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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Interrogatives, negation and linguistic play in three children acquiring French as a first language Davison, Anni Souren 1973

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/ INTERROGATIVES, NEGATION AND LINGUISTIC PLAY IN THREE CHILDREN ACQUIRING FRENCH AS A FIRST LANGUAGE x by ANNI SOUREN DAVISON B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Depar tmen t of L i ngu i s t i cs We accept t h i s t he s i s as conforming to the r equ i r ed s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Oc tobe r , 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of L i n g u i s t i c s The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date O c t o b e r , 1973 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y r e p o r t s t he s p o n t a n e o u s l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g F r e n c h as a f i r s t l a n g u a g e . The i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n as t he c h i l d r e n ' s ages and the p a r e n t s ' l i n g u i s t i c b a c k g r o u n d . In C h a p t e r Two, t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to pose q u e s t i o n s , make r e q u e s t s , and g i v e commands a r e d e s c r i b e d . C h a p t e r T h r e e d i s c u s s e s the v a r i o u s n e g a t i v e s p e e c h a c t i o n s t h a t the c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e to p e r f o r m , and the s c o p e o r r a n g e o f e a ch c h i l d ' s n e g a t i o n v o c a b u l a r y . C h a p t e r F o u r d i s c u s s e s t he c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to i n i t i a t e , p a r t i c i p a t e , and r e c o g n i z e l i n g u i s t i c p l a y , t h a t i s , s p e e c h w h i c h i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h t he f a c t s and i s n o t i n t e n d e d to be s e r i o u s . F i n a l l y , t he c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r s u m m a r i z e s the s t u d y and p o i n t s o u t i t s s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The S t u d y 1 1.2 The C h i l d r e n 4 1 .3 The P a r e n t s 5 1.4 The Da ta 6 1.5 P r e s e n t a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 10 CHAPTER TWO: QUESTIONS, REQUESTS, AND IMPERATIVES . . . . 12 2.1 P r e l i m i n a r i e s 12 2 .1 .1 T h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s 12 2 . 1 . 2 R e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e 16 2 . 1 . 3 Q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s i n a d u l t F r e n c h 19 2.2 The One-Word U t t e r a n c e S t a g e : Remi 20 2 .2 .1 Y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s 22 2 . 2 . 2 "Whe re " q u e s t i o n s 27 2 . 2 . 3 " H u h " q u e s t i o n s 29 2 . 2 . 4 R e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s 32 i i i Page 2 .3 " T e l e g r a p h i c " S t a g e : J e an 34 2 .3 .1 Y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s 35 2 . 3 . 2 "Where " q u e s t i o n s 38 2 . 3 . 3 "Why" q u e s t i o n s 44 2.3h4v:-."What" q u e s t i o n s 47 2 . 3 . 5 R e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s 48 2 .4 C o m p l e t e S e n t e n c e S t a g e : S o p h i e 49 2 .4 .1 Y e s / n o - t a g q u e s t i o n s 51 2 . 4 . 2 "Whe re " q u e s t i o n s 55 2 . 4 . 3 "Why" q u e s t i o n s 57 2 . 4 . 4 "What " q u e s t i o n s 59 2 . 4 . 5 "How" q u e s t i o n s 61 2 . 4 . 6 "Who" q u e s t i o n s 62 2 . 4 . 7 R e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s 63 2 .5 Summary 66 CHAPTER THREE : NEGATION 67 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 67 3 .1 .1 The s e m a n t i c s o f n e g a t i o n 67 3 . 1 . 2 N e g a t i o n i n a d u l t F r e n c h 71 3.2 A S c a l e o f N e g a t i o n A b i l i t i e s 72 3.3 L e x i c a l U s a g e : N e g a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s 79 3 .3 .1 Remi 80 3 . 3 . 2 J e a n 83 3 . 3 . 3 S o p h i e 92 i v Page 3.4 Summary 95 CHAPTER FOUR: THE APPEARANCE OF NON-SERIOUS UTTERANCES 97 4.1 A c q u i s i t i o n and P l a y 97 4 .2 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . 100 4 . 3 D i s c u s s i o n 103 4 . 4 Summary . 113 CHAPTER F I V E : SUMMARY 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 117 APPENDIX A : REMI: QUESTIONS AND NEGATIONS 120 APPENDIX B: J E A N : QUESTIONS AND NEGATIONS 132 APPENDIX C : SOPH IE : QUESTIONS AND NEGATIONS 163 v 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 .1 The S t u d y The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h to l i n g u i s t i c s , p r i n c i p a l l y by Chomsky ( 1 9 5 7 , 1 9 6 5 ) , has been the c a t a l y s t f o r numerous e x p e r i m e n t s and s t u d i e s on the a c q u i s i t i o n o f E n g l i s h as a f i r s t l a n g u a g e . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e has been a v a s t i n c r e a s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the v a r i o u s s t a g e s and d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he l a n g u a g e o f c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g E n g l i s h . A t t h e same t i m e , r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known a b o u t t he a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . In c o m p a r i s o n to E n g l i s h , F r e n c h has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s . S i n c e F r e n c h i s s i m i l a r to E n g l i s h i n many r e s p e c t s , i t i s o f i n t e r e s t w h e t h e r o r no t c o m p a r a b l e p a t t e r n s a r e f o l l o w e d . The s t u d y o f a c q u i s i t i o n i n l a n g u a g e s o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h , t h e n , p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n o f two k i n d s : f i r s t , new d a t a on a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h e l a n g u a g e i n q u e s t i o n , and two , c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a t owa rd e s t a b l i s h i n g a g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s s t u d y r e p o r t s t he s p o n t a n e o u s l i n g u i s t i c b e -h a v i o u r o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n who a r e a c q u i r i n g F r e n c h as a f i r s t 2 l a n g u a g e . The two y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s had a d v a n c e d to t he one-word u t t e r a n c e and " t e l e g r a p h i c " s t a g e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t h i r d s u b j e c t had p r o c e e d e d to t h e s t a g e a t w h i c h she c o u l d p r o d u c e s y n t a c t i c a l l y w e l l - f o r m e d s e n t e n c e s o f f i v e to t e n words i n l e n g t h . T h u s , w h i l e t h e d a t a were g a t h e r e d o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e and s u p p l y a f r a g m e n t o r n o n - l o n g i t u d i n a l v i ew o f t he c h i l d r e n ' s v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r , i t does r e s e m b l e a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y i n t h a t t he s t a g e s a r e p r o g r e s s i v e . Of c o u r s e , t h e s e " s t a g e s " r e f e r to compos i t e s o f numbers o r words u t t e r e d and v a r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s and no two s u b j e c t s a c q u i r e l a n g u a g e i n e x a c t l y i d e n t i c a l t i m e o r o r d e r . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , t h e s e s u b j e c t s f a l l g e n e r a l l y i n t o w e l l d e f i n e d c o m p l e x e s o f a b i l i t i e s and r e f l e c t i n g e n e r a l t e rms t h e p r o c e s s o f e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n . I w i l l f o c u s h e r e on the t h r e e most i m p r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d a t a : t he a b i l i t y t o u n d e r -t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e q u e s t i o n s and r e q u e s t s , to r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y e i t h e r to l a n g u a g e o r s i t u a t i o n s , and the r o l e o f l i n g u i s t i c p l a y o r r i t u a l i z e d t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h a p a r e n t i n l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . W h i l e t h e a n a l y s i s i n t he c h a p t e r s to f o l l o w w i l l d e s c r i b e l i n g u i s t i c a b i 1 i t i e s , p a r t i c u i a r l y i n t e rms o f a c q u i -s i t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y and the p r e s e n c e o f e x p l i c i t t e rms i n u t t e r a n c e s , i t w i l l be e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g c o n -t e x t u a l ' - " i n f o r m a t i o n as i n B loom ( 1 9 7 0 ) . A l o n g w i t h t he 3 a c t u a l u t t e r a n c e s u s e d , I i n c l u d e t h e c o n t e x t o r s i t u a t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e ^ . T h i s i n c l u s i o n may be e x p e c t e d to shed l i g h t on t he b r o a d e r q u e s t i o n o f how a c h i l d l e a r n s when a p a r t i c u l a r u t t e r a n c e i s a p p r o p r i a t e . Such c o n t e x t s can a l s o i n d i c a t e a b i l i t i e s on t he p a r t o f c h i l d r e n to c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n where an e x p l i c i t u t t e r a n c e i s u n a v a i l a b l e to t hem. C h a p t e r Two d i s c u s s e s the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g r e q u e s t s , q u e s t i o n s , and commands. Not o n l y i s t he f o r m o f s u c h e x p r e s s i o n s a t s t a k e t h e r e , bu t a l s o , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , t he f u n c t i o n and t y p e s o f t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s . I p r e s e n t c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r t r e a t i n g q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s and commands a t one t i m e . A l s o , I s u g g e s t an o r d e r o f q u e s t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n w h i c h compares f a v o u r a b l y to t h a t o b s e r v e d by Ingram (1972) and M. Sm i th ( 1 9 3 3 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , I d i s c u s s t he d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s g a t h e r e d f o r e a ch s u b j e c t w h i l e p r e s e n t i n g an o r d e r o f q u e s t i o n s b a s e d on the f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e . In C h a p t e r T h r e e I d i s c u s s t he s e m a n t i c s o f n e g a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e f o r m v a r i o u s n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s may t a k e . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t he d i s c o v e r y o f c o n n e c t i o n s b e -tween n e g a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s , as t h e s e s u g g e s t c e r t a i n s t r u c -t u r e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n . In t h i s c h a p t e r I p r e s e n t t h e r a n g e o f t he n e g a t i n g a b i l i t i e s o f t he t h r e e c h i l d r e n , and the v a r i o u s s p e e c h a c t i o n s t h a t can be p e r f o r m e d by n e g a t i v e 4 u t t e r a n c e s . A l s o , b a s e d on t h e i r f r e q u e n c y , an o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e s e a c t i o n s . In C h a p t e r Fou r t he d i s c u s s i o n t u r n s to t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i n g u i s t i c games . Such games i n c l u d e i n t e n t i o n a l m i s - n a m i n g o f o b j e c t s , a s s u m i n g c o n t r a r y b e l i e f s , and r o l e p l a y i n g . The t r a n s a c t i o n s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e such games may c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y to l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t o n . T h i s c h a p t e r d e p a r t s f r o m the p r e v i o u s two , i n t h a t i t does no t d i s c u s s the more t y p i c a l i s s u e s o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n s u c h as the l e x i c o n , t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f bound morphemes , t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n s , and o t h e r s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t i e s . I t d i s c u s s e s , i n s t e a d , t he t h r e e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s t o i n i t i a t e and p a r -t i c i p a t e i n l i n g u i s t i c games . The c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r F i v e , s u m m a r i z e s the s t u d y and p o s e s f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n f o r l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d i e s . 1 . 2 The C h i l d r e n The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y was g a t h e r e d f r o m the s p e e c h o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g F r e n c h as t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . R e m i , t he y o u n g e s t o f t he t h r e e a t 22 months and 27 days o l d , was an o n l y c h i l d o f F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g p a r e n t s . S o p h i e , who was t he f i r s t b o r n and was 38 months and 6 days o l d , and he r y o u n g e r b r o t h e r J e a n , 24 months and 25 days o l d , had been b r o u g h t t o V a n c o u v e r f r o m F r a n c e a t t he end o f t he Summer o f 1 9 7 2 . 5 A l t h o u g h a t t he t i m e o f t he t a p i n g F r e n c h was t he s o l e l a n g u a g e s p o k e n a t home f o r a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n , Remi was e x p o s e d to E n g l i s h i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , and S o p h i e t h r o u g h he r p e e r s and a t day s c h o o l (two m o r n i n g s a w e e k ) . F o r R e m i , h i s e x p o s u r e to E n g l i s h came f rom the o c c a s i o n a l e v e n i n g baby s i t t e r , t e l e v i s i o n (two h o u r s a w e e k ) , h i s p a r e n t ' s E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g f r i e n d s , and o t h e r o u t s i d e c o n t a c t s s u c h as t he p o s t m a n , b u s d r i v e r s , e t c . A t t h i s t i m e , Remi d i d no t a s s o c i a t e w i t h E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n o f h i s own age on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . L i k e w i s e , S o p h i e was o n l y b e g i n n i n g to s u b s t i t u t e a few E n g l i s h i t e m s i n t o he r F r e n c h by t he end o f t he o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d , and J e a n ' s e x p o s u r e to E n g l i s h came m a i n l y f r o m S o p h i e and two to t h r e e h o u r s o f t e l e v i s i o n p e r week . I f J e a n ' s F r e n c h was b e i n g a f f e c t e d by E n g l i s h a t a l l , i t was n o t n o t i c e -a b l e . T h u s , E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e i n f l u e n c e was m i n i m a l , and i t may be s a f e l y assumed t h a t F r e n c h was i n f a c t t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e f o r t h e s u b j e c t s . 1 . 3 The P a r e n t s R e m i ' s p a r e n t s had i m m i g r a t e d to Canada two y e a r s b e f o r e h i s b i r t h . The mo the r was a h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e and came f r o m P a r i s . The f a t h e r was an e l e c t r i c i a n and was o r i g i n a l l y f r om s o u t h e r n F r a n c e . Bo th p a r e n t s s p o k e F r e n c h i n t he home and E n g l i s h was used o u t s i d e t he home and t h e n o n l y mi n i m a l l y . 6 S o p h i e and J e a n ' s p a r e n t s were b o t h f r o m P a r i s and l i k e R e m i ' s p a r e n t s spoke F r e n c h i n t he home. T h e i r m o t h e r had been a t e a c h e r f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , and t h e i r f a t h e r , a m a t h e m a t i c i a n , was a v i s i t i n g p r o f e s s o r i n Canada f o r one y e a r . D u r i n g t he t i m e o f o b s e r v a t i o n b o t h m o t h e r s were a t home and c a r i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . R e m i ' s mo the r was p r e s e n t d u r i n g a l l t e n s e s s i o n s . Howeve r , s i n c e she was busy w i t h h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s , he r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Remi was l i m i t e d . S o p h i e and J e a n ' s m o t h e r was p r e s e n t d u r i n g most o f t he s e s s i o n s and she p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t he c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s . On one o c c a s i o n t he f a t h e r was p r e s e n t a n d , a g a i n , he a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t he c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s . The t h r e e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r F o u r . 1 .4 The Da ta The f i r s t s e s s i o n w i t h Remi was h e l d when he was 22 months and 27 days o l d ( h e n c e f o r t h 2 2 , 2 7 ) . The d a t a were gait'h'ered i n t e n o n e - h o u r s e s s i o n s , e i g h t hou r s o f w h i c h were r e c o r d e d on c a s s e t t e t a p e s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t e v e r y s e s s i o n was e i t h e r t a p e d i n who l e o r i n p a r t and n o t e s were made d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r -m a t i o n f o r t he t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . R e m i ' s mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e (MLU) f o r t he f i r s t s e s s i o n was 1.27 and by t he t e n t h i t was 7 1 . 6 8 . T h e r e were 512 u t t e r a n c e s g a t h e r e d o v e r t he t e n - s e s s i o n s MLU was a r r i v e d a t by c o u n t i n g t he number o f c o m p r e h e n s i b l e w o r d s , words w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d to S t a n d a r d F r e n c h and words w h i c h were i d i o s y n c r a t i c , and d i v i d i n g t h i s number by t he number o f o c c u r r e n c e s ( e x c l u d i n g r e p e t i t i o n s ) . I f an u t t e r a n c e wou ld have been d e f i n i t e l y r e a l i z e d as more t han one word i n S t a n d a r d F r e n c h , t h e n i t was c o u n t e d as s u c h . F o r e x a m p l e , [ u n a ] , un a u t r e ( a n o t h e r ) , was c o u n t e d as two w o r d s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d f o r a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n . R e m i , p e r h a p s l i k e most norma l c h i l d r e n a t t h i s s t a g e , was c o n s t a n t l y engaged i n p r o d u c i n g s t r i n g s o f i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e u t t e r a n c e s marked w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n t o n a t i o n a l c o n t o u r s and g e s t u r e s , a d d r e s s e d to h i s m o t h e r , to me, o r a t t i m e s to no one i n p a r t i c u l a r . B loom r e p o r t s t h a t when one o f he r s u b j e c t s , E r i c , was 19 months and 1 week o l d , w i t h an MLU o f 1 . 1 0 , "he p r o d u c e d e x t e n d e d s t r i n g s o f sounds w i t h r e c o g n i z a b l e E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s -- bu t c o n t a i n i n g few i n t e l l i g i b l e w o r d s , i f a n y " ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 0 2 ) . T h i s t y p e o f l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r , p r i o r to and d u r i n g t he one-word u t t e r a n c e s t a g e , has been t e rmed " j a r g o n " (Menyuk 1 9 7 1 : 4 ) , and a p p e a r s to be a common l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r f o r t h i s s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . R e m i , h o w e v e r , was no t t h e o n l y one o f t he t h r e e c h i l d r e n . t o p r o d u c e j a r g o n . J e a n , to a much l e s s e r e x t e n t , a l s o engaged i n - s u c h b e h a v i o u r . S o p h i e , on t he o t h e r h a n d , d i d n o t . 8 W i th t h e e x c e p t i o n o f two s e s s i o n s w i t h J e a n a l o n e , a l l o f t he o t h e r s e s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h J e an and S o p h i e t o g e t h e r , w i t h t he f i r s t s e s s i o n t a k i n g p l a c e f i v e weeks a f t e r R e m i ' s o b s e r v a t i o n had s t a r t e d and l e s s t han two months a f t e r t he c h i l d r e n ' s a r r i v a l i n V a n c o u v e r . A t t h e s t a r t o f t h e s t u d y J e an was 24 months and 25 days o l d ( 2 4 , 2 5 ) and S o p h i e was 38 months and 6 days o l d ( 3 8 , 6 ) . T h e r e were n i n e s e s s i o n s w i t h S o p h i e and J e an t o g e t h e r o v e r a p e r i o d o f n i n e w e e k s , and t h e s e t o t a l e d n i n e h o u r s and f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s o f t a p e . As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e r e were two t a p e d s e s s i o n s h e l d w i t h J e an a l o n e , t h u s t o t a l l i n g e l e v e n h o u r s and f o r t y - f i v e m i n t u e s f o r J e a n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y an hour o f t a p i n g and n o t e t a k i n g p e r s e s s i o n , a d d i t i o n a l t i m e was a lways s p e n t d u r i n g each s e s s i o n i n o b s e r v i n g the c h i l d r e n and i n becoming more f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r . T h e r e were 1812 u t t e r a n c e s ga the ra/ f rom J e a n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h c o u l d no t be u n d e r s t o o d by e i t h e r t h e m o t h e r o r m y s e l f a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s f i g u r e . The i n a b i l i t y to make s e n s e o f c e r t a i n u t t e r a n c e s (on my p a r t ) was no t n e c e s s a r i l y due to t he f a c t t h a t J e an was e n g a g i n g i n j a r g o n , b u t s i m p l y b e c a u s e a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between J e a n ' s F r e n c h and the a d u l t v e r s i o n c o u l d no t be d r a w n , e . g . , [ p a p u s a k ^ v a l l o t p a k h t h l o t p a k h p a p l i ] . A l t h o u g h the u n d e r -l i n e s p o r t i o n s o f t h e u t t e r a n c e a r e c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , pas pu ca ( c a n n o t t h i s ) , c h e v a l ( h o r s e ) , 1 ' a u t r e ( t he o t h e r ) , no c o n -c l u s i o n s can be drawn c o n c e r n i n g i t s m e a n i n g . 9 J e a n ' s mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e o f words i n t he f i r s t s e s s i o n was 1 . 7 8 . U n l i k e R e m i , J e a n ' s f r e e u t t e r a n c e s were no t s t r i c t l y one word i n l e n g t h . I f t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s c o n s i s t i n g o f o u i , n o n , and t h e names o f o b j e c t s were e x c l u d e d f rom the MLU c o u n t , h i s MLU f o r t he f i r s t s e s s i o n wou ld c o n s i s t o f a t l e a s t two i t e m s . L i k e w i s e , t he l a s t s e s s i o n ' s MLU o f 2 .16 wou ld a l s o be somewhat h i g h e r . D u r i n g t he n i n e s e s s i o n s w i t h S o p h i e , 1393 u t t e r a n c e s were g a t h e r e d . S o p h i e ' s u t t e r a n c e s were t y p i c a l l y n o v e l , i n t h a t she d i d no t have word c o m b i n a t i o n s o r p h r a s e s w h i c h she used r e p e a t e d l y s i m p l y b e c a u s e she had no b e t t e r l i n g u i s t i c means a t he r d i s p o s a l . T h i s i s no t to say t h a t she had m a s t e r e d the t a r g e t l a n g u a g e , bu t o n l y t h a t her u t t e r a n c e s were no t l i m i t e d to a s e t number o f e x p r e s s i o n s . S o p h i e ' s MLU f o r t he f i r s t s e s s i o n was 3 .37 and f o r t he l a s t , i t was 4 . 1 5 . In c o m p a r i n g t h e mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e o f words f o r t he f i r s t and l a s t s e s s i o n s f o r each c h i l d , T a b l e 1 . 1 , T a b l e 1.1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t he T h r e e C h i l d r e n ' s MLU Remi J ean Sophie S e s s i o n MLU Age MLU Age MLU Age F i r s t L a s t 1 .27 1 .68 .22,27 2 5 , 2 0 1 .78 2 .16 2 4 , 2 5 2 6 , 2 3 3 .37 4 . 1 5 3 8 , 6 40,1 10 the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n MLU a p p e a r s i n t he d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m S o p h i e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e s h o u l d no t be t a k e n s t r i c t l y as a measu re o f t he change i n l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . R a t h e r , s i n c e d u r i n g the l a s t s e s s i o n t h e r e were f e w e r one word u t t e r -a n c e s , s u c h as o u i and n o n , t he MLU r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r f i g u r e . The same c o u l d be s a i d o f t he d i f f e r e n c e t h a t a p p e a r s i n J e a n ' s MLU. R e m i , h o w e v e r , a t t he l a s t s e s s i o n e x h i b i t e d t he b e g i n n i n g s o f t he two-word u t t e r a n c e s t a g e , t h a t i s , e n -l a r g e m e n t o f v o c a b u l a r y , and f r e q u e n t a p p e a r a n c e o f two-word u t t e r a n c e s . 1 . 5 P r e s e n t a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s A l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s w i l l be g i v e n i n S t a n d a r d F r e n c h , t h i s i s n o t to a t t r i b u t e to t he c h i l d any know ledge i m p l i c i t i n t he c o n v e n t i o n s o f o r t h o g r a p h y . P h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e s w i l l be g i v e n o n l y i n t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h a s t a n d a r d r e n d i t i o n wou ld be e i t h e r i m p o s s i b l e , e . g . , [3] , o r i n a d v i s a b l e due to a l a c k o f c e r t a i n t y , e . g . [ 1 6 ] , i t e m d e s i g n a t i n g " w h e r e " f o r J e a n . An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n f o r t he F r e n c h w i l l be g i v e n o n l y i n t he c o r p u s o f t h i s s t u d y . Each u t t e r a n c e w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n i t s c o n t e x t . The c o n t e x t w i l l i n c l u d e s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n as t he a c t i v i t y p r i o r to the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e a l o n g w i t h w h a t , i f a n y t h i n g , t he a d u l t has s a i d t o t h e c h i l d , and a c t i v i t y and s p e e c h a f t e r t he c h i l d ' s 11 u t t e r a n c e . I f t he c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t y i s n o t e d w h i l e he i s u t t e r -i n g , t h a t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t a l s o . The p o s i t i o n o f the c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e i n t he c o n t e x t w i l l be marked by > . The mo the r o f t he c h i l d w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as M, t he f a t h e r . as F, S o p h i e as S , t he o b s e r v e r as 0, and J e a n and Remi as J and R r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a p p e n d i c e s w i l l p r e s e n t raw d a t a and t h e s e w i l l be o r g a n i z e d f o r each c h i l d . The f o l l o w i n g d i a c r i t i c a l marks w i l l be used t h r o u g h o u t t he p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t he c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s : (••*) f o r p a u s e , ( : ) f o r l e n g t h e n i n g o f u t t e r a n c e , and ( [ ] ) f o r p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . 12 CHAPTER TWO QUESTIONS, REQUESTS, AND IMPERATIVES 2.1 P r e l i m i n a r i e s 2 .1 .1 T h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e v e l o p an a c c o u n t o f t h e t h r e e c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s to pose q u e s t i o n s , make r e -q u e s t s , and d i f f e r e n t i a t e be tween r e q u e s t s and commands. W h i l e t h e s e t h r e e i s s u e s may seem to m e r i t s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s , s i n c e q u e s t i o n s a r e d e m o n s t r a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m commands, my a n a l y s i s w i l l a t t e m p t to show t h a t each o f the t h r e e i s s u e s depends u n i q u e l y on a s i n g l e a b i l i t y : t he a b i l i t y to e x p r e s s needs i n l a n g u a g e . Q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s , and commands a l l s tem f r o m  c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h a s p e a k e r ' s d e s i r e w i l l no t be f u l - f i l l e d , a l l t h i n g s r e m a i n i n g e q u a l , i f he does n o t make h i s  need known. He must u n d e r t a k e q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s , and com-mands to see t h a t h i s need i s m e t . In w h i c h o f t h e s e t h r e e f o rms the u t t e r a n c e w i l l a p p e a r must depend on the s t a t u s o f the h e a r e r , t h e u r g e n c y o f t h e n e e d , and o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s any t h e o r y o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e n , to t r e a t t h e s e t h r e e a b i l i t i e s a t one t i m e 13 i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d , s i n c e t h e y s h a r e a common s o u r c e and s i n c e t h e y a r e each g e n e r a l i z a b l e as u t t e r a n c e s made to see t h a t a need i s m e t . From a more f o r m a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n between t he s e m a n t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s , and i m p e r a t i v e s has been d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n . K a t z and P o s t a l ( 1 9 6 4 : 8 5 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , have p o i n t e d o u t : An important fact about questions is that, semantically, they are somewhat like im-peratives in that questions are requests of a special kind. However, unlike im-peratives, which, in general, request some form of nonlinguistic behavior or action, questions are concerned primarily with linguistic responses. ( 1 9 6 4 : 8 5 ) A l s o , Go rdon and L a k o f f have s u g g e s t e d a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f q u e s t i o n s as t y p e s o f r e q u e s t s r a t h e r t h a n as t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n , i . e . , a r e q u e s t t h a t t he h e a r e r p r o v i d e some i n f o r m a t i o n ( 1 9 7 1 : 6 6 ) . T h i s v i ew was s h a r e d by C h a f e , who s t a t e s : The meaning of interrogative is that the speaker requests the hearer to provide him with new (and true) information of a sort which is made explicit by the rest of the sentence. ( 1 9 7 0 : 3 1 2 ) H e n c e , a l t h o u g h q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s , and commands a r e c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d on the s u r f a c e , t h e y s h a r e a common s e m a n t i c p r o -p o s i t i o n i n t h a t t h e y r e q u e s t e i t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o r a c t i o n . T h i s s e m a n t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e i n r e c o g n i z i n g and i s o l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s , and commands f r o m t h e e a r l y l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r o f c h i l d r e n s u c h as t h e 14 s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e s y n t a x and i n t o n a t i o n have shown to be o f m i n i m a l a s s i s t a n c e . F o r t he two b o y s , b o t h q u e s t i o n s and r e q u e s t s seem to have s i m i l a r i n t o n a t i o n a l c o n t o u r s , and s i n c e few q u e s t i o n s a r e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y , l e t a l o n e s y n t a c t i -c a l l y , m a r k e d , i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t he c o n t e x t must f i g u r e i n w h e t h e r t he u t t e r a n c e r e q u e s t s i n f o r m a t i o n o r an a c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y w i t h S o p h i e , c o n t e x t d i s t i n g u i s h e s r e q u e s t s f r o m i m p e r a t i v e s s i n c e many r e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s have i d e n t i c a l s y n t a x and o f t e n i n t o n a t i o n does no t p r o v i d e a d i s t i n c t i o n . T h u s , c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p l a y s a c r u c i a l r o l e i n d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g w h i c h u t t e r a n c e s m i g h t be r e q u e s t s , q u e s t i o n s , o r i m p e r a t i v e s , and s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t he d i s c u s s i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e . c h i l d r e n ' s ;(:eommuni c a t i ve ) a b i 1 i t i es . W i th r e g a r d to what to t a k e as a q u e s t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a -t i v e s , i n v o l v i n g t he i s s u e o f how q u e s t i o n s may most i n t e r e s t -i n g l y be s u b c l a s s i f i e d . In most c a s e s , u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g b o t h q u e s t i o n morphemes and r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n q u a l i f y as q u e s t i o n s . B u t , such s t a n d a r d s a r e i n a d e q u a t e f o r o t h e r , l e s s e x p l i c i t , u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h f u n c t i o n as q u e s t i o n s . C e r t a i n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n - l i k e u t t e r a n c e s r e q u e s t new o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , o t h e r s r e q u e s t r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f what t h e c h i l d a l r e a d y knows o r s u p p o s e s , o t h e r s ask a g r e e m e n t , and s t i l l o t h e r s r e q u i r e no r e s p o n s e a t a l l . M.M. L ew i s has made a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n : 1 5 First, the child continues to play the game of question-and-answer; he asks what we may call "pseudo-questions"--questions the answer to which he already knows and which he asks simply for the pleasure of the verbal interchange with someone. Secondly, he continues to ask questions to test the correctness of what he believes--a rudimentary form of testing a hypothesis. Finally3 he asks questions by which he seeks real infor-mation--what he as yet does not know. ( 1 9 6 8 : 9 4 ) In i n e x p l i c i t o r unmarked c a s e s , t he r e a s o n s a s u b j e c t has f o r mak ing an u t t e r a n c e , as shown by i t s c o n t e x t , may q u a l i f y t h a t u t t e r a n c e as a q u e s t i o n . A l o n g w i t h m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y marked u t t e r a n c e s , t h o s e wh i ch f u n c t i o n as q u e s t i o n s w o u l d , t h e n , be i n c l u d e d i n t he c l a s s o f r e q u e s t s . T h u s , t o w iden t h e s p e c t r u m o f what may be t a k e n as a q u e s t i o n i s to i n t e n s i f y t he p r o b l e m o f how and where to c l a s s i f y and make d i s t i n c t i o n s be tween q u e s t i o n s . T h i s p r o b l e m becomes even more a c u t e i n t he f a c e o f one-word and two-word u t t e r a n c e s , s i n c e t h e i n t e n -t i o n s o f t he s u b j e c t c a n n o t be p r o p e r l y a s s i g n e d , becoming h i g h l y a m b i g u o u s , and open to v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h i s s t u d y does no t p r e t e n d to have s o l v e d the p r o b l e m o f s u b c l a s s i f y i n g q u e s t i o n s ; i t does however p r o v i d e ample c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e d e s c r i p t i o n and make a n a l y s i s p o s s i b l e . I t w i l l o f f e r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n u t t e r a n c e s d u r i n g t he t h r e e s t a g e s r e p r e s e n t e d by the s u b j e c t s , w i t h r e g a r d to a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n c o n t e x t . 2 . 1 . 2 R e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e In r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h , q u e s t i o n s have had the most a t t e n t i o n among the t h r e e i s s u e s unde r d i s c u s s i o n h e r e . Mos t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h has been c o n -d u c t e d w i t h c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . The i n t e r e s t i n q u e s t i o n s has been v a r i e d . F o r e x a m p l e , Brown and H a n l o n have l o o k e d a t q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r to answer such q u e s t i o n s as " i s d e r i v a t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y r e l a t e d to t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h c o n s t r u c t i o n s emerge i n c h i l d s p e e c h " ( 1 9 6 8 : 1 3 ) . On the o t h e r h a n d , G r u b e r has l o o k e d a t q u e s t i o n s t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t h a t a c h i l d l e a r n i n g a l a n g u a g e uses " i n n a t e l y known t o p i c - c o m m e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n to compose r i c h e r s e n t e n c e s " ( 1 9 6 7 : 3 8 2 ) . A l s o , q u e s t i o n s have been l o o k e d a t to d e s c r i b e f o r m a l l y c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c c o m p e t e n c e . In f a c t , K l i m a and B e l l u g i - K l i m a have w r i t t e n a s e t o f r u l e s to d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s p e r i o d s i n t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f t he s y n t a c t i c s t r u c -t u r e s o f q u e s t i o n s ( 1 9 6 6 : 4 2 0 - 4 2 4 ) . They p o i n t o u t t h a t i n t e r -r o g a t i v e word p r e p o s i n g , i n v e r s i o n o f v e r b and noun i n y e s / n o - q u e s t i o n s , and DO d e l e t i o n , do no t a p p e a r u n t i l t he t h i r d p e r i o d w i t h a mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e o f morphemes o f 2 . 7 5 - 4 . 0 . Q u e s t i o n s p r o d u c e d by c h i l d r e n w i t h an MLU o f 1 . 0 - 1 . 5 , h o w e v e r , a r e no t d i s c u s s e d by K l ima and Be l 1 u g i - K l i m a . Of t he r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f one-word u t t e r a n c e s i n E n g l i s h , most e i t h e r make no m e n t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s ( e . g . , B l o o m , 1970) o r s i m p l y s t a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n a t t h i s s t a g e o f 17 l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t do i n d e e d ask q u e s t i o n s and t h i s t h e y do by means o f a r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n (Menyuk 1 9 7 1 : 6 0 - 6 2 ) . A s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by Menyuk and B e r n h o l t z (1969) i s o f t e n c i t e d as i n d i c a t i v e o f t he e x i s t e n c e t h a t p r o s o d i c f e a t u r e s ( q u e s t i o n , s t a t e m e n t , e m p h a t i c ) c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t o f t he c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s . In a r e c e n t d r a f t o f a s t u d y by G r e e n f i e l d , S m i t h , and L a u f e r on t he n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s one-word u t t e r a n c e s , q u e s t i o n s a r e d i s m i s s e d ( 1 9 7 2 ) . G r e e n f i e l d and he r c o l l e a g u e s r e p o r t t h a t " i n t o n a t i o n i s t he cue most o f t e n used i n i n t e r -p r e t i n g an u t t e r a n c e as a q u e s t i o n " ( 1 5 7 ) . Q u e s t i o n s a r e t r e a t e d as a m o d a l i t y e l e m e n t w h i c h e x c l u d e s them f r o m d i s c u s -s i o n s i n c e t h e . i s r t s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h o s e e l e m e n t s w h i c h do no t b e l o n g i n t he m o d a l i t y component as expounded by F i l l m o r e ( 1 9 6 9 ) . U n l i k e the one-word u t t e r a n c e s t a g e , s u b s e q u e n t s t a g e s o f l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t , have had more a t t e n t i o n . Ingram (1972 ) r e p o r t s on t he s p o n t a n e o u s q u e s t i o n s a s k e d by t en norma l c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f 2-1/2 and 3 y e a r s , w i t h one c h i l d a t 1-1/2 y e a r s o f a g e . From t h i s d a t a , he d i s c u s s e s f r e q u e n c y and s t a g e s o f q u e s t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n . The more f r e -q u e n t l y a s k e d q u e s t i o n s were y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s (47% o f t he t o t a l q u e s t i o n s a s k e d ) , f o l l o w e d by " w h e r e " ( 1 8 % ) , " w h a t " ( 1 8 % ) , "why" ( 8 % ) , "how" ( 5 % ) , "who" ( 2 % ) , and "when " ( 1% ) . Y e s / n o , " w h e r e , " and " w h a t " q u e s t i o n s were used by a l l t he c h i l d r e n . E i g h t used "why" and " h o w , " and o n l y f i v e c h i l d r e n 18 used "who" . . q u e s t i o n s . T h e s e a r e s u g g e s t e d as p o s s i b l e s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Somewhat c o m p a r a b l e r e s u l t s were f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y . T a b l e I I .1 shows the p e r c e n t a g e o f the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s p o s e d by the t h r e e c h i l d r e n . T a b l e I I .1 F r e q u e n c y o f Q u e s t i o n s Posed T o t a l No. huh y e s / n o where why what how who Remi 42 61% 34% 5% J e an 82 21% 48% 19% 12% S o p h i e 106 22% 22% 21% 23% 10% 2% A l t h o u g h y e s / n o - q u e s t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t , f o r J e an " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s have h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f o c c u r r e n c e . None o f t he F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n used e i t h e r "when " o r " w h i c h " q u e s -t i o n s . M. S m i t h r e p o r t s t h a t " w h o , " and " w h i c h " made up o n l y 2% o f a l l q u e s t i o n s a s k e d by he r 219 c h i l d r e n be tween the ages o f 18 to 72 months ( 1 9 3 3 : 2 0 1 , 2 0 6 ) . She a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t " w h a t " and " w h e r e " were the most f r e q u e n t l y u sed q u e s t i o n w o r d s , 15% and 1 1 % , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and "how" a p p e a r e d 6% o f t he t i m e ( 2 0 6 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t he f o l l o w -i n g o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n : 19 1. y e s / n o 2. w h e r e , what (why?) 3. how, who 4 . when , w h i c h 2 . 1 . 3 Q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s i n a d u l t F r e n c h A l l w h - q u e s t i o n s i n F r e n c h can be f o r m e d w i t h e i t h e r t he q u e s t i o n e l e m e n t a l o n e o r w i t h e s t - c e q u e . As i n E n g l i s h , when the q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n s wh-e l ement i n v e r s i o n o c c u r s be tween the v e r b and the p r o n o u n , , i f a pronoun*, i s p r e s e n t . The f o l l o w i n g a r e t he s t a n d a r d fo rms f o r q u e s t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g w h - e l e m e n t . ou (where ) Quo i (what ) P o u r q u o i (why) Comment (how) Qui (who) Quand (when) Que l ( w h i c h ) Ou e s t l e l i v r e ? (where i s t he hook ? ) (what i s t h i s ? ) (why does he do t h i s ? ) C ' e s t q u o i ga? P o u r q u o i f a i t - i l ca? Comment f a i t - o n l e (how do we make the g a t e a u ? c a k e ? ) Qui e s t a l a p o r t e ? ( w h o i s a t t h e d o o r ? ) Quand v i e n d r a s - t u ? (when w i l l you come?) Le q u e l e s t v o t r e (wh i ch one i s y o u r l i v r e ? book? ) In t h i s s t u d y o n l y the f i r s t f i v e e l e m e n t s a p p e a r . A l s o , s i n c e t he e s t - c e que f o rms o f q u e s t i o n s do no t a p p e a r a t a l l , i t w i l l n o t be n e c e s s a r y to expound on t h e m . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d o n l y t h a t when t h e e s t - c e que f o r m i s used no i n v e r s i o n 20 o f p r o n o u n and v e r b o c c u r s , e . g . , p o u r q u o i e s t - c e q u ' i l f a i t c^ a? (why does he do t h i s ? ) . O t h e r w i s e , y e s / n o - q u e s t i o n s i n F r e n c h , as i n E n g l i s h , do n o t have a s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t he u t t e r a n c e as a y e s / n o q u e s t i o n . A g a i n , i n y e s / n o - q u e s t i o n s i n v e r s i o n o c c u r s , f o r e x a m p l e , V i e n s - t u ce s o i r ? (A re you coming t h i s e v e n i n g ? ) . R e q u e s t s can be c o u c h e d i n e i t h e r t he v e r b p o u v o i r ( t o be a b l e t o ) o r v o u 1 o i r ( t o want t o ) . F o r e x a m p l e , " w o u l d you g i v e me the b o o k ? " wou ld b e : V e u x - t u me d o n n e r l e l i v r e ? H e r e , t he s t a t e m e n t has a q u e s t i o n i n t o n a t i o n . F i n a l l y , a command i n F r e n c h has t he same s t r u c t u r e as t h a t i n E n g l i s h , f o r e x a m p l e , e a t ! , mange! T h e s e a r e some o f the f o r m s t h a t t he c h i l d r e n w i l l have to a c q u i r e to a p p r o x i m a t e t h e i r l a n g u a g e to t h a t o f the a d u l t ' s . 2.2 The One-Word U t t e r a n c e S t a g e : Remi A t t he one-word u t t e r a n c e s t a g e i n p a r t i c u l a r , to u n d e r s t a n d what a c h i l d i n t e n d e d i s t o u n d e r s t a n d what he s a i d . M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , one-word u t t e r a n c e s a r e h i g h l y amb iguous when the i n t e r p r e t e r has no r e c o u r s e to c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h as p o s t u r e , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , hand and head g e s t u r e s , and u t t e r a n c e s o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e and a f t e r t he c h i l d ' s comment . E x t r a - v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r a l f a c t o r s s u c h as 21 t h e s e seem to be v e r y h e l p f u l i n d e c i d i n g what t he c h i l d ' s i n t e n t i o n s a r e i n c a s e s where such a d e c i s i o n can be made. Where t he c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r c o n t r a d i c t s h i s a c t i o n s , h i s a c t i o n s m i g h t be b e t t e r d e s i g n a t o r s o f h i s i n t e n t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f a c h i l d f o l l o w s an o r d e r bu t s a y s " n o , " i t wou ld be assumed t h a t he meant to c a r r y o u t t he command r a t h e r t h a n to o v e r t l y c o n t r a d i c t h i m s e l f . Of c o u r s e , i f h i s u t t e r -ance i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h h i s a c t i o n s , t h e n the more e x p l i c i t w i l l h i s i n t e n t i o n s b e . T h u s , t he u t t e r a n c e s d e s c r i b e d h e r e have been c l a s s i f i e d as such on p r i m a r i l y c o n t e x t u a l and b e h a v i o u r a l g r o u n d s . As compared to r e q u e s t s , t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few q u e s t i o n s i n t he d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m R e m i . A l t h o u g h i t was no t u n t i l t he l a s t s e s s i o n t h a t a s y n t a c t i c a l l y marked q u e s -t i o n a p p e a r e d , i t can be c o n s t r u e d t h a t f r o m the s t a r t o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s Remi q u e s t i o n e d t h e w h e r e a b o u t s o f o b j e c t s and r e q u e s t e d y e s o r JTO_ answers to h i s u t t e r a n c e s . Not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e a l l t he q u e s t i o n s f o r m e d w i t h [ l a r t a ] . T h i s i t e m and i t s p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a n t s o c c u r r e d w i t h g r e a t f r e q u e n c y d u r i n g t he f i r s t two s e s s i o n s . They o c c u r r e d b o t h as q u e s t i o n s and as s t a t e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , p o i n t i n g a t t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n Remi u t t e r e d [ I ' a t a ? ] and i t s v a r i a n t s e l e v e n t i m e s . Then l o o k i n g a t O ' s g l a s s e s , he s a i d [ I l a r d a ] . The mo the r a l s o d i d no t u n d e r -s t a n d what was meant by t h i s ' w o r d . ' Howeve r , by t he t h i r d 22 s e s s i o n i t had d i s a p p e a r e d . B loom a l s o r e p o r t s t he a p p e a r -ance and the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f such a phenomenon [wida] i n A l l i s o n . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e f o r m had no i d e n t i f i a b l e e l e m e n t o f e x p e r i e n c e , c o n t e n t , o r mean ing t h a t wou ld d i s -t i n g u i s h i t , as a 1 i n g u i s t i c f a c t " (B loom 1 9 7 1 : 2 1 ) . S o , b e a r -i n g i n mind t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s l i s t o n l y t he com-p r e h e n s i b l e u t t e r a n c e s , the d a t a can now be d i s c u s s e d . 2 .2 .1 Y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s Y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s a p p e a r e d t h e most f r e q u e n t d u r i n g t he p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n . In t h i s g r o u p , q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e a r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f what t he c h i l d has a l r e a d y h e a r d can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h o s e w h i c h r e q u i r e new c o n f i r m a t i o n o r d e n i a l . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s made on s e v e r a l g r o u n d s . F i r s t l y , t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h seem to r e q u e s t r e i n f o r c e m e n t a r e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h have a p p e a r e d i n the a d u l t ' s s p e e c h i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g R e m i ' s . Be low a r e e x a m p l e s o f such i n s t a n c e s . U t t e r a n c e 1 . c h o c o l a t ? C o n t e x t R i s h a v i n g a s n a c k . " T u veux du c h o c o l a t ? " (Do you want some c h o c o l a t e ? ) > R w a i t s w h i l e M goes to c u p b o a r d . R i s g i v e n some c h o c o l a t e . 23 2. b o T t e ? R i s h o l d i n g a s m a l l b o x . " C ' e s t une b o T t e , c ' e s t une p e t i t e , b o T t e . " ( I t i s a b o x , i t ' s a sma l1 b o x ) . > R p i c k s up a n o t h e r t o y f r o m t o y b o x . " ^ a , c e n ' e s t pas une b o T t e . " ( T h a t ' i s no t a b o x ) . S e c o n d l y , when R e m i ' s u t t e r a n c e i s no t p r e c e d e d by an a d u l t ' s , t h e n he i s v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h the o b j e c t he i s q u e s t i o n i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , F i n a l l y , by h i s u t t e r a n c e , Remi i s no t i n i t i a t i n g a new e v e n t , r a t h e r , he i s c o n t i n u i n g the q l d e o n e . A l t h o u g h each u t t e r a n c e may have v a r i o u s expanded s t r u c t u r e s , t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s wh i ch a r e i n s t a n c e s o f r e i n f o r c e -ment c o u l d be s a i d to have two p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : (a ) " D i d I u n d e r s t a n d you r i g h t ? You s a i d x ? " a n d , (b) " T e l l me i f what I see i s x . " I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t he i t e m w h i c h Remi u ses to f o r m h i s q u e s t i o n , i s t he i t e m w h i c h c a r r i e s t he most i n f o r m a t i o n i n t he a d u l t ' s s p e e c h . T h u s , the c h i l d c h o o s e s the i t e m t h a t has most mean ing to him and i n t u r n r e q u e s t s to see i f he has made the a p p r o p r i a t e e m p h a s i s . The f i r s t two u t t e r a n c e s above seem to be o f the t y p e (a ) a b o v e . A n o t h e r u t t e r a n c e o f t y p e (a ) o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t he f o l l o w i n g : 3. t r a i n? > R i s h o l d i n g a t r a i n . " O u i , c ' e s t un t r a i n . " i t ' s a t r a i n ) . ( Y e s , 24 4 . non? " N o n , n o n , ne t o u c h e s pas l e b u f f e t . " ( I x ) (No , n o , d o n ' t t o u c h the b u f f e t ) . » R l o o k s a t M w h i l e t o u c h i n g . "II ne f a u t pas t o u c h e r , i n t e r d i t . " (You m u s t n ' t t o u c h , f o r b i d d e n ) . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t he n e x t c h a p t e r , Remi had no t a c -q u i r e d n e g a t i o n to the p o i n t o f b e i n g a b l e to p r o d u c e n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s w i t h f l u e n c y . N o n , a b o v e , c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as s a y i n g more t h a n " D i d I u n d e r s t a n d you r i g h t ? D i d you say n o ? " Remi h e r e m i g h t be r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t he o b j e c t o f n o n , w h e t h e r i t h o l d s f o r t o u c h i n g o r a v o i d i n g . He m i g h t i n f a c t s i m p l y be r e p e a t i n g t he word t h a t t he mo the r has u s e d , so t h a t she c o u l d e x p l a i n i t f o r h i m . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s s u p p o r t e d by t he f a c t t h a t he i s t o u c h i n g t h e b u f f e t w h i l e a s k i n g the q u e s t i o n . U t t e r a n c e s (3) a b o v e , and ( 5 ) - ( 8 ) a r e l i k e t y p e (b) a b o v e , i n t h a t u n l i k e t y p e (a ) ( w i t h t he e x c e p t i o n o f k a k a ? ) , Remi i n i t i a t e s the u t t e r a n c e s h i m s e l f . In t he c a s e s o f t y p e ( a ) , he m e r e l y r e p e a t s i t e m s f r o m the s p e e c h c o n t e x t a r o u n d h i m , whe reas h e r e he p r o d u c e s s p e e c h i n d e p e n d e n t l y . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the i t e m s t h a t Remi u ses a r e v e r y f a m i l i a r to h i m , bu t t h a t he a p p a r e n t l y wants to make s u r e t h a t h i s j u d g e m e n t i s the c o r r e c t o n e . 25 T a y o , t h e i r d o g , has u r i n a t e d i n n e x t r o o m . "II a f a i t p i p i , c ' e s t t r e s v i l a i n . " (He pee p e e d , i t ' s v e r y n a u g h t y ) . 5. kaka? > R wa t ches M c l e a n s p o t . ' " O u i , i l a f a i t p i p i , c ' e s t t r e s v i l a i n . " T has had a n o t h e r a c c i d e n t . 6. [ a ] kaka? ,> " O u i , T a f a i t p i p i , p i p i . " ( Y e s , T pee p e e d ) . R r e p e a t s p i p i . " O u i , i1 a f a i t p i p i . " 7. Ola] kaka? /> " O u i , c ' e s t un g r a n d p i p i . Q u o i ? " ( Y e s , i t ' s a l a r g e pee p e e . W h a t ? ) . 8. un a u t r e ? un a u t r e ? R p o i n t s to s p o n g e . ^ " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas I ' e p o n g e p o u r T." (No , t h a t ' s no t t he sponge f o r T ) . A l t h o u g h R e m i ' s q u e s t i o n s a r e no t r e j e c t e d by t he m o t h e r as b e i n g i n c o r r e c t , n o t i c e t h a t she does use a d i f f e r -e n t word ( p i p i ) i n t he r e i n f o r c e m e n t . A t t h i s p o i n t , t he te rm kaka seems to be g e n e r a l i z e d to mean a n y t h i n g f o r wh i ch t h e r e i s p u n i s h m e n t o r s e v e r e s c o l d i n g f o r t he o f f e n d e r i f no t done i n t he a p p o i n t e d p l a c e . The f a c t t h a t he c o n t i n u e s to use k a k a , even a f t e r p i p i has been o f f e r e d and i s a v a i l a b l e to him i n h i s s p e e c h c o n t e x t , i n d i c a t e s t h a t he s e t s more s t o r e i n s t a b i l i z i n g h i s t e rm than i n mak ing more d i s t i n c t i o n s . U n l i k e t he u t t e r a n c e s d i s c u s s e d so f a r , t he f o l l o w -i n g a r e c a s e s w h i c h r e q u i r e new i n f o r m a t i o n f o r R e m i . 26 9. k o u k i e h u h ? - - - n o n ? 1 0 . k o u k i e ? 11 . l a ? l a ? ( I x ) M has f i n i s h e d c o o k i e . R g e t s a n o t h e r c o o k i e . > R e x t e n d s c o o k i e t o M. " M e r c i . " (Thank y o u ) . M t a k e s c o o k i e . 0 f i n i s h e s c o o k i e . R g e t s a n o t h e r c o o k i e . > R e x t e n d s c o o k i e t o 0 . C o o k i e i s r e f u s e d . R e a t s i t i n s t e a d . R i s p l a y i n g w i t h l e t t e r s t h a t can be d r o p p e d i n box w i t h h o l e s made f o r l e t t e r s . > R has a l e t t e r i n hand and i s g o i n g to d r o p i t t h r o u g h s l o t . " N o n , on l e met l a . " (No , we pu t i t t h e r e ) . D i f f e r e n t s l o t i s p o i n t e d o u t . In t he f i r s t two u t t e r a n c e s , we f i n d c a s e s o f y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s i n i t s t r u e s e n s e . Remi i s u n b i a s e d t owa rd e i t h e r a n s w e r . T h u s , t he d i s t i n c t i o n between q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e r e i n f o r c e -ment and q u e s t i o n s wh i ch a r e n e u t r a l i s d e v e l o p e d . The t h i r d u t t e r a n c e seems to be an i n i t i a t i v e by Remi w i t h the end i n mind o f t e s t i n g to see w h i c h i s t h e b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e . W i th t he u t t e r a n c e un a u t r e ? un a u t r e ? i t i s u n -c e r t a i n w h e t h e r o r no t t he q u e s t i o n r e q u e s t s a n e u t r a l a n s w e r , i . e . , y e s o r ncs o r r e q u e s t s the i t e m i t s e l f . S i n c e un a u t r e ( [ u n a ] ) ( a n o t h e r ) , i s used to r e q u e s t i t e m s , t h i s c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d as a r e q u e s t . Howeve r , when T a y o ' s sponge was f o u n d Remi made no g e s t u r e s t owa rd u s i n g i t . Of c o u r s e , t h i s does no t p r o v i d e c o n f i r m i n g e v i d e n c e i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , b u t 27 does d e m o n s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t y o f i n t e r p r e t i n g s u c h a b b r e v i a t e d q u e s t i o n s . T h e s e , t h e n , a r e t h e o n l y y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s t h a t Remi p o s e d d u r i n g t he t e n s e s s i o n s . 2 . 2 . 2 "Whe re " q u e s t i o n s A c c o r d i n g to t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d , Remi seems to have o n l y one t y p e o f w h - q u e s t i o n , name ly w h e r e , o f w h i c h t h e r e a r e o n l y two i n s t a n c e s . O f t e n , R e m i ' s s e a r c h f o r o b j e c t s o r p e r s o n s t o o k the f o r m o f o r i g i n a l s e a r c h i n g , a n d , i n g e n e r a l , t h i s a c t i o n was no t a c c o m p a n i e d by any v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r . I t was no t n e c e s s a r y to have a v e r b a l s t i m u l u s i n o r d e r f o r Remi to l o o k f o r o b j e c t s o r p e r s o n s . He c o u l d i n i t i a t e i t on h i s own, and o n l y when he l o c a t e d the o b j e c t was i t known t h a t t h e w a n d e r i n g a b o u t i n d i c a t e d s e a r c h i n g . In s h o r t , a l t h o u g h he d i d no t v e r b a l i z e h i s s e a r c h , i t was n o t t he c a s e t h a t he d i d n o t know t h a t o b j e c t s o r p e r s o n s no t i n v iew c o u l d be l o o k e d f o r and f o u n d . The f i r s t n o n - s y n t a c t i c a l l y marked "where" q u e s t i o n a p p e a r e d when Remi was 23 months o l d . Remi has been p l a y i n g w i t h t e n n i s b a l l s . They a r e now a l l d i s p e r s e d a b o u t t he r o o m . 1 2 . b a l l e ? b a l l e ? > R l o o k s b e h i n d s t o v e and f i n d s n o t h i n g . C o n t i n u e s l o o k i n g f o r b a l l s . 28 The f i r s t c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a q u e s t i o n r e -q u e s t i n g a y e s o r no_ a n s w e r , s o m e t h i n g l i k e " I s t he b a l l h e r e ? , " s i n c e t he c o m p o s i t i o n o f t he u t t e r a n c e i s no t r e l a t e d to any f o r m o f a " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n i n F r e n c h . Howeve r , i f we were to a t t r i b u t e s u c h a mean ing to i t , we wou ld a l s o be a t t r i b u t i n g a l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w h i c h i s no t a p p a r e n t a t t h i s s t a g e . T h i s i s no t b e c a u s e Remi does no t have y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s , b u t b e c a u s e a y e s / n o q u e s t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t wou ld mean t h a t the c h i l d was engaged i n some f o r m o f a game. T h i s wou ld mean t h a t t he c h i l d i s more i n -t e r e s t e d i n p l a y i n g the game than i n a c t u a l l y f i n d i n g the b a l l s . O b v i o u s l y , t h i s wou ld be d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y p r e m a t u r e . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r e d when Remi was 2 5 , 2 0 , i s t he f i r s t and o n l y s y n t a c t i c a l l y marked q u e s t i o n i n t he Remi d a t a . Remi was p l a y i n g w i t h a t o y b o a t w h i c h i s now o u t o f N ^ s i g h t . 1 3 . i l e s t ou? i l e s t ou? > R l o o k s a r o u n d , w h i l e e a t i n g . M o t h e r f i n d s b o a t and hands i t to Remi . A l t h o u g h the q u e s t i o n does no t s p e c i f y t he o b j e c t t h a t i s b e i n g l o o k e d f o r , t he mo the r does no t h e s i t a t e i n f i n d i n g t h e b o a t and g i v i n g i t to t he c h i l d . S i n c e Remi t o o k the b o a t o n l y t oo r e a d i l y and s t a r t e d to p l a y w i t h i t , i t can be assumed t h a t the mo the r had no t made a m i s t a k e i n s u p p l y i n g 29 the b o a t . I f i n d e e d Remi d i d want t h e b o a t , how t h i s com-m u n i c a t i o n t o o k p l a c e i s no t e x p l a i n a b l e , s i n c e t he b o a t was s i t t i n g on the t a b l e a l o n g w i t h o t h e r o b j e c t s t h a t Remi c o u l d p l a y w i t h . U n l e s s Remi r e s t r a i n e d h i m s e l f f r o m b e h a v i n g n a t u r a l l y , wh i ch t he mo the r c l a i m e d was u n l i k e l y , i t c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d t h a t Remi i n q u i r e d a b o u t the n o n - p r e s e n c e o f o b j e c t s and a s k e d f o r e i t h e r a c o n f i r m a t i o n o r d e n i a l o f h i s q u e s t i o n . A d i s -t i n c t i o n c o u l d be made h e r e c o n c e r n i n g " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s . T h a t i s , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n where a c e r t a i n o b j e c t was , Remi was more i n t e r e s t e d i n where a c e r t a i n o b j e c t was . He was more i n t e r e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g t h e i t e m than i n knowing the l o c a t i o n o f t he i t e m i n q u e s t i o n . 2 . 2 . 3 " H u h " q u e s t i o n s T h r o u g h o u t t he d a t a , t h e r e a r e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h t a k e the p h o n e t i c f o r m o f [ h a h ] and a r e marked by a r i s i n g i n t o n a -t i o n a l c o n t o u r . T h e r e a r e t w e n t y - s i x o f t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s i n t he c o r p u s , and i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h " w h e r e " and y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s , t h e y a p p e a r t he mos t f r e q u e n t l y . I t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d f r o m the o u t s e t t h a t R e m i ' s [ hdh ] had a c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e to t h a t o f the m o t h e r . The mo the r wou ld use e i t h e r [ha*]? o r [ h i ] ? when she d i d n o t u n d e r -s t a n d what Remi s a i d , and had to s i g n a l him to r e p e a t i t . 30 C l e a r l y , w h i l e the mo the r i s t he p r o b a b l e s o u r c e o f t h i s e x p r e s s i o n , Remi d i d no t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d i t s a d u l t c o n s e -q u e n c e s as he was p r o n e to use i t b o t h a p p r o p r i a t e l y and i n -a p p r o p r i a t e l y as w e l l . F o r e x a m p l e , one a p p r o p r i a t e usage can be s een be low where huh? * has the mean ing o f "what d i d you s a y ? " " E l l e e s t ou t a poche ? Rem i ? " (Where i s y o u r p o c k e t ? Remi? ) 1 4 . huh? > R 1ooks a t M. M r e p e a t s q u e s t i o n . R shows h i s p o c k e t . On the o t h e r h a n d , t h e e a r l y c a s e s a r e marked by many i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t a n c e s . 1 5 . huh? 16 huh? R i s c o r i n g p o t a t o e s w i t h k n i f e "Qa t e f a i t m a i , n o n ? " ( T h a t h u r t s d o e s n 1 t i t ? ) . > R c o n t i n u e s c o r i n g . "Ca ne t e f a i t pas m a i ? " ( D o e s n ' t t h a t h u r t y o u ? ) > R i n s p e c t s p o t a t o - e y e . T h e s e two c a s e s o f huh? a r e no t meant as t r u e q u e s t i o n s ; r a t h e r , t h e i r f u n c t i o n seem to be b e s t d e s c r i b e d as k e e p i n g the c h a n n e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n open w i t h a c k n o w l e d g i n g s o u n d s . * H e n c e f o r t h [ h a h ] w i l l a p p e a r as huh w h i l e r e t a i n i n g the same p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 31 A d i s t i n c t i o n s h o u l d be made h e r e , p u r e l y on b e -h a v i o u r a l g r o u n d s , be tween t h o s e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h Remi f o l l o w s h i s huh? u t t e r a n c e w i t h an a c t i o n , l i n g u i s t i c o r o t h e r w i s e , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s p e e c h e v e n t and t h o s e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h Remi i s no t s i n c e r e a b o u t h i s i n q u i r y and d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s by e i t h e r t a k i n g up some d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y o r by not p a y i n g more a t t e n t i o n to the a d u l t ' s r e m a r k s . In a d d i t i o n to (14) a b o v e , (17) and (18) a r e a l s o i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h R e m i ' s huh? i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t he a c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s h i s u t t e r a n c e . 1 7 . huh? 1 8 . huh? "Met 5a l a . " ( Pu t t h i s t h e r e ) . A c o n s t r u c t i o n cube i s e x t e n d e d and t o y box i s p o i n t e d a t . R l o o k s a t s p e a k e r and t a k e s c o n s t r u c t i o n c u b e . "Dans l a b o i t e . " ( In t he b o x ) . Toy box i s p o i n t e d a t . R p u t s cube i n t o y b o x . "Ou e s t l e t r a i n ? " (Where i s t he t r a i n ? ) . T r a i n no t i n v i e w . > R r u n s to a n o t h e r room and comes back w i t h t r a i n . L i k e (15) and (16) a b o v e , (19) and ( 2 0 ) , a l s o , a r e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h Remi does no t f o l l o w h i s huh? u t t e r a n c e w i t h a c o n s i s t e n t b e h a v i o u r . 32 1 9 . huh? 2 0 . huh? "Ou e s t t on t e l e p h o n e ? " (Where i s y o u r t e l e p h o n e ? ) . R hands t r a i n . _ y , " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas l e t e l e p h o n e . " (No , t h a t ' s no t t he t e l e p h o n e ) . R i s o c c u p i e d w i t h t r a i n . M i s h o l d i n g d u c k . " C ' e s t q u o i ca? c ' e s t q u o i ? " (What i s t h i s ? I t ' s wha t ? ) > R l o o k s a t M C o n t i n u e s h a n d i n g t o y s to M. " C ' e s t q u o i ? C ' e s t un c a n a r d . " ( I t ' s what? I t ' s a d u c k ) . T h e s e "mock " q u e s t i o n s ( ( 1 9 ) and ( 2 0 ) ) , come v e r y c l o s e to t h a t w h i c h Lew i s c a l l s " p s e u d o - q u e s t i o n s " and w h i c h P i a g e t r e c o g n i z e s as e g o - c e n t r i c s p e e c h b e h a v i o u r . Speech b e h a v i o u r , even a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e , i s w i d e - r a n g i n g . On the one end o f t he s p e c t r u m Remi can p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l i z e d s p e e c h where he s e e k s h i s l i s t e n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n , and on the o t h e r h a n d , he i n d u l g e s i n n o n - s o c i a l i z e d b e h a v i o u r . A c c o r d -i n g to P i a g e t , u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h b e l o n g to t h i s c a t e g o r y have no s o c i a l f u n c t i o n and t h u s a r e no t meant to i n f l u e n c e t he h e a r e r . 2 . 2 . 4 R e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s As o p p o s e d to q u e s t i o n s , wh i ch ask f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , r e q u e s t s on t h e who l e t a k e as o b j e c t s c e r t a i n a c t i o n s o r even 33 s i t u a t i o n s t he s p e a k e r wou ld l i k e to have b r o u g h t a b o u t . Two t y p e s o f r e q u e s t s c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t he c o r p u s , b a s e d on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The f i r s t r e q u e s t s a r e p e t i -t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y , o r t h a t an o b j e c t w h i c h Remi had p r e -v i o u s l y w o u l d be r e t u r n e d to h i m , and the s e c o n d r e q u e s t s e i t h e r t h a t a new a c t i v i t y t a k e p l a c e , o r t he r e q u e s t e d i t e m be g i v e n to h i m . T h i s l a s t s o r t o f r e q u e s t v e r g e s on b e i n g a command. H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h no r e q u e s t has t h e e m p h a t i c i n t o n a t i o n o f a command f o r R e m i , no t a l l r e q u e s t s , l i k e q u e s t i o n s , a r e marked by a r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n a l c o n t o u r . I f t h e i t e m c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d by R e m i , he w i l l name the o b j e c t once and f o l l o w t h i s w i t h a v a r i a t i o n o f un a u t r e a l o n g w i t h a g e s t u r e o f p o i n t i n g o r p u l l i n g . (21) i s an examp le o f t h i s , and i n v o l v e s t he f i r s t t y p e o f r e q u e s t e n u n c i a t e d a b o v e . 21 . b a l l e ? un a u t r e ? R i s p l a y i n g w i t h t e n n i s b a l l s , has th rown a b a l l . > R wants a b a l l . He i s g i ven a ba l1 . T h e r e a r e 43 o c c u r r e n c e s o f s u c h r e q u e s t s i n t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m R e m i . Each i n s t a n c e r e q u e s t s the r e o c c u r r e n c e o f an a c t i v i t y o r t he r e p o s s e s s i o n o f an o b j e c t . In a l l t h e s e c a s e s what i s b e i n g r e q u e s t e d has been e x p e r i e n c e d by Remi a t l e a s t once p r e v i o u s to the r e q u e s t . 34 The s e c o n d t y p e o f r e q u e s t s , on t he o t h e r h a n d , a r e i n i t i a t e d by Remi and the o b j e c t o r a c t i v i t y r e q u e s t e d has no t o c c u r r e d i m m e d i a t e l y p r e v i o u s to h i s u t t e r a n c e . Bo th (22) and (23) a r e i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s s e c o n d t y p e . 2.'. un a u t r e ? ••• bo i r e * r • b o i r e [ n o n o ] un a u t r e 2 3 . [ d a ] ? R goes to M. " H e i n ? Q u ' e s t - c e que tu v e u x ? " > " E h ? " M e x p l a i n s R wants w a t e r . " Q u ' e s t - e e que tu n e u x ? " > R i s g i v e n w a t e r . R i s s i t t i n g on f l o o r . > R p o i n t s t o s p o t n e x t to h i m . "Tu veux que j e m ' a s s e o i s a u p r e s de t o i ? " T h e r e a r e 16 o c c u r r e n c e s o f u t t e r a n c e s i n w h i c h Remi names the o b j e c t wanted and a c c o m p a n i e s i t w i t h un a u t r e w i t h o r w i t h o u t a r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n . T h e r e a r e 41 a d d i t i o n a l u t t e r a n c e s l i k e (23) a b o v e . 2 .3 " T e l e g r a p h i c " S t a g e : J e an A t t h i s s t a g e , f o u r t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s can be i d e n -t i f i e d i n t h e c o r p u s g a t h e r e d f r o m J e a n ; t h e s e a r e : " w h e r e , " " w h a t , " " w h y , " and y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s . O n l y " w h e r e " and "why" q u e s t i o n s a r e s y n t a c t i c a l l y m a r k e d . Howeve r , t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h a r e n o t marked can be c o n f i d e n t l y c o n s t r u e d as b e i n g 35 q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r t h e y a r e s i n c e r e o r n o t . U n l i k e R e m i , J e an p o s e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more q u e s t i o n s , a l s o , d u r i n g t h e two s e s s i o n s w i t h J e an a l o n e more q u e s t i o n s a p p e a r e d i n t he d a t a t han when the s e s s i o n was w i t h J e an and S o p h i e t o g e t h e r . 2 .3 .1 Y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s Among y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s , what does no t a p p e a r i s e q u a l l y as i n t e r e s t i n g as what does a p p e a r . Fo r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e a r e no " t a g " q u e s t i o n s , and y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s a r e no t marked by t he more f o r m a l e s t - c e q u e . What does a p p e a r has c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t y to R e m i ' s y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s . L i k e R e m i , J e a n p o s e s q u e s t i o n s to c o n f i r m what he s u s p e c t s m i g h t be the c a s e , and to r e q u e s t new i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e a r e a number o f u t t e r a n c e s wh i ch e x a m p l i f y t he f i r s t t y p e o f q u e s t i o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , ( 2 4 ) , (25) and ( 2 6 ) . , 2 4 . wouwou? 2 5 . c o n f i t u r e ? o u i J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h p i c t u r e book and i s a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s . " E t l a , tu r e c o n n a i s ? " (And t h e r e , do you remember? ) p o i n t -i n g t o d o g . "Wouwou. " T h e r e ' s a p i c t u r e o f j a r o f jam i n p i c t u r e b o o k . J i s a s k e d what i t i s , a n s w e r s : t a r t i n e . ^De l a c o n f i t u r e . " ( j amj^ "De l a c o n f i t u r e . " 36 2 6 . e n f a n t • • • e n f a n t • • • e n f a n t l a ? J s e e s a p i c t u r e o f a s c h o o l bus w i t h c h i l d r e n i n i t . " Q u i e s t d e d a n s ? " > " L e s e n f a n t s . " In each c a s e J e an i s f a i r l y s u r e t h a t h i s answer to t he a d u l t ' s q u e s t i o n i s t he r i g h t o n e ; h e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , p u t s h i s answer i n a r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n w h i c h i n t u r n p rompts t he a d u l t to c o n f i r m i t . On the o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h seem to be n e u t r a l and t h u s r e q u e s t e i t h e r a y e s o r a n £ a n s w e r , a c t u a l l y do r e c e i v e a o u i o r n o n ; f o r e x a m p l e , ( 2 7 ) , (28) and ( 2 9 ) . J wants more q u e s t i o n s w i t h p i c t u r e b o o k . " E n c o r e ? e n c o r e v o y o n s . " (More? m o r e , l e t ' s s e e ) . 2 7 . b o u l e ? b o u l e ? y pas b o u l e ? J s e e s a p i c t u r e o f b i r d w i t h b a l l i n b e e k . " O u i , i l a une b o u l e dans l e bee ' .^ r ( Y e s , i t has a b a l l i n i t s b e e k ) . J i s p u t t i n g p u z z l e p i e c e i n wrong s l o t . " N o n , on ne met pas ca l a . " " N o n , we d o n ' t pu t t h i s t h e r e ) . 2 8 . l a ? > J f i n d s r i g h t s l o t . " O u i , j u s t e l a . " ( Y e s , j u s t t h e r e ) . 37 J i s l o o k i n g f o r h i d d e n p u z z l e p i e c e . " N o n , non i l n ' e s t pas l a . " (No , no i t ' s no t t h e r e ) . 2 9 . l a ? > " N o n , l a non p l u s . " (No , no t t h e r e e i t h e r ) . Of i n t e r e s t h e r e i s the a p p e a r a n c e o f a n e g a t i v e q u e s t i o n i n ( 2 7 ) . I t seems to i n d i c a t e t h e n e u t r a l n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n I t e x p l i c i t l y , 1 o f f e r s two p o s s i b i l i t i e s , y e s o r no_. In (28) and ( 2 9 ) , on t he o t h e r h a n d , t h e n e g a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y i s no t o f f e r e d o v e r t l y . A t h i r d t y p e o f q u e s t i o n wh i ch a p p e a r s i n t h i s c o r p u s i s o n l y a q u e s t i o n i n t h a t i t i s marked by a r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n a l c o n t o u r . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s n e i t h e r r e q u e s t new i n f o r m a t i o n no r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f what i s a l r e a d y s u s p e c t e d to be t he t r u t h . They o c c u r v e r y o f t e n i n a d u l t s p e e c h as " f i l l e r s " o f s p a c e b e f o r e a m e a n i n g f u l u t t e r a n c e i s made. In each c a s e o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , ( 3 0 ) , ( 3 1 ) - ( 3 3 ) , J e an r e p e a t s p a r t o f t he a d u l t ' s u t t e r a n c e w h i l e d o i n g what the a d u l t r e q u e s t e d . V 3 0 . l a ? papa ^a p a p a . J i s l o o k i n g a t some i t e m s i n c a t a l o g . " E t l a ? " (And t h e r e ? ) p o i n t i n g to a m a n ' s g a r m e n t . M comments to 0 t h a t J i s no t f a m i l i a r w i t h g a r m e n t . 38 3 1 . P i l o u ? b a t e a u ( b o a t ) 3 2 . l a l u n e ? 3 3 . d e u x - c h e v a u x ? c h e v a u x j a u n e s ? [ » ] p a s . J wants M to ask more q u e s t i o n s . " E n c o r e ? Oil e s t - c e q u ' i l e s t l e P i l o u ? Where i s P i l o u ? ) > J l o o k s a t dog on b o a t . " S u r un b a t e a u . " (On a b o a t ) . J s e e s moon i n p i c t u r e book as M t u r n s p a g e s . J : l a l u n e . " L a l u n e ? ou e l l e e s t l a l u n e ? " (The moon? where i s t he m o o n ? ) . . > Looks f o r moon and f i n d s i t . J i s d o i n g p u z z l e . "Ou e s t l e d e u x - c h e v a u x q u i ce met l a ? " (Where i s the deux-c h e v a u x wh i ch i s pu t t h e r e ? ) . > J l o o k s a r o u n d f o r y e l l o w c a r . "Tu ne l e v o i s pas? D e r r i e r e t o i . " (You d o n ' t see i t ? B e h i n d y o u ) . 2 . 3 . 2 "Where " q u e s t i o n s As w i t h R e m i , i t i s J e a n t h a t i n i t i a t e s t he " w h e r e ? " q u e s t i o n s , and t y p i c a l l y no m e n t i o n o f t he o b j e c t o r p e r s o n b e i n g l o o k e d f o r has a p p e a r e d p r i o r to t he t i m e o f t he q u e s -t i o n . A n d , i n most c a s e s , t he o b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n i s no t i n s i g h t . C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s meet w i t h no r e s p o n s e and the i n q u i r y s t o p s t h e r e a b r u p t l y ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , the q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d i s no t r e p e a t e d u n t i l s u c h t i m e as the o b j e c t e i t h e r i s p r o d u c e d f o r him o r he i s a b l e to p r o d u c e i t h i m s e l f . T h i s does no t mean to s a y t h a t t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e a f o r m o f 39 e g o - c e n t r i c s p e e c h b e h a v i o u r i n t h a t t h e y do no t e n t a i l a r e s p o n s e and a r e p r o d u c e d g r a t u i t o u s l y ( s i n c e J ean does no t a c t i v e l y f o l l o w them u p ) , b u t r a t h e r t h a t the i t e m t h a t i s  b e i n g s e a r c h e d f o r i s p e r h a p s no t e s s e n t i a l to h i s p r e s e n t  a c t i v i t y . T h u s , h i s a t t e n t i o n may be drawn away f r o m h i s i n i t i a l u n d e r t a k i n g r a t h e r e a s i l y ; p o s s i b l y a c r i t e r i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e i s a t w o r k , s i n c e l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n span wou ld no t e x p l a i n h i s i m m e d i a t e movement to o t h e r i s s u e s a f t e r h a v i n g such q u e s t i o n s . ( 3 4 ) , (35) and (36) a r e a p p r o p r i a t e e x a m p l e s o f s u c h c a s e s . 3 4 . 1 1 a u t r e • • • c a n a r d 1 1 a u t r e ? 35 . 1 1 a u t r e • • - c a n a r d ? 1 1 a u t r e ? 36 . 1 1 a u t r e ? J has seen a duck i n p i c t u r e b o o k . "Comment i l f a i t l e t e s o u v i e n s J e a n ? ) t he duck g o , do you J e a n ? ) . > c a n a r d , tu (How does remember J wants to l o o k t h r o u g h b o o k . " L ' a u t r e q u o i ? " ( O t h e r w h a t ? ) . > J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k . T h i n k s he has f o u n d i t , bu t d e c i d e s o t h e r w i s e and q u e s t i o n s a g a i n . " Q u e l ? " (Wh i ch ? ) No r e s p o n s e f r o m J . H i s a t t e n -t i o n i s c a u g h t by cow i n book and d e m o n s t r a t e s sound cows make . H e r e , J e an q u e s t i o n s the l o c a t i o n o f a n o t h e r d u c k ; t he a d u l t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g the d u c k , b u t t he i t e m i s n e v e r f o u n d 40 s i n c e J e an f i n d s a n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e and s t o p s t he l i n e o f q u e s t i o n s and s t a r t s a n o t h e r s p e e c h e v e n t . A l s o , we can see t h a t J e a n does n o t , o r i s no t a b l e t o , s u p p l y t he i t e m ' s name and t h u s abandons t he p u r s u i t . Examp le s o f s u c h u t t e r a n c e s a r e ( 3 7 ) , (38) and ( 3 9 ) - ( 4 0 ) . 3 7 . [6] c a - - - [ t ] 5a.-.[£] 1 'au t re ?••-maman 1 ' au a u t r e ? 3 8 . [ U ] 1 ' a u t r e ? 3 9 . [ I t ] q u e l q u e c h o s e ? 4 0 . [ l f c ] q u e l q u e c h o s e l a ? M i s h e l p i n g J w i t h p u z z l e . > " 1 ' a u t r e q u o i ? " ( O t h e r wha t ? ) J does no t r e s p o n d . J i s d o i n g p u z z l e . > " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu c h e r c h e s ? " (What a r e you l o o k i n g f o r ? ) J r e p l i e s : 1 ' a u t r e . " Sous l e d i v a n . " ("Under the c o u c h ) . J goes u n d e r c o u c h and l i e s t h e r e . > J l o o k i n g a r o u n d . " H e i n ? " > S t i l l l o o k i n g a r o u n d , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . In each i n s t a n c e , the i n i t i a l u t t e r a n c e r e c e i v e s a q u e s t i o n i n r e t u r n none o f w h i c h l e a d J e an to s p e c i f y t he i t e m . I n s t e a d , e i t h e r t he who l e e v e n t i s d i s r e g a r d e d b e c a u s e t h e c h i l d has no t been u n d e r s t o o d o r i n t e r e s t i n t he q u e s -t i o n f a d e s . S o , on t h e one h a n d , we have u n d e r s t a n d a b l e q u e s t i o n e v e n t s w h i c h do n o t meet w i t h a p o s i t i v e r e s u l t and a r e t h u s a b a n d o n e d , and on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a r e i n c o m p l e t e 41 q u e s t i o n s (where the name o f t he i t e m i s no t p r o v i d e d by J e a n ) . T h e s e meet w i t h no r e s p o n s e f rom the a d u l t and a r e abandoned b e c a u s e t h e y c a n n o t be d i s a m b i g u a t e d . U n l i k e t he o t h e r t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s J e an i s a b l e t o p o s e , " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s do no t have any i n s t a n c e s o f p r a c t i c e o r echo (where by " e c h o " I mean t h a t he i m i t a t e s S o p h i e ' s " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s ) . In o t h e r " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n u t t e r a n c e s , some e v e n t t a k e s p l a c e , e i t h e r v e r b a l o r o t h e r w i s e , w h i c h s a t i s f i e s J e a n ' s need to c a r r y on h i s a c t i v i t y . Of some i n t e r e s t h e r e i s t he f a c t t h a t , a t l e a s t i n one i n s t a n c e , J e a n does no t need to see t he o b j e c t o r p e r s o n named i n o r d e r to be s a t i s f i e d . In (41) b e l o w , J e an a s k s where h i s m o t h e r i s , and once he r w h e r e a b o u t s a r e known, he c e a s e s a s k i n g J i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y w i t h b a l l . 4 1 . m a m a n - « - [ l f c ] maman? > x "Ou e s t maman? maman e s t en h a u t . " (Where i s mama? mama i s u p -s t a i r s ) . J . c o n t i n u e s p l a y i n g . In a l l o f t he o t h e r c a s e s , t h e r e i s e i t h e r some v i s u a l c o n t a c t e s t a b l i s h e d o r , a g a i n , he a c q u i r e s some know ledge o f t he i t e m , w h i c h know ledge seems to be s u f f i c i e n t to s t o p f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g . C e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s have to be p r e s e n t f o r t he s u c c e s s -f u l e x e c u t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h e s e : 42 a) J e a n ' s need to see o r use a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t . b) The o b j e c t i s nowhere i n s i g h t . c ) A s y m p a t h e t i c l i s t e n e r i s p r e s e n t . J e a n ' s b a s i c s t r a t e g y seems to be a m a t t e r o f d e r i v i n g " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s f r o m a r u l e such as Q (whe re ) + o b j e c t , where Q r e p r e s e n t s a " l o c a t i v e " q u e s t i o n e l e m e n t and " o b j e c t " i s any o b j e c t t h a t can be p o i n t e d o u t . T h i s t y p e o f c o n s t r a i n t on " o b j e c t " r e f l e c t s t he f a c t t h a t J e an may n o t a lways know t h e name o f t he o b j e c t , bu t makes t h e q u e s t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y anyway . Q " w h e r e " f o r J ean t a k e s t he f o rm o f [ ! £ , ] o r |Vu,]. [yu] can be e x p l a i n e d as s t a n d i n g f o r t h e l o c a t i v e a d v e r t o u , and [ l i ] can be an e a r l y f o rm o f ou i l e s t . O f t e n , when J e an i s a s k e d by h i s mo the r where a c e r t a i n o b j e c t i s t he q u e s t i o n t a k e s t he f o r m o f ou i1 e s t 1e o r ou e l l e e s t l a . In r a p i d s p e e c h , b o t h end up as [*i l fc, l ] . A n o t h e r f o rm t h a t t h e a d u l t ' s q u e s t i o n m i g h t t a k e i s ou e s t l e / l a , w h i c h wou ld r e s u l t i n [*tfcl]. A l s o , when the q u e s t i o n i s p o s e d w i t h o u t naming the o b j e c t , t h e n t h e s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e i s i l e l l e e s t ou? w h i c h i n r a p i d s p e e c h becomes [ l fcK,] . The s t e p f r o m [<w.lfcl], [ufcl ] o r [ I f cu ] , to [ l f c ] wou ld be a m a t t e r o f s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . L i k e -w i s e , G u i l l a u m e has r e p o r t e d t h a t h i s s u b j e c t f o r m e d " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s by u s i n g i l e s t . . . ? ( 1 9 2 7 : 2 4 1 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s s u b j e c t ' s u t t e r a n c e s were n o t g i v e n to us i n t e rms o f t he p h o n e t i c a l p h a b e t , one c o u l d v e n t u r e to g u e s s t h a t [ i l t ] c o u l d e a s i l y have o c c u r r e d as [ ! £ » ] • To c o n t i n u e w i t h " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s , one t y p e o f s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e i s t he t y p e i n w h i c h o n l y two e l e m e n t s a p p e a r : one t h e q u e s t i o n i t e m and the o t h e r t he o b j e c t o r p e r s o n b e i n g l o o k e d f o r . F o r e x a m p l e , ( 4 2 ) , ( 4 3 ) , (44) and ( 4 5 ) . 4 2 . [ I t ] • • • [It,] panpan 4 3 . [ l i ] nono? 4 4 . [ I t ] maman? 4 5 . [ I t ] p a t i n s ? ( s k a t e s ) J i s l o o k i n g f o r hammer. > " H e i n ? " J c a n ' t f i n d hammer, uses k n i f e i n s t e a d . J i s l o o k i n g f o r h i s c l o t h . > M g e t s c l o t h f o r J . J i s p l a y i n g . > " E l l e t r a v a i l l e d e h o r s . " (She i s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e ) . J i s l o o k i n g f o r F ' s s k a t e s i n c l o s e t . > " A l o r s , tu s a i s b i e n que papa i l n ' a pas de p a t i n s . " (You know w e l l t h a t papa d o e s n ' t have any s k a t e s ) . The p r o c e s s o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s f o r E n g l i s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n seems to be s i m i l a r to t he a b o v e . K l i m a and Be l 1 u g i - K l i m a p r o v i d e d a s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n (1 966 ) . As w i t h R e m i , i n v e r s i o n does no t o c c u r . Howeve r , i n J e a n ' s c a s e , i n v e r s i o n i s no t a p o s s i b i l i t y s i n c e v e r b s and nouns do no t b o t h a p p e a r a t t he same t i m e . 44 T h o s e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h have more t han two s u b s t a n -t i v e s , s u c h as [Ifc] l i t J e a n ? , [It.] p a n t o u f l e a J ean ? and [ I t ] m a r t e a u P a p a ? , and a l s o t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h a r e r e -p e a t e d , s u c h as ponpon• • - [ I t Q p o n p o n ? , 1 ' a u t r e - • • [1 i>]l ' a u t r e ? and maman•••[lfc>]maman? seem to p o i n t to two d i s t i n c t l i n g u i s t i c phenomena . In c a s e s l i k e [ I t ] l i t J e an ? t he l a s t two words h o l d a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to each o t h e r , d e s i g n a t i n g p o s i t i o n . J e an seems q u i t e aware o f t he e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t o c c u r s o f t e n i n answer to q u e s t i o n s , s u c h as "what i s t h i s ? " and "whose i s t h i s ? " In c o n c l u s i o n , J e a n ' s " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s a r e m o r p h o -l o g i c a l l y marked and a r e u t t e r e d w i t h the s e r i o u s i n t e n t i o n ( d i s r e g a r d i n g t h o s e i n s t a n c e s i n wh i ch he does n o t p u r s u e h i s q u e s t i o n ) o f g a i n i n g know ledge a b o u t t he w h e r e a b o u t s o f t he o b j e c t . 2 . 3 . 3 "Why" q u e s t i o n s The n e x t t y p e o f q u e s t i o n , a l s o m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y m a r k e d , a r e "why" q u e s t i o n s , and a l t h o u g h t h e y do no t c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e body o f t he c o r p u s , t h e y a r e i n t e r e s t i n g as a s e p a r a t e a b i l i t y t h a t J e an must a c q u i r e . P e r h p a s t he most s t r i k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to i n c l u d e a b o u t "why" q u e s t i o n s i s t h a t o n l y i n one c a s e i s t h e "why" q u e s t i o n a s k e d s e r i o u s l y . T h i s l a c k o f i n t e n d e d "why" q u e s t i o n 45 i s a l s o r e p o r t e d by Brown and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( 1 9 6 8 : 4 0 2 ) . They r e p o r t t h a t a l t h o u g h Adam, one o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s , a s k e d a number o f "why" q u e s t i o n s , he was u n a b l e to r e s p o n d to "why" q u e s t i o n s . Whereas i n a s k i n g " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s J e a n was, s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n an answer ( a l t h o u g h e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d ) and knew what an answer to h i s q u e s t i o n wou ld b e , h e r e i t i s a n y t h i n g b u t c l e a r t h a t J e a n r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s t he n a t u r e o f e x p l a n a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n (46) and ( 4 7 ) , n o t h i n g has happened i n t he s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t to w a r r a n t an e x p l a n a t i o n : my s a y i n g m e r c i does no t l o g i c a l l y p r e c e d e a "why" q u e s t i o n . J has g i v e n 0 a p e a n u t . "Oh m e r c i . " (Oh thank y o u ) . 4 6 . p o u r q u o i ? > J i s busy s h e l l i n g a n o t h e r p e a n u t . " C ' e s t b o n . " ( I t ' s g o o d ) . 4 7 . p o u r q u o i ? > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . L i k e w i s e , (48) i s a c a s e i n w h i c h a "why" q u e s t i o n r a t h e r m y s t e r i o u s l y i s a s k e d a f t e r my u t t e r a n c e o f b r a v o , i n c o m m e n d a t i o n . J i s m i s p l a c i n g an o b j e c t i n b o o k c a s e . " N o n , non J e a n . " J r e a r r a n g e s i t . " B r a v o . " 4 8 . p o u r q u o i ? (2x ) > " P o u r q u o i ? comme c a . " (Why? b e c a u s e ) . 46 In o t h e r c a s e s , l i k e (49) J e a n o n l y i m i t a t e s , o r e c h o e s , S o p h i e ' s u t t e r a n c e . S has j u s t a s k e d p o u r q u o i ? 4 9 . p o u r q u o i ? > R e c e i v e s no a n s w e r . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , h o w e v e r , (50) and (51) seem to be c a s e s i n w h i c h J e an a c t u a l l y a s k s p o u r q u o i s e r i o u s l y and seems to e x p e c t an e x p l a n a t i o n . 5 0 . p o u r q u o i [ 3 ] s a l maman? 5 1 . p o u r q u o i [ a ] s a l ? 3 u t t e r a n c e s b e f o r e , M had r e f u s e d t o g i v e J sponge b e c a u s e she s a i d i t was d i r t y . > J i s c l e a n i n g . "Comment mon c h e r i ? " (What d e a r ? ) > J s t i l l c l e a n i n g : . " Je v a t s : P o u r q u o i s a l e n c o r e ? " ( I 'm g o i n g . Why s t i l l d i r t y ? ) . J a n s w e r s : O u i . M e x p l a i n s . In such c o n f l i c t i n g c a s e s , one can o n l y c o n c l u d e t h a t J e a n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e x p l a n a t i o n e x i s t s i n a m i n i m a l d e g r e e , no t n o n - e x i s t e n t , b u t no t f u l l y f u n c t i o n a l . As t he examp le s above i n d i c a t e , J e a n t y p i c a l l y o n l y uses p o u r q u o i i n i s o l a -t i o n , u n l i k e h i s use o f s u b s t a n t i v e s and s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t s i n h i s " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s . 47 2 . 3 . 4 "What " q u e s t i o n s J e a n ' s " w h a t " q u e s t i o n s a g a i n r e v e a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n . Here such q u e s t i o n s a p p e a r t o be r e p l i c a s o f what t h e mo the r a s k s d u r i n g q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r p e r i o d s , as w i t h p i c t u r e books and c a t a l o g u e s . She w i l l s t a r t t he q u e s -t i o n i n g t y p i c a l l y by s o m e t h i n g l i k e , oh r e g a r d e , q u ' e s t - c e  que c ' e s t ? and s u b s e q u e n t l y t he c h i l d p r o v i d e s the name o f the p i c t u r e o r t he o b j e c t p o i n t e d t o . T h e n , t h e m o t h e r c o n -t i n u e s w i t h e t ca? p o i n t i n g to a n o t h e r o b j e c t , and i n t r o d u c i n g the t e rm ca^ i n t o t he s p e e c h c o n t e x t . A t t i m e s , J e a n s w i t c h e s r o l e s and a s k s i n t u r n e t ca? knowing w e l l t he answer to h i s own q u e s t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n ( 5 2 ) , J e an s u c c e e d s i n h a v i n g the m o t h e r p r o v i d e t he name o f t he a n i m a l . Howeve r , when he c o n t i n u e s w i t h the m o t h e r ' s r o l e ( 5 3 ) , he does n o t s u c c e e d s i n c e h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t he p i c t u r e i s o b v i o u s to the m o t h e r . J i s naming o b j e c t s i n p i c t u r e book a f t e r b e i n g a s k e d what i t i s . He has named a f o x . " H e i n ? " 5 2 . a ca? > J p o i n t s t o same f o x . "Un p e t i t r e n a r d . " (a s m a l l f o x ) . 5 3 . r e n a r d • • • ca? v r e n a r d ••• J / P o i n t s to a b o y . " P e t i t - * - , tu s a i s ce que c ' e s t pa J e a n , c ' e s t un g a r - - -( s m a l l ? - - , you know what t h i s i s J e a n , i t ' s a b---) . J s u p p l i e s gon (oy ) . 48 The f a c t t h a t s u c h usage o f jpa i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y " t e a c h e r -l i k e " i n t h a t t he answer i n known b e f o r e h a n d , i n d i c a t e s a l i m i t a t i o n o f usage f o r t h i s t y p e o f q u e s t i o n . A g a i n t he e x p r e s s i o n ca_ a p p e a r s i n i s o l a t i o n , a c c o m p a n i e d by no o b j e c t s , and i s no t a t r u e " w h a t " q u e s t i o n i n t h a t J e an r e a l l y o n l y wants t he name o f t he o b j e c t and no t an e x p l a n a t i o n o f wha t . an o b j e c t i s i n o t h e r t e r m s . 2 . 3 . 5 R e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between r e -q u e s t s and commands s i n c e n e i t h e r t y p e o f u t t e r a n c e i s i n t o -n a t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t f r om the o t h e r , and s i n c e a d i s t i n c t i o n c a n n o t be made f u n c t i o n a l l y , b o t h t y p e s r e q u e s t t he l i s t e n e r to p e r f o r m a c e r t a i n a c t wh i ch w i l l c o n t e n t t he s p e a k e r . O t h e r w i s e , J e a n has two f o r m s o f e x p r e s s i n g a r e q u e s t : one i s the a c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t e x p r e s s i o n ' J ean a us s i , " and the o t h e r i s e i t h e r n o n v e r b a l o r naming t he a c t i o n . I f S o p h i e i s e i t h e r d o i n g o r g e t t i n g s o m e t h i n g and i f J e an wou ld l i k e to do l i k e w i s e , t h e n he s i m p l y s a y s J e an  a u s s i . He uses t h i s e x p r e s s i o n a l s o when he s e e s an o b j e c t i n a p i c t u r e book and wou ld l i k e to have o n e . T h e r e a r e no i n s t a n c e s o f J e a n a u s s i where t he o b j e c t r e q u e s t e d has no t a ihready been m e n t i o n e d i n t he s p e e c h e v e n t . A t y p i c a l r e q u e s t i s the f o l l o w i n g . 49 S i s u s i n g t he y o y o . 5 4 . J e a n a u s s i . > Awai t s h i s t u r n . T h e r e a r e , on t he o t h e r h a n d , r e q u e s t s i n i t i a t e d by J e a n . In t h e s e c a s e s J e an i s u n a b l e to p e r f o r m an a c t and a s k s the mo the r to h e l p . When J e an does n o t know how to v e r b a l i z e h i s d e s i r e , he e i t h e r p o i n t s to w h a t e v e r i t i s t h a t i s c a u s i n g t he u n h a p p i n e s s o r e x t e n d s t he o b j e c t to t he mo the r w i t h a w h i n i n g s o u n d . On one o c c a s i o n i n w h i c h J e an wanted a y o y o to be r e w o u n d , he e x t e n d e d t he o b j e c t to h i s mo the r and s a i d [^h] mamie . Some t i m e l a t e r , he was a b l e to a c h i e v e the same r e s u l t by u t t e r i n g o t e z c^ a b u t o n l y b e c a u s e t he mo the r p r e s s e d him to a r t i c u l a t e h i s need by r e f u s i n g to c o -o p e r a t e . 2 .4 C o m p l e t e S e n t e n c e S t a g e : S o p h i e S o p h i e had the a b i l i t y to f o r m each o f t he t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s used by Remi and J e a n , and had a c q u i r e d t he a b i l i t y to f o r m "how" and "who" q u e s t i o n s as w e l l . In a d d i t i o n , she c o u l d u n t e r t a k e t ag q u e s t i o n s , a l t h o u g h none o f t h e s e were m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y marked by n ' e s t - c e p a s . Of some i n t e r e s t h e r e i s t he f a c t t h a t she d i d no t p r o d u c e any f o r m s o f "when " o r " w h i c h " q u e s t i o n s . C o n s i d e r i n g t he d a t a o f a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n , " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s seem to be t h e f i r s t to be f u l l y 50 a c q u i r e d (among the wh- type q u e s t i o n s ) and " w h i c h " and "when " q u e s t i o n s seem to be among t h o s e l a s t and most d i f f i c u l t to a c q u i r e . A l t h o u g h a l l t he w h - q u e s t i o n s were m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y m a r k e d , as y e t n e i t h e r i n v e r s i o n nor t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t he q u i e s t - c e q u e / q u i and q u ' e s t - c e q u e / q u i f o rms were n o t i c e a b l e i n S o p h i e ' s l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r . U n l i k e E n g l i s h , where a l a c k o f i n v e r s i o n i n q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n (and the a p p e a r a n c e o f do) a t t h i s s t a g e o f l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d seem d e v i a n t , S o p h i e ' s q u e s t i o n s do no t a p p e a r to be h i g h l y ungram-m a t i c a l s i n c e t h e y r e s e m b l e c o l l o q u i a l F r e n c h to a g r e a t d e g r e e . T h a t i s , whe reas a l a c k o f i n v e r s i o n i n q u e s t i o n s i n E n g l i s h w o u l d seem u n a c c e p t a b l e , a s i m i l a r l a c k i n F r e n c h does no t seem s o . T h e r e f o r e , i t may no t be as e s s e n t i a l i n t h e a c q u i -s i t i o n o f F r e n c h t h a t i n v e r s i o n t a k e p l a c e as i t i s i n E n g l i s h , a c c o u n t i n g f o r t he r e l a t i v e l a t e n e s s o f i n v e r s i o n h e r e . S o p h i e i s n e a r i n g f l u e n c y i n F r e n c h ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n f u s i o n s r e m a i n i n he r s p e e c h and he r a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e i s by no means c o m p l e t e . In t h e s u b s e c t i o n s to f o l l o w , m a j o r e m p h a s i s must be p l a c e d on a c o m p a r i s o n between the t h r e e c h i l d r e n , w i t h S o p h i e f o r m i n g the t a r g e t a b i l i t i e s f o r the o t h e r two . I s h a l l p r o c e e d t h e n , to he r v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s , n o t i n g i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s o f c o m p a r i s o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t e rms o f u s i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n f o rms a p p r o p r i a t e l y . 51 2 .4 .1 Y e s / n o - t a g q u e s t i o n s Q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n e x h i b i t a number o f d i f f e r -e n c e s f r o m R e m i ' s and J e a n ' s . One d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t S o p h i e has a c q u i r e d t h e a b i l i t y t o ask q u e s t i o n s where t h e l i s t e n e r i s r e q u e s t e d to a g r e e w i t h t he s p e a k e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , b e t t e r known as t ag q u e s t i o n s . A n o t h e r m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t S o p h i e , u n l i k e Remi and J e a n , does no t r e p e a t t he a d u l t ' s u t t e r a n c e i n a q u e s t i o n i n t o n a t i o n i n o r d e r to r e c e i v e a c o n -f i r m a t i o n . H e r e , S o p h i e p o s e s y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s to a c q u i r e new i n f o r m a t i o n and c l a r i f y what may seem to he r amb iguous c o n t e x t . n o t a p p e a r . Howeve r , t he c o l l o q u i a l h e i n and d ' a c c o r d a p p e a r to be a p p r o p r i a t e l y u s e d . S o p h i e i n s e r t s t h e s e i t e m s a t the end o f s t a t e m e n t s as wou ld an a d u l t . Be low a r e some examp le s o f c o l l o q u i a l q u e s t i o n s . The n ' e s t - c e pas f o r m w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s a t ag does S has had a m i n t . 5 5 . c ' e s t pas bon l e s bonbons : h e i n ? (The c a n d i e s i s n ' t g o o d , i s i t ? ) > " N o n , c e n ' e s t pas b o n . (No , i t ' s no t g o o d ) . II 5 6 . f a u t pas t o u c h e r , d ' a c c o r d ? ( m u s t n ' t t o u c h , OK?) No r e s p o n s e f r o m i n f a n t . 52 S i s c h a n g i n g b a b y ' s d i a p e r . S c a n ' t change d i a p e r , M h e l p s . 5 7 . c ' e s t q u o i d i f f i c i l e , \ h e i n ? x ( i t ' s so d i f f i c u l t , i s n ' t ? ) M a g r e e s w i t h S. W i th e x c e p t i o n , t he q u e s t i o n s a r e n e g a t i o n s . On the o t h e r h a n d , among t h o s e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e n e u t r a l o r open and t h u s r e q u e s t e i t h e r a y e s o r no a n s w e r , t h e r e i s o n l y one i n s t a n c e o f n e g a t i o n . S i s p l a y i n g w i t h y o y o , wou ld l i k e a d u l t t o use i t . 5 8 . t i e n s , tu peux f a i r e \ ou t u ne s a i s pas? ( h e r e , can you do i t o r you d o n ' t know? ) . T h i s s e n t e n c e c l e a r l y o f f e r s t he l i s t e n e r a c h o i c e i n t h e u t t e r a n c e i t s e l f . Among t h e s e n e u t r a l q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e a r e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h have a r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n and y e t do no t s i m p l y r e q u e s t a y e s o r no a n s w e r . I n s t e a d , t h e y r e q u e s t the l i s t e n e r to p e r f o r m a c e r t a i n a c t i o n . Fo r e x a m p l e , i n t he f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e S o p h i e wou ld no t have been s a t i s f i e d i f t he a d u l t had m e r e l y s a i d " y e s " and done n o t h i n g . In t h i s s e n s e , t h e n , t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s c o u l d be s a i d to be r e q u e s t s . 53 S has been d r a w i n g , s e e s a b o a t i n p i c t u r e b o o k , wou ld l i k e to have 0 draw i t . 59. tu peux l e f a i r e ? >^ ( c an you d o i t ? ) . L i k e w i s e , the f o l l o w i n g i s more a r e q u e s t to e n l i s t t he m o t h e r ' s h e l p , t h e n to be a s s u r e d t h a t he r move i s t he r i g h t o n e . The n e i g h b o u r ' s baby needs to be c h a n g e d . S i s c h a n g i n g d i a p e r w i t h M's h e l p . 60. a l o r s , ga se met y comme ca? ( t h i s ^ o e s l i k e t h i s ? ) R e c e i v e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . J u d g i n g f r o m t h e number o f t i m e s t h a t S o p h i e r e q u e s t e d i n s t r u c -t i o n s d u r i n g p l a y , (61) i s a g a i n a r e q u e s t f o r h e l p r a t h e r t h a n a y e s o r no a n s w e r . F, J and 0 a r e t a l k i n g . S i s mak ing a c l a y man. 61. i l ^ f a u t f a i r e comme §a v t - a - l a p l i t e a m o d e l e r ? ' (must do l i k e t h i s to R e c e i v e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e , t he c l a y ? ) Such u t t e r a n c e s as t he f o l l o w i n g t h r e e a r e i n s t a n c e s o f y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e q u e s t new i n f o r m a t i o n . S i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y s 62. tu vas d-Tner, a vec nous? \ ( a r e you g o i n g to have d i n n e r w i t h u s ? ) . " N o n . " S a s k s why. 54 6 3 . a t a m a i s o n ? ( t o y o u r h o u s e ? ) " J ' a i b e s o i n d ' a l l e r a u t r e p a r t . " (I need to go e l s e w h e r e . " S i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y s . > " O u i ( Yes ) M comes i n t o h o u s e , S g i v e he r l e t t e r . S wa t ches M r e a d l e t t e r . 64 . c ' e s t Tan te Domi n i que c a ? ) > ( I s i t T . D . t h i s ? ) " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas T . D . c a . " (No , i t i s no t T . D . t h i s ; . On the o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a r e u t t e r a n c e s s u c h as (65) and (66) wh i ch seem to r e q u e s t c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f what t he a d u l t has s a i d . S and M a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t swimming p o o l . ^ s " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' o n a v a i t donne a l a dame pou r l a c a b i n e ? (What d i d we g i v e t he l a d y f o r o u r ^ c a b i n ? ) . " C ' e t a i t t r e s amus.ant tu t e souv-tens? " ( I t was v e r y f u n n y , do you remember? ) 6 5 . dans l a cab in ' e ? •> " O u i . " S. s u p p l i e s a n s w e r . S wants t o w r i t e . She has c l a y i n h a n d . ^ N "Tu v.eux e c r i r e s u r l a p a t e a m o d e l e r ? " mfYouewafi t t o ~ w r i t e on the c l a y ? ) 6 6 . o u i ? > She w r i t e s on c l a y . "Ca n ' e c r i t p a s . " 55 In (65) what the mo the r i s d e s c r i b i n g d o e s n ' t seem to be s u f -f i c i e n t f o r S o p h i e to p r o v i d e the a n s w e r , s o , by a s k i n g dans  l a c a b i n e ? S o p h i e o b t a i n s f u r t h e r r e a s s u r a n c e wh i ch l e a d s he r to p r o v i d e the a n s w e r . In ( 6 6 ) , p e r m i s s i o n to w r i t e on the c l a y seems u n b e l i e v a b l e to S o p h i e , s o , by he r o u i ? she no t o n l y seems to e x p r e s s he r s u r p r i s e b u t a l s o seems to r e q u e s t c l a r i f i c a t i o n t h a t i n d e e d she i s a l l o w e d to w r i t e on t h e c l a y . As w i t h t he o t h e r t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e i s no h i n t t h a t S o p h i e has a c q u i r e d o r has s t a r t e d to a c q u i r e e i t h e r t he e s t - c e que f o r m , o r v e r b and p r o n o u n i n v e r s i o n . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , S o p h i e ' s a b i l i t y to pose y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s i s f a r more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n t h a t o f e i t h e r J e a n o r R e m i ' s . 2 . 4 . 2 "Where " q u e s t i o n s F o r S o p h i e , the use o f " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s i s v e r y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , w i t h no i n a p p r o p r i a t e usage o r n o n - s e r i o u s l y i n t e n d e d u t t e r a n c e s . Of c o u r s e , t h i s i s to some d e g r e e t r u e o f each o f t he t h r e e s u b j e c t s , as a l l a c t u a l l y want to know where s o m e t h i n g i s when t h e y ask i t s l o c a t i o n . F o r S o p h i e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f b e i n g e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d f r o m an answer o r f r o m a r t i c u l a t i n g he r q u e s t i o n f u l l y due to i n a d e q u a t e v o c a b u l a r y . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s the w ide r a n g e o f he r a c q u i s i t i o n o f " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s , a l t h o u g h the d a t a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o rm ou e s t + where t he o b j e c t 56 i n q u e s t i o n i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t he b l a n k . When the o b j e c t i s not a c t u a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n t he q u e s t i o n u t t e r a n c e , t h e n the u t t e r a n c e t a k e s t he f o rm o f i 1 / e 1 1 e e s t ou? T h a t t h i s f o r m s h o u l d seem s i m p l e i s and s h o u l d be t a k e n as no i n d i c a t i o n o f he r t r u e a b i l i t y , bu t o n l y as p e r h a p s the most e f f i c i e n t f o r m o f q u e s t i o n i n g . T h a t she i s c a p a b l e o f more s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x p r e s s i o n when the o c c a s i o n demands i t can be seen i n t he o t h e r , l o n g e r , e x p r e s s i o n s . Compare t he f r e q u e n c y o f a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f q u e s t i o n w i t h t h a t o f Remi and J e a n . The " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r R e m i , and the most p o p u l a r q u e s t i o n f o r m f o r J e a n . Fo r S o p h i e , h o w e v e r , " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s a r e e q u a l i n use to " w h y , " " w h a t , " and y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s , a f a c t w h i c h i n d i c a t e s she a s s i g n s no s p e c i a l s t a t u s t o t h i s f o r m . A l s o , the p r e s e n c e o f t he o_u e l e m e n t , wh i ch i s r a r e l y p r e s e n t i n J e a n ' s s p e e c h i s f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d h e r e . T h a t he r use o f t h i s f o rm y e t needs i m p r o v e m e n t , h o w e v e r , can be seen i n c a s e s l i k e the f o l l o w i n g i n wh i ch t h e r e i s an ag reemen t p r o b l e m between a s i n g u l a r v e r b and p l u r a l o b j e c t . S i s l o o k i n g f o r s p e c i a l t o y s N i n c a t a l o g u e . 6 7 . ou e s t l e s j o u j o u x ? y (where i s t he t o y s ? ) S i n c e t h i s q u e s . t i o n t y p e e x i s t s f o r S o p h i e as a f o r m u l a , i n wh i ch the o b j e c t , w h a t e v e r the n u m b e r , i s m e r e l y f i t t e d i n t o t h e o b j e c t s l o t o f the f o r m u l a , t hen such d i s a g r e e m e n t i s e x p e c t a b l e , and p o s e s a f i n a l p o i n t o f a c q u i s i t i o n b e f o r e f l u e n c y i s r e a c h e d . 2 . 4 . 3 "Why" q u e s t i o n s n a t u r e o f the "why" q u e s t i o n , a l t h o u g h she d i d pose "why" q u e s t i o n s i n s i t u a t i o n s wh i ch d i d no t w a r r a n t t hem. A l s o , u n l i k e J e a n , S o p h i e does no t s i m p l y ask p o u r q u o i ; she i s c a p a b l e o f p r e s e n t i n g t he o b j e c t o f he r q u e s t i o n . B u t , a g a i n , p o u r q u o i i s s i m p l y a t t a c h e d to t he r e s t o f the u t t e r a n c e . U n l i k e J e a n , S o p h i e seems to be f u l l y aware o f t he S has t a k e n O ' s g l a s s e s . " N o n , j e ne v o i s p l u s , non c ' e s t i n t e r d i t ! " ( N o ; s I l e a n ' t see a n y m o r e , no i t ' s f o r b i d d e n ) . 6 8 . p o u r q u o i ? > 0 t a k e s g l a s s e s b a c k . " P a r c e q u e j e ne peux pas v o i r sans mes l u n e t t e s . " ( B e c a u s e I c a n ' t s ee w i t h o u t my g l a s s e s ) . 6 9 . p o u r q u o i tu v o i s r i e n ? (why d o n ' t you see a n y t h i ng? ) > H e i n ? ?11 7 0 . eh p o u r q u o i ? > ii Comme p a . 58 N o t i c e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t i n (69) i f t he q u e s t i o n were to be a s k e d c o r r e c t l y , i t wou ld a p p e a r i n t he f o r m : p o u r q u o i ne  v o i s - t u r i e n ? T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r S o p h i e ' s d e v i a n t f o r m . She m i g h t s i m p l y be t a g g i n g a p o u r q u o i on what i s o t h e r w i s e a s t a t e m e n t , u t i l i z i n g the s t a t e m e n t as a f o r m u l a . On the o t h e r h a n d , h o w e v e r , the mothe r on o c c a s i o n a l s o used such a f o r m , r a i s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t S o p h i e has f u l l y a c q u i r e d a h e a r d f o r m , r a t h e r t han a l t e r i n g t he o r i g i n a l f o r m . Examp les ( 6 8 ) - ( 7 0 ) f o rm a s i n g l e s e q u e n c e , and as an i n d i v i d u a l s p e e c h e v e n t d e m o n s t r a t e t h e f r e q u e n t g r a t u i t y o f S o p h i e ' s "why" q u e s t i o n s . The a p p a r e n t end o f such q u e s t i o n s i s to c o n t i n u e t he c o n v e r s a t i o n , s i n c e s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by t he a d u l t . Such q u e s t i o n s a r e no t s e r i o u s and compare to many o f J e a n ' s " w h e r e " q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d . A l s o , J e a n ' s use o f p o u r q u o i was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p l a y f u l and no t s e r i o u s l y i n t e n d e d to r e c e i v e a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n . S o p h i e , t h e n , has two d i f f i c u l t i e s o u t s t a n d i n g i n her a c q u i -s i t i o n o f "why" q u e s t i o n s : the f o r m u l a i c use o f a s t a t e m e n t p r e c e d e d by a p o u r q u o i and the f a i l u r e to ask a p p r o p r i a t e and i n t e n d e d "why" q u e s t i o n s (a p r o b l e m wh i ch i s by no means l i m i t e d j u s t to c h i l d r e n a c q u i r i n g F r e n c h ) . 59 2 . 4 . 4 "What " q u e s t i o n s L i k e t he "wha t " q u e s t i o n s a s k e d by J e a n , S o p h i e ' s "wha t " q u e s t i o n s a l s o r e s e m b l e t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s , o r q u e s t i o n s a s k e d when the s p e a k e r a l r e a d y knows the a n s w e r . Examp les o f t h i s t y p e a r e (71) and ( 7 5 ) . 7 1 . e t p u i s ca c ' e s t q u o i ? ( t h e , w h i t ' s t h i s ? ) 0 draws a man and names h e a d . > po i n t s t o n e c k . " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu p e n s e s q u e ca d o i t e t r e ? " > (What do you t h i n k i t must be? ) A f t e r two a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s , S p r o v i d e s a n s w e r . 72 73, 74, 7 5 . maman, c ' e s t q u o i pa? (mama, w h a t ' s t h i s ? ) c ' e s t q u o i ca? p e t i t s pou r e n f a n t s , e t 1 es £ a ? S and M a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . S p o i n t s t o p o t s . "Oh e ' e s t q u o i ca m a c c h e r i e ? " " H e i n ? " > " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t p a ? " S p e r s u a d e s M to " r a c o n t e r . " "Ce s o n t des p e t i t s p o t s pour l e s e n f a n t s . " ( T h e y ' r e s m a l l p o t s > f o r c h i 1 d r e n ) . S p o i n t s to a m o u l d . M r e f u s e s to answer and a s k s S i n s t e a d . S p r o v i d e s a n s w e r . A s i d e f r om t h o s e q u o i q u e s t i o n s wh i ch a r e t e a c h e r ' s and a r e p o s e d to c a r r y on the q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r d i a l o g u e and thus do no t r e q u i r e an a n s w e r , t h e r e a r e t h o s e q u o i q u e s t i o n s wh i ch s tem f r o m a need to a c q u i r e new i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , 60 t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e u t t e r a n c e s r e q u e s t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t S o p h i e does no t h a v e . S has my^compac t . 7 6 . c ' e s t q u o i ca? > ( w h a t ' s t h i s ? ) " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu c r o i s que c ' e s t ? " (What do you t h i n k i t i s ? ) . S s a y s she wants to l o o k i n s i d e . " Q u ' e s t - c e que J e an veu.t? Je ne comprends p a s . " (What does J e an want? I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d ) . S i s e a t i n g p e a n u t s . 7 7 . J e an tu veux q u o i ? ) (J what do you want ? ) J p r o v i d e s a n s w e r . S i s . l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . 7 8 . J e an i l a q u o i pour Noe l ? ) (J has what f o r Xmas) " M a i s j e ne s a t s p a s , maman n 'a ; - pas a c h e t e des a f f a i r e s . " (I d o n ' t know, mama h a s n ' t b o u g h t t h i n g s ) . In (76) S o p h i e had n e v e r s een the compac t i n q u e s t i o n , and i n (77) S o p h i e , a l s o , had no t u n d e r s t o o d what J e an wanted and t h u s had to ask him ( o t h e r w i s e , she wou ld have s u p p l i e d an answer to t he q u e s t i o n ) . In t he l a s t u t t e r a n c e , k e e p i n g i n t r a d i t i o n , S o p h i e c o u l d not have known the answer to he r q u e s t i o n . S o , S o p h i e ' s q u o i q u e s t i o n s seem to f u n c t i o n p r i -m a r i l y as a d e v i c e to e i t h e r c o n t i n u e a d i a l o g u e , o r to r e i n -f o r c e what S o p h i e a l r e a d y knows. Of s y n t a c t i c i n t e r e s t h e r e , i s t he f a c t t h a t a l -t hough S o p h i e does no t as y e t p r o d u c e S t a n d a r d F r e n c h q u e s t i o n s , q u o i a lways a p p e a r s a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t he u t t e r a n c e . In o t h e r 61 w o r d s , q u o i q u e s t i o n s a r e no t s i m p l y f o r m e d by j u x t a p o s i n g the q u e s t i o n e l e m e n t to t he f r o n t i e r end o f an u t t e r a n c e . S o p h i e , f o r i n s t a n c e , seemed to have a c q u i r e d t he know ledge t h a t wheneve r a p r e p o s i t i o n ( o r a p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e ) o r a p r o -noun i s no t f r o n t e d , t h e n q u o i must a p p e a r f i n a l l y . Thus u t t e r a n c e s such a s * c ' e s t ca q u o i ? , * i l y a dedans q u o i ? , and *Jean i l a pou r Noe l q u o i ? do no t a p p e a r . Whereas pa c ' e s t q u o i does a p p e a r . A l s o , o f i n t e r e s t i s t he f a c t t h a t S o p h i e d i d n e i t h e r pose any q_u_el_ q u e s t i o n s s p o n t a n e o u s l y , no r any f o r m o f q u ' e s t - c e q u e . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e d o e s n ' t seem to be any c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d p r o g r e s s i v e c h a n g e s , e i t h e r i n f o rm o r f u n c t i o n , d u r i n g t he t ime o f my o b s e r v a t i o n e i t h e r f o r "wha t " q u e s t i o n s o r f o r o t h e r t y p e s . 2 . 4 . 5 "How" q u e s t i o n s A l l o f S o p h i e ' s "how" q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t i n s t r u c t i o n r a t h e r t han the manner i n w h i c h a c e r t a i n t h i n g i s to be d o n e . N ine o f t he e l e v e n u t t e r a n c e s a r e o f t he how to do t y p e . In each c a s e S o p h i e has u n d e r t a k e n a p r o j e c t and r e q u e s t s f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s f r om the a d u l t . In t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s comment a lways f o l l o w s f a i r e . Of i n t e r e s t he r e i s the f o l l o w i n g . 62 S i s b u i l d i n g a home. 79 . mamie , pou r f a i r e /> comment i l f a u t f a i r e une m a i s o n ? (mamie , i n o r d e r to how, must I make a h o u s e ? ) "Eh b i e n , r e f l e c h i s . " (Wei 1, t h i n k ) S i n c e S o p h i e ' s s t r a t e g y i s to have f a i r e comment i n t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , t he q u e s t i o n e l e m e n t i n t he above o c c u r s w i t h the f i r s t f a i r e , t hus r e s u l t i n g w i t h an anoma lous u t t e r a n c e ( i f i t i s a t a l l p o s s i b l e to j u d g e d e g r e e s o f s e m a n t i c and s y n -t a c t i c a n o m a l i e s a t a g i v e n s t a g e o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n ) . A more t y p i c a l v e r s i o n o f (79) wou ld have been s o m e t h i n g l i k e pou r f a i r e une m a i s o n , i l f a u t f a i r e comment? o r i l f a u t f a i r e  comment pou r f a i r e une m a i s o n ? T h u s , i n t he d a t a , "how" q u e s -t i o n s seem to s e r v e o n l y one f u n c t i o n , t h a t o f o b t a i n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . A l s o , i n a d d i t i o n to h a v i n g to a c q u i r e the more f o r m a l e s t - c e que and i n v e r t e d f o r m s o f " h o w , " S o p h i e , a t t he t i m e o f o b s e r v a t i o n , had y e t to a c q u i r e t he o t h e r f u n c t i o n s o f "how" q u e s t i o n s (manne r , i n s t r u m e n t a l and a b i l i t y ) . 2 . 4 . 6 "Who" q u e s t i o n s A l t h o u g h two "who" q u e s t i o n s do a p p e a r i n the d a t a , t h e r e i s no s i g n t h a t S o p h i e has a c q u i r e d t h e a b i l i t y to r e q u e s t t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a s e r i o u s "who" q u e s t i o n 63 p r o v i d e s ; b o t h u t t e r a n c e s be low a r e p rompted by t h e a d u l t ' s q u e s t i o n i n w h i c h qu i a p p e a r s . S and J a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e w h i l e e a t i n g p e a n u t s , " pa c ' e s t comme c h e z q u i ? " (Whose i s 8 0 . c h e z q u i ^a? >^ t h i s l i k e ? ) d r o p s p e a n u t s on f l o o r . " A t t e n t i o n S , tu r a m a s s e s . " (Be c a r e f u l , g a t h e r ) . S s t i l l l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . 8(11. maman, c ' e s t de q u i ca? > (Ix) * ' ' (mama, whose i s t h i s ? ) " H e i n ? C ' e s t q u o i S o p h i e c a ? " ( H u h ? S i s r e f e r r i n g to unanswe red w h a t ' s q u e s t i o n o f (80) a b o v e . t h i s S? ) I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t he l a c k o f a p p e a r a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f q u e s t i o n i s a r e s u l t o f t he n o n - e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d o f s a m p l i n g , s i n c e S o p h i e c e r t a i n l y u n d e r s t o o d "who" q u e s t i o n s when t h e y a p p e a r e d as " w h o s e " and "whom" i n s u c h u t t e r a n c e s as c ' e s t a*  q u i pa? and t u e t a i s a ve c q u i ? f o r w h i c h she r e a d i l y s u p p l i e d a n s w e r s . T h u s , w i t h t h i s f a c t i n m i n d , t h e r e d o e s n ' t seem to be a t h o r o u g h e x p l a n a t i o n f o r i t s l a c k o f a p p e a r a n c e . 2 . 4 . 7 R e q u e s t s and i m p e r a t i v e s I f a t a l l a d i s t i n c t i o n c o u l d be made be tween r e -q u e s t s and commands i n t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d f rom S o p h i e , i t wou ld have to r e l y s o l e l y on s l i g h t i n t o n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I t 64 c o u l d be s a i d t h a t i f t he u t t e r a n c e i s made i n a s o f t , w h i n e -l i k e t o n e , and i s marked by a s l i g h t r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n , t h e n t h a t u t t e r a n c e must be a r e q u e s t . O t h e r w i s e , a d i s t i n c t i o n c a n n o t be made s i n c e s y n t a c t i c a l l y t he two t y p e s o f u t t e r a n c e s a r e i d e n t i c a l . F o r i n s t a n c e , S o p h i e i s c o o k i n g w i t h a p o t , b u t wou ld l i k e a s e c o n d o n e , she s a y s : Donne une c a s s e r o l e ,  maman, t h e t o n e does no t d e s i g n a t e w h e t h e r i t i s a r e q u e s t o r a command. S o , a t l e a s t f o r S o p h i e , a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two t y p e s o f u t t e r a n c e s i s no t c l e a r l y made. S o p h i e ' s r e q u e s t s o r w i s h e s a r e no t l i m i t e d to any one t y p e . She i s a b l e to e x p r e s s any d e s i r e b r o u g h t f o r t h by a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , w h e t h e r i t i s a r e q u e s t to have t he e v e n t r e p e a t e d , e . g . , l o o k i n g t h r o u g h a p i c t u r e b o o k , to p e r f o r m a new a c t i o n , o r s t i l l , to have t he l i s t e n e r p e r f o r m an a c t i o n f o r S o p h i e . U s u a l l y , t h o s e r e q u e s t s w h i c h e n t a i l an a c t i o n to be p e r f o r m e d by S o p h i e a r e e x p r e s s e d by i n f o r m i n g the l i s t e n e r t h a t S o p h i e wants to do s o m e t h i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , i f S o p h i e wants to w r i t e and she does n o t have a l l t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y to do s o , t h e n she w i l l s a y veux e c r i r e to s i g n a l a r e q u e s t . T h i s t y p e o f d e s i r e i s no t o f t e n met b y : b i e n , " e c r i s s i tu v e u x , r a t h e r , the l i s t e n e r p r o v i d e s S o p h i e w i t h w h a t e v e r i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x e c u t e t h e a c t i o n . I n s t a n c e s o f r e q u e s t s o f t h i s t y p e a r e many , f o r e x a m p l e : S has O ' s p u r s e and wants to l o o k i n . 8 2 . veux v o i r d e d a n s . > 65 A n o t h e r t y p e o f r e q u e s t t a k e s the f o rm o f a p e r m i s -s i o n . T h a t i s , S o p h i e ' s u t t e r a n c e o u t o f c o n t e x t wou ld seem as t h o u g h the l i s t e n e r had r e q u e s t e d p e r m i s s i o n and S o p h i e was g r a n t i n g i t . F o r e x a m p l e , w h i l e S o p h i e and J e a n a r e c o o k -i n g , J e a n d r o p s a t o y and S o p h i e s a y s : J e a n , tu peux l a  r a m a s s e r . S i n c e t h i s was a d d r e s s e d to J e a n , the c a s e may be t h a t i t was meant more as a command than a r e q u e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e t one was no t e m p h a t i c . On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , on r e q u e s t i n g and r e c e i v i n g c l a y f r o m the m o t h e r , S o p h i e d i v i d e d i t i n t o two p a r t s and gave one h a l f , s a y i n g t i e n s , tu peux f a i r e  q u e l q u e c h o s e a vec l a p a t e a m o d e l e r . T h e r e were a number o f s u c h u t t e r a n c e s h a v i n g to do w i t h p e r m i s s i o n ? t he f o l l o w i n g a r e some e x a m p l e s . S e x t e n d s y o y o to M. 8 3 . t i e n s , tu peux e n r o u l e r , > ma i s 1 ' a p r e s q u e e n r o u l e r t o u t s e u l . ( h e r e , you can w i n d , b u t a l m o s t wound i t by m y s e l f ) . M w inds y o y o f o r S. 8 4 . e h , tu peux f a i r e un bonhomme. ( e h , you can make a man) . P o s s i b l y , t h e n , t h e use o f p o u v o i r m i g h t have been a c q u i r e d f r o m t h e m o t h e r ' s s p e e c h on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s when t h e mo the r t e l l s t h e c h i l d r e n what to d o . S wants 0 to draw a man. 66 C l e a r l y , some o f S o p h i e ' s u t t e r a n c e s a r e u n a m b i g u o u s l y commands; tu p l e u r e s , and vas t ' e n , as w e l l as tu t ' a s s i e d s , a r e c l e a r l y i m p e r a t i v e . Howeve r , S o p h i e has no t a c q u i r e d as y e t t h e i n v e r s i o n o f v e r b and r e f l e x i v e p r o n o u n and the d e l e -t i o n o f t he p r o n o u n tu_. L i k e S o p h i e ' s y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s e x h i b i t a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f c o m p l e x i t y and a r e n o t l i m i t e d to r e q u e s t s o f r e o c c u r r e n c e o f e v e n t s . 2 .5 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has d e s c r i b e d the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t a p p e a r e d i n t h e d a t a , and d i s c u s s e d the d i f -f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s t h a t each s e r v e d . A l s o , i t d e s c r i b e d the c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s to make r e q u e s t s . A s s u m i n g t h a t t he d a t a g a t h e r e d were a v a l i d s a m p l i n g o f t he l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r o f F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s , t h e n T a b l e II-.l^- wou ld be a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t he o r d e r o f a p p e a r a n c e o f q u e s t i o n s . 67 CHAPTER THREE NEGATION 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 .1 .1 The s e m a n t i c s o f n e g a t i o n A c h i l d ' s use o f n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d i e s . W h i l e a t t he one-word u t t e r -ance s t a g e a s u b j e c t m i g h t be t y p i c a l l y l i m i t e d to y e s / n o q u e s t i o n answe r s and an o c c a s i o n a l use o f the p a r t i c l e p a s , h i s a b i l i t y t o use t h e s e e l e m e n t s c o r r e c t l y can i n d i c a t e and s p e c i f y o t h e r , l a r g e r and p o s s i b l y u n a r t i c u l a t e d , l a n g u a g e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Bo th q u e s t i o n s and n e g a t i o n s s e r v e to d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n to t h e c o n t e x t o f u t t e r a n c e , and where a c h i l d may n o t have the a b i l i t y o r a c q u i r e d v o c a b u l a r y to e x p r e s s h i s know ledge o f t he l a n g u a g e , h i s p r o p e r use o f j u s t t h e s e a c t i o n s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i n d i c a t e s l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s beyond what an e n u m e r a t i o n o f h i s v o c a b u l a r y c o u l d r e v e a l . In a d d i t i o n , by i n c l u d i n g c o n t e x t o f u t t e r a n c e i n the a n a l y s i s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to c a t e g o r i z e d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s s u c h p a r t i c l e s can s e r v e ; i n t h i s way what a p p e a r s a t f i r s t o n l y to be t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f non and pas as l e x i c a l i t e m s 68 s i g n a l s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t l a n g u a g e a b i 1 i t i e s . The a n a l y s i s to f o l l o w d i s t i n g u i s h e s and g i v e s i n -d e p e n d e n t t r e a t m e n t to many s e p a r a t e a b i l i t i e s , e a ch e n t a i l e d by t he a p p r o p r i a t e use o f n e g a t i v e s i n c o n t e x t . W h i l e a c r e d i b l e a rgumen t c o u l d be made f o r i n c l u d i n g a l l n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s u n d e r a s i n g l e a b i l i t y , t o o many g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t to a c q u i s i t i o n s t u d i e s a r e m i s s e d a t t h i s l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . The more a d e q u a t e a p p r o a c h must l o o k a t what a c h i l d i s a b l e t o do i n u s i n g u t t e r a n c e s w i t h n e g a t i v e s , r a t h e r t han s i m p l y what n e g a t i v e s he i s a b l e to e m p l o y . T h u s , a l o n g a d u l t g r a m m a t i c a l l i n e s w h i l e he may be n e g a t i n g some p r o p o s i t i o n ( l o g i c a l l y s p e a k i n g ) , he c o u l d be u n d e r t a k i n g a c t i o n s as d i s t i n c t as mak ing a n e g a t i v e a s s e r t i o n , mak ing a y e s / n o d e n i a l o r d i s a g r e e m e n t ( t o e i t h e r s e r i o u s o r t e a c h e r y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s ) , o r r e f u s i n g to c o m p l y o r obey a command. The r a n g e o f n e g a t i n g a b i l i t i e s a c q u i r e d by a c h i l d , even w i t h a l i m i t e d v o c a b u l a r y , s u g g e s t s t he u s e f u l n e s s o f s e t t i n g up a s c a l e o f n e g a t i o n a b i l i t i e s by w h i c h to measu re t h e t h r e e c h i l d r e n . F o r t he p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , such a s e m a n t i c s o f n e g a t i o n must s p e c i f y f i r s t the v a r i o u s n e g a t i n g a c t i o n s open to a c h i l d and s e c o n d the s y n t a c t i c s c o p e o f t he p a r t i c u l a r n e g a t i v e morpheme u s e d . F o r e x a m p l e , when a c h i l d s i m p l y s a y s " n o " he may be r e f e r r i n g to t he n o n - e x i s t e n c e o f some o b j e c t as i n "no c o o k i e . " " N o " he r e wou ld work as an a d j e c t i v e . O r , he m i g h t be e x p r e s s i n g h i s d e s i r e t h a t some a c t i o n no t t a k e p l a c e , as i n "no g o , " w h i c h wou ld be a c a s e o f a n e g a t i v e w o r k i n g as an a d v e r b . O r , f i n a l l y , he m i g h t mean t h a t he i s u n w i l l i n g to see some e v e n t t a k e p l a c e , u s i n g " n o " w i t h t h e s c o p e o v e r an e n t i r e s e n t e n c e . In t he f i r s t c a s e " n o " m i g h t work as an a d j e c t i v e o r a q u a n t i f i e r , i n t he s e c o n d c a s e as a v e r b p a r t i c l e o r a d v e r b , and i n t h e t h i r d c a s e as a n e g a t i v e r a n g i n g o v e r an e n t i r e s e n t e n c e . In t h i s way , t h e t a s k o f d e t e r m i n i n g a s u b j e c t ' s i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y to use n e g a t i v e s can become one o f d e t e r m i n i n g the a c q u i s i -t i o n o f t h e a b i l i t y to use n e g a t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t s c o p e . The s c o p e o f any n e g a t i o n , as I s h a l l a t t e m p t to d e m o n s t r a t e , depends u n i q u e l y on t he s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h the n e g a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e o r on w h e t h e r t he n e g a t i o n i s an answer t o a q u e s t i o n . W i th r e g a r d to t h e v a r i o u s n e g a t i n g a b i l i t i e s t h a t c h i l d r e n may a c q u i r e , the f o l l o w i n g a r e o f d i r e c t i n t e r e s t h e r e : d i s a p p r o v a l , d e n i a l , n o n - p o s s e s s i o n , r e f u s a l t o a c t , r e j e c t i o n o f o f f e r , n o n - e x i s t e n c e a s s e r t i o n s , a s s e r t i o n s o f i n a b i l i t y , and " o m n i b u s " n e g a t i o n s . D i s a p p r o v a l wou ld c o n -s t i t u t e a c a s e i n w h i c h some a c t i o n i s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d and someone d i s a p p r o v e s t he a c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i f Remi were to th row a g a r m e n t o u t o f t he w indow, a s h a r p " N o ! " wou ld be a d i s a p p r o v a l . D e n i a l i s a c a s e i n w h i c h t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f a p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e i s b e i n g d e n i e d . An a s s e r t i o n o f non-p o s s e s s i o n e x p r e s s e s t h e l a c k o f p o s s e s s i o n o f a c e r t a i n o b j e c t . R e f u s a l to a c t d i f f e r s f r o m a r e j e c t i o n o f o f f e r o n l y i n t h a t what i s b e i n g r e f u s e d o r r e j e c t e d i n one c a s e i s an o r d e r and i n t he o t h e r an o f f e r . A s s e r t i o n s o f n o n - e x i s t e n c e e x p r e s s t h e a b s e n c e o f o b j e c t s o r p e r s o n s . I n a b i l i t y on the o t h e r h a n d , e x p r e s s e s an a c t i o n w h i c h t h e s p e a k e r c a n n o t p e r f o r m . F i n a l l y , n e g a t i o n w h i c h may r e f e r to a v a r i e t y o f a c t i o n s i s r e f e r r e d to as omn ibus n e g a t i o n . Some o f t h e s e a b i l i t i e s have been d i s c u s s e d by o t h e r s t u d i e s . Fo r e x a m p l e , B loom i n he r s t u d y o f t h r e e E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , d i s c u s s e s n o n - e x i s t e n c e , r e j e c t i o n , and d e n i a l . She s t a t e s t h a t t he o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n i s f i r s t n o n - e x i s t e n c e , t h e n r e j e c t i o n and l a s t l y d e n i a l ( 1 9 7 0 : 2 1 8 ) . T h i s o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n compares u n f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t he f i n d -i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . H e r e , R e m i , who wou ld be c o m p a r a b l e t o B l o o m ' s s u b j e c t s , e x p r e s s e d n o n - e x i s t e n c e o n l y o n c e . An a b i l i t y no t m e n t i o n e d by B l o o m , t h a t o f d i s a p p r o v a l , o c c u r r e d f a r more f r e q u e n t l y . A n o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h d i s c u s s e s t he n e g a t i n g a b i l i t i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , i s one c o n d u c t e d by M c N e i l l and M c N e i l l . T h e r e , t he a u t h o r s r e p o r t t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t , 27 months o f a g e , e x p r e s s e d i n J a p a n e s e the n o n - e x i s t e n c e o f e v e n t s and o b j e c t s , t h e i n c o r r e c t n e s s o f s t a t e m e n t s and s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e c h i l d used " n o " to mean d i s a p p r o v a l o r r e j e c t i o n by S t a g e 3, 31 months ( 1 9 6 8 : 6 0 - 6 1 ) . The l a s t two n e g a t i o n s to a p p e a r , a c c o r d -i n g to t he a u t h o r s , were E n t a i I m e n t - N o n - E n t a i I m e n t and 71 omnibus n e g a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t whe reas i n J a p a n e s e omnibus n e g a t i o n , n e g a t i o n e x p r e s s i n g more t han one a c t i o n , a p p e a r s l a t e , a t l e a s t 31 months*, i n t h i s s t u d y omnibus n e g a t i o n a p p e a r s as e a r l y as i n the d a t a f r o m R e m i . To f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e t he o c c u r r e n c e o f t he v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s d i s c u s s e d h e r e , t he t a b l e be low p r e s e n t s the t h r e e c h i l d r e n ' s u s a g e s . T a b l e I I I .1 O c c u r r e n c e o f N e g a t i o n A b i l i t i e s i n The T h r e e C h i l d r e n Remi J e an S o p h i e Omni bus X X X Di s a p p r o v a l X X X R e j e c t i o n o f o f f e r X X X R e f u s a l to a c t X X X N o n - e x i s t e n c e X X X N o n - p o s s e s s i o n X I n a b i 1 i t y X X D e n i a l X X 3 . 1 . 2 N e g a t i o n i n a d u l t F r e n c h N e g a t i o n i n s t a n d a r d F r e n c h i s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h two n e g a t i n g e l e m e n t s : rie_ and p a s . Ne a lways has to o c c u r i n t he n e g a t i v e s e n t e n c e , h o w e v e r , pas can be r e p l a c e d by e i t h e r p l u s , j a m a i s , o r r i e n . In a s e n t e n c e , ne^  a lways a p p e a r s b e f o r e 72 t h e v e r b , and p a s , a f t e r , f o r e x a m p l e , j e ne p a r l e pas (I d o n ' t s p e a k ) . I f t he t e n s e i s p a s t , t h e n pas o c c u r s a f t e r t he a u x i l i a r y and n o t t h e ma in v e r b , f o r e x a m p l e , j e n ' a i pas  p a r l e (I d i d no t s p e a k ) . B r i e f l y , the t a r g e t f o r m t h a t i s to be a c q u i r e d i n F r e n c h i s no t c o m p l e x . T h a t i s , no f o rms such as t he d £ i n E n g l i s h , have to be a c q u i r e d . 3. '2 . A S c a l e o f N e g a t i o n A b i l i t i e s In d e s c r i b i n g the t h r e e c h i l d r e n ' s n e g a t i v e u t t e r -a n c e s , a p r i m a r y q u e s t i o n to be answe red c o n c e r n s what a l t e r -n a t i v e s each c h i l d has when mak ing a n e g a t i o n . N e g a t i o n can be d e s c r i b e d , no t o n l y i n t e rms o f w h i c h morphemes a r e used and what s c o p e t h e r e s p e c t i v e morphemes h a v e , bu t i n t e rms o f t he a c t i o n s a c h i l d may u n d e r t a k e by h i s u t t e r a n c e . What a r e o n l y one-word n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s , l i k e non may s e r v e i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . I t w i l l be i m p o r t a n t to the a n a l y s i s to f o l l o w t h a t t h e s e v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s be e n u m e r a t e d . What a r e t he more c o m p l e x and m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d u t t e r a n c e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t he most comp l ex n e g a t i n g a c t i o n s . P e r h a p s t he most c o m p l i c a t e d a c t i o n to d e s c r i b e w i t h r e g a r d to n e g a t i o n i s t h a t o f omn ibus n e g a t i o n . As the te rm i m p l i e s , omn ibus n e g a t i o n i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f a c t i o n s . The 73 f a c t t h a t t h i s t y p e o f a c t i o n i s p e r h a p s most c o m p l i c a t e d by no means s h o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s to be p e r f o r m e d by o l d e r s u b j e c t s . In f a c t , i t s b e s t examp le may be an u t t e r a n c e made by R e m i , who has o n l y two n e g a t i v e l e x i c a l i t ems , i n h i s v o c a b u -l a r y o r r e p e r t o i r e . I t i s b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a " b l a n k e t " n e g a t i o n , i n w h i c h d i s a p p r o v a l and r e j e c t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d f o r more t h a n one s p e c i f i c e v e n t . U t t e r a n c e C o n t e x t Tayo i s b o t h e r i n g R. R t r i e s to g e t away f r o m d o g . 1 . n o n . y In t he above examp le a s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s ,im" whi cPr Remi s h o u t s non a t h i s d o g . The dog i n t h i s c a s e has been r o u g h w i t h R e m i , j u m p i n g on him and p u l l i n g a t h i m . R e m i ' s u t t e r a n c e i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a d i s a p p r o v a l o f t he d o g ' s b e h a v i o u r , a command o r i m p e r a t i v e f o r t he dog to s t o p , and a r e p r i m a n d f o r h i s b e h a v i o u r . Remi i s a b l e to s u c c e s s i n a l l o f t h e s e t a s k s w i t h one t e r m , u t t e r e d w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r j e c -t i o n a l f o r c e . T h u s , ' o m n i b u s n e g a t i o n can be c a r r i e d on by a d u l t s as w e l l as by c h i l d r e n a t t h e one-word s t a g e , p r o v i d e d t h a t s e v e r a l n e g a t i v e a c t s a r e p e r f o r m e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . C o n t i n u i n g t he d e s c r i p t i o n o f n e g a t i o n i n t e rms o f a c t i o n s , p e r h a p s the n e x t most c o m p l i c a t e d a c t i o n i s t h a t o f d i s a p p r o v a l . 74 S f e e d i n g d o l l . J e a t i n g d o l l ' s f l a k e s . S pushes J away f r o m h e r . 2. i l f a u t pas manger c a , y a l l e z . > ( m u s t n ' t e a t t h i s , go ) The above i s a good examp le o f t h i s a c t i o n , and i n v o l v e s a c a s e i n w h i c h J e an i s e a t i n g o r t r y i n g to e a t t he d o l l ' s c o r n f l a k e s w h i l e S o p h i e i s f e e d i n g i t . She r e s p o n d s to J e a n ' s a c t i o n by r e t o r t i n g i l f a u t pas manger £a, a l l e z , and by p u s h i n g J e an away f r o m t h e b o w l . D i s a p p r o v a l h e r e i s a m a t t e r o f a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e to J e a n ' s a c t i o n and compares to t h o s e c a s e s i n wh i ch she becomes more o u t r a g e d a t J e a n . A g a i n , t h e c o n t e x t h e r e h e l p s to d e f i n e t he a c t i o n she i s t r y i n g to a c c o m p l i s h . By p u s h i n g J e a n away, S o p h i e e m p h a s i z e s he r d i s a p p r o v a l o f J e a n ' s b e h a v i o u r s i n c e J e a n wou ld no t heed S o p h i e ' s v e r b a l d i s a p p r o v a l a l o n e . Such an a c t i o n can r a n g e f r o m s h a r p d i s -a p p r o v a l , when a c c o m p a n i e d by a n g e r , to m i l d d i s a p p r o v a l when t h e s i t u a t i o n i s l e s s p r e s s i n g . A n o t h e r a c t i o n w h i c h a l s o i s a r e s p o n s e to s i t u a -t i o n a l c o n t e x t r a t h e r t han to s p e e c h c o n t e x t i s the a s s e r t i o n o f i n a b i l i t y , f o r e x a m p l e , (3) b e l o w . J i s g o i n g to show new p u z z l e w h i c h i s u n d e r t a b l e i n t o y b o x . J c a n ' t g e t p u z z l e o u t o f b o x . 3. pas b i e n . ( I x ) > ( n o t good ) " H e i n ? Tu ne peux p a s ? " (Huh? you can ' t ) . 75 T h i s s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e s a c a s e i n w h i c h J e an i s p r e p a r i n g to show me h i s new p u z z l e , wh i ch i s i n a t o y b o x unde r a t a b l e . F a i l i n g to e x t r a c t t h e p u z z l e f r o m t h e t o y b o x , he s a y s pas  b i e n to i n d i c a t e h i s i n a b i l i t y and to i n d i r e c t l y ask f o r my h e l p . He u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t to e x p r e s s h i s own l a c k o f a b i l i t y i s to o b l i q u e l y e l i c i t h e l p f r om n e a r b y a d u l t s . S o p h i e a l s o i s a b l e to u n d e r t a k e a c t i o n to i n d i c a t e i n a b i l i t y . S i s p l a y i n g w i t h c l a y on p a p e r s a c k . S c a n ' t r o l l c l a y on s a c k , g e t s h e l p . 4. peux p l u s r o u l e r . ( I x ) > ( c a n ' t r o l l anymore ) In t h e above s i t u a t i o n , no t b e i n g a b l e to r o l l t h e c l a y on t h e p a p e r , she c o m p l a i n s , peux p l u s r o u l e r ( c a n ' t r o l l a n y -more ) and r e c e i v e s h e l p w i t h he r a c t i v i t y . U n l i k e S o p h i e and J e a n , Remi c a n n o t as y e t i n d i c a t e i n a b i l i t y . T u r n i n g now to a c t i o n s w h i c h f o r m r e s p o n s e s to t he l a n g u a g e i n t he i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t , a l l seem e q u a l l y c o m p l e x . R e f u s a l to a c t i s one such c a s e and i s p r e s e n t i n a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n . R e m i , f o r e x a m p l e , i s t o l d to w ipe h i s m o u t h , b u t s t a n d s i n f r o n t o f t he towe l i n s t e a d , and s a y s n o n . " E s s u i e l a b o u c h e . " (w ipe y o u r m o u t h ) . 5. n o n : ^ R s t a n d s i n f r o n t o f t o w e l , does n o t h i n g . 76 S i m i l a r l y , Remi can a l s o e x p r e s s n o n - e x i s t e n c e , a l t h o u g h on o n l y one o c c a s i o n does he do s o . In what m i g h t be a c o r r e l a t e to l o c a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , i n t h a t s i m i l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a r e e n t a i l e d , Remi i s a s k e d the w h e r e a b o u t s o f T a y o . L o o k i n g u n d e r t he c u p b o a r d , where he s u s p e c t s Tayo to b e , he l o o k s up and s a y s n o n , p r o c e e d i n g to l o o k e l s e w h e r e f o r t he d o g . H e r e , he has g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n to t he e f f e c t t h a t t h e d e s i r e d o b j e c t does no t e x i s t o r i s no t l o c a t e d i n a s p e c i f i c p l a c e . A l t h o u g h n o n - e x i s t e n c e has v e r y low f r e q u e n c y i n t he d a t a f r o m R e m i , name ly o n c e , i n t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m S o p h i e and J e an i t s o c c u r r e n c e i s f a r more f r e q u e n t . An i n s t a n c e o f r e j e c t i o n o f o f f e r i s when J e an i s a s k e d to s i t down, o r r a t h e r , a p l a c e i s o f f e r e d to him to s i t . He r e p l i e s non l e v e r n o n . . . mean ing t h a t he r e j e c t s t he o f f e r , i n s i s t i n g on s t a n d i n g u p . 6 . nojn l e v e r n o n . . . ! ' a u t r e [pa'p'a ] a v e c . . . (no s t a n d no : . . . . d t h e r hammer w i t h . . . ) J i s s t a n d i n g and M wants him to s i t down and work w i t h c l a y . > J won 11 s i t down. > "Eh b i e n , tu peux t a p e r s u r l a pltte a m o d e l e r s i tu v eux pou r l a f a i r e t r e s j o l i e . " T h i s r e j e c t i o n o f an o f f e r i s d i s t i n c t , as an a c t i o n , f r o m a s s e r t i o n s o f n o n - e x i s t e n c e and f r o m r e f u s a l s to a c t . 7 7 "Tu eux j o u e r a vec l a plrte a m o d e l e r ? " (Do you want to p l a y wi th t he c l a y ? ) . 7. n o n , j e veux e c r i r e . y ( n o , I want to w r i t e ) . S t a r t s g e t t i n g p a p e r . H e r e , S o p h i e i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h an o f f e r t o p l a y w i t h the c l a y , i n s t e a d , she r e j e c t s i t : n o n , j e veux e c r i r e . W i th t h i s r e m a r k , she p r o c e e d s to g e t t he n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l f o r w r i t i n g . R e m i , i n a l e s s e r s e n s e , e x e c u t e s the same a c t i o n by r e f u s i n g to e a t by r e j e c t i n g t he o f f e r o f f o o d . 8. n o n : : n o n ! (3x ) R s t o p s e a t i n g . M s t a r t s f e e d i n g h i m . T i s u n d e r t he t a b l e p u l l -i n g R 's p a j a m a s . > R t u r n s away f r o m spoon^ , " A l l e z , une a u t r e bouchee ? non? non? h e i n ? " (Come,, one more m o u t h f u l ? no? no? h u h ? ) . H e r e , Remi m i g h t be d o i n g more t han r e j e c t i n g an o f f e r . S i n c e Tayo was u n d e r the t a b l e w h i l e Remi was e a t i n g , and s i n c e i t was p u l l i n g a t h i s p a j a m a s , R e m i ' s e m p h a t i c n o n ! c o u l d have been d i r e c t e d a t t he dog as w e l l as t he m o t h e r ' s o f f e r . C a s e s o f a s s e r t i o n o f n o n - p o s s e s s i o n e x i s t o n l y i n t he d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m J e a n . A l t h o u g h Remi may no t be a b l e to e x p r e s s n o n - p o s s e s s i o n , i t i s no t t o s a y t h a t t h i s may a l s o be t he c a s e f o r S o p h i e . U n l i k e R e m i , S o p h i e c o u l d a s s e r t p o s s e s s i o n , and a l a c k o f a s s e r t i o n o f n o n - p o s s e s s i o n i n t h e 78 d a t a may be a r e s u l t o f n o n - e x t e n s i v e s a m p l i n g r a t h e r t h a n a r e f l e c t i o n o f a l a c k o f a b i l i t y . In t he c a s e o f J ean ( 9 ) , e x p r e s s e s non p o s s e s s i o n . " C ' e s t pou r A . c ' e s t un r u b a n . " ( I t ' s f o r A . I t ' s a t a p e ) . J s a y s r u b a n . " O u i , un r u b a n ! " ( Y e s , a t a p e ) . 9. J e a n pas r u b a n c a . y ( J ean no t a p e t n i s ) . p o i n t s t o t a p e r e c o r d e r . " N o n , J e an n ' a pas un ruban comme c^a." (No , J ean d o e s n ' t have a t a p e l i k e t h i s ) . In ( 9 ) , as J e an o b s e r v e s t he t a p e r e c o r d e r I s ay c ' e s t un  r u b a n , whereupon J e a n r e m a r k s t h a t he does no t have one ( o r t h a t t he t a p e i s no t h i s ) by J e an pas r u b a n pa. C l e a r l y , J e an i s e x p r e s s i n g n o n - p o s s e s s i o n o f t he t a p e i n q u e s t i o n , w h e t h e r (9) i s i n t e r p r e t e d as The t a p e i s n o t mine o r I d o n ' t  have a t a p e . Of more i m p o r t a n c e , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h i s l a n g u a g e use r e f l e c t s t h e n o t i o n o f p o s s e s s i o n and the a b i l i t y to deny i t . F i n a l l y , t he a c t i o n o f d e n y i n g t he t r u t h o f t he p r e c e d i n g u t t e r a n c e i s u n d e r t a k e n by J ean and S o p h i e o n l y . J s e e s p i c t u r e o f c a r w i t h a g i r l i n i t , s a y s i t i s h i s . "Ce n ' e s t pas pou r S o p h i e ? " ( I t ' s no t f o r S o p h i e ? ) 1 0 . n o n . ) 79 " R e g a r d e , i l y a une p e t i t e f i l l e l a , c ' e s t pou r S o p h i e . " ( L o o k , t h e r e i s a l i t t l e g i r l t h e r e , i t i s f o r S o p h i e ) . In a weake r s e n s e , non i s an examp le i n w h i c h J ean d e n i e s t h a t t h e c a r i n t h e p i c t u r e book i s f o r S o p h i e s i n c e he does no t s p e c i f y . On the o t h e r h a n d , S o p h i e i n ( 1 1 ) e x p l i c i t l y d e n i e s t he t r u t h o f what t he a d u l t s a y s . S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e and p o i n t i n g to d o l l c a r r i a g e s w h i c h s h e w a n t s . " f a c ' e s t m i g n o n , r e g a r d e . " ( T h a t ' s c u t e , l o o k ) . l o o k i n g a t c a r r i a g e s . 1 1 . n o n , c ' e s t pas m i g n o n . > ( n o n , i t ' s no t c u t e ) . Upon h e a r i n g t h e a d u l t ' s comment t h a t one o f t h e c a r r i a g e s i s c u t e , S o p h i e d e n i e s t h a t i t i s c u t e . 3.3 L e x i c a l U s a g e : N e g a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s A grammar o f t he r e s p e c t i v e l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s o f my t h r e e s u b j e c t s s h o u l d i n c l u d e t he f a c t t h a t t h e y used the f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c l e s and c o m b i n a t i o n s to r e n d e r n e g a t i v e u t t e r -a n c e s : n o n , p a s , pas b o n , p l u s , pas p u , pas p-eux, and pas b i e n . Of c o u r s e , s u c h n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s o c c u r r e d w i t h t e rms o t h e r t h a n t h o s e a b o v e , b u t I d i s t i n g u i s h he r e o n l y t h o s e c o m b i n a t i o n s 80 w h i c h o c c u r w i t h s u f f i c i e n t f r e q u e n c y to be c o n s i d e r e d f i g u r e s o f s p e e c h i n t h e m s e l v e s . N e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s can be a p p r o a c h e d f i r s t f r o m the p o i n t o f v i ew o f what a c t i o n s t h e y a r e used to p e r f o r m and how t h e y f i t i n t o t he s i t u a t i o n a l and s p e e c h c o n -t e x t , and s e c o n d , f r om the p o i n t o f v i ew o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l f r e q u e n c y and c o m p l e x i t y . S e c t i o n 3.2 c o n c e r n e d t h e a c t i o n a p p r o a c h , and t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l i n v o l v e a m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n . Such a d e s c r i p t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t l e a s t two i t e m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each c h i l d : t h e morphemes he i s c a p a b l e o f u s i n g o r has i n t e r n a l i z e d and the s c o p e o r c o m p l e m e n t a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s v a r i o u s n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s . I t s h o u l d a l s o r e v e a l t he g e n e r a l f r e q u e n c y o f use f o r t he d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c l e s . In t h i s way , on a c o m p a r a t i v e b a s i s , a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f a c q u i s i t i o n may be o u t l i n e d : t he s c o p e o f n e g a t i o n f o r Remi i s v i r t u a l l y u n d e t e r m i n a b l e , w h i l e f o r S o p h i e i t i s s i m i l a r i n d i s t r i b u t i o n and v a r i e t y o f s c o p e to t h a t o f an a d u l t . J e a n , on t he o t h e r h a n d , d e m o n s t r a t e s v a r y i n g s c o p e o f n e g a t i o n . 3 .3 .1 Remi R e m i ' s n e g a t i o n r e p e r t o i r e c o n s i s t s o f two l e x i c a l i t e m s : non and pas b o n . Of t h e s e t w o , pas bon i s r e s t r i c t e d to use i n s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h f o o d i s i n v o l v e d . When he 81 r e f u s e s to c o n t i n u e e a t i n g , w h e t h e r t h e f o o d i s t a s t y o r n o t , he w i l l u t t e r pas b o n . In t h i s s e n s e , t h e n , pas bon becomes a f i g u r e o f s p e e c h i n i t s e l f , s i n c e he does no t mean e x a c t l y what he s a y s h e r e and i s no t i n f a c t c o m b i n i n g pas w i t h an a d j e c t i v e . T h u s , pas may no t be a q u a l i f i e d n e g a t i v e e l e m e n t i n h i s l e x i c o n , a l t h o u g h he may s u b s e q u e n t l y be a b l e to i d e n t i f y i t as such and expand i t s u s a g e . Non i s t h e s i n g l e t r u e n e g a t i v e e l e m e n t o r p a r t i c l e f o r R e m i . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d he re t h a t i t was no t u n t i l t he f o u r t h s e s s i o n w i t h Remi when he was 2 3 , 7 days o l d t h a t h i s use o f t h i s te rm c o u l d be c a l l e d m o t i v a t e d . B e f o r e t h i s t i m e , non a p p e a r e d o n l y f o u r t i m e s , two o f w h i c h were i n a p p r o p r i a t e to the p o i n t o f u n i n t e l 1 i g i b i l i t y and the o t h e r two were s p e c i a l c a s e s . The f i r s t was a non? q u e s t i o n and t h e s e c o n d i s (12) b e l o w . 12 . n o n . R i s s t a n d i n g by c u p b o a r d and i t s d o o r i s o p e n . "Tu veux l a f e r m e r ? " (You want to c l o s e i t ? ) . > R c l o s e s d o o r . T h i s s e c o n d examp le i s s i t u a t i o n a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Remi i s a s k e d to c l o s e t he c u p b o a r d d o o r ; he does so bu t s a y s n o n . I f one were to assume t h a t he was n o t ! i n f a c t c o n t r a d i c t i n g h i m s e l f ( o r d i d u n d e r s t a n d what he was s a y i n g and was c a p a b l e 82 o f c o r r e c t u sage o f non) t h e n the r e m a i n i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n wou ld r e s e m b l e s o m e t h i n g l i k e . ( 1 2 ' ) A d u l t : "Do you want to c l o s e i t ? " (Tu veux l a f e r m e r ? ) R e m i : " N o , I d o n ' t want t o , bu t I w i l l anyway" ( n o n ) . An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u c h as t h e above wou ld a t t r i b u t i n g to Remi a d e g r e e o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w h i c h i s u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d by any o t h e r a s p e c t o f h i s b e h a v i o u r . The more l i k e l y and d e f e n s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r (12) o r i t s c o r r e l a t e ( 1 2 ' ) i s t h a t u n t i l t he f o u r t h s e s s i o n R e m i ' s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f non usage was i n -c o m p l e t e . A f t e r s e s s i o n f o u r , h o w e v e r , non o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y and i s used a p p r o p r i a t e l y , even t h o u g h i t o c c u r s by i t s e l f , as Remi i s y e t i n t h e one-word s t a g e . The f a c t o f t h i s i s o -l a t e d o c c u r r e n c e makes any d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s c o p e , as t o w h e t h e r non i s i n t e n d e d to h o l d f o r s u b s t a n t i v e s , p r e d i c a t e s , o r o v e r e n t i r e s e n t e n c e s , v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . S i n c e i t i s b a s i c a l l y used i n r e a c t i o n to s i t u a t i o n s , t he s c o p e q u e s t i o n i s o f t e n n o t a m e a n i n g f u l o n e . A l s o , i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h i t i s used i n r e s p o n s e to t h e a d u l t ' s l a n g u a g e , no b e t t e r answe r s a r e f o r t h c o m i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , the f o l l o w i n g u t t e r a n c e s r e l a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t he m o t h e r , t a k i n g p r e c a u t i o n a r y m e a s u r e s , a s k s i f he i s g o i n g to f a i r e kaka? 83 "Tu veux f a i r e k a k a ? " (Do you want to go c a c a ? ) 1 3 . n o n ! > l o o k s i n su l t e^d and h u r t . " N o n , tu es sur? f a i r e k a k a ? " 1 4 . n o n ! > eyebrows a r e k n e a d e d . " T u e s t s t i r ? " ( y o u r ' r e s u r e ? ) R r esumes p l a y . C a r l o t a S m i t h has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t d u r i n g t h e one-word u t t e r -ance s t a g e , t h e c h i l d seems to d e c o d e o r " u n d e r s t a n d " o n l y t he " h i g h - s t r e s s c o n t e n t w o r d s " w h i c h he h i m s e l f u t t e r s ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 1 8 ) . S o , when Remi i s a s k e d a q u e s t i o n o r g i v e n a command ( c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , h i s m o t h e r d i d no t speak to him i n any o t h e r mood ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , she d i d no t speak to him as i f a d i a l o g u e were p o s s i b l e ) t he s c o p e o f h i s r e s p o n s e wou ld r a n g e o v e r t h e e v e n t s w h i c h t h e r e c o g n i z e d i t e m m i g h t e v o k e . In t h i s c a s e , he was p l a y i n g and had no d e s i r e to be p l a c e d on h i s t o i l e t c h a i r f o r p e r i o d s o f t i m e as was t h e c u s t o m . T h u s , he may w e l l be r e s p o n d i n g to h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t he s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n to h i s m o t h e r ' s s p e e c h . 3 . 3 . 2 J e an J e a n ' s n e g a t i v e v o c a b u l a r y c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g l e x i c a l i t e m s : n o n , p a s , pas b i e n , pas p u , pas p e u x . As t he l i s t i n d i c a t e s , many o f t h e s e a r e e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e R e m i ' s pas b o n . Howeve r , t h e y a r e n o t r e s e r v e d to one s i t u a t i o n o r 84 s e t o f s i t u a t i o n s o n l y , and have i n c r e a s e d g e n e r a l i t y . Y e t , t h e y a r e e x p r e s s i o n s meant to be t a k e n as e n t i t i e s i n t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h s p e c i a l u s a g e . In t e rms o f r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y , non i s e a s i l y t he most f r e q u e n t , f o l l o w e d by pas b i e n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , pas a p p e a r s i n i s o l a t i o n and w i t h o t h e r i t e m s . The l a s t two above have to do w i t h e x p r e s s i n g i n a b i l i t y and n o n -e x i s t e n c e ; pas peux a p p e a r s o n l y o n c e , bu t pas pu i s v e r y p r o -d u c t i v e , o c c u r r i n g some f o u r t e e n t i m e s . T h i s compared f a v o u r -a b l y w i t h pas b i e n o c c u r r i n g some e i g h t e e n t i m e s . W i th r e g a r d to s c o p e and c o m p l e m e n t a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n , J e a n ' s n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s , u n l i k e R e m i ' s , can r a n g e o v e r v e r b s , s u b s t a n t i v e s , a d j e c t i v e s , and s e n t e n c e s . N o t i c e t h a t i n t he f o l l o w i n g J e an i s a b l e t o use non w i t h b o t h an a d j e c -t i v e and a v e r b . J i s u s i n g k n i f e to s h e l l p e a n u t . He has been t o l d i t i s d i f f i c u l t to do t h i s . " N o n , c ' e s t d i f f i c i l e . " (No , i t ' s d i f f i c u l t ) . 1 5 . non d i f f i c i l e c o u p e r y> ( n o t d i f f i c u l t c u t ) c o n t i nues c u t t i ng . "Comment? " (what ) He uses non on one o c c a s i o n w i t h dema in i n r e s p o n s e to the mother'-rs r emark t h a t tomor row wou ld be t he day to vacuum the a p a r t m e n t . 85 J has been t r y i n g to g e t vacuum c l e a n e r f r om c l o s e t and use i t . M has been t r y i n g to pu t i t b a c k . She t e l l s him vacuum w i l l be done t o m o r r o w . " D e m a i n . " ( t omor row ) 1 6 . n o n , non d e m a i n . . . \ a u j o u r d 1 h u i . ' (no , no t o m o r r o w . . . t o d a y ) . t r y i n g to use v a cuum. T h e r e a r e a l s o c a s e s o f non a p p e a r i n g w i t h an a d j e c t i v e i n i s o l a t i o n ; (17) i s s u c h an e x a m p l e . J i s t r y i n g to use vacuum c l e a n e r . M i s t r y i n g to d i s s u a d e h i m . J s a y s : ^a va "Ca va? ca un peu d i f f i c i l e . " (UK? T h i s , l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t ) . 1 7 . n o n . . . n o n d i f f i c i l e . y c o n t i n u e s w i t h vacuum. F i n a l l y , f o r s e n t e n c e s , p e r h a p s t he most f r e q u e n t use t o wh i ch J e an p u t s n o n , t he c o r p u s i s r e p l e t e w i t h c a s e s i n w h i c h J e an n e g a t e s t he e n t i r e s e n t e n c e b e f o r e w i t h a s i n g l e n o n . J has pu t c l a y i n m o u t h . "Non J e a n , ce n ' e s t pas b o n , o u v r e l a b o u c h e . " ( I t ' s no t g o o d , open y o u r m o u t h ) . 1 8 . n o n ! } w i l l no t open m o u t h . " N o n ? " J opens m o u t h . T h i s l a s t non i s i n t e n d e d to n e g a t e • t he e n t i r e p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . 86 T h u s , J e an i s w e l l i n t o t he p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g a b l e to n e g a t e l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s y n t a c t i c s t a t u s . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t most o f J e a n ' s n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s c o n s i s t o f s i n g l e l e x i c a l i t e m s and n o t t h e i r com-b i n a t i o n s w i t h g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . W i th t he e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h pas b i e n and pas pu comment o v e r an e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n , t h e s e two n e g a -t i o n e x p r e s s i o n s can r a n g e o v e r s u b s t a n t i v e s and p r o n o u n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t pas pu may a l s o be r e a l i z e d as pas  p i us i n c e r t a i n s p e e c h e v e n t s s u c h as ( 1 8 ' ) . 0 a s k s S i f she^has s een o t h e r c a m e l ; J e an s a y s : J e a n . " J e an a un c h a m e a u , oCt e s t 1 ' a u t r e . " : ( J ean has a c a m e l , where i s t he o t h e r ? ) 1 8 ' . 1 ' a u t r e pas pu ( p l u s ) ) ( o t h e r c a n ' t (no O t h e r camel c a n ' t be f o u n d , m o r e ) ) . Howeve r , t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has no t been p r e v e l a n t , a l s o t he p a r e n t s n e v e r a t t r i b u t e d pas p l u s to J e a n ' s u t t e r a n c e s when t h e y t h e m s e l v e s were r e p e a t i n g to h i m . In t he c a s e o f pas b i e n , t h e s c o p e e x t e n d s to v e r b s . Whereas u s a g e s o f non m a i n t a i n an o r d e r o f non+ n e g a t e d i t e m , t h i s o r d e r i s n o t m a i n t a i n e d f o r a l l c a s e s i n w h i c h pas b i e n nor pas pu a p p e a r . In t he c a s e o f s u b s t a n t i v e s and p r o n o u n s , pas b i e n and pas pu can a p p e a r e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e l e x i c a l i t e m o v e r w h i c h 87 t h e y r a n g e t h e i r s c o p e . F o r e x a m p l e , i n ( 1 9 ) , when J e an i s u n a b l e to c o n t i n u e h i s game b e c a u s e t he b a l l i n t he t o y i s s t u c k , he u t t e r s b o u l e pas b i e n t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l t i m e s w i t h a p l a i n t i v e s o u n d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t pas b i e n i s mak ing a comment a b o u t t he b a l l . S i m i l a r l y i n the u t t e r a n c e b e l o w , w h i l e a used c a s s e t t e i s r e p l a c e d by a new o n e , J e a n comments t h a t t he o t h e r e i t h e r i s no l o n g e r w o r k i n g o r t h a t i t i s g o n e . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y w h i c h has a b a l l i n i t t h a t t r a v e l s f r o m one segment o f t o y t o a n o t h e r . 1 9 . b o u l e pas b i e n (3x ) ( b a l l no t good ) > J can ' t f r e e b a l 1 , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . New c a s s e t t e i s pu t i n t a p e r e c o r d e r . 2 0 . 1 1 a u t r e pas p u . . . > 1 1 a u t r e ( o t h e r n o t can . . . o t h e r ) J w a t c h e s c h a n g e . In any c a s e , h i s n e g a t i o n u t t e r a n c e , 1 ' a u t r e pas p u . . . 1 ' a u t r e , w h e t h e r i t e x p r e s s e s n o n - e x i s t e n c e o r i n e f f e c t u a l l y , r a n g e s o v e r t h e p r o n o u n . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t J e a n ' s [ p a p u ] 88 u t t e r a n c e can e q u a l l y w e l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as pas p l u s (no m o r e ) . Howeve r , as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , when J e a n ' s u t t e r a n c e s were expanded by h i s p a r e n t s , h i s [ p a p u ] was a lways expanded as pas p u . H e r e , J e a n ' s u t t e r a n c e c a n n o t be d i s a m b i g u a t e d to i n d i c a t e h i s t r u e i n t e n t i o n s . Of c o u r s e , the more u s u a l o r d e r i n wh i ch pas b i e n and pas pu a p p e a r i s pas p u ^ + n e 9 a * e c ' i t e m . The f o l l o w i n g two u t t e r a n c e s a r e t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s o f s u c h o r d e r . J wants M to pu t p u z z l e p i e c e i n . " C ' e s t J ean q u i m e t . " ( I t ' s J e an who wi .1 T-?.put) ? . 2 1 . non pas b i e n . . . p a s y b i e n J e a n . ( n o , n o t g o o d . . . no t good J e a n ) Does no t work w i t h p u z z l e . " S i , J e an t r e s b i e n f a i t . " (Yes J e an does w e i 1 ) . 2 2 . n o n , pas b i e n met pa y ( n o , n o t good p u t ? t h i s ) J d o e s n ' t o r w o n ' t p l a c e p i e c e r i g h t i n p u z z l e . " M a i s tu f a i s . n ' i m p o r t e q u o i . " J has been c l e a r n ' n g „ M ' s s k a t e s w h i c h he now p u t s i n c l o s e t . " B r a v o J e a n , t r e s b i e n . " ( B r a vo J e a n , v e r y g o o d ) , comes back f r o m c l o s e t 2 3 . pas pu p a t i n . . . m a m a n y (no can s k a t e s . . . m a m a ) . / " Pas pu p a t i n s , i l s s o n t a r r a n g e s . " ( Bu t you a r e g o i n g a n y t h i n g ) . (No can (more ) s k a t e s , t h e y a r e i n p l a c e ) . 89 In b o t h t h e s e i n s t a n c e s the s c o p e o f t he n e g a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n r a n g e s o v e r n o u n s . In ( 2 1 ) , when J e an r e q u e s t s t h a t t he mo the r p u t i n a p u z z l e p i e c e , t h e mo the r s a y s , c ' e s t J e an  q u i met ( t y p i c a l l y , t he p a r t i c i p a n t s o f a d i a l o g u e a r e spoken to i n t he t h i r d p e r s o n r a t h e r t han t he s e c o n d , t h u s , i n s t e a d o f u s i n g p r o n o u n s p r o p e r names a r e u s e d ) . T h i s does no t seem to p l e a s e J e a n , and he r e t o r t s , non pas b i e n . . . p a s b i e n J e a n . C l e a r l y , t he n e g a t e d i t e m h e r e i s J e a n . In ( 2 3 ) , upon p u t t i n g the m o t h e r ' s s k a t e s i n the c l o s e t , J e a n s a y s , pas pu p a t i n . . .  maman. Here a g a i n , t h e s c o p e o f n e g a t i o n r a n g e s o v e r the n o u n . O n l y pas b i e n a p p e a r s w i t h a v e r b . (22) a b o v e , i s t h e o n l y c a s e i n t h i s c o r p u s . H e r e , J e an e x p r e s s e s h i s i n -a b i l i t y o r l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n f i n i s h i n g t he p u z z l e by u t t e r i n g non pas b i e n met pa (no no t good pu t t h i s ) i n answer to h i s m o t h e r ' s s i , J e an t r e s b i e n f a i t ( y e s , J e an does v e r y w e l l ) . V e r y l i k e l y t he c_a_ r e f e r s to t h e p u z z l e p i e c e w h i c h J e a n i s p u t t i n g i n t he wrong s l o t as he s a y s t h i s . U n l i k e n o n , pas  b i e n and pas pu do n o t have o c c u r r e n c e s i n w h i c h t h e y r a n g e o v e r e n t i r e s e n t e n c e s . I f t h e y do no t a p p e a r w i t h a l e x i c a l i t e m , t h e n t h e y comment on an e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n . The d a t a i s r e p l e t e w i t h u t t e r a n c e s o f t h i s t y p e . The o n l y o t h e r morpheme w h i c h e x p r e s s e s n e g a t i o n i n t h e d a t a f r o m J e a n i s p a s . T h i s p a r t i c l e a p p e a r s b o t h i n i s o l a t i o n and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e s , p r o n o u n s , and v e r b s . I t s s c o p e can a l s o r a n g e o v e r a p r e v i o u s s i t u a t i o n . 90 When pas a p p e a r s a l o n e i t i s a r e d u c e d fo rm o f s a i s p a s . T h e r e a r e a number o f t h e s e c a s e s , the u t t e r a n c e be low i s a t y p i c a l u t t e r a n c e i n p o i n t . J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t c a ? " (What i s t h i s ? ) 5 2 4 . p a s . ) " Tu ne s a i s p a s ? " (You d o n ' t know?) H e r e , J e an i s a s k e d what a c e r t a i n i t e m i n t he c a t a l o g u e i s , and he answe r s p a s . When the m o t h e r a s k s i f he does no t know, he answe r s he r q u e s t i o n n e g a t i v e l y . O t h e r w i s e , i n (25) t he r a n g e o f pas i s o v e r a n o u n . S has a p e n c i l . J d o e s n ' t and r e q u e s t s o n e . "Tu n ' a s pas un c r a y o n t o i , e h ? " (You d o n ' t have a p e n c i l , eh? ) 2 5 . n o n . . . p a s un c r a y o n . J> " Q u o i ? " (what?) . J r e p e a t s c r a y o n . In answer t o tu n ' a s pas un c r a y o n t o i , eh? J e an s a y s n o n . . . p a s  un c r a y o n . I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t J e an was i m i t a t i n g what he had h e a r d , h o w e v e r , c r a y o n b e l o n g e d to J e a n ' s s p o n t a n e o u s v o c a b u l a r y , and t h i s was no t t he o n l y u t t e r a n c e i n w h i c h t he s c o p e o f pas r a n g e d o v e r a s u b s t a n t i v e . In ( 2 6 ) , J e a n ' s use o f pas r a n g e s o v e r t h e p r o n o u n ca w h i c h , i n t u r n , r e p r e s e n t s an 91 a c t i o n , t h a t o f d r a w i n g . J wants s o m e t h i n g bu t he i s n o t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . " J e an d e s s i n e ? " ( J ean d r aws ? ) 2 6 . n o n . . . [ a ] pas pa y > does n o t draw ^ "Pas j :a? pas p l u s e c r i r e ? " (Not t h i s ? no more w r i t i n g ? ) H e r e , J e a n i s no t b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d e a s i l y and i s q u e s t i o n e d i n o r d e r to p o s s i b l y c l a r i f y h i s w i s h . S o , when a s k e d the wrong q u e s t i o n J e a n d e s s i n e ? , J e a n s a y s n o n . . . p a s c a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t non n e g a t e s t he e n t i r e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n , and pas ca r e i n f o r c e s t he n e g a t i o n . The o n l y i n s t a n c e o f pas r a n g i n g o v e r a v e r b i s t he f o l l o w i n g u t t e r a n c e . J i s t r y i n g to g e t vacuum c l e a n e r . " L e b a l a i e s t m i e u x . " (The broom i s b e t t e r ) . M i s t r y i n g to d i s s u a d e J . 2 7 . non n o n . . . n o n non y avec m e t t e non pas f a i t Qon non a s p i r a t e u r e s t l a . s t i l l t r y i n g to g e t vacuum o u t o f c l o s e t . In t h i s c a s e , t he s c o p e o f pas can be s a i d to r a n g e o v e r f a i t o n l y i f t he u t t e r a n c e . . . non pas f a i t n o n . . . i s i n t e r p r e t e d to r e f e r to t h e broom i n t h e m o t h e r ' s u t t e r a n c e : 1e b a l a i e s t  m i e u x . I f n o t , i t wou ld have to be c o n c l u d e d t h a t J e an d i d n o t use pas a t t h i s p o i n t i n h i s a c q u i s i t i o n as an e l e m e n t wh i ch 92 c o u l d r a n g e o v e r v e r b s . When pas i s used to n e g a t e an e n t i r e e v e n t o r s i t u a t i o n , as i n ( 2 8 ) , s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t i t s s c o p e i s f u t i l e , s i n c e i t s r a n g e i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to d e t e r m i n e . K n i f e i s t a k e n f r o m J , s t a r t s c r y i n g , s a l i v a r uns f r o m m o u t h . A t i s s u e i s p l a c e d u n d e r h i s mouth s i n c e he i s l y i n g on f l o o r . 2 8 . non p a s . } p u s h e s t i s s u e away , c o n t i n u e s c r y i n g . 3 . 3 . 3 S o p h i e P e r h a p s the most i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to be made w i t h r e g a r d t o S o p h i e ' s c o r p u s i s t h a t t he s p e c i a l u s a g e s and n e g a t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n s common to Remi and J e an have d i s -a p p e a r e d . Whereas J ean used pas peux on one o c c a s i o n , S o p h i e ( 2 9 ) , u ses peux p a s . S has c o m p a c t . "Tu ne peux pas 1 ' o u v r i r ? " (You c a n ' t open i t ? ) 2 9 . n o n , peux pas 1 ' o u v r i r . ) Her r e p e r t o i r e i n c l u d e s a l l t h o s e c o r r e c t e l e m e n t s o f b o t h J e an and Remi and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x c l u d e s a l l o f t h e i r s p e c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and ad hoc u s a g e . In f a c t , he r a b i l i t y i n t h i s r e g a r d i s c l o s e to a d u l t l e v e l , w i t h t he e x c e p t i o n t h a t the n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e rie_ a p p e a r s o n l y s i x t i m e s i n t h i s c o r p u s , 93 b u t i s c o r r e c t l y used each t i m e . In a d d i t i o n to t he common n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s , w h i c h were bei_ng_ a c q u i r e d by Remi and J e a n , S o p h i e a l s o has p l u s and r i e n , b u t , a g a i n , t h e s e a p p e a r i n i s o l a t i o n w i t h o u t t he n £ p a r t i c l e . T h e s e two i t e m s do no t a p p e a r ( a t l e a s t i n any i n t e l l i g i b l e f o r m ) i n t he s p e e c h o f e i t h e r J e a n o r R e m i . Howeve r , t he f a c t t h a t S o p h i e has a c q u i r e d a v o c a b u -l a r y o f t h i s c o m p l e t e n e s s , and the f a c t t h a t she a v o i d s s p e c i a l c o m b i n a t i o n s , m i g h t l e a d one f a l s e l y to e x p e c t t h a t he r usage i s more a d u l t t han i t i s . In f a c t , t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r m u l a , f o u n d i n b o t h Remi and J e a n , i n w h i c h non a p p e a r s f i r s t and by i t s e l f , f o l l o w e d by a s e n t e n c e wh i ch c o r r e c t s t h e p r e v i o u s o n e , o c c u r s p r e d o m i n a t e l y i n S o p h i e ' s s p e e c h . In o n l y 23 o f he r 97 n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s r e p o r t e d h e r e does she d e v i a t e f r o m t h i s f o r m u l a and use a more d i r e c t ( a d u l t ) f o r m . Compare (30) w i t h ( 3 1 ) : n o n , huh moi pas p e t i t e s tomac and c_a (77%), c ' e s t pas des pommes ca ( 2 3 % ) . S has been e a t i n g p e a n u t s . "Comment p e u x - t u manger t o u t ca? Tu as un t o u t p e t i t e s t o m a c . " (How can you e a t a l l t h i s ? You have a smal1 s t o m a c h ) . 3 0 . n o n , h e i n moi pas p e t i t y e s t o m a c . ( n o , me no t s m a l l s t o m a c h ) . 94 S and J a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h p i c t u r e book a t a p i c t u r e o f an o n i o n . J s a y s i t ' s pomme ( a p p l e ) . " Tu c o n n a i s ca S o p h i e ? " (Do you know t h i s S o p h i e ? ) . 3 1 . C a , c ' e s t pas des y pommes £ a . ( T h i s , i t ' s no t a p p l e s t h i s ) . l o o k s a t p i c t u r e . T h u s , t h e e a r l y p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e l i n g e r s i n he r s p e e c h , s h o w i n g t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l r e q u i r e s n o t o n l y e x p a n s i o n o f w o r k i n g v o c a b u l a r y , b u t t he o v e r c o m i n g o f l e s s a d u l t s p e e c h p a t t e r n s . As i n J e a n ' s s p e e c h , f o r S o p h i e i t i s e a s i e r to r e s p o n d w i t h non to an u t t e r a n c e w h i c h e x p r e s s e s s o m e t h i n g c o n t r a r y to he r b e l i e f , and t h e n f o l l o w t h i s i n t e r -j e c t i o n w i t h an u t t e r a n c e w h i c h p o s i t i v e l y e x p r e s s e s he r b e l i e f , t h e n to s i m p l y deny w i t h t he a p p r o p r i a t e n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e t he f i r s t u t t e r a n c e . To d i s c u s s he r a b i l i t y to use n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s w i t h o t h e r c l a s s e s o f words o r w i t h o t h e r g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r y t e rms i s e s s e n t i a l l y t he same as d i s c u s s i n g t h a t o f an a d u l t . She e x h i b i t s no d e f i c i e n c i e s i n u s i n g n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s w i t h any o t h e r c l a s s e s o f t e r m , o r w i t h e n t i r e s e n t e n c e s f o r t h a t m a t t e r . T h i s s i t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r , does no t mean t h a t he r c o m b i n a t i o n s o r s y n t a x u s i n g n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e c t . The f a c t t h a t she has no s c o p e p r o b l e m s does no t e n t a i l t h a t n e g a t i o n has been c o m p l e t e l y i n t e r n a l i z e d w i t h r e g a r d to the 95 l o n g e r u t t e r a n c e s . In t he u t t e r a n c e b e l o w , f o r i n s t a n c e , she s a y s n o n , t e pas m a n g e r . 3 2 . n o n , t e pas m a n g e r , ( n o , you n o t e a t ) . S i s f e e d i n g d o l l . 0 p r e t e n d s to be e a t i n g a l s o . > p u s h e s hand away. The c o r r e c t f o r m h e r e i s n o n , ne manges p a s , an u t t e r a n c e w h i c h has no s u r f a c e p r o n o u n . The command f o r m i n t o w h i c h t he n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e i s to be p l a c e d demands t h a t pas f o l l o w the v e r b . Her c o n f u s i o n c o u l d s tem f r o m s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t s o u r c e s : l a c k o f f u l l i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f command f o r m s , f a i l u r e to h e a r t he r e a l i z a t i o n o f ne_ i n r a p i d F r e n c h s p e e c h , o r t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n o f t he p r o n o u n o v e r f r om the i n d i c a t i v e f o r m . T h u s , S o p h i e ' s s p e e c h i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f an a d u l t ' s i n a v a r i e t y o f i m p o r t a n t w a y s , b u t a l s o r e t a i n s t h e e a r l y u s a g e , each o f w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a p r o b l e m to be s o l v e d a t t h i s s t a g e o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . 3.4 Summary The a b i l i t i e s t o u n d e r t a k e n e g a t i o n s a r e b o t h d i v e r s e and v a r i a b l e f r o m one s t a g e o f l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o t he n e x t . In a d d i t i o n to t he e x p a n s i o n o f the l e x i c o n , t he s c o p e o f n e g a t i o n w i d e n s and s p e c i f i e s i t s r a n g e as t h e c h i l d ' s 96 l a n g u a g e becomes more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . Whereas Remi e x h i b i t e d no s p e c i f i c i t y i n h i s u sage o f n o n , J e a n , on t he o t h e r h a n d , used non to r a n g e o v e r s u b s t a n t i v e s and p r e d i c a t e s . S o p h i e d e m o n s t r a t e d no s c o p e p r o b l e m s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t he a c t i o n t h a t t he n e g a t i o n l e x i c o n can p e r f o r m v a r i e s f r o m one s t a g e to the n e x t . On the one end o f t h e s c a l e , S o p h i e c o u l d p e r f o r m s u c h a c t s as d e n y i n g an a s s e r t i o n , d i s a p p r o v i n g , r e f u s i n g to a c t , r e j e c t i n g an o f f e r , a s s e r t i n g n o n - e x i s t e n c e , i n a b i l i t y , and n o n - p o s s e s s i o n . R e m i , a t t he o t h e r end o f t he s c a l e , c o u l d u n d e r t a k e to d i s a p p r o v e , r e f u s e to a c t , a s s e r t n o n - e x i s t e n c e , and r e j e c t an o f f e r . The o r d e r o f t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s e n e g a t i o n f u n c t i o n s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t d e s c r i b e d by B loom (1970) and M c N e i l l ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Bo th p s y c h o l i n g u i s t s o b s e r v e t h a t the f i r s t f u n c t i o n to a p p e a r i n t h e i r s u b j e c t s was n o n -e x i s t e n c e , t h e s e c o n d , r e j e c t i o n and the t h i r d , d e n i a l . In R e m i ' s c a s e n o n - e x i s t e n c e a p p e a r e d o n l y o n c e , and i t was no t t he f i r s t f u n c t i o n o f n e g a t i o n . G r e e n f i e l d , e_t,al_. a l s o r e p o r t a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s . They r e p o r t t h a t r e j e c t i o n o f an o n g o i n g a c t o r p r o p o s i t i o n i s t he f i r s t " s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n " a c q u i r e d by t h e i r s u b j e c t s . The s e c o n d was n o n - e x i s t e n c e and the t h i r d d e n i a l ( 1 9 7 2 : 9 9 ) . 97 CHAPTER FOUR THE APPEARANCE OF NON-SERIOUS UTTERANCES 4.1 A c q u i s i t i o n and P l a y N o t h i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s c o r p u s so much as t he f a c t t h a t each s e s s i o n , and hence each t a p e , c o n t a i n e d numerous i n s t a n c e s o f p l a y b e h a v i o u r on t h e p a r t o f t he s u b j e c t s . No s t u d y to t h i s d a t e has g i v e n p l a y phenomena t he e m p h a s i s i t d e s e r v e s , s i n c e the c h i l d r e n ' s t i m e , w h e t h e r by t h e m s e l v e s o r w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , i s v i r t u a l l y t a k e n up i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . I t f o l l o w s f r o m t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t e a r l y l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i -t i o n may be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to o r a i d e d by s u c h p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . In t h e e h a p t e r ~ o n . p l a y t o - f o l l o w , 1';I>elook d i r e c t l y a t l a n g u a g e t r a n s a c t i o n s between p a r e n t and c h i l d i n w h i c h u n i q u e l y v e r b a l p l a y i s i n v o l v e d . To e x t e n d the a n a l y s i s to n o n - l i n g u i s t i c p l a y b e h a v i o u r i s w e l l beyond the s c o p e and r a n g e o f t h i s s t u d y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t he e x a m p l e s to be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r o v i d e a t l e a s t a p r e l i m i n a r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he e f f e c t o f p l a y i n a i d i n g a c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c a w a r e n e s s . I t seems to be t he c a s e t h a t many o f t he c o n d i t i o n s t h a t n o r -m a l l y o b t a i n i n l a n g u a g e use a r e c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n h e r e . 98 Language u s e r s n o r m a l l y mean what t h e y s a y ( s i n c e r i t y c o n d i -t i o n s ) and u s u a l l y do no t u n d e r t a k e to u t t e r s o m e t h i n g u n l e s s t h e r e i s a r e a s o n to do s o , and t h e i r u t t e r a n c e i s r e l e v a n t t o the i m m e d i a t e s i t u a t i o n . In p l a y s e s s i o n s , f i r s t by t he p a r e n t s i n t o n a t i o n and t h e n by t he s t r i c t mean ing o f t he u t t e r -a n c e s o f t he p a r e n t , t h e c h i l d l e a r n s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e be tween s e r i o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n and p l a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S i n c e t he o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n f o r the s e s s i o n s was to r e c o r d t he s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h o f t he c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r n a t u r a l -e n v i r o n m e n t , t he s e s s i o n s e v o l v e d i n t o p l a y p e r i o d s , due to t he f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were t y p i c a l l y a lways engaged i n some f o r m o f p l a y , w h e t h e r l i n g u i s t i c o r p h y s i c a l . I p a r -t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e p e r i o d s , f o l l o w i n g t h e i n c l i n a t i o n s o f t he c h i l d r e n . A t t i m e s I wou ld p o i n t to o b j e c t s o r t o y s and ask what t h e y were c a l l e d ; l a t e r I m i g h t p o i n t to t he same o r a s i m i l a r o b j e c t and o f f e r t h e wrong name f o r i t , w a i t i n g to see i f t he c h i l d c o u l d make t h e c o r r e c t i o n . In f o l l o w i n g t h i s l i n e o f p r o c e d u r e f o r J e an and S o p h i e , I r e p e a t e d t h e m o t h e r ' s c u s t o m a r y b e h a v i o u r o f q u e s t i o n and answer d i a l o g u e . In f a c t , J e a n and S o p h i e had d a i l y p l a y s e s s i o n w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r . T h i s p l a y c o n s i s t e d o f a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t o b j e c t s i n p i c t u r e books and p u z z l e s , b u i l d i n g d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s w i t h b l o c k s and c l a y , d r a w i n g , and m a k e - b e l i e v e games s u c h as p l a y i n g h o u s e , c o o k i n g and c l e a n i n g . Such p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s were a l l a c c o m p a n i e d by l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h 99 the m o t h e r . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n t e r c h a n g e was a t y p e o f v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r w h i c h can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as ' l i n g u i s t i c p l a y ' and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s u b s e q u e n t l y . The a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t he c h i l d r e n engaged r e q u i r e d the a s s i s t a n c e o f an a d u l t who was s y m p a t h e t i c and r e a d y to n a r r a t e t he a c t i v i t y . T h i s meant t h a t t he a d u l t wou ld pose q u e s t i o n s , and the c h i l d wou ld answer t h e m . T h e s e were q u e s t i o n s such as "What i s t h i s ? , " "Who has one l i k e t h i s ? , " "What does t h i s d o ? , " and "Where d i d you see one l i k e t h i s ? " T h i s seemed to p r o v i d e a means by wh i ch t h e i r answe r s were e i t h e r r e i n f o r c e d and r e w a r d e d , o r r e j e c t e d and c o r r e c t e d . A l s o , i t seemed to be a good memory e x e r c i s e s i n c e t he q u e s t i o n s had been a s k e d b e f o r e . O c c a -s i o n a l l y , h o w e v e r , new i t e m s wou ld a p p e a r and the q u e s t i o n / answer d i a l o g u e wou ld c e a s e to p l a y a r e i n f o r c i n g r o l e o r " p r a c t i c e game" ( P i a g e t 1 9 6 2 : 1 1 1 ) r o l e and p r o v i d e new i n f o r m a -t i o n . O f t e n , S o p h i e o r J e a n wou ld t a k e on the r o l e o f t h e q u e s t i o n e r and pose t h e q u e s t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . F o r R e m i , on t he o t h e r h a n d , a d i a l o g u e o f t h i s t y p e d i d no t seem to be o f e i t h e r i n t e r e s t o r i m p o r t a n c e . Our p l a y s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d o f e m p t y i n g t h e t o y box w h i l e c o n v e r s i n g a b o u t i t s c o n t e n t s w h i c h were v a r i o u s s i z e s o f r i n g s and b u i l d i n g b l o c k s , an a s s o r t m e n t o f s t u f f e d a n i m a l s , s m a l l c a r s , t r u c k s , b a l l s , and t r a i n s . A l t h o u g h q u e s t i o n s a b o u t where o r what a f a m i l i a r t o y was wou ld o f t e n go u n a n s w e r e d , t h i s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n and d i a l o g u e seemed to be b o t h new and v e r y p l e a s a n t 100 f o r R e m i . T h i s d i a l o g u e o f t e n f a i l e d to e l i c i t a r e s p o n s e f r o m Remi s i n c e h i s p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t was no t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a v e r b a l c o n t a c t w i t h t he a d u l t b u t i n h a v i n g the a d u l t p a r -t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t y . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f R e m i ' s m i l k b r e a k s when t h e m o t h e r and I j o i n e d him f o r a c o o k i e , most o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n r e c o r d e d was be tween Remi and m y s e l f . 4 .2 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s In g e n e r a l , s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h have been most i n t e r e s t e d i n d e l i n e a t i n g and d e f i n i n g " s t a g e s " o f a c q u i -s i t i o n . To s u c c e e d i n j u s t i f y i n g and d e f e n d i n g s u c h s t a g e s , p r i m a r y a t t e n t i o n has been p l a c e d on j u s t t he c h i l d ' s l e x i c o n , c o m p l e x i t y o f s y n t a c t i c c o m b i n a t i o n s , mean l e n g t h o f u t t e r a n c e s , and a c q u i s i t i o n o f bound morphemes . From s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t he s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s o f e a r l y u t t e r a n c e s i t i s p o s s i b l e to w r i t e grammars f o r t he v a r i o u s s t a g e s , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g i b l e u t t e r a n c e s . More r e c e n t l y , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have l o o k e d a t t he u n d e r l y i n g s e m a n t i c s f o r c h i 1 d r e n ' s s p e e c h , a s k i n g " f u n c t i o n a l " q u e s t i o n s . Some o f t h e i r m e t h o d l o g y has been u t i l i z e d h e r e , i n C h a p t e r Two and T h r e e . T h i s s t u d y has n o t l i m i t e d i t s e l f s t r i c t l y to s u c h s u r f a c e s y n t a c t i c and u n d e r l y i n g s e m a n t i c c o n c e r n s , b u t has a l s o a s k e d q u e s t i o n o f when an u t t e r a n c e i s a p p r o p r i a t e to the s i t u a t i o n i n wh i ch i t 101 o c c u r s . W h i l e i t i s c l e a r t h a t c h i l d r e n must i n t e r n a l i z e b o t h t he f o r m a l and s e m a n t i c r u l e s o f a l a n g u a g e , i t i s e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t p r a g m a t i c o r c o n t e x t u a l c o n v e n t i o n s must a l s o be a c q u i r e d . In o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e i f s u c h c o n v e n t i o n s have i n f a c t come to shape a s u b j e c t ' s u t t e r a n c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to l o o k a t h i s e r r o r s r a t h e r t h a n a t h i s s u c c e s s f u l u t t e r a n c e s . The c o m p a r i s o n w h i c h r e v e a l s s u c h e r r o r s i s no t one between the s u b j e c t and o t h e r c h i l d r e n o f t he same a g e , o r even between h i s s t a g e and o t h e r s t a g e s , bu t one w h i c h must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e o r a d u l t s p e e c h . R e c e n t s t u d y o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g a d u l t s p e e c h has p r o d u c e d s e v e r a l g e n e r a l c o n v e n t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g a d u l t u sage w h i c h may be b r o u g h t t o t he l a n g u a g e o f c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e i f su ch c o n -v e n t i o n s have been a c q u i r e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h b a b b l i n g b e h a v i o u r , a t one end o f t he s p e c t r u m , a d u l t s assume t h a t someone w i l l no t b e g i n to speak u n l e s s he has a r e a s o n to do s o , a r e a s o n w h i c h w i l l become c l e a r when h i s u t t e r a n c e i s u n d e r s t o o d . A s e c o n d c o n v e n t i o n o f a d u l t s p e e c h i s t h a t the s p e a k e r o s t e n -s i b l y means what he s a y s , and i s most t y p i c a l l y no t b e i n g i r o n i c o r s a r c a s t i c (wh i ch i s the c a s e when he does no t mean what he s a y s ) . An a d d i t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i s t h a t t he s p e a k e r w i l l no t use l a n g u a g e t h a t h i s h e a r e r c a n n o t o r i s u n a b l e to u n d e r s t a n d . T h u s , a s p e a k e r a v o i d s m i s l e a d i n g h i s a u d i e n c e by 102 mak ing s u r e t h a t h i s u t t e r a n c e i s r e l e v a n t to t h e s i t u a t i o n , i s s e r i o u s i f t he s i t u a t i o n does no t i n d i c a t e o t h e r w i s e , and i s i n t e l l i g i b l e b e c a u s e i t i s p h r a s e d i n l a n g u a g e an a u d i e n c e * can u n d e r s t a n d . F o r J e a n , t h e n , p o u r q u o i q u e s t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e , due to i r r e l e v a n c e , a l t h o u g h he seems to be s e r i o u s a b o u t s u c h q u e s t i o n s . H i s p o u r q u o i u t t e r a n c e s a r e a c a s e i n w h i c h t he " s t a g e " a p p r o a c h wou ld r e c o r d t h a t he was a b l e to make such q u e s t i o n s , w i t h o u t e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t he a s k e d u n s u c c e s s f u l p o u r q u o i q u e s t i o n s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s i n t e r e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , i n l o c a t i n g t h o s e a r e a s i n t he c o r p u s i n w h i c h a d u l t c o n v e n t i o n s o f commun i -c a t i o n have n o t been m a i n t a i n e d , w h i c h r e s u l t s i n what m i g h t be c a l l e d " p l a y " u t t e r a n c e s . T h e s e i n v o l v e s p e e c h e v e n t s i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d can r e c o g n i z e t h a t what an a d u l t s a y s , o r what he s a y s , i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h t h e f a c t s . A n d , t h u s , t he s p e a k e r does no t i n t e n d what he s a y s . In t he two p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , i r r e l e v a n t u t t e r a n c e s were p o i n t e d o u t , and a l l u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h were u n i n t e l l i g i b l e ( f o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n ) were e x c l u d e d f r o m d i s c u s s i o n . C l e a r l y , no t a l l o f a c h i l d ' s T h e s e t h r e e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t l a n g u a g e use a r e f o r m a l i z e d i n P. G r i c e ' s " T h e L o g i c o f C o n v e r s a t i o n " ( B e r k e l e y m i m e o ) , 1 9 6 8 . They a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n l e s s p h i l o s o p h i c a l and more l i n g u i s t i c t e rms i n D. Go rdon & G. L a k o f f , " C o n v e r s a t i o n a l P o s t u l a t e s , " P a p e r s f r o m the S e v e n t h R e g i o n a l M e e t i n g , C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 7 1 ) , and in G e i s and Z w i c k y ' s "On I n v i t e d I n f e r e n c e s , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y , 1 1 : 4 ( 1 9 7 1 ) . W i th r e g a r d to s i n c e r i t y c o n d i t i o n s f o r l a n g u a g e u s e , see J . S e a r l e , S p e e c h A c t s ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 6 5 . 103 s p e e c h i s i n t e n t i o n a l wh i ch wou ld i n a d u l t u s a g e , r e s u l t i n c a s e s o f i r r e l e v a n c y and bad f a i t h . What may be r e g a r d e d as s u c h i n a d u l t u s a g e , seem to b e , n a t u r a l i n e a r l y l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r . H e r e , t h e n , I s h a l l be p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f when u t t e r a n c e s a r e s i n c e r e and when t h e y a r e made i n p l a y . 4.3 D i s c u s s i o n H e r e , t he c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e and i n i t i a t e l i n g u i s t i c p l a y , as a f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r a b i l i t y to u n d e r s t a n d w h i c h u t t e r a n c e s a r e s i n c e r e i s o f d i r e c t i n t e r e s t . W i t h o u t t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f t he c o n v e n t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g i n t e n d e d s p e e c h , c o n v e r s a t i o n and the t a r g e t l a n g u a g e wou ld no t be c o m p l e t e l y i n t e r n a l i z e d . We can i d e n t i f y t h o s e p e r i o d s i n t he c o r p u s i n w h i c h the " s i n c e r i t y c o n v e n t i o n " i s a t s t a k e by l o c a t i n g b e h a v i o u r w h i c h does n o t seem to e i t h e r a c q u i r e o r g i v e s e r i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t he e v e n t ( s ) s u r r o u n d i n g the s p e e c h . Such b e h a v i o u r d i v i d e s i t s e l f i n t o two b a s i c t y p e s d e p e n d i n g on the i n t e n t i o n s o f t he s p e a k e r . In one c a s e , t he s p e a k e r t e l l s what he knows to be a f a l s e h o o d ( n o t n e c e s -s a r i l y a l i e ) i n o r d e r to b e n e f i t h i m s e l f , o b t a i n i n g what he b e l i e v e s he c o u l d no t a c h i e v e o t h e r w i s e . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a p e r s o n were to c l a i m to b e i n g a s t u d e n t i n o r d e r to o b t a i n some o b j e c t r e s t r i c t e d to s t u d e n t s , he wou ld be t e l l i n g a l i e . 104 A s e c o n d c a s e e x i s t s i n w h i c h the s p e a k e r misnames an o b j e c t , o r i s u n c o o p e r a t i v e i n o r d e r to t u r n an o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n i n t o a humorous o n e . U n s u r p r i s i n g l y , no t a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n engaged i n l i n g u i s t i c p l a y . R e m i , b e i n g a t the one-word u t t e r a n c e s t a g e , d i d no t e i t h e r i n i t i a t e o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u c h b e h a v i o u r . O f t e n , Remi d i d no pay a t t e n t i o n o r d i d no t seem to be aware t h a t any l a n g u a g e was b e i n g a d d r e s s e d to h i m . In t h i s r e s p e c t , he had no t r e a c h e d the p o i n t o f q u e s t i o n and answer games , s e e m i n g l y t he t h r e s h o l d f o r p l a y b e h a v i o u r f o r the o t h e r two c h i l d r e n . I t was d u r i n g s u c h s e s s i o n s w i t h the m o t h e r t h a t p l a y b e h a v i o u r seemed to d e v e l o p f i r s t . Remi l a c k e d even the a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e a l l u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h were d i r e c t e d to h i m , and t h u s was u n p r e p a r e d to engage i n the q u e s t i o n / r e s p o n s e f o r m a t . S i n c e he d i d no t r e a d i l y s u p p l y t h e names o f o b j e c t s he was v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h , any a t t emp t , a t e l i c i t i n g a r e a c t i o n by m i s n a m i n g an o b j e c t r e c e i v e d no r e s p o n s e a t a l l . C o n s e -q u e n t l y , R e m i ' s s t a g e o f a b i l i t y i s one i n w h i c h no c o n v e n t i o n s as to w h i c h u t t e r a n c e s a r e s e r i o u s have been d e v e l o p e d . T a k i n g the t h r e e s u b j e c t s as a s c a l e a l o n g wh i ch s u c h a c o n v e n t i o n i s a c q u i r e d , R e m i , a t the one-word s t a g e , r e p r e s e n t s t h e n e g a t i v e p o l e . S o p h i e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t J e a n , c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h between s e r i o u s and n o n - s e r i o u s u t t e r a n c e s . T h u s , she showed marked a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s c o n v e n t i o n o f a d u l t s p e e c h . 105 T u r n i n g to J e a n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y an a b i l i t y to engage i n n o n - s e r i o u s s p e e c h . J e a n , l i k e S o p h i e , wou ld a g r e e to a f a l s e h o o d i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e a c e r t a i n d e s i r e d e n d . (1) i s a c a s e i n p o i n t . o u i ( y e s ) U t t e r a n c e C o n t e x t M, S and 0. a r e h a v i n g t e a , J wants t o j o i n . " P o u r q u o i , tu es une p e t i t e f i l l e ? " (Why a r e you a l i t t l e g i r l ? ) J p r e p a r e s to s i t a t t a b l e . "Tu es une f i l l e ? " ( Y o u ' r e a g i r l ? ) J e an f i l l e ' > J r e c e i v e s a cup o f t e a and h e l p s h i m s e l f t o c o o k i e s . I n i t i a l l y , t he m o t h e r had commented t h a t S o p h i e wou ld j o i n us f o r t e a , l i k e a b i g g i r l ; and the t e a seemed to be a ^ g i r l ' s " a f f a i r . S o , when J e a n makes a move to j o i n t he p a r t y , t he m o t h e r a s k s i f he i s " a g i r l " f o r w a n t i n g to j o i n u s . T h i s l a s t f e a t u r e o f t he s i t u a t i o n seems to have been u n d e r s t o o d by J e an a l s o , s i n c e he s a y s J ean f i l l e ' as he j o i n s t he p a r t y . In t h i s c a s e , J e an i s a g r e e i n g w i t h what he knows to be an o b v i o u s u n t r u t h , i n o r d e r to e n t e r i n t o t he a c t i v i t y . Of c o u r s e , t h i s i s no t to say t h a t i f he had no t a g r e e d to b e i n g a " g i r l , " he wou ld n o t have been a l l o w e d to j o i n t he p a r t y , b u t o n l y t h a t he was c a p a b l e o f r e c o g n i z i n g and g o i n g a l o n g w i t h t he m o t h e r ' s n o n - s e r i o u s r e m a r k . 106 L i k e w i s e , i n the s i t u a t i o n b e l o w , S o p h i e t e l l s a f a l s e h o o d to a l l e v i a t e t he c o n s e q u e n c e s o f he r a c t i o n . 2. S has put c l a y i n he r mouth and p i e c e s o f i t have s t u c k to he r t e e t h . M t e l l s h e r , w i t h a s c o l d i n g t o n e , t h a t he r t e e t h a r e b l u e . ? e t J e a n ^ (and J e a n ) " N o n , J e a n j o u e a v e c . N o n , c ' e s t b l a n c . " (No , J p l a y s v w i t h i t . No i t ' s w h i t e ) . moi mange p l u s a l a N b o u c h e . (me, n o t e a t i n t he mouth ) N " M a i s , j ' e s p e r e . " ( Bu t I hope ) S i n c e S o p h i e had pu t c l a y i n he r mouth b e f o r e , and the m o t h e r ' s comment was no t he r f i r s t , t he s i t u a t i o n c o u l d have l e d to s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r S o p h i e . To d i s t r a c t t he m o t h e r , S o p h i e f a l s e l y e n l i s t s J e an as an a c c o m p l i c e , knowing f u l l w e l l t h a t J ean was no t p u t t i n g c l a y i n h i s m o u t h . F u r t h e r m o r e , b o t h c h i l d r e n c o u l d deny o b v i o u s p h y s i c a l f a c t s e i t h e r by d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h a c o r r e c t s t a t e m e n t , o r by m i s n a m i n g o b j e c t s . A l t h o u g h i n (3) be low J e a n s t a r t s to i n s i s t on h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , t he m o t h e r ' s p e r s i s t e n t q u e s t i o n i n g f o r c e s J e a n to b r e a k o f f h i s p l a y f u l s p e e c h and a g r e e w i t h t he m o t h e r . 1 0 7 ah b i c y c l e t t e . • • J e a n b i c y c l e t t e J e a n b i c y c l e t t e non . . . n o n . . . J e a n o u i non mamie > J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e , s e e s an e x e r c i s e b i c y c l e . > > n o n . . . J e a n . . . papa a u s s i y ( papa a l s o ) " N o n , c ' e s t pour l e s mamans, c a . " (No , i t ' s f o r mamas ) . * " P o u r J e a n ? " ( F o r J ? ) " Tu c r o i s ? " (You t h i n k ? ) " O u i , c ' e s t m ieux pou r m a m i e . " ( Y e s , i t ' s b e t t e r f o r mamy) " Papa a u s s i ? " o u i > T h i s , p e r h a p s , i s one o f t he more i m p o r t a n t e x a m p l e s i n w h i c h t he s e r i o u s n e s s c o n v e n t i o n i s i n v o l v e d . J e an b e g i n s w i t h a n o n - s e r i o u s c l a i m w h i c h he d i s c o v e r s he must s u b s e q u e n t l y m o d i f y s i n c e t he m o t h e r ' s p e r s i s t e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t she w i s h e s him to be s e r i o u s . ( 3 ) , t h e n , d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o -o p e r a t i o n be tween p a r t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r p l a y u t t e r a n c e s to be made and shows t h a t J e an u n d e r s t a n d s t h i s c o n v e n t i o n . H i s s u b s e q u e n t r e s u m p t i o n o f the " p l a y " c l a i m l e n d s a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t to t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , s i n c e he i n c l u d e s b o t h h i m s e l f and h i s f a t h e r i n t h e s e c o n d r e v i s i o n o f t he c l a i m . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , h i s s e a r c h i s f o r t he c l a i m w h i c h i s most a p p r o p r i a t e g i v e n h i s m o t h e r ' s d e s i r e s and h i s own w i s h to be h u m o r o u s . In ( 4 ) , S o p h i e t a k e s a d v a n t a g e o f J e a n ' s i d i o s y n -c r a t i c ba and c a l l s t he duck b a . 108 4 . S and J a r e l o o k i n g a t a duck i n p i c t u r e b o o k . " C ' e s t q u o i c a ? " ( W h a t ' s t h i s ? ) S: c ' e s t comme on l ' a v u . J 7 ( i t i s l i k e we saw) J : b a . . . b a c a . ( [ b a ] t h i s ) p o i n t s to d u c k . " C ' e s t un c a n a r d c a . " ( I t ' s a d u c k ) p J : n o n . . . b a J S : c a c ' e s t du b a . s ( T h i s i s [ b a ] ) / "Ba? q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t que b a ? " (Ba? what i s ba? ) la c ' e s t du ba? c ' e s t un c a n a r d i du b a , c ' e s t du ba . y c a . " ( T h i s i s [ b a ] ? T h i s i s a duck ) J and S a r e g i g g l i n g When J e a n f i r s t s a i d ba, he may n o t have been i n t e n t i o n a l l y p l a y i n g ; h o w e v e r , e n c o u r a g e d by S o p h i e ' s p l a y f u l n e s s , he j o i n s i n t h e l a u g h t e r , i n d i c a t i n g h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . Whereas i n examp le s ( 1 ) - ( 4 ) l a b o v e , what was i n q u e s t i o n was n o n - s e r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r ( m i s n a m i n g , t e l l i n g f a l s e h o o d s ) , i n (5) and (6) b e l o w , S o p h i e engages i n a t y p e o f " u l t r a " s e r i o u s n e s s . 5. S and J a r e p l a y i n g . " Vous ne v o u l e z pas des p e t i t s p e a n u t s ? " (You d o n ' t want some p e a n u t s ? ) S: ou i y J : o u i S: n o n , des p e t i t e s c a c a h o u e t t e s . ( n o , s m a l l c a c a h o u e t t e s ) " O u i , c ' e s t p a r e i l . " ( Y e s , i t ' s t he s a m e ) . 109 6. "Tu mets t o u t e s l e s p e t i t e s cubes dans l a b t f T t e . " ( Pu t a l l t he cubes i n b o x ) . a h , c ' e s t des p e t i t s c a r r e s . ( I t i s smal1 s q u a r e s ) > "Des p e t i t e s c u b e s , des p e t i t s c a r r e s , c ' e s t p a r e i l . " ( I t ' s t h e same , i t ' s no t the s a m e ) . c ' e s t p a r e i 1 , c ' e s t pas p a r e i 1 . > S s i n g s as she p l a y s w i t h b l o c k s . In b o t h i n s t a n c e s , S o p h i e c o r r e c t s ' he r m o t h e r . She i s aware t h a t what t he m o t h e r i s s a y i n g i s i n d e e d t r u e , b u t s e e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o r r e c t h e r . H e r e , she may be r e v e r s i n g the game r o l e s t h a t she has l e a r n e d f rom h e r m o t h e r . T h i s i s no t t o s a y t h a t t he mo the r has been h y p e r - c o r r e c t w i t h S o p h i e ; r a t h e r , S o p h i e knows two e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t he same o b j e c t and e x a g g e r a t e s the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the s i t u a t i o n . i s r e c o g n i z e d by J e a n and S o p h i e . In b o t h (7) and ( 8 ) , t he p l a y f u l t o n e o f t h e a d u l t ' s u t t e r a n c e does no t engage the c h i l d r e n i n a n o n - s e r i o u s d i a l o g u e . I t i s no t a lways t he c a s e t h a t a n o n - s e r i o u s u t t e r a n c e 7. S has o b t a i n e d a c o o k i n g p o t f rom M. J : J : J : J e an a u s s i o u i o u i no J l e a v e s k i t c h e n , M has t o f o l l o w him to n e x t room to a d j u s t h i s p a n t s . J e a n i s engaged i n a s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n wh i ch he i s g e t t i n g a c o o k i n g p o t . A l i g h t h e a r t e d comment s u c h as t he M o t h e r ' s , J e a n va p e r d r e son p a n t a l o n does no t seem to r e g i s t e r , s i n c e J e a n makes no move to e i t h e r i n s p e c t h i s p a n t s o r s t o p to g e t h e l p w i t h t h e m . The o t h e r ' s p l a y f u l t o n e does no t seem to be e x p e c t e d . T h u s , J e a n i n t e n t l y c o n t i n u e s h i s game o f c o o k i n g . A somewhat s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s b e l o w . 8. l o o k i n g a t a p i c t u r e o f a b a s k e t w i t h dog i n i t . " C ' e s t une t a b l e c a ? " ( I s t h i s a t a b l e ? ) . > S . maman, c ' e s t une t a b l e ga?^ > (mama, i s t h i s a t a b l e ) ' " N o n , r e g a r d e d b i e n a vec t e s y e u x , q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " (No , l o o k w e l l w i t h y o u r e y e s , what i s i t ? ) a , p a n i e r y t h i s b a s k e t ) S o p h i e has been r e a d i n g a p i c t u r e book i n a q u e s t i o n / answer p e r i o d . My q u e s t i o n seems to be u n e x p e c t e d . Not b e i n g a b l e to j u d g e the s i t u a t i o n , S o p h i e t u r n s to t h e m o t h e r . So f a r , she had been naming o b j e c t s a f t e r b e i n g a s k e d what t h e y w e r e . H e r e , h o w e v e r , she s e e s a b a s k e t w i t h a dog i n i t , and y e t i s a s k e d i f i t i s a t a b l e . C l e a r l y , she i s f a m i l i a r w i t h b o t h t a b l e s and b a s k e t s . B u t , she i s u n a b l e to 111 r e s p o n d i n t he p l a y f u l t o n e t h a t t h e n o n - s e r i o u s n a t u r e o f t he q u e s t i o n e l i c i t s . Whereas t he examp le s b e f o r e t e n d e d to d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t J e an and S o p h i e u n d e r s t o o d t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n v e n t i o n s , t h e s e l a s t two e x a m p l e s r e v e a l t h a t n e i t h e r c h i l d has c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . To l o s e o n e ' s p a n t s h a s n ' t become f o r J e an a s i g n i f i c a n t s i t u a t i o n . A n d , S o p h i e , when f a c e d w i t h my q u e s t i o n , w h i c h she c o u l d no t r e c o g n i z e as p e c u l i a r , c o u l d no t d e c i d e i m m e d i a t e l y w h e t h e r I was d u p l i c a t i n g t h e m o t h e r ' s u s u a l r o l e . She f o l l o w e d t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a s t r a n g e s p e a k e r w i l l a v o i d m i s l e a d i n g t h e i r h e a r e r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n c o n t r a s t t h a t when S o p h i e i s a s k e d t he more c o n v e n t i o n a l " w h a t " q u e s t i o n , she i s a b l e t o r e s p o n d r e a d i l y . (9) i s an i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h J e an i n i t i a t e s an i n s i n c e r e s p e e c h e v e n t . 9. F t e l e v i s i o n . . . J e a n a u s s i pas ah non J s e e s a t e l e v i s i o n i n c a t a l o g u e . " O u i , J e an a u s s i a une t e l e , ou e s t l a t e l e a t o i ? ou e s t l a te le " de papa maman J e a n ? " ( Y e s , J t oo has a T V , where i s y o u r T V ? , where i s J ' s d a d d y ' s mama's TV? ) . > "Tu ne l a v o i s pas? r e g a r d e b i e n , r e g a r d e : b i e n dans l a m a i s o n . " (You d o n ' t s ee i t ? l o o k w e l l i n t he h o u s e ) . (TV i s v i s i l b e i n c o r n e r o f r o o m ) . > " T u ne l a v o i s pas l a t e l e ? " (You d o n ' t s ee the T V ? ) . 1 1 2 non > "Tu ne l a v o i s p l u s ? " v (You d o n ' t s ee i t anymore ? ) l a > p o i n t s to TV N o t i c e t h a t J e a n c o n t i n u e s p l a y i n g u n t i l t he f o u r t h , u t t e r a n c e o f t h e m o t h e r when he r t o n e d e s i g n a t e s s o m e t h i n g l i k e "I w o n ' t b e l i e v e what you a r e s a y i n g . " C l e a r l y , J e a n seemed to be aware o f , t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n t h a t h i s n e g a t i o n e x p r e s s e d , s i n c e he was f a m i l i a r w i t h t he h o u s e h o l d t e l e v i s i o n s e t , and a t t he s t a r t o f the s p e e c h e v e n t , he i n d i c a t e d t h a t he too had a t e l e v i s i o n ( a c c o r d i n g to t h e m o t h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he u t t e r a n c e ) . T h u s , l i k e S o p h i e , J e a n c a n , i n a d d i t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n n o n - s e r i o u s d i a l o g u e s , o c c a s i o n a l l y i n i t i a t e s u c h e v e n t s h i m s e l f . F i n a l l y , ( 1 0 ) be low r e p r e s e n t s an amb iguous s i t u a t i o n . 10 [ S 9 S 0 ] ? [ s a s o ] o u i J i s p l a y i n g , M j o i n s i n . " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu f a i s de j o l i e s ? t u me r a c o n t e s ? " (What p r e t t y t h i n g s a r e you d o i n g , w i l l you t e l 1 m e ? ) . does no t r e s p o n d . "Eh b i e n , J e an f a i t un garg^on ou b i e n un p o l i s s o n ? " ( I s J a boy o r a n a u g h t y boy ? ) " H e i n ? " > "Tu es un > p o i i s s o n ? " "Oh c ' e s t t e r r i b l e ca t e r r i b l e , g r a n d gar j t h a t ' s awl b i g boy ? ) C pas J e a n n ' e s t on de mamie? " u l . J i s n ' t mama's ' e s t l e ( O h , 113 In answer t o t he m o t h e r ' s i n i t i a l q u e s t i o n , J e an r e p l i e s [ s s s ' o ] . T h i s c o u l d be a r e d u c e d f o r m o f e i t h e r g a r c o n o r p o i i s s o n . Howeve r , t h e mo the r u n d e r s t a n d s i t to be p o i i s s o n ; a n d , i n t u r n , J e a n c o n f i r m s i t . Due to t h e n a t u r e o f J e a n ' s o u i r e s p o n s e s , he may no t be s a y i n g o u i t o t he a c t u a l u t t e r a n c e . In o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t J e a n e i t h e r d i d no t pay a t t e n t i o n o r d i d no t u n d e r s t a n d the e x a c t w o r d i n g o f what t he mo the r s a i d . O r , he t h o u g h t t h a t t he mo the r u n d e r s t o o d h i s u t t e r a n c e as he i n t e n d e d i t , and t h e r e f o r e , he a u t o m a t i c a l l y a n s w e r e d o u i . J e a n ' s o u i r e s p o n s e s do no t a lways seem to be m o t i v a t e d by an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the a d u l t ' s u t t e r a n c e . R a t h e r , J e a n seems to assume t h a t he i s b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d and when he i s q u e s t i o n e d , h i s i m m e d i a t e r e p l y i s o u i . U n f o r -t u n a t e l y , t h e r e does no t seem to be enough f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n to d i s a m b i g u a t e ( 1 0 ) . 4 . 4 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has p o i n t e d ou t t h a t t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e n o n - s e r i o u s u s a g e . They can d e t e r m i n e t h o s e u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h do no t mean what t h e y s t a t e , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h the s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r . T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h the f a c t s i s one good i n d i -c a t o r t h a t t he s t a n d a r d c o n s t r a i n t s on c o n v e r s a t i o n a r e b e i n g i g n o r e d , w h i c h may r e s u l t i n n o n - s e r i o u s u s a g e . As Remi i s 114 o n l y a t t h e one-word u t t e r a n c e l e v e l , he has no t y e t begun to a c q u i r e t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r u l e s . C o r -r e s p o n d i n g l y , h i s s p e e c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i d i o s y n c r a t i c and s i t u a t i o n l l y i r r e l e v a n t u t t e r a n c e s . On the o t h e r h a n d , by t he two-word u t t e r a n c e s t a g e , J e an b e g i n s to a c q u i r e the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as I p o i n t e d o u t , even S o p h i e makes n o n - s e r i o u s u t t e r a n c e s o n l y w i t h r e g a r d to p e r s o n s , s i t u a t i o n s , and o b j e c t s w i t h w h i c h she i s t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r . 11 5 CHAPTER F IVE SUMMARY T h i s s t u d y has d i s c u s s e d t h r e e p r o m i n a n t f e a t u r e s o f the c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r . I t r e p o r t e d t he t h r e e l e v e l s i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u c h i n t e r r o g a t i v e s as q u e s t i o n s , r e q u e s t s , and i m p e r a t i v e s . I t t h e n d i s c u s s e d the v a r i o u s n e g a t i v e s p e e c h a c t i o n s t h a t each c h i l d was c a p a b l e o f u n d e r t a k i n g w h i l e d e s c r i b i n g the r a n g e o r s c o p e o f t h e i r n e g a t i o n l e x i c o n . D e p a r t i n g f r o m a s y n t a c t i c -s e m a n t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , i t a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t he c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e and r e c o g -n i z e l i n g u i s t i c p l a y . In a d d i t i o n to c o n t r i b u t i n g new d a t a to a f i e l d w h i c h has l a c k e d work on l a n g u a g e s o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h , t h i s s t u d y has p r o v i d e d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a g e n e r a l d e v e l o p -m e n t a l t h e o r y . In d i s c u s s i n g i n t e r r o g a t i v e s , a p o s s i b l e o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s has been s u g g e s t e d . I t has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between r e q u e s t s and commands d i d no t e x i s t even i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a c h i l d a t t he c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s t a g e . A l s o , i t was seen f rom the 116 d a t a t h a t n o t a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n c o u l d u n d e r t a k e t he same n e g a t i v e a c t i o n s and t h a t t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d d i d no t p e r f o r m s p e e c h a c t i o n s t h a t t h e o l d e s t c o u l d . A s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t he s t u d y was t h a t no t a l l t he c h i l d r e n c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h be tween s e r i o u s and n o n - s e r i o u s s p e e c h . The l i n g u i s t i c a w a r e -nes s n e c e s s a r y t o make s u c h a d i s t i n c t i o n was seen to be n o n -e x i s t e n t i n t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d , whe reas t he o l d e r two had s t a r t e d to a c q u i r e t he a b i l i t y . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g may be used as an a d d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e be tween c h i l d r e n a t t h e h o l o p h r a s t i c and " t e l e g r a p h i c " s t a g e s . 11 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY B l o o m , L o i s . 1 9 7 0 . Language Development: Form and Function in Emerging Grammars. C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The M . I . T . P r e s s . —. 1 9 7 1 . One Word at a Time: The Use of Single Word Utterances Before Syntax. C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y : mimeo. B rown , R o g e r , C a z d e n , C o u r t n e y , and Be l 1 u g i - K l i m a , U r s u l a . 1 9 6 8 . " The C h i l d ' s Grammar f rom I to I I I . " Minnesota Symposia on Child Development, I I . J ohn P. H i l l , e d . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 2 8 - 7 3 . R e p r i n t e d i n Child Language, A. Ba r-Adon and W.F . L e o p o l d , e d s . Eng l ewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 7 1 , 3 8 2 - 4 1 2 . B rown , Roger and H a n l o n , C a m i l l e . 1 9 7 0 . " D e r i v a t i o n a l Com-p l e x i t y and O r d e r o f A c q u i s i t i o n i n C h i l d S p e e c h . " Cognition and the Development of Language. J . R . H a y e s , e d . New Y o r k : J ohn W i l e y & Sons I n c . , 1 1 - 5 3 . C h a f e , W a l l a c e . 1 9 7 0 . Meaning and the Structure of Language. C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . Chomsky , Noam. 1 9 6 5 . Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The M . I . T . P r e s s . . 1 9 5 7 . Syntactic Structures. The Hague : M o u t o n . F i l l m o r e , C h a r l e s J . 1 9 6 8 . " The Case f o r C a s e . " Universals in Linquistic Theory. Emmon Bach and R o b e r t T . H a r m s , e d s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1-88. 118 G e i s , M i c h a e l L. and Z w i c k y , A r n o l d M. 1 9 7 1 . "On I n v i t e d I n f e r e n c e s . " L i n g u i s t i c Inquiry, 1 1 : 4 , 5 6 1 - 5 6 6 . G o r d o n , D a v i d and L a k o f f , G e o r g e . 1 9 7 1 . " C o n v e r s a t i o n a l P o s t u l a t e s . " Papers from the Seventh Regional Meeting. C h i c a g o : C h i c a g o L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y , 6 3 - 8 3 . G r e e n f i e l d , P a t r i c i a M . , S m i t h J o s h u a H. , and L a u f e r , B e r n i c e . 1 9 7 2 . 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"Tu veux du c h o c o l at?"-* > R w a i t s w h i l e mo the r goes to c u p b o a r d . R g e t s c h o c o l a t e . R p u l l s m o t h e r to c u p b o a r d , t o u c h e s b r e a d . > The a p p e n d i c e s w i l l p r e s e n t each c h i l d ' s q u e s t i o n and n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s . The c o n t e x t o f each u t t e r a n c e w i l l be on t he l e f t and w i l l c o n t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v e n t and s p e e c h d i r e c t e d to t he c h i l d . The c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e w i l l a p p e a r on t he r i g h t hand s i d e and i t s p o s i t i o n i n the c o n t e x t w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d by > . The mo the r w i l l be r e -f e r r e d to as M, t he f a t h e r as F, Remi as R, J e a n as J , S o p h i e as S , and the o b s e r v e r as 0 . The f o l l o w i n g d i a c r i t i c a l marks w i l l be u s e d : ( . . . ) f o r p a u s e , ( : ) f o r l e n g t h e n i n g o f u t t e r a n c e , and ( [ ] ) f o r p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The number o f r e p e t i t i o n s o f an u t t e r a n c e w i l l be marked by (x ) a f t e r t he u t t e r a n c e . T h r o u g h o u t t he d a t a [ h a h ] w i l l a p p e a r as hjjh. and [ h £ ] as h e i n . The age o f t he c h i l d w i l l a p p e a r above t he c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e . 1 21 " N o n , ga c ' e s t du p a i n . " R goes on to some o t h e r a c t i v i t y . " N o n , n o n , ne t o u c h e s pas l e b u f f e t . " (2x ) > R l o o k s a t M w h i l e t o u c h i n g . "II ne f a u t pas t o u c h e . r , i n t e r d i t . " R i s h o l d i n g a s m a l l b o x . " C ' e s t une b o T t e , c ' e s t une p e t i t e b o ' T t e . " > • R p i c k s up a n o t h e r t o y f r o m t o y b o x . " C a , ce n ' e s t pas une b o i t e . " > R i s h o l d i n g a t r a i n . " O u i , c ' e s t un t r a i n . " R i s p l a y i n g w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n b o x e s , and i s l o o k i n g f o r t h i r d b o x . " C ' e s t l a b a s . " Box i s p o i n t e d a t . > s t i l l l o o k i n g a r o u n d . " C ' e s t j a b a s . Ou e s t l a t r o i s i e m e ? " R f i n d s b o x . The dog has u r i n a t e d i n n e x t r o o m . N "II a f a i t p i p i , c ' e s t t r e s v i l a i n . " ? wa t ches M c l e a n s p o t . v " O u i , i l a f a i t p i p i , c ' e s t t r e s v i l a i n . " R i s s t a c k i n g boxes on top o f each o t h e r w i t h some a s s i s t a n c e . " E t p u i s une a u t r e " as a n o t h e r box i s a d d e d . 1 22 8. e t comme une? he hands a box to s t a c k > " E t p u i s une a u t r e . " 9 . [>] kaka? 1 0 . h l j ] kaka? 1 1 . un a u t r e ? un a u t r e ? 2 4 , 1 9 1 2 . k o o k i e h u h ? . . . n o n ? T a y o , t h e d o g , has had a n o t h e r a c c i d e n t . ? " O u i , T a f a i t p i p i , p i p i . " R r e p e a t s p i p i . " O u i , i1 a f a i t p i p i . " > " O u i , c ' e s t un g r a n d p i p i . Q u o i ? " > R p o i n t s to s p o n g e . , " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas 1 ' e p o n g e pour T . " M has f i n i s h e d c o o k i e a n o t h e r c o o k i e . > R e x t e n d s i t to M. " M e r c i . " R g e t s 1 3 . k o o k i e ? 2 5 , 2 0 I r . l a ? l a ? ( I x ) same a c t i o n as (12) d i r e c t e d to 0 > 0 r e f u s e s . R e a t s c o o k i s . > R has a l e t t e r i n hand and i s g o i n g to d r o p i t t h r o u g h a s l o t " N o n , on 1e met l a . " d i f f e r e n t s l o t i s p o i n t e d o u t . A . 1 . 2 "Whe re " q u e s t i o n s 23 0 ' R has been p l a y i n g w i t h t e n n i s b a l l s . They a r e now a l l d i s p e r s e d a b o u t t he r o o m . 1 5 . b a l l e ? b a l l e ? > R l o o k s b e h i n d s t o n e and f i n d s n o t h i n g . C o n t i n u e s l o o k i n g f o r b a l l s . 123 2 5 , 2 0 1 6 . i 1 e s t ou? i1 e s t o u ? : 2 2 , 2 7 1 7 . huh? R was p l a y i n g w i t h a t o y b o a t w h i c h i s now o u t o f s i g h t . > R l o o k s a r o u n d , w h i l e e a t i n g . M f i n d s b o a t and hands i t to R. "Tu n ' a s pas e n v i ? " l o o k s up a t m o t h e r . > " E n v i d ' a l l e r au c a b i n e t ? p i p i ? " No v e r b a l r e s p o n s e f r o m R. Resumes some o t h e r a c t i v i t y . "Ou e s t t o n t e l e p h o n e ? " 1 8 . huh? > R hand t r a i n . / y " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas l e t e l e p h o n e . " o c c u p i e d w i t h t r a i n , pays no a t t e n t i o n . 2 3 , 0 R i s w a t c h i n g the t a p e r e c o r d e r . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c^ a f a i t ? " 1 9 . huh? > R w a t c h e s w h i l e t a p e i s c h a n g e d . 2 3 , 4 M i s h o l d i n g a d u c k . " C ' e s t q u o i ca? c ' e s t q u o i ? " 2 0 . huh? > R l o o k s a t M f o r a moment t h e n c o n t i n u e s h a n d i n g t o y s t o M. " C ' e s t q u o i ? c ' e s t un c a n a r d . " 0 a s k s R to g i v e p i g l e t f r o m t o y b o x . R hands t r a i n . " C ' e s t un t r a i n ? " 2 1 . huh? > l o o k s a t t r a i n he has j u s t g i v e n . " C ' e s t un t r a i n ? " R i m i t a t e s t r a i n. 124 " T h a t t i c k l e s " ( E n g l i s h ) . R i s b e i n g t i c k l e d . 2 2 . huh? > l o o k s a t 0 , t h e n p r o c e e d s th row-i n g t o y s o f f t a b l e . R i s c o r i n g p o t a t o e s w i t h k n i f e "Ca t e f a i t mai , n o n ? " 2 3 . huh? > R c o n t i n u e s c o r i n g . " C a ne t e f a i t pas m a i ? " 24 . huh? / i n s p e c t s p o t a t o e y e . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? p o t a t o -eye? R and 0 have been t h r o w i n g a b a l l o f p a p e r back and f o r t h , b a l l i s on f l o o r . " Je 1 ' a i p e r d u . " 2 5 . huh? > R i s w a i t i n g w i t h o u t s t r e t c h e d a r m s . " Je 1 ' a i p e r d u . " R r e q u e s t s un a u t r e ? 2 3 , 7 "Met c a l a . " m o t i o n e d to t o y box 2 6 . huh? > l o o k s a t 0 and t a k e s a c o n s t r u c -t i o n cube 0 i s e x t e n d i n g . "Dans l a b o t t e . " Box i s p o i n t e d a t a g a i n . R p u t s t o y i n b o x . R i s h a m m e r i n g . " T u f a i t comme p a p a ? " 2 7 . huh? > c o n t i n u e s h a m m e r i n g , d o e s n ' t pay a t t e n t i o n . "Tu f a i s comme p a p a ? " no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e f r o m J . Toy i s a b o u t to f a l l o f f t a b l e . " £ a va t o m b e r ! " 125 2 8 . huh? 23,11 2 9 . huh? 3 0 . huh? 3 1 . huh? 3 2 . huh? 2 3 , 1 4 3 3 . huh? 3 4 . huh? 3 5 . huh? > 1ooks a t 0 . " R e g a r d e , £ a va t o m b e r . " R l o o k s a t t o y b e i n g p o i n t e d . R has g i v e n a c a r w h e e l . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " > l o o k s a t 0 , t h e n r uns o f f t o p l a y w i t h d o g . T h e r e i s a banana i n bag f o r R. " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l y a ? " ? l o o k s i n b a g , f i n d s b a n a n a . R i s p l a y i n g w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n b o x e s . s "Ou e s t l a t r o i s i e m e ? " > l o o k s a r o u n d . " C ' e s t l a b a s . " box i s p o i n t e d o u t . "Ou e s t l e t r a i n ? " > l o o k s a r o u n d bu t p r o d u c e s n o t h i n g . "Ou e s t t a c h a i s e ? t a p e t i t e c h a i s e ? " 7 l o o k s a t 0 . "Dans t a c h a m b r e ? " > s t i l l l o o k i n g . we g e t h i s c h a i r f r o m h i s r o o m . " L e t r a i n , " as 0 l o o k s t h r o u g h t o y b o x . > R f i n d s t r a i n i n b o x . 126 23,21 3 6 . huh? 2 3 , 2 5 3 7 . huh? 3 8 . h e i n ? 3 9 . huh? 2 5 , 2 0 4 0 . huh? 4 1 . huh? R i s u s i n g a p e n c i l w h i c h d o e s n ' t w r i t e . " P o u r q u o i ca n ' e c r i t pas l e c r a y o n ? " ^ > R c o n t i n u e s u s i n g p e n c i l . R i s l o o k i n g i n my b a g . "II n ' y a r i e n d e d a n s . " > R keeps on l o o k i n g i n b a g . "II n ' y a r i e n . " " R e m i , ou e s t l e c a n a r d ? " duck ^s i n t o y b o x . R i s o c c u p i e d w i t h s m a l l b o x e s , q u e s t i o n r e p e a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s , no a t t e n t i o n f r o m R b u t he s a y s c a n a r d o n c e . N "Ou e s t l e t r a i n ? " t r a i n no t i n v i e w . > R r u n s to a n o t h e r room and comes back w i t h t r a i n . R has a l e t t e r i n h a n d . " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu vas f a i r mai n t e n a n t ? " > R i s p u t t i n g l e t t e r s i n s l o t s . Q u e s t i o n i s r e p e a t e d , R s a y s [me ] . " E l l e e s t ou t a poche ? Remi ? " q u e s t i o n i s r e p e a t e d > R l o o k s a t m o t h e r , q u e s t i o n r e p e a t e d . R shows h i s p o c k e t . A t o y l e t t e r f a l l s t o f l o o r . " C ' e s t t ombe ? " 127 4 2 . huh? > l o o k s f o r i t and f i n d s i t A . 2 N e g a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s 2 2 , 2 7 C u p b o a r d d o o r i s o p e n . R i s s t a n d i n g by i t . " Tu veux l a f e r m e r ? " 4 3 . n o n . > R. c l o s e s d o o r . 2 3 , 7 "Tu vas f a i r e k a k a ? " 4 4 . n o n ! > l o o k s i n s u l t e d and h u r t . " N o n , tu es s u r ? f a i r e k a k a ? " 4 5 . n o n ! > eyebrows a r e k n e a d e d . "Tu es s u V ? " R c o n t i n u e s p l a y i n g R i s h a v i n g a c o o k i e b r e a k . "Ce n ' e s t pas bon ca? s i ? c ' e s t b o n ? " 4 6 . c ' e s t pas b o n . > keeps e a t i n g c o o k i e and d r i n k -i n g m i l k . "Ce n ' e s t pas bon c a ? " 4 7 . c ' e s t pas b o n . . . > c ' e s t bon 23,11 keeps e a t i n g c o o k i e and d r i n k i n g m i l k . " H u h , v c e n ' e s t pas bon? c ' e s t bon ou ce n ' e s t pas b o n ? " no r e s p o n s e f rom R. R g e t s spoon f r o m d rawe r to g e t l i d o f f c o o k i e c a n . 4 8 . oh n o n ! > c a n ' t g e t l i d o f f , t h e n he s u c c e e d s . 1 28 4 9 . n o n ! Tayo ( puppy ) i s b i t i n g h i m . > R h i t s d o g . s t a r t s p l a y i n g w i t h dog a g a i n . 5 0 . n o n ! ( I x ) R i s t r y i n g to g e t away f r o m T. > 51 . oh n o n ! T i s on R 's b a c k , R pushes i t . 5 2 . n o n ! 2 3 , 1 4 5 3 . n o n . . . n o n ! "II . e s t ou l e c h i e n ? i l e s t ou T? i l e s t c a c l f e ? " R l o o k s u n d e r c u p b o a r d , dog i s n ' t t h e r e . Looks f o r i t b e h i n d > Looks f o r i t b e h i n d wash and f i n d s d o g . T i s r o u g h w i t h R, j u m p i n g and n i p p i n g . > 5 4 . non R i s e a t i n g c e r e a l . " C ' e s t d , : c e r e a l e . Tu d i s c e r l a l e ? " > keeps e a t i n g . " N o n ? " R r e q u e s t s b r e a d . 5 5 . n o n : : n o n ! (3x ) R s t o p s e a t i n g , M s t a r t s f e e d i n g h i m . Tayo i s u n d e r t he t a b l e p u l l i n g R ' s p a j a m a s . > R t u r n s f a c e away f r o m s p o o n . " A l l e z , une a u t r e bouchee ? non? non? huh? " > w o n ' t e a t . "Ce n ' e s t pas b o n ? " R answe r s e s t bon and s t a r t s e a t i n g . 5 6 . pas bon 129 R u p s e t s bowl o f d r y c e r e a l . M s t a r t s g a t h e r i n g c e r e a l w h i l e t a l k i n g to 0 . 5 7 . n o n . > R pushes M's hand and g a t h e r s c e r e a l h i m s e l f . " Tu as f i n i a ve c l a c e r e a l e ? " 5 8 . non T a t u >^ T i s a r o u n d , R has s t o p p e d e a t i n g " T a t u ? " R does no t r e s p o n d . R has unhooked t r a i n s 59 . oh n o n : : : > R t o p p l e s r i n g s down. 6 0 . oh n o n : : : > R g i v e s 0 a c a l e n d e r f r o m t o y b o x , has a p i c t u r e on one s i d e . " C ' e s t un c a l e n d r i e r . " 61 . n o n . y t a k e s c a l e n d e r b a c k . "Ce n ' e s t pas un c a l e n d r i e r ? " R goes to d o o r and p r e t e n d s t he ma i lman has b r o u g h t i t . no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . R i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y s , n o t h i n g u n u s u a l . 6 2 . oh n o n : >^ T i s e a t i n g s h o e l a c e s . "Non T a y o ! " 6 3 . non T a t o . ? R l o o k s a t 0 . "Non T a y o ! " 6 4 . non T a y o . > s t i l l l o o k i n g a t 0 . 6 5 . oh n o n . /> R t r i e s to g e t f r e e w h i l e g i v i n g T c e r e a l . 1 30 R i s c r u s h i n g c o o k i e i n bowl 6 6 . oh n o n . } R u p s e t s bowl o f c r u s h e d c o o k i e s on f l o o r . 6 7 . ah n o n . ^ "R q u ' e s t - c e que tu as f a i t e n c o r e , vas r a m a s s e r , va r a m a s s e r 6 8 . ah n o n : : : > g a t h e r s c o o k i e f r o m f l o o r . M a g r e e s . 23,21 R i s t r y i n g to g e t away f r o m T . 6 9 . n o n . y "Me t s l e s t r a i n s e n s e m b l e . ( Ix ) 7 0 . n o n : : > pushes t r a i n s o f f t a b l e . " P o u r q u o i tu f a i s q.a? Tu veux que T l e s mange? " no r e s p o n s e f r o m R. R g i v e s 0 t r a i n s t o hook u p . " E s s a y e , t o i , t o i e s s a y e . " 0 pushes t r a i n s t o w a r d s R. 71 . n o n ! : > pushes t r a i n s to 0 . " O k , o k " R g i v e s 0 t r a i n s t o hook u p . " E s s a y e , t o i . " 7 2 . n o n : /> does no t do a n y t h i n g . " S i , e s s a y e , t o i . " 7 3 . n o n : > does no t do a n y t h i n g . " S i , e s s a y e , t o r . " 7 4 . non pas m o i . > does not do a n y t h i n g . " H u h ? " pushes t r a i n s t o w a r d s 0 . 131 R g i v e s 0 t r a i n s to hook up " E s s a y e , t o i . " 7 6 . n o n ! does no t do a n y t h i n g . " S i , t o i , tu 1e f a i s . " 7 7 . n o n ! > t h rows t r a i n s a r o u n d r o o m . R s t a r t s a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y . " E s s u i e l a bouche 7 8 . n o n : ^ 2 3 , 2 5 R s t a n d s i n f r o n t o f t o w e l , does n o t h i n g . R i s b u i l d i n g house w i t h h e l p , g i v e s 0 a b l o c k . " M e r c i , c ' e s t t o u t ? n o n . " 0 l o o k s a t o t h e r b l o c k s . 7 9 . n o n . > R g i v e s a n o t h e r b l o c k . R pushes t o y s a r o u n d . 8 0 . oh n o n ! > 2 5 , 2 0 M h e l p i n g R pu t a l p h a b e t l e t t e r s i n t o r i g h t s l o t . " C ' e s t ou 1 'N? " 81 non [ 3 ] l a . . . (Ix) > R p o i n t s to d i f f e r e n t s l o t s . 8 2 . non (Ix) As R p u t s l e t t e r s i n t o s l o t s . APPENDIX B JEAN: QUESTIONS AND NEGATIONS B . 1 Q u e s t i o n U t t e r a n c e s B . l . l Y e s / n o - q u e s t i o n s U t t e r a n c e C o n t e x t 2 4 , 2 8 1 . wouwou? 2 5 , 2 2. l a ? papa ca papa 3. non papa ca? 2 6 , 7 4 . c^ a va? J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h book and a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s . " E t l a , tu r e c o n n a i s ? " p o i n t i n g to d o g . ? "Wouwou. " J i s b e i n g a s k e d to name i t e m s i n c a t a l o g . " E t l a ? " p o i n t i n g t o a m a n ' s g a r m e n t . > M comments to me. " c a , i l ne c o n n a i t pas b i e n , cl" > M t u r n s p a g e . J r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J was l o o k i n g t h r o u g h book and a n s w e r i n g " w h a t " q u e s t i o n s . > J has f i n i s h e d w i t h book and r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . 1 33 5. p i l o u ? b a t e a u J wants M to ask him q u e s t i o n s " E n c o r e ? Ou e s t - c e q u ' i l e s t l e p i l o u ? ou i l e s t l e p i l o u ? " l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k . > J l o o k s a t dog on b o a t . " S u r un b a t e a u . " 6. l a l u n e ? M i s t u r n i n g pages o f b o o k , J s e e s t he moon , l a l u n e . " L a l u n e ? ou e l l e e s t l a l u n e ? " J l o o k s f o r moon and f i n d s i t . 7. deux c h e v a u x ? c h e v a u x j a u n e ? [ ] p a s . 2 6 , 1 4 8. b o u l e ? b o u l e ? pas b o u l e ? J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e . "Ou e s t l e d e u x - c h e v a u x q u i ce met l a ? " > J l o o k s a r o u n d f o r y e l l o w ^ c a r . "Tu ne l e v o i s pas? d e r r i e r e t o i . " J wants more q u e s t i o n s w i t h book " E n c o r e ? e n c o r e v o y o n s . " J s e e s a b i r d w i t h a b a l l i n i t s b e e k . > " o u i , i l a une b o u l e dans l e b e e . " c o n f i t u r e ? o u i T h e r e ' s a p i c t u r e o f a j a r o f jam i n b o o k . J i s a s k e d what i t i s , a n s w e r s : t a r t i n e . "De l a c o n f i t u r e . " / "De l a c o n f i t u r e . " 10 . e n f a n t • • - e n f a n t e n f a n t l a ? J s e e s a p i c t u r e o f a bus w i t h c h i l d r e n i n i t . " Q u i e s t d e d a n s ? " > " L e s e n f a n t s . " J i s p u t t i n g p u z z l e p i e c e i n wrong s l o t . " N o n , on ne met pas ca l a . " 1 1 . l a ? 1 2 . e n c o r e maman? 1 3 . l a ? 2 6 , 2 0 1 4 . 1 1 a u t r e s a c ? 1 5 . maman [3 ] p a r t ? 1 6 . maman [3] p a r t ? 1 7 . [ 3 ] p a r t ? maman? B . 1 . 2 "Whe re " q u e s t i o n s 2 4 , 2 5 1 8 . p a n p a n - . - l i panpan? o c c u p e e ( l x j > J f i n d s r i g h t s l o t , " o u i , j u s t e l a . " M n o t i n r o o m . J a s k s where she i s and i s t o l d ' u p s t a i r s . > "Comment? p o u r q u o i e l l e e s t en hau t maman?" J ' s q u e s t i o n i s m i s u n d e r s t o o d , h o w e v e r , J r e s p o n d s w i t h o u i . P l a y i n g h i d e and seek w i t h p u z z l e p i e c e . J i s l o o k i n g f o r i t . " N o n , non i l n ' e s t pas l a . " > J l o o k s ^ " N o n , 1 a non p i us . " S i s l o o k i n g f o r a h a i r c l i p i n 0 ' s bag . " C ' e s t dans 1 ' a u t r e s a c . " > J i s w a t c h i n g 0 . " o u i , v o y o n s s i j ' a i une b a r e t t e . " M i s l e a v i n g and t a l k i n g w i t h 0 . F i s p r e s e n t . F " P a r d o n ? maman p a r t ? c ' e s t q u o i c a ?" > > M " P a r d o n , q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l y a mon c h e r i ? " > "Maman e l l e va j u s q u ' a l a p o s t e . > J i s l o o k i n g f o r h i s hammer. "Comment ? " 0 d o e s n ' t u n d e r -s t a n d . 1 35 1 9 . panpan? 2 4 , 2 8 2 0 . c o u t e a u ? c o u t e a u ? 21 panpan? 2 5 , 3 2 2 . [ v a l y £ ] m a r t e a u papa? [ ! £ . ] m a r t e a u papa? 2 3 . 1 1 a u t r e c r a y o n ? 2 5 , 1 2 2 4 . [ U ] l i t J e an ? (3x ) 2 5 . [ 1 1 ] l i t J e an ? 2 6 . l i t J e an ? 2 7 . l i t J e an ? 2 8 . l i t J e an ? [ U ] 1 i t J e an ? > Hammer i s f o u n d f o r J . J i s s h e l l i n g p e a n u t w i t h k n i f e K n i f e f a l l s o f f t a b l e . > J l o o k s a r o u n d . Le c o u t e a u e s t t o m b e . " J p i c k s up k n i f e . > J l o o k i n g f o r hammer. " h u h ? " c a n ' t f i n d h i s hammer, uses k n i f e to hammer w i t h . > J i s l o o k i n g f o r f a t h e r ' s hammer f i n d s i t and s t a r t s h a m m e r i n g . " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu f a i s a ve c [ l £ ] m a r t e a u de papa ? " No v e r b a l r e s p o n s e f r o m J . > J i s l o o k i n g f o r o t h e r c r a y o n , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . We a r e a l l l o o k i n g t h r o u g h a c a t a l o g u e , a t a n o t h e r t i m e . J had n o t i c e d a bed l i k e h i s . > " Q u o i J e a n ? " " O h , ou e s t l e l i t de J e a n ? " c a n n o t be f o u n d i n c a t a l o g u e . " O h , j e c r o i s q u ' o n I ' a d e c h i r e . C o n t i n u e s to l o o k t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . J mumbles s o m e t h i n g . " P a r d o n mon c h e r i ? " > J e n q u i r e s a b o u t h i s bed a g a i n . " J e a n , o u i , " M t h i n k s J wants to l o o k t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . "Ou e s t l e l i t d e ^ J e a n ? ^ Je c r o i s q u ' o n I ' a decoup e . " > 1 36 2 6 , 7 29 30 31 e [16-] porsche? 1 1 a u t r e • • - c a n a r d 1 1 a u t r e ? 1 1 a u t r e c a n a r d ? 1 1 a u t r e ? 3 2 . 1 ' a u t r e ? J i s no t s a t i s f i e d , wants to see h i s b e d , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e , M has gone on to some o t h e r a c t i v i t y . 7 J i s l o o k i n g a r o u n d f o r a p u z z l e p i e c e . "Ou e l l e e s t l a p o r s c h e ? " J l o c a t e s p i e c e . J has seen a duck i n p i c t u r e b o o k . "Comment i l f a i t l e c a n a r d , tu te s o u v i e n s J e a n ? " 7 J wants to l o o k t h r o u g h book " 1 ' a u t r e q u o i ? " 7 J i s l o o k i n g f o r i t t h r o u g h book T h i n k s he has f o u n d i t , b u t d e c i d e s o t h e r w i s e and q u e s t i o n s a g a i n . 7 " Q u e l ? " No r e s p o n s e f rom J . H i s a t t e n -t i o n i s c a u g h t by cow i n book and d e m o n s t r a t e s sound cows make . 33, 34, [ £ ] c a • • • [ £ ] c a • • • 1 ' au t re ?••-maman 1 ' a u t r e ? [fc]g a? M i s h e l p i n g J w i t h p u z z l e . 7 " L ' a u t r e q u o i ? " No r e s p o n s e f r o m J . J has been p u t t i n g p i e c e s i n t o p u z z l e . 7 J has a p i e c e i n h a n d . " £ a , tu n ' a s pas mis c a e n c o r e J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e . " I c i , q u ' e s t - c e q u ' o n m e t ? " 1 37 3 5 . dame---ou e s t dame? 3 6 . ou e s t b^be? ou e s t beb'e? > J l o o k s f o r woman's f i g u r e t h a t b e l o n g s to s p a c e . F i n d s the p i e c e and p u t s i t i n s l o t . " Tu vas m e t t r e c^ a l a ? " The woman's f i g u r e i n (35) i s de r i v i ng a baby c a r r i a g e . "Ou i l e s t l e b e b e ? " 3 7 . [ 1 £ ] 1 ' a u t r e ? 2 6 , 1 0 3 8 . m a m i • • • [ £ ] n o n o J e an ? 2 6 , 1 4 4 0 . [ l f c ] b o u l e ? 4 1 . [ I t ] b o u l e ? 4 2 . oh ou[ l*-] b o u l e ? 4 3 . Oh [ l £ ] b o u l e ? 4 4 . m a m a n • • • [ 1 £ ] maman? 4 5 . [ I t ] ? [1 £ ] ? J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e , one s^lot i s empty i n p u z z l e . " Q u ' e s t ce que tu c h e r c h e s ? " J : 1 ' a u t r e . " Sous l e d i v a n . " J goes unde r c o u c h and j u s t l i e s t h e r e . J i s l o o k i n g f o r h i s c l o t h . > " E l l e e s t dans l e l i t . " J s t i l l l o o k s f o r c l o t h . M g e t s i t f o r h i m . Sma l l b a l l i s t r a p p e d i n t o y . J c a n ' t see i t . > L o c a t e s b a l l and r esumes p l a y . "Ca ne d e s c e n d s p l u s . " > R e c e i v e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . > Same e v e n t as ( 4 0 ) . "Ou e s t , ou e s t l a b o u l e ? " ? Same e v e n t as ( 4 0 ) . R e c e i v e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y w i t h t he b a l 1 . > "Ou e s t maman? maman e s t en h a u t . " J r e sumes p l a y w i t h t o y . > J i s l o o k i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g . "Ou e s t q u o i ? q u ' e s t - c e que tu c h e r c h e s ? " Q u e s t i o n s i s r e p e a t e d by a d u l t . 138 4 6 . [ l £ ] q u e l q u e c h o s e ? 4 7 . [ 1 £ ] j f 'pe/ ] ? q u e l q u e c h o s e 4 8 . [ 1 £ ] maman? 4 9 . [ l £ ] peuse ? 5 0 . [ 16 ] ? c h e r c h e z 51 . [ l i-] p a n t o u f 1 e [ 3 ] J e an ? 5 2 . [lfc-] p a n t o u f l e a J ean? 2 6 , 2 0 5 3 . [ 1 £ ] p a t i n s ? > " Q u e l q u e c h o s e ? " > O b j e c t i s f o u n d by J . R e c e i v e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . M i s no t i n r o o m . ? J i s p l a y i n g . " E l l e t r a v a i l l e d e h o r s . " J s a y s he wants to see h e r . > J l^ooks f o r p u z z l e . "Ou e s t l e p e u s e ? " q u e s t i o n r e p e a t e d . J l o c a t e s p u z z l e s and p l a y s w i t h i t . J^  i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e . T h e r e i s a p u z z l e p i e c e u n d e r c o u c h and J i s t r y i n g to g e t i t . " h u h ? " J wants 0 to g e t t he p i e c e . Somet ime b e f o r e 0 had a s k e d where J ' s s i i p p e r was . > J a s k s a b o u t his^ s l i p p e r . " O u i , ca c ' e s t a* J e a n . " J had been t h r o w i n g p u z z l e p i e c e s a r o u n d b e f o r e u t t e r a n c e ( 5 1 ) , to g e t h i s a t t e n t i o n away f r o m t h a t a c t i v i t y 0 s t a r t e d p l a y i n g w i t h a t o y . M i s u n d e r s t a n d h i s u t t e r a n c e i n i t i a l l y , t h e n " Q u o i ? " J comments t h a t i t i s h i s t o y , and 0 a g r e e s . " L § p a n t o u f l e a J e a n ? " J l o c a t e s h i s s l i p p e r e v e n t u a l l y . J has been c l e a n i n g M's s k a t e s and c o n v e r s i n g w i t h F. ? 139 2 6 , 2 3 5 4 . maman • • . ou c^ a? 5 5 . [ I f ] q u e l q u e c h o s e ? 56 . [ 1 £ ] q u e l q u e c h o s e l a ? He i s l o o k i n g i n t he c l o s e t f o r F ' s s k a t e s . " A l o r s , tu s a i s b i e n que p a p a , i l n ' a pas de p a t i n s . " J i s b u i l d i n g a s t r u c t u r e w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n b l o c k s . > J has a b l o c k i n h i s h a n d . "0u N j a ? " M h e l p s J w i t h b l o c k . J l o o k s f o r s o m e t h i n g " h u h ? " > S t i l l l o o k i n g , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . B . 1 . 3 "Why" q u e s t i o n s 2 4 , 2 5 5 7 . p o u r q u o i ? 2 4 , 2 8 5 8 . p o u r q u o i ? 5 9 . p o u r q u o i ? 2 5 , 2 60 p o u r q u o i ? (2x ) 61 p o u r q u o i ? S has a s k e d why to t he f a c t t h a t t h e m i n t was n o t g o o d , and r e c e i v e d an a n s w e r . > J e c h o s S ' s why, r e c e i v e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . J has g i v e n 0 a p e a n u t . "Oh m e r c i . " > J i s busy s h e l l i n g a n o t h e r p e a n u t " C ' e s t b o n . " > Same a c t i v i t y as ( 5 7 ) , J r e c e i v e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h t a p e r e c o r d e r . ^ N o n , non J e a n , j a m a i s ! " J l o o k s a t 0 . " Q u o i ? " J answers $a_ s t i l l l o o k i n g a t 0 . J i s e y e i n g the t . r . and s a y s : ca t o u c h e . ' ' N o n , i 1 ne f a u t pas t o u c h e r . " > 140 2 5 , 9 6 2 . p o u r q u o i ? (2x ) 2 6 , 7 6 3 . p o u r q u o i ? 2 6 . 1 4 6 4 . p o u r q u o i s a l maman? 6 5 . p o u r q u o i s a l ? 6 6 . p o u r q u o i f a c h e e [ 2 ] • • • p o u r q u o i S o p h i e f a c h e e ? • . S o p h i e ? 6 7 . p o u r q u o i ? " P a r c e q u e . " J s t a r t s a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y . J i s m i s p l a c i n g an o b j e c t i n b o o k c a s e . " N o n , non J e a n . " J r e a r r a n g e s i t . " B r a v o . " > " P o u r q u o i ? Comme c a . " M has g i v e n a l o n g e x p l a n a t i o n a b o u t t he s i c k baby t h a t J and she a r e g o i n g to p i c k up f r o m ho s p i t a l . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e " P o u r l e g u e r i r . " J c o n t i n u e s w i t h p u z z l e . 3 u t t e r a n c e s b e f o r e , M had r e -sponge was d i r t y . f u s e d to g i v e J t he b e c a u s e she s a i d i t > J i s h e l p i n g M w i t h c l e a n i n g . "Comment mon c h e r i ? " > J s t i l l c e a l n i n g . " Je v a i s . p o u r q u o i s a l e n c o r e ? " J answe r s o u i , and M p r o v i d e s e x p l a n a t i o n . J c o n t i n u e s w i t h c l e a n i n g . J i s m e s s i n g up S ' s p u z z l e . " S o p h i e va e t r e t r e s f a c h e e comme c a , tu s a i s . " > 5 S no t p r e s e n t i n r o o m . " S o p h i e va "e^tre f a c h e e , o u i , p a r c e q u e tu p r e n d s c e s p e t i t s p e u s e s e t tu ne l e s mes pas dans 1 1 e n d r o i t . " > 0 i s p u t t i n g p i e c e s i n t o p u z z l e , J i s w a t c h i n g 0 . "Comme c a . " 141 6 8 . p o u r q u o i S o p h i e f a c h e e ? 2 6 , 2 0 69 p o u r q u o i ? 0 p u t t i n g p i e c e s i n t o p u z z l e , " P o u r q a . " J wants to mess up p u z z l e a g a i n . J i s i n k i t c h e n a s k i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g , M r e f u s e s . > J i s s e n t o u t o f k i t c h e n . 7 0 . p o u r q u o i ? 71 . p o u r q u o i ? 2 6 , 2 3 7 2 . p o u r q u o i ? S g i v e J a baby b o t t l e . "Comme c ' e s t g e n t i l l e de S o p h i e de t e d o n n e r c a . " J makes an i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e u t t e r a n c e . "Huh? comment? " >• r J i s i n s p e c t i n g b o t t l e . R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . M i s ! e a v i ng . N "Maman e l l e va j u s q u ' a l a p o s t e c h e r c h e r des p e t i t e s m a n d a r i n e s pou r l e d e j e u n e r de bebe J e a n . " > J w a t c h e s M as she p r e p a r e s to 1 e a v e . "Tu veux de j u s de pomme?" J answers pomme. S i s t a l k i n g to M a b o u t g a r a g e she i s b u i l d i n g . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h b l o c k s t o o . S a n s w e r s : P a r c e q u e c ' e t a i t  un beau g a r a g e , r e g a r d e . " Her g a r a g e i s i n t a c t . B . 1 . 4 "What " q u e s t i o n s 2 4 , 2 5 7 3 . £ a ? 2 6 , 7 S a s k s e t ga? a b o u t l i p s t i c k J e c h o s S. "De r o u g e , r o u g e a s l e v r e . " 142 7 4 . e t ca? 7 5 . a ca? •5 7 6 . r e n a r d • • •£a? 7 7 . a ca? s 7 8 . [ a ] ca? 2 6 , 1 0 7 9 . [ d ] ca maman? J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e and naming what he s e e s . He has pu t i n a t r u c k , answe r s to " C ' e s t q u o i c a ? " "Un c a m i o n , o u i . " ' 5 > J p o i n t s to a d i f f e r e n t t r u c k . "Un c a m i o n . " J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h book and i s naming o b j e c t s as h e ' s a s k e d what i t i s . He has named a f o x . "Hum?" > J p o i n t i n g to same f o x . "Un p e t i t r e n a r d . " > P o i n t s to a b o y . " P e t i t - . - , tu s a i s ce que c ' e s t pa J e a n , c ' e s t un g a r - - - " J s u p p l i e s p o n . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e . Pu t s i n p o r s c h e and names i t . > J has p o l i c e b o a t i n h a n d . " E h , c ' e s t l e b a t e a u de p o - - . " J s u p p l i e s l i c e . M r e s p o n d s w i t h : " P o l i c e , t r e s b i e n . " J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e . Names f i g u r e s as he p l a c e s tham i n s l o t . > J has a p i e c e i n h a n d . " O u i , q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " No v e r b a l r e s p o n s e f r o m J . L a t e r J comments he c a n ' t pu t i t i n s l o t . J and S a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k . S i s g i g g l i n g . J t u r n s p a g e . P^age has many o b j e c t s . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ^ a , mon c h e r i ? " J p r o v i d e s name f o r s h o w e r . 143 8 0 . [ 9 ] l a ? 2 6 , 1 4 81 e t ^ca? 2 6 , 2 3 8 2 . e t l a ? B.2 N e g a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s 2 4 , 2 5 8 3 . non•••non 8 4 . non---pas un c r a y o n 8 5 . n o n . 8 6 . a h ! wawa•• .wawa . . . a h ! pas p e u x . . . J e a n c a . S has been d e s c r i b i n g p i c t u r e s i n book w h i l e J i s w a t c h i n g . > J p o i n t s to c h i l d p a i n t i n g . " E t l a ? q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l f a i t l a ? " S p r o v i d e s a n s w e r . J i s naming o b j e c t s i n book a f t e r b e i n g a s k e d what i t i s . > J p o i n t s to f r y i n g p a n . " E t ca p o e l e . " J has a pad w i t h numbers on i t . > " E t l a q u o i ? c ' e s t un c h i f f r e c a , n o n ? " o s a y s : c h i f f r e . " T u veux t ' a s s e o i r l a ? " s p o t i s p o i n t e d o u t . > J s i t s a t p o i n t e d p l a c e . "Non? o u i . " S has a p e n c i l , J d o e s n ' t and r e q u e s t s o n e . "Tu n ' a s pas un c r a y o n t o i , e h ? " > J w a i t s . " Q u o i ? " J , r e p e a t s " c r a y o n . " J i s p l a y i n g w i t h T . R . "II ne f a u t pas t o u c h e r . " > J w i t h d r a w s h a n d . C a t i s u n d e r c o u c h , J i s on f l o o r l o o k i n g a t i t b u t c a n n o t r e a c h i t . 7 144 " Q u o i ? q u ' e s t - c e a u i a r r i v e ? e l l e s ' e n d o r t ? " J e a n s answe r s o u i . 87 . n o n . . . n o n chaud e e l a . . . c h a u d 8 8 . non (4x ) 8 9 . non 2 4 , 2 8 9 0 . non 9 1 . n o n ! 9 2 . non l e v e r n o n . 1 1 a u t r e . . . a v e c a v e c . . . J goes to t i s s u e box f o r a t i s s u e as p o t h o l d e r . '^Non J e a n , tu en as un d e j a . " _ G e t s a t i s s u e . J wants more t i s s u e s . " N o n , n o n , non J e a n , r e g a r d e t o u t c a . " P o i n t i n g to t i s s u e s on f l o o r . > T i s s u e box i s t a k e n away f r o m J . " C ' e s t f i n i , p r e n d s un e t c ' e s t t o u t . " S and J a r e c o o k i n g . S s a y s : J e a n , n ' a pas f i n i . > J busy c o o k i n g . Does n o t l o o k a t S. S a s k s i f J i s f i n i s h e d , J does n o t r e s p o n d . M comes i n t o r o o m , J i s p l a y i n g w i t h c l a y . "Tu f a i s des j o l i e s c h o s e s , J e a n ? " ? J i s p l a y i n g w i t h c l a y . J has p u t c l a y i n m o u t h . "Non J e a n , ce n ' e s t pas b o n , o u v r e l a b o u c h e . " > J w i l l no t open m o u t h . " N o n ? " J opens m o u t h . J i s s t a n d i n g and M wants him to s i t down and work w i t h c l a y . > J w o n ' t s i t down 9 3 . comme c,a comme ca pas b i e n . 9 4 . n o n ! (2x ) 9 5. : n n o n . 9 6 . n o n . 9 7 . ah n o n . 9 8 . pas c a . 9 9 . n o n . 1 0 0 . n o n . . . [ a j m a m i e c o u t e a u . 145 " E h , b i e n , tu peux t a p e r s u r l a p a t e a m o d e l e r s i tu veux pou r l a f a i r e t r e s j o l i e . " > J i s n o t happy w i t h what he i s d o i n g , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J a n n o u n c e s he i s g o i n g to hammer u p s t a i r s . v " N o n , non tu f a i s ponpon p r e s de maman. " > does no t come. "Tu v i e n s j o u e r a vec S o p h i e . > does no t come. " T u v i e n s j o u e r a vec S o p h i e un p e t i t p e u ? " does no t come. " E s t - c e que tu as m o n t r e l e s p e t i t s p e u s e s a A? ( I x ) > g e t s p u z z l e . " V i e n s l u i m o n t r e r . " ( I x ) J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . S s a y s she wants a d o l l c a r r i a g e . J s a y s : J e an a u s s i . " P o u r q u o i ? q u ' e s t - c e que tu D^romeneras dans l a p o u s s e t t e ? " " Q u i a une comme c a ? " M t e l l s J t o ask 0 f o r h e l p i n s p e l l i n g p e a n u t . does no t a s k . "Tu vas f a i r e t o u t s e u l ? " J s a y s : c o u t e a u c o u p e r . " C o u p e r c o u t e a u . " J answers o u i t h e n . > " T o , tu veux un t o ? " J g e t s k n i f e . 146 1 0 1 . n o n . 1 0 2 . non c o u p e r a . 1 0 3 . non d i f f i c i l e c o u p e r . 1 0 4 . c o u p e r d i f f i c i l e c o u t e a u . 1 0 5 . n o n ! n o n ! 1 0 6 . non 2 5 , 2 1 0 8 . p a s . . . [ l s ] p a s p u . 1 0 9 . n o n . 1 1 0 . non c a . J i s u s i n g k n i f e to s h e l l p e a n u t . "On ne p e u t pas l e c o u p e r a v e c l e c o u t e a u . " > J c o n t i n u e s c u t t i n g . " C ' e s t d i f f i c i l e J e a n . " > J c o n t i n u e s c u t t i n g . "Non c ' e s t d i f f i c i l e . " > J c o n t i n u e s c u t t i n g . "Comment ? " > s t i l l c u t t i n g . J has s h e l l e d p e a n u t w i t h k n i f e . P eanu t i s i n p a l m . " C ' e s t pour J ean ? h u h ? " ? G i v e s 0 p e a n u t . "Oh m e r c i , c ' e s t b o n . " J i s on t he p h o n e . y ^ " C ' e s t f i n i a ve c l e t e l e p h o n e . " > J does no t want to hang u p . J i s b e i n g t i c k l e d : , does no t want i t . J i s u s i n g b l o c k s , bu t i s no t s a t i s f i e d . > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J ^ h a s pu t c l a y i n m o u t h . " N o n , j e v a i s p r e n d r e . A l o r s , t u ne mets p l u s dans l a b o u c h e . " > J a g r e e s w i t h M. J i s i n k i t c h e n . > "Ah l a b r o s s e . " J comes back w i t h b r u s h . J i s h e a d i n g t o w a r d s k i t c h e n . "Tu veux p r e n d r e t on p e t i t m a r t e a u J e a n ? " 1 1 1 . n o n : f o u r c h e t t e (2x) 1 1 2 . n o n ! ( I x ) 1 1 3 . pas p u . . . pas pu . . . pas p u . . . m a m i e pas p u . 114 . pas p u . 1 1 5 . non n o n . 1 1 6 . non b a l a i . . . n o n b a l a i . . . m e n a g e . . . m e n a g e . 1 1 7 . non c a . . . b a l a i . 1 1 8 . menage , n o n . . . n o n b a l a i 1 1 9 . non b a l a i . . . b a l a i - e s t m i e u x . 147 > C r y i n g , he was t o l d c o u l d no t have f o r k . J wants a f o r k , c a n ' t have o n e . c r i e s > "Tu v i e n s avec maman m e t t r e l e s a f f a i r s . " S and M a r e s i n g i n g . J i s h a m m e r i n g , wou ld l i k e M's a t t e n t i o n . ? " V i e n s c h a n t e r a ve c m a m i e . " J i s h a m m e r i n g . R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J i s t r y i n g to p l u g i n v a cuum. M t e l 1 s him to s t o p . > J c o n t i n u e s w i t h a c t i v i t y . "Non J e a n , q u ' e s t - c e que maman a d i t ? " > J t r i e s to use v a cuum. "Tu f a i s l e menage e n c o r e ? " J s a y s : o u i . M t e l l s him to use s m a l l b r u s h i n s t e a d . > J i s g e t t i n g r e s t o f v a cuum. J i s busy w i t h bacuum. "Comment? " > J g e t s v a cuum. " Le b a l a i e s t m i e u x . " > J i s s t i l l g e t t i n g v a cuum. " A s p i r a t e u r : : : : " J answers o u i . "Non pas m a i n t e n a n t , dema in m a t i n on f e r a a s p i r a t e u r . " 148 1 2 0 . non non . . . non non avec m e t t e non pas f a i r e n o n non a s p i r a t e u r e s t l a a s p i r a t e u r . 1 2 1 . non J e a n i l f a i t a s p i r a t e u r . 1 2 2 . non v a . . . n o n va c^ a va 1 2 3 . n o n . . . n o n d i f f i c i l e . 124 . n o n . . . [ 3 ] pas 1 2 5 . p r i s e . . . n o n . . . non . . . non[;9,]l a 1 2 6 . non maman. 1 2 7 . non ! n o n ! n o n . . . a s p i r a t e u r ca [ a ] f a i t . , mamie a s p i r a t e u r . 1 2 8 . n o n . 1 2 9 . non (2x ) 1 3 0 . non > g e t t i n g vacuum. " T r o p p e t i t t o i e n c o r e . " "Ca va? ca un peu d i f f i c i l e . " r J i s g e t t i n g vacuum. > M t e l l s J t o pu t vacuum back i n p l a c e . " C ' e s t t r o p l o n g . " > s t i l l w i t h v a cuum. M o c c u p i ed wi th S J i s t r y i n g to p l u g vacuum i n . " N o n , non tu r a n g e l a p r i s e . . . " J has u n p l u g g e d c l o c k . > c o n t i n u e s w i t h f a c u u m . " N o n , i l f a u t m ieux m e t t r e dans l a c u i s i n e . " > J c o n t i n u e s w i t h c l e a n e r . M t r i e s to g e t J to t he b a t h r o o m . > J i s u s i n g vacuum. "On u t i l i s e pas I ' a s p i r a t e a u t o u t s e u l , tu es t r o p p e t i t . " > s t i l l u s i n g c l e a n e r . M t a k e s i t away , bu t does no t |DUt away. u p s e t . " h e h ? " J a g a i n busy w i t h v a c u u m . "Tu vas r a n g e r . 1 ' a s p i r a t e u r de maman. " 149 1 3 1 . non non . . . p a s s e e n c o r e . 1 3 2 . non non demai n . . . a u j o u r d 1 h u i . 1 3 3 . n o n ! . . . a v e c . . . a v e c non a vec 1 3 4 . n o n . . . n o n . . . [ 9 ] f a s s e . 1 3 5 . non f a s s e 1 3 6 . non (2x ) 1 3 7 . n o n . 1 3 8 . n o n . 1 3 9 . n o n . . . m a m i e -I N -I x 1 a . . . 1 a . u s i n g vacuum on r u g . " S i , mon b £ b e . " > u s i n g c l e a n e r . "II f a u t p a s s e r 1 1 a s p i r a t e u r e n c o r e ? " J s a y s : o u i . "Demai n . " > u s i n g c l e a n e r . M o c c u p i e d w i t h S. J g e t s b r o o m . "Range l e b a l a i , c ' e s t d a n g e r e u x ! " > t r i e s to use b r o o m . J wants to use p l u g . "On r a n g e m a i n t e n a n t l a p r i s e . " M wants to p l u g c l o c k , and a r r a n g e p a p e r s . wants to use p l u g . " N o n , n o n " > wants t o use p l u g . " N o n , n o n . " J i s r e m o v i n g p a p e r s to e x p o s e s o c k e t , has p l u g i n h a n d . "Tu ne mets pas l a p r i s e dans l e t r o u . " > c o n t i n u e s w i t h a c t i v i t y . M t a k e s p l u g away f r o m J . c r i e s . > J i s a s k e d to j o i n S & A . c r y i n g . > J has c l a y i n h a n d . "Vas t e m e t t r e s u r un p a p i e r a c o t e d ' A . " ? 1 50 140, 141 , 142, 143, p a s . ah non n o n . l a \ 1 4 4 . n o n ! 1 4 5 . n o n ! J e an r e g a r d e 1 4 6 . n o n ! n o n ! 1 4 7 . pas 1 4 8 . non 1 4 9 . pas p u . . . p a p a pas pu papa pas p u . s i t s by M. J has seen a t e l e v i s i o n i n c a t a l o g u e . N s "Ou e s t l a t e l e a t o i ? ou e s t l a t e l e de papa maman, J e a n ? " > "Tu ne l a v o i s p a s ? " M t e l l s J t o l o o k a r o u n d r o o m . > J l o o k i n g a t p i c t u r e s i n c a t a l o g u e " T u ne l a v o i s pas la : t e l e ' ? " J l o o k s a r o u n d r o o m . "Tu ne l a v o i s p l u s ? " ? p o i n t s to T . V . S i s d r a w i n g , J wants to draw a l s o . " J e an ? non i l va c o n t i n u e r a vec M . " > wants^ t o d raw . " A p r e s , S u t i l i s e l e s c r a y o n s mai n t e n a n t . " "Oh q u e ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ^ a ? " M t r y i n g to g e t J ' s a t t e n t i o n . > l o o k s a t p i c t u r e p o i n t e d o u t . i s t u r n i n g page o f c a t a l o g u e . d o e s n ' t want M to t u r n p a g e . J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . ' ^ Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t c a ? " J l o o k s a t p i c t u r e . "Tu ne s a i s p a s ? " > s t i l l l o o k i n g . M e x p l a i n s . J i s l o o k i n g a t a p i c t u r e . ? "II n ' a pas pu f a i r e q u o i ? " No r e s p o n s e f rom J . 1 51 1 5 0 . n o n . . . n o n J e a n . 1 5 1 . non mamie 1 5 2 . rion J e a n . . . p a p a a u s s i 154 . ah baboum. 1 5 5 . non J e a n . 2 5 , 5 1 5 6 . s a i t pas [P ] l a i l p a s . 1 5 7 . n o n . 2 5 , 9 1 5 8 . n o n . 1 5 9 . n o n . . . [ ^ ] p a s 1 6 0 . J e a n . 1 6 1 . n o n . J s e e s p i c t u r e o f e x e r c i s e b y c i c l e . Says i t i s f o r J . "Non c ' e s t pour l e s mamans c a . " > J i s s t i l l l o o k i n g a t p i c t u r e . " P o u r J e a n ? " J s a y s : o u i . " Tu c r o i s ? " > " O u i , c ' e s t m ieux pour m a m i e . " 7 " Papa a u s s i ? " S i s p u t t i n g b l o c k i n s a c , one f a l l s o u t . > 0 t r i e s p i c k i n g up b l o c k . > J p i c k s up b l o c k . J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h p i c t u r e book , " Q u e ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t j a ? " House " C ' e s t une m a i s o n . " J r e p e a t s . S wants a h a i r p i n . " J e an v e u t une b a r e t t e a u s s i ? " 7 S g e t s a p i n , J s a y s he wants one t o o . J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e and c l a i m i n g i t e m s as h i s . " R i e n pou r P a p a ? " L o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . J i s n o t c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . " J e a n d e s s i n e ? " > D o e s n ' t want t o d r aw . ' T a s ^:a? pas p l u s e ' c r i r e ? " " D e s s i n e J e a n ? " > " Q u o i ? " J p o i n t s to S ' s c l a y . 152 162 non pas :a . . . pas pu ca iu pas pu . . . ca 1 6 3 . n o n . . . n o n . . . [ P ] c a r a c o n t e r J e a n . ^ 1 6 4 . non 1 6 5 . l a . . . d e j a vu pa p a s . 1 6 6 . non 1 6 7 . pas p u . (1 x) 1 6 8 . [«? ] pas S i s a s k e d i f she has s een a l l t he t o y s i n c a t a l o g u e . S s a y s o u i . " T u n ' a s pas vu c a " t o S. J a n s w e r s . > J has no t seen a l l t o y s . " L e s j o u j o u x ? " J . s a y s o u i . J i s a s k e d to come l o o k t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . "Me ts l e i c i pou r S o p h i e a u s s i , S o p h i e v e u t l e s v o i r a u s s i . " > J wants q u e s t i o n s p o s e d to h i m . M a i l m a n d r o p s a l e t t e r . S t e l l s J no t to t o u c h i t . > S: n o n , d ' a c c o r d . J i s l o o k i n g i n 0.'s p u r s e . " R a c o n t e , q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l y a l a ? " > J has p u r s e i n h a n d , p u t s i t down S t a r t s a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y . J s e e s p i c t u r e o f a c a r w i t h a g i r l i n i t , s a y s i t i s h i s . "Ce n ' e s t pas pou r S o p h i e ? " " . Rega rde ; i l y a une p e t i t e f i l l e l a , c ' e s t pour S o p h i e . " J i s p l a y i n g by h i m s e l f . R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e and a n s w e r i n g " w h a t " q u e s t i o n s . " T r e s b i e n , e t c a , q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " 7 J i s p u t t i n g b o a t i n s l o t . " Tu ne s a i s pas? c ' e s t l e b a . . . " J p r o v i d e s t e a u . 1 53 1 6 9 . non 1 7 0 . non J e a n . 1 7 1 . 1 1 a u t r e pas pu J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e , s e e s an o b j e c t and s a y s : Ca  J e a n . ^£a ce n ' e s t pas J e a n . " " C ' e s t pou r J e a n ? " J : o u i . Toys a r e b e i n g p u t i n s a c . > J p u t s t o y s i n s a c . 0 a s k s S i f she has seen t he o t h e r c a m e l . J s a y s J e a n . " J ean a un c h a m e a u , oil e s t 1 ' a u t r e ? " > The o t h e r camel c a n ' t be f o u n d . 1 7 2 . n o n . . . j o u j o u J e an 173, 174 non . . . J e a n . . . p a s p a p a . . . j o u j o u pas pas j o u j o u 1 7 5 . non mai mai a dos 1 7 6 . oh m a m i e . . . p a s b i e n 1 7 7 . non . . . c a c h a i se c a s s e c h a i s e . J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e and s a y s : j o u j o u J e a n . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " > does no t name t o y . "Comme ^a tu v o u d r a i s ? " C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h S , J no t i n v o l v e d . > L o o k i n g a t p i c t u r e s o f d o l l c a r r i a g e s . "II f a i t pas j o u j o u a v e c q u o i mon c h e r i ? " > " N o n , c ' e s t de j o u j o u de f i l l e ^ a . " J i s p l a y i n g w i t h M. "Oh J e an tu me f a i s m a i , tu s a i s mon c h e r i . " > " O u i , tu f a i s mai a m a m i e . " J has a p i e c e o f the c h a i r . > s "Oh c ' e s t c a s s e . " " C e l a a p p a r t i e n t a l a c h a i s e ? " > " Q u e l l e c h a i s e ? C e t t e c h a i s e ? " 1 54 1 7 8 . n o n . . . n o n . . . W b i c y c l e t t e . 1 7 9 . n o n . . . J e a n b i c y c l e t t e . 1 8 0 . non l a . . . l i t l a , 1 8 1 . pas pu . 1 8 2 . n o n . . . v o i s l i t J e an 1 8 3 . non l a . 2 6 , 7 1 8 4 . pas b i e n ( I x ) 1 8 5 . n o n . 1 8 6 . n o n . 1 8 7 . s a i s p a s . J s e e s b i c y c l e i n c a t a l o g u e , s a y s i t i s W ' s . M m i s u n d e r s t a n d s "Oh c ' e s t b i e n mon p o u s s i n . " > "Oh c ' e s t W." J s e e s a n o t h e r b i c y c l e , s a y s i t i s f o r h i m . "Oh ce n ' e s t ^ p a s de p e t i t pou r des p e t i t s b e b e s ? " > J wants to see h i s bed i n the c a t a l o g u e . x ' "Je c r o i s q u ' o n I ' a d e c o u p e . " " C h e r c h e b i e n . " > J c a n ' t f i n d b e d . J wants to s e e v h i s bed a g a i n . "Ce m a g a z i n e l a , i l n ' a pas de l i t . " > S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h a c a t a l o g u e J g e t t i n g r e a d y to p l a y w i t h p u z z l e , c h a n g e s h i s m i n d , wants S ' s m a g a z i n e . " N o n , c e l u i l a p e u t - e t r e . " 7 wants S ' s , p o i n t s to i t . J i s g o i n g to show new p u z z l e w h i c h i s u n d e r t a b l e i n t o y b o x . c a n ' t g e t p u z z l e o u t o f b o x . > "Huh? Tu ne peux p a s ? " > w a i t s f o r h e l p . J i s naming p i c t u r e s on p u z z l e . "Ce n ' e s t pas une a u t o g a . " J i s p u t t i n g p i e c e s i n s l o t . > " N o n , c ' e s t q u o i ? " I t i s a p i c t u r e o f m o t o r c y c l e . ? . . name i s g i v e n . 1 55 "C ' e s t q u o i c a ? " J i s p u t t i n g bus i n t o s l o t 1 8 8 . s a i s p a . 7 " C ' e s t 1 ' a u t o b u s . " M comes i n and s a y s t h a t p u z z l e i s S ' s . She t a k e s i t and g i v e s J h i s . 1 8 9 . n o n ! > wants S ' s . J has a b o o k . "Tu ne veux pas m e t t r e ce l i v r e dans l a b i b l i o th ' eque ? " 1 9 0 . n o n . > p u t s book on c o u c h . J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h C a t a l o g u e . " J e a n e s t une f i l l e ? " 1 9 1 . n o n . > " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t J e an a l o r s ? " J has p u z z l e p i e c e , p i c t u r e o f b o a t . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t c a ? " 1 9 2 . pas q a . > * " C ' e s t un b a . . . " J : t e a u . J g e t s h i s s k a t e s o u t o f c l o s e t , t r i e s p u t t i n g them i n p l a n e . "Non ne mets pas dans L ' a v i o n . " 1 9 3 . n o n . > t r i e s to s k a t e i n h o u s e . " N o n , i l n ' y a pas de l a g l a s s e dans l a m a i s o n de m a m i e . " 1 9 4 . non s i g l a s s e maman. } c o n t i n u e s to s k a t e . " G l a s s e maman , o u i . " J has f i n i s h e d h i s p u z z l e . " E t m a i n t e n a n t 1 ' a u t r e , de S o p h i e . " S ' s i s no t i n o r d e r . 1 9 5 . 1 ' a u t r e pas p u . > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J wants M's h e l p w i t h p u z z l e . " M e t s , tu l e m e t s . " 1 9 6 . non pas b i e n / r e g a r d I t . 1 56. 1 9 7 . non pas b i en . . . pas b i e n J e a n . 1 9 8 . non pas b i e n met ca 1 9 9 . non 2 0 0 . n o n . . . [ ^ ] v a mamie va 2 0 1 . non (3x ) 2 0 2 . n o n . 2 0 3 . o u t . . . n o n ! e n c o r e 2 0 4 . non c a . J p o i n t s to p u z z l e , needs a n o t h e r p i e c e f i r s t . " Tu mets un a u t r e d ' a b o r d , tu m e t t r a s c e l u i l a a p r e s . " J wants M to pu t i n p u z z l e p i e c e . " C 1 e s t J e an q u i m e t . " > " S i , J e an t r e s b i e n f a i t . " > He c a n ' t o r d o e s n ' t p l a c e p i e c e i n r i g h t s l o t . " M a i s tu f a i s n ' i m p o r t e q u o i . " M d e s c r i b e s what baby i s d o i n g i n c a r r i a g e i n p i c t u r e . "II f a i t c o u c o u dans l e l a n d e a u . " > h e ' s p u t t i n g p i e c e s i n p u z z l e . J i s p u t t i n g p i e c e i n wrong s l o t o f p u z z l e . " N o n , c_a va 1 a . " M i s h e l p i n g , J does no t want p i e c e t h e r e . , : . . > -|\Ca va comme ^ a , r e g a r d e . " M p u t s p i e c e i n p l a c e anyway . J i s l y i n g u n d e r t h e c o u c h . "Tu d o r s la* d e s s o u s ? " > s m i l i n g . J i s c l e a n i n g t o y b e a r . " C ' e s t f i n i ? i l e s t p r o p r e mai n t e n a n t . " > c o n t i n u e s c l e a n i n g . J s t a r t s c l e a n i n g h i m s e l f . " Tu t e l a v e s a u s s i J e an ? tu n ' a s pas p r i s t on b a i n h i e r ? " > c o n t i n u e s c l e a n i n g h i m s e l f d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . 157 2 0 5 . non e n c o r e . 2 0 6 . n o n . . . b o u c h e a u s s i . . . e t l ' o e i l l e a u s s i . 207 . non . . .maman. 2 6 , 1 0 2 0 8 . n o n . . . p a s b i e n r e g a r d e r . 2 6 , 1 4 2 0 9 . oh . . . n o n . 2 1 0 . J e a n pas r u b a n c a . 2 1 1 . n o n . 2 1 2 . non . . . e n c o r e . 2 1 3 . n o n . . . e n c o r e . J i s c l e a n i n g e l e p h a n t . "Oh 1 ' e l e p h a n t t r e s p r o p r e mai n t e n a n t . " > "Pas e n c o r e ? " 7 s t i l l c l e a n i n g . " Bouche e t I ' o e i l , e t l e s m a i n s ? S c h e d u l e i s b e i n g a r r a n g e d . " T u veux r e s t e r a ve c A ? " 7 " M a m a n . " M i s o c c u p i e d w i t h v i s i t i n g c h i l d r e n , J i s p l a y i n g on h i s own, wants M to s e e . " J e a n r e g a r d e r ? " 7 r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J has book i n h a n d . "II y a des p h o t o d e d a n s ? " F i n d s no p i c t u r e s i n b o o k . > Tape r e c o r d e r r i b b o n i s 0 ' s . > P o i n t s t o t . r . "Non J e a n n ' a pas un r u b a n comme c a . " J has p a p e r ' f o r d r a w i n g . " T u v i e n s t ' a s s e o i r la"?" 7 goes to k i t c h e n , comes back w i t h s c o t c h t a p e . y i n ' y a pas de s c o t c h . " "II n ' y a p l u s de s c o t c h . " J opens t . r . l i d . " C ' e s t f e r m e , c ' e s t f i n i . " > wants to open l i d a g a i n . " N o n . " 1 58 2 1 4 . non 2 1 5 . huh n o n . 2 1 6 . pas p u . 2 1 7 . pas p u . 2 1 8 . non f a i t S o p h i e 2 1 9 . [ a ] p a s . . . [ 3 ] non ( I x ) 2 2 0 . [ 3 ] 1 1 a u t r e pas pu 1 ' a u t r e . 221 . [s>] non 2 2 2 . n o n . 2 2 3 . [ 3 ] non J s a y s p i p i . " Tu vas f a i r p i p i ? " > l a u g h s . J s c a t t e r s p u z z l e p i e c e s a b o u t . " S o p h i e va demander out s o n t l e s p e t i t e s v o i t u r e s . " > w a t c h e s 0 as 0 g a t h e r s p i e c e s . "Ah o u i . 1 1 " E t c a , OLT on met c a ? " p i e c e o f p u z z l e , p u t s p ienc ' e i n r i g h t )s 1 o t . p u t s p i e c e i n r i g h t s l o t . > s t o p s w o r k i n g w i t h p u z z l e . " Tu peux f a i r e tre"s b i e n . " > d o e s n ' t work w i t h p u z z l e . " S o p h i e n ' e s t pas l a \ " J s t a r t s o t h e r a c t i v i t y . "Ou on met c a ? " p u z z l e p i e c e . > r e f u s e s to p l a y w i t h p u z z l e . New c a s s e t t e i s pu t i n t . r . > w a t c h i n g t . r . 0 t r i e s p u t t i n g a ~ p u z z l e i n s l o t > shows r i g h t s l o t . J keeps me f r o m p u t t i n g p i e c e i n p u z z l e r "Oh c ' e s t t o i q u i v e u t l e fa i rc f . " d o e s n ' t want p u z z l e c o m p l e t e d . > J wants to see M w h o ' s u p s t a i r s . " E l l e f a i t 1 e . n e t t o y a g e . " > s t a r t s s t a i r s . 2 2 4 . pas p u . 225 [>] p a s . 226 . n o n . . . e n c o u r e . 2 2 7 . b o u l e pas b i e n (3x) 2 6 , 2 0 2 2 8 . non n o n . 2 2 9 . pas b i e n . 2 3 0 . pas p u . 231 . non e s t M . . . ca maman. 2 3 2 . s a i s p a s . 2 3 3 . n o n . . . e n c o r e . 1 59 J i s t r y i n g to g e t c l e a n i n g u t e n s i l s f r o m c a b i n e t i n k i t c h e n , he c a n ' t open d o o r . > g e t s h e l p . J has o n l y one s l i p p e r o n . "Ou e s t t on p a n t o u f l e ? " > s t a r t s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y . J i s c l e a n i n g r a i l i n g . " C ' e s t t o u t p r o p r e m a i n t e n a n t ? " "Pas e n c o r e ? " B a l l i n t o y c a u g h t n o t t r a v e l i n g . > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . S has seen S a n t a C l a u s . ^Tu n ' a s pas vu S . C . ? " J i s c l e a n i n g s t a i r s . J c a n ' t p u t h i s M's s k a t e s o n . > F: " T u t e r a p e l l e b i e n , d i s d o n e . " H has named the p e r s o n who l e n t s k a t e s to M. > J i s c l e a n i n g c k a t e s . F: " Pas p u ? " > F: "Oh e l l e n ' a u r a p l u s de p a t i n p u i s q u ' e l l e l e s a p r e t e ' a v maman. " T r y i n g to g e t J to s a y " s t i c k . " c l e a n i n g s k a t e s . " E s t - c e que tu as n e t t o y e l e s p a t i n s de maman?" > c learn* n g . 160 2 3 4 . pas pu p a t i n . . . maman. 2 3 5 . non pas b i e n . 2 3 6 . o u i . . . non pas t o . 2 3 7 . non p a s . 2 3 8 . n o n . 2 3 9 . n o n . . ' a u t r e c r a y o n . 2 4 0 . [3>]ca . . . [ 9 ] p a s s e c a . . . [:?] p a s s e c a . J has pu t s k a t e s i n c l o s e t . " B r a v o J e a n , t r e s b i e n . " > comes back f rom c l o s e t . "Pas pu p a t i n s , i l s s o n t a r r a n g e s . " J has c l e a n e d c o o k i e crums f r o m f l o o r . S has p a p e r f o r c l a y , J d o e s n ' t . > wants p a p e r J wants to_ ( c o u t e a u ) , I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d . " t o J e a n ? " J i s i n k i t c h e n . J^ i s g e t t i n g i n t o d r a w e r . "Pas m o i ? " J : c o u t e a u . k n i f e i s t a k e n f r o m J . J c r i e s , s a l i v a i s r u n n i n g f r o m h i s m o u t h . A t i s s u e i s pu t unde r h i s m o u t h . > Pushes t i s s u e away , c o n t i n u e s c r y i n g . J c r y i n g . S i s g e t t i n g c l a y o f f f i n g e r n a i 1 . " C ' e s t m ieux e h , J e a n ? " He i s shown f i n g e r . > S t o p s c r y i n g , s t a r t s s m i l i n g . S i s w r i t i n g , J wants to do so t o o , " F a i s une l i n e . " > wants S ' s p e n . J i s by b o o k c a s e . " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu f a i s l a v J e a n ? " a h , c ' e s t t on l i v r e ? > " A h , c ' e s t n e u f , c a . " 161 2 4 1 . n o n . . . a J e an c a . 242 . n o n . . . e n c o r e . 2 4 3 . non . . . un 1 a u t r e . 2 4 4 . pas b i e n . . . m a m a n pas b i e n . 2 4 5 . non pas b i e n c a . 2 4 6 . oh p a s . 2 4 7 . a h : : pas b i e n . 2 4 8 . non . . .maman. 2 4 9 . r e g a r d e pas b i e n . 2 5 0 . n o n . . . p a s b i e n l a . 2 5 1 . n o n . 2 5 2 . pas p u . 2 5 3 . non J e an f a i t ^ a . 2 5 4 . n o n . . . m e t met c a . . . oh p a s , b i e n . > 2 5 5 . n o n : n o n : S i s c o l o r i n g i n c o l o r i n g b o o k . J^  g e t s a c r a y o n . p o i n t s to c o l o r i n g b o o k . > wants more c r a y o n s . S w o n ' t g i v e a n y , J l o o k s i n c r a y o n b o x . "II n ' y a r i e n . " > f i n d s a n o t h e r c r a y o n . J c a n ' t pu t c r a y o n t h r o u g h c a m e l ' s l e g s . > "Pas b i e n mon c h e r i ? " > shows M what he w a n t s , M h e l p s . 7 c r a y o n has f a l l e n f r o m c a m e l ' s f e e t . J i s p l a y i n g w i t h b l o c k s . " Q u ' e s t - c e q u i e s t a r r i v e ? " > wants M to h e l p . " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l y a ? " 7 p o i n t s to b l o c k s . "Tu ne peux pas f a i r e t o u t s e u l ? " > " Pas b i e n l a ? " > M h e l p s . > c a n ' t pu t g e o m e t r i c f i g u r e s i n t o r i g h t h o l e . M s t a r t s h e l p i n g . > he p u t s f i g u r e i n h o l e . M i s l o o k i n g f o r f i g u r e s . ? c a n ' t pu t f i g u r e t h r o u g h h o l e . S i s t a k i n g J ' s b l o c k s . 162 2 5 6 . r;a a J e an pas ca 2 5 7 . n o n . . . 1 1 a u t r e cube J i s unhappy w i t h new b l o c k s has g i v e n a f t e r ( 2 5 5 ) . > M h e l p s b u i l d new h o u s e . "Tu veux d ' a u t r e e n c o r e ? " wants S ' s . 163 APPENDIX C SOPHIE: QUESTIONS AND NEGATION C.1 Q u e s t i o n U t t e r a n c e C . l . l Y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s U t t e r a n c e C o n t e x t 3 8 , 6 1. c ' e s t pas bon 1es b o n b o n s , huh? S has had a m i n t . > " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas b o n . " 2. tu vas d i n e r a v e c nous? 3. eh p o u r q u o i ? 4 . a t a m a i s o n ? 5. p o u r q u o i ? S i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y s . " N o n . " > " J ' a i b e s o i n d ' a l l e r a u t r e p a r t . " > " O u i . " > " J ' a i beaucoup de c h o s e s a f a i r e . " 6 . t u peux 1 e f a i r e ? S has been d r a w i n g . See a b o a t i n book and a c t u a l l y wou ld l i k e 0 t o draw i t . > " C a ? " 0 draw t he b o a t . 164 7. p e u t r i e n f a i r e , huh? 8. f a s f i n i ? 3 8 , 1 3 9 . c ' e s t c^ a un p e t i t d i s q u e 3 8 , 2 0 1 0 . J e a n , f a u t pas a l l e r l a d e money , >e in ? 1 1 . n o n , d ' a c c o r d . 1 2 . c ' e s t T a n t e D o m i n i q u e ca? 1 3 . dans l a c a b i n e ? S i s l o o k i n g . " C ' e s t b r u l e " , h u h ? " She i s h o l d i n g t he p o t . " O u i , on ne p e u t r i e n f a i r e . " S has f i n i s h e d c o o k i n g . A s k s J e a n who i s a l s o c o o k i n g . "II n ' a pas f i n i ? " No r e s p o n s e f r o m J e a n . S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . Sees r e c o r d p l a y e r . > " H u m . " Ma i lman has come. S wants to open l e t t e r , i s p e r s u a d e d n o t to o p e n . S p u t s l e t t e r away. > J e an a n s w e r s : n o n . S i s c o n t e n t , r esumes p l a y . M c o m e s ' i n t g h o u s e ; . S g i v e s he r 1 e t t e r . ? M i s r e a d i n g l e t t e r . " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas T . D . £ a . " S and M a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t swimmi ng poo l . y " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' o n a v a i t donne a l a dame pou r l a c a b i n e ? c ' e t a i t t r e s amusant tu t e s o u v i e n t s ? " > " O u i . " S s u p p l i e s a n s w e r . 165 1 4 . maman, c ' e s t une t a b l e ca? 1 5 . e l l e a f a i t p i p i c u i o t t e ? 1 6 . maman, une p e t i t e p o u s e t t e comme c a , c ' e s t peu t- " e t r e pas maM? 3 8 , 2 3 1 7 . oh maman v o l l a , c ' e s t l e c h e v a l tu s o u v i e n s de W? 1 8 . n o n , comme l a c e l l e de W comme c a . 3 9 , 2 2 1 9 . f a u t pas t o u c h e r , d ' a c c o r d ? S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k . " C ' e s t une t a b l e c,a?" p o i n t i n g to p i c t u r e o f d o g . > " N o n , r e g a r d e b i e n a vec t e s y e u x , q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " S s u p p l i e s a n s w e r . M i s a r r a n g i n g S ' s d o l l ' s d i a p e r . > "Tu c r o i s ? " S and M a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . > Sees p i c t u r e o f d o l l ' s c a r r i a g e . "Une p e t i t e p o u s e t t e comme g a , c ' e s t p e u t - ' e t r e pas m a i , o u i pou r l a p o u p e e , i l f a u t v o i r . " S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . > s e e s a t o y h o r s e . "Ah o u i , c ' e s t un c h e v a l . Ou e s t - c e q u ' o n v o i t un c h e v a l comme g a ? " > " O u i . " A baby i s p r e s e n t d u r i n g s e s s i o n . Baby i s t o u c h i n g t a p e r e c o r d e r . > No r e s p o n s e f r o m i n f a n t . 166 2 0 . a l o r s ca se met comme ca? 2 1 . c ' e s t q u o i d i f f i c i l e , huh? 40,1 2 2 . i l ^ f a u t f a i r e comme ^a t - a - l a p'ette a m o d e l e r ? 2 3 . ca y e s t ? 4 0 , 4 2 4 . o u i ? 2 5 . tu p r e n d s (en ) a b e s o i n ? The baby needs to be c h a n g e d . S i s c h a n g i n g d i a p e r w i t h M's he l p. R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . S i s c h a n g i n g b a b y ' s d i a p e r . S c o u l d no t change d i a p e r , M had to do i t . > M a g r e e s . J i s p l a y i n g and F and 0 a r e t a l k i n g . S i s mak ing a c l a y man. > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . S i s p l a y i n g w i t h c l a y , a d u l t s t a l k i n g . > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e , answe r s h e r s e l f . S wants to w r i t e , she has c l a y i n h a n d . "Tu veux e ' c r i r e s u r l a pa'te a" model e r ? " > She w r i t e s on c l a y . " C a n ' e c r i t p a s . " S i s p l a y i n g w i t h b l o c k s . T h e r e a r e b l o c k n e x t to 0 . > " N o n , j e n ' e n a i pas b e s o i n . " She g e t s b l o c k s . S i s b u i l d i n g a g a r a g e . 167 2 6 . comme ca? C . 1 . 2 "Where " q u e s t i o n s 3 8 , 6 2 7 . maman, se g a r e n t ou l e s v o i t u r e s ? 2 8 . l a ? 2 9 . ou e s t l e [ p u b e r ] ? 30 ou e s t maman? 3 1 . p o u r q u o i ? 3 2 . p o u r q u o i e l l e e s t o c c u p e e ? 3 3 . oil ca ou e s t l e [ b d & r e ] ? 3 4 . i l e s t ou? 3 5 . ou e s t maman? > L o o k s a t NI. " O u i , t r e s b i e n . " S i s p l a y i n g w i t h a i r p o r t . > "Tu s a i s o u , mon c h e r i , non? tu ne s a i s p a s ? " > P o i n t s to r i g h t p l a c e . " O u i , l a . " S i s c o o k i n g . "Ou e s t ? Ou e s t l e [ p u b e r ] ? " s t i l l c o o k i n g . " E l l e e s t s o r t i e , e l l e va r e v e n i r . " > " E l l e a q u e l q u e c h o s e a f a i r e . E l l e e s t o c c u p e e . " 7 s t i l l c o o k i ng . N " P a r c e q u ' e l l e a b e s o i n a f a i r e des c h o s e s . " S i s h o l d i n g p o t . " O u h , c ' e s t b r u l e h u h ? " S has c o o k i n g p o t i n hand and i s l o o k i n g a r o u n d . > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . S i s s t i l l c o o k i n g . "Dans l a c u i s i n e . " S c a l l s o u t to NI b u t a s k s f o r n o t h i n g . 168 3 6 . ou e s t l e s j a u n e s ? 3 8 , 9 3 7 . ou e s t l e s j o u j o u x ? 3 8 . n o n , l e s p e t i t e s , l e s p e t i t e s " t e a c h i n g t o y s " moi l a v u . > S i s s t i l l c o o k i n g . R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . S i s l o o k i n g f o r s p e c i a l t o y s i n c a t a l o g u s . > " L e s j o u j o u x que tu a imes b i e n ? " > " M a i s tu t o u r n e s t o u t e s l e s p a g e s , tu vas t r o u v e r . " 3 9 . e l l e e s t ou? > S ' s p e a n u t has f a l l e n i n t o t h e s h e l 1 s . R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e , f i n d s i t h e r s e l f . 4 0 . ou e s t mon d e s s i n ? > S g e t s h e r x d r a w i n g . " E x p l i q u e a A c e que c ' e s t . " 3 8 , 2 0 x A v 4 1 . ou e l l e e s t l a p a t e a m o d e l e r ? > L o o k i n g f o r c l a y . " Je ne s a i s p a s . " 4 2 . ou e s t l e s j e u x s p e c i a l s mami e ? " 3 8 , 2 3 4 3 . ou 1 ' e s t 1e g r a n d chameau? S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . ? " Q u e l j e u x s p e c i a l s ? " S does no t p r o v i d e a n s w e r . S wants 0 to remove c l a y f r o m b l o c k . Then a s k s a b o u t a n o t h e r t o y . > 1 o o k i ng f o r c a m e l . v " T u veux que j ' e n l e v e m a i n t e n a n t ? " Q u e s t i o n i s r e f e r r i n g to p r e -v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . 4 4 . ou 1 ' e s t l e g r a n d chameau? 3 9 , 2 2 4 5 . ou e s t l a p a t e a m o d e l e r maman? 40,1 4 6 . ou e s t l e b i b e r o n ? 1 69 ? s t i l l l o o k i n g . " R e g a r d e b i e n , v o i l a . " S f i n d s i t . > M g e t s c l a y f o r S and S g i v e s me some to p l a y w i t h . i s p l a y i n g w i t h d o l l , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . 4 7 . ou e s t l e s a c i l a des p e t i t e s c u b e s ? 4 8 . l e s a c de l e p e t i t cube ? 40,1 4 9 . ou c a , maman, ou ca? S i s l o o k i n g f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n b l o c k s . > " H u h ? " > " L e sac des p e t i t e s c u b e s ? " J and S a r e b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e . J a s k s M where t o pu t n e x t b l o c k . N Maman ou c a ? " > * ~ S i s h o l d i n g a b l o c k and w a i t s f o r d i r e c t i o n s . C . 1 . 3 " W h y " - q u e s t i o n s 3 8 , 6 5 0 . eh p o u r q u o i ? " J ' a i l e s ma ins f r o i d e s , e h ? " > " J ' a i f r o i d , c ' e s t t o u t . " 5 1 . comment maman l ' o u b l i e ca ? M has f o r g o t t e n to t a k e a ga rmen t to t h e l a u n d r o m a t w i t h h e r . "Maman a o u b l i e ca . " > "Comment? " ( I x ) 170 5 2 . comment maman I ' o u b l i e ga? 5 3 . eh p o u r q u o i ? 5 4 . p o u r q u o i ? p o u r q u o i c ' e s t pas ben l e s bonborg? 5 5 . p o u r q u o i t ' e s d e s s i n e comme ca? 5 6 . p o u r q u o i ? 5 7 . eh p o u r q u o i ? 5 8 . eh p o u r q u o i ? 5 9 . p o u r q u o i tu v o i s r i e n ? 6 0 . eh p o u r q u o i ? > S i s p l a y i n g . y " O u i , e l l e a oub l i e j : a . " S wants 0 to pu t on l i p s t i c k . " N o n , j e n ' a i pas b e s o i n . " " Je n ' a i m e p a s . " S has had a m i n t and she d o e s n ' t l i k e i t . > " C ' e s t un g e n r e de bonbon q u i n ' e s t pas t r e s b o n . " S s t a r t s o t h e r a c t i v i t y . 0 i s d r a w i n g . "Eh vo i1 aV c ' e s t m o i . " > "Oh j e n e s a i s p a . " > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e , J e c h o s S ' s why. The n e i g h b o u r ^ s c a t comes i n . " J ' a i deux c h a t s c h e z m o i . " > "J ' a ime l e s c h a t s . " S t a k e s 0 ' s g l a s s e s . " N o n , j e ne v o i s p l u s , non c ' e s t i n t e r d i t ! " 0 t a k e s g l a s s e s b a c k . ? " P a r c e q u e j e ne peuX,v pas v o i r sans mes l u n e t t e s . " > " H u h ? " > "Comme c a . " 171 S i s c o o k i n g . She p r e t e n d s i t ' s w e t . " O u i , i l f a u t f a i r e a t t e n t i o n . " 6 1 . eh p o u r q u o i f a u t f a i r _> a t t e n t i o n ? " C ' e s t f i n i , c ' e s t f i n i R e f e r e n c e to s o u p . 6 2 . p o u r q u o i ca r o u l e comme ca? 5 S i s l o o k i n g a t t . r . > " O u i , ca r o u l e . T o u t l e s deux r f j u l e n t . " 3 8 , 9 6 3 . p o u r q u o i ? S and J a r e p l a y i n g w i t h y o y o . S i s u s i n g i t . " Eh b i e n , c ' e s t a J e an mai n t e n a n t . " > "Une f o i s S o p h i e e t une f o i s J 6 4 . p o u r q u o i ? p o u r q u o i c ' e s t p o u r . . . 3 8 , 2 0 6 5 . eh p o u r q u o i ca f a i t de l a m u s i q u e ? * 6 6 . eh p o u r q u o i ? 3 8 , 2 2 6 7 . p o u r q u o i ? S s e e s a h a i r d r y e r i n c a t a l o g u e and d o e s n ' t know what i t i s . " C ' e s t pou r s e c h e r l e s c h e v e u x . " > " P o u r q u o i c ' e s t pou r s e c h e r l e s c h e v e u x ? " "Tu s a i s ca f a i t de l a m u s i q u e . " R e f e r r i n g to t o y i n c a t a l o g u e . > " E h ? " > "Eh comme £ a , pou r f a i r e p l a i s i r aux p e t i t s e n f a n t s . " Toys a r e b e i n g p u t i n s a c . S t e l l s J : A . i 1 va p a r t i r  mai n t e n a n t . > S i s p u t t i n g t o y s i n s a c . R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . 4 0 , 4 6 8 . p o u r q u o i c ' e s t d i f f i c i l e ? 6 9 . p a t e a m o d e l e r ? 7 0 . p a t e aN model e r ? 7 1 . p o u r q u o i c ' e s t d e d a n s ? 1 72 S wants 0 t o w r i t e a p i e c e o f c l a y . x "Comment j e peux e c r i r e un p e t i t b o u t de plt te a m o d e l e r ? c ' e s t d i f f i c i l e c a . " 0 w r i t e s " p a t e a m o d e l e r . " " N o n , ^ j ' e c r i s ce que t u veux que j ' e c r i v e . " ^ 0 w r i t e s "p l f t e a m o d e l e r " upon S ' s r e q u e s t . " O u i . " Goes to g e t b l o c k s f r o m s a c . > R e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . C . 1 . 4 "What " q u e s t i o n s 3 8 , 6 7 2 . c ' e s t q u o i ca? S has 0 ' s c o m p a c t . > " Q u ' e s t ce que tu c r o i s que c ' e s t ? " S s a y s she wants to l o o k i n s i d e v ~ S i s l o o k i n g a t 0 ' s d r a w i n g . 7 3 . c ' e s t q u o i ca? > > " C ' e s t Babar c a . " (An E l e p h a n t i n b o o k ) . * 74, i l y a q u o i d e d a n s ? S z i p s down c o l l a r . y ' C ' e s t une f e r m e t u r e e c l a i r e > S t r i e s to l o o k i n b l o u s e . " R i e n , s e u l e m e n t m o i . " S i s c o o k i n g . She t u r n s p o t o v e r . ^ " T u as r e n v e r s e l a s o u p e . " 7 5 . huh? > A d u l t r e p e a t s . 3 8 , 9 7 6 . J e a n tu veux q u o i ? 3 8 . 1 3 7 7 . q u e l g e n r e de j a r d i n ? 3 8 , 2 0 7 8 . c ' e s t q u o i ca? 7 9 . huh? 8 0 . J e a n i l a q u o i pou r N o e l ? 81 c ' e s t q u o i ga? 3 9 , 2 2 8 2 . h u h , e l l e f a i t q u o i ? 1 73 " Q u ' e s t ce que J e an veux? Je ne comprends p a s . " S i s e a t i n g p e a n u t s . J answe r s q u e s t i o n . S i s t a l k i n g a b o u t he r t r i p to t he p a r k . " Q u e l g e n r e de j a r d i n ? " > She i s p l a y i n g w i t h c l a y . " Q u ' e s t ce q u ' i l y a v a i t dans l e j a r d i n ? " S p o i n t s to p o i n t s to a p i c t u r e o f a c a r . > " C ' e s t une v o i t u r e . " S i s f e e d i n g d o l l a c a m e l . " E l l e ne veux pas manager des c h a m a u x . " > " C ' e s t d i f f i c i l e de manger- ^ l e s chamaux , tu c r o i s t a poupee veux manger l e s chamaux? " S answe r s O u i . S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . > " M a i s j e ne s a i s p a s , maman n ' a s pas a c h e t e des a f f a i r e s . " S^  p o i n t s to s o m e t h i n g i n c a t a l o g u e . " A t t e n d s , maman r e g a r d e . " " Q u ' e s t - c e que l a maman f a i t ? " J l o o k s a t a p i c t u r e o f a woman k n e e l i n g by a s t r o l l e r . > J s u p p l i e s a n s w e r . 174 " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' o n a f a i t h i e r m a t i n avec maman?" 8 3 . on a f a i t q u o i ? 7 S i^ s p l a y i n g . "Ou e s t - c e q u ' o n e s t a l l e l e s deux e n s e m b l e ? tu te r a p p e l l e ^ ? " M i s t r y i n g to g e t S t o t a l k a b o u t s k a t i n g . "Tu t e s o u v i e n s un g r a n d b a t i m e n t q u ' e s t ce q u ' i l y a v a i t ? " 8 4 . des p o i s s o n s . > " N o n " 8 5 . i l y a q u o i ? > S d o e s n ' t r emember . 86 i l f a i t q u o i l a ? " J e an tu l a i s s e s S o p h i e nous r a c o n t e r ce q u i a r r i v e ? " p o i n t s to a c h a r a c t e r i n book > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k , p o i n t s v to a f i g u r e i n p i c t u r e . 8 7 . e t p u i s l a ? > Does no t w a i t f o r r e s p o n s e and a s k s t he same q u e s t i o n p o i n t i n g to o t h e r f i g u r e s a t l e a s t f o u r t i m e s . 8 8 . maman, c ' e s t q u o i ^:a? 8 9 . c ' e s t q u o i c a ' 90 . c a : : : ? 91 . p e t i t s pour l e s e n f a n t s , e t £ a ? S and M a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . > p o i n t s t o p o t s . "Oh c ' e s t q u o i c.a ma c h e r i e ? " " H u h ? " > " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t j a ? " S p e r s u a d e s M to " r a c o n t e r . " "Ce s o n t des p e t i t s p o t s pou r l e s e n f a n t s . " > 9 2 . e t c e l l e - l a maman? 40,1 9 3 . e t p u i s ca c ' e s t q u o i ? 9 4 . c ' e s t q u o i ^ca? 4 0 , 4 -X" 9 5 . tu peux e c r i r e q u o i ? 9 6 . j ' a i f a i t q u o i ? ( I x ) 1 75 p o i n t s t o a m o u l d . M r e f u s e s to answer and a s k s i n s t e a d . S p r o v i d e s a n s w e r . S d o e s n ' t want 0 to " r a c o n t e r . " p o i n t s to a f i g u r e i n b o o k . > M r e f u s e s to a n s w e r . S a s k s 0 , and e v e n t u a l l y p r o v i d e s answer h e r s e l f . 0 draws a man and names the head . - - •• • • > p o i n t s t o n e c k . " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu p e n s e s q u e ca d o i t e^tre?" A f t e r two a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s S p r o v i d e s r i g h t a n s w e r . S p o i n t s to a p i e c e o f s t i c k . > " O h , tu c o n n a i s g a , q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? c ' e s t un morceau d e . . . ? " S s t a r t s a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y . S and J have been w r i t i n g . S i s w r i t i n g . } " Je peux e c r i r e q u o i ? Je peux e c r i r e n ' i m p o r t e q u o i . " S has been p r i t i n g w i t h some a s s i s t a n c e . "On a f a i t un P a vec S . " > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . 176 C . 1 . 5 "How" q u e s t i o n s 3 8 , 6 9 7 . 9 8 . 40,1 9 9 . 4 0 , 4 1 0 0 . S has V i c k s e n h a l e r :a s ' e n l e v e comment £ a ? > e t ca? :a se f a i t comment? mami , p o u r f a i r e comment i l f a u t f a i r e une m a i s o n ? " C a o u v r e comme c a . " S has l i p s t i c k iri h a n d . "De r o u g e , r o u g e a l e v / e s " T u f a i s un p o i s s o n , t o i " w i t h c l a y . S has c l a y . > "Comme £a p e u t - e t r e ? " S i s p l a y i n g w i t h b l o c k s "Eh b i e n , r e f 1 e c h i s . " S i s b u i l d i n g a h o u s e . 1 0 1 . i l f a u t f a i r e comment? > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . S i s p l a y i n g w i t h b l o c k s . 1 0 2 . ah i l f a u t f a i r e comment y l e s g a r a g e s ? " R e f l e c h i s dans t a t e ' t e . " 1 0 3 . i l f a i t f a i r e comment? > " T u as des m u r s . " M h e l p s 1 0 4 . p u i s i l f a u t f a i r e comment? S i s b u i l d i n g a g a r a g e > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . 1 0 5 . i l f a u t f a i r e comment? S i s b u i l d i n g a g a r a g e . > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . 1 77 1 0 6 . i l f a u t f a i r e comment maman? p a r c e q u ' i l y en a deux l a . > S has two b l o c k s l e f t f o r g a r a g e , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J wants one o f t he b l o c k s , d i s a g r e e m e n t a r i s e s . J i s b u i l d i n g a h o u s e . S s a y s she wants t o do l i k e J . S has o n l y a few b l o c k s . 1 0 7 . f a u t f a i r e comment? 7 ^ " P e u t - e t r e tu en mes deux comme £ a . " S d o e s n ' t a g r e e w i t h M, wants J ' s b l o c k s . C . 1 . 6 "Who" q u e s t i o n s 38,1 3 S and J a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t -a l o g u e w h i l e e a t i n g p e a n u t s . "£a c ' e s t comme c h e z q u i ? " 1 0 8 . c h e z q u i ca? / ^ d r o p s p e a n u t s on f l o o r . " A t t e n t i o n S o p h i e , tu rammasse j . " S s t i l l l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . 1 0 9 . maman, c ' e s t de q u i 7 ca? (2x) > "Huh? c ' e s t q u o i S o p h i e ^ a ? " S i s r e f e r r i n g to unanswered q u e s t i o n o f ( 1 0 8 ) . C . 2 N e g a t i v e U t t e r a n c e s 3 8 , 6 1 1 0 . n o n , l a poupee e l l e a i m e . 1 1 1 . n o n . S i s f e e d i n g d o l l c o r n f l a k e s . "Tu n ' a i m e s pas c a ? " > S c o n t i n u e s f e e d i n g . " E l l e d i t m e r c i a p r e s ? " > 1 1 2 . i l f a u t pas manger ^ a , a l l e z . 1 1 3 . n o n . 1 1 4 . n o n , peux pas l ' o u v r i r . 1 1 5 . n o n , comme ca. 1 1 6 . n o n , j e veux pas te m o n t r e r . 1 1 7 . n o n , t u p i e u r s . 1 1 8 . n o n . 1 1 9 . p u i s q u e comme c a , on n ' a p a s . r a m a s s e . 1 2 0 . n o n , c ' e s t moi . 1 2 1 . n o n , c ' e s t l e b a t e a u de l a . 1 78 J i s t r y i n g to e a t d o l l ' s f l a k e s . S p u s h e s J away. > She a g r e e s t h a t he m i g h t be h u n g r y . "Donne , a monger d o c . " S has c o m p a c t . "Tu ne peux pas 1 ' o u v r i r ? " > 0 c l o s e s t a p e r e c o r d e r l i d . > l i f t s l i d . 0 a s k s S t o t e l l B a b a r ' s s t o r y . " P o u r q u o i ? " > S u p s e t s bowl o f c o r n f l a k e s . "On n ' a pas r a m a s s e . " > S i s d r a w i n g . " P o u r q u o i ? " > c o n t i n u e s d r a w i n g . S and J want same bowl o f c e r e a l . > 0 draws a b o a t t h a t d o e s n ' t r e s e m b l e one i n b o o k . "Ca c ' e s t un a u t r e b a t e a u . " > p o i n t s t o one i n b o o k . 1 79 S a s k s M f o r a p o t . M s a y s i t s i s u p s t a i r s , S p l a y e d w i t h i t . 1 2 2 . non pas c e l u i l a , y veux l a g r a n d e de maman. M g i v e s he r p o t . 1 2 3 . n o n , t e pas manger S i s f e e d i n g d o l l , 0 p r e t e n d s she i s e a t i n g t o o . > pushes O ' s hand away. 124 . n o n ! J i s w a l k i n g on S ' s t a b l e . > 1 2 5 . J e an n ' a pas f i n i 0 commented t h a t J had f i n i s h e d c o o k i n g . J i s s t i l l c o o k i n g . > 1 2 6 . pas e n c o r e S i s l o o k i n g a t t a p e r e c o r d e r > 3 8 , 9 1 2 7 . non "Tu c h a n t e s ? " > b i g s m i l e . l a t e r S s t a r t s s i n g i n g 1 2 8 . n o n , c ' e s t S o p h i e 1 2 9 . n o n ! n o n ! I t i s J ' s t u r n to use y o y o . >-S? wan t . s _ yoyo . I t i s d e c i d e d t h a t i t ' s J ' s t u r n > u p s e t . v "Ce n ' e s t pas t r e s g e n t i l l e S . " 1 3 0 . n o n , e c r i r e . " T u me d i s s i tu c o n n a i s t o u t a . " ( m i n a t u r e a n i m a l s ) . wants to w r i t e i n s t e a d 180 1 3 1 . n o n , l e s p e t i t e s , l e s p e t i t e s t e a c h i n g t y o s moi l a v u . S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e , wants to see s p e c i a l t o y s , a s k s M where t h e y a r e . " L e s j o u j o u x que tu a imes b i e n ? " > S pages t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . " M a i s tu t o u r n e s t o u t e s l e s p a g e s , tu vas t r o u v e r . " 1 3 2 . n o n , ca c ' e s t pou r J e a n ' a u s s i , c ' e s t pou r moi . S i s l o o k i n g a t t o y s i n c a t a l o g u e , and d e c i d i n g what t o y s a r e f o r J . " E t c a ? " > 1 3 3 . n o n , ca f a i t pas comme c a ! M i s t a l k i n g to S a b o u t a c h a r a c t e r who c r o s s e d h i s e y e s . 0 draws a f a c e w i t h c r o s s e d e y e s . > "Comment done"?"1 134 . n o n , des p e t i t e s c a c a h o u e t t e s . " Vous ne v o u l e z pas des p e t i t s p e a n u t s ? " > " O u i , c ' e s t p a r e i 1 . " 1 3 5 . <£a v i e n t p a s . 1 3 6 . n o n . S c a n ' t s h e l l p e a n u t . > ' ^ a ne v i e n t p a s ? " P e a n u t i s s h e l l e d f o r S " E h , v o i l a . " 1 3 7 . n o n , huh moi pas p e t i t e s t o m a c . S has been e a t i n g p e a n u t s . "Comment p e u x - t u manger t o u t c a ? " " T u as un t o u t p e t i t e s t o m a c . > S c o n t i n u e s e a t i n g . 181 3 8 , 1 3 S i s a s k e d i f she knows t h e camel 1 s name. l o o k i n g a t camel 1 3 8 . n o n , j e ne s a i s p a s . y "Oh s i t u s a i s . " S has pu t a r o l l o f c l a y between he r l i p s . "Tu fumes t o i ? " 1 3 9 . n o n . > l a u g h s , t a k e s c l a y o u t . J a s k e d f o r b l o c k s , g e t s some. 0 i s h o l d i n g one i n h a n d . S wants t he b l o c k . 1 4 0 . n o n , ca S o p h i e . > * "On me demande comment? " 1 4 1 . n o n , une b i c y c l e t t e , £a c ' e s t p o u r , ca N ca N. S s e e s a b i c y c l e i n c a t a l o g u e . S s a y s : o u i , c a . "Ca? c ' e s t une b i c y c l e t t e ? " . > b i c y c l e i s l i k e he r f r i e n d ' s N. S s e e s a s p e e d b i c y c l e and s a y s i t i s f o r a g r a n d e n f a n t . "Ce n ' e s t pas pou r S o p h i e ? " 1 4 2 . n o n . > she t u r n s p a g e . M and 0 a r e t a l k i n g . J and S a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . 1 4 3 . mamie , n o n , n o n , comme y c a p a r c e que m o i ; t i e n s , va moi d i r e t ' a maman; mamie , un p e t i t m u s i c comme c a , on n ' a pas un p e t i t mus i c . S i s l o o k i n g a t r e c o r d s "On a p l e i n comme c a , tu ne t e x s o u v i e n s p a s ? " 1 4 4 . n o n , tu 1 ' a c h e t e s . > N "Oh j e 1 ' a c h e t e . " 182 1 4 5 . moi manger p l u s a l a b o u c h e . M s c o l d s S f o r p u t t i n g c l a y i n m o u t h . > " M a i s j e s p e r e S i s d r a w i n g . 1 4 6 . oh z u t , m a i | n ' a i > pas a r r i v e a f a i r e c a . ^ " T o i n ' a s pas a r r i v e ? " 1 4 7 . u n , d e u x , t r o i s e t p u i s a p r e s on va p l u s . "Quand e s t - c e que tu vas a 1 ' e c o l e ? " > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . 1 4 8 . o h , c ' e s t des p e t i t s c a r r e s . 1 4 9 . c ' e s t p a r e i l , c ' e s t pas p a r e i l . 3 8 , 1 6 1 5 0 . o h , ca r o u l e pas "Tu mets t o u t e s l e s p e t i t e s c u b e s dans l a b o T t e . " > S s t a r t s p i c k i n g b l o c k s . " D e s ^ p e t i t e s cubes des p e t i t s c a r r e s , c ' e s t p a r e i l . " > S p u t s b l o c k s i n b o x . C l a y w o n ' t r o l l on s a c k . " C e l a ne r o u l e p a s ? " t h i n r o l l o f c l a y w o n ' t go a r o u n d he r n e c k . 1 5 1 . c ' e s t pas a s s e z l o n g . y 1 5 2 . e l l e n ' e s t c ' e s t pas e n c o r e . 1 5 3 . c ' e s t pas e n c o r e . S i s l o o k i n g a t t a p e r e c o r d e r . > " H u h ? " s t i l l l o o k i n g a t t a p e r e c o r d e r . > 183 1 5 4 . n o n . 3 8 , 2 0 1 5 5 . n o n , tu 1e s o r s . . . s o r t i r . 1 5 6 . r i e n . 1 5 7 . o u i , ma i s e l l e n ' e s t pas p r e t e . 1 5 8 . n o n . 1 5 9 . n o n , pas comme c a . 1 6 0 . n o n ^ e l l e a ime pas c a . 1 6 1 . n o n , c ' e s t moi q u i l a p r i s pou r l a p o u p e e . 1 6 2 . n o n : : : " N o n , ca marche e n c o r e , ce n ' e s t pas f i n i . " > S g i v e s 0 a b l o c k w i t h c l a y i n i t , she w a s n ' t a b l e to g e t c l a y o u t . " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu veux que j e f a s s e a v e c l a p a t e a"* m o d e l e r ? j e l a met d e d a n s ? " > " V o i l a ' . " S s e e s a p i c t u r e o f a g i r l oepr i-i n g a d o o r . " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' e l l e f a i t ? " b o o k i n g a t p i c t u r e . " E l l e f a i t r i e n ? " > " E l l e n ' e s t pas p r e t e ? " s t i l l l o o k i n g a t p i c t u r e . 0 t r i e s d r e s s i n g d o l l . > S d e m o n s t r a t e s . " C ' e s t mieux comme c a , e l l e a ime c a . " * > s c o n t i n u e s w i t h d o l l . J needs h i s c l o t h , M t e l l s him i t i s i n t o y b o x . > p l a c e o f c l o t h i s f o u n d . S i s f e e d i n g camel t o d o l l . " Tu c r o i s t a poupee v e u t manger des chameaux ? " > s t i l l f e e d i n g camel . 184 "Que 1 e s t - c e qu 1 e l 1e 'mange t a p e t i t e p o u p e e ? " S s a y s chameau . " N o n . " 1 6 3 . n o n : : : > s t i l l f e e d i n g camel t o d o l l . " E s t - c e que tu as vu l ' a u t r e s i n g e ? " S i s p l a y i n g . 1 6 4 . n o n , moi l a pas v u . ? " E s t - c e q u ' i l e s t dans l ' a u t r e s a c ? " l o o k s i n s a c k . 1 6 5 . n o n . ? S i s l o o k i n g f o r t o y s i n c a t a l o g u e b u t d o e s n ' t f i n d t h e m . 1 6 6 . n o n , c ' e s t pas l a l e s > j e u x s p e c i a l s . J h i t S on t he head w i t h hammer, p u s h i n g J away and c r y i n g 1 6 7 . ah n o n ! (5x).} ? S i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e and p o i n t i n g d o l l c a r r i a g e s t h a t she w a n t s . " £ a c ' e s t m i g n o n , r e g a r d e s . " l o o k i n g a t c a r r i a g e s . 1 6 8 . n o n , c ' e s t pas m i g n o n . > 3 8 , 2 3 S c a n ' t g e t c l a y o u t o f b l o c k . 1 6 9 . oh ca v i e n t pas (3x) y S s e e s b i c y c l e i n c a t a l o g u e , s a y s i t i s l i k e J ' s . M s a y s no J b o r r o w e d i t f r om W. " C ' e s t p l u t f t t c a , tu ne c r o i s p a s ? " % 1 7 0 . n o n . > S t u r n s p a g e . " N o n ? " 171 . n o n . > " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu c r o i s que c ' e s t a l o r s . S d o e s n ' t r e s p o n d . 185 1 7 2 . n o n , comme l a c e l l e de W comme c a . 5 S s e e s a t o y h o r s e i n c a t a l o g u e , say^s i t i s l i k e W ' s . "Ou e s t - c e q u ' o n v o i t un c h e v a l comme c a ? " > f " O h , o u i . " 1 7 3 . mami , c ' e s t peut-e^tre pas mai un p e t i t j e u pour moi comme c a . S ' s l o o k i n g a t t o y i n c a t a l o g u e . > M a g r e e s . 3 9 , 2 2 " C a c ' e s t a Jj on l e met l a . " ( p u z z l e ) 1 7 4 . n o n , non c ' e s t pou r C . > g i v e s p u z z l e t o b a b y . " E l l e va e t r e t r o p j e u n e pou r c a , n o n ? " 1 7 5 . n o n , n ' e s t pas t r o p / j e u n e . S p u t s p i e c e s i n p u z z l e h e r s e l f , 1 7 6 . non c e l u i l a n ' e s t pas c e l u i de m o i . S i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e , one p i e c e does no t b e l o n g i n p u z z l e > 1 7 7 . oh n o n , baby C S t e l l s baby to s t o p t a k i n g p i e c e s . > 1 7 8 . non J . s a y s he f e l l w h i l e s k a t i n g . " E t t o i S tu f a i s a i s baboum a u s s i ? " S i s p l a y i n g . > 179 . non , c ' e s t a moi S has s t u f f e d l i o n , J wants i t . " O h , c ' e s t £ J c a . " > S w o n ' t g i v e i t to J . 186 1 8 0 . n o n , r a c o n t e s pas 1 8 1 . n o n . "Oh r e g a r d e i l y a un t a s de c h o g e s l a . " l o o k i n g t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . > " Je ne r a c o n t e p a s ? " > 1 8 2 . i l v e u t pas j o u e r a vec m o i . S^  can ' t g e t baby ( g i r l ) to s l e e p . " E l l e ne v e u t pas j o u e r a vec t o i ? " 1 8 2 . 40,1 184 . n o n , pas comme £< S i s c h a n g i n g b a b y ' s d i a p e r " E l l e e s t s e c ou m o u i l l e e ? " n o n , e l l e e s t m o u i l l e e . > J i s p u t t i n g r i b b o n on Xmas t r e e S t a k e s r i b b o n and p u t s i t on h e r s e l f . 1 8 5 . i l y en a p l u s . S i s f e e d i n g m i l k to d o l l , p o t t l e i s emp ty . 1 8 6 . c a , c ' e s t pas des pommes £ a . l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k , p i c t u r e o f o n i o n , J s a y s i t ' s a p p l e . "Tu c o n n a i s c a S o p h i e ? " > S 1 8 7 . e t e l l e a pas l e s y e u x , veux p o i r . 1 8 8 . b i e n , tu f a i s pas to ute«S;eu&e,';d£ accord? 0 i s mak ing a c l a y man f o r S. "II f a u t m e t t r e l e s y e u x , e h ? " > " N o n , a t t e n d s . " S s a y s she wants to make o n e . > " Je ne f a i s pas t o u t e s e u l e ? d ' a c c o r d . " 187 4 0 , 4 1 8 9 . n o n , j e veux e c r i r e "Tu veux j o u e r a vec l a p a t e a m o d e l e r ? " s t a r t s g e t t i n g p a p e r S and J a r e d i s a g r e e i n g a b o u t pen ^ " Q u ' e s t - c e q u i a r r i v e ? " 1 9 0 . veux pas . . . d e s s i n e r l a . wants J ' s p e n . y "Huh? tu ne veux pas c e l a ? " (pen ) 1 9 1 . n o n , comme bebe J e a n . > ^ " C ' e s t p a r e i l c a , c a e c r i t comme b . J . " b 1 9 2 . n o n , c ' e s t pas p a r e i l . > " S i . " 1 9 3 . n o n . )> t r i e s to j e t J ' s . 1 9 4 . n o n , pou r S o p h i e S and J hay,e a new t o y . " C ' e s t a" beb'e J , ce n ' e s t pas a S o p h i e . " S i s p l a y i n g w i t h c l a y . "C ' e s t a S o p h i e . " 1 9 5 . e h , ca peux pas s o r t i r . > > I I -S cafl ' t " g e t j . c l ay o u t ' o f b l o c k 1 9 6 . n o n . T u : ne peux-pas • s o r t i r ? " > g e t s ' h e ! p : w i t h c l a y . 1 9 7 . peux p l u s r o u l e r ( I x ) S^ c a n ' t r o l l c l a y , g e t s h e l p S g i v e s 0 a d r a w i n g , t h e n t a k e s i t b a c k . 1 9 8 . n o n , ca c ' e s t pas p o u r j> t a c h a m b r e . g i v e s a n o t h e r . 188 S ' s house d o e s n ' t l o o k l i k e J ' s . M i s h e l p i n g S b u i l d he r h o u s e , b u t S i s no t c o n t e n t . n o n , f a u t pas f a i r e 7> comme c a , comme bebe J e a n . 

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