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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of soils and leachates from two forest sites using tension lysimeters Bourgeois, William W. 1969

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A STUDY OF SOILS AND LEACHATES FROM TWO FOREST SITES USING TENSION LYSIMETERS by WILLIAM W. BOURGEOIS B.S.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of S o i l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1969 i v I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e . a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f m y D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f S o i l S c i e n c e T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a ABSTRACT A s t u d y o f t h e s o i l s a n d l e a c h a t e s o f t w o e c o l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r e s t s i t e s w a s s t a r t e d i n S e p t e m b e r , 1968 w i t h a n o b j e c t o f e v a l u a t i n g s o i l f a c t o r s a s t o s i t e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . -T e n s i o n l y s i m e t e r s w i t h s i l i c o n c a r b i d e p o w d e r , a s a c o n t a c t m a t e r i a l , w e r e u s e d t o c o l l e c t w a t e r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e s o i l s o f t h e t w o s i t e s a t a s o i l w a t e r t e n s i o n o f l e s s t h a n 0.10 b a r . A s t h e s t u d y w a s p e r f o r m e d o n s l o p i n g t o p o g r a p h y , t e n s i o n l y s i m e t e r s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o m e a s u r e b o t h t h e d o w n s l o p e p a t h w a y a n d t h e v e r t i c a l p e r c o l a t i o n . o f t h e s o i l w a t e r . T h e l e a c h a t e s f r o m t h e m a s t e r h o r i z o n s o f t h e t w o s o i l s w e r e c o l l e c t e d w e e k l y . T h e a n i o n a n d c a t i o n c o n t e n t o f t h e l e a c h a t e s w a s d e t e r m i n e d a l o n g w i t h e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y , p H a n d t o t a l v o l u m e o f w a t e r . T h e t w o s o i l s , W h a t c o m s e r i e s a n d B l a n e y s e r i e s , w e r e s a m p l e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r m o r p h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e s a m p l e s w e r e a n a l y z e d f o r s e l e c t e d p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l a n d m i n e r a l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . T h e p r o p e r t i e s s e l e c t e d w e r e s u c h t h a t s o i l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d a n d i n f o r m a t i o n w a s p r o v i d e d f o r l e a c h a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . A g r e a t e r v o l u m e o f w a t e r p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e W h a t c o m s o i l ( p e r m a n e n t s e e p a g e s i t e ) t h a n t h r o u g h t h e B l a n e y s o i l ( m e s i c s i t e ) . T h i s w a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e g e n e t i c a n d m o r p h o l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t w o s o i l s . T h e l a r g e s t q u a n t i t y o f l e a c h a t e w a s c o l l e c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a b o v e t h e c o m p a c t e d m a t e r i a l u n d e r t h e s o l u m . T h e c a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e l e a c h a t e s f r o m t h e s e z o n e s w e r e s i m i l a r i n b o t h t h e W h a t c o m a n d B l a n e y s o i l s . H i g h e r c a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w e r e o b s e r v e d i n t h e l e a c h a t e s f r o m t h e s p o d i c h o r i z o n s . S o d i u m w a s t h e c a t i o n o f h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a l l t h e l e a c h a t e s a n d c a l c i u m , m a g n e s i u m a n d p o t a s s i u m i i i occurred i n decreasing order. Seasonal trends seemed to appear to be present i n both the anion and cation concentrations. The p r i n c i p a l causes of these trends appeared to be the quantity and rate of water passing through the s o i l and s o i l temperature, although the l a t t e r was not measured d i r e c t l y i t was inferred from the seasonal patterns. S o i l water r e l a t i o n s and associated s o i l properties appeared to be the main reasons f o r better tree growth on the Whatcom s o i l . The exchangeable calcium and magnesium content of the Whatcom s o i l may also have an influence. F i e l d evaluation of forest s i t e s may be accomplished using s o i l morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as these are r e f l e c t i o n s of the important s o i l properties desirable for Douglas-fir growth. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to thank Dr. L.M. Lavkulich and Dr. J . de V r i e s , Assistant Professors, Department of S o i l Science,for t h e i r guidance, c r i t i c i s m s and.suggestions pertaining to t h i s t h e s i s . Thanks i s also extended to Mr. T. Lewis, Pedologist, B.C.' Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , for h i s assistance i n the tree inventory,and Mr. J . Walters, D i r e c t o r , U.B.C. Research Forest and h i s s t a f f f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l assistance i n the f i e l d . WILLIAM W. BOURGEOIS vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW ..' • • v. 3 METHODS AM) MATERIALS lk RESULTS AID DISCUSSION • 31 Soils Data ................ 31 Leachate Data .. .. • 42 SUMMARY • •• • 61 CONCLUSIONS • .. • 63 REFERENCES . .... 65 APPENDIX 75 v i i TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Description of Extent and Extracting area of Tension Plates . 17 2 Physical Properties of Whatcom S o i l 82 3 Physical Properties of Blaney S o i l 84 4 Chemical Properties of Whatcom S o i l 86 5 Chemical Properties of Blaney S o i l 90 6 Mineralogical Composition of Whatcom S o i l 94 7 Mineralogical Composition of Blaney S o i l 95 8 whatcom S o i l Leachate Analyses 97 9 Blaney S o i l Leachate Analyses 105 10 Analyses f o r Rain Gauge Samples 109 11 Total Nutrients Collected - Whatcom S o i l I l l 12 Total Nutrients Collected - Blaney S o i l 112 13 Climatic Data from Administration Meteorological Station 113 14 Tree Inventory of Sword fern Site ° 116 15 Tree Inventory of Moss Site 117 16 Simple Correlations of S o i l s Data .... 124 17 Simple Correlations of Whatcom S o i l Leachate Data.. 136 18 Simple Correlations of Blaney S o i l Leachate Data... 148 19 Simple Correlations of P i t Rain Gauge Samples 155 v i i i TABLE PAGE 20 Simple Correlations of Station Rain Gauge Samples... 156 21 Simple Correlations of Previous Week's Leachates and Present Week's Concentrations 157' 22 Simple Correlations Between Previous Week's P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Present Week's Leachate Concentrations 158 ix FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Diagram of Tension Plate 15 2 Single Horizon Installation.... 19 2a Photographs of Horizon Installation at the Two sites 20 3 Diagram of a Pit Installation 21 3a Photographs of Pit Installations at the Two Sites 22 4 Water Retention Curves for Whatcom Soil 83 5 Water Retention Curves for Blaney Soil 85 6 Photographs of sword fern Site 118 7 Photographs of Moss Site 120 8 Stereogram of study Area 122 9 Chloride Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling time.............. 161 10 Chloride Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling time 162 11 Chloride Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling time 163 12 Chloride Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling time 164 13 Chloride Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling time 165 14 Chloride Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling time 166 15 Phosphorous Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling Time 167 16 Phosphorous Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling Time 168 17 Phosphorous Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling Time 169 18 Phosphorous Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling Time 170 19 Phosphorous Concentration and Total Leachate vs. Sampling Time 171 INTRODUCTION The evaluation of forest s i t e q u a l i t y through the use of s o i l s data i s becoming prominent. Studies i n this^ f i e l d have indi c a t e d that p h y s i c a l s o i l factors exert a great influence on tree growth. This has been shown to be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a v a i l a b l e s o i l water. In B r i t i s h Columbia the influence of sloping topography and the associated water and nutrient r e l a t i o n s have g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d the ecosystem development and consequently s i t e q u a l i t y . Associated with various plant associations are s o i l s of d i f f e r e n t genetic development which are thought to be expressions of s i t e q u a l i t y . Tension lysimeters were used to study the s o i l water and nutrient r e l a t i o n s throughout the s o i l s of two forest s i t e s s The lack of experience i n the operation and s u i t a b i l i t y of the tension lysimeters to be used, and the small amount of knowledge av a i l a b l e on studies on sloping land, made the s e l e c t i o n of the s i t e s most c r i t i c a l . The s i t e s were selected on two d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t f o rest s i t e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest at Haney, B.C. The c o l l e c t i o n of leachates from the s o i l s began i n September, 1968'and-continued through December ,•1968. There were three objectives i n the study. The f i r s t and primary objective was to determine the s u i t a b i l i t y of tension lysimeters for studying s o i l water i n sloping forested land. Secondly, the leachate c o l l e c t e d from-the s o i l s of the two forest s i t e s would provide an estimation of the t o t a l quantity of water which passed through these s o i l s . The nutrient contents of the leachates c o l l e c t e d during the study period are thought to provide information as to the losses of nutrients from the s o i l s . Through the use of the ion content of the leachates and the s o i l analys an evaluation of the two s o i l s on s o i l genetic and forest p r o d u c t i v i t y oases was attempted. - 3 -LITERATURE REVIEW Understanding the factors a f f e c t i n g the growth of trees i s e s s e n t i a l f o r improved s i l v i c u l t u r e and forest land management. These factors can he studied e i t h e r on an i n d i v i d u a l or ecosystem b a s i s ; both of which are required, however, for a complete understanding of tree growth. The study of known growth f a c t o r s , and the response of i n d i v i d u a l trees to v a r i a t i o n s of these f a c t o r s , can provide valuable information about the requirements of the species. The factors most commonly studied are l i g h t , temperature, nutrients and water. Climatic f a c t o r s , as r e l a t e d to tree growth, have been studied f o r a long time and should not be overlooked when considering growth (Kozlowski, 1962; Kramer, 1957). Although t h i s data i s u s e f u l , the a p p l i c a t i o n to forest land management i s l i m i t e d . Studies on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s o i l water to tree growth have emphasized the importance of t h i s growth factor and the v a r i a t i o n i n requirements between species has been indi c a t e d (Mueller-Dombois, 1963; Pharis, 1966). The. importance of nutrients f o r plant growth has been known since the time of L i e b i g (l803-l873j, but the study of t h i s factor as r e l a t e d to f o r e s t r y i s i n i t ' s infancy. Individual species requirements are necessary but d i f f i c u l t i e s are involved i n these determinations (Gessel, 1962; Tamm, 1964). The long r o t a t i o n required by forest crops and the v a r i a t i o n i n nutrient requirements with age of trees have been the main problems. This has l e d investigators to study growth responses of seedlings at various ages (Anderson and Gessel, 1964; Schaedle, 1959; Youngberg and Austin, 1954). Information obtained from experiments with i n d i v i d u a l growth factors has been very u s e f u l i n the ecosystematic approach to tree growth. This method i s more c l o s e l y associated with p r a c t i c a l applications and i s - h -u s u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y o f f o r e s t s i t e s . T a n s l e y (1923) d e f i n e d a s i t e a s " t h e s u m o f t h e e f f e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e p l a n t o r ( p l a n t ) c o m m u n i t y l i v e s " . T h e s t u d y o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , a s t h e y r e l a t e t o o n e a n o t h e r a n d a f f e c t t r e e g r o w t h , i s o n e a p p r o a c h t o o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d f o r t h e e v e n t u a l t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b e s t e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e g r o w t h o f v a r i o u s s p e c i e s . W i t h i n t h e e c o s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d t h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f s i t e q u a l i t y a n d h e n c e p o t e n t i a l w o o d p r o d u c t i o n ( H e i b e r g a n d W h i t e , 1956). T h e s e a r e p r o d u c t i o n m e a s u r e m e n t s , d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d g r o w t h f a c t o r s a n d t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e i n d i r e c t m e a s u r e m e n t s o f g r o w t h . I n c a s e s w h e r e a d e q u a t e e c o n o m i c a n d m e n s u r a t i o n a l d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e t h e u s e o f p r o d u c t i o n m e a s u r e m e n t s a s a m e a n s o f s i t e e v a l u a t i o n a r e b e n e f i c i a l . T h i s i s b e c o m i n g m o r e d i f f i c u l t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a b e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f y o u n g s e c o n d g r o w t h s t a n d s ( C o i l e a n d S c h u m a c h e r , 1953). T h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f a s i t e f a c t o r y ' s ) t h a t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t r e e g r o w t h , a n d r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t y p e o r a g e o f t h e s t a n d , i s m o s t d e s i r a b l e . S o i l m o i s t u r e i s s u c h a f a c t o r a n d h a s b e e n s h o w n t o b e d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t r e e g r o w t h ( F r a s e r , 1962; G r i f f i t h , I960; M c M i n n , i960). T h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f f a c t o r s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g s i t e q u a l i t y a r e t h e b e s t " b u t i n m a n y c a s e s d o n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e u s e o f a n i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h t o s i t e e v a l u a t i o n . S u c h m e a s u r e m e n t s a s s o i l d e p t h a n d t e x t u r e a s i n d i c a t o r s o f s o i l w a t e r c o n d i t i o n s ( H i l l e t a l , 19^6), a n d t o p o g r a p h y ( e l e v a t i o n a n d a s p e c t ) a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t e m p e r a t u r e a n d p r e c i p i t a t i o n ( C a r m e a n , 195**; S t e i n b r e n n e r , 1963), h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d . - 5 -The presence o f wide m i c r o c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s and the complexity of t h e * v e g e t a t i v e populations have given r i s e t o a need f o r a s u i t a b l e b a s i s f o r s i t e q u a l i t y e v a l u a t i o n . Work such as tha t o f Donahue (19U0), Carmean (19510 and Lemmon (1955) have i n d i c a t e d the importance o f s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n as an i n d i r e c t method o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n . The b a s i c s o i l f a c t o r s remain r e l a t i v e l y unchanged throughout a f o r e s t r o t a t i o n and are present as an i n d i c a t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r the next stand. When co n s i d e r i n g the growth of p l a n t s the f i r s t f a c t o r that i s u s u a l l y considered i s f e r t i l i t y . Tarrant (1949) and Keser (i960) s t u d i e d a number o f s i t e s w i t h regard t o n u t r i e n t content. Although the methods used f o r a v a i l a b i l i t y indexes have not been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t r e e growth, the b a s i c r e s u l t s are i n t e r e s t i n g . In these s t u d i e s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s , between s i t e q u a l i t y and s o i l n u t r i e n t content were obtained. Crankshaw ejt a l (1965) found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between percent n i t r o g e n and s i t e q u a l i t y . This i s expected i f one looks at the r e s u l t s of recent f o r e s t f e r t i l i z a t i o n s t u d i e s (Gessel, 1962). There has a l s o "been evidence o f c o r r e l a t i o n of t r e e growth and s o i l phosphorus (Gessel, 1962). The apparent l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n of s o i l n u t r i e n t content as a s i t e • e v a l u a t i o n index should not be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the unimportance of t h i s s o i l f a c t o r . The s o i l f a c t o r s t h a t could be used as measurements of s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y are s t i l l not known c o n c l u s i v e l y . Carmean (1954), Lemmon (1955),'Young (195*0, R a l s t o n (1964) and Keser ( i960) , when studying s o i l s and t r e e growth, have found t h a t the s o i l p r o p e r t i e s t h a t show the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are of a p h y s i c a l nature. The p r o p e r t i e s u s u a l l y s t u d i e d are e f f e c t i v e s o i l depth, s o i l t e x t u r e or percent c l a y and percent g r a v e l or stones. A l l these p r o p e r t i e s .are . d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the . - 6 -a v a i l a b l e s o i l water.storage capacity. Observations by many investigators have indi c a t e d the importance of s o i l water to tree growth (Wilde, 1958). This s o i l f a c t o r has been measured i n three basic ways - s o i l s data, topography and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The l a t t e r two methods do not provide the d i r e c t measurement desired, although t h e i r influence i s important (Carmean, 1954; Gessel and Lloyd, 1950; Lemmon, 1955; Steinbrenner, 1963). The importance of s o i l water i s not r e s t r i c t e d to a sing l e species. Studies i n v o l v i n g such species as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco^, white pine (Pinus monbieoXa Dougl.j^onderosapine (Pinus ponderosa Laws,) and l o b l o l l y (Pinus taeda L.) and shor t l e a f pine (Pinus eohinata M i l l J have shown the necessity for s u f f i c i e n t a v a i l a b l e s o i l water throughout the growing season ( H i l l et_ a l , 1946; Barrett and Youngberg, 1965; C o i l e and Schumacher, 1953). Seasonal growth patterns also i n d i c a t e the importance of s o i l water as r e f l e c t e d in' the amount of shoot, r a d i a l and terminal growth produced (Buckland, 1956; Fraser, 1962; G r i f f i t h , i960; Walters and Soos, 1963). Pharis (1966) has shown that species vary.in t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y of water use and hence some trees can withstand drought be t t e r than others. Studies of s o i l and ground water have been c a r r i e d out by a number of d i s c i p l i n e s i n t e r e s t e d i n water as a natural resource and as a plant growth f a c t o r . Geologists have become interes t e d i n the q u a l i t y of ground water asindustry and technology are demanding water of c e r t a i n chemical q u a l i t y (Feth.et a l . , 1964). Forest hydrologists, a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , and w i l d l i f e managers, among others, are concerned with the increasing p o l l u t i o n of water. The quantity of water i n a watershed i s also important to these investigators as t h i s i s the basis of plant and animal production. In the past, much of the f i e l d studies on s o i l water have been done using lysimeters. Harrold and D r i e b e l b i s (1951) defined lysimeters i n general "as structures containing a mass of s o i l , and so designed as to permit the measurement of water draining through the s o i l " . The use of t h i s apparatus as a means of studying s o i l s has been a v a i l a b l e for over two centuries (Kohnke, 1940). Through the use of lysimeters, the p e r c o l a t i o n of water through the s o i l has been shown to be dependent upon the amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n reaching the s o i l surface (DrieteTbis, 1954; Harrold and D r i e b e l b i s , 1951; Smirnova and Glebova, 1958). The water reaching the s o i l surface has a number of paths of t r a v e l . I t can run over the s o i l surface as runoff, move into the s o i l by i n f i l t r a t i o n and "be held by the s o i l s , lie absorbed from the s o i l by plant roots and l o s t through t r a n s p i r a t i o n , or percolate through the s o i l to underground streams or aquifers. Lysimeters have been used to study a l l of these pathways. The water balance i n nature i s of prime concern to hydrologists, consequently early lysimeter designs were such that the amount of runoff could be measured along with percolation and s o i l water storage (Kittredge, 1941; Kohnke, 19^0). Studies of t h i s nature were common before 19^0 but lack of confidence i n lysimeter data as a measure of s o i l water i n natural conditions reduced the number of studies a f t e r t h i s , period (Kittredge, 19^1). Lysimeters have also teen used i n c o l l e c t i n g data on nutrient l o s s from the s o i l . This has been of prime importance to s o i l f e r t i l i t y i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The concentration of ions i n s o i l water passing through the s o i l i s a good measure of the l o s s of nutrients from the s o i l and also an important f a c t o r when considering nutrient c y c l i n g . The nutrient content of the leachate has been studied by a number of investigators with p a r t i c u l a r reference to amount of percolate ( Driebelbis & McGuiness, 1957; - 8 -Stauffer and Rust, 195*0, season of the year (Cole et a l . , 196l; Lunt, 19^1; Shilova and Korovkina, 1961), conservation practices (Driebelbis and McGuiness, 1957)', and s o i l type (Cole et a l . , 196l; D r i e b e l b i s , 1954). Although the data should not be taken as absolute values, generalizations can be used for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of nutrient l o s s . Another major use of lysimeters i s i n connection with studies i n s o i l genesis and s o i l development. The t r a n s l o c a t i o n and'deposition of ions and materials i n the s o i l i s important i n many s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. The data from nutrient l o s s studies can.be used i n t h i s respect. There have also been.studies d i r e c t l y designed for genesis i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ( J o f f e , 1933; Kohnke, 1940;. Shilova and Korovkina, 196l; Smirnova and Glebova, 1958). The basic objective of lysimeter studies i s to c o l l e c t data from s o i l s under natural conditions. To obtain t h i s goal a number of lysimeter designs have been developed. The types most commonly used i n the past have been the f i l l e d - i n , Ebermayer and monolith or undisturbed-soil-block type (Kohnke, 1940). The f i l l e d - i n type of lysimeter provides the most unnatural f i e l d conditions of the main designs used. This apparatus can be used both for laboratory and f i e l d studies. For s p e c i f i c s o i l water or nutrient studies i n the laboratory the design i s very appropriate. The s o i l that i s to be used i n the study i s brought i n t o the laboratory, ground, passed through a sieve and mixed. In some cases when the s o i l i s sampled there i s no consideration of horizon sequence and consequently more than one horizon may be sampled. The mixed s o i l i s placed i n a container (lysimeter) with either sand, gravel or a porous plate underneath, through which the percolate i s c o l l e c t e d . For f i e l d studies the lysimeter i s then taken to the f i e l d " - 9 -and positioned so that the surface of the apparatus is at or just above the surface of the natural soil. The grinding and mixing of the soil destroys the natural structure and therefore greatly affects the water relations of the natural soil. The presence of confinement in the apparatus restricts plant root develop-ment and also prevents any. effects of the soil water and plant roots outside the confines of the lysimeter, which under natural conditions could be considerable. Although used to a large extent in early lysimeter studies this type of apparatus is presently "not used in field studies for the reasons mentioned above. In an attempt to correct the problems associated with filled-in lysimeters the monolith or undisturbed-soil-block type was designed. The basic box or cylinder construction remained but the soil used had minimum disturbance. These lysimeters ranged in size from a few cubic feet to very large tanks. The installation of the lysimeters in field studies involved the excavation of a soil block in the field. The container was then placed around the soil block and the percolate collected through an opening at the base of the lysimeter. Disturbance of the soil around the edges of the lysimeter occurred but this was thought to be minimized by the large size of the apparatus. The large size of the lysimeter was also thought to allow greater root development within the apparatus. The design of this type of lysimeter did not alleviate the problem of root confinement and the consequent soil water and plant root effects outside the apparatus. Because of the problems associated with the confined nature of the previously described lysimeters an unconfined apparatus was developed. This apparatus was known as the Ebermayer type and involved a porous plate - 10 -and funnel against the s o i l . This type of lysimeter allowed .free develop-ment of plant root systems i n and around the lysimeter. I t also d i d not r e s t r i c t water e f f e c t s from surrounding areas. Although the s i z e of the apparatus was small and the disturbed s o i l face had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater e f f e c t than i n the confined lysimeters the manner under which the percolate was sampled was the closest to natural conditions of the three main designs used. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s from lysimeter experiments before 19^0 as i n d i c a t i o n s of natural conditions were questioned by a number of • in v e s t i g a t o r s (Kittredge, 1941). It was observed that the e a r l y lysimeter designs were not r e f l e c t i n g f i e l d conditions. The lysimeters, of the designs previously mentioned, were of the zero tension type and studies by Weal et a l . (1937), Richards et al.(1939), W i l l i h a n (l94o) and Colman (19^6) showed that to obtain conditions s i m i l a r to those occurring n a t u r a l l y , a negative'pressure must be applied to the free s o i l face where water extraction occurs. ' The a p p l i c a t i o n of tension to the s o i l was necessary to correct the s o i l - a i r i n t e r f a c e problem. I t was neglect of t h i s problem which caused the great d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n lysimeter studies. The problem i s based on soil-water r e l a t i o n s . Water i s held i n the s o i l by adhesive and cohesive forces and w i l l move within the s o i l when a tension gradient exists (Slatyer, 1967). For water to move from the s o i l i nto an open space the tension gradients within the s o i l must be equivalent to that of g r a v i t y . In zero tension lysimeters the s o i l must reach the saturation point before water w i l l move out of the s o i l and i n t o the apparatus proper. I t i s the region between the s o i l and the lysimeter that i s considered the s o i l - a i r i n t e r f a c e . The zero tension lysimeters r e s u l t e d i n the s o i l s containing. - 11 -higher water contents than they would n a t u r a l l y (Colman, 1946; Weal et a l . , 1937; W i l l i h a n , 1940). W i l l i h a n (1940) also found that better plant growth occurred under the more saturated conditions and the leachate c o l l e c t e d i n the lysimeters had a lower i o n i c content than that obtained through the use of a negative pressure. The c o r r e c t i o n of the s o i l - a i r i n t e r f a c e problem d i d not a l l e v i a t e i n v e s t i g a t o r s from c r i t i c i s m as to the value of lysimeter data. The disturbance of the s o i l i s i n e v i t a b l e i n the i n s t a l l a t i o n of lysimeters and has been minimized i n some cases by the use of very large i n s t a l l a t i o n s (Colman and Hamilton, 1947)-. Although problems existed i n early lysimeter studies, some of the data on leachate q u a l i t y i s s t i l l u s e f u l . The great tec h n o l o g i c a l advancements of the l a s t twenty years have changed a n a l y t i c a l methods d r a s t i c a l l y , thus the actual values obtained are of l i t t l e value but the r a t i o s of i o n i c concentrations can be compared with recent studies. The use of uncdnfined tension lysimeters has developed i n recent years to correct the previous lysimeter problems (Armitsu and Matsui, 1964; Cole, 1958),. These lysimeters combine the basic design of the Ebermayer lysimeter with the a p p l i c a t i o n of a negative pressure. Cole (1958) developed a tension lysimeter using fused alundum discs upon which the • tension plates used i n the present study were based. \" The use of t h i s type of lysimeter allows for natural development of vegetation and a continuation of undisturbed.soil processes. The i n e r t nature of the alundum disc prevents contamination of the leachate'or s o i l and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the negative pressure through the disc minimized the s o i l -a i r i n t e r f a c e problem. However, the presence of a fused plate pressed against the s o i l does not produce a desirable hydraulic contact between s o i l and extracting p l a t e . The use of an in e r t material that would more f u l l y - 12 -contact the s o i l i s the main differ e n c e i n the lysimeter used i n t h i s study. The tension lysimeters of Cole and Armitsu and Matsui are e s s e n t i a l l y extracting plates that are inserted within the s o i l or against a s o i l face. A minimum amount of s o i l disturbance takes place but only a small area of.the s o i l i s sampled. Interpretations of the data from these types of apparatus should be only of a generalized nature due to the wide v a r i a t i o n within a pedon and the small portion of the pedon that i s sampled. The s o i l i s a dynamic system, d i f f i c u l t to study completely and exactly, thus lysimeter data should only be used as an i n d i c a t i o n of what may be happening i n the s o i l . The problems associated with lysimeter studies have g r e a t l y influenced the regions of a p p l i c a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l areas and some of the gently sloping or l e v e l forested areas are most convenient for these studies. Because of the strong influence of a g r i c u l t u r e on s o i l s work, i t was on these s o i l s that most experiments have been done. The usefulness of lysimeter information i n ecosystematic studies became prominent i n the 19^0's (Colman and Hamilton, 19^7;- Lunt, 19^1) and since t h i s period a number of studies have been done on forested land (Armitsu and Matsui, 1964; Cole et a l . ,''196l; Shilova and Korovkina, 1965) . Of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed the only study found, that was c a r r i e d out on sloping land, was that of Armitsu and Matsui (196U). A large percentage of the forested land i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s sloping, consequently the study of s o i l s on such areas i s most desirable. On the west coast of Canada, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco,) i s the most economical species. I t has been observed that the - 13 -best growth of these trees i s found on seepage s i t e s (Krajina, 1965; McMinn, i 9 6 0 ) . Studies on s i t e q u a l i t y have shown that the growth of Douglas-fir increases as the p o s i t i o n on a slope gets close r to the bottom (Keser, I960; K r a j i n a , 1965). The presence of greater amounts of s o i l water at the lower posi t i o n s on the slope have been used to explain the increased growth ( G r i f f i t h , i 9 6 0 ; McMinn, i 9 6 0 ) . In addition to the presence of s o i l water the added nutrient content brought into the s o i l s of the better s i t e s by the seepage water could also influence tree growth. (Krajina''-) Personal.communication. Professor, Dept. of Botany, U.B.C. - 14 -METHODS AND MATERIALS An area with no roads, creeks or other factors that could influence the flow patterns of the soil water was required for this study. Such an area was found in the southwestern portion of the U.B.C. Research Forest. The area was classified by Lacate (1965) as h i l l y to gently rolling, granitic cored uplands. The vegetation is second growth (approximately 90 years) consisting of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco), hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Ref.) Sarg.) and cedar (Thuja, plicata Donn) with some old growth of these species. The annual precipitation of 234 cm puts this portion.of the forest into the dry subzone of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone as outlined by Krajina (1965) and Orloci (1964). The study area is approximately 550 meters west-northwest of the administration buildings and can be seen on the aerial photographs (Figure 8). Two main forest sites are present on the same northwest facing major slope. These have been classified by Orloci (1964) as orthic plagiothecium (mesic site) and degraded polystichum (permanent seepage site) and w i l l be further referred to as moss (S.I. 142) and sword fern (S.I. 163) sites respectively. The corresponding soils found at the two sites are Blaney series (moss site) and Whatcom series (sword fern sit e ) . The tension plates used in the study were made of acrylic plastic 2 and were modifications of tension apparatus used by Dr. J. de Vries. A cross section of a single tension plate is shown in Figure 1. The construction consists of a basal plate, of 8 mm acrylic plastic, above which is a 8 mm deep chamber. Supports extend across the chamber but not to the extremes so as to allow free movement of water within this portion 2 Personal communication. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Soil Science, U.B.C. D I A G R A M of a T E N S I O N P L A T E A 6 4 m m acry l ic plast ic B chamber c perforated plast ic D screen E f i l t e r F gasket G f r a m e H SiC chamber J outf low tube of the p l a t e . The upper side of the chamber i s bound by another piece of p l a s t i c . This piece i s perforated with a number of 1.5 mm: holes to allow for water to pass i n t o the center of the tension p l a t e . In one corner of the plate a 9-5 mm. diameter a c r y l i c p l a s t i c tube i s inserted f or an o u t l e t from the chamber. On top of the perforated plate i s a piece of nylon screening. This permits free flow of water to the holes above the chamber. It also prevents the M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r , which i s immediately above, from being p u l l e d i n t o the holes. The M i l l i p o r e f i l t e r , used was MF type HA, of mixed esters of c e l l u l o s e composition and having a pore s i z e of 0.1+5 3 microns and a bubbling pressure of 32 psi.- The f i l t e r provides f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of a negative pressure on the extracting surface of the plate and i t also prevents c o l l o i d a l p a r t i c l e s from entering into the c o l l e c t e d s o l u t i o n . The nature of the f i l t e r i s such that i t can withstand f i e l d conditions. Above the f i l t e r i s a frame that extends around the perimeter of the tension p l a t e . To ensure that no a i r leaks i n t o the p l a t e from under the frame,and so that the f i l t e r i s not punctured by the frame, a gasket of soft rubber i s placed between the frame and the f i l t e r . The frame i s made of 12 mm. square a c r y l i c p l a s t i c s t r i p s , joined at the corners and fastened to the tension p l a t e by brass machine screws. The volume provided by the frame i s f i l l e d with s i l i c o n carbide powder, the contact material. This material has a p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n generally of 25-*+0 microns with 100 percent of the material being.less than kO microns i n si z e and 7 percent being l e s s than 25 microns. A p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of material l e s s than -50 microns was needed to provide a s u f f i c i e n t l y high bubbling pressure of the"contact material. The amount of material l e s s than 25 microns i n diameter was kept at a minimum i n order to maintain adequate water flow through the medium. The s i l i c o n carbide powder was used because of i t ' s o Sometimes referred to a i r i n t r u s i o n valve. - 17 -i n e r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i t ' s a b i l i t y to provide a good contact between the tension plate and the s o i l . Before use the s i l i c o n carbide material was washed once with 0.001 N HC1 followed by s i x washings with d i s t i l l e d water. This removed the contaminants that rwere present which gave a pH reading greater than 7 before washing. A f t e r washing, the pH of the s i l i c o n carbide suspension was 6 . 5 , that of the d i s t i l l e d water. The tension plates were used i n open p i t i n s t a l l a t i o n s at the two forest s i t e s . Diagnostic p o s i t i o n s of the p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s (moss and sword fern) were selected. A p i t was dug, the s o i l pedon at each l o c a t i o n was described morphologically (Appendix l ) and samples were taken for chemical and p h y s i c a l a n a l y s i s . Although a l l horizons present i n each case were sampled and described i t was thought not to be f e a s i b l e at t h i s stage to study water movement through a l l the horizons. It was decided that only the master horizons would be used i n the study of s o i l water q u a l i t y and quantity. Based on the morphological d e s c r i p t i o n of the s o i l at each s i t e the major horizon breaks were made as shown i n Table 1. TABLE 1 DESCRIPTION OF EXTENT AND EXTRACTING AREA OF TENSION PLATES Area of v e r t i c a l Area of h o r i -S i t e Horizon Depth (Cm) plates zontal plates Sword fern Bf BIIC IlCg Moss Bf H.Cg 0-20 400 cm2 400 cm2 20-89 1380 cm2 '400 cm2 89-102 . 260 cm2 0-51 1020 cm2 400 cm 2 51-102 1020 cm 2 -.18 -As the study was to he done on sloping land, the s o i l water moving down the slope i n each horizon, as w e l l as that percolating through each horizon, was of i n t e r e s t . The tension plates were i n s t a l l e d i n the s o i l on the "up slope face" of the p i t with as l i t t l e disturbance of the s o i l as poss i b l e . Horizontal tension plates were inse r t e d under the horizons to c o l l e c t water that would n a t u r a l l y move completely through the-horizon. These plates were 23 cm square with an extracting surface within the frame of 20 cm square. The horizons under which these plates were i n s t a l l e d were the Bf and BIIC of the sword.fern s i t e and the Bf of the moss s i t e . Horizontal plates were not i n s t a l l e d under the IlCg horizons a s s i t was thought only a small amount of water, i f any, would be percolating through the compact glacial-marine sediments. The water moving within each horizon and po s s i b l y down the slope was c o l l e c t e d by v e r t i c a l plates on the face of the p i t s i n the corresponding horizonal p o s i t i o n s . Because these plates follow the depths of the various horizons, the lengths are not standard as i n the case of the ho r i z o n t a l p l a t e s . However, each has an extracting surface of 20 cm i n width. A diagram of the i n s t a l l a t i o n s that were used at the sword fern and moss s i t e s i s shown i n Figure 2. In the l a t t e r case fewer tension plates were used because of the smaller number of master horizons. In p o s i t i o n I (Figure 3) the main records of the Bf horizon were taken and the v e r t i c a l tension plates i n the Bf p o s i t i o n of positions II and I I I , denoted as Bf (b) and Bf (c) r e s p e c t i v e l y , were used as sampling r e p l i c a t i o n s of the horizon as w e l l as providing a closed system for the i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n these sections. The sections are approximately 15 cm apart. P o s i t i o n I I consists of the major v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c o l l e c t i o n s i t e s f o r the BIIC horizon and the r e p l i c a t e of the Bf horizon. In A 5cm X 10cm b r a c e B v e r t i c a l p late C hor izonta l p l a t e D c o l l e c t i o n b o t t l e s E nega t i ve p r e s s u r e supply F m a n i f o l d G pressure r e g u l a t o r H suppor ts F I G U R E 3 DIAGRAM of a PIT INSTALLATION Posi t ion I Pos i t ion I Pos i t ion m 8 j Horizon Hor izon C H o r i z o n Soi l Su r face ro H - 22 -Sword fern •r - ' M o s s F I G U R E 3 a P IT I N S T A L L A T I O N S - 23 -p o s i t i o n I I I the two r e p l i c a t e s are present, along with the extracting plate f o r the region of contact between weathered s o i l and the underlying compact material. At the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the moss s i t e only the h o r i z o n t a l tension p l a t e under the Bf horizon was present. A duplicate of the v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n of t h i s horizon, Bf (b), and a single tension plate covering the contact region were the components of the second p o s i t i o n of t h i s s i t e i n s t a l l a t i o n . The actual i n s t a l l a t i o n of the tension plates against the s o i l was done so that maximum hydraulic contact between the s i l i c o n carbide and the s o i l occurred. This was done by f i r s t wetting the s i l i c o n carbide and applying a negative pressure through the p l a t e o u t l e t . When the s o i l surface was l e v e l e d to provide good f i t t i n g of the plate a s l i g h t release of tension on the s i l i c o n carbide was made to y i e l d a j e l l y - l i k e material. The p l a t e was then moved against the s o i l to allow f o r the s i l i c o n carbide to move into the spaces of the s o i l face. The tension plates were i n s t a l l e d against the s o i l i n such a way that the outlet was at the lowest p o s i t i o n . Once good contact was obtained the tension plate was held i n p o s i t i o n by supports as indicated i n Figure 2. A bentonite seal was applied around the frame to minimize a i r movement in t o the lysimeter out-flow system, causing f a i l u r e of the negative pressure supply. Under each horizon that required a h o r i z o n t a l plate an excavation into the face of the p i t was made to the depth of a tension p l a t e . The resultant c a v i t y was used f o r the i n s e r t i o n of the h o r i z o n t a l plate and the required v e r t i c a l supports. The three v e r t i c a l supports for each of these p l a t e s , as w e l l as the supports for the v e r t i c a l plates on the front face of the p i t , were made of 12 mm i r o n pipes with p r o j e c t i n g 5 mm i r o n rods. The rods were put in s i d e the pipe and held i n place by machine screws. This allowed for v a r i a t i o n i n the extension of each rod and the retention of the tension applied to the plates against the s o i l . The v e r t i c a l p l a t e supports were held i n place by a piece of wood 5 cm x 10 cm that extended across the p i t and had holes at the desired spacing f o r i n s e r t i o n of the i r o n pipes. The supports f o r both the v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l tension plates were anchored at the bottom by pieces of 18 mm plywood having counter-sunk holes f o r the pipes. These i n turn were held i n place by i r o n rods, that extended through the boards and into the s o i l beneath. The source of negative pressure f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n s was supplied by a vacuum pump and a portable gasoline driven generator at each s i t e . As a constant source of power was not a v a i l a b l e for the vacuum pumps, a supply of negative pressure was required. This was provided by a converted, used hot water tank f i t t e d with a vacuum pressure gauge and a manifold. Each tension plate was connected to a re c e i v i n g b o t t l e and a source of negative pressure as shown i n Figure 2. The connecting material was 9.5 mm O.D. Nalgene p l a s t i c tubing. The bo t t l e s were i n d i v i d u a l l y connected to a manifold common to each group of tension plates f o r a horizon. A connection was made from each manifold to i t s ' own negative pressure regulating valve. Although only one valve was required f o r each s i t e , a valve f o r each major i n s t a l l a t i o n was' used. The valves used were Stratos vacuum regulators Model l6 and obtained from F a i r c h i l d H i l l e r . Associated with each valve was a mercury manometer. The regulating valves were connected to the manifold on the "hot water" tank and hence to the source of negative pressure. . - .25 -The c o l l e c t i o n containers used were h l i t r e polypropylene b o t t l e s associated with 1+5 g a l l o n metal drums. Also, 2 0 l i t r e glass carboys were used and these were connected to the tension plates of the Bf horizon at each s i t e . The combinations of a p l a s t i c b o t t l e and a f o r t y f i v e g a l l o n drum were used for the plates of the BIIC and IlCg horizons. This l a t t e r combination was necessary because of the large amounts of water received through these tension plates. The i n s t a l l a t i o n was generally the same as i n Figure 2 but the p l a s t i c b o t t l e s were inserted between the plates and the drums so that overflow from the p l a s t i c b o t t l e s would be c o l l e c t e d i n the drums. Because the water i n the drums would be contaminated by the metal, the sample for chemical analysis was taken from the p l a s t i c b o t t l e s . The overflow i n the drums was used f o r measuring the t o t a l quantity of water. The water c o l l e c t e d i n the glass carboys was used both as a measure of quantity and q u a l i t y . The quantity measurements, taken once a week, were done by a graduate cy l i n d e r i n the case of the glass carboys and a graduated measuring s t i c k i n the case of the drums. Associated with each s i t e were three r a i n gauges with p l a s t i c inner l i n e r s , which were placed around each p i t and read once a week. The r a i n -water c o l l e c t e d was brought i n t o the laboratory and analyzed i n the same manner as the leachates. The r a i n gauges were i n s t a l l e d to give i n d i c a t i v e readings of canopy drip around the p i t s , both on a quantity and q u a l i t y b a s i s . The water and records from the weather s t a t i o n at the administration buildings of the Research Forest were also used as comparison with the gauges under the canopy. Because of the small amount of water received from the s i n g l e r a i n gauge at the weather s t a t i o n , incomplete chemical data was obtained. - 26 -The study was done p r i m a r i l y i n r e l a t i o n to tree growth but also with an i n t e r e s t i n s o i l genesis. The samples taken from the s o i l horizons at each s i t e were analyzed f o r the properties necessary to characterize the s o i l . In addition, the determinations made on the leachates were also performed on the s o i l samples. The leachates c o l l e c t e d were analyzed f o r a number o f anions and cations, as w e l l as pH and conductivity. The methods used for the analyses, i n many cases, had s l i g h t modifications to compensate for the low concentrations of some of the ions present i n the waters. Anion determinations i n the leachates included n i t r a t e , bicarbonate, c h l o r i d e , s u l f a t e and phosphate. The n i t r a t e determinations were done within f o r t y eight hours of the time of c o l l e c t i o n . This was accomplished using an Orion n i t r a t e ion electrode, Model 92-07. The method was selected over the phenoldisulfonic a c i d method because of i t s r a p i d i t y and the good comparisons of the methods found by Myers and Paul (1968). Bicarbonate ion and pH were determined using a Radiometer t i t r a t o r , type TTT l c . The procedure for bicarbonate was as described i n Black'(1965)• The two t e s t s were also made within the time period as indicated f or n i t r a t e ion deter-mination. Very low concentrations of c h l o r i d e , s u l f a t e and phosphate required that a concentrating procedure, in v o l v i n g evaporation of the solutions i n an oven at approximately 95°C, be included. The concentration factor was 10 or 20 times depending on the amount of leachate that was a v a i l a b l e . A s p e c i f i c ion electrode (Orion Model 9^-17) "was used f o r chloride determination. Sulfate was analyzed t u r b i d i m e t r i c a l l y and phosphate by the water soluble method as outlined by Black (1965). - 21 •-The concentrations of ammonium nitrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, i r o n and aluminum were also obtained. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used f o r the a l k a l i and a l k a l i n e earth elements and also f o r i r o n . The low concentrations of i r o n and aluminum required a concentrating step, so the concentrated s o l u t i o n used for the anions was also used f o r the determination of these two elements. Aluminum was determined using the Eriochrome cyanine procedure of Jones and Thurman (1957). Ammonium nitrogen was analyzed using Messier's reagent (Jackson, 1958) and within f o r t y eight hours of leachate c o l l e c t i o n . E l e c t r i c a l conductivity was done on a l l leachate samples using a Radiometer conductivity meter Type CDM 2e. The s o i l samples were analyzed for selected p h y s i c a l , chemical and mineralogical properties. These were done both from genetic points of view and as a basis f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the leachate data. The p h y s i c a l determinations were p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n (texture), bulk density and water retention properties. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n was done by the hydrometer method (Black, 1965). Each horizon was placed into a t e x t u r a l class using the texture t r i a n g l e of the U.S.D.A. Handbook (1951). Bulk density was calculated from undisturbed samples, using 7 .5 x 7.2 cm cores. The s o i l water content at 0 . 1 0 , 0.33 and 1 . 0 0 , and 15 bars tension were determined using low and high pressure ceramic plate extractors, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Cation exchange capacity of the s o i l samples was determined using two methods. One method employed IN WHl^ OAc at pH 7 (Black, 1965) and the other 0.01. M C a C l 2 (Clark, 1965). The so l u t i o n obtained from homoionic saturation with WH^+ was used for;:' determination of exchangeable cations. - 28 -The actual concentrations of ions were obtained through the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In Saddition to the a l k a l i and a l k a l i n e earth elements, the concentration of exchangeable i r o n and aluminum at pH 1 was also determined. The measurement of these two elements was done i n the same manner as i n the leachates' but no concentrating step was employed. The percent base saturation was ca l c u l a t e d using t h i s data. Exchangeable a c i d i t y at pH 8 . 0 was determined using the barium chloride-triethanolamine method o u t l i n e d i n Black (1965). T o t a l percent carbon was obtained using an induction furnace (Leco carbon analyzer No. 572-200). Percent nitrogen was found by using a macro-Kjeldahl determination (Black, 1965) and from these r e s u l t s the percent organic matter was calcul a t e d . Percent t o t a l s u l f u r was determined using an induction furnace (Leco s u l f u r analyzer, Model 517). Because the anions and cations present i n the leachates were- of a water soluble nature, the s o i l samples were analyzed f o r the content of these water soluble anions and cations. The concentrations of water soluble n i t r a t e , bicarbonate, c h l o r i d e , phosphate-and s u l f a t e were determined as w e l l as the concentrations of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. These ions were extracted by shaking 20 grams of s o i l i n 100 ml of water for f i v e days while being aerated, to ensure equilibrium (Clark, 1965) . The solutions were centrifuged and the supernatant so l u t i o n was used f o r the analyses. The methods were the same as used i n the leachate analyses. . As a p a r t i a l measure of nutrient a v a i l a b i l i t y , i n addition to exchangeable cations, extraction was made.using Morgan's so l u t i o n (Jackson, 1958). Both anion and cation determinations were done on the - 29 -extract. The extraction was made on 20 grams of s o i l by 100 ml of Morgan's so l u t i o n by shaking f or 30 minutes and cent r i f u g i n g . Although these values may be used as in d i c a t o r s of nutrient a v a i l a b i l i t y i n the s o i l s , care must be taken i n drawing any conclusions. For reasons of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o i l s at the two s i t e s and also as an i n d i c a t i o n of the amount of e a s i l y extractable i r o n and aluminum, analyses of these elements were made. The procedure used was an a c i d ammonium oxalate extraction (McKeague and Day, 1966) . Iron was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and aluminum was determined by Eriochrome cyanine (Jones and Thurman, 1957)• E l e c t r i c a l conductivity and pH were also measured on the s o i l samples. The conductivity was done on the extract from a s o i l paste using the Radiometer conductivity meter used i n the leachate determinations. The measurements of pH were done i n two ways: i n a 1:1 soil-water suspension and i n a 1:2 s o i l to 0 .01 M CaClg suspension. The readings were taken on a Beckman pH meter. To t a l elemental analyses were done on the s o i l samples and the procedure used was a modification of the a c i d digestion procedure outlined by Black (1965). One gram of s o i l was digested with concentrated HC1, k8% HF and 70% HCIO^ acids. The elemental determinations were done on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, i r o n , aluminum and manganese were the elements determined. Mineralogical properties were measured on the cla y f r a c t i o n . This was done both as a means of s o i l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and for possible s o i l weathering factors that may be used i n leachate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The ent i r e c l a y f r a c t i o n « 2 microns) was used f o r x-ray d i f f r a c t i o n a n a l ysis. The f r a c t i o n was obtained from the dispersed s o i l used i n p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The i r o n and aluminum were removed from the clay using d i t h i o n i t e - c i t r a t e - b i c a r b b n a t e (McKeague and Day, 1966). The clays were homoionically saturated with Mg and K and subjected to x-ray d i f f r a c t i o n , employing Cu K«< r a d i a t i o n with Ni f i l t r a t i o n . - 31 -RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SOILS DATA The morphological and chemical descriptions of the s o i l s at the two forest s i t e s show that they d i f f e r i n t h e i r degree of weathering. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the two s o i l s occurs at the subgroup l e v e l . The Blaney s o i l (moss s i t e ) was c l a s s i f i e d as an Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol; while the Whatcom s o i l (sword.fern s i t e ) was c l a s s i f i e d as a Mini Humo-ferric Podzol, both according to the National S o i l Survey Committee C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (1968). Both s o i l s have the same general horizonal sequence but more defined e.luvial (Ahe) horizon and deeper spodic (Podzol B) horizons i n the Blaney s o i l accounted for the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the s o i l s . The Ahe horizon of the Blaney s o i l was 2.5 cm i n depth with tonguing up to 5 cm into the Bf, while at the sword fern s i t e the same horizon was discontinuous and l e s s than' 2 .5 cm i n thickness. The requirements of a spodic horizon (less than 10% organic matter and A oxalate extractable F e + A l greater than 0.8%) were present to a depth of 50 cm at the moss s i t e but to only 20 cm at the sword fern s i t e . Two indexes commonly used when comparing the extent of weathering of s o i l s are the Si02/F<203 r a t i o , and mineralogical composition of the clay f r a c t i o n . The Si02/R2°3 r a - t i o expresses the r e l a t i v e amount of sesquioxides present i n each horizon (Tables h & 5 ) . A low value indicates that a r e l a t i v e l y higher sesquioxide content i s present and therefore a more highly weathered horizon (Bear, 19&5). This i s the case for the Whatcom s o i l . M i n e r a l o g i c a l data can be used as a measure of weathering but with the s o i l s i n t h i s study no conclusive data was found. The presence of - 32 -s l i g h t l y l e s s amphiboles and soda-calcic feldspars i n the Whatcom s o i l i n d i c a t e d that t h i s s o i l may be s l i g h t l y more weathered than the Blaney s o i l . The depth of the spodic horizons i n the two s o i l s i s a function of the conditions present within the s o i l . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n reaching the s o i l surface at each s i t e i s approximately the same, both i n quantity and qua l i t y . For i r o n and aluminum to move v e r t i c a l l y i n the s o i l and accumulate, alternate wetting and drying periods are required. Smirnova and Glebova (1958) found that the i r o n and aluminum content of lysimeter water increased during periods of high r a i n f a l l . This was thought to be the r e s u l t of mi c r o b i a l release of organic acids that release i r o n and aluminum from the s o i l p a r t i c l e s f o r t r a n s l o c a t i o n during and following periods of high p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The depth to which sesquioxides move depends on the amount of water a v a i l a b l e f o r carrying the materials and the depth to which the water i s allowed to percolate. In consideration of the Whatcom and Blaney s o i l s the l a t t e r has a coarser texture and i s r a p i d l y drained,while the Whatcom s o i l i s imperfectly drained. The drainage conditions i n the Whatcom s o i l are the r e s u l t of the s o i l being near the base of the forest slope and influenced by seepage waters to within 20 cm of the s o i l surface during the higher p r e c i p i t a t i o n periods of the year. This hinders the deposition of the weathering products below 20 cm because there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t drying of the s o i l below t h i s l e v e l which i s required fo r p r e c i p i t a t i o n of these materials. The 25 percent slope at the sword fe r n s i t e (Whatcom s o i l ) compared to the 10 percent slope at the moss s i t e (Blaney s o i l ) has re s u l t e d i n the g r a v i t y movement of f i n e material down the slope to the seepage s i t e . This combined with the churning of trees through w i n d f a l l and consequent mixing of glacio-marine and ablation t i l l - 33 -materials have caused the presence of a f i n e r texture and corresponding l a r g e r water holding capacity of the surface horizons of the Whatcom s o i l . The f i n e r texture, and associated water retention properties, increase the length of time required f o r drying of the s o i l . At the moss s i t e , the Blaney s o i l i s more r a p i d l y drained and l e s s influenced by seepage than i s the Whatcom s o i l . This provides for more frequent drying periods, r e s u l t i n g i n the deeper penetration of the spodic horizons and the formation of concretions. A considerably l a r g e r number of concretions are present i n the Bf horizons of the Blaney s o i l when compared with the Whatcom s o i l . The presence o f these concretions can greatly increase the coarse sized p a r t i c l e s i n the s o i l . I t has been observed that the more "podzolized" s o i l s on.the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia contain a l a r g e r number of "shot" than those of a l e s s "podzolized" nature. Theories have been proposed that the formation of these p a r t i c l e s requires the, same alternate wetting and.drying cycle as the "podzolization process". The presence of these "shot" influence the p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s o i l . . The churning action on the slope and the presence of concretions have given the impression that the parent material of the two s o i l s i s d i f f e r e n t . Such i s not the case and ablation t i l l i s the parent material of both s o i l s . This material overlies, compacted g l a c i a l t i l l . a t the moss s i t e and glacio-marine sediments at the sword fern s i t e . According to Armstrong (1950) the glacio-marine i n the Fraser V a l l e y approaches the •l68 meter elevation and extends to t h i s elevation at the U.B.C. Research Forest. The elevation of the sword fern s i t e i s approximately 150 meters which i s close to the boundary between the glacio-marine and g l a c i a l t i l l . - 3 4 -This s i t e i s i n a t r a n s i t i o n area between glacio-marine and g l a c i a l t i l l , consequently i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the underlying compact material i s b a s i c a l l y glacio-marine but has some properties of g l a c i a l t i l l . One such property i s the p a r t i c l e size- d i s t r i b u t i o n . A higher s i l t and clay content i s u s u a l l y found i n the glacio-marine than reported for the IlCgg horizon of the " t y p i c a l " Whatcom s o i l . The char a c t e r i z a t i o n of the g l a c i a l t i l l at the moss s i t e and the glacio-marine at the sword fern s i t e was based on f i e l d observations. These were substantiated by the mineralogical analysis of the l e s s than 2 micron s i z e f r a c t i o n of the unweathered material. The glacio-marine has a noticeably higher i l l i t e content. This i s expressed throughout the Whatcom s o i l wherever the glacio-marine exerts an influence. The' a v a i l a b l e water storage capacity of a s o i l has been shown to be important i n forest s i t e q u a l i t y ( G r i f f i t h , I960; McMinn, i 9 6 0 ) . This s o i l f a c t o r i s d i r e c t l y associated with p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y between the water tensions of 0.10 and 15 bars as shown by the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Table l 6 ) . G r i f f i t h ( i 9 6 0 ) , found that growth was reduced when the trees were grown on s o i l s of low a v a i l a b l e water storage capacity. ' Walters'and Soos (1963)* supplied data that i n d i c a t e d a decrease i n growth when the water supply of the s o i l diminished. The usual range of s o i l water tensions where water i s a v a i l a b l e f o r uptake by most plants i s 0.10 to 15 bars f o r sandy loam or coarser textured s o i l s and 0 .33 to 15 bars f o r f i n e r textured s o i l s . As can be seen from the water contents of the s o i l horizons, the water storage capacity at 0.10 bars i s as much as -20$ lower i n the Blaney s o i l than i n the corresponding horizon of the Whatcom s o i l (Tables 2 & 3 ) . I f s o i l water i s the p r i n c i p l e s i t e f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g tree growth, then under the same cl i m a t i c - 35 -conditions, the Whatcom s o i l would support a hetter stand than the Blaney.. The mean annual increments of the two stands i n d i c a t e that the better s i t e i s the seepage s i t e and the Whatcom s o i l (Tables 14 & 1 5 ) . Tarrant (1949) was unable to c o r r e l a t e s i t e . q u a l i t y with s o i l nutrient content. However, the importance of t h i s s o i l f a ctor should not be overlooked. The a n a l y t i c a l methods used for a v a i l a b i l i t y indexes have orig i n a t e d from studies on a g r i c u l t u r a l crops and may not be s a t i s f a c t o r y fo r forest crops. There have been instances where co r r e l a t i o n s have occurred between tre e growth and s p e c i f i c s o i l nutrient contents (Gessel, 1962). Care must be taken i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s from these studies as many have been c a r r i e d out on s o i l s with very low nutrient content. When considering s o i l nutrients and plant growth the most commonly considered elements are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There has been an increasing i n t e r e s t i n calcium, magnesium, s u l f u r and trace elements as reported i n the book "Forest F e r t i l i z a t i o n " (1968). Nitrogen i s d i r e c t l y associated with organic matter (Table 14). F e r t i l i z a t i o n studies (Gessel, 1962; Gessel et a l . , 1950; Gessel and Shareeff, 1957; Mork and Brantseg, 1963) have shown that a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s macronutrient to forest crops increases growth at the seedling, sapling and r o t a t i o n ages. In nature the p r i n c i p a l source of nitrogen f o r plants i s organic matter. Nitrogen i s released from organic matter by m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l action and upon release has two basic paths within the •s o i l . I t can be released i n t o the s o i l system i n the form of n i t r a t e or ammonium ions to be leached or taken up by higher plants or be held within the m i c r o b i a l c e l l s to s a t i s f y the organisms' requirements. The carbon: nitrogen r a t i o i n the s o i l i s an i n d i c a t o r as to which of these paths - 36 -nitrogen w i l l take. The higher the r a t i o the greater the amount of nitrogen released from the organic matter that w i l l he required "by the m i c r o b i a l population and therefore not a v a i l a b l e to higher plants. Once the r a t i o i s lowered to 2 5 . i n most s o i l s a portion of the nitrogen i s a v a i l a b l e for plant growth." A stable r a t i o found i n most a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s and some forest s o i l s i s 10 ( R u s s e l l , 1961). Although the r a t i o s i n the horizons of the t r e e rooting zone of the Whatcom and Blaney s o i l s are l e s s than 2 5 , they are considerably c l o s e r to 10 i n the Whatcom s o i l than i n the Blaney. This would i n d i c a t e a p o s s i b i l i t y of more nitrogen a v a i l a b l e to plant roots a t the sword fern s i t e than at the moss s i t e . I f such a condition e x i s t s i t should be noted that both s o i l s have nitrogen contents above the c r i t i c a l l e v e l of 0.1% used for Douglas-fir growth (Gessel, 1962) and the d i f f e r e n c e i n nitrogen release would only be responsible for possible further increases i n growth on the Whatcom s o i l . The water soluble n i t r a t e contents of the s o i l s from both s i t e s were below the detec-t i o n l i m i t of the s p e c i f i c ion electrode. The value, of water soluble n i t r a t e determinations on s o i l samples for use i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o i l - p l a n t conditions i s l i m i t e d because of the great modifications of t h i s form of nitrogen during the drying and storage of the samples. The measurement of n i t r a t e i n fresh s o i l samples throughout the growing season may be u s e f u l i n studying the release of nitrogen to the plant roots. f t Although phosphorus i s considered a major nutrient f o r p l a n t s , considerable work must s t i l l be done before the s o i l phosphorus-plant uptake r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be understood. Gessel (1962) reported that Stoate, i n unpublished data, has found p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t o t a l s o i l phosphorus and' s i t e q u a l i t y i n some areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. Stoate's i n a b i l i t y to obtain responses to phosphorus a p p l i c a t i o n , except - 37 -on very low phosphorus containing s o i l s , and Stone (1949) f i n d i n g that Monteray pine (Pinus vadiata D. Don'.,) was able to extract phosphorus from inso l u b l e i r o n and aluminum phosphates ind i c a t e the complex nature of phosphorus i n r e l a t i o n to tree growth. The extracting procedures used for measurement of phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y have been developed using a g r i c u l t u r a l crops. As can be seen from the work of Stone ( 1949) , these procedures would not apply to f o r e s t crops. Better means of extraction have not been developed, therefore the o l d methods are s t i l l being used. The procedure developed by Bray (P-^) for " a v a i l a b l e " phosphorus (Jackson, 1958) was used on the s o i l s of the two forest s i t e s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the values of the two s o i l s . Upon c o r r e l a t i o n with other s o i l s data, a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between P-^  and s o i l pH. A s i m i l a r r e s u l t was found by Murrmann and Peech (1969) considering labile-.and soluble phosphate. Water soluble phosphate was found to be below or just above the detection l i m i t of the procedure used (Black, 1965) . No c o r r e l a t i o n s were found with t h i s form of phosphorus and no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n between the Whatcom and Blaney s o i l s existed. Another widely used measure of nutrient " a v a i l a b i l i t y " i s the extraction procedure using Morgan's solu t i o n . The phosphorus that was extracted was of a l e s s e r magnitude than the Bray's extraction but-the same general trends occurred. No c o r r e l a t i o n of the phosphorus content was found between the two extractions. As i n the case of P-[_ phosphorus the Morgan's s o l u t i o n values have been used for a measure of a v a i l a b i l i t y of nutrients to a g r i c u l t u r a l crops. Therefore as a measure of phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y to Douglas-fir these values are questionable f o r forest s i t e evaluation. The cation exchange capacity of a s o i l i s a measure of the p o t e n t i a l - 38 -a v a i l a b l e nutrient supplying power of the s o i l . I t i s t h i s s o i l property that measures the a b i l i t y of the s o i l to hold cations i n an a v a i l a b l e form for plant uptake. The standard procedure used for t h i s determination i s homoionic saturation of the s o i l with normal ammonium acetate at pH 7. Clark (196;5) suggested that the measurement of cation exchange capacity at the pH of the s o i l . i s a better i n d i c a t i o n of the true exchange capacity of the s o i l . The values obtained using the l a t t e r procedure are lower than those of the standard procedure. In the standard method pH dependent cation exchange capacity i s measured. Both procedures gave higher values fo r the Whatcom s o i l than f o r the Blaney s o i l . Cation exchange capacity i s p r i m a r i l y a function of the percent c l a y and organic matter i n the s o i l , therefore the higher Whatcom values are not unexpected. Although lower cation exchange capacities'were present i n the Blaney s o i l horizons, there was no d r a s t i c l i m i t a t i o n as exchange capacities of 10 to 20 m i l l i e q u i -valents per 100 grams are considered medium values. Values above 20 m i l l i e q u i v a l e n t s per 100 grams are considered high, based on a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I t should be noted that the greatest changes i n exchange capacities between the two methods used were i n the horizons highest i n sesquioxides and/or organic matter. I t i s with these two materials that the majority of the pH dependent cation exchange capacity i s associated. An evaluation of whether a s p e c i f i c element i s l i m i t i n g to plant growth i s not possible to make with the present knowledge of nutrient requirements and a v a i l a b i l i t y indexes of forest trees and more s p e c i f i c a l l y Douglas-fir. When serious d e f i c i e n c i e s occur, the symptoms can usually be recognized, but no i n d i c a t i o n s of symptoms were observed i n the study area. The cations extracted from the exchange s i t e s using normal neutral ammonium acetate have been used as a measure of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of these cations - 39 -to plants. Morgan's s o l u t i o n has also been used extensively as an a v a i l a b i l i t y index. The exact values obtained by the two methods are d i f f e r e n t but the trends are s i m i l a r enough to r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the potassium, calcium and magnesium values of both extractions of the Whatcom and Blaney s o i l s (Table 1 6 ) . There have been instances, however, where trees have been shown to be able to extract cations* from primary minerals (Wilde, 1958). The exchangeable potassium i n the root zone of the Blaney s o i l i s approximately 50% l e s s than that of the Whatcom s o i l . The reverse s i t u a t i o n was found for magnesium. A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between exchangeable potassium and magnesium i n each p r o f i l e . The mineralogical composition of the two s o i l s included considerable amounts of v e r m i c u l i t e , c h l o r i t e , i l l i t e and mica. Magnesium and potassium are both s t r u c t u r a l cations i n these minerals. Magnesium i s s t r u c t u r a l l y held i n c h l o r i t e and v e r m i c u l i t e , and potassium i n v e r m i c u l i t e , i l l i t e and mica. The presence of these minerals i n the s o i l s i s probably the reason why the two elements are of the lowest amount of a l l the cations i n the s o i l extracts and leachates. The higher potassium content of the Whatcom s o i l , compared to the Blaney s o i l , i s p a r t i a l l y caused by the l a r g e r amounts of i l l i t e and mica i n the s o i l that act as a source of potassium upon weathering. Exchangeable calcium follows the same trends as exchangeable magnesium i n the two s o i l s . The higher exchangeable calcium and magnesium i n the s o i l at the sword fern s i t e could be a possible nutrient explanation for the better tree growth compared to that found on the moss s i t e . k Krajina- i s of the opinion that Douglas-fir prefers the s i t e s having the higher exchangeable calcium content. The reason f o r the higher values i n Personal communication Professor, Dept. of Botany, U.B.C. the Whatcom s o i l are complicated by the presence of a lover t o t a l calcium and magnesium content i n the s o i l compared to that of the Blaney s o i l . These values could be explained by the nature of the leaching processes of the two s o i l s . The two cations are not e a s i l y exchanged by other cations and they themselves w i l l r e a d i l y replace potassium, sodium and ammonium on the exchange s i t e s . The movement of water through the s o i l removes cations from the exchange s i t e s and replaces them with other cations or hydrogen. Although a l a r g e r amount of water i s passing through the Whatcom s o i l , the rate of flow i s l e s s than that of the Blaney s o i l because of the f i n e r texture. The lower flow rate allows f o r a more complete approach to equilibrium than i f r a p i d movement of water occurred. This allows the calcium and magnesium to exchange with the other cations more r e a d i l y and therefore they are not as l i k e l y to be removed (Khasawneh and Adams, 1967). Another explanation of the difference i n calcium and magnesium content i n the s o i l s could be that the presence of seepage water i n the Whatcom s o i l during most of the year could r e s u l t i n a replenishing e f f e c t on the s o i l system. An a d d i t i o n a l replenishing e f f e c t could r e s u l t from the deposition of the deciduous leaves (mainly Acer oircinatum Pursh) on the Whatcom s o i l surface. Both exchangeable potassium and sodium were p o s i t i v e l y c orrelated with t h e i r corresponding water soluble forms. This i s i n d i c a t i v e of the f a c t that sodium and potassium are the most e a s i l y exchangeable- locations i n the s o i l . The concentration of exchangeable sodium was r e l a t i v e l y constant throughout both s o i l p r o f i l e s . Being an e a s i l y leached cation i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that i t was the highest water soluble cation determined. Except for the Whatcom s o i l where exchangeable calcium was greater, exchangeable sodium was the highest of the exchangeable a l k a l i and a l k a l i n e - 41 earth cations. Morgan's s o l u t i o n extracts cations from the s o i l at pH 4 . 8 . Although the value of t h i s method for a v a i l a b i l i t y index has not been shown, the pH at which the extraction takes place i s approximately that of the s o i l pH. This would i n d i c a t e that the values obtained may be close to that which i s a c t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e under f i e l d s o i l conditions. One observation made on Morgan's extraction of magnesium i s that i t appears to be c l o s e l y associated with the s u l f a t e extracted. The exchangeable magnesium and calcium were also p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with Morgan's extractable s u l f a t e and magnesium (Table 1 6 ) . Sulfur as a plant nutrient i s s i m i l a r to phosphorus, i n that problems e x i s t as to the nature and ' - a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s element f o r plant growth. Organic matter i s the primary source of s u l f u r i n s o i l s (Tisdale and Nelson, 1966) . The s o i l s data on the two s i t e s r e s u l t e d i n a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t o t a l s u l f u r and organic matter (Table l 6 ) . The methods of extracting " a v a i l a b l e " s u l f u r are many and no conclusions have been drawn as t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y method. The s u l f u r requirements of trees are generally of the same order as for phosphorus. Sulfur i s believed to be taken up by the plant p r i m a r i l y as the s u l f a t e ion (Wilde, 1958). Anion adsorption i n most s o i l s i s through the broken edges of 1:1 c l a y minerals and the negative charge present on amorphous material such as i r o n and aluminum hydroxides. It i s not unusual that a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the forms of extractable s u l f a t e , and i r o n and aluminum (Table l 6 ) . The water soluble and Morgan's s o l u t i o n extractions of s u l f a t e from the s o i l s v a r i e d considerably throughout the s o i l p r o f i l e s . The method of e q u i l i b r a t i o n f o r the water soluble - 42 -extraction (Clark, 1965) may have provided conditions that gave higher than Usual values of t h i s form of s u l f a t e . Water soluble s u l f a t e correlated p o s i t i v e l y with t o t a l s u l f u r and percent organic matter (Table l 6 ) . This would i n d i c a t e that the organic matter was the source of the s u l f a t e . Such a condition could exist because the r e l a t i v e l y long e q u i l i b r a t i o n period (5 days) used with a i r passing through the so l u t i o n could cause oxidation of some of the organic matter. The horizons with the highest water soluble s u l f a t e were those with the high organic matter contents (e.g. Ahe, Bfh). Morgan's so l u t i o n extracted r e l a t i v e l y constant amounts of s u l f a t e throughout each s o i l p r o f i l e regardless of organic matter contents of the horizons. This would i n d i c a t e that the s o l u t i o n i s extracting s u l f a t e p r i m a r i l y from the anion exchange s i t e s , although some may come from the organic f r a c t i o n . Higher s u l f a t e values were obtained from the Blaney s o i l than from the Whatcom s o i l using Morgan's solu t i o n . However, these values may not be s i g n i f i c a n t . LEACHATE DATA The amount of leachate c o l l e c t e d from the lysimeters i s an approximate measure of the water passing through the s o i l at each s i t e during the study period. Due to the considerable v a r i a t i o n i n water d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout each s i t e and the uncertainty of the represent-ativeness of the p i t l o c a t i o n with respect to t h i s water d i s t r i b u t i o n , no decisive*.conclusions or exact predictions can be made from the data. The short study period also must be considered when i n t e r p r e t i n g the,: data. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s determined from the data are used only fo r general trends and because only a few observations were av a i l a b l e ho conclusive r e s u l t s can be given. This factor must be considered throughout - h3 -the discussion, although the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i l l he made on the assumption that the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are representative of a large sample. Considerable v a r i a t i o n occurred between the t o t a l quantity of leachate c o l l e c t e d at each s i t e and within each s o i l . The t o t a l leachates c o l l e c t e d from the sword fern s i t e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r than from the moss s i t e . (Tables 8 & 9). The factors that could contribute to such a condition are depth of s o i l , parent m a t e r i a l , p r e c i p i t a t i o n and slope p o s i t i o n . The depth of s o i l and the parent material were s i m i l a r and t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n reaching the s o i l surface during the study period was approximately TO cm at the s i t e s (Table 10). The s i t e p o s i t i o n on the slope was the only s i g n i f i c a n t difference that could have caused the greater leachate at the sword fern s i t e . Being lower on the slope the Whatcom s o i l receives a greater accummulative volume of water than the Blaney s o i l . Larger volumes of leachate were c o l l e c t e d from the tension plates i n the Whatcom s o i l compared to the corresponding plates i n the Blaney s o i l . The l a r g e s t amounts of leachate c o l l e c t e d at each s i t e were v i a the IIC tension p l a t e s . These plates span the horizon or horizons immediately above the impervious g l a c i a l t i l l or glacio-marine sediments. I t appeared that most of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n p e r c o l a t e d v e r t i c a l l y through the s o i l u n t i l i t reached the impervious layer and then proceeded down the slope i n the horizons above t h i s compact material. Almost 1200 l i t r e s of leachate were c o l l e c t e d by the IIC tension plate of the Whatcom s o i l compared with approximately 900 l i t r e s i n the corresponding plate of the Blaney s o i l . The l a t t e r tension plate was almost three times the length of the IIC p l a t e at the sword fern s i t e therefore the plate could possibly extract 30 percent more leachate i f i n s t a l l e d i n the same s o i l . The p a r t i c l e s i z e - hh -d i s t r i b u t i o n and the p o s i t i o n on the slope of the Blaney s o i l prevented accummulation of s u f f i c i e n t s o i l water i n the IlCg horizons to provide these large volumes for c o l l e c t i o n . I t i s "believed that most of the water c o l l e c t e d "by the p l a t e was from the equivalent s i x inch horizon immediately above the g l a c i a l t i l l where the water was held at tensions below 0.lo-bar during most of the study period. The h o r i z o n t a l tension plate under the BIIC horizon of the Whatcom s o i l also c o l l e c t e d more water than the IIC tension plate of the Blaney s o i l (1026 l i t r e s and 897 l i t r e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . This would indi c a t e that a s u f f i c i e n t l y large volume of water was passing through the Whatcom s o i l to completely saturate the IlCg horizon and much of the BIIC horizon during most of the study period. The large volumes of leachate c o l l e c t e d by the BIIC tension plates indicate:', that the s o i l water content of the Whatcom s o i l r e s u l t s i n an imperfect drainage condition. This substantiates the previous observation that t h i s p ortion of the s o i l does not s u f f i c i e n t l y dry to allow for the deposition of sesquioxides, etc. However, s u f f i c i e n t drying may occur throughout the summer but during t h i s period only small quantities of sesquioxides are being translocated. Movement of s o i l water down the slope i n the upper horizons may also.occur to a l i m i t e d extent as indicated by the 28.6 l i t r e s of leachate from the Bf v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l tension plates at the sword'fern s i t e compared to 14 .7 l i t r e s from the corresponding plates of the moss s i t e . Although t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s , the leachate volumes show that more water was c o l l e c t e d by the Bf h o r i z o n t a l tension plate than the corresponding v e r t i c a l plates (Table 8 ) . This condition existed at the i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n each s o i l where a combination of h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l plates were present. This indicates that most of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n percolates v e r t i c a l l y through the spodic horizons of both s o i l s . A small portion of the increased volume passing through the h o r i z o n t a l plates may-be due to a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r area from which the water may be drawn. These plates conceivably may.draw.soil water from beyond the l i m i t s of the apparatus probably from further, up the slope. The water percolating v e r t i c a l l y through the s o i l , beyond the l i m i t s of the ho r i z o n t a l p l a t e , i s subject to be drawn into t h i s tension plate by the applied 0.10 bar tension. The area from which the v e r t i c a l tension plate may obtain s o i l water i s above the h o r i z o n t a l p l a t e and i s also subject to extraction by t h i s l a t t e r p l a t e . Most of the water c o l l e c t e d by the v e r t i c a l plates i s that which f a l l s on the s o i l surface adjacent to the tension plate and only percolates to a shallow depth before being drawn in t o the tension p l a t e . The v e r t i c a l plates of the BIIC horizon are exceptions to t h i s statement because more down slope movement of water exists i n t h i s horizon and also i n the IIC horizons of both s o i l s . However, the occurrence of more leachate c o l l e c t e d by the h o r i z o n t a l than the v e r t i c a l tension plates s t i l l e xisted (Table 8). When considered as a whole, the leachates from the Whatcom s o i l d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n nutrient concentrations from those of the Blaney s o i l . Only s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s occurred-in the cation concentrations of the IIC leachates from both s o i l s , while the la r g e s t v a r i a t i o n s were present i n the spodic horizon leachates with most of the v a r i a t i o n being provided by sodium ions. The average sodium concentration from the Bf ho r i z o n t a l p l a t e at the sword fern s i t e was 0.90 ppm and the corresponding plates at the moss s i t e was 2.50 ppm. Potassium and magnesium were s i m i l a r at both s i t e s and only s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n calcium concentration were found. There were, however, nutrient concentration differences i n the leachates from the various master horizons within each s o i l . The most - 4 6 -pronounced v a r i a t i o n occurred between the spodic horizon leachates and the IIC horizon leachates i n both s o i l s . In the Bf h o r i z o n t a l plate leachates of the Whatcom s o i l the average cation concentrations were 0 . 9 2 , 0 . 9 0 , 2.57 and 0.76-ppm f o r potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium re s p e c t i v e l y while the IIC leachates were 0 . 3 9 , 1 .12, 0.8U and 0.29 ppm for the same cations. A s i m i l a r condition existed i n the leachates from the Blaney s o i l . The rate and volume of water passing through each-soil are thought to h account f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n i o n i c concentrations i n the leachates. Dri e b e l b i s and McG-uinness (1957)' suggested that shortening the e q u i l i b r a t i o n time of a soil-water system lowers the i o n i c concentration i n the s o i l water. A r a p i d movement of large quantities of water through a s o i l , such as occurs i n the seepage zones of the Whatcom and Blaney s o i l s , i s e s s e n t i a l l y reducing the e q u i l i b r a t i o n period within these horizons. The lower quantities of water a v a i l a b l e to the spodic horizons and the periodic drying.provide conditions f o r slower movement of s o i l water through these zones. This allows a longer e q u i l i b r a t i o n period and therefore higher ion concentrations are found i n the leachates from these horizons compared to the IIC horizons. A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n occurs with the water c o l l e c t e d by the h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l tension plates of the spodic horizons. Higher i o n i c concentrations are found i n the v e r t i c a l plate leachates compared to those :-'of the associated h o r i z o n t a l p l a t e . The h o r i z o n t a l tension plates c o l l e c t more leachate, most of which percolates v e r t i c a l l y through the s o i l . This water i s moving more r a p i d l y through the s o i l than that c o l l e c t e d by the v e r t i c a l tension p l a t e s , therefore the ion concentrations are lower. - 47 -The r a t i o of cation concentrations i n the spodic horizons leachates of the Whatcom s o i l were approximately 1:1:1:2 f o r potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium. In the Blaney s o i l leachates the r a t i o was 1:3:1:3 f o r the same cations. The major anion i n the leachates was bicarbonate with n i t r a t e , s u l f a t e , chloride and phosphate.; occurring i n decreasing order. S l i g h t modifications of the above r a t i o s occurred i n some leachates but the order of ion concentrations was the same. '..Insufficient data was av a i l a b l e to make any decisive conclusions but a seasonal a f f e c t with ion concentration i n the leachates of the spodic horizons was indicated. Higher cation concentrations were found i n the Bf tension plate leachates during September than the remainder of the study period. Low p r e c i p i t a t i o n during September and warmer s o i l temperatures could be the reasons f o r the d i f f e r i n g c a t i o n i c concentrations. A longer e q u i l i b r a t i o n period and increased reaction rates occurred i n the s o i l during t h i s time. A s i m i l a r trend was not observed i n the Blaney s o i l because only a few observations were a v a i l a b l e f o r September due to the low p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The anion concentration i n a l l the leachates c o l l e c t e d also ind i c a t e d a marked seasonal v a r i a t i o n . Bicarbonate ion was the only exception. , Phosphates and chloride concentrations increased during November and December while n i t r a t e and su l f a t e concentrations were highest during September and October. During the period of high chloride and phosphorus concentrations correspondingly high p r e c i p i t a t i o n and leachate c o l l e c t i o n occurred. Equilibrium phenomena do not appear to be as important i n the desorption of these anions as i n cation desorption. Thomas (1963) found that chloride desorption occurred i n two phases. The f i r s t removed the larges t quantity of c hloride arid followed a f i r s t order r e a c t i o n . This was followed by a - 1*8 -:slow release of chloride corresponding to a second order react i o n . Anion adsorption s i t e s f o r chloride are p r i m a r i l y on 1:1 clay minerals and with sesquioxides, although some may occur on 2:1 and 2:2 c l a y minerals (Berg and Thomas, 1959) . Chloride is. an e a s i l y leached anion (Berg and Thomas, 1959; Thomas, i 9 6 0 ) , and i s probably removed from the exchange s i t e s throughout most of the year. I t i s thought that during the low p r e c i p i t a t i o n periods" chloride continues to be desorbed at a low l e v e l , but once the p r e c i p i t a t i o n l e v e l reaches an undefined higher l e v e l , more chloride i s released into the s o i l water, probably according to a f i r s t order r e a c t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were ca l c u l a t e d f o r the chloride concentration i n the leachates versus the weekly p r e c i p i t a t i o n and also the t o t a l amount of leachate c o l l e c t e d . Wo s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found but only a few observations were a v a i l a b l e and a very high c o r r e l a t i o n was required before the 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was reached. Figures 9 to l k provide an i n d i c a t i o n that the chloride concentration may be associated with the amount of leachate c o l l e c t e d f or the week,especially during high pe r c o l a t i o n periods. I f such a condition e x i s t s , i t would substantiate the proposed f i r s t order r e a c t i o n rate of chloride desorption. The findings of Kohnke1 (1940) and J o f f e (1933) showed that chloride concentration cor r e l a t e d with p r e c i p i t a t i o n . A s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r to chloride occurred with phosphorus but i t appeared that approximately a one week l a g period was present (Figures 15 to 1 9 ) . This may be caused by the stronger bonds associated with phosphorus adsorption (Thomas, i 9 6 0 ) . Much of the phosphorus i n these s o i l s i s probably associated with i r o n and aluminum i n the form of r e l a t i v e l y insoluble phosphates (Muljadi e t _ a l . , ) 1966) . The l a g period may be due to the time required for the s o l u b i l i z i n g - 49 -of these compounds. Cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were determined f o r a l l the leachates c o l l e c t e d from the two s o i l s . The cor r e l a t i o n s that were common to the leachates from associated tension plates at each s o i l w i l l be discussed and a l l other s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are given i n Table 15 to 20. Ath the sword fern s i t e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s at the 0.01 l e v e l were found between n i t r a t e concentration and potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and conductivity i n a l l the spodic horizon leachates. The high n i t r a t e concentrations occurred during September and October when microbial a c t i v i t y was r e l a t i v e l y high. It was also during t h i s period that the high cation concentrations were found but t h i s i s probably the r e s u l t of less p r e c i p i t a t i o n and higher s o i l temperatures rather than microbial a c t i v i t y . The four cations and conductivity were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y corre-lated with each other as expected because the measurement of conductivity i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the s a l t content. S o i l a c i d i t y (pH) i s also correlated with these components. Bicarbonate ion concentration was-found to co r r e l a t e (0.05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ) with calcium, magnesium and conductivity. This association i s commonly found i n leachates (Shilova and Korovkina, 1965; Suklanova, 1965). A d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p occurs between carbon dioxide, carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion. I t i s through t h i s connection that released hydrogen ions act on the s o i l i n the "podzolization process". The replacement of calcium and magnesium by hydrogen i s one step i n t h i s process. In the leachates from the spodic horizons of the Blaney s o i l , the ammonium ion, along xd.th the a l k a l i and al k a l i n e earth elements, correlated, p o s i t i v e l y with the n i t r a t e concentrations. The bicarbonate ion concen-- 50 -t r a t i o n p o s i t i v e l y c orrelated with potassium, sodium and pH i n addition to calcium, magnesium and conductivity. The c o r r e l a t i o n with potassium and sodium, which d i d not occur i n the Whatcom s o i l , i s what one would expect as these two cations are the most common suseptible cations for exchange with hydrogen ions. The same c o r r e l a t i o n between the cations, conductivity and pH, as found i n the Whatcom spodic horizon leachates, occurred i n the Blaney leachates t u t the ammonium ion concentration was also associated with t h i s group. The s i m i l a r i t y of anion and cation concentrations i n the leachates from the BIIC h o r i z o n t a l and IIC tension plates of the Whatcom s o i l warrant t h e i r combined discussion. The v e r t i c a l tension plates of the BIIC horizon had s l i g h t l y higher cation concentrations and lower volumes of leachate than the other associated tension p l a t e leachates. The cation concentrations i n the BIIC h o r i z o n t a l and IIC leachates were s i m i l a r and very constant throughout the study period. The concentrations showed no seasonal v a r i a t i o n and lower values than i n the spodic horizon leachates. These conditions are probably due to the almost constantly saturated nature of the horizons through October to December. The constantly high water content of the s o i l would increase the flow of water through the s o i l and thereby influence the ion concentrations as previously outlined. I t appeared that regardless of the volume of water passing through the s o i l above an undefined quantity, there i s an extremely r a p i d cation exchange that occurs to maintain a, constant cation concentration i n the leachates. However, t h i s does r e s u l t i n a greater t o t a l amount of each ion moving out of the s o i l (Table 8). - 51 The larger -volumes of water collected throughout the Whatcom soil compared to those from the Blaney soil resulted in correspondingly higher total amounts of ions present in the leachates. The total nutrient content was determined as the product of ion concentration and total volume of leachate collected. The. cation of greatest magnitude in the leachates from both soils was sodium.' However, the total milliequivalents of sodium in the Whatcom and Blaney soils, 56.76 and 38.63 respectively, were only slightly higher than those of calcium, 50.62 and 30.29 milliequivalents, respectively. As in the concentration values of the = cations in a l l leachates, the total milliequivalents of potassium was the lowest. High concentrations of chloride and phosphorus during the periods of high percolate resulted in these two anions being of greatest abundance. The highest values were obtained in the BIIC horizontal plate leachates with chloride and phosphorus amounts of 214.17 and 215.20 milliequivalents. The anions that maintained relatively higher concentrations during the period of high precipitation were of the largest magnitude in the leachates. Nitrate ion was generally the anion of lowest total amount. Although some of the ions in the leachates from both soils have been transported from considerable distances up the slope from the tension plates, the total amounts in the percolate reflect the relative amount of leaching occurring in the Whatcom and Blaney soils. The data present is insufficient to base a conclusion on the extent of ion removal from each specific soil because of the possible transportation from other areas of the forest slope. However, the greater volume of--water and ion content passing through the sword fern site indicated that greater nutrient removal may be present at this site compared to- that present at the moss site. It should also be noted that a replenishing effect may also be caused by the - 52 -s o i l s o l u t i o n from other areas on the slope. The ammonium ion concentration i n a l l the leachates from the BIIC and.IIC horizons of the Whatcom s o i l were very low (0.10 ppm) throughout the study period. N i t r a t e concentrations were lower than those of the spodic horizon leachates and d i d not show the seasonal trend as those of the upper horizon leachates. This was probably because of the l i m i t e d influence of organic matter on these leachates. Sulfate concentration was only s l i g h t l y lower than i n the surface horizon leachates. The seasonal v a r i a t i o n that occurred i n the Bf tension plate leachates of the Whatcom s o i l also was present i n BIIC and IIC leachates. Although organic matter i s the main source of s u l f a t e i n the s o i l a small amount i s adsorbed by the mineral f r a c t i o n and i t i s probably t h i s form that i s released during October to December. Higher chloride and phosphorus concentrations were found i n the su b s o i l leachates as expected with the larger'volumes'of water passing through these horizons. The seasonal trend associated with these ions present i n the surface horizon leachates also occurred i n the BIIC A and IIC horizon leachates. The approximate r a t i o s of ion concentrations i n the BIIC and IIC leachates were 1:4:1:3 f o r potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium i n the Whatcom s o i l . The anion concentrations were of the same order as found i n the spodic horizon leachates. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s within ion concentrations or with the amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n or amount of leachate that occurred i n a l l the leachates of the BIIC horizon of the Whatcom s o i l . ' - 53 -The only common c o r r e l a t i o n found i n the BIIC h o r i z o n t a l and IIC tension plate leachates i s the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t (0 .05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ) for the amount of leachate versus the p r e c i p i t a t i o n recorded at the administration b u i l d i n g weather s t a t i o n . A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n at the 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l occurred between phosphorus concentration i n the IIC horizon leachate with the previous week's t o t a l leachate. This i s added support to the theory of an approximate one week la g period i n the release of phosphorus in t o the s o i l s o l u t i o n . The other p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s found f o r the previous week's leachate volume are given i n Table 21 . I t should be noted that some co r r e l a t i o n s occurred for both weeks' leachate (e.g. HCOj - ion concentration and weather s t a t i o n p r e c i p i t a t i o n ) . As the IIC horizon tension plates at both s i t e s c o l l e c t e d the greatest volume of leachate, a comparison i s essential.--Lower cation concentrations i n these leachates compared to those of the spodic horizons were found i n both s o i l s . The potassium concentrations i n the leachates of both IIC horizons were very low (0 .39 and 0.UU ppm for Whatcom and Blaney leachates r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S l i g h t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the sodium and calcium concentration occurred i n the IIC leachate of the Blaney s o i l . The actual concentrations were.generally lower i n the Whatcom s o i l IIC leachates than i n the corresponding Blaney s o i l leachates. The magnesium concentrations were s i m i l a r i n the Whatcom s o i l (0 .29 ppm average) and Blaney s o i l (0.31 ppm average). The anion concentration trends remained the same i n both IIC leachates but lower s u l f a t e and .phosphate', concentrations were found i n the Blaney " s o i l . . Except f o r c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s , the c o r r e l a t i o n s found i n the IIC leachate of the Blaney s o i l d i d not correspond with those of the spodic horizons.• Chloride concentration was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with - 54 -phosphorus and negatively with s u l f a t e as i n the case of the IIC leachates from the Whatcom s o i l . The negative c o r r e l a t i o n between phosphorus and conductivity was also common to both IIC tension plate leachates. Almost a l l the leachates from the two soils.were within t h e pH range of 6 .0 to 7 . 0 . The s l i g h t l y higher values recorded were associated with the leachates from the spodic horizons where the cation.concentrations were higher than usual;. The n e u t r a l pH of the leachates has been observed before and appears to be associated with the cation content. ( J o f f e , 1933; Kohnke, 1940) . Armitsu and Matsui (1964) also studied leachates from sloping forested areas. The volumes of leachate c o l l e c t e d from three p o s i t i o n s on a slope i n d i c a t e d that there was an accummulative e f f e c t and the volume increased down the slope. As i n the leachates from the Whatcom and Blaney s o i l s , l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e was observed by the investigators i n the ion concentrations of the leachates at various positions on the slope. The differences i n water movement at the various slope positions appeared to be r e l a t e d to the p h y s i c a l features of the s o i l as evident i n the two s o i l s used i n the present' study. The v a r i a t i o n i n p a r t i c l e size' d i s t r i b u t i o n and the presence of concretions i n the Blaney s o i l , greatly modify the water r e l a t i o n s i n the s o i l . In reviewing lysimeter data, Kohnke (19^0) reports that the amount of percolate c o l l e c t e d i s r e l a t e d to p r e c i p i t a t i o n . In the present study t h i s was observed i n only a few cases (Tables 17 and 18) and may be due to the presence of a l a g period on the slope. J o f f e (1933) reported that p r e c i p i t a t i o n was not n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e l a t e d with the amount of percolate and t r a n s l o c a t i o n of cations. - 55 -Actual ion concentrations i n leachates or ground water are meaning-f u l only f o r the s p e c i f i c area and period of study. Variations i n parent ma t e r i a l , climate, vegetation, topography and geology- can greatly a f f e c t the ion concentrations i n the leachates. In reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e one finds that the amounts of d i f f e r e n t ions present i n the percolate appear to "be i n r e l a t i v e l y the same sequence regardless of the differences that may be present. Calcium i s u s u a l l y the most abundant cation with magnesium of s l i g h t l y lower concentration (Armitsu and Matsui, 1964; Cole et a l . ; 1 9 6 l ; Cole et a l . , 1968; J o f f e , 1933;' Kudin, 1965; Stauffer and Rust, 1954). Sodium concentration i s not always determined but i s usua l l y of the same magnitude as potassium. Potassium i s usually l e s s abundant than magnesium but there have been reports of the opposite s i t u a t i o n (Dreibelbis and McGuinnes, 1957; Shilova and Korovkina, 1965) . The sodium concentration i n the leachates from the Whatcom and Blaney s o i l s equalled or exceeded the calcium concentration. This i s probably due to the high amount of soda-calcic feldspars present i n the s o i l s . Rainwater may be a contributing factor as the sodium concentration i s r e l a t i v e l y high (Table 1 0 ) . In the leachates, magnesium was generally s l i g h t l y lower than sodium while potassium was the cation of lowest concentration. The presence of higher cation concentrations i n the surface horizon leachates was also found by Armitsu and Matsui (1964). In the comparable study of Armitsu and Matsui (1964) the actual cation concentrations were higher than i n the leachates of the present -study. The data presented by these workers correspond to' the data from the ho r i z o n t a l tension p l a t e s . The potassium concentrations from these plates at the sword fern s i t e were 0 . 9 2 , 0.39 and 0.39 ppm from the upper to lower plates r e s p e c t i v e l y . The lower slope i n s t a l l a t i o n of the Japanese work had 4 . 5 , 1.6 and 0 .6 ppm for the 1 0 , 30 and 50 cm depths r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n occurred with calcium and magnesium where the 50 cm depth had calcium concentration of 4 . 2 ppm and a magnesium concentration of 2.4 ppm. The IIC leachates from the Whatcom s o i l had average concentrations of 0.84 and 0.29 ppm for calcium and magnesium r e s p e c t i v e l y . The phosphorus concentrations reported by Armitsu and Matsui (1964) were also higher than those obtained from the Blaney and Whatcom leachates. The average concentrations i n the BIIC and IIC leachates of 1.01 and 2.23 ppm re s p e c t i v e l y are the only values that approach the 1.9 and 2 .1 ppm concentrations of the 30 and 50 cm depths at the lower slope p o s i t i o n . The lower concentrations reported i n t h i s study could be caused by the type of s o i l , season of study and amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The frequency of percolate analyses could also decrease the values obtained. The seasonal patterns that are indic a t e d by the leachate data have not been extensively reported for cation concentrations. J o f f e (1933) found that t o t a l calcium and magnesium content of leachates increased during high p r e c i p i t a t i o n periods, however, differences i n cation concentrations were not reported. Seasonal trends associated with anions have been reported by Kohnke (19^0) and J o f f e (1933) where chloride concentration was found to increase with p r e c i p i t a t i o n . J o f f e (1933) also found a s i m i l a r trend for n i t r a t e concentration. Cole et a l . ( l 9 6 l ) observed that nitrogen and'phosphorus appeared to have the same trend as observed i n the present study. The main form of nitrogen present i n leachates appears to be n i t r a t e (Kohnke,• 1940) as observed i n the present.study, however, Armitsu and Matsui (1964) reported ammonium nitrogen to be greater than the n i t r a t e form. Sulfate i s us u a l l y the most prominent anion i n leachates ( J o f f e , 1933;.Kohnke, 1940). This i s not the case i n the present study where bicarbonate ion was of higher concentration. Shilova and Korovkina (1965) and Sukanova (1965) also reported t h i s observation. Chloride concentration i s u s u a l l y higher than phosphorus because of the abundance of insoluble phosphates i n s o i l s (Cole et a l . ; 1 9 6 l ; Cole et_ a l . 5 1968; J o f f e , 1933; Kohnke, 1940; Kudin, 1965). The removal of materials from s o i l s by water i s p a r t i a l l y balanced by the additions of elements to the s o i l through p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Rainwater passing through a forest canopy increases i n the concentration of c e r t a i n elements. At the U.B.C. Research Forest the calcium and potassium concentrations i n the rainwater passing through the canopy increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y over the concentrations i n the rainwater not passing through the canopy (Table 1 0 ) . Magnesium var i e d only s l i g h t l y . Sodium concentration remained s i m i l a r to that of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n not passing through the vegetation. A t t i w i l l (1966) found a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n but a marked increase i n sodium.concentration was also observed. The three elements that increased i n concentation i n the canopy drip from the forest s i t e s are r e a d i l y taken up by plants. Some of the increased concentration i s due to the release of the materials as exudates by the leaves, and another f r a c t i o n comes from the dust p a r t i c l e s that are present i n the a i r and on plant leaves ( A t t i w i l l , 1966; Mina, 1964) . The association of-potassium, calcium and magnesium with each other i s indicated by the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s "found when comparing the rainwater concentrations (Table 1 9 ) . Gorham (1961) found that s u l f a t e and chloride i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n contributed a great deal to the concentrations of these ions i n the fresh water of Finland. Kohnke (194-0) also reported that p r e c i p i t a t i o n was the main source of chloride i n s o i l s . The high chloride concentrations i n the - 58 -leachates during November and December correspond to high concentrations i n the p r e c i p i t a t i o n c o l l e c t e d under the canopy during t h i s period (Table 1 0 ) . P r e c i p i t a t i o n may therefore be a contributing factor i n the high chloride concentrations i n the leachates. The concentrations of ions i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n decrease with increased r a i n f a l l duration ( A t t i w i l l , 1966). This i s caused by the decrease i n the amount of the ions on the plant leaves.and dust p a r t i c l e s i n the a i r as the r a i n f a l l continues. This was observed at the study area where negative c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were obtained for p r e c i p i t a t i o n versus ion concentrations of - 0 . 5 8 4 2 , - 0 . 5 8 2 5 , and -0.5718 for potassium, calcium and magnesium r e s p e c t i v e l y . (Tables 19 and 2 0). Jn The p r e v a i l i n g winds of the area are o f f the P a c i f i c Ocean during the winter, therefore the ocean i s the main source of material c a r r i e d i n the atmosphere. This i s probably the reason for the high sodium and magnesium contents i n the p r e c i p i t a t i o n (Table 1 0 ) . A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s shown i n Table 20 between these two elements and the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the open and under the canopy. Correlations between leachate contents and the s o i l s data f o r a horizon or p r o f i l e were attempted but i t was found to be meaningless. The small number of observations of both the s o i l s and leachate data required -very high c o r r e l a t i o n s before s i g n i f i c a n c e was obtained. Although c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are not p o s s i b l e , upon analysis of the two groups of data, i t appeared that c e r t a i n conditions are a f f e c t i n g the chemical content of the leachates. The presence of v e r m i c u l i t e , i l l i t e and mica i n the s o i l s probably cause the very low potassium and ammonium concentrations. This was e s p e c i a l l y evident i n the IlCg horizons of the Whatcom s o i l . A lower content of these clay minerals, and consequently l e s s f i x a t i o n of the potassium i n the spodic horizons of the Blaney s o i l contributed to the slightly higher potassium concentration. As previously mentioned magnesium is also a structural cation in chlorite and vermiculite and although higher concentrations of this ion were.found in the leachates, the lower calcium concentration was probably due to the structural properties of magnesium. The very low water soluble calcium concentration in the soils is expected because of the energy present in the adsorption of the.' ion to clay minerals. This energy is sufficiently greater than in the bonding of potassium, sodium and magnesium to the clay minerals that i f a soil was allowed to come into equilibrium with water the calcium ions released into the water will again replace one of the other cations on the exchange sites and lower the water concentration (Khasawnek and Adams, 1967)-. The high calcium concentration in the leachates was probably due to the continuous removal of calcium and the fact that' i t is not a structural cation in the clay minerals. It has been noted that the precipitation and leachates have relatively high sodium contents. The presence of soda-calcic feldspars in the soil have shown their influence on the water soluble sodium content and probably have a greater influence on the concentration of this element in the leachates than does precipitation. The higher concentrations of cations in the leachates of the spodic horizons compared to the subsoil leachates have already. ;\i been discussed, however, an added factor to this discussion is that the water soluble concentrations of the cations are also higher In these upper horizons. This indicates that larger amounts of easily exchangeable cations are present in the spodic horizons, probably because of the greater weathering that thas taken place in these horizons and the larger amounts of sesquioxides. Water soluble chloride was noticeably higher in the Blaney than the Whatcom soil. A similar situation, as previously mentioned for the cations in the spodic horizons, may be - 60 -present with c h l o r i d e , as the water soluble concentrations of t h i s ion are higher i n the Blaney s o i l than those from the Whatcom s o i l . - 61 -SUMMARY The design of lysimeters that w i l l provide data representative of natural conditions i n s o i l s i s s t i l l continuing. The apparatus used i n t h i s study appeared to decrease the s o i l - a i r i n t e r f a c e problem assoc-i a t e d with previous designs. However, i t should not "be interpreted that an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n has been achieved. With s l i g h t m o d i fications, i t i s believed that the tension lysimeters can be very u s e f u l i n studying s o i l s under f i e l d . c o n d i t i o n s . The attempt to c o l l e c t s o i l water'moving down a f o r e s t slope, along with that p o r t i o n that percolates v e r t i c a l l y through the s o i l , was s u c c e s s f u l . When studying f o r e s t slopes i t i s necessary to-obtain s o i l water moving i n both general d i r e c t i o n s . Results of the study i n d i c a t e that the use of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l tension plates provide data.more representative bf f o r e s t hydrologic conditions, than only one tension p l a t e p o s i t i o n . The data c o l l e c t e d by these tension lysimeters i s u s e f u l i n s o i l genesis and f e r t i l i t y studies as w e l l as f o r e s t hydrologic and ecosystematic studies. The s o i l s data.from the two forest s i t e s showed marked genetic d i f f e r e n c e s . Although both s o i l s are considered podzols the morphology d i f f e r e d such that the two s o i l s can be e a s i l y separated on a s o i l series ba s i s . The thickness of the spodic horizons was the most e a s i l y recognized feature, t j ^ g ; feature i s the r e s u l t of s o i l p o s i t i o n on the f o r e s t slope and the corresponding associated f a c t o r s . S o i l p h y s i c a l properties are. also a r e f l e c t i o n of slope p o s i t i o n and the s o i l formation processes that are present. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n and water retention properties appeared.to be the most important p h y s i c a l s o i l p roperties. Associated with the differences i n these properties were the chemical properties of - 62 -the s o i l . Decrease i n exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity correspond with lower water holding capacities and coarser textures. The physiographic factors and the p h y s i c a l and chemical s o i l properties are r e f l e c t e d i n the leachates c o l l e c t e d from the two s o i l s . More leachate was c o l l e c t e d at the topographically lower forest s i t e but the s p e c i f i c ion concentrations of the leachates from the seepage regions of both s o i l s were very, s i m i l a r . However, the leachates c o l l e c t e d from the spodic horizons of the two s o i l s did d i f f e r s l i g h t l y . This was a r e f l e c t i o n of the p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n and the water retention properties of the s o i l s . The higher i o n i c concentrations i n the leachates from the upper horizons i n both s o i l s compared to the s u b s o i l horizon r e f l e c t s more weathering taking place i n these portions of the pedons. The almost continuous flow of water throughout the Whatcom s o i l and the p e r i o d i c drying below f i e l d capacity of part of the Blaney s o i l during the study period i n d i c a t e d a higher a v a i l a b l e s o i l water content at the sword fern s i t e which may be important i n the increased t r e e growth. The higher exchangeable calcium and magnesium concentrations i n the Whatcom s o i l may be s i g n i f i c a n t i n the increased tree growth at the s i t e . This coupled with the.available water storage capacity are thought to be the major s o i l factors a f f e c t i n g r t r e e growth at the two forest s i t e s . F i e l d evaluation of forest s i t e s based'on these two s o i l factors would be extremely b e n e f i c i a l to f o r e s t e r s . This can be'accomplished "through the use of morphological s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that r e f l e c t these s o i l p roperties. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that appear to be most u s e f u l are depth and thickness of spodic horizon development, depth of s o i l and s o i l texture. The p o s i t i o n of a forest s i t e on the slope could also be .useful. - 63 -CONCLUSIONS From the data c o l l e c t e d on the s o i l s and leachates from the two for e s t s i t e s , the following conclusions appear warranted: 1. Tension lysimeters using s i l i c o n carbide powder can be used e f f e c t i v e l y f o r s o i l water pathway studies under f i e l d conditions. 2. The study of s o i l water and the associated chemical content on a f o r e s t slope must include measurement of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l water, movement. 3. Greater volumes of water pass through the sword fern s i t e than the moss s i t e . 4. The water r e l a t i o n s i n the two s o i l s are expressed by morphologic and genetic factors i n the s o i l p r o f i l e s . 5. Although larger volumes of water pass through the s o i l horizon immediately above the glacio-marine material than the corresponding horizon above the g l a c i a l t i l l , the ca t i o n concentrations remain s i m i l a r and constant through September to December. 6. The .cation concentrations i n the spodic horizon leachates of both s o i l s were higher than those of the olower s o i l horizons. These indicated the degree of weathering present i n the s o i l pedons. 7. ' Seasonal trends appeared f o r ca t i o n and anion concentrations i n the leachates. S o i l water r e l a t i o n s and associated s o i l properties appeared to be the main reasons f o r better tree growth at the sword f e r n s i t e . The exchangeable calcium and magnesium content of the Whatcom s o i l may also have an.', influence. Evaluation of f o r e s t s i t e q u a l i t y may be accomplished using s o i l morphology as a measure of the s o i l properties, important i n tree growth. 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J . of For. 52: 4 - 6 , 1954. - 75 -APPENDIX 1 PROFILE DESCRIPTIONS - 76 -WHATCOM SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :- Mini Humo-ferric Podzol DEPTH HORIZON (cm.) DESCRIPTION H-L 2 . 5 - 0 . 0 Mixture of raw to decomposed l i t t e r . Abrupt boundary. Ahe 0 . 0 - 1.5 Discontinuous and mainly absent. Bfh 1 . 5 - 2 . 5 Dark brown (7 .5 YR 3/2 , moist) or dark yellowish brown (10 YR k/k to 5/4, dry) loam. Fine, medium subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Abundant roots. Gradual boundary. Bf 2 . 5 - 2 0 . 0 Dark brown (10 YR 3 / 3 , moist) or l i g h t yellowish brown (TO YR 6/4, dry) loam. Fine, medium subangular block structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Abundant roots. Gradual boundary. BIIC 2 0 . 0 - 87.5 Brown (10 YR 4 / 3 , moist) or pale brown (10 YR 6 / 3 , dry) s i l t loam. Medium, medium subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Roots are common. Clear boundary. - 77 -WHATCOM SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION DEPTH (cm.) DESCRIPTION 87.5 - 100.0 Yellowish brown (10 YR 5. A, moist) or very pale brown (10 YR J/h, dry) loam. Medium, medium subangular blocky structure. Firm when moist. Common medium distinct mottles. Occasional roots. Abrupt boundary. 100.0 + Olive (5 Y 5/3, moist) or pale yellow (5 Y 7/3, dry) loam. Strong, coarse subangular blocky structure. Very firm when moist. No - roots. - 78 -BLANEY SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION C l a s s i f i c a t i o n :- Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol DEPTH HORIZON (cm. ) DESCRIPTION L-F 5-0 - 2.5 Raw to fermented l i t t e r . Clear "boundary. H-F 2.5 - 0.0 Raw to fermented l i t t e r . Abrupt boundary. Ahe 0.0 - 2.5 Dark grayish brown (10 YR 4/2, moist) or l i g h t gray (10 YR 6/1 to 7/1, dry) sandy loam. Fine, f i n e subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Abundant roots. Abrupt boundary. Bfh 2.5 - 7-5 Dark yellowish brown:(10 YR 3/4, moist) or yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4, dry) sandy loam. Fine, f i n e subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Roots are common. Clear boundary. Bf^ 7 .5-37.5 Dark yellowish brown (10 YR 4/4, moist) or pale brown (10 YR 6/3 to 6/4, dry) sandy loam. Medium, f i n e subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Abundant to common roots. Gradual boundary. - 7 9 -BLANEY SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION DEPTH HORIZON (cm. ) Bf 2 37.5 - 50.0 IlCg-, 50.0 - 65.0 n c g 2 65.0 - 85.0 DESCRIPTION Dark yellowish brown (10 YR 4/4 to 5/4, moist) or light yellowish brown (10 'YR 6/4, dry) sandy loam. Medium, fine subangular block structure. Roots are common. Few, fine diffuse mottles. Clear boundary. Brown (10 YR 4/3 to 4/4 , moist) or light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4 to 7/4, dry) loamy sand. Strong, medium subangular blocky structure. Occasional large stones that may extend into underlying horizons. Friable when moist. Many, coarse prominent mottles•. Occasional roots. Clear boundary. Brown (10 YR 4/3 to 4/4, moist) or pale brown (10 YR 6 /3 , dry) loamy sand. Strong coarse subangular block structure. Firm when moist. Many, coarse prominent mottles. Occasional roots. Clear boundary. - 80 -BLANEY SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION DEPTH (cm.) DESCRIPTION 85.0 - 100.0 Dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 3/4, moist) or l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4 t o 6/4, dry) loamy sand. Weak, f i n e subangular bl o c k y s t r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e when moist. Many, coarse prominent m o t t l e s . Peds are coated w i t h i r o n and organic matter. Abundant r o o t s . Abrupt boundary. 100.0 + O l i v e gray (5 Y 5/2, moist) or l i g h t o l i v e gray (5 Y 6/2 , dry) loamy sand. Massive s t r u c t u r e . Immediately above the h o r i z o n i s a l a y e r of l a r g e stones compacted together w i t h the m a t e r i a l o f t h i s h o r i z o n . Extremely f i r m when moist. No r o o t s . - 81 -APPENDIX 2 SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES TABLE 2 SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WHATCOM SOIL PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION (.%) WATER CONTENT (% BY WEIGHT) BULK SAND SILT CLAY 0.10 0.33 1.00 15.00 DENSITY HORIZON TEXTURE ( 50u) (2-50u) ( 2u) bar bar bar bar (g/cm 3) L-H - _ _ _ - -Ahe not sampled Bfh 1 51.0 35.0 14.0 40.58 31.50 30.88 27.33 0.76 Bf 1 50.0 38.0 12.0 42.78 33.63 30.43 18.95 1.19. BIIC s i l 32.0 50.0 18.0 37.88 31.82 27.13 26.48 1.03 IICg 1 1 39-0 45.0 16.0 39-02 30.11 28.34 17.06 1.30 n c g 2 1 32.0 45.0 23 .0 34.66 31.54 27.80 25.40 FIGURE 4 - 83 -10 Oi 0 5 10 SOIL WATER TENSION (bars) 15 TABLE 3 SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BLANEY SOIL PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION {%) WATER CONTENT {% BY WEIGHT) BULK SAND SILT CLAY 0.10 0.33 1.00 15.00 DENSITY HORIZON TEXTURE ( 50u) (2-50u) ( 2u) bar bar bar bar (q/cm 3) H-F - - - -Ahe si 53.0 41.5 5.5 30.45 19.99 13.89 4.24 -Bfh si 65.0 26 .0 9 . 0 31.82 22.53 20.23 14.48 0.97 B f l si 64.0 27.5 8.5 24.06 19.84 16.55 13.66 • 0.77 Bf 2 si 66.5 26 .0 7.5 22.17 16.04 15.16 6.07 I .09 n c g l Is 71.0 22.0 7 .0 21.73 14.51 14.16 6.87 1.16 n c g 2 Is 73.5 19.5 7 .0 19.46 14.00 13.58 8.03 1.40 IICg 3 Is 70.0 24.0 6.0 25.79 20.26 18.33 15.63 1.39 Is 74.0 21.0 5.0 13.57 11.98 8.75 4.99 -F I G U R E 5 - 85 -W A T E R R E T E N T I O N C U R V E S - BLANEY -SOIL O 5 10 15 SOIL WATER TENSION (bars) TABLE 4 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WHATCOM SOIL SOIL HORIZON WATER CONTENT (%) •pH WATER pH O.OIM C a C l 9 C.E.C. NH 40Ac pH 7 (me/100g) O.OIM CaCl? EXCHANGE ACIDITY pH 8 BASE SATURATION (*) K EXCHANGEABLE CATIONS (me/lOOg) (NH 40Ac pH=7) Na Ca Mq Fe Al L-H 8.99 3.75 3.50 96.97 • 108.37 -Ahe WOT SAMPLED Bfh 7.08 5-05 4.25 28.11 22.46 25.60 2.40 0.19 0.26 0.06 0.17 0.25 0.06 Bf 5-30 5.15 4.40 22.48 14.30 20.90 4.63 0.16 0.28 0.49 0.11 0.l6<0.03 BIIC 4.62 5.30 4.50 16.43 9.36 16.70 5.67 0.14 0.26 0.41 0.12 0.05<0.03 1 CO n c g l 4.33 5.20 4.55 21.45 9.60 17.25 4.64 0.13 0.33 0.42 0.12 0.05<0.03 , HCgg 4.05 5.15 4.35 19-03 18.96 13.05 8.76 0.18 0.30 - 0.89 0.29 0.05<D.03 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WHATCOM SOIL WATER SOLUBLE CATIONS WATER SOLUBLE ANIONS K • Na Ca Mg N 0 3 CI HCO3 S 0 4 P COND. HORIZON. (me/lOOg) (me/IOOg) (me/IOOg) (me/IOOg) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (u mhos) Ahe - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bfh 0.09 0.02 4 0 . 0 1 0.07 <10.00 19.15 0.00 85-33 4 O . 6 7 60 Bf 0 .08 0.02 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 4 4 .10.00 1 2 . 9 4 0 .02 63.33 3.47 56 B I I C 0 .01 0 .01 0.01 4 0 . 0 1 <io.oo 14.18 0.00 «C6.6T 3.90 . 26 ncg-L 4 0 . 0 1 0.02 0.01 4 0 . 0 1 4 1 0 . 0 0 11.52 0.01 4 : 6 . 6 7 4 0 . 6 7 4 1 IICg2 4 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 3 ' < 0 . 0 1 . < 0 . 0 1 4 1 0 . 0 0 19.82 0.01 4:6.67 4 0 . 6 7 18 TABLE 4 (CONT'D) CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WHATCOM SOIL MORGAN'S SOL'N EXTRACTABLE (pH 4 . 8 ) BRAY Fe Al K Ca Mg P S 0 4 Pi C N O.M. S (OXALATE) HORIZON (me/IOOg) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (%) {%) C:N {%) (%) (%) L-H - - - - 26.02 1.74 14.95 44.75 0.074 Ahe NOT SAMPLED Bfh 0.17 .0.14 0.05 3.00 14.67 2.72 4.16 0.26 16.00 7.16 0.025 1.22 3.12 Bf 0.24 0.15 0.06 0.67 • 6 . 6 7 - 3.32 2.92 0.19 15.37 5.02 0.017 0.73 2.50 BIIC 0.14 0.06 0.05 1.33 17-33 4.16 1.04 0.11 9-46 1.79 0.008 0.57 1.75 IlCgj 0.14 0.13 0.07 1,00 13.33 4.68 0.85 0.08 10.63 1.46 0.009 O.69 1-75 IICg2 / 0 . 1 6 0.15 0.10 4.33 8.00 5.00 0.36 0.04 9-00 0 . 6 l 0.009 0.57 0.47 TABLE '4 (CONT'D) HORIZON K20 Na?Q CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WHATCOM SOIL TOTAL ELEMENTAL ANALYSES (%) CaO MgO Fe?Og A120.3 MnO SiO?  R?Q3 L - H Ahe Bfh Bf BIIC IICg-L IICg2 2.26 2.02 2.14 2.75 2.84 2.70 5.45 5.10 4,58 4.48 3.91 3.83 1.64 0.60 0.92 0.74 0.70 0.38 1.62 2.01 2.54 2.82 2.87 3.01 17.43 20.60 19.17 22.49 22.26 20.75 20.10 26.38 26.83 31.43 25.96 22.86 0.37 0.23 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.13 0.92 0.95 O . 6 5 0.86 1.86 TABLE 5 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BLANEY SOIL SOIL HORIZON WATER CONTENT (*) pH WATER pH O.OIM CaClo C.E.C. NH4OAc pH 7 (me/lOOg) O.OIM CaClo EXCHANGE ACIDITY pH 8 BASE SATURATION (%) K EXCHANGEABLE CATIONS (me/lOOg) (NH40Ac pH=7) Na Ca Mq Fe Al L-F 12.12 • 4.55 3.55 133.99 131.40 — — — — — — — H-F 10.13 4.15 3.05 124.50 117.26 - - - - - - -Ahe 1.10 3.70 3.15 15-58 15.16 13.58 9.13 0.11 . O.26 0.65 0.15 0.18.<0.03 Bfh . 5.33 4..70 4.15 26.22 10.12 21.90 2.03 0.11 0.29 0.06 0.08 o.4o o.o4 B f l 2.83 5.05 4.45 11.27 8.70 13.05 5.69 0.08 0.23 0.26 0.08 0.10<0.03 Bf 2 2.23 5.30 4.65 10.06 5.83 9.40 4.95 0.06 0.21 0.18 0.06 0.05<0.03 HCgi 3.21 5.45 4.95 8.42 7.35 10.95 6.69 0.12 0.24 0.17 0.06 0.07<0.03 n c g 2 3.05 5.45 4.95 8.16 5.32 10.95 6.51 0.11 0.25 0.14' 0.04 0.05<0.03 IICg 3 5.12 5.15 •4.45 14.01 10.20 16.70 3.84 0.09 0.26 0.13 0.07 0.08<0.03 n c g U 1.93 5.65 5.25 9.78 4.45 6.25 1.47 0.10 0.30 0.23 0.04 0.07<0.03 TABLE 5 (CONT'D) CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BLANEY SOIL WATER SOLUBLE CATIONS WATER SOLUBLE ANIONS K Na Ca Mg N0 3 CI HC0 3 S 0 4 P COND. HORIZON (me/IOOg) (me/IOOg) (me/IOOg) (me/IOOg) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (u mhos) Ahe 0.03 0.02 40.01 0.01 410.00 31.91 0.00 33-33 2.33 77 Bfh 0.04 0.02 40.01 0.02 410.00 27-30 0.01 43.00 5-37 49 B ^ 40.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 410.00 35-45 0.01 14.67 < 0.67 28 Bf 2 40.01 0.01. 0.01 40.01 410.00 47.86 0.00 <6.67 40.67 31 IICg-L 40.01 0.01 4.0.01 40.01 410-00 54.06 0.01 <6 .67 • <0.67 17 IICg2 40.01. 0.01 40.01 40.01 <"10.00 53.17 0.01 < 6 . 6 7 ^ 0.67 20 IICg3 0.01 0 .01 4.0.01 4 .0.01 410.00 62.54 ' 0.01 -C6.67 <0.67 . 32 IlCg, 0.04 0.02 40 .01 0.03 4:10.00 60.57 0.03 26.67 6.33 21 TABLE 5 (CONT'D) CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BLANEY SOIL MORGAN'S SOL'N EXTRACTABLE (pH 4.8) BRAY Fe Al K Ca Mg P S04 P i ' C N O.M. S (OXALATE) HORIZON (me/IOOg) (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) (%) {%) C:N (%) (%) (%) L - F - - - - - - 35.60 ' 1.53 23.27 6l'.23 0.094 H-F - - - - - ••- 35.38 0.90 39.31 60.85 0.063 Ahe 0.12 0.12 0.07 1.13 6.67 2.60 2 ..88 0.10 28.80 4.95 0.007 0.22 0.30 Bfh 0.11 . 0 . 0 5 - 0.04 2.67 30.00 3.72 3.38 0.10 33.80 5.81 0.029 1.04 2.85 Bf x 0.06 0.05 0.03 O.67 18.67 3.52 1.60 0.08 20.25 2.79 0.008 0.51 1.38 Bf 2 0.06 0.08 0.03 0.67 17-33 3.72- 0.50 0.05 10.00 0.86 0.009 0.36 1.48 HCg! 0.07 0.04 0.03 1.33 20.00 4.68 0.59 0.04 14.75 1-02 0.013 0.33 1-70 IICg2 0.06 0.02 0.01 1.27 30.00 4.40 0.80 0.00 - 1.38 0.011 0.54 2.12 IICg3 0.08 0.04 0.02 1.13 22.00 3.80 - 2.71 0.l4 19-36 4.66 0.016 0.54 3.33 IlCg^ 0.07 0.03 0.01 1.00 24.67 5-88 0.11 0.01 11.00 -0.19 0.014 0.16 1.25 TABLE 5 (CONT'D) CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BLANEY SOIL HORIZON K?0 Na ?0 TOTAL CaO ELEMENTAL ANALYSES (%) MqO Fe?0^ AloOc; MnO S i 02 RoOcj L-F _ — — — — — _ _ H-F - - - - - - - -Ahe 5. 40 5.85 1.72 1.44 12.30 17-57 0.08 1.86 Bfh 1.64 4.42 0.94 1.27 15.70 24.71' 0 .08 1.27 B f l 2.05 5-47 1.18 1.52 14.66 23.09 0.09 1.38 Bf 2 2.05 5.82 1.22 1.79 16.78 25.66 0.09 1.10 HCgi 1.64 4.45 1.30 1.75 14.35 22.60 0.10 1.46 IICg2 2.02 5.66 1.62 2.07 16.08 25-39 0.10 1.89 n c g 3 2.12 5.67 1.53 2.07 16.28 28.46 0.10 1 .78 1.59 4.93 1.36 1.54 12.07 19.69 0 .09 2.42 -94 -TABLE 6 MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF WHATCOM SOIL HORIZON Vm C h i t (Fe, Mg) Chlt-Vm Mt. Amph. Qtz.. Feld. (Na, Ca) Micas L-H Ahe Bfh Bf BIIC H C g i I I C g o 3 3 3-2 4 3-4 4 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 3 3 LEGEM) Vm = vermiculite Chit = c h l o r i t e (ferro-magnesium) Mt. = montmorillonite Amph. = amphiboles Qtz. = quartz Feld. = feldspars (soda-calcic) Micas = micas 1 = none 2 = trace 0-10% 3 = minor 10-35% 4 = major 35-65% 5 = dominant 65-100% - 95 -TABLE 7 MINERALOGICAL,COMPOSITION-OF BLANEY SOIL. HORIZON Vm C h i t (Fe, Mg) C h l t -Vm - Mt. Amph. Qtz, F e l d . (Na, Ca) Micas L-F H-F Ahe Bfh Bf x Bf 2 i i c g l IICg2 IICg3 4 3 1 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 1 2-3 2 2 1 4 3 3 1 2-3 2 2 1 3 3 . 1 1 3 2 2 1 2 3 1 1 3 2-3 2-3 1 2 3 1 1 4 2-3 3 1-2 1-2 3 1 1 3 2-3 2 1-2 1-2 4 1 1 3 2 2 2 LEGEND Vm vermiculite 1 • = none Chit = chlorite (ferro-magneslum) 2 = trace 0-10$ Mt. montmorillonite 3 = minor 10-35$ Amph. = amphiboles 4 = major 35-65%. Qtz. = quartz 5 = dominant 65-100% Feld. .= feldspars (soda-calcic) Micas = micas - 9 6 -APPENDIX 3 LEACHATE AND METEOROLOGICAL DATA TABLE 8 WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES Bf VERTICAL DATE LEACH (1) N 0 3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm so 4 ppm P ppm NH 4 PPm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm AT PPm Cond u mhos PH 9/5 0.4 12.40 - 4.76 - - 0.40 7.43 4 . 6 0 3.41 1.22 - - 80 6.9 9/12 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 • 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 . 0 0.0 9/19 0.8 6.82 <o.o4 9.52 1.51 0 . 0 2 0.40 3.13 1.15 2.20 1.22 .o.o4 0.01 57 6.9 9/26 0.4 - <o.o4 4.76 0.64 0.02 0.59 1.56 0.92 1.40 0.61 0.11 . 0 . 0 1 36 6.9 10/3 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0.0 10/10 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0 . 0 10/17 i 1 .0 2.48 0.18 7.14 1.02 < 0 . 0 1 0.20 2.35 0.92 1 .60 0.61 0.12 0.03 34 6.8 10/24 0.8 2.48 0.11 4.76 2.68 0.01 0.34 2.35 0.69 1.20 0.49 0.08 0.02 29 6.6 10/31 0 . 0 ' 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0 . 0 11/7 0.2 .1 .24 - 5.98 - - - 2.35 9.46 1.20 0.49 - - 30 6.8 11/14 0.5 1.86 - 7.14 - 0.43 1 .96 0.69 1 .20 0.61 - - 32 6.7 11/21 0.5 1.24 - 3.60 - - 0.47 1.96 0.69 1.20 0.49 - - 28 6.4 11/28 0.6 1.24 - 4.76 - - 0.36 1.96 0.46 1.20 0.49 - - 24 6.6 12/5 0.2 1.86 - 2.38 - - - 1.96 0.46 1.40 0.61 - - 35 6.6 12/13 0.4 1.86 - 4.76' - - 0.27 • 1.56 0.46 1.20 0.49 - - 26 6.7 Avg. . 3 .35 0.09 5.42 1.46 0 . 0 1 0.38 2.42 1.05 1.56 1.67 0.09 0.02 — — TABLE 8 (CONT'D) WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES Bf HORIZONTAL DATE LEACH (1) N 0 3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm s o 4 ppm P ppm NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm . Al ppm Cond u mhos PH 9/5 1.9 43.43 - 9.52 - - <0.10 1.95 2.07 8.42 1.95 - - • 115 6.5 9/12 0.2 12.40 3.36 - - - 1.95 2.07 6.01 1.95 - - 90 7.2 9/19 7.5 15.50 0.11 2.38 1.29 40.01 0.10 2.34 1.15 3.61 1.09 0.02 4 0 . 0 1 63 6.3 9/26 1.2 6.20 40.o4 4.76 1.29 <0.01 <0.10 0.78- l . 6 l 1.80 0.61 0.02 <0.01 40 6.5 10/3 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 . 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0.0 10/10 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 00 0.0 10/17 2.1 5-58 0.29 2.38 0.55 4 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 1 0 1.78 0.69 1.80 0.49 0.01 40 .01 33 6.5 10/24 3.0 .4.34 0.11 1.22 1.56 0.01 0.14 0.39 0.46 1.60 o.4o 0.03 40.01 30 6.7 10/31 0.2 2.48 - 1.22 - - 0.10 0.39 0.69 1.60 0.49 - - 32 6.6 11/7 0.9 1.86 - 3.60 0.45 0.11 9.10 0.39 0.46 i.4o 0.49 0.01 - 28 6.6 11/14 1.1 2.48 - 3.60 0.43 0.05 <0.10 0.39 0.46 1.40 0.49 0.02 - 28 6.5 11/21 0.8 1.86 - 2.60 0.39 0.16 0.10 0.39 0.46 1.20 0.49 40.01 - 23 6.3 11/28 1.1 1.24 0.79 2.38 0.29 0.11 0.18 0.39 0.69 1.40 0.49 4 0 . 0 1 - 26 6.1 12/5 0.9 1.86 2.16 4.76 0.26 0.05 0.10 0.39 0.46 1.60 0.49 40 .01 - 28 6.4 12/13 1.9 2.48 1.94 2.38 0.27 0.06 <0.10 0.39 0.46 1.60 0.37 4 0 . 0 1 - 25 6.4 Avg. 7.82 0.78- 3.40 0.68 0.06 0.11 0.92 0.90 2.57 . 0.76 0.02 <0.01 _ TABLE 8 (CONT'D) WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES Bf (b) DATE LEACH ( 1 ) N 0 3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm so4 ppm P ppm NH 4 PPm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos PH 9/5 0 .9 14.88 - 9.52 - - 0.10 2.73 4.14 5.41 2.07 - - 110 7 .0 9/12 0 . 0 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0.00 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 . 0 .0 9/19 1.4 14.88 0.14 7.14 4.21 <O.01. 0.10 2.34 3.68 .. 5 .01 2.07 - <:o.oi 107 6.9 9/26 0 .2 - - 9.52 - < 0 . 0 1 0.25 1.56 2.53 3.61 1 .70 - - 80 7 .1 10/3 0 .0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 . 0 0 ' 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0 . 0 10/10 0 . 0 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0 .0 10/17 0,5 5.58 0.32 7.14 1.51 < 0 . 0 1 - 1.17 2.30 2.81 1.22 0.02 <0.01 65 7 .0 10/24 0.4 4.96 - 7.14 - - <0.10 1.17 2.30 2.81 1.22 - - 65 7 .0 10/31 0 .1 3.10 - 5.98 - - - 1.17 1.84 2.81 1.09 - - 60 6.9 11/7 0 . 1 1.86 - 8.36 - - - 1.17 • 1 . 6 l 2 .61 1.34 - - 60 6.9 11/14 0.2 1.86 - 8.36 - - 0.59 0.78 1.38 2.40 1.34 - - 60 6.9 11/21 0.6 3.10 - 3.60 - - 0.10 0.78 0.92 2 .00 0.97 - - 45 6.7 11/28 1.0 1.86 1.04 4.76 6.65 0.11 0.18 0.78 0.92 2.20 0.97 <0.01 - 45 7.0 12/5 0.6 1.86 - 2.38 - - 0.18 • 0.78 0.69 2.40 O.85 - - 4 i 6.7 12/13 0.8 1.86 0.61 4.76 0.83 0.18 <0.10 0.78 0.46 2 . 6 l O.85 0.01 - 42 6.8 Avg. 5.07 0.53 6.56 3.30 0.06 0.19 1.41 1.90 3.06 1..31 0.01 <0.01 - — TABLE 8 (CONT'D) WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES Bf (c) DATE LEACH (1) N 0 3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm so 4 PPm P ppm NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos PH 9/5 0.7 8.68 - 19..58 - - 0.54 2.34 1.15 3.21 1.34 - - 65 6.8 9/12 0 . 0 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0 . 0 9/19 1.1 7.44 <o.o4 7.63 2.19 <0.01 0.47 1.95 1.15 3.21 1.22 <0.01 0.01 63 6.8 9/26 0.3 - - 9.52 - - 0.49 1.17 1.15 2.40 1.09 - - 50 7 .0 10/3 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 o-.oo 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0 . 0 10/10 0.0 0.00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0 .00 . 0 . 0 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0.0 10/17 1.0 5.58 0.43 - 1.29 < 0 . 0 1 - 1.56 1.15 i.4o 0.73 0.02 - 44 -10/24 0.9 4.34 <o.o4 9.52 0.73 0 . 0 1 0.10 1.17 0.69 2.00 0.73 0.04 0.01 37 7.1 10/31 0.1 1.86 - 4.76 - - - 1.17 0.69 4 .01 0.73 - 38 7 .0 11/7 0.5 1.86 - 5.98 - - 0.34 0.78 0.69 1.20 0.73 - - 37 6.8 11/14 0.6 2.48 - • 4.76 - - 0.38 0.78 0.46 1.60 0.73 - - 35 6.7 11/21 0.3 2.48 - 5.98 - - 9.29 0.78 0.69 1.20 0.6l - - 32 6.8 11/28 0.6 1.24 - 7.14 - - 0.10 0.78 0.46 1.60 0.6l - - 32 7.1 12/5 0.3 - - 4.76 - - 0.36 0.78 0.46 1.80 0.6l - - 30 6.9 12/13 0.4 1.86 - 7.14 - - 0.20. 0.78 0.23 1 .80 0.6l - - 29 6.8 Avg. 3.78 0.17 - 7 .89 1.40 0 . 0 1 0.33 1.17 • 0.75 2.12 0.81 0.02 0.01 _ _ TABLE 8 (CONT'D) WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES BIIC VERTICAL LEACH N 0 3 CI HC0 3 so 4 P NH, K Na Ca Mg Fe Al Cond DATE (1) ppm ppm ppm ppm PPm ppm PPm ppm ppm ppm ppm u mhos PH 9/5 2 6 . 0 3.10 - • 9.52 - - <0.10 0.78' 2.76 1.20 • 0.49 - - 29 6.2 9/12 4 . 0 2.48 0.07.• 7.14 5.09 < 0 . 0 1 <0.10 0.78 1.38 1.20 0.61 <0.01 < 0 . 0 1 32 6.6 9/19 18 .0 2.48 0.43 4.76 2.56 <0.01 <0.10 0.78' 1.38 1.40 0.49 <0.01 <0.01 30 6.4 9/26 8 . 0 2.48 <o.o4 4.76: 2.98 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 1.20 0.49 <0.01 <0.01 26 6.1 10/3 16.0 2.48 <o.o4 1.22 4.42 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 1.20 0.49 0.01 <0.01 26 6.8 10/10 12.0 2.48 0.29 2.38 2.92 <0.01 - 0.39 1.38 1.20 0.49 <0.01 <0.01 28 6.7 10/17 24.0 2.48 <o.o4 3 .60 1.95- < 0 . 0 1 <0.10 0.39 1.15 1.20 0.37 0.01 < 0 . 0 1 23 6.6 10/24 2 8 . 0 2.48 0.11 5.98 3.68 0.29 <0.10 0.39 1.15 1.00 0.37 0.01 <0.01 22 6.4 10/31 12 .0 1.86 0.11 4 .76 5.86 9 . 10 <0.10 0.39 1.15 1.00 0.37 0.03 <0.01 21 6.3 11/7 2.0 5.58 - 1.22 0.90 <0.01 0.10 0.39 0.92 1.40 0.49 < 0 . 0 1 - 31 6.1 11/14 3 . 0 3.10 9.00 2.38 0.74 <:o.oi < 0 . 1 0 0.39 0.92 1 .00 0.37 0.01 - 24 6.2 11/21 0.2 3.72- - 1.22 - - 0.18 0.39 1.15 1.24 0.37 - - ' 20 6 .0 11/28 0 . 3 2.48 - 4.76 - - <0.10 0.78- 2.76 2 . 4 l 1.09 - - 60 6 .5 12/5 .0.1."' 2.48 - 4.76 - - - 0.78 2.53 3 . 6 l 1.46 - - 80 6.4 12/13 0 . 2 2.48 - 4.76 - - 0.23 0.78' 2.76 4 . 2 1 1.82 - - 100 6.4 Avg. 2.65 1.12 4 .21 3.11 0.05 0.12 0.55 I .58 1.63 O.65 0.01 <0.01 _ _ TABLE 8 (CONT'D) WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES BIIC HORIZONTAL LEACH DATE (1) N02 CI ppm HCO3 ppm so 4 ppm P PPm NH ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos PH 9/5 31.0 1.24 - 2.38 - - <"0.10 0.39 1.15 1.00 0.24 - - 20 6.2 9/12 5.0 0.62 0.43 4.76 4.13 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 2.07 1.00 0.49 40.01 40.01 28 6.7 9/19 28.0 1.86 <0.04 2.38 2.56 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 1.00 0.36 40.01 <0.01 25 6.0 9/26 12.0 1.86 <o.o4 2.38 3.68 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 " 0.80 0.36 o.o4 <0.01 19 6.3 10/3 22.0 2.48 <o.o4 4.76 3.36 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 1.38 1.00 0.24 0.06 0.01 19 7.0 10/10 16.0 3.10 <o.o4 3.60 1.12 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 - - 19 6.5 10/17 40.0 2.48 0.14 2.38 1.44 0.02 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.60 0.24 <0.01 <: 0.01 17 6.7 10/2U 44.0 1.86 0.11 3.60 3.68 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 0.02 40.01 20 6.3 10/31204.0 1.-86 0.11 2.38 3.52 0.13 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 o.o4 <0.01 19 6.1 11/7 58.0 1.86 1.22 5.86 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 0.92 0.80 0.24 <0.01 - 18 6.3 11/14120.0 1.24 25.20 - 2.38 0.80 <0.01 <0.10 0.39 0.92 0.60 0.24 0.01 0.19 17 6.3 11/21160.0 O.62 i 4 .4o 3.60 0.64 3.57 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 <0.01 - 19 6.4 11/28 20.0 1.24 4.32 2.38 0.54 3.00 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 40.01 0.10 20 6.9 12/5224.0 O.62 9.36 4.76 0.54 2.00 40.10 0.39 0.92 0.80 0.24 40.01 0.01 19 6.7 12/13 42.0 1.24 1.08 2.38 O.67 5.31 4.0.10 0.39 0.92 0.80 0.24 0.01 0.01 18 6.7 Avg. l . 6 l 4.25 . .3-02 2.32 1.01 <0.10 0.39 1.17 0.83 0.27 0.02 0.03 - -TABLE 8 (CONT'D) LEACH N 0 3 DATE (1) ppm WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES BIIC (b) CI ppm. HCO3 ppm so4 ppm P ppm NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos pH 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 - - 22 6.1 0.39 1 .38 1.00 0.49 4 0 . 0 1 < 0 . 0 1 29 6.7 0.39 0 .92 0.80 0.37 0 .01 < 0 . 0 1 18 6.0 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.37 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 1 22 6.1 0.39 1.38 1.00 0.37 40 .01 4 0 . 0 1 24 6.7 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 o.o4 4:0.01 20 6.5 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 0.07 0.02 19 6 .4 0.39 1 .38 1.00 0.37 < 0 . 0 1 40.01 21 6.5 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.30 0.03 <0.01 20 5.9 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 0.01 20 6 .3 0.39 0 .92 0 . 8 0 0.37 0 . 0 1 - 19 6 .2 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 < 0 . 0 1 - 20 6.3 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 - - 20 6.7 0.39 1.15 1.20 0.24 - - 24 6.5 0.39 0 . 9 2 0.80 0.24 0.01 - 18 6.2 0.39 1.15 0.87 • 0.31 0.02 0 . 0 1 _ — 9/5 32.0 9/12 16.0 9/19124.0 9/26 64.0 10/3 48.0 10/10 34.0 10/17 88.0 10/24 88.0 10/31 28.0 11/7 164.0 11/14 88.0 11/21 4.0 11/28 O.l 12/5 0.5 12/13 92.0 Avg, 1.86 - 4 .76 1.24 O. l i 2.38 1.24 40.04 2 . 3 8 ' 1.86 <0.o4 4.76 2.48 < 0 . o 4 2.38 2.48 <o.o4 1.22 1.86 4 0 . 0 4 3 .60 3.10 0.11 4.76 2.48 0.11 2.38 1.86 - 3 .60 1.86 - 2 .38 1.86 15.84 1.22 1.24 - 4 .76 1.24 - 2.38 1.24 2.45 4.76 1.86 1.88 3.18 4 0 . 1 0 4.67 0 .20 <0.10 3.87 4 0 . 0 1 <0.10 3.36 0.43 4 0 . 1 0 4.99 4 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 1 0 2.56 4 0 . 0 1 <0.10 1.44 - 40 .10 3.07 4 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 1 0 5.86 0.10 4 0 . 1 0 0.86 4 0 . 0 1 <0.10 0.74 4 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 1 0 0.64 2.10 4 0 . 1 0 4.0.10 O.67 • 3.74 40.10 2.73 0.60 40 .10 TABLE 8 (CONT'D) WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES IIC LEACH DATE (1) N 0 3 ppm CI •ppm HCO3 ppm S 0 4 ppm P ppm NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos PH 9/5 2 8 . 0 1.24 4 0 . 0 4 9.52 4.10 <0. 01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 0.01 40 .01 20 6.2 9/12 20.0 0.62 0.07 2.38 4 .42 0 . 01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.37 4 0 . 0 1 <o .01 23 6.4 9/19 16 .0 0.62 40.o4 2.38 3.87 0 . 21 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.37 0.01 <o .01 21 6.0 9/26 24.0 1.86 40.04 4.76 2.56 0. 02 4 0 . 1 0 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.37 0.02 4.0 .01 20 6.0 10/3 2 8 . 0 3.10 0.25 4.76 3.07 •<o. 01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.37 0.03 <0 .01 21 6.9 10/10 20.0 3.72- 40.04 2.38 0.90 40. 01 4:0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 0.01 <o .01 . 20 6.8 10/17124.0 1.86 0.25 3 .60 1.44 4"0. 01 -co. 10 0.39 1.15 0 . 8 0 0.24 0.02 .01 26 6.7 10/24132.0 5.58 0.11 4.76 3.36 < 0 . 01 410.10 0.39 1.15 1.00 0.24 0.01 <0 . 0 1 . 20 6.8 10/31 92.0 1.24 0.11 4.76 5.86 0 . 02 4 0 . 1 0 0.39 1.15 i.oo 0.24 0.02 <o . 0 1 20 6.0 11/7 112.0 1.86 - 3.60 0.74 1. 50 < 0 . 1 0 0.39 1.15 1.00 0.37 0.01 20 6.4 11/14 8 8 . 0 0.62 - 4.76 0.80 0 . 13 .40.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.37 0.01 19 6.4 11/21124.0 1.86 13.68 3 .60 0.64 2. 24 4.0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 0.01 19 6.2 11/28132.0 1.24 6.12 4 .76 0.51 3 . 00 4^0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 40.01 19 6.9 12/5 116.0 0.62 6.12 4.76 0.58 2. 38 4[0.10 0.39 1.15 0.80 0.24 4 0 . 0 1 18 6.4 12/13128.6 1.24 2.95 4.76 0.58 3 . 07 410.10 0.39 0.92 0.80 0.24 4.0.01 18 6.2 Avg. 1.82 2.29 4.37 2.23 0. 84 < 0 . 1 0 0.39 1.12 0.84 0.29 0.01 4:0 .01 _ _ TABLE 9 BLANEY SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES Bf.VERTICAL DATE LEACH (1) N 0 3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm so 4 ppm p ppm NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppra Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos pH 9/5 0 .0 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0.0 9/12 0.0 0.00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0.0 9/19 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0.0 9/26 0.2 - - 4.76 - - 0.50 0.78 2 .30 1.80 0.49 - - 41 6.7 10/3 0 . 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 00 0.0 10/10 0.0 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 o.oo. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0.0 10/17 0.4 2.48 - 8.36 - - - 1.56 3.45 2.00 0.73 - - 70 7.0 10/24 0.0 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0.0 10/31 0.0 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0.0 11/7 0 . 2 1.86 - 5.98 - - - 1.56 2.76 2.00 0.85 - - 53 6.9 11/14 0.3 1.24 - 7.14 - - 0.45 1.56 2.30 1.80 0.85 - - 47 6.7 11/21 0.8 1.86 2.45 5.98 0.89 0.05 0.18 1.17 2.76 2.00 0.85 <0.01 - 50 6.9 11/28 0.5 1.24. - 4.76 - - 0.27 1.17 2.30 1.80 0.73 - - 45 7.0 12/5 0.5 1.24 4 . 7 6 - - 0.27 0.78 1.61 2.00 0.73 - - 42 7.0 12/13 0.3 1.24 - 7.14 - - 0.20 0.78 1.15 1.80 0.61 - - 36 7.0 Avg. 1.59 -2.45 6.11 0.89 0.85 0.31 1.17 2 .33 1.90 0.73 <0.01 0 . 0 0 _ _ TABLE 9 (CONT'D) BLANEY SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES Bf HORIZONTAL DATE LEACH (1) N 0 3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm so4 ppm p ppm NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos pH 9/5 0.0 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 . 0 .0 9/12 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0 . 0 9/19 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0 .0 9/26 0 .2 - - 2.38 - - 0.59 0.78 2.07 2.00 0.73 - - 49 . 6.4 10/3 0 . 0 0 .00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0 . 0 10/10 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 00 0 .0 10/17 1.4 1.86 0.90 7.14 5.71 <;o.oi 0.31 1.17 4.37 3.81 0.97 0.02 4 0 . 0 1 70 7 . 0 10/24 0.4 2.42 - 14.28 - - 0.23 • 1.17 3.45 2.81 0.97 - 65 6.9 10/31 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 00 0 . 0 11/7 0.5 1.24 - 8,36 - 0.34 1.17 2.99 2.61 0.97 - - 65 7 .0 11/14 2.6 1.24 - 4.76 0.83 0.14 0.10 0.78 2.30 2,00 0.73 40.01 - 53 6.9 11/21 2.6 0.62 28.80 3.60 0..41 0.03 0.10 0.78 2.07 1.80 0.61 40 .01 - 43 6.8 11/28 0 .9 ' 1.24 6.12 7.14 0.73' 0.10 0.10 0.78 2.30 2.00 0 .61 < 0 . 0 1 - ' 44 7 .0 12/5 1.9 1.24 11.16 4 .76 0.60 0.19 0.10 0.78 1.61 2.20 0.61 < 0 . 0 1 - 44 7 .1 12/13 1.0 1.24 1.80 4.76 0.71 ' 0 .22 0.10 0.78 1.38 2.00 0 .61 0.02 - 39 7 .0 Avg. 1.39 9.76 7.15 1.50 0.12 0.22 0.91 2.50 2.27 0.76 0 .01 4 . 0 . 0 1 _ —. TABLE 9 (CONT'D) BLANEY SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES Bf (b) DATE LEACH (1) N 0 3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm so 4 ppm p ppm . NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos pH 9/5 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00') 00 0 . 0 9/12 0 . 0 0 .00 o.-oo 0:00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0 . 0 0 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0 .0 9/19 o.4 2.48 - 11.90 - - 1.24 1.95 2.99 1.60 1.22 - - 80 7 .2 9/26 0.1 - - 9.52 - - - 0.78 2.07 2.40 0.73 - - 49 6.9 10/3 0.0 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0.0 10/10 0.0 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0 . 0 0 00 0;0 10/17 0 . 2 - - 9.52 - - . - 1.56 1.15 2.61 0.73 - - 60 7 .0 10/24 0 . 0 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0 . 0 10/31 •o.o 0.00 0.00 0 . 0 0 0 .00 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0 .00 00 0 . 0 11/7 0 . 2 2.48 - 10.74 0.10 - 1.95 4.37 3 .21 0.85 0.03 - 80 7 .1 11/14 0.2 1.24 - 14.28 - - 1.80 1.95 4.37 3 .21 1.09 - - 90 7 .1 11/21 0 .5 1.86 - 13.06' - - 0.67 1.56 3.22 3.01 1.09 - - T 5 6.9 11/28 0 . 3 1.86 - 11.90 - - 0.90 1.95 2.76 2.61 0.97 - - 65 7.4 12/5 0 . 3 1.24 - - - - 0.49 1.56 1.84 3.01 0.97 - - 30 -12/13 0 . 2 1.24 - 11.90 - - 0.59 1.56 1.38 2 . 6 l 0.85 - - 49 7 . 3 Avg. 1.77 0.00 11.60 0.10 0.00 0.95 1.65 2.68 2.70 0.94 0.03 0.00 _ _ TABLE 9 (CONT'D) BLANEY .SOIL LEACHATE ANALYSES IIC LEACH DATE (1) CI ppm HCO3 ppm so 4 ppm P ppm NH 4 PPm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos pH 9/5 ' 2 0 . 0 1.24 <o.o4 2.38 1.37 4 0 . 0 1 <0.10 0.78 1.15 0.60 0.24 4 0 . 0 1 <ro.oi 18 6.3 9/12 16 .0 1.86 0.22 2.38 2.02' <0.01 40.10 . 0.78' 1.61 1.20 0.49 < 0 . 0 1 ^ 0 . 0 1 28 6.8 9/19 30.0 1.24 o.o4 2.38 O.85 40 .01 <0.10 1.17 . 0.92 0.60 0.37 0.01 40.01 19 6.2 9/26 60.0 1.86 40.04 4.7.6 0.67 40.01 40.10 0.39 . 1.38 1.20 0.49 40.01 4 0 . 0 1 28 6.3 10/3 12 .0 1.86 o . i 4 2.38 1.66 0.03 <0.10 0.39 1.38 1.00. • 0.37 4 0 . 0 1 40.01 25 6.9 10/10 4 . 0 . 1.86 0.18 3.60 1.02 4.0.01 40.10 .. 0.39 1.61 1.20 0.49 0.03 - 27 6.8 10/17188.0 1.24 '.•0.14 1.22 0.92 4 0 . 6 1 . 4 0 . 1 0 0,39 0.69 0.60 0.24 0.01 4 0 . 0 1 16 6.1 10/24. 4 . 0 2.42 0.07 3.60 1.29 4 0 . 0 1 <0.10 0.39 1.38 0,60 0.24 0.01 4 0 . 0 1 17 • 6.8 10/31 0.5 0.62 3.60 0.29 - <0.10 0.39 1.38 0.60 0.'24 - - 29 6.3 11/7 160.0 1.86 - 3.60 0.19 40.01 <0.10 0.39 1.15 0.60 0.24 < 0 . 0 1 - 17 6.3 11/14 56.O 0.62 9.36 2.38 0.23 40.01 40.10 0.39 0.92 0.60 0.24 < 0 . 0 1 •17 6/4 11/21132.0 1.24. 13.68 1.22 0.19 0.10 4 Oiim. :' 0.-39 • 1.15 0.60 0.24 4'0.oi - 16 6.2 11/28 92 .0 1.24 6.12 2.38 ' 0.19 0.12 4 0 ; 10 . 0-.'39 1.15 0.60 0.24 40. :01 — 15 .. 6.6 12/5 104.0 0.62 6.84 2.38 0.19 0.12 4 0 . 1 0 0.39 O.69 0.80 0.24 4"0.01 - 16 6.6 12/13 8 . 0 0.62 5.04 2.38 0.22 o . i 4 4 0 . 1 0 0.39 O.69 0.80 0.24 4 0 . 0 1 - 17 6.5 Avg. 1.36 3.22 2 . 7 i 0.75 o,o4 4 0 . 1 0 0.44 1.15 0.81 0.31 0.01. 4.0.01 _ _ TABLE 10 ANALYSES FOR RAIN GAUGE SAMPLES RAIN GAUGES AT PITS DATE INCHES NO3 ppm Cl ppm HCO3 ppm SO, PPm P ppm NH4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos PH 9/5 0.73 1.86 0.05 ' 7-14 1.50 40.01 0.31 1.95 0.46 0.80 0.24 0.01 0.03 20 6.4 9/12 0.37 0.62 - 9.-52 -. - 1.55 3.90 0.69 2.61 0T6l - - 50 6.4 9/19 4.06 1.24 40.04 7.14 1.12 40.01 O.16 1.17 0.69 0.60 0.12 o.o4 0.05 65 6.5 9/26 1.26 1.86 40. o4 4.76' O.67 • 0.01 -. 1.17 • 0.46 1.00 0.24 0.02 0.04 19 6.5 10/3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 . 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0.0 10/10 1.82 2.48 0.40 .10.68 1.66 0.02 0.45 3.90 2.07 o.4o 0.6l 0.01 0.05 4 i 6.8 10/17 1.61 1.86 0,07 5.92 O.67 0.06 0.47 1.95 0.46 0.60 0.24 0.03 o.o4 19 6.7 10/24 3.29 1.86 o.o4 4.76 1.26 0.08 0.23 1.17 • 0.23 0.20 0.37 o.o4 o.o4 16 6.8 10/31 1.78 1.86 0.07 • 4.76 3.51 - o.4o 1.95 0.46 0.60 0.37 0.06 0.02 22 6.4 11/7 0.59- 1.24 - - - 0.90 2.34 0.46 0.60 0.37 - - 22 6.4 11/14 2.84 0.62 - 4.76 O.23 0.02 0.20 0.78 0.69 : o.4o 0.12 0.01 - 18- 6.5 11/21 2.88 1.24 1.37 1.22 0.16 0.01 0.10 0.39 0.23 o.4o 0.12 40.01 - 10 6.3 11/28 O.89 1.86 9.00 4.76 0.34 0.01 0.18 1.17 1.84 1.00. 0.37 •40.01 - 31 6.7 12/5 4.03 0.62 1.30 4.76 0.03 0.02 410.10 0.39 0.23 o.4o 0.12 4.0.01 - 14 6.0 12/13 2.07 • 0.62 1.08 4.76 - 0.01 0.10 0.39 0.23 o.4o 0.12 0.01 l l 6.5 Avg. l . 4 l 1.22 5.78- 1.01 0.02 0.40 l . l6 0.66 0.72 0.29 0.02 0.04 - — ^TABLE 10 (CONT'D) ANALYSES FOR RAIN GAUGE SAMPLES RAIN GAUGE AT' STATION DATE INCHES NO3 ppm CI ppm HC0 3 ppm so4 PPm P ppm NH 4 ppm K ppm Na ppm Ca ppm Mg ppm Fe ppm Al ppm Cond u mhos pH 9/5 0.09 - — - - - - - • - -' - - - -9/12 0.16 2.48 - 2.38 - - 0.10 0.78 0.23 0.40 0.12 - - 17 6.4 9/19 2.54 1.24 - 7.14 - - - 1.17 2.07 0.40 0.12 - - 22 6.7 9/26 1.38 - - 4.76 - - 40.10 0.39 0.46 o.4o 0.12 - - 20 5.5 10/3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00. 0 .00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 00 0 .0 10/10 2.52 - - 2.38 - - 0.20 1.56 1.84 o.4o 0.37 - - - 6.5 10/17 2.07 -r - - - - - - - - - - - -10/24 3.53 1.86 - 2.38 - - < 0 . 1 0 0.39 0 .23 ' O.20 0.12 - - 12 •6.4 10/31 2 . 4 l 0.62 - 1.16 - - £ 0 . 1 0 0.39 0.46 0.20 0.12 - - 10 6.0 11/7 1.50 - -' - ' - - - - - - - - - - -11/14 3.12 0.62 - 2.38 - - 0.10 0.39 0.46 0.20 0.12 - - 11 6.5 11/21 2.77 • 2.48 - 1.22 - • - < 0 . 1 0 0.39 ' 0.23 0.20 0.12 - - 8 6.5 11/28 1.91 1.24 - 2.38 - - - 0.39 l . 6 l o.4o 0.24 - - 21 6.6 12/5 4.25 0.62 2.45 2.38 0.29 0.01 4 0 . 1 0 0.39 0.23 0.20 0.12 0.01 - 11 6.5 12/13 2.65 0.62 0'.14 2.38 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 1 0 0.39 0.23 0.20 0.12 0.01 - 20 6.3 Avg. 1.31 1.30 2.81 0.29 0.01 0.11 0.60 0.73 : 0.29 0.15 0 .01 0.00 - -TABLE 11 TOTAL NUTRIENTS COLLECTED - WHATCOM SOIL (milliequivalents) TENSION PLATE NO3 CI HCO3 S 0 4 P + 5 NH4 K Na Ca Mg Fe Al Bf vertical 0.31 0.04 O.56 0.15 0.04 0.11 0.40 0.28 0.46 0.33 0.04 0.04 Bf horizontal 4.00 0.23 1.07 0.6l 0.l4 0.l6 O.78 0.93 3.26 1.43 0.10 0.04 Bf (b) 0.77 0.06 0.71 0.43 0.07 0.09 0.25 0.62 1.14 0.78 0.03 0.02 Bf (c) 0.46 0.03 0.83 0.14 0.03 0.13 0.32 0.28 0.73 0.50 0.03 0.02 BIIC vertical 6.35 1.28 12.66 13.13 1.66 0.8l 2.05 9.84 9-06 5.62 0.11 0.l4 BIIC horizontal 21.81 214.17 53.12 58.23-215.20 6.86 10.26 47.28 40.24 20.75 0.97 3.44 BIIC (b) 26.66 8.95 49.04 40.14 63.19 5-83 8.72 42.02 36.29 22.24 0.84 O.65 IIC 36.00 103.20 85.54 42.32 246.93 7-90 11.84 56.76 50.62 26.47 O.81 1.32 TABLE 12 TOTAL NUTRIENTS COLLECTED - BLANEY SOIL (mi H i e q u i v a l e n t s ) TENSION PLATE. N 0 3 CI HCO3 S 0 4 p + 5 N H 4 . K N a C a M 9 F e Al Bf vertical 0.09 0.06 0.33 0.02 0.01 0.06 . .0.10 0.34 0.31 0.20 0 .01 0.00 Bf horizontal 0.23 2.91 1.02 0.43" 0.19 0.10 0.25 1.19 1.25 0.68' 0.06 0.01 Bf Ob) 0.09 0 .00 0.43 0.01 0.00 0.10 0.11 0.29 0.33 0.18 0.01 0.00 IIC 18.09 103.82 34.21 13.60 7.04 4.92 9 .83 38.63 30.29 19.60 0.49 0.36 TABLE 13 CLIMATIC DATA FROM ADMINISTRATION METEOROLOGICAL STATION DATE Ppt'n TEMP. (°F) Ppt'n TEMP. (°F) (INCHES) MAX. MIN. DATE (INCHES) MAX. MIN. SEPT. 1 0,09 64 . 56 OCT. 1 0.00 56 43 2 0.00 66 50 2 0.00 59 40 3 0.00 68 51 3 0.58 68 42 4 0.00 75 ' 53 4 0.21 50 - 46 5 0.00 78 60 -5 0.94 48 44 6 0.00 68 60 6 0.11 46 43 7 0.00 69 52 7 0.02 50 43 8 0.00 75 55 8 0.00 51 4l 9 0.00 74 56 9 0.75 46 40 10 0.44 63 53 10 0.50 52 - 40 11 0.18 58 •54 11 0.51 49 40 12 0.01 60 48 12 0.57 45 42 13 0.73 59 50 13 0.27 ' 49 41 14 0.73 53 49 14 0.38 51 42 15 0.26 55 47 15 0.00 52 4l 16 3.19 54 48 16 0.04 54 37 17 0.00 55 49 17 0.79 50 4l 18 0.39 58 45 18 0.51 46 40 19 0.00 57 42 19 0.87 44 •37 20 0.00 60 43 20 0.03 50 40 21 0.04 58 45 21 0.63 48 42 22 0.63 60 46 22 0.22 51 39 23 1.30 60 46 23 1.86 56 42 24 0.00 69 49 24 0.33 62 50 25 0.00 70 54 25 : o.oo 51 48 • 26 0.00 69 54 26 . 0.00 64 38 27 •• 0.00 • 6l 45 27 0.37 63 48 28 0.00 68 " 44 28 0.58 65 50 29 0.00 70 48 29 0.27 54 51 30 0.00 55 48 30 0.85 45 40 31 0.00 - 47 37 TABLE 13 (CONT'D) CLIMATIC DATA FROM ADMINISTRATION METEOROLOGICAL STATION • Ppt'n TEMP. (°F) Ppt'n TEMP. (°F) DATE (INCHES) MAX. MIN. DATE (INCHES) MAX. MIN. NOV. 1 0.17 • 55 36 DEC. 1 O.50 35 32 2 0.63 48 43 2 2.13 45 30 3 0.00 49 37 3 0.25 45 33 4 0.01 50 33 4 0.45 41 31 5 0.00 48 39 5 0.06 35 30 6 o.o4 52 35 6 0.00 44 29 7 0.74 51 39 7 1.23 45 31 8 0.22 47 42 8 0.32 44 35 9 0.00 48 41 9 0.13 42 34 10 0.39 48 38 10 0.62 38 32 .11 1.72 49 40 11 0.08 " 35 32 12 0.02 46 39 12 0.00 41 29 13 0.32 39 33 13 0.27 45 28 14 0.69 39 33 14 0.09 50 39 15 0.08 35 31 15 O.56 43 41 16 0.00 39 26 16 0.05 37 35 17 1.03 47 32 17 • 0.59 36 32 18 • O.65 52 40 18 0.25 34 30 19 0.55 56 46 19 0.00 40 26 . 20 0.00 53 46 20 0.00 34 25 21 0.56 50 45 21 0.00 34 26 22 0.25 46 40 22 0.71 42 24 23 0.00 . 47 36 23 1.29 45 28 24 0.00 42 39 , 24 0.80 44 42 25 0.10 4i 34 25 0.40 42 32 26 0.50 42 38 26 0.40 31 25 27 • 0.05 43 39 - 27 0.00 18 11 28 0.98 50 36 28 " 0.00 13 - 1 29 0.21 38 36 29 0.00 8" -.4 30 0.49 37 32 30 1.60 19 l 31 0.60 33 7 - 115 -APPENDIX-4. TREE INVENTORY & SITE PHOTOGRAPHS - 11& -TABLE 14 D.B.H. ,(INCHES) TREE INVENTORY OF SWORD FERN SITE (1/5 Acre p l o t ) D.F. TREES/SPECIES MAPLE HEM. CEDAR 4 .5 6 T 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 33 1 1 2 1 .2 1 1 5 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 TOTAL 23. DIAMETER OF TREE OF AVERAGE BASAL AREA AVERAGE DIAMETER OF DOUGLAS-FIR AVERAGE HEIGHT OF DOUGLAS-FIR NUMBER OF TREES PER ACRE AVERAGE AGE OF DOUGLAS-FIR. AVERAGE TREE VOLUME M.A.I. 18.6 INCHES 18.5 INCHES 148 FEET 150 92 YEARS 102.4 CU. FEET 167 CU. FEET/ACRE/YR. AT 92 YRS. -.117 -TABLE 15 TREE INVENTORY AT MOSS SITE (1/5 Acre p l o t ) D.B.H. TREES/SPECIES (INCHES) CLF. ALDER HEM, CEDAR h 3 5 1 1 1 6 1 7 • 2 5 . 8 k 2 9 5 2 10 3 2 11 5 1 12 h 3 13 • 7 3 1* l 15 1 2 16 h 17 • 1 18 2 19 20 1 TOTAL kk 1 . 22 DIAMETER OF TREE OF AVERAGE BAS AVERAGE DIAMETER OF DOUGLAS-FIR AVERAGE HEIGHT OF DOUGLAS-FIR NUMBER OF TREES PER ACRE AVERAGE AGE OF DOUGLAS-FIR AVERAGE TREE VOLUME M.A.I. AREA = 11.1 INCHES = 11 .2 INCHES 103 FEET = 355 92 YEARS = 27-7 CU. FEET 107 CU. FEET/ACRE/YR. AT 92 YRS. F I G U R E 6 S W O R D F E R N S I T E - 120 -F I G U R E 7 M O S S SITE F I G U R E 7 ( c o n t ' d ) F I G U R E 8 S T E R E O G R A M of S T U D Y A R E A - 123 -APPENDIX 5 CORRELATIONS AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS Legend * 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ** 0.01 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l P r e l i m i n a r y c o r r e l a t i o n data using only 13 o b s e r v a t i o n s . More data i s r e q u i r e d before v a l i d i t y o f many o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s can be a c q u i r e d . _TABLE_16 - 124 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA ORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. pH (H 2 0 ) pH. (CaCl 2) 0.9652 : •** pH (H 2 0 ) % C -0.5713 •' * pH (H 2 0 ) % O.M. - 0 . 5 7 0 6 * pH (H 2 0) P i 0.6838' • * pH (H 2 0 ) K 2 ° -0.8140 • ** pH (HgO) Cond. - 0 . 8 0 0 3 ** pH (H 2 0 ) Bulk Density O.5685 * pH (CaCl 2) % C - 0 . 6 2 7 8 * pH (CaCl 2) % O.M. -0 .6271 * pH (CaCl 2) C.E.C. (CaCl 2) -0.6014 . * pH (CaCl 2) Morgan's Mg -O.5760 * pH (CaCl 2) P l 0.7510 . .«* pH (CaCl 2) K 2 0 - 0 . 8 0 6 7 * * pH (CaCl 2) Cond. -0.8134 . .*« pH (CaCl 2) Bulk Density 0.5846 * % C % N 0.8485 • ••** % C % O.M. 1 . 0 0 0 0 . ** % c Ex. Fe 0.7984 ** % c Ex. A l 0.6601 . * % c C.E.C. (OAc) 0.6971 * % c C.E.C. (CaCl 2) 0.6012 .-..*« % c Ex. A c i d i t y 0.8348 .** % c H 2 0 Sol. K 0.6883 * % c H 2 0 Sol. SO^ 0.7835 * * % c H 2 0 Sol. Mg 0.5873' * % c T o t a l S 0.8448 .**• % c . P l - O . 8 1 2 2 * * % c Ox. Fe 0.6687 •• * % c Ox. A l 0.5743 * % c Cond. 0.7998 * * % c Bulk Density -O.6128 * TABLE 16 (CONT'D) - 125 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA CORRELATION BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. Ex. K Ex. Mg 0.7306 * Ex. K C.E.C. (OAc) 0.6651 * Ex. K C.E.C. ( C a C l 2 ) 0.7908 • ** Ex. K Ex. A c i d i t y 0.5789 = * Ex. K H 20 S o l . Na 0.6321 • * Ex. K H 20 S o l . Mg O.5735 * Ex. K H 20 S o l . CI -0.6662 .. * Ex. K Morgan's K 0.8093 ** Ex. K . Morgan's Ca • 0.6762 * Ex. K Morgan's Mg 0.6429 * Ex. K Morgan's P 0.6579 * Ex. K Na 20 -0.6024 :. * Ex. K CaO -0.7084 . * Ex. K ' MgO 0.5916 * Ex. K F e 2 0 3 0.6288 . * Ex. K MnO ' 0.7820 ** Ex. K % sand -0.6684 . * Ex. K % s i l t 0.6343 * Ex. K 4 0.1 t e n s i o n 0.7261 * Ex. K 0.33 t e n s i o n 0.7427 •• * Ex. K 15 t e n s i o n 0.7849 • ** Ex. Na . H 20 S o l . Na 0.7277 * Ex. Na Na 20 -O.7057 * Ex. Ca Ex. Mg 0.7509 ** Ex. Ca % Base S a t u r a t i o n 0.6984 * Ex. Ca H 20 S o l . Na O.6061 * Ex. Ca Morgan's Ca 0.6238 * Ex. Ca Morgan's Mg 0.8234 ** Ex. Ca Morgan's S0^ -O.7667 ** Ex. Ca . Ox. A l -0.7124 • * TABLE 16 (CONT'D) CORRELATIONS. Ex. Ca Ex. Ca Ex. Ca Ex. Mg Ex. Mg" Ex. Mg. Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Mg Ex. Fe Ex. Fe Ex. Fe Ex. Fe Ex. Fe Ex. Fe Ex. Fe Ex. Fe Ex. A l Ex. A l Ex. A l Ex. A l - 126> SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. K 2 0 0.6299 * % sand -O.7067 * % s i l t 0.6420 * C.E.C. (CaCl 2) 0.8323 • ** H 2 0 Sol. Na 0.7409 • * H 2 0 Sol. C I -0.6331 * Morgan's K 0.6051 * Morgan's Ca O.777O ** Morgan's Mg 0.902-9. ** Morgan's P 0.7613 *# Morgan's SO^ -0 .6887 ; * CaO -0 .6685 * % sand -0.7940 .** % s i l t O.67IO * 0.1 tension 0.6175 * 0.33 tension 0.7479 • ** 15 tension 0.7085 * Ex. A l 0.6227 C.E.C. (OAc) 0.6890. * Ex. A c i d i t y O.6722 ' * H 2 0 Sol. K 0.6037 * H 2 0 Sol. S0^ 0.7131 • * T o t a l S ' 0.8393 ** Ox. Fe 0.6481 : * Cond. 0.6409 • * C.E.C. (OAc) 0.6565 * C.E.C. (CaClg) 0.6119 * Ex. A c i d i t y 0.6857 .. * H 2 0 Sol. K 0.6928 TABLE 16 (CONT'D) - . 1 2 7 . -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. % N % O.M. . 0 . 8 4 8 6 * * % N Ex. A l 0 . 6 8 4 9 •  * % N C.E.C. (OAc) 0 . 7 4 0 0 * % N C.E.C. (CaCl 2) 0 . 7 0 2 2 * % N Ex. A c i d i t y 0 . 8 7 ^ 4 * * Jf N H 2 0 Sol. K 0 . 7 4 4 3 * # N H 2 0 Sol. SO^ • 0.7790 ** % N H 2 0 Sol. Mg 0.7277 * % K Morgan's K 0 . 6 6 1 7 * % N Tot a l S 0 . 7 3 3 9 * # N P-L - 0 . 7 1 3 4 * % N Ox. Fe 0 . 6 9 2 8 * % N Ox. A l 0 . 5 7 8 4 * % N MnO 0 . 7 3 2 9 * % N Cond. 0.6694 * % N 0 . 1 tension 0 . 7 2 5 9 * . % N 0 . 3 3 tension 0 . 6 4 8 9 * % IT 1 5 tension O.67U5 * % O.M. Ex. Fe 0 . 7 9 8 2 * * % O.M. Ex. A l 0.6606 • * % O.M. C.E.C. (OAc) O.6965 * % O.M. C.E.C. (CaCl 2) 0.6006 * % O.M. Ex. A c i d i t y 0 . 8 3 4 7 * * % O.M. H 2 0 S o l . K 0 . 6 8 8 4 * % O.M. H 2 0 Sol. Mg 0 . 5 8 7 8 * % O.M. H 2 0 Sol. SO^ 0 . 7 8 3 7 * * % o.M. T o t a l S 0 . 8 4 4 8 * * % O.M. P 1 - 0 . 8 1 2 3 * * % O.M. . Ox. Fe 0 . 6 6 8 7 * % O.M. Ox. A l 0 . 5 7 8 4 * % O.M. Cond. 0 . 7 9 9 5 * * % O.M. Bulk Density - 0 . 6 1 3 4 • * - 128 -TABLE 16 (CONT'D) SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA  CORRELATION BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. Ex. Al H 20 Sol. Mg 0.8286 • #* Ex. Al H 20 Sol. SO^  0.7675' ** Ex. Al Total S 0.-7728 ** Ex. Al •Ox. Fe 0.7791 ** Ex. Al MnO 0.7898 ** C • E • C • (OAc) C.E.C. (CaCl2) 0.7331 * C • E. C • (OAc) Ex. Acidity 0.9045 • ** C.E.C. (OAc) H 20 Sol. K 0.6497 * C • E • C • (OAc) H 20 Sol. Na 0.6020 . * C.E.C. (OAc) H 20 Sol. Mg 0.5949 • * C.E.C. (OAc) H20 Sol. CI -O.7633 .** C.E.C. (OAc) H20 Sol. SO^  O.70OI * C.E.C. (OAc) Morgan's K 0.7644 ** C.E.C. (OAc) Morgan's Ca 0.6594 * C.E.C. (OAc) Morgan's Mg 0.5704 * C.E.C. (OAc) Total S 0.7568 ** C.E.C. (OAc) Ox. Fe 0.8481 ** C.E.C. (OAc) CaO -O.6721 * C.E.C. (OAc) ' MnO 0.5759 * C.E.C. (OAc) Cond. 0.6172 * C.E.C. (OAc) 0.1 tension 0.8439 ** C.E.C. (OAc) 0.33 tension 0 . 7 8 2 2 , ** C.E.C. (OAc) 15 tension . 0.7731 • ** C.E.C. (CaCl2) Ex. Acidity 0.6659 * C.E.C. (CaCl2) H 20 Sol. K O.5670 * C. E. C. (CaCl2) H20 Sol. Na 0.6350 * C.E.C. (CaClg) H 20 Sol. CI -O.6076 * C.E.C. (CaCl2) H 20 Sol. SO^ 0.6232 * C.E.C. (CaClg) Morgan's K O.7185 * C.E.C. (CaCl2) Morgan's Ca 0.8011 TABLE 16 (CONT'D) CORRELATIONS C.E.C* (CaCl2) C.E.C. (CaCl2) C.E.C. (CaCl2) C.E.C. (CaCl2) C.E.C. (CaCl2) C.E.C. (CaCl2) C.E.C. (CaCl2) C.E.C. (CaCl2) Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity Ex. Acidity % Base. Sat. % Base Sat. % Base Sat. H 20 Sol. K H 20 Sol.'. K H 20 Sol. K H 20 Sol. K H 20 Sol. K H 20 Sol. K - 129 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. Morgan's Mg 0.7180 • * Morgan's SO^ 0.6618 * Morgan's P - 0 . 6 4 0 6 . * MnO 0.7404 * % sand -O.5861 * 0.1 tension 0.7255 * 0.33 tension 0.7566 . ** 15 tension 0.7425 H 20 Sol. K 0.6302 * H 20 Sol. Mg 0.5907 * H20 Sol. CI -0.6510 Total S 0.8282 • ** P l -0 .6055 * Ox. Fe O.9056 ** Ox. Al o.64i6 • * MnO 0.6234 * Cond. 0.6059 * 0.1 tension 0.8242 . ** 0.33 tension 0.7416 * 15 tension 0.7420 * Total S -O.6063 * Ox. Al -0 .6796 * K 2 0 o.64ii * H 20 Sol. Mg 0.9370 ** H 20 Sol. SO^  0.9790 ** Morgan's K 0.6493 * Total S 0.7040 * MnO 0.6877 * Cond. 0.624-5 * TABLE 16 (CONT'D) - ,130' -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA  CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. H 20 Sol. Na Morgan's K 0.6038 * H 20 Sol. Na Morgan's Ca O.698O * H 20 Sol. Na Morgan's Mg 0.T266 * H 20 Sol. Na Morgan's P 0.6632 • * H 20 Sol. Mg H 20 Sol. SO^  0.9155 ** H20 Sol. Mg Total S 0.6832 . * H 20 Sol. Mg Ox. Fe 0.6114 • * H 20 Sol. Mg MnO 0.8353 • ** H20 Sol. HC03 P l 0.6201 * H 20 Sol. HCO3 Bulk Density- 0.6200 • * H 20 Sol. CI Morgan ' s K - 0 . 8 1 0 0 , ** H 20 Sol. CI Morgan's Ca -O .7576- ** H 20 Sol. CI Morgan's Mg -0 .7843 .** H 20 Sol. CI Morgan's SO^  0.5870 * H 20 Sol. CI Na20 0.5736 * H 20 Sol. CI CaO 0.7654 ** H 20 Sol. CI F e 2 0 3 - 0 . 7 3 3 7 * H20 Sol. CI % sand 0.8670 • ** H 20 Sol. CI % s i l t -O.7294 * H20 Sol. CI % clay -O .5836- * H 20 Sol. CI 0.1 tension -0.9154 ** H20 Sol. CI 0.33 tension -O.8948 ** H 20 Sol. CI 15 tension -O.8505 ** H 20 Sol. sok Morgan's K 0.6051 • * H20 Sol. sok • Total S 0.7597 H 20 Sol. sok Ox. Fe O.6260 * H 20 Sol. so u MnO O.6756 * HgO Sol. so u Cond. 0.7051 * TABLE 16 (CONT'D) - 131 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. Morgan's K Morgan's Ca 0.8240 • .*« Morgan's K Morgan's Mg 0.7029 * Morgan's K Morgan's SO^ -0.6735 * Morgan's K CaO - 0 . 6 2 8 8 * Morgan's K MgO 0.5722 .-. * Morgan's K F e 2 0 3 0.6193 * Morgan's K MnO 0.5960 * Morgan's K % sand -0 .7066 - * Morgan's K % s i l t 0.7170 * Morgan's K 0.1 tension O.8929 * * Morgan's K 0.33 tension 0.8174 * * Morgan's K 15 tension 0.8288 * * Morgan's Ca Morgan's SO^ - 0 . 8 6 9 9 • * * Morgan' s Ca Morgan's Mg 0.8653 •'•«* Morgan's Ca CaO -0.6019 * Morgan's Ca. % sand -0.7245 * Morgan's Ca % s i l t 0.6983 * Morgan's Ca 0.1 tension O.7882 * * Morgan's Ca 0.33 tension 0.7525 * * Morgan's Ca- 15 tension 0.7089 * Morgan's Mg Morgan's SO^ -0 .8011 * * Morgan's Mg CaO -0.6419 * Morgan's Mg MgO 0.5738 * Morgan's Mg % sand - 0 . 8 6 6 0 • :** Morgan's Mg % s i l t 0;7917 * * Morgan's Mg 0.1 tension 0.7409 * Morgan's Mg 0.33 tension 0.7832 • * * Morgan's Mg. 15 tension 0.7075- * Morgan's P • CaO -0.6169 * TABLE 16 (CONT'D) - 132 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. Morgan's SO^ Morgan's SO^ Morgan's SO^ Morgan's SO^ Morgan' s SOi| Tota l S Tot a l S Ox. Fe Ox. Fe Ox. Fe Ox. Fe Ox. Fe Ox. Fe Ox. Fe Ox. A l K 2 0 Na 2 0 Na 2 0 Na 2 0 CaO CaO CaO CaO K 2 0 % sand . % s i l t 0.1 tension 0.33 tension Ox. Fe Ox. A l Cond. Bulk Density-Ox; -Al CaO F e 2 0 3 MnO 0.1 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension A 1 2 0 3 Cond. CaO MgO % sand MgO F e 2 0 3 MnO % sand -0.6055 * 0.6801 * -0.6430 * -0.6111 . * v -0.6052 * O.8363 .**• 0.7731 • ** -0.7894 . ** 0.8245 •** O.6769 * -0.6042 * O.5660 * O.6565 * 0.6645 * O.6256 * 0.6335 * 0.6397 * 0.5831- * 0.7701 * * -0.5826 * 0.5963 * -0.6374-• * -O.8158 .** -O.5692 * 0.7560 * * TABLE 16 (CONT'D) -.134 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. CaO CaO CaO CaO MgO MgO MgO MgO MgO MgO F e 2 0 3 F e 2 0 3 F e 2 0 3 F e 2 0 3 F e 2 0 3 F e 2 0 3 MnO MnO MnO Cond. % sand % sand % sand % sand % sand % clay 0.1 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension F e 2 0 3 % sand % s i l t 0.1 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension A 1 2 0 3 % sand % s i l t 0.1 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension 0.1 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension Bulk Density % s i l t % clay 0.1 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension -0.6525 * -0,7010 * -0.7977 ** -O.798O •** 0.8633 ** -0,7775 ** O.7OOI . * 0.5892 * 0,6730 * 0,7043 * 0.7257 * -O.7958 ** 0.6816 • * 0.7750 • ** 0.8371 ** . 0 . 8 4 0 8 • ** 0.5719 * O.5887 * 0.6500 * -O.6110 * -0.8849 ** -O.5980 * -0.8076 • ** -0.8914 .«* -O.8594 ** % si l t 0.1 tension 0.7562 : .*« TABLE 16 (CONT'D) -.135'-SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN SOILS DATA CORRELATIONS % si l t % s i l t % clay % clay 0.1 tension 0.1 tension BETWEEN 0.33 tension 15 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension 0.33 tension 15 tension CORR. COEFF. 0,7611 ** 0.7207 * 0.5819 * 0.5825 * 0.9538 • ** 0.9264 ** 0.33 tension 15 tension 0.9783 ** TABLE 17 - .136 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN WHATCOM SOIL LEACHATE DATA Bf VERTICAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERV) Amt. of leachate CI •0.8735 * 7 Amt. of leachate HCC3 O.8068 ** •14 Amt. of leachate 0.6062 * 14 Amt of leachate mh 0.5633 * 12 Amt. of leachate Ca 0.5530 * 14 Amt. of leachate Mg O.6061 * 14 Amt.of leachate Al 0.9214 * 7 Amt.of leachate pH 0.7120 * 14 N 0 3 K 0.9406 ** 13 NO3 Na 0.9513 ** 13 NO3 Ca 0.9141 ** 13 NO3 Mg 0.8650 ** 13 NO3. Cond. 0.9175 ** 13 CI Fe 0.8184 * 7 CI • Al 0.9905 * 7 HC03 NF^ 0.6913 * 12 HCC3 Ca 0.6762 * 1* HC03 Mg 0.7867 ** 14 HC03 Cond. 0.6921 * HC03 pH 0.8197 ** 14 P 0.7474 ** Ik m h Ca 0.6688 * 12 mk .Mg 0.7082 * 12 m k . Cond. 0.6942 * 12 mh pH 0.8755 ** 12 K Na 0,9499 •** 14 K Ca 0.9556 ** 14 K Mg 0.8623 ** 14 K Cond. 0.9398 ** 14 K pH O.6209 ** 14 TABLE 17"(CONT'D) -.137 -Bf VERTICAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS Na. Ca 0.8727 ** . 14 Na Mg 0.7480 ** . • 14 Na Cond. O.8555 ** l 4 Ca . Mg 0.9594 ** 14 Ca Cond. O.7617 ** l 4 Mg .Condi ' 0.9752 .** 14 Mg pH 0.7759 ** ' 14 Fe Al 0.8677 * 7 Fe pH 0.8775 * 7 • Al pH 0.8018 * 7 Cond. pH •' 0.7562 ** 14 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - 1 3 8 -Bf HORIZONTAL CORRELATIONS Amt. of Leachate Amt. of leachate S t a t i o n R.G. Station R.G. Statio n R.G. Station R.G. Station R.G. Station R.G. N 0 3 N 0 3 WO3 N 0 3 NO3 W 0 3 HCO3 HGO3 H G O 3 . HCO3 m k K K K K Na. Na Na BETWEEN ' s o 4 K N 0 3 K Na Ca Mg Cond. HCO3 K Na Mg Cond. Na Ca Mg Cond. pH Na 1 Ca Mg Cond. Ca Mg Cond. CORR. COEFF. 0.6174 * 0.5742 * -O.6181 * -0.5737 * -0.7879 ** -O.7073 * -0.7188 ** -0.7079 * O.7701 ** 0.7632 ** 0.7575 ** O.9260 ** 0.8257 ** 0.9092 ** 0.6467 * 0.7214 ** 0.6422 * 0.7092 * 0.7639 ** 0 . 8 2 0 7 , * * 0.8451 ** 0.8782 ** • O.8854 ** 0.8770 ** 0.9099 ** 0.9164 ** OBSERVATIONS 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 •14 •14 14 14 14 14 14 13 14 14 14 •14 •14 14 14 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) Bf HORIZONTAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS Ca Mg 0.9713 ** 14 Ca • Cond. O.9816 ** l 4 Mg Cond. 0.9807 ** 14 A l pH 0.9988 * 5 5 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - , i 4 o -Bf (b) CORRELATIONS Amt. of leachat e Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate BETWEEN m 3 S 0 4 K Ca Cond. CORR. COEFF. 0.6927 * O.6687 * O.5886 * 0.6402 * 0.5608 * OBSERVATIONS 13 14 14 14 14 N 0 3 NO3 N 0 3 N 0 3 W 3 m 3 HCO, HCO, HCO-HCO, HCO, HCO, HCO, HC0„ HC0 3 K Na Ca Mg Cond. K Na Ca Mg. Fe A l Cond. pH 0.5921 * 0.9423 ** 0.9322 ** 0.8847 ** 0.8342 * * O.8789 ** 0.7770 ** 0.8046 ** 0.8122 ** 0.9014 * * 0.9800 * 1.0000 * 0.8741 ** 0.7704 .** 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 5 4 14 14 NH, A l 1.0000 * K K K K K K Na. Na Na Na Ca Mg Fe . Cond. pH Ca Mg 'Cond. 0.9640 ** 0.9760 ** 0.9410 ** 0.9800 * O.9689 ** 0.6268 "* 0.9203 .-** 0.9192 ** 0.9549 ** 14 14 14 5 14 14 14 14 1 4 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - .141 -CORRELATIONS Na . Ca Ca Ca Mg Mg Fe Fe . Fe •Al Al BETWEEN pH Mg Cond. pH Cond. pH A l Cond. pH Cond. pH Bf (b) CORR. COEFF. O .5651 * 0.9648 ** O .9816 .** 0.7551 ** 0.9902 ** 0.7B03 ** 1.0000. * 0.9787 * 0.8779 * 0,9452 * 0.9999 * OBSERVATIONS 14 •14 14 14 14 •14 3 5 5 4 4 Cond. 0.7549 •** 14 i TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - 142. -Bf (c) CORRELATIONS Amt. of leachate Amt. of leac hat e Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate' Amt. .of leachate N0 3 N0 3 N0 3 wo3 NO3 wo3 JT0 3 HC0 3 HC0 3 HC0 3 HG0 3. HC0 3 HC0 O HCO 3 NH4 NH4 •HH,. BETWEEN wo3 HC0 3 . K Na Mg Cond. PH HC0 3 •mk ' K Na Ca Mg Cond. so 4 K Na Ca Mg Cond. pH K Na Ca Mg Cond. pH CORR. COEFF. O.7879 ** 0.5897 * O.7285 ** 0.6631 * 0.6449 * 0.7102 * 0.5909 * 0.8447 ** 0.7983 ** 0.9568 ** 0.8911 ** O.6086 * 0.8790 ** 0.8913 ** 0.7160 * O.8728 ** 0.7588 ** 0.6254 * 0.84i4 ** 0.8253 ** O.6067 * 0.7756 * 0.8405 ** 0.8241 ** 0.8815 ** 0.8631 ** 0.6519 * OBSERVATIONS 12 13 14 14 14 14 13 11 10 12 12 12 12 . 12 4 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 . 12 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - 143' - • Bf (-c) CORRELATIONS K K K K K Na Na Na Na Ca Ca Ca Mg Mg BETWEEN Na , Ca Mg • Cond. pH Ca Mg Cond. pH Mg Cond. pH Cond. pH CORR. COEFF. O.8916 ** 0.7828 ** 0.9223 ** 0 . 9 5 0 1 . * * 0.6517 * O.6793 * 0.8888 ** • 0.9219 ** 0.6783 * 0.8235 ** O.8185 ** 0.7299 * 0.9897 ** 0.7777 ** OBSERVATIONS 14 14 14 •14 13 Ik Ik Ik .13 14 Ik 13 14 13 Al pH 0.9995 * Cond. pH 0.7883 ** 13 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) CORRELATIONS Station R.G. N 0 3 . H C 0 3 HCO„ - -144. -BIIC VERTICAL K K Ca Mg BETWEEN Mg CI K Na Na Na Cond. Cond. Cond. CORR. COEFF. -0.7116 * 0.7518 * 0.7026 * 0.7580 * - 0 . 9 2 4 6 ** O.6650 * 0.6485 * 0.7816 * 0.8919 •** OBSERVATIONS 11 9 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - 145 -BIIC HORIZONTAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Sta t i o n R.G. Station R.G. S t a t i o n R.G. 0.5931 * P i t R.G. 0.5340 * Na Ca -0.6026 * -O.58OI * 15 15 15 15 CI A l O.8766 ** 11 Na Na Na Ca Mg Cond. 0.5355 * 0.7705 ** 0.7808 ** 15 15 15 Ca Cond. 0.7003 ** 15 Mg Cond. 0.8562 ** 15 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - 146 -BIIC (b) CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS SO^  Mg 0.7650 ** 15 P Al -O.9067 * 8 Na Cond. 0.7234 ** 15 Na pH 0.6330 ** 15 Ca Cond. 0.-6731 ** 15 Ca PH 0.5371 * 15 •Fe . . Al 0.8495 * 8 Cond. pH 0.5360 * 15 TABLE 17 (CONT'D) - 147 -IIC CORRELATIONS Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate-CI CI BETWEEN CORRi COEFF. Station R.G. 0.5847 * P P P Mg pH sok ' P P Na Cond. 0.6379. ** -0.5310 * 0.5618 * -O.599O * 0.75^0 ** -0 .6621 •** -O.6322 ** -0,5703 * OBSERVATIONS 15 15 15 15 13 13 15 15 13 TABLE 18 - -I48. -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN BLANEY SOIL LEACHATE DATA Bf VERTICAL CORRELATIONS Amt. Amt. Amt. Amt. Amt. Amt. Amt. Amt. N°3 N 0 3 , N 0 3 . N 0 3 . N 0 3 . N 0 3 . N 0 3 , N 0 3 . H G 0 3 H C 0 3 H C 0 3 H C 0 3 H C 0 3 H C 0 3 HCO„ mk NH4 mk ™4 of leachate of leachate of leachate of leachate of leachate of leachate of leachate' of leachate BETWEEN N 0 3 H C 0 3 K Na Ca Mg Cond. pH H C 0 3 NH4 K Na Ca Mg Cond. NH4 K Na Ca Mg Cond. pH K Na Ca Mg Cond. pH CORR. COEFF. 0.8003 ** 0.1546 ** 0.7264 ** 0.7780 ** 0.8297 ** 0.8459 ** • 0.7964 ** 0.8194 ** 0.9458 ** 0.8284 ** 0.9398 ** 0.9764 .*» 0.9402 ** 0.9259 ** 0.9862 ** 0.9241 ** 0 . 8 3 2 5 . * * 0.9397 ** 0.9140 ** 0.9538 ** 0.9428 ** O .9629 ** 0.9543 ** 0.8489 ** O .8651 ** 0.8569 ** 0.8097 ** : 0.8672 ** 0.8646 ** OBSERVATIONS 13 14 14 •14 14 14 14 14 13 11 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 14 14 14 14 •14 14 12 12 12 12 12 12 TABLE 18 (CONT'D) - Ik9 -Bf VERTICAL CORRELATIONS K K K K K Na Na Na Na Ca Ca Ca Mg Mg BETWEEN Na Ca Mg Cond. pH Ca Mg Cond. pH Mg Cond. pH Cond. pH CORR. COEFF. 0.9595 ** 0.9214 ** 0.9584 ** 0.9646 ** 0.9134 .»*• O .9289 ** 0.9269 ** 0.9820 ** 0.9151 * * 0.9765 ** 0.9665 ** 0.9973 ** 0.9564 .** 0.9702 ** OBSERVATIONS 14 14 14 14 14 14 •14 14 14 14 •14 14 Ik •Ik Cond. pH 0.9566 ** 14 TABLE 18 (CONT'D) 150 -Bf HORIZONTAL CORRELATIONS Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate NO3 NO3 NO3 NO3 NO 3 NO3 NO3 NO3 NO3 HCO3 HCO3 HCO3 HCO3 HCO3 HCO3 HCOo NH U NH^ Nfl\ NH^ BETWEEN CI P Ca Fe Cond. pH HCO3 NH^ K Na Ca Mg Fe Cond. pH K Na Ca Mg Fe Cond. pH Fe K Na Ca Mg Fe Cond. PH CORR. COEFF. O.8526 ** O.5656 * 0.5543 * 0.6331 * 0.5549 * O.6726 * 0.9515 ** 0.8104 ** 0 . 9 3 2 1 , ** 0.9158 ** 0.9445 •**• 0.9340 .*«• 0.9261 ** 0.9300 ** 0.8666 ** 0.8738 ** 0.8526 .«* O.8566 • ** 0.8578 • ** 0.8819 • ** 0,8486 ** 0,7636 ** 0.6803 * 0.6802 .. * 0.6722 * 0.6720 * O.7208 .- .»* 0.8630 ** 0.7052 * 0.6053 * OBSERVATIONS 10 14 14 11 14 14 13 13 13 ' 13 ' 13 13 11 13 13 14 14 14 14 11 14 14 11 14 14 14 14 11 14 14 TABLE 18 (CONT'D) - 151 -Bf HORIZONTAL CORRELATIONS K K K K K K Na Na Na Na Na Ca Ca Ca Ca Mg Mg Mg Fe Fe BETWEEN Na Ca Mg Fe Cond. pH Ca Mg Fe Cond. pH Mg Fe ' Cond. pH Fe Cond. pH Cond. pH CORR. COEFF. 0.9570 ** 0.9942 ** 0.9953 ** O.9307 ** . 0.9929 ** 0,9499 ** 0.9522 ** 0.9593 ** 0.8494 ** 0.9677 ** • 0.8613 ** 0.9898 • ** 0.9282 ** 0.9908 .*« O.9615 ** 0.9195 ** 0.9978 ** 0.9438 ** 0.8988 .• .«*• 0.8878 •** OBSERVATIONS 14. 14 14 • 11 14 14 14 14 11 . 14 14 14 11 14 14 11 14 14 11 11 Cond. pH 0.9459 ** 14 TABLE 18 (CONT'D) CORRELATIONS BETWEEN Amt. of leachate N 0 3 Amt. of leachate HCO3 Amt. of leachate ' NH^ Amt. of leachate K Amt. of leachate Na Amt. of leachate Ca Amt. of leachate Mg Amt. of leachate - Cond. . Amt. of leachate pH N O 3 HCO3 N O 3 • NH^ NO3 K NO3 • Na NO 3 Ca . N 0 3 Mg U O 3 Cond. NO3 pH H C 0 3 NH^ HCO3 K HCO3 ' Na H C 0 3 Ca • H C 0 3 Mg HCO3 Cond. H C 0 3 pH NH^ K NH^ Na NH^ Ca NH^ Mg NH^ Cond. NH, pH • 152 -Bf (b) CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS 0.8617 ** 12 0.8443 ** 13 0.6625 * 11 0.8383 ** 14 0.7244 ** •14 0.7521 ** . 14 0.8998 • ** •14 0.7936 • 14 0.8006 ** 13 0.8867 • ** 11 0.7821 * 11 0.9359 ** 12 0.8878 • ** 12 0.8258 ** 12 0.9123 .** 12 0.9181 .**• 12 0.9252 ** 11 0.8882 ** 10 0.9577 ** 13 0.8822 ** 13 0.9551 - ** 13 O.9850 ** 13 0.9699 ** 13 0.9791 ** 13 0.8811 ** 11 0.9502 .** 11 0.7745 * 11 O.8605 ** 11 0.9389 ** 11 0.8549 ** 10 TABLE 18 (CONT'D) - 153 -Bf (b) CORRELATIONS K K K K K Na Na Na Na Ca Ca Ca Mg Me BETWEEN Na Ca Mg Cond. • pH Ca Mg Cond. pH Mg Cond. pH Cond. pH CORR. COEFF. 0.8770 ** 0.9123 ** 0.9596 ** 0.9370 ** 0.9458 . .** 0.8454 • .**• O.8685 ** 0.9375 ** 0.8334 .** O.9077 •**• 0.8723 = ** 0.9554 ** O.9285 ** O.9622 . , « * OBSERVATIONS 14 14 14 14 13 14 14 14 13 14 14 . 13 14 13 Cond. pH 0,9475- •** 13 TABLE 18 (CONT'D) - 154 -II C CORRELATIONS Amt. of;' leachate Amt. of leachate BETWEEN Cond. pH CORR. COEFF. -0.5432 * -0.5410 * OBSERVATIONS 15 15 Station R.G. SO, -0 .6264 ** 15 NO-: NO, NO-C l so u Na -0.5992 •* 0.6154 * 0.6722 .** 13 15 15 CI CI P -0.7456 ** 0.6353 * 13 13 HCO, HCOc Na Cond. O.5276- * 0.5490 * 15 15 SO^ Na Me: 0.5348 • * 0.5494 * 15 15 Cond. -0.5305- * 15 Na Na Na Ca Mg Cond. 0.5469 * 0.6262 ** 0.7397 ** 15 15 15 Ca Ca Ca Mg Cond. pH 0.8956 ** 0.7300 ** 0.5386 * 15 15 15 Mg Cond. 0.7622 ** 15 TABLE 19 - 155 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN PIT RAIN GAUGE SAMPLES  CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS P i t R.G. Station R.G. 0.8280 • 15 P i t R.G. NH4 -O.6454 * 13 P i t R.G. K -0 .5842 * 14 P i t R.G. Ca -O.5825 * 14 P i t R.G. Mg -0.5718 * 14 NO3 pH O.6281 * 14 HCO3 K 0,6090 * 14 HCO3 Cond. O.6120 * 14 sou Fe 0.7234 * 11 K O.7890 ** 13 Ca •' 0.8238 ** •13 mh Mg 0.7074 * 13 K Ca 0-5537 * 14 K Mg 0.8972 ** 14 Wa Mg O.5662 * 14 TABLE 20 -156,-SIMPLE CORRELATIONS IN STATION RAIN GAUGE SAMPLES CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS Station R.G. Pit R.G. 0.8280 ...-** 15 HCOc Cond. 0.6680 * 11 Na Mg O.717O * O.6667 * 10 10 K K K Na Ca Me; 0.7353 * 0.6179 * 0.6657 * 12 12 12 Na Na Na Ca Mg Cond. 0.6752 * 0.6609 * 0.6201 • * 12 12 11 Ca Cond. 0.7804 • ** 11 TABLE- 2.1 - 157 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS"IN PREVIOUS WEEK'S LEACHATES AND PRESENT WEEK'S CONCENTRATIONS CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS BIIC ( v e r t i c a l ) - Whatcom Amt. of leachate HCO, Amt. of leachate SOi. 0,6412 .. * 0.7050 • ** 10 10 BIIC (horizontal) - Whatcom Amt. of leachate CI Amt. of leachate SO^ Amt. of leachate pH -O.7362 * 0 . 7 2 2 0 , * 0.8134 ** 12 13 13 IIC - Whatcom Amt. of leachate Amt. of leachate Amt; of leachate Amt. of leachate Station R.G. H C 0 3 P Cond. 0,5498 * 0.5589 * O .5806 • * -0 .6351 * 14 14 14 14 TABLE 22 - 158 -SIMPLE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WEEK'S  PRECIPITATION AND PRESENT LEACHATE CONCENTRATIONS CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS Bf (b) - Whatcom Station R.G. pH Bf (c) - Whatcom Station R.G. pH 0.6648 • * O.6T69 * 13 12 BIIC ( v e r t i c a l ) - Whatcom Statio n R.G. K Station R.G. Na Station R.G. Mg Station R.G. Cond. BIIC (horizontal) - Whatcom Station R.G. P Station R.G. Cond. BIIC (b) - Whatcom P i t R.G. HCOc, IIC - Whatcom Station R.G. Station R.G. P i t R.G. - 0 . 6 4 8 2 * 10 -0.6541 * * 10 -0.6324 * 10 -0.6659 * * 10 0.6202 * 14 -O.5932 * 14 0.5768 * 14 Amt. of leachate 0 .7326 H C 0 3 O.6858 HCO3 0 .5579 •*.* 14 * 14 * 14 - .159 -TABLE_22 (CONT'D) SIMPLE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREVIOUS WEEK'S  PRECIPITATION AND PRESENT LEACHATE CONCENTRATIONS CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CORR. COEFF. OBSERVATIONS Bf (horizontal) - Blaney Station R.G. pH 0 .5846- * 13 IIC - Blaney •li-st at ion R.G. SO^ - 0 . 6 3 4 0 . . * 14 Station R.G. K -O.58IO * 14 Station R.G. Mg • - 0 . 6 5 8 3 * 14 - i 6 o -APPENDIX 6 CI, P and LEACHATE COMPARISONS . F I G U R E 9 - 161 -0.05 CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME VERTICAL - WHATCOM SOIL CI conc'n Leachate 2.0 1.5 1.0 o > m > o > —i m 0.5 10 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 6 P t ' 0 C t ' SAMPLING DATA'S 28 5 13 Dec. i F I G U R E 10 - 162 -CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME Bf HORIZ. - WHATCOM SOIL l o o O z o xT X3 3 . V CI conc'n Leachate 10 8 o > 6 m > o x > H m 5 12 19 26 3 IO 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 Sept. Oct. Nov. SAMPLING DATES 5 13 Dec. F I G U R E II 20 1 5 CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME B I C HORIZ. - WHATCOM CI conc'n Leachate (0 o o o O z s \ / \ . / v v \ / y 200 150 foo o H > > o x > H m 50 5 12 19 26 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 Sept. Oct. Nov. SAMPLING DATES 28 5 13 Dec. 10 - 164 -F I G U R E 12 CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME 1TC - WHATCOM SOIL CI conc'n LEACHATE 5 12 19 26 3 10 n 24 31 7 14 21 28 5 13 Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. SAMPLING DATES 5 12 f9 26 3 10 17 31 7 14 21 28 5 13 Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. SAMPLING DATES F I G U R E 14 - 166 -20 CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME J[ C - BLANE Y SOIL CI conc'n Leachate i i i 5 12 19 26 Sept. 3 10 17 24 31 7 14 21 28 Oct. Nov SAMPLING nATF.g 5 13 Dec. - 167 -F I G U R E 15 D.20 0.15 0.10 D.05 PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME HORIZ. - WHATCOM SOIL P conc'n Leachate - 168 -, F I G U R E 16 PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME BIIC HORIZ.- WHATCOM SOIL I F J G U R E 17 - 169 -PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME 3 10 17 Oct. SAMPLING 7 14 21 Nov. DATES F I G U R E 18 _2 PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME F I G U R E 19 - 171 -0.20 PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION AND TOTAL LEACHATE vs. SAMPLING TIME I C - B L A N E Y SOIL 0.15 0.10 o o z o D'.OS A / \ \ \ / I •l l | l | l l I I I I I I I I I I I I I | I I I I I | I ' I II P conc'n Leachate 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 I 4 5 Sept. 12 19 26 3 10 17 Oct. SAMPLING 24 31 DATES 7 14 21 Nov, 28 5 13 Dec. -172-Critigue of Apparatus Although the design of the tension plates was satisfactory to study s o i l water under f i e l d conditions, improvements are possible. As the contact between the tension plate and the s o i l is most c r i t i c a l , any change in design that improves the hydrautic contact is desireable. Such a condition would occur i f the frame that extends around the tension plate and contains the- s i l i c o n carbide was modified. The frame is made of 12 mm square scrylic plastic and therefore a flate surface is pressed against the s o i l when the tension plate is installed. If this frame was exit diagonally in half a sharp edge would be pressed against the s o i l . Also i f the frame was 24 mm instead of 12 mm the plate could be pressed against the s o i l and the frame would extend into the s o i l providing better contact between the s i l i c o n carbide and the s o i l . In this case the si l i c o n carbide should s t i l l only be 12 mm deep in the chamber. At the moss site the IIC tension plate extended over a l l the IICg3 horizons of the Blaney s o i l . It was thought that most of the water collected by this plate came from the IICg3 horizon. The extention of the plate over the other horizons allowed for excessive entry of air into the system causing rapid loss of negative pressure. If this area of the profile was covered by two tension plates, one for the HCg^ horizon and another for the IlCg horizons above, better collection data would be obtained. In a l l cases the vertical tension plates should be kept as small as possible and not extend over too many horizons. A source of power that would allow for automatic operation of the vacuum pumps would provide more reliable data from the installations. This power could also be used for continuous recording devices. These devices could be used with flow regulators inserted between the tension plates and the collection bottles. The data collected would provide information needed for the amounts of water collected throughout a given time. 

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