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Cross cultural differences in locus of control, field dependence-independence and uncertainty orientation… Lau, Siu-Ling Bonita 1989

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CROSS C U L T U R A L D I F F E R E N C E S I N LOCUS OF CONTROL, FIELD DEPENDENCE-INDEPENDENCE A N D U N C E R T A I N T Y ORIENTATION A M O N G CANADIANS A N D C H I N E S E by SIU-LING  A  BONITA  LAU  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T THE  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  FOR  OF  THE DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  Educational Psychology &  We  STUDIES  Special Education  accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE  U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  5 June 1989  ® Siu-Ling Bonita Lau, 1989  OF  In presenting degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  partial fulfilment  of  British Columbia,  I agree  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  this  his  or  her  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  DE-6 (2/88)  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  is  by the  understood be  allowed  that without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  The  present  Chinese  study  is a  field  dependence-independence,  on  orientation.  The  more  North  field  study  among  comparing  locus  these  of  dependent, This  model,  external study  locus  was  which  of  the  control  a  Americans and  and  and  uncertainty  cultural  Chinese were  control and  first  provided  North  constructs  relationships were also explored.  Americans.  suggested  cultural  relationships  differences in those be  cross  based  speculated  to  certainty-oriented than  exploratory  investigation  perspective  of  how  of  a  field  dependence-independence, locus of control, uncertainty orientation, moral judgement and  learned  broadening  helplessness interact. The our  view  on  how  study  may  Chinese express  also have some contribution to  themselves on  the  three cognitive  constructs mentioned above.  A  sample  of  39  Hong  selected  according  cultural  differences  cultural  difference  instrument  and  to  their in  found  two  Chinese  cultural  locus  was  the  Kong  of  and  Canadian  backgrounds. The  control  on  41  the  and two  interrelationships among  association  between  subjects, but these  not  constructs  problems  inherent  locus  for was in  of  students  partially  supported  orientation. A the  locus  were  strong  of control  component measures for uncertainty orientation. Cultural  differences for field dependence-independence was the  results  uncertainty subscales  college  of  Chinese obtained the  these  cognitive  control  and  this  instruments,  constructs  uncertainty  subjects. No in  not confirmed.  other  study.  ii  suggested  concerning  a  moderate  orientation for  Canadian  significant  Because  it is difficult  Results  to  of  correlations among the  methodological  interpret the  obtained  results  unambiguously,  especially  work should be done before results.  for  any firm  the  Hong  Kong  group.  Further empirical  conclusion can be drawn form the current  Some implications for future cross-cultural studies were also discussed.  iii  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  LIST  OF TABLES  vi  LIST  OF FIGURES  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  I. R E S E A R C H P R O B L E M A N D R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H A. A M O D E L O F T H E R E L A T I O N S H I P S A M O N G F I E L D D E P E N D E N C E - I N D E P E N D E N C E , L O C U S O F CONTROL, U N C E R T A I N T Y ORIENTATION, M O R A L J U D G E M E N T A N D LEARNED HELPLESSNESS B. L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W ....... 1. Proposition l a - lc: Chinese are more field dependence, external locus of control & certainty-oriented than North Americans ; a. Field dependence-independence and cross cultural studies comparing Chinese and North Americans b. Locus of control and cross cultural studies comparing Chinese and North Americans c. Uncertainty orientation and cross cultural studies comparing Chinese and North Americans d. Chinese cultural characteristics e. Empirical findings on Chinese cultural characteristics f. Relationships among field dependence-independence, locus of control and uncertainty orientation 2. Proposition 2a - 2c: Field dependent, external controlled and certainty-oriented individuals are more conventional in moral judgement than field independent, internal controlled and uncertainty-oriented individuals a. Conventional versus autonomous moral judgement b. Relationships among field dependence-independence, locus of control and moral judgement c. Relationship between uncertainty orientation and moral judgement 3. Proposition 3: Chinese have less learned helplessness experience than North Americans 4. Proposition 4. Individuals with conventional moral judgement are less susceptible to learned helplessness than those with autonomous moral judgement C. C H A P T E R S U M M A R Y H. N A T U R E O F T H E STUDY... A. R E S E A R C H O B J E C T I V E S B. R E S E A R C H Q U E S T I O N S C. C H A P T E R S U M M A R Y  1  3 5  5 5 9 13 14 20 25  27 27 28 31 31  33 33 34 34 36 37  iv  III. M E T H O D A. S U B J E C T S & S A M P L I N G P R O C E D U R E S B. I N S T R U M E N T S 1. Field Dependence-Independence Instrument 2. Locus of Control Instrument 3. Assessment of Uncertainty Orientation 4. Demographic Questionnaire C. P R O C E D U R E D. C H A P T E R S U M M A R Y  38 38 39 40 41 43 45 46 47  IV. R E S U L T S A. DEMOGRAPHIC C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F S U B J E C T S 1. Cultural Background 2. Gender, Age and Educational Background 3. Socioeconomic Status B. M A I N A N A L Y S E S ....... 1. Confounding Effects 2. Cultural Differences in Field Dependence-Independence, locus of control and uncertainty orientation 3. Correlations among Field Dependence-Independence, locus of control and uncertainty orientation C. . A D D I T I O N A L A N A L Y S E S D. C H A P T E R S U M M A R Y  49 49 49 51 52 55 55  V. DISCUSSION A. C U L T U R A L D I F F E R E N C E S IN F I E L D D E P E N D E N C E INDEPENDENCE. LOCUS OF C O N T R O L & UNCERTAINTY ORIENTATION B. RELATIONSHIPS A M O N G F I E L D D E P E N D E N C E INDEPENDENCE, LOCUS OF C O N T R O L & UNCERTAINTY ORIENTATION C. IMPLICATIONS F O R C R O S S - C U L T U R A L R E S E A R C H STUDIES D. C O N C L U S I O N  69  REFERENCES  77  A P P E N D I X A. C O N S E N T F O R M A P P E N D I X B. E N G L I S H VERSION O F Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S A P P E N D I X C. C H I N E S E VERSION O F Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S A P P E N D I X D. DEBRIEFING M E S S A G E A P P E N D I X E. T H E SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX O F O C C U P A T I O N S  v  57 59 64 67  69  73 74 76  85 90 115 136 140  LIST Table  OF  TABLES  1. Cultural Background of the Subjects  50  Table 2. Demographic Characteristics of the Subjects  52  Table 3. Socioeconomic Status by Cultural Group  53  Table 4. Correlation of Gender, Age &  56  Table 5. Means, Standard  SES with Criterion Measures  Deviations and Group Differences  Table 6. Intercorrelation Among FD-I, L O C and U N C E R T Table 7. Summary of Standard Table 8. Summary  Scores  Multiple Regression Analyses on G E F T  of Canonical Correlation Analysis  Table 9. Summary of Item Statistics by I, P and C  vi  ,  59 60 61 64 66  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure 1. A Model of the Relationships among FD-I, LOC, UNCERT, and L H  vii  MJ  4  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  would  like  to express  my  appreciation  Conry, Dr. V. D'Oyley and Dr, J. W.  to my  committee  members,  Dr. R.  Kehoe, for their guidance and assistance  during the preparation of this thesis.  I would also like to thank the teachers study. Without their help, I could also extended to Bernice  Yam  and the students  who participated in this  not finish this thesis. My  and Carmen  Rida  who scored  grateful thanks are the projective test  for me.  Last of all, my  sincere thanks also go to my  was down. From  them, I am learning to accept things that I can never change.  viii  friends for their sharing  when I  I.  RESEARCH  PROBLEM  Cognitive  functioning is a research  attention  in  the  fields  of  AND  area  RELATED  RESEARCH  that currently demands a great deal of  psychology  and  education.  Thousands  examining cognitive functioning have been conducted over the The  present  in  a  study was  cross  cultural  perspective.  The  Witkin  control  LOC  Goodenough,  popular  studies in social and a  1981),  locus  of  Goodenough &  &  (Rotter,  Raynor,  constructs which have stimulated behavioral science. FD-I,  chosen  (LOC)  orientation (UNCERT) (Sorrentino, Short  are two  past three decades.  constructs Paterson,  uncertainty  studies  undertaken to investigate three related cognitive constructs  dependence-independence (FD-I) (Witkin, Dyk, &  of  are:  field  Karp,  1962;  1966)  and  1984). FD-I  and  a wide range of research  defined by  Witkin  et. al. (1962), is  bipolar dimension reflecting characteristic styles of intellectual functioning. Field  independent (FI) persons tend information use  processing,  external  how  positive  perceives other outside  LOC  and  hand, an  internal referents as their primarj' guides in  field  Similarly,  was  proposed  negative  outcomes or  forces  whereas  referents.  Internal-external  to use  dependent Rotter as  generalized  based  external person perceives such  as  chance,  persons  (1966)  reinforcements  events to be  (FD)  are on  proposed beliefs  obtained. his own  powerful  more likely to LOC  or  about  internal individual  personal  actions. On  randomly  others  construct.  perceptions  An  outcomes to be  fate, luck,  are  or  the  controlled by  social  systems.  U N C E R T , proposed by  Sorrentino et. al. (1984), is a recently developed construct.  It  a  was  portrayed  "certainty  as  cognitive  orientation" at the  hypothesized  to  be  two  dominated  by  dimension  with  "uncertainty  extremes. Uncertainty a  cognitive  1  need  oriented to  orientation"  and  individuals are  maintian  clarity  by  RESEARCH PROBLEM discovering  the unknown, while  clarity by avoiding  Close  certainty  AND  oriented  1-2  RELATED RESEARCH individuals try to  maintain  confusion.  examination of past  studies in these areas discloses that most have been  conducted in North America, an uncomfortably narrow cultural context, given the generality of some of the inferences how  people  cultural  in the other  studies  consequence,  in these  the  cultures areas  drawn. Little information function  in these  are discussed  generalizability  of  these  cognitive  entirely  world  representative  views, people  of humankind;  in the other  cultures  domains.  in the following psychological  having may  may  a be  samples are perhaps  different function  (Cross  sections.) As  constructs  ethnocentrically limited to North Americans. North American not  is available about  cultural  differently  values from  and North  Americans.  The  present  study was undertaken to examine how Chinese and North Americans  express themselves in the domains of FD-I, L O C and U N C E R T . The relationships among  these  constructs  were also explored.  and  culturally  Finalty, this study  based was  differences  in those relationships  the First exploratory  investigation of  the model suggested below.  This paper is organized of  into two parts. The first part presents  inter-relationship among  Paterson,  Goodenough  &  field  Karp,  dependence-independence 1962; Witkin  control (LOC) (Rotter, 1966), uncertainty &  &  a tentative model  (FD-I)  Goodenough,  (Witkin, 1981),  locus of  orientation (UNCERT) (Sorrentino,  Raynor, 1984), moral judgement (MJ) and learned helplessness  Dyk,  Short  (LH) (Seligman,  RESEARCH PROBLEM 1975). The  second part presents  A.  MODEL  A  OF  AND  RELATED RESEARCH / 3  a study testing Proposition  THE  1 in the model.  RELATIONSHIPS  DEPENDENCE-INDEPENDENCE, LOCUS OF  AMONG  FIELD  CONTROL, UNCERTAINTY  ORIENTATION, MORAL JUDGEMENT AND LEARNED HELPLESSNESS  This  section  constructs  portrays  identified  isolation  or,  at  a  model  above.  best,  essential  components  "cultural  values",  in of  the  relationships  Previously,  groups a  of  of  these  two  or  comprehensive  generally  defined  desirable goals to pursue and  as  what are  among  constructs three.  model. cultural  appropriate  have  Here, In  the  the  five  been  treated  in  are  treated  as  they  model,  conceptions  cognitive  the  about  variable  what  standards for judging  are  actions,  is another essential component. All the constructs in the model are considered pertaining American values the  to  different  populations.  are elaborated  The  showed; the might be of present  listed  —  in  this  (Characteristics of  instance,  Chinese  and  to  Chinese  North  each  is understood  "propositions"  following chapter  used to make the  are  addressed  only  when  consistent the  and  American  later in this chapter.) All of these constructs  model posits that  culture.  cultures,  the  logic  scarcity of empirical  propositions more specific. For  North cultural  interact, and  examining the  with  as  of  influence of the  findings  example, in the  model which face  knowledge, it is difficult to predict whether Proposition 2 or 4 is true  in the same way  for both Chinese and  Western cultures.  RESEARCH PROBLEM  AND  RELATED RESEARCH / 4  - autonomous MJ ~ c o n v e n t i o n a l MJ Figure  1. A model of the inter-relationship among field dependence-independence,  locus of control, uncertainty-orientation, moral judgement and learned helplessness  NOTE. FD-I: Field Dependence-Independence LOC: Locus of Control MJ: Moral Judgement LH: Learned Helplessness UNCERT: Uncertainty Orientation The solid arrows indicate that there are causal relationships between the corresponding constructs. The dotted arrows indicate that there may not be a direct causal relationships between the corresponding constructs. The dotted rectangular in the model represents the hypotheses of the present study.  RESEARCH  PROBLEM AND RELATED RESEARCH / 5  Propositions la  Chinese are more F D than North Americans,  lb  Chinese are more external L O C than North Americans.  Ic  Chinese are more certainty-oriented than North Americans.  2a  Individuals with F D are more conventional in M J than those with FI.  2b  Individuals with external L O C are more conventional in M J than those with internal L O C .  2c  Certainty-oriented  individuals  are  more  conventional  in  MJ  than  uncertainty-oriented individuals. 3  Chinese are less susceptible to L H than North Americans.  4  Individuals with  conventional  M J are less susceptible to L H than those with  autonomous M J .  In  this  study,  Chinese  people  refers  to  those  who  are  born  and  educated  in  Hong Kong, Taiwan or Mainland China.  B. LITERATURE REVIEW  1. P r o p o s i t i o n  l a - l c : C h i n e s e are more field  of control & certainty-oriented than N o r t h  a. Field North  FD-I  dependence-independence  and  cross  dependence, external  locus  Americans  cultural  studies  comparing  Chinese  and  Americans  is a name  given to a cognitive  style defined by Witkin and his colleagues  R E S E A R C H P R O B L E M AND as  an  integral part  Witkin  &  Differentiation characteristic  more  theory of  in  the  development  organized  in  another  1975). If an  one  of psychological  The  psychologists  has  that of  in his  differentiation  (see  and  as  a  domain  is  indicative  for  "self  individual would assumption  to make inferences  whole.  consistency"  also easily  or  carry  of self-consistency  about an  functionings.  specialization  organism  differentiated figures hidden  basic  more differentiated  psychological  articulation  the  making  individual easily  task.  he  psychological  domain,  background, the  differentiation  autonomy  emphasizes  differentiation  tendency  allows  concept  articulation of psychological functions. The  individual is, the  greater  his broader  Goodenough, 1981). Psychological differentiation involves the development  of specialization and the  of  RELATED RESEARCH / 6  are  That  means,  of  a  similar  (Witkin  &  Berry,  "embedded" in out  an  across  an  intellectual all domains  individual's 'cognitive style'  on  the basis of his/her 'perceptual style'.  FD-I,  one  of  characteristic would  be  dependent proposed  a  styles of  those (FD) that  number  persons  are are  styles, is a  functioning. styles  those more  Field  reflect  with  likely  bipolar  independent  more  relatively to  processing, whereas F D  use  dimension  (FI) individuals  differentiation less  while  differentiation.  internal referents  persons use  reflecting  as  field It is  primary  more external referents.  number of studies have demonstrated differences in behaviors as a function of  FD-I are  cognitive  individuals FI  cognitive  intellectual  whose  guides in information  A  of  (see Witkin most  &  relevant  Goodenough, 1977; to  restructure a perceptual  this  study  Witkin  indicate  &  that  Goodenough, 1981), those which FI  persons  situation or impose a structure by  have  an  ability  to  ignoring the irrelevant  RESEARCH context (e.g., Fineley, Solla FI  persons  disturbed find  use  internal  by irrelevant  &  PROBLEM  Cowan,  referents to solve  a  unstructured situations. Progressing a more  FI  person  a more  those of others. This means that FI persons  self-definition.  As  provided  others,  by  a  needs  emotionally distancing from persons  more interested  1975). Because are not easily  hand, F D  feelings,  those  sense  individuals a structure of self, the  of separate  identity;  as being  separate  attributes  are guided more by their own  of others  are less with  experience  likely  people,  in their  sensitive  show  both  actions and  to social  cues  physically  and  and prefer nonsocial situations. Conversely,  and sentiments. They  are also more attentive  FD  between  FD-I  (e.g., Birnhaum,  and  the way  1975; Holley,  the individual  1972). It seems  set of social  skills that are less evident in F I people. On  people  greater  skill  in cognitive analysis  and  studies have  deals that  are different in an array of characteristics that make F D  have  to social cues,  in others and prefer interpersonal situations. Many  association  environment people  they  concerned people  by  they  / 7  tend to rely more an external referents for a definiton of their feelings,  attitudes, thoughts  found  than  consequence, less  needs,  developed  from  and  own  articulated  persons  thoughts  their  French,  the other  such  feelings,  recognize  RESEARCH  information and to impose  on  to have  &  problem,  external information. On  found  RELATED  1977; Messick  it more difficult to ignore irrelevant  is also  AND  with FD  social  and F I  people have a  the other hand, FI  structuring.  Thus, each of  these cognitive styles has characteristics that are adaptive to particular situations.  With respect to origins of differences in FD-I, Berry (1975) suggested theory  (1966) and Berry &  Witkin  an eco-cultural perspective to Witkin's psychological differentiation  and provided  researchers interested  in other cultures with  a very  useful  RESEARCH PROBLEM guide for investigation. According ecological  factors  development  of  are  FD-I  three  work  of  child-rearing  socialization  practices. are  norms, and  allow  do  not  as  a  through  and  classified many  by  the  large,  a  the  on  Witkin  Berry's  subjects FD-I.  Chinese,  of  in parental  been conceived  choice  of  influence  factors are  work  have and  the  discussed  study.  FD-I  focuses  practices  which  to parental  authority  mainly  on  foster  the  and  social  (e.g., Baran,  1971;  to affect the development of of  literature of psj chological differentiation, types of culture  are  of  "social  structured  less  1969;  FD-I  antecedent  and  preferred  ideology  and  r  associated with F D  in  cultural  childrearing  for flexibility  tightness".  hierarchy  rigidly  and  structured  emphasized in these cultures. Man}'  Since  directly  "Tight"  conformity  cultures as  their  are  those  and  Training  for  assigned  autonomy  is  studies have showed that "tight" cultures are  "loose" cultures are associated with FI (e.g., Amir,  1972;  et. al, 1974).  (Berry,  1966;  Berry  proliferated. However,  neither  hierarchy.  with  positive cultural  the other hand, "loose" cultures are those have fewer rigidly  and  Okonji,  and  social, cultural  mode  criteria  roles in a  values. On roles  the  that  those which encourage conformity  influencing  socialization. In  perspective,  factors  social  social  Dawson et. al., 1974). "Culture" has FD-I  RELATED RESEARCH / 8  relevant factors in the present  By  development of F D  Berry's  interactive  orientation. Only  here since these are the two  The  to the  AND  of these directly  &  only  Witkin, two  examined  1975), cross cultural  studies the  have  involved  studies Chinese  influence of Chinese culture  Dawson et. al. (1974), in their study of 11- to 13-year old Hong Kong found  that  severity  of  upbringing,  as  assessed  by  Dawson's  Chinese  RESEARCH Socialization  Scale  Rod-and-Frame  completed  Test,  Embedded  measures of FD-I). The he/she would develop  To  investigate the  conducted  a  study  Hong Kong  by  PROBLEM  the  children,  Figure  more severe  AND  Test  RELATED RESEARCH / 9  was  and  linked  Block  to  performance  Design  (three  on  different  the child's upbringing, the more likely that  F D orientation.  ecological  influence in FD-I  to examine  Hakka  differences between  agriculturalists. As  People were more FI on  development, Dawson  Embedded  expected,  Hong  he  Kong  found  Figure Test and  (1970) also  Boat People  and  that Hong Kong  Pre-school  Embedded  Boat Figure  Test than Hong Kong Hakka agriculturalists.  b.  Locus  of  control  and  cross  cultural  studies  comparing  Chinese  and  North  Americans  Based (I-E)  on  social learning theory, Rotter  locus  of  control  construct  expectancy. Under  the  explain  behavior,  his  own  LOC  about  how  positive  perceptions,  in  turn,  directly  reinforcement built up, which  will  moderates  assumption  perceptions  reoccur. Once  (1966) proposed  that is  and  everyone  effects seeks  hypothesized  negative  influence an  the  as  of to  expectancy for a  reinforcement account  are  to  beliefs  or  obtained.  that  particular  and  for and  generalized  reinforcements  the  expectancy  that an internal-external  a  Such  particular  reinforcement is  it tends to generalize from a specific situation to a series of situations  are  becomes a  perceived  as  related  or  similar. This generalized expectancy  stable characteristic of the personality, and  behavioral choices in a broad  or belief  might affect a variety of  spectrum of life situations. Generalized  expectancies  RESEARCH PROBLEM in two  general  situation. At  one  extreme  expectancy that he/she can  the  opposite  expectancy  that  extreme  theortical  is  reinforcements  chance, fate, luck or the conception  is internality  obtain  in  depend  such  on  either  which  which  a  external  I-E  LOC  uncontrollable  construct no  is not  inherent  control. It would  Concerning the  origins of different LOC  have  social  rejecting  and  and  dominating  cultural  been in  behaviors  development of an  examined. The  research  those cultures with  tradition with  10  be  are  and  cultures  conformity  reported  a  general  outside  forces to  external LOC.  a xlear-cut good-bad  value  judgement imposed assume  social emphases  on  that  traits.  Lefcourt, encourage  The  as  Rotter's  and  1982). their  FD-I  Parents'  children  control are responsible for their action,  in this area  to group  to  a  action.  has  incorrect to  (see  has  own  orientations, interestingly, L O C  antecedents  believe that factors outside their own that fosters the  person  his/her  person  internals have all good traits or that externals have all bad  similar  a  behavior of those more powerful. According  (1975), the  internal or  in  reinforcements by  externality  dichotomy. Rather, it is a .continuum with on  RELATED RESEARCH /  different persons will result in characteristic differences in behavior in a  particular  At  AND  role of culture has  suggests that external L O C  to and  also  is found  authoritarian submission, obedience to  norms. Conversely, internal L O C  stressing autonomy, self-determination  and  is associated  individualism  as positive  cultural values.  These postulations have stimulated  a considerable  number of cross cultural studies  on  LOC  to  LOC.  resulted  The in  application of the theoretical  and  concept  psychometric  cross-cultural comparison  reinfinement  of  the  construct.  has As  RESEARCH PROBLEM AND originally conceptualized  by  Rotter  first measure of LOC  orientation, was  (1966), the Internal-External (I-E) Scale, the thought to be  the issue of the dimensionality of the scale was who black  unidimensional.  However,  raised by Gurin et. al., (1969),  found that a three-factor structure best accounted for the responses of college students.  confidence one  RELATED RESEARCH / 11  and  These factors were labelled: academic performance, self  aspiration. Independently, Mirels (1970) also obtained  pertaining to the  control.  This  personal  two-factor  studies (Bond &  control and  structure  Tornatsky, 1973;  has  been  Cherlin &  the  (1970) also conceptualized and  other  to the  two factors,  political system  successfully replicated in several Bourque, 1974;  In their comparative study of Denmark and U.S.  leadership-success  U.S.  Joe &  Jahn, 1973).  students, Schneider and Parsons  five factors (i.e., luck-fate, personal  academics) on the basis of a content  respect, politics,  analysis of the I-E  Scale. Taken together, these results required a re-evaluation of the dimensionality of the LOC  The  LOC  construct.  studies between  multidimensionality  of the  cross cultural research 1987.  Hsieh  American and  Chinese LOC  and  North  construct. A  Americans  review  of research  studies involving Chinese in the  et. al. (1969) performed Chinese on LOC.  He  and  the  first  further suggest  cross  area  revealed five  of LOC  cultural  the  prior to  study between  his associates administered  the Rotter's  I-E Scale to three groups of high school students (Hong Kong Chinese, U.S.-born Chinese and SES.  U.S.  Caucasians),  matched  on  age  and  statistically  As expected, Hong Kong Chinese students were the most external; whereas  U.S.-born Chinese were in between Hong Kong Chinese and U.S.  controlled for  Caucasians  in  their  control  orientation. However,  the more internal  Tsui's  study  (1977)  . RESEARCH PROBLEM AND RELATED RESEARCH / 12 partially contradicted what Hsieh et. al. found by demontrating that Hong Kong Chinese college women were more internal than American-Chinese  women on the  Rotter's I-E Scale.  Using  a  different  Multi-attributional cultural groups  LOC  Causality  instrument  —  Lefcourt's  Scales (1979) — Chan  (Anglo-Canadian, Hong  Kong  Multi-dimensional  (1981) compared  different  Chinese, and Hong Kong Chinese  foreign students in Canada) and different age level (college students), and found that Hong Kong Chinese students were more externally controlled than Canadian students on the overall I-E scores. Subscale analysis indicated that this difference was  mainly  Chinese  due to differences in an achievement  students  were  more  external  than  domain, where Hong Kong  the Canadian  students were in the middle between Hong Kong  students. Foreign  and Canadian  students. No  significant difference was obtained in an affiliation scores.  A similar result was also obtained by Lao (1977), who compared Taiwan Chinese and American college students. She found that Taiwan Chinese ( females, but not males) to be more external on the 'Internal' subscale of the Levenson IPC Scale. However, the relationship was reversed on the 'Powerful Others' subscale, where U.S.  subjects (males and females) appeared  to be more external than Taiwan  subjects. No significant difference was reported on the 'Chance' subscale. These inconsistent findings on the 'Powerful others' and the 'Chance' subscales may be due to the unusual external orientation of the Lao's white sample ( see Dyal, 1984, p.226).  RESEARCH PROBLEM Using Crandall's IAR conducted  another  subjects were  Scale (Crandall, Katkovsky  study  6th  AND  and  comparing 8th  Taiwan  graders  and  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 13  &  Crandall, 1965), Chiu  Chinese  they  and  were  U.S.  matched  (1986)  Caucasians. on  SES,  His  age  and  grade. Results indicated that American children were more internally controlled for success  than  their  Chinese  controlled for failure than multidimensional L O C have  provided  counterparts; however,  Chinese  insight  were  more  externally  children. A l l these studies clearly showed that  instruments  greater  they  (e.g., Levenson's IPC into  differences  Scale, Lefcourt's MMCS)  between  cultural  unidimensional instruments (e.g., Rotter's I-E Scale) wherein  groups  than  only total scores are  compared.  c. Uncertainty  orientation  and  cross  cultural  studies  comparing  Chinese  and  North  Americans  U N C E R T is a recently developed about  the  characteristics  phenomena. UNCERT  of  construct. To  this  construct,  Sorrentino et. al. (1984) and  as  a  cognitive  date, little information is available  construct. At  or  Raynor  one  end  uncertainty-oriented individuals are dominated by by  discovering  beliefs  into  accordingly.  the  unknown. They  already  existing  Logically,  they  belief are  Uncertainty-oriented persons can order to attain of  the  clarity  dimension,  about  are  more  systems,  more  its and  of the  relationship Zubek  with  (1984)  hypothesized  other  proposed  dimensions,  a cognitive need to attain clarity likely  to integrate  changing  rational  and  the have  new  new a  events  or  old  'need  to  or  belief know'.  exhibit negative as well as positive behaviors in  themselves  certainty-oriented  or their environment.  individuals  are  At the other  characterized  by  a  end  cognitive  RESEARCH PROBLEM need  to  maintain  certainty-oriented  clarity  1985). To  foreign  done  adhere  to  to  avoid  familiar  14  confusion,  events  and  sense of autonomy in  an  North American cultural context;  except  Ontario, more  area  is  (1985) conducted  Canada. As  43  predicted,  certainty-oriented  so  than  that  Chinese  Cultural  Literature  reviewed  Hong  the  found in learned  sparse  an  Canadian  further  clarify the role of cultural influence on  d.  order  to have a low  been  students and  cultural difference was this  has  orientation, Lau  Kong  be  In  one  investigate cultural differences in learned  uncertainty  to  to  been restricted to the  cultural research  Western  thought  RELATED RESEARCH /  environment.  cross  Hong  are  confusion.  dependent, and  Research in this area has no  avoiding  individuals  traditional beliefs, to be unfamiliar  by  AND  unpublished  helplessness experiment  Caucasians Kong  Canadian  helplessness. cross-cultural  as  on  at  foreign  study a  function  approximate  the  of 41  University  of  students were found  counterparts; The  (Lau,  cross  however,  no  cultural study in  investigation  is  required  to  UNCERT.  Characteristics  earlier in this chapter indicated  that  the  social and  environment are very important to the individual's development of FD-I,  cultural LOC  and  U N C E R T orientations. Chinese culture, with more than 4,000 years of civilization, is one  of the  emphasis  on  culture, which Hsu,  1970,  ancient  cultures. As  collectivism and emphasizes 1981;  the  harmony  individualism  Needham,  1956;  literature showed, Chinese culture with its is quite and Yang,  different from  competitiveness 1981).  Such  North  (see broad  American  Hofstede,  1980;  differences  in  RESEARCH PROBLEM cultural values may  In  the next  some  different  ecologies  physical  resources  adaptation group  an  major  a  establishement  attempt  Chinese  make  to given  develop  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 15  well lead to an alternative cognitive structures or processes.  section,  illustrate  AND  is made  cultural  different  ecologies, members special  qualities.  kinds  of the individuals  type  of  of an appropriate social  to employ  ecocultural  According  of demands who  inhabit  on  perspective to  to this perspective, the psycholgical  them.  In  the process  of successive generations economj'  which  structure. A  in  unique  and  turn  of  of an ethnic necessitates  socialization pattern  then  evolves to train members of subsequent generations in a set of personality  and  behavior  traits  that will  make  them  compatible  with  the particular  social  structure and function.  Approximately Yellow  4,000 years ago, Chinese began to establish their society along the  River which was an ideal place for the development of a self-substaining  agricultural economy. This agricultural economy had particular features which led directly  to the socialization  of certain  behavioral characteristics. For example, a  traditional  agricultural economy requires a large group of people  working on the  farm.  maintain  and cooperation  To  the effectiveness of group  effort,  harmony  among some collective, which is usually a stable ingroup important  than  the individual's  sacrifice  their  behavior  of individuals  words,  the  personal  individual  goals  needs  and  for attaining  goals.  Individuals are induced  collective  is directed  toward  the goals  sublimates  collective  goals  (e.g., family) are more  goals, of this as  collectivism, with the family as its basic unit developed  and  much  ingroup.  personal  to  of the In other  goals.  Thus,  gradually in China. The  RESEARCH main  feature  hierarchical  this  system,  according to higher  of  social  each  in  the  economic resources. In support,  those  in  higher positions. to  constituted  individual  structure  individual  his/her gender, age,  positions  is  has  birth  hierarchy  AND its  his  order and  are  positions  given  autonomy  are  and  required  and  conformity  independence  dependent,  collective  a  analysis different  be  places  Confucianism,  of  extremely  with certain  and  times.  which  has  thought  by  the  Therefore,  dominated  was  tremendously  Being rich  and  a  theory  is  the  valued.  subject  power  controlling  obtain social those  in  Consequently,  socialization.  and  In  therefore relatively to  group  dominant moral  influence.  and  religious  Buddhism), would lead  traditional Chinese learns how  not  thought  most rulers loyalty  to  here; of  and  Chinese  discussion for  the  is  past  thoroughout the  of officers, but  any  such  thought in limited  complex.  society  and  Numerous  the  individual,  English-language  to  twenty-five history  of  also because its  cultural system of traditional China, basically of  to  society.  possible  following  Chinese  advocated by  congruent with the  state.  in  obey  through  enormous diversity  only because it emphasized the  ideology was agrarian  Chinese  complicated  centuries. Confucianism China not  this  group. Those in  and  a whole, are  social network of this agricultural  discussion  would  be  reduced  special mode of socialization through which a  detailed  In  social  power  respect  to  doctrines (e.g., Confucianism, Taoism  live effectively in the  A  and  in a  social  to  come are  and  These eco-cultural qualities, interacting thoughts and  roles  position  more  network.  16  this reason, socialization practices which emphasize obedience  authority  passive,  hierarchical  defined  response to this agricultural ecology, Chinese, as more  RELATED RESEARCH /  order to share these economic resources and  lower  For  PROBLEM  Confucianism publications  an is are  RESEARCH PROBLEM available for those wishing to pursue Fung, 1948;  Needham, 1956;  AND  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 17  the philosophy of Confucius in detail (e.g.,  Wright,  1962). Only  Confucian themes which have  immediate implications for the daily functioning of Chinese  people are highlighted  here.  The  concept  of  Confucianism,  universe  the concept ). Tien  (Heaven, be  the  good,  simply  harmoniously interrelated  essential  concept  in  Chinese  because  and  it  is.  Confucians  organism  forces,  of nature constitute one  which  perceive  consisting  of  though  unequal  the  an  universe  orderly in  their  great indivisible unity. Man  of Taoism, the basic principle of which is that Man In  the  West, happiness  forces of nature to the will of man.  with unequal a  result,  the world  is a part, but a vital part, the philosophy  must subordinate himself to  is, or  at  be  found  finds it, one  society  universal harmony. An  and  are all  one  At  level,  of  For the Chinese, on the contrary, when  (simplicity, quiescence ^ ^ ) .  social  hierarchy  the  contentment in Ching  the  a  harnessing  integrates oneself into the universe as one  is to  as  status,  of the universe as a whole. This belief is further strengthened by  (Nature 2^,).  In Tien  of the universe is captured in its conception of  equally essential for the whole. In other words, the world of man  Too  thought.  is a total cosmic process; whatever is in the universe must  functioning parts  is an  least  should  by  gains the happiness  be,  a  reflection  of  this  ideal society should be an ordered hierarchy of individuals  status, all of whom, however, have essential roles to perform.  cooperation  of  and  harmonious  relationship  are  developed  among  According to Confucianism, social harmony would be realized when man  As  people. practices  RESEARCH and  perfects  virtues  (righteousness, 4^,'  as li  such  ),  chi  PROBLEM  AND  (propriety,  (moral  rules  self, wisdom  RELATED RESEARCH of correct  in a moral  / 18  behavior,-75! )  sense, ^  ) and  yi jen  (human-heartedness, love, benovolence,  Li,  which  can be  conceptualized  as the guidelines  roles, entails both rights and responsibilities of a man situation. Each  individual is expected to perform  prescribed  by li.  to  li  follow  Consequent!}', a harmonious  would  jeopardize  for performing  the various  toward another man  in a  his role according to the norms  society  the relationships  would  be achieved. Failure  between/among  individuals  and  disrupt the harmon}' of society.  Among These  these  relationships, the wu  are called  between  sovereign  certain lun  relationships  (five  are of paramount  cardinal  and subordinate, father  importance.  namely:  and son, elder  brother  those  and younger  brother, husband and wife, and friend and friend. As showed in this order, these relationships, pattern. and  even  In this  older  friend  those  between  hierarchical were  friends,  structure,  given  a  wide  are  constructed  sovereign, father, range  in a  elder  of privileges  hierarchical  brother,  and  husband  authority  with  respect to subordinate, son, younger brother, wife and younger friend. It should be  emphasized  that  this  inter-dependence of both parties is speculated to follow sovereign is required loyally.  hierarchical  structure  is  maintained  in each relationship. Each. party  his role requirement on the basis  of li.  by  the  in the relation  For example, the  to rule justly; otherwise, his subordinates would  not serve  RESEARCH PROBLEM As  seen  above,  being. Each  in the  Confucians wisdom than li;  sense.  In  the  a role-player mechanically  capacity  active  to adhere  conferring  the  Confucianism  is regarded  in order  others. However, relations alone do  moral  is an  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 19  man  also recognize great importance of chi,  in a  he  paradigm  is required to follow li  individual  relationship with  Confucian  AND  and  not  only  personal integrity and  performing  reflective  to what  propriety  Confucian  on  the  behavior  emphasizes  relational a  smooth  not totally define the  man.  which can be conceptualized as  perspective, the  Chi  according  a  to maintain  individual  the role-related behavior  entity.  is right  as  provides to yi,  pattern  the  which  in  is more  prescribed by  individual is the  question.  interpersonal relationships,  righteousness. This aspect of Confucianism  self the  principle  In  this  it also  of  sense, stresses  justifies rebellion  against tyrannical authorities even though the consequence is disobedience to one's superior.  In  Confucianism,  the  natural  chi  desire  is embodied for  accomplishing  identified with  both  is  fundamental  the  most  Confucianism, order  (  to  if one  fulfill  *L  in the li  Confucian in the  spirit  the totality of all virtues and for  making  a  man  is in the practice of jen,  himself, as  well as  to  K, S^^lSiJtAl-  It  of yi.  the essence a  he  fulfill  conception  moral  Jen  which is was  to  be  of all virtues. It  being.  According  to  would seek to fulfill others in  himself in order is  of jen,  clearly  to  showed  fulfill that  others helping  others to fulfill themselves is a corollary of one's self-realization. In other words, to  involve the  for  one's own  other in one's self-realization is not only altruistic; it is required self-development.  Therefore, being the natural desire to consider the  others in one's self-realization, jen  is the basis that a man  relates to others  and  RESEARCH PROBLEM  AND  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 20  to become himself.  As  a  summary,  the  essential  aspect  according to li,  of Confucianism  yi,  chi  jen.  construction of  In  practice  harmonious  society  virtues, an  individual is encouraged to maintain hierarchial order and  interpersonal Such in  relationships  Confucian  the  are  acceptance  competitiveness and  socialization  higher positions  Consensual  teaches  stable  Chinese  would the  directly  permanent  society.  tend  to  harmonious  social  structure. people  authority to control resources.  expectations or social norms, rather than goals. They are more concerned  effectiveness of group  To act  a  of these  to accept hierarchy in which  jeopardize the  agricultural  psychologically  maintenance, social  and  given more privileges and  of  Chinese  relatively  the  of this differential access to resources prevents conflict  which  harmonj'  harmony,  in a  and  is the  maintain in  and  effort  such interpersonal  accordance  with  social  according to the individual's needs  and  about cooperativeness, social conformity, harmony  acceptance  and  avoidance  of conflict  (Yang,  1981). As  such,  they would be able to function as an integral part of the social network.  e. Empirical  The  Findings  genesis  empirical  findings  studies,  be  Chinese  eco-cultural demands and  historical  and  on  most  of  Chinese  in the  of them  Characteristics  Confucian cultural  study  are  Cultural  of  philosophy just discussed are two characteristics.  these  cross-cultural  cultural in nature,  This  section  review  some  characteristics.  Among  these  mainly  contrasting Chinese  American cultures. Before reviewing the relevant literature, one clarified.  For  ideological  and  political  reasons,  major  almost  no  point should  empirical research  RESEARCH PROBLEM was  conducted  in Mainland  AND  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 21  China in the last two  decades. Because of numerous  restrictions of the flow of information from Mainland China, most of the work to be and  discussed in this section used  samples  of Chinese people drawn from  Taiwan  Hong Kong as subjects or respondents. Special caution should be taken when  the results are generalized from one Chinese society to the other.  As  mentioned,  collectivism  aspects of Chinese  and  hierarchical  structure  culture; however, there are only a  the literature examining these two on  social  authoritarianism,  Singh,  at  a  large  Huang  American  few  fundamental  empirical  studies in  cultural dimensions. In their comparative study and  Thompson  (1962) provided information  about the collective nature of Chinese culture. Compared students  are two  universit}',  the  Indian  with the local university and  the  Chinese  foreign  students are found to be more society-oriented. They gave high ratings to group participation  and  showing  more  concern  Personal Preference Scale (Edwards,  More  direct  work-related  evidence  was  for  other  people  on  the  Edwards'  1954).  collected  by  Hofstede  (1980)  in  his  survey  values. Working for a large multinational organization, Hofstede  of and  his associates conducted a survey of 100,000 employees in 40 nations around the world. Three  were  Chinese  nations: Hong  Kong,  Singapore  and  Taiwan.  Using  factor anatysis to simplify the mass of data, Hofstede derived four dimensions of cultural  variation  along  which  his  nations  could  be  located.  Two  of  these  dimenisons are of special importance for the present discussion.  The  first  dimension  is collectivism-individualism.  In  the  Hofstede's  conception,  RESEARCH PROBLEM collectivism-individualism maintains  refers  to the degree  AND  RELATED  R E S E A R C H / 22  of interdependence  among individuals. Individualism stands  that  for a preference  a society  for a loosely  knit social structure in which individuals are supposed to take care of themselves and  their immediate families only. Its extreme, collectivism, refers to a preference  for a tightly knit social framework in which individuals can expect their relatives or other in-groups loyalty. The as  the  distance  second  extent  institutions  to look after and support cultural  to  and  which  the  organizations  societies  accept  power and resources distance  dimension  societies  is power  members  of  is distributed  a hierarchical  them in exchange for unquestioning  order  a  distance which society  unequally. in which  Hofstede  accept People  that  equalization of power  everybody  and demand  power in  in large  which needs no further justification. People  seek  defined  power  has a defined in small power  justification  for power  inequalities.  These two dimensions are important study the  for the present discussion, because  provided, the first piece of direct empirical evidence hierarchical  social  structure of Chinese  culture.  Hofstede's  on the collectivism and  Compared  with  the other  western countries, all three Chinese  samples were located in similar positions on  these two dimensions.  That  all scored considerably lower  and  in power  moderately  high  employees obtained  is, they  distance. In  contrast, American  the top scores in individualism and moderately  in individualism and  Canadian  low in power  distance.  Similarity in position among Chinese research  study  (Chong, Cragin  &  societies was  also obtained in a more recent  Scherling, 1983). Replicating Hofstede's  study,  RESEARCH PROBLEM Chong and  his associates administered a  of managerial of Hofstede samples two  (1980), they  on  found  the dimensions  studies  structure,  employees in Mainland  reveal  as  two  an  a  AND  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 23  similar value survey to a wide variety  China. Comparing  close  correspondence  of collectivism-individualism important  fundamental  their results with those  point:  Chinese  among  and  collectivism  values,  Chinese  power distance.  and  have  all four  These  hierarchical  remained  social  intact  among  modern Chinese societies.  To  maintain  required  group  integrity  and  to cooperate with each  interpersonal  other and  harmony,  try to avoid  Chinese  people  competition and  are  conflict  with their in-group members. Consequently, the Chinese shift their position on issue  toward  frequently  the  than  majority  people  position  in  more  their  behavior. For  subjects with  Hong Kong was  changed  and  boys  authority's  cultures  board  and  (1971),  Kau  be  more  position  those  (1979), who that  when  competitiveness. Similarly, Cook  to  like  found  continued to cooperate even  to reinforce  American-Chinese  game  the  in  more North  empirical studies have examined this aspect  example, L i , Cheung  Madsen's  Taiwan  toward  individualistic  America. Surprisingly, only very few of Chinese  or  an  cooperative than  schoolchildren in  the reward and  presented  structure  Chi (1984) found  American  boys  on  their  modified Madsen's game board.  Authoritarianism which  have  empirical and  and  received  studies have  social  social  conformity  relative^  more  are  two  attention  showed  that  Chinese  conformity. Huang  and  Harris  Chinese from  social  cultural  characteristics  scientists.  Numerous  people exhibit more  authoritarianism  (1973)  Chinese  found  that  college  RESEARCH PROBLEM students from American subjects  imitated  from  Taiwan  were  subjects in  Using  a  more  similar  different  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 24  a college professor to a  counterparts. Along the same line, Chu  American (1959).  Taiwan  AND  affected  study  (1966) also found that Chinese  by  the  performed  populations (i.e.,  greater extent than did  Chinese  mass  earlier  media  by  secondary  than  were  and  Field  Janis school  students in  Hong Kong versus similar British students), L a i (1981) obtained similar results.  The  first set of Chinese data on  and  Thompson  and  Indian university  but  much  measured  (1962) in their  higher by  Meade and  Whittaker  their  and  the  States.  authoritarianism.  In  this  Chinese  American  Indian  Chinese  and  came  set of 701  American children was  stories  to Chinese university  lower  than Indians,  authoritarianism another  as  study,  students from  Hong  India, Brazil, Arabia, Rhodesia showed  followed  generated  content analyzed. The  Chinese, American  Scale (1950). In  by  the  highest  level  Arabian,  Bralizian  and  students. Relevant data were also reported by study, a  on  Singh, Huang  version of the California Fascism  Rhodesians  next,  of Taiwan  counterparts  Older's Authoritarian  et. al., 1950)  collected by  scored slightly  five other groups of students from  United  American  study  (1967) gave the English  Scale (F Scale) (Adorno Kong and  comparative  students. The  than  Sanford  authoritarianism was  by  80  Domino and Beijing  Mo  Chinese  and of the  (1987). and  80  results showed that Chinese stories  clearly reflected social orientation, greater concern with authority, containing more affective  elements  and  fewer  instances of physical  aggression than  the  stories  generated by American children.  Conclusively, the foregoing discussion and  empirical findings revealed that Chinese  RESEARCH culture  is  a  typical  inter-dependence, cultural  collective  loyalty  characteristics,  socialized  to be  PROBLEM culture  to the group  more  FD,  with  and  it is reasonable  AND  RELATED  its emphasis  submission  to speculate  external L O C  RESEARCH on  / 25  harmony,  to authority. With that in China  and certainty-oriented  such  people are  than  in North  America where the culture stresses individualism and competitiveness.  f.  Relationships  among  uncertainty  orientation  The  interesting  other  inter-relationships. constructs;  they  own  behaviors  should  both  have place  similar positive  while  those  FD-I, L O C and  FD-I  associated with L O C psycho-social  behavior  derived  UNCERT  and  LOC  &  frame  Berry,  hypothesized values  on  to socialize which  control  UNCER are  have  social  history  and  is their  three  similar  of reference  similar  conceptual  will rely on  to guide  their  1975, p.9). Also, as discussed  soico-cultural  individuals  emphasize  antecedents.  conformity with  FD  individualism  Those  and  submission  and  external  and  self-reliance  to LOC are  orientations. There is  which suggests that a number of psycho-social phenomena  orientation bear phenomena  (e.g., Phares,  reinforcement  of  and  to socialize individuals with FI and internal L O C  also empricial evidence  These  correlated.  or externally  are speculated  orientations, expected  be  on  FD-I, L O C  (Lefcourt, 1976, p.11; Witkin  which  authority  of research  locus  describe individuals on the basis of whether they  internally  previously, cultures  field  dependence-independence,  Conceptually,  frameworks; both their  field  a similar relationship with FD-I orientation.  include: conformity,  1976; Witkin & as  opposed  creativity  and  achievement  Goodenough, 1977), reliance on one's own  to others'  norms  (e.g., Deever,  1967), the  RESEARCH PROBLEM response  to  Peterson, (e.g.,  1977;  1971)  &  reaction  1970;  Soneson,  have  greater  in  Caring,  Bloomberg  Panda, yield  autonomy  also  precision  Mas,  that  predicting  number  Telegdi,  of  studies  1971;  (Chance  Mclntire  &  relationship between the Among  these  studies,  unidimensionality Therefore, LOC  constructs by  and  cognitive  the  FD-I. need  comfortable referents,  construct As  with such  those as  certainty  to  Goldstein, 1973; FD-I  I-E  of  activity,  employed  Rotter,  social  norms,  or the  law),  individuals (see  Telegdi,  LOC  also  &  researchers  and  1971;  FD-I  will  productivity  and  the  has  the  been  instrument  the  should  also  with  a  traditional are  very  external  logical  soundness.  criticized  for  correlate  1982;  for its  assessing  with are  Such  degree  beliefs  or  of  the  LOC. and  constructs  dominated  by  persons are certainty.  standards  powerful in providing  a  more  External  defined  by  this kind  of  individuals  referents. Interestingly, all of these  hypothesized  Lefcourt,  &  measures.  confusion.  high  Lefcourt  relationship between FD-I  individuals  avoiding  1967;  have indicated no direct  despite  which  as  Feather,  individuals. Logically, certainty-oriented  well-established  characteristics are  &  verbal  1966)  constructs  certainty-oriented  situations  Huesmann  Some  Lefcourt  1971;  Scale  clarity by  certainty-oriented  should rely more on  LOC  1972).  combination  cognitive  UNCERT  defined,  to maintain  (e.g., family  external  usually  Bachrach,  employing other multi-dimensional L O C  authority  behavioral  Rotter's  1985;  it is fruitful to investigate further  Conceptually, LOC  was  &  and  (e.g.,  R E S E A R C H / 26  of them.  Dreyer,  LOC  the  RELATED  Schleifer,  Guthrie,  moral judgement than using just one  A  task  1984;  1976;  reported in  time  AND  to  be  Witkin  associated &  with  Goodenough,  FD  and  1981  for  RESEARCH review). On  PROBLEM  AND  the other hand, uncertainty-oriented persons  clarity by discovering the unknown. Logically, they and  RELATED  / 27  are more likely to attain  are more rational, analytical,  challenge-seeking and less likely be persuaded by external information. Again,  these behavioral characteristics of uncertainty-oriented persons of  RESEARCH  FI and internal  LOC  seems that FD-I, L O C  individuals.  As  showed  are similar to those  in the foregoing discussion,  it  and U N C E R T are three related constructs, at least at the  conceptual level.  2.  Proposition  2a  certainty-oriented than  field  -  2c:  Field  dependent,  i n d i v i d u a l s are  independent,  more  internal  external  controlled  conventional i n m o r a l  controlled  and  and  judgement  uncertainty-oriented  individuals  a.  Conventional  Adapted  from  classified  into  development  moral  Kohlberg's  levels  two  refers  in this  judgement  of moral study.  post-conventional  level. These  levels  development  (Kohlberg's  level,  of moral  the  MJ  is  three  levels  of moral  conventional  level,  and the  development  are presented  in an  to those  who  conventional level of moral development, conventional maintain,  support  family, group or nation as their own  and justify the expectations  individual's  moral standards. On  hand, autonomous MJ, which is analogous to Kohlberg's moral  (1976),  order; higher levels of moral development represent greater maturity in  MJ.) Similar to Kohlberg's MJ  three  categories  are: the  preconventional ascending  versus autonomous  development, refers  to those  who  have  their  of the  the other  postconventional level of  own  subjective values and  RESEARCH expectations  that  may  or may  group or nation. Although  PROBLEM  AND  not correspond  in the Kohlberg's  RELATED RESEARCH  to expectations  / 28  of the family,  perspective, a higher level of moral  development represents more maturity in MJ, ho such value judgement should be applied to the present classification. Here, differences in M J orientations  individuals have in dealing with  implication  that autonomous M J  orientation  can be adaptive  moral issues. There  is inherently better than  in a particular  pursue collective  goals, to avoid  is intended no  conventional MJ; each  eco-cultural context. In addition, the  possible motives for developing conventional M J to  reflect only different  are manifold, including the desires  conflict, to be correct, to be dependent on  authority, to ingratiate oneself with the source of influence and so forth. Thus, it would  be short-sighted simply  to predict  that people  with  conventional  M J are  more dependent and passive than those with autonomous MJ.  b.  Relationships  among  field  dependence-independence,  locus  of  control  and  moral  judgement  As  the theoretical  who while  rely FD  reference LOC  definitions  on an internally  impfy,  FI and internal  derived frame  and external L O C  individuals  (Lefcourt, 1976, p . l l ; Berry,  individuals  are more  likely  LOC  individuals  of reference to guide rely  more  on  their  behaviors,  an externally  frame of  1975, p.9). Logically,  to have  conventional  are those  MJ  FD  and external  which, to a certain  extent, requires reliance on some powerful external sources of information —  such  as norms defined by the authority. However, at present, research in this area is sparse and there is no conclusive evidence  to support this relationship empirically.  R E S E A R C H P R O B L E M AND Several  lines  FD-I,  LOC  LOC,  a  of research  and number  relatively  among FD-I,  explore  FI  from  studies seems  date, only a few  LOC  and  MJ.  with  more  among  as a function of FD-I  internal  LOC  &  that F D  and  individuals  influence than  Witkin  support  relationship  are  FD  and  Goodenough,  1977,  and  external  LOC  which, to some extent, requires conformity  three  maturity.  in these  the  studies have examined directly the relationships  Only  mature  and  1982;  to  studies have attempted  MJ  and  three  was  the  A l l of these FD  Schleifer, 1972). Although  obtained  of  conformity  of Moral Development  subjects' moral  Guthrie, 1985; was  independent  These  Kohlberg's Test  associated  MJ  and  that  to have conventional M J  to authority. To  the  evidence  individuals (c.f. Lefcourt, 1976,  persons tend  assess  provide  of studies reported  for review).  FD-I;  to  In investigating social conformity  autonomous  external L O C 1981  MJ.  seem  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 29  with  MJ  MJ  that FI (Caring,  are 1971;  a positive correlation between FD-I research  is definitely  cultural studies would be  to  measure used to  studies reported  less mature  studies, more  such a relationship. Cross  common  to relate  and  needed to  required to examine  whether such a relationship exists in other cultures.  The  singular  thoroughly. between 1977;  Among  LOC  Guthrie,  Poppen, 1973; Again,  and  Arbuthnot  such MJ  1985;  between studies,  MJ four  (Adams-Webber, Penk,  1969)  and  Guttman, Bar-Zohar &  Kohberg's  used in these MJ,  relationship  Test  of Moral  and  LOC  reported 1969; three  has  moderate  Bachrach, showed  Statter, 1981;  Development  been  was  Janzen  &  correlation &  most  using  the  Kohlberg's  moral  Peterson, (Alker  &  Boersma, 1976). common  studies. Regarding the complex relationship among FD-I, (1971),  more  positive correlations  Huesman  no  the  explored  judgement  measure LOC  interview,  and the  RESEARCH PROBLEM Rotter's  I-E  Scale,  a  measure  Scale  as  with  LOC  were  not  and  the  Soneson  of relative  could  included (1976)  post-conventional  Rod-and-Frame  only  in  Arbuthnot's  found MJ  that  are  Test,  FD-I study.  both  the  Guilford-Zimmerman  that  masculine  On  the  female  field  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 30  found  in  among  also  and  masculinity,  predict  AND  MJ men.  other  not  associated  Females,  hand,  college  independent  was  and  however,  Bloomberg  students,  M-F  those  internally  and with  controlled.  Additionally, the- results indicated that neither of these variables alone adequately predicted  levels  of MJ;  rather,  a  combination  males were not included in Bloomberg and  Guthrie  (1985) suggested  one  evidence in the  study  that lack of a  standardized  between samples classified various until  as  no  are  common  explanation  to which  for  relationship between  LOC  factor  compared. This  method  for  for evaluating  subjects  are  problem  mediators  in between  studies. Further  LOC  and  MJ,  quite will  LOC  for inconclusive evidence in this  direct causal relationship between L O C  required.  as  lack  and  However,  may  unequivocal  She  lead  suggested  to difference  'internal' and  critical  when  which  the  MJ.  may  be  The  that  not  been  MJ  possible  is, indeed,  are  included  investigations are necessary to resolve this issue.  and  other  there  Perhaps, there  are  results of  affect studies of L O C  area  have  of  MJ.  is developed.  and  which  the  LOC  classified  becomes  evaluating  was  Soneson's sample.  explanation  method  'external'. This  studies  a  as  of the  possible  of both  in  important previous  RESEARCH c. Relationship  It  between uncertainty  is expected  need  to maintain  autonomous value of  that  MJ.  system  one's  oriented  avoid  duty  as defined  and  avoiding  by  defined  provide  RELATED RESEARCH  moral  is characterized will  correlate  uncertainty.  Thus  autonomous  in the moral  realm  by following  authorities as the family tend  reliance  to have upon  individual to maintain  the same logic, uncertainty  with  of one's  own  to the values  individual who is  thinking. Such individuals convention  MJ  such  clarity  cognitive  and stressing  or the law. Consequently,  conventional  authority;  an  a  negatively  not correspond  avoid  such  by  as the establishment or may  / 31  judgement  likely  persons  certainty-oriented  and  confusion,  which may  nation,  confusion  requires  Following  by  certainty will  certainty-oriented extent,  clarity  Autonomous MJ,  family  may  orientation  AND  certainty-orientation, which  and expectations  toward  PROBLEM  with  which,  reliance respect  to a  certain  enables  the  to moral  orientation is hypothesized  issues.  to be associated  with autonomous MJ.  3.  Proposition  North  3: Chinese  have  less  helplessness  experience  than  Americans  Seligman  and his associates  (Overmier  proposed  that  when  LH  occurs  independent of desired a  learned  change  perceived  in their  &  Seligman,  organisms  outcomes, and that they  later  circumstances. These  learn  1967; Seligman, 1975) have that  their  are therefore researchers  responses  are  helpless to initiate  have  stressed  that  a  lack of control over circumstances is the crucial factor in producing LH.  One could argue that the underlying  assumption of L H is the perception  that an  RESEARCH PROBLEM individual, who  as  self-reliant  perceives that  psychological who  a  responses  perceives  speculate  that  that  Expanding  he  the  can  control  when  he  he  former  R E L A T E D R E S E A R C H / 32  control his environment.  his environment  encounters  cannot  control  group  of  his  will  have  uncontrollable  individual  stronger negative  experiences  environment.  individuals  An  It  is more  is  than  one  reasonable  susceptible  to  to LH.  this argument to the cultural level, it can be hypothesized that people  in a particular culture may cultures  creature, can  AND  due  to  their  be more likely to experience L H  different  perceptions about  than those in other  themselves  imposed  by  their  cultures.  As- the foregoing discussion revealed, Chinese culture is a typical collective culture with positive values on harmony, interdependence and With  conformity to group norms.  these cultural characteristics, Chinese people are used  to coping with most  of their life events collectively, especially in consort with their ingroup members. Unlike  North  self-reliant  Americans,  Chinese  people  individuals; rather, they  intensive self-ingroup relationship and people  to  cope  with  Following this line and  collective  Americans  the  do  not  perceive themselves  as  are interdependent members of groups. Such collective coping make it easier for Chinese  uncontrollable  experiences  in  their  of argument, Chinese  people, with  an  emphasis on  coping, are  expected  totally  to  be  less  susceptible  to  everyday  LH  whose culture stresses individualism and competitiveness.  lives.  harmony  than  North  RESEARCH  4. P r o p o s i t i o n susceptible  PROBLEM  4: Individuals w i t h  to  learned  AND  RELATED RESEARCH  c o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l judgement  helplessness  than  those  4 is completely  based  with  / 33  are  less  autonomous  moral  on logical deduction  of the  judgement  The  derivation of Proposition  first three propositions. Once the first three propositions are confirmed empirically, Proposition obtained  4  can  be  deduced.  At  present,  no  empirical  evidence  has been  to directly support this proposition.  C. CHAPTER SUMMARY  This  literature  relating  review  to each  addressed  hypothesis  the logical  derived  from  reasoning  and  the suggested  empirical  model. As  indicated, these hypotheses are based more on logical reasoning evidence. A t present, and  insufficiently  available research  clear  that  more  empirical  suggested  model.  In  presented  as  test  propositions  a  work  it is not yet possible  should  the next  be  chapters,  of Proposition  the review  than on empirical  data in the related areas are so sparse to support  about the inter-relationships among FD-I, LOC, UNCERT, much  evidence  1  are not tested in the present  done an  MJ  to modify empirical  in the model.  any  hypotheses  and LH. Therefore,  and  study Note  to confirm  the  is designed  and  that  the  other  study. For a master thesis, testing all  the propositions is not managable. Also, a relatively cultural-free moral judgement instrument has not yet be developed for testing Proposition 2.  II. N A T U R E OF T H E STUDY  A. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES  The  present  Hong Kong  study  is a cross  cultural  Chinese on FD-I, L O C  study  comparing  North  Americans and  and U N C E R T . The purpose of this study is  two-fold: to investigate American-Chinese differences on FD-I, L O C and  and U N C E R T  to examine cultural diferences in the inter-relationships among these cognitive  constructs. The study was designed as an empirical test of Proposition model  elaborated  confirmation  in the previous  there  investigations  Chinese on  interest  in  in the literature  I indicated  on U N C E R T  though  that  and only  culture on FD-I —  FD-I. Even  have  the first  some contributions to  cross  cultural  dealing  with  studies,  only  one study  two studies  these five studies, three  regarding  few  between  have  has examined investigated  students  the L O C  the cultural  the influence of  more precisely, the influence of Hong Kong culture  the cross  cultural differences in L O C  variations in age, cultural background  Kong  very  comparisons  more thoroughly, it is difficult to compare studies in this area  Hong  step in  and Chinese cultures on FD-I, L O C or U N C E R T . The literature  in Chapter  difference  may  being  on FD-I, L O C and U N C E R T .  is increasing  can be found  North American review  Besides  of the suggested model, this study  filling the gaps in research  Although  chapter.  1 in the  and in the L O C  has been  explored  because of sample  instruments used. Among  (Chan, 1981; Hsieh et. al., 1969; Tsui, 1977) have used  as their  subjects. However, their  orientation of Hong Kong  34  results were  inconclusive  Chinese. In summary, the number  NATURE of  FD-I, L O C  and  UNCERT  studies  involving  O F T H E S T U D Y / 35  Chinese  are so few  inconclusive that it is not yet possible to describe the expression or U N C E R T how  who, as a whole, occupy  in these  cognitive domains. Do  a quarter  Chinese  Americans in these domains? The present study  The  second  their  question  regarding  address  foregoing They  FD-I, L O C  inter-relationships. The present  inter-relationships among these to  similar  phenomena. A greater  of these  shows, these patterns  study  of the world  function differently  population, from  North  addresses this question.  and U N C E R T is not only  constructs  relates to  the first to examine the  cognitive constructs, but also the first investigation  the comparability  discussion  have  of FD-I, L O C  in Chinese culture. As a result, little information is available about  the Chinese  function  and so  three  relationship constructs  of correlation  with  combination of FD-I and L O C  across  cultures.  are inter-related  conceptually.  certain personality and cognitive  has also been reported  precision in predicting some behavioral  As the  to yield a  characteristics. However, most of  the past studies have showed no direct relationship between FD-I and LOC. Such results may be due to methodological  flaws. Most of these  Rotter's I-E Scale, which has been criticized  for its unidimensionality, to assess  subjects' L O C orientation. Thus, it is necessary of FD-I and L O C IPC used other  Scale  (1972), which  in the present advantage  more detail  constructs  by using  measures  study  to explore  of employing  differ in their control perceptions.  instruments.  construct in three  Levenson's  dimensions, was  the relationship of FD-I and LOC. The  Levenson's  about domains in which  to explore further the relationship  multidimensional  the L O C  studies have employed  IPC Scale  North  Americans  is that  it should  and Hong  Kong  provide Chinese  NATURE Practically, this study may achieving  constructive  resources,  increased. one  When  communication  merchandise  between  and  and  North  resolutions,  constructive  Information  about  how  information  between  other. Through the  communciation the  views  and  people  pre-occupied with biases multicultural  country  present study was  open or  between  in  the  such  attitudes  impeded as  Chinese  different  different  other  by  toward  culture  It  is  the  also  has  uncommon for  cultures function  and  develops. in  certain  mutual understanding between would  help  to establish a  other culture  rivalry. This  Canada.  nations  processes of conflicts  addition, this kind of information more  and  for  high technology, the active interchanges of  cognitive domains would promote communciation and different cultures. In  S T U D Y / 36  American  different cultures encounter each other, it is not  try to assimilate or reject the  broader  THE  also have some implications for acculturation and  cultures. In this era of free trade human  OF  without being  is especially valuable with  this  concern  that  in a the  undertaken.  B. RESEARCH QUESTIONS  The  general  in FD-I,  LOC  objective of this study is to investigate American-Chinese and  UNCERT, as  well  as  the  pursuit of this objective, four specific research  inter-relationships among them. In questions were formulated:  1.  Are  Hong Kong Chinese more F D  2.  Are  Hong Kong Chinese more external L O C  3.  Are  Hong Kong Chinese more certainty-oriented than Canadians?  4.  How  does the  pattern  differences  than Canadians? than Canadians?  of inter-correlations among  differ between Hong Kong Chinese and  Canadians?  FD-I,  LOC  and  UNCERT  NATURE  OF  THE  S T U D Y / 37  C. CHAPTER SUMMARY  This  chapter  study. A was  introduced  a  test of Proposition  theoretical and  discussed. Chinese  This  study  function  in  these  constructs.  areas  and  cultures.  objective  and  the  specific  research  cross-cultural study comparing North Americans and  posited as  Other  the  practical has these  Also,  therefore  cognitive  increase  for  stimulate the  research  increasing  domains  and  further  likelihood  of  the  Hong Kong Chinese  suggested model (see Chapter I).  implications of the  potential  it may  1 in the  questions  of  the the  questions  were  understanding  of  also how  inter-relationships among  cross-cultural studies  communication  between  in  these  different  III.  METHOD  A . SUBJECTS & SAMPLING PROCEDURES  The 1.  subjects used in this study were drawn from two Canadians  taking  an  introductory  psychology  groups of College students:  course  at Langara  Community  College in Vancouver, Canada, and 2.  Hong  Kong  Chinese  in Businesss Studies at Caritas  Vocational  College in  Hong Kong  On and  the initial Mainland  differential contexts.  Chinese)  cognitive However,  universities was  design, two  samples;  were  due  to  among  delays  that  The  two  they  to  subjects  (i.e., Hong  determine  whether  Chinese  in  China, only  selected.  recognizing  of Chinese  planned  functioning  in Mainland  ultimately  groups  in different  acquiring  the Hong  sample  may  groups  not  be  from  group  were  precisely  there  social  approval  Kong  Kong  and  is  any  cultural  corresponding  of Chinese  selected  Chinese  as  subjects  convenience  representative  of  their  corresponding populations, results should be interpreted cautiously.  Subject Selection background  and  if he/she met  Criteria.  Students were  selected  on  the basis  their consent to participate in the study. A  of their  student was  cultural recruited  all the following criteria:  1.  Must have lived in the homeland for minimum  2.  Must be a native speaker of the language of his/her culture. In other words, Hong  Kong  Chinese  speak  Cantonese  38  in their  10 years.  home  communication  whereas  M E T H O D / 39 Canadians  speak English in their home communication.  3.  Must have been educated in the respective culture.  4.  Must have attended class on the day  5.  Must have agreed to participate in the study. (The consent form is presented in Appendix  Canadian  (39 Chinese  students and  students were recruited as they all met  group,  administered.  A.)  Of the students approached the Chinese  that the test was  41  students  were  eligible. Of  the  58  Canadian  students), all  the selection criteria. In the ineligible  students,  11  were  classified into other cultural groups according to the first three criteria, while the cultural  background  of  the  remainders  could  not  be  identified  because  these  students supplied no demographic information.  B. INSTRUMENTS  Instruments  employed  projective  measure  consisted  of  in this study  of need  Levenson's  for uncertainty; a  IPC  Scale  authoritarianism; a figure test which orientation  and  a  included: a sentence  demographic  and was  "general  Byrne employed  and  interpretation test as attitude  survey",  Lamberth's  a  which  measure  of  to assess the subjects' FD-I  questionnaire. A l l instruments  are  Appendix B. Descriptions of the instruments are given as follows.  presented  in  M E T H O D / 40  1. F i e l d Dependence-Independence  To  assess  subject's  Oltman, Raskin  &  Instrument  FD-I, the Group Karp,  1971) was  Embedded  Figure  Test  employed. The G E F T  (GEFT)  was  (Witkin,  selected because  it is one of the common FD-I measures used in cross-cultural studies. The G E F T was  designed  Embedded taken The  to allow  Figure  Test  group  three  basically  for practice,  contains  9 more  (which  is given  the other one was  and  the second  page) on  7 very  the third  The  in the first  simple  are required to trace the corresponding  the second and third sections combined. Omitted items items  for the GEFT.  section are not included  items  sections, each  certain time limit. The score is the total number of simple in  administered  17 of which were  originally designed  contains  and  figures. Subjects  the back  individually  18 complex figures,  sections: the first  difficult on  of the original  (EFT). It contains  from the E F T while test contains  testing  and is  of which  a simple  complex  figure  form in a  forms correctly traced  are scored as incorrect.  in the total  score. The  more  correct simple forms that the subject traces, the more FI he/she is.  According GEFT  to the G E F T  is a very  manual (Witkin et. al., 1971, p.27-28), it indicates that  reliable test. The split-half reliablility  males (N = 80) and females (N = 97) a high correlation has been obtained coorrelation The  of .82 for male  combined  evidence  FD-I orientation.  at an eastern liberal art college. In addition, between scores on G E F T  undergraduates  suggests  coefficient is .82 for both  and E F T , with a  and .63 for female  that the G E F T  is a  undergraduates.  useful test  for assessing  M E T H O D / 41  2. Locus of C o n t r o l Instrument  Levenson's IPC study  Scale (1972) was  because  study,  chosen as the measure of L O C  of its multidimensional  multidimensional  instruments  nature. are  For  more  the  in the  purpose  desirable  present  of cross-cultural  than  unidimensional  instruments, because they offer a more detailed picture about dimensions in which cultural groups may be LOC  differ. Also, it was  easier to translate into Chinese  judged  that Levenson's IPC  language than  other common  Scale would  multidimensional  instruments, (e.g., Lefcourt's MMCS, 1979).  Levenson's IPC through  Scale was  utilizing  three  subscale), powerful  designed  dimensions  to measure the I-E of  control  others (P subscale), and  —  concept  belief  chance  (C  in  more accurately,  personal  control  subscale). The  (I  I subscale  is scored in the internal direction, whereas the P  and  C  subscales are scored in  the  the  I  subscale  external  direction.  internality, and The  I  control  others; and  measures  their the C  own  high  the  lives;  score and  consists of 8  disagree  to  strongly  items agree  the  subscale  P  a  (see  which  higher  people deals  believe that  with  control  they  by  have  powerful  with perceptions of chance control. Each  6-point  Likert  Appendix  to each  means  subscales means higher externality.  to  on  subject's response  C  on  extent  subscale is concerned  subscale  subscale, the  a  a high score on the P  subscale over  Thus,  item  B).  format To  ranging  obtain  is added  the  to a  from score  constant  strongly of  each  of 24  in  order to eliminate negative values. Thus, the range on each subscale is from 0 48.  A  subscale  word  of caution about  reflect  only  a  interpretation  tendency  is necessary.  High  to believe in that particular  scores  on  each  locus of control,  M E T H O D / 42 with no implication for beliefs about the other dimensions. a person the P  to obtain a high score on  or C  Various  the I, P  indices showed  Split-half reliabilities  and  C  - .79  estimates  is expected  since the IPC  for  student  sample  items  for  and  C  high, Levenson  .66  and  were selected from  (1981) noted  .64 for  for the C  .72,  In .73 a  subscale and  .78  that this  a wide variety of situations.  for the P  (1973) obtained  the I, P  quite reliable  1973). Even though the overall internal  reliability  (n=115).  subscales were: .51, Levenson  is a  r = .62,  (n=152), Kuder-Richardson  1974). Wallston, Wallston and sample  Scale  (Spearman-Brown) was:  are only moderately  the I subscale, .77  adult  that Levenson's IPC  range (Levenson,  consistency  a  scores on  subscales respectively. Test-retest reliability for a one-week period  were in the .60  For  the I subscale yet also obtain low  subscale.  reliability  instrument.  It is possible then, for  estimates subscale  were  .64  (Levenson,  DeVellis (1978) reported similar estimates for their this  study,  the  alpha  respectively. For  a  reliablilities  hosipitalized  Kuder-Richardson's reliability  subscales respectively. The  for  psychiatric  indiex of .67,  above evidence  the  suggest  three sample,  .82,  that the  internal structure of the I subscale is relatively weak than that of the other subscales. In regard significantly with  of validity, the  each other  P  and  C  subscales  (in the range of .41  unrelated to the I subscale (ranging form -.25  - .60)  to .19).  .79  two  were usually correlated and  they  were usually  M E T H O D / 43  3. Assessment of Uncertainty Orientation  A  composite  measure  of uncertainty  of need for uncertainty  orientation consists of a  (Frederick, Sorrentino  &  Hewitt,  projective measure  1987), and  Byrne  and  orientation, Sorrentino  and  Lamberth's measure of authoritarianism (1971).  To  develop measures from  his  associates  followed  infer  the  Sarason,  motive 1952)  Frederick, Sorrentino for  succeed,  was  (n  uncertainty  used Byrne and  similar  to  those  achievement motives. In  (McClelland,  to  to infer uncertainty  procedures  measures for assessing test of achievement  which  used and  Atkinson,  and  to  Hewitt  Uncertainty)  infer  the  Clark  Self-Report the  which  the  Lowell,  Test  motive  to  in  development  achievement  &  (1987) developed from  used  to a  area, projective  1958)  Anxiety  was  Scale  avoid  used  to  (Mandler  &  failure.  Similarly,  projective measure  infer  need  of  of need  for uncertainty,  and  Lamberth's measure of authoritarianism (1971) to infer need for  certainty.  The  n  Uncertainty  to make up  test contains  their own  four ambiguous sentences.  story elicited by  inteprets the subjects' story in regard sentences were presented laboratory what may  on  a  piece  of expressions  sentences.  of equipment.  happen. (3) A  (2) A  person  The  are  required  scorer then  of need for uncertainty.  in the following order: (1) Two  in the background. (4) An higher  each of these  Subjects  people are working in a  is sitting,  young person is standing: A  The  wondering  vague operation  scene is  older person is talking to a younger person. To  interrater reliability, the original scoring system has  been slightly  about  obtain  modified  M E T H O D / 44 in this study  (see Frederick, Sorrentino n  &  Hewitt, 1987  system). Stories which  contain  stories  were  and  scored  0.  scored  for the  presence of 5  to the  original  system), 1 for each. These  scored  In  1,  addition, those  uncertainty  stories that  subcategories  &  Hewitt,  ranging  1987,  from  obtained  by  0  summing up  the  Byrne and  that  were  contain  n  uncertainty  imagery  were  10  subcategories press  subcategories are: need,  instructions). This  yielded  authoritarianism  compared  with  intolerant  of  low  novel or uncertainty  need  for  high  score  (Kirscht &  scores  on  was  this measure  used to infer need  his associates presumed studies  authoritarians were  Dillehay,  for uncertain  and  certainty. Past  situations (Kelman &  of integrative complexity  possible  total score of this projective test  findings, Sorrentino  authoritarians, high  ambiguity  Sorrentino  higher need for uncertainty.  research  parallels  according  instrumental  (see Frederick,  Lamberth's authoritarianism measure (F Scale) was  for certainty. Based on  doubtful  imagery  score of each story. A  indicates that the subject has  2,  uncertainty  (there are  to 7 for each story. The  scored  n  nuturant  for detailed scoring  were  original scoring  no  show  stories which  activity, anticipatory goal, obstacles and  imagery  for the  1967),  Barclay,  have  indicated  found less  1963), and  situations (Schroder,  to  that  be  more  experience  with  show lower levels  Driver  1967). It appears that the phenomena of need for certainty and  &  Streufert,  authoritarianism  have some common characteristics.  Byrne and on  a  Lamberth's measure of authoritarianism consists of 22  6-point  Likert  format,  Four original items (i.e., item  ranging 16,  17,  from 21  &  strongly  disagree  to  items measured strongly  22) were excluded from the  agree. present  METHOD / 4 5 investigation  because  some  meanings  Chinese  people,  obtained  to by  summing  up  terminologies such  the  as  in  the  these  term  items  may  "religion".  The  subject's response to each  item.  have total The  different score  higher  was score  that the subject obtains on this scale, the more authoritarian he/she is.  Untilizing  two  measures to infer  is exactly  analogous to the  motivation  whereby two  independently  assess  -1 in order obtained  the  elements of uncertainty orientation  of a  tendencies.  scores and  n  composite  To  Ach  F  measure  and  of achievement  test anxiety measures,  caculate the  Uncertainty  then the standardized  summing  Uncertainty  formulation  opposite  to reverse  by  opposite  uncorrelated measures, n  uncertainty orientation, F into 2 scores, and  the  composite score for  scores were first  scores were multiplied by  transformed a  constant  the  direction of scoring. Finally, the  composite score  up  the  the  scores. The  standardized  F  scores  and  standardized  was n  higher composite score that the subject obtains, the more  uncertainty-oriented he/she is.  4. Demographic  This  questionnaire  gender, age, status  (SES)  which  and  FD-I  also  have  an  this  was  designed  to  collect  subjects'  cultural background, educational level and  LOC  from  Questionnaire  all were  found  to  be  confounded  personal  information  like  their parents' socioeconomic with  the  development  of  orientations. It is believed that such demographic variables would influence on  demographic  differences, if any,  in LOC,  the  individual's U N C E R T .  questionnaire FD-I  and  would UNCERT.  assist  The to  information explain  the  collected cultural  M E T H O D / 46 For  testing  Chinese  subjects,  all questionnaires  were  translated  into  Chinese  language by three bilinguals, two of them have no knowledge in psychology and have  no  idea  translation  about  were  finally  items of the original natural-sounding questionnaires Minimal  the purpose resolved  was  changes  by the third  instruments  statements then were  of the present  were  investigation. Differences in  bilingual.  The wordings  modified  to produce  slightly  of some  smooth and  in the Chinese language. The Chinese version of all  submitted required  to a after  pretest  with  the pretest.  12  The  Chinese final  11-graders.  copy  of these  questionnaires is given in Appendix C.  C. PROCEDURE  In one group testing session, the subjects from the  questionnaires  Kong  subjects  Canadian  from  were  subjects  which  tested were  FD-I, L O C  by  one  tested  by  both cultural groups were  and U N C E R T  of their the  teachers  researcher  of the relationship between  visual  perception  assessed.  in Hong and  Vancouver, Canada. A l l the subjects were told that they study  were  her  Kong  given Hong while  supervisor  in  were participating in a  and  different  opinions  on  certain personal and social issues. The Sentence Interpretation Test from which n Uncertainty perscribed subjects  was  were  administered  were  required  to generate  sentence in five  graduate  students  their  own  stories  stories  group, all  and the stories  following standard  (Atkinson,  minutes. These  of scorers. For the Chinese  bilingual  first,  for projective measures of motives  corresponding teams  assessed  1958, Appendix on  were  the stories  generated  procedures  the basis then were  scored scored  by the Canadian  3). The of the by two by two students  M E T H O D / 47 were  scored  by  one  bilingual  student  and  one  Canadian  graduate  student.  Differences in scores were resolved through the discussion between the scorers on each team.  According GEFT  to the  was  embraced  standardized  administered Levenson's  procedures  next, followed IPC  Scale  and  authoritarianism. For the "General to  indicate their  opinions  response on a 6-point agree. No  on  like  the "General Byrne  certain personal  set for completing  at their  age, gender,  et. al., 1971, p.27-28), the  and  Attitude Survey" Lamberth's  Attitude Survey", the subjects  own  and from  social  SES,  which  measure were  of  required  issues by  selecting a  strongly disagree  to strongly  this survey; the subjects were asked  pace. After that, the subjects were  fill out a demographic questionnaire information  by  Likert format, ranging  time limit was  to finish the survey  (Witkin  which was  designed  to collect their  cultural  background  and  asked to personal  educational  level.  Finally, the subjects were given a detailed debriefing message which explained the real purpose of the study. The possible negative  feelings that the subjects might  have were also concerned. The debriefing message is given in Appendix D. Total testing time was  approximately  one hour and ten minutes.  D. CHAPTER SUMMARY  Presented  in this  descriptions administering demographic  of  chapter  all the  the study  were  the criteria  questionnaires was  characteristics  also  used  depicted.  of the subjects  of selecting the subjects in the The and  study.  following their  The chapter  cultural  and the  procedure  of  outlines the  background.  The  M E T H O D / 48 cultural differences in the FD-I, L O C  and U N C E R T  would be investigated using  2 the combination of multivariate Hotelling's T relationships  among  FD-I, L O C  and univariate Student's t-test. The  and U N C E R T  would  be examined  by Pearson  correlation, multiple regression analysis and canonical correlation analysis. Finally, such  relationships  would  explore  further  by  computing  internal  consistency  estimates.  When  interpreting  scored  in the internal direction  the  external  whereas  a  the results,  direction; high  score  a  high  on  n  it should  be recalled  whereas the P score  on  Uncertainty  F  and C  Scale measure  that  the I subscale  subscales  were  was  scored in  indicates more authoritarian indicates  higher  need for  uncertainty. The significance level was assigned to be .05 in all the analyses.  IV. RESULTS  A. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBJECTS  Demographic  characteristics  background, age,  of  the  subjects  described  below  gender, place of birth, educational level, and  were collected from  are:  SES.  cultural  These  data  the Demographic Questionnaire (see Appendix B).  1. C u l t u r a l B a c k g r o u n d  The  subject in this study  was  selected according to cultural background, utilizing  three criteria: 1.  Minimum  10-year-residence in the respective culture;  2.  Cantonese/English  as the primary  language spoken by  the subject and his/her  family members at home. 3.  Previous  education  must  have  been  completed  in  the  respective  home  country/city. Table  1 summarizes these characteristics.  Length  of Residence. The  students  and  21.45  students mainly minimum  average  for Canadian  because they  length of residence was students; the  mean  17.54  was  for Hong Kong  higher  for Canadian  are somewhat older than Hong Kong students. The  length of residence was  10  years  for the  Hong  Kong  group  and  13  years for the Canadian group. Language Table  Spoken  by  The  1, Cantonese was  Subjects  and  Their  Family  the only language spoken by  49  Members. Hong  As  Kong  showed in  students  and  RESULTS Table 1. Cultural Background of the Subjects  Cultural Variables  Hong Kong (n = 39)  Vancouver (n=41)  L E N G T H O F R E S I D E N C E (Years) Mean S.D. Min. Value Max. Value No. of Responses Obtained  17.54 2.35 10 21 39  21.45 6.58 13 48 40  LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY T H E S U B J E C T S (n) Cantonese English Speaking Two Different Languages No. of Responses Obtained LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY T H E F A M I L Y M E M B E R S (n) Cantonese English Mandarin Other Language Speaking Two Different Lauguages No. of Responses Obtained C U L T U R E IN W H I C H E L E M E N T A R Y S C H O O L WAS R E C E I V E D (n) Hong Kong Canada No. of Responses Obtained C U L T U R E IN W H I C H S E C O N D A R Y EDU. WAS R E C E I V E D (n) Hong Kong Canada Did Not Completed No. of Responses Obtained  39  39  34 6 40  38 30 1  39  2 8 40  38 38  41 41  38  38  40 1 41  / 50  R E S U L T S / 51 their family members, except for one student whose family spoke Mandarin. Canadian Among  students' families Canadian  Cantonese,  (n=30)  students who  spoke  English  as  their  primary  were biliguals, five other languages  Most  language.  were spoken:  Korean, French, Italian or Spanish. It reflects the multicultural nature  of Canada. Culture  In  elementary  Which  Education  Was  Received.  A l l the  subjects  completed  their  and high school education in their respective "home" cultures.  2. Gender, A g e and E d u c a t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d  As showed in Table 2, a total of 80 subjects were tested; 39 (6 males and 32 females) were The  average  tested  whereas 41  age of Hong  younger than were  Chinese  Canadian  Kong  (27 males and  students was  students whose average  for significance  of cultural  12 females) were  19.16, approximately  three years  age was  and gender  difference: both  22.03. Age variables  differ significantly. In regard of place of birth, 32 of 39 33  of 41  Canadian  students  were  born  in their  Singapore,  Canadian  student  was  born  in Philippines  were  born  and the other  respect to the highest educational level completed, groups  of students  had  students and 32 Canadian  a  similar  in Korea, one was  found to  students and  respective home  were born in other countries, one Chinese students  were  Chinese  Among those who three  Canadians.  country/city.  student was born in and  born  one  Canadian  in France.  With  the data indicated that the two  educational backgrounds.  Most  students) were high school graduates.  (39  Chinese  RESULTS  Demographic  / 52  Table 2. Characteristics of the Subjects  Hong Kong (n = 39)  Vancouver (n = 41)  GENDER Males Females No. of Responses Obtained  6 32 38  27 12 39  AGE Mean S.D. No. of Responses Obtained  19.16 1.13 38  22.03 5.98 38  P L A C E O F B I R T H (n) Hong Kong China Canada Other Country No. of Responses Obtained  32 6 0 1 39  2 1 33 5 41  a  b  E D U C A T I O N A L L E V E L (n) Elementary School Graduation High School Graduation College/Technical School Graduation Some University Training No. of Responses Obtained  1 32 2 6 41  39  39  a. X ( l ) = 2.03, p<.001 b. t (75) = -3.03, p<.005 2  3. Socioeconomic Status  Table indices:  3 presents the SES  of subjects' parents, which  highest educational level,  occupations. significantly  The  parents  of  different in their  employment  the  two  status  cultural  was and  groups  highest educational level  measured  by three  the nature  of their  were  found  to  be  (Father: t(75) = -5.26,  p<  R E S U L T S / 53  Socioeconomic  SES  Table 3. Status by Cultural Group  Indix & Level  EDUCATIONAL LEVEL Less Than Elementary School Grad. Elementary School Graduation Some High School Education High School Graduation Some College/Technical School Edu. College/Technical School Graduation Some University Training University Degree Some Postgraduate Training Postgraduate Degree No. of Responses Obtained  EMPLOYMENT Self Employed Full Time Part Time Retired Student Homemaker Other No. of Responses Obtained OCCUPATION Homemaker/Retired Labourer Farm, Farm Manager Craftsman Clerical Proprietor, Owner of a Small Business Service Operative Sales Technician Manager, Administrator, Govt. Official Owner of a Larger Business Professional I Professional II Not Classified Elsewhere No. of Responses Obtained  Hong Kong Father Mother % %  36.8 23.7 13.2 15.8 2.6 2.6 5.3  41.0 20.5 15.4 17.9 2.6 2.6  38  39  23.1 69.2  7.7 23.0 10.3  7.7  Vancouver Father Mother %  10.3 7.7 12.8 23.1 2.6 5.1 2.6 7.7 5.1 23.1 39  5.1 5.1 20.5 25.6 12.8 5.1 7.7 10.3  42.5 40.0  15.0 40.0 20.0 7.5 2.5 15.0  10.0 59.0  39  39  8.1 5.4  64.9 21.6  8.1 13.5 5.3 13.5 8.1 5.4 2.7 8.1 18.4 2.7  2.7  2.6 38  8.1  2.7  37  7.5 40  10.5 10.5 2.6 7.9 2.6 5.3 5.3 10.5 5.3 2.6 5.3 15.8 2.6 10.5 2.6 38  7.7 39  40  26.3 7.9 2.6 2.6 18.4 2.6 7.9 5.3 2.6 7.9 13.2 2.6 38  R E S U L T S / 54 .001;  Mother:  t(76) = -6.14, p<.001)  and  in  their  employment  X (5) = 8.407, p<.05; Mother: X ( 5 ) = 18.249, p<.005). With 2  2  fathers and school  41%  than  the  graduated  from  Canadian  mothers).  them  were  Canadian  36.8%  the  Canadian  Hong  group  high school (69.3% Although  employed  fathers). On  the  (91.3%  Kong  where  most  of the  Canadian  Chinese  of  group  the  of  fathers  Chinese  a  relatively  the  were  less  fathers  mothers (75%) were employed  the Chinese  mothers  educated  parents 69.2%  educated,  versus  the other hand, the data showed  of Canadian  and  elementary  less  subjects'  fathers  (Father:  of the Chinese  of the Chinese mothers reported to have less than  graduation, it made  sample  status  82.5%  had  of the more of  of the  that a large proportion  than Chinese mothers (41%). Most of  (59%) were housewives.  This  is probably a result of more  rigid sex stereotpying in Hong Kong society.  The  socioeconomic  Blishen and Caroll &  of occupations used  Moore, 1987). As  Kong  across  index  for comparing  the  much  as Hong  Kong  and  societies, SES  was  Moore's  was  adapted  from  originally developed for occupations in  adapted  the  fact  it would  of respondents  that  be  the  difficult  in two  from  occupation variations in nature  of occupations  to derive  societies  a  which  employed  Blishen's  system  coded the SES  (1987) for 510  by  J.  D.  common differ  because  indices of occupations in the literature. The  April, 1989). He study  to  Canadian. Blishen's index was  of the recognized SES  communication, and  this index was  society. However, due  substantially  index  study  not be a precise guage of "natural" SES  varies  one  in this  his associates' socioeconomic index of occupations in Canada (Blishen,  Canada, it may Hong  index  Willms  as  it is  present (personal  scores reported in Blishen, Caroll  occupations in Canada,  and  classified  each  R E S U L T S / 55 occupation  into  catergory  is  category.  Then,  scores. To more The  the  results  the  SES  categories  'owner  in  of a  that  Appendix score  were  larger  there  father's  did differ  Chinese  category  average  showed  groups  occupation than  categories (see  E). The  SES  all occupations  ranked  according  business',  was  no  occupation  significantly  Classified  was  to  their  in Hong added  significant  listed  that  average  SES  Kong  society,  p>.05)  excluded  one  to Willms' categories.  from  the  However,  the  two  mother's  Canadian  in high-ranking occupations. was  into  difference between  (t(72) = -.71,  Elsewhere'  for each  classified  (t(72) = -4.36, p<.001). More  mothers were employed  of 'Not  score  for  increase representativeness for occupations  category,  cultural  15  mothers  (Note that the  present  statistical  analysis.)  B. MAIN ANALYSES  1. Confounding Effects  Before  turning  confounding  to  the  variables  main  is  analyses,  presented.  appeared in the literature as having LOC  and  UNCERT  are  SES.  Table  three  and  SES  demographic  (see  of subjects' parents  which  the development of FD-I, Lefcourt,  were used  Witkin  &  in this study  to  measure  uncertainty  orientation,  ZCOMP).  subscales,  Only  a  few  and  these  1982;  (GEFT),  C  of  variables  of  Figure Test  and  correlation  effects  variables with the five criterion measures (i.e., the Group Embedded P,  the  the  confounding  I,  presents  of  three  Levenson's  4  investigation  some influence on  gender, age  Goodenough, 1981). Occupations indicate  The  an  the  composite  correlations  were  found  to  of be  R E S U L T S / 56 Table 4. Correlation of Gender, Age & !SES  GENDER* Hong Kong  with Criterion Measures  GEFT  I  P  C  .2157 (.097)  -.2563 (.060)  -.1365 (.207)  .2253 (.087)  -.0151 (.465)  .1367 (.203) -  .4299* (.003)  .0062 (.485)  .1209 (.232)  -.0662 (.345)  -.2178 (.094)  -.0587 (.363)  .0022 (.495)  -.1474 (.189)  -.1538 (.185)  -.2205 (.092)  .1645 (.162)  -.2758* (.047)  -.3185* (.026)  .4446 (.003)  .0640 (.353)  -.0577 (.367)  -.0756 (.328)  .0682 (.344)  -.0742 (.336)  .3062* (.033)  -.1789 (.145)  .1107 (.257)  .1091 (.260)  -.1894 (.131)  .0524 (.379)  .2528 (.066)  .0370 (.414)  .0977 (.283)  -.0115 (.474)  .1592 (.173)  -.2839" (.044)  .2931* (.039)  .0544 (.375)  -.0426 (.401)  ZCOMP  a  3  Vancouver  AGE Hong Kong  Vancouver  MOTHER'S O C C U P A T I O N Hong Kong  Vancouver  FATHER'S O C C U P A T I O N Hong Kong  Vancouver  1  a. ZCOMP: the composite score for U N C E R T b. Coding for gender: M = l , F = 2 significance levels are presented in parentheses * significant atc£=.05  significant  at the .05 level using a one-tailed  test. Gender was not significantly  correlated  with  for one coefficient  statistical  significance.  the criterion  measures, except  Inconsistent with  the past  findings,  which attained  which  showed that  R E S U L T S / 57 females tend to be internal  scores.  more external, Vancouver  Age  was  negatively  female  associated  students demonstrated  with  most  of  the  high  criterion  measures in both groups; three of these coefficients were significant. Among the correlations with The  occupation, only three in the Canadian  magnitude of these few  were so moderately  low  group  were  significant correlations, ranging from  as to lack practical  significance. This  significant.  .4446 to -.3185, suggests that the  influence of the three confounding variables on the criterion measures is so trivial that statistical control for them is not necessary in the subsequent other  feature  comparing few  of  examining  confounding  effects  on  the  the "confounding correlations" between the two  "confounding  Father's  correlations"  Occupattion-I  significant  correlations  and seem  appear  to  Age-ZCOMP to have  be  criterion  significant.  influence  measures is  cultural groups. Only  correlations.  little  analyses. The  They  Such  on  the  a  are:  Gender-I,  few  potential  criterion  measures.  a  Future studies should explore further confounding effects between different cultural groups.  2. C u l t u r a l and  As  in  Field  Dependence-Independence, locus of  control  uncertainty-orientation  discussed in the literature  more FD, A  Differences  external L O C  summary  of results  and  review, Hong certainty-oriented  for group  differences  Kong than  students are their  of FD-I,  expected  to be  Canadian counterparts. LOC  and  UNCERT  is  displayed in Table 5. Since multiple criterion measures were involved, Hotelling's 2 T  test  groups  was on  the  first  performed  composite  to  test  for differences  set of measures, using the  between centroids  the  two  cultural  of the  criterion  R E S U L T S / 58 measures  as  the  computed  to evaluate group differences on  procedure follows study,  they  the  an  of  in  comparison. Then, one-tailed  approach  compared  differences univariate  basis  three  Student's  combination  normal  univariate  researchers  by  of  recommended  univariate  inflated  approach  Type  desirable  I  error.  approach  with  multivariate  The  completely  because  of  its  analyzing  These  approaches  are:  t-test that  Hotelling's  and  the  data  combination  expected, the  two  cultural groups were  2  approach,  and 2  Hotelling's  T  approach  discouraged  procedure  conservativeness  group  completely  is more  other approaches. The  multivariate  extreme  T  multivariate  should be  difficult to observe possible group differences on  As  were  Sligo (1970). In their  approaches  desirable to analyze the multivariate data than the the  and  variance  multivariate  Student's  t tests  individual criterion measures. This  Hummel  data.  t-test, completely  of  procedure. The  suggested analysis  multivariate  the  Student's  is  use  due also  which  of  to its not  a  makes  it  individual criterion measures.  found  to  differ  significantly  on  the  2 centroid  of  the  showed  that  criterion  it was  clearly  subscales  (t(78) = 2.88,  found  to  be  Even  though no  more  measures  (T (5,  74) = 16.39, p<.05). Univariate  significant group  p<.005; t(78) = 3.33,  external  in the  p<.005). Hong  domains  significant difference was  of  orientation, closer examination of the  orientation  revealed  both  authoritarianism  t(78) = 2.14,  the and  group  on  the  on Kong  cultural groups  n  Uncertainty  were  the  for n  Uncertainty  C were  'Chance'.  composite measure of for uncertaintj  (t(78) = 4.42,  was  7  different on  students were more authoritarian than  difference  and  students  significantly  measures  P  Others' and  component scores  two  p<.05). Hong Kong  students. However, the  'Powerful  reported  uncertainty  that  differences  t-tests  in the  p<.001; Canadian opposite  RESULTS  / 59  Table 5. Means, Standard Deviation and Significance Tests of Cultural Group Differences  GEFT I P C ZCOMP  Hong Kong Mean S.D.  Vancouver Mean S.D.  13.51 35.80 26.49 27.18 -0.20  12.63 35.52 22.93 23.20 0.21  4.30 3.68 5.29 4.33 1.23  Hotelling T Lower C.I. Upper C.I.  5.22 4.52 5.74 6.15 1.50  4.64 3.52 7.90 8.18 0.67  t  2.89 2.96 0.78 0.21 1.46  a  0.82 0.23,. 2.88* 3.33 -1.31  a. Chinese students was assigned to be group 1; Canadian students was assigned to be group 2 Degree of Freedom for the t-tests =78 * significant atc£»=.05  direction. That  is, Hong  Kong students, unexpectedly,  were found  to have higher  need for uncertainty.  3. Correlations among  F i e l d Dependence-Independence, locus of control  and  uncertainty-orientation  To  examine  correlations presented  whether were  in Table  FD-I,  computed  LOC among  and  UNCERT  them.  6, where correlation  The  were  inter-related,  summary  of these  coefficients for Hong  Kong  Pearson  results is  students are  reported in the upper triangle of the matrix and those for Canadian students are in  the lower  typical relative  triangle.  Although  there  magnitude is not so high independence  among  the  were  some  as to challenge constructs. Given  significant correlations, seriously that  their  the proposition of  only  two  significant  R E S U L T S / 60 Table 6. Intercorrelation Among FD-I, L O C &  UNCERT  GEFT  I  P  C  F  1.000  .147 (.187)  .062 (.355)  -.008 (.481)  -.268 (.050)  -.008 (.482)  I  -.385'' (.006)  1.000  .338* (.018)  -.059 (.361)  .163 (.161)  -.286* (.043)  P  .088 (.293)  -.398*  1.000  .158 (.168)  .051 (.380)  -.002 (.415)  -.086 (.297)  -.133 (.203)  .445* (.002)  1.000  .316*  -.122 (.236)  -.133 (.204)  .366'' (.009)  .173 (.139)  .188 (.119)  1.000  -.177 (.148)  .030 (.427)  .060 (.354)  -.301* (.028)  -.324* (.019)  -.011 (.473)  1.000  GEFT  C  F  NUN  (.005)  NUN  (.025)  a  a. NUN: the n Uncertainty measure significance levels are presented in parentheses * significant atcL=.05  correlations involving G E F T 14.8%  of shared  variance,  UNCERT.  This  regression  analyses  measures  for U N C E R T  multiple  were found it seems  proposition was tested  regression  on G E F T  and none of them that  explained  FD-I is unrelated  further by conducting  using the Levenson's subscales  are summarized  in Table  than  to L O C and  standard  multiple  and the component  as two sets of predictor variables. Results  analyses  more  7. Neither  of standard L O C nor  U N C E R T was showed to be a good predictor of FD-I.  Considering  the relationship  between  LOC  and UNCERT,  weak  and irregular  R E S U L T S / 61 Table 7. Summary of Multiple Regression  Analyses  Predictors  R  R  Hong Kong C, I, P NUN, F  0.15 0.27  0.02 0.07  5.07 18.52  Vancouver C, I, P NUN, F  0.41 0.14  0.17 0.02  60.91 -0.03  associations were found,  MS  2  as reported in Table  on G E F T  F-Ratio  p  19.62 13.79  0.26 1.34  .850 .275  24.56 5.31  2.48 0.36  .076 .702  MS  reg  res  6. Significant correlations included:  positive C-F correlation ( 1 0 % of common variance) and negative I-NUN correlation (8.2%  of common  (13.4%  variance)  of common  variance)  and  Canadian  students.  for Hong  variance),  negative  negative  C-NUN  It appears  Kong  P-NUN  correlation that  students;  correlation  (10.5%  the two  positive  I-F correlation  ( 9 % of common  of common  cultural  groups  variance) for have  different  patterns of correlation. Since the I-E control and U N C E R T scores collected the  subjects were  derived  measures  for U N C E R T ,  statistical  analysis  canonical the  Levenson's  canonical  the B M D P 6 M  program  subscales  would  of relationship  a method  subtests within each  three  analysis  for the pattern  analysis provides  separate  using  from  of determining  instrument.  (Dixon,  1983),  provide under  with  and two component a  more  study.  the relative  Canonical  from  pertinent  In addition, importance of  analysis was performed  Levenson's  I, P,  and  C  subscales as the first set of variables and the U N C E R T component measures as the second set of variables.  RESULTS Since one of the requirements for canonical in each set should be too highly  analysis is that none of the variables  correlated  with, or near linear combinations of,  others in the set, an investigation of the correlation between/among in  each  displayed  set is necessary. in Table  construct, and to  which  the n  was  assessed  very  low  and  among  I, P  and  C  weak; the highest cultural groups  of P-C  correlation  and  correlations  were  between/among to  was  measures (i.e., the F  groups.  canonical  the  were  found  association consistently  than  among  were consistently  the other  I, P and weak, the  correlations,  thereby  have more overlapping variance than either P and  of externality. A  students. Only  it was  proceed.  in each  (Different  different pattern  correlations  of association  was  one significant correlation, P-I correlation,  unexpectedly  insignificant. The  subtests  group. For Hong  Scale  correlation was  Considering  positive  correlation  set were patterns  in  matrix  low  direction. indicated  enough  were generated  Kong students, the first canonical  that  remaining relationship  the  among  I, P  of relationship  and evaluated  The  to allow  subscales are discussed further in the "Additional Analyses"  Two  are  19.8% of variance. Again, the two  the correlations larger  subtests  was expected since both P and C subscales were designed to  Kong  noted  only  the subtests  definition of the U N C E R T  to have different patterns of realtionship  different aspects  for Hong  analysis  uncorrelated  the  all the significant correlations  students, although  I or C and I. This  was  two  correlation explained  suggesting that P and C may  found  the conceptual  insignificant in both subscales,  seem  C. For Canadian  measure  by  between/among  Uncertainty measure), the magnitude of F-NUN  be  magnitude  Intercorrelations  6. Consistent with  / 62  canonical and  C  section.)  for significance in each  correlation was  .45 (20% of  R E S U L T S /. 63 2 variance); the  second was  .14  (2%  of variance). Neither was  significant (X (6) = 8,  2 p>.2; X was .55 first  (2) = .65, p>.7). For Canadian students, the first canonical correlation (30% of variance); the second was .28 (8.2% of variance). ' Only the  canonical  interpretation  correlation of the  2 significant (X (6) = 16.46, p<.02) and  was  relationship between the  two  sets  useful  of variables. The  for  second  2 canonical  correlation  did  not  attain  statistical  significance  Therefore, a  significant relationship between  the  by  canonical  in the  the  the  first  Hong Kong  correlation was  group. The  found  following  two  sets  (X (2) = 3.22, of variables  Canadian  discussion, therefore,  p>.l). explained  group, but  not  focuses mainly on  in an  interpretation for Canadian students. Analysis  relevant  to  the  first  (and  only  Canadian students is summarized  in Table  between  respective  the  variables  and  the  correlations of each variable in the  significant) canonical 8, which  correlation  shows correlations  canonical  variates,  set with all variables  squared  in the  for  (loadings) multiple  other set (i.e.,  2 multiple  R )  and  canonical  variates in excess of .3 seen in the that  are  in the  subjects  who  domains of 'Powerful Others' (.54)  In  importance  of  the  the  relative  F  Scale, 2  significant multiple  R  .3  variables  present study.  have low  and  'Chance' (.59)  need for uncertainty of  each  with  a  variable-variate  =.25,  p<.05), contributed  variable  As  and  also tended  (-.50).  in  correlation  (.48)  the of  .87  canonical and  2 (R  and  level. It is evident  were internal in their personal life  and  relationship,  between  eligible for interpratation in the  to be more authoritarian (.87) regard  Correlations  table, all variable-variate correlations exceeded  those Canadian  external  correlations.  more strongly  than the  a n  R E S U L T S / 64 Table 8. Summar3' of Canonical Correlation Analysis  Within-Set Variable-Canonical Correlation  Standardized Coefficient  Multiple R  0.48 0.54 0.59  0.82 0.68 0.41  ** 0.13„ 0.12* 0.14  UNCERT SET F NUN .  0.87 -.50  0.87 -.49  * 0.25 0.14  Canonical R^ Canonical R  0.55 0.30  Variables  LOC I P C  SET  :s  p<.05 p<.l  Uncertainty and  measure  to the canonical equation. Among  C subscales made approximately  the L O C  variables, I, P  equal contribution to the equation.  C. ADDITIONAL ANALYSES  Different patterns of inter-correlation of I, P and C subscales were found between the  two  cultural  groups.  As  mentioned  before,  Levenson's  IPC  Scale  was  developed to tap the I-E control in three different dimensions. The I subscale is scored in the internal direction whereas the P and C subscales are scored in the external direction. Therefore, the I subscale should relate negatively to the P and C  subscales, while  the P  and C  subscales should  associate positively with  each  RESULTS other.  This  Canadian Hong  general  students;  Kong  pattern  of correlation  however, a different  students.  For the Hong  among  pattern  Kong  I, P  and  C  of correlation  group, the P  unexpectedly related in a positive direction while  the other  was  was  / 65  found for  observed for  and I subscales  were  two correlations were  very low and insignificant. This pattern suggested that the three subscales, which were originally designed  for the North American population, might not assess the  I-E construct in the same way  To  for Hong Kong  students.  investigate further the functioning of the IPC Scale, internal consistency  computed estimate  using  the L E R T A P  program  (Nelson,  1974). Internal consistency  was is an  of the extent to which the subjects' responses are consistent across the  items within  a test  (or subtest). When  the responses  are consistent, items are  interpreted as measuring the same construct, and the test (or subtest) is said to have strong internal consistency. The L E R T A P consistency  estimate  consistency estimates the  same  reversed used  for the composite  direction. Thus, the scoring direction for the present  to estimate  Canadian  internal  analysis. Hoyt's consistency  subjects, given  variety of situations, the data internal alpha  In order  to compute  the internal  for the composite test, all the subtests should be scored in  internal consistency estimates  For  test.  program also provides an internal  of the P  coefficient  and  in the L E R T A P  and C  subscales  Cronbach's  program. A  alpha  was are  summary of  of the IPC Scale is displayed in Table 9.  that  the IPC  items  were  selected  from  a  wide  showed that except for the I subscale, the overall  consistencies of Levenson's  subscales  were  moderately  high.  Cronbach's  reliability of .60 further suggested that Levenson's Scale is a quite reliable  RESULTS  Table 9. Summary of Item Statistics by I, P and C  Subscales  HONG  subscales  Mean  S.D.  Hoyt  35.79 29.51 28.85  3.68 5.29 4.37  .48 .69 .53  94.5  7.54  .51  35.51 33.07 32.80  4.52 5.74 6.15  .51 .63 .69  101.39  12.34  .76  Cronbach  KONG  I P C  The  / 66.  Composite Test  -.10  VANCOUVER  I P C  The  Composite Test  composite Hoyt's  instrument  coefficients  for Canadian  subjects. On  of .48 and .53 indicated  .60  the other  that  hand,  the items  the subscale  of the I and C  subscales were not homogeneous for Hong Kong subjects. In other words, besides assessing the I-E construct, these  items  might also assess  some other constructs  or traits. This finding at least partially explained why for the Hong Kong group, low  and unexpected  correlations  were  found  among  the I, P  and C  subscales.  One effect of having heterogeneous I and C items was that the Hoyt's coefficient for  the composite  test  was  subscale remained moderately the  Cronbach's  alpha  low even  though  internal  consistency  of the P  high for Hong Kong subjects. This, accompanied by  of -.10, indicated  that  Levenson's  Scale  is an unreliable  R E S U L T S / 67 instrument for Hong Kong subjects.  D. CHAPTER SUMMARY  This  chapter  described  the demographic  cultural  background,  parents'  SES. Potential confounding  investigated. Pearson  age, gender,  characteristics of the subjects, including  place  of birth,  educational  effects of age, gender  correlations showed  that  level  and SES  and  their  were  also  the influence of these confounding 2  variables was trivial. A  combination of multivariate Hotelling's T  Student's t test was employed UNCERT.  to examine cultural differences in FD-I, L O C and  Significant differences were found  (i.e., the P  and C  subscales)  in two of the Levenson's  and in the two separate  component  subscales  measures of  difference for the n  U N C E R T . However, the direction of the group measure opposite  and univariate  Uncertainty  to that predicted.  Interrelationships among FD-I, L O C multiple  regresssion  unrelated  to L O C  and  canonical  and U N C E R T analyses.  and U N C E R T , for both  relationship  between  overlapping  variance)  LOC was  and found  The  cultural  UNCERT, between  were analyzed  a  LOC  results  showed  groups. With  moderate  using  FD-I  respect  association  and U N C E R T  standard was  to the  ( 3 0 % of  for the Canadian  sample, but not for the Hong Kong group.  Finally, subscales.  subscale  internal  Different  groups: for Canadian  consistencies  patterns  were  of estimates  evaluated  emerged  for the I, P  between  the two  and  C  cultural  subjects, internal consistencies were moderately high, except  R E S U L T S / 68 for  the I subscale.  For Hong  Kong subjects, results showed that the I and  items might assess more than one construct.  C  V. DISCUSSION  The  primary  objective of the present study was  in FD-I, L O C these and  and UNCERT, and the differences in the inter-relationships among  cognitive constructs. The  results partially  lc: the cultural differences in L O C  cultural differences in FD-I was the  interrelationships  among  association between L O C subjects. No this  supported  the propositions of l b  and UNCERT. Proposition  l a , in which  speculated, was hot confirmed. Results concerning these  cognitive  and U N C E R T  domains  suggested  a  influence  was  effects of age, gender and SES  trivial  and  moderate  for Western subjects, but not for Chinese  other significant correlations among these constructs was  study. The confounding  their  to investigate cultural differences  deemed  not to have  obtained in  were also assessed;  contaminated  the current  results.  A. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN FIELD DEPENDENCE-INDEPENDENCE, LOCUS OF CONTROL & UNCERTAINTY-ORIENTATION  As discussed in the literature review, it was would  be  more  FD  than  their  Canadian  speculated that Hong Kong students  counterparts. Result of this  not support this expectation; no cultural difference was from  both  probable for  cultural  groups  obtained  similar  score  levels  explanation of this result is that the G E F T  differentiating  college  simple  for college  within  the time  students  students who  in the FD-I  on  for FD-I. Students the  GEFT.  One  is not a good instrument  domain. The  have little difficulty  limit. To demonstrate  found  study did  test  in finishing  may  be too  the whole test  whether the current result is due to the  69  DISCUSSION inappropriate  use of the G E F T  for the present  samples,  more  / 70  extensive  adult  norms are needed for the G E F T .  A  strong  cultural  difference  measures  of U N C E R T ,  theoretical  expectation,  was  reported  but not on and  with  on  the  the composite  Lau's  (1985)  two  score.  earlier  separate  component  Consistent  with the  findings,  Hong  Kong  students scored higher on the F Scale. In other words, Hong Kong students were more authoritarian than Lau's finding, Hong  Canadian  students. On  the other  hand, in conflict  students scored higher on the n  Kong  with  Uncertainty measure,  displaying a higher need for uncertainty. The composite score showed no cultural difference.  The  question  of why  inconsistent findings were  remains unanswered. More empirical work dynamics explain lack  of U N C E R T .  Pitfalls  One  in scoring. The n  limitation  this  instance.  Uncertainty  scorers' interpretations  comparable. In the present case, the n  at least  measure, like  of one bilingual graduate Canadian  students'  need for uncertainty, in  of the responses  may  by the Chinese  Even  not be  Uncertainty measure was scored by two  though  students,  students; the second team, composed  student and one Canadian graduate  stories.  is the  other projective  teams of scorers. The first team, consisting of two bilingual graduate scored the stories generated  partially  and integrate the meaning  as signs of the traits being studied —  Different  may  of projective techniques  tests, depends extensively on the scorers to evaluate of the responses  in two similar studies  should be done to explore the cultural  of projective techniques  the inconsistent findings.  of objectivity  obtained  differences  student, scored the  in interpretation  of the  DISCUSSION / 71 responses  were  resolved  through  variations in interpretation may Therefore,  variation  in  discussion  between  interpretation  of  the  responses,  explain the current results.  The  cultural  difference in L O C  study. Statistical differences were observed on the I subscale. As and be  C  subscales  on  still have occured between two  influence per se, may  proposition of a  scorers  was  and  not  C  expected, Hong Kong students obtained than their Canadian  counterparts.  team,  teams of scorers. just  partially  the P  each  the  cultural  supported  in this  subscales, but not  higher  Before a  scores on the  firm conclusion  on P can  drawn to state that Hong Kong students are more external in the domains of  'Powerful Other' and two  'Chance', the comparability  cultural groups of subjects  English  IPC  have the  Scale  into  should  Chinese  does  be  established. Careful  not  necessarily  same psychological meaning for the  different  cultural  items may  values  and  perceptions,  of Levenson's IPC  two  Scale for the  translation of the  guarantee  that  all items  groups of subjects. Because of  it is possible  that  some  of  the  IPC  not have the same meaning for Chinese subjects as it does for those  from North American cultures.  In  this  study,  equivalency  internal  structure  Internal  consistency  Scale  is not  the  in  North  Canadian  subjects  operationalization  IPC  estimates  congruent  developed  selected from  of  in  for  Scale suggests  the  American  two  for  the  that culture  two the  Kong  tested cultural  to  by  of  internal structure  of  function  IPC  Scale,  more  subjects. Given that the  a wide varietj' of situations, the  comparing  groups  groups. The  culture, appears  than for Hong  was  subjects. the  IPC  originally  effectively  IPC  the  for  items were  overall internal consistency  of the  DISCUSSION / 72 IPC  Scale  showed  is moderately  (see  Chapter  high  for Canadian  III), the  internal  weaker than that of the other two especially  the  were designed  On  P  and  C  items,  previous  I subscale  findings  is relatively  homogeneous for Canadian  items,  subjects; they all  to assess the I-E construct in their specific sub-domains.  that the  internal  the  subscales. Results showed that the IPC  are  P  subscale  is the  psychological meaning for the two its  structure of the  the other hand, when the scale was  showed  subjects. As  structure  is  still  applied to Hong Kong subjects, the  only  subscale  which  seems to have  data  similar  cultural groups of subjects. For the I subscale,  weak.  Accompanied  by  the  past  evidence,  low  internal cosistency of the I subscale for both cultural groups clearly suggests that this  subscale  needs to be  revised in order  Scale. Internal consistency  analysis of the  to improve C  subscale  the  quality of the  IPC  indicated that, for Hong  Kong subjects, other constructs or traits which are not operationally defined as part  of the  LOC  construct  may  contaminate  the  'Chance' domain. This  raises questions regarding the construct validity of the C  subscale  a  finding  as an indicator  of the I-E control for Chinese subjects.  Different internal consistency  estimates  of the  C  subscale  were obtained  for the perceive  two  cultural groups. It implies that subjects from the two  cultures may  the  C  more  items  Canadian  differently,  subjects  than  and  the  for Hong  C  items  Kong  seems  to  be  subjects. Therefore,  appropriate  to measure  control more accurate in the context of Chinese culture, it would be to examine the be  Chinese concept of chance. Further  useful to develop  a  more  valid  LOC  instrument  the  for I-E  advantageous  work in this direction would for the  Chinese  population.  DISCUSSION Until  there  measures  is more  in Chinese  empirical work cultures,  investigating  extreme caution  what  should  the IPC Scale  be taken  / 73 really  in interpreting  cross-cultural comparisons with the IPC Scale, including the present study.  B.  RELATIONSHIPS AMONG  FIELD DEPENDENCE-INDEPENDENCE,  LOCUS OF CONTROL & UNCERTAINTY ORIENTATION  Consistent with past findings LOC  (see Chapter  I), no association betweeen FD-I and  was reported in this study, among either Canadian  subjects. It seems that FD-I and L O C  subjects or Hong  Kong  are two separate psychological constructs.  However, the methodological problems inherent in the instruments make it difficult to interpret the obtained association unambiguously, especially for the Hong  Kong  sample. Further research should be done on the validation of instruments.  An  moderate association  were  found  subjects, but not for Hong  Kong  that  are two  UNCERT  and  LOC  subjects. The lack of correlation invalidity  between L O C  subjects. This study related  for Hong  of the IPC Scale in Chinese  Kong  for Canadian  provides tentative  constructs, at least subjects may  for Canadian be due to the  valid  subjects. (The internal consistency estimates  and more  reliable for Hong  and the Cronbach's alpha for  the scale were low in the Hong Kong group). The relationship between and  UNCERT  FD-I was also examined in this study. Interestingly, no association between  UNCERT this  evidence  culture. The correlation might have been  much higher, if the IPC Scale had been more Kong  and U N C E R T  and FD-I was obtained, for either Canadian or Hong Kong subjects. A t  stage, no sufficient evidence  has been obtained  to allow clear  interpretation  DISCUSSION / 74 of  these  associations.  Independent  replications  of  the  current  results  are  encouraged.  C. IMPLICATIONS FOR CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH STUDIES  The  main implications for further cross-cultural research arise largely out of the  limitations in the present study.  A  shortcoming  group  of the  of Chinese  present  study  is the  use  of Hong  values, social norms  and  have different social values and other societies, like  how  the  in  domains. Perhaps adapt by been  to expect  that  Chinese  Hong  and  Kong  Western  Chinese  may  perceptions as compared with the Chinese in the  China  and  Taiwan. For  a  better  understanding of  the effects of Chinese culture, it would be highly desirable to to more  different Chinese  social poeple  'typical' Chinese and  who  cultural settle  societies  contexts  into  and  to investigate  function  differing  in  cognitive  Western sub-cultures  and  to  develop  differential  socio-economic  patterns  of  adaptation in  Guyana (Patterson, 1975).  Equally important is the question of the representativeness of the college In  a  developing differential patterns of cognitive abilities, much as they have  showed  Jamaica  Mainland  present study  Chinese  as  Eastern cultures. Many of its  expectations are a blend of both  traditions. Therefore, it is reasonable  extend  Chinese  subjects. Being a highly industrialized British colony for a long  time, Hong Kong is a melting pot of Western and  the dynamics and  Kong  making  cross-cultural  comparisons,  the  samples  upon  which  the  samples.  comparisons  DISCUSSION / 75 are  based  must  be  comparable, such  as  in educational  level,  background, so that the observed cognitive differences cannot be  age,  and  family  attributed  simply  to these confounding variables. College/University students become a natural choice not  only  (many  because potential  college/university  of  their  availability,  confounding students  but  variables  in  different  students always poses another  also are  because naturally  cultures).  question:  the  of  their  comparability  matched  However,  the  external validity  by  using  of  college  use  of the  findings.  sample of college/university students in many countries usually represents of middle-class  people who  are  relatively young and  group of people does not represent persons  from  students do current  all walks  of  life.  the As  general a  not readily generalize to others. To  results, further research  should  be  a group  well-educated. Certainly, this  population,  result,  A  findings  which is composed obtained  from  of  college  increase the generalizibility of the  performed by  using  different samples  of subjects.  The  lack  one  of the  study validity  of equivalency  instruments  used  in different cultures is  major methodological problems in cross-cultural research.  further for  researchers  of measuring  highlights measuring  the  importance  instruments.  have neglected  of  In  evaluating  most  previous  The  cross-cultural cross-cultural  present construct studies,  the importance of cross-cultural construct validity. They  have assumed that once the instruments have been accurately translated, a direct cross-cultural consistency, the  comparison the  instruments  cultural  current have  backgrounds.  of  test  scores  can  be  made. By  estimating  results indicated that translation does not the  A  same  psychological  psychological  test  meaning which  to  lacks  subjects  internal  guarantee that from different  cross-cultural  construct  DISCUSSION / 76 validity is in effect two separate measures, one for each culture being studied. direct cross-cultural comparison of these test scores could misleading. confidently  The for  Only  by  establishing  cross-cultural  stories  on  construct  be quite likely  validity,  we  can  make meaningful comparisons across cultures.  other area that is in need of empirical the n  therefore  A  Uncertainty the n  attention  measure. As mentioned  Uncertainty  measure  is the interscorer  reliability  before, the interpretation  largely  depends  on  scorers'  of the  subjective  judgements. The variation in interpretation may lead to a great difference in test scores. Because of this, the obtained findings the  low interscorer  reliability.  In order  reliability must be demonstrated in future  on U N C E R T  to interpret  may  results  be attributed to  clearly, interscorer  studies.  D. CONCLUSION  This  study was exploratorj' and speculative  needed before discussion  any firm  in this  conclusion  chapter  in nature. Independent replications are  can be drawn  is some  suggestive  from  the current  directions  results. The  for future  research.  Despite its limitations, the present study represents the first step of a potentially exciting  line  encouraged, Australia.  of research. especially  Such  Further  in such  studies  could  cross-cultural  multicultural be  most  studies  countries  relevant  in this  area  as Canada and  intercultural communciation, understanding and acceptance.  valuable  should be  and probably for fostering  REFERENCES Adams-Webber, J.B. (1969). Generalized expectancies concerning locus of control reinforcements and the perception of moral sanctions. 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Confucian Personalities (p. 323). Stanford: Stanford  / 84 Yang, K.S. (1981). The formation and change of Chinese personality: cultural-ecological perspective. Acta Psychologica Taiwanica, 23, 39-56.  a  APPENDIX CONSENT  85  A.  FORM  / 86 Bonita Lau University of British Columbia, Dept. of Educational Psychology & Special Education, Faculty of Education, 2125 Main Mall, University Campus, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V 6 T 1Z5.  Re: Consent Form Dear Participant,  I am seeking your participation in a study being carried out by myself and Dr. R. Conry of the Department of Educational Psychology & Special Education at the University of British Columbia, Canada. The research investigates the relationship between visual perception and different opinions about certain personal and social issues. Your participation will involve answering three questionnaires and a figure test; it will take about one hour of your time. The information we gather will be helpful to researchers working in the area of visual perception. In addition, you may discover some interesting things about yourself as you complete the questionnaires.  Your assistance in this study would be greatly appreciated. However, your participation is totally voluntary. You may withdraw at any time or refuse to answer any specific question that you object to. A l l information will be kept confidential; it is to be used for research only. You are not required to write your name on any of the forms. Furthermore, all the obtained data will be destroyed when the study is completed.  Please detach the consent form from this letter and complete the consent form. REMEMBER TO SUBMIT T H E CONSENT FORM WITH THE ENCLOSED QUESTIONNAIRES. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Bonita Lau or Dr. R. Conry at UBC, Canada (Telephone: the mailing address is shown as the above). Thank you very much for your assistance.  Yours sincerely,  (Bonita L A U )  / 87 Consent Form  I  (consent/do not  Lau  and  aware  Dr.  that  R.  consent) to Conry  about one  questionnaires  will  at  hour  be  participate in the the  University  will be  returned  research  of British  required  Columbia,  to finish  anonymously  to  investigated  the  the  by  Bonita  Canada. I  study, and University  that of  am the  British  Columbia, Canada for scoring: I understand that the results of this study will be kept  confidential. Also,  voluntary  and  it may  complete  the  enclosed  I realize be  that  my  terminated at any  questionnaires  and  participation " in this time I like. As submit  them  with  study  is totally  a participant, I will this  consent  (signature)  (Date)  form.  / 88  x/es"/ AWfAj MALL,  M *h /I  ^  A.  A fit 4 " ^ t %  UNttfsGyir  campus.  kk t % t fC%-  ^ Ifat%\-%-MX^MW<tWk'^  MM)-  / 89  ^ il ^  M  %. * ^  «i|  ?/} ^| t A  %$  9$  A P P E N D I X B. E N G L I S H VERSION OF  90  QUESTIONNAIRES  / 91  SENTENCE INTERPRETATION TEST  N O T E : THIS Q U E S T I O N N A I R E H A S  BEEN REDUCED  LEGAL-SIZED PAPER. IT M U S T B E R E P O R D U C E D O N WHEN  USING FOR  REPRODUCED BY REPRODUCTION  RESEARCH  FROM  8.5" X 14"  8.5" X  14" P A P E R  PURPOSES.  S P E C I A L PERMISSION O F  SORRENTINO, R.M..  IS PROHIBITED W I T H O U T SORRENTINO'S  FURTHER  CONSENT.  / 92 Code:  You  are going to see a series of sentences, and your task is to tell a story  that is suggested to you by each sentence. Try to imagine what is going on. Then tell what the situation is, what led up are  thinking and feeling, and what they will do. In other words, write as  complete  You  to the situation, what the people  a story as you can —  will have twenty  a story with plot and characters.  (20) seconds to look at a sentence and then 5 minutes to  write your story about it. Write your first impressions and keep time and  work rapidly. I will  tell you when it is time to finish your story and to get ready  for the next sentence.  There are no right or wrong stories or kinds of stories, so you may write whatever punctuation, and as fully and  feel free to  story is suggested to you when you look at a sentence. Spelling, grammar are not important. What is important is to write out  as quickly as possible the story that comes into your mind as you  imagine what is going on.  Notice that there is one page for writing each story. If you need more space for  writing any  story, use the reverse side of the page.  / 93  1. TWO  P E O P L E A R E W O R K I N G IN A  EQUIPMENT.  LABORATORY  ON  A  PIECE  OF  / 94 Sentence #: 1. What is happening? Who  Code #: is (are)  the person(s)?  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what has happened in the past?  3. What is being thought?  What is wanted? By whom?  4. What will happen? What will be done?  / 95  2. A  PERSON  IS SITTING, W O N D E R I N G  ABOUT  WHAT MAY  HAPPEN.  / 96 Sentence #: 1. What is happening? Who  Code #: is(are) the person(s)?  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what has happened in the past?  3. What is being thought?  What is wanted? By whom?  4. What will happen? What will be done?  •/- 97  3. A  YOUNG  THE  PERSON  BACKGROUND.  IS STANDING: A  VAGUE  O P E R A T I O N S C E N E IS IN  / 98 Sentence #: 1. What is happening? Who  Code #: is(are) the person(s)?  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what has happened in the past?  3. What is being thought?  What is wanted? By whom?  4 . What will happen? What will be done?  AN  O L D E R P E R S O N IS T A L K I N G  TO  A YOUNGER  PERSON.  / 100 Sentence #: 1. What is happening? Who  Code #: is (are)  the person(s)?  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what has happened in the past?  3. What is being thought?  What is wanted? By whom?  4. What will happen? What will be done?  / 101  GROUP E M B E D D E D  REPRODUCTED BY CONSULTING GEFT BY  FIGURE TEST  S P E C I A L PERMISSION. O F  PSYCHOLOGISTS  PRESS, INC., P A L O  O L T M A N , P.K., RASKIN, E. &  R E P R O D U C T I O N IS PROHIBITED  THE  PUBLISHER, ALTO  HERMAN, A.W.  WITHOUT THE  CA94306, F R O M (1971).  PUBLISHER'S  FURTHER  CONSENT.  / 102 GROUP EMBEDDED FIGURE  TEST C O D E #:  INSTRUCTIONS: This is a test of your ability to find a simple form when it is hidden within a complex  pattern.  Here is a simple form which we  This simple form, named  Try  have labeled "X":  "X", is hidden within the more complex  to find the simple form in the complex  over the lilnes fo the complex  figure and trace it in pencil directly  figure. It is the S A M E  PROPORTIONS, and F A C E S IN T H E  SAME  figure below:  SIZE, in the S A M E  D I R E C T I O N within the complex  figure as when it appeared alone.  When you finish, check your solution. This is the correct solution, with the simple form traced over the lines of the complex figure:  / 103 Note that the top right-hand practice problem. Find and trace the simple form named "Y" in the complex figure :  In the following pages, problems like the ones above will appear. On each page you will see a complex figure, and under it will be a letter corresponding to the simple form which is hidden in it. For each problem, look at the B A C K Cover of this booklet to see which simple form to find. Then try to trace it in pencil over the lines of the complex figure. Note these points: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Look back at the simple forms as often as necessary. ERASE A L L MISTAKES Do the problems in order. Don't skip a problem unless you are absolutely "stuck" on it. Trace O N L Y O N E S I M P L E F O R M IN E A C H PROBLEM, you may see more than one, "but just trace one of them. The simple form is always present in the complex figure in the S A M E SIZE, the S A M E PROPORTIONS, and F A C I N G TN T H E S A M E D I R E C T I O N as it appears on the back cover of this booklet.  / 104 Examples of the complex figures:  1 Bnd Simple hrm V  T.nd Si»\j>k Tom  ^nd Smplt frm V  «5V« £hn  ^  T  Examples of the simple figures on the back cover:  3  pimple ^  V  Find Jifripl?. h>rm  / 105  GENERAL  NOTE: THIS Q U E S T I O N N A I R E BYRNE AND  LAMBERTH'S  ORIGINAL I T M E S A R E  ATTITUDE  SURVEY  CONSISTS O F LEVENSON'S  MEASURE  RANDOMLY  OF  IPC S C A L E  AUTHORITARIANISM. A L L  AND  THE  D I S T R I B U T E D IN THIS  QUESTIONNAIRE. THE FOLLOWING  ITEMS A R E  SCORED REVERSELY: ITEM  7, 8, 14, 16, 19,  21, 24, 33, & 35.  REPRODUCED BY SORRENTINO, THEIR  S P E C I A L PERMISSION  R.M.. F U R T H E R  CONSENT.  OF  ACADEMIC  REPRODUCTION  PRESS, INC.  IS PORHIBITED  AND  WITHOUT  / 106 Code #:  The  following is a study of what the general public thinks and feels about a  number of important  social and personal questions. The best answer to each  statement below is your personal opinion. We and  opposing  have tried to cover many different  points of view; you may find yourself agreeing strongly with some  of the statements,  disagreeing just as strongly with others, and perhaps uncertain  about others, whether you agree or disagree with any statement, you can be sure than  On  many people feel the same as you do.  the answer sheet, circle a number of each statement to show how much you  agree or disagree with it. The numbers and their meanings are indicated belows: Circle +3, +2, +1, or -1, -2, -3, depending on how you feel in each case.  + 1: + 2: + 3: —1: —2: —3:  I I I I I I  AGREE SLIGHTLY AGREE ON THE WHOLE AGREE VERY MUCH DISAGREE SLIGHTLY DISAGREE ON T H E WHOLE DISAGREE VERY M U C H  First impressions  are ususally best. Read each statement, decide if you agree or  disagree and the strength of 3 our opinion, and then circle the appropriate r  number. If you find that the numbers to be used in answering do not adequately  reflect your own opinion, use the one that is closest to the way you  feel. Thank you.  / 1.  Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on how driver I  2.  good a  am.  There is hardly anything love, gratitude, and  3.  107  lower than a person who  does not feel a great -  respect for his parents.  Whether or not I get to be  a leader depends on whether I'm  lucky enough  to be in the right place at the right time. 4.  Whether or not I get into a car accident is almost a matter of luck.  5.  To  6.  I have often found that what is going to happen will happen.  7.  It's all right for people to raise questions  a great extent my  life is controlled by  accidental, happenings.  about even the most sacred  matters. 8.  People ought to pay  more attention to new  ideas, even if they  seem to go  against the Canadian (the Hong-Kong) style of life. 9.  I can  pretty much determine what will happen in my  10. Obedience and  life.  respect for authority are the most important  virtues children  should learn. 11. Whether or not I get to be  a leader depends mostly on my  ability.  12. What the youth needs most is strict descipline, rugged determination will to work and  fight for family and  13. In order to have my desires of people who  country.  plans work, I make sure that they fit in with have power over  able to explain anything.  15. When I get what I want, it's usually because I'm findings of science may  cherished beliefs are wrong.  some day  the  me.  14. It is highly unlikely that astrology will ever be  16. The  and  lucky.  show that many of our most  the  / 108 17. People like myself have very little chance of protecting our personal interests when they conflict with those of strong pressure groups. 18. A n insult to our honor should always be punished. 19. It is possible that creatures on other planets have founded  a better society  than ours. 20. Although I might have good ability, I will not be given leadership responsibility without appealing to those in positions of power. 21. When they are little, kids sometimes think about doing harm to one or both of their parents. 22. Young people sometimes get rebellious ideas, but as they grow up they ought to get over them and settle down. 23. I am usualry able to protect my  personal interests.  24. Insults to our honor are not always  important enough to bother about.  25. If important people were to decide they didn't like me, I probably wouldn't make many friends. 26. How  many friends I have depends on how nice a person I am.  27. When I make plans, I am almost certain to make them work. 28. If people would talk less and work more, everybody  would be better off.  29. It's chiefly a matter of fate whether or not I have a few friends or many friends. 30. Often there is no chance of protecting my  personal interests from bad luck  happenings. 31. When I get what I want, it's usually because 32. My  I worked hard for it.  life is chiefly controlled by powerful others.  33. There is no reason to punich any crime with the death penalty.  / 109 34. It's not always  wise for me  to plan too far ahead because  many  things  turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune. 35. The prisoners in our corrective institutions, regardless of the nature of their crime, shoud be humanely treated. 36. No sane, normal, decent person could ever think of hurting a close friend or relative. 37. Getting what I want requires pleasing those people above me. 38. A person who has bad manners, habits, and breeding can hardly expect to get along with decent people. 39. My  life is determined by my  own actions.  40. Books and movies ought not to deal so much with the unpleasant and seamy side of life; they ought to concentrate on themes that are entertaining or uplifting. 41. I feel like what happens in my  life is mostly determined  by powerful people.  42. Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on the other driver.  / 110 Code:  Answer Sheet For General Attitude Survey  Circle  +1 +2 +3 — 1 —2 —3  I I I I I I  +3, +2, +1, or -1, -2, -3, depending on how you feel in each statement.  AGREE SLIGHTLY AGREE ON THE WHOLE AGREE VERY MUCH DISAGREE SLIGHTLY DISAGREE ON T H E WHOLE DISAGREE VERY M U C H  1.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  2.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  3.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  4.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  5.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  6.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  7.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  8.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  9.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  10.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  11.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  12.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  13.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  14.  +3  + 2  +1  -1  -2  -3  / 111 15.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  16.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  17.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  18.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  19.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  20.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  21.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  22.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  23.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  24.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  25.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  26.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  27.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  28.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  29.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  30.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  31.  +3  +2  +3  -1  -2  -3  32.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  33.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  34.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  35.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  36.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  37.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  38.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  39.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  / 112 40.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  41.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  42.  +3  +2  +1  -1  -2  -3  ••/ 113 Code: Date: DEMOGRAPHIC  QUESTIONNAIRE  Please answer the following questions about yourself and your family. Some questions require you to C I R C L E the correct answer(s) while the other require you  to F I L L  IN the answer(s). Remember that the completion  of this  questionnaire is voluntary, and if you object to any particular question, you may skip over it.  1. Gender:  a/ Male  b/ Female  2. Year of Birth: 3., In which country were you born?  4. How  many years have you lived in Canada? years.  5. What language(s) do you usually use in speaking to others at home? a/ Cantonese  hi English  d/ other (specify:  i  c/ Mandarin )  6. What language (s) are you usually spoken to at home? a/ Cantonese d/other  b/ English  (specify:  c/Mandarin _)  7. What is the highest level of formal education you have completed? a/ no formal schooling b/ some elementary  schooling  c/ finished elementary  school  d/ some high school education e/ finished high school  / 114 f/ some college or technical school training g/ finished college or technical school hi some university undergraduate training U finished university undergraduate degree 8. Where did you complete your elementary school  education?  a/ I did not complete elementary school education b/ I completed my  elementary school education in  9. Where did you complete your high school  education?  a/ I did not complete high school education b/ I completed my  high school education in  10. What is the highest level of formal education your parents completed? (tick the most appropriate choice for each MOTHER  have  parent)  FATHER no formal schooling some elementary schooling finished elementary school some high school education finished high school education some college/technical schooling finished college/technical school some university undergraduate training finished university undergraduate degree some postgraduate  training  finished postgraduate  degree  11. What is your parents' current employment status? MOTHER: a/ self employed  hi employed  c/ employed part time  d/ retired  full time el student  )  f/ other (specify: FATHER: a/ self employed  hi employed  c/ employed part time  d/ retired  full time e/ student  f/ other (specify: 12. Please describe briefly the type of work each does. MOTHER:  FATHER:  )  A P P E N D I X C. CHINESE VERSION OF  116  QUESTIONNARIES  / 117  a %.  i  ^  f  r  i  ! ^  ^  #  •%  ^  *  ^ '  / 118  / 119  / 120  «3 * A t« m  M  t ?  it:  f # a. $ A «  / 121  2.  £k£A &i.ftt%%^&'Hlfc4ib :  / 122  2.  t  »3 A . «0 %&. 4  ^ - f  A. ? JtK\  J 4 | i!| £ . * t a ? v  / 124  / 125  B3 k &  &  / 126  t-H Ik % "i SI H 4  *« 4 A ? ( j P / i , A i l - f i t * J £ / f f  / 127 't  la I \  / 128  / 133  55 - M * * l & $ 1 1 ^ 1 # ^ ^ ,i7 , t  35.  ^  #  ^.  # a £du 4 v$. ^tfi& & lit  .  I 134  *. 'lift] /. r A ^ 4 ^ 7  3. fa ? f  Aiir<£ :  _ _ _ _ _ :  / 135  _  _  -~ ^  ^  1  ^t^M*^*-^  <x\J<kX t i t *  4 \^>^^%^%^f  :  APPENDIX DEBRIEFING  D.  MESSAGE  PROJECT: Cultural differences in 3 cognitive STUDENT  constructs  INVESTIGATOR:  Bonita L a u University of British Columbia, Department of Educational  Psychology  &  Special Education Faculty of Education, 2125  Main Mall, University  Campus,  Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V 5 T 1Z5.  The  purpose of this study is two-fold: One is to investigate the possible cultural  differences between American and Chinese cultures in 3 cognitive areas: locus of control (LOC), field dependence-independence (FD-I) and uncertainty-oriented The  other is to examine the inter-relationship among these three  (U/O).  cognitive  functioning.  Rotter  (1966) proposed that L O C  as a set of generalized  perceptions  about how  the individuals attribute their behaviors. He hypothesized that those who attribute their behaviors to internal causes, such as abilit}', effort or intelligence, have "internal" control orientation whereas those attribute their behaviors to external causes as having "external" control. Witkin FD-I.  (1962) proposed a similar construct,  FD-I is a bipolar dimension reflecting characteristic styles of intellectual  functioning. A t one extreme, field independent (FI) persons are proposed to be more likely to use internal referents as primary guides in information  processing;  whereas field dependent (FD) persons, at the other extreme, use more external referents. FI persons are also found to have an ability to restructure a perceptual  situation or impose a structure by ignoring the irrelevant context. The  137  / FD  persons are found to be  appears to be. Therefore, situation by  more likely to accept what a perceptual situation  it is more difficult for them to restructure a  ignoring the irrelevant context. Uncertainty  dominated by  to Sorrentino  et. al. (1984), uncertainty-oriented  a cognitive need to attain clarity by  avoiding  two  persons are  discovering the unknown;  whereas - certainty-oriented persons are characterized by maintain clarity by  perceptual  orientation is a recently  developed construct. It is also proposed as a continuum variable with extremes. According  138  a cognitive need to  confusion.  Based on past studies, there is evidence to suggest cultural environment is essential to the individual's development of LOC,  FD-I  and  U/O  orientation.  Although there is an  increasing interest in cross cultural studies in these 3  cognitive areas, very  few  investigations have been carrried out to examine these  characteristics in Chinese culture. Consequently, we  have no  idea about how  Chinese process in these 3 cognitive functioning, or whether the Chinese and  the the  Americans function differently in these domains. It is with these concern that the present  study is undertaken.  Here, I would like to stress the point that LOC, "value-free" constructs. No  FD-I  value judgements should  of functioning in these cognitive areas. So, if you more external LOC,  FD  be  and  U/O  are  applied to any  3 orientation  were to find that you  are  and/or certainty-oriented, it does not mean that you  inferior to those with internal LOC,  are  FI and/or uncertainty-oriented. Such a  judgement would depend upon the individual's cultural setting.  For  those of you  who  would like to have further information  please feel free to contact Bonita Lau study with you,  or to send you  at UBC.  She  will be  a summary of the results.  about this study, happy to discuss the  I 139  M4 i  U/ifi/enihj driftsk ColUrtSfo, Pepdr-tment of Bnaati'onaL By^Wcxjy faculty of iduCation., Z\Z£>  MfttfS  Aj/jlL,  UNlV&ZSiTX  Vfi*/Cou</£Z, B.C., OWrJM,  4\ Ik  X-lt. $L  IhtirwL VS. fattrmL locus  JxLua&it*.,  CQMPUS,  VST iZ5.  tf  Cortnl,  *P*U  2>*fendenci-  3 f f 15fJ^S2-l r « u * *«* * *****  / 140  * M M k th%  * a ^itM. k+n &/& a.* n& -  iVp e I^C/G nee. - Tnc(gj> fncfe ncjL.  H £ *< « f*|*? 4$ if /fA & H M i % 14 JM? ^ 1 f 11 a # & £ k % ^ * < 8#r £), # ^, ^ i| 4 £ < >fc 4  v  siw: c^i  & g 4^ # ^ ^4ft^ a u  fa  5  $  14 fit ^ * 4  &  ^  ^^  fa  iw  ^^ ^  ^  APPENDIX E . THE  SOCIOECONOMIC INDEX OF OCCUPATIONS  CATEGORIES  SES  Homemaker/Retired  22.08  Labourer  28.82  Farm, Farm Manager  31.97  Craftsman  34.90  automobile mechanic, machinist, painter, plumber, carpenter  Clerical  35.57  bank teller, bookkeeper, secretary, typist, mail carrier  Proprietor or Owner of a Small Business  36.35  contractor, owner of a corner store  37.27  barber, beautician, practical janitor, waiter/waitress  38.62  meat cutter, machine operator, welder,taxi/bus/truck driver  44.62  salesperson, advertising/insurance agent, real estate broker  45.72  draftsman, medical/dental technician, computer programmer  Manager, Administrator, Official  50.88  office/restaurant/sales manager, school administrator, buyer, government official  Owner of a Larger Business  54.00  owner of a supermarket, owner of a factory, owner of a, restaurant  Professional I  58.18  accountant, artist, registrated nurse, engineer, librarian, writer, social worker, actor/actress  Professional II  62.63  clergyman, dentist, physician, lawyer, scientist, college teacher  Service  Operative  Sales  Technician  SCORE  TYPICAL  EXAMPLES  construction worker, car washer, farm labourer  141  nurse,  


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