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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Goal formulation and achievement in historic district preservation Van Westen, Pieter Kornelis 1970

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'. GOAL FORMULATION AND ACHIEVEMENT IN HISTORIC DISTRICT PRESERVATION by PIETER KORNELIS van WESTEN B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1970 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of CTtiftl* « S Ty Gmd^eii'a** The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT Each year millions of Canadian and Americans return to their country from v i s i t s abroad praising the varied character, the sense of distinctive-ness, the historic charm and the rich atmosphere of the ci t i e s they have visited. Simultaneously, North America each year demolishes more vestiges of i t s h i s t o r i c a l heritage as i t proceeds to pave more streets and parking lots and erect bigger and tall e r buildings. In this urgent process of building and rebuilding, irreplaceable remnants of our urban past which can give North American c i t i e s some of the highly-praised charm and atmos-phere found in Europe are frequently obliterated as the 'unavoidable' price for growth and progress. Throughout the last century many individuals and private socieites have, nevertheless, attempted to save and preserve some of the most note-worthy r e l i c s of our c i t i e s past for the enjoyment of present and future generations. Since about 1950 this embryonic preservation movement has redirected i t s emphasis from the saving of individual buildings to the •preservation of entire historic d i s t r i c t s within North American c i t i e s . Traditionally, the impetus for and the costs incurred in historic d i s t r i c t preservation have been solely the responsibility of the private sector. The last few years, however, have seen a ris i n g involvement of a l l levels of government in d i s t r i c t preservation. Urban government, throughout the continent, is taking a serious look at the v i a b i l i t y of restoring and re-habilitating declining but potentially rich neighbourhoods. Historic d i s t r i c t preservation has at this point in time truly entered the ambit of ci t y planning and i t is v i t a l l y important that the planning profession appreciate the techniques and procedures now available to guide and f a c i l i -tate success i n this a c t i v i t y . This study was directed at discovering what i s currently being done by planners to maximize success i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation. A broad survey of some 68 different h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t projects i n North America served as the vehicle for t h i s examination and an examination of goal formu-+ l a t i o n achievement was used as the most appropriate single dimension through which the o v e r a l l problem can be approached. The central hypothesis formulated i n this thesis i s : Recurrent planning targets of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t preservation projects i n North America i n the 1960's can be c l a s s i f i e d under 15 broad goals. These are: (1) To encourage the restoration and preservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they w i l l be desirable as private homes or places of business. (2) To improve the a r c h i t e c t u r a l merit of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - r e s t o r a t i o n work i n the d i s t r i c t . (3) To a t t r a c t 'new development' to the d i s t r i c t i n order to i n s t i l l new l i f e , to broaden i t s tax base, or for other reasons. (4) To ensure that new construction i s compatible with the e x i s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l context and a r c h i t e c t u r a l setting. (5) To acquire and preserve with public monies those buildings i n the d i s t r i c t that are worthy of preservation and cannot be saved through private means. (6) To relocate within the d i s t r i c t h i s t o r i c buildings from outside the h i s t o r i c area that would otherwise face destruction. (7) To ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continying existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community - not a 'museum complex 1. (8) To make the d i s t r i c t a focus for c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and a centre for the arts and c r a f t s . (9) To develop and conserve those attributes of the streets, grounds, public squares or parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character. (10) To recognize the requirements of the automobile while also sub-ordinating these requirements to the need for preserving the \ 'quality of the h i s t o r i c environment (11) To improve the qua l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment by system-a t i c a l l y eliminating incompatible and undesirable uses and structures. (12) To carry out a relocation program for low income population which i s being displaced. (13) To offset the pressures of land speculation within the d i s t r i c t . (14) To enact and generally improve l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to protect the quality of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment. (15) To promote and advertise the d i s t r i c t i n order to develop l o c a l i n t e r e s t and to create a d e f i n i t e t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n . The survey revealed that of these 15 hypothetical goals eight are generally considered highly relevant to v i r t u a l l y a l l projects irregardles of any variable (goal 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14). Five of these goals (goal 7, 2, 1, 9, 4) are, on the whole, being achieved with a high degree of success. L a s t l y , the study brought to l i g h t a great number of 'tools and techniques' which are c u r r e n t l y being used to a i d i n the attainment of the planning goals. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter P a g e 1. INTRODUCTION 1 # Subject Matter and General Intent ^ Purpose of the Study 2* Importance of the Study ^' Scope of the Study *^ Hypothesis of the Study ^ Methodology Organization of the remainder of the Thesis 21" .11. THE ART OF HISTORIC DISTRICT PRESERVATION 22. Historic Districts defined 25. The Historic D i s t r i c t in Historical Perspective 28. Motivation and Justification for District Preservation 36. Four Landmarks in District Preservation 44. The Preservation Planning Process 58. I I I . GENERAL SURVEY RESPONSE ' 62. Reasons Offered for Failing to Complete the Questionnaire 62. Position of the Respondent and Depth of Response 65. Age of the Historic Zoning Ordinance 68. Classification of the Survey by Size of the Parent City 71. Acknowledgment of the Goals 74. Additional Goals 79, A General Comparison of Goal Achievement 87. Cumulative Goal Achievement Quotients 87. IV. THE STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS 93. Goal 1 93. Goal,2 105. Goal 3 113. Goal 4 118. Goal 5 121. Goal 6 124. V. THE ENVIRONMENT 128. Goal 7 128. Goal 8 133. Goal 9 136. Goal 10 144. Goal 11 148. VI. THE CONSEQUENCES 155. Goal 12 I55. Goal 13 160. VII. SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES 169. Goal 14 Goal 15 169. 176. TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.) Chapter Page VllL, CONCLUSION 184. BIBLIOGRAPHY 187. APPENDICES 202. v i i . LIST OF TABLES Page Table I. L i s t of Mun i c i p a l i t i e s Surveyed Indicating Position of Respondent 67. I I . C i t i e s and Towns Surveyed: By Year of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Ordinance 69. I I I . Projects Surveyed: By Population Size of Parent City -1960 72. IV. Goal Acknowledgment Pattern: By Number of Goals Considered Relevant 75. V. Acknowledgment of Goals: From Greatest to Least Number of Projects Acknowledging each Goal 77. VI. Projects Surveyed: Showing which Goals are Considered Irrelevant 80. V i l . A Comparison of Cumulative Goal Achievement Quotients . . . . 89. c V i i - J . . LIST OF CHARTS Page Chart 1= Goal Acknowledgment/Realisation Pattern - Entire Survey .... 83. 2. Goal Acknowledgment/Realisation Pattern - Parent C i t i e s of 10,000 Population and Less 84. 3. . Goal Acknowledgment/Realisation Pattern - Parent C i t i e s of 10,000 to 100,000 Population .. 85. 4. Goal Acknowledgment/Realisation Pattern - Parent C i t i e s of 100,000 Population and Over 86. .5. Survey Response to Goal 1 97, 6. Survey Response to Goal 2 109. 7. Survey Response to Goal 3 w Ilk. 8. Survey Response to Goal 4 119, 9. Survey Response to Goal 5 •••• 122. 10. Survey Response to Goal 6 125. 11. Survey Response to Goal 7 130, 12. Survey Response to Goal 8 134. 13. Survey Response to Goal 9 138. 14. Survey Response to Goal 10 145, 15. Survey Response to Goal 11 149, 16. Survey Response to Goal 12 157, 17. Survey Response to Goal 13 163. 18. Survey Response to Goal 14 171, 19. Survey Response to Goal 15 177, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Without the assistance of the many individuals throughout the United States and Canada who free l y furnished information on the projects i n their c i t i e s t h i s study would not have been possible. Special thanks are due to Mrs. Helen D. Bullock - Historian and senior editor for the National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation, Edwin S. Astone - Project Manager of 'Old Sacramento', and Judge Stanley P. Mead - Chairman of the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission i n New Canaan, Connecticut, a l l of whom took great interest i n this thesis and offered a wealth of expert knowledge. Last, and c e r t a i n l y not least, the author expresses his gratitude to Professor Brahm Wiesman, who acted as adviser for this study and offered guidance and constructive c r i t i c i s m along the way. C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N S U B J E C T M A T T E R A N D G E N E R A L I N T E N T T h e preservation of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s has come to have an increas-ingly important impact on the North American c i t y over the last twenty years. Whereas i n 1950 only s i x U.S. c i t i e s boasted an ' o f f i c i a l ' H i s t o r i c 1 2 D i s t r i c t , i n 1969 this number was closer to two-hundred. Although the precise reasons for t h i s phenomenon have only been speculated upon, i t s benefits a r e becoming abundantly apparent. D i s t r i c t preservation programs have proved to be capable of transforming decayed urban areas into t h r i v i n g and beautiful d i s t r i c t s , partly reversing the long-continuing trend of de-c l i n i n g c i t y populations, promoting tourism, increasing the general economic health of both the ind i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s themselves and the parent c i t i e s , and generating a r e v i v a l of interest i n the central c i t y areas. Across the continent h i s t o r i c architecture i s rapidly assuming equal stature as a factor i n shaping the future form of the c i t y as any of the other factors which are customarily studied i n the planning process, v i z . t r a f f i c volumes, r e s i d e n t i a l densities, u t i l i t y systems, and patterns of land use. However, most of the research performed and progress made to - __ Source: Thomas J. REed, 'Land Use Controls i n . H i s t o r i c Areas' i n Notre Dame Lawyer, Vol. 44, No. 3, February, 1969. p.394. 2 Source: A personal i e t t e r to the author from Mrs. Helen D. Bullock Historian & Editor of the National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation (Washington, D.C.). date i n planning for d i s t r i c t preservation has occurred at the l o c a l l e v e l aimed at the s o l u t i o n of l o c a l problems. This study was designed to gather  together some of these l o c a l experiences i n order to f i n d out what i s being  done to maximize the success of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t projects. • The author has, from the onset, recognized an urgent s o c i a l purpose behind the p r a c t i c e of d i s t r i c t preservation. Without further q u a l i f i c a t i o n i t i s therefore assumed that, properly conducted, planning f o r d i s t r i c t preservation i s a s o c i a l l y relevant and necessary task. The United States Congress emphasized the importance of th i s task when i t a r t i c u l a t e d national p o l i c y on h i s t o r i c preservation i n 1966. I t declared: (a) That the s p i r i t and d i r e c t i o n of the Nation are founded upon and r e f l e c t e d i n i t s h i s t o r i c past. (b) That the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l foundations of the Nation should be preserved as a l i v i n g part of our community l i f e and development i n order to give a sense of o r i e n t a t i o n to the American people. (c) That, i n the face of ever-increasing extension of urban centers, highways, and r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l developments, the present governmental and non-governmental h i s t o r i c preservation programs and a c t i v i t i e s are inadequate to insure future gen-erations a genuine opportunity to appreciate and enjoy the r i c h heritage of our Nation; and (d) That, although the major burdens of h i s t o r i c preser-vation have been borne and major e f f o r t s i n i t i a t e d by private agencies and i n d i v i d u a l s , and both should continue to play a v i t a l r o l e ; i t i s nevertheless necessary and appropriate f o r the Federal Government to accelerate i t s h i s t o r i c preservation programs and a c t i v i t i e s , to give maximum encouragement to agencies and i n d i v i d u a l s undertaking preservation by pri v a t e means, and to a s s i s t State and l o c a l governments and the National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation i n the United States to expand and accelerate t h e i r h i s t o r i c preservation programs and a c t i v i t i e s . ^ Bearing i n mind the p r i n c i p l e s enunciated i n the National H i s t o r i c Pre-I servation Act, t h i s study broadly explored the means and ways by which d i s t r i c t preservation may be e f f e c t i v e l y conducted. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the purpose of the study has been to define  'successful' h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation and to discover what tech- niques, procedures and a c t i v i t i e s are c u r r e n t l y f a c i l i t a t i n g that success. Before proceeding i t i s necessary to c l a r i f y some of the terms i n t h i s statement of purpose. F i r s t l y , one of the conclusions reached i n the study i s that i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f - d e f e a t i n g to t r y to construct a precise formula with which to define and measure successful h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation.^ A h i s t o r -i c d i s t r i c t project touches not only the l i v e s of the inhabitants of the d i s t r i c t i t s e l f , but a l s o a f f e c t s the tasks of the many people involved i n 3 National H i s t o r i c Preservation Act of 1966, 80 Stat. 915, 16 U.S.C. 470. 4 Such a formula, based on the change i n assessed property values before and a f t e r r e s t o r a t i o n , the e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation system, d o l l a r increments to the l o c a l economy, and other q u a n t i f i a b l e s , was i n -i t i a l l y attempted and l a t e r abandoned. 4. i t s administration and government. Therefore, a t r u l y 'successful' project would have to s a t i s f y the a s p i r a t i o n s of the homeowners as well as the tenants; the c i t y engineer as well as the transportation planner; the health o f f i c i a l s as well as the b u i l d i n g inspector; the shopkeeper as well as the out-of-town v i s i t o r ; and so on. In th i s less-than-perfect world t h i s kind of success i s obviously impossible. 'Success' i s therefore viewed as the achievement of the goals and objectives o f the greatest number of people. Secondly, a ' h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project' i s here loosely defined as any scheme designed to preserve and restore those aspects of a designated urban area which combine to give that area a unique ' h i s t o r i c character' and imbue i t with a d i s t i n c t i v e atmosphere. ' H i s t o r i c character' i s a looseknit term used here to describe the general f e e l i n g an area conveys of being e i t h e r a pleasant or an undesirable place to l i v e i n or to v i s i t . I t i s not deemed to be e x c l u s i v e l y linked to t r a d i t i o n a l r u l es on phys i c a l f a c t o r s such as the number of h i s t o r i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s , the age of structures, the width of s t r e e t s , and the t o t a l number of people per acre. Rather, i t i s considered to be the t o t a l product of the area's appearance and atmosphere. F i n a l l y , 'techniques, procedures and a c t i v i t i e s ' are meant to i n -clude any conceivable t o o l or device a c c e s s i b l e to the planner or other i n d i v i d u a l f o r the achievement of the o v e r a l l goals inherent i n the d i s t r i c t preservation project. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY The importance of this study i s , i n the f i n a l analysis, closely related to the importance of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation i t s e l f . Whereas the urban renewal t a c t i c s of the 1950's and 60's as a solution to urban b l i g h t and decay, have been beset with more f a i l u r e than success, area r e h a b i l i t a t i o n through urban conservation, restoration, and d i s t r i c t preservation offers the promise of a more sensitized approach to the same problems i n the 1970's. Chapter 11 of this report discusses i n some depth seven d i s t i n c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for. the preservation of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . As i s shown i n iChapter 11, a v a l i d case can be made on the grounds of each of the following: c i t y distinctiveness, the economic benefits of tourism, added revenues from increased assessments, preserving the c u l t u r a l heritage, aesthetics and design, and, variety and d i v e r s i t y . Although the importance of d i s t r i c t preservation had a s i g n i f i c a n t bearing on the manner i n which the research was conducted, the study i t s e l f was not allowed to. devolve into a further argument on the merits of the a c t i v i t y per se. Instead, a systematic analysis of the methods used i n implementing d i s t r i c t goals was carried out. Such an analysis, i t i s f e l t , can be of value to other interested i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation i n that i t serves to c o l l e c t and dissemin-ate a wide body of professional experience and opinion. Nothing r a d i c a l l y new or s t a r t l i n g was discovered i n the course of the research. Rather, a number of hunches held by the author were confirmed, and some interesting patterns were uncovered. In short, the importance of this study i s that i t furnished an added perspective to a rapidly growing f i e l d . SCOPE OF THE STUDY As has been suggested, the subject under consideration i s of a very broad nature. An objective analysis of the techniques, procedures, and a c t i v i t i e s which are currently being used successfully i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation would i d e a l l y include an evaluation of numerous related factors and variables. Some of these would be purely physical, such as the age and size of the d i s t r i c t , and others would need to deal with economic and organizational aspects, such as the effects of the d i s t r i c t on the value of adjacent properties, and the merit of l o c a l promotion, and so. on. Needless to say, such a comprehensive investigation far exceeded available time and resources. The topic was therefore reduced to a workable size on the basis of s i x considerations. These are: (1) F i r s t l y , a broad survey of North American h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t projects was selected as the most appropriate vehicle for c o l l e c t i n g the required data. (2) Secondly, an investigation of the formulation and achievement of planning goals was selected as the best single dimension through which the o v e r a l l subject should be approached. (3) T h i r d l y , i t was decided to inv e s t i g a t e only those projects which are si t u a t e d i n urban areas. H i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s which are t y p i c a l l y r u r a l i n character by v i r t u e of t h e i r l o c a t i o n were thus not considered i n the survey. ( 4 ) Fourthly, i t was decided that the survey should include a broad range of projects. Therefore both very small and very large h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s , situated i n very small towns as well as i n large metropoli were surveyed. (5) F i f t h l y , projects included i n the survey, i t was determined, should be well defined. The existence of some form of pro-t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n for the majority of cases was used as an i n d i c a t o r of d i s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n . ~* (6) S i x t h l y , the survey should concentrate on the United States experience. The reason f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n i s simply that U.S. c i t i e s have done far more i n d i s t r i c t preservation at t h i s stage than t h e i r Canadian counterparts. I t i s hoped that t h e i r experiences, as r e l a t e d i n t h i s report, may be n e f i t future Canadian endeavours. Modified by these considerations, research was directed at s o l v i n g the following generic problem: A number of projects not protected by a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinance were included i n the survey. The two Canadian c i t i e s - Montreal and V i c t o r i a - are i n th i s category. WHAT COMMON GOALS ARE INHERENT IN HISTORIC DISTRICT PRESERVATION PROJECTS, AND WHAT FORMS OF ACTIVITY ARE BEING USED SUCCESSFULLY TO ACHIEVE THESE GOALS? The author presupposed that the o v e r a l l aims inherent i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation would be r e f l e c t e d i n a s i m i l a r goal framework from project to project, whether the goals had a c t u a l l y been a r t i c u l a t e d or not. More-over, i t was al s o assumed that acknowledgment of th i s goal framework from project to project indicates a l o c a l awareness of the obstacles that must be tackled i f the project i s to be succes s f u l . These assumptions provide the basis f o r the hypothesis formulated during the course of the study. The precise hypothesis i s presented and discussed i n the following section. To a large extent, the study was exploratory i n nature and many pertinent variables could not be properly appraised. These include: 1. proximity of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t to the C.B.D. 2. s i z e of the d i s t r i c t 3. age and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e of the predominant buildings 4. c r i t e r i a used to define the d i s t r i c t 5. extent of d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t p r i o r to preservation a c t i v i t y 6. f i n a n c i n g of the r e s t o r a t i o n s 7 . length of time project has been i n e f f e c t 8. o r i g i n a l versus adaptive uses of buildings 9. q u a l i t y of a r c h i t e c t u r a l controls 10. private versus public i n i t i a t i v e in launching and guiding the project 11. source and nature of local opposition to the project 12. age of the parent cit y HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY The hypothesis used in the study is as follows: RECURRENT PLANNING TARGETS OF HISTORIC DISTRICT PRESERVATION PROJECTS  IN NORTH AMERICA IN THE 1960's CAN BE CLASSIFIED UNDER 15 BROAD GOALS These goals are: (1) To encourage the restoration and preservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they wil be desirable as private homes or places of business. (2) To improve the architectural merit of the rehabilitation-restoration work in the d i s t r i c t . (3) To attract 'new development' to the d i s t r i c t in order to i n s t i l l new l i f e , to broaden i t s tax base, or for other reasons. (4) To ensure that new construction is compatible with the existing h i s t o r i c a l context and architectural setting. (5) To acquire and preserve with public monies those buildings in the d i s t r i c t that are worthy of preservation and cannot be saved through private means. 10. (6) To relocate within the d i s t r i c t h i s t o r i c buildings from outside the h i s t o r i c area that would otherwise face destruct-ion. (7) To ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community - not a 'museum complex'. (8) To make the d i s t r i c t a focus for c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and a centre of the arts and c r a f t s . (9) To develop and conserve those attributes of the streets, grounds, public squares or parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character. (10) To recognize the requirements of the automobile while also subordinating these requirements to the need for preserving the quality of the h i s t o r i c environment. (11) To improve the quality of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment by systematically eliminating incompatible and undesirable uses and structures. (12) To' carry out a relocation program for low income population which i s being displaced. (13) To offset the pressures of land speculation within the d i s t r i c t . (14) To enact and generally improve l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to protect the qua l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment. (15) To promote and advertise the d i s t r i c t i n order to develop l o c a l interest and to create a d e f i n i t e t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n . METHODOLOGY The methodology employed throughout the study consists of s i x d i s t i n c t steps or stages. These steps are b r i e f l y discussed below. Step 1 The i n i t i a l stage i n the research involved a thorough review of much of the available l i t e r a t u r e on h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation. The purpose of this review was to: 1. f u l l y acquaint the author with the entire f i e l d , 2. define the current status of the 'art' of planning for h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation. I t was found that the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e tended to group i t s e l f into the f i v e following classes: ! 1. H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Plans 2. A r t i c l e s on Preservation L e g i s l a t i o n 3. Preservation History and Philosophy 4. Technical Aids 5. Material of a general nature but making reference to h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation. An extensive bibliography l i s t i n g the relevant material i s provided at the end of this study. 1 2 . Step 11 The second step was to compile a l i s t of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s to be surveyed. I n i t i a l l y an attempt was made to construct a complete l i s t i n g of a l l h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation a c t i v i t i e s i n both the United States and Canada. Letters were sent to the following organiz-ations: The American Association of Museums The American Association for State and Local History The National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation -Department of Housing and Urban Development United States Federal Government: Division of Information Services H i s t o r i c Sites and Monuments Board: Canadian National Parks Service National Museums of Canada A copy of the l e t t e r requesting this information i s included as Appendix A. However, the results of this campaign did not furnish the required information. Instead of a l i s t i n g of actual projects i n progress, the author received a number of suggestions as to other possible sources for thi s information. Some of the organizations contacted did supply comple-mentary material which proved of interest i n the study. This material included: 1 . The National Register of H i s t o r i c Places, which i s a current l i s t i n g of over 1 1 0 0 h i s t o r i c properties owned, preserved, and managed by c i t y , county, State, Federal, and private agencies and individuals 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 13. throughout the United States and i t s t e r r i t o r i e s as of June 30, 1969. 2. A Directory of H i s t o r i c a l Societies and Agencies i n the United  States and Canada - published by the American Association for State and Local History. 3. Communication from the National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation i o f f e r i n g recent figures on the number of States and municipalities having h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n . 4. Communication from the H i s t o r i c Sites and Monuments Board of Canada to the effect that the National H i s t o r i c Sites Service i s currently planning a national inventory of h i s t o r i c buildings. Fail u r e i n the i n i t i a l attempt led to the composition of the required l i s t using a revised procedure. A study conducted i n 1964 provided a break-down of States and areas having h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning.** Of the t o t a l 66 U.S. c i t i e s and towns noted i n the 1964 study as having such zoning, 55 were included i n the authors l i s t . A further 10 projects were included using a HUD publication as source, 7 and a f i n a l 2 Canadian cases completed the l i s t . The f u l l l i s t i s included as Appendix B. 6 Robert L. Montague and Tony P. Wrenn, Planning for Preservation. American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Chicago, 1964. 7 Preserving H i s t o r i c America, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, 1966. 14. Using h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning as a major c r i t e r i o n i n composing this l i s t may have given the survey a strong bias. I f the projects i n -cluded i n the survey are regarded as a representative sample of North American h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation a c t i v i t y , some important cases which do not have h i s t o r i c zoning may have been omitted. I t must be emphasized, then, that the author recognizes this p o s s i b i l i t y . In fa c t , i t has been observed that a great deal of d i s t r i c t preservation a c t i v i t y has recently started i n Canada which has not yet reached a point where g l e g i s l a t i v e protection and control i s feasible. The growing popularity of h i s t o r i c zoning since 1950, however, seems to indicate that the major-i t y of projects i n the U.S., at least, have at some point attempted to acquire h i s t o r i c zoning, and therefore have come to the author's attention. Very b r i e f l y , a h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance functions as follows. F i r s t l y , the precise physical area (or areas) to be preserved i s determined using a l e g a l l y , acceptable metes and bounds description or i s determined through the inclusion of a map. Next, special regulations aimed at control of construction, demolition, a l t e r a t i o n , and other types of modification within the d i s t r i c t are spelled out. Enforcement of these regulations i s normally channelled through a special review body. This body, which i s created and has i t s exact duties set out i n the ordinance, i s delegated the power of approval or re j e c t i o n of plans for building, a l t e r a t i o n , 8 A good example i s Vancouver's "Gastown", which i s only now consider-ing a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning bylaw. 15. repair and demolition of structures within the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . Although in d i v i d u a l ordinances vary somewhat on the review body, i t s powers are f r e -quently limited to passing judgement on exterior design and construction with no control over i n t e r i o r renovation. Step 111 The t h i r d step was the construction of a questionnaire which would e l i c i t the required data. A copy of the questionnaire prepared for this purpose and used i n the study i s included as Appendix C. The questionnaire i s divided into f i v e sections, namely: section 1 Questionnaire Instructions section 11 The Structures and Buildings section 111 The Environment section IV The Consequences section V Supporting A c t i v i t i e s Under each of the la s t four rubrics a number of goals (as formulated i n the hypothesis) are l i s t e d and the respondent i s asked to indicate on a simple scale how 'successfully' each goal i s being r e a l i s e d i n the d i s t r i c t preservation project i n his c i t y . An i d e n t i c a l f i v e point success scale i s used for each of the f i f t e e n goals. The scale i s reproduced below: i s being r e a l i s e d very successfully i s being r e a l i s e d with some success 16. i s being r e a l i s e d with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success i s i rrelevant and therefore not being r e a l i s e d i s not being r e a l i s e d although i t i s a goal The scale was intended to establish: 1. whether or not the goal i s relevant to the project, 2. when the goal i s relevant, how 'successfully' i t i s being r e a l i s e d i n the project. Having selected a point on the scale for each goal under consider-atio n , the respondent i s then asked to indicate b r i e f l y what has been done i n h is c i t y towards the achievement of the goal. This part of the questionn-a i r e , labelled " a c t i v i t i e s i n support of the purpose", was i n t e n t i o n a l l y posed as an open-ended question i n order that any a c t i v i t y deemed at a l l relevant by the respondent can be mentioned. However, to provide some guidance i n e l i c i t i n g supporting a c t i v i t i e s , the following paragraph i s included i n the Introduction section of the questionnaire: I I B In the space beneath each goal statement please indicate b r i e f l y what has been done i n your c i t y towards i t s achievement. What has been done might, for example, include: a system of tax exemption; scenic easements; expropriation techniques; e l i g i b i l i t y for Federal assistance; open house 1 7 . tours; reinstallment of h i s t o r i c street furniture; direct owner subsidies; an agency to acquire, restore and r e s e l l properties; a review body to control develop-ment qu a l i t y ; h i s t o r i c t r a i l s ; zoning and building regulations; preparation and implementation of an area plan; h i s t o r i c building surveys; erection of plaques or shields i n front of s i g n i f i c a n t properties; or any other applicable techniques that i n your estimation have served, or are serving, well to meet the general goal 9 under consideration." A c t i v i t i e s i n support of each goal, as cited by the respondents, constitute an important part of this thesis. They are regarded as the 'tools and techniques' used to r e a l i s e each of the goals, and the i r presence, i n one form or another, i s linked to the success of the project. Wherever possible, a c t i v i t i e s i n support of each goal have been arranged into group-ings and are discussed i n following chapters. F i n a l l y , space i s allocated for the respondent to l i s t any further broad goals or objectives that are not covered i n the questionnaire but are an i n t e g r a l part of the project. Respondents using this space are also asked to suggest how these additional goals are being re a l i s e d . Inclusion of this paragraph was late r considered a disadvantage as several respondents seemed to f e e l bound to select th e i r 'supporting a c t i v i t i e s ' from t h i s l i s t . 18. Three q u a l i f i c a t i o n s need to be made regarding the design of the questionnaire. (1) The goals were i n t e n t i o n a l l y delineated as broadly as possible i n order that they would have wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y . (2) The generality of each of the goals.infers that i n most instances they are beyond actual r e a l i s a t i o n . As such, they .do not repre-sent an attainable temporal or s p a t i a l objective but rather they define a course of action or a l o c a l policy. Goal number 7, by way of example, i s tied neither to space nor to time; i t merely stresses the d e s i r a b i l i t y of adaptive use of the d i s t r i c t as opposed to a 'glass cage' preservation philosophy. (3) The questionnaire i s highly subjective. As such, i t i s capable of e l i c i t i n g opinion and judgement - not fac t . Step IV The fourth stage i n the research consisted of the actual data c o l l e c t i o n process. A covering l e t t e r and a copy of the questionnaire was dispatched to each of the 67 towns and c i t i e s included i n the l i s t . Where the author was aware of a s p e c i f i c agency involved i n the planning or administration of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project the survey request was sent there. In a l l other cases the request was addressed to the Director or Chairman of the 19. l o c a l planning department or board. The l e t t e r requested: (1) return of the completed questionnaire, and (2) any available printed material on the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . Step V The f i f t h step was to tabulate and c l a s s i f y the data gathered i n the survey. Two basic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were made when a l l completed questionnaires had been received. (1) F i r s t l y , the projects surveyed were grouped into three categories according to the population size of the parent c i t y . (2) Secondly, the projects surveyed were ranked according to the length of time the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinance had been i n ef f e c t . Next, i n d i v i d u a l questionnaire responses on the 'success' scale were tabulated for each goal as follows: 10 (1) A l l projects surveyed were indiscriminately tabulated according to whether or not they acknowledged each goal, 10 , 'Indiscriminately as used here means that the factor of parent c i t y s ize and age of the zoning ordinance were not considered. 2 0 . ( 2 ) a l l projects surveyed were indiscriminately tabulated according to the degree of success i n r e a l i s i n g each goal. Projects i n each of the three 'size' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were then tabulated i n a s i m i l a r fashion to determine whether or not the parent c i t y size factor has a s i g n i f i c a n t bearing on goal acknowledgment and goal r e a l i s a t -ion patterns. F i n a l l y , general patterns i n supporting a c t i v i t i e s for each goal were distinguished and compared with the 'size' factor and with the corresponding degree of success i n goal r e a l i s a t i o n . Precise methods used to c l a s s i f y , tabulate, and cross correlate data are explained i n subsequent chapters. Step V l The f i n a l stage i n the research consists of an analysis of the survey responses. Two overriding pri n c i p l e s were observed i n the analysis (1) The study should be exploratory i n the sense that i t would open up further questions and lead to other hypotheses. (2) The study should be primarily descriptive i n orientation i n the sense that 'tools and techniques* currently con-sidered useful i n r e a l i s i n g the goals are revealed and described. Both these principles are followed in subsequent chapters, and pertinent information is weighed against the hypothesis. ORGANIZATION OF THE - REMAINDER OF THE THESIS The remainder of this thesis i s organized as follows: Chapter 11 deals with background information on historic d i s t r i c t preservation and discusses the current status of the 'art' of planning for historic d i s t r i c t s . Chapter 111 deals with the overall response to the questionnaire campaign. Chapter IV THE STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS, deals in depth with questionnaire responses to goals number 1 to 6. Chapter V THE ENVIRONMENT, deals in depth with questionnaire responses to goals number 7 to 11. Chapter VI THE CONSEQUENCES, deals in depth with questionnaire responses to goal number 12 and 13. Chapter V i l SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES, deals in depth with questionnaire responses to goals number 14 and 15. Chapter V l l l the f i n a l summary, describes the conclusions reached In the study and suggests directions for further research. CHAPTER 11 THE ART OF HISTORIC DISTRICT PRESERVATION This chapter i s included to provide the reader with an overview of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation a c t i v i t y and to acquaint him with the current status of 'preservation planning'. In order to do j u s t i c e to the task i n hand i t i s necessary to cover a great deal of material i n a very few pages, and thus, for convenience's sake, the chapter i s divided into f i v e subject areas. These are: 1 1. H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s Defined 2. The H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t i n H i s t o r i c a l Perspective 3. Motivation and J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r D i s t r i c t Preservation 4. Four Landmarks i n D i s t r i c t Preservation 5. The preservation Planning Process Taken together, these f i v e themes are intended to provide the necessary backdrop against which the data gathered i n the study can be properly evaluated. At the outset some c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s needed to explain why d i s t r i c t preservation i s , i n the author's opinion, more of an a r t than a science. H i s t o r i c a l l y , preservation has been based on human value systems and i t s ultimate j u s t i f i c a t i o n has been rooted i n the human s i t u a t i o n and the r 2 3 . human heart. But placing philosophical bases aside, the methods t r a d i t i o n -a l l y employed i n planning for d i s t r i c t preservation have also tended to place greater emphasis on s e n s i t i v i t y and c r e a t i v i t y than on the systematized procedures of a precise science. The difference between art and science may be viewed as follows: "Art employs method for the symmetrical formation of beauty, as science employs i t for the l o g i c a l exposition of truth; but the mechanical process i s , i n the l a s t , ever kept v i s i b l y d i s t i n c t , while i n the f i r s t i t escapes from sight amid the shows of color and the shapes of grace". Bulwer. The following pages do not, i n a r i g i d fashion, attempt to defend th i s thesis; but rather, seek to emphasize the a r t i s t i c dimension i n which h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t planning must occur. This i s not to say that the method employed i n preservation planning abdicates the 'mechnical process' a l t o -gether. On the contrary, the fundamental goals inherent i n d i s t r i c t preservation demand a great deal of systematic research and plan formulation for t h e i r achievement. I t i s suggested, however, that inordinate preoccu-pation with methodology and sheer 'process' i s incommensurate with the creation of the kind of r i c h and s a t i s f y i n g urban environment that d i s t r i c t preservation aims at. At the r i s k of being garish, the mechanical process must "escape from sight amid the shows of color and the shapes of grace." I t would be overly ambitious and i n t r i n s i c a l l y f u t i l e to attempt to gather the entire orbi t of preservation a c t i v i t y together into any sort of 24. d e f i n i t i v e d i s c i p l i n e i n the following pages. The emergence of a new school of thought, here labelled 'preservation planning', i s e s s e n t i a l l y just one manifestation of a r a d i c a l l y new way of thinking about our t o t a l environmnet. The new thinking has many facets. On the one hand, i t i s discernable i n humanity's mounting concern for our natural resources. P o l l u t i o n i s the warcry! Massive ef f o r t s to halt further degradation of our streams and r i v e r s , our-oceans, and even our atmosphere have begun. Effo r t s i n support of these objectives are conservation oriented. On the other hand, there i s a growing conviction that i n abject ignorance we are o b l i t e r a t i n g many of the best features of our urban, man-made environment and replacing them with cheap, shoddy and f a c i l e i m i t a t i o n s . ^ A c t i v i t i e s designed to combat further despoilment of the city-scape are preservation and restoration oriented. Most notably these l a t t e r a c t i v i t i e s are now taking the shape of a surging interest i n the preservation of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . In the broadest possible sense, then, preservation planning i s viewed here as a v i t a l public service that has arisen i n response to a pervasive preservation-conservation movement. The roots of this movement are anchored i n humanity's s o c i a l conscience and i t s rationale i s grounded i n a new concept of Man's role i n his environment. Thus, by seeking to include Man as one-half of the environmental equation, preservation planning promises to be an e f f e c t i v e and r e a l i s t i c d i r e c t i o n i n which to s t r i v e . 11 J^>e_£_,_JLpr example, Peter Blake's God's Own Junkyard and Jane Jacobs' ThefcLife and .Death^ of Great American C i t i e s . 2 5 . In a narrower sense the raison d'etre of the preservation planner consists i n lending expert assistance to c i v i c o f f i c i a l s and the residents of an area i n restoring and protecting th e i r h i s t o r i c architecture. To be properly equipped for this job, he must know what techniques and tools have been developed and how these might be u t i l i z e d to r e a l i s e his purposes. The following f i v e sections are meant to enlarge upon these obser-vations and to place 'the art of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Preservation' i n perspective. 1 HISTORIC DISTRICT DEFINED Any meaningful d e f i n i t i o n of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s must ultimately take into account the unique features of each and every case. Wooster Square i n New Haven possesses certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that are not d u p l i -cated i n any other project, and E l Pueblo Viejo i n Santa Barbara bears l i t t l e resemblance to a preservation scheme anywhere else. Subsequently, only very broad and general d e f i n i t i o n s are possible. The National Register of H i s t o r i c Places provides one such a broad d e f i n i t i o n . A h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i t says, i s : a geographical definable area, urban or r u r a l , possessing a s i g n i f i c a n t concentration or linkage of s i t e s , buildings, structures, or objects uni-f i e d by past events or a e s t h e t i c a l l y by plan or physical development. 12 12 The National Register of H i s t o r i c Places 1969, United States Department of the I n t e r i o r , National Park Service, Washington, D.C, p . X I V . 26. Although this definition serves the purposes of the National Register i t does not, in fact, t e l l us very much about the nature of historic d i s t r i c t s . To accomplish this end i t is necessary to furnish descriptive information about the aspects that one happens to be interested in. Thus, the National Register, in i t s guidebook capacity, furnishes a background sketch on the history of i t s entries. Regarding the Old Sacramento Historic D i s t r i c t , for example, i t says; Junction of U.S. 40, 50, 99 and Calif. 16 and 24 1849 - 1850 The river port of Sacramento emerged during the California gold rush of 1849 as the interior con-tribution and transportation center for the gold mines in the Mother lode county of Sierra Nevada. In the 1860's, when the mining frontier moved eastwards into Nevada, Idaho, and Oregon, Sacra-mento became the transportation gateway to most of this inland empire. The original business d i s t r i c t has a larger number of buildings dating from the gold rush period than any other major city on the Pacific Coast. Included among these are banks, express buildings, hotels, offices, restaurants, saloons, and stores. The descriptive method, or case-study approach, is used in much of the literature dealing with historic d i s t r i c t s . This method merely seeks to define a particular project by means of its most salient character-i s t i c s . Where i t is necessary to define historic d i s t r i c t s for purposes of comparative analysis any one of a number of easily-quantifiable variables can be selected. A cla s s i f i c a t i o n could, for instance, be 13 Ibid., p. 27. made on such common denominators as: age and size of the d i s t r i c t , proxim-i t y to the C.B.C., number and condition of structures i n the d i s t r i c t , size of the parent c i t y , and so forth. Although such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n could be informative, i t i s obviously far beyond the scope of this study and thus was not attempted. Depending on one's research purpose, then, h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s may be defined on the basis of any predetermined factor. Typologies may be set up showing which projects are b a s i c a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l i n character as opposed to being commercial; which are to u r i s t oriented as opposed to being resident oriented; and, which are economically v i s i b l e as opposed to being a burden on the c i t y . An inter e s t i n g a l b e i t somewhat i n t u i t i v e , typology discussed i n the Vieux Carre Demonstration Study focusses on the way the time element i s approached i n planning for d i s t r i c t preservation. In the Vieux Carre study, three d i s t i n c t approaches are defined and c l e a r l y 14 documented. (1) The f i r s t approach consists i n reversing the movement of time and di r e c t i n g change backwards i n time to restore and reconstruct some 'Golden Age'. D i s t r i c t s i n th i s category are said to recreate the l i f e and environment of a past era, often complete with period dress and a c t i v i t i e s by reversing the movement of history. Examples are found i n the museum v i l l a g e s of Williams-burg, Old Sturbridge, and B a r k e r v i l l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 14. Plan and Program of the Vieux Carre, Introduction. 28. (2) A second approach attempts to stop the clock, rather than to turn i t back. In these projects preservation is considered a means of retaining the order and s t a b i l -i t y of the old by preventing the unknown consequences of the new. Change is walled out as a threat to the area's historic identity. Examples are found in Falmouth, 15 Cambridge, Columbus, and Winston-Salem. (3) The third approach strives to accommodate the new properly to the old. In these dis t r i c t s new buildings and new .uses of old buildings are considered desirable and necessary. ' The planning process concentrates on guiding h i s t o r i c a l continuity by carefully controlling change in the d i s t r i c t . This approach i s , of course, advocated for the Vieux Carre 16 and appears to be gaining acceptance elsewhere. 11 THE HISTORIC DISTRICT IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Historic d i s t r i c t preservation is a relatively recent phenomenon which has Its roots anchored in a larger preservation movement. The earliest attempts at Historic preservation in North America did not occur u n t i l the 1850's. Until that time America was s t i l l a 15 It is of interest that in response to goal 3 - 'To attract new development to the d i s t r i c t in order to i n s t i l l new l i f e , to broaden i t s tax base, or for other reasons', these four communities emphatically stated that this is not a goal in their historic d i s t r i c t . 16 For a discussion of projects wherein this approach appears to be gaining acceptance, see Chapter IV, goal 3, of this thesis. 29. 'new land' and due emphasis was placed on the future and on progress with l i t t l e regard for the past. Then i n 1850 the State of New York purchased the Hasbranch House i n Newburgh, a building which had served as George Washington's headquarters during the l a s t two years of the American Revol-ution. The Governor of New York stated i n his message to the l e g i s l a t u r e of that year that: there are associations connected with this venerable e d i f i c e which r i s e above considerations of dollars and cents and i t i s perhaps the l a s t r e l i c w ithin the boundaries of the State, under the control of the l e g i s l a t u r e , connected with the history of the i l l u s t r i o u s George Washington. i? With those words the philosophical basis of what was lat e r to become an urgent s o c i a l movement was f i r m l y established. Charles Hosmer, i n his Presence of the Past : A History of the  Preservation Movement i n the United States before Williamsburg, shows that early American preservation was e s s e n t i a l l y an indigenous and a thoroughly romantic movement. Early preservation ideas, although they resembled those of Europe, were ac t u a l l y native i n o r i g i n and consisted primarily of proposals for inculcating p a t r i o t i c love of past glories by setting aside the homes of important figures i n national history as symbols. From a h i s t o r i c a l perspective, the changing c r i t e r i a used for selecting buildings worthy of preservation r e f l e c t many of the major changes of current 17 Quoted by W.M. W h i t e h i l l , 'Promoted to Glory - The Origin of Preservation i n the United States', With Heritage so Rich, p. 37. 3 0 . i n American s o c i a l thought. In the 1 8 5 0's preservationists were primarily reformers teaching that dissension could be cured by a greater regard for the s a c r i f i c e s of the Founding Fathers. However, as the nineteenth century wore on they began to talk more l i k e progressives. They believed that a willingness to pause inside a h i s t o r i c house and to r e f l e c t upon the simple, rugged l i f e of the past would provide an antidote for the m a t e r i a l i s t i c i l l s of the age. By the turn of the century there was an appeal for a new sense of national dedication and i t was argued that old buildings represent an important tool for the Americanization of immigrant children. Somewhat l a t e r , throughout the period of the Spanish-American War and the F i r s t World War, preservationists expressed confidence that v i s i t s to h i s t o r i c s i t e s would serve to create m i l i t a n t l o y a l t y to American t r a d i t i o n s , and a decade l a t e r , i n the 'roaring twenties', the most important c r i t e r i a were aesthetic ones, based on the conviction that an appreciation of beauty and harmony could be gained from h i s t o r i c buildings. To t h i s point the preservation movement had been concerned so l e l y with the protection of s i g n i f i c a n t , single buildings rather than with the preservation of whole d i s t r i c t s . However, the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg i n 1927 was to change a l l that. In that year the m i l l i o n a i r e John D. Rockefeller, J r . decided to implement a plan to restore accurately and preserve for a l l time the most s i g n i f i c a n t portions of an h i s t o r i c and import-ant c i t y of America's c o l o n i a l period. ^ 18 W.M. W h i t e h i l l , 'Promoted to Glory ', With Heritage so Rich, p. 42. 31. With the backing of the Rockefeller fortunes reconstruction and restoration of c o l o n i a l - s t y l e buildings proceeded rapidly, and some six-hundred nineteenth and twentieth century buildings were torn down or removed from the restoration area. Great care was exercised to re-establish the char-acter and atmosphere of c o l o n i a l days. The r e s u l t was a kind of grandiose outdoor museum which proved capable of a t t r a c t i n g several hundred thousand paying v i s i t o r s annually. I f the number of v i s i t o r s and the amount of money drawn i n are at a l l i n d i c a t i v e of success or f a i l u r e , there can be no doubt that Williamsburg i s eminently successful. With the advent of the area of preservation concept a new concern with protective l e g i s l a t i o n began. In 1931 Charleston, South Carolina, became the f i r s t North American c i t y to enact l e g i s l a t i o n creating an o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ('The Old and H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t of Charleston'). Five years later New Orleans followed s u i t and established the Vieux Carre Commission, i n order that the quaint and d i s t i n c t i v e character of the Vieux Carre may not be i n j u r i o u s l y affected, and so that the value of those buildings housing a r c h i t e c t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l worth may not be impaired. ^ Both these h i s t o r i c zoning ordinances permitted continued use of the d i s t r i c t instead of creating a museum/exhibition piece as was the case i n Williamsburg. Further progress i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n was slow u n t i l a f t e r the end of World War 11. By 1950 a t o t a l of s i x United States communities 19 W.M. W h i t e h i l l , 'The Right of C i t i e s To Be B e a u t i f u l ' , With Heritage  so Rich, p. 46. 32. 20 had h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ordinances. In Canada, meanwhile, the City of Montreal had passed i t s " H i s t o r i c or A r t i s t i c Monuments and Sites Act", with the objective, to preserve s i t s and monuments, natural, h i s t o r i c and a r t i s t i c , i n th e i r present state or repaired, depending on the owner's Consent. 21 At t h i s stage the idea of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation rapidly gained widespread popularity. By 1959 the number of U.S. towns and c i t i e s having 22 h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s had increased to twenty-one, and by 1963 there were s i s t y - s i x . ^ only s i x years l a t e r , as of September 30, 1969, the number of States having enabling l e g i s l a t i o n had grown to f o r t y - f i v e and the U.S. national t o t a l of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s created by municipal ordinance had reached 194.^ The growing interest i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation by State and l o c a l governments was paralleled by developments at the Federal l e v e l . 20 These were as follows: Charleston, South Carolina New Orleans, Louisiana Alexandria, V i r g i n i a Williamsburg, V i r g i n i a Winston-Salem, North Carolina Georgetown, D i s t r i c t of Columbia 21 R.E. Hayes, Editor, 'Montreal', Perspectives 63, Montreal, 1963 p. 7. 22 College H i l l , A Demonstration Study of H i s t o r i c Area Renewal, Providence, R.I., 1959, p.5. 23 Montague and Wrenn, Planning for Preservation, pp.18-20. 24 A personal l e t t e r to the author from Mrs. Helen D. Bullock, Historian and Editor of the National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation. Within the National Park Service, for instance, a growing public concern over the rapid s a c r i f i c e s of landmarks of the past to the demands of the present led to the protection and management of an increasing number of nationally s i g n i f i c a n t s i t e s . The number of h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s thus pro-tected has r i s e n from twenty-six i n 1916, when the Service was inaugurated, to sixty-three i n 1935, when the H i s t o r i c Sites Act enunciated a broad 25 national preservation policy; to one hundred and s i x t y - s i x i n 1968. The Federal Government's interest i n h i s t o r i c preservation i s evident i n three other major developments. i . . • . ' (1) In November, 1933 a project was proposed to the Office of National Parks to employ a thousand architects during the depression to prepare a c o l l e c t i o n of measured drawings and photographs of h i s t o r i c buildings 26 throughout the nation. This program, which came to be known as HABS (Histo r i c American Building Survey) came under the guidance of the Federal government i n 1935, with the passing of the H i s t o r i c Sites Act. Considered to be of tremendous value for State and l o c a l preservation a c t i v i t i e s , the Survey was revived under the National Parks Service i n 1957 along with several other notable preservation programs including a Registry of National Landmarks. 25 H i s t o r i c Preservation - P o l i c i e s of The National Park Service, U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r , National Park Service, p. 2. 26 Charles Peterson, 'Thirty Years of HABS', Journal of the American  In s t i t u t e of Architects, November 1963. 34. (2) A second important development was the establishment of the National Trust For Historic Preservation in 1949 under Congressional Charter. This private organization, modelled on Britain's National Trust, has, according to i t s charter, a special responsibility to encourage public participation in preservation throughout the nation; to assist, through i t s activities and services, the forward impetus of the entire preservation movement; and to accept and main-tain historic properties significant in American history and culture, and through this means and otherwise to encourage high preservation and restoration standards. ^7 (3) Thirdly, the newly-created Department of Housing and Urban Develop-ment began to show an Interest in trying to make preservation and urban renewal compatible. Currently, HUD administers, .seven programs to assist local communities in preservation work, which are: i Urban Planning Assistance Program i i Urban Renewal Program i i i Open Space Land Program iv Model Cities Program v Federal Housing Association Mortgage Insurance Program v i Urban Renewal Direct Loan Program 28 v i i Demonstration Grant Program 27 'A Report on Principles and Guidelines for Historic Preservation', Washington, D. 1964, p.8. 28 Preserving Historic America, HUD publication, Washington, 1966. In 1969 fourteen h i s t o r i c preservation projects received grants-in-aid through the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The grants, t o t a l l i n g $990,200, were awarded to State and l o c a l governments to help purchase, restore and improve in d i v i d u a l h i s t o r i c and a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y -29 s i g n i f i c a n t s i t e s and structures. In the United States a l l levels of government have gradually begun to participate i n the preservation movement. This i s not to suggest, however, that interested individuals and l o c a l s o c i e t i e s , which were the mainstay of preservation i n early years, have waned i n importance. Conversely, now that preservation demands j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of private and public e f f o r t , i n d i v i d u a l endeavours are probably of more importance. From the number of buildings protected during the 1960's, from the number of surveys undertaken, from the number of c i t i e s that have introduced h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ordinances, i t i s apparent that the concept of preservation has never had a greater impact on the American people and the i r land than i t has at present. This far-ranging impact has been aptly summarized as follows: Modern preservation i s , therefore, directed toward perpetuating a r c h i t e c t u r a l and aesthetic as well as h i s t o r i c and p a t r i o t i c values; h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l l y notable buildings; ' l i v i n g monuments' as well as h i s t o r i c house museums; grounds and settings, including h i s t o r i c gardens, town squares and t r a d i t i o n a l open space as well as h i s t o r i c a r c h i -tecture; open a i r museums and h i s t o r i c v i l l a g e s 29 HUD News B u l l e t i n , No. 69 - 0746, released September 8, 1969. 36. including c h a r a c t e r i s t i c architecture which cannot be preserved i n places; archaelogical s i t e s , i n -cluding prehistoric v i l l a g e s , earthen mounds, pueblos and other ancient ruins, as well as h i s t o r i c s i t e s with foundations and a r t i f a c t s of successive periods; and objects and i n t e r i o r furnishings from the decorative arts including books and documents, ^ which illuminate our past and inspire the present. I l l MOTIVATION AND JUSTIFICATION FOR DISTRICT PRESERVATION There i s probably no single u n i v e r s a l l y acceptable reason for pre-serving h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s within the North American c i t y . Whereas a lawyer can make a good argument that, -the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i n larger c i t i e s i s an attempt to keep a l i v e the v i l l a g e within the c i t y , 31 , Christopher Tunnard speculates that, I f I were a s o c i a l psychologist I could probably explain the new interest i n the urban past i n terms of latent desire for s t a b i l i t y , for continuity and for personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Since I am not, I w i l l make my f i n a l observation i n humanistic terms: Rehabilitation i s our duty to future generations; i f we destory the past i n i t s v i s i b l e forms we are abandoning the values that enable c i v i l i z a t i o n s to continue and are placing a lower value on the c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s of our an-cestors and of our fellow men. 32 30 H i s t o r i c Preservation Today - A Report on P r i n c i p l e s and Guide-lines For H i s t o r i c Preservation i n the United States, p. 24. : 31 Harry E. White, J r . , Columbia Law Review, A p r i l 1963. '32" Christopher Tunnard, H i s t o r i c Preservation Today, p. 237. 37. Possibly the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for d i s t r i c t preservation most fre-quently heard in planning circles is that the imaginative re-use of existing, but declining, neighbourhoods is a viable alternative to 33 major urban surgery. Reasons offered in support of this argument tend to be practical and are usually based on economic considerations. Depending on one's point of view, then, there are at least six good cases that can be made to j u s t i f y d i s t r i c t preservation. Because each argument is supremely valid for the interest group concerned, a l l six cases merit brief, individual attention here. (1) Distinctiveness of Cities The proponents of this argument suggest that urban North America i s entering an age of increasing uniformity. Urban redevelopment schemes, freeways and parking lots, similar zoning codes and identical building standards; a l l operate to create an increasingly uniform appearance for North American c i t i e s . To counteract this trend i t is important to plan for the preservation of any distinctive area that may exist in a city. Only by such planning can we hope to establish or retain unique c i v i c identity. Invariably the distinctiveness of a special area is derived from i t s historic and architecturally-significant elements. Therefore, what one remembers from a v i s i t to New Orleans is the French Quarter, 33 See, for example, Restoration Report : A Case for Renewed Life  In the Old City, a publication by the Vancouver Planning Department, 1969. 38. in San Francisco i t is Jackson Square and the cablecars, in Boston the historic homes in Beacon H i l l , and from Santa Fe one recalls the Spanish style architecture. In order to highlight a city's distinctiveness i t is essential to preserve these features that make i t different from anywhere else. (2) Tourism Closely tied to the argument for city distinctiveness is that of tourism. It is often necessary to persuade townspeople and merchants that restoration is profitable economically -to prove with figures that legislative safeguards w i l l mean dollars and cents. It is generally suspected that not a l l w i l l benefit from restoration, while an influx of industry w i l l benefit everyone ... It may be necessary therefore, to diminish the historic and aesthetic value of preservation and restoration and treat i t as a practical business venture. 34 The value of d i s t r i c t preservation on a city's tourist trade has been amply demonstrated in New Orleans, which sets the value of income from i t s historic architecture at $150,000,000 annually. 3 5 In 1959 the Real Estate Research Corporation of Chicago conducted a study of the Vieux Carre Dis t r i c t and reported: 34 Montague and Wrenn, Planning for Preservation, p. 8. 35 '• Quoted in Restoration Report: A Case For Renewed Lif e in the  Old City, p. 19. 39. T h e V i e u x C a r r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e s i n g l e l a r g e s t d a y - i n a n d d a y - o u t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o u t o f t o w n v i s i t o r s t h a t e x i s t s a n y w h e r e i n t h e U . S . A l m o s t 8 0 % o f t h e p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d b y u s o n c e r t a i n s t r e e t s i n t h e a r e a l i v e d o u t s i d e New O r l e a n s p r i m a r i l y b y t h e a t t r a c t i o n w h i c h t h e F r e n c h Q u a r t e r p r e s e n t s . . . i t s p r e s e n c e m a k e s New O r l e a n s o n e o f t h e f o u r m o s t ' p o p u l a r ' c o n v e n t i o n c i t i e s i n t h e U . S . . . . t h e V i e u x C a r r e i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e g i o n -a l a n d n a t i o n a l o f f i c e s i n New O r l e a n s . . . . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , o n e o f t h e s i n g l e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s i n t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e o f t h e c i t y . . . . t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y s t r e n g t h o f t h e r e t a i l , h o t e l a n d o f f i c e m a r k e t s i n t h e c o r e a r e a o f New O r l e a n s i s a g a i n i n f l u e n c e d f a v o u r a b l y b y t h e a d j a c e n c y o f t h e c o r e a r e a t o t h e V i e u x C a r r e . ^6 With the growth of the t o u r i s t industry ( i n 1964, twnety-nine 37 states l i s t e d tourism as one of t h e i r three largest i n d u s t r i e s ) ' with an increasing population, increasing, l e i s u r e time, and, increasing disposable incomes, i t seems l i k e l y that the tourism argument for d i s t r i c t preservation w i l l gain i n importance.38 In f a c t , the t o u r i s t industry i s already so important that a V i r g i n i a s tate o f f i c i a l opening a new v i s i t o r center at C o l o n i a l Williamsburg some years ago, maintained that the Commonwealth could have j u s t i f i e d the r e s t o r a t i o n of Williamsburg through added revenues from gasoline taxes alone, even though at that time more 39 than $60 m i l l i o n had already been spent on r e s t o r a t i o n there. ; .36• • • . * Economic Survey Of The Central Area of New Orleans, (Chicago 1959) pp. 4-5. 37 . Lewis, C. Copeland, North Carolina's $968 m i l l i o n Travel Service Industry, North Carolina Travel Service, Raleigh, 1964. 38 A conclusion of the American ORRRC Report was that the U.S. populat-ion would double and the demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n would t r e b l e by the year 2000, ORRRC, 1962. 39 . Montague and Wrenn, Planning for Preservation, p. 15. 40. (3) Increased Real Estate Values Another economic advantage associated with d i s t r i c t preservation i s that a sharp r i s e i n r e a l estate values generally accompanies restor-ation a c t i v i t y . A good example i s provided by Beacon H i l l . In 1955 the Beacon H i l l C i v i c Association succeeded i n establishing the Beacon H i l l H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t , covering an area of twenty-two acres on the edge of the down town. The effect of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l control law, which was adopted at that time, has been to s t a b i l i z e and increase r e a l estate values i n the d i s t r i c t . Realtors use 'In The H i s t o r i c a l Beacon H i l l D i s t r i c t ' i n t h e i r advertisement, and explain the law to the i r customers. In 1955, nine properties sold by one area r e a l t o r showed an assessed value of $221,000 and a sale value of $233,000, an assessed value of 98% of the sale value. In 1962, the same re a l t o r sold seven properties with an assessed value of $112,200 for $321,600, or 35% of the sale price. This seemingly indicates that r e a l estate values have almost t r i p l e d even though assessed values i n this section are higher than i n any other area of the c i t y . In a study of r e s i d e n t i a l properties for 1960 and 1961 with the assessed values, the Boston Municipal Research Bureau found that Ward Five, which includes Beacon H i l l , averages 42.37» of sale value as compared with 40.3% for the t o t a l c i t y . ^0 In other cases the increase i n r e a l estate values has been even more marked. A comparative study of property values of restored versus unrestored single-family dwellings i n the H i s t o r i c Church H i l l D i s t r i c t 40 Quoted by Montague and Wrenn i n Planning for Preservation, p.9. 41. in Richmond, Virginia revealed the following: The percentage of rise in assessed value for restored buildings over a five year period was 1367., whereas unrestored buildings on the same street only increased 307.. Houses in both blocks were similar in design and size and i n i t i a l l y had equivalent values.^ The j u s t i f i c a t i o n for historic d i s t r i c t preservation furnished by increased real property values is particularly appealing to local govern-ment, which stands to gain through rising property taxes, and, in some U.S. cases, through increased sales and income taxes. (4) Cultural Heritage An argument put forth by a l l levels of government, by voluntary organizations, and by dedicated individuals i s basically the urgent need to preserve 'our cultural heritage' or 'cultural p a t r i m o n y ' R e a s o n s given in support of this argument are usually based on educational and spi r i t u a l purposes. Above a l l , there is an underlying assumption i n this argument that preserving the 'cultural heritage' for succeeding generations i s the cardinal purpose of d i s t r i c t preservation and that any other benefits are only incidental. An exemplary quotation i s provided in the foreword of a HUD preservation guide. — ; — — Ibid., pp. 11-12. 42 See especially, Christopher Tunnard's a r t i c l e , 'Preserving the Cultural Patrimony', in Future Environments of North America, Garden City, N.Y. 1966, pp.552-576. 42. Over the past few years, conviction has grown that one v i t a l aspect of a dynamic urban program i s the recognition, care, and use of those parts of the physical environment embodying our heritage and culture. Homes and commercial buildings from an e a r l i e r time have much to teach us about ourselves, add grace to a community, refresh the eye, and emphasize the beauty of newer lines and forms. Open spaces of h i s t o r i c significance add to the pleasure of a community while reminding us of events of an e a r l i e r era. A section of homes, stores and structures preserved or restored i n an adaptive way may become the focus of a neighbourhood, or spark the redevelopment of a decaying area. 43 A ' l i v i n g history' i n the form of a concentration of h i s t o r i c buildings i s thought to be of considerable educational value. In th i s regard one writer suggest that, The exploration of the c i t y becomes a means of learning -about the l i f e and habits born from the very s o i l and circumstances of the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y , as wel l as the traditions', customs, languages of whatever people may have come to v i s i t or to stay and make this place their home. 44 Advocates for the 'preserving the c u l t u r a l heritage' argument f e e l that continuity with the past, made possible by the preservation of physical structures, permits present and future generations to gain a better understanding of both the past and present, and th i s understanding and awareness germinates our ideas for the future. 43 Grants For H i s t o r i c Preservation - A HUD Guide, March 1968, p. Foreword. 44 Abraham Rogatnick, Restoration Report; A Case for Renewed L i f e  i n the Old Ci t y , op. c i t . , p. 6. 43. (5) Aesthetics and Design I t i s not enough to l i v e i n a beautiful home - even though that should have a high p r i o r i t y In our desires -i f we have to go to work, possibly even to an a t t r a c t i v e o f f i c e , store or factory, through congested t r a f f i c , past unsightly junkyards, screaming b i l l b o a r d s , un-at t r a c t i v e and unnecessary telephone and e l e c t r i c poles and wires, dilapidated and unimaginative housing, run-down hamburger stands, and indiscriminately zoned commercial properties.45 A f i f t h case for d i s t r i c t preservation can be made simply on the grounds of good aesthetics and design. Those areas of the c i t y which possess p a r t i c u l a r aesthetic q u a l i t i e s which contemporary architecture cannot duplicate should not be allowed to disappear. I t i s i n the public interest to have well-designed c i t i e s , i f for no other reason than, , because s o c i o l o g i c a l arid psychological research has made i t apparent that the design of our buildings and c i t i e s has a marked bearing on mental h e a l t h , ^ s o c i a l attitudes and l i f e styles.47 (6) Variety and Diversity A great c i t y .... does not seek to be a melting pot, reducing a l l Its myriad ingredients to a uniform grey porridge, making every street a r e p l i c a of a l l the others, but allows and even encourages each part to become and to remain dif f e r e n t from the r e s t , and to express i t s uniqueness as emphatically as i t w i l l . 45 K a r l L. Falk 'The Ugly American C i t y ' , Journal of Housing, v o l 18 No. 11 December 1961, p. 495. 46 See, for example, Humphrey Osmond's a r t i c l e 'Some Psychiatric Aspects of Design', Who Designs America?, Garden C i t y , N.Y. 1965, pp.281-318. 47 S.M. Farber, 'Quality of Li v i n g - Stress and C r e a t i v i t y ' i n Future  Environments of North America, pp.342-353. 48 Abraham Rogatnick,'The Basic Premise' Restoration Report . . . pp.6-7, 44. A diverse and varied townscape i s considered an essential ingredient of a successful c i t y . Writers such as Jane Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, and Anselm Strauss never t i r e of.emphasizing t h i s point. The Urban Renewal Administration, i n a pamphlet c a l l e d 'Selecting Areas for Conservation' stresses the importance of variety and d i v e r s i t y . Look for v i t a l i t y .... the essential quality .... that can t i p the balance between success or f a i l u r e i n con-servation projects .... (Does the area have character, one of the q u a l i t i e s that can provide v i t a l i t y ? ) . Character i s a looseknit term used here to describe the general f e e l i n g an area conveys of being a pleasant or undesirable place to l i v e . I t i s not linked to general rules on physical factors such as age of structures, the width of streets, and the number of people per acre. I t i s the t o t a l effect of appearance and atmosphere. I t may be attributable to: (a) pleasant openness or well-organized closeness; (b) enough variety i n building placement and types to lend i n t e r e s t ; (c) a r c h i t e c t u r a l design of good proportion and l i n e . This kind of character and charm often mellows with age. I f you fi n d i t , c a p i t a l i z e on i t . This q u a l i t y has been an essential ingredient i n case after case, when, against heavey odds, an older area has retained the v i t a l i t y through the years, and has been able to make a successful comback. 49 IV FOUR LANDMARKS IN DISTRICT PRESERVATION The idea of preserving h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s i s now nearly f i f t y years old i n North America. Throughout this f i f t y year period a great deal of 49 Urban Renewal Technical Guide 3, Selecting Areas for Conservation. (Washington, D.C.). 45. progress has been made not merely i n the effectiveness of ar c h i t e c t u r a l controls but also i n the qua l i t y of planning performed along the way. To a large extent the widely publicized success of certain pioneer projects has influenced developments elsewhere. Four such landmarks i n d i s t r i c t preservation are discussed below. (1) Beacon H i l l , Boston, Massachusetts The Beacon H i l l C i v i c Association i s generally regarded as a pioneer i n engineering the passage of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n . In 1956, a year after i t secured the passage of the Beacon H i l l Law, the Association recorded and published a detailed account of the method employed i n the process. 5^ P r o f i t i n g from i t s experience, the Association offered a wealth of advice to other communities contemplating an h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to establish precisely how much influence the Beacon H i l l experience has had on subsequent projects elsewhere. Nevertheless, one clear indication of i t s value to other communities exists i n the unexpected demand for the publication. The American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , which copyrighted and began publishing Preservation of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s By Arc h i t e c t u r a l Control i n 1956, reports that i t has distributed the brochure to thousands of interested associations and individuals. Demand 50 John Codman, Preservation of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s by Arc h i t e c t u r a l Controls. 46. for the brochure i s so great that even now, fourteen years after the report was prepared, ASPO i s considering another large reprint. The program used to obtain the Beacon H i l l Law involved f i v e 52 i d e n t i f i a b l e components. These are: (1) The f i r s t stage i n the program, consisted of a c a r e f u l l y planned time schedule. Timing was considered the 'skeleton' for a l l other a c t i v i t i e s . (2) Linked to the timing component, a t i g h t l y structured d i v i s i o n ^of labour was developed. This component, considered the 'nerves and muscles' of the program, included a small steering committee to plan a c t i v i t i e s and a larger working committee to perform such tasks as: research, p u b l i c i t y , finance, drafting the law, arranging neighbourhood meetings, and so for t h . (3) A t h i r d component involved searching out relevant information and e n l i s t i n g l o c a l support. (4) The fourth step was to cover the framework with 'flesh and clothes', c a l l e d 'Details'. Details included such items as: persuading an e x i s t i n g , respected organization to act as sponsor, conducting a thorough survey of the area, e n l i s i n g speakers, " 51 This was learned by the author through personal correspondence with ASPO. 52 Preservation of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s by Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Control, pp. 16-18. 47. holding mass meetings, and educating property owners i n the d i s t r i c t as to the law and how i t would affect them. (5) A f i f t h component that emerged from a l l t h is i s c a l l e d 'Materials Accumulated'. This includes helpful documents and tools picked up during the campaign. Most of this material proved to be p a r t i c u l a r l y useful to other communities. (2) College H i l l , Providence, Rhode Island The College H i l l demonstration study, completed i n 1959 with the assistance of a Federal grant, had dual purpose. F i r s t and foremost, i t provided the c i v i c o f f i c i a l s and residents of Providence with a detailed plan for the restoration and renewal of the i r o r i g i n a l seventeenth century settlement; and, secondly, i t developed ideas and techniques which could prove h e l p f u l to other c i t i e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to renew or preserve h i s t o r i c areas. Although a s c i e n t i f i c evaluation of the study's impact on North American h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation practice i s not attempted here, there i s evidence that the College H i l l report has had ample r a m i f i -cations elsewhere. One notable example of i t s influence i s seen i n the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Development Plan for Wilmington, North Carolina.^3 In this plan two d i s t i n c t aspects of the College H i l l Study have been infused into the planning process. These two aspects are: 53 See: Wilmington, North Carolina, H i s t o r i c Area: A Part of the Future Land Use Plan (Wilmington, 1962), H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Development Plan, (Wilmington 1968). 48-(1) the concept of bringing h i s t o r i c architecture into l i v i n g use i n the contemporary worlds, and, (2) the development and use of a sophisticated survey technique. Both of these aspects are discussed below. The Federal Government supported the College H i l l Study on the basis that the area was s u f f i c i e n t l y t y p i c a l of other 'depressed' areas i n the United States. Its problems were, indeed, by no means unique. In 1959 the area contained overcrowded slums and neglected and worn-out buildings. Some of i t s most important h i s t o r i c buildings, r a p i d l y sinking into urban b l i g h t , were i n dire need of attention were they to survive. Moreover, the area contained narrow streets choked with heavy t r a f f i c , and parking problems were severe. I t was immediately acknowledged that the problems of College H i l l l were not only those of h i s t o r i c preservation but that they encompassed the renewal of a severely rundown part of the c i t y and hence the broad range of a l l c i t y planning factors must be considered. Emphasis was placed on r e h a b i l i t a t i v e measures and the techniques of adapting h i s t o r i c structures for contemporary use wherever possible was f i r m l y advocated. I t was f e l t that the fewer museums the better, and that many more structures could be saved i f a p r a c t i c a l function could be found for them. The College H i l l report emphasizes seven reasons why a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t would be an a t t r a c t i v e place to l i v e i n and use. These are: 49. (1) the unusual character of the neighbourhood and the prestige of l i v i n g i n a h i s t o r i c area. (2) the i n t e g r i t y of the architecture. (3) the fin e sense of human scale of the environment. (4) the renewed interest i n American histo r y and culture. (5) the adventure and challenge i n renovating a rundown structure. (6) the greater value received i n expenditure for shelter i n terms of space compared with new construction. (7) the value placed on homes as antiques as they are i n limited number. ^4 The study report provided a l i s t i n g of possible uses for various types of buildings i n the d i s t r i c t . Based on this groundwork and with a great deal of l o c a l promotion College H i l l was successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d as a h i s t o r i c a l l y r i c h environment and a l i v i n g community. The second major contribution of the College H i l l Demonstration Study to o v e r a l l h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation practice consists of a sophisticated set of techniques for i d e n t i f y i n g and evaluating s i g n i f i c a n t structures. These techniques include: aj l i s t of c r i t e r i a to judge the worth of a building, an operational description of the methods devised . for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and evaluation of s i g n i f i c a n t buildings, and a system for recording and charting information. The survey techniques developed i n the College H i l l study represent a s i g n i f i c a n t departure from thinking which had been i n vogue u n t i l then. Previously the, c r i t e r i a set up by the National Park Service and the 54 College H i l l - A Demonstration Study of H i s t o r i c Area Renewal (1959), p. 4. 50. National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation had been widely used i n est a b l i s h -ing p r i o r i t y ratings for h i s t o r i c structures. Both these agencies had stressed national significance of a building either by v i r t u e of association with h i s t o r i c personages or through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with h i s t o r i c events. College H i l l for the f i r s t time, acknowledged that c i t i e s are the product of continuing development, and i t accentuated heterogeneity i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s . The. survey techniques respect the i n t e g r i t y and s a l i e n t q u a l i t i e s of each a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and seeks to ensure a physical integration of the past and the present. . - • ' / • ' A major consideration incorporated into the survey techniques i ' .' ' . ' • therefore involves an evaluation of groupings of buildings surviving i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l setting as opposed to the preservation of i s o l a t e d , out-standing monuments. Groupings of surviving related buildings, i t was f e l t , can explain the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of past eras and can give an added c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c dimension to the modern c i t y i n ways that single monuments cannot. Subsequently, an e f f o r t was made to preserve entire early neighbour-hoods within the College H i l l d i s t r i c t , keeping them i n active use and paying attention to the i r appearance, the elements of their settings such as yeards, trees, shrubs, pavements, outbuildings, and t h e i r placement i n r e l a t i o n to sidewalks and streets. Based on these considerations a very simple kind of survey score card was constructed on which were added together ind i v i d u a l judgments on the following points: 51. (1) The h i s t o r i c significance of a building; whether i t was associated with an important figure i n the distant or even recent past. (2) The structure's a r c h i t e c t u r a l merit or significance as an example of i t s s t y l e . (3) The building's importance to neighbourhood i n t e g r i t y or character, i t s relationship to other structures; whether i t reinforces their worth or detracts from them. (4) The extent to which the o r i g i n a l design has been allowed to deteriorate or change; whether there has been t a s t e f u l or wasteful use of the o r i g i n a l building. (5) A broad judgment as to the physical condition of the i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g , i t s grounds and i t s environment, lending weight to the f i n a n c i a l implications of preservation or restoration. Each of these factors was weighted d i f f e r e n t l y , with h i s t o r y and a r c h i -t e c t u r a l worth counting most heavily, for a possible t o t a l of 100 points. (3) Report of a Special Committee on H i s t o r i c Preservation In 1966 the Special Committee on H i s t o r i c Preservation released i t s findings and recommendations and brought about escalated national involve-ment i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation. The committee had been set up a year e a r l i e r to study the entire f i e l d of h i s t o r i c preservation i n the United States with the purpose of suggesting a program to encourage and a s s i s t Federal, State, and l o c a l government as w e l l as private agencies and 52. individuals i n their preservation a c t i v i t i e s . The study, which was con-ducted under the auspices of the United States Conference of Mayors and was made possible with a grant from the Ford Foundation, states i n i t s conclusion: The pace of urbanization i s accelerating and the threat to our environmental heritage i s mounting; i t w i l l take more than the sounding of periodic alarms to stem the tide . The United States i s a nation and a people on the move. I t i s i n an era of mobility and change. Every year 207. of the population moves from i t s place of residence. The r e s u l t i s a fe e l i n g of rootlessness combined with a longing for those landmarks of the past which give us a sense of s t a b i l i t y and belonging. I f the preservation movement i s to be successful, i t must go beyond saving bricks and mortar. I t must go beyond saving occasional h i s t o r i c houses and opening museums. I t must be more than a c u l t of antiquarians. I t must do more than revere a few precious national shrines. I t must attempt to give a sense of orientation to our society, using structures and objects of the past to establish values of time and place. / ~ The report emphasized that successful preservation i n an era of rapid change and i n s t a b i l i t y must look beyond the in d i v i d u a l building or landmark - i t must concern i t s e l f with h i s t o r i c and a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y valued areas and d i s t r i c t s which embody a special value for the community. A h i s t o r i c neighbourhood, a fine old street of houses, a v i l l a g e green, a c o l o r f u l market place, a courthouse square, an aesthetic q u a l i t y of the townscape - a l l must f a l l w ithin the ambit of the preservation challenge. The report issued i t s cardinal caveat i n the following terms, 55 With Heritage So Rich - A Report of a Special Committee on H i s t o r i c Preservation, p. 207. 53. i t makes l i t t l e sense to fi g h t for the preservation of a h i s t o r i c house set between two service stations, and at the same time to ignore an entire area of special charm or importance i n the community which i s being nibbled away by incompatible uses or slow decay. 56 Based on these convictions the Committee formulated a national plan of action. I t outlined the need for s i x national undertakings. These are: 1. A comprehensive statement of national policy to guide the a c t i v i t i e s and programs of a l l Federal agencies. 2. The establishment of an Advisory Council on H i s t o r i c Preser-vation to provide leadership and guidance for the di r e c t i o n of inter-agency actions and to provide l i a i s o n with State and l o c a l governments, public and private groups, and the general public. 3. A greatly expanded National Register program to inventory and to catalogue communities, areas, structures, s i t e s , and objects, a Federal program of assistance to states and l o c a l i t i e s for comparison programs; and a strong Federal public information program based on the material in the Register. 56 With Heritage So Rich - A Report of A Special Committee On  H i s t o r i c Preservation, p. 208. 54. 4. Added authority and s u f f i c i e n t funds for Federal a c q u i s i t i o n of threatened buildings, and s i t e s of national importance, and expansion of the urban renewal program to permit l o c a l non-cash contributions to include a c q u i s i t i o n of h i s t o r i c buildings i n the National Register, both within and outside the project area. 5. Provision for Federal loans and grants and other f i n a n c i a l a i d to f a c i l i t i e s and expansion of state and l o c a l programs of h i s t o r i c preservation. 6. Federal f i n a n c i a l aid to and through the National Trust For i H i s t o r i c Preservation to a s s i s t private interests and a c t i v i t y i . • i n the preservation f i e l d , for educational purposes and for d i r e c t assistance to private property holders. (4) The Vieux Carre Demonstration Study The r e a l impact of the Vieux Carre Demonstration Study on h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation i n North America remains to be seen. The purpose of the study, completed i n December 1968, was outlined by the Bureau of Governmental Research as follows: to provide the C i t y of New Orleans, i t s agencies, and interested private groups and organizations the means whereby they may collaborate s a t i s f a c t o r i l y to create essential and permanent programs needed to preserve the i d e n t i t y and importance of the Vieux Carre; and to provide for other communities i n the United States, interested i n the preservation of their h i s t o r i c areas, general guidelines, as well as s p e c i f i c examples of 55. methods to be used, i n the preparation and administration of h i s t o r i c preservation p l a n s . ^ In keeping with the f i r s t of these two broad purposes, the re-commended plan and action program for the preservation of the Vieux Carre does, indeed, constitute a highly sophisticated vehicle through which l o c a l collaboration can be channeled. The planning and pol i c y recommend-ations of the study are based, without a doubt, on the most extensive analysis of physical, s o c i a l , economic, legal and administrative factors ever undertaken for a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i n North America. Of greater significance to the o v e r a l l preservation movement, however, i s the introduction and exposition of two novel d i s t r i c t preser-vation concepts, p a r t i c u l a r l y pertinent at t h i s point i n time. Perhaps the single most important of these i s the 'tout ensemble' concept. The notion of tout ensemble derives from a recognition that the genius of the Vieux Carre, and the same applies to most of North America's h i s t o r i c areas, i s to be found i n i t s environmental unity. I t i s based on the b e l i e f that i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s the whole i s invariably greater than the sum of i t s parts. Consequently, the approach taken i n the Vieux Carre study i s clo s e l y a l l i e d to the conviction that a preservation e f f o r t , in order to be successful, should be directed at the sum t o t a l e f f e c t , buildings plus environment. 57 Vieux Carre Demonstration Study, Plan and Program. 56. The second major contribution of the study l i e s i n i t s l u c i d analysis of pressures for change and thei r place i n the planning approach. The necessity for change, even i n a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t , must be understood and accepted. Pressures for change manifest themselves i n the tout ensemble i n a v a r i e t y of ways, subtle and overt, and the product of this interaction over time may or may not give a d i s t r i c t h i s t o r i c a l continuity. The Vieux Carre study accepts that the French Quarter, i s the present product of t h i s kind of int e r a c t i o n extending over two and a hal f centuries. A r c h i -t e c t u r a l l y no single s t y l e predominates. Rather the Quarter i s a kaleidoscope of styles and periods expressing i t s highly diverse c u l t u r a l evolution, the Quarter's evolution i s re f l e c t e d , as w e l l , i n i t s mix of a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l groups.58 In b r i e f , the challenge of preservation planning, as viewed i n the Vieux Carre study, l i e s i n the problem of guiding h i s t o r i c a l continuity. E s s e n t i a l l y this means channelling change to assure the extension of a past continuity into the future. Consequently, preservation planning must be concerned with the q u a l i t y as we l l as the type and quantity of change that may be permitted i n a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . The new concepts of tout ensemble and the necessity of accommodating the new properly to the old are analysed i n depth i n the Vieux Carre study. F i r s t , the physical components of the tout ensemble i n the Quarter are defined. They include: 58 I b i d . , p. 3. 1. Single man-made objects including buildings, street fur n i t u r e , and other a r t i f a c t s . 2. Combinations or ar c h i t e c t u r a l features including street facades, other groups and masses of structures, and boundary forms. 3. Open spaces and landscape features together with the natural features of topgraphy and water. 4. Landmarks and other points of v i s u a l dominance, viewpoints, and v i s t a s . 5. H i s t o r i c places associated with past events or important personalities and groups, and physical elements having present associations - points of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y ( i n s t i t u t i o n s , churches, museums, etc.) - that do not at th i s time necessarily have h i s t o r i c s ignificance. 59 6. Buildings of a r c h i t e c t u r a l and h i s t o r i c significance. As part of the Demonstration Study extensive f i e l d surveys were conducted to inventory each of these physical components of the tout ensemble. Next, a second set of basic data, c a l l e d the 'functional components', (1) the land use of each parcel of property - separate analysis of ground l e v e l use and of the predominant use of the parcel. (2) examination of the use of each building to determine i t s compatibility with the environmental surroundings. 59 I b i d . , p. 3. 58. Incompatible functions were thus i d e n t i f i e d on a parcel by parcel basis. This kind of survey technique, based upon environmental c r i t e r i a and employing an.advanced rating system, represents a major advance of the older method described i n the College H i l l Study. F i n a l l y , a comprehensive range of supplementary studies concerned with physical, s o c i a l , and economic conditions, transportation, and development potentials were conducted to determine the broad parameters of change a f f e c t i n g the Vieux Carre. This data was analysed to determine the r e l a t i v e importance of various forms of change either currently operating or expected to influence the Vieux Carre's physical, s o c i a l , and economic character during the next several decades. Based upon th i s kind of detailed analysis, the Vieux Carre Plan i s conceived e s s e n t i a l l y as a guidance mechanism to improve everyday decisions dealing with what structures and a c t i v i t i e s i n the d i s t r i c t should be preserved; what should be eliminated; and what should be developed i n the future. The emphasis i s on careful and continuous planning. V THE PRESERVATION PLANNING PROCESS My hope i s to dispel the idea, so widely and u n c r i t i c a l l y held, that c i t i e s are a kind of grand accident, beyond the control of the human w i l l , and that they respond only to some immutable law. I content that human w i l l can be exercised e f f e c t i v e l y on our c i t i e s now, so that the form that they take w i l l be a true expression of the highest aspirations of our c i v i l i z a t i o n . Edmund N. Bacon (Design of C i t i 59 An underlying assumption of this thesis i s that c i t y planning and d i s t r i c t preservation planning, as processes, are i d e n t i c a l . Both operate within the same conceptual framework. This assumption gains focus p a r t i c u l a r l y i n respect to the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinance. Zoning, l i k e planning, represents a means to an end - never an end i n i t s e l f . Therefore one of the shibboleths of planning theory infers that to place zoning of any kind, f i r s t , or to zone without a we11-documented plan, re-f l e c t i n g c l e a r l y defined goals, i s a dangerous confusion of p r i o r i t i e s . Properly drawn and administered, however, and placed i n a planning context h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning constitutes a valuable tool with which to preserve a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t as wel l as to a l l e v i a t e other problems that may plague an area. Planning, be i t for the preservation of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t or to seek workable solutions to any of the urban predicaments, invariably involves the same four stage process. The f i r s t stage consists i n determining goals. The second stage i s research or data c o l l e c t i o n and the study of pertinent facts as they affect the goals. The t h i r d stage involves actual plan p o l i c y guidelines. The f i n a l stage i s implementing the plan or doing something to carry i t out. Highly s i m p l i f i e d , this i s the conceptual framework, and the process i t s e l f - v i z . determining goals, research, plan preparation, and implementation, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l suited to the preservation of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . When the above process i s applied to h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t planning a recurrent pattern emerges. F i r s t , the ov e r a l l goals tend to be f a i r l y 60. comprehensive, aiming ultimately at preservation of structures of acknowledged value and conservation of the d i s t r i c t ' s h i s t o r i c environ-ment, but s t r i v i n g also to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with s o c i a l and economic repercussions. Next, preservation planners have to contend with the need for thorough research and documentation of the plan and i t s goals. The q u a l i t y of such- l o c a l research i s bound to be d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d i n the effectiveness of the plan and i t has proved c r i t i c a l l y important i f 60 the h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance i s to stand up i n court. When the necessary studies of the h i s t o r i c area have been adequately carried out, the next stage t y p i c a l l y involves the drawing up of a s p e c i f i c plan for the d i s t r i c t . This plan normally indicates which buildings ( h i s t o r i c or otherwise) are to be kept or changed, where open spaces are to be acquired, what changes are needed i n the street pattern, what alter a t i o n s are desirable i n the land use pattern, where parking and other public f a c i l i t i e s are needed, and so fo r t h . I t i s important that such an area plan i s t i e d i n to the larger plan for the c i t y as a whole. At t h i s point the protracted task of implementing the plan commences. The implementation stage i s never r e a l l y completed. The range of techniques for this task and their r e l a t i v e usefulness i s an important facet of this thesis. For the sake of completeness i t i s suggested here that implementation of the plan usually involves: c o n t r o l l i n g (somehow) the uses of property i n 60 On t h i s point, see, for example, John Codman, Preservation of  H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s by A r c h i t e c t u r a l Control. 61. the d i s t r i c t , r a i s i n g money to acquire important structure, eliminating undesirable uses, and providing and maintaining f a c i l i t i e s for the project. 62. CHAPTER 111 GENERAL SURVEY RESPONSE By February 28, 1970, a t o t a l of t h i r t y - f i v e responses to the survey l e t t e r had been r e c e i v e d . T h i s represents a s l i g h t l y better than 50% return, which for the purposes of the study i s considered more than adequate, Of the t h i r t y - f i v e c i t i e s that r e p l i e d , twenty-nine returned a completed questionnaire. These twenty-nine responses have been tabulated and are discussed i n general terms i n the following chapter. Reasons offered for f a i l i n g to complete the questionnaire -Six responses to the survey l e t t e r f a i l e d to produce a completed questionnaire. The reasons for t h i s f a i l u r e are s i g n i f i c a n t i n themselves and, thus, are examined here i n some d e t a i l . (1) Both Tampa, Fl o r i d a and San Juan, Puerto Rico furnished in t e r e s t i n g background material on their h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s but referred the questionnaire to another in d i v i d u a l who has direct r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the project. No further communication was received before February 28. (2) The response from Washington, D.C. indicated that, although the area i n question contains seven r e s i d e n t i a l structures of h i s t o r i c 61 Since that date f i v e additional responses have been received from: Rochester, New York; Frederick, Massachusetts; Tampa, F l o r i d a ; Concord, Massachusetts; and Mobile, Alabama. 63. and architectural' merit which have been re h a b i l i t a t e d by private developers, t h i s endeavour cannot be accurately described as the 62 preservation of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . (3) The planning department of Norfolk, V i r g i n i a completed an area preservation study i n December, 1965, setting forth a series of proposals for h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning. The survey response from Norfolk indicated, however,that no s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s complete with appropriate controls had yet been inaugurated. The respondent states that "we are i n the process of developing back-ground studies to create appropriate d i s t r i c t s under the h i s t o r i c 63 and c u l t u r a l conservation provisions i n our zoning ordinance". (4) The town of Southampton, New York i s currently i n a simi l a r position to Norfolk, although e f f o r t s here are on a mush smaller scale. Southampton, population 4,582 (1960), has not created a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t subsequent to the adoption of enabling regulations i n i t s zoning ordinance i n 1962. The l o c a l Planning Board advises that "we are now doing a Master Plan and our consultants have recommended h i s t o r i c a l sights and areas for preservation; t h i s 64 i s as far as we have advanced to date". 62 A personal l e t t e r from the D i s t r i c t of Columbia Land Redevelopment Agency, dated February 3, 1970. The area i n question i s the Southwest Urban Renewal Project where new construction i s required to c a r e f u l l y respect the scale and texture of the h i s t o r i c houses. 63 A l e t t e r from the Norfolk Department of Ci t y Planning, February 3, 1970. 64 A l e t t e r from the Southampton Planning Board, January 26, 1970. 64. (5) Perhaps of greatest interest i s the response from the town of Glastonbury, Connecticut. This small community (population not given i n the census) possesses a Heritage Committee and a H i s t o r i c a l Society, both of which act i n a watch-dog capacity but are lacking any legal basis with which they can enforce a r c h i t e c t u r a l or st r u c t u r a l regulations. Glastonbury, along with a number of other Connecticut m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , prepared a. draft amendment to i t s zoning ordinance creating a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t and a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t commission under a b i l l adopted by the State Legislature i n 1962. The required 65 referendum to establish such a d i s t r i c t was defeated c i r c a 1965. The explanation for t h i s defeat presents a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i t u a t i o n , and, thus, i s quoted here i n f u l l : "Our experience with a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t was less than successful. I n i t i a l l y support for the establishment of such a d i s t r i c t just south of the business center came from the Heritage Committee appointed by the Town Council, a number of families owning h i s t o r i c a l houses within the area, and the l o c a l H i s t o r i c a l Society. Support for the creation of the D i s t r i c t was c a r e f u l l y organized and included a series of public hearings, research into the histor y and architecture of the structures i n the d i s t r i c t , and mailings to and personal v i s i t s with property owners i n the area. A H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Study Commission, created during t h i s period, was instrumental i n carrying out these a c t i v i t i e s . The H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t was, i n f a c t , created under the then e x i s t i n g state l e g i s l a t i o n . However, state l e g i s l a t i o n was la t e r passed which, among other things, required a 65 A l e t t e r from the Town Planner, Glastonbury, Connecticut, January 23, 1970. 65. referendum, an extraordinary majority, and exclusion Of certain types of owners from voting. The l e g i s -lature also made i t possible for j o i n t owners to cast i n d i v i d u a l votes. The l e g i s l a t u r e e f f e c t i v e l y caused the demise of the Glastonbury H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t . Although the majority of •the single-family home owners favored the project (and, i n f a c t , a majority of voters within the d i s t r i c t favored i t s continuance), there were not enough favorable votes to s a t i s f y the 75% majority requirement. The e l i g i b -i l i t y requirements for voting were written to exclude a church, the Town, and the H i s t o r i c a l Society, a l l of which owned or controlled one or more pieces of property i n the d i s t r i c t . The opposition centered on persons who s i n -cerely opposed the establishment of the d i s t r i c t on con-s t i t u t i o n a l grounds and a group of investors (many con-s i s t i n g of partnerships) who expect an eventual extension of the business d i s t r i c t into the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t or who had bought property for income purposes. The requirements for a 75%, majority i s a s t i f f one. In order to gain this support, not only people i n the area need be f u l l y informed about a l l phases of the d i s t r i c t , but also the types of ownership i n the d i s t r i c t must be analysed i n d e t a i l . We found that-Single-family owner-occupiers; whoptake pride i n the i r homes, almost unani-mously supported the d i s t r i c t while absentee owners of vacant lots almost unanimously opposed i t . Another factor which influenced the voting results was that most properties owned by landlords were i n the names of two or three persons, each e n t i t l e d to a vote, while most owner-occupied property was i n the name of one or two persons". ^ Position of the respondent and depth of response The twenty-nine completed questionnaires which form the base of this study constitute a body of professional opinion widely variated i n terms of depth and c l a r i t y . Undoubtedly, the o f f i c i a l position of each respondent 66 A l e t t e r from the Town of Glastonbury, Connecticut. 66. has a s i g n i f i c a n t bearing on the manner i n which the questions were approach-ed. In t h i s regard, i t was generally found that when the respondent i s a member of the planning profession or holds an administrative position on a municipal authority the depth of response, p a r t i c u l a r l y to the 'B' section of the questionnaire, tends to be greater. Moreover, i n describing a c t i v i t i e s i n support of the goals, the professionals tend to emphasize o v e r a l l strategies and procedures, while the non-planners concentrate more on describing actual physical development i n the d i s t r i c t . For the purposes of this study, both types of responses are useful. Another s i g n i f i c a n t factor influencing the nature of response i s the purely subjective attitude of the respondent to the project. In this regard, i t was found that some individuals take an extremely p o s i t i v e , enthusiastic attitude to their c i t y ' s project and zealously rate most goals as being r e a l i s e d 'very successfully'. Other responses indicate greater o b j e c t i v i t y and occasionally a touch of skepticism i n the mind of the respondent. The a c t i v i t i e s c i t e d i n support of each goal provided a p a r t i a l check and balance on the respondent's i n i t i a l reaction to each goal under consideration. Frequently, the assigned goal achievement r a t i n g was raised or lowered following the respondent's attempt to c i t e supporting a c t i v i t i e s . Table 1 shows the o f f i c i a l p o sition of the respondent for each of the projects surveyed. As can be seen from t h i s table, eighteen questionnaires, or approximately 62% of the responses came from people d i r e c t l y involved i n planning matters. The remaining 387. of the questionnaires were completed 67. TABLE 1 LIST OF MUNICIPALITIES SURVEYED INDICATING POSITION OF RESPONDENT CITY OR TOWN STATE OR PROVINCE OFFICIAL POSITION OF RESPONDENT 1. L i t t l e Rock Arkansas Rehabilitation-Restoration Administrator. 2. V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h Columbia Planning O f f i c e r . 3. Fremont C a l i f o r n i a Associate Planner. 4. Sacarmento C a l i f o r n i a ' • -> • Project Manager 'Old Sacramento' 5. Santa Barbara C a l i f o r n i a Planning Aide. 6. New Canaan Connecticut Chairman - H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission 7. New Haven Connecticut Director of Public Information. 8. Dover Delaware Ci t y Planner. 9. Savannah Georgia Executive Director - Housing Authority of Savannah. 10. Lahaina Hawaii Planner. 11. Baltimore Maryland Director of Planning 12. Cambridge Massachusetts Associate Survey Director -Cambridge H i s t o r i c a l Commission. 13. Falmouth Massachusetts President - Falmouth H i s t o r i c a l Society. 14. Lexington Massachusetts Planning Director. 15. Sudbury Massachusetts Member - Planning Board. 16. Portsmouth New Hampshire Administration Assistant. 17. Cape May New Jersey Urban Renewal Director. 18. Santa Fe New Mexico Chairman - Ci t y and County Planning. 19. Bellport New York V i l l a g e Clerk. 20. Wilmington North Carolina Director of Planning. 21. Winston-Salem North Carolina Planner. 22. Columbus Ohio Director - Department of Develop ment. 23. Portland Oregon Senior planner - Urban Design. 24. Philadelphia Pennsylvania Project Manager. 25. Montreal Quebec Secretary - Jacques Viger Commission. 26. Providence Rhode Island Chairman - H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission. 27. Galveston Texas Director of Planning. 28. San Antonio Texas C i t y Planner. 29. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e V i r g i n i a Planning Director. 68. by a variety of c i v i c administrators, including members of boards and commissions a c t i v e l y involved with the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . Age of the h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance Table 11 l i s t s the towns and c i t i e s surveyed i n chronological order according to the year i n which the zoning ordinance, o f f i c i a l l y creating the d i s t r i c t , was passed. I t must be stressed that the legal sanctity imposed on a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project by municipal l e g i s l a t i o n does not i n r e a l i t y create or necessarily ensure the success of the scheme. In the context of th i s study the h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance merely represents one valuable technique whereby the worthwhile apsects of a d i s t r i c t may be protected and through which a preservation plan may be implemented. The existence of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning i s , however, clear evidence that public and p o l i t i c a l interest i n the project i s of high c a l i b r e . There i s some evidence that a community can achieve the preservation of a h i s t o r i c area without the aid of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning. In the survey f i v e c i t i e s and one small town which currently do not possess the added protection of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning are i d e n t i f i e d ; nonetheless, i n each of these s i x cases the community has succeeded i n r e a l i s i n g many of the goals necessary to the preservation of i t s h i s t o r i c area.*^ 67 The municipalities i n question are: L i t t l e Rock, New Haven, Savannah, Montreal, V i c t o r i a , and Cape May. 69. TABLE 11 CITIES AND TOWNS SURVEYED: BY YEAR OF HISTORIC DISTRICT ORDINANCE RANK ORDER CITY OR TOWN YEAR OF ORDINANCE * 1. Winston-Salem 1948 2. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e 1956 3. Dover 1957 4. Santa Fe 1957 5. Lexington 1958 6. Bellport 1958 ' 7. Fremont J ' , 1959 8. Portland 1959 9. Sacramento 1960 10. Santa Barbara 1960 11. Portsmouth 1960 12. Providence 1960 13. Falmouth 1961 14. Philadelphia 1961 15. Lahaina 1962 161 Wilmington 1962 17. Galveston 1962 18. New Canaan 1963 19. Cambridge 1963 20. Sudbury 1963 21. Columbus 1963 22. Baltimore 1964 23. San Antonio 1968 24. L i t t l e Rock Bylaw defeated 25. New Haven No H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t ordinance. 26. Savannah Enabling referendum November 1968. 27. Cape May No H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t ordinance. 28. Montreal No H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Ordinance 29. V i c t o r i a No H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t ordinance. * Source: an unpublished monograph by the National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation.. 70. The information contained i n Table 11 serves as a rough indicator of the length of time that public interest and support i n each of the projects has been i n eff e c t . To some extent the passage of the l o c a l ordinance suggests a culmination of public concern for the h i s t o r i c area. Later chapters w i l l show that those c i t i e s that have had protective l e g i s -l a t i o n i n effect for ten years or longer appear to be less concerned with the achievement of certain goals than their more recent counterparts tend to be. The survey reveals, for example, that i n projects where h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning was adopted at an early stage, the need f o r , and the concern with, improving the ar c h i t e c t u r a l merit of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - r e s t o r a t i o n work (goal 2) i s generally much lower than i n the less mature projects. Conversely, i t i s inter e s t i n g to note that even i n those cases where l o c a l l e g i s l a t i o n has been i n eff e c t for a long period of time, goal 14 - to enact and generally improve l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to protect the qu a l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment - i s deemed to be an on-going and no less relevant objective. The twenty-nine projects surveyed exhibit a widespread on the chronological scale, ranging from the Old Salem d i s t r i c t i n Winston-Salem, o f f i c i a l l y created i n 1948, to the'Paseo del Rio' project i n San Antonio, Texas, given legal status on May 9, 1968. Roughly 42% of the projects surveyed have had a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinance i n eff e c t for ten years or longer, and approximately 38% have created the i r d i s t r i c t between 71. 1961 and 1968. In the remaining 2G7„ the proposed bylaw was either defeated, as i s the case with Glastonbury, or no attempt at passing a h i s t o r i c zoning amendment has ever been made. Cape May, New Jersey, i s a somewhat unique case,in that i t has a H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission but lacks an o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . Neither of the two Canadian c i t i e s included i n the survey presently have the benefit of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinance. To date there has been no precedent anywhere i n Canada for the adoption of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Survey by size of the parent c i t y For purposes of comparison i n this and subsequent chapters the twenty-nine projects surveyed are divided into three categories according to the population size of the town or c i t y i n which they are situated. Table 111 shows that seven m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , or roughly 257. of the survey, had a population of less than 10,000 people i n 1960. Eight projects, or approximately 28% of the survey, are located i n medium sized c i t i e s having a 1960 population ranging from 10,000 to 100,000. The remaining 47%, or fourteen projects, are In large c i t i e s of 100,000 population and greater. Three of the c i t i e s i n this l a s t category presently have a population well i n excess of one m i l l i o n . These parent c i t y s ize c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are hereafter referred to as 'small town', 'medium sized c i t y ' and 'large c i t y ' . TABLE 111 PROJECTS SURVEYED: BY POPULATION SIZE OF THE PARENT CITY - 1960 * UNDER 10,000 POPULATION Bell p o r t New York v i l l a g e - ] New Canaan Connecticut v i l l a g e - ] Sudbury Massachusetts v i l l a g e - ] Falmouth Massachusetts 3,308 Lahaina Hawaii 3,423 Cape May New Jersey 4,477 Dover Delaware 7,250 10,000 to 100,000 POPULATION Portsmouth New Hampshire 25,833 Lexington Massachusetts 27,691 C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e V i r g i n i a 29,427 Santa Fe New Mexico 33,394 Fremont C a l i f o r n i a 43,790 Wilmington North Carolina 44,013 Santa Barbara C a l i f o r n i a 58,768 Galveston Texas 67,175 100,000 POPULATION AND GREATER Cambridge Massachusetts 107,716 L i t t l e Rock Arkansas 107,813 Winston-Salem North Carolina 111,136 Savannah Georgia 149,245 New Haven Connecticut 152,048 V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h Columbia 154,152 ** Sacramento C a l i f o r n i a 191,667 Providence Rhode Island 207,498 Portland Oregon 372,676 Columbus Ohio 471,316 San Antonio Texas 587,718 Baltimore Maryland 939,024 Montreal Quebec 1,191,062 ** Philadelphia Pennsylvania 2,002,512 pop. not given pop. not given pop. not given * Source: S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. ** Source: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , data i s for 1961. 73. Throughout this study i t i s recognized that, whereas i t i s tempting to oversimplify and generalize from one project to another, i n r e a l i t y each and every h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i s d i s t i n c t l y unique. In order to offset the danger of ove r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n the goals have i n t e n t i o n a l l y been delineated as expansively as possible. Nevertheless, i t i s recognized that i n spite of the i r broad d e f i n i t i o n , the goals are i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d interpreted quite d i f f e r e n t l y from one h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project to another. Making the d i s t r i c t a focus for c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and a center of the arts and c r a f t s , as just one example, carries a very different connotation i n the v i l l a g e of B e l l p o r t , New York, from the image that i s associated with this goal i n Society H i l l , Philadelphia. I t i s important to remember, then, that i n subsequent comparisons of questionnaire responses the element of project i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s kept very much i n the foreground. Although some v a l i d cross-project comparisons can be made, i n the author's opinion, the r e a l value of the survey l i e s i n viewing the response from each project as a miniscule case study. The purpose i n c l a s s i f y i n g the projects by the population size of the parent c i t y serves primarily as a further point of reference for a discussion of goal acknowledgment and r e a l i s a t i o n i n following chapters. For, although no precise formula has been discovered, i t i s observed that the relevance of each of the f i f t e e n goals to a project i s frequently, i n some way, related to the size of the parent c i t y . Furthermore, the degree of success i n r e a l i s i n g the goals likewise appears to be linked to the factor of parent c i t y s i z e . An obvious example of this relationship i s furnished by goal number 10, which acknowledges the detrimental impact 74. of the automobile on a h i s t o r i c environment. Goal number 10 lends i t s e l f to easier achievement i n the smaller communities where the automobile 68 problem i s generally less severe than i s the case i n the larger c i t i e s . Relationships between parent-city-size and goal acknowledgment and r e a l i s a t -ion are pointed out i n following chapters only i n those instances where the corr e l a t i o n appears s i g n i f i c a n t . A difference of 15% or more between parent-c i t y - s i z e groups has been selected as the measure of significance. Acknowledgment of the goals The survey reveals that i n only four cases a l l f i f t e e n goals are acknowledged as being relevant to the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project, and that i n one exceptional case only seven of the goals are deemed to be applicable. Table IV shows that 69% of the projects surveyed acknowledge 12 or more of the goals as being relevant. This percentage breaks down as follows for the three parent c i t y s ize c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : (1) 88% of the projects i n the medium c i t y size group acknowledge 12 or more of the goals. (2) 69% of the projects i n the large c i t y size group acknowledge 12 or more of the goals. 68 The survey revealed that whereas 83% of the small town projects are r e a l i s i n g goal 10 either 'very successfully' or 'with some success', only 57% of the large c i t y projects indicate this degree of success for goal 10. 69 The four projects acknowledging a l l 15 goals are i n Savannah, Georgia Galveston, Texas Portland, Oregon Santa Fe.New Mexico The project acknowledging only 7 goals i s the v i l l a g e of B e l l p o r t , L.I., New York. TABLE IV GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT PATTERN: BY NUMBER OF GOALS CONSIDERED RELEVANT Cit y State or Province Number of Goals Acknowledged Number of Goals Not Acknowledged % of projects Acknowledging 12 Goals or More Be l l p o r t New York 7 7 New Canaan Connecticut 10 1 Sudbury Massachusetts 12 3 Falmouth Massachusetts 13 2 Lahaina Hawaii 12 3 Cape May New Jersey 14 1 Dover Delaware 9 6 Portsmouth New Hampshire 13 1 Lexington Massachusetts 13 2 C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e V i r g i n i a 9 1 Santa Fe New Mexico 15 -Fremont C a l i f o r n i a 13 2 Wilmington North Carolina 13 2 Santa Barbara C a l i f o r n i a 12 3 Galveston Texas 15 -Cambridge Massachusetts 11 4 L i t t l e Rock Arkansas 13 2 Winston-Salem North Carolina 11 4 Savannah Georgia 15 -New Haven Connecticut 13 2 V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h Columbia 10 5 Sacramento C a l i f o r n i a 14 1 Providence Rhode Island 13 2 Portland Oregon 15 "r Columbus Ohio 8 7 San Antonio Texas 11 4 Baltimore Maryland 13 2 Montreal Quebec 14 1 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 13 2 4/7 57% 7/8 s 88% 9/14 64% for entire survey 69% N.B. When the respondent f a i l e d to score a goal, that goal i s ignored i n this tabulation. 76. (3) 577. of the projects i n the small town group acknowledge 12 or more of the goals. Table V i d e n t i f i e s the goals that were acknowledged most frequently and also shows which goals are applicable i n fewer cases. Table V shows tha the eight following goals have almost universal relevance i n North American H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t preservation practice: Goal 1. To encourage the restoration and preservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they w i l l be desirable as private homes or places of business. Goal 2. To improve the a r c h i t e c t u r a l merit of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n -restoration work i n the d i s t r i c t . Goal 4. To ensure that new construction i s compatible with the e x i s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l context and a r c h i t e c t u r a l setting. Goal 7. To ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community - not a 'museum complex 1. Goal 9. To develop and conserve those attributes of the streets, grounds, public squares or parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character. Goal 11. To improve the q u a l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment by systematically eliminating incompatible and undesirable uses and structures. Goal 10. To recognize the requirements of the automobile while also sub-ordinating these requirements to the need for preserving the q u a l i t y of the h i s t o r i c environment. •5 77 TABLE V ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF GOALS: FROM GREATEST TO LEAST NUMBER OF PROJECTS ~~~ ~~ ACKNOWLEDGING EACH GOAL A l l projects surveyed Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s  rank goal proportion goal proportion goal proportion goal proportion 6 7. 8 9-10 7 1 29/29-9 10 1 4 28/29 — 26/29 14 11 _ 25/29 3 15 —23/29-8 L_22/29 .21/29 13 — 20/29 6 (—17/29 •12/29 12 7/7 10 14 6/7 3 15 2 13 8 5 5/7 6 11 — 3/7-12 — 1 / 7 2 1 7 10 11 8/8 8 4 14 9 3 5 •7/8 15 6 6/8 12 •5/8 13 4/8-7 1 9 4 11 10 —14/14 •13/14 15 14 3 —12/14 13 •11/14 '10/14 - 9/14 6 |— 8/14 " 6/14 12 78. Goal 14. To enact and generally Improve l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to protect the qua l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment.^ 8 While these seven goals appear to have relevance irregardless of the parent-city-size variable, certain other goals appear to have a d e f i n i t e r e lationship with the size of the parent c i t y . Goal number 11 - "To improve the qu a l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment by systematically eliminating incompatible and undesirable uses and structures'"- for example, i s of importance i n the larger c i t i e s but i s generally not acknowledged as being a goal (or a problem) i n the small town group. S i m i l a r l y , goal 12 -"To carry out a relocation program for low income population which i s being displaced" - proved to be of far greater importance i n the medium sized and large c i t i e s than i t i s i n the v i l l a g e s and towns. Conversely, goal 3 - "To a t t r a c t new development to the d i s t r i c t i n order to i n s t i l l new l i f e , to broaden i t s tax base, or for other reasons" -i s generally more important i n medium sized c i t i e s than i t i s i n the large metropolis where pressures for new development frequently present more of a problem than a goal. Patterns of acknowledgment to each goal are dealt with i n d i v i d u a l l y i n subsequent chapers. At t h i s stage i t i s noted that each of the f i f t e e n goals constitutes a s i g n i f i c a n t purpose i n many, and frequently, a l l , the 70 Note that these 8 goals are acknowledged by 25 or more of the 29 projects. 79. projects surveyed.- Even goal 12, which has least o v e r a l l a p p l i c a b i l i t y , i s acknowledged as being a necessary and important course of action i n 12 of the 29 projects. F i n a l l y , Table VI i d e n t i f i e s the goals which are considered i r r e l e -vant i n each of the projects i n the survey. This Table i s included here merely for the sake of completeness. Reasons offered by respondents ex-plaining why s p e c i f i c goals are considered irrelevant are taken up i n subsequent chapters when they are of pa r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . Additional Goals Design of the questionnaire permits respondent to l i s t and describe any additional goals or objectives which, i n his opinion, are relevant to the project i n his c i t y and are not adequately covered by any of the previous f i f t e e n goals. Although a number of individuals used the allocated space to elabor-ate on supporting a c t i v i t i e s or to comment on their reaction to the question-naire i t s e l f , i n no case was a further goal a c t u a l l y stated or implied. In view of this absence of additional goals i t i s concluded that the 15 goals set f o r t h i n the hypothesis do, i n fa c t , constitute the major planning intents i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation. C o l l e c t i v e l y these f i f t e e n goals accurately define the dimensions i n which h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation i s currently operating i n North America. 80. TABLE VI PROJECTS SURVEYED: SHOWING WHICH GOALS ARE CONSIDERED IRRELEVANT Small towns Bellport New York 3 5 6 New Canaan Connecticut Sudbury Massachusetts Falmouth Massachusetts 3 Lahaina Hawaii 6 8 Cape May New Jersey 8 Dover Delaware 6 Medium c i t i e s Portsmouth New Hampshire Lexington Massachusetts 3 C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e V i r g i n i a 8 Santa Fe New Mexico Fremont C a l i f o r n i a Wilmington North Carolina Santa Barbara C a l i f o r n i a 6 GaIveston Texas Large c i t i e s Cambridge Massachusetts 3 8 L i t t l e Rock Arkansas 6 Winston-Salem North Carolina 3 4 5 Savannah Georgia New Haven Connecticut 6 V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h Columbia 6 8 Sacramento C a l i f o r n i a 5 Providence Rhode Island Portland Oregon Columbus Ohio 2 3 5 6 8 San Antonio Texas 5 Baltimore Maryland 6 Montreal Quebec 5 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 6 8 Goals considered irrelevant 10 11 12 13 12 11 12 15 12 12 11 12 13 14 15 13 12 12 13 12 13 13 15 11 12 12 12 15 12 13 14 12 15 12 13 12 13 14 12 INSTRUCTIONS ON READING THE CHARTS Charts 1 through to 4 show for each goal 1. the t o t a l number of projects i n which the goal i s considered relevant. 2. the ove r a l l degree of success experienced i n r e a l i s i n g the goal. Color legend goal i s being re a l i s e d very successfully goal i s being re a l i s e d with some success goal i s being re a l i s e d with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success goal i s not being realised 3. the Cumulative Goal Achievement Quotient (C.G.A.Q.) i s given i n the far rig h t column of each chart. Charts 5 through to 19 ( i n subsequent chapters) employ the same color code to indicate the degree of success with which each goal i s being r e a l i s e d . The red histogram shows the percentage of projects i n each size group acknowledging the goal. • • • 82. Parent-city-size designations are as follows: 1. small towns refers to parent c i t i e s of 10,000 population and less 2. medium c i t i e s refers to parent c i t i e s of 10,000 - 100,000 population. 3. large c i t i e s refers to parent c i t i e s of 100,000 population and more. 83 CHART 1 GOAT. ACKNOWLEDGMENT/REALISATION PATTERN - ENTIRE SURVEY Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 -*:'-v — 1 _ z s Goal 5 Goal 6 Goal 7 Goal 8 Goal 9 Goal 10 Goal 11 Coal 12 f ~ Goal 13 Goal 14 Goal 15 I ' . , ..  !.-(. . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I 11 1 1 11 I I I H H S » 7 H Mil i i . i l a is 16 n it if ia u WUWtiSMSt ii tl Number of cases C.G.A.Q. 78 82 64 77 41 55 90 71 78 57 57 61 55 67 75 I-i CHART 2 GOAT, ACKNOWLEDGMENT/REALISATION PATTERN PARENT CTTIES OF 10,000 POPULATION AND LESS Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 Goal 5 Goal 6 Goal 7 Goal 8 t Goal 9 gjj Goal 10 Goal 11 Goal 12 Goal 13 I I 1 1 Goal 15 Goal 4 ... -o / a 3 V S 6 7 Number of projects CHART 3 Goal 1 Goal 2 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT/REALISATION PATTERN  PARENT CITTES OF 10,000 - 100,000 POPULATION C.G.A.Q. 71 Goal 3 Goal 4 Goal 5 if»j Goal 6 Goal 7 Goal 8 Goal 9 Goal 10 Goal 11 Goal 12 Goal 13 Goal 14 Goal 15 0 / S L 3 f 5 6 7 & Number of projects 75 52 76 38 33 71 76 57 50 42 33 42 71 72 86 CHART 4 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT/REALISATION PATTERN  PARENT CITIES OF 100,000 POPULATION AND OVER Goal 1 Goal 2 Goal 3 Goal 4 IH Goal 12 G o a l 13 Goal 14 Goal 15 IRI1IHBBS9R! 1 Goal 11 O I 2 3 1 5* 6 7 6> 7 /C // a /3 ft Number of cases C.G.A.Q. 88 86 64 74 44 63 95 73 88 57 69 72 61 72 75 V 87. A general comparison of goal achievement Charts 1 through to 4 present a graphic analysis of the degree of success with which each of the f i f t e e n goals i s being r e a l i s e d i n the opinion of the survey respondents. Chart 1" deals with the entire survey, and Charts 2, 3, and 4 present the goal achievement pattern for the small town projects, the medium c i t y size projects, and the large c i t y projects i n that order. The charts show for each goal: (1) the t o t a l number of projects ( i n that size group) wherein the \ ' • • goal i s deemed relevant, and (2) the proportion of projects ( i n each size group) wherein the goal i s being r e a l i s e d (a) very successfully (b) with some success (c) with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success (d) not at a l l Cumulative goal achievement quotients The far r i g h t column of Charts 1 to 4 shows the 'cumulative goal achievement quotient' for each of the f i t e e n goals. The 'cumulative goal achievement quotient 1 provides a standardized index through which the ov e r a l l degree of achievement for each goal may be compared with that of other goals. The figure, which i s given as a score out of a possible t o t a l of 100 points, i s arrived at by assigning the following weights to each of the four points on the success scale: 88. DEGREE OF SUCCESS IN GOAL REALISATION WEIGHT goal i s being r e a l i s e d very successfully 3 goal i s being r e a l i s e d with some success 2 goal i s being r e a l i s e d with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success 1 goal i s not being re a l i s e d at a l l 0 The cumulative goal achievement quotient (C.G.A.Q.) i s calculated as follows: (a) a l l responses i n the survey for each in d i v i d u a l goal are assigned a weight according to the above desig-nation; / ^ (b) a l l weights for each goal are summed and posed as a proportion of the maximum possible t o t a l (depending upon the number of responses which acknowledge the goal) (c) t h i s proportion i s then mu l t i p l i e d by a factor of 100 to standardize the score and permit comparison between goals. Cumulative goal achievement quotients for each goal are tabulated as shown i n Table V i l . This Table i d e n t i f i e s the goals which are being r e a l i s e d with the greatest degree of success i n each s i z e group. I t shows, for example, that for the survey as a whole the f i v e goals which are being r e a l i s e d with the greatest degree of success are: Goal 7. To ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community - not a 'museum complex'. Goal 2. To improve the ar c h i t e c t u r a l merit of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n -restoration work i n the d i s t r i c t . 89. TABLE VI1 A COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE GOAL ACHIEVEMENT QUOTIENTS (C.G.A.Q.) Breakdown by pop, size of parent c i t y Goal A l l 29 Projects Number C.G.A.Q. Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1 78 67 71 88 2 82 80 75 86 3 64 80 52 64 4 77 86 76 74 5 41 40 38 44 6 55 79 33 63 7 90 95 71 95 : 8 71 60 76 73 9 78 76 57 88 10 57 67 50 57 11 57 33 42 69 12 61 100 33 72 13 55 67 42 61 14 67 50 71 72 15 75 80 72 75 In rank order: From High to Low Scores Goal y Number C.G.A.Q. Goal CGAQ Goal CGAQ Goal CGAQ 7 90 12 100 8 76 7 95 2 82 7 95 4 76 1 88 L 1 78 4 86 2 75 9 88 9 78 3 80 15 72 2 86 4 77 15 80 1 71 15 75 15 75 2 80 14 71 4 74 8 71 6 79 7 71 8 73 14 67 9 76 9 57 14 72 3 64 1 67 3 52 12 72 12 61 10 67 10 50 11 69 10 57 13 67 11 42 3 64 11 57 8 60 13 42 6 63 13 55 14 50 5 38 13 61 6 55 5 40 6 33 10 57 5 41 11 33 12 33 5 44 90. Goal 1. To encourage the restoration and preservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they w i l l be desirable as private homes or places of business. Goal 9. To develop and conserve those attributes of the streets, grounds, public squares or parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character. Goal 4. To ensure that new construction i s compatible with the e x i s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l context and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t t i n g . A comparison of goal achievement patterns with goal acknowledgment patterns (Table V) reveals that these f i v e goals also have greatest o v e r a l l a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n North American h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t p r o j e c t s . 7 * This corre-l a t i o n , which also tends to hold for each of the parent c i t y s ize groups, shows that the goals which are generally regarded as the most important components of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t projects are precisely the goals which are being r e a l i s e d with the greatest degree of success. Conversely, the goals which are generally regarded as less important are being r e a l i s e d with the least degree of success. 71' i e . goal 7, goal 2, goal 1, goal 9 and goal 4 coincide with f i v e of the 8 goals i d e n t i f i e d on page 7$ i n t h i s chapter. 91. SUMMARY The survey revealed that eight of the f i f t e e n goals set out i n the hypothesis have v i r t u a l l y universal importance. These eight goals are considered relevant for h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation projects i n small towns as wel l as i n large c i t i e s throughout North America. They are: To ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community - not a 'museum complex', To encourage the restoration and preservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they w i l l be desirable as private homes or places of business. To develop and conserve those attributes of the streets, grounds, public squares or parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character. To recognize the requirements of the automobile while also sub-ordinating these requirements to the need for preserving the qua l i t y of the h i s t o r i c venvironment. To ensure that new construction i s compatible with the e x i s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l context and ar c h i t e c t u r a l setting. To improve the ar c h i t e c t u r a l merit of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n -restoration work i n the d i s t r i c t . To enact and generally improve l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to protect the q u a l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment. To improve the quality of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment by systematically eliminating incompatible and undesirable uses and structures. The survey also revealed that f i v e of these eight goals are, on the whole, being r e a l i s e d with the greatest degree of success. These are: To ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community - not a 'museum complex'. To encourage the restoration and preservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they w i l l be desirable as private homes or places of business. 92. To develop and conserve those attributes of the streets, grounds, public squares or. parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character. To ensure that new construction i s compatible with the e x i s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l context and a r c h i t e c t u r a l setting. To improve the a r c h i t e c t u r a l merit of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n -restoration work i n the d i s t r i c t . The remaining goals, although of less o v e r a l l importance, did prove to be s i g n i f i c a n t components i n many projects. Goal 12, to carry out a relocation program for low income population which i s being displaced, has least o v e r a l l a p p l i c a b i l i t y but i s , nevertheless, an important target i n 417„ of the projects surveyed. I t was found that goals such as number 12, which are generally not regarded as being quite as important, are being r e a l i s e d with a lower degree of success. 93. CHAPTER IV  THE STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS The following chapter deals with an examination of the responses e l i c i t e d by goals 1 through to 6. Taken together, these s i x goals s p e l l out the need for judicious methods of c o n t r o l l i n g what happens to indi v i d u a l buildings and structures i n a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . Goal 1. TO ENCOURAGE THE RESTORATION AND PRESERVATION OF BUILDINGS ON A PRIVATE BASIS WHERE POSSIBLE TO SUCH AN EXTENT THAT THEY WILL BE DESIRABLE AS PRIVATE HOMES AND PLACES OF BUSINESS. Explanation With the exception of museum v i l l a g e s , where the doors are opened and closed to the public at specified hours and where h i s t o r i c buildings are primarily treated as a tourst-oriented business operation, the role of private investment i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation i s generally viewed as a c r u c i a l one. Without the active involvement of a variety of investors, who are prepared to put th e i r money into i n d i v i d u a l structures most schemes would be hopelessly impracticable. Any a c t i v i t y which stimu-lates and encourages private investment, therefore, has an important bearing on the success of the project. 94. Where the preservation of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i s part of an urban renewal scheme or i s otherwise aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y at the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of a decaying, area, the role of private c a p i t a l i s normally given special emphasis and a wide range of incentives can be used to a t t r a c t i t . In these projects a 'take-off phenomenon frequently occurs at some point i n time and the importance of stimulating the private sector tends to be supplanted by firmer controls over the quality of a r c h i t e c t u r a l restor-ation. D i s t r i c t 'take-off i s usually caused by a r e v i v a l of interest i n the area which acts to accentuate private demand for any remaining buildings. V Seven d i s t i n c t types of private investment that occur i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s have been i d e n t i f i e d . Each type of investor acts according to dif f e r e n t personal objectives and thus has a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t r o l e to play i n the project. The types of investor are: (1) the small investor - This i n d i v i d u a l purchases an old building either for private use as a residence or to gain a return from rents or a p r o f i t through resale. (2) the philanthropic investor - This i n d i v i d u a l purchases a building for reasons other than mere p r o f i t . His motivation often derives from a sense of c i v i c s p i r i t or an i n t e l l e c t u a l interest i n the d i s t r i c t . (3) the operative remodeller - This investor often depends upon the restoration of deteriorated r e a l estate for his major source of income. 95. (4) group purchasers - These individuals purchase a building as a group. They are usually drawn to the d i s t r i c t by the low cost of buildings. (5) business or i n d u s t r i a l investor - This investor i s often a business organization i n search of a home. The advantages of locating i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t are usually viewed as being convertible into f i n a n c i a l gain. Motivation may include: convenience, c i v i c duty, seeking of a prestige address,proximity to an available market, advertisement value of the d i s t r i c t . (6) the c i t i z e n investment corporation - The shareholders of this i • , • . corporation usually j o i n expressly for the prupose of investing i n the restoration of the d i s t r i c t . Often, they are residents or i n s t i t u t i o n s of the area who wish to protect the private invest-ment already sunk into t h e i r home, business or i n s t i t u t i o n . (7) the speculative investor - This i n d i v i d u a l purchases property primarily i n the hope of r e s e l l i n g i t la t e r at a marked p r o f i t . Often the speculative investor anticipates the d i s t r i c t ' s 'take-o f f and c a p i t a l i z e s on the success of the project. Relationship to other goals Achievement of goal 1 i s in e x t r i c a b l y wound up with a l l other aspects of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project. The drawing power of the d i s t r i c t i s re-lated, for example, to the degree with which other goals are being r e a l i s e d . I t s appeal as a l i v i n g , functioning community, obviously has a strong bearing on i t s a b i l i t y to draw further investment, while conversely, i t cannot begin to be a l i v i n g community unless i t has some inherent q u a l i t i e s which a t t r a c t and hold private investment and use. In t h i s regard, many respondents indicated that the s t a b i l i t y imposed by a well-designed h i s t o r i c zoning ordinacne encourages private preservation e f f o r t s . Others suggested that l o c a l Interest and promotion of the d i s t r i c t helps to i n s t i l l further incentive for private restoration. In general, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a d i s t r i c t as a place i n which to l i v e or conduct one's business appears to be the product of numerous factors including: (1) population growth of the parent c i t y (2) awakening of interest i n l o c a l h i s t o r y (3) prestige associated with l i v i n g i n the d i s t r i c t (4) attractiveness of low r e a l estate ^ prices (5) proximity to the central c i t y (6) character and atmosphere of the environment (7) demand for re n t a l accommodations (8) promise of property value increases Goal acknowldgment As Chart 5 shows, goal 1 i s considered relevant i n a l l projects surveyed. Hence, the encouragement of private a c t i v i t y appears to be equally germane to projects situated i n the smallest town as i t i s i n the largest of c i t i e s . 97. CHART 5 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 1 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Considered a goal i n .29 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed S m a l l towns C cu O 60 ft cfl •U 4J u c o cu CL O o u u cu (Si Pu 7/7 100 Medium c i t i e s 8/8 100 Large c i t i e s 14A4 100 GOAL REALISATION 10 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s • on 0 1/8 13 9/14 64 Of the t o t a l 34% 19 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success S m a l l towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 7/7 100 7/8 87 5/14 36 Of the total 66% 98. Four respondents indicated that the goal was being achieved success-f u l l y but that l i t t l e or no actual supporting a c t i v i t y was needed as -existing forces made the d i s t r i c t r e l a t i v e l y stable and desirable for 72 private use. Cambridge, Massachusetts, i n p a r t i c u l a r , stressed that organized encouragement would be superfluous. Goal r e a l i s a t i o n The lower portion of Chart 5 reveals that i n a l l projects surveyed goal 1 i s being r e a l i s e d either 'very successfully 1 or with 'some success'. With one exception, the small and medium sized c i t i e s indicated that they are achieving the goal with only some success, whereas most of the large 73 c i t i e s assigned a 'very successfully' score. The reasons for this v a r i a t -ion are not c e r t a i n , but appear to be related to the following observations: (1) The larger c i t i e s generally are more rehabilitation-oriented with due emphasis on repair and restoration of a neighbourhood undergoing t r a n s i t i o n . They, thus, tend to have a greater repertoire of a c t i v i t i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to encourage private restoration projects. 72 j These four are: Winston-Salem, San Antonio, New Canaan, and Cambridge. 73 The exception being Santa Fe, where, i n the respondent's opinion, goal 1 i s being r e a l i s e d very successfully through the "Old Santa Fe Association which has bought a number of old houses and holds them for commercial purposes. Many old houses are being restored for r e s i d e n t i a l purposes". 99. (2) B l i g h t i n g influences are less severe i n the smaller places, and, subsequently, private a c t i v i t y tends to be directed more at preservation, per se, rather than at a concerted attempt to restore and repair decaying structures. Less actual encouragement i s warranted. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s The survey brought to l i g h t a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s considered to be i n support of goal 1. Much of this a c t i v i t y was thought to be pervasive, and affected other goals as w e l l . In those cases where the respondent attempted to compile a complete l i s t i n g of supporting a c t i v i t -ies the l i s t was very lengthy but s t i l l not exhaustive. The questionnaire received from Society H i l l , Philadelphia, by way of example, schedules some eighteen different types of a c t i v i t y which encourage private preser-vation and restoration a c t i v i t y . Supporting a c t i v i t i e s have been grouped into f i v e categories, each of which i s b r i e f l y discussed below. The categories are: 1. Planning and zoning 2.. Promotion and publication 3. F i n a n c i a l assistance 4 . Technical assistance 5. Local Orangizations and Societies PLANNING AND ZONING In most instances where an area plan or a restoration master plan 100. for the d i s t r i c t has been effected, the respondent stressed i t s value i n encouraging private restoration and preservation. A d d i t i o n a l l y , several projects mentioned that, although no actual area plan was being implemented, guideline provisions for the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t had been incorporated into the c i t y ' s master plan with the same b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t . Old Sacramento, a 28 acre concentrated d i s t r i c t near the c i t y centre, r e l i e s on a t o t a l h i s t o r i c preservation program to provide incentives to the private sector. The s a l i e n t feature of this program i s a trade area analysis which seeks to interest potential developers i n the recreation market offered by the d i s t r i c t . In addition to plan preparation, the public r e l a t i o n s work conducted by the l o c a l redevelopment agency or planning department was frequently c i t e d i n support of goal 1. New Haven, for instance, attributes a great deal of success i n i t s Wooster Square project to a close l i a i s o n between in d i v i d u a l property owners and the redevelopment agency. Much of the actual assistance i s of a technical nature and has taken the form of pre-paring restoration plans for i n d i v i d u a l buildings at a minimal cost to the owner. Surveys and inventories of h i s t o r i c structures i n the d i s t r i c t were also frequently l i s t e d as a supporting a c t i v i t y . Next to their function as a basis for plan preparation, surveys are generally regarded as having a wider value as a promotional t o o l . The Troup Ward project i n Savannah, for example, u t i l i z e s a system of merit ratings for s i g n i f i c a n t buildings i n the d i s t r i c t . Plaques or shields are placed i n front of the most note-101. worthy buildings, thereby making in d i v i d u a l owners aware of the h i s t o r i c value of their property, while simultaneously creating city-wide pride and interest i n the d i s t r i c t . The h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance i s generally regarded as the single most important device to encourage private preservation and restoration endeavours. The smaller communities, i n p a r t i c u l a r , emphasized by pro-74 tection rendered by stringent zoning and building regulations. A number of respondents indicated that the p r i n c i p a l benefit of the zoning ordinance together with the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t commission i s to keep control of the area close to the people of the community primarily concerned. i • . ' PROMOTION AND PUBLICATION A great deal of a c t i v i t y aimed primarily at l o c a l promotion of the d i s t r i c t i s considered pertinent to the r e a l i s a t i o n of goal 1. A c t i v i t i e s c i t e d i n this category include: (1) l o c a l newspaper coverage of restoration work (2) regular publications, containing photographic coverage, by h i s t o r i c a l societies and other c i v i c groups. (3) i n s t a l l a t i o n of commemorative plaques denoting the h i s t o r y of s i g n i f i c a n t buildings. (4) publicized tours of s i g n i f i c a n t buildings. 74 47% of the projects situated i n small and medium sized towns and c i t i e s mentioned h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning i n support of goal 1. 102. (5) c o l o r s l i d e presentations of the d i s t r i c t to c i v i c clubs and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . (6) annual v i l l a g e f e s t i v i t i e s . One organization, f o r instance, sponsors an annual event known as 'Old Dover Days 1 wherein the p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o l o n i a l homes i n the d i s t r i c t open t h e i r doors to the p u b l i c as part of the f e s t i v a l . FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND ASSISTANCE A v a r i e t y of f i n a n c i a l incentives i n the form of grants,subsidies and loans are u t i l i z e d i n many projects. Society H i l l , P h i l a d e l p h i a , f o r example, has restored much of i t s h i s t o r i c a r c h i t e c t u r e with the a i d of Federal grants and loans both to i n d i v i d u a l property owners and to the Redevelopment Agency f o r the planning and i n s t a l l a t i o n of p u b l i c improve-ments. Another form of Federal assistance a v a i l a b l e i n Society H i l l , as w e l l as i n several other p r o j e c t s , i s the d i r e c t HUD owner subsidy. Montreal, on the other hand, induces the r e s t o r a t i o n of p r i v a t e residences and places of business through a municipal subsidy. To q u a l i f y f o r municipal assistance, a developer must give assurance that h i s r e s t o r -a t i o n work w i l l comply with municipal standards. Fremont, C a l i f o r n i a , encourages the preservation of h i s t o r i c a l structures through a regulatory device incorporated i n t o the zoning bylaw. A developer i s permitted to b u i l d to a higher density on adjoing lands i f he agrees to restore and maintain the b u i l d i n g i n question. The technique of a bonus system appears to be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n c i t i e s where the pressure for redevelopment i s very strong. 103. V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, has established a municipally-operated revolving fund whereby noteworthy buildings are purchased and resold to a developer on the guarantee that they w i l l be restored to the c i t y ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n . In Charleston the idea of a revolving fund has been used for eight years with great success. Through the fund the H i s t o r i c Charleston Foundation has purchased and resold many houses i n the H i s t o r i c Ansonborough • d i s t r i c t . The purpose of such a foundation, i s , not to r e a l i s e a p r o f i t , but rather to absorb losses made on the sale of some properties and to revert p r o f i t s made on the sale of others back into the fund for purchases else-where. The H i s t o r i c Wilmington Foundation, another example of the revolving fund, purchases h i s t o r i c houses, restores t h e i r exterior, and then r e s e l l s them to private parties with a 'buy-back'option i n the t i t l e transfer. The success of the privately-financed foundation or corporation has been aptly demonstrated i n Washington, D.C. In that c i t y " H i s t o r i c Georgetown Inc. ... successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d several outstanding examples of mid-eighteenth century architecture at 30th and Main Streets .... In 1951, the houses were about to be torn down to b u i l d a parking l o t . To save these buildings, a group of Georgetown residents formed H i s t o r i c Georgetown, Inc. The aim of the corporation was to make not only a sound a r c h i t e c t u r a l restoration but also a sound business achievement. Money was raised by the sale of stock to Georgetown residents and a plan was worked out whereby subscribers might donate t h e i r stock to the National Trust and take a tax deduction for this g i f t at par value. The restoration of these buildings i s now completed except for one small apartment. The completed part i s fully-occupied on long-term leases and the rentals provide a sizable surplus above upkeep, 104. taxes, interest and preferred dividends. The operations of the corporation 7 S are deemed l o c a l l y to be quite successful". The use of property tax exemption to encourage private expenditures for what might otherwise be an u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y costly restoration or main-tenance job has been advocated by several i n d i v i d u a l s . ^ This legal device does not, however, appear to have acquired currency at the l o c a l l e v e l . None of the respondents, indicated that tax exemption i s being used i n the project. TECHNICAL RESTORATION ASSISTANCE • /. • i A fourth area of encouragement to the private sector takes the shape of free or cheap technical restoration assistance. Such technical help can be offered by the redevelopment agency or ..the planning department, as the case may be, or i t may be furnished by a consulting architect who i s exper-ienced i n h i s t o r i c restoration. The Redevelopment Agency i n New Haven, for example, devotes consider-able e f f o r t towards preparing a r c h i t e c t u r a l and s t r u c t u r a l drawings for the restoration of i n d i v i d u a l buildings i n Wooster Square. Cape May and Falmouth, on the other hand, both small towns, u t i l i z e the services of a l o c a l architect who i s a v a i l a b l e , free of charge, to offer advice on proper restoration pro-cedures to interested individuals. _ 7 5 College H i l l Demonstration Study of Urban Renewal, p.13. 76 See, for example, Planning for Preservation, by Robert L. Montague,111 and Tony P. Wrenn, American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Chicago 1964. 77 For an example of the way i n which taxation powers can be used to en-courage voluntary restoration, see Puerto Rico Laws 1955, at 28, as amended Puerto Rico Laws 1960, at 197. 105, LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS AND SOCIETIES F i n a l l y , there Is a great deal of work performed by l o c a l h i s t o r i c societies and c i v i c organizations which can i n d i r e c t l y help to encourage interest i n private restoration. Some of the a c t i v i t i e s mentioned i n th i s category are: (1) A program i n i t i a t e d by the Chamber of Commerce designed to interest store owners i n upgrading the exterior appearance of their buildings along the h i s t o r i c theme. (Bellport, Long Island, New York State). (2) Large scale i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e to establish a trend. In College H i l l , Providence, the restoration program was launched by one in d i v i d u a l who purchased and restored f i f t e e n houses and then resold them to other parties. (3) Promotional a c t i v i t i e s by h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . The Quapaw Quarter, i n L i t t l e Rock, for instance, owes much of i t s success to the Quapaw Quarter Association which publicizes private restoration e f f o r t s i n brochures and through i t s quarterly newsletter. Goal 2. TO IMPROVE THE ARCHITECTURAL MERIT OF THE REHABILITATION-RESTORATION WORK IN THE DISTRICT. Explanation Goal 2 defines the ongoing task of upgrading the qua l i t y of st r u c t u r a l restoration work being conducted i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . The phrase 're h a b i l i t a t i o n - r e s t o r a t i o n work' e s s e n t i a l l y includes any a c t i v i t y undertaken to improve and repair physical components within the d i s t r i c t . I t may simply mean the ef f o r t s of ind i v i d u a l property owners or i t can include more compre-106. hensive efforts such as the reinstallment of historic street furniture. As part of the hypothesis i t was surmised that there is a need for both control and encouragement in this area. Negative controls are one way of realising this goal - positive inducements are another. Goal 2 was included in the questionnaire to establish what shape positive induce-ments are currently taking. In the Restoration Manual, Orln Bullock distinguishes amongst three possible approaches to rehabilitation restoration work. The f i r s t approach is simply labelled 'restoration'. Used architecturally, .restoration means, "Putting back (a structure) as nearly as possible into the form i t held at a particular date or period in time. Its accomplishment often requires the removal of work which is not 'of the period'. The value of a restoration is measured by i t s authenticity." 7 8 ; lPreservation', on the other hand, implies a greater concern with maintain-ing a building in i t s present architectural style. Regarding preservation, Bullock states, "(preservation) means stabilizing a structure in i t s existing form by preventing further change or deterioration. Preser-vation, since i t takes the structure as found, does not relate to a specific period in time and i s , architecturally, the most intellectually honest treatment of an ancient monument." 79 Thirdly, 'reconstruction' is defined by Bullock as, "the recreation of a building from h i s t o r i c a l , archaeological, and architectural documents and other evidence, often highly conjectural. Parts of buildings which are 'restored' often 78 Orin W. Bullock, The Restoration Manual, p. 1. 79 Ibid., p. 1. must be reconstructed because o r i g i n a l work has been removed or changed; th is detracts somewhat from the accuracy and poss ib ly from the i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty of the r es to ra t i on . " 80 Obviously, the approach taken i n any par t i cu la r project depends on l oca l condit ions such as : the present condi t ion of the s t ruc tures , import-ance attached to h i s t o r i c a l au then t i c i t y , predominant a rch i tec tu ra l s t y le of the bu i l d ings , monies a v a i l a b l e , and so on. Moreover, there does not appear to be exc lus ive re l iance on any one of the three approaches to do the job i n any of the projects surveyed. In most pro jec ts , preservat ion i s warranted for some bui ld ings and res tora t ion or reconstruct ion i s required for others. Even i n 'Old Sacramento', where emphasis i s placed on reconstruct ion of the o r i g i n a l c i t y as i t was from the 1850's, to the 1870's, a mixture of the three approaches i s needed. A pub l i ca t ion by the Sacramento Redevelopment Agency exp la ins , "Old Sacramento i s being achieved by three means: the r e s t o r -a t i o n of e x i s t i n g h i s t o r i c a l b u i l d i n g s , the reconstruction of buildi n g s on th e i r o r i g i n a l s i t e s and the reconstruction i n the project area of important h i s t o r i c a l buildings demolished f o r freeway construction. Restoration i s being guided by h i s t o r i c a l research, sketches, photographs, w r i t t e n descriptions and i n many cases by the appearance of the buildings as they now e x i s t . Every e f f o r t i s being made to reproduce maximum a u t h e n t i c i t y . " ^1 A general rule-of-thumb for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - r e s t o r a t i o n work i s enunciated by the National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation as follows: 80 Orin W. Bu l lock , The Restorat ion Manual, p. 1. 81 Old Sacramento, A Project of the Sacramento Redevelopment Agency, C i t y of Sacramento, State of C a l i f o r n i a (Department of Parks and Recreation) a brochure. 108. "Generally speaking, i t is better to preserve than repair, better to repair than restore, better to restore than re-construct." 82 Goal acknowledgment Chart 6 shows that 907, of the projects surveyed acknowledge goal 2. Two 'small town' responses fa i led to score goal 2 with no explanation 83 offered and one large c i ty project indicates that, "the goal is to retain rather than improve the architectural character." (Cambridge, Massachusetts). Goal real isat ion With one exception a l l projects acknowledging goal 2 indicate that i t i s being realised 'very successfully' (54%) or 'with some success' (42%). A comparison of cumulative goal achievement quotients for this goal f a i l s to produce a significant variation i n achievement patterns amongst the parent-c i ty -s ize groups. Supporting ac t iv i t i e s The survey revealed f ive areas of ac t iv i ty which are currently con-sidered useful to improve the architectural merit of rehabil i tat ion-restor-ation work i n his tor ic d i s t r i c t s . These are: 1. Historic zoning regulations and review bodies 2 . Plan preparation and implementation 3 . Advice and technical aids 6 2 ' ' '• ' 1 ' ' ~ ~ ~ Cri ter ia for Evaluating Historic Sites and Buildings, A report by the Committee on Standards and Surveys, National Trust for Historic Preservation. 8 3 These are: Bellport , N.Y. and New Canaan, Connecticut. 109. CHART 6 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 2 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Considered a goal i n 26 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed Small towns G o u o tx o u 01 fcO CO u e u u CU 5/7 71 Medium c i t i e s 8/8 100 Large c i t i e s 13/14 93 GOAL REALISATION 14 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal very successfully Small t o w n s v. Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s • ' • •'' 11 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with some success 1 project i s not r e a l i s i n g this goal S m a l l towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 2/5 40 2/8 25 10/13 77 t o t a l 54% 2/5 60 6/8 75 2/13 15 t o t a l 427. 0/5 0 0/8 0 1/13 8 t o t a l 4% 110. 4. Setting an example 5. Consultation and co-operation Each of these areas i s b r i e f l y discussed below using pertinent examples from the survey. 1. H i s t o r i c Zoning regulations and review bodies Fourteen respondents indicate that h i s t o r i c zoning and an architectur a l review body are the prime instruments for improving the q u a l i t y of restor ation work. ' A more or less standard procedure being followed i s to make h i s t o r i c zoning regulations a part of the e x i s t i n g zoning bylaw. The tour de force of most ordinances i s the creation of a special review body, which i s given various names such as the Board of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review or The H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission. This body i s delegated the power of approval or reject ion of plans for b u i l d i n g , a l t e r a t i o n , repair and demolition of structures wit h i n the d i s t r i c t . The powers of the review body are usually limited to passing judgement on exterior design and construction thence to assure harmonious development within the d i s t r i c t . Many questionnaire comments under goal 2 ran as follows: "Through the e f f o r t s of the Commission for H i s t o r i c a l and A r c h i t e c t u r a l Preservation." ('Seton H i l l ' i n Baltimore) "Any remodelling must meet with approval of the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission before a building permit can be issued." ('Old Sudbury D i s t r i c t ' ) . 111. I t follows that the effectiveness of a review body i n s u c c e s s f u l l y bringing about r e a l i s a t i o n of goal 2 i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c a l i b r e of the members of the Board. In th i s regard the response from Wilmington, North Carolina, notes, "Powers of the Board of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review are rather weak, as the Board opts for co-operation rather than enforcement." 2. Plan preparation and implementation Several respondents indi c a t e that goal 2 i s being r e a l i s e d p r i m a r i l y because a r e s t o r a t i o n plan or redevelopment program f or the d i s t r i c t i s gradually being implemented. Others, such as Galveston, Texas, submit that current studies f o r the preparation of an area plan are under way. 3. Advice and tec h n i c a l a i d Advice and tec h n i c a l a i d to a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r r e s t o r a t i o n work i s taking the following forms: 1. Guidelines f o r r e s t o r a t i o n techniques by v i r t u e of an 'A r c h i t e c t u r a l S t y l e Book'. ('Lahaina H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t ' ) . 2. Free a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n s u l t a t i o n ('Victorian V i l l a g e Project' i n Cape • May). . 3. Advice off e r e d by a preservation s o c i e t y on correct r e s t o r a t i o n pro-cedures ('College H i l l ' i n Providence). 4. Schematic plans provided f o r each r e s t o r a t i o n b u i l d i n g at no cost to the p r i v a t e redeveloper. ('Old Sacramento'). 112. 5. A design and development k i t , having the primary purpose to a l e r t redevelopers to the 'unique requirements of the d i s t r i c t and to a s s i s t them with their solutions. ('Old Sacramento'). 4. Setting an example The advantages of high qu a l i t y restoration work as an example to others i s remarked upon i n several cases. In Falmouth, Massachusetts, "The H i s t o r i c a l Society i s restoring an 18th century house i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t to i t s o r i g i n a l condition. This necessitated tearing down an addition as large as the o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g which was t o t a l l y out of character with the predominant s t y l e . Others are following this example." S i m i l a r l y , i n 'Old Santa Fe*, "The Old Santa Fe Association has provided excellent examples of a r c h i t e c t u r a l restoration. These are perhaps the best influence on future work." 5. Consultation and Co-operation A great deal of useful work may be accomplished simply through consultation and co-operation between the supervising agency and the in d i v i d u a l property owners. In the 'Quapaw Quarter' i n L i t t l e Rock, for instance, "The Urban Renewal Rehabi l i t a t i o n Program has directed most of the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - r e s t o r a t i o n work. Fortunately the chief administrator i s an experienced restoration consultant who seeks co-operation rather than e x p l i c i t p r o h i b i t i o n . " 113. Additional evidence of co-operation comes from 'Society H i l l ' i n P h i l a -delphia where, . "the Board of Design and the Art Commission advise on any new construction; and, the H i s t o r i c Commission and a consulting architect recommend on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n work." Goal 3. TO ATTRACT 'NEW DEVELOPMENT' TO THE DISTRICT IN ORDER TO INSTILL NEW LIFE, TO BROADEN ITS TAX BASE, OR FOR OTHER REASONS. Explanation "For a c i t y to stay a l i v e and healthy i t must be adaptive. As i n any organism, this has to do with continuity and ichange. Maintenance and preservation of essential char-a c t e r i s t i c s must be concommitant with growth." 84 I f preservation planning implies guiding h i s t o r i c a l continuity, a t t r a c t i n g change to the d i s t r i c t i n the form of 'new development' i s an important goal. 'New development' may mean new buildings as well as new uses for old buildings. Goal acknowledgment Chart 7 shows that a t t r a c t i n g new development to the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i s considered a goal i n 797, of the projects surveyed. On the average, this goal i s not as important i n the small town projects as i s the case i n the larger c i t i e s . Two small town responses indicate the reason for this as follows: 8 4 Restoration Report: A Case for Renewed L i f e i n the Old City Vancouver, B.C.) 1969, p.21. 114. CHART 7 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 3 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #3 i s considered a relevant component i n 23 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed. c o u o (X o u IX (!) 60 CO 4-1 c <D u t-l CD Pi Small towns 5/7 71 Medium c i t i e s 7/8 88 Large c i t i e s 12/14 86 GOAL REALISATION 6 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s KBJK Large c i t i e s 13 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s .... 2/5 40 1/7 14 3/12 25 t o t a l 267. 3/5 60 4/7 57 7/12 58 Of the t o t a l 57% 4 projects are not r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 0/5 0 2/7 29 2/12 17 Of the t o t a l 17% 115. "Our v i l l a g e i s very small and there i s not much land l e f t to b u i l d on." (Bellport,N.Y.). " there i s no opportunity for 'new development' i n the D i s t r i c t . " (Falmouth, Massachussetts). Further projects indicating that new development i s not needed or desired are in:' Cambridge, Mass., Columbus, Ohio, Winston-Salem, N.C., and Lexington, Mass. Most of these projects have had h i s t o r i c zoning i n effect for eight years or longer. Goal r e a l i s a t i o n The lower portion of Chart 7 shows that only 26% of the respondents acknowledging goal 3 f e e l that i t i s being r e a l i s e d very successfully. The majority (57%) indicate that i t i s being r e a l i s e d merely 'with some success', and four respondents state that the goal i s presently not being of. r e a l i s e d at a l l . The d i s t r i c t ' s i n a b i l i t y to draw new development i s explained as follows: " I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a t t r a c t new development because of the changing character of the h i s t o r i c area. Massive encroach-ment by low-income, non-whites acts as a b a r r i e r . (N.B. no prejudice intended.'). (H i s t o r i c Wilmington D i s t r i c t ' ) . • 85 ~ ' ' : : ~ For exact ages of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinances i n these c i t i e s see Table 3, page 86 These are: 'Bastion Square, i n V i c t o r i a , B.C., 'Historic Wilmington D i s t r i c t ' , 'Strawbery Banke' i n Portsmouth, and Portland, Oregon. 116. V i c t o r i a , B.C. anticipates that s i g n i f i c a n t new private construction i n the Bastion Square area w i l l commence "when the 52.5 acre Inner Harbour Urban Renewal Scheme receives Federal approval for implementation." Cumulative goal achievement quotients for goal 3 i n each of the parent-c i t y - s i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are: small towns 80 medium sized c i t i e s 52 large c i t i e s 64 On the average, then, small town projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with the greatest degree of success. As Sudbury, Mass. emphasizes, "NOT a problem - we have to f i g h t off the developer!!! " Medium-sized c i t i e s , on the other hand, indicate much less success i n thei r a b i l i t y to at t r a c t new development to their h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . Supporting a c t i v i t i e s A d i s t r i c t ' s capacity to a t t r a c t new development ultimately depends on how successfully other goals are being r e a l i s e d . I f the d i s t r i c t i s an appealing, l i v i n g community, i f old buildings are being t a s t e f u l l y renovated and restored and i f automobile problems are being successfully dealt with i t s power of a t t r a c t i o n i s l i k e l y to be high. 117. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s for goal 3, therefore, include almost any conceivable e f f o r t , public or private, large or small, which influences the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l appeal. Respondents tended to l i s t such a c t i v i t i e s as: planning and zoning, promotion and demonstration, f i n a n c i a l incentives and s o c i a l prestige. In those cases where the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i s part of an urban renewal scheme or other type of redevelopment project, the entire program i s properly considered a 'supporting a c t i v i t y " . Several examples of questionnaire comments under goal 3 are provided below. "To a t t r a c t new development we advertise our bylaw granting a subsidy up to 25% and the corresponding p r o v i n c i a l subsidy. Since 1964 at least 85 buildings have been restored, repaired, or altered by business concerns and private owners." ('Old Montreal 1), - • ' • - y "The planning department supports development of the h i s t o r i c a l d i s t r i c t through D i s t r i c t planning,land-use planning, and project design." ('Seton H i l l ' , Baltimore). "A new community school has been b u i l t by the C i t y which has given new l i f e to the entire area. The Redevelopment Agency has also helped small businesses, which are already i n the area, to relocate i n di f f e r e n t structures." (Wooster Square', New Haven). 118. "Fortunately a junior college i s being constructed next to the d i s t r i c t and w i l l be a major impetus i n i t s rejuvenation." (Fremont, C a l i f o r n i a ) . "Old Santa Fe Association and myself this year succeeded i n bringing an educational centre for a national computer corporation to the d i s t r i c t . They bought s i x old, early 18th century houses for use as seminar rooms and have l e t a contract for their restoration." ('Santa Fe 1, New mexico). Goal 4. TO ENSURE THAT NEW CONSTRUCTION IS COMPATIBLE WITH THE EXISTING HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND ARCHITECTURAL SETTING. Goal acknowledgment With one exception goal 4 i s deemed a relevant and important purpose 87 for a l l projects surveyed. Goal r e a l i s a t i o n 927. of the projects indicate that goal 4 i s being achieved successfully. 46% are r e a l i s i n g i t very successfully, and 467. are r e a l i s i n g i t 'with some success •'. The responses from 'Strawbery Banke' i n Portsmouth and from 'Bastion Square' i n V i c t o r i a both suggest that presently goal 4 i s not being r e a l i s e d at a l l . In V i c t o r i a , however, i t i s anticipated that the C i t y w i l l be able _ _ _ _ _ The exception i s 'Old Salem' i n Winston-Salem, N.C. where no further development i s possible and hence goal 4 i s ir r e l e v a n t . CHART 8 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 4 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #4 i s considered relevant i n 28 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed. Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s a CD o 60 •H CO •U •u u C o <D a. a o u u CD P-, 7/7 14 A4 100 7/8 88 100 GOAL REALISATION 13 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 13 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success 2 projects are not r e a l i s i n g this goal 4/7 57 4/7 57 5/14 36 Of the t o t a l 467. Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s u Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 3/7 43 2/7 29 8/14 57 t o t a l 467. 0/7 0 1/7 14 1/14 7 Of the t o t a l 87. 120. to exercise some control over the design of new construction i n the future. The respondent notes that, "Buildings to be constructed by private enterprise i n the Inner Harbour Renewal Scheme w i l l require C i t y co-operation to i n i t i a t e the scheme i t s e l f and also minor concessions such as easements, etc." The response from Portsmouth suggests that although h i s t o r i c zoning regu-lations have been adopted, they exercise l i t t l e influence over the design of new construction and no other applicable technique has been proposed. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s V i r t u a l l y a l l projects in d i c a t i n g that goal 4 i s being re a l i s e d successfully consider t h e i r h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance and a r c h i t e c t u r a l review procedures the most important 'technique' for ensuring construction compatibility. Those cases which do not have the benefit of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinance metnion a variety of other supporting a c t i v i t i e s i n connection with goal 4. In 'Wooster Square*, New Haven, for example, " T h e Redevelopment Agency has set up s t r i c t regultions which govern the review of a l l plans for new buildings i n the area." S i m i l a r l y , i n 'Old Montreal', "The Jacques-Viger Commission, which was created i n 1962 for the conservation of Old Montreal, studies a l l questions connected 121. with the conservation of the h i s t o r i c a l character of this d i s t r i c t . " In L i t t l e Rock's 'Quapaw Quarter', on the other hand, "New construction has not attempted to 'match' h i s t o r i c architecture. I t makes, instead, a t o t a l contrast set apart by reasonable open space i n most instances." Other ' a c t i v i t i e s ' mentioned i n support of goal 4 include: 1. I n t e g r i t y and s k i l l of the architects. ('College H i l l ' i n Providence). 2. Public hearings and open discussion on a l l applications for change i n the d i s t r i c t . (Cambridge and Falmouth). 3. A design and development k i t . ('Old Sacramento1). Goal 5. TO ACQUIRE AND PRESERVE WITH PUBLIC MONIES THOSE BUILDINGS IN THE DISTRICT THAT ARE WORTHY OF PRESERVATION AND CANNOT BE SAVED THROUGH PRIVATE MEANS. Goal acknowledgment Chart 9 shows that 727. of the projects surveyed akcnowledge goal 5. Preserving h i s t o r i c buildings with public funds i s a goal i n a greater pro-portion of medium-sized-city projects than i s the case i n small towns or large c i t i e s . Goal r e a l i s a t i o n The lower portion of Chart 9 shows that only 19% of the responses CHART 9 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 5 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #5 i s considered relevant i n 21 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed. Small towns C co O 60 •H CO U o a. o u Pu c to o 1-1 CJ Pu 5/7 71 Medium c i t i e s 7/8 88 Large c i t i e s 9/14 64 GOAL REALISATION 4 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 5 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 4 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 8 projects are not r e a l i s i n g this goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1/5 20 1/7 14 2/9 22 t o t a l 197. 1/5 20 2/7 29 2/9 22 t o t a l 24% >1/5 20 1/7 14 2/9 22 t o t a l 19% 12/5 40 3/7 53. 3/9 33 tota] . 38% 123. indicate that goal 5 i s being r e a l i s e d 'very successfully'. Most respondents (387.) state that this goal, meritorious though i t i s , i s not being r e a l i s e d i n their project. The response from Fremont, C a l i f o r n i a , for example, explains, "To date, this t h e o r e t i c a l l y worthy approach does not appear p o l i t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . We have, however, received several valuable g i f t s of property and buildings, in. the d i s t r i c t . : 'Historic Wilmington' states that no public monies are available for this purpose and Santa Fe submits that a l l preservation e f f o r t s have so far had to be through private interests and funds. Likewise, the response from Savannah says, "So far only temporary holding of properties with public funds pending completion of the area plan have been attempted. Wa have f a i l e d i n securing tax funds for permanent h i s t o r i c a l funding." Supporting a c t i v i t i e s The only four projects i n d i c a t i n g that goal 5 i s being r e a l i s e d very successfully and the reasons for the i r success are: 1. 'Society H i l l ' i n Philadelphia which uses a system of tax exemption f o r i t s p u b l i c l y owned h i s t o r i c buildings, 2. 'Old Galveston Quarter' i n Galveston, Texas, which has q u a l i f i e d for a HUD h i s t o r i c preservation grant, 124. 3. The 'o ld Sudbury D i s t r i c t ' i n Sudbury, Massachusetts which uses several noteworthy buildings for town o f f i c e s , 4. Portland, Oregon, where a church and adjoining house were recently saved through a combination of private, c i t y and Federal funds. Most respondents suggest, however, that a c q u i s i t i o n and preservation with public monies i s d i f f i c u l t to accomplish. Obstacles are described as follows: "The town of Falmouth has 350 h i s t o r i c houses and other buildings. F i f t y or s i x t y are judged s i g n i f i c a n t and should •ibe preserved. These are a l l p r i v a t e l y owned and may be sold at the owner's disc r e t i o n . Last year a s i g n i f i c a n t house was sold and demolished. There were newspaper notices and some town wide interest but no way could be found to save the house because of expense. No public money has been appropriated for t h i s purpose." "This has been proposed, and one structure has been acquired. However, the funds for i t s restoration w i l l have to be private and therefore d i f f i c u l t to obtain so f a r . " Goal 6. TO RELOCATE WITHIN THE DISTRICT HISTORIC BUILDINGS FROM OUTSIDE THE HISTORIC AREA THAT WOULD OTHERWISE FACE DESTRUCTION. Goal acknowledgement Chart 10 shows that 59% of the projects surveyed consider goal 6 a relevant purpose. The remainder suggest that either the d i s t r i c t is so CHART 10 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 6 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #6 i s considered relevant i n 17 of the t o t a l surveyed. 29 projects Small towns 7| Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s c o to •H (0 4J •u U c o Q. o o u M CJ (V 3/7 43 6/8 3/14 75 57 GOAL REALISATION Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s .^.. i 4 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 2 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with l i t t l e or Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 2/3 66 0/6 0 4/8 50 t o t a l 35% 0/3 0 3/6 50 1/8 13 t o t a l 24% success 1/3 33 0/6 0 1/8 13 Of the t o t a l 12% 5 projects are not r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 3/3 0 3/6 50 2/8 25 Of the t o t a l 29% 126. b u i l t up that there i s l i t t l e room for moving buildings i n or that most of the s i g n i f i c a n t buildings are already i n the d i s t r i c t . Goal 6 i s acknowledged by a somewhat higher proportion of medium-si z e d - c i t y projects than i s the case i n small towns and large c i t i e s . Goal r e a l i s a t i o n and supporting a c t i v i t i e s The lower portion of Chart 10 shows that only s i x respondents f e e l that goal 6 i s being r e a l i s e d 'very successfully' i n their projects. Comments on a c t i v i t i e s i n support of t h i s purpose, include, 1. "We provide research information, preservation and restoration suggestions, support before the zoning appeal board and generally t a l k up this kind of a c t i v i t y . " (Cambridge, Massachusetts). 2. "There i s no program to physically relocate any buildings into the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t , but the redevelopment of the d i s t r i c t includes reconstruction of important h i s t o r i c buildings that were demolished outside of the area for an interstate freeway. These buildings w i l l be reconstructed i n the d i s t r i c t on s i t e s that were formerly occupied by buildings of lesser significance. The State of C a l i f o r n i a i s reconstructing one of these buildings (The Big Four Transportation Museum) and under the Redevelopment Agency's program a private re-developer w i l l reconstruct f i v e buildings for genral commercial use". ('Old Sacramento'). Most respondents f e e l that goal 6 i s being r e a l i s e d with only minimal success. Comments include: 127. 1. " D i f f i c u l t to accomplish due to building code r e s t r i c t i o n s . We have adopted the uniform r e s i d e n t a i l building code of North Carolina. 11 (Wilmington, N.C.) 2. n No success i n moving buildings recently. Only one has ever been relocated i n the project and that i n 1957." ('College H i l l 1 Providence). SUMMARY The degrees of success currently experienced i n r e a l i s i n g the goals dealing with the structures and buildings i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s appear- to f a l l into two camps. On the whole, the goals concerned with encouragement of the private sector and with control over the quality of restoration work and new construction are being achieved quite successfully. Various tech-niques and procedures are responsible for this success. These include: planning, h i s t o r i c zoning, promotion and publication, technical assistance, setting an example, and consultation and co-operation between the super-v i s i n g agency andprivate redevelopers. The goals dealing with a t t r a c t i n g new development to the d i s t r i c t and generally demanding public investment for preservation and relocation purposes are, on the other hand, being achieved with ar less o v e r a l l success. Other than some involvement of public agencies i n the forms of grants, assistance, and a system of tax exemption ( i n one case), there appears to be l i t t l e supporting a c t i v i t y for these goals. I t should be noted, however, that these l a t t e r goals are, i n general, not considered too important. 128. CHAPTER V  THE ENVIRONMENT This chapter deals with the survey response to gaols 7 through to 11. Taken together these goals define f i v e broad courses of action that can be taken to develop a r i c h and s a t i s f y i n g environment i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . Individual buildings are important components of such an environment, but no less s i g n i f i c a n t are the streets, the trees, the parks and open spaces, the relationships of building to building, the uses; i n fact a l l those elements which combine to give the d i s t r i c t i s d i s t i n c t i v e character. In the 'Vieux Carre' these elements are called the 'tout ensemble' - an appropriate aphorism which affirms that i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation the whole i s always greater than the sum of i t s parts. Goal 7. TO ENSURE THE DISTRICT'S CONTINUING EXISTENCE AS A LIVING, FUNCTIONING COMMUNITY - NOT A 'MUSEUM COMPLEX'. Explanation Achievement of this goal e s s e n t i a l l y means that contemporary uses for buildings i n the d i s t r i c t must be found. Preservation of h i s t o r i c buildings purely as museum peices i s a r i s k y venture. Orin Bullock points out that, r "Starry-eyed and enthusiastic sponsors enamored of the histor y or a r c h i t e c t u r a l character of a building may derive tremendous personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and pleasure from i t s restoration and preservation. But unless there i s a d e f i n i t e plan for use, 129. one which w i l l by income or endowment provide the necessary funds for i t s operation and maintenance, their enthusiastic zeal w i l l probably die with them." 88 When the o r i g i n a l purposes for which the building was designed are no longer viable, new, modern uses must be planned for. To accommodate the process of adaptive use there should be nothing to prevent complete reno-vation of an h i s t o r i c building's i n t e r i o r providing that i s outward appearance can be preserved. In this way h i s t o r i c houses, churches, town-halls, and courthouses can f i n d new l i f e as o f f i c e s , shops, information centers, society headquarters, private residences, and so forth. Goal acknowledgment Ensuring the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , function-ing community i s considered a goal i n 1007. of the projects surveys. This goal i s equally important i n the small town projects as i t i s i n the largest c i t i e s , and i t s paramoutcy i s unrelated to the age of the h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance. Goal r e a l i s a t i o n With one exception a l l projects surveyed indicate that goal 7 i s 90 being re a l i s e d successfully. 727» of the respondents assigned a 'very 88 Orin M. Bullock, The Restoration Manual, p.5. 89 A good example of the adaptive use p r i n c i p l e came from Dover, Del.: "Architectural controls apply only to the exterior of the buildings - many of the buildings' insides have been renovated for law o f f i c e s , specialized commercial business o f f i c e s , and governmental agencies - most of this a c t i v i t y has been i n the area nearest the downtown commercial center and county courthouse.' 90 The exception i s 'Strawbery Banke' i n Portsmouth where the majority of buildings presently function as e x h i b i t s . Several buildings i n the project area are used as c r a f t shops and for o f f i c e space. 130. CHART 11 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 7 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #7 i s considered relevant i n 29 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed.  Small towns c tu o to •r-i CO 4-1 U 1-1 C 0 0) a u o M u CU PH PH 7/7 100 Medium c i t i e s 8/8 100 Large c i t i e s Ift/tt 100 GOAL REALISATION 21 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s : : : I war 7 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success 6/7 86 3/8 48 12A4 86 Of the t o t a l 72% Small towns 1 1/7 14 Medium c i t i e s • 4/8 50 Large c i t i e s 2/14 14 Of the t o t a l 24% 1 project i s not r e a l i s i n g this goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 0/7 0 1/8 13 0/14 0 Of the t o t a l 4% 131. successfully' score to this goal and 24% show that i t i s being re a l i s e d 'with some success'. (See Chart 11). Supporting a c t i v i t i e s In a sense successful achievement of goal 7 represents a culmination of the other 14 goals outlined i n the hypothesis. I f most of the other goals are being re a l i s e d successfully the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t cannot help but become a l i v i n g , functioning community. Therefore, a c t i v i t i e s i n support of this goal e s s e n t i a l l y include the whole spectrum of public and private performance. Questionnaire responses stress the role of private endeavours i n support of goal 7. Several respondents provided examples of modern, adaptive uses which have been found for buildings i n the d i s t r i c t . Montreal, for instance, l i s t s the following: restaurants, haute couture boutiques, antique shops, art g a l l e r i e s , antiquarians, independent f i l m makers, book-s e l l e r s , auctioneers, jewellers, o f f i c e s for a r c h i t e c t s , lawyers, business administrators, apartments, and museums. S i m i l a r l y , i n L i t t l e Rock's 'Quapaw Quarter', "four structures were recently purchased by young people (25-35) as residences which w i l l be p a r t i a l l y or completely restored. Numerous other structures which i n the past were converted to apartments are being sought by young singles and couples." 132. And likewise i n 'Old Sacramento', "The majority of buildings i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t have additional upper fl o o r s and the private redevelopers propose to use this space for general o f f i c e tenants. This type of use w i l l assure human a c t i v i t y i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t during the regular work week which is, highly compatible i n the commercial d i s t r i c t and i s meeting with great success because of the close proximity of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t to the central business d i s t r i c t . " Many respondents indicate that innate factors such as the natural attractiveness of the d i s t r i c t as a r e s i d e n t i a l area and i t s proximity to the C.B.D. i n d i r e c t l y act to ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a vibrant, l i v i n g community. F i n a l l y , several responses suggest that a number of p u b l i c l y - i n i t i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s also tend to support goal 7. These include: "The C i t y , through i t s varied branches, i s hleping to achieve this goal. The community school plays an important r o l e i n the Park and Recreation Department of the C i t y , as we l l as i n other c i v i c agencies involved i n the planning of a c t i v i t i e s for the community." ('Wooster Square, New Haven). and, , "This goal i s , i n part, being r e a l i s e d through long-range planning for redevelopment of the nearby waterfront and : through an active 'in-community' association." (Portland, Oregon). 133. Goal 8. TO MAKE THE DISTRICT A FOCUS FOR CULTURAL ACTIVITY AND A CENTRE OF THE ARTS AND CRAFTS. Explanation Some h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s are e s s e n t i a l l y r e s i d e n t a i l i n character and an infusion of arts and cra f t s a c t i v i t y i s i n those cases highly incompatible with other objectives. However, i t was surmised that i n the great majority of cases establishment of 'cultu r a l a c t i v i t y 1 i s an important goal. The presence of c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s and art shops has the oft-desired effect of drawing non-residents to the d i s t r i c t to use i t s shops and other a t t r a c t i o n s . The survey revealed that ' c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y ' means a wide variety of things i n dif f e r e n t projects. Goal acknowledgement Goal 8 i s acknowledged by 767o of the project surveyed. Chart 12 shows that making the d i s t r i c t a focus for c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and a center of the arts and cra f t s i s considered a goal by s l i g h t l y more of the projects i n medium sized c i t i e s than i s the case i n the small towns and large c i t i e s . The v a r i a t i o n i s small, however, and does not appear to be very s i g n i f i c a n t . Six respondents indicate that goal 8 i s irrelevant i n thei r h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t and therefore i s not being r e a l i s e d . The response from 'Society H i l l ' i n Philadelphia, for example, mentions that the nearby c i t y center has t r a d i t i o n a l l y served as the focus for c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and that the proximity of Society H i l l to that center has contributed greatly to the success of the restoration program. 134. CHART 12 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 8 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #8 i s considered relevant i n 22 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed.  Small towns c <u o oo rt •U •u 1^  a o a; a u o U u Pi Pu 5/7 71 Medium c i t i e s 7/8 88 Large c i t i e s 10A4 72 GOAL REALISATION 7 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 13 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s ' IE 1/5 20 2/7 29 4/10 40 Of the t o t a l 32% 3/5 60 5/7 ] ' 71 5/10 •. 50 Of the t o t a l 59% 2 projects are not r e a l i s i n g this goal Small towns 1/5 20 Medium c i t i e s 0/7 0 Large c i t i e s 1/1C 10 Of the t o t a l 9% 1 3 5 . The response from Cambridge succinctly states that, "There i s enough c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n Cambridge without the need to focus i t i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . " Other examples of projects where goal 8 i s irrelevant are l i s t e d i n Table V i l on page - ~ Goal r e a l i s a t i o n Both the 'Victorian V i l l a g e Project' i n Cape May and 'College H i l l ' i n Providence note that goal 8 i s presently not being r e a l i s e d at a l l . The remaining 20 projects a l l show that t h i s goal i s being r e a l i s e d 'very successfully' or 'with some success'. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s Many of the projects which indicate that goal 8 i s being r e a l i s e d " successfully, describe a wide variety of a c t i v i t i e s presently taking place in the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . These include such things as: community art f e s t i v a l s , l i v e 'period' theater, art and dance classes, use of buildings in the d i s t r i c t by theater clubs, women's clubs, h i s t o r i c s o c i e t i e s , museums and so f o r t h . Actual'techniques' c i t e d i n support of this goal include: (1) Zoning "Part of the h i s t o r i c a l zone i s zoned arts and c r a f t s which has resulted i n an extensive development of c r a f t s in the area. At the present time there are - shirtmaking 136. shops, jewellery producing shops, glass blowers, potters, sculptors, painters, leather workers, stained glass workers, etc." (Santa Fe, N.M.). (2) Promotional a c t i v i t i e s , such as open house tours and historic t r a i l s . "To encourage arts and crafts shops along the River,-several promotional a c t i v i t i e s are offered, the main one being the 'starving a r t i s t ' show." (San Antonio, Texas). Finally, several respondents emphasized such innate forces as the dis t r i c t ' s proximity to the C.B.D., the inherent character of the area, and natural market impulses. In these cases i t is generally f e l t that no organized efforts to achieve goal 8 are warranted. The response from 'Wooster Square' in New Haven remarks that cultural elements in the d i s t r i c t "are Italian and Negroes living in this area - and i t is their culture which is important and is being preserved." Goal 9. TO DEVELOP AND CONSERVE THOSE ATTRIBUTES OF THE STREETS, GROUNDS, PUBLIC SQUARES OR PARKS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE DISTRICT'S OVERALL CHARACTER. Explanation Goal 9 was included in the hypothesis because i t i s f e l t that successful d i s t r i c t preservation planning must consider elements of the 137. o r i g i n a l town plans, including the p r i n c i p a l street patterns, f o c a l points, public squares, landscaping and v i s t a s . The streetscape, i n p a r t i c u l a r , demands special consideration of building heights, rhythm of facades, sight l i n e s , building materials and scale. In connection with this one . author writes, "The d i s t i n c t i v e character of a c i t y i s not something to be found i n indiv i d u a l buildings, the grouping of structures, the continuity of a block-long facade along a street. I t i s also i n the settings of buildings; the landscape, the background, the walkways and the scale and pattern of t r a f f i c a c t i v i t y i n the streets." 91 Goal acknowledgment With one exception a l l projects surveyed akcnowledge goal 9 as a relevant purpose i n their h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project.^2 -phe goal i s equally important for the small town projects as i t i s i n the medium sized and large c i t i e s . (See Chart 13). Goal r e a l i s a t i o n 96% of the projects acknowledging goal 9 indicate that i t i s being re a l i s e d successfully. The majority (57%) f e e l , however, that i t i s being re a l i s e d only 'with some success' while a smaller proportion (39%) show that i t i s being accomplished 'very successfully'. 91 Lachlan F. B l a i r , 'Planning for Preservation' i n History News, November 1961, p. 14. 9 2 The exception i s 'Strawbery Banke' i n Portsmouth i n which case the respondent f a i l e d to mark this goal. 138. CHART 13 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 9 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #9 i s considered relevant i n 28 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed. Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s c 01 o 00 • r - l ft) u u C o p. u o U M •a P-i P-7/7 7/8 100 8 8 M4 I 100 GOAL REALISATION 11 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 16 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with Of some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1 project i s not ref t l i s i n g this goal Of 2/7 29 0/7 0 9/14 64 t o t a l 39% 5/7 71 6/7' 86 5/1* 36 the t o t a l 57% Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 0/7 0 1/7 14 0/14 0 Of the t o t a l 4% 139. One response indicates that goal 9 i s very relevant but i s not being r e a l i s e d at a l l . According to the respondent, the City of Wilmington, North Carolina, does not at this time have adequate funds to 'do anything constructive". Supporting a c t i v i t i e s The survey revealed f i v e i d e n t i f i a b l e 'procedures' which are currently being used i n various projects towards the achievement of goal 9, These can be c a l l e d : 1. B e a u t i f i c a t i o n programs 2. Zoning and a r c h i t e c t u r a l controls 3. Plan preparation and implementation 4. Maintenance of public areas by the City 5 . Inducements and incentives to the private sector Each of these 'procedures' i s b r i e f l y discussed below using pertinent examples from the survey to i l l u s t r a t e where they are meeting with success. 1. B e a u t i f i c a t i o n programs Many respondents indicate that achievement of goal 9 i s primarily supported through an organized b e a u t i f i c a t i o n program. In some cases the costs of t h i s program are shared with senior governments through Federal urban renewal grants and HUD urban b e a u t i f i c a t i o n grants, i n others costs are borne e n t i r e l y by l o c a l government. f 140. .. The 'Troup Ward Project' i n Savannah, Georgia, for instance, suggests that, "Federal renewal and b e a u t i f i c a t i o n programs include nearly a l l of the c i t y ' s squares and those recreational areas within the 'Old C i t y ' . " S i m i l a r l y , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, submits, "Bastion Street was converted into Bastion Square (orna-mental paving landscaping, etc.) through an urban renewal project involving a Federal-Provincial-City partnership. . i y Implementation of the Inner Harbour renewal scheme w i l l make a further contribution." Other projects, including the 'Battle Green D i s t r i c t ' i n Lexington, 'College H i l l ' i n Providence, and 'Old Montreal' i n the province of Quebec, have inaugurated a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n program supported through City funds. Comments from these projects run as follows: "Town financed b e a u t i f i c a t i o n program i n the d i s t r i c t ' s center ($310,000 appropriated to date)". (Lexington). "Hot enough work i n t h i s regard as yet, although the c i t y has started some tree planting programs and garden . clubs are beinning to plan projects i n the area." (Providence). "The City has undertaken the i n s t a l l a t i o n of cobble stones in the streets i n place of asphalt surrounding our building on Saint-Paul Street, also on Bonsecours Street and on Place Jacques Cartier. Also the replacement of e x i s t i n g lamp posts with smaller ones especially designed to re-semble the old gas lanterns." (Montreal). 2. Zoning and a r c h i t e c t u r a l controls H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t zoning and the concommitant a r c h i t e c t u r a l review procedures are generally regarded as a contributing factor towards the achievement of goal 9. Whereas the h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance cannot truly be regarded as a''development t o o l ' i t i s , of course, an important instrument for conserving desirable aspects of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment. The response from the 'German V i l l a g e Project' i n Columbus, Ohio stresses that the prime purpose of the German V i l l a g e Commission i s to r e t a i n the o v e r a l l , h i s t o r i c a l character of the area, and that t h i s i s accomplished almost e n t i r e l y through plan review by the Commission. Related to zoning and review procedures i s the r e v i s i o n of old and se t t i n g of new standards for public improvements i n the d i s t r i c t . Along these lines the response from Santa Fe says, "We now have an advisory study group composed of professionals appointed by the mayor who recommend standards for preservation of the h i s t o r i c a l street pattern - and to set guidelines for new streets which are compatible with the old patterns." 142. 3. Plan preparation and implementation Area plans, s i t e plans, redevelopment plans, restoration master plans, by whatever name i t i s c a l l e d the process of plan preparation and implementation proved to be an important means of achieving goal 9. 'Old Sacramento', for example, mentions that a long-range program of public improvements i s incorporated into the redevelopment plan. Likewise, the response from Portland, Oregon, states, "This goal i s being r e a l i s e d through the a c t i v i t i e s of l o c a l associations and the planning commission, i We are currently improving park and street l i g h t i n g i n a designated 'design zone'." 4. Maintenance of public areas by the City A number of responses suggest that conservation rather than development of the streets, grounds, public squares, and parks i s the goal, and that maintenance work by the c i t y i s the main supporting a c t i v i t y . 'Wooster Square' i n New Haven, writes, "The C i t y maintains the c o l o n i a l square known as'The Green 1. I t appears today as i t did 250 years ago ... Through a r c h i t e c t u r a l control and well maintained open areas the d i s t r i c t has retained i t s c o l o n i a l atmosphere." Santa Barbara suggests that although a great deal needs to be done i n the way of street b e a u t i f i c a t i o n , usual maintenance of the public buildings and plazas has improved the d i s t r i c t ' s environmental qual i t y . 5, Incentives and inducements to the private sector In addition to c i t y - i n i t i a t e d improvements and maintenance, several small communities are achieving goal 9 'with some success' by offering incentives to the private sector. In Falmouth, Massachusetts, for example, "Most of the builders and investors i n town have agreed to use a h i s t o r i c s t y l e of building. A Be a u t i f i c a t i o n Council awards prizes for outstanding construction and landscaping around stores, gas stations, and homes. Recently a parking l o t was eliminated and a street restored to i t s o r i g i n a l condition to permit a view of a h i s t o r i c school b u i l d i n g . " The Planning Board i n the town of Sudbury, Massachusetts, has "prevailed upon the U t i l i t y Co. to bury the i r cables i n the d i s t r i c t . Recently we planted American elm and other New England trees on the town commons to improve i t s attractiveness." Another form of incentive to both the private and public sectors i s mentioned by the Cambridge H i s t o r i c Commission. The respondent writes, "We are seeking to develop the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character by means of environment-oriented publications. The general attitude at hearings confirms that we are having an impact." 1 4 4 . Goal 1 0 . TO RECOGNIZE THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE AUTOMOBILE WHILE ALSO SUBORDINATING THESE REQUIREMENTS TO THE NEED FOR PRESERVING THE QUALITY OF THE DISTRICT'S ENVIRONMENT. ' Explanation Goal 10 speaks for i t s e l f . I t was included i n the questionnaire to determine how frequently the presence of automobiles i s considered highly detrimental to the d i s t r i c t ' s environment and what steps are being taken to improve the si t u a t i o n . Goal acknowledgment 1 . .• ' • , With one exception a l l projects surveyed indicate that subordination of the automobile's requirements to the need for preserving the quality of qo the h i s t o r i c environment i s a relevant (and, frequently, pressing) goal. Goal r e a l i s a t i o n Chart 14 shows that the majority of projects (71%) are r e a l i s i n g goal 10 only with some, or no ascertainable success. The o v e r a l l goal achievement pattern i s as follows: 18% are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully 46% are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with some success 25% are r e a l i s i n g this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success 11% are not r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal at a l l 93 Only the v i l l a g e of Be l l p o r t , New York, indicates that automobiles present no problem whatsoever, and that therefore the goal i s irr e l e v a n t . 145. CHART 14  SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 10 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #10 is considered relevant in 28 of the total 29 projects surveyed. Small towns GOAL REALISATION 5 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s -c o o Cu o u ___ u 60 to u a cu u u CJ OH 6/7 86 8/8 100 14 A4 100 1/6 17 0/8 0 4/14 29 Of the total 18% 13 projects are realising this goal with some success Small towns • Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 4/6 67 5/8* 63 4A4i . 29 Of the total 46% 7 projects are realising this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 3 projects are not realising this goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1/6 17 2/8 25 4/14 29 total 25% 0/6 0 1/8 13 2/14 14 Of the total 11% 146. On the average the projects situated i n small towns are most 94 successful i n r e a l i s i n g goal 10. From the questionnaire comments i t seems that the reason for this v a r i a t i o n stems from the fact that larger c i t i e s normally attach higher p r i o r i t y to the automobile problem. In two cases, namely Providence and Wilmington, goal 10 i s presently not being r e a l i s e d at a l l . The response from 'College H i l l ' i n Providence • says,. "We have been trying to get a r e a l study of this problem started. So far i t ' s s t i l l on the ground.V S i m i l a r l y , the response from Wilmington, N.C., reads, " I t ' s very d i f f i c u l t to f i g h t the automobile! Cobble-stone streets are being resurfaced with asphalt, etc. etc. To date, however, there i s no major thoroughfare i n t r u s i o n . " S t i l l other respondents suggest that the magnitude of the problem threatens to increase and that the goal i s only being achieved with a minimal degree of success. Santa Barbara, for instance, states that, "1. The new public parking l o t s (municipally owned) i n the area have been developed with a t t r a c t i v e land-scaping and protective walls (decorative). 94 For a comparison of cumulative goal achievement quotients on goal 10, see p . o f Chapter 111. 147. 2. The urge to send more automobiles more comfortably through the downtown area threatens e x i s t i n g trees i n the streets rights-of-way. 3. A few streets i n the o r i g i n a l 'El Peublo Viejo' could be blocked off as pedestrian ways, but this has not been seriously contemplated by the admin-i s t r a t i o n . " Supporting a c t i v i t i e s In c i t i n g supporting a c t i v i t i e s for goal 10, most respondents describe one or two steps that have been taken to a l l e v i a t e the automobile problem somewhat. A number of these ' p a r t i a l solutions' are l i s t e d below. Projects that are r e a l i s i n g goal 10 very successfully 1. permit no automobile t r a f f i c whatsoever. (e.g. 'Bastion Square' i n V i c t o r i a , and 'Paseo Del Rio' i n San Antonio where a l l transport-ation i s by riverboat). 2. established two new service streets and a pedestrian mall. ('Victorian V i l l a g e Project' i n Cape May). 3 . have included special provisions i n the redevelopment plan pertain-ing to truck service, on s i t e parking, etc. ('old Sacramento). Projects that are r e a l i s i n g goal 10 with some success 1. w i l l e s t a b l i s h one way streets along the busiest a r t e r i e s . ('Old Montreal'). / 148. 2. are preserving the h i s t o r i c street pattern and designing new streets to f i t i n with the old pattern. (Santa Fe). 3. plan public and private parking areas to be out of view as much as possible. (Dover). 4. proposing a design solution to provide a wide brick promenade with mid-block parking bays. (Lexington). 5. i n s t a l l e d an underground expressway, underground parking, and have a bonus: system to encourage the provision of excess parking. ('Society H i l l 1 i n Philadelphia). Projects that are r e a l i s i n g goal 10 with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success 1. require new developments to provide o f f s t r e e t parking and are designing a new street pattern to aid t r a f f i c flowss. ('Wooster Square' i n New Haven). 2. the H i s t o r i c a l Commission hold conferences with the Department of T r a f f i c and Parking. (Cambridge). 3. major t r a f f i c flows are directed to a limited number of c o l l e c t o r streets. ('Quapaw Quarter' i n L i t t l e Rock). Goal 11. TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF THE DISTRICT'S ENVIRONMENT BY SYSTEMATICALLY ELIMINATING INCOMPATIBLE AND UNDESIRABLE USES AND STRUCTURES. Goal acknowledgment Chart 15 shows that, with the exception of 4 small town cases, a l l • V projects surveyed consider goal 11 a relevant objective i n the i r h i s t o r i c 95 d i s t r i c t . — 95 — ' ! The exceptions are: Dover, Sudbury, B e l l p o r t , and New Canaan. 149. CHART 15 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 11 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #11 i s considered relevant i n 25 of the t o t a l 29 projects s u r v e y e d . Small towns Medium c i t i e s c o u o o. o u 3/7 0) to id ± J G 0) u 1-1 <D OH 43 8/8 100 Large c i t i e s 14/14 100 GOAL REALISATION 7 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 9 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 4 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 5 projects are not r e a l i s i n g this goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 0/3 0 0/3 0 7/14 50 t o t a l 28% 1/3 33 4/8 ' 50 4/14 29 t o t a l 36% 1/3 33 2/8 25 1/14 7 t o t a l 16% 1/3 33 2/8 25 2/1^ 14 Of the t o t a l 20% 150. Two of the exceptions, namely Dover and Sudbury, indicate that no undesirable uses and structures ex i s t i n the d i s t r i c t and hence the goal i s not applicable for them. The response from Dover, where h i s t o r i c zoning has been i n effect since 1957, states, "Nothing incompatible or undesirable has ever been l e t i n so there i s nothing to be eliminated." The 'Old Sudbury D i s t r i c t ' , where h i s t o r i c zoning has been i n effect since 1963, reveals that, "there i s very l i t t l e 'foreign s t u f f l e f t . " Goal r e a l i s a t i o n The lower portion of Chart 15 shows that of the 25 projects acknow-ledging goal 11, 28% are r e a l i s i n g i t very successfully 36% are r e a l i s i n g i t with some success 16% are r e a l i s i n g i t with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success 20% are not r e a l i s i n g i t at a l l Projects i n the l a t t e r 20% are located i n : Fremont, C a l i f o r n i a C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , V i r g i n i a Lahaina, Hawaii Portland, Oregon V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia 151. A comparison of cumulative goal achievement quotients for goal 11 reveals that, on the average, large c i t y projects are r e a l i s i n g 'elimin-ation' with far more success than projects i n medium sized c i t i e s or small 96 towns. Correspondingly, medium sized c i t i e s are again more successful than t h e i r small town counterparts. The reason for this v a r i a t i o n i n goal r e a l i s a t i o n appears to be d i r e c t l y related to (1) the magnitude of the problem, and (2) sophistication of techniques to solve the problem. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s The survey revealed three major methods currently i n use to achieve goal 11. These are: 1. Urban Renewal and Redevelopment procedures 2. Bylaws and code enforcement 3. Negotiation and Persuasion Each of these methods i s b r i e f l y discussed below. 1. Urban Renewal and Redevelopment procedures L i t t l e Rock, Savannah, New Haven, Sacramento, and Philadelphia a l l emphasize that undesirable uses and structures are systematically being demolished and replaced under urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n . The response from 'Old Sacramento' says, Table V l l l on page 81 l i s t s the following C.G.A.Q. for goal 11: projects i n large c i t i e s ......... 69 projects i n medium c i t i e s 42 projects i n small towns 33 152. "The Redevelopment Agency has acquired the incompatible structures and has demolished several of them and i s continuing to demolish the balance." Likewise, i n 'Wooster Square', New Haven, "Most of the incompatible and undesirable uses and structures have been eliminated although there s t i l l are a few remaining. This was achieved through the Redevelopment Agency's a b i l i t y to purchase land and to r e s e l l i t ; destroy the buildings that were on i t -change the use - and then s e l l i t . " 2. Bylaws and code enforcement -Zoning and building regulations and their enforcement are also con-sidered a viable method to achieve the elimination of incompatible uses and structures. In t h i s regard the response from 'El Peublo Viejo' i n Santa Barbara reads, "The only public condemnation work presently going on i n the d i s t r i c t i s for the municipal parking l o t s . The C i t y has no other power i n the 'elimination' f i e l d , except the usual building inspection procedure A proposed Federal redevelopment area i s immediately adjacent to the o r i g i n a l Pueblo Viejo boundaries, and t h i s may help." 153. 3. Negotiation and persuastion Both 'Old Montreal 1 and 'Seton H i l l ' i n Baltimore r e l y largely upon negotiation with property owners for achievement of goal 11. In Baltimore, "the planning department has supported and technically aided the private sector i n this effort.'.' And, i n Montreal, "The Jacques-Viger Commission has successfully persuaded owners to replace or renovate undesirable structures." The survey uncovered a wide range of a c t i v i t y which aids i n the successful r e a l i s a t i o n of goals 7 through to 11. A c t i v i t i e s supporting the preservation and development of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ' s environment include a wide variety of both private and public endeavours. The 'methods and techniques' which are currently meeting with greatest success are discussed throughout this chapter and are l i s t e d here merely by way of summary. They consist primarily of the following nine: An organized b e a u t i f i c a t i o n program ( i n i t i a t e d and guided either by a c i t y agency or by private groups), Promotional a c t i v i t i e s to escalate interest i n the h i s t o r i c area, Sound zoning and building bylaws and their enforcement, Incentives and inducements to the private sector, SUMMARY 1. 2. 3 . 4 . 154. 5. Plan preparation and implementation, 6. Negotiation between the c o n t r o l l i n g agency and private property owners, 7. Maintenance of public areas by the c i t y works department, 8. Diverting t r a f f i c from the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t as much as possible, 9. Establishing pedestrian malls, adequate parking f a c i l i t i e s , and service streets. Projects which are not experiencing much success with the environment goals appear to be grounded with shortages of public funds, lack of general i n t e r e s t , and inadequate e f f o r t i n the above nine 'methods and techniques'. 155. CHAPTER V l  THE CONSEQUENCES This chapter deals with the survey response to goals 12 and 13. These goals broadly define two problem areas which can occur i n the course of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation program and should i n that instance be anticipated i n the planning process. Goal 12 i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n the realm of s o c i a l planning - i t defines a course of action for those projects i n which low-income groups are forced out of the area as restoration proceeds. Goal 13, on the other hand, i s more i n the realm of economic control - i t defines the need to discourage excessive land speculation i n those projects where r i s i n g r e a l estate values p o t e n t i a l l y make this a problem. Success i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation i s not achieved merely by restoring ancient buildings and by developing the inherent character of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ; i t i s also dependent upon the a b i l i t y to grapple e f f e c t i v e l y with s o c i a l and economic problems. Goal 12. TO CARRY OUT A RELOCATION PROGRAM FOR LOW INCOME POPULATION WHICH IS BEING DISPLACED. Explanation Goal 12 was included i n the hypothesis because the author suspected that low income family displacement i s a serious consequence i n many re-h a b i l i t a t i o n - r e s t o r a t i o n projects. In t h i s regard i t must be remembered that many h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t programs are i n i t i a l l y r e habilitation-oriented with due emphasis placed on the recovery and rejuvenation of a slum area. The problem i s depicted as follows, 156. v "Almost invariably the urban preservation project has depended on two basic displacements. F i r s t , the elim-ination of many objectionable 'nonconforming' uses of the structures i n the area - generally l i g h t industry or small family-scale service businesses. Second, the replacement of a disadvantaged population - now generally Negro - with a sophisticated and more s o c i a l l y mobile one. The burden of area preservation f a l l s most heavily on those who have used the r e l i c s most recently and who are rar e l y offered other accommodations as inexpensive or as conveniently located when they are priced or forced out of the neighbourhood." °? Moreover, i t has been observed that h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s are usually situated i n or about the o r i g i n a l town or c i t y center, a location which frequently coincides with the c i t y ' s lowest-cost housing stock. Goal 12 was posed i n the questionnaire to determine precisely how often low income group displacement i s considered a problem and what measures are being taken to aid i n i t s solution. Goal acknowledgment Chart 16 shows that 41% of the projects surveyed consider a low i n -come group relocation program a relevant goal. But while only 1 project i n the 'small town group' acknowledges t h i s goal, 50% of the 'medium-sized' and 'large c i t y ' responses consider low income group displacement a serious problem. Chart shows that the highest propoertion of projects acknow-ledging goal 12 are i n the 10,000 - 100,000 population group. 63% of the projects i n t h i s category as opposed to 43% i n the 100,000 population and over group acknowledge the goal. Nineteen responses indicated that goal 12 i s not relevant to th e i r h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t project. _ . • ; - '• — • — ' Stephen W. Jacobs, *A Current View of Area Preservation' i n American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s Journal, December 1964, p.52. — ~ CHART 16 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 12 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #12 i s considered relevant i n 12 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed. Small towns c o ao ad O 0) a . o O Ui u a 0M PU 1/7 14 Medium c i t i e s 5/8 63 Large c i t i e s 6/14 43 GOAL REALISATION 5 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 3 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success Small t o w n s Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1 project i s r e a l i s i n g this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 3 projects are not r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1/1 100 1/5 20 3/6 50 t o t a l 42% 0/1 0 1/5 20 2/£ 33 t o t a l 25% success 0/1 0 1/5 20 0/6 0 to t a l 8% 0/1 0 2/5 40 1/6 17 Of the t o t a l 25% 158. Several of these responses1 explain why 'relocation' i s not considered a goal. Reasons given, include; (1) "There i s no low-income population i n the Cambridge D i s t r i c t s . " (2) "Most of the program has been accompanied by purchase on the open market. Many s e l l e r s owned their houses and l i v e d i n them. Dislocation has therefore been minimal. Present plans are to re t a i n the present occupants with the "exception of the normal process of private sales." ('College H i l l ' i n Providence). (3) "Not yet a s i g n i f i c a n t problem." ('Wilmington H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t ' ) . (4) "None contemplated i n this small d i s t r i c t . " (New Canaan). Goal r e a l i s a t i o n ' The lower portion of chart 16 shows that of the 12 projects which consider 'relocation' a goal, 42% are r e a l i s i n g i t very successfully 25% are r e a l i s i n g i t with some success 8% are r e a l i s i n g i t with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success 25% are not r e a l i s i n g i t at a l l Four projects i n a l l indicate l i t t l e or no success i n r e a l i s i n g goal 12. Both Santa Barbara and Santa Fe suggest that this s i t u a t i o n i s only temporary, as an appropriate relocation i s currently i n the planning stage and w i l l be carried out i n due course. Portland and C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , on the other hand, acknowledge a serious problem but suggest that no solution i s i n sight. 159. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s The 8 projects which are successfully r e a l i s i n g goal 12 have a l l implemented some form of relocation program. In most cases the program i s planned and administered by the l o c a l Housing Authority or Redevelop-ment Agency. The Redevelopment Agency i n New Haven, for example, which operates a continuing relocation program for the Wooster Square Area as wel l as other parts of the c i t y , writes: "The Redevelopment Agency has a very active relocation o f f i c e which helps f i n d new homes for low-income population. The redevelopment area has also seen the growth of new housing stock - primarily for low-income e l d e r l y , and low and moderate-income f a m i l i e s . " The response from Galveston, Texas, states that the relocation ser-vices rendered by the Federal Government i n the h i s t o r i c area are noble i n intention but are severely hampered by the short supply of other available low cost housing. F i n a l l y , 'Old Sacarmento' l i s t s four 'supporting a c t i v i t i e s ' , which in the opinion of the respondent solve the problem extremely successfully. These are: " (1) Adequate downtown hotels with low rates for r e t i r e d and low-income persons. 1 6 0 . (2) E f f e c t i v e use of the Redevelopment Agency's resource card f i l e index, which l i s t s apartments, rooming houses and homes available for displaced persons - categorized by room rates, number of rooms, and locations. A good working relationship between s t a f f , r e a l t o r s , and apart-ment, rooming house, and hotel manager. (3) Close l i a i s o n between the Redevelopment Agency and public assistance and s o c i a l service agencies; i . e . county welfare, -social security, veteran administration, public health, etc. We used these community services to provide additional and needed income and services to displaced persons. (4) Adequate s t a f f - trained and experienced i n working with low income persons and fa m i l i e s . " Goal 13. TO OFFSET THE PRESSURES OF LAND SPECULATION WITHIN THE DISTRICT. Explanation Goal 13 was included i n the questionnaire to discover i f 'land specu-l a t i o n ' does, i n f a c t , present a problem i n many h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t projects. 'Land speculation' as used here means the purchase of one or more properties i n the d i s t r i c t primarily for the purpose of r e a l i s i n g a maximum p r o f i t on the investment i n the shortest period of time. Although this motivation for investment i s normally a legitimate component of r e a l estate transactions, the p r o f i t objectives of the speculative-entrepreneur are frequently compat-i b l e with o v e r a l l preservation plans for the d i s t r i c t . Four 'undesirable' consequences can accompany speculation. 161. (1) F i r s t l y , speculation can lead to the practice for outside interests to purchase properties i n the d i s t r i c t with no intention of re-storing or redeveloping them. (2) Secondly, speculation can mean the purchase of large buildings i n the d i s t r i c t p rimarily for the purpose of cutting them up into as many apartments as possible. (3) Thirdly, land speculation can lead to concerted pressures to obtain zoning changes i n land use and permitted densities. (4) Fourthly, speculation can have the effect of skyrocketing property values i n the d i s t r i c t . This can lead to the problem that the originators of the project are forced out by the r i s i n g scale of values, since concommitant costs for higher taxes and improvements to public services must be met by property owners. The problem of speculation i s described i n one study as follows: "The problem of r i s i n g assessments and prices i s both a blessing and a danger. Many areas try to keep prices down, since sharp increases make c o n t r o l l i n g such areas more d i f f i c u l t and influence speculation. In Georgetown, Washington, D.C., more roomers are being taken i n because of s p i r a l i n g prices which make maintenance of single-family homes impossible for many One family purchased a house 12 years ago for $7000, spent approxi-mately $12,000 on renovation, and was recently offered $45,000 (1963). Such an offer i s d i f f i c u l t for the middle income family to r e s i s t , e specially since i n -creased value spurs r i s i n g tax assessments When c i t y administration and holders of private funds co-operate i n making the slum unprofitable and discour-aging speculation, neighbourhoods can be r e h a b i l i t a t e d and can become economic assets." 98 98 Wrenn and Montague, Planning for Preservation, p. 13. 162. Goal acknowledgment Although the interpretation of goal 13 varies considerably from case to case, nearly 69% of the projects surveyed indicate that " o f f s e t t i n g the pressures of land speculation" i s , indeed, a relevant purpose for them. Chart 17 shows that the smallest proportion of projects acknowledging goal 13 i s situated i n medium sized c i t i e s . Comments by the respondents f a i l e d to produce an acceptable explanation for this v a r i a t i o n and i t seems l i k e l y that i t i s largely due to change. i A t o t a l of 9 projects indicated that goal 13 i s irrelevant and therefore not being r e a l i s e d . The response from Dover, Delaware, i s of interest i n this regard. "The C i t y of Dover has had one hundred per cent voluntary compliance with the s p i r i t of the H i s t o r i c Zone regulations, and although they have been i n e f f e c t for ten years, no one has attempted to l e g a l l y question the authority of the City i n t h i s regard through court action .... A r c h i t e c t u r a l and zoning standards have removed the pressures of speculation -along with a general community consensus as to the area being one that must be preserved. I f anyone has ever had thoughts of land speculation I doubt that they have ever expressed them for fear of th e i r own safety and peace of mind." 163. CHART 17 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 13 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #13 is considered relevant in 20 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed. Small towns c o u o Cu o Vu Pu 5/7 CJ 00 Rj U c a) o u CJ pu 71 Medium c i t i e s 4/8 50 Large c i t i e s 11/14 79 GOAL REALISATION 6 projects a r e - r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully Small towns ... Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 4 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 7 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 2/5 40 0/4 0 4/11 36 t o t a l 307. 0/5 0 2/4 50 2/11 19 t o t a l 207. ; 2/5 40 1/4 25 4/11 36 Of the t o t a l 35% 2 projects are not r e a l i s i n g this goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1/5 20 1/4 ^25 1/11 S. 9 Of the t o t a l 15% 164. Goal r e a l i s a t i o n ' Varying degrees of success i n r e a l i s i n g goal 13 are expressed by the 20 projects which acknowledge i t . The lower portion of Chart 17 shows that the following pattern evolved: 6 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal very successfully 4 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with some success 7 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success 2 projects are not r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal at a l l A number of responses from the ' l i t t l e or no success' group suggest reasons for t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to solve the speculation problem adequately. Lahaina, Hawaii, for example, stated that, "Strong pressures e x i s t to remove the 2 l i m i t a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s ordinance. Measures to counteract this pressure, perhaps by tax exemption status, w i l l be studied." S i m i l a r l y , L i t t l e Rock, Arkansas, responds, "The r e a l estate interests are constantly wanting changes i n land use and have won out i n several instances, unfortunately. I f the Urban Renewal Plan had not been i n existence, land speculation would have run rampant; however, with the 'Quapaw Quarter' restoration-preservation program as part of the Urban Renewal Plan, land speculation has been kept f a i r l y w e l l i n check". 165. The Falmouth H i s t o r i c a l Society views any developer as a potential specu-l a t o r capable of upsetting the d i s t r i c t ' s status quo. The respondent notes that i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to t r y to offset pressures for new development, but that, "The H i s t o r i c a l Society has l a i d out a park complex with space for four h i s t o r i c houses. The complex includes a terrace for outdoor events such as concerts and lectures. I t i s hoped that builders and land speculators w i l l be influenced to donate unwanted h i s t o r i c houses to the Society for relocation i n this complex." Supporting a c t i v i t i e s The survey brought to l i g h t two major 'techniques' which are currently considered most useful to offset the pressures of land speculation within h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . (1) H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t zoning and review procedures Four respondents stressed the value of thei r h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance and the administrative review procedure as one means of discouraging specu-l a t i o n . 'College H i l l ' i n Providence, for example, inferred, "Raising the zoning to R-2 has helped hold down land speculation since p r o f i t s cannot now be made by cutting buildings into small apartments. Furthermore, there has been strong pressure for college rooming houses i n the d i s t r i c t - a use we are also tr y i n g to control." 166. Also with reference to zoning, the response from Cambridge states, "The problem of land speculation i s a c t u a l l y greater i n other parts of Cambridge than i n the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s , which are • r e l a t i v e l y stable and e f f e c t i v e l y zoned so as to discourage speculation or land use changes." 'Seton H i l l ' i n Baltimore i s s i m i l a r l y protected, because "The H i s t o r i c a l Commission must review a l l new developments w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l d i s t r i c t . Speculation i s prevented because any new developer understands that his development must conform with the h i s t o r i c a l d i s t r i c t . " A fourth response, from Montreal, Quebec, indicates that the general zoning code of the Ci t y e s s e n t i a l l y serves the same purpose. (2) Control through urban renewal r e s t r i c t i o n s Five projects indicate that land speculation i s e f f e c t i v e l y kept i n check by virtue of urban renewal r e s t r i c t i o n s and through controls issued 99 by the Redevelopment Agency. 'Society H i l l ' i n Philadelphia, notes, "We have r e s t r i c t i o n s regarding land use as wel l as building controls. A d d i t i o n a l l y , contracts are made with owners or buyers requiring work to star t and to be completed wi t h i n a specified time, and prohibit sale, lease, or transfer of a 99 These are: *Old Sacramento', 'Society H i l l ' , 'Quapaw Quarter', 'Wooster Square', 'Victorian V i l l a g e Project'. 167. property prior to completion of the restoration work without written consent of the Redevelopment Authority." The four other responses outlined s i m i l a r procedures. Other supporting a c t i v i t i e s In addition to h i s t o r i c zoning and urban renewal r e s t r i c t i o n s a variety of other 'legal' techniques are available to discourage land speculation. One of these, namely the use of a tax exemption system, i s now being studied for possible use i n the Lahaina H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t . Such a tax system would mean that instead of penalizing an owner who refuses to discard a s i g n i f i c a n t building i n favour of a more p r o f i t a b l e replacement, he would be given added incentive. Using this approach, instead of adhering to the normal competitive patterns which require owners of land to be taxed on maximum economic potential rather than current revenues, there would be a separate tax system for h i s t o r i c buildings and s i t e s i n and about the d i s t r i c t . Neither need the c i t y lose from such a system. I f a more sophisticated cost-benefit analysis were available, i t may be demonstrated that the influence of an a t t r a c t i v e d i s t r i c t frequently means increased tax y i e l d s from surrounding properties. Whereas zoning i s a public control over private property, a number of private controls capable of countering the effects of speculation are also gaining currency. Four of these are defined and described i n a recent 168. 100 a r t i c l e by Thomas J. Reed. These are: 1. personal r e s t r i c t i v e covenants 2. condominium ownership for preservation purposes 3. scenic easements 4. l i f e estate conveyance SUMMARY Two potential consequences of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t scheme, v i z . d i s -placement of low income population and land speculation within t h e ; d i s t r i c t , solve these problems are, on the whole, only r e l a t i v e l y successful. Many projects are conducting some form of low income relocation program but monies available for this purpose and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of alternate housing are constraining factors. In most cases h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning or urban renewal r e s t r i c t i o n s help to offset excessive land speculation, but where there are strong pressures for change these control devices are not s u f f i c i e n t . Goals dealing with relocation and speculation proved to be far more germane i n the larger places than i s the case i n smaller towns and c i t i e s . constitute problems i n about half the projects. Measures being taken to 100 Thomas J. Reed, 'Land Use Controls i n H i s t o r i c Areas', i n Notre Dame Lawyer, v o l 44, no. 3 (February 1969), pp. 406-407. 169. CHAPTER VI1  SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES This chapter discusses the survey response to goals 14 and 15. In the questionnaire these f i n a l two goals are loosely called 'Supporting A c t i v i t i e s ' i n the sense that (a) the anactment of protective l e g i s l a t i o n , and, (b) promotion of the d i s t r i c t , serve as basic vehicles for the achievement of most other goals. Goal 14. TO ENACT AND GENERALLY IMPROVE LEGISLATIVE MEASURES DESIGNED TO PROTECT THE QUALITY OF THE DISTRICT'S ENVIRONMENT. Explanation Goal 14 was included i n the hypothesis because i t was surmised that i n most cases e x i s t i n g d i s t r i c t ordinances and other forms of a r c h i t e c t u r a l controls are not nearly s u f f i c i e n t to solve a l l preservation needs of the d i s t r i c t s and that subsequently there i s continuing room for improvement i n the ' l e g i s l a t i o n area 1. In connection with t h i s , i t should be remembered that most of the projects i n the survey were selected because they already have some form of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n . Relationship to other goals Goal 14 could be construed as being redundant i n that i t recapitulates the intent of at least three previous goals; v i z . goals 2, 4, and 11. Obviously, the improvement of legal measures to protect the d i s t r i c t ' s envir-onment i s s i m i l a r and related to: 170. - improving the a r c h i t e c t u r a l merit of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n -restoration work, - ensuring that new construction i s compatible, systematically eliminating incompatible uses and structures Nevertheless i t was considered important to pose the whole matter of ' l e g i s -l a t i v e measures' as a single, d i s t i n c t goal i n order to gauge o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with e x i s t i n g legal protective devices. Goal acknowledgment As i s shown i n Chart 18, goal 14 i s considered a relevant, ongoing target i n 25 of the 29 projects surveyed. The parent-city-size factor does not appear to have a bearing on the general a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s goal. Three respondents indicate that goal 14 i s not relevant to the pro-jects i n t h e i r c i t y . Two of these, namely C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e and Dover, have had thei r h i s t o r i c zoning ordinance i n effect since 1956 and 1957 respect-i v e l y and further l e g i s l a t i v e improvements are not deemed necessary i n these two projects. The t h i r d case, Bastion Square i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, indicate that " l e g i s l a t i v e measures are not contemplated as preservation i s successfully being achieved through negotiation." Goal r e a l i s a t i o n The lower portion of Chart 18 shows that i n 76% of the projects goal 14 i s being r e a l i s e d 'very successfully' or at least with 'some success'. 171. CHART 18 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 14 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGMENT Goal #14 i s considered relevant i n 25 of the t o t a l 29 projects s n r v e v p H . Proportion Percentage Small towns 6/7 86 Medium c i t i e s 7/8 88 Large c i t i e s 12A4^ 86 GOAL REALISATION projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s ! Large c i t i e s 1/6 17 3/7 43 4/12 33 Of the t o t a l 327. 11 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 2/6 33 3/7 43 6/12 50 Of the t o t a l 447. 4 projects are r e a l i s i n g this goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 2 projects are not r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal 2/6 33 0/7 0 2/12 17 Of the t o t a l 87. Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 1/6 17 1/7 ^ 14 0/12 Of the t o t a l 167. 172. Four responses indicate, however, that goal 14 i s being r e a l i s e d with ' l i t t l e or no ascertainable success'. These cases, and the reasons for the i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , are: (1) In Falmouth, Mass. there has been a great amount of 'talk' about establishing a H i s t o r i c Commission, but to date no action has been taken. (2) The Planning Board i n the town of Sudbury, Mass. has t r i e d four times i n the past s i x years to have a certain part of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t rezoned from commercial to r e s i d e n t i a l use, but was unsuccessful. The respondent notes that new commercial development, although considered undesirable, i s being done i n good taste. (3) In L i t t l e Rock, Arkansas, a private group recently attempted to establish an ' o f f i c i a l ' H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t with appropriate environmental controls and was d r a s t i c a l l y defeated. (4) The response from Portland, Oregon, remarks that establishment of a H i s t o r i c Landmarks Commission i s s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y recent and that i t has not much impact on the q u a l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment yet. F i n a l l y , Cape May and Portsmouth indicate that the improvement of ' l e g i s l a t i v e measures' i s very much i n order but that currently nothing i s being done to achieve i t . Cape May's 'Victorian V i l l a g e P r o j e c t 1 , lacking the protection rendered by h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning, also notes that " l i t t l e concern for the legal status of the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission i s being expressed by the l o c a l Planning Board." 173. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t zoning and review bodies In c i t i n g supporting a c t i v i t i e s for goal 14 many respondents make dir e c t reference to their h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t zoning ordinance. Several, such as New Canaan, indicate that e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s quite e f f e c t i v e and no further improvements are envisioned. Others, such as Bellport and New Haven, indicate that revisions to their h i s t o r i c zoning ordinances are made by the Planning Board when necessary, and that this procedure adequately serves to upgrade control over the h i s t o r i c environment. The response from 'The Wilmington H i s t o r i c a l D i s t r i c t ' notes that l e g i s l a t i o n was recently adopted to give the Board of Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Review greater authority; and the response from Lahaina said that i t s H i s t o r i c a l Commission, established i n 1967, e f f e c t i v e l y provides the required super-v i s i o n . The 'County of Maui H i s t o r i c Commission', with powers and duties as set for t h i n the zoning ordinance, provides an interesting example of the way a review body can operate and i s therefore included as Appendix E. Redevelopment plans and master plans ^  Several of the responses from larger c i t i e s state that goal 14 i s being r e a l i s e d very successfully primarily because the o f f i c i a l redevelop-ment or master plan functions as lega l document. The Seton H i l l area i n Baltimore, for example, was declared to be "a H i s t o r i c a l and Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Preservation D i s t r i c t " by the Mayor and Ci t y Council i n 1968 and guidelines for i t s development were subsequently incor-1 7 4 . porated i n the City's o f f i c i a l Master Plan. S i m i l a r l y , 'Old Sacramento' stresses that, "The Redevelopment Plan i s a formal document approved not only by the Redevelopment Agency but also by the City Council and i s e f f e c t i v e for 30 years from the date of I t s approval. The Plan i s written to preserve the quality of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment. Subsequent to the Agency's completing i t s respon-s i b i l i t i e s i n the d i s t r i c t , a void can develop i n p o l i c i n g the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t . There must be established a mechanism to make sure that what happens i s not incompatible with the govern-ing regulation - the Redevelopment Plan." Other supportive a c t i v i t i e s Five projects mentioned a variety of other a c t i v i t i e s i n support of goal 14. These are: (1) a sign control ordinance ('Barrio De Analco H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t ' i n Santa Fe), (2) l o c a l c i t i z e n s and organizations who keep an eye on the d i s t r i c t ' s environmental and a r c h i t e c t u r a l q u a l i t y and report any major deviations to the a r c h i t e c t u r a l board of review. ('El Pueblo Viejo' i n Santa Barbara), (3) an extensive survey of h i s t o r i c architecture so that the d i s t r i c t may eventually be expanded and so that city-wide controls can be established. (Cambridge). 175. (4) recent passage of enabling legislation which authorizes the County (in addition to the City) to participate in housing and renewal programs. (Savannah) (5) modifications made in existing legislation to accelerate proceed-ings for the approval of building and restoration plans and the issuance of permits in the historic area. ('Old Montreal). Legal protection through the National Register of Historic Places Five of the projects included in the survey are entered in the National Register of Historic Places, and thus are vested with Federal pro-tection against 'adverse e f f e c t ' . ' A d v e r s e effect' i s considered to occur \ • • under conditions which include, but are not limited to: " (a) destruction or alteration of a l l or part of a property; (b) isolation from or alteration of i t s surrounding environ-ment; (c) introduction of visual, audible, or atmospheric elements that are out of character with the property and i t s setting." 102 Interestingly none of these five projects make mention of the Congressional 103 protection rendered through the National Register. 101 These are: 'Old Sacramento', 'Savannah Historic D i s t r i c t ' , 'Lahaina Historic D i s t r i c t ' , 'Barrio De Analco Historic D i s t r i c t ' , and 'Old Salem Historic D i s t r i c t ' . 102 Federal Register, Volume 34, number 37, Department of the Interior, National Parks Service, (February 25, 1969, Washington, D.C), p.2582. 103 For a discussion of the way in which this protection may be used, s e e i b i d . , p.2582. 176. Goal 15. T O P R O M O T E A N D A D V E R T I S E T H E D I S T R I C T I N O R D E R T O D E V E L O P L O C A L I N T E R E S T A N D T O C R E A T E A D E F I N I T E T O U R I S T A T T R A C T I O N . Explanation Promotion of the historic district can serve the dual purpose of en-couraging further restoration efforts by awakening the interest of other preservation-minded individuals and of drawing tourist dollars to commercial establishments in the area. Regarding promotion Walter Muir Whitehill says, "Preservationists should use a l l means of communication open to them that will reach, and hopefully influence, the widest possible audience. One favourable editorial by a friendly newspaper is worth more than a dozen in-dignant letters of protest to the same paper. Thus, an essential first step is to attempt to secure the active support of those who control the relevant newspapers and radio and television stations. It is equally necessary to convince banks that, under proper circumstances, money can be as safely and profit-ably invested in the preservation of a fine old building as in the construction of a new one, and to persuade local and state elected and appointed officials that the continued presence of such a building may be a greater ornament to the community than could any run-of-the replacement." *^ 4 Although Whitehill was referring primarily to the preservation of single buildings, his comments are equally germane to the preservation of entire districts. As he suggests, promotion is, and should be, largely the responsibility of private interests. Goal acknowledgment As Chart 19 shows, promotion and advertisement of the historic district 104 W.M. Whitehill in 'Education and Training for restoration work' in Historic Preservation Tomorrow, p. 36. 177. CHART 19 SURVEY RESPONSE TO GOAL 15 GOAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Goal #15 i s considered relevant i n 23 of the t o t a l 29 projects surveyed.  Small towns a u o 60 • H id XJ U U C o V (X o o u u ti P H P H 5/7 71 Medium c i t i e s 6/8 75 Large c i t i e s 12/14 86 GOAL REALISATION 10 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal very successfully Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 2/5 40 2/6 33 6/12 50 Of the t o t a l 437. 10 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with some success Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 3/5 60 3/6 50 4/12 33 Of the t o t a l 437. 2 projects are r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success Small towns 0/5 0 Medium c i t i e s 1/6 17 Large c i t i e s 1/12 8 Of the t o t a l 97. 1 project i s not r e a l i s i n g t h i s goal Small towns Medium c i t i e s Large c i t i e s 0/5 0 0/6' 0 1/12 8 Of the t o t a l 77. 178. i s considered a goal i n 79% of the projects surveyed. Although the 1 parent-c i t y - s i z e 1 factor does not appear to have a s i g n i f i c a n t bearing on the acknowledgment of goal 15, somewhat more projects i n the 100,000 population and over group attach importance to i t . Chart 19 shows that whereas 71% of the small town projects consider i t a goal, more than 86% of the large c i t y projects are a c t i v e l y promoting and advertising their h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . A number of responses indicate that t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n i s d e f i n i t e l y not a goal for their project. College H i l l homeowners, I t i s suggested, for example, are a c t i v e l y t r y i n g to discourage an i n f l u x of t o u r i s t s i n order to maintain the r e s i d e n t i a l character of the d i s t r i c t . Likewise the town of Sudbury makes no attempt to a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s to i t s h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t which coincides with the town center. Nevertheless, the respondent states that one b u i l d i n g i n the d i s t r i c t , namely 'The Wayside Inn', does act as a magnet to the "occasional" t o u r i s t . The response from 'El Pueblo Viejo' i n Santa Barbara notes that, although i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r a l and business enterprises i n the area advertise t h e i r services, no one has taken r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for advertising the d i s t r i c t as a whole. The respondent adds " i f the o i l s i t u a t i o n continues unabated we might have to promote the h i s t o r i c attractions even more strongly". The remaining three projects that consider goal 15 ir r e l e v a n t are: 'Wooster Square' i n New Haven, Dover, and Charlottes v i l l e . Goal r e a l i s a t i o n 86% of the projects acknowledging goal 15 suggest that i t i s being r e a l i s e d either 'very successfully' or 'with some success'. The remaining three projects indicate that, although number 15 i s a goal, i t i s presently being r e a l i s e d with l i t t l e or no success for a variety of reasons. (1) 'Historic Wilmington', which covers approximately 34 c i t y blocks and has some 137 h i s t o r i c buildings scattered throughout t h i s area, i s considered too large and diffused to make promotion of a definable area feas i b l e . (2) The response from 'Seton H i l l ' i n Baltimore indicates that t h i s goal i s currently being r e a l i s e d with l i t t l e or no ascertainable success because the promotion program has only just been formulated. (3) Local promotion of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i n Portland, Oregon, o f f i c i a l l y created i n 1959, i s considered superfluous by the planning department there. Supporting a c t i v i t i e s The survey revealed that a large variety of 'promotion techniques' are currently being used to achieve goal 15. Pertinent examples are discussed below. Projects situated i n the larger c i t i e s were generally found to u t i l i z e a larger number of techniques than t h e i r counterparts i n small towns. The l a t t e r normally r e l y on just one or two w e l l - t r i e d promotion devices. Projects i n large c i t i e s (1) 'Old Sacramento1 has launched a promotion program which includes nationwide advertisement, and an active l o c a l P.R. program which features a speakers bureau. (2) Cambridge, Massachusetts, regularly publishes a 'Heritage T r a i l 180. Brochure' which contains a walking tour guide to the d i s t r i c t ' s h i s t o r i c architecture. A d d i t i o n a l l y , a h i s t o r i c marker program w i l l soon be carried out. (3) In V i c t o r i a , B.C. 'Bastion Square' i s widely publicized through a 105 p r o v i n c i a l photographic magazine, i n the l o c a l newspaper, and i s displayed on postcards. (4) 'Society H i l l ' i n Philadelphia, i n addition to brochures, tour maps, and magazine a r t i c l e s , regularly conducts guided tours for v i s i t i n g college students, planners, and architects. (5) 'El Paseo del Rio' i n San Antonio, Texas, i s included i n the City's advertising program under the auspices of the Tourist Information D i v i s i o n of the Convention Bureau and through the l o c a l Chamber of Commerce. (6) Both 'Beacon H i l l ' i n Boston and 'Old Salem' i n Winston-Salem, N.C., have developed a h i s t o r i c t r a i l as the basis of thei r promotion a c t i v i t i e s . The laying out of marked routes for v i s i t o r s as an aid i n interpreting the h i s t o r i c s i t e s of the community has at least four b e n e f i c i a l effects on the h i s t o r i c community; i t can: (a) provide a focus for the diverse a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n preservation e f f o r t s ; (b) lend greater prestige to the properties along i t s route, induce owners to upgrade their properties, and a t t r a c t organizations and families who w i l l be interested i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g structures; _ — The magazine i s ca l l e d Beautiful B r i t i s h Columbia,see especially Spring 1969 e d i t i o n , pp. 1-9. 181. (c) stimulate the renewal of areas i n proximity to the t r a i l ; and (d) attract attention outside the c i ty to the assets of the 106 h is tor ic community. Projects in medium sized c i t i es (1) The response from Fremont, California states "we have participated in the preparation of ar t ic les for magazines, assisted in photograph and mapping programs, and established a Histor ica l Resource Committee." (2) The response from Lexington, Massachusetts mentions that a tourist information center was recently bui l t to f u l f i l the d i s t r i c t ' s promotion needs. The center operates to provide information, dispense l i terature on his tor ic sights, store his tor ic d i s t r i c t guies, display artwork, and provides restroom f a c i l i t i e s ; i t is staffed by the Chamber of Commerce and the Lexington Historic Society. \ ' y • • ' • Projects in small towns Open house tours proved to be a popular and successful way of promoting local interest i n preservation and of stimulating care and attention for h i s t o r i c a l l y and aesthetically-significant buildings i n many properties. In addition to Charleston and Providence, where open house tours have been held on an annual basis for many years, the town of Bellport also reports that " this Christmas the His tor ica l Society sponsored an 'open house tour' and i t was very successful." 1 8 2 . Cape May, New Jersey, an ocean resort town with a year round popu-lation of 4500 persons, advertises i t s 'Victorian Village' nationally by means of a large advertising firm and through v i s i t i n g reporters. Use of the historic d i s t r i c t for educational purposes and to create local interest is mentioned by both Bellport, New York, and Falmouth, Massachusetts. In this regard the questionnaire from Falmouth reads: "The Historical Society, the school system, and the Public . Library join in a program for 5th grade pupils. A f u l l school day is spent on the history of the town and the way people lived i n early days. At the Historical Society they are shown butter churning, bread baking in the fireplace, candle dipping, weaving, cording wool and flax, and spinning. A lecture with slides shows scenes of early days in town. A picture of a l l houses in the historic d i s t r i c t is shown with a description of the builders and present occupants. Library books are exhibited which could be read to continue learning about history and early crafts." SUMMARY The f i n a l two goals aimed at the improvement of legislative measures and at promoting the historic d i s t r i c t are important elements in the majority of projects. Whereas the smaller places normally rely on one or two well-tested techniques many of the larger schemes have an extensive program in 105 See College H i l l Demonstration Study of Historic Area Renewal, p.10. support of these goals. Goals 14 and 15 are, on the whole, being achieved f a i r l y successfully with a host of supporting a c t i v i t i e s currently i n vogue. Aside from l o c a l uses of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t for educational purposes, many projects are using the news media to promote thei r d i s t r i c t on a regional or national scale thereby hoping to draw tourism. 184. CHAPTER Vl11  CONCLUSION The central hypothesis formulated i n this study i s strongly supported by the data collected. The survey has shown that: Recurrent planning t a r -gets of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t preservation projects, i n North America i n the 1960's can, indeed, be c l a s s i f i e d under the 15 broad goals set out i n the hypothesis. Moreover, the study has shown that these f i f t e e n headings constitute the major planning intents i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation, and that no additional headings (or broad goals) are omitted i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The study also revealed that i n very few instances a l l f i f t e e n 'goals' are a c t i v e l y pursued. Nevertheless, most projects (69% of the survey) con-sider a t . l e a s t 12 or more of the 'goals' as being relevant; H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t projects situated i n medium-sized c i t i e s (10,000 - 100,000 popu-lati o n ) generally pursue a greater number of the 'goals' than i s the case for either small towns (10,000 population and less) or i n large c i t i e s (100,000 population and over). Eight of the 'goals' have v i r t u a l l y universal, North American a p p l i -cation. These eight 'goals' are a c t i v e l y pursued i n H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t planning no matter how large or old the d i s t r i c t and irregardless of the size of the c i t y i n which the d i s t r i c t i s located. These 'goals' are: 1. To encourage the restoration and preservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they w i l l be desirable as private homes or places of business. 185. 2. To irarpve the arc h i t e c t u r a l merit of the re h a b i l i t a t i o n - r e s t o r a t i o n work i n the d i s t r i c t . 4. To ensure that new construction i s compatible with the existing h i s t o r i c a l context and ar c h i t e c t u r a l setting. 7. To ensure the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community - not a 'museum complex'. 9. To develop and conserve those attributes of the streets, grounds, public squares or parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l character. 10. To recognize the requirements of the automobile while also sub-ordinating these requirements to the need for preserving the qu a l i t y of the h i s t o r i c environment. 11. To improve the qua l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment by system-a t i c a l l y eliminating incompatible and undesirable uses and structures. 14. To enact and generally improve l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to protect the qua l i t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s environment. The f i r s t f i v e of these 'goals'are generally regarded as the most ; important aims i n h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation, and are, on the whole, being achieved most successfully. 'Success' when applied to the preservation of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s i s a. highly r e l a t i v e thing. I t was discovered that there i s no set of common denominators with which success can be defined and measured. Success denotes a subjective judgement and i s , i n the f i n a l analysis, related to an individual's personal goals and objectives. The study revealed, above a l l , that each h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t i s a d i s t i n c t i v e area of a c i t y set apart from a l l other h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s by a host of unique, l o c a l factors and conditions. 'Successful' d i s t r i c t .preservation adequately solves the 186. unique, l o c a l problems and s a t i s f i e s the personal aspiration of the greatest number of people whose l i v e s are touched by i t . This study has attempted to p u l l together a great deal of a c t i v i t y which relates to planning for d i s t r i c t preservation. In th i s process the most important planning goals have been i d e n t i f i e d and a wide range of a c t i v i t y i n support of these goals has been uncovered. Nevertheless, the conclusions reached i n the study are i n the best sense only generalizations and cannot be considered other than i n the l i g h t of broad insights into the many and varied aspects of planning for d i s t r i c t preservation. I t i s therefore suggested that further research into the f i e l d may most e f f e c t i v e l y be conducated on the l e v e l of the par t i c u l a r case study. As an attempt to understand the underlying processes of preservation planning, the research conducted here i s v a l i d and meaningful. I t must be added, however, that t h i s study i s incomplete i n the sense that any overview tends to v e i l and disguise many very Important p a r t i c u l a r s . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY There i s a great deal of l i t e r a t u r e related to h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation. While most of the works l i s t e d here deal with the U.S. experience, much of i t i s also applicable to Canada. The Bibliography i s divided into the following parts: PART 1: Books and Studies of General Interest PART 11: A r t i c l e s , Pamphlets and Reprints PART 111: Background Material and Studies on the Projects Surveyed PART 1: BOOKS AND STUDIES OF GENERAL INTEREST Adamson, A., A. A l i s s o n , E. Arthur and William Goulding. H i s t o r i c Architecture of Canada. Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada, Ottawa, June, 1966. 30 pp. A photographic essay of an ex h i b i t i o n produced by members of the Committee on the Preservation of H i s t o r i c Buildings. Andrews, Wayne. Architecture i n America: A Photographic History from  the Colonial Period to the Present. New York, Athenaeum, 1960. 179 pp. Bacon, Edmund N. The Design of C i t i e s . New York, Viking Press, 1967. Bullock, Orin M. The Restoration Manual. Connecticut, Silvermine Publishers, Inc., 1966. 192 pp. Prepared for the Committee on H i s t o r i c Buildings of the American I n s t i t u t e of Architects. A clear description of steps and procedures essential to authentic restoration of buildings of a l l kinds. Codman, John. Preservation of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s by Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Control. American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s . Chicago, 1956, 36 pp. Study and analysis of early American c i t i e s having a r c h i t e c t u r a l control laws governing old and h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s ; outlines plans for securing area control. Cullen, Gordon. Townscape, New York, The Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1961. 188. Darling, Fraser and John P. Milton. Future Environments of North America. New York, The Natural History Press, 1965. 767 pp. Includes a noteworthy a r t i c l e on preservation by Christopher Tunnard, "Preserving the Cultural Patrimony". Delafons, John. Land-Use Controls i n the United States. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1962. 100 pp. F i n a l Report of the H i s t o r i c a l D i s t r i c t s Study Committee. Cambridge, Mass., H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Preservation Press. 92 pp. and maps. Recent development i n h i s t o r i c preservation law and conclusions reached a f t e r review of these. A summary of Cambridge landmarks and extensive exhibits section. Fi n l e y , David E. History of the National Trust of H i s t o r i c Preservation 1947-63. Washington, D.C, National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation, 1965. 115 pp. Fortune Magazine Editors. The Exploding Metropolis. Garden C i t y , N.Y., Doubleday and Co., Inc. 1958. 177 pp. Controversial perspectives on the North American C i t y by prominent urban c r i t i c s including Jane Jacobs and William H. Whyte, J r . Frieden, Bernard J. The Future of Old Neighborhoods; Rebuilding for a Changing Population. Cambridge, Mass., Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1964. 256 pp. Giedion, S i e g f r i e d . Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New t r a d i t i o n . Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1954. 778 pp. Gowans, Alan. Building Canada: An A r c h i t e c t u r a l History of Canadian L i f e . Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1966. 412 pp. An excellent and extremely comprehensive survey of the h i s t o r y of Canadian architecture. - - _. Images of American L i v i n g : Four Centuries of Architecture and Furniture as Cultural Expression. Philadelphia, Penn., J.B. Lippincott Co., 1964. 498 pp. Provides a comprehensive view of the development of American architecture. • "The Canadian National Style". In The Shield of A c h i l l e s : Aspects of Canada i n the Victorian Age. Edited by W.L. Morton. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1968. An attempt to show that Canada does have i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e . Gruen, V i c t o r . The Heart of Our C i t i e s . New York, Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1964. 364 pp. Rational and inspired analysis of what can be done to revive American c i t y centres. Hale, Katherine. H i s t o r i c Houses of Canada. Ryerson Press, 1952. 152 pp. i l l u s t r a t e d . 189. Henderson, Lawrence G. and Albert Rains, editors. With Heritage So Rich -A Report of a Special Committee on H i s t o r i c Preservation under the  Auspices of the United States Conference of Mayors and a Grant from  the Ford Foundation. New York, Random House, 1966. 230 pp. A persuasive perspective of the importance of h i s t o r i c preser-vation i n the United States. H i s t o r i c Preservation Today. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , University Press of V i r g i n i a , 1965. 180 pp. A c o l l e c t i o n of essays presented to the Seminar on Preservation and Restoration, Williamsburg, 1963, by international experts. H i s t o r i c Preservation Tomorrow. Williamsburg, V i r g i n i a , The National Trust and Colonial Williamsburg, 1967. 64 pp. Revised Pr i n c i p l e s and Guidelines for H i s t o r i c Preservation i n the U.S.A. Holland, Laurence B., ed. Who Designs America? Garden Cit y , N.Y., Doubleday & Company, 1966. 357 pp. Ten essays presented by prominent architects, philosophers, planners, etc. to the Design i n America Symposium held at Princeton i n 1964. Hosmer, Charles B., J r . Presence of the Past - A History of the Preservation  Movement i n the United States before Williamsburg. New York, G.P. Putnams, 1965. 386 pp. The most comprehensive analysis of the American preservation movement yet undertaken. Huxtable, Ada Louise. Classic New York. Garden Cit y , N.Y., Doubleday and Company, 1964. 142 pp. A photographic and descriptive analysis of New York's Georgian and Federal Architecture. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s . New York, Random House, 1961. 458 pp. A b r i l l i a n t and o r i g i n a l analysis of what i s wrong with the North American c i t y and what could be done to put i t r i g h t . Jacobs, Stephen W. and Barclay Jones. C i t y Design Through Conservation: Methods of Evaluation and U t i l i z a t i o n of Aesthetic and Cultural  Resources. Unpublished study, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1960. 2 Volumes, 550pp. A general analysis of preservation l e g i s l a t i o n , including a state by state survey. Johnson, Thomas F., James R. Morris and Joseph G. Butts. Renewing  America's C i t i e s . Washington, D.C., The I n s t i t u t e for Social Science Research, 1962. 130 pp. i l l u s t r a t e d . 190. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass., Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology Press, 1960. 194 pp. Montague, Robert L. I l l and Tony P. Wrenn. Planning for Preservation. Chicago, American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1964. 46 pp. Contains valuable information on legal trends and on the economic aspects of preservation (e.g. property values, taxation, ef f e c t of tourism). Based on a 50 state survey. Morrison, Jacob H. H i s t o r i c Preservation Lav?. Washington, D.C, National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation, 1965. 198 pp. Reference for i n d i v i d u a l s , organization and public o f f i c i a l s concerned with maintaining landmarks. Compilation of municipal and state statutes, ordinances, court decisions and enactments. Mumford, Lewis. The C i t y i n History: I t s Origins, I t s Transformations, and I t s Prospects. New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1961, 634 pp. Puerto Rico Urban Renewal and Housing Administration Long-Range Planning Office. Old San Juan and Puerta De T i e r r a : A General Neighbourhood  Renewal Plan. San Juan, Puerto Rico, Urban Renewal and Housing Corporation, 1962. 81 pp. Rath, Frederick L., J r . , and Merrilyn Rogers, compiler. NYSHA Selective  Reference Guide to H i s t o r i c Preservation. New York, New York State H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1966. 133 pp. Sharp, Thomas. Town and Townscape. London, John Murray, 1968. A review of the preservation of B r i t i s h townscapes. Stoney, Samuel. This i s Charleston: A Survey of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Heritage  of Charleston, A Unique American City. Charleston, S. Carolina, The Carolina Art Association, 1944. 137 pp. The National Register of H i s t o r i c Places - 1969. Washington D.C, United States Department of the Inte r i o r National Park Service, 352 pp. A comprehensive l i s t of h i s t o r i c places i n the United States that are protected under the National Preservation Act of 1966. Includes over 200 photographs and measured drawings. Tunnard, Christopher. The C i t y of Man. New York, Charles Scribner, 1953. Tunnard, Christopher and Boris Pushkarev. Man-Made America; Chaos or  Control. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1963. Tunnard, Christopher and Henry Hope Reed. American Skyline: The Growth  and Form of Our C i t i e s and Towns. Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1955. 302 pp. U d a l l , Stewart L. The Quiet C r i s i s . New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963. 209 pp. Chapter 12 " C i t i e s i n Trouble" i s of p a r t i c u l a r relevance. 191. Vanderbilt, C.J The L i v i n g Past of America. New York, 1955. 233 pp. i l l u s t r a t e d . A p i c t o r a l presentation of h i s t o r i c houses and v i l l a g e s i n the United States that have been preserved and restored. Vieux Carre Demonstration Study. New Orleans, Louisiana, Bureau of Government Research, 1968. includes: - An economic and s o c i a l study of Vieux Carre Plan and program for the preservation of Vieux Carre. - Technical report; environmental study - Legal and administrative aspects of Vieux Carre - The Vieux Carre; New Orleans: i t s plan, i t s growth, i t s architecture. - An evaluation of the effects of the proposed r i v e r front expressway on the Vieux Carre - New Orleans central business d i s t r i c t t r a f f i c study. Whalen, Richard J. A C i t y Destroying I t s e l f ; An Angry View of New York. New York, Morrow, Wm. and Co., Inc., 1965. 128 pp. White, Morton and Lucia. The I n t e l l e c t u a l Versus the C i t y ; From Thomas Jefferson to Frank Lloyd Wright. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press and Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology Press, 1962. 270 pp. Wilson, Samual, J r . A Guide to Architecture of New Orleans, 1699 - 1959. New York, Reinhold Publishing Corporation,' 1959;* "76 pp. Wingo, Lowdon, J r . C i t i e s and Space; The Future Use of Urban Land. Baltimore, Maryland, John Hopkins Press, 1966. 261 pp. The a r t i c l e on "Urban Space and Urban Design" by Frederick Gutheim i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g with regard to the problem of urban aesthetics. . ' • ', • \ Wurster, Catherine Bauer. "Framework for an Urban Society," Goals for  Americans. New York, Prentice H a l l , 1960. 192. PART i i : ARTICLES, PAMPHLETS AND REPRINTS "A Possible Programme for the Preservation and Restoration of Quebec". Community Planning Review, Autumn 1963, pp. 6-18. A Report on the P r i n c i p l e s and Guidelines for H i s t o r i c Preservation i n  the United States. Washington, D.C, National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation, 1964. 24 pp. A much used and widely read statement of preservation p r i n c i p l e s , recommendation and guidelines. American I n s t i t u t e of Architects. Arousing the Community to i t s A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Heritage. Washington, D.C, 1961. ; A public relations k i t issued by the A.I.A. Committee for the Preservation of H i s t o r i c Buildings. B l a i r , Lachlan F. "Planning for H i s t o r i c Preservation". History News, November, 1961, pp. 106-110. C a r r o l l , Margaret. H i s t o r i c Preservation Through Urban Renewal. Urban Renewal Administration. Housing and Home Agency, Washington, D.C, 1963. The r o l e of urban renewal i n preservation a c t i v i t i e s , including possible use of URA funds i n planning,site improvement and administration. Codman, John. "A Law for the Preservation of a H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t . " H i s t o r i c Preservation, XIV, No. 2, 1962. Suggestions on w r i t i n g and securing l e g i s l a t i o n and a l i s t i n g of what h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l do for a community. "Comment" (on aesthetic zoning). Fordham Law Review, XXlX, No. 4. New York, 1961. H i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t l e g i s l a t i o n , spot zoning, b i l l b o a r d control, etc. Constitution and By-Laws for a Tax-Exempt Organization. National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation. Suggested form to be amplified by l o c a l attorney for groups organizing preservation projects. C r i t e r i a for Evaluating H i s t o r i c Sites and Buildings. Washington, D.C. National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation, Committee on Standard and Surveys, 1956. A discussion of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l significance of h i s t o r i c s i t e s and buildings; th e i r s u i t a b i l i t y for preservation; educational values; cost of restoration or reconstruction; main-tenance, and interpretation; and administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of sponsoring groups. E a r l of Euston. "The Future of H i s t o r i c Town Centres i n Urban Replanning." Journal of the Town Planning I n s t i t u t e , July-August, 1963, pp. 215-221. 193. Feiss, C a r l . Community Architecture: Art Appeal to Action. The American I n s t i t u t e of A r c h i t e c t s , Urban Design Committee, Washington, D.C, 1962. 16 pp. Discussion of a major conversion taking place i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l practices; comprehensive architecture of whole communities. Feiss, Carl and Terry Morton. "True of False-Living Architecture, Old and New." H i s t o r i c Preservation, XX, No. 2, April-June 1968. A discussion of need for a r c h i t e c t u r a l and h i s t o r i c i n t e g r i t y i n restoration and for good design i n r e l a t i n g new architecture with old buildings and h i s t o r i c areas. F i t c h , James Marston. "Professional Training for the Preservationist." AIA Journal, A p r i l 1969. 6 pp. i l l u s t r a t e d . Garvey, Robert R. and Terry B. Morton. "The U.S. Government i n H i s t o r i c Preservation." Momentum, 11, 1968, pp.3-37. "Halifax-Preservation of Nova Scotia's Architecture." Urban Renewal and  Public Housing i n Canada, 1, No. 3, pp. 12-14. "H i s t o r i c Preservation P o l i c i e s of the National Park Service." Administrative  P o l i c i e s for H i s t o r i c a l Areas of the National Park System, 1968. Holford, Lord. "Conservation and Control i n Built-up Areas." Journal of the  Town Planning I n s t i t u t e , June, 1966, pp. 228-232. "How to Make Slums." H i s t o r i c Preservation, IV, No. 2, 1963. 10 pp. A study of tax assessment-policies; Jacobs, Stephen W. "A Current View of Area Preservation." Journal of the  American I n s t i t u t e of Architects , December, 1964. Discussions on motivation for area preservation a c t i v i t y , f e d e r a l l y aided l o c a l programs, s o c i a l and economic issues and problems for the h i s t o r i a n . ' . "Stable Values i n a Changing World: H i s t o r i c Preservation i n C i t y Planning and Urban Renewal." Journal of A r c h i t e c t u r a l  Education, IV, No. 1, spring 1960, pp. 7-14. Kalman, Harold D. "The Railway Hotels and the Development of the Chateau Style i n Canada." Studies i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l History, 1, 1968. Kalman traces the development of what he believes to be Canada's "National Style" - the railway chateau hotel. Landahl, William L. "Perpetuation of H i s t o r i c a l Heritage." Management Aids, B u l l e t i n No. 55, West V i r g i n i a : American I n s t i t u t e of Park Executives, Inc., 1965. 40 pp. Lemann, Bernard. "Keeping Time i n Perspective." AIA Journal, November 1968, 7 pp. i l l u s t r a t e d . Excerpts from H i s t o r i c Areas and Structures, and The Vieux Carre -A General Statement, dealing with the useful integration of h i s t o r i c landmarks and th e i r restoration. 194. "Let's Be R e a l i s t i c . " H i s t o r i c Preservation, XVI, No. 1, 1964. Discusses access roads and promotable history as factors i n the economics of preservation. Massey, James C. The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Survey. National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation, 1959. 19 pp., i l l u s t r a t e d . Step-by-step procedure for conducting, recording and p u b l i c i z i n g surveys. H i s t o r i c American Buildings Survey and Guidelines for i t s use. Meeker, H. "Giving The Past a Future". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, No. 126, May 1967, pp. 56-62. New York State Bar Association Committee for the Preservation of H i s t o r i c Courthouses. "How to Save a Courthouse." H i s t o r i c Preservation,XlV, No. 2, 1962. Nichols, Frederic D. "Primer For Preservation: Techniques and Problems." History News, XIX, No. 4, February 1964. Ohio L e g i s l a t i v e Service Commission. Preservation of H i s t o r i c S i t e s . Staff research report No. 77, November 1966. Peterson, Charles E. "Thirty Years of HABS." Journal of the American  I n s t i t u t e of Architects, November 1963. 4 pp. The theory, legal basis and development of the H i s t o r i c American Buildings Survey. Planning and Community Appearance. Report of Joint Committee of Design Control of the New York Chapter of American I n s t i t u t e of Architects and New York Regional Chapter of American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. Design philosophy, preparation of design plans and programs, e x i s t i n g aesthetic regulations i n t h i s country and abroad, evolving legal concepts and excerpts and abstracts from e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . "Preservation: The Necessary A r t . " Fortune, March 1967, pp.159-162. Preservation through Documentation. National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preser-vation, 16 pp., i l l u s t r a t e d . Catalogue of the 1968 Library of Congress ex h i b i t i o n on H i s t o r i c American Buildings Survey and i t s 35-year program. Preserving H i s t o r i c America. Washington, D.C., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1966, 80 pp. An analysis of the effect of Urban Renewal Programs on h i s t o r i c preservation. Reed, Henry Hope. Walking Tours. National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation. An int e r e s t i n g comment on the organization and philosophy behind the walking tour. 195. Reed, Thomas J. "Land Use Control i n H i s t o r i c Areas." Notre Dame Lawyer, XL, No. 3, February 1969. 51 pp. Examination of h i s t o r i c a l basis for a r c h i t e c t u r a l control over private property and e x i s t i n g legal support for the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ordinance. Restoration and Preservation of H i s t o r i c Buildings. Washington, D.C., Building Research I n s t i t u t e , 1964. 57 pp. A selection of papers presented at the Building Research In s t i t u t e ' s Preservation Forum. Roberts, Mary C. Travel - A Force for Conservation. Tourist D i v i s i o n , Maryland Department of Economic Development. 4 pp. Selecting Areas for Conservation. Urban Renewal Administration, Technical Guide No. 3. Snow, Barbara, ed. "Preservation and Urban Renewal: Is Coexistence Possible?" Antiques Magazine, October 1963. 16 pp. A panel of ten experts i n planning, urban renewal and preservation debate the question. S t r i p e , Robert E. C i v i c Action and H i s t o r i c Zoning. Chapel H i l l , North Carolina, University of North Carolina I n s t i t u t e of Government, 1963. Surveying and delineating h i s t o r i c areas i n c i t y plans. Their contribution to urban economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l w e l l -being. "The Stockade Story." Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Architects, • October, 1963. Some inter e s t i n g comments on Elfreth's A l l e y , Philadelphia. "Urban Renewal i n Tucson, Arizona Combines Archaeological Reserach, H i s t o r i c Preservation, and Downtown Revival." Journal of Housing, XXVI, No. 7, J u l y 1969, pp. 353-355. White, Harry E. "A Discussion of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s L e g i s l a t i o n . " Columbia Law Review, L X l l l , New York, A p r i l , 1963, 22 pp. Police power, eminent domain and preservation and h i s t o r i c property. Wolfe, Albert B. Conservation of H i s t o r i c a l Buildings and Areas - Legal  Techniques. Chicago, American Bar Association, Proceedings. Section of Real Property, Probate and Trust Law. August 1963, 11 pp. Wrenn, Tony P. Preservation L e g i s l a t i o n . Washington, D.C., National Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation. National Trust l e g i s l a t i o n archive; states with h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t - e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and c i t i e s with h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ordinances. 196. Wrenn, Tony P. "Real Estate R e a l i t i e s . " H i s t o r i c Preservation, XV, No. 2 A study of the effect of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ordinances and a r c h i t e c t u r a l control on r e a l estate values. / "The Tourist Industry and Promotional Publications." H i s t o r i c Preservation, XVl, No. 3, 1964. Study of h i s t o r i c a l architecture i n promotion of t o u r i s t trade, i t s economic value, and value of w e l l -designed, factual promotional l i t e r a t u r e . Your Community Can P r o f i t from the Tourist Business. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Commerce. Office of Area Development, 1957. 25 pp. Covers the economic value of the t o u r i s t trade, tourism as a dimension i n community development, in d i v i d u a l and community benefit from tourism, t o u r i s t attractions as a lure for industry, and how to s e l l and promote what you have. PART 111: BACKGROUND MATERIAL AND STUDIES ON THE PROJECTS SURVEYED L i t t l e Rock, Arkansas i Central L i t t l e Rock Urban Renewal Plan, prepared by Wittenberg, Delong & Davidson, Inc., L i t t l e Rock, Arkansas, 1962. Quapaw Quarter. Brochure published by Quapaw Quarter Association Inc. Quapaw Quarterly, No. 1, F a l l 1969. Publication of the Quapaw Quarter Association Inc. Robinson, John V. " L i t t l e Rock's Quapaw Quarter - A Program of H i s t o r i c & A r c h i t e c t u r a l Restoration & Preservation. 1 1 A reprint from the F a l l 1968 P r o f i l e L i t t l e Rock Magazine, published by the Housing Authority of the City of L i t t l e Rock. Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a A Land U t i l i z a t i o n and Marketability Study, prepared by the Real Estate Research Corporation. A Planning Study of the Heavy Commercial/Light In d u s t r i a l Corridor, prepared by Daniel, Mann, Johnson & Mendennall. A Planning Study of the Old Sacramento H i s t o r i c Area and Riverfront Park, prepared by Canderb, F l e s s i g & Associates, 1964. A Planning Study of the West End Commercial Complex, prepared by Skidmore, Owings & M e r r i l l , A rchitects. , An A r c h i t e c t u r a l Survey of the Sacramento H i s t o r i c Area, prepared by De Mars & Wells. 197. Arch i t e c t u r a l and Design Studies Development of the Capital M a l l , prepared by Sasaki, Walker and Lackey. Design and Development K i t , prepared by Redevelopment Agency of the Ci t y of Sacramento. This k i t i s intended to a l e r t redevelopers to the unique requirements of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t and to a s s i s t them with their solutions. Drawing Power of the Old Sacramento H i s t o r i c Area. A Trade Area Analysis published by the Redevelopment Agency of the City of Sacramento. Economic F e a s i b i l i t y Studies, prepared by Mid-American Appraisal Co., Larry Smith & Co., and Real Estate Research Corporation. Leisure Time - R e t a i l Use Study for Old Sacramento, prepared by Abbott Western, October 1, 1969. Old Sacramento. Brochure published by the Sacramento Redevelopment Agency. Redevelopment Plan-Capital Mall Waterfront Project, prepared by Redevelop-ment Agency of the C i t y of Sacramento. \ This plan was adopted by City Ordinance, August 25, 1966. Urban Design Studies for the Redevelopment of the H i s t o r i c Area i n Sacra- mento, C a l i f o r n i a , prepared by De Mars & Wells, Architects. A set of 13 plan drawings comprising the preliminary develop-ment plan. Santa Barbara, C a l i f o r n i a C ity of Santa Barbara Ordinance No. 3361, Chapter 22:24 Restoration Royal Presidio Project Gains Popular Support, a r t i c l e i n Santa Barbara New-Press, A p r i l 24, 1969. Published by Santa Barbara Trust for H i s t o r i c Preservation. Santa Barbara General Plan, prepared by Eisner, Stewart & Associates, 1964. Pages v i i i and 6 make special reference to E l Pueblo Viejo D i s t r i c t . The General Plan - Reconnaissance Report, published by the C i t y of Santa Barbara Planning Commission, A p r i l , 1968. New Canaan, Connecticut An Act Concerning the J u r i s d i c t i o n of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s , adopted by the House of Representatives, State of Connecticut, May 31, 1967. Ah Act Establishing An Old and H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t - "God's Acre" - New  Canaan, proposed private Act submitted i n September, 1961. 198. Application for C e r t i f i c a t e of Appropriateness. Form. F i n a l Report of the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Study Committee, prepared by New Canaan H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission, June 19, 1967. Plan of Preservation and Protection, prepared by New Canaan H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission, December 6, 1963. Report of the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Study Committee of New Canaan, prepared by the New Canaan H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission, January 17m 1963. New Haven, Connecticut A Total Approach to Family Relocation, by Kathryn Feidelson. Reprint from' the journal of Housing, No. 3, 1967. Annual Report - City of New Haven, 1968. The New Haven Register, October, 1968. Annual Report - Ci t y of New Haven, 1969. The New Haven Register, October 5, 1969. Highlights of the New New Haven, prepared by New Haven Redevelopment Agency. Brochure on the Wooster Square Area and surroundings. Neighbourhood Reha b i l i t a t i o n , by Mary S. Hommann, reprint from the Journal of Housing, XIX, No. 61, May 1962.-The Lessons of New Haven - The Erstwhile Model C i t y , by A l l a n Talbot, i n Psychology Today, 11, No. 3, August 1968. Wooster Square Design, prepared by Mary S. Hommann for New Haven Redevelop-ment Agency, 1965. A report on the background experience and design procedures i n redevelopment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n an Urban Renewal project. You and Relocation. Brochure by New Haven Redevelopment Agency. Dover, Delaware Zoning Ordinance - City of Dover Page 23, Section 3:10 - H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Page 56, Section 10:3 - Arc h i t e c t u r a l Review. Lahaina, Hawaii A General Plan for the Lahaina D i s t r i c t , prepared by Hiroshi Kasamoto and Muroda & Tanaka, Inc., December 1968. 199. Lahaina - A Walking Tour of H i s t o r i c and Cultural Sites. A t o u r i s t brochure prepared by the County of Maui H i s t o r i c Commission. Lahaina H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s Map, prepared by Maui Planning Commission, March 22, 1967. Lahaina - H i s t o r i c a l Restoration and Preservation, prepared by Community Planning Inc., May 1961. Zoning Ordinance No. 514, Chapter 8, A r t i c l e 3, 1967. Maui County H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s Ordinance. Ba11imore, Maryland Seton H i l l - Baltimore Downtown. A photographic brochure prepared by Baltimore C i t y Department of Planning, December 1969. Cambridge, Massachusetts F i n a l Report of the H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s Study Committee. Cambridge, Mass., H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Preservation Press. 92 pp. Lexington, Massachusetts An Act Enlarging the Ex i s t i n g H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s and Establishing an  Additional H i s t o r i c ' D i s t r i c t i n the Town of-Lexington, 1966. Establishment of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s i n Massachusetts, prepared by Division of Planning, Massachusetts Department of Commerce, July 1960. Summary of Operation of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t s Act, prepared by Lexington H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Study Committee, February 18, 1966. Trends i n Zoning i n Massachusetts. Fred W. Fisher, Boston University Law Review 36:347, Summer 1956. ." Sudbury, Massachusetts An Act Establishing a H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission for the town of Sudbury  and Defining i t s Powers and Duties, Establishing a H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t  therein, and providing for H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t ZoningActs 1963, Chapter 40. Bel l p o r t , New York Bellport Zoning Ordinance, A r t i c l e XIV Section 1410 - Board of Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Review Section 1420 - Procedures Section 1430 - C r i t e r i a 200. Wilmington, North Carolina H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Development Plan, prepared by Division of Community Planning, North Carolina Department of Conservation & Development, 1968. Wilmington, North Carolina: H i s t o r i c Area - A Part of the Future Land  Use Plan, prepared by Division of Community Planning, North Carolina Department of Conservation & Development, January, 1962. Winston-Salem, North Carolina An Act Authorizing M u n i c i p a l i t i e s to Designate and Protect H i s t o r i c Buildings.-and D i s t r i c t s , 1965 Session Laws, The General Assembly of North Carolina. Deed and Option Agreement. Form. State Enabling L e g i s l a t i o n for City-Country Planning and Zoning i n  Forsyth County and Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Chapter 677 - 1947 Session Laws as amended by Chapter 777, 1953"Session Laws. Columbus, Ohio Columbus Zoning Code. Chapter 3306, German V i l l a g e Commission. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ^ , A Society H i l l Restoration. Agnes Clement Ing e r s o l l , reprint from Bryn Mawr Alumnae B u l l e t i n , Winter 1963. Along These Streets, published by Redevelopment Authority of the C i t y of Philadelphia. A walking guide to Philadelphia's Urban Renewal Projects. H i s t o r i c Preservation i n Philadelphia. Harold D. Saylor, r e p r i n t from Pennsylvania History, XXX, No. 1, January 1962. Society H i l l - A Modern Community That Lives With History. Brochure prepared by Redevelopment Authority of the City of Philadelphia. Society H i l l - The Renewal Derby's Galloping Mudder, feature i n the Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, March 30, 1969. Providence, Rhode Island Annual Report 1962, H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission. 201. Annual Report 1967, H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission. Benefit Street H i s t o r i c T r a i l . A Booklet prepared by the Providence C i t y Plan Commission. College H i l l , A Demonstration Study of H i s t o r i c Area Renewal. Providence, Rhode Island, College H i l l Press, 2nd edi t i o n , 1967. 231 pp. College H i l l - Demonstration Grant Project, H i s t o r i c Area Zoning Report No. 5. College H i l l 1961 - Progress After Planning, prepared by Ci t y Plan Commission, A p r i l , 1961. Goals for the Benefit Street Area, prepared by City Plan Commission, A p r i l 22, 1965. The H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t Commission, a review of a c t i v i t i e s by the Commission prepared by the Commission. The Providence Preservation Society Newsletter. Back issues dating from 1966. San Antonio, Texas Paseo Del Rio - San Antonio Riverwalk, a booklet prepared by San Antonio C i t y Planning Department. V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia "Bastion Square." Urban Renewal and Public Housing i n Canada, Ottawa, Central Mortgage and Housing Corportion, XXX, No. 1, Spring 1967, PP- 9. Cotton, Peter. " V i c t o r i a . " Western Homes and Li v i n g . Vancouver, B.C. October 1966. Special attention given to preservation and restoration i n V i c t o r i a , notably the example of Bastion Square. Nesbitt, James K. "Bastion Square." Beautiful B r i t i s h Columbia, Spring 1969, pp. 1-9. Montreal, Quebec Hayes, R.E., ed. ^Montreal?" Proportions 1963. The School of Architecture, M c G i l l University, Montreal. Some comments on the c o n f l i c t i n g reasons f o r preservation i n Old Montreal. 202. APPENDIX A November, 1969 Dear S i r , I am working with a graduate student who i s involved i n a thesis study of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation schemes i n North American urban areas. One focus of this study w i l l e n t a i l a systematic analysis of the preservation techniques u t i l i z e d i n 20 to 30 separate American and Canadian projects. Our survey of the available l i t e r a t u r e has to date revealed back-ground information on such c l a s s i c examples of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preser-vation as: Beacon H i l l i n Boston, Society H i l l i n Philadelphia, the Vieux Carre D i s t r i c t i n New Orleans, Charleston, and so f o r t h . A l l i n a l l , the cases that intermi t t e n t l y reappear In the l i t e r a t u r e are the large and eminently successful ones. In our research we hope to a r r i v e at the s p e c i f i c factors that have f a c i l i t a t e d successful schemes, as we l l as the underlying causes that appear to have negated si m i l a r successes elsewhere. The research methodology we intend to embark upon w i l l consist largely i n e l i c i t i n g data from the various agencies and individuals that have been instrumental i n the planning, implementation and administration of the s p e c i f i c projects we ultimately select for case study. 203. At this stage we are merely attempting to compile a f a i r l y compre-hensive catalogue of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation projects - both large and small, successful and unsuccessful - that have been i n i t i a t e d i n North American c i t i e s throughout the past 20 years. I t i s my hope that we may c a l l upon the information services of .... to a s s i s t us i n this elusive f i r s t step. The most he l p f u l information could furnish would consist of: (1) a l i s t of h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t preservation projects either completed, undertaken, or intended anywhere i n the U.S. ( i n Canada), (2) the names and addresses of some of the agencies involved i n each project. Here i t i s our intention to contact the same to obtain further information about the project i n question. I appreciate that this i s a very weighty request. However, precisely because t h i s cataloguing of a c t i v i t y now appears to be the most formidable task we face, we earnestly hope that you w i l l be able to lend assistance. Thank you for your interest and co-operation. Yours sincerely, 204. APPENDIX B Town or City State or Province Name of Project (when known) 1. Mobile Alabama East Church Street Project 2. Tombstone Arizona 3. L i t t l e Rock Arkansas Quapaw Quarter 4. V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h Columbia Bastion Square Project 5. Fremont C a l i f o r n i a 6. Monterey C a l i f o r n i a Custom House Porject 7. Sacramento C a l i f o r n i a Old Sacramento H i s t o r i c Area 8. San Francisco C a l i f o r n i a Western Addition Area Two Projee 9. Santa Barbara C a l i f o r n i a E l Pueblo Viejo 10. F a i r f i e l d Connecticut F a i r f i e l d H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t 11. Glastonbury Connecticut 12. New Canaan Connecticut Church H i l l 13. New Haven Connecticut Wooster Square 14. Wethersfield Connecticut 15. Dover Delaware H i s t o r i c Old Dover D i s t r i c t 16. New Castle Delaware 17. Georgetown D i s t r i c t of Columbia Old Georgetown D i s t r i c t 18. Washington D i s t r i c t of Columbia Southwest Urban Renewal Project 19. St. Augustine F l o r i d a 20. Tampa Fl o r i d a Barrio Latino 21. Savannah Georgia Troup Ward Project 22. Lahaina Hawaii Lahaina H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t 23. Sp r i n g f i e l d I l l i n o i s L i ncoln Home D i s t r i c t 24. Madison Indiana 25. Annapolis Maryland 26. Baltimore Maryland Seton H i l l 27. Frederick Maryland Old Frederick D i s t r i c t 28. Cambridge Massachusetts 29. Concord Massachusetts 30. Falmouth Massachusetts 31. Boston Massachusetts 32. Lexington Massachusetts 33. Nantucket Massachusetts Old and H i s t o r i c Nantucket 34. New Bedford Massachusetts 35. Salem Massachusetts 36. Sudbury Massachusetts Old Sudbury 37. Plymouth Massachusetts 38. Natchez M i s s i s s i p p i H i s t o r i c Natchez D i s t r i c t 39. Portsmouth New Hampshire Strawbery Banke 40. Cape May New Jersey V i c t o r i a n V i l l a g e Project 41. Albuquerque New Mexico 42. Santa Fe New Mexico 43. Bellport New York 44. Rochester New York The Old Third Ward Project 205. 45. Rome New York Fort Stanwix Project 46. Schenectody New York 47. Southampton New York -48. Wilmington North Carolina Wilmington H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t 49. Winston-Salem North Carolina Old and H i s t o r i c Salem D i s t r i c t 50. Columbus Ohio The German V i l l a g e Project 51. Portland Oregon 52. Bethlehem Pennsylvania Monocacy Creek Project 53. Philadelphia Pennsylvania Society H i l l 54. York Pennsylvania Cookes House Project 55. San Juan Puerto Rico Old San Juan 56. Montreal Quebec Old Montreal 57. Charleston South Carolina Old and H i s t o r i c Charleston • D i s t r i c t 58. Columbia South Carolina Ainsley H a l l and Boylston Gardens H i s t o r i c Zone ( 59. North Kingston Rhode Island 60. Providence Rhode Island College H i l l 61. Galveston Texas Old Galveston Quarter 62. San Antonio Texas Paseo Del Rio 63. Alexandria V i r g i n i a Old and H i s t o r i c Alexandria D i s t r i c t 64. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e V i r g i n i a Old Buick Area 65. Leesburg V i r g i n i a 66. Norfolk V i r g i n i a Downtown Redevelopment Project 67. Richmond V i r g i n i a H i s t o r i c Church H i l l Area 68. St. Croix V i r g i n Islands 206. APPENDIX G SURVEY OF HISTORIC DISTRICT PRESERVATION UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING Name of city Your name January 1970 Position INSTRUCTIONS THE FOLLOWING FIFTEEN BROAD PLANNING GOALS CONSTITUTE SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS IN VARIOUS HISTORIC DISTRICT PRESERVATION PROJECTS A Please indicate, by scoring the appropriate box, how effectively these goals are  being realized in the District Preservation Project in your city. B In the space beneath each goal statement please indicate briefly what has been  done in your city towards its achievement. What has been done might, for example, include: a system of tax exemption; scenic easements; expropriation techniques; eligibility for federal assistance; ooen house tours; reinstall ment of historic street furniture; direct owner subsi-dies; an agency to acquire, restore and resell properties; a review body to control development quality historic trails zoning and building regulations preparation and implementation of an area plan:, historic building surveys; erection of plaques or shields in front of significant properties; or any other ap-plicable techniques that, in your estimation, have served or are serving well to meet the general goal under consideration. CUESTIONAIRRE ON PRESERVATION PLANNING GOALS I THE STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS To encourage the restoration and oreservation of buildings on a private basis where possible to such an extent that they will be desirable as private homes or places of business. A , is being realized very successfully l ! is being realized with some success ' | j "T{^£[-e o r n o ascertainablesuccess |_ I I 'is irrele ^ n T a 7"d therefore "hot being real (zed* ~ ] ^iWlno^'b^inglre^ized although i t i s a goal ' \ B Activities in support of this purpose 207. To improve the ar c h i t e c t u r a l merit of the rehabilitation-restoration work in the d i s t r i c t . A \ i s being r e a l i z e d v ery successfully ! • j i s being reaUzed with some success _ j j j i s being r e a l i z e d with l i t t l e o r no ascertainable success ! | i i s irrelevant and therefore not being r e a l i z e d ! | | -is iToFbeing 'realT£e^ '"aith^ 5ugh it is a goal } ! B A c t i v i t i e s in support of this purpose To attract 'new development'' to the d i s t r i c t - i n order to i n s t i l l new U f e s to broaden its tax base s or f o r other reasons.. is being r e a l i z e d v e r y suc c e s s f u l l y i s being r e a l i z e d with some success i s being r e a l i z e d with Tittle or no ascertainable success is i r r e l e v a n t and therefore not being r e a l i z e d i s hot being r e a l i s e d although it i s a goal _ 4 -B A c t i v i t i e s i n support of this purpose To ensure that new constructi n is compatible with the existing h i s t o r i c a l context and a r c h i t e c t u r a l setting. A j i s being r e a l i z e d v e r y suc c e s s f u l l y \ i l i s being r e a l i z e d with some success ! ! | i s being r e a l f z e d " w i t h I ittle~or ho" ascertaii^bTe" success j ) !Ts^rr^Ie^nTand' therefore not beii^'realTzed ™ j~~ ; I r - ™ - — — - g ^ t n o u g h " " i t 'is a goal f "\ B A c t i v i t i e s in support of this purpose 208. (5) T o acquire arid p r e s e r v e wi th oubl ic monies those bui ldings i n the d i s t r i c t that are worthy of p r e s e r v a t i o n and cannot be saved through pr ivate means A j i s being r e a l i z e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y _ j j | i s being r e a l i z e d wi th some success j j I is ' be ing^reaTTx . io 'WtK"' i i t t te o r no ascer ta inable success I j | i s i r r e l e v a n t and therefore not oeing r e a l i z e d j j j i s not being r e a l i z e d although it i s a goal I \ B A c t i v i t i e s in support of this purpose (6) T o re locate wi th in the d i s t r i c t h i s t o r i c bui ldings f r o m outside the h i s t o r i c a r e a that would otherwise face d e s t r u c t i o n . A ' i s being r e a l i z e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y j j j i s being r e a l i z e d wi th some success j j j is being r e a l i z e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no ascer ta inable success I j i s I r r e l e v a n t " ancT'tR j "j | i s not being r e a l i s e d although i t i s a goal j \ B A c t i v i t i e s i n supoort of this puroose T H E E N V I R O N M E N T (7) T o ensvjre the d i s t r i c t ' s continuing existence as a l i v i n g , functioning community — not a ' m u s e u m c o m p l e x - . A j i s oeing r e a l i z e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y . ! | i s being r e a l i z e d w i t h some success ! j i s being r e a l i s e d wi th l i t t l e o r no ascer ta inable s u c c e s s j \ i s ' i r r e l e v a n t and therefore hot 03ing" r e a l i s e d j \ \ i s not being r e a l i s e d although i t i s a goal t : B A c t i v i t i e s i n support of this purpose 209. ] i T o make the d i s t r i c t a focus for cul tura l a c t i v i t y and a centre of the a r t s and c r a f t s . A | i s being r e a l i z e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y ; j i s oeing r e a l i s e d wi th some success I | i s being r e a l i z e d wi th l i t t l e o r no ascer ta inable s u c c e s s \ \ 'is i r r e l e v a n t and therefore not oeing r e a l i z e d \ | I i s not being r e a l i s e d although i t i s a goal i B A c t i v i t i e s i n supoort of this purpose T o develop and conserve those at tr ibutes or the s t r e e t s , grounds., publ ic squares o r parks that contribute to the d i s t r i c t ' s o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r . A ' i s being realized v e r y successfully '• '; i s being r e a l i z e d wi th some success j j i s being realized w i t h l i t t l e or' no ascer ta inable success j j { is i r r e l e v a n t and therefore riot being r e a l i z e d j | • i s not being r e a l i z e d although it i s a goal • B A c t i v i t i e s i n support of this purpose ') T o r e c o g n i z e the requirements of the automobile w h i l e a l so subordinat ing these r e -q u i r e m e n t s to the need for p r e s e r v i n g the qual i ty of the h i s t o r i c environment . A | i s oeing r e a l i ?ed v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y j i s being r e a l i s e d wi th some success : i | i s being r e a l i z e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no ascer ta inable success j j i s i r r e l e v a n t and therefore not being r e a l i z e d ' E? A c t i v i t i e s i n support of th is purpose * I s not bcli'ip: r*a-lj.7.tti. .•.••lihoujih i t i s go^.l _1U. "o i m p r o v e the q u a l i t y o f the d i s t r i c t ' s e n v i r o n m e n t by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t i n g n c o m p a t i b l e a n d u n d e s i r a b l e u s e s a n d s t r u c t u r e s . . B i s b e i n g r e a l i s o d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y _ i s b e i n g r e a l i .:ed w i t h s o m e s u c c e s s i s b e i n g r e a l i s e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no a s c e r t a i n a b l e ^ s u c c e s s i s i r r e l e v a n t a n d t h e r e f o r e not b e i n g r e a l i s e d i s not b e i n g r e a l i z e d a l t h o u g h i t i s a g o a l A c t i v i t i e s i n s u o o o r t o f t h i s o u r o o s e T H E C O N S E Q U E N C E S "o c a r r y out a r e l o c a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r l o w i n c o m e o o o u l a t i o n w h i c h i s b e i n g d i s ->laced. A : i s b e i n g r e a l i z e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y 1 is b e i n g r e a l i z e d w i t h s o m e s u c c e s s j i s b e i n g r e a l i z e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no a s c e r t a i n a b l e ' i s irrelevant a n d t h e r e f o r e not b e i n g r e a l i zed s u c c e s s j i s not b e i n g r e a l i z e d a l t h o u g h i t i s a g o a l A c t i v i t i e s i n s u o p o r t o f t h i s o u r o o s e o o f f s e t the o r e s s u r e s of l a n d s a c c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . A ; i s b e i n g r e a l i z e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y | i s b e i n g r e a l i z e d w i t h s o m e s u c c e s s ; i s b e i n g r e a l i z e d w i t h l i t t l e o r no a s c e r t a i n a b l e s u c c e s s :'i i s i r r e l e v a n t a n d t h e r e f o r e not b e i n g r e a l i z e d • i s not b e i n g r e a l i z e d a l t h o u g h i t i s a g o a l A c t i v i t i e s i n s u o p o r t of t h i s j u r o o s o 211. _ 6 _ S U P P O R T I N G A C T I V I T I E S (14) T o enact and genera l ly i m p r o v e l e g i s l a t i v e measures designed to protect the qual i ty of the d i s t r i c t ' s envi ronment , A i s being r e a l i s e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y i s being _ r e a l i s e d with some success . . . i s being r e a l i z e d with l i t t l e o r no ascer ta inable success ' i s i r r e l e v a n t and therefore not being r e a l i s e d i s not being r e a l i z e d although i t i s a goal B A c t i v i t i e s in support of this purpose (15) T o promote and adver t i se the d i s t r i c t in o r d e r to develoo l o c a l interest and to create a definite tour i s t a t t r a c t i o n . A I i s being r e a l i z e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y i s being r e a l i z e d wi th some success j i s j j e ing . . rea l ized w i t h l i t t l e o r no ascer ta inable success | i s i r r e l e y a n . t _andJh jere for3 not being r e a l i s e a : is not being reali?:ed although it i s a g o a l B A c t i v i t i e s i n suooort of th is ourpose Please l i s t any other broad goals o r object ives that were not covered and are re f lec ted by the s c h e m e i n your c i t y , and suggest how they are being r e a l i z e d . APPENDIX D T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A 2 VANCOUVER 8, CANADA SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY & REGIONAL PLANNING J a n u a r y 1 0 t h , 1970. D e a r S i r : W i t h i n u r b a n N o r t h A m e r i c a i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e a p p e a r s t o h a v e e m e r g e d a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d d e g r e e o f i n t e r e s t i n H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t P r e s e r v a t i o n , a s e x e m p l i f i e d b y t h e p r o j e c t i n . I a m w o r k i n g w i t h a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t w h o i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s t r e n d i n s o m e d e p t h a s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r h i s t h e s i s . O u r r e s e a r c h , w h i c h f o c u s s e s o n s o m e t w e n t y c a s e s t u d i e s o f A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n D i s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n s c h e m e s , i s i n t e n d e d t o s h e d s o m e l i g h t o n t h e m o v e m e n t a s a w h o l e , a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o d i s c o v e r t h o s e t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h m o s t f a c i l i t a t e h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n . W i t h t h i s a i m i n m i n d w e a r e w r i t i n g t o y o u i n t h e h o p e t h a t y o u r d e p a r t m e n t m a y b e a b l e t o f u r n i s h i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p r o j e c t i n y o u r c i t y . A n y a v a i l a b l e p a m p h l e t s , n e w s l e t t e r s , b r o c h u r e s o r o t h e r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l t h a t d e a l s w i t h o r t o u c h e s u p o n t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d b e e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l l i n o u r p r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n . O f s u p p l e m e n t a r y v a l u e t o t h i s m a t e r i a l w o u l d b e y o u r c o n s i d e r e d r e s p o n s e t o t h e e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I w o u l d b e g r a t e f u l i f y o u o r a n o t h e r i n f o r m e d m e m b e r i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t w o u l d t a k e t h e t i m e t o p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i n s i g h t s r e q u e s t e d . I l o o k f o r w a r d t o y o u r r e s p o n s e . M e a n w h i l e , p l e a s e a c c e p t o u r t h a n k s f o r y o u r i n t e r e s t a n d a s s i s t a n c e . Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , B W : k v w e n c l . B r a h m W i e s m a n P r o f e s s o r o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g APPENDIX E S e c . 8 — 3 . 2 . C o u n t y O f M a u i H i s t o r i c C o m m i s s i o n . I T h e r e is h e r e b y created a c o m m i s s i o n to be k n o w n as the " C o u n t y of M a u i H i s t o r i c C o m m i s s i o n " . T h e c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l consist of n i n e m e m b e r s , e ight ap-p o i n t i v e a n d one ex-officio. T h e e ight a p p o i n t i v e m e m b e r s s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d by the c h a i r m a n of the b o a r d of s u p e r v i s o r s w i t h the consent of the b o a r d of superv isors a n d s h a l l be chosen f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s w h o have s h o w n speci f ic interest i n histori- j c a l r e s t o r a t i o n ; p r o v i d e d that one m e m b e r s h a l l be f r o m a; l i s t of two or m o r e persons r e c o m m e n d e d by the M a u i histor i - ; c a l society a n d that not less t h a n two m e m b e r s s h a l l be resi-dents of L a h a i n a , M a u i , H a w a i i . T h e p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r of the c o u n t y of M a u i p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l be an ex-officio m e m - : b e r of the h i s t o r i c c o m m i s s i o n . T h e a p p o i n t i v e m e m b e r s s h a l l serve for a t e r m of f o u r years ; 1 p r o v i d e d that of the f i r s t m e m b e r s a p p o i n t e d , f o u r s h a l l serve f o r f o u r years and f o u r s h a l l serve f o r two years. A n y vacancy o c c u r r i n g i n the c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l be filled f o r the u n e x p i r e d p o r t i o n thereof only . W h e n the t e r m of a m e m b e r expires , he s h a l l c o n t i n u e to serve u n t i l h is successor is a p p o i n t e d a n d qual i f ied . A l l m e m b e r s s h a l l serve w i t h o u t .compensation, but m e m b e r s , s h a l l be ent i t led-to receive a c t u a l t r a v e l l i n g a n d other expenses: i n c u r r e d i n the p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e i r duties . j A l l m e m b e r s s h a l l be vested w i t h the r i g h t to vote. | S e c . 8 — 3 . 3 . O r g a n i z a t i o n , E m p l o y e e s , E x p e n s e s . T h e c o m m i s s i o n - s h a l l elect, f r o m its a p p o i n t i v e m e m b e r s , a; c h a i r m a n a n d v i c e - c h a i r m a n for a t e r m of office f ixed b y the: c o m m i s s i o n . T h e c o m m i s s i o n m a y i n c u r s u c h expenses as m a y be neces-i sary a n d p r o p e r a n d for w h i c h a p p r o p r i a t i o n s have been made b y the b o a r d of superv isors . D i s b u r s e m e n t s s h a l l be made on w a r r a n t s issued on vouchers s i g n e d b y the c h a i r m a n or a c t i n g c h a i r m a n . S e c . 8 — 3 . 4 . Q u o r u m , M e e t i n g s , R u l e s . A t least five m e m b e r s of the c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l const i tute a q u o r u m , a n d the c o n c u r r i n g vote of at least five m e m b e r s s h a l l be necessary for the t r a n s a c t i o n of business a n d for the exerc ise of powers a n d a u t h o r i t y c o n f e r r e d u p o n the c o m m i s -s i o n . T h e c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l h o l d at least one m e e t i n g i n each m o n t h a n d s h a l l adopt r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the trans-act ion of its business. S p e c i a l meet ings m a y be c a l l e d b y the c h a i r m a n or by at least two m e m b e r s of the c o m m i s s i o n . A l l meet ings s h a l l be open to the p u b l i c , except as m a y be pro-! v i d e d by law, a n d a n y . p e r s o n or h is representat ive s h a l l be e n t i t l e d to appear a n d be h e a r d on any m a t t e r before the com-m i s s i o n . S e c . 8 — 3 . 5 . P o w e r s A n d D u t i e s O f T h e C o m m i s s i o n . (a) H i s t o r i c a n d C u l t u r a l R e s t o r a t i o n , R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and P r o m o t i o n o f A c t i v i t i e s . T h e c o m m i s s i o n s h a l l advise or assist the b o a r d of supervisors i n the r e s t o r a t i o n a n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n " of h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s , s t ructures or sites and" the p r o m o t i o n of c u l t u r a l exhib i ts a n d act ivi t ies i n c o n n e c t i o n t h e r e w i t h . (b) G i f t s . T h e c o m m i s s i o n m a y accept m o n e t a r y or o ther gifts i n the n a m e of the c o u n t y of M a u i . M o n e t a r y gifts s h a l l 214. be deposited in a special fund, and such fund shall be used by the board of supervisors, upon the recommendation of the his-toric commission, only for projects connected with the restora-tion and reconstruction of historic buildings, structures or sites and the promotion of cultural exhibits and activities in con-nection therewith. Sec. 8—3.6. Review Of Plans. The commission shall review all plans for the construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair, moving or demolition of structures in the historic districts created herein. In review-ing the plans, the commission shall give consideration to: 1. The use to which.the building, structure or site will be put, its historical or achitectural style or significance, and its relationship to the historic district. 2. The general compatibility of exterior design, arrange-ment, the choice of colors, materials used, signs and ad-vertisements, especially as it relates to the objectives of the historic district and to other structures in the immediate vicinity. 3. Any other factors, including landscaping, aesthetics, and civic beauty. Sec. 8—3.7. Procedure For Review Of Plans. Within any historic district established herein, the commis-sion shall have the power to approve all plans, and the super-intendent of building inspection of the county of Maui shall not issue a building permit until a certificate of approval has been issued by the historic commission. •\ Application for a building permit to construct", alter, repair, : move or demolish any structure in the historic districts shall be made to the superintendent of building inspection, herein-after referred to as the "superintendent". The superintendent shall immediately notify the chairman and acting chairman of . the historic commission of the receipt of such application and shall transmit it together with accompanying plans and other information to the commission. The historic commission shall meet within fifteen days after notification by the superintendent of the filing, unless other-wise mutually agreed upon by the applicant and commission, and shall review the plans according to procedures set forth herein. The commission shall approve or disapprove such plans and, if approved, shall issue a certificate of approval, which is to be signed by the chairman and attached to the application for a building permit, and immediately transmit it to the superin-tendent. If the commmission disapproves such plans, it shall state its reasons for doing so and shall transmit a record of such I action and reasons therefor in writing to the board of super-visors, the superintendent, and to the applicant. The commis-sion may advise the applicant what it thinks is proper if it disapproves the plans submitted. The applicant, if he so de-sires, may make modifications to his plans and shall have the right to resubmit his application at any time after so doing. The failure of the historic commission to approve or dis-approve such plans within forty-five (45) days from the date of I application for the building permit, unless otherwise mutually i agreed upon by the applicant and the commission, shall be deemed to constitute approval and the superintendent shall proceed to process the application without regard to a certi-ficate of approval. , ;•'/ • • 

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