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Interrogatives, negation and linguistic play in three children acquiring French as a first language Davison, Anni Souren 1973

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/  INTERROGATIVES, NEGATION  AND  LINGUISTIC PLAY  IN  THREE CHILDREN ACQUIRING  FRENCH  AS A F I R S T LANGUAGE  x  by  B.A.,  ANNI University  SOUREN DAVISON of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN  THE REQUIREMENTS  PARTIAL  1971  FULFILMENT OF  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in  the  Depar tmen t of  L i ngui s t i cs  We a c c e p t required  this  thesis  as  c o n f o r m i n g to  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October,  1973  the  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  granted by  the Head of my  Department or  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  publication  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without written  permission.  Department of  Linguistics  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  October,  1973  my  ABSTRACT  This behaviour  of  language. the  In  Chapter  each the  children's Two,  child's  points  give  the  able  out  to  the  are  the  facts  and  chapter  significant  to  speech  and  the  Chapter  is, is  a  first  such  information  pose  speech not  background.  questions, Chapter  actions  scope  or  Four  that range  of  discusses  participate,  and  which  is  in  direct  intended  to  be  serious.  summarizes  findings.  as  described.  initiate, that  linguistic  linguistic  abilities  perform,  play,  presents  negative  to  French  parents'  vocabulary.  concluding  its  chapter  commands  abilities  with  spontaneous  acquiring  various  linguistic  the  and  the  children's  negation  contradiction Finally,  ages  and  are  children's  recognize  children  the  discusses  children  reports  introductory  requests,  Three the  three  The  as  make  study  the  study  and  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  CHAPTER  ii  ONE:  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  The Study  1  1.2  The C h i l d r e n  4  1 .3  The P a r e n t s  5  1.4  The Data  6  1.5  Presentation  CHAPTER 2.1  TWO:  QUESTIONS,  10  REQUESTS,  AND I M P E R A T I V E S  Preliminaries Theoretical  2.1.2  Relevant  2.1.3  Questions, requests  The One-Word  .  .  .  .  12 12  2.1.1  adult 2.2  Procedures  considerations  12  literature  16 and i m p e r a t i v e s  French Utterance  in 19  Stage:  questions  Remi  20  2.2.1  Yes/no  22  2.2.2  "Where"  2.2.3  "Huh" questions  29  2.2.4  Requests  32  questions  27  and i m p e r a t i v e s  i i i  Page 2.3  "Telegraphic"  Stage:  2.3.1  Yes/no  questions  2.3.2  "Where"  2.3.3  "Why"  2.4  2.5  38 44  questions and  Sentence  47  imperatives  Stage:  Sophie  questions  48 49  2.4.1  Yes/no-tag  2.4.2  "Where"  2.4.3  "Why"  2.4.4  "What"  2.4.5  "How"  questions  61  2.4.6  "Who"  questions  62  2.4.7  Requests  questions  questions  57  questions  and  51 55  59  imperatives  Summary  CHAPTER 3.1  35  questions  Requests  Complete  34  questions  2.3h4v:-."What" 2.3.5  Jean  63 66  THREE:  NEGATION  67  Introduction 3.1.1  The  3.1.2  Negation  67  semantics in  Negation  of  adult  3.2  A Scale  of  3.3  Lexical  Usage:Negative  negation  67  French  71  Abilities Utterances  72 79  3.3.1  Remi  80  3.3.2  Jean  83  3.3.3  Sophie  92  i v  Page 3.4  Summary  CHAPTER  95  FOUR:  THE A P P E A R A N C E OF  NON-SERIOUS  UTTERANCES  97  4.1  Acquisition  and  4.2  Theoretical  Considerations.  4.3  Discussion  4.4  Summary  CHAPTER  FIVE:  Play  97 .  100 103 .  SUMMARY  113 115  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  117  APPENDIX  A:  REMI:  QUESTIONS  AND NEGATIONS  120  APPENDIX  B:  JEAN:  QUESTIONS  AND NEGATIONS  132  APPENDIX  C:  SOPHIE:  QUESTIONS  v  AND NEGATIONS  163  1  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  1 .1  The  Study The  introduction  linguistics,  principally  the  for  catalyst  acquisition there  has  stages  little  been  and  children  of  similar or  not  vast  known In  to  comparison  English  comparable  the in  many  patterns  languages  information  of  two  language  establishing  in a  This haviour  of  kinds:  question, general study  three  first  and  As  of  to  French  English, fifteen  are  other  reports who  is  followed. than  first, and  it  new  two, of the are  the  various  received  study then,  on  of  other  French  interest  The  data  the  result,  Since  English,  been  relatively in  of  to  language  has  years.  respects,  on  time,  process  on  a  the  acquisition  theory  children  same  has  studies  information  the  approach  1965),  language.  of  At  past  in  (1957,  characteristics  the  acquisition  the  a  English.  in  transformational  Chomsky  increase  about  attention  a  experiments  as  developmental  languages. little  a  acquiring  is  by  numerous  English  of  is  whether  of provides  acquisition  comparative  data  in  toward  acquisition. spontaneous acquiring  linguistic French  as  a  befirst  2  language. word  The  two  youngest  utterance  and  "telegraphic"  third  subject  produce in  short  period of  length.  the  of  time  course,  these  uttered  and  acquire  language  theless,  process  of  of  characteristics  play  to  or  the  refer  exactly  to  stage  at  which of  data  gathered  were  fragment it  are  abilities  identical  in  could  to  ten  over  a  non-longitudinal  does  resemble  a  progressive.  Of  of  words  numbers  and  time  generally  reflect  or  five  one-  The  she  sentences  stages  the  respectively.  to composites  fall and  a  advanced  behaviour,  linguistic  in  no  or  into  or  two  subjects  order.  well  general  Never-  defined  terms  the  acquisition. focus of  appropriate  supply  that  abilities  will  the  the  verbal  subjects  early I  either  in  various  while  and  "stages"  these  complexes  Thus,  study  to  had  stages  well-formed  children's  longitudinal  take  proceeded  syntactically  words  view  had  subjects  here  this  the  three  most  particular  data:  the  questions  language  ritualized  or  on  and  requests,  situations,  transactions  and  with  to  the a  impressive ability  react  role  parent  of in  to  under-  negatively linguistic language  acquisition. While describe sition  of  linguistic vocabulary  utterances, textual  the  it '-"  will  analysis  in  the  chapters  abi1ities, particuiarly and be  the  presence  equally  information  as  in  of  interested Bloom  in  to  follow  terms  explicit in  (1970).  of  will acqui-  terms  in  considering Along  with  conthe  3  actual  utterances  used,  of  utterance^.  This  on  the  question  broader  I  inclusion of  utterance  is  appropriate.  abilities  on  the  an  explicit  and  types  of  one  which and  types an  Not but  these  only  also,  is  the  and  for Also,  I  (1933).  gathered  to  of  present  an  order  that  for  based  on  can  convey  questions,  to  learns  situation shed  when also  a  particular  indicate where  them. question  requests, such  the  the  questions,  function  and  acquisition  Ingram  I  discuss  the  each  subject  while  frequency  and  commands  question by  at  theoretical  requests of  of  expressions  certain  observed  the  light  information  importantly,  Furthermore,  questions  to  general  form  I  suggest  favourably  to  the  more  treating  expected  including  expressions.  questions of  discusses  interrogatives,  Smith  order  Two  or  contexts  unavailable  compares  of  Such  context  child  is  time.  M.  a  utterance  considerations at  how  be  children  commands. there,  may  of  of  stake  the  part  Chapter formation  include  of  (1972)  different presenting  their  occurrence. In as  well  as  Of  particular  Chapter  the  tween  negative  tures  of  of  the  various  form  Three various  interest  speech  is  In  abilities actions  discuss negative  the  expressions,  acquisition.  negating  I  as  that  these  can  three be  of  I  of  may  negation,  take.  connections  suggest  chapter  the  semantics  utterances  discovery  this of  the  certain  be-  struc-  present  the  range  children,  and  the  performed  by  negative  4  utterances.  Also,  acquisition  abilities include  is  In  Chapter  to  participate  and  such  games  This  chapter  discuss the  suggested  intentional  beliefs,  as  based  role  may  the  on for  Four  in  lexicon,  linguistic  playing.  the  The  the  three  children's  ticipate  in  linguistic  speech  of  language. 27  days  old, had  who  and been  Summer  that  abilities The  and  to  does  acquisition  It  further  not  such  transfor-  discusses,  initiate  concluding  poses  it  and  chapter, question  parChapter  for  studies.  of  material three  Remi,  old,  Sophie,  in  Children The  the  two,  complexities.  games.  study  acquisition  The  previous  acquisiton.  bound morphemes,  the  1.2  language  contrary characterize  of  instead,  language  which  children's  games  assuming  transactions to  Such  acquisition syntactic  of  the  language  other  the  games.  to  of  and  summarizes  order  issues  mations,  Five,  turns  objects,  greatly  from  typical  of  an  actions.  discussion  mis-naming  departs  frequency,  these  the  contribute  more  their  her  was was  the an the  younger  brought 1972.  to  presented  children  first  of  child born  brother Vancouver  this  acquiring  youngest only  in  the  of and  Jean, from  study  French  three  at  was as  their  38 m o n t h s  and  parents. and  24 m o n t h s  and  25  France  the  end  at  from  first  22 m o n t h s  French-speaking was  gathered  6  days  days of  old, the  5 Although sole  language  exposed peers  to  sitter,  spoken  English  and  exposure  at  at to  day  English  television  his  (two and  busdrivers,  basis.  Likewise,  English  items  and  to  three  hours  French  was  being  affected  able.  Thus,  may  safely  be  language  1.3  for  The  came  his  from  home  to  that  a week).  his  his  the  per  by  at  English  was  end  on  was  baby  the  not a  associate  regular  the  from  Sophie  Jean's  was  not  minimal, the  a  observation  If  it  fact  his  English-  mainly  week.  in  Remi,  substitute  of  all,  influence  her  as  did  to  came  television  through  For  such  age  beginning by  was  parent's  Remi  own  Remi  evening  contacts  English  French  Sophie  the  and  noticeit  first  Parents  from  and  mi n i m a l l y .  parents  birth. Paris.  originally the  French  children,  and  time,  was  subjects.  Remi's before  of  only  language  assumed the  was  exposure  English  this of  French  occasional  outside At  her  and  three  a week),  children  period, two  Jean's  the  hours  etc.  into  all  taping  mornings  from  Sophie  the  environment,  other  English-speaking  of  for  (two  came  postman,  time  home  school  friends,  few  at  in  speaking  with  the  The The  mother father  southern  English  had  was  immigrated was was  France. used  a an  to  high  Canada  school  electrician  Both  outside  parents the  home  two  years  graduate and  was  spoke and  and  French  then  only  in  6 Sophie like  Remi's  had  been  and  their  in  a  Canada  and  parents  and  during  On o n e  one  ten  and  she  occasion  The  in with  27  gait'h'ered i n t e n recorded  (MLU)  on was  during  mation  their  her  children.  was  with  in  the  father  was  the  children's mothers  she  Remi  during  the  and,  activities. will  be  mother  professor  mothers  mother was was  were  was  at  present  busy  with  limited.  most  children's  present  and  difficulties,  both  since  Paris  Their  visiting  Remi's  present  participated  their  a  observation  interaction  mother  home.  learning  was  However,  from  of  the  activities.  again, The  he  also  three  discussed  in  children's  more  detail  Data  and  session  of  both  Four.  The months  time  sessions.  Jean's  Chapter  made  for  duties,  interaction  1 .4  the  the  with  year.  participated  in  children  were  in  for  and  sessions  French  a mathematician,  all  Sophie  for  parents  father,  caring  household  spoke  teacher  During home  Jean's  for for  first days  session old  one-hour  cassette either the the  the  with  Remi  (henceforth sessions,  tapes.  It  eight should  in  whole  sessions  to  provide  first  session  was  held  22,27).  taped  transcriptions.  was  or  in  mean  and  by  that  and  notes  of  tenth  22  were every were  contextual  length the  was  were  which  noted  part  he  data  of  additional  Remi's 1.27  The  hours be  when  infor-  utterance it  was  7  1.68.  There  MLU was words, which  arrived words  were  number would  were  of  [una],  at  un  been  was  utterances gestures,  Eric,  followed perhaps engaged  marked  with  produced  extended  sentence  intonation  prior  to  termed  any" and  was  jargon.  Jean,  behaviour.  as  counted  all  three  most  patterns  to  me,  to  a much  Sophie,  on  one  For  word  that  words.  This  when  at  this  contours at  times  one  of  her  MLU  of  1.10,  with  recognizable  --  containing of  stage of  other  the  of  stage,  hand,  to  did  "he  behaviour,  has  been  a  common  be  engaged  not.  subjects,  English  Remi,  also  no  intelligible  development.  three  extent,  few  linguistic  appears  and to  sounds  type  stage,  incomprehensible  an  but  in  example,  with  lesser  the  utterance  of  or  and  one  an  than  strings  1971:4),  only  the  children  (Menyuk  the  by  If  words  children.  utterance  not  number  old,  This  this  and  two  one-word  for  French  intonational  reports  of  as  ten-sessions  comprehensible  such.  normal  mother,  1 week  more  the  behaviour  however,  and  as  was  different his  this  the  repetitions).  producing  (1970:102).  "jargon"  linguistic  to  in  strings  during  dividing  counted  like  Bloom  19 m o n t h s  if  for  of  Standard  realized  was  (another),  particular.  words,  it  over  number  to  (excluding  then  addressed  was  and  gathered  the  corresponded  definitely  autre  constantly  in  counting  idiosyncratic,  Remi,  one  by  which  French,  procedure  was  utterances  occurrences  have  Standard  512  produce  in-such  8 With all  of  the  together, Remi's the  was  with  and  Jean  these  Jean.  and  note  during  and  taking  be  either  session,  to  or  make  necessarily but  simply  the  adult  and  [papusak^val  lot  portions this), can  be  to  the  cheval drawn  h  lot  and  pak  h  utterance (horse),  sessions  of  tape.  held  with  forty-five  mintues  an  taping  time  hour  was  of  always  and  in  spent  becoming  not  papli].  It  be  understood  included  in  this  utterances Jean  be  was  (on  e.g.,  Although  the  other),  meaning.  my  between  drawn,  (the  figure. part)  engaging  comprehensible,  1'autre its  Jean.  not  that  are  concerning  Sophie  weeks,  minutes  correspondence  could  nine  after  the  nine  sessions  could  not  fact a  of  and  gathera/from  certain  the  months  were of  after  behaviour.  which are  of  version h  of  myself  weeks  start  children  utterances  because  pak t  the  linguistic  sense  due  hours  additional  utterances  mother  taped  approximately  observing  their  period  alone,  Sophie  five  (24,25)  There  Jean  and  two  the  forty-five  eleven was  than  old  a  two  that  not  clusions  were  noted  was  (cannot  and  1812  inability  lines  hours  over  were  the  jargon,  (38,6).  Jean  At  days  with  place  less  old  together  in  with  taking  and  There  The  French  with  held  25  there  session  sessions  and  totalling  per  two  Vancouver.  there  Although  familiar  in  nine  above,  were  started  6 days  Jean  thus  each  should  had  of  session  24 m o n t h s  totaled  alone,  for  in  first  arrival  and  mentioned  more  sessions  the  was  Sophie  Jean  exception  observation  38 m o n t h s  with  by  other  children's  study  As  the  Jean's  under-  pas  pu  no  con-  ca  9 Jean's session  was  strictly of  oui,  MLU  1.78.  one non,  count,  least  two  would  also  mean  his  MLU  items. be  gathered.  that  she  used  repeatedly  the  did  her  target  limited first  to  for  the  have  last  This  comparing last  1 .27 1 .68  first  were  from  consist MLU  Sophie,  of  or  not  the  of  at  2.16  better that  she  utterances Sophie's  and  for  it  the  mean  sessions  of  the  length for  .22,27 25,20  of  each  was  had  were MLU  mastered not  for  the  4.15.  utterance child,  she  of  Table  words 1.1,  1.1  Three  J  Age  last,  which  in  linguistic  expressions. the  utterances  novel,  phrases  say  her  1393  typically  no  to  that  Remi  Fi r s t Last  had  not  Table  MLU  the  consisting  excluded  would  were  she  is  only  3.37  Session  in  utterances  session's  combinations  because  but  Description  were  with  utterances  of  and  the  words  utterances  session  sessions  word  simply  was  free  those  first  of  higher.  number  first  of  the  disposal.  session In  objects  Sophie's  set  Jean's  names  nine  language, a  Remi,  Likewise,  not  utterance  If  for  the  of  length.  somewhat  were  at  in the  During  means  Unlike  word and  length  MLU 1 .78 2.16  Children's  MLU  ean  Sophie  Age 24,25 26,23  MLU 3.37 4.15  Age 38,6 40,1  10 the  greatest  from a  Sophie.  measure  since  change  during  the  last  such  as  The  Jean's  oui  same  MLU.  largement  of  of  MLU  in  should  session non,  could  be  the  appears  there  the  of  taken  fewer  resulted the  gathered strictly  the  last  two-word  utterance  frequent  word  a  higher  in  that  session  stage,  utter-  appears  exhibited  that  appearance  as  Rather,  one  difference  at  and  data  development.  however,  vocabulary,  the be  were  MLU  said  in  not  linguistic  and  Remi,  beginnings  in  difference  the  figure.  the  This  of  ances,  in  difference  is,  of  en-  two-word  utterances.  1.5  Presentation  Procedures  Although Standard  French,  knowledge  which  a  of  or  item  designating will  Each  utterance  will  include  children's is  not  the  due  to  be  given  will  be  child's  utterance  said  the  child,  a  for only  and  with  be  lack  be  of  Jean. in  as  activity  corpus  the  and  only  e.g.  cases  anything, after  the the  for  study.  The  prior  e.g.,  [16],  translation  context.  speech  Phonetic  those  this  in  any  impossible,  of  activity  if  given  child  in  English  its  be  orthography.  either  An  in  the  certainty,  the  what,  of  will  to  given  would  presented  information along  attribute  will  rendition  "where"  such  to  utterances  conventions  utterances  inadvisable  French  to  in  standard  [3],  the  this  implicit  transcription in  the  context  to  the  adult  has  child's  11 utterance. ing, of  the  The as  that  If will  and  of  Sophie  R  organized  will  child's presented  utterance the  as  activity  child  S,  the  in  in  the  the  will  be  observer  is  noted  context  context  as  also.  will  referred  while  to  be as  he  is  The  position  marked M,  the  utter-  by  >.  father  0,  and  Jean  and  Remi  present  raw  data  and  these  as  . J  respectively. The  be  be  child's  mother F,  the  be  used  appendices for  each  (••*)  and  phonetic  ([])  for  child.  throughout  utterances:  for  will  the  The  following  presentation  pause,  (:)  for  representation.  of  diacritical the  will marks  children's  lengthening  of  utterance,  12  CHAPTER  TWO  QUESTIONS, REQUESTS, AND  2.1  Preliminaries  2.1.1  Theoretical This  children's quests, these  will  issues  are  attempt on  a  circumstances  need  all  to  forms  the  show  hearer,  any  theory  requests  of  from  the  the  ability  speaker's  desire  a  remaining  undertake  his  need  will  urgency  language then,  equal,  to  is  the  met.  In  must need,  acquisition treat  he  these  three  reWhile  analyses,  to  since  my  analysis  depends  express all  needs  stem  will  not  be  does  not  make  requests,  depend  of on  other  should  make  issues  which  and  three  commands.  commands  questions,  appear of  if  the  commands,  three  in  which  and  separate  different  of  questions,  and  the  perspective,  pose  merit  each  account  requests,  that  of  to  an  Questions,  utterance  the  seem  ability:  He m u s t  see  to  between  that  single  develop  abilities  may  things  known.  mands  will  demonstrably to  language.  filled,  chapter  differentiate  three  uniquely  considerations  respective  and  questions  in  IMPERATIVES  the  ful-  and  these  from  his com-  three  status  of  considerations  include.  abilities  at  From  this  one  time  13 is  theoretically  and  since  see  that  they a  are  each  is  met.  need From  between  justified,  the  imperatives (1964:85),  a more  since  generalizable  formal  properties  has  difficult  for  example,  have  share as  of to  a clear  questions, maintain.  pointed  a common  utterances  perspective,  semantic been  they  source  made  to  separation  requests, Katz  and  and Postal  out:  An important fact about questions is that, semantically, they are somewhat like imperatives in that questions are requests of a special kind. However, unlike imperatives, which, in general, request some form of nonlinguistic behavior or action, questions are concerned primarily with linguistic responses. (1964:85)  Also,  Gordon  questions i.e.,  as  and L a k o f f types  a request  (1971:66).  of  that  This  view  have  suggested  requests the  rather  hearer  was  shared  a  logical  than  provide  as  some  by C h a f e ,  analysis  types  of  of  question,  information  who  states:  The meaning of interrogative is that the speaker requests the hearer to provide him with new (and true) information of a sort which is made explicit by the rest  of  Hence,  the  although  delineated position  in  that  recognizing  from  the  early  (1970:312)  questions,  on t h e  This in  sentence.  surface, they  requests, they  request  semantic  a n d commands  share  either  linguistic  information  questions,  behaviour  clearly  a common s e m a n t i c  characteristic  and i s o l a t i n g  are  of  is  of  or  vital  requests, children  pro-  action. importance  a n d commands  such  as  the  14 subjects  in  to  minimal  be  and  of  requests  since  few  cally, in  this  Similarly  the with  imperatives  Thus,  and  description  of  example, tives, ingly  there  questions. explicit, of  these  others similar  requests  intonation  should  and  a  be  crucial  role  the  are  what  several  the  possible  issue  such  In and  which  no  supposes, response  observation:  how  most  as  rising  function  at  all.  ask  new  and  qualify for  or  for  interest-  as  other,  additional the  child  agreement,  and  still  Lewis  less  Certain  what  M.M.  of  or  containing  questions.  request  distin-  alterna-  most  utterances  reinforcement others  may  inadequate as  identical  a b i 1 i t i es .  a question,  intonation  are  in  methodological  cases,  from  distinction.  discussion  questions  utterances  others request or  of  standards  question-like  take  figure  action.  questions,  to  to  must  have  a  and  syntacti-  an  provide  in  questions  requests  requests,  included  or  imperatives  not  shown  contours,  context  regard  utterances  require  the  have  both  alone  information  plays  might  be  by  let  distinguishes  does  information  boys,  intonational  provided  requests  morphemes  knows  two  ;(:eommuni c a t i v e )  But,  information, already  many  the  intonation  morphologically,  context  subclassified.  question  For  and  the. c h i l d r e n ' s  involving be  syntax  similar  utterances  and  With  both  Sophie,  often  imperatives,  are  utterance  since  which  have  information  contextual  guishing  to  questions  whether  since  assistance.  seem  marked,  syntax  study,  has  made  a  1 5  First, the child continues to play the game of question-and-answer; he asks what we may call "pseudo-questions"-questions the answer to which he already knows and which he asks simply for the pleasure of the verbal interchange with someone. Secondly, he continues to ask questions to test the correctness of what he believes--a rudimentary form of testing a hypothesis. Finally he asks questions by which he seeks real information--what he as yet does not know. (1968:94) 3  In has  for  making  qualify marked then,  that  be  the  problem  between  of  of  of  of  subclassifying  possible.  function  of  represented in  context.  the by  It  to  as  becomes  not  pretend does  facilitate offer  a  utterances  subjects,  with  a  Thus,  and  is  make  even  subject  may  morphologically  questions  would,  to  widen  to  intensify  distinctions  more  utterances,  various  will  with  a question  properly  it  reasons  context,  requests.  to  questions;  question the  be  its  as  classify  two-word  open does  to  problem  cannot  information  analysis  where  and  and  study  taken  the  Along  of  be  This  by  function  may  and  shown  which  what how  cases,  a question.  class  ambiguous,  contextual  as  the  subject  This  unmarked  in  one-word  the  as  those  questions.  face  highly  of  or  utterance,  utterance  included  spectrum  tions  an  utterances,  the  the  inexplicit  acute  since  assigned,  the  in inten-  becoming  interpretations. to  have  however  solved provide  description description during  regard  to  the  and of  the  ample make  the  three  problem  different  stages  appropriateness  2.1.2  Relevant In  questions under ducted  recent  have  had  discussion with  interest  and  Hanlon  questions in  which  On  the  in  have as  a  learning  at  child  the  various  the  preposing,  third  a mean  Questions however, Of  English, Bloom,  most  1970)  the  have  set  acquisition  length  produced  of  recent  simply  children  of  by  that  of  to  out  with  struc-  that  noun  of  until  inter-  in the  morphemes an  and  MLU  of  of  Bel 1 u g i - K l i m a .  utterances  at  Klima  describe  questions  children  describe  syntactic  and  Klima  sentences"  to  appear  one-word  no m e n t i o n  state  verb  provide  fact,  point  not  to  "innately  at  the  order  (1968:13).  In  utterance  discussed  studies  make  do  of  by  of  Brown  such  the  richer  rules  They  inversion  not  of  language.  to  uses  looked  con-  answer  questions  competence. a  to  related  compose  been  DO d e l e t i o n ,  are  either or  to  been  example,  speech"  at  issues  first  For  order  language  (1966:420-424).  and  1.0-1.5,  a  written  in  in  research,  three  has  their  varied.  looked  linguistic  periods  with  has  questions  as  child  construction  have  questions  in  the  research  complexity  learning  yes/no-questions,  2.75-4.0.  been  emerge  Gruber  children's  period  this  among  English  derivational  Also,  word  of  questions  Bellugi-Klima  rogative  Most  looked  and  of  attention  has  hand,  that  psycholinguistic  questions  topic-comment  formally  most  constructions  (1967:382).  tures  the  here.  "is  other  evidence  developmental  children  The  known  literature  this  in  (e.g., stage  of  17  linguistic do  by  means  study as  development of  conducted  indicative  statement,  Laufer  questions report  rising by  of  In on  are  that  the  recent  draft  the  nature  of  dismissed  treated  as  a modality  do  not  Fillmore  in  stages  of  Ingram  (1972)  ten  normal  one  child  frequency  total  Yes/no,  of  a  by  most  which  concerned  is  (question,  Greenfield,  often  her  used  them  those  modality  component  as  the  one-word  utterance  stage,  Smith,  utterances, colleagues in  inter-  Questions  excludes with  cited  child's  and  (157).  A  often  one-word  Greenfield cue  they  features  the  study  question"  element is  a  of  children's  the  (1969)  prosodic  part  this  1971:60-62).  the  linguistic  children at and  asked  "why"  1-1/2  on  years of  questions asked),  (8%),  Eight  the  between  stages  "where,"  children.  development,  reports  questions  (18%),  a  and  are  from  discus-  elements  expounded  which  by  (1969). Unlike  quently  as  the.isrtstudy  belong  is  (Menyuk  that  (1972).  "intonation  questions  Bernholtz  a  utterance  since  and  constitute  an  ask  intonation  existence  preting  sion  indeed  Menyuk  emphatic)  utterances. and  a  do  "how" and used  of  the  ages  age.  (5%),  "why"  of  From  by  2-1/2 this  "where"  "who"  (2%),  "how,"  attention.  questions and  data,  questions  questions and  more  acquisition.  yes/no  followed  "what"  had  spontaneous  question were  have  subsequent  The (47%  (18%), and  asked  by  3 years, he  discusses  more of  with  fre-  the  "what"  "when"  were  used  by  all  and  only  five  (1%). the children  18 used of  "who" . . q u e s t i o n s .  These  are  suggested  possible  stages  development. Somewhat  Table  II.1  shows  questions  posed  comparable  the by  results  percentage  the  three  of  Frequency  Total No. Remi Jean Sophie  42 82 106  Although  have  tions. of  M. all  Smith  of  that  "what"  words,  18  to  15% a n d  the  time  ing  order  (206). of  types  study.  of  of  II.1 Questions  Posed  why  what  how  who  61%  34% 21% 22%  5% 48% 22%  19% 21%  12% 23%  10%  2%  are  frequent,  percentage  of  for  used  either  "when"  reports  that  "who,"  and  asked  "where" 11%, The  by  her  219  (1933:201, were  the  respectively, results  acquisition:  of  Jean  occurrence.  children  72 m o n t h s  and  this  where  questions  ages  different  in  yes/no  higher  French-speaking  the  found  huh  yes/no-questions  questions  were  children.  Table  2%  as  and this  None  children She  study  made  also  quesonly  the  reports  used  appeared suggest  the  up  between  frequently "how"  of  "which"  "which"  206).  most  or  "where"  question 6%  the  of follow-  19  2.1.3  Questions, All  the  question  when the  the  2.  where,  3.  how,  4.  when,  the  are  alone  contains  (why?)  who which  imperatives  in  French  or  with  can  if  standard  a  for  adult  formed  que.  As  inversion  pronoun*,  forms  in  be  est-ce  wh-element  pronoun,,  the  what  and  wh-questions element  and  following  yes/no  requests  question  verb  1.  is  French with in  English,  occurs  present.  questions  either  between The  containing  wh-element.  ou  Ou  (where)  Quoi  (what)  Pourquoi  Qui  C'est  (how)  (who)  Quand Quel  (when) (which)  since  at  all,  be  noted  it  quoi  the will  only  (what  fait-il  Qui  a  est  study  (where  ga?  fait-on la  (why le  est  only  votre  the  first  is is  come?)  ( w h i c h one book?)  is  elements  not  necessary  to  e x p o u n d on que  the  you  questions  est-ce  make  (when w i l l  of  the  this?)  door?)  forms  when  do  the  que  that  he  at  five  is  hook?)  this?)  does  est-ce be  the  (how do we cake?)  porte?(who  viendras-tu?  Le q u e l livre?  this  livre?  Comment gateau? Quand  In Also,  le  Pourquoi ca?  (why)  Comment  est  form  is  do  not  your  appear. appear  them. used  It no  should inversion  20 of  pronoun  c^a?  (why  and  does  verb  he  do  occurs,  not  have  as  a yes/no  occurs, eveni  a  specific  example,  (to  be  you  give  able me  the  command  element  which  in  French,  qu'il  fait  in  English,  identifies  as the  Again,  in  yes/no-questions  Viens-tu  ce  soir?  or  the  book?"  French eat!,  the  children  will  language  to  that  2.2  One-Word At  understand said.  what  when  information  the  gestures,  child's  utterance inversion  (Are  you  coming  either  the  verb  this  child  and  be:  same  to).  For  Veux-tu  are  acquire  example,  me d o n n e r  intonation.  structure  These  as  some  to  Stage:  utterance  intended speaking,  interpreter  as  want  "would  le  livre?  Finally,  that  of  pouvoi r  in  a  English,  the  forms  approximate  their  that  adult's.  one-word  the  comment.  to  in  question  Utterance  a  such  a  the  have  Morphologically  ambiguous  (to  mange!  of  the  couched  would  has  has  example,  be  vou1oir  statement  in  The  can  to)  for  head  est-ce  ng?). Requests  Here,  yes/no-questions  question.  for  pourquoi  this?).  Otherwise, do  e.g.,  posture,  is  Extra-verbal  stage to  has  no  in  particular,  understand  one-word  facial  utterances  Remi  utterances  recourse  to  expressions,  occurring  before  behavioural  what  to  he  are  highly  contextual hand  and  factors  and  after such  the as  21  these  seem  to  intentions Where  the  are  actions  For  instance, be  very  in  a  assumed  than  to  overtly  ance  is  in  will  his  have  been  be  better  child  that  intentions  behavioural  he  such  be.  his  such  questions  in  the  gathered  not  the  it  the  observations  and  requested  This  item  the  [I'ata?] O's  its  during  and  what  but  out  Of  be  his  says  the  then  made. actions,  intentions. "no,"  it  command  course,  primarily  and  its he  was  be  that  a  if  the  his  more  rather utter-  explicit  described  contextual  or  JTO_ a n s w e r s t o all  the  phonological  as  first  the  variants  meant  by  the  here  and  relatively  Although  from  his  For  formed  They  example,  times.  'word.'  mother  ques-  of  of  objects  Not with  included [larta].  with  great  pointing  both at  uttered  looking  also  However,  was  occurred  Remi  Then  it  start  occurred  session  The  the  utterances.  sessions.  few  marked  whereabouts  variants  eleven  this  that  first  [Ilarda].  Remi.  questions  statements.  during  said  two  are  syntactically  construed  questioned  are  there  from  Remi  the  recorder  glasses,  stand  can  yes  and  questions tape  his  utterances  requests,  session  discussion  frequency as  data  last  appeared,  this  can  child's  grounds. to  in  the  on  of  carry  actions,  compared  tion  to  the  contradicts  order  himself.  As  until  an  what  decision  designators  Thus,  as  a  behaviour  meant  with  classified  deciding  follows  contradict  agreement  in  where  linguistic  might if  helpful  cases  child's  his  would  be  did by  at  not  the  under-  third  22 session ance  it  and  the  Allison. element  of  in  concluded  experience,  i t , as  mind  prehensible  2.2.1  disappeared.  disappearance  She  tinguish ing  had  a  that  period  require can or  be  a  1inguistic the  This  those  utterances  immediately  "the  the  a  or  had  no  meaning (Bloom  tables  data  reports  the  phenomenon  form  fact"  can  appeared  observation.  reinforcement  denial.  such  following  questions  distinguished  Firstly, are  of  that  also  [wida] i n  identifiable  that  would  1971:21).  list now  appear-  only  dis-  So,  the  bear-  com-  be  discussed.  most  frequent  questions  Yes/no the  of  content,  utterances,  Yes/no  Bloom  of  from  In  this  what  group,  the  those  distinction  the  child  which  questions has  require  already new  during which heard  confirmation  is  made  on  several  grounds.  utterances  which  seem  to  request  reinforcement  which  appeared  preceding  have  Remi's.  in  Below  the are  adult's examples  speech of  such  R is having a snack. " T u v e u x du c h o c o l a t ? " w a n t some chocolate?)  (Do  i nstances.  Context  Utterance  1 .  chocolat?  you  >  R w a i t s w h i l e M goes to c u p b o a r d . R i s g i v e n some c h o c o l a t e .  23 R is holding a small box. " C ' e s t une b o T t e , c ' e s t une petite,boTte." (It is a box, i t ' s a smal1 b o x ) . > R p i c k s up a n o t h e r t o y f r o m t o y box. " ^ a , c e n ' e s t p a s une boTte." (That'is not a b o x ) .  boTte?  2.  Secondly, then  he  when  is  very  for  example,  3.  t r a i n?  Finally, rather,  Remi's  familiar  by he  his is  me  could "Did  if  item  utterance,  continuing  the in  I  turn  I  Remi  the  (a)  interest  to  is  preceded  object  he  is  by  an  adult's,  questioning,  which  two  the  You  his  be  said  adult's  that  has  most  he  has  two  utterances utterance  made  event,  expanded  of  reinforce-  is  and,  the  the  item  which  Thus,  to  him  appropriate  (a)  "Tell  that  speech.  seem  type  (b)  out  meaning  the  above of  x?"  pointed  the  first  following:  new  interpretations:  in  if  the  a  various  instances  question,  see  Another  have  are  should  form  item  initiating  possible  right? It  not  may  to  above. is  utterance  you  to  is  (Yes,  qldeone.  information  chooses  requests  the  have  x."  uses  most  Remi  utterances  said  see  The type  each  understand  which  child  those be  what  carries  the  not  R is holding a t r a i n . " O u i , c ' e s t un t r a i n . " it's a train).  structures,  (a)  with  is  >  Although  ment  utterance  to of  be  of  and emphasis. the  particular  24  4.  As  non?  will  quired  »  be  discussed  negation  utterances saying Remi  with  more  here  "Did  I  Non,  holds  simply that  supported the  be  by  for  repeating  she  could  the  touching  that  in  that  (3)  it  he  above,  unlike  type  Remi  initiates  the  of  (a),  he  repeats  him,  should  you  word  or  had  not  be  Did  about  the  you  the  This  touching  the  as  say  no?"  object He  mother  him.  negative  construed  avoiding.  that  ac-  produce  right?  for  is  to  could  information  kaka?),  It  able  above,  the  Remi  might  has  possibility buffet  while  question.  above,  around  being  explain  fact  Utterances  type  chapter,  understand  it  fact  (b)  of  requesting  in  asking  point  be  whether  is  next  might  non,  so  the  R looks at M w h i l e t o u c h i n g . "II ne f a u t p a s t o u c h e r , interdit." (You m u s t n ' t t o u c h , forbidden).  the  fluency.  than  of  used,  to  in  " N o n , n o n , ne t o u c h e s p a s le buffet." (Ix) (No, no, d o n ' t touch the buffet).  merely  whereas  be  here  pointed  very  familiar  to  sure  that  judgement  his  him,  is  (with  items  produces  that  but  (a)  (5)-(8)  utterances  he  out  and  that the  the he  are  the  the  speech  items  that  apparently  correct  one.  type  exception  himself. from  like  In  the  speech  of cases  context  independently. Remi wants  uses to  are make  25  5.  T a y o , t h e i r d o g , has urinated in next room. "II a f a i t pi p i , c ' e s t tres vilain." (He p e e p e e d , it's very naughty). > R watches M c l e a n s p o t . " O u i , i l a f a i t pi p i , c'est tres vilain."  kaka? '  6.  [a]  7.  Ola]  8.  un  kaka?  autre?  un  autre?  Although mother ent  kaka  there not  as  word  term  is  being  in  the  seems  to  be  to  use  kaka,  to  him  in in  the  his  stabilizing  ing  are  cases  the  which  that  generalized  or  severe  after  speech  notice  are  to  pi pi  At mean  scolding  place. has  The been  than  require  new  discussed  so  information  he  and he  the  differthe  for  which  offender  that  making  a  point,  the  that  by  use  anything  offered  his  utterances  this  fact  indicates in  rejected does  for  context, term  not she  reinforcement.  appointed  even  Unlike  questions  incorrect,  (pipi)  in  R p o i n t s to s p o n g e . ^ " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas I ' e p o n g e p o u r T." (No, t h a t ' s not the sponge f o r T).  Remi's  punishment  done  store  T has had a n o t h e r accident. ,> " O u i , T a f a i t pi p i , pi p i . " ( Y e s , T pee p e e d ) . R repeats pipi. " O u i , i1 a f a i t p i p i . " /> " O u i , c ' e s t un g r a n d p i p i . Q u o i ? " (Yes, it's a l a r g e pee p e e . What?).  kaka?  if  continues is  sets  available more  more  distinctions.  far,  the  for  Remi.  follow-  26 M has koukie  9.  finished  another  huh?---non?  R extends "Merci." c o o k i e.  10.  gets  c o o k i e t o M. (Thank y o u ) .  M  takes  finishes  another  koukie?  R  cookie.  >  0  cookie.  cookie.  R  >  R extends c o o k i e to is refused. R eats  11 .  la?  la?  the  first  in  its  true  Thus, ment  the and  mind  sense.  questions  ([una  ])  initiative  testing  to  see  ncs  as  found  made  not  or  (another),  understood  does  or  a  provide  utterance not  the  Cookie instead.  used  request. no  is  un  the  best  confirming  toward  items,  when using  evidence  a  itself.  request  in  reinforceThe  the  third  end  alternative.  autre?  requests  item  However,  gestures  un  is lot. we slot  questions  require  with  that holes  answer.  developed. Remi  autre?  the to  is  yes/no  either  that  by  question  requests is  neutral  which  of  toward  questions  an  or  Remi  between  be  the  cases  unbiased  to  whether  yes  is  find  are  seems  of  i.e.,  Remi  we  which  With certain  utterances,  distinction  utterance in  two  0. it  R is playing with l e t t e r s c a n be d r o p p e d i n b o x w i t h made f o r letters. > R has a l e t t e r i n hand and going to drop i t through s " N o n , on l e met l a . " (No, put i t t h e r e ) . Different is pointed out.  (Ix)  In  gets  cookie.  Tayo's it. either  it  is  un-  neutral Since this  un  autre  could  sponge Of  answer,  be  was  course,  direction,  this but  27 does  demonstrate  questions. Remi  These,  posed  2.2.2  the  during  "Where"  then, the  are  one  type  only  persons this was  his  took  action not  Remi  two  to  the  that be  he  appeared  12.  to  not  gathered,  namely  of  accompanied  to  have  objects when  not  did  not  know  for  and  The  first Remi  balle?  he  about  did  balle?  data  original  form  only  when  the  the  he  looked  yes/no  such  abbreviated  questions  that  sessions.  Often,  wandering  although  interpreting  only  instances.  for  and  ten  the  wh-question,  necessary  own,  that  of  was  look  are  of  questions  According only  difficulty  a or  that  where,  Remi's  by  any  located  the  indicated  objects  search  He  to  have  there  objects in  or  general,  behaviour.  in  could  searching.  or  which  and,  object  search,  seems  for  verbal  stimulus  persons.  his  of  searching,  verbal  verbalize  Remi  order  for  initiate  was  it  In  It  it  on  known short,  it  was  not  persons  not  in  the view  case could  found. non-syntactically was  23 m o n t h s  marked "where"  question  old.  Remi h a s b e e n p l a y i n g w i t h tennis b a l l s . T h e y a r e now all d i s p e r s e d about the room. > R l o o k s b e h i n d s t o v e and f i n d s nothi ng. Continues looking for balls.  28  The questing here?," to  any  were  a yes since  form  to  not  apparent  not  have  of  a  context  form  of  a  terested balls.  a  such  level at  this  would  playing  il  Although  est  the  looked  N ou?  that  the  game  question and  only  it,  "Is  the  we  is  not  related  However,  would  if  also  is  Remi  in  because  a yes/no was the  child  actually  appeared  syntactically  does  in  is  when  marked  in  some  more  finding  developmentally  which  is  question  engaged  we  be  which  not  re-  ball  sophistication  that  be  question  French.  child  than  would  like  because  mean  in-  the  premature. Remi  was  question  il  Remi was p l a y i n g w i t h b o a t w h i c h i s now o u t sight. > R looks around, while M o t h e r f i n d s b o a t and i t t o Remi .  ^ ou?  est  question  does  for,  mother  and  giving  only  too  readily that  but  a  utterance  in to  as  data.  boat  assumed  this  first  the  This  would  the  the  Remi  the  stage.  This  of  linguistic  mean  second  in  something  question  questions,  The is  interpreted  a meaning  of  Obviously,  25,20,  be  composition "where"  game. in  could  no_ a n s w e r ,  the  yes/no  this  being  or  attribute  attributing  13.  first  the  the  it  to  and  the  not  does  child.  started  mother  specify  had  not  the  object  hesitate  Since  Remi  in  took  to  play  with  it,  not  made  a mistake  it in  a toy of  eating. hands  that  is  finding the can  the  boat be  supplying  29 the  boat.  If  indeed  munication  took  sitting  the  play  that  table  not  along  the Remi  Remi  mother  claimed  inquired  either  a  want  the  boat,  explainable,  with  other  That  is,  rather  was,  Remi  He was  was  more  about  be  made  how  since  objects  than  more  "Huh"  of  this the  that  com-  boat  was  Remi  could  form  tional  contour.  in  corpus,  the  questions,  [hdh] mother stand  had  a  what  denial  of  in  of  in  the  and A  asked dis-  questions. a  certain  certain item  naturally,  concluded  question.  where  a  be  objects  "where"  where  acquiring  could  his  concerning interested  in  object  than  in  object was.  knowing  question.  use  data,  [hah]  in  are  the  be  and  are  most  mentioned  either  [ha*]?  and  had  are  utterances  marked  twenty-six  resemblance  said,  there  comparison  appear  should  Remi  the  of  and  close  would  in  There  they It  non-presence  or  it  behaving  questions  Throughout phonetic  the  being  item  from  unlikely,  interested  the  himself  was  here  interested  location  2.2.3  restrained  confirmation  could  the  is  Unless  tinction  the  place  did  with.  which  for  on  Remi  with  of  by  a  rising  these  "where"  which  take  intona-  utterances and  yes/no  frequently. from  the  to  that  of  or  [hi]?  to  signal  outset the  when him  that  mother. she to  did  Remi's The  not  repeat  underit.  30 Clearly,  while  expression, quences  as  Remi he  be  you  say?"  14.  seen  mother  did  was  appropriately can  the  as  not  prone well.  below  where  is  the  fully to  has  both  adult  appropriately  one  the  its  of  appropriate  meaning  of  On  the  other  inappropriate  hand,  the  early  cases  are  this conseand  in-  usage  "what  " E l l e e s t ou t a p o c h e ? (Where i s y o u r p o c k e t ? > R 1 o o k s a t M. M repeats question. R his pocket.  huh?  many  it  example,  huh?*  source  understand  use  For  probable  did  Remi?" Remi?)  shows  marked  by  instances.  R is coring potatoes with knife "Qa t e f a i t m a i , n o n ? " (That hurts doesn t it?). 1  15.  huh?  16  huh?  These  two  rather, the  the  >  R continues coring. " C a ne t e f a i t p a s m a i ? " (Doesn't that hurt you?) > R inspects potato-eye.  cases  their  channel  same  of  of  huh?  function  are seem  communication  * H e n c e f o r t h [hah] pronunciation.  not to  meant  as  true  questions;  be  best  described  open  with  acknowledging  will  appear  as  as  huh w h i l e  keeping sounds.  retaining  31 A distinction havioural follows  grounds,  his  otherwise, in  which  this  by  paying  17.  18.  is  either  utterance  not  with  with  the  sincere up  some  attention  to  the  In  addition  to  (14)  in  which  more  follows  his  Remi's  here,  instances an  his  adult's above,  which  on  and  inquiry  those and  activity  be-  Remi  linguistic  event  different  is  in  action,  speech  purely  or instances  demonstrates  or  by  not  remarks. (17)  and  consistent  (18) with  are the  also action  utterance.  " M e t 5a l a . " (Put t h i s there). A c o n s t r u c t i o n cube i s extended and t o y box i s p o i n t e d a t . R l o o k s a t s p e a k e r and t a k e s construction cube. "Dans l a b o i t e . " (In the b o x ) . T o y box i s p o i n t e d a t . R puts cube in toy box. "Ou e s t l e t r a i n ? " (Where the t r a i n ? ) . T r a i n not in > R r u n s t o a n o t h e r room and comes b a c k w i t h t r a i n .  huh?  a  made  about  huh?  huh?  instances  be  those  taking  Like  with  between  consistent  Remi  instances that  huh?  should  in  (15)  which  consistent  and Remi  (16)  above,  does  not  behaviour.  (19)  follow  and his  (20), huh?  also,  is view.  are  utterance  32  19.  "Ou e s t is your  huh?  ton t e l e p h o n e ? " telephone?).  (Where  R hands t r a i n . _ , " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas l e telephone." (No, t h a t ' s not the telephone). R is occupied with train. y  M is holding duck. " C ' e s t quoi ca? c ' e s t quoi?" (What i s t h i s ? It's what?) 20.  >  huh?  R looks at M Continues handing t o y s t o M. " C ' e s t quoi? C ' e s t un c a n a r d . " (It's what? It's a duck).  These close  to  Piaget  that  one  speech other ing no  which  recognizes  behaviour, the  "mock"  even  end where  hand,  to  of he he  Piaget,  social  Lewis  as  at the  questions  ego-centric  this  early  spectrum  seeks  his  indulges  and  speech  stage,  Remi  and  thus  are  come  is  can  not  which  Speech  wide-ranging.  participate attention,  belong  very  and  behaviour.  non-socialized which  (20)),  "pseudo-questions"  listener's  in  utterances  function  calls  ((19)  to  meant  in and  On socialized  on  behaviour. this to  the Accord-  category  influence  have the  hearer.  2.2.4  Requests As  requests  on  and  opposed the  whole  imperatives to  questions,  take  as  which  objects  ask  certain  for  information,  actions  or  even  33 situations types on  of  of  either be a  that  given  be  a  to  new  of  questions,  are If  object  along  a  of  item and  gesture  this,  enunciated  to  and  a  follow  this  involves  all  or  the  un  a  like  pulling.  he of  (21) of  will un  is  name autre  an  request  is  playing thrown  or  Each the  what  is  being  once  previous  to  of  instance  such  the  i s  a  tennis  balls,  ball.  has  of been  request.  a  ball.  g i ven  a  requests  requests  repossession  requested  with  >  occurrences  43  Remi.  activity  being  contour.  Remi,  type  item  emphatic  variation  first  has  autre?  He  from  the  on  requests,  by  pre-  requested  intonational  with  repeti-  requests  verges  has  based  above.  balle?  are  the  a had  second  or  Two  corpus,  Remi  request  R wants  There  which  obtained  pointing  the  about.  requests  the  not  rising be  in  request  Remi,  R 21 .  and  of  no  brought  first  place,  sort  cannot  of  have  object  him,  take  last  by  The  an  although  marked  the  a  that  command f o r  once  with  example  This  to  distinguished  activity  However,  intonation  the  or  returned  him.  command.  be  like  functions.  activity,  would  would  could  respective an  viously  speaker  requests  their  tion  the  an  the  in  bal1 .  the  data  reoccurrence  object.  experienced  In by  all  gathered  of  an  these  Remi  at  cases least  34  The initiated not  by  occurred  (22)  and  second Remi  type  and  the  immediately  (23)  are  of  requests,  object previous  instances  of  un a u t r e ? ••• b o i r e * boire [nono]  un  23.  names  with  or  the  are  "what,"  a  the  has  Both  M. que  M explains que  R  water.  is  are  type.  Qu'est-ce  given  and  of  tu  veux?"  R wants  tu  water.  neux?"  utterances  accompanies  intonation.  There  it  in  which  with  are  41  un  autre  additional  above.  Stage: stage,  corpus and  wanted  rising  (23)  this  "why,"  Jean four  gathered  yes/no  types from  of  questions  Jean;  questions.  are  syntactically  marked.  which  not  marked  confidently  can  be  these  Only  questions are  requested  "Qu'est-ee  16 o c c u r r e n c e s  object  like  At in  to  hand,  R i s s i t t i n g on f l o o r . > R p o i n t s to s p o t next to him. " T u veux que j e m'asseois a u p r e s de toi?"  "Telegraphic"  tified  goes  other  utterance.  second  "Eh?"  >  without  utterances  his  >  [da]?  Remi  to  "Hein?  •  autre  There  2.3  r  the  activity  this  R 2.'.  or  on  can  are:  "where"  However,  iden-  "where," and  those  construed  be  as  "why"  utterances being  35  questions poses  they  significantly  sessions than  whether  with  when  2.3.1  Jean  the  more  there  are  marked certain Jean the  as  by  case,  number  of  questions,  24.  25.  not.  also,  questions Jean  questions, as  what  "tag" questions,  t h e more  similarity  poses  or  Unlike during  appeared  and S o p h i e  Remi,  the in  Jean  two the  data  together.  questions  interesting no  more  was w i t h  Among y e s / n o equally  sincere  questions,  alone  session  Yes/no  are  formal to  questions and to  request  utterances for  does  appear.  and y e s / n o que.  yes/no  confirm  what  examplify  (24),  (25)  not appear For  does  questions.  the and  There first  are  appear Like  he s u s p e c t s  is  instance,  questions  What  new i n f o r m a t i o n .  which  instance,  not has  Remi,  might  be  are a  type  of  (26).,  J is looking through picture book and i s a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s . "Et l a , tu r e c o n n a i s ? " (And t h e r e , do y o u r e m e m b e r ? ) pointing to dog.  wouwou?  confiture?  to  does  est-ce  Remi's  what  "Wouwou."  oui  T h e r e ' s a p i c t u r e o f j a r o f jam in p i c t u r e book. J i s asked what i t i s , a n s w e r s : tartine. ^De l a c o n f i t u r e . " (jamj^ "De  la  confi ture."  36  26.  the  puts the  27.  28.  each  adult's  his  in  confirm  On  the thus  a  Jean  oui  is  is  p i c t u r e of a school c h i l d r e n in it. dedans?"  enfants."  fairly  the  rising  right  sure one;  intonation  that he,  which  his  answer  nevertheless, in  turn  prompts  it.  other  hand,  those  request  either  or  for  boule? boule? pas b o u l e ?  la?  a  to  and  receive  case  "Les  question  answer  adult  neutral do  >  enfant•••en fant••• enfant la?  In to  J sees a bus w i t h "Qui est  non;  questions  a yes  example,  or  a  (27),  which  seem  n£ answer, (28)  and  to  be  actually (29).  J w a n t s more q u e s t i o n s w i t h p i c t u r e book. "Encore? encore voyons." (More? m o r e , l e t ' s see). y J sees a p i c t u r e of b i r d with b a l l in beek. " O u i , i l a une b o u l e d a n s l e bee'.^r (Yes, i t has a b a l l i n its beek). J is p u t t i n g puzzle piece in wrong s l o t . " N o n , on ne met p a s c a l a . " " N o n , we d o n ' t p u t t h i s there). > J finds right slot. "Oui, juste l a . " (Yes, just there).  37  29.  Of  la?  interest  (27). It  J is looking f o r hidden puzzle piece. " N o n , non i l n ' e s t pas l a . " ( N o , no i t ' s not there). > " N o n , l a non p l u s . " (No, not there ei t h e r ) .  It  here  seems  explicitly,  and  (29),  offered  on  is  each  part  a  of  nor  of  two  the  of  a  negative  neutral  nature  possibilities,  hand,  of  question  the  yes  negative  question in  These  confirmation They  space  case the  type  contour.  truth.  "fillers" In  other  third  only  information the  appearance  indicate  offers  1  the  intonational  be  to  the  question  of  or  the  no_.  in  question In  possibility  (28)  is  not  overtly. A  corpus  is  of  occur before  these  adult's  that  which it  is  questions of  very  marked neither already  often  in  adult  (30),  while  a  speech is  (31)-(33), what  rising new  suspected  utterance  doing  this  request  is  questions,  in  by  what  a meaningful  utterance  appears  the  to  as made.  Jean  repeats  adult  requested.  30.  V  la?  J i s l o o k i n g a t some i t e m s in catalog. "Et la?" (And t h e r e ? ) pointing to a man's garment. papa  ^a  papa.  M comments to f a m i l i a r with  0 that J garment.  is  not  38  31.  Pilou?  J wants M to a s k more q u e s t i o n s . "Encore? Oil e s t - c e q u ' i l est le Pilou? Where i s Pilou?) >  bateau (boat)  J  looks  "Sur  32.  la  lune?  "Where" As  questions,  looked  tion.  And,  boat. (On  a  boat).  for  moon a n d  finds  it.  J is doing puzzle. "Ou e s t l e d e u x - c h e v a u x q u i c e met l a ? " (Where i s the d e u x chevaux which i s put t h e r e ? ) .  > J looks around f o r yellow car. " T u ne l e v o i s p a s ? Derriere toi." (You d o n ' t s e e it? Behind you).  questions  with  and  being  on  . >  deux-chevaux? chevaux jaunes? [ » ] pas.  2.3.2  dog  bateau."  J s e e s moon i n p i c t u r e b o o k as M turns pages. J: la lune. " L a l u n e ? ou e l l e e s t l a lune?" ( T h e moon? w h e r e i s t h e m o o n ? ) . Looks  33.  at  un  Remi,  it  typically  for in  has  most  is  Jean  that  no m e n t i o n  appeared cases,  prior  the  initiates  the  of  the  object  to  the  time  object  of  or  "where?" person  the  in  question  is  no  response  and  ques-  not  in  sight. Certain inquiry involved is  stops  questions  there  abruptly;  is  not  repeated  produced  for  him  does  not  mean  to  say  meet  or  he  that  in  until is  with other  such  able  these  to  words,  time  as  the  produce  questions  the  are  it a  the  question  object himself. form  of  either This  39 ego-centric  speech  response  and  actively  follow  being  searched  act i v i ty. initial  1 1  35 .  1 1  36 .  1  Here, is  his  is  at  is  his  1 1  1 1  1  in  that  but  rather  perhaps  not  attention rather  work,  may  easily;  since  (35)  to  and  do  that  be  the  drawn  not  item  that  is  his  from  span  issues  are  present his  criterion  attention  other  a  does  away a  entail  Jean  to  possibly  (36)  not  (since  essential  limited  movement  (34),  they  gratuitously  up),  immediate  questions.  such  34.  for  undertaking  explain  of  produced them  Thus,  importance  such  are  behaviour  of  would  after  appropriate  not  having examples  cases.  J has s e e n a duck i n picture book. tu "Comment i l f a i t le canard, (How d o e s te s o u v i e n s Jean?) t h e d u c k g o , do y o u r e m e m b e r Jean?).  >  autre•••canard autre?  J wants to l o o k "L'autre quoi?"  autre••-canard? autre?  J is looking through book. T h i n k s he h a s f o u n d i t , but d e c i d e s o t h e r w i s e and q u e s t i o n s again. "Quel?" (Which?) No r e s p o n s e f r o m J . His attent i o n i s c a u g h t by cow i n b o o k a n d d e m o n s t r a t e s s o u n d cows make.  questions  interested  book. what?).  >  autre?  Jean  through (Other  in  the  finding  location the  duck,  of  another  but  the  duck;  item  is  the never  adult found  40  since line  Jean of  finds  questions Also,  to,  another  supply  Examples  the  of  and  we  starts  can  item's  such  see  1'autre?••-maman autre?  39.  [It]  quelquechose?  40.  [lfc]  quelquechose  question  item.  in  each  child  has  fades.  So,  question  events  are  abandoned,  thus  the  and  helping  J  is  not  >  J looking "Hein?"  pursuit.  (39)-(40).  with  puzzle.  Still looking no r e s p o n s e .  the  of  initial  which  whole  understood  do  and  what?)  one  hand,  not on  around.  >  the  the  which  able  J is doing puzzle. > " Q u ' e s t - c e que t u cherches?" (What a r e y o u l o o k i n g f o r ? ) J replies: 1 ' autre. "Sous le d i v a n . " ("Under t h e couch). J goes u n d e r c o u c h and lies there.  none  been on  or  >  la?  either  not  not,  (38)  the  event.  abandons  (37),  M is  instance,  return  Instead,  does  stops  "1'autre quoi?" (Other J does not r e s p o n d .  1 'autre?  In  thus  and  speech  Jean  are  1 ' au  [U]  tion  and  utterances  38.  the  that  name  picture  another  [6] c a - - - [ t ] 5a.-.[£]  37.  a  interesting  meet  the  utterance  lead  event  around,  Jean is  interest  we  have  other  a  receives  specify  disregarded  or  with  to  receives  in  the  the  because ques-  understandable positive  hand,  there  result are  and  incomplete  41 questions Jean).  (where  These  abandoned  the  meet  because Unlike  pose, or  "where"  echo  some  satisfies interest  to is,  In  by  Jean's  not  once  In  her  of  the  the  again,  item,  knowledge  he  of  the  adult  questions  by  and  any he  Jean  instances  question or  on  activity.  his  at  least or  Jean  are  are  in  he  to  practice  utterances, which  Of  one  person  able  Sophie's  otherwise,  asks  known,  is of  imitates  verbal  below,  some  instance, named  where  his  ceases  in  order  mother  asking  J is p l a y i n g with toy with ball . > "Ou e s t maman? maman e s t en h a u t . " ( W h e r e i s mama? mama i s u p stairs) . J . continues playing. x  cases,  or,  from  object  maman?  other  provided  that  that,  whereabouts  established which  carry  (41)  not  "where"  either  see  is  disambiguated.  have  mean  other  fact  to  be  not  I  to  item  types  do  In  need  maman-«-[lfc]  all  cannot  "echo"  the  the  response  other  need  is  of  no  place,  satisfied.  and  41.  the  takes  here  does  be  they  questions).  event  Jean  with  questions  (where  "where"  name  there  is  acquires  seems  to  be  either some  some  visual  knowledge  sufficient  to  of  stop  contact the further  questioning. Certain ful  execution  of  conditions questions  have  like  to  be  these:  present  for  the  success-  42  Jean's  a)  Jean's  b)  The  c)  A sympathetic  basic  question object,  where is  constraint always  on  name  can  and  [li]  is  be  takes  the  speech,  be  form  [*tfcl].  Also,  object,  then  rapid  or  [Ifcu],  wise,  end  can  in  particular  a  is  present.  rule  be  of  such  deriving as  fact but  out.  that makes  "where"  Q(where)  question  pointed  the  object.  sight.  a matter  object,  takes  standing form  where  i1  est  a  take  is  ou  the  becomes would  has  using  subject's  utterances alphabet, have  one  is  +  element This  Jean the  and  type  may  of  not  question  not  could  occurred  as  locative  est  form  which  or  is  |Vu,].  advert  Often,  object  elle  ou,  when  the  Jean  question  la.  In  that  the  rapid adult's  result  in  posed without  naming  the  is  il  elle  est  ou?  which  step  from  [<w.lfcl],  [ufcl ]  of  his  simplification. subject  (1927:241). given venture [!£»]•  [!£,]  would  The  that  of  est.  Another  a matter  est...? were  il  le/la,  [lfcK,]. be  the  ou  structure  reported il  or  question  surface  [lfc]  est  ou  form  certain  1e  [*ilfc,l].  the for  of  as  by  easily  as  ou  questions  could  a  "locative"  up  the  Guillaume  phonetic  a  the  early  when  speech to  be  from  Jean  mother of  might  in  an  his  both  question  for  explained  by  use  anyway.  can  asked  to  reflects  of  or  listener  that  "object"  see  nowhere  structures  Q"where" [yu]  is  seems  object  the  successfully  to  Q represents  any  know  object  strategy  surface  "object"  need  to to  us  formed  Although in  guess  terms that  Like"where"  this of  the  [ilt]  To surface  continue  structure  appear:  one  person  is  the  being  with the  type  question  looked  "where" in  item  for.  For  questions,  which  and  only  one  two  type  of  elements  the  other  the  object  example,  (42),  (43),  or  (44)  and  (45).  42.  [ I t ] • • • [It,]  43.  [li]  44.  [ I t ] maman?  J i s l o o k i n g f o r hammer. > "Hein?" J c a n ' t f i n d hammer, uses k n i f e instead.  panpan  J is looking > M gets c l o t h  nono?  [It]  speaking  patins?  and As  Bel 1 u g i - K l i m a with  case, do  not  Remi,  both  J.  is  appear  looking  for  dehors." outside). F's  skates  closet.  " A l o r s , t u s a i s b i e n que papa il n ' a p a s de p a t i n s . " (You know w e l l t h a t p a p a d o e s n ' t have any skates).  of  acquisition  seemsto provided  inversion  inversion  for  cloth.  >  process  children  is  in  (skates)  The  his  J is playing. > "Elle travaille (She i s w o r k i n g J  45.  for  not at  the  questions the  be  similar  to  a  similar  description  does a  of  not  occur.  possibility same  time.  above.  However,  since  for  verbs  Engli  Klima  (1 966 ) . in and  Jean's nouns  44 Those tives,  such  as  utterances [Ifc] l i t  [It] marteau  Papa?,  peated,  as  and  such  hold  a  Jean  seems  It and  Jean?,  and  In  cases  certain  occurs  often is In  logically  like  aware in  those  to  answer  to  substan-  which  and  are  re-  1 ' a u t r e - • • [1 i>]l ' a u t r e ? to  two  Jean?  each  two  a Jean?  utterances  point  to  the  than  [It.] p a n t o u f l e  [It] l i t  of  conclusion,  (disregarding of  more  the  other,  existence  of  questions,  distinct last  linguistic  two  words  designating this  such  position.  relationship.  as  "what  is  this?"  this?"  marked  question)  seem  relationship  quite  "whose  also  have  ponpon• •-[ItQponpon?,  maman•••[lfc>]maman?  phenomena.  which  and  those  Jean's  are  uttered  instances  gaining  "where" with  in  knowledge  the  which  about  questions  he  the  are  serious does  morpho-  intention  not  pursue  whereabouts  of  his  the  object.  2.3.3  "Why"  questions  The are  "why"  large  of  that  the Jean  Perhpas about  "why"  question  type  questions,  body  ability  next  and  must the  question,  although  corpus,  questions  asked  of  they  also  they  are  do  morphologically not  constitute  interesting  as  a  marked, a  separate  acquire. most is  seriously.  striking  that  only  This  information in  lack  one of  case  to is  intended  include the  "why"  "why" question  45 is  also  reported  report  that  number  of  seriously and  knew  anything  my  saying  their  questions,  he was  unable  For the  pourquoi?  47.  pourquoi?  48.  in  to  his  Jean  example,  does  "where"  an a n s w e r  that  in  to  (46)  context  would  and ( 4 7 ) ,  a "why"  distracted) here  the  an  it  nature  nothing  a  They  J e a n was,  be,  warrant  precede  to  easily  understands  to  asked  respond  questions  question  not l o g i c a l l y  subjects,  (although  really  (1968:402).  is of  has  explanation:  "why"  question.  J has g i v e n 0 a p e a n u t . "Oh m e r c i . " (Oh t h a n k y o u ) . > J i s busy s h e l l i n g a n o t h e r peanut. "C'est bon." (It's good). > Receives no r e s p o n s e .  Likewise,  in  asking  situational  merci  46.  rather  in  an a n s w e r  but c l e a r  in  colleagues  one o f  interested what  and h i s  Adam,  Whereas  explanation. happened  Brown  although  "why"  questions.  by  mysteriously  (48) is  is  asked  a case after  in which  a  "why"  my u t t e r a n c e  of  question bravo,  commendation.  pourquoi?  (2x)  J i s m i s p l a c i n g an o b j e c t in bookcase. " N o n , non J e a n . " J rearranges it. "Bravo." > "Pourquoi? comme c a . " (Why? because).  46  In echoes,  49.  other  Sophie's  cases  seems  50.  51.  In  to  in  other  which  expect  pourquoi  [a]  of  indicate,  tion,  unlike  hand,  however,  actually  imitates,  or  asks  (50)  and (51)  pourquoi  seem  seriously  to and  3 u t t e r a n c e s b e f o r e , M had r e f u s e d to g i v e J sponge b e c a u s e s h e s a i d i t was d i r t y . >  sal  J is cleaning. " C o m m e n t mon c h e r i ? " (What d e a r ? ) > J still cleaning:. "Je v a t s : Pourquoi sal encore?" (I'm g o i n g . Why s t i l l dirty?). J answers: Oui. M explains.  sal ?  cases,  one can o n l y  explanation  exists  but not f u l l y  Jean  his  "where"  only  explanation.  conflicting  non-existent,  his  Jean  an  [3]  above  in  Jean  S has j u s t a s k e d p o u r q u o i ? > Receives no a n s w e r .  pourquoi maman?  such  (49)  utterance.  the  understanding not  like  pourquoi?  On be  cases,  typically  use o f  only  that  a minimal  functional .  substantives  questions.  in  conclude  uses  As  Jean's  degree, the  pourquoi  and s p e c i f i e d  examples  in  isola-  objects  47 2.3.4  "What"  questions  Jean's question of  what  with  application. the  c'est?  the  picture  tinues  and  with  term  roles  books  typically  que  the  mother  picture  tioning  et  ca?  pointing  question.  the  mother  since  his  in For  provide with  et  She  to.  another  knowing  example,  in  (52),  the  of  the  the  familiarity  name  At  well Jean  the  role  (53),  with  picture  is  the  as ques-  name  and  Jean answer  does  obvious  of con-  introducing  in  However, he  replicas  mother  succeeds  animal.  mother's the  times,  the  in  qu'est-ce  the  object,  be  periods,  regarde,  Then,  to  start  provides  context.  ca?  limitations  appear  will  oh  child  pointed  speech  turn  questions  like,  the  to  reveal  question-answer  something  object  the  again  catalogues.  the  asks  continues  and  such  during  subsequently  ca^ i n t o  and  Here  asks  by  questions  or  own  he  "what"  not to  switches to  his  having when succeed the  mother.  52.  a  ca?  53.  r e n a r d • • • ca? r e n a r d ••• J  J i s naming o b j e c t s i n picture book a f t e r b e i n g a s k e d what it is. He h a s named a f o x . "Hein?" > J p o i n t s t o same f o x . "Un p e t i t r e n a r d . " (a s m a l l fox). v / P o i n t s to a b o y . " P e t i t - * - , t u s a i s ce que c ' e s t pa J e a n , c ' e s t un g a r - - ( s m a l l ? - - , y o u know w h a t t h i s i s J e a n , i t ' s a b---). J s u p p l i e s gon (oy ) .  48  The  fact  like"  in  that  such  that  the  usage answer  limitation  of  expression  ca_ a p p e a r s  and  is  wants an  not a the  object  2.3.5  name is  to  perform  the  otheris  Jean  aussi . in  would  instances  is  the  other  terms.  of  been  difficult since from  has  indicates  a  question.  Again  the  accompanied  by no  objects,  that  Jean  really  a n d n o t an e x p l a n a t i o n  to  clearly  neither the  act two  Sophie  is to  this  both  forms  types  only  of  what.  either  expression  and w o u l d  Jean  aussi  mentioned  where in  the  getting  the  to  have  object  speech  the  one.  one  and t h e  something  he s e e s  says  and  Jean  an  object  There  a r e no  requested  event.  listener  speaker.  he s i m p l y  when  into-  distinction  a us s i , "  or then  is  re-  a request:  action.  also  like  'Jean  the  the  doing  do l i k e w i s e ,  a  request  expressing  naming  between  utterance  content  expression or  of  and s i n c e  will of  distinguish  type  other,  which  book  following.  in  "teacher-  imperatives  nonverbal  He u s e s  a picture  aihready  object  like  of  question  independent  either  beforehand,  type  functionally,  Jean  characteristically  isolation,  the  and  is  known  this  in  a certain  action  in  "what"  distinct  If if  is  be made  Otherwise, is  in  for  a n d commands  nationally cannot  of  Requests It  quests  usage  true  o f jpa  has n o t  A typical  request  49  54.  Jean  There by  Jean.  asks  In  these  his  causing  with  are,  the mother  verbalize is  to  the  cases  to  help.  the  same  result  When J e a n  pressed  or  Some  extends  time  uttering  him t o  articulate  perform know  object  in  which  object  an a c t  he was  need  and  how t o it  to  is  mother  wanted  his  able  that  the  Jean  to  c^a b u t o n l y his  initiated  whatever  the  the  yoyo.  turn.  not  to  later,  otez  to  does  points  the  requests  unable  he e x t e n d e d  mamie. by  hand,  On o n e o c c a s i o n  be r e w o u n d , [^h]  is  he e i t h e r  sound.  said  other  Jean  unhappiness  and  mother  on t h e  desire,  a whining  a yoyo  S is using > Awai t s h i s  aussi.  mother to  because  achieve the  by r e f u s i n g  to  co-  operate.  2.4  Complete  Sentence  Sophie of  questions  ability she  to  could  had t h e  used  form  by  were  morphologically  here  is  or  "which"  children,  Sophie  ability  Remi  to  and J e a n ,  form  each  fact  tag  that  questions. "where"  questions,  marked  by  seem  to  the  none  pas.  she d i d not produce  questions  the  as w e l l .  although  n'est-ce  Considering  of  types  and had a c q u i r e d  "how" and "who" q u e s t i o n s  untertake  the  Stage:  of  all  first  In  to  addition,  these  some  any forms  data  be t h e  Of  of  the  of  interest "when"  three be  fully  50 acquired  (among  questions  seem  the to  wh-type  be  among  questions) those  last  and and  "which" most  and  "when"  difficult  to  acqui re. Although marked, qui in  yet  est-ce  of  do)  deviant, matical That would seem  this  since  so.  French for  confusions  for  the  other  terms  is  of  may  nearing  in  her  emphasis  noting using  not  similar not  be  shall  these  as  fluency and  of  In  question  highly  to  does  French  forming  forms  it  is  to  acquiEnglish,  here.  nevertheless, of  target her  the to  comparison  the  not  in  subsections a  degree.  English  the  acquisition  then, of  in  inversion  on  ungram-  a great  in  French;  a  seem  in  the  placed  where  would  be  as  the  noticeable  questions  place  her  points  to  of  appearance  essential  in  proceed  interesting  the  French  lack  take  Sophie  (and  in  lateness  be  were  English,  appear  inversion  speech  must  forms  development  colloquial  complete.  with I  do  morphologically  acquisition  formation  inversion  no means  two.  a  relative  children,  abilities, in  by  major  three  of  the  Unlike  linguistic  it  that  remain  is  the  behaviour.  lack  the  Sophie  follow,  que/qui  unacceptable,  accounting  language  qu'est-ce  of  Therefore,  of  nor  resemble  a  were  inversion  questions  they  wh-questions  question  stage  whereas  seem  sition  in  Sophie's  is,  and  linguistic  inversion at  the  neither  que/qui  Sophie's  lack of  as  all  between  abilities various  comparison,  especially  appropriately.  51 2.4.1  Yes/no-tag  questions  Questions ences has is  from  Remi's  acquired requested  known  as  Sophie,  to  tag  in  firmation.  and  this  ability agree  Remi  a  to  with  information  and  ask the  Jean,  questions speaker's major  does  poses  clarify  exhibit  not in  yes/no  what  a  number  difference  intonation  Sophie  and  One  Another  question  Here,  section  Jean's.  questions.  unlike  utterance  new  the  in  may  is  where point  of  that the  of  differ-  Sophie listener  view,  better  difference  is  repeat  adult's  order  the  to  receive  questions seem  to  that  her  to  a  con-  acquire  ambiguous  context. The not to end of  55.  appear. be  n' e s t - c e However,  appropriately  of  statements  colloquial  as  pas the  used. would  form  which  colloquial Sophie an  designates hein  inserts  adult.  and  tag  d 'accord  these  Below  a  are  items some  S  >  has  had  a  :  56.  f a u t pas t o u c h e r , d'accord? ( m u s t n ' t t o u c h , OK?)  No  response  from  the  examples  mint.  " N o n , c e n ' e s t pas b o n . (No , i t ' s not g o o d ) .  appear at  questions.  c ' e s t pas bon l e s bonbons hein? (The c a n d i e s isn't good, is it?)  does  II  infant.  52  57.  c ' e s t quoi d i f f i c i l e , hein? (it's so d i f f i c u l t , isn't?)  With hand,  exception, among  request of  the  those  either  \  S S  x  M agrees  questions  questions  a yes  or  no  is changing baby's d i a p e r . c a n ' t change d i a p e r , M h e l p s .  are  which  with  S.  negations.  On t h e  are  or  answer,  neutral  there  is  only  other  open one  and  thus  instance  negation.  58.  This  t i e n s , tu peux f a i r e o u t u ne s a i s pas? ( h e r e , c a n y o u do i t you d o n ' t know?). sentence  utterance  clearly  which  have  a yes  or  sentence  a  no a  yoyo, it.  would  or  offers  these  rising  the  Sophie said  utterances  neutral  intonation  answer.  certain  had m e r e l y these  playing with a d u l t to use  listener  a  choice  in  the  itself. Among  perform  \  S is like  Instead,  action.  For  questions, and y e t they  do  not  request  example,  would  not  have  been  "yes"  and  done  nothing.  be  said  to  could  there  be  in  utterances  simply  request  the  listener  the  following  satisfied In  are  if  this  requests.  the  to  adult  sense,  then,  53  tu peux l e f a i r e ? (can you d o i t ? ) .  59.  Likewise, help,  60.  then  the  following  to  be  tions than  from  during a yes  the  62.  assured  number  play,  (61)  no  answer.  or  more  that  yes/no  her  request  to  move  the  Receives  of  timesthat  is  again  utterances  questions  a  which  is  enlist right  the  as  v '  a  F, J S is  t u v a s d-Tner, a v e c n o u s ? ( a r e you g o i n g to have dinner with us?).  request  S \  is  response.  requested for  to diaper  help  instruc-  rather  and 0 a r e t a l k i n g . making a c l a y man.  no  following  request  verbal  Sophie  Receives  the  no  mother's  one.  The n e i g h b o u r ' s baby needs be c h a n g e d . S is changing w i t h M's h e l p . y  i l ^ f a u t f a i r e comme § a t - a - l a plite a modeler? ( m u s t do l i k e t h i s t o the c l a y ? ) Such  of  is  a l o r s , ga s e m e t comme c a ? ( t h i s ^oes l i k e t h i s ? )  Judging  61.  S has b e e n d r a w i n g , s e e s a boat in p i c t u r e book, would l i k e to have 0 draw it. ^>  new  three  response,  are  information.  playing  "Non." S asks  verbal  why.  with  toys  instances  54  63.  a  ta  (to  64.  On  "J'ai besoin d'aller autre (I n e e d t o go e l s e w h e r e . " S is playing with toys. >  maison? your  house?)  "Oui  c ' e s t T a n t e Domi n i q u e (Is it T.D. this?)  the  which  other seem  to  hand,  there  request  (Yes)  M comes letter. ca?)>  i n t o h o u s e , S g i v e her S watches M read letter.  " N o n , ce n ' e s t (No, i t i s not  are  utterances  clarification  part."  of  such what  pas T . D . c a . " T.D. this;.  as the  (65) adult  and  (66)  has  said.  S and M a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t swimming p o o l . ^ " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' o n a v a i t donne a l a dame p o u r l a cabine? ( W h a t d i d we g i v e t h e l a d y f o r our^cabin?). " C ' e t a i t t r e s amus.ant t u t e souv-tens?" (It was v e r y f u n n y , do y o u remember?) •> "Oui." S. s u p p l i e s a n s w e r . s  65.  dans  la  cabin'e?  S wants to w r i t e . She has c l a y i n hand. ^ " T u v.eux e c r i r e s u r l a p a t e a m o d e l e r ? " mfYouewafit to~write on t h e c l a y ? ) > S h e w r i t e s on c l a y . "Ca n ' e c r i t p a s . " N  66.  oui?  55  In  (65)  what  ficient  for  the  mother  Sophie  la  cabine?  Sophie  to  provide  the  to  obtains  answer.  seems  unbelievable  only  seems  to  express  As hint the  that  more  with  Sophie  est-ce  theless,  that  que  Sophie's  "Where" For  established, intended each  where  an  with  the  no  three  there  answer  inadequate her  Sophie,  something  however,  or  surprise  but  also  allowed  types  verb  or  of has  and  to  of  her  to  asking  which  to  be  write oui?  she  the  seems  to  request  write  on  the  acquire  to  questions or  clay.  is  inversion.  Jean  her  not  started  either  dans  on  there  yes/no  suf-  leads  questions,  pronoun  pose  that  the  is is  from  Of  acquisition by  of  course,  subjects,  when no  use  they  question  of  The  "where"  the  form  usage  this  as  ask  articulating  of  "where"  inappropriate  vocabulary.  characterized  by  to  no either  Neveris  far  Remi's.  questions  utterances. of  so,  acquired  than  permission  is  by  reassurance  Sophie,  she  seem  so,  to  other  or  answer,  (66),  ability  sophisticated  2.4.2  of  form,  doesn't  In  her  the  the  further  indeed  has  describing  provide  clay  clarification  is  all its  ou  est  non-seriously  to  some  degree  want  location.  For  easily  indicates  +  very  or  question  questions,  is  actually  being  her  data  is  questions  to  true know  Sophie,  distracted  fully the  although where  due  wide the the  well  from  to  range data  is  object  of  56 in  question  not  is  actually  utterance  inserted  mentioned  takes  the  seem  simple  of  true  ability,  form  of  other,  when  longer,  the  question virtually for  with  Also,  the  to  speech That  an  capable  be  of  of  it  That  as  no  object  is  then  the  this  form  indication  the  most  efficient  of  more  sophisticated  can  be  appearance  Jean.  Remi,  The  and  the  however,  "what,"  assigns  is  her  for  no  seen  most  "where"  and y e s / n o special  in  the  fully  articulated  here.  seen  agreement  in  this  cases  form like  problem  yet the  between  of  question  is  question  questions  is  needs  to  a  this  are fact form.  rarely  present  improvement,  following a  type  popular  status which  of  this  questions,  o_u e l e m e n t ,  use  of  "where"  the  singular  in  which  verb  and  object.  S is looking for in c a t a l o g u e .  N  67.  ou?  perhaps  is  the  utterance,  taken  demands  and  Sophie,  she  presence  there  When  est  be  as  she  Remi  "why,"  indicates  is  of  use  can  only  frequency  For  however,  question  i1/e11e  occasion  Jean.  which  Jean's  blank.  should  That  non-existent  in  plural  and  the  that  equal  in  the of  but  the  expressions.  Compare  form  is  questioning.  expression  in  form  should her  into  ou e s t (where  les joujoux? is the t o y s ? )  y  special  toys  Since  this  which  the  the  ques.tion object,  object  slot  expectable, fluency  2.4.3  and  is  unlike  in  Jean,  capable pourquoi  the  poses  the  for  number,  formula, a  Sophie  then  is  such  as  a formula,  merely  fitted  disagreement  final  point  of  acquisition  Sophie  seems  to  be  in into  is  before  questions  the  questions  whatever  of  Unlike of  exists  reached.  "Why"  nature  type  of is  Jean,  "why"  question,  situations Sophie  simply  which  does  presenting  although  the  not  did  simply  object  attached  not  to  of  the  she  fully did  warrant  aware pose  pourquoi ;  her  question.  rest  of  the  the  "why"  them.  ask  of  Also,  she But,  is again,  utterance.  S has t a k e n O ' s g l a s s e s . " N o n , j e ne v o i s p l u s , non c'est interdit!" ( N o ; I l e a n ' t s e e a n y m o r e , no it's forbidden). s  68.  pourquoi?  >  69.  p o u r q u o i tu v o i s rien? (why d o n ' t y o u s e e a n y t h i ng?)  >  eh  >  70.  pourquoi?  0 takes glasses back. " P a r c e q u e j e ne peux p a s v o i r sans mes l u n e t t e s . " (Because I c a n ' t s e e w i t h o u t my g l a s s e s ) .  H e i n ??  ii Comme  11  pa.  58 Notice, asked  for  example,  correctly,  it  rien?  There  deviant  form.  She  what  otherwise  formula.  On  also  such  has  used fully  original  the a  a  of  Sophie's  is  to  is  provided to  sition  by  raising  heard  be  the  question form:  tagging  however, the  form,  were  a  the  mother  than  on  be  ne Sophie's  on  statement  possibility  rather  for  pourquoi  the  to  pourquoi  explanations  utilizing  (68)-(70) event  the  adult.  of  Jean's  of  Such  pourquoi  then,  two  has  by  intended  "why" just  a  as  a  occasion  that  Sophie  altering  the  to  to  and  questions children  (a  the  end  are  questions  of  such  a  full  serious  this  failure  problem  acquiring  to  which  regard. playful  in  her  of  ask  appropriate  French).  by  a  acqui-  use  is  and  explanation.  outstanding  formulaic  questions  explanation  not  in  as  gratuity  characteristically  receive  the  and  frequent  sufficient  questions  was  sequence,  the  since  difficulties  questions: pourquoi  single  apparent  "where"  intended  "why"  The  conversation,  use  a  demonstrate  questions.  seriously  of  form  the  many  preceded  limited  simply  form, a  in  the  possible  hand,  "why"  Jean's  Sophie,  two  statement,  speech  continue  not  appear  if  form.  individual  and  (69)  other  acquired  an  Also,  are  might  Examples  compare  in  would  vois-tu  is  that  no  statement  means  and  59  2.4.4  "What"  questions  Like "what"  questions  questions Examples  71.  the  asked of  "what"  also when  this  questions  resemble the  type  teacher's  speaker  are  asked  (71)  knows  the  Sophie's or answer.  (75).  0 draws >  et p u i s ca c ' e s t quoi? (the, whit's this?)  Jean,  questions,  already  and  by  a man  and  names  head.  poi nts to neck. " Q u ' e s t - c e que tu p e n s e s q u e ca doit etre?" ( W h a t do y o u t h i n k i t m u s t be?) A f t e r two a d d i t i o n a l questions, S provides answer. >  72  S and M a r e catalogue.  maman, c ' e s t q u o i p a ? (mama, w h a t ' s this?) c ' e s t quoi ca?  73,  "Oh  petits p o u r 1 es enfants, et £a?  Aside and  are  thus which  do  posed not  stem  from  to  from  a  ca  maccherie?"  S p o i n t s to a m o u l d . M r e f u s e s to answer and S instead. S provides answer.  those  carry  require  quoi  "Hein?" > " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t pa?" S p e r s u a d e s M to "raconter." "Ce s o n t des p e t i t s p o t s pour les e n f a n t s . " (They're small pots > for chi1dren).  74,  75.  e'est  looking through S p o i n t s to p o t s .  an  need  on  quoi the  answer, to  questions  which  question-answer there  acquire  new  are  those  are  asks  teacher's  dialogue quoi  information.  and  questions For  example,  60  the  following  three  does  not  76.  c ' e s t q u o i ca? (what's t h i s ? )  77.  utterances  request  information  that  Sophie  have.  Jean tu (J w h a t  S has m y ^ c o m p a c t . > " Q u ' e s t - c e que t u c r o i s que c'est?" ( W h a t do y o u t h i n k i t is?). S s a y s she wants to l o o k i n s i d e .  veux q u o i ? do y o u w a n t ? )  )  " Q u ' e s t - c e q u e J e a n veu.t? Je ne c o m p r e n d s p a s . " (What d o e s Jean want? I don't understand). S is eating peanuts. J  provides  answer.  S is .looking through c a t a l o g u e . Jean i l a quoi pour Noel?) (J h a s w h a t f o r Xmas) " M a i s j e ne s a t s p a s , maman n'a - pas a c h e t e des affaires." (I d o n ' t k n o w , mama h a s n ' t b o u g h t things).  78.  ;  In  (76)  Sophie  in  (77)  Sophie,  and  thus  had  answer  to  in  tradition,  marily force  as what  quoi  always  had  him  Sophie  to  not  does  appears  not  compact  understood  In not  quoi  either  already  syntactic  the  (otherwise,  could  Sophie's  Sophie  Sophie  seen  question).  device  Of though  ask  the  So, a  never  also,  to  an  question.  had  the have  wanted  would  have  supplied  utterance, the  seem a  and  Jean  known  continue  question,  what  last  questions  keeping  answer  to  to  function  dialogue,  or  to  her prirein-  knows.  interest as  she  in  yet  here,  produce  appropriately  in  is  the  fact  Standard the  that  French  utterance.  alquestions,  In  other  61 words,  quoi  question for  element  instance,  whenever noun  is  a  *Jean  il  not  does  a  the  seemed  fronted, such  pour  appear.  neither  to  are  any  qu'est-ce  then  of  during  the  time  or  other  types.  "How"  questions  All than  Nine  of  each  case  the  of  quoi  must  of  an  the  do  not  y  the  juxtaposing  phrase)  that or  finally.  fact  that  spontaneously,  a  pro-  Thus  quoi?,  Whereas  the  Sophie,  knowledge  a dedans  appear. is  by  utterance.  appear  quoi?,*il  Sophie and  doesn't either  my o b s e r v a t i o n  manner  pa  and  c'est  Sophie  nor  in  any  quoi  did form  in  either  to  be  any  form  or  function,  for  "what"  questions  request  which  a  thing  are  undertaken  demonstrations always  seem  "how"  utterances  has  comment  following.  there  changes,  Sophie's  eleven  instructions utterances  of  the  the  end  prepositional  interest  conclusion,  progressive  rather  a  ca  formed  acquired  q_u_el_ q u e s t i o n s  delineated  2.4.5  simply  que.  In  for  (or  quoi?  Also,  pose  have  as*c'est Noel  not  frontier  to  preposition  utterances  of  questions  a  certain of  project  from  follows  the  the  fai re.  how and  to  Of  questions  instruction  is  to  do  type.  requests  adult.  clearly  In  interest  be  done. In  further  these here  is  62 S 79.  mamie, pour f a i r e comment i l f a u t faire une m a i s o n ? (mamie, i n o r d e r to h o w , m u s t I make a house?)  Since  Sophie's  questions,  the  question  element  thus  it  at  possible  is  all  tactic  anomalies  A more  typical  pour  faire  comment tions  une  pour  seem  instructions. formal time of  est-ce  of  is  request  given  in  with  judge  faire the  an  above  anomalous  degrees  stage  of  of  language have  maison,  il  faut  faire  comment?  serve  only  Also, que  in  and  one  Thus,  function,  addition  inverted had y e t  (manner,  in  to  forms  to  the  having of  instrumental  (if  and  il  data, of  to  the  the  syn-  something or  "how,"  acquire  with  acquisition).  been  that  these  utterance  semantic  would  maison?  in  occurs  (79)  une  home.  comment  of  questions  "Who"  have  version  faut  faire  "how"  ques-  obtaining acquire  the  Sophie,  other  and  like  at  more the  functions  ability).  questions  Although there  a  observation,  "how"  2.4.6  at  faire  to  to  resulting to  a  "Eh b i e n , reflechis." (Wei 1, think)  is  fai re,  building  />  strategy  first  is  two  no  sign  that  the  type  of  "who" Sophie  questions has  information  do  acquired that  a  appear the  serious  in  the  ability "who"  data,  to question  63  provides; question  both in  utterances  which  8(11.  maman,  c'est  de  qui  (mama,  whose  is  this?)  is  question since  is  pa?  as  be  a  2.4.7  quests have  to  that  tu  >  *  '  lack the  S  still  by  the  adult's  of  appearance  non-extensive  "whom"  "who"  in  such  qui?  for  with  this  fact  in  explanation  and  If  all  commands solely  through  catalogue.  '  understood  and  looking  "Hein? C ' e s t quoi Sophie ca?"(Huh? S i s r e f e r r i n g to unanswered what's q u e s t i o n o f (80) a b o v e . this S?)  avec  Requests at  ca?  etais  thorough  rely  of  certainly  Thus,  and  the  result  "whose"  and  answers. to  a  Sophie  appeared qui  ^a?  possible  prompted  S and J a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h catalogue while eating peanuts, " p a c ' e s t comme c h e z q u i ? " (Whose i s ^> this like?) d r o p s p e a n u t s on f l o o r . " A t t e n t i o n S, tu r a m a s s e s . " (Be c a r e f u l , gather).  chez  (Ix)  are  appears.  80.  It  qui  qui  below  for  this  period  utterances  mind,  she there  lack  of  type  of  questions  which  its  of  of  sampling,  when as  readily doesn't  they  c'est  a*  supplied seem  appearance.  imperatives a  distinction  in  the  data  on  slight  could  gathered  be  made  from  intonational  between  Sophie,  it  differences.  rewould It  64 could  be  said  that  like  tone,  that  utterance  cannot  be  and  identical.  but  would  or  a  the  the  For a  tone  command. two  one by  type.  She  a given  event  perform an  if  situation, e.g.,  action,  action  for  Sophie.  be  performed  listener Sophie  necessary a  able  new  to  to  to  so,  This  to  not  or  wishes  express  s t i l l ,  by  she  will  rather,  whatever  is  necessary  to  requests  of  this  are  desire the  do  many,  the  veux  not  listener  execute  to  picture  not  say  is  the for  a  pot,  request between  which by  often  all  met  provides  action.  the to perform entail  instance,  that  is  to  signal  by:  bien,  Sophie  with  Instances  of  and wants  to  example:  S has O ' s look i n . >  purse  an  informing For  ecrire  any  forth  book,  listener  have  to  have  something.  does  a  casserole,  brought  expressed  to  with  limited  are  then of  not  requests  Sophie wants  have  utterances  made.  request a  then  distinction  desire  a  of  is  those  she  dedans.  any is  and  type  are  whine-  distinction  une  it  clearly  to  Usually,  veux,  voir  is  a  cooking  a  soft,  intonation,  Donne  Sophie,  a  types  whether  through  tu  veux  says:  looking or  two  is  it  si  82.  she  write  type  the  Sophie  for  in  rising  whether  Sophie  wants  request.  "ecris  that  do  least  made  Otherwise,  designate  requests  a  action the  not  utterances  is  repeated,  request.  one,  is  slight  instance,  at  Sophie's  a  syntactically  does  of  utterance by  a  second  So,  types  be  since  like  the  marked  must  made  are  maman,  is  if  65  Another sion. as  That  though  was  is,  the  granting  ing,  Jean  that  it  Sophie's  it.  addressed  to  a  than  clay  from  two  parts  and  gave  one  quelque  chose  avec  la  of  utterances  84.  tells  On a n o t h e r  the half,  pate  having  Jean, a  la  the  case  may  request,  occasion,  saying  t i e n s,  tu  permission?  be  requesting it  peux were  cook-  although  on  divided  There  are  peux  Sophie  do w i t h  Sophie  tu  mother,  a modeler. to  Jean,  seem  into  faire a  number  the  following  examples.  S e x t e n d s y o y o t o M. t i e n s , tu peux e n r o u l e r , > mais 1'a p r e s q u e e n r o u l e r tout seul. ( h e r e , you can w i n d , but a l m o s t wound i t by m y s e l f ) . M winds yoyo f o r S.  e h , tu peux f a i r e bonhomme. ( e h , y o u c a n make man) .  Possibly, from  emphatic.  and  permis-  would  Jean  says:  command  context  a  Sophie  was as  of  and  this more  while  form  permission  Sophie  receiving  83.  requested  of  and  and  some  out  the  toy  tone  are  utterance  had  the  such  not  takes  example,  meant  was  request  For a  Since  was  of  listener  drops  ramasser.  type  the the  then,  the  mother's children  wants  0 to  draw  a man.  a  use  speech what  S  un  of on to  pouvoir those do.  might  have  occasions  been  when  acquired  the  mother  66 Clearly, commands;  tu  are  clearly  yet  the  tion  of  pleures,  of  inversion the  degree  and  vas  t'en,  However,  verb  and  utterances  are  as  tu  well  Sophie  reflexive  as  has  t'as sieds,  not  pronoun  unambiguously  acquired and  the  as  dele-  tu_.  Sophie's of  Sophie's  yes/no  complexity of  and  questions, are  not  requests  limited  to  exhibit  a  requests  events.  Summary  questions ferent  data  This  chapter  that  appeared  functions  children's  of  of  pronoun  reoccurrence  2.5  of  imperative.  Like higher  some  that  abilities  gathered  were  French-speaking  Table  II-.l^-  appearance  of  has in  each to  children be  questions.  the  different  types  the  and  discussed  the  a  data,  served.  make  a valid  would  described  Also,  requests.  sampling at  three  of  it  described  Assuming the  linguistic  different  characterization  that  of  stages, the  of difthe  the behaviour then  order  of  67  CHAPTER  THREE  NEGATION  3.1  Introduction  3.1.1  The  semantics A child's  interest ance  for  stage  question his  a  specify  subject  to  other,  not  have  to the  knowledge actions,  of in  abilities reveal.  Both  the  the  it  studies.  an  typically  elements  and  questions  or  of  and  his  proper  enumeration  addition,  by  including  particles  can  only  to  acquisition  the  and  use  serve;  context  of  this non  to  what  and  pas  pas,  to  a  just  direct  child  his  language could  utterance  in  functions  appears as  may  these  vocabulary of  and  language  express  different  way  yes/no  indicate  where  his  utter-  particle  indicates  of  categorize  in  to  serve  of  particular  one-word  can  vocabulary  an  to  the  negations  circumstances,  possible  the  of  unarticulated,  what  is  is  limited of  utterance,  acquired  language,  use  at  correctly  possibly  such  be  be  particles  While  occasional  context  ability  negative  might  appropriate  In  of  these  larger  beyond  analysis,  and  use  understanding. attention  use  negation  acquisition  answers  ability  of  at  lexical  first items  the  68  signals  the  acquisition  of  several  important  language  abi1i ties. The dependent by  the  analysis  treatment  argument  utterances  under  of  interest  of  abstraction.  a  child  rather along  is  to  than  actions  as  a yes/no yes/no  the  semantics actions  simply some  or  range  scale  children. of  open  says  object  are  missed  to  a  in  using  while  a  negating  negation the  must and  he may  be  is  (to to  to  by  of  For to  a  the  which  teacher  command. by  to  various  example,  here  or  study,  syntactic  the  making  a  usefulness  this  first  some  undertaking  obey  the  Thus,  negating  acquired  abilities  the  employ.  serious  or  what  negatives,  assertion,  suggests  "No"  at  be  purposes  cookie."  look  could  comply  referring  must  with  either  used.  level  be  abilities  second  this  able  negative  negative  at  he may  he  specify  morpheme  "no  he  a  generalizations  approach  utterances  refusing  child  negative "no"  adequate  negatives  For  negation  as  studies  in-  entailed  While  all  many  vocabulary, of  including  gives  each  context.  too  making  of  in  for  and  abilities,  ability,  disagreement  limited a  made  speaking),  as  or  separate  lines  (logically  a  particular  in  what  questions),  three  more  do  distinct  up  be  grammatical  The  setting  to  distinguishes  negatives  single  The  denial  with  of  could  simply  adult  many  use  a  follow  acquisition  able  proposition  even  to  appropriate  credible  to  of  measure such  of a  work  as  the  child  non-existence  would  a  negating  scope when  child,  an  of  adjective. action of  a  Or,  not  take  negative that  he  "no"  with  the  case  "no"  might  case  case  as  way,  the  to  use  tion The  a  is  scope  as  task  the  depends  work a  of  here:  may  can  of  inability,  on  to  as  throw  garment  of  out  Denial  in is  is  expresses  the  he  might  take In  the  and  in  the  In  increasing  the  answer  negating of  ability  scope.  demonstrate,  a  question.  direct  For  window, case  in  a  interest  lack  of  sharp  An  the  if  "No!" truth  assertion  possession  to  act,  would  of  a  Remi  of con-  performed  example,  which  denied.  being  that  assertions  Disapproval is  takes  abilities  assertions,  action  this  negation to  the  acquisi-  different to  in  third  sentence.  the  using  first  quantifier,  which  are  place,  non-possession, refusal  action.  being  finally,  attempt  an  negations.  a  case  a  with  various  some  is  a  determining  following  the  or  shall  non-existence  which  be  entire  of  I  would  adverb,  negation  the  the  the  utterance  one  some  event  subject's  negation  "omnibus" in  a  that  sentence.  an  the  disapproves  possession  over  denial,  offer,  or  situation  someone  previous  entire  desire  which  some  the  a  disapproval.  see  his  Or,  adjective  use  stitute  a  an  negation,  acquire,  case  to  an  go,"  adverb.  become  regard  and  an  "no  particle  to  disapproval,  rejection  in  ranging  on w h e t h e r  children  as  expressing  determining  any  With  as  verb  uniquely  or  as  over  ability  of  be  unwilling  negative  scope  place  place,  negatives  of  might  working  mean  second  he  and were  would  be  value of  to a  of  a  non-  certain  object.  Refusal  to  what  being  is  act  and  in  the  absence  hand,  the  differs refused  other of  an  an  Finally,  negation  referred  to  Some studies.  For  She  non-existence,  ings  of  of  this  subjects,  ability  not  far  more  the  expressed  used  above,  in  a  an  on  variety  of  that  order  the  cannot  have  her  been  express  other  perform. actions  study  discussed  of  non-existence,  the  by  "no"  study is  authors in  to  one  order and  of  Remi,  three  denial  is  would  non-existence that  of  be  other  English-  is  and first  (1970:218).  unfavourably  who  by  rejection,  acquisition  lastly  compares  Bloom,  mean  which  of  the  that  (1968:60-61).  ing  the  authors,  their  statements  The were  by  with  the  find-  comparable  only  once.  to  An  disapproval,  occurred  the  abilities  last  and  or  subject, of  and  McNeill.  27 m o n t h s  events  subsequently  rejection  two  negating  McNeill  non-existence  disapproval  months  discusses  conducted  report  Japanese  incorrectness  to  to  is  in  frequently.  mentioned  the  refer  Bloom  expressed  Another  There,  the  only  non-existence  speaker  Here,  mentioned  of  which  abilities  acquisition  Bloom's  case  Inability  rejection  study.  offer  persons.  may  that  then  one  Assertions  discusses  states  in  of  negation.  example,  denial.  order  action  these  children,  rejection  rejected  or  omnibus of  a  offer.  which  speaking  This  or  objects  expresses  as  from  by  negations  and the  Stage to  age,  objects, child  3,  appear,  EntaiIment-Non-EntaiIment  of  and  31 accord-  71 omnibus  negation.  Japanese one  action,  omnibus To  omnibus  discussed  interesting  the  negation  late,  at  appears  describe here,  is  negation,  appears  negation  further  It  the  as  least early  below  note  that  expressing 31  as  occurrence  table  to  more  months*, in  of  the  the  presents  whereas  in  data  the  than this  from  various  in  study  Remi.  abilities  three  children's  usages .  Occurrence  of  The  T a b l e III  .1  Negation  Abilities  Three  Negation  in  Negation negating the  elements:  negative  plus,  jamai s,  adult in  Jean  Sophie  X X X X X  X X X X X X X X  X X X X X  constructed  with  or  rien.  X X  French  standard  rie_ a n d  sentence,  Children  Remi Omni b u s Di s a p p r o v a l Rejection of o f f e r Refusal to act Non-exi stence Non-possession I n a b i 1 i ty Denial  3.1.2  in  French  pas.  Ne  however,  pas  In  a  is  always  has  can  replaced  sentence,  be  to  ne^ a l w a y s  occur by  appears  two  in either before  72  the  verb,  don't the  and  pas,  speak).  auxiliary  parle  (I  did  after,  If  the  tense  and  not  the  not  is  English,  3 . '2 .  not  ances,  a  natives be  what the  are in  What  are  the a  utterances  verb,  for  parle  pas  pas  occurs  example,  (I  after  je  n'ai  pas  is,  that  no  to  when in  three be  is  forms  to  be  such  terms  may  It  children's  answered  making  respective  ways.  not  form  acquired  as  the  in  d£  in  Abilities  the  negative  more  are  has  child  these  the  main  ne  acquired.  only  one-word  that  then  That  question  not  of  past,  Negation  child  scope  variety  follow  of  actions  only a  be  primary each  je  is  target  describing  described,  and of  to  A Scale In  the  complex.  have  example,  speak).  Briefly, French  for  of  a  morphemes by  utterances, will  be  various  possible  complex  and  necessarily  concerns  negation.  which  undertake  negative  his like  most  Negation  but  are in  non  important actions  altercan  used  terms  utterance.  to be  morphologically the  what  morphemes have,  utter-  may  the  What serve  analysis  to  enumerated. structured  complex  negating  actions. Perhaps regard  to  implies,  negation omnibus  the  most  complicated  is  that  of  negation  omnibus  includes  a  action  to  negation. variety  of  describe As  the  actions.  with  term The  73 fact by  that  this  no means  subjects. by  Remi,  lary  or  type  should In  who  of  suggest  fact, has  its  only  repertoire.  negation,  in  more  one  than  action  which  that  best  two It  is  it  is  example  negative  is  best  disapproval  specific  perhaps  most  to  be  performed  may  be  an  lexical  characterized and  rejection  In non  at  Remi, is  his  example  dog.  jumping  on  command o r for  his  tasks  in  him  and  pulling  a  for  Remi  the is  term,  uttered  force.  Thus,  'omnibus  adults  as  as  children  that  several  by  negative  Continuing actions,  perhaps  di s a p p r o v a l .  the  acts the next  case at of  dog  able  tional  well  are  a  vocabu-  "blanket"  required  with  are  for  has  the to  to  the  rough  Remi's  dog's  success  can  of  with  behaviour,  and in  be  one-word  performed  shouts  utterance  a  a  reprimand  all  of  appropriate  negation at  been  stop,  the  dog.  ,im" whi c P r Remi  him.  description most  bothering R. t o g e t away f r o m  occurs  this  disapproval  imperative  one  situation  dog  behaviour.  with  a  Tayo i s R tries  The  simultaneously  by  his  made  Context  y  above  older  event.  non.  the  by  utterance  items, in  Utterance  1.  complicated  these  interjec-  carried stage,  on  by  provided  simultaneously. negation  complicated  action  in is  terms  of  that  of  74  2.  i l f a u t pas manger c a , allez. > (mustn't eat t h i s , go)  The  above  case  in  is  which  cornflakes action Jean  in  from  she  when  3.  context  inability,  less  pas b i e n . (not good)  an  (Ix)  to  it.  She  and  she  not  action by  her  heed  by  a matter to  to  Jean's  those  cases  the  context  accomplish.  Sophie's  mild  pushing  of  disapproval  range  to  to  and  Again,  trying  can  anger,  is  a  doll's  responds  Jean.  emphasizes would  the  compares  is  involves  allez,  here  at  and  eat  m a n g e r £a,  action  action  Jean  from  of  verbal  sharp  disapproval  diswhen  pressing.  action  rather for  pas  Sophie  Such  trying  outraged  accompanied is  or  action,  Disapproval  more  since  alone.  faut  the  this  feeding  Jean's  away,  behaviour  is  bowl.  define  Another  of  il  to  of  eating  Sophie  the  Jean  situation  tional  is  becomes  to  pushing  approval,  example  retorting  disapproval  the  Jean  while  helps  Jean's  good  resistance  which  here By  by  away  active  a  S feeding d o l l . J eating doll's flakes. S p u s h e s J away f r o m her. y  which  than  example,  to  also  is  speech  (3)  a  response  context  is  to  the  situaassertion  below.  J i s g o i n g t o show new p u z z l e which is under t a b l e in toy box. J c a n ' t get puzzle out of box. > "Hein? (Huh?  Tu you  ne p e u x can ' t) .  pas?"  75 This  situation  show  me h i s  provides  new  puzzle,  Failing  to  bien  indicate  to  help.  He  is  to  is  able  4.  In the  the  his  the  above  paper,  that  and  receives  Jean,  Remi  Refusal  in to  children. stands  in  the act  now  is  one for  of  non:  he  indirectly his  own  a says  lack  to  table.  ask  adults.  indicate  pas  for  of  my  ability  Sophie  also  inability.  able  plus  her  as  yet  to  actions  to  towel  is  all  and  is  told  instead,  ^  R stands nothi ng.  clay  on  roll  Unlike  any-  Sophie  inability.  which  context,  the  (can't  activity.  indicate  case  roll  rouler  "Essuie mouth). 5.  under  toybox,  nearby  being  example,  the  to  preparing  S i s p l a y i n g w i t h c l a y on p a p e r sack. S c a n ' t r o l l c l a y on sack, gets help.  with  such  is  toybox  express  peux  immediate  Remi, front  help  cannot  Turning language  not  a  Jean  the  and  to  >  complains,  in  from  action  which  from  to  help  situation,  she  is  puzzle  elicit  undertake  which  in  inability  understands  obliquely  case  peux p l u s r o u l e r . (Ix) (can't roll anymore)  more) and  extract  to  a  form  responses  seem  equally  present to  wipe  and  la  in  says  in his  the  complex.  all  three  mouth,  but  non.  bouche."  front  to  of  (wipe  towel,  your  does  76 Similarly, only to  one  Remi  can  occasion  location  he  do  questions,  in  that  Remi  under  cupboard,  and he  says has  does  non,  given  not  is  occurrence  suspects  to  the  or  is  has in  not  very  the  far  low  data  more  frequency  gathered  down,  rather,  sit.  He  replies  insisting  or  non on  rejection  assertions  of  of  an  standing  Looking  to  he  be,  the  the  the  specific in  are  up  dog.  Here,  desired  object  place.  data  Sophie  looks  and  from  Although Remi,  Jean  its  non-existence  of  place  offer is  is  when  offered  meaning  that  he  to  Jean him  is to  rejects  the  up.  J i s s t a n d i n g and M wants t o s i t down a n d w o r k w i t h  autre  offer  a  non...  him clay.  > J  (no s t a n d no:.. . . d t h e r hammer w i t h . . . )  This  correlate  Tayo.  for  that  from  rejection  lever  nojn l e v e r n o n . . . ! ' [pa'p'a ] a v e c . . .  a  on  frequent. of  sit  of  Tayo  a  be  understandings  effect in  although  might  elsewhere  located  instance  to  6.  he  information  asked  offer,  where  what  whereabouts  look  is An  the  In  similar  to  exist  once,  asked  non-existence,  so.  proceeding  non-existence namely  express  does  entailed, the  also  won 1 1  sit  down.  > "Eh b i e n , tu peux t a p e r s u r l a pltte a m o d e l e r s i tu v e u x p o u r l a f a i re t r e s jolie."  is  distinct,  and  from  as  an  refusals  action, to  act.  from  77  non, (no,  7.  j e veux e c r i r e . I want to wri t e ) .  Here, the  clay,  this  remark,  she  Remi,  refusing  8.  Tayo was  Remi was  been  eat  at  data  express  be  the  get  getting  paper.  with  an  offer  non,  je  veux  the  sense,  necessary  executes  the  offer  play  ecrire.  same  with With  material  the  of  to  for  action  food.  R stops eating. M starts feeding him. T i s under the t a b l e pulli n g R's pajamas. > R t u r n s away f r o m s p o o n ^ , " A l l e z , une a u t r e b o u c h e e ? non? non? h e i n ? " (Come,, o n e m o r e m o u t h f u l ? no? no? huh?).  doing  more  than  rejecting  while  Remi  was  table  his  pajamas,  the of  it:  rejecting  the  gathered  to  to  lesser  by  be  at  Cases the  presented  (3x)  under  directed  a  Starts  rejects  proceeds  might  pulling  is  she  in  to  non::non!  Here,  Sophie  instead,  writing. by  "Tu eux j o u e r a v e c l a plrte a modeler?" (Do y o u w a n t t o p l a y wi t h t h e clay?). y  dog  as  Remi's well  assertion from  Jean.  non-possession, it  case  for  Sophie.  possession,  and  a  lack  of  Unlike of  the  mother's  not  to  Remi,  assertion  Remi  of  say  Sophie  offer. and  non!  non-possession  Although is  eating,  emphatic  as  an  since  could  that  it  have  offer.  exist  may  Since  not  only be  this  could  in  able may  also  assert  non-possession  in  the  78 data  may be a r e s u l t  reflection expresses  ( 9 ) , as  ruban,  lack  the  Jean  is  whether have  Jean  tape  ability.  (9) i s  a tape.  deny  observes  is  Jean not  expressing  language  In  the  case  rather of  than  Jean (9),  y p o i n t s to tape recorder. " N o n , J e a n n ' a p a s un r u b a n comme c^a." (No, J e a n d o e s n ' t have a t a p e like this).  the  remarks his)  tape  recorder  that  by J e a n  he d o e s pas  non-possession of  Of more  use r e f l e c t s  as  the  notion  the  not  tape  is  c'est  have  in  is  one  (or  question, or  that  possession  un  Clearly,  n o t mine  however, of  say  r u b a n pa.  The tape  importance,  I  I  don't  this  and t h e  ability  it.  preceding  non.  a  " C ' e s t p o u r A . c ' e s t un r u b a n . " (It's f o r A. It's a tape). J says r u b a n . " O u i , un r u b a n ! " (Yes, a tape).  interpreted  Finally,  10.  of  sampling  possession.  whereupon  that  to  non  a  non-extensive  J e a n pas ruban c a . ( J e a n no t a p e tnis).  9.  In  of  of  utterance  the is  action  of  undertaken  denying by J e a n  the  truth  of  and S o p h i e  the only.  J sees p i c t u r e o f c a r with a girl in i t , says i t i s h i s . "Ce n ' e s t pas pour Sophie?" (It's not f o r Sophie?) )  79 " R e g a r d e , i l y a une petite fille l a , c ' e s t pour S o p h i e . " (Look, there is a l i t t l e girl there, i t is for Sophie).  In  a weaker  that not  the  sense,  car  specify.  denies  the  in  Upon  hearing  cute,  pas not  the  Sophie  Lexical  3.3  of  three  following ances: Of  course,  than  those  pas,  such  book hand,  the  should and  pas  it  but  I  for  Sophie  which  Jean  Sophie in  denies  since  (11)  he  does  explicitly  says.  that  is  one  of  the  carriages  cute.  Utterances  respective  include  the  combinations  bon,  in  S is looking through catalogue and p o i n t i n g t o d o l l carriages whichshe wants. "fa c ' e s t mignon, regarde." (That's cute, look). l o o k i n g at carriages. >  Negative of  is  adult  comment  that  negative  above,  example  the  mignon. cute).  Usage:  particles  non,  what  denies  subjects  an  other  adult's  A grammar my  is  picture  the  truth  non, c ' e s t (non, i t ' s  is  the  On  11.  non  plus,  pas  particles distinguish  language fact to pu,  that  render pas  occurred here  abilities  of  they  the  negative  p-eux, with  only  used  and  terms  those  utterpas  bien.  other  combinations  80 which of  occur  speech  first  in  from  perform text,  with  and  themselves.  the  and  sufficient  point  how  of  they  second,  Negative view  fit  from  frequency  of  into  the  point  considered can  actions  of  and  complexity.  Section  approach,  and  this  will  view 3.2  of  a  figures  approached  are  and  used  speech  to  con-  morphological  concerned  involve  be  they  situational  frequency  section  be  utterances  what  the  to  the  action  morphological  description. Such of  information  of  using  or  reveal  pattern for  of  Remi  of  In  his  is  general this  adult.  Jean,  scope  a be  of  and  other  or  is  items  capable  complementary It  use  different  outlined:  hand,  he  two  particles. for  comparative  variety  least  basis, the  while  of  the  a  scope for  scope  to  demonstrates  should  general of  negation  Sophie that  it  of  varying  is  an  scope  negation.  3.3.1  Remi Remi's  items: to  the  the  undeterminable,  distribution on  and  at  morphemes  negative  on  may  include  the  frequency  way,  virtually  in  child:  various  acquisition  similar  of  each  should  internalized  the  particles.  description  for  has  distribution also  a  use  non in  and  negation pas  situations  bon. in  repertoire Of  which  these food  consists  two, is  pas  of  bon  involved.  two is  lexical restricted  When  he  81 refuses  to  he  utter  a  will figure  what  he  continue  his  says  here  and  is  Thus,  pas  may  lexicon, it  as  Non Remi.  fourth  session  use  of  this  non  appeared  to  the  point  is  below.  This  second  If  one  himself  Remi  could four  in  may  its  he  unintel1igibility The  first  was  a  not  combining  not,  bon  becomes  mean  exactly  pas  with  negative be  or  able  an  element to  usage.  that  element  it  23,  was  of  which  and  non?  the  particle  until  the  old  that  his  Before  this  time,  were other  question  or  not  7 days  motivated.  two  tasty  pas  qualified  was  called  times,  does  negative  here  when  is  subsequently  true  noted  be  a  food then,  he  fact  be  >  non.  to  with  sense,  since  not he  the  inappropriate two  and  were  the  second  R i s s t a n d i n g by c u p b o a r d a n d i t s door is open. "Tu veux l a f e r m e r ? " (You want to c l o s e it?).  12.  asked  not  single be  of  this  expand  should  only  cases.  and  the  term  special (12)  such  whether  itself,  although  is  It  in  In  speech  identify  for  bon.  of  adjective. in  pas  eating,  R  example  close  were (or  to did  the  is  situationally  cupboard  assume  closes  that  understand  door; he  was  what  he  he  door.  contradictory. does  not!in was  so fact  saying  but  says  Remi  is  non.  contradicting and  was  capable  82 of  correct  would  usage  resemble  (12')  of  a  Adult:  interpretation degree  other  of  explanation  of  "Do  you  (Tu  veux  want la  I don't anyway"  such  as  session  to  or  the  above  which  Remi's  its  close  interpretation  it?"  want t o , (non).  behaviour.  (12)  remaining  fermer?)  "No, will  his  for  the  like.  sophistication  aspect  fourth  then  something  Remi:  An  non)  but  would  is The  I  attributing  to  Remi  unsubstantiated  by  more  defensible  correlate  likely  (12')  internalization  of  is  non  and that  any  until  usage  was  the  in-  complete. After and as  is  used  Remi  is  lated  yet  non  or  entire  basically often  which better  in  occurrence  over  it  is  used not is  the makes  intended  any to  sentences, in  used  reaction  are  relate  precautionary  in  however,  even  one-word  a meaningful  answers  utterances  four,  appropriately,  whether  is  session  though stage.  hold  for  to  situation asks  occurs  The  in if  the  of  in  those  is  the going  as  to  Since  scope  it  the  is  question  situations  in  no  following  mother, to  iso-  predicates,  language,  example,  which  itself, this  scope,  the  adult's  For  he  frequently by  impossible.  Also,  to  fact  of  s i tuati ons,  one.  occurs  substantives,  virtually  response  measures,  it  determination  forthcoming. a  non  faire  taking kaka?  83  13.  non!  14.  non!  Carlota ance the  >  Smith  has  the  So,  pointed  child  "high-stress when  Remi  mood;  in  were  over  the  events  this  case,  his he  toilet may  is  which  was  chair  the  the  be  responding  rather  than  to  his  3.3.2  Jean Jean's  lexical list pas  items:  indicates, bon.  non,  pas,  many  of  However,  they  which  he  himself  question did did  not not  of  or  you  speak speak  his  to to  and  desire  to  as  the  had of  to  no  time  his  was  him  (1970:  in as  any if  would  a range  evoke. be  of  only  command  him  might  conception  In  placed  custom. the  on Thus,  situation  speech.  vocabulary pas  these are  a  response  item  utter-  utters  given  recognized  mother's  negative  one-word  "understand"  scope  periods  well  the  or  a  she  during  decode  mother  playing for  to  asked  his  possible)  that  words"  particular,  dialogue  he  out  seems  content  (characteristically, other  (Do  l o o k s i n s u l t e ^ d and h u r t . " N o n , t u e s sur? faire kaka?" > eyebrows are kneaded. "Tu e s t stir?" (your're sure?) R resumes play.  stage,  118).  "Tu veux f a i r e k a k a ? " w a n t t o go c a c a ? )  bien, are  not  consists pas  pu,  pas  expressions  reserved  to  of  the peux.  like  one  following As  the  Remi's  situation  or  84 set  of  situations  they  are  with  special  easily  last  expressions  the  enough,  pas  two  ductive,  have  pas  pas  in  With  some  regard  negative  verbs,  substantives,  in  following  tive  15.  He  and  a  taken  terms  of  relative  followed  do w i t h  scope  particles,  is  non  on  mother'-rs r e m a r k apartment.  to  in  bien.  with  other  but  themselves, non  is  Interestingly items.  The  inability  and  pas  very  This  eighteen  pu  can  is  compared  nonpro-  favour-  times.  complementary Remi's,  Yet,  distribution,  range  and  sentences.  use  non w i t h  over  Notice  both  an  that  adjec-  verb.  non d i f f i c i l e c o u p e r (not d i f f i c u l t cut)  uses  unlike  able  entities  frequency,  times.  and  generality.  pas  once,  some  adjectives,  Jean  as  expressing  fourteen  to  by  and  only  occurring  Jean's  the  be  appears  bien  increased  isolation  to  peux  have to  frequent,  occurring  with  In  appears  above  and  meant  usage.  most  existence;  ably  only,  one that  J i s u s i n g k n i f e to s h e l l peanut. He h a s b e e n t o l d i t i s difficult t o do t h i s . "Non, c ' e s t d i f f i c i l e . " (No, it's difficult). y>  occasion tomorrow  c o n t i nues c u t t i ng . "Comment?" (what)  with  demain  would  be  in  the  response day  to  to  vacuum  the the  85  16.  n o n , non d e m a i n . . . aujourd h u i . (no , no t o m o r r o w . . . today).  '  1  There  are  also  isolation;  17.  Jean  (17)  non...non  Finally,  for  puts  negates  non!  This  last  utterance.  is  of  such  trying  sentences,  entire  an  is  sentence  intended  with  vacuum.  an a d j e c t i v e  in  J i s t r y i n g t o use vacuum c l e a n e r . M i s t r y i n g to d i s s u a d e h i m . J says: ^ a va " C a v a ? c a un p e u d i f f i c i l e . " (UK? This, l i t t l e difficult). y c o n t i n u e s with vacuum.  perhaps  corpus  use  example.  to  t h e most  replete before  }  non i s  to  non a p p e a r i n g  difficile.  non, the  the  18.  cases  J has been t r y i n g t o g e t vacuum c l e a n e r from c l o s e t and use i t . M has been t r y i n g t o p u t i t b a c k . S h e t e l l s h i m v a c u u m w i l l be done t o m o r r o w . "Demain." (tomorrow) \  frequent  with  with  a  cases single  use to  in  which  w i l l n o t open m o u t h . "Non?" J opens mouth.  • the  entire  Jean  non.  J has p u t c l a y i n m o u t h . "Non J e a n , ce n ' e s t pas b o n , ouvre l a bouche." (It's not open y o u r m o u t h ) .  negate  which  previous  good,  86 Thus, to  negate  should  be  is  well  into  lexical  items  with  different  pointed  out,  utterances binations  and  pas  tion It  in  pas  With  the  be  can  noted  this  parents they  an  speech  pas  bien,  the  the  attributed  an  case  appear  scope  order for of  all  non+  cases  before  of  items  becoming  able  status.  Jean's  and  )  in  or  cases  also  such  not  It  negative their  com-  in  as  be  which  these and  pas  two  bien  nega-  pronouns.  realized  as  pas  (18').  0 asks S i f she^has seen o t h e r camel; Jean says: Jean. " J e a n a un c h a m e a u , oCt e s t 1 'autre.": ( J e a n has a c a m e l , where i s the other?) Other  camel  has  not  pas  plus  to  which and  can't  been to  to  pas  Jean's  this  bien  pronouns,  after  the  In  Whereas  item,  be  found,  prevelant,  him.  verbs.  negated  substantives  either  most  substantives  repeating  extends  of  of  syntactic  situation,  pu may  events  were  process  those  over  interpretation  never  of  entire  range  that  themselves  maintained  can  over  that  lexical  exception  comment  the  categories.  1 ' a u t r e p a s pu ( p l u s ) ( o t h e r c a n ' t (no more)).  maintain  In  single  grammatical  certain  However,  when  of  however,  with  expressions  18'.  the  consist  pu  should  p i us  Jean  utterances the  case  usages  order  nor  also  pas  of  of  non  is  not  pu  appear.  pas  bien  and  lexical  item  over  pas  pu  which  87 they  range  their  scope.  unable  to  continue  stuck,  he  utters  his  boule  For  example,  game pas  because bien  in  the  three  (19), ball  when  in  additional  the  Jean toy  is is  times  with  aplaintivesound.  19.  boule (ball  pas not  bien (3x) good)  Although  there  pas  bien  is  the  utterance  below,  new  one,  comments  working  or  was  making  Jean  J i s p l a y i n g w i t h t o y w h i c h has a ball in i t that t r a v e l s from one segment o f t o y t o a n o t h e r .  that  it  no a  > J can ' t f r e e b a l 1 , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e .  previous  utterance,  comment  about  while  used  is  a  that  the  the  cassette  other  1 a u t r e pas p u . . . 1 autre ( o t h e r not can . . . other)  case,  whether over  the  it  his  pronoun.  J  negation  expresses It  in  replaced is  no  by  a  longer  is  put  in  tape  >  1  any  that  Similarly  is  either  clear  gone.  1  In  is  ball.  New c a s s e t t e recorder. 20.  it  watches  utterance,  non-existence should  be  or  change.  1'autre  pas  pu.. .1'autre,  ineffectually,  pointed  out  that  ranges  Jean's  [papu]  88 utterance  can  equally  However,  as  mentioned  expanded  by  his  pas  Here,  pu.  indicate  his Of  two  utterances  21.  22.  23.  pu  Jean's  appear are  interpreted when  his  [papu]  utterance  the  is  more  pas  pas  plus  utterances  was  always  cannot  typical  be  9 *  examples  of  n o n , pas (no, not this)  y  pa  order  e  y  b i e n met good put  usual  p u ^  non p a s b i e n . . . p a s bien Jean. (no, not good. . . not good J e a n )  pas (no  Jean's  as  (no  more).  were  expanded  as  disambiguated  to  intentions.  course,  pas  be  above,  parents,  true  and  well  +  n  a  e  c  '  in  which  item.  such  pas  The  following  order.  J wants M to put p u z z l e " C ' e s t Jean qui met." J e a n who wi .1 T-?.put) ? .  Does "Si, (Yes  bien  piece (It's  in.  n o t work w i t h p u z z l e . Jean tres bien fait." Jean does wei1).  ?  pu p a t i n . . . m a m a n y can s k a t e s . . . m a m a ) .  J d o e s n ' t or w o n ' t p l a c e r i g h t in puzzle. "Mais tu f a i s .n'importe  piece quoi."  J has been c l e a r n ' n g „ M ' s skates w h i c h he now p u t s i n c l o s e t . "Bravo Jean, tres bien." (Bravo J e a n , very good), comes b a c k f r o m c l o s e t /  " P a s pu p a t i n s , i l s s o n t a r r a n g e s . " (But you are g o i n g anything). (No c a n ( m o r e ) s k a t e s , t h e y are in place).  89 In  both  these  ranges  over  mother  put  qui  met  nouns. in  in  the  of  using  to  please  third  the  Here  only  ability non  case or  again,  the  mother's Very  in  over  entire then  replete  the  of  isolation  appears  (no  tres  bien  c_a_ r e f e r s slot  comment  utterances  The  only  other  from  Jean  is  and i n  Its  scope  Jean  Here,  put  to  the  as  he s a y s  they  this  pas.  the  his by  noun.  which  is  inuttering  to  very  his  well).  Jean  is  n o n , pas  they  with  situation.  putting  patin...  answer  which  Jean.  a  range lexical  The d a t a  is  type.  with  range  in  seem  above,  Unlike  do n o t a p p e a r  This  conjunction  pu over  does  piece  this.  occurrences  pas  puzzle  in  Jean  puzzle  upon  (22)  the  not  bien  expresses  this)  (yes,  morpheme  can a l s o  Jean  spoken  instead  does  ranges  a verb.  finishing  on an e n t i r e of  are  (23),  says,  Jean  thus,  This  In  the  c'est  second,  used).  with  fait  have If  the  that  a dialogue  negation  n o t good  sentences. they  of  in  of  says,  Jean.  closet,  interest  requests  expression  non pas b i e n . . . p a s is  corpus.  pu do n o t  with  data  verbs.  this  t h e wrong  and pas  are  here  scope  bien  m e t pa  the  bien  item,  in  s i , Jean  likely  putting  pas  lack  pas b i e n  than  a n d he r e t o r t s ,  the  negative  the mother  names  item  the  Jean  participants  proper  in  of  when  rather  skates  Only the  the  negated  mother's  scope  piece,  person  Jean,  the (21),  puzzle  pronouns  Clearly,  maman.  a  In  (typically,  to  the  instances  which  expresses  particle  appears  substantives, over  a previous  negation both  in  in  pronouns,  and  situation.  90 When are  pas a  appears  number  utterance  24.  he  in  is  a  cases,  he  25.  asked  answers  of  is  to  un  crayon.  he  had  vocabulary, scope pas  tu It  heard,  of  utterance  of  sai s  below  pas.  is  ranges  a  n'as  a  There  typical  this  ranged over  the  5  item  mother  in  asks  the if  catalogue  he  Otherwise,  does in  is,  not  (25)  know, the  noun.  be  S has a p e n c i l . J d o e s n ' t and requests one. " T u n ' a s p a s un c r a y o n t o i , eh?" (You d o n ' t have a p e n c i l , eh?) J> "Quoi?" (what?). J repeats crayon.  un  crayon  said  that  crayon  was over  the  catalogue. ca?"  " T u ne s a i s pas?" (You d o n ' t know?)  negatively.  pas  however,  J is looking through " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t (What i s t h i s ? )  certain  crayon.  could  and  pas  over  un  a  When  question  non...pas  answer  what  pas.  her  pas  In  form  point.  is  answers  reduced  the  )  Jean  range  of  these  it  pas.  Here, and  of  alone  not a  t o i , eh? Jean  was  belonged the  only  to  ca  which,  says  imitating Jean's  utterance  substantive.  pronoun  Jean  non...pas what  spontaneous in  which  the use  In  (26),  Jean's  in  turn,  represents  an  91 action,  26.  that  of  drawing.  J w a n t s s o m e t h i n g b u t he i s not c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . "Jean d e s s i n e ? " (Jean draws?)  n o n . . . [ a ] p a s pa  y  d o e s n o t draw ^ "Pas j:a? pas p l u s ecrire?" (Not t h i s ? no m o r e w r i t i n g ? )  >  Here, in  Jean  order  wrong  is  to  question, pas  27.  In  to  and  clarify  Jean  dessine?,  note  that  pas  ranging  understood  ca  over  non  his  verb  this if  refer  case, the to  mieux.  If  not  pas  use  the  scope  of  wish.  is  the  the  pas  the  can  be  in  mother's  at  this  would point  have in  non...pas entire  still trying of c l o s e t .  the  it  asked ca.  the It  is  previous The  only  instance  utterance.  J i s t r y i n g to g e t vacuum c l e a n e r . "Le b a l a i est m i e u x . " (The broom is better). M is trying to dissuade J .  pas  not,  questioned  when  following  . . . non the  is  negation.  utterance broom  and  So,  says  negates  reinforces a  easily  Jean  n o n n o n . . . n o n non y a v e c m e t t e non p a s f a i t Qon n o n a s p i r a t e u r est la.  only to  being  possibly  question  interesting  of  not  to his  fai t  be  said  to  get  to  range  non. . .  is  vacuum  acquisition  1e  that as  over  fait  interpreted  utterance:  concluded  out  an  balai  Jean  est  did  element  which  92 could  range  event  or  is  verbs.  situation,  futile,  28.  over  since  its  with  pas  (28),  range  is  is  used  to  speculation  virtually  }  negate about  an  its  impossible  to  entire scope determine.  K n i f e i s taken from J , starts c r y i n g , s a l i v a runs from mouth. A t i s s u e i s p l a c e d under h i s m o u t h s i n c e he i s l y i n g on f l o o r . pushes t i s s u e crying.  away,  continues  Sophi e Perhaps regard  to  negative  (29),  peux  29.  n o n , peux  Her  repertoire a n d Remi  expressions regard  is  negative  Jean  important  corpus  combinations  Whereas  uses  the most  Sophie's  appeared.  Jean  in  non p a s .  3.3.3  and  as  When  is  the  Remi  pas peux  special  and J e a n  to  be made  usages have  dis-  on o n e o c c a s i o n ,  Sophie  pas.  pas  1'ouvrir.  includes  all  )  S has c o m p a c t . " T u ne p e u x p a s (You c a n ' t open  those  and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  a n d ad hoc u s a g e .  close  that  common t o  used  generalization  to  particle  adult  rie_ a p p e a r s  excludes  In  level,  correct  fact,  with  only  six  the  1'ouvrir?" it?)  elements all  her  of  ability  in  both  their  exception  times  of  this  special  in  this  that  the  corpus,  93 but  is  correctly  negative Sophie  used  particles,  also  isolation  has  appear  (at  either  Jean  least or  of  this  and  the in  any  the  is  adult  than  it  both  Remi  and  by  in  itself,  one, her  97  formula  (30)  with  c'est  30.  pas  fact  and  (31): des  to  the  bei_ng_ a c q u i r e d  by  Remi  but,  and  is.  again, These  these two  form)  a  In  pommes  to the  which  common and  appear  items  in  reported direct pas  has  the  do  Jean,  in not  speech  acquired  that  she  expect  of  appears  corrects  does  (adult) petit  she  estomac  special  her  usage formula,  first the  In  form.  vocabu-  avoids  that  speech.  here  a  characteristic  non  which  Sophie's  huh moi  n o n , h e i n moi p a s estomac. ( n o , me n o t s m a l l stomach).  fact  fact, in  in  a more  ca  the  sentence  utterances  non,  Sophie  falsely  Jean,  by  use  that  one  predominately  negative  this  addition  intelligible  lead  followed  occurs  rien,  completeness, might  found  were  In  n£ p a r t i c l e .  combinations, more  time.  Remi.  However, lary  which  plus  without  each  and  previous  only  23  deviate  of from  Compare a n d c_a  (77%),  (23%).  petit  S has been e a t i n g peanuts. "Comment p e u x - t u manger t o u t ca? Tu a s un t o u t petit estomac." (How c a n y o u e a t all this? You h a v e a s m a l 1 s t o m a c h ) . y  94  31.  C a , c ' e s t pas des pommes £ a . (This, it's not apples this).  Thus,  the  showing  adult  early  that  expansion  is  S and J a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h p i c t u r e book a t a p i c t u r e o f an o n i o n . J s a y s i t ' s pomme (apple). "Tu c o n n a i s ca S o p h i e ? " (Do y o u know t h i s Sophie?). y  something  pattern  of  acquisition  of  working  speech  easier  looks  to  at  As  respond with  contrary  to  with  an  utterance  belief,  then  to  simply  the  first  To other is  essentially  exhibits other This or The  of  no  of  situation,  syntax fact  negation  using that has  her  but  to  an  which  or  same  term,  with  as  or  to  then  only of  less  Sophie  which  follow  it  expresses  this  expresses  appropriate  in  using  with  particles  no  scope  completely  that  of  negative  entire not  negative  grammatical  discussing  negative has  use  other  does  been  speech,  not  for  utterance  the  however,  she  speech,  and  her  overcoming  positively  with  in  requires  the  Jean's  ability  deficiencies  classes  lingers  level  belief,  deny  words  the  in  picture.  inter-  her  negative  utterance.  discuss  classes  this  non  her  jection  particle  response  vocabulary,  patterns.  at  category  that  for  her  does  internalized  not  with  any matter.  combinations  consistently  problems  She  with that  with terms  adult.  particles  sentences  mean is  an  particles  correct.  entail  regard  to  that the  95 longer says  utterances.  non,  te  pas  In  the  utterance  non, (no,  correct  has  no  surface  negative verb. lack  of  hear  the of  realization  3.4  to  non, The be  a  also.  0  pretends  problem  of  an  which  that  pas  several  French  the  that  retains be  an  the  solved  speech,  early at  follow  this  or  form. in  the  sources:  failure  adult's  which  the  distinct  indicative of  utterance  into  command f o r m s ,  rapid  to  to  pas,  demands  from  from  also  away.  command f o r m  ne_ i n  similar  hand  ne m a n g e s  stem  over  but  eating  be  placed  could  of  doll.  to transporThus,  a  usage,  variety each  stage  of  of  Summary  variable  next. of  she  acquisition.  The and  is  ways,  indicates  language  is  pronoun  speech  important  which  is  feeding  pushes  internalization  the  instance,  >  pronoun.  confusion  full  Sophie's of  here  particle  Her  tation  form  is  to  te pas m a n g e r , you not eat).  The  for  manger.  S 32.  below,  In  abilities from  addition  negation  widens  one to and  to  undertake  stage the  of  negations  linguistic  expansion  specifies  its  of  the  range  are  both  development lexicon, as  the  diverse  to  the  the scope  child's  96 language no  becomes  specificity  used  non  to  more  in  range  his  no  the  negation  lexicon  the  next. acts  act,  rejecting  and  as  to  reject  negation (1970) the  an  and  first  Remi's  McNeill function the  case  first a  report  that  first second  offer,  of  "semantic  the  in  rejection  relation"  non-existence  from  one  action stage  could  end  of  their and  only  of  described  Greenfield,  could  these  by  Bloom  observe  was  third, once,  to  non-existence,  subjects the  perform  scale,  acquisition  that  to  inability,  the  assert  that  refusing  psycholinguists  appeared  negation.  of  other  of  appear  the  hand, Sophie  non-existence,  order  Both  other  disapproving,  act,  different  order  rejection  the  exhibited  predicates.  Sophie  to  The  the  scale,  refuse  (1968). to  the  at  and  on  from  asserting  Remi,  is  Jean,  Remi  varies  assertion,  non-existence  different  was  an  of  Whereas  Furthermore,  perform  end  second,  function  report  can  offer.  functions  non,  substantives  disapprove,  an  existence,  the  denying  of  problems.  one  non-possession.  undertake and  scope  the  such  usage  over  demonstrated  On  sophisticated.  non-  denial.  and  that  it  e_t,al_.  In  was  not  also  of  acquisition  of  functions.  They  an  ongoing  or  proposition  is  acquired and  the  act by  third  their  subjects.  denial  The  (1972:99).  the  97  CHAPTER  FOUR  THE APPEARANCE OF NON-SERIOUS UTTERANCES  4.1  Acquisition  and  Nothing that  each  study  to  of  It  their  from  In  this  verbal  play  It  seems  to  obtain  is  that  of  provide play  in  be t h e c a s e in  language  at  that  many  this  language  To e x t e n d beyond to  acquisi-  physical directly  in  which  the scope  range in  description  linguistic  into  to  and  be i n c l u d e d  the c o n d i t i o n s  use are c a l l e d  or  the a n a l y s i s  a preliminary  of  it  activity.  and c h i l d  a child's  No  by t h e m s e l v e s  1  least  fact  numerous  t o - f o l l o w , ';I>elook  well  the  the emphasis  by s u c h  the examples  aiding  as  the s u b j e c t s .  early  parent  is  of  up i n  or aided  involved.  behaviour  contained  whether  taken  between  Nevertheless,  will  the e f f e c t  mally  play  study.  of  to  s o much  phenomena  time,  observation  transactions  chapter  play  virtually  related  tape,  the  non-linguistic  this  this  corpus  on t h e p a r t  the c h i l d r e n ' s is  this  each  has g i v e n  parents,  language  uniquely  of  behaviour  may be c l o s e l y  activity. at  and hence  date  since  follows  tion  play  this  deserves, with  characterizes  session,  instances  Play  awareness. that  question  nor-  here.  98 Language tions) there to  users  and is  the  usually  a  reason  immediate  parents ances  normally  of  the  not do  situation.  In  and  the  environment, fact  the  then  the and  play  original  sessions children  form  of  play,  whether  ticipated  in  these  periods,  what  they  similar if  the  line  At were  behaviour fact,  their  mother.  about  objects  such  as  with  This in  were  Jean  of  house, all  for  the  into  play  the  or  utter-  between  point  to  In  Sophie, and  Sophie  I  puzzles,  and by  parof  and  same  waiting  following  play  answering  and  I  toys  the  it,  daily  books  drawing,  in  the  the ask  or  a  to  see  this mother's  dialogue.  of  and  engaged  repeated  answer had  to  inclinations or  natural-  due  physical.  the  was  their  periods,  objects  might  in  always  correction.  accompanied  of  the  sessions  children  typically  to  the  for  cooking  by  differentiate  consisted  clay,  relevant  first  meaning  name  and  and  play  of  wrong  question  Jean  and  the  I  is  unless  communication.  point  the  picture  blocks  playing  activities  for  to  following  later  make  strict  condi-  something  sessions,  linguistic  would  offer  could  In  things  and  procedure  customary  I  called;  object child  of  times  utter  intention  were  (sincerity  utterance  learns  evolved  the  children.  play the  say  to  their  speech  that  some  by  child  spontaneous the  they  undertake and  communication  record  what  so,  parent,  Since  the  to  intonation  serious  to  do  mean  session  with  questions  building  different  make-believe  games  cleaning.  Such  physical  linguistic  interchange  with  99 the  mother.  behaviour  Included  which  and  will  the  children  was  sympathetic  meant  that  answer "Who  be  like  and  exercise  since  sionally, answer  however,  "practice tion.  Often,  For not  play about  seem  to  sessions its  building trucks, what  Remi, be  blocks, balls,  and  an  and  a familiar  attention  cease  Jean  the  of  toy  other  of  which  trains.  dialogue  hand,  seemed  "Where a means  rewarded, a  good  before. the  the  would  this?,"  and  by  or  memory Occa-  question/ role  or  new  role  dialogue  informa-  of  the  toy  sizes  go  to  both  be  box w h i l e of  rings  animals,  questions  often  of  importance.  stuffed  Although  would  a or  various of  is  provide  on  who  the  themselves.  emptying  assortment  be  and  and  take  interest  were  to  which  child  provide and  play'  This  reinforcing  role  would  either  to  verbal  adult  the  "What  asked  a  an  do?,"  appear  play  questions the  was  been  1962:111)  or  on  to  this  seemed  would  items  consisted  contents  it  of  and  reinforced  new  (Piaget  pose  either  of  in  activity.  as  seemed  had  Sophie  and  This  questions  would  game"  questioner  did  the  does  type  activities  the  such  a  'linguistic  questions,  "What  Also,  was  assistance  narrate  pose  this?" were  the  as The  questions  this?,"  corrected.  dialogue  to  would were  like  described  subsequently.  ready  answers  rejected  be  interchange  required  adult  one  their  and  These  one  d i d you s e e which  engaged  the  this  best  discussed  them.  has  can  in  new  and  conversing and cars,  where  this  very  type  Our  small  about  unanswered,  this  or  special pleasant  100 for  Remi.  This  Remi  since  from a  verbal  in  the  exception  joined  him  recorded  4.2  was  Remi's  a  To  primary  and  about  the  write  child's have  been not  limited  an  has  most  of  and  a  not  establishing  in  the  response  the  pointed  when  the  elicit  having  be  adult  out  par-  that  mother  linguistic  and  with I  interaction  myself.  children's  and  justifying been  defining and  placed  on  for  the  of  just  here,  itself  in  Chapter  strictly  semantic is  to  concerns,  More  Some Two  and  such but  appropriate  of  to  for  Three.  the  utterances,  it  is  possible on  speech,  methodlogy This  situation  has  study  syntactic asked  a  investigators  chi1dren' s  their  also  of  concentrating  surface  has  lexicon,  information  recently,  semantics  questions.  such  acqui-  stages,  child's  length  been  of  such  utterances  stages,  utterances.  underlying  From  have  "stages"  the  mean  early  various  speech  defending  combinations,  structures  the  utterance  of  bound morphemes.  "functional"  underlying when  in  intelligible  utilized  in  breaks  delineating  of  grammars  at  but  was  should  studies  syntactic  surface  looked  asking  in  succeed  acquisition  milk  Remi  general,  of  adult  to  Considerations  attention  complexity  failed  interest  It  cookie,  between  interested  sition.  the  activity.  Theoretical  most  often  primary  with  of  for  In  to  his  contact  ticipate the  dialogue  and  question in  has  which  of it  101 occurs.  While  both  formal  the  clear  that  it  is  and  clear  that  semantic  pragmatic  or  children  rules  of  contextual  a  must  internalize  language,  conventions  it  is  equally  must  also  be  conventions  have  in  acqui red.  fact  come  look  at  The  order  to  to  shape  a  his  errors  comparison  subject his  and  stage  account the  and  the  rather  target  ventions  have  one  not  end  been  begin  which  of to  will  A second sibly ironic he  will  not  use  understand.  in  of  he  usage  order  to  one  between  the  between  must  take  into  Recent  has  adult  utterances.  even  speech.  speech  to  or  study  produced  which  may  determine  adults  assume  that  he  has  a  reason  to  when  his  utterance  adult  says, (which  speech  and  is  is  the  additional  language Thus,  age,  with  unless clear  An  necessary  not  contrast  spectrum,  sarcastic  says).  in  is  which  adult  is  several be  if  of  brought  such  con-  acquired.  speak  what  same  one  it  successful  errors  adult  underlying  convention  or  what  the  become  means  or  children  such  his  the  but  surrounding  Specifically, at  of  language  of  at  such  stages,  conventions language  reveals  if  utterance,  than  children  other  conventions  determine subject's  which  other  the  general to  In  a  that  most case  hearer  avoids  so,  is  cannot  a  will reason  understood.  the  speaker  typically when  behaviour,  someone  do  is  that  convention  his  speaker  is  babbling  he  not  or  misleading  being  does  that  not  the is  his  osten-  mean  speaker  unable  to  audience  by  102 making  sure  that  is  serious  if  is  intelligible  his  the  utterance  situation  because  it  is  does is  relevant not  to  the  indicate  phrased  in  situation,  otherwise,  language  an  and  audience  * can  understand.  inappropriate,  For due  serious  about  such  case  in  which  the  able  to  make  asked  areas  cation  have  called  which what  the he  thus,  the  preceding all were  not  child is  speaker  direct  chapters,  utterances excluded  in  which  maintained,  does  from  not  were  utterances  record  to  that  emphasizing  therefore,  adult  be are  he  that  which  These that  results  involve what  intend  what  an  he  utterances  unintelligible  discussion.  Clearly,  in  a  was  he  locating  conventions  contradiction  irrelevant  which  pourquoi would  seems  usually  questions.  recognize  in  are  he  without  utterances. can  questions  although  interested,  corpus  been  "play"  says,  pourquoi is  His  approach  questions,  the  pourquoi  irrelevance,  chapter  in  then,  questions.  unsuccessful  those  be  to  "stage"  such  This  Jean,  in  what  speech adult  with  the  says. were (for not  of  might  events  says,  the  pointed whatever of  a  in  or  facts. In  all  communi-  And, two  out,  and  reason) child's  T h e s e t h r e e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about l a n g u a g e use a r e f o r m a l i z e d i n P. G r i c e ' s "The L o g i c of C o n v e r s a t i o n " (Berkeley mimeo), 1968. T h e y a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n l e s s p h i l o s o p h i c a l and m o r e l i n g u i s t i c t e r m s i n D. G o r d o n & G . L a k o f f , "Conversational Postulates," Papers from the Seventh Regional M e e t i n g , Chicago Linguistic Society ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 7 1 ) , and i n G e i s a n d Zwicky's "On I n v i t e d I n f e r e n c e s , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y , 11:4 (1971). With r e g a r d to s i n c e r i t y c o n d i t i o n s f o r language u s e , see J. Searle, S p e e c h A c t s ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 6 5 .  103 speech cases such  is of  in  intentional irrelevancy  adult  which and  usage,  would  bad  seem  adult  faith.  to  be,  What  natural  usage, may  in  Here,  then,  shall  be  primarily  acquisition  of  understanding  of  when  a n d when  they  are  in  in  regarded  as  linguistic  interested  utterances  in  are  the  sincere  play.  Discussion  4.3  Here, initiate to  made  be  result  early  behaviour.  an  I  in  the  children's  linguistic  understand  play,  which  as  the  speech,  conversation  acquisition  of  the  completely  internalized.  We  the  in  give  a  believes person  were  object  does  divides  tells in  could to  intentions  of  order  to  benefit  to  restricted  being to  to  to  student  students,  he  at  be  one  would  be  or the  case,  (not  to  by  types  neces-  what  example,  order  in  stake  basic  obtaining For  in  not  acquire  falsehood  himself,  intended  surrounding  In  a  interest.  periods  either  speaker.  ability  direct  is  two  be  their  would  into  otherwise. a  of  those  event(s)  the  knows  claim  seem  of  and  surrounding  language  itself  he  achieve  is  convention"  the  what  not  indication  identify  not  behaviour  lie) he  can  "sincerity  which  participate  sincere  target  about  the  speaker  sarily  some  on  the  to  conventions  information  Such  depending the  behaviour  serious  speech.  which  are  the  and  locating  a first  utterances  Without  corpus  ability  if  he a  obtain  telling  a  lie.  104 A second or  is  into  case  exists  uncooperative a  humorous  in in  which order  did  not  Often, that he  play.  either Remi  any  had  children.  It  him,  and  format.  very  by  misnaming  quently, to  an  a  to  a  lesser  non-serious of  this  play  three  children  the is  of  convention  of  in  an  object,  situation  did to  sessions  to  any  the  games, other  mother  lacked  two  that  even  the  the  question/response  supply  the  names  of  eliciting  a  response one  in  have as  Remi,  at  Sophie,  at  a  the  Thus,  she  showed  to  objects reaction  Conse-  no  conventions  developed.  scale  on  all.  which  been  distinguish  speech.  the  respect,  in  could  adult  this  aware  directed  subjects  pole.  stage,  were  is  serious  be  answer  Remi  which  to  In  for  with  attempt, at no  seem  and  in  behaviour.  him.  first.  engage  ability  acquired,  not  engaged  utterance  such  behaviour  readily  three  utterances.  or  utterances  are  Jean,  one-word  question  received  negative  extent  the  develop  with,  utterances  the  such  not  object  convention  represents  for  all  stage  at  of  to  did  familiar  Taking such  ordinary  addressed  unprepared  he  all  point  during  was  Remi's  which  misnames  an  participate  being  seemed  Since  was  as  was  thus  turn  attention  the  recognize  he  or  threshold  behaviour to  pay was  reached the  ability  no  not  being  initiate  did  seemingly  play  Remi,  language  not  to  speaker  one.  Unsurprisingly, linguistic  the  along  one-word  the  other  between marked  which stage, hand,  serious  and and  acquisition  105  ability would  Turning  to  Jean,  engage  in  non-serious  to  agree  desired  to  end.  a  it  falsehood  (1)  is  a  is  in  case  possible  to  speech.  Jean,  order  in  to  identify  achieve  M, S a n d 0. a r e h a v i n g t e a , J wants to j o i n . " P o u r q u o i , t u es u n e petite fille?" (Why a r e y o u a l i t t l e girl?)  Jean  J p r e p a r e s to s i t at table. " T u es u n e fille?" (You're a g i r l ? ) ' > J r e c e i v e s a cup o f t e a and helps h i m s e l f to c o o k i e s .  fille  Initially,  a  for  ^girl's"  party, us.  the  This  party.  to  be  Of  course,  being party, along  an  a  tea,  mother  by  a  when he  feature  of  the  also,  this  case,  untruth, is  not  "girl,"  he  would  with  the  Jean  if  this  only  girl;  asks  obvious  but  m o t h e r had c o m m e n t e d big  So,  Jean  In  the  like  affair.  last  understood the  certain  Context  oui (yes)  us  a  Sophie,  point.  Utterance  join  like  an  that  he  mother's  to  is  and  the  makes  "a  tea  girl"  situation  for  says  Jean  is  agreeing  say not  was  Jean  order  to  enter  that  if  he  have  been  capable  non-serious  of  to  to  join  into not  allowed  remark.  join and  joins  knows  activity.  agreed  recognizing  join  he  he  the  to  be  been  as  what  would  the  to  have  fille'  with  had  to  wanting  seems  he  Sophie  seemed  a move  since  in  that  to the going  106 Likewise, falsehood  to  in  the  alleviate  situation  below,  the consequences  S  2.  has  Sophie  of  her  put c l a y  tells  a  action.  in  her  mouth  and p i e c e s o f i t have s t u c k to h e r t e e t h . M tells her, with a scolding tone, that her t e e t h are b l u e . ?  et Jean (and J e a n )  ^ "Non, Jean joue avec. Non, c'est blanc." (No, J plays with i t . No i t ' s w h i t e ) . N  v  moi mange p l u s a l a bouche. (me, n o t e a t i n t h e mouth)  Since  Sophie  had p u t c l a y  comment  was  serious  consequences  Sophie well  Jean  for  enlists was  either  misnaming on  his  forces mother.  Jean  of to  as  both  Although  view, break  an a c c o m p l i c e , clay  with  his  his  could  (3) b e l o w  the  led  to  mother,  knowing  deny  full  obvious  statement, Jean  persistent  playful  have  mother's  mouth.  a correct  the mother's off  in  and t h e  could  To d i s t r a c t  children  in  before,  situation  Sophie.  by d i s a g r e e i n g  objects.  point  the  Jean  j ' espere." hope)  h e r mouth  not p u t t i n g  Furthermore, facts  in  not her f i r s t ,  falsely  that  N  "Mais , (But I  speech  starts  physical  o r by to  insist  questioning  and a g r e e  with  the  107  ah bicyclette.•• Jean b i c y c l e t t e Jean bi c y c l e t t e  >  non . . . n o n . . . J e a n  >  oui non  y  is  seriousness  non-serious since  him  be  the  which  that  Jean  support  this  father  situation, given  his  in  ba  and  of  second  search  mother's In  cratic  "Oui, (Yes,  (You  c ' e s t mieux it's better  J?) think?) pour mamie." f o r mamy)  aussi?"  is  involved.  calls  the  "play"  the  play  this claim  lends  revision  of  the  and  takes duck  his  own  wish  ba.  of  with  a  she  to  to  cobe  His  additional  both  is  wishes  underlying  claim.  which  advantage  that  convention.  includes  claim  which  utterances  he  the  in  subsequently  since  for  begins  indicates  for  understands the  must  demonstrates  necessary  examples  Jean  he  persistence  desires  (4), Sophie  important  discovers  contention,  the  his  is  he  parties  resumption  his  crois?"  more  (3), then,  subsequent to  the  mother's  between shows  of  convention  serious.  operation and  one  claim  modify  made  (For  ca." *  >  perhaps,  to  Jean?"  "Papa  oui  the  "Pour "Tu  aussi  looking through c a t a l o g u e , an e x e r c i s e bicycle.  " N o n , c ' e s t pour l e s mamans, (No, i t ' s f o r mamas).  >  mamie  n o n . . . J e a n . . . papa (papa also)  This,  J is sees  himself  In  this  most be  Jean's  and  appropriate  humorous. idiosyn-  108 4.  S: J:  c ' e s t comme on (it i s l i k e we ca. ([ba] this)  J:  S:  ca c ' e s t (This is  l'a vu. saw)  J  S and J a r e l o o k i n g a t a d u c k in p i c t u r e book. " C ' e s t quoi ca?" (What's this?) 7  p o i n t s to d u c k . " C ' e s t un c a n a r d (It's a duck) J  du b a . [ba])  s  "Ba? (Ba?  qu'est-ce what i s  i  (This  ba,  When J e a n playing; in  the  c'est  first  du  said  however,  laughter, Whereas  question telling a  type  was  ba,  in  S  may  not  have  by his  que  ba?"  are  Sophie's  c'est  un  is  a  canard duck)  giggling  been  intentionally  playfulness,  understanding  behaviour  (6)  below,  and  J  of  he  the  what  joins  situation.  was  in  (misnaming,  Sophie  engages  in  seriousness.  S  are  playing.  " V o u s ne v o u l e z peanuts?" (You peanuts?)  oui oui non, (no,  c'est  This  (1)-(4)labove,  and  5.  S: J : S:  ba?  [ba]?  and  linguistic (5)  is  du  yJ  examples  non-serious  "ultra"  he  indicating  falsehoods), of  ba .  encouraged  in  que ba?)  /  la c ' e s t ca." du  ca." p  pas des petits d o n ' t w a n t some  y des p e t i t e s cacahouettes. small cacahouettes) "Oui, c'est the same).  pareil."  (Yes,  it's  109  6.  "Tu mets t o u t e s l e s petites cubes dans l a b t f T t e . " (Put all the cubes in b o x ) .  >  a h , c ' e s t des petits carres. (It i s smal1 s q u a r e s )  c ' e s t parei1 , pas p a r e i 1 .  >  c'est  S  In  both  instances,  aware  that  what  She  is  but  sees  an  reversing is  not  with  Sophie;  same  object  game  to  and is  recognized  children  tone in  by of  a  7. J :  Jean  J:  oui  J :  oui  say  that  aussi  that the  Sophie  always  Jean the  Sophie  and  she  knows the  as  indeed  is  Here,  learned been  a  mother. true,  she  may  be  from  her  mother.  expressions  that  blocks.  hyper-correct  seriousness  Sophie.  with  saying  has  case  plays  her  has  two  she  corrects'  her.  mother  the  adult's  non-serious  is  correct  exaggerates not  sings  mother  to  roles  rather,  It  playful  the  opportunity  the  This  is  "Des p e t i t e s c u b e s , des petits carres, c'est pareil." (It's the same, i t ' s not the same).  of  the  for  the  situation.  non-serious  In  both  (7)  and  (8),  utterance  does  not  engage  utterance the the  dialogue.  S has o b t a i n e d f r o m M.  a  cooking  pot  no J l e a v e s k i t c h e n , M has f o l l o w him t o n e x t room adjust his pants.  Jean a  is  engaged  cooking  pot.  Jean  va  Jean  makes  get to  be  A  perdre  help  in  son  pantalon to  them.  expected.  serious  situation  lighthearted  no move  with  cooking.  a  The  Thus,  A somewhat  comment  does  either  not  his  similar  as  to  is  getting  Mother's,  register,  tone  or  occurs  since  stop  does  continues  situation  he the  pants  playful  intently  which  such  seem  inspect  other's  Jean  in  to to  to  not  his  seem  game  of  below.  l o o k i n g at a p i c t u r e of a w i t h dog i n it. " C ' e s t une t a b l e c a ? " (Is a table?).  8.  basket this  >  maman, (mama,  S.  c ' e s t une is this a  a, panier this basket)  Sophie answer being So  able  far,  they it,  period.  she  were. and y e t  familiar  to  has My  is  with  the  been  Here,  reading  naming  if  seems  a  it  tables  objects she is  and  sees a  picture  to  situation,  however,  asked both  been  question  judge  had  t a b l e ga?^> table)' "Non, regarded bien y e u x , q u ' e s t - c e que (No, look well w i t h what i s it?) y  be  book  avec tes c'est?" your eyes,  in  a  unexpected.  Not  Sophie  turns  to  after  being  asked  a  table.  baskets.  basket  with  the  a  Clearly,  she  But,  is  she  question/  mother. what  dog  in  is unable  to  111 respond the  in  the  question  playful  Jean  these  two  significant  question, not  usual a  the  reveal  in  conventional (9)  followed  is  speech  an  the  that  question, instance  nature  of  I  was  target  which  conventions, has  complete  become  for  Jean  faced  language their is  able  the  could mother's  assumption hearer.  asked  to  Jean  w i t h my  peculiar,  duplicating  Sophie  she i s in  as  demonstrate  child  when  misleading when  to  the  respond  i ni t i ates  that  It  is  more readily. an  event.  9. F  hasn't  not r e c o g n i z e  avoid  contrast  "what"  pants  whether  will  neither  And, Sophie,  she c o u l d  She  tended  necessary  that  one's  situation.  speaker  interesting  insincere  understood  immediately  role.  strange  non-serious  before  To l o s e  which  decide  the  examples  examples  understanding. a  the  and S o p h i e  last  that  elicits.  Whereas that  tone  television...Jean  aussi  J  sees  a television  in  catalogue.  pas  " O u i , J e a n a u s s i a une t e l e , ou e s t l a t e l e a t o i ? ou e s t l a t e l e " de p a p a maman J e a n ? " ( Y e s , J t o o has a T V , where is y o u r T V ? , where i s J ' s daddy's mama's T V ? ) . > " T u ne l a v o i s p a s ? regarde b i e n , regarde: b i e n dans l a maison." (You d o n ' t s e e i t ? look well in the house). (TV i s v i s i l b e i n c o r n e r o f room).  ah n o n  >  " T u (You  ne l a don't  v o i s pas l a t e l e ? " see the T V ? ) .  112 non  > " T u ne l a v o i s (You d o n ' t s e e > p o i n t s t o TV  v  la  Notice utterance  of  "I  won't  to  be a w a r e  since at  the  had  a  start  what  of,the  of  the  television  the  to  participating  her  you are  with  Thus, in  playing  tone  that  Clearly, his  household  event, to  he  non-serious  fourth,  something Jean  like  seemed  expressed,  television  s e t , and  indicated  Sophie,  the  negation  the mother's  like  until  designates  saying."  the  (according  Jean  dialogues,  that  he t o o  interpretation can, in  addition  occasionally  initiate  himself.  Finally,  10  when  speech  utterance).  events  continues  contradiction  familiar  of  such  Jean  the mother  believe  he was  that  plus?" it anymore?)  (10)  below  represents  an a m b i g u o u s  situation.  J is playing, M joins i n . " Q u ' e s t - c e que t u f a i s de j o l i e s ? t u me r a c o n t e s ? " (What pretty t h i n g s are you d o i n g , w i l l you tel1 me?). does not r e s p o n d . " E h b i e n , J e a n f a i t un garg^on ou b i e n un p o l i s s o n ? " (Is J a boy o r a n a u g h t y boy?) [ S 9 S 0 ]  ?[saso] oui  "Hein?" > " T u es un > "Oh c ' e s t terrible, grand garj t h a t ' s awl big boy?)  poii sson?" C ' est t e r r i b l e ca J e a n n ' e s t pas l e (Oh, on d e m a m i e ? " ul . J i s n ' t mama's  113 In replies or  [sss'o].  p o i i sson .  and, oui In  answer  in  This  Jean  responses,  mother  or  utterance answered  as  he  oui.  motivated  by  Rather,  Jean  when  is  tunately,  This  are  in  ignored,  which  it  to  his  nature the  do  the he  be  not  he  utterance.  of  pay what  the  his  automatically seem  to  be  utterance.  being  understood  is  enough  Jean's  not  always  reply  of  p o i i sson ;  understood  adult's is  did  wording  mother  be  actual  either  therefore,  immediate to  to  exact  the  that  seem  the  oui  responses of  to  garcon  oui.  and  Unfor-  further  information  (10).  chapter  has  pointed  non-serious  which  direct  the  understands  the  and  assume  not  either  Jean  that  it,  oui  recognize  This  that  thought  Jean  of  Due  that  question,  form  saying  understand  to  does  utterances  appear. cator  to  be  initial  reduced  it.  understanding  there  a  mother  likely  questioned,  Summary  they  he  seems  4.4  those  is  intended  an  disambiguate  able  not  Jean's  to  are  the  be  confirms  not  Or,  mother's  could  may  it  did  said.  he  he  words,  attention  the  However,  turn,  other  to  do  not  out  that  usage.  mean w h a t  the  They they  with  the  situation  inconsistency  with  the  facts  standard may  constraints  result  in  on  can  in one  usage.  because  which good  conversation  non-serious  children  determine  state,  conflict  is  older  As  are Remi  they indibeing is  114  only to  at  the  acquire  one-word this  respondingly, and by  his  two-word  conversational Nevertheless,  is  utterance  with  she  I  is  has  Jean  regard  thoroughly  to  even  by On  begins  underlying out,  not  conversational  utterances.  stage,  pointed  with  of  he  characterized  irrelevant  as  only  which  speech  conventions  utterances  level,  understanding  situationlly the  utterance  the  familiar.  begun  rules.  Cor-  idiosyncratic the to  other  hand,  acquire  target  Sophie  persons,  yet  makes  the  language. non-serious  situations,  and  objects  11 5  CHAPTER  FIVE  SUMMARY  This of  the  three  children's levels  questions, the  of  their  nize  the  lexicon.  the  In has  lacked  study  has  provided  of  pointed  and  commands  at  the  work  out did  complete  that  then  abilities  the  each the  from  child  range a  to  as  discussed was  or  scope  syntactic-  acquisition,  In  to  contributing  on  languages  useful  it  also  participate  that not  of  exist  sentence  data than  for  has  been  distinction  even  stage.  in  the  Also,  to  and  recog-  field  English,  a  this  develop-  possible  suggested.  between  behaviour it  a  a general  interrogatives,  questions  a clear  new  other  information  discussing  acquisition  has  reported  play.  which  order  It  Departing  features  interrogatives  describing  language  children's  addition  theory.  of  prominant It  such  actions  while  consideration  of  imperatives.  speech  undertaking  linguistic  mental  and  three  behaviour.  acquisition  negative  out  discussed  linguistic  negation  semantic pointed  in  has  requests,  various  capable of  study  was  It  requests of  seen  a  child  from  the  116  data  that  negative  not  all  actions  speech  actions  of  study  the  between ness  necessary  existent  in  started  to  finding  may  at  the  and  that  was  serious  the  three  to  the  holophrastic  could.  all  such  the as and  a  the  undertake  the  same  child  not  perform  ability.  children  speech.  whereas It  is  additional  "telegraphic"  did  A significant could  The  distinction  child,  an  could  youngest  non-serious  youngest  used  the  oldest  not  make  acquire be  that  that and  children  distinguish  linguistic  was  the  aspect  seen  older  suggested  difference stages.  to two  aware-  be  non-  had  that between  this children  11 7  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Bloom,  Lois. 1 9 7 0 . Language Development: Form and Function in Emerging Grammars. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M . I . T . Press. —. 1 9 7 1 . One Word at a Time: Word Utterances Before Syntax. mimeo.  The Use of Single Columbia University:  Brown,  R o g e r , C a z d e n , C o u r t n e y , and Bel 1 u g i - K l i m a , U r s u l a . 1968. " T h e C h i l d ' s Grammar f r o m I t o III." Minnesota Symposia on Child Development, II. J o h n P. H i l l , e d . M i n n e a p o l i s : University of Minnesota Press, 28-73. R e p r i n t e d i n Child Language, A. Bar-Adon and W.F. L e o p o l d , e d s . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971, 382-412.  Brown,  Roger and H a n l o n , C a m i l l e . 1970. "Derivational Comp l e x i t y and O r d e r o f A c q u i s i t i o n i n C h i l d S p e e c h . " Cognition and the Development of Language. J.R. H a y e s , e d . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & Sons I n c . , 11-53.  Chafe,  Wallace. 1 9 7 0 . Meaning and the Structure of Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s .  Chomsky,  Noam.  1 9 6 5 . Aspects  Cambridge, .  of the Theory  Massachusetts:  1 9 5 7 . Syntactic  of  The M . I . T .  Structures.  Language.  Syntax. Press.  The Hague:  Mouton. Fillmore,  Charles J . 1 9 6 8 . "The Case f o r C a s e . " Universals in Linquistic Theory. Emmon B a c h a n d R o b e r t T . H a r m s , e d s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1-88.  118 Geis,  M i c h a e l L. a n d Z w i c k y , A r n o l d M. 1971. "On I n v i t e d Inferences." L i n g u i s t i c Inquiry, 1 1 : 4 , 561-566.  Gordon,  D a v i d and L a k o f f , G e o r g e . 1971. "Conversational Postulates." Papers from the Seventh Regional Meeting. Chicago: Chicago L i n g u i s t i c Society, 63-83.  Greenfield,  Patricia  M.,  Smith  Joshua  H. ,  and  Laufer,  1972. Communication and the Beginnings The Development of Semantic Structure  Speech Gregoire,  A.  Grice,  Paul.  Gruber,  mimeo.  Droz.  1968.  Jeffrey  S.  Logic 1967.  Berkeley:  of Conversation. "Topicalization  Troisieme  Librairie  mimeo.  in  Child Language." Reprinted in Leopold, eds. Prentice-Hall, 1 9 7 1 , 364-  Foundations of Language, 3, 3 7 - 6 5 . Child Language, A B a r - A d o n and W . F .  Guillaume,  Katz,  University:  L 'Apprentissage du Langage: La et les Annees Suivantes, II. Paris:  Englewood 382.  Ingram,  Harvard  Beyond.  of Language: in One-Word  1947.  Annee E.  and  Bernice.  Cliffs,  N.J.:  Paul. 1927. " L e D e v e l oppanent d e s E l e m e n t s Formels d a n s L e L a n g a g e de 1 ' E n f a n t . " Journal de Psychologie, 24, 203-229. R e p r i n t e d i n Studies of Child Language Development, C . A . F e r g u s o n and D . I . S l o b i n , eds. New Y o r k : H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, 1973: 240-251.  David. 1972. "The A c q u i s i t i o n of Q u e s t i o n s ' in and L i n g u i s t i c a l l y D e v i a n t C h i l d r e n : A Pilot Study." Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, June 1972. S t a n f o r d : Stanford University, 14-18.  Jerrold  J.  Theory  Mass.:  and  Postal,  Paul  of L i n g u i s t i c The  M . I .T .  M.  1964.  Descriptions.  Press .  An  Normal  Integrated  Cambridge,  119  Klima,  E d w a r d S. a n d B e l l u g i - K l i m a , U r s u l a . 1966. "Syntactic Regularities in the Speech of C h i l d r e n . " Psycholing u-ist-io s Papers. J . L y o n s and R.J. Wales, eds. Edinburgh: E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 183208. R e p r i n t e d i n Child Language, A. Bar-Adon and W.F. Leopold, eds. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971, 412-424.  Lewis,  M.M. 1968. George G.  McNeill,  Menyuk,  Language Th. ought Harrap & Co.  and  London:  Personality.  D a v i d and M c N e i l l , N o b u k o . 1968. "What Does a C h i l d Mean When He S a y s " N o " ? " Language and Language Behavior. E r i c M. Z a l e , e d . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 51-62. Paula.  1971.  The  Acquisition  Englewood  Language.  Cliffs,  and  Development  N.J.:  of  Prentice-Hall.  MenyU'k-r—Paul a a n d N. B e r n h o l t z . 1 969. "Prosodic Features and C h i l d r e n ' s L a n g u a g e P r o d u c t i o n , " Research Laboratory of Electronics Quarterly Progress Reports, No. 93. i n The Acquisition and Development of Language. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971 , 61 . Piaget,  Jean. New  1962. York:  Searle,  J o h n R. Press.  Play W.W.  1969.  Dreams and Imitation Norton & Company.  Speech  Acts.  Cambridge:  in  Childhood.  The  University  Smith,  C a r l o t a S. 1970. "An E x p e r i m e n t a l A p p r o a c h dren's L i n g u i s t i c Competence." Cognition Development of Language. J.R. Hayes e d . John Wiley & Sons, 109-135.  to C h i l and the New Y o r k :  Smith,  M a d o r a h , E. 1933. " T h e • I n f 1 u e n c e o f A g e , S e x , and S i t u a t i o n on t h e F r e q u e n c y , F o r m a n d F u n c t i o n o f Q u e s t i o n s A s k e d by P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n , " Child Development, IV:3 , 201-213.  120  APPENDIX A  REMI:  A.1  Question  A.1.1  Yes/no  QUESTIONS AND NEGATIONS  Utterances questions  Utterance 22,17  1.  chocolat?  23,4 2.  c  1  e s t ca?  Context  R is having a snack. " T u v e u x du c h o c o l at?"-* > R w a i t s w h i l e mother goes cupboard. R gets chocolate. R pulls touches  >  mother bread.  to  to  cupboard,  The a p p e n d i c e s w i l l p r e s e n t each c h i l d ' s question and n e g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s . The c o n t e x t o f each u t t e r a n c e will be on t h e l e f t a n d w i l l c o n t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v e n t and s p e e c h d i r e c t e d t o t h e c h i l d . The c h i l d ' s utterance w i l l a p p e a r on t h e r i g h t h a n d s i d e a n d i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d b y > . T h e m o t h e r w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o a s M, t h e f a t h e r a s F , Remi a s R, J e a n a s J , S o p h i e as S , and t h e o b s e r v e r as 0 . The f o l l o w i n g diacritical marks w i l l be u s e d : (...) f o r p a u s e , (:) for lengthening o f u t t e r a n c e , and ( [ ] ) f o r phonetic representation. The n u m b e r o f r e p e t i t i o n s o f a n u t t e r a n c e w i l l be m a r k e d by ( x ) a f t e r the u t t e r a n c e . Throughout the data [hah] w i l l appear as hjjh. a n d [ h £ ] a s h e i n . The age o f the c h i l d w i l l appear above the c h i l d ' s utterance.  1 21  "Non,  ga  R goes "Non,  c'est  on non,  buffet."  > R  looks  "II  to  ne  du  some  ne  pain." other  touches  activity.  pas  le  (2x) at  faut  M while pas  touching.  touche.r,  interdit."  R is holding a small box. " C ' e s t une b o T t e , c ' e s t une petite bo'Tte." > •  R picks box.  up  "Ca,  n'est  ce  another  pas  toy  une  from  toy  boite."  > R is holding a t r a i n . "Oui , c ' e s t un t r a i n . " R is playing with construction b o x e s , and i s l o o k i n g f o r third box. "C'est la bas." Box i s pointed at.  >  still looking around. "C'estja bas. Ou e s t la troisieme?" R f i n d s box. T h e dog has u r i n a t e d i n n e x t room. "II a fait pipi, c'est tres vilain." N  ?  watches M clean "Oui, il a fait vilain."  spot. pipi,  v  c'est  tres  R i s s t a c k i n g b o x e s on t o p o f e a c h o t h e r w i t h some a s s i s t a n c e . " E t p u i s une a u t r e " as another box i s a d d e d .  1 22  8.  et  comme  he  une?  > "Et  hands puis  Tayo, 9.  [>]  h l j ]  11.  un  kookie  13.  kookie?  A.1.2  la?  un  autre?  huh?...non?  balle?  >  R extends "Merci."  0  (Ix)  had  another  it  action  refuses.  to  as  R  Quoi?"  gets  M.  (12)  R eats  directed  to  0  cookis.  >  R has a l e t t e r i n hand and i s g o i n g to drop i t t h r o u g h a s l o t " N o n , on 1e met l a . " d i f f e r e n t slot is pointed out.  questions  23 0 '  15.  has  M has f i n i s h e d c o o k i e another cookie.  same  "Where"  dog,  " O u i , c ' e s t un g r a n d p i p i . > R p o i n t s to s p o n g e . , " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas 1'eponge pour T . "  >  la?  autre."  >  25,20 Ir.  the  stack  ?  24,19 12.  une  to  " O u i , T a f a i t pi p i , pi p i . " R r e p e a t s pi p i . " O u i , i1 a f a i t p i p i . "  kaka?  autre?  box  accident.  kaka?  10.  a  balle?  R has been p l a y i n g w i t h tennis balls. T h e y a r e now a l l dispersed about the room. > R l o o k s b e h i n d s t o n e and f i n d s nothing. Continues looking for balls.  123  25,20 16.  i1  est  22,27  17.  18.  huh?  huh?  ou?  i1  est  ou?  :  R was p l a y i n g w i t h a t o y b o a t w h i c h i s now o u t o f s i g h t . > R looks around, while eating. M f i n d s b o a t and hands i t to R.  "Tu n ' a s pas e n v i ? " l o o k s up a t m o t h e r . > " E n v i d ' a l l e r au c a b i n e t ? pipi?" No v e r b a l r e s p o n s e f r o m R. R e s u m e s some o t h e r activity. "Ou e s t t o n telephone?" > R hand t r a i n . " N o n , ce n ' e s t pas l e telephone." o c c u p i e d w i t h t r a i n , p a y s no attention. /  y  23,0  19.  huh?  23,4 20.  21.  huh?  huh?  R i s watching the tape recorder. " Q u ' e s t - c e q u e c^a f a i t ? " > R watches w h i l e tape is changed. M is holding a duck. " C ' e s t q u o i ca? c ' e s t quoi?" > R l o o k s a t M f o r a moment t h e n c o n t i n u e s h a n d i n g t o y s t o M. " C ' e s t q u o i ? c ' e s t un c a n a r d . "  0 asks R to g i v e p i g l e t from toy box. R hands train. " C ' e s t un train?" > l o o k s a t t r a i n he h a s j u s t given. " C ' e s t un t r a i n ? " R imitates t r a i n.  124  22.  huh?  23.  huh?  24.  huh?  25.  huh?  23,7  26.  27.  "That t i c k l e s " (English). being t i c k l e d . > looks at 0, then proceeds ing toys o f f table.  huh?  is  throw-  R is coring potatoes with knife " C a t e f a i t mai , n o n ? " > R continues coring. " C a ne t e f a i t p a s m a i ? " / inspects potato eye. " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? potatoeye? R and 0 have been t h r o w i n g a b a l l o f p a p e r back and f o r t h , b a l l i s on f l o o r . "Je 1'ai perdu." > R is waiting with o u t s t r e t c h e d arms. "Je 1'ai perdu." R requests un a u t r e ? "Met box  huh?  R  ca  la."  motioned  to  toy  > l o o k s a t 0 and t a k e s a c o n s t r u c t i o n cube 0 i s e x t e n d i n g . "Dans l a b o t t e . " Box i s pointed at a g a i n . R puts toy in box.  R is hammering. " T u f a i t comme p a p a ? " > c o n t i n u e s h a m m e r i n g , d o e s n ' t pay attention. " T u f a i s comme p a p a ? " no v e r b a l response from J . Toy "£a  is va  about to tomber!"  fall  off  table.  125 28.  huh?  > 1ooks a t 0. "Regarde, £a at toy being  23,11  29.  huh?  R  R has g i v e n a c a r w h e e l . " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " > looks at 0, then runs o f f with dog.  There is a "Qu'est-ce  ?  looks  30.  va t o m b e r . " pointed.  in  banana i n bag qu'il y a?"  bag,  finds  to  for  looks  play  R.  banana.  huh? R is playing with c o n s t r u c t i o n boxes. "Ou e s t l a troisieme?" s  >  looks  around.  31.  huh?  "C'est out.  32.  huh?  "Ou e s t l e train?" > l o o k s around but produces  23,14  33.  "Ou huh?  est  35.  huh?  huh?  bas."  ta  box  chaise?  is  ta  pointed  nothing.  petite  chaise?"  7  looks  34.  la  at  0.  "Dans ta chambre?" > still looking. we g e t h i s c h a i r f r o m "Le toy  > R  train," box.  finds  as  train  0  in  looks  box.  his  room.  through  126 23,21  36.  huh?  R is using a p e n c i l which doesn't wri t e . " P o u r q u o i ca n ' e c r i t pas le crayon?" ^  > R  23,25  37.  38.  huh?  hein?  continues  using  pencil.  R i s l o o k i n g i n my b a g . "II n 'y a r i e n d e d a n s . " > R k e e p s on l o o k i n g i n b a g . "II n' y a r i e n . " " R e m i , ou ^s i n t o y  est le box.  canard?"  duck  R is occupied with small boxes, question repeated several times, no a t t e n t i o n f r o m R b u t he s a y s canard once. N  "Ou 39.  huh?  est  le  40.  huh?  train  not  in  > R runs to back w i t h  25,20  train?"  view. another train.  R has a l e t t e r " Q u ' e s t - c e que mai n t e n a n t ? "  in tu  room  and  comes  hand. vas fair  >  R is putting l e t t e r s in s l o t s . Q u e s t i o n is r e p e a t e d , R says [me]. "Elle  41.  huh?  est  question  ou is  ta  poche?  Remi?"  repeated  > R looks at repeated.  mother, R shows  A toy l e t t e r f a l l s "C'est tombe?"  question his pocket. to  floor.  127  42.  huh?  > looks  A.2  Negative  for  it  and  finds  it  Cupboard door is open. s t a n d i n g by it. "Tu veux l a fermer?" > R. c l o s e s d o o r .  R  Utterances  22,27  43.  non.  23,7 44.  non!  45.  non!  is  "Tu vas f a i r e kaka?" > l o o k s i n s u l t e d and h u r t . " N o n , t u es s u r ? f a i r e kaka?" > eyebrows are kneaded. " T u es s u V ? " R continues playing  46.  c ' est  pas  bon.  47.  c'est c'est  pas b o n . . . bon  R is having a cookie break. " C e n ' e s t pas bon ca? si? c'est bon?" > keeps e a t i n g c o o k i e and d r i n k ing m i l k . " C e n ' e s t pas bon c a ? " > keeps e a t i n g c o o k i e and d r i n k i n g milk. " H u h , c e n ' e s t pas bon? c'est b o n ou c e n ' e s t p a s b o n ? " no r e s p o n s e f r o m R. v  23,11 48.  oh  non!  R gets spoon from drawer to get l i d o f f cookie can. > c a n ' t g e t l i d o f f , t h e n he succeeds.  1 28  49.  Tayo (puppy) > R hi ts d o g .  non!  starts  50.  non!  51 .  oh  52.  (Ix)  non!  54.  playing trying  to  T  on  back,  is  >  non!  Looks finds  T i s rough nipping.  non...non!  him.  dog  get  again.  away  from  R pushes  behind  with  R,  >  non!  est  and  jumping  (3x)  Tu  and  dis  eating. R requests  bread.  R stops e a t i n g , M starts him. Tayo is under the p u l l i n g R's pajamas.  > R  bon  it.  dog it behind  wash  R is eating cereal. " C ' e s t d, : c e r e a l e . cerlale?"  non::  il  T.  >  non  pas  R's  for it dog.  "Non?"  56.  with  R is >  keeps  55.  biting  "II . e s t ou l e c h i e n ? ou T? i l e s t caclfe?" R looks under c u p b o a r d , i s n ' t there. Looks f o r  23,14 53.  is  turns  face  away  " A l l e z , une a u t r e non? non? huh?"  from  feeding table  spoon.  bouchee?  >  won't eat. " C e n ' e s t pas R answers est eati ng.  bon?" bon and  starts  129 R u p s e t s bowl o f d r y c e r e a l . M starts gathering cereal while t a l k i n g to 0. > R p u s h e s M's hand and g a t h e r s cereal himself.  57.  non.  58.  non T a t u  59 .  oh  60.  61 .  62.  oh  non: : :  R has >  non: : :  R topples >  unhooked  rings  trains  down.  R gives 0 a c a l e n d e r from b o x , h a s a p i c t u r e on o n e " C ' e s t un c a l e n d r i e r . "  toy side.  y  non.  oh  " T u as f i n i a v e c l a cereale?" ^> T i s a r o u n d , R has s t o p p e d e a t i n g "Tatu?" R does not r e s p o n d .  takes calender back. " C e n ' e s t p a s un calendrier?" R goes to d o o r and p r e t e n d s the m a i l m a n has b r o u g h t it. no v e r b a l response.  non:  63.  non  Tato.  64.  non  Tayo.  65.  oh  non.  R is playing unusual . ^>  with  toys,  nothing  T is eating shoelaces. "Non T a y o ! " ? R looks at 0. "Non T a y o ! " > still l o o k i n g at 0.  /> R T  t r i e s to cereal.  get  free  while  giving  1 30  66.  oh  R }  non.  67.  ah  non.  68.  ah  non: : :  23,21  R  non.  70.  non: :  is  "Mets  71 .  non:  73.  non:  74.  non  pas  cookie  in  bowl  trying  les  to  get  trains  away  from  ensemble.  (Ix  >  pushes t r a i n s o f f table. " P o u r q u o i t u f a i s q.a? T u que T l e s mange?" no r e s p o n s e f r o m R.  veux  R g i v e s 0 t r a i n s t o hook u p . "Essaye, t o i , toi essaye." 0 pushes t r a i n s towards R. > pushes t r a i n s to 0. "Ok, ok"  non! :  72.  crushing  R u p s e t s bowl o f c r u s h e d c o o k i e s on f l o o r . ^ "R q u ' e s t - c e q u e t u a s fait e n c o r e , vas r a m a s s e r , va ramasser > gathers c o o k i e from f l o o r . M agrees.  y  69.  is  moi.  R g i v e s 0 t r a i n s t o hook "Essaye, toi." /> d o e s n o t do a n y t h i n g . " S i , essaye , t o i . " > d o e s n o t do a n y t h i n g . " S i , essaye, tor." > d o e s n o t do a n y t h i n g . "Huh?" pushes t r a i n s towards 0.  up.  T.  )  131  76.  non!  77.  non!  78.  R gives 0 trains "Essaye, toi."  " E s s u i e l a bouche ^ R stands in f r o n t does n o t h i n g .  23,25  non.  80.  oh  82.  non  R pushes >  non!  [3]  up  of  towel,  R i s b u i l d i n g house w i t h h e l p , gives 0 a block. "Merci, c ' e s t tout? non." 0 looks at other b l o c k s . > R gives another block.  25,20  81  hook  d o e s n o t do a n y t h i n g . " S i , t o i , t u 1e f a i s . " > throws t r a i n s around room. R starts another activity.  non:  79.  to  la...  non ( I x )  (Ix)  toys  around.  M h e l p i n g R put a l p h a b e t into right slot. " C ' e s t ou 1'N?"  > R  As  points  R puts  to  different  letters  into  letters  slots.  slots.  APPENDIX  JEAN:  B . 1 Question B.l.l  B  QUESTIONS AND NEGATIONS  Utterances  Yes/no-questions  Context  Utterance 24,28  1.  J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h book and answering q u e s t i o n s . "Et l a , tu r e c o n n a i s ? " pointing to d o g .  ?  wouwou?  "Wouwou."  25,2  2.  3.  la?  papa  non papa  ca?  papa  >  M comments t o me. " c a , i l ne c o n n a i t  cl" >  M turns page. response.  26,7  4.  ca  J i s b e i n g a s k e d t o name i t e m s in c a t a l o g . "Et l a ? " p o i n t i n g to a man's garment.  c^a v a ?  J  pas  bien,  receives  no  J was l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k a n d answering"what"questions. > J has f i n i s h e d w i t h book and r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e .  1 33  5.  6.  7.  pilou?  la  bateau  M i s t u r n i n g pages of book, J sees the moon, la lune. " L a l u n e ? ou e l l e e s t l a lune?"  lune?  J  deux c h e v a u x ? chevaux jaune? [ ] pas.  26,14  8.  boule? boule? pas b o u l e ?  confiture?  10.  J w a n t s M t o a s k him q u e s t i o n s "Encore? Ou e s t - c e q u ' i l est l e p i l o u ? ou i l e s t l e pilou?" l o o k i n g through book. > J l o o k s a t d o g on b o a t . " S u r un b a t e a u . "  oui  enfant••-enfant enfant la?  looks  for  moon a n d  finds  it.  J is playing with puzzle. "Ou e s t l e d e u x - c h e v a u x q u i c e met la?"  >  J looks around " T u ne l e v o i s toi ."  for yellow^car. pas? derriere  J wants more q u e s t i o n s w i t h book "Encore? encore voyons." J sees a b i r d with a b a l l in its beek.  > "oui, bee."  il  a  une  boule  dans  le  T h e r e ' s a p i c t u r e of a j a r of jam i n b o o k . J i s a s k e d what i t i s , answers: t a r t i ne. "De l a confiture."  /  "De  la  confiture."  J sees a children "Qui est  >  "Les  p i c t u r e of in it. dedans?"  a  bus  with  enfants."  J is putting puzzle wrong slot. " N o n , on ne met p a s  piece ca  in  la."  11.  >  la?  J finds right slot, "oui, juste la." M not  12.  encore occupee maman? ( l x j  13.  >  in  is  la?  J  asks  told  where  'upstairs.  1 autre 1  part?  16.  maman  [3]  part?  17.  [3]  maman?  M is F i s  l e a v i n g and present.  une  talking  with  >  >  elle  va  jusqu'a  la  poste.  questions  24,25 panpan?  0.  F " P a r d o n ? maman p a r t ? c'est q u o i c a ?" > M "Pardon, qu'est-ce q u ' i l y a mon c h e r i ? " "Maman  panpan-.-li  p i us . "  J is watching 0. " o u i , voyons s i j ' a i barette."  [3]  "Where"  non  >  sac?  part?  1 a  S is looking for a hair clip i n 0 ' s bag . " C ' e s t dans 1 ' a u t r e sac."  maman  18.  is  " C o m m e n t ? p o u r q u o i e l l e e s t en h a u t maman?" J's question is m i s u n d e r s t o o d , however, J responds with o u i .  "Non,  15.  B.1.2  room.  and  Playing h i d e and s e e k w i t h puzzle piece. J is looking for it. " N o n , non i l n ' e s t p a s la." > J looks^  26,20  14.  she  >  J is looking for his hammer. "Comment?" 0 doesn't understand.  1 35 19.  panpan?  > Hammer  24,28  J  is  Knife 20.  21  couteau?  couteau?  [ v a l y £ ] marteau papa? [!£.] marteau papa?  1 autre 1  shelling falls  for  peanut  off  J. with  knife  table.  > J looks around. Le c o u t e a u e s t t o m b e . " J p i c k s up k n i f e . J l o o k i n g f o r hammer. " h u h ? " c a n ' t f i n d h i s hammer, u s e s k n i f e t o hammer w i t h .  25,3  23.  found  >  panpan?  22.  is  crayon?  25,12  24.  [U]  lit  Jean?  25.  [11]  l i t  Jean?  26.  lit  Jean?  27.  l i t  Jean?  28.  l i t 1it  Jean? Jean?  (3x)  > J is looking for father's hammer f i n d s i t and s t a r t s hammering. " Q u ' e s t - c e que t u f a i s avec [ l £ ] m a r t e a u de p a p a ? " No v e r b a l response from J . > J is looking for other crayon, r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . We a r e a l l l o o k i n g t h r o u g h a c a t a l o g u e , at another time. J had n o t i c e d a bed l i k e h i s .  >  "Quoi  Jean?"  " O h , ou e s t l e l i t de J e a n ? " c a n n o t be f o u n d i n c a t a l o g u e . "Oh, je crois qu'on I ' a dechire. C o n t i n u e s to look through catalogue. J mumbles s o m e t h i n g . " P a r d o n mon c h e r i ? " > J e n q u i r e s a b o u t h i s bed a g a i n . "Jean, o u i , " M t h i n k s J wants to l o o k t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e .  [U]  "Ou e s t l e l i t d e ^ J e a n ? ^ Je c r o i s q u ' o n I ' a decoup e . " >  1 36 J i s not s a t i s f i e d , wants to s e e h i s b e d , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e , M h a s g o n e on t o some o t h e r ac t i v i ty.  26,7 29  e  [16-]  porsche?  7 J  is  looking  around  pi e c e . "Ou e l l e e s t l a locates piece.  30  31  1 1 1 1  1 1  1 1  autre••-canard autre? autre canard? autre?  32.  1 'autre?  33,  [£]ca•••[£]ca••• 1'autre?••-maman 1'autre?  [fc]g  a?  a  puzzle  porsche?"  J  J has s e e n a d u c k i n picture book. "Comment i l f a i t l e c a n a r d , t u te s o u v i e n s J e a n ? "  7  J wants to l o o k "1'autre quoi?"  through  book  7 J i s l o o k i n g f o r i t t h r o u g h book T h i n k s he h a s f o u n d i t , but d e c i d e s o t h e r w i s e and q u e s t i o n s again.  7  "Quel?" No r e s p o n s e f r o m J . His attent i o n i s c a u g h t by cow i n b o o k a n d d e m o n s t r a t e s s o u n d cows make. M is  7  helping  "L'autre from J . J  34,  for  7 J  been  has  a  "£a,  tu  with  quoi?"  has  puzzle.  J  No  putting  piece n'as  in  pas  puzzle.  response pieces  hand.  mis  ca  into  encore  J is playing with puzzle. "Ici, q u ' e s t - c e q u ' o n met?"  1 37  35.  dame---ou  36.  ou ou  37.  est est  [1£]  est  dame?  b^be? beb'e?  1'autre?  26,10 38.  mami•••[£]nono Jean?  26,14 40.  [lfc]  boule?  41.  [It]  boule?  42.  oh  ou[l*-]  43.  Oh  [l£]  boule?  boule?  >  J l o o k s f o r woman's f i g u r e that b e l o n g s to s p a c e . Finds the p i e c e and p u t s i t i n s l o t . " T u v a s m e t t r e c^a l a ? " The woman's f i g u r e i n (35) deriving a baby c a r r i a g e .  "Ou  il  est  le  is  bebe?"  J is playing with puzzle, s^lot i s e m p t y i n p u z z l e .  one  " Q u ' e s t ce que t u c h e r c h e s ? " J: 1'autre. "Sous le d i v a n . " J goes under c o u c h and j u s t l i e s there. J  is  looking  for  his  cloth.  > " E l l e e s t dans l e lit." J still looks for c l o t h . M gets i t f o r him. Small b a l l i s trapped J c a n ' t see it.  in  >  L o c a t e s b a l l and r e s u m e s " C a ne d e s c e n d s p l u s . "  toy. play.  >  R e c e i v e s no v e r b a l response. > Same e v e n t a s (40). "Ou  ?  est,  ou  est  la  boule?"  Same e v e n t a s (40). R e c e i v e s no v e r b a l response. J 44.  45.  m a m a n • • • [ 1 £ ] maman?  [It]?  [1 £ ] ?  is  playing  with  toy  with  the  bal 1 .  >  "Ou e s t maman? J resumes p l a y  >  maman e s t with toy.  en  haut."  J is looking for something. "Ou e s t q u o i ? q u ' e s t - c e q u e t u cherches?" Questions is repeated by a d u l t .  138 46.  [l£]  quelquechose?  47.  [ 1 £ ] jf'pe/]? quelquechose  48.  [1£]  maman?  49.  [l£]  peuse?  50.  [16]?  51 .  52.  53.  M is  J^ i s  patins?  in  room.  playing  with  puzzle.  There is a p u z z l e p i e c e under c o u c h and J i s t r y i n g t o g e t it. "huh?" J wants 0 to g e t the piece. Sometime b e f o r e 0 had J ' s s i i p p e r was.  asked  where  >  a  J a s k s a b o u t his^ s l i p p e r . " O u i , c a c ' e s t a* J e a n . " J had been t h r o w i n g p u z z l e p i e c e s around before utterance (51), t o g e t h i s a t t e n t i o n away f r o m that a c t i v i t y 0 started playing with a toy. Misunderstand his utterance i n i t i a l l y , then "Quoi?" J comments t h a t i t i s h i s toy, and 0 a g r e e s . "L§ his J  [1£]  not  J. response.  J is playing. "Elle travaille dehors." J s a y s he w a n t s t o s e e h e r . > J l^ooks f o r puzzle. "Ou e s t l e p e u s e ? " question repeated. J locates puzzles and p l a y s w i t h it.  [li-] pantouf 1 e [3] Jean?  26,20  O b j e c t i s f o u n d by Receives no v e r b a l  ?  cherchez  [lfc-] p a n t o u f l e J ean?  > "Quelquechose?" >  has  and  ?  pantoufle a Jean?" slipper eventually. been  cleaning  conversing  with  M's F.  J  locates  skates  139 He i s l o o k i n g i n t h e c l o s e t for F's skates. " A l o r s , tu s a i s b i e n que p a p a , il n ' a p a s de p a t i n s . "  26,23  54.  maman • • . ou  55.  [If] quelquechose?  56.  [1£]  J is building a structure construction blocks.  with  >  c^a?  J has a b l o c k i n h i s h a n d . "0u j a ? " M helps J with block. N  quelquechose  J la?  looks  for  something  "huh?"  >  Still looking, response.  B.1.3  "Why"  S h a s a s k e d why t o t h e t h e m i n t was n o t g o o d , r e c e i v e d an a n s w e r . >  pourquoi?  58.  pourquoi?  59.  pourquoi?  J has g i v e n 0 a "Oh m e r c i . "  61  pourquoi?  that  no  peanut.  >  J is busy s h e l l i n g "C'est bon."  another  peanut  >  Same a c t i v i t y as ( 5 7 ) , J r e c e i v e s no v e r b a l response.  25,2 pourquoi?  fact and  J echos S ' s why, r e c e i v e s verbal response.  24,28  60  no  questions  24,25  57.  receives  (2x)  J is p l a y i n g with tape recorder. ^ N o n , non J e a n , jamais!" J  looks  at  0.  "Quoi?" looking  J at  answers 0.  J is eyeing ca t o u c h e .  the  ''Non,  faut  >  i 1 ne  $a_  t.r. pas  still  and  says:  toucher."  140  "Parceque." act i vi ty.  25,9  62.  pourquoi?  (2x)  26,7  63.  65.  pourquoi  another  J i s m i s p l a c i n g an o b j e c t in bookcase. " N o n , non J e a n . " J rearranges it. "Bravo."  >  "Pourquoi?  Comme  J is playing with "Pour le g u e r i r . " with puzzle.  26.14  pourquoi  starts  ca."  M has g i v e n a l o n g e x p l a n a t i o n a b o u t t h e s i c k baby t h a t J and s h e a r e g o i n g t o p i c k up f r o m ho s p i t a l .  pourquoi?  64.  J  sal  maman? sal?  puzzle J continues  3 u t t e r a n c e s b e f o r e , M had r e f u s e d to g i v e J the sponge b e c a u s e she s a i d i t was dirty. > J is helping M with c l e a n i n g . " C o m m e n t mon c h e r i ? "  >  J still cealning. "Je vais. pourquoi sal encore?" J a n s w e r s o u i , and M p r o v i d e s explanation. J continues with cleani ng.  66.  pourquoi fachee [ 2 ] • •• pourquoi Sophie fachee?•. Sophie?  J i s m e s s i n g up S ' s puzzle. " S o p h i e va e t r e t r e s fachee comme c a , t u s a i s . " > 5  S not p r e s e n t in room. " S o p h i e v a "e^tre f a c h e e , o u i , p a r c e q u e tu prends ces petits p e u s e s e t t u ne l e s mes p a s dans 1 e n d r o i t . " > 0 is putting pieces into puzzle, J is watching 0. "Comme c a . " 1  67.  pourquoi?  141  68.  pourquoi Sophie  fachee?  26,20  69  J is in kitchen asking for something, M refuses. > J is sent out of k i t c h e n .  pourquoi?  70.  0 putting pieces into puzzle, "Pour q a . " J w a n t s t o mess up p u z z l e a g a i n .  S g i v e J a baby b o t t l e . "Comme c ' e s t g e n t i l l e de S o p h i e de t e d o n n e r c a . " J m a k e s an incomprehensible utterance. "Huh? comment?" >•  pourquoi?  r  J is inspecting bottle. Receives no r e s p o n s e . M i s ! e a v i ng . "Maman e l l e va j u s q u ' a l a poste c h e r c h e r des p e t i t e s mandarines p o u r l e d e j e u n e r de b e b e J e a n . " > J w a t c h e s M as s h e p r e p a r e s to 1eave. " T u v e u x de j u s de pomme?" J a n s w e r s pomme. N  71 .  pourquoi ?  26,23  72.  B.1.4  pourquoi?  "What"  24,25  73. 26,7  S i s t a l k i n g to M about garage she i s building. J is playing with blocks too. S answers: Parceque c'etait un b e a u g a r a g e , regarde." Her g a r a g e i s intact.  questions S J  £a?  asks et ga? echos S.  "De  rouge,  about  rouge  a  lipstick  slevre."  142  74.  75.  et  J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e and n a m i n g w h a t he s e e s . He h a s put in a t r u c k , answers to " C ' e s t quoi ca?" "Un c a m i o n , oui." '  a  J p o i n t s to a "Un c a m i o n . "  ca? •5  76.  r e n a r d • • •£a?  a  [a]  >  [d]  is  playing  porsche  with  and  puzzle.  names  Puts  it.  J has p o l i c e b o a t i n h a n d . " E h , c ' e s t l e b a t e a u de p o - - . " J supplies lice. M responds with: "Police, tres bien." J is playing with puzzle. Names f i g u r e s a s he p l a c e s t h a m i n slot. > J has a p i e c e i n h a n d . " O u i , q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " No v e r b a l r e s p o n s e f r o m J . Later J c o m m e n t s he c a n ' t p u t i t in slot.  ca?  26,10  79.  and asked a fox.  >  s  78.  truck.  P o i n t s to a boy. " P e t i t - . - , t u s a i s ce que c ' e s t pa J e a n , c ' e s t un g a r - - - " J supplies pon.  in  ca?  different  J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h book i s n a m i n g o b j e c t s as h e ' s what i t i s . He h a s named "Hum?" > J p o i n t i n g t o same fox. "Un p e t i t renard."  J 77.  5  >  ca?  ca  maman?  J and S a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h b o o k . S is g i g g l i n g . J turns page. P^age h a s many o b j e c t s . "Qu'est-ce cheri?" J provides  que name  c'est for  ^a,  mon  shower.  143  80.  [9]  S has been d e s c r i b i n g pictures i n book w h i l e J i s w a t c h i n g . > J p o i n t s to c h i l d p a i n t i n g . "Et la? q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l f a i t la?" S provides answer.  la?  26,14  81  et  J i s naming o b j e c t s i n book a f t e r b e i n g a s k e d what i t is. > J p o i n t s to f r y i n g p a n . " E t ca p o e l e . "  ^ca?  26,23 82.  et  B.2  Negative  J h a s a p a d w i t h n u m b e r s on i t . > " E t l a q u o i ? c ' e s t un c h i f f r e ca, non?" o says: chiffre.  la?  Utterances  24,25 83.  84.  "Tu veux t ' a s s e o i r pointed out.  >  non•••non  non---pas  un  crayon  86.  place.  S has a p e n c i l , requests one. " T u n ' a s p a s un > J waits.  doesn't  J  crayon  J, repeats  is  and  toi,  eh?"  "crayon."  J is playing with T.R. "II ne f a u t p a s t o u c h e r . " > J withdraws hand.  non.  ah! ah! ca.  spot  J s i t s at pointed "Non? o u i . "  "Quoi?"  85.  la?"  wawa••.wawa... pas peux...Jean  Cat is under c o u c h , f l o o r l o o k i n g at i t reach it.  7  J i s on but cannot  144 "Quoi? q u ' e s t - c e elle s'endort?" oui.  87 .  n o n . . . n o n chaud eel a . . . c h a u d  88.  non  (4x)  J g o e s to t i s s u e box f o r a t i s s u e as p o t h o l d e r . '^Non J e a n , t u en as un d e j a . " _  Gets  non  24,28  90.  91.  92.  non  non!  non l e v e r n o n . 1 autre...avec avec. ..  a  tissue.  J w a n t s more t i s s u e s . " N o n , n o n , non J e a n , regarde tout c a . " P o i n t i n g to tissues on f l o o r .  >  Tissue "C'est tout." S  89.  aui arrive? Jeans answers  box i s t a k e n f i n i , prends  away f r o m J . un e t c'est  and J a r e c o o k i n g . J e a n , n ' a pas f i n i .  S  says:  >  J busy c o o k i n g . Does n o t l o o k at S. S asks i f J i s f i n i s h e d , J does not r e s p o n d .  M comes i n t o with clay. "Tu f a i s des Jean?"  ?  J  is  playing  room, jolies  with  J  is  playing  choses,  clay.  J has p u t c l a y i n m o u t h . "Non J e a n , ce n ' e s t pas b o n , ouvre la bouche." > J w i l l not open m o u t h . "Non?" J opens mouth. J is sit  >  s t a n d i n g a n d M w a n t s him down a n d w o r k w i t h clay.  1  J  won't  sit  down  to  145  93.  comme c,a comme pas b i e n .  94.  non!  (2x)  ca  " E h , b i e n , tu peux t a p e r s u r l a p a t e a m o d e l e r s i tu veux pour la f a i r e tres jolie."  >  J i s n o t h a p p y w i t h w h a t he i s d o i n g , r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . J a n n o u n c e s he i s upstairs. " N o n , non t u f a i s de m a m a n . "  >  does "Tu  9 5.  96.  97.  : non . n  non.  ah  non.  not  99.  100.  pas  ca.  non.  non...[ajmami e couteau.  to  hammer v  ponpon  pres  come.  viens  jouer  avec  Sophie.  does not come. "Tu v i e n s j o u e r un p e t i t peu?"  avec  Sophie  >  does not come. " E s t - c e q u e t u as m o n t r e p e t i t s p e u s e s a A? (Ix) > gets puzzle. "Viens  98.  going  lui  montrer."  les  (Ix)  J is looking through catalogue. S says she wants a d o l l carriage. J says: Jean aussi . " P o u r q u o i ? q u ' e s t - c e que tu D^romeneras d a n s l a poussette?" "Qui  a  une  comme  M t e l l s J to ask spelling peanut.  ca?" 0 for  help  does not a s k . "Tu vas f a i r e t o u t s e u l ? " J says: couteau couper. "Couper c o u t e a u . " J answers oui then.  > " T o , tu knife.  veux  un  to?"  J  gets  in  146  101.  non.  102.  non c o u p e r  103.  non d i f f i c i l e  104.  couper difficile couteau.  105.  106.  a.  couper.  109.  110.  still  J i s on t h e "C'est fini  >  J  does  J is want  non c a .  knife.  Gives 0 peanut. "Oh m e r c i , c ' e s t b o n . "  non  non.  cutting.  ?  non! non!  pas...[ls]pas  peanut. avec  >  J has s h e l l e d p e a n u t w i t h Peanut i s in palm. " C ' e s t pour Jean? huh?"  25,2  108.  J i s u s i n g k n i f e to s h e l l "On ne p e u t p a s l e c o u p e r le couteau." > J continues cutting. "C'est d i f f i c i l e Jean." > J continues cutting. "Non c ' e s t difficile." > J continues cutting. "Comment?"  pu.  phone. avec l e  n o t want  being it.  tickled:,  J is using sati s f ied.  >  Receives  to  no  blocks,  ^ telephone." y  hang  up.  does but  is  not not  response.  J^has put c l a y in mouth. "Non, je vais prendre. Alors, t u ne m e t s p l u s d a n s l a b o u c h e . " > J a g r e e s w i t h M. J  >  is  in  kitchen.  "Ah l a b r o s s e . " with brush.  J  comes  J i s heading towards "Tu veux p r e n d r e t o n marteau Jean?"  back  kitchen. petit  111.  112.  113.  non:  non!  fourchette  (2x)  147  >  C r y i n g , he have f o r k . J wants cries  >  (Ix)  "Tu les  pas  p u . . . pas  pas  pu...mamie  pas  pu.  J  pu.  is  116.  non b a l a i . . . n o n balai... menage...menage.  119.  non.  menage, non -est  non...non  balai . . . balai mieux.  have  maman  mettre J is M's  avec  mamie."  no  response. plug in stop.  vacuum.  > J tries to use vacuum. " T u f a i s l e menage encore?" J says: oui. M tells him t o use s m a l l brush i n s t e a d . J  balai  one.  J continues with activity. "Non J e a n , q u ' e s t - c e que maman a d i t ? "  >  ca...balai.  not  hammering.  >  non  118.  can't  chanter  J i s t r y i n g to M t e l 1 s him t o  115.  non  could  ?  Receives  117.  fork,  v i e n s avec affairs."  "Viens 114.  told  S and M a r e s i n g i n g . hammering, would l i k e attention.  pu . . . pas  a  was  is  getting  rest  J i s busy w i t h "Comment?"  >  J  gets  "Le  of  vacuum.  bacuum.  vacuum.  balai  est  mieux."  > J is s t i l l getting vacuum. "Aspirateur::::" J answers "Non pas m a i n t e n a n t , demain m a t i n on f e r a aspirateur."  oui.  148 120.  n o n non . . . non non a v e c m e t t e non p a s f a i r e n o n non a s p i r a t e u r est la aspirateur.  non J e a n i l aspi rateur.  fait  122.  non  123.  non...non  difficile.  124.  non...[3]  pas  va  getting "Trop  121.  va...non  >  c^a  va  "Ca  r  va?  place.  p r i s e . . . n o n . . . non . . . non[;9,]l a  non  >  la  >  J 127.  128.  129.  130.  non ! n o n ! n o n . . . a s p i r a t e u r ca [a] mamie a s p i r a t e u r .  non  vacuum. put  vacuum  back  (2x)  in  long."  il  with faut  facuum. mieux  mettre  dans  continues to  with get  J  cleaner. to  the  bathroom.  > J i s u s i n g vacuum. "On u t i l i s e pas I'aspirateau t o u t s e u l , t u es t r o p petit."  >  non.  non  difficile."  cuisine."  M tries fait.,  peu  "C'esttrop  continues  maman.  un  encore."  still with vacuum. M o c c u p i ed wi t h S J i s t r y i n g t o p l u g vacuum i n . " N o n , non t u r a n g e l a prise..." J has u n p l u g g e d c l o c k .  "Non, 126.  ca  toi  J is getting > M t e l l s J to  >  125.  vacuum.  petit  still using cleaner. M takes i t away, but |DUt a w a y .  does  not  upset. "heh?" J a g a i n busy w i t h vacuum. "Tu vas r a n g e r .1'aspirateur de m a m a n . "  149  131.  132.  n o n non encore.  ...  passe  non non demai n . . . aujourd hui .  u s i n g v a c u u m on " S i , mon b £ b e . " >  rug.  using cleaner. "II faut passer encore?" J says: "Demai n . " >  1 aspirateur oui. 1  1  using  cleaner.  M occupied with J 133.  non!...avec non a v e c  134.  ...avec  non...non...[9] fasse.  135.  136.  non  non  137.  non.  138.  non.  139.  fasse  (2x)  N  broom.  "Range  le  balai,  c'est  dangereux!"  > tries  to  use  broom.  J wants to use p l u g . "On r a n g e m a i n t e n a n t l a p r i s e . " M wants to p l u g c l o c k , and arrange papers.  wants  to  "Non,  non"  wants "Non,  to use non."  >  use  plug.  plug.  J i s removing papers to expose s o c k e t , has p l u g i n h a n d . " T u ne m e t s p a s l a p r i s e d a n s le trou."  >  continues  M takes cri es.  >  with  plug  J is asked crying.  to  activity.  away  join  from  S  J.  & A.  >  non...mami e -I  gets  S.  -I  x  1a . . . 1 a .  J has c l a y i n h a n d . " V a s t e m e t t r e s u r un cote d ' A . "  ?  papier  a  1 50 si ts  by M.  J has s e e n a t e l e v i s i o n in catalogue. "Ou e s t l a t e l e a t o i ? ou e s t l a t e l e de p a p a m a m a n , J e a n ? " > " T u ne l a v o i s p a s ? " M tells to look around room. N  140,  pas.  141 ,  ah  142,  non.  143,  la\  144.  145.  >  non  J looking " T u ne l a  ?  to T . V .  >  Jean  regarde  wants^ t o d r a w . "Apres, S u t i l i s e les crayons mai n t e n a n t . " "Oh q u e ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ^ a ? " M t r y i n g to get J ' s attention.  >  looks  146.  room. plus?"  S i s d r a w i n g , J w a n t s t o draw also. "Jean? non i l va c o n t i n u e r avec M."  non!  non!  J  at p i c t u r e s in catalogue v o i s pas la: t e l e ' ? "  J looks around " T u ne l a v o i s points  s  is  non! non!  147.  pas  148.  non  149.  pas p u . . . p a p a papa pas p u .  at  picture  turning  doesn't  want  pointed  page  of  M to  turn  J is looking through ' ^ Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t  out.  catalogue. page.  catalogue. ca?"  J looks at p i c t u r e . " T u ne s a i s pas?"  >  still looking. M explains .  p a s pu  J  ?  is  looking  at  a  picture.  "II n ' a p a s pu f a i r e No r e s p o n s e f r o m J .  quoi?"  1 51  150.  151. 152.  non...non  non  J sees p i c t u r e of exercise bycicle. Says i t i s f o r J. " N o n c ' e s t p o u r l e s mamans ca."  Jean.  >  J is s t i l l looking at "Pour Jean?" J says: "Tu crois?"  mamie  rion  >  Jean...papa  aussi  "Oui,  c'est  7  "Papa S 154.  ah  155.  non  pas [P] pas.  la  non.  25,9  158.  159.  non.  non...[^]pas  160.  Jean.  161.  non.  pour  mamie."  block  in  sac,  one  out.  0 tries > J picks  picking up  up  block.  block.  J i s l o o k i n g t h r o u g h p i c t u r e book, " Q u e ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t j a ? " House "C'est S  157.  putting  >  Jean.  sait il  is  mieux  aussi?"  falls  baboum.  25,5 156.  picture. oui .  une  wants  "Jean  a  maison." hair  veut  une  J  repeats.  pin. barette  aussi?"  7  S g e t s a p i n , J s a y s he w a n t s one t o o . J is looking through catalogue a n d c l a i m i n g i t e m s as h i s . "Rien pour Papa?" Looking  through  catalogue.  J is not c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . "Jean dessine?"  >  D o e s n ' t want ' T a s ^:a? p a s "Dessine > "Quoi?"  to draw. plus e'crire?"  Jean?" J  points  to  S's  clay.  152  162  163.  non pas  :a . . . p a s pu c a iu p a s pu . . . c a  non...non...[P]ca raconter Jean. ^  S i s a s k e d i f s h e has s e e n all the toys in c a t a l o g u e . S says oui. "Tu n'as p a s vu c a " t o S. J answers.  >  J has n o t s e e n "Les j o u j o u x ? "  J  J  non  wants  >  not  S:  165.  la...deja pas.  166.  non  167.  pas  168.  [«?]  vu  pa  toys. says o u i .  J i s a s k e d t o come l o o k t h r o u g h catalogue. "Mets l e i c i pour Sophie a u s s i , Sophie veut les v o i r a u s s i . " >  Mailman 164.  all J.  questions drops  to  non,  a  touch  posed  to  letter.  him.  S  tells  it.  d'accord.  J i s l o o k i n g i n 0.'s "Raconte, qu'est-ce la?"  purse. qu'il y  a  >  J has p u r s e i n Starts another  hand, puts activity.  it  down  J sees p i c t u r e of a car with a girl in i t , says i t is his. "Ce n ' e s t pas p o u r Sophie?" ".Regarde; la, c'est  pu.  pas  (1 x )  J  is  i l y a une p e t i t e pour S o p h i e . "  playing  Receives  no  by  fille  himself.  response.  J i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e and answering "what" questions. "Tres b i e n , et c a , qu'est-ce que c ' e s t ? "  7  J is p u t t i n g boat in slot. " T u ne s a i s p a s ? c ' e s t l e ba..." J provides teau.  1 53  169.  non  170.  non  171.  172.  J is looking through c a t a l o g u e , s e e s an o b j e c t a n d s a y s : Ca Jean. ^£a c e n ' e s t p a s J e a n . " "C'est  1  174  Jean  non . . . J e a n . . . p a s p a p a . . . j o u j o u pas  pas  176.  oh m a m i e . . . p a s  177.  non . . . c a c h a i se casse chaise.  sac.  sac.  >  a dos  bien  with  S,  J  not  i nvolved.  > Looking at pictures carriages. "II f a i t pas j o u j o u mon c h e r i ? " "Non,  n o n mai mai  in  d o e s n o t name t o y . "Comme ^a tu v o u d r a i s ? "  >  joujou  175.  put  oui .  J is looking through catalogue and s a y s : joujou Jean. " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? "  Conversation 173,  J:  0 a s k s S i f she has s e e n t h e other camel. J says J e a n . " J e a n a un c h a m e a u , oil e s t 1 'autre?" > T h e o t h e r c a m e l c a n ' t be f o u n d .  p a s pu  non...joujou  Jean?"  Toys are being > J puts toys in  Jean.  1 autre  pour  c'est  of  doll  avec  de j o u j o u  quoi  de  f i l l e ^ a . "  J i s p l a y i n g w i t h M. " O h J e a n t u me f a i s m a i , t u mon c h e r i . "  >  "Oui,  tu  fais  mai  a  sais  mamie."  J has a p i e c e o f t h e c h a i r . > "Oh c ' e s t casse." s "Cela appartient a la chaise?"  > "Quelle  chaise?  Cette  chaise?"  1 54  178.  J sees b i c y c l e in c a t a l o g u e , says i t is W's. M misunderstands " O h c ' e s t b i e n mon p o u s s i n . "  non...non . . . W  >  bi c y c l e t t e .  179.  "Oh  c'est  W."  J sees another bicycle, says i t is f o r him. " O h c e n ' e s t ^ p a s de p e t i t des p e t i t s bebes?"  non...Jean bi c y c l e t t e .  pour  >  J wants to see h i s bed i n the catalogue. ' "Je c r o i s q u ' o n I'a decoupe." x  180.  non  la...lit  181.  pas  pu .  la,  "Cherche bien." > J can't f i n d bed. J wants to s e e h i s bed a g a i n . " C e m a g a z i n e l a , i l n ' a p a s de lit." v  182.  183.  non...vois  non  lit  pas  la.  185.  non.  186.  non.  187.  sais  bien  >  S is looking through a catalogue J g e t t i n g ready to p l a y w i t h p u z z l e , changes h i s m i n d , wants S's magazine. "Non, c e l u i la peut-etre." 7 wants S ' s , p o i n t s to it.  26,7  184.  Jean  (Ix)  J i s g o i n g t o show new p u z z l e which i s under t a b l e in toy box. c a n ' t get puzzle out of box. > "Huh? T u ne p e u x p a s ? " > waits for help. J i s n a m i n g p i c t u r e s on p u z z l e . " C e n ' e s t pas une a u t o g a . " J is putting pieces in slot. > "Non, c ' e s t quoi?"  pas.  ?  It  is  name  a . is  picture . given.  of  motorcycle.  1 55  188.  189.  190.  191.  192.  sais  pa.  1'autre  livre  J has p u z z l e p i e c e , p i c t u r e o f boat. " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ca?" > " C ' e s t un b a . . . " J: teau.  pas q a . *  non s i  ce  J is looking through Catalogue. " J e a n e s t une f i l l e ? " > " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t J e a n alors?"  non.  194.  196.  J has a b o o k . " T u ne v e u x p a s m e t t r e dans l a bi bl ioth'eque? " > p u t s b o o k on c o u c h .  non.  non.  slot  M comes i n and s a y s t h a t p u z z l e is S ' s . She t a k e s i t a n d g i v e s J his. > wants S ' s .  non!  193.  195.  "C ' e s t q u o i c a ? " J i s p u t t i n g bus i n t o 7 "C'est 1 'autobus."  glasse  maman.  pas p u .  non pas b i e n regard It.  J gets his skates out of c l o s e t , t r i e s p u t t i n g them i n p l a n e . " N o n ne m e t s p a s d a n s L'avion." > t r i e s to skate i n house. " N o n , i l n ' y a pas de l a g l a s s e d a n s l a m a i s o n de m a m i e . " } c o n t i n u e s to s k a t e . " G l a s s e maman , o u i . " J has f i n i s h e d h i s p u z z l e . " E t m a i n t e n a n t 1 ' a u t r e , de S's i s not in o r d e r . > Receives no r e s p o n s e . J wants M's h e l p w i t h " M e t s , tu l e m e t s . " /  Sophie."  puzzle.  1 56.  J p o i n t s to p u z z l e , needs a n o t h e r piece first. " T u m e t s un a u t r e d ' a b o r d , t u mettras c e l u i la a p r e s . " J 197.  n o n p a s b i en . . . p a s bien Jean.  198.  non pas b i e n  199.  "C  wants 1  >  met c a  est  Jean  put  in  puzzle  piece.  qui met."  " S i , Jean t r e s bien fait." > He c a n ' t o r d o e s n ' t p l a c e piece in r i g h t slot. "Mais tu f a i s n ' i m p o r t e quoi." M d e s c r i b e s what baby i s d o i n g in c a r r i a g e in p i c t u r e . "II f a i t c o u c o u dans l e l a n d e a u . "  >  non  he's  200.  non...[^]va  201.  non  mamie  (3x)  va  putting  >  |\Ca  va  M puts is  "Tu  non.  pieces  in  puzzle.  J i s p u t t i n g p i e c e i n wrong slot of puzzle. " N o n , c_a v a 1 a . " M i s h e l p i n g , J does n o t want piece there. , : . .  J 202.  M to  -  comme ^ a , piece  lying dors  in  under  la*  regarde." place the  anyway. couch.  dessous?"  > smiling.  203.  204.  out...non!  non c a .  encore  J is cleaning toy bear. "C'est fini? i l est propre mai n t e n a n t . " > continues cleaning. J starts cleaning himself. "Tu te l a v e s a u s s i Jean? tu pas p r i s t o n b a i n hier?"  >  continues different  cleaning places.  himself  n'as  157 J is cleaning elephant. "Oh 1 ' e l e p h a n t t r e s propre mai n t e n a n t . "  >  205.  non  encore.  206.  non...bouche a u s s i . . . et l ' o e i l l e a u s s i .  "Pas  encore?"  7  still  cleaning.  "Bouche  207 .  Schedule "Tu veux  non...pas  bien  oh . . . n o n .  210.  Jean  211.  212.  pas  regarder.  7  receives  non . . . e n c o r e .  ca.  non. . .encore.  no  response.  Tape r e c o r d e r r i b b o n > P o i n t s to t.r. " N o n J e a n n ' a p a s un comme c a . "  is  0's.  ruban  J has p a p e r ' f o r drawing. "Tu v i e n s t ' a s s e o i r la"?"  7  goes with  t o k i t c h e n , comes scotch tape.  yi  n'y  a  pas  "II  n'y  a  plus  J 213.  mains?  book i n h a n d . a des p h o t o dedans?" no p i c t u r e s i n b o o k .  >  non.  les  M is occupied with visiting c h i l d r e n , J i s p l a y i n g on h i s own, wants M to s e e . "Jean regarder?"  J has "II y Finds  ruban  et  "Maman."  26,14  209.  I'oeil,  is being arranged. r e s t e r avec A?"  7  non . . . m a m a n .  26,10  208.  et  opens  "C'est  >  t.r. ferme,  wants to "Non."  open  de de  back  scotch." scotch."  lid. c'est lid  fini."  again.  1 58 J 214.  says  "Tu  non  >  vas  pi p i . fair  pi p i ? "  laughs.  215.  huh  J scatters puzzle pieces about. " S o p h i e v a d e m a n d e r out s o n t les petites voitures." > w a t c h e s 0 as 0 g a t h e r s p i e c e s . "Ah o u i .  non.  1 1  216.  pas  pu.  217.  pas  pu.  218.  non  fait  219.  [a]pas...[3] non (Ix)  220.  221 .  222.  Sophie  [3]1 autre 1'autre. 1  [s>] non  " E t c a , O L T on met c a ? " p i e c e o f p u z z l e , puts pienc'e i n r i g h t )s 1 o t . puts piece in r i g h t slot. > stops working with puzzle. " T u peux f a i r e tre"s b i e n . " > d o e s n ' t work w i t h puzzle. " S o p h i e n ' e s t pas l a \ " J starts other activity.  pas  "Ou >  refuses pu  New  puzzle  play  with  cassette  is  put  piece.  puzzle. in  t.r.  watching 0  tries  > shows  t.r. putting  right  a~puzzle  in  slot  slot.  J k e e p s me f r o m p u t t i n g p i e c e in puzzler "Oh c ' e s t t o i q u i v e u t l e faircf." d o e s n ' t want p u z z l e c o m p l e t e d .  non.  [3]  to  ca?"  >  > J  223.  on met  non  wants  "Elle  >  starts  to  fait  see  M who's  upstairs.  1e.nettoyage."  stairs.  1 59  224.  225  pas  [>]  J i s t r y i n g to get cleaning u t e n s i l s from c a b i n e t in kitchen, he c a n ' t o p e n d o o r . > gets help.  pu.  J has o n l y one s l i p p e r o n . "Ou e s t t o n pantoufle?" > starts playing with toy.  pas.  J 226 .  227.  pas  bien  26,20  228.  non  non.  229.  pas  bien.  cleaning  "C'est  non...encoure.  boule  is  "Pas  (3x)  Ball  >  tout  railing.  propre  maintenant?"  encore?" in  toy  receives  caught  no  not  traveling.  response.  S has s e e n S a n t a Claus. ^Tu n ' a s p a s vu S . C . ? " J  is  cleaning  J  can't  put  stairs.  his  M's  skates  on.  > F: "Tu te r a p e l l e b i e n , d i s done." H h a s named t h e p e r s o n who lent  230. 231 .  pas  skates  >  pu.  non e s t M . c a maman.  . .  to  M.  J is cleaning F: "Pas pu?"  ckates.  >  F: " O h e l l e n ' a u r a p l u s de p a t i n p u i s q u ' e l l e l e s a prete' a maman." v  232.  sais  pas.  Trying  cleaning "Est-ce  233.  non...encore.  to  patins  >  get  J  to  say  "stick."  skates. que  de  clearn* n g .  tu  as  maman?"  nettoye  les  160  234.  p a s pu maman.  J has p u t s k a t e s i n c l o s e t . "Bravo Jean, tres bien." >  pati n .. .  comes "Pas  235.  236.  237.  238.  non  pas  non  pas  pu  from  >  wants  to.  "Pas  arranges."  c o o k i e crums from paper f o r clay,  moi?"  J:  couteau.  k n i f e is taken from J . J cries, s a l i v a is running from his mouth. A t i s s u e i s put under his mouth. > Pushes t i s s u e away, c o n t i n u e s cryi ng.  pas.  J crying. S is getting fi ngernai1. " C ' e s t mieux e h , J e a n ? " shown f i n g e r .  >  non.  Stops  "Fais  n o n . . ' a u t r e crayon.  crying,  starts J  line."  S's  pen.  He  off is  smiling.  wants  une  clay  to  do  > wants is  by  bookcase.  "Qu'est-ce  [3>]ca... [ 9 ] p a s s e [:?] passe c a .  sont  J w a n t s to_ ( c o u t e a u ) , I don't understand. "to Jean?" J is in k i t c h e n . J^ i s g e t t i n g i n t o drawer.  J  240.  ils  paper  S is w r i t i n g , so t o o , 239.  closet.  patins,  J has c l e a n e d floor. S has J doesn't.  bien.  oui . . .non  back  ca...  ah,  >  "Ah,  c'est  c'est  que  ton  tu  fais  livre?  neuf,  ca."  la Jean?" v  161  241.  non. . .a  242 .  non...encore.  243.  Jean  ca.  S is coloring in J^ g e t s a c r a y o n . points  >  1  finds  pas pas  245.  non pas b i e n  246.  oh p a s .  bien...maman bien. ca.  another  J can't legs.  "Pas  >  7  248.  non . . .maman.  249.  250.  pas  regarde  non...pas  251.  non.  252.  pas p u .  253.  254.  J  bien.  pas  non J e a n  bien.  bien  la.  is  M what  S won't crayon box.  through  camel's  cheri?"  he w a n t s ,  has f a l l e n  playing  qui  help. qu'il  7  camel's  blocks.  est  y  arrive?"  a?"  p o i n t s to b l o c k s . " T u ne p e u x p a s f a i r e seul?"  >  M helps.  from  with  "Qu'est-ce  "Pas b i e n > M helps.  tout  la?"  >  fait  ^a.  n o n . . . m e t met c a . . . oh p a s , b i e n . >  non: non:  mon  > wants M to "Qu'est-ce  c a n ' t put geometric figures into right hole. M starts helping.  >  he p u t s f i g u r e i n h o l e . M is looking for figures.  ?  can't 255.  book.  crayon.  put crayon  bien  crayon f eet. ah::  book.  >  shows  247.  coloring  > wants more c r a y o n s . give any, J looks in "II n'y a r i e n . "  n o n . . . un a u t r e .  244.  to  coloring  S  is  put f i g u r e taking  J's  through blocks.  hole.  162  J 256.  257.  r;a  a Jean  pas  n o n . . . 1 autre 1  ca  cube  is  has  >  unhappy given  with  after  new  blocks  (255).  M h e l p s b u i l d new h o u s e . "Tu veux d ' a u t r e encore?"  wants  S's.  163  APPENDIX C  SOPHIE:  C.1  Question  Utterance  Yes/no  questions  C.l.l  QUESTIONS AND NEGATION  Context  Utterance 38,6 1.  2.  tu vas d i n e r  3.  eh  avec  pourquoi?  4.  a ta  5.  pourquoi?  6.  S  c ' e s t pas bon 1es b o n b o n s , huh?  maison?  t u peux 1 e f a i r e ?  has had a  mint.  > "Non,  nous?  S  is  ce n ' e s t playing  pas  with  bon." toys.  "Non."  >  "J'ai besoin part."  d'aller  autre  >  "Oui . " > " J ' a i beaucoup faire." S has been See a b o a t would l i k e  >  "Ca?"  de c h o s e s  a  drawing. i n book and a c t u a l l y 0 t o draw i t .  0 draw  the  boat.  164  7.  peut  8.  f a s  rien  faire,  huh?  c'est  "Oui,  S  fini?  on ne p e u t  has f i n i s h e d  S is Sees c^a un p e t i t  disque  38,20 10.  J e a n , f a u t pas a l l e r l a de money, >ein?  11.  non, d'accord .  c'est ca?  Tante  faire."  cooking.  >  looking through record player.  Dominique  catalogue.  "Hum." M a i l m a n has come. S wants to open l e t t e r , is persuaded not to o p e n . S puts l e t t e r away. > Jean  answers:  S  content,  is  M comes'intg 12.  rien  A s k s J e a n who i s a l s o c o o k i n g . "II n ' a pas f i n i ? " No r e s p o n s e from J e a n .  38,13  9.  S is looking. " C ' e s t brule", huh?" She i s h o l d i n g t h e p o t .  non. resumes  play.  house;.S  gives  her  1etter.  ?  M is  reading  "Non,  ce  n'est  letter. pas T . D . £ a . "  S and M a r e t a l k i n g about swimmi ng p o o l . " Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' o n a v a i t donne a l a dame p o u r l a c a b i n e ? c ' e t a i t t r e s amusant tu te souvi ents?"  y  13.  dans  la  cabine?  >  "Oui."  S  supplies  answer.  165  14.  15.  maman, c ' e s t table ca?  elle a fait cuiotte?  S is l o o k i n g through book. " C ' e s t une t a b l e c,a?" pointing to p i c t u r e of d o g .  une  >  "Non, regarde bien avec q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ? " S supplies answer.  M is >  pipi  "Tu S  16.  maman, une p e t i t e pousette comme c a , c ' e s t peut-"etre p a s maM?  38,23 17.  18.  oh maman c'est le souviens  volla, cheval de W?  n o n , comme de W comme  la celle ca.  39,22  19.  f a u t pas t o u c h e r , d'accord?  S's  doll's  yeux,  diaper.  crois?"  and  M are  looking  through  catalogue.  >  Sees p i c t u r e of d o l l ' s carriage. " U n e p e t i t e p o u s e t t e comme g a , c ' e s t p e u t - ' e t r e pas m a i , o u i pour l a poupee, i l f a u t voir."  S tu  arranging  tes  is  looking  through  catalogue.  > sees a "Ah o u est-ce comme  >  toy h o r s e . i , c ' e s t un qu'on voit ga?"  cheval. Ou un c h e v a l  "Oui . "  A baby i s p r e s e n t d u r i n g s e s s i o n . Baby i s t o u c h i n g t a p e recorder.  >  No  response  from  infant.  166 T h e b a b y n e e d s t o be S is changing diaper h e l p. 20.  21.  alors  c'est huh?  ca  se  quoi  met  comme  difficile,  23.  il^faut faire t - a - l a p'ette a  ca  y  comme ^ a modeler?  >  agrees.  J i s p l a y i n g and F and 0 a r e talking. S i s making a c l a y man. > Receives  >  est?  Receives herself.  no  response.  no  with  clay,  response,  adults  answers  S wants to w r i t e , she has clay in hand. " T u v e u x e ' c r i r e s u r l a pa'te a" m o d e l e r ? "  >  oui?  tu prends beso i n?  response.  S is changing baby's diaper. S c o u l d not change d i a p e r , M h a d t o do it.  She "Ca  25.  no  S is playing talking.  40,4  24.  Receives  M  40,1  22.  ca?  changed. w i t h M's  (en)  a  w r i t e s on c l a y . n'ecrit pas."  S is playing with b l o c k s . T h e r e a r e b l o c k n e x t to 0.  >  "Non, je She g e t s  S  is  n'en ai blocks.  building  a  pas  besoin."  garage.  167  26.  comme  C.1.2  ca?  >  "Where"  28.  29. 30  maman, se voi tures?  garent  ou  est est  [puber]?  maman?  pourquoi  les  S  >  is  playing  oil c a ou [bd&re]?  elle  est  S  is  est  airport.  "Ou  est  place.  est?  Ou e s t  le ,  [puber]?" elle  " E l l e a quelquechose E l l e est occupee."  a  ou?  le  maman?  va  faire.  7  still c o o k i ng . "Parce q u ' e l l e a besoin f a i r e des c h o s e s . "  est  non?  cooking.  S  is  holding c'est  S  cooking  is  >  has  looking no  N  a  pot.  "Ouh,  Receives  ou  with  still cooking. " E l l e est sortie r e v e n i r." >  occupee?  35.  bien."  " T u s a i s o u , mon c h e r i , t u ne s a i s pas?"  le  32.  il  NI.  >  pourquoi ?  34.  tres  P o i n t s to r i g h t "Oui, la."  31.  33.  ou  la?  ou  at  "Oui ,  questions  38,6 27.  Looks  brule  pot  huh?"  in  hand  and  around. response.  S is s t i l l cooking. "Dans l a c u i s i n e . " S o u t t o NI b u t a s k s f o r  calls nothing.  168  36.  ou  est  les  >  jaunes?  S is s t i l l cooking. Receives no r e s p o n s e .  38,9  S  37.  ou  est  38.  non, les p e t i t e s , petites "teaching moi l a v u .  39.  elle  40.  ou  les  est  est  in  >  joujoux? les toys"  looking  for  special  que  tu  toys  catalogus.  "Les  joujoux  aimes  bien?"  > " M a i s tu t o u r n e s t o u t e s p a g e s , tu vas trouver."  S's p e a n u t has f a l l e n the shel1s . > Receives no r e s p o n s e , herself.  ou?  mon  is  les  into  finds  it  >  dessin?  S gets her drawing. " E x p l i q u e a A c e que x  38,20 41. ou e l l e e s t modeler? x  42.  ou e s t l e s mami e ? "  A  la  v  pate  specials  ou 1 ' e s t chameau?  1e  >  S  ?  is  looking  clay. pas." through  "Quel jeux s p e c i a l s ? " not p r o v i d e answer.  38,23  43.  a  Looking for "Je ne s a i s  jeux  c'est."  grand  S wants block. toy.  0 to Then  catalogue. S  does  remove c l a y from asks about another  >  1 o o k i ng f o r c a m e l . " T u veux que j ' e n l e v e Question is r e f e r r i n g vious utterance. v  maintenant?" to p r e -  1 69 44.  ou  1'est  le  grand  chameau?  ?  still looking. "Regarde b i e n , it.  voila."  S  finds  39,22 45.  ou e s t maman?  la  ou  le  pate  a  modeler  > M gets clay f o r me some t o p l a y  40,1 46.  est  is  biberon?  receives S  47.  48.  ou e s t l e s a c i l petites cubes? le  sac  de  le  a  petit  playing  des  cube?  40,1  is  no  S and with.  with  S  gives  doll,  response.  looking  for  construction  blocks.  > "Huh?" > "Le sac  des  petites  cubes?"  J and S a r e b u i l d i n g structure. J a s k s M where to put n e x t block. Maman ou c a ? " N  49.  ou  ca,  maman,  ou  ca?  >  *~  S is holding a block for directions.  C.1.3  51.  waits  "Why"-questions  38,6 50.  and  eh  "J'ai > "J'ai  pourquoi?  comment ca?  maman  l'oublie  les  mains  froid,  fro ides,  c'est  eh?"  tout."  M has f o r g o t t e n to t a k e a g a r m e n t to the l a u n d r o m a t w i t h h e r . "Maman a o u b l i e c a . "  >  "Comment?"  (Ix)  170 52.  comment  ga?  maman  I'oublie  > S is playing. "Oui , e l l e a oubl i e j:a . " y  53.  eh  S w a n t s 0 t o p u t on l i p s t i c k . "Non, je n'ai pas b e s o i n . "  pourquoi?  "Je  S 54.  pourquoi? pourquoi c'est p a s b e n l e s bonborg?  n'aime  has  56.  57.  58.  pourquoi t'es comme c a ?  dessine  eh  is  "Eh  >  drawing. v o i 1 aV  >  "J  60.  eh  pourquoi?  moi."  J  ' aime  les  echos  chats."  S takes 0's glasses. " N o n , j e ne v o i s p l u s , c ' est i nterdi t!" 0 takes glasses back.  ?  pourquoi?  tu  c'est  T h e n e i g h b o u r ^ s c a t comes i n . "J'ai deux c h a t s c h e z m o i . "  pourquoi?  pourquoi  she  " C ' e s t un g e n r e de b o n b o n q u i n ' e s t pas t r e s b o n . " S starts other activity.  "Parceque  59.  and  it.  "Oh j e n e s a i s p a . " > Receives no r e s p o n s e , S ' s why.  pourquoi?  eh  a mint  like  >  0 55.  had  doesn't  pas."  vois  rien?  sans  >  mes  je  >  peuX,  lunettes."  "Huh?" "Comme  ne  ca."  v  non  pas  voir  171  61.  62.  eh p o u r q u o i attention?  p o u r q u o i ca comme c a ? 5  faut  S is cooking. it's wet. "Oui, il faut _>  fair  roule  64.  66.  eh  pourquoi?  S  at  t.r.  ca r o u l e . rfjulent."  Tout  is  >  les  fait  fois  Sophie  et  une  yoyo.  fois  J  >  "Pourquoi c ' e s t les cheveux?"  de  pour  "Tu s a i s ca f a i t R e f e r r i n g to toy  >  de in  "Eh?" > " E h comme £ a , p o u r p l a i s i r aux p e t i t s  tells  pourquoi?  looking  fini  S sees a h a i r d r y e r in catalogue and d o e s n ' t know w h a t i t is. " C ' e s t pour secher l e s cheveux."  Toys  38,22 67.  c'est soup.  "Une  pourquoi? pourquoi c'est pour...  p o u r q u o i ca musique? *  attention."  S and J a r e p l a y i n g w i t h S is using it. "Eh b i e n , c ' e s t a Jean mai n t e n a n t . "  pourquoi?  eh la  faire  "C'est f i n i , Reference to  "Oui, deux  38,20 65.  pretends  >  38,9  63.  She  are J:  being A.  mai n t e n a n t .  >  put  i 1 va  secher  la musique." catalogue.  faire enfants."  in  sac.  partir  S is p u t t i n g toys in sac. Receives no r e s p o n s e .  S  1 72  40,4  S wants 0 to w r i t e a p i e c e of clay. " C o m m e n t j e p e u x e c r i r e un p e t i t b o u t de p l t t e a m o d e l e r ? c'est d i f f i c i l e ca." x  68.  69.  pourquoi  pate  a  c'est  difficile?  0 writes  "pate  a  modeler."  " N o n , ^ j ' e c r i s ce que t u veux que j ' e c r i v e . " ^ 0 w r i t e s " p l f t e a m o d e l e r " upon S's request.  modeler?  "Oui . " 70.  pate  a model e r ? N  Goes  to  get  > Receives 71.  pourquoi  C.1.4  "What"  c'est  c'est  quoi  c'est  sac.  response.  questions  ca?  S has 0 ' s compact. > " Q u ' e s t ce que t u c r o i s que c'est?" S says she wants to look insidev ~ S  73.  from  dedans?  38,6 72.  no  blocks  quoi  is  looking  ca?  >  >  "C'est  Babar  i n book).  at  0's  ca."  drawing. (An  Elephant  *  S z i p s down c o l l a r . ' C ' e s t une f e r m e t u r e eclaire > S t r i e s to l o o k i n b l o u s e . "Rien , seulement m o i . " y  74,  il  y  a  quoi  dedans?  S  is  cooking.  over. " T u as 75.  huh?  ^ renverse la  > Adult  She  repeats.  turns  pot  soupe."  1 73 38,9  76.  Jean  tu  veux  quoi?  38.13  77.  J  answers  genre  de  jardin?  38,20  >  She i s p l a y i n g w i t h clay. " Q u ' e s t ce q u ' i l y a v a i t dans l e jardin?" S  c'est  quoi  of  ca?  >  points a  car.  "C'est  huh?  80.  Jean i l Noel?  c'est  a  quoi  quoi  pour  ga?  huh,  une  elle  fait  S  >  is  points  to  a  picture  voiture."  looking  quoi?  through  catalogue.  "Mais je n ' a s pas  ne s a i s p a s , maman a c h e t e des affaires."  S^ p o i n t s  to  "Attends,  39,22  82.  to  S is feeding doll a camel. " E l l e ne v e u x p a s m a n a g e r d e s chamaux." > " C ' e s t d i f f i c i l e de m a n g e r ^ l e s chamaux, tu c r o i s t a poupee veux manger l e s chamaux?" S answers O u i .  79.  81  question.  S is t a l k i n g about her trip to the p a r k . " Q u e l g e n r e de jardin?" quel  78.  " Q u ' e s t ce que J e a n v e u x ? J e ne c o m p r e n d s p a s . " S is eating peanuts.  something  maman  in  catalogue.  regarde."  " Q u ' e s t - c e q u e l a maman f a i t ? " J looks at a p i c t u r e of a woman k n e e l i n g by a s t r o l l e r . > J supplies answer.  174  83.  on  84.  des  85.  il  86  il  a  fait  "Qu'est-ce qu'on a f a i t hier m a t i n a v e c maman?" 7 S i^s p l a y i n g . "Ou e s t - c e q u ' o n e s t a l l e les deux ensemble? tu te rappelle^?"  quoi?  M i s t r y i n g to get S to talk about s k a t i n g . " T u t e s o u v i e n s un g r a n d b a t i m e n t q u ' e s t ce q u ' i l yavait?" > "Non" > S d o e s n ' t remember.  poissons. y  a  quoi?  fait  quoi  " J e a n tu l a i s s e s S o p h i e nous r a c o n t e r ce qui arrive?" p o i n t s to a c h a r a c t e r i n book  >  la?  receives  et  puis  la?  S 88.  maman,  c'est  89.  c'est  quoi  90 .  ca:::?  91 .  p e t i ts pour e n f a n t s , et  response.  S is looking through book, points to a f i g u r e in p i c t u r e . > Does n o t w a i t f o r r e s p o n s e and a s k s t h e same q u e s t i o n p o i n t i n g to o t h e r f i g u r e s at l e a s t four times.  v  87.  no  quoi  ca'  les £a?  ^:a?  and  M are  looking  through  catalogue.  >  p o i n t s to "Oh c ' e s t  pots. q u o i c.a ma  cherie?"  "Huh?" > " Q u ' e s t - c e que c ' e s t ja?" S p e r s u a d e s M to "raconter." "Ce s o n t des p e t i t s p o t s pour les enfants."  >  1 75 p o i n t s to M refuses instead.  92.  et  celle-la  maman?  40,1  93.  94.  96.  S d o e s n ' t want 0 to "raconter." p o i n t s to a f i g u r e in book. > M r e f u s e s to a n s w e r . S asks 0, and e v e n t u a l l y p r o v i d e s answer herself.  0 d r a w s a man a n d head . - •• • • et  puis  c'est  ca  quoi  c'est  quoi?  ^ca?  tu  peux  j'ai  -X" ecrire  fait  quoi?  names  the  > p o i n t s to neck. " Q u ' e s t - c e que t u p e n s e s q u e c a d o i t e^tre?" A f t e r two a d d i t i o n a l questions S provides right answer. S  points  to  a  piece  of  stick.  > " O h , tu c o n n a i s g a , qu'est-ce q u e c ' e s t ? c ' e s t un m o r c e a u de. . .?" S starts another activity.  40,4  95.  a mould. to answer and a s k s S provides answer.  S S  quoi?  (Ix)  }  and J have been is writing.  writing.  "Je peux e c r i r e q u o i ? Je ecrire n'importe quoi."  peux  S h a s b e e n p r i t i n g w i t h some assi stance. "On a f a i t un P a v e c S." > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e .  176 C.1.5  "How"  questions  38,6 97.  :a  98.  et  s'enleve  comment  £a?  ca?  "De  40,1  99.  :a  se  S has V i c k s enhaler > " C a o u v r e comme c a . " S has l i p s t i c k iri h a n d .  fait  comment?  rouge,  "Tu f a i s clay. S  >  mami , p o u r f a i r e comment i l f a u t faire une m a i s o n ?  101.  il  102.  ah i l f a u t f a i r e les garages?  103.  il  104.  puis i l faut comment?  105.  il  faut  fait  faut  faire  faire  faire  comment?  faire  toi"  peut-etre?"  S is b u i l d i n g a house. > r e c e i v e s no r e s p o n s e . playing  "Reflechis > " T u as d e s S is >  S  >  is  with  dans  no  no  a  blocks. te'te." M  helps  garage  response.  building  receives  ta  murs."  building  receives  comment?  lev/es  S is playing with blocks "Eh b i e n , ref1echis."  S is comment y  comment?  a  un p o i s s o n , has clay.  "Comme £ a 40,4 100.  rouge  a  garage.  response.  with  1 77 106.  107.  il faut faire comment maman? p a r c e q u ' i l y en a d e u x l a .  faut  C.1.6  faire  "Who"  comment?  > S h a s two b l o c k s l e f t f o r garage, receives no r e s p o n s e . J wants one o f t h e b l o c k s , disagreement arises.  J is b u i l d i n g a house. S says s h e w a n t s t o do l i k e J . S has o n l y a few b l o c k s . 7 ^ " P e u t - e t r e t u en mes d e u x comme £ a . " S doesn't agree w i t h M, w a n t s J ' s blocks.  questions  38,1 3  108.  chez  qui  109.  maman, c ' e s t ca? (2x)  S and J a r e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h catalogue while eating peanuts. "£a c ' e s t comme c h e z q u i ? " / d r o p s p e a n u t s on f l o o r . " A t t e n t i o n S o p h i e , tu rammassej."  ca? ^  de  qui  Negative  111.  non, la aime.  non.  through  catalogue.  Utterances  38,6  110.  looking  "Huh? c ' e s t q u o i S o p h i e ^a?" S i s r e f e r r i n g to unanswered question of (108).  >  C.2  S still 7  poupee  elle  S is feeding doll cornflakes. "Tu n'aimes pas ca?" > S  continues "Elle dit  >  feeding. merci apres?"  1 78  112.  113.  i l f a u t pas ^a, allez.  J S  >  manger  S non,  peux  115.  non,  comme  pas  l'ouvrir.  >  0  >  ca.  has  "Tu  116.  n o n , j e veux montrer.  117.  non,  pas  119.  p u i s q u e comme c a , n'a pas.ramasse.  121.  peux  closes  pas  tape  1'ouvrir?"  recorder  lid.  lid.  asks  S  to  tell  Babar's  story.  > S u p s e t s bowl o f cornflakes. "On n ' a pas r a m a s s e . " > S is drawing.  non.  non,  0  be  "Pourquoi?"  pieurs.  118.  120.  te  flakes.  compact.  ne  lifts  tu  doll's  S h e a g r e e s t h a t he m i g h t hungry. "Donne, a monger d o c . "  non.  114.  i s t r y i n g to e a t pushes J away.  c'est  non, c ' e s t de l a .  on  moi .  le  bateau  "Pourquoi?"  >  continues S  and  J  drawing.  want  same  bowl  of  cereal .  > 0 draws a b o a t t h a t d o e s n ' t r e s e m b l e one i n b o o k . " C a c ' e s t un a u t r e bateau."  >  points  to  one  in  book.  1 79  s  122.  non p a s veux l a  celui la, g r a n d e de maman.  S asks M f o r is upstairs, y M gives S  123.  non,  te  pas  manger  is  is  >  125.  126.  J  non!  Jean  pas  >  n'a  pas  fini  non  non,  c'est  129.  non!  non!  non,  on  pretends  she  away. S's  table.  t h a t J had f i n i s h e d is s t i l l cooking.  looking  at  tape  recorder  Sophie  ecrire.  chantes?" smile.  later  S  It  J's  is  starts turn  singing to  use  yoyo.  >S? w a n t . s _ y o y o . It  is  decided  > upset. "Ce  130.  hand  >  "Tu > big  128.  O's  walking  is  0  >  38,9 127.  is  doll,  too.  0 commented cooking. J  S  encore  pot.  feeding  eating  pushes  124.  her  a pot. M says it S played with it.  that  it's  J's  turn  v  n'est  pas  tres  gentille  S."  " T u me d i s s i t u c o n n a i s tout a." (minature animals). wants  to  write  instead  180  131.  132.  133.  134.  non, les p e t i t e s , les petites teaching tyos moi l a v u .  n o n , ca c ' e s t pour Jean'aussi, c'est pour moi .  n o n , ca f a i t comme c a !  n o n , des petites cacahouettes.  135.  <£a v i e n t  136.  non.  137.  pas  pas.  n o n , huh moi p a s petit estomac.  S is looking wants to see M where they "Les joujoux  >  through c a t a l o g u e , special toys, asks are. que tu a imes bien?"  S pages t h r o u g h c a t a l o g u e . "Mais tu t o u r n e s t o u t e s les p a g e s , tu vas trouver."  S is looking and d e c i d i n g "Et ca?"  at toys in c a t a l o g u e , what t o y s a r e f o r J.  >  M i s t a l k i n g to S about a c h a r a c t e r who c r o s s e d h i s e y e s . 0 draws a face with crossed eyes.  >  "Comment  done"?"  "Vous  voulez  ne  1  pas  des  petits  peanuts?"  >  "Oui ,  c'est  parei1."  S can't shell peanut. > ' ^ a ne v i e n t pas?" Peanut is s h e l l e d "Eh, voila."  for  S  S has been e a t i n g peanuts. "Comment p e u x - t u manger t o u t ca?" " T u as un t o u t p e t i t estomac.  > S  continues  eating.  181  38,13  S i s asked i f she camel s name. l o o k i n g a t camel y "Oh s i t u sais."  knows  the  1  138.  139.  140.  141.  142.  143.  non,  je  ne  sais  pas.  S has p u t a r o l l o f c l a y her l i p s . "Tu fumes toi?" > laughs, takes clay out.  non.  non,  ca *  Sophie.  n o n , u n e b i c y c l e t t e , £a c ' e s t p o u r , c a N c a N.  non.  m a m i e , n o n , n o n , comme c a p a r c e que m o i ; t i e n s , v a moi d i r e t ' a m a m a n ; m a m i e , un p e t i t m u s i c comme c a , on n ' a p a s un p e t i t mus i c .  non,  J asked f o r b l o c k s , g e t s some. 0 i s h o l d i n g one i n h a n d . S wants the b l o c k . > " O n me d e m a n d e c o m m e n t ? "  S sees a b i c y c l e in c a t a l o g u e . S says: oui, ca. " C a ? c ' e s t une bicyclette?".  >  bicycle  is  like  her  friend's  N.  S s e e s a s p e e d b i c y c l e and s a y s i t is f o r a grand e n f a n t . " C e n ' e s t pas p o u r Sophie?" > she t u r n s p a g e .  x  144.  between  tu  1'achetes.  M and 0 a r e are looking y  talking. J and S through c a t a l o g u e .  S is l o o k i n g at records "On a p l e i n comme c a , t u souviens pas?" > "Oh j e 1'achete." N  ne  te  182  145.  146.  147.  moi m a n g e r la bouche.  un,  deux,  149.  apres  oh, c'est carres.  n'ai faire  trois on  des  c'est pareil, pas p a r e i l .  ca.  et  va  plus.  petits  c'est  oh,  ca  roule  151.  c'est  152.  elle n'est encore.  153.  c'est  pas  pas  assez  "Toi  n'as  clay  long.  pas  ^ arrive?"  pas  "Quand e s t - c e 1 'ecole?"  que  tu  vas  a  >  receives  no  response.  "Tu mets t o u t e s l e s petites cubes dans l a b o T t e . "  > S starts picking blocks. " D e s ^ p e t i t e s cubes des petits carres, c'est pareil."  >  puts  blocks  won't  "Cela  c'est  putting  espere  drawing.  Clay  pas  j  S is >  S  38,16 150.  for  >  a  "Mais  oh z u t , m a i | pas a r r i v e a  puis  148.  plus  M scolds S in mouth.  ne  thin roll her neck. y  S  is  in  roll  roule of  looking  box. on  sack.  pas?"  clay  at  won't  tape  go  around  recorder.  > "Huh?"  encore.  still >  looking  at  tape  recorder.  183  154.  " N o n , ca marche pas f i n i . "  n o n , t u 1e s o r t i r.  157.  o u i , ma i s e l l e pas p r e t e .  158.  non.  160.  >  "Voila'."  S sees a p i c t u r e of a g i r l ing a door. "Qu'est-ce qu'elle fait?"  rien.  non,  pas  non^elle  comme  aime  n'est  ca.  pas  ca.  booking at "Elle fait  "Elle  n'est  still  looking  J  162.  non, pris  c ' e s t moi q u i la pour l a poupee.  non:::  pas  prete?"  at  picture.  0 tries dressing doll. > S demonstrates. " C ' e s t m i e u x comme c a , aime c a . " *  >  it  elle  s  needs  with  his  doll.  cloth,  is  in  toy  place  of  cloth  >  oepri-  picture. rien?"  >  continues  161.  n'est  S gives 0 a block with clay in i t , she w a s n ' t a b l e to get clay out. " Q u ' e s t - c e que t u v e u x que j e f a s s e a v e c l a p a t e a"* m o d e l e r ? j e l a met d e d a n s ? "  sors...  156.  159.  ce  >  non.  38,20  155.  encore,  M tells  him  box. is  found.  S i s f e e d i n g camel to doll. "Tu c r o i s t a poupee v e u t manger des chameaux?" > still f e e d i n g camel .  184 " Q u e e s t - c e qu e l 1 e ' m a n g e t a p e t i t e poupee?" S says chameau. "Non." > still f e e d i n g camel to doll. 1  163.  non:::  164.  non,  165.  non.  166.  167.  168.  non, jeux  ah  moi  pas  c ' e s t pas specials.  non!  non,  la  vu.  la  les  c'est  pas  mignon.  38,23 169.  oh  ca  vient  pas  " E s t - c e q u e t u as singe?" S is playing. ? "Est-ce q u ' i l est sac?" looks in sack. ?  S is looking for but d o e s n ' t f i n d >  J hit S pushing ?  (5x).}  (3x)  1  on t h e J away  non.  171 .  non.  l'autre  dans  l'autre  toys in them.  catalogue  head w i t h hammer, and c r y i n g  S is looking through catalogue and p o i n t i n g d o l l c a r r i a g e s that she w a n t s . "£a c ' e s t mignon, r e g a r d e s . " l o o k i n g at carriages. > S y  can't  get  clay  out  of  block.  S sees b i c y c l e in c a t a l o g u e , says i t is l i k e J ' s . M s a y s no J b o r r o w e d i t f r o m W. " C ' e s t p l u t f t t c a , t u ne c r o i s pas?" > S turns page. "Non?" > " Q u ' e s t - c e que t u c r o i s que c'est al ors . S doesn't respond. %  170.  vu  185  172.  173.  n o n , comme de W comme  S sees a toy horse in say^s i t i s l i k e W's. "Ou e s t - c e q u ' o n v o i t comme c a ? "  la celle ca.  >  5  un  cheval  f  "Oh,  S's mami , c ' e s t peut-e^tre > p a s mai un p e t i t j e u p o u r moi comme c a . M  catalogue,  oui." looking  at  toy  in  catalogue.  agrees.  39,22  174.  non,  175.  non, n'est jeune.  176.  177.  178.  179 .  non pas  oh  non  c'est  celui celui  non,  pas  pour  trop  S  la de  baby  n'est moi.  C  puts  pieces  in  puzzle  herself,  S i s p l a y i n g w i t h p u z z l e , one p i e c e does not b e l o n g i n p u z z l e >  S tells pieces .  baby  to  stop  taking  > J. s a y s he f e l l w h i l e s k a t i n g . " E t t o i S t u f a i s a i s baboum a u s s i ? " S is playing.  >  non  non ,  C.  " C a c ' e s t a Jj on l e m e t l a . " (puzzle) > g i v e s p u z z l e to baby. " E l l e va e t r e t r o p j e u n e p o u r ca, non?" /  c ' est  a  moi  S has s t u f f e d l i o n , "Oh, c ' e s t £ J c a . "  > S  won't  give  it  to  J  J .  wants  it.  186  180.  non,  181.  non.  182.  i l v e u t pas avec m o i .  182.  racontes  non,  elle  non,  pas  " O h r e g a r d e i l y a un t a s de choges l a . " looking through catalogue. > "Je ne r a c o n t e pas?" >  pas  S^ c a n ' t  jouer  "Elle  est  mouillee.  40,1 184.  185.  186.  187.  188.  il  y  en  a  les  is  putting  pas  to  jouer  sleep.  avec  toi?"  baby's diaper ou m o u i l l e e ? "  ribbon and  on  Xmas  puts  it  to  tree on  doll,  looking through book, p i c t u r e o n i o n , J says i t ' s apple. "Tu c o n n a i s ca Sophie?"  >  yeux,  S  0 i s m a k i n g a c l a y man f o r S. "II f a u t m e t t r e l e s y e u x , eh?"  >  "Non,  b i e n , t u f a i s pas to ute«S;eu&e,' d£ a c c o r d ? ;  (girl)  S is feeding milk p o t t l e is empty.  des  e t e l l e a pas veux p o i r .  veut  S takes ribbon herself.  plus.  c a , c ' e s t pas pommes £ a .  ne  baby  S is changing " E l l e est sec > J  comme £<  get  S  >  says  attends." she  "Je ne f a i s d 'accord."  wants  to  make  pas  toute  one.  seule?  of  187  40,4  189.  190.  non,  je  veux  veux  ecrire  pas . . . d e s s i n e r  ^ la.  y  191.  non,  comme b e b e  Jean.  "Tu veux j o u e r modeler?"  avec  starts  paper  getting  la  S and J a r e d i s a g r e e i n g " Q u ' e s t - c e qui arrive?" wants J ' s pen. " H u h ? t u ne v e u x p a s > " C ' e s t p a r e i l c a, ca b.J." > "Si." )> tries to j e t J's.  pate  a  about  pen  cela?" (pen) ^ e c r i t comme  b  192.  non,  193.  non.  c'est  pas  pareil.  S a n d J hay,e a new t o y . " C ' e s t a" beb'e J , c e n ' e s t a Sophie." 194.  non,  pour  S  Sophie  is  playing  "C ' e s t  195.  eh,  196.  non.  197.  198.  peux (Ix)  ca  >  peux  pas  sortir.  a  with  pas  clay.  Sophie."  S cafl ' t " g e t j . c l ay o u t ' o f b l o c k > IIT u ne p e u x - p a s • s o r t i r ? " :  > gets 'he!p:with  plus  ^S  rouler  n o n , ca c ' e s t ta chambre.  pas  pour  can't  roll  clay.  clay,  gets  S gives 0 a drawing, it back. j> gives  another.  help  then  takes  188  non, faut comme c a , Jean.  pas f a i r e comme b e b e  S's house d o e s n ' t look l i k e J's. M i s h e l p i n g S b u i l d her h o u s e , but S i s not content. 7>  


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