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The basilisk and its antidote : a study of the changing image of Chopin in literature Wootton, Alice Carolyn May 1970

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THE BASILISK AND ITS ANTIDOTE: A STUDY OF THE CHANGING IMAGE OF CHOPIN IN LITERATURE by ALICE CAROLYN MAY WOOTTON B.A., University of V i c t o r i a , I966 A.R.CT. (Toronto), L.R.S.M. (London) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n Comparative Literature We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Comparative Literature T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e March 17„ 1970 Supervisor: Professor Joyce Hallamore ABSTRACT One area related to Fryderyk Chopin which has received l i t t l e attention i s his influence upon l i t e r a t u r e . In order to de-velop two aspects of this theme a key word " b a s i l i s k " has been introduced which Robert Schumann as music c r i t i c used i n explaining the unusual impression that Chopin's music f i r s t presented on the printed page. This word, with i t s overtones both magical and ominous, suggests the symbol for the growing wave of aestheticism with which the cult of Chopin came to be associated. Translated into l i t e r a t u r e the expression of the Chopin c u l t found i t s way into the early writings of Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, and John Galsworthy. Later, as the twentieth century progressed and the pendulum swung i n a new dir e c t i o n for the arts and for l i t e r a t u r e , a suitable antidote to the b a s i l i s k was to be found i n the parody of the Chopin cult offered by T. S. E l i o t i n his " P o r t r a i t of a Lady" and i n "Chopin" by Gottfried Benn, which explores the use of biography i n a poem, and moves away from the extreme s u b j e c t i v i t y of many nineteenth-century portrayals of the Polish composer. I t i s the purpose of this study to trace the changing image of Chopin i n a selection of l i t e r a r y works which belong to the period between 1890 and 1950. i . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I Introduction leading to the theme of the b a s i l i s k . CHAPTER I I Background to the study of Chopin i n l i t e r a t u r e of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Page No. CHAPTER I I I Authors under consideration. A. Thomas Mann — John Galsworthy — The Aesthetes B. Hermann Hesse C. T.S. E l i o t — Gottfried Benn — Conclusion 13 28 41 FOOTNOTES 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY 63 i i . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION LEADING TO THE THEME OF THE BASILISK As recently as 1967, Arthur Hedley referred to Fryderyk Chopin as the subject of "a surprising volume of wr i t i n g both s p e c i a l i s t and miscellaneous . . . i n many languages" amounting to a b i b l i o -graphy of "about ten thousand i t e m s . T h i s survey would appear to discourage additions to the exi s t i n g accumulation of material, i f i t were not for the words " s p e c i a l i s t and miscellaneous" which suggest a d i v i s i o n i n scope and qua l i t y . Much has been written but not a l l areas r e l a t i n g to the composer have been explored, or they may have been approached e u l o g i s t i c a l l y rather than c r i t i -c a l l y . One area, for instance, which remains r e l a t i v e l y unex-plored i s Chopin's influence upon l i t e r a t u r e , and t h i s , i n turn, places i t within the range of comparative studies. During the nineteenth century, the influence of composers on l i t e r a t u r e was a continuation of the romantic attitude which regarded music as the supreme a r t . Because of i t s i n f i n i t e reach, i t s power to express the inexpressible, i t s immediacy and i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y of language, music appealed to a movement which aimed at destroying r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the Age of Rationalism. Even more were these characteristics to appeal to the Age of - 2 -In d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n as a compensation for the aesthetic and s p i r i t u a l vacuum l e f t by s c i e n t i f i c progress and Darwin's theory of evolution. At f i r s t , the impact of Wagner's music both upon content and form i n late nineteenth-century l i t e r a -ture tended to overshadow that of his less flamboyant prede-cessor; nevertheless, the music of Chopin was producing i t s own impact, psychologically, on a group of writers whose early output reflected the mood of the fin-de-siecle i n Europe. I t i s one of the aims of this particular study to show that the choice of Chopin's music at that time r e f l e c t e d a s p i r i t u a l malaise less c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the composer, per-haps, than of those who made use of his music i n their writings. The selection of the Chopin repertoire tuned to one predominant mood, namely i t s langour, melancholy and cease-less yearning, mirrored the growing disintegration of a culture whose over-refinement was lapsing into decadence. In the twentieth century, however, parody and reassessment provided the necessary antidote to an exacerbated aestheticism. As a r e s u l t , a different image of Chopin emerged from that depicted by his romantic admirers but, viewed i n perspective, he and his music have not suffered i n the process of changing evaluations. A s t a r t i n g point i n tracing the course of Chopin's image in l i t e r a t u r e , however, w i l l be reference to portrayals of him in works by those who were closest to him h i s t o r i c a l l y . - 3 -Chopin's influence upon l i t e r a t u r e began when his con-temporaries, who included many of the most gifted and .-multi -talented representatives of the romantic movement, were s u f f i -c i e n t l y attracted to the personality of the Polish composer to seek to recreate his image i n music c r i t i c i s m , biography, the novel, the journal, and l e t t e r s . Schumann's a r t i c l e s on Chopin i n Gesammelte Schriften liber Musik und Musiker, L i s z t ' s L i f e of Chopin, George Sand's Lucrezia F l o r i a n i , Delacroix' Journal, and Heine's Uber die franzosische Buhne provide the f i r s t sources for a study of Chopin i n l i t e r a t u r e . C o l l e c t i v e l y these works present a complex picture of the composer since the point of view adopted varied from that of admirer to friend to lover to confidant to fellow e x i l e . I n v o l u n t a r i l y , Chopin had become a subject for writers who were confronted by the paradoxical figure his l e t t e r s c l e a r l y reveal him to be. A passage from them set beside another des-c r i p t i o n of Chopin by L i s z t reveals considerable d i v e r s i t y of approach. The tone and the imagery of Chopin's description of himself tempers the idealism of his friend L i s z t , a pattern which exemplifies the twentieth-century approach to the composer i n contrast to that of the nineteenth century. L i s z t : He constantly reminded us of a convolvulus balancing i t s heaven-coloured cup upon an incredibly s l i g h t stem, the tissue of which i s so l i k e vapour that the s l i g h t e s t contact wounds and tears the misty c o r o l l a . ^ Chopin: I t i s not my fa u l t i f I am l i k e a mushroom which seems edible but which poisons you i f you pick i t and taste i t , taking i t to be something else.3 Chopin's own clue contained i n the l a t t e r passage helps to explain one of the paradoxes long associated with the composer: although interpreted as a leading representative of Romanticism, he nevertheless shared few of the features common to the move-ment as a whole, the foremost being an involvement with l i t e -rature. In contrast to his contemporaries notably Schumann, L i s z t , B e r l i o z and others who drew i n s p i r a t i o n for many of their works from l i t e r a t u r e , Chopin preferred to be less programmatic, using generalized t i t l e s and refusing to discuss the sources of his compositions. His inner l i f e did not require added stimulus from, reading, and h i s a r t i s t i c development remained unaffected by l i t e r a t u r e . At the same time, this distinguishing character-i s t i c i n no way alienated him from those musicians of the romantic movement with l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s . Foremost among these was Robert Schumann. Schumann has often been considered the prototype of the German romantic. His love of reading, developed from the hours spent i n h i s father's bookshop at Zwickau, forged an indissoluble l i n k between l i t e r a t u r e and music. In addition, Schumann learned - 5 -p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s associated with the publishing business. During his early l i f e , he witnessed the low standards of musical taste i n Germany., the preference for mediocre composers, the neglect of the former great ones as well as of the new men of genius such as Chopin.. Accordingly, Schumann was aroused to spend much valuable time away from composing i n order to direct music c r i t i -cism along new paths, and to a l e r t a torpid public to what was happening a r t i s t i c a l l y . Schumann's f i r s t contribution to the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung was an a r t i c l e i n 1831 i n t r o -ducing Chopin with the now c l a s s i c c l a r i o n c a l l "Hut ab, i h r Herren, ein Genie." For his temerity i n the face of the Esta-blishment, Schumann was rewarded by e l i s i o n s to his a r t i c l e and not being asked to write for the paper again. There was no re-.- course for him but to start afresh with the demanding task of editing h i s own paper, the Neue Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Musik. The Chopin a r t i c l e i s a landmark i n music c r i t i c i s m be-cause of Schumann's i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c treatment of his material. In German romantic l i t e r a t u r e , Wackenroder had already attempted to express the impact of a musical experience through words but i n an e f f o r t to make beautiful prose his musical judgement f r e -quently became blurred. This was mainly owing to the fact that Wackenroder was wr i t i n g as a gi f t e d amateur rather than a p r a c t i s -ing composer. E.T.A. Hoffmann's advantage i n this respect i s indisputable. - 6 -In Hoffmann, Schumann found the model for h is particular type of music c r i t i c i s m , for Hoffmann was the f i r s t c r i t i c who spoke of music as a writer as well as a musician. . . . Many of Hoffmann's descriptions of Mozart's and Beethoven's works, while precise and a n a l y t i c a l i n content, were, i n form, narrative prose. Schumann adopted the same method.^ By employing the form of dialogues through which his characters could c r i t i c i z e art and l i t e r a t u r e , Schumann was able to coun-teract much of the pedantry i n musical scholarship without compromising his acute c r i t i c a l sense. He could instruct while entertaining his readers. In the Chopin a r t i c l e he features two characters who were to reappear on many occasions: the l y r i c a l Eusebius and the tempestuous Florestan, the two halves of the whole Schumann. I t i s Eusebius, however, who al e r t s Florestan to the genius of Chopin as the l a t t e r ' s opus 2 i s placed on the piano for perusal. Unaccustomed to t h i s novel presentation of music c r i t i c i s m , Chopin was to dismiss Schumann's a r t i c l e as "nonsense and gibberish.""' Even i f the authenti-c i t y of this reference (from what i s believed to be a spurious l e t t e r to Delfina Potocka) remains i n doubt, 6 i t i s generally accepted that Chopin had l i t t l e a f f i n i t y with the t r a i t s of German Romanticism expressed i n Schumann's prose as well as in his ardent personality. Whatever Chopin's opinion, i t cannot a l t e r the fact that whether i n s t i n c t i v e l y or knowingly, Schumann had written with - 7 -p r o p h e t i c i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t C h o p i n ' s m u s i c w o u l d l e a d l a t e r n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r s . E x p l a i n i n g t h e u n u s u a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t C h o p i n ' s m u s i c p r e s e n t e d o n t h e p r i n t e d p a g e , S c h u m a n n e l a b o r a t e d : . . . d i e s s v e r h u l l t e G e n i e R e n d e r M u s i k o h n e T5ne h a t e t w a s Z a u b e r i s c h e s . U b e r d i e s s s c h e i n t m i r , h a t j e d e r C o m p o n i s t s e i n e e i g e n -t h u m l i c h e n N o t e n g e s t a l t u n g e n f u r d a s A u g e : B e e t h o v e n s i e h t a n d e r s a u f d e m P a p i e r , a l s M o z a r t , e t w a w i e J e a n P a u l ' s c h e P r o s a a n d e r s , a l s G S t h e ' s c h e . H i e r a b e r w a r m i r ' s , a l s b l i c k t e n m i c h l a u t e r f r e m d e A u g e n , B l u m e n -a u g e n , B a s i l i s k e n a u g e n , P f a u e n a u g e n , M S d c h e n -a u g e n w u n d e r s a m a n . . . Q T h e k e y w o r d h e r e i s b a s i l i s k , w i t h i t s o v e r t o n e s b o t h m a g i c a l a n d o m i n o u s , s u g g e s t i n g t h e u n h e a l t h y s y m b o l f o r t h e g r o w i n g w a v e o f a e s t h e t i c i s m , t h e ' f l e u r s d u m a l ' w i t h w h i c h t h e c u l t o f C h o p i n c a m e t o b e a s s o c i a t e d . B y m i n g l i n g t h e e y e s o f t h e l e g e n -d a r y a d d e r w i t h t h o s e o f f l o w e r s , p e a c o c k s a n d m a i d e n s , S c h u m a n n h a s d e f t l y c o u c h e d t h e i n c i p i e n t d a n g e r i n a d e c e p t i v e b o w e r ; i n t h i s f o r m i t i s n o t s o e a s i l y p e r c e i v e d . O n l y a f t e r l o o k i n g a t s o m e e x a m p l e s o f C h o p i n i n l i t e r a t u r e c a n t h e f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f S c h u m a n n ' s a p t m e t a p h o r b e c o m e r e a d i l y a s s i m i l a t e d . - 8 -CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF CHOPIN IN LITERATURE OF THE LATE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY With Chopin's death i n 1849, the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century was nearly over. The second half was to see changes, p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l which would reduce the world of the composer to a nostalgic memory. S o c i a l l y , the main changes were the re s u l t of the ever-increasing i n d u s t r i a l i z a -t i o n which was to provide wealth and a new class of financiers to spend i t . The ari s t o c r a t s by b i r t h , for whom Chopin had performed, that select group upon whom he had lavished so much of his creative energy were now being replaced by a new r u l i n g c lass: the men of property. Chopin's music was to f i l l the same emotional need for the l a t t e r as i t had for the former. To record the l i f e style of the men of property a new type of novel came into being. In the hands of John Galsworthy and Thomas Mann, for instance, i t borrowed techniques from Zola's naturalism. Its c a r e f u l l y amassed d e t a i l was not drawn from the milieu of the oppressed p r o l e t a r i a t , however, but rather i t depicted the materialism of the age as expressed by the acquisitiveness of i t s r u l i n g class. In Mann's Buddenbrooks - 9 -the concrete i s also tempered by the evanescent. As Henry Ha t f i e l d writes: The novel, far from being n a t u r a l i s t i c i n s p i r i t , demonstrates his [Mann's] mastery of the techniques of naturalism and impressionism: elaborate accounts of the dinners, the bank balances, and the ailments of the Buddenbrooks a l t e r -nate with swift evocations of mood. This i s equally true of Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga. Impressio-n i s t techniques within both novels were a r e f l e c t i o n of what was happening concurrently i n the v i s u a l a r t s . What Thomas Mann and John Galsworthy depicted verbally i n th e i r drawing-room scenes, Renoir had already brought to l i f e on canvas i n his "Lady at the Piano." In this painting, Renoir produced the o r i g i n a l for a scene recreated i n so much f i c t i o n of the period, and i f a sound track had been added, i t would have included the shorter works of Chopin. During the nineteenth century, a new middle-class audience came into being which could not indulge i t s whim for music from private orchestras. Correspondingly there arose a need for an instrument within the home and a p l e n t i f u l supply of music to play on i t . This was f a c i l i t a t e d by improvements i n piano b u i l -ding and the cheapness with which printed music could be c i r c u -lated extensively. More important, composers of the receding romantic period had l e f t a legacy of short works for the piano expressing a m u l t i p l i c i t y of moods that were t a i l o r e d to drawing-- 1 0 -r o o m n e e d s . S i n c e t h e p i a n o h a d a l s o t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e o r c h e s t r a a n d c o u l d b e a s p o k e s m a n f o r a l l i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f o r c h e s t r a l m u s i c w a s n o l o n g e r c o n f i n e d t o t h e c o n c e r t h a l l . N i e t z s c h e , f o r i n s t a n c e , h a d h i s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e o f W a g n e r ' s m u s i c b y l i s t e n i n g t o v o n B u l o w ' s 1 0 p i a n o s c o r e o f T r i s t a n . L a t e r T h o m a s M a n n , i n h i s N o v e l l e o f t h e s a m e n a m e , w a s t o b u i l d u p t h e c l i m a x o f h i s w o r k b y F r a u K l o t e r j a h n ' s p i a n o p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e T r i s t a n m u s i c . W h e r e W a g n e r ' s m u s i c m a y h a v e l o s t s o m e t h i n g b y t h i s m e a n s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n , i n C h o p i n ' s c a s e t h e d r a w i n g - r o o m s e t t i n g w a s t h e p e r f e c t a t m o s p h e r e f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n o f h i s m u s i c . T h e P o l i s h c o m p o s e r g a v e o n l y t h i r t y c o n c e r t s p u b l i c l y d u r i n g h i s e n t i r e c a r e e r ; ^ t h e r e s t o f h i s m u s i c - m a k i n g t o o k p l a c e a t t h e s o i r e e s h e l d i n h i s a p a r t m e n t s o r i n t h e h o m e s o f t h e £ l i t e . T h e r e , s u r r o u n d e d b y t h o s e s y m p a t h e t i c t o h i s s u b t l e a r t , h e c o u l d i m p r o v i s e a t w i l l a n d t h e n , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f a r -d u o u s p o l i s h i n g , h i s w o r k s w e r e h a n d e d o v e r t o t h e p u b l i s h e r . C h o p i n e v e n i n g s w e r e a u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e ; t h e r e c o u l d b e n o q u e s t i o n o f r e c r e a t i n g w h a t h e a c c o m p l i s h e d s o m a g i c a l l y . A f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n o f i d o l a t e r s w a s w i l l i n g t o t r y , a s women, o f g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r a b i l i t y a v a i l e d t h e m s e l v e s o f h i s m u s i c a n d , i n t h e s e d a t e a u r a o f t h e i r o w n d r a w i n g - r o o m s , e n d e a v o u r e d t o w e a v e a s i m i l a r s p e l l o v e r t h e i r m e n - f o l k . I n some c a s e s t h e y s u c c e e d e d . T h o m a s M a n n , f o r i n s t a n c e , w a s r a i s e d i n a p a t r i c i a n - 11 -home where his mother, J u l i a , played the Chopin nocturnes, leaving an i n d e l i b l e impression upon the future writer of Der Bajazzo and T r i s t a n , as subsequent passages i n this study w i l l reveal. In contrast to Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse and Gott-f r i e d Benn grew up i n homes where r e l i g i o n was of greater im-portance than the s o c i a l graces. Chopin's music was not i n -troduced i n the former (although Hesse engaged i n some music-making with h i s brothers and s i s t e r s ) and unknown i n the l a t t e r , as Benn's poem " T e i l s - T e i l s " indicates. . Through marriage, however, both writers found partners who could nurture the Chopin t r a d i t i o n within the home. Hesse's f i r s t wife, i n p a r t i c u l a r , was an accomplished pianist and i n this capacity her influence upon her husband's early poetry and prose i s not unsubstantial. In English l i t e r a t u r e of almost a decade e a r l i e r , "the lady at the piano" became the man at the piano in Oscar Wilde's The C r i t i c as A r t i s t (1890, 1891). There, the back-ground to a discussion of art between Ernest and Gilbert i s pro-vided by the music of Chopin. Another man at the piano was Andre Gide, who devoted his spare time to practising Chopin's music; t h i s led him to write a small book e n t i t l e d Notes sur Chopin. In a more detached manner, John Galsworthy and T.S. E l i o t ex-plored the Chopin c u l t i n their works; what Galsworthy treated sympathetically and with obvious enjoyment personally, E l i o t - 12 -was to use for the purposes of parodying an outmoded t r a d i t i o n . The l i s t could be extended to include many others, among them Nietzsche, Arthur Symons and Proust, who were under the Chopin influence. Since a selection must be made, however, i n order to avoid a mere catalogue and render a meaningful study of the r e l a t i o n between Chopin and l i t e r a t u r e , i t would seem prefer-able to base this upon the theme of the b a s i l i s k and i t s subse-quent antidote. In less metaphorical terms, the aim would be to study f i r s t the d e b i l i t a t i n g effects of Chopin's music r e s u l t i n g from the i n a b i l i t y or d i s i n c l i n a t i o n on the part of w r i t e r s , notably Hermann Hesse, to look at more than one aspect of Chopin 1 work; secondly, to examine the return i n the twentieth century to a more balanced attitude towards the music and i t s composer. To i l l u s t r a t e the f i r s t part, works by Mann, Galsworthy, and Hesse w i l l be examined; for the second, those of E l i o t and Benn. - 13 -CHAPTER I I I AUTHORS UNDER CONSIDERATION A. THOMAS MANN — JOHN GALSWORTHY — THE AESTHETES Thomas Mann's f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of Novellen, published i n 1908, included Der Bajazzo which uses Chopin's music as a catalyst for setting and theme. A counterpart to the l a t e r Tonio  Kroger which looks at the dil e t t a n t e from the outside, Der  Bajazzo portrays the di l e t t a n t e from within. Yet the p r i n c i -pal characters i n both Novellen have char a c t e r i s t i c s which unite them to a central theme i n Mann's work. Because of the d i v i s i o n between burgher and a r t i s t , they are equally incapable of gaining a place i n society which their upbringing would normally ensure them. Each, to some extent, i s a v i c t i m of heredity. Both are products of marriages between opposite natures, one oriented to business, the other to the arts. Their home l i f e , i n above-average surroundings, i s divided between the imposing e f f i c i e n c y of the father on the one hand and the improvisatory a r t i s t r y of the mother, on the other. Tonio, with his innate longing for the stable world of his father nevertheless becomes an a r t i s t . S i m i l a r l y , "der Bajazzo," after a s u p e r f i c i a l attempt to j o i n - 14 -his father's world of business, succumbs to the temptations of hi s mother's taste i n a r t . I t i s at t h i s point that their paths diverge. Tonio Kroger learns the d i s c i p l i n e and detachment necessary to becoming a writer of the f i r s t rank. From this vantage point, he can survey with condescension verging on scorn the d i l e t t a n t e world i n which everything i s lacking except f e r -vour and enthusiasm for a r t . Examining the effect of Tristan  and Isolde "auf einen jungen, gesunden, stark normal empfinden-den Menschen" he concludes: Sie sehen Gehobenheit, GestSrktheit, warme, rechtschaffene Begeisterung, Angeregtheit v i e l l e i c h t zu eigenem>kunstlerischen<Schaffen... Der gute D i l e t t a n t i In uns KUnstlern sieht es grlindlich anders aus, als er mit seinem >warmen Herzen < und > ehrlichen Enthusiasmus < 1T sich trSumen mag. In Der Bajazzo, i r o n i c a l l y , the leading character, too, i s capable of arousing undisguised admiration for his f a c i l e talents used for the entertainment of his friends and acquaintan-ces. At a s o c i a l gathering he gives an exaggerated performance of a music drama a l a Wagner, which draws accolades and even tears from an old gentleman i n the audience. Once alone, however, "der Bajazzo" lacks any genuine creative g i f t which would pro-duce an o r i g i n a l piece of work. By the end of the story, as his confidence wanes and he self-consciously studies the course of his undistinguished and undisciplined career, there i s nothing i n him but disgust. - 15 -S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Mann develops his story i n the form of an inner monologue; without an i d e n t i f y i n g name (except that of " t r i c k s t e r " or "mountebank" coined by his father) "der Bajazzo" becomes a symbol for d i l e t t a n t i s m that i s d e b i l i t a t i n g and s e l f -destructive. In his introspection, Mann's character i s reminiscent-of Werther whose i s o l a t i o n and wretchedness mirrored a distorted s u b j e c t i v i t y ; a further comparison i s that both are equally help-less i n the t o i l s of love. Doomed to l i v e rather than to die, however, "der Bajazzo" reveals the metamorphosis from "the healthy young man of normal f e e l i n g s " (described by Tonio KrSger) 14 into "eine ungluckliche und lScherliche Figur" through con-tact with arts that he cannot f u l l y master. I f the theme of Der Bajazzo i s dilettantism and i t s consequences, i t i s necessary to look at some of the shaping forces i n Mann's story which decided i t s inevitable outcome. Background and setting become most s i g n i f i c a n t i n establishing the p r e v a i l i n g mood that surrounds the young boy and influences - his future course of action. The f i r s t room described i n Der Bajazzo i s the drawing-room. In i t the boy witnesses careers made or broken through interviews granted by the father; here, too, he l i s t e n s to the melancholy strains of Chopin's music i n the form of Nocturnes played by the mother. The furniture of massive dark mahogany mirrors the father's success; the thick, dark-red curtains exclude - 16 -the l i g h t and contribute to the nocturnal atmosphere, so com-patible to the s e n s i b i l i t i e s of the mother. Sie saB im Dammerlicht, denn vor den Fenstern befanden sich schwere, dunkelrote Vorhange; und die weiBen Gotterfiguren der Tapete schienen plastisc h aus ihrem blauen Hintergrund hervor-zutreten und zu lauschen auf diese schweiren, t i e f e n Anfangstone eines Chopin'schen Notturnos, das s i e vor allem l i e b t e und stets sehr langsam s p i e l t e , wie urn die Melancholie eines jeden Akkordes auszugenieBen.15 Chopin's music i s i n t e n s i f i e d by contact with i t s surroundings, as the personal rendition of the mother would seem to indicate. Her f r a g i l e bearing, as ornamental as one of "die weiBen Gotter-figuren der Tapete," i s accompanied by her personal l e i t m o t i f , the nocturnes. They introduce the exotic within the conventional (since i t w i l l be remembered that this music was s t i l l a r e l a t i v e l y new experience i n the late nineteenth century). Their impact i s no less pronounced on the one who l i s t e n s to them than on the one who performs them. By th e i r means, the young boy i s made to fe e l the difference between the two worlds inhabited by his parents and of the necessity for a choice as to the one he w i l l adopt. Ich saB i n meinem Winkel und betrachtete meinen Vater und meine Mutter, wie als ob ich wahlte zwischen beiden und mich bedachte, ob i n traumerischen Sinnen oder in Tat und Macht das Leben besser zu verbringen s e i . Und meine Augen verweilten am Ende auf dem s t i l l e n Gesicht meiner Mut t e r . " His choice, however 3 understandable, i s not well-founded. The exoticism of his mother's world depends for i t s existence upon an ordered framework. When the father's s o l i d business structure - 17 -collapses, so does the imaginative world of his wife. After his death Sie s p i e l t e nicht mehr Chopin, und wenn sie hie urid da l e i s e liber den Scheitel s t r i c h , so z i t t e r t e ihre blasse, zarte und mude Hand. Kaum ein halbes Jahr nach meines Vaters Tode legte sie sich nieder, und s i e starb, ohne einen Wehelaut, ohne einen Kampf um i h r Leben. . . .17 Fed on a world of dreams her love of music has developed a t o t a l w i l l - l e s s n e s s i n the face of external adversity. Music as a d e b i l i t a t i n g agent was again to be explored by Thomas Mann through the personality of young Hanno i n the lat e r Buddenbrooks. In both cases, death i s the only resolution to the dissonance between art and l i f e . In Der Bajazzo, the mother's legacy to her son i s the awakening of a r t i s t i c longings without, however, i n s t i l l i n g i n him the need for d i s c i p l i n e i n developing his talents. Thus he explores the piano capriciously. In performance, he lacks manual dexterity and a sense of rhythm, although there i s no lack of "expressiveness" i n his creation of tone colour. In this he i s not far removed from the ladies of Chopin's acquaintance who, according to the composer " a l l look at their hands and play wrong notes most s o u l f u l l y . " Referring to these d i l e t t a n t e s , Chopin was to add i n a l e t t e r : "What a queer lot'. 18 God preserve them." It is at this point that a dual pattern of reference begins to establish i t s e l f . Chopin, the myth, the wraith - 18 -reincarnated i n the person of the f r a g i l e mother as she wafts her fingers over the keys, and Chopin the r e a l i t y . As the l a t t e r he reveals the truth of Mann's description of the essential nature of the a r t i s t i n Tonio KrSger, as opposed to the image of the a r t i s t and his art b u i l t up i n the mind of the dabbler. Even without reference to the i r o n i c a l Chopin who set the highest standards for himself and for those who would play his music, i t i s easy to understand the attractions of his music for the d i l e t t a n t e . A c u l t of s e n s i b i l i t y could be developed around a portion of the Chopin repertoire, thus making of the composer an easy vehicle for emotions that would have f i l l e d him with d i s -gust. I t was largely on a w i l f u l misunderstanding of the o r i g i n a l that the large band of Chopin idolaters was formed at the turn of the century. "Der Bajazzo" i s but one instance of a v i c t i m to the heady whiff of the b a s i l i s k . Others were to follow. In 1903, a second c o l l e c t i o n of Mann's Novellen appeared. I t included a new development of the Chopin-in-literature theme within the work e n t i t l e d T ristan. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Chopin and Wagner frequently accompany each other in Mann's s t o r i e s , and that h i s characters tend to react to both composers with equal enthusiasm. This i s true of "der Bajazzo" as i t i s of the young wife i n T r i s t a n , whose musical performance begins with Chopin nocturnes and culminates i n the death-inducing Tristan - 19 -music. Conversely, in English l i t e r a t u r e , a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between Chopin and Wagner i s made by Old Jolyon i n the Forsyte Saga, with the humourous r e f l e c t i o n that this patriarch of the 19 family "could not bear a strong cigar or Wagner's music." For Old Jolyon, Chopin i s the antithesis of Wagner, rather than a precursor of him, a view held l a t e r by Adrian Leverktihn i n Mann's Doktor Faustus and borne out graphically i n the Novelle, Tristan. Although Mann's personal attitude towards Wagner remained equivocal, a mixture of love mingled with d i s t r u s t , there i s less evidence of a similar attitude towards Chopin. In Der Bajazzo, for instance, there i s no overt c r i t i c i s m of the music played by the mother comparable to that with which the effects of Wagner are analyzed and passionately rejected (no matter how 20 humourously) by the organist Herr Pfuhl i n Buddenbrooks. With no powerful orchestration behind i t , Chopin's music did not present a great threat. Insinuatingly nevertheless, i t was unlocking recesses psychologically and preparing for the more corrosive impact of Wagner. In the words of Adrian Leverkiihn: Aber nicht ganz weniges gibt's j a bei Chopin, was Wagner, nicht nur harmonisch, sondern im Allgemein-Seelischen, mehr als a n t i z i p i e r t , nSmlich gleich iiberholt. Nimm das cis-Moll-Notturno opus 27 No. 1 und den Zwiegesang, der angeht nach der enharmonischen Vertauschung von Cis-mit Des-Dur. Das u b e r t r i f f t an desperatem Wohlklang a l l e Tristan-Orgien- und zwar i n K l a v i e r i s t i s c h e r Intimitat,. nicht als Hauptschlacht der Wollust und 20 -ohne das Corridahafte einer i n der Verderbtheit rob.usten Theatermystik. I t i s not by chance, then, that i n Tristan the music of Chopin i s the medium used to induce Frau Kloterjahn to play the forbidden piano at the sanatorium, but the nocturnes are a stepping-stone to Wagner — and chaos — and death. In T r i s t a n , Mann works with the same forces of heredity that take t h e i r t o l l i n Der Bajazzo, Tonio Kroger, and Buddenbrooks (although not a l l with the same degree of f a t a l i t y ) . Frau Klo'terjahn, "the lady at the piano" i n Tristan i s descended from an old l i n e of merchants, but her father i s more of an a r t i s t than a businessman. Thus, the family stock i s already weakened by this man who makes music with his daughter i n a manner more capable of drawing tears from her eyes than from any other experience. When she marries, however, she weds a t y p i c a l "burgher" just as the mother i n Per Bajazzo had done. At the same time there re-mains a hidden yearning for beauty, but this world of beauty which Frau Kloterjahn experienced with her father i s "eine mit dem Tode verwandte Welt, begleitet von biologischer Widerstandslosigkeit 22 gegenuber den Machten der Auflosung." Unlike the mother i n Der Bajazzo, Frau Kloterjahn already carries the seeds of a po t e n t i a l l y f a t a l i l l n e s s within her. At -iEinfrieck sanatorium, where the action of Tristan takes place, a further deterioration of her health results from contact with the one art to which she - 21 -must not have access. Between Frau Kloterjahn and her husband who accompanies her to the sanatorium intrudes the tempter, Detlev S p i n e l l , a caricatured figure of the a r t i s t i n the form of an "author." I t i s he who, for purposes of his own aesthetic g r a t i f i c a t i o n , lures Frau Kloterjahn back to the piano, and i s thus i n d i r e c t l y responsible for her death. In a scene together, after a l l the others have gone for a sleigh r i d e , the two indulge i n sharing the experience of the Tristan score, with the Chopin nocturnes as Frau Klbterjahn's i n i t i a l o f f e r i n g . Sie s p i e l t e das Nocturne i n Es-Dur, opus 9, Numrner 2. Wenn sie w i r k l i c h einiges verlernt hatte, so muBte ihr Vortrag ehedem vollkommen kUrs t l e r i s c h gewesen sein. Das Piano war nur tnittelmaRig, aber schon nach den ersten G r i f f e n wu(3te sie es mit sicherem Geschmack zu behandeln. Sie zeigte einen nervosen Sinn fl i r d i f f e r e n z i e r t e Klangfarbe und eine Freude an rhythmischer Beweg-l i c h k e i t , die bis zum Phantastischen ging. Ihr Anschlag war sowohl fest als weich. Unter ihren H^nden sang die Melodie ihre l e t z t e Sussigkeit aus, und mit einer zbgernden Grazie schmiegten sich die Verzierungen um ihre G l i e d e r . 2 ^ From th i s description, which appears to derive from the author's omniscient point of view rather than from that of the melodrama-t i c S p i n e l l , there i s every indication that Frau Kloterjahn i s not a d i l e t t a n t e i n her musical understanding or her technical equipment. Rhythm i s inborn where i t was absent in "der Bajazzo;" i n addition.there i s a fe e l i n g for subtle rubato without exagge-r a t i o n . But t h i s i s not enough on Mann's terms for dividing the true a r t i s t from the d i l e t t a n t e . Because she i s not a seasoned - 22 -performer able to hold something i n reserve, Frau Kloterjahn oversteps her l i m i t s . And, unable to see where this i s lea-ding her, she plunges on into music demanding even greater personal involvement. In this she provides another i l l u s t r a -t i o n of Tbnio Kroger's d e f i n i t i o n of the dilettante as opposed to the more detached a r t i s t . Frau Kloterjahn's b r i e f brush with the b a s i l i s k has led her to something even more deadly, over which she has no pox<?er at a l l . Between Der Bajazzo und Tristan appeared Thomas Mann's f i r s t major novel, Buddenbrooks. Although i t s main pre-occupation musically i s with Wagner, i t i s useful as a basis for comparison with that other great family chronicle: The Forsyte  Saga i n which the music of Chopin plays a more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . Both Galsworthy and Mann belonged to the class they depicted so intimately i n their respective works. As such they could render a f a i t h f u l p o r t r a i t of the world inhabited by the men of property. Indeed, a l l the Mann works cit e d so far have a setting s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to that of Galsworthy's Saga. The drawing-room scenes, for instance, could be exchanged without noticeable v i o l a t i o n to the different national backgrounds. The massive furnit u r e , the pearl-grey gowns worn by the respective ladies at the piano con-tribute to a feel i n g of growing f a m i l i a r i t y with the era. Both authors, too, are concerned with material versus a r t i s t i c values, and the threat to family s t a b i l i t y when the two worlds are united - 23 -through marriage. For Galsworthy, the B r i t i s h e r , there was never the same preoccupation with the more profound themes of art i n r e l a t i o n to disease and death, for instance, that was to haunt Mann for his entire career. The novels, although similar i n t h e i r choice of milieu, r e f l e c t the differences of Weltan-schauung that have always separated the mystical German mind from that of the more l u c i d English mentality. Old Jolyon, for instance, takes a somewhat hearty view of his i n i t i a l encounter with the b a s i l i s k . In the Indian Summer of a  Forsyte, one of the interludes of the Saga, he comes to terms with the a r t of the Aesthetic movement i n i t s extreme contrast to that of the more ponderous V i c t o r i a n taste. Old Jolyon i s helped i n the developing of new s e n s i b i l i -t i e s , normally outside the range of the average Forsyte, by the disturbing presence within the clan of Irene, wife to Soames Forsyte. Irene i s another of Soames' acquisitions, and into the family she brings the intangible values so a l i e n to the m a t e r i a l i s t i c a l l y oriented Forsytes. In keeping with family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Soames could put a price on everything without r e a l i z i n g the value of anything. He c o l l e c t s paintings, he c o l l e c t s Irene, but i t i s l e f t to the more discerning old pa-t r i a r c h to appreciate both. In the Indian Summer of a Forsyte, i t i s to Old Jolyon that Irene comes, a strange disembodied f i -gure representing beauty that i s synonymous with the nocturnes of Chopin which she interprets with such grace. Thus, through - 24 -Irene and her v i s i t s to his music room, Old Jolyon can enjoy what w i l l form some of his l a s t experiences and impressions. He loved Beethoven and Mozart, Handel and Gluck, and Schumann, and, for some occult reason, the operas of Meyerbeer; but of late years, he had been seduced by Chopin, just as he had succumbed to B o t t i c e l l i . In yi e l d i n g to these tastes he had been conscious of divergence from the standard of the Golden Age. Their poetry t was not that of Milton and Byron and Tennyson; of Raphael and T i t i a n ; Mozart and Beethoven. I t was, as i t were behind a v e i l ; their poetry h i t no one i n the face, but slipped i t s fingers under the r i b s and turned and twisted, and melted up the heart. And, never certain that this was healthy, he did not care a rap so long as he could see the pictures of the one or hear the music of the o t h e r . ^ Unmistakably, the aura of the b a s i l i s k i s not unknown to this conductor of finance, but at his time of l i f e , he can only acknowledge i t s presence without looking at the possible dangers i t might present to the foundations of his stable world. I t i s a problem for the younger generation to grapple with. Irene, although married to Soames, becomes attracted to P h i l i p Bosinney whose a r t i s t i c nature i s more closely related to her own. With the death of Bosinney, however, Irene i s unlike her counterpart i n Tonio Kroger, the passionate mother who i s free to marry an I t a l i a n virtuoso after the death of Tonio's father. Only much l a t e r , p r e c i p i t a t i n g her divorce from Soames, does Irene turn to Young Jolyon whose appreciation of her a r t i s t i c nature i s as acute as his father's had been. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the portion quoted from the Indian Summer of a Forsyte i s an awareness of the changing s p i r i t of the - 25 -age with the intrusion of aestheticism into England towards the turn of the century. That the rest of Europe including Germany was equally affected i s indicated by Mann's caricatured figure of the aesthete, Detlev S p i n e l l , i n Tristan. Nur zuweilen konnte eine l e u t s e l i g e , l i e b e v o l l e und uberquellende Stimmung ihn befallen, und das geschah jedesmal, wenn Herr S p i n e l l i n Ssthetischen Zustand v e r f i e l , wenn der Anblick von irgend etwas Sch5nem, der Zusammenklang zweier Farben, eine Vase von edler Form, das vom Sonnenuntergang bestrahlte Gebirge ihn zu lauter Bewunderung h i n r i B . ^ Hermann Hesse, too, i n Peter Camenzind, directs an attack against the excesses of aestheticism as he describes the fate of one talented young man: Auf den V i l l e n des reichen Herrn t r i e b er mit dessen nervbsen Damen ein fades K s t h e t e n -geflunker, sti e g i n seiner Einbildung zum ver-kannten Heros und brachtesich, jSmmerlich » miBl e i t e t , durch lauter Chopinmusik und pr f i r a f f a e l i t i s c h e Ekstasen systematisch um den Verstand."^ Here i n Hesse's work i s the catharsis for the writer himself who, i n the manner of Goethe in Werther. saves himself by allowing his character to pay the f u l l penalty for indulging h i s i n c l i n a t i o n s . With reference to Pre-Raphaelitism, i t had already set the fashion for women i n fin-de-siecle f i c t i o n . They now began to resemble paintings, f u l f i l l i n g Oscar Wilde's dictum that nature imitates a r t . Traces of this are to be found i n Mann's descrip-t i o n of the mother i n Der Bajazzo. . . . und wenn s i e , den Kopf ein wenig zur Seite geneigt, am Klaviere saB, so g l i c h sie den kleinen, riihrenden Engeln, die sich auf alten Bildern oft zu FiiBen der Madonna mit der Gitarre bemlihen.27 - 26 -Even more f r a g i l e and ethereal i s Mann's f i r s t description of Frau K16terjahn (which i s similar to the one where she plays to Herr S p i n e l l l a t e r i n the Novelle): Ihre schbnen, blassen HSnde, ohne Schmuck bis auf den schlichten Ehering, ruhten i n den SchoB-f a l t e n eines schweren und dunklen Tuchrockes, und sie trug eine silbergraue, anschliefjende T a i l l e mit festem Stehkragen, die mit hochauf-liegenden Sammetarabesken iiber und Uber besetzt war. Aber diese gewichtigen und warmen Stoffe liefien die uns^gliche Zartheit, SuBigkeit und Mattigkeit des Kopfchens nur noch rlihrender, unirdischer und l i e b l i c h e r erscheinen. 2 8 The f e e l i n g for mixed colour and texture i n t h i s description i s further enhanced tonally through the evanescent nocturnes. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to imagine the v i r i l e Chopin of the Etu-des, the Polonaises or the v i t r i o l i c Scherzi being introduced into t h i s particular scene. The backlash caused by the ex-j cessive attention to the nocturnes descended upon the composer himself who, i n the words of one disenchanted late nineteenth-century c r i t i c , was described "as flesh without bones - t h i s morbid, womanly, womanish, s l i p - s l o p , powerless, bleached, "29 sweet-caramel Pole. This preference for the nocturnes was a r e f l e c t i o n of what was happening i n the v i s u a l a r t s . In h i s painting, Whistler had taken over the musical term as i t had been developed, f i r s t by John F i e l d and then by Chopin. I f nature was imitating a r t , a l l art was learning to aspire to the condition of music i n accor dance with the theories of Walter Pater. What the aesthetes were - 27 -looking for was the side of Chopin that " l i f t s the v e i l before impressionism." In the words of Camille Bourniquel: "he i s the master of those intermediate states, those t r a n s i -tions, that moving subtlety, whereby there i s no: brutal a f f i r -30 mation of s e l f but rather a magical ou t l i n i n g in time." This appears as applicable to Whistler's own evocative mood paintings as i t does to Chopin's nocturnes. There i s , i n 31 both, what Bourniquel refers to as "a new art of persuasion." Such a shadowy, t w i l i g h t world of the imagination, so perf e c t l y recreated i n two art forms was largely responsible for the escape from r e a l i t y encouraged by the adherents of l ' a r t pour l ' a r t . To l i v e on a diet composed so l e l y of this delicate f i l a g r e e proved enervating i n the extreme to sensitive natures. Yet i t was t h i s aspect of fi n - d e - s i e c l e art that proved so i r r e s i s t i b l e to Hermann Hesse. In fact i t was to take nearly ha l f of h i s creative l i f e to disengage himself from the t o i l s of the b a s i l i s k . His early w r i t i n g r e f l e c t s the s e l f -consciousness that developed out of late nineteenth-century Romanticism combined with the impact of impressionism, a trend which was emerging when the Chopin myth was at i t s peak. - 28 -B. HERMANN HESSE Unlike Thomas Mann who f i r s t experienced the music of Chopin through his mother's sensitive performances, Hermann Hesse pursued his c u l t of the composer independently of his family. This i s not to suggest that music was out of bounds within Hesse's early home l i f e . In fact i t was his mother who introduced him to the v i o l i n at the age of nine. Later, i n reminiscences of h i s f i r s t musical experiences he was to write: Ich bin nicht mit Virtuosen und i n Konzertsalen aufgewachsen, sondern mit Hausmusik, und die schbnste war immer die, bei der man selber mi t t S t i g sein konnte; mit der Geige und ein wenig Singen habe ich i n den Knabenjahren die ersten Schritte ins Reich der Musik getan, die Schwestern und namentlich Bruder Karl spielten K l a v i e r , Karl und Theo waren beide SSnger, und wenn ich die Beethovensonaten oder die weniger bekannten Schubertlieder i n der frlihen Jugend von Liebhabern zu horen bekam, deren Leistung keine virtuose war, so war es doch auch nicht ohne Nutzen und Ergebnis, wenn ich etwa Ka r l lange Zeit im Nebenzimmer um eine Sonate werben und kampfen horte und s c h l i e f l l i c h , wenn er sie «hatte» , den Triumph und Gewinn dieses This cosy vignette underplays the fact that Hesse remained a problem c h i l d to bewildered parents who could not keep up with the turmoil of l i t e r a r y and musical tastes adopted by their son. The foregoing passage does not mention the music of Chopin. I t was only after taking up an apprenticeship to a book-seller i n Tubingen that Hesse, then aged eighteen, could afford to decorate his room with a large reproduction of a Chopin p o r t r a i t , and to pay homage to this new Kampfes miterleben durfte. - 29 -and increasingly important musical i d o l i n a series of short, rather undistinguished l y r i c s . At least one of them did not f a i l to i n s t i l l considerable apprehension i n his parents to whom Hesse wrote l i n e s , during September of 1897, indicating the hold that the eyes of the b a s i l i s k now exerted over him. Was fur Nietzsche Wagner war, i s t fur mich Chopin — oder noch mehr. Mit diesen warmen lebendigen Melodien, mit dieser pikanten, lasciven, nervosen Harmonie, mit dieser ganzen so ungemein intimen Musik Chopins, hangt a l l e s Wesentliche meines geistigen und seelischen Lebens zusammen. Und dann bestaune ich an Chopin eben immer wieder die Vornehmheit, die Zurlickhaltung, die vollendete Souveranitat seines Wesens. An ihm i s t a l l e s a d l i g , wenn auch manches degeneriert. J For Hesse, Chopin's n o b i l i t y and reserve i s mixed with the decadence that grew out of the late nineteenth century rather than from the o r i g i n a l romantic movement. The foregoing passage once again l i n k s the name of Chopin with that of Wagner. In this case, Hesse weighs his own enthusiasm for the former against that exerted by the l a t t e r over Nietzsche. Seen i n perspective, however, this comment i s invalidated by changing l o y a l t i e s within both w r i t e r s . Just as Nietzsche's a f f i n i t y with Wagner was subsequently to deteriorate, so too, i r o n i c a l l y enough was Hesse's own fe e l i n g for Chopin. Although exerting a consider-able influence upon the mood of Hesse's early output, notably Romantische Lieder (1899), Eine Stunde hinter Mitternacht (1899) and Hermann Lauscher (1901), the music of Chopin appears to be 3 4 of s l i g h t importance after the publication of Gertrud i n 1910. - 30 -i' The l i n k between the early works and Getrud i s Peter Camenzind (1904) which shows Hesse taking a more c r i t i c a l look at the cu l t which had held such a t t r a c t i o n for him. His break with Chopin was, i n e f f e c t , owing to a dwindling of interest; there was no outspoken condemnation of the composer which marked Nietzsche's break with Wagner. Unlike Andre" Gide, Hesse apparently did not explore the fact that Nietzsche, too, valued Chopin's music highly. On one occasion Nietzsche wrote: Ich selbst bin immer Pole genug, urn gegen Chopin den Rest der Musik hinzugeben.3-> In addition, Nietzsche was to f i n d something i n Chopin's music that apparently eluded Hesse i n his early career. I t appears i n a passage from Der Wanderer und sein Schatten. Fast a l l e Zustande und Lebensweisen haben einen seligen Moment. Den wissen die guten Kunstler herauszufischen. So hat einen solchen selbst das • Leben am Strande, das so langweilige, schmutzige, . ungesunde, i n der NShe des lSrmendsten und habgierig-sten Gesindels sich abspinnende; - diesen seligen Moment hat Chopin, i n der Barcarole, so zum ertonen gebracht, daB selbst GBtter dabe geltisten kSnnte, lange Sommerabende i n einem Kahne zu l i e gen.36 37 Andre" Gide has interpreted the "seligen Moment" as joy. However, interpreted, t h i s phrase points to the antithesis of yearning and the longing for death that was the dominant mood i n Hesse's early Chopin poetry and prose. I t was Joseph Mileck who f i r s t suggested i n his comprehensive bi b l i o g r a p h i c a l survey of material r e l a t i n g to Hesse that "since Nietzsche has undeniably been a formative figure i n Hesse's l i f e , h i s possible influence * 38 upon Hesse's attitude to music bears further investigation." - 31 -This in i t s e l f would require a special study, ly i n g beyond the l i m i t s of the present material. Nowhere i s Hesse's adherence to the convention of fin- d e - s i e c l e w r i t i n g moreevident than i n the poetry inspired by Chopin's music. In t h i s Hesse attempts to fuse the noble and the decadent i n the manner described to his parents. CHOPIN I Schutte wieder ohne Wahl Uber mich die bleichen, groBen L i l i e n deiner Wiegenlieder, Deiner Walzer rote Rosen. F l i c h t darein den schweren Hauch Deiner Liebe, die im Welken Duft verstreut, und deines Stolzes Schaukelschlanke Feuernelken.^ In t h i s poem, the f i r s t of a tript y c h based on Chopin's music, Hesse makes his appeal to the senses, evoking both colour and perfume. Strangely, he ignores aural imagery preferring to conjure up suggestions of l u l l a b i e s and dances by a comparison with flowers, deepening the colours with the i n t e n s i t y of the l a s t l i n e . Hovering over this b r i e f l y r i c i s the state of forgetfulness which Hesse requests from the heavily sensuous music. Overtones of the b a s i l i s k reverberate i n "den schweren Hauch deiner Liebe," and as a whole the poem displays an unhealthy hothouse of emotions as a r t i f i c i a l as the "schaukelschlanke Feuernelken." - 32 -In the second poem "Grande Valse," Hesse r a l l i e s to l i v e l i e r rhythms and conjures up a scene of c h i v a l r i c fervour, as he depicts the b a l l before the battle i n the opening stanza. Just as r a p i d l y , however, his mood of exhaltation i s dispelled revealing the transience of human feelings and Hesse's own par t i c u l a r emotional cast which i s i n the minor key. •— — Juchhe, MusikI In durstigen Zugen t r i n k t mein heiBer B l i c k Das junge, schone, rote Leben ein, Und t r i n k t sich nimmer satt an seinem L i c h t . Noch einen Tanz! Wie bald! und Kerzenschein Und Klang und Lust verl'ischt; der Mondschein f l i c h t Schwermlitig seinen Kranz i n Tod und Graus.^ The most interesting poem in the t r i p t y c h , however, i s the t h i r d e n t i t l e d "Berceuse." This poem reveals that Hesse's l i f e experience had d e f i n i t e points of contact with that of Chopin. I t w i l l be remembered that both were to become exiles from thei r native land. S i g n i f i c a n t in the poem i s the number of times the root "helm" occurs: "Heimatland," "heimwarts," "Heimweh." Chopin's yearning for "Heimat" was never to be subdued. I t was t h i s feature of his personality that unlocked a sympathetic response from another poet, Heinrich Heine, who wrote: Wenn er am Klavier s i t z t und improvisiert, i s t es mir, als besuche mich ein Landsmann aus der geliebten Heimat und erzahle mir die kuriosesten Dinge, die wahrend meiner Abwesenheit, dort pass i e r t sind. . . . ^ For Hermann Hesse, i n p a r t i c u l a r , l i f e was to become "a persistent 42 pursuit of Einheit," frequently interpreted by him as "Heimat." - 33 -It i s here that he remained close to the s p i r i t of the early German romantics i n their eternal quest: "Wo gehn wir denn 43 hin?"- "Immer nach Hause." The route was to lead Hesse through the work of other composers u n t i l , i t would seem, with the music of Bach i n Glasperlenspiel, he had act u a l l y arrived. Once there, however, the quest appears to begin a l l over again. After Knecht has mastered perfection i n C a s t a l i a , he i s w i l l i n g to f o r f e i t h is earthly paradise of "Geist" i n exchange for the more humdrum l i f e that Hesse so stoutly rejects during the Chopin period of his c r e a t i v i t y . In the early poem "Berceuse" there i s a f e e l i n g of no return; the home that the poet would come to remains inaccessible to him. There i s here revealed i n Hesse the same dua l i t y of art opposing l i f e that created tension within Thomas Mann and his characters. For Hesse, at this time, one of the few remaining comforts l i e s in snatches of melody from his youth. This i s also reminiscent of Chopin who, i n the midst of the turmoil of the B minor Scherzo, introduced a gentle Polish Christmas song, a l u l l a b y to the infant Jesus. In "Berceuse," the poet and the composer become united i n dreams of their homelands. Hesse here alludes to "totem Ruhm und Gllick," suggesting overtones of former Polish glory which Chopin was to revive i n his c h i v a l r i c Polonaises. The "Heimat" that had provided Chopin with f i r e und energy, and i s symbolized by the now faded "Rosenstrauss," however, has a converse effect on Hesse, who sinks into apathy of s p i r i t : - 34 -Ich bin ja auch so v/elk and schwank, Gebrochen und am Heimweh krank, ^ Und kann nicht mehr nach Hause kommen. This i s not to suggest that Chopin did not f e e l s i m i l a r l y apa-th e t i c on occasion, but the mood never dominated his music i n the way that i t affected the imagery of Hesse's poetry. Taken c o l l e c t i v e l y the poems of the Chopin tripty c h provide a v a r i a t i o n on the fa m i l i a r song form i n music: an A B A pattern i n which the rhythms of the waltz provide a contrast to the enervating mood of the f i r s t and t h i r d poems. S i m i l a r l y i n his prose the same chara c t e r i s t i c s are again a clear indication of Hesse's state of mind at the time. From the "Fiebermuse" chapter Eine Stunde hinter.Mitternacht comes the following: Diesen schmachtigen, kranken Chopin lockte sie von Reiz zu Reiz, sie lehrte ihn sein Herz belauschen und deuten und lehrte sein Herz i n z i t t e r n d bewegten Takten schlagen, bis es i n Mlidigkeit und Sehnsucht vor dem treibenden Stachel erlag. Mir aber erzMhlte s i e von ihm, l i e B mein Herz i n seinen miiden, stachelnden Rhythmen schlagen und lehrte mich mein Herz belauschen und deuten.^ I t i s u n l i k e l y that Chopin would have been impressed by this description of himself i n the grip of the "Fiebermuse." Once again i t i s whatever appears to be "krankhaft" und "schwermutig" i n the composer and his music that finds the most empathy within the poet. Hermann Hesse, l i k e Thomas Mann, uses the Nocturne i n E f l a t , opus 9, No. 2, for the evocation of nostalgia. In a - 35 -poem e n t i t l e d "Nocturne" q u a l i f i e d by "Es-Dur" i n the ope-ning l i n e , he goes on to describe his favourite piece as "ein Lied der Lieder," a phrase which occurs i n Hermann Lauscher. The special place given to this nocturne i n Hesse's work was perhaps prompted by the fact that, of a l l the nocturnes, i t i s the one most adaptable to the singing tone of the v i o l i n , the instrument which Hesse learned i n his youth and which appears i n so much of his early poetry. This i s borne out by the l a s t passage i n Hermann Lauscher. In t h i s work Hesse combined a l l the Neo-Romantic cliches associated with Chopin — "eine schbne wohlbekannte Frau auf dem VeilchenstrauBflugel" playing "die Nokturne i n Es-Dur von Chopin, jenes Lied, das nur Heimweh- und Fliigelkranke ganz verstehen, mit seinen zarten, durch ein geheimes Leiden vergeistigten Takten." Then, as i n "Berceuse," memories of the poet's l o s t youth harmonize with v i o l i n melodies and make the perfect fade-out for the work that Hesse looked upon as being a farewell to his youth and the mood of his early poetry. Ich holte meine vergessene und verstaubte Geige hervor und r i e f die z a r t l i c h scheue Melodie mit leisem Strichewach, und aus dem alten, braunen Instrument sang meine verlorene Jugend i n heimlichen Untert5nen mit. In Hermann Lauscher Hesse attempts to come to terms with his own s p i r i t u a l malaise through the persona Lauscher. Of the l a t t e r , Mark Boulby writes: - 36 -As a late decadent Romantic, Hermann Lauscher suffers from the obsessive i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n of a mode of experiencing which i s inherited from countless l i t e r a r y forbears; his Pre-Raphaelite posing i s conducted i n the f u l l day-light of inescapable self-observation, and the mask i s consciously though impulsively worn.47 The l a s t passage i n Hermann Lauscher, however, i s presented without i r o n i c a l comment as though Lauscher, l i k e Hesse, were l u l l e d by the music into a state of mind that he never r e a l l y wanted to abandon. In an e f f o r t to impose some sort of order on an i n -creasingly restless heart and to s t i l l yearnings which the romantic irony of Lauscher could not d i s p e l , Hesse married Maria B e r n o u l l i i n 1904. Like Thomas Mann's mother, Hesse's f i r s t wife was an accomplished pian i s t with a repertoire of the early romantic composers to perform for her husband. Fre-quently, Hesse would s i t in a neighbouring room reading a book to the accompaniment of short piano pieces by Schumann followed possibly by the f i r s t or th i r d nocturne of Chopin. A recrea-t i o n of this setting occurs i n the section "Wenn es Abend wird" from Am Bodensee. Halt, das i s t nicht Schumann mehr! Was i s t es doch? Ja, Chopin. N a t l i r l i c h , Chopin, die erste Nocturne. Oder die d r i t t e . Glaszarte, scheue Tbne, verwischte und traum-wandelnde Takte, wundersam geschlungene, elegante Figuren, und die Akkorde erregend, wie verzerrt, Harmonie und Dissonanz nicht mehr zu unterscheiden. A l l e s auf der Grenze, a l l e s ungewiB, nachtwandlerisch - 37 -taumelnd, und mitten hindurch mit diinnem Fluss eine siiBe, milde, kinderselig reine Melodie. Chopin! Diese Musik v o l l Heimweh, Sehnsucht und Erinnerung, und im Hintergrunde P a r i s . Nicht Paris von heute, sondern ein andres, ironischer und sentimentaler, mit andern Tapeten und Kostumen, mit Chopin und Heinrich Heine.48 From t h i s reverie, however, the poet i s aroused to consider the present. The portion that follows i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the new dir e c t i o n that Hesse's thoughts and emotions were taking. Having reached the s t a b i l i t y and security of an ordered home l i f e at Gaienhofen, Hesse soon retreated into even further discontent. His musical experiences, l i k e everything else i n his marital l i f e , came under close scrutiny and were found wan-ti n g . Es i s t schbn, es i s t schmeichelnd und wohlig, anseinem sicheren Tisch zu s i t z e n , ein sicheres Dach tiber s i c h , einen zuverlassigen Wein i n der Kanne, eine wohlgefullte groBe Lampe brennend und nebenan bei offener Ture eine Frau am Kl a v i e r , Chopin-Stiicke und Kerzenlicht ... P l o t z l i c h steigt mir wie eine Seifenbla^e die Frage auf: B i s t du eig e n t l i c h gllicklich? In an e a r l i e r poem e n t i t l e d "Valse b r i l l i a n t e " Hesse had already foreshadowed the disillusionment that he was to suffer at Gaienhofen. The musical pas-de-deux contains an atmosphere of tension that i s at variance with the poem's spr i g h t l y rhythm. Den F l l i g e l du, die Geige i c h , So spielen wir und enden nicht Und warten angstvoll, du und i c h , Wer wohl zuerst den Zauber b r i c h t . - 38 -Over a passage of time, the early enthusiasm for Chopin based on the excitement of something rare and touched (not un-pleasantly) with danger, had become worn down in the routine of a f a m i l i a r experience, now heavily interwined with connotations of the domestic; the b a s i l i s k had become a household pet. I t was the signal for Hesse to reach out i n a new d i r e c t i o n . Not only was he eventually to leave his wife and growing family, his home, his comfortable existence, but also his allegiance to a former i d e a l : the music of Chopin. What he did not know was that the path he came to choose i n search of himself was the way that Chopin had adopted at the outset of his career. This road was to lead Hesse through the realms of Mozart and then Bach as he forged a new l i t e r a r y s t y l e . In his early musical t r a i n i n g , Chopin had already learned to appreciate from these composers c l a s s i c a l r e s t r a i n t and l u c i d i t y that was to remain with him and to form the basis for his own art . Unfortunately, those who created the cult of Chopin never came to appreciate t h i s ; instead, they recognized i n his music only harmonies that were t h r i l l i n g to the ear and to the emotions. Thus, they proceeded to use Chopin's music as an outlet for their own d i s -torted emotions. Only gradually did Hesse achieve harmony be-tween art and l i f e ; he was never to associate any of this mode-ration with the composer who longed to be measured by the stan-dards of the Golden Age. - 39 -Later, i n Hesse's novel Demian (1919), the c o n f l i c t between the respectable world of " l i g h t " inhabited by S i n c l a i r ' s parents, and the s i n i s t e r , yet always subconsciously a t t r a c t i v e world of "dark" which looms at the fringes of middle-class existence mirrored the c o n f l i c t Hesse was experiencing personally. What S i n c l a i r learned from the disturbing yet revealing perso-n a l i t y of Demian was the need for s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n at a l l cost and the capacity to transcend the conventional dichotomies of good and evil. 5''" Translated i n terms of Hesse's l i f e experience, the f i r s t step for him had been to establish his independence at Tubingen where he could explore his own a r t i s t i c tastes un-impeded by parental disapproval at close range. This meant indulging his taste for the music of Chopin and giving expression - to i t i n h i s early poetry and prose pieces. Once, however, the forbidden f r u i t had been set i n a new mould of domesticity, i t quickly began to lose i t s appeal. The lady at the piano had become "eine Frau am K l a v i e r " ; "Chopin-Stiicke und Kerzenlicht" had become nineteenth-century equivalent of "music to dine by." In Hesse's case there seemed to be no alternative but to reject this phase of his development and to seek new dichotomies of good and e v i l which he would then transcend. The Steppenwolf i n Hesse had begun to growl. I t was perhaps because harmony and dissonance are indistinguishable i n Chopin's a r t , "diese 52 Musik v o l l Heimweh, Sehnsucht und Erinnerung" that Hesse was led to new areas of c o n f l i c t and eventual conquest. - 40 -As a contemporary romantic, Hesse survived a c r u c i a l t r a n s i t i o n from the fin-de-siecle nineteenth-century atmosphere to the modern world. More than t h i s , he was able to adapt his wr i t i n g accordingly. Unlike Gottfried Benn, however, who succee-ded i n bringing a nineteenth-century romantic composer into the framework of twentieth-century verse,Hesse never chose to adapt Chopin to the demands of the second stage of his w r i t i n g . Unlike Mozart, i n Steppenwolf, who does not appear to suffer from his encounter with the modern world, Chopin, i n Hesse's w r i t i n g , remains immured amid the fading perfumes of aestheti-cism. Thus, the b a s i l i s k who f i r s t appeared as a formidable threat has become a museum piece, a r e f l e c t i o n of one of those myths that becomes powerless once i t has been exposed. The b a s i l i s k i n Chopin's music had undergone a metamorphosis similar to that of Romanticism which 'began as gunpowder, continued as 54 magic powder and ended as sleeping powder.1 I t was l e f t to the twentieth century to awaken the Chopin c u l t i s t s by using the abrasive action of parody and a new l i t e r a r y s t y l e , less emotional and more laconic, both notable characteristics of T.S. E l i o t and Go t t f r i e d Benn. - 41 -C. T.S. ELIOT — GOTTFRIED BENN — CONCLUSION In England, towards the end of the nineteenth century, the reaction against the ugliness of the Vi c t o r i a n period had stimulated the Aesthetic movement; the l a t t e r was eventually undermined by the Realist movement whose function i t was to counteract conventions i n art that were not so much decadent as outmoded. The type of verse written by Hesse i n h i s early years i s an instance of the need for reform i n poetry i f i t was to speak to a new age. What came into being i n Europe i n the early twentieth century was poetry with greater c l a -r i t y and sharpness of image and word. The leadership given to the "Imagists" i n England came from the French Symbolists who had produced a poetry t o t a l l y different from that of Georgian England, being at once tough to the point of cynicism and intensely sharp and delicate i n i t s observation of humanity. I t was diff e r e n t i n i t s methods. I t s imagery was new and s t a r t l i n g and embraced new aspects of l i f e , including those of the c i t y ; also this imagery worked by association, and by juxta-position and contrast of opposites. Conven-t i o n a l and san c t i f i e d images were either avoided or used i n such a way that they achieved contra-dictory effects by being placed i n a ridiculous position among other completely incongruous images.55 . This, then, was the model for T.S. E l i o t who, i n the manner of Laforgue, wrote mood poetry i n reaction against romanticism. 5 6 The early poems " P o r t r a i t of a Lady" (1910) and "Conversation Galante" (1909) make their attack upon the romantic position through the music of Chopin. By th i s means E l i o t could parody - 42 -I { the c u l t of the Polish composer as one of the strongest evidences of worn-out romanticism. The Lady i n E l i o t ' s " P o r t r a i t " i s no longer at the piano; she has now become a passive receptacle for r e c i t a l s which mark "the season" i n London. Her description of a Chopin r e c i t a l has the a r t i f i c a l r i n g about i t that comes from association with snobbish connoisseurs of art who employ a j a r -gon that verges on the truth but i s equally a travesty of i t . Thus, the following fragment forms part of the dialogue between the lady and her reluctant lover and sets the tone for the poem as a whole. He: We have been, l e t us say, to hear the l a t e s t Pole Transmit the Preludes, through h i s hair and f i n g e r - t i p s . She: 'So intimate, this Chopin, that I think h i s soul Should be resurrected only among friends Some two or three, who w i l l not touch the bloom _^ That i s rubbed and questioned i n the concert room.1 The unconcealed irony of "the l a t e s t Pole," a slam at the number of "authentic" Chopin interpreters, i s enhanced by the v e i l e d re-ference to Paderewski whose halo of hai r was as much a part of the legend as his nimble f i n g e r - t i p s . ! This, of course, expresses the man's point of view. The lady's lines are untouched by irony and suggest the kind of truth that Gide preached so fervently i n hi s book Notes sur Chopin. In this work he encouraged Chopin playing by dedicated amateurs who would not allow concert h a l l \ • v t r i c k s or the magnetism of a huge, audience to sway them from the e s s e n t i a l l y improvisatory nature of the music. The p r e c i o s i t y - 43 -of the lady's tone, however, r i d i c u l e s what otherwise, could be taken quite seriously: the fact that Chopin's a r t i n i t s most intimate moments belongs to the drawing-room rather than to the concert h a l l . Throughout " P o r t r a i t of a Lady" the s t i l t e d conver-sation of the lady further-alienates the man who i s conscious of a divergence between his thoughts and hers. Inside my brain a d u l l tom-tom begins Absurdly hammering a prelude of i t s own, Capricious monotone That i s at least one d e f i n i t e 'false note. 1 The 'false note' f a i l s to pierce the lady's aesthetic cocoon, however, as her voice "returns l i k e the in s i s t e n t out-of-tune/ Of a broken v i o l i n on an August afternoon." Thus through the play of musical analogies and rhyming couplets E l i o t creates the tension r e s u l t i n g from the man's awareness of the a r t i f i -c i a l i t y of the lady's world i n the face of the present condition at the same time, there i s no indication that he w i l l change the old order. E a r l i e r i n "Conversation Galante" E l i o t directed h i s thrust against the u n r e a l i s t i c picture of the world which the whole "genre" of the nocturne had fostered. — — 'Someone frames upon the keys That exquisite nocturne, with which we explain The night and moonshine; music which we seize To body forth our own v a c u i t y . ' ^ Insidiously, "moonshine" holds up to r i d i c u l e a l l the untruths - 4 4 -perpetrated under the influence of a mood. In l i g h t of the number of nocturnal poems and essays written by Hermann Hesse, i t might not be unfair to suggest that the vacuity E l i o t refers to was largely responsible for the abandonment of Chopin by Hesse, i n search of that fulness which was realized, only with h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g s . The j o l t given by E l i o t to the Chopin cult proved a time-l y antidote to what had become cloying in extreme. About the same time that E l i o t was finding a new voice for English poetry, G o t t f r i e d Benn was rousing the German reading public with h i s f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of poems: Morgue (1912). Where E l i o t ' s voice emerged from the drawing-room, however, Benn's came from the hos-p i t a l ward. E l i o t ' s r e s t r a i n t was to be paralleled only much la t e r by Benn as he reacted against the Expressionist movement of which he was i n i t i a l l y regarded a member. More of a thinker than the Expressionist poets, he has often been compared i n t e l l e c -t u a l l y to T.S. E l i o t , but as Henry H a t f i e l d points out Benn lacked E l i o t ' s humanity as w e l l as his C h r i s t i a n i t y . 6 ^ The two authors were to be linked only much la t e r through l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m when i n his Three Voices of Poetry E l i o t referred to Benn's Probleme der L y r i k . Both works explore the same problems which the poet encounters i n finding an appropriate "voice" for the l i n k between poet and reader. In both cases tone became increa-singly important as each writer directed his c r i t i c i s m against the squalor and loss of values within a changing society. - 45 -It w i l l be remembered that Gottfried Benn worked i n two spheres. Like E l i o t , Benn was a l i t e r a r y c r i t i c and prose writer as wel l as a poet; his other l i f e revolved around medicine. I t was h i s professional duties as a doctor that provided him with material for his early c o l l e c t i o n of poetry. The realism of h is approach, his f i d e l i t y to d e t a i l f even of the most unpalatable kind, l i n k s him to the Naturalists who believed in factual reportage of l i f e as i t i s and introduced physiology into their writings to make their point clear. Since dermatology, venereal disease, and disintegrating bodies were the r e a l i t y to Benn, he introduced them into h is poems. In some cases, the h y s t e r i c a l giggle of the medical student exposed to his f i r s t horrors i s embedded i n Benn's i n i t i a l "shockers". At the outset h is st y l e ignored "Visionen, Traum, VerklMrung;" i t sprang from a d i s t r u s t of metaphors and thus stands apart from the poems of h i s Expressionist contemporaries, Heym, Trakl and Lasker-Schuler. It represented der gewaltsame Versuch, die Wi r k l i c h k e i t •, selbst ins Gedicht einzufuhren, unver^ndert, ohne a l l e Uberlieferte Kunstgloriole, aber im Pathos des Leidens, des Ekels, des Durchhaltens.61 Later as the tendency to shock mellowed, Benn adopted an under-statement that i s no less powerful i n i t s impact. I t i s this quality that characterizes the "Chopin" poem included i n Statis.che Gedichte (1948). - 46 -In this poem, i n i t i a l l y , Benn appears to be using Chopin as a case study of the influence of tuberculosis on the creative genius. The t h i r d section of the poem emphasizes t h i s aspect. In addition, i n the manner of the Expressionists, Benn adopts an unusual "dislocated" chronology of the poet's l i f e . At the same time, his facts are nearly always meticulous, i n d i c a -ting the kind of precision i n treating his subject matter that was so a l i e n to the nineteenth-century accounts of Chopin. The poem i s not concerned solely with f a c t s , however; i t opens out i n the l a s t two stanzas to reveal what Is of universal significance about the composer's a r t : the fact that i t exerted an influence out of a l l proportion to the small hand of the one that produced i t . I t would seem, i n retrospect, that from the l i t e r a r y point of view this influence has tended to be negative. Musically speaking there i s scarcely a nineteenth-century composer from Wagner to Debussy who has not benefited from the harmonic inventiveness of Chopin. This influence has extended even into the twentieth century i n the subtle vocal accompaniments of Benjamin B r i t t e n . In passing i t i s necessary to mention that the Chopin poem of 1948 i s not the only instance of Benn's use of the composer i n his l i t e r a r y canon. In " T e i l s - T e i l s " the poet draws from his own autobiography i n explaining the shaping forces upon his l i f e and a r t . He begins: In meinem Elternhaus hingen keing^Gainsboroughs wurde auch kein Chopin gespielt. . . - 47 -The austerity of so much of Benn's w r i t i n g had i t s origins i n the home where no Gainsboroughs hung on the walls and where the music of Chopin was not played. In "Chopin", on the other hand, contact with the music comes "aus offenen Terrassentliren/ b e i -spielsweise aus einem Sanatorium," i r o n i c a l l y l i n k i n g the doctor' rounds with the disease that was to bring about the early death of the composer. Here, too, are echoes of Mann's Tris t a n with Frau Kloterjahn at the piano i n S i n f r i e d Sanatorium. From different points of view both Benn and Mann remind the reader of the popular fascination with lung sickness that formed a s i g -n i f i c a n t part of nineteenth-century l i t e r a t u r e . Since much of the poem works on several levels i t w i l l be necessary to give a close analysis of i t s content before attempting a f i n a l estimate of i t s importance to the study of Chopin i n l i t e r a t u r e . For this reason the poem i s included i n i t s e n t i r e t y . - 4 8 -G O T T F R I E D B E N N CHOPIN Nicht sehr ergiebig im Gesprach, Ansichten waren nicht seine Starke, Ansichten reden drum herum, Wenn Delacroix Theorien entwickelte, wurde er unruhig, er seinerseits konnte die Notturnos nicht begrlinden. Schwacher Liebhaber; Schatten i n Nohant, wo George Sands Kinder keine erzieherischen RatschlSge von ihm annahmen. Brustkrank i n jener Form mit Blutungen und Narbenbildung, die sich lange hinzieht; s t i l l e r Tod im Gegensatz zu einem mit Schmerzparoxysmen oder durch Gewehrsalven: man riickte den Flugel (Erard) an die Tur und Delphine Potocka sang ihm i n der letzten Stunde ein Veilchenlied. Nach England r e i s t e er mit drei Flugeln: P l e y e l , Erard, Broadwood, s p i e l t e fvir 20 Guineen abends eine Viertelstunde bei Rothschilds, Wellingtons, im Strafford House und vor zahllosen Hosenb&ndern; verdunkelt von Miidigkeit und TodesnShe kehrte er heim auf den Square d 1Orleans. Dann verbrennt er seine Skizzen und Manuskripte, nur keine Restbestande, Fragmente, Notizen, diese verraterischen Einblicke — , sagte zum SchluB: »Meine Versuche sind nach MaBgabe dessen vollendet, was mir zu erreichen moglich war . - 49 -Spielen s o l l t e jeder Finger mit der seinem Bau entsprechenden Kraft der v i e r t e i s t der schwachste (nur siamasisch zum M i t t e l f i n g e r ) . Wenn er begann, lagen sie auf e, f i s , g i s , h, c. Wer je bestimmte Pr&ludien von ihm horte, s e i es i n LandhSusern oder i n einem Hohengelande oder aus offenen Terrassenturen beispielsweise aus einem Sanatorium, wird es schwer vergessen. Nie eine Oper komponiert, keine Symphonie, nur diese tragischen Progressionen aus a r t i s t i s c h e r Uberzeugung und mit einer kleinen Hand. ^ The f i r s t l i n e , an almost throw-away, sets the tone for the understatement that i s an essential element of the poem's t o t a l impact. With j u s t i f i c a t i o n Benn notes the reticence of the composer within a s o c i a l milieu. Although Chopin was invariably treated "en prince" (to use L i s z t ' s description) as a r e s u l t of his a r i s t o c r a t i c bearing and impeccable manners, there was also within him the desire to hold something i n reserve, and he never committed himself to deep discussions within the g l i t t e r i n g but sometimes s u p e r f i c i a l aura of the salon. - 50 -In comparison to L i s z t who had a penchant for drawing-room mysticism, Chopin had l i t t l e interest i n philosophizing for the benefit of his friends. This extended also to re-velations concerning the nature cf his own creative process. The irony of the l a s t l i n e s of the f i r s t stanza i n the Benn poem are a r e f l e c t i o n of this attitude: how could Chopin "account f o r " his nocturnes? Extensive research about the composer reveals that there i s very l i t t l e evidence to support any theory or theories he may have had about the ge-nesis of his compositions. Neither was he concerned with philosophical discussions of music. Yet, i f one examines a journal entry of Eug"ene Delacroix dated A p r i l 7, 1849, shortly before Chopin's death, i t would appear that the v e i l of r e t i -cence had been temporarily drawn aside i n the presence of a close f r i e n d and fellow a r t i s t . Dans l a journee, i l m'a parle' musique, et cela l ' a ranime'. Je l u i demandais ce qui e t a b l i s s a i t l a logique en musique. I I m'a f a i t s entir ce que c'est qu'harmonie et contrepoint; comme quoi l a fugue est comme l a logique pure en musique, et qu'£tre savant dans l a fugue, c'est connaitre 1'element de toute raison et de toute consequence en musique. J ' a i pense combien j'aurais ete"'heureux de m'instruire en tout cela qui d^soie les musiciens vulgaires. Ce sentiment m'a donne une ide'e du p l a i s i r que les savants, dignes de l ' e t r e , trouvent dans l a science. C'est que l a vraie science n'est pas ce que 1'on entend ordinairement par ce mot, c'est-a-dire une partie de l a connaissance differente de l ' a r t ; non! La science envisagee a i n s i , demontre'e par un homme comme Chopin, est l ' a r t lui-meme, et par contre l ' a r t n'est plus alors ce que l e c r o i t l e vulgaire, c'est-a-dire une sorte d'inspiration qui vient de je ne sais ou, qui - 51 -marche au hasard, et ne presente que l'exterieur pittoresque des choses. C'est l a raison elle-meme ornee par l e genie, mais suivant une marche ^ necessaire et contenue par des l o i s superieures. Thus, Benn i n the opening stanza of his poem on Chopin appears to contradict the core of Delacroix' impressive statement. Was the painter, i n e f f e c t , so carried away by his own eloquence that he attributed to Chopin what were actually Delacroix' own thoughts on music? The implication from Benn's poem i s that Chopin became restless when the painter developed theories. Either Benn did not read Delacroix' Journal, which seems unlikely i n l i g h t of his otherwise thorough research of his subject, or he i s suggesting a new and interesting p o s s i b i l i t y i n the Chopin -Delacroix relationship. In the second stanza of "Chopin," Benn appears to move from the s o c i a l to the sexual sphere. Although there has been considerable disagreement concerning the active role played by Chopin i n his relations with the insatiable Madame Sand, one thing emerges c l e a r l y ; Chopin was an incongruous figure i n the Sand menage. Although l a t e r he attempted to assume a quasi-father role which mainly consisted i n siding with George Sand's daughter, Solange, against her mother, b a s i c a l l y Chopin only sought a place i n which to continue the painstaking work of putting his compo-s i t i o n s on paper. Perhaps Chopin's position i n the Sand family Is best summed up by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n papers required for the t r i p to Majorca. Mme. Dudevant, married; Maurice, her son, minor; Solange, her daughter, minor; M. Frederic Chopin, a r t i s t . The order i n this instance i s not without symbolic significance i n the l i g h t of Chopin's l a t e r break with George Sand. P r i o r to t h i s , a fter the exhausting Majorca debacle, Chopin returned with the family to George Sand's country estate. There, the "shadow i n Nohant" enjoyed a productive period i n which the bucolic atmosphere played no small part. Such int e r v a l s of contentment were infrequent, however. Benn, i n the t h i r d pro-tracted stanza of the poem analyzes the course of Chopin's i l l n e s s i n c l i n i c a l d e t a i l . The "quiet death" i s so only by comparison with the countless anonymous twentieth century deaths "durch Gewehrsalven." S h i f t i n g between a past era and the present which provides a sudden shock to the reader, Benn again reverts to the "romantic" circumstances of Chopin's death which have been repeatedly recorded i n accounts of the composer. Benn's "Veilchenlied" sets the tone for the Age of S e n s i b i l i t y and leaves open the p o s s i b i l i t y that t h i s might also be one of the legends around the composer's f i n a l hour. Considerable v a r i a t i o n of opinion exists as to what Delfina actually sang, but i t i s generally agreed that the be a u t i f u l P o l i s h countess to whom Chopin was especially attracted chose Stradella's "Hymn to the V i r g i n " and Marcello's "Psalm." Benn's reference to the Erard piano, pedantically set i n brackets i s i r o n i c and further points up the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the setting. - 5 3 -' Stanza four, i n flash-back, returns to the time shortly before Chopin's death, when, i n an e f f o r t to f i l l h i s depleted coffers, he embarked on a tour of England and Scotland that was to precipitate his death. Speaking of this 'Strapaze,' Arthur Hedley i n his recent and valuable study of the composer writes: And one must admire the courage of a man who, within a year of his death, could face up to the terrors of a London 'season' with a l l i t s fatigues, disappointments and demands on nervous r e s i s t a n c e . ^ Both Benn and Hedley by revealing the r e a l i t y expose the superfi-c i a l facade conjured up by the g l i b tongue of E l i o t ' s "Lady." More than ever the reader i s made aware of the g r u e l l i n g tax on a f r a i l mechanism, which could i n turn produce the diaphanous i l l u s i o n around which so many myths were to be spun i n the name of Chopin. Benn i s nowhere more precise than when recounting the facts of the English expedition i n which three pianos rather than three ships were i n tow. At the same time some poetic licence i s in evidence since the pianos were made available to Chopin only after his a r r i v a l i n London. In addition to the num-ber Benn l i s t s the make of the grand pianos, conjuring up past glories through the magic of names. This applies even more to the distinguished families for whom Chopin performed. The "HosenbSnder" i s a gentle jeer at the aristocracy with whom Benn, unlike Chopin, would have f e l t extremely remote. Equally precise - 54 -i s the time and the amount given and received for the priceless experience of hearing Chopin "der Unnachahmliche."^ For the composer, the necessity of doling out his strength was emphasized by George Sand who maintained that "avec sa f a i b l e saute', i l faut 68 q u ' i l gagne assez d'argent pour t r a v a i l l e r peu." But mankind has a way of exacting i t s revenge i n due course. At Chopin's funeral, the singers of Mozart's Requiem were providing th e i r services for a fee of 2,000 francs, much to the disillusionment and dismay of Chopin's frie n d Albert Grzymala who f e l t that " t h e i r s e l f respect ought to have impelled them to offer and not 69 to s e l l to his memory." Benn's account of the aftermath of the expedition to England i s f a c t u a l l y true, and Stanza 5 points to the high standards that remained i n v i o l a t e i n the composer to the end. George Sand has l e f t an account of the t e r r i b l e b i r t h pangs Chopin underwent before even a single page of manuscript was completed. Mais alors commencait l e labeur le plus navrant auquel j ' a i e jamais assiste. C'etait une suite d'efforts, d'irresolutions et d'impatiences pour r e s s a i s i r certains d e t a i l s du theme de son audition: ce q u ' i l avait concu tout d'une piece, i l l'analysait trop en voulant l ' e c r i r e , et son regret de ne pas l e retrouver net, selon l u i , l e j e t a i t dans une sorte de desespoir. I I s'enfermait dans sa chambre des journees entieres, pleurant, marchant, brisant ses plumes, repetant et changeant cent f o i s une mesure, l'ecrivant et l'effa^ant autant de f o i s , et recommencant le lendemain avec une perseverance minutieuse et desesperee. I I passait s i x semaines sur une page pour en revenir ^ a l ' e c r i r e t e l l e q u ' i l 1'avait tracee du premier j e t . - 55. -In a s i m i l a r fashion Chopin was equally anxious to leave no "treacherous betrayals" of the e f f o r t i t cost him to produce, which accounts for the proportion of "perfect" works that have been l e f t to posterity. Another legacy which remained unfinished, however, was the "method" Chopin had planned to benefit future piano students in addition to providing him with another source of income. Chopin was an excellent teacher who recognized the value of a prac t i c a l manual that would incorporate those exercises and ideas he had found of most value i n directing h i s pupils towards piano playing i n the Chopin manner. His ideas were always of the most sensible kind: "Never practise more than three hours" -"The hand should not s t r a i n i n unnatural positions." In Stanza 6 Benn has incorporated Chopin's analysis of the construction of the hand i n addition to the simple exercise for the correct po-s i t i o n of the hand - a l l matters of interest to a medical man as w e l l as to a performing musician and composer. In addition, they show that Chopin was far i n advance of his time, and that his ideas were only to be thoroughly appreciated i n the twentieth century. F i n a l l y , Benn, in the midst of revealing t e c h n i c a l i t i e s does not f a i l to recognize the unforgettable experience that be-longs to a hearing of the Preludes, no matter what the loc a l e . This leads him to the fact that Chopin's l i m i t a t i o n s of range - 56 -Nie eine Oper komponiert, keine Symphonie.. . enabled him to concentrate where he was a r t i s t i c a l l y at home. As Hedley maintains: In l i m i t i n g himself to the piano he i n no way crippled or ti e d down his genius, for by his natural a f f i n i t y with his instrument he was provided with a s u f f i c i e n t outlet for the wealth of s e n s i b i l i t y which his double inheritance [French and Polish] had endowed him ... Chopin i s indeed the complete i l l u s t r a -t i o n of Goethe's dictum: 'It i s when working within l i m i t s that mastery reveals i t s e l f Undoubtedly Benn's last image "einer kleinen Hand" i s the master stroke of the poem. On one le v e l i t means just what i t says: an examination of the cast taken of Chopin's hand the morning after h i s death reveals that i t was indeed small. I t has been pointed out, however, by those who saw Chopin perform that the hand was extremely e l a s t i c between the fingers, that i t could stretch l i k e 72 "the mouth of a serpent about to devour a rabbit whole" enabling the composer to cover a t h i r d of the keyboard. Metaphorically, this i s also true of Chopin's influence which gradually increased after his death out of a l l proportion to the hand that composed the music. P o e t i c a l l y this strange and brutal image al e r t s the reader to a different kind of Chopin; the serpent i n th i s instance i s not to be confused with the e a r l i e r b a s i l i s k , which represented the f a t a l fascination upon fin-de-siecle w r i t e r s . Rather the new metaphor reveals the aspect of Chopin's music that the aesthetes chose largely to ingore: that possessed of f i r e , strength, and even f e r o c i t y which emanates from the music inspired by his Polish heritage. - 57 -Thus Chopin i n Benn's account of him i s revealed as a 73 man whose "unadventurous flavour of being" i s i n marked contrast to his strength and o r i g i n a l i t y as an a r t i s t . The 74 small hand "had a grip which gave the l i e to i t s f r a g i l e look." Although Benn's poem appears disjointed and disproportionately f a c t u a l , he has, i t would seem, helped to dispel.the sentimen-t a l i t y without losing the pathos of this man who i n Carlyle's words was a 'noble and much suffering human b e i n g . ' ^ The sense of tragic progression i s there i n Chopin's l i f e , i f not on a vast scale, and i t i s through each stanza, complete i n i t s e l f l i k e a Prelude, that Benn creates the formal vehicle for a r r i v i n g at his ultimate conclusion concerning the composer. i In addition, Benn does not alienate sympathy by the irony of the i poem's opening stanzas, since .much of phopin's own self-estima-I t i o n was based on a profound sense of his inadequacy i n coping with everyday r e a l i t i e s . That he once described himself as 'a donkey at a fancy-dress b a l l — a v i o l i n E-string on a double-bass' should discourage any biographer from approaching the composer without a strong sense of.the i r o n i c . In summary, i t may be maintained that the h i s t o r y of Chopin i n l i t e r a t u r e has been a tortuous one. Benn's poem, although the f i n a l work under consideration i n th i s study, actu-a l l y marks the beginning of a more sincere attempt on the part of writers to discover behind the man and his music much that the myth - 58 -has obli t e r a t e d . One of the descriptions of Chopin that has been i n constant currency i s that of Moscheles who when asked what Chopin was l i k e r e p l i e d ; "His music." I t follows then that i f such interdependence exists the man or his music w i l l suffer i f there i s misinterpretation on either side. The aesthetes perpetrated a one-sided picture of the music i n their writings because they misunderstood the man. Benn has, i n turn, provided a less distorted picture of the man which also speaks for the qua l i t y of the music. The fact that his poem encourages frequent comparisons with the assessment of a contemporary Chopin authority suggests a new trend i n literary-musical studies. It would seem that, having survived the cu l t of the b a s i l i s k , Chopin and his music w i l l continue to exist i n l i t e r a t u r e only i f there are writers prepared to add to the store of truths about him and a reading public prepared to accept these truths. - 59 -FOOTNOTES "^Adam Harasowski, The Skein of Legends around Chopin (Glasgow, 1967), p. 15. 2 Franz L i s z t , L i f e of Chopin, trans. M. Walker Cook (London, 1877), p. 12. O r i g i n a l l y e n t i t l e d F. Chopin, the book f i r s t appeared s e r i a l l y i n a journal, La France musicale, from Feb-ruary 9 to August 17, 1851. In 1852 i t was then published i n book form. 3 Selected Correspondence of Fryderyk Chopin, ed. Arthur Hedley (London, 1963), p. 171. 4 Robert Schumann, On Music and Musicians, ed. Konrad Wolff (New York, 1964), pp. 15-16. ^Casimir Wierzynski, The L i f e and Death of Chopin (London, 1951), p. 191. 6 Selected Correspondence, p. 386. ^Robert Schumann, "Ein Opus I I , " Allgemeine musikalische  Zeitung, XLIX (December, 1831), 806. 8 b a s i l i s k - " a mythical r e p t i l e hatched by a serpent from the egg of a cock and whose breath, or, i n other versions, look would k i l l , or b l a s t . " This note, quoted from Harasowski, p. 253, i s intended to provide more substantial proof for the correctness of the reading of ... ' b a s i l i s k ' rather than ' b a s i l ' as i t was translated from Schumann's a r t i c l e . Camille Bourniquel had made the error i n what i s otherwise a perceptive study of Chopin. 9 Henry H a t f i e l d , Thomas Mann (Connecticut, 1951), p. 2. ^ G e r a l d Abraham, A Hundred Years of Music (London, 1955), p. 131. "'""''Alfred Cor to t , In Search of Chopin (London, 1951), p. 84. 12 Klaus Schroter, Thomas Mann (Hamburg, 1964), p. 16. 13 Thomas Mann, "Tonio Kroger," Sa'mtliche Erzahlungen (Frankfurt am Main, 1963), p. 235. - 60 -14 ' i b i d . , p. 84. Mann, "Der Bajazzo," S.E., p. 110. 15, ~*" 6Ibid., p. 85. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 91. 18 Selected Correspondence, p. 348. 1 9John Galsworthy, The Forsyte Saga (New York, 1931), p. 308. 20 Thomas Mann, Buddenbrooks ( B e r l i n , 1932), p. 478. 2 1Mann, Doktor Faustus (Frankfurt am Main, 1967), p. 144. 0 0 Viktor Zmegac", Die Musik im Schaffen Thomas Manns (Halle, 1962), p. 43. 2 3Mann, "Tristan," S.E., p. 191. 24 Galsworthy, p. 308. 2 5 , , T r i s t a n , " p. 176. 26 Hermann Hesse, Gesammelte Dichtungen, I (B e r l i n , 1958), 283. 2 7"Der Bajazzo," p. 84. 2 8 , , T r i s t a n , " p. 172. J . Cuthbert Hadden, Chopin (London, 1903), p. 204. Camille Bourniquel, Chopin, trans. S i n c l a i r Road (New York, 1960), p. 122. Ibid. 32Hermann Hesse, "Engadiner Erlebnisse," Neue Schweizer Rundschau, XXI (Oktober, 1953), 331. 33 Bernhard Z e l l e r , Hermann Hesse (Hamburg, 1963), p. 36. 3 V a r k Boulby, Hermann Hesse: His Mind, and Art (New York, 1967), p. 75. F r i e d r i c h Nietzsche, Werke i n drei Eanden, I I (Munchen, 1960), 1092. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 937. - 61 -3 7Andre Gide, Notes sur Chopin (Paris, 1949), p. 12. Joseph Mileck, Hermann Hesse and His C r i t i c s (Chapel H i l l , N.C., 1958), pp. 156-157. 3 9Hesse, G.P., V, 378. 4 0 I b i d . , 379. 4 1 H e i n r i c h Heine, "Uber die franzosische B'uhne," Samtliche  Werke, VII (L e i p z i g , 1909), 416. ' ^ 2 M i l e c k , p. 91. (Mileck corroborates the p o s i t i o n taken by Edmund Gnefkow i n the l a t t e r ' s Hermann Hesse. Eine Biographie (1952). Quoted from Novalis' Heinrich von Ofterdingen. 44 Hesse, G.D., V, 380. 45G.D., I, 31. 4 6 I b i d . , 215. 47 Boulby, p. 4. 48 - Hesse, G.P., I I I , 743. 49 ^ I b i d . , 744. 5°G.P., V, 440. 5 1 R a l p h Freedman, The L y r i c a l Novel (Princeton, 1963), p. 58. 5 2Hesse, G.P., I I I , 743. 53 Freedman, p. 49. 5 4Quoted by James Lyons, E d i t o r , The American Record Guide, i n programme notes on Chopin's Preludes performed i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y by p i a n i s t Jeanne-Marie Parre. 5 5 S e a n Lucy, T.S. E l i o t and the Idea of T r a d i t i o n (London, 1960), p. 152. I b i d . 5 7T . S . E l i o t , " P o r t r a i t of a Lady," Co l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1962 (London, 1963), p. 18. CO I b i d . , p. 19. - 62 -59 T.S. E l i o t , "Conversation Galante," Collected Poems, p. 35. ^Henry H a t f i e l d , Modern German Literature (London, 1966), p. 132. ^Clemens Heselhaus, "Die Rhythmische Ausdruckswelt von Gottfried Benn," Deutsche L y r i k der Moderne (Dusseldorf, 1962), pp. 270-271. 62 Walter Lennig, Benn (Hamburg, 1962), p. 139. 63 Gottfried Benn, "Chopin," Statische Gedichte, Vol. I l l of Gesammelte Werke (Wiesbaden, 1960), p. 188. 64 ^Arthur Hedley, Chopin (London, 1953), p. 58. Eugene Delacroix, Journal, I (Paris, 1893), 364-365. 65. ^ A r t h u r Hedley, "Chopin the Man," Frederic Chopin: P r o f i l e s  of the Man and the Musician, ed. Alan Walker (London, 1966), p. 7. ^Nietzsche, Werke, I I , 937. 68 George Sand, Correspondance, V (Paris, 1969), 523. 69 Selected Correspondence, p. 375. 70 LHedley, p. 12. George Sand, Hi s t o i r e de ma Vie, IV (Paris, [l928J), 471. 71, 7 2Hadden, p. 192. 73 Doktor Faustus, p. 144. 74 Hedley, p. 13. 7"*Ibid., p. 11. - 63 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, Gerald. A Hundred Years of Music. London, 1955. Benn, G o t t f r i e d . Statische Gedichte. V o l . I l l of Qesammelte Werke. Wiesbaden, 1960. . Primal V i s i o n - selected w r i t i n g s , ed. E.B. Ashton. Connecticut, 1960. . Probleme der L y r i k . Marburg, 1951. Boulby, Mark. Hermann Hesse: His Mind and A r t . New York, 1967. Bourniquel, Camille. Chopin, trans. S i n c l a i r Road. New York, 1960. Cortot, A l f r e d . In Search of Chopin. London, 1951. Delacroix, Eugene. Journal. V o l . 1. 1823-1850. P a r i s , 1893. Durr, Werner. Hermann Hesse. Vom Wesen der Musik i n der Dichtung. S t u t t g a r t , 195/'. E l i o t , T.S. C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1962. London, 1963. Freedman, Ralph. The L y r i c a l Novel. Princeton, 1963. Galsworthy, John. The Forsyte Saga. New York, 1931. Gide, Andre'. Journals. V o l . I I I . London, 1949. . Notes sur Chopin. P a r i s , 1949. Hadden, J . Cuthbert. Chopin. London, 1903. Hamburger, Michael. Reason and Energy. London, 1957. Harasowski, Adam. The Skein of Legends around Chopin. Glasgow, 1967. H a t f i e l d , Henry. Thomas Mann. Connecticut, 1951. . Modern German L i t e r a t u r e . London, 1966. Hedley, Arthur. Chopin. London, 1953. - 64 -Heine, Heinrich. Uber die franzosische Buhne. Vol. 7 of Samtliche  Werke. L e i p z i g , 1909. Heselhaus, Clemens. Deutsche Ly r i k der Moderne. Dusseldorf, 1962. Hesse, Hermann. Gesammelte Dichtungen. 7 vols. B e r l i n , 1958. . "Engadiner Erlebnisse", Neue Schweizer Rundschau, XXI (Oktober, 1953) 331. Kenner, Hugh. The I n v i s i b l e Poet: T.S. E l i o t . London, 1960. Lennig, Walter. Benn. Hamburg, 1962. L i s z t , Franz. L i f e of Chopin, trans. M. Walker Cook. London, 1877. Lucy, Sean. T.S. E l i o t and the Idea of Tradition. London, 1960. Mann, Thomas. Buddenbrooks. B e r l i n , 1932. . Doktor Faustus. Frankfurt am Main, 1967. . S&mtliehe Erzahlungen. Frankfurt am Main, 1963. Mileck, Joseph. Hermann Hesse and his C r i t i c s . 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