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Religious style and social class. Goodall, Raymond Maurice 1970

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RELIGIOUS STYLE AND SOCIAL CLASS Raymond Maurice Goodall B.D. University of London, 1941 B.A. University of London, 1948 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L P I L I J I E I I T O P THE REQUIREMENTS P O R THE DEGREE O F MASTER O P ARTS i n the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb i a , I a g ree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology and Sociology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 1 s t . September 1970 i i RELIGIOUS STYLE AND SOCIAL CLASS Abstract This thesis examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l class i n the C i t y of Lethbridge, Alberta, Numerous t h e o r e t i c a l and empirical studies have associated r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but the discrepant findings of some of these studies prompted a fresh approach to the problem through focussing on r e l i g -ious s t y l e , defined i n terms of worship-ritual, and s o c i a l c l a s s , defined i n terms of occupational prestige and measured by a socio-economic index. In order to tackle the problem posed by t h i s study i t was decided to undertake an empirical i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the class structure and r e l i g i o u s s t y l e of a sample of churches i n Lethbridge. Twenty-seven l o c a l churches formed the sample; t h i s was representative of the forty-two churches i n the c i t y . S o c i a l differences are manifest i n Lethbridge, and i f s o c i a l class i s defined i n terms of occupational prestige and measured by a socio-economic index (SSI), then class differences are also manifest. Such differences were found to e x i s t i n : (a) the general population (b) the church population. Samples of the general population and church popul-ation were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d along class l i n e s and d i f f e r -ences between the two d i s t r i b u t i o n s were apparent; upper • i i i and middle class members of the community are over repre-sented i n the l o c a l churches. Class structure of the churches was determined by drawing a sample of members from each church involved, ascertaining t h e i r occupations, and a l l o c a t i n g a SSI based on these occupations. A mean index was computed f o r each of the churches which were then ranked according to t h e i r SEI and c l a s s i f i e d as upper, middle, or lower c l a s s . Religious s t y l e , defined i n terms of worship-ritual, which i s one of the dimensions of the t r a d i t i o n a l church-sect typology, was determined through participant observ-a t i o n as a r e s u l t of which the churches were c l a s s i f i e d as formal, semi-formal, or informal. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l class was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g the weighted average mean SEI score f o r each of the "formality? categories, and a d d i t i o n a l l y by using gamma as a simple measure of association. The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c u r v i - l i n e a r . An addit-i o n a l analysis of the data points to the predominantly middle-to-upper class structure of l o c a l churches and gives i n d i c a t i o n of an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between class and s t y l e . Theory r e l a t e s r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n terms of the church-sect typology which, since i t s formulation by Weber and Troeltsch, has been developed by numerous scholars and has stimulated i v a v a r i e t y of empirical studies. Discrepancies between studies based on the typology and those based on p o l l data appear to be due, i n part, to d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of the concept "church-type." Although the relationships between s t y l e and class disclosed by t h i s study do not prec i s e l y conform to the patterns of r e l a t i n g assumed by the church-sect typology, the discrepancies are not deemed to be serious bearing i n mind the "ideal-type" character of that typology. I f formal-style churches may be i d e n t i f i e d with church-type, informal with sect-type, and semi-formal with developed denominations, then the findings here generally support the relationships posited by the t r a d i t i o n a l typology, although the " f i t " i s not exact. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . i i LIST OF TABLES . • • • v i i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . 1 The Problem of the D i s s e r t a t i o n . . . . 1 D e f i n i t i o n s . . . . 6 Scope of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Organ i z a t i o n of Study . . . . • • . . . 9 Methods . . . . . . 10 Problem Re-stated . . . . . . > . . . . 12 I I . RELIGIOUS CHARACTERISTICS AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 E m p i r i c a l Studies . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Con s i d e r a t i o n of Discrepancies . . . . . 21 Research Hypotheses 27 I I I . SOCIAL CLASS IN LETHBRIDGE . . . . . . . . 28 Class D i f f e r e n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Class D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Lethbridge . . . . 35 (a) General P o p u l a t i o n . . . . . . . . 35 (b) Church P o p u l a t i o n . . . .... . . . 37 Comment and Summary . . . . . . . . . . 41 IV. RELIGIOUS STYLE IN LETHBRIDGE . . . . . . 44 S t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of L o c a l Churches 47 v i Chapter Page V. RELIGIOUS STYLE AND SOCIAL CLASS . . . . . 51 Discussion . • 53 Summary . . . . . . . . . • 60 VI. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHURCH-SECT TYPOLOGY . . . . . . . 62 Conclusion . . . . . . 72 APPENDIXES . . . •' . . . 76 Appendix A Research Schedule - Religious Style . 76 Appendix B. Occupational Sample - C i t y of Lethbridge . . . . . . 80 Appendix C Occupational Sample - Churches . . . . 85 Appendix D Local Ministry . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Appendix E Weighted Mean SEI Score • . . . . . • 113 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . 114 v i i LIST OE TABLES Table Page I. C h r i s t i a n Religious Bodies, Cit y of Lethbridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I I . Class Composition of Religious Bodies, 1945-46 . . . . . 23 I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Occupations of Residents of Lethbridge by Socio-economic Index . . 36 IV. T r i - p a r t i t e Class D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . . . . 36 V. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Occupations of Members of Local Churches by Socio-economic Index . . 37 VI. T r i - p a r t i t e Class D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . . . . 37 VII. Local Churches Ranked by Socio-economic Index . . . . o . . . . . 39 VIII. Class D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of Local Churches. . 40 IX. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Characteristics of Churches . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 49 X. Religious Style of Local Churches. . . . . 50 XI. Religious Style and S o c i a l Class of Churches in,Lethbridge . . . . . . . . . . . • 51 XII. Style Categories by Weighted Mean SEI XIII. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Churches According to Religious Style and S o c i a l Class . . . . . 53 XIV. S o c i a l Class P r o f i l e s of Lethbridge Religious Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 XV. Middle-to-Upper Class P r o f i l e of Lethbridge Religious Bodies. . . . . . . . 56 XVI. Class and Style of Religious Bodies i n Lethbridgeo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 v i i i Table Page XVII. Class Rank and Religious Style . • . . . . . 57 XVITI. S o c i a l Class P r o f i l e s of American Religious Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 XIX. Local Churches by Size of Membership Appendix D ,. .' 112 CHAPTER I 1 INTRODUCTION The Problem of the Dis s e r t a t i o n This d i s s e r t a t i o n examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of churches i n the C i t y of Lethbridge, Alberta, In addition i t considers the implications which t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l church-sect typology. Numerous community studies have inquired into some aspects of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l class as part of more comprehensive investigations. Generally, these studies have interpreted r e l i g i o n , or " r e l i g i o s i t y " i n terms of church a f f i l i a t i o n and attend-ance. Quite consistently they have found a p o s i t i v e or d i r e c t r e l a t i o n between church involvement and s o c i a l Louis Bultena, "Church Membership and Church Attend-ance i n Madison, Wisconsin," American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, XIV (June, 1949), 3 8 4 - 3 8 9 . August Hollingshead, Elmtown's Youth (New Haven, Conn.; Yale University Press, 1949), pp.243-266; 459-460; 473. Robert and Helen Lynd, Middletown (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., 1929), pp. 315-409. W. Lloyd Warner and Paul S, Lunt, The Social L i f e of  a Modern Community (Yale University Yankee City Series, vol.1; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941), pp. 356-3 5 9 , W. Lloyd Warner et a l . , Democracy i n J o n e s y i l l e (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949), pp. 152-167. Gerhard Lenski, The Religious Factor: A Sociologist's  Inquiry (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1961) pp. 102-103. 2 c l a s s ; upper class members of the community, f o r 2 instance, are more r e l i g i o u s l y involved than lower c l a s s . As Demerath points out, " a l l of the studies c i t e d agree 3 that the higher classes generally are the most ac t i v e * " ^ There are discrepancies however; some writers maintain that involvement i s highest among the middle classes whereas others hold that r e l i g i o s i t y i s at i t s peak among the extreme upper c l a s s e s . 4 Demerath speculates that the d i s p a r i t y i n findings may be a function of the d i f f e r e n t populations studied."^ Generally, the community studies have not r e l a t e d type of r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l c l a s s ; they have not used as t h e i r s t a r t i n g point the t r a d i t i o n a l church-sect typology 6 constructed by Ernst Troeltsch from t h e o r e t i c a l formul-ations of Max Weber located i n a number of his works 2 N . J . Demerath I I I , S o c i a l Glass i n Americ an  Erotestantism (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965), p. 6. 3 K. J . Demerath I I I , op.. c i t . i t p. 17. 4 I b i d . , p. 18. 5 I b i d . . pp. 18-19. c Ernst Troeltsch, The S o c i a l Teaching of the C h r i s t i a n  Churches (Harper Torchbooks, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960), I, pp. 331-349. 3 noted below and elaborated by numerous subsequent scholars. Other writers however,^ have used t h i s typology either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , as a t h e o r e t i c a l base, and they have related church-type with upper class and sect-type with lower c l a s s . Some have maintained that as the class p o s i t i o n of church members improves so the type of r e l i g i o n changes; usually the change i s from sect-type to church-t y p e . 1 0 *Max Weber, The Sociology of Religion, trans, by Ephraim F i s c h o f f (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964), p. 55. The Protestant Ethic and the S p i r i t of Capitalism, trans, by Talcot t Parsons (New York: Charles Scribner»s Sons, 1958), pp. 144-154. The Theory of S o c i a l and Economic^Organization, trans, by A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons (New York: Tne Free Press, 1964), pp. 156-157. See also Max Weber, "The So c i a l Psychology of the World Religions" i n H. H. Gerth and C. Wright M i l l s , eds., Prom Max Weber: Essays i n Sociology (Galaxy Book, New York: Oxford University Press, 1958), p. 288, and Max Weber, "The Protestant Sects and the S p i r i t of Capitalism," Ibi d . , pp. 305-306. 8 Leopold von Wiese and Howard Becker, Systematic Soc- iology (New York: J • Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1932), pp. 621-628. Milton J . Yinger, R e l i g i o n , Society and the Ind i v i d - u a l (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1957), pp. 142-155. D. A, Martin, "The Denomination," B r i t i s h Journal of  Sociology. 13 (March, 1962), 1-14. o . Richard Niebuhr, The So c i a l Sources of Denomin- ationalism (Meridian Books, New York: The World Publishing Co., 1957), pp. 26-105. L i s t on Pope, Millhaiids and  Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1942), pp. 117-140. O l i v e r Read Whitley j "The Sect-to-Denomination Process i n an American Religious Movement: The Dis c i p l e s of Ch r i s t . " The Southwestern S o c i a l  Science Quarterly (December. 1955;, 275-281. E a r l D. C. Brewer, "Sect and Church i n Methodism," S o c i a l Forces. 30 (May, 1952), 400-408. - _ — — 1 0 L i s t o r i Pope, op. c i t . . pp. 122-124, Ol i v e r Read Whitley, op. c i t . . pp. 278-281, E a r l D. C. Brewer, op. c i t . . pp. 406-407. 4 While scholars who use the church-sect typology as a t h e o r e t i c a l base generally agree that there i s an assoc-i a t i o n of church-type r e l i g i o n with higher s o c i a l status, and sect-type r e l i g i o n with lower s o c i a l status, research which examines p o l l data l i n k s bodies commonly perceived as church-type with lower c l a s s . The question of t h i s discrepancy w i l l be discussed l a t e r . 1 1 There are numerous problems associated with a l l the studies mentioned: (a) the problem of the d e f i n i t i o n of " r e l i g i o s i t y " ; do church a f f i l i a t i o n and attendance adequately, measure r e l i g i o s i t y ? (b) the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l c l a s s ; i s i t to be defined i n terms of c u l t u r a l and economic 12 s i t u a t i o n , manner of l i f e , material wealth and occupation, 1-^ type of g a i n f u l employment, 1 4 Donald J . Bogue, The Population of the United  States (New York: The Free Press, 1959), pp. 688-709. Bernard Lazerwitz, "A Comparison of Major United States Religious Groups," American S t a t i s t i c a l Association  Journal (September, 1961), 568-579. L i s t o n Pope, "Religion and the Class Structure," The Annals of the American  Academy of P o l i t i c a l and Social Science (March. 1948), 84-91. See also Below, pp. 21-26. " 12 Niebuhr, op. c i t . . p. 30 and p. 80. •Walter R. Goldschmidt, "Class Denominationalism i n Rural C a l i f o r n i a Churches," American Journal of Sociology. XLIX (1944), 348-353. ~~ 14 ^Frederick A.Shippey, "Soc i a l Class i n Philadelphia Methodism," Sociology and S o c i a l Research. 43 (September. 1958), 23-277* ' ~ " 5 education, occupational c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and 15 -occupational prestige ? (c) the technical problems associated with gathering data. 16 These and other problems are discussed by Demerath. There i s the discrepancy between l i n e a r i t y and c u r v i -l i n e a r i t y with some scholars f i n d i n g r e l i g i o u s involve-ment highest among the middle classes and others f i n d i n g that r e l i g i o s i t y i s at i t s peak among the extreme upper 17 classes. .1 There i s also the problem mentioned above i . e . , some studies l i n k church-type with upper class whereas others indicate that church-type structures are assoc-iated with a membership drawn from the lower c l a s s . This present study was conceived to t r y to throw more l i g h t on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s charact-e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by focussing on r e l i g i o u s s t y l e , defined i n terms of worship procedures, and s o c i a l c l a s s , defined i n terms of occupational prest-ige and measured by a socio-economic index. I t i s not anticipated that t h i s study w i l l resolve a l l the problems associated with previous work nor eliminate discrepancies, but the expectation i s that i t w i l l provide a d d i t i o n a l understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and c l a s s . 15 Russell R. Dynes, "Church-Sect Typology and Socio-economic Status," American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 20 (October, 1955), 555-560. 16 . Demerath, op. c i t . . pp. 12-26 1 7 I b i d . . p* 18. 6 D e f i n i t i o n s The concepts " r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " and " s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " w i l l be defined f o r the purposes of t h i s study i n terms of " r e l i g i o u s s t y l e " and " s o c i a l c l a s s . " Religious s t y l e i s primarily the s t y l e of worship, whether "formal," "semi-formal," or "informal," found i n l o c a l churches; these d i s t i n c t i o n s w i l l be more f u l l y 18 discussed l a t e r . S o c i a l class i s defined i n terms of "occupational prestige." The u t i l i t y of t h i s procedure derives l a r g e l y from the f a c t that occupation " i s the 19 intervening a c t i v i t y l i n k i n g income to education," and both income and education are popular as well as s c i e n t i f i c measures f o r determining status, or class p o s i t i o n . In the United States the National Opinion Research Center has made use of occupations i n national r a t i n g samples, and i n Canada Peter C. Pineo and John Porter undertook "the f i r s t national study of occupational 2 i prestige." Bernard Blishen r e f e r s to studies undertaken 1 8 S e e Below, p p . 45-47. 19 •^Otis Dudley Duncan, "A Socio-economic Index f o r A l l Occupations," i n Albert J . Reiss, ed., Occupations and  S o c i a l Status(New York: The Free Press, 1961), p. 117. on . vNORC Study of 1947, r e p l i c a t e d i n 1963, see R. W.-Hodge, P. M . Siegel, and P. H. Rossi, "Occupational Prestige i n the United States, 1925-1963." American Journal  Of Sociology. LXX, 3 (November, 1964), 286-502. 21 Peter C. Pineo and John Porter, "Occupational Prestige i n Canada," The Canadian Review of Sociology and  Anthropolgy. 4, 1 (February, 1967), 24. 7 • 22 i n Great B r i t a i n , New Zealand, Japan and Germany. Blishen stresses the t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of occup-ations i n a system of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and he adds, "fortunately, t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s matched by t h e i r p r a c t i c a l advantages i n the construction of indices of c l a s s . The present study accepts scholarly opinion concern-i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of occupations i n a system of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and takes advantage of the p r a c t i c a l benefits derived from using a socio-economic index as an in d i c a t o r of occupational prestige and thus 24 of s o c i a l c l a s s . Scope of Study This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s based on a study of twenty-seven churches i n the City of Lethbridge, Alberta. The churches are a representative sample of some forty-two l o c a l C h r i s t i a n Bodies l i s t e d i n Table I . The sample was selected as a r e s u l t of an i n i t i a l l e t t e r requesting the cooperation of ministers, p r i e s t s , or equivalent church leaders i n an extended study of 22 Bernard R. Blishen, "A Socio-economic Index f o r Occupations i n Canada," Canadian Review of Sociology and  Anthropology. 4, 1 (February, 1967), 41. ~ • 23 -'Bernard R. Blishen, "The Construction and Use of An Occupational Class Scale," Canadian Journal of Economic  and P o l i t i c a l Science. XXIV (November, 1958), 520. "~" 24 Loc. c i t . TABLE I CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS BODIES CITY OF LETHBRIDGE J Anglican St. Augustine's* St.. Mary the Virgin* Baptist Bethany Bethel* F i r s t * Berean Christadelphians Catholic Assumption* St. Basil's* St. Patrick's* St. Peter and St. Paul's Eastern Rite* Ukrainian* Central Church of Christ Christian Missionary Alliance* Church pf Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints Ward 1* Ward 2 Ward 3* Ward 4 Ward 5* Christian Reformed* Christian Science Christian Tabernacle* Church of Christ* Church of the Nazarene* Grace Gospel Fi r s t Christian Reformed Evangelical Free* Jehovah•s Witnesses Greek Orthodox Lutheran Christ Trinity* Immanuel* The Good Shepherd Mennonite Brethren* Pentecostal Tabernacle* Presbyterian Hungarian St. Andrew*s* Salvation Army* Seventh Day Adventist* United F i r s t Japanese McKillop* Southminster* Sources The Lethbridge Herald, Church Page; Lethbridge and District Telephone Directory, 1969, Church Organizations, Yellow Pages, p. 28. * Churches cooperating i n this study. l o c a l r e l i g i o u s bodies. Almost a l l cooperated r e a d i l y , but f o r d i f f e r e n t segments of the research. The twenty-seven churches selected f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study by t h e i r willingness to cooperate, represent each of the major denominational groupings i n the c i t y , together with eleven of the smaller bodies. I t i s f e l t that the sample i s quite adequate from the point of view of represent-ativeness. Organization of Study The t h e o r e t i c a l basis f o r the empirical study of r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l class i n Lethbridge derives 1 ' • • • 25 from the t r a d i t i o n a l church-sect typology. • Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e there i s r e i t e r a t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between type of r e l i g i o u s body and class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 26 of the membership. The l i t e r a t u r e also stresses the fact that d i f f e r e n t types of churches develop d i f f e r e n t r e l i g -ious s t y l e s . Pope l i n k s church-type with a restrained, passive form of worship, and sect-type with a fervent form involving a high degree of congregational p a r t i c i p a -27 t i o n . Brewer contrasts church-type and sect-type i n 25 • S e e above, pp. 2-3, footnotes 6, 7 and 8. 26' Pope, op. c i t . . pp. 84-91 and Millhands and  Preachers: A Study of G-astonia (New Haven: Yale Univer-s i t y Press, 1942). Russell R. Dynes, op. c i t . . pp. 555-560. E a r l D. C. Brewer, op. c i t , . pp. 40CM08. Nicholas J . Demerath, op. c i t . f pp. 1-26. 27 'Pope, Millhands and Preachers. pp. 122-124. terms of the elaborate, c o l o r f u l , professionalized r i t u a l s of the former and the simple, austere, casual worship 2 8 services of the l a t t e r . In order to tackle the problem posed by t h i s study i t was decided to investigates (a) the class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of churches i n the sample '(b)- the r e l i g i o u s s t y l e of churches i n the sample. Using data drawn from the above investigations, the question of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l o c a l churches could then be determined and the implications of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l church-sect typology could be assessed. Methods The method of study was empirical. A l e t t e r explain-ing the intent of the study was sent to each p r i e s t , minister, or equivalent church leader. V/hen more inform-ation was requested, the telephone and personal v i s i t s were f r e e l y used. In-order to determine the s o c i a l class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the churches each leader was asked to provide an up-to-date church membership l i s t ; nineteen out of the twenty-seven complied, and random samples varying from fourteen op. c i t . . p. 402 and p. 403. to f o r t y - e i g h t , depending on the s i z e of the membership, were drawn from the l i s t s by u t i l i z i n g a table of random n u m b e r s . T h e occupation of each sample member was then determined by u t i l i z i n g the 1969 C i t y of Lethbridge Directory.-^ The eight church leaders who f a i l e d to supply a membership l i s t were contacted personally by the writer at which time they gave the occupations of a sample of t h e i r members by using a prepared l i s t of random numbers which they applied to t h e i r membership r o l l s i n the presence of the w r i t e r . Having obtained the occupations of a sample of members of l o c a l churches, the next step was to determine the c l ass c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the churches. Since f o r the purposes of t h i s study s o c i a l class has been defined i n terms of occupational prestige, and since t h i s prestige 3 1 may be measured by a socio-economic index — such an index was assigned to the occupation of each sample member of the churches using Blishen's Table based on the 1961 3 2 ' census.-' The mean of the indices f o r each church provided a measure of the class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the churches i . e . whether they could be categorized as upper, middle, or lower c l a s s . 29 ^Hubert M. Blalock, J r . , S o c i a l S t a t i s t i c s (New York? McGraw H i l l , I960), pp. 437-440. 30 •:• ' Henderson's Ejethbridge Alberta C i t y Directory, 1969 (Winnipeg: Henderson Directories Ltd., 1969). •^Blishen, op. c i t . . p. 520. Blishen, **A Socio-economic Index f o r Occupations i n Canada," pp. 44-50. 12 The determination of the r e l i g i o u s s t y l e of the sample churches was undertaken through participant observation. The w r i t e r attended the p r i n c i p a l worship services of each 33 church on at le a s t one occasion using a prepared schedule*'"' to record observations. The r e s u l t s were tabulated i n accordance with the c r i t e r i a ••formal," "semi-formal," and "informal."- 5 4 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was demonstrated by c a l c u l a t i n g the weighted average mean socio-economic index score f o r each of the three "formality" categories, and a d d i t i o n a l l y by using gamma as a simple measure of association. The implications of the findings of t h i s study f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l church-sect typology w i l l be considered at the end of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . Problem Re-stated The problem which t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n tackles i s that of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l c lass i n a l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . Are upper-class people, f o r instance, found predominantly i n churches characterized by one type of r e l i g i o u s s t y l e while lower-class people are found predominantly i n churches characterized by quite a d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s style? There are strong Appendix, p p . 76-79. See below, p. 45, and Table IX, p. 49. 13 i n d i c a t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e that such i s the case, hut the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not always c l e a r . Some more extensive discussion of t h i s problem would seem appropriate at t h i s point. 14 CHAPTER II RELIGIOUS CHARACTERISTICS AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS Traditional typology relates religious character-i s t i c s and social characteristics. Troeltsch maintains that there are "two different sociological types" of religious bodies which he cal l s "Church" and "Sect."-5-* The church-type: u t i l i z e s the State and the ruling classes, and weaves these elements into her own l i f e ; she then becomes an integral part of the existing social order.....she becomes dependent upon the upper classes...;.The sects, on the other hand, are connected with the lower classes " % According to Troeltsch the church-type i s a l l -embracing i n i t s outreach, "in principle therefore i t i s universal i.e., i t desires to cover the whole l i f e of 37 humanity."-" One consequence of this catholicity, which however Troeltsch does not stress, i s that churches are l i k e l y to draw their membership from a l l social class levels. Sects, on the other hand, "are comparatively small groups; they aspire after personal inward perfection, and they aim at a direct personal fellowship between the members of each group;"-58 they draw their membership 35 •Troeltsch, op. c i t . . p. 340 3 6 I b i d . , p. 331. ^ Loo, c i t . •^Loc. c i t . 15 mainly from "the oppressed and i d e a l i s t i c groups within 39 the lower classes.""^ Troeltsch also maintains that the d i f f e r e n t s o c i o l o g i c a l types of r e l i g i o u s body are characterized by d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s s t y l e s . The church-type stresses t r a d i t i o n , r i t u a l , the sacraments, the ordained p r i e s t -hood and the "objective treasury of g r a c e ; " 4 0 the sect-type stresses subjective holiness, personal e f f o r t , i n d i v i d u a l conversion, l a y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; more p a r t i c -u l a r l y " i t replaces the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l doctrine of the sacraments by the Primitive C h r i s t i a n doctrine of the S p i r i t and by 'enthusiasm'." 4 1 Other scholars have s i m i l a r l y stressed the re l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . At a high l e v e l of generalization, Max Weber maintains that the core c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e l i g i o n s are fashioned, i n part, by the s o c i a l s t r a t a i n which they o r i g i n a t e . 4 2 He discusses the a f f i n i t y of peasants f o r a magical, n a t u r a l i s t i c type of r e l i g i o n , of the warrior n o b i l i t y f o r a r e l i g i o n that i s r i t u a l i s t i c or f o r m a l i s t i c , of dominant bureaucracies f o r sober r a t i o n a l -ism i n r e l i g i o n , and of that class pursuing economic rationalism f o r a rigorous type of e t h i c a l congregational 39 --Troeltsch, op. c i t . . p. 337. 4 0 I b i d . . p. 338. 4 1 I b i d . . p. 342. 4.2 * CH. H. Gerth and C. Wright M i l l s , op. c i t . , pp. 26T-301. r e l i g i o n . As f o r the lower classes, he points out that they have an a f f i n i t y f o r emotional rather than r a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n ; t h e i r needs are f o r a saviour who w i l l provide 43 compensation f o r lack of s o c i a l p r i v i l e g e . Richard Niebuhr, acknowledging h i s debt to Troeltsch, Weber, Tawney, and o t h e r s , 4 4 maintains that d i s t i n c t s o c i a l groups develop d i s t i n c t types of r e l i g i o n and, moreover, when the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these groups have changed t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s t y l e has also changed: doctrines and practice change with the mutations of s o c i a l structure not v i c e versa; the i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of such changes quite misses the p o i n t . 4 5 Niebuhr suggests that the new c a p i t a l i s t i c classes and n a t i o n a l i s t i c groups were l a r g e l y responsible f o r the emergence of the Reformation churches; Lutheran churches i n Germany, C a l v i n i s t i c churches i n Switzerland. 4^ These churches however, being the creation of one type of s o c i a l group had no message nor place f o r another type i . e . , the poor and the uneducated who were compelled to create t h e i r own churches with t h e i r own d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e.g., voluntary membership, adult baptism of the converted, 4.3 ^Weber, The Sociology of Religion, pp, 80-117. 44 ^ Niebuhr, op. c i t . . Preface p. v i i . 4 5 I b i d . . p. 21. 4 6 I b i d . . pp. 3 4 - 3 9 . 17 democratic e l e c t i o n and ordination of pastors by l o c a l churches, lay preaching, pacifism, practice of equality and mutual aid amounting to communism i n some instances. Such bodies were the Anabaptist sects i n Europe, and the Quakers, Millenarians, Seekers, Ranters, Independents i n England.The r e l i g i o u s s t y l e s of these groups were sim i l a r ; a l l tended to stress the supremacy of the "inner exper-ience" and the working of the S p i r i t . In addition they emphasized e t h i c a l and s o c i a l reconstruction, and the priesthood of a l l b e l i e v e r s . 4 T , The emergence and l a t e r development of the Method-i s t s provides a usef u l case study for Niebuhr. Although the primary leadership of the Methodists was drawn from the middle c l a s s , the appeal v/as to s o c i a l l y deprived groups whose preponderance i n the movement helped to determine i t s early character. The r e l i g i o u s s t y l e was one of intense emotionalism, a passion of prayer and a vigor-ous confrontation of personal wickedness. In time however, many Methodists improved t h e i r s o c i a l status and the r e l i g i o u s s t y l e of Methodism began to change. This change attracted others of middle class status thus r e i n f o r c i n g the process, and so the church " l e f t behind the emotional-ism of e a r l i e r years and adapted i t s ethics, never t y p i c a l l y lower class i n character, to the needs of i t s r i s i n g c l i e n t e l e . " 4 8 47 'Niebuhr, op. c i t . . pp. 39-76. 4 8 I b i d . . p. 72. 18 The theme of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of C h r i s t i a n groups and the s o c i a l charact-e r i s t i c s of t h e i r members i s taken up by Yinger i n h i s consideration of the r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n s during the English C i v i l War period, - He goes on to point out that s o c i a l groups generate t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e s of worship, e t h i c a l emphasis, church organization and theology. I s o l a t i o n , whether s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , or geographical, and poverty are d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c e r t a i n groups of people which have consequences f o r the charact-e r i s t i c s of t h e i r r e l i g i o n . Many minority groups are stigmatized; i f they seek compensation through r e l i g i o n they w i l l develop s t y l e s which d i f f e r manifestly from those developed by majority groups.^ 0 Empirical Studies The t h e o r e t i c a l presentations of Troeltsch, Weber, and others, have stimulated numerous empirical studies designed to t e s t the proposition that there i s a r e l -ationship between r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l c l a s s . One such invest i g a t i o n by Dynes^ 1 49 • Yiager, op. c i t . . pp, 161-166, 5°Ibid.. pp. 174-179. 51 Dynes, op. c i t . . 19 u t i l i z e d Pope*s l i s t of d i s t i n c t i o n s between Church and Sect, "translated them into statements of personal prefer-ence and used them i n the construction of an i n i t i a l t h i r t y - f i v e item Likert-type scale."^ After r e v i s i n g t h i s scale and reducing i t to twenty-four items he used i t with a sample population to determine the re l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic status and preferences i n d i c a t i n g "Churchness" or "Sectness." His conclusion was that "Churchness i s associated with high socio-economic status and, conversely, Sectness i s associated with low socio-economic s t a t u s . " ^ This study focuses on r e l i g i o u s preferences rather than r e l i g i o u s s t y l e , nevertheless, the concepts "Churchness" and "Sectness" derive from the s t y l e d i s t i n c t i o n s made by Pope who contrasts church-54 type and sect-type as follows: Church-type: the order of worship i s fix e d ; the (style) hymns are stately, coming out of a more remote l i t u r g i c a l t r a d i t i o n ; there i s l i t t l e active congregational p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the service but much passive l i s t e n i n g . Sect-type : worship depends upon spontaneous (style) leadings of the S p i r i t ; hymns resemble contemporary f o l k music; there i s a high degree of active congregational p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the services which are marked by great fervor. 52 '; Dynes. Pp. c i t . . p. 556. 5 3 I b i d . , p. 559. 54. •^Pope, op. c i t . . pp. 122-124. 20 Pope also quite c l e a r l y l i n k s church-type with upper class and sect-type with lower classes as he 55 contrasts uptown churches and m i l l churches. ' Another writer, Morton Rubin, correlates the church-sect idea with a " t r i p a r t i t e class system;" sect and lower class go together, church and upper class; i n between i s : the migrating sect which exchanges one s o c i o l -o g i c a l form of organisation f o r another as i t makes i t s way up the economic scale. The sect gradually loses i t s d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and becomes more and more l i k e a church. 56 Brewer discusses the sect-to-church process and concomitant class changes as they have occurred i n the Methodist Episcopal Church "from the decade of organiz-ation, 1780-1790, to the decade of u n i f i c a t i o n with other Methodist bodies, 1930-1940.^ In the e a r l i e r decade "Methodism was b a s i c a l l y sect-type."^ 8 The r e l i g i o u s s t y l e was informal although "a formal l i t u r g y f o r Sunday services and r i t u a l forms f o r such ceremonies as marriage, b u r i a l , baptism, Lord's Supper, and o r d i n a t i o n " ^ 9 had been recommended by John Wesley. This l i t u r g y was however 55 •'"'Tope, op. c i t . . pp. 70-95. TT . A6®®1??*- 5?b*n» f i x a t i o n County (Chapel H i l l : U n i versity of North Carolina Press, 1951), pp. 135-151. 57 "Brewer, op. c i t . . p. 403. 5 8 I b i d . . p. 406. 5 9 I b i d . . p. 404. 21 generally rejected by American Methodism and "the emphasis was upon informal worship and preaching services, with 6 0 simple r e v i v a l i s t i c songs." By the end of the 1930-1940 decade Methodism had moved decidedly towards church-type c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . "There was increased formality i n worship and preaching services with a hymnology representing a l l types of Chr i s t i a n music, including chants and anthems. There were much more elaborate forms f o r various r i t u a l performances ."^Brewer also points out that the class charact-e r i s t i c s of Methodism changed during the one hundred and f i f t y year period. In the decade of organization " i t s membership was drawn predominantly from the lower classes 6 2 Of early American society" whereas i n the l a t e r decade "the t o t a l membership was drawn from a l l classes of society. " ^ Consideration of Discrepancies Mention has already been made of discrepancies between the findings of various studies.** 4 Almost 6 0 Brewer, op. c i t . . p. 404. 6 l r b i d . . p. 406. 6 2 I b i d . , p. 404. 6 3 I b i d . . p. 405. 64. See above p. 4. 22 uniformly, writers maintain that the membership of sects 65 i s drawn predominantly from the lower classes. However, while some scholars have linke d churches and upper c l a s s , various surveys indicate that r e l i g i o u s bodies commonly perceived as churches are predominantly lower class i n 66 composition. During the period 1945-46 four p o l l s were taken by the American I n s t i t u t e of Public Opinion covering approximately twelve thousand cases. The r e s u l t s were analyzed by the O f f i c e of Public Opinion Research at Princeton University f o r the Department of Research and Education of the Federal Council of Churches. Data presented i n Table II i s based on t h i s analysis. •Anton T. Boisen, "Religion and Hard Times: A Study of the Holy R o l l e r s . " S o c i a l Action (March 15, 1939), 10-11. Charles S. Braden, "The Sects," The Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  Science (March. 1948). 59. Benton Johnson, "Do Holiness Sects S o c i a l i z e i n Dominant Values ?" S o c i a l  Forces, 39(May, 1961), 311. O l i v e r Read-Whitley, "The Sect-to-Denomination Process i n an American Religious Movement: The D i s c i p l e s of C h r i s t , " The Southwestern  S o c i a l Science Quarterly (December, 1955), 280. 66 Hadley C a n t r i l , "Educational and Economic Composition of Religious Groups," American Journal of  Sociology 47. 5 (March, 1943), 574-79. National ~"~ Opinion Research Center, The United States, Study 335, Summer, 1953; Study 367, Summer, 1955; quoted i n Bogue, op. c i t . . pp. 697-708. Lazerwitz, op. c i t . . pp. 568-579. Pope, "Religion and the Class Structure," The  Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science (March. 1948) r 84-91. ".- ~ Pope, op. c i t . . p. 86. 23 TABLE I I * * CLASS COMPOSITION OF RELIGIOUS BODIES, 1945-46* PER CENT DISTRIBUTION Body Upper Class Middle Class Lower Class Entire Sample 13 31 56 Catholic 9 25 66 Jewish 22 32 46 Methodist 13 35 52 Baptist 8 24 68 Presbyterian 22 40 38 Lutheran 11 36 53 Episcopalian 24 34 42 Congregational 24 43 33 •Derived from a breakdown of four p o l l s taken by the American I n s t i t u t e of Public Opinion i n 1945-46, covering approximately 12,000 cases. Each p o l l covered a "voting sample" of approximately 3,000 cases. **Source: L i s t o n Pope, op. c i t . , p. 86. I t w i l l be noted that the percentage of lower class members i n the Catholic Church greatly exceeds the percentage of upper and middle class yet t h i s r e l i g i o u s body may l e g i t i m a t e l y be categorized as "church-type" according to various c r i t e r i a drawn from the church-sect typology e.g., objective handling of grace; r i t u a l i s t i c , l i t u r g i c a l worship; an accomodating attitude tov/ards secular authority; professional c l e r i c a l leadership; g o "involuntary" membership. I t w i l l also be noted that These c r i t e r i a are commonly perceived as applicable to the Catholic Church but they are also validated by the research presented i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . 24 the percentage of lower class members i n the Lutheran Church exceeds the combined percentages of middle and upper class; t h i s r e l i g i o u s body however, may also be categorized as "church-type" on the basis of r i t u a l i s t i c , l i t u r g i c a l v/orship, accomodating attitude towards secular authority, and professional c l e r i c a l leadership. On the other hand, the Episcopalian Church, which may be categorized as church-type using the c r i t e r i a mentioned 6 9 above, draws the greater part of i t s membership from the middle and upper classes, a f a c t which supports the findings of those studies which l i n k church-type and upper c l a s s . The surveys undertaken by Lazerwitz i n 1957 and 70 1958 generally confirm the r e s u l t s of e a r l i e r work although he does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e r e l i g i o u s groups to s o c i a l class but rather to separate indices of educa-t i o n , occupation and family income. He maintains that: education, occupation, income data sort the re l i g i o u s groups into a s o c i a l hierarchy. Setting aside the 'no r e l i g i o n * group fo r the moment, one can form the following ranks: Top: Episcopalians Jews Presbyterians Middle: Methodists Lutherans Roman Catholics Bottom: White Baptists,,, Negro Baptists 69 ^see also Troeltsch, op. c i t . . pp. 331-343. 70 Lazerwitz, op. c i t . . pp. 568-578. 7 1 I b i d . , p. 574. 25 Bogue presents a s i m i l a r h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g 72 u s i n g r e l i g i o u s preference and income. Income R e l i g i o n High Jewish E p i s c o p a l P r e s b y t e r i a n Median C a t h o l i c Lutheran No r e l i g i o n Methodist Low B a p t i s t Small P r o t e s t a n t s e c t s Scholars who focus on the t r a d i t i o n a l church-s e c t typology and who undertake e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s based on t h i s typology tend to l i n k church-type w i t h upper cle^ss. However, according to p o l l data, some r e l i g i o u s bodies which are commonly c l a s s i f i e d as Churches u s i n g c r i t e r i a drawn from the church-sect typology, are demonstrated to have low s t a t u s membership. The apparent discrepancy may be due to d e f i n i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . "Church-type" as understood by t h i s w r i t e r d e r i v e s from Troeltsch's' concept of a broadly based i n s t i t u t i o n which appeals to a l l s o r t s and c o n d i t i o n s of men; i t i s not however, as u n i v e r s a l i n i t s outreach as T r o e l t s c h conceived i t t o be, but i s more l i k e "the e c c l e s i a " d escribed by Yinger i n h i s s i x p o i n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s types: l i k e the u n i v e r s a l church, the e c c l e s i a reaches out to the boundaries of the s o c i e t y ; formal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the group i s found on a l l l e v e l s of i s o c i e t y . . . . . . E s t a b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l churches, tend 72 Bogue, op. c i t . . p. 705. toward the ecclesiastical type...... ^ However, church-type as used by many scholars approximates to what may be called "developed denomination" "of the major denominations in the country, the Lutherans and Presbyterians most nearly represent the Church type." Demerath writes about the "churchly and aristocratic denominations," referring to the higher ranking bodies in a Table giving the social class profiles of American religious groups; such bodies for instance as Christian Scientist, Episcopal, Congregational and Presbyterian. between those studies which associate church-type and upper class and the surveys in which some church-type bodies are shown to be associated with a lower class structure, the discrepancy disappears i f the former relationship i s perceived as one of association of developed denominations and upper class. or i n Yinger's term, "class church. 74 Pope suggests that With reference then to the apparent discrepancy 73 Yinger, op. c i t . . pp. 148-149. 74 Ibid., pp. 149-15Q 75 Pope, "Millhands and Preachers." p. 125. p. 23 above Table XVIII, p. 58 below, and Table II, Research Hypotheses In the l i g h t of the theory and research discussed above, and i n terms of the d e f i n i t i o n s used i n t h i s research, i t was anticipated that t h i s present study would show: (a) there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between formal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and both high and low s o c i a l class (b) there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between semi-rformal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and high s o c i a l class (c) there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between informal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and low s o c i a l class* 28 CHAPTER II I SOCIAL CLASS IN LETHBRIDGE Railway tracks d i v i d e j they have divided Lethbridge into North and South and the two segments have developed d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . U n t i l r e l a t i v e l y recently North Lethbridge has been more of a "working c l a s s " area than South. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , perhaps, the Labour Club i s located i n North Lethbridge and the two Golf Clubs are i n South. The upper class r e s i d e n t i a l areas are currently located i n South Lethbridge. In 1945 the built-up area of the c i t y comprised approximately 1400 acres evenly divided between North and South Lethbridge. Ten years l a t e r the built-up area i n the North t o t a l l e d some 1300 acres and i n the South about 2000 acresJ the figures f o r 1969 were approximately 1600 77 and 2240 acres respectively.'' South Lethbridge has proved more a t t r a c t i v e as a r e s i d e n t i a l area than North although some change i n t h i s pattern i s evident today. Lethbridge i s a prosperous c i t y of 39,552 p e o p l e . 7 8 The new wealth production i n 1969 was $485,683,940."^ The economy has been and s t i l l i s primarily a g r i c u l t u r a l but l i g h t manufacturing has assumed increasing importance. 77 Calculated by the writer from maps. ^Lethbridge Economic Development Commission, S t a t i s t i c a l Review. A p r i l 1970, p. 1. 7 9 I b i d . . p. 2. 29 There has also been an increase i n opportunities f o r various types of professional work because of the presence, f o r instance, of. an expanding Community College, two Schools of Nursing, and, most recently, a r a p i d l y devel-oping University. A Federal Government Research Station also provides opportunities f o r research s c i e n t i s t s . During the period 1962-67 there was an increase i n the number of Taxable Returns from the C i t y and the on t o t a l tax assessed rose from $4,794.00 to $9,234.00. Although changes i n taxation p o l i c y and rates during t h i s period may account f o r some of the increase, the figures nevertheless reinforce the impression of continuing prosperity. The low percentage of people on Welfare supports t h i s impression; currently there are 814 f a m i l i e s , including some "single member" f a m i l i e s , r e c e i v i n g a i d 81 either from the Cit y or the Province. Although there i s evidence of considerable pros-p e r i t y i n Lethbridge there are manifest s o c i a l differences; one family l i v e s i n a house with an assessed taxable value of $34,950.00 while another occupies a dwelling 82 assessed at $720.00. A l o c a l professional man and his family own several cars, three "skidoos," a large power 80S t a t i s t i c a l Review, op. c i t . ^ p. 2. 81 Figures provided by City and P r o v i n c i a l Welfare O f f i c e s , llay, 1970. 82 Figures provided by Assessor's O f f i c e , C i t y H a l l . 30 boat* two horses and a double h o r s e - t r a i l e r , a large house i n the c i t y and a summer cottage on a lake i n the United States, while members of another family r e l y e n t i r e l y on public transport and neither the parents nor the childr e n have ever been to any lake other than the l o c a l a r t i f i c i a l onej they c e r t a i n l y have never seen the sea. The range of l o c a l income differences i s consid-erable. An in d i c a t i o n of t h i s range i s contained i n the Department of National Revenue Taxation S t a t i s t i c s . During the 1967 Taxation Year-the number of Returns i n the $1000— 5000 Taxation Classes was 11,753; the number of Returns i n the $10,000 and over Taxation Class was 1,930.8 3 Manifest s o c i a l differences are associated with differences i n l i f e s t y l e , r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , access to a vari e t y of advantages e.g., s o c i a l l y useful club memberships. The question a r i s e s however as to whether the undoubted s o c i a l differences indicate class d i f f e r -ences. The answer to t h i s question w i l l depend l a r g e l y on the p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n of class which i s u t i l i z e d . Class Differences There are many varied d e f i n i t i o n s of s o c i a l class and sometimes the u t i l i t y of the concept has been c a l l e d i n question l a r g e l y because of what Lasswell l a b e l s the ^Taxation S t a t i s i t i e a . 1969 E d i t i o n (for the 1967 Taxation Year, Department of National Revenue, Table 6, p. 97. 31 "conceptual muddle" i n the area of s o c i a l c lass and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , , 8 4 With reference to popular understanding Lasswell writes: In some contexts people r e f e r to s o c i a l classes as i f they were associational enclaves; i n others, they speak of them as i f they were cultures; i n s t i l l others, they seem to be r e f e r r i n g to demog-raphic categories; and i n yet others as the objects of s o c i a l systems of deference, power, prestige, and privilege,, I t i s not impossible, perhaps not even u n l i k e l y , that s o c i a l classes may be a l l of these, 85 Scholars i n the f i e l d are no more unanimous than laymen as to the precise meaning of the concept, K a r l Marx perceived class as an economic grouping defined by ownerships "the owners of mere labour-power, the owners of c a p i t a l , and the land-owners,,form the three great 8 6 classes of modern society," Weber maintained that "the term 'class' r e f e r s to any group of people that i s found i n the same class s i t u a t i o n " 8 7 which he f u r t h e r defined as: a t y p i c a l chance f o r a supply of goods, external l i v i n g conditions, and personal l i f e experiences, i n so f a r as t h i s chance i s determined by the amount and kind of power, or lack of such, to dispose of goods or s k i l l s f o r the sake of income i n a given economic order. 88 8 4 ^"Thomas E. Lasswell, Class and Stratum (New York: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1965), p. 53. 8 ^ I b i d . . p. 31. 86 T. B. Bottomore and Maximilien Rubel, eds., K a r l Marx: Selected Writings (Pelican Books, Harmondsworth: C. A. Watts, 1963), p. 186. 8 7 G e r t h and M i l l s , op. c i t . . p. 181. 8 8 L o c . c i t . He s p e c i f i c a l l y states that "»Classes' are not communities, i . e . , aggregates with i d e n t i t y , hut are categories of people. Classes comprise those i n d i v i d u a l s with s i m i l a r " l i f e chances" as determined by t h e i r economic s i t u a t i o n . For Weber, a class might include such strange bedfellows as the c h i l d of a pirate or gangster, the c h i l d of a Supreme Court j u s t i c e or ambassador, the c h i l d of a f i l m actor, and the c h i l d of a major merchant or i n d u s t r i a l i s t , provided each had the economic p o t e n t i a l of achieving a s p e c i f i e d range of wealth and experience. 89 Weber did however present another concept which i s more akin to the contemporary understanding of cla s s , but he used the term " s o c i a l status." The term ' s o c i a l status* w i l l be applied to a t y p i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e claim to p o s i t i v e or negative p r i v i l e g e with respect to s o c i a l prestige so f a r as i t r e s t s on one or more of the following bases: (a) mode of l i v i n g , (b) a formal process of education which may consist i n empirical or r a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and the a c q u i s i t i o n of the corresponding modes of l i f e , or (c) on the prestige of b i r t h , or of an occupation. 90 The s i g n i f i c a n t dimension of s o c i a l status i s ;: prestige which "may be assigned on the basis of one or more of three grounds: 'taste,' b i r t h , or occupation." 9 1 For purposes of t h i s study s o c i a l class has been defined i n terms of occupational prestige as measured by a socio-economic i n d e x . 9 2 Mention has already been made 89 •\Lasswell, op. c i t . . pp. 12-13. 90 Weber, The Theory of S o c i a l and Economic  Organization, p. 428. """"" ~" 91 Lasswell, op. c i t . . p. 48. op See above p. 6. of the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the use of a socio-economic index as an i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l class .93 Detailed discussion of the index, i t s construc-t i o n , properties and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s presented by OA Duncan.- He points out that: Perhaps the greatest i n t e r e s t i n the index w i l l be i n i t s p o t e n t i a l use f o r s t r a t i f y i n g a population of i n d i v i d u a l s . No l e s s important, however, are i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s as a research instrument i n investiga-tions of occupation structure. 95 Numerous problems are associated With both the above procedures. The index provides no guarantee that i n d i v i d u a l s ranked i n accordance with i t s categories w i l l be ranked i n the same order by any other c r i t e r i a 96. of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . However, Duncan does go on to say: The foregoing q u a l i f i c a t i o n s notwithstanding, we sometimes f i n d considerable correspondence between i n d i v i d u a l prestige, as judged by acquaintances, and the prestige ratings of t h e i r occupations, which were shown to be c l o s e l y correlated with the occupational socioeconomic index. 97 The index may conveniently be used to locate i n d i v i d u a l s on a class ladder; i t may also be used to 98 rank occupational groupings^ and assign a class p o s i t i o n to them. ee above, pp. 6-7. 94 ^Duncan, "A Socioeconomic Index f o r A l l Occupa-ti o n s , " a n d "Properties and Characteristics of the Socio-economic Index," i n Reiss, op. c i t . . pp. 109-161. 95 -^Duncan, "Characteristics..." i n Reiss, p. 140. 9^Ibid.» p. 145. 97 Loc. c i t . 98 • • ^ I b i d . . p. 155. 34 The p r a c t i c a l advantages of using a socio-economic index to determine class p o s i t i o n outweighed the undoubted l i m i t a t i o n s of the procedure i n the estimation of the writer,. While the index may f a i l to take into account various factors which contribute to the determination of any one i n d i v i d u a l ' s class p o s i t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r community i t does provide one of the most usefu l "objective measures" of p o s i t i o n i n a hierarchy of values; some occupations are manifestly valued more highly than others and those who work at high valued occupations derive " c l a s s " from t h e i r work involvemento Consequently the index was used to determine class d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Lethbridge within, (a) the general population and, (b) the church population. I t was assumed that the a l l o c a t i o n of a socio-economic index (SEI) to a l l members of a p a r t i c u l a r chwch would give the "class p r o f i l e " or class structure of that church e.g., i f the members were found to be predominantly upper class according to the SSI then the class structure of the church would be upper c l a s s . It was also assumed that the p o s i t i o n of any church i n r e l a t i o n to other churches could be determined by the a l l o c a t i o n of a SEI to each church to be derived from the mean of the indices of a random sample of the members. Churches could then be ranked i n accordance with t h e i r SEI. 35 On the "basis of the above assumptions samples were drawn, indices allocated and the SEI for each church obtained; this was defined as the class position of the church. Class Distribution i n Lethbridge (a) General Population Manifest social differences have been noted i n Lethbridge, and according to the definition used in this dissertation there are manifest class differences since the socio-economic indices of a sample of Lethbridge residents range from a high of 76.44 to a low of 26.57. Data for this finding was obtained by drawing a sample of residents of the city, noting their occupations and assigning a SEI to these occupations. The procedure was as follows: a random sample of individuals l i s t e d i n the 1969 City Directory was taken;" the sample comprised two individuals randomly selected from each of the f i r s t 210 pages of the Directory in accordance with a l i s t of random numbers„ 1 0 0 The occupa-tions of the individuals as stated i n the Directory were noted and recorded and a SEI was assigned using Blishen*s l i s t based on the 1961 Census of Canada. 1 0 1 The Q Q ^Henderson's Lethbridge Alberta City Directory,  1969 (Winnipeg: Henderson Directories Ltd., 1969 1 0 0 B l a l o c k , Social Statistics, pp. 437-440. 1 0 1 B l i s h e n , "A Socio-economic Index for Occupa-tions i n Canada," pp. 44-50. 36 occupational sample, with allocated indices, appears i n 102 the appendix to t h i s study. Data obtained was organized into s i x class categories following "Blishen's suggestion 1 0^ and then reduced to a " t r i - p a r t i t e " c lass d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Tabulations are given i n Tables I I I and IV. TABLE I I I DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONS OP RESIDENTS OP LETHBRIDGE BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX Socio-economic Number Percentage index 70 plus 24 5.7 60.00-69.99 27 6.5 50.00-59.99 81 19.3 40.00-49.99 56 13.4 30.00-39.99 144 34.3 Below 30 87 20.7 Totals 419 99.9 TABLE IV TRI-PARTITE CLASS DIFFERENTIATION Socio-economic index Class Percentage > 60 40-59 < 40 Upper Middle Lower 12.2 32.7 54.0 The question arises as to whether a s i m i l a r class d i s t r i b u t i o n i s found i n the church population and further 102 Appendix,pp. 80-84. 103 ^Blishen, op. c±tol) p. 51. are. there class differences between the l o c a l churches. (b) Church Population A study was made of a sample population of church members i n Lethbridge using samples drawn from twenty-seven c h u r c h e s . 1 0 4 Tabulation of the data i n Tables V and 71 shows a pattern of class d i s t r i b u t i o n s i m i l a r to 105 that found i n the general population. TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTION OP OCCUPATIONS OP MEMBERS OP LOCAL CHURCHES BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX Socio-economic Number Percentage Index 70 plus 64 8.9 60.00-69.99 40 5.3 50.00-59.99 196 27.0 40.00-49.99 121 16.8 30.00-39.99 178 24.7 Below 30 127 16.9 Totals 726 99.6 TABLE VI TRI-PARTITE -CLASS DIFFERENTIATION Socio-economic Class Percentage Index > 60 Upper 14.2 40-59 Middle 43.8 < 40 Lower 41.6 See above pp. 10-11, and Appendix, pp. 85-111. See above, Tables I I I and IV. 38 I t w i l l be noted that the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of upper and middle c las s people i n the churches i s s l i g h t l y higher than i n the general populat ion, a f i n d i n g which re in forces the contention of a number of scholars that middle and upper c lass people are more 106 " r e l i g i o u s l y invo lved" than lower c l a s s . In accordance with assumptions stated a b o v e 1 0 7 the l o c a l churches were ranked by t h e i r SEI . This procedure produced a rank continuum with no c l e a r l y defined cu t t ing p o i n t s . The ranking i s presented below i n Table V I I . 1 0 8 In the absence of c l e a r l y defined c u t t i n g points any separat ion of the churches in to s p e c i f i c c lass categories i s a r b i t r a r y . However, the cu t t ing of the twenty-seven SEI values into three segments, each segment having approximately the same range of d i f ference between the highest and the lowest value i n the segment produces the ca tegor iza t ion tabulated i n Table V I I I . 1 0 9 1 Qfi Demerath, op. c i t . . pp. 1-26. 107 'See above, pp. 34-35. 1 0 8 S e e below, p . 39. 1 0 9 S e e below, p . 40. 3 9 TABLE VII LOCAL CHURCHES RANKED BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX* Church SEI Variance Number Percent NGE** Latter Day Saints Ward 3 5 6 . 4 2 6 0 . 2 3 1 1 8 . 4 Bethel Baptist 5 3 o 2 1 5 7 . 7 2 0 9 . 9 McKillop United 5 3 o 2 2 1 5 . 0 4 9 9 . 2 Southminster United 5 1 . 7 / 237.7 4 5 1 6 . 6 St, Andrew's Presbyterian 5 0 . 7 1 7 0 . 7 30 9 . 1 S t 0 Augustine's Anglican 5 0 . 3 2 3 5 . 3 4 1 1 0 . 8 Church of the Nazarene 4 9 . 3 9 1 . 6 2 1 1 2 . 5 Seventh Day Adventist 4 8 . 7 1 9 6 . 8 1 5 1 6 . 7 Mennonite Brethren 4 7 . 6 1 4 3 , 8 2 3 1 7 . 8 C h r i s t i a n Missionary A l l i a n c e 4 7 . 1 . 1 4 6 . 8 1 7 1 0 . 5 F i r s t Baptist 4 5 . 3 1 6 9 . 3 2 9 2 5 . 6 Pentecostal Tabernacle 4 5 . 2 1 4 6 . 7 2 0 1 3 . 0 Assumption Roman Catholic 4 4 . 6 1 6 7 . 3 30 1 6 . 6 Latter Day Saints Ward-1 4 3 , 8 1 3 5 . 6 30 3 6 . 1 St., Mary the V i r g i n Anglican 4 3 , 3 2 0 1 . 0 1 8 1 8 . 2 Emmanuel Lutheran 4 2 . 4 2 2 6 . 8 2 0 1 3 . 0 C h r i s t i a n Tabernacle 4 1 . 6 2 4 8 . 1 1 5 2 5 . 0 St, Peter and St. Paul E.R, 4 1 . 2 1 1 8 . 5 3 5 2 5 . 5 Christ T r i n i t y Lutheran 4 1 . 1 1 4 9 . 4 3 4 2 2 . 7 Church of Christ 4 0 . 3 9 4 . 1 1 4 1 2 . 5 Latter Day Saints Ward 5 3 9 . 8 7 9 . 4 2 9 2 3 . 7 C h r i s t i a n Reformed 3 9 . 3 1 2 0 . 6 1 9 9 . 5 Salvation Army 3 9 . 0 1 0 1 . 6 2 3 1 1 . 5 Ukrainian Greek Catholic 3 8 . 7 1 5 7 . 0 23 1 7 . 8 Evangelical Free Church St. Patrick's Roman Catholic 3 7 . 8 7 3 . 5 1 8 1 0 . 0 3 6 . 3 7 8 . 5 3 8 3 3 . 3 St. B a s i l ' s Roman Catholic 3 4 , 8 8 1 . 7 4 0 2 5 . 9 * See appendix pp. 8 5 - 1 1 1 f o r d e t a i l s of each church. ** NGE - Abbreviation f o r "Not Gainfully Employed" e.g. those classed as r e t i r e d , and widows; they were not allocated a. SEI and were not included i n the ca l c u l a t i o n of the mean SEI f o r each church. What effect the presence of NGE members has on the class structure of a church has not been determined. However, i t i s assumed that NGE members w i l l have class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to those of the members who are gain-f u l l y employed. TABLE VIII CLASS DIFFERENTIATION OF LOCAL CHURCHES Class Church Upper Latter Day Saints Ward 3 Bethel Baptist McKillop United Southrainster United St. Andrew's Presbyterian Sto Augustine's Anglican Church of the Nazarene Seventh Day Adventist Mennonite Brethren C h r i s t i a n Missionary A l l i a n c e Middle F i r s t Baptist Pentecostal Tabernacle Assumption Roman Catholic Latt e r Day Saints Ward 1 St. Mary the V i r g i n Anglican Immanuel Lutheran C h r i s t i a n Tabernacle Sto Peter and St. Paul Eastern R i t e Christ T r i n i t y Lutheran Church of Christ Latter Day Saints Ward 5 C h r i s t i a n Reformed Salvation Army Ukrainian Greek Catholic Evangelical Free Church St» Patrick»s Roman Cathbli c Sto B a s i l ' s Roman Catholic* Lower * I f there were a "lower-lower c l a s s " category t h i s church would be located there according to the method of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n used. 41 Comment and Summary The s o c i a l differences manifest i n Lethbridge were translated into class differences using Blishen's socio-economic index based on the 1961 census data f o r Canada, i t was recognized that various problems are associated with the use of such an index. For instance, the population samples f o r the c i t y and the churches contained si n g l e , working females, and Blishen*s index was based on the occupations of maless "only occupations based ®a the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of males i n the labour force were included«"" 1 1 0By way of comment i t should be noted that the occupation "Dressmaker and Seamstress" i s nevertheless included i n the i n d e x . 1 1 1 For the purposes of t h i s research, female members of the samples were allocated an index appropriate to male workers of the same or s i m i l a r category, except f o r graduate nurses who, on the basis of Blishen's e a r l i e r work were ranked higher than t h e i r male e q u i v a l e n t s . 1 1 2 Also, since there was no category "farmer" i n the scale used, and since a number of farmers appear i n the samples, an index was a l l o t t e d which placed a l l farmers i n a 1 1 Q B l i s h e n 9 op. c i t o y p.;42. 1 1 1 I b i d o o p. 49. 112 Blishen, "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale," pp. 526 and 527. 42 i n lower-to-middle class category, J These procedures no doubt produce error but the assumption i s that the error i s randomly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the samples and there-fore does not unduly bias the index values f o r any one sample. However, where a disproportionate number of farmers belong to a p a r t i c u l a r church, bias may occur. Other problems r e l a t e to the accuracy of the occupational descriptions i n the C i t y Directory, Information f o r the Directory i s gathered primarily by canvass but the p o s s i b i l i t y of error i n description i s always present. There i s also the question of " f i t " between the Directory description of occupations and the descriptions i n Blishen*s l i s t o Occasionally judgements were made by the writer on the basis of his general knowledge of occuptions, and indices were assigned as a r e s u l t of these judgements, A sample of the general population of Lethbridge was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d along class liness upper, middle, lower, and the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each category was calculated. S i m i l a r l y the membership population of l o c a l churches was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d along the same class l i n e s and the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n calculated. Differences between the two d i s t r i b u t i o n s Were noted. I t would appear that upper and middle class members of the community are over-represented i n the l o c a l churches. A SEI f o r each church was derived from the mean 113 Forty-nine out of sixty-two students and f a c u l t y selected t h i s category when ranking farmers. 43 indices of the sample members, and the churches themselves were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d along class l i n e s . I t was recognized that such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was to some extent a r b i t r a r y . The method chosen i s not necessarily better than any other method, but i t does conveniently separate the churches into three stated classes i n such a way that a smaller proportion of the churches appears i n the upper class category. This pattern of class structure has been repeatedly noted i n various community s t u d i e s , 1 1 4 i t was therefore deemed appropriate to u t i l i z e a method, the r e s u l t s of which were i n accord with general findings of other research. e.g., W. Lloyd Warner, Democracy i n J o n e s v i l l e , pp. 152-167, and Warner and Lunt, The S o c i a l L i f e of a' Modern Community,, p. 88. 44 CHAPTER IV RELIGIOUS STYLE UJ IETHBRIDGE On a t y p i c a l Sunday about one quarter of the U S population of Lethbridge attend church services. The great majority of these services are conducted by ordained p r i e s t s or ministers who are engaged i n a f u l l - t i m e professional ministry; out of t h i r t y churches JLnvestigated by the writer as preliminary preparation f o r t h i s present studyj only f i v e had part-time ministers, and only one was not ordained. 1 1** The churches vary considerably i n s i z e of member-ship, s t y l e and siz e of accomodation, and siz e of budget. The largest church buildings w i l l seat more than one thousand people; the smallest can accomodate no more than 117 f i f t y . Patterns of worship vary considerably; some services are strongly l i t u r g i c a l , using centuries-old, highly symbolic r i t u a l with deep emotional appeal; others are restrained, d i g n i f i e d , r a t i o n a l , and rather d u l l ; s t i l l others are more l i k e "teach-ins" with the minister using a blackboard and other v i s u a l aids. A few services are r e l a t i v e l y boisterous with noisy congregational 115 Based on surveys by the writer and some students. The estimated figure i s approximately 9,035. 1 1 6 S e e Appendix, p. 112. 117 'Appendix, p. 112 gives d e t a i l s of differences, see Table XIX. 45 p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and others are f u l l of the d i s t r a c t i o n s of r e s t l e s s children» Patterns of worship have changed and are changing. There have been numerous experimental services; the congregation of one United Church moved to a Roman Catholic Church f o r a j o i n t service; various forms of "folk-mass" have been produced; l o c a l guitar groups have provided music and song; "talk-back" programmes have been presented i n sanctuaries, providing dialogue between congregation and minister, but a l l these experiments are tentative graftings on old stock and the success of various grafts i s s t i l l i n doubt. / Well established forms of worship predominate. These forms may be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and categorized as f o l l o w s ? 1 1 8 (a) formal (b) semi-formal (c) informal Formal worship r e l i e s on an o f f i c i a l order of service c e n t r a l l y sanctioned by some r e l i g i o u s authority; i t i s usually a printed order, most often contained i n a V J q book with printed prayers and responses; there i s frequent celebration of Llass, Holy Communion, or the Lord*s Supper; the worship atmosphere i s one of reverence, i i R This r e l a t e s to the "Religious Style" of the churches. 119 e.g., The Anglican Prayer Book. 46 and movement i s predominantly structured; the atmosphere i s induced and maintained by t r a d i t i o n a l , c l a s s i c a l organ music i . e . , "churchy," with preludes, interludes, and postludes; the hymns are " d i g n i f i e d ; " r e l a t i v e l y few young children are present throughout the whole of the regular period of worship. Semi-formal worship i s defined i n terms of the use, usually, of some form of typed or mimeographed order of service d i s t r i b u t e d to some or a l l members of the cong-regation; a mixture of types of prayer, sometimes printed or written, sometimes spontaneous; r e l a t i v e l y frequent i . e . , once a month, but not more often, celebration of Mass, Holy Communion, or the Lord's Supper; the worship atmosphere i s "semi-reverent" with some s l i g h t but noticeable degree of t a l k i n g and unstructured movement; music i s usually mixed - t r a d i t i o n a l , c l a s s i c a l , "churchy," or "evangelical," and i s usually played oh an organ; generally there w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y few small children present throughout the whole of the normal, regular worship period. Informal worship i s characterized by an order of service personally constructed by the designated r e l i g i o u s leader and not transcribed from any printed order or book although i t may follow a regular pattern; i t i s not normally reproduced nor d i s t r i b u t e d to any members of the congregation; there i s allowance f o r spontaneous or 47 prompted prayer, and f o r unstructured responses; there i s infrequent i . e . , once a quarter only, or l e s s often, celebration of Mass, Holy Communion, or the Lord's Supper; the worship atmosphere i s relaxed, casual, but sometimes emotionally intense, with a perceptible amount of t a l k and unstructured movement; the music i s l i v e l y , usually played on a piano or other instrument, or various instruments i n conjunction with an organ; hymns axe t y p i c a l l y evangelical, or "chorus" type; the presence of a number of small children throughout the whole service adds to the casualness of the atmosphereo Style Characteristics of Local Churches During the Spring and P a l l of 1969 and the Spring of 1970* a series of participant observations of l o c a l church worship services was undertaken by the writer. Details of the services were noted and l a t e r recorded 120 on a prepared schedule. The r e s u l t s were analyzed i n accordance with the f i v e c r i t e r i a or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the categories formal, semi-formal, and informal; the c r i t e r i a were: (a) organization of the order of service (b) type of prayer (c) frequency of Mass, Holy Communion, or the Lord's Supper (d) qua l i t y of worship atmosphere (e) type of music. Appendix,pp. 76-79. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the churches within the three categories i s tabulated i n Table I X o 1 2 1 A decision had to be made concerning the lo c a t i o n of each church with reference to the three categories. ITo problem arose with respect to those churches which had f i v e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of one category e.g., the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches. However, when churches had some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appropriate to one category but other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appropriate to another category i t was decided to c l a s s i f y them i n accordance with that category f o r which they had the majority of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Thus the Mennonite Brethren display three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the semi-formal type and two of the informal; t h i s church was therefore c l a s s i f i e d as semi-formal. The .Seventh Day Adventist church had three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the informal type and two of the semi-formal; i t was therefore c l a s s i f i e d as informal. Guided by the above procedure, each church was c l a s s i f i e d according to the categories formal, semi-formal, and informal. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s presented 122 i n Table X . See page 49. See pager 50. 49 TABLE XX DISTRIBUTION OP CHARACTERISTICS OP CHURCHES Church Religious Style Formal Semi-formal Informal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 15* St. Augustine 8s S t 0 Mary V i r g i n Assumption R.C. St. B a s i l ' s R.C. St.Patrick's R.C. Ukrainian Cath. St.Peter & Paul Immanuel Lutheran Christ T r i n i t y L. Southminster Un. McKillop United St.Andrew's Pres. C h r i s t i a n Refd. F i r s t Baptist Bethel Baptist Pentecostal Tab. C h r i s t i a n Tab. Seventh Day Adv. Mennonite Breth. Salvation Army Church of Naz. Ch r i s t i a n Miss.All. Church of Christ Evangelical Free L.D.S. Ward 1 I.D.S. Ward 3 L.D.S. Ward 5 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X • x X X X X X X X X X X X X • X . X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of worship services I . ...usually o f f i c i a l , printed order i n a book. 2....usually printed prayers i n a book. 3.«o.frequent Mass, Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper. 4..o.relatively reverent atmosphere. 5.«..usually t r a d i t i o n a l , "churchy" music. 6 ....usually typed or mimeographed order. 7....printed, written, or spontaneous prayers. 8..o.relatively frequent Mass, Holy Communion, etc. 9....a "semi-reverent" atmosphere, some t a l k i n g etc. 10„. 8mixture of types of music. I I . ..no reproduced, d i s t r i b u t e d order of service. 12...usually spontaneous prayers. 13...infrequent Mass, Holy Communion or Lord's Supper. 14...casual atmosphere. 1 5 . u s u a l l y evangelical music. TABLE X RELIGIOUS STYLE OP LOCAL CHURCHES Religious Style Church S t 0 Augustine's Anglican St. Mary the V i r g i n Anglican Assumption Roman Catholic Sto B a s i l ' s Roman Catholic Formal St» Patrick's Roman Catholic Ukrainian Greek Catholic St. Peter and St« Paul Eastern Rite Immanuel Lutheran Christ T r i n i t y Lutheran Semi-formal Southminster United McKillop United Sto Andrew's Presbyterian C h r i s t i a n Reformed F i r s t Baptist Bethel Baptist Mennonite Brethren Church of the Nazarene Pentecostal Tabernacle Ch r i s t i a n Tabernacle Seventh Day Adventist Salvation Army T _ i , . „ n 1 C h r i s t i a n Missionary A l l i a n c e iniormal Church of Christ Evangelical Free Church Latter Day Saints, Ward 1 Latter Day Saints, Ward 3 Latter Day Saints, Ward 5 Summary Data on the worship services of twenty-seven l o c a l churches was obtained through a series of participant observationso The analysis and tabulation of t h i s data enabled the writer to c l a s s i f y the churches i n terms of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s t y l e , whether formal, semi-formal, or informalo 51 CHAPTER V RELIGIOUS STYLE AND SOCIAL CLASS This d i s s e r t a t i o n focuses on the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l class i n Lethbridge. Twenty-seven of the l o c a l churches have been c l a s s i f i e d according to r e l i g i o u s s t y l e , and s o c i a l class c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s may now be r e l a t e d i n Table XI» TABLE XI RELIGIOUS STYLE AND SOCIAL CLASS OF CHURCHES IN LETHBRIDGE Religious S o c i a l Class Style Upper Middle Lower Formal St.Augustine's St. Mary the V i r g i n Assumption RC Immanuel Lutheran St. B a s i l ' s R.C. Christ Trin.Luth. St.Peter & Paul ER. Ukrainian Catholic St.Patrick's R.C. Southminster U„ F i r s t Baptist C h r i s t i a n McKillop Uo Mennonite Br. Reformed Semi- Sto Andrew's Church of the formal Presbyto Bethel Baptist Nazarene Latter Day Seventh Day C h r i s t i a n Saints Wd.3 Adventist Tabernacle C h r i s t i a n Miss. Church of Christ Informal A l l i a n c e Latter Day Saints Pentecostal Ward 5 Tabernacle Salvation Army Latter Day Evangelical Free Saints Wd.l 52 Examination of Table XI suggests: (a) the class structure of churches characterized by a formal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e i s predominantly lower c l a s s . (b) the class structure of churches characterized by a semi-formal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e i s predominantly upper and middle. (c) the class structure of churches characterized by an informal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e i s predominantly lower and middle. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l c l a s s may be demonstrated by computing the weighted mean 123 SSI score f o r each of the three "formality" categories. ^ The r e s u l t s are presented i n Table XII. TABLE XII . :STYLE CATEGORIES BY WEIGHTED MEAN" SEI SCORE " A S S " Formal 41.3. Semi-formal 49.6 Informal 44.4 Computation reveals a c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and upper, middle, and lower s o c i a l class structure of churches i n Lethbridge. Computation of gamma s i m i l a r l y demonstrates t h i s c u r v i -l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p as shown i n Table XIII. 123 Appendix, p. 113. TABLE X H I CLASSIFICATION OF CHURCHES ACCORDING TO RELIGIOUS STYLE AND SOCIAL CLASS • Religious S o c i a l Class T o t a l Style Upper Middle Lower Formal 1 2 6 9 Semi-formal 4 3 1 8 Informal 1 4 5 10 Total 6 9 12 27 G f o r whole Table* .. -.08 P a r t i a l G, upper-middle class .28 P a r t i a l G, middle-lower class -.26 Although the c o e f f i c i e n t s of association demon-stra t e a c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t y l e and c l a s s , the associations are not e s p e c i a l l y strong. Nevertheless, the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s clear middle-to-lower class structure i s associated with both formal and informal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e whereas a middle-to-upper class structure i s associated with a semi-formal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e . Discussion The findings of t h i s study do not e n t i r e l y match 124. expectations stated above. ^ The class structure of formal-style churches appears to be lower, or possibly See above, p. 27o 54 lower-to-middle rather than lower and upper as expected. Furthermore, the s o c i a l class structure of churches with informal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e i s not predominantly lower but rather middle-to-lower. Likewise the cla s s structure of semi-formal s t y l e churches i s not s o l e l y upper but rather middle-to-upper. While i t i s apparent that class differences are (associated with differences i n r e l i g i o u s s t y l e , these differences are not as sharply defined as t r a d i t i o n a l theory suggests, at l e a s t , not i n the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n examined by the Writer. I t must of course be remembered that the church-sect typology i s an " i d e a l type" construct, an abstraction which may have no a c t u a l i t y i n the " r e a l world." As McKinney points out with reference to Weber's id e a l types: "they did not d i r e c t l y represent any concrete r e a l i t y or constitute an essence of a c t u a l i t y . " 1 2 - * Constructed typology tends to accentuate differences, but further analysis of the data provided by t h i s study points to some erosion of class differences between the l o c a l churches; i t stresses the middle-to-upper class character of these churches. The procedure was as follows: those churches i n the t o t a l sample which were of the same denomination, or f a i t h , were grouped according to t h e i r • 125 ' 'John C. McKinney, Constructive Typology and  So c i a l Theory (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966), p.23. 55 denomination and, together with the remaining i n d i v i d u a l churches t o t a l l e d eighteen bodies. The sample members of each body were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v/ith respect to class p o s i t i o n by using the socio-economic index. Totals were converted to percentages and the bodies were ranked i n two ways? (a) by percentage of upper class members (b) by percentage of upper and middle class members. Tabulations are given i n Tables XIV and X Y . TABLE XIV SOCIAL CLASS PROFILES 0? LETHBRIDGE RELIGIOUS BODIES Class Religious Body Upper Middle Lower N United 35.5?S 42.0^ Presbyterian 30.0 53.3 Anglican 22.0 37.3 L a t t e r Day Saints 17.8 45.6 Baptist 16.3 55.3 Seventh Day Adventist 13.3 60.0 C h r i s t i a n Tabernacle 13.3 26.6 C h r i s t i a n Missionary A l l i a n c e 11.8 59.0 Lutheran 11.2 37.0 Pentecostal Tabernacle 10.0 55.0 Mennonite Brethren 8.7 65.2 Church of the Nazarene 5.0 76.2 C h r i s t i a n Reformed 5.0 32.0 Salvation Army ? 4.4 52.3 Roman Catholic 3.7 27.9 Catholic, Eastern Rite 3.4 44.8 Church of Christ 0.0 50.0 Evangelical Free Church 0.0 27.7 22.5# (93) 16.7 (30) 40.7 (59) 36.6 (90) 28.4 (49) 26.7 (15) 60.1 (15) 29.2 (17) 51.8 (54) 35.0 (20) 26.1 (23) 18.8 (21) 63oO (19) 43.3 (23) 68.4 (108) 51.8 50.0 72.3 An examination of Table XIV shows that two r e l i g i o u s bodies, United And Presbyterian, have a r e l a t i v e l y high 56 percentage of upper class members; eight have a medium percentage, and eight a low percentage. However, i n a l l cases the percentage of middle class members i s greater than that of upper c l a s s . This table helps to demonstrate the predominantly middle class structure of the l o c a l r e l i g i o u s bodies 0 A further tabulation emphasizes the dominance of the middle-to-upper class structures i n Lethbridge as compared with lower class* TABLE XV MIDDLE-TO-UPPER CLASS PROFILE OF ' LETHBRIDGE RELIGIOUS BODIES Class Religious Body Middle to Upper Lower Presbyterian 83.3# 16.7?'* Church of the Nazarene 81.2 18.8 United 77.5 22.5 Mennonite Brethren 73.9 26.1 Seventh Day Adventist 73.3 26.7 Baptist 71.6 28.4 C h r i s t i a n Missionary A l l i a n c e 70.8 29.2 Pentecostal Tabernacle 65.0 35.0 L a t t e r Day Saints 63.4 36.6 Anglican 59.3 40.7 Salvation Army 56.7 43.3 Church of Christ 50.0 50.0 Lutheran 48.2 51.8 Catholic, Eastern R i t e 48.2 51.8 C h r i s t i a n Tabernacle 39.9 60.1 C h r i s t i a n Reformed 37.0 63.0 Roman Catholic 31.6 68.4 Evangelical Free Church 27.7 72.3 An examination of Table XV shows that eleven out of the eighteen bodies are predominantly middle-to-upper 57 class i n structure; s i x are predominantly lower class, and one has the same percentage of middle and lower class members. When the two class d i v i s i o n s are related to r e l i g i o u s s t y l e the d i s t r i b u t i o n may be tabulated as i n Table XVI. TABLE XVI CLASS AND STYLE OF RELIGIOUS BODIES IN LETHBRIDGE Class Style Formal Semi-formal 'Informal Middle to Upper Anglican Presbyterian Ch. of Naz. Menn. Bre.th. United Baptist Seventh Day Adventist Chrt. Miss. A l l i a n c e Salvation Army Pentecostal Tab. Latter Day Saints Church of Christ Lower Lutheran C h r i s t i a n C h r i s t i a n Tab. . Catholic EoRo Reformed Evangelical Free Rom. Catholic CLASS TABLE XVII RANK AND RELIGIOUS STYLE Class Rank. Style Formal Semi-formal Informal Totals Middle-to-upper 1 5 6 12 Lower 3 1 2 6 Totals 4 6 8 18 ^ 3 2 = - ° 5 In order to determine the degree and d i r e c t i o n of association, Table XVI may be presented as an ordered contingency table and gamma computed. The c o e f f i c i e n t of rank association i n Table XVII i . e . , - 0.5 indicates an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l class and r e l i g i o u s s t y l e . This f i n d i n g of course must be interpreted i n the 58 l i g h t of the previous f i n d i n g of a c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n -ship between upper, middle, lower s o c i a l class and r e l i g i o u s s t y l e . Although i t may be accurate up to a point to maintain, f o r example, that the more formal the s t y l e the lower the c l a s s , i t i s not e n t i r e l y accurate to state that the more informal the s t y l e the higher the class since the highest class rankings are associated more with semi-formal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e than informal. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the s o c i a l class p r o f i l e s of Lethbridge r e l i g i o u s bodies presented i n Table X I V 1 2 6 with the p r o f i l e s of American r e l i g i o u s groups presented i n Table XVIII. TABLE XVIII SOCIAL CLASS PROFILES OF AMERICAN RELIGIOUS GROUPS Denomination Upper Class Middle Lower N Ch r i s t i a n S c i e n t i s t 24.8$ Episcopal 24, Congregational 23, Presbyterian 21, Jewish 21.8 Reformed 19.1 Methodist 12, Lutheran 10, C h r i s t i a n 10.0 Protestant (small bodies)10.0 Roman Catholic 8.7 Baptist 8.0 Mormon 5.1 ,1 • 9 ,9 ,7 ,9 36.5: 33.7 42.6 40.0 32.0 31.3 35.6 36.1 35.4 27.3 24.7 24.0 28.6 38.75 42.2 33.5 38.1 46.2 49.6 51.7 53.0 54.6 62.7 66.6 68.0 66.3 (137) 590." 376 961] 537) (131) (2100) (723) (370; (888 (2390; (1381) (175) Sources Demerath, op. c i t . . p. 2, from Herbert Schneider, Rel i g i o n i n 20th Century America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952), Appendix, p. 228, 126 See above, p. 55. 59 Table X V I I I i s based on information derived from b a l l o t s held on f i l e i n the archives of the O f f i c e of 127 Public Opinion Research. Pour suitable b a l l o t s were found. One, dated June 1946, totaled 3,073 cases; a second, dated March 1946, totaled 3,225; a t h i r d , dated December 1945, totaled 3 , 0 3 7 ; and a fourth, dated November 1945, t o t a l e d 3,086. These are a l l post-war, and the findings from b a l l o t to b a l l o t were consistent. Combined, the four b a l l o t s f u r n i s h information based on 12,421 cases. 128 I t w i l l be noted that at the upper class l e v e l , United, Presbyterian, and Anglican churches i n Table X I V rank s i m i l a r l y to t h e i r United States counterparts i . e . , Congregational, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, while at the lower class l e v e l Lutheran, Catholics, and smaller Protestant bodies rank s i m i l a r l y i n the two p r o f i l e s . Sharp differences however, occur i n the ranking of Latter Day Saints (Mormon), Baptists, and a v a r i e t y of other smaller Protestant bodies. These differences may be due, p a r t i a l l y , to l o c a l conditions as Demerath points out: Temporal v a r i a t i o n i n status composition i s a theme as old as the sociology of r e l i g i o n i t s e l f . Religious groups frequently begin as lower-class s p l i n t e r movements, but undergo upward mobility i n the quest f o r s t a b i l i t y and community influence. As one example of geographical v a r i a t i o n , note the contrast between the lower-class Methodism of Warner's Catholic-dominated Yankee C i t y (Newbury-port, Massachusetts) and the middle-class Methodism i n the South. 129 127 'Schneider, op. c i t . , p. 226. 1 2 8 L o c . c i t . 129 "^Demerath, op. cit.„ p. 3, note 5. 60 I t must also be noted that there i s more than a twenty year time span between the information gathered by the b a l l o t s on f i l e at the Of f i c e of Public Opinion Research and the investi g a t i o n undertaken f o r t h i s study. Changes i n the status configuration of r e l i g i o u s bodies during t h i s time span would be expected. Yfiaatever the differences demonstrated by Tables XIV and"XVIII the fa c t of association between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l c lass i s apparent. Some bodies, c l a s s i f i e d as formal-s t y l e i n t h i s study, have a higher percentage of lower class than upper and middle class members e.g., Lutherans and Catholics; some bodies, c l a s s i f i e d as semi-formal, have a higher percentage of upper and middle class than lower class members e.g.. United and Presbyterian i n Canada, Congregational and Presbyterian i n the United States; some bodies, c l a s s i f i e d as informal-style, have a higher percentage of lower class than upper and middle class members e.g., the Evangelical Free Church i n Canada, Protestant (small bodies) i n the United States. Summary Research findings r e l a t i n g r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l class were tabulated and various computations demonstrated a c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r e s u l t s do not p r e c i s e l y match predictions based on t r a d i t i o n a l church-sect typology but t h i s i s to be expected since the typology i s an "i d e a l type construct" and actual 61 patterns w i l l r a r e l y coincide with the model. The study shows a c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l c l a s s ; formal-style churches tend to be lower class i n structure; semi-formal churches are predominantly upper and middle c l a s s ; informal-s t y l e churches are predominantly lower and middle. Some s i m i l a r i t i e s , and some differences were noted between the s o c i a l class p r o f i l e s of r e l i g i o u s bodies i n Lethbridge and the p r o f i l e s of church groups i n the United States. 62 CHAPTER VT IMPLICATIONS POR THE CHURCH-SECT TYPOLOGY Before considering the implications of the f i n d -ings of t h i s study f o r the church-sect typology, the rel a t i o n s h i p between the s t y l e categories used here and the type categories of the typology must be examined. The s t y l e categories, formal, semi-formal, informal, are drawn from only one of the dimensions used to d i f f e r e n t i a t e church and sect, namely, type of r i t u a l behavior,, Troeltsch draws a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between the r e l i g i o u s s t y l e of the church-type,, with i t s stress on the sacraments, and the sect-type with i t s d i s t r u s t 130 of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l sacraments. • He goes on to say: the individualism of the sect urges i t tov/ards the d i r e c t intercourse of the i n d i v i d u a l with God; frequently, therefore, i t replaces the ec c l e s i a s -t i c a l doctrine of the sacraments by the Primitive C h r i s t i a n doctrine of the S p i r i t and by "enthusiasm." 131 The d i s t i n c t i o n between the enthusiastic, evangelical s t y l e of the sect-type and the restrained, d i g n i f i e d , formal s t y l e of the church-type i s made by Pope when he describes aspects of the movement from sect to church. 1-* 2 130 y Troeltsch, op, c i t , , p, 342. " ^ L o c . c i t . "^See above, p, 19 o 63 Demerath, 1 3 3 W i l s o n , 1 3 4 Brewer 1 3- also different-i a t e r e l i g i o u s types i n terms of r i t u a l behavior. I f therefore the r i t u a l dimension i s s i g n i f i c a n t , and indeed, necessary f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g church-type and sect-type, i t seems not inappropriate to i d e n t i f y formal-style r e l i g i o u s bodies as church-type, informal-s t y l e as sect-type, while semi-formal bodies may be i d e n t i f i e d with denominations. Martin claims that the "denomination" i s "an independent s o c i o l o g i c a l type." 1 3** T r a d i t i o n a l l y the church-sect typology has associated church-type with the upper classes and sect-type with the lower classes: denominations are assoc-ia t e d with the middle classes. As Demerath points out: "church" and "sect" were related to s o c i a l class differences from the s t a r t . Weber comments upon the low status of American sects compared with the "genteel" constituency of the churches. 137 13"5 •'•'Deraerath, op. c i t . , p. 37. 134. ^ B r y a n R. Wilson, "An Analysis of Sect Devel-opment," American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 24, 1(February, 1959), p 0"T7~ ~~ -^Brewer, op. c i t . . pp. 402-403. 1 3 6 D . A. Martin, "The Denomination," B r i t i s h  Journal of Sociology 13 (March, 1962), 1-14. 137 ^'Demerath, op. c i t . y p. 39. 64 He goes on to state that: more recent research has supported t h i s r e l a t i o n -ship with classo S.D.Clark, Liston Pope, and Thomas 0 * Dea are hut a few who have found churches to have a higher status composition than sects. 138 Reference has already been made to the work of other scholars such as Dynes and Rubin, whose research supports 139 the association of church-type and upper c l a s s . S i m i l a r l y , the association of sect-type and lower class i s well documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e , 1 4 0 and there has been some emphasis on the association of such denomina-tions as Methodism and Congregationalism with the middle c l a s s . 1 4 1 I f formal-style churches are i d e n t i f i e d as church-type, informal as sect-type, and semi-formal as denominations, then the findings of t h i s study are not i n complete accord with the contentions of the t r a d i t i o n a l 142 typology. There are various possible reasons f o r the apparent discrepancies bixt f i r s t i t must be noted that Troeltsch did not c a t e g o r i c a l l y state that the church-^^Demerath, op. c i t . . pp. 39-40 "^See above, pp. 19-20 1 4 ° S e e above, p. 22, note 65. 1 4 1 U i e b u h r , op. c i t . . pp. 88-89; Brewer, op. c i t . . p. 402; Martin, op. cit.„ p. 3 and p. 12. 1 4 2 S e e above, pp. 53-54. 65 type was upper class i n structure. What he did say was: The f u l l y developed Church, , • u t i l i z e s the State and the ruling classes, and weaves these elements into her own l i f e ; she then becomes an integral part of the existing social order; from this standpoint, then, the Church both stabilizes and determines the social order; i n doing so, however, she becomes dependent upon the upper classes, and upon their development, 143 This dependence upon elites does not rule out a predom-inantly lower class structure for the church-type, indeed, such a structure i s almost inevitable given the institutional character of the Church and i t s claim to "the objective possession of grace and i t s universally recognized dominion.' , 1 4 4 Troeltsch continues: The one v i t a l l y important thing i s that every individual should come within the range of the influence of these saving energies of grace; hence the Church i s forced to dominate Society, compell-ing a l l the members of Society to come under i t s sphere and influence . . . 145 Since the majority of the members of developed societies are l i k e l y to belong to the lower, or at 1 Aft least middle-to-lower classes i f the Church i s at a l l successful i n reaching out to, and drawing i n , a l l members of Society, inevitably i t s structure w i l l be predominantly lower class. In actuality of course, a l l members of society are not compelled into the Church. 1 4 3 T r o e l t s c h > pp, c i t . , p. 331, 1 4 4 I b i d . , p. 338. 1 4^Loc. c i t . 146 ^Warner and Lunt, op. c i t . , p. 203 show that the lower classes in Yankee City comprise 57.82?$ of the total population. They comprise 54.0>$ of the sample Lethbridge population. 66 Moreover, there i s a tendency f o r the lower classes to be l e s s r e l i g i o u s l y involved i n terms of church member-ship, attendance, and formal a c t i v i t i e s , than the 14.7 middle and upper classes. ^' This tendency no doubt adversely a f f e c t s church membership i n general. Never-theless the h i s t o r i c and t r a d i t i o n a l influence of the church-type appears to be strong enough to a t t r a c t a r e l a t i v e l y high proportion of lower class members; even the more middle-to-upper class Anglican and Episcopalian churches have a r e l a t i v e l y high percentage of such members. 1 4 8 The findings of t h i s study are not b a s i c a l l y inconsistent with Troeltsch's concept of the class structure of the church-type. There i s discrepancy however, between these findings and the contentions of scholars who associate church-type and upper c l a s s , but t h i s apparent discrepancy may be due t o d e f i n i t i o n a l 149 differences. • -If by "church-type" such scholars mean "developed denominations" then i n the terms of t h i s study such bodies would be "semi-formal," and the class structure would be upper, or at lea s t middle-to-upperj the discrepancy would then disappear. One other area of possible discrepancy concerns 147 ^'Demerath, op. c i t . , pp. 3-26. 1 4 8 S e e Tables XIV and XVIII, pp. 55 and 58. 14 9 • • See above, pp. 25-26. 6 7 the class structure of the sects; t h i s has generally been designated lower c l a s s . The findings of t h i s study however, show that the class structure of informal i . e . , sect-type churches i s predominantly middle-to-lower rather than simply lower. The discrepancy i s hardly serious e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the fact that few sects survive as sects, as Niebuhr has pointed out: By i t s very nature the sectarian type of organization i s v a l i d only f o r one generation. The children born to the voluntary members of the f i r s t generation begin to make the sect a church long before they have arrived at the years of d i s c r e t i o n . 150 Glock and Stark suggest that sects tend to s o c i a l i z e t h e i r members to higher economic status. In the process t h e i r organizational form i s transformed to match the changing status of t h e i r membership. 1- 5 1 This concept of change from sect to denomination, associated with change i n class structure, may account f o r the generally middle-to-lower class pattern of informal s t y l e churches i n Lethbridge. I t i s recognized that changes i n religious' b e l i e f and practice occur notor-i o u s l y slowly since r e l i g i o n i s primarily a conserver of values: " a l l but the most ardent defenders of r e l i g i o n agree that i t i s more l i k e l y to be a conserver of old Niebuhr, op. c i t . . p. 19. 151 ^ C h a r l e s Y. G-lock and Rodney Stark, R e l i g i o n  and Society i n Tension (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965), p. 255. 68 values than a creator of new." J In a society where s o c i a l mobility i s high i t i s probable that changes i n socio-economic standing w i l l occur more r a p i d l y than changes i n r e l i g i o u s s t y l e . Consequently informal-style churches are l i k e l y to t r y to maintain t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s t y l e even though t h e i r class structure i s changing. The findings of t h i s study do not necessarily challenge the lower class i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of sect made by the church-sect typology since they are more related to the concept of "developing sect" rather than "pure sect." Reference has already been made to l i t e r a t u r e which stresses the upper, or middle-to-upper class structure of denominations, c l a s s i f i e d by some scholars as church-type and by t h i s study as semi-formal s t y l e bodies. Evidence from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n generally supports the findings of other research i n t h i s f i e l d . F i n a l l y , a comment seems appropriate concerning apparent discrepancies within the findings of t h i s study, namely: (a) the upper class structure of one formal-style church - St. Augustine's Anglican. (b) the lower class structure of one semi-formal s t y l e church - the C h r i s t i a n Reformed. (c) the upper class structure of one informal-s t y l e church - Ward 3, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Yinger, op. c i t e . p. 301. 69 Lethbridge churches characterized by a formal r e l i g i o u s s t y l e have a predominantly lower s o c i a l class structure, but one such church, St. Augustine's Anglican, ranked by socio-economic index, has an upper class 15*5 structure. H i s t o r i c a l reasons may p a r t i a l l y account f o r t h i s discrepancy. The s o c i a l prestige of the "established" Church of England was ca r r i e d to Canada by representatives of the Crown. High o f f i c i a l s within the Church have s o c i a l prominence and are often linked i n various ways v/ith other e l i t e groups i n Canadian society. As Porter points outs Within the i d e o l o g i c a l system the church leaders do have power, and within the o v e r - a l l structure of power they, as an e l i t e group, come into c o n f l i c t with and enter c o a l i t i o n s with other i n s t i t u t i o n a l e l i t e s . 154 The Anglican Church has generally been the prestige church i n t h i s country where "white, Anglo-Saxon Prot-estants" have dominated the economic and p o l i t i c a l spheres. Porter maintains that the economic e l i t e i n Canada: tends to adopt Anglicanism as the r e l i g i o n appropriate to t h e i r class i n the same way that Episcopalianism has become the r e l i g i o n of the corporate e l i t e i n the United States. 155 1 5 5 S e e e Tables VII, VIII and XI, pp. 39, 40 and 51. 154. "^John Porter, The V e r t i c a l Mosaic (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965), p. 513. 1 5 5 I b i d . . p. 289. 70 There are however, a v a r i e t y of dogmatic and r i t u a l i s t i c emphases within the Anglican Church which have had ca t h o l i c appeal; they have s a t i s f i e d the r e l i g i o u s needs of people from many segments of society. Consequently the Church has included many lower class as w e l l as middle and upper class people. The s p e c i f i c c lass d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l vary according to l o c a l cond-i t i o n s , and also according to the h i s t o r i c , or t r a d i t i o n a l , or customary r e l i g i o u s s t y l e of a l o c a l community i . e . , whether "high church" or "low church." In Lethbridge, St. Augustine's has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a prestige church located i n what was, o r i g i n a l l y , a middle-to-upper class area of the c i t y on the south side. The prestigeous character of the church i s externalized i n the s o l i d , r e l a t i v e l y new structure which houses the congregation, and which occupies a prominent l o c a t i o n i n the c i t y . The C h r i s t i a n Reformed Church has been c l a s s i f i e d as semi-formal i n s t y l e , but according to the socio-156 economic index i t i s lower class i n structure. This church lias grown from twenty f i v e to over one hundred and eighty f a m i l i e s over a period of twenty years. Much of t h i s increase has come from a small but steady flow of immigrants from Holland. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that twice a -°-3ee above, Tables VII, VIII and XI, pp. 39, 40 and 51. 71 month a t h i r d service i s held i n the church and i s conducted e n t i r e l y i n Dutch, Ethnic o r i g i n together with r e l a t i v e l y recent immigrant status of many of the members have no doubt combined to depress the socio-economic status of the church, but i t seems reasonable to expect that t h i s status w i l l improve through time as younger members take advantage of educational opportunities i n the c i t y , and as older ones become more economically prosperous. One i n d i c a t i o n that the church may be moving towards higher status comes from the educational q u a l i f -i c a t i o n s of the pastor: his formal education i s much more advanced than that of the majority of the congreg-ation; he holds a Master's degree from Michigan State University as well as seminary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s from Holland. His educational standing i s an encouragement es p e c i a l l y to the younger members of the congregation to improve t h e i r educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The l a s t discrepancy to be noted r e l a t e s to the upper class structure of one informal-style church, Ward 3 of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This church deviates from the class structure of informal-s t y l e churches which are generally lower-to-middle. 1 5 7 The deviance of Ward 3 derives from a high concentration See Tables VII, VIII, and XI, pp. 39, 40 and 51, 72 of professional personnel found i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Ward. One of the factors responsible f o r t h i s concentration i s r e s i d e n t i a l ; the professional people generally l i v e within the same r e s i d e n t i a l area. Also there i s , no doubt, a tendency f o r people of the same r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and s o c i a l class p o s i t i o n to sel e c t themselves into the same congregation when choice of church i s open to them. What i s most i n t e r e s t i n g with respect to the three Mormon churches i s that, although one may be c l a s s i f i e d as upper c l a s s , one as middle, and one as lower c l a s s , nevertheless each one has approximately the same r e l i g i o u s s t y l e . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r instance there appears to be no system-a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t y l e and c l a s s . Conclusion This study has shown that there i s , generally, a c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and s o c i a l class i n Lethbridge. The class structure of formal-style churches i s predominantly lower, or lower-to-middle; semi-formal-style churches have an upper, or middle-to-upper class structure; informal-style churches a middle, or middle-to-lower class structure. The predom-inant class pattern of l o c a l churches appears to be middle-to-upper. These findings do not prec i s e l y match expectations based on the church-sect typology, and research stimulated 73 by t h i s typology. On examination however, the discrepancies are more apparent than r e a l , e s p e c i a l l y when a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between the concept "church-type*' as i t appears i n the work of Troeltsch, and the use made of the concept by some contemporary scholars who seem to equate i t with "developed denomination." I f formal-style churches may be i d e n t i f i e d as church-type i n the Troeltschiah sense, then the findings here generally confirm the implied class structure of such bodies i . e . , lower c l a s s . The study also confirms the generally higher class structure of developed denom-inations - c a l l e d "church-type" by some Writers, but i d e n t i f i e d here as semi-formal i n s t y l e . I f informal-style l o c a l churches are i d e n t i f i e d with sect-type then t h i s study does not c l e a r l y support the association of sect-type with lower class structure since the informal-style churches i n Lethbridge have either a lower or a lower-to-middle class structure. However, i t i s apparent that the informal-style churches i n t h i s c i t y cannot be c l a s s i f i e d as "pure sects" or " i d e a l - t y p i c a l sects" since they are i n process of changing from more s e c t - l i k e to more denomination-like, and both t h e i r class structure and t h e i r r e l i g i o u s s t y l e i s changing, the former more r a p i d l y than the l a t t e r . The church-sect typology has been subjected to 74 158 many cogent c r i t i c i s m s ; i t i s "overly dichotomous," ' i t " I C Q 160 i s "culture-bound," ^^"institution-bound," i t suffers from the short-comings of "ideal-typing; "M1 i t lacks cohesiveness. Some scholars underscore the d e f i n i t i o n a l weaknesses of the t r a d i t i o n a l scheme, claiming that the p o l a r i t i e s of the dimensions used are themselves too complex to be used as unitary measures. 1^ Undoubtedly the broad front of the church-sect typology i n v i t e s c r i t i c a l m i s s i l e s , nevertheless i t continues to stimulate empirical inquiry; t h i s present study i s one r e s u l t of such stimulation. Ah attempt was made to strengthen the d e f i n i t i o n of just one of the dimensions of the typology i . e . , the worship-ritual dimension and l o c a l churches were c l a s s i f i e d i n accordance 1 5 8 P e t e r Berger, "Sectarianism and Religious Sbciation," American Journal of Sociology. 64 (1958), 41-44. 1 5 9 P e t e r Berger, "The So c i o l o g i c a l Study of Sect-arianism," S o c i a l Research. 21 (Winter, 1954), 467-485. l 6 0 N . J . Demerath I I I , "In A Sow's Ear: A Reply to G-oode," Journal f o r the S c i e n t i f i c Study of Religion, 6, 1 (Spring, 1967), 82. •^•htenton Johnson, "A C r i t i c a l Appraisal of the Church-Sect Typology," American So c i o l o g i c a l Review, 22 (February, 1957), 88. 162 Demerath, opo c i t . , p. 82; A l l a n W. S i s t e r , "Toward a Radical Critique of Church-Sect Typologizing," Journal f o r the S c i e n t i f i c Study of R e l i g i o n . 6, 1 (Spring, 1967), 87-88. ^ • ^ E i s t e r , op. c i t . , p. 86, 75 with t h i s dimension, and relationships between r e l i g i o u s s t y l e and class structure were established. The continued s i g n i f i c a n c e of the church-sect typology, i n spi t e of i t s weaknesses, i s demonstrated by the "near f i t " of the findings of t h i s study and the relationships posited by the t r a d i t i o n a l typology. Appendix A 7g RESEARCH SCHEDULE - RELIGIOUS STYLE Attendance V i s i t s 1st 2nd _5__d Av number of adult and teenage males number of adult and teenage females __ __ _____ number of younger ch i l d r e n , _ i _____ Order of Service Ye3 Ho Is any formal order of service available f o r the congregation e.g., book or b u l l e t i n ? __ Is a printed book used, or available f o r use? • • Is there a typed or mimeographed b u l l e t i n ? _____ Prayers and Responses Are prayers a, read from a book? b 0 read from a b u l l e t i n ? •___ Co read from a MS? do delivered spontaneously? Are responses a« read from a book? bo read from a b u l l e t i n ? , Co unstructured eog», "praise the Lord!" "Hallelujah"? do no customary response except "Amenl"? Music Is the service preceded by a musical prelude? I f so, i s t h i s a 0 organ? b 0 other instrument(s)? Co vocal? Research Schedule Yes Music What type of music, hymns e t c occur i n the service a. c l a s s i c a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , "churchy"? b 9 evangelical, rhythmic? c 0 modern, f o l k , guitar etc? Holy Communion How frequently i s Mass, Holy Communion, or The Lord's Supper celebrated? a« once a week, or more? bo once a month? c, once a quarter, or less? _ A c t i v i t i e s What structured a c t i v i t i e s occur during the Does the congregation stand a« f o r a l l prayers? b o f o r some prayers? • . Does the congregation kneel a. f o r a l l prayers? _ b 0 f o r some prayers? Does the congregation stand a a f o r a l l hymns? b 0 f o r some hymns? Does the choir make a formal entry? Does the r e l i g i o u s leader wear a« vestments? b 0 a gown? Co no ceremonials? Research Schedule Yes A c t i v i t i e s Does the choir wear a, gowns? __ "bo no ceremonials? \ What i s the procedure f o r the c o l l e c t i o n -a 0 are plates, hags, etc* circulated? be does the congregation move to an appointed place to deposit offerings? ;  c. i s there any music during c o l l e c t i o n ? i f so i s i t i . organ only? i i . other instrument only? _____ i i i , organ and other instrument (s)? __ i v , vocal? d. does the leader formally receive the col l e c t i o n ? e. are the c o l l e c t i o n plates placed i« at front of sanctuary? i i o at rear of sanctuary? __ At the conclusion of the service i s there a formal pattern of leaving? __ a. does the leader make a formal exit? b 0 does the choir make a formal exit? • Co does the congregation formally stand while leader and/or choir make t h e i r exit? _ What unstructured a c t i v i t i e s occur,,..... a. i s there noticeable t a l k i n g by members io before the service? • _____ i i o during the service? 79 Research Schedule Yes No A c t i v i t i e s b. i s there any noticeable unstructured movement i . before the service? i i . during the service? Are there any unstructured responses during the service e.g.. exclamations of any kind such as h a l l e l u j a h , praise the,Lord, amen not simply at the conclusion of a prayer? Is there any other form of unstructured a c t i v i t y e.g., do some people dance, sing spontaneously, "speak with tongues" etc.? Building(s) Describe and assess the type of building(s) used by the congregation - simple, elaborate, p l a i n , ornate, new, old, large, small, expensive, u t i l i t a r i a n , etc. etc.. Atmosphere How would you assess the "atmosphere" during the service? IS i t one of reverence, hush, quiet, relaxed, casual, l i f e l e s s , l i v e l y , etc. etc.? (use other side of sheet i f necessary) Appendix B OCCUPATIONAL SAMPLE - CITT OP LETHBRIDGE Occupation SEI Occupation SSI Retired E l e c t r i c i a n 4 0 . 6 8 E l e c t r i c i a n 40 .68 Retired — Credit manager 60.81 Parts receiver, auto 29.18 Chambermaid 28.11 Manager, dental lab 60.07 President, meat mkt 4 3 . 6 9 Manager, e l e c t r i c co 43 .69 Retired — Bridgeman, CPR 28.03 F i r e f i g h t e r 35.80 Cashier, F 49.55 Film editor, T. V. 6 4 . 2 3 Manager, c r e d i t co 60.81 Widow „ Laborer, c i t y Employee, Pkers 26.71 Apprentice, elect 39.00 28.12 Student 50.00 Desk clerk, hotel 42.98 Laborer 28.96 Mechanic 34.77 Widow - Caretaker 28.12 Clerk 42 .98 Cosmetician F 30.94 Retired P - Foreman, wheat pool Mngr clothing store 38.12 Trainman, CFR 26.57 43 .69 Insurance adjuster 55.19 Receptionist F 42.98 Warehouseman 29.18 Employee, hosp 28.11 Assistant Rec.Dir 45.00 Farmer ; 51670 Widow — • Engineer bus. mach 43.05 Telephone optr F 44.20 Laundress 28.93 Teacher elem F 52.07 President food co 51.70 Clerk t y p i s t F 39.66 Clerk store 37.14 Widow _ Adjuster 55.19 Nurse hosp F 52.07 Offi c e manager 60.42 Binder newspaper F 34.97 Guard hotel 35.80 Widow - Stenographer F 51.96 Key punch optr F 39.66 Inspector lab Service mngr store 39.82 Widow - 43 .69 Apprentice plumber 33.00 Mngr t r a v e l service 45.48 Retired — Pastor 59.20 Cook F 29.43 Retired — Employee canning 28.12 Supervisor mfg co 45.43 Telephone optr F Nurse F 44.20 Shirt fshr c l n r s 28.93 52.07 Teacher high s c h l 70.14 Clerk store P 37.14 Foreman constr 37.90 Clerk store F 37.14 Driver 29.31 Widow - • P r i n c i p a l elem s c h l 70.14 Teacher elem F 52.07 Supvr b o t t l i n g co 30.00 Foreman pkers 38.21 Adjuster 55.19 Salesman r e t a i l 37.14 Manager club 40.14 Stenographer F 51.96 Techn Research stn 45.00 Clerk 42 .98 Teacher elem F 52.07 Retired - Widow _ Nurse F 52.07 Floor wkr store F 35.80 Caretaker 28.22 Packer hardware 29.80 Occupation Instructor Jnr Oo l l Clerk store F Widow Driver Widow Caretaker Salesman d r i v e r Foreman constr E l e c t r i c i a n Mngr auto co Retired Owner cafe Serviceman t r s t co Auctioneer Construction wkr Dentist Stenographer F Mngr drug store F Nurse F Farmer Employee hotel Widow Pharmacist Auditor Caretaker Widow Telephone optr F Corporal RCMP Supvr day care F Instructor hosp F E l e c t r i c i a n Serviceman gas stn Caretaker F Driver Student Sec-treas schl d i s t . Credit supvr Sales mngr whsl Widow Retired Skating i n s t r Plantman milk co Asso mngr bldg co Pres. dog food co Packer f r u i t co F Lawyer Retired Employee Atty G-nl Ironer laundry F Salesman r e a l est F SEI Occupation SEI 70.14 Stenographer F 51.96 37.14 Chief p o l i c e c i t y 60.93 Trainman CPR 26.57 29.31 P r i n c i p a l high schl 70.14 Dry Cleaner F 28.93 28.22 Mngr t e s t i n g lab 60.07 30.74 Nursing aide F 32.14 37.90 Accountant 68.80 40.68 Farmer 51.70 45.48 Retired — Veterinarian 74.46 43.69 Clerk store F 37.14 32.17 Cook F 29.43 40.48 Owner drug store 43.69 27.25 Chiropractor 70.25 76.44 Salesman food whsl 42.68 51.96 Student 50.00 43.69 Shipper 32.14 52.07 Switchman CPR 33.76 51.70 Welder 32.79 28.11 Chemist f i l t e r plant 70.94 — Physician 75.57 60.93 Mechanic 31.30 68.80 Owner c l i n i c F 60.07 28.22 Student 50.00 ctct Credit mngr auto 60.81 44.20 Magistrate Mngr r e t a i l store Widow 72.24 35.80 43.69 50.00 — 52.07 Stenographer F 51.46 40.65 Manager gas stn 43.69 32.17 Teacher elem F, 52.07 28.22 Meat wrapper 29.80 30.74 Owner restaurant 51.70 50.00 Salesman 42.68 64.52 Meter man 30.74 60.81 Widow 62.04 Retired — - Student nurse 49.91 Barber 30.94 50.00 Owner barber's shop 40.14 29.49 Student 50.00 45.00 Mngr grain mchts 53.80 51.70 Chief judge 72.24 29.80 Retired -75.41 Trainman CPR 26.57 Student 50.00 42.98 Laborer c i t y 26.71 28.93 Widow —. • 48.74 Pastor 59.20 Occupation Nurse F . . Dispatcher store Physician Manager hotel Widow Teacher elem Retired Retired Nursing aide P Presdt dress shop P Truck dr i v e r Sales clerk Orderly hosp Supt t r a n s i t system Guard gaol Retired Widow Widow Asst mangr hank Mngr f r e i g h t co Salesman news co Salesman auto Mechanic Laborer brewery Employee Ind a f f r s Retired Employee canpkers Accountant Svce mngr mach co Salesman farm eqpt Waitress Foreman coach co Manager hotel Mechanic auto Welder Secty o f f i c e F Packer m i l l i n g co Widow Mngr safety supps . Secty hosp F Matron snr c i t i z e n s Tchr elem F Predt bldg co Clerk store Machinist Salesman farm eqpt Owner farm eqpt co Public accountant Sheet metal wkr Shipper ; SEI Occupation SEI 52.07 Salesman auto 42.68 32.14 Plasterer 29.90 75.57 Welder 32.70 45.48 Farmer 51.70 Employee mnfg co 28.22 52.07 Representative AGT 53.85 —• Painter 30.00 - Warehouseman 29.18 32.14 Shoemaker 27.87 40.14 Manager bo dy shop 45.48 29.31 Cost accountant 68.80 37.14 Mngr housemoving co Welder 45.48 32.14 32.79 58.17 Waiter 30.47 35.80 Teacher elem F 52.07 — Carpenter 29.71 - Partsman auto 34.63 • — Student 50.00 60.42 Farmer 51.70 61.75 Mngr construction co 46.95 42.68 Employee h o s p i t a l 28.11 42.68 Serviceman AGT 45.05 31.30 Shipper 32.14 28.12 V/idow — 42.98 Carpenter 29.71 — Student 50.00 28.12 Instructor jnr c o l l 70.14 68.80 Mngr c o l l e c t i o n agency 45.48 45.48 Employee food store 32.17 42.68 Carpenter 29.71 30.47 Tinsmith 30.60 39.54 Teletype t y p i s t F 39.66 40.14 Clerk store F 37.14 31.30 Employee seed co 30.19 32.79 Depty chief f i r e dept 45.00 42.98 Secty o f f i c e F 42.98 29.80 Student 50.00 _ Mach optr brewery 31.00 43.69 Radio engineer 54.75 51.96 Nurse F 52.07 30.94 Retired « 52.07 Warehouseman 29.18 46.95 Physician 75.57 37.14 Teacher elem F 52.07 36.90 Clerk F 42.98 42.68 Mngr furniture store 43.69 53.80 Yard foreman CPR 39.21 68.80 Student 50.00 33.49 Of f i c e manager 60.42 32.14 Retired -Occupation Seamstress Watchman Owner r e a l estate co Presdt t r l r mng co Retired Techn research stn Presdt general news Stenographer F Corporal RCMP Employee poultry co Student Meat mngr store Employee poultry co Mechanic service stn Salesman store Driver Binder newspaper Widow Owner radiator shop Teacher elem Gen mngr b o i l e r co Housekeeper hosp Widow Student Supvr t r a i l e r co Hairdresser F .' '. Retired Teacher elem Secty finance co Carpenter Driver Sales clerk Student Conductor CPR Carpenter Instructor jnr c o l l Presdt r e n t a l co P Laborer public wks Salesman Owner e l e c t r i c store Nursing aide P Mangr auto co Salesman auto Foreman constr co Branch mngr bank Mngr service stn Sander auto co Driver 83 SEI Occupation SEI 28,77 Claims Clerk 42,98 35.80 T r a f f i c mngr AGT 53.85 64.52 H a i r d r e s s e r F 30.94 61.75 E l e c t r i c i a n 40.68 - Driver salesman 30.74 35.05 Clerk F 42.98 40.14 Technician parks 32.17 51.96 Manager book co 43*69 35.80 Foreman constr co 37.90 28.96 Manager AGT \ 53.85 50.00 Laborer i r r i g a t i o n 26.71 43.69 Salesman store 37.14 28.96 Trucker 29.31 31,30 Government employee 28.61 37.14 Student 50.00 30.74 Student 50.00 34.97 Nurse F 52.07 - Dist govt i r r i g a t i o n 53.85 40.14 Widow 52.07 Clerk stenog P 51.96 58.29 Teacher elem F 52.07 28.11 Laborer CPR 28.03 ; - Teacher elem F 52.07 50.00 Foreman poultry co 38.21 49.21 Repair man cycle co 34.77 30.94 Pathologist 73.22 ' - O f f i c e secty 42.98 52.07 Inspector agric dept 39.82 51.96 Assistant cook 29.43 29.71 Owner trucking co 53.85 30.74 Presdt tyre co 43.69 37.14 Owner appliance rep co 43«69 50.00 Manager cr e d i t union 60.42 45.68 P r i n c i p a l high schl 70.14 29.71 Mngr f r u i t whsl 53.80 70.14 Owner barbers shop 40.14 45.48 Manager club 40.14 26.71 Supvr skating 'rink 40.14 42.68 Conductor CPR 45.68 43o69 Clerk atito 42.98 32.14 Entomologist 73.22 43.69 T e l l e r bank P. 42.98 42.68 S o c i a l worker P 55.62 37.90 Bridgeman CPR 28.03 64.52 President constr cp 46.95 40.14 Machine optr bank 47.12 30.60 Laborer t r a i l e r co 27.72 30.74 University professor 76.01 84 Occupation SEI Occupation SEI Student 50.00 Farmer 51.70 Retired -» Tinsmith 30.60 Gardener 29.27 Administrator hosp 60.42 Driver 30.74 Sales clerk 37.14 Stenographer F 51.96 Bar Manager 40.14 Widow — Widow — Owner motel 30.94 Tardman lumber 27.57 Painter 30.00 Teacher elem 52.07 Suptd constr co 45.00 Laborer freezing co 28.96 Source: Occupations, Henderson's Lethbridge Alberta  C i t y Directory, 1969, (Winnipeg: Henderson Directories Ltd.,1969). SEI - Socio-economic index, Bernard R. Blishen, "A Socio-Economic Index f o r Occupations i n Canada," The Canadian  Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4, l(February, 1967), pp. ?4=5^ Appendix C OCCUPATIONAL SAMPLES - CHURCHES CHURCH OP JESUS CHRIST OE THE LATTER DAY SAINTS - WARD 3 Occupations Socio-economic index Teacher u n i v e r s i t y 70.14 Salesman fur n i t u r e 45.48 University professor 76.01 Parmer 51.70 Widow -Laborer Canada packers 30«48 Student 50.00 Manager tr u s t co 64*52 Mechanic farm 31.30 Dentist 76.44 Salesman r e a l estate 48.74 Laborer farm 27.77 Clerk 42.98 Universit3' - professor 76.01 Instructor junior college 70.14 Laborer brewery 28.12 Widow -Manager sash and door co 45.52 C i v i l engineer 75.16 Dentist 76.44 Professional hockey pla3'er 51.11 Teacher high school 70.14 Teacher high school 70.14 Salesman insurance 55.19 Widow -Instructor junior college 70.14 Teacher high school 70.14 Repairman appliances 34.77 Salesman car 52.68 Teacher high school 70.14 Retired -Retired Salesman s e c u r i t i e s 59.91 Funeral d i r e c t o r 49.47 Retired -Inspector of brands govt 39.82 Widow -Teacher high school . 70.14 Mean SEI 56.47 .*N ' • - 31 ~ Variance - 260.25 **NGI$ - 18.4 Total families on church l i s t - 164 * Number g a i n f u l l y employed ** Not g a i n f u l l y employed e.g., pensioners, widows; presented as a percentage of t o t a l sample. BETHEL BAPTIST Occupations Socio-economic index O f f i c e secretary 42.98 Pastor 59.20 Teacher elementary 52.07 Teacher junior high 70.14 Teacher high school 70.14 Driver salesman 30.74 Contractor cement 46.95 Teacher junior high 70.14 Salesman stock 40.48 Teacher elementary 52.07 Teacher high school 70.14 Salesman insurance 55.19 Student 50.00 Student 50.00 Teacher elementary 52.07 Parmer 51.7.0 Parmer 51.70 Retired -Architect 74.52 Retired -Salesman store 37.14 Salesman store 37.14 Mean SEI 53.22 N 20 Variance - 157.72 HGE$ - 9.9 Total members on church l i s t - 45 87 McKILLOP UNITED Occupations SEI Occupations SEI O f f i c e mngr milk co 60,42 Parmer 51.70 Salesman store 52.68 Grader prov govt 28.61 Uni v e r s i t y prof 76.01 Physician 75.57 Ass meat i n s p t r govt 39.82 Manager l i f e ass.co 60.42 Owner radio/TV store 43.69 Manager welding co 45.48 Agrologist 73.22 Instructor jnr c o l l 70.14 Research s c i e n t i s t 73.22 University prof 76.01 Retired - Retired Student 50.00 Dean u n i v e r s i t y 76.01 Salesman radio 55.37 Employee s t e e l wks 30.68 Research s c i e n t i s t 73.22 Retired Mngr heating co 43.69 Branch mngr insurance 60.42 Teacher high s c h l 70.14 Shipper farm co 32.14 Nurse 52.07 Agric supt seed co 45.48 Student 50.00 Land mngr water res 53.29 C i v i l servant post of 39.65 Purchasing agent j r c o l 55.22 Inspector p o l i c e 42.00 Technician electronic 33.57 Fireman CPR 40.92 Manager l i q u o r store 45.48 Owner service stn 45.48 Farm direc t o r radio 59.81 Asst mngr food store 43.69 Sales rep 52.68 P r i n c i p a l cent schl 70.14 Engineer newspaper 37.79 Carter food co 29.31 Owner food mkt 43.69 Nurse 52.07 Manager singer co 43.69 Vice pres adjusters 64.52 Dean u n i v e r s i t y 76.01 Salesman advertg 55.37 Carpenter 28.56 Commercial trav 52.68 Owner acctg service 68.80 Retired - Widow -Mean SEI - 53.20 N - 49 Variance - 215.00 NGE'/o - 9.2 Total members on church l i s t - 645 88 Occupations SOUTHMINSTER UNITED SEI Occupations SEI Retired Parts mngr auto co Clerk sales Lineman electric university prof Retired Mngr drug store Retired Pres insect control co Branch mngr insur Student Caretaker Retired Laborer brewery Retired Minister Nurse Laborer city Bldg inspector city Retired Switchman CPR Retired Instructor jnr c o l l Sec treas constr co Sales mngr store Dentist Nurse Mngr insr co 64.51 43»69 Tardmaster CPR 45.99 37.14 Dept mngr store 43.69 40.68 Research scientist 73.22 76.01 Retired Advertg rep newpr 55.37 43.69 Mngr sound equip 43.69 - Shop frmh irnwks 49.11 45.48 Designer flwr shop 45.48 60.42 Plumber 34.38 50.00 Secty hospital 60.07 28.22 Employee radio co 33.57 Firefighter 35.80 28.12 Lawyer 75.41 - Ass mngr trust co 60.42 59.20 Salesman farm spps 52.68 52.07 Physician 75.57 28.61 Retired 44.76 Owner acctg servs 68.80 Clerk stenographer 51.96 26.57 Owner acctg co 68.80 Physician 75.57 70.14 Accountant 68.80 60.93 Salesman dairy 30.74 62.04 Clerk sales 37.14 76.44 Warehouseman 29.18 52o07 Reporter 64.23 Mean SEI 51.79 N. Variance NG-E# 45 237.75 16.6 Total members on church l i s t - 965 ST. ANDREW'S PRESBYTERIAN Occupations SEI Caretaker 28.22 Farmer 51.70 Retired -Clerk 42.98 O f f i c e manager 60.42 Farmer 51.70 Embalmer undertaker 49.47 Stenographer 51.96 Accountant 68.80 Laborer research stn 28.96 Real estate agent 48.74 Manager lumber yard 45.54 Typist 39.66 T.V. Repairman 40.12 Physician 75.57/ Supervisor gas co 46.75 Conductor r a i l r o a d 45.68 Technician radio 40.12 Postman 30.52 Teacher high school 70.14 Accountant bank 68.80 Farmer 51.70 E l e c t r i c i a n 40.68 Sales clerk 37.14 President implement co 63.76 Physician 75.57 Credit manager 60.81 Nurse 52.07 Student 50.00 Sales manager 62.04 Telephone operator 44.20 Widow Retired Mean SEI 50.77 N - 30 Variance - 170.70 NGE^ - 9.1 Tota l members on church l i s t - 350 ST. AUGUSTINE •S ANGLICAN Occupations SEI Occupations SEI University professor 76.01 Sales clerk 37.14 Physician 75.57 Mngr real estate co 64.52 Salesman insurance 55.19 Lawyer 75.41 Biological scientist 73.22 Librarian 63.75 Foreman power co 46.75 Conductor r a i l r d 45.68 Electrician 33.80 Sales clerk 37.14 Fireman 35.80 Policeman 35.80 Mechanic - motor 31.30 Janitor 28.22 Physician 75.57 Research scientist 72.94 Parmer 51.70 Retired -Widow — Nurse 52.07 Owner transport co 53.85 Manager u t i l i t i e s 53.85 59.69 Surgeon 75.57 Mngr radio stn Sales clerk 37.14 Commercial trav 52.68 Farmer 51.70 Retired -Sectionman CPR 26.57 Painter 30.00 Sales clerk 37.14 Owner indust equip 58.29 Journalist 64.23 Teacher jnr high 52.07 Widow — Retired — Salesman advertg 55.37 Employee T.V. stn 51.51 Foreman u t i l i t i e s 46.75 Electrician 40.68 Sales clerk 37.14 Nurse 52.07 Shipping clerk 32.14 Kitchen help hosp 28.11 Mean SEI 50.34 N - 41 Variance » 235.33 NGE$ - 10.8 Total members on parish l i s t - 726 CHURCH OP THE NAZARENE Occupations Minister Salesman insurance Teacher piano Nurse Manager clothing store Teacher elementary-Student Student Retired Nurse Retired Salesman insurance Nurse Missionary Student laborer local govt Parmer Teacher university Sales clerk Employee electric co Manager food co Mechanic Widow Nurse Mean SEI N » 21 Variance - 91*66 mW* = 12.5 Total members on church SEI 59.20 55.19 52.07 52.07 43.69 52.09 50.00 50.00 52.07 55.19 52.07 59.20 50.00 26.71 51.70 70.14 37.14 37.14 43.69 34.77 52.07 49.34 l i s t - 97 92 SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST Occupations SEI Retired » Druggist 72.87 Teacher elementary 52.07 Employee t r a i l e r plant 27.49 Retired -Student nurse 49.91 Farmer 51.70 Dentist 76.44 Dental assistant 48.56 Farmer 51.70 Gas station attendant 30.48 Nurse 52.07 Blacksmith and v/elder 32.79 Mechanic farm machines 3 1 . 3 0 Retired ~ Farmer 51.70 Teacher junior high 52.07 Student 50.00 Mean SEI 48.74 15 196.83 16.7 on church l i s t - 43 N Variance -NGB/S Total members LAKEVIEW MENNONITE BRETHREN Occupations SEI Farmer 51,70 President construction co 46.95 Retired .-». Teacher junior high 52.07 Appraiser ci t y 54.74 Salesman wholesale co 52.68 Widow — Laborer Canada packers 29.89 Laborer home improvements 29.43 Service manager auto 45.48 Principal elementary schl 52.07 Teacher junior high 52.07 Widow Student nurse 49.91 Physician 75,57 Social worker 55.62 Welder 32.79 Mechanic auto 31.30 Teacher junior high 52.07 Chief clerk steel co 42.98 Welder 32.79 Accountant 68.80 Farmer 51.70 Retired ••',«-Farmer 51.70 Mechanic auto 31.30 Retired -Farmer 51.70 Mean SSI 47.62 N . - 23 Variance - 143.89 NGEJa - 17.8 . Total members on church l i s t - 73 THE CHRISTIAN AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE Occupations SEI Attendant dry cleaning co 28.93 Salesman implement co 52.68 Bookkeeper hospital 49.55 Truck d r i v e r 29.31 E l e c t r i c i a n 33.80 Fireman 35.80 Bookkeeper u n i v e r s i t y 49.55 Owner implement co 63.76 S c i e n t i s t research stn 73.22 Retired — Teacher elementary 52.07 Announcer radio 59.81 Farmer 51.70 Student 50.00 Consultant Can. manpower 40.14 Secretary inspection service 39.66 Student Bible s c h l 40.00 Retired — Teacher elementary 52.07 Mean S SI 47.18 IT 17 Variance - 146.80 mW° - 10.5 T o t a l members on church l i s t - 53 FIRST BAPTIST Occupations SEI Trucker 29.31 Manager telephone o f f i c e 53.85 Clerk drug store 37.14 So c i a l worker 55.62 Nurse 52.07 Clerk gas co 37.14 Widow -Retired „ Production manager milk co 53.80 Manager o p t i c a l co 45.48 Supt public works 46.75 Inspector CPR 58.17 Farmer 51.70 Serviceman stationers 32.17 Regional exec. Boy Scouts 60.93 Retired -Widow -Manager cycle co 43.69 Bookkeeper 49.55 P r i c e r chemical co 31.00 Inspector A l t a dept lab 45.48 Service stn attendant 3 0 . 4 8 Caretaker. 28.22 Widow -Widow -Physician 75.57 Retired ~ Counselor Can manpower 42.98 Retired -Owner construction co 46.95 lawyer 75.41 Driver 29.31 Retired • Caretaker 28.22 Widow - / Manager canning co 51.70 Employee auto 31.30 Farmer 51.70 Tard foreman CPR 39.21 Mean SEI 4 5 . 3 4 I 29 Variance - 169.35 HG-E/o : •' -" 25.6 Total members on church l i s t - 230 PENTECOSTAL TABERNACLE Occupations SEI Engineer railroad 45.99 Insurance underwriter 55.19 Teacher elementary 52.07 Owner clothing store 43.69 Barber 30.94 Carpenter 29.71 Mechanic foreman 34.77 Accountant 68.80 Foreman body shop 34.77 Farmer 51.70 Bank manager 64.52 Farmer 51.70 Caretaker 28.22 Retired «-• V Personnel manager 45.48 Retired Carpenter 29.71 Nurse 52.07 Truck driver 29.31 Secty insurance co 51.96 Nurse 52.07 Farmer 51.70 Widow — Mean SSI 45.22 N Variance -•NGE?S Total members 20 146.77 13.0 on church l i s t -ASSUMPTION ROMAN CATHOLIC Occupations SEI Cleaner h o s p i t a l 23.22 Ca r r i e r post o f f i c e 30.52 Widow -Owner painting and dectg 30.00 Sectionman CPR 26.57 Carpenter 29.71 Catt l e buyer 51.70 Retired -Parmer 51.70 D i e t i c i a n h o s p i t a l 60.07 Owner barber shop 30.94 Clerk 37.14 Construction supvr 46.75 Lawyer 75.41 Owner land surveyors 53.25 Sales representative 52.68 Technician AGT 45.05 Engineer CPR 45.99 Retired -Student 50.00 Technician dept agric 38.21 Clerk 37.14 Widow -Parmer 51.70 Nurse 52.07 Teacher junior high 52.07 Laborer foreman constr co 37.90 Nurse 52.07 Physician 75.57 Retired -Retired -Carpenter 29.71 Laborer 28.96 Sales clerk 37.14 Parmer 51.70 Student 50.00 ?/idow -Mean SEI 44.66 N - 30 Variance - 167 .38 NG-EfS - 16.6 Total members on parish l i s t -'181 98 CHURCH OP JESUS CHRIST OF THE LATTER DAY SAINTS WARD " 1 Occupations SEI Occupations SEI Watchman 35.80 Widow Owner transport co 53.85 Painter 30.00 Parmer 51.70 Retired • — Retired - Salesman milk 30.74 Chiropractor 70.25 Retired -Retired • — Teacher elementary 52.07 Retired — Instructor ACT 52.07 Student 50.00 Foreman m i l l 37.63 Caretaker 28.22 Retired — Laborer 28.96 Retired -Retired — Laborer 23.96 Student 50.00 Domestic help 28.11 Telephone operator 44.20 Police inspector 42.00 Clerk 42.98 E l e c t r i c i a n 40.68 Clerk 42.98 Retired -Retired — Widow -Sales clerk 37.14 Commissionaire 35.80 Teacher elementary 52.07 Stenographer 51.96 Retired — Teacher elementary 52.07 Stenographer 51.96 Retired -Retired — Retired -Retired — . Mechanic 34.77 Parmer 51.70 Mechanic 34.77 Pharmacist 72.87 Mean SEI - 43.88 N - 30 Variance - 135.60 NGE5& - 36.1 Total families on church l i s t - 260 ST. MARY THS VIRGIN, ANGLICAN, Occupat i ons SSI Retired -Foreman CPR 39.21 Mail carrier 30.52 Retired -Sanitation inspector 44.76 Store clerk 34.68 Employee govt elevator 29.18 Student 50.00 Waiter 30.47 .Employee seed plant 28.93 Clerk post office 39.65 Clerk planning commission 42.98 Librarian 63.75 Chartered accountant 68.80 Physician 75.57 Miner 33.38 Sales clerk 37.14 Mechanic auto 31.30 Salesman insurance 55.19 Telephone operator 44.20 Widow -Retired -Mean SEI 43.32 N - 18 Variance - 201.04 N G E f o - 18.2 Total members on parish l i s t - 150 EMANUEL LUTHERAN Occupations SEI Instructor junior c o l l 70.14 Employee f e r t i l i z e r co 28.22 Parmer 51.70 Operator AGT 44.20 Barber 30.94 Bookkeeper feed co 49.55 Widow Sectionman CPR 26.57 Widow -Laundryman hospital 28.93 Chiropractor 70.25 Manager concrete co 46.95 Laborer dairy 28.96 Res supvr conslt engineer 75.16 Owner radio/T.V. shop 43.69 General mngr store 43.69 Owner millworks 45.52 Nursing aide 32.14 Typist 39.66 Janitor 28.22 Sales clerk 37.14 Laborer construction 27.25 Retired -Widow -Mean SEI 42.44 N - 20 Variance - 226.80 NGE?S - 13.0 Total members on church l i s t - 110 CHRISTIAN TABERNACLE Occupations SEI Retired -Retired Farmer 51,70 Physician 75.57 Employee feed m i l l 28.75 Retired -Welder 32.79 Sales clerk 37.14 Farmer 51.70 Teacher elementary 52.07 Engineer CPR 45.99 Meat cutter 30.48 Moulder foundry 31.3? Retired -Laborer steel co 30.68 Chartered accountant 68.80 Truck driver 29.31 Retired -Carpenter 29.71 Gardener 29.27 Mean SEI 41.68 15 . 248.16 25.00 on church l i s t - 27 N Variance -NGE% Total members 102 ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL - EASTERN RITE Occupations SEI Occupations SEI Retired Laborer 28.96 Parmer 51.70 Clerk store 37.14 Retired - CPR worker 28.03 Clerk store 37.14 Employee sash & door 27.57 Foreman canners 38.21 Barber 30.94 Postal worker 30.52 Retired -Laborer 28.96 Owner apartments 40.14 Driver salesman 30.74 Retired -Mechanic auto 31.30 Farmer 51.70 Farmer 51.70 Farmer 51.70 Nurse 52.07 Farmer 51.70 Laborer 28.96 Bartender 33.29 Store owner 43.69 Farmer 51.70 Retired - Farmer 51.70 Retired — Retired — Retired - Bookkeeper 49.55 Clerk store 37.14 Retired -Farmer 51.70 Laborer 28.96 Musician 50.93 Bookkeeper 49.55 Store owner 43.69 Farmer 51.70 Retired — Retired . — Laborer 28.96 Store owner 43.69 Teacher high school 70.14 CPR worker 23.03 Retired • — Mean SEI - 41.25 N 35 Variance - 118.56 NGE?S - 25.5 Total members on parish l i s t - 155 1 0 3 CHRIST TRINITY LUTHERAN Occupations SEI Occupations SEI Retired Sales clerk 37.14 Parmer 51.70 Laborer 28.96 Mechanic auto 31.30 Drywall man 29.93 Parmer 51.70 Painter 3 0 . 0 0 Retired Construction wker 27.25 Parmer 51.70 J o u r n a l i s t 64.23 Retired — Retired -Parmer 51.70 Widow - • Widow — Laborer canvas co 30.19 Mechanic auto 31.30 Railroad wker 31.29 Retired — Retired -Railroad worker 31.29 Student 50 .00 Parmer 51.70 Laborer 28.96 Parmer 51.70 Farmer 51.70 Fireman 35.80 Farmer 51.70 Welder 32.79 Director hosp labs 60.07 Manager dry goods snp 51.70 L i b r a r i a n 63.75 Retired — Mechanic auto 31 .30 Technician X-ray 42.57 Construction wker 27.25 Retired — Farmer 51.70 Farmer 51.70 Laborer c i t y 26.71 Sectionman CPR 26.57 Dry cleaner man 28.93 Mean SEI - 41.10 N - 34 Variance - 149.41 NGE# - 22.7 . ' Total members on church l i s t - 193 CHURCH OF CHRIST Occupations SEI Manager mach d i s t r 45.48 Driver salesman 30.74 Watchman store 35.80 Employee t r a i l e r plant 28.96 School tchr elem 52.07 Bookkeeper 49.55 Sales clerk 37.14 School tchr elem 52.07 Church worker 41.84 Employee drycleaners 28,93 Teacher music 50,93 Farmer 51,70 Mechanic 31.30 Laborer 28.96 Widow — Retired -Mean SEI 40.39 Variance ~ NGE# Total members 14 94.14 12.5 on church l i s t -CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF THE LATTER DAT SAINTS WARD 5 Occupations SEI Locomotive engineer 45.99 Widow -Practical nurse 32.14 Foreman metal wks 49.11 Retired Foreman telephone 46.75 Retired -Policeman 35.80 Driver brewery 2 9•31 Laborer brewery 28.12 Laborer constr 27.25 Mechanic auto 31.30 Retired -Foreman flour m i l l 38.21 Mechanic auto 31.30 Foreman lumber yard 37.63 Locomotive engineer 45.99 Widow -Retired -Mean SEI N - 29 Variance - 79.45 NG-EjS - 23.7 Total families oh church l i s t Occupations SEI Salesman candy 42.68 Waitress 30.47 Teacher elem 52.07 Teacher elem 52.07 Mechanic auto 31.30 Technician s o i l 45.48 Owner cafe 40.14 Widow — Nursing aide 32.14 Student 50.00 Retired — Student 50.00 Partsman auto 34.63 Stenographer 51.96 Retired Teacher elem 52.07 Welder 32.79 Student 50.00 Laborer brewery 28.12 39.82 133 CHRISTIAN REFORMED Occupations SEI Greenhouseman 29.27 Electrician 33.80 Mach optr sash & door 28,29 Ass mngr furniture co 45,52 Packer milling co 28.22 Plant mngr concrete co 46.95 Foreman packing plant 38.21 Sales rep food co 52.68 Drywall applicat or 29,43 Serviceman electric 33.80 Student 50.00 Retired -Driver bakery 30.74 Laborer constr co 27.25 Firefighter 35.80 Produce clerk 37.14 Owner acctg co 68.80 Farmer 51.70 Salesman store 37.14 Bank o f f i c i a l 42.98 Retired Mean SEI 39.35 N , - 19 Variance - 120.67 mitfo - 9.5 Total members on church l i s t - 193 SALVATION ARMY Occupations SEI Widow -Laborer city 26,71 Retired -Window cleaner 28.22 Employee grain elevator 28.22 Manager parts auto 45.48 Lineman telephone 45.05 Principal elem school 70.14 Janitor 28.22 Butcher 30.48 Repairman T.V. 40.12 Upholsterer 30.27 Manager meat dept 43.69 Plumber 34.38 Seamstress 28.77 Religious worker 41.84 Religious worker 41.84 N.C.O. Armed Forces 41.43 Student 50.00 Typist 39.66 Religious worker 41.84 Widow -Repairman T.V. 40.12 Laborer 28.96 Student 50.00 Clerk 42.98 Retired -Mean SEI 39.06 N - 23 Variance - 101.65 mW° - i i . 5 Total members on church; l i s t - 48 UKRAINIAN GREEK CATHOLIC Occupations SEI Parmer 51.70 Retired Farmer 51.70 Farmer 51.70 Retired -Farmer 51.70 Road Worker govt 26.71 Laborer 28.96 Farmer 51.70 ... Retired -Farmer 51.70 Laborer city 26.71 Retired -Farmer 51.70 Laborer city 26.71 Agricultural specialist 66.96 Laborer 28.96 Building contractor 46.95 Railroad worker CPR 28.03 Retired -Railroad worker CPR 28.03 Employee irrigation 28.96 Employee dairy 29.49 Driver 31.86 Telephone operator 44.20 Cattle feeder 28.96 Laborer sash & door 27.57 Carpenter 29.71 Mean SEI 38.72 N - 23 Variance - 157.03 NGE# - 17.8 Total members on parish l i s t — 53 EVANGELICAL FREE CHURCH Occupations SEI Retired -Carpenter 28.56 Driver 30.74 Salesman farm equip 37.14 Farmer 51.70 Sales clerk 37.14 Salesman farm equip 37.14 Laborer 28.96 Teacher elementary 52.07 Postal carrier 30.52 Employee railroad 28.63 Mechanic garage 31.30 Technician electronic 33.57 Nurse 52.07 Nurse 52.07 Technician electronic 33.57 Missionary 41.84 Salesman book store 37.14 Salesman farm mchy 37.14 Widow Retired -Mean SEI 37.85 N - 18 Variance - 73.59 NGE?S - 10.0 Total members on church l i s t - 47 110 ST. PATRICK'S ROMAN CATHOLIC Occupations Retired Laborer c i t y Mechanic auto Employee jewellers Widow Widow Retired Employee brewery Manager barbers shop. Teacher elementary Ca r r i e r post o f f i c e Employee brewery Retired Employee h o s p i t a l Owner whl alignment co Mechanic auto Employee Cafe Widow Salesman store Retired Widow Mechanic auto Salesman store Retired Parmer Employee h o s p i t a l G-en mngr brewery Retired Clerk SEI 26.71 31.30 36.55 28.12 40.14 52.07 30.52 28.12 28.11 45.48 31.30 3 0 . 4 7 37.14 31.30 37.14 51.70 28.11 51.70 37.14 Occupations SEI Employee dairy 29.49 Retired -Employee seed co 29.18 Retired -Employee dairy 29.49 Foreman freezer p i t 38.21 Retired Storeman 34.63 Retired -Teacher elementary 52.07 Employee c i t y 26.71 Salesman tyre co 37.14 Employee seed co 34.63 Rancher 51.70 Bricklayer 29.93 Retired Salesman store 37.14 Nurse 52.07 Employee brewery 28.12 Retired Retired -Laborer CPR 26.57 Vice-pres dairy 51.70 Retired -Mechanic auto 31.30 Retired Engineer CPR 45.99 Trucker 29.31 Mean SEI - 36.30 N 38 Variance - 78.54 NGEjS - 3 3 . 3 T o t a l members on parish l i s t - 912 I l l ST. BASIL'S ROMAN CATHOLIC Occupations SEI Occupations SEI Widow Retired Retired — Caretaker 28.22 Widow — Retired — • Service mngr farm eqt 4 5 . 4 8 Foreman transfer co 39.21 C a r r i e r post o f f i c e 30.52 Stenographer 51.96 Retired — Stonemaker 2 9 . 9 3 Retired — Laborer constr co 27.25 Salesman f r u i t 52.68 Driver 30.74 Laborer canning 28.12 Retired — . Waiter 3 0 . 4 7 Millwright canng co 3 9 . 8 3 Employee meat 29.89 Employee e l e c t r i c 33.80 Sectionman CPR 26.57 Employee seed co 3 4 . 6 3 Laborer c i t y 26.71 Retired — Laborer constr co 27.25 Retired — Instr man water res 39.95 Warehouseman 29.18 Barman 3 3 . 2 9 Painter 3 0 . 0 0 Carpenter 29.71 Retired -. Widow . - Farmer 51.70 Mechanic food co 31.00 Clerk post o f f i c e 37.14 Butcher 30.48 Retired — Laborer constr co 27.25 Mach optr equip co 3 0 . 0 3 Clerk 37.14 Bus d r i v e r 31.86 Clerk post o f f i c e 37.14 Laborer seed co 28.96 Sectionman CPR 26 .57 Bricklayer 2 9 . 9 3 Warehouse mngr 4 3 . 6 9 Widow — Employee brewery 28.12 P r i n c i p a l R.C. schl 52.07 Partner insur serv 64.52 Porter hosp 31.30 Mean SEI - 34.86 N 40 Variance - 81.70 NG-E% - 25.9 Total members on parish l i s t - 890 Appendix D Local Ministry-Only three of the Chr i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s bodies which appear i n t h i s present study have part-tine ordained leaders, namely, the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints, Wards 1, 3 and 5. One Chr i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s body which does not appear i n t h i s study has a part-time unordained leader, namely, the F i r s t Church of Chr i s t , S c i e n t i s t . TABLE XIX LOCAL CHURCHES BY SIZE OF MEMBERSHIP Size of Membership Church Very Large 700 plus St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Southminster United St. Augustine's Anglican St. B a s i l ' s Roman Catholic Large 400-699 Latter Day Saints Ward 1 McKillop United • Latter Day Saints Ward 3 F i r s t Baptist : Church of the Nazarene Ch r i s t i a n Reformed Latter Day Saints Ward 5 St. Andrew's Presbyterian Salvation Array Assumption Roman Catholic C h r i s t i a n Missionary A l l i a n c e Christ T r i n i t y Lutheran Immanuel Lutheran Evangelical Free Church St. Mary the V i r g i n Anglican Small St. Peter and St. Paul Eastern R 10-149 Ukrainian Catholic Seventh Day Adventist Church of Christ Mennonite Brethren Pentecostal Tabernacle C h r i s t i a n Tabernacle Bethel Baptist Medium 150-399 Appendix E 113 WEIGHTED MEAN SEI SCORE Category Number Mean Weighted Mean SEI Formal St. Augustine's 41 50.3 2062.3 St. Mary the Virgin 18 43.3 779.4 Assumption R.C. 30 44.6 1338.0 St. Basil's R.C. 40 34.8 1392.0 St. Patrick's R.C. 38 36.3 1379.4 Ukrainian Catholic 23 38.7 890.1 St.Peter & St.Paul E.R. 35 41.2 1442.0 Immanuel Lutheran 20 42.4 848.0 Christ Trinity Lutheran 34 41.1 1397.4 Totals 279 11,528.6 Weighted Mean Score 41.3 Semi-formal Bethel Baptist 20 53.2 1064.4 McEillop United 49 53.2 2606.8 Southminster United 45 51.7 2326.5 St. Andrew's Presbyterian 30 50.7 1521.0 Christian Reformed 19 3 9 . 3 746.7 F i r s t Baptist 29 4 5 . 3 1313.7 Mennonite Brethren 23 4 7 . 6 1094.8 Church of the Nazarene 21 4 9 . 3 1035.3 Totals 236 11,709.2 Weighted Mean Score 49.6 Informal, Pentecostal Tabernacle 20 45.2 904.0 Christian Tabernacle 15 41.6 624.0 Seventh Day Adventist 15 48.7 730.5 Salvation Army 23 39.0 897.0 Christian Missionary Alice, .17 47.1 800.7 Church of Christ 14 40.3 564.2 Evangelical Free Church 18 37.8 680.4 Latter Day Saints Ward 1 30 43.8 ; 1314.0 Latter Day Saints Ward 3 31 56.4 1748.4 Latter Day Saints Ward 5 29 39.8 1154.2 Totals 21Z 9,417.4 Weighted Mean Score 44.4 .114 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, W.W. 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