Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Field dependency of good versus poor readers as measured by the children's embedded figures test Murphy, Lorne William 1970

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1970_A8 M87.pdf [ 2.93MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0103969.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0103969-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0103969-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0103969-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0103969-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0103969-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0103969-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0103969-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0103969.ris

Full Text

FIELD DEPENDENCY OF GOOD VERSUS POOR READERS AS MEASURED BY THE CHILDREN'S EMBEDDED FIGURES TEST by L o m e W i l l i a m Murphy B.Ed. ( S ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, .1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 19 70 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e 1 3 J u l y 1 9 7 0 i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d the d i f f e r e n c e i n f i e l d i n d ependent-dependent p e r c e p t i o n o f good r e a d e r s as compared w i t h poor r e a d e r s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o t r y t o p a r -t i a l o u t o r e l i m i n a t e the e f f e c t s o f e x t r a n e o u s b u t i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s . An attempt was made t o e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : ( i ) l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h spoken E n g l i s h , ( i i ) v i s u a l d e f e c t s , ( i i i ) s e x , ( i v ) age, and (v) num-be r o f y e a r s i n s c h o o l . The e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d was n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . A t o t a l o f 49 second-grade boys c o n s t i t u t e d the sample of t h i s s t u d y . : Of t h e s e , 26 comprised the good-reader group and 23 t h e p o o r - r e a d e r group. They a t t e n d e d e i g h t p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f Richmond, B.C. Three i n s t r u m e n t s were employed. These were the Metro-p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , P r i m a r y B a t t e r y I I , Form B, "Reading S t o r i e s " s u b t e s t , the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n ( V e r b a l S c a l e ) , and the C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t . . The s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d were one-way a n a l y s i s o f co-v a r i a n c e and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The main h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l o f f i e l d independence among good r e a d e r s than among poor r e a d e r s w i t h the e f f e c t s . o f n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i -gence c o n t r o l l e d . The d a t a d i d not u p h o l d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . A s u b - h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n ' f i e l d independence and r e a d i n g comprehension, when l e v e l o f v e r b a l IQ was s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . The d a t a d i d h o t s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The s i n g l e v a r i a b l e which c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h r e a d i n g comprehension was n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ. I n a d d i t i o n , v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e was a c o n s i d e r a b l y more v a l i d p r e d i c t o r o f f i e l d dependency than was r e a d i n g comprehension, which accoun-t e d f o r a l m o s t none of the f i e l d dependency v a r i a n c e . The n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s and t h e a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g comprehension and f i e l d dependency were d i s c u s s e d i n terms of the s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r the CEFT. I t was f e l t t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o c e d u r e p o s s i b l y i n v i t e s a good d e a l o f e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e i t a p p a r e n t l y rewards r e f l e c t i v e r e sponses and p e n a l i z e s i m p u l s i v e r e s p o n s e s . An a l t e r n a t e s c o r i n g t e c h n i q u e was proposed which might reduce th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n by t h e . e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e o f i m p u l s i v i t y - r e f l e c t i v i t y i n responding•. i v TABLE .OF" CONTENTS CHAPTER, Page I , THE PROBLEM,.... . . . . . ... • . 1 Some S i g n i f i c a n t A s p e c t s o f ..Perception as They. R e l a t e t o Reading . . • • • 2 R e l a t e d Research . . . . . . . . 5 Statement o f the Problem . 10. Hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . • ? • •• • • • - 1 3 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms. ' 13 X I . METHOD 16 S u b j e c t s . . . . . . . . ... 16 T e s t I n s t r u m e n t s Used . . . . . • . 17 V i s u a l A c u i t y Measure 17 F i e l d Dependency Measure . . . , . 19 Reading Comprehension Measure. . . . . . . . . 22 V e r b a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Measure. .-. . . . . .•. . 25 Research D e s i g n . 26 Pro c e d u r e i n T r e a t i n g Data . . . . . . . . . . 27 T e s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s and P r o c e d u r e s 28 I I I . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 A n a l y s i s o f Data . . . • 31 L i m i t a t i o n s o f G e n e r a l i z i n g from t h i s Study. . 40 V CHAPTER Page IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . 41 FOOTNOTES. 44 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . 47 APPENDIX 51 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I . A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f 26 Good and 23 Poor Readers' F i e l d Dependency L e v e l s . . . . . . . . . 30 I I . A Comparison o f Reading Comprehension Scores f o r Good and Poor Readers . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 I I I . A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f 10 Good and 10 Poor Readers' F i e l d Dependency L e v e l s . . . 35 IV. S c o r e s A c h i e v e d by A l l S u b j e c t s . . . . . . . . . 52 V. Main C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x 54 V I . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e V a r i a b l e s S t u d i e d I • 54 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM / 'Many t e a c h e r s have wondered'why v a r i o u s r e g u l a r and r e m e d i a l approaches t o t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g a r e e f f e c t i v e w i t h some p u p i l s and n o t w i t h o t h e r s . P o s s i b l y one r e a s o n i s t h a t i n • c o m m u n i c a t i n g by the p r i n t e d word, i t i s t a c i t l y assumed " t h a t " t h e v i s u a l f i e l d p r e s e n t e d i s t h e same f o r a l l o b s e r v e r s . However, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t n o t a l l p e r c e i v e an a p p a r e n t l y s t a n d a r d f i e l d i n the same way. An example i s the well-known g o b l e t problem, i n which some persons p e r c e i v e a w h i t e g o b l e t w h i l e o t h e r s see two gr e y f a c i a l p r o f i l e s . T h i s s t u d y grew out o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t "the way one p e r c e i v e s t h e p r i n t e d page i s c l o s e l y . r e l a t e d t o how w e l l he und e r s t a n d s what he r e a d s . How might t h i s knowledge, h e l p us t o improve r e a d i n g ? One p o s s i b l e answer i s t o t r a i n t h e poor r e a d e r t o p e r c e i v e v i s u a l f i e l d s i n the manner o f t h e good r e a d e r . Whether o r not t h e former can be so t r a i n e d i s , of' c o u r s e , an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . One attempt t o - d i f f e r e n t i a t e . p e o p l e on t h e way i n which they p e r -c e i v e v i s u a l f i e l d s w i l l now: be d e s c r i b e d . 2 Some S i g n i f i c a n t A s p e c t s o f P e r c e p t i o n as They R e l a t e  t o Reading W i t k i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e way one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p e r c e i v e s one's p h y s i c a l environment i s l o c a t e d on a continuum which ranges from " v e r y f i e l d d epen-dent " a t one end t o "ve r y f i e l d i n dependent" a t t h e o t h e r , w i t h most persons f a l l i n g near t h e middle.''" S i m i l a r l y , s c o r e s from a r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t a l s o span a continuum be- ' tween e x c e l l e n t comprehension a t one.end and poor comprehension a t t he o t h e r . The m a j o r i t y of s c o r e s f a l l i n the m i d d l e . W i t k i n has shown .that p e o p l e t e n d t o p e r c e i v e i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y f i e l d dependent o r f i e l d i ndependent manner. S i m i l a r l y , r e f e r e n c e t o everyday e x p e r i e n c e would seem t o i n -d i c a t e t h a t a pe r s o n ' s l e v e l o f performance on r e a d i n g compre-h e n s i o n measures tends t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h o r low. Indeed i t i s uncommon t o f i n d a s t u d e n t who has g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g what he reads one day and none the n e x t , g i v e n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i m i l a r i n d i f f i c u l t y and i n o t h e r f a c t o r s . Thus b o t h f i e l d dependency and r e a d i n g comprehension l e v e l seem to. be c o n s i s t e n t i n any one pe r s o n and b o t h seem t o be d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g c o n t i n u a . I s t h e r e any e v i d e n c e t h a t r e a d -i n g comprehension and f i e l d dependency may be r e l a t e d ? A c c o r d i n g t o W i t k i n , t h e f i e l d i ndependent p e r s o n i s a b l e t o . p e r c e i v e a s t i m u l u s o b j e c t a p a r t from t h e f i e l d i n whic h i t o c c u r s . He i s not c o n f u s e d by t h e o v e r a l l f i e l d - , b u t i s a b l e t o examine i t a n a l y t i c a l l y by s e p a r a t i n g an i t e m 3 from i t i n o r d e r t o p e r c e i v e t h e i t e m c l e a r l y . I n o t h e r words, he sees t h e p a r t s o f a f i e l d as d i s c r e t e . He performs r e l a -t i v e l y w e l l on c o n c e a l e d - and embedded-figures t y p e s o f t e s t s such as t h e G o t t s c h a l d t Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t (EFT) employed by W i t k i n . The f i e l d dependent p e r s o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s r e l a t i v e l y iLess a b l e t o s e p a r a t e an i t e m from i t s c o n t e x t . He. sees t h e f i e l d i n a r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d manner. He tends t o be l e s s c l e a r l y aware o f t h e components o f t h e f i e l d . When he t r i e s t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e components c l e a r l y , the f i e l d i t s e l f seems.to co n t a m i n a t e o r mo d i f y h i s . p e r c e p t i o n o f them. He f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o s e l e c t a / p o r t i o n o f t h e f i e l d f o r some s p e c i f i c p u rpose. A p p a r e n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s i s a n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y . When f i r s t he p e r c e i v e s an o r g a n i z e d f i e l d , he g r a s p s a dominant G e s t a l t w i t h i n i t . Then he f i n d s i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o p e r c e i v e t h i s same f i e l d as h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t G e s t a l t , even when t h e second G e s t a l t may be more u s e f u l t o him tha n the f i r s t . . He performs r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y 2 on t e s t s such as the EFT. In t h e t y p i c a l r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n , t h e stu d e n t , has a passage t o r e a d . T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d as a f i e l d , t h e com-ponents o f w h i c h a r e i t s s e n t e n c e s . These p a r t s may be gr a s p e d and r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r more o r l e s s a c c u r a t e l y . When t h e s t u d e n t f i n i s h e s r e a d i n g , he may o r may not have some, i d e a o f t h e paragraph's o v e r a l l meaning ( t h a t i s , he 4 e i t h e r has o r has not p e r c e i v e d some k i n d o f G e s t a l t w i t h i n t h e f i e l d ) . The s t u d e n t i s now asked some s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s based on t h e p a r a g r a p h j u s t r e a d , q u e s t i o n s w h i c h o f t e n nec-e s s i t a t e the l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s d i r e c t l y s t a t e d i n t h e p a r a g r a p h . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e s t u d e n t must, f o r each q u e s t i o n , r e o r g a n i z e o r r e s t r u c t u r e h i s p e r c e p -t i o n o f t h e f i e l d so t h a t the answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n i s now the most apparent i t e m i n i t . The f i e l d i ndependent s t u d e n t , w i t h g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e t h e ^ f i e l d and i t s components a n a l y t i c a l l y and c l e a r l y , s h o u l d g e t more c o r r e c t answers. I n a d d i t i o n , the more f i e l d i n dependent s t u d e n t has t h e advan-tage o f g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e f i e l d so t h a t , t h e most ap p a r e n t t h i n g i n i t i s the answer he s e e k s . He s h o u l d a g a i n be a b l e t o produce more c o r r e c t answers. W i t k i n o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d f i e l d dependency as a s c o r e on the EFT,.a measure a a b i l i t y t o disembed a s i m p l e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e from i t s complex s e t t i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o v iew t h e r e a d i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f as p a r t l y one whereby th e r e a d e r disembeds l e t t e r s from s u r r o u n d i n g l e t t e r s , words from s u r r o u n d i n g words, and s e n t e n c e s from t h e c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s f o r m i n g a passage. T h i s view o f r e a d i n g assumes added s i g n i f i c a n c e whenever th e r e a d e r i s asked t o r e a d a passage and t h e n t o go back and q u i c k l y i s o l a t e key words and p h r a s e s i n , o r d e r t o answer comprehension t e s t q u e s t i o n s . Thus i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d -5 i n g comprehension may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i e l d dependent - f i e l d i ndependent p e r c e p t i o n , as measured by a c h i l d r e n ' s . v e r s i o n o f the EFT. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was f e l t t h a t f i e l d dependent c h i l d r e n would have more d i f f i c u l t y i n a n s w e r i n g comprehension q u e s t i o n s than would f i e l d i ndependent c h i l d r e n . R e l a t e d " R esearch P o l p n i - d e - L e v i e c o nducted a s t u d y a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . '" She compared t h e EFT performance of 28 r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s o f e i g h t and n i n e y e a r s o l d w i t h 25 normal c o n t r o l s o f the same ages. The M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading T e s t used y i e l d s a measure of r e a d i n g comprehension., The s u b j e c t s were matched on the O t i s Quick S c o r i n g M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t . The main f i n d i n g was t h a t t h e EFT performance o f t h e r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s was s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more f i e l d dependent than t h a t o f , t h e normal c o n t r o l s . A l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e between the'groups on t h e number o f EFT i t e m s c o r r e c t was not s i g n i f i c a n t , i t became s i g n i f i c a n t when the s c o r e s were a d j u s t e d f o r ; t i m e t a k e n on t h e EFT. Thus the r e t a r d e d , r e a d e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s l o w e r i n a n a l y z i n g t h e EFT f i g u r e s c o r r e c t l y . ^ I n a s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 40 male and 43 female s e v e n t h and e i g h t h g r a d e r s , S t u a r t compared t h e EFT performance o f a good-r e a d e r group w i t h a p o o r - r e a d e r group. The M e t r o p o l i t a n Read-i n g T e s t was t h e r e a d i n g comprehension measure employed. I n t e l l i g e n c e appears t o have been p a r t i a l l e d o u t and was based on group IQ t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d from one t o f o u r y e a r s p r e v i o u s t o the s t u d y . The main f i n d i n g was t h a t on t h e EFT t h e good r e a d e r s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a t t h e one p e r c e n t l e v e l and t h i s f i n d i n g h e l d f o r one-sex c o m p a r i s o n s . S t u a r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t many s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s may have i n -f l u e n c e d t h e d a t a ; however, i t appeared t o him t h a t the f i e l d dependency v a r i a b l e may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g comprehen-s i o n l e v e l . ^ H i g g i n s and Gage a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t and t h e EFT t o 12 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a r e a d i n g improvement program. A t the end o f the nine-week c o u r s e , t h e s t u d e n t s were r e t e s t e d on an a l t e r n a t e form o f t h e N e l s o n -Denny. A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e b e t t e r p e r f o r m e r s on t h e EFT p r o f i t t e d from i n s t r u c t i o n , whereas the p o o r e r EFT p e r f o r m e r s d i d not."* Cohn a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e Sangren-Woody Reading T e s t and the EFT t o 59 male and 63 female s i x t h g r a d e r s . Designed f o r use a t t h e grade f o u r t o e i g h t l e v e l s , t h e Sangren-Woody y i e l d s seven s e p a r a t e s c o r e s . The e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s e x p e r i -m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d were: l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the E n g l i s h language, s e n s o r y i m p a i r m e n t , s i g n i f i c a n t problems i n word a n a l y s i s , and h e a l t h and e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g . The e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d were sex and. v e r b a l , n o n v e r b a l , and t o t a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . ~ The L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e IQ t e s t was t h e measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e used. The r e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between f i e l d i n d e p -7 endence and the measures o f a b i l i t y t o l o c a t e d e t a i l s , a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y main i d e a s , and a b i l i t y t o a r r a n g e a group o f e v e n t s i n t h e sequence i n which t h e y o c c u r r e d . No such r e l a -t i o n s h i p o b t a i n e d between f i e l d independence and t h e o t h e r measures o f v o c a b u l a r y , r a t e o f r e a d i n g , a b i l i t y t o c h a r a c t e r -i z e a mood o r e v e n t , and a b i l i t y t o f o l l o w p r i n t e d d i r e c t i o n s . Conn's c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t EFT performance c o r r e l a t e s most h i g h l y w i t h t h e t h r e e comprehension s k i l l s t h a t demand the o r g a n i z a t i o n o r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f u n f a m i l i a r . a n d c o n c e p t u a l m a t e r i a l s . These s k i l l s i n v o l v e d " l i f t i n g o u t " o f t h e p a r a g r a p h whatever was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e t a s k , a b i l i t y t o i m p o s e . s t r u c -t u r e on what was r e a d , a b i l i t y t o r e a d a c t i v e l y as opposed t o p a s s i v e l y , and/or a b i l i t y t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e passage f o r new 6 p u r p o s e s . • B r u i n i n k s a d m i n i s t e r e d a c h i l d r e n ' s v e r s i o n o f the EFT, the C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t (CEFT), and t h e M e t r o -p o l i t a n Reading T e s t t o 105 Negro boys whose mean age was 8.07.' The S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t was used t o measure v e r b a l IQ. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n between the CEFT and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n o f .37, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . The f i r s t - o r d e r p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h v e r b a l IQ h e l d con-s t a n t , however, ; f e l l t o .28, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t 7 l e v e l . S i n c e B r u i n i n k employed the r e l a t i v e l y new CEFT, the same i n s t r u m e n t used i n . t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s f i n d i n g i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . 8 A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d s u g g e s t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i e l d dependency and r e a d i n g comprehension,' i t i s the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t each s t u d y f a i l e d t o c o n t r o l one or more i n f l u e n t i a l e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s a d e q u a t e l y . F o r example, t h r e e o f t h e f i v e s t u d i e s made no mention o f c o n t r o l -l i n g f o r l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h spoken E n g l i s h , a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h would a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y h a n d i c a p a p u p i l on a r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t . A n o t h e r p o o r l y c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e was s e x , - a l t h o u g h W i t k i n and o t h e r s have found i m p o r t a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n g f i e l d dependency. Only two s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d c o n t r o l l i n g f o r v i s u a l a c u i t y , although, good v i s i o n would seem t o be a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t e s t -i n g : on t h e EFT. C l e a r l y , one cannot disembed what one l a c k s t h e v i s u a l a c u i t y t o see. Of t h e s t u d i e s w h i c h c o n t r o l l e d f o r v i s u a l a c u i t y , n e i t h e r r e p o r t e d t h e c r i t e r i o n employed, a l t h o u g h the Cohn s t u d y d i d r e p o r t a r e l i a n c e on the r e c o r d s o f t h e s c h o o l n u r s e . S c h o o l nurses,-however, f r e q u e n t l y employ w a l l c h a r t s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . A more s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m must now be c o n s i d e r e d . A l t h o u g h i t has f r e q u e n t l y been s t a t e d t h a t v e r b a l IQ i s a f a c t o r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i n r e a d i n g performance, i n t e l l i g e n c e was n o t c o n t r o l l e d a t a l l i n one s t u d y and i n a d e q u a t e l y i n t h e o t h e r s . F o r example, o n l y one s t u d y made use o f an i n d i v i d u a l IQ t e s t , one o t h e r d i d n o t r e p o r t t h e measure used, and t h e 9 o t h e r s r e l i e d on group measures which i n v o l v e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and hence a r e l e s s f a c t o r i a l l y "pure" t h a n t h e best-known i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s . The i n d i v i d u a l t e s t r e f e r r e d t o was t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , w h i c h i n c l u d e s some performa n c e - t y p e s u b t e s t s as w e l l ~as ' s t r i c t l y n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l s u b t e s t s . F i n a l l y , t h r e e o f the f i v e s t u d i e s employed s u b j e c t s judged by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o be t o o o l d f o r a f i e l d dependency-r e a d i n g comprehension s t u d y , f o r r e a s o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y . The Cohn. st u d y w a r r a n t s s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s , s i n c e i t was t h e b e s t - e x e c u t e d o f t h o s e r e v i e w e d and i s i n some ways b a s i c t o t h e p r e s e n t study.. The comments r e g a r d i n g age, v i s u a l a c u i t y , and group IQ measures a p p l y t o Cohn. I n a d d i t i o n , Cohn employed th e EFT, whereas t h i s s t u d y used t h e CEFT, f o r r e a s o n s . t o be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e Sangren-Woody r e a d i n g t e s t used was d e v e l o p e d i n 19 28 f o r use w i t h grades f o u r t o e i g h t and hence was not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s s t u d y . F i n a l l y , s i n c e Cohn r e j e c t e d s u b j e c t s who had r e c e i v e d r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g , h i s sample tended t o f u n c -t i o n a t t h e average l e v e l o r b e t t e r and thus g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y from h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d . Because no s i n g l e s t u d y a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d a l l o f t h e v a r i a b l e s d i s c u s s e d , i t was t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t the p r e s e n t s t u d y was r e q u i r e d . 10 Statement o f t h e Problem The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o de t e r m i n e whether o r no t t h e r e a re s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d dependence-independence between good and poor r e a d e r s . The s t u d y a l s o sought t o d e t e r m i n e t o what degree f i e l d i n d e p e n -dence i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o f i c i e n t performance i n r e a d i n g comprehension. To a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e aims, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s . Sex v a r i a b l e . . T h i s s t u d y c o n t r o l l e d f o r sex by u s i n g o n l y boys. Age v a r i a b l e . ; Second-grade b o y s , o f seven and e i g h t y e a r s o l d were s e l e c t e d ' f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , s i n c e t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d , i d e a l l y , be a b l e to.comment on t h e s u i t a -b i l i t y of. t h e p e r c e p t u a l measure as a p r e d i c t o r o f p o s s i b l e r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n Grade One, i t was f e l t t h a t the s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be c l o s e t o the age o f b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n ^ g e n e r a l l y f i v e o r s i x y e a r s o l d . Second g r a d e r s a r e as c l o s e t o t h i s age as i t i s p o s s i b l e t o be and s t i l l have had enough r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on a r e a d i n g t e s t . , Second, i t was d e s i r e d t o s a t i s f y t h e c o n d i t i o n o f age homo-g e n e i t y which., a c c o r d i n g t o Belmont and B i r c h , i s t o o o f t e n 9 v i o l a t e d i n r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h . I n o t h e r words, b o t h groups i n t h i s s t u d y were of t h e same ages, i n c o n t r a s t t o many o t h e r s t u d i e s which compare groups o f w i d e l y d i s p a r a t e ages. T h i r d , i t was f e l t t h a t many o f t h e e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s which un-d o u b t e d l y confound f i e l d d e pendency-reading comprehension 11 s t u d i e s a t o l d e r ages wou ld e i t h e r n o t o p e r a t e o r o p e r a t e a t r e d u c e d l e v e l s w i t h younge r c h i l d r e n . F o r e x a m p l e , i t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t a c h i l d m i g h t have been f i e l d dependen t a t age f i v e o r s i x , y e t i s f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n t a t age t w e l v e when he m i g h t n o n e t h e l e s s be a poor , r e a d e r . P e r h a p s what i s most s i g n i f i c a n t abou t t h i s t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d poo r r e a d e r i s n o t t t h a t he i s f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n t now, b u t t h a t he w a s , f i e l d dependen t  when he began t o l e a r n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f r e a d i n g . T h i s i s a most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t , and i s b a s e d upon t h e f i n d i n g o f W i t k i n e t a l t h a t young - c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e i n a r e l a t i v e l y f i e l d d e p e n -d e n t f a s h i o n , becoming more f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n t as t h e y grow o l d e r . I t i s p r o b a b l e , t h e n , t h a t by t he t i m e a p o o r . r e a d e r r e a c h e s t h e s i x t h g r a d e , r e a d i n g has assumed t h e n a t u r e o f an a v e r s i v e s t i m u l u s f o r h i m , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f h i s c u r r e n t l e v e l o f f i e l d dependency . Thus i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e younge r t h e s u b -j e c t s t he l e s s c o n t a m i n a t e d wou ld be t he r e s u l t s a n d , t h e r e -f o r e , t h e more u s e f u l wou ld t h e y be f o r r e a d i n g g e n e r a l l y and f o r e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , s e v e n - a n d e i g h t - y e a r - o l d s appea red t o be i d e a l s u b j e c t s : o l d enough t o r e a d , b u t n o t o l d enough t o c o n t a m i n a t e t h e d a t a w i t h t he e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s more l i k e l y t o e x i s t amongst o l d e r c h i l d r e n . V i s u a l - a c u i t y v a r i a b l e . . I n t h i s s t u d y no p u p i l was s e l e c t e d who had a s e r i o u s v i s u a l d e f i c i e n c y as measured by t h e K e y s t o n e T e l e b i n o c u l a r . 12 E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e v a r i a b l e . Only p u p i l s from homes w h e r e i n E n g l i s h was spoken e x c l u s i v e l y were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y . S c h o o l - e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e . No s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d who had r e p e a t e d a s c h o o l grade. Thus a l l s u b j e c t s were equated on number o f y e a r s o f exposure t o f o r m a l r e a d i n g i n -s t r u c t i o n . R e a d i n g - a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e . . Two t y p e s o f p u p i l were s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s : one. group was composed o f boys judged by t h e i r t e a c h e r s t o be w e l l below t h e i r c l a s s average i n r e a d i n g , w h i l e t h e o t h e r group were judged t o be w e l l above c l a s s a v e r a g e . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o c o n t r a s t good and poor r e a d e r s on f i e l d dependency. I n t e l l i g e n c e v a r i a b l e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d f o r n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by the V e r b a l S c a l e o f t h e Wec h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l -d r e n (WISC). V e r b a l IQ was c o n t r o l l e d s i n c e i t was d e s i r e d t o o b t a i n a measure o f r e a d i n g comprehension e x c l u s i v e o f t h e c o n t a m i n a t i n g e f f e c t s o f v e r b a l IQ. The WISC V e r b a l S c a l e s u g g e s t e d i t s e l f as an i d e a l measure f o r t h i s s t u d y s i n c e i t c o n t a i n s ' n o performance o r r e a d i n g t a s k s . On t h e o t h e r hand, n o n - v e r b a l IQ was. n o t c o n t r o l l e d . F a c t o r a n a l y s e s by W i t k i n and o t h e r s produced common-factor l o a d i n g s from t h e EFT and t h e WISC Performance S c a l e . S u b s t a n t i a l l o a d i n g s were obser v e d from t h e EFT and t h e WISC s u b t e s t s o f P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n , B l o c k D e s i g n , and O b j e c t Assembly."'"''' Because o f t h e s e common 13 l o a d i n g s , i t seemed t h a t t o have p a r t i a l l e d o u t t h e Performance s c o r e s would p r o b a b l y have d e p r i v e d t h e s t u d y o f much of t h e i n d i v i d u a l - d i f f e r e n c e s v a r i a n c e on the CEFT, wh i c h c l o s e l y r e s e mbles t h e EFT. Hypotheses W i t h the e f f e c t s o f n o n - r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e h e l d c o n s t a n t " a n d u s i n g o n l y one sex, a group o f good r e a d e r s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f i e l d i ndependent t h a n a group o f poor r e a d e r s (at t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -c a n c e ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s main h y p o t h e s i s , a* s u b - h y p o t h e s i s h o l d s t h a t w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f n o n - r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e h e l d c o n s t a n t and u s i n g o n l y one s e x , t h e m o r e . p r o f i c i e n t t h e performance on a t e s t o f r e a d i n g comprehension, t h e more h i g h l y f i e l d i n dependent w i l l be the p e r c e p t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Fo r t h e purpose o f c l a r i f y i n g t h e terms used i n the s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were used: Reading, comprehension. T h i s i s t h e s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o r e a d a passage and t o demonstrate t h a t he has u n d e r s t o o d i t by a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s based upon i t on a t e s t o f r e a d i n g comprehension. T h i s s t u d y employed t h e "Reading S t o r i e s " s e c t i o n o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , P r i m a r y B a t t e r y I I , Form B, as t h e measure of r e a d i n g comprehension., Good r e a d e r . I n t h i s s t u d y , a good r e a d e r was one who was judged by h i s t e a c h e r t o be above the mean o f h i s c l a s s ) 14 i n r e a d i n g and who o b t a i n e d more th a n 18.5 p o i n t s i n r e a d i n g comprehension on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading s u b t e s t d e s c r i b e d above.. o . ... Poor r e a d e r . A poor r e a d e r , i n t h i s s t u d y , was one judged b y , h i s t e a c h e r t o be below h i s c l a s s mean i n r e a d i n g and who o b t a i n e d a s c o r e . o f l e s s t h a n 18.5 on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n F i e l d dependency.,. A c c o r d i n g t o W i t k i n , t h i s i s each pe r s o n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way-of p e r c e i v i n g v i s u a l s t i m u l i . I t e x i s t s on a continuum w i t h v e r y f i e l d i ndependent a t one end and v e r y f i e l d dependent a t t h e o t h e r . Most persons f a l l -"somewhere i n t h e m i d d l e r e g i o n s . As o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d by W i t k i n , f i e l d dependency i s t h e a b i l i t y t o overcome an embeddi c o n t e x t ; t h a t i s , the a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e a s i m p l e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e embedded i n a complex c o n t e x t such as i s p r e s e n t e d by c o n c e a l e d - o r embedded-figures t e s t s . The measure o f f i e l d dependency employed i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y was t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t (CEFT). , F i e l d dependent. I n t h i s s t u d y , a s u b j e c t was p e r c e p -t u a l l y f i e l d dependent who o b t a i n e d a s c o r e below t h e sample mean s c o r e on t h e CEFT. A c c o r d i n g t o W i t k i n , t h e f i e l d depen-d e n t person's p e r c e p t i o n o f a , s t i m u l u s o b j e c t i s dominated by th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f i e l d s u r r o u n d i n g i t . He sees t h e •parts of t h e f i e l d as f u s e d and i s r e l a t i v e l y u n a b l e t o sep-r • a r a t e a p a r t from i t s f i e l d . He performs r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y on t e s t s such as the CEFT. 15 F i e l d . i n d e p e n d e n t . I n t h i s s t u d y , a s u b j e c t was p e r -c e p t u a l l y f i e l d i ndependent who s c o r e d above the sample mean s c o r e on the CEFT. Witki'n d e s c r i b e s the f i e l d i ndependent p e r s o n as one who i s a b l e t o p e r c e i v e s t i m u l u s o b j e c t s a p a r t from t h e i r c o n t e x t s . He sees the p a r t s o f a f i e l d as d i s c r e t e and i s a b l e t o s e p a r a t e a p a r t from i t s f i e l d . He performs r e l a t i v e l y w e l l on t e s t s such as t h e CEFT. H e r e i n a f t e r f i e l d dependent w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as " f d " and f i e l d i ndependent as- " f i " . . \ CHAPTER I I METHOD S u b j e c t s F o r t y - n i n e boys o f 7 and 8 y e a r s o l d were s e l e c t e d from second grade c l a s s e s i n e i g h t Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i c schools,. Boys were chosen because they i n v a r i a b l y p r e s e n t more r e a d i n g problems t h a n g i r l s and hence poor r e a d i n g boys were c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r t o o b t a i n . P a r e n t a l c o n s e n t was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e t e s t i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , each boy had t o s a t i s f y t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : , ( i ) had n o t r e p e a t e d a grade; ( i i ) came from a home i n which E n g l i s h was used e x c l u s i v e l y ; and ( i i i ) had no s e r i o u s v i s u a l a c u i t y d e f e c t s . T w e n t y - s i x boys r a t e d as above t h e i r c l a s s average i n r e a d i n g by t h e i r t e a c h e r s and who s c o r e d above 18.5 on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n r e a d i n g s u b t e s t and 23 r a t e d . a s below average and who s c o r e d below 18.5 on the M e t r o p o l i t a n were s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o c o n t r a s t good and poor r e a d e r s on t h e f i e l d dependency v a r i a b l e . No r e p e a t e r s were us e d , t o e l i m i n -a t e any c o n t a m i n a t i o n which might a r i s e due t o an a d d i t i o n a l y e a r o f exposure t o f o r m a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l f o r v i s u a l a c u i t y i n o r d e r t o measure uncontaminated p e r c e p t i o n . 17 The Richmond S c h o o l D i s t r i c t (No.38) was chosen because i t i n c l u d e s urban' and suburban s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s and s t r a d d l e s v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s . The s c h o o l s , w e r e s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t . . . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e t h e Richmond S c h o o l D i s t r i c t does not s e g r e g a t e p u p i l s f o r purposes o f r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o choose one good r e a d e r from the same c l a s s as a g i v e n poor r e a d e r . Thus each good r e a d e r was a c l a s s m a t e o f one o f the poor r e a d e r s i n alm o s t a l l c a s e s . I n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h e n , the d i f f e r e n c e s i n compre-h e n s i o n r e v e a l e d by t h e r e a d i n g t e s t r e f l e c t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between comprehension and f i e l d dependency, r a t h e r than between comprehension and one o r more o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . T e s t I n s t r u m e n t s Used V i s u a l A c u i t y Measure The Keystone V i s u a l Survey T e l e b i n o c u l a r t e s t o f v i s u a l a c u i t y was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o an i n i t i a l s u b j e c t p o o l of 79 boys. The T e l e b i n o c u l a r i s a v i s u a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t t o d e t e c t under-convergence, low u s a b l e v i s i o n , and overconvergence a t b o t h 12 near and f a r p o i n t s . . Only t h o s e boys who showed no s i g n s o f s e r i o u s v i s u a l d e f e c t s were a c c e p t e d f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . A t o t a l o f 19 boys had t o be r e j e c t e d on v i s u a l a c u i t y grounds. 18 V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . The manual gives no i n f o r -mation on the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f - t h i s instrument. In 1948, Sulzman et a l . decided that i t s r e l i a b i l i t y i n the de-tection of heterophoria was as great as certain accepted 13 c l i n i c a l t e s ts. Steinbaum and Kirk compared the Telebinocular with the Snellen Chart and found i t to be 18% more accurate 14 than the Snellen. In a study involving f i r s t and sixth graders, Crane et a l . , compared the percentages of r e f e r r a l s made on the basis of the Telebinocular with those referred by three ophthal-mologists. Where the s p e c i a l i s t s referred 23% of the f i r s t graders (N =606), the Telebinocular referred 19%. At the sixth grade l e v e l (N = 609), the s p e c i a l i s t s referred-31% against 23.5% for the Telebinocular. However, the Telebino-cular also referred 40% of the f i r s t graders and 33% of the 15 sixth graders i n c o r r e c t l y . Thus, while the Telebinocular was f a i r l y - e f f i c i e n t i n detecting substandard v i s u a l function-ing, i t tended to refer many children unnecessarily. Working with school^age children again, Robinson repor-ted a . s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between r e f e r r a l s made by two ' 16 s p e c i a l i s t s and those made using the Telebinocular. An excerpt from the Journal of the American Medical  Association i n Buros 1 Third Yearbook concludes with the follow-ing statement: 19 The J o i n t Committee on I n d u s t r i a l - Ophthalmology b e l i e v e s t h a t the T e l e b i n o c u l a r , : u s e d w i s e l y by a p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d t e s t e r , w i l l uncover subnormal v i s u a l performance n o t d e t e c t e d : by the common i n d u s -t r i a l p r a c t i c e o f t e s t i n g f o r c e n t r a l v i s u a l a c u i t y alone.17 -I t would appear, t h e n , t h a t the T e l e b i n o c u l a r was s u i t -a b l e f o r t h e purposes and f o r the age group of t h i s study..' A l t h o u g h the manual r e p o r t s no s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , i t does g i v e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the t e s t i n g and r e -f e r r a l o f young c h i l d r e n . These and o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s were c a r e f u l l y f o l l o w e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Because o f the o v e r ^ - r e f e r r a l tendency o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , some c h i l d r e n were r e j e c t e d who s h o u l d p r o b a b l y not have been. On t h e o t h e r hand, the p r o b a b i l i t y o f any o f t h e p u p i l s s e l -e c t e d ;having s e r i o u s v i s u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s seems t o be low, . and c o n s i d e r a b l y l ower t h a n would have been the case had r e j e c -t i o n been based on the u s u a l w a l l c h a r t . F i e l d Dependency Measure The Karp and K o n s t a d t C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t 18 was t h e measure of p e r c e p t i o n used i n t h i s study.. W i t k i n ' s o r i g i n a l t e s t b a t t e r y i n c l u d e d the Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t . I t i s t h e one always used by W i t k i n , even i n h i s r a p i d assessment 19 b a t t e r y . Of the W i t k i n measures, t h e EFT i s e a s i e s t t o a d m i n i s t e r and r e q u i r e s no s p e c i a l equipment o r c o n d i t i o n s . Thus, i t i s t h e t e s t most f r e q u e n t l y used by i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the a r e a o f f i e l d dependency. . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n (CEFT) was used i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r i g i n a l EFT. 20 Much of the r e s e a r c h on p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e has been con-d u c t e d w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t e d s u b j e c t s such as c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , f o r whom the o r i g i n a l o r s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d EFT i s w e l l s u i t e d . When young c h i l d r e n are used as s u b j e c t s , however, an examina-t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s themselves and o f the s u b j e c t s ' l e v e l o f performance would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l EFT o r i t s s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s are s i m p l y t o o d i f f i c u l t , - A t l e a s t one. group of i n v e s t i g a t o r s , f e l t the need t o m o d i f y th e EFT b e f o r e 20 u s i n g i t w i t h c h i l d r e n . I t was f o r t h e s e reasons t h a t Karp and K o n s t a d t d e v e l o p e d th e CEFT. The CEFT i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d measure which i t s a u t h o r s f e e l i s more i n t e r e s t i n g t o c h i l d r e n t h a n t h e a d u l t EFT. The CEFT c o n s i s t s o f two s t i m u l u s f i g u r e s h a v i n g the form o f a t e n t and a house and two s e t s o f m u l t i - c o l o u r e d complex f i g u r e s , most of which a r e s t y l i z e d v e r s i o n s o f r e c o g -n i z a b l e c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s . Each of t h e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e s i s embedded i n one o f - t h e s e t s o f complex f i g u r e s . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and t r a i n i n g t r i a l s a r e p r o v i d e d . The s u b j e c t must l o c a t e t h e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e i n each of. t h e complex f i g u r e s . Items a r e p a s s e d o r f a i l e d on the b a s i s o f the f i r s t ; c h o i c e . U n l i m i t e d t i m e i s a v a i l a b l e t o the s u b j e c t . The maximum o b t a i n a b l e s c o r e i s 25. R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . The manual r e p o r t s an i n t e r -n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .9.0 f o r seven and e i g h t y e a r o l d " b o y s , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t " s t a t e d how t h i s was d e r i v e d . V a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s u b j e c t s e i g h t and under 21 are n o t r e p o r t e d . F o r t h e 9 t o 12 y e a r o l d s , W i t k i n * s EFT was used as t h e c r i t e r i o n measure f o r o b t a i n i n g v a l i d a t i o n d a t a on the.CEFT. F o r the boys i n t h i s group, EFT - CEFT c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .70 f o r 9 and 10 y e a r o l d s t o .86 f o r 11 and 12 y e a r o l d s . The authors, f e e l t h a t the lower r f o r t h e younger boys i s t h e r e s u l t o f . l o w e r e d r e l i a b i l i t y of- t h e EFT c r i t e r i o n a t age 9 (.75 as compared w i t h .90 a t age .11).. When the 9-year c o e f f i c i e n t s : a r e c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n of t he EFT, th e y r e a c h .80 and a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e o b t a i n e d f o r . t h e 11 y e a r o l d s . These f i g u r e s sug-g e s t t h a t a l m o s t a l l o f t h e r e l i a b l e v a r i a n c e o f t h e CEFT may be a c c o u n t e d . f o r by common v a r i a n c e w i t h the EFT. The r e a s o n why c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d a t i o n was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e under-9 group i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d by the a u t h o r s : The v e r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h g a v e ; r i s e t o t h e need f o r a s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n ' s v e r s i o n o f EFT, i . e . , t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t , p r e c l u d e v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s which i n v o l v e c o r r e l a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s and a d u l t s ' v e r s i o n s because each t e s t i s d e s i g n e d f o r , a d i f f e r e n t age group. Only a t t h e b o r d e r s between age g r o u p s , where b o t h t e s t s can be used, i s such c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d a t i o n p o s s i b l e . T h i s k i n d o f d a t a was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e 9 and 11 y e a r o l d s and demon-s t r a t e d a high, degree o f v a l i d i t y . Such r e s u l t s c a n n o t , o f c o u r s e , e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e same degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p r e s e n t a t younger ages. F o r c h i l d r e n below 9, some method o t h e r t h a n c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d a t i o n i s needed,21 A l t h o u g h c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l -a b l e , something can be s a i d about .content v a l i d i t y . C o n t e n t 22 v a l i d i t y can be examined b y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t e s t t a s k s . . I n the CEFT,.the c h i l d i s asked t o l o c a t e a s i m p l e s t i m u l u s f i g u r e w h i c h has been c l e v e r l y -concealed i n a s e r i e s o f drawings o f 22 f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s . The s i m p l e s t i m u l u s i s p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n -e o u s l y w i t h t h e complex f i g u r e s : o f t e n enough t o be remembered w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y by most c h i l d r e n . I f , . h o w e v e r , t h e c h i l d f o r g e t s t h e appearance o f t h e s t i m u l u s , he may r e q u e s t t o see i t a g a i n a t any t i m e . S i n c e t h e l o a d on memory.is thus g r e a t l y r e d u c e d , the CEFT would appear t o be an even f a c t o r i a l l y p u r e r measure t h a n the EFT which never p e r m i t s s i m p l e and complex f i g u r e s t o be viewed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . To.perform s u c c e s s f u l l y on the CEFT appears t o r e q u i r e an. a c t i v e approach t o the t a s k , the a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e components a p a r t from t h e i r c o n t e x t , and the a b i l i t y t o l i f t a component from one G e s t a l t f o r use i n a n o t h e r . These are a l l q u a l i t i e s w hich W i t k i n c l a i m s c h a r -23 a c t e r i z e the f i p e r s o n . Thus th e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o n t e n t v a l i d a t i o n appear t o be met by t h e CEFT f o r c h i l d r e n o f 5 t o 12 y e a r s o l d . Reading 'Comprehension Measure A l l s u b j e c t wrote Form B of t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement 24 T e s t , P r i m a r y B a t t e r y I I , Reading s u b t e s t . Only t h e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "Reading S t o r i e s " was a d m i n i s t e r e d . T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t e n passages o f i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y about w h i c h t h e c h i l d must answer 37 r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s . Three o r f o u r m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e answers are p r o v i d e d f o r each q u e s t i o n . Three, f o u r , o r f i v e q u e s t i o n s a r e asked a f t e r each passage. The "Reading S t o r i e s " s e c t i o n was chosen t o t h e e x c l u -s i o n of t h e "Reading Sentences" s e c t i o n because i t seemed t o be a v a l i d and s u f f i c i e n t measure o f r e a d i n g comprehension. 23 When a p e r s o n reads a book o r a newspaper,'the b e s t way t o measure how w e l l he has u n d e r s t o o d what he r e a d i s t o ask him q u e s t i o n s about th e c o n t e n t . I n r e a l l i f e one i s not concerned w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f s p e l l i n g o r word a t t a c k . One i s more l i k e l y t o measure comprehension by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i l e i g n o r i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s o f r e a d i n g . T h i s t h e , M e t r o p o l i t a n does by h a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t answer q u e s t i o n s based upon i t s p a r a g r a p h s . , The chosen s e c t i o n was a l s o i d e a l as a measure of the f i e l d dependency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l a r i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n o f components, a b i l i t y t o r e o r g a n i z e a f i e l d f o r new p u r p o s e s , and a b i l i t y t o impose s t r u c t u r e on a f i e l d . ' T h i s i t accom-p l i s h e s by f o r c i n g the c h i l d t o r e a d a passage and then t o f i n d s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s and main i d e a s and t o r e c a l l sequences, the a c t i v i t i e s found by Conn i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r t o c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h f i e l d dependency. R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y i s r e p o r t e d as .94 f o r t h e r e a d i n g s u b t e s t as a whole, w i t h t h e N o f 400 t y p i f y i n g h i g h , average and low performance on t h e 25 t e s t . A l t e r n a t e - f o r m s r e l i a b i l i t y i s not quoted b u t s h o u l d be c l o s e t o t h e s p l i t - h a l f c o e f f i c i e n t . A l l the items were chosen from t h e same pool' and are s a i d t o be s i m i l a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o average d i f f i c u l t y and range.of d i f f i c u l t y . The norm group f o r the second grade r e a d i n g t e s t has an N o f 10,218 p u p i l s , a l l a t age f o r t h e i r grade l e v e l and a l l s l i g h t l y above 100 IQ p o i n t s on t h e P i n t n e r G e n e r a l A b i l i t y T e s t . They were randomly chosen from the Grade 2 s t a n d a r d i z -a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n o f w h i c h they c o n s t i t u t e 25%. The a u t h o r s 24 s t a t e t h a t "The minimum number o f p u p i l s per grade i n the f i n a l norm group was. a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d , b e i n g s e t a t a l e v e l i n e x c e s s of t h a t n e c e s s a r y t o y i e l d n a t i o n a l norms of h i g h 26 s t a b i l i t y . " The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n i t s e l f was s e l -e c t e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s i z e and t ype of s c h o o l system, l o c a t i o n (49 s t a t e s ) , t ype of community, and IQ l e v e l on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . The s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement i s 2.8 f o r the second grade r e a d i n g s u b t e s t (N = .400) . " T h i s i s w i t h i n one s t a n i n e o f t h e mean. • The o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n on v a l i d i t y i s c o n f i n e d t o c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . A l t h o u g h i t e m - s e l e c t i o n f o r m u l a e are n o t mentioned i n t h e manuals, i t was noted above t h a t items were c a r e f u l l y chosen w i t h r e s p e c t t o range o f d i f f i c u l t y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e manual g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : The second s e c t i o n o f the.Reading T e s t i s a 38-item measure of a b i l i t y t o comprehend m a t e r i a l s - o f p a r a g r a p h l e n g t h . The s e l e c t i o n s i n the t e s t are s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e t o . t h e t ype of c o n t e n t t h a t the p u p i l encoun-t e r s i n p r i m e r s . They a r e c a r e f u l l y g r a d u a t e d i n d i f f i c u l t y t h r o u g h c o n t r o l o f v o c a b u l a r y , sentence l e n g t h and s t r u c t u r e and o v e r a l l l e n g t h . Each r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o measure v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f r e a d i n g comprehension.2V Reading comprehension i s viewed as i n v o l v i n g f o u r a b i l i t i e s : 1. A b i l i t y t o s e l e c t t h e main thought o f a passage, o r t o judge i t s g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . . 2. A b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d the l i t e r a l meaning of t h e s e l e c t i o n , o r t o l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l i c i t l y s e t f o r t h . 3. A b i l i t y t o see the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the i d e a s s e t f o r t h i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and t o draw c o r r e c t i n f e r e n c e s from th e s e l e c t i o n . 25 4. A b i l i t y t o d etermine the meaning of a word from c o n t e x t o r t o judge from th e c o n t e x t which of s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e meanings i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e one.28 R e a d a b i l i t y i n d i c e s were computed f o r each p a r a g r a p h u s i n g t h e L o r ge and F l e s c h f o r m u l a . I n a d d i t i o n , a c a r e f u l s t u d y was made o f n a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a , e x p e r t judgement was s o l i c i t e d , and r e p e a t e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n i t e m d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t . W h i l e t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e format used c o u l d i n v i t e gues-s i n g by. some s u b j e c t s , . o n l y f o u r s u b j e c t s r a t e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s as poor r e a d e r s i n t h i s s t u d y s c o r e d i n t h e good-r e a d e r range. I n summary, i t would appear t h a t t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n r e a d -i n g comprehension t e s t was one o f the most s u i t a b l e f o r the purpose o f t h i s study.-V e r b a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Measure The V e r b a l S c a l e o f the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t f o r C h i l d r e n ;(WISC) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o a l l s u b j e c t s . The reasons f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n w e r e . d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I . R e 1 i a b i l i t y and v a 1 1 d i t y . The WISC manual r e p o r t s i n -f o r m a t i o n on s u b t e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y , b u t n o t h i n g on v a l i d i t y . The V e r b a l S c a l e - F u l l S c a l e c o r r e l a -t i o n f o r 7-1/2 y e a r o l d s i s r e p o r t e d as .90 w i t h N = 200. For 7-1/2 y e a r o l d s , t h e odd-even s p l i t - h a l f / r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i -c i e n t i s l i s t e d as .88 w i t h a c o r r e c t i o n f o r f u l l l e n g t h by t h e Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a . The s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement 29 a t 7-1/2 y e a r s i s r e p o r t e d as 5.19 IQ u n i t s w i t h N = 200. 26 A n y t h i n g t h a t can be s a i d about t h e ; v a l i d i t y f o r the WISC must be based on the r e s e a r c h i t has g e n e r a t e d s i n c e t h e 1949 d a t e o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e manual. Twenty y e a r s o f such r e s e a r c h have shown the WISC t o be a . h i g h l y v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t when v a l i d i t y i s d e f i n e d as c o n c u r r e n t . W r i t i n g i n Buros' F o u r t h Yearbook, McCandless r e p o r t e d WISC V e r b a l - S t a n f o r d -B i n e t (L) r ' s o f .69 t o .82 ."^° I n r e v i e w s i n Buros' F i f t h Yearbook, F r a s e r p l a c e s the f i g u r e a t around .80 and P a t t e r s o n 31 • a t .70 t o . 9 0 . A l s o i n the F i f t h Yea r bo ok., R a b i n r e p o r t s g e n e r a l l y h i g h r ' s between t h e WISC and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r 32 m e n t a l measures. Research.pes i g n T w e n t y - s i x s u b j e c t s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e good-reader group and 23 t h e p o o r - r e a d e r group. The M e t r o p o l i t a n r e a d i n g t e s t was t h e independent measure and the CEFT the dependent measure. An a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was performed on t h e d a t a . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean s c o r e o f the good-reader group and the mean s c o r e ' o f the p o o r - r e a d e r group on the dependent measure was examined f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . Thus t h e good r e a d e r s were compared w i t h t h e poor r e a d e r s on t h e f i e l d depen-dency v a r i a b l e . A n o t h e r approach i s d e f e n s i b l e , whereby the s u b j e c t s a r e n o t d i v i d e d i n t o t w o g r o u p s , High and Low, b u t t h e i r a c t u a l r e a d i n g s c o r e s a re used i n a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n t o . p r e d i c t f i e l d dependency s c o r e s . f r o m r e a d i n g comprehension and WISC V e r b a l s c o r e s . The.'drop i n the R o c c a s i o n e d by d r o p p i n g r e a d i n g comprehension from t h e e q u a t i o n i s i n f a c t t h e squared 2 p a r t - c o r r e l a t i o n , r ( M e t r o p o l i t a n WISC'Verbal) , .whose v a l u e c l e a r l y p r o v i d e s an answer t o the major q u e s t i o n o f the s t u d y . I t g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of. t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f i v a r i a n c e a c counted f o r by d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading, comprehension when no n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c o n t r o l l e d . P r o c e d u r e i n T r e a t i n g Data The d a t a w e r e . s u b j e c t e d t o a one-way a n a l y s i s o f co- . v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e WISC V e r b a l s c o r e s as c o v a r i a t e . T h i s ana-l y s i s was performed u s i n g t h e UCLA H e a l t h S c i e n c e s Computing F a c i l i t y BMD X82 programme. The ANACOVA t e c h n i q u e was employed i n o r d e r t o s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l v e r b a l IQ so t h a t , comparisons c o u l d be made between t h e means o f t h e "good" r e a d e r s on t h e CEFT and t h o s e o f t h e "poor" r e a d e r s , w i t h o u t t h e c o n t a m i n a t i n g e f f e c t o f the c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a b l e . C o v a r i a n c e adjustment was judged a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s t u d y s i n c e i t met t h e c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d by K i r k w h i c h f o l l o w 1. The e x p e r i m e n t c o n t a i n s one o r more s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n b e l i e v e d ' t o a f f e c t t h e dependent v a r i -a b l e and c o n s i d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f the e x p e r i m e n t . 2. E x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l o f t h e e x t r a n e o u s s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n i s e i t h e r n o t p o s s i b l e o r n o t f e a s i b l e . 3. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a measure of t h e ex-t r a n e o u s v a r i a t i o n t h a t does not i n c l u d e e f f e c t s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the trea t m e n t . 3 3 28 A l s o u n d e r l y i n g t h e use o f ANACOVA i s the assumption t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dependent and the c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a b l e remains the same w i t h i n b o t h g r o u p s , t h a t i s , , t h a t the r e g r e s -s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e the same f o r b o t h " t r e a t m e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . " The d e s i g n 'of t h i s s t u d y l e n t i t s e l f t o a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e BMD X82 programme. T h i s i s a l i n e a r h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g model w h i c h performs a one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e u s i n g one o r more c o v a r i a t e s . As i n t h i s s t u d y , groups may be unequal i n s i z e . The programme t e s t s f o r e q u a l i t y o f s l o p e from group t o group. The main h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T e s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s . a n d P r o c e d u r e s The t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d o u t on a p r e d e t e r m i n e d s c h e d u l e . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading T e s t was the f i r s t t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d . L a t e r on the same day, each boy was g i v e n t h e CEFT. I n most cases o n l y a few hours s e p a r a t e d t h e s e t e s t s , b u t i n some cases as long, as a week i n t e r v e n e d between them.. The WISC was the l a s t t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d . No more th a n two and a h a l f months i n t e r v e n e d between the CEFT and the WISC. The t e s t i n g b e g a n , i n e a r l y J a n u a r y , 1970 and was completed by t h e end o f ' March, 19 70. A l l t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d o u t by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n o r d e r t o reduce examiner v a r i a n c e . The s c h o o l s t a f f rooms, m e d i c a l rooms, and l i b r a r i e s s e r v e d as t e s t i n g rooms. A l l t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d and s c o r e d i n accordance w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e manuals. The Metr o -p o l i t a n . w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d as a. group t e s t t o a l l t h e s u b j e c t s i n any one s c h o o l . I n t he s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n s , raw s c o r e s were used f o r t h e CEFT and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n . The WISC s c o r e s a re i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s i n s t a n d a r d i z e d form. A l l s i x WISC V e r b a l s u b t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d and t h e s c a l e d s c o r e s were p r o r a t e d . \ CHAPTER I I I RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Ta b l e IV o f the Appendix c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g d a t a : ( i ) raw s c o r e s on the, r e a d i n g t e s t , ( i i ) raw s c o r e s on t h e CEFT, and ( i i i , ) . WISC V e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . T a b l e I below summarizes the main r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y f o r 49 s u b j e c t s , 26 i n . t h e good-reader group and 23 i n the p o o r - r e a d e r group. From an o r i g i n a l p o o l o f 55 s u b j e c t s f o u r poor r e a d e r s and two good r e a d e r s were e l i m i n a t e d because o f a marked d i s p a r i t y between.teacher r a t i n g o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d - r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t r e s u l t s . The r e m a i n i n g 49 s u b j e c t s were e i t h e r good o r poor r e a d e r s on the b a s i s o f two c r i t e r i a : ( i ) . t e a c h e r judgement, and ( i i ) r e a d i n g t e s t p e r -formance. TABLE I A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e of 26 Good and 23 Poor Readers' F i e l d Dependency L e v e l s R e s i d u a l s Source o f Degrees o f Sum o f Mean V a r i a t i o n - Freedom Squares - Square r -CEFT means a d j u s t e d f o r WISC V e r b a l 1 18.32 18.32 1.02 Zero S l o p e 1.. 100.19 100.19 5.58 E r r o r 46 826.50 17.97 E q u a l i t y o f S l o p e s 1 13.28 • .. 13.28 . 0 .74 E r r o r 45 • 813.22 18.07 • * S i g n i f i c a n t beyond the 0.05 l e v e l . 31 A n a l y s i s o f Data From T a b l e I i t w i l l be seen t h a t t h e F - v a l u e o f t h e ze r o s l o p e t e s t was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , w hich means t h a t n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o CEFT s c o r e s and was j u s t i f i e d i n b e i n g used as a c o v a r i a t e . The e q u a l i t y o f s l o p e s t e s t was'not s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s means t h a t the s l o p e s o f the two groups are e s s e n t i a l l y e q u a l and t h a t . the c o v a r i a n c e c o n d i t i o n o f s i m i l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e groups was met. Thus t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e , d i f f e r e n c e between t h e group means was j u s t i f i e d -W i t h the s u b j e c t s s t a t i s t i c a l l y equated on n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r mean s c o r e on the CEFT was p r e d i c t e d f o r good r e a d e r s as compared w i t h poor, r e a d e r s . The p r o c e d u r e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was d e s c r i b e d i n Ch a p t e r I I . From T a b l e I i t w i l l be seen t h a t ah F v a l u e o f 1;02 w a s . o b t a i n e d . A t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s t a t i s -t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i t h 1 and 46 degrees o f freedom, t h i s v a l u e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The d a t a d i d not c o n f i r m the h y p o t h e s i s . The good r e a d e r s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e . f i t h a n t h e poor r e a d e r s when n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ was c o n t r o l l e d . To d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s , w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e conc o m i t a n t , v a r i a b l e c o n t r o l l e d , a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d o u t i n wh i c h CEFT s c o r e s were p r e d i c t e d by m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n on the j o i n t M e t r o p o l i t a n and WISC V e r b a l s c o r e s . Then t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n was e l i m i n a t e d from t h e e q u a t i o n and 32 o t h e m u l t i p l e R r e c a l c u l a t e d . T h i s p r o c e d u r e performed e s s e n -t i a l l y t h e same f u n c t i o n , as. t h e ANACOVA, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t the former : p r e s e r v e s t h e o r i g i n a l r e a d i n g s c o r e s i n s t e a d 2 of l a b e l i n g them Good o r Poor. The r e s p e c t i v e m u l t i p l e R ' s were ...16556 and .16423. The p r o p o r t i o n o f C E F T ' v a r i a n c e p r e d i c t a b l e from t h a t p a r t o f r e a d i n g comprehension t h a t i s independent o f nonread-o 2 i n g - v e r b a l IQ i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between R~ ,, and R_, . . , , ^ F u l l R e s t r i c t e d and amounts, t o an i n s i g n i f i c a n t . 0.001. T h i s q u a n t i t y i s a l s o . t h e squared p a r t c o r r e l a t i o n , o f t h e CEFT and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n , . w i t h the WISC (V) p a r t i a l l e d o u t . o f t h e l a t t e r . Thus a l m o s t none of t h e CEFT v a r i a n c e i s l i n e a r l y p r e d i c t a b l e from t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n r e a d i n g , s c o r e s , f r e e d o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f non-r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ, f o r the s u b j e c t s - a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . On t h e . o t h e r hand, when p r e d i c t i n g CEFT s c o r e s from j o i n t , r e a d i n g . c o m p r e h e n s i o n and n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ s c o r e s 2 and t h e n e l i m i n a t i n g the l a t t e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between R F u ^ 2 . 2 and R . . . , i s 0.1014, th e p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e con-S TZ 2 T 1 C "C6 Q. t r i b u t e d by WISC V e r b a l , f r e e d o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n . I n o t h e r , words, about 10%' o f t h e CEFT v a r i a n c e can'be ac c o u n t e d f o r i n terms o f a b i l i t i e s t h a t e n t e r i n t o s u c c e s s f u l performance on the WISC V e r b a l , b u t t h a t do n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o s u c c e s s f u l performance on t h e , M e t r o p o l i t a n . A n o t h e r way. o f e x p r e s s i n g t h i s i s t o say t h a t t h e squared p a r t c o r r e l a t i o n o f the CEFT and t h e WISC V e r b a l , w i t h r e a d i n g 33 comprehension p a r t i a l l e d o u t o f the l a t t e r , i s .0.1014. T h i s f i n d i n g i s accompanied by an F v a l u e o f 5.5896, w i t h 1 and 46 degrees o f • freedom";, - and a p r o b a b i l i t y o f - .022 when the n u l l • h y p o t h e s i s i s t r u e . The r e s u l t s of- the above, r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s s uggest t h a t t h e r e i s v e r y , l i t t l e i n r e a d i n g comprehension t h a t i s r e l a t e d . t o f i e l d dependency and n o t - t o n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n -t e l l i g e n c e , as the terms:;are d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . On t h e o t h e r -hand, t h e r e i s something i n t h e WISC V e r b a l t h a t i s not r e l a t e d to. r e a d i n g comprehension b u t i s m i l d l y r e l a t e d t o f i e l d dependency. T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g and one which was n o t a n t i c i p a t e d , s i n c e t h e CEFT i s a p e r c e p t u a l t a s k w h i l e t h e WISC V e r b a l r e q u i r e s no p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s what-e v e r . " . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y r a i s e some i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s . Would t h e r e s u l t s have been s i g n i f i c a n t had the groups been c o n s t i t u t e d ; d i f f e r e n t l y ? Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g about t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o r the t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s t h a t c o u l d a ccount f o r the n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s ? - The q u e s t i o n o f group c o n s t i t u t i o n w i l l now be c o n s i d e r e d . Were t h e two groups i n f a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ? I t . w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e r e were two c r i t e r i a . f o r p l a c e m e n t i n e i t h e r the good- o r the p o o r - r e a d e r group:, ( i ) t e a c h e r judgement o f above- o r below-average r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , and ( i i ) above o r below 18.5. on the Met r o -p o l i t a n . To examine the. s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n 34 M e t r o p o l i t a n mean s c o r e s , the u s u a l t - t e s t f o r independent groups was used. The r e s u l t s appear i n T a b l e I I . TABLE I I A Comparison of Reading Comprehension Scores f o r Good and Poor Readers Group Number. V a r i a n c e M e t r o p o l i t a n Mean.Score . : t p. Good r e a d e r s P o o r - r e a d e r s 26 23 17.68 14.23 • 30.81 9.87 17.34<.0005 .. The o b t a i n e d t v a l u e o f 17.34 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t beyond the .0005 l e v e l / o n e - t a i l e d , w i t h 47 degrees o f freedom. Thus the two groups, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n . r e a d i n g comprehension, as- e x p e c t e d . The q u e s t i o n o f group c o m p o s i t i o n , however, can be viewed from a n o t h e r a n g l e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e IV o f t h e Appendix r e v e a l s t h a t 25, o r more than h a l f , o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n s c o r e s f e l l w i t h i n one S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (11.1621) o f the mean score. (20 .9796.). f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e s e 25 s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d an a v e r a g e - r e a d e r group and t h u s . d i d n o t f a l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f good o r poor r e a d e r s when the l a t t e r a r e d e f i n e d as above.or below avera g e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e s e average r e a d e r s d e p r i v e d , t h e s t u d y o f much of t h e v a r i a n c e between the e x c e p t i o n a l l y good r e a d e r s and t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y poor 35 r e a d e r s . Thus a second c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s was performed on the t e n h i g h e s t and l o w e s t M e t r o p o l i t a n s c o r e s . The r e s u l t s appear i n T a b l e I I I . TABLE I I I A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f 10 Good and 10 Poor Readers' F i e l d Dependency L e v e l s Source o f Degrees of Sum o f Mean F V a r i a t i o n . - Freedom - - Squares •Square CEFT means a d j u s t e d f o r WISC V e r b a l 1 5.82 5.82 0.34 Zero s l o p e 1 34.94 34.94 2.06 E r r o r - . 17 288.06 16.94 E q u a l i t y o f s l o p e s 1 1.95 . 1.95 0.11 E r r o r 16 2 86.11 17.88 -The o b t a i n e d F v a l u e d i d n o t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 l e v e l , w i t h 1 and 17 degrees o f freedom. S i n c e the e q u a l i t y o f s l o p e s t e s t was accompanied by a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t F v a l u e , t h e c o v a r i a n c e c o n d i t i o n o f s i m i l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i -c i e n t s was met. However, s i n c e the z e r o s l o p e t e s t f a i l e d t o a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a b l e (WISC V e r b a l ) was n o t j u s t i f i e d as a c o v a r i a t e f o r t h i s reduced sample, nor i n d e e d was i t n e c e s s a r y . The t e n good r e a d e r s were not s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more f i t h a n the t e n poor r e a d e r s when n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ was c o n t r o l l e d . 36 When the r e s u l t s o f the f i r s t and second c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s e s are compared, i t can be seen t h a t t h e F v a l u e o f the s m a l l e r groups was even f a r t h e r from s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n t h a t o f t h e o r i g i n a l sample. Hence.using o n l y e x c e p t i o n a l l y good and e x c e p t i o n a l l y p o o r . r e a d e r s .appears t o make v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o the r e s u l t s when compared w i t h i n c l u d i n g the more average r e a d e r s . The n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s thus do not seem e x p l a i n a b l e on the b a s i s o f group c o m p o s i t i o n i n s o f a r as a s s i g n i n g s u b j e c t s t o r e a d i n g a b i l i t y g r o u p s . i s concerned. S t i l l a n o t h e r approach t o the q u e s t i o n o f group.com-p o s i t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d . . From T a b l e IV o f the Appendix i t may be seen t h a t the sample i n c l u d e d s i x boys' ( S u b j e c t s 34, 37 ,39 ,40 ,48 ,49) who s c o r e d c l o s e t o o r h i g h e r t h a n one s t a n -d a r d d e v i a t i o n above the mean on the WISC V e r b a l . S i n c e t h e s e boys c o n s t i t u t e d 25% o f the p o o r - r e a d e r group, i t might be f r u i t f u l t o . s p e c u l a t e on. t h e causes of t h e i r poor r e a d i n g comprehension. . One p o s s i b l e cause i s poor e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t -ment, a v a r i a b l e not c o n t r o l l e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Perhaps t h e s e boys were r e a d i n g p o o r l y not because o f the i n f l u e n c e o f f i e l d dependency, b u t because they were e m o t i o n a l l y r e s i s t a n t t o s c h o o l - r e l a t e d work i n g e n e r a l and t o r e a d i n g i n p a r t i c u -l a r . T h i s s p e c u l a t i o n would seem t o be e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e case'.of . S u b j e c t s . 34-, 37 . and 39, who combined good non-r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ w i t h above-average CEFT s c o r e s . U n f o r t u n -a t e l y , t h i s s t u d y can shed no l i g h t on the p o s s i b i l i t y o f 3 7 c o n t a m i n a t i o n by t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e o f e m o t i o n a l ad-j u s t m e n t , s i n c e no r e c o r d s -of i t were o b t a i n e d . I n summary, v e r y l i t t l e . c a n be found t h a t would t e n d t o r e l a t e t h e n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y t o group.com-p o s i t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s and t e s t p r o c e d u r e s w i l l . n o w be c o n s i d e r e d . ' I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d from Chapter I I t h a t t h e f i r s t c h o i c e o f t h e s u b j e c t on t h e CEFT i s the answer r e c o r d e d f o r him on any f i g u r e . He may;take as much o r as l i t t l e time as' he d e s i r e s . S i m i l a r l y , on f i v e o f t h e s i x WISC V e r b a l sub-t e s t s t h e s u b j e c t may t a k e l o n g o r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f time t o r e p l y t o t h e i t e m s . I t seems p l a u s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t b o t h t h e WISC V e r b a l and the CEFT p e n a l i z e i m p u l s i v e r e s p o n d i n g and reward r e f l e c t i v e r e s p o n d i n g . Much of t h e i r common v a r i -ance may w e l l be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a v a r i a b l e such as i m p u l -s i v i t y - r e f l e c t i v i t y i n answering b e h a v i o u r . The p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an i m p u l s i v i t y - r e f l e c t i v i t y f a c t o r i n t h e CEFT l e a d s t o what must be r e g a r d e d as a major c r i t i c i s m o f i t s s c o r i n g . p r o c e d u r e s . . It•seems l i k e l y t h a t one can be i m p u l s i v e and s t i l l p o s s e s s good a b i l i t y t o disembed. On the CEFT, however, th e i m p u l s i v e f i person, might n o t take, enough time t o demonstrate h i s a c t u a l disembedding c a p a b i l i t i e s . - . F o r example, d e s p i t e c l e a r w a r n i n g s t h a t t h e i r f i r s t c h o i c e s would be r e c o r d e d , ' s e v e r a l boys made c h o i c e s v e r y soon a f t e r t h e complex f i g u r e was p r e s e n t e d . Some o b v i o u s l y d i d n o t t a k e l o n g enough t o 38 s u r v e y t h e e n t i r e f i g u r e b e f o r e r e s p o n d i n g . As a r e s u l t , i t was a f a i r l y common o c c u r r e n c e f o r - b o y s t o make a wrong f i r s t c h o i c e and t h e n t o f i n d t h e c o r r e c t p a t t e r n b e f o r e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r removed t h e i t e m . Had t h e s e boys t a k e n o n l y a few more seconds they: would v e r y l i k e l y have chosen t h e c o r -r e c t p a t t e r n f i r s t . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t o f o l l o w the s t a n d a r d i z e - , t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , . t h e f i r s t c h o i c e was r e g a r d e d as v a l i d . : I t would be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e t he e f f e c t s of r e f l e c t i v e and i m p u l s i v e r e s p o n d i n g f o r t h e r e was a l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h i s b e h a v i o u r , Some boys made h a s t y wrong c h o i c e s a t the b e g i n n i n g o f .the t e s t and the n i n c r e a s e d t h e i r r e s p onse l a t e n c y as they o b s e r v e d t h e i r e a r l i e r e r r o r s . O thers became . c a r e l e s s towards t h e end and made h a s t y wrong c h o i c e s on the l a s t few f i g u r e s . . S t i l l o t h e r s a l t e r n a t e d between, i m p u l s i v e and r e f l e c t i v e c h o i c e s . Most o f t h e i m p u l -s i v e wrong c h o i c e s were made on t h e f i g u r e s w h i c h appear d e c e p t i v e l y easy. I n sum, i m p u l s i v i t y - r e f l e c t i v i t y as. i t a f f e c t s a n s w e r i n g b e h a v i o u r remains a p o s s i b l e s e r i o u s s o u r c e of c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e CEFT v a r i a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s t e n d t o i n t r o d u c e e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a n c e by p o s s i b l y p e n a l i z i n g i m p u l s i v e r e s p o n d i n g and r e w a r d i n g r e f l e c t i v e r e s p o n d i n g , t h e r a t i o n a l e •for r e c o r d i n g the f i r s t c h o i c e appears sound. I f an examiner were t o a c c e p t t h e second o r . l a t e r c h o i c e s , the s u b j e c t c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y choose t h e r i g h t r e s ponse by t h e p r o c e s s o f e l i m i n a t i o n , g i v e n t h e unspeeded n a t u r e o f t h e t e s t . To 39 ensure t h a t t h e CEFT remained a power t e s t , some t e c h n i q u e t o d i s c o u r a g e such p i e c e m e a l approaches was n e c e s s a r y 4 T h i s s t u d y proposes an a l t e r n a t i v e s c o r i n g method which would r e t a i n t h e power f e a t u r e o f . t h e t e s t w h i l e g r e a t l y r e d u c i n g b o t h p i e c e m e a l approaches :artd r i m p u l s i v e wrong c h o i c e s , e s p e c i -a l l y on t h e d e c e p t i v e l y e a s y i t e m s . T h i s method would r e q u i r e t h e s u b j e c t t o w a i t a minimum: ..amount o f t i m e , perhaps .15 seconds, b e f o r e r e s p o n d i n g . .He would be i n s t r u c t e d by the examiner t o w i t h h o l d h i s answer u n t i l n o t i f i e d t h a t t h e n e c e s s a r y time had e l a p s e d . D u r i n g the w a i t i n g p e r i o d t h e examiner would encourage him t o c o n t i n u e s e a r c h i n g i f . h e appears t o have t a k e n an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount o f time t o survey-the f i g u r e . I t would, o f c o u r s e , be made c l e a r t o t h e s u b j e c t t h a t he may t a k e any a d d i t i o n a l t ime r e q u i r e d a f t e r t h e end of the w a i t i n g p e r i o d . ... T h i s p r o c e d u r e seems t o p r e s e r v e the power f e a t u r e o f t h e t e s t w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g i t s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . To summarize th e r e s u l t s o f the. s t u d y , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was o b s e r v e d between good r e a d e r s and poor r e a d e r s on f i e l d dependency when t h e ' s u b j e c t s were equated on non-r e a d i n g v e r b a l . IQ. A l l i n ~ a l l , n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ a l o n e was a much b e t t e r . p r e d i c t o r o f f i e l d dependency t h a n was r e a d i n g comprehension a l o n e , as w i l l be seen from T a b l e V o f t h e A p p e n d i x . : I n a d d i t i o n , v e r b a l IQ accounted f o r a . s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . v a r i a n c e , whereas f i e l d 40 dependency accounted f o r a l m o s t none. "The n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s were examined w i t h r e l a t i o n . t o group c o m p o s i t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t s , -and t e s t procedures... . The: s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r i n g ' p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e CEFT was s i n g l e d out as the most, l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s and an a l t e r n a t e s c o r i n g system was -proposed. L i m i t a t i o n s o f G e n e r a l i z i n g from t h i s Study The c o n s t r u c t s of f i e l d dependency, r e a d i n g comprehension and n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e were d e f i n e d as s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e m e asuring i n s t r u m e n t s used i n t h i s s t u d y and may not be g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o o t h e r measures. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d t o s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s under s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . . CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n t -dependent p e r c e p t i o n of<good r e a d e r s as compared w i t h poor r e a d e r s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o t r y t o p a r -t i a l o u t o r e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f e x t r a n e o u s b u t i n f l u e n -t i a l v a r i a b l e s . - An attempt was made t o e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : ( i ) l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h spoken E n g l i s h , ( i i ) v i s u a l d e f e c t s , ( i i i ) s e x , ' ( i v ) age, and (v) num-b e r o f y e a r s i n s c h o o l . The e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d was n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . A t o t a l o f 49 second-grade boys c o n s t i t u t e d t h e sample of t h i s s t u d y . Of t h e s e , 26 comprised the good-reader group and 23 t h e p o o r - r e a d e r group. They a t t e n d e d e i g h t p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a t Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia. Three i n s t r u m e n t s were employed. These were the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , P r i m a r y B a t t e r y I I , Form B, "Reading S t o r i e s " s u b t e s t , the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n ( V e r b a l S c a l e ) , and t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t . The s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a were one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The main, h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l o f f i e l d independence among good r e a d e r s t h a n among poor r e a d e r s , w i t h the e f f e c t s o f n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ con-t r o l l e d . The d a t a d i d n o t u p h o l d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . A sub-h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n be-tween f i e l d independence and r e a d i n g comprehension, when l e v e l o f v e r b a l IQ was s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . The d a t a f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The' n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s , were d i s c u s s e d i n terms of an a p p a r e n t tendency o f t h e CEFT t o p e n a l i z e i m p u l s i v e r e s p o n d i n g and t o reward r e f l e c t i v e r e s p o n d i n g . An a l t e r n a t e s c o r i n g t e c h n i q u e was proposed w h i c h m i g h t reduce t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n by t h e e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e o f i m p u l s i v i t y -r e f l e c t i v i t y i n r e s p o n d i n g . O ther s t u d i e s a r e suggested by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s one. . T h i s s t u d y , o f c o u r s e , c o u l d i t s e l f be r e p l i c a t e d , i f o n l y t o see i f t h e d a t a found would be found a g a i n . A s i m i -l a r s t u d y c o u l d be done employing b o t h t h e - r e v i s e d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e CEFT proposed i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r and the p r o c e d u r e recommended i n t h e manual t o d e t e r m i n e i f they y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . Other s t u d i e s c o u l d reduce t h e e f f e c t s o f poor e m o t i o n a l adjustment on r e a d i n g comprehension by a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l t h i s v a r i a b l e e x p e r i -m e n t a l l y . Among o t h e r t h i n g s , s u b j e c t s c o u l d be r e j e c t e d who had been - r e f e r r e d t o guidance o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r b e h a v i o u r r e a s o n s . The c o r r e l a t i o n , b e t w e e n r e a d i n g comprehension and f i e l d dependency seems s u f f i c i e n t l y l o g i c a l l y a p p e a l i n g , and 43 has been demonstrated;by o t h e r s t o . b e . s i g n i f i c a n t o f t e n enough, t o w a r r a n t the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s c o n t i n u i n g f a i t h i n the h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s study.. I n t h i s s t u d y , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a measure o f f i e l d dependency was employed wh i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y p r o v e d t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y when the s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s were adopted. Even though t h e r e v i s e d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s p r o p o s e d - i n t h i s s t u d y would p r o b a b l y reduce t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n by unwanted p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a n c e , t h e CEFT s h o u l d p r o b a b l y n ot be used a l o n e as a measure o f f i e l d depen-dency b u t s h o u l d be accompanied by o l d e r , more e s t a b l i s h e d measures such as t h e EFT. It-was the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n t o use t h e rod-and-frame i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e CEFT, b u t t h i s p r o v e d t o be i m p r a c t i c a b l e f o r v a r i o u s reasons, c o n c e r n i n g i n s t r u m e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y and t e s t i n g t i m e . Perhaps t h e b e s t p l a c e t o b e g i n would be a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d y o f t h e CEFT w i t h the.EFT and- rod-and-frame t e s t . Once a g a i n , t h i s c o u l d be performed u s i n g b o t h t h e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e o f t h e manual and t h a t proposed i n t h i s s t u d y . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , more i n f o r m a t i o n on v a l i d i t y seems t o be needed.before t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t CEFT can c o n f i d e n t l y be used as a measure o f f i e l d dependency i n i t s own r i g h t . 44 FOOTNOTES ^Herman A. W i t k i n . and o t h e r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n ; s t u d i e s o f development. New York:. W i l e y , 1962, pp. 2 , 14-, 70-75, 82-93. 2 I b i d . 3 A. P o l o n i - d e - L e v i e . C o g n i t i v e and p e r s o n a l i t y  c o r r e l a t e s ;of r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y . ( D o c t o r a l - d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ) Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1966, No. 66-9743, 4 I r v i n g R. S t u a r t . P e r c e p t u a l s t y l e and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y : i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r an i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach. P e r c e p t u a l and Motor . S k i l l s . , J o u r n a l , 1967, 2_4_, pp. 135-138. 5 N. H i g g i n s and'^G. Gage. P e r c e p t u a l mode and r e a d i n g improvement.of c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s  J o u r n a l , 1968,. 26, pp. 1249-50.. " .^M.L. Cohn. F i e l d dependence-independence and r e a d i n g  comprehension.., ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y ) Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1968, No. 68-11 , 783, pp. 61-68, 7 ' • R o b e r t H. B r u m i n k s . A u d i t o r y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a d i n g performance o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d boys. P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1969, 29, pp. 179-186. 8 W i t k i n and o t h e r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , pp. 214-15 ;.Sonya P e t e r s e n and P e t e r A. Magaro. Reading and f i e l d dependence: a p i l o t s t u d y . J o u r n a l o f Readi n g , 1969, 12, p. .3; N e w e l l T. G i l l , Thomas J . H e r d t n e r , and L i n d a Lough. P e r c e p t u a l and so c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , i n s t r u c t i o n i n b o d y - o r i e n t a t i o n , and p r e d i c t e d academic.success i n young c h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1968, 26 , pp. 1175-84. ' 9 L i l l i a n Belmont and H e r b e r t G. B i r c h . The i n t e l l e c -t u a l p r o f i l e o f r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s  J o u r n a l , 1966 , . 22 , pp. 787-816. 45 " ^ W i t k i n and others,' P s y c h o l o g i c a 1 d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , I b i d . , pp. 65, 67 and R.. Gooderiough and S.A. Karpv F i e l d independence and i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal & S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , . 1961, 63, pp. 241-46 . 12 Keystone View Company. Manual f o r t h e Keystone V i s u a l  Survey" T e s t s . Meadvil.le.,. Perm. : Keystone View Company , 1961. 13 J.H. Sulzman, E.B. Cook, and N.R. B a r t l e t t . The' v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f h e t e r o p h o r i a s c o r e s y i e l d e d by t h r e e commercial o p t i c a l d e v i c e s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psycho-l o g y ~, 1948, 32, pp. 56-62. 14 M i l t o n Steinbaum and M i t c h e l l K i r k . R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Keystone V i s u a l S k i l l s T e s t and t h e S n e l l e n C h a r t . American J o u r n a l of. Optometry, 1957, .34/ pp. 491-99. 15M..M. Crane and o t h e r s . Study o f p r o c e d u r e s Used f o r s c r e e n i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f o r v i s u a l d e f e c t s : r e f e r r a l s by s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s v e r s u s o p h t h a l m o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l Health., 1953, 23_, pp. 1 -9 . " 16 H e l e n M.'Robinson. V i s u a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s f o r schools,. E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1953, 5_4, pp. 217-222. 17 - • The J o u r n a l o f the American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 48, 123, p. 558. I n O.K. Buros ( E d . ) , :The t h i r d m e n t a l measure-ments yearbook. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N.J.: The-Gryphon P r e s s , 1949, pp. 495-6. 18 Stephen A. Karp and Norma L. K o n s t a d t . Manual f o r the C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t . B r o o k l y n : C o g n i t i v e T e s t s , 1963. 19 Herman A. W i t k i n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and forms o f p a t h o l o g y . J o u r n a l of Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y , 1965, 70, pp. 317-336. 20 N e w e l l T. G i l l , Thomas J . H e r d t n e r and L i n d a Lough. P e r c e p t u a l and so c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , - i n s t r u c t i o n i n body o r i e n t a t i o n and p r e d i c t e d academic s u c c e s s i n young c h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l & Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1968, 26, pp. 1175-84. 46 21 Karp and K o n s t a d t , op. c i t . , p. 5. 22 R. T h o r n d i k e and E. Hagen. Measurement and e v a l u a t i o n  i n p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n . New York: W i l e y , 1955, pp. 1009-1010. . 2 3 . . . . . . Herman A. Wxtkm and o t h e r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a 1 d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n , p. 127. 24 . . . . . . W a l t e r M. D u r p s t ( E d . ) . D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Tests.: P r i m a r y I I B a t t e r y . New York: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , .1959. 25 W a l t e r M. D u r o s t . Manual f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e  M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s . New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and W o r l d , .1962, p. 46, 26 D u r o s t , D i r e c t i o n s for a d m i n i s t e r i n g 7 M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s , p. 23. 27 I b i d . , p. 3. 2 8 - - -D u r o s t , Manual f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s , p. 35. ' " 29 D a v i d W e c h s l e r . Manual f o r t h e Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e  S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n . New York: The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1949, pp. 10-14. 30 O.K. Buros (E d . ) . The f o u r t h m e n t a l measurements yearbook. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N.J.: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1965, pp. 477-79. 31 -O.K. Buros ( E d . ) . The f i f t h m e n t a l measurements yearbook. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N.J.: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1959, pp. 558-60. 3 2 I b i d . ; pp. 560-61. 33 Roger E. K i r k . E x p e rimenta1 d e s i g n : p r o c e d u r e s f o r the, b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . Belmont, C a l i f . : B r o o k s / C o l e , 1968, p. 457. 47 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY. A d e v a i , G., S i l v e r m a n , A.J.., and McGough, W.E. P e r c e p t u a l c o r r e l a t e s o f the rod-and-frame t e s t . P e r c e p t u a l . a n d  Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1968, 26, 1055-1064. B a r r e t t , G e r a l d V. , Cabe, P a t r i c k A. ,. and T h o r n t o n , C a r l L. R e l a t i o n between h i d d e n f i g u r e s t e s t and r o d and frame t e s t measures o f p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e . E d u c a t i o n a l and  P s y c h o l o g i c a 1 Measurement, 1968, 28, 551-554. Belmont, L i l l i a n , and B i r c h > H e r b e r t G* The i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o f i l e o f r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s . P e r c e p t u a l &_ Motor S k i l i s J o u r n a l , 1966, 22, 787-816. Benton, A r t h u r L. D y s l e x i a i n r e l a t i o n t o form p e r c e p t i o n and d i r e c t i o n a l sense. I n Money, J . ( E d . ) . Reading D i s a -b i l i t y . B a l t i m o r e : Johns H o p k i n s , : 1 9 6 2 . Pp 81-102. B r u i n i n k s , R o b e r t H. A u d i t o r y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s r e l a t e d t o the r e a d i n g performance, o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d boys. P e r c e p t u a l &_ Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1969, 29, 179-186... B u r o s , O.K. ( E d . ) . The t h i r d m e n t a l measurements yearbook. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N.J.: The"Gryphon P r e s s , 1959. B u r o s , O.K. ( E d . ) , The f o u r t h m e n t a l measurements yearbook. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N.J.':' The Grphon P r e s s , 1953. Burps , O.K. (Ed.) . The f i f t h m e n t a l me a s u rente n't s yearbook .. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N.J.: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1959. B u r p s , O.K. ( E d . ) . The s i x t h m e n t a l measurements y e a r b o o k . H i g h l a n d P a r k , N.J.: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1965. Conn, M.L. F i e l d , dependence-independence and r e a d i n g compre-h e n s i o n ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y ) , Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1968. No. 68-11, 783. Cabe, P a t r i c k A. ' The r e l a t i o n between the rod-and-frame t e s t and W i t k i n ' s embedded f i g u r e s t e s t . E d u c a t i o n a l &_ P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, .1968, 28, 1243-45. ' Crane, M.M. and o t h e r s . Study of p r o c e d u r e s used f o r s c r e e n -i n g - e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f o r v i s u a l d e f e c t s : r e f e r r a l s by s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s v e r s u s o p h t h a l m o l o g i c s f i n d i n g s . J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l H e a l t h , 1953, 23, 1-9. 48 D r e y e r , A l b e r t S., N e b e l k o p f , Edwin and D r e y e r , " C e c i l y A. Note c o n c e r n i n g s t a b i l i t y o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e measures i n young c h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l &_ Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1969, 2_8, 933-934. D u r o s t , W a l t e r N. (Ed.).. D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s : P r i m a r y I I b a t t e r y . New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and Worl d , .1959. D u r o s t , W a l t e r N. -; Manual f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Achievement T e s t s . New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and Wo r l d , 1962. E l l i o t t , Rogers. I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among measures o f f i e l d dependence, a b i l i t y , and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . J o u r n a l  o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1961, 6_3, 27-36. G i l l , N e w e l l T.> H e r d t n e r , Thomas J . , Lough, L i n d a . P e r c e p t u a l and s o c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , i n s t r u c t i o n i n - b o d y -o r i e n t a t i o n , and p r e d i c t e d academic s u c c e s s i n young c h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l &_ Motor S k i l l s 1 J o u r n a l , 1968, 26, 1175-84.. Goodenough, D.R. and E a g l e , C.J. A m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e embedded-figures t e s t f o r . use w i t h young c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1963, 103, 67-74. Goodenough, D.R. and Kar p , ,S.A. F i e l d independence and i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1961, 63, 241-246. H a r t o o n i a n , B. A note on r e a d i n g and c l o s u r e . The Reading  Teacher, 1961, 14., .343-344. H i g g i n s , N. and Gage, G. P e r c e p t u a l mode and r e a d i n g improve-ment o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . P e r c e p t u a l &_ Motor S k i l l s  J o u r n a l " , 1968, 2_6, 1249-50. Holtzman, W. Review o f p e r s o n a l i t y t h r o u g h p e r c e p t i o n . ' A merican J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1955, 68, 501-504. K a r p , Stephen A. and K o n s t a d t , Norma L. Manual f o r t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t . B r o o k l y n : C o g n i t i v e T e s t s , 196 3 . K e y s t o n e r V i e w Company. Manual f o r the Keystone V i s u a l Survey  T e s t s . M e a d v i l l e , Penn: Keystone View Company, 19 61. 49 K i r k , Roger E. E x p e r intent a 1 d e s i g n : p r o c e d u r e s f o r t he b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . Belmont, C a l i f . : B r o o k s / C o l e , 1968. P e t e r s e n , Sonya and Magaro, P e t e r A. Reading and f i e l d dependence: a p i l o t s t u d y . J o u r n a l o f Readi n g , 1969, 12, 287-94. P o l o n i - d e - L e v i e , A.. C o g n i t i v e and p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s o f r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ) , Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1966, No. 66-9743. R o b i n s o n , H e l e n M. V i s u a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s f o r s c h o o l s . Elementary. S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1953, 54, 217^222. R u d i n , S. and S t a g n e r , R. F i g u r e - g r o u n d phenomena i n t h e p e r -c e p t i o n o f p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s t i m u l i . •' J o u r n a l o f  P s y c h o l o g y , 1958, 4_5, 213-225. Steinbaum, M i l t o n and K i r k M i t c h e l l . R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Keystone V i s u a l S k i l l s T e s t and t h e S n e l l e n C h a r t . A merican J o u r n a l o f Optometry> 1957, 34 , 491-499. S t u a r t , I r v i n g R. P e r c e p t u a l s t y l e and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y : im-p l i c a t i o n s f o r an i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach. P e r c e p t u a l . & Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 196 7, 24, 135-138. Sulzman, J.H.,Cook,. E.B., and B a r t l e t t , N.R. - The v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f h e t e r o p h o r i a s c o r e s y i e l d e d by t h r e e c ommercial o p t i c a l d e v i c e s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l -ogy , ,1948, 32, 56-62. T h o r n d i k e , E.L. Reading as r e a s o n i n g : a st u d y o f m i s t a k e s i n p a r a g r a p h r e a d i n g . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1917, 8", .323-331. T h o r n d i k e , R.. and Hagen, E. Measurement and e v a l u a t i o n i n ps y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n . New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 1955. W e c h s l e r , D a v i d W. Manual f o r t h e Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e  f o r C h i l d r e n . New York: The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , T9T9. ' ' " , W i t k i n , H.A. I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n ease o f p e r c e p t i o n o f embedded f i g u r e s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , 1950, 19, 1-15. ' : 50 W i t k i n , H.A. . The p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e u p r i g h t . S c i e n t i f i c  A m e r i c a n , 1959, 200, 50-56. W i t k i n , H.A. and o t h e r s . P e r s o n a l i t y t h r o u g h p e r c e p t i o n . New Y o rk: H a r p e r , . 1954. W i t k i n , . H . A . P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and forms of p a t h o l o g y . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal P s y c h o l o g y , 1965, 70, 317-336. W i t k i n , H.A. and Dyk, R.B. F a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e development o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n c h i l d r e n . C h i l d  Development, 1965, 36, 21-55. W i t k i n , H.A. O r i g i n s o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . I n S c h e e r e r ( E d . ) . C o g n i t i o n : t h e o r y , r e s e a r c h , p r o m i s e . New York: Harper .& Rowi -^ 19i5~4. W i t k i n , H.A. and o t h e r s . : P s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n : s t u d i e s o f development. New York: W i l e y , 1962. Young, H.H. A t e s t o f W i t k i n ' s f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c e h y p o t h e s i s . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 19 59, 59, 188-192. Z i g l e r , E. A measure i n s e a r c h o f a t h e o r y ? Contemporary P s y c h o l o g y , 1963, 8, 133-135. 51 APPENDIX F o l l o w i n g a r e the s c o r e s a c h i e v e d by t h e 55 s u b j e c t s o f t h e sample. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers 01 t o 30 i n d i c a t e good r e a d e r s ' s c o r e s , -while numbers 31 t o 55 a r e poor r e a d e r s ' s c o r e s . . . A key t o t h e symbols used f o l l o w s : Data r e c o r d e d b u t not used because M e t r o p o l i t a n s c o r e d i d n o t agree w i t h t e a c h e r r a t i n g o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . 52 TABLE IV Sco r e s A c h i e v e d by A l l S u b j e c t s I d e n t . No. - " M e t r o p o l i t a n -CEFT WISC 01 36 15 118 02 36 16 116 03 35 15 126 04 35 20 118 05 34 13 128 06 34 12 118 07 34 14 105 08 34 20 126 09 33 20 123 10 33 20 133 11 33 10 118 12 33 11 113 13 32 21 121 14 32 19 109 15 32 11 119 16 31 18 118 17 31 15 123 18 . 30 13 103 19 29 15 114 20 28 12 115 # 2 1 27 11 , 114 22 27 16 110 23 27 17 106 # 24. 26 07 103 #' 25 26 20 105 26 24 18 113 27 24 23 106 28 22 19 123 TABLE. IV (Continued) I d e n t . No. M e t r o p o l i t a n - CEFT - - . WISC 29 22 17 110 # 3 0 20 18 110 # 31 17 08 105 32 17 16 113 33 17 10 097 34 14 16 116 # 35 13 12 114 36 13 04 09.2 37 13 18 124 38 13 01 094 39 13 11 116 40 11 13 114 41 11 22 104 42 11 16 095 43 11 11 090 44 10 14 103 45 10 16 100 46 09 17 092 47 08 16 108 48 08 10 113 49 07 18 131 50 06 15 110 51 05 03 108 52 05 18 104 53 05 18 108 54 05 11 097 55 05 09 091 54 TABLE V . Main C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x • ' " V a r i a b 1 e s Reading F i e l d V e r b a l Comprehension - - Dependency - IQ-Reading Comprehension 0.2533 0.5498* F i e l d Dependency 0.4052* V e r b a l IQ, , * S i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e 0.01 l e v e l . TABLE VI Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e V a r i a b l e s S t u d i e d Reading V e r b a l Comprehension CEFT IQ Mean of good r e a d e r s 30.81 16.15 111.54 Mean of poor r e a d e r s 9.87 13.17 101.30 Mean of t o t a l sample -20.98 14.76- 111.27 S.D. o f good r e a d e r s S.D; o f poor r e a d e r s S.D. of t o t a l sample 4.18 3.76 11.16 3.52 5.30 4.60 7.85 10 .00 10 . 81 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0103969/manifest

Comment

Related Items