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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Variations in the persistence of subjective culture : cross-ethnic views of characterstics of persons Selkirk, Sheena Ann 1991

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VARIATIONS IN THE PERSISTENCE OF SUBJECTIVE CULTURE: CROSS-ETHNIC VIEWS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS by SHEENA ANN SELKIRK B.A.(Hon.)# U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1968 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1991 €> Sheena Ann S e l k i r k , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or. her representatives. It is. understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Soc/*^ 9* ttDu c • S^u/)/£<i The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Rese a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the problems e x p e r i e n c e d and t h e advantages enjoy e d by t h e m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e c h i l d i n the N o r t h American schoolroom has f o c u s e d b o t h on changing the c h i l d and on c h a n g i n g t h e s c h o o l environment. L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o t h e more b a s i c q u e s t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s of c u l t u r e a c r o s s e t h n i c g r o u p i n g and g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada. In a d d i t i o n , l i t t l e appears t o be known about t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e a c r o s s l e v e l s of v a r i a b l e s l i k e gender, e t h n i c s a l i e n c e , or use of mother tongue. The r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a b a s i c s t u d y of s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s of the concept of " p e r s o n " , a concept i m p o r t a n t i n v i r t u a l l y e very s o c i e t y and, i n a d d i t i o n , c e n t r a l t o Western e d u c a t i o n a l thought. The s t u d y i t s e l f was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the views of 1288 Grade 10 s t u d e n t s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia. Each s u b j e c t ranked the importance of each of 21 p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s of a p e r s o n , and l i s t e d up t o t h r e e c r i t e r i a f o r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t a p e r s o n has each of 11 of t h o s e q u a l i t i e s . S u b s t a n t i v e hypotheses about d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u d e n t s ' r a n k i n g s a c r o s s e t h n i c groups and g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada were c o n f i r m e d . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d b o t h p e r s i s t e n c e and change i n views of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , w hich were d i s s i m i l a r a c r o s s e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s . E x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d p r o v o c a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e m o d e r a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s t r e n g t h of r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , gender and a complex of v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o e t h n i c i t y i n c l u d i n g e t h n i c s a l i e n c e , mother tongue, r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . E x a m i n a t i o n of the s t u d e n t s ' c r i t e r i a y i e l d e d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about the b e h a v i o r s and t r a i t s r e l a t e d t o each of the 11 q u a l i t i e s , and about ages and genders of peopl e thought t o have a g r e a t d e a l of each q u a l i t y . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s may f u r t h e r development of t h e o r y i n the a r e a . In p r a c t i c a l terms, they may h e l p t o g u i d e the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , may s t i m u l a t e the development of p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , and may be u s e f u l f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n the Canadian c o n t e x t . - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i i CHAPTER I : Scope of t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Background t o t h e Problem 2 S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e 3 R e l a t e d Concepts 5 Mod e r a t o r s of S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e 6 S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and E d u c a t i o n 6 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e 7 The Ca t e g o r y of P e r s o n : an Important Example .. 8 S e l e c t i n g Measures and Methodology 11 C o n c l u d i n g Statement 12 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study 13 Statement of t h e Problem 14 Ge n e r a l Problem Statement 14 S p e c i f i c Problems I n v e s t i g a t e d 15 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 16 Hypotheses and Re s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 18 Hypotheses 18 E x p l o r a t o r y R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 19 Overview of the D i s s e r t a t i o n 20 CHAPTER I I : Review of L i t e r a t u r e 21 I n t r o d u c t i o n 21 The Concept of S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e 24 S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e 26 Lay T h e o r i e s and Common Sense 29 Lay T h e o r i e s 29 Common Sense 31 R e l a t e d Concepts from Other D i s c i p l i n e s 34 O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e 37 The Ca t e g o r y of Pe r s o n : An Important Example 38 The P e r s o n i n P h i l o s o p h y 39 The P e r s o n i n A n t h r o p o l o g y & P s y c h o l o g y 42 - i i i -S e l e c t i n g Measures and Methods 50 M e a s u r i n g N o t i o n s about Persons 53 Important P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s 53 C r i t e r i a f o r Judgements 57 I m p l i c i t S t r u c t u r e 58 M o d e r a t o r s of S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e 63 E t h n i c i t y 64 G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada 67 Other P o t e n t i a l Moderator V a r i a b l e s 71 S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and E d u c a t i o n 72 S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e , a C o n t e x t u a l V a r i a b l e 74 S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and E d u c a t i o n a l J u s t i c e 77 The C a t e g o r y of Person and E d u c a t i o n 80 C o n c l u d i n g Statement 84 CHAPTER I I I : Method 85 P o p u l a t i o n s and Samples 86 T a r g e t and A c c e s s i b l e P o p u l a t i o n s 86 Samples 86 The P i l o t Study 86 The Main Survey 87 The Measures 88 The P i l o t Study 88 Statement of Purpose and S u b j e c t R i g h t s 89 Measures of Demographic V a r i a b l e s 89 E t h n i c S a l i e n c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 89 Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) 90 The Main Survey 91 Statement of Purpose and S u b j e c t R i g h t s 91 Measures of Demographic V a r i a b l e s 91 E t h n i c S a l i e n c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 92 Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) 92 Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) 92 P r o c e d u r e I : The P i l o t Study 93 G a i n i n g A c cess 93 Data C o l l e c t i o n 94 Data P r e p a r a t i o n 95 Data A n a l y s i s 96 P r o c e d u r e I I : The Main Survey 97 G a i n i n g A c c e s s 97 Data C o l l e c t i o n 99 Data P r e p a r a t i o n 100 Data A n a l y s i s 103 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 103 I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y of the ESQ 104 L a t e n t S t r u c t u r e of the PQI 104 - i v -T e s t i n g of Hypotheses 105 E x p l o r a t i o n of Res e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 106 E x p l o r a t i o n of t h e PQC 106 CHAPTER IV: R e s u l t s 108 The P i l o t Study 108 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l F i n d i n g s 108 C o n s t r u c t i o n of the Survey 108 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e 109 S u b s t a n t i v e F i n d i n g s 110 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample 110 R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 110 O c c u p a t i o n of P a r e n t s 112 Count r y of B i r t h 112 S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y 113 Mother Tongue 115 Count r y of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) 116 Count r y of B i r t h ( G r a n d p a r e n t s ) 117 G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e 121 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Main Survey 123 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Measures 123 E t h n i c S a l i e n c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 123 Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) .. 125 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Main Survey 131 E x p l o r i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s among the V a r i a b l e s 132 E t h n i c i t y 133 Other Demographic V a r i a b l e s 135 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Main Survey 142 The Main Survey 143 I n t e g r i t y of the Data Set 143 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample 146 R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 146 O c c u p a t i o n of P a r e n t s 148 O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n 152 Count r y of B i r t h 155 Ye a r s of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada 156 S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y 157 Mother Tongue 159 Country of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) 160 Country of B i r t h ( G r a n d p a r e n t s ) 162 G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e 166 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Measures 168 E t h n i c S a l i e n c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 168 Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) 170 Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) 181 - v -T e s t i n g t h e Hypotheses 181 H y p o t h e s i s 1 185 H y p o t h e s i s 2 189 H y p o t h e s i s 3 189 I n d i e sample 192 A s i a n sample 195 F i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n sample 199 E x p l o r i n g the Res e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 202 The I s s u e of Nonindependence 202 R e - p h r a s i n g the Re s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 206 Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) 219 Genders and Ages of Persons S e l e c t e d 221 C r i t e r i a 230 Summary of the R e s u l t s 251 CHAPTER V: D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s 257 I n t r o d u c t i o n 257 D i s c u s s i o n of the R e s u l t s 258 I n t e g r i t y of the Data Set 258 E t h n i c i t y and G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e 259 S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and Lay T h e o r i e s 263 Other M e t h o d o l o g i c a l I s s u e s 266 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 270 T h e o r e t i c a l 270 P r o f e s s i o n a l 271 C o n c l u s i o n s 273 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 275 Secondary A n a l y s e s 275 A d d i t i o n a l P r o j e c t s 278 F i n a l Statement 280 NOTES 282 REFERENCES 283 APPENDIX 297 I . Recoded Geographic A r e a s / C u l t u r e s (16 groups) 297 I I . Recoded Geographic A r e a s / C u l t u r e s (5 groups) 298 - v i -LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n ( P i l o t Study, n=86, N=213) 110 TABLE 2: S t r e n g t h of P e r s o n a l R e l i g i o u s F e e l i n g ( P i l o t Study, n=205, N=213) I l l TABLE 3: S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y ( P i l o t Study, N=213) 113 TABLE 4: Mother Tongue ( P i l o t Study, N=213) 115 TABLE 5: Country of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) ( P i l o t Study, N=213) 116 TABLE 6: Country of B i r t h ( M a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) ( P i l o t Study, N=213) 118 TABLE 7: Country of B i r t h ( P a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) ( P i l o t Study, N=213) 120 TABLE 8: G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e by S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y ( P i l o t Study, n=191, N=213) 121 TABLE 9: ESQ Items: Ranks, Means, and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) 124 TABLE 10: Mean Rankings of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) 126 TABLE 11: F a c t o r L o a d i n g s of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) 128 TABLE 12: Mean Ranks by F a c t o r ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) 131 TABLE 13: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of F a c t o r Scores by S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y : C e l l Means and p - V a l u e s , by F a c t o r ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) 133 TABLE 14: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of PQ's by Gender: C e l l Means and p - V a l u e s , by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) 136 TABLE 15: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of F a c t o r Scores by Gender: C e l l Means and p - V a l u e s , by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) 138 - v i i -TABLE 16: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s of F a c t o r Scores by R e l i g i o u s G r o u p i n g : C e l l Means, p - V a l u e s , S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s and Group C e n t r o i d s ( P i l o t Study, n=86, N=213) 141 TABLE 17: R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n (Main Survey, n=543, N=1288) 147 TABLE 18: S t r e n g t h of P e r s o n a l R e l i g i o u s F e e l i n g (Main Survey, n=1203, N=1288) 148 TABLE 19: O c c u p a t i o n of P a r e n t s (Main Survey, N = 1288) 150 TABLE 20: O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n (Main Survey, N=1288) 153 TABLE 21: Country of B i r t h ( S e l f ) (Main Survey, n=1283, N=1288) 155 TABLE 22: Y e a r s of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada (Main Survey, n=261, N=1288) 156 TABLE 23: S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y (Main Survey, N=1288) 158 TABLE 24: Mother Tongue (Main Survey, N=1288) 160 TABLE 25: Country of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288) 161 TABLE 26: Coun t r y of B i r t h ( M a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288) 163 TABLE 27: Country of B i r t h ( P a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288) 165 TABLE 28: G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada (Main Survey, n=633, N=1288) 167 TABLE 29: ESQ Items: Ranks, Means, and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s (Main Survey, n=1206, N=1288) 169 TABLE 30: Mean Rankings of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) (Main Survey, n=1216, N=1288) 171 TABLE 31: D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s by Number of Components R e t a i n e d f o r R o t a t i o n (Main Survey, n=1216, N=1288) 173 - v i i i -TABLE 32: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among F a c t o r s (Main Survey, n=1216, N=1288) 175 TABLE 33: Loa d i n g s and Common a l i t i e s of PQI's ( l i s t e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r ) (Main Survey,N=1288,n=1216) 176 TABLE 34: Mean Ranks and Common a l i t i e s by F a c t o r (Main Survey, n=1216, N=1288) 180 TABLE 35: G e n e r a t i o n of Re s i d e n c e i n Canada by S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y (Main Survey, n=1272, N=1288 .. 183 TABLE 36: G e n e r a t i o n of Re s i d e n c e i n Canada by S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y , C o l l a p s e d C e l l s (Main Survey, n=626, N=1288) 184 TABLE 37: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s of F a c t o r Scores by E t h n i c G r o u p i n g : C e l l Means, p - V a l u e s , S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s and Group C e n t r o i d s (Main Study, n=395, N=1288) 186 TABLE 38: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s of F a c t o r Scores by Length of R e s i d e n c e ( I n d i e Sample): C e l l Means, S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s and Group C e n t r o i d s (Main Study, n=81, N=1288) 193 TABLE 39: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s of F a c t o r S c o r e s by Length of R e s i d e n c e ( A s i a n Sample): C e l l Means, S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s and Group C e n t r o i d s (Main Study, n=96, N=1288) 196 TABLE 40: S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of F a c t o r Scores ( A s i a n and I n d i e Samples) (Main Study, N=1288) 198 TABLE 41: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s of F a c t o r S c o r e s by E t h n i c G r o uping ( F i r s t G e n e r a t i o n Sample): C e l l Means, S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s and Group C e n t r o i d s (Main Study, n=173, N=1288) 200 TABLE 42: C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s I : C a n o n i c a l L o a d i n g s , P e r c e n t a g e s of V a r i a n c e and Redundancies, and C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s (Main Survey, n=585, N=1288) 208 - i x -TABLE 43: C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s I I : C a n o n i c a l L o a d i n g s , P e r c e n t a g e s of V a r i a n c e and Redundancies, and C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s (Main Survey, n=313, N=1288) 212 TABLE 44: S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s by F a c t o r Score by C a n o n i c a l V a r i a t e (Main Survey, N=1288) 217 TABLE 45: S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s by F a c t o r Score by "Marker V a r i a b l e " (Main Survey, N=1288) 218 TABLE 46: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : n's, Genders and Gender-matches of Persons S e l e c t e d by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y (Main Survey, N=544) 222 TABLE 47: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Genders of Persons S e l e c t e d by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y by Gender of S u b j e c t (Main Survey, N=544) 225 TABLE 48: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Ages of Persons S e l e c t e d by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y (Main Survey, N=544) 227 TABLE 49: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Ages of Persons S e l e c t e d by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y by E t h n i c G r o uping (Main Survey, N=544) 230 TABLE 50: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : I n a p p r o p r i a t e C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y (Main Survey, N=544) 232 TABLE 51: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : M i s c e l l a n e o u s C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y (Main Survey, N=544) 234 TABLE 52: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Core C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( F a c t o r I I ) (Main Survey, N=544) 236 TABLE 53: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Core C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( F a c t o r I I I ) (Main Survey, N=544) 239 TABLE 54: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Core C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( F a c t o r IV) (Main Survey, N = 544) 240 - x -TABLE 55: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Core C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( F a c t o r V) (Main Survey, N=544) 242 TABLE 56: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Core C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( F a c t o r V I I ) (Main Survey, N=544) 244 TABLE 57: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : Core C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( F a c t o r V I I I ) (Main Survey, N=544) 245 TABLE 58: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : P e r c e n t a g e O v e r l a p By P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y (Main Survey, N=544) 249 TABLE A - l : O c c u p a t i o n of P a r e n t s (Main Survey, N=1288) 299 TABLE A-2: O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n (Main Survey, n=1169, N=1288) 305 TABLE A-3: Coun t r y of B i r t h ( S e l f ) (Main Survey, n=1283, N=1288) 308 TABLE A-4: S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y (Main Survey, N=1288) 310 TABLE A-5: Mother Tongue (Main Survey, N = 1288) 313 TABLE A-6: Country of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288) 315 TABLE A-7: Country of B i r t h ( M a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288) 319 TABLE A-8: Coun t r y of B i r t h ( P a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N-1288) 323 TABLE A-9: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : M i s c e l l a n e o u s C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y (Main Survey, N=544) 327 TABLE A-10: Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : A l l Core C r i t e r i a by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y (Main Survey, N=544) 329 - x i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In a s t u d y of t h i s s i z e , t h e r e a r e many pe o p l e who de s e r v e t h a n k s . F i r s t , I would l i k e t o acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the hundreds of Grade 1 0 s t u d e n t s , t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s and the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t a l l l e v e l s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The s t u d y would of c o u r s e have been i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n . I would l i k e t o thank my committee, b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e members from my Department: my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. J . Kehoe, and h i s f e l l o w committee member, Dr. J . Coombs. In any m u l t i v a r i a t e s t u d y , the p o s i t i o n of the m e t h o d o l o g i s t i s a demanding one: c o n s e q u e n t l y , v e r y s p e c i a l acknowledgement i s made of Dr. W. B o l d t ' s c o n s t a n t encouragement and gu i d a n c e . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr. F. E c h o l s , who was a member of the committee a t an e a r l y s t a g e of the r e s e a r c h . O t h e r s who p r o v i d e d c r i t i c a l g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t have i n c l u d e d Drs. B. Beck, J . B e r r y , R. Bowman, R. B r i s l i n , J . G a s k e l l , R. H a k s t i a n , V. D'Oyley, H. R a t z l a f f , H. T r i a n d i s , P. V e r t i n s k y , W. Werner and E. W h i t t a k e r , among many o t h e r s ; i n a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o thank the many s u p p o r t s t a f f w i t h i n the F a c u l t i e s of E d u c a t i o n and Graduate S t u d i e s , who h e l p e d me a t a number of c r i t i c a l p o i n t s . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e i n d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the d i s s e r t a t i o n of Dr. T. Rogers who s u s t a i n e d me p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and a c a d e m i c a l l y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y e a r s of my grad u a t e s t u d i e s , and t h a t of Dr. R. Jarman, whose d o c t o r a l seminar on the d e l i n e a t i o n of i s s u e s and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s has proven i n v a l u a b l e . - x i i -V CHAPTER I SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION I n t r o d u c t i o n In the e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , the b e h a v i o r of t h e m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e c h i l d i n t h e N o r t h American c l a s s r o o m has o f t e n been i n v e s t i g a t e d . Perhaps most common a r e s t u d i e s of p o s s i b l e reasons u n d e r l y i n g such problems as low r a t e s of s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e and h i g h r a t e s of academic f a i l u r e . R e p o r t s of t r e a t m e n t s t u d i e s are a l s o f r e q u e n t l y found. In t h e American c o n t e x t , the Coleman r e p o r t (Coleman et a l . , 1963) i n s p i r e d many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . In Canada, t h r e e major f a c t o r s encouraged s t u d y of t h e same phenomenon: th e f e d e r a l government's p o l i c y of " m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m " (Trudeau, 1971); t h e more r e c e n t M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m A c t (Canada, 1988); and, the i n f l u e n c e of American r e s e a r c h programs. On t h e o t h e r hand, r e s e a r c h which examines c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n more fundamental concepts i s seldom r e p o r t e d , as ar e s t u d i e s of t h e p e r s i s t e n c e of any such v a r i a t i o n . Such - 1 -s t u d i e s may be of i n t e r e s t i n t h e m s e l v e s . They may a l s o shed l i g h t on the b e h a v i o r of the m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e c h i l d i n the e d u c a t i o n a l environment. That i s , v a r i a t i o n s i n b a s i c c o n c e p t s may w e l l u n d e r l i e c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c h o o l b e h a v i o r and performance. The r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a b a s i c s t u d y : an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e views of Grade 10 s t u d e n t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia about the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of each of a number of p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the c r i t e r i a f o r c o n c l u d i n g t h a t a p e r s o n has one of t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Hypotheses were t e s t e d about s t u d e n t s ' responses a c r o s s e t h n i c groups and g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada. A number of r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were e x p l o r e d , i n c l u d i n g q u e s t i o n s about v a r i a t i o n s a c r o s s gender, e t h n i c s a l i e n c e , mother tongue and r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . Background t o the Problem S i x t e e n y e a r s ago, G a l l i m o r e , Boggs & J o r d a n (1974) observed t h a t r e s e a r c h i n m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e e d u c a t i o n u s u a l l y proceeded from one of two p o s i t i o n s : >that which viewed the m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e c h i l d as b e i n g i n some sense d e f i c i e n t , or t h a t w h i c h merely assumed the c h i l d t o be c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . These two assumptions c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o B e r r y ' s (1979) - 2 -" m o n o c u l t u r a l " and " c r o s s - c u l t u r a l " r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s , and t o the p o l e s of B u l l i v a n t ' s (1981) " p l u r a l i s t dilemma". A r e c e n t e d i t i o n of H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review (August, 1988) makes i t c l e a r t h a t b o t h p o s i t i o n s a r e s t i l l b e i n g adopted i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e and i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I , below. In d e s i g n i n g t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , an attempt was made t o proceed from the " c r o s s - c u l t u r a l " p o s i t i o n , and t o f o r m u l a t e a methodology which was as f a i r as p o s s i b l e t o a l l c u l t u r a l groups. Subjective C u l t u r e C u l t u r e i s a r g u a b l y the most e l u s i v e term i n the v o c a b u l a r y of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (Jahoda, 1984). In c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y , d e f i n i t i o n s range from "a system of s y m b o l i c a b s t r a c t i o n s " (Rohner, 1984) t o "a r u b r i c f o r a c o l l e c t i o n of u n r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s " ( S e g a l , 1984). In an e a r l i e r paper, Jahoda (1980) had a l l u d e d t o a d e f i n i t i o n of " c u l t u r e " as an o v e r a r c h i n g s o c i a l system, d i v i d e d i n t o " m a t e r i a l " and " n o n - m a t e r i a l " c u l t u r e . N o n - m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e was f u r t h e r s e p a r a t e d i n t o " d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e " and "not d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e " ; the l a t t e r may i n t u r n be subsumed w i t h i n the concept of " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " . The term " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " was f i r s t used by Osgood (1964). - 3 -He s t a t e d t h a t " c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e or c o n n o t a t i v e a s p e c t s of language" c o n s t i t u t e p a r t of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , which had u n i v e r s a l u n d e r l y i n g components. T r i a n d i s ( e . g . , 1972, 1976, 1980a, 1980b) expanded Osgood's i n i t i a l f o r m u l a t i o n i n t o a g e n e r a l p a n c u l t u r a l t h e o r y by r e d e f i n i n g i t as the c o l l e c t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n s of b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , norms and i d e a l s h e l d by members of a g i v e n c u l t u r e . He then c o n s t r u c t e d an e l a b o r a t e c o n c e p t u a l framework ( d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I , b e l o w ) . A major advantage of the framework i s t h a t i t makes the n o t i o n of a c e n t r a l a s p e c t of " c u l t u r e " ( i . e . , t he a b s t r a c t s y m b o l i c ) more amenable t o s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , but at the same time m a i n t a i n s the i d e a of an i n t e g r a t e d system. A r e c e n t a r e a of s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t has s t r o n g l i n k s w i t h s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e : the stu d y of l a y t h e o r i e s and common sense. Furnham (1988) observed t h a t l a y t h e o r i e s a r e everyday, i m p l i c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . They a r e u s u a l l y seen t o be u s e f u l by th o s e h o l d i n g them and a r e o f t e n not v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e found i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Lay t h e o r i s t s argue t h a t b e h a v i o r i s o n l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f we can have ac c e s s t o the meaning the event has f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . As Furnham (1988) has s t a t e d , the n o t i o n of common sense has a good d e a l i n common w i t h t h a t of l a y t h e o r i e s . Grave (1967) r e i n f o r c e s Furnham's view about the l i n k a g e , s i n c e he no t e s t h a t t h e u s u a l meaning of "common se n s e " i s t h a t i t c o n s i s t s of - 4 -o r d i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Common sense i s the use of p r a c t i c a l good sense i n everyday a f f a i r s , which stems from a s e t of p r i m a r y t r u t h s ( e . g . , "There i s an e x t e r n a l w o r l d . " ) . He co n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e has been q u i t e a l o t of argument about the v a l u e of common sense w i t h l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a v i n g been p a i d t o more b a s i c i s s u e s , e.g., i t s d e f i n i t i o n and components, how i t i s a p p l i e d , or how i t may be l e a r n e d . R e l a t e d Concepts. The n o t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e appears t o be s i m i l a r t o a number of o t h e r concepts d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . For example, i n a n t h r o p o l o g y , such terms as " i m p l i c i t meaning" ( D o u g l a s , 1975) may r e f e r t o something l i k e s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . Another such term i s " b e l i e f system", which some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ( e . g . , Dimen-Schein, 1977; G e e r t z , 1983; Kearney, 1984) would argue i s the c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t of the d i s c i p l i n e . A t h i r d example of a s i m i l a r concept may be found i n r a d i c a l thought - the i d e a of "hegemony" ( G r a m s c i , 1971, 1978), which i s based on the assumption t h a t t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e of h i s t o r y i s i m p l i c i t and i d e o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than economic. S u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e and such o t h e r n o t i o n s as l a y t h e o r i e s , b e l i e f systems and hegemony are a l l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , thought t o mediate between the p e r s o n and the e x t e r n a l w o r l d . Each i s seen t o c o n s i s t of b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , myths, i d e a l s , and many o t h e r a s p e c t s of g e n e r a l c o g n i t i o n , and t o be "common-sensical" and i m p l i c i t . The c o n s t r u c t s a re m a n i f e s t e d - 5 -i n language and b e h a v i o r , and r e f l e c t an i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s of e x t r a c t i n g meaning from events and p e r c e p t i o n s . Because they a r e s o c i a l l y l e a r n e d , t h e r e i s good reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t s y s t e m a t i c c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may be found. M o d e r a t o r s of S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e . A number of a u t h o r s have p o i n t e d out t h a t sub-groups w i t h i n c u l t u r e s , as w e l l as c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s , have s e p a r a t e ways of knowing, r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r i n g systems of knowledge. F or example, the work e d i t e d by Johnson and K a l v e n (1988) i s d e d i c a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g and e x p l o r i n g women's s e p a r a t e ways of knowing about the w o r l d . They observe t h a t , i n f a c t , i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t many v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e b o t h our l e a r n i n g about the w o r l d and about how we i n t e r p r e t and r e a c t t o i t . A number of demographic v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d as p o t e n t i a l moderator v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g gender, r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and e t h n i c s a l i e n c e . The i n f l u e n c e of age was not i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and E d u c a t i o n . I t i s obvi o u s t h a t our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of events d e t e r m i n e s our responses t o tho s e e v e n t s , b o t h g e n e r a l l y and i n the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e a re t o be found i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s of s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s at l e a s t f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of i m m i g r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Nova - 6 -S c o t i a b l a c k s and N a t i v e Canadians, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e f o r the e x i s t e n c e i n Canada of " c a s t e - l i k e " m i n o r i t i e s (Ogbu, 1978), d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e ( e . g . , assumptions and e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o n t e n t s of t e x t s , s t r u c t u r e of l e s s o n s , " t e a c h e r t a l k " and amount of homework) may w e l l a f f e c t the degree of e f f e c t i v e s t u d e n t / f a m i 1 y / t e a c h e r communication and t h e r e b y a f f e c t e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e s s . F u r t h e r , i t may be argued t h a t a s c h o o l system which does not c o n s i d e r the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of a l l i t s s t u d e n t s i s s o c i a l l y u n j u s t . J u s t t r e a t m e n t i s a b a s i c human r i g h t , i . e . , persons a r e e n t i t l e d t o j u s t t r e a t m e n t s i m p l y because they are p e o p l e . In the case of e d u c a t i o n , the persons e n t i t l e d t o j u s t t r e a t m e n t a r e , presumably, th e s t u d e n t s . J u s t t r e a t m e n t of the s t u d e n t means, as Rawls (1971) has p o i n t e d o u t , t h a t every s t u d e n t has equal a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l goods. A s c h o o l system which does not c o n s i d e r the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of i t s s t u d e n t s does not a l l o w equal a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l goods, and thus i s not j u s t . Operationalizing Subjective Culture The concept of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e p r e c i s e l y because i t i s h y p o t h e t i c a l and i m p l i c i t . T r i a n d i s ' p o s i t i o n , adopted i n t h i s s t u d y , was t h a t the n o t i o n of " c o n c e p t " i s a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t ( 1 9 7 2 : l O l f f . ) . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a u s e f u l f i r s t s t e p would be - 7 -t o narrow the frame of r e f e r e n c e i n a n o n - a r b i t r a r y f a s h i o n , i . e . , t o s e l e c t some sub-area on a r a t i o n a l b a s i s and then t o p l a n more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s . However, the c r i t e r i a which might be used t o s e l e c t such an a r e a a r e f a r from c l e a r . One approach i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i m p l i c i t s t r u c t u r e of some c e n t r a l c o ncept. The b a s i c assumption of the s t r u c t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d s c h o l a r i s t h a t u n d e r l y i n g any m a n i f e s t a c t i s some s e t of i n t e r r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e s . W i t h i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h e r e have been a t l e a s t two main s t r e a m s , one a r i s i n g from the p s y c h o m e t r i c t r a d i t i o n , the o t h e r i n i t i a l l y l i n g u i s t i c and l a t e r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l . The p s y c h o m e t r i c t r a d i t i o n has f o r the most p a r t been concerned w i t h " q u a n t i t a t i v e " d a t a and seems t o have been d e v e l o p e d by Spearman i n h i s s e a r c h f o r " g e n e r a l " and " s p e c i f i c " s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r l y i n g m a n i f e s t i n t e l l i g e n c e . The l i n g u i s t i c or a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach, on the o t h e r hand, has been concerned w i t h " q u a l i t a t i v e " d a t a , and has f o c u s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e ( b o t h v e r b a l and b e h a v i o r a l ) . C u r r e n t l y , t h e r e appears t o be a t r e n d toward m i x i n g the two t r a d i t i o n s , e.g., q u a l i t a t i v e - q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s . T h i s approach was adopted i n the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The C a t e g o r y of P e r s o n : An Important Example. Many s c h o l a r s have argued t h a t t h e n o t i o n of a p e r s o n i s p r i m a r y . For i n s t a n c e , Smith (1985) i n an a r t i c l e on the m e t a p h o r i c b a s i s of - 8 -s e l f h o o d s t a t e d t h a t how p e o p l e s y m b o l i z e themselves and each o t h e r i s fundamental t o s o c i a l l i f e . There i s a l s o agreement t h a t t h e n o t i o n i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d ( e . g . , H a r r e , 1987). Some s c h o l a r s ( e . g . , Smith, 1980) have argued t h a t the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between " s e l f " and " p e r s o n " i s t h a t the " s e l f " i s a term t h a t d e s i g n a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n , a l b e i t one who s t a n d s i n a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s p e a k e r . Much of the d i s c u s s i o n of the p e r s o n i n p h i l o s o p h y appears t o have been concerned w i t h major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s , e.g.,the n o t i o n s of body and mind, and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. Reichmann (1985) notes t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l view i s t h a t the p e r s o n i s v o l i t i o n a l , c o n s c i o u s and r e f l e c t i v e ( i . e . , s e l f aware), p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t over time and a c r o s s space. The p e r s o n a l i t y i s the sum of e x p e r i e n c e and of r e s u l t i n g a t t r i b u t i o n s or q u a l i t i e s . In c o n t r a s t , T a y l o r (1985) s t a t e d t h a t s p e a k i n g of " p u r p o s i v e " a c t i o n i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a p e r s o n from a t h i n q ( " a r t i f a c t " ) or an a n i m a l . One must a l s o be an agent w i t h i n t r i n s i c p u r p o s e s , which have some s i g n i f i c a n c e ( i . e . , meaning) t o the p e r s o n h i m / h e r s e l f . I t i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e a s p e c t t h a t i s c e n t r a l . The a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l view appears t o have been more concerned w i t h t h e c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c concept of p e r s o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y . F or example, i n a s e m i n a l essay w r i t t e n near the end of h i s l i f e , Mauss (1985) noted t h a t a b a s i c assumption of the a r e a i s t h a t - 9 -v a r i o u s s o c i e t i e s have formed d i f f e r e n t c o ncepts of the s e l f / p e r s o n b o t h over time and a c r o s s space. A l l e n (1985) makes the f u r t h e r p o i n t t h a t the f u l l n o t i o n of the p e r s o n i n every s o c i e t y i s complex and not i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e s s i b l e . W i t h i n p s y c h o l o g y , i t i s apparent t h a t t h e p e r s o n i s the main f o c u s of s t u d y , a l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on p e o p l e ' s own v i e w s . M a r s e l l a (1985) n o t e s t h a t t h e r e has been a r e s u r g e n c e of i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n and meaning, and i n the p o s i t i o n t h a t views of s e l f and of o t h e r s a r e d e f i n e d and r e d e f i n e d d u r i n g the l i f e c y c l e as l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e i n t e g r a t e d . In a r e v i e w of p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , McArthur (1988) r e p o r t s t h a t c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s a r e concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the p r o c e s s e s of p e r c e i v i n g and j u d g i n g p e r s o n s , and v e r y l i t t l e w i t h such t o p i c s as the c o n t e n t of p e r c e p t i o n s , s t a n d a r d s used i n p e r c e p t i o n s and judgements, s t i m u l u s s e l e c t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n used, and the f u n c t i o n s of such p e r c e p t i o n s . There i s even l e s s e v i d e n c e about the s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s and c o n t e n t s of p e r c e p t i o n s , b o t h mono- and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y . W i t h r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , Holbrook (1987) argues t h a t e d u c a t i o n a r i s e s not o n l y from th e d e s i r e t o produce w e l l s o c i a l i z e d c i t i z e n s , but from t h a t fundamental p a r t o f ' e v e r y p e r s o n which seeks knowledge of the s e l f , and of one's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . Thus, i t i s a p l a u s i b l e assumption - 10 -t h a t much e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e has been based on the c e n t r a l concept of the " p e r s o n " i n Canadian and, more g e n e r a l l y , i n Western s o c i e t y . S e l e c t i n g Measures and Methodology. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of l a y t h e o r i e s , Furnham (1988) observes t h a t s t u d i e s can i n c l u d e a s p e c t s of c o n t e n t s of p e r c e p t i o n s ( e . g . , r a n k i n g of q u a l i t i e s and c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of p e o p l e w i t h t h o s e q u a l i t i e s ) . Methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n might i n c l u d e s e l f - r e p o r t s and s u r v e y s or i n t e r v i e w s ; use of t e s t d a t a ; and, o b s e r v a t i o n of b e h a v i o r . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , the su r v e y approach was s e l e c t e d , w i t h the a r e a of f o c u s t h a t of " i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s " , or p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p e r s o n s . In her r e v i e w of v a l u e s from a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , Z a v a l l o n i (1980) n o t e s t h a t the u s u a l m e t h o d o l o g i e s s t u d i e d v a l u e s by a b s t r a c t i n g p r i n c i p l e s from a few i n d i v i d u a l s assumed t o be f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . A nother methodology which does a l l o w c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as group responses i s t h a t of Rokeach and h i s s t u d e n t s ( e . g . , 1968, 1973, 1979), adopted i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n the r a n k i n g of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , t h e r e may w e l l be d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c r i t e r i a by which t h e s e q u a l i t i e s a re judged t o e x i s t or n o t . - 11 -and t o what d e g r e e . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s u c h c o n c e p t s , a r e s o m e t i m e s n o t e d i n p a s s i n g , b u t h a v e r a r e l y b e e n e m p i r i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . A l m o s t a u n i q u e m o n o c u l t u r a l e x a m p l e i s S t e r n b e r g ' s work ( 1 9 8 2 , 1985) on l a y m e a n i n g o f t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y " i n t e l l i g e n c e " and r e l a t e d t e r m s , and t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s i n t h e same a r e a by B e r r y ( 1 9 8 4 ) and V a l s i n e r ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n S t e r n b e r g ' s s t u d i e s , p e o p l e w e re a s k e d t o l i s t b e h a v i o r s t h e y t h o u g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s , B e r r y and V a l s i n e r d i s c u s s c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , e . g . , s o c i a l f a c t o r s t o be e x p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t o r a b s e n t a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . C o n c l u d i n g S t a t e m e n t R e s e a r c h w h i c h h a s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p r o b l e m s e x p e r i e n c e d and t h e a d v a n t a g e s e n j o y e d by t h e m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e c h i l d i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s c h o o l r o o m has f o c u s e d b o t h on c h a n g i n q t h e c h i l d and on c h a n g i n g t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . However, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n p a i d t o t h e more b a s i c q u e s t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e as a-f u n c t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p and g e n e r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e i n C a n a d a . F u r t h e r , l i t t l e a p p e a r s t o be known a b o u t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e a c r o s s l e v e l s o f p o t e n t i a l m o d e r a t o r v a r i a b l e s l i k e g e n d e r , e t h n i c s a l i e n c e , u s e o f m o t h e r t o n g u e or' p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s e a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e may h e l p , t o g u i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , may s t i m u l a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c y a nd p r a c t i c e i n t h e - 12 -m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , and may be u s e f u l f o r c u r r i c u l u m development and t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n the Canadian c o n t e x t . R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which l e d t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o r the s t u d y were: 1. P e o p l e from many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s a r e t o be found i n Canada. 2. P e o p l e from t h e d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s s t a y i n Canada over a p e r i o d of one t o many g e n e r a t i o n s . Many of t h e s e p e o p l e s m a i n t a i n a c l a i m t o a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c i t y over a l o n g p e r i o d . 3. E v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t views of the w o r l d and of t h e pe r s o n d i f f e r markedly among c u l t u r e s , and among sub-groups w i t h i n c u l t u r e . The d i f f e r e n c e s may w e l l i n c l u d e c r i t e r i a f o r f o r m u l a t i n g judgements about persons and d i f f e r e n t views of what i s i m p o r t a n t about a p e r s o n . 4. However, i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g about p e r s i s t e n c e of c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e of t h e i m p l i c i t , n o n - m a t e r i a l t y p e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s c h o o l - a g e p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i s i n c l u d e s knowledge about views of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . - 13 -5. Such i n f o r m a t i o n appears t o have p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , b o t h f o r d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s t u d e n t s by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , and f o r d e a l i n g w i t h p a r e n t s , p l a n n i n g f o r the m u l t i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l , and f u l f i l l i n g t h e demand f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e . 6. Thus, the r e s e a r c h e n t a i l e d c o l l e c t i o n and e x a m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about the p e r s i s t e n c e of one i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , i . e . , views of the concept of a p e r s o n among a d o l e s c e n t s of v a r y i n g e t h n i c i t i e s and g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada, from a p o p u l a t i o n which may be assumed t o be r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n of Canada as a whole. Statement of the Problem General Problem Statement The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n argued t h a t l i t t l e seems t o be known about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i n new i m m i g r a n t s t o Canada, and l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n appears t o be a v a i l a b l e about the p e r s i s t e n c e o f , and/or v a r i a t i o n s i n , s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e a c r o s s g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada r e g a r d l e s s of e t h n i c group membership. C o n s e q u e n t l y , th e g e n e r a l problem which was t h e f o c u s of t h e p r e s e n t - 14 -i n v e s t i g a t i o n was: What i s the n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , e t h n i c i t y and g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada? S p e c i f i c Problems I n v e s t i g a t e d The s u b - a r e a of " c o n c e p t s " was s e l e c t e d as a c e n t r a l a s p e c t of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , w i t h the concept of the " p e r s o n " b e i n g s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y as one c e n t r a l t o a l l human i n t e r a c t i o n and development. In t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e t h n i c i t y and g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e were t r e a t e d as "independent v a r i a b l e s " , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r can be m a n i p u l a t e d i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l way. S u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d and more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d as a s p e c t s of t h e concept of p e r s o n , was t r e a t e d as t h e "dependent" v a r i a b l e . The r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s examined were c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as p o t e n t i a l "moderator" v a r i a b l e s , which may i n t e r a c t w i t h e i t h e r or b o t h of the independent v a r i a b l e s . ( Q u o t a t i o n marks a r e added as a reminder of the c o r r e l a t i o n a l n a t u r e of the s t u d y . ) Thus, t h e s p e c i f i c problems i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n were: 1. What a r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among e t h n i c i t y , g e n e r a t i o n of - 15 -r e s i d e n c e i n Canada and views of t h e concept of " p e r s o n " , among secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ? 2. How do moderator v a r i a b l e s , such as gender or e t h n i c s a l i e n c e , modify the r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x p r e s s e d i n q u e s t i o n 1 above? O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s adopted i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d below, i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . E t h n i c S a l i e n c e : the summed responses t o an i n s t r u m e n t made up of f i f t e e n n i n e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e d i t e m s , each of which asked the s u b j e c t t o i n d i c a t e how i m p o r t a n t h i s / h e r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s would be i n t h a t s e t of c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I . Gender: the male or female s t a t u s of the s u b j e c t as i n d i c a t e d i n response t o an i t e m i n the s u r v e y form. G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e : c a t e g o r i z e d as: g e n e r a t i o n of i m m i g r a t i o n ( s u b d i v i d e d by .years of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada); b o r n i n Canada; p a r e n t s born i n Canada; g r a n d p a r e n t s b o r n i n Canada, a c c o r d i n g t o responses t o items on the s u r v e y - 16 -i n s t r u m e n t . M o t h e r T o n g u e : t h e l a n g u a g e m o s t o f t e n s p o k e n a t h o m e , a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e s u b j e c t i n r e s p o n s e t o a n i t e m o n t h e s u r v e y f o r m . T h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e l i s t e d b y e a c h s u b j e c t was t a k e n a s t h e l a n g u a g e u s u a l l y u s e d i n t h e h o m e . O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n : t h e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n n a m e d b y t h e s u b j e c t a s " m o s t w a n t e d " , c o d e d i n d e t a i l , a n d g r o u p e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , b e l o w . Objective Ethnicity: t h e c o u n t r y i n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t was b o r n , a s i n d i c a t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a n i t e m o n t h e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t . P a r e n t a l O c c u p a t i o n s : t h e s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s o f f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r l i s t e d b y t h e s t u d e n t , c o d e d s e p a r a t e l y i n d e t a i l a n d g r o u p e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , b e l o w . R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n : m e a s u r e d i n t w o w a y s : f i r s t , t h e r e l i g i o u s g r o u p t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t b e l o n g e d , a s i n d i c a t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a n i t e m o n t h e s u r v e y f o r m ; a n d , s e c o n d , t h e s t r e n g t h o f p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g a s m e a s u r e d o n a n i n e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e w h e r e " 1 " i n d i c a t e d v e r y w e a k f e e l i n g a n d " 9 " v e r y s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g . - 17 -Secondary School Students. the p o p u l a t i o n of Grade 10 s t u d e n t s , r e g i s t e r e d d u r i n g the 1987-88 or the 1988-89 s c h o o l y e a r s i n any p u b l i c s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y : the e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g w i t h w hich the s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e d most c l o s e l y , as i n d i c a t e d i n response t o an i t e m on the s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t . Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( I m p o r t a n c e ) : t h e r a n k i n g of each of 21 p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from most t o l e a s t i m p o r t a n t , as l i s t e d i n t h e Rokeach I n s t r u m e n t a l V a l u e Survey, augmented as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , below. Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) : t h e gender and approximate age of a p e r s o n p o s s e s s i n g a " g r e a t d e a l " of each of e l e v e n p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , and a l i s t of up t o t h r e e reasons why t h a t p e r s o n was f e l t t o p o s s e s s the q u a l i t y , c o n s t r u c t e d as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , below. Hypotheses and Research Questions Hypotheses Three hypotheses were t e s t e d i n the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . They a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s u b s t a n t i v e form. H y p o t h e s i s 1: Views of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s (VPQ's) w i l l v a r y - 18 -a c r o s s the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups r e p r e s e n t e d i n the sample, when e t h n i c i t y i s measured as d e l i n e a t e d above. H y p o t h e s i s 2: VPQ's w i l l v a r y a c r o s s the s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada r e p r e s e n t e d i n the sample, when g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i s measured as d e l i n e a t e d above. H y p o t h e s i s 3 : VPQ's w i l l v a r y a c r o s s the s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e sample d i f f e r e n t l y f o r the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups r e p r e s e n t e d i n the sample, when measured as d e l i n e a t e d above. E x p l o r a t o r y R e s e a r c h Questions In a d d i t i o n t o t h e t h r e e hypotheses t e s t e d d u r i n g the c o u r s e of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a number of r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d and e x p l o r e d . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e l i s t e d below. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1: How do VPQ's v a r y a c r o s s gender, b o t h a c r o s s and w i t h i n e t h n i c group and g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada? R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2: How do VPQ's v a r y a c r o s s l e v e l s of e t h n i c s a l i e n c e , b o t h a c r o s s and w i t h i n e t h n i c groups and g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada? - 19 -Research Question 3: How do VPQ's vary across l e v e l s of r e t e n t i o n of mother tongue, both across and w i t h i n e t h n i c groups and generations of re s i d e n c e i n Canada? Research Question 4 : How do VPQ's vary across c a t e g o r i e s of r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , both across and w i t h i n e t h n i c groups and generat i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada? Research Question 5 : How do VPQ's vary across c a t e g o r i e s of p a r e n t a l occupation, both across and w i t h i n e t h n i c groups and generat i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada? Research Question 6: How do VPQ's vary across c a t e g o r i e s of oc c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , both across and w i t h i n e t h n i c groups and generations of re s i d e n c e i n Canada? Overview of the D i s s e r t a t i o n The remaining chapters of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are organized as f o l l o w s . F o l l o w i n g the Review of L i t e r a t u r e (Chapter I I ) , the Methodology i s presented (Chapter I I I ) . The R e s u l t s are presented i n Chapter IV. The r e s e a r c h i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V, which Chapter V concludes with a number of suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n the area. - 20 -CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n Some time ago, G a l l i m o r e , Boggs & J o r d a n (1974) observed t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a of m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e e d u c a t i o n has u s u a l l y proceeded from one of two p o s i t i o n s : a view of the m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e c h i l d as b e i n g d e f i c i e n t , or one which assumed the c h i l d t o be c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t . They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s p r o c e e d i n g from the d e f i c i e n c y assumption o f t e n attempt t o e s t a b l i s h such d e f i c i t s , or r e p o r t the r e s u l t s of t r e a t m e n t of d e f i c i t s . A t y p i c a l g o a l of such r e s e a r c h i s the e x p l i c i t or i m p l i e d a s s i m i l a t i o n of the c h i l d i n t o m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . On the o t h e r hand, r e s e a r c h e r s who proceed from the c u l t u r e - d i f f e r e n c e assumption t y p i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b o t h m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s . The g o a l s of such r e s e a r c h may be the t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s t o the m a j o r i t y - c u l t u r e c o n t e x t , or the adjustment of the s c h o o l environment t o m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s . - 21 -The " d e f i c i t " and " d i f f e r e n c e " assumptions a b s t r a c t e d by G a l l i m o r e et a l . c o r r e s p o n d t o B e r r y ' s (1979) d e s c r i p t i o n of two m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s h e l d by r e s e a r c h e r s w o r k i n g i n m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s . In B e r r y ' s view, s c h o l a r s who adopt a " m o n o c u l t u r a l " s t a n c e assume t h a t a s i n g l e s e t of v a l u e s i s i v a l i d f o r a l l c u l t u r e s , as i s any s e t of measures p r o c e e d i n g from t h o s e v a l u e s . R e s e a r c h e r s h o l d i n g a " c r o s s - c u l t u r a l " p o s i t i o n make a assumption of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i t y (Note 1 ) . The m o n o c u l t u r a l p o s i t i o n may be more common among r e s e a r c h e r s making " d e f i c i t " a s s u mptions; the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p o s i t i o n more common among t h o s e who assume c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . B u l l i v a n t (1981) d e s c r i b e d the " p l u r a l i s t dilemma" as c e n t e r e d i n the c o n f l i c t between th e two i d e a l s of " m a i n t a i n i n g an i n t e g r a l n a t i o n - s t a t e " and " d e s i r e t o a l l o w c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y " . H i s f o r m u l a t i o n may e x p r e s s on a more fundamental l e v e l the c o n t r a s t s d e s c r i b e d by G a l l i m o r e et a l . and by B e r r y . That t h e s e p o s i t i o n s a r e s t i l l c u r r e n t l y h e l d , b o t h i n r e s e a r c h and i n p r a c t i c e , i s amply demonstrated i n a s p e c i a l e d i t i o n of t h e H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review (August, 1988) devoted t o m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n i s dominant i n American e d u c a t i o n and t h a t c h i l d r e n of many m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s are b e i n g i l l - s e r v e d by t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l system. That such a body as t h e - 22 -e d i t o r i a l board of t h e Review s h o u l d s t a t e t h a t f o r many c h i l d r e n the American s c h o o l i s an e x p e r i e n c e o n l y of f a i l u r e , s ays much about the c o n d i t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . That t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s v a l i d f o r a t l e a s t some c h i l d r e n i n the Canadian m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i s s u p p o r t e d by a number of r e c e n t a r t i c l e s , i n c l u d i n g a s e r i e s on t h e abuse of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s ( i . e . , C h r i s j o h n et a l . , 1987; Jones & Jones, 1987; Samuda, 1987) and a c r i t i c a l s u r v e y of r e s e a r c h on N a t i v e N o r t h American a b i l i t i e s (McShane & B e r r y , 1988). In t h e s e a r t i c l e s , the a u t h o r s document a l o n g s e r i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l f a i l u r e s f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s and an e q u a l l y l o n g s e r i e s of assumptions of d e f i c i t s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s of e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the assumptions of the r e s e a r c h e r s . Thus, a t t e n t i o n t o v a l u e s t a n c e s must be p a i d when r e v i e w i n g l i t e r a t u r e and making p l a n s f o r r e s e a r c h . V a l u e s may not o n l y i n f l u e n c e f o r m u l a t i o n of problems, but a l s o s e l e c t i o n of r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and of measures. Both d e t e r m i n e the c o n c l u s i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw.from the r e s u l t s . In t u r n , development of t h e o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n t o p r a c t i c e w i l l be a f f e c t e d s i n c e a l l a s p e c t s of t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t ( B e n t l e r , 1980). In t h e case of t h e " c u l t u r a l d e f i c i t " and " c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t " p o s i t i o n s , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t the " d e f i c i t " - 23 -p o s i t i o n would make f o c u s i n g on a s s e t s and advantages e n j o y e d by m i n o r i t y - c u l t u r e c h i l d r e n more d i f f i c u l t . A f o c u s on p o t e n t i a l or a c t u a l problems e x p e r i e n c e d by such c h i l d r e n i s not c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h a r d t o assume from the " d i f f e r e n t " p o i n t of view. The l a t t e r p o s i t i o n t h e r e f o r e seems more j u s t i f i a b l e i f f a i r r e s e a r c h i s t o be u n d e r t a k e n , and was adopted i n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . The Concept of S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e C u l t u r e i s a r g u a b l y the most e l u s i v e term i n the g e n e r a l l y r a t h e r f l u i d v o c a b u l a r y of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (Jahoda, 1984). A l t h o u g h the c e n t r a l r o l e of the concept w i t h i n some a r e a s , e.g., a n t h r o p o l o g y , i s not d i s p u t a b l e , i t s p l a c e i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y i s l e s s s e c u r e . Rohner (1984) saw " c u l t u r e " as a system of s y m b o l i c a b s t r a c t i o n s and as such not a c u r r e n t c o n c e r n of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . I n h i s o p i n i o n , i t s h o u l d be. In c o n t r a s t , Segal (1984) argued t h a t " c u l t u r e " i s me r e l y a r u b r i c f o r a c o l l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s independent of one a n o t h e r , i r r e l e v a n t t o the concerns of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y because of a l a c k of t h e o r y . Jahoda (1984) p o i n t e d out t h a t Rohner's e x c l u s i o n of b o t h " a r t i f a c t s " and " s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s " from the d e f i n i t i o n of c u l t u r e i s u n a c c e p t a b l e , as i s S e g a l ' s view of the concept as u n s y s t e m a t i c . Jahoda d i d agree w i t h b o t h a u t h o r s - 24 -t h a t some more s p e c i f i c n o t i o n i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e i f the concept of " c u l t u r e " i s t o be e m p i r i c a l l y u s e f u l . In an e a r l i e r paper, Jahoda (1980) a l l u d e d t o a d e f i n i t i o n of " c u l t u r e " as an o v e r a r c h i n g s o c i a l system, w i t h a d i v i s i o n i n t o " m a t e r i a l " and " n o n - m a t e r i a l " c u l t u r e . " N o n - m a t e r i a l " c u l t u r e was f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o " d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e " and "not d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e " . M a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s the p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t of human endeavor, w h i l e n o n - m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s the i n s u b s t a n t i a l . N o n - m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e which i s d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e i n c l u d e s such measures as use of o r i g i n a l language ( i . e . , mother t o n g u e ) , a t t e n d a n c e a t e t h n i c - r e l a t e d r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e t h n i c r i t u a l s . I t has been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Canada by such a u t h o r s as O'Bryan, R e i t z & Kuplowska (1976) and R e i t z (1980). N o n - m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e which i s not d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e i s d e f i n e d as i n c l u d i n g a l l mental " s t r u c t u r e s " or " e v e n t s " . I t would i n c l u d e such a s p e c t s of c u l t u r e as i d e a l s , v a l u e s , c o g n i t i o n s , memories or p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s . A s u b s e t of the mental " s t r u c t u r e s " and t h e i r c o n t e n t s which a r e h y p o t h e s i z e d t o v a r y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a c r o s s c u l t u r e s i s subsumed w i t h i n the concept of " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " . - 25 -S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e The term " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " was f i r s t used by Osgood (1964): The d e n o t a t i v e or r e f e r e n t i a l uses of terms - the way the l e x i c o n c a r v e s up t h e w o r l d - appear l a r g e l y a r b i t r a r y and unique t o p a r t i c u l a r languages u n t i l t he e t h n o l i n g u i s t d i s c o v e r s a framework of semantic components t h a t can be imposed comparably on t h e s e phenomena.... Our own r e s e a r c h e s . . . p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e f o r a u n i v e r s a l framework u n d e r l y i n g c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e or c o n n o t a t i v e a s p e c t s of l a n g u a g e . . . e n l i v e n ( i n g ) the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s f o r measuring t h e s e a s p e c t s of " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " . . . i n d i v e r s e s o c i e t i e s . (1964:171) Osgood d i d not d e f i n e the term " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " but seems t o have f e l t t h a t " c e r t a i n a f f e c t i v e or c o n n o t a t i v e a s p e c t s of language" c o n s t i t u t e one p a r t of i t . He thought t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a language b a r r i e r p r e v e n t i n g comparison of many a s p e c t s of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , a t l e a s t the a f f e c t i v e or c o n n o t a t i v e components were u n i v e r s a l . Osgood and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( e . g . , Osgood, 1976, ,1979; Osgood, May & M i r o n , 1975) c o n t i n u e d t o address t h e q u e s t i o n of u n i v e r s a l s of a f f e c t i v e meaning on b o t h mono- and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l e v e l s , almost e x c l u s i v e l y t h r o u g h t h e use of the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l (SD). A f t e r h a v i n g s t u d i e d E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Americans and f i n d i n g t h a t t h r e e dimensions of a f f e c t i v e meaning u n d e r l a y responses on the SD, Osgood et a l . (1975) conducted an e x t e n s i v e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d y , i n which ' d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f o r each of 100 concept names i n each of 25 c o u n t r i e s . Male h i g h - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s s e r v e d as s u b j e c t s . - 26 -A n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h r e e d imensions - E v a l u a t i o n , Potency and A c t i v i t y - d i d i n d e e d account f o r much of the v a r i a n c e w i t h i n and a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . There was, however, s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y a c r o s s c u l t u r e s i n a f f e c t i v e meaning. Osgood et a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t a f f e c t i v e meaning was, i n b o t h i t s u n i v e r s a l and c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s , an i m p o r t a n t component of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . T r i a n d i s (1972) d e f i n e d " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " as a c u l t u r a l group's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way of p e r c e i v i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s s o c i a l ( i . e . , human-made) environment; i t i s a h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t , m e d i a t i n g between the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l w o r l d s and i n p a r t d e t e r m i n i n g the range of responses made by members of s p e c i f i c s o c i e t i e s . I t i s an u n d e r l y i n g v a r i a b l e which must be "drawn o u t " of responses by members of t h e s o c i e t y a c r o s s c l a s s e s of s t i m u l i . T r i a n d i s d e s c r i b e d " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " more s p e c i f i c a l l y as the c o l l e c t i o n of p e r c e p t i o n s of b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , norms and i d e a l s h e l d by members of a g i v e n c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , he c o n s t r u c t e d an e l a b o r a t e framework which i n c l u d e d a n t e c e d e n t s and consequents as w e l l as " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e f a c t o r s " . A n t e c e d e n t s i n c l u d e d b i o l o g i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s . S u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e f a c t o r s i n the framework i n c l u d e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f : r o l e s , t a s k s , norms, i d e a l s , v a l u e s , - 27 -a f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s , r e i n f o r c e m e n t c o n t i n g e n c i e s , h a b i t s and b e h a v i o r i a l i n t e n t i o n s . Consequents of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i n c l u d e d a t t e n d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the s o c i a l w o r l d , d i f f e r e n t i a l use of words, use of r e f i n e d v e r s u s g r o s s c a t e g o r i e s , d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t i n g of s o c i a l cues and p l a c i n g the same s t i m u l i i n t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n . I t i s apparent t h a t T r i a n d i s i n t e n d e d s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e t o be an i m p o r t a n t component of a p a n - c u l t u r a l t h e o r y of i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l a c t i o n , a c e n t r a l m e d i a t o r between antecedent and consequent. A major advantage of T r i a n d i s ' n o t i o n , when combined w i t h Jahoda's (1980) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of c u l t u r e which i s n o n - m a t e r i a l and not d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e i s t h a t i t makes the n o t i o n of a c e n t r a l a s p e c t ( i . e . , t he a b s t r a c t s y m b o l i c ) more amenable t o s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g the n o t i o n of an i n t e g r a t e d system. T r i a n d i s ( e . g . , 1972, 1976, 1980a, 1980b, 1984) and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have a p p l i e d t h e i r r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s t o s e v e r a l a r e a s i n c l u d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l communication manuals ( " c u l t u r a l a s s i m i 1 a t o r s " ) . L i k e t h o s e of Osgood et a l . , T r i a n d i s ' s t u d i e s a r e " h o r i z o n t a l " . That i s , they f o c u s on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t of c u l t u r e w i t h i n a number of d i f f e r e n t g roups, r a t h e r than on a number of a s p e c t s w i t h i n a s i n g l e c u l t u r e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o l l o w e d t h i s model. - 28 -Lay T h e o r i e s and Common Sense The work of T r i a n d i s and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i s f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . In r e c e n t y e a r s , i t has not been e m p i r i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d v e r y o f t e n . However, a number of a r e a s have s t r o n g l i n k s w i t h s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g two emerging n o t i o n s : the concept of l a y t h e o r i e s and t h a t of common sense. Lay T h e o r i e s . Lay t h e o r i e s a r e d e f i n e d as the everyday, n o v i c e , i m p l i c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of t o p i c s t h a t a l s o have concerned s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s (Furnham, 1988), major examples b e i n g a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y and t h e f i e l d of p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g i n p a s s i n g t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may r e f l e c t a l i m i t a t i o n of the " e x p e r t s " , r a t h e r than one of the " l a y t h e o r i s t s " (who undoubtedly h o l d t h e o r i e s on a wide range of phenomena). More g e n e r a l l y , l a y t h e o r i e s are u s u a l l y seen t o be u s e f u l by t h o s e h o l d i n g them. J u s t as w i t h the s c r u t i n y of o t h e r a r e a s , the s t u d y of l a y t h e o r i e s might i n c l u d e : e t i o l o g y , s t r u c t u r e , f u n c t i o n s , s t a b i l i t y , c o n s i s t e n c y , change, or the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. In the l i t e r a t u r e , d i s t i n c t i o n s have o f t e n been drawn between s c i e n t i f i c and l a y t h e o r i e s , not a l l of which may be a c c u r a t e . Furnham's s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g . S c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s are s a i d t o be e x p l i c i t and f o r m a l l y s t a t e d ; l a y t h e o r i e s a r e i m p l i c i t , t a c i t and i n f o r m a l . S c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s are c o h erent and c o n s i s t e n t , and a r e o f t e n - 29 -p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d . Lay t h e o r i e s a r e n e i t h e r c o h erent nor c o n s i s t e n t and are u s u a l l y o r i e n t e d toward c o n t e n t . S c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s seek f a l s i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than v e r i f i c a t i o n , and d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y between causes and mere r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Lay t h e o r i e s do n e i t h e r . Lay t h e o r i e s tend t o be i n t e r n a l i s t i c r a t h e r than s i t u a t i o n a l ( i . e . , they t e n d t o see peopl e and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as broad g e n e r a l t r a i t s , p r e d i c t i n g c o n s i s t e n c y a c r o s s t ime and s i t u a t i o n s ) . On the o t h e r hand, i t has been argued t h a t l a y p e o p l e f o r m u l a t e t h e o r i e s f o r s p e c i f i c e v e n ts and do not g e n e r a l i z e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e appears t o be marked i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n b o t h the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of l a y t h e o r i e s h e l d by a g i v e n person,' as w e l l as v a r i a t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n c y , c o n t e n t and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . Furnham p o i n t s out t h a t the l i s t above i n c l u d e s o n l y the main d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not at a l l c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n p r a c t i c e . In f a c t , l a y t h e o r i e s and knowledge ar e o f t e n not a l l t h a t much d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . The l a t t e r a r e o f t e n more s u b t l e and r a t i o n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , and a r e sometimes c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e . S c i e n c e i s not as c l e a r and d i s t i n c t , l a y t h e o r y i s not as muddled and i n c o r r e c t as the e x p e r t s would s u g g e s t . Lay t h e o r i s t s argue t h a t b e h a v i o r i s o n l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f we - 30 -have a c c e s s t o the meaning the event has f o r t h e a c t o r ( s ) . Lay t h e o r i e s appear t o be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o n o t i o n s of common sense a l t h o u g h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them have o n l y been s u p e r f i c i a l l y e x p l o r e d . Common Sense. Grave (1967) n o t e s t h a t the term "common sense" u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o a s p e c t s of mental endowment. Common sense c o n s i s t s of o r d i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i s p a r t of p r a c t i c a l good sense a p p l i e d t o everyday a f f a i r s , and i s a s e t of p r i m a r y t r u t h s ( e . g . , " t h e r e i s an e x t e r n a l w o r l d " ) . Grave c o n c l u d e s t h a t common sense u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of a c l u s t e r of b e l i e f s f e l t t o be t r u e by most p e o p l e , and t h e r e f o r e made up by common consen t . J u d g i n g from Grave's d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s apparent t h a t a number of p h i l o s o p h e r s have a c c e p t e d the n o t i o n of common sense, w h i l e many have r e j e c t e d i t . Furnham (1988) observed t h a t the n o t i o n of common sense has obv i o u s commonality w i t h t h a t of l a y t h e o r i e s . He s t a t e d t h a t i t has been d e s c r i b e d v a r i o u s l y as: the c o n v i c t i o n of the l a y p e r s o n , good sense, i n t u i t i v e p h i l o s o p h y , and p r e s c i e n t i f i c good judgement. Common sense has o f t e n been d i s c u s s e d i n many of the same terms as the l a y t h e o r i e s d i s c u s s e d above ( e . g . , i t s i n c o n s i s t e n c y ) . Furnham's main c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e r e has been much argument r e g a r d i n g the v a l u e of common sense w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a v i n g been p a i d t o i t s d e f i n i t i o n , i t s components, how i t i s a p p l i e d , and o t h e r such i s s u e s . Two s c h o l a r s who have i n f a c t d i s c u s s e d i t s d e f i n i t i o n and components are F l e t c h e r (1984) and G e e r t z (1983). F l e t c h e r (1984) f e l t t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e l e v e l s of common sense t h i n k i n g , not n e c e s s a r i l y m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . F i r s t , an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of common sense i s a s e t of s h a r e d fundamental assumptions about the n a t u r e of the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l w o r l d . In F l e t c h e r ' s o p i n i o n , t h e s e views a r e c u l t u r a l l y u n i v e r s a l , never q u e s t i o n e d , j u s t i f i e d or o f t e n a r t i c u l a t e d , and a r e b a s i c t o t h e p h i l o s o p h y of each c u l t u r e , e.g., "we a r e the same pe r s o n today as we were y e s t e r d a y " . T h i s l e v e l i s most fundamental. The second l e v e l i s some s e t of c u l t u r a l maxims and b e l i e f s about the n a t u r e of the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l w o r l d , i n t he form of p r o v e r b s , a l l e g o r i e s , f a b l e s , e t c . They, t o o , are h i g h l y i n v a r i a n t w i t h i n c u l t u r e s . The t h i r d and l a s t l e v e l , more v a r i a b l e w i t h i n c u l t u r e s , i s a s e t of p r o p o s i t i o n s and p o i n t s of view which r e f l e c t a s h a r e d way of t a c i t t h i n k i n g about the more immediate a s p e c t s of l i f e and the w o r l d . T h i s l a s t a s p e c t i n p a r t i c u l a r i s i n v o l v e d i n e x p l a i n i n g , i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the b e h a v i o r of s e l f and o t h e r s , but a l l t h r e e a r e c l e a r l y i m p o r t a n t . G e e r t z (1983) d i s c u s s e d common sense from the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I n h i s o p i n i o n , i t i s an o r d e r e d body of knowledge, not t h e d i s o r g a n i z e d , u n r e f 1 e c t i v e , p r o d u c t of e x p e r i e n c e . The p r o p o s i t i o n s of common sense r e s t upon two - 32 -n o t i o n s : t h a t one can come t o s e n s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s on the b a s i s of e x p e r i e n c e , and t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s themselves c a p t u r e l i f e i n a n u t s h e l l . As an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e , common sense i s h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and s u b j e c t t o h i s t o r i c a l l y d e f i n e d s t a n d a r d s of judgement. Thus, i t i s a c u l t u r a l system which can va r y d r a m a t i c a l l y from one pe o p l e t o the n e x t . T r a n s c u l t u r a l 1 y , common sense i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g an a i r of s i m p l e i r r e f u t a b l e wisdom. F u r t h e r , i t i s u s u a l l y seen t o be: n a t u r a l (but not n e c e s s a r i l y the p r o d u c t of the n a t u r a l w o r l d ) ; p r a c t i c a l (but not n e c e s s a r i l y i m m e d i a t e l y u s e f u l ) ; t h i n ( i . e . , t h i n g s a r e as they seem on the s u r f a c e ) ; a c c e s s i b l e ( i . e . , any i n t a c t p e r s o n can get common s e n s e ) ; and, t o l e r a n t of i n c o n s i s t e n c y . Common sense may i t s e l f depend on v e r y n o n - o r d i n a r y s t o r i e s about the way t h i n g s a r e . The s t u d y of common sense i s n e c e s s a r i l y complex. In G e e r t z ' s view, common sense i s a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n of modern p h i l o s o p h y ( e . g . , A u s t i n ' s n o t i o n of " o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e " ) , but which i s n e v e r t h e l e s s more o f t e n assumed than a n a l y z e d . I t i s taught s l o w l y and c a s u a l l y d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and e a r l y a d u l t h o o d , u s u a l l y i m p l i c i t l y . I t i s o f t e n i n v o k e d i n the e l a b o r a t i o n and defense of everyday r e a s o n i n g , which t a k e s on meaning and f o r c e from common sense assumptions based on many g e n e r a t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e of t h e r e a l w o r l d . - 33 -R e l a t e d Concepts from Other D i s c i p l i n e s Concern w i t h the c u l t u r a l l y - d e t e r m i n e d p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the " r e a l " w o r l d has been of concern t o s c h o l a r s i n a v a r i e t y of a r e a s . The n o t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , l i k e t h o s e of l a y t h e o r i e s and common sense, appears t o be q u i t e s i m i l a r t o o t h e r s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and t o be a r e f l e c t i o n of a fundamental c o n c e r n . G e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n the ar e a may have been f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d by such p u b l i c a t i o n s as The Social C o n s t r u c t i o n of R e a l i t y ( B e r g e r & Luckman, 1966). In t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , such terms as " i m p l i c i t meaning" (Douglas, 1975) have something i n common w i t h s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . To Douglas, i m p l i c i t meanings are tho s e which a r e seen as s e l f - e v i d e n t by members of a g i v e n c u l t u r e , u s u a l l y a r e u n c o n s c i o u s , and appear t o s e r v e as a background f o r the d i s p l a y of e x p l i c i t meanings and o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of c u l t u r e . Another such term i s " b e l i e f system" or " w o r l d v i e w " , which some a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s argue i s a c e n t r a l c o n s t r u c t of t h e d i s c i p l i n e ( e . g . , Dimen-Schein, 1977; Kearney, 1984; G e e r t z , 1983). The term " b e l i e f system" ( B l a c k , 1973; Kearney, 1984) r e f e r s n a r r o w l y t o the c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r i n g of a s p e c t s of c u l t u r a l knowledge, or more b r o a d l y t o the c o n c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of e n t i r e c u l t u r e s . B e l i e f systems a re u n c o n s c i o u s and are seen by - 34 -the i n d i v i d u a l as common-sense. They are hypothesized to u n d e r l i e the meaning that an i n d i v i d u a l draws from experience and may i n c l u d e perceptions of the sacred and profane, conceptions of human physiology, and meanings of such notions as "person", "nature", " i n t e l l i g e n c e " , or "play". Approaches to the study of b e l i e f systems have included d e r i v a t i o n s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of domains of knowledge, of s t r u c t u r e s of myth and n a r r a t i v e , or d e r i v a t i o n s of patterns of " o p p o s i t i o n s " w i t h i n a set of r i t u a l s (e.g., the c o l l e c t i o n of papers e d i t e d by Hanson, 1982). B e l i e f systems are seen as important mediators between the person and the world, created during the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process. In a d i s c u s s i o n from a r a d i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , Kearney (1984) defines "world view" as a r e l a t i v e l y coherent way of looking at the world, designed f o r s o c i a l communication, l i m i t e d by the nature of the b r a i n . He argues that the notions of " s e l f " and "other" are v i t a l components of world view, as are notions of space, time, categories and causes (the "necessary dimensions"). World views are s o c i a l phenomena, necessary to maintain l i f e and to achieve accurate s o c i a l communication. The " s e l f " and the "other" are f i r s t requirements f o r a world view, i . e . , one must have an adaptable purposive s e l f who i s aware both of oneself and one's environment, and who i s capable of c l a s s i f y i n g . - 35 -Another c o n s t r u c t s i m i l a r t o s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e may be found i n r a d i c a l t h o u g h t : "hegemony". F o r m u l a t e d by Gramsci ( e . g . , 1971, 1978), t h i s n o t i o n i s based on the assumption t h a t the d r i v i n g f o r c e of h i s t o r y i s i d e o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than economic. The model Gramsci used was t h a t of the conquest of the West by t h e C a t h o l i c c h u r c h t h r o u g h the c r e a t i o n of a system of i n t e r r e l a t e d m o r a l , j u d g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l and a r t i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These became a c e n t r a l p a r t of the s t r u c t u r e of Western t h o u g h t , and i n c o r p o r a t e d many n o n - C a t h o l i c n o t i o n s i n such a way as t o encourage p e o p l e t o f o l l o w C a t h o l i c dogma. To G r a m s c i , hegemony i s the s e t of s t r u c t u r e s which a l l o w i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral l e a d e r s h i p by one c l a s s by the consent of t h e r u l e d c l a s s e s , t h r o u g h the " d a i l y and a s s i d u o u s " d i f f u s i o n of dominant v a l u e s , myths, b e l i e f s and i d e a l s . These m a i n t a i n the dominant c l a s s but seem t o r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of the whole s o c i e t y . Hegemony i s embodied i n the everyday p r a c t i c e s of s o c i e t y , i . e . , i n t h e system of meanings, v a l u e s and a c t i o n s of t h a t s o c i e t y . I t appears t o be c o m p l e t e l y i n t e g r a t e d , t o be common-sense r e a l i t y , t he " o n l y w o r l d " f o r each p e r s o n . I t i s apparent t h a t s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , 1 a y " t h e o r i e s , b e l i e f s ystem and o t h e r terms a l l r e f e r t o h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , thought t o mediate between the pers o n and the w o r l d . Each i s s a i d t o c o n s i s t of b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , myths, i d e a l s , - 36 -and o t h e r a s p e c t s of g e n e r a l c o g n i t i o n , and t o be "common-sensical", i m p l i c i t and l a t e n t . Each i s m a n i f e s t e d i n language and b e h a v i o r , and i n the i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s of g a t h e r i n g meaning from events and p e r c e p t i o n s . Each i s thought t o be a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , t o be p e r v a s i v e and complex and t o be r e a s o n a b l y c o n s i s t e n t i n a p p l i c a t i o n . Each i n t e g r a t e s t h e pe r s o n i n t o the c u l t u r e , w h i l e hegemony i n a d d i t i o n a l l o w s a dominant c l a s s t o m a i n t a i n e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g Subjective Culture The concept of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i s d i f f i c u l t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e p r e c i s e l y because i t i s d e f i n e d as b e i n g a l 1 - p e r v a s i v e , complex and l a t e n t . T h i s i s t r u e b o t h when s e l e c t i n g an a r e a t o s t u d y , and when a t t e m p t i n g t o f o r m u l a t e s p e c i f i c m e t h o d o l o g i e s w i t h i n t h a t a r e a . W i t h r e g a r d t o s e l e c t i o n of a f o c u s of s t u d y , T r i a n d i s ' p o s i t i o n was t h a t the n o t i o n s of " c o n c e p t " and of " r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c o n c e p t s " a r e u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t s ( 1 9 7 2 : 1 0 1 f f ) . He equated the words " c o n c e p t " and " c a t e g o r y " (Note 2 ) . Concepts may have any number of s u b c l a s s e s , which may or may not be m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . T r i a n d i s ' o p i n i o n was t h a t they may be r e l a t e d i n any or a l l of a number of ways ( e . g . , s e t r e l a t i o n s such as i n t e r s e c t i o n or u n i o n ) . P o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a f f e c t a r e " a t t a c h e d " t o c o n c e p t s , i n t u r n l e a d i n g t o - 37 -t h e f o r m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s and e v a l u a t i o n s of e n t i t i e s w i t h i n the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t , i f T r i a n d i s ' p o s i t i o n i s a c c e p t e d , the c h o i c e of a c a t e g o r y or concept t o s t u d y i s a f i r s t s t e p i n the r e s e a r c h p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , few r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s d i s c u s s concept s e l e c t i o n , and t h e r e b y g i v e l i t t l e g u i dance t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l who wishes t o choose and st u d y a c e n t r a l a s p e c t of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . One concept which i n t u i t i v e l y seems t o have been of concern t o t h e peopl e of many d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , over a l o n g h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , i s t h a t of the "p e r s o n " . T h i s n o t i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r st u d y i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The Category of P e r s o n : An Important Example Q u e s t i o n s about the n a t u r e of humankind have h i s t o r i c a l l y been seen as fundamental ( T r i g g , 1982), r e f l e c t i n g a b a s i c c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s something v e r y i m p o r t a n t about the per s o n . A l l known c u l t u r e s have such a con c e p t , as Ha r r e (1987) observed. In h i s o p i n i o n , each of us forms a concept of person i n f o r m e d by t h e n o t i o n s o p e r a t i v e i n our s o c i e t y and by t h e o t h e r p e o p l e w i t h whom we i n t e r a c t , as w e l l as by our i n n a t e human t e n d e n c i e s . We l e a r n as i n d i v i d u a l s how t o f o r m u l a t e and a p p l y the judgements and p r a c t i c e s of r e f l e c t i v e commentary a p p r o p r i a t e t o our s o c i a l s e t t i n g . - 38 -Because i t i s an i n t e r n a l i z e d a b s t r a c t s e t of b e l i e f s , v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , the n o t i o n of t h e p e r s o n c l e a r l y f a l l s w i t h i n the scope of " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " . Because each of us, e x p e r t and l a y p e r s o n a l i k e , forms such a con c e p t , i t f a l l s as w e l l w i t h i n t h e p u r l i e u of " l a y t h e o r i e s " . There has been much d i s c u s s i o n of the concept of the " p e r s o n " ; t h a t w i t h i n p h i l o s o p h y , a n t h r o p o l o g y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y i s b r i e f l y p r e s e n t e d below. The Person i n P h i l o s o p h y . Much of t h e w r i t i n g about the p e r s o n i n p h i l o s o p h y has been concerned w i t h the major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of the p e r s o n and the n a t u r e of t h o s e f e a t u r e s . F o r example, an undergraduate t e x t (Reichmann, 1985) s t a t e s t h a t t h e u s u a l view i s t h a t t h e pers o n i s v o l i t i o n a l , c o n s c i o u s and r e f l e c t i v e ( i . e . , s e l f - a w a r e ) . A p e r s o n owns a p e r s o n a l i t y but n o t h i n g can own a p e r s o n . The p e r s o n a l i t y i s the sum of e x p e r i e n c e and of r e s u l t i n g a t t r i b u t i o n s , t o which some p h i l o s o p h e r s would add such q u a l i t i e s as p o s s e s s i o n of a s o u l . I t i s the p e r s o n t o whom r i g h t s a r e a t t a c h e d , not the p e r s o n a l i t y . Thus, t h e r i g h t s of t h e p e r s o n a r e i n a l i e n a b l e . Ayer (1963) n o t e s t h a t i n the broad sense every i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g i s a p e r s o n , b o t h because of t h e i r p h y s i c a l b e i n g and because they have a form of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Peacocke and G i l l e t t (1987) observe t h a t o p i n i o n s about the concept of pe r s o n abound. They a r e o f t e n i m p l i c i t and u n d e r l i e many - 39 -c o n t r o v e r s i e s about c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n or d e s i g n a t i o n . The word i t s e l f i s used i n many d i f f e r e n t ways, and has many d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s . For example, some of the q u e s t i o n s d i s c u s s e d by Ayer (1963) were: i s mind a s u b s t a n c e ? ; can body be reduced t o mind, or v i c e v e r s a ? ; how does one i n f e r from b o d i l y a c t s t o mental ones?; and, can a pers o n e x i s t w i t h o u t c o n s c i o u s n e s s , or v i c e v e r s a ? T a y l o r (1985) agrees t h a t a p e r s o n i s c e r t a i n l y an agent w i t h p u r p o s e s , d e s i r e s and a v e r s i o n s , but p o i n t s out t h a t so i s an a n i m a l . In a d d i t i o n , a pers o n i s u s u a l l y f e l t t o have some sense of b e i n g an agent, who can make p l a n s , h o l d v a l u e s and make c h o i c e s . N o r m a l l y we f e e l t h a t t h e s e powers a r e h e l d by an i n d i v i d u a l a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d of t e a c h i n g and development. We a l s o know t h a t o p i n i o n s about a p e r s o n d i f f e r t h r o u g h h i s t o r y and a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . T a y l o r b e l i e v e s t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e i s r e q u i r e d of a p e r s o n , which i n v o l v e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the meaning of e v e n t s . T h i s i s the " s i g n i f i c a n c e " f e a t u r e . T a y l o r sees the " s i g n i f i c a n c e v i e w " as b e i n g v e r y d i f f e r e n t from the more u s u a l view ( t h e " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " ) . He s t a t e s t h a t s p e a k i n g of " p u r p o s i v e " a c t i o n i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a per s o n from a t h i n g ( " a r t i f a c t " ) . One must have an agent w i t h i n t r i n s i c p u r p o s e s , which have some s i g n i f i c a n c e ( i . e . , meaning) t o the pers o n h i m / h e r s e l f . The purposes and the s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . The l i n k a g e of t h i n g and - 40 -s i g n i f i c a n c e h o l d s f o r the c o l l e c t i o n s of a l l o t h e r p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s , e.g., d e s i r e s , f e e l i n g s , emotions, v a l u e s . I t i s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e a s p e c t t h a t i s c e n t r a l , l e a d i n g t o the view t h a t each p e r s o n i s not o n l y c o n s c i o u s , but c o n s c i o u s l y s e l f - i n t e r p r e t i n g ( a l b e i t o f t e n i n c o r r e c t l y or t r a n s i e n t l y ) . I t i s t h i s which a l l o w s s t a n d a r d s t o e x i s t , be a l t e r e d or be r e j e c t e d . The t h i n g s of s i g n i f i c a n c e a re deemed i n t r i n s i c a l l y worthy and thus embody v a l u e s . F u r t h e r , a p e r s o n i s deemed t o be " l e s s o f . a p e r s o n " i f the t h i n g s of s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e judged t o be absent ( e . g . , the shameless p e r s o n ) . Reichmann (1985) has s t a t e d t h a t , because we l a c k d i r e c t knowledge of o t h e r s , we a r e f o r c e d t o read i n t o them w i l l , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . We f o r m u l a t e the b a s i s of such " r e a d i n g s " t h r o u g h our e x p e r i e n c e s and our l e a r n i n g . Once a b a s i s has been formed, the o t h e r ' s e x p r e s s i o n , language, body s i g n s , a r t i f a c t s and g e n e r a l b e h a v i o r a r e the e v i d e n c e f o r our judgements about t h a t o t h e r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t i f our b a s i s f o r making judgements about the o t h e r p e r s o n i s not the same as the l a t t e r ' s b a s i s f o r b e h a v i n g , m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e almost c e r t a i n t o o c c u r . Thus, i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r " r e a d i n g " o t h e r s may be n e c e s s a r y i f harmonious r e l a t i o n s and mutual r e s p e c t a r e t o p r e v a i 1 . - 41 -Ideas about the n a t u r e of the pers o n may be a p p l i e d t o o u r s e l v e s and t o o t h e r s , as Smith (1980) has argued. In h i s o p i n i o n , t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between s e l f and p e r s o n i s t h a t the term " s e l f " i s used r e f l e x i v e l y . " S e l f " i s not a term t h a t d e s i g n a t e s something s e p a r a t e from a " p e r s o n " , a l b e i t a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n i n a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o n e s e l f . Smith's argument i s r o o t e d i n h i s t o r i c a l usage, i n l i t e r a t u r e and i n c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s . The P e r s o n i n A n t h r o p o l o g y and P s y c h o l o g y . M i l l e r (1988) n o t e s t h a t , a l t h o u g h p h i l o s o p h e r s have been concerned w i t h q u e s t i o n s about the concept of " p e r s o n " f o r c e n t u r i e s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have o n l y r e c e n t l y begun t o f o c u s on i n d i g e n o u s concepts of perso n and s e l f ( e . g . , H e e l a s & Lock, 1981; White & K i r k p a t r i c k , 1985). W i t h i n a n t h r o p o l o g y , as White and K i r k p a t r i c k s t a t e i n t h e i r i n t r o d u c t o r y comments: " ( l i t t l e ) a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d by W e s t e r n e r s . . . t o p r o c e s s e s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , whereby p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and b e h a v i o r a r e seen t o be r e l e v a n t t o c u l t u r a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d c o n c e r n s . . . . Nor do we know much about t h e q u e s t i o n s p e o p l e i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s ask about p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t t e r s , or the t h e o r i e s they draw upon f o r f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r answers." (1985:4). In p s y c h o l o g y the same s i t u a t i o n h o l d s , perhaps because the t r a d i t i o n a l f o c u s has been on d i s c o v e r i n g " t r u t h s " about persons r a t h e r than on e l u c i d a t i n g the p e r s o n s ' own v i e w s . - 42 -However, M a r s e l l a (1985) d i d note t h a t t h e r e has been some re s u r g e n c e of i n t e r e s t i n s u b j e c t i v i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n i n t e r p r e t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n and meaning. The r e s u l t , at l e a s t i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y , has been a number of attemp t s t o u n d e r s t a n d the premis e s and p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t u n d e r l i e s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i n v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s and i n sub-groups w i t h i n c u l t u r e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p between a n t h r o p o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y i s e v i d e n t i n t h i s a r e a . M a r s e l l a , DeVos & Hsu (1985) p o i n t e d out t h a t , i n b o t h a n t h r o p o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y , the st u d y of views of o t h e r persons i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a g e n e r a l i t y of s t u d y of the s e l f . In a d d i t i o n , they f e l t t h a t knowledge of views of the s e l f a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , c o u l d r e v e a l much about views of persons i n g e n e r a l . The g o a l of r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s t o answer on a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l e v e l such q u e s t i o n s as: how do d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s c o n c e p t u a l i z e human n a t u r e i n g e n e r a l and themselves as persons i n p a r t i c u l a r ? Very l i t t l e such r e s e a r c h has i n f a c t been r e p o r t e d ; t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s a re more common. In a s e m i n a l essay w r i t t e n near the end of h i s l i f e , t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t M a r c e l Mauss (1985) deve l o p e d a t h e o r y of the h i s t o r y of t h e concept of "p e r s o n " . He began by e q u a t i n g the i d e a of p e r s o n w i t h i d e a of s e l f . In h i s o p i n i o n , e v e r y person i s c o n s c i o u s of h i m s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l , i . e . , of h i s p h y s i c a l body and h i s s p i r i t u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e l f . Mauss' b a s i c - 43 -assumption i s the s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d view: namely, t h a t v a r i o u s s o c i e t i e s have formed d i f f e r e n t c o ncepts of the s e l f / p e r s o n b o t h over time and a c r o s s space, which are t r a n s m i t t e d t o c h i l d r e n of s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . He a l s o assumed t h a t names and s o c i a l r o l e s were c l o s e l y connected t o the n o t i o n of per s o n a t a v e r y e a r l y t i m e . Mauss observed t h a t I n d i a n p h i l o s o p h y appears t o have r e c o g n i z e d i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s v e r y e a r l y i n i t s h i s t o r y ; t h i s was a l s o t r u e of C h i n a . In the West, t h e Greeks i n p a r t i c u l a r added t o t h i s a n o t i o n of t h e pers o n as c o n s c i o u s , r e s p o n s i b l e , f r e e and independent. At t h a t s t a g e , the p e r s o n was more than an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a c t , more than a name or a r i g h t t o assume a mask, a r o l e . By t h i s time the word per s o n had become synonymous w i t h the t r u e n a t u r e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l , but s t i l l had some i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r o l e - p l a y e r . C h r i s t i a n i t y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of i d e a of t h e human pe r s o n as a r a t i o n a l s u b s t a n c e , i n d i v i s i b l e and. i n d i v i d u a l . The pers o n had become a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n t i t y . The l a t e r e q u a t i o n of s e l f and c o n s c i o u s n e s s was b a s i c a l l y P r o t e s t a n t , i . e . , an e x t e n s i o n of the i d e a of an i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n as a t h i n k e r and a c t o r . T h i s n o t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y a c c e p t e d i n the West. Other c u l t u r a l systems ( e . g . , the t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e ) q u e s t i o n the i d e a of a pers o n as an i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r . - 44 -From Mauss' d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s apparent t h a t the b a s i c a m b i g u i t y between p e r s o n as independent agent and pers o n as p a r t of s o c i e t y and/or n a t u r e i s v e r y o l d , and i n d e e d i s s t i l l r e f l e c t e d i n c u r r e n t thought about p e r s o n , c h a r a c t e r s and r o l e s , b o t h w i t h i n and a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . For i n s t a n c e , b o t h Smith (1980) and M i l l e r (1984) noted v a r i a t i o n s i n the concept of a p e r s o n a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . They s t a t e d t h a t a l l c u l t u r e s have some n o t i o n of p e r s o n as an e m p i r i c a l agent, but not a l l r e t a i n the i d e a of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , f o c u s i n g r a t h e r on s o c i a l r o l e s . Smith and M i l l e r a l s o observed t h a t the n o t i o n of a p e r s o n as s e p a r a t e from t h e environment a l s o appears t o v a r y markedly a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , w i t h the Western i d e a b e i n g more s e p a r a t i o n i s t . In a d d i t i o n , the Western n o t i o n i s more a b s t r a c t and i m p e r s o n a l . M i l l e r (1984) n o t e d , as w e l l , more g e n e r a l i z i n g a c r o s s c o n t e x t i n the West than i n any o t h e r a r e a , i n c l u d i n g A s i a . F i n a l l y , M a r s e l l a et a l . (1985) f e l t t h a t some of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the s e l f and the o t h e r p e r s o n may be found i n the Western n o t i o n of s e p a r a t i n g the i n t e r n a l from the e x t e r n a l ( i . e . , t h e s u b j e c t i v e v s . the o b j e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n ) . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a re o f t e n e v i d e n t i n t h i s r e g a r d , e.g., " s i n c e r i t y " f o r t h e Japanese i s founded i n b e h a v i o r f i t t i n g one's r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . For Americans, i t i s e x c l u s i v e l y an i n t e r n a l s t a t e . - 45 -In the l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l agreement on the p r i n c i p l e t h a t a s o c i e t y l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e s the views of the p e r s o n h e l d by members of t h a t s o c i e t y . For example, A l l e n (1985) i n h i s commentary on Mauss's essay i s concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the concept of t h e i n d i v i d u a l presupposed by or e x p r e s s e d i n a s o c i e t y ' s dominant v a l u e system or encompassing i d e o l o g y . Such a concept i s embedded i n b e l i e f s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of v a r i o u s k i n d s , and c o u l d o n l y be absent i n a " s o c i e t y " l a c k i n g v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The f u l l n o t i o n of the p e r s o n i s complex and not i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e s s i b l e . Much of t h i s knowledge i s i m p l i c i t , as Hampson ( e . g . , 1988) p o i n t s out. To Hampson (1988), the st u d y of i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y r e f e r s t o the e x a m i n a t i o n of w i d e l y s h a r e d b e l i e f s which a r e not g e n e r a l l y made e x p l i c i t , which form the b a s i s of l a y or everyday t h e o r i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y , and which a r e used i n an i n f o r m a l way which i s o f t e n u n c o n s c i o u s . I m p l i c i t b e l i e f s become embedded i n the language of p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t i o n ( e . g . , d e s c r i b i n g someone as warm and f r i e n d l y communicates c e r t a i n i d e a s about t h a t p e r s o n t o o t h e r s ) , and are used d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s of making i n f e r e n c e s about o t h e r s . The s t u d y of i m p l i c i t b e l i e f s about p e r s o n a l i t y may be h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g g e n e r a l b e h a v i o r as w e l l as s o c i a l . " I m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s can be used, f i r s t t o a s c r i b e t r a i t s t o peop l e and second t o i n f e r about o t h e r t r a i t s i n o t h e r s . Once a g a i n , t h e r e - 46 -are o n l y s c a t t e r e d r e p o r t s of r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a . Methods of s t u d y might i n c l u d e n a t u r a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s , t r a i t s o r t i n g and t r a i t r a t i n g s . A number of s t u d i e s of the concept of the p e r s o n i n a s i n g l e c u l t u r e have been r e p o r t e d , p r i m a r i l y i n " e x o t i c " c u l t u r e s u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l methodology. For example, Howell (1988), i n her work w i t h the Chuong p e o p l e , e x p l o r e d some of the s o c i a l l y agreed e x p e c t a t i o n s of what i t i s when a c h i l d becomes a human perso n . Her o v e r a l l g o a l was t o d e t e r m i n e what i t means t o be human. P a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s c u l t u r e i s the c o n t r o l of e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , t o the p o i n t where members withdraw r a t h e r than a g g r e s s . E x t r a v a g a n t , c o m p e t i t i v e and b o i s t e r o u s b e h a v i o r a r e seen as not b e i n g human. E x c e l l e n c e i s not commented upon but competence i s e x p e c t e d . The Chuong peopl e b e l i e v e t h a t a l l s p e c i e s of t h i n g s ( e . g . , p l a n t s ) a r e c o n s c i o u s , but t h a t humans have c e r t a i n unique m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h e s e q u a l i t i e s . E d u c a t i o n proceeds t h r o u g h c h i l d r e n b e i n g reminded of " r u l e s " . The g o a l i s the a c q u i s i t i o n and p o s s e s s i o n of knowledge by one's s e l f , t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l e f f o r t . Such i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y as those d i s c u s s e d by Hampson may be founded i n our p e r c e p t i o n s of o t h e r p e r s o n s . Once a g a i n , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a seems to be r a t h e r s p a r s e ; d i s c u s s i o n s of i s s u e s and the s t a t e of the - 47 -a r t , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y p r o l i f i c . For i n s t a n c e , _McArthur (1983) proposed an e c o l o g i c a l t h e o r y which grew from the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i v i s t p o s i t i o n . She assumed t h a t s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n s p l a y an a d a p t i v e r o l e , e i t h e r i n f u r t h e r i n g s u r v i v a l of the s p e c i e s or g o a l a t t a i n m e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l , and t h a t a person's d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e a t t r i b u t e s are the immediate s t i m u l i f o r p e r c e p t i o n s , but depend on the o b s e r v e r f o r s e l e c t i o n . In her t h e o r i z i n g , McArthur assumed t h a t the o t h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s a r e f o r the most p a r t a c c u r a t e . E r r o r s may be due t o such causes as i m p o v e r i s h e d s t i m u l u s i n f o r m a t i o n . In the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g , e r r o r s may a l s o be due t o n o v e l s t i m u l i , or t o s t i m u l i e m i t t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l r u l e s . M cArthur p r e d i c t e d i n t e r - p e r s o n and i n t e r - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : what i s i m p o r t a n t about a person's a t t r i b u t e s ; which s t i m u l i a r e s e l e c t e d f o r p e r c e p t i o n ; and, which s t i m u l i a r e e m i t t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the o t h e r . In a second example, Hsu (1985) f o r m u l a t e d a m u l t i - l a y e r model of p e r s o n a l i t y i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , which i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p r e c o n s c i o u s , i n e x p r e s s i b l e c o n s c i o u s , e x p r e s s i b l e c o n s c i o u s , i n t i m a t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t y , w i d e r s o c i e t y and the w o r l d i n g e n e r a l , i n outward l a y e r s . These l e v e l s a re e x p r e s s e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y , i n - 48 -the c o u r s e of d a i l y l i v i n g . In Hsu's view, the l a y e r s form a framework f o r the s t u d y of the p e r s o n as a s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l b e i n g . He based h i s model on a number of c u l t u r e s , but somewhat more s p e c i f i c a l l y on h i s p e r c e p t i o n of t h e need t o m a i n t a i n p s y c h o s o c i a l homeostasis i n C h i n e s e , Japanese and Western c u l t u r e s , w i t h the r e s u l t i n g need t o a c h i e v e i n t i m a c y b e i n g d i f f e r e n t l y e x p r e s s e d a c r o s s the t h r e e . In M c A r t h u r ' s r e c e n t r e v i e w of the a r e a of p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n ( M c A r t h u r , 1988), she r e p o r t e d t h a t c u r r e n t t h e o r i z i n g and r e s e a r c h are concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e s and w i t h t h e p r o c e s s of p e r c e i v i n g o t h e r s , and v e r y l i t t l e w i t h c o n t e n t , s t a n d a r d s used, and such a r e a s as p e r c e p t i o n s and judgements, s t i m u l u s s e l e c t i o n and f u n c t i o n s of p e r c e p t i o n s . Other n e g l e c t e d q u e s t i o n s i n b o t h the mono- and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e : which types of c o n t e n t a r e t y p i c a l l y used?; t o what e x t e n t a r e persons p e r c e i v e d i n terms of t r a i t s , r o l e s , and/or appearance?; what e x p e r i e n c e s l e a d us t o p e r c e i v e p e o p l e as we do?; what a r e s a l i e n t c a t e g o r i e s ? ; and, how are a b s t r a c t and c o n t e x t u a l c a t e g o r i e s used? McArthur c o n c l u d e d by o b s e r v i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a need as w e l l f o r more open-ended s t u d i e s of the s a l i e n c e of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s , t e n d e n c i e s and t r a i t s , w i t h i n and a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . F i n a l l y , w i t h r e g a r d t o developmental i s s u e s , M a r s e l l a et a l . (1985) p o i n t e d out t h a t s t u d i e s of the concept of p e r s o n ought - 49 -not t o be c o n f i n e d t o a d u l t s . In t h e i r v i e w , i d e a s about o n e s e l f and about o t h e r s a re d e f i n e d and r e d e f i n e d d u r i n g the l i f e c y c l e as l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e i n t e g r a t e d . Jahoda and Lewis (1988) have r e c e n t l y observed t h a t the b a s i c q u e s t i o n of how c h i l d r e n t h i n k about p e o p l e and how they l e a r n t o be competent members of t h e i r s o c i e t y has been l a r g e l y i g n o r e d (but see H o w e l l , 1988, mentioned above). I t seems l i k e l y t h a t c o l l e c t i o n s of v a l u e s and of the n o t i o n of what a pe r s o n i s (and i d e a l l y s h o u l d be) dete r m i n e c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s . The b a s i c p r o c e s s i s one of b u i l d i n g up p a t t e r n s t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . These p r o c e s s e s become more r e f i n e d t h r o u g h t i m e , but have been p r e s e n t i n every s o c i e t y i n some form from the b e g i n n i n g of t h a t s o c i a l g r o u p i n g , and are p r e s e n t a t a l l p o s t - i n f a n c y s t a g e s of l i f e . S e l e c t i n g Measures and Methods I t was s t a t e d above t h a t t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e g u i dance i n the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l who wishes t o s e l e c t an a r e a of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e f o r s t u d y . When i t comes to measures, however, the c h o i c e i s almost t o o g r e a t . That i s , w i t h i n a r e a s which may be d e f i n e d as a s p e c t s of " s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e " , a p l e t h o r a of measures and methods have been s e l e c t e d . Many have been used o n l y once. W i t h r e g a r d t o r e s e a r c h s t u d y i n g l a y t h e o r i e s , common sense, or t h e concept of a p e r s o n , on the o t h e r hand, any methods o t h e r than e t h n o g r a p h i c ones have been seldom used, and thos e r e l a t i v e l y - 50 -r a r e l y . In a d d i t i o n t o h a v i n g been a s s e s s e d by t h e SD ( e . g . , Osgood et a l . , 1975), a s p e c t s of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e have been measured by e l i c i t a t i o n s of a n t e c e d e n t s and consequents ( T r i a n d i s , 1972), and by i n d i c e s of s i m i l a r i t y of p a i r s of concepts ( e . g . , Herrmann & Raybeck, 1981). F r e e a s s o c i a t i o n methods have been used ( e . g . , by S z a l z y & Deese, 1978), as have been comparisons a c r o s s c u l t u r e s of symbols chosen t o r e p r e s e n t each of a s e t of c o n c e p t s ( e . g . , V a l a d e z , 1979), metaphors f o r each of a number of c o n c e p t s ( e . g . , S n i v e l y , 1985) or s c a l e s such as " p o w e r - d i s t a n c e " ( H o f s t e d e , 1980) t o account f o r v a r i a n c e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e . Each of t h e s e methods has y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about a s p e c t s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , as have s t u d i e s of s u b j e c t i v e c a u s a l i t y ( C h a n d l e r , Shama, Wolfe & P l a n c h a r d , 1981), of l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e of t h e Rokeach V a l u e Survey ( H o f s t e d e & Bond, 1984) and judgements about r o l e dyads ( T r i a n d i s , 1984). I t i s e v i d e n t s i m p l y from the above l i s t t h a t the v e r y number of p o s s i b l e " s t u d i e s of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e render t h e a r e a d i f f i c u l t . In t h e a r e a of l a y t h e o r i e s , t h e r e has been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h (Furnham, 1988). In Furnham's o p i n i o n , the s t u d y of l a y t h e o r y c o u l d i n c l u d e : t e s t s of a s p e c t s of t h e o r y ; s c r u t i n y of the c o n t e n t s of such t h e o r i e s , and o t h e r s , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e l i s t e d by Hampson (1988), above. W i t h r e g a r d t o - 51 -methodology, Furnham f e l t t h a t t h r e e main methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n might be u s e f u l : s e l f - r e p o r t s and s u r v e y s or i n t e r v i e w s ; use of t e s t d a t a ; and o b s e r v a t i o n of b e h a v i o r . Some of the p o t e n t i a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s he n o t e d i n c l u d e d : problems of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y ; the problem of response s e t s ; and, N i s b e t t and W i l s o n ' s (1977) p o i n t of a s k i n g f o r more than p e o p l e can e x p r e s s . Furnham d i s c u s s e d two f u r t h e r problems. F i r s t , s a m p l i n g w i t h pen and paper measures i n e v i t a b l y r e s t r i c t s a c c e s s i b l e samples t o the l i t e r a t e and t h e a r t i c u l a t e . Second, responses a r e o f t e n s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the b i a s e s of the r e s e a r c h e r who s e l e c t e d the methodology. As Bond (1988) o b s e r v e d , p e o p l e have been found t o seek feedback t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y . T h i s i s no doubt as t r u e of the r e s e a r c h e r as of h i s / h e r s u b j e c t s . R e s e a r c h i n q u i r i n g about the concept of p e r s o n i s a l s o r a t h e r s p a r s e , t h e measures c o n s e q u e n t l y l i m i t e d . In t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n q u i r i e s about a number of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s which were thought t o have s i g n i f i c a n c e were l i s t e d . S u b j e c t s from a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l backgrounds were asked t o rank them. In a d d i t i o n , the s u b j e c t s were asked t o s p e c i f y some c r i t e r i a f o r making judgements about the q u a l i t i e s . The t a s k s were s e l e c t e d w i t h t h e i d e a i n mind t h a t the p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a r e some of t h o s e about which o t h e r s a r e judged, and which c o u l d - 52 -w e l l v a r y i n i m p o r t a n c e and c r i t e r i a a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . D u r i n g the a n a l y s i s , l a t e n t or i m p l i c i t s t r u c t u r e was sought, b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y . M e a s u r i n g Notions About P e r s o n s . a) Important P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s . In t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the h i e r a r c h y of concepts proposed by T r i a n d i s (1972) was chosen as t h e b a s i s of s e l e c t i o n of a measure of views about the p e r s o n . Among the c o n c e p t u a l d i v i s i o n s , " v a l u e s " a r e the most a b s t r a c t and, i n T r i a n d i s ' o p i n i o n , the most l i k e l y t o v a r y a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . I t was d e c i d e d t o f o c u s on v a l u e names as one measure of p e r c e p t i o n s of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . In f a c t , the s t u d y of v a l u e s has a l o n g h i s t o r y , b o t h mono- and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y . In her r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e from a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , Z a v a l l o n i (1980) observed t h a t the s t u d y of v a l u e s was o r i g i n a l l y seen as the p r o p e r f o c u s of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , and was i n i t i a l l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as the s u b j e c t i v e s i d e of c u l t u r e by such n o t e d s c h o l a r s as W i l l i a m James. She a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the term " v a l u e s " has been used i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o r e f e r t o o r i e n t a t i o n s toward what i s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e or p r e f e r a b l e by members of a g i v e n s o c i e t y . Such o r i e n t a t i o n s v a r y markedly a c r o s s c u l t u r e s and a c r o s s sub-groups w i t h i n c u l t u r e s . F u r t h e r , as S c h r u i j e r & DeRidder (1987) o b s e r v e d , i t i s known t h a t v i o l a t i o n s of norms and - 53 -v a l u e s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t groups, who i n a d d i t i o n have d i f f e r i n g s o r t s and l e v e l s of response t o the same v i o l a t i o n . Approaches t o the s t u d y of v a l u e s have v a r i e d w i t h t h e d i s c i p l i n e of the s c h o l a r s i n the a r e a . For i n s t a n c e , i n a n t h r o p o l o g y , such a u t h o r s as Kluckhohn ( e . g . , 1951, 1956) a b s t r a c t e d fundamental p r i n c i p l e s u s i n g e t h n o g r a p h i c methods, and compared the r e s u l t s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Z a v a l l o n i , t h i s approach was r e p l a c e d i n the 1960's and 1970's by the e t h n o s c i e n t i f i c method, which attempted t o d i s c o v e r s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e - r e l a t e d o b j e c t s and events used f o r d e f i n i n g c o ncepts ( e . g . , S p r a d l e y , 1979, F r a k e , 1980) by s t u d y i n g s e m a n t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . A more r e c e n t t r e n d has been the use of the " i n t e r p r e t a t i v e " approach ( e . g . , G e e r t z , 1973, 1983) and Tu r n e r (1974, 1978). Each methodology d i s c u s s e d by Z a v a l l o n i s t u d i e d v a l u e s by a b s t r a c t i n g p r i n c i p l e s from a few i n d i v i d u a l s assumed t o be f u l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . No v a r i a t i o n due t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s can be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h t h i s method of s t u d y . One method which does a l l o w c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as group responses i s t h a t of Rokeach and h i s s t u d e n t s ( e . g . , 1968, 1973, 1979). They have s t u d i e d " t e r m i n a l " and " i n s t r u m e n t a l " v a l u e s , i . e . , d e s i r a b l e ends of l i f e and d e s i r a b l e means or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p e r s o n s . - 54 -The 18 t e r m i n a l v a l u e s i n c l u d e such outcomes as "a w o r l d a t peace"; the 18 i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s i n c l u d e such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p e r s o n s as " i n t e l l e c t u a l " , " l o g i c a l " and " l o v i n g " . Each s u b j e c t i s asked t o rank each of the 18 v a l u e s w i t h i n each s e t , a n a l y s i s t y p i c a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of comparisons of median r a n k i n g s ( e . g . , by F e a t h e r , 1986, a c r o s s e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s i n A u s t r a l i a ) . P r o c e d u r e s such as f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s may a l s o be a p p l i e d t o the rank d a t a , d e s p i t e l a c k of independence of measures and the c a t e g o r i c a l measurements. (The p r o c e d u r e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e because as the s i z e of the s e t of ranks i n c r e a s e s from- a s i m p l e dichotomy, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s e t become more and more s i m i l a r t o th o s e of an o r d i n a l or even a p s e u d o - i n t e r v a l s c a l e . " P a r a m e t r i c " s t a t i s t i c s may, t h e r e f o r e , be used w i t h such d a t a . ( H a k s t i a n , p e r s o n a l communication)) The problem of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e q u i v a l e n c e of measures i s e s p e c i a l l y s e r i o u s h e r e , s i n c e the measures a r e e x c l u s i v e l y language-based. A l t h o u g h t h e Rokeach Survey of V a l u e s has f r e q u e n t l y been a d m i n i s t e r e d t o samples c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y , the i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d i n N o r t h America f o r use w i t h m a j o r i t y - c u l t u r e s u b j e c t s . I t s use i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , may impose an " e t i c " or u n i v e r s a l i s t view r a t h e r t h a n an "emic" o r c u l t u r e - s e n s i t i v e one. C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may not be r e v e a l e d because they are not measured. Ng et a l . (1982) augmented t h e S c a l e of V a l u e s i n an attempt t o - 55 -make the l i s t more u n i v e r s a l . However, t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s added were not e a s i l y seen as q u a l i t i e s of p e r s o n s . The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n m o d i f i e d the l i s t of i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s by addi n g t h r e e names of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , based on a su r v e y of the e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d below. There i s , moreover, some e v i d e n c e f o r e q u i v a l e n c e of concept names. Watson, C l a r k & T e l l e g e n (1984) w i t h Japanese and E n g l i s h mood terms, and John, G o l d b e r g & A n g l e i t n e r (1984) f o r German and E n g l i s h p e r s o n d e s c r i p t o r s b o t h found some c o n s i s t e n c y . Both r e v e a l e d f i v e f a c t o r s common a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . Some f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i s p r o v i d e d by o t h e r f a c t o r a n a l y s e s of per s o n d e s c r i p t i o n s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s ( e . g . Norman, 1963; Bond, 1979; Yang & Bond, 1985), which r e v e a l e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f a c t o r s of a g r e e a b l e n e s s , e x t r a v e r s i o n and c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l a d d i t i o n s of e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and c u l t u r e . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the f i r s t t h r e e f a c t o r s a re s i m i l a r t o t h e t h r e e a b s t r a c t e d by Osgood, May and M i r o n (1975) - E v a l u a t i o n , Potency and A c t i v i t y . These r e s u l t s must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h some c a u t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , which m a n i f e s t i t e m s l o a d e d on which f a c t o r v a r i e d t o some degree a c r o s s s t u d i e s and c u l t u r e s , d e s p i t e t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , Watson et a l . (1984) d i d f i n d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s between the two c u l t u r e s . The p o i n t t h a t seems - 56 -c l e a r i s t h i s : t h e r e may w e l l be b o t h u n i v e r s a l s and s p e c i f i c s i n p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , r a t h e r l i k e t h o s e r e v e a l e d by Osgood, May and M i r o n (1975) i n t h e i r f a c t o r a n a l y s e s of SD r e s p o n s e s . F i n a l l y , i n an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a n t of t h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e , the c o n s o r t i u m known as the C h i n e s e C u l t u r e C o n n e c t i o n (1988) c o n s t r u c t e d a s u r v e y of C h i n e s e v a l u e s which was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s t u d e n t s i n 22 c o u n t r i e s u s i n g 9-point L i k e r t - s c a l e i t e m s . The mean v a l u e s f o r each c o u n t r y were then f a c t o r a n a l y z e d . Three of the f o u r r e s u l t i n g f a c t o r s were congruent w i t h H o f s t e d e (1980), namely: p o w e r - d i s t a n c e , i n d i v i d u a l i s m and m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y . The f o u r t h , C o n f u s i a n work dynamism, was not r e p r e s e n t e d i n Western r e s e a r c h but c o r r e l a t e d 0.7 w i t h economic growth over the 22 c o u n t r i e s . These r e s u l t s a r e h a r d t o compare w i t h t h o s e j u s t mentioned because of t h e use of mean v a l u e s as i n p u t t o the f a c t o r i a l p r o c e d u r e s . b) C r i t e r i a f o r Judgements. I t seems i n t u i t i v e l y o b v i o u s t h a t not o n l y may d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s d i f f e r on r a n k i n g s of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , but a l s o on how they d e c i d e whether a p e r s o n has any of t h o s e q u a l i t i e s . E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a appears t o be almost n o n e x i s t e n t . An e x c e p t i o n i s S t e r n b e r g ' s work (1982, 1985) on i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e l a t e d terms, and the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s i n the same ar e a of B e r r y (1984) and V a l s i n e r (1984). In S t e r n b e r g ' s s t u d i e s , p e o p l e were asked t o l i s t b e h a v i o r s - 57 -they thought c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n t e l l i g e n c e . S t e r n b e r g argued t h a t l a y u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o v e r l a p w i t h but go beyond p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , t o encompass s k i l l s i n problem s o l v i n g , l o g i c a l and c l e a r t h i n k i n g , s t o r e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , c l e a r r e a s o n i n g but a l s o a b i l i t y t o a p p l y i t p r a c t i c a l l y and t o b a l a n c e i n f o r m a t i o n . In h i s 1985 paper, he l i s t s f o u r reasons why t h i s approach i s worth p u r s u i n g : terms o f t e n used i n everyday d i s c o u r s e and meanings a r e u s e f u l ; p e o p l e e v a l u a t e o t h e r s on t h e s e terms w i t h some r e g u l a r i t y and i t i s u s e f u l t o know what they do; i t i s u s e f u l t o compare t h e s e uses w i t h the s p e c i a l i s t ' s ones and w i t h e x p l i c i t t h e o r i e s ; i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s may h e l p t o broaden and d e v e l o p the e x p l i c i t ones. In the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s , B e r r y and V a l s i n e r d i s c u s s and t h e o r i z e about c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e s o c i a l f a c t o r t o be found i n some c u l t u r e ' s d e f i n i t i o n s of i n t e l l i g e n c e , mentioned above. I m p l i c i t S t r u c t u r e . At s e v e r a l p o i n t s , s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e and s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s have been s a i d t o be " s t r u c t u r e d " i m p l i c i t l y , u n c o n s c i o u s l y or l a t e n t l y , and the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h d i d seek t o r e v e a l l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e . Because such an assumption appears t o be c e n t r a l and has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b o t h t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , i t i s u s e f u l t o examine the n o t i o n of " s t r u c t u r e " as i t i s commonly used i n e m p i r i c a l s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . The b a s i c a ssumption of the s t r u c t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d s c h o l a r i s - 58 -t h a t u n d e r l y i n g any m a n i f e s t a c t i s some s e t of i n t e r r e l a t e d p r i n c i p l e s . An a c t i s the r e s u l t of t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s b e i n g i n v o k e d and i n t u r n i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a c o n t e x t . W i t h i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , i t appears t h a t t h e r e have been a t l e a s t two streams of s t r u c t u r a l i s t t h o u g h t , one a r i s i n g from t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c t r a d i t i o n , t he o t h e r i n i t i a l l y l i n g u i s t i c and l a t e r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l . The p s y c h o m e t r i c t r a d i t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been concerned w i t h " q u a n t i t a t i v e " d a t a and seems t o have been i n i t i a t e d by Spearman i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of " g e n e r a l " and " s p e c i f i c " f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g m a n i f e s t i n t e l l i g e n c e . T h i s t r a i n of thought l e d t o the development of mat h e m a t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s i n t e n d e d t o r e v e a l the l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e s . Perhaps the best-known i s f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ( e . g . , Harman, 1976; H o r s t , 1965; M u l i a k , 1972; McDonald, 1985), a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e which c o n s i d e r s o n l y v a r i a n c e common t o a s e t of measures as " v a l i d " . Other m u l t i v a r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s ( e . g . , m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g ) may be a p p l i e d i n a s e a r c h f o r l a t e n t v a r i a b l e s , and u l t i m a t e l y f o r " l a w s " of b e h a v i o r ( e . g . , B e n t l e r , 1980). Furnham (1988) has p o i n t e d out t h a t some r e s e a r c h i n l a y t h e o r i e s has r e v e a l e d u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s . The l i n g u i s t i c or a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach on the o t h e r hand has always been concerned w i t h " q u a l i t a t i v e " d a t a , and has f o c u s e d on a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e ( b o t h v e r b a l and - 59 -b e h a v i o r a l ) . F o l l o w i n g e a r l y s c h o l a r s ( e . g . , Mauss, 1954, i n h i s s t u d y of r i t u a l exchange and r e c i p r o c i t y ) , and o t h e r s more r e c e n t ( e . g . , L e v i - S t r a u s s , 1963 and h i s emphasis on b i n a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o p p o s i t i o n s ) , s t u d y of the " t e x t s " of s o c i a l b e h a v i o r has produced hypotheses about the l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e s ( e . g . , Leach, 1976; Douglas, 1973, 1975; Beck, 1982). The r e s u l t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e and c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c , and are f e l t t o be d e s c r i p t i v e of a c e n t r a l s e t of meanings which must be c o n t i n u a l l y r e - a f f i r m e d by i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r members of the c u l t u r a l group. The two approaches t o l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e appear t o s h a r e t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t , b o t h t r a d i t i o n s s t r e s s the common-sense, u n c o n s c i o u s n a t u r e of t h e s t r u c t u r e s . That i s , they c o n s t i t u t e i n p a r t the " w o r l d " of an i n d i v i d u a l , and they r e s i d e i n each i n d i v i d u a l of a s o c i e t y . Second, b o t h t r a d i t i o n s i m p l y t h a t s t r u c t u r e s a r e s t a t i c once e s t a b l i s h e d , and o p e r a t e s i m i l a r l y f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n a f a s h i o n t h a t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t . The p e r s o n i s the p a s s i v e c u s t o d i a n of the s t r u c t u r e . Giddens ( e . g . , 1982) has responded t o t h i s assumption by d e v e l o p i n g a t h e o r y of s t r u c t u r a t i o n which i s more dynamic, but the tendency n e v e r t h e l e s s remains (perhaps i n p a r t because of r e s t r i c t i o n s of r e s e a r c h methodology). T h i r d , b o t h t r a d i t i o n s assume t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e s a r e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , not d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Thus, q u e s t i o n s of v a l i d i t y abound. One s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem may be the use of - 60 -s e v e r a l measures, each of which measures one as p e c t of t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d s t r u c t u r e . In c u r r e n t thought i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h e i d e a of s t r u c t u r e appears t o be e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , but t h e r e appears t o be a t r e n d toward m i x i n g the two t r a d i t i o n s . The t r e n d towards f o r m u l a t i n g q u a l i t a t i v e - q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s r e f l e c t s the m i x t u r e , and was adopted i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y as was mentioned above. The q u a l i t a t i v e p a r t of the methodology was r e q u e s t i n g w r i t t e n responses form the s u b j e c t s , f o l l o w e d by a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s ; the q u a n t i t a t i v e methodology s e l e c t e d was r a n k i n g f o l l o w e d by f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The term " c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s " has been used t o r e f e r t o a number of d i f f e r e n t p r o c e d u r e s , r a n g i n g from t h e word-by-word gr a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s of d i s c o u r s e t o t h e c a t e g o r i z i n g of e n t i r e documents i n t o each of a number of c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s . As i s d e s c r i b e d below i n Chapter I I I , t he approach t a k e n i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o use the f u l l range of a p p r o p r i a t e r e sponses by the s u b j e c t s t o c r e a t e c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which each response was coded. Problems of i n d e t e r m i n a c y abound i n such an a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g t h a t of s e l e c t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s , of responses w i t h i n the bounds of the r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , of d a t a r e d u c t i o n i n t o a c o m p r e h e n s i b l e summary form, and f i n a l l y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s e s . - 61 -F a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s a more p r e c i s e m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o c e d u r e w i t h many of the same problems of i n d e t e r m i n a c y . O p i n i o n s range w i d e l y , even about the u t i l i t y of t h e p r o c e d u r e . For example, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , Royce (1988) s t a t e d t h a t , i n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e main purpose of the f a c t o r i a l model i s t o d e t e r m i n e th e b a s i c parameters t h a t a r e common t o the i n t e r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s of a g i v e n domain. I t i s thus an a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of parsimony t o complex d a t a whose i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend. F a c t o r s have been r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g a range of meanings, r a n g i n g from c o n v e n i e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o r e i f i e d c o n c e p t s . What i t i s , m a t h e m a t i c a l l y , i s a d e t e r m i n a n t t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r c o v a r i a t i o n i n a s p e c i f i e d domain of o b s e r v a t i o n s . In Royce's o p i n i o n , i n v a r i a n t f a c t o r s can be seen as t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s ( b e i n g i n v a r i a n t a c r o s s measures, p o p u l a t i o n s and samples, and f a c t o r i n g methods). In terms of t h e r o l e and methods of the s c i e n c e s and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s may be seen as h a v i n g c o n f i r m a t o r y v a l u e but i s most u s e f u l i n e a r l i e r phases, where the e x p l o r a t i o n of complex d a t a m a t r i c e s i s d e s i r a b l e but the t e r r a i n i s unknown, or where r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e thought t o be b l u r r e d . Such t e c h n i q u e s ought f i r s t t o be f o c u s e d on the d i s c o v e r y of r e p l i c a b l e p a t t e r n s , then s e c o n d a r i l y on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , from which t h e o r y i s b u i l t . - 62 -Moderators of S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e S u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e c e r t a i n l y d i f f e r s from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e . It i s e q u a l l y c e r t a i n that i t d i f f e r s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h i n c u l t u r e . For example, the book by Johnson and Kalven (1988) i s de d i c a t e d to e s t a b l i s h i n g and e x p l o r i n g women's separate ways of knowing about the world, as well as the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s f a c t . They observe that i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r that many v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c e both our l e a r n i n g about the world and about how we i n t e r p r e t and r e a c t to i t . In the present study, two moderator v a r i a b l e s (one measure each of " e t h n i c i t y " and "gen e r a t i o n of res i d e n c e i n Canada") were t r e a t e d as independent v a r i a b l e s f o r a n a l y t i c purposes. Verma (1988) has cautioned a g a i n s t s e r i o u s use of e t h n i c i t y as i f i t were an independent v a r i a b l e , as i f i t caused or c o u l d cause v a r i a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l achievement. The knowledge that r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r than causes were being t e s t e d was never f a r from the r e s e a r c h e r ' s mind. Several other v a r i a b l e s ( i n c l u d i n g gender, r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , mother tongue and e t h n i c s a l i e n c e ) were examined i n an e x p l o r a t o r y s e r i e s of ana l y s e s . It should be noted i n pa s s i n g that two important moderator v a r i a b l e s were not examined i n the present study: age; and, - 6 3 -developmental s t a g e . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e v a r i e s w i t h the age of the p e r s o n , and thus w i t h developmental s t a g e . How they v a r y and how they a r e e s t a b l i s h e d and changed i s not a t a l l c l e a r (as many of t h e papers i n , e.g., Jahoda & Lewis (1988), p o i n t o u t ) . However, as V a l s i n e r (1989) o b s e r v e d , c h i l d r e n are not the p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t s of the c u l t u r e a l l o t t e d t o them by o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , p e e r s , or the media. The c h i l d a c t s upon what i s r e c e i v e d . The two v a r i a b l e s were p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y t h r o u g h r e s t r i c t i o n of t h e sample t o Grade 10 s t u d e n t s . E t h n i c i t y The n o t i o n of e t h n i c i t y has been of s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t f o r some time . The c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t was perhaps s t i m u l a t e d by such p u b l i c a t i o n s as t h o s e of G l a z e r and Moynahan (1970, 1975). Canadian t h e o r i s t s i n c l u d e D r i e d g e r ( e . g . , 1978, 1987, 1989) and many o t h e r s . However, as the B r i t i s h s c h o l a r s Phinney & Rotheram (1986a) n o t e , t h e r e i s a l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y i n the a r e a w i t h r e g a r d t o the d e f i n i t i o n s of commonly-used terms. They p r o v i d e a u s e f u l summary of a number of t h e s e terms. T h e i r o u t l i n e i s summarized below. The term " e t h n i c group" u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o t h o s e who see themselves as b e i n g a l i k e by v i r t u e of some r e a l o r f i c t i t i o u s common a n c e s t r y . I t n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e s p a t t e r n s of v a l u e s , - 64 -s o c i a l customs and p e r c e p t i o n s s h a r e d by members. There a r e o f t e n u n c l e a r b o u n d a r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y from the d i f f e r i n g v i e w p o i n t s of i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e group ( e . g . , p e o p l e i n s i d e l a b e l themselves d i f f e r e n t l y from o u t s i d e r s who a r e l a b e l i n g t h e same p e o p l e ) . The term i s o f t e n used t o r e f e r t o a m i n o r i t y embedded i n a m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e , a l t h o u g h c u r r e n t thought c o n s i d e r s a l l groups, m a j o r i t y or m i n o r i t y , t o be e t h n i c i n n a t u r e . The term " e t h n i c i d e n t i t y " i s u s u a l l y used t o r e f e r t o one's sense of b e l o n g i n g t o an e t h n i c group, one's a c q u i s i t i o n of group p a t t e r n s , as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from " e t h n i c i t y " , which i s t h e s e t of group p a t t e r n s i t s e l f . I t i n c l u d e s awareness, b e h a v i o r , a t t i t u d e s toward the group and s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . " E t h n i c awareness" r e f e r s t o one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of one's own and o t h e r e t h n i c groups. I t i n v o l v e s knowledge as w e l l as p e r c e p t i o n s of d i f f e r e n c e s and i s i n t e g r a l t o and b a s i c t o e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . A l t h o u g h e t h n i c awareness i s c o g n i t i v e , i t i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e a f f e c t i v e and e v a l u a t i v e a s p e c t s as w e l l . The term " e t h n i c s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " ( o r s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y ) r e f e r s t o a person's c o n s i s t e n t use of an e t h n i c l a b e l f o r th e m s e l v e s . I t i s presumably a r e f l e c t i o n of e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . " E t h n i c p a t t e r n s " i n c l u d e d i f f e r e n t a f f e c t i v e , a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , and have o f t e n been demonstrated. Indeed, they a r e the v e r y s t u f f of c o n c e r n t o the - 65 -a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . They a r e not random but o r g a n i z e d and have meaning w i t h i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t i n which they a re observed. A c c o r d i n g t o Phinney & Rotheram, r e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d f o u r main b i p o l a r d i m e n s i o n s i n e t h n i c p a t t e r n s : group vs . i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t a t i o n ; a c t i v e v s . p a s s i v e d e a l i n g w i t h the w o r l d ; a u t h o r i t a r i a n v s . e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y ; and, e x p r e s s i v e vs . r e s t r a i n e d p e r s o n a l s t y l e . The dimensions may w e l l r e f l e c t a u n i v e r s a l domain of problems, common t o a l l c u l t u r e s , which have many c u l t u r e - and c o n t e x t - s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n s . E t h n i c p a t t e r n s a r e o f t e n t o be found i n i m p l i c i t s o c i a l r u l e s , and would thus be one a s p e c t of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . A f i n a l a s p e c t of e t h n i c i t y , not d i s c u s s e d by Phinney & Rotheram (1986a), which may render t h e s t u d y of e t h n i c i t y more complex i s " e t h n i c s a l i e n c e " or " a t t i t u d e toward t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e " ( e . g . , Jones, 1977; MacKie & B r i n k e r h o f f , 1984). As B e r r y , K a l i n & T a y l o r (1976) p o i n t e d o u t , e t h n i c i t y i s more l i k e l y t o be a u s e f u l c o n s t r u c t i f i t i s viewed as i m p i n g i n g on s o c i a l l i f e r a t h e r than b e i n g a s t a t i c b e a r e r of t r a d i t i o n . R e s e a r c h i n the a r e a has f o c u s e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y on e t h n i c i d e n t i t y r a t h e r than on the im p o r t a n c e of e t h n i c i t y i n a v a r i e t y of c o n t e x t s . W e i n r e i c h (1987) noted the l a c k of b o t h c l a r i f i c a t i o n of concepts i n the a r e a of e t h n i c i t y and t h e i r o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r t a s k i s d i f f i c u l t s i n c e e t h n i c i t y appears t o be a complex of p r o c e s s e s by means of - 66 -which p e o p l e c o n s t r u c t and r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i r own e t h n i c i d e n t i t y throughout l i f e . F i n a l l y , he observed t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e v a l u e systems of i n d i v i d u a l s i s c e n t r a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the complex n a t u r e of the v a r i a b l e . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , e t h n i c s e l f - i d e n t i t y ( r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s work as " s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y " ) was t r e a t e d as t h e p r i m a r y measure of e t h n i c i t y . Other a s p e c t s of e t h n i c i t y , i n c l u d i n g c o u n t r y of b i r t h , mother tongue and r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , were e x p l o r e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s a r i s i n g from the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . E t h n i c s a l i e n c e was measured u s i n g a 15-i t e m s c a l e , each i t e m of which e n q u i r e d about the im p o r t a n c e of c u l t u r a l or e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s i n a d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n . I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d d u r i n g the e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s of r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada W i t h i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , b o t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada have been s u b j e c t t o waves of i m m i g r a t i o n , b e g i n n i n g i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d w i t h European e x p l o r e r s and s e t t l e r s . S i n c e t h a t t i m e , a broad range of e t h n i c groups have come t o Canada. Many s c h o l a r s have s t u d i e d t h e h i s t o r y and p r e s e n t s t a t u s of some of the groups ( e . g . , D r e i g e r , 1978; Anderson & F r i d e r e s , 1981; Samuda, B e r r y & L a f e r r i e r e , 1984). A b i b l i o g r a p h y of such s t u d i e s may be found i n the P u b l i c a t i o n s L i s t s of the M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m D i r e c t o r a t e ( e . g . , 1983). - 67 -I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t some p r o c e s s of a d a p t a t i o n t o the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e has been, and c o n t i n u e s t o be, n e c e s s a r y f o r the members of each immigrant group. Such a d a p t a t i o n s have been d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e w i t h a f o c u s on e i t h e r or b o t h " e t h n i c i t y " and " a s s i m i l a t i o n / a c c u l t u r a t i o n " . The former, d i s c u s s e d above, r e f e r s t o the r e t e n t i o n of a s p e c t s of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e ; the l a t t e r t o the degree of c u l t u r e change. I t i s u s u a l l y seen t o be a s p e c t s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n or a c q u i s i t i o n of Western c u l t u r e . Both may be seen t o be a s p e c t s of the impact of modern s o c i e t y on t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s from b o t h m i n o r i t y and m a j o r i t y p o i n t s of view. Phinney & Rotheram (1986a) observe t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e main models f o r r e l a t i o n s between e t h n i c groups w i t h i n a c o u n t r y -" a s s i m i l a t i o n " , " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " ( a l s o c a l l e d " i n t e g r a t i o n " ) and " p l u r a l i s m " . The s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t of e t h n i c group v a l u e s , norms, and p a t t e r n s w i l l r e f l e c t b o t h the o r i g i n a l c o n t e n t and t h e r e l a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ; and i s a dynamic p r o c e s s . B e r r y (1987) has d e f i n e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n as c u l t u r a l change which r e s u l t s from c o n t i n u o u s f i r s t hand c o n t a c t between two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l g r oups, w h i l e t o him the term a d a p t a t i o n i s used t o r e f e r t o b o t h t h e response t o and outcome of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s . The t h i r d term used by Phinney & Rotheram ( i . e . , p l u r a l i s m ) i s u s u a l l y used t o r e f e r t o the s i m u l t a n e o u s e x i s t e n c e of a number of e t h n i c groups w i t h i n a c o u n t r y , each of which m a i n t a i n s a - 68 -separate and unique ethnic p a t t e r n , while at the same time enjoying equal s t a t u s and open r e l a t i o n s h i p s with each of the other groups. In Canada, the l a t t e r i s the usual model, the term often used i s " p l u r a l i s t i c " or " m u l t i c u l t u r a l " . The term " p l u r a l i s m " i s a l s o used to describe the existence of separate i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r each ethnic group. Nevertheless, regardless of the model, change does occur, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . Berry (1987) has observed that most change t y p i c a l l y occurs i n non-dominant groups, and inc l u d e the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l . The i n d i v i d u a l adapts as w e l l , changing h i s / h e r behavior, values, or i d e n t i t y , w i t h accompanying a c c u l t u r a t i v e s t r e s s and p o s s i b l e h e a l t h consequences. Behavior i s of course a r e f l e c t i o n of values, a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t i e s and motives - the elements of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . Four modes of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n c l u d e : i n t e g r a t i o n ( i . e . , the maintenance of i d e n t i t y and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other e t h n i c groups); separation ( i . e . , maintenance of i d e n t i t y with no out-group r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) ; a s s i m i l a t i o n ( i . e . , l o s s of i d e n t i t y , and merging w i t h other groups); and, m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n ( i . e . , l o s s of unique ethn i c i d e n t i t y , without merging, or indeed any r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h other e t h n i c groupings) Judging from such reviews of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e as Berry (1980) and Davidson (1979), a t t e n t i o n to the e f f e c t s of - 69 -s o c i a l change on t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s has l a r g e l y been c o n f i n e t o the s t u d y of the impact of Western c u l t u r e on t h i r d - w o r l d c o u n t r i e s , r a t h e r than on t h e e t h n i c groups embedded w i t h i n a m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . E x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n c l u d e t h s t u d y of o b j e c t i v e , n o n - m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e (O'Bryan, R e i t z & Kuplowska, 1975) In a r e - a n a l y s i s of t h e i r d a t a , R e i t z (1980) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s a l o n g - t e r m t r e n d toward l o s s of c u l t u r a l t i e s which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y accompanied by a t r e n d t o a s s i m i l a t i v e ones. The l a c k c o n t i n u e s t o t h e p r e s e n t ; i n f a c t , the s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e f a i l e d t o r e v e a l a s i n g l e s t u d y of t h e p e r s i s t e n c e and change i n any a s p e c t of v a l u e s , t a k e n a c r o s s more than one g e n e r a t i o n . A t y p i c a l s t u d y i s t h a t of Bhana & D a n i e l s (1986) who observed t h a t , among a South I n d i a n sample i n South A f r i c a , d a u g h t e r s were more Western o r i e n t e d g e n e r a l l y i n c o n c e p t i o n s of mental i l l n e s s t han t h e i r mothers. Baar (1980) and B e r r y ( p e r s o n a l communication) have observed t h a t l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the p e r s i s t e n c e of c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s w i t h i n the Canadian c o n t e x t . Indeed, as Jahoda (1980) has n o t e d , few r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s have f o c u s e d on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e (even i n g e n e r a l terms) and change i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . In t h e p r e s e n t e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n , g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada was t a k e n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v a r i a b l e f o r amount of a c c u l t u r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e , i n g e n e r a l terms. A l t h o u g h " g e n e r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e " i s i t s e l f a c o m p l e x m o d e r a t o r v a r i a b l e , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m a n y o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . , t h o s e l i s t e d b y B e r r y ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n t h e e c o l o g i c a l - c u l t u r a l - b e h a v i o r a l m o d e l ) , i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s f e l t t h a t i t was u s e f u l f o r e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h s u c h a s t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . L a t e r m o r e c i r c u m s c r i b e d s t u d i e s c o u l d b e b u i l t o n t h e p r e s e n t e x p l o r a t o r y o n e w h i c h b u i l t i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f m o r e s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s , l e a d i n g e v e n t u a l l y t o a t h e o r y o f c h a n g e i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i n m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . O t h e r P o t e n t i a l M o d e r a t o r V a r i a b l e s M a n y v a r i a b l e s may b e r e l a t e d t o v a r i a t i o n s i n s y s t e m s o f v a l u e s . A n u m b e r o f t h e s e w e r e c h o s e n f o r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y , i n c l u d i n g g e n d e r , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f f a m i l y , a n d s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s o f e t h n i c i t y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ( i . e . , m o t h e r t o n g u e , c o u n t r y o f b i r t h , r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o g e n d e r , i t i s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t w o m a n ' s k n o w l e d g e i s , i n m a n y i f n o t m o s t c u l t u r e s , v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f m e n . F o r e x a m p l e , B r o u w e r a n d d e H a a n ( 1 9 8 7 ) h a v e n o t e d t h a t g e n d e r - r e l a t e d l a n g u a g e v a r i a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d i n a n u m b e r o f a r e a s i n m a n y c u l t u r e s , a n d t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o s o c i a l e x p l a n a t i o n s , n o t b i o l o g i c a l o n e s . I n g e n e r a l , women a r e m o r e c o n f o r m i n g t o o f f i c i a l r u l e s , i . e . , t h e y u s e s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e m o r e o f t e n , l e s s s w e a r i n g , f e w e r c o l 1 o q u a l i s m s a n d a r e m o r e - 71 -o b e d i e n t t o s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s , a t l e a s t i n the p r e s ence of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . A l t h o u g h no s t u d y was found which r e p o r t e d gender comparisons between males and females on the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d , i t i s known t h a t a d a p t a t i o n s i n o b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e v a r y w i t h the gender of the p e r s o n who adapted ( e . g . , Wood, 1980) and t h a t knowledge of s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of a c u l t u r e d i f f e r s a c r o s s genders ( e . g . , Douglas, 1975; Munroe & Munroe, 1980). I t seems l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females would be found i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The l i t e r a t u r e on o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s as a measure of s o c i a l c l a s s i s g i g a n t i c . The use of any one measure of i s c o n t e n t i o u s . Mother's and f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n of the s u b j e c t , were measured i n t h i s s t u d y as a v e r y rough i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l c l a s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and VPQ's were e x p l o r e d as p a r t of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and E d u c a t i o n In t h i s c h a p t e r , i t was argued t h a t s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o v a r y a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , t o be p e r v a s i v e , complex and l a t e n t , and t o be i n f l u e n c e d b o t h by the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y and by t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t . Because of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s l o g i c a l t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t i t s members w i l l d i f f e r i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e - a t the v e r y l e a s t f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of i m m i g r a t i o n . Thus, d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , i n c l u d i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the p r o c e s s of s c h o o l i n g , w i l l be found i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s of s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . As has f r e q u e n t l y been obs e r v e d , Canada i s a m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . However, j u s t what t h i s statement means i s not c l e a r , As Adam-Moodley (1985) o b s e r v e s , t h e n o t i o n of m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , a r i s i n g from t h e concept of m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m , i s ambiguous: M u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n Canada r e f l e c t s much of t h e a m b i g u i t y t h a t the government p o l i c y i t s e l f embodies. The p o l i c y has had a mixed r e c e p t i o n , r a n g i n g from i g n o r a n c e of what i t means, t o f e a r t h a t i t may B a l k a n i z e the n a t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , however, m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e as something superimposed upon an Anglo-Saxon mainstream c u l t u r e . Arguments i n f a v o r of t h i s approach a r e v a r i e d . M u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n emphasizes the equal v a l u e of a l l c u l t u r e s and a t t e m p t s t o r e d r e s s the d i m i n i s h e d image of non-white backgrounds ( W i l s o n , 1984)... o t h e r s see c u r r e n t m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n as a s u p e r f i c i a l p a l l i a t i v e , w hich does l i t t l e t o combat problems of language e d u c a t i o n , i n e q u a l i t y of a c c e s s and t h e c o v e r t r a c i s m . . . t h i s i s compounded by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no n a t i o n a l p o l i c y on m u l t i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . . . the c e l e b r a t i o n of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l has not been c a r r i e d t h r o u g h t o t h e h i g h - l e v e l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . . . ( b u t ) d e s p i t e i t s i d e o l o g i c a l o v e r t o n e s and o b v i o u s p o l i t i c a l m o t i v a t i o n s , i t comes c l o s e s t of t h e t h r e e (Canadian, German and South A f r i c a n ) t o s a t i s f y i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of b o t h the m a j o r i t y and t h e m i n o r i t y i n an e t h n i c a l l y d i v i d e d society...(Adam-Moodley, 1985:12-13). D e s p i t e t h e a m b i g u i t y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t a need t o c o n s i d e r Canada's v a r y i n g s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s u n d e r l i e s many of the - 73 -comments and recommendations f o r d e s i r a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n the m u l t i c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e put f o r t h by the papers i n such p u b l i c a t i o n s as McLeod (1985) and Samuda & Kong (1987). There i s a l s o t h e g l o b a l f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r . As M a r s e l l a et a l . (1985) n o t e d , because of the i n c r e a s i n g r a t e and amount of i n t e r c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n , i t i s v i t a l t o i n c r e a s e our mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e d i f f e r e n t views t h a t u n d e r l i e s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and communities, l a r g e and smal1. In t h e f o l l o w i n g , t h r e e main p o i n t s a r e d i s c u s s e d : f i r s t , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o c o n s i d e r s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i n e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and p r a c t i c e ; second, i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e e d u c a t i o n a l j u s t i c e ; and t h i r d , t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the n o t i o n of t h e p e r s o n from the p o i n t of view of s t u d e n t s of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c i t i e s and of d i f f e r i n g g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e may be n e c e s s a r y i f a b a s i c g o a l of modern Canadian e d u c a t i o n i s t o be a c h i e v e d : t h a t of p r o d u c i n g "good" c i t i z e n s i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l sense. S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e , a C o n t e x t u a l V a r i a b l e The r e l e v a n c e of s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c h o o l - r e l a t e d a s p e c t s of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e f o r b o t h s c h o l a r and p r a c t i t i o n e r has been d i s c u s s e d i n p a s s i n g by T r i a n d i s and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( e . g . , T r i a n d i s , 1972, 1976; L a n d i s , 1979). They have - 74 -s p e c u l a t e d about the d e s i r e d degree of congruence between c u l t u r e s of t h e s c h o o l and home which would ensure o p t i m a l e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes. Lack of congruence has i n f a c t been observed. For example, K i r a c h i (1984) found t h a t Japanese and American i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of an i n c i d e n t ( i n v o l v i n g a c h i l d i n p r e - s c h o o l ) d i f f e r e d . Japanese mothers saw themselves at f a u l t much more o f t e n and t o a g r e a t e r degree than d i d American mothers. Much more extreme d i f f e r e n c e s were r e p o r t e d between American t e a c h e r s and M i c r o n e s i a n p u p i l s i n Ponape (South P a c i f i c ) by C o l l e t t a ( 1 9 80), which l e d t o v i o l e n c e and r e p u d i a t i o n of the s c h o o l system by p a r e n t s , who s a i d t h a t the s c h o o l was d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . Other s t u d i e s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t adjustment f o r s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s may be f o l l o w e d by g r e a t e r achievement ( e . g . , J o r d a n (1984) f o r the H a w a i i a n c o n t e x t ; W r i g h t (1987) f o r the Canadian F i r s t N a t i o n s c o n t e x t ) . A g r e a t d e a l of r e s e a r c h on the e t h n i c and/or r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g the p a s t 20 y e a r s has c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrated t h a t e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y does not o b t a i n f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r a l l groups. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e same s i t u a t i o n was assumed t o e x i s t i n Canada. However, a s u r v e y by the T o r o n t o Board of E d u c a t i o n ( r e p o r t e d by F i n e , 1985) r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y c h i l d r e n of West I n d i a n ( b l a c k ) d e s c e n t were o v e r - e n r o l l e d i n non-academic streams. A - 75 -secondary a n a l y s i s of S t a t i s t i c s Canada d a t a ( H e r b e r g , 1981) r e p o r t e d t h a t d i s p a r i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a l achievement may not be s t r o n g l y e t h n i c a l l y r e l a t e d . There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e f o r the e x i s t e n c e i n Canada of " c a s t e - l i k e " m i n o r i t i e s (as d e f i n e d by Ogbu, 1978), w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n s of the b l a c k s of Nova S c o t i a and F i r s t N a t i o n s p e o p l e s . Indeed, the members of some m i n o r i t y groups may have c u l t u r a l 1 y - 1 earned s t r e n g t h s which enhance s c h o o l performance ( e . g . , Vernon, 1984, f o r s t u d e n t s of O r i e n t a l d e s c e n t who r e t a i n a t r a d i t i o n of s t r o n g f a m i l i a l emphasis on a c h i e v e m e n t ) . The s i t u a t i o n i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n , t h e n , i s not c r i t i c a l , i . e . , c h i l d r e n of n o n - m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e do not appear t o be g e n e r a l l y f a i l i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . However, c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e may n e v e r t h e l e s s be d e s i r a b l e . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e may w e l l a f f e c t the degree of e f f e c t i v e s t u d e n t / f a m i l y / t e a c h e r communication. For example, assumptions and e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o n t e n t s of t e x t s , s t r u c t u r e of l e s s o n s , " t e a c h e r t a l k " and amount of homework ar e a l l t h e p r o d u c t s of the Western e d u c a t i o n a l system. Many s t u d e n t s i n Canada may be a b l e t o cope w i t h the demands of the Western s c h o o l system, but some who do not may be n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by the l a c k of congruence between the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of s c h o o l and home. The performance of s t u d e n t s who do - 76 -cope s u c c e s s f u l l y may w e l l be enhanced by i n c r e a s e s i n congruence between the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of s c h o o l and home. S u b j e c t i v e C u l t u r e and E d u c a t i o n a l J u s t i c e C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of the s t u d e n t s may not m e r e l y be d e s i r a b l e . I t may w e l l be t h a t a s c h o o l system which does not c o n s i d e r the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of a l l i t s s t u d e n t s v i o l a t e s t h e p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y of a c c e s s . H o n o r i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s fundamental t o maintenance of j u s t t r e a t m e n t , which i s a b a s i c human r i g h t . Thus, a l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of s t u d e n t s i s s o c i a l l y u n j u s t . Benn (1967) n o t e s t h a t the c e n t r a l meaning of the word " j u s t i c e " i s c l o s e t o " f a i r n e s s " . S i n c e the time of A r i s t o t l e , i t has g e n e r a l l y been agreed t h a t j u s t i c e i n v o l v e s t h e t r e a t m e n t of e q u a l s e q u a l l y , and unequals a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l e v a n t i n e q u a l i t i t e s . Goods may be d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o any of at l e a s t t h r e e s t a n d a r d s : a r i t h m e t i c e q u a l i t y ; need; o r , m e r i t . Of the s e v e r a l t y p e s of j u s t i c e , d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e i s r e l e v a n t i n the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t , i . e . , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l goods. In e d u c a t i o n , i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the persons e n t i t l e d t o j u s t o r f a i r t r e a t m e n t a r e the s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r must ensure equal a c c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o some agreed-upon s t a n d a r d . I f s t u d e n t s a r e t o have equal a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l goods, t h e r e - 77 -must be agreement e d u c a t i o n a l goods i n e q u a l i t i e s ? upon a t l e a s t two p o i n t s : 1. what a r e t h e to be d i s t r i b u t e d ? ; and 2. what are r e l e v a n t W i t h r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n a l goods, one may h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e l e s s o n - b y - l e s s o n p r o c e s s of e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t s of f o u r major s t e p s : 1. performance by a t e a c h e r of an o v e r t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t ; 2. t r a n s l a t i o n by the s t u d e n t of the a c t i n t o an i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; 3. performance by t h e s t u d e n t of an i n t e r n a l l e a r n i n g a c t , which i n v o l v e s an i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s t u d e n t ; and 4. performance by the s t u d e n t of some o v e r t a c t which r e f l e c t s the i n t e r n a l l e a r n i n g a c t . In such a s c e n a r i o , the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t of s t e p one i s the " e d u c a t i o n a l goods" t o which equal a c c e s s must be a l l o w e d . That i s , one must have a s i t u a t i o n i n which each s t u d e n t expends equal e f f o r t d u r i n g s t e p two t o a c h i e v e an image of equal u t i l i t y d u r i n g s t e p t h r e e . I f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s a c c e p t e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t equal a c c e s s does not o c c u r when t h e same e d u c a t i o n a l a c t r e q u i r e s unequal amounts of e f f o r t by d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s , and/or r e s u l t s i n images of unequal use i n l e a r n i n g . Such an a c t i s u n j u s t . I f t h e above l i n e of r e a s o n i n g i s a c c e p t e d , i t w i l l be agreed t h a t e f f o r t s t o g r a n t equal a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l a c t s must - 7 8 -ensure t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d each e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i n an analogous manner, by means of the e x p e n d i t u r e of equal e f f o r t . F u r t h e r , each person's i n t e r n a l image of t h a t a c t must be of equal use f o r l e a r n i n g . However, the c r i t e r i a by which an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t may be judged t o be of equal use or r e q u i r i n g unequal e f f o r t a r e not e a s i l y s p e c i f i e d . Simple p h y s i c a l e q u a l i t y of m a t e r i a l s or equal p r e s e n t a t i o n t i m e , does not ensure equal a c c e s s . I s the s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e of s t u d e n t s a r e l e v a n t i n e q u a l i t y t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l goods? The l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d above s u p p o r t s t h e view t h a t s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i s i n d e e d a r e l e v a n t i n e q u a l i t y which must be c o n s i d e r e d i f equal a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l goods i s t o be ensured. I t s u g g e s t s , f i r s t , t h a t d e f i n i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and many o t h e r v a r i a b l e s about b o t h v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l a c t s v a r y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t equal a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l goods w i l l o c c u r i f the c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s a r e not t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . For i n s t a n c e , many of, the i n e q u i t i e s d e s c r i b e d by papers i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n e d i t e d by I r v i n e & B e r r y (1988) e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y p o i n t out t h a t the s i t u a t i o n i n a b i l i t y t e s t i n g of m i n o r i t y groups i s the p r o d u c t of a l a c k of awareness of the impact of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e f a c t o r s , b o t h on the r e s e a r c h e r s and on the s u b j e c t s of s c r u t i n y , t h e a p p l i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r and the i n n o c e n t t e s t e e . Some e v i d e n c e , c i t e d above, s u p p o r t s t h e view t h a t when s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e f a c t o r s - 79 -a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , t h e achievement l e v e l s (and t h u s , i t may be supposed, the amount of l e a r n i n g ) of m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s i n c r e a s e s . That i s , the requirement f o r equal a c c e s s appears t o be f u l f i l l e d under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The C a t e g o r y of P e r s o n and E d u c a t i o n In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a d e s i r a b l e a d d i t i o n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , i t was argued above t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e s of s t u d e n t s i s n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p ensure a j u s t e d u c a t i o n a l system. F u r t h e r , i t may be t h a t more s p e c i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n , namely t o the q u a l i t i e s of t h e p e r s o n h e l d i m p o r t a n t and d e s i r a b l e , and t o the c r i t e r i a f o r tho s e q u a l i t i e s , a d d r e s s e s t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m i n g e n e r a l , and the m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e of Canada i n p a r t i c u l a r . As P r i c e (1967) o b s e r v e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was p r o b a b l y a time when human c u l t u r e was t r a n s m i t t e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y , i n c r e a s e s i n volumes of c u l t u r a l knowledge must have r e n d e r e d the spontaneous s o r t of e d u c a t i o n o b s o l e t e . But i t was P l a t o whose t h o u g h t s , i n P r i c e ' s o p i n i o n , s e r v e as a paradigm of a d e f i n i t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . P l a t o b e l i e v e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n ' s u l t i m a t e g o a l was the p r o d u c t i o n of j u s t and good c i t i z e n s l i v i n g i n a good s o c i e t y . L a t e r t h i n k e r s a l s o f o c u s e d on t h e b a s i c g o a l of e d u c a t i o n as b e i n g the p r o d u c t i o n of good p e o p l e , t h e d e f i n i t i o n of "good" v a r y i n g w i t h the age and t h e p h i l o s o p h e r . S t . A u g u s t i n e , f o r i n s t a n c e , f o c u s e d on t h e - 80 -p e r f e c t i o n of t h e s o u l ; Locke, on t h e p r o d u c t i o n of men who advance the h a p p i n e s s of the community. The f o c u s on p r o d u c i n g the good per s o n has been c e n t r a l i n N o r t h America as w e l l , and has c o n t i n u e d i n t o the p r e s e n t . For example, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e Canadian p e r s p e c t i v e on c u r r i c u l u m , Tomkins (n.d.) noted t h a t the i d e a of the s c h o o l as a means of s o c i a l i z i n g t h e young i n t o s o c i e t y went back t o the L o y a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . I t has thus been a l o n g - s t a n d i n g g o a l of e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. A s i m i l a r g o a l has l o n g been espoused i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . For i n s t a n c e , Counts (1927), i n h i s c l a s s i c s tatement on t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m - m a k i n g , observed t h a t : The purpose of e d u c a t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y s o c i a l . In t h e absence of group l i f e and the consequent growth of a s o c i a l h e r i t a g e , e d u c a t i o n c o u l d have but l i t t l e meaning... th e c e n t r a l o b j e c t of e d u c a t i o n . . . has always been t h a t of t r a n s m i t t i n g t o the c h i l d the accumulated e x p e r i e n c e s of the r a c e , of t r a i n i n g i n him the use of the t o o l s and i n s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s of s o c i e t y , of i n d u c t i n g him i n t o the membership of t h e group.... S i n c e e a r l i e s t t i m e s , the v e r y l i f e of the g r o up...(has) r e q u i r e d the s e l e c t i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n of i t s accumulated knowledges, a p p r e c i a t i o n s , i d e a l s and p h i l o s o p h i e s t o s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s , (p.73-4) In a r e c e n t r e s t a t e m e n t of such p o s i t i o n s , Verma (1988) obser v e d t h a t t h e e x p l i c i t o b j e c t i v e s of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n v a r y from s o c i e t y t o s o c i e t y , but g e n e r a l l y s e r v e two f u n c t i o n s : t o maximize i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n i n g and development, i n terms of s k i l l s and knowledge c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by t h a t s o c i e t y , and - 81 -the second c e n t e r i n g on the needs, e x p e c t a t i o n s and re q u i r e m e n t s of the s o c i e t y as a whole i f i t i s t o o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y . A l t h o u g h t h e d e f i n i t i o n of "good" has v a r i e d a c r o s s time and space, i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a p l a u s i b l e assumption t h a t much e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e has been based on the c e n t r a l concept of the "good p e r s o n " . That i s t o say, t h e f o c u s has been on p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s of the c h i l d ( t h e l e a r n e r ) . The g o a l has been t o form and f o c u s t h e s e q u a l i t i e s , t o d e v e l o p o t h e r s , i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s of s o c i e t y i n p r o d u c i n g the good p e r s o n , i n t h a t s o c i e t y ' s p a r t i c u l a r sense. C u r r e n t t h i n k i n g adds t o t h i s t h e n o t i o n of human b e i n g s as b e i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y d r i v e n t o l e a r n . F o r example, Holbrook (1987) argues from a phenomenological p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t a c t i o n , d e t e r m i n e d a c t i o n , i s the f o u n d a t i o n of human n a t u r e , the fundamental p a r t . He a l s o argues t h a t e d u c a t i o n a r i s e s not o n l y from the d e s i r e t o produce w e l l s o c i a l i z e d c i t i z e n s , but from t h a t fundamental p a r t of every p e r s o n . We c o n s t a n t l y seek knowledge of our s e l v e s , and of our r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s , l e a d i n g t o e d u c a t i o n i n t h e b r o a d e s t sense and t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s b o t h w i t h i n and a c r o s s c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s . In a c o u n t r y such as Canada, whose o f f i c i a l f o c u s i s on maintenance of t r a d i t i o n s , r a t h e r than a s s i m i l a t i o n , i t m a t t e r s - 82 -i f we know how views of a p e r s o n d i f f e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y , a c r o s s g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e . W i t h o u t t h i s knowledge, we a r e unable t o d e r i v e e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e which i s t r u l y f a i r , and u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e the g o a l of p r o d u c i n g c i t i z e n s a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l C anadians. How can we produce what we can't d e f i n e ? In a d d i t i o n , such knowledge may h e l p a c h i e v e t h o s e g o a l s i d e n t i f i e d by L a s h l e y (1985) as "the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the p e r c e p t i o n of the dominant group and the need f o r a l l t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n t o f e e l ( t h a t they a r e ) c o n t r i b u t o r s ( t o ) what i s t o be l e a r n t " (1985:187), i n a d d i t i o n t o the e r a d i c a t i o n of " t h e i m p l i c i t r a c i s m of the c u r r i c u l u m and t h e more e x p l i c i t r a c i s m of the h i d d e n c u r r i c u l u m " ( L a s h l e y , 1985:185). Whether or not p r o j e c t s such as t h i s have any impact i s of c o u r s e dependent on f a c t o r s o t h e r than the r e s e a r c h i t s e l f , i n c l u d i n g p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s and b r o a d e r s o c i a l i s s u e s . Concerns such as t h e s e u n d e r l a y the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . Thus, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a d d r e s s e d an a s p e c t of the fundamental n a t u r e of e d u c a t i o n , namely: what i s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t about the p e r s o n by p e o p l e s of a v a r i e t y of e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s , of a number of g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada, and by genders, o c c u p a t i o n s and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a c r o s s and w i t h i n t h e s e g r o u p i n g s ? - 83 -C o n c l u d i n g Statement The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n began w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d views of t h e w o r l d , and proceeded from a p o s i t i o n of " c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n c e " r a t h e r than " c u l t u r a l d e f i c i t " , i . e . , a s t a n c e which d i d not assume the i n h e r e n t s u p e r i o r i t y of Western m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e v i e w s . The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t of i n t e r e s t was s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e , which was shown t o be s i m i l a r t o a number of o t h e r c o n c e p t s i n p s y c h o l o g y , a n t h r o p o l o g y and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e ; t h e s p e c i f i c example s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y i n the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h e concept of the p e r s o n . The l a t t e r concept has h i s t o r i c a l l y been of major c o n c e r n t o many c u l t u r e s around the w o r l d . At l e a s t i n Western t h o u g h t , the p r o d u c t i o n of "good" p e o p l e has been the e x p l i c i t , o v e r a r c h i n g , g o a l of the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h i t i s c l e a r from t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h e i d e a of the pe r s o n d i f f e r s markedly from c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e i n i t s o r i g i n a l s e t t i n g , i t i s not known whether s u b j e c t s r e c r u i t e d from d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p i n g i n Canada, of d i f f e r i n g g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e , a l s o h o l d d i f f e r e n t views of the p e r s o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was a f i r s t attempt t o shed l i g h t on t h i s q u e s t i o n . S p e c i f i c methodology i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . - 84 -CHAPTER I I I METHOD T h i s c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n the u s u a l way. S p e c i f i c a l l y , a d e s c r i p t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n s of i n t e r e s t and a v a i l a b l e samples i s f o l l o w e d by t h a t of the measures used i n t h e s t u d y . The p r o c e d u r e s used t o c o l l e c t , p r e p a r e and a n a l y z e the d a t a a r e then d e s c r i b e d . W i t h i n each of t h e t h r e e main s e c t i o n s , t h e two components of the s t u d y a r e d e s c r i b e d ( i . e . , the p i l o t s t u d y and t h e main s u r v e y ) . A l t h o u g h t h e main s u r v e y i s of c o u r s e the p r i m a r y f o c u s of t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e p i l o t s t u d y was seen as complementary t o the main s u r v e y . The p i l o t s t u d y was i n t e n d e d t o g i v e an e s t i m a t e of the f e a s i b l i t y of t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t as a whole, and, i n a d d i t i o n , t o y i e l d e s t i m a t e s of the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of t h e t a s k , of the c o - o p e r a t i o n o b t a i n a b l e from the s u b j e c t p o o l , and of t h e v i a b i l i t y of the a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g i e s . P o p u l a t i o n s and Samples Target and A c c e s s i b l e P o p u l a t i o n s The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n was t h e p o p u l a t i o n of m i d d l e and l a t e a d o l e s c e n t s of b o t h genders r e s i d i n g i n Canada, of a l l e t h n i c o r i g i n s and g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada. The p o t e n t i a l l y a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n was the p o p u l a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n t s e n r o l l e d i n any Grade 10 c l a s s i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the 1987-1988 s c h o o l year ( f o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y ) and t h e 1988-1989 s c h o o l year ( f o r t h e main s u r v e y ) . Samples The P i l o t Study. The sample r e c r u i t e d f o r the p i l o t s t u d y c o n s i s t e d of 213 Grade 10 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n one of f i v e s e condary s c h o o l s i n a Lower M a i n l a n d ( B r i t i s h Columbia) s c h o o l d i s t r i c t d u r i n g the 1987-1988 s c h o o l y e a r , who were p r e s e n t on t h e day of t e s t i n g and who gave i n f o r m e d consent. Of t h e 213 s t u d e n t s , 122 (57.2%) were male and 91 (42.8%) were female. The mean age was 15.4 y e a r s , w i t h 75.3% of the s t u d e n t s b e i n g born i n 1972 and a f u r t h e r 16.4% b e i n g born i n 1971. Of the r e m a i n i n g 8.3%, 4.6% were o l d e r and 3.7% younger. I t was not p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t randomly, nor was i t p o s s i b l e t o choose s c h o o l s randomly w i t h i n d i s t r i c t . F i v e of the s i x secondary s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t gave p e r m i s s i o n f o r d a t a t o be c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n the s c h o o l . - 86 -The Main Survey. The sample f o r t h e main s u r v e y c o n s i s t e d of 1346 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n one of f o u r Lower M a i n l a n d ( B r i t i s h Columbia) s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s d u r i n g t h e 1988-1989 academic y e a r , who were p r e s e n t on the d a t e of s u r v e y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . However, 58 of t h o s e s t u d e n t s f a i l e d t o complete the form. Of t h e 1288 s t u d e n t s who d i d complete the s u r v e y , 621 (48.7%) were male, and 655 (51.3%) female. Twelve s t u d e n t s d i d not respond t o the i t e m i n q u i r i n g about gender. The mean age of the s t u d e n t s was 15.2 y e a r s , w i t h 83.6% (n=1067) b e i n g born i n 1973, a f u r t h e r 12.0% (n=153) b e i n g born i n 1972 and the r e m a i n i n g 4.4% (n=61) i n o t h e r y e a r s . Seven s t u d e n t s d i d not respond t o the i t e m i n q u i r i n g about year of b i r t h . N e i t h e r random s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s nor p r o p o r t i o n a l s a m p l i n g w i t h i n the f o u r d i s t r i c t s p r o v e d t o be f e a s i b l e f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The numbers of s t u d e n t s r e c r u i t e d from each of t h e f o u r d i s t r i c t s v a r i e d markedly. V a r i a t i o n was e q u a l l y e v i d e n t when the sample s i z e s were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o p r o p o r t i o n s of the t o t a l Grade 10 e n r o l l m e n t f o r the 1988-1989 s c h o o l year f o r each d i s t r i c t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , 586/1222 D i s t r i c t 1 s t u d e n t s completed s u r v e y forms, as compared t o 266/1238 from D i s t r i c t 2, 353/2415 from d i s t r i c t 3 and 141/3573 from D i s t r i c t 4, r e p r e s e n t i n g 0.479, 0.214, 0.146 and 0.039 of t h e Grade 10 p o p u l a t i o n i n each d i s t r i c t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The v a r i a t i o n s i n p r o p o r t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o have been due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n of d i s t r i c t p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g r e s e a r c h and d i f f e r i n g views of p r i n c i p a l s and - 87 -t e a c h e r s about u s i n g a c l a s s p e r i o d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . The sample j u s t d e s c r i b e d was used f o r the m a j o r i t y of the a n a l y s e s . A sub-sample of 544 s t u d e n t s was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e measure of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ( c r i t e r i a ) . T h i s sub-sample was made up i n two s t a g e s . F i r s t , e v e r y s t u d e n t who had s t a t e d t h a t they were not born i n Canada and/or who had not most c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Canada was s e l e c t e d . Second, a random sample of 15% was s e l e c t e d from the remainder ( a l l of whom had been born i n Canada and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Canada most c l o s e l y ) . I t was p o o l e d w i t h the f i r s t group. As i s d i s c u s s e d below i n Chapter IV, the r e s u l t i n g sample appeared t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the l a r g e r group of s u b j e c t s . The Measures The P i l o t Study The s u r v e y which was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e 213 p i l o t t e s t s u b j e c t s was a f i v e - p a g e form c o n t a i n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and measures: a statement of purpose and s u b j e c t r i g h t s ; measures of demographic v a r i a b l e s ; the E t h n i c S a l i e n c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; and, the measure of i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ( P Q I ' s ) . The p i l o t s t u d y was i n t e n d e d t o be b o t h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and s u b s t a n t i v e . Because i t was an i n i t i a l s t u d y , the form c o n t a i n e d m i n i m a l numbers of q u e s t i o n s and t a s k s . - 88 -Statement of Purpose and S u b j e c t Rights. The statement of purpose and r i g h t s appeared on t h e c o v e r i n g page of the s u r v e y form. I t c o n t a i n e d a b r i e f statement e x p l a i n i n g t h e purpose of the r e s e a r c h , s t a t e m e n t s about t h e v o l u n t a r y , anonymous n a t u r e of t h e r e s e a r c h , t h e f a c t t h a t the s u b j e c t c o u l d withdraw a t any time w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e and a statement of consent b e i n g i m p l i e d by c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s u r v e y form. Measures of Demographic V a r i a b l e s . A number of q u e s t i o n s i n q u i r e d about demographic v a r i a b l e s . Data c o l l e c t e d i n c l u d e d : gender; year of b i r t h ; o c c u p a t i o n of f a t h e r and of mother; r e l i g i o u s group membership and s t r e n g t h of p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s (on a 9-point L i k e r t s c a l e ) ; c o u n t r y of b i r t h ; l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada; up t o t h r e e e t h n i c groups w i t h which the s u b j e c t c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d ; up t o t h r e e languages spoken a t home; c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h of p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s . Responses t o i t e m s were a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n on the form by each s u b j e c t . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n was gender, which was c o l l e c t e d by s u b j e c t s m erely c h e c k i n g "male" or "female". E t h n i c S a l i e n c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (ESQ) The ESQ ( i d e n t i f i e d on the s u r v e y as a " C u l t u r e / E t h n i c i t y I n f o r m a t i o n Form") was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of 15 i t e m s , each of which was t y p i c a l of a s p e c i f i c c l a s s of s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s ( e . g . , " s e l e c t i n g a boy or g i r l f r i e n d " , " p l a n n i n g meals a t home", " c h o o s i n g l e i s u r e - 89 -a c t i v i t i e s " ) . The group of 15 i t e m s was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an a d a p t a t i o n of the Bogardus s o c i a l d i s t a n c e s c a l e , the items r a n g i n g from " c h o o s i n g a m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r " t o " a c c e p t i n g a job o f f e r " . The l i s t of i t e m s may be found as p a r t of T a b l e 9 ( i n Chapter IV, b e l o w ) . The s u b j e c t was r e q u e s t e d t o respond t o each i t e m by marking the number which r e p r e s e n t e d t h e e x t e n t t o w hich s/he would be g u i d e d by h i s / h e r e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s f o r t h a t s o r t of b e h a v i o r . A s e v e n - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e was g i v e n f o r each i t e m . "1".was marked "not a t a l l g u i d e d " ; t h e o p p o s i t e e n d - p o i n t of the s c a l e ("7") was l a b e l l e d " v e r y s t r o n g l y g u i d e d " . Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( I m p o r t a n c e ) . (PQI) The PQI c o n s i s t e d of a l i s t of 21 p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p e r s o n s . I t c o n t a i n e d Rokeach's o r i g i n a l 18 i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s (Rokeach, 1973) and t h r e e f u r t h e r v a l u e s s u g g e s t e d by the e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e major c u l t u r e s r e s i d e n t i n Canada. Rokeach's 18 v a l u e l a b e l s i n c l u d e d : a m b i t i o u s ; broadminded; c a p a b l e ; c l e a n ; courageous; f o r g i v i n g ; h e l p f u l ; h o n e s t ; l o g i c a l ; l o v i n g ; i m a g i n a t i v e ; independent; i n t e l l e c t u a l ; o b e d i e n t ; p o l i t e ; r e s p o n s i b l e ; and, s e l f - c o n t r o l 1ed. The t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were: generous; modest; and, r e l i g i o u s . Each of the v a l u e s was p r e s e n t e d i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s w i t h two e x p l a n a t o r y synonyms i n s m a l l l e t t e r s added w i t h i n p a r e n t h e s e s . - 90 -Rokeach's (1973) i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e p l a c e d by a p a r a g r a p h d e s c r i b i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as " p e r s o n a l " , and r e q u e s t i n g the s u b j e c t t o a s s i g n ranks from 1 t o 21 ( r a t h e r than from 1 t o 1 8 ) . The r e m a i n i n g a s p e c t s of t h e form were i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t used by Rokeach. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e l i s t of v a l u e s was p r e s e n t e d on a s i n g l e page, w i t h the s t u d e n t s b e i n g asked t o r e a d them and number the v a l u e most i m p o r t a n t t o them " 1 " , then t o r e - r e a d the l i s t and number the second most i m p o r t a n t "2", and so on, u n t i l a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had r e c e i v e d a rank. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were p r e s e n t e d i n random o r d e r . The o r d e r was the same f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . The Main Survey The main s u r v e y c o n s i s t e d of an e i g h t - p a g e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g : a statement of purpose and s u b j e c t r i g h t s , q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g f o r demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e ESQ, t h e PQI and a measure of Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) . Statement of Purpose and S u b j e c t R i g h t s . The statement of purpose and s u b j e c t r i g h t s was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t used d u r i n g t h e p i l o t s t u d y and i s d e s c r i b e d above. Measures of Demographic V a r i a b l e s . The q u e s t i o n s r e q u e s t i n g demographic i n f o r m a t i o n were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e used d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y and a r e d e s c r i b e d above, w i t h the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e e x c e p t i o n s : two e t h n i c groups and two languages spoken at home - 91 -were r e q u e s t e d ( r a t h e r than t h r e e of e a c h ) , and a q u e s t i o n e n q u i r i n g about i d e a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n was added a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n of a committee member. E t h n i c Salience Questionnaire. (ESQ) The ESQ used i n the main s u r v e y was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g t h e p i l o t s t u d y and i s d e s c r i b e d above. Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( I m p o r t a n c e ) . ( P Q I ) The PQI was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t used i n the p i l o t s t u d y d e s c r i b e d above w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g two changes: the word "RELIGIOUS" was i n t e r c h a n g e d w i t h the synonym "SPIRITUAL" t o r e f l e c t a b r o a d e r range of r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g ( e . g . , t h a t of N a t i v e C a n a d i a n s ) , and t h e word "OBEDIENT" was i n t e r c h a n g e d w i t h the synonym "RESPECTFUL" f o r t h e same re a s o n . Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( C r i t e r i a ) . (PQC) The PQC was dev e l o p e d f o r the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h as an o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of one a s p e c t of the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n : "How does one know t h a t a s p e c i f i c example i s a case of 'X'?". In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n asked was "How do you know t h a t a pe r s o n has a g r e a t d e a l of the q u a l i t y X?". For each i t e m i n the PQC, t h e s u b j e c t was asked t o t h i n k of a pers o n who po s s e s s e d a g r e a t d e a l of a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y , and t o no t e the gender and age of t h a t p e r s o n . The s u b j e c t was then r e q u e s t e d t o l i s t up t o t h r e e c r i t e r i a used t o d e c i d e about t h e p o s s e s s i o n of the q u a l i t y ( i . e . , "How do you know...?"). Because i t was not f e a s i b l e ( g i v e n time l i m i t a t i o n s ) t o ask about a l l 21 p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d i n the PQI, a sample of 11 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was s e l e c t e d : a m b i t i o u s ; broadminded; courageous; honest; i m a g i n a t i v e ; i n d ependent; i n t e l l e c t u a l ; l o g i c a l ; l o v i n g ; p o l i t e ; and, s p i r i t u a l . The c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n of a g i v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c were ( i n o r d e r of i m p o r t a n c e ) : a h i g h l y s a l i e n t l o a d i n g on a t l e a s t one of t h e . e i g h t f a c t o r s w hich emerged d u r i n g t h e a n a l y s i s of the p i l o t s t u d y d a t a ; i n c l u s i o n i n the l i s t of a t l e a s t one p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y from each of the e i g h t f a c t o r s ; and, h i g h mean r a n k i n g by t h e p i l o t sample. P r o c e d u r e I : The P i l o t Study Gaining Access In o r d e r t o g a i n a c c e s s - t o a p o p u l a t i o n of Grade 10 s t u d e n t s , the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of a Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was approached and an appointment made t o d i s c u s s t h e r e s e a r c h . F o l l o w i n g the d i s c u s s i o n , p e r m i s s i o n t o d i r e c t l y approach d i s t r i c t s econdary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s was g i v e n . A l e t t e r was se n t by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o each p r i n c i p a l , f o l l o w e d by t e l e p h o n e c o n t a c t one week l a t e r . D u r i n g the t e l e p h o n e c a l l , an appointment was made t o d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c c e s s . D u r i n g the subsequent m e e t i n g s , f i v e of the s i x p r i n c i p a l s - 93 -g r a n t e d p e r m i s s i o n t o conduct r e s e a r c h i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . The s i x t h p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d t h a t he f e l t t h a t enough time had a l r e a d y been spent on r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n d u r i n g the p r e s e n t s c h o o l y e a r . Data C o l l e c t i o n D u r i n g t h i s phase of t h e p i l o t s t u d y , two c l a s s e s of Grade 10 s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d by the p r i n c i p a l i n each of the f i v e secondary s c h o o l s , u s i n g unknown c r i t e r i a . S/he approached th e t e a c h e r s of each d e s i g n a t e d c l a s s and n o t i f i e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r when t e a c h e r consent had been o b t a i n e d . In f o u r of the s c h o o l s , the r e s e a r c h e r a d m i n i s t e r e d the s u r v e y forms; i n the f i f t h s c h o o l , t h e p r i n c i p a l f e l t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s themselves would p r e f e r t o c o l l e c t the d a t a . The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g one r e g u l a r c l a s s p e r i o d . In t h o s e cases where the r e s e a r c h e r a d m i n i s t e r e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , she came i n t o the c l a s s r o o m at the a p p o i n t e d time and was i n t r o d u c e d by the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s u r v e y forms, the s t u d e n t s completed the m a t e r i a l s a t t h e i r own pace. Almost every s t u d e n t completed the p i l o t form i n 20 minutes or l e s s . The r e m a i n i n g c l a s s time was used f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p r o j e c t and f o r a n s w e r i n g g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s about u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s or about th e r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s . No d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s s o r t was h e l d u n t i l a l l - 94 -s t u d e n t s had handed i n t h e completed s u r v e y m a t e r i a l s . No d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were r e p o r t e d by the two t e a c h e r s who a d m i n i s t e r e d the s u r v e y m a t e r i a l s t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Data P r e p a r a t i o n F o l l o w i n g the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a from a l l f i v e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s , each s u r v e y form was a s s i g n e d an a r b i t r a r y s u b j e c t number. Demographic v a r i a b l e s were a s s i g n e d a r b i t r a r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n codes ( e . g . , males were coded '1', females ' 2 ' ) ; v a r i a b l e s coded i n t h i s f a s h i o n i n c l u d e d gender, r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , c o u n t r y of b i r t h , s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y , mother tongue and c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h of p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s . V a r i a b l e s not r e q u i r i n g a r b i t r a r y c o d i n g i n c l u d e d year of b i r t h and s t r e n g t h of p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g . D u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s , the maximum p o s s i b l e l e v e l of p r e c i s i o n was m a i n t a i n e d . For example, each d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r y l i s t e d by at l e a s t one s u b j e c t was a s s i g n e d a unique code, as were s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y , r e l i g i o n s and mother tongue. The f u l l l i s t of codes f o r each v a r i a b l e may be found as p a r t of T a b l e s 1, A-3, A-6, A-7, A-8, A-4 and A-5 f o r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , c o u n t r y of b i r t h ( f o r s e l f , p a r e n t s and b o t h s e t s of g r a n d p a r e n t s , i n t h a t o r d e r ) , s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y , and mother tongue, r e s p e c t i v e l y (but see Note 3 ) . Coding a c c u r a c y , as - 95 -judged by t a k i n g a random sample of 10% (n=22) of the s u r v e y forms and r e - c o d i n g them, was g r e a t e r than 99%. The two items a s k i n g about o c c u p a t i o n s of p a r e n t s were not a s s i g n e d codes. R a t h e r , t h e responses were examined by a s o c i o l o g i s t and by the r e s e a r c h e r so t h a t an e s t i m a t e of t h e " c o d e - a b i l i t y " of responses t o t h e s e two items c o u l d be made ( f o r use d u r i n g the main s u r v e y ) . The coded d a t a were then e n t e r e d i n t o c o m p uter-readable f i l e s . The f i l e s i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n codes, t h e demographic d a t a , the i t e m d a t a f o r the ESQ and t h e s e t of ranks f o r the PQI. Every t e n t h l i n e was checked f o r a c c u r a c y of e n t r y . The d a t a e n t r y p r o c e s s was 100% a c c u r a t e , as judged by the 10% d a t a c h e c k i n g p r o c e d u r e . Data A n a l y s i s The p i l o t s t u d y d a t a were a n a l y z e d from two p e r s p e c t i v e s : m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and s u b s t a n t i v e . The c o n t e n t and format of the s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t were r e - a s s e s s e d i n l i g h t of t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d d u r i n g the c o l l e c t i o n of the d a t a , by the p r o c e s s of r e v i e w and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . The s u b s t a n t i v e a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of q u a n t i t a t i v e l y q u e s t i o n i n g the d a t a . The q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out i n f o u r s t e p s . F i r s t , u n i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n s of each demographic v a r i a b l e were - 96 -c a l c u l a t e d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e sample more f u l l y . Second, the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the f i f t e e n - i t e m ESQ was e s t i m a t e d by u s i n g t h e computer r o u t i n e RELIABILITY from the program SPSS-X. T h i r d , the s e t of PQI r a n k i n g s was s u b j e c t e d t o p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s , u s i n g the program AGFAP ( H a k s t i a n , 1977). I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t the purpose of such a pr o c e d u r e i s t o r e v e a l l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e , i . e . , t he dimensions u n d e r l y i n g the s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s . F o u r t h , t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s among e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s on the PQI r a n k i n g s was e s t i m a t e d by computing a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (MANOVA), f o l l o w e d by d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s of the component s c o r e s ( i . e . , t he measures of t h e l a t e n t v a r i a b l e s ) . F o r t h i s a n a l y s i s , s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y was grouped i n t o , f i r s t , s i x t e e n , and th e n , f i v e c a t e g o r i e s (D'Oyley, 1984, the g r o u p i n g s b e i n g l i s t e d i n the A p p e n d i x ) . The f i v e - c a t e g o r y s e t was t r e a t e d as the " i n d e p e n d e n t " v a r i a b l e . Other r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i a b l e s were e x p l o r e d u s i n g MANOVA and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . Because i t was f e l t t h a t an i n t e g r a t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of method, and r e s u l t would be o p t i m a l l y c l e a r f o r t h e s e e x p l o r a t i o n s , the d e t a i l s of each a n a l y s i s a re d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter IV, below. P r o c e d u r e I I : The Main Survey G a i n i n g A c c e s s D u r i n g t h e f a l l of 1988, p e r m i s s i o n t o conduct t h e main s t u d y - 97 -was sought and o b t a i n e d from the Human S u b j e c t s S c r e e n i n g Committee. At the same t i m e , p e r m i s s i o n was sought from each of f o u r Lower M a i n l a n d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h t h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e s ( i . e . , a w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n t o each d i s t r i c t f o r r e v i e w of the proposed r e s e a r c h and g r a n t i n g of p e r m i s s i o n ) . P e r m i s s i o n was s u c c e s s f u l l y o b t a i n e d from a l l f o u r d i s t r i c t s . F o l l o w i n g t h e g r a n t i n g of p e r m i s s i o n by each, the p r o c e d u r e of g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o s c h o o l s and s t u d e n t s v a r i e d a c r o s s d i s t r i c t s because of d i s t r i c t - s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s . A f t e r g r a n t i n g d i s t r i c t - w i d e p e r m i s s i o n , two d i s t r i c t s a l l o w e d d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h a l l secondary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . The p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o u t l i n e d above f o r the p i l o t s t u d y ( i . e . , l e t t e r f o l l o w e d by t e l e p h o n e c a l l and f a c e - t o - f a c e d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s e a r c h ) . Of the t w e l v e secondary s c h o o l s which e n r o l l e d Grade 10 s t u d e n t s i n t h e s e two d i s t r i c t s , p e r m i s s i o n t o c o l l e c t d a t a was o b t a i n e d from n i n e . Reasons g i v e n f o r r e f u s i n g p e r m i s s i o n were ( i n one s c h o o l ) a b e l i e f t h a t r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l " d i d not a c h i e v e a n y t h i n g " and ( i n the o t h e r two s c h o o l s ) a n x i e t y about c o m p l e t i n g t h e f u l l c u r r i c u l u m because of p r e v i o u s commitments t o d i s t r i c t and p r o v i n c i a l e v a l u a t i o n and r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . In the t h i r d d i s t r i c t , a meeting was h e l d w i t h a R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e i n the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e d u r i n g which f i v e secondary s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d . The r e s e a r c h e r then approached the - 98 -s c h o o l s i n the manner d e s c r i b e d above. Of the f i v e p r i n c i p a l s , t h r e e agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The r e m a i n i n g two r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e because of t h e l a r g e number of r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n which the s c h o o l s were a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d . The f o u r t h d i s t r i c t d i d not a l l o w d i r e c t c o n t a c t of any secondary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l by the r e s e a r c h e r u n t i l t h a t p r i n c i p a l had t o l d t h e R e s e a r c h and E v a l u a t i o n Department of the d i s t r i c t t h a t s/he would a l l o w a c c e s s . Of the 18 s c h o o l s i n the d i s t r i c t , o n l y f o u r e x p r e s s e d any i n t e r e s t . A f u r t h e r requirement i n t h i s d i s t r i c t was t h a t p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s u r v e y be o b t a i n e d ; i n two of the f o u r s c h o o l s , fewer t h a n 15 p e r m i s s i o n forms were r e t u r n e d . A t h i r d s c h o o l c o l l e c t e d d a t a from a s i n g l e c l a s s , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g s c h o o l d i d c o l l e c t d a t a from the e n t i r e Grade 10 p o p u l a t i o n . The reasons f o r l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s t u d y by s c h o o l s i n the f o u r t h d i s t r i c t a re not known. Presumably, they would i n c l u d e such f a c t o r s as the number of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s a l r e a d y on-going i n t h e s c h o o l , degree of e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t by t e a c h e r s and number of o t h e r r e q u e s t s f o r c l a s s time r e c e i v e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l s . Data C o l l e c t i o n Data were c o l l e c t e d by the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r f o r t h i r t e e n of - 99 -the f o u r t e e n s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the main s u r v e y . The r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d the d a t a i n the r e m a i n i n g s c h o o l , u s i n g the p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d above i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the p i l o t s t u d y . When d a t a were c o l l e c t e d by the t e a c h e r s , a bundle of forms ( t h e numbers of forms b e i n g equal t o the Grade 10 e n r o l l m e n t p l u s 15) was l e f t w i t h the P r i n c i p a l or the department head. A number of c o p i e s of a l e t t e r t o Grade 10 t e a c h e r s and a sheet p r o v i d i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r s u r v e y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were a l s o l e f t i n t h e s c h o o l . Agreement was reached about a c o l l e c t i o n date ( t y p i c a l l y , t h r e e t o f o u r weeks a f t e r d e l i v e r y of the f o r m s ) . At t h e a p p o i n t e d t i m e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n t a c t e d the p r i n c i p a l , asked "how the p r o j e c t was g o i n g " , and s e t a c o l l e c t i o n d a t e . She c o l l e c t e d the completed s u r v e y s , e x t r a forms and any comments at t h a t t i m e . A copy of the summary of t h e r e s e a r c h was o f f e r e d t o each s c h o o l a t t h i s t i m e . Data P r e p a r a t i o n The f i r s t s t e p i n d a t a p r e p a r a t i o n was the assignment of an a r b i t r a r y s u b j e c t number t o each s u r v e y , f o l l o w i n g removal of the c o v e r page. Surveys f o r each s c h o o l were a s s i g n e d s e q u e n t i a l s u b j e c t numbers and a r e c o r d was kept of the range of numbers f o r each d i s t r i c t . S p o i l e d s u r v e y s were g i v e n s u b j e c t numbers and r e t a i n e d f o r l a t e r e x a m i n a t i o n . The b a l a n c e of t h e d a t a p r e p a r a t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n two s t a g e s . - 100 -F i r s t , d a t a which d i d not r e q u i r e much s u b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n ( i . e . , a l l but the o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and the c r i t e r i a ) were coded on the s u r v e y form, u s i n g the same method d e s c r i b e d above f o r the p i l o t s t u d y . S u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y and c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h were grouped as d e s c r i b e d above (as suggested by D'Oyley, 1984). A sample of 5% (n=67) of the coded s u r v e y s was randomly s e l e c t e d and re-coded i n o r d e r t o judge c o d i n g a c c u r a c y . The c o d i n g proved t o be 100% a c c u r a t e (based on the 5% sample). F o l l o w i n g the c o d i n g p r o c e s s , the r e s e a r c h e r e n t e r e d t h e d a t a d i r e c t l y i n t o a computer-readable f i l e . A c c u r a c y of d a t a e n t r y was e v a l u a t e d by s e l e c t i n g e v e r y 20th r e c o r d and comparing i t w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u r v e y form. There proved t o be l e s s than 0.05% e r r o r i n d a t a e n t r y , j u d g i n g from t h e 64 r e c o r d s s e l e c t e d and examined. S u b j e c t numbers and r e c o r d numbers were v e r i f i e d f o r a l l 1288 s u r v e y s . The second s t a g e i n d a t a p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d e d t h e c o d i n g of l e s s o b j e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s and the p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ( c r i t e r i a ) ( i . e . , PQC). Each v a r i a b l e was coded u s i n g t h e same p r o c e s s . F a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as r e f l e c t i n g b o t h a r e a of work and l e v e l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t was coded by, f i r s t , s o r t i n g a l l s u r v e y s i n t o rough c a t e g o r i e s ( e . g . , t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l , s k i l l e d t r a d e s ) . Each c a t e g o r y was then r e f i n e d by a p r o c e s s of e x a m i n a t i o n and r e - s o r t i n g , d u r i n g which s m a l l e r c a t e g o r i e s were f o r m u l a t e d and forms were t r a n f e r r e d - 101 -a c r o s s c a t e g o r i e s as n e c e s s a r y . F i n a l l y the each code was a s s i g n e d a n u m e r i c a l l a b e l , and the d a t a g i v e n the a p p r o p r i a t e codes. The same schema was used f o r b o t h o c c u p a t i o n of mother and o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l s o r t i n g and c o d i n g where n e c e s s a r y ( e . g . , " h o u s e w i f e " was added f o r mother's o c c u p a t i o n , t h e r e h a v i n g been no "househusband" i n the sample). The measure of PQC was coded s i m i l a r l y but f o r one d e t a i l , i . e . , the i n i t i a l c o d i n g schema was based on e v e r y f o u r t h s u r v e y (136 forms) because the t a s k of s o r t i n g the e n t i r e sample i n t o rough c a t e g o r i e s f o r each of t h e 11 p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s p r o v e d u n w i e l d y . C a t e g o r i e s were added as n e c e s s a r y as the r e m a i n i n g forms were coded. Once a g a i n , the same schema was used f o r each of the 11 p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , i n o r d e r t o a l l o w d i r e c t comparisons of c r i t e r i a a c r o s s PQC's. The p r o c e s s e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d r e s u l t e d i n r e l i a b l e c o d i n g , j u d g i n g from the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e . C o n s i s t e n c y i n c o d i n g o c c u p a t i o n s was c a l c u l a t e d based on a random sample of 75 forms; i t p r o v e d t o be j u s t over 91% a c c u r a t e . C o n s i s t e n c y of c o d i n g f o r the PQC, based on a sample of 25 forms ( y i e l d i n g a t o t a l of 437 c r i t e r i a ) proved t o be 89.7% a c c u r a t e . As might be e x p e c t e d , t h e s e v a l u e s a r e lower than t h e 99.9% a c c u r a c y r e p o r t e d above, but a r e s t i l l a c c e p t a b l e . The l i s t s of codes f o r each v a r i a b l e a r e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e - 102 -t a b l e s of t h a t v a r i a b l e ' s d i s t r i b u t i o n , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the r e - g r o u p i n g of s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y and c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h , w hich a r e l i s t e d i n the Appendix. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the c o d i n g f o r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n s , o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n , c o u n t r y of own b i r t h , s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y , mother tongue, and c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h f o r p a r e n t s , m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s and p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s may be found i n T a b l e s 17 and A - l t o A-8, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Data Ana-lysis The a n a l y s i s of t h e main s u r v e y d a t a was c a r r i e d out i n s i x s t a g e s : c a l c u l a t i o n of d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s ; e s t i m a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the ESQ; e x p l o r a t i o n of the l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e of the PQI; t e s t i n g of hypotheses about the PQI; e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s ; and, e x p l o r a t i o n of responses t o the PQC. D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s . I n o r d e r t o g a i n a p r e l i m i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the n a t u r e of t h e d a t a s e t , u n i v a r i a t e t a b u l a t i o n s of each v a r i a b l e were computed, u s i n g the FREQUENCIES subprogram of the SPSS package. The computed demographic v a r i a b l e , g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e , was f o r m u l a t e d at t h i s s t a g e , u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n of c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h of s e l f , p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o y e a r s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada. Only s u b j e c t s of " c o n s i s t e n t " a n c e s t r y were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n . - 103 -I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y of the ESQ. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the ESQ was e s t i m a t e d by computing the Cronbach's a l p h a c o e f f i c i e n t , u s i n g the r o u t i n e RELIABILITY from the computer program SPSS-X, as d e s c r i b e d i n the p r o c e d u r e f o r the p i l o t s t u d y . The e n t i r e p o o l of 1288 s u b j e c t s was used f o r t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n . L a t e n t S t r u c t u r e of the PQI. The dimensions u n d e r l y i n g t h e responses t o the PQI were i n v e s t i g a t e d t h r o u g h an e x p l o r a t o r y s e r i e s of a n a l y s e s of t h e e n t i r e d a t a s e t , u s i n g the program AGFAP. F i r s t , p r i n c i p a l components and a s s o c i a t e d e i g e n v a l u e s were computed f o r t h e s e t of 21 ranks ( p e r m i s s i b l e because of the q u a s i - i n t e r v a l n a t u r e of the s e t ; H a k s t i a n , p e r s o n a l communication, 1987). Next, the e i g e n v a l u e s ( i . e . , measures of v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by each component) were examined i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e the number of u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s , u s i n g b o t h the c r i t e r i a of e i g e n v a l u e s > l . 0 and the Scree t e s t , and a p r o c e s s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about the number of components ( i . e . , f a c t o r s ) t o r e t a i n was u n d e r t a k e n ( d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a pter IV, b e l o w ) . F o l l o w i n g the d e c i s i o n , t h e s e l e c t e d number was r o t a t e d b o t h o r t h o g o n a l l y and o b l i q u e l y ( i . e . , b o t h r i g i d l y and f l e x i b l y ) , u s i n g the H a r r i s - K a i s e r p r o c e d u r e . F o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t i o n and r o t a t i o n of components, the adequacy of the o b t a i n e d s o l u t i o n was e s t i m a t e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e t - 104 -of components ( i . e . , f a c t o r s ) was examined f o r numbers of s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s , w i t h the c r i t e r i o n of s a l i e n c e s e t at !0.30|. A d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a i n c l u d e d the numbers and p r o p o r t i o n s of l o a d i n g s i n the h y p e r p l a n e ( i . e . , l o a d i n g s <.10), and numbers of f a c t o r i a l l y complex v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , t h o s e v a r i a b l e s l o a d i n g s a l i e n t l y on two or more f a c t o r s ) . The s e t of components was then i n t e r p r e t e d s u b s t a n t i v e l y and component s c o r e s ( r e f e r r e d t o as " f a c t o r s c o r e s " i n Chapter IV, below) were computed u s i n g the r e g r e s s i o n method, f o r use i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . The l a r g e s i z e of the sample r e l a t i v e t o the number of m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , a r a t i o of over 60:1) was s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w the f o r m a t i o n of two sub-samples, which were used t o e s t i m a t e the s t a b i l i t y of t h e f a c t o r p a t t e r n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a P r o c r u s t e s p r o c e d u r e was used t o " f i t " the f a c t o r p a t t e r n based on o n e - h a l f of the d a t a t o the p a t t e r n o b t a i n e d from o t h e r h a l f . The two sub-samples were formed by the s i m p l e e x p e d i e n t of t a k i n g every second d a t a r e c o r d on any one s e t of a n a l y s e s . Such a p r o c e d u r e ensured a u n i f o r m s a m p l i n g a c r o s s the e n t i r e p o o l f o r each a n a l y s i s . T e s t i n g of Hypotheses. Hypotheses about th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among e t h n i c i t y , g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e and PQI were t e s t e d , u s i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a two-way f u l l y - c r o s s e d m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t e d a l l t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s . (The d e s i g n was not b a l a n c e d , because of the - 105 -unequal numbers of s u b j e c t s a c r o s s c e l l s . ) P r o f i l e a n a l y s i s and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s were used t o c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i a b l e s . The p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n C h a pter IV, because i t was f e l t t h a t such an i n t e g r a t i o n would be more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , and i n c l u d e s d i s c u s s i o n of such ar e a s as p o s s i b l e v i o l a t i o n s of a s s umptions. E x p l o r a t i o n of R e s e a r c h Questions. The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were e x p l o r e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of a n a l y s e s which i n c l u d e d , f i r s t , B a r t l e t t ' s s p h e r i c i t y t e s t , c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s and l o g l i n e a r p r o c e d u r e s , a l l of which were used t o d e t e c t the p r e s e n c e of nonindependence among the " i n d e p e n d e n t " v a r i a b l e s and thus th e v i o l a t i o n of the assumption of independence of v a r i a b l e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s s t e p , c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s was computed, f o l l o w e d where i n d i c a t e d by m u l t i v a t i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s or p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s . Once a g a i n , d e t a i l s a r e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the r e p o r t of the r e s u l t s , i n Chapter IV, below, i n the i n t e r e s t s of c l a r i t y . E x p l o r a t i o n of the PQC. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the exemplars of each of the 11 p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s (PQ's) were e x p l o r e d , f i r s t , by t a b u l a t i n g the genders and ages of the exemplars f o r each PQ, and by comparing genders and ages f o r each q u a l i t y a c r o s s e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s , genders and l e v e l s of p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g ( i . e . , t h r e e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s r e v e a l e d d u r i n g the e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s ) , i n a d d i t i o n t o - 106 -g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada. Second, the c r i t e r i a f o r each of the 11 PQ's were t a b u l a t e d . D e c i s i o n s were made about " c o r e " c r i t e r i a f o r each PQ on the b a s i s of whether or not they were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a s i n g l e q u a l i t y ; t a b u l a t i o n s of c o r e c r i t e r i a were computed f o r each q u a l i t y , and c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s of o v e r l a p i n c r i t e r i a a c r o s s q u a l i t i e s were made. F i n a l l y , comparisons of c o r e c r i t e r i a a c r o s s each of gender, e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s , g e n e r a t i o n or r e s i d e n c e and l e v e l s of s t r e n g t h of r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s were. made. - 107 -CHAPTER IV R e s u l t s The P i l o t Study As was mentioned i n Chapter I I I , the p i l o t s t u d y was seen as complementary t o t h e main s u r v e y . I t was i n t e n d e d t o g i v e an e s t i m a t e of the f e a s i b l i t y of t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t as a whole, and t o y i e l d e s t i m a t e s of d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of t h e t a s k , of the c o - o p e r a t i o n o b t a i n a b l e from t h e s u b j e c t p o o l , and of the v i a b i l i t y of the a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g i e s . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l F i n d i n g s C o n s t r u c t i o n of the Survey I t became e v i d e n t d u r i n g the c o l l e c t i o n of the p i l o t s t u d y d a t a t h a t the s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o complete th e t a s k w i t h i n a s i n g l e c l a s s p e r i o d . In f a c t , t h e time t a k e n by v i r t u a l l y a l l s t u d e n t s p r o v e d more than adequate; t h u s , the d e c i s i o n was made to add i t e m s i n q u i r i n g about c r i t e r i a f o r p e r s o n a l judgements as a r e s u l t of t h e p i l o t t e s t i n g . The s t u d e n t s , f o r the most p a r t , c o o p e r a t e d f u l l y w i t h the r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e s u r v e y . In g e n e r a l they d i d not appear t o - 108 -have d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g any i t e m . The d a t a , upon p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s , proved t o be as v a l i d as i t was p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e . The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s a r e r e p o r t e d below, under " S u b s t a n t i v e F i n d i n g s " . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of measuring the v a r i a b l e , g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e , was not c o m p l e t e l y e s t i m a t e d due t o the n a t u r e of the sample (as i s a l s o r e p o r t e d b e l o w ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e s The p r o c e s s of c o l l e c t i n g the d a t a , i n i n t a c t c l a s s r o o m s of Grade 10 s t u d e n t s , went smoothly w i t h o u t any changes i n t h e p l a n n e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I . However, a major d i f f e r e n c e between the p i l o t s t u d y and the main s u r v e y as p l a n n e d was t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r g a t h e r e d d a t a i n the m a j o r i t y of c l a s s r o o m s d u r i n g the p i l o t phase of t h e p r o j e c t , w h i l e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s c o l l e c t e d the d a t a d u r i n g t h e main s u r v e y . As a r e s u l t of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s i n p i l o t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a page of guidance f o r the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was p r e p a r e d which i n c l u d e d examples of t y p i c a l responses of t h e s t u d e n t s t o the s u r v e y and s u g g e s t e d s t r a t e g i e s f o r e n s u r i n g as complete and v a l i d a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n phase as p o s s i b l e . - 109 -S u b s t a n t i v e F i n d i n g s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample As was r e p o r t e d above i n Chapter I I I , 213 s t u d e n t s , 122 (57.2%) of whom were male, 91 (42.8%) f e m a l e , completed the su r v e y form. The mean age of the sample was 15.4 y e a r s . T h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e s u b j e c t s were born i n 1972, w i t h a f u r t h e r 16.4% b e i n g born i n 1971 and 7.5% i n 1970. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e sample f o r the r e m a i n i n g demographic v a r i a b l e s a r e r e p o r t e d below. R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n . Of the 213 s u b j e c t s , 79 (37.3%) s t a t e d t h a t they belonged t o a r e l i g i o u s group. As may be seen i n T a b l e 1, 86 (39.9% of the N) s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d a group t o TABLE 1: D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n ( P i l o t Study, n=86, N=213) R e l i g i o u s Group n % E v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t 35 40.7 Roman C a t h o l i c 14 16.3 A n g l i c a n 6 7.0 U n i t e d 4 4.7 Mennonite 7 8.1 L u t h e r a n 6 7.0 Orthodox 1 1.2 S i k h 7 8.1 Moslem 1 1.2 Other N o n - C h r i s t i a n 5 5.5 which they belonged. Almost o n e - h a l f of t h e s u b j e c t s (n=35, or - 110 -40.7% of the 86 s t u d e n t s ) were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t group ( o f t e n B a p t i s t ) , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 14 (16.3%) were Roman C a t h o l i c and 23 (26.8%) belonged t o o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n churches (6 A n g l i c a n , 6 L u t h e r a n and 7 M e n n o n i t e ) . Of the 13 s u b j e c t s (14.9%) who were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , 7 were S i k h , 1 was Moslem and 5 were o t h e r . W i t h r e g a r d t o s t r e n g t h of p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s , 205 of the 213 s t u d e n t s (96.2%) responded t o the i t e m i n q u i r i n g about i t . As may be seen i n T a b l e 2, almost o n e - h a l f of the s u b j e c t s TABLE 2: S t r e n g t h of P e r s o n a l R e l i g i o u s F e e l i n g ( P i l o t Study, n=205) S t r e n g t h of F e e l i n g D i s t r i b u t e d Grouped n % n % Weak: 1 ( v e r y weak) 2 3 Mid-range: 4 5 6 S t r o n g : 7 8 9 ( v e r y s t r o n g ) 41 20.0 6 2.9 9 4.4 4 2.0 63 30.7 29 14.1 19 9.3 12 5.9 22 10.7 56 96 53 27 . 3 46.8 25. 9 (96, o r 46.8% of the 205 re s p o n d e n t s ) endorsed t h e mid-range of - I l l -t h e 9-point L i k e r t s c a l e ( i . e . , c h o i c e s 4-6). However, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y i n s t r e n g t h of r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , as i s e v i d e n t from the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 5.0, and the f a c t t h a t about o n e - q u a r t e r of the respondents endorsed each of the weak and t h e s t r o n g ranges of t h e s c a l e . The more e x a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses r e v e a l s t h a t about o n e - f i f t h of the s u b j e c t s had v e r y weak r e l i g o u s f e e l i n g , o n e - t h i r d f e l t " n e i t h e r s t r o n g l y nor weakly", w h i l e the o n e - q u a r t e r i n the " s t r o n g e r " range were somewhat more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d . O c c u p a t i o n of P a r e n t s . These v a r i a b l e s were not coded, but a t were examined by a s o c i o l o g i s t (who was a l s o a committee member) f o r " c o d a b i l i t y " . In the o p i n i o n of the committee member, the wording of t h e q u e s t i o n s about o c c u p a t i o n had proved t o y i e l d s p e c i f i c , c o d a b l e , i n f o r m a t i o n ( w i t h i n the l i m i t s of t h e s t u d e n t s ' knowledge of t h e i r p a r e n t s o c c u p a t i o n s and the l i t e r a c y l e v e l ) . Thus, the q u e s t i o n s about p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n were r e t a i n e d i n the i n i t i a l form. In a d d i t i o n , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a t h i r d i t e m , worded s i m i l a r l y , i n q u i r i n g about o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n of t h e s u b j e c t would be added. Country of B i r t h . C o u n t r y of b i r t h was t a k e n as t h e measure of o b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y , as d e f i n e d i n Chapter I . Of t h e 213 s u b j e c t s , 182 (85.5%) were born i n Canada. Of the r e m a i n i n g 31 s t u d e n t s , 7 (3.3%) were born i n I n d i a , 5 (2.3%) i n t h e U.S.A. and 8 (4.8%) i n o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s , and the o t h e r 10 - 112 -(4.7%) i n c o u n t r i e s s p r e a d around the w o r l d . Of the 31 s t u d e n t s not b o r n i n Canada, t h e mean number of y e a r s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada was 9.2. Thus, t h e s e s t u d e n t s had, on t h e average, spent over h a l f t h e i r l i v e s i n Canada. S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y . As may be seen i n T a b l e 3, eve r y s u b j e c t TABLE 3: S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y ( P i l o t Study, N=213) Geographic A r e a / C u l t u r e F i r s t L i s t e d Second L i s t e d n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 213 100. 0 140 100. 0 The Ame r i c a s : 165 77 .  5 39 27 . 9 Canada 164 77 . 0 38 27. ,1 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 1 0. ,5 1 0, ,7 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 10 4. .7 42 30 . ,0 U n i t e d Kingdom 10 4. .7 41 29, .3 A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d - 1 0 , .7 Europe:, 20 9. .4 49 35, .0 N o r t h e r n Europe 18 8. .5 44 31. , 4 C e n t r a l Europe 1 0 , . 5 2 1, . 4 Southern Europe 1 0 . , 5 3 2. ,1 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 18 8, .5 10 7 . 2 M i d d l e e a s t - 1 0 , .7 Is 1 am 1 0 .5 -I n d i e a r e a s 11 5, .2 3 2 .1 A s i a 3 1. . 4 5 3 .6 Sou t h - e a s t A s i a 3 1. . 4 1 0 , .7 responded t o t h e i t e m i n q u i r i n g about s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y a s d e f i n e d i n Chapter I , i . e . , t h e e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l group w i t h - 113 -w h i c h they most s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d . J u s t under t w o - t h i r d s of t h e s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d a second e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l group w i t h which they i d e n t i f i e d second most c l o s e l y . Of t h e f i r s t s e l e c t i o n , by f a r the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Canada (n=164, 77.0 % ) , w h i l e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c / c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s was more u n i f o r m f o r the second c h o i c e . T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d , s i n c e every s t u d e n t who d i d not s e l e c t "Canada" as t h e i r f i r s t c h o i c e d i d so f o r the second l i s t i n g , and v i c e v e r s a ( i f they gave a second c h o i c e a t a l l ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o the f i r s t c h o i c e , the 22.5% of the 213 s t u d e n t s not c h o o s i n g Canada were not e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s . J u s t under 5% i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the U n i t e d Kingdom or w i t h A u s t r a l i a / N e w Z e a l a n d , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal numbers of s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d more c l o s e l y w i t h c o n t i n e n t a l Europe and w i t h o t h e r a r e a s (20 and 18, 9.4% and 8.5% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . V i r t u a l l y a l l the Europeans came from N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s ; of the o t h e r a r e a s , 11 of t h e 18 were from I n d i e r e g i o n s , w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l 6 s t u d e n t s from A s i a . The s o l e r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t i d e n t i f i e d most c l o s e l y w i t h I s l a m . Those s t u d e n t s not s e l e c t i n g Canada as t h e i r second c h o i c e l i s t e d Europe j u s t over o n e - t h i r d of t h e time (n=49, 35.0 % ) , w i t h t h e U n i t e d Kingdom/Australia/New Z e a l a n d b e i n g chosen almost as o f t e n (n=42, 30.0%). Other c u l t u r a l a r e a s were a g a i n chosen much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y (n=10, 7.2%). W i t h i n the European - 114 -g r o u p i n g , N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s were most f r e q u e n t l y named (n=41, 31.4% of t h e 140 r e s p o n d e n t s ) ; the U n i t e d Kingdom accounted f o r 41 of t h e 42 respondents i n i t s g r o u p i n g . Of the o t h e r a r e a s , A s i a was l i s t e d 5 times of the 10, I n d i a 3, and the M i d d l e E a s t and So u t h - e a s t A s i a once each. Mother Tongue. Mother tongue, i . e . , the language most o f t e n spoken a t home, was an o f f i c i a l language f o r almost a l l t h e s t u d e n t s , as may be seen i n T a b l e 4 (n=197, 93.4%). That language was E n g l i s h f o r 196 of t h e 197. Of the r e m a i n i n g 13 s t u d e n t s , 10 spoke a non-European language most f r e q u e n t l y a t TABLE 4: Mother Tongue ( P i l o t Study, N=213) Language F i r s t L i s t e d Second L i s t e d n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 211 100.0 68 100.0 O f f i c i a l Languages 197 93. 4 27 39.7 N o r t h e r n European Languages 3 1.3 20 29.4 Sout h e r n European Languages 1 0.5 1 1.5 E a s t e r n / I n d i e Languages 6 2.8 10 14.7 A s i a n Languages 4 1.9 4 5.9 Other Languages 6 8.8 home. Of t h e 68 s t u d e n t s who l i s t e d a second language, almost 40% l i s t e d an o f f i c i a l language. About o n e - h a l f spoke e i t h e r a N o r t h e r n European language (n=20, 29.4%) or an E a s t e r n / I n d i e - 115 -language (n=10, 14.7%). Of the r e m a i n i n g 11 r e s p o n d e n t s , f o u r spoke an A s i a n language (5.9%) and one a s o u t h e r n European language. The r e m a i n i n g 6 s t u d e n t s (8.8%) spoke some o t h e r language second most f r e q u e n t l y . C o u n t r y of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) . As may be seen i n T a b l e 5, about TABLE 5: Country of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) ( P i l o t Study, N=213) Geographic A r e a / C u l t u r e Mother F a t h e r n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 204 100 . 0 204 100 . 0 The A m e r i c a s : 146 71. . 6 139 68. ,1 N o r t h America 142 69. . 6 135 66. ,2 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 4 2 . 0 4 2 , .0 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 16 7 . , 8 20 9. .8 U n i t e d Kingdom 15 7 , 4 18 8, .8 C a r i b b e a n - 1 0. , 5 A u s t r a l i a , New Z e a l a n d 1 0 . 5 1 0. .5 Europe: 16 7 . 8 23 11. .3 N o r t h e r n Europe 13 6, . 4 20 9. . 8 C e n t r a l Europe 1 0 . 5 -E a s t e r n Europe 1 0 , .5 -S o u t h e r n Europe 1 0. .5 3 1. .5 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 26 12 .7 22 10, .8 I s l a m i c a r e a s 2 1. .0 1 0, .5 I n d i e a r e a s 13 6, . 4 13 6, .4 A s i a 5 2 . 5 4 2 . 0 So u t h - e a s t A s i a 6 2, . 9 4 2, .0 70% of t h e s u b j e c t s ' p a r e n t s were born i n the A m e r i c a s , w i t h - 116 -almost a l l of t h i s sub-group b e i n g born i n N o r t h America ( i n Canada i n p a r t i c u l a r ) . The s u b j e c t s ' p a r e n t s were born i n the Americas l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than were the s u b j e c t s t hemselves, ( i . e . , 70% as compared t o 85.5%, as r e p o r t e d above). Once a g a i n , t h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d , g i v e n Canada's c o n t i n u o u s p a t t e r n s of i m m i g r a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s ' p a r e n t s who were not born i n t h e Americas were born a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l l y o f t e n i n Europe, i n the U n i t e d Kingdom and i t s non-American c o l o n i e s , and i n o t h e r a r e a s . F or the European-born, the m a j o r i t y of b o t h mothers and f a t h e r s were born i n N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s (n's of 13/16 and 20/23 f o r mothers and f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Almost a l l of the U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s group had been born i n the U n i t e d Kingdom (n's of 15/16 and 18 / 2 0 . f o r mothers and f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Of t h e p a r e n t s born i n o t h e r a r e a s , about o n e - h a l f were from I n d i e a r e a s (13/26 and 13/22 f o r mothers and f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , w h i l e almost as many came from A s i a and Sou t h - e a s t A s i a (11/26 and 8/26 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . C o u n t r y of B i r t h ( G r a n d p a r e n t s ) . As may be seen i n T a b l e 6 (on the f o l l o w i n g p age), about t w o - t h i r d s of the s t u d e n t s knew where t h e i r m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s had been born. Of t h e s e , fewer than o n e - h a l f had been born i n the Americas (n's of 69 and 61, 44.2% and 41.2% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Once a g a i n , almost a l l of t h e s e p e o p l e had been - 117 -TABLE 6: C o u n t r y of B i r t h ( M a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) ( P i l o t Study, N=213) G e o r g r a p h i c A r e a / C u l t u r e Grandmother G r a n d f a t h e r n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 156 100 . ,0 148 100 , .0 The A m e r i c a s : 69 44. 2 61 41. ,2 N o r t h America 68 43. , 6 59 39, .9 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 1 0. . 6 2 1. , 4 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 25 16. .0 25 16, . 9 U n i t e d Kingdom 24 15. ,4 25 16. , 9 A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d 1 0 . , 6 -Europe: J 36 23. ,1 37 25. ,0 N o r t h e r n Europe 31 19. .9 31 20. . 9 C e n t r a l Europe 1 0. , 6 1 0. ,7 E a s t e r n Europe 2 1. . 3 3 2. .0 S o u t h e r n Europe 2 1. ,3 2 1. ,4 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 26 16, .7 25 16 . 9 M i d d l e e a s t 1 0. . 6 1 0, .7 I s l a m i c a r e a s 1 0 , . 6 1 0 .7 I n d i e a r e a s 14 9, .0 14 9, .5 A s i a 5 3, .2 4 2 .7 S o u t h - e a s t A s i a 5 3. .2 5 3, . 4 born i n Canada, and a g a i n g i v e n Canada's h i s t o r y of i m m i g r a t i o n , the d e c l i n e i n n's from s u b j e c t s t o p a r e n t s t o g r a n d p a r e n t s born i n Canada i s t o be e x p e c t e d . Of the m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s not born i n Canada, about equal numbers were from t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and i t s non-American c o l o n i e s (n's of 25 f o r b o t h grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , 16.0% and 16.9% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and from o t h e r a r e a s (n's of 26 and 25, 16.7% - 118 -and 16.9% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . About o n e - q u a r t e r were from Europe (n's of 36 and 37, 23.1% and 25% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In g e n e r a l , the p a t t e r n w i t h i n each of the g r o u p i n g s was s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t h e p a r e n t s , d e s c r i b e d above. That i s , almost a l l of the U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s group had been born i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i t s e l f (n's of 24/25 and 25/25 f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , most of the European group o r i g i n a t e d i n N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s (31/36 and 31/37 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and w i t h i n the " o t h e r a r e a s " group, s u b s t a n t i a l numbers had been born i n I n d i e r e g i o n s (n's of 14/26 and 14/25 f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) or i n e i t h e r A s i a or South-east A s i a (n's of 10/26 and 9/25 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . As may be seen i n T a b l e 7 (on the f o l l o w i n g page), t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o u n t r y of b i r t h f o r p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t j u s t d e s c r i b e d f o r m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s . That i s , about t w o - t h i r d s of the sample of s t u d e n t s knew where t h e i r p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s had been born (n's of 150/213 and 147/213 f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Of t h e s e , s l i g h t l y l e s s than o n e - h a l f had been born i n the Americas (n's of 62 and 55, 40.7% and 37.4% of r e s p o n d e n t s , f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . About equal numbers had been born i n the U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s (n's of 27 and 29, 18.0% - 119 -and 19.7% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and i n " o t h e r " a r e a s (n's of 25 and 24, TABLE 7: Country of B i r t h ( P a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) ( P i l o t Study, N=213) Geographic A r e a / C u l t u r e Grandmother G r a n d f a t h e r n % n No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 150 100. .0 147 100. .0 The A m e r i c a s : 62 41, .3 55 37 , .4 N o r t h America 61 40. .7 54 36, .7 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 1 0 .7 1 0 .7 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 27 18. .0 29 19. .7 U n i t e d Kingdom 25 16, .7 28 19, .0 C a r i b b e a n 1 0. .7 -A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d 1 0, .7 1 0 , .7 Europe: 36 24. .0 39 26. ,5 N o r t h e r n Europe 30 20 , .0 33 22, .4 C e n t r a l Europe 1 0. .7 -S o u t h e r n Europe 5 3, .3 6 4, .1 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 25 16. .7 24 16. .3 M i d d l e e a s t 1 0 , .7 -I s l a m i c a r e a s 1 0 . 7 1 0 , 7 I n d i e a r e a s 14 9, .3 14 9, . 5 A s i a 6 4, .0 6 4, .1 S o u t h - e a s t A s i a 3 2 .0 3 2 , .0 16.7% and 16.3% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , w i t h about o n e - q u a r t e r o r i g i n a t i n g i n European c o u n t r i e s (n's of 36 and 39, 24% and 26.5% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The m a j o r i t y (n's of 25/27 and 28/29 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were born i n the U n i t e d Kingdom i t s e l f f o r the f i r s t g r o u p i n g . Of t h e European a r e a s , most p e o p l e were born i n N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s - 120 -(30/36 and 33/39). F i n a l l y , of p e o p l e born i n " o t h e r " a r e a s , about o n e - h a l f came from I n d i e c o u n t r i e s (14/24, f o r b o t h grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s ) , and s l i g h t l y fewer from A s i a / S o u t h - e a s t A s i a (9/24 f o r b o t h ) . G e n e r a t i o n of Residence. T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e by e t h n i c i t y f o r the 191 s u b j e c t s who p r o v i d e d complete i n f o r m a t i o n . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t , as was d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e was a TABLE 8: G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e by E t h n i c i t y ( P i l o t Study, n=191, N=213) S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y G e n e r a t i o n of Re s i d e n c e F i r s t Second T h i r d n % n % n % No. of respondents 63 100.0 89 100 .0 39 100 .0 N o r t h America 45 71.4 78 87 . 6 33 84.6 U n i t e d Kingdom 1 1.5 5 6.4 1 3.0 E a s t A s i a 4 6.3 - - - -Europe 8 12.7 6 7.7 5 15.2 I n d i a 5 7 . 9 computed v a r i a b l e , based on seven measured v a r i a b l e s : s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y ; c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h of each p a r e n t ; and, c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h of each m a t e r n a l and p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t . As may be seen i n T a b l e 8, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e f o r the two l a r g e s t e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s ( i . e . , N o r t h - 121 -America and Europe) have no empty c e l l s ; the d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the U n i t e d Kingdom has s i n g l e s u b j e c t s i n two of the t h r e e c e l l s ( i . e . , f i r s t and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e ) . The r e m a i n i n g two g r o u p i n g s ( i . e . , E a s t A s i a and I n d i a ) c o n t a i n s u b j e c t s i n a s i n g l e c e l l : t h a t of the " f i r s t " g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada. T h i s f i n d i n g c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as d i s h e a r t e n i n g : t h a t i s , because " g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e " was a major v a r i a b l e i n the r e s e a r c h as p l a n n e d (see C h a p t e r s I I and I I I a bove), the i n a b i l i t y t o r e c r u i t s u b j e c t s from a range of g e n e r a t i o n s ( i n t h r e e of t h e f i v e e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s ) would render the s t u d y i m p o s s i b l e . D e s p i t e t h i s f a c t , however, i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h the main s u r v e y . I t was f e l t t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n from which the p i l o t s u b j e c t s were r e c r u i t e d was not t y p i c a l of the Lower M a i n l a n d of B.C. as a whole. The p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s well-known as b e i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y Canadian/European i n e t h n i c o r i g i n w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t s r e s i d e n t w i t h i n i t . The sample appeared t o be t y p i c a l of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , j u d g i n g from t h e i r r e sponses p r e s e n t e d above. The l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of p e o p l e who a r e from A s i a or I n d i a , who work i n the market gardens i n the d i s t r i c t , a r e s a i d t o be l a r g e l y t r a n s i e n t , r e c r u i t e d from t h e i r homes i n o t h e r a r e a s of the Lower M a i n l a n d . I t a p p e a r s , at l e a s t , t h a t most of t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not p r e s e n t i n the - 122 -s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s Grade p i l o t s t u d y d a t a . 1 0 c l a s s r o o m s d u r i n g c o l l e c t i o n of t h e I t i s known t h a t p e o p l e from Ea s t A s i a and I n d i a have i m m i g r a t e d t o t h e Lower M a i n l a n d over a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e , and t h a t many of t h e s e p e o p l e have remained i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. The d e c i s i o n t o c o n t i n u e w i t h the main s u r v e y was made i n view of t h i s knowledge. I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e problem of v e r y low c e l l n's ( o r empty c e l l s ) would not a r i s e when a l a r g e N from the urban s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d was r e c r u i t e d . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Main Survey. The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d above seemed t o be c r e d i b l e ; t h a t i s , none of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of demographic v a r i a b l e s appeared u n l i k e l y . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s u b j e c t s had, i n g e n e r a l , completed the s u r v e y forms i n a m e a n i n g f u l f a s h i o n and had had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the q u e s t i o n s . Thus, t h e f i r s t p a r t of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e t a i n e d i n v i r t u a l l y t h e same form f o r use i n the main s u r v e y . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Measures E t h n i c Salience Questionnaire (ESQ). The rank, mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r each i t e m i n the ESQ may be found i n T a b l e 9, i n a d d i t i o n t o the s c a l e mean, the s c a l e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and the Cronbach's a l p h a . The s c a l e proved t o be v e r y homogeneous, as i s shown by the Cronbach's a l p h a of 0.915. The h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y d i d TABLE 9: ESQ Items: Ranks, Means, and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( P i l o t Study, n=213) Item Rank Mean S.D, 7. c h o o s i n g a neighborhood 1 3.46 2.01 1. c h o o s i n g a m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r 2 3.33 2.17 15. a c c e p t i n g a job o f f e r 3 3.20 2.22 3. c h o o s i n g a b o y / g i r l f r i e n d 4.5* 3.14 2.13 4. c h o o s i n g a roommate 4.5 3.14 2.03 13. d e c i d i n g where t o t r a v e l 6 3.09 2.11 5. c h o o s i n g a c l o s e f r i e n d 7 2.85 2.10 6. making/keeping a c q u a i n t a n c e s 8 2.82 1.81 8. p r e p a r i n g meals a t home 9 2.79 1.96 14. h i r i n g someone 10 2.77 1.97 9. j o i n i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n 11 2.68 1.71 11. c h o o s i n g l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s 12 2.64 1.81 2. a d o p t i n g a c h i l d 13 2.58 1.86 12. c h o o s i n g a r e s t a u r a n t 14 2.50 1.92 10. s u b s c r i b i n g t o a newspaper 15 2.16 1.64 S c a l e s t a t i s t i c s : Mean: 43.16 St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n : 19.93 Cronbach's a l p h a : 0.915 * t h i s v a r i a b l e was t i e d w i t h the one i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g not appear merely t o be a f u n c t i o n of the s u b j e c t s c h e c k i n g o f f the same s c a l e p o i n t t o a l l i t e m s , s i n c e the it e m s were somewhat v a r i a b l e (as may be seen by the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g i n g from 1.64 t o 2.22) f o r each of the 7 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e s . On the average, however, t h e s t u d e n t s d i d not f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y g u i d e d by t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , as the i t e m means - 124 -ranged from 3.46 t o 2.16. A l l i t e m means f e l l below the m i d - p o i n t of the p o s s i b l e range, i . e . , below 3.5. I t may be seen t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the items a r e ranked i n o r d e r of s o c i a l d i s t a n c e , w i t h one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n : a d o p t i n g a c h i l d . T h i s i t e m may have ranked so low because of t h e age of the s t u d e n t s . T h e i r l i f e problems appear t o be s e l e c t i o n of p a r t n e r s , o c c u p a t i o n s , and e d u c a t i o n , not a d o p t i n g a c h i l d (a c h o i c e u s u a l l y o c c u r r i n g a t a l a t e r age). Views of Persona] Q u a l i t i e s ( I m p o r t a n c e ) . (PQI) The mean r a n k i n g s of each of the 21 p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a r e t o be found i n T a b l e 10 (on t h e f o l l o w i n g page). As may be seen t h e r e , t h e average rank ranged from 5.7 t o 15.2, w i t h s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g i n g from 4.9 t o 7.1 over t h e 21 PQ's. On the average, the s u b j e c t s f e l t t h a t HONEST was the most i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t y , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by LOVING and RESPONSIBLE; MODEST, COURAGEOUS and SPIRITUAL were seen as l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . The r a n k i n g was not r e l a t e d t o t h e o r d e r of i n c l u s i o n i n t h e measure, i . e . , t h e Spearman r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n between i n c l u s i o n number and o r d e r of imp o r t a n c e t o the s u b j e c t s was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The u n d e r l y i n g dimensions of the s e t of PQI's were e x p l o r e d u s i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e the v i a b i l i t y of t h i s a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g y f o r the main s u r v e y ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , - 125 -P r i n c i p a l Components e x t r a c t i o n was f o l l o w e d by Varimax r o t a t i o n and c a l c u l a t i o n of f a c t o r s c o r e s ) . The i n i t i a l e x t r a c t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t , from the s e t of 21 components, e i g h t TABLE 10: Mean Rankings of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y Rank Mean Rank St.Dev. HONEST 1 5.7 5.1 LOVING 2 6.4 5.5 RESPONSIBLE 3 7.3 4.9 POLITE 4 8.9 5.2 CHEERFUL 5.5* 9.9 5.7 FORGIVING 5.5 9.9 5.2 RESPECTFUL 7 10.1 5.5 CLEAN 8.5* 10.3 5.9 AMBITIOUS 8.5 10.3 5.5 INDEPENDENT 10.5* 10.9 5.7 HELPFUL 10 .5 10 . 9 5.1 INTELLECTUAL 12 11.2 5.7 SELF-CONTROLLED 13.5* 11.4 5.3 GENEROUS 13.5 11.4 5.1 CAPABLE 15 11.6 5.3 BROADMINDED 16 11.8 5.6 IMAGINATIVE 17 13.3 5.9 LOGICAL 18 13.7 5.6 MODEST 19.5* 14.5 5 . 4 COURAGEOUS 19.5 14.5 5.2 SPIRITUAL 21 15.2 7.1 * t i e d rank w i t h p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g . had e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r than or equal t o 1.0 ( a c c o u n t i n g i n t o t a l f o r 66.1% of t h e v a r i a n c e ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e e i g h t components were r e t a i n e d , r o t a t e d and used f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of component ( i . e . , f a c t o r ) s c o r e s . - 126 -When t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e s of the r o t a t e d l o a d i n g s were t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the m a t r i x was f a i r l y c l e a n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , of the 168 p o s s i b l e l o a d i n g s , 37 (22.3%) were s a l i e n t ( u s i n g the c u t o f f of |0.30| as the d e f i n i t i o n of " s a l i e n t " ) . A f u r t h e r 67 (39.9%) were i n t h e h y p e r p l a n e ( i . e . , were l e s s than J0.10J and were thus thought t o be c l o s e t o 0.0). The m a j o r i t y of t h e r e m a i n i n g 64 l o a d i n g s ( i . e . , 47, or 27.9% of t h e t o t a l ) f e l l between !0.10! and |0.19|. The r e m a i n i n g 17 l o a d i n g s (9.9%) f e l l between 10.20! and |0.29|. T a b l e 11 (on the f o l l o w i n g page) c o n t a i n s the s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s of the r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x . L i n e s a r e drawn a f t e r every s e v e n t h v a r i a b l e f o r purposes of c l a r i t y . As may be seen i n the t a b l e , each of t h e 21 PQI's loa d e d s a l i e n t l y on a t l e a s t one f a c t o r . However, the r o t a t e d s t r u c t u r e was not " s i m p l e " . That i s , t e n of the 21 PQI's were complex ( i . e . , l o a d i n g on more tha n one f a c t o r ) . Four c r o s s - l o a d e d on two f a c t o r s ; the r e m a i n i n g s i x on t h r e e f a c t o r s . Each f a c t o r was examined s u b s t a n t i v e l y ; each was then l a b e l l e d . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t each of the e i g h t f a c t o r s was b i p o l a r , i . e . , t h a t each was composed of a s e r i e s of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a b i p o l a r f a c t o r i s , g e n e r a l l y , t h a t a low s c o r e means t h a t the s u b j e c t ranked t h e n e g a t i v e l y - l o a d i n g PQI's h i g h and t h e p o s i t i v e ones low; c o n v e r s e l y , a h i g h f a c t o r s c o r e means t h a t the s u b j e c t ranked - 127 -the p o s i t i v e l y - l o a d i n g PQI's h i g h l y , w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y low ranks f o r the n e g a t i v e ones. F a c t o r I was l a b e l l e d " e m o t i o n a l / r a t i o n a l " . The h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s were LOVING and CHEERFUL, w i t h e q u a l l y l a r g e TABLE 11: F a c t o r Loadings of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) F a c t o r I I I I I I IV V VI V I I V I I I AMBITIOUS * * * - 0 . 9 0 - 0 . 3 2 0 . 4 1 * * BROADMINDED * -•0 . 7 0 * * * * * * CAPABLE - 0 . 6 0 * * * * * * * CHEERFUL 0 . 5 4 * * * - 0 . 3 3 - 0 . 4 3 * * CLEAN * * 0 . 7 2 * * * * * COURAGEOUS * * * * * 0 . 7 9 * * FORGIVING * * 0 . 5 1 * * - 0 . 4 1 * * GENEROUS * * - 0 . 3 1 * * - 0 . 3 0 * 0 . 4 9 HELPFUL * 0 . 3 0 - 0 . 6 2 * * * * * HONEST * * * * * * 0 . 7 0 * IMAGINATIVE * - 0 . 3 8 * * * * . - 0 . 5 0 * INDEPENDENT - 0 . 3 6 * * * * * - 0 . 5 6 * INTELLECTUAL * * * * * * * - 0 . 8 0 LOGICAL - o . 6 4 * * * * * * * LOVING 0 . 5 7 * * * * * * * MODEST * * * 0 . 3 8 * * * * POLITE * * 0 . 5 1 * * * 0 . 4 3 0 . 3 6 RESPECTFUL * 0 . 7 1 * * * * * * RESPONSIBLE - 0 . 4 9 0 . 4 4 * 0 . 3 2 * * * * SELF-CONTROLLED - 0 . 4 1 * 0 . 3 1 * 0 . 4 9 * * * SPIRITUAL * * * * 0 . 8 1 * * * * i n d i c a t e s n o n - s a l i e n t l o a d i n g n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s on LOGICAL, CAPABLE and RESPONSIBLE, and - 128 -s m a l l e r n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s on SELF-CONTROLLED and INDEPENDENT. Thus, f o r example, a hig h score on t h i s f a c t o r would mean that the s u b j e c t ranked the PQI's " c h e e r f u l " and " l o v i n g " h i g h l y , with a tendency to rank as l e s s important the PQI's " l o g i c a l " , " capable" and " r e s p o n s i b l e " ( a l l of which are u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r ) . The two pole s of t h i s f a c t o r are rem i n i s c e n t of C a t t e l l ' s "tender-tough" dimension ( C a t t e l l , 1965). High f a c t o r scores would f a l l i n the "tender-minded" group, low ones i n the "tough" category. Scores near zero would l i e i n between the two c a t e g o r i e s . F a c t o r II had hig h p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s on three v a r i a b l e s : RESPECTFUL, RESPONSIBLE AND HELPFUL. Two others loaded s a l i e n t l y i n a ne g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n : BROADMINDED and IMAGINATIVE. It was l a b e l l e d " s o c i a l l y conforming". F a c t o r I I I was c a l l e d " o b s e s s i v e tendency". The s a l i e n t p o s i t i v e l o adings were on CLEAN, POLITE and SELF-CONTROLLED, with n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s on HELPFUL, FORGIVING and GENEROUS. Fa c t o r IV was somewhat more d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t , but was f i n a l l y c a l l e d " h u m i l i t y " . The two p o s i t i v e l o adings were on MODEST and RESPONSIBLE; the s i n g l e n e g a t i v e one was a h i g h l y s a l i e n t l o a d i n g on AMBITIOUS. F a c t o r V was "fundamentalist s p i r i t u a l " , with SPIRITUAL being - 129 -t h e h i g h e r of the two p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s (0.81 as compared t o 0.49, f o r SELF-CONTROLLED. N e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s , b o t h m a r g i n a l l y s a l i e n t , were CHEERFUL and AMBITIOUS. F a c t o r VI was t e n t a t i v e l y l a b e l l e d " s t e r n a c t i v e " . I t had p o s i t i v e s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s on COURAGEOUS and AMBITIOUS, w i t h n e g a t i v e ones on CHEERFUL, FORGIVING and GENEROUS. The two p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s on F a c t o r V I I were on HONEST and POLITE, w i t h two n e g a t i v e ones on INDEPENDENT and IMAGINATIVE. I t was t e n t a t i v e l y l a b e l l e d " c o m p l i a n t " . F i n a l l y , F a c t o r V I I I had two p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s , on POLITE AND GENEROUS, w i t h a s i n g l e n e g a t i v e one on INTELLECTUAL. I t was t e n t a t i v e l y l a b e l l e d " c h a r i t a b l e " . I t was u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e p a t t e r n of l o a d i n g s of p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s was r e l a t e d t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g s . That i s , the v a r i a b l e s do not appear t o have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o t h e r s i m p l y because they were ranked s i m i l a r l y . As T a b l e 12 (on the next page) shows, the mean ranks of t h e s a l i e n t v a r i a b l e s f o r each of the e i g h t f a c t o r s ranged from 9.7 t o 11.7, out of a p o s s i b l e range of 1 t o 21. Thus, each f a c t o r was, on the a v e r a g e , ranked r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r l y by the p o o l of s u b j e c t s , w i t h each b e i n g ranked i n the approximate m i d d l e of the range. - 130 -TABLE 12: Mean Ranks by F a c t o r ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) F a c t o r Mean Rank of S a l i e n t V a r i a b l e s I 10.2 I I 10.7 I I I 10 .5 IV 10.7 V 11.7 VI 11.2 V I I 9.7 V I I I 10.5 I t appeared from t h e r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d above t h a t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was an a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e t o a p p l y t o the s e t of 21 PQI's, i . e . , i t y i e l d e d an i n t e r p r e t a b l e s o l u t i o n , a c c o u n t i n g f o r almost t w o - t h i r d s of the v a r i a n c e i n t h e s e t . Implications for the Main Survey. From t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e measure of e t h n i c s a l i e n c e d e s c r i b e d above, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the measure was s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , i . e . , t h a t the t o t a l s c a l e s c o r e a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d a l l i t e m r e s p o n s e s . F u r t h e r , the r a n k - o r d e r of i t e m s was g e n e r a l l y t h a t e x p e c t e d when the s c a l e was c o n s t r u c t e d . Thus, i t appeared l i k e l y t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e s u b j e c t s f o l l o w e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and, as f a r as one can judge, responded i n a s e n s i b l e way t o each i t e m ( s i n c e as a group t h e i r responses f e l l w i t h i n t h e bounds e x p e c t e d ) . I t was d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e the measure of e t h n i c s a l i e n c e i n the main s u r v e y . - 131 -W i t h r e g a r d t o the measure of PQI, i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o rank the importance of each of the 21 p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , and t o complete t h e t a s k c o r r e c t l y . The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the ranks y i e l d e d a s t r u c t u r e w hich was i n t e r p r e t a b l e and r e a s o n a b l e ; the l a c k of s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e may have been due t o the m i n i m a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r a t i o of v a r i a b l e s t o s u b j e c t s (213 s u b j e c t s t o 21 v a r i a b l e s ) , t o o t h e r measurement problems ( e . g . , the o r d i n a l m e t r i c ) , or t o such s o u r c e s of v a r i a n c e as genuine r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e f a c t o r s i n the p o p u l a t i o n of s u b j e c t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e s u l t s were s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e ; i t was d e c i d e d t o use the r a n k i n g t a s k i n the main s u r v e y . E x p l o r i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s among the V a r i a b l e s The f i n a l s t a g e i n the pl a n n e d a n a l y s i s of the p i l o t s t u d y d a t a was a " d r e s s r e h e a r s a l " of the main a n a l y s e s of i n t e r e s t i n the s t u d y : i . e . , t e s t i n g the hypotheses about e t h n i c i t y and g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e , and e x p l o r i n g the q u e s t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between PQI r a n k i n g s and the r e m a i n i n g demographic v a r i a b l e s . However, much of t h i s p l a n was not c a r r i e d o u t , because of the markedly unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c groups i n t h e sample and the unbalanced c e l l n's f o r g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e . Thus, o n l y f i v e one-way MANOVA's were computed: f a c t o r s c o r e s by e t h n i c group; PQI's and f a c t o r s c o r e s by gender; and, f a c t o r s c o r e s by each of r e l i g i o u s group and mother tongue. - 132 -B e f o r e computing any s t a t i s t i c s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a r e l a x e d p - v a l u e of 0.10 would s e r v e as the c r i t i c a l v a l u e . I t was f e l t t h a t , because the p r e s e n t g o a l was the e s t i m a t i o n of the i n t e r p r e t a b i 1 i t y of the r e s u l t s r a t h e r than g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o any p o p u l a t i o n , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o attempt such an e x e r c i s e . E t h n i c i t y . The e f f e c t of e t h n i c g r o u p i n g was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .010 l e v e l ( W i l k s 1ambda=0.802, F=1.43, df= 42,743, p=0.059). Because the e i g h t f a c t o r s were o r t h o g o n a l , u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s were an a p p r o p r i a t e comparison t e c h n i q u e . Of t h e e i g h t f a c t o r s , t h r e e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the 0.10 l e v e l , i . e . , F a c t o r s I ( " e m o t i o n a l - r a t i o n a l " ) , V ("fundamental s p i r i t u a l i s m " ) and V I I ( " c o m p l i a n t ) " , as i s shown i n T a b l e 13. M u l t i p l e comparisons TABLE 13: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of F a c t o r S cores by E t h n i c i t y : C e l l Means and p - V a l u e s , by F a c t o r ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) Mean Score v a l u e N.Amer. U.K. Eur. A s i a I n d i e I . e m o t . / r a t . 50 .5 52.6 45.2 45.5 53.0 0 .07 V. f u n d , s p i r i t . 49. 2 50 . 4 53 . 6 46.3 56.2 0 .05 V I I . c o m p i i a n t 49.9 53.3 47 . 5 41.1 58.0 0 .002 were not c a l c u l a t e d ; r a t h e r , the r e s u l t s were s u b j e c t i v e l y - 133 -i n t e r p r e t e d . I t i s important to emphasize once more that t h i s was seen as an e x e r c i s e i n f e a s i b i l i t y , rather than as a means of formulating conclusions about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e t h n i c i t y and PQI's. The North American sample lay very near the mid-point on each of the three scores ( p o s s i b l y because i t represented three-quarters of the N). Of the remaining groups, the U.K sub-sample attached s l i g h t l y more importance to the "emotional" end of f a c t o r I, and f e l t that "compliance" (Factor VII) was s l i g h t l y more important. In c o n t r a s t , the European sub-sample was more " r a t i o n a l " on Factor I and l e s s compliant on Factor V I I , but ranked "fundamental s p i r i t u a l i t y " (Factor V) as more important. Of the remaining two groups, the East Asian sample f e l l on the r a t i o n a l , the l e s s s p i r i t u a l and the l e s s compliant ends of the three f a c t o r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , while the Indie group lay above the mean of 50.0 on a l l three. In f a c t , the Indie subjects achieved the highest f a c t o r scores on each of the three f a c t o r s ; t h i s f i n d i n g can be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean that they placed l e a s t importance on r a t i o n a l i t y , and highest importance on s p i r i t u a l i t y and compliance of the f i v e ethnic groups. I t appears that s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , i n t e r p r e t a b l e , patterns might w e l l emerge f o r the f i v e ethnic - 134 -g r o u p i n g s d u r i n g t he main s u r v e y , when f a c t o r s based on t h e r a n k i n g s of the 21 p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a r e examined, and when power i s g r e a t e r (because of l a r g e r c e l l n ' s ) . None of t h e f i n d i n g s of the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s s t r a i n e d t he bounds of c r e d u l i t y . That i s , w i t h i n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s of each group and her knowledge of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p o p u l a t i o n from whom the sample was r e c r u i t e d , t he r e s u l t s seemed r e a s o n a b l e . Thus, i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e main s u r v e y as p l a n n e d . Other Demographic V a r i a b l e s . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among e t h n i c i t y , g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e and each of the r e m a i n i n g demographic v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , gender, r e l i g i o u s group and mother tongue) because of the low c e l l n's d i s c u s s e d above. I n a d d i t i o n , c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s of each of the l a t t e r v a r i a b l e s w i t h e t h n i c group r e v e a l e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A f i n a l problem was t h a t some c e l l s i z e s f o r two of t h e t h r e e r e m a i n i n g demographic v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , r e l i g i o u s group and mother tongue) were too s m a l l t o a l l o w MANOVA's of PQI's as dependent v a r i a b l e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was d e c i d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e o n l y t he r e l a t i o n s h i p s between gender and the s e t of 21 PQI's, and thos e between each of t h e t h r e e demographic v a r i a b l e s and the s e t of 8 f a c t o r s c o r e s . When t h e MANOVA f o r PQI's by gender was computed, t h e e f f e c t of gender was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( W i l k s lambda=.75, F=3.04, - 135 -df=21,191, p<.001). When t h e genders were compared on t h e 21 PQI's i n u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s , t w e l v e a c h i e v e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e at or beyond the 0.10 l e v e l , a l l but one of t h e s e beyond the 0.05 l e v e l , as may be seen i n T a b l e 14. Females ranked t h e f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s more h i g h l y : RESPECTFUL, CHEERFUL, HONEST, LOVING, FORGIVING and GENEROUS. Males ranked the r e m a i n i n g seven PQI's more h i g h l y : CAPABLE, LOGICAL, COURAGEOUS, IMAGINATIVE, BROADMINDED and SELF-CONTROLLED. These TABLE 14: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of PQI's by Gender: C e l l Means and p - V a l u e s , by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) Mean Rank p - v a l u e Stand. D i s c r i m . F u n c t i o n Females Males C o e f f . n's: 91 122 PQI's ranked more h i g h l y by HONEST 4.3 LOVING 5.2 CHEERFUL 8.5 RESPECTFUL 8 . 9 FORGIVING 9.1 GENEROUS 10.3 PQI's ranked more h i g h l y by fe m a l e s : 6.7 0.001 0.418 7.3 0.005 0.338 10.9 0.002 0.376 11.0 0.004 0.347 10.5 0.073 0.215 12.1 0.014 0.295 males: SELF-CONTROLLED 12 .3 10.8 0.041 -0.245 CAPABLE 12 .5 11.0 0 .042 -0 .243 BROADMINDED 12 . 5 11.2 0.042 -0.243 IMAGINATIVE 14 .7 12 . 3 0 .004 -0.350 LOGICAL 15 . 2 12 . 6 0.0008 -0.404 COURAGEOUS 15 .8 13. 6 0.002 -0.369 r e s u l t s c o r r e s p o n d t o the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e s t e r e o t y p e q u i t e - 136 -w e l l , i . e . , the more p a s s i v e e m o t i o n a l female and the more a c t i v e r a t i o n a l male. However, because the PQI's were c o r r e l a t e d t o v a r y i n g degrees w i t h each o t h e r , u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s may have f a i l e d t o r e v e a l d i f f e r e n c e s a c c u r a t e l y . A f u r t h e r problem was the h i g h e r r i s k of making a l p h a e r r o r s w i t h i n a s e t of 21 post hoc comparisons. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s of the f u l l s e t of 21 PQI's between the two genders was c a l c u l a t e d , so t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between the genders might be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d , and the v i a b i l i t y of the a n a l y t i c s t r a t e g i e s e s t i m a t e d . In a g e n e r a l way, the r e s u l t s of t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n were s i m i l a r t o tho s e of the s e t of u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s . As may be seen i n T a b l e 14 ( a b o v e ) , when a l l 21 PQI's were i n c l u d e d i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n , each of the t w e l v e PQI's a c h i e v i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s had s t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of j 0.20 j or g r e a t e r . None of t h e r e m a i n i n g n i n e PQI's had c o e f f i c i e n t s as g r e a t . From t h e p a t t e r n of c o e f f i c i e n t s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the f u n c t i o n r e f l e c t s female/male r a n k i n g s of v a l u e s , w i t h females f a l l i n g on t h e p o s i t i v e p o l e , males on t h e n e g a t i v e . F i n a l l y , the f u n c t i o n a l l o w e d s u c c e s s f u l r e - g r o u p i n g of 73.7% of the c a s e s ; t h i s v a l u e i s a good d e a l h i g h e r than the chance l e v e l of 50%. In g e n e r a l , the c o e f f i c i e n t s appear t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e s i z e of t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n r a n k i n g between the genders. - 137 -The p i c t u r e of gender r a n k i n g s f i t t i n g m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e s t e r e o t y p e s i s r e i n f o r c e d when the r e s u l t s of the MANOVA of t h e f a c t o r s c o r e s by gender a r e examined ( T a b l e 15 on t h e f o l l o w i n g page; W i l k s lambda=0.871, F=3.79, df=8,204, p<0.001). Because the f a c t o r s a r e u n c o r r e l a t e d , u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s of each f a c t o r were a p p r o p r i a t e . Females ranked " e m o t i o n a l i t y " , " s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y " and " c o m p l i a n c e " more h i g h l y than males; " s t e r n a c t i v i t y " was t h e s o l e f a c t o r ranked h i g h e r by males. A g a i n , the N o r t h American r e a l i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s emerges i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . A d i s c r i m a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was computed, u s i n g the f a c t o r s c o r e s as g r o u p i n g v a r i a b l e s , i n o r d e r t o compare the r e s u l t s TABLE 15: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of F a c t o r Scores by Gender: C e l l Means and p - V a l u e s , by P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y ( P i l o t Study, n=N=213) Mean Score p - v a l u e Stand. D i s c r i m . F u n c t i o n C o e f f . Females Mai es I . e m o t ./rat. I I . s o c i a l , c o n f o r m i n g V I . s t e r n a c t i v e V I I . comp1iant 52.9 51.8 47 .8 51. 6 47 .8 48. 6 51.7 48.7 0 .0001 0.020 0 .005 0.025 -0.670 -0.419 0 .511 -0.402 S t a n . Group C e n t r o i d s : 0.66 0.50 w i t h t h o s e from the F - t e s t s . The f u n c t i o n which emerged - 138 -appeared t o be t h e r e v e r s e of t h a t which r e s u l t e d from t h e a n a l y s i s of the s e t of PQI's. That i s , as may be seen i n t h e group c e n t r o i d s ( i . e . , mean s t a n d a r d s c o r e s f o r each g r o u p ) , the n e g a t i v e p o l e appeared t o r e p r e s e n t female r a n k i n g s , the p o s i t i v e p o l e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e male r a n k i n g s . A g a i n , t h e r e s u l t s appear t o f i t the N o r t h American s t e r e o t y p e w e l l , w i t h F a c t o r I ( " e m o t i o n a l / r a t i o n a l " ) c o n t r i b u t i n g most t o the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by F a c t o r VI ( " s t e r n a c t i v e " ) , but i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . Compliance and c o n f o r m i t y c o n t r i b u t e d s l i g h t l y l e s s t o the f u n c t i o n . One a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r had a c o e f f i c i e n t of >!0.20| w i t h the f u n c t i o n : f a c t o r V I I I ( " c h a r i t a b l e " ) , w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t of -0.242. T h i s f a c t o r , t h e r e f o r e , f e l l on t h e " f e m a l e " p o l e . (On u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s , i t s a s s o c i a t e d p - v a l u e was 0.18). The f u n c t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y grouped 73.4% of t h e c a s e s . Thus, the f a c t o r s c o r e s "behaved" i n g e n e r a l terms s i m i l a r l y t o the f u l l s e t of PQI's. When the r e s u l t s of the MANOVA's of f a c t o r s c o r e s by each of mother tongue and r e l i g i o u s group were examined, i t was found t h a t t h e MANOVA of f a c t o r s c o r e s by mother tongue was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , but t h a t of f a c t o r s c o r e s by r e l i g i o u s group was ( W i l k s 1ambda=0.618, F=1.64, df=24,218, p=0.035). Once a g a i n , u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s were f o l l o w e d by d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g a l l 8 f a c t o r s c o r e s as - 139 -p o t e n t i a l p r e d i c t o r s , i n o r d e r t o compare t h e r e s u l t s of t h e p r o c e d u r e s . (The r e l i g i o u s groups were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one of f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : E v a n g e l i c a l , C h r i s t i a n , C a t h o l i c , o t h e r C h r i s t i a n and n o n - C h r i s t i a n . ) As may be seen i n T a b l e 16 (on the f o l l o w i n g p age), two of t h e e i g h t u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s a c h i e v e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond t h e chosen p - v a l u e of 0.10: F a c t o r s I I ( " s o c i a l l y c o nforming") and V ( " f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s p i r i t u a l i t y " ) . E x a m i n a t i o n of the c e l l means f o r F a c t o r I I r e v e a l e d t h a t the g r e a t e s t c o n t r a s t l a y between the E v a n g e l i c a l sub-sample and the n o n - C h r i s t i a n group. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the E v a n g e l i c a l s ranked s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y l o w e s t w h i l e the n o n - C h r i s t i a n s ranked i t h i g h e s t . The E v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n s ranked e v a n g e l i c a l s p i r i t u a l i t y ( F a c t o r V) h i g h e s t , w h i l e the " o t h e r C h r i s t i a n " group were l o w e s t , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by t h e C a t h o l i c sample. The r e m a i n i n g groups l a y l e s s than 0.5 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s away from t h e mean. The r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d ( W i l k s * lambda a f t e r t h e f i r s t f u n c t i o n = 0 . 8 2 , Chi-square=15.86, df=14, p=0.322). T h i s s i n g l e f u n c t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r 60.13% of the v a r i a n c e i n the d a t a . s e t , and r e s u l t e d i n 55.8% c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s (much h i g h e r than the 25% e x p e c t e d by cha n c e ) . - 140 -TABLE 16: A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n of F a c t o r Scores by R e l i g i o u s G r o u p i n g : C e l l Means, p - V a l u e s , S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s and Group C e n t r o i d s ( P i l o t Study, n=86, N=213) Mean Score p - v a l u e S t a n d a r d D i s c r i m . Fund. Cath. Chtn. Non-C. F u n c t i o n C o e f f . I . e m o t . /rat. 53. 9 51. 6 47 . 8 50.7 0 .193 0.207 I I . s o c. c o n f . 48.7 53.8 52.2 55. 6 0 .061 -0.490 V. fund. s p t . 57 .7 50.3 49.4 53.4 0 .006 0.726 V I I I . c h a r i t a b l e 51.8 47.9 50.1 53 .0 0 . 434 0 . 200 Group C e n t r o i d s : 0 .52 -0.57 -0.69 -0 .17 As may be seen i n T a b l e 16 ( a b o v e ) , f o u r of the e i g h t f a c t o r s c o r e s had c o e f f i c i e n t s of ! 0.20j or g r e a t e r w i t h the f u n c t i o n , and were thus the major d i s c r i m i n a t o r s : I ("emotional r a t i o n a l " ) , I I ( " s o c i a l l y c o n f o r m i n g " ) , V ( " f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s p i r i t u a l i t y " ) and V I I I ( " c h a r i t a b l e " ) . The two most i m p o r t a n t were F a c t o r s I I and V, w i t h c o e f f i c i e n t s of -0.490 and 0.726 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e s e two f a c t o r s were a l s o the two a c h i e v i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e on the u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s . When r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the PQI's which lo a d e d on the f o u r f a c t o r s ( T a b l e 11, above), i t appears t h a t the p o s i t i v e p o l e of the f u n c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a tendency t o v a l u e the f o l l o w i n g h i g h l y : SPIRITUAL, SELF-CONTROLLED ( b o t h from F a c t o r I ) and BROADMINDED (from F a c t o r I I ) , w i t h a l e s s marked tendency t o rank PQI's from F a c t o r s I and V I I h i g h l y , i n c l u d i n g CHEERFUL, - 141 -LOVING and GENEROUS ( s i n c e t h e s e f a c t o r s had lower c o e f f i c i e n t s ) . S i m i l a r l y , t he n e g a t i v e p o l e of the f u n c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a tendency t o v a l u e the f o l l o w i n g PQI's: RESPECTFUL, RESPONSIBLE, CAPABLE, LOGICAL and INTELLECTUAL, a l l from f a c t o r s I and V I I I . ( I t w i l l be noted t h a t f a c t o r l o a d i n g s of |0.50| o r g r e a t e r , from T a b l e 11 above, were used t o i n t e r p r e t the f u n c t i o n . ) When t h e group c e n t r o i d s ( T a b l e 16, above) a r e examined, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the E v a n g e l i c a l group f a l l s on the p o s i t i v e end of the f u n c t i o n , w i t h t h e " o t h e r C h r i s t i a n s " and t h e " C a t h o l i c " sub-sample on the o p p o s i t e extreme, and the n o n - C h r i s t i a n s v e r y c l o s e t o the m i d - p o i n t . Thus, E v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n y outh v a l u e d t h e i r s p i r i t u a l i t y and t o a l e s s e r degree t h e i r e m o t i o n a l and c h a r i t a b l e q u a l i t i e s , w h i l e d e - v a l u i n g s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y . I n a g e n e r a l way, t h i s f i n d i n g appears t o be s i m i l a r t o the view o f t e n p r e s e n t e d by e v a n g e l i c a l groups: v a l u i n g r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and i f n e c e s s a r y g o i n g a g a i n s t the m a j o r i t y view i n o r d e r t o do so. The two o t h e r C h r i s t i a n groups ranked the r a t i o n a l , s o c i a l l y c o n f o r m i n g v a l u e s more h i g h l y ; the n o n - C h r i s t i a n s f e l l i n between. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Main Survey. I t appears t h a t the proposed a n a l y s e s of r a n k i n g s of the imporance of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ( P Q I ' s ) , and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s , a r e v i a b l e , a t l e a s t i n s o f a r as can be judged from the l i m i t e d number of a n a l y s e s . - 142 -D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s f o l l o w i n g MANOVA pr o c e d u r e s proved i n t e r p r e t a b l e . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e d u r i n g t h e p i l o t phase of the s t u d y . The Main Survey I n t e g r i t y of the Data Set The O x f o r d English D i c t i o n a r y (1967) d e f i n e s i n t e g r i t y as " t h e c o n d i t i o n of not b e i n g marred or v i o l a t e d " , and as "freedom from c o r r u p t i o n " . I n s t a t i s t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e n o t i o n of i n t e g r i t y of the d a t a i s not u s u a l l y d e f i n e d , but appears t o mean " s a t i s f a c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s " . However, i t may be u s e f u l t o t h i n k about the s t a t i s t i c a l meaning as " i n t e g r i t y of t h e a n a l y s i s " , and e q u a l l y u s e f u l t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e " i n t e g r i t y of the d a t a s e t " as something c l o s e r t o the d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n above. I t may be t h a t " i n t e g r i t y of the d a t a s e t " i s most l i k e t he n o t i o n of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y used i n p s y c h o m e t r i c t h e o r y , i . e . the e x t e n t t o which some t e s t measures the a b s t r a c t concept i t i s supposed t o r e p r e s e n t , t o t h a t e x t e n t b e i n g an u n c o r r u p t e d measure of the t r a i t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or a b i l i t y . I n t e g r i t y of b o t h d a t a and a n a l y s i s a r e n e c e s s a r y i f r e s u l t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e t o be v a l i d . I f d a t a a r e t o have i n t e g r i t y , i . e . , a r e not marred or - 143 -c o r r u p t e d , i t would be l o g i c a l t o r e q u i r e the sample t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n from which they a r e drawn. In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a l a r g e N was r e c r u i t e d f o r p r e c i s e l y t h a t r e a s o n , as w e l l as f o r the purpose of s a t i s f y i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l a ssumption of h a v i n g an adequate n i n each c e l l of i n t e r e s t i n the r e s e a r c h . A l t h o u g h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n cannot i n t h i s case be d i r e c t l y a s s e s s e d because of t h e l a c k of p o p u l a t i o n d a t a w i t h which t o compare the sample, the N i s s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume. The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of s p o i l e d s u r v e y forms (58 of a t o t a l r e c e i v e d of 1346) i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from almost a l l the s u b j e c t s who began t o complete the form. The number of o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l s i s unknown; however, an i n f o r m a l p r o c e s s of a s k i n g about d i f f i c u l t i e s r e v e a l e d o n l y one c l a s s whose t e a c h e r s a i d t h a t the s t u d e n t s had found th e t a s k v e r y d i f f i c u l t and i n which many would not c o - o p e r a t e . A number of o t h e r t e a c h e r s wrote comments i n d i c a t i n g t h a t b o t h t h e y , and t h e i r s t u d e n t s , had found the t a s k i n t e r e s t i n g and emjoyable. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n ote t h a t , because of the v a r y i n g degrees of c o - o p e r a t i o n by the s e v e r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , the d a t a cannot be s a i d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the urban Lower M a i n l a n d as a whole. In a d d i t i o n , i f d a t a a r e t o have i n t e g r i t y , the c o n t e n t s of each s u r v e y must be an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the - 144 -demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o p i n i o n s of the s t u d e n t who completed t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t i s t h i s a s p e c t of i n t e g r i t y of the d a t a t h a t i s c l o s e t o the n o t i o n of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . I t i s a l s o the most d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h , because of t h e unknown c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , because t h i s p r o j e c t was i n a number of ways a " f i r s t s t u d y " and because the p o p u l a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n t s i s s a i d t o t r e a t such s u r v e y s as the p r e s e n t one w i t h anger and non-com p l i a n t b e h a v i o r . F i n a l l y , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n t e g r i t y of a d a t a s e t must be a s s e s s e d as an on-going p a r t of the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a . Some b a s i c q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e : do the d a t a "behave" as they would be exp e c t e d t o ? ; a r e the r e s u l t s s u f f i c i e n t l y c r e d i b l e ? ; a r e the r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of t h e a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e n t ? ; do the r e s u l t s make sense as a whole; and, i n a broader c o n t e x t , do t h e r e s u l t s r e p l i c a t e ? The r e s u l t s of the p i l o t s t u d y , d e s c r i b e d above, p r o v i d e g e n e r a l l y " n e g a t i v e " e v i d e n c e , i . e . , they show l i t t l e t o suggest t h a t d a t a c o l l e c t e d u s i n g t h e su r v e y i n s t r u m e n t from a p o p u l a t i o n of Grade 10 s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia would NOT have i n t e g r i t y . W i t h r e g a r d t o the d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the main s u r v e y , comments about t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e d a t a appear t o have i n t e g r i t y a r e made i n p a s s i n g i n t h e remainder of t h i s c h a p t e r and d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V ( b e l o w ) . - 145 -C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample As was r e p o r t e d above i n Chapter I I I , 1288 s t u d e n t s , 655 (51.3%) of whom were male, 621 (48.7%) female, completed the s u r v e y form. (Twelve s t u d e n t s d i d not g i v e t h e i r gender.) The mean age of the sample was 15.2 y e a r s . Of the s u b j e c t s , 83.6% were born i n 1973, w i t h a f u r t h e r 12.0% b e i n g born i n 1972. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample f o r the r e m a i n i n g demographic v a r i a b l e s a r e r e p o r t e d below. R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n . Of the 1288 s u b j e c t s , 528 (40.9%) s t a t e d t h a t they belonged t o a r e l i g i o u s group. As may be seen i n Ta b l e 17 (on the next page), 543 (42.2% of the N) s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d a group t o which they belonged. About o n e - f i f t h of the s u b j e c t s (n=118, or 21.9% of the 543 s t u d e n t s ) were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t group (42 of whom were B a p t i s t ) , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 156 (28.7%) were C a t h o l i c , and 106 (19.5%) belonged t o o t h e r C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h e s . Of t h e s e , 24 were A n g l i c a n , 29 were U n i t e d , 15 were Mennonite and 16 were L u t h e r a n . 51 s t u d e n t s (9.4%) s t a t e d t h a t they were " C h r i s t i a n " , w i t h o u t any more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n . Of the 110 s u b j e c t s (20.3%) who were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , j u s t over 40% were S i k h , 46 or 41.8% of t h e 110 s t u d e n t s ) . Other n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s l i s t e d by the s t u d e n t s i n c l u d e d : M u s l i m (n=19, or 3.5%), Jehovah's W i t n e s s (n=19, or 3.5%), J e w i s h ( n = l l . 2.0%), L a t t e r Day S a i n t s (n=6, 1.1%), B h u d d i s t (n=5, 0.9%) and Hindu (n=4, 0.7%). - 146 -TABLE 17: R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n (Main Survey, n=543, N=1288) R e l i g i o u s Group n % A n g l i c a n 24 4.4 U n i t e d 29 5.3 C a t h o l i c 156 28.7 B a p t i s t 42 7.7 Other E v a n g e l . P r o t e s t a n t 76 14.0 Mennonite 15 2.8 L u t h e r a n 16 2.9 M e t h o d i s t 4 0.7 Orthodox 8 1.7 P r e s b y t e r i a n 9 1.7 C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e 1 0.2 " C h r i s t i a n " ( n o n - s p e c i f i c ) 51 9.4 L a t t e r Day S a i n t s 6 1.1 Jehovah's W i t n e s s e s 19 3.5 J e w i s h 11 2.0 B h u d d i s t 5 0.9 Hindu 4 0.7 S i k h 46 8.5 Mus1im 19 3.5 W i t h r e g a r d t o s t r e n g t h of p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s , 1203 of the 1288 s t u d e n t s (93.4%) responded t o t h e i t e m i n q u i r i n g about i t . As may be seen i n T a b l e 18 (on the f o l l o w i n g page), almost o n e - h a l f of the s u b j e c t s (567, or 47.1% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ) endorsed the mid-range of the 9-point L i k e r t s c a l e ( i . e . , c h o i c e s 4-6), as i s r e f l e c t e d i n the mean endorsement of 4.84 ( t h e t h e o r e t i c a l m i d - p o i n t b e i n g 5.0). However, t h e r e was a broad range of s t r e n g t h of r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , as i s e v i d e n t from t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and from the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 2.34. About o n e - q u a r t e r of the respondents endorsed each of the weak - 147 -and the s t r o n g ranges of the s c a l e . The more e x a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses r e v e a l s t h a t 15.1% of the s u b j e c t s (n=182) had v e r y weak r e l i g o u s f e e l i n g , and 28.7% (n=345) f e l t " n e i t h e r s t r o n g l y nor weakly". In the " s t r o n g e r " range, about o n e - h a l f of t h e 303 s u b j e c t s (156/303) endorsed the s c a l e - p o i n t of "7", w h i l e t h e o t h e r h a l f were almost e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between the two extreme v a l u e s . TABLE 18: S t r e n g t h of P e r s o n a l R e l i g i o u s F e e l i n g (Main Survey, n=1203, N=1288) S t r e n g t h of F e e l i n g D i s t r i b u t e d Grouped Weak: 1 ( v e r y weak) 2 3 Mid-range: 4 5 ( m i d - p o i n t ) 6 S t r o n g : 7 8 9 ( v e r y s t r o n g ) n 182 72 79 74 345 148 156 65 82 O v e r a l l s t a t i s t i c s : Mean: 4.839 S t . Dev.: 2.339 % 15, 6. 6. 6, 28, 12, 13, 5, 6, n 333 567 303 % 27.6 47.1 25.2 O c c u p a t i o n of P a r e n t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n s f o r b o t h p a r e n t s , r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y , may be found i n T a b l e 19 (on the f o l l o w i n g p age), and i n T a b l e A - l i n the appendix ( i n much more - 148 -d e t a i l ) . Almost e v e r y s t u d e n t reponded t o t h i s i t e m : 1176 (91.3% of t h e N of 1288) and 1228 (95.3% of the N) f o r mothers and f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Of t h e s e , about 2% ( f o r mothers) and 3% ( f o r f a t h e r s ) were e i t h e r "unknown" or had i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . A f u r t h e r 194 (16.5%) of the mothers were s a i d t o be "housewives"; none of the f a t h e r s were "househusbands". As may be seen i n T a b l e 19, almost f o u r times as many f a t h e r s as mothers were members of one of the " t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s " . The m a j o r i t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l mothers were a c c o u n t a n t s (20/42, or 47.6%). The p r o f e s s i o n s of f a t h e r s were more w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d , w i t h almost equal numbers b e i n g a c c o u n t a n t s and e n g i n e e r s (44/161 and 45/161, or 27.3% and 27.9%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , f o l l o w e d by m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s c i e n t i s t s / r e s e a r c h e r s (24/161 and 23/161 r e s p e c t i v e l y , or 14.9% and 14.3%). In c o n t r a s t t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s , almost t w i c e as many mothers as f a t h e r s were members of a " j u n i o r p r o f e s s i o n " (242, or 20.6% of the t o t a l f o r mothers, as compared t o 114, or 11.7% of the f a t h e r s ) . Among the mothers, almost o n e - h a l f (119/242, or 49.2%) were employed i n e d u c a t i o n / 1 i b r a r i e s , w i t h o n l y s l i g h t l y fewer w o r k i n g i n m e d i c a l a r e a s , e . g . , as a n u r s e , (108/242, or 44.6%). Of the 144 f a t h e r s , about t w o - t h i r d s were employed e i t h e r i n e d u c a t i o n / l i b r a r i e s or the p o l i c e , f i r e or - 149 -TABLE 19: O c c u p a t i o n of P a r e n t s (Main Survey, N=1288) O c c u p a t i o n Mother F a t h e r n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 1176 100 , .0 1228 100, .0 T r a d i t i o n a l P r o f e s s i o n s : 42 3. , 6 161 13. ,1 A c c o u n t a n t 20 1. .7 44 3, , 6 A r c h i t e c t 1 0. ,1 11 0 . , 9 E n g i n e e r 2 0 , .2 45 3, .7 Lawyer 3 0. ,3 14 1. ,1 M e d i c a l 8 0 . 7 24 2, .0 S c i e n t i s t / r e s e a r c h e r 8 0. ,7 23 1. , 9 T r a d i t i o n a l " J u n i o r " P r o f . : 242 20, . 6 144 11, .7 Computer programmer 2 0. ,2 3 0. ,2 E d u c a t i o n , l i b r a r i a n 119 10, .1 56 4, . 6 E n v i r o n m e n t a l o f f i c e r 1 0. ,1 0 M i n i s t e r / p a s t o r 0 7 0 . 6 M e d i c a l a r e a s ( e . g . , n u r s e ) 108 9. .2 13 1. ,1 P i l o t , a i r t r a f . c o n t . 0 8 0 , .7 P o l i c e , f i r e , m i l i t a r y 14 1. . 2 42 3, ,4 S o c i a l w o r k e r / c o u n s e l l o r 8 0, .7 5 0 , . 4 M a n a g e r i a l ( a l l a r e a s ) : 79 6. ,7 199 16. .2 S u p e r v i s o r y 4 0 .3 46 3 .7 M a n a g e r i a l 72 6. ,1 116 9. , 4 E x e c u t i v e m a n a g e r i a l 3 0, .3 37 3 , .0 Non-managerial: 584 49. .7 684 55. ,7 The a r t s and s p o r t s 17 1 . 4 35 2, . 9 S a l es 45 3, .8 91 7 , .4 S e l f - e m p l o y e d 31 2 . 6 129 10 .5 C l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e 329 26, .0 83 6, .8 S k i l l e d t r a d e s 72 6 .1 189 15 . 4 Other 90 7 , .7 157 12 , . 8 Unemployed, s t u d e n t 12 1 .0 6 0 .5 Housewife/husband 194 16, .5 0 Don't know 3 0 .3 16 1 .3 I n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n 20 1, .7 18 1, .5 - 150 -m i l i t i a (56/144, or 38.9%, and 42/144, or 29.2% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The d i s p a r i t y between mothers' and f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n s was a l s o found i n t h e m a n a g e r i a l c a t e g o r y , which h e l d 79 mothers and 199 f a t h e r s ( o r 6.7% and 16.2% of the t o t a l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Almost a l l of the mothers (72/76, or 94.7%) were employed as "managers", as compared t o almost 60% of the f a t h e r s (116/199, or 58.2%). The r e m a i n i n g f a t h e r s were r o u g h l y e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between " s u p e r v i s o r y " and " e x e c u t i v e management" c a t e g o r i e s ( i . e . , 46/199 and 37/199 r e s p e c t i v e l y , or 23.1% and 18.6%). Non-managerial o c c u p a t i o n s were r e p o r t e d by about o n e - h a l f of the s t u d e n t s f o r b o t h mothers and f a t h e r s (584, or 49.7%, and 684, or 55.7%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . However, as might be e x p e c t e d , the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were v e r y d i f f e r e n t f o r the two p a r e n t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , over o n e - h a l f of the mothers were employed i n c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e a r e a s (329/584, or 56.3 % ) , as compared t o 83/684 f a t h e r s ( 1 2 . 1 % ) . Of the mothers, 72/584 (12.3%) worked i n the s k i l l e d t r a d e s , w i t h a f u r t h e r 90/584 (15.4%) i n o t h e r a r e a s , m o s t l y u n s k i l l e d . Among the f a t h e r s , the l a r g e s t number were employed i n the s k i l l e d t r a d e s (189/684, or 27.6%) w i t h a f u r t h e r 157/684 (22.9%) i n the o t h e r t r a d e s ( m o s t l y u n s k i l l e d ) . Of the f a t h e r s , 129/684 (18.9%) were s e l f - e m p l o y e d , as compared t o about - 151 -o n e - t h i r d as many mothers (31/584, or 5.3%). O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n . Of t h e 1288 s t u d e n t s , 1169 (90.8%) responded t o the i t e m e n q u i r i n g about which job they would most l i k e t o have. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s may be found i n T a b l e 20 (on the f o l l o w i n g page), and i n much more d e t a i l , i n T a b l e A-2, i n t h e appendix. Of the t o t a l number, 27 (2.3%) s t a t e d t h a t they d i d n ' t know what job a p p e a l e d most, w h i l e a f u r t h e r 62 (5.3%) f a i l e d t o g i v e s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e response t o be c o d a b l e ( e . g . , "make money".) Almost o n e - t h i r d of the s t u d e n t s a s p i r e d t o one of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s (373, or 31.9% of the t o t a l ) , w i t h a f u r t h e r 282 ( o r 24.2%) a s p i r i n g t o a " j u n i o r " p r o f e s s i o n , and about o n e - f i f t h (228, or 19.5% of the t o t a l ) w i s h i n g t o work i n the a r t s or s p o r t s f i e l d s . Only 1.1% a s p i r e d t o a m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n , and 184, or 15.7%, a s p i r e d t o a non-managerial j o b . Thus, th e s t u d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s were markedly d i f f e r e n t from the o c c u p a t i o n a l r e a l i t y of t h e i r p a r e n t s , d e s c r i b e d above. W i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n s , about t w o - f i f t h s of t h e s t u d e n t s wished t o be m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s (146/373, or 39.1%). A f u r t h e r f i f t h w ished t o be l a w y e r s (80/373 or 21.3%). The r e m a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n s were l e s s p o p u l a r . As may be seen i n T a b l e 20, 52/373 s t u d e n t s (13.9%) wished t o be e n g i n e e r s , w h i l e t - 152 -TABLE 20: O c c u p a t i o n a l A s p i r a t i o n (Main Survey, n=1169, N=1288) D i s t r i b u t e d n % Grouped n % T r a d i t i o n a l P r o f e s s i o n s A c c o u n t a n t 30 2 , . 6 A r c h i t e c t 24 2. .1 E n g i n e e r 52 4. , 4 Lawyer 80 6. .8 M e d i c a l 146 12. .5 S c i e n t i s t / r e s e a r c h e r 41 3. .5 r a d i t i o n a l " J u n i o r " P r o f . : Computer programmer, a n a l y s t 21 1. .8 E d u c a t i o n 60 5, .1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l o f f i c e r 11 0. . 9 M i n i s t e r / p a s t o r 1 0, .1 M e d i c a l a r e a s ( e . g . , n u r s e ) 53 4. .5 P i l o t , a i r c o n t r o l l e r 28 2, .4 P o l i c e , f i r e , m i l i t a r y 75 6, .4 S o c i a l w o r k e r / c o u n s e l l o r 31 2 .7 373 282 31.9 24. 2 The A r t s and S p o r t s : A c t i n g , m usic, TV 68 C l o t h i n g d e s i g n , m o d e l l i n g 41 I n t e r i o r d e s i g n 13 P r o f e s s i o n a l S p o r t s 51 V i s u a l a r t s 36 W r i t i n g , p u b l i s h i n g 19 M a n a g e r i a l ( a l l a r e a s ) : Non-managerial: S a l e s 35 S e l f - e m p l o y e d 22 C l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e 57 S k i l l e d Trades 61 Other 9 228 19.5 5 3, 1 4 3 1 3.0 1. 9 4.9 5.2 0.8 13 184 1.1 15.7 Don't know I n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n 27 62 2.3 5.3 - 153 -a f u r t h e r 41 (10.9%) wished t o be s c i e n t i s t s / r e s e a r c h e r s , and fewer than 10% of the 373 s t u d e n t s wished t o be a r c h i t e c t s or a c c o u n t a n t s . E d u c a t i o n , m e d i c a l a r e a s and t h e enforcement a r e a s ( i . e . , p o l i c e , f i r e and m i l i t a r y ) accounted f o r two t h i r d s of the a s p i r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e " j u n i o r " p r o f e s s i o n s ( i . e . , 188/282, or 66.6%). The t h r e e a r e a s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , 75/282 s t u d e n t s (26.6%) wanted an enforcement c a r e e r , 60 (21.3%) wished t o work i n e d u c a t i o n and the f i n a l 53 (18.8%) wished t o work i n m e d i c a l a r e a s ( i . e . , as a n u r s e or t h e r a p i s t ) . Of t h e 228 s t u d e n t s who wished t o work i n the a r t s and s p o r t s , s l i g h t l y l e s s than o n e - t h i r d a s p i r e d t o a c a r e e r i n a c t i n g , TV or music (68/228, or 29.8%). A f u r t h e r q u a r t e r wished t o work i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s (51/228, or 22.4%). Of the r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t s , almost equal numbers a s p i r e d t o c a r e e r s i n c l o t h i n g d e s i g n ( i n c l u d i n g m o d e l l i n g ) or t h e v i s u a l a r t s (41 and 36 r e s p e c t i v e l y , or 17.9% and 15.8%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The o t h e r s were about e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between i n t e r i o r d e s i g n (13 s t u d e n t s ) and w r i t i n g / p u b l i s h i n g (19 s t u d e n t s ) . Of the 197 s t u d e n t s who a s p i r e d t o o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s , o n l y 13 l i s t e d a m a n a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n . About equal numbers a s p i r e d t o c l e r i c a l / s e r v i c e or t o a s k i l l e d t r a d e (57 and 61, 28.9% and - 154 -31.0% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The b a l a n c e was d i s t r i b u t e d between s a l e s (32 s t u d e n t s , or 16.2%) and self-employment (22, or 11.2%), w i t h o n l y e i g h t s t u d e n t s w i s h i n g t o be employed i n an " o t h e r " o c c u p a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t over o n e - h a l f of t h e mothers and over 70% of the f a t h e r s h e l d jobs i n one of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . C l e a r l y , the a s p i r a t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s i s not s o l e l y based on t h e o c c u p a t i o n s of t h e i r p a r e n t s . C o u n t r y of B i r t h . Country of b i r t h ( T a b l e 21) was t a k e n as the TABLE 21: Country of B i r t h ( S e l f ) (Main Survey, n=1203, N=1288) Geographic A r e a / C u l t u r e n % The A m e r i c a s : 1051 81. ,9 N o r t h America 1042 81. 2 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 9 0 . , 8 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 59 4. 8 A f r i c a 12 1. ,0 U n i t e d Kingdom 34 2. 7 C a r i b b e a n 2 0 . ,2 A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d 11 0. , 9 Europe: 26 2. .1 N o r t h e r n Europe 12 1, .0 C e n t r a l Europe 3 0 , . 2 E a s t e r n Europe 7 0. .5 S o u t h e r n Europe 4 0 .4 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 147 11, .7 M i d d l e e a s t 5 0 . 4 I n d i e a r e a s 34 2, .7 A s i a 108 8 . 6 measure of o b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y , as d e f i n e d i n Chapter I . As may be seen i n T a b l e 21, 1203 s t u d e n t s (93.4%) responded t o t h i s - 155 -i t e m . Of the 1203 s u b j e c t s , 1042 (81.2%) were born i n t h e A m e r i c a s , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of whom were born i n Canada (n=1020, from T a b l e A-3 i n the a p p e n d i x ) . Of the r e m a i n i n g 232 s t u d e n t s , 147 (11.7%) were born i n " o t h e r " a r e a s : 108 (8.6%) i n A s i a , 34 (2.7%) i n I n d i e a r e a s and 5 (0.4%) i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t e r n c o u n t r i e s . The next l a r g e s t group (n=59) were born i n the U n i t e d Kingdom and c o l o n i e s : 34 (2.7%) i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i t s e l f , 12 (1.0%) and 11 (0.9%) i n A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s and A u s t r a l i a / N e w Z e a l a n d r e s p e c t i v e l y and 2 (0.2%) i n C a r i b b e a n c o u n t r i e s , the U.S.A. and 8 (4.8%) i n o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s , and t h e o t h e r 10 (4.7%) i n c o u n t r i e s s p r e a d around the w o r l d . The r e m a i n i n g 26 s t u d e n t s were born i n Europe: 12 (1.0%) i n N o r t h e r n Europe, 7 (0.5%) i n E a s t e r n European c o u n t r i e s , and 4 (0.4%) and 3 (0.2%) i n Southern and C e n t r a l Europe r e s p e c t i v e l y . Years of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada. As may be seen i n T a b l e 22, of TABLE 22: Years of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada (Main Survey, n=261, N=1288) Years of R e s i d e n c e n % 1- 2 45 17. .3 3- 5 30 11, .5 6- 8 32 12. .3 9- 11 49 17 .8 12- 14 83 31. .8 15 + 22 8 .4 Ov e r a l 1 s t a t i s t i c s : Mean: 8. .882 S t . Dev.: 4. ,7 60 - 156 -t h e 261 s t u d e n t s not born i n Canada, the mean number of y e a r s of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada was 8.9. Thus, t h e s e s t u d e n t s had, on t h e average, spent j u s t over h a l f t h e i r l i v e s i n Canada. However, as may be seen i n b o t h the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 4.76 and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n l e n g t h s of r e s i d e n c e . S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y . As may be seen i n T a b l e 23 (on t h e f o l l o w i n g page), 1269 s u b j e c t s responded t o the i t e m i n q u i r i n g about s u b j e c t i v e e t h n i c i t y as d e f i n e d i n Chapter I , i . e . , t h e e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l group w i t h which they most s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d . J u s t under t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the s t u d e n t s (n=908) p r o v i d e d a second e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l group, w i t h which they i d e n t i f i e d second most c l o s e l y . Of the f i r s t s e l e c t i o n , by f a r the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Canada (n=911, 73.7%, from T a b l e A-4 i n t h e A p p e n d i x ) , w h i l e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c / c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s was more u n i f o r m f o r the second c h o i c e . As w i t h the f i n d i n g s of t h e p i l o t s t u d y , t h i s i s to.be e x p e c t e d , s i n c e e v e r y s t u d e n t who d i d not s e l e c t "Canada" as t h e i r f i r s t c h o i c e d i d so f o r t h e second l i s t i n g , and v i c e v e r s a ( i f they gave a second c h o i c e a t a l l ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f i r s t c h o i c e , the 26.3% (n=358) s t u d e n t s who d i d not i d e n t i f y w i t h Canada most s t r o n g l y were not e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s c u l t u r a l g r o u p i n g s . J u s t under t w o - t h i r d s - 157 -TABLE 23: S u b j e c t i v e E t h n i c i t y (Main Survey, N=1288) Geographic A r e a / C u l t u r e F i r s t L i s t e d Second L i s t e d n % n % No. respondents 1269 100.0 908 100 .0 The A m e r i c a s : 941 74.0 324 35.7 N o r t h America 935 73.6 316 34.8 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 6 0.4 8 0.9 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 33 2.6 203 22.4 A f r i c a 4 0.3 5 0.6 U n i t e d Kingdom 26 2.0 183 20.2 C a r i b b e a n - - 8 0.9 A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d 3 0.2 7 0.8 Europe: 85 6.7 242 26.6 N o r t h e r n Europe 43 3.4 159 17 .5 C e n t r a l Europe 5 0.4 28 3.1 E a s t e r n Europe 13 1.0 19 2.1 Southern Europe 26 2.0 36 4.0 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 212 16.7 140 15.4 M i d d l e e a s t 25 2.0 11 1.2 I n d i e a r e a s 75 5.9 34 3.7 A s i a 112 8.8 95 10.5 i d e n t i f i e d most c l o s e l y w i t h " o t h e r " a r e a s (n=212, 16.7 % ) , w i t h j u s t over o n e - h a l f of them l i s t i n g an A s i a n c o u n t r y (n=112/212), and a f u r t h e r t h i r d l i s t i n g an I n d i e c o u n t r y (n=75/212). European c o u n t r i e s were l i s t next most f r e q u e n t l y (n=85, 6.7%). H a l f of t h e s e s u b j e c t s (n=43/85) i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r y , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 26 s t u d e n t s l i s t e d a S o u t h e r n European c o u n t r y as t h e i r f i r s t c h o i c e . The U n i t e d - 158 -Kingdom and c o l o n i e s a ccounted f o r o n l y 2.6% of t h e s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e s (n=26), w i t h most of t h e s e b e i n g the U n i t e d Kingdom i t s e l f (n=26/33). Those s t u d e n t s not s e l e c t i n g Canada as t h e i r second c h o i c e l i s t e d Europe j u s t over o n e - q u a r t e r of the time (n=242, 26.6%), w i t h t h e U n i t e d Kingdom/Australia/New Z e a l a n d b e i n g chosen almost as o f t e n (n=203, 22.4%). Other c u l t u r a l a r e a s were chosen l e s s f r e q u e n t l y (n=140, 15.4 % ) , but about as o f t e n as the f i r s t l i s t i n g (16.7%, mentioned above). W i t h i n the European g r o u p i n g , N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s were most f r e q u e n t l y named (n=159, % of the 242 r e s p o n d e n t s ) ; the U n i t e d Kingdom accounted f o r 183 of t h e 203 (%) respondents i n i t s g r o u p i n g . Of t h e o t h e r a r e a s , A s i a was l i s t e d 95 ti m e s of the 140, I n d i e a r e a s 34, and the M i d d l e E a s t 11 t i m e s . Mother Tongue. Mother tongue, i . e . , t h e language u s u a l l y spoken at home, was an o f f i c i a l language f o r almost a l l t h e s t u d e n t s , as may be seen i n T a b l e 24, on the f o l l o w i n g page (n=1147, 89.5%). That language was E n g l i s h f o r 1137 of t h e 1147 responde n t s ( T a b l e A-5, i n the a p p e n d i x ) . Of the r e m a i n i n g 138 s t u d e n t s , 102 spoke a non-European language most f r e q u e n t l y a t home. The r e m a i n i n g 36 spoke a European language. Of t h e 535 s t u d e n t s who l i s t e d a second language, j u s t over 40% (n=215) l i s t e d an o f f i c i a l language. About 14% spoke one o f : a N o r t h e r n European language, an I n d i e language or an A s i a n language (n's - 159 -TABLE 24: Mother Tongue (Main Survey, N=1288) Language F i r s t L i s t e d Second L i s t e d n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 1282 100.0 535 100. 0 O f f i c i a l Languages 1147 89.5 215 40. 2 N o r t h e r n European Languages 9 0.7 79 14. 8 C e n t r a l European Languages 11 0.9 18 3. 4 Southern European Languages 16 1.2 35 6. 5 E a s t e r n / I n d i e Languages 33 2.6 68 13. 4 A s i a n Languages 65 5.1 80 14. 9 Other Languages 4 0.4 31 5. 8 of 69, 68 and 80 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n d e n t s , 35 spoke a S o u t h e r n European language, 31 a n o t h e r language ( F i l i p i n o f o r 24 of t h e 31, from T a b l e A - 5 ) , and 18 a C e n t r a l European language. ( I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t F r e n c h i s ambiguous, s i n c e i t i s b o t h an o f f i c i a l language and a C e n t r a l European one. I t was c l a s s e d as an o f f i c i a l language.) C o u n t r y of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) . As may be seen i n T a b l e 25 (on the f o l l o w i n g page), j u s t over o n e - h a l f of the s u b j e c t s ' p a r e n t s were born i n the A m e r i c a s , w i t h almost a l l of t h i s sub-group b e i n g born i n N o r t h America ( i n Canada i n p a r t i c u l a r , as may be seen i n T a b l e A-6 i n the A p p e n d i x ) . As was found d u r i n g t h e p i l o t s t u d y , the s u b j e c t s ' p a r e n t s were born i n the Americas - 160 -TABLE 25: Country of B i r t h ( P a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288). Geo g r a p h i c A r e a / C u l t u r e Mother F a t h e r n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 1236 100 .0 1226 100.0 The A m e r i c a s : 692 56.0 627 51.2 N o r t h America 67 6 54.7 614 50 .1 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 16 1.3 13 1.1 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 117 9.5 150 12.3 A f r i c a 18 1.5 22 1.8 U n i t e d Kingdom 88 7.1 109 8.9 C a r i b b e a n 6 0.5 11 0.9 A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d 5 0.4 8 0.7 Europe: 123 10.1 163 13.3 N o r t h e r n Europe 67 5.4 76 6.2 C e n t r a l Europe 8 0.6 8 0.7 E a s t e r n Europe 27 2.2 36 2.9 S o u t h e r n Europe 31 2.5 43 3.5 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 293 23 . 9 285 23.2 M i d d l e e a s t 4 0.3 5 0.4 I s l a m 9 0.7 9 0.7 I n d i e a r e a s 107 8.7 111 9.0 A s i a 122 9.9 110 9.0 S o u t h - e a s t A s i a 51 4.2 50 4.1 l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than were the s u b j e c t s themselves ( i . e . , f o r f a t h e r s and mothers, 51.2% and 56.0% r e s p e c t i v e l y - as compared t o 81.9%, r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 21 above). Once a g a i n , t h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d , g i v e n Canada's c o n t i n u o u s p a t t e r n s of i m m i g r a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s ' p a r e n t s who were not b o r n i n the Americas were born a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l l y o f t e n i n Europe, i n t h e U n i t e d - 161 -Kingdom and i t s non-American c o l o n i e s , and about t w i c e as o f t e n i n " o t h e r " a r e a s . For the European-born, the m a j o r i t y of b o t h mothers and f a t h e r s were born i n N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s (n's of 67/123 and 76/163 f o r mothers and f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Almost a l l of the U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s group had been born i n the U n i t e d Kingdom (n's of 88/117 and 109/150 f o r mothers and f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Of t h e p a r e n t s b o r n i n o t h e r a r e a s , about o n e - t h i r d were from I n d i e a r e a s (107/293 and 111/285 f o r mothers and f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , w h i l e many more came from A s i a and South-east A s i a (173/293 and 160/285 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . C o u n t r y of B i r t h ( G r a n d p a r e n t s ) . As may be seen i n T a b l e 26 (on the f o l l o w i n g page), almost f i v e - s i x t h s of the s t u d e n t s knew where t h e i r m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s had been born. Of t h e s e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d had been born i n the Americas (n's of 339 and 288, 34.2% and 29.6% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Once a g a i n , almost a l l of t h e s e p e o p l e had been born i n Canada, and a g a i n g i v e n Canada's h i s t o r y of i m m i g r a t i o n , the d e c l i n e i n n's from s u b j e c t s t o p a r e n t s t o g r a n d p a r e n t s born i n Canada i s t o be e x p e c t e d . Of t h e m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s not born i n Canada, about equal numbers were from the U n i t e d Kingdom and c o l o n i e s (n's of 180 and 188, 18.1% and 19.3% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and from Europe (n's of 191 and 215, 19.2% and 22.2% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . About o n e - t h i r d - 162 -TABLE 26: Country of B i r t h ( M a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288) Geog r a p h i c A r e a / C u l t u r e Grandmother G r a n d f a t h e r n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 992 100. ,0 972 100 . ,0 The A m e r i c a s : 339 34. 2 288 29. 6 N o r t h America 330 33. ,3 280 28. ,8 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 9 0. 9 8 0. ,8 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 180 18. ,1 188 19. .3 A f r i c a 14 1. 4 9 0 . 9 U n i t e d Kingdom 155 15. .6 168 17 . .3 C a r i b b e a n 4 0 . 4 5 0. ,5 A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d 7 0. .7 6 0. , 6 Europe: 191 19. 2 215 22. 2 N o r t h e r n Europe 120 12, ,1 136 14. .0 C e n t r a l Europe 16 1. , 6 18 1. , 9 E a s t e r n Europe 20 2, .0 25 2, . 6 Southern Europe 35 3 . 5 36 3. .7 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 281 28 .3 284 29 .2 M i d d l e e a s t 5 0. .5 4 0, .4 Is 1 am 5 0 .5 7 0 .7 I n d i e a r e a s 106 10, .7 107 11, .0 A s i a 123 12 .4 129 13 .3 S o u t h - e a s t A s i a 42 4, .2 37 3, .8 were from " o t h e r " a r e a s (n's of 281 and 284, 28.3% and 29.2% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . D e t a i l s a r e found i n T a b l e A-7. In g e n e r a l , t h e p a t t e r n w i t h i n each of t h e t h r e e g r o u p i n g s was s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the p a r e n t s , d e s c r i b e d above. That i s , most - 163 -of the U n i t e d Kingdom/co1onies group had been born i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i t s e l f (n's of 155/180 and 168/188 f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , much of the European group o r i g i n a t e d i n N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s (120/191 and 136/215 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and w i t h i n the " o t h e r a r e a s " group, s u b s t a n t i a l numbers had been born i n I n d i e r e g i o n s (n's of 106/281 and 107/284 f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) or i n e i t h e r A s i a or Sou t h - e a s t A s i a (n's of 167/281 and 166/284 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . As may be seen i n T a b l e 27, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o u n t r y of b i r t h f o r p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s i s r a t h e r s i m i l a r t o t h a t j u s t d e s c r i b e d . That i s , about t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the sample of s t u d e n t s knew where t h e i r p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s had been born (n's of 956/1288 and 946/1288 f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Of t h e s e , l e s s than o n e - t h i r d had been born i n t h e Americas (n's of 266 and 239, 27.8% and 25.2% of r e s p o n d e n t s , f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Somewhat fewer had been bor n i n the U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s (n's of 183 f o r b o t h , 19.1% and 19.3% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . About 30% had been bor n i n " o t h e r " a r e a s (n's of 281 f o r b o t h , 29.4% and 29.8% f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , w i t h s l i g h t l y fewer o r i g i n a t i n g i n European c o u n t r i e s (n's of 227 and 241, 23.7% and 25.5% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The m a j o r i t y (n's of - 164 -TABLE 27: Country of B i r t h ( P a t e r n a l G r a n d p a r e n t s ) (Main Survey, N=1288) Geog r a p h i c A r e a / C u l t u r e Grandmother G r a n d f a t h e r n % n % No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 956 100. .0 946 100. ,0 The A m e r i c a s : 266 27 . ,8 239 25. 2 N o r t h America 259 27 . .1 230 24. ,3 C e n t r a l / S o u t h America 7 0. ,7 9 0. 9 U n i t e d K i n g d o m / c o l o n i e s : 183 19. .1 183 19. ,3 A f r i c a 14 1. ,5 13 1. ,4 U n i t e d Kingdom 155 16, .2 158 16. ,7 C a r i b b e a n 7 0. ,7 6 0. , 6 A u s t r a l i a and New Ze a l a n d 7 0. .7 6 0. . 6 Europe: 227 23. ,7 241 25. 5 N o r t h e r n Europe 130 13, . 6 140 14. .8 C e n t r a l Europe 10 1. ,0 13 1. 4 E a s t e r n Europe 37 3, . 9 37 3. .9 Southe r n Europe 50 5. .2 51 5. , 4 Other g e o . / c u l t . a r e a s : 281 29 . 4 281 29, .8 M i d d l e e a s t 7 0, .7 7 0 . 7 I s 1 am 8 0 .8 9 0, .9 I n d i e a r e a s 106 11. ,1 105 11. ,1 A s i a 123 12 . 9 125 13, .2 Sout h - e a s t A s i a 37 3, . 9 37 3. . 9 155/183 and 158/183 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were born i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i t s e l f f o r the f i r s t g r o u p i n g . Of the European a r e a s , most p e o p l e were born i n N o r t h e r n European c o u n t r i e s (130/227 and 140/241). F i n a l l y , of p e o p l e born i n " o t h e r " a r e a s , about o n e - t h i r d came from I n d i e c o u n t r i e s (106/281 and 106/281, f o r grandmothers and g r a n d f a t h e r s ) , and s l i g h t l y over o n e - h a l f from A s i a / S o u t h - e a s t A s i a (160/281 and 162/281, r e s p e c t i v e l y , - 165 -d e t a i l e d i n T a b l e A - 8 ). G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e . As was d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e was a computed v a r i a b l e , based on e i g h t measured v a r i a b l e s : s u b j e c t ' s c o u n t r y of b i r t h , l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n Canada ( i f not born i n Canada); c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h of each p a r e n t ; and, c o u n t r i e s of b i r t h of m a t e r n a l and p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s . There were s i x c a t e g o r i e s of response: 0-5 y e a r s i n Canada; 6-10 y e a r s i n Canada; 11 y e a r s or l o n g e r i n Canada; born i n Canada; p a r e n t s b o r n i n Canada; g r a n d p a r e n t s born i n Canada. The l a s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were r e f e r r e d t o as " f i r s t " , "second" and " t h i r d " g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t w i l l a l s o be r e c a l l e d t h a t o n l y s u b j e c t s of c o n s i s t e n t a n c e s t r y were i n c l u d e d i n the c a l c u a t i o n , i . e . , whose p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s were a l l of the same e t h n i c g r o u p i n g w i t h i n f i v e main c a t e g o r i e s : N o r t h American; A s i a t i c ; European; I n d i e ; and, U n i t e d Kingdom and c o l o n i e s . S l i g h t l y fewer t h a n o n e - h a l f the s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , 633/1288, or 49.1%) had known, c o n s i s t e n t a n c e s t r y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i n p a s s i n g t h a t , of the o t h e r 655 s t u d e n t s , 295 ( o r 45.0%) were of mixed e t h n i c o r i g i n w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g 360 s t u d e n t s (o r 55.0%) had f a i l e d t o respond t o a t l e a s t one of the it e m s on which t h e v a r i a b l e was based. A l l but 72 of t h e 655 s t u d e n t s f o r whom g e n e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n c e was not c a l c u l a t e d ( i . e . , 583, or 89.1%) i d e n t i f i e d "most c l o s e l y " w i t h t h e N o r t h American - 166 -e t h n i c g r o u p i n g . As may be seen i n T a b l e 28, the d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s c a t e g o r i e s of response was not u n i f o r m . S p e c i f i c a l l y , almost o n e - t h i r d of the 633 s t u d e n t s (183, or 28.9%) were f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n TABLE 28: G e n e r a t i o n of R e s i d e n c e i n Canada (Main Survey, n=633, N=1288) Number P e r c e n t a g e 0-5 y e a r s i n Canada 64 10. 1 6-10 y e a r s i n Canada 54 8. 5 11 or more y e a r s i n Canada 131 20. 7 F i r s t g e n e r a t i o n 183 28. 9 Second g e n e r a t i o n 56 8. 8 T h i r d g e n e r a t i o n 145 22. 9 C a n a d i a n s , w h i l e two o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s each h e l d about o n e - f i f t h of t h e s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , 11 or more y e a r s i n Canada, w i t h 131 ( 2 0 . 7 % ) , and T h i r d g e n e r a t i o n , w i t h 145 (22.7%) of t h e s t u d e n t s ) . The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s each c o n t a i n e d about, 10% of the s u b j e c t s : Less then 5 y e a r s (64, or 10.1%); 6-10 y e a r s (54, or 8.5%); and. Second g e n e r a t i o n (56, or 8.8%). The reasons f o r t h e d i s p a r i t y , no doubt, i n c l u d e a complex of i m m i g r a t i o n h i s t o r y , b i r t h p a t t e r n s and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . The d i s p a r i t y between f i r s t and second g e n e r a t i o n s of r e s i d e n c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , may w e l l have t o do w i t h d i s r u p t i o n s caused by World War I I b o t h d u r i n g and i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e war y e a r s . - 167 -C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Measures E t h n i c S a l i e n c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (ESQ). The rank, mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r each i t e m i n the ESQ may be found i n T a b l e 29 (on the f o l l o w i n g page), i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s c a l e mean, th e s c a l e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and the Cronbach's a l p h a ( t h e measure of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) . The s c a l e p r o v e d t o be v e r y homogeneous, w i t h an a l p h a v a l u e of 0.933; however, t h i s f i n d i n g d i d not appear merely t o be a f u n c t i o n of s u b j e c t s c h e c k i n g o f f the same s c a l e p o i n t t o a l l i t e m s , s i n c e most ite m s were somewhat v a r i a b l e (as may be seen by t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g i n g from 1.61 t o 2.12). In g e n e r a l , the responde n t s were not s t r o n g l y g u i d e d by c u l t u r a l / e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n s , as may be seen by the f a c t t h a t the average response was 2.46 ( c a l c u l a t e d from t h e mean s c a l e s c o r e of 36.99). However, the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a good d e a l of v a r i a t i o n i n re s p o n s e , b o t h f o r i n d i v i d u a l i tems and f o r the s c a l e s c o r e as a whole. I t may be seen t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e it e m s a r e ranked i n orde of s o c i a l d i s t a n c e , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n from an a d u l t p o i n t of view: " a d o p t i n g a c h i l d " . T h i s i t e m may have ranked somewhat lower t h a n e x p e c t e d because of the age of the s t u d e n t s . That i s , t h e i r l i f e c h o i c e s f o c u s upon r e l a t i o n s h i p p a r t n e r s , o c c u p a t i o n s , t r a v e l l i n g and e d u c a t i o n , not upon a d o p t i n g a c h i l d . The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of ranks was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t found d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y . In f a c t , the Spearman - 168 -r a n k - c o r r e l a t i o n between the two s e t s of ranks was 0.924 (p<.001). TABLE 29: ESQ Items: Ranks, Means, and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s (Main Survey, n=1206, N=1288) Rank A l l Resp. "15's" E x c l . Mean S.D. Mean S.D. I . S t a t i s t i c s by i t e m : C hoosing a m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r 1 2 .85 2. 12 3 .16 2 .14 Choosing a neighborhood 2 2 .74 1. 87 3 .04 1 .88 Choosing a b o y / g i r l f r i e n d 3. 5* 2 .70 2. 06 3 .00 2 .10 Choosing a roommate 3. 5 2 .70 1. 97 3 .00 1 . 99 D e c i d i n g where t o t r a v e l 5 2 . 68 2. 05 2 . 97 2 .09 A c c e p t i n g a j o b o f f e r 6 2 .58 2 . 00 2 .86 2 .05 Choosing a c l o s e f r i e n d 7 2 .48 2 . 07 2 .74 2 . 14 P r e p a r i n g meals a t home 8 2 .46 1. 87 2 .71 1 . 91 A d o p t i n g a c h i l d 9 2 .37 1. 77 2 . 61 1 .91 M a k i n g / k e e p i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e s 10. 5* 2 .35 1. 78 2 .59 1 .83 J o i n i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n 10. 5 2 . 35 1. 66 2 .58 1 . 69 H i r i n g someone 12 2 .31 1. 90 2 .54 1 .97 Choosing l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s 13 2 .25 1. 83 2 .46 1 .90 Choosing a r e s t a u r a n t 14 2 .15 1. 79 2 .35 1 .87 S u b s c r i b i n g t o a newspaper 15 1 . 99 1. 61 2 .16 1 \ . 69 . S c a l e s t a t i s t i c s : t Mean: 36 . 99 40 77 S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n : 20 .45 19. 82 Cronbach's a l p h a : 0 . 933 0 . 917 No. r e s p o n d e n t s : 1206 1029 * t h i s v a r i a b l e was t i e d w i t h the one i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g I t was thought p o s s i b l e t h a t the h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y might have been due t o the pr e s e n c e of a l a r g e number of minimum s c o r e s , i . e . , responses by s u b j e c t s who me r e l y checked - 169 -o f f " l ' " s f o r every i t e m . In response t o t h i s c o n c e r n , t h e s u b j e c t s whose s c o r e s were the minimum v a l u e ( i . e . , 15) were e x c l u d e d and the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e - c a l c u l a t e d . As may be seen i n T a b l e 29, the v a l u e of Cronbach's a l p h a d i d drop s l i g h t l y ( f r o m 0.933 t o 0.917) but not enough t o be of any c o n c e r n . As would be e x p e c t e d by the e x c l u s i o n of minumum s c o r e s from t h e a n a l y s i s , the s c a l e mean r o s e and t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was s l i g h t l y d e c r e a s e d . Views of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s ( I m p o r t a n c e ) . (PQI) The mean r a n k i n g s of each of the 21 p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a r e t o be found i n T a b l e 30 (on t h e next page). As may be seen t h e r e , t h e average rank ranged from 6.51 (HONEST) t o 16.71 (SPIRITUAL), w i t h s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s r a n g i n g over the 21 q u a l i t i e s from 4.91 (RESPONSIBLE) t o 6.43 (SPIRITUAL). Once a g a i n , t h e r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g s of the 21 PQI's were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y (see T a b l e 10 above). The Spearman r a n k - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n between th e two s e t s of ranks was 0.957 (p<.001). The o n l y PQI found t o be v e r y d i f f e r e n t between th e two s e t s was CLEAN, which ranked .8.5 i n the p i l o t d a t a and 15 i n the main s t u d y . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be due t o the s p e c i f i c s u b c u l t u r e from which t h e p i l o t sample was r e c r u i t e d : more o f t e n e v a n g e l i c a l and of N o r t h e r n European a n c e s t r y t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s r e c r u i t e d f o r t h e main s t u d y . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the main s t u d y r a n k i n g i s t h e more a c c u r a t e f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n t s . - 170 -TABLE 30: Mean Rankings of P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s (Importance) (Main Survey, n=1216, N=1288) P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y Rank Mean Rank St.Dev. HONEST 1 6.51 5.35 LOVING 2 6.56 5. 48 RESPONSIBLE 3 6.83 4.91 POLITE 4 9.18 5.23 RESPECTFUL 5 9.82 5.39 CHEERFUL 6 9.85 5.71 FORGIVING 7 10 .02 5.27 INDEPENDENT 8 10.22 5. 96 HELPFUL 9 10.74 5.01 AMBITIOUS 10 10.93 5.55 INTELLECTUAL 11 11.02 5. 62 GENEROUS 12 11.25 5.33 CAPABLE 13 11.36 5.48 SELF-CONTROLLED 14 11.59 5.49 CLEAN 15 11.69 6.03 BROADMINDED 16 11.83 5.72 IMAGINATIVE 17 12.55 5.84 LOGICAL 18 13.04 5.50 COURAGEOUS 19 13.74 5.27 MODEST 20 14.55 5.26 SPIRITUAL 21 16.71 6.43 The l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . , the u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s ) of t h e PQI's was e x p l o r e d i n a s e r i e s of p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s e s , f o l l o w e d by b o t h o r t h o g o n a l and o b l i q u e d o t a t i o n s , and c a l c u l a t i o n of f a c t o r s c o r e s when the o p t i m a l r o t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e had been s e l e c t e d . There were two reasons f o r t h i s p r o c e s s . F i r s t , t h e u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n s were thought t o be of i n t e r e s t i n t h e m s e l v e s , b o t h s u b s t a n t i v e l y and as a check on the coherence ( i n t e g r i t y ) of the d a t a . Second, i t was thought - 171 -t h a t t h e component ( i . e . , f a c t o r ) s c o r e s , s h o u l d t h e r e s u l t s p rove i n t e r p r e t a b l e , c o u l d s e r v e as a s m a l l e r s e t of v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g much of t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e s e t of 21 PQI's; i n o t h e r words, t h a t the f a c t o r s c o r e s would more p a r s i m o n i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t the s e t of 21 PQI's. The i n i t i a l e x t r a c t i o n of p r i n c i p a l components r e v e a l e d t h a t , of t h e 21 components, seven had e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r than or equal t o 1.0, w i t h t h e e i g h t h and n i n t h e i g e n v a l u e s b e i n g g r e a t e r t h a n 0.92 ( i . e . , a c c o u n t i n g f o r more th a n 4% of t h e v a r i a n c e ) . However, i n s p e c t i o n of the Scree p l o t of t h e 21 e i g e n v a l u e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t as few as f i v e components s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r r o t a t i o n . Because of the c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d by the two c r i t e r i a , and because the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , i t was d e c i d e d t o s e l e c t a s o l u t i o n of between f i v e and n i n e f a c t o r s on t h e b a s i s of a more g e n e r a l e x a m i n a t i o n of a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f i v e - t o n i n e - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s . Each of t h e s e t s of f i v e t o n i n e components were r o t a t e d and the p a t t e r n m a t r i x ( i . e . , the s e t of l o a d i n g s ) were examined f o r each r o t a t i o n . A H a r r i s - K a i s e r r o t a t i o n was the p r o c e d u r e of c h o i c e , w i t h a moderate degree of o b l i q u i t y a l l o w e d . Because t h i s p r o c e d u r e o r t h o g o n a l l y t r a n s f o r m s t h e f a c t o r m a t r i x , and o n l y t h e n produces an o b l i q u e s o l u t i o n ( i . e . , one t h a t i s c o r r e l a t e d ) , b o t h c o u l d be i n s p e c t e d and a c h o i c e of r o t a t i o n - 172 -made. Each of a number of s t a t i s t i c s c a l c u l a t e d from the s e t of f i v e r o t a t i o n s may be found i n T a b l e 31, i n c l u d i n g p e r c e n t a g e TABLE 31: D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s by Number of Components R e t a i n e d f o r R o t a t i o n (Main Survey, n=1216. N=1288) S t a t i s t i c No. of Components R o t a t e d 5 6 7 8 9 P e r c e n t of V a r i a n c e 42.5 47 .5 52.3 57 .0 61.5 P e r c e n t ( R e l . Frequency) of Load i n g s : 0.00 - 0.09* 39.0 42.9 36.1 56.5 49.7 0.10 - 0.19 22.9 23.8 30.6 25.0 25.4 0.20 - 0.29 13.3 10.3 15.0 12.0 10 . 6 0.30 - 0.99** 24.8 23.0 18. 4 16.7 14.3 Measures of C o m p l e x i t y : V a r i a b l e s w i t h : 1 s a l . 1oading 16 14 17 16 13 2 s a l . 1oadings 5 6 2 3 7 3 s a l . 1oadings 0 1 2 2 1 * l o a d i n g s f o r m i n g the " h y p e r p l a n e " ** l o a d i n g s d e f i n e d as " s a l i e n t " , or non-zero (abbr. s a l . ) of v a r i a n c e a ccounted f o r , r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of l o a d i n g s f a l l i n g i n g i v e n ranges, and measures of c o m p l e x i t y . In terms of p e r c e n t of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d , i t i s ob v i o u s t h a t i f more components a r e r e t a i n e d , more v a r i a n c e w i l l be c a p t u r e d . In t h i s c o n t e x t , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t o n l y the e i g h t - and nine-component s o l u t i o n s b e g i n t o approach the 70% c r i t e r i o n w hich i s o f t e n s a i d t o i n d i c a t e an adequate - 173 -f a c t o r i n g (by, f o r example, Harman, 1976). The r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of the l o a d i n g s p r o v i d e more g u i d a n c e . A l t h o u g h the numbers of s a l i e n t and n e a r - s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s remain f a i r l y s t a b l e a c r o s s the s e t of f i v e s o l u t i o n s , the p e r c e n t a g e of l o a d i n g s l e s s t h a n or equal t o 10.10! ( i . e . , t h e " h y p e r p l a n e " c ount) i n c r e a s e s d r a m a t i c a l l y f o r the eight-component s o l u t i o n , f a l l i n g o n l y s l i g h t l y w i t h t h e nine-component. Because the " h y p e r p l a n e c o u n t " i s seen as a measure of c l a r i t y of a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , t h i s s t a t i s t i c i n d i c a t e s t h a t an e i g h t - or nine-component s o l u t i o n s h o u l d be chosen. However, when c o m p l e x i t y i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t appears t h a t t h e eight-component s o l u t i o n i s the one of f i r s t c h o i c e . That i s , when the numbers of v a r i a b l e s l o a d i n g on more than one f a c t o r a r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t appears from T a b l e 31 t h a t t h e seven- and eight-component s o l u t i o n s a r e t h e " c l e a n e s t " , i . e . , fewer v a r i a b l e s c r o s s - l o a d i n t h e s e s o l u t i o n s t han i n any o t h e r . I t would appear from t h e s e f i g u r e s , t h a t the f i v e - and six-component s o l u t i o n s f a i l t o a d e q u a t e l y s e p a r a t e f a c t o r s , w h i l e t h e nine-component s o l u t i o n may w e l l be f o r c i n g c r o s s - l o a d i n g s . When t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , which i n d i c a t e s t h a t seven or e i g h t components be r e t a i n e d , i s combined w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n of the p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t h a t e i g h t components be r e t a i n e d f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Thus, the e i g h t component s o l u t i o n , c a p t u r i n g 57.0% of the v a r i a n c e , was seen as t h e " b e s t " f o r p r e s e n t , e x p l o r a t o r y p u rposes. - 174 -T a b l e 32 c o n t a i n s t h e upper t r i a n g l e of the m a t r i x of TABLE 32: I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among F a c t o r s (Main Survey, n=1216, N=1288) F a c t o r I I I I I I IV V VI V I I V I I I F a c t o r : I 1.0 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.03 -0.03 -0.07 -0.21 I I 1.0 0.01 0.06 -0.05 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 I I I 1.0 0.04 0.03 0.04 -0.08 -0.04 IV 1.0 0.03 -0.05 -0.06 -0.06 V 1.0 <0.01 -0.03 <0.01 VI 1.0 0.01 0.06 V I I 1.0 0.12 V I I I 1.0 c o r r e l a t i o n s among the f a c t o r s . As may be seen t h e r e , a l l but two c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e l e s s then J0.10J. The two l a r g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e -0.21 and 0.12, between F a c t o r V I I I and F a c t o r s I and V I I r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, comparison of t h e o r t h o g o n a l s o l u t i o n w i t h the s l i g h t l y o b l i q u e one r e v e a l e d t h a t the o b l i q u e s o l u t i o n was somewhat more i n t e r p r e t a b l e and i t was r e t a i n e d f o r ..further a n a l y s i s . T a b l e 33 (on t h e f o l l o w i n g page) c o n t a i n s the r o t a t e d f a c t o r m a t r i x , w i t h n o n - s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s d e l e t e d . L i n e s a r e p l a c e d a f t e r e v e r y s e v e n t h v a r i a b l e f o r purposes of c l a r i t y . As may be seen i n t h e t a b l e , seven of the e i g h t f a c t o r s were b i p o l a r , the - 175 -e x c e p t i o n b e i n g F a c t o r IV. That i s , each was composed of a TABLE 33: Loadings and Common a l i t i e s of PQI's ( l i s t e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r ) (Main Survey,N=1288,n=1216) P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t y F a c t o r I I I I I I IV V VI V I I V I I I Co. AMBITIOUS * * * * * * 0 .77 * .66 BROADMINDED * -0 .31 -0.50 * -0.31 * * * . 63 CAPABLE * * * * * * * 0 . 61 .56 CHEERFUL * * * * * -0.51 * * .51 CLEAN * * * 0.74 * * * * . 63 COURAGEOUS * * * * 0. 61 * * * . 53 FORGIVING 0.33 * * * * * * -0.38 .41 GENEROUS 0 . 68 * * * * * * * .53 HELPFUL 0.71 * * * * * * * .52 HONEST * 0 .34 * * * * * -0 . 63 .58 IMAGINATIVE * -0 .50 * * * * * * . 46 INDEPENDENT * * * * * * * 0 .57 . 42 INTELLECTUAL * * * * -0 . 68 * 0 . 30 * . 66 LOGICAL * * * * * * * 0 .54 . 40 LOVING * * * * * * * -0 . 64 . 47 MODEST -0 . 32 * 0.33 * * * -0 . 45 * .49 POLITE * * * 0 . 67 * * * * .54 RESPECTFUL * 0 .66 * * * * * * .50 RESPONSIBLE * 0 .69 * * * * * * .58 SELF-CONTROLLED * * * * * 0.81 * * . 68 SPIRITUAL * * 0 .80 * * * * * .70 * i n d i c a t e s non- s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s e r i e s of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t a low s c o r e on a b i p o l a r f a c t o r g e n e r a l l y means t h a t the s u b j e c t ranked the n e g a t i v e " l o a d e r s " ( i . e . , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l o a d i n g s a l i e n t l y but n e g a t i v e l y ) h i g h l y and the p o s i t i v e ones l o w e r ; c o n v e r s e l y , a h i g h f a c t o r s c o r e means t h a t t h e s u b j e c t ranked the p o s i t i v e " l o a d e r s " h i g h l y , w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y low - 176 -ranks f o r the n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s . F i v e of the 21 m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s were f a c t o r i a l l y complex ( i . e . , they l o a d e d on more than one f a c t o r ) . Three ( i . e . , FORGIVING, INTELLECTUAL and HONEST) c r o s s - l o a d e d on two f a c t o r s , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g two ( i . e . , MODEST and BROADMINDED) c r o s s - l o a d e d on t h r e e f a c t o r s . Two of t h e f i v e complex v a r i a b l e s l o a d e d i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n on a l l f a c t o r s ( i . e . , BROADMINDED and MODEST), w h i l e the o t h e r t h r e e l o a d e d p o s i t i v e l y on one f a c t o r , n e g a t i v e l y on the o t h e r . The l a s t column of T a b l e 33 c o n t a i n s the commonality ( i . e . , t he p r o p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e a ccounted f o r ) f o r each of the 21 PQI's. As may be seen t h e r e , the c o m m o n a l i t i e s range from 0.40 ( f o r LOGICAL) t o 0.70 ( f o r SPIRITUAL), w i t h 15 of t h e r e m a i n i n g 19 c o m m o n a l i t i e s l y i n g w i t h i n 0.10 ( i . e . , 10%) on e i t h e r s i d e of the v a l u e 0.57 ( i . e . , t he t o t a l v a r i a n c e c a p t u r e d i n t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ) . The e x c e p t i o n s were: FORGIVING ( 0 . 4 1 ) , IMAGINATIVE ( 0 . 4 6 ) , INDEPENDENT (0.42) and SELF-CONTROLLED ( 0 . 6 8 ) . The s u b s t a n t i v e n a t u r e of each f a c t o r i s d e s c r i b e d below. F a c t o r I i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s on HELPFUL and GENEROUS, a m o d e r a t e l y p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g on FORGIVING and a m o d e r a t e l y n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g on MODEST. I t was l a b e l l e d "openly warm". I t appears s i m i l a r t o the n e g a t i v e p o l e of F a c t o r I I I - 177 -( " o b s e s s i v e tendency") from the a n a l y s i s of t h e p i l o t s t u d y d a t a . F a c t o r I I had h i g h p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s on RESPONSIBLE and RESPECTFUL, w i t h a m o d e r a t e l y p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g on HONEST. Two v a r i a b l e s , IMAGINATIVE and BROADMINDED, lo a d e d n e g a t i v e l y on t h i s f a c t o r . I t was l a b e l l e d " c o n f o r m i n g " . I t appeared t o be v e r y s i m i l a r t o F a c t o r I I ( s i m i l a r l y l a b e l l e d ) which emerged d u r i n g the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of t h e p i l o t s t u d y d a t a . F a c t o r I I I had a s i n g l e , v e r y h i g h , l o a d i n g on SPIRITUAL, w i t h two n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s (BROADMINDED and MODEST). I t was l a b e l l e d " n a r r o w l y s p i r i t u a l " . F a c t o r IV, the o n l y u n i p o l a r f a c t o r , was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two h i g h p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s : CLEAN and POLITE. I t was c a l l e d " c l e a n / p o l i t e " . I t appeared s i m i l a r t o the p o s i t i v e p o l e of F a c t o r I I I ( " o b s e s s i v e tendency") which emerged d u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y . F a c t o r V had a s i n g l e h i g h p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g , COURAGEOUS, and one h i g h l y n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g on INTELLECTUAL, p l u s a moderate n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g on BROADMINDED. I t was l a b e l l e d " n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l courageous". F a c t o r VI i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g on - 178 -SELF-CONTROLLED and one n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g on CHEERFUL. I t was l a b e l l e d " s t o i c c o n t r o l " . F a c t o r V I I had a s i n g l e h i g h p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g on AMBITIOUS, a m a r g i n a l l l y s a l i e n t one on INTELLECTUAL and a m o d e r a t e l y h i g h n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g on MODEST. I t was l a b e l l e d " o v e r t l y l e a r n e d -a m b i t i o u s " . F i n a l l y , f a c t o r V I I I had h i g h l y s a l i e n t p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g s on CAPABLE, INDEPENDENT and LOGICAL, w i t h e q u a l l y h i g h n e g a t i v e l o a d i n g s on LOVING, HONEST and FO