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'Between un-being and being' : vision and method in selected poems of John Donne and T.S. Eliot Phillips, Donna Carolyn 1970

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' B E T W E E N U N - B E I N G AND V I S I O N AND METHOD  BEING':  I N S E L E C T E D POEMS OF  JOHN DONNE AND T .  S.  ELIOT  by Donna C a r o l y n B.A.,  University of  A THESIS SUBMITTED  Phillips  S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1963  IN PARTIAL  FULFILMENT  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF in  the  ARTS  Department of  English We a c c e p t required  this  thesis  as  conforming to  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H  April,  1970  COLUMBIA  the  OF  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  tha't  it  may  representatives. for  be  It  financial  for  of  March 1,  1970  of  Columbia,  British  by  gain  Columbia  for  the  understood  English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  Date  freely  permission  purposes  thesis  partial  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  Abstract Common t o c e r t a i n poems o f John Donne and T. S. E l i o t i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f a d e s i r e f o r a u n i t y o f experience which w i l l i n v o l v e a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y demands o f f l e s h and s p i r i t .  I n an e a r l y poem, E l i o t a l i g n s h i m s e l f w i t h  the p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y he p e r c e i v e s i n Donne, a s p i r i t u a l  suffer-  i n g expressed i n sensory terms i n t h e image o f t h e a n g u i s h o f n  the marrow".  The p o e t r y o f each poet develops t h e a n a l y s i s o f  thought and f e e l i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r u n i f y i n g , cendent e x p e r i e n c e :  trans-  i n t h e poems o f Donne d e a l i n g w i t h profane  and d i v i n e l o v e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and woman, and man and God, a r e e x p l o r e d w i t h w i t and dramatic f e r v o u r ; i n t h e d r a matic d i a l o g u e s o f t h e e a r l y poems o f E l i o t , t h e p o e t i c  persona  seeks s p i r i t u a l purpose i n a w o r l d a p p a r e n t l y d e v o i d o f b e l i e f and meaning.  Comparison o f p o e t i c v i s i o n and method i n Donne and  E l i o t i s most v a l i d i n examination o f t h e two l o n g poems, Donne's A n n i v e r s a r i e s and E l i o t * s Four Q u a r t e t s . a n a t o m i z a t i o n o f t h e mutable,  I n these poems, an  s p i r i t u a l l y dead w o r l d i s c o n t r a s t e d  w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e poet's own s o u l toward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i v i n e l o v e ; d i v i n e l o v e i s seen t o demand i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s u f f e r i n g i n c a r n a t e p r i n c i p l e o f v i r t u e , symbolized by Donne as the maiden E l i z a b e t h Drury, and by E l i o t as t h e I n c a r n a t i o n o f God.  S i m i l a r i t y o f technique i n each poem c o n s i s t s i n t h e use o f  a d i a l e c t i c a l method o f d e v e l o p i n g themes and d e f i n i t i o n s o f "death", " b i r t h " , "wisdom", " l o v e " and " j o y " . by both poets i n v o l v e s paradoxes  The imagery  used  basic t o C h r i s t i a n theodicy:  d e a t h - a s - l i f e , d a r k n e s s - a s - l i g h t , ignorance-as-wisdom, as-love.  suffering-  The e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s b e l i e f i s seen by each poet as a  h o l y t a s k , i n which the drawing o f a l l experience i s i m i t a t i v e o f the d i v i n e u n i f y i n g order.  i n t o a new  unity  T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Chapter I. II. III. IV. V. VI.  p  INTRODUCTION:  'TWO WORLDS M E E T I N M A N '  . . . .  JOHN D O N N E : »CORRESPONDENCIE ONLY H I S SUBJECT WAS' T.  T H E A N N I V E R S A R I E S AND T H E FOUR ROAD M A P S F O R T H E S O U L CONCLUSIONS.  .  1  15  S. ELIOT: ' T H O U G H T S OF A DRY B R A I N I N A DRY S E A S O N *  ' T H E V I S I B L E R E M I N D E R OF I N V I S I B L E POET AS MAKER.  age  23  LIGHT : 1  39  QUARTETS: 60 107  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  110  ii  CHAPTER INTRODUCTION:  I  'TWO WORLDS MEET IN MAN'*  Donne, I suppose, was such another Who found no s u b s t i t u t e f o r sense, To s e i z e and c l u t c h and p e n e t r a t e ; E x p e r t beyond e x p e r i e n c e , He knew the a n g u i s h o f the marrow The ague o f the s k e l e t o n ; No c o n t a c t p o s s i b l e t o f l e s h , A l l a y e d the f e v e r o f the bone. One  o f the most p e r c e p t i v e statements  on the m e t a p h y s i c a l  s e n s i b i l i t y o f John Donne i s c o n t a i n e d i n these two s t a n z a s o f an e a r l y poem by T. S. E l i o t ,  "Whispers o f I m m o r t a l i t y " .  remarks, h e r e , Donne's p e r c e p t i o n o f the correspondence  between  apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the "two w o r l d s " o f man, and, t i n g l y , he expresses i t i n the form o f paradox:  Eliot  fit-  t h e r e i s a know-  ledge beyond the knowledge t o be obtained by the senses, and t h e senses a r e the o n l y medium a v a i l a b l e f o r the p u r s u i t .  A fusion  o f f l e s h and s p i r i t e x i s t s i n "That s u b t i l e knot which makes us 2  man",  which i s a source a l t e r n a t i v e l y o f p l e a s u r e and t o r t u r e .  A p p r o p r i a t e l y , s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g i s expressed i n sensory  terms,  "the a n g u i s h o f the marrow", "the ague o f the s k e l e t o n " , " t h e f e v e r o f the bone". I n the f i n a l s t a n z a . o f t h i s poem, E l i o t a l i g n s h i m s e l f w i t h those who pursue a p a i n f u l m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n beyond l i b i d i n o u s "pneumatic b l i s s " t o the " s k u l l beneath the s k i n " :  But our l o t c r a w l s between d r y r i b s To keep our metaphysics warm. L i k e Donne, E l i o t chooses t o probe r e a l i t y ; but t h i s c h o i c e alone does not, o f c o u r s e , make these poets unique, and i t i s t h e r e f o r e not t h e o n l y b a s i s f o r comparing  them.  The quest o f t h e h o l y  g r a i l o f r e a l i t y has been made by many p o e t s ; what p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r comparison  o f Donne and E l i o t i s t h e t e c h n i q u e s t h e y  employ i n t r a n s m u t i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and f e e l i n g s i n t o a r t . C r i t i c a l emphasis on these t e c h n i q u e s i s i n s i s t e d upon by E l i o t , as c r i t i c ; t h e p r o p e r a e s t h e t i c c o n s i s t s , he says, i n " a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e t r u t h t h a t not o u r f e e l i n g s but t h e p a t t e r n which we make o f o u r f e e l i n g s i s t h e c e n t e r o f v a l u e . My purpose, t h e n , i s t o examine some o f t h e methods by whieh these poets c r e a t e , o r " c o u n t e r f a i t C r e a t i o n " , ^ t o use one o f Donne's r a r e c r i t i c a l terms. often  I n t h e sense t h a t human a c t i v i t y  p a r o d i e s t h e d i v i n e , t h e i r concern i s t o make words f l e s h ,  j u s t as i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e t o be embodied i n a p a t t e r n f o r l i v i n g and d y i n g .  I n t h e p o e t r y o f each, we can  f o l l o w a d e v e l o p i n g awareness o f t h e meaning o f d i v i n e l o v e embodied i n t h e I n c a r n a t i o n , an awareness which i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e d e v e l o p i n g a b i l i t y t o express i t i n t h e p o e t r y . poet i s t o mold t h i s awareness i n t o a p a t t e r n , a urn . tt  The aim o f each "well-wrought  D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e method o f each poet, t h e " p a t t e r n  11  of  s t r u c t u r e and language, w i l l r e v e a l t h e i r common v i s i o n . The "anguish o f t h e marrow" which E l i o t p e r c e i v e d i n Donne and f e l t h i m s e l f t o share i s d e r i v e d from t h e s c e p t i c a l frame o f mind which i s a p r e l u d e t o f a i t h .  I n both p o e t s , t h e r e i s a c o n -  s c i o u s c u l t i v a t i o n o f the s c e p t i c impulse which c o n s i s t s i n . • . a sense o f the inadequacy o f human knowledge, a consequent s e n s i t i v i t y t o dualisms and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , a concern w i t h paradox as e x p r e s s i n g the complexity o f t r u t h , a b e l i e f i n the wholesome e f f e c t o f doubt, and a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t where knowledge f a l t e r s a r i g h t l i f e ~ can s u p p l y the o n l y l e g i t i m a t e c o n f i d e n c e known t o man. D e s c r i b i n g the c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e t o t r u t h which s c e p t i c a l  inquiry  t a k e s , Donne exhorts r e a d e r s t o . . . doubt w i s e l y , i n s t r a n g e way To stand i n q u i r i n g r i g h t , i s not t o s t r a y ; To s l e e p e , or runne wrong, i s : on a huge h i l l , Cragged, and s t e e p , T r u t h s t a n d s , and hee t h a t w i l l Reach h e r , about must, and about must goe S i m i l a r l y , E l i o t observed cal  . . ,°  i n the s c e p t i c i s m o f Montaigne and  the f i r s t requirement o f b e l i e f : . . . h e /Montaigne7 succeeded i n g i v i n g e x p r e s s i o n t o the s c e p t i c i s m o f every human b e i n g . F o r every man who t h i n k s and l i v e s by thought must have h i s own s c e p t i c i s m , t h a t which stops a t the q u e s t i o n , t h a t which ends i n d e n i a l , o r t h a t which l e a d s t o f a i t h and which i s somehow i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the f a i t h which transcends i t . And P a s c a l , as the type o f one k i n d o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e v e r , which i s h i g h l y p a s s i o n a t e and a r d e n t , but p a s s i o n a t e o n l y through a powerful and r e g u l a t e d i n t e l l e c t , i s i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n s , o f h i s u n f i n i s h e d Apology f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y f a c i n g u n f l i n c h i n g l y the demon o f doubt which i s i n s e p a r a b l e from the s p i r i t o f b e l i e f . ' A fundamental s c e p t i c i s m r e s u l t s i n the a n a l y t i c a l  of  Pas-  nature  the work o f both Donne and E l i o t , a l t h o u g h the a n a l y s i s t a k e s  a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form i n each.  In Donne's p o e t r y , the imagery  functions l o g i c a l l y i n a kind of anatomization of experience, f o r a new  f o c u s on i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e .  Dame Helen Gardner f i n d s  t h i s a common f e a t u r e o f m e t a p h y s i c a l w i t : In a m e t a p h y s i c a l poem the c o n c e i t s a r e instruments o f d e f i n i t i o n i n an argument o r instruments t o persuade. The poem has something t o say which the c o n c e i t h e l p s  t o forward. I t can o n l y do t h i s i f i t i s used w i t h an appearance o f l o g i c a l r i g o u r , the analogy b e i n g shown t o h o l d by a process not, u n l i k e E u c l i d ' s superimposit i o n of t r i a n g l e s . 8  I n a r g u i n g the l o g i c a l resemblances between l o v e r s and the marriage bonds and a f l e a , a d e c a p i t a t e d man  compasses,  and the  dying  w o r l d , Bonne pushes beyond the r e c e i v e d wisdom r e g a r d i n g  rela-  t i o n s h i p s t o d i s c o v e r a new  simplicity i n reality.  Donne's w i t  i s thus an i m i t a t i o n o f " h o l y m i r t h " , t o use E l i o t ' s phrase, a congruence of l e v i t y and  s e r i o u s n e s s , i d e a and  feeling.  E l i o t probes t o "the s k u l l beneath the s k i n " by meansadf a s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n o f correspondence, but i n c o n t r a s t t o the l o g i c a l procedure o f argument by c o n c e i t i n Donne's p o e t r y ,  there  i s o f t e n i n E l i o t ' s poems a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f images i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s are d i s c o v e r e d by i n d i r e c t i o n .  F o r example, i n The  Waste -Land, the image o f the n e u r o t i c woman i n S e c t i o n I I , "A game o f Chess", i s superimposed on t h a t o f t o o t h l e s s L i l i n the p u b l i c bar; the r e s u l t i s an i m p r e s s i o n  o f the s t e r i l e l o v e l e s s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which cuts a c r o s s a l l h i s t o r i c a l and lars.  social particu  1 0  The a n a l y t i c a l nature  o f the minds o f Donne and  duces i n the p o e t r y a heightened  self-consciousness.  Eliot  This  awareness r e s u l t s , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i n i n c r e a s e d o b j e c t i v i t y : poet who  observes i s d i s c r i m i n a t e d from the poet who  pro  selfthe  experiences.  Thus, i n Donne's p o e t r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l o v e p o e t r y , there i s a k i n d o f i r o n i c detachment, a s e l f - m o c k i n g f eature emulated by  Eliot:  attitude.  This i s a  . . . the more p e r f e c t the a r t i s t , the more completelys e p a r a t e i n him w i l l be the man who s u f f e r s and the mind which c r e a t e s ; the more p e r f e c t l y w i l l the mind d i g e s t and transmute the p a s s i o n s which are i t s materials. 1 1  The s u f f e r i n g which i s h e l d up f o r examination may i s h e d ; i n f a c t , i t may  not be  dimin-  be r e l i v e d v i c a r i o u s l y i n the a c t o f  12  describing i t ,  but the a c t o f examining i t i s a measure o f the  poet's a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l and  o r d e r the chaos he  perceives:  I thought, i f I c o u l d draw my p a i n e s , Through Rime's v e x a t i o n , I should them a l l a y , G r i e f e brought t o numbers cannot be so f i e r c e , F o r , he tames i t , t h a t f e t t e r s i t i n v e r s e , v (Donne, "The  triple  Foole'v  O b j e c t i v i t y i n t h e i r p o e t r y i s most o f t e n achieved c r e a t i o n o f a dramatic and a n a l y z e d .  s e t t i n g f o r the experience  E l i o t has  t o be  by  the  presented  c r e a t e d an e n t i r e c a s t o f c h a r a c t e r s ,  which one assumes t o be v a r i o u s dimensions o f a s i n g l e p o e t i c persona.  In t h i s t a b l e a u i s J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k ,  hesitatingly  b a r i n g h i m s e l f t o the d i s a p p r o v a l o f s o c i e t y , f a i l i n g t o d i g n i t y even i n h i s imagined d e a t h : man  h o l d my  coat and  snicker."  There i s the l a d y who  unconscious o f the t w i s t e d l i l a c "You  do not know  laugh"  eternal-Footis ironically  s t a l k i n her hand as she  what l i f e i s , you who  ("Portrait of a Lady"). i n the sun"  " I have seen the  achieve  says  h o l d i t i n your hands"  There i s a n i m a l i s t i c Sweeney, " s t r a d d l e d  ("Sweeney E r e c t " ) o r " l e t t i n g h i s arms hang down t o  ("Sweeney Among the N i g h t i n g a l e s " ) , and G e r o n t i o n ,  f u l l y aware, o f h i s s p i r i t u a l d e p r i v a t i o n and c o n t a c t " w i t h v i t a l meaning. t r a t e d , f e a r f u l t h a t t h e i r own  pain-  s e e k i n g some " c l o s e r  There a r e the Magi, a l o n e ,  frus-  s a c r i f i c e has been mere f o o l i s h -  n e s s , p u z z l e d about the purpose o f t h e i r journey: vrere we n  a l l t h a t way  f o r B i r t h o r Death?"  symbol o f Western man,  And  imprisoned  led  t h e r e i s the F i s h e r k i n g ,  i n h i s Waste Land, unsure o f  the p r e c i s e terms o f the s a c r i f i c e which he i s asked t o make, but aware t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y and  t h a t he has  fragments I have shored a g a i n s t my  ruins."  f a i l e d : "These  Donne's l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i n the drama i s most o f t e n hims e l f , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , v a r i o u s a s p e c t s He  o f h i s p o e t i c persona.  i s the l o v e r u r g i n g h i s m i s t r e s s t o j o i n him where he l i e s i n  t h e i r bed  ( " E l e g i e : Going t o Bed"), o r b i d d i n g the sun f i r s t  to  l e a v e them i n the dark and  then t o f i n d i t s t r u e c e n t r e i n t h e i r  bed  Elsewhere, the l o v e r s are w a l k i n g s i d e  ("The  Sunne R i s i n g " ) .  by s i d e w h i l e he d e l i v e r s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l monologue ("Lecture upon the Shadow"), o r s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y i n a garden ("The On  Extasie").  o c c a s i o n the garden o f l o v e i s i n h a b i t e d by the betrayed  alone  lover  * ("Twicknam Garden"), o r t h e r e i s a scene o f mutual g r i e f ;  i n separation  ("A  V a l e d i c t i o n f o r b i d d i n g mourning").  Or t h e r e i s  the imagined f u t u r e scene o f the l o v e r undergoing a post-mortem anatomy ("The  Dampe") o r appearing  t h e i r common grave ("The  t o embrace h i s m i s t r e s s i n  Relique").  In the d i v i n e poems, the  a c t o r i s Donne, the p e n i t e n t b e l i e v e r , i n d i a l o g u e w i t h God Sonnet: W i l t thou l o v e God, blacke  Soule").  h i s own i n my  as he thee", "Holy Sonnet: Oh  ("Holy my  In these poems,, the dramatic s e t t i n g i s o f t e n  p r o j e c t e d u n i o n w i t h God  i n death ("Hyrane t o God  s i c k n e s s e " ) , o r the R e s u r r e c t i o n  round e a r t h s imagined c o r n e r s " ) .  ("Holy Sonnet: At  In the p o e t r y o f d i v i n e  my  God,  the and  • •••7  s e c u l a r l o v e a l i k e , the dramatic scene i s sketched i n the openi n g l i n e s by means o f s p e c i f i c adverbs o f time and p l a c e  ("here",  "now"), and an a r r e s t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n a l tone: Busie o l d f o o l e , u n r u l y Sunne, Why d o s t thou thus, Through windowes, and through c u r t a i n e s c a l l on us? ("The Sunne R i s i n g " ) Marke but t h i s f l e a , and marke i n t h i s , How l i t t l e t h a t which thou deny'st me i s ; I t suck'd me f i r s t , and now sucks thee And i n t h i s f l e a , our two bloods mingled bee. ("The F l e a " ) At the round e a r t h s imagin'd c o r n e r s , blow Your trumpets, A n g e l l s , and a r i s e , a r i s e From death, you numberlesse i n f i n i t i e s Of s o u l e s , and t o your s c a t t r e d b o d i e s goe . . . ("Holy Sonnet") The e f f e c t o f such dramatic s t a g i n g as a backdrop t o the anatomy o f f e e l i n g s i s what E l i o t has c a l l e d a d i s t a n c i n g o f the a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y :  "depersonalization",  the poet's mind i s the  v e s s e l i n which the f u s i o n o f thought and f e e l i n g takes p l a c e , o r t o use E l i o t ' s analogy, "the t r a n s f o r m i n g c a t a l y s t " . ^  The  a b i l i t y o f the poet t o a b s t r a c t h i m s e l f from the drama, t o be b o t h p a r t a k e r and o b s e r v e r , enables him t o p l a y w i t h the experi e n c e , t o see i t from v a r i o u s a n g l e s , much as Hamlet h o l d s the s k u l l o f Y o r i c k and r o t a t e s i t i n h i s hands as he e x p l o r e s the meaning o f d e a t h .  T h i s i s a f e a t u r e o f the c r e a t i v e process i n  Donne, as E l i o t has remarked: The u s u a l course f o r Donne i s not t o pursue the meaning o f the i d e a s but t o a r r e s t i t , t o p l a y c a t - l i k e w i t h i t , ; t o d e v e l o p i t d i a l e c t i c a l l y , t o e x t r a c t every minimum o f t h e emotion suspended i n i t . * * 1  But i t i s a l s o a f e a t u r e o f E l i o t ' s method:  one t h i n k s o f the  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s m e d i t a t i o n o f P r u f r o c k , t h e r e l e n t l e s s p u r s u i t by G e r o n t i o n o f "thoughts o f a d r y b r a i n i n a d r y season", a l l t h e metamorphoses o f t h e Waste Land f i g u r e as he seeks t h e meaning o f r e s t o r a t i v e s a c r i f i c e , and f i n a l l y , t h e descent o f t h e persona o f t h e Four Q u a r t e t s i n t o t h e "world o f p e r p e t u a l s o l i t u d e " o f the progress o f the s o u l . One  v e h i c l e o f t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l method common t o t h e p o e t r y  o f both Donne and E l i o t i s t h e i r use o f paradox.  Apparent  con-  t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e terms o f a n a l y s i s f o r c e one t o see t h e experi e n c e o r concept from v a r i o u s a n g l e s  (as a k i n d o f d i a l e c t i c a l  " t h e a t r e - i n - t h e - r o u n d " , as i t were).  As a d e v i c e o f r h e t o r i c ,  paradox has a l o n g and devious h i s t o r y ; i n t h e Renaissance,  para-  dox meant a statement c o n t r a r y t o r e c e i v e d o p i n i o n , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n o f i n c r e d i b i l i t y , even o f f a l s e n e s s .  But  paradox demands c l o s e a t t e n t i o n i n o r d e r f o r t h e r e a d e r t o d i s cover t h a t i t both l i e s , and speaks t r u t h .  When Donne s a i d o f  h i s " o f f i c i a l " e x e r c i s e s i n paradox, t h e Paradoxes and Problems. ". . . t h e y were made r a t h e r t o deceave time than h e r daughter truth  .. . • t h e y a r e r a t h e r alarums t o t r u t h t o arme h e r than  enemies . . . " , ^ he was e x p r e s s i n g t h e major f u n c t i o n o f p a r a dox,  t h a t o f p r o v o k i n g , by means o f a "show o f d e c e i t " ,  an  a n a l y s i s o f e x p e r i e n c e o r o b j e c t s which may l e a d t o t r u t h .  A  modern d e f i n i t i o n o f paradox c a l l s i t "any c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a t f i r s t sounds absurd but t h a t has an argument t o s u s t a i n One  i t . " ^  source o f t h e apparent a b s u r d i t y o r f a l s e n e s s o f a  paradox, i s i t s use o f l o g i c .  This involves, ultimately, the  misuse o f s y l l o g i s t i c l o g i c , inasmuch as the poet may  push h i s  metaphor or argued c o n c e i t t o i t s l o g i c a l extreme i n an t o meld the correspondences he p e r c e i v e s i n o b j e c t s .  effort  Often  the  paradox i s taken " t o the p o i n t where i t s inadequacy f o r r e f l e c t i n g r e a l i t y becomes f u l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . "  T h i s has the  effect  o f f o r c i n g the r e a d e r to examine not o n l y the t e n e t s o f the  para-  d o x i c a l argument but a l s o i t s p r o c e s s e s : The t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s , examining i t s e l f f o r the ' e r r o r ' which brought i t up sharp a g a i n s t paradox, t u r n s back on i t s e l f t o see how i t got s t u c k upon the paradox, and i f t h a t paradox might have been avoided: a paradox generates the s e l f - r e f e r e n t i a l a c t i v i t y . Operating at the l i m i t s o f d i s c o u r s e , r e d i r e c t i n g t h o u g h t f u l a t t e n t i o n t o the f a u l t y o r l i m i t e d s t r u c t u r e o f thought, paradoxes p l a y back and f o r t h a c r o s s t e r m i n a l and c a t e g o r i c a l b o u n d a r i e s - - t h a t i s , they p l a y w i t h human unders t a n d i n g , t h a t most s e r i o u s o f a l l human a c t i v i t i e s . " C o n s i d e r i n g the Renaissance penchant f o r paradox, we  should  not be s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d paradox woven i n t o the e n t i r e f a b r i c D o n n e d p o e t r y and concentrated  prose.  E l i o t ' s use o f paradox, however, i s  i n . t h e l a t e r w o r k s — t h e p l a y s and l o n g e r poems w r i t t e n  a f t e r what i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  t o be a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n E l i o t ' s  work, h i s c o n v e r s i o n t o the A n g l i c a n Church i n 192?• l o n g poems o f Donne and E l i o t , the A n n i v e r s a r i e s and t e t s , , the use o f paradox t o analyze t a k e n f o r granted  processes  the Four Quar-  the C h r i s t i a n  At the b e g i n n i n g  of  poems, a paradox i s s t a t e d i n v o l v i n g the mys-  t e r y of b e i n g , t h a t time to e t e r n i t y .  two  and he t h e r e f o r e must s t r u c t u r e  methods o f a r r i v i n g a t t h i s knowledge.  each o f these two  In the  o f thought u s u a l l y  i s turned t o a r e l i g i o u s purpose:  i s admonished t o know h i s God, new  of  i s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l i f e t o death, and The  of  paradox p i v o t s on a b i f u r c a t i o n o f d e f i n i -  ....10  t i o n s o f b i r t h and death, time and e t e r n i t y ; the process poem i s t o examine these d e f i n i t i o n s .  o f the  Because the t r u t h t o be  uncovered r e f e r s t o f a i t h and i s t h e r e f o r e more d i f f i c u l t t o express than any t r u t h o f l o g i c , t h e poems i n v o l v e paradox as a 20  f i g u r e o f thought as w e l l as a f i g u r e o f speech.  That i s , they  are e x p r e s s i n g by means o f paradox what they p e r c e i v e i n s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y t o be p a r a d o x i c a l s u i g e n e r i s .  Found as an e x e r c i s e  i n l o g i c and l i n g u i s t i c s , paradox i s turned by these poets t o a r e a l examination o f t h e u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e o f l o g i c t o d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n impulses o f t h e human mind and h e a r t .  T h e i r use o f p a r a -  dox  paradox from t h e  i s perhaps what d i s t i n g u i s h e s m e t a p h y s i c a l  more p l a y f u l r h e t o r i c a l paradoxes.  I t d i s c o v e r s "something i n -  h e r e n t l y i n t r a c t a b l e i n being i t s e l f " ; i t s p r i n g s i n g e n e r a l from inadequacy, from the r e n t s i n l i n g u i s t i c and l o g i c a l c l o t h i n g ; paradox might be c a l l e d t h e s c i e n c e o f g a p s . ! 2  What connects E l i o t ' s use o f paradox t o Donne's c o n s i s t s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e p a r a d o x i c a l core o f t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h : From O r i g e n t o C h e s t e r t o n , paradox has been the f i t t e s t f l e s h o f a g g s p e l which was and i s " f o o l i s h n e s s t o the Greeks". Paradox i s the o n l y mode i n which t h e i n t e l l e c t i s a b l e t o grasp a t a l l t h e f a c t o f the c o h a b i t a t i o n o f the f i n i t e and t h e i n f i n i t e . C h r i s t i a n paradox may be c a l l e d t h e . i n t e l l e c t u a l shadow o f E u c h a r i s t i c t h e o l o g y , an a c t o f t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n going on i n the v e r b a l marrow of w i t . ^ C h r i s t i a n paradox takes i t s impulse from a God who d e f i n e s h i m s e l f w i t h a t a u t o l o g y — " I am t h a t I am"—and p r e s e n t s  himself  i n an even more amazing m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f paradox as t h e god who was born t o d i e : The  f i x e d s t a r a t the c e n t r e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n firmament  ....11  o f symbol i s the dogma o f the I n c a r n a t i o n . In t h i s dogma, r e s p e c t i n g as;;it does both the d i v i n i t y o f the Word and the humanity o f the f l e s h , i s c o n t a i n e d the whole p r i n c i p l e o f the C h r i s t i a n a e s t h e t i c . 3  The  argument o f the A n n i v e r s a r i e s and  poets  1  understanding  and  the Q u a r t e t s  t r a c e s the  acceptance o f t h i s paradox.  o f each i s t o probe i t s meaning, i n response t o those o f i m m o r t a l i t y " u n t i l they a m p l i f y i n t o an The two  The  goal  "whispers  alleluia.  emphasis o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be on  major poems o f Donne and E l i o t , the A n n i v e r s a r i e s and  Four Quartets  f  the  the  not merely because they each r e p r e s e n t a monument  t o the c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r s , cause the s i m i l a r i t i e s o f theme, s t r u c t u r e and  but  be-  imagery i n these  p a r t i c u l a r poems form a framework f o r comparison o f the work o f Donne and  E l i o t . C h a p t e r IV w i l l c o n s i s t o f an examination o f  the a e s t h e t i c problems c o n f r o n t i n g each poet i n h i s c h o i c e  of  m a t e r i a l and the molding o f t h i s m a t e r i a l ; Chapter V attempts t o compare the p a r a d o x i c a l imagery and  theme i n the progress  the s o u l d e s c r i b e d i n the A n n i v e r s a r i e s and the Q u a r t e t s . much as the work o f each poet i s o f a p i e c e , we development and refinement  of  Inas-  can see i n i t a  o f v a l u e s which i n h e r e from the  begin-  n i n g t o the end o f the p o e t r y ; Chapters I I and I I I , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l t r a c e the development o f some themes and techniques work o f each poet i n t u r n .  i n the  Footnotes to Chapter I 1 "Whispers of Immortality", pp. 45-6. A l l quotations from the poetry of T. S. E l i o t are from the e d i t i o n Collected Poems: 1909-1962. Mew.York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963. 2 "The Extasie", pp. 130-2. A l l quotations from the poetry of John Donne are from The Complete Poetry of John Donne, ed. John T. Shawcross, Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1967. 3 A B r i e f Introduction to the Method of Paul Valery", quoted i n T. S. E l i o t : The D i a l e c t i c a l Structure of His Theory of Poetry, by F e i r P A i Lu, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960*7 p. 60; n  4 The Sermons Of John Donne (10 v o l s . , eds. George R. Potter and Evelyn M. Simpson, Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1953-1962), (IV), p. 07. 5 Margaret L. Wiley, The Subtle Knot: Creative Scepticism i n Seventeenth Century England. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952, p. 59. 6  "Satyre I I I " , p. 25.  7 "The Pensees of Pascal", Selected Prose, ed. John Hayward, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1953, p. 149. 8 Helen Gardner, ed., The Metaphysical Poets, rev. ed., Harmondsworth: Penguin, i960, p. 21. 9 "A Note on Two Odes of Cowley", Seventeenth Century Studies Presented to S i r Herbert Grierson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1938,  pp. 239-242.  10 E l i o t ' s own notes which accompany the poem ensure that the reader see the correspondences: "Just as the one-eyed merchant, s e l l e r of currants, melts into the Phoenician S a i l o r , and the l a t t e r i s not wholly d i s t i n c t from Ferdinand Prince of Naples, so a l l the women are one woman, and the two sexes meet i n T i r e s i a s . " p. 72. 11  " T r a d i t i o n and the Individual Talent", Selected Prose, p. 26.  12 This i s c e r t a i n l y the case i n Donne's Devotions, f o r example; he wrote them i n order to "minister some holy d e l i g h t " , (quoted from a l e t t e r to S i r Robert Ker, January, 1624, i n Selected Prose chosen by Evelyn Simpson, eds. Helen Gardner and Timothy Healy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967, p. 156) but the source of t h e i r power  13 i s h i s r e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e agony o f t h e s i c k n e s s , p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l , w h i c h h e h a s e n d u r e d a n d s u r v i v e d a n d i s now t e l l i n g . 13  "Tradition  and the  Individual Talent",  p.  26.  14 "Donne i n Our T i m e " . A G a r l a n d f o r J o h n Donne, e d . T. c e r , C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 1 , PP» 1 2 - 1 3 .  Spen-  15 Quoted from a l e t t e r t o a f r i e n d , p r o b a b l y S i r Henry Wotton, i n 1 6 0 0 , i n S e l e c t e d P r o s e , p. 1 1 1 . Donne's Paradoxes contain t h e i r share of paradoxical praise of things unpraiseworthy, equivoc a t i o n , puns and l i m p i d w i t ; t h e y a r e t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e s expected of a court w i t of the 1590*s. C o n v e n t i o n a l enough, they C o n t a i n m i l d b a w d r y ( a n d e v e n some m i s o g y n y i f one i s d i s p o s e d t o find i t ) : "Women a r e l i k e F l i e s w h i c h f e e d among u s a t o u r T a b l e , o r F l e a s , s u c k i n g o u r v e r y b l o o d , who l e a v e n o t o u r m o s t r e t i r e d places free from t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y , yet f o r a l l t h e i r f e l l o w s h i p w i l l t h e y n e v e r b e e t a m e d , n o r commanded b y u s . . . . E v e r y Woman i s a S c i e n c e , f o r h e e t h a t p l o d s u p o n a Woman a l l h i s l i f e l o n g , s h a l l a t l e n g t h f i n d h i m s e l f e s h o r t o f the knowledge of her . . . " ' A D e f e n c e o f Womens I n c o n s t a n c y (pp. 5-7, i n Selected P r o s e ) . There a r e a l s o p o o r puns, f o r e x a m p l e , i n ' T h a t good i s more common t h a n e v i l l ' : " B u t I remember n o t h i n g t h a t i s t h e r e f o r e i l l , because i t is c o m m o n , b u t W o m e n , o f whom a l s o ; T h e y t h a t a r e m o s t c o m m o n . are the best of that occupation they professe" (p. 10); a n d some y o u t h f u l c y n i c i s m : "And hence I t h i n k e proceeds t h a t which i n these l a t e f o r m a l l t i m e s I h a v e much n o t e d ; t h a t now when o u r s u p e r s t i t i o u s c i v i l i t y o f manners i s become a m u t u a l l t i c k l i n g f l a t t e r y o f o n e a n o t h e r , a l m o s t e v e r y man a f f e c t e t h an^humour o f . j e s t i n g , a n d i s c o n t e n t t o be d e j e c t , and t o d e f o r m e h i m s e l f e , y e a become f o o l e t o no o t h e r end t h a t I c a n s p i e , b u t t o g i v e h i s w i s e Companion o c c a s i o n t o l a u g h . . .". from 'That a W i s e M a n i s k n o w n e b y raiach l a u g h i n g * ( p . 1 7 ) . Among t h e m , t o o , i s a l e s s f r i v o l o u s p a r a d o x , t o w h i c h Donne was t o r e t u r n a g a i n and a g a i n , 'That a l l t h i n g s k i l l t h e m s e l v e s ' : " O r how s h a l l Man b e e f r e e f r o m t h i s , s i n c e t h e f i r s t Man t a u g h t u s t h i s , e x c e p t we c a n n o t k i l l o u r s e l v e s , b e c a u s e h e k i l l » d us a l l " (p.11). Donne p a s s e d much o f h i s l i f e m e d i t a t i n g t h e i m m e d i a c y o f d e a t h . The mock e n c o m i u m , o r f o r m a l d e f e n c e o f t h i n g s u n p r a i s e w o r t h y , was revived from c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n Renaissance humanist creations of ". . . defences of the ant, the f l e a , the f l y , the ass, the f o o l , and f o l l y ; of the pox, of b a s t a r d y , o f d e b t , o f i m prisonment, of tyranny; of h a i r , of baldness, of drunkenness, of incontinence." f  1  .14 ( R o s a l i e C o l i e , P a r a d o x i a E p i d e m i c a : The R e n a i s s a n c e T r a d i t i o n o f P a r a d o x . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 , p. 4 ) . Less t r i v i a l examples o f the genre e x i s t i n ; o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n sermons p r a i s i n g d e a t h , s u c h a s Thomas B e c o n ' s P r a y s e o f D e a t h . o r P h i l i p p e d e M o r n a y ' s The D e f e n c e o f D e a t h ( s e e H e n r y K n i g h t M i l l e r , "The P a r a d o x i c a l Encomium w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o i t s Vogue i n E n g l a n d . 1 6 0 0 - 1 3 0 0 " . Modern P h i l o l o g y L I I I : 3 (Feb. 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 154). 16 A. E. M a l l o c h , Paradox", Studies i n 17 1962),  W. p.  V.  Quine,  "The Techniques and F u n c t i o n o f t h e P h i l o l o g y L I I I ( J a n . 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 192.  "Paradox",  84.  Scientific  Renaissance  American. 206:4  (April,  '  18 Michael McCanles, "Paradox sance X I I I (1966) p. 277.  in  Donne",  Studies "  in  the  Renais-  19 G o l i e , p. 7. An example o f t h e e q u i v o c a t i o n o f p a r a d o x i s the u b i q u i t o u s . L i a r paradox: "Epimenides the Cretan s a i d 'All Cretans are l i a r s ' . " I f he i s t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h t h e n h i s s t a t e ment i s f a l s e and so he i s l y i n g ; i f he i s l y i n g t h e n h i s s t a t e ment i s f a l s e and s o he i s n o t l y i n g . T h e r e c a n be no r e s o l u t i o n of the paradox, of course; i t i s completely c i r c u l a r . But i t f o r c e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t s s t r u c t u r e , and i n t h a t i t i s not trivial. 20 21 Ward,  Ibid.,  p.  503.  Hugh K e n n e r , P a r a d o x 1947, p. 17.  in  C h e s t e r t o n . New Y o r k :  Sheed  and  22 M a l c o l m M a c k e n z i e R o s s , P o e t r y a n d Dogma: The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n of E u c h a r i s t i c Symbols i n Seventeenth Century E n g l i s h P o e t r y . New B r u n s w i c k , N . J . : R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; 1 9 5 4 , p . 8 1 . 23  Ibid.,  pp.  9-10.  CHAPTER  II  JOHN DONNE: ' CORRESPONDENCE  ONLY HIS SUBJECT WAS'  Donne's p a r a d o x i c a l mind, h i s r i d l i n g d i s p o s i t i o n " , ^ " n  w e l l f i t t e d him f o r t h e s c e p t i c a l approach logian  to b e l i e f .  As a theo-  (a r o l e he assumed l o n g b e f o r e h i s f o r m a l o r d i n a t i o n i n  1 6 1 5 ) , he worked w i t h i n t h e framework o f orthodox but even here he took no r e s t from c o n t i n u a l God as t o H i s nature and motives.  Christianity  'expostulation* with  I n h i s f i n a l sermon, "Deaths  D u e l l , o r , a C o n s o l a t i o n t o t h e Soule, a g a i n s t the d y i n g L i f e , and l i v i n g Death o f t h e Body", he p r e s e n t s f o r t h e l a s t time t h e arguments f o r death as a means t o new l i f e grace.  by means o f heavenly  The r e s o l u t i o n a r r i v e d a t i n t h i s f i n a l statement i s  a n t i c i p a t e d by the same p a t t e r n o f argument and s y n t h e s i s i n t h e A n n i v e r s a r y poems, but i n o t h e r poems as w e l l , d e s c r i p t i v e o f l o v e s a c r e d and profane, he e x p l o r e d a l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u n i f y i n g experience. A n a l y s i s o f one f a c e t o f e k s t a s i s i s the concern o f t h e Songs and Sonets; the " l i t t l e d e a t h " o f s e x u a l u n i o n r e s u l t s i n the same paradox as t h a t o f f e r e d by d i v i n e l o v e : "To e n t e r i n t h e s e bonds, i s t o be f r e e . "  ( " E l e g i e : Going t o B e d " ) .  2  these poems o f profane l o v e , o f t e n expressed i n language  In descrip-  t i v e o f t h i n g s d i v i n e , the m u t a b i l i t y o f t h e l o v e r s i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e s c r i b e d and d e n i e d .  Love i s as e l u s i v e as shadow,  • • *•X6  Love i s a growing, o r f u l l c o n s t a n t l i g h t ; And h i s f i r s t minute,, a f t e r noone, i s n i g h t . ("Lecture upon, the Shadow", pp. # 6 - 7 ) , and so i n o r d e r f o r i t s i l l u s i o n t o be made r e a l , time and space are  manipulated by t h e l o v e r s . ^  The r e f l e c t i o n o f each i n t h e  o t h e r ' s eyes c r e a t e s a w o r l d "Without  sharpe North, w i t h o u t  d e c l i n i n g West'*, t h a t i s , w i t h o u t t h e c o l d n e s s o f dead l o v e , o r of  death i t s e l f .  Love "makes one l i t t l e roome, an  everywhere",  and t r a n s c e n d s time: Love, a l l a l i k e , no season knowes, n o r clyme, Nor houres, dayes, moneths, which a r e t h e rags o f time. ("The  Sunne R i s i n g " , p. 93)  But f a c e d w i t h t h e p a l p a b l e evidence o f t h e d y i n g l i f e , t h e poet must p r e s e n t more s p e c i f i c evidence o f t h e ways i n which l o v e t r a n s c e n d s time.. I n "The,Canonization", b e g i n n i n g w i t h an adm i s s i o n o f m u t a b i l i t y , i n h i s " f i v e gray h a i r e s " , " p a l s y " and "gout", t h e poet d i s m i s s e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d : "For  Gods sake h o l d your tongue, and l e t me l o v e " .  His love exists  i n a microcosm which does n o t a f f e c t t h e macrocosm: When d i d t h e heats which my v e i n e s f i l l Adde one more t o the p l a g u i e B i l l ? Only t h e l o v e r s . t h e m s e l v e s a r e consumed by t h e heat o f t h e i r sion.^  But f l e s h l y u n i o n e f f e c t s a transcendent u n i o n , and so  the a c c u s a t i o n o f l u s t by t h e unseen c r i t i c of  pas-  c o n c e i t s i n t h e t i g h t l y packed  paraphrase.  i s parried i n a series  t h i r d s t a n z a , which almost d e f y  These c o n c e i t s a r e , as Dame Helen Gardner  says,  " i n s t r u m e n t s o f d e f i n i t i o n i n an argument o r i n s t r u m e n t s t o p e r suade."  5  The l o v e r s here may be " f l i e s "  ^  but they a r e a s p e c i a l  17  k i n d , the t a p e r f l y , or moth which f l i e s t o i t s death i n a flame.'''  The  jump t o the. next c o n c e i t i s made so r a p i d l y t h e r e i s  h a r d l y time t o make t h e l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n : and  a t our owne c o s t d i e " .  ing  light.T h e r e  to  candle  The  "We*are Tapers t o o ,  candle i s i t s e l f consumed i n g i v -  i s even l e s s l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n  i n the movement  the next c o n c e i t , t h a t o f the l o v e r s as the "Eagle and  dove", but what i s probably meant i s something l i k e the  the necessary  c o n j u n c t i o n i n l o v e o f a c t i v e and p a s s i v e , hunter and hunted, the f l a m i n g wick and phoenix, who That two  the wax.  The  two  images j o i n i n the image o f the  consumed i t s e l f i n f i r e and r o s e anew from the ashes.  d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s can f u s e i n t o one,  and i n t h e i r "death"  r i s e p h o e n i x - l i k e argues the m i r a c l e o f H o v e . . There i s a f u r t h e r paradox, s i n c e out o f n o t h i n g , l o v e , l i k e the n o n - e x i s t e n t i s c r e a t e d , and l o v e two two  out o f two  "nothings"  sexes "one  phoenix,  n e u t r a l l t h i n g " i s made.  a r e made a something, and  i n ecstatic  In  union,  s e l v e s are o b l i t e r a t e d and l i f t e d out o f t i m e . Furthermore, i f the ashes from which the p u t a t i v e phoenix  r i s e s prove t o be o n l y those  o f a dead l o v e , o r even o f dead  l o v e r s , they w i l l s t i l l g a i n i m m o r t a l i t y i n the urn" of poetry: to  the argument o f the f o u r t h s t a n z a draws a t t e n t i o n  the poem's own  made e x p l i c i t :  "well-wrought  devices.  Here the language o f d i v i n e l o v e i s  because they scorned  that world  o f the f i r s t  two  stanzas,, the l o v e r s do not m e r i t a w o r l d l y f u n e r a l w i t h "tombs and  Hearse" but  ( r e f e r r i n g back t o the phoenix image) t h e i r ashes  can be as w e l l c o n t a i n e d  i n the l o v e poem, a hymn p r o c l a i m i n g  t h e i r transcendency as s a i n t s , o f l o v e .  T h e i r s t o r y i n the poem  • • •.IS w i l l then be e x a l t e d as a p a t t e r n o f l o v e , as the medieval legends were p a t t e r n s f o r l i f e . symbol;  saints  1  The poem then becomes i t s own  i t is  am i n s t a n c e o f the d o c t r i n e which i t a s s e r t s ; i t i s ^ b o t h the a s s e r t i o n and the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the a s s e r t i o n . R e l i g i o u s imagery i n another well-known poem attempts t o argue the correspondence between human and d i v i n e Love.  I n "A  V a l e d i c t i o n f o r b i d d i n g mourning", the s i m i l e o f the e n t i r e s t a n z a compares the p a r t i n g o f l o v e r s t o death, but the  first  conven-  t i o n a l image g i v e s more,complex support t o the argument o f the poem s i n c e the death d e s c r i b e d i s o f a " v i r t u o u s man", response t o i t i s ambivalent. even eager f o r heavenly b l i s s  The d y i n g man  and the  seems r e s i g n e d and  ("and whisper t o t h e i r s o u l e s , t o  goe"); h i s f r i e n d s a r e sad and r e l u c t a n t t o s p e c i f y the exact moment o f d e a t h . man  The i m p l i c i t c o n t r a s t here between a r e l i g i o u s  h o p e f u l o f u n i o n w i t h God and a man  f o r whom death i s merely  an end i s l o g i c a l l y a l i g n e d w i t h the c o n t r a s t between the s p i r i t ual  a f f i n i t y o f l o v e r s and the s i m p l y p h y s i c a l .  In the second  s t a n z a , the poet suspends t h e i r r i g h t t o the s i g n s o f d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e u n i v e r s e which u s u a l l y a t t e n d the m i s f o r t u n e s o f the g r e a t , the  " t e a r - f l o o d s " and "sigh-tempests".  the  phenomena o f the p h y s i c a l w o r l d , mundane earthquakes, w i t h  d i s t u r b a n c e s in. the heavens which,though  The t h i r d s t a n z a c o n t r a s t s  more important, do l e s s  u l t i m a t e harm, s i n c e they a r e guided by God s b e n e f i c e n c e ; the f  c o n t r a s t i s extended l o g i c a l l y i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h stanzas to  p h y s i c a l l o v e , which cannot bear absence, and t h e i r more p e r -  fect love.  L i k e the v i r t u o u s d y i n g man,  who  intuits,  through  19  f a i t h , the promise o f God's grace, mind".  they a r e " i n t e r - a s s u r e d o f t h e  The image o f t h e s o u l s . u n i f i e d as beaten g o l d i s expanded  from s t a n z a  5 ("But we by*a l o v e - s o much r e f i n ' d " ) i n t o a j u s t i f i -  c a t i o n o f the s e p a r a t i o n , as t h e s e p a r a t i o n J o f r e l i g i o u s persons i n death i s j u s t i f i e d :  they  endure not y e t A breach, but an expansion, L i k e g o l d t o ayery t h i n n e s s e beate. The  l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e g o l d , p e r f e c t substance i n alchemy,  i s made w i t h t h e compass image, i n the next s t a n z a , by means o f the a l c h e m i c a l symbol f o r g o l d : The c i r c u m s c r i b e d c i r c l e w i t h the compass i n i t s c e n t r e , 0 was t h e symbol f o r g o l d , g a l c h e m i c a l l y the o n l y metal t h a t was i n d e s t r u c t i b l e . " I n a d d i t i o n t o the l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e compass image o f the s e x u a l l o v e between the l o v e r s : I t l e a n e s , and hearkens a f t e r i t , And and  t h e aspect  the married  growes e r e c t , as t h a t comes home,  o f t h e i n d i v i s i b l e p a i r common t o t h e compass and  couple,  t h e r e a r e r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the con-  c e i t which connect i t . l o g i c a l l y w i t h t h a t o f the v i r t u o u s man w i t h which t h e poem begins (making the poem i t s e l f in structure):  dying  circular  the c i r c l e which the compass d e s c r i b e s was a con-  v e n t i o n a l symbol both f o r p e r f e c t i o n and f o r e t e r n i t y .  The r e -  u n i o n o f l o v e r s i s thus l i k e n e d t o the u n i o n o f r e s u r r e c t e d s o u l s . There i s an u n d e r l y i n g awareness i n t h e Songs and Sonets. however, t h a t the e c s t a t i c u n i o n o f l o v e r s i s , a f t e r a l l , a parody o f d i v i n e u n i o n .  Overwhelming p a s s i o n i s being  merely described  but t h e w i t o f t h e poet c o n s t a n t l y p l a y s over the s u b j e c t matter  ....20  to  e f f e c t t h a t detachment observed i n ^ g r e a t p o e t r y by E l i o t .  In  "The L e g a c i e " Donne p l a y s w i t h t h e concept o f t h e l o v e r s ' death and i m m o r t a l i t y : " I dye/As o f t e n as from thee I goe" he says, but l o g i c compels t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t he i s not dead i f he l i v e s t o w r i t e a poem.  In r e s t o r i n g himself t o her  "Mine owne e x e c u t o r and L e g a c i e " .  he w i l l be, then,  He s i d e s t e p s l o g i c by i n v e n t i n g  a second f i g u r e t o a c t h i m s e l f i n the drama w h i l e t h e poet observes : I heard mee say, T e l l h e r anon That my s e l f e , t h a t i s you, not I , Did k i l l me . . . He cannot l e a v e h i s h e a r t w i t h h e r i n h i s absence, and so It In  k i l l ' d mee'agalne t h a t I who s t i l l was t r u e , l i f e , i n my l a s t W i l l s h o u l d cozen you.  Even t h e f i c k l e h e a r t he f i n d s i n h i m s e l f cannot be g i v e n h e r because she has i t a l r e a d y .  That t h e w i t here i s e n t i r e l y  self-  c o n s c i o u s i s e v i d e n t by t h e d e v i c e s o f s e l f - r e f e r e n c e and t h e I-me d i v i s i o n ; i t i s as i f Donne a n t i c i p a t e d the d r y r e t o r t o f a Rosalind:  "Men have d i e d from time t o time, and worms have  eaten them, but not f o r l o v e . " It  i s t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e "anguish o f the marrow" as  E l i o t phrases i t , poems.  t h a t more o f t e n than not u n d e r l i e s t h e l o v e  I f l o v e r s cannot a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y f o r any more t h a n an  e c s t a t i c t i m e l e s s moment, they can be j o i n e d in«the grave, as i n the  w i t t i l y macabre but. b e a u t i f u l image o f "The R e l i q u e " : When my grave i s broke up againe Some second ghest t o e n t e r t a i n e , (For graves have l e a r n d t h a t woman-head To be t o more then one a Bed) f  • • • • 21 And he t h a t d i g s i t , s p i e s A b r a c e l e t o f b r i g h t h a i r e about the bone, W i l l he not l e t ' u s a l o n e , And t h i n k e .that t h e r e a l o v i n g couple l i e s . . . O c c a s i o n a l l y the e c s t a s y o f l o v e r s i s p o s s i b l e and s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and  a shadow o f s p i r i t u a l  by i t they g a i n  ecstasy:  T h i s E x t a s i e doth u n p e r p l e x (We s a i d ) and t e l l us what we l o v e , Wee see by t h i s , i t was not sexe, Wee see, we saw not what d i d move, but  i t i s dependent on the u n i o n o f f l e s h l y  bodies:  We  owe them thankes, because they thus, Did us, t o us, a t f i r s t convay, Yeelded t h e i r f o r c e s , sense, t o us, Nor are d r o s s e t o us, but a l l a y . ("The  T h i s f u s i o n o f f l e s h and us man".  E x t a s i e " , pp.  130-132)  s p i r i t i s the " s u b t i l e knot, which makes  J u s t as the death o f the body i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a r e b i r t h  i n r e l i g i o u s terms, as we  s h a l l see i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the  v e r s a r y poems, the "death" o f l o v e r s e f f e c t s e c s t a s i s . awareness t h a t i t i s i m p e r f e c t ther  tension.  day",  Being the  shortest  Donne speaks o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f l o v e r s ' r e s u r r e c t i o n .  poem's o c c a s i o n  i s the death o f a beloved person, probably  Donne's w i f e , Anne, on August 15, t w e l f t h c h i l d , ® and 1  S a i n t Lucy's day it  the  knowledge c r e a t e s i n Donne even f u r -  In "A n o c t u r n a l l upon S. L u c i e s day,  The  But  Anni-  1617,  Donne a p p a r e n t l y  o f the same y e a r :  i s the dayes . . ."  i n g i v i n g b i r t h to t h e i r wrote i t a t midnight  of  " T i s the yeares midnight,  and  I t i s the dark time o f the y e a r when the  l i g h t o f the w o r l d has a p p a r e n t l y been a n n i h i l a t e d : The Sunne i s spent, and now h i s f l a s k s Send f o r t h l i g h t s q u i b s , no constant r a y s .  • •••22  The  s p o r a d i c l i g h t o f the s t a r s i s an emblem o f the  q u a l i t y of l i f e .  The world  fleeting  i s d y i n g , and dead, and y e t by com-  p a r i s o n , the poet i s more than dead; he i s an e p i t a p h , a warning t o l o v e r s , ^ as the expansion i n the second s t a n z a The  canonized  l o v e r s o f "The  clarifies.  C a n o n i z a t i o n " were t o become the  o b j e c t o f study f o r o t h e r l o v e r s ; here the remaining  h a l f o f the  couple proves a much grimmer o b j e c t l e s s o n , t h a t o f rank m o r t a l ity.  Out  of nothing, love e f f e c t e d A quintessence  W i t h one  . . . new A l c h i m i e . . . . even from nothingnesse.  i n g r e d i e n t o f the d i s t i l l a t i o n gone, the mixture i s de-  stroyed , re-begot Of absence, darkness, d e a t h ; t h i n g s which are  not.  More than t h a t , the a l c h e m i c a l experiment moves i n r e v e r s e , i n an " u n c r e a t i o n " , a " r e d u c t i o n o f c r e a t i o n t o i t s components  and,  12  f i n a l l y , t o n o t h i n g once more." The  problem o f n o t h i n g i n the Renaissance was  not o n l y  an  i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e i n paradox; d i s c u s s i o n s o f the v o i d u s u a l l y were brought round t o d i s c u s s i o n s o f the i n f i n i t e , but Even f o r l o g i c i a n s and r h e t o r i c i a n s , the twinned i d e a s o f i n f i n i t y and n o t h i n g are t e c h n i c a l l y dangerous; s i n c e they a r e so w i l d , a t the l o o s e edge o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and o f d i s c o u r s e , n u l l i f y i n g - - l i t e r a l l y — i d e a s o f o r d e r and o r d i n a t i o n , n u l l i f y i n g l o g i c a l and r h e t o r i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s . C e r t a i n l y the two n o t i o n s r e s i s t d o m e s t i c a t i o n w i t h i n the mind: they are a l s o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e , t h r e a t e n i n g the f a m i l i a r boundaries o f human experience and o f i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t s t o get the b e t t e r of t h a t r e c a l c i t r a n t experience.13 But Bonne knew what P a s c a l o n l y l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d t o e x i s t as f a c t o f the vacuum:^  the  s i n c e h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h he has become the  • • • • 23  void.  Before  her death, the l o v e r s had  o n l y played  at a n n i h i l a -  t i o n , sometimes i n the deluge o f t h e i r t e a r s , Oft a f l o o d Have wee two wept, and so Drownd the whole w o r l d , us two, and  sometimes by t h e i r d i s t r a c t i o n s or  separations,  O f t d i d we grow To be two Ghaosses, when we d i d show Care t o ought e l s e ; and o f t e n absences Withdrew our s o u l e s , and made us c a r c a s s e s . T h i s a n n i h i l a t i o n i s r e f i n e d and d i s t i l l e d , by her death, i n t o his  transformation: But I am by her death, (which word wrongs 0f the f i r s t n o t h i n g , the E l i x e r grown.  He  i s not even the body o f n o t h i n g ,  h i s "Sunne" has  been e x t i n g u i s h e d .  a shadow, because h i s l i g h t , The  reader  i s given  warning o f the sudden t u r n the poem takes i n the f i n a l what we  her)  slight stanza:  have been l e d t o t h i n k o f as a t o t a l l y n i h i l i s t i c  o f d e p r i v a t i o n t u r n s i n t o a f e s t i v e hymn: long nights f e s t i v a l l . " * * 1  Now  "...  she  vision  enjoyes her  the meaning o f the dramatic s e t t i n g  o f the poem becomes c l e a r : S a i n t Lucy's n i g h t marks the p o i n t a t which l i g h t begins t o i n c r e a s e i n the new  year. ^ 1  The  final  four  l i n e s , out o f a t o t a l o f f o r t y - f i v e , g i v e promise o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f p h o e n i x - r i s i n g through h i s l o v e f o r h i s w i f e : L e t mee prepare towards her, and l e t mee c a l l T h i s houre h e r V i g i l l , and her Eve, s i n c e t h i s Both the y e a r e s , and the dayes deep midnight i s . R e a l death, then, r a t h e r than the l o v e r s  1  metaphorical  the key t o knowledge beyond the senses, and must be  studied.  death, i s  i t i s t h i s which  now  • •«.24 The p a t t e r n f o r death and new  l i f e i s C h r i s t , but contem-  p l a t i o n o f the d i v i n e s a c r i f i c e i s u n b e a r a b l e : What a death were i t then t o see God dye? I t made h i s owne L i e u t e n a n t Nature s h r i n k e , I t made h i s f o o t s t o o l e c r a c k , and the Sunne winke. ("Goodfriday, 1613. R i d i n g Westward*, pp.366-8) In  t u r n i n g h i s f a c e away from t h i s imagined scene toward the west  ( d e a t h ) , the poet bares h i s back f o r r e s t o r a t i v e  correction:  0 t h i n k e mee worth t h i n e anger, p u n i s h mee, Burne o f f my r u s t s , and my d e f o r m i t y . . . and when the d i v i n e image i s r e s t o r e d i n him, he f i n d s t h a t west (death) has become e a s t (new l i f e ) . returns to i t s f i r s t  which  p o i n t as a c i r c l e r e c u r s more v i v i d l y i n a  l a t e r poem, Hymne t o God my God, n  The image o f the l i n e  i n my s i c k n e s s e " (pp. 390-392):  I  j o y , t h a t i n t h e s e s t r a i t s , I see my West; For, though t h e i r e c u r r a n t s y i e l d r e t u r n e t o none, What s h a l l my West h u r t me? As West and E a s t In a l l f l a t t Maps (and I am one) a r e one, So death doth touch the R e s u r r e c t i o n . ' 1  Donne c e l e b r a t e s h i s own death more e x p l i c i t l y i n the Holy Sonnets:  he yearns f o r the time when  . . . g l u t t o n o u s death, w i l l i n s t a n t l y unjoynt My body, and s o u l e , . . . Then, as my s o u l e , to'heaven her f i r s t s e a t e , t a k e s f l i g h t • . . ("Holy Sonnet: T h i s i s my p l a y e ' s - l a s t scene", p. 340) 1  and even death would be a n n i h i l a t e d : Death be not proud, though some have c a l l e d thee Mighty and d r e a d fu l l , f o r thou a r t not soe, For, those, whom thou t h i n k ' s t , thou dost overthrow, Die not, poor death, nor y e t c a n s t thou k i l l me. ("Holy Sonnet", p. 342) Donne was  not always so e x u l t a n t about death, however;  more o f t e n than not. the s c e p t i c a l humanist  and l o v e r s t r u g g l e d  • • »»25  w i t h t h e devout b e l i e v e r and p r i e s t t o produce an ambivalence toward t h e mystery o f d e a t h : Oh my b l a c k e S o u l e ! now thou a r t summoned By s i c k n e s s e , deaths h e r a l d , and champion; Thou a r t l i k e a p i l g r i m , which abroad hath done Treason, and d u r s t not t u r n e t o whence h e e ' i s f l e d , Or l i k e a t h i e f e , which t i l l deaths doome be r e a d , Wishethv h i m s e l f e d e l i v e r e d from p r i s o n ; But damn'd and h a l ' d t o e x e c u t i o n , Wisheth t h a t s t i l l he might be'imprisoned. ("Holy Sonnet", p. 339) T h i s same ambivalence toward d e a t h forms the " p e r p l e x e d doubt" w i t h which the m e d i t a t i o n on death i n t h e A n n i v e r s a r y poems begins.  Here a g a i n , a l l t h e terms o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n a r e t o be r e -  examined  and r e s o l v e d i n a c o n s o l a t i o n t o t h e s o u l a g a i n s t the  d y i n g l i f e and l i v i n g d e a t h o f t h e body, i n t h e u n i o n o f d i v i n e love  Footnotes  to  Chapter  II  1 The p h r a s e i s D o n n e ' s , i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i m s e l f , i n a l e t t e r t o S i r H e n r y W o t t o n i n 1600, quoted i n S e l e c t e d P r o s e , chosen by E v e l y n Simpson, e d . H e l e n Gardner and Timothy H e a l y , O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967, p. 111. 2 " E l e g i e : G o i n g t o B e d " , p p . 57-8. A l l quotations from D o n n e ' s p o e t r y a r e f r o m t h e e d i t i o n b y J o h n T . S h a w c r o s s , The Complete P o e t r y of John Donne. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday,  1967.  C f . M a r v e l l ' s "To H i s Coy M i s t r e s s " : . . . And now, l i k e a m ' r o u s b i r d s o f p r e y , R a t h e r a t once o u r Time d e v o u r , Than l a n g u i s h i n h i s s l o w - c h a p t p o w ' r , L e t us r o l l a l l our S t r e n g t h , and a l l Our S w e e t n e s s , up i n t o one B a l l : And t e a r o u r P l e a s u r e s w i t h r o u g h s t r i f e , Through the I r o n gates of L i f e . T h u s , t h o u g h we c a n n o t make o u r S u n S t a n d s t i l l , y e t we w i l l m a k e h i m r u n . The M e t a p h y s i c a l P o e t s , e d . H e l e n G a r d n e r , e d . , Penguin, r e v . e d . , 1966, pp. 2 50-252. T h e l o v e r s i n t h i s poem c o n t r o l t i m e i n a s m u c h a s t h e y a v o i d h i s r a v a g e s b y s e i z i n g l o v e before omnipresent d e a t h o v e r t a k e s them but they g a i n c o n t r o l a t t h e i r own c o s t ; t h e i r i n t e n s e p a s s i o n w i l l s p e e d t h e process of time. They b o t h c o n q u e r , and a r e conquered b y , t i m e . 3  4 Sex i s r e f e r r e d t o as a " l i t t l e d e a t h " i n R e n a i s s a n c e poetry because i n the siglis of the l o v e r s , v i t a l breath i s l o s t , thus shortening t h e i r l i v e s . A n o t h e r poem, "The b r o k e n h e a r t " , emphasizes t h i s aspect of love as a g a l l o p i n g consumption: He i s s t a r k e m a d , who e v e r s a y e s , T h a t he h a t h beene i n l o v e an h o u r e , Y e t not t h a t l o v e so soone d e c a y e s , But t h a t i t can tenne i n l e s s e space devour; Who w i l l b e l e e v e m e e , i f I s w e a r e That I have had the plague a yeare? Who w o u l d n o t l a u g h a t m e e , i f I s h o u l d s a y , I saw a f l a s k e o f powder b u r n e a d a y ? . . . (p.-gf) 5 cf.  6  The M e t a p h y s i c a l  Poets.  p.  21.  T h e f l y w a s a common s y m b o l o f u n b r i d l e d s e x u a l p a s s i o n ; Lear: The w r e n goes t o ' t , and t h e s m a l l g i l d e d f l y D o e s l e c h e r i n my s i g h t . Let copulation t h r i v e . . . (IV,vi) . . . 26  ..27 7 Shawcross, i n a f o o t n o t e on p. 9 7 , p o i n t s t h i s out and c r e d i t s i t t o A. B. Chambers i n an a r t i c l e i n JEGP LXV ( 1 9 6 6 ) . S C l e a n t h Brooks, The Well-Wrought Urn: S t u d i e s i n the S t r u c t u r e o f P o e t r y . New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and World, 1 9 4 7 , p. 1 7 . 9  Shawcross, p. 4 0 0 .  10  I b i d . . pp. xv, 4 0 2 .  11 Many e p i t a p h s on E n g l i s h tombstones convey a warning; have seen many v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s theme: Remember me as you pass by, As you a r e now so once was I . As I am now soon you w i l l be. Prepare f o r death t o f o l l o w me.  I  12 R o s a l i e L. C o l i e , P a r a d o x i a Epidemica: The Renaissance T r a d i t i o n o f Paradox. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966, p. 117. 13  I b i d . , p. 2 2 2 .  14 See Chapter £ i n C o l i e , L e P a r i : A l l or Nothing", which i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f paradox i n P a s c a l . n  15 In the Devotions Donne c e l e b r a t e s " t h i s g r e a t f e s t i v a l , my dissolution". " E x p o s t u l a t i o n XIV", p. 9 4 . (Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions Together With Death's D u e l . Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1 9 5 9 ) . 16 Shawcross suggests t h a t the theme o f r e s u r r e c t i o n i n the poem was prompted by the f a c t t h a t Anne d i e d on the day o f the F e a s t o f the Assumption, the r e c e p t i o n o f the V i r g i n Mary i n t o Heaven. 17  C f . Sermon, "Preached upon the P e n i t e n t i a l Psalms, 1 6 2 3 " : "In a f l a t Map, t h e r e goes no more, but t o make West E a s t , though they be d i s t a n t i n an e x t r e m i t y , but t o paste t h a t f l a t Map upon a round body, and then West and E a s t are a l l one. In a f l a t soule, i n a dejected conscience, i n a t r o u b l e d s p i r i t , t h e r e goes no more t o the making o f t h a t t r o u b l e , p e a c e , t h e n t o a p p l y t h a t t r o u b l e t o the body of t h e M e r i t s , t o the body o f t h e Gospel o f C h r i s t Jesus, and conforme thee t o him, and t h y West i s E a s t , thy T r o u b l e o f s p i r i t i s T r a n q u i l l i t y of s p i r i t . " Sermons. VI, 5 9 .  CHAPTER  III  T. S. ELIOT: ' THOUGHTS OF A DRY The advantage  BRAIN IN A DRY  SEASON'  o f the poet, E l i o t says, i s " t o be a b l e t o  see beneath both beauty and u g l i n e s s ; t o see the boredom, and the h o r r o r , and the g l o r y . " ^ much weight  Helen Gardner i s not p u t t i n g too  on the phrase, "the boredom, and the h o r r o r , and  the glory!!, I f e e l , when she c a l l s i t a "summary o f the develop2  ment o f Mr. E l i o t ' s v i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d . " 0  C e r t a i n l y the e a r l y  poems express an o v e r r i d i n g sense o f time as an unbearable  burden,  i n a w o r l d which i s a p r i s o n : F o r I have known them a l l a l r e a d y , known them a l l Have known the evenings, mornings, a f t e r n o o n s , I have measured out my l i f e w i t h c o f f e e spoons. The tedium g i v e s way  t o t e r r o r i n " G e r o n t i o n " , where  apprehension o f the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d r e v e a l s o n l y the p a i n i t wields.  The persona sees o n l y " C h r i s t the t i g e r " ; he cannot  the h y p o s t a s i s o f God as l o v e .  see  Only i n the f i n a l poems i s t h e r e  a r e j o i c i n g i n the g l o r y , and even t h e r e E l i o t expresses the n e c e s s i t y o f s u f f e r i n g and o f d i s c i p l i n e : Because I cannot hope t o t u r n a g a i n Consequently I rejoice,, h a v i n g t o c o n s t r u c t something Upon which t o r e j o i c e . ' I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o go by way t r u t h , as on Donne's craggy h i l l .  o f doubt and p a i n t o reach Everywhere i n the e a r l y poems  o f E l i o t i s the i m p l i c i t e x p r e s s i o n o f the paradox from  Hera-  k l e i t o s which p r e f i x e s Burnt Norton; t h e way  up and the way  n  • • • • 29  68oS  K{TUpfa  down are the.same*, and which was  s i m i l a r l y by Donne: " T h e r e f o r e  t h a t he may  r a i s e the Lord  KU  expressed strikes  down."^ Faced by the "thousand s o r d i d images" o f h i s s o u l i n the "Preludes",  the p o e t i c persona s t i l l manages to propose the  e x i s t e n c e o f some i n c a r n a t e p r i n c i p l e o f r e g e n e r a t i v e  sacrifice:  I am moved by f a n c i e s t h a t are c u r l e d Around these images, and c l i n g : The n o t i o n o f some i n f i n i t e l y g e n t l e Infinitely suffering thing. But  i t i s a f l e e t i n g v i s i o n o b l i t e r a t e d by the more p a l p a b l e  s i g h t o f "worlds /that/  r e v o l v e l i k e a n c i e n t women/Gathering  f u e l i n vacant l o t s " . S u f f e r i n g i n "Gerontion"  c o n s i s t s i n the o l d man's aware-  ness t h a t h i s l i f e i s a shadow, a dream from which he can awaken, as does P r u f r o c k , t o a drowning.  The a d v i c e o f the Duke i n  Measure f o r Measure (from which speech i s taken the  quotation  p r e f i x i n g the poem) t o be " a b s o l u t e f o r death" o f f e r s a  consola-  t i o n t o C l a u d i o which i s u n a v a i l a b l e t o d e s p i r i t u a l i z e d Western man.  Gerontion  f e e l s , as Donne d i d i n the " N o c t u r n a l l " poem,  t h a t he speaks from an immeasurable v o i d , I am an o l d man, ~ A d u l l head among windy spaces, but t h e r e i s no sudden r e s o l u t i o n o f the s u f f e r i n g as there f o r Donne i n t h a t poem.  Modern man  was  r e q u i r e s s i g n s , not as a  c o n f i r m a t i o n o f f a i t h , but as an inducement: "Signs are taken f o r wonders.  'We  would see a s i g n ! ' "  Yet he m i s i n t e r p r e t s the  . . . .3©  symbols o f C h r i s t i a n myth.  They p r e s e n t o n l y a mysterious  threat: Came C h r i s t the  In the juvescence o f the year tiger.  The symbols o f the s p r i n g t i m e death and r e s u r r e c t i o n o f a god r e p r e s e n t decay r a t h e r than growth. felt,  o n l y the absence,  G e r o n t i o n f e e l s , as Job  the d e p r i v a t i o n o f  God:  Vacant s h u t t l e s Weave the wind.' But inasmuch as he has brought h i m s e l f t o the r e c o g n i t i o n o f i t s p o s s i b i l i t y he i s immeasurably c l o s e r than E l i o t ' s e a r l i e r p o e t i c persona, such as P r u f r o c k , t o a r e v e l a t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l  reality.  He i s a t l e a s t prepared t o exhort h i m s e l f t o f a c e an a l t e r n a t i v e to  h i s nightmare  life.  I n the l o n g passage b e g i n n i n g " A f t e r  such knowledge, what f o r g i v e n e s s ? " , he p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f w i t h the alternatives.  The passage i n i t s r e p e t i t i o n o f "Think now"  s i m i l a r t o the l o n g " t h i n k " passage  is  i n Donne's second A n n i v e r s a r y  i n which he i n v i t e s h i s s o u l t o meditate the d e t a i l s o f a v i r tuous d e a t h .  There i s l e s s assurance f o r G e r o n t i o n ; E l i o t ' s  m e d i t a t i o n i s more a b s t r a c t , more vague.  Except f o r the  first  image which i s v i s u a l , Think  now  H i s t o r y has.many cunning passages, c o n t r i v e d  corridors,  t h e m e d i t a t i o n proceeds by a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f concepts r a t h e r than of  " v i s u a l a i d s " as i n Donne's poem.  Gerontion t e l l s himself  t h a t h i s t o r y r e v e a l s the p a t t e r n o f myth when man to  r e c e i v e i t , and r e v e a l s i t i n such a way  n o t be made out:  i s least  ready  t h a t the p a t t e r n can-  ....31 She g i v e s when our a t t e n t i o n i s d i s t r a c t e d And what she g i v e s , g i v e s w i t h such supple c o n f u s i o n s That t h e g i v i n g famishes t h e c r a v i n g . Or perhaps t h e p a t t e r n i s i r r e l e v a n t o r u n t i m e l y : Gives t o o l a t e What's not b e l i e v e d i n , o r s t i l l b e l i e v e d , In memory o n l y , r e c o n s i d e r e d p a s s i o n . Gives t o o soon I n t o weak hands, what's thought can be d i s p e n s e d w i t h T i l l t h e r e f u s a l propagates a f e a r . The blame f o r h i s c o n f u s i o n and doubt he p l a c e s on h i s t o r y , t h e sum  o f human e x p e r i e n c e :  as p s y c h o l o g i s t s , say. in  he i s t h e 'product o f h i s environment',  But he i s d i m l y aware o f a f a i l u r e  man, t h a t h i s s u f f e r i n g i s caused by t h e o r i g i n a l f a l l :  t e a r s a r e shaken from t h e w r a t h - b e a r i n g t r e e . " the  'fortunate f a l l '  effects of a f a l l ;  eludes him.  innate "These  The paradox o f  He o n l y f e e l s t h e immediate  t h e new testament o f redemption brought by  C h r i s t h o l d s no promise o f mercy: The t i g e r s p r i n g s i n t h e near y e a r .  Us he devours.  But h i s m e d i t a t i o n has had t h e e f f e c t o f c l a r i f y i n g f t h i s  relation-  s h i p w i t h God so t h a t , u n l i k e P r u f r o c k , G e r o n t i o n c a n a t l e a s t propose t h e 'overwhelming God,  question'.  Man has f a l l e n away from  i n i t i a l l y because o f f e a r and then because even h i s unholy  t e r r o r o f t h e unknown was e r a d i c a t e d by Baconian r a t i o n a l  inquiry:  I t h a t was near your h e a r t was removed t h e r e f r o m To l o s e beauty i n t e r r o r , t e r r o r i n i n q u i s i t i o n . The " p a s s i o n " , i n t h e sense o f s u f f e r i n g , which man has l o s t , h o l d s t h e key t o h i s s a l v a t i o n , and man i s c l o s e r t o God's grace merely by a s k i n g :  0  I have l o s t my s i g h t , s m e l l , h e a r i n g , t a s t e , and t o u c h : How s h o u l d I use them f o r your c l o s e r touch?  ••••32 The  poem c l o s e s w i t h a r e t u r n t o i t s i n i t i a l focus on the  t u r e d atoms" o f human e x i s t e n c e , w i t h Gerontion  as he was  "fracbefore,  "waiting f o r r a i n " . The  paradox o f d e a t h - i n - l i f e and  more f u l l y i n The Waste Land.  l i f e - i n - d e a t h i s revealed  Death can be e i t h e r a r e l e a s e from  t h e i n t o l e r a b l e n u l l i t y which i s one k i n d o f s u f f e r i n g , or i t can be a r e l e a s e t o something, which i s o n l y f a i n t l y o u t l i n e d , o n l y f e l t by i t s absence.  Man  knows o n l y "broken images",  which g i v e f o r t h no water; i n p r o p o s i n g ing  water the p o e t i c , persona i s now  not know t h a t .  The  tion" s t i l l f a i l  stones  the e x i s t e n c e o f redeem-  nearer  s a l v a t i o n but he  senses he begged t o know the use  can-  o f i n "Geron-  him:  — Y e t when we came back, l a t e , from the h y a c i n t h Your arms f u l l , and your h a i r wet, I c o u l d not Speak, and my eyes f a i l e d .  garden,  He must go on f i s h i n g i n the f i l t h y c a n a l o f h i s nightmare l a n d scape.  F r u i t l e s s human s u f f e r i n g i s r e p l a y e d a g a i n and  l i k e the t y p i s t ' s  gramophone  again  record:  (And I T e r e s i a s have f o r e s u f f e r e d a l l Enacted on t h i s same d i v a n or bed . . . A g a i n t h e r e i s a r e v e l a t i o n o f C h r i s t but i t i s mistaken, as i t was  i n "Gerontion",  f o r mere t h r e a t o r d e l u s i o n .  hooded f i g u r e which walks beside man  i s confused  h o r d e s " o f the Waste Land i n h a b i t a n t s streaming which c r o s s t h e i r f i l t h y  w i t h the "hooded over the  bridges  river,  . . . swarming Oyer endless p l a i n s , stumbling The  The  i n cracked  earth.  message the thunder speaks i s heard but not understood, i n  ....33 i t s o f f e r o f a 'peace which p a s s e t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' . of "Datta.  Dayadhvam.  It consists  Damyata", t h a t i s , s u r r e n d e r , mercy, and  c o n t r o l i n the union o f s u r r e n d e r and mercy.  It i s like  v a l e d i c t i o n o f the " f a m i l i a r compound ghost" a t the end G i d d i n g . "you must move i n measure, l i k e a dancer" 205),  the of L i t t l e  (LG, I I , p.  and i t c o n t a i n s the same paradox o f the s u f f e r i n g l o v e o f  God which demands an i m i t a t i o n o f the s u f f e r i n g . Land, man  In The Waste  i s not g i v e n the means t o a c h i e v e the g o a l : the  thun-  d e r ' s message i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o us by t h r e e symbolic moments: a moment o f s u r r e n d e r , a moment o f r e l e a s e , and a moment o f myst e r i o u s w e l l - b e i n g . In the f i r s t , t h e r e i s an a c t o f the w i l l , a c c e p t i n g , not r e f u s i n g , abandoning i t s r e s i s t a n c e . I n the second, a l i b e r a t i n g a c t i s performed from w i t h out; the p r i s o n e r knows h i m s e l f f r e e . In the t h i r d , t h e r e i s a union o f powers from without and acceptance from w i t h i n ; w i t h e f f o r t l e s s ease the h e a r t responds t o c o n t r o l l i n g hands. These t h r e e moments are a l l we are g i v e n t o h o l d t o : we r e t u r n t o t h e ^ a r i d p l a i n and the s i n g l e f i g u r e on the shore f i s h i n g . Only i n "Ash Wednesday" does the persona  a r r i v e at a reve-  l a t i o n o f what must be done i n o r d e r t o f i n d peace.  Right a c t i o n  here c o n s i s t s o f f u s i n g one's w i l l w i t h the w i l l o f God. be expressed  I t must  as paradox: Teach us t o care and not t o care Teach us t o s i t s t i l l . ^  The  key t o c a r i n g and not c a r i n g i s t h a t detachment c u l t i v a t e d  a g a i n i n the Q u a r t e t s : i t a l l o w s man d i s i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h equanimity, the s c a t t e r e d b o n e s . ^  t o observe h i s p h y s i c a l  as d i d E z e k i e l i n the v a l l e y o f  The poet's detachment a l l o w s him  measure o f w i t i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t :  a  • • . . 34 Lady, t h r e e white l e o p a r d s s a t under a j u n i p e r - t r e e In the c o o l o f the day, h a v i n g f e d t o s a t i e t y On my l e g s my h e a r t my l i v e r and t h a t which had been In t h e hollow round o f my s k u l l .  contained  H i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a l l o w t h i s , t o " p r o f f e r my deeds t o o b l i v i o n " , i s t h e answer t o the q u e s t i o n  G e r o n t i o n asked r e g a r d i n g  o f h i s s u f f e r i n g senses, "How should  t h e use  I use them f o r your c l o s e r  contact?"; I t i s t h i s which r e c o v e r s ISy guts t h e s t r i n g s o f my eyes and the i n d i g e s t i b l e p o r t i o n s Which t h e l e o p a r d s r e j e c t . The  s c a t t e r i n g o f t h e bones p a r a d o x i c a l l y e f f e c t s u n i o n w i t h  divine w i l l : Under ajuftjLper-tree the bones sang, s c a t t e r e d and s h i n i n g We a r e g l a d t o be s c a t t e r e d , we d i d l i t t l e good t o each o t h e r , Under a t r e e i n t h e c o o l o f t h e day, w i t h the b l e s s i n g o f sand, F o r g e t t i n g themselves and each o t h e r , u n i t e d I n the q u i e t o f t h e d e s e r t . T h i s i s the l a n d which ye S h a l l d i v i d e by l o t . And n e i t h e r d i v i s i o n nor u n i t y M a t t e r s . T h i s i s t h e l a n d . We have our i n h e r i t a n c e . L i f e i s thus a "dreamcrossed t w i l i g h t between b i r t h and d y i n g " ; d e a t h i s "the time o f t e n s i o n between d y i n g and b i r t h " .  The  message o f t h e Thunder i s now understood, but the l e s s o n i s t o be l e a r n e d a g a i n and a g a i n .  The f i n a l s u p p l i c a t i o n o f the poem  b r i n g s no r e s o l u t i o n , o n l y a r e c o g n i t i o n o f what must be l e a r n e d w i t h God's mercy: Teach us t o care and n o t t o care Teach us t o s i t s t i l l Even among these r o c k s , Our peace i n H i s w i l l And even among these rocks S i s t e r , mother And s p i r i t o f t h e r i v e r , s p i r i t o f the s e a , S u f f e r me not t o be separated And  l e t my c r y come unto Thee.  Thus, the p a r a d o x i c a l n e c e s s i t y o f s u f f e r i n g oped i n E l i o t ' s p o e t r y . ^ " n e c e s s i t y begins  The  process  of discovering t h i s  again, the. Four Quartets  as i f f o r the  t i m e , but t h i s time the g l o r y o f e x i s t e n c e i s seen t o through the boredom and the  horror.  i s devel  first shine  Footnotes  to  1 "Arnold", Selected Prose. P e n g u i n , 1 9 5 3 , p. 1 6 6 . _ 2 Helen Gardner, B u t t o n , 1959, ( f i r s t  Chapter ed.  John Hayward,  The A r t o f T . S . E l i o t . publ. 1 95©), p . 79.  3 " A s h W e d n e s d a y I " , C o l l e c t e d Poems H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , 1 9 6 3 , p . 85. of  4 "Hymn t o John Bonne.  1967,  5  G o d my G o d , e d . John T.  p p . 390-392. pp.  III  29-31, C o l l e c t e d  Harmondsworth:  New T o r k :  1909-1962.  E. P .  New  York:  i n my s i c k n e s s e " , T h e C o m p l e t e P o e t r y Shawcross, Garden C i t y : Doubleday, Poems.  6 T h e a l l u s i o n i s t o M a t t h e w 12:38-39. " T h e n c e r t a i n o f t h e s c r i b e s a n d o f t h e P h a r i s e e s a n s w e r e d , s a y i n g , M a s t e r , we w o u l d s e e a s i g n f r o m t h e e . / B u t he answered and s a i d u n t o them, An e v i l and a d u l t e r o u s g e n e r a t i o n s e e k e t h a f t e r a s i g n . . . " 7 T h e i m a g e i s a f u s i o n o f t w o i n J o b 7:6,7: " M y d a y s a r e s w i f t e r t h a n a w e a v e r ' s s h u t t l e , and a r e s p e n t w i t h o u t h o p e . 0 r e m e m b e r t h a t my l i f e i s w i n d : m i n e e y e s h a l l n o m o r e s e e g o o d . " 8  Helen  Gardner,  9  Collected  The  Poems.  Art  pp.  of  T.  S.  Eliot.  p.  96.  85-95.  10 C h a p t e r §7: "The hand o f t h e L o r d was u p o n me, and c a r r i e d me o u t i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e L o r d , a n d s e t me d o w n i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e v a l l e y w h i c h w a s f u l l o f b o n e s , / A n d c a u s e d me t o p a s s b y t h e m r o u n d a b o u t : a n d , b e h o l d , t h e r e w e r e v e r y many i n t h e o p e n v a l l e y : a n d , l o , t h e y w e r e v e r y d r y . / And he s a i d u n t o me, Son o f man, c a n t h e s e bones l i v e ? And I answered, 0 L o r d God, t h o u knowest . . . " 11 The same p a r a d o x i s r e s t a t e d i n t h e p l a y s . In Murder i n the C a t h e d r a l B e c k e t k n o w s t h a t t h e w i l l i n g s u f f e r i n g o f man i n p a t i e n c e i s the a c t i o n r e q u i r e d by d i v i n e l o v e . The c h o r u s o f women, l i k e G e r o n t i o n and t h e F i s h e r K i n g , e x p r e s s the horror of " l i v i n g and p a r t l y l i v i n g " but t h e y c a n more r e a d i l y a c c e p t it than can the persona of the e a r l y poetry: Thomas: They know a n d do n o t know, w h a t i t i s t o a c t o r s u f f e r , T h e y know a n d do n o t know, t h a t a c t i o n i s s u f f e r i n g , And s u f f e r i n g i s a c t i o n . N e i t h e r does the agent s u f f e r Nor the p a t i e n t a c t . But both are f i x e d In an e t e r n a l a c t i o n , an e t e r n a l patience T o w h i c h a l l m u s t c o n s e n t t h a t i t may b e w i l l e d  .36  37  And which a l l must s u f f e r t h a t they may w i l l i t , That the p a t t e r n may s u b s i s t , f o r the p a t t e r n i s the action And t h e s u f f e r i n g , t h a t t h e wheel may t u r n and s t i l l Be f o r e v e r s t i l l . (p. 3 2 , i n t r o . and notes N e v i l l C o g h i l l , London: Faber, 1 9 3 5 ) The p a t t e r n f o r t h i s s u f f e r i n g i s i n t h e l i f e and death o f C h r i s t and a l l h i s m a r t y r s ; man's response t o t h e paradox i s n e c e s s a r i l y paradoxical,: c f . Archbishop o f Canterbury's Christmas morning sermon, 1 1 7 0 , i n t h e " I n t e r l u d e " o f the p l a y : ". . . a t t h i s same time o f a l l t h e y e a r t h a t we c e l e b r a t e a t once the B i r t h o f Our Lord and H i s P a s s i o n and Death upon the C r o s s , Beloved, as the World sees, t h i s i s t o behave i n a s t r a n g e f a s h i o n . F o r who i n t h e World w i l l both mourn and r e j o i c e a t once and f o r the same reason? F o r e i t h e r j o y w i l l be overborne by mourning, o r mourning w i l l be c a s t out by joy; so i t i s o n l y i n these our C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r i e s t h a t we can r e j o i c e and mourn a t once f o r t h e same r e a s o n . " (p. 5 5 ) A martyr i s d e f i n e d by Becket i n t h i s Christmas sermon as one who has succeeded i n f i t t i n g h i s w i l l t o the w i l l o f God (p. 5 7 ) ; t h i s does not n e c e s s i t a t e the shedding o f blood merely, but the acceptance o f a p a i n f u l knowledge, " t h e a w f u l r e a l i t y o f t h e supernatural". (Gardner. The A r t o f T. S. E l i o t . p. 1 3 3 ) F o r most t h e knowledge i s not t o be borne, f o r man cannot bear t o o much r e a l i t y : We do n o t w i s h a n y t h i n g t o happen. Seven y e a r s we have l i v e d q u i e t l y . Succeeded i n a v o i d i n g n o t i c e , L i v i n g and p a r t l y l i v i n g . . . (p. 2 9 ) Mary, i n The F a m i l y Reunion (London: Faber, 1 9 3 9 ) i s a l s o w i t n e s s t o t h e paradox o f s u f f e r i n g : Pain i s the opposite of joy But j o y i s a k i n d o f p a i n I b e l i e v e the moment o f b i r t h Is when we have knowledge o f death I b e l i e v e t h e season o f b i r t h Is the season o f s a c r i f i c e . . . (p. 5 6 ) As she speaks, Harry's g u i l t i s r e v e a l e d t o him i n t h e shadowy forms a t t h e window. I t i s a knowledge . . . deeper than a l l sense, Deeper than the sense o f s m e l l , but l i k e the s m e l l In t h a t i t i s i n d e s c r i b a b l e , a sweet and b i t t e r s m e l l From another w o r l d . (p. 5 7 /  »•».38  Agatha expresses this "moment of illumination" i n sensuous imagery as well: There are hours when there seem to be no past or future, Only a present moment of pointed light When you want to burn, When you stretch out your hand To the flames, (p. 96) Knowledge to make one "expert beyond experience" is only describable in terms of sense experience.  CHAPTER  IV  'THE VISIBLE REMINDER OF INVISIBLE LIGHT': POET AS MAKER One t h r e a d o f the complex t a p e s t r i e s which make up Donne's A n n i v e r s a r i e s and E l i o t ' s Four Q u a r t e t s must be examined from the themes and imagery.  apart  T h i s i s the p a r t o f each poem i n  which a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o the d e v i c e s o f the poem i t s e l f ,  and  the r e a d e r i s made as aware o f the form o f the poem as he i s o f the c o n t e n t .  Although i t i s t r u e t h a t the form o f the poem i s i t s  content t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y , I f e e l , t o t r y t o s e p a r a t e the s k e l e t o n from the f l e s h i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r understand the whole.  The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r , then, i s t o examine the  p o e s i s o f each work, how  the poem means, as d i s t i n c t from what;  but f i r s t we must c o n s i d e r those p a r t s o f each poem i n which the poet draws a t t e n t i o n e x p l i c i t l y t o h i s r o l e as c r e a t o r . U n d e r l y i n g both poems i s the knowledge t h a t the poet i s e x p r e s s i n g what i s i n f a c t i n e x p r e s s i b l e , t r a n s c e n d e n t knowledge. Yet i t must be v o i c e d : Nor c o u l d incomprehensiblenesse d e t e r r e Me, from thus t r y i n g t o emprison h e r .  (AW A69-470J  1  Here, Donne l o a d s the word " i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e n e s s e " w i t h a weight o f meaning.  The L a t i n r o o t . prehendere. " t o grasp", g i v e s  Donne's word the sense o f something man's mind cannot grasp, cannot encompass.  T h i s sense o f something which cannot be con-  t a i n e c l by man's mind i m p l i e s a knowledge which can be and contained has  i n d i v i n e knowledge.  the c o n n o t a t i o n  cept  The word, as Donne uses i t ,  o f a l l t h a t knowledge o f which God  i s comprised and which man  is  cannot f u l l y comprehend.  as Logos  The  con-  o f the Logos i s a paradox c e n t r a l t o C h r i s t i a n thought,  the c o n t a i n e r  and  the t h i n g c o n t a i n e d ,  " I n the b e g i n n i n g was the Word was  God"  the Word, and  (John 1 : 1 ) .  c o - e x i s t e n t and  the word was  the same:  w i t h God  and  I t i s an;:idea beyond man's f a t h -  oming : . . . the l o g o s d o c t r i n e , t h a t d e i t y i s i t s own i d e a as w e l l as a l l o t h e r p o s s i b l e i d e a s i n v o l v e d i n the i d e a o f d i v i n e t o t a l i t y , p e r c e i v e s knowledge as from i n s i d e the mind o f God. . . . The l o g o s i d e a i s a very c o n f u s i n g o n e — i t a l l o w s f o r both u n i t y and i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y and r e l a t e s , by a k i n d o f immanence theory, a l l t h i n g s t o one s u r r e a l essence, the l o g o s i t s e l f . The logos i s the i d e a o f a l l i d e a s , an i d e a i n i t s essence p a r a d o x i c a l , r e f l e x i v e , a t once a c t i v e and p a s s i v e , s u f f i c i e n t t o i t s e l f and c r e a t i v e o f other modes. In a p p r o a c h i n g the meaning o f d i v i n i t y , man by i m p e r f e c t  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  e x p r e s s e s incomprehension. an i m p e r f e c t  imperfect  i s fettered  m a t e r i a l w i t h which t o  P e r f e c t i o n must be conveyed through  medium, words; because o f the c o n n o t a t i v e  nature o f  language, meaning i s never f i x e d : Words s t r a i n , Crack and sometimes, break, under the burden, Under the t e n s i o n , s l i p , s l i d e , p e r i s h , Decay w i t h i m p r e c i s i o n , w i l l not s t a y i n p l a c e , W i l l not s t a y s t i l l . (BN V, p. ISO) L i k e the cosmos, language i s i n c o n t i n u a l f l u x ; words come loaded w i t h some meanings and  cast o f f others.  time, the poet must, contend-with s t e r e o t y p e d  At the same  response t o l a n -  i  be-  ••••41 guage,  w h i c h he must b r e a k down,  He m u s t m a s t e r a n d c o n t r o l its  divine  189).  dance,  must be  process.  In East  imagery d e t a i l i n g the  to  reigns", Eliot  and s t i l l  critical  Goker I I ,  correspondence  and a b e r r a t i o n w h i c h mark t h e  brought  "that  Eliot  the  poet  destructive  the  critic  and comments  at  like  every  stage the  a look  before  burns over  of  in  p.  the  apocalyptic and  mundane  the world  before  the  soul  (EC V ,  between cosmic prelude  recreate.  the  moving"  following  fire/Which  takes  and t h e n  medium, w h i c h ,  " s t i l l  He m u s t b e p r o f o u n d l y  creative  chaos  his  annihilate,  the  shoulder  is  ice-cap of  ironically:  T h a t was a way o f p u t t i n g i t — n o t v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y : A p e r i p h r a s t i c study i n a worn-out p o e t i c a l f a s h i o n , L e a v i n g one s t i l l w i t h t h e i n t o l e r a b l e w r e s t l e W i t h words and meanings. This  is  attempt to  an example o f to  cut  prove the  analysis. where  the  through a l l  tough-mindedness apparent  underlying unity,  He m u s t b e o b j e c t i v e  he has  failed  to  his  of  the  diffuseness  of  poet:  measure up t o  his  undergo  see and p o i n t own  his  experience  own c r e a t i o n m u s t  enough t o  in  out  standard:  So h e r e I am, i n t h e m i d d l e w a y , h a v i n g h a d t w e n t y y e a r s Twenty y e a r s l a r g e l y wasted, the y e a r s o f l e n t r e deux g u e r r e s - T r y i n g t o l e a r n t o use words, and e v e r y attempt I s a w h o l l y new s t a r t , a n d a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f f a i l u r e B e c a u s e one has o n l y l e a r n t t o g e t t h e b e t t e r o f words F o r t h e t h i n g one no l o n g e r h a s t o s a y , o r t h e way i n w h i c h One i s no l o n g e r d i s p o s e d t o s a y i t . And so each v e n t u r e I s a new b e g i n n i n g , a r a i d o n t h e i n a r t i c u l a t e W i t h shabby equipment always d e t e r i o r a t i n g I n t h e g e n e r a l mess o f i m p r e c i s i o n o f f e e l i n g , U n d i s c i p l i n e d squads o f emotion. 1  (EV V p p . This advocated  critical  by E l i o t ,  faculty in  the  necessitates  passage  quoted  the in  188-189) kind  of  Chapter  detachment I,  in  "Tra-  •••.42  d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t " : . . . the more p e r f e c t the a r t i s t , the more s e p a r a t e i n him w i l l be the man who s u f f e r s mind which c r e a t e s ; t h e more p e r f e c t l y w i l l d i g e s t . a n d transmute the p a s s i o n s which a r e rials .3 He cannot i e n c e i s a new  completely and the t h e mind i t s mate-  even h o l d the i l l u s i o n t h a t h i s a r t i s t i c  exper-  one:  And what t h e r e i s t o conquer By s t r e n g t h and submission, has a l r e a d y been d i s c o v e r e d Once o r t w i c e , o r s e v e r a l times, by men whom one cannot hope To e m u l a t e — (EC V, p. 1 8 9 ) The poet expresses i n each new  age,  expressed by o t h e r s b e f o r e him. undertook  o r r e a s s e r t s , what has been  Donne r e c o g n i z e d t h i s when he  the " g r e a t O f f i c e " o f Moses i n h i s A n n i v e r s a r i e s : Vouchsafe t o c a l l t o minde, t h a t God d i d make A l a s t , and l a s t i n g s t peece, a song. He spake To Moses t o d e l i v e r unto a l l , That song: because hee knew they would l e t f a l l The law, the Prophets, and the H i s t o r y , But keepe the song s t i l l i n t h e i r memory. Such an o p i n i o n ( i n due measure) made Me t h i s g r e a t O f f i c e b o l d l y t o i n v a d e . (AW  461-468)  P a s t w r i t e r s thus s e r v e as models: Someone s a i d : 'The dead w r i t e r s are remote from us because we know so much more t h a n t h e y d i d . * Prec i s e l y , and t h e y a r e t h a t which we know.4 In  the sense t h a t human a c t i v i t y o f t e n p a r o d i e s d i v i n e  a c t i v i t y , the poet can be s a i d t o c r e a t e ex n i h i l o , but the C h r i s t i a n poet e s p e c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t h i s c r e a t i o n i s i t s e l f still  a n o t h i n g i n comparison  w i t h God's:  How weak a t h i n g i s P o e t r y ? (and y e t P o e t r y i s c o u n t e r f a i t C r e a t i o n , and makes t h i n g s t h a t are not, as though they were) How i n f i r m e , how impotent are a l l a s s i s t a n c e s , i f they be put t o expresse t h i s E t e r n i t y . 5  ....43  Immediately  f o l l o w i n g t h e passage quoted above from  Burnt Norton V on the mutable n a t u r e o f words, E l i o t t h e image o f the p e r f e c t immutable l o g o s . Word, who was his  contrasts  d i v i n e i d e a o f God, C h r i s t as  a l s o a s s a i l e d by the t e m p t a t i o n t o change  purpose: The Word i n the d e s e r t Is most a t t a c k e d by v o i c e s o f t e m p t a t i o n , The c r y i n g shadow i n the f u n e r a l dance, The l o u d lament o f the d i s c o n s o l a t e chimera.  What the a r t i s t must aim f o r i n h i s work i s a p a t t e r n which be, l i k e the i n c a r n a t e d i v i n e  will  principle,  Caught i n the form o f l i m i t a t i o n Between un-being and b e i n g . The "ineomprehensiblenesse" o f what he must do r e q u i r e s the use o f images and  symbols.  I n s e e i n g correspondences between a l l t h i n g s and a l l c o n c e p t s , the m e t a p h y s i c a l poet b r i n g s them t o g e t h e r i n a p a r a d o x i c a l marriage o f o p p o s i t e s :  the d i v i n e u n i o n o f a l l  creation  i s adumbrated i n the poet's p e r c e p t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the mundane.  The t a s k o f the poet i s t o b r i n g h i s imagery, drawn  from common l i f e ,  t o the " f i r s t  i n t e n s i t y " , ^ i n E l i o t ' s phrase.  Thus t h i s imagery i s s t r i p p e d o f a l l but the a s s o c i a t i o n s the poet i n t e n d s ; i t i s i d e a l i z e d i n t o a symbol,  o r bare o u t l i n e o f  the image: A symbol . . . i s a p o i n t a t which pure form and conc e n t r a t e d meaning s t r i v e t o come t o terms. So t h a t the more the poet r e l i e s on symbolism, the more f o r m a l as w e l l as meaningful does h i s e x p r e s s i o n become. Donne's "carkas v e r s e s " a r e e l e v a t e d by t h e m o t i v a t i n g symbol  o f E l i z a b e t h Drury:  she i s the song t o be p l a y e d upon  •••.44 the  organ o f h i s e l e g y ("Funeral E l e g y " , 28), and i n t u r n , by  his  example,the  In  good p l a y her on e a r t h ("Funeral E l e g y " , 106).  h i s s e l e c t i o n o f a p a t t e r n o f symbols, the poet o f t e n r i s k s  b e i n g misunderstood.  As W i l l i a m Drummond r e p o r t s , Ben  Jonson  thought •That Bone's A n n i v e r s a r i e was profane and f u l l o f b l a s phemies: t h a t he t o l d Mr. Done, i f i t had been w r i t t e n of the V i r g i n Marie i t had been something; t o which he answered t h a t he d e s c r i b e d the Idea o f a Woman, and not as she was.' e  Some o t h e r s a t t r i b u t e d t o h y p o c r i s y the " f i r s t  i n t e n s i t y " Donne  a c h i e v e d i n the poem, s i n c e he had not known the g i r l , In  Elizabeth.  a l e t t e r Donne lamented the obtuseness o f some r e a d e r s , and  accepted the blame f o r h a v i n g "descended  t o p r i n t any t h i n g i n  verse": . . . my purpose was t o say as w e l l as I c o u l d : f o r s i n c e I never saw the Gentlewoman, I cannot be understood t o have bound m y s e l f t o have spoken j u s t t r u t h s , but I would not be thought t o have gone about t o p r a i s e h e r , o r any o t h e r i n rime; except I took such a person, as might be capable o f a l l t h a t I c o u l d say. I f any o f those l a d i e s t h i n k t h a t M i s t r e s s Drewry was not so, l e t t h a t Lady make h e r s e l f f i t f o r a l l those p r a i s e s i n the book and they s h a l l be h e r s . y  He s h o u l d be f o r g i v e n the e x a s p e r a t i o n o f h i s f i n a l remark: would have been more dismayed poem.  he  a t some modern responses t o the  Marius Bewley r e g a r d s i t as Donne's p r i v a t e joke c e l e -  b r a t i n g h i s apostasy from the Roman C a t h o l i c Church:  the sym-  b o l i z i n g o f the A n g l i c a n Church i n E l i z a b e t h , Bewley regards a "grotesque a p o t h e o s i s o f the dead  girl.""^  Donne's i d e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s symbol i s a l s o misconstrued, but more s e n s i t i v e l y and s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y , by 0. B. H a r d i s o n as  ••..45 a " f o r m a l e p e d e i c t i c t y p e " i n which p r a i s e o f E l i z a b e t h h e r s e l f i s t h e motive: E l i z a b e t h i s Donne's c h i e f concern throughout both poems, and t h e p r a i s e o f God i s a secondary theme, almost a byproduct o f t h e f a c t t h a t praise., o f any c r e a t e d o b j e c t i s i n d i r e c t praise of i t s Creator. 1  H a r d i s o n seems t o i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t E l i z a b e t h i s never  men-  no t i o n e d by name i n t h e poem a p a r t from the t i t l e s .  Even i f we  a c c e p t the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the name i s not used f o r the same reason t h a t God's name was not used by the Jews o f the O l d T e s t a ment, t h a t i s , because o f the magic power o f n a m e s , t h i s not  does  account f o r the f o r c e both o f Donne's h o r r o r and o f h i s  e x u l t a t i o n i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e death.  The symbol must c a r r y more  weight than t h i s . Of f a r more p l a u s i b i l i t y i s Frank Manley's of the  interpretation  the symbol as the i n n a t e wisdom o f God, l o s t i n man through T h i s accounts f o r t h e paradox i n t h e f i r s t  Anniver-  s a r y o f the world's ambivalent response t o the d e a t h .  Through  the  Fall.  death imposed  on man w i t h h i s f a l l away from d i v i n e wisdom,  man may r e t u r n t o t h a t wisdom: death i s both a r e s u l t o f man's l o s s and a means t o h i s g a i n .  I n the second A n n i v e r s a r y the  poet has gained an i n d i c a t i o n o f how man's r e t u r n t o grace may be e f f e c t e d — b y means o f t h e A u g u s t i n i a n p o s s i b i l i t a t e m b o n i , "the  i n n a t e u p r i g h t n e s s o f t h e s o u l which i s r e s t o r e d by g r a c e " : In t h e second /Anniversary7 . . . he has found h i s d i r e c t i o n ; through t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s s o u l ' s l o s s he has gained the wisdom t h a t o r i e n t s him toward God, and t h e e n t i r e poem surges upward toward e t e r n a l life. ** 1  T h i s ambiguity toward death, then, accounts f o r the p a r a -  ....46 doxical toward of  structure the  of  the  climax with  he  the whole,  reads  for  the  example,  in  The  two frames  logical  A n n i v e r s a r y poems.  a juxtaposition of  d e a t h and o f wisdom.  reads  two  of  reference  contained  description  weak,  then I  am s t r o n g " ,  death  of  body and t h e d e a t h  worldly of  the  the  scientia poems,  definitions lines. the  end i s  intimated is  which  This  of The  are  accounts  the  paradoxical:  limits  is  prefigured in  2 Cor.  end.  patterned  of  in his  of  sin  in  on the  circularity  The  as  he when;  sentence,  suffering,  "When I both  The  outline  in  of  the  "through the use  of  of  the  opening  poem,  argument  reason i t  both  these  in  b e g i n n i n g a n d new b e g i n n i n g s  process  am  structure  of  the  as  the  man; "wisdom" i s  discovery  for  the  a single  sapientia.^  faint  the  meanings  as he does  "Death" i s  seen i n  in  contrasting  (just  12:10).  and o t h e r w o r l d l y  then,  build  r e a d e r must keep i n m i n d ,  paradox  Paul's  They  of  explores  the  which are poem  the  reason". contrasting patterns  of  the  poem c a n be  schematized  thus: Anatomy:  lines  ,1-62  —  63-90 —  91-144 — 145-146 —  the w o r l d has s u f f e r e d a death, t o which i t responds w i t h ambivalence; t h e w o r l d was d e f i n e d by what has been l o s t and t h e r e f o r e no l o n g e r lives itself y e t i t d o e s e x i s t i n t h e new w o r l d born of t h i s perplexing death; man's l o s t wisdom ( v i r t u e ) remains i n i t s g h o s t , t h e i d e a l f o r m t o be p r a c t i c e d by man. man w a s b o r n t o d i e , e a c h g e n e r a t i o n i s a d e g e n e r a t i o n down t o nothing; y e t o n l y t h u s , by d e a t h , w i l l man's stature increase (death, therefore, must h a v e o t h e r m e a n i n g s , t o be explored f u r t h e r i n the Anatomy).  .47 l i n e s 147-186 —  187-190 — 191-238 —  239-246 —  man t r i e s t o e f f e c t t h e wrong k i n d o f a n n i h i l a t i o n , because he has l o s t h i s h e a r t , t h e i n n a t e virtue but he can make a " b e t t e r grouthe" t h e f a l l was simultaneous w i t h c r e a t i o n ; t h e magnetic f o r c e t o r e s t o r e man t o God e x i s t s but was l o s t t o t h i s o l d world reminder t o man t o d i s s o c i a t e hims e l f , by means o f the anatomy, from t h i s l o s s  247-324 —  t h e r e i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n because heavenly wisdom i s l o s t  325-338 —  t h e o b j e c t o f the anatomy i s t o s t r i v e f o r a matching t o heavenly proportion  339-356 — 357-358 — 359-376 — 377-398 — 399-434 — 435-end —  Progres:  lines  1 - 22 — 23 - 48 —  49 - 84 —  85-120 —  a l l p e r f e c t i o n o f c o l o u r has been lost man's s o u l bears t h e c o l o u r o f p e n i t e n c e ; t h e r e i s hope f o r man, therefore there i s p e r f e c t i o n o f colour t o be s t u d i e d i n t h e symbol o f v i r t u e l o s s o f correspondence between heaven and e a r t h correspondence t o be sought e l s e where i n t h e i d e a l purpose o f t h e poem t o p r o v i d e a b r i d g e between t h e dead world and the new w o r l d ; v e r s e has a middle nature which can h o l d t h e opposing terms o f e x i s t e n c e t o g e t h e r . world now i s seen t o be moving toward death, w i t h ambivalence by c o n t r a s t t h e poet w i l l s t r i v e f o r l i f e (new l i f e ) and h i s poems are an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s aim thus t h e wisdom o f t h e o l d world i s no l o n g e r u s e f u l ; death i s c e l e b r a t e d because i t has d i d a c t i c value t h e s o u l must t h e r e f o r e study i t s own body's death  • • .48 lines 1 2 1 1 4 6 — the p e r f e c t i o n p o s s i b l e i s symbols i z e d by the perfection<rof a l l encompassing d i v i n e wisdom 1 4 7 1 5 6 — man must earnVheavenly wisdom by i m i t a t i n g i t h i m s e l f i n a good death 157-178 — m e d i t a t i o n o f p e r f e c t death resumed 1 7 9 2 1 9 — r e l e a s e t o u n i o n by d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n death  2 2 0 2 5 0 — d i v i n e wisdom  2 5 1 2 9 3 — i g n o r a n c e o f s o u l imprisoned i n flesh 2 9 4 3 8 2 — wisdom o f the s o u l i n the watchtower o f the mind, the p a t t e r n o f which i s a p r e l u d e to the essent i a l j o y , toward which the s o u l must a s p i r e 3 8 3 4 3 4 — c o n t r a s t o f the i l l u s o r y joys o f the o l d world 4 3 5 4 7 2 — s o u l can work up to p i t c h o f e s s e n t i a l j o y by means o f imagina t i o n i n the poem; by i m i t a t i n g i d e a l form o f wisdom, some joy i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e on e a r t h 4 7 3 4 8 6 — danger o f p r i d e i n e a r t h l y joy 4 8 7 5 1 0 — paradox of i n c r e a s i n g p e r f e c t i o n i n heaven 511-end — the p a t t e r n f o r l i f e and death r e a l i z e d i n the poem i t s e l f ; the d i s c o v e r y o f the poem's purpose i s the poem i t s e l f . By the end  o f the poem, the d i r g e has  turned i n t o an  a l l e l u i a i n which d i v i n e wisdom i s both the end t i o n and  the means, "both the o b j e c t , and  o f the  the w i t "  (PS,  explora442).  As means, d i v i n e wisdom i s invoked by Donne t o a c t as h i s Muse, the male p r i n c i p l e , f o r t h the  j o i n i n g w i t h the poet as womb t o  child-poem:  ... be unto my Muse A F a t h e r s i n c e her chast Ambition i s , Y e a r e l y t o b r i n g f o r t h such a c h i l d as t h i s ,  bring  These Hymes may worke on f u t u r e w i t s , and so May g r e a t G r a n d - C h i l d r e n o f thy p r a i s e s grow.  (PS, 34-38) Donne i s thus the d i r e c t mouthpiece o f God, c l a i m i n g the Word embodied i n h i s symbol, spiritual rebirth.  the Trumpet pro-  the e c s t a s i s o f  He has become, by means o f d i v i n e w i l l ,  the  poem, both the song and the c h o i r (AW, 10): nor wouldst thou be c o n t e n t , To take t h i s , f o r my second yeeres t r u e Rent, Did t h i s Coine beare any'other stampe, then h i s , That gave thee power t o doe, me, t o say t h i s , Since h i s w i l l i s , t h a t t o p o s t e r i t i e , Thou s h o u l d e s t f o r l i f e , and death a p a t t e r n e bee, And t h a t the world should n o t i c e have o f t h i s , T h e purpose, and t h ' A u t o r i t y i s h i s ; Thou a r t the P r o c l a m a t i o n ; and I ame The Trumpet, a t whose v o i c e the people came. ' 1  7  (PS, 519-528)  In a s i m i l a r way  the meaning o f E l i o t ' s poem c o n s i s t s  i n i t s form, the images, symbols and c o n t r a s t i n g p a r t s which make up the whole. language.  As we  The f i r s t o b j e c t o f a t t e n t i o n i s the poet's  saw a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r i n d i s -  c u s s i o n o f Donne, words have an i n t r a c t a b l e n a t u r e and the poet must c o n t r o l , i n o r d e r not t o be c o n t r o l l e d by, h i s medium: The t a s k o f the poet, i n making people comprehend the incomprehensible, demands immense r e s o u r c e s o f l a n guage; and i n d e v e l o p i n g language, e n r i c h i n g the meani n g of words and showing how much words can do, he i s making p o s s i b l e a much g r e a t e r range o f emotion and p e r c e p t i o n f o r o t h e r men, because he g i v e s them the speech i n which more can be e x p r e s s e d . 1 8  The  o b j e c t o f the poet i s t o l e a r n how  o f the t r i b e "  (LG I I , p.  "To p u r i f y the d i a l e c t  204).  A measure o f h i s success w i t h words, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i s h i s a b i l i t y t o convey meaning a t a s u b v e r b a l l e v e l : " I t i s a  test  . . . t h a t genuine p o e t r y can communicate  before i t i s  19 understood."  The words i n a poem have an a f f e c t i v e as w e l l as  an i n t e l l e c t u a l meaning; t h a t i s ,  " t h e t o t a l meaning  structure  cannot be completely d e s c r i b e d i n c o g n i t i v e terms." a f f e c t i v e meaning i s a c h i e v e d i s by means o f what E l i o t  How t h i s called  an " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e " i n t h e imagery, a term which i s now p a r t o f contemporary c r i t i c a l j a r g o n .  I t i s "the o n l y way o f  e x p r e s s i n g emotion i n t h e form o f a r t , " which E l i o t d e f i n e s as . . . a s e t o f o b j e c t s , a s i t u a t i o n , a c h a i n o f events which s h a l l be the formula o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r emotion; such t h a t when the e x t e r n a l f a c t s , which must terminate i n s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e , a r e g i v e n , the emotion i s immedi a t e l y evoked. ^ It  i s expressed more c l e a r l y , I t h i n k , by Smidt, who de-  f i n e s "objective c o r r e l a t i v e " as, an o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n i n terms o f a s u b j e c t i v e experi e n c e , and a g e n e r a l t r u t h i n terms o f a s u b j e c t i v e truth. The i d e a o r emotion i s made c o n c r e t e , but i n another context t h a n t h a t o f the poet's o r i g i n a l experience. ^ One t h i n k s , f o r an example  i n E l i o t ' s work, o f the p a t t e r n o f  images i n The Waste Land which convey an experience o f sudden illumination: 'You gave me h y a c i n t h s f i r s t a y e a r ago; 'They c a l l e d me the h y a c i n t h g i r l . ' -Yet when we came back, l a t e , from the&hyacinth garden, Your arms f u l l , and your h a i r wet, I c o u l d not Speak, and my eyes f a i l e d , I was n e i t h e r L i v i n g n o r dead, and I knew n o t h i n g , Looking i n t o the h e a r t o f l i g h t , the s i l e n c e . A s e n s i t i v e r e a d e r o f The Waste Land, aware o f a l l t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s experience i n i t s context i n - t h i s passage, i s a l e r t t o the appearance o f these images elsewhere i n the p o e t r y ,  ....51 where they have the same o b j e c t i v e v a l i d i t y although the cumstances are d i f f e r e n t .  cir-  Thus, i n the Q u a r t e t s , the r e c u r -  r i n g images r e l a t i n g t o t h i s garden e x p e r i e n c e , the f l o w e r s , the f i g u r e who  i n t e n d s some communication, the f a i l u r e of the  senses, the moment o f e c s t a s i s between l i f e and death, the l i g h t and s i l e n c e , take on a meaning made r i c h e r by a r e a d i n g o f the e a r l i e r poem. More important f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f E l i o t i s t o see t h e way  i n which he forms words i n t o p a t t e r n s .  As i n o t h e r  m e t a p h y s i c a l ^ p o e t r y , a new, f u s i o n o f p a r t s i n t o wholes, images i n t o image p a t t e r n s , i s achieved by means o f the c o n c e i t , which is . . . an i n t e g r a l element o f the m e t a p h y s i c a l s t y l e s i n c e i t i s the most c o m p e l l i n g means o f making the d e s i r e d u n i o n o f emotion and thought by b r i n g i n g t o gether w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t m a t e r i a l i n a s i n g l e image. Instead o f b e i n g ornamental, i t i s w h o l l y f u n c t i o n a l : o n l y by i t s use does the poet f e e l t h a t he can express the p r e c i s e curve o f h i s meaning.<2.3 F o r an example, take the image o f the Chinese j a r whose p e r f e c t i o n o f form E l i o t must emulate i n h i s p o e t r y : Only by the form, t h e p a t t e r n , Can words or music r e a c h The s t i l l n e s s as a Chinese j a r s t i l l Moves p e r p e t u a l l y i n i t s s t i l l n e s s . (BN V, p.  180)  The f o r c e o f the c o n c e i t i s c o n t a i n e d i n our awareness of the v e r y d i f f e r e n t problems encountered the maker o f j a r s :  the jarmaker's  by the maker o f poems and o b j e c t i s t o transcend the  l i f e l e s s n e s s o f h i s m a t e r i a l and i m i t a t e movement; the poet's aim i s t o overcome the n e c e s s a r y movement o f h i s words, through  •»*•52  space on the page and through time as they a r e r e a d , and t o achieve the impression o f s t a s i s . so incomparable: ends.  But t h e two o b j e c t s a r e not  by means o f p a t t e r n each a r t i s t a c h i e v e s h i s  J u s t as the jarmaker makes the lump o f c l a y move i n t h e  form and p a t t e r n o f the j a r , t h e poet molds images i n t o an a c c r e t i o n o f meaning. An a n a l y s i s o f the p a r t s o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the Q u a r t e t s r e v e a l s the p e r f e c t balance o f o p p o s i t i o n s , o b t a i n e d on t h e s p i r i t u a l l e v e l i n t h e I n c a r n a t i o n , and on t h e a e s t h e t i c i n t h e f u s i o n o f form and c o n t e n t .  level  In E l i o t ' s poem, the a n a l -  y s i s o f s t r u c t u r e i s made e a s i e r by the d i v i s i o n o f each Q u a r t e t i n t o f i v e movements, and o f each movement i n t o stanzas o f v a r y i n g l i n e l e n g t h and a l t e r n a t i n g l y r i c and d i s c u r s i v e  language.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e whole s t r u c t u r e d e f i e s the k i n d o f r i g i d s c h e m a t i z a t i o n made by some c r i t i c s , a l t h o u g h these a r e c e r tainly helpful. ^" 2  W i t h i n each movement, I see a j u x t a p o s i t i o n  o f t h e double terms o f t h e argument, i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g awareness o f new knowledge based on an examination and r e j e c t i o n o f past experience.  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e whole poem b a l a n c e s , as  i n t h e A n n i v e r s a r i e s . c o n t r a r y e x p e r i e n c e and i d e a s throughout: Burnt Norton:  I —-man i s imprisoned i n unredeemable time — t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e r o s e garden, not y e t understood, promises a p o s s i b l e redemption o f time I I — t h e w h i r l i n g f l u x o f t h e cosmos, seen i n correspondences o f microcosm and macrocosm — a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f movement i n p a t t e r n , which i s s t i l l n e s s , and must be understood through experience i n time  ....53 III  —  the u n r e a l c i t y o f the " p l a c e o f d i s affection" the n e c e s s i t y o f a r e a l darkness the w o r l d o f death the p o s s i b l e w o r l d of r e b i r t h the i m p e r f e c t i o n o f the medium the p e r f e c t i o n o f the Word, the b a l ance ^Between un-being and b e i n g '  — IV — — V — — East Goker:  Dry  Salvages  I —  the b e g i n n i n g o f l i f e p r e f i g u r e s the end i n death — the j o i n i n g o f f l e s h i s n e c e s s a r y I I -- chaos i n the cosmos; knowledge i s f i x e d i n the wrong k i n d of p a t t e r n 7 — the o n l y wisdom i s i n h u m i l i t y , i n p r o f e s s i n g ignorance I I I — darkness o f death — darkness o f God which i s l i g h t IV — p a i n and d i s e a s e , death — health, r e b i r t h V — i n a r t i c u l a t i o n o f poet, i n a b i l i t y to make f u s i o n — u n i f y i n g d i v i n e l o v e transcends a l l consideration I -I I -I I I --  IV -  -  V —-  L i t t l e Gidding  I — — II  — —  -  human time u n i v e r s a l time d r e a r y round o f man's l i f e A n n u n c i a t i o n promises new l i f e n e c e s s i t y o f a c c e p t i n g time, o f not t h i n k i n g o f the " f r u i t o f a c t i o n " f u t u r e e x i s t s i n every a c t i o n p r a y e r f o r those whose l i v e s have ended i n the sea the angelus promises hope and new beginnings wrong knowledge n e c e s s i t y o f s e l f - s u r r e n d e r t o understand the I n c a r n a t i o n , i . e . r i g h t knowledge the s e t t i n g f o r another experience of i l l u m i n a t i o n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the experience cannot be p r e c o n c e i v e d , the purpose w i l l be " a l t e r e d i n f u l f i l l m e n t " d e s t r u c t i o n o f meaning o f past experience p o s s i b i l i t y of r e s t o r i n g i n r e f i n i n g fire  ....  III IV  54  n e c e s s i t y o f detachment but s i n of f l e s h n e c e s s a r y  V p e r f e c t i o n o f s o u l i n dance In  L i t t l e G i d d i n g the images and themes o f the  t h r e e Q u a r t e t s a r e i n g a t h e r e d and p a t t e r n e d i n a new in its  ) first  context;  a v e r y r e a l sense the poem i s c i r c u l a r , f o r i t r e t u r n s a t end t o the b e g i n n i n g and y e t a l l t h a t l i e s between has  changed the context o f the end.  By the f i n a l movement o f L i t t l e  G i d d i n g . E l i o t has a c l e a r e r v i s i o n o f the " c o n d i t i o n o f comp l e t e s i m p l i c i t y " which w i l l b r i n g him, garden a g a i n and f o r the f i r s t time.  as a man,  i n t o the r o s e  But more important, f o r  us as r e a d e r s a t l e a s t , he has been brought  as a poet t o a  new  b e g i n n i n g i n which, though i r o n i c a l l y i t meant an end t o h i s p o e t r y , he has a t l a s t r e a l i z e d what he meant t o say: The word n e i t h e r d i f f i d e n t nor o s t e n t a t i o u s , An easy commerce o f the o l d and the new, The common word exact without v u l g a r i t y , The f o r m a l word p r e c i s e but not p e d a n t i c , The complete c o n s o r t d a n c i n g t o g e t h e r ) Every phrase and every sentence i s an end and a b e g i n n i n g , Every poem an e p i t a p h . One  o f the s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g paradoxes woven i n t o  poems i s t h a t o f s e l f - r e f e r e n c e :  t h e poet i s both  both  detached  o b s e r v e r s e a r c h i n g f o r the meaning o f the e x p e r i e n c e , and  the  p a r t i c i p a n t i n v o l v e d i n and s e a r c h i n g f o r the meaning o f the experience.  I t i s a paradox i n f i n i t e l y r e g r e s s i v e , l i k e  the  r e f l e c t i o n i n the m i r r o r o f the r e f l e c t i o n i n the m i r r o r . d i f f i c u l t y i n h e r e n t i n viewpoint was  The  the s u b j e c t o f E l i o t ' s  d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n on F. H. B r a d l e y , i n whose  metaphysics  ....55 r e a l i t y or 'Immediate E x p e r i e n c e , the c o n d i t i o n p r i o r t o 1  thought  and t h e r e f o r e t o a n a l y s i s , i s known t o be u n a n a l y z a b l e .  R e l a t i n g t h i s k i n d o f experience has been imaged as l i k e i n g t o photograph  one's own  try-  f o o t p r i n t s as they are made:  The t a s k o f the m e t a p h y s i c i a n from the o u t s i d e , must seem e n d l e s s and f u t i l e , s i n c e he can never have what he i s i n p u r s u i t o f , and y e t he always has i t , or i t has h i m . * 2  T h i s phenomenon accounts f o r the complexity found i n both Donne and E l i o t i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s i m p l i c i t y .  In d e s c r i b -  i n g the a p p e a l o f Donne t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , and  particu-  l a r l y t o E l i o t , M a t t h i e s s e n notes Donne's a b i l i t y t o express c o m p l e x i t i e s as they are p e r c e i v e d : What he stove t o d e v i s e was a medium o f e x p r e s s i o n t h a t would correspond t o the f e l t i n t r i c a c y o f h i s e x i s t e n c e , t h a t would suggest by sudden c o n t r a s t s , by h a r s h d i s s o n ances as w e l l as by harmonies, the a c t u a l s e n s a t i o n s o f l i f e as he h i m s e l f experienced i t . Z  o  The m e t a p h y s i c a l s e n s i b i l i t y o f the seventeenth c e n t u r y was  lost  i n l a t e r poets i n response t o the demand, i n i t i a t e d by Bacon, f o r c l e a r and d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s o f i n q u i r y ; but i t i s a sens i b i l i t y which E l i o t advocated  as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y  effica-  c i o u s f o r modern p o e t s : Our c i v i l i z a t i o n comprehends g r e a t v a r i e t y and complexi t y , and t h i s v a r i e t y and c o m p l e x i t y , p l a y i n g upon a r e f i n e d s e n s i b i l i t y , must produce v a r i o u s and complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive,; fmore a l l u s i v e , more i n d i r e c t , i n o r d e r t o f o r c e ^ t o d i s l o c a t e i f n e c e s s a r y , language i n t o h i s meaning. ' The poet o f " r e f i n e d s e n s i b i l i t y " was  one who  was  capable of  s e e i n g everywhere the correspondences  between o b j e c t s :  When a poet's mind i s p e r f e c t l y equipped f o r i t s work, i t i s c o n s t a n t l y amalgamating d i s p a r a t e e x p e r i e n c e ;  ••••56 the o r d i n a r y man's experience i s c h a o t i c , i r r e g u l a r , fragmentary. The l a t t e r f a l l s i n l o v e , or reads Spinoza, and these two experiences have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h each o t h e r , o r w i t h the n o i s e o f the t y p e w r i t e r o r the s m e l l o f cooking; i n the mind o f the a poet these experiences are always f o r m i n g new wholes. 2  I n i t s p e r c e p t i o n and i t s e x p r e s s i o n , the c r e a t i o n o f p o e t r y , f o r Donne and E l i o t a l i k e , i s a h o l y t a s k : I t i s u l t i m a t e l y the f u n c t i o n o f a r t , i n imposing a c r e d i b l e o r d e r upon r e a l i t y and t h e r e b y e l i c i t i n g some p e r c e p t i o n o f o r d e r i n r e a l i t y , t o b r i n g us t o a cond i t i o n o f s e r e n i t y , s t i l l n e s s and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ; and then l e a v e us, as V i r g i l l e f t Dante, t o proceed toward a.<region where t h a t guide can a v a i l us no f a r t h e r . ° 2  Footnotes  to  Chapter  IV  1 A l l q u o t a t i o n s from Donne's A n n i v e r s a r i e s and E l i o t ' s F o u r Q u a r t e t s a r e f r o m t h e e d i t i o n s by J o h n T. S h a w c r o s s , The Complete P o e t r y o f John Donne. Garden C i t y , N.T.: Doubleday, 1 9 6 7 ; a n d T . S . E l i o t : C o l l e c t e d P o e m s 1 9 0 9 - 1 9 6 2 . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e arid W o r l d , 1 9 6 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Abbreviations used are as f o l l o w s : AW PS BN  Anatomy o f t h e Progres of the Burnt Norton  World Soule  EC DS LG  East Coker Dry Salvages L i t t l e Gidding  2 R o s a l i e L. C o l i e , P a r a d o x i a E p i d e m i c a : The R e n a i s s a n c e T r a d i t i o n of Paradox. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1 9 6 6 , p . 28T 3 1953, 4  Selected Prose, p. 2 6 . Ibid..  p.  ed.  John Hayward,  Harmondsworth:  Penguin,  25.  5 Donne, i n a s e r m o n " P r e a c h e d u p o n E a s t e r - d a y , 1 6 2 2 , (The S e r m o n s o f J o h n D o n n e . 1 0 - v o l s . e d s . G e o r g e R. P o t t e r a n d E v e l y n M. S i m p s o n , B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1953-1962), IV, 87. 6 C f . h i s essay on B a u d e l a i r e : " I t i s not m e r e l y i n the u s e o f i m a g e r y o f common l i f e , n o t m e r e l y i n t h e u s e o f i m a g e r y of the sordid l i f e of a great m e t r o p o l i s , but i n the e l e v a t i o n o f such imagery t o the f i r s t i n t e n s i t y — p r e s e n t i n g i t as i t i s , a n d y e t m a k i n g i t r e p r e s e n t s o m e t h i n g much more t h a n i t s e l f — t h a t B a u d e l a i r e h a s c r e a t e d a mode o f r e l e a s e a n d e x p r e s s i o n f o r other men." S e l e c t e d P r o s e , p. 1 8 0 . 7 K r i s t i a n S m i d t , P o e t r y and B e l i e f i n t h e Work o f E l i o t . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l , r e v . e d . , 1951, p.  8 Quoted by 405.  Shawcross,  The C o m p l e t e  Poetry  of  John  T.  S. p. 1 1 2 .  Donne  f  9 C f a l e t t e r t o M r . George G e r r a r d , A p r i l 14, 1612, quoted i n John Donne: S e l e c t e d P r o s e . c h o s e n by E v e l y n Simpson, e d s . H e l e n Gardner and Timothy H e a l y , O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1967, p. 1 4 2 . u  57  58  10  " R e l i g i o u s C y n i c i s m i n Donne's P o e t r y " , Kenyon Review  (Autumn, 1 9 5 2 ) ,  XIV  pp.  619-646.  11 0 . B. H a r d i s o n , J r . , The E n d u r i n g Monument: A Study o f the Idea o f P r a i s e i n Renaissance L i t e r a r y Theory and P r a c t i c e . C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 196*2, p. 1 6 8 . 12 The f u l l t i t l e o f the f i r s t A n n i v e r s a r y i s "An Anatomy o f the World. Wherein, By o c c a s i o n o f the u n t i m e l y death o f M i s t r e s s E l i z a b e t h Drury the f r a i l t y and decay o f t h i s whole World i s r e p r e s e n t e d " , and o f the second, "Of the P r o g r e s s o f the S o u l e . Wherein: By o c c a s i o n o f the R e l i g i o u s death o f M i s t r i s E l i z a b e t h Drury the incommodities o f the Soule i n t h i s l i f e and her e x a l t a t i o n i n the next, are contemplated"; "her" i s taken t o r e f e r t o the s o u l . 13 G o l i e emphasizes t h i s a s p e c t o f the symbol o f E l i z a b e t h Drury: "For him /Donne7, the 'name* o f a t h i n g , i t s l o g o s . g l o r i f i e d i n both S t o i c and C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s , was a l l i m p o r t a n t . From the l o g o s , the o r i g i n a t i n g word o f God, a l l t h i n g s took t h e i r form; t h e l a d y whose death had robbed the w o r l d o f i t s s o u l , and thus o f i t s l i f e , had a name whose d i v i n e p r o p e r t i e s exceeded the 'naming-magic of A g r i p p a . Her name, Donne t e l l s us, d e f i n e d the w o r l d , gave i t form and grace; when the world f o r g o t h e r name, i t f o r g o t i t s own and thus ceased t o know i t s e l f . Lost to the world though the s o v e r e i g n power o f h e r name i s — and i n a s p l e n d i d p r a c t i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n o f h i s n o t i o n , Donne never a s s i g n s the l a d y a name, nor ever c a l l s by t h e i r proper names her s u b s i d i a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , A s t r a e a , Queen E l i z a b e t h , and the V i r g i n M a r y — t h a t s e c r e t name has the power, i n o p o e t r y , t o ' r e f i n e ' c o a r s e l i n e s , and make prose song'." pp. 4 2 4 - 4 2 5 . C o l i e i s drawing here on M a r j o r i e Hope N i c o l s o n ' s t h e o r y ( i n The B r e a k i n g o f the C i r c l e : S t u d i e s i n the E f f e c t o f the 'New S c i e n c e ' Upon Seventeenth Century P o e t r y . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , r e v . ed., 1 9 6 2 ) t h a t Donne d i f f e r e n t i a t e s , i n h i s use o f "shee" and "she", between E l i z a b e t h Drury, A s t r a e a , the V i r g i n Mary, and Queen E l i z a b e t h . 14 Frank Manley, ed., The A n n i v e r s a r i e s . B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 , pp. 1 7 , 1 9 . 15  I b i d . , p. 4 8 .  16  Loc. c i t .  17 In one o f the sermons on the Psalms, Donne e x p l a i n e d why D a v i d ' s p r a y e r o f t h a n k s g i v i n g i s r e s e r v e d u n t i l the end o f the s e t , Psalms 6 , 7 , and 8 : "But t h e r e f o r e might David be l a t e r  .59 and s h o r t e r here, i n expressing that duty of thanks, f i r s t , because b e i n g r e s e r v e d t o t h e end, and c l o s e o f t h e P s a l m e , it l e a v e s t h e b e s t i m p r e s s i o n i n t h e memory. And t h e r e f o r e i t is easie to observe, that i n a l l M e t r i c a l l compositions, of which k i n d e the booke o f Psalmes i s , t h e f o r c e of the whole p i e c e , is f o r t h e most p a r t l e f t t o t h e s h u t t i n g up; t h e whole frame o f t h e poem i s a b e a t i n g o u t o f a p i e c e o f g o l d , b u t t h e l a s t c l a u s e i s as t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e stamp, and t h a t i s i t that makes i t c u r r a n t . " Sermons. V I , 4 1 . 18 p.  "A  96.  19 Brace  Talk  on D a n t e " ,  given  1950,  "Dante" (1929), i n Selected and W o r l d , 1964, p. 2 0 0 .  quoted  Essays.  in  Selected  New Y o r k :  Prose,  Harcourt,  20 S i s t e r Mary Cleophas G o s t e l l o , Between F i x i t y and F l u x : A Study o f t h e Concept o f P o e t r y i n t h e C r i t i c i s m of T. S. E l i o t . Washington: C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America P r e s s , 1947, p. 60. 21  "Hamlet"  22  Smidt,  in  Selected  Poetry  and  Prose,  Belief  .  p. .  102.  .,  p.  41.  23 F . 0 . M a t t h i e s s e n , The A c h i e v e m e n t o f T . S . E l i o t : A n E s s a y o n t h e N a t u r e o f P o e t r y . New Y o r k : 0xford~University P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 , _ 3 r d e d . / w i t h a c h a p t e r on E l i o t ' s l a t e r work by G . L. B a r b e r / , p. 2 9 . 24 XXIII  B. H. F u s s e l l , " S t r u c t u r a l M e t h o d s (1955), pp. 212-241.  25 E r i c Thompson, Carbondale:.Southern 26  Matthiessen,  27  Eliot,  "The  28  Ibid.,  pp.  29  "Poetry  p.  in  Four  Quartets",  ELH,  T . S . E l i o t , The M e t a p h y s i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963, p. 29. 12.  Metaphysical  Poets"  in  110-111.  and Drama",  ibid..  p.  81.  Selected  Prose,  p.  112.  CHAPTER  V  THE ANNIVERSARIES AND THE FOUR QUARTETS: ROAD MAPS FOR THE SOUL The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine t h e method and meaning o f t h e v i a n e g a t i v a o f t h e s o u l ' s p r o g r e s s toward u n i t y w i t h God, as i t i s e x p l o r e d i n t h e A n n i v e r s a r i e s and t h e Four Quartets.  D i s c u s s i o n o f these poems w i l l d e a l i n t u r n  w i t h t h e r e c u r r i n g themes and imagery o f t h e paradoxes i m p l i c i t i n death, knowledge dependent s p i r i t u a l development  of birth  upon i g n o r a n c e , t h e  from nothingness t o something, and t h e  d i s c o v e r y o f t r u e s e l f - h o o d i n a t o t a l and p a i n f u l s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n , a d i s c o v e r y i n which both t h e means and t h e end i s heavenly joy.  I n C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f , a l l these paradoxes a r e f u s e d i n t h e  paradox o f t h e I n c a r n a t i o n , t h e m i r a c u l o u s f u s i o n o f d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e and human f l e s h .  I n t h e poems, t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e  meaning o f these paradoxes forms t h e c r e a t e d whole which i s the  poem i t s e l f . i The s t a r t i n g p o i n t  (and end, as we s h a l l see) o f t h e  s o u l ' s p r o g r e s s i n both poems i s . t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r n o t death has v a l u e .  I n "An Anatomy, o f t h e World", t h e " f r a i l t y  and decay o f t h i s whole w o r l d " i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e death o f E l i z a b e t h Drury, but from t h e b e g i n n i n g , Donne poses t h e am-  Dignity o f t h i s d e a t h ; t h e w o r l d  is  . . . succour'd then w i t h a perplexed doubt, Whether the world d i d loose or gaine i n t h i s .  (AW 14-15r  Is  d e a t h an end o r  then  be c a l l e d  b o t h poems, of  the  a beginning,  desirable?  general.  The  from the  Initially,  Donne p r o p o s e s  particular death paradox  hyperbolic  the  of  of  and.if  and a t  paradox of  a virtuous  the  a beginning  regular  a  girl  of  death  points  in  mourning-celebration and o f  " p e r p l e x e d idoubt"  description  can  the world  death  gains  in  in  poignancy  mourning:  This world, i n that great earth-quake languished; F o r i n a common B a t h o f t e a r e s i t b l e d .  (AW, 11-12)  But  the  subsequent  mourn'd"  (AW  the  first  world"  possibility  parody  of  is  ambivalent:  in  Norton,  tt  .  .  . i t  joy *!,  it  1  20).  Similarly, "our  response  death,  in  of  Burnt the  rose  rebirth.  there  is  having received a hint  garden v i s i o n , In death,  apparent  or  in  the  poet  of  questions  sleep which  is  the  finality:  Time and t h e b e l l h a v e b u r i e d t h e d a y , The b l a c k c l o u d c a r r i e s t h e s u n a w a y . (BN, But  immediately,  the  death an end,, does ever,  question  the  black  is  raised,  cloud  IV,  p  .  179)  although haltingly:  obscure  the  s u n ' s warmth  or, W i l l the sunflower turn to us, w i l l the clematis S t r a y down, bend t o u s ; t e n d r i l and s p r a y C l u t c h and c l i n g ? Chill F i n g e r s of yew^be^surled Down o n u s ? (BN I V , p p . 1 7 9 - 1 8 0 ) v  is for-  ...»62  The answer i s an immediate a f f i r m a t i o n o f f a i t h : A f t e r t h e k i n g f i s h e r ' s wing Has answered l i g h t t o l i g h t , and i s s i l e n t , the l i g h t i s s t i l l At t h e s t i l l p o i n t o f t h e t u r n i n g w o r l d . The imagery and paradox o f t h i s passage a r e r i c h and complex.  The sunflower i s a symbol o f t h e s p i r i t u a l l i g h t o f t h e  son-sun, C h r i s t ; t h e b l u e o f t h e c l e m a t i s symbolizes Mary o r t h e grace-giving q u a l i t y . answering  2  The f l a s h o f t h e k i n g f i s h e r ' s wing  " l i g h t t o l i g h t " , l i k e S h e l l e y ' s s k y l a r k and Hopkins'  windhover, i s a h i n t , merely,  o f t h e presence  o f God.  It is  s i l e n t and i n v i s i b l e , y e t present t h e r e t o be p e r c e i v e d by t h e still  s o u l a t the s t i l l  point.  The downward gesture o f t h e clem-  a t i s suggests t h e r e a c h i n g o f God down t o man, which i s i m p l i e d in  t h e H e r a c l e i t e a n fragment p r e f i x i n g t h e poem, "the road up  and t h e road down a r e t h e same".  The mercy o f God thus  assured,  however, does not d i m i n i s h t h e p a i n and h o r r o r o f death, symb o l i z e d by t h e " f i n g e r s o f yew".  I n o r d e r f o r us t o comprehend  the v a l u e o f death, we must h o l d i t up f o r examination.  The  m e d i t a t i o n on t h e " d y i n g l i f e " forms t h e core o f t h e f i r s t v e r s a r y . "An Anatomy o f t h e World" and o f t h e second  Anni-  and t h i r d  Q u a r t e t s . East Coker and Dry Salvages. ii The f i r s t  i r o n y o f human l i f e  i s t h a t man begins t o d i e  from t h e moment o f c o n c e p t i o n : "We a r e borne r u i n o u s " (AW, 9 5 ) . E v e r y c h i l d ' s b i r t h i s a re-enactment o f t h e O r i g i n a l  Fall:  . . . c h i l d r e n come not r i g h t , n o r o r d e r l y , Except they headlong come, and f a l l upon An ominous p r e c i p i t a t i o n . (AW,  96-98)  I m p l i c i t i n every b i r t h i s t h e death brought upon mankind by t h a t  "desirable  calamity"  So d e l i g h t f u l  is  "kill  ourselves  horns  of  the  the to  not  "Elegies"  men" and  ruine?" The  in  the  the  "Songs  our k i n d e "  (IIP).  regeneration  Here  and  which  s e x u a l u n i o n , we  of  individual—"And  (111).  (AW,  death" of  propagate  of  sacred writings, ty's  "little  dilemma:  degeneration  we a r e  woman,  sent mans r e l i e f e , c a u s e o f h i s l a n g u i s h m e n t . t h a t f i r s t m a r i a g e was o u r f u n e r a l l : woman a t o n e b l o w , t h e n k i l l ' d u s a l l , s i n g l y , one by o n e , t h e y k i l l u s now. (AW, 1 0 1 - 2 , 1 0 5 - 7 )  For For One And  the  • # * • 63  4  it  is  Sonets",  asks,  the  These a r e  the  species  of  the  entirely  and answers,  the  the  leads  y e t we d o e n o t  voice  never  willingly  that;  Donne  lost  in  question  to  of  the  the  "How  wit-  99).  theme o f  the  microcosm and macrocosm  ceaseless  flux  of  the  physical  world,  alike,  The c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e l y m p h . . . figured i n the d r i f t of stars, (BN, I I , p.177) is  expanded  ruinous", is  in  Eliot's  ever-present  faeces"  and t h e  although on the  East  in  Goker.  poem b e g i n s life.  ning skull  of  The  of  ceaseless  beneath the  concept  " I n my b e g i n n i n g earth  dead n o u r i s h the  representative  chaos  Echoing Donne's  the flux,  consists  living.  attempt  in  is  of  "flesh, the  ritual  to  long since under corn.  impose  earth  of  Death  fur,  image  the hint  skin:  Mirth of those Nourishing the  borne  my e n d " .  Hence,  g i v e s way t o  "We a r e  and of  pattern  the  grin-  The different because  of  from the  its  fertility the  circle  dance  rhythm i s  rite  where  physical desire  woman/And  that  in  of  favour  spirit tures  of  the  which the  the  is  dancers in  tied  the to  around the  refining  that  "leaping  of  seasons.  through  the  flames"  life  the  "coupling  lest in  this  is  very  Little  the  let,  spiritual  fire  of  necessary for  beasts".  bonfire  Gidding  It  is  indicates  of  man  and  v i s i o n seem  the duality  of  implicit  in  b o t h Donne and E l i o t ,  physical union  of  man a n d woman a s  a  balanced  body  and  Eliot  pic-  "A d i g n i f i e d  and  5  commodious tion"  sacrament".  and " b e t o k e n e t h  and d e a t h " , we d o e n o t  but  it  that;  is  (AW,  generation: His  136).  the  necessary  a "necessarye  coniunc-  may be r e d u c e a b l e condition  of  to  "Dung  man: "And  yet  men?"  there  man i s  is  It  Concorde".  we a r e n o t  Nevertheless, ive  Their union  is  degeneration with  "Contracted  to  each  success-  a n i n c h , who was  a  span".  a l l o t t e d time of l i f e has shrunk as w e l l : A l a s , we s c a r s e l i v e l o n g e n o u g h t o t r i e W h e t h e r a new made c l o c k e r u n n e r i g h t , o r l i e .  (AW, 129-130)  Just the lent  as  macrocosm. fall  was  the  l i t t l e  world  of  man i s  The m a i m i n g one w o u l d suffered  by the w o r l d  degenerate,  expect  itself  in  i n man's its  so too first  is  vio-  cradle:  The w o r l d d i d i n h e r C r a d l e t a k e a f a l l , And t u r n ' d h e r b r a i n e s , and t o o k a g e n e r a l l maime W r o n g i n g e a c h j o y n t o f th-. u n i v e r s a l l f r a m e . 1  (AW, Because taneous;  the  angels  fell  first,  " I n my b e g i n n i n g  is  my  196-198)  c r e a t i o n and the end":  fall  are  simul-  ••••65 So d i d t h e w o r l d from t h e The. e v e n i n g was b e g i n n i n g  f i r s t houre of the day. (AW,  There  is  decay  and s t e r i l i t y w r i t t e n  into  decay.  201-2)  the  scheme  of  things:  The f a t h e r , o r t h e m o t h e r b a r r e n i s . The c l o u d s c o n c e i v e , n o t r a i n e , o r doe n o t powre I n t h e due b i r t h s t i m e , downe t h e b a l m y s h o w r e , The.'Ayre d o t h not m o t h e r l y s i t on t h e e a r t h , To h a t c h h e r s e a s o n s , a n d g i v e a l l t h i n g s b i r t h . S p r i n g - t i m e s w e r e common c r a d l e s , b u t a r e t o o m b e s ; And f a l s e - ? c o n c e p t i o n s f i l l t h e g e n e r a l l wombgs. (AW, 3 8 0 - 3 8 6 ) 6  In as  contrast with  the  possibilities  symbolized by E l i z a b e t h Drury,  lowly  of  human  mankind w i t h o u t  virtues  virtue  is  a  creature: T h u s m a n , t h i s w o r l d s V i c e - E m p e r o r , i n whom A l l f a c u l t i e s , a l l g r a c e s a r e a t home; And i f i n o t h e r G r e a t u r e s t h e y a p p e a r e , T h e y ' r e b u t mans m i n i s t e r s , a n d L e g a t s t h e r e , To w o r k e o n t h e i r r e b e l l i o n s , a n d r e d u c e Them t o C i v i l i t y , a n d t o mans u s e . T h i s m a n , whom G o d d i d w o o e , a n d l o t h t ' a t t e n d T i l l man came u p , d i d downe t o man d e s c e n d , T h i s man, so g r e a t , t h a t a l l t h a t i s , i s h i s , Oh w h a t a t r i f l e , a n d p o o r e t h i n g h e i s ! (AW, 1 6 1 - 1 7 0 )  The  loss  grace  of  has  "intrinsique  led  to  the  Balm"  death of  (AW,  57)  even the  i n man's f a l l least  Her death hath taught us d e a r e l y , C o r r u p t and m o r t a l ! i n t h y p u r e s t  The hand, o f are  pervasive.  contemptus  third  despite  East  Goker,  movement o f  there  East  mortality;  the.apparent  mundi m e d i t a t i o n i n  movement o f the  Yet  man s m e l l s , o f  the is  Goker.  sinful:  that thou part.  (AW,  art  61-2) "Dung and  hopelessness  Anatomy and i n t h e  a glimmer i n Eliot  from  death"  in  the  first  b o t h poems:  recalls  the  vision  in of  .•.*  66  t h e r o s e garden which i s Not l o s t , but r e q u i r i n g , p o i n t i n g to the agony Of death and b i r t h . (EC I I I , p.  187)  I have i t a l i c i z e d " r e q u i r i n g " because the c o n n e c t i o n object belonging  t o t h i s t r a n s i t i v e v e r b i s ambiguous:  attainment o f e c s t a s y seems t o depend on, which i n v o l v e s the agony o f b i r t h and in  of  the the  o r r e q u i r e , something  death.  Since what f o l l o w s  the f o u r t h movement i s an extended image o f C h r i s t as  the  "wounded surgeon",^ i t would seem t h a t what E l i o t i s i n s i s t i n g on i s the interdependence o f f l e s h and o f the l a t t e r r e q u i r e s the d i s e a s e  s p i r i t , t h a t the  o f the former.  health  This i s the  answer t o the o b j e c t i o n , ending Burnt Norton, t h a t once the p e r f e c t i o n o f the rose garden i s e x p e r i e n c e d , however momentari l y , the  "waste sad t i m e / S t r e t c h i n g  culous".  R i d i c u l o u s i t may  before  be, and  and  after" i s  i t does indeed g i v e  t o the " M i r t h o f t h o s e l o n g s i n c e under e a r t h / N o u r i s h i n g c o r n " , but  "ridirise the  i t i s necessary.  The  paradox o f h e a l t h and  life  death i n f u s e s Donne's poem as w e l l .  The  i m p l i c i t i n disease  and  poet i s p e r f o r m i n g an  anatomy on the cadaver o f the w o r l d , which s t r a n g e l y enough i s not dead, a l t h o u g h i t i s so p u t r i f i e d i t cannot bear a complete dissection  (AW,  4 3 5 f f . ) . O b l i v i o u s t o t h i s ambiguous s t a t e o f  h e a l t h , the w o r l d assumes i t i s w e l l , y e t i t i s i n a " L e t a r g e e " or " n e u t r a l i t i e "  (AW,  t i o n "a t r u e r e l i g i o u s  24, 92).  But  Alchimy" (AW,  out o f t h i s mundane  corrup-  1 8 2 ) can be e f f e c t e d by  means o f the study o f the p a t t e r n o f v i r t u e .  The  lesson of  the  anatomy i s t w o - f o l d and p a r a d o x i c a l : The And The Thy  h e a r t b e i n g p e r i s h ' d , no p a r t can be f r e e . t h a t except thou f e e d (not banquet) on s u p e r n a t u r a l l food, R e l i g i o n , b e t t e r grouth growes w i t h e r e d , and s c a n t . (AW,  Man can e f f e c t a " b e t t e r Grouth"  186-9)  by emulating the i n c a r n a t e  p a t t e r n of v i r t u e ; assent t o t h i s p a t t e r n f o r l i f e i s given i n c e r t a i n o f the symbolic  forms o f r e l i g i o n .  The E u c h a r i s t i e  symbol i s more e x p l i c i t i n E l i o t : The d r i p p i n g blood our o n l y d r i n k , The bloody f l e s h our o n l y f o o d . (EC IV, p. 1 8 8  )  S i m i l a r l y , E l i z a b e t h dead i s , l i k e the"wounded surgeon", h e a l e r and medicine.  both  Now t h e memory o f h e r v i r t u e a c t s l i k e  m e d i c i n a l herbs on t h e s i c k body o f t h e w o r l d : S i n c e herbes, and r o o t s , by d y i n g , l o s e not a l l , But they, yea Ashes t o o , a r e m e d i c i n a l l . (AW,  403-4)  I n balanced, axiomatic c l a u s e s , the paradox o f h e a l t h i n - d i s e a s e , l i f e - i n - d e a t h , i s s t a t e d as t h e c e n t r a l l e s s o n o f E a s t Coker.  The paradoxes d e s c r i b e the P a s s i o n o f C h r i s t , the  "wounded surgeon? and " d y i n g n u r s e " who experienced a s a c r i f i c i a l death, but the present tense i n t h e passage suggests a c o n t i n u a l re-enactment o f t h e P a s s i o n , f o r t h e s u f f e r i n g , as w e l l as t h e v i r t u e , , o f t h e d y i n g God serves as a p a t t e r n f o r man.  As a p a t i e n t i n t h e e a r t h l y h o s p i t a l endowed by t h e  "ruined m i l l i o n a i r e "  ( f a l l e n Adam), man i s not o f f e r e d s a l v a t i o n  as a p a l l i a t i v e : .  . . /the/ constant c a r e i s not t o p l e a s e  ....68 But And The  t o remind o f our, and Adam's c u r s e , t h a t , t o be r e s t o r e d , our s i c k n e s s must grow worse. (ED IV, p. 188)  v i a negativa  healing  o f the s o u l ' s p r o g r e s s demands, acceptance o f a  pain:  I f t o be warmed, then I must f r e e z e And quake i n f r i g i d p u r g a t o r i a l f i r e s Of which the. flame i s r o s e s , and  the smoke i s b r i a r s .  T h i s i l l u m i n a t e s the paradox o f the E a s t e r P a s s i o n :  i n compre-  hending the happy death o f man'iand o f C h r i s t , the C h r i s t i a n can say "We  c a l l t h i s F r i d a y good." Thus, one  symptom o f the f e v e r s u f f e r e d i n the  "frigid  p u r g a t o r i a l f i r e s " i s the great t h i r s t which i r o n i c a l l y i s a healthy  symptom: T h i r s t f o r t h a t time, 0 my i n s a t i a t e s o u l e , And serve thy t h i r s t w i t h Gods s a f e - s e a l i n g Bowie. Be t h i r s t y s t i l l , and d r i n k e s t i l l t i l thou goe. * T i s t h ' o n e l y H e a l t h , t o be Hydropique so. (PS.  45-8)  S i m i l a r l y , the wounded surgeon has  the s o l u t i o n t o the  o f the f e v e r c h a r t " i n East Goker IV: s o u l i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f e v e n t u a l The  "enigma  the t h i r s t o f the  fevered  health.  argument c o r o l l a r y t o the " d y i n g l i f e " thus forms  the o t h e r s i d e o f the paradox:  j u s t as p h y s i c a l b i r t h  implies  our d e a t h , so too death engenders a s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h .  "We  born w i t h the dead" (LG, V) means, both t h a t we  dying  and  t h a t we  are born  are o n l y born a t the moment o f death.  Furthermore,  the body p l a y s a v i t a l p a r t i n the r e b i r t h : F o r though the s o u l o f man Be got when man i s made; ' t i s borne but than When man d o t h d i e Our body's as the wombe, And as a mid-wife death d i r e c t s i t home. 9 ;  (AW, 451-4)  are  . . . 6 9  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , then, the body i s both a p r i s o n and a. c r a d l e f o r the s o u l : Think i n how poore a p r i s o n thou d i d s t l i e A f t e r , enabled but t o sucke, and e r i e . 173-4)  (PS,  The body i s a " P r o v i n c e pack'd up i n two yards o f s k i n n e " (PS, 176),  and the imprisoned governor o f t h i s p r o v i n c e i s l i b e r a t e d  o n l y by death.  A good man  i n order to claim  has t i t l e t o grace, y e t he must d i e  it:  . . . though a good man h a t h T i t l e t o Heaven, and p l e a d i t by h i s F a i t h And though he may pretend a conquest, s i n c e Heaven was content t o s u f f e r v i o l e n c e , Tea though he p l e a d a l o n g p o s s e s s i o n t o o , (For t h e y * a r e i n Heaven on E a r t h , who Heavens workes Though he had r i g h t , and power, and P l a c e b e f o r e , Yet Death must usher, and unlocke the doore. ,  do,)  n  1 4 9 - 1 5 6 )  (PS,  1  0  T h i s i s the d i f f i c u l t l e s s o n t o be l e a r n e d by the v i r t u o u s s o u l ; t h e methods o f l e a r n i n g l i k e w i s e i n v o l v e  difficulties.  iii The dilemma o f the orthodox C h r i s t i a n i s an l o g i c a l one: i m p e l l e d t o comprehension  epistemo-  o f an incomprehensible  God through moral s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n , he must t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n t o methods o f knowledge.  At a l l times, moreover, he i s aware  o f i m p e r f e c t i o n — h e sees but "through a g l a s s d a r k l y " — a n d unc e r t a i n o f the e f f i c a c y of, h i s own knowledge:  p a r t i n the p r o c e s s o f r i g h t  "For by grace are ye saved through f a i t h ; and  not o f y o u r s e l v e s :  i t i s the g i f t o f God"  (Ephesians  that  2:8).  C o n s c i e n t i o u s p r a c t i c e o f b e l i e f o b l i g e s him t o a c c e p t these c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a s , f o r example, N i c o l a s Cusanus d i d .  Perfection  ....70 of  " l e a r n e d i g n o r a n c e " proceeds from t h e knowledge t h a t The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f our i n t e l l e c t t o t h e t r u t h i s l i k e t h a t o f a polygon t o a c i r c l e ; t h e resemblance t o t h e c i r c l e grows w i t h t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a n g l e s o f t h e polygon; but a p a r t from i t s b e i n g reduced t o i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e c i r c l e , no m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , even i f i t were i n f i n i t e , o f . i t s angles w i l l make t h e polygon equal the c i r c l e . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e polygon which merely  approaches  t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e c i r c l e i s t h e substance o f t h e C h r i s t i a n impulse t o s e l f - k n o w l e d g e .  Mindful that the "doctrine o f learned 12  i g n o r a n c e i s an earth-bound  view o f transcendent knowledge",  and thus i m p e r f e c t , t h e b e l i e v e r undertakes t h e t a s k i n h u m i l i t y , a c o n d i t i o n which b r i n g s him unknowingly  closer.  The paradox  o f l e a r n e d ignorance t u r n s on t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between two k i n d s o f knowledge, t h a t o f t h e w o r l d , which i s i l l u s i v e , and t h a t o f the s e l f , which i s e l u s i v e . Explicit  i n both t h e A n n i v e r s a r i e s and t h e Four Quar-  t e t s i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h o l d i n g up f o r r i d i c u l e of  t h e knowledge  t h i s w o r l d i n o r d e r t o uncover knowledge o f t h e s e l f , and  thus each poet performs an anatomy on t h e dead w o r l d .  In the  A n n i v e r s a r y poems, t h e d i s s e c t i o n i s c a r r i e d on i n t h e "glimmering- l i g h t " o f t h e p a t t e r n of. v i r t u e l o s t i n t h e death o f E l i z a beth  (AW, 70-74).  Donne s t a t e s t h e d i d a c t i c n e c e s s i t y o f an  examination o f i m p e r f e c t w o r l d l y knowledge: T h i s new w o r l d may be s a f e r , b e i n g t o l d The dangers and d i s e a s e s o f t h e o l d .  (AW, 87-88)  The f i r s t A n n i v e r s a r y , then, i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e cadaver, e l u c i d a t i n g t o those who can bear t o l i s t e n t o i t s s m e l l , and  ....71 it  i s necessarily hurried: So the worlds c a r c a s s e would not l a s t , i f I Were p u n c t u a l l i n t h i s Anatomy. Nor smels i t w e l l t o h e a r e r s , i f one t e l l Them t h e i r d i s e a s e , who f a i n would t h i n k t h e y ' r e  (AW, 439-442)  The  wel.  second A n n i v e r s a r y begins w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t such  anatomy has l i m i t a t i o n s which must be  an  recognized:  L e t t h i n e owne times as an o l d s t o r y be, Be not concern'd: study not why, nor whan; Doe not so much, as not beleeve a man. F o r though t o e r r be w o r s t , t o t r y t r u t h s f o r t h , Is f a r more b u s i n e s , then t h i s world i s worth.  (PS, 50-54) T h i s l o o k s forward  t o E l i o t ' s d o c t r i n e o f "detachment * 1  (LG I I I ) , which a l l o w s one t o see the t h i n g s o f time i n perspective.  The i m p r e c a t i o n s here a g a i n s t " t r y i n g t r u t h s f o r t h "  does not mean t h a t one  should i g n o r e e n t i r e l y the knowledge  which the w o r l d o f f e r s , e l s e why  bother anatomizing  i t ; rather,  t h i s poem d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h a t k i n d o f l e a r n i n g sought i n o r d e r t o "doubt w i s e l y " and t h a t sought merely t o propose "A hundred c o n t r o v e r s i e s o f an Ant". i e s such as the "New a l l . i n doubt" (AW, and  The more important d i s c o v e r -  P h i l o s o p h y " o f K e p l e r and G a l i l e o , 205);  "cals  but i t i s a doubt which fragments u n i t y  order: ' T i s a l l i n p i e c e s , a l l cohaerence gone; A l l j u s t s u p p l y , and a l l R e l a t i o n : P r i n c e , S u b j e c t , F a t h e r , Sonne are t h i n g s f o r g o t .  Worldly l e a r n i n g i s s e l f - c a n c e l l i n g :  (AW, 213-215)  And one s o u l e t h i n k e s one, and another Another t h i n k e s , and ' t i s an even. l a y .  way  (PS, 267-8)  When i r r e l e v a n t f a c t s such as "how  the stone doth  e n t e r in/The b l a d d e r s Cave, and never break the s k i n " o r  "how  b l o o d , which t o the h a r t doth flow/Doth from one v e n t r i c l e t o th*other go  n  (PS, 269-272) cannot be determined, how  know t h a t which i s most important t o h i m — t h e s e l f ? i s thus "oppress'd w i t h i g n o r a n c e " (PS,  can  man  The  soul  253):  Poor s o u l e i n t h i s t h y f l e s h what d o * s t thou know, Thou know'st thy s e l f e so l i t t l e , *as thou know'st not, How thou d i d s t d i e , nor how thou wast begot. 1  (PS, 254-6)  A l l t h i s world's knowledge i s a t t h e l e v e l o f the lowe s t form i n the s o u l ' s s c h o o l .  Only i n the "watch-towre" o f  the mind can t h i n g s be apprehended beyond the l i m i t a t i o n o f " b e i n g taught by sense, and Fantasy". v i l l ' s Adam, man  now  (PS, 292)  Unlike Glan-  needs s p e c t a c l e s , ^ t h a t i s , m a g n i f y i n g 1  g l a s s e s and t e l e s c o p e s w i t h which " s m a l l t h i n g s seem great,/Be low"  (293).  By c o n t r a s t what knowledge i s r e q u i r e d i n Heaven  s h a l l be l e a r n e d i n s t a n t l y ; t h e r e Thou s h a l t not peepe through l a t t i c e s o f e i e s , Nor heare through L a b e r i n t h e s o f e a r e s , nor l e a r n e By c i r c u i t , o r c o l l e c t i o n s t o d i s c e m e .  (PS, 296-8)  The knowledge the s o u l has o f i t s own  i m m o r t a l i t y i s got by  f a i t h and not by r e a s o n : Nor d o s t thou, (though thou knowst, t h a t thou a r t so) By what thou a r t made i m m o r t a l l , know.  (PS, 259-260)  And the " w o r t h i e s t book" i n which i t i s t o be l e a r n e d i s the p a t t e r n o f v i r t u e symbolized by E l i z a b e t h Drury: Shee whose example they must a l l i m p l o r e , Who would or doe, o r t h i n k e w e l l , and eonfesse  That a i e the vertuous A c t i o n s they expresse, Are but a new, and worse e d i t i o n Gf h e r some one thought, o r one a c t i o n .  (PS, 306-310)  S i m i l a r l y , the "wisdom o f h u m i l i t y " a s p i r e d t o i n the Q u a r t e t s. i s contrasted with the t r i v i a of " t h i s  twittering  w o r l d " where the f a l s e wisdom o f the l i v i n g dead i s Only a f l i c k e r Over the s t r a i n e d t i m e - r i d d e n f a c e s D i s t r a c t e d from d i s t r a c t i o n by d i s t r a c t i o n F i l l e d w i t h f a n c i e s and empty o f meaning Tumid apathy w i t h no c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  (BN, I I I , pp. 178-9)  As i n the " l i v i n g Tombe" (PS, 2 5 2 ) o f Donne's world,  experience  i n the U n r e a l c i t y i s empty o f meaning: Men and b i t s o f paper, w h i r l e d by the c o l d wind That blows b e f o r e and a f t e r time. I t i s as gaseous as the a u d i b l e s m e l l of the cadaver Donne anatomizes,  a mere " E r u c t a t i o n o f unhealthy  I f t h e wisdom of t h e s e men  souls".^  o f the b u s i n e s s w o r l d i s  u s e l e s s , o f even l e s s v a l u e i s the "wisdom o f age";  i t is a  " d e l i b e r a t e h a b i t u d e " (EG, I I ) and, u n l i k e the " s t u p i d t o which Donne exhorts h i s s o u l (PS, 63), s e r e n i t y , g i v i n g way  alacrity"  i t i s a deceitful  to  . . . f e a r o f f e a r and f r e n z y , t h e i r f e a r o f p o s s e s s i o n , Of b e l o n g i n g t o another, o r t o o t h e r s , or t o God. (EG I I , p.  185)  I f viewed as a f i n a l d i s c o v e r y , the wisdom o f experience i s but "the knowledge o f dead s e c r e t s " ; t h e r e can be no f i n a l d i s c o v e r i e s i n a temporal sphere because o f the c o n t i n u a l f l u x : The knowledge imposes a p a t t e r n , and f a l s i f i e s . . . And every moment i s a new and s h o c k i n g V a l u a t i o n o f a l l we have been. (EG I I , p. 185)  The  path of  eies"  sensory experience  and " l a b e r i n t h s  of  leads,  eares",  like  the  "lattices  into  . . . a dark wood, i n a bramble, On t h e e d g e o f a g r i m p e n , w h e r e i s n o s e c u r e And menaced by m o n s t e r s , f a n c y l i g h t , R i s k i n g enchantment. (EC I I , The following birth",  final  the  is  stanza of  exhortation to  a description  passage which  the  of  learn  summarizes w e l l  p.  from "the  East  Coker.  agony of  via negativa.  the  foothold,  185)  t h i r d movement o f  the  of  paradoxical  It  death  is  a  and  long  teaching  of  the  soul: To a r r i v e w h e r e y o u a r e , t o g e t f r o m w h e r e y o u a r e n o t , Y o u must go b y a way w h e r e i n t h e r e i s no e c s t a s y , I n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t what y o u do n o t know Y o u m u s t go b y a way w h i c h i s t h e way o f i g n o r a n c e . I n o r d e r t o p o s s e s s what y o u do n o t p o s s e s s You must go by t h e way o f d i s p o s s e s s i o n . I n order t o a r r i v e at what you are not Y o u m u s t go t h r o u g h t h e way i n w h i c h y o u a r e n o t . And what y o u do n o t know i s t h e o n l y t h i n g y o u know A n d w h a t y o u own i s w h a t y o u d o n o t o w n And where y o u a r e i s where y o u a r e n o t . ,, (p. This and t h a t entails  is  the  task  an anatomy o f  the  carcass  of  of  of  men c h o o s e illusory  Dry Salvages  our m u t a b i l i t y .  commerce" to  is  forget".  of  of  of  The  the of  offered  Thus,  and a d e s t r o y e r  philosophy  illumination"  1 5  a k n o w l e d g e w h i c h must be d i s c o v e r e d ,  discovery  wreckage" dence  is  187)  of past  progress;  m e a n i n g w h e n we  the  rest  the  human l i f e ; to  river  cannot  poem. the  is  both a  recurs  recognize  as  in  the  evi-  "conveyor  "reminder/Of  be d i s o w n e d  It  "drifting  our c u r i o s i t y  illusions,  it  of  however,  in  what the  "sudden  The b a c k w a r d l o o k b e h i n d t h e a s s u r a n c e Of r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y , t h e backward h a l f - l o o k Over the shoulder, towards the p r i m i t i v e t e r r o r . (DS I I , p . 1 9 5 ) This, the  then,  is  destroyer  human a g o n y ,  the is  necessity  time the  the wrecking  of  m e d i t a t i o n on t h e  preserver" of  the  of  the  first  past:  "Time  moment  of  soul:  The b i t t e r a p p l e a n d t h e b i t e i n t h e a p p l e . And t h e r a g g e d r o c k i n t h e r e s t l e s s w a t e r s , present of  the  themselves pastness  knowledge sies  of  times  of  the  the  should free  an Ant"  of  to  but  "distress  past,  but  of  man a s its  evidence  eludes  m o s t men w h o ,  nations",  turn  "not  presence".^  man f r o m p u r s u i n g " A h u n d r e d  it of  memory o f  This  controver-  especially  instead  to  only  those  in who  . . . communicate w i t h Mars, converse w i t h s p i r i t s , To r e p o r t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e s e a m o n s t e r , Describe the horoscope, haruspicate or scry, Observe d i s e a s e i n s i g n a t u r e s , evoke Biography from the w r i n k l e s of the palm And t r a g e d y f r o m f i n g e r s ; r e l e a s e omens By s o r t i l e g e , o r t e a l e a v e s , r i d d l e t h e i n e v i t a b l e W i t h p l a y i n g c a r d s , f i d d l e w i t h pentagrams Or b a r b i t u r i c a c i d s , o r d i s s e c t The r e c u r r e n t i m a g e s i n t o p r e - c o n s c i o u s t e r r o r s — E x p l o r e t h e womb, o r t o m b , o r d r e a m s . -,„ (DS V , p . 1 9 8 ) 1 7  Ultimately, though i t  is  but whether  less  this  learning  ambitious,  b y means o f  is  not  than that  astronomy or  less  of  the  inadequate, New  Philosophers;  astrology,  Man h a t h w e a v ' d o u t a n e t , a n d t h i s n e t t h r o w n e U p o n t h e H e a v e n s , a n d now t h e y a r e h i s owne (AW, and he h i m s e l f w i l l turns  to  mind i s  the  be  "wisdom of  symbolized,  in  enmeshed,  in  humility". Eliot's  poem,  279-280)  the  process,  The  "watch-towre"  by L i t t l e  unless  he  of  Gidding,  the a  •••.76 p l a c e where " p r a y e r has been v a l i d " , where t h e l e s s o n t o be l e a r n e d i s s u p r a v e r b a l , not t o be apprehended of  through " l a t t i c e s  e i e s " and " l a b e r i n t h s o f e a r e s " : And what t h e dead had no speech f o r , when l i v i n g , They can t e l l you, b e i n g dead: t h e communication Of the dead i s tongued w i t h f i r e beyond t h e language of the l i v i n g . (LG I , p. 2 0 1 )  Here, "sense and n o t i o n " must be abandoned so t h a t t h e s o u l w i l l be ready f o r t h e l e s s o n o f t h e master, the " f a m i l i a r compound g h o s t " .  The l o c a t i o n and time o f t h e l e s s o n i s both  s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l , "England and nowhere.  Never and always",  because i t i s both i n time and out o f time.  ("Only through  time time i s conquered.") Before we f o c u s on t h e g o a l o f the s o u l ' s p r o g r e s s , we must f i r s t learning: in  examine the c o n d i t i o n s p r o p i t i o u s f o r good  i n both poets these i n v o l v e paradoxes  expressed  imagery o f l i g h t and darkness, s t i l l n e s s and motion,  dis-  p r o p o r t i o n and concord, nothingness and something, and time and  eternity. It  the  i s s a i d t h a t from t h e bottom o f a w e l l one can see  s t a r s a t mid-day as b r i g h t l y as i f i t were midnight.  ilarly,  the eyes must be b l i n d e d t o t h i s w o r l d i n o r d e r t o  f o c u s on the l i g h t o f t h e new w o r l d . (PS, 1 2 0 ) and t h e "midwinter s p r i n g "  The " s a i n t L u c i e s n i g h t " (LG I , p. 2 0 0 ) both con-  t a i n a promise o f the i n c r e a s i n g l i g h t o f e t e r n i t y . i s a l i g h t t o be apprehended year"  Sim-  let i t  o n l y i n " t h e dark time o f t h e  (LG I ) , the dark time o f t h e s o u l which i s " t h e dark-  77  ness ing  ©f G o d * .  Here,  one i s  blindly  conscious  of what  is  be-  removed: As, i n a theatre, The l i g h t s a r e e x t i n g u i s h e d , f o r t h e s c e n e t o be c h a n g e d W i t h a h o l l o w r u m b l e o f w i n g s , w i t h a movement o f d a r k n e s s on d a r k n e s s , A n d we k n o w t h a t t h e h i l l s a n d t h e t r e e s , t h e d i s t a n t panorama And t h e i m p o s i n g f a c a d e a r e a l l b e i n g r o l l e d a w a y — * (EG I I I , p . 1 8 6 )  The  self  is  being  purged and the  eyes b l i n d e d  by the  light  of  18 God's  darkness. In Donne's  poem t h e  eyes  are  blinded  by  death:  . . . d e a t h i s b u t a Groome Which b r i n g s a t a p e r t o t h e outward roome, Whence t h o u s p i e s t f i r s t a l i t t l e g l i m m e r i n g l i g h t , And a f t e r b r i n g s i t n e a r e r t o t h y s i g h t . (PS, 85-88) But  in  Eliot,  eyebeam",  in  the  light  appears  adumbration,  in  merely,  this at  life  to  the  first:  And t h e p o o l was f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r The s u r f a c e g l i t t e r e d o u t o f h e a r t  out of s u n l i g h t of l i g h t . . . (BN I ,  The  rose  visible",  garden i s echoes  when seen f o r  inhabited  reflected  the  first  in  by presences, the  time at  p.  .  end o f  the  .  .  176)  "dignified,  p o o l , who a r e  the  "unseen  in-  recognized poem:  We d i e w i t h t h e d y i n g : S e e , t h e y d e p a r t , a n d we g o w i t h t h e m . We a r e b o r n w i t h t h e d e a d : See, they r e t u r n , and b r i n g us w i t h them. (LG V, But is  between the  life"  these  division or  two p o i n t s  between what  ' I l l u m i n a t i v e Way',  'Unitive Way'.  7  This  is  the  in  time,  2G8)  or rather,  Underhill and the  p.  calls  the  out  "first  "second mystic  dark night  of  the  of  time, mystic  life"  soul,  a  or  state  of  m i s e r y and n e g a t i o n of s e l f : I n t e r n a l darkness,. d e p r i v a t i o n And d e s t i t u t i o n o f a l l p r o p e r t y , D e s s i e a t i o n o f the world o f sense, Inoperancy o f the world o f s p i r i t .  (BN  I I I , p.179)  9 n  The l i g h t i s t h e n r e v e a l e d i n L i t t l e G i d d i n g as t h a t o f a "midwinter s p r i n g " , where the " b r i e f sun flames the i c e " (LG I , p. 200), l i k e the f r i g i d p u r g a t o r i a l f i r e s o f E a s t Goker: A g l a r e t h a t i s b l i n d n e s s i n the e a r l y a f t e r n o o n . And glow more i n t e n s e than b l a z e o f branch, o r b r a z i e r , S t i r s the dumb s p i r i t : no wind, but p e n t e c o s t a l f i r e In the dark time o f the y e a r . (LG I , p. 2 0 0 ) 2 1  It  i s the l i g h t a t the s t i l l  p o i n t o f the t u r n i n g w o r l d , "a  w h i t e l i g h t s t i l l and moving" (BN I I , p. 177),  the r e f i n e r ' s  f i r e which e f f e c t s the metamorphosis o f the s o u l from base  22 m e t a l t o pure g o l d i n a " t r u e r e l i g i o u s Alchimy"  (AW,  182).  The imagery i n Donne's poem emphasizes the n e g a t i o n , r a t h e r than the darkness, t o be experienced b e f o r e t h i s metamorphosis  can take p l a c e .  The w o r l d i n the f i r s t A n n i v e r s a r y  l o s t a l l i d e n t i t y w i t h the death o f E l i z a b e t h Drury: Thou h a s t f o r g o t t h y name, thou h a d s t ; thou wast N o t h i n g but she, and h e r thou h a s t o ' r p a s t .  (AW, 31-32) The o l d w o r l d now  e x i s t s but o n l y i n a s t a t e o f p u t r e f a c t i o n ,  w h i l e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the new w o r l d i s f a i n t l y o u t l i n e d i n the memory and " f i g u r i n g f o r t h " o f the i d e a l , the p a r a d i s e within. ing  The s t o r y o f mankind d e s c r i b e s a p h y s i c a l d i m i n i s h -  i n stature:  . . . so i n l e n g t h e i s man C o n t r a c t e d t o an i n c h , who was a span (AW,  135-6)  w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y must proceed t o a p o i n t i n f i n i t e s i m a l : Onely death addes t * o u r l e n g t h : nor are we I n s t a t u r e t o be men, t i l l we a r e none. (AW,  growne  145-6)  L i t t l e n e s s h e l d a f a s c i n a t i o n f o r Renaissance t h i n g s o f the microcosm were thought f e c t i o n of the macrocosm. ^ 2  men:  c o p i e s o f the g r e a t e r per-  Thus, i f man  c o u l d now  be  thought  o f as a d i s t i l l a t i o n o f the v i r t u e s o f the f a t h e r s , t h e r e would be no cause f o r alarm, but T i s s h r i n k i n g , not close-weaving, t h a t hath t h u s , I n minde and body both bedwarfed u s . f  (AW,  Man  153-4)  seems t o be s t r i v i n g f o r a r e t u r n t o the elemental chaos  out o f which he was  created:  We seeme a m b i t i o u s , Gods whole worke t'undoe; Of n o t h i n g he made us, and we s t r i v e t o o , To b r i n g o u r s e l v e s t o n o t h i n g backer, (AW,  Man  1 5 5 - 8 )  Z  Z  f  i s a "nought" (PS, 8 4 ) and, l i k e o t h e r u n p r a i s e -  worthy s u b j e c t s o f paradox, not worth study; y e t i n a s p i r i n g t o the d i v i n e p a t t e r n o f p e r f e c t i o n , he seeks t o "peece a c i r c l e " i n union w i t h God.  The p l a y f u l Renaissance  specula-  t i o n s on the q u a l i t i e s o f " n o t h i n g " , " z e r o " and the c i r c l e p e r f e c t i o n , merged the  two:  . . . the i d e a s o f p e r f e c t i o n and t o t a l i t y connected w i t h omnia and the image o f the c i r c l e combine w i t h the n i h i l i s m o f the i d e a o f n o t h i n g . The l e t t e r " 0 " and the f i g u r e i t s e l f . . . framed o f n o t h i n g , the  of  w h o l e cosmos i s a box o f Q s . 0 (zero) i s the c i p h e r w h i c h "deciphered"-rthat i s , u n d e r s t o o d and un-nothinged—makes " a l l ? . * f  Thus,  the  futile  attempt  of  ,  I  m e d i e v a l and Renaissance  mathe-  26 maticians  to  square  the  into  t h e more p r o f i t a b l e  too,  in  order  to  Elizabeth  task  is of  summer  Drury,  11  which  then,  turned  around by  c i r c l i n g the  become s o m e t h i n g ,  unimaginable/Zero Like  circle  the  Donne  square;  in  s o u l must f i n d  follows  "midwinter  he m u s t become  "all  Eliot,  "the  spring".  this  All"  27 (PS,  376).  knows, most  In the disproportion  this  of  the  journey of  of  the world  the  is  probably  soul  man the  difficult. For  the  part  and f l u x  head,  ages,  man h a d t h o u g h t  of  the  earth,  and of  i m i t a t i o n of  the  "Hieroglyphick"  of  the  spherical  the Ptolemaic of  God,  the  shape  of  universe,  as  circle  per-  of  an  2 ft  fection.  But  the  to  The  heavens  t h e New P h i l o s o p h y be  discovered  the motions  of  labyrinthine:  We t h i n k e t h e h e a v e n s e n j o y t h e i r S p h e r i c a l l Their round proportion embracing a l l . And y e t t h e i r v a r i o u s and p e r p l e x e d c o u r s e , Observ'd i n d i v e r s ages doth enforce Men t o f i n d e o u t s o many ' E c c e n t r i q u e p a r t s , Such d i v e r s downe-right l i n e s , such o v e r t h w a r t s , As d i s p r o p o r t i o n t h a t p u r e f o r m e . . . (AW, 2 5 1 - 7 ) sun c a n n o t " P e r f i t a C i r c l e " (269) and . . . o f t h e S t a r r e s w h i c h b o a s t t h a t t h e y do runne I n C i r c l e s t i l l , none ends where he begunne. (AW, 2 7 5 - 6 )  Nor does  the  e a r t h keep her round  blemished with  "warts  proportion:  and p o c k - h o l e s "  (AW,  her face  300).  Lovers,  is too,  even i n the  the  transcendent  union  of  their  love,  are victims  of  flux: Poore couse'ned c o s e ' n o r , t h a t s h e , and t h a t Which d i d b e g i n t o l o v e , a r e n e i t h e r now. You a r e both f l u i d , chang'd s i n c e y e s t e r d a y . (PS, 391-3)  Some o f closer  this to  movement,  God; i n  the  imitate  the  c a n be s a i d  grotesque  d e c a p i t a t e d man, w h i c h sometimes  however,  opens  but  the  to  appropriate  second  bring  thou,  man  image  Anniversary.  of the  the dead  quick:  H i s e i e s w i l l t w i n c k l e , and h i s tongue w i l l r o l l As though he b e c k n e d , and c a l ' d backe h i s S o u l , He g r a s p e s h i s h a n d s , a n d h e p u i s u p h i s f e e t , And seemes t o r e a c h , and t o s t e p f o r t h t o meet His soule. (PS, 13-17) His at  gestures least:  soul  is  he  to  best, is  confused,  aspires  fitted  "beauties universe  are  the  but  indicate  to union. pattern  proportion",  It of  in  cannot  virtue,  analysis  intentions,  be won u n t i l  the  E l i z a b e t h , who  c o m p a r i s o n w i t h whom  we w o u l d Circles, (PS,  circle  proper  is  the  square:  To w h o s e p r o p o r t i o n s i f Cubes, t h ' a r e u n s t a b l e ;  The  the  of  as  her  Yeats's  soul's  perfection  is  compare Angulare. 9 0  Q  2  141-2) as  impervious  to  dancer:  . . . t h o u g h a l l do know, t h a t q u a n t i t i e s A r e made o f l i n e s , a n d l i n e s f r o m P o i n t s a r i s e , None c a n t h e s e l i n e s o r q u a n t i t i e s , u n j o y n t , And s a y t h i s i s a l i n e , o r t h i s a p o i n t . (PS, 1 3 1 - 1 3 4 ) o  n  3 0  Furthermore,  this  heavenly perfection  S h e e , who b y m a k i n g f u l l  can receive  perfection  grow,  addition:  Peeces a C i r c l e , and s t i l l keepes i t so, Long'd f o r , and l o n g i n g f o r ' i t , t o heaven i s gone, Where shee r e c e i v e s , and g i v e s a d d i t i o n *  (PS, I n m e d i t a t i n g on i t ,  507-510)  Donne's s o u l can touch t h i s  cir-  cumference from i t s base p o i n t , the e a r t h : Then, s o u l e , t o t h y f i r s t p i t c h work up againe; Know t h a t a l l l i n e s which c i r c l e s doe c o n t a i n e , F o r once t h a t they the c e n t e r touch, do touch Twice the c i r c u m f e r e n c e ; and be thou such. (PS,  435-8)  Thus, the s o u l i s an immeasurable l i n e between heaven and earth: it  when the s o u l i s hatched  from the s h e l l o f the body,-*  " d i s p a t c h e s i n a minute a l l the way,/Twixt Heaven and  Earth"  (PS, 188-9).  L i k e the marrow which " s t r i n g s f a s t  l i t t l e bones o f necke, and backe" (PS, 212),  "So by the s o u l e  doth death s t r i n g Heaven and E a r t h " (PS, 213). t i o n i s , o f course, t h a t God  the  makes the descent  The i m p l i c a j u s t as  man  moves upward: T h i s man, whom God d i d wooe, and l o t h t ' a t t e n d T i l l man came up, d i d downe t o man descend. (AW,  167-8)  The past t e n s e , " d i d wooe", " d i d down descend", i n d i c a t e s t h e s p e c i f i c meaning o f the I n c a r n a t i o n , but the I n c a r n a t i o n r e c u r s i n men's h e a r t s c o n t i n u a l l y ; and man r e a c h God "up, in  up".  as w e l l . (PS, 294,  The s o u l i s r e p e a t e d l y exhorted t o move  339, 345, 347, 349, 351, 353, 356).  the H e r a e l i t e a n fragment p r e f i x i n g the Q u a r t e t s . the  up and the way the  must attempt t o  circle.-*  2  down are one and the same f o r the diameter  As way of  Eliot i t  is  the  movement  turns  centre is  wheels.  circle  to which  that  ending f l u x .  this  of  the  the  image  soul  around:  aspires  there  are  Burnt  and the  time-bound universe,  Furthermore,  in  cyclic  captured  analogous  Norton  in  wheels  never-  within  J  The d a n c e a l o n g t h e a r t e r y The c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e l y m p h Are f i g u r e d i n the d r i f t of s t a r s . (BN I I , p . 1 7 7 ) Bonne's  planets  execute  a serpentine  motion;  Eliot's  Simulate(s) triumphal cars Deployed i n c o n s t e l l a t e d wars S c o r p i o n f i g h t s a g a i n s t t h e Sun U n t i l t h e Sun and Moon go down Comets weep and L e o n i d s f l y Hunt the heavens and t h e p l a i n s Whirled i n a vortex . . . (EC I I , p . 1 8 4 K * There in  is  a fusion  a constant  batants  in  the  here  drama, as final  of  the  personified  s e e n by t h e  apocalyptic  celestial  Greeks,  war  and o f  bodies the  com-  i n heaven described  in  Revelations. Man's  movements a r e  theless  feverish.  ensure,  in  a m a g i c a l way,  a  In  and commodious  circle  dance  contrast  to  catastrophic,  Some c e r e m o n i e s  and the u n i v e r s e which fied  less  the  of  very  around the  his  prison.  matrimony  The  (EG I )  rhythm i n  Keeping time t h e i r dancing  As i n  living  the  this  never-  of  to time  "dignifeatures  fire:  Keeping the their  are  intended  c y c l i c a l motion  constitutes  sacrament" of  man a r e  but  in  charming p o r t r a i t ,  living the  seasons.  cycle  of  human  l i f e i s more o f t e n merely d r e a r y , as i n the c y c l e o f marked by the rhythm o f the r i v e r i n Dry Salvages, motion o f the fishermen (DS I I , p. 1 9 3 ) * of  life  and i n the  " f o r e v e r b a i l i n g / S e t t i n g and  hauling"  Even here, though, t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  b r e a k i n g out o f the c i r c l e  with  . . . the h a r d l y , b a r e l y p r a y a b l e P r a y e r o f the one A n n u n c i a t i o n . (DS I I , p. 1 9 4 ) But understanding time and  o f the A n n u n c i a t i o n  through time.  i s only p o s s i b l e i n  An examination  o f human h i s t o r y r e -  v e a l s t h a t ". . . the moments o f agony . . . are l i k e w i s e permanent/With such permanence as time has." although  Therefore,  "Time the d e s t r o y e r i s time the p r e s e r v e r " , t h a t i s ,  t h e p r e s e r v e r o f a l l those moments i n h i s t o r y h e l d up f o r our examination one at  and  comprehension, t h e r e i s a c o n s o l a t i o n i f  poses a t i m e l e s s n e s s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o time, a s t i l l the c e n t r e o f the w h i r l i n g u n i v e r s e .  The s t i l l  point i s  t i m e l e s s , y e t can o n l y be p e r c e i v e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h a t i s , j u s t as i t was f l e s h , so too t h i s s t i l l E l i o t symbolizes  necessary  point  time;  f o r the Word t o be made  p o i n t i s apprehended by the  t h i s p o i n t as the m o t i o n l e s s ,  flesh.  fleshless  dance; the paradox i s e v o c a t i v e o f P a r t V o f Burnt Norton i n t h e image o f s u c c e s s f u l a r t , which, l i k e the I n c a r n a t i o n of t h e d i v i n e c r e a t i v e p r i n c i p l e , i s an " i n t e r s e c t i o n o f the timeless with  time": Only by the form, the p a t t e r n , Can words or music r e a c h The s t i l l n e s s , as a Chinese j a r s t i l l Moves p e r p e t u a l l y i n i t s s t i l l n e s s . (BN V , p. 1 8 0 )  In to  the m y s t i c e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s common f o r the s u b j e c t  "become" one w i t h the o b j e c t o f m e d i t a t i o n ; one s t r i v e s f o r 35  abnegation, o f s e l f and u n i t y w i t h " o t h e r " .  J u l i a n o f Nor-  wich, f o r example, speaks o f b e i n g " e n f o l d e d " i n t o  God.^  T h i s i s what E l i o t means, I t h i n k , i n P a r t V o f Dry  Salvages  when he r e c a l l s the momentary i m a g i n i n g o f the r o s e garden experience; i t i s . , , music heard so deeply That i t i s not heard a t a l l , but you are the music While the music l a s t s . In  the words o f the f i g u r e i n the empty s t r e e t i n L i t t l e  G i d d i n g , one c o n d i t i o n of b e i n g i n the rose garden o r the " r e f i n i n g f i r e " i s t h a t you must move i n measure l i k e a dancer".  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the s o u l i s admonished t o be I s a i d t o my  s o u l , be s t i l l ,  Which s h a l l be the darkness yet  still:  and l e t t h e dark come upon you o f God (EC I I , p. 186);  i t i s a l s o beckoned t o move: Quick, s a i d the b i r d , f i n d them, f i n d them, Round the c o r n e r . . . (BN I , p.  175)  There i s no r e s o l u t i o n o f the paradox—"We must be still  and s t i l l  be understood timeless.  moving" (EC V, p. 1 8 9 ) — b u t i t may  at least  i n terms o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f time t o the  S t . Augustine r e c o g n i z e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h i s  understanding: Who speaks thus / s c e p t i c a l l y about God*s e t e r n a l q u a l i t i e s / , do not y e t understand thee, 0 Wisdom o f God,  L i g h t o f s o u l s , u n d e r s t a n d n o t y e t how t h e t h i n g s be made, w h i c h by Thee, and i n Thee a r e made: y e t t h e y s t r i v e t o comprehend t h i n g s e t e r n a l , w h i l s t t h e i r h e a r t f l u t t e r e t h between the motions of t h i n g s past and t o come, and i s s t i l l u n s t a b l e . Who s h a l l h o l d i t , and f i x i t , t h a t i t be s e t t l e d a w h i l e , and a w h i l e c a t c h the g l o r y o f t h a t e v e r - f i x e d E t e r n i t y , and compare i t w i t h the times which are never f i x e d , and s e e t h a t i t c a n n o t be c o m p a r e d . ^ ' Death suspended  time f o r  Elizabeth  Drury:  Some m o n e t h s s h e h a t h b e e n d e a d ( b u t b e i n g Measures of time are a l l determined) But l o n g s h e e ' a t h beene away, l o n g , l o n g . (AW, 3 9 - 4 1 )  dead,  5 8  and  in  moving i n t o  union with  God,  the  soul  Dispatches i n a minute a l l the Twixt Heaven and E a r t h . . . (PS, The  point  gions the as  of  of  the  l o n g passage  the  air  and the  s o u l does the  not stop  Ptolemaic  order  to  versus  (PS, of  recount  the  183-9)  189-206) l i s t i n g the the heavenly  bodies  is  such  Brahaic  39 irrelevant, and t h a t heaven Heaven i s as n e a r e , As c o l o u r s a r e , and Where d a r k n e s s e was  both that order  from time,  "long-short"  (PS,  tense. of  then,  i n w h i c h Donne  "religious  the  The  progress  is  the meditation i n  instructs  death", l i k e l i t t l e  soul's  which  disputes  planets  are  216-218) paradoxically  219).  Logically, sary  the  of  re-  i s not t h e r e - t h e n , but here-now and p r e s e n t t o h e r f a c e , o b j e c t s i n a roome b e f o r e , when Tapers come. (PS,  Released  way,  that  of  his  soul  Elizabeth,  drama moves f r o m t h e  d y i n g man, t o  the  to  sounding of  the think  second itself  Anniver into  is  i n the  present  last  broken  breaths  the death k n e l l ,  to  the  a  • • • • 87 r e a d i n g o f the w i l l to  ( i n which the i n h e r i t a n c e o f s i n i s r e p a i d  Satan by the immaculate blood o f C h r i s t ) , to the weeping o f  f r i e n d s and the b u r i a l ceremony.  But t h i s ceremony " L a i e s  thee t o s l e e p e but a S a i n t L u c i e s n i g h t " (PS, 120);  this  l o n g n i g h t i s a p r e l u d e t o the e t e r n a l l i g h t , and  i s thus  "long-short". is  present  Since death and  i t s logical corollary,  last  rebirth,  i n every moment, time c o n t i n u a l l y p o s i t s i t s  opposite, timelessness.  The  sounding o f the trumpet a t the  f i n a l r e s u r r e c t i o n i s g i v e n i n the B i b l e as a prophecy hence i s i n the f u t u r e  and  tense:  In a moment, i n the t w i n k l i n g o f an eye, a t the l a s t trump; f o r the trumpet s h a l l sound, and the dead s h a l l be r a i s e d i n c o r r u p t i b l e , and we s h a l l be changed.  (I Cor. 15:52)  But Donne uses the past tense i n conveying  t h i s prophecy:  Thou a r t the P r o c l a m a t i o n ; and I ame The Trumpet, a t whose v o i c e the people came.  (PS, 527-8) Perhaps he i s merely f u l f i l l i n g the c o u p l e t ' s need f o r a rhyme w i t h "ame", but i t i s u n l i k e l y .  I prefer to think of  it  as a f i n a l f l a g by a master o f paradox, waved as a warning  to  those who  would t r y t o get a f i x on the " s t i l l  and  still  moving" e t e r n a l moment. I n Burnt Norton the m e d i t a t i o n on the f u t i l i t y  of  t ime, I f a l l time i s e t e r n a l l y present A l l time i s unredeemable, is  immediately f o l l o w e d by the shadowy awareness o f a r e t u r n  to  Eden,  ••••88 Down t h e p a s s a g e w h i c h we d i d n o t T o w a r d s t h e d o o r we n e v e r o p e n e d Into the rose-garden. "What tion  might of  have been" i s  "a world  ity  as  cogent  the  boar"•  of  as  But  then,  speculation":  the w h i r l i n g at  suddenly,  this  the  pattern  point  in  the  no l o n g e r  s t i l l of  take  point  the  an  abstrac-  has  a  "boarhound  poem i t s  realand  meaning i s  un-  clear: I c a n o n l y s a y , t h e r e we h a v e b e e n : B u t I c a n n o t And I c a n n o t s a y , how l o n g , f o r t h a t i s t o p l a c e (BN I I , C o m p r e h e n s i o n o f what must be " p a r t i a l horror"  is  ecstasy  p.  .  .  say where, it in time. 177)  .  partial  avoided: Y e t t h e enchainment o f p a s t and f u t u r e Woven i n t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e c h a n g i n g b o d y , P r o t e c t s mankind from heaven and damnation Which f l e s h cannot endure, (p.  but  consciousness  "the  moment o f  quered. as  in  in  the  the  of  the  rose-garden" i n  Observation  the  pattern of  fifth  perfect  vacillation, the  must be c u l t i v a t e d  s t i l l  of  yet  the  point  God), which  Christ "Love  is is  time,  t h e way i n w h i c h  movement o f Word.  so t h a t  is  Chinese Burnt in  jar,  Norton,  art  unmoving Love  recalling  conquers to  a  contime,  comparison,  i m p e r f e c t words  the wilderness  itself  in  t i m e may b e  leads of  178)  and  was  tempted  to  unmoving"; the  pattern  for  (one o f  t h e many  timeless, Except i n the aspect of time Caught i n the form of l i m i t a t i o n Between u n - b e i n g and b e i n g .  hypostases  The end o f t h e journey o f t h e s o u l i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s g i f t o f l o v e : "The h i n t h a l f guessed, t h e g i f t h a l f stood, i s Incarnation."  (DS V, p. 199)  under-  F i r s t , however, human  time, "a time f o r l i v i n g and f o r g e n e r a t i o n " and f o r d y i n g , must be examined.  Thus, t h e paradoxes o f t h e r e q u i r e d agony  of b i r t h and death, l e a d i n g t o r e s t o r a t i o n , a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d above, l e a d t o t h e awareness t h a t " l o v e i s most n e a r l y i t s e l f / When here and now cease t o matter" (EC V, p. 1 8 9 ) .  Next, i n  Dry S a l v a g e s . we a r e brought t o an examination o f what Bodelsen c a l l s  "amorphous t i m e " , " t i m e n o t our time . . . / O l d e r  t h a n t h e time o f chronometers"  (DS I , p. 192).  This i s cos-  mic time, symbolized by t h e ocean which h o l d s " h i n t s o f e a r l i e r and o t h e r c r e a t i o n " as mutable as man; but j u s t as t h e inertia 2),  o f Donne's world argues " i t s e v e r l a s t i n g n e s s e " (PS,  so t o o We cannot t h i n k o f a time t h a t i s o c e a n l e s s Or o f an ocean n o t l i t t e r e d w i t h wastage Or a f u t u r e t h a t i s n o t l i a b l e L i k e t h e p a s t , t o have no d e s t i n a t i o n .  Because man cannot bear v e r y much r e a l i t y , the  he cannot t h i n k o f  f u t i l i t y o f h i s a c t i o n s , o f "making a t r i p t h a t w i l l be  unpayable/For a h a u l t h a t w i l l not bear examination" (DS I I , p.  1 9 4 ) .  As an a l t e r n a t i v e and a way i n t o t h e t i m e l e s s moment o f t h e s t i l l p o i n t , one must c u l t i v a t e a detachment, which b r i n g s r e l e a s e from r e l i a n c e on t h e " f r u i t o f a c t i o n " : t h i s i s the  lesson of Krishna:  He who sees the i n a c t i o n t h a t i s i n a c t i o n , and the a c t i o n t h a t i s i n i n a c t i o n , i s wise indeed* Even when he i s engaged i n a c t i o n he remains p o i s e d i n the t r a n q u i l l i t y o f the Atman.*- 1  Only a few a r e capable  o f f u l f i l l i n g the r e q u i r e d  "Ardour and s e l f l e s s n e s s and s e l f - s u r r e n d e r " (DS V, p.  19$);  t o t a l s a c r i f i c e , l i k e the " l i f e t i m e ' s death i n l o v e " undertaken by s a i n t s and more e s p e c i a l l y , by C h r i s t i s n e c e s s a r y in  order . . . t o apprehend The p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f the t i m e l e s s With time . . . (DS V, p.  which i s the g i f t o f I n c a r n a t i o n .  198)  The " i m p o s s i b l e u n i o n "  of  f l e s h and f l e s h l e s s n e s s , time and t i m e l e s s n e s s , i n which "past and f u t u r e / A r e conquered and r e c o n c i l e d " i s o n l y h a l f understood  in a life  g i v e n over e n t i r e l y t o " p r a y e r ,  vance, d i s c i p l i n e , thought and a c t i o n " . o f f u s i n g one's w i l l w i t h t h a t o f God, Krishna^  2  content  only  And  obser-  the r i g h t a c t i o n  which i s e n j o i n e d  i s an i m p o s s i b l e g o a l f o r most men.  Most can  by be  I f our temporal r e v e r s i o n n o u r i s h (Not too f a r from the yew t r e e ) The l i f e o f s i g n i f i c a n t s o i l . . -  (DS V, p. 1 9 0 )  43  The promise made t o the s o u l , and i m p l i c i t l y t o the r e a d e r , a t the b e g i n n i n g of each.poem i s f u l f i l l e d and r e v e a l e d f o r the f i r s t time i n the f i n a l l i n e s o f each. imagery o f the journey's the two  poets, a l t h o u g h  The  end i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r each o f i t s u l t i m a t e i m p l i c a t i o n s are. c e r -  91 t a i n l y the same f o r both, w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n frame o f r e f e r ence. of  How  t h i s "amazing g r a c e " r e v e a l s i t s e l f i s the s u b j e c t  the next, and f i n a l , s e c t i o n o f t h i s  chapter.  v Because the p r o g r e s s o f the s o u l must go by way  of  t o t a l n e g a t i o n o f the ego b e f o r e the t r u e s e l f i s r e v e a l e d , the c e n t r a l poems o f the Q u a r t e t s . E a s t Coker and Dry seem t o o f f e r no hope o f r e c a p t u r i n g the l i g h t which to  the "unseen eyebeam" o f Burnt Morton.  Salvages. appeared  The paradoxes o f  n e c e s s a r y s u f f e r i n g are e x p l i c i t l y g i v e n i n East Coker IV, as l e s s o n s t h a t must be l e a r n e d w i t h more than assent. Little  but  intellectual  T h i s i s t o be r e a l i z e d i n the " r e f i n i n g f i r e " o f Gidding.  Inasmuch as i t s s t r u c t u r e resembles  the other Quartets. L i t t l e  that of  G i d d i n g i s a coda o f the s o u l ' s  p r o g r e s s , the f i n a l stage i n the e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g i n the words o f the " f a m i l i a r compound ghost" o f the second movement and the c a t e c h i s m o f the f o u r t h .  I t i s both a separate  p r e s s i o n o f the m y s t i c a l d i s c o v e r y o f s e l f and the f a b r i c o f the Four Quartets made up o f thematic and t h r e a d s t o the o t h e r t h r e e .  I n t h i s sense, L i t t l e  r e p r e s e n t s both a r e t u r n and a journey i n t o new The  ex-  total imagistic Gidding  territory.  o b j e c t o f the journey i s the comprehension o f e t e r n a l j o y . The f i r s t movement, as i n the o t h e r poems, i s l o c a t e d  i n a p l a c e which had p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the poet;  the  c h a p e l a t L i t t l e G i d d i n g r e p r e s e n t s a r e t u r n , but the r e t u r n  i s more than the v i s i t o f a devout C h r i s t i a n t o a r e s t o r e d monument.  The n a t u r a l i s t i c and symbolic imagery o f the f i r s t  stanza o f f e r s a clue:  a t a l i t e r a l l e v e l , the d e s c r i p t i o n i s  o f a r a r e sunny day i n - t h e u s u a l l y b l e a k E n g l i s h December, When t h e s h o r t day is b r i g h t e s t , w i t h f r o s t and f i r e , The b r i e f sun flames the i c e , on ponds and d i t c h e s , but t h e next l i n e makes t h i s a m i r a c l e beyond the merely meteorological : In w i n d l e s s c o l d t h a t i s t h e h e a r t ' s h e a t . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f c o l d and heat r e c a l l s the paradox of E a s t Goker: I f t o be warmed, then I must f r e e z e And quake i n f r i g i d p u r g a t o r i a l f i r e s . TEG IV) I t i s t h e " p e n t e c o s t a l f i r e / I n t h e dark time o f the y e a r " , which i s t h e "darkness o f God".  U n l i k e the dance through the  flames i n E a s t Coker I t h e scene here has no " e a r t h s m e l l / O r s m e l l o f l i v i n g t h i n g s " , because t h i s i s t h e time o f r e g e n e r a t i o n f o r the soul: T h i s i s t h e s p r i n g time But not i n time's covenant. The s o u l must undergo f u r t h e r c l e a n s i n g b e f o r e i t i s f u l f i l l e d i n t h e "unimaginable /Zero summer". Again, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u l f i l l m e n t i s q u e s t i o n e d : And what you thought you came f o r Is o n l y a s h a l l , a husk o f meaning From which t h e purpose breaks o n l y when i t i s f u l f i l l e d I f a t a l l , (my i t a l i c s ) and t h e v i a n e g a t i v a i s r e s t a t e d :  . . . you would have t o put o f f Sense and n o t i o n . The  imagery o f the t h r e e l y r i c  stanzas o f the  second  movement r e c a l l s t h a t o f the p r e c e d i n g poems, but w i t h a sense:  new  here, the human endeavour imaged p r e v i o u s l y p e r i s h e s  in  the r e f i n i n g f i r e .  The r o s e p e t a l s whose dust i s d i s t u r b e d  in  r e c a l l i n g the r o s e garden v i s i o n o f Burnt Norton are burned  away now,  l e a v i n g the h i n t o f death, the "ash on an o l d man's  sleeve".  The "autumn heat" and the " v i b r a n t a i r " o f Burnt  Norton  I mark the " p l a c e where the S t o r y ended", t h a t i s ,  n e c e s s i t a t e a d e n i a l o f a l l p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , even t h a t o f the r o s e garden v i s i o n which i m p e l l e d t h i s p r o g r e s s o f the soul.  The dust which c o n s t i t u t e d man  i n the imagery o f E a s t  Goker I i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t o f the "house/The w a l l , wainscot  the  and the mouse", and as i n E a s t Coker. i t i s a l l  r e d u c e a b l e t o " f l e s h , f u r , and f a e c e s " .  But here t h e r e i s no  r e s t o r a t i o n , no g e n e r a t i o n , but r a t h e r a n e g a t i o n , "The o f a l l hope and d e s p a i r " . and drouth/Over  In the second  s t a n z a , the  "flood  the eyes and i n the mouth" are a g h a s t l y par-  ody o f the baptism,  and thus r e c a l l the d e s t r u c t i v e power o f  water i n Dry Salvages I, " d e s t r o y e r , reminder/Of what choose t o f o r g e t " , t h a t i s , t h e i r m o r t a l i t y . eviscerate s o i l " , efficacy  death  The  men  "parched,  r e c a l l i n g and a t the same time denying  of the " l i f e o f s i g n i f i c a n t  soil"  the  so h o p e f u l l y nour-  i s h e d a t the end o f Dry Salvages. here "Gapes a t the v a n i t y o f t o i l " ; thus t h e r e i s a new templative l i f e  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t even the  con-  i s equated w i t h the t o i l o f the f i s h e r m e n i n  Dry  Salvages.  haul  "forever  that w i l l  endeavour  is  not  the  b a i l i n g , / S e t t i n g and h a u l i n g  bear  examination."  laughter without  "country mirth,/Mirth  of  those  i s h i n g the  in  Little  organic  corn",  process The  the  but  is  stopped  in  long since  accordingly  meaning t h a t  carries  the  evokes  under  "death the  it  of  third  has  same s y m b o l i c  in  a  human the  earth,/Nour-  Gidding even t h i s  elemental imagery of  same a m b i g u o u s  This mocker of  mirth which  the  . . .  cyclical  earth". lyric  stanza  has  The W a s t e L a n d ,  sense  of  being  and  reborn  45 of  the water  exist they  and o f  beyond  the  the  destroy a  the  of  the  the  means,  Salvages  flames  of  is  ted,  of  the  another  ingly,  the  it  desire  sacrifice the  the  for  imagery i s  in  "horizon  is  the  of  fire of  and  and  leap  in  history.  the  dove"  homing";  in and  the  poem i s  Britain's  his  Dry  spirit.  occurs the  as  and  d e a t h by. f i r e  by w a t e r  "dark  they  survives  temporal flux,  meaning of  of  rewarded  and  the water  "dead master"  military:  the  "death  moments i n w h i c h  "uncertain hour"  which  chapel which  it:  they  Incarnation;  The  fire  override  the wedding dancers  promised r e b i r t h the  fact  and  and the weed";  perishing of  i n which  with  the water  and i n  prayer.  implies  two h i s t o r i c  bomber r e t u r n i n g t o  of  the f u r t h e r  The d i a l o g u e second  of  both the  that  the  the  the meaning of  and a l s o  which  Here,  pasture  accept  validity  then,  and a l l  East. Goker. water,  of  to  the  physical material  symbol of  water"  town,  failure  by understanding  spirit.  temporal framework  "succeed/The  "deride"  the  is  loca-  Accorda  German  the dead  leave  which r a t t l e l i k e t i n describe explosion;  t h e a f t e r - e f f e c t s o f t h e bomb  t h e two speakers " t r o d t h e pavement i n a dead  p a t r o l " l i k e t h a t o f the c i v i l i a n watch.  But t h e poet's  e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e l o c a t e d i n wartime r e a l i t y , has a l l t h e c o n f u s i o n and paradox o f dream because t h e message brought r e l a t e s to the purgatorial v i s i o n . the d i s m a l " g i f t s r e s e r v e d p l e t i o n , b i t t e r laughter  F i r s t , the f i g u r e  f o r age".  reveals  These a r e s e n s u a l de-  a t human f o l l y , and f i n a l l y ,  recog-  n i t i o n o f t h e s i n s o f commission, "which once you took f o r exercise  of virtue".  The " l i f e  o f s i g n i f i c a n t s o i l " o f Dry  Salvages must be n o u r i s h e d w i t h detachment, o r " r i g h t a c t i o n " in  o r d e r t o l i b e r a t e t h e s e l f from temporal attachment o r  l o v e , t o u n i o n "beyond d e s i r e " w i t h d i v i n e  love.  There i s a pause a t t h i s p o i n t f o r t h e reassurance t h a t through t h e agony o f s i n e c s t a s y in  the quotation  can be r e a l i z e d .  It i s  from J u l i a n o f Norwich: S i n i s Behovely, but A l l s h a l l be w e l l , and A l l manner o f t h i n g s h a l l be w e l l . *  This restates  t h e paradox o f t h e 'fortunate  fall'-—that  f l e s h l y e x c o r i a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e concomitant a c q u i s i t i o n o f a "paradise within, happier f a r " . Milton,  The i n c l u s i o n o f  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m e d i t a t i o n on r i g h t a c t i o n , w i t h h i s  r o y a l i s t enemies, who d i e d on t h e s c a f f o l d i n t h e c i v i l seems n a t u r a l ; i n t h e u l t i m a t e  scheme o f t h i n g s  f o l d e d i n a s i n g l e party" o f death.  strife  they a l l " a r e  This r e s o l u t i o n o f a n t i -  nomies i n t h e temporal sphere adumbrates t h a t i n t h e e t e r n a l  . . . . 9 6  sphere, the f i n a l f u s i o n o f t h e f i r e and the r o s e . The f o u r t h movement, o f L i t t l e G i d d i n g i s a l y r i c a l v i s i o n i n which t h e dove descending", the bomber o f t h e t h i r d tt  movement, i s transmuted i n t o a symbol o f t h e p u r g a t o r i a l flames of the Holy S p i r i t . ^  Now t h e "flame o f i n c a n d e s c e n t t e r r o r " ,  the communication . . . tongued w i t h f i r e beyond t h e language  Of the dead  o f the l i v i n g ,  (LG I )  i s seen t o be the f i r e which e n g u l f s and d e s t r o y s t h e f i r e s o f l u s t and o f p o l i t i c a l s t r i f e , t h e " s i n and e r r o r " .  Man has  the c h o i c e , h e r e , " t o be redeemed from f i r e by f i r e " , but i t is a Miltonic choice:^  8  the choice i s t o accept t o t a l  nega-  t i o n o f s e l f w i l l i n a l l i a n c e w i t h the omnipotent w i l l o f God. The " i n t o l e r a b l e s h i r t o f f l a m e " i s one which "human power cannot remove".  I n these l i n e s , t h e p i v o t a l p o i n t o f t h e  e n t i r e Quartets  E l i o t a l l u d e s to the conclusions J u l i a n o f  f  Norwich came t o r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h e r "shewings", and they have t h e same c a t e c h i s m i e s t r u c t u r e : "Who t h e torment?  devised  Love".  The paradox i s one b a s i c t o C h r i s t i a n t h e o d i c y :  the  l o v e o f God expressed both i n t h e exemplary s a c r i f i c e o f C h r i s t and i n the g i f t o f Grace i s a t once p u r g a t o r i a l and ecstatic.  The "hands t h a t wove/The i n t o l e r a b l e s h i r t o f  f l a m e " are t h e same as the " b l e e d i n g hands" o f the "wounded surgeon" i n E a s t Coker:  t h i s l o v e s u f f e r s and demands s u f f e r -  ing. J u s t as L i t t l e G i d d i n g c e l e b r a t e s t h e mystery o f d i -  . . . . 9 7  v i n e l o v e , which i s a t once a l l demanding, " ( C o s t i n g not  less  than e v e r y t h i n g ) " , and a l l - g i v i n g , so too the f i n a l t h i r d  of  Bonne's Progres c e l e b r a t e s the. g o a l and reward o f the s o u l i n b l i s s , "essential  joyes".  "Joy" i s the key word o f the end  o f the second A n n i v e r s a r y : in  the l a s t one hundred  i t occurs a t l e a s t  and f i f t y  lines.  twenty  The " c a s u a l j o y e s "  o f t h i s w o r l d i n t h e i r i n c o n s t a n c y bear no resemblance "essential  times  to the  j o y " o f the b e a t i f i c v i s i o n , which d e r i v e s from  the immutable n a t u r e o f God.  L i k e the c i r c l e o f p e r f e c t i o n  which i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y "peeced" by the s o u l , t h i s k i n d o f j o y . . . doth every day admit Degrees o f grouth, but none o f l o o s i n g i t . 495-496)  (PS,  It  is a "full,  and such a f i l l i n g  g i v e n o n l y by God who  good"  (445).  Grace i s  i s "both the o b j e c t and the w i t "  (442),  t h a t i s , both the means and the end o f the s o u l ' s quest t o a c h i e v e heaven, Both where more grace, and more c a p a e i t e e At once i s g i v e n . (PS,  There i s l i t t l e  466-7)  i n Donne's b e a t i f i c v i s i o n ,  at  least  a t the end o f the second A n n i v e r s a r y . o f the agony o f accept a n c e o f the p u r g a t o r i a l p a i n i n v o l v e d i n E l i o t ' s concept o f Love who  " d e v i s e d the torment".  E l i o t ' s poem has the tone o f  a f i n a l statement, and indeed i t i s the " e p i t a p h " o f h i s major poetry. was  Much o f the agony o f the paradox  of s u f f e r i n g  love  expressed elsewhere by Donne, f o r example i n the "Holy  Sonnets" and e s p e c i a l l y  i n the D e v o t i o n s .  Thus, w h i l e E l i o t ' s  .... 98 poem expresses  t o t h e end t h e apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f t o r -  ment and l o v e i n h e r e n t i n C h r i s t i a n t h e o d i c y , t h e end o f Donne's A n n i v e r s a r i e s i s a hymn o f t h a n k s g i v i n g which  takes  f u l l account o f the a f f l i c t i o n s o f t h e f l e s h d e s c r i b e d i n t h e beginning, ite"  but which l o o k s forward  (PS, 44).  t o God's l a s t g r e a t "Ven-  The poet pauses t o r e a s s e r t t h e l i m i t s o f  " t r a n s i t o r y causes" o f j o y , such as w o r l d l y l o v e : Poore couse'ned cose'nor, t h a t she, and t h a t thou, Which d i d b e g i n t o l o v e , a r e n e i t h e r now. You a r e both f l u i d , chang'd s i n c e y e s t e r d a y ; Next day r e p a i r e s , (but i l l ) l a s t d a i e s decay. Nor a r e , (Although t h e r i v e r keep the name) Y e s t e r d a i e s waters, and t o d a i e s the same.  (PS, 391-396) Nor  can transcendent  j o y be sought by a union o f world  effort,  as t h e b u i l d e r s o f Babel thought, f o r t h e e a r t h i s a base p o i n t on which t o p i t c h t h e c i r c l e o f p e r f e c t i o n .  Diversifi-  c a t i o n o f worship i s wrong a c t i o n a l s o : "No Joye enjoyes t h a t man, t h a t many makes" (434).  Union o f a l l d i v e r s i t y i s  e f f e c t e d o n l y by God's grace i n t h e f i r s t  r e s u r r e c t i o n , the  new l i f e made p o s s i b l e by t h e I n c a r n a t i o n ; t h i s can be experienced to  i n t h e "wateh-towre" o f t h e mind, but t h e r e i s more  come:49  Donne's s o u l on i t s progress  exhorts a l l s o u l s t o  an e x p r e s s i o n o f Joy t h a t t h e i r l a s t g r e a t Consummation Approches i n t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n .  (PS, 491-492)  The  use o f "Consummation" here evokes, as Shawcross p o i n t s out  in  t h e f o o t n o t e , t h e f i n a l words o f t h e d y i n g God, "Consummatus  est."—"It  i s f i n i s h e d " (John 19:30), and i n t h i s sense the  passage i m p l i c i t l y asks us t o r e c a l l the s u f f e r i n g o f C h r i s t i n the f l e s h , the s u f f e r i n g which i s e x p l i c i t l y d e t a i l e d e a r l i e r i n the poem.  The ambiguity o f C h r i s t ' s words, how-  ever, a l s o remind us o f h i s purpose i n l i v i n g and d y i n g , the r e s u r r e c t i o n which makes death a b l e s s i n g .  The s t r u c t u r e  Donne's poem thus evokes C h r i s t ' s words a t the l a s t  of  Supper:  " V e r i l y , v e r i l y , I say unto you, That ye s h a l l weep and lament, but the world s h a l l r e j o i c e : and ye s h a l l be s o r r o w f u l but your sorrow s h a l l be t u r n e d i n t o j o y " (John 16:20). The language d e s c r i b i n g the journey's end i n each poem may  be d i f f e r e n t but the tone i s the same: both end w i t h  a triumphant pronouncement o f the u n i f y i n g power o f the d i v i n ity.  CHAPTER  V  Footnotes 1 A l l quotations from the poetry are from the editions by John T. Shawcross, The Complete Poetry of John Donne. Garden C i t y , N.I.:. Doubleday, 1957; and T. S. E l i o t : Collected Poems 19091962. New l o r k : Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963. 2 Suggested by Staffan Bergsten, Time and E t e r n i t y : A Study i n the Structure and Symbolism of T. S. E l i o t ' s Four Quartets. Stockholm: Svenska Bokforlaget, 1 9 6 0 7 p. 185. 3 This r e c a l l s Donne's f i n a l Sermon, "Deaths D u e l l " : "But then t h i s exitus a morte, i s but i n t r o i t u s i n mortem t h i s issue, t h i s deliverance from that death, the death of the wombe. i s an entrance, a d e l i v e r i n g over to another death, the manifold deathes of t h i s world. Wee have a winding sheete i n our Mothers wombe, which growes with us from our conception, and wee come into that world, wound up i n that winding sheet f o r wee come to seeke a grave. . . . We celebrate our owne f u n e r a l l s with cryes, even at our b i r t h ; as though our threescore and ten yeares of l i f e were spent i n our mothers labour, and our c i r c l e made up i n the f i r s t point thereof. We begge one Baptism with another, a sacrament of t e a r s ; And we come i n t o a world that lasts many ages, but wee l a s t not." The Sermons of John Donne, eds. Evelyn M. Simpson and George R. Potter, 10 v o l s . , Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962, v o l . 10, p. 233. f  T  4 Quoted from Chrysostom by B a s i l Willey i n The Seventeenth Century Background. Garden C i t y , N.T.: Doubleday Anchor ( f i r s t publ. 1934), p. 39. 5 Consider, too, the humanistic source of the image: i t i s from the moral t r e a t i s e . The Boke Named the Governour. by E l i o t ' s 16th Century ancestor, S i r Thomas E l y o t . The f u l l quotation, from "The Good Order of Dancing", follows: "And f o r as moche as by the association of a man and a woman i n daunsinge may be s i g n i f i e d matrimonie, I coulde i n declarynge the d i g n i t i e and commoditie of that sacrament make i n t i e r e v o l umes, i f i t were not so communely knowen to a l l men, that almost every f r e r e lymitour c a r i e t h i t writen i n h i s bosom..... . . In every daunse of moste auncient custome, there daunseth to gether a man and a woman, holding eche other by the hande or the arme, which betokeneth Concorde." (London: Dent, n.d., p. 94, f i r s t publ. 1531).  ...100  .101 6 The image i s l i k e t h a t o f the s t e r i l e Waste Land contemplated by E l i o t ' s F i s h e r k i n g : Here i s no water but o n l y rock Rock and no water and the sandy road The road w i n d i n g above among the mountains Which a r e mountains o f r o c k without water "What the Thunder S a i d " , p. 66. 7 Helen Gardner. The A r t o f T. S. E l i o t . New York: Button, 1959, suggests a r e a d i n g o f I s a i a h , ch, 53, r e g a r d i n g the s u f f e r i n g compassion o f C h r i s t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s passage. 8 C f . S i r Thomas Browne: " f o r the w o r l d , I count i t not an Ihhe, but an H o s p i t a l l , and a p l a c e , not t o l i v e , but t o d i e i n . " R e l i g i o M e d i c i , ed. Jean-Jacques Denonain, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953, p. 111. 9 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the r e f r a i n "Shee, shee i s dead", i n the Anatomy, which i s occasioned by the "untimely death o f M i s t r i s E l i z a b e t h Drury" i s changed t o "Shee, shee i s gone" i n the Progres w h i c h i s a m e d i t a t i o n on the i n s t r u c t i v e , " R e l i g i o u s d e a t h " o f the g i r l . 10 Manley e x p l a i n s the metaphor o f d i s s e i z e n t h u s : "The e n t i r e case i s i r o n i c , , however, s i n c e t h i s good man p a r a d o x i c a l l y pleads the exact p o i n t s t h a t should render such an a c t i o n unnecessary. He has t i t l e , the s t r e n g t h t o have assumed the t i t l e , and l o n g possession. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r o p e r t y i s not a c t u a l l y h i s u n t i l he wins the s u i t a g a i n s t h i m s e l f . H i s own l i f e d i s s e i z e s him." The A n n i v e r s a r i e s . ed. Frank Manley, B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins  P r e s s , 1963,  p.182.  11 Of Learned Ignorance, t r a n s l . F r . Germaine Heron, London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l , 1954,Po 11* A p a r a d o x i c a l mathematician, N i c o l a s expands the mathematical metaphor t o d e s c r i b e the D e i t y as "a machina mundi whose c e n t r e , so t o speak, i s everywhere, whose c i r c u m f e r e n c e i s nowhere, f o r God i s i t s circumference and c e n t r e and he i s everywhere and nowhere ", p. 111. 12 R o s a l i e L. C o l i e . Paradoxia T r a d i t i o n o f Paradox, P r i n c e t o n :  pp. 27-28. 13 177:  Epidemica: The Renaissance Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1966,  Quoted (from The V a n i t y o f Dogmatizing) by B a s i l W i l l e y , p. "Adam needed no s p e c t a c l e s . "  14 C f . S w i f t ' s A e o l i s t s who " a f f i r m the G i f t o f B e l c h i n g , t o be the n o b l e s t A c t o f a R a t i o n a l C r e a t u r e , " s e c t i o n V I I I , A T a l e o f a Tub. 15 C f . S t . John o f the C r o s s : " I f any man among you seem t o be w i s e , l e t him become i g n o r a n t t h a t he may be wise, f o r the wisdom o f t h i s world i s f o o l i s h n e s s w i t h God. So t h a t , i n o r d e r t o come  .102  t o union with the wisdom of God, the soul has to proceed rather by unknowing than by knowing.... .... ." Ascent of Mount Garmel. 3rd rev. ed., trans. E. A l l i s o n Peers, Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday Image, 195#, p. 31. 16 " T r a d i t i o n and the Individual Talent", Selected Prose, ed. John Hayward, Penguin, 1953, pp. 22-23. The passage i s an exhort a t i o n to the poet to c u l t i v a t e h i s t o r i c a l sense, "a sense of the timeless as w e l l as of the temporal and of the timeless and the temporal together." 1?. Here i s a compendium of the kinds of learning practiced by Madame Sosostris and her cohorts: astrologers, s p i r i t u a l i s t s , , augerers, horoscope-readers, d i v i n e r s , c r y s t a l - b a l l gazers, handw r i t i n g readers, palmists, l o t - c a s t e r s and tea-leaves readers, Tarot readers, cabbalists, drug-pushers, and amateur psychoanaly s t s . The clairvoyante of The Waste Land, however, "had a bad Cold"; her fellow teachers i n Dry Salvages are just as t h i c k tongued. 18 B i b l i c a l references to the hypostasis of God as l i g h t are too numerous to recount but e f . I Peter 2 : 9 : "But ye are a chosen generation, a r o y a l priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew f o r t h the praises of him who hath c a l l e d you out of darkness into h i s marvellous l i g h t . " Cf. also "There i s i n God (some s a y 7 k deep, but d a z l i n g darkness." Henry Vaughan, "The Night", i n Helen Gardner, ed., The Metaphysical Poets, rev. ed., Penguin, 1966, p. 281. 19 Evelyn U n d e r h i l l , Mysticism: A Study i n the Nature and Development of Man's S p i r i t u a l Consciousness. New York: Noonday Press, 1955, p. 381. 20 There i s a danger at t h i s point that the soul may f e e l i t s e l f irrevocably alienated from God. Cf. "Holy Sonnet - Thou hast made me...": "Despaire behind and death before doth cast Such t e r r o r . . . " p . 346, Shawcross. T h i s i s the despair of a man deprived of divine love: "For the arrows of the Almighty are within me, the poison whereof drinketh up my s p i r i t : the t e r r o r s of God.do set themselves i n array against me." Job 6:4 21 The journey of E l i o t ' s Magi was made, too, i n "the very dead of winter". 22 Cf. E z e k i e l 1:4, "And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a f i r e enfolding i t s e l f , and a brightness was about i t . . ."; and Malachi 3:2, "Who  .103  may a b i d e the day o f h i s coming? and who s h a l l stand when he appeareth? f o r he i s l i k e r e f i n e r ' s f i r e . • ." 2 3 See M a r j o r i e N i c o l s o n , The Breaking o f the C i r c l e : S t u d i e s i n the E f f e c t o f the "New Science'* Upon Seventeenth Century Poetry. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , r e v . ed. 1962, pp. 57ff. 2 4 The problem o f s e l f - a n n i h i l a t i o n was one which f a s c i n a t e d Donne a l l h i s l i f e ; i t i s , o f course, a l s o a t h e o l o g i c a l problem: i f d e a t h r e l e a s e s man t o God, i s he not j u s t i f i e d i n d e s p a t c h i n g h i m s e l f t o God more q u i c k l y ? As Donne says, "mee t h i n k s I have t h e keyes o f my p r i s o n i n mine owne hand," quoted (p. 2 7 i n John Donne: S e l e c t e d Prose, eds. Helen Gardner and Timothy Healy, Oxf o r d : Clarendon P r e s s , 1967) from B i a t h a n a t o s . T h i s work i s an e x e r c i s e i n c a s u i s t r y , i t i s t r u e , and l i k e the paradox i t i s , i t g r o s s l y o v e r s t a t e s the arguments. Donne was c o n s c i o u s o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f paradox i n making man v i g i l a n t f o r t r u t h when he d e c l a r e d **. • . as i n the p o o l e o f B e t h s a i d a . t h e r e was no h e a l t h t i l l the water was t r o u b l e d , so the b e s t way t o f i n d t r u t h i n t h i s matter, was t o debate and vex i t " (p. 2 8 ) . Nevertheless, he a l s o s t a t e s h i s purpose i n Biathanatos t h u s : "So doe I w i s h , and as much as I can, e f f e c t , t h a t t o those many l e a r n e d and s u b t i l e men which have t r a v e l l e d i n t h i s p o i n t , some c h a r i t a b l e and compassionate men might be added" (p. 29); and the arguments o f Paradox 5, "That a l l t h i n g s k i l l themselves" (quoted pp. 10-11), outweigh, i n w i t a t l e a s t , t h a t o f Paradox 9, "That o n l y Cowards dare dye" (p. 15). 2 5 G o l i e , p. 225. 26. I b i d . , pp. 3 2 0 ff. 2 7 I n The E l d e r Statesman. Monica says o f Lord C l a v e r t o n ' s d e a t h , "In becoming no one, he has become h i m s e l f . . .", p. 108, (London: Faber, 1959). 28 Sermon, 'Preached a t P a u l s , upon Christmas Day, i n the E v e n i n g . 1624'; "One o f the most convenient H i e r o g l v p h i c k s o f God, i s a C i r c l e ; and a C i r c l e i s e n d l e s s e . . . " Sermons. VI, 173. in  2 9 C f . "the round Shawcross.  e a r t h s imagin'd  c o r n e r s " , "Holy Sonnet" # 1 6 5  3 0 . I t i s the paradox o f Zeno's arrow: a t any g i v e n moment i n f l i g h t the arrow i s a t a p o i n t and t h e r e f o r e a t r e s t . Logically, then, the f l y i n g . a r r o w i s m o t i o n l e s s . That i s , a l i n e c o n s i s t s o f a number o f p o i n t s whose l e n g t h i s z e r o . Of course, the p a r a dox here draws a t t e n t i o n t o c o n f l i c t s i n epistemology, depending as i t does "upon a f a i l u r e o f concurrence between forms o f l o g i c and sense e x p e r i e n c e . " C o l i e , p. 10. C f . Browne: "what t o us i s t o come, t o h i s E t e r n i t i e i s p r e s e n t , h i s whole d u r a t i o n b e i n g b u t one permanent p o i n t , w i t h o u t s u c c e s s i o n , p a r t s , f l u x , o r d i v i -  .104  sion . . ." Religio Medici. I. x l , p. 18. See also Adolf Grunbaum, Modern Science and Zeno's Paradoxes. Wesleyan University Press, 1967. 31 Colie describes, too, the paradoxes constructed on the idea of an egg as a sphere and hence an '0«, a nothing, and as a symbol of generation, p. 226. 32 Donne even turned the concepts of the New Philosophy to a religious advantage: "for me thinks the new Astronomie is thus appliable well, that we which are a l i t t l e earth, should rather move towards God, than he which i s f u l f i l l i n g , and can come no whither, should move towards us," from a letter to Goodyer, probably i n 1608 or 1609, quoted i n Selected Prose, p. 133. 33 Cf. Donne's Devotions. Med. X: "This i s nature's nest of boxes: the heavens contain the earth; the earth, c i t i e s ; c i t i e s , men; And a l l these are concentric; the common centre to them a l l i s decay, ruin; only that i s eccentric which was never made; only that place, or garment rather, which we can imagine but not demonstrate." Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions Together With Death's Duel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1959, p. 63. 34 Eliot uses this "whirled-world" pun similarly i n Ash Wednesday V: Against the Word the unstilled world s t i l l whirled About the centre of the silent Word. One suspects that Donne had the same pun in mind i n his repeated pejorative use of the word "world" i n the Anniversary poems. 35  Cf. Underhill, Mysticism. Ch. X, "The Unitive L i f e " .  36 Julian of Norwich, Revelations of Divine Love, trans. C l i f ton Wolters, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966, pp. 67-69. 37 The Confessions of St. Augustine. trans. Edward B. Pusey, New York: Washington Square Press, I960, p. 222. 3$ ^determined" has the meaning here of "terminated", Shawcross, p. 272. 39 "She moves through the regions of earth, water, a i r , and f i r e , and the spheres of the Moon, Venus, Mercury, Sun, Mars, Jupiter (Jove), Saturn ("his father"), and the Fixed Stars (the Firmament). The order given for Venus and Mercury i s that of Tycho Brahe rather than Ptolemy." Shawcross, p. 296. 40 Carl Bodelsen, T. S. E l i o t ' s Four Quartets. A Commentary. 2nd ed., Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger, 1958, pp. 35-36. 41 Bhagavad-Gita: The Song of God, trans. Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood, Mentor, 1954, p. 52. "Atman" i s defined by the editors as "The Godhead that i s within every being", p. 37.  .105  42  " A c t i o n r i g h t l y renounced b r i n g s freedom: - A c t i o n r i g h t l y performed b r i n g s freedom: Both a r e b e t t e r Than the mere shunning o f a c t i o n . " I b i d .  r  p.  56.  43 " R e v e r s i o n " here r e f e r s t o p o s s e s s i o n o f the e s t a t e o f l i f e f o r a g i v e n time but which u l t i m a t e l y r e v e r t s t o i t s o r i g i n a l g r a n t o r , God. The concept i s r e l a t e d t o t h a t i n the second A n n i v e r s a r y ( 1 4 9 - 1 5 6 ) d e s c r i b i n g the a c t i o n o f d i s s e i z e n which man b r i n g s a g a i n s t h i m s e l f (see f o o t n o t e 1 0 , above); E l i o t ' s metaphor here a l s o i m p l i e s the communion the l i v i n g and the dead enjoy, f i r s t as i n E a s t Goker. i n a n o u r i s h i n g o f l i f e by the dead, and t h e n i n the heavenly community. The s p e c i f i c use o f the term o c c u r s i n Donne's "Sermon o f commemoration o f the Lady Danvers, l a t e Wife o f S i r John Danvers. Preached a t C h i l s e y , where she was l a t e l y buried." 1 July 1 6 2 ? : "She expected t h a t ; d i s s o l u t i o n o f body, and s o u l e ; and r e s t i n both, from the incumbrances, and t e n t a t i o n s o f t h i s w o r l d . But y e t , shee i s i n e x p e c t a t i o n s t i l l ; S t i l l a R e v e r a i o n a r i e : And a Revers i o n a r y , upon a l o n g l i f e ; The whole w o r l d must d i e , b e f o r e she come t o a 1 p o s s e s s i o n o f t h i s R e v e r s i o n ; which i s a G l o r i f i e d body i n t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n " Sermons. V I I I . 91-92. 44 The c h a p e l was founded i n 1625 and used as a r e t r e a t by the f a m i l y o f N i c h o l a s F e r r a r u n t i l the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s community i n 1 6 4 7 . I t was r e s t o r e d f o r worship i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. Legend has i t t h a t C h a r l e s I r e s t e d t h e r e , "a broken k i n g " , on h i s way t o g i v e h i m s e l f over t o the Scots i n Cf. Gardner, The A r t o f T. S. E l i o t . pp. 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 .  I648.  45 " . . . Except a man be born o f water and o f the S p i r i t , cannot e n t e r i n t o the kingdom o f God" (John 3 5 ) .  he  :  46 U n f o r t u n a t e l y the Grace Warrack e d i t i o n o f the R e v e l a t i o n s o f D i v i n e Love was u n a v a i l a b l e t o me; the W o l t e r s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o modern E n g l i s h l o s e s something: "But Jesus, who i n t h i s v i s i o n informed me o f a l l I needed, answered " S i n was necessary — but i t i s a l l going t o be a l l r i g h t , i t i s a l l g o i n g to be a l l r i g h t ; e v e r y t h i n g i s g o i n g t o be a l l r i g h t " (p. 1 0 3 ) . ;  47 Compare the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the baptism o f Jesus i n Jordan: "And s t r a i g h t w a y coming up out o f the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the S p i r i t l i k e a dove descending upon him" (Mark 1 : 1 0 ) , and the v i s i t i n g o f the S p i r i t o f Pentecost on the A p o s t l e s : "And t h e r e appeared unto them c l o v e n tongues l i k e as o f f i r e , and i t s a t upon each o f them" (Acts 2 : 4 ) . 48 The t e n s i o n o f P a r a d i s e L o s t c o n s i s t s i n M i l t o n ' s attempt t o j u s t i f y God's ways t o man; God made man " s u f f i c i e n t t o have s t o o d , though f r e e t o f a l l " , and the punishment which f a l l s on " i n n o c e n t f r a i l man" when he e x e r c i s e s t h i s c h o i c e i s d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y t o s h o r t - s i g h t e d man. 49  The d i s t i n c t i o n between the f i r s t  and  second r e s u r r e c t i o n s  .106  i s made e a r l i e r i n the second A n n i v e r s a r y : So by the s o u l e doth death s t r i n g Heaven and E a r t h , F o r when our s o u l e enjoyes t h i s h e r t h i r d b i r t h , ( C r e a t i o n gave h e r one, a second g r a c e ) , Heaven i s as neare . . . (PS, 213-216), but Bonne c l a r i f i e s i t i n a Sermon "Preached a t S. P a u l s , upon E a s t e r - d a y , i n the Evening, 1624" on the t e x t Apoc. 20:6 " B l e s s e d and h o l y i s he t h a t hath p a r t i n t h e F i r s t R e s u r r e c t i o n " , Sermons V I , 62-80. By means o f grace, brought p a l p a b l y t o man's unders t a n d i n g i n t h e I n c a r n a t i o n , C r u c i f i x i o n , and R e s u r r e c t i o n o f God, man i s redeemed from s i n ; t h e second r e s u r r e c t i o n i s t h a t o f t h e s o u l t o the body o f heaven a f t e r the l a s t Trumpet. I n the D e v o t i o n s Donne a l s o d e s c r i b e s h i s r e c o v e r y from i l l n e s s as a k i n d o f r e s u r r e c t i o n : ". . .we s h a l l have a r e s u r r e c t i o n i n heaven; t h e knowledge o f t h a t thou c a s t e s t by another g l a s s upon us h e r e ; we f e e l t h a t we have a r e s u r r e c t i o n from s i n , and t h a t by another g l a s s too;,we see we have a r e s u r r e c t i o n o f the body from t h e m i s e r i e s and c a l a m i t i e s o f t h i s l i f e . This r e s u r r e c t i o n o f my body shows me t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n o f my s o u l ; and both here s e v e r a l l y , o f both t o g e t h e r h e r e a f t e r . " E x p o s t u l a t i o n XXI, p. 140.  CHAPTER  VI  CONCLUSIONS Three c e n t u r i e s separate the p o e t r y E l i o t , and and  o f Donne and  i f one were t o examine c l o s e l y the  s o c i a l m i l i e u o f each man,  intellectual  perhaps as many d i f f e r e n c e s  as s i m i l a r i t i e s o f p o e t i c e x p e r i e n c e would r e v e a l themselves. E l i o t , as p u b l i s h e r , poet, and  critic  o f l i t e r a r y and  social  c u r r e n t s , seems t o stand  i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o Donne the  courtier-turned-priest.  But,  as E l i o t i n s i s t s , i t i s the  p a t t e r n s made from the poet's e x p e r i e n c e which should o b j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and o f f e e l i n g s and  witty  be  the  i t i s i n these transmutations  i d e a s i n t o the forms o f a r t t h a t E l i o t  and  Donne are most comparable. The work o f each poet i s a whole, r e v e a l i n g t o  the  r e a d e r not o n l y an argument f o r b e l i e f , f o r t h i s would make the poems mere p r o s e l y t i s m , but a v i s i o n o f what i t means t o seek and  discover divine love.  The  s p i r i t u a l renewal i n a f a l l e n and  g o a l o f each poet i s  mutable w o r l d ; b e g i n n i n g  w i t h the premise t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e l i e v e , each  man  goes on t o examine, by means o f d e l i b e r a t e s c e p t i c i s m , doubt, and  o b j e c t i v e s e l f - a n a l y s i s , the t e n e t s o f h i s b e l i e f .  t h a t t h e r e i s no a n a e s t h e t i c  f o r death and  probes the meaning o f death and  d e s p a i r , the  i t s relationship to  the  Aware poet  ....108 possibilities for spiritual rebirth.  I n coming t o an accep-  t a n c e o f man's m u t a b i l i t y and i t s p a r t i n d i v i n e r e a l i t y , h o l d s up f o r examination a l l phenomenological  he  experience  through which he p e r c e i v e s i n t u i t i v e l y h i s i n n e r s e l f , the d i v i n e spark. In an e f f o r t t o become "expert beyond e x p e r i e n c e " , the poet must r e s o l v e the apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the demands o f f l e s h and s p i r i t ; t h i s he does by emulating the I n c a r n a t i o n o f d i v i n e p r i n c i p l e and human f l e s h , the i d e a l i z e d man  i n Christ.  By t h i s example, s u f f e r i n g i s seen t o be the  key t o timebound e x i s t e n c e ; i t i s the o n l y way  t o make time  meaningful, t o redeem time through time, t o "tune the I n s t r u ment here a t the d o r e " b e f o r e e n t e r i n g i n t o heavenly harmony. Even i n the most profane o f Donne's l o v e l y r i c s , h i s aim i s t o a c h i e v e some k i n d o f u n i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e , e i t h e r i n t r a n s cendent p h y s i c a l union, o r i n a f u s i o n o f k i n d r e d s o u l s .  With  w i t and s e l f - m o c k i n g o b j e c t i v i t y , he examines h i s f e e l i n g s and responses i n the l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The d e s p a i r o f  man  w i t h o u t f a i t h i s the f o c u s o f E l i o t ' s e a r l y p o e t r y and i n t h i s emphasis i t d i f f e r s from the w i t t y and e r o t i c l o v e p o e t r y o f Donne; the development o f each poet converges, however, i n the e x p e r i e n c e a n a l y z e d i n the A n n i v e r s a r y poems and the Four Quartets. In these poems, t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t e c h n i q u e s a r e most apparent:  each poem e x p l o r e s the v i a n e g a t i v a o f the  109 s o u l s e e k i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i v i n e l o v e . paradox  Each poet uses  i n imagery t o express what.he p e r c e i v e s as p a r a d o x i -  c a l i n the experience i t s e l f :  death i s t o be d e s c r i b e d as a  b i r t h ; d i v i n e l i g h t i s sought i n darkness and d e p r i v a t i o n o f w o r l d l y comfort; the s o u l i s r e v e a l e d as p a r t o f t h e d i v i n e " a l l t h i s A l l " by s t r i p p i n g o f f t h e s e l f . a torment which i s r e v e a l e d as l o v e .  R i g h t knowledge i s  The "progress o f t h e  s o u l " i s made by f o l l o w i n g a d i a l e c t i c a l a n a l y s i s and r e j e c t i o n o f a l l e x p e r i e n c e , sensory and i n t e l l e c t u a l , i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a knowledge o f what had always been known i n tuitively.  Reason i s used t o a r r i v e a t what can o n l y be  understood on a plane beyond d i s c u r s i v e r e a s o n i n g . The triumph o f tone a t t h e end o f the A n n i v e r s a r i e s and Four Quartets i s unmistakable: much i n t h e achievement  i t s source i s found as  o f a r t i s t i c purpose as i t i s i n t h e  attainment o f s p i r i t u a l g o a l s .  A l l t h e threads o f the poem  come t o g e t h e r i n a p e r f e c t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s .  In  e x p r e s s i n g t h e i n e x p r e s s i b l e , the poet has c r e a t e d a d e l i c a t e pattern of his feelings, Caught i n the form o f l i m i t a t i o n Between un-being and b e i n g .  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY 1.  Donne, John. The A n n i v e r s a r i e s , ed. Frank Manley. more: Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1963.  Bal  2.  . Biathanatos. Society, 1967.  3.  . The Complete P o e t r y o f John Donne. ed.,John Shawcross. Garden C i t y : Doubleday, 1 9 6 7 .  4.  __. Devotions Upon Emergent O c c a s i o n s , Together With Death's D u e l . Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n Press, 1959.  5.  . The D i v i n e Poems, ed. Helen Gardner. Clarendon P r e s s , 1952.  6.  . The Poems o f John Donne. ed. H e r b e r t J . C. G r i e r s o n , 2 v o l s . Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1912.  7.  . John Donne: The S a t i r e s . Epigrams and Verse L e t t e r s , ed. W. M i l g a t e . Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . -  8.  . 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Knowledge and Experience i n the Philosophy o£ £• !• Bradley. London: Faber, 1964.  18.  . Murder i n the Cathedral. Intro. N e v i l l G o g h i l l . London: Faber, 1945.  !9.  . "A Note on Two Odes of Cowley", i n Seventeenth Century Studies Presented to S i r Herbert Grierson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1938, pp. 235-242.  20. 21.  _.  The Rock.  London: Faber,  1934.  . The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and C r i t i c i s m London: Methuen, I960 ( f i r s t publ. 1920}.  22.  . World,  Selected Essays. 19W.  New York: Harcourt, Brace and  23.  " Selected Prose, ed. John Hayward. Penguin, 1953.  24.  . " U l y s s e s , Order and Myth", i n C r i t i c i s m : The Foundations of Modern L i t e r a r y Judgment, eds. Mark Schorer, Josephine Miles, Gordon McKenzie. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1948, pp. 269-271.  25.  The Use of Poetry and the Use of C r i t i c i s m : Studies i n the. Relation of C r i t i c i s m to Poetry i n England. London: Faber, 1933.  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