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Field dependency of good versus poor readers as measured by the children's embedded figures test Murphy, Lorne William 1970

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F I E L D DEPENDENCY OF GOOD VERSUS POOR READERS AS MEASURED BY THE CHILDREN'S EMBEDDED FIGURES TEST  by B.Ed.  L o m e W i l l i a m Murphy ( S ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , .1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of Educational  Psychology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA July,  19 70  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  this  thesis  degree shall  agree  scholarly  at the University make  that  purposes  his representatives.  of  this  written  it  of  of  Columbia,  of  gain  Faculty  o f  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  13 J u l y 1970  Psychology. Education  Columbia  copying  by t h e Head  shall  the requirements  f o r reference  for extensive  i s understood  for financial  Educational  British  available  may be g r a n t e d It  fulfilment  permission.  Department  Date  freely  permission  by  thesis  in partial  that  of  I agree and this  n o t be a l l o w e d  or  that  study. thesis  o f my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  w i t h o u t my  ii  ABSTRACT  This study e x p l o r e d the d i f f e r e n c e i n f i e l d  independent-  d e p e n d e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f g o o d r e a d e r s as c o m p a r e d w i t h readers. tial  To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s ,  i t was  necessary to t r y to par-  out or e l i m i n a t e the e f f e c t s of extraneous  variables.  An  a t t e m p t was  following variables: English,  but  influential  made t o e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l  ber of years i n school.  The  nonreading  extraneous  ( i v ) age, variable  and  (v) num-  statistically  verbal intelligence.  A t o t a l o f 49 s e c o n d - g r a d e b o y s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e of  this  and  study.  :  Of t h e s e , 26 c o m p r i s e d  23 t h e p o o r - r e a d e r g r o u p .  elementary  s c h o o l s o f Richmond,  the good-reader  sample group  They a t t e n d e d e i g h t p u b l i c B.C.  Three i n s t r u m e n t s were employed.  These were t h e  p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , P r i m a r y B a t t e r y I I , Form B, Stories"  s u b t e s t , the Wechsler  ( V e r b a l S c a l e ) , and statistical  the  ( i ) l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h spoken  ( i i ) v i s u a l d e f e c t s , ( i i i ) sex,  c o n t r o l l e d was  poor  Metro"Reading  Intelligence Scale f o r Children  t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t . . The  t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d w e r e one-way a n a l y s i s o f  co-  v a r i a n c e and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The  main h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  l e v e l o f f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c e among g o o d r e a d e r s t h a n among poor  readers w i t h the e f f e c t s . o f nonreading  gence c o n t r o l l e d .  The  verbal  intelli-  data d i d not uphold t h i s hypothesis.  A sub-hypothesis between'field  predicted a significant positive correlation  i n d e p e n d e n c e and  l e v e l o f v e r b a l IQ was hot  support The  reading  this  reading  statistically  c o m p r e h e n s i o n , when  controlled.  n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ.  reading  comprehension, which  t e d f o r a l m o s t none o f t h e f i e l d d e p e n d e n c y negative  r e s u l t s and  t i o n s h i p between r e a d i n g were d i s c u s s e d  In a d d i t i o n ,  a c o n s i d e r a b l y more v a l i d p r e d i c t o r o f  f i e l d d e p e n d e n c y t h a n was  felt  the almost non-existent  c o m p r e h e n s i o n and  responses.  field  rela-  dependency  i n terms of the s c o r i n g procedures f o r the  t h a t the standardized procedure p o s s i b l y  r e w a r d s r e f l e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s and An  accoun-  variance.  a good d e a l o f e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y apparently  did  s i n g l e v a r i a b l e w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h  v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e was  I t was  data  hypothesis.  c o m p r e h e n s i o n was  The  The  a l t e r n a t e s c o r i n g technique  might reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y  of contamination  v a r i a b l e of i m p u l s i v i t y - r e f l e c t i v i t y  in  invites  since i t  penalizes was  CEFT.  impulsive  proposed which by  the.extraneous  responding•.  iv TABLE .OF" CONTENTS  CHAPTER, I,  Page  THE P R O B L E M , . . . .  . . . . . ...  • .  1  • • •  2  .  5  Some S i g n i f i c a n t A s p e c t s o f . . P e r c e p t i o n a s They. R e l a t e t o R e a d i n g Related Research Statement  . .  . . . . . . .  of the Problem  .  10.  Hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . • D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms. ' XI.  ?  • •• • • • - 1 3 13  METHOD Subjects  16 . . . . . .  T e s t I n s t r u m e n t s Used  . .  ... 16  .  . . . . • . 17  V i s u a l A c u i t y Measure F i e l d Dependency Measure  17 . . .  Reading Comprehension Measure. V e r b a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Measure.  , . 19 . . . .  . . . . 22  .-. . . . . .•. . 25  Research Design. Procedure i n T r e a t i n g Data  26 . . . . . . . . . .  T e s t i n g C o n d i t i o n s and P r o c e d u r e s III.  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. . . . A n a l y s i s o f Data  27 28  . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . .•  L i m i t a t i o n s o f G e n e r a l i z i n g from t h i s Study.  31 . 40  V  CHAPTER IV.  Page SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  .  FOOTNOTES. BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  41 44  . . . . . . . .  47 51  vi L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE I.  II.  III.  Page A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f 26 Good and 23 P o o r R e a d e r s ' F i e l d Dependency L e v e l s . . . . . . . . . A Comparison o f Reading Comprehension Scores f o r Good a n d P o o r R e a d e r s . . . . . . . . . . .  V. VI.  .  34  .  35  A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f 10 Good and 10 P o o r Readers' F i e l d  IV.  30  Dependency L e v e l s .  S c o r e s A c h i e v e d by A l l S u b j e c t s  .  . . . . . . . . .  Main C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s Studied I •  52 54  f o r the Variables 54  CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM  /  'Many t e a c h e r s h a v e wondered'why v a r i o u s r e g u l a r a n d remedial approaches t o t e a c h i n g reading a r e e f f e c t i v e  with  some p u p i l s a n d n o t w i t h o t h e r s .  i s that  in•communicating  by t h e p r i n t e d word, i t i s t a c i t l y  "that"the v i s u a l f i e l d presented However, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e standard  field  P o s s i b l y one r e a s o n  i s t h e same f o r a l l o b s e r v e r s .  t h a t n o t a l l p e r c e i v e an a p p a r e n t l y  i n t h e same way.  An e x a m p l e i s t h e w e l l - k n o w n  g o b l e t p r o b l e m , i n w h i c h some p e r s o n s w h i l e o t h e r s s e e two g r e y  assumed  facial  perceive a white  goblet  profiles.  T h i s s t u d y grew o u t o f t h e b e l i e f t h a t "the way one p e r c e i v e s t h e p r i n t e d page i s c l o s e l y . r e l a t e d t o how w e l l he understands  w h a t he r e a d s .  t o improve reading?  One p o s s i b l e a n s w e r i s t o t r a i n t h e p o o r  reader t o perceive v i s u a l reader.  How m i g h t t h i s knowledge, h e l p u s  fields  i n t h e manner o f t h e g o o d  Whether o r n o t t h e former  c a n be s o t r a i n e d i s , o f '  c o u r s e , an e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . attempt  One  t o - d i f f e r e n t i a t e . p e o p l e o n t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y  ceive visual fields w i l l  now b e d e s c r i b e d . :  per-  2  Some S i g n i f i c a n t A s p e c t s to  o f P e r c e p t i o n a s They  Reading W i t k i n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s h y p o t h e s i z e d  one is  Relate  t h a t t h e way  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p e r c e i v e s one's p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t l o c a t e d on a continuum which ranges from "very f i e l d d e p e n -  dent"  a t one e n d t o " v e r y f i e l d  independent" a t the other,  w i t h m o s t p e r s o n s f a l l i n g n e a r t h e middle.''"  Similarly,  scores  from a r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t a l s o span a continuum be- ' tween e x c e l l e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n a t one.end and poor at  the other.  The m a j o r i t y o f s c o r e s  W i t k i n h a s shown . t h a t p e o p l e consistently  fall  tend  f i e l d dependent o r f i e l d  comprehension  i n the middle.  to perceive i n a  i n d e p e n d e n t manner.  S i m i l a r l y , reference t o everyday experience  w o u l d seem t o i n -  d i c a t e t h a t a p e r s o n ' s l e v e l o f performance on r e a d i n g h e n s i o n m e a s u r e s t e n d s t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h o r l o w . it  Indeed  i s uncommon t o f i n d a s t u d e n t who h a s g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n  understanding  w h a t he r e a d s  one d a y a n d none t h e n e x t ,  reading material s i m i l a r i n d i f f i c u l t y Thus b o t h  and i n o t h e r  d i s t r i b u t e d along continua.  given  factors.  f i e l d dependency and r e a d i n g comprehension  seem to. b e c o n s i s t e n t i n a n y one p e r s o n a n d b o t h  ing  compre-  level  seem t o be  I s t h e r e any e v i d e n c e  that  read-  c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d f i e l d d e p e n d e n c y may b e r e l a t e d ? According  to Witkin, the f i e l d  independent person i s  a b l e t o . p e r c e i v e a s t i m u l u s o b j e c t apart from t h e f i e l d i n which i t occurs. but  He i s n o t c o n f u s e d  by t h e o v e r a l l  field-,  i s a b l e t o examine i t a n a l y t i c a l l y by s e p a r a t i n g an i t e m  3 from i t i n order t o p e r c e i v e t h e item c l e a r l y . he  sees t h e p a r t s o f a f i e l d  t i v e l y w e l l on c o n c e a l e d such  as d i s c r e t e .  The f i e l d  He. s e e s t h e f i e l d He t e n d s field.  dependent person,  (EFT) e m p l o y e d  on t h e o t h e r hand, i s  an i t e m from i t s c o n t e x t .  i n a r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d manner.  t o b e l e s s c l e a r l y aware o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e When he t r i e s t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s  the f i e l d  itself  o f them.  He f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t  field  seems.to contaminate  another  difficulty.  he g r a s p s  extremely  o r modify  h i s .perception  Apparently related t o t h i s  When f i r s t h e p e r c e i v e s a n o r g a n i z e d  a dominant G e s t a l t w i t h i n i t .  difficult  clearly,  t o select a /portion ofthe  f o r some s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e .  field,  rela-  and embedded-figures types o f t e s t s  r e l a t i v e l y iLess a b l e t o s e p a r a t e  it  He p e r f o r m s  a s t h e G o t t s c h a l d t Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t  by W i t k i n .  is  I n other words,  t o perceive this  Then he f i n d s  same f i e l d  as having  a d i f f e r e n t G e s t a l t , e v e n when t h e s e c o n d G e s t a l t may b e more u s e f u l t o him than the f i r s t . .  He p e r f o r m s r e l a t i v e l y  poorly  2 on t e s t s s u c h In  as t h e EFT.  t h e t y p i c a l r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n , t h e student, has a  passage t o read.  T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d a s a f i e l d ,  ponents o f which a r e i t s sentences. grasped  t h e com-  T h e s e p a r t s may b e  a n d r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r more o r l e s s a c c u r a t e l y .  When t h e s t u d e n t  f i n i s h e s r e a d i n g , he may o r may n o t h a v e  some, i d e a o f t h e p a r a g r a p h ' s o v e r a l l m e a n i n g  ( t h a t i s , he  4 e i t h e r has  o r has  the f i e l d ) .  The  n o t p e r c e i v e d some k i n d o f G e s t a l t w i t h i n s t u d e n t i s now  b a s e d on t h e p a r a g r a p h  asked  some s p e c i f i c  questions  j u s t read, questions which often  nec-  e s s i t a t e the l o c a t i o n of s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s d i r e c t l y s t a t e d i n the paragraph.  I t i s reasonable  t o assume t h a t t h e  student  must, f o r each q u e s t i o n , r e o r g a n i z e or r e s t r u c t u r e h i s  percep-  t i o n of the f i e l d  so t h a t t h e a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n i s  the most apparent  item i n i t .  with greater a b i l i t y analytically In  and  independent  student,  i t s components  c l e a r l y , s h o u l d g e t more c o r r e c t a n s w e r s .  tage of g r e a t e r a b i l i t y  a g a i n be  field  t o p e r c e i v e t h e ^ f i e l d and  a d d i t i o n , t h e more f i e l d  most a p p a r e n t  The  i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d e n t has  to r e o r g a n i z e the f i e l d  t h i n g i n i t i s t h e a n s w e r he  the  seeks.  He  should  a b l e t o p r o d u c e more c o r r e c t a n s w e r s .  s c o r e on t h e E F T , . a m e a s u r e a a b i l i t y  t o disembed a  s t i m u l u s f i g u r e from i t s complex s e t t i n g . view the reading process  itself  r e a d e r disembeds l e t t e r s  from surrounding  s u r r o u n d i n g w o r d s , and sentences  forming  sentences  a passage.  p a s s a g e and  I t i s possible to the  l e t t e r s , words  i s asked  of  assumes  to read  a  q u i c k l y i s o l a t e key words  i n , o r d e r t o answer comprehension t e s t q u e s t i o n s .  seemed r e a s o n a b l e  from  from the conglomeration  This view of reading  t h e n t o go b a c k and  a  simple  as p a r t l y one w h e r e b y  added s i g n i f i c a n c e whenever the r e a d e r  it  advan-  so t h a t , t h e  W i t k i n o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d f i e l d d e p e n d e n c y as  phrases  now  to hypothesize  and Thus  that d i f f e r e n c e s i n read-  5 ing  c o m p r e h e n s i o n may  dependent  - field  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i e l d  i n d e p e n d e n t p e r c e p t i o n , as m e a s u r e d  c h i l d r e n ' s . v e r s i o n o f t h e EFT. that f i e l d  dependent  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  by a  i t was  felt  c h i l d r e n w o u l d h a v e more d i f f i c u l t y i n  answering comprehension questions than would f i e l d  independent  children. Related" Research Polpni-de-Levie conducted a study at the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l . '" She compared  t h e EFT p e r f o r m a n c e o f 28  retarded  r e a d e r s o f e i g h t and n i n e y e a r s o l d w i t h 25 n o r m a l c o n t r o l s o f the  same a g e s .  The M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n g T e s t u s e d y i e l d s  measure o f r e a d i n g comprehension.,  The  s u b j e c t s were  on t h e O t i s Q u i c k S c o r i n g M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t . was  dependent  A l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e between i t e m s c o r r e c t was the  matched  The m a i n  t h a t t h e EFT p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e r e t a r d e d r e a d e r s was  n i f i c a n t l y more f i e l d  a  than t h a t o f , t h e normal  finding sigcontrols.  t h e ' g r o u p s on t h e number o f  not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  i t became s i g n i f i c a n t when  s c o r e s w e r e a d j u s t e d f o r t i m e t a k e n on t h e EFT. ;  Thus t h e  r e t a r d e d , r e a d e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y s l o w e r i n a n a l y z i n g t h e figures  EFT  correctly.^ In  a study i n v o l v i n g  40 m a l e and 43 f e m a l e s e v e n t h and  e i g h t h g r a d e r s , S t u a r t compared  t h e EFT p e r f o r m a n c e o f a g o o d -  r e a d e r group w i t h a p o o r - r e a d e r group. ing  EFT  T e s t was  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  t h e r e a d i n g comprehension measure  Read-  employed.  I n t e l l i g e n c e a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n p a r t i a l l e d o u t and was  based  on g r o u p IQ to the  tests administered  study.  The  f r o m one  m a i n f i n d i n g was  to four years  t h a t on  t h e EFT  r e a d e r s p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a t t h e one l e v e l and  fluenced  the data;  be  with  Stuart have i n -  t h a t the  reading  field  comprehen-  level.^ Higgins  T e s t and  and  t h e EFT  Gage a d m i n i s t e r e d  t o 12  improvement program.  the Nelson-Denny  Reading  college students e n r o l l e d i n a  reading  At  s t u d e n t s w e r e r e t e s t e d on Denny. on  associated  good  percent  f a c t o r s may  however, i t appeared t o him  d e p e n d e n c y v a r i a b l e may sion  the  t h i s f i n d i n g h e l d f o r one-sex comparisons.  c o n c l u d e d t h a t many s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  previous  t h e end an  of the  a l t e r n a t e form of the  A factor analysis revealed  t h e EFT  profitted  nine-week c o u r s e ,  t h a t the b e t t e r  the  Nelsonperformers  from i n s t r u c t i o n , whereas the p o o r e r  EFT  p e r f o r m e r s d i d not."* Cohn a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e EFT use  t o 59 m a l e and  the 63  Sangren-Woody R e a d i n g T e s t  female s i x t h graders.  a t the grade four to e i g h t l e v e l s , the  yields  seven separate scores.  mentally  c o n t r o l l e d were:  The  and  Designed  for  Sangren-Woody  extraneous v a r i a b l e s  l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h  experi-  the  E n g l i s h language, sensory impairment, s i g n i f i c a n t problems i n w o r d a n a l y s i s , and  h e a l t h and  emotional well-being.  extraneous v a r i a b l e s s t a t i s t i c a l l y v e r b a l , nonverbal, IQ  t e s t was  and  The  c o n t r o l l e d were sex  t o t a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . ~ The  the measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e used.  and.  Lorge-Thorndike The  results  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n f i e l d  indep-  7 e n d e n c e and  the measures of a b i l i t y  t o i d e n t i f y m a i n i d e a s , and events i n the  ability  t o arrange a group  of  sequence i n which they o c c u r r e d .  tionship obtained  No  b e t w e e n f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c e and  measures of v o c a b u l a r y , ize  ability  to locate d e t a i l s ,  r a t e of r e a d i n g ,  a mood o r e v e n t , and  ability  the  ability  t h a t EFT  h i g h l y w i t h the three  comprehension s k i l l s  w h a t e v e r was  read,  involved  ability  p a s s i v e l y , and/or a b i l i t y  character-  performance c o r r e l a t e s most  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the  t u r e on w h a t was  other  to  t h a t demand  o r g a n i z a t i o n or r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of u n f a m i l i a r . a n d These s k i l l s  rela-  to follow printed d i r e c t i o n s .  Conn's c o n c l u s i o n was  materials.  such  "lifting  out"  task, a b i l i t y  to read  the  conceptual of the  to  paragraph  impose.struc-  a c t i v e l y as o p p o s e d  to reorganize  the passage f o r  to  new  6 purposes.• Bruininks the C h i l d r e n ' s  administered  Embedded F i g u r e s  p o l i t a n R e a d i n g T e s t t o 105 The IQ.  Stanford-Binet The  CEFT and The  a c h i l d r e n ' s v e r s i o n of the Test  ( C E F T ) , and  the  Metro-  N e g r o b o y s whose mean age  I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t was  was  of  .37,  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  ;  to  .28,  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  five  the  .01  f i r s t - o r d e r p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h v e r b a l IQ h e l d  s t a n t , however, f e l l  8.07.'  used t o measure v e r b a l  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n between the M e t r o p o l i t a n  EFT,  level. con-  percent  7 level.  Since  same i n s t r u m e n t particular  B r u i n i n k e m p l o y e d t h e r e l a t i v e l y new used i n . the present  interest.  study,  CEFT,  the  t h i s f i n d i n g i s of  8  Although the research between f i e l d  reviewed suggests a r e l a t i o n s h i p  dependency and r e a d i n g  comprehension,' i t i s t h e  i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t each study  failed  t o c o n t r o l one  o r more i n f l u e n t i a l e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s a d e q u a t e l y . example, three ling  For  o f t h e f i v e s t u d i e s made no m e n t i o n o f c o n t r o l -  f o r l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h spoken E n g l i s h , a c o n d i t i o n  w h i c h w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y h a n d i c a p a p u p i l on a comprehension  reading  test.  Another poorly W i t k i n and o t h e r s  c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e was  have found i m p o r t a n t  sex,-although  sex differences i n  g field  dependency. O n l y two s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d  controlling  for visual  acuity,  a l t h o u g h , g o o d v i s i o n w o u l d seem t o be a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t e s t i n g on t h e EFT. :  C l e a r l y , one c a n n o t d i s e m b e d w h a t one l a c k s  the v i s u a l a c u i t y t o see.  Of t h e s t u d i e s w h i c h c o n t r o l l e d f o r  v i s u a l acuity, neither reported  t h e c r i t e r i o n employed,  t h e Cohn s t u d y  d i d r e p o r t a r e l i a n c e on t h e r e c o r d s  school nurse.  School  charts of questionable  although  ofthe  n u r s e s , - h o w e v e r , f r e q u e n t l y employ w a l l reliability  and v a l i d i t y .  A more s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m m u s t now b e c o n s i d e r e d .  Although  i t h a s f r e q u e n t l y b e e n s t a t e d t h a t v e r b a l IQ i s a f a c t o r o f considerable was  importance i n reading  performance,  n o t c o n t r o l l e d a t a l l i n one s t u d y  others.  F o r e x a m p l e , o n l y one s t u d y  intelligence  and i n a d e q u a t e l y  i n the  made u s e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l  IQ t e s t , one o t h e r d i d n o t r e p o r t t h e m e a s u r e u s e d , a n d t h e  9 o t h e r s r e l i e d on g r o u p m e a s u r e s w h i c h  involve reading  and h e n c e a r e l e s s f a c t o r i a l l y  than the best-known  individual tests.  The  S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , which as w e l l ~as ' s t r i c t l y Finally,  "pure"  ability  i n d i v i d u a l t e s t r e f e r r e d t o was i n c l u d e s some p e r f o r m a n c e - t y p e  nonreading  the  subtests  verbal subtests.  t h r e e of the f i v e s t u d i e s employed s u b j e c t s  j u d g e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o be  too o l d f o r a f i e l d  reading comprehension study, f o r reasons  t o be  dependency-  discussed  shortly. The  Cohn. s t u d y w a r r a n t s  the best-executed to  s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s , s i n c e i t was  of those reviewed  t h e p r e s e n t study..  The  and  i s i n some ways b a s i c  comments r e g a r d i n g a g e ,  a c u i t y , and g r o u p IQ m e a s u r e s a p p l y t o Cohn. Cohn e m p l o y e d t h e  EFT,  whereas t h i s  r e a s o n s . t o be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r  w i t h grades this  study.  Furthermore,  developed  f o u r t o e i g h t and h e n c e was Finally,  addition,  s t u d y u s e d t h e CEFT, f o r  II.  Sangren-Woody r e a d i n g t e s t u s e d was  In  visual  the  i n 19 28 f o r u s e  not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  s i n c e Cohn r e j e c t e d s u b j e c t s who  r e c e i v e d r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g , h i s sample tended t i o n a t t h e a v e r a g e l e v e l o r b e t t e r and  thus  had to func-  generalizability  from h i s study i s l i m i t e d . B e c a u s e no s i n g l e s t u d y a d e q u a t e l y t h e v a r i a b l e s d i s c u s s e d , i t was t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was  c o n t r o l l e d a l l of  the o p i n i o n of the  required.  investigator  10 Statement o f t h e Problem The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r not there are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t u a l dependence-independence  between  field  good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s .  The  study  a l s o sought t o d e t e r m i n e t o what degree f i e l d  dence  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o f i c i e n t performance i n reading  comprehension.  To a c c o m p l i s h  indepen-  t h e s e a i m s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o  control several variables. Sex v a r i a b l e . . only  T h i s s t u d y c o n t r o l l e d f o r s e x by u s i n g  boys. Age v a r i a b l e .  ;  Second-grade  b o y s , o f seven and e i g h t  y e a r s o l d were s e l e c t e d ' f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s .  First,  since  t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d , i d e a l l y , be a b l e to.comment o n t h e s u i t a bility  of. t h e p e r c e p t u a l m e a s u r e a s a p r e d i c t o r o f p o s s i b l e  reading d i f f i c u l t y  i n G r a d e One, i t was f e l t  s h o u l d be c l o s e t o t h e age o f b e g i n n i n g generally f i v e or s i x years to  this  old.  that the subjects  reading  Second g r a d e r s  age a s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o be a n d s t i l l  instruction^ a r e as c l o s e  h a v e h a d enough  r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o n a r e a d i n g t e s t . , S e c o n d , i t was d e s i r e d t o s a t i s f y  t h e c o n d i t i o n o f age homo-  g e n e i t y which., a c c o r d i n g t o B e l m o n t a n d B i r c h , i s t o o o f t e n 9 violated in  this  i n reading research.  I n o t h e r words, both groups  s t u d y w e r e o f t h e same a g e s , i n c o n t r a s t t o many  s t u d i e s w h i c h compare g r o u p s o f w i d e l y d i s p a r a t e a g e s . i t was f e l t doubtedly  other Third,  t h a t many o f t h e e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s w h i c h u n -  confound f i e l d dependency-reading  comprehension  11 studies  at  reduced  levels with  entirely at  older  ages would  possible  age f i v e  or  when he m i g h t  either  younger  that  six,  not  children.  a c h i l d might  yet  is  operate  field  significant  about  this  that  he  independent  operate  For example,  it  have been f i e l d  independent  at  n o n e t h e l e s s be a p o o r , r e a d e r .  most  or  age  at  is  dependent twelve  P e r h a p s what  twelve-year-old  poor  reader  is  is  not  t  is  field  when he b e g a n t o most et  important  al  dent  that  It  reaches  the  aversive  point,  the  probable,  sixth  stimulus  grade, for  him,  Thus i t  the  less  fore,  the  more u s e f u l w o u l d  with  the  older  r e a d , but extraneous  the  not  appeared t h a t  they  be  for In  appeared to  old  time  a  enough t o  v a r i a b l e s more  his  the  the  younger  an  level sub-  there-  generally  and  analysis,  subjects:  contaminate to  of  the  and,  final  be i d e a l  likely  poor.reader  current  reading  depen-  grow  nature  results  exist  variable..  s e l e c t e d who h a d a s e r i o u s Keystone  Telebinocular.  In  visual  this  study  deficiency  a  Witkin  field  as t h e y  has assumed t h e of  of  is  the  old  data  amongst  children. Visual-acuity  the  by  dependent  This  finding  independent  particular.  seven-and e i g h t - y e a r - o l d s  reading.  a relatively  c o n t a m i n a t e d w o u l d be t h e  screening in  he w a s , f i e l d  of  irrespective  jects  enough t o  in  that  reading  dependency.  early  field  then,  field  for  that  b a s e d upon t h e  perceive  b e c o m i n g more is  but  fundamentals  and i s  young - c h i l d r e n  fashion,  older.  learn  now,  no p u p i l  was  as measured by  of  12 English-language variable . wherein  Only  p u p i l s f r o m homes  E n g l i s h was s p o k e n e x c l u s i v e l y w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e  study. School-experience v a r i a b l e . who h a d r e p e a t e d a s c h o o l g r a d e . equated  No s u b j e c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d Thus a l l s u b j e c t s w e r e  o n number o f y e a r s o f e x p o s u r e  to formal reading i n -  struction. R e a d i n g - a b i l i t y variable.. s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s :  Two t y p e s o f p u p i l w e r e  one. g r o u p was composed o f b o y s  judged  by t h e i r t e a c h e r s t o b e w e l l b e l o w t h e i r c l a s s a v e r a g e i n r e a d i n g , w h i l e t h e o t h e r group were judged c l a s s average.  T h i s was n e c e s s a r y  and p o o r r e a d e r s o n f i e l d  f o r nonreading  to  (WISC).  i n o r d e r t o c o n t r a s t good  The p r e s e n t s t u d y  Intelligence Scale f o r C h i l -  V e r b a l IQ was c o n t r o l l e d s i n c e i t was d e s i r e d  o b t a i n a measure o f r e a d i n g comprehension e x c l u s i v e o f t h e  c o n t a m i n a t i n g e f f e c t s o f v e r b a l IQ. suggested  The WISC V e r b a l S c a l e  i t s e l f a s an i d e a l m e a s u r e f o r t h i s s t u d y s i n c e i t  contains'no performance or reading t a s k s . non-verbal and  statistically  v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e a s m e a s u r e d by  the V e r b a l Scale o f t h e Wechsler dren  above  dependency.  Intelligence variable. controlled  t o be w e l l  IQ was. n o t c o n t r o l l e d .  o t h e r s produced  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  F a c t o r a n a l y s e s by W i t k i n  c o m m o n - f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f r o m t h e EFT a n d  t h e WISC P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e .  S u b s t a n t i a l l o a d i n g s were  f r o m t h e EFT a n d t h e WISC s u b t e s t s o f P i c t u r e Block Design,  a n d O b j e c t Assembly."'"'''  observed  Completion,  Because o f these  common  13 l o a d i n g s , i t seemed t h a t t o h a v e p a r t i a l l e d o u t t h e P e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e d e p r i v e d t h e s t u d y o f much o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l - d i f f e r e n c e s v a r i a n c e on t h e CEFT, w h i c h resembles the  closely  EFT.  Hypotheses With the e f f e c t s of non-reading v e r b a l  intelligence  h e l d c o n s t a n t " a n d u s i n g o n l y one s e x , a g r o u p o f g o o d r e a d e r s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f i e l d  independent than a group of  poor readers (at the f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l cance).  signifi-  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s m a i n h y p o t h e s i s , a* s u b - h y p o t h e s i s  holds that w i t h the e f f e c t s of non-reading v e r b a l  intelligence  h e l d c o n s t a n t and u s i n g o n l y one s e x , t h e m o r e . p r o f i c i e n t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e on a t e s t o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e more highly field  i n d e p e n d e n t w i l l be t h e p e r c e p t i o n .  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms For  t h e purpose o f c l a r i f y i n g t h e terms used i n the  s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were u s e d : Reading, comprehension. to  This i s the subject's  ability  r e a d a p a s s a g e and t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t he h a s u n d e r s t o o d  i t b y a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s b a s e d u p o n i t on a t e s t o f r e a d i n g comprehension.  T h i s s t u d y employed  the "Reading  s e c t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement II,  Form B, as t h e m e a s u r e o f r e a d i n g Good r e a d e r .  was  Stories"  Test, Primary Battery  comprehension.,  I n t h i s s t u d y , a good r e a d e r was  one  who  j u d g e d b y h i s t e a c h e r t o be a b o v e t h e mean o f h i s c l a s s  14  ) i n r e a d i n g a n d who o b t a i n e d more t h a n  18.5 p o i n t s i n r e a d i n g  c o m p r e h e n s i o n on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n g s u b t e s t d e s c r i b e d above.. o . Poor reader. judged  ... A poor reader, i n t h i s  s t u d y , was one  b y , h i s t e a c h e r t o b e b e l o w h i s c l a s s mean i n r e a d i n g  and who o b t a i n e d a s c o r e . o f l e s s t h a n 18.5 o n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n F i e l d dependency.,. A c c o r d i n g person's  t o W i t k i n , t h i s i s each  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way-of p e r c e i v i n g v i s u a l s t i m u l i .  e x i s t s on a continuum w i t h v e r y f i e l d and  very f i e l d  Witkin, field  i n d e p e n d e n t a t one e n d  dependent a t t h e o t h e r .  "somewhere i n t h e m i d d l e  regions.  Most persons  t o overcome an embeddi  t o perceive a simple  f i g u r e embedded i n a c o m p l e x c o n t e x t s u c h concealed-  fall-  As o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d by  dependency i s t h e a b i l i t y  context; that i s , the a b i l i t y  It  o r embedded-figures t e s t s .  stimulus  as i s p r e s e n t e d b y  The m e a s u r e o f f i e l d  d e p e n d e n c y e m p l o y e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t , F i e l d dependent. tually  (CEFT). In this  s t u d y , a s u b j e c t was  percep-  f i e l d d e p e n d e n t who o b t a i n e d a s c o r e b e l o w t h e s a m p l e  mean s c o r e o n t h e CEFT. dent person's  According  to Witkin, the f i e l d  perception of a,stimulus  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f i e l d •parts of t h e f i e l d  depen-  o b j e c t i s dominated by  surrounding  i t .  He s e e s t h e  as f u s e d and i s r e l a t i v e l y u n a b l e  t o sep-  r •  a r a t e a p a r t from i t s f i e l d . on t e s t s s u c h  a s t h e CEFT.  He p e r f o r m s r e l a t i v e l y  poorly  15  Field.independent. ceptually score  field  In this  study,  i n d e p e n d e n t who s c o r e d  on t h e CEFT.  Witki'n d e s c r i b e s  p e r s o n as one who i s a b l e t o p e r c e i v e from t h e i r c o n t e x t s .  a s u b j e c t was  a b o v e t h e s a m p l e mean  the f i e l d  stimulus objects  a p a r t from i t s f i e l d .  r e l a t i v e l y w e l l o n t e s t s s u c h as t h e CEFT.  .  \  apart  as d i s c r e t e  He p e r f o r m s  Hereinafter  d e p e n d e n t w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s " f d " a n d f i e l d as- " f i " .  independent  He s e e s t h e p a r t s o f a f i e l d  and i s a b l e t o s e p a r a t e  per-  field  independent  CHAPTER I I METHOD  Subjects F o r t y - n i n e boys o f 7 and 8 y e a r s o l d were s e l e c t e d from second grade c l a s s e s i n e i g h t Richmond, B r i t i s h schools,.  Columbia, p u b l i c  Boys were chosen because t h e y i n v a r i a b l y  more r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s t h a n g i r l s  present  and hence poor r e a d i n g boys  were c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r t o o b t a i n . P a r e n t a l consent  was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e t e s t i n g .  a d d i t i o n , each boy had t o s a t i s f y t h e f o l l o w i n g (i) had n o t repeated  a grade;  In  criteria:,  ( i i ) came f r o m a home i n w h i c h  E n g l i s h was u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y ; a n d ( i i i ) h a d no s e r i o u s v i s u a l acuity defects. Twenty-six  boys r a t e d as above t h e i r c l a s s average i n  r e a d i n g b y t h e i r t e a c h e r s a n d who s c o r e d a b o v e 18.5 on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n r e a d i n g s u b t e s t a n d 23 r a t e d . a s b e l o w a v e r a g e and who s c o r e d b e l o w 18.5 o n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n w e r e s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o c o n t r a s t good and p o o r r e a d e r s o n t h e f i e l d dependency v a r i a b l e .  No r e p e a t e r s w e r e u s e d , t o  elimin-  a t e any c o n t a m i n a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t a r i s e due t o an a d d i t i o n a l year of exposure t o formal reading i n s t r u c t i o n . necessary  I t was  t o c o n t r o l f o r v i s u a l a c u i t y i n o r d e r t o measure  uncontaminated p e r c e p t i o n .  17 The it  Richmond S c h o o l D i s t r i c t  i n c l u d e s urban' and s u b u r b a n  various socio-economic  levels.  (No.38) was c h o s e n b e c a u s e  s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s and s t r a d d l e s The s c h o o l s , w e r e  selected to  r e p r e s e n t as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t . . . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e t h e Richmond S c h o o l does n o t s e g r e g a t e p u p i l s f o r purposes  of reading  District  instruction,  i t was a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o c h o o s e one g o o d r e a d e r f r o m t h e same c l a s s as a g i v e n poor r e a d e r . c l a s s m a t e o f one o f t h e p o o r  Thus e a c h g o o d r e a d e r was a readers i n almost a l l cases.  I n s o f a r a s p o s s i b l e , t h e n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n compreh e n s i o n r e v e a l e d by t h e r e a d i n g t e s t r e f l e c t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o m p r e h e n s i o n and f i e l d dependency, r a t h e r t h a n between c o m p r e h e n s i o n and one o r more o t h e r  variables.  Test Instruments  Used  V i s u a l A c u i t y Measure The  Keystone  V i s u a l Survey  Telebinocular test of v i s u a l  a c u i t y was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o an i n i t i a l The  s u b j e c t p o o l o f 79 b o y s .  Telebinocular i s a visual screening test to detect  convergence,  l o w u s a b l e v i s i o n , and o v e r c o n v e r g e n c e  under-  a t both  12 near and f a r p o i n t s . .  Only  t h o s e b o y s who showed no s i g n s o f  s e r i o u s v i s u a l d e f e c t s were a c c e p t e d f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . t o t a l o f 19 b o y s h a d t o be r e j e c t e d on v i s u a l a c u i t y  A  grounds.  18 V a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y .  The manual g i v e s no i n f o r -  mation on the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y 1948,  Sulzman e t a l . decided  t e c t i o n of heterophoria  o f - t h i s instrument.  that i t s r e l i a b i l i t y  was as g r e a t as c e r t a i n  In  i n the deaccepted  13 clinical with  tests.  Steinbaum and K i r k compared the T e l e b i n o c u l a r  the S n e l l e n Chart  and found i t t o be 18% more  accurate  14 than the S n e l l e n . In a study i n v o l v i n g f i r s t and s i x t h graders, et  Crane  a l . , compared the percentages o f r e f e r r a l s made on the  b a s i s o f the T e l e b i n o c u l a r with those r e f e r r e d by three mologists. graders  Where the s p e c i a l i s t s r e f e r r e d 23% of the f i r s t  (N = 6 0 6 ) , the T e l e b i n o c u l a r r e f e r r e d 19%. A t the  s i x t h grade l e v e l  (N = 609),  the s p e c i a l i s t s  a g a i n s t 23.5% f o r the T e l e b i n o c u l a r .  s i x t h graders  ing,  incorrectly.  referred-31%  However, the T e l e b i n o -  c u l a r a l s o r e f e r r e d 40% of the f i r s t graders 15  was  ophthal-  Thus, while  and 33% o f the  the T e l e b i n o c u l a r  f a i r l y - e f f i c i e n t i n d e t e c t i n g substandard v i s u a l f u n c t i o n i t tended t o r e f e r many c h i l d r e n u n n e c e s s a r i l y . Working with school^age c h i l d r e n again, Robinson  repor-  ted a . s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between r e f e r r a l s made by two ' 16 s p e c i a l i s t s and those made using the T e l e b i n o c u l a r . An excerpt  from the J o u r n a l o f the American  A s s o c i a t i o n i n Buros ing  statement:  1  Medical  T h i r d Yearbook concludes with the f o l l o w -  19 The J o i n t C o m m i t t e e on I n d u s t r i a l - O p h t h a l m o l o g y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e T e l e b i n o c u l a r , u s e d w i s e l y by a p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d t e s t e r , w i l l uncover subnormal v i s u a l p e r f o r m a n c e n o t d e t e c t e d : by t h e common i n d u s t r i a l p r a c t i c e of t e s t i n g f o r c e n t r a l v i s u a l a c u i t y alone.17 :  I t would appear, then, able  f o r t h e p u r p o s e s and  t h a t t h e T e l e b i n o c u l a r was  f o r the  A l t h o u g h t h e m a n u a l r e p o r t s no  age  group of t h i s  of young c h i l d r e n .  carefully  followed i n this  study..'  standardization information, i t  does g i v e s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g ferral  T h e s e and  the  other  t e s t i n g and  study.  some c h i l d r e n w e r e r e j e c t e d who  and  should  probably  t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f any  ected ;having  instrument,  not have been.  of the p u p i l s  s e r i o u s v i s u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s seems t o be  considerably  re-  i n s t r u c t i o n s were  Because of the o v e r ^ - r e f e r r a l tendency of the  On  suit-  sel-  low, .  l o w e r t h a n w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e c a s e had  t i o n b e e n b a s e d on  the u s u a l w a l l  rejec-  chart.  F i e l d Dependency Measure The was  K a r p and  K o n s t a d t C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s  the measure of p e r c e p t i o n  used i n t h i s study..  18  o r i g i n a l t e s t b a t t e r y i n c l u d e d t h e Embedded F i g u r e s is  t h e one  Test  Witkin's Test.  It  a l w a y s u s e d by W i t k i n , e v e n i n h i s r a p i d a s s e s s m e n t  19 battery.  Of  administer  and  t h e W i t k i n m e a s u r e s , t h e EFT r e q u i r e s no  i s easiest  s p e c i a l equipment or  to  conditions.  T h u s , i t i s t h e t e s t m o s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d by i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the area version  of f i e l d  (CEFT) was  dependency. . In t h i s study  used i n p r e f e r e n c e  the  modified  to the o r i g i n a l  EFT.  20 Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h ducted for  on p e r c e p t u a l  s t y l e has  w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t e d s u b j e c t s s u c h as c o l l e g e  whom t h e o r i g i n a l o r s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d  EFT  been constudents,  i s well suited.  When y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e u s e d as s u b j e c t s , h o w e v e r , an t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s t h e m s e l v e s and  examina-  of the s u b j e c t s ' l e v e l  of  p e r f o r m a n c e w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l EFT  or  its  one.  s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s are simply  group of i n v e s t i g a t o r s , f e l t  too d i f f i c u l t , -  At  least  t h e n e e d t o m o d i f y t h e EFT  before  20 using i t with children.  I t was  and  CEFT.  Konstadt developed the The  its  f o r these  reasons t h a t Karp  CEFT i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d  authors  a d u l t EFT.  measure w h i c h  f e e l i s more i n t e r e s t i n g t o c h i l d r e n t h a n  the  The  having  CEFT c o n s i s t s o f two  t h e f o r m o f a t e n t and  a h o u s e and  stimulus  two  figures  sets of  multi-coloured  complex f i g u r e s , most of w h i c h are s t y l i z e d v e r s i o n s of nizable concrete embedded i n one and  objects.  o f - t h e s e t s of complex f i g u r e s .  training trials  stimulus  Each of the s t i m u l u s  are provided.  The  time i s a v a i l a b l e t o the s u b j e c t . score  is  consistency  e i g h t year derived.  Discrimination  Items  first;choice.  The  the  are  Unlimited  maximum o b t a i n a b l e  25.  Reliability nal  figures i s  s u b j e c t must l o c a t e  f i g u r e i n e a c h of. t h e c o m p l e x f i g u r e s .  p a s s e d o r f a i l e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e  recog-  and  validity.  reliability  old"boys,  The  m a n u a l r e p o r t s an  c o e f f i c i e n t of  although  .9.0  f o r seven  i t i s n o t " s t a t e d how  Validity coefficients  inter-  this  f o r s u b j e c t s e i g h t and  and was  under  21 are n o t r e p o r t e d .  F o r t h e 9 t o 12 y e a r o l d s , W i t k i n * s EFT  was u s e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e f o r o b t a i n i n g v a l i d a t i o n d a t a on the.CEFT.  F o r t h e b o y s i n t h i s g r o u p , EFT - CEFT  correlation coefficients to  range from  .86 f o r 11 a n d 12 y e a r o l d s .  .70 f o r 9 a n d 10 y e a r  The a u t h o r s , f e e l t h a t t h e  lower r f o r t h e younger boys i s t h e r e s u l t o f . l o w e r e d of- t h e EFT c r i t e r i o n a t age 9 (.75 a s c o m p a r e d w i t h .11).. of  reliability  .90 a t age  When t h e 9 - y e a r c o e f f i c i e n t s : a r e c o r r e c t e d f o r a t t e n u a t i o n  t h e EFT, they reach  .80 a n d a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h t h o s e o b t a i n e d f o r . t h e 11 y e a r o l d s . gest t h a t almost be  olds  These f i g u r e s  sug-  a l l o f t h e r e l i a b l e v a r i a n c e o f t h e CEFT may  a c c o u n t e d . f o r b y common v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e E F T .  The r e a s o n  why c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d a t i o n was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e u n d e r - 9 group i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d by t h e a u t h o r s : The v e r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h g a v e ; r i s e t o t h e n e e d f o r a s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n ' s v e r s i o n o f EFT, i . e . , t h e d i f f i c u l t y of the o r i g i n a l test, preclude v a l i d a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s which i n v o l v e c o r r e l a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s and a d u l t s ' v e r s i o n s because each t e s t i s designed f o r , a d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p . O n l y a t t h e b o r d e r s b e t w e e n age g r o u p s , w h e r e b o t h t e s t s c a n be u s e d , i s s u c h concurrent v a l i d a t i o n possible. This kind of data was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e 9 a n d 11 y e a r o l d s a n d demons t r a t e d a high, degree o f v a l i d i t y . Such r e s u l t s c a n n o t , o f c o u r s e , e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e same d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p r e s e n t a t younger ages. F o r c h i l d r e n b e l o w 9, some m e t h o d o t h e r t h a n c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d a t i o n i s needed,21 Although a b l e , something  concurrent v a l i d a t i o n information i s not a v a i l c a n be s a i d a b o u t . c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y .  Content 22  validity  c a n be e x a m i n e d b y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t e s t t a s k s . .  the CEFT,.the c h i l d i s asked which  t o l o c a t e a simple stimulus  In figure  has been c l e v e r l y -concealed i n a s e r i e s o f drawings o f  22 familiar objects.  The  simple stimulus i s presented simultan-  e o u s l y w i t h t h e complex  figures  :  o f t e n enough t o be  w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y by m o s t c h i l d r e n .  If,.however, the  f o r g e t s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s t i m u l u s , he may it  a g a i n a t any t i m e .  remembered child  r e q u e s t t o see  S i n c e t h e l o a d on m e m o r y . i s t h u s  g r e a t l y r e d u c e d , t h e CEFT w o u l d a p p e a r t o be an e v e n  factorially  p u r e r m e a s u r e t h a n t h e EFT w h i c h n e v e r p e r m i t s s i m p l e and f i g u r e s t o be v i e w e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  To.perform  complex  successfully  on t h e CEFT a p p e a r s t o r e q u i r e an. a c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e t a s k , the a b i l i t y  t o p e r c e i v e components a p a r t from t h e i r  and t h e a b i l i t y i n another.  to l i f t  These  context,  a component f r o m one G e s t a l t f o r u s e  are a l l q u a l i t i e s which W i t k i n claims char23  a c t e r i z e the f i person.  Thus t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o n t e n t  v a l i d a t i o n a p p e a r t o be met b y t h e CEFT f o r c h i l d r e n o f 5 t o 12 y e a r s o l d . R e a d i n g 'Comprehension All  Measure  s u b j e c t w r o t e Form B o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Achievement  24 Test, Primary B a t t e r y I I , Reading s u b t e s t .  Only the  entitled  This  " R e a d i n g S t o r i e s " was  administered.  c o n s i s t s of t e n passages of i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y t h e c h i l d must answer  37 r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s .  m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e answers  section about which  Three or  four  are p r o v i d e d f o r each q u e s t i o n .  f o u r , o r f i v e q u e s t i o n s are asked a f t e r each The  section  " R e a d i n g S t o r i e s " s e c t i o n was  Three,  passage.  chosen t o the e x c l u -  s i o n of the "Reading Sentences" s e c t i o n because be a v a l i d and s u f f i c i e n t m e a s u r e o f r e a d i n g  i t seemed t o  comprehension.  23 When a p e r s o n m e a s u r e how  reads  a book o r a n e w s p a p e r , ' t h e b e s t way  w e l l he has  understood  q u e s t i o n s about the content.  w h a t he  In r e a l l i f e  to  r e a d i s t o ask one  w i t h q u e s t i o n s of s p e l l i n g o r word a t t a c k .  i s not  One  him  concerned  i s more  likely  t o m e a s u r e c o m p r e h e n s i o n by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i l e i g n o r i n g the t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of reading.  T h i s t h e , M e t r o p o l i t a n does  by  h a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t answer q u e s t i o n s based upon i t s p a r a g r a p h s . , The  c h o s e n s e c t i o n was  a l s o i d e a l as a m e a s u r e o f  the  f i e l d dependency c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c l a r i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n of components, a b i l i t y and  ability  p l i s h e s by  to reorganize a f i e l d  t o i m p o s e s t r u c t u r e on a f i e l d . '  the a c t i v i t i e s  found  T h i s i t accom-  Reliability .94  to r e c a l l  then  to  sequences,  by Conn i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r t o  significantly with f i e l d  N o f 400  purposes,  f o r c i n g t h e c h i l d t o r e a d a p a s s a g e and  f i n d s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s and m a i n i d e a s and  r e p o r t e d as  f o r new  correlate  dependency.  and v a l i d i t y .  Split-half reliability is  f o r t h e r e a d i n g s u b t e s t as a w h o l e , w i t h  t y p i f y i n g h i g h , a v e r a g e and  l o w p e r f o r m a n c e on  Alternate-forms r e l i a b i l i t y  i s not quoted but  the the  25 test. be  c l o s e t o the s p l i t - h a l f  coefficient.  A l l the items  c h o s e n f r o m t h e same p o o l ' and  a r e s a i d t o be  r e s p e c t to average d i f f i c u l t y  and  range.of  similar  s l i g h t l y a b o v e 100 Test.  were  with  difficulty.  norm g r o u p f o r t h e s e c o n d g r a d e r e a d i n g t e s t has 10,218 p u p i l s , a l l a t age  should  an N  The of  f o r t h e i r g r a d e l e v e l and a l l  IQ p o i n t s on t h e P i n t n e r G e n e r a l  Ability  They w e r e r a n d o m l y c h o s e n f r o m t h e G r a d e 2 s t a n d a r d i z -  a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n o f w h i c h t h e y c o n s t i t u t e 25%.  The  authors  24 s t a t e t h a t "The  minimum number o f p u p i l s p e r g r a d e i n  f i n a l norm g r o u p was. a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d , b e i n g  set at a  the level  i n e x c e s s o f t h a t n e c e s s a r y t o y i e l d n a t i o n a l norms o f  high  26 stability." ected  t o be  location  The  standardization population  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s i z e and  The  standard  the  second grade reading  one  s t a n i n e o f t h e mean. • The  validity.  type of school  (49 s t a t e s ) , t y p e o f c o m m u n i t y , and  national basis.  i t s e l f was  IQ  l e v e l on  subtest  (N = .400) . " T h i s  a  i s confined  n o t e d above t h a t i t e m s were  to range of d i f f i c u l t y .  for  is within  Although i t e m - s e l e c t i o n formulae are not  chosen w i t h r e s p e c t  system,  e r r o r o f m e a s u r e m e n t i s 2.8  o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n on v a l i d i t y  i n t h e m a n u a l s , i t was  sel-  to  content  mentioned carefully  In a d d i t i o n , the  manual g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : The s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e . R e a d i n g T e s t i s a 3 8 - i t e m measure o f a b i l i t y t o comprehend m a t e r i a l s - o f p a r a g r a p h length. The s e l e c t i o n s i n t h e t e s t a r e s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e t o . t h e type of content t h a t the p u p i l encounters i n primers. They a r e c a r e f u l l y g r a d u a t e d i n d i f f i c u l t y through c o n t r o l of vocabulary, sentence l e n g t h and s t r u c t u r e and o v e r a l l l e n g t h . Each r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o measure v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of r e a d i n g comprehension.2V R e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s v i e w e d as i n v o l v i n g f o u r  abilities:  1.  A b i l i t y to s e l e c t the main thought of a passage, or to judge i t s g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . .  2.  A b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d the l i t e r a l meaning of the s e l e c t i o n , or to l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l i c i t l y set forth.  3.  A b i l i t y t o see t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e i d e a s s e t f o r t h i n t h e s e l e c t i o n and t o d r a w c o r r e c t i n f e r e n c e s from the s e l e c t i o n .  25  4.  A b i l i t y t o d e t e r m i n e the meaning o f a word from c o n t e x t or t o judge from the c o n t e x t which of s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e m e a n i n g s i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e one.28  R e a d a b i l i t y i n d i c e s were computed f o r each p a r a g r a p h u s i n g L o r g e and  Flesch formula.  In a d d i t i o n , a c a r e f u l study  made o f n a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a , e x p e r t and  repeated  out.  experimentation  j u d g e m e n t was  solicited,  i n i t e m d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was  s i n g by. some s u b j e c t s , . o n l y f o u r s u b j e c t s r a t e d by  reader  as p o o r r e a d e r s  carried  in this  study  gues-  their  scored i n the  good-  range. In  ing  was  While the m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e format used c o u l d i n v i t e  teachers  the  summary, i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t was  purpose of t h i s  one  read-  of the most s u i t a b l e f o r the  study.-  V e r b a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Measure The Children The  V e r b a l Scale of the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Test  ;(WISC) was  administered  i n d i v i d u a l l y to a l l subjects.  reasons f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n were.discussed R e 1 i a b i l i t y and  va11dity.  The  t i o n f o r 7-1/2 7-1/2  year  The  i n Chapter I .  WISC m a n u a l r e p o r t s i n -  f o r m a t i o n on s u b t e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and n o t h i n g on v a l i d i t y .  reliability,  Verbal Scale - F u l l Scale  y e a r o l d s i s r e p o r t e d as  as  .88 w i t h a c o r r e c t i o n f o r f u l l  t h e Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a .  The  but  correla-  .90 w i t h N = 200.  o l d s , the odd-even s p l i t - h a l f / r e l i a b i l i t y  cient i s listed  for  standard  For  coeffi-  length  by  e r r o r o f measurement 29  at  7-1/2  years  i s r e p o r t e d as 5.19  IQ u n i t s w i t h N =  200.  26  Anything  t h a t c a n be s a i d a b o u t t h e ; v a l i d i t y  f o r the  WISC m u s t be b a s e d o n t h e r e s e a r c h i t h a s g e n e r a t e d 1949 d a t e o f p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e m a n u a l .  Twenty y e a r s o f s u c h  r e s e a r c h h a v e shown t h e WISC t o be a . h i g h l y v a l i d when v a l i d i t y  i s d e f i n e d as c o n c u r r e n t .  Fourth Yearbook, Binet  instrument  W r i t i n g i n Buros'  M c C a n d l e s s r e p o r t e d WISC V e r b a l - S t a n f o r d -  (L) r ' s o f  Yearbook,  since the  .69  to  .82."^°  I n reviews  i n Buros'  F r a s e r p l a c e s t h e f i g u r e a t around  Fifth  .80 a n d P a t t e r s o n  31 •  at  .70 t o . 9 0 .  A l s o i n t h e F i f t h Yea r bo ok., R a b i n  reports  g e n e r a l l y h i g h r ' s b e t w e e n t h e WISC a n d a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r mental measures.  32  Research.pes i g n Twenty-six  s u b j e c t s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e good-reader group  and  23 t h e p o o r - r e a d e r  was  t h e i n d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e a n d t h e CEFT t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e .  An  group.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n r e a d i n g  a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d o n t h e d a t a .  test  The  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean s c o r e o f t h e g o o d - r e a d e r g r o u p a n d t h e mean s c o r e ' o f t h e p o o r - r e a d e r  g r o u p on t h e d e p e n d e n t  m e a s u r e was e x a m i n e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f verbal intelligence s t a t i s t i c a l l y  controlled.  Thus t h e g o o d  r e a d e r s were compared w i t h t h e p o o r r e a d e r s on t h e f i e l d dency  depen-  variable. A n o t h e r approach i s d e f e n s i b l e , whereby t h e s u b j e c t s  are n o t d i v i d e d i n t o t w o g r o u p s , High  a n d Low, b u t t h e i r  a c t u a l r e a d i n g scores a r e used i n a r e g r e s s i o n equation t o . p r e d i c t f i e l d dependency s c o r e s . f r o m  r e a d i n g comprehension and  WISC V e r b a l s c o r e s .  The.'drop i n t h e R  r e a d i n g comprehension from t h e equation  occasioned  by  dropping  i s i n f a c t the squared  2 part-correlation, r value  c l e a r l y provides  study.  ( M e t r o p o l i t a n W I S C ' V e r b a l ) , .whose an answer t o t h e m a j o r q u e s t i o n o f t h e  I t g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of. t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f i v a r i a n c e  a c c o u n t e d f o r by d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g , c o m p r e h e n s i o n when nonreading  verbal intelligence i s controlled.  Procedure i n T r e a t i n g Data The  data were.subjected  t o a one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o - .  v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e WISC V e r b a l s c o r e s  as c o v a r i a t e .  This  ana-  l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d u s i n g t h e UCLA H e a l t h S c i e n c e s  Computing  Facility  was e m p l o y e d  BMD X82 programme.  i n order to s t a t i s t i c a l l y  The ANACOVA t e c h n i q u e  c o n t r o l v e r b a l IQ s o t h a t , c o m p a r i s o n s  c o u l d be made b e t w e e n t h e means o f t h e "good" r e a d e r s CEFT and t h o s e  o f t h e "poor" r e a d e r s , w i t h o u t  e f f e c t of the concomitant Covariance study  on t h e  the contaminating  variable.  a d j u s t m e n t was j u d g e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s  s i n c e i t met t h e c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d b y K i r k w h i c h f o l l o w 1.  The e x p e r i m e n t c o n t a i n s one o r more s o u r c e s o f v a r i a t i o n b e l i e v e d ' t o a f f e c t t h e dependent v a r i a b l e and c o n s i d e r e d i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s of the experiment.  2.  Experimental c o n t r o l of the extraneous sources of v a r i a t i o n i s e i t h e r not p o s s i b l e o r not feasible.  3.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a measure o f t h e ext r a n e o u s v a r i a t i o n t h a t does n o t i n c l u d e e f f e c t s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the treatment.33  28 A l s o u n d e r l y i n g t h e use  o f ANACOVA i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e p e n d e n t and r e m a i n s t h e same w i t h i n b o t h  the concomitant  The t h e BMD  d e s i g n 'of t h i s s t u d y  X82  programme.  variable  groups, t h a t i s , , t h a t the  s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e t h e same f o r b o t h  "treatment  lent i t s e l f  the  regres-  populations."  to analysis using  This i s a linear hypothesis  testing  m o d e l w h i c h p e r f o r m s a one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e  using  one  be  o r more c o v a r i a t e s .  in size. to  The  .05  unequal  programme t e s t s f o r e q u a l i t y o f s l o p e f r o m g r o u p  main hypothesis  was  tested for significance at  the  level.  Testing Conditions.and The  t e s t i n g was  Procedures c a r r i e d o u t on a p r e d e t e r m i n e d  M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n g T e s t was  L a t e r on  t h e same d a y ,  cases  o n l y a few  cases  as  was  i n t h i s s t u d y , g r o u p s may  group. The  The  As  the  e a c h boy  hours separated  the f i r s t  was  test  No more t h a n  m o n t h s i n t e r v e n e d b e t w e e n t h e CEFT and began,in e a r l y January,  1970  and  was  I n most  t e s t s , b u t i n some  l o n g , as a week i n t e r v e n e d b e t w e e n them.. last test administered.  administered.  g i v e n t h e CEFT.  these  schedule.  two  t h e WISC.  The  WISC  and  a  The  testing  half  c o m p l e t e d by t h e end  of  M a r c h , 19 70. All  t e s t i n g was  c a r r i e d o u t by  the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n  order t o reduce examiner v a r i a n c e .  The  medical  as t e s t i n g  r o o m s , and  libraries  served  school staff rooms.  rooms,  '  All  t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  with the directions politan.was  and s c o r e d  i n accordance  i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e manuals.  administered  The M e t r o -  a s a. g r o u p t e s t t o a l l t h e s u b j e c t s  i n any one s c h o o l . In for  the s t a t i s t i c a l  c o m p u t a t i o n s , raw s c o r e s w e r e u s e d  t h e CEFT a n d t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n .  The WISC s c o r e s a r e  i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s i n s t a n d a r d i z e d form. V e r b a l s u b t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d prorated.  \  A l l s i x WISC  and t h e s c a l e d s c o r e s  were  CHAPTER I I I RESULTS AND  Table  DISCUSSION  IV of the Appendix c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g  ( i ) raw s c o r e s on the, r e a d i n g t e s t , CEFT, and  ( i i ) raw s c o r e s on t h e  ( i i i , ) . WISC V e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s .  Table for  data:  I below summarizes  the main r e s u l t s of the study  49 s u b j e c t s , 26 i n . t h e g o o d - r e a d e r g r o u p and 23 i n t h e  poor-reader  group.  From an o r i g i n a l p o o l o f 55 s u b j e c t s f o u r  p o o r r e a d e r s and two good r e a d e r s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d b e c a u s e o f a marked  d i s p a r i t y between.teacher r a t i n g of reading  and-reading  comprehension t e s t r e s u l t s .  ability  The r e m a i n i n g  49  s u b j e c t s w e r e e i t h e r g o o d o r p o o r r e a d e r s on t h e b a s i s o f criteria:  (i). t e a c h e r judgement,  and  ( i i )reading test  two  per-  formance. TABLE I Analysis of Covariance  o f 26 Good and 23 P o o r  R e a d e r s ' F i e l d Dependency L e v e l s  Source of Variation CEFT means a d j u s t e d f o r WISC V e r b a l Zero Slope Error E q u a l i t y of Slopes Error * S i g n i f i c a n t beyond  Degrees of Freedom  1 1.. 46 1 45 • t h e 0.05  Residuals Sum o f Mean - Square Squares  18.32 100.19 826.50 13.28 • 813.22 level.  18.32 100.19 17.97 .. 13.28 . 18.07 •  r1.02 5.58 0 .74  31 A n a l y s i s o f Data From T a b l e I i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e F - v a l u e o f t h e zero  slope  t e s t was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , w h i c h means  t h a t n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o CEFT scores  a n d was j u s t i f i e d  e q u a l i t y of slopes the  slopes  the  covariance  i n being  used as a c o v a r i a t e .  t e s t was'not s i g n i f i c a n t .  The  T h i s means  that  o f t h e two g r o u p s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y e q u a l a n d t h a t . condition of s i m i l a r regression c o e f f i c i e n t s  f o r t h e g r o u p s was m e t .  Thus t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e , d i f f e r e n c e  b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p means was With the subjects  justified-  statistically  equated on n o n r e a d i n g  v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r mean s c o r e  on  t h e CEFT was p r e d i c t e d  poor,  f o r good r e a d e r s as compared w i t h  readers.  The p r o c e d u r e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s  described  i n Chapter I I .  ah F v a l u e  From T a b l e I i t w i l l  o f 1;02 w a s . o b t a i n e d .  tical  significance, with  value  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  hypothesis.  be s e e n  was  that  A t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s t a t i s -  1 a n d 46 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m ,  this  The d a t a d i d n o t c o n f i r m t h e  The g o o d r e a d e r s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  more.fi  t h a n t h e p o o r r e a d e r s when n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ was c o n t r o l l e d . To and  d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e independent  dependent v a r i a b l e s , w i t h  the e f f e c t s o f the concomitant,  variable controlled, a multiple regression c a r r i e d o u t i n w h i c h CEFT s c o r e s regression  were p r e d i c t e d by m u l t i p l e  on t h e j o i n t M e t r o p o l i t a n  Then t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  a n a l y s i s was  was e l i m i n a t e d  and WISC V e r b a l from t h e equation  scores. and  32 the m u l t i p l e R tially  o  recalculated.  This procedure performed  t h e same f u n c t i o n , as. t h e ANACOVA, w i t h t h e  t h a t the former preserves the o r i g i n a l reading :  essen-  exception  scores  instead 2  o f l a b e l i n g them Good o r P o o r . w e r e ...16556 and  The  respective multiple R  's  .16423.  The p r o p o r t i o n o f C E F T ' v a r i a n c e p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m  that  p a r t of reading comprehension t h a t i s independent of nonreado 2 i n g - v e r b a l IQ i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n R~ ,, and R_, . . , , ^ Full Restricted and amounts, t o an i n s i g n i f i c a n t . 0.001. the  This quantity i s also.  s q u a r e d p a r t c o r r e l a t i o n , o f t h e CEFT and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n , .  w i t h t h e WISC (V) p a r t i a l l e d o u t . o f none o f t h e CEFT v a r i a n c e Metropolitan reading  the l a t t e r .  Thus a l m o s t  i s l i n e a r l y p r e d i c t a b l e from the  reading, s c o r e s ,  freed of the i n f l u e n c e of  v e r b a l IQ, f o r t h e s u b j e c t s - a n d  non-  conditions of  this  h a n d , when p r e d i c t i n g CEFT s c o r e s  from  study. On  the.other  j o i n t , r e a d i n g . c o m p r e h e n s i o n and n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ  scores 2 the d i f f e r e n c e between ^2.  and t h e n e l i m i n a t i n g t h e l a t t e r , 2 and R . . . , i s 0.1014, t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a n c e  R  F u  con-  S TZ 2 T 1 C " C 6 Q.  t r i b u t e d by WISC V e r b a l , Metropolitan.  freed of the i n f l u e n c e of the  I n other, words,  a b o u t 10%' o f t h e CEFT  can'be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n terms o f a b i l i t i e s s u c c e s s f u l performance  variance  that enter  on t h e WISC V e r b a l , b u t t h a t do  c o n t r i b u t e t o s u c c e s s f u l performance A n o t h e r way. o f e x p r e s s i n g  this  on  into not  the,Metropolitan.  i s t o say t h a t the squared  p a r t c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e CEFT and t h e WISC V e r b a l , w i t h  reading  33  comprehension p a r t i a l l e d o u t o f t h e l a t t e r ,  i s .0.1014.  This  f i n d i n g i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n F v a l u e o f 5.5896, w i t h 1 a n d 46 d e g r e e s o f • freedom";, - a n d a p r o b a b i l i t y o f - .022 when t h e null•hypothesis i s true. The  r e s u l t s of- t h e above, r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t  that there i s v e r y , l i t t l e related.to field  i n reading comprehension t h a t i s  dependency  and n o t - t o n o n r e a d i n g v e r b a l i n -  t e l l i g e n c e , a s t h e terms:;are d e f i n e d i n t h i s  study.  On t h e  o t h e r -hand, t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n t h e WISC V e r b a l t h a t i s n o t r e l a t e d to. r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n b u t i s m i l d l y r e l a t e d t o field  dependency.  This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  f i n d i n g and o n e  w h i c h was n o t a n t i c i p a t e d , s i n c e t h e CEFT i s a p e r c e p t u a l t a s k w h i l e t h e WISC V e r b a l r e q u i r e s no p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s  what-  ever . " .  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y r a i s e some  questions.  interesting  Would t h e r e s u l t s have been s i g n i f i c a n t had t h e  groups been c o n s t i t u t e d ; d i f f e r e n t l y ? about t h e instruments  f i n d i n g s ? - The q u e s t i o n o f g r o u p  now b e c o n s i d e r e d .  Were t h e two g r o u p s i n f a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y in  anything  o r the t e s t i n g procedures that could  account f o r the negative constitution w i l l  Was t h e r e  reading a b i l i t y ?  different  I t . w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e r e were two  c r i t e r i a . f o r p l a c e m e n t i n e i t h e r t h e good- o r t h e p o o r - r e a d e r group:,  (i) teacher  reading a b i l i t y , politan.  judgement  o f above- o r below-average  a n d ( i i ) above o r b e l o w 18.5. o n t h e M e t r o -  To e x a m i n e  the. s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n  34 M e t r o p o l i t a n mean s c o r e s , t h e u s u a l t - t e s t f o r g r o u p s was  used.  The  independent  r e s u l t s appear i n Table I I . TABLE I I  A Comparison of Reading for  Group Good  Variance  26  17.68  23  14.23 •  Poor-readers  The  freedom.  Metropolitan Mean.Score .  .0005 l e v e l /  Thus t h e two  : t  p.  30.81 17.34<.0005  9.87  o b t a i n e d t v a l u e o f 17.34  f i c a n t beyond the  Scores  Poor Readers  Number. readers  ..  Good and  Comprehension  was  statistically  signi-  o n e - t a i l e d , w i t h 47 d e g r e e s  of  groups, w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n .  r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , as- e x p e c t e d . The viewed  q u e s t i o n o f group c o m p o s i t i o n , however, can  from another  angle.  An  examination  of Table  t h e A p p e n d i x r e v e a l s t h a t 25, o r more t h a n h a l f , o f M e t r o p o l i t a n s c o r e s f e l l w i t h i n one  be  IV of the  Standard d e v i a t i o n  (11.1621) o f t h e mean s c o r e . (20 .9796.). f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . . I t was  felt  g r o u p and  t h a t t h e s e 25 s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d an t h u s . d i d not f a l l  average-reader  i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f good o r  p o o r r e a d e r s when t h e l a t t e r a r e d e f i n e d as a b o v e . o r b e l o w average.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t was  f e l t t h a t these  average  r e a d e r s d e p r i v e d , t h e s t u d y o f much o f t h e v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y g o o d r e a d e r s and  the e x c e p t i o n a l l y  poor  35 readers.  Thus a s e c o n d c o v a r i a n c e  a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d on  t h e t e n h i g h e s t and l o w e s t M e t r o p o l i t a n s c o r e s .  The  results  appear i n Table I I I . TABLE I I I Analysis of Covariance  o f 10 Good and 10 P o o r  R e a d e r s ' F i e l d Dependency L e v e l s  Source o f Variation  Degrees of Freedom -  . -  -  Sum o f Squares  Mean •Square  F  CEFT means a d j u s t e d f o r WISC V e r b a l  1  5.82  5.82  0.34  Zero  1  34.94  34.94  2.06  17  288.06  16.94  slope Error-.  1  Equality of slopes Error  1.95  1.95 .  16  2 86.11  The o b t a i n e d F v a l u e d i d n o t r e a c h  17.88  0.11 -  s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the  .05 l e v e l , w i t h 1 and 17 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m .  Since the  e q u a l i t y o f s l o p e s t e s t was a c c o m p a n i e d by a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t F value, the covariance c i e n t s was met.  condition of s i m i l a r regression  However, s i n c e t h e z e r o s l o p e t e s t f a i l e d t o  a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , the concomitant was n o t j u s t i f i e d  v a r i a b l e (WISC  Verbal)  as a c o v a r i a t e f o r t h i s r e d u c e d s a m p l e , n o r  i n d e e d was i t n e c e s s a r y . n i f i c a n t l y more f i t h a n v e r b a l IQ was  coeffi-  The t e n g o o d r e a d e r s w e r e n o t s i g t h e t e n p o o r r e a d e r s when  controlled.  nonreading  36 When t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t analyses  and second  covariance  are compared, i t can be seen t h a t the F v a l u e o f t h e  s m a l l e r g r o u p s was e v e n f a r t h e r f r o m s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n of the o r i g i n a l and  sample.  that  Hence.using o n l y e x c e p t i o n a l l y good  e x c e p t i o n a l l y poor.readers  .appears t o make v e r y  little  d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e r e s u l t s when c o m p a r e d w i t h i n c l u d i n g t h e more a v e r a g e r e a d e r s .  The n e g a t i v e  f i n d i n g s t h u s do n o t  e x p l a i n a b l e on the b a s i s o f group c o m p o s i t i o n  i n s o f a r as  assigning subjects t o reading a b i l i t y groups.is Still  another  concerned.  approach t o the q u e s t i o n o f group.com-  p o s i t i o n may b e c o n s i d e r e d . . From T a b l e may  IV o f the Appendix i t  be seen t h a t the sample i n c l u d e d s i x boys' ( S u b j e c t s  3 7 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 8 , 4 9 ) who s c o r e d  these boys c o n s t i t u t e d 25% o f the poor-reader fruitful  34,  c l o s e t o o r h i g h e r than one s t a n -  d a r d d e v i a t i o n a b o v e t h e mean o n t h e WISC V e r b a l .  be  seem  Since  group, i t might  t o . s p e c u l a t e on. t h e c a u s e s o f t h e i r p o o r  reading  c o m p r e h e n s i o n . . One p o s s i b l e c a u s e i s p o o r e m o t i o n a l  adjust-  ment, a v a r i a b l e not c o n t r o l l e d i n t h i s  study.  Perhaps  these  boys were r e a d i n g p o o r l y not because o f the i n f l u e n c e o f f i e l d dependency, b u t because they were e m o t i o n a l l y to lar. in  resistant  s c h o o l - r e l a t e d work i n g e n e r a l and t o r e a d i n g i n p a r t i c u T h i s s p e c u l a t i o n w o u l d seem t o b e e s p e c i a l l y t h e case'.of . S u b j e c t s . 34-, 37 . and  3 9 , who c o m b i n e d g o o d  r e a d i n g v e r b a l IQ w i t h a b o v e - a v e r a g e CEFT s c o r e s . ately, this  study  can  interesting non-  Unfortun-  s h e d no l i g h t o n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  37 c o n t a m i n a t i o n by t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e o f e m o t i o n a l justment,  s i n c e no r e c o r d s -of i t w e r e o b t a i n e d .  In to  ad-  summary, v e r y l i t t l e . c a n be  found  r e l a t e the negative f i n d i n g s of t h i s  position.  The  w i l l . n o w be  t h a t would  tend  s t u d y t o group.com-  q u e s t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s and  test  procedures  considered.'  It w i l l  be  recalled  from Chapter  I I t h a t the  first  c h o i c e o f t h e s u b j e c t on t h e CEFT i s t h e a n s w e r r e c o r d e d f o r h i m on any he d e s i r e s .  figure.  He m a y ; t a k e as much o r as l i t t l e  r e p l y t o the items. t h e WISC V e r b a l and reward  a n c e may  take long or s h o r t p e r i o d s of time  w e l l be  t h e CEFT p e n a l i z e i m p u l s i v e  i n answering  responding  Much o f t h e i r common v a r i -  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a v a r i a b l e such behaviour.  The  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an i m p u l s i v i t y - r e f l e c t i v i t y  CEFT l e a d s t o w h a t m u s t be its  to  I t seems p l a u s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t b o t h  r e f l e c t i v e responding.  sivity-reflectivity of  as'  S i m i l a r l y , on f i v e o f t h e s i x WISC V e r b a l s u b -  t e s t s t h e s u b j e c t may  and  time  regarded  as  impul-  possibility f a c t o r i n the  as a m a j o r c r i t i c i s m  of  scoring.procedures. . It•seems l i k e l y  possess  good a b i l i t y  t h a t one  c a n be  t o disembed.  On  i m p u l s i v e and  still  t h e CEFT, h o w e v e r ,  the  i m p u l s i v e f i person, m i g h t n o t take, enough t i m e t o d e m o n s t r a t e his  a c t u a l disembedding c a p a b i l i t i e s . - . For example, d e s p i t e  c l e a r warnings  that their f i r s t  c h o i c e s w o u l d be  recorded,'  s e v e r a l b o y s made c h o i c e s v e r y s o o n a f t e r t h e c o m p l e x was  presented.  figure  Some o b v i o u s l y d i d n o t t a k e l o n g enough t o  38  survey the e n t i r e f i g u r e before responding. i t was a f a i r l y first  As a r e s u l t ,  common o c c u r r e n c e f o r - b o y s t o make a w r o n g  c h o i c e and then t o f i n d t h e c o r r e c t p a t t e r n b e f o r e t h e  i n v e s t i g a t o r removed t h e i t e m .  Had t h e s e b o y s t a k e n o n l y a  few more s e c o n d s they: w o u l d v e r y l i k e l y h a v e c h o s e n t h e c o r rect pattern f i r s t .  .Nevertheless, t o f o l l o w the standardize-,  t i o n procedures,.the  f i r s t c h o i c e was r e g a r d e d a s v a l i d .  I t w o u l d be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t of  reflective  of  consistency i n t h i s behaviour,  :  t o i s o l a t e the effects  a n d i m p u l s i v e r e s p o n d i n g f o r t h e r e was a l a c k Some b o y s made h a s t y w r o n g  c h o i c e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f .the t e s t a n d t h e n i n c r e a s e d t h e i r response  l a t e n c y as t h e y o b s e r v e d  O t h e r s became . c a r e l e s s t o w a r d s  their earlier  errors.  t h e e n d a n d made h a s t y w r o n g  c h o i c e s on t h e l a s t few f i g u r e s . .  Still  others  between, i m p u l s i v e a n d r e f l e c t i v e c h o i c e s .  alternated  Most o f t h e i m p u l -  s i v e w r o n g c h o i c e s w e r e made o n t h e f i g u r e s w h i c h d e c e p t i v e l y easy. a f f e c t s answering of  appear  I n sum, i m p u l s i v i t y - r e f l e c t i v i t y behaviour remains  as. i t  a p o s s i b l e s e r i o u s source  c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e CEFT v a r i a n c e . Although  the standardized scoring procedures  introduce extraneous  tend t o  v a r i a n c e by p o s s i b l y p e n a l i z i n g i m p u l s i v e  r e s p o n d i n g and r e w a r d i n g r e f l e c t i v e r e s p o n d i n g , t h e r a t i o n a l e •for r e c o r d i n g t h e f i r s t  c h o i c e appears  were t o a c c e p t t h e second  sound.  I f an  examiner  or.later choices, the subject could  c o n c e i v a b l y choose t h e r i g h t response  by t h e p r o c e s s o f  e l i m i n a t i o n , g i v e n t h e unspeeded n a t u r e o f t h e t e s t .  To  39 ensure to  t h a t t h e CEFT r e m a i n e d  d i s c o u r a g e such piecemeal  study proposes  a power t e s t , some t e c h n i q u e approaches  was  necessary  an a l t e r n a t i v e s c o r i n g m e t h o d w h i c h  would  r e t a i n t h e power f e a t u r e o f . t h e t e s t w h i l e g r e a t l y both piecemeal ally  approaches  reducing  :artd r i m p u l s i v e w r o n g c h o i c e s , e s p e c i -  on t h e d e c e p t i v e l y e a s y i t e m s .  T h i s method would r e q u i r e  t h e s u b j e c t t o w a i t a minimum: ..amount o f t i m e , p e r h a p s seconds,  b e f o r e r e s p o n d i n g . .He  examiner  t o w i t h h o l d h i s answer u n t i l n o t i f i e d  n e c e s s a r y t i m e had examiner appears  elapsed.  would encourage him  .15  w o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d by  the  t h a t the  During the w a i t i n g p e r i o d the to continue searching i f . h e  t o h a v e t a k e n an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount o f t i m e t o s u r v e y -  the f i g u r e . t h a t he may of  This  4  I t would, t a k e any  o f c o u r s e , be made c l e a r t o t h e s u b j e c t  a d d i t i o n a l time r e q u i r e d a f t e r the  t h e w a i t i n g p e r i o d . ... T h i s p r o c e d u r e  end  seems t o p r e s e r v e  the  power f e a t u r e o f t h e t e s t w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g i t s c o n s t r u c t validity. To  s u m m a r i z e t h e r e s u l t s o f the. s t u d y , no  d i f f e r e n c e was on f i e l d  observed  b e t w e e n g o o d r e a d e r s and p o o r  d e p e n d e n c y when t h e ' s u b j e c t s w e r e e q u a t e d  r e a d i n g v e r b a l . IQ. was  significant  A l l in~ a l l , nonreading  a much b e t t e r . p r e d i c t o r o f f i e l d  v e r b a l IQ  dependency than  r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a l o n e , as w i l l be s e e n the Appendix.  :  on  nonalone was  from Table V  I n a d d i t i o n , v e r b a l IQ a c c o u n t e d  p o r t i o n of reading comprehension.variance,  readers  of  for a.sizeable  whereas  field  40 dependency accounted  f o r almost  none. "The  negative findings  were examined w i t h r e l a t i o n . t o group c o m p o s i t i o n , -and  instruments,  t e s t procedures... . The: s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r i n g ' p r o c e d u r e  t h e CEFT was  s i n g l e d o u t as t h e most, l i k e l y  t h e n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s and  for  e x p l a n a t i o n of  an a l t e r n a t e s c o r i n g s y s t e m  was  -proposed. L i m i t a t i o n s of G e n e r a l i z i n g from t h i s The and  c o n s t r u c t s of f i e l d dependency, r e a d i n g  nonreading  v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e w e r e d e f i n e d as  o b t a i n e d on t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s may  Study  scores  used i n t h i s study  n o t be g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o o t h e r m e a s u r e s .  In a d d i t i o n ,  r e s u l t s of t h i s study are n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d to s u b j e c t s under s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l  comprehension  conditions..  similar  and the  CHAPTER I V SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  This study explored the d i f f e r e n c e i n f i e l d  independent-  d e p e n d e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f < g o o d r e a d e r s as c o m p a r e d w i t h readers. tial  To  accomplish t h i s ,  i t was  necessary to t r y to par-  out or e l i m i n a t e the e f f e c t s of extraneous  t i a l v a r i a b l e s . - An a t t e m p t was the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : English,  (ii)  c o n t r o l l e d was  nonreading  but  influen-  made t o e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l  ( i ) l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h spoken  visual defects, (iii)  ber of years i n school.  poor  The  sex,'(iv)  extraneous  age,  variable  and  statistically  verbal intelligence.  A t o t a l o f 49 s e c o n d - g r a d e b o y s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e of t h i s study. and  Of t h e s e , 26 c o m p r i s e d  23 t h e p o o r - r e a d e r g r o u p .  elementary  (v) num-  the good-reader  sample group  They a t t e n d e d e i g h t p u b l i c  s c h o o l s a t Richmond, B r i t i s h  Three i n s t r u m e n t s were employed.  Columbia. These were t h e  M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , P r i m a r y B a t t e r y I I , Form "Reading  Stories"  s u b t e s t , the Wechsler  f o r C h i l d r e n ( V e r b a l S c a l e ) , and Figures Test.  The  statistical  Intelligence  B,  Scale  t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded  techniques a p p l i e d to the  data  w e r e one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analysis. The  main, h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  l e v e l of f i e l d  higher  i n d e p e n d e n c e among g o o d r e a d e r s t h a n among  poor r e a d e r s , w i t h the e f f e c t s of nonreading trolled.  The  data d i d not uphold  v e r b a l IQ  this hypothesis.  con-  A  sub-  hypothesis predicted a s i g n i f i c a n t positive correlation tween f i e l d  i n d e p e n d e n c e and  r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , when  l e v e l o f v e r b a l IQ was  statistically  failed  hypothesis.  to support  this  controlled.  The  data  The' n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s , w e r e d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f apparent and  be-  t e n d e n c y o f t h e CEFT t o p e n a l i z e i m p u l s i v e  to reward r e f l e c t i v e responding.  An  an  responding  alternate scoring  t e c h n i q u e was  proposed which might reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y  contamination  by t h e e x t r a n e o u s  reflectivity  in  v a r i a b l e of  of  impulsivity-  responding.  Other s t u d i e s are suggested  by  the r e s u l t s of  this  one. . T h i s s t u d y , o f c o u r s e , c o u l d i t s e l f be  replicated, i f  o n l y t o see  again.  i f t h e d a t a f o u n d w o u l d be  l a r s t u d y c o u l d be done e m p l o y i n g  both  found  A  the-revised scoring  procedure  f o r t h e CEFT p r o p o s e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r and  procedure  recommended i n t h e m a n u a l t o d e t e r m i n e  yield  significantly different results.  reduce the e f f e c t s of poor emotional c o m p r e h e n s i o n by a t t e m p t i n g mentally. had  The field  the  i f they  Other s t u d i e s could  a d j u s t m e n t on  reading  to control this variable experi-  Among o t h e r t h i n g s , s u b j e c t s c o u l d be  been - r e f e r r e d t o guidance  behaviour  simi-  rejected  who  or p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r  reasons. c o r r e l a t i o n , b e t w e e n reading comprehension  d e p e n d e n c y seems s u f f i c i e n t l y  logically  and  appealing,  and  43 has  been demonstrated;by o t h e r s t o . b e . s i g n i f i c a n t o f t e n  enough, t o w a r r a n t  the investigator's continuing f a i t h i n the  h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s study.. measure o f f i e l d proved  In this  study, unfortunately, a  d e p e n d e n c y was e m p l o y e d w h i c h  subsequently  t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y when t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r i n g  procedures  were adopted.  procedures  proposed-in  Even though t h e r e v i s e d s c o r i n g  this  study would probably reduce t h e  c o n t a m i n a t i o n b y u n w a n t e d p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a n c e , t h e CEFT s h o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t be u s e d a l o n e as a m e a s u r e o f f i e l d  depen-  d e n c y b u t s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d b y o l d e r , more e s t a b l i s h e d m e a s u r e s s u c h a s t h e EFT.  It-was  the investigator's  original  i n t e n t i o n t o use t h e rod-and-frame i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e CEFT, b u t t h i s p r o v e d  t o be i m p r a c t i c a b l e f o r v a r i o u s  c o n c e r n i n g i n s t r u m e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y and t e s t i n g  reasons,  time.  P e r h a p s t h e b e s t p l a c e t o b e g i n w o u l d be a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d y o f t h e CEFT w i t h t h e . E F T and- r o d - a n d - f r a m e test.  Once a g a i n , t h i s c o u l d be p e r f o r m e d  s c o r i n g procedure study.  using both the  o f t h e manual and t h a t proposed  In the f i n a l  i n this  a n a l y s i s , more i n f o r m a t i o n on v a l i d i t y  seems t o be n e e d e d . b e f o r e t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t CEFT c a n c o n f i d e n t l y be u s e d a s a m e a s u r e o f f i e l d d e p e n d e n c y i n i t s own  right.  44 FOOTNOTES  tiation;  ^Herman A. W i t k i n . a n d o t h e r s . Psychological differens t u d i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : . W i l e y , 1962,  pp. 2 , 14-, 7 0 - 7 5 , 2  82-93.  Ibid.  3 A. P o l o n i - d e - L e v i e . C o g n i t i v e and p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s ;of r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t y . ( D o c t o r a l - d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y ) Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : University Microfilms,  1966, No. 66-9743, 4  I r v i n g R. S t u a r t . P e r c e p t u a l s t y l e a n d r e a d i n g ability: i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r an i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach. P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r . S k i l l s . , J o u r n a l , 1967, 2_4_, p p . 135-138.  5 N. H i g g i n s and'^G. Gage. P e r c e p t u a l mode a n d r e a d i n g improvement.of c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1968,. 26, p p . 1249-50.. " .^M.L. Cohn. F i e l d d e p e n d e n c e - i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . . , ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y ) Ann A r b o r , M i c h . : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1968, No. 6 8 - 1 1 ,  783,  p p . 61-68, 7  skills boys.  ' •  R o b e r t H. B r u m i n k s . A u d i t o r y a n d v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l r e l a t e d t o t h e reading performance o f disadvantaged P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1969, 29, p p .  179-186.  8 W i t k i n and o t h e r s . Psychological differentiation, pp. 2 1 4 - 1 5 ; . S o n y a P e t e r s e n a n d P e t e r A. M a g a r o . R e a d i n g a n d f i e l d dependence: a p i l o t s t u d y . J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g , 1969, 12, p . .3; N e w e l l T. G i l l , Thomas J . H e r d t n e r , a n d L i n d a Lough. P e r c e p t u a l and socio-economic v a r i a b l e s , i n s t r u c t i o n i n b o d y - o r i e n t a t i o n , and p r e d i c t e d a c a d e m i c . s u c c e s s i n young children. P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1968, 2 6 ,  pp. 1175-84. 9  '  L i l l i a n B e l m o n t a n d H e r b e r t G. B i r c h . The i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o f i l e of retarded readers. P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 6 , . 2 2 , p p . 787-816.  45 " ^ W i t k i n and others,' P s y c h o l o g i c a 1  differentiation,  I b i d . , p p . 6 5 , 67 a n d R.. Gooderiough a n d S.A. K a r p v F i e l d independence and i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l & S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , . 1961, 6 3 , p p . 241-46 .  12 K e y s t o n e V i e w Company. M a n u a l f o r t h e K e y s t o n e V i s u a l S u r v e y " T e s t s . Meadvil.le.,. Perm. : K e y s t o n e V i e w Company, 1961.  13 J.H. S u l z m a n , E.B. C o o k , a n d N.R. B a r t l e t t . The' v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f h e t e r o p h o r i a scores y i e l d e d by three commercial o p t i c a l devices. J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychol o g y ~, 1948, 32, p p . 5 6 - 6 2 .  14 M i l t o n Steinbaum and M i t c h e l l K i r k . R e l a t i o n s h i p between the K e y s t o n e V i s u a l S k i l l s T e s t and t h e S n e l l e n C h a r t . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of. O p t o m e t r y , 1957, .34/ p p . 491-99. M..M. C r a n e a n d o t h e r s . Study o f p r o c e d u r e s Used f o r screening elementary school c h i l d r e n f o r v i s u a l defects: r e f e r r a l s by s c r e e n i n g p r o c e d u r e s v e r s u s ophthalmological findings. J o u r n a l o f S c h o o l Health., 1953, 23_, p p . 1 - 9 . " 15  16 schools,.  17  Helen M.'Robinson. V i s u a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1953, 5_4, p p . 217-222.  -  •  The J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 48, 123, p . 558. I n O.K. B u r o s ( E d . ) , :The t h i r d m e n t a l m e a s u r e ments y e a r b o o k . H i g h l a n d P a r k , N . J . : T h e - G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1949,  pp.  495-6. 18  S t e p h e n A. K a r p a n d Norma L . K o n s t a d t . t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e s T e s t . Brooklyn: T e s t s , 1963. and  Manual f o r Cognitive  19 Herman A. W i t k i n .  forms o f p a t h o l o g y .  70, p p . 317-336.  Psychological differentiation J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1965,  20 N e w e l l T. G i l l , Thomas J . H e r d t n e r a n d L i n d a L o u g h . P e r c e p t u a l a n d s o c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s , - i n s t r u c t i o n i n body o r i e n t a t i o n and p r e d i c t e d academic success i n young c h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l & M o t o r S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1968, 2 6 , p p . 1175-84.  46 21  K a r p a n d K o n s t a d t , o p . c i t . , p. 5.  22 R. T h o r n d i k e a n d E. Hagen. M e a s u r e m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 5 5 , p p . 1 0 0 9 1010. . 23 Herman A. W x t k m a n d o t h e r s . t i a t i o n , p. 127.  . . . Psychologica1  . . . differen-  24 . . . . . . W a l t e r M. D u r p s t ( E d . ) . Directions f o r administering M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t Tests.: Primary I I Battery. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , .1959. 25 W a l t e r M. D u r o s t . M a n u a l f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Tests. New Y o r k : Harcourt, Brace and W o r l d , .1962, p. 46, 26 D u r o s t , D i r e c t i o n s for a d m i n i s t e r i n g Achievement T e s t s , p. 23.  7  Metropolitan  27 I b i d . , p . 3. 28  Durost, Manual f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s , p. 35.  '  "  29 David Wechsler. Manual f o r t h e Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children. New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1949, p p . 10-14. 30 O.K. B u r o s ( E d . ) . The f o u r t h m e n t a l m e a s u r e m e n t s yearbook. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N . J . : The G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 , pp. 477-79. 31 O.K. B u r o s ( E d . ) . The f i f t h m e n t a l m e a s u r e m e n t s yearbook. H i g h l a n d P a r k , N . J . : The G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 , pp. 5 5 8 - 6 0 . 3 2  I b i d . ; pp. 560-61.  33 R o g e r E. K i r k . Experimenta1 design: procedures f o r the, b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . Belmont, C a l i f . : B r o o k s / C o l e , 1968, p. 457.  47 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Adevai,  G., S i l v e r m a n , A.J.., and McGough, W.E. Perceptual c o r r e l a t e s of the rod-and-frame t e s t . Perceptual.and M o t o r S k i l l s J o u r n a l , 1968, 2 6 , 1055-1064.  B a r r e t t , G e r a l d V. , C a b e , P a t r i c k A. ,. and T h o r n t o n , C a r l L. R e l a t i o n b e t w e e n h i d d e n f i g u r e s t e s t and r o d and f r a m e t e s t measures of p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e . E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a 1 M e a s u r e m e n t , 1968, 28, 551-554. B e l m o n t , L i l l i a n , and B i r c h > H e r b e r t p r o f i l e of r e t a r d e d readers. J o u r n a l , 1966, 2 2 , 7 8 7 - 8 1 6 .  G* The i n t e l l e c t u a l P e r c e p t u a l &_ M o t o r S k i l i s  B e n t o n , A r t h u r L. 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Contemporary  51  APPENDIX  Following are the scores of t h e sample. readers'  a c h i e v e d b y t h e 55 s u b j e c t s  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers 01 t o 30 i n d i c a t e g o o d  s c o r e s , - w h i l e numbers 31 t o 55 a r e p o o r  readers'  scores... A key t o t h e symbols used  follows:  Data r e c o r d e d b u t not used because M e t r o p o l i t a n score d i d not agree w i t h teacher r a t i n g of reading  ability.  52 TABLE I V Scores A c h i e v e d by A l l S u b j e c t s  I d e n t . No. -  " Metropolitan  -CEFT  WISC  01 02  36 36  15 16  118 116  03  35  04 05  35 34  15 20  06  34  13 12  07  34  14  08  34  20  126 118 128 118 105 126  09  33  20  123  10  33 33  20 10  33 32  11 21  133 118 113 121  15  32 32  19 11  16 17  31 31  18 15  18 .  30  13  19 20 #21 22  29 28  15 12  27 27  23  27 26  11 , 16 17 07  #' 25 26  26  20  24  18  27  24  23  105 113 106  28  22  19  123  11 12 13 14  # 24.  109 119 118 123 103 114 115 114 110 106 103  TABLE. I V  I d e n t . No. 29  Metropolitan  (Continued)  -  CEFT -  - . WISC  22  17  110  #30  20  18  110  #  31  17  08  105  32  17  16  113  33  17  10  097  34  14  16  116  35  13  12  114  36  13  04  09.2  37  13  18  124  38  13  01  094  39  13  11  116  40  11  13  114  41  11  22  104  42  11  16  095  43  11  11  090  44  10  14  103  45  10  16  100  46  09  17  092  47  08  16  108  48  08  10  113  49  07  18  131  50  06  15  110  51  05  03  108  52  05  18  104  53  05  18  108  54  05  11  097  55  05  09  091  #  54 TABLE V . Main C o r r e l a t i o n  Matrix  • ' " V a r i a b 1 e s Field Reading Comprehension - Dependency Reading Comprehension  Verbal IQ-  0.5498*  0.2533  Field Dependency  0.4052*  Verbal IQ, , * S i g n i f i c a n t b e y o n d t h e 0.01  level.  TABLE V I Means and S t a n d a r d  Deviations f o r the Variables Studied  Reading Comprehension  CEFT  Verbal IQ  Mean o f good r e a d e r s  30.81  16.15  111.54  Mean o f p o o r r e a d e r s  9.87  13.17  101.30 111.27  Mean o f t o t a l  sample  -20.98  14.76-  S.D.  o f good  readers  4.18  3.52  7.85  S.D;  of poor  readers  3.76  5.30  10 .00  S.D.  of t o t a l  sample  11.16  4.60  10 . 81  

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