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The use of Chinese geomancy in contemporary architectural design Mok, Ru-Ping 1978

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THE USE OF CHINESE GEOMANCY IN CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN by RU-PING JJIOK B. ENG. (ARCH), CHUNG YUAN CHRISTIAN COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, CHUNG L I , TAIWAN, 1972 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Be accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e g u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1978 <c) RU-PINGJMOK, 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i i ABSTRACT In the f i e l d of contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n the e x p r e s s i o n of c u l t u r a l images without r e l y i n g on s u p e r f i c i a l t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i f s i s a major concern., That contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l design should n e v e r t h e l e s s express c u l t u r a l images i s the author's b e l i e f . One method f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g b a s i c Chinese c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l design might be to f o l l o w Chinese geomantic orders expressed i n modern f u n c t i o n a l and formal terms., The main source of the geomantic p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d i n the s t u d i e s are based on Yang Chai Shih Shu {The Ten Books of Yang Dwelling, by Sang Wei, f i f t h c e n t u r y ) , which g i v e s the b a s i s f o r o r i e n t a t i o n s , s i t e s e l e c t i o n , the c o u r t y a r d concept and other concepts of b u i l d i n g l a y - o u t . A design process based on geomantic s t a g i n g was developed f o r the experiment t o i n v e s t i g a t e how the modern designer might i n t e g r a t e and c o o r d i n a t e the i n p u t of the p r o f e s s i o n a l geomancer with that of the a r c h i t e c t - d e s i g n e r and o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s . In o r d e r to t e s t the method, a h y p o t h e t i c a l program was developed f o r a Chinese C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e . The design method attempted t o respond to a decision-making process which took i n t o account Chinese geomantic p r i n c i p l e s and other Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l reguirements together with a contemporary design approach. The r e s u l t o f the design experiment may not only show how a unigue "Chinese" c h a r a c t e r can be expressed i n modern, n o n - s u p e r f i c i a l terms but may a l s o serve as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the s c i e n c e and use of Chinese geomancy f o r those u n f a m i l i a r with i t . P r o f . Rogatnick, Abraham TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1. CHINESE GEOMANCY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1.1 D e f i n i t i o n o f Chinese Geomancy 4 1.2 Geomancy as a c r e a t i v e process 7 1.3 Functions o f Chinese Geomancy 10 1.3.1 The Types of E x t e r i o r Space 11 1.3.2 The Types o f I n t e r i o r Space 35 1.4 Summary 52 CHAPTER 2. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEBOSK AND HYPOTHESIS 2.1 Conceptual Framework 54 2.2 Hypothesis 58 CHAPTER 3. DESIGN METHOD 3.1 Design Programming Based on Geomantic S t a g i n g 61 3.2 H y p o t h e t i c a l P r o j e c t 76 3.2.1 The I n t e n t i o n of Design 76 3.2.2 S p e c i f i c C r i t e r i a 78 3.2.3 Design Problem Statement 79 CHAPTER 4. , DESIGN 4.1 S i t e Layout and S i t e P l a n n i n g 83 4.2 The Design of the Complex 91 CHAPTER 5., CONCLUSION 5.1 Co n c l u s i o n and D i s c u s s i o n 120 5.2 Further Research 12? BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 APPENDIX I GLOSSARY 132 APPENDIX I I OMENS 134 APPENDIX I I I PATTERNS OF AUSPICIOUS SITES 13? APPENDIX IV FUNCTIONAL, SPACING AND.SITE REQUIREMENTS OF C. C.R.I. 138 i v LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figu r e 1.1 The R e l a t i o n s h i p of " l i " and " s h 1 ! " 6 F i g u r e 1.2 The E i g h t Trigrams 11 F i g u r e 1.3 Mountainous Elements 12 F i g u r e 1.4 T o p o g r a p h i c a l Elements 13 Figure 1.5 Water Elements 14 F i g u r e 1.6 I n f r a s t r u c t u r e 15 F i g u r e 1.7 V e g e t a t i o n 16 F i g u r e 1.8 B u i l d i n g Graves and Symbolic Forms 16 F i g u r e 1.9 The Shape of The S i t e 17 F i g u r e 1.10 Hater Forms 18 F i g u r e 1.11 Water Forms A s s o c i a t e d with Chinese P i c t o g r a p h s 19 F i g u r e 1.12 l a t e r Forms A s s o c i a t e d with Symbolic Form 19 F i g u r e 1.13 Landforms A s s o c i a t e d with P i c t o g r a p h i c and Symbolic Forms 20 F i g u r e 1.14 Landforms A s s o c i a t e d with Mountain and Water Bodies Representing I n a u s p i c i o u s 21 F i g u r e 1.15 Landforms A s s o c i a t e d with Mountain and Water Bodies Representing A u s p i c i o u s 21 F i g u r e 1.16 Mounds or Stones on The Road 21 F i g u r e 1.17 Road Bends out from a House 22 F i g u r e 1.18 Road A s s o c i a t e d with Symbolic Form 22 Figure 1.19 Roads Aimed at The House 22 F i g u r e 1.20 Roads aimed at The House 23 F i g u r e 1.21 Roads Aimed at The House 23 F i g u r e 1.22 Well Planted Tree beside The House 24 F i g u r e 1.23 D i s o r g a n i s e d Trees 25 F i g u r e 1.24 Gnarled Form of Tree 28 F i g u r e 1.25 The L o c a t i o n of Trees 29 F i g u r e 1.26 The Inauspicous Trees i n Chinese Geomancy 30 F i g u r e 1.27 Chinese T r a d i t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p between Human Ex i s t e n c e and Surrounding Environment 36 F i g u r e 1.28 C e n t r a l Space 38 F i g u r e 1.29 H i e r a c h i c a l Space 38 F i g u r e 1.30 B u i l d i n g Height with F i v e Elements and Nine s t a r s 39 F i g u r e 1.31 S i t t i n g and Facing R e l a t i o n with O r i e n t a t i o n and Major B u i l d i n g s and Main Gate 41 F i g u r e 1.32 12 Examples of Courtyard Concept and B u i l d i n g Height 42 F i g u r e 1.33 B u i l d i n g Form and C o n f l i c t 46 F i g u r e 1.34 B u i l d i n g Layout f o r P i c t o g r a p h i c a l Meaning 47 F i g u r e 1.35 B u i l d i n g Height on S l o p i n g S i t e 48 F i g u r e 1..36 B u i l d i n g Height on an Axis 48 F i g u r e 1.37 B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n F i e l d 49 F i g u r e 1.38 The Number of Steps f o r S t a i r c a s e 49 V F i g u r e 1. 39 Geomantic Measurements 51 F i g u r e 3. 1 The Chart o f Design Programming Based on Geomantic Staging 62 F i g u r e 3. 2 The S i t u a t i o n of An I d e a l S i t e 67 F i g u r e 4. 1 S o i l C o n d i t i o n 8 f F i g u r e 4.2 Surface Drainage 85 F i g u r e 4. 3 Slopes 86 F i g u r e 4.4 Vegetation 86 F i g u r e ti.5 The R e l a t i o n s h i p with N a t u r a l Environment 8? F i g u r e ti.6 The S i t e Layout 88 F i g u r e 4. 7 The Plan of C. C. R. I . 8 F i g u r e 4.8 B i r d s Eye View of C. C. R. I . 90 F i g u r e 4.9 Movement 9 5 F i g u r e 4. 10 S p a t i a l Order "99 F i g u r e 4. 11 N a t u r a l Elements 103 F i g u r e 4. 12 Symbolic Forms 106 F i g u r e 4. 13 Notes on Geomantic Determinants 1 09 F i g u r e 4. 14 View from Parking Lot 110 F i g u r e 4. 15 View towards Main Gate 111 F i g u r e 4. 16 View towards L i b r a r y and Pagoda 112 F i g u r e 4. 17 View from Main Gate t o Cour t y a r d 113 F i g u r e 4. 18 View from Courtyard to Me d i c a l Dept. 1 Xif F i g u r e 4.19 View from Cour t y a r d to L i b r a r y 115 F i g u r e 4. 20 View I n s i d e Sub-courtyard of A r t s D i v i s i o n 11,6 F i g u r e 4 .21 The Researcher's Studio 117 F i g u r e 4. 22 View of the T r a n s i t i o n Gate 118 F i g u r e 4.23 View of Garden and Complex 119 F i g u r e 5. 1 B a s i c Geomantic Order 121 F i g u r e 5. 2 Basic Geomantic Order 122 F i g u r e 5.3 Non-Geomantic Order 123 F i g u r e 5.4 Design F a c t o r s 124 F i g u r e 5.5 Design F a c t o r s 125 F i g u r e 5.6 Examples Of R e s o l u t i o n of Geomantic & 1.26 Design C o n f l i c t s F i g u r e F i g u r e IV. 1 IV.2 The F u n c t i o n a l Programme Diagram of C.C.R.I.151 The S i t e 1 5 . 6 v i Ac kn o w l e d ge m en t s I wish to express my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o my a d v i s o r s , Prof. Abraham Rogatnick, and P r o f . Bruno F r e s c h i f o r h e l p i n g me t o formulate the study, f o r t h e i r g eneral a s s i s t a n c e and f o r t h e i r always v a l u a b l e comments. I a l s o wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. D. Overmyer of the Department of Asian S t u d i e s who was o f i n v a l u a b l e help i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p h i l o s o p h i c a l background of t h i s study, making me aware of p u b l i s h e d sources both i n Chinese and E n g l i s h , and o f f e r i n g u n h e s i t a t i n g a s s i s t a n c e . I a l s o f e e l o b l i g e d t o the f o l l o w i n g people, f o r t h e i r h e l p at v a r i o u s stages of the study. Prof. R. Copley, The Department of Geography, f o r recommending other f i e l d s o f study r e l a t e d to Chinese geomancy. Ms. T. K. Ng., head of the Asian Studies L i b r a r y f o r h e l p i n g me to f i n d most o f the sources r e l a t i n g to Chinese geomancy, Mrs. C h a r l o t t e Murray, f o r her u n f l a g g i n g c r i t i c i s m . Mr. Vinay Kanetkar, f o r h i s help i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f the study. Miss Jane Vancise f o r her patience i n c o r r e c t i n g the E n g l i s h w r i t i n g of the t h e s i s . , My f i n a l note of g r a t i t u d e goes to my wife D o r i s f o r t a k i n g care of me and my son Benjumin who almost grew s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with my t h e s i s p r o j e c t . Vancouver May, 1978 1 INTRODUCTION A design philosophy i s the rudder f o r the boat; i t makes p o s s i b l e a c o n t i n u i n g course i n a meaningful d i r e c t i o n . Having v i s i t e d most Chinatowns i n t h e North American c i t i e s d u r i n g the l a s t two years, I r e a l i s e d t h a t many of the design concepts t h a t had come to be accepted by North American Chinese do not work very w e l l i n the context of t h e i r communities. Chinese people of the t h i r d or f o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n l i v i n g i n North-America p r e f e r , i n t h e i r communities, to have a f e e l i n g of the t r a d i t i o n of t h e i r parents and grandparents. Modernity i s one t h i n g people d e s i r e ; but i f t r a d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t s must change to some degree due to e s s e n t i a l modernization, the new p h y s i c a l arrangement should be adapted as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l l i v i n g p a t t e r n s . There i s a new d e s i r e among non-western c u l t u r e s t o express t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l and v i s u a l values i n terms of modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms. T h i s does not mean t h a t a r c h i t e c t s should n e c e s s a r i l y produce f a c s i m i l e s of h i s t o r i c a l r e l i c s (such as curved r o o f s , decorated b a l u s t r a d e s i n Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r e ) . Some modern b u i l d i n g s do f i t i n with t h e i r surroundings without s a c r i f i c i n g t h e i r 2 modernity. There i s a growing need t o r e - e x p l o r e t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r i e s which, i f accepted, might reduce the shock produced by modernity. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n u s u a l l y goes a g a i n s t the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e , but t h i s does not mean t h a t f a m i l i a r customs and c u l t u r a l symbols must a u t o m a t i c a l l y be abandoned. Some a s p e c t s of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s can and should be r e i n f o r c e d w i t h i n t h e i r new i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o n t e x t . In d e a l i n g with Chinese c u l t u r a l images, p h y s i c a l forms and s i t e determinants w i l l pose problems d i f f e r e n t from those concerned with other b u i l d i n g s , i n order to express s p e c i f i c Chinese geomantic and other c u l t u r a l reguirements, such as: 1. The need t o choose a u s p i c i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , o r i e n t i n g according t o c a r d i n a l p o i n t s , and the need t o r e l a t e u s b e l i e f s and ways of l i v i n g . 2. C o n s i d e r a t i o n of forms t h a t a v o i d c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o n n o t a t i o n s . 3. D i f f e r e n t i o n between a u s p i c i o u s and i n a u s p i c i o u s shapes of landscape elements a c c o r d i n g t o Chinese philosophy and geomancy. 4. Preference f o r forms r e l a t e d t o Chinese c a l l i g r a p h y , images, p i c t o g r a p h s and symbols. 3 Goals of the design t h e s i s : 1. To express Chinese c u l t u r a l approaches to g u a l i t y and sense of humanity through a b e t t e r response t o Chinese c u l t u r a l images. 2. To express Chinese s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s through the use o f Chinese design r u l e s and s i t e f a c t o r s . O b j e c t i v e s o f - t h i s s t udy: 1. To bri d g e gap between Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r e and modern a r c h i t e c t u r e . 2. To reach a b e t t e r understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l forms and modern d e s i g n i n g methods, 3. To help s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l and North-American Chinese i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o make c o r r e c t and e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s when attempting t o accomplish new c u l t u r a l mixes i n d e s i g n . 4 •1. CHINESE GEOHANCY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION In order to present some i d e a o f Chinese geomancy and Chinese geomantic r u l e s f o r b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s chapter w i l l review the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d by Chinese philosophy and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . An examination of the form s c h o o l ( a s opposed to c o s m o l o g i c a l s c h o o l ) 1 o f Chinese geomancy t o g e t h e r with c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of Chinese geomancy w i l l show something about t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y , how geomantic symbols are d e r i v e d and how they are l i n k e d t o other aspects of Chinese c u l t u r e and b e l i e f s . 1.1 D e f i n i t i o n o f Chinese Geomancy Chinese geomancy i s the a r t of adapting the r e s i d e n c e s o f the l i v i n g so as t o cooperate and harmonise with the l o c a l c u r r e n t s of the cosmic b r e a t h , 2 I f houses of the l i v i n g were not p r o p e r l y a d j u s t e d , e v i l e f f e c t s of most s e r i o u s c h a r a c t e r would i n j u r e the i n h a b i t a n t s of the houses, while c o n v e r s e l y good s i t i n g would favour t h e i r wealth, healthy and happiness. While geomancy i s sometimes r e l a t e d to comfort, comfort may be s a c r i f i c e d t o the r e l i g i o u s aspects i f i t i s at odds with i t . The geomantic system i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the whole c u l t u r e . 5 The r u l e s of geomancy govern the d i r e c t i o n s of roads, water-courses; the h e i g h t , forms, placement of houses; and the p l a c i n g of v i l l a g e s , and graves i n the m y s t i c a l environment among the a u s p i c i o u s forms of t r e e s and h i l l s . The c e n t r a l values of the people r e l a t e t o these c o s m o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . Many ideas of Chinese philosophy have i n f l u e n c e d Chinese geomancy and i t s cosmology. A f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s to Chinese geomancy was best s t a t e d by the Neo-Confucian p h i l o s o p h e r Chu Hsi (1200 AD). For Chu H s i , e v e r y t h i n g had breath(ch«i): the water meandering be f o r e the door; a group of pine t r e e s s t a n d i n g f i r m and g u i e t ; the undulating mountains i n the d i s t a n c e ; a l l , l i k e man, had l i f e essence. Chu Hsi»s cosmology i s based upon a dualism between p r i n c i p l e ( l i ) and v i t a l f o r c e ( c h ' i ) . He wrote "...those who speak about the p h y s i c a l nature, do so with r e f e r e n c e t o p r i n c i p l e as i t i s found mixed with the ether(ch»i). " 3 P r i n c i p l e < l i ) , i s necessary to e x p l a i n the r e a l i t y of t h i n g s . I t i s one, e t e r n a l , unchanging, uniform, c o n s t i t u t i n g the order o f t h i n g s , always good, and does not c o n t a i n a dichotomy of good and e v i l . . M a t e r i a l f o r c e (ch'i) i s necessary t o e x p l a i n p h y s i c a l form and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h i n g s . I t i s p h y s i c a l , t r a n s i t o r y and changeable, unegual i n t h i n g s , c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l substance, i n v o l v i n g both good and bad(depending on whether i t s endowment i n t h i n g s i s balanced or p a r t i a l ) , and i s the substance of c r e a t i o n . . L i , s p r i n c i p l e , i s the unchanqing p a t t e r n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n of c.h'i, Chinese geomancy i s an attempt to d i s c e r n the p a t t e r n s of l j . and c h ' i i n the,: n a t u r a l environment, so that, human h a b i t a t i o n s can be b u i l t i n harmony with those p a t t e r n s ( F i g . 1.1) f>-lMl. ipi.«S HO U J&. &iJVi(t-PHA-fcM-r. F i g u r e 1.1 The R e l a t i o n s h i p of " l i " and " c h ' i " To keep the " c h ' i " c i r c u l a t i n g p roperly i n the man-made environment i s the b a s i c requirement of the system of geomancy system, and t h i s r e q u i r e s an a r c h i t e c t u r e which responds both to nature and human needs. Geomancy c o n s i s t s o f c e r t a i n c o n s t a n t s : the use of c h ' i of mountains, rivers,, pond, e t c ; and, the judgement of forms which i n c l u d e the forms of i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r elements and the o r i e n t a t i o n which elements are l o c a t e d . Gectnancy i s based on t r a d i t i o n a l c o s m o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . I t a r t i c u l a t e s l i f e with the rhythm of b i r t h , m a turity, and death. R e l i g i o n i s not as i n the west r e l a t e d only t o God and s u p e r n a t u r a l power. The profane world of human e x i s t e n c e and 7 the sacred powers are viewed on an equal l e v e l i n a n c i e n t Chinese c u l t u r e . Heaven, earth and man cooperate i n harmony.* There i s no order of p r i o r i t y . A n a l o g i c a l l y , heaven has i t s seasons, earth has i t s resources and man has h i s government., These t h r e e are r e l a t e d to each other l i k e hands and f e e t ; u n i t e d they produce f i n i s h e d p h y s i c a l forms so t h a t no one of them can be dispensed with. In the r e l a t i o n t o Chinese l a n d s c a p i n g , the bamboo groves and path through them l e a d s to the s a c r e d place which i s denoted to be e l e g a n t , profound space. Thus, i n the garden s a c r e d and profane are one.. 1.2 Geomancy as a C r e a t i v e Process As we have s a i d the purpose of Chinese geomancy i s t o harmonize with the c u r r e n t s of cosmic breath r e v e a l e d i n the l o c a l landscape. However, i f the c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of t h i s landscape are inadequate, they can be supplemented with the a i d of the geomancer's a r t . T h i s he does by b u i l d i n g mounds, d i g g i n g p o o l s , e t c . T h i s i s the c r e a t i v e s i d e of geomancy, and i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y at t h i s p o i n t t h a t the author's concern emerges. Geomantic r u l e s mediate between non-being and being. They are the p a t t e r n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n , the i m p l i c i t harmonious order of nature. H i t h i n the universe there e x i s t the e t h e r s of Yin and Yang (negative and p o s i t i v e p o l e s ) and l u - h s i n . 3 ( f i v e agents of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) , t o c o n t r o l e v e r y t h i n g . Human beings are 8 immersed i n the e t h e r s of Yin and Yang, j u s t as f i s h are c o n s t a n t l y immersed i n water. Hater i s v i s i b l e , but Yin-Yang and Wu-Hsing are i n v i s i b l e . ? Thus geomancy expresses harmony with nature: "On a rock h i l l you must take an earthy s i t e ; On an e a r t h h i l l you must take a rocky s i t e . Where i t i s c o n f i n e d , take an open place; Where i t i s open, take a c o n f i n e d p l a c e . On a prominence, take a c o n f i n e d p l a c e ; On a f l a t , t a ke the prominence. Where s t r o n g appears, take weak; Where weak appears, take s t r o n g . Where there are many h i l l s , emphasize water; Where t h e r e i s much water, emphasize h i l l s . . . ' ! 6 As Chu Hsi wrote; " l o o k i n g from the p o i n t of view of p r i n c i p l e , although a c e r t a i n o b j e c t may not yet e x i s t , the p r i n c i p l e f o r that o b j e c t i s already t h e r e , t h u s there i s a l r e a d y the p r i n c i p l e i t s e l f , even when i t s o b j e c t does not yet a c t u a l l y e x i s t . " The i d e a s o f geomancy are r e l a t e d t o the i n v i s i b l e p o t e n t i a l which i s s i m i l a r t o L o u i s Kahn Js i d e a s of "the d e s i r e to express", "the d e s i r e t o be". His design i s a t r a n s l a t i o n of i n n e r order i n t o being, so that t h i s order i s manifested i n v i s i b l e f u n c t i o n i n g t h i n g s . Geomancy i n i t s own terms does the same, i t manifests the i n v i s i b l e through the v i s i b l e , non-being through being. In Chinese t r a d i t i o n such harmony with nature b r i n g s a sense of p s y c h o l o g i c a l comfort. Geomancy i s a way of ensuring t h a t one*s l i f e i s l i v e d i n harmony with the f o r c e s of goodness and order. T h i s a p p l i e s to the s p i r i t s of one's anc e s t o r s i n t h e i r graves as w e l l . But as i t has been s a i d n a t u r a l l y a u s p i c i o u s s i t e s are d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d . , As the s a y i n g 9 goes: "A l u c k y p l a c e i s not easy t o f i n d , and to f i n d a completely l u c k y one i s p a r t i c u l a r l y hard. In re c e n t times, knowledgeable people have s a i d : you may happen t o have a good Geomancy, but you cannot search one out. That i s to say, i f there i s such a t h i n g as geomancy o r i e n t e d ' p r o t e c t i o n and response' i t w i l l happen t o none but the f i l i a l son and the humane man, and cannot be got by main f o r c e . , , 3 P T h i s passage reminds us again of the more a c t i v e and c r e a t i v e s i d e of Geomancy, which assumes that man can do much t o engineer h i s own 'comfortable' environment. The author's p o s i t i o n i s t h a t t h i s c r e a t i v e r o l e can be continued by the modern Chinese a r c h i t e c t , i f he can ' t r a n s l a t e * t h e a e s t h e t i c essence c f o l d geomantic terms i n t o new forms. T h i s essence c o n s i s t s e s p e c i a l l y of a sense o f what i s f i t t i n g and a p p r o p r i a t e i n r e l a t i o n to the whole p r o j e c t , the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of b u i l d i n g and environment. The a r c h i t e c t s ' t a s k i s not j u s t to s o l v e t e c h n i c a l problems but t o i n t e r p r e t the i n n e r s p i r i t or i n t e n t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g i n such a way that e v e r y t h i n g flows n a t u r a l l y from i t . •1.3 Functions of Chinese Geomancy 10 There are two c a t e g o r i e s i n Chinese the r e l a t i o n s h i p of geomancy t o b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n : 1) The types o f e x t e r i o r space and 2) The types of i n t e r i o r space. There are t h r e e premises s h o u l d be keep i n mind of t h i n k i n g about the phenomena of Chinese geomancy. 1) a c e r t a i n l o c a l e i s more f a v o r a b l e than others f o r a p r o j e c t . 2) an a u s p i c i o u s place can be ac q u i r e d only through the examination o f the l o c a l landscape a c c o r d i n g t o geomantic - p r i n c i p l e s . , 3)=. once a c g u i r e d and occupied, people who l i v e s on the s i t e can be i n f l u e n c e d by the a u s p i c i o u s n e s s of the l o c a l e . 8 1 i 1.3.1 The Types of E x t e r i o r Space T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l present of 1) o r i e n t a t i o n with n a t u r a l elements, 2) the shape of the s i t e and 3. the forms of n a t u r a l e l ements. 9 1. O r i e n t a t i o n with n a t u r a l elements The l o c a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s r e l a t e d to surrounding n a t u r a l elements i s an important f e a t u r e i n g u i d i n g geomantic s i t e s e l e c t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , the e i g h t trigrams*o are the important determinants f o r d e c i d i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n i n most of geomantic order ( F i g . 1.2) . Ui S SE sw NE NW N JCA.M F i g u r e 1.2 Tho Eight Trigrams The n a t u r a l elements c o n s i d e r e d i n Chinese are r e c o q n i z e d landforms such as mountainous r i d g e s , h i l l s , r o l l i n g t e r r a i n and landmarks(Fig. 1.3): F i g u r e 1.1 Mountainous Elements 13 Elements of landforra, which are c o n s i d e r e d complementary are hiqh-low and f l a t ( F i g . 1 . 4 ) : F i g u r e 1 .4 T o p o g r a p h i c a l Elements Hater elements or forms of water bodies(F P c o l ( c h ' i h ) ^ Lonq r i v e r (chan cj ho) Creek (shiu) -|v R i v e r (ho) Hater (shui) rJ<^ 4 F i q u r e 1.5 Water Elements 15 Elements of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n or c i r c u l a t i o n s y s t e m s ( F i q . 1 . 6 ) : V F i q u r e 1.6 I n f r a s t r u c t u r e V e g e t a t i o n ( F i g . 1.7) F o r e s t ( l i n ) Farm (tien) £7 F i q u r e 1.7 V e g e t a t i o n Symbolic forms and b u i l d i n q s ( F i g . 1.8): mnnrmi Grave (fan) *|[ Temple (iniao) ^ Shrine (sheu) ^ ^ S I F i q u r e 1.3 B u i l d i n g Graves and Symbolic f o r ms 17 The shage of the s i t e ( F i q . 1.9): T ] 1 > 1 s A 1 • f \ \ i \ L _ i ! I K . J L _ \ The form of surrounding elements Mountains Mountains assume a very prominent r o l e amounq the elements of Chinese environmental des i g n . Their forms should be smooth and q e n t l y r e l a t e d to the n a t u r a l landscape without o v e r l y dominating. I f mountains express a s t a b l e and f a m i l i a r form, then the s i t e i s a good s i t e . The mountain i s important i n geomancy because i t plays a main r o l e i n s t o r i n g a u s p i c i o u s n e s s i n an area by b l o c k i n g winds and because the shape cf mountains r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t a u s p i c i o u s aspects. Mountains r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n i n geomantic r u l e s than any other n a t u r a l elements even though they do not e x i s t i n many areas where geomantic b e l i e f s p r e v a i l . Mountains are synonymous with nature i n a long Chinese t r a d i t i o n o f poetry and p a i n t i n g , and they are a l s o the t r a d i t i o n a l abode of immortals and sacred p l a c e s of G o d s . 1 1 18 As mountains are pla c e s of s t o r i n q the v i t a l e n e r g y ( c h ' \ ) . good focus of c h ' i come down the s l o p e s from north to south, l i k e streams. Although gaps i n the b a r r i e r to the nor t h let. i n e v i l i n f l u e n c e s , the b a r r i e r i t s e l f , or r a t h e r i t s s o u t h - f a c i n g s i d e , i s the source of good i n f l u e n c e s . Waters According to geomantic' order, water i s amorphic and f l e x i b l e , governed by g r a v i t y . G e n e r a l l y , water forms should a l s o be smooth and matched to the form of the n a t u r a l landscape. I f water form are meandering, smooth, or adopt a c i r c u l a r form ( F i g . 1 . 1 0 ) , then the s i t e w i l l be a good s i t e . F i g u r e 1.10 Water Forms Ihe l a y o u t of ponds should take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the form of Chinese p i c t o g r a p h s . I f the l a y o u t takes the form of ' 1 (which i n Chinese means c r y i n g ) , then the s i t e would be 19 i n a u s p i c i o u s ( F i q . 1.11). S l T f c F i q u r e 1.11 Water Forms a s s o c i a t e d with Chinese Pictoqraph s The l a y o u t o f water ponds should a l s o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the form of Chinese c a l l i q r a p h s and the thoughts a s s o c i a t e d with them. I f the shape i s a u s p i c i o u s , then the s i t e i s an a u s p i c i o u s s i t e . For i n s t a n c e , i f the s i t e has a pcnd i n f r o n t of i t which l o o k s l i k e a d r a q o n f l y , i t w i l l a c q u i r e the i n a u s p i c i o u s meaninq attached to the concept of f l i q h t without s t a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with a d r a g o n f l y ( F i q . 1.12). s i t e F i q u r e 1.12 Water Forms a s s o c i a t e d v i t h _ Symbolic Form I f the housing l a y o u t has a sguare pond i n f r o n t of the house and the whole o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s i t e plan l o o k s l i k e * vo (which i n Chinese means ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a m i l y * ) , then good f o r t u n e w i l l be p r e d i c t e d f o r the f a m i l y i n the f u t u r e ( F i g . 1.13): 20 F i q u r e 1.13 Landform A s s o c i a t e d with P i c t o q r a p h i c and Symbolic Form I t i s e s s e n t i a l to have water i n f r o n t of an a u s p i c i o u s place. I d e a l l y a s l o w l y winding watercourse should flow some d i s t a n c e from the f r o n t of the a u s p i c i o u s l o c a t i o n , and there should be s m a l l watercourses both to the r i g h t and l e f t of the a u s p i c i o u s p l a c e . Hater l o c a t e d i n f r o n t of anauspicious p l a c e can help to hold the v i t a l energy i n the geomantic environment, where the f o r c e s of the " c h ' i " are being d e l i v e r e d from the main mountain. Watercourses should not flow i n a d i r e c t i o n p a r a l l e l to the course of the mountain ranges ( F i g . 1.14). T h e r e f o r e the watercourses should net flow i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s . I f they do they are c o n s i d e r e d e.s not having the d e s i r e to hold v i t a l energy. So the s i t u a t i o n on the r i g h t hand sid e of F i g . 1.15 i s suggested. F i g u r e 1. 14 F i q u r e 1.1* f 21 Roads, vra^s and £aths The f o l l o w i n q are examples of a u s p i c i o u s and i n a u s p i c i o u s read p a t t e r n s : There are t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of Chinese geomantic t h i n k i n g i n re f e r e n c e t o road p a t t e r n s . 1. I t i s not allowed to have anything b l o c k i n g the road and the view. I f there should be i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n the middle of the road, the f e e l i n g of i n t e r r u p t i n g smooth c i r c u l a t i o n i s considered i n a u s p i c i o u s ( F i g . 1.16). _1 2. The form of the road w i l l be con s i d e r e d as e i t h e r to be a t t r a c t i n g or r e p e l l i n g good f o r t u n e . For i n s t a n c e , a road t h a t bends away from a house w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as i n a u s p i c i o u s . The form of t h i s road w i l l l e t a l l the fortune out ( F i g . 1.17) Fiqure 1,16 Mounds or Stones on the Road Figu r e 1.17 " " suggests the shape of a worm which i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the slow-moving and conseguently i s i n a u s p i c i o u s ( F i g . 1 . 1 8 ) . F i g u r e 1.18 Eoad A s s o c i a t e d with Symbolic Form 3. I f the roads go d i r e c t l y to the door of the house, they w i l l form an arrow aimed at the house; t h e r e f o r e , t h i s w i l l b r i n g e v i l to the house. ( F i g . 1.19) •Mr i Figure 1.1r< Roads Aimed at th<* House " T " and " "1 " as sharp t u r n s i n the road should be kept d i s t a n t from the s i t e ( F i g . 1.20). 2.1 infer F i g u r e 1.20 roads Aimed at. the House M ^| " should be avoided i n f r o n t of the s i t e , because i t makes r e t a i n i n g good f o r t u n e i m p o s s i b l e ( F i g . 1.21). III *jHt>pt ?->e>c F i q u r e 1.21 Roads Aimed at the House Vegetation Vegetation i s an important f a c t o r i n Chinese geomancy, which i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with 1) arrangements of t r e e s , 2) c a t e g o r i e s of t r e e s and 3) the form of t r e e s i n symbolic meaning. To a qeomancer, the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of vegetation i n an area are important c r i t e r i a i n d e t e r & i n i n g the g u a l i t y cf a mountain. Fo r i n s t a n c e , a mountain with t h i c k v e g e t a t i o n i s a u s p i c i o u s s i n c e the land has enouqh v i t a l energy to support i t . In f a c t , the l a n g Dwelling P r i s c i j g l e s recommends d w e l l i n g s with t r e e s around them so long as the t r e e s are not i n the f r o n t . Although l i t t l e i s mentioned of t r e e s i n the geomantic 24 r u l e s , they are one of the most common qeomantic symbols; Trees are w i l d , e n t i r e l y n a t u r a l , and they l i v e with mountains. Moreover, they are a l s o to be found i n urban c o n t e x t s , o f t e n as the only pure examples of n a t u r a l growth. They are the most u b i q u i t o u s and s e n s i t i v e focuses of i n t e r e s t i n Chinese geomancy. 1. Arrangement of t r e e s I f t r e e s are growing i n a healthy and t h r i v i n g group, the group of t r e e s i s arranged i n good p r o p o r t i o n , or the forms of t r e e s are i n keeping with Chinese e s t h e t i c t h i n k i n g , a s i t e c l o s e to these t r e e s should be an a u s p i c i o u s one. I f t r e e s and w e l l - p l a n t e d bamboos grow beside the house, n ausj A i t i s an a p i c i o u s s i t e ( F i g . 1.22). F i g u r e 1.22 Well Planted Tree beside the House Trees growing i n a d i s o r g a n i z e d are c o n s i d e r e d as 25 i n a u s p i c i o u s ( F i g . 1.23). Figure 1.23 2. C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of t r e e s i n Chinese meaning Trees are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of s h i f t i n g temporal thoughts and forms. They are prominent f e a t u r e s i n the design. Although mountains and water are the c e n t r a l design i n g r e d i e n t s to gi v e d e f i n i t i o n t o the de s i g n , h o r t i c u l t u r e i s h i g h l y p r i z e d . Chinese e s t h e t i c i s m i s a s s o c i a t e d with the a p p r e c i a t i o n of r e f i n e d v e g e t a t i o n i n landscape design. The f o l l o w i n g t r e e s have s p e c i a l symbolic geomantic meaninq. The a p r i c o t , Hei Hua, b o t a n i c a l name: Prunus Mume. A small t r e e with a round head s i m i l a r i n shape to peach t r e e , the a p r i c o t may l i v e t o be a l o n g - l i v e d . Such specimens with crooked, gnarled shape admired by the p a i n t e r s . A p r i c o t ' s flowers have f i v e p e t a l s and since f i v e i s the Chinese number f o r good luck; the f l o w e r s have come to symbolize good f o r t u n e . 2hH Egach, t'ao, b o t a n i c a l name: Prunus P e r s i c a . I t has 26 been i n c u l t i v a t i o n f o r f r u i t and blossom f o r thousands of years. , Most v a r i e t i e s of peach t r e e have deep pink f l o w e r s and a heavy s p r i n g f l o w e r i n g i s a good omen. T*ao Yuan-ming (372-427) the poet, wrote a s t o r y c a l l e d n*ghe Fountain of the Peach Blossom" about a fisherman who entered a l o n e l y v a l l e y i n mountains and f o l l o w e d the course of the stream u n t i l he reached a grove of peach t r e e s i n f u l l bloom. There he d i s c o v e r e d a s e c r e t cave which l e d to an i s o l a t e d v a l l e y t h at c o n t a i n e d a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y , a p a r a d i s e . . T h i s s t o r y i n d i c a t e s the importance of peach symbolism.; Bamboo symbolizes l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p , hardy age and gentlemanliness. I t i s one of the c e n t r a l s u b j e c t s of Chinese b o t a n i c a l p a i n t i n g . Plum t r e e s are popular i n China. L i , or Prunus s a l i c i u a i s the renowned f o r i t s s p r i n g blossoms.„ Some specimens might have a bent trunk, g n a r l e d main branches, twigs i n a c e r t a i n order, a f o r c e f u l mien, and f i n e l y formed blossoms, not too densely arranged. The shapes of t r e e s are t y p i c a l l y b e l i e v e d by geomancy to show omens. £4M# e s p e c i a l l y e l d pine, symbolizes h a r d i n e s s , s t r e n g t h of c h a r a c t e r , s i l e n c e and s o l i t u d e . I t i s a f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t with a r t i s t s and poets. 27 Each s p e c i e s has become a s s o c i a t e d with symbolic values that are c a r e f u l l y observed when they a r e planted i n a garden, or when one i s composing p o e t r y . According t o Chao Ch»ang of the seventeenth century, "By p l a n t i n g pines , one i n v i t e s the wind... "by p l a n t i n g f l o w e r s , one i n v i t e s b u t t e r f l i e s . . . "by p l a n t i n g banana t r e e s , one i n v i t e s r a i n . . , "by p l a n t i n g willow t r e e s , one i n v i t e s c i c a d a s . " 3 2 3. The symbolic meaning of t r e e forms I f the form of a t r e e i s crooked and gnarled, and the shape l o o k s l i k e an o l d man, i t i s ap p r e c i a t e d by Chinese as r e p r e s e n t i n g long l i f e , a u s p i c i o u s n e s s and p r o s p e r i t y {Fig. 1.24). Geomantically, a u s p i c i o u s t r e e s should never be cut or s c a r r e d i n any way.,, I f t h e i r f o l i a g e i s abundant i t i s a s i g n of prosperity..^ I f p o s s i b l e they should evergreens, evergreens being a symbol of hig h jfaug content. 4. ) Lo c a t i o n of t r e e s I t i s recommended t h a t some t r e e be pl a n t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s and o r i e n t a t i o n s .(.Fig. 1. 25) . . f 3 F i g u r e 1 . 2 U . Reproduced from Plate 1 2 , "The Gardens o f -28 Ail1 ••'•y.i;W:i;$x,> Plate 12. A summer pavilion siirmmuled" by gnarled pines at the foot of overhangiiu; r l i f k I'an <>l a |uiiitiiii» by I Isii S h i h - i l u n i ; ( i l i i n m u l i u- i i imy), I m r dMI i ry. W.nsliim-.ion. f 29 Figure 1.25 ^he L o c a t i o n o f Trees The f o l l o w i n g are f o r m s ( F i g . 1 . 2 6 ) . i * : some i n a u s p i c i o u s t r e e s Baraboo which normally qrow s t r a i q h t growing bent. 31 Branches pointed r i q i d l y upward l i k e arms. Trees without d e f i n e d branches. r P3 Trees with over heavy f o l i a g e . Trees with r o o t s and v i n e s dropping towards the ground. 32 A r e c a l c i t r a n t , stubborn d e f i a n t t r e e . A t r e e with u n i d i r e c t i o n a l branches. r y \ Strange, u n n a t u r a l forms, weird t r e e s . A t r e e which appears l i k e a "hanqinq" t r e e . Deformed, demonic-lookinq t r e e s . A t r e e swollen at the top. 3'J A dense, c h i l l y f o r e s t . A b i q t r e e overhanqinq a house. Two t r e e s s t r a d d l i n q the foreqround of the house. A stranqe l o n e l y t r e e i n the foreqround of the house. 35 1.3.2 The Types of Interior Space The house form, s t y l e , orientation, relationship to adjoining units, and i t s s i t e arrangement are a l l important elements Chinese geomancy as well as i n Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r a l design. The Chinese r e l i e d on themselves as the originators of knowledge and looked to the ground rather than to heaven for i n s p i r a t i o n . In an idealized fashion, the Chinese man sees himself not fixed i n the center of t h i s world, but looks longingly beyond his walls "He s t a r t s from himself as the center, and works out toward a clearer understanding of r e a l i t y . " (Gardiner, 1974) Therefore, he organizes his basic, c e l l i n order to organize the world around i t . Inside his own house the Chinese regulates human rela t i o n s h i p s to achieve i n t e r n a l harmony--which i s seen as the highest goal to be achieved on earth. The types of i n t e r i o r spaces involve; 1) the courtyard p r i n c i p l e , 2) building form, 3) building layout, 4} building height and s i z e , 5) the process of construction and 6) the entrance. 3(> 1. Courtyard Concept The r e c t a n g u l a r house form evolved as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c a r d i n a l p o i n t s of the compass. The t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese had no knowledge of the extent of the u n i v e r s e ; a l l they knew was t h a t they e x i s t e d i n i t , and imagined themselves i n the middle of i t ( F i g . 1.27). Fiqu r e 1.27 H^|HH£. •fr^'T^r'^U 6r»h\i*frp #hUerpf. The c o u r t y a r d i s enclosed by b u i l d i n q s . The cosmic o r i e n t a t i o n produces very d i f f e r e n t forms of b u i l d i n g l a y o u t s . But success i n l i f e i s dependent upon the r u l e s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p and o r i e n t a t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t s and houses to the s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s embodied i n the environment; these a u s p i c i o u s f o r c e s have to be tapped f o r good f o r t u n e . The concept of the c o u r t y a r d i n Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r e c o n s i s t s of 37 grouping the b u i l d i n g s i n t o a s m a l l area to achieve a c e n t r a l space f o r the f a m i l y and the users, which i s c o n s i d e r e d to be " i n t e r i o r " space. The l a n d t h a t remains o u t s i d e the group becomes the " e x t e r i o r " space., In Chinese geomantic r u l e s ( Y a n g Dwelling C l a s s i c ) r e l a t i n g t o the c o u r t y a r d s , t h e r e are the f o l l o w i n g items f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n : 1) o r i e n t a t i o n , 2) c e n t r a l space 3) b u i l d i n g h e i g h t and s i z e and 4) paths and access. 1• O r i e n t a t i o n The e i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n s which have been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter one (p. 11) w i l l c o n t r o l the b u i l d i n g l o c a t i o n , the b u i l d i n g height and the entrance l o c a t i o n f o r geomantic reguirements. The o r i e n t a t i o n s r e l a t e to e i g h t t r i g r a m s o f "K'an", " L i " , "Chen", «Tui", "Ch'ien", "Sun", "Ken", "K*un"{see F i g . 1.2); and the nine s t a r s and the f i v e elements{see F i g . 1.30). 2. C e n t r a l space The c e n t r a l space always provides a c e n t r a l g a t h e r i n g p l a c e f o r the f a m i l y , to exclude the o u t s i d e and to provide a pleasant enclosed a r e a ( F i g . 1.28). t 38 [ s p ^ e . 1 III !lp 1! fMii: A !I,I.:M::;;' F i g u r e 1 .28 ^ h i t f r f r i - 6 p » 6 f r > g i^/psf f ^ p . T h i s arranqement r e f l e c t s a d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f the un i v e r s e . I t al s o r e f l e c t s a conception of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the u n i v e r s e . The c o u r t y a r d system a l s o r e f l e c t s the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of Chinese s o c i e t y ( F i q . 1.29). L _ i F i g u r e 1 . 2 9 H l f c f ^ ^ Y ef- covu~it>-*-z> -»f*-£fc. The Chinese p r e o c c u p a t i o n with these r e l a t i o n s h i p s leads t o an a t t i t u d e toward a r c h i t e c t u r e where s p a t i a l arranqeraents supercede s t r u c t u r a l requirements. The square or r e c t a n q u l a r desiqn r e p r e s e n t s man's order and knowledqe. Between man and nature, there i s i n t e r i o r space. Between man and heaven, there i s a qarden. These con c e p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the e t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e s of the cosmos, which should be p a r a l l e l e d i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. 39 3. The b u i l d i n g height and s i z e The h e i g h t s of sepa r a t e b u i l d i n g s around the c o u r t y a r d are determined by the o r i e n t a t i o n s , s i z e needed f o r adequate s u n l i g h t and a i r , p r o t e c t i o n from winds and storms and to avoid bad views and scenes. The heights of b u i l d i n g s are r e l a t e d to the ' f i v e elements', which are metal, wood, f i r e , e a r t h and water. Metal, wood and ear t h are a s s o c i a t e d with high l e v e l s ; water and f i r e are a s s o c i a t e d with low l e v e l s . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f i v e elements, and the nine s t a r s to b u i l d i n g h e i g h t ( F i g . 1.30). V D - C « 'U L Jr-\ L - i - f i ^ T A t f IVI T ' fc > P'O - C-HlJH ( VHTf-eytritt A M Y ) U » \ V Hi<*H Fiqure 1.30 R u i l d i n q Heiqht with F i v e Elements and Nine s t a r s Reference to these elements and c a t e q o r i e s p r o v i d e s r u l e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n q h e i g h t s of s t r u c t u r e s i n r e l a t i o n to the 40 c e n t r a l space, c o r n e r s and surroundings. 4. Path and access i n the c o u r t y a r d The path and access l a y o u t attempts f o l l o w s an o r i e n t a t i o n which w i l l p reserve p r i v a c y . P r i v a t e spaces and c o u r t y a r d sequence are c r e a t e d by paths between separate b u i l d i n g s and by p e r f o r a t e d screens, t r e e s and l e v e l changes along the path. Yang Dwelling i l l u s t r a t e s plans of houses around which not only the nine s t a r s and the e i g h t t r i g r a m s and the f i v e elements are d i s p o s e d , but f o r which other s t a r s and i n f l u e n c e s are c r i t i c a l . * 4 There are 12 examples i n the manual. They are i n f a c t c l o s e r t o the c o s m o l o g i c a l type of geomancy, being mere ex t e n s i o n s of the compass d i a l on the ground. I t i s easy to see how s e v e r a l types of a c t i v i t y , study, s l e e p , keeping accounts e t c . , may be c i r c u m s c r i b e d i n time and space by the r i t u a l d i c t a t e s of the compass. The o r i e n t a t i o n of a b u i l d i n g i s probably more important than any other element i n the geomantic r u l e s . The terms, " s i t t i n g " and " f a c i n g " o r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r s to Chinese e x i s t e n t concepts, " s i t t i n g " o r i e n t a t i o n i s the d i r e c t i o n from the f r o n t of a b u i l d i n g toward the back; " f a c i n g " o r i e n t a t i o n i s the forward o r i e n t a t i o n of a b u i l d i n g or the d i r e c t i o n forward which the t 4 1 facade f a c e s . These two o r i e n t a t i o n s are always used i n a combined form. Based on the s i t t i n g and f a c i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s a l l b u i l d i n g s are d i v i d e d i n t o two groups; Eastern Four Houses and Western Four Houses. The former are a s s o c i a t e d with the e a s t , south, southeast and north; and the l a t t e r are a s s o c i a t e d with the west, southwest, n o r t h e a s t and northwest. The primary uses of these two o r i e n t a t i o n groups i s to make d e c i s i o n s on the l o c a t i o n s of housing elements, e s p e c i a l l y the main gate and the main room of the house. In 'order to be i n harmony these elements and to be a s s o c i a t e d with the same o r i e n t a t i o n group. 1 5 ( F i g . 1.31) N F i g u r e 1.11 s i t t i n g And Facing r e l a t i o n with O r i e n t a t i o n and Major B u i l d i n g s and Main Gate The f o l l o w i n g drawings i l l u s t r a t e twelve diagrams r e l a t e d to the geomantic c o u r t y a r d concept f o r height, s i z e and path l o c a t i o n ( F i g . 1 . 3 2 ) . » • ' S i t t i n g on S f a c i n g N and open NW door. >:•/', h •///. m N S i t t i n g on S f a c i n g N and open N door. i i H S i t t i n g on W f a c i n g E and open NE door. w U3 . S i t t i n g on W f a c i n g E and open E door. w H .si lH s h : m ^HtnimilOMi|i l t»1lpHI (J<,Ull! l lhi«alMj.Hl 'UlrnnllmUII(^-m S i t t i n g on N f a c i n g S and open SE door. N m h' S E ' VM S i t t i n g on N f a c i n g S and open S doer. N S i t t i n g on E f a c i n g W and open W door. ^U«l1|MHUii1|l>tiil1U(Mlll|UlllH|l(<U<IKB>n.< t* l l i : lUUII«1i l | f i l tt(Hli U/ m h-VA m • m i <y>y, '////• SW\ W 'y • y • V ' S i t t i n g on E f a c i n g W and open SW door. mmiH» n i i i n um m m m w S i t t i n g on N f a c i n g S and open NW door. N m •\x:. s — -;h:: '• /'/ ft i t s €f h ktA> m s SW S i t t i n g on S f a c i n g N and open NE door. S m h N S i t t i n g on E f a c i n g W 'and open NW door. i h h; S r i c h 5 JLL. ' i i 'n« l i i , ni i i iMtt | i * ( i t i i t i r T i u i i i M i i t i i i i i i i n i i i n t i | t | i i i i i ( f i i| t , (|t i )Mi t iu in W S i t t i n g on W f a c i n g E and open SE door. I 2. B u i l d i n g Form In g e n e r a l , b u i l d i n g form i s r e l a t e d t o the symbolic meaning of the facade and the o r i e n t a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e of the b u i l d i n g should be harmonious with the surrounding houses, s t r u c t u r e s , and forms. A l s o , i t should not f a c e any form which appears to be " a t t a c k i n g " or i n c o n f l i c t with the b u i l d i n g . The f o l l o w i n g cases are considered to be i n a u s p i c i o u s ( F i g . 1.33) N N V t u r n r - i N I— i > CD 0 0 F i g u r e 1.33 B u i l d i n g Form and C o n f l i c t "7 3. B u i l d i n g Layout T h i s category deals with the plans of the b u i l d i n g s . The f o l l o w i n g are some examples of Chinese geomantic r u l e s f o r the p i c t o g r a p h i c meaning of b u i l d i n g l a y o u t s ( F i g . 1.34). nn ± 2 ft < \ II " l l I 1 v^t-t?/> r-) F i g u r e 1 . 3 4 B u i l d i n g Layout f o r P i c t o g r a p h i c a l Meani ng 411 4. B u i l d i n g Height and Size In g e n e r a l , the b u i l d i n g height should take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i t s o r i e n t a t i o n . The heights of b u i l d i n g s f a c i n g each other are determined by the p o s i t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g and the d i r e c t i o n of the a x i s of the b u i l d i n g s . The b u i l d i n g i n f r o n t of another b u i l d i n g should be the l o w e r ( F i g . 1.35). Fi g u r e 1.35 B u i l d i n g Height on S l o p i n g S i t e I f there are three b u i l d i n g s on an a x i s , and the c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g i s higher than the o t h e r s , then the arrangement i s i n a u s p i c i o u s ( F i g . 1.36). Fiqur e 1.36 5. B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n Process and Number Meaning In geomantic r u l e s f o r housing and b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , there are i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r preventing inconvenience. I f the shape of the s i t e looks l i k e " " ( F i g . 1.37), which i n Chinese means a s i t e with d i f f i c u l t access. The cost o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and the l a b o r w i l l be hiqher. I t w i l l a l s o be i n a u s p i c i o u s f o r f u t u r e •\4 ,1 The meaning or number In Chinese geomantic r u l e s i s a v e i y important f a c t o r . F c r i n s t a n c e , eleven i s a combininq number. I f there are nine b u i l d i n g s f o r a household, i t sh o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o three c o u r t y a r d s . Here, three, nine and elev e n are odd numbers with good meaning. In g e n e r a l , for a main h a l l nine columns are recommended, seven f c r s m a l l e r h a l l . An even number of b u i l d i n g doors i s good. An even number of b u i l d i n g s i s a l s o good. F i n a l l y the steps of s t a i r c a s e s are c o n s i d e r e d a u s p i c i o u s i f thay number t h r e e , f i v e , n i n e , or eleven. When there i s a l a n d i n g each run i s counted s e p a r a t e l y beginning with the l a n d i n g ( F i g . 1.38). Figure 1.1ft The Number of steps f o r S t a i r c a s e 6. The Entrance The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the doors should c o n s i d e r the time of 50 e r e c t i o n and sequence of c o n s t r u c t i o n . "In the s p r i n g , don't make a door i n the e a s t ; i n the summer, don't make a door i n the south; i n the autumn, don't make a door i n the west; i n the winter, don't make a door i n the n o r t h . " 1 * In geomancy, the measurement o f t h e door or window i s done by "Lu-Ban" f o o t , a measure of len g t h equal t o 1.04987ft, or O.320 meters., On one s i d e , the measuring s t i c k i s r u l e d i n t o e i g h t p o r t i o n s r e l a t e d to wealth, s i c k n e s s , d e p a r t u r e , r i g h t e o u s n e s s , n o b i l i t y , d i s a s t e r , danger, and f o r t u n e ; on the other s i d e , i t i s d i v i d e d t o e i g h t p o r t i o n s which r e l a t e to a u t h o r i t y , robbery, i n a u s p i c i o u s n e s s , a u s p i c i o u s n e s s , o f f i c i a l b e n e f i t , l o n e l i n e s s , e v i l and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The l a t t e r s i d e i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r t y s e c t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g i n a u s p i c i o u s or a u s p i c i o u s dimensions f o r p a r t i c u l a r purposes such as measurement of b u i l d i n g h a l l s , i n t e r i o r c o u r t s , s t u d i o s and k i t c h e n s { F i g . 1.39). f 51 U G H f t o u i w C i i 4 i } » V * a v '• V K 1 *•> I <-£>» 6 S H C f i r _ £ VI'L. * i J . Figure 1.19 The Geomantic Meansurements 52 1.4 Summary As shown above, f u n c t i o n a l geomantic order i n b u i l d i n g design and c o n s t r u c t i o n i m p l i e s ways to achieve a p e r f e c t harmony between man and h i s environment. The s i t e s e l e c t i o n and the o r i e n t a t i o n of v a r i o u s elements of the b u i l d i n g s are the most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n determining the a u s p i c i o u s n e s s of the b u i l d i n g . The best u t i l i z a t i o n of space and a harmonious balance between the b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e and i t s environment r e g u i r e s f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the geomantic p r i n c i p l e s of b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . Even the symbolic and geomantic s i g n i f i c a n c e of the e n c l o s u r e of space by the b u i l d i n g s or by fences or the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of what type of person should l i v e i n the house show concern not only f o r harmony between the house s t r u c t u r e ans i t s environment, but a l s o between th e house and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . , 53 f o o t n o t e istephan, D.B., Fenchwang, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s of Chinese Gecmaflcy, p. 16. 2 Needham, Joseph Science an d C i v i l i z a t i o n i n China V o l . I I p. 359 3 Feng, Yu-Lan A Short H i s t o r y of Chinese P h i l o s o p h y , New York, The Hacmillan Co., 1948. P. 23. * flilliam, Theodoro De Bary, S c r e e s o j £hj.n,§se T r a d i t i o n V o l . I. P. 145-210. 5 H i n g - T s i t , Chan, Trans, and Comp. A Source Book i n Chinese-Philosophy. P r i n c e t o n ; P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. P. 244-250, 271-288. 6 flarch, Andrew T. "An A p p r e c i a t i o n o f Chinese Gecmancy." J o u r n a l of A s i a n S t u d i e s . Vol.27, No.II, PP. 252-267 ^ I b i d . . a Hong-Key, Yoon Geomantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C u l t u r e and Nature i n Korea p. 24 9 The sources of t h i s s e c t i o n are based on Yang C h a i Shih Shu (The Ten Book of Yang D w e l l i n g ) . 1 0 Hong-Key, Yoon p. 17 i * Stephan, D. B., Feuchtwang, Anthropologica1 A n a l y s i s Q£ Chjnese Geomancy* P. 121 » 2 Osvald, S i r e n The Gardens of China * 3 Hong-Key, Yoon Geomantic r e l a t i p n s h J B S betwegn C u l t u r e ajyl liiiJJiES i n Korea p. 126 »* They are "yen-nien", "sheng c h i " , " t ' i e n - i " , "huo h a i " , "chue ming", "wu-kuei", " l i u sha". Feuchtwang, Geomancy p. ,166. * s Yoon, Geomancy p. 81. Yang C h a i Shih Shu 54 2.1 Conceptual Framework and Hypothesis In the l a s t chapter, we noted the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the human c o n d i t i o n and i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n nature. Chinese geomancy d e a l s with u n i v e r s a l i d e a s and problems f a c i n g human beings i n a l l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . , The d i v i n a t i o n process i t s e l f r e g u i r e s a l e t t i n g go of the i n t e l l e c t which i s to acknowledge the rhythmic and unconscious f o r c e s a t work i n the u n i v e r s e . The Chinese geomantic system can be seen as r e l a t e d t o the system of the I-Ching {Book of Change). I f we can g i v e way to these f o r c e s and t h i n k of o u r s e l v e s as part of the u n i v e r s a l processes of l i v i n g , of time i n space, then we can r e l e a s e o u r s e l v e s from preconceptions and i n h i b i t i o n s which prevent and block c r e a t i v i t y . ( H a l p r i n , 1968) Most designs i n a modern c i t y f o c u s on the e n c l o s i n g elements, the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f facades, and p l a c e g r e a t emphasis cn the v i s u a l experience. But the i m p l i c a t i o n o f Chinese geomancy i s t h a t i t deal s with b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s i n r e l a t i o n to c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t s r a t h e r than j u s t t o v i s u a l a s p e c t s . For i n s t a n c e , some b e a u t i f u l a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y - d e s i g n e d b u i l d i n g s can be very d u l l , and many h i s t o r i a l environments with l i t t l e 55 a r c h i t e c t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n may stand out over the years as e x c i t i n g p l a c e s to be i n ( H a l p r i n , 1968). Chinese geomantic ideas do c o n t r o l c e r t a i n elements: space, p a t t e r n or c o n f i g u r a t i o n , mode of movement and to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , rhythm, More than t h i s they a l t e r the o p p o r t u n i t y to work with unseen f o r c e s which determine p h y s i c a l form. They focus on l e i s u r e and q u i e t as i m p l i c i t r e a c t i o n s to the q u a l i t y of s e r e n i t y of p e d e s t r i a n spaces i n the designed environment. S t r e e t p a t t e r n s i n Chinese geomancy do i n f l u e n c e the l i f e p a t t e r n s of i n h a b i t a n t s ; they prevent the road p a t t e r n from e x p r e s s i n g i n a u s p i c i o u s symbolic forms. They a l s o , d e a l with the *proper* o r i e n t a t i o n of road p a t t e r n s . The 'open' spaces are the spaces of c o u r t y a r d s or spaces c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o b u i l d i n g s and the o u t s i d e s t r e e t s or o u t s i d e c o n f i g u r a t i o n immediate to the b u i l d i n g . These p u b l i c *open* spaces a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of the l i f e of the users even more than the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s of the space. I t i s the place which r e f l e c t s the c h a r a c t e r of the f u n c t i o n s of the b u i l d i n g . For i n s t a n c e , the c o u r t y a r d i n a shopping area, r e f l e c t s the f u n c t i o n s of people g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r f o r shopping, v i s i t i n g , e a t i n g and other o c c a s i o n s of meeting such as f e s t i v a l s . In an i n s t i t u t i o n o f l e a r n i n g the c o u r t y a r d spaces s h o u l d be q u i e t and monastic i n c h a r a c t e r , whereas the c o u r t y a r d i n a housing u n i t should be seen as a s u b s i d i a r y space o f the l i v i n g space. 56 The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s elements d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter one become i n v o l v e d and complex, and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s emerge as one s t u d i e s and empathizes with the complete geomantic system o f nature. E v e n t u a l l y they are understood to form a complete human l i v i n g environment. Some b i o l o g i s t s c a l l i t an ecosystem, ; The ecosystem i s a unigue combination of a l l the elements i n an area a t a p a r t i c u l a r moment i n time, each one of which has i t s own unigue c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i t s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y , but which together form another organism which i s more than j u s t a sum. The community becomes a t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l i t s e l f . Thus, an ecosystem i s a community made up o f a l l the p l a n t s , l a n d s , s o i l s , wind and c l i m a t e w i t h i n a p l a c e — each i n t e r a c t i n g with the other and forming more than the p a r t s ( H a l p r i n ) B a s i c a l l y , Halprin»s ecosystematic i d e a s are g u i e t s i m i l a r t o the p r i n c i p l e s of Chinese geomancy. T h e r e f o r e , the design of nature, n a t u r a l senses of order, n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s , n a t u r a l landscapes and gardens, n a t u r a l c i t i e s and towns and urban spaces can a r i s e not through copying p i c t u r e s of nature but by u s i n g her t o e l s of composition. P a r t i c u l a r l y , i n modern Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r e and landscape design, using the metaphysical i d e a s of Chinese geomancy may provide one way i n which to s o l v e the c o n f l i c t s of modern a r c h i t e c t u r e . (as B r o l i n i n h i s book T h e - f a i l u r e of -modern a r c h i t e c t u r e has mentioned) 2 The Chinese geomantic system attempts t o avoid design based on 57 matters of chance. I f man i s part of nature and the u n i v e r s e , then e v e r y t h i n g he does i n f l u e n c e h i s surroundings and i n t u r n nature i n f l u e n c e s him. I f you l e a n to the s o u t h , the whole world t i l t s i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . thus, t h i s system adapts t c t h i s i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s and i s an echo of i t . I t i s a concept d i f f i c u l t f o r westerners t o comprehend; Westerners have always assumed nature on the one hand and themselves on the other, o u t s i d e of i t . They t r e a t n ature as a base of oan's o p e r a t i o n , not as Chinese, who c o n s i d e r man's o p e r a t i o n as part of nature. So when the Chinese c o n s i d e r nature they are i n s i d e of i t , working with i t , and c o r r e l a t i n g with the whole n a t u r a l environment. The i m p l i c a t i o n s are t h a t as we are part of nature, we v i o l a t e her balances at our own r i s k . For i n s t a n c e , b u i l d i n g a freeway through a r i v e r v a l l e y can change the e c o l o g i c a l balance and the a e s t h e t i c and s o c i a l values of a whole r e g i o n , afterwards i t may be t o p l a t e to r e c t i f y o r a l t e r the e f f e c t s . That i s why, more than ever b e f o r e , we need to c o n s t r u c t our environment c a r e f u l l y according to ecosystematic p r i n c i p l e s such as geomancy., 58 2.2 Hypothesis Commonly the attempt to design modern a r c h i t e c t u r e i n keeping with Chinese c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n has combined f u n c t i o n a l i s m with a range of t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i f s . T h i s u s u a l l y l e a d s to s u p e r f i c i a l r e s u l t s . , To r e - i n t e r p r e t the Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l h e r i t a g e and to c r e a t e a s p e c i f i c new form and theory based on the whole c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s philosophy and the contemporary methods of b u i l d i n g seems a more profound approach. To r e c o g n i z e the s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s of Chinese t r a d i t o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l philosophy, the only approach i s t o t r a n s l a t e the •form* language i n t o a new i d i o m . The previous chapter has surveyed the d e t a i l s o f Chinese geomancy as a p p l i e d t o b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s system may provide a deeper understanding of the s p a t i a l concepts and c o s m o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which are t h e main essense of Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l forms. To develop a design method compatible, with Chinese c u l t u r a l a r c h i t e c t u r e i t w i l l necessary t o r e - i n t e r p r e t the Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l h e r i t a g e i n terms of modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l i d e a l s . To provide the essence of symbolism of Chinese a e s t h e t i c p h i losophy i s more important than the mere r e p r o d u c t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . 59 The i n t e n t i o n of a d e s i g n f o r modern Chinese l i f e must not depend merely on d i r e c t borrowing, but r a t h e r must f i n d an e s s e n t i a l Chinese bases f o r the d i s c o v e r y of new and i m a g i n a t i v e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The new a t t e n t i o n w i l l be d i r e c t e d i n c r e a s i n g l y towards s o c i a l aspects which are s p e c i f i c a l l y Chinese, and w i l l d e a l with the emotional and s o c i a l r e a c t i o n s to t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese c o s m o l o g i c a l a e s t h e t i c -judgements, A t t e n t i o n must be paid to e x p r e s s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l symbolism compatible with the modern s p i r i t r a t h e r than i n v o l v i n g the mere design o f d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s . The design p r i n c i p l e s o f t h i s t h e s i s are d e r i v e d from Chinese geomancy f o l l o w i n g i t s seguence of design stages, i t s design i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , planning and form arrangement. 60 Footnote 1 H a l p r i n , Lawrence The fi S V P C v c l e s c r e a t i y e Processes i n the Human Environment. New York, George B r a z i l l e r . Inc., 1969. P. 102 2 B r o l i n , Brent. C. The F a i l u r e of Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e VNB I n c . , N.Y. 1976. P. 8 He i s concerned that modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l and planning i d e a s have f a i l e d whenever the a r c h i t e c t d i s r e g a r d s the s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s o f the u ser: ''Growing r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t modern b u i l d i n g s i n t r a d i t i o n c o n t e x t s t h a t t r y to be • d i f f e r e n t 4 r a t h e r than f i t i n . And a new d i s p o s i t i o n of non-Hestern c u l t u r e s , which fo r m e r l y accepted modern a r c h i t e c t u r e because of a sense of c u l t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y , t o t r y to r e c a p t u r e t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l v i s u a l and s o c i a l v a l u e s . " 61 3,1 Design Programming based on geomantic s t a g i n g Design programming based on geomantic s t a g i n g i s developed to i n v e s t i g a t e how the modern designer might i n t e g r a t e and c o o r d i n a t e the input of the p r o f e s s i o n a l geomancer with t h a t of the a r c h i t e c t - d e s i g n e r and other s p e c i a l i s t s . I t t r i e s to i n c l u d e the e n t i r e ecosystem i n balance i n the man-nature environment(Fig. 3.1) Pre-stage Presefitation. of Nature I n i t i a l l y nature e x i s t s without any human a s s o c i a t i o n . A geomantic sequence i n a g i v e n area begins with nature's p r e s e n t a t i o n of i t s e l f t o man. He approaches the environment and a s s o c i a t e s with i t , i n v a r i o u s ways, on a mental and p e r c e p t u a l ( n o n - m a t e r i a l ) l e v e l . As man contemplates the area's v a r i o u s n a t u r a l phenomena, he g r a d u a l l y begins to understand h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese sense, with t h a t p a r t i c u l a r environment. T r a d i t i o n a l l y nature p r o v i d e s an escape from the d i n and dust of the world and thus permits s p i r i t u a l communion between the s e l f and the cosmos. , 3 o Q LU CO < m o < cr o o cr DL O 10 LU Q 5 < 1 o i LLI O . -1 4 2 6 I • * «• 1 t l » - -«" i . 3 J 2^ ^ O; >- ^  S". ^1 i 7r; & J> «? z. a o * i i 1 v> -" 4 y-o o o o o o o o o o o o o o T o o t -3 i t 62 V * vl II: 1 A t - £ £ S. 5 v- c 2 l i 63 Stajge 1, Dndgrstanding o f nature ( p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n , diagnoses) Once the o b s e r v a t i o n s and subseguent p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e area are complete, man i s then a b l e t o formulate c o n c l u s i o n s which permit a p h y s i c a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p with the environment. This stage r e p r e s e n t s the i n i t i a l design process. These processes which r e f l e c t concepts e x e m p l i f i e d by b e a u t i f u l water and mountains, r e v e a l beauty i n human beings., They l e a d t o s i t e i n v e n t o r i e s and s i t e a n a l y s es which p r o v i d e t h r e e b e n e f i t s ; 1 ) c o n d i t i o n s o f the s i t e are r e v e a l e d . 2) a l l the resources and l i a b i l i t i e s of the s i t e are d i s p l a y e d . 3) on the b a s i s of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n , s i t e s e l e c t i o n can a c t u a l l y be made. C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given t o the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : T o p o g r a p h i c a l Survey T h i s survey w i l l e v a l u a t e the grade of the s l o p e s ; 8% r e p r e s e n t s an area t h a t i s s u i t a b l e f o r b u i l d i n g . Grades of 8$~20% or g r e a t e r present d i f f i c u l t i e s . 1 I t w i l l a l s o determine the amount of high, low , and f l a t l a n d , the number of water bodies, mountain ranges and the view, Geomantic r u l e s a l s o a p p l y t o s o i l s t a b i l i t y 2 and the pre v e n t i o n o f t h e e r o s i o n of foun d a t i o n s . 64 G e o l o g i c a l Survey Knowledge o f g e o l o g i c a l base and land forms are important i n foundation design and c o n s t r u c t i o n of road b e d s 3 as w e l l as s e l e c t i o n of a s i t e f o r e x c a v a t i o n . Chinese geomantic r u l e s provide g u i d e l i n e s f o r n a t u r a l g e o l o g i c a l elements such as outcroppings and r a v i n e s , f l a t mounds, rocky mountains and exacavation. In a d d i t i o n , banks of streams or ponds should not be c r e e p i n g and s l i d i n g . F u l f i l m e n t o f these reguirements should be a concern of the c o n s t r u c t i o n process. The g e o l o g i c a l survey i s the s t a g e d u r i n g s i t e s e l e c t i o n where c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be given to balance and c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i o u s aspects of t h e s i t e . For i n s t a n c e , i n d e s i g n i n g the landscape, the open area, pond and water tank should be considered f o r s o i l soaking, c r e e p i n g and f u t u r e slumping of the mountain s l o p e . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be given as w e l l to the mountain i n back of the s i t e and i t s water i n r e g a r d to the g u t t e r system and r e t a i n i n g w a l l . In Chinese geomancy the purpose of the g e o l o g i c a l study i s to a v o i d e x c u s s i v e c u t and f i l l i n the proposed s i t e and thus prevent d e l e t e r i o u s a l t e r a t i o n t o the n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . I t i s an i d e a l intended to ensure a design which best p r o t e c t s the f o u n d a t i o n s . 65 For landscape a l t e r a t i o n and improvement, ponds should be dug out i n a p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s and locations.,, S o i l c o n d i t i o n s a l s o provide i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the proper s i t e . The g e o l o g i c a l survey would i n c l u d e a t e s t t o determine the type of s o i l i e . whether i t i s red rock, c l a y , loam...etc.*; On t h e b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n gathered, and the intended use, a d e c i s i o n must be made as to what the s o i l w i l l support without e r o d i n g . Hydrographical Survey S t u d i e s must be made to determine the c o m p a t i b i l i t y between drainage sewer systems and ponds or other water c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n the s i t e . The presence of a pond(or other water bodies) i s c r i t i c a l f o r complete i n t e g r a t i o n of , the s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s i n t e r a c t i n g i n the design and thus i t s dimensions and l o c a t i o n are o f the utmost importance. C o n d i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g water soak and s o i l e r o s i o n should be examined c a r e f u l l y . f Views Chinese geomantic r u l e s apply t o o r i e n t a t i o n and s i t e view (both l o o k i n g i n and l o o k i n g out o f the s i t e ) i n terms of i n a u s p i c i o u s and a u s p i c i o u s elements of nature. T h e r e f o r e , the view from the s i t e w i l l i n f l u e n c e s i t e s e l e c t i o n . Borrowed scenery i s an important aspect of the geomantic order and the lan d s c a p i n g 66 design. The views o f d i s t a n t h i l l s and t r e e s a r e thus c a r e f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the garden design, and i n the space surrounding the garden, *• S i t e S e l e c t i o n The p a t t e r n s i n appendix I I I , show the o r i e n t a t i o n s and n a t u r a l elements which r e s u l t a u s p i c i o u s s i t e s . These p a t t e r n s are c r i t i c a l i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n s and F i g . 3.2 shows The i d e a l s i t e s i t u a t i o n . In the Chinese geomantic view, cosmic p r i n c i p l e s l i e behind a l l n a t u r a l surroundings and cosmic i d e a l s a re c o n s i d e r e d i n p r o v i d i n g f o r comfort i n l i v i n g . T h e r e f o r e , beginning from s i t e s e l e c t i o n e a r l y i n the design stage up to the completion of c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s important to maintain harmony with nature. S i t e s e l e c t i o n i s decided by the o r i e n t a t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of n a t u r a l elements(mountains, water, i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , vegetation) and man-made environment.. 7 Mountains are marked as pl a c e s of s p e c i a l p i l g r i m a g e ; r i v e r s and b r i d g e s become holy; a b u i l d i n g or a t r e e , or rock or stone, takes on the power through which people can connect themselves to t h e i r own memory and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l importance of the s i t e . 67 Fiqure 3.2 68 S i t e Layout Elements of the complex are i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s i t e on the b a s i s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the e i g h t primary d i r e c t i o n s and to the v a r i o u s near and f a r elements i n the landscape which may be s a i d t o have an i n f l u e n c e ( a u s p i c i o u s and i n a u s p i c i o u s ) on the p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s o f the complex., Then the f o c a l p o i n t , major b u i l d i n g s , major gate and form r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l be decided. Stage 2. Diagnosis of User and The Owner In t h i s stage, the p h y s i c a l r e g u i r e a e n t i s the only f a c t o r s concerned. Stage 3. Modifying P s y c h o l o g i c a l and T r a d i t i o n a l • F a c t o r s - with-- Design In t h i s s t age, man transforms h i s understanding of nature i n t o an evironment where he can l i v e . He attempts t o perform t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n a way t h a t maintains balance and harmony with nature. The f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s are the developed elements f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the geomantic p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e d t o some of the important p h i l o s o p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r e . 69 Approach The road approach i n t e g r a t e s with the t o p o g r a p h i c a l s e t t i n g , and holds the observer i n a continuous v i s u a l experience where e x p e c t a t i o n i s produced through b o d i l y motion. The access path and the major entrance road should f o l l o w the contours t o reach a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of the s i t e . The b l o c k i n g e f f e c t can be c r e a t e d by a r t i f i c i a l l a ndscaping which u t i l i z e s t r e e s and w a l l s . T h i s a c t i o n i n there g i v e s the impression of l e a v i n g a dynamic s t a t e and e n t e r i n g a s t a t i c s i t e . Geomantically t h e northern s i d e o f a s i t e i s an a n c e s t r a l l y s a c r e d p l a c e . The a c c e s s area should then be developed so as to provide a s p e c i a l p e d e s t r i a n path t h a t w i l l reach t h a t p l a c e . Entrance A modifying element at the entrance area should i n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n of entrance. I t i s a non-verbal s i g n t h at w i l l d i r e c t people t o enter the b u i l d i n g through the main gate, suggesting a n a t u r a l pathway to f o l l o w . The gate w a l l and gate way concepts are t y p i c a l t r a n s i t i o n s of i n t e r i o r y i n and e x t e r i o r Jtancf spaces, movement from t h i s area should be such t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s compelled to go i n a 70 p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n . T h i s movement should be a t the r i g h t p l a c e and to f o l l o w the " r i g h t " path. Cou r t ^ a r_d Concept - - As a C e n t r a l Space The c e n t r a l concept of the complex i s the c o u r t y a r d . T h i s idea i s c r i t i c a l i n terms of he i g h t , s i z e , pathways and a c c e s s e s . F o l l o w i n g the order of geomantic c o u r t y a r d p r i n c i p l e s , the o r i e n t a t i o n of the c o u r t y a r d w i l l f i r s t be c o n s i d e r e d . According t o the same p r i n c i p l e s the best entrance l o c a t i o n f o r a c o u r t y a r d w i l l be s e l e c t e d . Having then e s t a b l i s h e d the alignment of the c o u r t y a r d , a t t e n t i o n must be giv e n to the b u i l d i n g s which surround t h i s space. The b u i l d i n g s which l i e along the p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n a l edges of the c o u r t y a r d must be c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t these r e s p e c t i v e e d i f i c e s are higher or l a r g e r than the r e s t of the b u i l d i n g s . In keeping with the r o l e of the b u i l d i n g s i n the c r e a t i o n of the c o u r t y a r d , the s t r u c t u r e s on the north s i d e o f the s i t e should be higher than those on the south, east o r west s i d e s . The o r i e n t a t i o n and form of the c o u r t y a r d should be r e f l e c t e d i n the accesses and pathways of the area.. T h i s may be achieved by the facades t h a t c o n s i t u t e the paths and means o f access. The v a r i e t y of p r o p o r t i o n , the r e f l e c t i v e g l a z i n g on p a r t s of t h e facade and the s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r of the surrounding rooves 71 provide the greatest impact of the central courtyard. The slope of the rooves i s i n unison with the sloping nature of the courtyard. The le v e l s demonstrate the h i e r a c h i c a l sequence and functional differences of space. This gives a sense of flowing into the inner space as well as a fe e l i n g of unity with the surrounding area. This i s best experienced when one stands at the entrance gate and looks down into the courtyard., The courtyard i s an ar t i c u l a t e d enclosure which i s determined by the s p a t i a l grouping of columns at the ri g h t angles to the entrance gate on four sides of the rectangle. The heights of the buildings and the paved pedestrian areas of the enclosure help to create a q u a l i f i e d openness. The open area i n the central space of the courtyard w i l l be available for outdoor gathering a c t i v i t i e s . The spaces on different l e v e l s may be arranged symbolically to express separate integrated into one. The small courtyards related to i n respective buildings may show some ambiguity i n respect to indoors and outdoors. They should have s u f f i c i e n t access from the surrounding building and should not be too enclosed.. Therefore, every courtyard should have a view of the central courtyard. These small enclosures provide t r a n s i t i o n s of space from the exterior courtyard as well as from the outdoor gardens., The small courtyards should be surrounded by roofed verandas which form the t r a n s i t i o n between indoor and outdoor space. 72 S p a t i a l T r a n s i t i o n The c e n t r a l c o u r t y a r d space should be i s p a r t i a l l y e n c l o s e d and p a r t i a l l y open. The purpose o f t h i s space i s to t r y to make the outdoor e n c l o s u r e p o s i t i v e with many d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . The sub-courtyards should be r e l a t e d to s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s . , The s p a t i a l t r a n s i t i o n from the i n s i d e or o u t s i d e o f the b u i l d i n g should be " f o r m a l " , t h a t i s , should respond t c s p e c i f i c t r a n s i t i o n a l or geomantic r u l e s . In Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r e , the t r a n s i t i o n a l areas should have s p e c i a l : p a t t e r n s o f doors and windows. The Chinese preoccupation with these types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s l e a d t o an a r c h i t e c t u r a l a t t i t u d e where s p a t i a l achievements transcend s t r u c t u r a l methods. The g r e a t e s t concern i s with man 1s p o s i t i o n ; man i s d e f i n e d o r i g i n a l l y as i n the c e n t e r of an enclosed space which i s organized around him a c c o r d i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c a r d i n a l p o i n t s . , The square or r e c t a n g u l a r design as e x e m p l i f i e d by b u i l d i n g s r e p r e s e n t s man's order and knowledge. Nature's geomatry and t r u t h are represented by c i r c u l a r forms, symbolic of heaven. Between man and heaven, there a re gardens. Here man assumes an i d e a l i z e d r o l e i n order t o t h i n k p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y about matters 73 of e t e r n i t y , Arcades and Fences Arcades are covered walkways at the edge o f b u i l d i n g s , which are p a r t l y i n s i d e , and p a r t l y o u t s i d e . They play a v i t a l r o l e i n the way t h a t people i n t e r a c t with b u i l d i n g s and n a t u r a l environment. The arcades i n the Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r a l and geomantic order not only have a r o l e i n these i n t e r a c t i o n s but they a l s o r e f l e c t c u l t u r a l a e s t h e t i c meanings,, The veranda r e p r e s e n t s the 'zigzag* t r a n s i t i o n between i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r spaces. The fences r e p r e s e n t the completion of the e n c l o s u r a l space f o r keeping the a u s p i c i o u s v i t a l energy i n s i d e the b u i l d i n g s . These fences are b u i l t t o f u l f i l l geomantic-requirement; they are symbols of boundary and t h e t r a n s i t i o n elements of i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r spaces. Trees and V e g e t a t i o n As v e g e t a t i o n i s an important e x p r e s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i t e and the b u i l d i n g i n terms of a u s p i c i o u s n e s s , geomancy o u t l i n e s methods of u t i l i z i n g , p l a n t i n g and c a r i n g f o r the v a r i o u s types of f o l i a g e . Trees and shrubs r e p r e s e n t 74 combinations of s p e c i a l meaning, number and c o l o r with regard t o cosmic o r i e n t a t i o n and s h o u l d be p l a n t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . , T h e i r l o c a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s a u s p i c i o u s forms and symbolic meanings. Stage 4 Response to the design (Feedback) During the c o n s t r u c t i o n , the user begins t o move i n and the complex begins to be seen as p a r t of the e x i s t i n g environment. f Staae 5 The Completion In the completion stage, p u t t i n g nature-man i n t e r a c t i o n i n t o e x e c u t i o n , the user s t a r t s t o understand and merges with nature, and r e l a t e s the design o r g a n i z a t i o n t o the n a t u r a l environment. a f t e r Stage The u l t i m a t e s t a g e i s to r e a c h a r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the harmonies and b a l a n c e s which must e x i s t i n a man-nature r e l a t i o n s h i p . In other words, when the a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t r u l y complete, the balance o f nature i s t r u l y n a t u r a l and g i v e s no evidence of having been d i s t u r b e d or 75 i n t e r r u p t e d or l e f t i n disharmony.. : T h i s i s the gecmantic p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i z a t i o n of the c o n t i n u i t y of " c h ' i " which ensures good i n f l u e n c e i n the f u t u r e . 76 3.2 H y p o t h e t i c a l P r o j e c t I D order t o provide a v e h i c l e f o r the above study, these p r i n c i p l e s H i l l be a p p l i e d t o a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o j e c t , the design of a Chinese C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. 3.2.1 The I n t e n t i o n o f Design The Chinese C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e w i l l be a b l e to b r i n g c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s to an ever-growing p u b l i c . I t w i l l provide North Americans and e s p e c i a l l y Canadians with a recognized p l a c e i n which to experience a s p e c t s of Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n . , As a centre f o r e d u c a t i o n , the i n s t i t u t e w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the understanding of Chinese c i v i l i z a t i o n . I t w i l l give s c h o l a r s , students and p u b l i c v i s i t o r s an o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n about s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of Chinese philosophy, a r t and s c i e n c e as represented i n v a r i o u s departments of the i n s t i t u t e . But there w i l l a l s o be l e s s o n s to l e a r n from the planning and design of the I n s t i t u t e environment i t s e l f . The s p e c i f i c s i t e p lanning t h a t w i l l be a p p l i e d to the Chinese 77 C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e w i l l g ive i n s p i r a t i o n and pleasure t o many d i f f e r e n t groups of a r t l o v e r s and c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h e r s . F i n a l l y , i t w i l l become a demontration of c e r t a i n profound aspects of Chinese thought. Purpose of L o c a t i n g near Vancouver Vancouver c o n t a i n s the second . l a r g e s t Chinatown i n North-America..., The Chinese community i s of great i n t e r e s t not o n l y to o r i e n t a l immigrants but a l s o to Chinese born i n North America and t o a l l North Americans and v i s i t o r s t o North America. Topographical surroundings can be found nearby which express t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese c o s m o l o g i c a l i d e a s o f mountains, r i v e r s and f o r e s t s . Choosing the a c t u a l s i t e S e p a r a t i n g a r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e from the c i t y p r o t e c t s i t from the d i s t r a c t i o n s of urban l i f e . D i f f e r e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t emoses. T h i s design w i l l t r y t o evoke an image of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t e g r a t e d with w i l d nature i n a uniguely Chinese manner, " A deep and p e r s i s t a n t f e e l i n g f o r w i l d nature,., r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n , sense of awe, i n s i g h t i n t o r eality."(Boyd,1962) 78 A c h i e v i n g the experience of t r a n s i t i o n f r o o the urban scene to t h a t of the i s o l a t i o n of w i l d nature i s part of the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s study. 3.2.2 S p e c i f i c C r i t e r i a The i n s t i t u t e i s expected t o p r o v i d e : 1. A showplace f o r the c o l l e c t i o n s of Chinese a r t and s c i e n c e by the Chinese c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n . 2. A v a r i e t y of f a c i l i t i e s f o r Chinese c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . 3. F a c i l i t i e s f o r the e x h i b i t i o n and the p r e s e n t a t i o n of Chinese a r t , music, l i t e r a t u r e , philosophy and s c i e n c e . M. A museum capable of e s t a b l i s h i n g a working r e l a t i o n s h i p with other c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s i n North America. 5. A c u l t u r a l c e n t r e f o r NorthTAmerican Chinese and r e l a t e d s u b c u l t u r e s ; and f o r anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n these c u l t u r e s . ,. 6. An " i n t e r f a c e " between the world of Chinese s c h o l a r s h i p and t h a t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l world s c h o l a r s h i p . In f u l f i l l i n g the above o b j e c t i v e s c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s should be provided and should be t r e a t e d i n a manner compatible with and e x p r e s s i v e of Chinese c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s . , 79 1. The i n s t i t u t e oust p r o v i d e adequate housing and p u b l i c d i s p l a y area f o r r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s and c o l l e c t i o n s . 2. The i n s t i t u t e must p r o v i d e adequate r e s e a r c h and d i s p l a y f a c i l i t i e s t o support a v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h e r s from a l l over the world. 3. The s i z e and l o c a t i o n of the s i t e should allow f o r the development of an Chinese " c o s m o l o g i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e " s e t t i n g i n which the c o s m o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and other Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r a l and landscape design p h i l o s o p h i e s can be presented. 4. The f a c i l i t i e s should be planned and c o n s t r u c t e d with proper a t t e n t i o n t o e x p r e s s i n g the Chinese i n s t i t u t i o n a l design and p o s s i b l e working arrangement with i t s own independent a c t i v i t i e s . , 5. The type and design o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s s h ould allow the i n s t i t u t e t o expand i t s r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e s t o the l o c a l Chinese community, u n i v e r s i t i e s , r e s e a r c h groups and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . 3.2.3 Design Problem Statement The Environment 1. Those who v i s i t and work i n the i n s t i t u t e w i l l 80 experience more than j u s t the contents of i t s b u i l d i n g s . I t w i l l be the o v e r a l l experience of the performance and the d i s p l a y , the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f , and the s i t i n g i n t o i t s surroundings that w i l l express the whole Chinese c o s m o l o g i c a l i d e a l . 2. The ch o i c e and development of the s i t e should provide a Chinese c o s m o l o g i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g f o r an i n s t i t u t e i n which the p h i l o s o p h i c a l c u l t u r e of Chinese a r c h i t e c t u r e i s d i s p l a y e d . The Psffcholoqica1 Environment 1. The s i t e , the a r c h i t e c t u r e , the r e s e a r c h s t u d i o s , the performance c e n t r e and those r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e should be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o an e x p e r i e n t i a l whole * 2. V i s i t o r s w i l l come t o be e n t e r t a i n e d as w e l l as informed, 3. Not a l l r e s e a r c h e r s or v i s i t o r s w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n every r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s or every d i s p l a y or performance or s c i e n t i f i c demonstration, but a t the very l e a s t i t should be p o s s i b l e f o r any one t o enjoy a p l e a s a n t , d i v e r t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e promenade through the complex. 4. The v i s i t o r s should be a b l e t o develop t h e i r own sequence of movement through t h e arcaded p u b l i c space or the c e n t r a l p u b l i c space, or i n the n a t u r a l environment 81 o u t s i d e . The P h y s i c a l Environment •1. In some a r e a s , s p e c i a l c o n t r o l of temperature and humidity w i l l be needed to p r o t e c t the c o l l e c t i o n s from decomposition, while s t i l l p r o v i d i n g c o m f o r t a b l e human c o n d i t i o n s . In ot h e r s r e f i n e d c o n t r o l may be l e s s c r i t i c a l . , 2. The p u b l i c and non - p u b l i c areas w i l l need to be designed to e f f e c t t h e i r c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n without impeding and u n i n t e r r u p t e d , easy c i r c u l a t i o n . 3. The i n s t i t u t e w i l l o f f e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h groups and the p u b l i c , the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t r u c t u r e d and non- s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g e xperiences and entertainment. Appendix IV shows the p h y s i c a l requirements f o r t h i s h y p o t h e t i c p r o j e c t of C.C.S.I. Footnote 1 Rubenstein, H. M. A guide t o - S i t e and E nvironmental Planning, N.Y. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.," 19697 P.~ 11 ~ 2 The recommendation by geomancer f o r the r i g h t k i n d of s o i l t o preserve the body i s both symbolic and p r a c t i c a l . 3 Lynch, K. S i t e Planning Cambridge: MIT P r e s s . 1962 * Hard rocky s o i l i s l i f e l e s s ( D e Groot, p. 953) I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y harmful, but a house b u i l t i n such c o n d i t i o n s would c e r t a i n l y have an u n f e r t i l e garden and would thereby be without a v a l u a b l e source of income. Sed,loamy s o i l i s f u l l of l i f e , and prevents the decay o f c o f f i n and corpses., s Dndrained s u b s o i l , marshy ground and s l u g g i s h water, give o f f damp and s t i n k i n g e x h a l a t i o n s t s h a c h ' i V which, blown over the b u i l d i n g , would put i t s i n h a b i t a n t s i n danger of s i c k n e s s and misfortune. The geomantic order, would recommend the c l e a r i n g or d i g g i n g of watercourses, or choosing a s i t e i n the neighbourhood of f r e e f lowing watercourses and a s i t u a t i o n on a slope both f o r the sake of drainage and f o r the f r e e c i r c u l a t i o n of a i r . The p o o l , which should be s i t u a t e d i n f r o n t , t h a t i s down the slope from i t , as w e l l as accumulating " c ^ ' i " performs a very p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n , 6 The recommendation to choose a s o u t h - f a c i n g s i t e and to have p r o t e c t i o n from the n o r t h means that the s i t e w i l l b e n e f i t from warm, wet winds and be p r o t e c t e d from c o l d winter winds. A sunny s i t e and u n r e s t r i c t e d view of the s i t e are developed as tne most b e a u t i f u l l y s i t u a t e d . . Everyone t a k e s unsymbolic pleasure i n s u n l i g h t , f r e s h a i r , and a good view. Being i n a b e a u t i f u l s i t u a t i o n i s an unsymbclic p l e a s u r e , but i t i s a l s o an educated pleasure (in Chinese landscape p a i n t i n g ) and i s more the pleasure of being seen i n a b e a u t i f u l s i t u a t i o n than enjoying i t o n e s e l f — a s o c i a l l y symbolic p l e a s u r e ! (Feuchtwang Geomancy, p. 117) 7 The o v e r a l l aspect of a good s i t e i s calm and smooth. I t must be p r o t e c t e d s i n c e , j u s t as too f a s t a watercourses c a r r i e s bad and d i s p e r s e s good i n f l u e n c e s , t o o 5 much wind i s e i t h e r m a l i c i o u s or does not allow good i n f l u e n c e s t o accumulate. , On the other hand, too l i t t l e movement of a i r and s l u g g i s h water flow mean the s t a g n a t i o n of the s i t e * s good i n f l u e n c e s , while a l l these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e , i t i s at the same time easy t o see t h a t they conform p u r e l y to the p r a c t i c a l s i d e of siting.(Feuchtwang Geomancy, p.,116) 83 4. DESIGN During the second stage, the s o i l conditions (Fig, 4. 1) , surface drainage(Fig. 4.2), slopes(Fig. 4.3), vegetation (Fig. 4.4) and the relationship with environment (Fig, 4.5) are studied. The s i t e layout i s based on those studies f o r the proposed s i t e planning. 4.1 Site Layout and s i t e planning The following number sequence i s related to Fig, 4.6. 1. The major approaching view w i l l be developed as a sculptural landmark or s i g n i f i c a n t v i s u a l point to suggest to the traveler a f e e l i n g of approaching the s i t e . 2. As an ancestrally sacred place, the symbolic sculptures and the access path should then be developed so as to provide a s p e c i a l pedestrian path that w i l l approach the sacred place i n a meandering way. 3. The tree plantings are shown as they would be a f t e r a decade of growth. The fo r e s t trees would be cut and planted to block the "sha ch 1!", r e t a i n the v i t a l energy, and to serve as a medium for the transmission of "cjh/"^. 8U: 4. View from west, e a s t and south are the "borrowed" views of Loon Lake, Blaney Lake and the c r e e k s and the n a t u r a l mountainous scenes (see F i g . 4.5). 5. The e x i s t i n g s u r f a c e drainage (see F i g . 4.2) w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as path of v i t a l energy. Keep the s u r f a c e drainage system f o r the sewer system of t h e p r o j e c t as a path of v i t a l energy. I E-W SECTION S~N SECTION 4- THE 6 i f £ UY^i i f . The Plan of C. C. R. I. I : .1 i ' j | ! • I ! I I | I i i • i ; : i i i | . . - : ~ - / " ' ~ x . - -W / \ "-A. J S--' ... '•.V 4.2 The Design of the Complex The use of Chinese geomancy as design g u i d e l i n e s f o r C C B . I. w i l l be e x p l a i n e d by f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : MOVEMENT The f o l l o w i n g number seguence are r e l a t e d to F i g . 4.9 ( f o l d out P. 96) 1. Approach and a r r i v a l : Movement here i s guided by the elements 1) t h e symbolic placement of veg e t a t i o n 2) the framed opening o f the wall 3) the 450 C u t w a l l opening. A l l three f a c t o r s combine to g i v e v i s i t o r s the impression of l e a v i n g a dynamic s t a t e and e n t e r i n g a s t a t i c environment (see F i g . 4. 14 and 4.15). 2. Main gate t r a n s i t i o n ; The c i r c u l a r frame of the main gate emphasizes the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional change t h a t i s experienced where a person moves from an e x t e r i o r to an i n t e r i o r space. T h i s r e f l e c t s the movement from the " o u t s i d e " area (the c i r c l e of heaven) to the i n s i d e man-made world. T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n a l s o r e f l e c t s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions of geomancy, which i n d i c a t e t h a t events should occur i n the c o r r e c t time and place. 92 The main gate opens i n t o a s m a l l 6M wide g l a s s e d - i n r e c e p t i o n area which permits the v i s i t o r to move i n one of three d i r e c t i o n s 1) to the r e c e p t i o n area, 2) the performance c e n t e r 3) through to the c o u r t y a r d . , Movement toward i h e l a t t e r area g i v e s the v i s i t o r s a commanding view gf the e n t i r e c o u r t y a r d and the surrounding u n i f o r m i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the " i n t e r i o r " world, where a l l r e s e a r c h and performance a c t i v i t i e s occur. at the e x t e r i e r circumference, a l l non-research, r e s i d e n t i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s occur. These a c t i v i t i e s are a l l to be c o n s i d e r e d as " i n t e r i o r " f u n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to geomantic philosophy {see F i g . 4.15). 3. Reception area: T h i s area i s an extension o f t r a n s i t i o n represented by the g a t e — t h e p o i n t of pausing and announcing o n e s e l f ( r e g i s t r a t i o n ) , a c q u a i n t i n g o n e s e l f with the complex {information) and determining the d i r e c t i o n of one's p a t h ( o r i e n t a t i o n ) . 4. Performance c e n t e r : The t h e a t r e i s p l a c e d here because f o r many v i s i t o r s i t w i l l be the primary and only f u n c t i o n they a t t e n d ( s e e a l s o S p a t i a l Order p. 98). The gate i s designed t o emphasize d i f f e r e n t times, such as when there i s a performance i n the t h e a t r e . 5 13. These are t r a n s i t i o n s from the i n t e r i o r c o u r t y a r d 93 space t o the major b u i l d i n g s . The next sequence of movement p o i n t s i s to be r e l a t e d t o t h e "western" group of d i r e c t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e h a l f of the c i r c l e of d i r e c t i o n s s t a r t i n g from SW to W, NW and then NE. ( o r i e n t a t i o n system see p. 39) 14. - 19. These are t r a n s i t i o n s from s e m i - p u b l i c to s e m i - p r i v a t e areas. 20. T h i s shows movement from the s e m i - p r i v a t e t o the p r i v a t e space. 21. T h i s demonstrates the f i n a l l e v e l change i n the s t u d i o space. The three steps i n t o the re s e a r c h e r s work area provide a p a r t i t i o n which separate t h i s space from the r e s t of the s t u d i o . T h i s area i s i n the lowest p o s i t i o n of a l l the b u i l d i n g spaces and has an e x c e l l e n t view, which i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l terms p r o v i d e s emotional s t a b i l i t y and thus enhances r e s e a r c h p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h i s space i s surrounded by a green outdoor area which c o n t a i n s t r e e s t h a t are s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e and are planted a c c o r d i n g t o geomantic p r i n c i p l e s f o r balance of " v i t a l sequence" (Fig.,4.21). 22. T h i s i s a t r a n s i t i o n between the i n t e r i o r c o u r t y a r d ( e a r t h ) and the " e x t e r i o r " n a t u r a l environment(heaven) (see F i g . 4.22 and F i g . 4.23). 23. Outdoor " e x t e r i o r " path: T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a n a t u r a l path t o provide a l i n k t o both n a t u r a l environment and the a r t i f i c i a l l a k e and i t s v e g e t a t i o n which repr e s e n t a t r a n s i t i o n between man and heaven (see F i g . 4.23). SPATIAL OBDER The s p a t i a l o r d e r e s t a b l i s h e s areas i n terms of the uses and f u n c t i o n s of the space (see F i g . 1.10, F o l d out p. 101). The h i e r a r c h y of spaces i s : P u b l i c < - — — > S e m i - p u b l i c < — ~ — > S e m i - p r i v a t e < >Private • i . . . . . Uncovered<-:—->Partly covered and p a r t l y uncovered< >Covered Gener a l g r o u p — - F u n c t i o n a l g r o u p - — S p e c i a l g r o u p s - P e r s o n a l group The h i e r a r c h y of t y p i c a l i n t e r i o r spaces: Amusement o r i e n t e d L e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d C r e a t i v i t y o r i e n t e d Comtemplation o r i e n t e d The composition of t h i s s p a t i a l order, proceeding from p u b l i c t o p r i v a t e , from uncovered t o covered, from people g a t h e r i n g space to personal owned space, i s an attempt to provide optimal working c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h e r s . According t o geomantic philosophy the h i e r a r c h y of p u b l i c versus p r i v a t e use should p a r a l l e l the higher t o the lower t e r r a i n . (In f l a t t e r r a i n the h i e r a r c h y would be s i m i l a r l y expressed i n terms of d i s t a n c e r a t h e r than height.) * 7 1. P u b l i c Space: the c e n t r a l c o u r t y a r d , pagoda, r e c e p t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s t a u r a n t and c a f e , and t h e a t r e . . c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the major f u n c t i o n s of the i n s t i t u t e around t h i s c o u r t y a r d * s open space. . T h i s c o u r t y a r d i s a p u b l i c and an e s s e n t i a l l y p e d e s t r a i n path, 80mx80m, from which a l l the i n s t i t u t e ' s major a c t i v i t i e s open o f f . The e n t i r e c o u r t y a r d cannot be grasped at f i r s t glance, only a p p r e c i a t e d as one approaches i n space and time, u n f o l d i n g l i k e a p i e c e o f music or a s c r o l l of p a i n t i n g (see F i g . 4.17, 4. 18 And 4.19). 2. Semi-public space: museum, reading rooms, o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f i c e , e x h i b i t i o n h a l l and data center. . Covered indoor space as a l i n k a g e o f c e n t r a l c o u r t y a r d to departments and r e s e a r c h space. Here i s a space f o r r e s e a r c h e r s and v i s i t o r s c h a t t i n g with f r i e n d s , r e a d i n g , and walking around the e x h i b i t i o n s . 3. Seffli^priyate sp_ace: subcourtyards, seminar rooms and l e c t u r e h a l l s f o r group d i s c u s s i o n and demonstration. . l i n k between s e m i - p u b l i c and p r i v a t e space. The subcourtyards provide space f o r seminar breaks or p r i v a t e 98 contemplation (see F i g . 4.20). P r i v a t e space : r e s i d e n c e , r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d i o s and l a b s . Stairways serve not on l y as connectors between l e v e l s but a l s o as symbolic t r a n s i t i o n s between the spaces, which are considered t o be s y m b o l i c a l l y on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . Even i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s t u d i o , the three-stepped change has a symbolic meaning which r e p r e s e n t s the u l t i m a t e part o f the e n t i r e h i e r a r c h i c a l seguence (see F i g . 4.21). 1 0 0 NATDEAL ELEMENTS The f o l l o w i n g number sequence i s r e l a t e d to F i g . 4.11, ( f o l d out p. 106) 1. The f o r e s t areas t h a t surround the approach and entrance to the C.C.R.I. preserve a sense of c o n t i n u i t y with the n a t u r a l environment and p r o t e c t the complex from "sha ch*!". In geomantic terms, "sha c h ' i " , or i n a u s p i c i o u s f o r c e s , r e s i d e i n the north and t r a v e l i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s . Their i n f l u e n c e can be circumvented by p r o t e c t i v e b a r r i e r s {Fig. 4.14). 2. The avenue of l u s h deciduous t r e e s l i n k s the f o r e s t growth with the s i n g l e t r e e at the entrance of the i n s t i t u t e . The v i s i t o r then i s g r a d u l l y taken from n a t u r a l t o man-made surroundings {Fig. 4.14). 3. The s i n g l e t r e e marks t h e en t r a n c e way and r e p r e s e n t i n g the change from n a t u r a l landscape t o the man-made {Fig. 4.15). I t i s a l s o the " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " t r e e r e l a t e d t o t h e main gate which i s to r e f l e c t the v i t a l energy of the e n t i r e complex, (see Chapter one, vegetation) 4. The s i n g l e t r e e i n the c o u r t y a r d provides c o n t i n u i t y with the i n t e r i o r environment. The lone t r e e symbolizes an " p l e n t i t u d e " and thus p r o s p e r i t y (see Chapter one, vegetation) 10l 5. The shrubbery i s placed here to soften the building's t r a n s i t i o n from one l e v e l of the courtyard to the next as well as soften the harsh l i n e s of the i n t e r i o r corner spaces. 6. The arrangements of shrubbery and grass provides a gentle means of denoting the changes i n the l e v e l of the courtyard. 7. Subcourtyard vegetation consists of a few " i n t e r e s t i n g l y " formed trees which should denote prosperity (Fig. 4.20). 8. The small groves of trees {see 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d, 8e, 8f) outside the courtyard mitigate the harshness of building corners and linkages and provide a means of gradually re-introducing the natural environment as well as to provide a sence of "surprise". The placing of this growth i s also used to direct movement i n a subtle way. The control of t h i s movement—avoiding sharp straight l i n e s also refers to control the "sha ch* i " (The curved corners of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese also r e f e r s to the above concerns). 9. Single, l i g h t l y f o l i a t e d trees beside the researcher's studio providing a "good" environment f o r work.{see Chapter one, vegetation and Fig. 4.21) 10. The single tree here l i n k s the man-made and natural » environments i n between which the patio i s located. 102 t, { 11. These groves o f t r e e s provide c o n t i n u i t y between the p r o j e c t and the a r t i f i c i a l l a k e . They re p r e s e n t the c o l l e c t i o n of " c h * i " or v i t a l energy. These t r e e s s i g n i f y the t r a n s f e r e n c e of " v i t a l energy" from the complex to the drainage system, the cr e e k s , r i v e r s and f i n a l l y the ocean. When they f l o u r i s h i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the movement of s t i r r i n g v i t a l energy of J , c j i * i " which i s a c e n t r a l i d e a i n a l l t r a d i t i o n a l of Chinese a r t s and s c i e n c e s . r 10^ SYMBOLIC FORM The f o l l o w i n g number seguence r e l a t e s t o F i g . 4.12 ( f o l d out p. 110): 1) The r e t a i n i n g w a l l , 2) The b a r r i e r w a l l , 3) The concrete w a l l and 4) The s o l i d w a l l p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n from the "sha c h * i " or i n s u s p i c i o u s f o r c e s ccming from . the northern e s p e c i a l l y the north-west. "Openings 1 1 to these d i r e c t i o n s should be blocked. 5. T h i s w a l l with framed windows i d e n t i f i e s the p r o j e c t and marks the means of access v i a the main gate without any worded s i g n s ( F i g . 4.15). 6. T h i s nine s t o r i e d pagoda tower i s the f o c a l point of the p r o j e c t . I t i s a l s o the s p i r i t u a l landmark of the surrounding s i t e . I t i s b u i l t t o c o n c e n t r a t e the "ch.*i" or v i t a l energy of the area and ward-off "sha" or i n a u s p i c i o u s f o r c e s . The o b s e r v a t i o n deck w i l l be used t o present a permanent e x h i b i t i o n of the Chinese geomantic p r i n c i p l e s t o which a l l the p a r t s of the complex respond. Thus, the pagoda becomes the c e n t r a l focus of i n f o r m a t i o n d e a l i n g with geomancy as a Chinese c u l t u r a l philosophy. The tower a l s o symbolize the p r o j e c t from a distance,(Fig. 4.16) . 7. Arcades provide covered walkways on the i n t e r i o r perimeter o f the b u i l d i n g s . They serve to symbolize the movement from the 105 o u t s i d e ( h e a v e n - c i r c l e ) to the i n s i d e ( e a r t h - s g u a r e ) and v i c e v e r s a . , The l a c k of a w a l l on one s i d e of the walkway may be i n t e r p r e t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y as "heaven's c i r c l e " . 8. These fences are b u i l t t o s a t i s f y geomantic reguirements. They are symbols of boundary and enclosure as w e l l as symbols of t r a n s i t i o n from, i n t e r i o r t o e x t e r i o r space. 9.. The gates of the p r i v a t e s t u d i o space open onto the n a t u r a l world. These gates are again symbols of t r a n s i t i o n . 10. The a r t i f i c i a l lake Hater i n f r o n t of the p r o j e c t ensures that i t w i l l be a "good p l a c e " . The lake a t once both c o l l e c t s v i t a l energy from the o u t s i d e and t r a n s m i t s i t to the i n t e r i o r and a l s o t r a n s m i t s energy from the i n t e r i o r t o the e x t e r i o r (see Fig.4.23). 10? ADDITIONAL NOTES ON GEOMANTIC DETERMINANTS The f o l l o w i n g number seguence r e l a t e d to F i g . 4.13 ( f o l d out P. 113): 1. A f t e r the p r o j e c t e d uses of the s i t e have been r e l a t e d t o the o r i e n t a t i o n and the the s l o p e o f the s i t e , i t i s next necessary to e s t a b l i s h the areas of the s p a t i a l h i e r a r c h a r y such which t h a t they correspond to these uses. The d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n the design i s the r e l a t i o n between the c o u r t y a r d and the f o c a l p o i n t of the p r o j e c t . 2. The o r i e n t a t i o n of the c o u r t y a r d i s based on a north-south a x i s . The parking l o t blocks out i n a u s p i c i o u s f o r c e s which r e s i d e i n the north. The major gate then can be l o c a t e d i n e i t h e r the NH or NE. The best l o c a t i o n f o r the gate based on "Yangf d w e l l i n g p r i n c i p i e s (see p. 39 and p. 43) i s the NS p o s i t i o n . The NH gate i s represented by "chan", i s the best s i t e f o r the major opening of a co u r t y a r d which i s i s o l a t e d i n the north and f a c e s south. 3. The major gate i s l o c a t e d i n the N8, the main doors of main b u i l d i n g s (medical research dept.. L i b r a r y , art-music and a r t dept.) must then open to face the four p o i n t s w i t h i n the "western" group of d i r e c t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , the NH, H, SB, NE p o s i t i o n s are good o r i e n t a t i o n s f o r the doors of main b u i l d i n g s . 108 4 . Based on above d e c i s i o n s , and c o n t i n u i n g with the ."yang dwelling? p r i n c i p l e s , the b u i l d i n g s of the c e n t e r western s i d e of the complex as w e l l as the N» corner s h o u l d be higher than those that a d j o i n them. The b u i l d i n g i n the c e n t e r c o u r t y a r d should a l s o be higher too. Before the normal f u n c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p r o j e c t were made the design of the C C . B.I. was d i c t a t e d by the above mentioned d e c i s i o n s . Given the p o s i t i o n s of the higher b u i l d i n g s i n the complex, the a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n i n g such as the C.C.B.I. O f f i c e , the a r t r e a d i n g room and the l i b r a r y were placed i n them. F i q u r e U.16 View towards L i b r a r y and Paqoda r F i q u r e u.18 View from C o u r t y a r d to Medical dept. F i q u r e 4.2.1 View of Garden and Complex 120 5.1 Co n c l u s i o n T h i s experiment, should show t h a t i t i s indeed p o s s i b l e to i n t e g r a t e the p r i n c i p l e s of Chinese geomancy i n t o modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . C o n f l i c t s do occur between geomantic requirements, " p r a c t i c a l " needs, and contemporary t h e o r e t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c design reguirements,, However, the design experience shows t h a t these c o n f l i c t s can be r e s o l v e d with no more d i f f i c u l t y than the r e s o l u t i o n of those c o n f l i c t s which may occur i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f geomantic p r i n c i p l e s themselves or i n the r e s o l u t i o n of t y p i c a l design c o n f l i c t s (see F i g . 5.1, 5.2, 5 . 3 , 5.4, 5.5 and 5.6). The r e s u l t i n g design does i n d i c a t e t h a t the process used i n the experiment can l e a d to a unigue and profound e x p r e s s i o n of Chinese c u l t u r e without r e s o r t i n g t o s u p e r f i c i a l t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i f s . , ure 5. l BASIC GEOMANTIC ORDER • f ^ i M s t r u t s <*f- Mu&iac, L E v a s . t • f ituMma f • ^ — u u r i i M : M»46,k>u. . fur. HUM. • p*?** 1 p»r". p**»e. »'»v. • v t t t f i r 1 * ^ . f^p-»»r. Tut-* . Q.Mff fAi i^ f» •f>r"ir1>»rH'^*i- *i^rw-s« (viu v(tfM«< A yw \. t01 >trtf >»*•«. r ^ ^ ^ , • rp.fr. *-"«»"»• • f*f-«*f. t3 ANfif 1*1*1. Ufctfc /M 4 /UT I - t t * r *'CB-F i q u r e 5.2 g BASIC GEOMANTIC ORDER a Mfwn<!« -r> /f-t-ub j«>ii.0ip^  titbit Q fVbl.lt v*'* —* U Ui>*-Mf>4 a s«»u o o o 4r 1 X C/5 CC o I-o < LL Z g UJ Q i n 0) u Cr • H c at • x II 11 2. s 1 j J *• £ * S> ..-J 1* J A <i -» £ A * * a v- «- Z s 4 M > (*- sl > *~ D l9D O D • 2. -4 V - I I a 'if > - 3 i if-i s * • Q fl 1 1 i t t Ik V— * 41 >- -0 .1 V-•4 a. «\ £- O • -1 • » « • • • * -t » * a f •x * £ s J-s J x . •» * ** i -u V -•1 » • • F i g u r e 5.5 Q DESIGN FACTORS a [3 Ai'*+*1tt- r > * f t v t H c t p d 4 t * ^ » M T > . l y ^ f c i u i . * F t * i ^ £ t . f»f»M» * ' • -J D T» ' f M T F ^ V V'tH fM»l»fr »»'k»l«fa t»rf*f. b f . t k » f i » » »»f",«i«| f i > f i r i #^ *<" *y«f-w»*tu»* r*p«*. V il-27 5.2 F u r t h e r fiesearch: 1. T h i s study i s based on s e v e r a l primary and secondary sources d e a l i n g with Chinese geomancy.., The design p r o j e c t i s a h y p o t h e t i c a l base f o r a t e s t of the e n t i r e geomantic order. S t u d i e s of t h i s nature should i n c l u d e general design problems, from those a p p l y i n g to a s i n g l e f a m i l y house to those a p p l y i n g t o a s m a l l v i l l a g e ; from p u b l i c b u i l d i n g t o c i t y p l a n n i n g and i t should not be l i m i t e d t o the i d e a l i z e d s i t e s i t u a t i o n . , In t h i s study, the only c o n s t r a i n t s were those s e t by the p r o j e c t i t s e l f . T h i s study demonstrates i n s t i t u t i o n a l design i n a "monastic" environment, but does not d e a l with the i m p l i c a t i o n s of geomancy f o r ether designs and s i t u a t i o n s . 2. The concept of the e x p r e s s i o n of c u l t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s should be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r i n the d e t a i l designs f o r b u i l d i n g s . 3. I f "symbolic geomantic" o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the p r o j e c t i s important, then other designs r e l a t e d to Chinese c o u l d p r o f i t from the use of t h i s system. 128 4. Another study might be undertaken i n which the geomantic order i s d i s s e c t e d i n t o o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s with a survey of respondents 1 a t t i t u d e s to geomancy and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the designs., T h i s would a l l o w a r e a l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r o f e s s i o n a l geomancer and the d e s i g n e r i n modern a r c h i t e c t u r e . 129 Bib1ioara£hi Alexander, C h r i s t o p h e r C e l l s o f S u b c u l t u r e s . Berkeley, C a l i f . Center f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , 1968. Alexander, C h r i s t o p h e r , Ishikawa, Sara and Murray S i l v e r s t e i n , A P a t t e r n Langauge which Generates M u l t i - S e r v i c e Centres Berkeley, C a l i f . Centre f o r Environmental S t r u c t u r e , 1968. Alexander, C h r i s t o p h e r e t . a l A- P a t t e r n language; T^pwns, B u i l d i n g s , C o n s t r u c t i o n . New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977. Benevolo, Leonardo H i s t o r y of Mpdern A r c h i t e c t u r e , The Modern Movement, V o l . I I , London, Boutledge and K. P a u l , 1971. Boyd, Andrew Chinese A r c h i t e c t u r e and Town Planning 1500 B.C.rrA. D. 1911 Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press 1962. B r o l i n , Brent C. The F a i l u r e of Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e New York, VNB Co., 1976. v Burton, Benton and Sharp Form - • and.- Functipn Open O n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. . ~ ~ Chan, W i n g - t s i t , Trans, and Comp. A SourceBook i n C h i n e s e Philosophy. P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n O n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1973. Chao, Moses Chinatown Vancouver. An A n a l y s i s of i t s p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and Economic S i t u a t i o n with Becommedations f o r I t s Improvement and Future Growth. M. A. Thesis Oregon Dniv. 1971 Cho, Chin Huat R e s i d e n t i a l P a t t e r n s o f The Chinese i,,n Vancouver B.C. M. A. T h e s i s i n Geography 1970. F e u c h t w a ng, S t e p ha n, D.B. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A n l a y s i s og Chinese Geojaancy. V i e n t i a n n e : E d i t i o n s Vithagna, 1974 Fung, Yu-Lan A Short H i s t o r y of Chinese Philosophy New York. The Macmillan Co., 1948. G a r d i n e r , Stephen E v o l u t i o n of fhe -. House, Frogmore, P a l a d i n , 1974. De Groot, «J. J . M. The Be^iqj.ous System Q£ China V o l . I l l Leiden: L i b r i r i e Et Imprimerie, 1897. De Bary, l i l l i a m Theodore, Sources pf Chinese T r a d i t i o n V o l . I P. 145-210 .. ~ . 130 196 4,Halprin, L. The BS?P Cycles. Creative Processes i n The Human Environment. George B r a z i l l e r , Inc., New York, 1970. Inn, Henry Chinese Houses and Gardens Edited by Shao Chang Lee New York, Hastings House, 1950. Lynch, Kevin Site Planning Cambridge. MIT Press, 1975. HaCnair, Malcolm Concepts of Environmental Q u a l i t y Standards Based on L i f e Styles . Univ. Of Pittsburgh 1969. March, Andrew. L. "An Appreciation of Chinese Geomancy.** Journal of Asian Studies ? o l . 27 No. 2 p. 252-267, 1968. Moore, Gary T. Emerging Methods i n Enyigoftmenta 1 Design and Planning Cambridge: MIT press 1970. Needham, Joseph Scignc.§. and Cj^aiigaiioji i n £ M f l S Vol. I,II Cambridge, Cambridge Oniv press, 1962. Osvald, Siren The Chinese on the Act of Painting-New York Shocken books 1963, Osvald, Siren Gardens of China New York, The Henald press co, 1949., Pales, Stephen The Chinese Art of Healing>: Herder and Herder Inc., N. Y., 1963. Pi n a z z o 1 i -T • ser t e ve n s Michele L i v i n g Architecture: China London, Macdonald, 1972. Puni, Krishan Parkash An Evaluation of patterns M Arch., Thesis, UBC, 1973. Bawley, G. Pr i n c i p l e s of Chinese Pajnfting. Edit Princeton, N.J. Oniv. Press 1959 Boy, Horskett The Character of Towns. An Approach to Conservation. London, The Architectural press, 1969. Bubenstein, H. M. A Guide to Site and Environmental Planning. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1969. S o o t h i l l , William Edward. The Hall of Light London Lutterworth press, 1951. Sze, Mai-Mai The Way. gf Chinese Painting, i t s Ideas and technigue New York fiandom House, 1959. Taut, Bruno Housgs and People of Japan. Tokyo, The Sanseido co., 1958. 1-31 Tempel, Egon New Ja panese A r c h i t e c t u r e , New York, Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1969. Yang Chai Shih Shu + % JThe Ten Books of Yang Dwelling) Ku-Chin Tu-Shu Chi-ch'eng • $ t T ~ $ k % % $ \ ~ 1725. Box 47. V o l . 474-476 T s u n g - l i Ya-men ed., 1890. Yoshinobu Ashihara E x t e r i o r Design i n A r c h i t e c t u r e . New York, VNB Co., 1970. Yoon, Hong-Key Geomantic R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between C u l t u r e and Nsl£ii£§ i n Korea Asian F o l k l o r e and S o c i a l L i f e Monographs, V o l . 88, T a i p e i , Taiwan, The Orient C u l t u r a l S e r v i c e , 1972. Z e v i , B. A r c h i t e c t u r e as Space New York, Horizon press, 1973. Appendix I G l o s s a r y 1-32' chan she s h i h che qecmancer(expert on d i v i n a t i o n , avoidance of c o n f l i c t and a d v i s e r on the a f f a i r s of men) Chinese qeomancy, d i v i n a t i o n an expert who s i t e s a l o c a t i o n f o r b u i l d i n g , f o r graves, e t c . topoqrapher s i t u a t i o n flowiriq a c t i v i t y trunk p r i n c i p l e and matter d e s t r u c t i v e e v i l f o r c e s p r o d u c t i v e qood f o r c e s p r i n c i p l e s of geography(earth) to shen kung, k a i t i e n ming ' -. to c o n t r o l the f o r c e s of nature (seize , rJJL.*-<>'j> s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s , change the decree of heaven) feng s h u i fang wei c h i a $ C Hsing ga c h i a fy— hsing s h i h f ) hsing lung $J, -| §^ kan l i , c h \ i *f. -jjL sha c h ' i ?*r *L sheng ch »i % jLi t i l i it^tt ch * ung c h a i yang c h a i y i n c h a i f u tao s h u i ?Jc_ ho ^ f i t i t c o n f l i c t s i t e , home h a b i t a t i o n of the l i v i n q tomb charm way, road, white t i q e r watercourse, azure draqon r i v e r c h ' i h > ^ pond, pool t 'ang *y| tank shan JJ mountain, h i l l , peak l i n g range, r i d g e kang . post kao t i ^ high l e v e l t i t i fayt^, low l e v e l p'inq t i jj* f l a t l e v e l c h' i u it mound sha >J7 sand fen *ji grave shu f|J t r e e fenq wei {$ l o c a t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n pei-k'an ^ ^ tic north n a n - l i " -t&7 south tunq-chen | t _ - ^_ east h s i - t u i $7 ' •^ -J west tung-pei-ken jL-*t - k north-e ast h s i p e i - c h ' i e n f f i j ^ " north-west tunq nan-ken H^f7 ~ •St south-east h s i nan -k'un fafy - if south-west I Appendix I I 134 Omens wealth (fu) n o b i l i t y (cheng chei) i j| -J^ honor(tsun) i f abundance (f eng) & ir power (ch'uan-li) l u c k i n making money wealth and high honors, high o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s and r i c h e s honor and r i c h e s t o attend great achidvement and good r e p u t a t i o n i n h e r e n t power to do t h i n g s p o l i t i c a l power amd i n f l u e n c e of a u t h o r i t y a noble f a m i l y and person e l e q a n t , magnificent h i g h l y respected and revered r e s p e c t , venerate a honorable nome p l e n t i f u l descendants w e l l provided with food w e l l - p r o t e c t e d and wealthy, having ( f a m i l y , nation) abundance r i c h and powerful person u n l i m i t e d power to do th i n q s p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y , r e s o u r c e f u l t a c t i c s f i n a n c i a l power m i l i t a r y power and a u t h o r i t y 1 3 5 foremost (cho-minq) j. }v hero (ying-hsiung) £'| l u c k ( h s i n g - f u ) ^ ;fj? b l e s s i n g (chu-f u) fa happiness (lo) *j l o n g e v i t y (ch' ang-shou) p r o s p e r i t y (mou-sheng) j\ ^ s u p e r i o r most important a champion, congueror a powerful and r i c h man a great f i g h t e r , w a r r i o r l i f e course of a person or n a t i o n c a l c u l a t e d t o prolong one's l i f e good l u c k , b l e s s i n g i n good fortune happiness of l i f e be b l e s s e d with a double p o r t i o n of good fortune elegant and r e f i n e d enjoy the b l e s s i n g of l i f e l i v e and l u x u r i o u s l i f e e l e g a n t l y a t t i r e d and f e a s t i n q on d e l i c a c i e s good luck Utopia, p a r a d i s e c o n d i t i o n of p e r f e c t happiness easygoing, happy-go-lucky long l i f e , p e r p e t u a l r e j u v e n a t i o n have a l i n g span of l i f e f o r t u n e , good and luck r e p u t a t i o n (ming-y u) ^ v i r t o u u s (te-wei) r i c h ( f u ) % glory<jung-fa) ' ^ j \ " | s h s t r e n g t h (ch 'iang-shinq)Jf, ^ p l e n t y , f u l l n e s s t h r i v i n g ( o f growing t i h i n g s or commerce, i n d u s t r y and naticn) a person's p r e s t i g e r e p u t a t i o n f o r honesty r e p u t a t i o n o f f i c i a l enjoyed by an moral, e x c e l l e n c e , goodness a model of feminine v i r t u e b e a u t i f u l c h a r a c t e r great v i r t u e v i g o r o u s energy s o l i d f i n a n c i a l s t r e n g t h having abundance s p l e n d i d win p r a i s e s f o r one's ancestors e n r i c h one's p o s t e r i t y r e f l e c t g l o r y on one's an c e s t o r s having much f o r c e or power noble to l a s t , endure, r e s i s t s t r o n g f a m i l y , nation 1)38 appendix IV FUNCTIONAL AND SPACING REQOIREMENTS Pr e s i d e n t The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Chinese C u l t u r a l Foundation e x c u t i v e the program of C.C.B.I. Personnel P r e s i d e n t 1. V i c e - p r e s i d e n t 1. Ccamittee 4. Consultants 2. Se c r e t a r y 1. A c t i v i t i e s . approving and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e programae. . f a c u l t y Meeting and o r g a n i z a t i o n management, . o r g a n i z i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences. . fund c o n t r o l . . a d m i n i s t e r i n g the e d i t i n g o f Chinese C u l t u r a l Foundation p u b l i c a t i o n s . , . p l a n n i n g and ex e c u t i n g , . f u t u r e expansion schedule. F a c i l i t i e s ( a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) F a c i l i t i e s User Unit U n i t s Net area area •Reception 20 30m 2 • O f f i c e V i c e - p r e s i d e n t 50a 2 • O f f i c e P r e s i d e n t 100m2 •Committee c o n s u l t a n t s 100m2 •Conference room 20 50m 2 • S e r v i c e space 8 20m2 Lounge Waiting 20 20 25 m* 25m* Personnel Programme planner 2. Executive a d m i n i s t r a t o r 1. Executive a s s i s t a n t 2., Se c r e t a r y 2. A c t i v i t i e s .programme pla n n i n g . . executing the programme. . i n s t i t u t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . housing management.„ F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s User U n i t U n i t s Net area area • O f f i c e Planner 50m2 • O f f i c e A d m i n i s t r a t o r Ssec*y 50n»z • O f f i c e E x e c u t i v e a s s i s t a n t 50 m2 •Waiting lounge 10 20ffl2 Researching R e s e a r c h e r ( a r t & c u l t u r e ) 30. Researcher(others) 15. , Personnel Organizer Secreatary L i b r a r i a n A c t i v i t i e s . r e s e a r c h i n Chinese a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , music, language, phil o s o p h y , r e l i g i o n , h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c s , anthropology and s o c i a l s c i e n c e and f o l k customs program. . p a i n t i n g , dancing demonstration and music p r e s e n t a t i o n . . t e a c h i n g , p r a c t i c i n g , r e a d i n g , l e c t u r i n g , d i s p l a y i n g . . documenting the re s e a r c h papers and theses. . l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n . F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s Oser Un i t area Units ; Net area • S t u d i o Researcher 24m« 30 720m* •Studio Researcher 24m* 15 360m* •Seminar res e a r c h e r 30m2 5 150m* •Lecture h a l l 60 10 0m 2 •Technician o f f i c e 2 50 m* • O f f i c e O r g anizer 25m* • O f f i c e S e c r e t a r y 25 m* •Reading room 30 200m* •Language l a b 40 50m* • B a i t i n g lounge 10 50 m« •Research s e r v i c e spaceS 30 1. 2. 2..,.,,' U%2 Museum Personnel Manager 1. A c t i v i t i e s . c o n s e r v i n g and e x h i b i t i n g permanent c o l l e c t i o n s of c a l l i g r a p h y , s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g , stone engraving, wood engraving and s e a l a r t s . , . p r e p a r i n g And e x h i b i t i n g the s p e c i a l shows. . s t o r i n g o f e x h i b i t s , a r t i f a c t s , artwork.., . c a t a l o g i n g of a r t and a r t i f a c t s . . o p e r a t i n g open s t u d i o f o r p u b l i c demonstration. F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s User U n i t area U n i t s Net area • D i s p l a y g a l l e r y 50 400m2 • O f f i c e Manager 25m* •Storage - 200m* •P r e p a r a t i o n 20 50m* •Workshop 30 100m* •Open space 20 200m* • S e r v i c e space 10 40 m 2 143 Performance c e n t r e Personnel Manager 1. Organizer 1. A c t i v i t i e s . managing multi-purposes auditorium f o r c o n c e r t s , plays v a r i e t y shows, l e c t u r e s , f i l m s , meetings, f e s t i v a l s , . p e r f o r m a n c e p r o d u c t i o n , . m a i n t a i n i n g performer f a c i l i t i e s , . m a i n t a i n i n g p r a c t i c e f a c i l i t i e s . . s torage of equipment, scenes, costumes, f u r n i t u r e s t o r a g i n g . F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s Dser U n i t U n i t s Net area area •Auditorium 150 800m2 •Stage - 100m2 •Dressing room 20 50m2 •Workshop 10 100m2 •Loading area - 150m2 •Outdoor auditorium50 200m2 • P r a c t i c e room 1 10m2 5 50m2 • O f f i c e Organizer 20m2 • P r a c t i c e room 2 20m2 5 100m2 •Storage room 20 50m2 • S e r v i c e space 10 20m2 •Lounge 50 100m2 t ^ 4 Medical r e s e a r c h Researching User Medical r e s e a r c h e r 15, Personnel Organizer 1 • Se c r e t a r y 2. L i b r a r i a n 2, a c t i v i t i e s . r e s e a r c h i n Chinese medical s c i e n c e and ge n e r a l medical researchs, . a c u p u n c t u r e r e s e a r c h , , . h e r b a l r e s e a r c h i n g and d e f i n i n g h e r b a l medicine and pharmacology, . demonstration i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s and groups, . r e s e a r c h i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Chinese experience f o r modern Chinese and non-Chinese medicine, medical r e s e a r c h and h e a l t h c a r e . F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s User U n i t area U n i t s Net area •Studio Besearcher 20m 2 10 200m2 •Lab Researcher 25m z 5 125m2 • Lab Besearcher 25 m* 5 50 a 2 •Multi-purposes l a b Researcher 40m2 2 SOm2 • P r e p a r a t i o n Researcher 5 0 m 2 2 lOOm* •animal room Besearcher 30m2 2 6 0 m 2 •Computer t e r m i n a l 5 SOm2 1 50m2 •Dark room 3 10m« 1 10ffl2 •Cold room 2 30mz 1 30m2 Lecture h a l l Seminar re-cm Beading room O f f i c e w a iting lounge S e r v i c e space 30 80m* 10 25m 2 Besearcher O r g a n i z e r S s e c r e a t a r y 20 10 1 2 80 m2 50m2 50m2 30m2 50m2 25m2 146 C l i n i c Personnel Operators Nurses a c t i v i t i e s 5. to, medical o p e r a t i o n demonstration, medical p r a c t i c i n g . medical care, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and nursing, F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s User U n i t area U n i t s Net area •Reception lounge 10 •Operation room 5 •Pharmacy 2 •2 bed n u r s i n g 2 •4 bed nu r s i n g 4 •12 bed nur s i n g 12 •Herbal r e s e a r c h c e n t r e l O •Supply s e r v i c e 2 •wa i t i n g lounge 5 • S e r v i c e space 6 16m2 28m2 120 m2 5 4 2 30m2 50m2 30m 2 80 m2 112m2 240m 2 150 m2 100m2 50 m2 20 m2 .; 147 L i b r a r y Personnel L i b r a r i a n 2. a s s i s t a n t 3. A c t i v i t i e s . p r o v i d i n g a fo c u s f o r Chinese c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . . c o l l e c t i n g rarebooks f o r s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h . . p r o v i d i n g language i n s t r u c t i o n and communication with other r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s i n Canada and other country, . p r o v i d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l or group study space f o r res e a r c h e r s and the p u b l i c . F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s User U n i t O n i t s Net area area • C o l l e c t i o n s . - 200m2 •Beference - 50m 2 • I n d i v i d u a l study 25 4m2 •Group study 10 50m2 •Oser s e r v i c e 5 40m2 •Lounge 20- 40m2 •Commemorative c o l l e c t i o n s 10 100m2 •Communication centre20 100m 2 Dining S e r v i c e Personnel 1%8 Manager Serviceman a c t i v i t i e s 1. 5. a d i n i n g area f o r r e s e a r c h e r s and s t a f f and . p r o v i d i n g public.„ . p r o v i d i n g the p u b l i c g a t h e r i n g p l a c e f o r r e l a x a t i o n and communication. F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s User U n i t U n i t s Net area area •Restaurant •Cafe 80 40 400m* 150m 2 Residence Personnel Manager 1. C l e r k s e c r ' y 2. a c t i v i t i e s . m a i n t a i n i n g r e s i d e n c e f o r permanent s t a f f o f i n s t i t u t e . . p r o v i d i n g r e s i d e n c e f o r short-term r e s e a r c h e r s s p e c i a l v i s i t o r s . F a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s Oser Dn i t a r e a U n i t s Net area • S t u d i o - a p t . •apartment 2 96m 2 40m* 10 960m 2 33 1320ffi2 Miaten^nce Personnel Manager Mechanics J a n i t o r 2. 5. 5. A c t i v i t i e s . b u i l d i n g s e r v i c e s . . b u i l d i n g maintenance and c l e a n i n g . . landscape maintenance. f a c i l i t i e s F a c i l i t i e s User U n i t U n i t s Net area area •Greenhouse 50m2 • P h y s i c a l p l a n t 100m2 • J a n i t o r room 15 m* 6 90 m* 151 1^ c t t l T ^ . t I I J f f - ' f c V r ' L i J T 1 5 2 should be provided,with l o a d i n g bays. Emergency v e h i c l e access such as f i r e , ambulance, and i n h a l a t o r i s r e g u i r e d , although p r o p e r l y designed p e d e s t r i a n ways may a l s o be used i n emergencies. CHARACTERISTICS The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i t e can be expected to a f f e c t the s e l e c t i o n o f the l o c a t i o n of the s i t e f o r the i n s t i t u t e and the surroundings. S i t e Boundaries The s i t e i s l o c a t e d to the e a s t of Loon Lake i n UBC Research F o r e s t , aproximately 350m to the south of t h e nearest peak A. The p o r t i o n of the l a n d i s d e l i m i t e d t o the north by a boundary running east-west, t o the east by a boundary running n o r t h - s o u t h , and to the south and the west by the 400M contour l i n e . J E l l l i M a t e r i a l 1 5 3 S i t e Requirements 1. Appropriate s e t t i n g The s p e c i a l i n t e n t i o n of the i n s t i t u t e i s to demonstrate the Chinese t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l s p i r i t . The s i t e should be s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the i d e a l s of Chinese cosmic r e g u l a t i o n , so t h a t the arrangement o f the b u i l d i n g s , c o u r t y a r d s , i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r spaces, the wooded, area, surrounding mountains and water can a l l respond to and express fundamental Chinese philosophy and usage. 2., Access P e d e s t r i a n The i n s t i t u t e w i l l encourage f r e e p e d e s t r i a n access through and around the s i t e . • V e h i c u l a r T r a f f i c and Parking provide s t a f f and r e s e a r c h e r parking, 50 parking spaces, and v i s i t o r s p a r k i n g , 100 parking spaces. • Bus and T r a n s i t f o r bus and t o u r i s t s bus p a r k i n g , 5 bus spaces. • S e r v i c e and Emergency s e r v i c e v e h i c l e s space f o r two t r u c k s i 5 4 T h i s s i t e has good F i r , Hemlock and Cedar f o r e s t s , with stands of spruce near the e a s t e r n creek. The second growth f o r e s t i s l o c a t e d i n the south s i d e o f the s i t e , with t r e e s 15m high. They are c o n s i d e r e d to be reasonably h e a l t h y . Views In t h i s development, the b u i l d i n g s should not o b s t r u c t the view. Views along south, west and east s i d e s should be developed as the major views to Loon Lake, Blanet Lake and the creeks on the e a s t . P o t e n t i a l Uses 1. To develop as l a r g e an a r e a as p o s s i b l e (compatible with UBC Research F o r e s t p o l i c y ) f o r p u b l i c park to demonstrate the Chinese landscape design philosophy. 2. House the Chinese C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e with a minimum parking f o r 150 c a r s . The access road to i t w i l l be a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the E branch road of the UBC Research F o r e s t . These p o t e n t i a l uses of the s i t e ; generate the f o l l o w i n g approximately space needs: C e n t r a l c o u r t y a r d B u i l d i n g s c i r c l e P arking Garden Open n a t u r a l area 5,600 rn2 20,650 m* 3,600 m* 10,000 in* 104, 150 m* Property area 144,000 m«=35.5 Acres 

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