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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Occupation and adult education of non-farm residents in rural British Columbia Rusnell, Albert Dale 1970

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i  OCCUPATION AND ADULT EDUCATION OF NON-FARM IN RURAL BRITISH  RESIDENTS  COLUMBIA  by ALBERT DALE RUSNELL B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1964 B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n (Adult  Education)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  THE  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1970  ii In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  his  of  this  written  thesis  degree  at  shall  agree  scholarly  by  this  the University  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission  It  financial  of  Date  July 27.  1970  of  Columbia,  British  by  for  gain  shall  Columbia  that  not  the  requirements  reference copying  t h e Head  i s understood  Adult Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  for extensive  permission.  Department  fulfilment  available  may be g r a n t e d  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  of  of  I agree and this  be a l l o w e d  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  without  my  iii ABSTRACT Because o f i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l change.in work s i t u a t i o n s , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has begun t o f o c u s more., upon t h e r o l e " o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n u r b a n i z e d s o c i e t i e s . The purpose o f t h i s - s t u d y was t o a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and measures o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , c a t e g o r y , m o b i l i t y , and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n - a m o n g - non-farm r e s i d e n t s o f two r u r a l a r e a s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West, r e p r e s e n t i n g a r e a s o f l o w and h i g h socio-economic s t a n d i n g , were - s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s from f i f t e e n a r e a s surveyed.by t h e ARDA Canada Land I n v e n t o r y Socio-Economic P r o j e c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s completed i n 1967 s u r v e y s o f t h o s e a r e a s were used as t h e s o u r c e . o f d a t a . E x c l u d e d were • s c h e d u l e s f o r f a r m e r s , r e t i r e d , and unemployed persons.' The West Kootenay sample c o n s i s t e d o f 104 r e s p o n d e n t s , twenty o f whom were p a r t i c i p a n t s - i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w h i l e Vanderhoof West was r e p r e s e n t e d by 130 r e s p o n d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g twenty-four p a r t i c i p a n t s . Opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n appeared t o be e q u a l between the. two a r e a s , although the areas d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h respect t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o u r s e s among f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s . d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from non-. p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e y had h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s t h a n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n both survey a r e a s . West Kootenay p a r t i c i p a n t s e x h i b i t e d upward s e q u e n t i a l • j o b m o b i l i t y t o a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n d i d West Kootenay n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . A g e n e r a l t r e n d f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o have g r e a t e r upward o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y t h a n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , was e v i d e n t , a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t always s i g n i f i c a n t . When p a r t i c i p a n t s i n b o t h a r e a s were compared, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found w i t h r e s p e c t t o any of t h e f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s .  iv  The r e s u l t s of the study suggest t h a t i n a d u l t education  participation  by non-farm, r e s i d e n t s of r u r a l  British-  Columbia i s not s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d ' with o c c u p a t i o n a l measures.  . ,  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  • •'  •• . ' PAGE  INTRODUCTION  . . . . . ,  Purpose  2  Hypotheses  2  Procedure The  2  '  Samples  3  . .  Dependent V a r i a b l e s  3  Data A n a l y s i s  4  D e f i n i t i o n s and L i m i t a t i o n s  5  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  5  Limitations  7 7  P l a n o f the Study Footnotes II.  -  8 9  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Rural-Urban D i f f e r e n c e s  9  Descriptive Variables '  11  Occupational  Status  12  Occupational  Category  13  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  14  . . . t. . . . . .  Occupational M o b i l i t y  .  19  THE AREAS STUDIED P h y s i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n and Settlement The  Patterns  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Adult Education School  Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Distance' t o Schools  . . .  M i g r a t i o n Into Survey Areas Footnotes  .  19 20  People  Night  14 16  Footnotes III.  1  24 24 26 28 30  vi CHAPTER IV.  PAGE  OCCUPATIONAL VARIABLES AND ADULT EDUCATION . . . Occupational Status  3 1  O c c u p a t i o n a l Category  33  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  34  Occupational M o b i l i t y  4 0  . . . .  S e q u e n t i a l Job M o b i l i t y  4 0  . .  Intergeneration Mobility  4 2  M o b i l i t y ' Score  4 4 50  Footnotes V.  3 1  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS • Summary  . . . . . . .  51 51  . . . . . . . . .  51  The Areas S t u d i e d  P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s . . . . . 53 West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s 5 4 Conclusions  .  . . . . . . .  54  BIBLIOGRAPHY . .'  56  APPENDIX'A- . . .  61  APPENDIX B  \63  APPENDIX C  6 6  APPENDIX D APPENDIX E . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .  71 8 0  vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  -  . PAGE  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f West Kootenay and Vanderhoof - West Samples By I n d u s t r y o f Occupation  - II.  . . . . 22  C h i Square and Z Values f o r West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West Sample D i f f e r e n c e s On Selected Characteristics  III.  . . . . . . . . . . .  Night School Courses O f f e r e d i n West Kootenay . . 25  and Vanderhoof West IV.  23  Summary D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Number o f Night  School  Courses O f f e r e d i n West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West From May 1,  1964 t o May  1,  1967 V.  26  Distances Travelled  t o Elementary and  Secondary Schools VI.  27  •  D i s t r i b u t i o n ' of'West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s  and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s By .29  Length o f Time i n Area VII. VIII.  S t a t i s t i c s f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l Status  . . . . . . . .  32  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f West Kootenay and Vanderhoof • West Samples By Grouped O c c u p a t i o n a l Category . 34  IX.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s  and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s By 35  O c c u p a t i o n a l iCategory . X. XI.  36  Statistics f o rJob'Satisfaction C h i Square Values and T R a t i o  Probability  L e v e l s f o r Comparisons By P o s i t i o n s o f Agreement on Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Statements XII.  . . . 38  Response D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s i n West Kootenay f o r the Job  S a t i s f a c t i o n Statement " I Enjoy My Work  More Than My L e i s u r e Time"  39  viii  TABLE XIII.  PAGE D i s t r i b u t i o n o f West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s By  XIV. XV.  D i r e c t i o n o f S e q u e n t i a l Job M o b i l i t y  41  S t a t i s t i c s f o r S e q u e n t i a l Job M o b i l i t y  43  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f West Kootenay and Vanderhoof - West P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s By  XVI. XVII.  D i r e c t i o n of Intergeneration M o b i l i t y  . . . ... 45  S t a t i s t i c s f o r Intergeneration Mobility  . . . •'. . . 4 6  D i s t r i b u t i o n of West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s By  XVIII.  D i r e c t i o n o f . M o b i l i t y Score  48  S t a t i s t i c s f o r M o b i l i t y Score  49  DEDICATION my wife Linda  X  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere  thanks are extended t o Dr. C o o l i e Verner f o r  h i s h e l p and guidance throughout t h i s study, and t o Dr. Seong Soo  Lee and Mr. James Thornton f o r t h e i r  assistance  as  members o f the committee. Also very much a p p r e c i a t e d was the c o n t i n u i n g guidance o f Dr. Gary D i c k i n s o n , Al Cartier, Education,  and the a s s i s t a n c e o f Mr.  Community Programs Branch, Department o f i n o b t a i n i n g government r e c o r d s .  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION U r b a n i z a t i o n has become an i n c r e a s i n g l y dominant phenomenon of modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , accompanied by an emphasis on l a r g e , i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l systems composed of i s o l a t e d but i n t e r r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e changes at i n d i v i d u a l and group l e v e l s . At the  adaptive  individual  l e v e l , urban s o c i e t y ' s complex t e c h n o l o g i c a l environment has a l t e r e d the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r o l e i n the community  and  maintains  productive  constant  pressure  on him to i n c r e a s e h i s  value i n the work world. As a r e s u l t there i s o f t e n  little  p e r s o n a l energy or i n c l i n a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n community a f f a i r s . At the same time, i n s t i t u t i o n s  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s attempt to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group  l i f e to counteract  the  isolation  c r e a t e d by u r b a n i z a t i o n . Campaigns are waged to encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an e f f o r t to overcome the b a r r i e r s e x i s t i n g i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l environment, but these •achieve  only i n d i f f e r e n t  suecess7  In company with other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , education  generally adult  attempts to i n c r e a s e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  i n d i v i d u a l s . Consequently, the a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n is  of v i t a l i n t e r e s t . Such a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a measure of  success  or f a i l u r e i n reaching target''populations, i n d i c a t e s  the need f o r changes i n the design  and  conduct of  educational  program's to meet the needs of p a r t i c u l a r ^ p o p u l a t i o n s , p r o v i d e s guidance to meet the educational^ needs of new d i f f e r e n t groups of people i n the future.\There  and and  appears to  be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n a l programs for  a d u l t s and knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Therefore,  such c l i e n t e l e a n a l y s i s has been an i n c r e a s i n g l y  u s e f u l trend i n research.  2  PURPOSE  The purpose  o f t h i s study was t o assess the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between each o f f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n and between areas o f low and h i g h socio-economic British  status i n r u r a l  Columbia. HYPOTHESES Two n u l l hypotheses  (1)  were t e s t e d :  There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , category, m o b i l i t y , or job s a t i s f a c t i o n . (2)  There a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  between p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e s i d e n t i n areas of low and h i g h socio-economic o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , category,  s t a t u s with r e s p e c t t o m o b i l i t y , or j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n .  PROCEDURE  Data f o r the study were d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w schedules obtained i n the ARDA Canada Land Inventory P r o j e c t #49009,"'" which was a socio-economic  survey o f  2  s e v e r a l r u r a l areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia. o v e r a l l socio-economic  On the b a s i s o f  standing and s i m i l a r i t y o f sample  s i z e , two survey areas were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s : West Kootenay with r e l a t i v e l y low, and Vanderhoof West with r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s t a t u s . Those two areas were chosen  from  among f i f t e e n ARDA.survey areas ranked a c c o r d i n g t o r e l a t i v e socio-economic  standing by D i c k i n s o n and Davison because o f  the p o t e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f socio-economic community a t t i t u d e s o f acceptance continuing education.  3  status with  or r e j e c t i o n  toward  3 The  Samples Interviews with r u r a l household heads i n both areas  were completed i n May  of 1967.  Sampling and  interviewing  procedures f o r the ARDA p r o j e c t i n c l u d i n g the areas f o r the present  selected  study have been d e t a i l e d elsewhere.^  A random sample of r u r a l l o t s  was  s e l e c t e d and  interviews  were sought with a l l household heads r e s i d i n g on  the  chosen l o t s . The (215  cent  West Kootenay survey c o n s i s t e d of a 12.5 l o t s ) sample of 1722  l o t s , from which 143 5  with household heads were completed. was  concerned with o c c u p a t i o n a l  t e n unemployed  were withdrawn so t h a t  the  respondents.  In Vanderhoof West, a f i f t e e n per interviewed.^  study  v a r i a b l e s of non-farm  r e s u l t i n g sample c o n s i s t e d of 104 l o t s r e s u l t e d i n 449  interviews  As the present  r e s i d e n t s , nine farmers, twenty r e t i r e d , and persons reporting no occupation  per  l o t s on which 217  cent  sample of 2993  household heads were  A f t e r s i x t y - s i x farmers, s i x t e e n r e t i r e d ,  f i v e unemployed persons were e l i m i n a t e d from the l i s t , respondents c o n s t i t u t e d the sample f o r t h i s  and 130  study.  Dependent V a r i a b l e s Four o c c u p a t i o n a l  f a c t o r s were i n c l u d e d as dependent  v a r i a b l e s i n the study because of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n with m o t i v a t i o n Occupational various to be  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t  status, incorporating  education.  concepts of p r e s t i g e  other rewards d e r i v e d from an occupation,  c o r r e l a t e d with f a c t o r s such as income and  education  and  appears l e v e l of  which are known to be a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a d u l t education.  Occupational  category p o s s i b l y  involves  such f a c t o r s as degree of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change,  opportunities  f o r advancement, and  education  expectations  among d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s and  of c o n t i n u i n g  work groups. The r e l a t i o n s h i p  of job s a t i s f a c t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t  education  p o t e n t i a l l y t e s t s the d i v e r s e r a t i o n a l e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education  to improve or advance i n  a well-liked  4  job or to escape from job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n by  changing  jobs.  Both elements of o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y p o t e n t i a l l y i m p l i c a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education  as a f u n c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l  e f f o r t to change s t a t u s . S e q u e n t i a l  job m o b i l i t y measures  change of s t a t u s over the most recent intergeneration mobility occupational  job change,  and  measures change from the  s t a t u s . In a s p e c u l a t i v e attempt to  combine  both m o b i l i t y e f f e c t s , an o v e r a l l m o b i l i t y score c a l c u l a t e d which had scores  the e f f e c t of a r t i f i c i a l l y  of i n d i v i d u a l s who  had  father's was  dispersing  t o t a l l y upward or downward  h i s t o r i e s of m o b i l i t y . Data  Analysis The  first  stage of the a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of  an  assessment of the r e l a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education Education records  w i t h i n each area using Department of concerning  night  school  c l a s s e s sponsored 7  by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the  survey areas.  were c l a s s i f i e d by f u n c t i o n according suggested by Bryson,  and  to the  secondary schools were compared as was  recent m i g r a t i o n  titles  categories  d i s t r i b u t i o n s by f u n c t i o n were  t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Distances and  Course  to elementary  the amount of  i n t o the areas to determine another f a c e t  of the a c c e s s i b i l i t y to courses.  The  second stage of  the  a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of t e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s and  non-participants  four occupational  w i t h i n each area with r e s p e c t  to  the  v a r i a b l e s . Thirdly,, d i f f e r e n c e s between  p a r t i c i p a n t s from the low and were t e s t e d with r e s p e c t  h i g h socio-economic areas  to the  same f o u r  occupational  variables. Chi square t e s t s were used to t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s among occupational  c a t e g o r i e s , p o s i t i o n s of agreement f o r job  s a t i s f a c t i o n statements, d i r e c t i o n of m o b i l i t y scores,  and  5 v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f samples. When expected f r e q u e n c i e s  9 were c o n s i d e r e d too low, Yates c o r r e c t i o n was used. D i f f e r e n c e s among o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s scores, m o b i l i t y scores, d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d , and job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s were t e s t e d by a z approximation from Wilcoxon's Rank-Sum t e s t . A c o r r e c t i o n f o r t i e s was r e q u i r e d i n the formula."'"  0  When c h i square v a l u e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n by p o s i t i o n o f agreement with job s a t i s f a c t i o n d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between samples,  statements  a t r a t i o was-used  to t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s between p r o p o r t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , t o t o t a l sample s e l e c t i n g g i v e n p o s i t i o n s on job s a t i s f a c t i o n statements."""""" The purpose o f the t r a t i o was t o compare r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s on d i s t r i b u t i o n s without r e g a r d t o d i s t r i b u t i o n s from which p a r t i c i p a n t s were drawn. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l used was .05, and when .,  d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t at g r e a t e r than the .05 l e v e l they were r e p o r t e d not s i g n i f i c a n t . DEFINITIONS AND LIMITATIONS D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Survey Area o f Low or High Socio-Economic  Standing  ARDA survey areas ranked e i t h e r near .the bottom.or near the t o p o f the l i s t  o f f i f t e e n ARDA survey areas ranked  r e l a t i v e t o each other with r e s p e c t t o socio-economic  12 standing by D i c k i n s o n and Davison. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d i n v e r y broad terms. S p e c i f i c courses taken by respondents were not a s c e r t a i n e d and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n each of the survey areas were only roughly estimated. Respondents answering- "Yes" t o the I n t e r v i e w Schedule q u e s t i o n , "Have you taken any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n courses i n the y e a r s ? " were d e f i n e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s .  l a s t three  6 F u n c t i o n s of Adult Night  Education  s c h o o l courses were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to 1  Bryson's statement  of f i v e f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t . e d u c a t i o n :  (1)  r e m e d i a l (2)- o c c u p a t i o n a l (3)  (5)  political.  r e l a t i o n a l (4)  liberal  Occupation The broad category o f work performed by an i n d i v i d u a l and d e f i n e d by an o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e i n the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual: Census o f Canada,  1961."^  Job The p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n h e l d by an i n d i v i d u a l within h i s occupation. Occupational  Status  The r e l a t i v e measure of income, education, and prestige  a s s o c i a t e d with an occupation, as i n d i c a t e d f o r  an o c c u p a t i o n on the I 9 6 I B l i s h e n Index of O c c u p a t i o n a l Status. Occupational  Category  The major o c c u p a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n an occupation  was  c l a s s i f i e d under by the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual: Census of Canada, Job  1961.  Satisfaction  The o v e r a l l i n t e r e s t , enjoyment, and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l f o r h i s p r i n c i p a l job by a t o t a l sum of ranks f o r nine statements r e p r e s e n t i n g the B r a y f i e l d  17 and Rothe Index o f Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . Occupational M o b i l i t y Three measures o f m o b i l i t y were used. S e q u e n t i a l j o b - m o b i l i t y - the a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e between o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s scores a s s i g n e d to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s present and previous jobs.  first  I n t e r g e n e r a t i o n m o b i l i t y - the a r i t h m e t i c  d i f f e r e n c e between o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s scores a s s i g n e d t o  7 an i n d i v i d u a l ' s present job and h i s f a t h e r ' s job. M o b i l i t y score - the a r i t h m e t i c sum  of the d i f f e r e n c e s from the two  p r e v i o u s measures. Limitations O c c u p a t i o n a l Measures The exact, nature o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s work may have been a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d i n the job t i t l e , r e s u l t subsequent  o c c u p a t i o n a l measures may  misleading.  not  and as a  have been .*.'-.• '•'  R u r a l Non-Farm People Respondents were a l l non-farm f i n d i n g s o f the study may other than non-farm  r u r a l residents,  and  have no a p p l i c a b i l i t y to groups  p o p u l a t i o n s i n the sample areas. PLAN OF THE STUDY  The r e p o r t of the study i s presented i n f i v e chapters. Chapter One  i n c l u d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n with e x p l a n a t i o n s of  purposes, procedures, and terms. Chapter Two  i s comprised  of a review o f r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . In Chapter Three, a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l nature o f the areas s t u d i e d , a comparison o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f respondents i n the samples,  and an a n a l y s i s of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the areas are p r o v i d e d . Chapter Four i s composed o f the main a n a l y s i s , t e s t i n g the four' o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s with r e s p e c t to the hypotheses o f the study, and Chapter F i v e p r o v i d e s a summary and conclusions.  8  FOOTNOTES 1.  ARDA r e p r e s e n t s " A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l Development: A c t " .  2. C. Verner, Planning.and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study (Ottawa: R u r a l Development Branch, Department o f F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, 1 9 6 7 ) . .... . . 3. J.G. D i c k i n s o n and C V . Davison, " I d e n t i f y i n g •:• . . Socio-Economic D i s p a r i t i e s Among R u r a l Areas" ( u n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h r e p o r t , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 6 9 ) . 4.  Verner, CJD.  cit.  5. C. Verner and J.G. D i c k i n s o n , A Socio-Economic Survey o f the West Kootenay Area i n B r i t i s h Columbia^ Report #6 ARDA Canada Land Inventory P r o j e c t #49009, (Tancouver, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 8 ) . 6. C. Verner, J.G. D i c k i n s o n , and D.V. Anderson, A Socio-Economic Survey of the Vanderhoof West Area i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Report #7, ARDA Canada Land Inventory P r o j e c t #49009, (Vancouver, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I 9 6 8 ) . .  /  7. West Kootenay School D i s t r i c t s were as f o l l o w s : #7, Nelson; #8, Slocan; #9, C a s t l e g a r ; #10, Nakusp; #11, T r a i l ; and #86, Creston. Vanderhoof West School D i s t r i c t s were as f o l l o w s : #53, Terrace; #54, Smithers; #55, Burns Lake; and #56, Vanderhoof. 8. L. Bryson, Adult Education, (Boston: American Book Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , pp.29-47. 9. When g r e a t e r than 20$ o f expected f r e q u e n c i e s were l e s s than 5, Yates c o r r e c t i o n was used. 10. See Appendix B f o r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum T e s t . 11.  See Appendix B f o r the t r a t i o formulae.  12.  D i c k i n s o n and Davison, £p_.  13. 14. 1961,  cit.  Bryson, op. • c i t . , pp.29-47. O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual: (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 1 ) .  Census of Canada,  15. B.R. B l i s h e n , "A Socio-Economic Index f o r Occupations i n Canada", The Canadian Review o f S o c i o l o g y and Anthropology  4: 4 1 - 5 3 ,  16.  19W.  O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual,  op. c i t .  17. A.H. B r a y f i e l d and H.F. Rothe, "An Index o f Job S a t i s f a c t i o n " , J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Psychology, 35: 307-311,  1951.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education  and v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s have been  documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e , however, many of the f i n d i n g s may  not be a p p l i c a b l e to the p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d here.  sample of r u r a l , non-farm, employed household heads used, t h e r e f o r e the study d i f f e r e d i n s e t t i n g and  A was  sample  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from many other s t u d i e s , and because of t h i s the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from these other may  be i n v a l i d when a p p l i e d to the present  studies  study.  RURAL-URBAN DIFFERENCES Although Douglah and Moss found no  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . r a t e s between r u r a l and more urban p l a c e s of residence,"*" and  other r e p o r t s  claimed  l e s s e n i n g r u r a l - u r b a n d i f f e r e n c e s with i n c r e a s i n g  evidence  2  of r u r a l u r b a n i z a t i o n ,  many l a r g e s c a l e s t u d i e s have  r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between r u r a l - a n d urban p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education.  Johnstone and  determined t h a t twenty-three per cent of t h e i r  Rivera total  n a t i o n a l sample compared to only s i x t e e n per cent  of 3  p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s i d e d i n s m a l l towns and r u r a l S i m i l a r l y , P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r Education r e p o r t e d t h a t forty-two  areas. i n Canada  per cent of the sample compared  to only twenty-four per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d i n r u r a l areas and p o p u l a t i o n centers under t e n t h o u s a n d .  4  A n a l y z i n g the 1957 United S t a t e s P o p u l a t i o n Survey, Booth found t h a t n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were more l i k e l y to l i v e i n r u r a l areas, where c o l l e g e - e d u c a t e d  residents, i n particular, 5 e x h i b i t e d even l e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n than normally expected.  10 E c o l o g i c a l and demographic f a c t o r s have been c i t e d as r e s p o n s i b l e i n p a r t f o r low r a t e s of r u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Brunner s t a t e d t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y and p r o x i m i t y t o for  adult education  areas,  i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but 0  centers rural  according  t o G i f f e n , were, l a c k i n g many p u b l i c and 7 educational f a c i l i t i e s . Loomis suggests t h a t , " I n g e n e r a l ,  t h e more r u r a l the a r e a , the more d i s a d v a n t a g e d i t w i l l i n non-vocational and  adult education  Newberry c l a i m e d  facilities.  ", and  be  Verner  r u r a l non-farm r e s i d e n t s , were l e a s t Q  a d e q u a t e l y served by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . D i c k i n s o n suggested t h a t the r e a s o n s f o r such a s i t u a t i o n i n c l u d e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and economic problems o f program maintenance i n s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d areas."'" T r a v e l l i n g distances to service centers i n r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbia were found not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by Goard,"'""'" but i n a s t u d y o f Pemberton V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, D i c k i n s o n r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e from n i g h t s c h o o l , and the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d t o s c h o o l s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p a r t i c i p a n t s and 12 non-participants. D i c k i n s o n and V e r n e r , r e p o r t i n g f u r t h e r on Pemberton V a l l e y , s t a t e d t h a t d i s t a n c e t o a c t i v i t i e s i n f l u e n c e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n but was not the most i m p o r t a n t 13 barrier. These f i n d i n g s , c o n s i d e r i n g the g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s to s e r v i c e s i n r u r a l areas, provide f u r t h e r p l a u s i b i l i t y f o r lower r u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o the p r e s e n t study were comments by V e r n e r and Newberry t h a t r u r a l communities had fewer c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s among p e o p l e , and because o f t h i s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not l i m i t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r segments of the population."'" F u r t h e r , t h e s e a u t h o r s c l a i m e d t h a t r u r a l p e o p l e were l e s s c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by o c c u p a t i o n t h a n urban r e s i d e n t s , c a u s i n g l e s s i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n 15 t o a r i s e from o c c u p a t i o n . 0  y  4  11  DESCRIPTIVE VARIABLES The  extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education  was  r e l a t e d to such d e s c r i p t i v e f a c t o r s as income, occupation, education,  socio-economic  s t a t u s , and age  reports."'"  Almost without  exception, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s  p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with higher"income,  i n numerous occupations  h i g h e r s t a t u s , h i g h e r l e v e l s of f o r m a l education, combinations  of  and  of these f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g toward higher 17  socio-economic  status.  to be the most important  Formal education was  considered  i n d i c a t o r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  by  s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g Douglah and Moss,"'" Brunner,"'" 20 8  and London, Wenkert, and Hagstrom.  9  Knox and Videbeck  considered s t a t u s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s combining s e v e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e s more important 21 to p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  than i s o l a t e d v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g  E x c e p t i o n s to some of the  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s were noted,  however. In  previous  Pemberton Valley, :  D i c k i n s o n found occupation, education, and income not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a t i o n of 22 r u r a l non-farm household heads, and London and Carey noted t h a t the h i g h e s t socio-economic s t a t u s e s were not 23 a c t i v e i n a d u l t education. Age,  when r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education,  g e n e r a l l y shows a s t e a d i l y r i s i n g  curve to middle  age,  f o l l o w e d by a drop i n l a t e r y e a r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada t a b u l a t e d f i f t y - s i x per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s between age t w e n t y - f i v e and f o r t y - f o u r only 1 5 . 3  per cent over age  forty-five.  Brunner s t a t e d  t h a t the l a r g e s t group of p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n the 25 range t h i r t y to f o r t y - f o u r , t h a t age was was  age  and Verner and Booth noted  not a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n but  h i g h from the e a r l y  and  participation  t h i r t i e s to e a r l y fifties. ° 2  12  OCCUPATIONAL  STATUS  A degree o f c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e between c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n t o l a r g e indicating  s t a t u s a n d more r e f i n e d g r o u p s  category o f occupation. F o r the purposes  groups  indicating of the present  review, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education t o o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was l i m i t e d t o c o m p a r i s o n s and b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  of - white  that white  collar  o c c u p a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be more p r e s t i g e o u s . Almost  a l l such  comparisons  indicate, that white  p a r t i c i p a t e more t h a n b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s .  collar  Johnstone  and  R i v e r a c a l c u l a t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s o f t h i r t y - t w o per cent f o r white  c o l l a r , and s e v e n t e e n p e r cent f o r b l u e c o l l a r 27 respondents. When c o n t r o l l e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a n d i n c o m e , white c o l l a r workers continued t o e x h i b i t h i g h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s than blue c o l l a r workers 28 income l e v e l .  a t e v e r y e d u c a t i o n a l and  L o n d o n , Wenkert,. a n d H a g s t r o m , i n a n u r b a n  s e t t i n g found p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s o f n i n e t e e n p e r cent f o r upper white  collar,  f o u r t e e n p e r cent f o r lower white  e l e v e n p e r cent f o r upper b l u e c o l l a r , 29 lower b l u e c o l l a r employees.  collar,  and n i n e p e r cent f o r  Working i n another  urban  s e t t i n g , K a p l a n wrote,. " I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t by a n d l a r g e t h o s e p e r s o n s who were e n g a g e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g more f o r m a l o r a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n , . t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s ,  participated  i n e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s t o a g r e a t e r degree t h a n t h o s e engaged i n o c c u p a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g l e s s of t h i s  kind."  training  3 0  P a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t h e r e p o r t o f G o a r d a n d D i c k i n s o n , who c o m p a r e d a m a t c h e d s a m p l e o f r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbia  household  head  participants.and  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s on m e a s u r e s o f 1958 B l i s h e n S c a l e 31 32 occupational status ratings.  '  They f o u n d a  significantly  h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s l e v e l among p a r t i c i p a n t s non-participants.  than  13 OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY A l a r g e number of r e p o r t s r e l a t i n g occupation to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education c l a s s i f i e d  participants  i n t o broad o c c u p a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s . No g e n e r a l l y accepted categorization  scheme was  e v i d e n t , and the number and  i n c l u s i v e n e s s of c a t e g o r i e s v a r i e d widely. A m a j o r i t y of the s t u d i e s considered only p a r t i c i p a n t s i n s e l e c t e d courses or agencies and d i d not d e a l w i t h n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . Only area surveys were considered r e l e v a n t to the present  review..  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada r e p o r t e d managerial  and p r o f e s s i o n a l , and  c l e r i c a l categories greatly  o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d among p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r 33  numbers i n the l a b o r f o r c e .  London, Wenkert, and Hagstrom  c a l c u l a t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of twenty-two per cent f o r p r o f e s s i o n s , s i x t e e n per cent f o r managers, middle and  c l e r i c a l and  s a l e s c a t e g o r i e s , twelve  service,  per cent f o r  s k i l l e d workers, but only s i x per cent f o r foremen and .five per cent f o r l a b o r e r s . p r o f e s s i o n a l s comprised but only twelve  Johnstone and R i v e r a d i s c o v e r e d  twenty-three  per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s  per cent of the t o t a l sample, while o p e r a t i v e s  were t e n per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s but seventeen the sample, and l a b o r e r s were two 3  but. f i v e per cent of the sample.  per cent of  per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s 5  In a sample of t h i r t y - f i v e  thousand from the U n i t e d S t a t e s Census, Holden found  twenty-  f i v e per cent of p a r t i c i p a n t s were from p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , . w h i c h made up only nine per cent of the t o t a l sample; eleven per cent were o p e r a t i v e s , a  category  comprising twenty per cent of the sample; and f o u r per  cent  were l a b o r e r s , a group making up t e n per cent of the  total  sample.  non-  30  Booth c a l c u l a t e d r a t i o s of p a r t i c i p a n t s to  p a r t i c i p a n t s from 1957  United States.Census ;  data,  and  r e p o r t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l workers most a c t i v e ,  with  14  a r a t i o of .301.  Managers, o f f i c i a l s ,  second, with a r a t i o of .116,  ' and  and  and  s e r v i c e workers,  operatives,  ,  '.  37  l a b o r e r s were l e a s t a c t i v e with very The  p r o p r i e t o r s were  low  ratios.  f o u r surveys c i t e d i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l  agreement  t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and managerial groups are, most a c t i v e i n a d u l t education,  and  operatives  and  laborers  are l e a s t a c t i v e . JOB :  Very l i t t l e  SATISFACTION  research  was  evident  concerning  r e l a t i o n s h i p between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and a d u l t education,  participation in  although numerous, s t u d i e s r e l a t e d job  s a t i s f a c t i o n to v a r i o u s Johnstone and  R i v e r a and  occupational  v a r i a b l e s . Studies  by London, Wenkert, and  both suggested p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education 38 evident  the  among more d i s s a t i s f i e d workers.  r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbia, Goard and  by  Hagstrom was  more  However, i n  Dickinson  i n separate  s t u d i e s both found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e • 39 measures of job s a t i s f a c t i o n . reported  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were  by Douglah and Moss, who  stated that  adjustment i n terms of job s a t i s f a c t i o n had  occupational  no  significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . ^ OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY Occupational  m o b i l i t y was  study because of such f a c t o r s as  noted, to be d i f f i c u l t r e g r e s s i o n toward  mean on i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n m o b i l i t y and operating  levels.^  Evidence f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g e n e r a l s t a t u s l e v e l s was  to  the  d i f f e r e n t i a l factors  at d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n a t i n g s t a t u s  l a r g e degree of o c c u p a t i o n a l  0  1  indicated a  changing between d i f f e r e n t  normal i n American s o c i e t y , making'mobility  measures crude at best.  In one  study t e s t i n g f o u r d i f f e r e n t  15 r a t i o n a l e s f o r e f f e c t s o f m o b i l i t y , upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a c o n c l u s i o n was reached of no e f f e c t over the long run. Only two s t u d i e s concerning  adult-"-education  and m o b i l i t y  were found. Johnstone and R i v e r a r e p o r t e d t h a t young with h i g h m o b i l i t y e x p e c t a t i o n s  had higher  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult" e d u c a t i o n , and  4 4  •  men  r a t e s of  and London, Wenkert,  Hagstrom concluded, "those a s p i r i n g t o a s k i l l e d manual  job have the highest  r a t e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , while those  a s p i r i n g t o the l e s s - s k i l l e d  occupations ( c l e r i c a l and s a l e s ,  A-5 semi- and u n s k i l l e d manual) have markedly low r a t e s . " e v a l u a t i n g these s t u d i e s , i t was concluded t h a t  desired,  expected, and a c t u a l m o b i l i t y were d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t phenomena.  In  16  FOOTNOTES 1. M. Douglah and G. Moss, " D i f f e r e n t i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n P a t t e r n s of A d u l t s of Low and High E d u c a t i o n a l Attainments" Adult Education 18: 247-259, 1968, p. 253.. 2. C. Verner and J . Newberry, "The Nature of Adult . Participation" Adult E d u c a t i o n ; 8: 202-222, 1 9 6 8 , p.211; J . London and J.T. Carey, "Adult Education and S o c i e t y " Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research' 2 9 : 237-245, 1959, p.237. 3-. J.W. C. Johnstone and R.J. R i v e r a , V o l u n t e e r s f o r Learning (Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g , 1965) p.77.4. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r Education i n Canada (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963), p.15. • 5. A. Booth, "A Demographic C o n s i d e r a t i o n of NonP a r t i c i p a t i o n " Adult Education 11: 223-229, 1961, p.224. 6. E. deS. Brunner, et . a l . , An Overview of AdultEducation Research (Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U.S.A., 1 9 5 9 ) , p.97. J. P.J. G i f f e n , "Adult Education and the R u r a l Community" Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science 13:  533-544, 1947,  p.535.  .  "8. C P . Loomis " R u r a l Adult Education-The O v e r a l l P i c t u r e " R u r a l S o c i a l Systems and Adult Education, CP. Loomis, et a l . , (The Michigan State C o l l e g e Press, 1 9 5 3 ) , P«332. '9.  Verner and Newberry, OJD. c i t . , p. 219.  10. J.G. D i c k i n s o n , " R u r a l Adult Education" (unpublished r e s e a r c h manuscript, F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 7 0 ) , p . l . "11. D.S. Goard, "An A n a l y s i s of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n R u r a l Adult E d u c a t i o n " (unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 6 8 ) , p.42. 12. J.G. D i c k i n s o n , ¥An A n a l y t i c a l Survey of the Pemberton V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h Columbia with S p e c i a l Reference to Adult E d u c a t i o n " (unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 6 8 ) , p.223. •13. J.G. Dickinson.and C. Verner, Community S t r u c t u r e and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education, (Vancouver: F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 9 ) , p.35.  17  14.  V e r n e r and Newberry, op_. c i t . , p. 2 1 1 .  15.  I b i d . , p.209.  16. E.H. M i z r u c h i and L.M. V a n a r i a , "Who P a r t i c i p a t e s i n >Adult E d u c a t i o n ? " Adult Education 10: 141-143, I960; V e r n e r and Newberry, ojo. c i t . ; Brunner, op_. c i t . ; D.S. Goard and J.G. D i c k i n s o n , TTTe I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n and Age on . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n R u r a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , (Vancouver: F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 8 ) . 17. J . London, " A t t i t u d e s Toward A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by S o c i a l Class" Adult Education 13: 2 2 6 - 2 3 3 , 1963; H . . M i l l e r , P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Adults i n Education: A F o r c e - F i e l d A n a l y s i s ( C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , B o s t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1967).; A.C. C l a r k e , VThe Use o f Leisure- • and i t s R e l a t i o n t o . L e v e l s o f O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 2 1 : 3 0 1 - 3 0 7 , 1956; A.B. Knox and R. V i d e b e c k , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and A d u l t L i f e C y c l e " Adult Education 13: 102-121, 1963. 18.  Douglah and Moss, ojo. c i t . , p. 2 5 6 .  19.  Brunner, ojo. c i t . ,  p.96.  20. J . London, R. Wenkert, and W.0. Hagstrom, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s , (Survey R e s e a r c h Center, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1 9 6 3 ) , p.110.,21.  Knox and V i d e b e c k , ojo. c i t . . , p. 107.  22.  D i c k i n s o n , 1 9 6 8 , ojo. c i t . ,  23.  London 'and Carey, ojo. c i t . , p . 2 4 1 .  24.  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, op.  25.  Brunner, ojo. c i t . , p.97.  p.205.  ,  cit.,p,12..  1  26. C. V e r n e r and A. Booth, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , ( C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d R e s e a r c h i n E d u c a t i o n , Washington, 1 9 6 4 ) , p.28. 27-  Johnstone, and R i v e r a , ojo. c i t . , p . 9 7 .  28.  Ibid.,  29.  London, Wenkert, and Hagstrom, jojo. c i t . , p . 4 1 /  pp.98-99.  30. A.A. K a p l a n , Socio-Economic Circumstances and A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n . C e r t a i n C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s , (Teachers College., Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 4 3 ) , p. 2 3 .  18  31.  Goard and D i c k i n s o n , oj>.  c i t . , p. 20.  32. B.-R. B l i s h e n , "The C o n s t r u c t i o n "and Use "of An" O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e " , Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e - 24: 519-531, 1958. ' [ ~ 33«  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, op_. c i t . ,  34.  London, Wenkert, and Hagstrom, OJD. c i t . , p.41.  35.  Johnstone and R i v e r a , op. c i t . ,  p.12.  p.75.  36. J.B. Holden, "A Survey o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t Education Classes", Adult Leadership 10: 258-260, 1<?5'8, p.259. 37.  Booth, £p_. c i t . , p. 225.  38. Johnstone and R i v e r a , O J D . c i t ; , p.453; Wenkert, and Hagstrom, op_. c i t . , p. 113.  London,  39.  Goard, ojo. c i t . , P«35; D i c k i n s o n , 19 68, ojo. c i t . , p. 205.  40.,'  Douglah and Moss, . OJD. c i t . , p. 253.  41. O.D. Duncan and R.W. Hodge, " E d u c a t i o n a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l M o b i l i t y : A R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s ' ! , The ...American J o u r n a l o f . S o c i o l o g y .68: 629-644, 1963., pp.634, 6 4 0 . ~~ 42. S.M. L i p s e t and R. Bendix, " S o c i a l M o b i l i t y and. O c c u p a t i o n a l Career P a t t e r n s " , American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y 57: 366-373 and 494-504, 1952, p.502. 43. R.F. C u r t i s , " O c c u p a t i o n a l M o b i l i t y and Membership i n ' F o r m a l V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s : A Note on R e s e a r c h " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review . 24: 846-848, 1959, p.848. 44.  Johnstone and R i v e r a , £p_. c i t . , p. 10.  45.  London, Wenkert, and Hagstrom, O J D . c i t . , p . 1 1 4 .  CHAPTER I I I THE AREAS STUDIED The ARDA s u r v e y a r e a s chosen f o r t h e study were West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West."*" A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e a r e a s w i t h r e s p e c t t o topography.,,., g e o g r a p h i c s i z e , p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , and economic  base, s i m i l a r i t i e s  were e v i d e n t w i t h .respect t o s e t t l e m e n t personal  p a t t e r n s and'  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e non-farm r e s p o n d e n t s  sampled. W e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d n i g h t s c h o o l programs  operated'  w i t h i n each a r e a , but d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d among i n d i v i d u a l school d i s t r i c t s with respect to p r o v i s i o n f o r continuing education  so t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n were u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n and between t h e two s u r v e y  areas.  PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS • West Kootenay c o n s i s t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8300 square m i l e s i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The topography i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by narrow v a l l e y s s e p a r a t e d by s t e e p mountains, and t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was some s e v e n t y thousand people i n 1967. A m a j o r i t y o f t h e people r e s i d e near f o u r major c i t i e s : T r a i l , C a s t l e g a r , N e l s o n , and. C r e s t o n . The a r e a was o r i g i n a l l y developed under a m i n i n g economy, and l i t t l e a g r i c u l t u r a l development e x i s t s except near C r e s t o n . A p u l p m i l l and s a w m i l l a r e l o c a t e d i n C a s t l e g a r , T r a i l m a i n t a i n s Cominco's l a r g e s m e l t i n g o p e r a t i o n as w e l l as Trans-Canada highway t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s , and N e l s o n i s t h e major e d u c a t i o n a l , f i n a n c i a l , and administrative  center.  The Vanderhoof West a r e a i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y much l a r g e r t h a n West Kootenay and g e n e r a l l y l i e s w i t h i n f i f t y  20 miles' on e i t h e r s i d e o f Highway•Sixteen i n c e n t r a l Columbia. I t s western r e g i o n i s mountainous,  British  and a p l a t e a u  of  rolling hills  of  approximately t w e n t y - f i v e thousand i s concentrated near  the  composes the e a s t e r n s e c t i o n . A p o p u l a t i o n  main centers o f Vanderhoof, F o r t St.' James, Burns Lake,  Smithers, and T e r r a c e . Farming i s not predominant the  short growing season and poor s o i l  due t o  c o n d i t i o n s , but  f o r e s t r y i s a major i n d u s t r y . Tourism i s a growing throughout the area and T e r r a c e i s a major  industry  transportation  center. THE PEOPLE The West Kootenay sample  consisted of ninety-eight  males and s i x females. Of these, n i n e t y - f i v e were married, two were s i n g l e , and seven were d i v o r c e d , widowed-, or separated. The mean age o f the sample was 44.8 and the mean e d u c a t i o n was 8 . 6 years o f s c h o o l completed with the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ranging from u n i v e r s i t y degree t o grade f i v e o r l e s s . The mean income o f the sample was $5278, with f o u r respondents r e p o r t i n g income over $10,000. Occupations r e p o r t e d by respondents were d i s t r i b u t e d among s e v e r a l i n d u s t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g f o r e s t r y , mining, s e r v i c e , 2 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and c o n s t r u c t i o n . The Vanderhoof West sample was made up o f 129 men and one woman, o f whom 120 were married, s i x were s i n g l e , and f o u r were widowed, d i v o r c e d , dr separated. The mean age was 41.0 and the mean e d u c a t i o n was 9.5 y e a r s o f s c h o o l completed w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ranging from u n i v e r s i t y degree t o grade f i v e o r l e s s . Mean income f o r the-sample was $5734, i n c l u d i n g , f o u r s a l a r i e s above $10,000, two o f which were $50,000 and $60,000. As i n West Kootenay, occupations were d i s t r i b u t e d among s e v e r a l i n d u s t r i e s , but Vanderhoof West d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from West Kootenay  21.  with r e s p e c t t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of occupations among i n d u s t r i e s . Table I i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c h i square value o f 15.84  was  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . The major d i f f e r e n c e s between samples  c o n s i s t e d of Vanderhoof West's lower p r o p o r t i o n of  mining occupations and h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n occupations compared to- the d i s t r i b u t i o n of occupations i n West Respondents  Kootenay. from both areas were compared.with  respect  to s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the purpose o f a s c e r t a i n i n g the degree o f s i m i l a r i t y between samples. As i s shown i n Table I I , only seven among the twenty two  characteristics  3 examined were found t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y between samples. D i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n completed were due to a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of West Kootenay respondents r e p o r t i n g a low e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and the l a c k o f respondents i n West reporting further t r a i n i n g a f t e r formal schooling  contributed  to another s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between samples.  Three  m i g r a t i o n f a c t o r s c o n s t i t u t e d a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s between areas, as most West Kootenay  Kootenay  significant  respondents  had l i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r i n t h e i r area, few were born o u t s i d e Canada and many were born i n the area, and most had not migrated at a l l or had not moved from B r i t i s h  Columbia.  In comparison, the Vanderhoof West respondents c o n s i s t e d of few long-term r e s i d e n t s and many recent migrants from other areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia and from o u t s i d e Canada. The g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of Vanderhoof West respondents not having a telephone i n the home and the g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d to work by West Kootenay respondents c o n s t i t u t e d the remaining s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a r e a s . ^  22  TABLE I DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY INDUSTRY OF OCCUPATION  Industry-  West Kootenay  Vanderhoof West  No.  No.  1°  3  2.9  4  3.0  F o r e s t r y and Secondary F o r e s t r y  38  36.5  40  30.8  Mining  16  15.4  6  4.6  23  22.1  50  38.5  17  16.4  14  10.8'  7  6.7  16  12.3  104  100.0  130  100.0  A g r i c u l t u r e and Secondary A g r i c u l t u r e  Service,  Transportation  Construction R e c r e a t i o n , Other  Total  X = 2  1 5 . 8 4 df = 5  P  <  .01  23 TABLE I I CHI SQUARE AND Z VALUES FOR WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLE DIFFERENCES ON SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS  Characteristic  Test  Age  df .  P  4.02  2  >.05  8.14  3  <.05  2.87  2  >.05  T r a i n i n g A f t e r Formal School  11.53  1  < .001  Time L i v e d i n Area  48.84  3  <.001  Area D i r e c t l y M i g r a t e d From  31.51  3  <.001  Area o f B i r t h  28.95  <.001  5.40  3 2  0.08  1  >.05  12.67  1  <.001  Own a Car  O.63  1  >.05  Take the Newspaper  1.07  1  >.05  Years i n Occupation  4.57  >.05  Self-Employed i n Main Job  2.48  3 1 .  Work a t Secondary Job  2.27  1  >.05  Work a t T h i r d Job  0.01  1  >.05  Recently Changed t o New Job  0.89  1  >.05  Education  X  Value  1  2  Completed  M a r r i t a l Status  Father's Training Formal S c h o o l i n g  After  Own a Radio Own a Telephone  Distance t o Elementary School  Z  >.05  >.05  -1.13  >.05  D i s t a n c e t o Secondary School  0.35  >.05  D i s t a n c e t o Work  2.30  ^.05  Average D i s t a n c e t o S e r v i c e s • Income  -0.94 1.03  >.05 . >.05  1. Values o f Z were approximated using Wilcoxon's Rank-Sum T e s t .  24  OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADULT EDUCATION O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education i n West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West were compared with'.respect to types o f courses o f f e r e d , and number and hours o f courses o f f e r e d r e l a t i v e t o the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n the two areas. P r o x i m i t y o f respondents  t o schools and extent o f  recent m i g r a t i o n i n t o the areas by respondents  were a l s o  examined as f u r t h e r f a c t o r s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Night School Courses Assumptions were made t h a t n i g h t s c h o o l courses were the primary  source o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n r u r a l areas of.  B r i t i s h Columbia, and t h a t e q u a l i t y o f , o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t e d f o r another main source,  correspondence  courses. When n i g h t  s c h o o l courses were considered, s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n West Kootenay were found t o o f f e r a g r e a t e r number o f courses than s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n Vanderhoof West over the t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d preceding the survey. Table I I I i l l u s t r a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r West Kootenay's 355 and Vanderhoof West's 2 6 0 courses. When a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s were considered, however, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  found  between areas with r e s p e c t t o r e l a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , measured as number of courses o r  course-hours  per person. As i s shown i n Table IV the types o f courses a c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n were unevenly two survey areas, and the c h i square  d i s t r i b u t e d between the value o f 4 6 . 9 1 i n d i c a t e d  the d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . West Kootenay s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s emphasized Remedial and L i b e r a l f u n c t i o n s while Vanderhoof West s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s concentrated more on the O c c u p a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n than those i n West Kootenay.  TABLE I I I NIGHT SCHOOL COURSES OFFERED IN WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST Total  Course Functions-^  School D i s t r i c t  Remedial  Occupational Relational Political  No. Hours  No...  17 0 .'•'0 0 59 7  429 0 0 0 1342 144  18 2 1 1 17 7  83  1915  46  30 13 4 5  1111 354 56 98  52  1619  Hours  Population Age 20-64  Liberal  No. Bourses No. Hours per Person . per Person  No. Hours No. Hours  West Kootenay #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #86  Nelson Slocan Castlegar Nakusp Trail Creston  Totals  85 0 0 20 84 37  1554 0 0 375 1556 702  120 2 •1 21 160 51  2384 64 64 417 3275 1086  7965 1655 5924 1566 12877 5245  .0150 .0012 .0001 .0134 .0124 .0097  1188  226  4187  355  7290  35232  (. 0 1 0 0 )  48 20 6 20  3237 797 172 455  55 44 9 6  1240 891 134 76  133 77 19 31  55BB 2042 362 629  65732936 2361 3377  94  4661  2341  260  8621  401 64 64 42 377 240.  .2993 .0386 .0108 .2662 .2543 .2070 3  (.2069)  Vanderhoof West #53 #54 #55 #56  Terrace Smithers Burns Lake Vanderhoof  Totals  114  Number o f Courses per Person Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test : W  n  15247 = 26'  n=4  m=6  .0202 .0262 .0080 .0091  .8501 .6955 .1533 .1862  (.0170)  (.5654)  P  >.05  Number o f Course :-Hours per Person Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test: W=26 n=4 m=6 P >.05 1. O c c u p a t i o n a l course data i s missing f o r the 1965-1966 term i n both areas. 2. E f f e c t i v e date of p o p u l a t i o n data i s June, 1966. Indians on r e s e r v e s are excluded. Age Group D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia s.Population by School D i s t r i c t s . V i c t o r i a : Government o f the-Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. 3. Figures i n brackets are not column totals. 1  26 TABLE IV SUMMARY DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF NIGHT SCHOOL COURSES OFFERED IN WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST FROM MAY  1964  Area  1,  t o MAY 1, 1967  Remedial  Course F u n c t i o n Occupational Liberal Relational Political  No.  i  No.  No.  i  Total  No.  f  West Kootenay  83  23.4  46  1 2 . 9 ' 226  6 3 . 7 355 1 0 0 . 0  Vanderhoof West  52  20.0  94  3 6 . 2 114  4 3 . 8 260 1 0 0 . 0  X  2  = 46.91  df = 2  <.001  p  D i s t a n c e t o Schools The usually  p r o x i m i t y o f respondents t o night s c h o o l  offered  different  courses,  i n l o c a l s c h o o l s , was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  between area samples. West Kootenay respondents  t r a v e l l e d a mean d i s t a n c e o f 3 . 4 m i l e s t o elementary s c h o o l , and Vanderhoof West respondents t r a v e l l e d a mean d i s t a n c e of 4 . 1 m i l e s . As i s shown i n Table V, p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n West  Kootenay had a g r e a t e r mean d i s t a n c e t o t r a v e l than nonparticipants,  but p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n Vanderhoof West had a  l e s s e r mean d i s t a n c e t o t r a v e l than n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The mean differences  i n d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d between p a r t i c i p a n t s and  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e s s than one-half m i l e i n both and were assumed t o be not important study.  Overall  areas  f o r the purposes o f t h i s  samples d i d not d i f f e r , s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each  other, as i n d i c a t e d  by the z score o f - 1 . 1 3 .  Similarly,  d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d t o secondary schools were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different  between samples, as i n d i c a t e d  by a z score o f 0 . 3 5 .  27 TABLE V DISTANCES TRAVELLED TO ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS  Elementary School  Secondary  School  West Kootenay  Vanderhoof West  West Kootenay  Vanderhoof West  14  12  15  3.8  6.6  6.0  2 . 8  6.9  3.2  51  45  25  8.4  8.6 7.7  Participants Number  Mean D i s t a n c e 3.7 Stand. Dev.  1.7  5  Non-Parti c i p a n t s Number  51  Mean D i s t a n c e 3 . 3  4.2  Stand. Dev.  2.7  4.0  5.9  65  63  60  30  Mean D i s t a n c e 3 . 4  4.1  8.0  8.2  2.5  3.8  6.1  7.2  '  Total Number Stand. Dev.  Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test R e s u l t s f o r D i f f e r e n c e s Between Areas Elementary  Secondary  W  3959.5  2771.0  n  65  60  m  63  30  n  2T  5024  567.5  z  -1.13  0.35  p  >.05  >.05  1.  • •  Only respondents r e g u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d with s c h o o l s were measured.  28  D i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n both areas with r e s p e c t t o mean d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d t o secondary  s c h o o l s were r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t , but were not  considered important M i g r a t i o n Into Survey While  f o r the purposes  of t h i s  study.  Areas  n i g h t s c h o o l courses were analyzed f o r the  t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d preceding' the survey, a l l respondents had not l i v e d i n the areas f o r the f u l l t h r e e year p e r i o d . As shown i n Table VI, 3 0 . 7 6 per cent o f West Kootenay respondents  ( 3 2 ) had l i v e d i n the area f o r two years o r  l e s s , and o f these, f o u r were p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n Vanderhoof West t h i r t y - o n e respondents  (23.84$)  had l i v e d i n the area  f o r two years or l e s s , and o f these, nine were p a r t i c i p a n t s , so t h a t 3 7 . 5 per cent o f the twenty-four, p a r t i c i p a n t s had l i v e d i n the area f o r two years or l e s s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between samples f o r l e n g t h s o f time l i v i n g i n the areas were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  so t h a t the estimated o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education w i t h i n each area a p p l i e d to both samples i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n .  29 TABLE VI DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS  West Kootenay  BY LENGTH OF TIME IN AREA  2 Years o r Less No..  3 Years o r More No.  io  io  Total No.  io  4  20.0  16  80.0  20  100.0  Non-Participants  28  33.3  56  66.7  84  100.0  Total  32  30.8  72  69.2  104  100.0  9  37.5  15  62.5  24  100.0  Non-Participants  22  20.8  84  79.2  106  100.0  Total  31  '23.8  99  76.2  130  Participants  Vanderhoof West Participants  Chi Square Test Comparing T o t a l  Samples:  X  . p  2  = 1.41  df = 1  > .05  .  100.0  30 FOOTNOTES 1. The survey areas s e l e c t e d are shown on a map i n Appendix A. 2. I n d u s t r i a l c a t e g o r i e s are d i s t i n c t and independent from o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h i s study. 3. Other comparisons o f samples i n which the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the dependent v a r i a b l e s of the study were considered along, w i t h the analyses of these variables. 4. Where d i f f e r e n c e s are- s i g n i f i c a n t between samples with r e s p e c t t o any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a t a b l e i s contained i n Appendix C.  CHAPTER IV OCCUPATIONAL VARIABLES AND As was  ADULT EDUCATION  r e p o r t e d i n Chapter I I I , when the  assumption  of e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education  between the two  survey  areas was  tested a  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  found between areas with  to d i s t r i b u t i o n of courses  among--functions, but no  respect significant  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d with r e s p e c t to the a v a i l a b i l i t y courses  or p r o x i m i t y of respondents to s c h o o l s .  the two  samples e x h i b i t e d few  of  Similarly,  significant differences^with .  r e s p e c t to .the twenty-two p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s examined. Since s i m i l a r i t i e s between the samples and between opportuni t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education were evident, an a n a l y s i s was  i n the two  areas  performed with r e s p e c t to each  of the f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s the study was  focused  upon. T o t a l samples from.the two  areas-were f i r s t  with r e s p e c t to each o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e and  compared  then  p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n each area. F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared with t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s  i n the other  area.  OCCUPATIONAL STATUS As i s shown i n Table VII, the d i f f e r e n c e s between West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West respondents measured with r e s p e c t to o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . A z score approximated from Wilcoxon's Rank-Sum Test had  a value  of  -0.87, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of West Kootenay respondents was respondents. The  lower than t h a t of Vanderhoof West  d i f f e r e n c e was  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  .05  not great enough to  be  l e v e l , however. As i s a l s o shown i n  Table VII, p a r t i c i p a n t s , when compared to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , had  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r measures of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s i n  32  TABLE V I I STATISTICS FOR OCCUPATIONAL STATUS West Kootenay  Vanderhoof West  T o t a l Sample  N X s  104 35.76 10.61  130 37.42 11.85  Participants  ' N X s  20 39.78 13.23  24 46.19 16.94  N X s  84 34.81 9.74  106 35.44 9.38  Non-Participants  W Participants Compared t o Non-Participants  W  n  n m 2T z P  1.  n m  n  £ T  z P  13 28  2027  20 84 427.5 2.30 <.05  24 106 • 445.5 2.73 <.05  Participants Compared t o Participants  Non-Participants Compared t o No n-Pa r t i c i pant s  Sample Compared t o Sample  413  7733.5  11,773-  20 24 9.5 -0.87 >.05  84 106 1850.5 -0.77 >.05  Appendix B c o n t a i n s s t a t i s t i c a l  formulae.  104 130 2,633.5 -0.87 >.05  33 both survey areas.  The mean o c c u p a t i o n a l  Kootenay p a r t i c i p a n t s was  39.78  s t a t u s o f West  compared t o a mean s t a t u s  of 34.81 f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , as i n d i c a t e d by an approximated z score of 2.30. S i m i l a r l y , the mean o c c u p a t i o n a l  s t a t u s score o f  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof. West was ..46..19,..,compared t o the. mean score o f  35.44  f o r non-participants.' This difference  was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l , with a z score o f 2.73. No s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e was found when p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  the two areas were compared, and the same was t r u e when n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared. OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY Twelve o c c u p a t i o n a l study,  c a t e g o r i e s were d e f i n e d 'for the  but s e v e r a l o f these  to permit  contained  too few respondents  meaningful s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s over the f u l l  range  o f c a t e g o r i e s . Four l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s were then formed and were roughly  d e f i n e d as white c o l l a r ,  i n d u s t r y , and s k i l l e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of area  craftsmen.  s e r v i c e , primary  Table V I I I i l l u s t r a t e s the  samples among the f o u r  c a t e g o r i e s , and t h e c h i square value  occupational  o f 5.53 accompanying  the t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the two samples was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the .05 l e v e l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n each survey area with r e s p e c t t o  the f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l  c a t e g o r i e s i s shown i n Table  West Kootenay no s i g n i f i c a n t  IX. In  d i f f e r e n c e was found between  p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  even though the p r o p o r t i o n  o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the primary i n d u s t r y category f a r exceeds the p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h a t category. The c h i square value  o f 2.90 was not s i g n i f i c a n t a t ' t h e  .05 l e v e l .  In Vanderhoof West t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s among the f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l not  c a t e g o r i e s was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , as may be seen i n Table IX.  34  TABLE V I I I DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND' VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY"" GROUPED OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY Owners Managers Professional Technical  ClericalSales Service Transport  No.  No.  jo  Farms Craftsmen Loggers Fishermen Miners Laborers No. jo No. j  jo  17  16,3  26  25.0  32  Vanderhoof West29  22.3  32  24.6  • 24  = 5.53  df = 3  West Kootenay  X  2  p  Tc  No.  30.8  29  27.9  104  18.5  45  34.6  130  >>05  The c h i square v a l u e o f I . 6 9 was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 5 . l e v e l . When p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n each area were compared t o each  other, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s  a c r o s s the f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l  c a t e g o r i e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , by the c h i square value o f 0 . 5 4 . S i m i l a r l y , participants  as  indicated  the non-  were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  when compared.  The c h i square value comparing n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s between the two areas was 5 . 9 5 . JOB SATISFACTION When respondents i n West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West were compared with r e s p e c t t o rank sums o f the B r a y f i e l d - • Rothe Index o f Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  were found. The z approximation of- 6.16 r e s u l t i n g  from a  comparison o f t o t a l samples was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the..05 l e v e l . D i f f e r e n c e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n West Kootenay were not s i g n i f i c a n t , as may be.seen i n Table X. The z value o f - 1 . 2 7 . i n d i c a t e d a tendency f o r  35 TABLE IX DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS' AND NON-PARTICIPANTS BY OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY  Occupational Categories  West Kootenay  '  Vanderhoof West  Participants  NonParticipants  No.  No.  1o  Participants  NonParticipants  No.  No.  Owners, Managers Professional Technical  4 20.0  13 15.5  7 29.2  22 20.8  C l e r i c a l , Sales, Service, Transportation, Communication, Recreation  6 30.0,  20 2 3 . 8  7 29.2  25 2 3 . 6  3 12-. 5  21 1 9 . 8  7 29.2  38 3 5 . 8  24 1 0 0 . 1  106-100.0  Farming, M i n i n g , Lumbering, Fishing," Laboring ;  Craftsmen, Process Workers  3 15.0  29 34.5  7 35.0  22 2 6 . 2  20 1 0 0 . 0  Total  84 1 0 0 . 0  IT = 2.90  = 3 > .05  df P Chi Square Value o f West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s  •x*  =  1.69.  df = 3 P > -05 Chi Square Value o f West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West Non-Part i c i p a n t s J  X  2  = 0.54  df = 3  P  >.05  X  2  = 5.95  * T h i s e r r o r i s due t o rounding o f f percentages.  df = 3  p>.05  36 TABLE X STATISTICS FOR JOB SATISFACTION West Kootenay 100. 31.94 '5.65  T o t a l Sample  N • • X s  Participants  N X s  20 30.55 5.69  Non-Participants  N' I s  80 32.29 5.62  n n m IT z P W  Participants Compared to Non-Participants  Participants Compared to Participants W  433  n m 2T z P  20 24 129 -0.40 >• 05  n  Vanderhoof West  ...863  127 31.90 4.77 24 31.54. 3.38 103 31.93 5.04 1312.5  20 80 503 -1.27 > .05  24 103 3246.5 -1.39 > .05  Non-Participants Compared to . Non-Participants  Sample Compared to Sample  7481 80 103 ' 4476 0.34 >.05  11,428.5 100 127 9,432.5 0.16 >.05  37  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s to have g r e a t e r degrees of job s a t i s f a c t i o n than p a r t i c i p a n t s , but the d i f f e r e n c e was  not  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t . The z approximation f o r the comparison p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof  between  West  was  a l s o n e g a t i v e but not s i g n i f i c a n t . The z score of -1.39 i n d i c a t e d a t r e n d f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s t o have g r e a t e r degrees of job s a t i s f a c t i o n the d i f f e r e n c e was  than p a r t i c i p a n t s even  though  not s i g n i f i c a n t . - P a r t i c i p a n t s i n West  Kootenay were compared with p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof and the d i f f e r e n c e was  West  found t o be not s i g n i f i c a n t , a l t h o u g h  p a r t i c i p a n t s in.West Kootenay tended to have l e s s e r  rank  sums of job . s a t i s f a c t i o n than p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof West. The  comparison  of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the two  areas with r e s p e c t to job s a t i s f a c t i o n > s c o r e s  produced  s i m i l a r r e s u l t s , with a z score of 0.34 which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 F o r the purpose  survey,  not -  level. of a n a l y z i n g separate components of  the" B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Index,  positions.of  agreement were analyzed f o r the nine i n d i v i d u a l used i n the survey. As may respondents from the two  statements  be seen i n Table XI, when a l l  areas were compared,  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s ' a t the .05 l e v e l were found with r e s p e c t to t h r e e statements. Those t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were i n d i c a t e d by the v a l u e s of 6.12 i s l i k e a hobby t o me.", t h a t my and 9.08  f o r the statement,"My job  10.46 f o r the statement,"I  feel  job i s no more - i n t e r e s t i n g than others I c o u l d get.", f o r the statement,  "Each day of work seems l i k e i t  w i l l never end." Each of- t h e - t h r e e c h i square v a l u e s  was  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n West Kootenay were compared to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof  West with r e s p e c t  to the s i x statements where the o v e r a l l samples d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . For those s i x statements,  c h i square  t e s t s were used and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found  TABLE XI CHI SQUARE VALUES AND T RATIO PROBABILITY LEVELS FOR COMPARISONS' BY POSITIONS OF AGREEMENT ON JOB SATISFACTION STATEMENTS Statement  Samples Compared  1. My job i s l i k e a hobby t o me. 2. I t seems that my f r i e n d s are more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r work than I am.  Participants Compared  "2™  1  West Kootenay Participants and NonParticipants Compared  Vanderhoof West Participants and NonParticipants Compared  6.12 5.88  >.05 0.06  1.31 2.56  5.8,3 0.66  3.  I enjoy my work more than my l e i s u r e time.  0.61  2.90  6.81  2.09  4.  I am o f t e n bored with my j o b .  1.99 I.63  1.35 O.48  1.19  3.17 0.98  1.61  4.89 9.08  > .05 4.36 > .05  I.69  1.74 1.34 1.78  1.37  3.67  3.59  1.15  5. I f e e l f a i r l y w e l l with my j o b .  satisfied  6. I f e e l that my job i s no more i n t e r e s t i n g than others I could g e t . 1 0 . 4 6 7. I d e f i n i t e l y d i s l i k e my work. 8.  Each day o f work seems l i k e i t w i l l never end.  9.  I f i n d r e a l enjoyment i n my work.  1. the 2.  2.79  2.95  A l l c h i square values have df=2, and a l l c h i square values s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l are underlined. Each statement contained three p r o p o r t i o n a l  d i f f e r e n c e s to t e s t . No  s p e c i f i c t values r e s u l t e d from the t e s t s , and the,.highest s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l reached i s reported for each statement where the t r a t i o was used.  39.  between p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the two areas. Because the two samples d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with respect  to positions  of agreement f o r the remaining t h r e e statements p a r t i c i p a n t s from the two separate samples were compared by a t r a t i o .  .  which was,used t o t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e . of the p r o p o r t i o n any  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each sample s e l e c t i n g  g i v e n p o s i t i o n f o r a j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n statement with  respect  t o the - t o t a l number o f respondents i n the sample  s e l e c t i n g t h a t g i v e n p o s i t i o n . None o f the d i f f e r e n c e s i n proportion  were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l f o r any  2 p o s i t i o n on any o f the t h r e e statements.  Participants i n  West Kootenay were compared t o n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  with  respect  to p o s i t i o n s o f agreement f o r i n d i v i d u a l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n statements, and one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found a t the .05  l e v e l . Table X I I i l l u s t r a t e s that  non-participants  enjoyed work more than l e i s u r e time t o ' a g r e a t e r  degree  than was so f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s , as i n d i c a t e d by the c h i square value o f 6.81.  Vanderhoof West p a r t i c i p a n t s were  compared t o n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n a s i m i l a r fashion,  and no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. TABLE X I I RESPONSE.DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS IN WEST KOOTENAY FOR THE JOB SATISFACTION STATEMENT " I ENJOY MY WORK MORE THAN MY LEISURE TIME" Disagree  Uncertain-  Agree  No~  NoT  NoT  fo  J°  Total fo  No.  io  Participants  14 7 0 . 0  3 15.0  3 15.0  20 1 0 0 . 0  Non-Participants  32 4 0 . 0  12 1 5 . 0  36 4 5 , 0  80 1 0 0 . 0  X  2  = 6.81  d f = ;2  p  <  .05  40 OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY O c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y o f respondents was based upon measures o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and two separate m o b i l i t y components were c o n s i d e r e d . S e q u e n t i a l job m o b i l i t y was d e f i n e d as the a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e between a respondent's present job and h i s f i r s t  preceding job, where both were  measured by B l i s h e n scores o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . Those respondents who a c q u i r e d h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s by way of  changing jobs were d e f i n e d as having p o s i t i v e o r upward  s e q u e n t i a l j o b m o b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , the d i f f e r e n c e s between a respondent's present job and h i s father's, j o b were measured to determine the d i r e c t i o n o f movement with r e s p e c t to  o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a respondent had a c q u i r e d r e l a t i v e  to  the f a t h e r ' s s t a t u s which was used as a base l i n e . By  combining t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e two previous'measures, an a r t i f i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n was c r e a t e d so t h a t those respondents who had been upwardly mobile f o r both measures were f o r c e d toward h i g h e r measures o f m o b i l i t y i n a p o s i t i v e  direction,  and those respondents who had been downwardly mobile f o r both measures were f o r c e d to more n e g a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . Those respondents who had l i t t l e m o b i l i t y f o r e i t h e r measure o r who had no c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d remained near the n e u t r a l m o b i l i t y area o f t h e s c a l e . F o r each o f t h e . t h r e e measures, the  d i r e c t i o n alone was c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t  so t h a t an o v e r a l l  i n d i c a t i o n o f t r e n d s could be a s c e r t a i n e d ' b e f o r e more r e f i n e d measures took both d i r e c t i o n and degree o f m o b i l i t y i n t o account. S e q u e n t i a l Job M o b i l i t y ' As may be. seen i n Table X I I I , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r any of t h e comparisons which were made with r e s p e c t t o d i r e c t i o n alone of s e q u e n t i a l j o b m o b i l i t y . When the t o t a l samples  were compared a c h i square  41  TABLE X I I I DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS- BY DIRECTION OF-SEQUENTIAL JOB MOBILITY Mobility  Direction  Positive . No. West K o o t e n a y  Negative No.  1  76.5  4  Non-Participants  13 36  52.2  33  23.5 47.3  Total  49  57.0  37  43.0  Participants  12  6  Non-Participants  44  66.7 51.2  42  33.3 48.8  Total  56  53.8  48  46.2  Participants  Vanderhoof West  Chi square v a l u e s , each with d f =: 1: Sample compared t o Sample  0.19-  p "">.05  West Kootenay P a r t i c i p a n t s t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s 3«2'8  p ">.05  Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s ' t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s 1.44 .p "X05 P a r t i c i p a n t s compared t o P a r t i c i p a n t s  0.41  P  X05  Non-Participants  0.02  p  05  compared t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s  1. Two West Kootenay p a r t i c i p a n t s had scores o f 0.0- and one had no p r e v i o u s j o b . Four n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s had scores o f 0.0 and eleven had no previous j o b s . 2. One Vanderhoof West p a r t i c i p a n t had a score o f 0.0 and f i v e had no p r e v i o u s jobs. Seven n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s had scores of 0.0 and t h i r t e e n had no p r e v i o u s j o b s .  V'2 value of 0 . 1 9 was at the  .05  c a l c u l a t e d and that was  not  significant  l e v e l . S i m i l a r l y , the c h i square value of  f o r the comparison of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n significant,  nor was  the  0.41  each sample was  not  c h i square value of 0 . 0 2 f o r the  comparison of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s between..samples. P a r t i c i p a n t s were compared to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n each area and i n both cases the d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . West Kootenay had a value of 3 .•28  and Vanderhoof West had  a  value of 1.44 f o r the comparison f o r the comparison of p a r t i c i p a n t s to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . As may  be seen i n Table XIV  the samples were compared  with r e s p e c t to both d i r e c t i o n and.degree of m o b i l i t y and  a  z score of 0.23. i n d i c a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e between samples  was  not s i g n i f i c a n t  . 0 5 l e v e l . In West Kootenay the  at the  p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared to the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s and significant  d i f f e r e n c e , was  significant  at the  found. The  a  z score of 2.27-was  .05 l e v e l , i n d i c a t i n g that p a r t i c i p a n t s  had a g r e a t e r degree of p o s i t i v e m o b i l i t y than had p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were compared to i n Vanderhoof West and no s i g n i f i c a n t but the z score of 1.81  non-  non-participants  d i f f e r e n c e was  found,  suggested t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s were  more upwardly mobile than n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s even though the d i f f e r e n c e was  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A z score-,  of 0 . 6 6 f o r the comparison of p a r t i c i p a n t s between samples was  not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  nor was  the z score of - 0 . 1 6 f o r the  comparison of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s between samples. Intergeneration M o b i l i t y No  significant  d i r e c t i o n alone  d i f f e r e n c e was  found with  respect"to  of i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n m o b i l i t y when West  Kootenay and Vanderhoof West samples were compared. A c h i square value of 0 . 0 0 4 f o r the comparison of the two samples was  not  significant,  nor were the  chi-square  total values  of 0 . 4 5 f o r the comparison of p a r t i c i p a n t s to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n West Kootenay  and the value of O.63  f o r the  similar  TABLE XIV STATISTICS FOR SEQUENTIAL JOB MOBILITY West Kootenay  Vanderhoof-West  T o t a l Sample  N' X s  92 1.83 9.84  112 1.23 11.70- '  Participants  N X s  19 7,03 12.37  19 4.05 12.69  Non-Part i c i p a n t s  N I s  73 0.48 8.67  93  w Participants Compared t o Non-Participants  n m £T z P  Participants Compared t o Participants  W  n  n m  HT z P  n  393 19 19 2.5 0.66 >.05  1119  0.65-  11.48. 1280.5  19 73 23.5 2.27 < .05 Non-Participants Compared t o Non-Participants  6045 73 93 153 -0.16 >.05  19 93' 62.5 ' 1.81 >.05 Sample Compared t o Sample-  9525.5 92 112 280.5 0.23>.05  44 comparison i n Vanderhoof west, as may be seen i n Table XV. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n West Kootenay were.compared t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof West and the c h i square value o f 0.06 which was c a l c u l a t e d was not s i g n i f i c a n t .  -  S i m i l a r l y , non-  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n both areas were compared t o each other -with r e s p e c t t o d i r e c t i o n o f i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n m o b i l i t y and the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  as i n d i c a t e d by the c h i  square value o f 0.18. West Kootenay respondents were compared t o Vanderhoof West respondents with r e s p e c t t o both d i r e c t i o n and degree of i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n m o b i l i t y , and the d i f f e r e n c e was found to be not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  as may be seen i n Table XVI. The  West Kootenay p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared t o the West Kootenay n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s - a n d the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' w e r e  found  to have a mean i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n m o b i l i t y score o f 5.45 i n comparison t o the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t mean of 0.28. The d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t , however. I n  Vanderhoof West, a s i m i l a r t r e n d was e v i d e n t , as the p a r t i c i p a n t mean score was 8.93 and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t mean score was -0.55. Again, significant  the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  even though a t r e n d was evident f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s  to be more upwardly mobile than n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . - P a r t i c i p a n t s were compared between areas and the z score o f -.42 was not s i g n i f i c a n t . N o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each area were then compared with each other and the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The z score was -0.03. Mobility  Score  West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West t o t a l samples were compared with r e s p e c t t o d i r e c t i o n o f m o b i l i t y score and a c h i square value o f 0.09 was c a l c u l a t e d which was not significant  at the .05 l e v e l . I n West Kootenay a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e was found  between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  i  ACTABLE XV DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS  BY DIRECTION OF INTERGENERATION  MOBILITY  Mobility Direction Positive No,  Ne^native No.  West Kootenay 1 Participants  10  52.,6 .  Non-Participants  33  9  47.4  44.0  42  56.0  . %2>  4 5:. .7^  51  54.3  Vanderhoof West Participants  13  -5"6.5  -10  " '43.5  Non-Participants  44'  47.3  49  52.7  Total  57  49.1  59  50.9  Total 2  Chi square v a l u e s , each with df = 1: Sample compared t o Sample  0.004 p ^ . 0 5  West Kootenay P a r t i c i p a n t s t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s  0.45  p  05  Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s O . 6 3  p>.05  0.06  p >.05  0.18  p >.05  Participants  Compared t o P a r t i c i p a n t s  N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s Compared t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s  '  1. One p a r t i c i p a n t i n West Kootenay had no score and nine n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s had scores, o f 0.0. . 2. One p a r t i c i p a n t i n Vanderhoof West had a score o f 0.0 and t e n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s had scores o f 0.0. Three n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s had no s c o r e s .  46 r  TABLE XVI STATISTICS FOR INTERGENERATION MOBILITY . West Kootenay •  Vanderhoof West  T o t a l Sample  N X s  " 103 1.24 9.36  127 1.24 14.41  Participants  N X s  19 5.45 12.86  '24 8.93 19.11  Non-Part i c i pant s  N X s  84 0.28 8.17  W  n  n m £T z P  Participants Compared t o Non-Participants  Participants Compared t o Participants  401  W n  n m £T  19 24 0.5  z P  -0.41 >.05  '  103 -0.55 12.53-  1171.5 .  1820.5 24 103 148.5 1.75 >.05  19 84 ' 141 1.56 >.05 Non-Participants Compared t o Non-Participants  7885 • 84 " 103 805.0 -0.03 •>.05  •  Sample Compared t o Sample  11,716 103 127 997.5 -0.10 >.05  4?7 when t h e i r m o b i l i t y scores were compared. The c h i square value o f 5.19 was s i g n i f i c a n t  a t the .05 l e v e l , and i t  suggested t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f upward m o b i l i t y on the combined m o b i l i t y score than was so f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . In Vanderhoof West no s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e was found between p a r t i c i p a n t s  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s with r e s p e c t t o d i r e c t i o n of m o b i l i t y s c o r e s . The c h i square value o f 2.81 was not s i g n i f i c a n t . . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n West Kootenay were compared t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof West, and the c h i square value o f Q.30 was not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  as may be seen i n Table XVII.  Similarly,  a value o f 0.0001 was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the comparison o f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s between samples and t h a t was not s i g n i f i c a n t West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West t o t a l samples were compared with r e s p e c t t o both d i r e c t i o n and degree o f m o b i l i t y scores and the d i f f e r e n c e was found t o be not significant,  with a c h i square value c a l c u l a t e d t o be 0 . 8 9 .  In West Kootenay a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e was found between  p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s with r e s p e c t to m o b i l i t y scores and t h e c h i square o f 2.73 i s shown i n Table  XVIII.  P a r t i c i p a n t s ' were found t o have g r e a t e r upward m o b i l i t y w i t h a mean score o f 14.15  as "compared t o the mean score  of 0 . 4 1 f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n the survey area o f Vanderhoof West d i f f e r e n c e s ' between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were'not s i g n i f i c a n t appeared  even though p a r t i c i p a n t  t o have g r e a t e r upward m o b i l i t y than n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t  The value o f c h i square was 0..92. No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  was found between p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the two survey areas. The value o f 0 . 9 4 may be seen i n Table XVIII. S i m i l a r l y , no. significant  d i f f e r e n c e was found between n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n the two samples, as i n d i c a t e d by the c h i square of 0 . 2 3 .  value  48 l  TABLE XVII DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY.. AND VANDERHOOF WEST, PARTICIPANTS AND- NON-PARTICIPANTS  BY DIRECTION OF MOBILITY SCORE  --  M o b i l i t y D i r e c t i o n ..  West K o o t e n a y  Positive  Negative  No.  No'.'  .'-fo  1  Participants  12  66.7  6  33.3  Non-Participants  27  37.0  46  63.O  Total  39  42.9  52  57.1  Participants  11  57.9  8  42.1  Non-Participants  33  37.1  56  62.'9  Total  44  40.7  64  .59.3  2 Vanderhoof West  Chi square values, each w i t h df = 1: Sample compared  t o Sample  0.09  p>.05  West Kootenay P a r t i c i p a n t s t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s  5.19  p<.0-5  Vanderhoo'f West P a r t i c i p a n t s t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s  2.81  p >. 05  P a r t i c i p a n t s Compared t o P a r t i c i p a n t s  0.30  p >.05  Non-Participants  0.0001  Compared t o N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s  pX05  1. Two West Kootenay p a r t i c i p a n t s and eleven n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s had no m o b i l i t y s c o r e . , 2. F i v e Vanderhoof West p a r t i c i p a n t s and s i x t e e n non-. p a r t i c i p a n t s had.no m o b i l i t y score, and one n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t had.a m o b i l i t y score o f 0.0.  TABLE XVIII STATISTICS FOR MOBILITY SCORE West Kootenay  VanderHo'of West 109 ' 0.9222.66.  N X s  91 . 3.13 17.52  Participants  N X s  18 14.15 24.22  197.99 25.78 .  No n—Pa r t i c i pant s  N X s  73 0.41 14.40  90 -0.57 21.81  Total  Sample  n  Participants Compared t o Non-Participants  n m £T z P  Participants Compared t o Participants W  n  n m. $T z p  1160  1102.5  W  .373 18 19 0 0.94 >.05  •  19 90 8 0.92 >.05 .  18 73 3.5 2.73 < .05 Non-Participants Compared t o Non-Participants 6053.5 ' 73 90 20 0.23 >.05  Sample. Compared t o Sample 9510 '91 109 26 0.89 >.05  50  FOOTNOTES 1. Included i n Appendix D are frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the f o u r major o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . . • " ' 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n s of these i n Appendix D.  p r o p o r t i o n s are to be found  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . Occupation has become i n c r e a s i n g l y important as a c e n t r a l focus of l i f e  i n u r b a n i z e d s o c i e t i e s and a g r e a t  d e a l o f man's behavior i s e i t h e r d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i t or a r i s e s from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o s i t i o n i n the community a s c r i b e d by h i s o c c u p a t i o n . Concurrent with the r i s e o f o c c u p a t i o n t o prominence has.been the changing  focus of  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o d e a l with problems o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and technology. The purpose  o f t h i s study was t o assess  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n among non-farm r e s i d e n t s i n two r u r a l areas o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  SUMMARY Two ARDA survey areas i n r u r a l B r i t i s h  Columbia,.  West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West, were s e l e c t e d as areas of low and h i g h socio-economic  standing r e l a t i v e t o other  r u r a l areas i n the p r o v i n c e . Each area was surveyed i n I967  and data were c o l l e c t e d from household heads r e s i d i n g  on a random sample o f pre-empted l o t s . A f t e r farmers, r e t i r e d , and unemployed persons were e l i m i n a t e d from t h e o r i g i n a l samples,  i n t e r v i e w schedules f o r the remaining  104.respondents i n West Kootenay and 1 3 0 respondents i n Vanderhoof West were used i n the a n a l y s i s . The Areas S t u d i e d Samples-from the two survey areas were compared w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but o f t h e twenty-two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s examined, only seven d i f f e r e n t i a t e d West Kootenay respondents  significantly  from Vanderhoof  West respondents:  e d u c a t i o n completed,  t r a i n i n g a f t e r formal  s c h o o l completed,  use o f telephone i n home, area o f b i r t h ,  52 a r e a moved d i r e c t l y from, time l i v e d i n a r e a , and d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d t o work. None o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  directly  a f f e c t e d the f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . Opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education i n each a r e a were e s t i m a t e d by a n a l y z i n g Department o f E d u c a t i o n r e c o r d s f o r n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s i n each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the survey a r e a s . West Kootenay p r o v i d e d 355 evening  courses compared t o 260 i n Vanderhoof West  d u r i n g the t h r e e y e a r s p r i o r t o the s u r v e y s , however, West Kootenay•s a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n o f 35232 compared t o the 15247 a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n o f Vanderhoof West i n d i c a t e d t h a t Vanderhoof West p r o v i d e d more courses per person t h a n d i d West Kootenay. The  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n both areas were  ranked w i t h r e s p e c t t o the number o f courses o f f e r e d per p e r s o n a n d number o f hours o f f e r e d per person, and.a -  W i l c o x o n Rank-Sum Test suggested d i f f e r e n c e between the two  t h e r e was no  significant  survey a r e a s . The  distribution  o f courses among a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between a r e a s because West Kootenay appeared t o emphasize the L i b e r a l f u n c t i o n and Vanderhoof West "' • appeared t o emphasize the O c c u p a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o courses by respondents sample was  i n each  e s t i m a t e d by comparing d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d t o ..  s c h o o l s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  found between  samples w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d t o e i t h e r elementary  o r secondary  schools.  M i g r a t i o n i n t o the a r e a s was  analyzed to  determine  the p r o p o r t i o n o f people l i v i n g i n the a r e a f o r more t h a n two y e a r s , which would l i m i t them t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the a r e a . Of West Kootenay  respondents,  30.8- per cent had a r r i v e d i n the a r e a w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s two y e a r s , but o f t h e s e r e c e n t m i g r a n t s o n l y 12.5  per  cent  r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Of the Vanderhoof  53  West sample, 23.8 per cent were recent migrants but'29 .per .• cent of t h a t group r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t . e d u c a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s and  Non-Participants  W i t h i n each survey area p a r t i c i p a n t s and  non-  p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared with r e s p e c t to f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Scores on the B l i s h e n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s s c a l e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s than f o r  non-  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n both survey areas. O c c u p a t i o n a i " "categories of the samples i n both areas were widely d i s t r i b u t e d among the twelve  d i v i s i o n s . When f o u r major groups of c a t e g o r i e s  were considered, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was  found  i n either  survey  area. Job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c a l e scores were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h ;  i n both areas, and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was  found  i n either  area.  With r e s p e c t to o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , p a r t i c i p a n t s were g e n e r a l l y more mobile i n an upward d i r e c t i o n even though the d i f f e r e n c e s were not always s i g n i f i c a n t . No  significant  d i f f e r e n c e was  of the  found  i n Vanderhoof West f o r any  t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y measures, when p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s were compared. In West Kootenay a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  found between p a r t i c i p a n t s and  n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s with r e s p e c t to s e q u e n t i a l job m o b i l i t y , as p a r t i c i p a n t s were more upwardly mobile than p a r t i c i p a n t s . The  non-  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s e q u e n t i a l job'  m o b i l i t y c o n t r i b u t e d to a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n o v e r a l l m o b i l i t y score between West Kootenay p a r t i c i p a n t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s had  non-  s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater mobility  i n an upward d i r e c t i o n than d i d n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s when only the d i r e c t i o n of m o b i l i t y was  considered and when both  d i r e c t i o n and degree of m o b i l i t y scores were considered. .  54 West Kootenay and Vanderhoof West P a r t i c i p a n t s No to any  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  found with  respect  of the f o u r o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s when p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n each of the two  survey  areas were compared. P a r t i c i p a n t s  i n Vanderhoof West appeared to e x h i b i t h i g h e r  occupational  s t a t u s , g r e a t e r job s a t i s f a c t i o n , and more i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n m o b i l i t y i n an upward d i r e c t i o n than was  so f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n West Kootenay, but the d i f f e r e n c e s were not  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n West Kootenay were more upwardly mobile with r e s p e c t to s e q u e n t i a l job m o b i l i t y than were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Vanderhoof West but the d i f f e r e n c e was  not  significant. CONCLUSIONS Hypothesis one P a r t i c i p a n t s had  was  only p a r t i a l l y r e j e c t e d .  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r measures of  occupational  s t a t u s than d i d n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , and West Kootenay p a r t i c i p a n t s had  s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r upward m o b i l i t y  w i t h r e s p e c t to s e q u e n t i a l job m o b i l i t y than- d i d West Kootenay n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . On measures of job  satisfaction-  and  accepted  no  o c c u p a t i o n a l category,  hypothesis  one was  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t s and  p a r t i c i p a n t s was  as  non-  found.  Hypothesis two  was  f u l l y accepted.  No  significant  d i f f e r e n c e with r e s p e c t to any ©f-.athe o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s was  found between p a r t i c i p a n t s i n West Kootenay  and  Vanderhoof West. While c l e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s e x i s t e d among the samples s t u d i e d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  a d u l t education  to cut a c r o s s most measures of occupation.  seemed  I t would appear  t h a t the o c c u p a t i o n a l measures used i n t h i s study do  not  h o l d promise f o r e f f e c t i v e p r e d i c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education w i t h i n r u r a l areas of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  55  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study would appear to* uphold the o p i n i o n s of those w r i t e r s who  claim r u r a l " people are  l e s s c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from each other with r e s p e c t to many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than are urban people.. I f . t h a t assumption  h o l d s t r u e then i t f o l l o w s t h a t p r e d i c t i o n of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be much more d i f f i c u l t i n r u r a l than i n urban areas i f d e s c r i p t i v e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; such as o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s are to be used i n the- p r e d i c t i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s study has used  relatively  f i n e - g r a i n e d measures of occupation, and judging 'from the r e s u l t s of the study, the p o s s i b i l i t y -exists t h a t the broader c a t e g o r i e s and measures used i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s by other r e s e a r c h e r s are as e f f e c t i v e as the measures used in  t h i s study, as w e l l as a l l o w i n g for-more  economical use.  Although the present study has not succeeded i n r e v e a l i n g any new  o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o  the p r e d i c t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n r u r a l areas, one new  approach has been opened which w i l l  r e q u i r e f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n the f u t u r e . The use of o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s s c o r e s and the m a n i p u l a t i o n of them f o r the purpose' of f o r m u l a t i n g components of o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y may  become i n c r e a s i n g l y important i n r e s e a r c h as  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n becomes more necessary to those people attempting t o succeed i n the work world.  56  BIBLIOGRAPHY Age  Group D i s t r i b u t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's P o p u l a t i o n by School D i s t r i c t s . V i c t o r i a : Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968.  Blackburn, D.J. 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"Adult E d u c a t i o n and the R u r a l Community," Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science  13:  533-544, 1947.  :  ~"'  Goard, D.S. "An A n a l y s i s of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n R u r a l Adult E d u c a t i o n . " Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968.  58 Goard, D.S. and Dickinson, J.G. The I n f l u e n c e o f Education and Age on P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n R u r a l Adult Education. Vancouver: F a c u l t y o f Education, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. Gross, E. "The O c c u p a t i o n a l V a r i a b l e as a Research Category," American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 24: 1959.  64O-649,  Holden, J.B. "A Survey o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Adult Education C l a s s e s , " Adult Leadership, 10: 258-260, 1958. Johnstone, J.W. C and R i v e r a , R.J. V o l u n t e e r s f o r Learning. • Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g , 1965. Kaplan, A.A. Socio-Economic Circumstances and Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C e r t a i n C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Knox, A.B. " C l i e n t e l e A n a l y s i s , " Research, 35: 231-239, 1965. , and Videbeck, R. Cycle,"  L a s t r u c c i , C L . "The Research,"  Review of E d u c a t i o n a l  "Adult Education and Adult  Adult Education,  1943.  Life  13: 102-121, 1963.  Status and • S i g n i f i c a n c e . of.. O c c u p a t i o n a l  American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review,  1.1:. 78-84, 1946.  L a z e r w i t z , B. ^ N a t i o n a l Data on P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates'Among - • R e s i d e n t i a l B e l t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 27: 69I-696, 1962. L i p s e t , S.M. and Bendix, R. " S o c i a l M o b i l i t y and O c c u p a t i o n a l Career P a t t e r n s , " American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 57: 366-373 and 494-504, 1952. London, J . -*?Attitudes Toward Adult Education by S o c i a l C l a s s , " Adult Education, 13: 226-233, 1963. , and Carey, J.T.  "Adult Education and S o c i e t y , " -  Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 29:  237-245,  1959.  Wenkert, R., and Hagstrom, W.0. Adult Education and S o c i a l C l a s s . Survey Research Center, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1963. Loomis, C-. P. et_ a l . Education.  R u r a l S o c i a l Systems and  The Michigan  Adult  State C o l l e g e Press,  1953.  59  M i l l e r , H. P a r t i c i p a t i o n of A d u l t s i n Education: A F o r c e - F i e l d A n a l y s i s . C e n t e r . f o r the'Study of L i b e r a l Education f o r A d u l t s , Boston U n i v e r s i t y , 1967. "~'~.. 7  M i z r u c h i , E.H. and Vanaria, L.M. "Who P a r t i c i p a t e s i n Adult Education?" Adult Education 10: 141-143, i 9 6 0 . Nam,  B. and Powers, M.G. "Changes i n the R e l a t i v e Status L e v e l of Workers i n the United S t a t e s , " S o c i a l Forces, 47:. 158-170, 1 9 6 8 .  Newberry, J.S. " P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Adult E d u c a t i o n , " Unpublished review of. r e s e a r c h , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  1958.  O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual: Census of Canada, I 9 6 I . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961. ~S~Oldman, D. and I l l s l e y , R. "Measuring the Status o'f Occupations," S o c i o l o g i c a l ' Review, 14: 5 3 - 7 2 , . 1 9 6 6 . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1'963. Patchen, M. "The E f f e c t of Reference Group Standards on Job S a t i s f a c t i o n s , " Human R e l a t i o n s , 11: 3 0 3 - 3 1 4 , 1958. P e l l e g r i n , R.J. and Bates, F.L. "Congruity and I n c o n g r u i t y of Status A t t r i b u t e s W i t h i n Occupations and Work Positions," S o c i a l Forces, 3 8 : 23-28, i 9 6 0 . Pineo, D.C. and P o r t e r , J . " O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e i n Canada," The Canadian Review of S o c i o l o g y and Anthropology, 4: 2 4 - 4 0 , 1967. R e i s s , A.J. " O c c u p a t i o n a l M o b i l i t y , of P r o f e s s i o n a l Workers," American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 20: 693-700,  .  1955.  .  ., Occupations and S o c i a l S t a t u s . New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1961.  The  R e t t i g , S., Jacobson, F.N., and Pasamanick, B. "Status Overestimation, O b j e c t i v e S t a t u s , and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n Among P r o f e s s i o n s , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review,  . 23: 7 5 - 8 1 ,  1958.  S i e g e l , S. Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o r a l , S c i e n c e s . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956.  60  S t a p e l , J . "What i s Job S a t i s f a c t i o n ? " P u b l i c O p i n i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 14: 551-554, 1950. Super, D.E. " O c c u p a t i o n a l L e v e l and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d Psychology, 2 3 : 547-564, 1 9 3 9 . Tumin, M.M. and Feldman, A.S. "Theory and Measurement o f O c c u p a t i o n a l M o b i l i t y , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 22: 281-288, 1 9 5 7 . Verner, C. Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study Ottawa: R u r a l Development Branch, Department o f F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development, 1 9 6 7 . , and Booth, A. Adult E d u c a t i o n . Washington: Center f o r A p p l i e d Research i n Education, 1 9 6 4 . , and Newberry, J . "The .Nature o f Adult Adult Education, 8: 202-222, 1 9 6 8 .  Participation,"  , and D i c k i n s o n , J.G. A Socio-Economic Survey o f tTTe West Kootenay Area i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Report #6, ARDA Canada Land I n v e n t o r y P r o j e c t #49009, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968. , D i c k i n s o n , J.G., and Anderson, D.V. A S o c i o Economic Survey o f the Vanderhoof West Area i n • B r i t i s h Columbia. Report #7, ARDA Canada Land Inventory P r o j e c t #49009, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968.  61  APPENDIX A  63  APPENDIX B  64  T RATIO  P  1  - P  t •=  Where P-^ = the p r o p o r t i o n o f sample 1 s e l e c t i n g a g i v e n  position  Pg = the p r o p o r t i o n o f sample 2 s e l e c t i n g a g i v e n  position  n  l l  +  l  +  P  n  Q  n  n  2 2 P  2  = 1 - P  n-^ = the number o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n sample 1 = the number of i n d i v i d u a l s i n sample 2  1. V. Davies, A Rapid Method f o r Determining the S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the D i f f e r e n c e Between Two Percentages (Pullman, Washington: the author, no d a t e ) .  65  Z APPROXIMATION FROM WILCOXON'S RANK-SUM TEST  w  n( n+m+1) 2  Z = mn (m+n+1)  _  12  Where  W  n  mn  ^ 3_ j t  t  12(m+n)(m+n-l)  i s the sum o f ranks of the s m a l l e r group  n i s the s i z e o f t h e s m a l l e r group m i s the s i z e o f t h e l a r g e r group t i s the number o f t i e s  scores f o r any g i v e n rank.  1. J.V. Bradley, D i s t r i b u t i o n - F r e e S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s . (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1968) pp.105-117.  66  APPENDIX C  67 DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY EDUCATION COMPLETED  E d u c a t i o n Completed  West Kootenay No.  1°  No.  56 30 7 11  53.9 28.8 6.7 10.6  53 43 23 11  104  100.0  130  Grades 1 - 8 Grades 9 -  11  Grade 12 University  1 Year +  Total X  2  = 8.14  Vanderhoof West  df =  3  P  <  :  1o 40.8  33.1 17.7 a.4  100.0  .05  DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAI AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY TRAINING AFTER FORMAL SCHOOL COMPLETED  West Kootenay  *  No. Some T r a i n i ng A f t e r  School  No T r a i n i n g A f t e r School Total X  2  = 11.53  .31  29.8  73 104 df = 1  Vanderhoof West No. ' 66  52.0  70.2  61  48.0  100.0  127  100.0  P  -  < .001  68 DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY TIME LIVED IN AREA  Years L i v e d i n Area  West Kootenay  Vanderhoof West No.  No.  i  4  3.8  31  23.8 •  14.4  44  33.9 •  11 - 20  15 16  24  18.5  20 and over  69  15.4 66.4  31  23.8  104  100.0  130  100.0  2 or l e s s  3-10  Total X  2  = 48.84  df = 3  P  <  .001 -  DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES B^ AREA OF BIRTH  West Kootenay  Area o f B i r t h  No. T h i s Area British  6  Columbia  i •  No.  i  34.6 5.8  13 20  10. o'  52 • 45  15.4 40.0 34.6  130  100.0  Canada  45  Other  17  43.3 16.3  104  100.0  Total'  2  X^ = 28.95  Vanderhoof West  df = 3  P  <.001  69 DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY AREA DIRECTLY :MIGRATED FROM  West Kootenay  Area Moved From  Vanderhoof West  No. Not  32 17 42  Applicable  British  Columbia  Canada Other  1  3  104  Total ' x  2  31.51  = .  df  No.  30.8 16.3 40.4 12.5  13 59 36 22  10.0 45.4 27.7 16.9  100.0  130  100.0  - 3  p  <  .001  DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY TELEPHONE IN HOME West Kootenay  *  No.  16  83 47  63.8 36.2  104  100.0  130  100.0'  88  No Telephone i n Home  X =12.67 2  No.  84.6 15.4  Telephone i n Home  Total  Vanderhoof West  df = 1  p < .001  70 STATISTICS FOR WORK DISTANCE Mean  Standard Deviation  West Kootenay  14.69  28.65  Vanderhoof West  12.19  24-90  w= n  12,470  n = 104 m = 114 £T= 8550.5 z = 2.3  71  APPENDIX D  72 DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST.PARTICIPANTS AND NON-•PARTICIPANTS . BY BLISHEN OCCUPATIONAL STATUS SCORES  West Kootenay  Blishen Scores  Vanderhoof West  Participants  Non- ' Participants  Participants  NonParticipant s  N=20.  N=84  N=24  N=106  •i  10.0  6.0  25.0  . 3.8  50 - 54  0.0  2.4  16.7  6.6  45 - 49  10.0  2.4  8.3  1.9  40 - 44  5.0  10.7  8.3  16.0  35 - 39  30.0  10.7  4.2  8.5  30 - 34  25.0  23.8  16.7  18.9  25 - 29  20.0  44.0  20.8  44.3  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  55 +  Total  j  I  73  DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAI AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BI OCCUPATIONAL-CATEGORY  O c c u p a t i o n a l Category  West Kootenay No.  Vanderhoof West - No-.  11  10.6  19  14.6  P r o f e s s i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l  6  5.8  10  7.7  Clerical  3 6  2.9  1  0.8  5.8  4  3.1  4  3.8  5  3.8  13  12.5  22  16.9  1  1.0  3  2.3  12  11.5  11  8.5  0  0.0  1  0.8  4  3.8  3  2.3  29  27.9  45  34.. 6  15  14.4  6  4.6  Owners and Managers  Sales Service  and"Recreation  Transport and Communication Farm Workers Loggers Fishermen,  Trappers,  Hunters  Miners, Quarrymen Craftsmen, Laborers  Total  P r o d u c t i o n Process  104  100.0  130 1 0 0 . 0  DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS  Satisfaction  BY JOB SATISFACTION SCORES  West :Kootenay  Vanderhoof West  Scores Partie ipants  NonParticipants  Participants  NonParticipants  N=20  N=84  "N=24.  N=106  5.0  19.1  0.0  5.7  36  40.0  33.3  54.2  56.6  29 - 32  35.0  27.4  20.8  16.0  25 - 28  0.0  7.1  20.8  14.2  21 - 24  10.0  4.8  4.2  3.8  20 and l e s s  0.0  3.6  0.0  0.9  No Response  0.0  4.8  0.0  2.8  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  37+ 33 -  Total  75 DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY POSITIONS OF AGREEMENT ON THE STATEMENT "MY JOB I S L I K E A HOBBY"  Agree No..  Uncertain No.  io  i  Disagree No.  i.  West K o o t e n a y  39  39.0  14  14.0  47  47.0  V a n d e r h o o f West  58  45.7  6  4.7  63  49.6  X  2  =  6.12  2  df =  p < .05  DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY POSITIONS OF AGREEMENT ON THE STATEMENT " I F E E L THAT -MY JOB I S NO MORE INTERESTING THAN OTHERS I COULD GET" Agree No.  •  Uncertain No.  i  i  West K o o t e n a y  16  16.0  V a n d e r h o o f West  40  31-5  6  df= 2  p < .01  X =10.46 2  ^13  13-0 4.7  Disagree No.  i  71  71.0  81  63.8  DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST SAMPLES BY POSITIONS OF AGREEMENT ON THE STATEMENT " EACH DAY OF WORK SEEMS L I K E I T WILL NEVER END" Agree , No.  V a n d e r h o o f West  i  f.O  "8  West K o o t e n a y  8  X  2  =  9.08  Uncertain  df =  6.3  2  No. 15 5  p < .05  i  Disagree No.  f..  15.0  77  77.0  3-9  114  89.8  76  PARTICIPANTS AS PROPORTION OF TOTAL RESPONDENTS SELECTING GIVEN POSITIONS ON STATEMENT "MY JOB I S LIKE A HOBBY TO ME" Agree P  T  1  Di .sagree  Uncertain Pr.  P  T  • Pr.  :  T ' Pr.  P  West Kootenay  10  39  .26  2  14  .14  8 . 47  .17  Vanderhoof West  13  58  .22  • 3  6  .50  '8  .13  . 3 6 •<  .04  Proportional Difference Significance Level of D i f f e r e n c e  63  .04 •  *  > .10  > .10  PARTICIPANTS AS PROPORTION OF TOTAL RESPONDENTS SELECTING GIVEN POSITIONS ON STATEMENT " I FEEL MY JOB IS NO MORE INTERESTING THAN OTHERS I COULD GET" Agree P  T  4  16  Vanderhoof West 9 Proportional Difference Significance Level of D i f f e r e n c e  40  West Kootenay  Disa^^ree  Uncertain . Pr.  P  T  .25  ' 4  13  .23  0  6  .02  Pr.  P  T  Pr.  .31.  12  73  .16  .00  15  81  .19 .03  • 31  *  >.10  PARTICIPANTS AS PROPORTION OF TOTAL RESPONDENTS SELECTING GIVEN POSITIONS ON,STATEMENT "EACH DAY OF WORK SEEMS LIKE IT WILL NEVER END" Agree T Pr. P  .•  Uncertain. T Pr. . P  West Kootenay  3  8  .38  3  15.  .20  Vanderhoof West  2  8  .25  2  .5  .40  Proportional Difference Significance Level of D i f f e r e n c e  .13  .20.  X  *  . Disagree P T Pr. -14  1 7 - -.18  20 114  .18 .00 >.L0  1. P i s p a r t i c i p a n t s ; T i s t o t a l ; P r . i s . p r o p o r t i o n , and * i s where t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s i n v a l i d due t o l o w numbers i n v o l v e d .  77 DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS  Mobility Scores  BY SEQUENTIAL JOB MOBILITY  West Kootenay  Vanderhoof West • Partieipants  :  Partieipants  NonPartieipants  NonPartieipants  N=20  N=84  N=24  N=106  0.0 2.4 . 7.1 33.3 4.8 ,32.1 6.0 1.2 13.1  4.2 4.2 12.5 29.2 4.2 16.6 8.3 0.0 20.8  0.9 4.7 9.5 • 26.4 6.6 33.0 3.8 2.8 12.3  1°  30+ 20 - 29.99 10 - 19.99 0.01 - 9-99 0.00 -.01 - (-9.99) -10 - (-19.99) -20 and l e s s No Score  •Total  10.0 0.0 io.o  45.0 10.0 15.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 100.0  1. Respondents r e p o r t i n g  100.0  100.0  no p r e v i o u s job r e c e i v e d  100.0  no s c o r e s .  78DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS  Mobility Scores  West Kootenay  30+ 20 - 29.99 10 - 19.99 0.01 - 9.99 0.00 -.01 - (-9.99) -10 - (-19.99) -20 and l e s s No -Score 1  Total  BY INTERGENERATION  •  MOBILITY  Vanderhoof West  Partieipants  NonPartieipants  Partieipants .  N=20  N=84  N=24  10.0 0.0 20.0 20.0 0.0 45.0 0.0 . 0.0 5.0 100.0- •  1°  1.2 3.6 3.6 30.9  . 20.8  10.7  0.0 0.0  4.2 29.2 8.3 4.2 0.0  100.0  100.0  47.6 2.4  .  12.5  8.3 12.5  NonParticipants  N=106 0.05.7  10.4 . 25.5 9.4  36.8  5.7 3.7  2.8  100.0  1. No score was p o s s i b l e when respondents d i d not know f a t h e r ' s occupation o r were orphans.  79 DISTRIBUTION OF WEST KOOTENAY AND VANDERHOOF WEST PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS  BY MOBILITY SCORES  West Kootenay  Mobility Scores  Vanderhoof West  Participants  Non-Participants  Participants  N=20  N=84  N=24  NonParticipants  N=106  *  Y o  60 +  10.0  • 0.0  4.2  0.9  20 - 59.99  10.0  9.5  20.8  10 - 19.99  20.0  3.3  4.2  10.5 6.'6  0.01- 9.99 0.00  20.0  16.7 0.0  13.2  0.0  14.3 0.0  -.01-(-9.99)  25.0  34.5  32.1  -10 -(-19.99)  5.0  17.9  8.3 16.7  -20  0.0  2..4  10.0  13.1  3.3 20.8  7.5 15.1  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  No  and l e s s Score  Total  1  Q.9  13.2  1. No score was a v a i l a b l e f o r respondents unable t o i n d i c a t e o c c u p a t i o n o f f a t h e r o r f o r respondents having no p r e v i o u s occupation.  80  APPENDIX E  81 Respondent's  Number  C.L.!. R e g i o n  A.R.D.A./U.3.C./67  SOC 1 0-ECONO/A! C INTERVI EW SCHEDULE  Respondent's Name Address  ,  Record of V i s i t s : • Time  Date  CciTfi.er.ts  First Second Third  _.  Enumerated by:  .  : ;  ._  '  . -'  '. .  . .  ]  F i e l d Check by: Coded by: Checked by:  ; '  D i s t r i c t L o t Number, R e s p o n d e n t ' s L o c a t i o n on L o t , and Land U s e ( S k e t c h ) ' .  82  Respondent's  1,3.  Number  5,9.  ' • N . T . S . Map'-Number C,L.I.  IC, I 1 .  Reg Ion  Socio-economic Regional Sex  of  START ,  12,  sub-region  District Respondent I.  Ma I e  2.  Female  INTERVIEW HERE  How many  people  are  living  in your  home  at  the  present  time?  2.  .'What  is  1.  Ch i I d r e n  2.  . Chi Idren  3.  Adults  your m a r i t a l 1. 2. 3.  3.  4.  What  is  How many  your  under  SIng I e MarrIed ' Widowed, d i v o r c e d ,  3. 4. 5. 6.  35 - 44 4 5 - 5 4 55 - 64 , 65 o r o v e r  years  of  or  separated  8  3 4 5 6  schooling  !. 5 or 2 . 6 - 7  5. 6. 7.  16.  age? 15 - 24 2 5 - 3 4  3.  i o.  status?  1. 2.  4.  I4  14-21  •' •  did  you  complete?  less ;.<  '  9-11 12 .13 - 15 - (1.-3 y e a r s .1.6 o r m o r e (degree :  o  university) o r above)  6  83  4.  a..  b.  5.  D i d you  If  have I.  yes  2..  no .  yes,  How many  any  what  years  were  of  a.  you t r a i n e d  schooling I ess  6.  a.  b.  .If  wife  have  1.  yes  2.  no  yes,  what  was  she  after  she  left  yes  2.  no  in?  yes  3.  no  25,27.  the  28.  related  didn't  2.  take  c h i l d r e n who h a v e  to any  your  Job? 29.  have? left  30. school,  How'many  completed  b.  How many  did  net  grade  complete  c h i l d r e n h a v e moved  father's  *  courses  a.  your  In  •  course  your  .  adult education courses (Interviewer explain).  Of  What was  7  above)  training  trained  c h i l d r e n do y o u  9.  or  24.  How many  How many o f  university)  3 4 5 6  years  (degree  I 2  I ' 2  1.  Was t h i s  8.  complete? 23.  any o t h e r  H a v e y o u t a k e n any last three years?  those  20,22,  !  1.  7. -  school?  in?  school?  b.  left  did your wife  (1-3  16 o r m o r e  Did your  you  .  8 9-11 12 13 - 15  7.  after  19.  I. 5 or 2 . 6 - 7 3. 4-. 5. 6.  training  occupation?  to  12?  3!.  grade  12?  another ,  area?  32, 33. 34,36,  •  84  10.  How many  years  of  school  1.  don•t  2.  5 or  3.  6 -  4.  8  did  your  father  complete?  know I ess  7  5 . 9 - 1 1 6 . 1 2 .7.  13-15  5. a.  Did your  f  I I.  12.  13.  yes,  Where w e r e  How  long  Where  (1-3  16 o r more father  have  1.  don't  2.  yes  3.  no  what  was  years  any  other  he t r a i n e d  born?  1. 2.  Th i s a r e a Br i t i s h Co Iumbia  3. 4. 5. 6.  C a n a d a . •' United States U n i t e d Kingdom O t h e r ( s p e c i fy) you  lived  in t h i s  training  after  he  years  two  3 - 5 years 6 - 10 y e a r s  4. 5. 6. 7.  11-16 years 17-20 years m o r e t h a n 20 y e a r s ent.i r e I i f e t i m e before  or  area?  1.  live  above)  in?  2. 3.  d i d you  or  know  you  have  university)  (degree  less  coming  1.  Not  2.  British.Columbia  a p p I i c a b Ie  3. 4. 5. 6.  Canada United States Un i t e d K i ngdom Other (specify)  to  (lived  this'  area?  In a r e a  for  lifetime)  „  4  14.  Now I would l i k e to ask you how f a r you and your family t r a v e l , In m i l e s , t o r e c e i v e the f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6b 7. 8.  food purchases c l o t h i n g purchases medical care church elementary school secondary school post o f f i c e work  45,47. 48^50. 51,53. 54,56. 57,59. 60,62. 63,65. 66,68. Total Distance = D i v i d e d by  =69,71  PfstnnGfl, t r a v e l led score, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 15. -  28.  0 - 5 mlles 6-10 11-15 16 - 20 21-25 26 - 30 31-35 36-40 41 o r more  72.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  73.  5 3  74.  3 5 7  75. .  8 6 3  (SEWELL SCALE, SHORT FORM)  The next few Items are concerned w i t h some of t h a t your famtly owns.  the  things  urns. 15.  C o n s t r u c t i o n of houses a. b.  16.  Room-person r a t i o : Number of d i v i d e d by number of persons ftA+tot  17.  b r i c k , s t u c c o , o r frame In good c o n d i t i o n (5) unpalnted frame or other In poor c o n d i t i o n (3)  Lighting  a. b. c.  below 1.00 I.00 - I.99 2.00 and up  rooms  '  equals  -  (3) (5) (7)  facilities: a. b. c.  electric (8i g a s , m a n t l e , or pressure 16) o i l lamps, other o r none (3)  ,  86 START DATA CARD 2 Respondent's  .18.  Water  Number  piped  into a. b.  19.  Power  washer:  21.  22.  23.  24.'  yes no  (8) (4)  yes no  (3)  o 4  .'  b. 20.  .house:  (6)  Refrigeration:,, a. ,  mechanica I  b. c.  i ce other  a. b.  yes  (6)  no  (3)  a. b.  yes no  (65 (3 5  or  (8)  o  6  (65 none  (.3)  Radio:  T e I ephone".  Automobile  Family  ( i n c I udes  pickup  truck):  a.  yes  (6 5  6  b.  no  (2)  2  takes a.  daily yes  b . • no '. 25... Wife's  o 3  education:  or.weekly  newspaper: 6 3  (6) (3) grades  a. b.  0 to 3  c. d. e.  9 - II 12 I 3 . and up  completed  7 •. "  (See  Question  #55  (2) (4). (65 (7) (8)  o 7  6 87. 26.  Husband's  Education:  grades  completed  a.. • 0 t o 7 b. • 8 , 9-11 c. d. 12 .. e. 13 and up Husband a t t e n d s • a month: -'•  28^  a. b.  Wife attends a month:  church  #4):  (3)  13.  (6) (7)  • 6 7 7  (8) Sunday  church  or  School  at  least  once  14.  Sunday  School  at  least  once  (5) (2)  yes no  .•• • . 3 . . 5  (5) (2)  yes no  a. b.  or  Question  (5)  :  27.  (See  15. Total  Percentage  16,18.  Score %  1. U n d e r 20 2. .21 - 30 3. 31 - 40 4.. .41 - 50 • 5.: 51-60 6. 61 - 70 7. 71 - 80 ' 8. •81 - 90 9. O v e r 90  Score:  19.  -  2 3 4  :  29.  (CHAP1N  5  6 7 8 9  SCALE)  Would y o u p l e a s e t r y t o r e c a l l t h e names o f a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t y o u h a v e b e l o n g e d t o In t h e p a s t (Do n o t ' i n c l u d e a t t e n d a n c e a t c h u r c h ) .  2.  Name o f Organi z a t i o n  A t t e n - j 3 . F i n a n 4. Member | 5.. dance fetal c o n o f Comm! t | Of f i c e s , Itribution tee held  £  year, Total Score  Participation  20,21.  Participation  1 . •  3-  • ''  '  i  '  4. .' 5. 6. . 7.  s. Total  '  . J':  • ' "  !  (XI)  . j  (X2)j  .  0 22. 1 - 5 ... 6 - 10 II - 15. 16 - 20 ' • ', ' ,21.-25 ', ' 26 - 30 31-35 .  2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Over  o  ;  :  (X3)  (X4)|  . (X5)  Score  35  •  ' •  I  30.  -  4-9.  I would  like  to  how y o u  fee!  about  Please the 30. 31.  32. 33.  Rural  give  five  life  is  ask  your  you  This  area  I would  is  a desirable  not mind  leaving  advance  want  one  each  too  area.  statement,'  Learning  37.  The  38.  I would f i n d i t very I e a r n new skI I I s .  difficult  The  It  a new  future  of  people  There  this  this  not  enough  I believe  the  rural  the  to'make  a  be  looks  very  any  very  more  responsibility  circumstances. difficult  for  to  bright. to  go  to  school  easy  to  get  together  jobs  available  on  environment  is  here. healthier  than  that  city.  42.  I w i l l need f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n employment i n t h e f u t u r e .  43.  No o n e  44.  I b e l i e v e t h a t p e o p l e who want new and e x c i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s m u s t l e a v e t h e r u r a l a r e a s and g o t o I would  me.  projects.  are  of  live.  involves  under  would  area  find  which  area  routine  here  community  job  In o r d e r  36.  leave  new  to  occupation.  I would  not  any  here  i n my  35.  45.  using  lonesome.  in which  I. do n o t  41.  regarding  this  card.  and  34.  40.  to  on t h e  Isolated  questions and  . S i n c e c i t y p e o p l e have e d u c a t i o n a l opportunities w i t h i n e a s y r e a c h , I t h i n k t h e y h a v e an a d v a n t a g e over r u r a l people.  substantial  39.  few life  reaction  responses too  a  rural  seems  to  care  be w i l l i n g  to  to  ensure '  how t h i s ' a r e a  give  myself  adequate  looks.  up my s p a r e t i m e  to  the  further  educat i o n . 46.  This  47.  The the  area w i l l country city.  never  offers  seem  like  home t o  more enjoyment  <-  of  ne.  living  than  does  cities. my  t/;  o  '.  i~ —  O  CT> •:; I-  I have no d e s i r e t o . I e a r n a new trade-.  49.  'think of  rural  50.  What was  51.  Were you  that,  on t h e  people  your  In w h a t  industry  you  not:  Rural  Score  2  3  4  5  C  42.  I  2  3  4  5  R  Total  Area  Total  Change  Score Score  43,44.  (R) (A)  ;  45,46. 47,43.'  (C)  49,5i.  1965?  a.  53.  you  been  2 or  3 - 5 6 - 1 0 I 1-15 16-20 21-25 26 and o v e r  same  you  working  fn  this  9  .  occupation? 54.  are working  in  now? • 55-.  '•',.••••'  no What  job  are  I 2  3  I ess  job  r  3 4 5 6 7 ;  1.  2. If  in Canada.  .  • I . " yes  55.  I  construction  had  you w o r k i n g  in  O  H-  living.  Total  in  10  -  work?  2. 3. 5. 6. 7. the  did  . other  years  4.  this  others  occupation  >-  41.  mining •;• s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n secondary a g r i c u l t u r e secondary f o r e s t r y recreation  9.  Is  of  of  agr i c u I t u r e forestry  8.  54.  that  standard  0)  yes no  3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  How many  the  &  l _ (7)  self-employed?-  1. 2.  53.  below  principal  I. 2. 52.  is  average,  CD  O — L. CO u oi c  TJ l/> S -< 3 CO Q tO O  48.  CD "O  now?  56,53.  9  55>  b.  A r e y o u s,e! f-emp l o y e d ? I.  yes no  2. c.  What  industry 1. 2.  3. 4. ' 5.. 6.  D i d you have In  If  1966?  58.  agr i c u I t u r e forestry m l n i ng s e r v i c e , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n secondary a g r i c u l t u r e secondary f o r e s t r y  a secondary  (For farmers 1.  yes  2.  no  y e s , w h a t was y o u r  1.  yes  2.  no  Principal  60.  1 2  3 . 4 5 6  or source of  secondary  in your  occupation?  • -  -  ;  secondary  yes no  How many m o n t h s  62,64.  ;  occupation?  65.  1  2 secondary  occupation?'  '  66.  2. . a g r i c u I t u r e 3. mi n I n g 4. s e r v i c e and- t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 5. . s e c o n d a r y a g r i c u l t u r e 6. secondary forestry 7. recreation 8. . c o n s t r u c t i o n 9. other . D i d y o u h a v e a t h i r d J o b i n 1966? (For farmers of f - f a r m j o b ) . !.  I 2  forestry  2.  income  off-farm job).  61.  i n d u s t r y was y o u r 1.  59.  60. •  7 8 9  occupation  -  .Were y o u s e l f - e m p l o y e d  In what  I 2  a r e you working in?  ' ' ' 57.  59o  r e c r e a t i on construction 'other  7. • 8 . .9. 56.  90  d i d y o u w o r k , i n 1966?  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -  secondary  67.  ;  I  63.  I 2  10  (FOR  INTERVIEWER  Respondent  U S E ONLY)  be c l a s s i f i e d  may  -  69.  farmer  only  2.  farmer  principally  69, with  4.  off-farm job' non-farmer p r i n c i p a l l y secondary job non-farmer only  5.  ho j o b  or  out  of  secondary with  farming  as  work  (BRAYFI E L D AND R O T H ' S . I N D E X CF JOB S A T I S F A C T I O N -  I would Please on  as:  1.  3.  61.  91  like  to  reply  this  to  card. is  find each  !t\y j o b  like  62.  I t seems t h a t my j o b s t h a n I am. I enjoy  64.  I an o f t e n  65.  I  feel  fairly  66. • t  feel  that  bored  using  well  my  job  the  your  five  my  with  phrases  '~ ZD  interested  no m o r e  my  in  job. than  I def?ntteIy  68.  E a c h day  69.  I  of  real  disIike work  my  seems  enjoyment  i n my  it  w i l l , never  CD D iC C_O 11. IZ  —  Q  _,  end.  c_ l  l/j I  71.  1 .2 3  4  5  72.  5  4  3.2  1  75.  i  2  5  4-  5  74.  5  -4 3  2  !  75..  1  2. .3  76.  1  2  3  4  77.  1  2  3  4. 5  78.  work.  • r. 4  5  3 2  1,3.  Number  '4. fotaI •'Totq.l  i—  I  D  START DAT A CARD 3 Respondent's  —  others  work. like  In  o  their  time.  interesting  CD C O p o CD •CoD < T— - ' CO —  <„  job.  satIsfied  CTi  -o  >-  "70.  leisure  1_  —  job.  card).  a r e more  t h a n my  is  about  t o me.  friends  with  feel  get.  67.  find  statement  a hobby  my w o r k m o r e  I couId  how y o u  (Hand r e s p o n d e n t  61.  63.  out  C D) 0 <  REVISED)  CD CD  4 5  Score  Sea,! e Score: 9 - 12 13 - 16 17-20. 21-24 25 - 28 . 29 - 32 • 33 - .36 37 - 40 41  and  over  3  5,6,  7.  -  5  1  92  70.  H a v e y o u w o r k e d a t any j o b o t h e r y o u a r e now w o r k i n g a t ? I . .  71.  2.  if yes, v/nat s i x months: Previous  72.  :  than  the  one(s)  yes no specific  jobs  have  you'-'hod f o r m o r e  than  job  Next P r e v i o u s  job  Next. P r e v i o u s  job  Next P r e v i o u s  job.  Next P r e v i o u s  job  . -  „  !2,!4.  ; _  15,17, ,  ;  18,20, '  21,23  What w a s y o u r a p p r o x i m a t e - n e t ' i n c o m e f r o m y o u r p r i n c i p a l o c c u p a t i o n i n 1966? ( f o r f a r m e r s - n e t farm income) -Afrit.  24-, 2 8  '-oae.  73.  '74.  What was y o u r a p p r o x i m a t e n e t i n c o m e o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s i n 1966?  from  D i d any o t h e r f a m i l y members l i v i n g st Income i n ' 1966? i f y e s , how much was a.  your  heme  earn  wife'  4! . b.  sons  or  daughters  /-WTlT  .  Code.  c.  others  • Am. . Code.  4 o , 3 ^ .  53.  93  Respondent's  76.  number  ^ D i d y o u o r members from o t h e r s o u r c e s th!s income? a.  rent,  b.  77.  o f y o u r fami l y r e c e i v e income In 1966? If y e s , how much waj  interest,  unemployment payments  or  dividends  Insurance  or  Amt.  5,9.  Code.  If:  welfare Amt.  11,15.  •Code.  16,  Amt.  17,2!.  Code.  - 22.  What w o u l d y o u e s t i m a t e was t h e v a l u e , o f p r o d u c e r a i s e d a n d c o n s u m e d by y o u r s e l f last year? quantity  va1ue  m! Ik butter eggs  j •  meat garden  produce  Total 78.  Have y o u been unemployed d u r i n g t h e p a s t 3 y e a r s ? ( F o r f a r m e r s - Have you s o u g h t o f f - f a r m w o r k - i n . t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s and been u n a b l e t o o b t a i n a n y ? )  A . 2. B.  If  yes,  yes  I  no  2  f o r how 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.7.  less 1 - 6  long? than  6 - 1 2 13 - 18 .18 - 24 24  - 30'.  .30 -  36  24,  I 2 3 5  6  7  94 79..  If  you were  of  your  unemployed,  w h a t was  1.  seasonal  2.  health  3.  no work  4.  work  5.  Would you education  what  but  insufficient  work  4 5 6  new p o s i t i o n  7  of  further  26.  kind  Do y o u own t h i s  of  3  t r a i n i n g would you  land,  I  2  '  • undecided  own p a r t  and  rent  be  interested  part,  or  in?  27,29.  rent  entirely? own own m o r e t h a n h a l f and r e n t t h e r e n t m o r e t h a n h a l f a n d own t h e rent i t entirely.  I 2 3 4  5.  manager  5  other  6  How d i d y o u a c q u i r e  How many  30. remainder remainder  6.  I. ,2. .3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 33.  3  yes no  I. •2. 3. . 4-..  •82.  get  I 2  available  l i k e t o t a k e some k i n d or t r a i n i n g ?  3.  it  25.  reasons  seeking  1. 2.  81.  nature  other  7.  yes,  or  layoffs  avalIable,  fam!Iy  .6.  If  cause  di s a b i I i t i e s  skI I I t o  80.  the  unemployment?  acres  ;  this  land?  do n o t own l a n d from t h e C r o w n - p u r c h a s e from t h e C r o w n - p r e - e m p t o r homestead b o u g h t as i s i n h e r i t e d as a g o i n g c o n c e r n through marriage , p r i v a t e unimproved i n a c t i v e Improved other of  l a n d do y o u own h e r e ?  31.  I 2 3 4 5 6 7  8 9 Amt. Code.  32,35. 36.  95 84.  How many a c r e s h a v e n o t been .. meadows o r n a t u r e l p a s t u r e s ?  cleared  '':  but  are  ••  8 5 . "• How many  acres  have  86.  acres  are  How many  been  \  grass •.  cleared?  i n bush o r  Amt.  37,40.  Code.  41.  Amt. Code.  timber? '  42,45. 46.'  Amt.  47,50.  Code.  51.  (FOR AREAS A F F E C T E D BY FLOODING ONLY) 87.  Do y o u from  88.  If  expect  to  be  dam s t o r a g e  so,  1.  yes  2.  no  where  relocated  because  of  flooding  reservoirs? 52.  I 2  do y o u  expect  to  be moved  to?  53,57.  THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE TO B E . A S K E D OF FARMERS ONLY 89.  What  is  (that  your  is,  largest  principa I agricuIturaI/product  the  gross  A.  product  from w h i c h  sold?  you o b t a i n e d  the  revenue.)  I.  dairy  2.  beef  3. 4. 5.  sheep other fruit  produce  (milk  or  cream s h i p p e r )  58.  livestock and v e g e t a b l e s  . (Including  potatoes)  6. other f i e l d crops 7. mi x e d 8 . • wood l o t p r o d u c t s 9 . - eggs o r p o u l t r y B.  What o t h e r (If In  (I)  agricultural  more t h a n B  I 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 .9  products  one r e s p o n s e ,  .  check  do y o u second  sell? response  (2). I. 1.. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6, 7. 3. 9;  d aaii rryy p r o d u c e beef sheep o t h e r 1i v e s t o c k f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s f i e l d crops mi xed woodlot products. other  59.  I  4-  5 6 1 o  Q  96  15  dal ry products  I. 2. 3. 4.  beef sheep other fruit  5.  f i e l d crops mi x e d woodlot products  6. 7. 8.  9.  90.  What was  1i vestock and v e g e t a b l e s  . other  the  average  ri?,iry  Minima Is  number o f  animals  on y o u r  farm  last  year? T o t a l Animal Units  cows hei f ers caIves bulls kftftf,  Tot,--; I A n i m a ! ' . _.  ;  —.  —  !.  Units  no a n i m a l s  2. less than 3 . 1 0 - 1 9  animals . . .  4. 5.  cows heifers yearlings  20 30 -  6.  -.  caIves b u l Is  64.  4  29 39  P  ^  0  7 8 .9  horses sheep swi n e : . ' ch i ckens 91.  What was  92.  Would you better or net  farm  your  approximate  gross  farm-income  in  c o n s i d e r 1966 a . t y p i c a l y e a r , o r was poorer than average w i t h r e s p e c t to Income?  .  .  I . ;" t y p i c a I 2. b e t t e r than  .  .  1966?  it  Ami. .Code.  65,70. 71.  .  . 72.  average  3. • poorer than average '4. n o t . f a r m ! ng p r e v i o u s  to  1966  '.  I 2 3  10  " ^ . 50- - 59 . 60 - 79 80 and o v e r  A  7.., 8.. 9.  61,63,  9 7  93.  What w o u l d y o u be w i l l i n g t o t h i s farm as a g o i n g c o n c e r n  94.  Do y o u and,  if  use  hired  so,  labour, for  on w h a t  basis  pay t o own a n d o p e r a t e (everything included)?  your  farm  operation,  do y o u  hire  labour?,  Amt.  73,78.  Code.  79.  I  1. 2.  no h i r e d l a b o u r u s e d h i r e d l a b o u r u s e d o n l y on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s f o r l e s s than one man-month  3.  hired  4.  b a s i s f o r more t h a n one man-month h i r e d - l a b o u r on a y e a i — r o u n d b a s i s  3 4-  5.  seme  5  -  labour  used  yeat—round  only  on' a  labour,  80.  2  seasonal  some  seasonal  START DATA CARD 5 Respondent's  number  .  •  ._ A  95.  D i d y o u work many w e e k s  off  1.  no  2. 3. 4.  1 ess than 4 - 9 10 13 13-25 26 - - 3 9  6. 7. Do y o u If  yes,  use  b.  Who' i s  year?  if  off  farm?  yes,  how  1  5.  o f f - f a r m work 4 weeks  40 -  unpaid  last  spend working  3 4-  0  6 7  52  fami Iy  Iabour  In y o u r  farm  operation?  how much?  a.  97.  farm  you  5.  96.  your  did  your  I. 2.  yes no  I. 2. 3. 4. 5.  less than 1 - 5 6 - 10 11-15 more t h a n  District  1.  right  2.  wrong  3.  don't  '  5  .  1  2 I man-day  per  month  7. '  15  I 2 3 4 5  Agriculturist?  3. •. know  .  I 2 3  17  90.-  H a v e y o u v i s i t e d your" D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i n h i s o f f i c e d u r i n g the past year? If s o , how many t i m e 3? s 1. 2. ' 3 . 4.  99.  101..  Have so,  you  the  I.  None I or  3.  3  4.  5 o r more  -A about year?  - 1 0 .  how  <! 2  or 4  3 4  1.  None. I or 2 3 or 4 5 o r more • •  attended  a  2  2. 3. 4.  District  ! 2 3  5 o r more  2.  local  past  I!.  ! 2 3 4  meetings  Agriculturist  or  during  field the  days past  sponsored year?  If  many? !. 2. 3. 4.  103.  9.  D i d your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t v i s i t you d u r i n g the y e a r about a farm m a t t e r ? If s o , how many t i m e s ?  by  102.  None. j or 2 3 or 4  Have you c o n s u l t e d your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t farm m a t t e r o v e r t h e t e l e p h o n e d u r i n g t h e p a s t If s o , how many t i m e s ? i  100.'  98  None' . I or 2 3 or 4 5 o r more  •  '  !2.  Did you read c i r c u I a r I e t t e r s , m a i l e d announcements, buI I e t I n s o n an a g r i c u l t u r e s u b j e c t d u r i n g t h e p a s t year? If s o , how o f t e n ? 1.  Never  2. 3. 4.  rarely.. . . sometimes often  I  2  or  13. .  .  I  .  . Have you l i s t e n e d t o farm r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n during the past year? If s o , how o f t e n ?  .  2 3 4  programs  1.  never  2.  rarely  :4.  s  3.  sometimes  3  4.  often  4  2  18  99  104..'  O l d y o u r e a d any f a r m n e w s p a p e r year? If s o , how o f t e n ? I. 2. 3. 4.  105.  Have you e v e r where? I. 2. 3.  articles  during the  past  15.  never '• r a r e I y sometimes often taken  any  agriculture  courses?  no c o u r s e s high school vocational or.agricuIture  if  so,  16.  107.  'What k i n d  of  2. 3. '4.  5. 6.  7. 8.  9.  L. N-. P.  108.  5 5  D u r i n g t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s do y o u h a v e any d e f i n i t e to change your farming a c t i v i t i e s o r o p e r a t i o n s ? 1. 2.  What  plans  17,  yes no change(s)  do y o u h o p e  i n c r e a s e . farm s i z e change e n t e r p r i s e c l e a r and/or d r a i n c h a n g e b u I Id i ngs educat ion  to  make? IS. •19.  land  20.  t a k e an o f f - f a r m j o b i n c r e a s e o f f - f a r m work r e t i re Increase stock seI I farm decrease stock d e c r e a s e , farm s i z e r e n t o u t farm d e c r e a s e o f f - f a r m work other  do y o u t h i n k  would  improve a g r i c u l t u r e  in t h i s  area?  21. 22. Present  (9  land use  cols)  J 2 3 4  school  4. • a g r i c u l t u r a l college 5. university 6. adult education 106.  I  2 3 4  •  23,31 .  Land  capability  for  agriculture  (10  cols)  32,41.  Land  capability  for  forestry  ( 6  cols)  42^47.  

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