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The effects of verbal cues on the learning of visual sequences Mosedale, Donald S. 1970

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THE  EFFECTS OF VERBAL CUES OF THE  LEARNING OF VISUAL SEQUENCES by DONALD S. MOSEDALE B. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  o f V i c t o r i a , 1967T  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Educational  Psychology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  THE  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1970  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y I  freely  of B r i t i s h  available  for  Columbia,  I agree that  r e f e r e n c e and study.  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  for  thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r  by h i s of  s h a l l make i t  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i e a t i o n gain. shal1 not be allowed without my  written permission.  D. S. Masedale  Department o f  Educational  Psychology'  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  J u l y . 1.970  ABSTRACT Chairman:  D r . P. Koopman:  M o s e d a l e , D.S. • The E f f e c t s o f V e r b a l C u e s o n t h e L e a r n i n g o f V i s u a l Sequences  The p r e s e n t  study  investigated the effects of  v e r b a l cues on t h e l e a r n i n g o f v i s u a l volving eight  sequences i n -  elements.  G r a d e two s u b j e c t s w e r e a s s i g n e d  to three e x p e r i -  m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s and were g i v e n a l e a r n i n g t a s k and a transfer task. volved  The t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l  conditions i n -  t h r e e types o f t r a i n i n g on a v i s u a l  sequencing  t a s k a n d d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e t h r e e g r o u p s w e r e determined  by performance on a p o s t t e s t a f t e r  training.  The t h r e e t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : 1.  "Look" group.  S u b j e c t s were asked  to look a t  the elements i n t h e sequence. 2.  "Name" g r o u p .  Names w e r e a t t a c h e d  ments o f t h e sequence a s t h e y were 3.  presented.  "Name a n d O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n "  o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s were a t t a c h e d sequence a s t h e y were  to the ele-  group.  Names a n d  to the elements o f the  presented.  The l e a r n i n g t a s k c o n s i s t e d o f a p r e t e s t , t r a i n i n g according to treatment  group, and a p o s t t e s t .  The  t r a n s f e r t a s k c o n s i s t e d o f a p r e t e s t and a p o s t t e s t without  specific  t r a i n i n g on t r a n s f e r t a s k  elements.  i i i Each s u b j e c t  was p u t t h r o u g h a f o u r - d a y  cycle:  1.  D a y 1.  Learning task  2.  D a y 2.  Training i nv i s u a l sequencing  and t r a n s f e r task  pre-  test.  ing  to treatment condition  assigned.  3.  D a y 3.  Learning task  posttest.  4.  D a y 4.  Transfer  posttest.  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s that attaching  accord-  task  experimental study  indicate  names a n d o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s t o t h e e l e -  ments i n a v i s u a l sequence f a c i l i t a t e s  the learning of  the  sequence.  While the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n f a c t o r d i d  not  facilitate  l e a r n i n g to a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  degree i n t h e l e a r n i n g task, that  t h e group u s i n g  fewer.trials  this  the  showed  cue d i d p e r f o r m t h e task i n  t h a n t h e " L o o k " g r o u p a n d t h e "Name" g r o u p .  On t h e t r a n s f e r t a s k , Ordinal  t h e samplie d a t a  t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e "Name a n d  P o s i t i o n " g r o u p was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r  o t h e r two g r o u p s .  Dr.  P. Koo.pman, C h a i r m a n  than  ivTABLE OP CONTENTS  CHAPTER  I. II".  PAGE  PURPOSE OP STUDY REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  III.  IV.  HYPOTHESES AND RESEARCH DESIGN  VI.  35 7  Hypotheses  7  R e s e a r c h Design;  8  PROCEDURE  .10  Subjects  V.  1  . 10  Materials  10  Method  13<  RESULTS OF STUDY  19  SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION  29  Implications f o r Further Research  31-  R E F E R E N C S S . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . 32  V LIST OP TABLES  TABLE  1.  PAGE  Mean Number o f T r i a l s f o r P r e t e s t and. P o s t t e s t and Group Gains  on L e a r n -  i n g Task and T r a n s f e r Task 2.  20  A Summary Table o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on the L e a r n i n g Task  3.  21  A Summary Table o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on the T r a n s f e r Task  4.  22  P o s t t e s t Means, A d j u s t e d P o s t t e s t Means and A d j u s t e d Mean- Gains f o r L e a r n i n g Task  5.  ,  23  P o s t t e s t Means, A d j u s t e d P o s t t e s t Means and A d j u s t e d Mean Gains f o r T r a n s f e r Task  6.  A Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s o f Co-variance om the L e a r n i n g Task.  7/.  25  A Summary Table o f A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e on the T r a n s f e r Task  8.  24  25;  t - V a l u e s f o r C o n t r a s t s Between A d j u s t e d Group Means on L e a r n i n g P o s t t e s t . . . 27'  9...  _t-Values f o r C o n t r a s t s Between A d j u s t e d Group Means on T r a n s f e r P o s t t e s t . . . 28  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to acknowledge the c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s tance o f D r . E.N. E l l i s and the Vancouver  School  Board i n s u p p l y i n g s u b j e c t s f o r the study. To Dr. R. Smith, my a d v i s o r , go my thanks f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and wise c o u n s e l over the p a s t two y e a r s . I am g r a t e f u l t o the members o f my committee, D r . P. Koopman (chairman),  Dr. D. McKie and D r . R. M c i n t o s h  f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e i n making t h i s  thesis  possible. To my good f r i e n d , A. A t k i n s o n , whose  understand-  i n g and humour helped me keep t h i n g s i n p e r s p e c t i v e , goes my e t e r n a l g r a t i t u d e . I a l s o wish t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the encouragement and h e l p g i v e n me by my p a r e n t s and aunt. I t i s t o them t h a t I d e d i c a t e t h i s  thesis.  CHAPTER I PURPOSE OP STUDY  V i s u a l sequencing i s the a b i l i t y reproduce a sequence  to c o r r e c t l y  o f elements p r e v i o u s l y  (McCarthy & O l s o n , 1 9 6 4 ) .  seen  The term "sequence" i s  here employed i n a s t r i c t , c o m b i n a t o r i a l sense. r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f the sequence  Cor-  A-B-C r e q u i r e s  t h a t the c h i l d n o t o n l y i d e n t i f y the elements  which  compose the sequence  (A-B-C), b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y  he must a l s o respond  to the s e q u e n t i a l  between the elements  (A i s f i r s t ,  C i s t h i r d ) and d i f f e r e n t i a t e from o t h e r sequences  relationship  B i s second, and  the sequence A-B-C  o f the type B-C-A, and A-C-B.  V i s u a l sequencing i s t e s t e d by r e q u i r i n g the subj e c t to d u p l i c a t e the o r d e r o f a sequence  of ele-  ments p r e s e n t e d and then removed. The mastery  o f language by human b e i n g s  indi-  c a t e s t h a t they have, i n s o f a r as t h i s i s c a l l e d f o r , l e a r n e d t o express i d e a s i n a s e q u e n t i a l way. s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t has been suggested L a s h l e y , 1959)  More  (Broadbent,  1958;  t h a t the c a p a c i t y t o r e c o g n i z e sequen-  ces o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g human language. v i s u a l sequences  The c a p a c i t y to l e a r n  i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y  to r e a d ( P u f a l l & F u r t h , 1966)  and s p e l l .  Children  2 must l e a r n  to d i s c r i m i n a t e "between words such as '  "was" and "saw"; " r a t " and Since children  "tar".  must l e a r n  to form v i s u a l s e -  quences, i t seems l o g i c a l to ask what type o f t r a i n i n g w i l l b e s t h e l p them to form these sequences. also  It  seems l o g i c a l t o ask what type o f t r a i n i n g i s  most e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g the t r a n s f e r visual  sequences t o o t h e r v i s u a l  of learned  sequences.  3 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OP LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  Much r e s e a r c h has been done on the e f f e c t o f a t t a c h i n g names to concepts t o be l e a r n e d o r memorized  1964; Mc-  ( C a n t o r , 1 9 5 5 ; McCarthy & O l s o n ,  C o n n e l l , 1964; Prehm, 1966; P y l e s , 1932;  Schaeffer  & Gerjuoy, 1955; W i t i r o c k & K e i s l a r , 1965).  These  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have found t h a t the p o s s e s s i o n o f names f o r s t i m u l i i n a l e a r n i n g task g r e a t l y e n hances performance on t h a t t a s k . pothesized  Prehm (1966) h y -  t h a t t h i s i s due to the f a c t t h a t v e r b a l  l a b e l s made the s t i m u l i more m e a n i n g f u l , a l l o w i n g the elements t o be more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . hypothesis  was based on a study  This  of culturally  dis-  advantaged c h i l d r e n who were compared on two measures o f concept a t t a i n m e n t .  S u b j e c t s were g i v e n e i t h e r  v e r b a l , a t t e n t i o n , o r c o n t r o l p r e - t r a i n i n g on s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s used f o r t r a n s f e r task I , but were g i v e n no p r e - t r a i n i n g on t r a n s f e r task I I . found t h a t s t i m u l u s p r e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n affected  Subjects  i n the v e r b a l l a b e l group  the concepts i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer  than d i d those i n the o t h e r two groups. and  Olson  significantly  s u b j e c t performance e f f i c i e n c y on b o t h  transfer tasks. attained  I t was  trials  McCarthy  (1964) found t h a t on the l a r g e , h i g h l y  4  c o n t r o l l e d norm group f o r the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s standardization, when subjects were being tested on the v i s u a l sequencing subtest, they often named the s t i m u l i aloud as i f to a s s i s t t h e i r v i s u a l memories.  Bateman (1968)  suggests that i f the c h i l d does use verbal mediators on t h i s subtest, he probably also does t h i s i n h i s everyday contact with s i m i l a r material. Pyles (1932) and l a t e r Schaeffer and Gerjuoy (1955) also studied the e f f e c t s of v e r b a l i z a t i o n on l e a r n i n g .  Pyles (1932) i n s t r u c t e d two groups  of young c h i l d r e n to see i f they could f i n d under which of f i v e nonsense f i g u r e s a toy was hidden. Group 1 was given nonsense names f o r the f i g u r e s and was encouraged to v e r b a l i z e these names during the experiment. figures.  Group 2 was given no names f o r the  Pyles found that Group 1, which had names  f o r the s t i m u l i , learned the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f a s t e r than Group 2 which did not have names.  Schaeffer  and Gerjuoy (1955) performed experiments to t e s t the f i n d i n g of Pyles that "naming" influenced d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e a r n i n g by .providing auditory and proprioceptive stimulation which f a c i l i t a t e d f e r e n t i a t i o n of the s t i m u l i .  dif-  They compared three  groups of c h i l d r e n on a task s i m i l a r to that used by Pyles, i . e . , l o c a t i n g under which of f i v e  nonsense f i g u r e s a t o y was h i d d e n .  One group  g i v e n no names f o r the nonsense f i g u r e s ,  was  another  group was g i v e n s i m i l a r names (Mogee, Modee, Mobee), and a t h i r d group was g i v e n d i s s i m i l a r names Susu, J e e j e e ) .  (Baba,  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found  between the group w i t h s i m i l a r names and the group w i t h d i s s i m i l a r names.  However, when these two  groups were compared t o the group w i t h no names for  the nonsense f i g u r e s , a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  was found i n f a v o u r o f the groups w i t h s i m i l a r and d i s s i m i l a r names.  W i t t r o c k and K e i s l a r (1965) r e -  c o r d f i n d i n g s s i m i l a r to those mentioned  above and  i n f e r t h a t the naming o f concepts f a c i l i t a t e d  the  t r a n s f e r o f p r e v i o u s l y named c o n c e p t s . Based  on the r e s u l t s o f these s t u d i e s i t seems  p o s s i b l e t o suggest t h a t i n the l e a r n i n g o f v i s u a l sequences, elements  i f the s u b j e c t i s g i v e n the names o f the  on t r a i n i n g t r i a l s , then improvement  be g r e a t e r f o r these same and a l s o f o r o t h e r fer)  will (trans-  s t i m u l i , than i f the s u b j e c t merely l o o k s a t the  elements  o f the sequence.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s the e f f e c t of  a d d i n g another cue to the l e a r n i n g o f v i s u a l  sequences. element  By s t a t i n g the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n o f each  i n the sequence to be l e a r n e d , i t i s sug-  g e s t e d t h a t the l e a r n i n g o f the v i s u a l sequence w i l l  be f a c i l i t a t e d .  P u f a l l and F u r t h (1966) s t r e s s the  importance of being able to i d e n t i f y elements and responding to the s e q u e n t i a l r e l a t i o n between the elements (A i s f i r s t , B i s second). and Schulz (1955) have suggested  Underwood (1949)  t h a t the s e r i a l  p o s i t i o n f a c t o r might be an important source of generalization i n s e r i a l learning.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r  suggests that i n the l e a r n i n g of v i s u a l sequences, i f the s u b j e c t i s g i v e n the name and the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n of each element on t r a i n i n g t r i a l s ,  then  improvement w i l l be g r e a t e r f o r same and d i f f e r e n t ( t r a n s f e r ) s t i m u l i than i f s u b j e c t i s merely given the names of the elements.  I n the present study  the i n v e s t i g a t o r intends to look a t the e f f e c t s of v e r b a l cues on the l e a r n i n g of v i s u a l sequences.  6  CHAPTER I I I STATEMENT OE HYPOTHESES AND RESEARCH DESIGN:  Hypotheses I f v e r b a l cues a r e a t t a c h e d a v i s u a l sequence  to the elements o f  (name; name and o r d i n a l pos-  i t i o n ) , then the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f t h a t sequence crease  (learning) w i l l d e -  as the number o f cues i n c r e a s e s  from no-  cues t o two cues. Subhypotheses a.  I f names a r e a t t a c h e d  to the elements o f a  v i s u a l sequence, then the number o f t r i a l s ? r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f t h a t sequence be fewer than i f s u b j e c t s  will  l o o k a t the elem-  ents. b.  I f names andi o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e a t t a c h e d to the elements o f a v i s u a l sequence, the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d  then  f o r mastery  o f t h a t sequence w i l l be fewer tham i f s u b j e c t s l o o k a t the elements. c.  I f names and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e a t t a c h e d to the elements o f a v i s u a l sequence,  then  the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f t h a t sequence w i l l be fewer than i f subj e a t s a t t a c h names to the elements.  2.  I f v e r b a l cues a r e a t t a c h e d to the elements o f a v i s u a l sequence  (name; name and o r d i n a l p o s -  i t i o n ) , then the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f a sequence o f d i f f e r e n t  elements  ( t r a n s f e r ) w i l l d e c r e a s e as the number o f cues i n c r e a s e s from no cues to two cues. Subhyp o the s e s a.  I f names a r e a t t a c h e d to the elements o f a v i s u a l sequence, then the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f a sequence o f d i f f e r e n t elements w i l l be fewer than i f subj e c t s l o o k a t the elements.  b.  I f names.and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e a t t a c h e d to the elements o f a v i s u a l sequence,  then  the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f a sequence o f d i f f e r e n t elements w i l l be fewer than i f s u b j e c t s l o o k a t the elements. c.  I f names and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e attached, to the elements o f a v i s u a l sequence, the  then  number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f  a sequence o f d i f f e r e n t elements w i l l be fewer than i f s u b j e c t s a t t a c h names to the elements. Research D e s i g n In o r d e r to t e s t the hypo.theses a 2 x 3 f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d measures w i l l be  used f o r b o t h the l e a r n i n g task.  task and the t r a n s f e r  The' two f a c t o r s w i l l be t e s t s  posttest)  and e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s  name and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n ) .  ( p r e t e s t and (look,  name,  The r e a s o n f o r u s i n g  r e p e a t e d measures ( p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t )  ils t o  a l l o w f o r comparison o f the t h r e e g r o u p s • b e f o r e t r a i n i n g (pretest)  and a f t e r t r a i n i n g  Analyses of variance w i l l  (posttest).  then be performed  sep-  a r a t e l y on the l e a r n i n g d a t a and the t r a n s f e r  data  to determine the e f f e c t s o f the two f a c t o r s andi their interaction.  CHAPTER IV PROCEDURE  Subjects In o r d e r  to t e s t these hypotheses, 115 sub-  j e c t s were randomly s e l e c t e d from s i x d i f f e r e n t schools  i n the Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .  Fifteen  s u b j e c t s were taken from one c l a s s and 20 were taken from each o f the o t h e r f i v e c l a s s e s .  Subjects  were s e l e c t e d from each c l a s s by t a k i n g every ond  c h i l d on the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s  sec-  register.  Grade two c h i l d r e n were used s i n c e i t i s a t this: l e v e l t h a t many t a s k s a r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t c a l l f o r v i s u a l sequencing a b i l i t y , i . e . , s p e l l i n g and r e a d ing.  Of the 115 s u b j e c t s , f o u r were n o t i n c l u d e d  due to absence from  school.  Materials The  m a t e r i a l s used were those r e q u i r e d f o r  the v i s u a l sequencing s u b t e s t  o f the 1961 E x p e r i -  mental E d i t i o n o f t h e I l l i n o i s T e s t o f P s y c h o l i n guistic Abilities For  (ITPA).  t e s t i n g the l e a r n i n g o f v i s u a l sequences  ( l e a r n i n g task), eight blocks  (one i n c h by one  i n c h ) w i t h d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s on them were used. The  p i c t u r e s were o f a c a t , a t e l e p h o n e , a bed, a  spoon, a p o t a t o ,  a dog, a p e n c i l , and a h a t . The  c r i t e r i a f o r choosing  t h e s e p i c t u r e s was  the f a m i l i -  a r i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t s t o t h e s u b j e c t s and t h a t t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d of the  fact  a p p r o p r i a t e by t h e  authors  ITPA.  A p i l o t study was  the  2 7 G r a d e two  subjects  c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e what number o f  elements  involving  o  ( b l o c k s ) would y i e l d a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r i a l s est  t o t h e n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n on a v i s u a l  ing  task.  o f 4,  then  Subjects 5,  then  were p r e s e n t e d 6,  t h e n 7,  and  They were r e q u i r e d t o r e p l i c a t e observing study  i t f o r 10  indicated  blocks result to  seconds.  q u e n c e s o f 4,  with  sequences  then 8  blocks.  each sequence  after  Results of t h i s  pilot  In t h i s p i l o t study, w e r e due  closest  i t was  ques-  to the  learn-  place while subjects replicated 5,  and  6 blocks or whether the  p r o x i m a t e l y n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n was fact  eight  i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r i a l s  t i o n e d whether the r e s u l t s i n g w h i c h took  sequenc-  t h a t s e q u e n c e s o f s e v e n and  the normal.  clos-  due  t h a t seven o r e i g h t b l o c k s were  Thus, a second p i l o t study l i s h whether or not  was  a visual  to  seap-  the  presented.  conducted to  estab-  sequencing task  invol-  v i n g seven elements would y i e l d a d i s t r i b u t i o n trials  approximating  T h i r t e e n G r a d e two  the normal  of  distribution.  s u b j e c t s were asked t o  cate a sequence of seven b l o c k s a f t e r  repli-  observing  i t f o r 10 seconds.  Results indicated: that seven  blocks d i d y i e l d a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r i a l s c l o s e l y approximating the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . For the purposes of t h i s study i t was decided to use a sequence of eight, elements.  On the f i r s t  p i l o t study, seven elements y i e l d e d a mean of 3 . 6 ; t r i a l s , while eight elements yielded a mean of 5 . 7 trials.  Since the sequences were presented with-  out p r i o r t r a i n i n g and i t was assumed that t r a i n ing would reduce the number of t r i a l s , eight e l e ments were used allowing.a l a r g e r number of t r i a l s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among the treatment groups on a posttest. For t e s t i n g the t r a n s f e r of v i s u a l sequences ( t r a n s f e r task), eight blocks with shapes on (one inch by one inch) were used.  These eight-  blocks had on them p i c t u r e s of a square, a diamond, a triangle,;, a c i r c l e , a dot, a l i n e , a cross, and a star.  The c r i t e r i a f o r choosing these elements  was the f a m i l i a r i t y of the concepts to the subjects and the. f a c t that they were considered appropriate by the ITPA authors.  The exceptions to  the l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n were the dot, the l i n e , the cross, and the s t a r , which are not used i n the ITPA.  However, the p i l o t study indicated that  these concepts were of comparable f a m i l i a r i t y to  the  circle,  diamond.  the square, the t r i a n g l e , and the  As w i t h the elements used f o r the l e a r n -  i n g task a p i l o t  study was conducted to determine  what number of elements s h o u l d be used to a c h i e v e a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r i a l s  most c l o s e l y approxima-  t i n g the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n .  In t h i s p i l o t  s t u d y , seven elements y i e l d e d a mean o f 4.0 t r i a l s , while eight 6.1 t r i a l s .  elements y i e l d e d a mean o f  S i n c e the sequences were p r e s e n t e d  w i t h o u t p r i o r t r a i n i n g , and i t was assumed  that  t r a i n i n g would reduce the number o f t r i a l s , elements were used, thus a l l o w i n g of t r i a l s  a larger  eight number  f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among the e f f e c t s  of treatments. Method Each o f the 115 s u b j e c t s  was p u t through a  i  four-day c y c l e .  F i v e groups o f 20 s u b j e c t s  one group o f 15 s u b j e c t s selected mum day.  were used,  from s i x c l a s s e s .  number o f p u p i l s  and  randomly  Twenty was the maxi-  t h a t c o u l d be t e s t e d  i n one  The i n v e s t i g a t o r t e s t e d f o u r groups w h i l e  an a s s i s t a n t t e s t e d  the r e m a i n i n g two.  Identical  p r o c e d u r e s were used by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and the assistant.  T e s t i n g was done i n the m e d i c a l rooms  o r o f f i c e s o f the s c h o o l s .  Day  1  On day  s u b j e c t was  one  of the f o u r - d a y  cycle,  each  i n d i v i d u a l l y g i v e n a p r e t e s t which con-  s i s t e d o f the l e a r n i n g t a s k .  Each s u b j e c t  shown a sequence o f e i g h t b l o c k s f o r 10  was  seconds  b e i n g t o l d to " l o o k c a r e f u l l y a t these b l o c k s " . A f t e r 10 seconds the sequence was examiner who  then asked  j u s t l i k e mine".  d e s t r o y e d by  the  the s u b j e c t to "make one  Each time  the s u b j e c t f a i l e d  to  r e p l i c a t e the sequence c o r r e c t l y , the examiner s e t up  the same sequence a g a i n , asked  l o o k a t i t f o r 10 seconds, and ing i t ,  i n s t r u c t e d him  the s u b j e c t to.;  then, a f t e r d e s t r o y -  to "make one  j u s t l i k e mine".  The number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d to r e p l i c a t e the quence was  recorded.  with another  s u b j e c t was  then  presented  sequence o f the same elements i n a  d i f f e r e n t o r d e r and the same procedure s u b j e c t was  The  instructed  to r e p l i c a t e i t u s i n g  as w i t h the f i r s t  presented  of the e i g h t b l o c k s .  w i t h two  sequence.  different  t h i s was  was  The  number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d to r e p l i c a t e the two then added t o g e t h e r .  Eaoh  sequences  S i n c e 8 i = 40,320, t h e r e  no problem a s s i g n i n g d i f f e r e n t sequences.  quences was  se-  se-  The purpose o f  to g i v e a h i g h enough p r e t e s t s c o r e i n  o r d e r t h a t i t would be e a s i e r to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the t h r e e groups a f t e r On day  one,  training.  s u b j e c t s were a l s o g i v e n the p r e t e s t  for  the t r a n s f e r t a s k .  T h i s was  s u b j e c t d i r e c t l y a f t e r completing  g i v e n to each the l e a r n i n g  task.  The p r e t e s t f o r the t r a n s f e r task was  con-  ducted  i n e x a c t l y the same manner as the l e a r n i n g  task.  However, the b l o c k s used were those  with  the p i c t u r e s o f shapes on them, i . e . , the  star,  the c r o s s , the dot, the l i n e ,  the  circle,  the diamond, and  j e c t was  the square,  the t r i a n g l e .  p r e s e n t e d w i t h two  Each sub>-  d i f f e r e n t sequences and  the t o t a l number of t r i a l s f o r both was  used  the p r e t e s t s c o r e on the t r a n s f e r t a s k .  The  pose of t h i s was  as pur-  to g i v e a h i g h enough p r e t e s t  s c o r e i n o r d e r t h a t i t would be e a s i e r to  differ-  e n t i a t e among the t h r e e groups a f t e r t r a i n i n g  on  the l e a r n i n g t a s k . Day  2  On day  two,  a l l subjects i n d i v i d u a l l y  r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n v i s u a l sequencing to  the treatment  assigned.  groups to which they had  been  S u b j e c t s were g i v e n t r a i n i n g i n the  same order, as they had been p r e t e s t e d . of k e e p i n g  according  them i n t h i s o r d e r was  The  purpose  to maximize  p r o b a b i l i t y of them h a v i n g the same amount o f  the time  between p r e t e s t and  training.  S u b j e c t s were a s -  s i g n e d to treatment  groups i n the o r d e r i n which  they came f o r t r a i n i n g , i . e . , s u b j e c t one was "Look" group, s u b j e c t two  was  i n "Name" group,  in  s u b j e c t t h r e e was i n "Name and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n " group, s u b j e c t f o u r was i n "Look" group. The  e i g h t elements ( b l o c k s ) used i n the t r a i n -  i n g s e s s i o n s were those used i n the l e a r n i n g t a s k , i.e.,  the dog, the e a t , the hat,  pencil,  the telephone,  the p o t a t o , the  the spoon, and the bed.  s u b j e c t was t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and was  Each  presented  w i t h a p e r m u t a t i o n o f the e i g h t b l o c k s .  The number  of t r i a l s r e q u i r e d to r e p l i c a t e the sequence was recorded. 1.  The t r a i n i n g i n each group c o n s i s t e d o f :  "Look" Group.  Each o f the s u b j e c t s i n this:  group was t o l d  to "look c a r e f u l l y a t these  blocks". before  The examiner then p l a c e d  the s u b j e c t .  the b l o c k s  A f t e r observing  the s e -  quence f o r 1 0 seconds, the b l o c k s were mixed up and the examiner i n s t r u c t e d the s u b j e c t too "make one j u s t l i k e mine". rect replication,  the examiner a g a i n s e t up  the sequence and repeated 2.  A f t e r each i n c o r -  the i n s t r u c t i o n s .  "Name" Group:.  Each o f the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  group was t o l d  to " l o o k c a r e f u l l y a t these  blocks". before  The examiner then p l a c e d  the b l o c k s  the s u b j e c t s a y i n g the name o.f each as  he p u t i t down.  A f t e r observing  the sequence  f o r 1 0 seconds, the b l o c k s were mixed up: and the examiner i n s t r u c t e d the s u b j e c t to "make  one  just: l i k e mine".  A f t e r each i n c o r r e c t  r e p l i c a t i o n , , the examiner a g a i n s e t up the sequence as he had on the f i r s t  trial  with  the same i n s t r u c t i o n s . 3.  "Name and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n " Group. s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group was asked f u l l y a t these b l o c k s " . placed  Each o f the  to "look c a r e -  The examiner then  the b l o c k s b e f o r e the s u b j e c t g i v i n g  the name and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n o f each as he put  them down, i . e . , " f i r s t  the h a t . . . . . "  the dog, secondi  A f t e r o b s e r v i n g the sequence  f o r 10 seconds, the b l o c k s were mixed up an& the examiner i n s t r u c t e d one  j u s t l i k e mine".  the s u b j e c t to "make  A f t e r each i n c o r r e c t  r e p l i c a t i o n , the examiner a g a i n s e t up the sequence as he had on the f i r s t  trial  with  the same i n s t r u c t i o n s . Day  3, On day t h r e e , a p o s t t e s t was  tered to a l l subjects i n d i v i d u a l l y .  adminis-  This p o s t t e s t  c o n s i s t e d o f p r e s e n t i n g two permutations  o f the  e i g h t l e a r n i n g elements to each s u b j e c t .  Each  s u b j e c t was p r e s e n t e d w i t h two d i f f e r e n t permutations.  The f i r s t p e r m u t a t i o n  s u b j e c t w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n , these b l o c k s " . 10  was p r e s e n t e d  to the  "look c a r e f u l l y a t  A f t e r o b s e r v i n g the sequence f o r  seconds, i t was mixed up and t h e examiner  instructed  the s u b j e c t to "make one j u s t l i k e mine".  A f t e r each u n s u c c e s s f u l r e p l i c a t i o n , the sequence was a g a i n s e t up w i t h the same i n s t r u c t i o n s for  the f i r s t  trial.  A d i f f e r e n t p e r m u t a t i o n o f the  same elements was then p r e s e n t e d .  The same procedure  was. used as w i t h the f i r s t p e r m u t a t i o n . of  The number  t r i a l s f o r b o t h p e r m u t a t i o n s was then added t o -  g e t h e r to g i v e a l e a r n i n g p o s t t e s t s c o r e . pose f o r d o i n g t h i s was to y i e l d a s c o r e to  used  The p u r comparable  t h a t on the p r e t e s t . Day  4  On day f o u r , a p o s t t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d  to a l l s u b j e c t s i n d i v i d u a l l y .  The purpose o f t h i s  p o s t t e s t was t o determine the e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g on a transfer task.  Each s u b j e c t was p r e s e n t e d w i t h  two d i f f e r e n t permutations o f the t r a n s f e r i.e.,  the l i n e ,  elements,  the d o t , t h e s t a r , the c i r c l e , the  diamond, the square, the c r o s s , and the t r i a n g l e . The same procedure was used as was used'with the learning posttest.  CHAPTER V RESULTS  In t h i s study, the response measure was the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d elements.  to r e p l i c a t e two sequences o f  The performance o f the three  independent  groups was compared on b o t h the l e a r n i n g task and the t r a n s f e r t a s k .  I n the case o f the l e a r n i n g  task,  the comparison was based on a p o s t t e s t a f t e r t r a i n ing.  T r a i n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f r e p l i c a t i n g permutations  o f the l e a r n i n g task elements under three d i f f e r e n t training conditions. task,  I n the case o f the t r a n s f e r  the comparison was based on a p o s t t e s t w i t h o u t  specific  t r a i n i n g on t h a t  task.  S i n c e groups were randomly c o n s t i t u t e d , i t was assumed t h a t the t h r e e groups would n o t d i f f e r on t h e i r p r e t e s t s c o r e s , and hence t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s among the three groups on the t r a n s f e r p o s t t e s t would be due to the t r a i n i n g the groups r e c e i v e d on the l e a r n i n g task  elements.  Generally,, i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f v e r b a l cues a r e a t t a c h e d  to the elements o f a v i s u a l s e -  quence, i . e . , name, name and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , then the number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r mastery o f t h a t sequence ( l e a r n i n g task) and a sequence o f d i f f e r ent elements ( t r a n s f e r task) w i l l decrease as the  20  number o f cues i n c r e a s e s from no cues ("Look") t o two cues ("Name";, "Name and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n " ) . T a b l e 1 shows the mean number o f t r i a l s r e q u i r e d to r e p l i c a t e two sequences o f elements f o r b o t h the l e a r n i n g task and the t r a n s f e r t a s k .  Table 1 a l s o  shows the g a i n s made by the t h r e e groups on b o t h tasks.  TABLE 1 MEAN NUMBER OF TRIALS FOR PRETEST AND POSTTEST AND GROUP GAINS ON LEARNING TASK AND TRANSFER TASK  Tests  L e a r n i n g Task  T r a n s f e r Task  Look  Name  Name Ord  Look  Name  Name Ord  Pretest  7.31  7.51  6.74  6.06  5.69  5.86  Posttest  4.89  3.49  2.97  4.69  3.46  2.71  Gain  2.42  4.02  3.77  1.37  2.23  3.15  Two-factor,  r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s e s o f v a r -  i a n c e were performed and  s e p a r a t e l y on the l e a r n i n g d a t a  the t r a n s f e r d a t a , the f a c t o r s b e i n g  (two l e v e l s :  tests  p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t ) and e x p e r i m e n t a l  conditions (three l e v e l s :  "Look" group, "Name" group,  "Name and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n " g r o u p ) .  In order to  have an e x a c t a n a l y s i s an e q u a l number o f s u b j e c t s was r e q u i r e d i n each o f t h e groups.  To a c h i e v e t h i s  f o u r s u b j e c t s were randomly d i s c a r d e d from the "Name" group and two s u b j e c t s were randomly carded from the "Look" group.  dis-  The a n a l y s e s were  performed on a t o t a l o f 105 s u b j e c t s , w i t h 35 subj e c t s i n each group. are  The r e s u l t s  o f these a n a l y s e s  shown i n T a b l e s 2 and 3.  TABLE 2 A SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE ON THE LEARNING TASK  Source  Groups Error (Ss. w. grps.)  df  2  102  F  MS  27.04  E  6.06  < .005  < .0005  4.46.  Tests  1.  610.30  279.37  T e s t s X Groups  2  12.92  5.91  E r r o r (Tests X Ss. w. grps.)  102  2.18.  :  < .005  . TABLE 3 A SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OP VARIANCE ON THE TRANSFER TASK  df  Source  MS  P  £  7.44  <.005  2  22.17  102  2.98  Tests  1  256.22  176.48  <.0005  Tests X Groups  2  13.73  9.14  <.0005  Error (Tests X Ss. w. grps.)  102  1.50  Groups Error (Ss. w. grps.)  r  As can be seen from Tables 2 and 3, on both the learning task and the t r a n s f e r task, there were s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s of t e s t s , groups, and Tests X Groups.  The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of Tests X Groups  indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dependent v a r i a b l e (Tests) and the independent variable  (Groups). Although the groups were randomly constituted,  i . e . , by taking every second name on the class regi s t e r s , the mean pretest scores f o r the three groups d i f f e r e d on both tasks.  No r a t i o n a l e has been  found f o r t h i s unexpected phenomenon.  Table 1 shows,  the mean number of pretest t r i a l s f o r the three  g r o u p s on b o t h  t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k and t h e t r a n s f e r  The i n i t i a l  two-way r e p e a t e d  measures  analyses  o f v a r i a n c e would have been a c c e p t a b l e i f t h e p r e t e s t s c o r e s h a d b e e n " t h e same" f o r a l l g r o u p s . they had, then  the s i g n i f i c a n t  a c t i o n would have i n d i c a t e d g a i n e d more t h a n o t h e r s .  T e s t s X Groups  inter-  t h a t some g r o u p o r g r o u p s  However, s i n c e t h e p r e t e s t  s c o r e s were d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s , analyses  If  these  h a d t o be a b a n d o n e d a n d new o n e s h a d t o be  done. I n o r d e r t o a d j u s t t h e p o s t t e s t means f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e t e s t means, a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d on b o t h  of covariance  t h e l e a r n i n g d a t a and t h e  t r a n s f e r data, u s i n g the p r e t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e . The p o s t t e s t m e a n s , a d j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means a n d a d j u s t e d mean g a i n s a r e shown i n T a b l e s  4 and  5.  TABLE 4 POSTTEST MEANS, ADJUSTED POSTTEST MEANS AND ADJUSTED MEAN GAINS FOR LEARNING TASK  Adjusted Mean G a i n  Mean *  Adjusted Mean *  Look  4.87  4.86  2.30  Name  3.49.  3.41  3.78  Name/Ordinal  2.97  3.07  4.12  Group  *  T h e s e a r e mean  trials  *  TABLE 5 POSTTEST MEANS, ADJUSTED POSTTEST MEANS AND ADJUSTED MEAN GAINS FOR TRANSFER TASK  Mean *  Adjusted Mean: *  Look?  4.69  4.64  1.23  Name  3.46  3.50  2.37  Name/Ordinal  2.71  2.72  3.15  Group  *  These a r e mean  The  Adjusted* Mean Gain *  trials  adjustment f o r i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s on the  p r e t e s t has n o t d i s t u r b e d t h e o r d e r i n g o f the p o s t t e s t means.  The major e f f e c t has been to reduce the  p o s t t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between the "Name" group and the "Name and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n " group on the l e a r n i n g task.  As can be seen from T a b l e s  4 and 5 , the  a d j u s t e d mean g a i n s f o r the l e a r n i n g task and the t r a n s f e r task f o l l o w e d the expected  pattern.  The  t r a n s f e r task g a i n s were n u m e r i c a l l y s m a l l e r  than  the l e a r n i n g t a s k g a i n s . The  r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e a r e  shown i n T a b l e s  6 and 7.  .TABLE 6 A SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE ON THE LEARNING TASK  Source  df  MS  F  E  Equality of A d j . C e l l Means  2  31.39  25.63  < .0005  Zero Slope  1  25.55  21.86  < .000)5  101  1.22  Error Equality of Slopes Error  2  3.06  99  1.19  N.S.  2.57  TABLE 7 A SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE ON THE TRANSFER TASK  Source  df  MS  F  £  Equality of A d j . C e l l Means  2  32.63  25.91  < ;0005  Zero Slope  1  18.16  14.41  <.0005  .33  N.S.  Error Equality of Slopes Error  101  1.26  2  .42  99  1.28  As  can be  seen from T a b l e s 6 and  justment f o r p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s ,  7,  after  t h e r e were  still  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups on both the l e a r n i n g task.  task and  I t i s noted t h a t t h e r e was  d e v i a t i o n from the  zero s l o p e .  the  covariate  transfer  I n o t h e r words, i n that,  (the p r e t e s t )  was  t e s t f o r e q u a l i t y of  yielded a nonsignificant P value. that  the  slopes  f o r the  This  the in  signi-  f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the dependent v a r i a b l e . a l s o noted t h a t the  three  a significant  a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e were j u s t i f i e d each case, the  ad-  It is  slopes indicates  t h r e e groups were  approxi-  mately e q u a l , a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n b e f o r e i n t e r preting  the a d j u s t e d means.  Hypothesis 1 stated a t t a c h e d to the name; name and  f o r mastery o f t h a t sequence w i l l  the number of cues i n c r e a s e s  inal Position").  for  are  o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , then the number  cues ("Look") to two  t-values  cues  elements of a v i s u a l sequence, i . e . ,  of t r i a l s r e q u i r e d decrease as  that i f verbal  from  cues ("Name"; "Name and  I n o r d e r to t e s t h y p o t h e s i s  f o r contrasts  8.  Ord1,  between a d j u s t e d group means  the l e a r n i n g d a t a were c a l c u l a t e d .  summarized i n Table  no  They  are  TABLE 8' ;  t-VALUES FOR CONTRASTS BETWEEN ADJUSTED GROUP MEANS ON LEARNING POSTTEST  Group  t-value  Look vs. Name  5.45  < .0005  Look vs. Ordinal  6.7.2  < .0005  Name va. Ordinal  1.29  N.S.  As can be seen from Table 8, hypothesis 1 was only p a r t i a l l y supported.  Both the "Name" group and  the "Name and Ordinal P o s i t i o n " group performed the task i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer t r i a l s than the "Look" group.  However, the "Name and Ordinal P o s i t i o n "  group d i d not perform the task i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer t r i a l s than the "Name" group, although the sample r e s u l t was i n the predicted d i r e c t i o n . Hypothesis 2 predicted that i f verbal cues are attached  to the elements of a v i s u a l sequence, i . e . ,  name; name and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , then the number of t r i a l s required f o r mastery of a sequence of d i f f e r e n t objects ( t r a n s f e r task) w i l l decrease as the number of cues increases from no cues ("Look") to two cues ("Name";. "Name and Ordinal P o s i t i o n " ) .  In order to:,  test hypothesis 2, jt-values f o r contrasts between  a d j u s t e d group means f o r the t r a n s f e r d a t a were calculated.  They a r e summarized  i n T a b l e 9.  TABLE 9 Ife-VALUES FOR CONTRASTS BETWEEN ADJUSTED GROUP MEANS ON TRANSFER POSTTEST  Grorup  jt-value  P_  Look v s . Name  4.23  < .0005  Look, v s . O r d i n a l  7.1.6  < .0005  Name v s . O r d i n a l  2.92  <.005  As can be seen from T a b l e 9), h y p o t h e s i s 2 was clearly  supported.  As was p r e d i c t e d , the "Name"  group and the "Name and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n " group p e r formed the  the task i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y  fewer t r i a l s  "Look" group, and the "Name and O r d i n a l  group performed the task i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y trials  than the "Name" group.  than  Position"  fewer  CHAPTER V I SUMMARY AND D I S C U S S I O N  The i n v e s t i g a t o r h y p o t h e s i z e d cues a r e a t t a c h e d the  t o t h e elements o f a sequence  l e a r n i n g o f t h a t sequence and a sequence  f e r e n t elements w i l l cues i n c r e a s e s o f 35 G r a d e had  be f a c i l i t a t e d  two s u b j e c t s  were compared.  t r a i n i n g which consisted  ("Look" g r o u p ) .  Three  A third  g r o u p had.  o f a t t a c h i n g t h e name a n d  and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n " g r o u p ) .  given  group  the elements  o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n t o each element i n a sequence  compared  groups  One g r o u p  A second  o f naming  ("Name" g r o u p ) .  t r a i n i n g which consisted  of dif-  of looking a t the ele-  t r a i n i n g which consisted  of a sequence  then  a s t h e number o f  f r o m n o c u e s t o two c u e s .  ments o f a sequence had  that i f verbal  on a l e a r n i n g t a s k  and on a t r a n s f e r task  The t h r e e  ("Name  groups were  o n w h i c h t r a i n i n g was o f d i f f e r e n t elements on  w h i c h n o t r a i n i n g was g i v e n . The trials  required  elements. three  c o m p a r i s o n s were b a s e d o n t h e number o f  Since  t o r e p l i c a t e a sequence o f e i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d among t h e  groups on t h e p r e t e s t  analyses  o f covariance  posttest scores.  scores  on both  tasks,  were p e r f o r m e d t o a d j u s t t h e  On. t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k  i t was  f o u n d t h a t b o t h t h e "Name" g r o u p a n d t h e "Name a n d  Ordinal  P o s i t i o n " group performed the task i n s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y fewer t r i a l s (p_<.0005).  than the "Look"  group  However, w h i l e the "Name and O r d i n a l  P o s i t i o n " group d i d p e r f o r m the task i n fewer than t h e "Name" group, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e  trials  was n o t  found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p_>.0,5). T h i s may have been due to the s h o r t the  duration of  t r a i n i n g , i . e . , s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to  r e p l i c a t e two sequences o f elements i n the t r a i n ing sessions.  I f t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s had been i n -  c r e a s e d , the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n f a c t o r might  have  been found t o be more i n f l u e n t i a l . On the t r a n s f e r t a s k , i t was found t h a t b o t h the  "Name" group and the "Name and O r d i n a l  Position"  group performed the task i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer than the "Look" group (p_<.0005). that the  the "Name and O r d i n a l  I t was a l s o found  P o s i t i o n " group performed  task i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer t r i a l s  "Name" group (p_<.005).  trials  than the  I n o t h e r words,  position factor did f a c i l i t a t e  the o r d i n a l  the l e a r n i n g o f  v i s u a l sequences on a t r a n s f e r task d i f f e r e n t from t h a t on which t r a i n i n g was g i v e n . Am e x p l a n a t i o n has y e t to be found to e x p l a i n why  the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n cue f a c i l i t a t e d  a statistically  l e a r n i n g to  s i g n i f i c a n t degree on the t r a n s f e r  task, but n o t on the l e a r n i n g  task.  A  possible  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s phenomenon i s t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e o f u s i n g t h e o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n cue i s more e f f e c t i v e on sequences w h i c h a r e l e s s f a m i l i a r t o the s u b j e c t s .  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t r a i n i n g was  g i v e n u s i n g the l e a r n i n g t a s k elements o n l y and thus subjects  were l e s s f a m i l i a r w i t h  the t r a n s f e r  task  elements.  Implications  f o r F u r t h e r Research  Based on t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t would a p p e a r t h a t the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n f a c t o r may f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n i n g o f v i s u a l sequences.  However, t h e i n -  v e s t i g a t o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t u d y be r e p l i c a t e d  with  the f o l l o w i n g changes: 1.  S u b j e c t s s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d  at different  grade l e v e l s , e.g., g r a d e one, g r a d e two, and grade three,  t o determine whether the o r d i n a l  position  f a c t o r f a c i l i t a t e s t h e l e a r n i n g o f v i s u a l sequences to t h e same degree among o t h e r p r i m a r y grade c h i l d r e n . 2. The  A longer t r a i n i n g period  s h o u l d be u s e d .  i n v e s t i g a t o r s u g g e s t s t h a t had l o n g e r t r a i n i n g  s e s s i o n s been used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e s u l t s m i g h t have been more p o s i t i v e .  REFERENCES  B a t e m a n , B a r b a r a D. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e 1961 I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s , Washington: Special Child Publications, 1968. B r o a d b e n t , D.E. P e r c e p t i o n a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n . New Y o r k : P e r g a m o n , 1958. C a n t o r , G.N. E f f e c t s o f t h r e e t y p e s o f p r e t r a i n i n g on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e a r n i n g i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1955, 49,  339-342.  L a s h l e y , K . S . The p r o b l e m o f s e r i a l o r d e r i n b e h a v iour. C e r e b r a l M e c h a n i s m s i n B e h a v i o r . L.A. J e f f r e s s (Ed.). New Y o r k : Johnu W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1951. McCarthy, J . J . and O l s o n , J.L. V a l i d i t y S t u d i e s on t h e I l l i n o i s T e s t o f P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e_s , M c C o n n e l l , O.L. P e r c e p t u a l v e r s u s v e r b a l i n the concept l e a r n i n g o f c h i l d r e n . D e v e l o p m e n t , 1964, 35, 1373-83.  mediation Child  Prehm, H . J . Concept l e a r n i n g i n c u l t u r a l l y d i s advantaged c h i l d r e n as a f u n c t i o n o f v e r b a l pretraining. Exceptional Children, 1966,  32,  599-604.  P u f a l l , P.B. a n d F u r t h , H.G. R e c o g n i t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g of v i s u a l sequences i nyoung c h i l d r e n . Child D e v e l o p m e n t , 1966, 37, 827-836. P y l e s , M.K. V e r b a l i z a t i o n a s a f a c t o r i n l e a r n i n g . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1932, 3 , 108-113. S c h a e f f e r , M.S. a n d G e r j u o y , I . R . The e f f e c t o f s t i m u l u s naming on t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e a r n i n g of kindergarten c h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development,  1955, 26, 231-240.  S c h u l z , R.W. Generalization rote learning. Journal  1955, 49, 267-27?:  of serial position! i n of Experimental Psychology,  Underwood, B.J. E x p e r i m e n t a l Psychology; an I n t r o d u c t i o n . New York: Appleton-Century-CrortsT  1949.  W i t t r o c k , M.C. and K e i s l a r , E.R. Verbal clues i n the t r a n s f e r o f c o n c e p t s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1965, 56, 16-21.  

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