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Methodism on the Canadian Prairies, 1896 to 1914 : the dynamics of an institution in a new environment Emery, George Neil 1970

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METHODISM ON THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES, 1896 to 1914: THE DYNAMICS OF AN INSTITUTION IN A NEW ENVIRONMENT by GEORGE NEIL EMERY B.A., Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Ph.Dl In the Department of History We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1 9 7 0 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of ti-1 ZT<0 <L 1 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada rn^  > i*n ABSTRACT From 1896 t o 1914, the Canadian p r a i r i e s experienced a great immigration and expansion of s e t t l e m e n t . A study of p r a i r i e Methodism i n t h i s p e r i o d r e v e a l s the dynamics of an i n s t i t u t i o n i n the process of transference': t o a new environment. This t h e s i s examines the c h a r a c t e r of Canadian Methodism at t h i s time, the manner i n which i t penetrated the p r a i r i e s , the o r i g i n . o f i t s resources and the changes which i t experienced i n coping w i t h new c o n d i t i o n s . The membership and p o l i t y of the Methodist Church were more O n t a r i o - c e n t r e d than was the case w i t h any other major r e l i g i o u s denomination. O n t a r i o Methodists dominated the General Conference which determined p o l i c y f o r the e n t i r e Church, and o f f i c i a l s i n Toronto c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d church expansion. S t i m u l a t e d by t h e i r evan-g e l i c a l t r a d i t i o n s and by an aggressive n a t i o n a l i s m , Methodist l e a d e r s wished t o perpetuate on the p r a i r i e s the P r o t e s t a n t c u l t u r e of the e a s t e r n conferences. Con-v e r s e l y , they opposed the p e n e t r a t i o n of the west by r i v a l c u l t u r e s from French Canada and Europe. To a l a r g e e x t e n t , the p r a i r i e conferences of the Church became v e h i c l e s f o r the P r o t e s t a n t c u l t u r e of i i i e a s t e r n Canada. Most of the laymen were from O n t a r i o , and prominent O n t a r i o n a t i v e s worked c l o s e l y w i t h o f f i c i a l s i n Toronto to r a i s e m i s s i o n a r y f i n a n c e s and t o promote m i s s i o n a r y education. The p r a i r i e c l e r g y were l e s s d e c i s i v e l y the outreach of the e a s t e r n conferences s i n c e more than a t h i r d of those who can be i d e n t i f i e d were B r i t i s h - b o r n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a c l e a r m a j o r i t y were from e a s t e r n Canada, i n c l u d i n g a great m a j o r i t y of the experienced c l e r g y . The r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e of p r a i r i e Methodism was d e r i v e d from Anglo-Saxon P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n general as w e l l as from the e a s t e r n conferences. However, the O n t a r i o conferences i n par-t i c u l a r p r o v i d e d the most immediate i n f l u e n c e s : the General Conference pronouncements, Methodist j o u r n a l s from Toronto and a c o n t i n u i n g supply of c l e r g y and laymen. The essence of the p r a i r i e Methodist r e l i g i o u s i n -h e r i t a n c e was a weakening of commitment to t r a d i t i o n a l forms of evangelism and a growing w o r l d l i n e s s . The t r a d i t i o n of s a v i n g s o u l s f o r the l i f e t o come had been e c l i p s e d by the d e s i r e t o C h r i s t i a n i z e e a r t h l y l i f e — a t r e n d hastened by B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m and other i n t e l -l e c t u a l c u r r e n t s which were undermining the i n t e l l e c t u a l f oundations of the " o l d time r e l i g i o n . " M a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the new o r i e n t a t i o n were missions among the heathen i n China, attempts t o l e g i s l a t e C h r i s t i a n a s c e t i c i s m and i i i e f f o r t s t o grapple w i t h emerging s o c i a l i l l s i n the c i t i e s . With warm support from the O n t a r i o conferences, p r a i r i e Methodists a l s o fought f o r English-language p u b l i c schools i n order t o a s s i m i l a t e French Canadians and European immigrants. To P r o t e s t a n t i z e the Europeans, missions were e s t a b l i s h e d as w e l l . P r a i r i e Methodism only p a r t i a l l y r e c r e a t e d the s o c i a l environment of Methodism i n O n t a r i o . Despite i t s t h r e e - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n membership by 1914, Methodism on the p r a i r i e s was p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y weaker than i n O n t a r i o , as was P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n general* Moreover, Methodist missions made l i t t l e impact upon the European p o p u l a t i o n . Methodist growth was l i m i t e d p a r t l y by the p a t t e r n s of immigration which favoured r i v a l denomi-n a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. Methodist o b j e c t i v e s were a l s o hampered by inadequate r e s o u r c e s ; the e a s t e r n conferences gave too l i t t l e t o m i s s i o n s , and A s i a remained t h e i r c h i e f m i s s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t . F i n a l l y , the Church's appeal i n i s o l a t e d , r u r a l communi-t i e s was reduced by i t s l o s s of the " o l d time r e l i g i o n . " Conversely, Methodist success was l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o the Anglo-Saxon, urban middle c l a s s and t o w e l l - t o - d o farmers. Spurred by disappointment w i t h Methodist growth, the d i s g r u n t l e d p r a i r i e conferences won c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of missi o n s at the General i v Conference of 1 9 1 0 . Prom a'desire t o use P r o t e s t a n t resources more e f f i c i e n t l y , movements f o r co-o p e r a t i o n and church union w i t h the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church a l s o emerged. Thus, Canadian Methodism was g r e a t l y modi-f i e d by the encounter w i t h the p r a i r i e environment. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I I THE CHALLENGE OF THE PRAIRIES. . 10 CHAPTER I I I THE CHARACTER OF CANADIAN METHODISM 39 CHAPTER IV CONCERN FOR PERSONAL ETHICS AND THE GROWTH OF THE SOCIAL GOSPEL 86 CHAPTER V ORIGINS OF CLERGY AND LAYMEN IN THE PRAIRIE CONFERENCES . . . . 126 CHAPTER VI FINANCING WESTERN EXPANSION . . 165 CHAPTER V I I METHODISM, THE ETHNIC MOSAIC AND THE ROLE OF THE STATE ; HOPES FOR A SELECTIVE IMMIGRATION POLICY AND SUPPORT FOR NATIONAL SCHOOLS 197 CHAPTER V I I I MISSIONS AMONG THE "EUROPEAN FOREIGNERS": ALL PEOPLE'S MIS-SION IN WINNIPEG, 1889-1914 . . 227 CHAPTER IX THE AUSTRIAN MISSIONS IN ALBERTA, 1901-1914 261 CHAPTER X THE EMERGENCE OF WESTERN SECTIO-NALISM WITHIN THE METHODIST CHURCH 291 CHAPTER XI THE MOVEMENTS FOR CO-OPERATION AND CHURCH UNION WITH THE PRESBY-TERIANS 322 CHAPTER X I I CONCLUSION 3^2 FOOTNOTES 351 BIBLIOGRAPHY 4-29 v Chapter I INTRODUCTION The Canadian p r a i r i e s experienced a great immigration and expansion of settlement i n the period 1896 to 1914. With the i n f l u x of human and material resources from eastern Canada, B r i t a i n , the United States, continental Europe and elsewhere, the f r o n t i e r area acquired a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l values, t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Methodist Church on the p r a i r i e s c onstituted an important c u l t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l t h rust from eastern Canada and e s p e c i a l l y from Ontario. Accordingly, a study of p r a i r i e Methodism i n t h i s formative period reveals the dynamics of an i n s t i t u t i o n i n the process of transference to a new environment. This t h e s i s w i l l examine the character of Canadian Methodism, the manner i n which i t penetrated the new region, the o r i g i n of i t s resources, the problems which i t encountered and the changes which i t experienced i n the course of coping with new conditions. P r i o r to 1914, the Methodist Church was more Ontario-centred than was the case with any other major r e l i g i o u s denomination. Over 60$ of Canada's Methodist population l i v e d i n Ontario i n 1911, and Ontario men 1 2 dominated the h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d Church p o l i t y . The O n t a r i o conferences of the Church dominated the General Conference, a n a t i o n a l body which determined p o l i c y f o r the e n t i r e Church, and the e x e c u t i v e of the General Board of M i s s i o n s i n Toronto h e l d a t i g h t c o n t r o l over church expansion. P r e d i c t a b l y , Methodist l e a d e r s wished t o perpetuate on the p r a i r i e s the P r o t e s t a n t c u l t u r e of O n t a r i o and other e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s . 1 To t h i s end, they s t r o v e t o make t h e i r Church as s t r o n g and i n f l u e n t i a l i n the west as i t was i n O n t a r i o and t o achieve the necessary growth w i t h Canadian r e s o u r c e s . Conversely, they r e s i s t e d the e x t e n s i o n of French Canadian c u l t u r e beyond Quebec and r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y t o the r i v a l customs, languages and r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s of the European i m m i g r a t i o n . The e v a n g e l i c a l t r a d i t i o n s which u n d e r l a y t h i s posture were r e i n f o r c e d by a s t r o n g E n g l i s h Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . A weakening of commitment t o t r a d i t i o n a l forms of evangelism and a growing w o r l d l i n e s s was the essence of Methodist r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e at the time of the Church's western expansion. The t r a d i t i o n a l g o a l of s a v i n g s o u l s f o r the l i f e , t o come had been e c l i p s e d by the more immediate o b j e c t i v e of C h r i s t i a n i z i n g l i f e on e a r t h . To t h i s end, the Church p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a great i n v a s i o n of P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n s among the heathen m i l l i o n s of Japan and China. At the same time, 3 Methodists promoted an a s c e t i c m o r a l i t y i n t h e i r home-lan d by e x e r t i n g pressure f o r moral l e g i s l a t i o n and by g r a p p l i n g w i t h s o c i a l i l l s i n Canadian c i t i e s . The p r o g r e s s i v e l y w o r l d l y o r i e n t a t i o n of the Church was accompanied by a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of e v a n g e l i c a l agencies such as the c l a s s meeting, a d e c l i n i n g sense of s i n and of need f o r C h r i s t ' s atonement and a l o s s of s p i r i t u a l i n t r o s p e c t i o n among church members. The spread of B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m and German m a t e r i a l i s m hastened these tendencies by undermining the i n t e l l e c t u a l foundations of the t r a d i t i o n a l evangelism. To a l a r g e e x t e n t the p r a i r i e conferences of the Church became v e h i c l e s f o r an O n t a r i o - c e n t r e d P r o t e s -t a n t r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e . As f a r as can be determined, the O n t a r i o conferences s u p p l i e d most of the p r a i r i e laymen. I n every western c i t y , prominent O n t a r i o n a t i v e s co-operated c l o s e l y w i t h Methodist o f f i c i a l s i n Toronto i n r a i s i n g m i s s i o n a r y f i n a n c e s and promoting campaigns of m i s s i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n . Yet the p r a i r i e m i n i s t e r s were l e s s d e c i s i v e l y the outreach of the e a s t e r n conferences; d e s p i t e great e f f o r t s by the General Board of M i s s i o n s t o meet western needs w i t h Canadians, c o n t i n u i n g shortages of c l e r g y f o r c e d the Church t o r e c r u i t e x t e n s i v e l y i n B r i t a i n . Of the p r a i r i e c l e r g y who can be i d e n t i f i e d , the O n t a r i o men were a bare m a j o r i t y and B r i t i s h - b o r n men were more 4 than a t h i r d of the t o t a l . However, due t o the youth and i n e x p e r i e n c e of the B r i t i s h r e c r u i t s , most of the v e t e r a n c l e r g y and s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s i n the west were n a t i v e s of e a s t e r n Canada, The outreach of the e a s t e r n conferences was a l s o e v i d e n t i n the p r a i r i e t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e s which were s t a f f e d almost e n t i r e l y w i t h graduates of V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , Toronto and Wesleyan T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e , M o n t r e a l . The r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e of p r a i r i e Methodism was d e r i v e d from American, B r i t i s h and Canadian P r o t e s -t a n t i s m i n g e n e r a l as w e l l as from the e a s t e r n con-f e r e n c e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the O n t a r i o conferences i n p a r t i c u l a r s u p p l i e d the most immediate i n f l u e n c e s : the General Conference pronouncements, Methodist j o u r n a l s from Toronto and a c o n t i n u i n g supply of c l e r g y and laymen. Moreover, some of the t r a d i t i o n s which the p r a i r i e conferences i n h e r i t e d were p e c u l i a r t o Canadian Methodism. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Canadian Methodist t r a d i t i o n s d i d not reach the west u n a l t e r e d . Agencies such as the c l a s s and prayer meetings were too weak t o become a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of Methodism on the p r a i r i e s . The response t o the French Canadian and European c u l t u r e s i n the west became i n c r e a s i n g l y important i n the p e r i o d under study. With warm support from the O n t a r i o conferences and the General Conference, p r a i r i e 5 Methodists fought f o r an English-language p u b l i c s chool system which would a s s i m i l a t e the r i v a l groups. To P r o t e s t a n t i z e the Europeans as w e l l , m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d among them. I n Winnipeg, i n the A u s t r i a n c o l o n i e s of n o r t h e r n A l b e r t a and i n the Crow's Nest Pass, Methodist c l e r g y worked t o sever the immigrants from t h e i r o l d - w o r l d p a s t . The outreach of O n t a r i o Methodism was e s p e c i a l l y con-spicuous d u r i n g the northwest s c h o o l c r i s i s of 1905* The e d i t o r of the C h r i s t i a n Guardian and the Methodist General Superintendent.fought more v i g o r o u s l y a g a i n s t separate schools than d i d the p r a i r i e conferences which were d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d . However, O n t a r i o Methodists r e a c t e d p r i m a r i l y out of f e a r t h a t French Canadian c u l t u r e might spread t o the west. Western M e t h o d i s t s , on the other hand, were more alarmed by the European presence and by the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p o l y g l o t s o c i e t y . The number of B r i t i s h - b o r n c l e r g y i n the west, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Saskatchewan Conference, was a s i g n t h a t Church l e a d e r s were only p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n making the p r a i r i e conferences v e h i c l e s f o r an O n t a r i o or e a s t e r n Canadian P r o t e s t a n t c u l t u r e . As v e h i c l e s , the p r a i r i e conferences were even l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n r e c r e a t i n g the s o c i a l environment which Methodism enjoyed i n the e a s t e r n conferences. By 1914, Methodism was f a r weaker p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y on the p r a i r i e s than i n O n t a r i o , and so was P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n g e n e r a l . Moreover, the p r a i r i e conferences commanded l e s s l o y a l t y from t h e i r membership. F i n a l l y , the Church made l i t t l e i m p r e s s ion upon the European immigrants, who were n e a r l y a f i f t h of the p r a i r i e p o p u l a t i o n . The European missions won o n l y a h a n d f u l of c o n v e r t s , and Methodist o b j e c t i v e s i n education were not f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n any of the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s Methodist growth f e l l s h ort of the o b j e c t i v e s set by Church l e a d e r s p a r t l y due t o p a t t e r n s of im-m i g r a t i o n . Approximately h a l f the p r a i r i e p o p u l a t i o n o r i g i n a t e d from c o n t i n e n t a l Europe, B r i t a i n and the Un i t e d S t a t e s , lands i n which Methodism was p r o -p o r t i o n a t e l y weaker than i n O n t a r i o . Conversely, the Roman C a t h o l i c Church gained h e a v i l y from the European and American i m m i g r a t i o n , and the P r e s b y t e r i a n and A n g l i c a n churches gained more than Methodism from the B r i t i s h i m m i g r a t i o n . Secondly, the Europeans would not have responded t o P r o t e s t a n t p r o s e l y t i z i n g r e g a r d -l e s s of the s i z e of the Methodist m i s s i o n p l a n t among them. I n terms of c o n t r i b u t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o Methodist growth, the European missions were doomed to f a i l u r e . T h i r d l y , the resources of the p r a i r i e conferences were inadequate t o meet Methodist o b j e c t i v e Throughout the p e r i o d under study, A s i a remained the 7 primary m i s s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t of the Church, and money which was badly needed f o r p r a i r i e church expansion went r e g u l a r l y t o the f o r e i g n m i s s i o n f i e l d . A l s o d e t r i m e n t a l t o church expansion was the expenditure of n e a r l y a q u a r t e r of a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s on the European missions p r i o r t o 1914, an o u t l a y which y i e l d e d n e g l i g i b l e r e t u r n s . The most s e r i o u s weakness of a l l was the f a i l u r e of e a s t e r n Methodists t o see beyond t h e i r own l o c a l needs and t o c o n t r i b u t e t o missions what they were r e a l l y capable of g i v i n g . A f o u r t h l i m i t a t i o n on Methodist success i n the west was imposed by the d e c l i n e of the " o l d time r e l i g i o n . " T h i s change was an a s s e t i n urban, middle c l a s s congregations which had a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n . I n the face of B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m , the d i s c o v e r i e s of Darwin and a s o c i a l c l i m a t e which demanded r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n , they needed a theology and deportment which was i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e s p e c t a b l e . However, the l o s s of the emotional, s o u l - s a v i n g evangelism was a l i a b i l i t y among i s o l a t e d , r u r a l popu-l a t i o n s of the p r a i r i e s which were l e s s t r o u b l e d by new i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r r e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , the Church was unable t o meet the r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l needs of the urban working c l a s s . As i n the e a s t , the appeal of p r a i r i e Methodism was p r i m a r i l y t o the urban, middle c l a s s and t o w e l l - t o - d o farmers. 8 Despite the shortcomings of Methodist growth on the p r a i r i e s , the membership and the number of churches more than t r i p l e d i n the p e r i o d under study. I n 1904, the Manitoba and Northwest Conference became three conferences; w i t h i n a decade, each had become as s t r o n g as the o r i g i n a l conference had been i n 1896. With expansion of t h i s magnitude and w i t h even g r e a t e r growth expected, c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the Church could s c a r c e l y be avoided. The h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d admini-s t r a t i o n of m i s s i o n s came under f i r e a f t e r 1 9 0 5 -P r a i r i e Methodists i n s i s t e d t h a t they were more f a m i l i a r w i t h the needs of t h e i r conference than were o f f i c i a l s i n Toronto, and a few westeners were e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l of the General Board of M i s s i o n s executive f o r not p u r s u i n g the European work more a g g r e s s i v e l y . A c c o r d i n g l y , the p r a i r i e conferences demanded and obtained more autonomy i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of m i s s i o n s at the General Conferences of 1906 and 1 9 1 0 . Movements f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n and organic union w i t h the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church a l s o emerged. In the former, Methodist and P r e s b y t e r i a n o f f i c i a l s sought t o e l i -minate w a s t e f u l c o m p e t i t i o n through agreements t o s t a y out of s m a l l p r a i r i e communities i n which the other was e s t a b l i s h e d . Due t o the atmosphere of r i v a l r y between the two churches, the movement f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n was not v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . Hence the support f o r organic 9 union of the two P r o t e s t a n t churches. So s t r o n g was the union f e e l i n g i n the west t h a t " l o c a l unions" were formed i n s e v e r a l p r a i r i e communities when P r e s b y t e r i a n and Methodist o f f i c i a l s were slow t o achieve the marriage of the parent i n s t i t u t i o n s . The consequence of the union and co- o p e r a t i o n movements was a weakening of denominational l o y a l t y i n the p r a i r i e c o n f e r e n c e s — w h i c h was a l r e a d y weaker than i n the e a s t . Thus, Canadian Methodism was g r e a t l y m o d i f i e d by the encounter w i t h the p r a i r i e e n v i r o n -ment. Chapter I I THE CHALLENGE OF THE PRAIRIES 1896 was the b e g i n n i n g of a great p e r i o d of growth f o r the Canadian p r a i r i e s . A f t e r more than a decade of economic s t a g n a t i o n , farming i n the west became p r o f i t a b l e and a t t r a c t i v e due t o f o r t u i t o u s changes i n the world economy: a r i s e i n the p r i c e of wheat, a d e c l i n e i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s between the west and i t s European markets and the exhaustion of cheap l a n d of good q u a l i t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Thus began a great immigration which would l a s t u n t i l the outbreak of World War I . Census s t a t i s t i c s i n -d i c a t e d the extent t o which the west was transformed. I n 1891? the p r a i r i e s had supported a mere q u a r t e r of a m i l l i o n people, most of whom were i n southeastern Manitoba. Winnipeg, w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 26,000, was the o n l y centre of s i z e . By 1911, the p o p u l a t i o n had i n c r e a s e d more than f i v e - f o l d . 1.3 m i l l i o n persons were concentrated i n a v a s t t r i a n g l e which was bounded by Edmonton i n the n o r t h and by Winnipeg and Lethbridge i n the southeast and \southwest. Winnipeg had become a c i t y of 136,000, and Calgary (44,000), Edmonton (25,000) and Brandon (14,000) had grown from p o p u l a t i o n s of l e s s 10 11 than 4 , 0 0 0 . I n a d d i t i o n , there were e n t i r e l y new c i t i e s such as Regina ( 3 0 , 0 0 0 ) , Moose Jaw ( 1 3 , 0 0 0 ) and Saskatoon ( 1 2 , 0 0 0 ) . 1 The Methodist Church was deeply i n v o l v e d i n the settlement of the Canadian p r a i r i e s . At the very l e a s t , the Church f e l t an o b l i g a t i o n t o provide r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s f o r i t s own people who had gone 2 there t o l i v e . More importantly, i n concert w i t h other P r o t e s t a n t s , Methodists were the s e l f - a p p o i n t e d guardians of P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s i n s o c i e t y , and they assumed t h a t the p e r p e t u a t i o n of P r o t e s t a n -t i s m was v i t a l t o the n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s . An O n t a r i o Methodist Member of P a r l i a m e n t , T.S. S p r o u l e , expressed a w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f t h a t any n a t i o n goes up or down on the s c a l e of c i v i l i z a t i o n i n p r o p o r t i o n as t h a t n a t i o n maintains the p r i n c i p l e s of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n and endeavours t o have i t s c i t i z e n s l i v e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o the p r i n c i p l e s set f o r t h i n the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n as based upon the word of God.5 God was the God of n a t i o n s as w e l l as of i n d i v i d u a l s . T r a n s l a t e d i n t o the Canadian c o n t e x t , C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s would be menaced throughout the Dominion i f the west, w i t h i t s enormous m a t e r i a l p o t e n t i a l , were not won f o r C h r i s t . On the other hand, i f p r a i r i e s o c i e t y were given C h r i s t i a n f o u n d a t i o n s , Canada c o u l d become a mighty base f o r e x p o r t i n g the C h r i s t i a n evangel on a g l o b a l s c a l e . I n t h i s way, Canada c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e 1 2 f u l l y i n the Anglo-Saxon m i s s i o n t o b r i n g about the Kingdom of Heaven on e a r t h . As the General Board of M i s s i o n s r e p o r t e d i n 1 9 0 8 , Increase the m i s s i o n a r y f o r c e adequately i n the West, spend $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 a n n u a l l y i n Canada, and the Methodist Church w i l l soon have a f o r c e of 5 0 0 m i s s i o n a r i e s , and the annual income of $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 which are needed f o r the proper discharge of our duty i n the f o r e i g n f i e l d . The m i s s i o n of the Methodist Church i s t o  save Canada, t h a t through Canada we may do  our p a r t toward s a v i n g the world.4 I n t h i s r e s p e c t , Methodist l e a d e r s were conscious of the p r a i r i e s as be i n g a Canadian r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They were loa t h e t o seek the a i d of B r i t i s h or American Methodist resources which might otherwise go t o the A s i a n f i e l d , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the work of t h e i r own Church i n A s i a would be thereby o f f s e t i n v a l u e . Church l e a d e r s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t Canadian c l e r g y were more capable than others i n coping w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n and p h y s i c a l environment of the p r a i r i e s . ^ A degree of "ancestor worship" was i n t e r m i x e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s . Many western c l e r g y thought of themselves as r e p e a t i n g on the p r a i r i e s what the "saddle bag" preachers had done f o r Upper Canada some two generations b e f o r e . T h i s f e e l i n g was heightened by ad m i r a t i o n of the p i e t y and e v a n g e l i c a l power of t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s — s t r e n g t h s which were l e s s conspicuous i n the Methodist Church of the l a t e n i n e -t e e n t h century.k P r e s i d i n g at the opening of a new 13 church i n Manitoba i n 1898, Rev. Thomas Argue, who had emigrated from O n t a r i o i n 1881, i l l u s t r a t e d the reverence f o r the Canadian Methodist p a s t : Hearing such names i n the country as S t a p l e s , Grandy, D a r l i n g , Matchett, W i l s o n , Sutton, F a l l i s , Richardson, M a g i l l , e t c . , we are reminded of l i f e i n Cavan and Manvers . . . when the parents and grand-parents of these people a s s i s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g Methodism i n C a v a n v i l l e , Bethany, L i f f o r d , Newry, e t c . Nor can we f o r g e t p a s t o r s Watts, Rolson, P i r r e t t e , T i n d a l l , Johnson, O'Hara, and o t h e r s , who l e d the hosts of the Lord onward t o g l o r i o u s v i c t o r y . Among the best C h r i s t i a n workers i n t h i s p r o g r e s s i v e and h o p e f u l western country are the descendents of these e a r l y Methodists of O n t a r i o . None succeed b e t t e r than they, and we are always g l a d t o welcome them t o our churches, and t o a s s i s t them i n s e c u r i n g s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s . ' F i n a l l y , the westward expansion of Canadian Methodism was motivated by p r i d e i n the Church's s i z e and i n f l u e n c e . The Methodist Church was Canada's l a r g e s t P r o t e s t a n t denomination i n 1896, and i t c o u l d r e t a i n t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n o n l y by matching the growth of Canadian s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . However, the p r a i r i e s presented the Church w i t h a formidable c h a l l e n g e . The volume of immigration and the enormous s i z e of the area b e i n g s e t t l e d — b o t h of which were without precedent i n Canadian h i s t o r y — promised t o t a x the Church's r e s o u r c e s . The need f o r f i n a n c i a l a i d from the e a s t e r n conferences was e s p e c i a l l y obvious. Congregations i n f r o n t i e r areas were o f t e n unable t o pay t h e i r p a s t o r a l i v i n g wage, l e t alone b u i l d him a church and parsonage. A m i s s i o n a r y i n the A l b e r t a Conference e x p l a i n e d t h a t You cannot get blood out of a stone. The homesteaders have p r a c t i c a l l y no income f o r the f i r s t t hree years & f e a r f u l o u t l a y — houses and fences t o be b u i l t — s t o c k and machinery t o buy and p r o v i s i o n s expensive. F l o u r f o r i n s t a n c e Cis3 $4 . 0 0 and $4 . 2 5 per hundred pounds. Many of the people regard the preacher as a burden & w i l l not come t o D i v i n e worship because they have n o t h i n g t o put i n t o the c o l l e c t i o n . I wish I had the means of g i v i n g them the gospel without burdening them w i t h my support.9 Moreover, farms on the p r a i r i e s were l a r g e r than i n O n t a r i o , and the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n r u r a l areas of the west was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y lower. Thus p r a i r i e communities were l e s s able t o support r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s than communities i n O n t a r i o , and some were only prepared t o support the f i r s t denomination t o reach them.1*"* The f i n a n c i a l challenge on the p r a i r i e s was aggravated by p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y which o f t e n brought about a wastage of r e s o u r c e s . I n 1882, f o r example, s e t t l e r s f l o c k e d t o Sheho, N.W.T., upon news t h a t the r a i l w a y was t o be^extended i n t o t h i s area from Yorkton, and a Methodist m i s s i o n a r y and l o g church were d u l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e ; t o the Church's m i s f o r t u n e , the r a i l w a y d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e , and the s e t t l e r s l e f t one by o n e . 1 1 By 1905, p a r t s of Manitoba were fac e d w i t h 15 depopulation as w e l l as w i t h p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y . An exodus of church members reduced A u s t i n from the s t a t u s of a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g c i r c u i t t o a m i s s i o n , and the same f a t e overtook Bagot, Macgregor and Sidney; the Lenora m i s s i o n a l s o encountered s t r a i g h t e n e d circumstances when the e n t i r e membership at one of i t s appointments moved t o Saskatchewan, and the church at M o r r i s f a c e d t r o u b l e when the o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n 12 was d i s p l a c e d by Germans, and Mennonxtes. I r o n i c a l l y , " a c t s of God" c o u l d a l s o cause f i n a n c i a l s etbacks. I n 1907, a $ 2 , 5 0 0 church at G r e n f e l l , Saskatchewan was destroyed by f i r e , and o n l y h a l f i t s value was i n s u r e d . I n 1912, a cyclone completely g u t t e d M e t r o p o l i t a n Methodist Church i n Regina, an $80 , 0 0 0 b u i l d i n g , even though "not a h o t e l nor a t h e a t r e i n the c i t y s u f f e r e d any damage;" a l l o w i n g f o r insurance coverage, the congregation was saddled w i t h a debt of $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 , just. when i t had been about t o 1 l a u n c h a major expansion 14 program i n the c i t y i F i n a l l y , education made demands upon Methodist f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . Wesley C o l l e g e i n Winnipeg, founded i n 1886, was the f i r s t of f i v e c o l l e g e s i n the p r a i r i e conferences which were e s t a b l i s h e d t o t r a i n c l e r g y and l a y l e a d e r s . I n 1903, A l b e r t a C o l l e g e i n Edmonton became the second i n s t i t u t i o n t o o f f e r theo-l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g , and secondary s c h o o l education was 16 o f f e r e d at Regina C o l l e g e and Mount Royal C o l l e g e , Calgary, which were founded i n 1910 and 1911 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; a t h i r d i n s t i t u t i o n t o o f f e r secondary school e d u c a t i o n , S t r a t h c o n a C o l l e g e , was founded i n 15 Edmonton s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . ^  Aided by c o n t r i b u t i o n s from wealthy O n t a r i o and p r a i r i e laymen, the c o l l e g e s a c q u i r e d a p r o p e r t y value i n excess of $ 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 by 1 9 1 4 . 1 6 C l e r g y as w e l l as money were p a r t of Methodist needs i n the west, and the number of c l e r g y r e q u i r e d by the p r a i r i e conferences was always s u b s t a n t i a l . I n 1901, Rev. James Woodsworth, the m i s s i o n superintendent f o r the Manitoba and Northwest Conference, announced r t h a t 25 men were needed f o r the coming year, and more 17 than 100 new men were sought a n n u a l l y a f t e r 1907• Since these requirements were f a r beyond the resources of the p r a i r i e t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e s , m i s s i o n l e a d e r s looked t o the conferences of e a s t e r n Canada t o make up the shortages. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the i s o l a t i o n , d e p r i v a t i o n s and demanding work loads of f r o n t i e r m i ssions made the r e c r u i t i n g of c l e r g y d i f f i c u l t . The very s i z e of some missi o n s r e q u i r e d e x c e p t i o n a l energy t o handle. In 1907, Rev. Frank Coop t r a v e l l e d f i f t y m i l e s each Sunday t o reach f o u r preaching appointments i n the v i c i n i t y of Wilcox, Saskatchewan; i n the same year, Rev. Charles H. Hopkins was the lone Methodist 17 parson i n over t h i r t y townships which were b e i n g s e t t l e d i n A l b e r t a ' s Peace R i v e r c o u n t r y — i n the -1 o age of horse and buggy! M i s s i o n a r i e s i n f r o n t i e r d i s t r i c t s c o u l d a l s o f i n d t h a t r o u t i n e chores l e f t them l i t t l e time f o r preaching the word of God. The w i f e of Rev. F.W.H. Armstrong, a m i s s i o n a r y i n the Peace R i v e r country, wrote t h a t Mr. Armstrong has been compelled t o work l i k e any other homesteader from Monday morning t o Saturday n i g h t . . . . For weeks a t a time CheJ has not had time t o glance at a paper t o say n o t h i n g of books. I wonder t h a t he i s not d i s -couraged w i t h the s i t u a t i o n . . . but had he devoted h i s time t o s t u d y i n g and preaching and v i s i t i n g e t c . , we would have d i e d long ago from e i t h e r c o l d or hunger. You cannot be of s e r v i c e t o any community u n t i l you have a house t o l i v e i n and food t o e a t . So f a r we have accomplished t h a t much. Mrs. Armstrong a l s o d e s c r i b e d the i s o l a t i o n t h a t a m i s s i o n a r y c o u l d encounter: We are s e v e n t y - f i v e m i l e s from a Doctor, and our l e t t e r s are three weeks o l d before they a r r i v e , and they don't o f t e n appear f o r s i x or seven weeks a f t e r they are m a i l e d . . . . We never t a s t e d b u t t e r , m i l k or eggs a f t e r October. . . .1° Mr. Armstrong was l u c k y : he had Mrs. Armstrong. N e a r l y a l l of h i s c o l l e a g u e s were ba c h e l o r s because few s t a t i o n s had the f i n a n c i a l resources and the accommo-d a t i o n s f o r a married man. One can only speculate on how many s i n g l e men l i k e John W. Roberts, an E n g l i s h -born candidate f o r the m i n i s t r y , f l e d God's c a l l i n g 18 because of acute h o m e s i c k n e s s . ^ L i k e the s e t t l e r s they served, the m i s s i o n a r i e s f r e q u e n t l y f a c e d p r i m i t i v e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Rev. W.T. Young of the A l b e r t a Conference l i v e d i n a t y p i c a l "preacher's shack," which i n h i s case measured e i g h t f e e t by f o u r t e e n , and the C h r i s t i a n Guardian d e s c r i b e d the t y p i c a l i n t e r i o r : An i n v e n t o r y of the f u r n i s h i n g s of the shack revealed, the f o l l o w i n g : some board bookshelves, a t i n stove, w i t h a pipe three inches i n diameter, a home-made c h a i r composed of b i r c h limbs and t w i g s , an o i l lamp and l a n t e r n , a few n a i l s t o hang c l o t h e s upon, a t i n t r u n k , a box of Sunday-school papers, a box f o r a wash-stand, and a home-made bed. One window, along w i t h many c r a c k s , served t o i l l u m i n a t e and v e n t i l a t e the rooms. Yet i n t h i s humble abode the p a s t o r spent the l e i s u r e hours of h i s l i f e , and a l s o d i d h i s s t u d y i n g . 2 1 N e v e r t h e l e s s , Young's home compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h h i s p r e v i o u s d w e l l i n g s : a s e r i e s of t e n t s and g r a n a r i e s . F i n a l l y , the m i s s i o n a r y ' s l o y a l t y t o h i s c a l l i n g was t e s t e d by the p r a i r i e w i n t e r . Death c o u l d be the p r i c e of in e x p e r i e n c e w i t h 4-0°F below temperatures and w i t h the f l o o d i n g s p r i n g r i v e r s which f o l l o w e d . In A p r i l , 1905, a B r i t i s h - b o r n candidate f o r the m i n i s t r y , Fred Corry, drowned w h i l e attempting t o cro s s the s w o l l e n Oldman R i v e r i n southern A l b e r t a . I n March, 1909, another young B r i t o n , George Cook, f e l l v i c t i m t o the Saskatchewan w i n t e r ; h i s m i s s i o n s u p e r i n -tendent r e p o r t e d t h a t he had 1 9 been v e r y badly f r o z e n . . . . He was s t a t i o n e d on the Richardson f i e l d . . . about 20 m i l e s o u t s i d e Regina. He was l i v i n g i n a shack. During the c o l d weather which we had i n January he drove home from Regina; and on r e a c h i n g the place where he l i v e d he began t o u n h i t c h h i s horse, h i s hands being very c o l d ; he t r i e d t o thaw them by rubb i n g them w i t h snow, but seemed t o make them worse. He then got e x c i t e d and l e f t h i s horse, and dropping h i s m i t t s s t a r t e d o f f f o r a house which was h a l f a m i l e away. On r e a c h i n g the place h i s hands were f r o z e n s o l i d . He was brought t o the h o s p i t a l next day, and has been there ever s i n c e ; u n t i l l a s t Saturday morning when he went back t o h i s f i e l d . H is r i g h t hand w i l l be a l r i g h t a g a i n , although a l l the f i n g e r n a i l s came o f f . The Doctor had t o take o f f f o u r f i n g e r s from the l e f t hand. . . I n c r e d i b l y , Cook got h i s f e e t wet three weeks l a t e r , c o n t r a c t e d congestion of the lungs and t y p h o i d f e v e r , 24 and d i e d . Regardless of the Church's success i n s u p p l y i n g c l e r g y and f i n a n c i a l a i d , another problem t o surmount was the r e l i g i o u s i n d i f f e r e n c e which arose from the nature of p r a i r i e s o c i e t y . The foremost cause of i r r e l i g i o n was the rampant m a t e r i a l i s m which attended Canada's economic boom. A former p a s t o r i n the A l b e r t a Conference e x p l a i n e d t h a t People are coming t o t h a t country not t o get e d u c a t i o n a l advantages, not t o get r e l i g i o u s p r i v i l e g e s , not t o secure the comforts and s a n c t i t i e s of home; these t h i n g s were found much more e a s i l y i n the communities from which they have come; but they are coming t o make money . . . and the m a t e r i a l s i d e of l i f e i s uppermost i n t h e i r thought—wheat and l a n d s , d o l l a r s 20 and a c r e s , the t h i r s t t o have, the rush t o get, these are the t h i n g s t h a t are absorbing the l i v e s of men t o the e x c l u s i o n of other and h i g h e r t h i n g s . 25 A Saskatchewan clergyman commented t h a t the slogan of the p r a i r i e - b o u n d appeared t o be "Good-bye God, 26 we are going West." R e l i g i o u s i n d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o f o s t e r e d by the r e l a t i v e l a c k of s o c i a l con-s t r a i n t s i n the west, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many new s o c i e t i e s . N.W. R o w e l l , a Toronto c o r p o r a t i o n lawyer and one of the Church's l e a d i n g laymen, found t h a t "men were not f o r c e d by the time-honoured custom t o a t t e n d d i v i n e worship on Sunday i n the west, and i n 27 many i n s t a n c e s d i d not go." ' Rev. T.C. Buchanan, m i s s i o n superintendent f o r the A l b e r t a Conference made the f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r y t h a t "people do t h i n g s when they get i n t o a new country t h a t they would never. -28 dream of doing at home." Age was a major c o n s t r a i n t which was l a c k i n g i n p r a i r i e s o c i e t y . S e v e r a l Metho-d i s t s noted the youth of western people and the 29 "scarceness of o l d people." Anonymity a l s o f a c i l i -t a t e d an unhealthy l i b e r t y . Men and women who had been Methodist i n B r i t a i n or i n e a s t e r n Canada o f t e n were not known as such by the Methodist p a s t o r i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y . F i n a l l y , attendance at Church agencies such as the Sunday s e r v i c e and youth groups was discouraged by the d i s t a n c e of many r u r a l f a m i l i e s from church, i n p a r t a r e s u l t of the low p r a i r i e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . 21 I n 1896, the C h r i s t i a n Guardian observed of the west t h a t "many are l o c a t e d e i g h t or ten m i l e s from church and r e g u l a r attendance at Sunday sc h o o l i s q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e . " ^ Perhaps the g r e a t e s t challenge of the p r a i r i e s was t h a t a l l of the problems had t o be overcome q u i c k l y . I f .the experience of the American west was r e l e v a n t , and Methodist l e a d e r s were convinced t h a t i t was, p r a i r i e communities would become hardened t o the gospel message i f n e g l e c t e d by the C h r i s t i a n church 31 durxng t h e i r formatxve y e a r s . Moreover, Methodism faced s t r o n g c o m p e t i t i o n from the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n i t s e f f o r t s t o reach v i l l a g e s and r u r a l communities which c o u l d o n l y support one denomination. The s m a l l communities were, i n t u r n , important t o capture not only because of t h e i r Methodist supporters but a l s o because of the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they would become l a r g e 32 communities i n the f u t u r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the p r a i r i e s h e l d two f u r t h e r challenges which demanded some of the Church's a t t e n t i o n and r e s o u r c e s . The f i r s t , and l e s s e r of the two, con-cerned problems a r i s i n g out of the growth: of Winnipeg and other western c i t i e s . As i n the o l d e r s o c i e t i e s of B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and e a s t e r n Canada, u r b a n i z a t i o n seemed t o encourage s e c u l a r thought at the expense of the r e l i g i o u s . R u r a l d w e l l e r s could 22 f e e l c l o s e t o God because they worked d i r e c t l y w i t h n a t u r e , but, as a m i n i s t e r i n the Montreal Conference observed "to-day men are l i v i n g i n h i g h l y c o m p l i -cated s o c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and i t i s not easy f o r them t o recognize the 33 promptings of God i n the new complex p r o c e s s . " ^ The e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h t u r n o v e r of p o p u l a t i o n i n c e n t r e s of immigration such as Winnipeg f a c i l i t a t e d the s e c u l a r d r i f t by r e d u c i n g c o n t a c t s between the c l e r g y and the people t o a s u p e r f i c i a l and o f t e n impersonal l e v e l . Working c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r avoided the P r o t e s t a n t churches, p a r t l y because the l a t t e r had the r e p u t a t i o n of being middle c l a s s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The more c o n s e r v a t i v e church members were, i n t u r n , alarmed a t the appeal of s e c u l a r s o c i a l i s m among the ranks of l a b o u r . In attempting t o surmount i t s weaknesses i n the working c l a s s d i s t r i c t s of Winnipeg, the Church d i s c o v e r e d u n - C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s which were p a r t l y the r e s u l t of environmental f a c t o r s : h i g h r e n t s and l a n d v a l u e s , p o v e r t y and a l a c k of r e c r e -a t i o n a l o u t l e t s . I n consequence, the Church was 34-confronted w i t h the i s s u e of environmental reform. The other major challenge emerged from the h e t e r o -genous c h a r a c t e r of the immigration t o the p r a i r i e s . As the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show, great numbers of the new a r r i v a l s came from southeastern Europe, an area 23 considered by Methodists t o be i n f e r i o r t o Canada i n r e l i g i o n , p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s and e d u c a t i o n . MANI- SASKAT- AL-TOBA CHEWAN BERTA ; PRAIRIES T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 455,614 492,432 374,663 1 ,322,709 European p o p u l a t i o n 78,051 91,104 58,771 227,926 from Austria-Hungary 37,731 35,482 21,112 94 ,325 from R u s s i a 16 ,375 23,084 10,011 49,470 from Germany 4,294 8 , 3 0 0 6,102 18,696 from I c e l a n d & 11 ,179 16,680 14,740 42 , 5 9 9 S c a n d i n a v i a ( i n c l u d i n g Norway, Sweden, F i n l a n d and Denmark) Table 1: EUROPEAN POPULATION IN THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES IN 1911.55 TOTAL POP. EUROPEAN POP. % EUROPEAN Winnipeg 136 ,035 26 , 3 2 0 T$~3 Brandon 13,839 1,419 10.3 Saskatoon 12,004 738 6.1 Regina 30,213 5,216 10 . 6 Edmonton 24,900 2,464 9.9 Calgary 43,704 4 , 3 3 0 9.9 Table 2: EUROPEAN POPULATION OP PRAIRIE CITIES IN 1 9 1 1 . 3 6 Although Europeans a l s o s e t t l e d i n e a s t e r n Canada, t h e i r numbers were more concentrated i n the west. The Anglo-Saxon "host" p o p u l a t i o n was much s m a l l e r on the p r a i r i e s than i n O n t a r i o , s o c i e t y was newer and the "good t h i n g s " of E n g l i s h Canadian c u l t u r e were l e s s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . S t a t i s t i c s exposed the western weakness i n the face of the e t h n i c onslaught. I n 1911, the p r a i r i e s had 2 2 7 , 9 2 6 i n h a b i t a n t s of European o r i g i n as compared w i t h 86,967 Europeans i n O n t a r i o ; however, the base p o p u l a t i o n of the p r a i r i e s (1,095,126) was l e s s than h a l f t h a t of O n t a r i o (2,436 , -307); t h u s , w h i l e Europeans 24 never c o n s t i t u t e d more than 4$ of O n t a r i o ' s popu-l a t i o n , they accounted f o r 16.3% of the p r a i r i e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1901 and 17-3% of the p r a i r i e popu-37 l a t i o n i n 1911. Small wonder t h a t Rev. Andrew Stewart, P r o f e s s o r of O l d Testament Exegesis at Wesley C o l l e g e , a d v i s e d the General Board of M i s s i o n s i n Toronto t h a t the s i t u a t i o n i n the West i s d i f f e r e n t t o t h a t i n the E a s t . There we have whole s e c t i o n s of the country s e t t l e d by f o r e i g n e r s ; t h a t i s not p o s s i b l e here i n the E a s t . There you go and get twenty-f i v e thousand people of the same tongue, a l l w i t h the same s o c i a l customs. . .38 I t was an understatement t o say t h a t the southern European immigrants r e c e i v e d a bad press i n the p u b l i -c a t i o n s of Canadian Methodism. Repeatedly they were d e s c r i b e d as being immoral, d o c i l e , i g n o r a n t people who were kept i n t h e i r d e p l o r a b l e s t a t e by a v a r i c i o u s , mediaeval, a u t h o r i t a r i a n churches. Rev. Samuel East of Winnipeg wrote t h a t The f o r e i g n e r s have brought w i t h them ver y low standards of m o r a l i t y , p r o p r i e t y and decency. We see s i g h t s every day, e s p e c i a l l y i n warm weather, which cause;-: us t o b l u s h . . • The C a t h o l i c churches (Roman and Greek), which have been the o n l y r e l i g i o u s i n -s t i t u t i o n s known t o most of these people, have succeeded i n keeping them i n ignorance; consequently s u p e r s t i t i o n s and s u p e r s t i t i o u s p r a c t i c e s abound. . .39 According t o Methodist accounts, Canada's " f o r e i g n e r s " not o n l y came from i n f e r i o r n a t i o n s but came from the lowest s t r a t a of s o c i e t y i n them. As "An Old Timer" from Winnipeg remarked, every European community was made, up of three c l a s s e s , the l a s t b eing "the lowest c l a s s , " "the d r i n k i n g c l a s s , " "the ra g - t a g , " "the c r i m i n a l s . " "Somehow or other," he added, We i n the west have come t o b e l i e v e t h a t the l a s t c l a s s i s the one we are bei n g loaded up w i t h . They come here f u l l -f l e d g e d graduates of the h a b i t s mentioned, and almost a t once they s i g n up w i t h some department of the c r i m i n a l r e c o r d . I f they "wager" i n any matter "they bet the beer." At marriage " F e s t i v a l s " i n s t e a d of l a y i n g i n s t u f f t o e a t , they s t o c k up i n t h i n g s t o d r i n k . . . these people seem t o c a r r y an i n n a t e morbid p a s s i o n t o shed b l o o d . T h e i r b r i n g i n g up, r e l i g i o n , e ducation or l a c k of edu c a t i o n , seems t o generate an absolute d i s r e g a r d f o r human l i f e . . . . They f i g h t w i t h anybody, f i g h t without r u l e s , and g e n e r a l l y f i g h t t o a f i n i s h . . .40 Methodists were confirmed i n t h e i r d i s l i k e of southern Europeans by t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c e t h n i c groups. Northern peoples such as I c e l a n d e r s , Scandinavians and northern Germans were p r a i s e d f o r t h e i r i n d u s t r y , t h r i f t , i n t e l l i g e n c e , a s s i m i l a b i l i t y and P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , southern Germans, A u s t r i a n s (known a l t e r n a t i v e l y as Bukowinians, G a l i c i a n s or Rutheni a n s ) , Russians and Po l e s were condemned f o r s e r v i l i t y , i n v e t e r a t e l y i n g , i l l i t e r a c y , u n s a n i t a r y h a b i t s , a l l o w i n g women t o work i n the f i e l d s , l a b o u r i n g on the sabbath, l o v i n g l i q u o r and a s s i m i l a t i n g s l o w l y . Conservatives i n the Methodist Church a l s o w o r r i e d 26 t h a t the European immigrants i n the c i t i e s would break f r e e of t h e i r mediaeval h e r i t a g e o n l y t o f a l l i n t o the arms of a t h e i s t i c s o c i a l i s m . ^ 1 A f t e r 1905» the annual i n f l u x of Europeans t o the p r a i r i e s was q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l , and Methodist l e a d e r s were i n c r e a s i n g l y f r i g h t e n e d of the conse-quences f o r Canada. To begin w i t h , the Europeans were viewed as a menace t o n a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y . P r i n c i p a l J.W. S p a r l i n g of Wesley Co l l e g e warned t h a t "there i s a danger, and i t i s n a t i o n a l ! E i t h e r we must educate and e l e v a t e the incoming m u l t i t u d e s or they w i l l drag 42 us and our c h i l d r e n down t o a lower l e v e l . " Rev. J . S. Woodsworth, the superintendent of A l l People's M i s s i o n i n Winnipeg, informed church members t h a t the European immigrants were l a y i n g the groundwork f o r urban slums. Accustomed t o low l i v i n g standards i n Europe, they w i l l i n g l y accepted low wages and over-crowded, u n s a n i t a r y housing i n Canada, and t h e i r c o m p e t i t i o n on the labour market threatened Canadian workers w i t h the same substandard l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Moreover, the continuous a r r i v a l of newcomers prevented e a r l i e r immigrants from improving t h e i r l o t . y Since a l i e n s were e l i g i b l e f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s a f t e r three years residence i n the Dominion, Methodists a l s o f e a r e d the " f o r e i g n vote." Temperance r e v e r s e s i n l o c a l o p t i o n c o n t e s t s were the 27 f i r s t s i g n s of European p o l i t i c a l muscle, and some church members came t o re g a r d the European vote as p o t e n t i a l l y a n a t i o n a l emergency. I n 1902, Rev. A.E. Smith warned the e l e c t o r s of the C o l l e s t o n d i s t r i c t , near P r i n c e A l b e r t , N.W.T., of a p o s s i b l e d i v i s i o n of the northwest t e r r i t o r i e s i n t o two p r o v i n c e s along an east-west l i n e ; t h i s , he was c e r t a i n , would "throw the whole f o r e i g n p o p u l a t i o n i n t o the no r t h e r n pro-v i n c e , which would give the f o r e i g n e r s a c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e . " I n 1908, the C h r i s t i a n Guardian g l o o m i l y p r e d i c t e d t h a t The p a r t y which gets the f o r e i g n vote w i l l be the p a r t y which w i l l sweep the west at the next Dominion e l e c t i o n s . Not great moral i s s u e s , not questions of v i t a l moment t o the country . . . w i l l decide whether the L i b e r a l s or Conser-v a t i v e s w i l l c a r r y the west, but simply which p a r t y i s able t o c a j o l e i n t o t h e i r ranks the v a s t army of f o r e i g n v o t e r s . • • Over-anxious p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s have seen t h a t they have been made c i t i z e n s , and have t h r u s t i n t o t h e i r hand the b a l l o t . They are i g n o r a n t of our i n s t i t u t i o n s , i g n o r a n t even of our language. C o n t r o l l e d by c o r r u p t p o l i t i c i a n s , t hey can outbalance the t h i n k i n g and i n t e l l i g e n t e l e c t o r a t e , h o l d a balance of power, and be a menace t o our country.4-5 I n 1910, Rev. S.D. Chown, soon t o be e l e c t e d as the second General Superintendent of the Methodist Church, went f u r t h e r ; h i s q u e s t i o n was "how s h a l l the f o r e i g n e r s 4-6 govern us?" I n t h i s r e s p e c t , some Methodists l i n k e d European votes t o Roman C a t h o l i c p o l i t i c a l power. Prom the Methodist v i e w p o i n t , the Roman C a t h o l i c Church was 28 a l r e a d y uncomfortably i n f l u e n t i a l i n government c i r c l e s due t o i t s s t r e n g t h i n Quebec, and now Rome's ranks were be i n g s w o l l e n by the immigration of p a p i s t s t o the p r a i r i e s . Moreover, the Roman, c l e r g y were making s e r i o u s e f f o r t s t o p r o s e l y t i z e n o n - C a t h o l i c Europeans such as the Greek Orthodox A u s t r i a n s who had come t o Canada without t h e i r p r i e s t s . By 1910, seven C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s had been t r a i n e d i n the Greek Orthodox r i t e and Ruthenian language of these people, and the C h r i s t i a n Guardian doubted t h a t P r o t e s t a n t i d e a l s c o u l d triumph west of the Great Lakes i f the 4 7 work of the seven proved s u c c e s s f u l . The grim p i c t u r e was completed by Rev. C.H. Lawford who was surrounded by A u s t r i a n s e t t l e r s a t h i s remote m i s s i o n i n n o rthern A l b e r t a : the capture of the west by Rome would l e a d t o i t s conquest of the n a t i o n and t o the 4 8 c o l l a p s e of P r o t e s t a n t l i b e r t y i n Canada. I n a d d i t i o n t o Romanizing Canada and t o p o l l u t i n g Canada's moral c l i m a t e , the European presence on the p r a i r i e s t hreatened t o sap the n a t i o n a l s t r e n g t h by b a l k a n i z i n g Canadian s o c i e t y . I n the o p i n i o n of Rev. John P o t t s , the s e c r e t a r y of the Methodist E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i e t y , a fragmented, p o l y g l o t s o c i e t y was i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h e a l t h y nationhood; Canada must, he i n s i s t e d , 29 become one i n language, i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n manners and customs, and i n p o l i t i c a l and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s , and i f not one i n r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f , a t l e a s t one i n th a t common C h r i s t i a n i t y which i s the only f o u n d a t i o n of t r u e m o r a l i t y . 4 9 Any doubts concerning the s e r i o u s n e s s of the e t h n i c problem were d i s p e l l e d when Methodists c a s t t h e i r eyes south t o the experience of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The Americans had won on l y p a r t i a l v i c t o r y over t h e i r p o l y g l o t challenge of a ge n e r a t i o n b e f o r e , ev;en though, as the Western Methodist Times observed ominously, never d i d the problem assume the same p r o p o r t i o n s as i s found i n Canada to-day. When the rus h of immigration s e t towards the S t a t e s the great c o n f e d e r a t i o n was al r e a d y possessed of a p o p u l a t i o n of over twenty m i l l i o n s , and at no time d i d the i n f l u x exceed l i per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . The immigration i n t o Canada l a s t year was over 4- per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n , and of the 262,000 immigrants d u r i n g the year ending March, 1908, 84,000 belonged t o almost every country i n Europe w i t h con-t i n g e n t s from A s i a and A f r i c a , over s i x t y n a t i o n a l i t i e s b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d . The Methodist Church developed a t w o - f o l d r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o immigration problems p r i o r t o 1914. F i r s t l y , the Church exe r t e d pressure upon the Dominion, p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l governments t o Canadianize the immigrants through a l l p o s s i b l e means. The most urgent need was f o r an English-language p u b l i c s c h o o l system which a l l school-age c h i l d r e n would be compelled to a t t e n d ; Methodists a l s o sought a more s e l e c t i v e i mmigration p o l i c y , temperance and sabbath observance 30 laws and other moral and s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Secondly, the Church t r i e d t o C h r i s t i a n i z e and Canadianize the Europeans by e s t a b l i s h i n g m i s s i o n s among them. To some e x t e n t , Methodists r a t i o n a l i z e d t h i s p o l i c y by p o i n t i n g t o the l a c k of p r i e s t s from the t r a d i t i o n a l European r e l i g i o u s denominations, but they a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t r u e C h r i s t i a n i t y was synonymous w i t h e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t i s m . The European denominations were inadequate because of t h e i r e l a b o r a t e r i t u a l , s u p e r s t i t i o u s p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s t h a t church o f -f i c i a l s were empowered by God t o grant f o r g i v e n e s s of s i n s ; s a l v a t i o n was o n l y a t t a i n a b l e , Methodists i n s i s t e d , through an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l contact w i t h 51 God through C h r i s t . I n a d d i t i o n t o s m a l l e r m i s s i o n s among the Europeans, two major m i s s i o n complexes were e v e n t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d : the A l l People's missions i n Winnipeg and the missi o n s among the A u s t r i a n s of n o r t h e r n A l b e r t a . Aside from t h e i r immediate impact, these m i s s i o n s were the Church's l a b o r a t o r i e s f o r the f u t u r e . I t f e l l t o the A l b e r t a m i s s i o n s t o d e f i n e the problems of working among Euro-peans i n r u r a l areas, w h i l e A l l People's f a m i l i a r i z e d the Church w i t h the d i f f i c u l t i e s of work i n an urban environment. M i s s i o n a r i e s l e a r n e d , f o r example, t h a t Europeans were f a i r l y approachable i n the c i t i e s be-cause t h e i r c.lannishness was eroded by the m i n g l i n g of 31 n a t i o n a l i t i e s . On the other hand, contact with urban-dwelling Europeans was often b r i e f and super-f i c i a l due to the high population m o b i l i t y . Conditions i n the country were very d i f f e r e n t . Europeans i n r u r a l areas s e t t l e d i n conservative, inward-looking colonies of homogeneous ethnic o r i g i n , and they were much harder to reach. However, the r u r a l missionary could s p e c i a l i z e i n one n a t i o n a l i t y , and h i s p r o s e l y t i z i n g successes were more permanent due to the r e l a t i v e 52 s t a b i l i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . y Notwithstanding the differences between r u r a l and urban mission work, c e r t a i n operating p r i n c i p l e s were found to be common to both. To begin with, the missionaries recognized that by p r o s e l y t i z i n g they r i s k e d offending the c u l t u r a l conservatism of the European majority. Hence, as i n the Asian mission f i e l d , they hoped to a t t r a c t the Europeans to Methodism by o f f e r i n g some e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e . In Winnipeg, immigrants were lured through Methodist doors by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l b u i l d i n g , which offered r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . In A l b e r t a , Austrian conservatism was penetrated by medical missions. Also e f f e c t i v e i n reaching European minds were the edu-c a t i o n a l services of the Church, and, i n t h i s respect, the juvenile work was of utmost importance. Immigrant ch i l d r e n learned E n g l i s h quickly, they were l e s s attached to old-world ways than adults and they provided a means 32 o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . The p r o b l e m o f d i s c o v e r i n g the b e s t methods o f work among the E u r o p e a n s r a i s e d a n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y : how was the C h u r c h t o s e c u r e m i s s i o n a r i e s who were q u a l i f i e d f o r the E u r o p e a n m i s s i o n s ? The C h u r c h aimed h i g h i n the s e l e c t i o n o f i t s p e r s o n n e l . The i d e a l m i s s i o n a r y was w e l l v e r s e d i n C a n a d i a n and P r o t e s t a n t s o c i a l v a l u e s , and he c o u l d a d d r e s s the " f o r e i g n e r s " i n t h e i r own t o n g u e . U s u a l l y , the C h u r c h s e t t l e d f o r l e s s . F o r example , the A l b e r t a and W i n n i p e g m i s s i o n complexes were b o t h s t a f f e d w i t h C a n a d i a n - b o r n m i s s i o n a r i e s who communicated w i t h the E u r o p e a n s t h r o u g h i n t e r p r e t e r s , and the language b a r r i e r o b v i o u s l y l i m i t e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . Of c o u r s e , t h i s k i n d o f m i s s i o n a r y was n o t e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t a d v a n t a g e : no l e s s t h a n t h r e e o f the A u s t r i a n i n t e r -p r e t e r s i n A l b e r t a were c o n v e r t e d , l a r g e l y because t h e y had l e a r n e d E n g l i s h f rom the m i s s i o n a r i e s v i a t r a n s -l a t i o n s o f the B i b l e ! M e t h o d i s t p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e m e n t s were a l s o met t h r o u g h the r e c r u i t m e n t o f P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y f rom P o l a n d o r A u s t r i a . Three o f the s t a f f a t A l l P e o p l e ' s were i m p o r t e d E u r o p e a n s , and R e v . C.H. L a w f o r d , the f o u n d e r o f the A u s t r i a n m i s s i o n work i n A l b e r t a , t r i e d t o t a p t h i s s o u r c e f o r h i s m i s s i o n s . - ^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c a p a b l e P r o t e s t a n t s f rom s o u t h e a s t e r n Europe were h a r d t o come b y , and t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y 33 w i t h Canadian ways l i m i t e d t h e i r value as C a n a d i a n i z e r s . Obviously the best s o l u t i o n was t o send Canadian mis-s i o n a r i e s t o Europe where they c o u l d l e a r n a European language and a t the same time l e a r n something of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l background of the European peoples. R e g r e t t a b l y , t h i s k i n d of t r a i n i n g was ex-pensive, and the Church r e c e i v e d no r e t u r n on i t s money f o r the two-year t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . Hence the p o p u l a r i t y of a f o u r t h approach: sending Canadian m i s s i o n a r i e s d i r e c t l y t o the European c o l o n i e s of western Canada; i n t h i s manner, the m i s s i o n a r i e s c o u l d l e a r n a European language and at the same time make i n v a l u a b l e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s among the people they would be c u l t i v a t i n g 55 i n the f u t u r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the method sounded b e t t e r i n theory than i t was i n p r a c t i c e . M i s s i o n a r i e s who had not been t o Europe found i t d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n the s o c i a l and economic background of t h e i r people because the e t h n i c c o l o n i e s were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n s of the o l d - w o r l d s o c i e t i e s from which they had come. Rather, the c o l o n i e s were the peasant fragments of those s o c i e t i e s which had been r i p p e d out of t h e i r o r i g i n a l s o c i a l c o n t e x t . Rev. Edmond Chambers, an A l l People's m i s s i o n a r y who had been t r a i n e d i n Europe, i n d i c a t e d t h i n g s which the Canadian-t r a i n e d m i s s i o n a r i e s were l i k e l y t o miss: 34 For i n s t a n c e , the knowledge of German i s widespread among the P o l e s , but no one who knows the P o l i s h people would venture t o address them i n t h a t language, which i s t o them a symbol of a hated f o r e i g n domination. B e t t e r by f a r t o address them i n E n g l i s h . The same t h i n g a p p l i e s t o other n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Thus we see t h a t each n a t i o n a l i t y r e q u i r e s the a t t e n t i o n of those who have made t h a t people and t h e i r language the o b j e c t of t h e i r s p e c i a l study and care.5 ° Another complaint of the Canadian-trained m i s s i o n a r i e s was the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g room and board i n an A u s t r i a n home which was " f i t t o l i v e i n . " ^ ' F i n a l l y , l o c a l t r a i n i n g was not s u i t e d t o c i t y m i s s i o n s . While i n Edmonton, Rev. W.H. P i k e found i t v i r t u a l l y im-p o s s i b l e t o l e a r n the language of the A u s t r i a n s because of the extent t o which they mixed E n g l i s h words w i t h t h e i r Ruthenian vocabulary.^® U l t i m a t e l y , the Church hoped t o develop a f i f t h source of personnel f o r the European work: the converts from the e t h n i c c o l o n i e s . I n A l b e r t a , three A u s t r i a n s became Metho-d i s t l o c a l preachers a f t e r having been converted by Rev. C.H. Lawford, and two of them were sent t o A l b e r t a C o l l e g e i n Edmonton t o prepare f o r o r d i n a t i o n . y j The extent of the Church's experimentation con-c e r n i n g methods of work and the r e c r u i t i n g of personnel i l l u s t r a t e d the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of p r o s e l y t i z i n g people who d i d not know E n g l i s h and who had been r a i s e d i n v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . 35 S e v e r a l other problems w i t h r e s p e c t t o the European work a l s o emerged. Foremost of these was the enormous expense of the European m i s s i o n s . I n 1909, the General S e c r e t a r y of the Department of Home M i s s i o n s , Rev. James A l l e n , shrank at the thought of the $4 , 0 0 0 r e q u i r e d t o begin work i n one European colony t o the n o r t h of W i n n i p e g . ^ U n l i k e o r d i n a r y domestic m i s s i o n s , European miss i o n s were begun without ohurch members and without prospects of immediate l o c a l revenue; of n e c e s s i t y , they were r e l i a n t upon out s i d e f i n a n c i a l help f o r y e a r s . O b v i o u s l y , enormous sums of money were needed f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t expansion of European m i s s i o n work. However, even i f the necessary monies and q u a l i f i e d m i s s i o n a r i e s were forthcoming, many Methodists doubted t h a t southern Europeans would respond t o P r o t e s t a n t preaching i n meaningful numbers. Rev. Alexander S u t h e r l a n d , the General S e c r e t a r y of the Department of F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s , warned the General Board of M i s s i o n s i n 1909 t h a t We are not t o suppose t h a t we have many f o r e i g n e r s w a i t i n g and anxious f o r us t o go among them. The people have a r e l i g i o n of t h e i r own, handed down through many ge n e r a t i o n s . They do not want your m i s s i o n a r i e s . . . . You are not going t o make P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n s out of these f o r e i g n e r s by means of any ag-g r e s s i v e p r o s e l y t i z i n g p o l i c y . 6 1 George Moody, a Winnipeg b a r r i s t e r and a member of the General Board, expressed the l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n of 36 such pessimism: „We have a l a r g e t a s k i n e s t a b l i s h i n g our own m i s s i o n work. Every m i s s i o n grows i n t o a b i g church and c o n t r i b u t e s l i b e r a l l y . The f o r e i g n e r s do not . . . I f e e l i t would be f o o l i s h t o go i n t o the f o r e i g n , Chinese or any other work . . . w h i l e we have our own people n e g l e c t e d as they a r e , E n g l i s h speaking people who would r a p i d l y develop i n t o a great r e l i g i o u s c e n t r e . I t h i n k i t would be madness t o s i n k money i n t o such work and leave our own undone . . . I say as a c i t i z e n and a r e s i d e n t I would not touch these f o r e i g n people.62 Regardless of the p r a c t i c a l m e r i t s of Moody's suggestion, f e a r of the European immigration and of i t s p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l e f f e c t s caused the Methodist Church t o respond t o the European presence. Admini-s t r a t i v e changes made by the General Board of M i s s i o n s r e f l e c t e d the growth of Methodist concern f o r t h i s area of work. I n 1903, the General Board's "Committee on Home Work" gave b i r t h t o the "Committee on F o r e i g n e r s i n Canada," and, i n 1909, a "Commission on F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s i n Western Canada" met i n Winnipeg t o d e f i n e the best p o l i c i e s f o r the Church; i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of 63 the " f o r e i g n problem" occurred a n n u a l l y t h e r e a f t e r . ^ As i n o r d i n a r y domestic m i s s i o n work, Church l e a d e r s were conscious of the need t o act q u i c k l y ; the " f o r e i g n e r s " c o u l d not be allowed time t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i r o l d - w o r l d ways. C l e a r l y , the p r a i r i e s confronted the Methodist 37 Church with a many-faceted challenge i n the period 1896 to 1914. The simultaneous explosions of the English-speaking and European populations made un-precedented demands upon Church resources i n men and money. N.W. Rowell, who was i n many ways an arche-t y p a l Methodist f o r the time, warned that Canada's supreme opportunity at home i s not i n the development of her resources, or i n the regul a t i o n of her trade, or i n the improvement of her p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s , or even i n the establishment of a navy, or i n a l l these combined—her supreme opportunity at home i s i n the making the r e l i g i o n of C h r i s t a r e a l and v i t a l t hing to a l l her people. . . . The supreme question i n Canada to-day i s , what w i l l be the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of our new communities? The Churches must act now. Our whole future depends on what the Churches do now. Was there ever given to the Churches of any land a greater opportunity and a graver r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? 6 4 Rowell's exhortation, i n turn, posed a f i n a l problem f o r Church leaders: could the Church at large be made aware of the western emergency? Hitherto, the congre-gations i n eastern Canada had been p r i m a r i l y concerned with l o c a l needs and d i f f i c u l t i e s . Moreover, the missionary i n t e r e s t s of the Church had been geared to Japan and China and, to a l e s s e r extent, to Canada's Amerindians. Could the attention of Church members i n the eastern conferences be s u f f i c i e n t l y d i v e r t e d to help the west i n i t s period of need? Moreover, was Methodism i n eastern Canada able to supply enough 3 8 resources t o discharge o b l i g a t i o n s i n both the home and f o r e i g n f i e l d s ? I r o n i c a l l y , the challenge of the p r a i r i e s appeared t o be g r e a t e r than i t a c t u a l l y was. To begin w i t h , Methodists c o u l d not foresee the c u r t a i l -ment of immigration which was brought about by World War I , and they expected the immigration t o continue i n d e f i n i t e l y . Secondly, they h e l d exaggerated n o t i o n s as t o the p o p u l a t i o n p o t e n t i a l of the p r a i r i e west. A seemingly i n e x h a u s t i b l e supply of farm l a n d l a y beyond the Great Lakes, and, on the b a s i s of popu-l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s i n e a s t e r n Canada, m i l l i o n s would come t o l i v e t h e r e . On the s t r e n g t h of the west's m a t e r i a l promise, Rev. James A l l e n f o r e c a s t a n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n of from 75 t o 125 m i l l i o n by the end of the t w e n t i e t h century, and Rev. J.H. R i d d e l l , the P r i n c i p a l of A l b e r t a C o l l e g e , p r e d i c t e d 50 m i l l i o n f o r 65 the North Saskatchewan v a l l e y alone. ^ A c c o r d i n g l y , p r a i r i e problems seemed t o be merely the vanguard of g r e a t e r problems t o come. Chapter I I I THE CHARACTER OF CANADIAN METHODISM The Canadian Methodist Church was a young i n -s t i t u t i o n i n 1896. I t was the product of the union of f o u r separate and d i s t i n c t Methodist churches j u s t twelve years b e f o r e , and denominational l o y a l t y was s t i l l t hreatened by the ease w i t h which church members c o u l d r e c a l l the days of the parent i n s t i -t u t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s which might have e x i s t e d were countered by the Church's h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i t y . D o c t r i n e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s were s p e l l e d out by the Church's n a t i o n a l body, the General Conference, which met every f o u r years and which was composed of equal numbers of l a y and c l e r i c a l d e l e g a t e s . L a r g e l y because i t met so i n f r e q u e n t l y , the General Conference was of l i m i t e d importance i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t y ; however, i t delegated important a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s t o sta n d i n g committees and a l s o t o the General Board of M i s s i o n s , which c o n t r o l l e d grants from the M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y of the Methodist Church. A l s o a c t i v e between the General Conferences was the General Superintendent, who was e l e c t e d by the General Conference f o r an e i g h t 39 40 year term. T h i s o f f i c i a l was the v i s i b l e symbol of u n i t y w i t h i n the Church, and he acted as the Church's o f f i c i a l spokesman; i n a d d i t i o n , he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g Church a c t i v i t i e s and f o r a r b i -t r a t i n g d i s p u t e s . As e x e r c i s e d by Rev. A l b e r t Carman, the General Superintendent from 1884-1915, the p o s i t i o n a c q u i r e d many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a bishop's o f f i c e . Below the n a t i o n a l l e v e l were r e g i o n a l b o d i e s , the annual conferences, which met each June and were a l s o composed of equal numbers of l a y and c l e r i c a l d e l e g a t e s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the powers of the General Board of M i s s i o n s and the General Conference, s t a n d i n g committees, the annual conferences were the key ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s of the Church. General Conference law, which was recorded i n the D i s c i p l i n e , gave them j u r i s d i c t i o n over the examination and o r d i n a t i o n of c l e r g y , the c r e a t i o n of m i s s i o n s , the s t a t i o n i n g of c l e r g y and the c o m p i l a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The s t a t i o n i n g of m i n i s t e r s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y im-por t a n t power because of the i t i n e r a n t r u l e : w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , c l e r g y were r e q u i r e d t o change con-gr e g a t i o n s every three y e a r s . The p r a i r i e r e g i o n was i n i t i a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the Manitoba and Northwest Conference; i n 1904, t h a t conference was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e : the Manitoba, A s s i n i b o i a and A l b e r t a conferences. 41 The A s s i n i b o i a Conference was renamed the Saskatchewan Conference i n 1 9 0 6 t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the name of the pr o v i n c e ; however, conference boundaries d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h p r o v i n c i a l boundaries u n t i l 1 9 1 0 . The annual conferences were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t s , which met j u s t p r i o r t o the annual con-ference s e s s i o n s . Each was p r e s i d e d over by a d i s t r i c t chairman who acted as a c o u r t of f i r s t a p peal, super-v i s e d the c l e r g y i n h i s d i s t r i c t , c o - o r d i n a t e d d i s t r i c t a c t i v i t i e s , recommended m i n i s t e r i a l candidates t o h i s annual conference and compiled s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r h i s d i s t r i c t . D i s t r i c t s were, i n t u r n , made up of i n d i v i d u a l churches and c i r c u i t s which were adminis-t e r e d by q u a r t e r l y o f f i c i a l boards i n accordance w i t h D i s c i p l i n a r y r e g u l a t i o n s . A c i r c u i t was, of course, two or more preaching p l a c e s under the charge of a s i n g l e clergyman whereas a church or s t a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a s i n g l e preaching p l a c e . A m i s s i o n was a s t a t i o n or c i r c u i t which was not s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and which consequently was dependent upon f i n a n c i a l a i d from the M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y . The s t r e n g t h of the Methodist Church was con-c e n t r a t e d i n O n t a r i o . As the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows, Methodism was the l a r g e s t denomination i n O n t a r i o , and i t drew a h i g h e r percentage of i t s f o l l o w i n g from O n t a r i o than e i t h e r of i t s major P r o t e s t a n t r i v a l s . 42 1891 1901 1911 Methodist 654,033 (77%) 666,388 (73%) 671,722 (62%) P r e s b y t e r i a n 453,147 (60%) 477,386 (57%) 524,704 (47%) A n g l i c a n 385,999 (60%) 368,191 (54%) 489,704 (47%) Table 1: NUMERICAL STRENGTH OP THE MAJOR PROTESTANT DENOMINATIONS IN ONTARIO, WITH THE PER-CENTAGE OP THE NATIONAL STRENGTH INDICATED IN PARENTHESES.1 S l i g h t l y more than a t h i r d of the Methodist t o t a l s were church members, the remainder being adherents. I n 1911, f o r example, church r e c o r d s showed only 231,031 church members d e s p i t e a census t o t a l of n e a r l y three 2 times t h a t number. Many of the adherents were c h i l d r e n , and others were a d u l t s who attended church i n f r e q u e n t l y or who l a c k e d "a s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e " — a p r e r e q u i s i t e (although an i n c r e a s i n g l y nominal one) f o r church membership. O n t a r i o Methodists c o u l d be found i n f i v e annual conferences. Pour of t h e s e — t h e Toronto, Hamilton, London and Bay of Quinte conferences — w e r e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n O n t a r i o . The f i f t h , the Montreal Conference, lumped Quebec t o g e t h e r w i t h much of e a s t e r n O n t a r i o . However, even t h i s conference was o r i e n t e d t o O n t a r i o problems, as the r e p o r t s of i t s committees make c l e a r ; ^ the reason was t h a t s i x of i t s eleven d i s t r i c t s were i n O n t a r i o , as were 69.6% of i t s church members i n 1911. The membership s t r e n g t h and the wealth of the Onta r i o conferences and t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o x i m i t y t o the west caused them t o i n f l u e n c e p r a i r i e Methodism 43 i n a number of ways. To begin with, Ontario residents were always a majority at the General Conference which determined p o l i c y f o r the e n t i r e Church. At the General Conference of 1902, 184 delegates were from Ontario as opposed to 104 from other provinces; i n 1906, 179 of the General Conference delegates were from Ontario as opposed to 123 from other provinces; and the General Conference of 1910 included 182 delegates from Ontario with 136,delegates from e l s e -where i n Canada. Ontario Methodism's domination of the Church's n a t i o n a l body was much more complete than i n the Presbyterian and Anglican churches. At the Presbyterian General Assembly i n 1904, the 234 Ontario delegates were nearly matched by the 203 delegates from other provinces; i n 1910, a f t e r another s i x years of expansion i n western Canada, the Ontario delegates at the General Assembly were outnumbered by 286 to 240. 6 Meanwhile, Ontario residents were never a majority at the Anglican General Synod. The General Synod of 1902 included 48 Ontario men and 73 other delegates, and the 96 Ontario delegates at the General Synod of 1911 were outnumbered by the 156 delegates 7 from other provinces.' The extent to which the Metho-d i s t General Conference was Ontario-centred was c l e a r l y unique. I t was hardly s u r p r i s i n g that Ontario men dominated the i n t e r n a l structure of the General 44 Conference as w e l l . Of the 30 chairmen of committees at the General Conference of 1906, 19 were residents of Ontario, and another 2 chairmen were o r i g i n a l l y o from that province. Power at the General Conference gave the Ontario conferences a f i r m c o n t r o l of missions i n Canada. The headquarters of the Missionary Society, the Mission Rooms, was i n Toronto, and Ontario men were a majority at the annual meetings of the General Board of Missions. Of the 44 members of the General Board i n the Church year 1906-07, 23 resided i n Ontario, and there i s evidence to suggest that some of the other members, e s p e c i a l l y those from western Q Canada, were unable to attend the annual meetings. However, the r e a l power of the Ontario conferences l a y i n t h e i r domination of the executive committee which exercised the General Board*s authority through the 10 year. "To save t r a v e l l i n g expenses," 12 of the 24 members of the executive l i v e d i n Toronto ( i n c l u d i n g 5 of the 6 permanent o f f i c i a l s ) , and Rev. James Woods-worth was the only member who d i d not reside i n Ontario. The r e s u l t was that Ontario men strongly influenced p r a i r i e church expansion. Although the p r a i r i e conferences could create missions, every request f o r a f i n a n c i a l grant was processed by of-f i c i a l s i n Toronto; i f approved, the grants were 45 d i s t r i b u t e d through p r a i r i e mission superintendents who were appointed by and responsible to the General Board, and the executive committee expected a f u l l report of the subsequent expenditures by the r e c i p i e n t missions. The Woman's Missionary Society, a separate and d i s t i n c t organization which was not c o n t r o l l e d by the General Board, was also h e a v i l y centred i n Ontario. Despite the growth of the W.M.S. i n the west by 1910, 76$ of i t s members were from the Toronto, Hamilton, London, Bay of Quinte and Montreal conferences, as were 66$ of i t s revenues. 1 1 However, the W.M.S. gave most of i t s a t t e n t i o n to the Asian mission f i e l d s , and i t was of much l e s s importance than the Missionary Society i n a f f e c t i n g p r a i r i e church expansion. The journals of Canadian Methodism were a f i n a l manifestation of the Church's Ontario strength. With the exception of the Wesleyan, the weekly Church paper f o r the Maritime conferences, a l l of the of-f i c i a l journals were published i n Toronto. The most important was the C h r i s t i a n Guardian, a weekly p u b l i -cation f o r the Ontario conferences and the west; with a c i r c u l a t i o n of nearly 25,000 i n 1906, i t reached an average of one i n nine church members i n the con-12 ferences which i t served, and a r t i c l e s and l e t t e r s to the e d i t o r from scores of i n d i v i d u a l s both moulded 46 and r e f l e c t e d a wide range of Methodist o p i n i o n . Other important j o u r n a l s i n c l u d e d the M i s s i o n a r y  Outlook, the monthly p u b l i c a t i o n of the W.M.S.; the M i s s i o n a r y B u l l e t i n , the q u a r t e r l y p u b l i c a t i o n of the M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y ; the Epworth E r a and the Banner, the j o u r n a l s f o r the Epworth Leagues and Sunday s c h o o l s ; the C h r i s t i a n Steward, which was intended t o s t i m u l a t e systematic g i v i n g among church members; and the Metho-d i s t Magazine and Review, a monthly p e r i o d i c a l w i t h a c i r c u l a t i o n of about 5,000 which d e a l t w i t h i n t e l -l e c t u a l t o p i c s of relev a n c e t o the Church. These j o u r n a l s p r o v i d e d the means of communicating p r a i r i e conference problems t o church members i n ea s t e r n Canada; c o n v e r s e l y , they were v e h i c l e s f o r i m p a r t i n g the r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l i d e a l s of the ea s t e r n conferences t o the pioneer areas. An a c t i v e evangelism had l o n g been the hea r t of Methodist theology and r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e . T r a d i t i o n s drawn from Canada's past c a l l e d upon the Church t o be i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and o t h e r w o r l d l y : anxious t o save s o u l s f o r the l i f e t o come. Although weakening, t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n was s t i l l w i t h i n f l u e n c e i n the 1890's, and, as i n John Wesley's day, i t r e s t e d upon a number of p r i n c i p l e s which were b a s i c t o e v a n g e l i c a l P r o -t e s t a n t i s m . F i r s t was the b e l i e f t h a t s a l v a t i o n was only a t t a i n a b l e by men who co u l d o f f e r t h e i r c r e a t o r a 47 l i f e which was p e r f e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o H i s laws; un-f o r t u n a t e l y , due t o o r i g i n a l s i n , man was d e f e c t i v e and was i n c a p a b l e of r e s i s t i n g a l l temptation t o s i n ; every man f e l l s h o r t of the e x a c t i n g standards of Heaven and was d e s e r v i n g of e t e r n a l damnation. Thus a Methodist f e l t humble and repentent when r e -minded of h i s s i n f u l s t a t e and of h i s u t t e r h e l p l e s s n e s s before God. However, these emotions were superceded by love because God o f f e r e d man e x a c t l y what he d i d not deserve : the promise of e t e r n a l l i f e . Magnanimously, God had given H i s o n l y Son, Jesus C h r i s t , t o pay f o r man's i m p e r f e c t i o n by d y i n g on the c r o s s ; t o become acceptable i n the s i g h t of God, man had o n l y t o accept the s a c r i f i c e which was o f f e r e d on h i s b e h a l f . I f thus redeemed, the s i n n e r was "born again;" he had r e c a p t u r e d the l o s t innocence of h i s b i r t h , and the gamut of emotion through which he was saved c o n s t i t u t e d h i s c onversion e x p e r i e n c e , the t r a d i t i o n a l requirement 13 f o r membership i n the Methodist Church. F o l l o w i n g "second b i r t h " , i t was incumbent upon redeemed men t o s t r i v e f o r s a n c t i f i c a t i o n or C h r i s t i a n p e r f e c t i o n . Although the j o y of s i n s f o r g i v e n gave them the power to r e s i s t outward s i n , t h e i r inward s p i r i t s c o u l d be cleansed only by a second v i s i t a t i o n of the Holy S p i r i t 14 which c o u l d be brought on by good works. N e v e r t h e l e s s , even a f t e r s a n c t i f i c a t i o n , f a i t h i n C h r i s t had c o n s t a n t l y 48 t o be renewed l e s t a s a v e d man " b a c k s l i d e " and l a p s e i n t o h i s o l d s t a t e o f s i n . However , a major change i n M e t h o d i s t e v a n g e l i s m by the 1890*s was i t s emphasis on a w o r l d l y p u r p o s e . W i t h the Upper C a n a d i a n c i r c u i t r i d e r ' s passage i n t o h i s t o r y , the M e t h o d i s t mind had been c a p t u r e d by an o p t i m i s t i c p o s t - m i l l e n i a l i s m : a b e l i e f t h a t the C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h e s w e r e , w i t h G o d ' s h e l p , b r i n g i n g IS about the Kingdom o f Heaven on e a r t h . ' "The message o f t o d a y , " a s s e r t e d a c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f the C h r i s t i a n G u a r d i a n , " is w i d e r t h a n the narrow p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n o f the p a s t , " 1 6 and l e a d i n g M e t h o d i s t s a n t i c i p a t e d the s u c c e s s o f the new o r i e n t a t i o n i n the n e a r f u t u r e . In 1901, R e v . A l e x a n d e r S u t h e r l a n d wrote t h a t "we a r e e n t e r i n g , w i t h the new c e n t u r y , the l a s t 17 d e c i s i v e s t a g e s o f the g r e a t w o r l d c o n f l i c t . " ' I n 1913, R e v . S . D . Chown, who had been e l e c t e d by the G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e o f 1910 t o s e r v e as the C h u r c h ' s s e c o n d G e n e r a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , seemed t o agree w i t h S u t h e r l a n d when o b s e r v i n g t h a t " i n the m o r a l h i s t o r y o f the w o r l d t o - d a y . . . the w o r l d i s m a r c h i n g f o r w a r d , and . . . the upward a n g l e o f i t s advance has 18 r e c e n t l y become more a c u t e . " B o t h men caught the s p i r i t o f the p o p u l a r m i s s i o n a r y s l o g a n of the d a y : "The E v a n g e l i z a t i o n o f the w o r l d i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n ! 1 1 Most Methodists were c o n f i d e n t t h a t the new w o r l d l y focus of evangelism was b r i n g i n g the Church 20 c l o s e r t o the t r u e s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n i t y . I n e f f e c t , Methodism and the C h r i s t i a n world were r e v e r t i n g t o f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s by r e a l i z i n g C h r i s t ' s great commission t o "Go . . . i n t o the w o r l d , and 21 preach the Gospel t o every c r e a t u r e . " Prom the wider s e c u l a r n o t i o n s of Anglo-Saxon s u p e r i o r i t y and the Anglo-Saxon's r o l e as a c i v i l i z e r of underdeveloped peoples, Methodists moved t o the b e l i e f t h a t the Anglo-Saxon race was God's instrument t o prepare the world f o r the second coming of C h r i s t . Why e l s e had the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n been given enormous wealth and power, i f not t o c a r r y out God's h i g h purpose? As w i t h the Jews of the Old Testament, God was the God of n a t i o n s as w e l l as of i n d i v i d u a l s . The f o l l o w i n g o r a t i o n by a Methodist from Mount F o r e s t , O n t a r i o was one of s e v e r a l e u l o g i e s which l e f t no doubt as t o who were God's chosen peoples i n the t w e n t i e t h century: The Anglo-Saxon r a c e , composed of the most e n e r g e t i c and e n t e r p r i s i n g people on e a r t h , i s under God, the foremost among the C h r i s t i a n i z i n g and c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s of the age. I t s i n s t i n c t f o r c o l o n i z a t i o n , i t s wonderful power of adaption t o c l i m a t i c , g e o g r a p h i c a l and s t r a t e g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of the c o u n t r i e s i t occupies; i t s e x c e p t i o n a l s k i l l i n de v e l o p i n g the resources of the f o r e s t , f i e l d and mine, l a k e , r i v e r and 50 sea; i t s commercial a c t i v i t y , i t s f a c u l t y of c o n t r o l l i n g c o u n c i l s , i n f l u e n c i n g men i n h i g h p l a c e s and low; and, above a l l , the p r a c t i c a l and e n l i g h t e n e d form of i t s C h r i s t i a n i t y , render i t , n o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g many s e r i o u s d e f e c t s , the mi s s i o n a r y race of the age.22 Despite Canada's s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n , Methodists expected t h e i r country t o shoulder a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the "white man's burden." Canada was a young country w i t h great resources which would soon be developed; the day would come when the nor t h e r n dominion would take a premier place i n the Anglo-Saxon sun and would r i v a l i t s southern neighbour i n wealth and power. I n the meantime, alo n g w i t h the churches i n B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada and other Anglo-Saxon and P r o t e s t a n t c o u n t r i e s , the Canadian Methodist Church p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the g r e a t e s t overseas m i s s i o n a r y 23 e f f o r t i n modern times. ^ I t s o b l i g a t i o n was a r r i v e d at m a thematically. Canada was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r about f o r t y m i l l i o n of the world's estimated one b i l l i o n u nevangelized people, based on the n a t i o n ' s per-centage of the world's Anglo-Saxon p o p u l a t i o n . Ac-c o r d i n g l y , w i t h a t h i r d of Canada's P r o t e s t a n t popu-l a t i o n , the Methodist Church assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o u r t e e n m i l l i o n heathen i n Japan and C h i n a — n o s m a l l t a s k f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a scant 300,000 24 f u l l members! The A s i a n m i s s i o n f i e l d s i n f l u e n c e d Methodist r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e enormously. More than 51 anything e l s e they f o s t e r e d a b e l i e f i n moral progress and i n the immediacy of the m i l l e n i u m ; these assumptions, i n t u r n , s t i m u l a t e d Canadian church l i f e by g i v i n g i t 25 a g l o b a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . ' Less conspicuous than the p o s t - m i l l e n i a l optimism, but n e v e r t h e l e s s important, was an undercurrent of f e a r : i f unevangelized, lands such as China c o u l d become a formidable menace t o 2G c i v i l i z a t i o n . Amidst the excitement of t h e i r c h i l i a s m , Metho-d i s t s were aware t h a t providence was a two-edged sword. T h e i r own country would f o r f e i t God's fa v o u r i f i t s people were al l o w e d t o " b a c k s l i d e " c o l l e c t i v e l y . A c c o r d i n g l y , the Church had s e v e r a l agencies w i t h which t o save s o u l s f o r the l i f e t o come and t o strengthen Canada f o r the w o r l d m i s s i o n a r y t a s k . The m i n i s t r y was foremost among the r e g u l a r , or day t o day, agencies through which the Church r e c l a i m e d b a c k s l i d e r s and converted s i n n e r s . I n sermons and i n v i s i t s t o i n d i v i d u a l s , the c l e r g y urged t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s t o embrace C h r i s t as t h e i r s a v i o u r i f they were not p r e s e n t l y doing so, and they were a s s i s t e d by l a y h e l p e r s : l o c a l preachers and e x h o r t e r s . Week4night prayer meetings supplemented m i n i s t e r i a l e f f o r t s t o deepen the s p i r i t u a l tone of the membership. Even more important i n t h i s r e s p e c t were c l a s s meetings which were intended f o r the mutual examination of s o u l s . 52 F i n a l l y , the Sunday schools aided c h i l d r e n and adolescents i n t h e i r s p i r i t u a l development and p r e -pared them f o r church membership. Other i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the Epworth Leagues a l s o served youth, but t h e i r r o l e seems t o have been p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l r a t h e r than e v a n g e l i c a l . i n a d d i t i o n t o the r e g u l a r agencies, the Church r e l i e d upon p e r i o d i c " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s , " which c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of evening meetings f o r a s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h of time. These r e v i v a l g a t h e r i n g s were an annual occurrence i n many r u r a l and s m a l l town churches, and they were u s u a l l y h e l d d u r i n g the w i n t e r 27 months when farm work was l e s s demanding. ' U n l i k e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l predecessors, the camp meetings, they were h e l d i n the church b u i l d i n g . They were normally conducted by the l o c a l p a s t o r , o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h the h e l p of neighbouring m i n i s t e r s . However, si n c e most c l e r g y were overburdened w i t h r e g u l a r d u t i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a n g e l i s t s were f r e q u e n t l y engaged f o r the o c c a s i o n . Most of these i t i n e r a n t s were Methodists who had been endorsed by the conferences i n which they laboured, and they enjoyed s e v e r a l ad-vantages. To begin w i t h , the p r o f e s s i o n a l ' s v e r y involvement i n e v a n g e l i s t i c work suggested t h a t he had an above average t a l e n t f o r i t , and sheer r e -p e t i t i o n of e f f o r t was c e r t a i n t o i n c r e a s e h i s s k i l l s 53 through time. Moreover, as a s t r a n g e r , he was probably l e s s i n h i b i t e d than the p a s t o r i n making p e r s o n a l appeals t o i n d i v i d u a l s . F i n a l l y , the i t i n e r a n t enjoyed the economy of e f f o r t t h a t comes w i t h s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; f o r example, A.H. Ranton, an e v a n g e l i s t who had f o r m e r l y tended bar i n Owen Sound, favoured s e v e r a l p r a i r i e communities w i t h h i s l e c t u r e "From Bar-room t o P u l p i t ; " i n c o n t r a s t , a l o c a l p a s t o r needed a number of l e c t u r e p r e p a r a t i o n s t o keep h i s message f r e s h . Proof of the p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a n g e l i s t ' s p o p u l a r i t y l a y i n the score or more i t i n e r a n t s who t o u r e d the O n t a r i o and p r a i r i e conferences i n the p e r i o d 1905 t o 1907 alone. The d u r a b i l i t y of some a t t e s t e d t o t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y as w e l l ; i n the autumn of 1907, the team of Revs. H.T. C r o s s l e y and John E. Hunter were 29 beginning t h e i r twenty-^fourth annual campaign. ' A few of the i t i n e r a n t s came from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n ; James Brown, "the g i a n t e v a n g e l i s t , " was a former New York C i t y policeman, and "the g i r l e v a n g e l i s t s , " Miss S t o r r and Miss Brakenbury, were 30 B r i t i s h g i r l s i n t h e i r t e e n s . However, most of the p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a n g e l i s t s i n the p r a i r i e and O n t a r i o conferences o r i g i n a t e d i n O n t a r i o . C r o s s l e y and Hunter were born i n York and Durham c o u n t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , 31 and both were graduates of V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e . Others 5 4 from O n t a r i o who were a c t i v e on the p r a i r i e s i n c l u d e d Rev. G.S. Hunt of Guelph; Rev. G.R. Turk, "the s i n g i n g e v a n g e l i s t , " and Rev. G.W. Kerby, the f u t u r e p a s t o r of C e n t r a l Methodist Church i n Ca l g a r y , who began t h e i r c a r e e r s as e v a n g e l i s t s i n Woodstock, Ont a r i o i n 1901; Miss M i l l i e Magwood of B r a n t f o r d ; and Revs. C.J. A t k i n s o n and McHerdy from T o r o n t o . ^ I n a d d i t i o n t o the " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s , " p r a i r i e Methodists o c c a s i o n a l l y h e l d camp meetings. These gatherings were h e l d outdoors i n the summer months and were preceded by e l a b o r a t e p r e p a r a t i o n s . A t y p i c a l t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y camp meeting was the f i v e day a f f a i r which was h e l d i n a l o c a l park at S o u r i s , •55 Manitoba i n 1901. y To make ready f o r the event, the grounds were c l e a r e d , p l a t f o r m s f o r the speakers and a f o r t y - v o i c e c h o i r were e r e c t e d , s e a t i n g f o r 1,000 people was arranged, e x t r a e a t i n g and s l e e p i n g f a c i l i t i e s were l a i d on and reduced r a i l w a y f a r e s were made a v a i l a b l e t o persons from o u t s i d e p o i n t s . "Sunday sch o o l day" on Wednesday opened proceedings, and some 90 persons heard an address on the s p i r i t u a l s i d e of t h i s work. Thursday and F r i d a y evenings were gi v e n over t o addresses and d i s c u s s i o n s on m i s s i o n s , although these p a r t s of the program were f o r c e d i n d o o r s on account of r a i n . F o r t u n a t e l y , the camp ground was usable on Saturday, the most important day, and a s u b s t a n t i a l crowd partook i n v i n t a g e Methodist s o u l -s a v i n g , r e p l e t e w i t h "red-hot" gospel messages and af t e r m e e t i n g s . On Sunday, 600 persons attended morning s e r v i c e s , and 45 gave testimony at the 54 " l o v e - f e a s t " which followed', f i n a l l y , 1,000 persons attended a dramatic c l o s i n g s e r v i c e i n the evening. However, the camp meetings were not a major p a r t of Methodist r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e . I n the p e r i o d 1896 t o 1914, only a dozen or so of these g a t h e r i n g s 55 were r e p o r t e d i n the C h r i s t i a n Guardian, ^ and, i n r e t r o s p e c t , they seem t o have been pale i m i t a t i o n s of the legendary camp meetings of the Upper Canadian f r o n t i e r . They were not h e l d t o compensate f o r shor-tages of church b u i l d i n g s and c l e r g y ; r a t h e r , they were conducted i n w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d areas which had p l e n t y of both, and the camp ground merely d u p l i c a t e d e x i s t i n g r e l i g i o u s f a c i l i t i e s ; i n e f f e c t , the camp meetings were " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s " moved outdoors. Yet the g a t h e r i n g s were s i g n i f i c a n t from a c u l t u r a l view-p o i n t . V i r t u a l l y a l l of them were h e l d i n the p r a i r i e conferences, and the v e r y l a c k of n e c e s s i t y f o r them showed the extent t o which p r a i r i e Methodists were attached t o o l d Onta r i o p a t t e r n s and were t r y i n g t o accomplish on a new f r o n t i e r what t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s had done on the o l d . F i n a l l y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o i r r e g u l a r e v a n g e l i s t i c 5 6 agencies, l a r g e , m u l t i - c h u r c h r e v i v a l meetings were i n a c l a s s of t h e i r own. U s u a l l y i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l and almost always run by p r o f e s s i o n a l s , these gather-i n g s dwarfed the o r d i n a r y " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s " i n s i z e and impact. For example, a Crossley-Hunter r e v i v a l at S o u r i s , Manitoba i n 1906 r e p o r t e d l y drew people from 2 5 t o 3 0 m i l e s around, destroyed 60% of the bar 36 trade and l e f t one h o t e l p r o p r i e t o r ready t o s e l l out. Behind t h i s success l a y s o l i d promotion by the Metho-d i s t and P r e s b y t e r i a n churches, the use of a r i n k which had been f l o o r e d and seated t o h o l d 2,000 people and "a l a r g e number of capable workers" who accompanied 37 C r o s s l e y and H u n t e r . A . H . Ranton's Z i o n Church r e -v i v a l i n Winnipeg was j u s t as i m p r e s s i v e ; h i s a r r i v a l was preceded by months of prayer and c o - o p e r a t i o n among a l l the Methodist churches of the c i t y , and the campaign opened w i t h a l a r g e c h o i r and up t o t h i r t e e n m i n i s t e r s on the p l a t f o r m at a time; e n q u i r y s e r v i c e s then harvested the g r a i n which Ranton's e f f o r t s had sown, 38 and Z i o n Church alone r e c e i v e d 8 5 new members. Although most of the p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a n g e l i s t s were Canadians, the most s p e c t a c u l a r of the b i g r e v i v a l s were conducted by famous e v a n g e l i s t i c teams from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . One such r e v i v a l meeting was h e l d i n Toronto's Massey H a l l i n 1906 by Dr. Torrey and C h a r l e s Alexander, a team which had won the accolades of the 57 Anglo-Saxon w o r l d ; i t s e q u a l l y well-known successor, the Chapman-Alexander team, v i s i t e d Winnipeg i n 1907 and Toronto i n 1911; i n the meantime, a famous B r i t i s h e v a n g e l i s t , Gypsey Smith, stormed s i n i n 39 Toronto i n 1909. The impact of the Torrey-Alexander m i s s i o n i n Toronto was f e l t throughout the Church. I n C a l g a r y , i n t e r e s t i n the Massey H a l l r a l l y p r o v i d e d the springboard f o r r e v i v a l s e r v i c e s a t C e n t r a l Metho-d i s t Church; under the s k i l l f u l d i r e c t i o n of Rev. G.W. Kerby, a v e t e r a n of the sawdust t r a i l , a s e v e n t y - f i v e v o i c e c h o i r sang the world-famous Alexander gospel songs, and 12-14 ,000 cards i m p r i n t e d w i t h Torrey's motto, "Get r i g h t w i t h God," were d i s t r i b u t e d among 40 the 15 ,000 people of the c i t y . I n Saskatchewan, Torrey*s motto was paraded through the s t r e e t s of Moose Jaw p r i o r t o three weeks of " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s , " and the G r e n f e l l Epworth League a l s o caught something of the i n s p i r a t i o n of the Torrey-Alexander m i s s i o n , and arranged f o r a Torrey-Alexander meeting. . . . The motto "Get Right.With God," i n l a r g e l e t t e r s , s t r e t c h e d r i g h t across the room. The programme c o n s i s t e d of sketches of the l i v e s of Dr. Torrey and Mr. Alexander: d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r e v a n g e l i s t i c l a b o u r s d u r i n g t h e i r w o r l d -wide t o u r and a l s o of the m i s s i o n i n Toronto. A s p e c i a l f e a t u r e was a message sent by Dr. Torrey, upon r e q u e s t , t o the League . . .41 Doubtless Torrey*s v i s i t t o Toronto was a l s o what prompted the P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s of Winnipeg t o 58 arrange the Chapman-Alexander mission f o r 1907. Thus a v a r i e t y of e v a n g e l i s t i c agencies were imparted to the p r a i r i e conferences i n the period 1896 to 1914. Some were developed i n co-operation with other Protestant denominations, and some were d i s t i n c t l y Methodist. Unfortunately, the f l e d g l i n g conferences i n the west also i n h e r i t e d serious theo-l o g i c a l problems which damaged t h e i r e v a n g e l i c a l power. To begin with, the Church's p o s t - m i l l e n i a l i s m was a source of weakness as w e l l as of strength. A few Methodists (most often the e l d e r l y ) warned that the Church had become so i n t e n t upon saving men c o l l e c t i v e l y that a c r i t i c a l neglect of i n d i v i d u a l s a l v a t i o n was 42 r e s u l t i n g . From t h e i r viewpoint, church members admired the e t h i c s which were exemplified by C h r i s t ' s l i f e on earth, but they had l o s t , or were l o s i n g , t h e i r conviction of s i n and of need f o r C h r i s t ' s atonement. As a Toronto Conference p a s t o r a l address lamented, "a mere change of purpose i s too often taken as the equi-valent of a change of heart; a mere reformation Cof 43 character] i s d i g n i f i e d with the name of conversion." However, the excesses of worldliness and c o l l e c -t i v i s m were often the by-products of forces which were even more deadly to conservative evangelism: higher c r i t i c i s m of the Bible and the s p i r i t of s c i e n t i f i c enquiry. Higher c r i t i c i s m was the examination of the 59 B i b l e i n the l i g h t of h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s ; coupled w i t h the s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s of Darwin, t h i s e x e r c i s e suggested t h a t much of the B i b l e was not l i t e r a l l y t r u e . The Old Testament was found t o have been a c o l l e c t i o n of laws and l i t e r a t u r e which had been compiled by s e v e r a l authors over a co n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of time. Consequently, the high e r c r i t i c s came t o view the Old Testament d e s c r i p t i o n s of s u p e r n a t u r a l e v e n t s — s u c h as the t a k i n g of Eve from Adam's r i b , the c o l l a p s e of J e r i c h o ' s w a l l s at the b l a s t of trumpets and E l i j a h ' s ascent t o Heaven i n a c h a r i o t of f i r e — a s i n s p i r e d legends r a t h e r 4 4 than as a c t u a l occurrences. I n the meantime, Darwin's theory of e v o l u t i o n c a s t doubt upon the B i b l i c a l account of man's f a l l . C o ntrary t o Genesis, man had not s l i p p e d from a s t a t e of p e r f e c t i o n ; r a t h e r , he had begun low down on the s c a l e of animal l i f e and had been r i s i n g ever s i n c e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s were enormous. I f o r i g i n a l s i n was a myth, what need had man of a r e -deemer? Moreover, how c o u l d evangelism t h r i v e when one of i t s major i n g r e d i e n t s — a c c e p t a n c e of the super-4 5 n a t u r a l — w a s c a l l e d i n t o question? ' Questions of t h i s nature were a l l the more compelling because of the p r e v a i l i n g s p i r i t of s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y , i n p a r t an outgrowth of n i n e t e e n t h century t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances. Since men were taught t o seek r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s 60 f o r phenomena which they encountered i n t h e i r s e c u l a r l i f e , many found i t i l l o g i c a l t o embrace r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s through f a i t h a l o n e , e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the negat i v e evidence p r o v i d e d by the h i g h e r c r i t i c s . ^ Rev. Nathanael Burwash, C h a n c e l l o r of V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y and Dean of the F a c u l t y of Theology, exem-p l i f i e d the response of the Methodist t h e o l o g i c a l 47 c o l l e g e s . As the new i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r r e n t s from Europe penetrated Canada v i a s e c u l a r magazines and j o u r n a l s i n the 1880*s Burwash t r i e d t o give h i s students a theology which c o u l d stand the t e s t of r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . He encouraged them t o accept l e g i t i m a t e B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m (proven r a t h e r than s p e c u l a t i v e ) and at the same time strove t o make them aware of the l i m i t s of human reason. H o p e f u l l y , the students emerged w i t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e s p e c t a b l e r e l i g i o n i n which e v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s had a p l a c e . Conservative l i t e r a l i s t s t r i e d t h e i r b e s t t o ward o f f the "new theology." Fundamentalist tendencies 48 remained s t r o n g i n r u r a l areas and among the e l d e r l y , and e l d e r l y , h i g h - p l a c e d o f f i c i a l s such as Rev. A l b e r t Carman, the General Superintendent, augmented t r a -d i t i o n a l i s t s t r e n g t h . The most s p e c t a c u l a r c o n f r o n -t a t i o n over h i g h e r c r i t i c i s m came i n 1 9 0 9 when Carman 61 took t o the pages of the Toronto Globe i n an attempt t o prevent the appointment of a modernist, Rev. George Jackson, t o the C h a i r of Old Testament Exegesis at V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e ; s i n c e d o c t r i n a l charges were nor-m a l l y considered i n Church c o u r t s , the p u b l i c a t t a c k on Jackson's views became f r o n t page news across 49 Canada. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Church at l a r g e had accommodated i t s e l f t o the "new theology." Jackson r e c e i v e d the appointment, and a motion t o remove him at the Toronto Conference of 1910 f a i l e d by 185 t o 84. Wealthy and i n f l u e n t i a l laymen c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l i t e r a l i s t d e f e a t . N.W. R o w e l l , Chester Massey, H.H. Fudger, A.E. Ames, Joseph F l a v e l l e and Senator G.A. Cox were among the prominent l a i t y of Toronto 50 who accepted moderate B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m . C o n d i t i o n s were s i m i l a r i n the western conferences. Amidst the Carman-Jackson c o n t r o v e r s y of 1909, a r e t i r e d Winnipeg m i n i s t e r , Rev. Henry Kenner, warned Carman t h a t Jackson's sympathizers i n c l u d e d Rev. W i l l i a m S p a r l i n g , p a s t o r of Grace Church, which had the l a r g e s t and w e a l t h i e s t Methodist congregation i n the c i t y ; Rev. S.P. Rose, the p a s t o r of Broadway S t r e e t Methodist Church, another p r e s t i g i o u s Winnipeg a p p o i n t -ment; and Rev. Salem B l a n d , who was P r o f e s s o r of New Testament Exegesis and Church H i s t o r y a t Wesley C o l l e g e from 1903 t o 1917.^ 1 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , when Kenner t r i e d 62 to b r i n g Bland before a Church court on a charge of unsound doctrine i n 1910, he found that the young clergy around him were " f u l l of Bland," so 52 much so that he was unable to get Bland to t r i a l . Rev. Andrew Stewart, who was appointed Professor of Old Testament Exegesis at Wesley College i n 1890, also accepted moderate B i b l i c a l criticism!;, J.H. R i d d e l l , whose career included p r i n c i p a l s h i p s at both Wesley and Alberta colleges, c r e d i t e d Stewart with keeping the west free of c r i s i s over the "new theology" through hi s sane i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s "of the Church's viewpoint 53 respecting the Old Testament." ^ In deference to the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t which caused the growth of the "new theology," Methodist evangelism had undergone an important change since the days of Upper Canada: i t had become l e s s emotional and more r a t i o n a l . The t r a n s i t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n the reports of r e v i v a l meetings i n the C h r i s t i a n Guardian. Although one account claimed wondrous r e s u l t s at a r u r a l r e v i v a l meeting i n the Toronto Conference i n 1904,- the reporter hastened to add that While every meeting was characterized by great power, there was no unnecessary excitement, proving that "the spread of s c r i p t u r a l h oliness" along old-fashioned Methodist l i n e s does not imply orxproduce nonsensical rant nor unseemly behavior.54 The tone of r e v i v a l meetings i n the p r a i r i e conferences was s i m i l a r . Among many examples which might be c i t e d 6 3 i s t h a t of Rev. G.S. Hunt, an e v a n g e l i s t from Guelph, who drew p r a i s e i n 1905 f o r conducting s e r v i c e s at K i l l a r n e y , Manitoba without "fads or e c c e n t r i c i t i e s . " ^ Despite the a d a p t i o n , the s p i r i t u a l power of the Church was badly damaged by B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m and the popular hunger f o r r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n , and j u s t - at the time when the Church was f a c e d w i t h enormous p h y s i c a l expansion i n the western conferences. Moreover, the m a t e r i a l i s m , urban s e c u l a r i s m and the r e l a t i v e l y weak s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s of p r a i r i e s o c i e t y r e i n f o r c e d the challenge t o the " o l d time r e l i g i o n . " The s o f t e n i n g of the Church's e v a n g e l i c a l punch c o u l d be seen i n the d e c l i n e of the r e g u l a r e v a n g e l i s t i c agencies i n the e a s t e r n conferences and i n the f a i l u r e of the Church t o r e a l l y e s t a b l i s h those agencies i n the west. To begin w i t h , the clergyman's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s a v i n g s o u l s was l i m i t e d by the growing m u l t i p l i c i t y of h i s d u t i e s , even i f h i s s p i r i t u a l outlook had not been a l t e r e d by formalism or B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m . ; I n a d d i t i o n t o preaching the word, he was o b l i g e d t o meet O f f i c i a l Boards, a t t e n d t r u s t e e meetings, be present at s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s , League s o c i a l s , L a d i e s A i d s o c i a l s , M i s s i o n Band and W.M.S. s o c i a l s , and he must d e l i v e r tea-meeting addresses. He must a l s o r a i s e church" and parsonage debts, and take s u p e r v i s i o n of a dozen d i f f e r e n t church funds . . . he must take charge of the prayer meeting and not f o r g e t the Sunday s c h o o l . He must be a prominent 64 fig u r e at a l l kinds of conventions. . . . he must conduct Local Option campaigns, and must prosecute a canvas f o r h i s church paper. He must v i s i t to the l i m i t of h i s nervous exhaustion. He must keep abreast of the times by reading one or two d a i l y papers, a Temperance paper, the Church paper, one or two t h e o l o g i c a l magazines. . . . For the sake of h i s health, he must do a l i t t l e gardening, a l i t t l e c y c l i n g . . .56 The d i s t r a c t i o n of the minister's attention from the s p i r i t u a l side of h i s work might have been l e s s serious had not l a y preachers been d e c l i n i n g i n importance at the same time. As the following table shows, l o c a l preachers were not decreasing i n number, but neither were t h e i r numbers r i s i n g , despite p e r s i s t e n t i n -creases i n church membership. CANADA PRAIRIES ONTARIO CHURCH L.P. EX. L.P. EX. L.P. EX. MEMBERSHIP 1898 2 ,352 1,031 268 82 1,768 1,663 435 280,537 291,895 1902 2,248 1 ,119 280 60 413 1906 2,416 1 ,190 441 86 1,642 442 317,717 1910 2,541 1,187 558 92 1 ,702 437 340 ,091 1914 2,586 1,021 556 57 1,631 321 368,992 Table 2: NUMBERS OF LOCAL PREACHERS AND EXHORTERS (LOCAL PREACHERS IN TRAINING) IN GENERAL CONFERENCE YEARS. LEGEND: L.P. = Local Preacher; EX.ii Exhorter. To appreciate the f u l l extent of the l o c a l preacher's irrelevance i n Canadian Methodism, other considerations must also be made. F i r s t l y , many of the p r a i r i e l o c a l preachers were B r i t i s h immigrants rather than indigenous products of the Canadian Church. B r i t i s h Methodism was h e a v i l y r e l i a n t upon l o c a l 65 preachers, and Methodist immigrants from B r i t a i n n a t u r a l l y brought t h i s t r a d i t i o n with them. Secondly, Rev. Charles Bishop of the A l b e r t a Conference main-tained that most l o c a l preachers were li c e n s e d as such a f t e r deciding to enter the mi n i s t r y rather 59 than before; thxs suggests that l a y preaching was of l i t t l e value as a nursery f o r clergy and that the i n s t i t u t i o n was of l i t t l e strength on i t s own. F i n a l l y , many l o c a l preachers performed none of the duties of t h e i r o f f i c e and were l o c a l preachers i n l i t t l e more than name. In 1896, Rev. A.C. Courtice, the e d i t o r of the C h r i s t i a n Guardian, estimated that l o c a l preachers would cease to e x i s t i f the Church chose to revoke the l i c e n c e s of those who had not preached i n the pre-ceding y e a r . ^ The same conclusion was reached i n 1906 by a committee of the General Conference.^ 1 I r o n i c a l l y , the malaise of lay preaching came when the agency could have compensated f o r a serious shortage of ministers i n the west, as several Methodists noted. However, the membership at large was prejudiced against lay preachers, and those from B r i t a i n c o n s i s t e n t l y 63 found that t h e i r services were not i n demand. What accounted f o r t h i s state of a f f a i r s ? In the p r a i r i e conferences and i n eastern Canada, com-mittees were appointed to f i n d an explanation. To the same end, a s p i r i t e d correspondence entered the pages 66 of the C h r i s t i a n Guardian. Some students of the problem suggested t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the average congregation had r i s e n over the years and t h a t church members had come t o regar d the l o c a l 64 preacher as an u n l e t t e r e d amateur. Others a t t r i b u t e d the d i s r e s p e c t t o the p r a c t i c e of l i c e n s i n g l o c a l preachers as a mark of honour or as a means of q u a l i -f y i n g a man t o s i t on h i s Q u a r t e r l y O f f i c i a l Board r a t h e r than on the b a s i s of h i s t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y such men were o f t e n u n w i l l i n g or unable t o preach, even i f c a l l e d upon t o do so. Another f a c t o r was the growing a f f l u e n c e of the Methodist membership, which f a c i l i -t a t e d a t r e n d from c i r c u i t s t o s t a t i o n s . ^ Congrerr g a t i o n s had become i n c r e a s i n g l y able t o a f f o r d a f u l l -time ordained clergyman, and the t r e n d towards s t a t i o n s was encouraged by the growing numbers of married men who were u n w i l l i n g t o accept the hardships of c i r c u i t l i f e . I n these circumstances, the need f o r l o c a l preachers had l e s s e n e d , and church members developed a b i a s i n favour of p r o f e s s i o n a l c l e r g y which they would not surrender even when l o c a l preachers c o u l d have been u s e f u l a g a i n . Although the d e c l i n e of the c i r c u i t o r g a n i z a t i o n had taken place e a r l i e r i n American metho-dism, the change was hastened i n Canadian Methodism by a development which was unique t o Canada: the Methodist union of 1884. E s p e c i a l l y i n O n t a r i o , the union had created such a surplus of ministers that small uneconomical c i r c u i t s and stations had been kept open merely to employ them.6'7 This too made l o c a l preachers superfluous and vulnerable to d i s d a i n from the membership, even when the expansion of the p r a i r i e f r o n t i e r made them p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l again. The demise of l a y preaching was accompanied by a sharp d e t e r i o r a t i o n of another e v a n g e l i s t i c agency: the c l a s s meeting. As the following table shows, the Church suffered dramatic losses of class leaders i n the period under study. ONTARIO PRAIRIES CANADA 1894 7 ,753 1898 5,781 (37) 356 (50) 7,309 (38) 1902 5,193 314 6 ,791 1906 4 ,307 248 5,611 1910 3 ,552 (68) 180 (239) 5,464 (62) 1914 2 ,571 168 3 ,511 Table 3: NUMBER OF CLASS LEADERS IN THE ONTARIO AND PRAIRIE CONFERENCES IN GENERAL CONFERENCE YEARS, WITH THE NUMBER OF CHURCH MEMBERS PER CLASS LEADER INDICATED IN PARENTHESES.68 With so few leaders, the cla s s meeting was unavoidably i n e f f e c t i v e , and few church members bothered to attend i t . Abstentions were p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n urban areas. In Hamilton, a survey found that only 15$ of the church members were e n r o l l e d i n classes and that 69 only h a l f of these attended. A number of f a c t o r s explained why the i n s t i t u t i o n had f a l l e n upon hard times. To begin with, the c l a s s 68 70 had been s t r i p p e d of many e a r l i e r f u n c t i o n s . ' No longer was the q u a r t e r l y c l a s s t i c k e t — o n c e the p r i n c i p a l c r e d e n t i a l of Methodism and a s i g n of the hol d e r ' s s p i r i t u a l h e a l t h — a t e s t of church membership. The c l a s s had a l s o ceased t o be the key u n i t of o r -g a n i z a t i o n f o r the r a i s i n g of church f i n a n c e s , and i t s e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s had been usurped by newer i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the Epworth Leagues, by the spread of l i t e r a c y and by the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t i e s , r e l i g i o u s p e r i o d i c a l s and forums. I n s h o r t , new Church machinery had made a s h e l l of the o l d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the d e c l i n e of the c l a s s meeting was r e l a t e d t o the i n c r e a s i n g l y w o r l d l y o r i e n t a t i o n of Methodist evangelism as w e l l . A committee of the General Conference which was i n v e s t i g a t i n g the problems of the c l a s s meeting observed i n 1910 t h a t " i n t r o s p e c t i o n , w i t h the ob j e c t of s a v i n g the s o u l .of,,the s u b j e c t , has i n these days, t o an almost u n i v e r s a l e x t e n t , g i v e n p l a c e t o earnest 71 a c t i v i t y f o r the s a l v a t i o n of one's neighbour."' Having l o s t t h e i r penchant f o r s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , Metho-d i s t s f e l t uncomfortable g i v i n g or l i s t e n i n g t o t e s t i -monies, and those who gave them were accused of t a l k i n g i n p l a t i t u d e s r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c a l l y of t h e i r 72 experiences d u r i n g the pr e v i o u s week.' F i n a l l y , as was^to be expected, young people were a l i e n a t e d from the c l a s s meeting because of i t s i n a b i l i t y t o a t t r a c t 69 73 young c l a s s l e a d e r s . Since the c l a s s meeting was c e a s i n g t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of Methodism i n e a s t e r n Canada, i t d i d not become e s t a b l i s h e d i n the west. As t a b l e 2 shows, the r a t i o of c l a s s l e a d e r s t o church members became so low i n the p r a i r i e conferences as t o be meaningless, and e n t i r e d i s t r i c t s were without these o f f i c i a l s . ' To the misfortune of the "old-time r e l i g i o n , " the e l d e r l y were the s t r o n g e s t supporters of the o l d ways, and they were l e s s l i k e l y than young people t o emigrate t o the p r a i r i e west. For the same reason, the week-night prayer meeting a l s o d e c l i n e d . I n 1910, a committee of the A l b e r t a Conference e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n l y 10% of the 73 membership attended t h i s means of grace r e g u l a r l y . , y Of a l l the r e g u l a r e v a n g e l i s t i c agencies, only the Sunday schools were i n a h e a l t h y p h y s i c a l s t a t e . However, even t h i s agency was l e s s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p r a i r i e conference than i n e a s t e r n Canada, i n p a r t because of the d i s t a n c e of many r u r a l c h i l d r e n from the church b u i l d i n g s . In 1903, a ve t e r a n Manitoba Conference p a s t o r , Rev. Henry Lewis, warned t h a t Sunday schools were o n l y h a l f as numerous as preaching p l a c e s and t h a t they were growing more s l o w l y than the Church as a w h o l e . ^ Methodist s t a t i s t i c s bore him out. As the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows, the number of Sunday schools was s m a l l e r i n r e l a t i o n t o the number of preaching p l a c e s 70 than i n O n t a r i o ; moreover, the p r a i r i e conferences were more dependent upon "union" Sunday schools (more than one denomination) than the On t a r i o con-f e r e n c e s , and denominational l o y a l t y was weakened a c c o r d i n g l y . CONFERENCE PREACHING SUNDAY UNION NUMBER OF CHILDREN PLACES SCHOOLS SCHOOLS AT UNION SCHOOLS. Toronto 55 445 43 796 London 453 442 32 492 Hamilton 417 397 42 640 Manitoba 352 187 97 1 ,430 Saskatchewan 630 258 115 1,724 A l b e r t a 585 246 67 846 Table 4 : PREACHING PLACES, SUNDAY SCHOOLS AND UNION SUNDAY SCHOOLS IN 1914 IN THREE ONTARIO CON-FERENCES AND IN THE PRAIRIE CONFERENCES.77 Despite the p h y s i c a l problems of the Sunday sc h o o l system i n the western conference, c o n s e r v a t i v e church members co u l d f i n d i n t e r n a l changes which were more d i s t u r b i n g . Throughout the Church, the theory of " C h r i s t i a n n u r t u r e " was d i s p l a c i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l view of the c h i l d and a l t e r i n g the purpose of the Sunday sch o o l i n the process. To the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t , the c h i l d was a l i t t l e savage who bore the curse of Adam's f a l l , and the proper f u n c t i o n of the Sunday s c h o o l was t o prepare the c h i l d f o r h i s conversion experience i n rpo order t h a t h i s s i n s might be f o r g i v e n . ' I n c o n t r a s t , the C h r i s t i a n n u r t u r i s t b e l i e v e d t h a t the c h i l d was b;©rn i n t o God's house and t h a t the Church's f u n c t i o n was merely t o keep him there through proper e d u c a t i o n . 71 Rev. Robert M i l l i k e n , P r i n c i p a l of Regina C o l l e g e , argued t h a t " C h r i s t i a n i t y i s r e a l l y an educative process whereby the s p i r i t of man may be t r a i n e d i n t o the h a t r e d of s i n and i n t o a corresponding love 79 of r i g h t e o u s n e s s . " ' ^ I f " s a l v a t i o n by educat i o n " was s u c c e s s f u l , the c h i l d would never be out of the church of God, and the conversion experience would be un-necessary. C h r i s t i a n nurture i n e v i t a b l y had a t t r a c t i o n s i n a church i n which the sense of s i n was low and i n which many had become s k e p t i c a l of the s u p e r n a t u r a l , an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the conversion experience. Thus M i l l i k e n * s address i n support of t h i s p h i l o s o p h y , given at a Manitoba Epworth League convention, was r e p r i n t e d OA i n the C h r i s t i a n Guardian by popular r e q u e s t . The same f a t e b e f e l l a s i m i l a r address which James Speak-man gave t o a convention of the A l b e r t a Conference 81 Epworth Leagues. Another symptom of the growing p o p u l a r i t y of C h r i s t i a n nurture was a r e s o l u t i o n of the Moose Jaw D i s t r i c t i n 1905 which recommended t h a t " a l l c h i l d r e n b a p t i z e d by our m i n i s t r y be accepted as 82 church members." The growth of the Epworth League movement, which was p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n purpose, was a f i n a l mani-f e s t a t i o n of the r e t r e a t of old-time v a l u e s w i t h i n the r e g u l a r agencies of the Church. For thousands of 72 Methodist young people, the Leagues took the place of the c l a s s meeting. By 1904, only a decade a f t e r the General Conference had imported t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t s membership t o t a l l e d 45,000, 83 p r i n c i p a l l y i n O n t a r i o but a l s o i n the west. ^ Young men's c l u b s a l s o became popular. A f t e r the founding of the f i r s t c l u b s i n Toronto, urban congregations "throughout the west came t o form them; i n 1908, the C h r i s t i a n Guardian r e p o r t e d t h a t the young men's a s s o c i a t i o n s had become as permanent a p a r t of the Church as the Epworth Leagues and t h a t every western 84 church of consequence would soon have one. C e n t r a l Methodist Church i n Calgary had t y p i c a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s young men: a p a r l o u r , w a i t i n g room, games room and 85 s i t t i n g room. ^ H o p e f u l l y these a t t r a c t i o n s would keep young Methodists out of p o o l rooms and dance h a l l s . Canadian Methodism had become ve r y i n w a r d - o r i e n t e d by the 1890's, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g i t s aggressiveness i n the f o r e i g n m i s s i o n f i e l d s . P a r t l y because i t s s o u l -s a v i n g power was waning and p a r t l y because most Canadians had a formal r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , the Church had l a r g e l y ceased t o p r o s e l y t i z e . I n c r e a s i n g l y , Methodist growth depended upon the c h i l d r e n of church members r a t h e r than upon unchurched a d u l t s . For example, the " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s " were not s u c c e s s f u l i n r e a c h i n g the unchurched. T h i s f a i l i n g was seldom a r t i c u l a t e d , and 73 i t was obscured by the c l i c h e s of the e v a n g e l i s t i c t r a d e ; r e p o r t s of r e v i v a l meetings i n v a r i a b l y r e -corded t h a t numbers had "accepted C h r i s t as t h e i r S a v i o u r , " or had "accepted the r i g h t hand of f e l l o w -s h i p , " but the o r i g i n s , of^the "seekers of a new l i f e " were seldom s p e c i f i e d . Yet there i s l i t t l e evidence t o r e f u t e the o p i n i o n of an e d i t o r i a l i n the C h r i s t i a n  Guardian t h a t the " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s " were "composed almost e n t i r e l y of those a l r e a d y d i r e c t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the C h u r c h . " ^ C e r t a i n l y the e v a n g e l i s t i c c l i c h e s are too vague t o warrant the assumption t h a t a l l who "took a stand f o r C h r i s t " had j u s t experienced conver-s i o n , and many were ^undoubtedly church members who were r e a f f i r m i n g t h e i r f a i t h or were " b a c k s l i d e r s " — c h u r c h a t t e n d e r s whose f a i t h had b r i e f l y lapsed.®^ The g r e a t e s t number of r e v i v a l converts were the c h i l d r e n of church members who had been groomed f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n by the Sunday s c h o o l . The importance of c h i l d r e n was c e r t a i n l y e v ident i n the more e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s of r e v i v a l meetings. As a r e p o r t of " s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s " i n the Saskatchewan Conference exclaimed, " i t d i d our h e a r t s good t o see the boys and g i r l s , members of C h r i s t i a n households, and our Sunday s c h o o l s , stand up and d e c l a r e themselves on oo the Lord's s i d e . . . . " Methodist l e a d e r s who h e l d a l o o f from C h r i s t i a n n u r t u r e assumed t h a t c o n v e r s i o n 74 • would occur by the l a t e teens or not at a l l . A com-mittee of the Manitoba Conference r e p o r t e d t h a t the " n a t u r a l c r i s i s " u s u a l l y took place at about twelve years of age; Rev. C.H. H u e s t i s , a Methodist youth ex-p e r t , a n t i c i p a t e d c o n v e r s i o n at "the dawn of puberty;" d u r i n g h i s years as an e v a n g e l i s t , Rev. G.W. Kerby p u b l i s h e d a c h a r t which suggested the i m p r o b a b i l i t y of conversion a f t e r age 20; f i n a l l y , an anonymous veter a n m i n i s t e r i n an e a s t e r n c i t y f i x e d the average age of d e c i s i o n at s i x t e e n years and three months f o r boys 89 and a b i t younger f o r g i r l s . " A f t e r t h a t age," he continued, "conversions become l e s s f r e q u e n t , u n t i l , i n maturer years . . . they almost cease." The problem w i t h a d u l t s , he concluded, was t h a t T h e i r n o t i o n s are s e t , t h e i r i d e a s formed, t h e i r h a b i t s s e t t l e d . . . . I f they are not a l r e a d y C h r i s t i a n . . . i t i s a g a i n s t the law of averages, t h a t anything you say . . . w i l l i n f l u e n c e them s a v i n g l y and l e a d them t o r e l i g i o u s d e c i s i o n . They have become, many of them, Gospel hardened.' 0 As the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show, Church and Sunday s c h o o l s t a t i s t i c s bore out o p i n i o n s concerning the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between c h i l d r e n and c o n v e r s i o n s . ONTARIO PRAIRIE CANADA CONFERENCES CONFERENCES 1898 40.5 4717 36.0 1902 51-0 52.0 51.7 1906 52.0 54.6 46 .7 1910 60.0 64.0 54.0 1914 60.0 no data no data Table 5: PERCENTAGE OF CONVERTS (CHURCH MEMBERS WHO WERE RECEIVED ON TRIAL) WHO CAME FROM THE 0_ SUNDAY SCHOOLS IN GENERAL CONFERENCE YEARS." 1 75 CANADA ONTARIO CONFERENCES PRAIRIE CONFERENCES 1898 1902 1906 1910 1914- no data 23.5 24.6 30.4 30.7 no data 24.0 24.6 30.0 31.6 no data 19.6 25.4 26.4 27.9 Table 6: PE-R CENT AGE OF SUNDAY SCHOOL MEMBERS WHO WERE ALSO CHURCH MEMBERS IN GENERAL CON-FERENCE YEARS.92 As can be seen, the dependence upon the Sunday schools f o r growth was i n c r e a s i n g throughout the Church i n the p e r i o d under study. The Sunday schools were s l i g h t l y l e s s important i n the p r a i r i e conferences than i n O n t a r i o p a r t l y because the p r a i r i e Sunday school system was l e s s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Moreover, numbers of a d u l t s from other denominations attended Methodist churches i n areas which t h e i r own church had not reached. I n 1912, an A l b e r t a Conference p a s t o r remarked t h a t many of the people on the c i r c u i t s of the conference had never been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Methodism 93 b e f o r e . ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r o l e of c h i l d r e n i n western Methodist growth was s u b s t a n t i a l and i n c r e a s i n g , i n accordance w i t h growth p a t t e r n s i n the e a s t . Throughout the p e r i o d under study, the member-sh i p of the Canadian Methodist Church remained p r e -dominantly r u r a l , d e s p i t e the u r b a n i z a t i o n which was o v e r t a k i n g Canada and e s p e c i a l l y O n t a r i o . Although the Methodist Church was the l a r g e s t P r o t e s t a n t deno-mination i n the Dominion i n 1911, A n g l i c a n s and 76 P r e s b y t e r i a n s were more numerous i n the n a t i o n ' s f i v e l a r g e s t c i t i e s — T o r o n t o , M o n t r e a l , Winnipeg, Vancouver and Ottawa—and i n C a l g a r y , Regina and Edmonton as w e l l . Methodists were a l s o outnumbered by A n g l i c a n s i n medium-sized Ont a r i o c i t i e s such as London and K i n g s t o n ; o n l y i n B r a n t f o r d were they as s t r o n g p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y as they were i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g 94 Canada as a whole. Moreover, Methodism was l e s s of an establishment church than i t s A n g l i c a n and Presby-t e r i a n r i v a l s . F o r example, the 28 deputy m i n i s t e r s of the f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e i n c l u d e d 11 A n g l i c a n s , 9 Roman C a t h o l i c s and 5 P r e s b y t e r i a n s — b u t not a 95 s i n g l e M e t hodist. S i m i l a r l y , Methodists were under-represented i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e ; although 30.5% of O n t a r i o ' s p o p u l a t i o n was Methodist i n 1901, o n l y 21% of the O n t a r i o members of P a r l i a m e n t whose r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i a b l e were Methodist, and Qi A n g l i c a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r were h e a v i l y over-represented. However, the s o c i o l o g i c a l make-up of