65 12B D e t e r m i n a n t s o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , by degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s -ponse, f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. ............. 66 12C D e t e r m i n a n t s o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , by degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s -ponse, f o r a l l s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation.......................... 67 12D D e t e r m i n a n t s o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , by degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s -ponse, f o r a l l s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y _ G S l Cl.6nC6 - i t TJ » B o 0 a e a i * a a o o « e i o a o o o o a » e o o « o e e e o o e a * 68 13A F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g n o n - r e t u r n o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s t o r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C, by degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 13B F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g n o n - r e t u r n o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s t o r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C, by degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 14 S t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C who woul d n o t c o n s i d e r l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e a g a i n , P e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C., who f e e l t h a t r e s i d e n c e l i f e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , by degree cLfXGl S 6 X o e e e o o e e e e « o « « a e o » a o « o a o e o e o « 0 o e * o o a o a « o a o P e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C. who f e e l t h a t r e s i d e n c e l i f e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e academic e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d by t h e s t u d e n t , b y degree and sex. F a c t o r s i m p o r t a n t t o s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C. i n c h o i c e o f r e s i d e n c e , by im p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e U.B.C. r e s i d e n c e s , by p r e f e r e n c e and p e r c e n t -age r e s p o n s e , f o r a l l s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e , on t h e b a s i s o f c h o i c e 03T 6 3T 1 cL o o 0 a o 0 O 0 0 0 a « o o o o 0 0 * o a o o 0 « e 0 O 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 O O O O 0 0 X L i s t o f F i g u r e s F o l l o w i n g F i g u r e Page 1 The U n i v e r s i t y Campus (U.B.C.)........ 36 2 Vancouver P o s t a l Zones........................... 50 x i Acknowledgement The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. V. S e t t y Pendakur o f t h e U.B.C. S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r t h e p e r c e p t i v e and v a l u a b l e comments he c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . As w e l l , t h e a u t h o r w i s h e s t o acknowledge h i s t h a n k s t o James S l a t e r and Don Munton o f t h e Alma Mater S o c i e t y o f U.B.C., w i t h o u t whose c o o p e r a t i o n t h i s work would have been i n c o m p l e t e ; and t o Mr. Les ROhringer and Dr. M a l c o l m McGregor o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia f o r t h e i r comments on s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y . 1. CHAPTER I U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i n g I n t r o d u c t i o n U r b a n i z e d change i s t h e c h i l d and t h e dilemma o f t h e T w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Everywhere i t s e f f e c t s a r e f e l t ; t h e y permeate t h r o u g h o u t a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f our s o c i e t y , b r i n g -i n g man f a c e t o f a c e w i t h h i s f e l l o w man — t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y , c u l t u r a l l y , and p h y s i c a l l y -- i n a manner so f a s t and unpreced-e n t e d t h a t we, l i v i n g i n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s change and s e e k i n g r e a s o n e d e x p l a n a t i o n s o f i t s p r o c e s s e s , a r e a t t i m e s r e n d e r e d i n c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r i t . E d u c a t i o n t o o , a t a l l l e v e l s — b u t p e r h a p s most a c u t e l y a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l — has f e l t t h e p r e s s u r e s o f urban change. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c e n t u r y a grade s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d a l l t h e c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s t u f f i n g a man needed t o f i n d h i s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . Today t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r s u c c e s s has s o a r e d t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f an u n d e r g r a d u a t e c o l l e g e degree, and even, i n many c a s e s , a g r a d u a t e degree. T h i s t r e n d , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l r e wards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , and t h e g r o w i n g f i n a n c i a l independence o f young p e o p l e has r e s u l t e d i n an u n p r e c e d e n t e d e x p a n s i o n o f t h e base o f u n i v e r s i t y a t t e n d a n c e . The r a p i d pace o f such change c a n n o t b u t have a d v e r s e e f f e c t s i n terms o f t h e gap i t c r e a t e s between a s s e t s and demands. The c o n f l i c t between u n i v e r s i t y r e s o u r c e s — b o t h p h y s i c a l and academic — and t h e demands o f s o c i e t y f o r q u a l i t a -t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i n c r e a s e d o u t p u t i s , f o r t h e most p a r t , 2. one common t o u n i v e r s i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a . There are p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s and unique c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u t t h e b a s i c dilemma r e m a i n s — t h a t o f r e l a t i n g d w i n d l i n g u n i v e r s i t y r e s o u r c e s t o i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s , and s e c o n d a r i l y o f r e c o n c i l -i n g t h e consequences o f t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n on t h e l a r g e r urban frame o f r e f e r e n c e t o w h i c h t h e u n i v e r s i t y r e l a t e s . One a s p e c t o f t h i s r e s o u r c e s gap p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r r a b l e t o t h e p r e s s u r e s o f numbers and growth i s u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g and t h e p r o b l e m o f r e l a t i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y , s t u d e n t , and s t u d e n t h o u s i n g t o one another i n a r e a s o n a b l y i n t e g r a t e d f a s h i o n , a l l o w i n g each t o maximize i t s aims and r e q u i r e m e n t s under c o n d i t i o n s o f e x p a n s i o n y e t r e m a i n f u n c t i o n a l l y c o g n i z -ant o f t h e l a r g e r whole — t h e u n i v e r s i t y , and t h e urban complex i t s e l f . The p r o b l e m o f where t h e s t u d e n t w i l l l i v e , what c h o i c e s are o f f e r e d him, and how t h e s e r e l a t e t o t h e u n i v e r -s i t y e x p e r i e n c e , i . e . t h a t o f l e a r n i n g , b o t h s o c i a l l y and a c a d e m i c a l l y ; how do h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s r e l a t e t o e x i s t i n g communications and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks? what i s t h e i r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c i t y — as an addendum o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y community o r p a r t o f the w i d e r urban complex — what i s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n terms o f p o l i c y p l a n n i n g and f o r m u l a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g and t h e urban p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f ? These are t h e t y p e s o f i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g I hope t o i n v e s t i g a t e i n t h i s t h e s i s . 3 1, Methodology Through a r e v i e w o f c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y e x p a n s i o n and h o u s i n g , t h i s s t u d y w i l l examine s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i n i t s N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t e x t i n terms o f such q u e s t i o n s as t h e h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s i n s t u d e n t h o u s i n g ; t h e e f f e c t s o f r a p i d s t u d e n t growth on N o r t h A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s and f a c i l i t i e s ; the r e a c t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t i e s and s t u d e n t s t o t h e p r e s s u r e s o f growth and u r b a n i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a r e a o f h o u s i n g ; t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g ; and t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e c i t y i n a p e r i o d o f r a p i d e x p a n s i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h i s s t u d y w i l l r e v i e w h o u s i n g p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( U . B . C ) , as a case s t u d y , i n o r d e r t o determine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h o u s i n g i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y p r o c e s s as a whole and t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n terms o f b o t h t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n a t t h e c a s e s t u d y level„ A good d e a l o f d a t a r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g c r i t e r i a and l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s a t U.B.C i s a v a i l a b l e . 2. H y p o t h e s i s S t u d e n t h o u s i n g , a t t h e case s t u d y l e v e l , i n terms o f b o t h p o l i c y and e x i s t i n g s u p p l y , r e f l e c t s t h e hous-i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f o n l y a s m a l l segment o f t h e u n i v e r -s i t y p o p u l a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p o l i c y a t U.B.C. t e n d s t o be based more on economic and q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l , q u a l i t a t i v e and s o c i a l v a l u e s , f a i l i n g i n any comprehensive manner t o r e l a t e t h e s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t h o u s i n g t o t h e l a r g e r u n i v e r s i t y experience,, T h i s c o i n c i d e s c l o s e l y t o t h e p o s t u r e o f u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s a t t h e n a t i o n a l and N o r t h American s c a l e s . 5 0 H o u s i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t - A D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e Problem and I t s Scope S t u d e n t h o u s i n g , as a g r o w i n g a r e a o f u n i v e r s i t y con-c e r n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , can be seen, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t u n i v e r -s i t i e s l o c a t e d i n l a r g e urban a r e a s , as p r i m a r i l y an a t t r i b u t e o f i n c r e a s e d e n r o l l m e n t . A c c e l e r a t e d growth r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one a s p e c t o f t h e p r o b l e m however, and i t s a t t i m e s overwhelm-i n g d i m e n s i o n s must n o t be a l l o w e d t o o b s c u r e t h e f u n c t i o n o f o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o r e a l i s t i c a l l y a s s e s s t h e s i t u a t i o n . I t s V a r i o u s A s p e c t s 1 . The I n d i v i d u a l F i r s t t h e p r o b l e m o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t h o u s i n g must be seen from t h e v i e w o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l who l o o k s upon t h e campus and t h e r e s i d e n c e as a home and a way o f l i f e , i d e a l l y p r o v i d i n g an academic and s o c i a l environment w i t h w h i c h t o i n t e r a c t and i d e n t i f y , y e t p r e s e r v i n g a degree o f i n d i v i d u a l freedom, p r i v a c y , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f i n i t i a t i v e . 2. P r i o r i t i e s S t u d e n t h o u s i n g , i n terms o f u n i v e r s i t y p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g programs, i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a l o n e nor i s i t o f t e n g i v e n t o p p r i o r i t y . For b o t h funds and space i t must compete w i t h t h e c o n t i n u a l l y p r e s s i n g demands o f growth on t h e i n s t i -t u t i o n f o r g r e a t e r c l a s s r o o m space, more f a c u l t y o f f i c e s and room f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e xpansion? w i t h r e q u e s t s f o r s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , o f t e n i n v o l v i n g e x p e n s i v e equipment f o s t e r e d by th e new t e c h n i q u e s ; l i b r a r y e x p a n s i o n , and t h e e x p a n d i n g 6. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication n e t w o r k s ; w i t h s c h o l a r s h i p and b u r s a r y f u n d s , s t e p p e d up f a c u l t y r e c r u i t i n g programs, and an i n c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l o p e r a t i n g budget — i n s h o r t , w i t h t h e e n t i r e range o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h which t h e u n i v e r s i t y i s a s s o c -i a t e d and w h i c h make demands f o r s u p p o r t upon i t . C l e a r l y , h o u s i n g , i n such a c o n t e n t i o n and i n t h e absence o f a compre-h e n s i v e l y p l a n n e d program o f e x p e n d i t u r e s , must be r e l e g a t e d t o a p o s i t i o n near t h e bottom o f t h e l i s t . 3o Changing U n i v e r s i t y A t t i t u d e s Toward S t u d e n t Housing Here one c a n i d e n t i f y a v e r y d e f i n i t e swing i n p o l i c y — p a r t i c u l a r l y a t urban o r i e n t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h have t r a d i t i o n -a l l y eschewed t h e c o l l e g e - r e s i d e n c e system — from one o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e t o a f o o d , warmth and s h e l t e r approach t o t o t a l commitment. 1 T h i s l a t t e r c o n c e p t , w h i c h r e l a t e s t o and r e f l e c t s c h a n g i n g moods i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n and e d u c a t o r s , v i e w s t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e r e s i d e n c e as i n e x t r i c -a b l y l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e same p r o c e s s — t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e o p t i m a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g and l i v i n g i n a p o s i t i v e and m e a n i n g f u l way. 4. S t u d e n t Growth The p r e s s u r e o f g r e a t e r numbers c e r t a i n l y has had a s i n g u l a r i m p a ct on t h e p o l i c i e s o f modern u n i v e r s i t i e s r e g a r d -i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g . W i t h more and more s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t o d a y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s , a t b o t h t h e 1 R i c h a r d P. Dober, Campus P l a n n i n g (U.S.A.? R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1963), p. 119. 7 u n d e r g r a d u a t e and g r a d u a t e l e v e l , h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s , b o t h i n q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e t erms, have emerged as a major a r e a o f p o l i c y c o n c e r n . "With i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s a l a r g e r d i v e r s i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s appear — i n r e c e n t y e a r s most p r o m i n e n t l y t h e m a r r i e d s t u d e n t — r e q u i r i n g a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y d i v e r s e m i x t u r e o f h o u s i n g t y p e . The p r o b l e m i s n o t s i m p l y one o f p r o v i d i n g a maximum number o f h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r a m a x i -mum number o f s t u d e n t s , but i n v o l v e s g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t i e s , n e c e s s i t a t i n g some means o f g a u g i n g t h e needs o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and e s t i m a t i n g t h e range and t y p e o f h o u s i n g u n i t s needed t o meet i t s demands. Graduate and u n d e r g r a d u a t e , s i n g l e and m a r r i e d , f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , male and female — a l l have v a r i e d h o u s i n g needs and r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . I d e a l l y , s t y l e o f l i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s must be superimposed over t h e e n t i r e range o f t h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n as w e l l , t o i n t r o d u c e an element o f c h o i c e and p r o v i d e f o r t h e c h a n g i n g needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h problems o f u n i v e r s i t y growth are p r o -blems o f s c a l e . I n terms o f r e s i d e n c e d e s i g n , l a y o u t , and campus o r i e n t a t i o n how w i l l t h e d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e — p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , s t r u c t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o l o s s u s , t h e e n n u i o f p h y s i c a l r e p e t i t i o n — be a v o i d e d ? 5. The Changing R o l e o f E d u c a t i o n The p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e s c l o s e l y t o e d u c a t i o n ' s c h a n g i n g r o l e i n modern i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y . The a c t u a l base o f u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n has widened from t h e t u t e l a g e o f a w e l l p l a c e d few a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y — m o t i v a t e d 8 a t o t h e p u r s u i t o f an academic c a r e e r by t h e s u b t l e t i e s o f t h e i r s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n — t o t h e e d i f i c a t i o n o f a p o s i -t i v e a n d 1 c o n t i n u a l l y e x p a n d i n g base o f s o c i e t y , t h e new c l a s s o f managers, t e c h n o l o g i s t s , and s p e c i a l i s t s , , C o n c u r r e n t l y t h e scope o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m has expanded t o i n c l u d e almost e v e r y f i e l d o f human e n q u i r y , whether i t i s o f academic o r p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n , from a r c h a e o l o g y t o a n i m a l husbandry t o t h e s t u d y o f c u r r e n t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , , 6„ The U n i v e r s i t y and t h e C i t y F i n a l l y we must c o n s i d e r t h e s t a t u s o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g and u n i v e r s i t y e x p a n s i o n i n i t s b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e , i n terms o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e c i t y . I n t e r a c t i o n between t h e e x p a n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y and t h e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g urban frame o f r e f e r e n c e t o w h i c h i t r e l a t e s c o n t a i n s , w i t h i n i t s e l f , an e n t i r e range o f r e a l and p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s and t e n s i o n s , b u t a l s o t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r m u t u a l s u p p o r t and r e i n f o r c e m e n t o Much o f t h e c o n f l i c t stems from t h e demands o f b o t h f o r l a n d and i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t i e s ? most u n i v e r s i t i e s are l i m i t e d i n b u i l d a b l e a rea w h i l e growth e x e r t s c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e f o r e x p a n s i o n : t h e c i t y t o o e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s e p r e s s u r e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y n e i t h e r can be s a t i s f i e d — f r u s t r a t i o n and com-pr o m i s e r e s u l t . One s p e c i f i c a r e a o f c o n f l i c t a r i s e s from u n i v e r s i t y encroachment upon a d j a c e n t urban a r e a s , another from t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y a d j a c e n t neighbourhoods, t h r o u g h such d e v i c e s as i l l e g a l flats„, e x c e s s p a r k i n g , and t h e c o n f l i c t o f suburban neighbourhood v a l u e s w i t h t h e v a g a r i e s o f a s e m i - t r a n s i e n t s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . 9. The u n i v e r s i t y , as a m o d e r a t e l y heavy t r a f f i c g e n e r a t o r i n t h e t y p i c a l urban complex, can w i t h o u t p o s i t i v e p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n , e x e r t an u n d e s i r e d impact on t h e l a r g e r urban t r a f f i c p a t t e r n . Problems o f m u n i c i p a l t a x a t i o n c r e a t e f r u s t r a t i o n between t h e c i t y and t h e u n i v e r s i t y because many i n s t i t u t i o n s a re t a x f r e e o r t a x e d d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y low i n terms o f a d j a c e n t l a n d u s e s . F i n a l l y t h e " i v o r y tower syn-drome" o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y from t h e c i t y and i t s more p e d e s t r i a n problems and v a l u e s has c o n t r i -2 b u t e d a degree o f antagonism t o r e l a t i o n s between t h e two. Y e t t h e p i c t u r e i s n o t e n t i r e l y b l e a k ; t h r o u g h p o s i -t i v e p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n u n i v e r s i t y and c i t y c a n b r i n g about c o n s t r u c t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o mutual p r o b l e m s , and i n t h e p r o c e s s c r e a t e a s e n t i m e n t o f i n t e r c h a n g e and c o o p e r a t i o n . Commenting on t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s p o s i t i o n i n u r b a n i z e d s o c i e t y , J . M a r t i n K l o t s c h e notes? " . . . i t s h o u l d now become a c e n t r a l t a s k t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c i t y , t o a n a l y z e i t s p r o b l e m s , t o r e s e a r c h and comment about them, t o commit u n i v e r s i t y r e s o u r c e s and e n l i s t t h o s e o f t h e community so t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f urban 3 l i f e can be improved." Thus by p a i r i n g urban needs w i t h u n i v e r s i t y r e s o u r c e s , c i t i e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h r o u g h a s y m b i o t i c p r o c e s s o f 2 F r a n P. Hosken, "The Urban U n i v e r s i t y and t h e Urban En v i r o n m e n t " A r c h i t e c t u r e Canada, V o l . 43, No. 10, p.48-50. 3 J . M a r t i n K l o t s c h e , The Urban U n i v e r s i t y (New Yorks H a r p e r and Row, 1966), p. 29. i n t e r a c t i o n and exchange, can — and are b e g i n n i n g t o — r e a l i z e a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y and p o s i t i v e good between t h e m s e l v e s . Unprecedented i n c r e a s e s i n s t u d e n t growth appear t o be t h e p r i m e impetus o f change i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d , y e t t h e s i t u a t i o n cannot be a d e q u a t e l y e v a l u a t e d c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s o r any o f i t s a s p e c t s i n i s o l a t i o n s t h e whole i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e sum o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s and any e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t f a c t o r s must be approached w i t h t h i s c o n s t a n t l y i n mind. The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d e l i n e a t e d above are a l l components o f t h e same p r o b l e m — t h a t o f r a t i o n a l l y s o r t i n g o u t and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e human environment i n such a manner as t o c r e a t e maximum o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c c o r d and reduce c o n f l i c t t o a minimum. H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e i S t u d e n t Housing i n Canada and t h e U.So 1. Canada U n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e d r e s i d e n c e s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h th e o l d e r , s m a l l town u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada, 4 and p a t t e r n e d on t h e O x f o r d Cambridge model. A c a d i a U n i v e r -s i t y i s a t y p i c a l example o f t h i s t y p e o f c o l l e g e r e s i d e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p . S p e c i f i c f a c t o r s combined t o b r i n g about t h i s h o u s i n g form, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e l i m i t e d s i z e o f t h e i n s t i t u -t i o n s , t h e o r i g i n a l r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s o f most s m a l l c o l l e g e s and t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l systems o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e — w h i c h l e d t o t h e emergence o f a l e a r n i n g l i v i n g c o ntinuum under c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y body, and t h e i n a b i l i t y o f l o c a l p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s t o p r o v i d e adequate h o u s i n g i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y a r e a . The a r c h i t e c t u r e o f most s m a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e o l d e r b u i l d i n g s , r e f l e c t s t h e s e p a t e r n a l i s t i c and d i s c i p l i n a r y a t t i t u d e s . U n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e c i t i e s , u n t i l i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r W o r l d War I I and t h e g r e a t i n f l u x o f v e t e r a n s i n t o t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , f e l t l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g w h a t s o e v e r . T o t a l e n r o l l m e n t s were low; most s t u d e n t s l i v e d i n t h e c i t y w i t h p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s ; t h o s e few from o u t o f town had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g p l a c e s w i t h p r i v a t e homes o r b o a r d -5 . i n g houses. F o l l o w i n g World War I I t h e sudden i n c r e a s e i n 4 John B l a n d and N o b e r t Schoenauer, U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i n g i n  Canada ( M o n t r e a l t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p. 5 . 5 I b i d . , p. 5 . e n r o l l m e n t c r e a t e d a s h o r t a g e i n t h e p r i v a t e market. U n i v e r -s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were f o r c e d t o t a k e t e m p o r a r y measures; m i l i t a r y b a r r a c k s — t h e now f a m i l i a r campus " h u t s " — were c o n v e r t e d t o c l a s s r o o m s and t emporary r e s i d e n c e s . T h i s s o l u -t i o n was adequate f o r a few y e a r s , u n t i l s t u d e n t i n c r e a s e s once a g a i n began t o c r e a t e s e r i o u s h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s . Urban s i t u a t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s s l o w l y began t o a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g accommodation f o r a t l e a s t a minimum p e r c e n t a g e o f e n r o l l m e n t , f a v o r i n g p r i n c i p a l l y t h e t h r e e or f o u r s t o r y s t a i r w e l l i n r e s i d e n c e d e s i g n , i n w h i c h a s m a l l group o f rooms was c l u s t e r e d about t h e s t a i r w e l l o f each f l o o r . The most r e c e n t approach t o urban s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i n Canada i s t h e h i - r i s e s t r u c t u r e , i n w h i c h t h e h o r i z o n t a l c o r r i d o r has r e p l a c e d t h e v e r t i c a l s t a i r w e l l and e l e v a t o r s t h e s t a i r s t h e m s e l v e s . A g a i n , i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s , c o u p l e d w i t h s i t e s c a r c i t y , i n c r e a s e d l a n d v a l u e s , and t h e economies o f s c a l e have f o r c e d t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e on u n i v e r s i t i e s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h e x p a n d i n g e n r o l l m e n t s on one s i d e and i n c r e a s -i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n on t h e o t h e r . John B l a n d and N o b e r t Schoenauer, i n t h e i r CMHC spon-s o r e d s t u d y o f u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g i n Canada, found t h a t a l t h o u g h examples o f r e c e n t u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n d i c a t e a d e f i n -i t e t r e n d t o w a r d s i n g l e s t u d y bedrooms, i n c l u s i o n o f men and women i n t h e same b u i l d i n g , c o u r t y a r d e x p e r i m e n t s i n low r i s e 6 I b i d . , p. 6 0 b u i l d i n g s , and a r e l a t i v e preponderance o f t h e h i - r i s e tower, y e t an i n t e g r a t e d approach i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g f o r the f u l l r ange o f s t u d e n t l i v i n g and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e most p a r t remains absent,, "Most u n i v e r s i t i e s ' p o l i c y o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i s g u i d e d by t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g econom-i c s h e l t e r f o r a s p e c i f i c number o f s t u d e n t s and i s l i m i t e d by a program dominated by p h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " 7 The s u r v e y " r e v e a l e d t h e absence o f a b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g most Q s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s , " and c o n c l u d e d w i t h a p l e a f o r a b a l a n c e d and comprehensive approach t o t h e d e s i g n and l a y o u t o f f u t u r e r e s i d e n c e s . 2. The U.S. S i m i l a r t r e n d s appear i n t h e h i s t o r y o f u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g i n t h e U.S. The s m a l l c o l l e g e u n i v e r s i t i e s o f the p r e C i v i l War e r a t y p i c a l l y p r o v i d e d d o r m i t o r y l i v i n g f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s , a d e r i v a t i o n a g a i n from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h r e s -i d e n t i a l c o l l e g e s , O x f o r d and Cambridge ( Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e A m e r i c a n p r o t o t y p e ) . As t h e growth o f i n s t i t u -t i o n s began t o s p r e a d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g t h e C i v i l War, fu n d s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new h o u s i n g became s c a r c e ; hous-i n g d i d n o t keep pace w i t h o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . P r i v a t e b o a r d -i n g houses f l o u r i s h e d i n u n i v e r s i t y neighbourhoods, t a k i n g up some o f t h e e x c e s s ; w h i l e campus f r a t e r n i t i e s and s o r o r i t i e s b r o k e from a p u r e l y s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l emphasis t o 1 I b i d . , p. 115. 8 I b i d . , p. 115. 14. i n c l u d e a q u a s i - h o s t e l r y a pproach, p r o v i d i n g s l e e p i n g and e a t -Q i n g accommodation f o r p a r t o f t h e i r memberships. New t r e n d s began t o emerge i n s t u d e n t h o u s i n g on t h e E a s t C o a s t f o l l o w i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l boom and m i g r a t i o n s h i f t s o f t h e p o s t c i v i l war e r a . P r i v a t e e n t e r p r e n e u r s p r o v i d e d l u x u r i o u s s u r r o u n d i n g s f o r t h e l a r g e numbers o f w e a l t h y s t u d -e n t s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s ; t h e Gold C o a s t o f H a r v a r d b o r d e r i n g t h e C h a r l e s R i v e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e most exe m p l a r y o f t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l t y p e . "While i n v o l v i n g e x c e s s e s o f l u x u r y and m a t e r i a l e x t r a v a g a n c e t h i s h o u s i n g p a t t e r n con-t a i n e d w i t h i n i t s e l f t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e g r a t e d f u n c t i o n s ; t h e H a r v a r d Houses i n c o r p o r a t e d a t o t a l approach t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l l e a r n i n g , a i m i n g a t as complete i n t e g r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t , u n i v e r -s i t y and r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s as p o s s i b l e , m a r k i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t move away from t h e s t r i c t l y s h e l t e r a p p r o a c h . 1 0 A t H a r v a r d a s e r i e s o f p l u s h r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s was c r e a t e d , d e r i v e d from t h e E n g l i s h O x bridge t r a d i t i o n , w h i c h t r a n s m i t t e d t h i s c o n c e p t i n t o a contemporary h o u s i n g p a t t e r n , i n t e g r a t i n g l i v i n g accommodation and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; Y a l e and P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t i e s soon adopted a s i m i l a r a p proach. T h i s i n t e g r a t e d c o n c e p t , w h i l e o f t e n i n v o l v -i n g u n n e c e s s a r y expense, s e t a p r e c e d e n t w h i c h s l o w l y began t o f i l t e r down t o i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , and o n l y now, i n terms o f new r e s i d e n c e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n , a r e i t s e f f e c t s b e i n g p o s i t i v e l y f e l t . 9 R i c h a r d P. Dober, op. c i t . , p. 121. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 128. F o l l o w i n g World War I I , U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d a huge i n f l u x o f v e t e r a n s i n t o t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s e x i s t -i n g f a c i l i t i e s were inadequate? more h o u s i n g was c a l l e d f o r . T i t l e IV o f The F e d e r a l H o u s i n g A c t o f 1950 p r o v i d e d low i n t e r -e s t l o n g t e rm mortgages f o r campus h o u s i n g and r e l a t e d f a c i l -i t i e s ; by 1955 70% o f U„S. i n s t i t u t i o n s had t a k e n advantage o f t h i s f e d e r a l program,,1'1" Large volumes o f h o u s i n g were con-s t r u c t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , many o f them temporary f a c i l i t i e s , as i n Canada,, Recent t r e n d s i n t h e U. S„ i n terms o f new t e c h n i q u e s and d e s i g n c o n c e p t s — t h e h i - r i s e r e s i d e n c e , t h e s i n g l e room e t c . , -- p a r a l l e l t h o s e i n Canada, b u t a g a i n , an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o u n i v e r s i t y and r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s i s , i n t h e main, e v i d e n t o n l y i n f r a c t i o n a l and i n c o m p l e t e form. I n s h o r t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l N o r t h A m e rican a t t i t u d e t o u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g has f i r s t been one o f c o n t r o l , stemming from th e s m a l l c o l l e g e and i t s r e l i g i o u s and d i s c i p l i n a r y t r a d i t i o n s , and s e c o n d a r i l y , and o n l y now becoming i n f l u e n t i a l , d i v e r s i t y — t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e r e s i d e n c e h a l l as an academic and i n t e l l e c t u a l as w e l l as a s o c i a l and d i s c i p l i n a r y o r g a n i z a -t i o n , i m p l y i n g i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l program. H I b i d . , p. 128. S t u d e n t Growth The problem o f c r e a t i n g adequate s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i s n o t o n l y c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e s i n t h e a c t u a l numbers o f s t u d e n t s , b u t by a more v a r i e d and d i v e r s e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l . , I n 1957 t h e r e were 82,000 f u l l t i me s t u d -e n t s i n Canada, 200,000 i n 1963, and 400,000 p r e d i c t e d f o r 1972; t h e s e f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y 5%, 10%, and 1 5 % o f t h e 18 t o 24 age group. There has been a 20 t o 30% i n c r e a s e i n t h e female p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t body i n t h e l a s t 15 y e a r s , as w e l l as r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e numbers o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s 12 and o l d e r s t u d e n t s . I n A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s t h e r e were 4,118,000 degree s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n 1964; t h i s was e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t o 7,000,000 by 1970 and 8,500,000 by 1975. The U.S. government e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 1964 and 1972 $19 b i l l i o n i n e d u c a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s must be made i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s . To accommodate a d d i t i o n a l growth t o 1975 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new f a c i l i t i e s e q u a l t o t w i c e the 1 -3 amount o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s would be n e c e s s a r y . J S i n c e 1951, the s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e U.S. has d o u b l e d (1963); accompanying t h i s i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e 18 t o 21 age group (24% i n 1951, 37% i n 1961). S i g n i f i c a n t l y more women and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a r e e n r o l l e d i n U.S. c o l l e g e s , 12 P.E.H. Brady, "Student H o u s i n g i n P e r s p e c t i v e " , O n t a r i o  H o u s i n g , V o l . 13, No. 1., p. 14-16. 13 B r i c k s and M o r t a r b o a r d s (New York: E d u c a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s L a b o r a t o r i e s , I n c . , 1964), p. 7. * a t l a r g e r U.S. c o l l e g e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% o f t h e e n r o l l -ment i s m a r r i e d ( R i c h a r d P. Dober, o p . c i t . , p e 9 ) . and t h e i r p e r c e n t a g e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g , a f f e c t i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y n o t o n l y i n terms o f i t s h o u s i n g s u p p l y and a s s o c i a t e d f a c i l i -t i e s , b u t i n t r o d u c i n g changes i n c o u r s e c u r r i c u l u m and c l a s s 14 make up,. A r e c e n t n a t i o n a l s u r v e y o f h o u s i n g p r a c t i c e s a t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e U„S„ found t h a t 72% o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s s u r v e y e d p r o v i d e d u n i v e r s i t y owned h o u s i n g ; p r i v a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s p r o v i d e d on t h e average 28% more h o u s i n g f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h a n p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ( 6 5 % v e r s u s 3 7 % ) . T w e n t y - e i g h t p e r -c e n t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s s u r v e y e d p l a n n e d t o i n c r e a s e h o u s i n g i n 1968-69, by an average o f 257 beds ( n a t i o n a l n e t : 151,000 b e d s * ) ; 28% o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e d m a r r i e d h o u s i n g f a c i l -i t i e s , an i n c r e a s e o f 7% from t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , due, i t i s f e l t , t o a younger m a r r y i n g age and t h e i n c r e a s e d number o f ex-1 c s e r v i c e m e n w i t h f a m i l i e s a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y . S m a l l e n r o l l -ments (1,000 t o 2,499) were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r p e r c a p i t a h o u s i n g , w h i l e average h o u s i n g f e e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h s i z e o f 1 6 i n s t i t u t i o n . Assuming u n i v e r s i t i e s w i l l p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r a t l e a s t t h e s e p r e s e n t e n r o l l m e n t p e r c e n t a g e s , i t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t average e x p e n d i t u r e s o f $200 m i l l i o n p e r annum must be 1 7 made over t h e n e x t 10 y e a r s t o m a i n t a i n t h i s l e v e l . 14 R i c h a r d P. Dober, o p . c i t . , p. 9. 15 Dennis W. B i n n i n g , " C o l l e g e O p e r a t i n g P r a c t i c e s A n a l y s i s " C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y B u s i n e s s , V o l . 43, No. 3, p. 66-73. 1 6 I b i d . , V o l . 45, No. 3, p. 52-59. 17 H a r o l d C. R i k e r , P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n a l C o l l e g e H o u s i n g (New Y o r k : Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T eachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1956), p. 2. * T h i s i s a d e c r e a s e from t h e 172,000 beds p r o j e c t e d t h e y e a r b e f o r e . 18. F i n a n c e The f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s a t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada and t h e U.S. were dependent upon p r i v a t e d o n a t i o n s and g i f t s as t h e i r prime s o u r c e o f f u n d s , a t r a d i t i o n c o n t i n u e d more o r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y u n t i l t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e s i n s t u d e n t growth o f t h e l a s t two decades n e c e s s i t a t e d some form o f pub-l i c subsidy,, A l m o s t a l l u n i v e r s i t y a s s o c i a t e d h o u s i n g i s 18 sponsored by t h e f e d e r a l government i n Canada today? i n t h e U.S. 90% o f a l l s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i s f e d e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d , w h i l e 10% r e l i e s on d o n a t i o n o r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f p r i v a t e c a p i t a l . 1 P a r t V I A o f The N a t i o n a l Housing A c t o f Canada p r o -v i d e s 90% mortgages a t 5-3/8% f o r terms up t o 50 y e a r s t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and Hous i n g C o r p o r a t i o n f o r t h e c o n s t r u c -t i o n and maintenance o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s , w i t h a c e i l i n g o f $7,000 p e r u n i t . As an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t o f f e d e r a l commitment i n t h i s a r e a , a r e c e n t CMHC* a d v e r t i s e m e n t d e c l a r e d t h a t 50,691 s t u d e n t s l i v e i n p u b l i c a l l y f i n a n c e d r e s i d e n c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . W i t h most mortgage f i n a n c e d r e s i d e n c e s t h e c a r r y i n g c h a r g e s (about $350 p e r annum on a $7,000 h o u s i n g u n i t w i t h a 90% mortgage) a r e p a s s e d on t o t h e s t u d e n t p u s h i n g t h e average a n n u a l r e s i d e n c e f e e i n Canada over $ 7 0 0 . 2 0 18 Howard Adelman, "Housing The U n i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t " O n t a r i o H o u s i n g , V o l * 11, No„ 5, p. 4-7,.. 19 B r i c k s and M o t a r b o a r d s , o p . c i t . , p. 125. 20 Howard Adelman, o p . c i t . - p, 4-7. * I n 1968 C.M.H.C. awarded $100,000 t o t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s f o r t h e s t u d y o f s t u d e n t hous-i n g i n Canada. S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s e x i s t i n the U.S. under th e terms o f T i t l e IV o f The N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t t o s u p p l y f e d e r a l l o a n s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and s u p p o r t o f u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e , . . 21 b u i l d i n g s . The use o f p r i v a t e c a p i t a l i s v i e w e d by some U.S. u n i v e r s i t i e s as a means o f a v o i d i n g use o f c a p i t a l f u n d s w h i l e a t t h e same time s e c u r i n g adequate h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Under such an arrangement, s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i s b u i l t o f f campus by p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s who o b t a i n t h e i r funds m a i n l y from i n s u r a n c e companies and p e n s i o n f u n d s . F a c i l i t i e s t h a t have been b u i l t under t h i s t y p e o f scheme a r e i n t e n d e d t o a t t r a c t t h e more a f f l u e n t s t u d e n t , and c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t l u x u r i e s t o accomp-l i s h t h i s ; r e n t s are c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h e r t h a n on campus r a t e s (by a t l e a s t 2 5 % ) , b u t i n v e s t o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s r e a s o n t h a t t h i s w i l l l e a v e more c o l l e g e and lower r e n t a l hous-i n g a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t w i t h fewer f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . A l e a s e o p t i o n u s u a l l y accompanies the arrangement, under th e terms o f w h i c h th e u n i v e r s i t y l e a s e s t h e b u i l d i n g from th e d e v e l o p e r , a v o i d i n g use o f c a p i t a l f u n d s o r t h e making o f a down payment; t h e u n i v e r s i t y t a k e s t i t l e o f the b u i l d i n g a f t e r 12 t o 25 y e a r s , a t which t i m e i t becomes an income p r o d u c i n g 22 a s s e t . Sxx p r i v a t e l y f i n a n c e d d o r m i t o r y b u i l d i n g s have been b u i l t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n i n t h e p e r i o d 1920 t o 1960, w h i l e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f 21 R i c h a r d P„ Dober, o p . c i t . , p. 128. 22 " I n v e s t o r s Move i n t o Dorms", B u s i n e s s Week, November 6, 1965, p. 47-50. 20. Houston, s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i m e n t s were made w i t h low c o s t p r i v a t e 23 e n t e r p r i s e b u i l d i n g s ; 7.5% o f A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e s r e s p o n d i n g t o a s u r v e y o f h o u s i n g p r a c t i c e s r e p o r t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r i v a t e l y d e v e l o p e d h o u s i n g on campus; 5 2 u n i v e r s i t i e s r e v e a l e d t h e y had p l a n s t o u t i l i z e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f 24 h o u s i n g i n t h e near f u t u r e . I n many c a s e s t h e same u n i v e r s i t y d e t e r m i n e d r e g u l a -t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e a p p l y t o t h e s e b u i l d i n g s as t o on campus h o u s i n g , however t h e s t u d e n t ' s d o r m i t o r y e x p e r i e n c e i s f o r the most p a r t i s o l a t e d from t h e u n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i e n c e . I n v e s t o r s c o n s i d e r t h i s a r i c h new 25 market w i t h h i g h p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l . 23 B r i c k s and M o t a r b o a r d s , o p . c i t . , p. 123, 128. 24 Dennis W. B i n n i n g , o p . c i t . , ( V o l . 45, No. 3 ) , p. 52. 25 " I n v e s t o r s Move I n t o Dorms", o p . c i t . , p. 47-50. 21. Recent Developments i n S t u d e n t H o u s i n g 1« D e s i g n Concepts D e s i g n p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n how e f f e c t i v e t h e r e s i d -ence i s b o t h as a p l a c e t o l i v e and a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e academ-i c community t o w h i c h i t r e l a t e s . New d e s i g n t e c h n i q u e s — most p r o m i n e n t l y v a r i a t i o n s on t h e h i g h r i s e tower — a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r a i s e s t a n d a r d s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n i n i n c r e a s i n g l y u r b a n i z i n g campus c i r c u m s t a n c e s . C i r c u l a r r e s i d e n c e t o w e r s were b u i l t under c o n d i t i o n s o f s i t e s c a r c i t y and h i g h d e n s i t y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , a c h i e v i n g m a x i m i z a t i o n o f s i t e space y e t r e t a i n i n g 26 t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f space and an open v i e w . Maximum use o f i n t e r i o r space r e s u l t e d i n p l a c i n g t h e rooms around t h e p e r i -meter o f a c e n t r a l s e r v i c e c o r e . The house system was r e t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e b u i l d i n g s , each house b e i n g a l l o c a t e d t h r e e f l o o r s , t h e m i d d l e one s e r v i n g as an a c t i v i t y and r e c r e a t i o n area? t o p r e s e r v e s o c i a l and s p a t i a l u n i t y , t h e e l e v a t o r s s t o p o n l y a t t h i s l e v e l i n each house. I n t h i s p r o j e c t and o t h e r s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o ) f u l l s c a l e s t u d e n t o c c u p i e d mock ups were used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a -27 t i o n s under a c t u a l use. 26 J.C. L a n g s t a f f , " C i r c u l a r R e s i d e n c e Towers R e t a i n S t u d e n t House P l a n " C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y B u s i n e s s , V o l . 38, No. 1, p. 42-45. 27 C h e s t e r N. W i n t e r , " F u l l S c a l e Model G i v e s Room a T r i a l Run" C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y B u s i n e s s , V o l . 37, No. 6, p. 47-49. A t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n a new t h r e e u n i t r e s i -d e n t i a l complex i n c o r p o r a t e s c l a s s r o o m , l i b r a r y , and r e c r e a -t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s ; i n s t r u c t o r s and a d v i s o r s have o f f i c e s i n t h e c o - e d u c a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s . The s i t u a t i o n a p p e a r s t o have c r e a t e d a g r e a t e r degree o f s t u d e n t t o s t u d e n t and s t u d e n t t o f a c u l t y i n t e r a c t i o n , i n f o r m a l i z i n g b o t h academic and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ; 95% o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t recommended i t f o r f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t s , and f e l t 28 i t has r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d use o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . A s i m i l a r example o f academic l e a r n i n g and l i v i n g i n an i n t e g r a t e d s t r u c t u r e i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d i n t h e New A r t s C o l l e g e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a i n W i n n i p e g . Here s t u d e n t s w i l l l i v e and s t u d y i n an i n f o r m a l atmosphere r e -i n f o r c e d by t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e and l a y o u t o f t h e b u i l d i n g ; p r o -v i s i o n s have a l s o been made t o house f a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t -29 r a t x v e o f f i c e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e . D e s i g n has been i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e l a y o u t o f rooms as w e l l ; t h e s i n g l e s t u d y bedroom has become t h e new s t a n d a r d i n C anadian u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s , 3 0 I n c r e a s e d space, more i n d i v i d u a l and u n i q u e l y d e s i g n e d f u r n i t u r e , c a r p e t i n g and lounge f a c i l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e new approach t o d o r m i t o r y l i v i n g on campus. 28 L e r o y A. O l s o n , "Students L i v e and L e a r n i n R e s i d e n c e U n i t s " C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y B u s i n e s s , V o l . 38, No. 3, p. 73-75. 29 John B l a n d and N o b e r t Schoenauer, o p . c i t . , p. 119. 30 "Luxury L i v i n g on Campus" Canadian U n i v e r s i t y , V o l . 2, No. 4, p. 28-33. 2. H o u s i n g C o o p e r a t i v e s One way o f a v o i d i n g h i g h r e n t s y e t m a i n t a i n i n g a u n i v e r -s i t y o r i e n t e d atmosphere t o g e t h e r w i t h a degree o f s t u d e n t auto-nomy i s t h e c o o p e r a t i v e r e s i d e n c e . The s t u d e n t owned and oper-a t e d Campus C o o p e r a t i v e R e s i d e n c e , I n c . , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o p r o v i d e s r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r 450 s t u d e n t s i n 31 c o n v e r t e d houses around the campus a t 75% o f t h e r e g u l a r 31 u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e f e e . The W a t e r l o o C o o p e r a t i v e R e s i d e n c e i s a n o t h e r example where low c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s have been t a k e n advantage o f . A h i g h r i s e tower was c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e C o o p e r a t i v e : c a p i t a l r e d u c t i o n s were made t h r o u g h s k i m p i n g on l u x u r i e s and r e d u c t i o n o f f l o o r space — measures w h i c h were p r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s — w h i l e s a v i n g s i n o p e r a t i n g c o s t s were a c h i e v e d by a l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s t o c o n t r i b u t e one t o f o u r h o u r s a week t o maintenance work, and assume management r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g . Not o n l y were economic s a v i n g s r e a l i z e d , r e s u l t i n g i n l o w e r p e r s t u d e n t r a t e s , but a sense o f 32 community and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was c r e a t e d . A n o t h e r t y p e o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s u l t e d i n lower h o u s i n g c o s t s and b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan i n Saskatoon. Because o f i n a d e q u a t e t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n s t u d e n t s were f o r c e d t o a c c e p t c o s t l y p oor q u a l i t y 31 Howard Adelman, o p . c i t . , p. 7. 32 I b i d . , p. 7. 24. h o u s i n g near t h e campus u n t i l a s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n d e c i d e d t o c h a r t e r c i t y buses and s e t up i t s own r o u t e s , b r i n g i n g t h e 33 cheaper and b e t t e r q u a l i t y h o u s i n g w i t h i n campus rang e . S t u d e n t H o u s i n g C o o p e r a t i v e s e x i s t a t b o t h Saskatoon and Regina Campuses o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan; t h e c o o p e r a t i v e i n R e g i n a o p e r a t e s 7 c o n v e r t e d houses, accommodating 84 s t u d e n t s , w h i l e t h e Saskatoon c o o p e r a t i v e r e c e n t l y p u r c h a s e d an a p a r t -ment b u i l d i n g p r o v i d i n g accommodation f o r 56 s t u d e n t s a t r a t e s 34 20% l o w e r t h a n t h o s e c h a r g e d f o r on campus h o u s i n g . S i m i l a r t o b o t h t h e T o r o n t o and W a t e r l o o c o o p e r a t i v e s i s t h e s t u d e n t c o o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l y , w h i c h o p e r a t e s 8 h a l l s h o u s i n g 4% o f the u n i v e r s i t y ' s u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . Fees are c o m p a r a t i v e l y l e s s t h a n t h o s e o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . The a s s o c i a t i o n r e c e n t l y con-s t r u c t e d a new c o - e d u c a t i o n a l r e s i d e n c e b u i l d i n g i n c o r p o r a t -i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; i t f o r m e r l y used r e n o v a t e d houses as i t s h a l l s . 3 5 3. C l u s t e r D e s i g n i n Canadian Campuses A r e c e n t t r e n d toward a c l u s t e r t y p e o f development i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c o l l e g e has been o b s e r v e d i n 36 some o f t h e newer u n i v e r s i t i e s a c r o s s Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y 33 " S t u d e n t s Make Success o f Coop Bus S e r v i c e " Canadian  U n i v e r s i t y , V o l . 2, No. 6, p. 74. 34 Joan Thomas, "The Housing C r i s i s on our Campuses" The  Green and White., W i n t e r 1968, p. 2-3, 7, 12. 35 "Coop B u i l d s Co-ed D o r m i t o r y " , P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e , V o l . 48, No. 9, p. 142. 36 H a r r i e t Law, "The C l u s t e r Campus and I t s C o s t " Canadian  U n i v e r s i t y , V o l . 1, No. 5, p. 20-23, 31. a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan a t R e g i n a , U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y , York U n i v e r -s i t y , and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Guelph. T h i s c l u s t e r arrangement i s encouraged, f o r one r e a s o n , by t h e growing number o f o u t o f town s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l urban a r e a s w h i c h a r e n o t c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g t h e accommodation t h e s e numbers demand. R e i n f o r c i n g t h i s f a c t i s t h e i n c r e a s i n g number of g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , the m a j o r i t y o f whom a r e from o u t s i d e th e u n i v e r s i t y a r e a (the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f Graduate S c h o o l s has recommended t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation be p r o -v i d e d f o r 7 5 % o f t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s n o t r e s i d e n t i n t h e urban a r e a w i t h w h i c h t h e u n i v e r s i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d ) . These e n r o l l m e n t p r e s s u r e s a r e c o u p l e d w i t h a d e s i r e t o a v o i d o ver c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , t o keep t h e l e a r n i n g and l i v i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h e r and t o a v o i d an i m p r e s s i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m and th e a l i e n a t i o n t h i s c a n f o s t e r . The program a t York c a l l s f o r 12 c o l l e g e s w i t h 1,000 s t u d e n t s each, 25% o f whom w i l l be p r o v i d e d on campus h o u s i n g . A t t h e R e g i n a Campus o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, each c o l l e g e i s d e s i g n e d t o accommodate 800 s t u d e n t s , each p r o v i d -i n g r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r 200 students,made up o f a th o r o u g h c r o s s s e c t i o n o f age and f a c u l t y g roups. Each c o l l e g e b u i l d i n g w i l l have i t s own l o u n g e , r e c r e a t i o n and f o o d f a c i l i t i e s ; t w e n t y t o t w e n t y - f i v e f a c u l t y o f f i c e s w i l l be l o c a t e d i n each. A t Guelph, 80% on campus s t u d e n t accommodation i s b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d because i t i s f e l t t h e c i t y would be unable t o s u p p o r t even 5 0% o f t h e s t u d e n t body i n terms o f 26. o f f campus h o u s i n g . S i x main h o u s i n g a r e a s a r e t o be d e v e l o p -ed, f o u r u n d e r g r a d u a t e , one g r a d u a t e and one m a r r i e d ; each u n d e r g r a d u a t e c e n t r e i s t o c o n s i s t o f 10 h a l l s o f 225 s t u d e n t s each, w h i l e t h e c o - e d u c a t i o n a l g r a d u a t e c e n t r e w i l l accommodate 800 s t u d e n t s ; t h e m a r r i e d c e n t r e w i l l c o n t a i n 1500 u n i t s . T o t a l on campus p o p u l a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o r e a c h 12,000 by 1980. 4. The House System The house system o f r e s i d e n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s used e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a and has been f a v o r e d i n many new r e s i d e n c e p r o j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t l a r g e r u n i v e r -37 s i t i e s . I t p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t wxth a s o c i a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t i s p h y s i c a l l y r e i n f o r c e d ; i t s scope depends on t h e degree o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i t s e l f , b u t most u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would agree t h a t t h e system a s s u r e s t h e s t u d e n t a b a s i c s o c i a l i d e n t i t y — i . e . i d e n t i t y a t a b a s i c l e v e l i n v o l v i n g p e r s o n a l f a c e t o f a c e c o n t a c t and r e l a t i v e l y i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s w i t h a s m a l l number o f i n d i v i d u a l s — y e t r e l a t e s him t o t h e l a r g e r whole, th e u n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f . I n c o m b i n i n g s m a l l u n i t s , each p a r t o f a whole, w i t h s i m i l a r u n i t s and l a r g e r w h o l e s , th e house system a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e a degree o f i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a c y w i t h i n r e a d a b l e s o c i a l terms o f r e f e r e n c e . 37 John B l a n d and N o b e r t Schoenauer, o p . c i t . , p. 10. 5. Government A c t i v i t y i n Student H o u s i n g Government has been a c t i v e l y c o n c e r n e d i n some p a r t s o f Canada i n a r e a s o f u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g o t h e r t h a n s t r i c t l y f i n a n c i a l matters,, The O n t a r i o government e s t a b l i s h e d t h e O n t a r i o S t u d e n t H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i n August o f 1966 t o p r o -v i d e h o u s i n g f o r s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t O n t a r i o u n i v e r -s i t i e s ; i t s s t a f f i s p r o v i d e d by t h e O n t a r i o Housing C o r p o r a -op t i o n . Working t h r o u g h CMHC m o r t g a g i n g th e C o r p o r a t i o n l e a s e s on campus s i t e s f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t h o u s i n g over w h i c h t h e u n i v e r s i t y r e t a i n s m a n a g e r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y , w h i l e making p e r i o d i c payments o f p r i n c i p a l and i n t e r e s t on t h e c a p i t a l debt t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , , The C o r p o r a -t i o n a d m i n i s t e r s o f f campus h o u s i n g f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s , f o r w h i c h t h e u n i v e r s i t y e n t e r s a 50 y e a r r e n t a l agreement w i t h t h e C o r p o r a t i o n ; t h e u n i v e r s i t y r e t a i n s s e l e c t i o n and p r i o r i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o v e r t h e s e u n i t s . S i n c e 1966 t h e Student H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n has e n t e r e d n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h most o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l y a s s i s t e d u n i v e r -s i t i e s i n O n t a r i o ; among i t s p r o j e c t s a r e t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Guelph (accommodating 1600 s t u d e n t s ) , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o (over 700 m a r r i e d a p a r t m e n t s ) , York (175 s t u d e n t s ) , Lakehead U n i v e r s i t y (480). and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o (1603 students)„ T h i r t y - t h r e e hundred more u n i t s a r e i n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e . 38 P„E.H 0 Brady, o p . c i t . , p» 14-16. 28. Amendments t o the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t i n November 1966 p e r m i t t e d t h e O n t a r i o Student H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n t o s e c u r e mortgage l o a n s from CMHC f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t accommodation a t p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o t h e r t h a n u n i v e r s i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e Student H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n / t h e O n t a r i o Department o f U n i v e r s i t y A f f a i r s has co n d u c t e d a s u r v e y o f e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t y accommodation i n t h e p r o v i n c e , and made p r o j e c t i o n s o f f u t u r e demands. A p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a c t i v e i n many f a c e t s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n t h e U.S. i s E d u c a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s L a b o r a t o r i e s I n c . , a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by 39 t h e F o r d f o u n d a t i o n . I t has e s t i m a t e d as an average c o s t f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a s o n a b l y good q u a l i t y c o l l e g e hous-i n g i n t h e U.S. $5,000 p e r u n i t . 39 I b i d . , p. 16 29 The U r b a n - U n i v e r s i t y R e l a t i o n s h i p and U n i v e r s i t y Housing The c i t y and t h e u n i v e r s i t y s hare a common e n v i r o n -ment b u t o f t e n h o l d o p p o s i n g v i e w s i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s and redevelopment p o t e n t i a l . The u n i v e r s i t y as a c e n t r e o f i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e c i t y , e x e r c i s e s a p r o f o u n d impact on s u r r o u n d i n g n e i ghbourhoods, i n terms o f t r a f f i c g e n e r a t i o n , p a r k i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , demand f o r o f f campus s t u d e n t and f a c u l t y h o u s i n g , f r a t e r n i t y and s o r o r i t y houses, apartments and rooming houses, s h o p p i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s — f a c t o r s w h i c h o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s t a t u s quo p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s e n t i m e n t s 40 o f t h e t y p i c a l s i n g l e f a m i l y n eighbourhood. The f r i c t i o n between u n i v e r s i t y and c i t y r i s i n g o u t o f c o n f l i c t i n g development g o a l s and e x p a n s i o n i s t p o l i c i e s h a s , i n some c a s e s i n t h e U.S., been r e d u c e d by s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e u r b a n - u n i v e r s i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h such u n i v e r s i t y i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s as urban r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s 41 and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f j o i n t r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s and s t u d i e s . S e c t i o n 112 o f t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t g i v e s u n i v e r s i t i e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o use F e d e r a l urban r e n e w a l funds f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r a n c e o f nearby b l i g h t e d a r e a s ( t h i s d o esn't a p p l y t o new c o n s t r u c t i o n however), i f t h e y a r e r e d e v e l o p e d i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h c i t y r e n e w a l p l a n s . Over 40 A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y Z o n i n g D i s t r i c t s , I n f o r m a t i o n R e p o r t No. 178, Oct o b e r , 1963 (ASPO, C h i c a g o ) . 41 D a v i d B. C a r l s o n , "Town and Gown" A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, March 1963, p. 92-95. 30 90 u n i v e r s i t i e s have t a k e n advantage o f t h i s scheme s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i n g an a d d i t i o n a l $260 m i l l i o n t o urban 42 r e n e w a l s p e n d i n g . The I l l i n o i s I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, t h r o u g h i t s e x p a n s i o n i s t program, has s t i m u l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l improvement i n i t s once b l i g h t e d e n v i r o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n new h o u s i n g , s t o r e s , s c h o o l s , r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s and a h o s p i t a l , as w e l l as s t a f f and 43 s t u d e n t h o u s i n g . E l s e w h e r e i n C h i c a g o , t h e S o u t h e a s t C h i c a g o Commission o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h t h e Hyde Park-Kenwood Community C o n f e r e n c e , a g r a s s r o o t s neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n , has encouraged t h e l o c a t i o n o f f a c u l t y , s t a f f and s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i n the n e i g h -b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s as one means o f i m p r o v i n g e n v i r o n -m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s . I n a d o p t i n g an a t t i t u d e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h e Commission has e x p e r i e n c e d v a r y i n g degrees o f s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e i n i t s a t t e m p t s t o i n t r o d u c e s t a b i l i t y i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s ; d e t e r i o r a t i o n has been stemmed i n some zones b u t much r e s i d e n t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s e x p a n s i o n i s t p o l i c i e s has been aroused i n o t h e r s . The West P h i l a d e l p h i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n , co-s p o n s o r e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a and o t h e r P h i l a -d e l p h i a i n s t i t u t i o n s , aims a t i n c o r p o r a t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n t o i t s redevelopment program 42 K.C. P a r s o n s , " U n i v e r s i t i e s and C i t i e s : The Terms o f t h e T r u c e Between Them" J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 24, No. 4, p. 205-216. 43 I b i d . , p. 205-216. and, w o r k i n g t h r o u g h c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n groups, b i n d i n g t h e academic i n s t i t u t i o n s and a d j a c e n t neighbourhoods i n t o a more 44 c l o s e l y k n i t community. T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y a t P e t e r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o , w h i l e accommodating t w o - t h i r d s o f i t s s t u d e n t body i n r e s i d e n t i a l c o l l e g e s , p l a n s a v i l l a g e as a l i n k between t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e community, p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o b o t h i n t h e form o f a 45 t h e a t r e , a r t g a l l e r y , and r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s . C l e a r l y , t h e r e a r e advantages t o b o t h c i t y and u n i v e r -s i t y i n c o o r d i n a t i n g p o l i c i e s t o b r i n g about g r e a t e r e n v i r o n -m e n t a l c o m p a t a b i l i t y . Such programs c a n stem d e t e r i o r a t i o n , a l l o w t h e c r e a t i o n t o some degree o f a r e s i d e n t community o f f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s w i t h adequate e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f ; more c i t y r e s i d e n t s have a c c e s s t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y , w h i l e e c o n o m i c a l l y a l a r g e r e d u c t i o n i n r e n e w a l c a s h r e q u i r e m e n t s (under t h e U.S. Housing A c t ) i s r e a l i z e d t o t h e c i t y , f r e e i n g t h e s e r e s o u r c e s f o r improvements e l s e w h e r e . U n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g , i f c o n s i d e r e d as a f u n c t i o n a l component i n such development programs, can f i l l an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n b r i n g i n g about t h e s e ends, as w e l l as r e a l i z e s u b s t a n t i a l g a i n s i n terms o f i t s own g o a l s . 44 D a v i d B. C a r l s o n , op. c i t . , p. 92-95. 45 R.J. Thorn, " T r e n t U n i v e r s i t y P e t e r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o " A r c h i t e c t u r e Canada, V o l . 43, No. 10, p. 44-47. 32. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s — H o u s i n g P o l i c y and E d u c a t i o n a l P h i l o s o p h y I n s u r v e y i n g developments i n t h e a r e a o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g b o t h h i s t o r i c a l l y and i n terms o f r e c e n t t r e n d s , i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e has emerged no s i n g l e approach w h i c h a r t i c u l a t e s t h e c h a n g i n g p r e s s u r e s and demands o f hous-i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t , nor any d e f i n i t e and p o s i t i v e commitment on a s c a l e l a r g e r t h a n t h e i s o l a t e d o r e x p e r i m e n t a l case w h i c h l i n k s t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e s i d e n c e l i v i n g w i t h t h o s e o f t h e academic e x p e r i e n c e . F i n a n c i a l l y t h e u n i v e r s i t y hous-i n g boom o f t h e l a s t two decades i n b o t h Canada and t h e U.S. a ppears t o be l i n k e d more c l o s e l y t o t h e f i n a n c i a l commitments o f t h e f e d e r a l governments t h a n t o an i n t e n s i f i e d u n i v e r s i t y commitment t o e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s , b e a r i n g l i t t l e r e l a t i o n i n any comprehensive o r d e f i n i t i v e form t o e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . The gap between demand and r e s o u r c e s has g e n e r a l l y been r e c o g n i z e d , b u t l i t t l e i n terms o f c o n c r e t e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , t r e a t i n g h o u s i n g as an on g o i n g component o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i e n c e , has been b r o u g h t f o r w a r d . I n t h e f a c e o f t h i s , one m i g h t ask why h o u s i n g ? Does a u n i v e r s i t y commitment t o e d u c a t i o n a l s o commit t h e i n s t i t u -t i o n t o t h e b u s i n e s s o f housing? c o u l d n o t t h e p r i v a t e market p r o v i d e adequate s o l u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t o f t h e tremen-d o u s l y i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e s from a l l s i d e s on t h e u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r i n c r e a s e d c l a s s r o o m and r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s , f a c u l t y e x p a n s i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n n e t w o r k s , e t c . ? 33. I f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s vi e w e d as a t h i n g d i s -t i n c t and indepe n d e n t o f t h a t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , p e r h a p s t h i s would c o n s t i t u t e a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o u n i v e r -s i t y p r o v i d e d s h e l t e r . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t r e s s e s t h e continuum o f l e a r n -i n g and l i v i n g a c t i v i t i e s as i n t e g r a l l y u n i t a r y i n form and f u n c t i o n , w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s committed t o a p o s i t i o n o f mu t u a l s u p p o r t and r e i n f o r c e m e n t v i s - a - v i s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e campus, what t h e o r e t -i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h e r e t o a s t r o n g u n i v e r s i t y commitment t o some form o f h o u s i n g i n t i m a t e l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d t o it t h e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i t s e l f ? One argument a g a i n s t t h e market approach t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i r r e s p e c t i v e o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s p h y , f o c u s e s on t h e l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f most s t u d e n t s ; i n a f r e e and competing h o u s i n g market, many s t u d e n t s f a r e b a d l y , i f n o t i n terms o f q u a l i t y , s i m p l y i n terms o f d i s t a n c e , because o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o a f f o r d h i g h e r p r i c e d u n i v e r s i t y a d j a c e n t accommodation«, The e d i t o r s o f The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review i n a r e c e n t s u r v e y o f t h e contemporary u n i v e r s i t y n o te t h a t t h e f i r s t * I n a 1956 s u r v e y o f c o l l e g e h o u s i n g i n t h e U.S., deans were asked i f t h e y f a v o u r e d t h e accommodation o f as many s t u d e n t s on campus as p o s s i b l e ; f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f l e s s t h a n 1000 p o p u l a t i o n , 8 3 % r e p l i e d y e s ; a t u n i v e r s i t i e s o f 1000 t o 5000, 8 9% s a i d y e s ; o v er 5000, 6 1 % s a i d yes i f t h i s were p o s s i b l e . (Byron C. B l o o m f i e l d , " C o l l e g e H o u s i n g " B u l l e t i n o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f A r c h i t e c t s , J u l y - A u g u s t , 1956). i 34. f u n c t i o n o f a u n i v e r s i t y i s t o c r e a t e a s t u d e n t body? t h e second t o p r o v i d e an environment i n which i t can f l o u r i s h , c o i n c i d e n t t o t h e c o r p o r a t e and i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f 46 t h e s t u d e n t body 0 W i t h t h i s i n mind t h e n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e f l e c t t h a t i d e a l l y , t h e p h y s i c a l environment, i f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t o be g r a n t e d t o i t s e x i s t e n c e a t a l l , must be r e c o g n i z e d as an i n f l u e n c e on t h e academic c l i m a t e , and so m a n i p u l a t e d as t o r e i n f o r c e i t s v a l u e s and s t r u c t u r e . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e u n i v e r s i t y must de t e r m i n e i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y i n r e l a -t i o n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s — t h e community, a d u l t educa-t i o n , commuting, t h e accommodation o f a u t o s on campus -- and h o u s i n g , and a r t i c u l a t e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n terms o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Once de t e r m i n e d t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s must be v i e w e d as an i n t e g r a t e d whole i n terms o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t — t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e c i t y — and as a framework, f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e t o change, around w h i c h t o d e v e l o p g o a l s and f o r m u l a t e p o l i c y . H o u s i n g , as a p a r t o f t h i s l a r g e r e x p e r i e n c e , c a nnot be c o n s i d e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n b u t must be e v a l u a t e d i n i t s p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e , as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e whole t o w h i c h i t r e l a t e s . 46 The E d i t o r s "The U n i v e r s a l U n i v e r s i t y " The A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Review, V o l . 134, No. 800, p. 283-286. JO o CHAPTER I I U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia — A Case Study i n Student H o u s i n g T h i s c h a p t e r examines s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t t h e U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, b o t h i n terms o f e x i s t i n g p o l i c y and f a c i l i t i e s , and d a t a r e f l e c t i n g s t u d e n t h o u s i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s and p r e f e r e n c e s . E v a l u a t i o n s w i l l be made a t t h e case s t u d y l e v e l f i r s t i n terms o f c u r r e n t development and p o l i c i e s a t U.B.C., and s e c o n d l y i n r e l a t i o n t o c o n c u r r e n t t r e n d s a t t h e n a t i o n a l and c o n t i n e n t a l l e v e l s . From t h i s p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a t i o n some s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s and recommenda-t i o n s i n r e f e r e n c e t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t U.B.C. w i l l be o u t -l i n e d , and comments made on t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g on t h e l a r g e r N o r t h A m e r i c a n s c a l e . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g h o u s i n g a t U.B.C. was o b t a i n e d from an e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y on s t u d e n t h o u s i n g c o n d u c t e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1968 by t h e Alma Mater S o c i e t y , t h e s t u d e n t r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e body o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . Seven thousand q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were m a i l e d t o U.B 0C. s t u d e n t s , c o v e r i n g b a s i c a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t o f s t u d e n t housing? m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s were sampled more h e a v i l y t h a n s i n g l e s t u d e n t s ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o e v e r y m a r r i e d s t u d e n t , one o f e v e r y t h r e e s i n g l e s t u d e n t s ) , e s s e n t i a l l y because t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e m a r r i e d p o p u l a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e s i n g l e p o p u l a t i o n r e n d e r e d s a m p l i n g i n a d e q u a t e f o r p u r p o s e s o f s u b - g r o u p i n g and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t has t h e r e f o r e been n e c e s s a r y t o s e p a r a t e d a t a f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t s 3 6 . from those applying to married students for most questions; i t was assumed i n i t i a l l y that housing choices and character-i s t i c s would be s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t for both groups. A 55% response was obtained. The University The University of B r i t i s h Columbia i s located on the University Endowment Lands, a high elevation of land to the west of Central Vancouver overlooking the sea. The climate i n the Vancouver region i s moderate, with a considerable amount of r a i n f a l l throughout the academic year. The Univer-s i t y Endowment Lands, an area of approximately 2500 acres, constitute a land t r u s t enacted by the p r o v i n c i a l government which f a l l s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l l y beyond the boundaries of the C i t y of Vancouver. This area i s bounded by English Bay and the S t r a i t of Georgia on three sides, and abuts the western most edge of Vancouver on the fourth. The Endowment Lands are v i r t u a l l y undeveloped except for the u n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f , a small r e s i d e n t i a l area, and a beachfront roadway running along i t s perimeter, giving access to public beaches on the north side; the campus faces the sea at the western most t i p of the peninsula, separated from the c i t y proper by heavily wooded areas. (Figure 1) This temporary sa n c t i t y i s threatened on the one hand by u n i v e r s i t y expansion, which i n the past has acquired un-r e s t r i c t e d room for development, and urbanization on the other --plans already e x i s t for the development of a number of low and FORT CAMP OFFICE t b e G D i u e R s i t o c a m p u s 37. h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s and a u x i l i a r y c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e e n t i r e undeveloped a r e a o f t h e Endowment Lands-The l a y o u t o f t h e campus b a s i c a l l y p l a c e s r e s i d e n c e and p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e perimeter,, f o c u s i n g upon t h e more c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d academic b u i l d i n g s . P r i n c i p a l l y because o f i t s l o c a t i o n on t h e w e s t e r n l i m i t s o f t h e c i t y , U.B.C. i s p o o r l y s e r v e d by p u b l i c t r a n s i t . 1 T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r i v a t e auto ( h i t c h h i k i n g and c a r p o o l i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o owner use) a c c o u n t s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 0% o f s t u d -e n t commuter t r i p s . C l e a r l y , f o r s t u d e n t s l i v i n g o f f campus, t h e a u t o m o b i l e i s t h e main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode. U.B.C. i s s t r o n g l y committed t o accommodation o f t h e a u t o , p r o v i d i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9,000 ground l e v e l p a r k i n g spaces 3 on campus, A p e r i p h e r a l roadway system i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o a l l o w f r e e p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n t h r o u g h -o u t t h e c e n t r a l campus. I n terms o f s t u d e n t growth and i n c r e a s e d numbers o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s , t r e n d s a t U.B.C„ appear t o p a r a l l e l t h o s e e l s e w h e r e . E n r o l l m e n t has s u r p a s s e d t h e 20,000 f i g u r e w h i l e t h e e s t i m a t e d daytime p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i s over 23,000 — i n terms o f urban p o p u l a t i o n , t h e s i x t h l a r g e s t c e n t r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e . ^ Of t h e t h i r t y - t w o c i t i e s i n t h e 1 V.S. Pendakur, T r i p G e n e r a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Canadian  U n i v e r s i t i e s , P r e p r i n t o f P r o c e e d i n g s , Canadian Good Roads A s s o c i a t i o n , T o r o n t o , 1968. p. 7. 2 I b i d . , p. 8. 3 V.S. Pendakur, I b i d . , p. 7. 4 C l i v e C o c k i n g , "The Campus P l a n " , U.B.C. A l u m n i C h r o n i c l e , p . 7 . p r o v i n c e d e f i n e d by t h e 1966 c e n s u s , o n l y 5 — Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , New W e s t m i n s t e r , N o r t h Vancouver and P r i n c e George — had p o p u l a t i o n s l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f U 0B.C„ (7 D i s t r i c t M u n i c i -5 p a l i t i e s a l s o exceeded t h i s f i g u r e ) . F i v e y e a r p r o j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t e n r o l l m e n t w i l l i n c r e a s e from 20,000 i n 1969 t o 34,000 by 1974, t h e same p e r -c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n 14 y e a r s between 1953 and 6 1967„ Assuming t h e c o n t i n u e d growth o f o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e , p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s a t U.B.C. are e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e a t a r a t e o f 2,500 a year d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . T a b l e 1 shows i n c r e a s e s i n g r o s s e n r o l l m e n t o v e r t h e l a s t 5 y e a r s ; u n t i l 1967-68, e n r o l l m e n t i n c r e a s e d by approx-i m a t e l y 1000 each y e a r , t h e n r o s e t o 2,000 between 1967-68 and 1968-69. T a b l e 2 i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s e o f 1.1% o f a l l m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s i n 1968-69 o v e r t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , encompassing 16.7% o f t h e t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n ; 55.5% o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s i n 1968-69 had no c h i l d r e n , a 5.1% i n c r e a s e over 1967-68 .(Table 3 ) . These t r e n d s would seem t o i n d i c a t e a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r N o r t h A m e r i c a n tendency among s t u d e n t s t o marry sooner and a t a younger age. The h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r r i e d s t u -7 dents o c c u r r e d xn t h e g r a d u a t e and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . 5 B.C. F a c t s and S t a t i s t i c s , Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, V i c t o r i a , B.C., November 1967, p. 59-60. 6 The Vancouver Sun, December 2, 1968. 7 Summary o f S t u d e n t S t a t i s t i c s , 1968-69 (UBC O f f i c e o f S t u d e n t S e r v i c e s ) , p. 15. * i . e . : b e f o r e e n t e i - i n g t h e j o b market. T a b l e 1 Gross R e g i s t r a t i o n a t U.B CC. 1964-1969 1964-65 15,489 1965-66 16,337 1966-67 17,219 1967-68 18,310 1968-69 20,332* - S o u r c e : U.B.C. Summary o f Gross R e g i s t r a t i o n by y e a r o f program, f a c u l t y / s c h o o l , p. 15 B. Sources Vancouver Sun, December 2, 1968. T a b l e 2 I n c r e a s e i n p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s i n t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n a t U.B„C O J 1967-68 and 1968-69, 1967-68 1968-69 M a r r i e d Men 17 o 9% 19.3% M a r r i e d Women 11 n 5% 12.5% T o t a l M a r r i e d 15.6% 16.7% T a b l e 3 Change i n p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n a t U.B.C., 1967-68 and 1968-69. 1967-68 1968-69 No C h i l d r e n 50.4% 55.5% 1 C h i l d 20.2% 19.2% 2 C h i l d r e n 15.9% 13.7% 3 C h i l d r e n 7.9% 6.3% 4 o r more 5.5% 5.3% — S o u r c e : Summary o f S t u d e n t S t a t i s t i c s 1968-69, U„B 0C. O f f i c e o f Student S e r v i c e s , p. 15. Notes These s t a t i s t i c s a r e based on r e g i s t r a t i o n response? n o t a l l q u e s t i o n s were answered on a l l r e s p o n s e s , t h e r e f o r e some v a r i a t i o n may e x i s t . 4 1 . E x i s t i n g S t u d e n t H o u s i n g a t U.B.C. 1. Accommodation on Campus A t p r e s e n t u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g complexes a t U.B.C. a r e l o c a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y t o t h e academic b u i l d i n g s o f t h e campus, and a r e s e r v i c e d by r o a d s and walkways l i n k i n g them t o t h e s e c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g s . R e s i d e n t i a l accommodation i s p r o v i d e d f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t s on a room and bo a r d b a s i s o n l y , i n f u r n i s h e d rooms. U n f u r n i s h e d s u i t e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s b o t h w i t h and w i t h o u t f a m i l i e s . Permanent r e s i d e n c e s f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t s a r e l o c a t e d i n P l a c e V a n i e r , Totem Par k and F o r t Camp, women's r e s i d e n c e . D o r m i t o r i e s , o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d as temp o r a r y b a r r a c k t y p e s t r u c t u r e s , a r e l o c a t e d i n F o r t Camp, men's r e s i d e n c e and A c a d i a Camp, men and women's r e s i d e n c e s ( c l o s e d i n 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 ) . G r a d u a t e d o r m i t o r i e s a r e l o c a t e d i n A c a d i a Camp. ( F i g u r e 1 ) . T a b l e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x i s t i n g range o f h o u s i n g u n i t s by t y p e ; f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t accommodation, i n terms o f s i n g l e and double rooms, s u p p l y i s a l m o s t equals 1 , 6 2 8 s i n g l e occupancy, 1 , 6 0 8 double occupancy. Comparing t h e number o f h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e p e r c e n t -ages o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s i n t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t , i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s — c o m p r i s i n g a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 1 7 % o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n — a r e a l l o c a t e d l e s s t h a n 1 0 % o f on campus accommodation; t o t a l s i n g l e u n i t s e q u a l 3 , 2 3 6 , t o t a l m a r r i e d 2 9 5 (see T a b l e s 2, 4 ) . T h i s i m b a l a n c e appears t o have some e f f e c t on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f T a b l e 4 UoBoCo R e s i d e n c e s S i n g l e S tudent Occupancy by R e s i d e n c e and Type, November 1968 RESIDENCE SINGLE DOUBLE Totem Pa r k 574 586 P l a c e V a n i e r 633 274 F o r t Camp 239 412 Grad Dorms 68 A c a d i a Camp 114 336 T o t a l 1,628 1,608 T o t a l S i n g l e U n i t s 3,2 36 F a m i l y Accommodation by R e s i d e n c e and Type, November 1968, FAMILY HOUSING SUITES 3 Bdr. 2 Bdr. 1 Bdr. A c a d i a P a r k 14 161 100 T o r o n t o Row 20 T o t a l 14 181 100 T o t a l M a r r i e d U n i t s 295 — S o u r c e : U.B.C. O f f i c e o f Hous i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , M o n t h l y Occupancy R e p o r t . m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s ; i n t h e f a l l o f 1968 t h e AMS h o u s i n g bureau a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t 200 m a r r i e d g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were f o r c e d t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r s t u d i e s because o f i n a d e q u a t e g h o u s i n g s u p p l y , S t u d e n t s were asked i f t h e e x i s t i n g l a c k o f h o u s i n g i s o r would be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e i r r e m a i n i n g a t U.B.C. f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s ; 14.1% o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s and 12.8% o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was. (AMS Ho u s i n g S u r v e y ) . 2. H i s t o r y o f S t u d e n t H o u s i n g a t U.B.C. U.B.C # / l i k e many u n i v e r s i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t Canada and the U.S., f i r s t engaged i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f on-campus r e s i d e n -t i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g World War I I , i n an e f f o r t t o meet t h e r e s u l t i n g p r e s s u r e s o f a l a r g e i n f l u x o f v e t e r a n s i n t o t h e s t u d e n t body. These f i r s t accommo-d a t i o n s f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n seen e l s e w h e r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e con-t i n e n t , u t i l i z i n g army b a r r a c k - t y p e h u t s , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n poo r r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s combined w i t h overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s (a s i t u a t i o n n o t as u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e v e t e r a n s as t o t o d a y ' s more am e n i t y o r i e n t e d s t u d e n t s ) . A l l r e s i d e n c e s t o d a t e , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o p o s e d W i r e l e s s Tower s i t e , have been f i n a n c e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h f e d e r a l m o r t g a g i n g . 8 The Ubvssey, October 1, 1968. * h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from " H i s t o r y o f t h e R e s i d e n c e s " , L i f e i n R e s i d e n c e , t h e U.B.C. O f f i c e o f Ho u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , May, 1968, and an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. L. R o h r i n g e r , D i r e c t o r o f t h e O f f i c e o f Ho u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U.B.C, November 15, 1968. 44. A c a d i a Camp was t h e f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l complex on campus, accommodating a p p r o x i m a t e l y 160 women and 350 men. The u n i t s c o n s i s t e d o f c o n v e r t e d b a r r a c k s , t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y by t h e army a t t h e end o f t h e Second World War; d i n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s i -dences, r e s e r v e d m a i n l y f o r s e n i o r undergraduate and g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . D u r i n g t h e 1968-69 academic y e a r A c a d i a Camp was c l o s e d and t h e r e s i d e n t s moved i n t o h i g h r i s e t o w e r s i n Totem P a r k and P l a c e V a n i e r . The f i r s t women's permanent r e s i d e n c e s were b u i l t i n 1950 a d j a c e n t t o b a r r a c k s h o u s i n g v e t e r a n s i n F o r t Camp; d i n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s h e r e a r e s h a r e d by men and women. F o r t Camp i s s c h e d u l e d t o be phased o u t o f o p e r a t i o n i n 3 y e a r s as t h e second s t a g e i n t h e Endowment Lands slum c l e a r a n c e 9 program. I n 1959 t h e f i r s t men's permanent r e s i d e n c e was con-s t r u c t e d a t Lower M a l l , now known as P l a c e V a n i e r , t h r o u g h a g i f t o f J.G. Robson, a f t e r whom i t was named. Four women's r e s i d e n c e s were co m p l e t e d a t t h e same s i t e i n 1961, w h i l e l a t e r h a l l s were b u i l t as f u n d s , t h r o u g h d o n a t i o n s and l o a n s , became a v a i l a b l e . The Gordon Shrum Commons, completed i n 1960, p r o -v i d e s d i n i n g s e r v i c e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s , c a n t e e n and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e complex. A t Totem P a r k f o u r s i x f l o o r t o w e r s were b u i l t t o house 400 women and 400 men; each p a i r o f to w e r s i s c o n n e c t e d 9 The Ubyssey, I b i d . 45. by a s o c i a l w i n g c o n t a i n i n g l o u n g e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The Common B l o c k has a d i n i n g room, c a n t e e n , and o t h e r a m e n i t i e s f o r a l l r e s i d e n t s . A c a d i a P a r k , t h e l a s t r e s i d e n c e b u i l t on campus con-s i s t s o f a h i g h r i s e tower and row h o u s i n g f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a d j a c e n t t o A c a d i a Camp? t h e complex c o n t a i n s 175 t h r e e , two and one bedroom s u i t e s 0 3. P l a n n e d E x p a n s i o n A new r e s i d e n t i a l complex i s p l a n n e d f o r t h e former W i r e l e s s S t a t i o n s i t e b e h i n d B r o c k H a l l , n o r t h o f t h e Student Union B u i l d i n g , i n c o r p o r a t i n g two f o u r t e e n s t o r e y h i g h r i s e t o w e r s and t h r e e low r i s e b u i l d i n g s , w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e hous-i n g f o r 1200 s t u d e n t s and p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r 400 c a r s . 1 0 Most rooms w i l l be s i n g l e , and o r g a n i z e d t o s e r v e 12 s t u d e n t s ? each group w i l l have i t s own l i v i n g room, washroom, and l a u n d r y and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . The d i n i n g a r e a w i l l be grouped i n t o s i x main l o u n g e s l o c a t e d around a c e n t r a l s e r v i c e k i t c h e n i n t h e main f l o o r o f t h e tower complex? each b u i l d i n g w i l l have i t s own l o u n g e , w h i l e g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be s i t u a t e d i n t h e tower a r e a . Mortgage f i n a n c i n g i s b e i n g p r o -v i d e d by CMHC on a 50 ye a r b a s i s . D e s i g n e d f o r s t u d e n t s o v e r 20 y e a r s o f age, t h e com-p l e x i s i n t e n d e d t o o f f e r a degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y u n a v a i l a b l e 10 " S m a l l Group L i v i n g P l a n n e d i n New R e s i d e n c e " , U.B.C.  R e p o r t s ( V o l . 13, No. 4) p. 3. 46. i n e x i s t i n g accommodation; r e s i d e n t s w i l l be f r e e t o choose among c o o k i n g t h e i r own m e a l s , u s i n g t h e c e n t r a l d i n i n g h a l l or b u y i n g f o o d from v e n d i n g machines. L i b r a r i e s , seminar rooms and s o c i a l a r e a s w i l l become p a r t o f t h e r e s i d e n c e f a c i l i t i e s . C o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t i s a n t i c i p a t e d by September 1970, when e n r o l l m e n t w i l l have i n c r e a s e d by 5,000 s t u d e n t s i f t h e p r e d i c t e d a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f 2500 i s r e a l i z e d . I n terms o f l o n g e r range p l a n n i n g , t h e i n t e r i m r e p o r t o f t h e f i r m o f W u r s t e r , B e n a r i , and Emmons o f San F r a n c i s c o , now p r e p a r i n g a master p l a n f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y , p r o p o s e s % "Student h o u s i n g w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p a t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e c o r e w i t h open g r e e n spaces f o r r e c r e a t i o n . P r e s e n t s t u d e n t h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be d o u b l e d , d e v e l o p i n g i n d e p e n d e n t , rounded c o m m u n i t i e s . " H 4. Off-Campus S t u d e n t H o u s i n g A p p r o x i m a t e l y 2600 s t u d e n t r e n t a l u n i t s e x i s t i n t h e P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a a d j a c e n t t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y Endow-12 ment Lands. A 1962 s u r v e y r e v e a l e d t h a t c l o s e t o 25% o f U.B.C. s t u d e n t s l i v e i n t h e a r e a , bounded by 4 t h and 1 6 t h Avenues, and Alma and B l a n c a S t r e e t s , many o f them i n accommoda-t x o n v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as d i r t y , cramped, dim, and c o l d . J Z o n i n g i n t h e a r e a a l l o w s two roomers i n each independent r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t , b u t no s u i t e s , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t , 11 "A M a s t e r P l a n Suggested f o r Campus", U.B.C. R e p o r t s , ..Ibid* p. 4. 12 V.S. Pendakur, o p . c i t . , p. 2. 13 The Vancouver Sun, March 26, 1962. 47. because o f t h e h i g h demand f o r s t u d e n t h o u s i n g , a g r e a t many i l l e g a l and p o o r l y e q u i p p e d s u i t e s do e x i s t , as w e l l as 1 4 e x c e s s i v e numbers o f roomers p e r d w e l l i n g . R equests from Dr. W a l t e r Hardwick i n 1 9 6 2 ^ 5 and an AMS s t u d e n t p e t i t i o n i n 1966 f o r r e z o n i n g o f t h e a r e a were r e j e c t e d by Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l . Hardwick c a l l e d f o r r e z o n i n g o f U n i v e r s i t y a d j a c e n t a r e a s t o two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s t o accommodate t h e l a r g e number o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e a r e a , and r e l i e v e t h e e x i s t i n g overcrowded, u n d e r s e r v i c e d c o n d i t i o n s . ; lMr. W i l l i a m 1 Graham, C i t y P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , a d v i s i n g c i t y c o u n c i l t o r e j e c t t h e AMS r e q u e s t i n 1966 f o r r e l a x e d z o n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , commented: "The p r o v i s i o n o f low c o s t h o u s i n g f o r u n i v e r s i t y * s t u d e n t s from o u t s i d e t h e c i t y i s not t h e r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y o f e i t h e r t h e C i t y o f Vancouver o r i t s s i n g l e f a m i l y home owners? i t i s t h e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e p r o v i n c i a l government."16 T a b l e 5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t w h i l e o v e r h a l f (57.7%) o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. l i v i n g i n o f f campus h o u s i n g l i v e a t home w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s and t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s l i v e i n e i t h e r a p a r t -ments, s u i t e s , r e n t e d rooms o r house o t h e r t h a n t h e i r p a r e n t s — accommodation t y p i c a l l y f o u n d i n t h e P o i n t Grey a r e a . T a b l e 6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f campus h o u s i n g by p o s t a l zones? 23.5% o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s and 21.1% o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s 14 I b i d . 15 The Vancouver Sun, I b i d . 16 The Ubyssev, November 22, 1966. T a b l e , 5 P e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s U.B.C. l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation, by t y p e . ACCOMMODATION TYPE SINGLE MARRIED P a r e n t ' s Home 57.7% 2.56% F r a t e r n i t y House 1.7 Apartment i n Commercial Apartment B l o c k 12.3 42.8 S e l f - c o n t a i n e d S u i t e i n House 8.8 19.3 Housekeeping Room 3.9 .3 Room or s e t o f Rooms (No k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s ) 6.5 .4 Duplex o r Row House .5 5.6 House (Not P a r e n t ' s ) 7.6 27.5 M o t e l .0 .1 H o t e l .0 .0 T r a i l e r .1 .3 Other .6 .4 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% 1 Sources AMS and UBC Student H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n B-3. 4 9 . T a b l e 6 P e r c e n t a g e o f S i n g l e and M a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation, by p o s t a l zone. POSTAL ZONE r SINGLE MARRIED Endowment Lands 3 . 9 % 3 . 4 % Zone 1 o 2 . 2 Zone 2 . 2 . 1 Zone 3 . 1 . 0 Zone 4 o 5 . 0 Zone 5 3 . 9 6 . 0 Zone 6 1 . 5 1 . 2 Zone 7 . 3 . 2 Zone 8 (Not Endowment Lands) 2 3 . 5 2 1 . 1 Zone 9 1 3 . 0 2 4 . 4 Zone 1 0 3 . 4 3 . 8 -Zone 1 1 2 . 3 . 0 Zone 1 2 . 0 1 . 4 Zone 1 3 1 0 . 6 6 . 7 Zone 1 4 5 . 6 5 . 0 Zone 1 5 4 . 4 2 . 4 Zone 1 6 2 . 7 2 . 3 N o r t h Vancouver 6 . 7 5 e l West Vancouver 5 . 6 2 . 6 South Burnaby ( 1 ) 2 . 1 2 . 8 N o r t h Burnaby ( 2 ) 2 . 1 1 . 8 Burnaby ( 3 ) . 4 . 2 P o r t Moody . 0 . 1 New Wes t m i n s t e r 1 . 7 2 . 6 N o r t h S u r r e y . 5 . 8 Richmond 3 . 5 2 . 9 Other . 7 1 . 7 T o t a l 1 0 0 . 0 % 1 0 0 . 0 % Source: AMS and UBC Stud e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1 9 6 8 , Q u e s t i o n B - l . 5 0 . l i v e i n Zone 8, a d j a c e n t t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands, bounded by 33rd Avenue, A r b u t u s , 1 6 t h Avenue, and T r a f a l g a r ( f i g u r e 2 ) . An a d d i t i o n a l 13.0% o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s and 24.4% o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s l i v e i m m e d i a t e l y e a s t o f t h i s a r e a i n Zone 9, bounded by 33rd Avenue, Cambie S t r e e t , T r a f a l g a r and A r b u t u s . The range o f h o u s i n g t y p e s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e P o i n t Grey a r e a . ti o o < CD 4 H Q C tr-J o co ro rt-o p <D CO 51, U.B.C. Ho u s i n g P o l i c y The G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n o f t h e U.B.C. C a l e n d a r o f 1968-69 d e s c r i b e s t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s H o u s i n g P o l i c y a s : "...concerned n o t o n l y w i t h p h y s i c a l e n v i r -onment i n t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e p l a c e d , b u t a l s o w i t h a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e an educ-a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h s h o u l d d e v e l o p t h e s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a b i l i t y o f each i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t , and w h i c h s h o u l d encourage a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . R e s i d e n c e l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y i s b o t h an e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e academic program; ...as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s academic e x p e r i e n c e , each s t u d e n t i s e x p e c t e d t o have a commitment towards h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l de-velopment as an i n d i v i d u a l and as a member o f s o c i e t y . The aim o f U.B.C. p o l i c y i n terms o f c a p a c i t y i s t o 18 accommodate 2 5 % o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n on campus; t h e p r e s e n t f i g u r e i s somewhat under 2 0% — o v e r 2500 beds s h o r t o f t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t . ^ L i t t l e academic o r s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y l i e s b e h i n d t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h i s f i g u r e ; i t i s based on a rough e s t i m a t e t h a t 7 5% o f t h e s t u d e n t body i s a b l e t o f i n d accommodation w i t h i n t h e Vancouver r e g i o n , e i t h e r a t home w i t h 17 G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n , U.B.C. C a l e n d a r , 1968-69, "Student H o u s i n g " , pp A-49, A-50. 18 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Dr. Ma l c o l m McGregor, chairman o f t h e Res-i d e n c e Committee a t U.B.C. f o r two y e a r s , November 15, 1968. 19 The Ubyssey, November 13, 1968. t h e i r p a r e n t s o r i n p r i v a t e s u i t e s , b o a r d i n g houses and a p a r t -ments. The r e m a i n i n g 2 5 % i t i s assumed w i l l be unable t o f i n d accommodation i n t h e p r i v a t e market, a t l e a s t w i t h o u t g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , and t h e r e f o r e must be o f f e r e d h o u s i n g on campus. I t i s f e l t t h a t s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y younger ones w i t h o u t o f town backgrounds, unable t o f e n d a d e q u a t e l y o u t s i d e t h e u n i v e r s i t y , must i n some measure be s h e l t e r e d and l o o k e d o v e r d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i e n c e , i n -c o r p o r a t i n g an a d m i t t e d sense o f p a t e r n a l i s m i n t h e b a s i c a t t i t u d e o f r e s i d e n c e p o l i c y . U n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o be "home" f o r t h e s t u d e n t s , and as such, f o r m a l academic a c t i v i t i e s such as l e c t u r e s a r e d i s c o u r a g e d by t h e Hous i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? t h i s 2 0 i s c o n s i d e r e d something s t u d e n t s don't want a t home. I n -f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s and seminars a r e encouraged however, a p o l i c y w h i c h has been i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e p l a n n e d W i r e l e s s s i t e p r o j e c t . The d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t h o u s i n g l i e s w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y Board o f Governors and t h e Re s i d e n c e Committee, b u t i n r e c e n t y e a r s the Hous i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t s e l f has e x e r t e d a s t r o n g e r i n f l u e n c e i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . ^ S t u d e n t s , as w e l l , a r e t o some degree encouraged t o e x p r e s s 20 I n t e r v i e w w i t h L. R o h r i n g e r , D i r e c t o r o f t h e O f f i c e o f Ho u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U.B.C, November 15, 1968. 21 I b i d . t h e i r s e n t i m e n t s r e g a r d i n g h o u s i n g p o l i c y . Three s t u d e n t s t o o k p a r t i n an e i g h t member j o i n t f a c u l t y - s t u d e n t - a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n committee w h i c h d i s c u s s e d and approved p l a n s f o r t h e W i r e l e s s S i t e R e s i d e n t i a l P r o j e c t . The f i n a l d e s i g n i s i n -t e n d e d t o r e f l e c t o p i n i o n s o f t h e committee s t u d e n t s , as w e l l as s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e AMS Hous i n g Survey, and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c i r c u l a t e d i n t h e e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s . ^ D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n c e a r e , i n many c a s e s , l e f t t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e g a r d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e ; b a s i c g u i d e l i n e s however a r e s e t b y h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y , r e g a r d i n g such q u e s t i o n s as l i q u o r i n r e s i d e n c e , v i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s , t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f hours f o r women under t h e age o f 21, e t c e t e r a . R e g u l a t i o n enforcement i s conducted on a b r o a d l y l i b e r a l b a s i s ; i f c o m p l a i n t s a r e v o i c e d about p a r t i e s , g u e s t s i n rooms, e t c . , t h e Hous i n g A u t h o r i t y w i l l t a k e a c t i o n ; o t h e r w i s e i t t e n d s t o l o o k t h e o t h e r way. 1. Fees R e s i d e n c e f e e s a t U . B . C , as a t most Canadian u n i v e r -s i t i e s w i t h F e d e r a l l y f i n a n c e d h o u s i n g , a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e mortgage c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e l o a n ; y e a r l y i n t e r e s t c h a r g e s i n most c a s e s a r e p a s s e d on t o t h e s t u d e n t i n h o u s i n g f e e s . 22 The Ubyssey, November 13, 1968 A n n u a l c a r r y i n g c harges on a $7,000 h o u s i n g u n i t w i t h a 90% 23 mortgage a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y $350.00. (Chapter 1, F i n a n c e ) . U.B.C. compares s l i g h t l y f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l average a n n u a l f e e o f $700.00 p l u s . Races f o r a s i n g l e room i n perm-anent r e s i d e n c e s a t U.B.C. d u r i n g t h e f a l l t e r m a r e approx-i m a t e l y $330; d o u b l e rooms a r e $20 l e s s ; accommodation i n t h e d o r m i t o r i e s , o r b a r r a c k r e s i d e n c e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y $60 l e s s t h a n permanent r e s i d e n c e s . D u r i n g t h e second term, a l l r a t e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y $40 h i g h e r , presumably because o f t h e l o n g e r . , _ 24 p e r i o d o f occupancy. 2. F i n a n c e The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s a t U.B.C. has been f i n a n c e d p r i m a r i l y b y funds p r o v i d e d b y t h e F e d e r a l government, t h r o u g h t h e Canada C o u n c i l b e f o r e 1960 and now t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and Hous i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . Canada C o u n c i l c e ased t o p r o v i d e funds f o r u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g i n 1960 when l o n g t e r m loanr; became a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h TZhe N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t , p a r t V I A, w h i c h p r o v i d e s 9 0 % mortgages a t 5. 3/8% p e r annum f o r p e r i o d s up t o 50 y e a r s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s . 23 Howard Adelman, op. c i t . , pp. 4-7. 24 G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n , U.B.C. C a l e n d a r 1968-69, "Student H o u s i n g " , p. A49, A50. A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t has come t h r o u g h g i f t s and d o n a t i o n s , such as t h a t o f J.G. Robson, w h i c h have f i n a n c e d t h e con-s t r u c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l h a l l s w i t h i n a r e s i d e n c e complex. 3. O f f Campus Hous i n g The O f f i c e o f Hou s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t U .B.C. m a i n t a i n s l i s t s o f accommodation s u i t a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s , a v a i l a b l e i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y , y e t because o f i n a d e q u a t e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , i s u n a b l e t o conduct a check o f t h i s h o u s i n g o r impose any s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g q u a l -i t y , amount o f f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d , s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , . 25 e t c e t e r a . 25 The Ubvssey, September 21, 1962. 56. Analysis; Housing Determinants and Locational Factors In t h i s section, s i g n i f i c a n t determinants related to student housing at U.B.C. revealed i n the AMS housing study are examined; such factors as student housing preferences, incomes, rents, and lo c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a , w i l l be analyzed, and assessed, i n the f i n a l chapter, i n terms of e x i s t i n g housing p o l i c y at U.B.C. 1. M a r i t a l Status, Student Income, and Rent Student income i s a factor related d i r e c t l y to cost and type of student accommodation. Table 7 shows that for a l l single students, 73.2% had a t o t a l income — including scholar-ships and bursaries, but excluding loans and support from r e l a t i v e s — of less than $1,000 for the academic year 1967-68; t h i s category included a higher percentage of women than men (82.6% vs. 67.0%). Only 16.1% of married students, on the other hand, f e l l within t h i s l e v e l , while the portion of those included i n the higher income groups was f a i r l y evenly d i s t r i b -uted; 28.2% had incomes of greater than $5,000, suggesting that perhaps a large number of ind i v i d u a l s i n t h i s category had worked the previous year. (42.3% of married students reported an income of greater than $5,000 during the 12 months previous to the 1967-68 academic year, compared with 1.9% of the single students population). T a b l e 7 T o t a l income f o r t h e academic y e a r 1967-68 (September 1 - A p r i l 3 0 ) , i n c l u d i n g s c h o l a r s h i p s and b u r s a r i e s b u t e x c l u d i n g l o a n s and s u p p o r t from r e l a t i v e s , f o r s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. Income S i n g l e M a r r i e d L e s s t h a n $1,000.00 73.2% 16.1% $1,000-1,499 7.8 3.9 $1,500-1,999 6.2 4.5 $2,000-2,499 4.1 7.6 $2,500-2,999 1.8 8.6 $3,000-3,499 .9 8.7 $3,500-3,999 .4 5.8 $4,000-4,499 .4 7.1 $4,500-4,999- .1 4.6 $5,000 o r o v e r .5 28.2 So u r c e : AMS and UBC S t u d e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n A-13. 58. Table 8 shows that single students, who f a l l i n a sub-s t a n t i a l l y lower income s t r a t i f i c a t i o n than married students, tend to conform to a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower r e n t a l pattern than married students, at l e a s t i n terms of o f f campus accommodation. 34.6% of single students pay less than $30 a month for housing while only 1.7% of married students are included i n t h i s group. It must be kept i n mind that 57.7% of single students l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation l i v e with t h e i r parents (Table 5), paying presumably l i t t l e or no rent; the larger non-response of single students i n Table 8 — cost of current accommodation — compared to that of married students (19.4% vs. 3.2%) tends to r e f l e c t such a s i t u a t i o n . Nevertheless i t can be seen that married student rent payments are considerably higher than those of single students, the majority of rents ranging roughly from $90 - $99 to $140 - $159 per month; single rates, except-ing those under $30, vary from approximately $40 - $49 to $90 - $99. 43.3% of single students indicated t h e i r rents included the cost of meals, while 35.7% did not (21.0% non response); presumably the majority of married student accommod-ation does not include the cost of meals i n i t s rent structure, a f a c t which would tend to increase the v a r i a t i o n i n rent structure between single and married students. 18.4% of the married students indicated they owned the accommodation i n which they were l i v i n g ; only .9% of the single Table 8 Cost per month of present accommodation for single and married students at U.B.C, l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation, by percentage response. Cost Per Month Single Married Less than $30.00 34.6 1.7 $ 30 - 39 5.1 .2 40 - 49 8.3 1.0 50 - 59 6.6 2.0 60 - 69 5.3 4.8 70 - 79 5.0 5.7 80 - 89 3.0 9.0 90 - 99 1.9 8.6 100 -109 .9 11.7 110 -119 1.1 15.1 120 -129 1.1 9.3 130 -139 1.1 11.3 140 -159 .6 6.0 160 -179 .6 3.1 180 -199 .3 3.3 200 -249 .5 3.0 250 or over No response 19.4 3.2 Total 100.0% 100.0% Source; AMS and U.B.C. Student Housing Survey, Spring, 1968, Question B - l l . student population f e l l i n t h i s category, r e i n f o r c i n g the d i s -t i n c t i o n i n f i n a n c i a l status and concomitant d i s c r e t i o n i n housing choice between the two groups. 2. Student Housing Choices by Accommodation Type and Rent Students were asked which type of accommodation they considered most suitable i n terms of t h e i r current housing requirements; Table 9 shows that for single students, l i v i n g at home with t h e i r parents was the single most common prefer-ence (30.8%). Room and board i n un i v e r s i t y residence (15.2%) a bachelor suite (11.3%) and a one bedroom apartment (11.8%) were the next most popular choices while, approximately 13% wanted some combination of room(s) with or without board. The vast majority (90%) of married students by contrast pre-ferred a one or two bedroom suite, some form of single de-tached, duplex or row housing. Table 10 i l l u s t r a t e s the range of monthly rents con-sidered as reasonable and maximum le v e l s by single and married students for the type of housing they have selected as most desirable. While concepts of reasonable and maximum rents are very s i m i l a r for both groups, i t i s obvious that married students are w i l l i n g to pay a good deal more for accommodation than single students; the majority of single students are clu s -tered i n the §50 - $90 range, while most married students are grouped s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher, from $90 - $140. This can be 6 1 c T a b l e 9 Type o f accommodation most s u i t a b l e t o s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U o B . C 0 , by p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e . H o u s i n g Type S i n g l e M a r r i e d A t Home w i t h P a r e n t s 30,8 .5 Room O n l y (No k i t c h e n , no meals) .7 .1 Room and Board i n U n i v e r s i t y R e s i d e n c e 15.2 .3 Room and Board i n P r i v a t e Home 2,6 .2 Room w i t h C e n t r a l K i t c h e n (Share K i t c h e n , cook own meals) 2.6 .0 Room and Board w i t h s m a l l c e n t r a l K i t c h e n f o r snacks 5.0 .0 L i g h t Housekeeping room (No Meals) 3.0 .1 Housekeeping Room (No Meals ) 2.3 o l B a c h e l o r S u i t e 11.3 1.0 One bedroom s u i t e i n apartment b u i l d i n g 11.8 39.5 Two bedroom s u i t e i n apartment b u i l d i n g 6.0 15.0 Three bedroom s u i t e i n apartment b u i l d i n g .6 1.1 Duplex o r house ( i n c l u d i n g row h o u s i n g 1.6 36.0 Communal Co-op S t y l e ( P r e p a r e M e a l s T o g e t h e r ) 3.0 .3 Other 1.0 1.3 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% Source: AMS and UBC Hous i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n A-25, 62. Table 10 Reasonable and Maximum rents per month for most suitable accommodation, for single and married students at U.B.C, by percentage response. RENT Single Students Married Students Reasonable Maximum Reasonable Maximum Under $50.00 19.6 18.9 1.2 1.4 . $ 50- 59 10.6 10.1 1.4 1.6 60- 69 9.5 9.3 2.1 2.5 70- 79 11.6 9.5 5.2 3.9 80- 89 14.1 10.3 8.1 6.3 90- 99 7.3 10.9 11.2 8.6 100-109 5.0 7.5 18.2 12.7 110-119 2.8 2.8 13.4 13.7 120-129 2.1 2.6 15.7 16.8 130-139 .7 1.0 5.4 9.5 140-159 1.0 1.1 7.3 10.0 160-179 .4 .3 2.2 3.1 180-199 .1 .3 .8 1,7 200-249 .1 .1 .5 .8 $250 or over .1 .1 .4 .8 No Response 15.3 15.5 6.7 6.5 Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Source: AMS and UBC Student Housing Survey, Spring, 1968, Question A-26. seen as a f u n c t i o n b o t h o f t h e t y p e o f accommodation p r e f e r r e d by m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s (Table 9 ) , f o r w h i c h r e n t s t e n d t o be h i g h e r t h a n c o m p a r a t i v e s i n g l e s t u d e n t c h o i c e s , and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t income (Table 7 ) , w h i c h t e n d s t o be much h i g h e r t h a n s i n g l e s t u d e n t income. F i n a l l y , respondees were asked i f t h e y would move i n t o accommodation o f t h e t y p e t h e y had i n d i c a t e d as most s u i t a b l e i f t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s were c o n s t r u c t e d on o r nea r t h e campus, and r e n t e d a t t h e maximum r a t e t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h e y w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o pay. T a b l e 11A shows t h a t among b o t h s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s , somewhat under 50% would move i n t o t h i s t y p e o f a h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n . T a b l e 11B i n d i c a t e s t h a t s i n g l e g r a d -u a t e s t u d e n t s would t e n d most t o f a v o r such a scheme, f o l l o w e d by s i n g l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s . 3. L o c a t i o n a l C r i t e r i a T a b l e s 12 A t o D i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a r i o u s r e s i d e n t i a l c r i t e r i a i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t u d e n t h o u s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t among d e t e r m i n a n t s f o r r e s i d e n t and n o n - r e s i d e n t s t u d e n t s , and m a r r i e d and s i n g l e s t u d e n t s , b u t f o r a l l g r o u p s , low r e n t , p r i v a c y , and t h e q u a l i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s and c o n v e n i e n c e s p r o v i d e d i n t h e accom-modation a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a . L e a s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s i n c l u d e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f on campus accommodation, p a r e n t ' s d e s i r e f o r s t u d e n t t o l i v e 64. T a b l e 11A Pe r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t UBC w i l l i n g t o move i n t o t h e t y p e o f accommodation t h e y have i n d i c a t e d as most s u i t a b l e , i f i t were c o n s t r u c t e d on o r near t h e campus and r e n t e d a t t h e maximum r a t e t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h e y would pay (see t a b l e s 9, 10) S i n g l e M a r r i e d Would Move 46.7 42.3 Would Not Move 35.0 50.3 No Response 18.3 7.4 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% T a b l e 11B P e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e and undergr a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. w i l l i n g t o move i n t o t h e t y p e o f accommodation t h e y have i n d i c a t e d as most s u i t a b l e , i f i t were c o n s t r u c t e d on o r near t h e campus and r e n t e d a t t h e maximum r a t e t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h e y would pay. Graduate Undergraduate S i n g l e M a r r i e d S i n g l e M a r r i e d Would Move 65.7 36.9 59.0 44. 8 Would Not Move 34.3 56.2 41.0 47.3 Sources AMS and UBC Student H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n A-27. T a b l e 12A D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Hou s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , by degree o f im p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e , f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. F a c t o r Not I m p o r t a n t M o d e r a t e l y I m p o r t a n t V e r y I m p o r t a n t No Response On Campus Accommo-d a t i o n Not A v a i l a b l e 37.8 19.8 16.1 26.4 P a r e n t s / R e l a t i v e s want S t u d e n t s t o l i v e w i t h them 64.6 2.4 5.0 28.0 O n l y O f f Campus Accommodation A v a i l a b l e 36. 2 17.2 18.9 27.6 Low Rent 15.7 24.7 38.8 20 =,9 F a c i l i t i e s o r Con-v e n i e n c e s P r o v i d e d 14.9 27.8 36.5 20.9 Fewer R e s t r i c t i o n s t h a n i n U n i v e r s i t y Accommodation 40.6 14.9 16.3 28.2 U n i v e r s i t y does n o t P r o v i d e D e s i r e d Type o f Accommoda-i o n 23.9 17.6 31.5 27.0 A d j a c e n c y t o Campus 26.0 25.2 25.9 23.0 P r i v a c y 10.3 25.8 39.0 25.0 Shops and R e s t a u -r a n t s E a s i l y Reached 28.3 30.6 14.1 26.9 Good T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n a v a i l a b l e 35.0 22.0 14.7 28.3 Source: AMS and U.B.C. Stu d e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n A-31. T a b l e 12B D e t e r m i n a n t s o f Hou s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , by degree o f im p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e , f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C F a c t o r Not Im p o r t a n t M o d e r a t e l y I m p o r t a n t V e r y I m p o r t a n t No Response On Campus Accommo-d a t i o n Not A v a i l a b l e 56.2 8.8 4.8 30.2 P a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s want s t u d e n t s t o l i v e w i t h them 36.9 16.8 26.5 19.7 O n l y O f f Campus Accommodation A v a i l a b l e 53.0 8.4 6.4 32,2 Low Rent 18.3 19.4 37.8 24.5 F a c i l i t i e s and Con-v e n i e n c e s P r o v i d e d 8„7 24.5 46.2 20.6 Fewer R e s t r i c t i o n s t h a n i n U n i v e r s i t y Accommodation 27.5 18.2 26.4 27.9 U n i v e r s i t y does n o t P r o v i d e D e s i r e d Type of Accommodation 33.5 15.6 19.6 31.3 A d j a c e n c y t o Campus 27.2 21,3 25.7 25.7 P r i v a c y 14.7 26.2 30.5 28.6 Shops and R e s t a u -r a n t s E a s i l y Reached 38.9 22.4 7.8 30.9 Good T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n A v a i l a b l e 30.6 23.0 15.8 30.7 Sources AMS and U.B.C Stu d e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n A-31 T a b l e 12C De t e r m i n a n t s o f Hou s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , by degree o f importance and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e , f o r a l l s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C. l i v i n g i n o f f campus accommodation F a c t o r Not I m p o r t a n t M o d e r a t e l y I m p o r t a n t V e r y I m p o r t a n t No Response On Campus Accommo-d a t i o n Not A v a i l a b l e 54.7 15.3 9.6 20.5 P a r e n t s / R e l a t i v e s want Student t o l i v e w i t h them 48.8 13.4 24.0 13.8 O n l y O f f Campus Accommodation A v a i l a b l e 50.5 14.0 12.7 22.9 Low Rent 17.3 21.9 44.0 16.8 F a c i l i t i e s o r Con-v e n i e n c e s P r o v i d e d 12.4 27.3 43.1 17.2 Fewer R e s t r i c t i o n s t h a n i n U n i v e r s i t y Accommodation 31.3 20.5 29.0 19. 2 U n i v e r s i t y does n o t P r o v i d e D e s i r e d Type o f Accommodation 29.9 19.4 29.1 21.6 A d j a c e n c y t o Campus 33.3 25.5 19.4 21.7 P r i v a c y 20.1 13.5 26.8 39.7 Shops and R e s t a u -r a n t s E a s i l y Reached 22.3 37.5 28.2 12.0 Good T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n A v a i l a b l e 22.3 34.2 25.8 17.7 Source: AMS and U.B.C. Stu d e n t Housing Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n A-31. 68. T a b l e 12D D e t e r m i n a n t s o f H o u s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n , by degree o f im p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e , f o r a l l s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C. F a c t o r Not I m p o r t a n t M o d e r a t e l y I m p o r t a n t V e r y I m p o r t a n t No Response On Campus Accommo-d a t i o n Not A v a i l a b l e 45.4 9.4 7.8 37.4 p a r e n t s / R e l a t i v e s want Student t o l i v e w i t h them 53.4 7.7 4.3 34.7 O n l y O f f Campus Accommodation A v a i l a b l e 42.3 10.2 8.8 38.7 Low Rent 18.0 25.9 24.1 32.0 F a c i l i t i e s o r Con-v e n i e n c e s P r o v i d e d 7.3 27.9 43.8 21.1 Fewer R e s t r i c t i o n s t h a n i n U n i v e r s i t y Accommodation 32.2 13.5 17.0 37.3 U n i v e r s i t y does n o t P r o v i d e d e s i r e d t y p e o f Accommodation 27.7 13.7 20.2 38.5 A d j a c e n c y t o Campus 14.3 21.2 38.5 26.1 P r i v a c y 12.0 28.1 25.6 34.4 Shops and R e s t a u -r a n t s E a s i l y Reached 33.1 22.1 8.4 36.5 Good T r a n s p o r t a -t i o n A v a i l a b l e 29.8 20.0 12.6 37.7 Source: AMS and U.B.C. Student Housing Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n A-31. at home, and close a c c e s s i b i l i t y of shops, restaurants and good transportation f a c i l i t i e s . Adjacency to campus i s considered unimportant by students l i v i n g o f f campus, but important to those l i v i n g i n un i v e r s i t y residences. The a c c e s s i b i l i t y of shops, restaur-ants and transportation was somewhat more important to married students and students l i v i n g o f f campus than f o r the single and residence group, but remained a r e l a t i v e l y unimportant l o c a t i o n a l determinant, even for these former categories. The fact that U.B.C. does not. provide the desired type of housing was more important for married students than single students, possibly r e f l e c t i n g the fact that while, i n terms of preference, U.B.C. provides the range of accommodation married students desire (Table 9 ) , supply i s very l i m i t e d (Table 4 ) ? as well, the type of housing most preferred by single students (Table 9 ) i s t y p i c a l l y located o f f campus, not provided by the uni v e r s i t y . 70. 4. H o u s i n g D e t e r m i n a n t s and U n i v e r s i t y R e s i d e n c e Response o f r e s i d e n t - s t u d e n t s i n terms o f e v a l u a t i n g e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n c e f a c i l i t i e s a t U.B.C, i n d i c a t e s i n g e n e r a l terms, a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s o f p r i v a c y , and a p r e f e r e n c e f o r modern and more s p a c i o u s f a c -i l i t i e s . T a b l e 13 A and B show t h a t f o r a l l s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s , p r i v a c y and g r e a t e r freedom o f s o c -i a l i z a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c -i n g a s t u d e n t ' s d e c i s i o n n o t t o r e t u r n t o r e s i d e n c e ; h i g h c o s t was t h e n e x t most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , w h i l e t h e freedom t o p r e -p a r e meals, and a d e s i r e s i m p l y f o r a change were r e g a r d e d as r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t . I n e l i g i b i l i t y f i g u r e s as a h i g h l y i n -s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g r e t u r n t o r e s i d e n c e . B r e a k i n g t h e d a t a i n t o s i n g l e and m a r r i e d c a t e g o r i e s , i t appears t h a t g r e a t e r p r i v a c y remains t h e s i n g l e most s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r r e n t i n f l u e n c i n g r e t u r n t o r e s i d e n c e f o r b o t h groups; g r e a t e r f r e e -dom o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s more i m p o r t a n t t o s i n g l e s t u d e n t s t h a n t o m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s , perhaps due t o t h e g r e a t e r s o c i a l c i r c u l a t i o n o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s , and a more r e s t r i c t i n g s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n s i n g l e r e s i d e n c e s . S i m i l a r l y , c o s t i s a more i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e s i n g l e s t u d e n t s t h a n t h e m a r r i e d ; t h i s c o r r e l a t e s c l o s e l y w i t h T a b l e 7, w h i c h shows t h a t m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s have a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r income t h a n s i n g l e s t u d e n t s . 71. T a b l e 13A F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g n o n - r e t u r n o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s t o r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C., by degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r -c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e . F a c t o r Not I m p o r t a n t M o d e r a t e l y I m p o r t a n t V e r y I m p o r t a n t No Response D e s i r e f o r a change 11.8 14.4 10.6 62.0 D e s i r e t o P r e p a r e own M e a l s 15.5 10.4 11.1 62i0 More Freedom o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n 9.9 12.5 15.0 62.0 More P r i v a c y 8.3 11.6 17.0 62.0 Too E x p e n s i v e 10.6 12.8 12.8 62.0 Poor Grades (Not E l i g i b l e ) 29.8 2.3 2.5 64.5 Poor B e h a v i o u r (Not E l i g i b l e ) 32.8 .8 .6 65.0 Not E l i g i b l e , p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o younger s t u d e n t s 26.5 3.4 3.9 65.0 Not E l i g i b l e , n o t a f u l l t i m e s t u d e n t t h i s s e s s i o n 32.7 .1 .2 66.0 Source: AMS and U.B.C. Stu d e n t Housing Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-16. Note: I t i s assumed t h e l a r g e non-response p e r c e n t a g e a c c o u n t s i n p a r t f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who have n o t l e f t r e s i d e n c e . 72„ T a b l e 13B F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g n o n - r e t u r n o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s t o r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C., by degree o f i m p o r t a n c e and p e r -centage r e s p o n s e . F a c t o r Not I m p o r t a n t M o d e r a t e l y I m p o r t a n t V e r y Important No Response D e s i r e f o r a change 30.5 20.5 13.3 35.7 D e s i r e t o P r e p a r e own Meals 31.9 17.6 14.8 35.0 More Freedom o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n 24.8 18.6 21.4 35.0 More P r i v a c y 17.6 16.7 32.3 33.3 Too E x p e n s i v e 32.9 17.1 16.2 33.8 Poor Grades (Not E l i g i b l e ) 56.7 .5 3.3 39.5 Poor B e h a v i o u r (Not E l i g i b l e ) 58.6 .5 .5 40.5 Not E l i g i b l e , p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o younger s t u d e n t s 57.0 4.8 3.3 40.0 Not E l i g i b l e , n o t a f u l l t i m e s t u d e n t t h i s s e s s i o n 55.7 .0 2.9 41.4 Source: AMS and U.B.C. Student H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-16. 73. Lack o f p r i v a c y was a k e y f a c t o r among a l i s t o f g r i e v a n c e s e n c o u r a g i n g r e s i d e n c e s o f C a r i b o o House a t P l a c e V a n i e r t o submit a r e q u e s t t o t h e Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 6 demanding a compensatory r e b a t e o f $40 p e r s t u d e n t . 4 3 % o f t h e s i n g l e s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s -i d e n c e s f e l t r e s t r i c t e d by t o o many r u l e s i n r e s i d e n c e , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0% i n d i c a t e d t h e y would n o t c o n s i d e r r e t u r n i n g t o r e s i d e n c e ? 4 8 % o f m a r r i e d r e s i d e n c e s t u d e n t s o b j e c t e d t o the r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n c e , 2 5 % s a i d t h e y would not r e t u r n . ( T a b l e 1 4 ) . I n b o t h groups women tended t o o b j e c t more s t r o n g l y t o r e g u l a t i o n s t h a n men, a r e a c t i o n perhaps t o t h e g r e a t e r r e -s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d upon women's r e s i d e n c e s . The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t i n most c a s e s , r e s i d e n c e l i f e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n -d i v i d u a l — i n terms o f d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l ease and s k i l l s — but c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e nvironment a m i n i m a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e s t u d e n t ' s academic e d u c a t i o n ( T a b l e s 15, 1 6 ) . S t u d e n t s were asked w h i c h f a c t o r s t h e y c o n s i d e r e d most i m p o r t a n t i n c h o o s i n g a r e s i d e n c e on campus. Newness o f f a c -i l i t i e s , p r o x i m i t y t o c l a s s e s and good s i z e d rooms were seen as most i m p o r t a n t , low c o s t and atmosphere l e s s so (Table 1 7 ) . 26 The Vancouver Sun, F e b r u a r y 19, 1969. T a b l e 14 S t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C. who would n o t c o n s i d e r l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e a g a i n , b y p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e . 1 S i n g l e M a r r i e d i 1 Male Female Male Female Would c o n s i d e r r e t u r n i n g 68.6 60.0 32.0 19.3 Would n o t c o n s i d e r r e t u r n i n g 23.7 37.7 62.1 73.7 No Response 7.7 2.4 • 5.9 7.0 Sources AMC and U.B.C. S t u d e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-17. 75„ T a b l e 15 Pe r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n U n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C, who f e e l t h a t r e s i d e n c e l i f e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v -i d u a l , by degree and sex. I n Most Cases S i n g l e M a r r i e d Male Female Male Female 60.5 60.5 56.2 60.0 I n Some Cases 29.5 33.6 32.0 29.2 R a r e l y 7.9 4.5 8.9 6.1 No O p i n i o n 1.6 1.8 1.8 .0 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% S o u r c e : AMS and U.B.C. S t u d e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-5(a) 7 6 , T a b l e 16 Pe r c e n t a g e o f S i n g l e and M a r r i e d S t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n U n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C. who f e e l t h a t r e s i d e n c e l i f e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e academic e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d by th e s t u d e n t , by degree and sex. S i n g l e M a r r i e d Male Female Male Female A G r e a t D e a l 21.2 11.5 24.3 13.8 Some 43.7 38.7 42.0 40.0 L i t t l e 23.0 33.8 19.5 24.6 Not a t A l l 10.4 14.4 11.8 15.4 No O p i n i o n 1.2 1.6 1.2 3.1 T o t a l 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Sou r c e : AMS and U.B.C. St u d e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-5(b) T a b l e 17 F a c t o r s i m p o r t a n t t o s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n U n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e a t U.B.C. i n c h o i c e o f r e s i d e n c e , by im p o r t a n c e and p e r c e n t -age r e s p o n s e ; "0" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o n o t i m p o r t a n t , "5" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o v e r y i m p o r t a n t , on t h e r a t i n g s c a l e . F a c t o r M a r i t a l S t a t u s R a t i n g S c a l e - P o i n t s T o t a l 0 1 2 3 4 5 Atmosphere ( i . e . t y p e o f p e o p l e , i n f o r m a l i t y S i n g l e 11.5 35.3 21.1 18. 4 8.9 4.3 100.0% M a r r i e d 20.0 22.4 15.7 18.1 14.3 9.1 100.0% Nev/ness o f F a c i l i t i e s S i n g l e 24.7 10.1 15.4 15.2 12.1 20.1 100.0% M a r r i e d 29.0 10.0 13.8 11.0 12.4 21.4 100.0% Lov; Cost S i n g l e 15.3 20.1 21.4 18.1 11.7 12.1 100.0% M a r r i e d 16.2 32.9 22.9 16.7 5.7 5.2 100.0% Good S i z e d Rooms S i n g l e 17.9 11.0 21.7 22.4 19.1 7.4 100.0% M a r r i e d 19.5 17.1 24.8 19.1 12.4 5.7 100.0% P r o x i m i t y t o C l a s s e s S i n g l e 10.3 26.5 23.2 19.3 10.8 9.6 100.0% M a r r i e d 16.7 19.5 19.0 24.3 10.9 9.5 100.0% Source: AMS and U.B.C. Student Housing Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-12. 78„ Asked w h i c h r e s i d e n c e , based on t h e aoove c r i t e r i a , t h e y would p r e f e r t o l i v e i n , r e s i d e n t s chose t h e most modern accommodation, P l a c e V a n i e r and Totem Park, w h i l e F o r t Camp and A c a d i a Camp, t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s o l d e s t r e s i d e n c e s , were c o n s i d e r e d l e s s de-s i r a b l e . The T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e s were r a t e d t h e most unpop-u l a r , p r o o a b l y because few s t u d e n t s would t e n d t o i d e n t i f y d e e p l y w i t h t h e i r r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r and a f f i l i a t i o n ( T a b l e 1 8 ) . Over 50% o f t h e s i n g l e s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e i n -d i c a t e d t h e y w o u l d f a v o r i n t e g r a t e d r e s i d e n c e f a c i l i t i e s , w i t h male and female s t u d e n t s l i v i n g on a l t e r n a t e f l o o r s i n t h e same b u i l d i n g ; 6 2 . 1 % o f t h e men c o n s i d e r e d such a s i t u a t i o n de-27 s i r a o l e , 4 2 . 1 % o f t h e women. 27 AMS and U.B.C. S t u d e n t H o u s i n g Survey, S p r i n g 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-T a b l e 18 U.B.C. r e s i d e n c e s , by p r e f e r e n c e and p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e , f o r a l l s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e , on t h e b a s i s o f c h o i c e c r i t e r i a (Table 1 7 ) ; "0" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o "would n ot l i v e i n t h i s r e s i d e n c e , " "5" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o "would p r e f e r t o l i v e i n t h i s r e s i d e n c e , " on t h e r a t i n g s c a l e . R a t i n g S c a l e - P o i n t s R e s i d e n c e 0 1 2 3 4 5 T o t a l A c a d i a Camp 39.0 13.4 11.8 10.6 15.5 9.7 100.0% F o r t Camp 26.2 20.7 20.0 19.0 11.8 2.2 100.0% Totem Park 20.0 15.4 25.6 23.6 11.9 2.5 100.0% P l a c e V a n i e r (Lower M a l l ) 14.5 33.9 29.9 15.2 5.5 .1 100.0% T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e s 54.1 11.2 5.0 13.7 4.5 11.3 100.0% Source: AMS and U.B.C. Student Housing Survey, S p r i n g , 1968, Q u e s t i o n D-13 80, Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s S t u d e n t h o u s i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e -v e a l e d i n t h e AMS s u r v e y t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h a t h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t U.B.C, b o t h i n terms o f p o l i c y and e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k , i s based m a i n l y on q u a n t i t a t i v e and economic c r i t e r i a , f u l f i l l i n g t h e h o u s i n g demand o f a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t ; U.B.C p o l i c y b e a r s l i t t l e r e -l a t i o n t o t h e academic p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , o r t h e comprehensive u n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i e n c e . The most i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a f o r a l l s t u d e n t s i n d e t e r -m i n i n g h o u s i n g c h o i c e and l o c a t i o n a r e p r i v a c y , low r e n t , and t h e q u a l i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e accommodation. C l o s e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f s h o p p i n g , d i n i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f on-campus h o u s i n g , and p a r e n t s d e s i r e f o r t h e s t u d e n t t o l i v e a t home a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e , f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . Rent s t r u c t u r e , a d j a c e n c y t o campus, and t h e degree o f r e g u l -a t i o n s a p p l i e d i n t h e accommodation v a r y i n importance f o r m a r r i e d and s i n g l e s t u d e n t s , and s t u d e n t s l i v i n g o f f campus and t h o s e l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e . The range o f s t u d e n t accommodation s u p p l i e d on campus l a r g e l y i g n o r e s t h e t y p e s o f h o u s i n g s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r most d e s i r a b l e ; a l l s i n g l e s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t U.B.C i s s u p p l i e d s o l e l y on a room and b o a r d b a s i s , w h i l e o n l y 1 5 % o f a l l s i n g l e 81. s t u d e n t s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o n s i d e r e d t h i s a d e s i r a b l e t y p e o f accommodation. E x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s , on t h e o t h e r hand, c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y t o t h e h o u s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s , b u t i n terms o f s u p p l y , f a l l s f a r s h o r t o f demand. Al m o s t h a l f o f a l l m a r r i e d and s i n g l e s t u d e n t s i n d i c -a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o move i n t o accommodation c o n s t r u c t e d on or n e a r t h e campus, o f t h e t y p e t h e y c o n s i d e r e d most d e s i r a b l e , even i f r e n t e d a t t h e maximum r a t e t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o pay. Por s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e d accommodat-i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s and l a c k o f p r i v a c y were t h e most d i s s a t i s -f a c t o r y a s p e c t s o f r e s i d e n c e l i f e ; most f e l t t h a t w h i l e l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s o c i a l development o f t h e i n d i v -i d u a l , i t a c c o m p l i s h e d l i t t l e i n b e n e f i t t i n g academic e x p e r i e n c e . Newer, more s p a c i o u s accommodation was t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n -s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n c h o o s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d -ence a t U .B.C. S t u d e n t income i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h o u s i n g c h o i c e and r e n t s t r u c t u r e . M a r r i e d s t u d e n t income i s s u b s t a n t -a l l y h i g h e r t h a n s i n g l e s t u d e n t income, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o d i f -f e r e n c e s i n h o u s i n g c h o i c e and c o n c e p t s o f r e a s o n a b l e r e n t . U n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e f e e s would seem t o be more r e a l -i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o mortgage c o n d i t i o n s t h a n s t u d e n t income, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e case o f s i n g l e s t u d e n t s ; 7 3 % had incomes o f l e s s t h a n $1,000.00 d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y academic y e a r , y e t r a t e s f o r s i n g l e room d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d were s e t a t s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n $700. U.B.C. Ho u s i n g P o l i c y , i n terms o f i t s aims and g o a l s appears t o b e a r l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n g e n e r a l terms, t o e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s and c h o i c e f a c t o r s a p p l y i n g t o c u r r e n t s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t . I n i t i a t e d by t h e p r e s s u r e s o f h i g h demand and i n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y , U.B.C. p o l i c y a f t e r 25 y e a r s has n o t r e a l l y emerged from t h i s t r a d i t i o n ? i t remains b a s i c a l l y committed t o a p o l i c y o f a b s o r b i n g e x c e s s demand, and has e s t a b l i s h e d l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e academic development o f t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e u n i v e r s i t y . CHAPTER I I I H o u s i n g P o l i c y a t U.B.C. — Recommendations and P r o p o s a l s T h i s c h a p t e r p r o j e c t s t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l s u r v e y s t o t h e p o l i c y l e v e l and s u g g e s t s m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o c u r r e n t u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. E s s e n t i a l l y two l e v e l s o f p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o c c u r w i t h i n such a p r o -c e s s o f e x a m i n a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n : t h e a t t i t u d e s and p o l i c y o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g and t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f on campus accommodation7 and t h e r o l e o f u n i v -e r s i t y h o u s i n g i n t h e p l a n n i n g and development o f an i n t e g r a t e d u r b a n - u n i v e r s i t y community. The f o r m e r i s p r i n c i p a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f u n i v e r s i t y s p o n s o r e d s t u d e n t h o u s i n g ; h o u s i n g p r o p o s a l s and p o l i c y recommendations i n t h i s c o n t e x t f o c u s on such f a c t o r s as t h e range o f h o u s i n g t y p e s o f f e r e d on campus, t h e r e l a t i o n o f f e e s t o s t u d e n t income, t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t y space and f a c i l i t i e s , and t h e encouragement o f c o s t - r e d u c i n g schemes such as c o -o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g . The l a t t e r approach r e g a r d s t h e u n i v e r s i t y and a d j a c e n t urban a r e a as components o f a s i n g l e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t u n i t , t h e u n i v e r s i t y community — i t s e l f a f u n c t i o n a l segment o f t h e l a r g e r urban frame o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h w h i c h i t i n t e r a c t s . T h i s c o n c e p t a t t e m p t s t o d e l i n -e a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g a t t h e p o l i c y l e v e l t o t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f development p o l i c i e s f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y a r e a t h r o u g h a c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y , t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Com-m i s s i o n , a p r o p o s a l made by R.K. Gambhir i n a M a s t e r ' s degree t h e s i s a t t h e U.B.C. S c h o o l o f Community and Reg-i o n a l P l a n n i n g . 1 I t c annot be o v e r s t r e s s e d t h a t p r o p o s a l s a t b o t h l e v e l s o f p o l i c y a n a l y s i s must be t h e p r o d u c t o f a compre-h e n s i v e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t , i n t e g r a t i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and p l a n n e d e x p a n s i o n a t each l e v e l i n t o a c o n c e p t u a l whole, s e n s i t i v e t o t h e l a r g e r urban m a t r i x as w e l l as t h e unique a s p e c t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r h o u s i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y Sponsored S t u d e n t H o u s i n g E n r o l l m e n t i n c r e a s e s (Table 1) have e x e r t e d i n c -r e a s e d p r e s s u r e s on e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and e x p a n s i o n p r o -grams each academic y e a r a t U.B.C. a t an a l a r m i n g r a t e . Commenting on t h e e f f e c t o f g r e a t e r numbers Dr. Kenneth K a r e , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s i d e n t , d e c l a r e d t h a t " h i g h e r educ-a t i o n has r e a c h e d a c r i s i s p o i n t and we must a c t a t once i f s t u d e n t s and o t h e r s a r e n o t t o s u f f e r i r r e p a r a b l e l o s s . 2 o f o p p o r t u n i t y " . I n terms o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , Dr. Hare s a i d an immediate s t a r t i s r e q u i r e d a t U.B.C. on $25 m i l l i o n 1 R.K. Gambhir, " U n i v e r s i t y Community R e l a t i o n s h i p s " (un-p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s degree t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1966). 2 The Vancouver Sun, December 2, 1968 85. w o r t h o f b u i l d i n g s , w h i c h must be f o l l o w e d by an a d d i t i o n -a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t o f $60 m i l l i o n i n t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s . He added: "At p r e s e n t we have no c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s a t a l l 3 f o r new b u i l d i n g s t a r t s " . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t u n i v e r -s i t y h o u s i n g r e f l e c t t h e b r o a d development c o n d i t i o n s and g o a l s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , on b o t h t h e academic and p h y s i c a l base, as w e l l as t h e r e a l i t i e s o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g determ-i n a n t s and c h o i c e s . The f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s a r e i n t e n d e d as m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o c u r r e n t h o u s i n g p o l i c y a t U.B.C., i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 1. The problems o f s i z e — The problems o f i d e n t -i t y and p r i v a c y i n a l a r g e u n i v e r s i t y such as U.B.C. a r e v e r y r e a l , and must be r e g a r d e d as a p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r -a t i o n i n t h e d e s i g n and l a y o u t o f new r e s i d e n c e f a c i l i t i e s . L ack o f p r i v a c y was one o f t h e most p r e v a l e n t c o m p l a i n t s o f s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e on campus ( T a b l e s 13A, 13B), G r e a t e r p r i v a c y c o u l d be a c h i e v e d on a number o f l e v e l s . G r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e d e s i g n : o f i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r spaces i n r e s i d e n c e f a c i l i t i e s , as w e l l as t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g s and c i r c u l a t i o n system o f t h e campus, would a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t some degree o f c h o i c e 3 I b i d , December 2, 1968. 86. and c o n t r o l o v e r h i s l i v i n g e n vironment. G r e a t e r c o n t r o l by-s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a p p l i c -a t i o n o f r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n c e would i n t r o d u c e a g r e a t e r sense o f p r i v a c y i n t h i s a r e a . One method o f r e l a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t and t h e u n i v e r s i t y e n vironment more c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r under i n c r e a s i n g l y expand-i n g d i m e n s i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n t o r e a l i z i n g r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s c r i s i s , i s t o e f f e c t u a t e g r e a t e r use o f s t r u c t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . C l a s s r o o m , r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n -a l f u n c t i o n s have been s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n s i n g l e s t r u c t u r e s e l s e w h e r e ; t h i s would seem a v a l i d approach t o adopt i n terms o f p l a n n i n g f o r new e x p a n s i o n as w e l l as o p t i m -i z i n g t h e use o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . 2. Fees and f i n a n c e terms — Fees f o r u n i v e r s i t y s p o n s o r e d h o u s i n g do n o t r e f l e c t t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o pay ( T a b l e s 7, 8, 1 0 ) . A more r e a l i s t i c r e n t income r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d i n p a r t be a c h i e v e d by more l i b e r a l mortgage c o n d i t i o n s , a p r o p o s a l w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y must come under t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was p r e s e n t e d i n a b r i e f s u b m i t t e d t o t h e H e l l y e r Task F o r c e on H o u s i n g b y t h e U.B.C. Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i c h recom-mended t h a t u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g be f i n a n c e d on a b a s i s s i m i l a r t o low r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s under The N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t ; t h i s w o u l d i n v o l v e a 50% government g r a n t s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o 87. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n m o r t g a g i n g t o be p r o -v i d e d a t a r e d u c e d i n t e r e s t r a t e o f 3% p e r annum.^ Rent r e -d u c t i o n s t h r o u g h o p e r a t i o n a l s a v i n g s c o u l d be r e a l i z e d by i n v i t i n g s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e management and a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s . 3. U n i v e r s i t y i n i t i a t i v e i n c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g — The f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f s t u d e n t c o n c e r n w i t h h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s and c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g schemes s h o u l d be met by t h e u n i v e r s i t y . The Alma M a t e r S o c i e t y has been p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c erned w i t h h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e s and c o n d i t i o n s a t U.B.C, and has conducted a number o f s t u d i e s i n t h e s e a r e a s . S e v e r a l s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s have been i n i t i a t e d i n t h e Vancouver r e g i o n , a t b o t h U.B.C and Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , b u t i n s p i t e o f p l a n s f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as a c q u i s i t i o n and r e n o v a t i o n o f o l d homes, none have succeeded p r i n c i p a l l y because o f d i f f i -c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n s e c u r i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . The Canadian Un i o n o f S t u d e n t s has a l s o been a c t i v e i n e n c o u r a g i n g t h e con-s t r u c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e s i d e n c e s a t u n i v e r s i t i e s t h r o u g h -o u t t h e c o u n t r y as a means o f m e e t i n g s u p p l y c r i s e s and r e -d u c i n g h o u s i n g c o s t s t o s t u d e n t s . The f u n c t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w ould f o c u s on t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s ; t h e u n i v e r s i t y must a c t t o g u a r a n t e e l o a n s f o r t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e s t u d e n t h o u s i n g — much as i t d i d i n 4 The Ubyssey, November 13, 1968. 8 8 . u n d e r w r i t i n g funds n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t t h e r e c e n t l y comp-l e t e d S t u d e n t Union B u i l d i n g — i f t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e t o f u l f i l l a f u n c t i o n a l r o l e i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g p r o c e s s . G r e a t e r u n i v e r s i t y s u p p o r t o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w o u l d i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g , i n c r e a s e h o u s i n g c h o i c e , reduce s h o r t a g e s i n s u p p l y , and enhance t h e s t a t u s o f s t u d e n t c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n t h e eyes o f p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l f i n a n c e a g e n c i e s . 4. P r i v a t e development — A n o t h e r means o f m e e t i n g i n c r e a s e d h o u s i n g demand i s t o a l l o w p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s , under r e g u l a t e d c o n t r o l , t o c o n s t r u c t s t u d e n t h o u s i n g on o r ne a r t h e campus, under a scheme w h i c h g i v e s t h e u n i v e r s i t y p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a f t e r a p e r i o d o f 15 o r 20 y e a r s , o r a f t e r t o t a l c a p i t a l c o s t r e c o v e r y by t h e d e v e l o p e r s . T h i s c o u l d t a k e t h e form o f a l a n d l e a s e on t h e campus o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands f o r a s e t p e r i o d , r e g u l a t e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y . The quant-i t y and q u a l i t y o f h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t e d under such an agreement would be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y i n terms o f i t s a s s e s s -ment o f c u r r e n t and f u t u r e s t u d e n t h o u s i n g demand. 5. H o u s i n g range and s u p p l y — The c u r r e n t range and s u p p l y o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a t U.B.C, r e l a t i v e t o demand as i n d i c a t e d by t h e AMS Hou s i n g Survey, p o o r l y r e f l e c t s t h e on-campus h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f most s t u d e n t s . U n i v e r s i t y spon-s o r e d h o u s i n g i s o f f e r e d on a room and b o a r d b a s i s o n l y f o r s i n g l e s t u d e n t s ; one, two and t h r e e bedroom s u i t e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s . O n l y 1 5 % o f a l l s i n g l e s t u d e n t s i n d i c -a t e d t h e y p r e f e r r e d room and b o a r d i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s as t h e most s u i t a b l e form o f accommodation (Table 9 ) , w h i l e m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e was n o t enough h o u s i n g o f t h e t y p e t h e y r e q u i r e d on campus ( T a b l e s 9, 12A). The i n c r e a s i n g p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t c o n s t i t u t e s a f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e range o f u n i v e r s i t y s p o n s ored s t u d e n t h o u s i n g t o be o f f e r e d on campus. The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f Graduate S c h o o l s has recommended t h a t u n i v e r s i t y accommodation be p r o v i d e d f o r 75% o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s from a r e a s o t h e r t h a n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y ; i f t h i s s t a n d a r d i s t o be met t h e unique r e q u i r e -ments o f h o u s i n g such a, group must be r e g a r d e d as a p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n h o u s i n g p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . C l e a r l y , a g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e range and q u a l i t y o f h o u s i n g o f f e r e d on campus — r e f l e c t i n g t h e b r o a d range o f s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n d i v e r s i t y and h o u s i n g d e t e r m i n a n t s — i s e s s e n t i a l t o any program o f r e s i d e n c e e x p a n s i o n a t U.B.C. The i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n t r o d u c e d i n room l a y o u t and e a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e p l a n n e d W i r e l e s s Tower complex i s a s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . I n a l l t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , t h e u n i v e r s i t y , i f i t i s t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e h o u s i n g c h o i c e s o f t h e s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t , must t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e . Govern-ment a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s has t a c i t l y d e m onstrated i t s 90. r e l u c t a n c e t o expand i t s l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The a c t i v i t y o f t h e f e d e r a l government i s l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o a f i n a n c i a l commitment t o l i m i t e d forms o f s t u d e n t housing? t h e p r o v i n c i a l government has e x h i b i t e d l i t t l e sympathy f o r t h e problems o f development and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i n g e n e r a l , and p o s s e s s e s no s p e c i f i c p o l i c y towards s t u d e n t h o u s i n g . The c i t y o f Vancouver c o n s i d e r s s t u d e n t h o u s i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f , n o t o f t h e c i t y o r o f i t s c i t i z e n s . W i t h o u t a genuine p o l i c y commitment on t h e p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , b o t h i n terms o f s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s and a comp-r e h e n s i v e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t , l i t t l e can be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e a l i s t i c program f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s t u d e n t accommodation c a p a b l e o f f u l f i l l i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g demand, r e f l e c t i n g t h e unique c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f h o u s i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v e r s i f i e d group o f i n d i v i d u a l s , as w e l l as t h e b r o a d development g o a l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e c i t y i t s e l f . H o u s i n g and t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t T h i s second approach i s concerned w i t h t h e r o l e o f u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e l a r g e r p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t . The f o r m u l a t i o n and a p p l i c -a t i o n o f h o u s i n g p o l i c y , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , must be c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e g r a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y a r e a as a whole. 91. Gambhir n o t e s t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r -a c t i o n between t h e u n i v e r s i t y and a d j a c e n t urban a r e a s and t h e m o d i f y i n g impact o f t h e former on t h e l a t t e r , b o t h j u r i s d i c t i o n s t e n d t o i g n o r e one a n o t h e r i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n arid implement-a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g and development p o l i c i e s . W h i l e some ad-hoc c o o p e r a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d i n terms o f p l a n n i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s and a d j a c e n t a r e a s , w i t h o u t an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d development a u t h o r -i t y o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , l i t t l e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n terms o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f l o n g - r a n g e comprehensive p o l i c i e s . W i t h o u t such a means o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , t h e g o a l s o f each o f t h e numerous a u t h o r i t i e s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l l y c o n c erned w i t h s e c t o r s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y a r e a i n many ca s e s t e n d t o con-f l i c t w i t h one a n o t h e r , i g n o r i n g t h e consequences o f t h e i r a c t i o n s on t h e p o l i c i e s o f r e l a t e d a g e n c i e s . On t h e s e bases t h e n , Gambhir c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f campus p l a n n i n g w i t h t h e l o n g - r a n g e comprehensive p l a n n i n g o f a d j a c e n t urban a r e a s i s b o t h d e s i r a b l e and e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e development o f t h e a r e a as a whole. He proposes t h a t a U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y a r e a , t o have e f f e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e e n t i r e d i s t r i c t . Membership o f the Commission would i n c l u d e v a r i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , a f f e c t e d m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e departments o f r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l gov-ernment, and i n t e r e s t e d boards and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Such a s y s t e m w o u l d p o s s e s s a l l t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f a c o r p o r a t e o r g a n -i z a t i o n : t h e Commission w o u l d a c t i n a s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and s e m i - j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n ; d e c i s i o n s would be made on t h e b a s i s o f s p e c i f i c p o l i c y , w h i l e t h e c o l l e c t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n o f funds would be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h a s i n g l e 5 c o o r d i n a t e d a u t h o r i t y . C l e a r l y , w i t h i n such a p r o c e s s , a comprehensive and i n t e g r a t e d approach t o t h e p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e development c i r c u m s t a n c e s and p o l i c i e s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t as a whole can be r e a l i s -t i c a l l y a t t a i n e d . O u t l i n e d below a r e h o u s i n g p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s w h i c h c o u l d be f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n t h e comprehensive p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s o f such a development a u t h o r i t y : 1. The p r o v i s i o n o f off-campus h o u s i n g t h r o u g h s t u d e n t c o o p e r a t i v e s -and p r i v a t e s p e c u l a t i v e p r o j e c t s c o u l d be implemented t h r o u g h such a c o o r d i n a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o z o n i n g p o l i c y w i t h i n t h e e n v i r o n s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . E f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s u i t e s , apartments and row h o u s i n g w i t h e x i s t i n g development i n t h e s e a r e a s w o u l d t e n d t o e l i m i n a t e much o f t h e l o c a l a r e a resentment t o s t u d e n t h o u s i n g , as w e l l as a l l e v i a t e t h e poor q u a l i t y and u n d e r - s e r v i c e d c o n d i t i o n many o f t h e s e p r e s e n t l y 5 R.K. Gambhir, op. c i t . , p. 9 3 - 9 7 . 93 o i l l e g a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e p l a g u e d w i t h . Through t h e comprehensive p l a n n i n g mechanism o f t h e Commission, t h i s accommodation would be l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t on t h e b a s i s o f o p t i m -i z i n g l o c a t i o n and c o s t c r i t e r i a , such as d i s t a n c e from campus, t y p e o f accommodation, occupancy, e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s u p p l y and h o u s i n g demand, and t h e q u a l i t y o f e x i s t i n g development. 2. The U.B.C. Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , as a f u n c t i o n a l p a r t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission, would be a b l e t o l i s t and s u r v e y a l l e x i s t i n g and p l a n n e d off-campus s t u d e n t accommodation i n t h e a r e a , and t h r o u g h t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e Commission a p p l y and e n f o r c e s t a n d a r d s w i t h r e s p e c t t o such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s , degree o f s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , and r e n t s t r u c t u r e . 3. U n i v e r s i t y commuting and p a r k i n g p o l i c i e s c o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h h o u s i n g p o l i c y ; a c l o s e l o c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p between s t u d e n t h o u s i n g and e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes and c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s would i n c r e a s e commuting e f f i c i e n c y , r educe on-campus demands f o r p a r k i n g , and d i m i n i s h u n i v e r s i t y g e n e r a t e d t r a f f i c p r e s s u r e s i n a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . 4. Urban r e n e w a l schemes w i t h i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y d i s -t r i c t c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f b o t h u n i v e r s i t y and m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s , u p g r a d i n g e x i s t i n g a r e a f a c i l i t i e s t o meet t h e needs o f b o t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y and l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ; s t u d e n t h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s and a m e n i t i e s c o u l d be more f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g urban s t r u c t u r e i n 9 4 , t h i s manner. 5. U n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g , as a f u n c t i o n a l p a r t o f a comp-r e h e n s i v e development a u t h o r i t y and a s p e c i f i c development p o l i c y , w o u l d be i n a p o s i t i o n t o a t t r a c t i n c r e a s e d government s u p p o r t , from b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s . F e d e r a l a i d c o u l d be c h a n n e l e d i n t o s p e c i f i c u n i v e r s i t y i n i t i a t e d e x p a n s i o n programs, i n v o l v i n g on campus c o n s t r u c t i o n , s t u d e n t c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s , p r i v a t e l e a s e developments, e t c e t e r a , w h i l e a p r o v i n c i a l agency s i m i l a r t o t h e O n t a r i o S t u d e n t H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n w o u l d p l a y a major r o l e i n t h e r e s e a r c h , d e s i g n and f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f s t u d e n t h o u s i n g . I n s h o r t , t h e co n c e p t o f a u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y o f f e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g comprehensive h o u s i n g programs, on b o t h s h o r t and l o n g range t e r m s , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a g e n e r a l i z e d development p o l i c y a p p l i c a b l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e s u r r o u n d -i n g urban d i s t r i c t . 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