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Administration of pollution control in British Columbia : a focus on the mining industry Moore, Patrick Albert 1974

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(I THE ADMINISTRATION  -  OF  P O L L U T I O N CONTROL  IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A F O C U S ON T H E M I N I N G I N D U S T R Y  -  by  P A T R I C K A L B E R T MOORE B . S c ,  A  University  THESIS  of  SUBMITTED  British  IN  Columbia/  PARTIAL FULFILMENT  T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE DOCTOR OF  in  the  1969  OF  PHILOSOPHY  Faculty of  FORESTRY  We  accept to  THE  this  the  thesis  reauired  UNIVERSITY  as  standard  OF B R I T I S H  May,  1974  conforming  COLUMBIA  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  this  thesis in partial  advanced degree at the Library  University  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t of the  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for by  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his representatives.  be  thesis for financial  written  permission.  Department  gain  the  s h a l l not  o f &tftyU/t7Z  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  g r a n t e d by  Head o f my  STUPES Columbia  be  that  thesis  Department  copying or  for  study.  copying of t h i s  I t i s understood that  of t h i s  requirements  or  publication  allowed without  my  i.  ABSTRACT  The r a p i d growth i n w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y o v e r t h e p a s t few d e c a d e s h a s r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s i n g competition f o r the use of the e a r t h ' s r e s o u r c e s . T h i s has c a u s e d what h a v e been t e r m e d " r e s o u r c e - u s e c o n f l i c t s " , t h e r e s o l u t i o n of which requires a "decision-making process". In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e manner i n w h i c h r e s o u r c e u s e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o p e r a t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , some l e g a l , economic, s o c i a l , administrative, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l factors i n v o l v e d were examined. As a working example of such d e c i s i o n making, a d e t a i l e d case h i s t o r y of the a p p l i c a t i o n for a P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Permit from the p r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B r a n c h by U t a h C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i s presented. The c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e Company's p l a n s t o d i s p o s e of 9.3 m i l l i o n g a l l o n s of mine t a i l i n g s d a i l y into Rupert I n l e t on n o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d r e s u l t e d i n the h o l d i n g o f a p u b l i c h e a r i n g by t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B r a n c h , t h e p a s s a g e o f new e n v i r o n m e n t a l l e g i s l a t i o n , a n d a c o u r t case. These e v e n t s c a s t c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on t h e manner i n w h i c h resource-use decision-making, that involves c o n s i d e r a t i o n of environmental f a c t o r s , operates in B r i t i s h Columbia. Many weaknesses i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s are apparent, p a r t i c u l a r l y the reluctance of the decision-makers to consider c r i t i c a l environmental f a c t o r s i n a r r i v i n g at a c o n c l u s i o n regarding the use of resources. Two e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n : firstly, a b r i e f s u r v e y o f a number o f m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia t o determine whether or not the administration o f p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n t h e p r o v i n c e was e f f e c t i v e l y preventing unacceptable d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of water draining t h e mined a r e a s ; and s e c o n d l y , a s t u d y o f t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f water i n Rupert I n l e t , and the e f f e c t of the t a i l i n g s d i s c h a r g e on t h e t u r b i d i t y o f the water i n t h e i n l e t , to test the validity of the basic assumptions behind the granting of a p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l permit t o Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . T h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s e two s t u d i e s was t o show t h a t w i t h a l i m i t e d b u d g e t a n d i n a l i m i t e d t i m e i t was p o s s i b l e t o determine the adequacy of the e x i s t i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The s u r v e y o f the q u a l i t y o f water d r a i n i n g areas of m i n i n g a c t i v i t y r e v e a l e d t h a t e x i s t i n g mechanisms were not e f f e c t i v e l y preventing unacceptable heavy metal p o l l u t i o n of water, and t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l i s frequently  i n a d e q u a t e and u n a c c e p t a b l e from an e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d p o i n t . The o c e a n o g r a p h i c s u r v e y o f Rupert I n l e t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e f a l a c i o u s nature o f the b a s i c assumption u n d e r l y i n g U t a h ' s pollution permit. Both s t u d i e s showed c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t t h e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s was not o p e r a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t h a t w i t h l i m i t e d t i m e and f i n a n c e s i t was p o s s i b l e t o g e n e r a t e some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o an adequate d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s .  i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  The the  I s l a n d Copper Mine as an Example o f Impact o f T e c h n o l o g y on t h e E n v i r o n m e n t  5  The  Problem o f A t t i t u d e s  Towards  Environmental Considerations E c o n o m i c s and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y  11  Conclusion  22  Footnotes CHAPTER 2  6  f o r Chapter 1  25  A REVIEW OF THE L E G I S L A T I O N RELATED TO POLLUTION CONTROL I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA Introduction  26  Early  27  Legislation  The  First  The  Pollution  The  Federal Fisheries  Other  Pollution  Control Act,  Control Act,  Provincial  1956  1967  Act  Legislation  Conclusion Footnotes CHAPTER 3  30 32 43 45 49  f o r Chapter  2  THE HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE WATER AND MINE EFFLUENT I N RELATION TO I T S TOXIC EFFECTS ON AQUATIC ORGANISMS  51  \ iv. Page Introduction  56  Heavy M e t a l M i n e s & M i n i n g T e c h n o l o g y  57  Processes Involved i n the Formation of A c i d Mine Drainage  65  The N a t u r a l L e v e l s o f H e a v y M e t a l s i n F r e s h and S a l t Water  69  B i o l o g i c a l Requirements f o r t h e Heavy M e t a l s and T h e i r D i s t r i b u t i o n i n A q u a t i c Organisms  80  The T o x i c i t y o f Heavy M e t a l s t o A q u a t i c Organisms  85  Recommended S t a n d a r d s f o r t h e H e a v y M e t a l Content o f Mine D r a i n a g e Water and M i n e E f f l u e n t  98  A Review o f t h e E f f e c t o f M i n i n g on t h e L e v e l s o f Heavy M e t a l s i n W a t e r a t V a r i o u s L o c a t i o n s i n Canada  102  A Survey o f C e r t a i n Mines i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o Determine T h e i r E f f e c t on Heavy M e t a l L e v e l s i n Some A s s o c i a t e d W a t e r B o d i e s 108 Methodology and Techniques Employed i n C o l l e c t i n g and-'Analyzing Water Samples f o r Heavy M e t a l C o n t e n t Results  f o r W a t e r Sample A n a l y s e s  114  D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n A B r i e f D i s c u s s i o n o f Techniques P r e v e n t i o n o f A c i d Mine Drainage Bibliography  f o r Chapter  I l l  126 f o r the  3  128 133  CHAPTER 4 THE UTAH CONTROVERSY - A CASE STUDY I N THE ADMINISTRATION OF POLLUTION CONTROL Introduction  139  The P r o p o s e d M i n e r a l D e v e l o p m e n t  140  V. Page The  Decision  Public The  Process  142  Participation  155  Hearing  170  Pollution  Control  Resulting  Policy  Challenging  the  Board Appeal  176  and Procedural Permit:  the  Changes  Piatocka  . . .  Case  .  Conclusion Footnotes CHAPTER  5  182 191 197  f o r Chapter  4  208  T H E P H Y S I C A L OCEANOGRAPHY OF R U P E R T I N L E T ON V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D W I T H C R I T I C A L COMMENTS ON I T S U S E F O R T H E D I S P O S A L OF M I N E T A I L I N G S BY U T A H C O N S T R U C T I O N AND M I N I N G COMPANY Introduction Description  226 of  the  Study  Area  229  The Oceanography of Rupert I n l e t D e s c r i b e d by Utah P r i o r t o T h e i r f o r a P o l l u t i o n Control Permit  as Application 230  Oceanographic Data on Rupert I n l e t Which Were A v a i l a b l e a t t h e Time t h e P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n was Made Oceanographic That  Have  Data  f o r Rupert  Been Obtained  Since  Inlet the  Permit  Application The  236  Significance  of  Temperature  Measurement  i n Oceanography  Methodology  and Techniques  the Author i n Temperature i n Rupert I n l e t Results Rupert  of  232  the Temperature  Inlet  238 Employed  by  Measurement 244 Studies  in 247  vi. Page The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f T u r b i d i t y Measurement i n Oceanography and i t s A p p l i c a t i o n i n Rupert I n l e t  254  The D e s i g n and C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a Transmissometer F o r t h e Measurement Turbidity i n Rupert I n l e t  258  Presentation Rupert  of  Turbidity  Data  of  for  Inlet  263  Conclusions Bibliography  280 f o r Chapter  5  289  CONCLUSION  291 Bibliography  for Conclusion  300  APPENDICES APPENDIX APPENDIX  A BATHYTHERMOGRAPH DATA FOR RUPERT February, 1971 t o A p r i l , 1972  301 INLET  B TRANSMISSOMETER DATA FOR RUPERT I N L E T November, 1970 t o S e p t e m b e r , 1972  302 313  vii.  TABLE  OF I L L U S T R A T I O N S Page  Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  3.1  3.2  3.3  5.1  5.2  5.3a 3b  5.4a 4b 4c  5.5  Map o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o w i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e mining o p e r a t i o n s and the major metals being extracted at these mines  58  Graph showing the s e a s o n a l fluctuation i n sea-water copper concentration f o r the s u r f a c e waters o f San Juan Channel, Washington, U . S . A  73  O u t l i n e map o f t h e B r i t a n n i a B e a c h r e g i o n i n Howe S o u n d s h o w i n g t h e w a t e r s a m p l i n g s t a t i o n s i n B r i t a n n i a Creek and along the s h o r e o f Howe S o u n d  115  Map showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f Sound on Vancouver I s l a n d  227  Map s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f R u p e r t I n l e t i n Q u a t s i n o Sound on V a n c o u v e r Island  228  Diagrams of a l o n g i t u d i n a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n through a hypothetical coastal fyord inlet. I s o b a r s a r e shown as d o t t e d lines a n d a r r o w s show t h e p r o b a b l e d i r e c t i o n o f current flow over the s i l l on an incoming t i d e f o r t h e two p a t t e r n s o f d e n s i t y distribution  240  Diagrams showing l o n g i t u d i n a l crosss e c t i o n o f Q u a t s i n o Narrows and Rupert Inlet. Isopleths of temperature, salinity, and d e n s i t y a r e shown a s d o t t e d lines b e t w e e n s t a t i o n s R l a n d R2 f o r M a r c h 5 and 6 , 1971  243  Map o f R u p e r t I n l e t and a d j o i n i n g waters showing the s t a t i o n s sampled with the bathythermograph i n order t o obtain  Figure  5.6a  Quatsino  vertical  temperature  profiles  Temperature p r o f i l e s f o r February and J u l y o f 1963 a t a s t a t i o n i n K a m l o o p s Lake, ( A f t e r Ward, 1964)  246  248  v i i i . Page Figure  5.6b  Temperature July  Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  5.7  5.8a  5.8b  5.9  5.10  Figure  5.11  5.12  5.13  5.14  Diagram  of  5.15  Vertical  Figure  Figure  5.16  5.17  5.18  (1971)..  . . . .  257  257  Constructed 260  Section  . . .  268  Vertical Longitudinal Section of T u r b i d i t y i n Rupert I n l e t F e b . 4 - 6 ,  1971  . . .  270  ..  27 2  ..  273  . . . .  275  Vertical  Vertical  Vertical  Inlet  of 1971  Vertical  i n Rupert  251  from  Inlet  Longitudinal  248  Nov.2-3,  Turbidity Figure  Transmissometer  Use i n Rupert  Turbidity Figure  and  T u r b i d i t y and temperature profiles from a s t a t i o n on t h e Dogger Bank, (After J o s e p h , 1955)  Turbidity Figure  Inlet  T u r b i d i t y and temperature profiles a station i n the North Sea, (After J o s e p h , 1955)  Turbidity Figure  f o r December  R7 i n R u p e r t  variation of temperature a t S t a t i o n R7 i n R u p e r t I n l e t  Turbidity Figure  profiles  Station  Seasonal profiles  for Figure  at  Longitudinal i n Rupert  Inlet  Longitudinal i n Rupert  Longitudinal i n Rupert  of  Dec.1-3,1971  Section  Inlet  of  July21,22,1971  Section  Inlet  of  Apr.26,27,1971  Section  Inlet  Longitudinal i n Rupert  Section  of  Apr.10,11,1972  ..  278  Vertical Longitudinal Section of T u r b i d i t y i n Rupert I n l e t Sep.18,19,1972  ..  279  Diagram of a v e r t i c a l longitudinal s e c t i o n o f Rupert I n l e t showing t h e p o s s i b l e deep water c u r r e n t patterns caused by t h e t i d a l f l o w o f water t h r o u g h Q u a t s i n o Narrows  282  Diagram showing the angle o f t h e w i n c h l i n e o b s e r v e d a t S t a t i o n R9 o n J u l y 2 1 , 1971, i n d i c a t i n g the presence o f deep water currents  284  ix. A c k n o w l e d q ement s  Sincere  thanks  a r e made  supervision  provided  Forestry  at  the University  guidance  and f i n a n c i a l  the  Institute  by D r . J . P . Kimmins  of  members  of Animal  is also  D r . M.  of the assistance  of the Faculty  D r . R.W. Wellwood  and Mr. A . R . Lucas  and f o r the of  U.B.C.  Dr. G . L . Pickard  Goldberg  of  by D r . C . S . H o l l i n g  Ecology at  made  and  of the Faculty  Columbia,  provided  Resource  Administration,  Forestry,  British  o f my c o m m i t t e e ,  Oceanography,  Business  of  support  Acknowledgement other  f o r t h e encouragement  of the  of the  Institute  o f Commerce a n d  of the Faculty  a n d M r . R. F r a n s o n o f t h e  of  Faculty  of Law.  Both Sciences  and Professor  Engineering mining  D r . H . V . Warren  helped  Taylor, Fred  Terry  thanks  Frewer,  assistants  Pritchett,  trips  visited  Geological of  the technology  Peter  Heiberg,  Sam M a r l e t t ,  David  f o r a c c o m p a n y i n g me a s t o Rupert  f o r water  Mineral of  industry.  g o t o my f r i e n d s  Allison,  on the f i e l d  mine-sites  of the mining  David  of  o f t h e Department  t h e .aiJthnrax'o u n d e r s t a n d  Easton and Frank  various  J . B . Evans  and the attitudes  Special  o f t h e Department  Inlet  quality  Moon,  research  and t o the sampling.  Jim  1.  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  It  has  decades  that  tity  natural  of  we  particularly growing fueled oil,  are  by  for  an  gas of  exploitation.  the  for  food,  of  of  clear  a world  raw  our  "technological  in  supply,  new m e t h o d s to  be  support  finite  housing, to  energy  has  maintain  given has  the  form  made p o s s i b l e  formerly  led  to  material  for  to  limited  resources  needs  coal,  the  many p e o p l e  a n d new  growth,  a philosophy  r e s o u r c e may b e  developed  the  of  unavailable  rise  quan-  and  in  has  the  a  few  of  a particular  will  clothing,  past  Technological  optimism" which  although  available  turn,  the  which has  materials  r e s o u r c e s which were This,  over  society.  and h y d r o - p o w e r ,  that  and  in  will  aspirations  mankind.  It Fuller can  in  supply  output  believe  of  living  e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g use  natural  become  abundantly  resources  industrial  utilization  of  become  and h i s  live  where life.  has  apart  s u g g e s t e d by  followers, from  a man-made Apart  been  from  his  that  natural  ecosystem w i l l the  extremely  the  some, day  notably  will  environment,  Buckminster  soon  come when  in  mega-cities  provide  all  the  sterile  existence  man  requirements which  this  of  2. prediction students on  our  in  of  natural  planet.  present ence  anticipates,  on them,  fully  led  that  result  irreparable  in  providing  industrial  of  mining  for  forests  effluent  the  damage  land  viewed  as  "trade-offs",  wealth  at  the  of  natural  it  is  air.  expense  reasoned,  exploitation between  of  one  a  as  there  evolution. may  material  be  far  wealth  level  industrial  of  natural  Forest and of  it  natural the  of  for  forestry;  these  effects  increased  reduction  in  the  cause to  However, more  alter  the  serious  the  the  the  toxic of  be  material  a  quality particular  this  exchange,  direction  implications  than  a pleasant  can  for  make  for of  value  beauty.and  exploited  are  recreation;  level,  to  will  goods.  destroys  aesthetic  willing  output  resource  the  is  been  destruction  some t y p e s forests  trend  ecosystems that  harvesting  being  engaged  manufactured  in  our  depend-  has  destroys  are  our  the  Indeed,  the  possible  those  an  no  and  of  in  society is  nature  growth.  resulting  systems that  So l o n g  technological  On  is  pessimism about  results  value  factories  water,  the  a particular  uses.  future  e c o s y s t e m s , and  production of  of  the  a  particularly  the  wilderness  destroys  and  to  frequently  for  f r o m many  resource.  the  other  such  natural  express  present  for  purposes  often  the  to  utilization  resource  value  even  resources  The  s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d by  understand  increased technological  suggested  that  of  many p e o p l e ,  ecological research,  towards  been  complexity  to  has  has  s c i e n c e whether  The  inability  it  simple  environment.  of  of  industrial  choice Through  the  science  of  systems, provide on the tural the  ecology  and are  planet,  an  given  the  to  function  the  in  this  altered  this  resilience  that  the  partial global  demonstrated  is  of to  global  which  this  has  its  limits.  trends  towards  total  reach  collapse  ecosystem,  or  in  air  they  all  the  progressive  continued  s p e c i e s and evidence  the  that  and in  tech-  a  function  erosion of  othe:  concern  resulting  life-support  is already  and has  a growing  limits,  with  It  ecosystem has  our  of  are  increased population  the  agricul-  depletion  ecosystem.  is  species  of  the  increasing  There  materials  and water  resilient  is  eco-  activities  system for  these  of  the  these  extremely  of  forests,  of  of  there  raw  natural  destruction  the  life-support  will  vast  all  But  growth  The  fouling  wastes;  it  of  than  that  survival  own.  removal the  other  very  state.  present  or  our  extent  that  as  the  alteration  been m o d i f i e d ,  nological  for  fisheries,  in  been  resources  rapid  industrial  resulting obvious,  many  including  the  ocean's and  has  essential  land,  human  the  it  of  the  quality  of  life.  The natural been  izations cases  resources  termed  brought  social manifestation  where  extremely  complex  "resource-use conflicts".  about for  is  of  by  the  competition  the  use  of  resources  such c o n f l i c t s  common a n d m o r e  complex  as  exist, the  the  limited  and  results  These  between  individuals  different  and  they for  in  are  of  what  conflicts  for  demand  supply  are  and  organ-  purposes. becoming  natural  have  In  more  resources  4. increases,  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t some form o f "decision-making  p r o c e s s " be a v a i l a b l e i n o r d e r t o r e s o l v e them.  I n t e g r a l t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a r e : some form o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h the problem, a s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s o r r u l e s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o f o l l o w , and a f l o w of the i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f a d e s i r a b l e solution.  The major o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o a n a l y z e an example o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s as i t operates i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  and t o a s s e s s t h e adequacy o f these p r o c e s s e s  i n a r r i v i n g a t s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e d e c i s i o n s f o r r e s o u r c e use. Of c r i t i c a l  importance  t o t h e outcome o f t h e d e c i s i o n -  making p r o c e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e environmental  impact  of a  p a r t i c u l a r r e s o u r c e - u s e , i s t h e c o l l e c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on which t h e d e c i s i o n can be based. o b j e c t i v e o f t h e t h e s i s w i l l be an attempt  Another  t o demonstrate  major that  such i n f o r m a t i o n can be c o l l e c t e d , d i s s e m i n a t e d , and i n t e r p r e t e d i n a l i m i t e d time p e r i o d and w i t h l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . The t h e s i s w i l l demonstrate  t h a t c o n s t r a i n t s o f time and money  can not j u s t i f i a b l y be employed t o l i m i t t h e . c o l l e c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f such i n f o r m a t i o n .  5.  The the  In relates  to  decided  that  determined example. with  Impact  order  the  Mining  Company  the  many  have  the  Island  characterized  by  environmental  impact,  in  resulting  turn,  impact was  a  of  from  technology  nature  environmental  an of  also  of  on the  excellent  of  a  referred  as  Island.  British  "Utah") Utah  of  the  environment. example  and  great  The m i n i n g  general  The  from which  an  important  devel-  and on  Rupert  typical  a  to  are  tremendous  volume  of  industry  Island  of  that  They  problem of  resource-use decision-making in  considerations play  is  Columbia.  the  be  operations  on t e c h n o l o g y  operation.  the  Construction to  by  was  coincide  involving  mechanized mining in  it  it  specific  happened t o  Utah  caused l a r g e l y  example  quality,  process could  that  by  reliance  their  the  study  Vancouver  operate  of  Environment  investigation  this  highly  a heavy  specific  therefore  general  of  end o f  begun t o  Example  environmental  Copper Mine  large-scale,  recently  waste  of  features  (hereafter  north  an  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s as  resource-use conflict:  of  the  the  detailed  initiation  opment  at  study  general a  as  T e c h n o l o g y on the  achievement  many  The  Copper Mine  of  to  through  a major  Inlet  Island  is,  the Copper  determine  Mine the  which  role.  The  central  6. s e c t i o n o f the t h e s i s i s a d e t a i l e d case h i s t o r y of the events t h a t l e d up t o the development o f t h i s mine and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the manner i n which environmental f a c t o r s were d e a l t w i t h by the c o r p o r a t i o n , the government, and the p u b l i c . The  Problem  of A t t i t u d e s Towards  Environmental C o n s i d e r a t i o n s There are many s o c i a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o the a c h i e v e ment of environmental q u a l i t y .  The l a r g e r s o c i a l i s s u e s , such as  those i n v o l v i n g community development, employment, and e n v i r o n mental e d u c a t i o n , are o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s and are t h e r e f o r e not c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l .  These f a c t o r s s h o u l d be kept  i n mind however, as they are o f t e n i n f l u e n t i a l i n , and  influenced  by, any changes i n the l e g a l , economic and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e : approach t o environmental q u a l i t y .  ...  Environmental e d u c a t i o n i n  p a r t i c u l a r c o u l d have a g r e a t e f f e c t on the s o c i a l awareness and a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o the achievement A p a r t i c u l a r problem  o f environmental  i n s o l v i n g resource-use  objectives. conflicts  i n v o l v i n g environmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i s the a t t i t u d e s o f people engaged i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s .  A t t i t u d e s are a r e f l e c -  t i o n of v a l u e s , whether moral, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l  or e n v i r o n m e n t a l .  I t i s important t o be aware t h a t r e s o u r c e - u s e d e c i s i o n s are based u l t i m a t e l y on v a l u e s and are i n f l u e n c e d t o a l a r g e degree by the a t t i t u d e s o f the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s .  A t t i t u d e s towards environmental  q u a l i t y appear t o be as v a r i e d as the people who  are i n v o l v e d i n  a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f a l t e r n a t e r e s o u r c e uses.  They are  o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " c o r p o r a t e " a t t i t u d e s , " b u r e a u c r a t i c "  7. attitudes, seen off  as  use  other.  having  acting  attitudes,  a polarization  capitalists"  on the of  "elitist"  to  as  on the  The side  buffer  A  few  illustrate Nader,  in  provides  the  are  and  is  or  between  decision-making  that  one h a n d  one  direct  who  values  government with  a  individuals  of  etc.  the  quotes  from  of  in  these  the  positions  involved  in  or  official  capacity)  will  range  attitudes  involved.  the  of  Sierra  C l u b book typical  as  well  serve  Ralph  "Eco-tactics"  attitude  a  system of  characterizes country,  polluters  of  they in  the  resources  people.  Their  ing  laws  permits  the  burden  people  power  have  are  and  towards  as  and government  to  or  valued  posture  destroyers  manipulate  the  polluters  of  rights  In  to a  'open crave  the  Too  patriotic  victims.  of  deprive  perpetrators,  on the  always  violence  fundamental  block  suppression,  legitimacy.  radical  the  to  them,  proof  is  conservative,  they  nation's  priority  unfounded  assume a  of  environmental  first  their  reality  corporate  the  o p p r e s s i o n and  as  to  destruction: with  of  resource-  in  an  "rip-  position  "opinion-makers"  tremendous  deal  whose  found  often  eco-freaks"  includes  considered a  when  "raving  the  (this  c o u l d be  often  the  people  what  this  between  are  them.  to  which  exist  other  foreword  To  attitudes  usually  his  environmental  These  a of  existkeep country  book', secrecy  8. and  deny  that  A  citizens  which  is  British  access  harming  Columbia  safety."*"  organization,  the  Environmental  in  Skagit  on the  River But  subject  they we  of  the  learned  enterprise)  and t i e  with  watchdogs, not  over, well  he  this  will  lay  the  analogy  of  profit  politically  International Ross  lunge  of  Joint  Dam o n  the  crowd  medieval  commissions,  constantly  the  the  all  watched  regions  main  oil  in  reflect search  industrial  social  Norse V i k i n g s  his Whoever  might  an  the  in  chance.  men  If  responsi-  descending  on  village.^  other that  of  like  investigations.  entire  free  regulations,  from A l a s k a n o i l ,  bility  a  and  and  of  our  (unrestrained  exaggerated  pursued with  of  defend  boards,  and  development  on r e c o r d  most  the  must  rules  waste  pursuit  reckless  On t h e  the  e c o n o m i c man  penalties,  on the  a  to  spirit  so r e s t r a i n e d  considers  we  down  standards,  trained  the  of  proposed High  that  endless  prohibitions,  ments  a brief  from  is  one  In  communities  he  is  stated:  have  Gulliver  of  and  radical  Commission  records  health  Community A s s o c i a t i o n , province.  the  their  Systems  the  to  hand,  describe  there the  are  • also  attitude  of  extreme the  state-  corporations  9.  and t h e i r  proponents  Lorntzsen,  the  discoverer  figure  in  in  Vancouver  the  the  mining  mining  and  least  compare  of  bulldozer  people's mine the  is  they out  a  talk  the  ought  in  nothing  the  long-hairs,  to  thing they hurts  to  restore  at  the  as  of  ...  to  look  want  to  an u g l y  do  we  Columbia,  I  these pit  say  to  something  eyeballs, thing  quoted  the  An open  at.  major  for,  When  British  ...  a  stating:  Territories,  their  and  apologize  d e s t r o y e d by  Northwest  if  1972  has  area  Egil  C o l u m b i a , was  20,  s o u n d s damn s i l l y  Club,  values.  Copper Mine  British  December  vast  scene that  like  then a  washed  creek.^  William  following The  the  Lornex  that's  beautiful  Speaking Oregon,  to  and the  Sierra  about  all  with  a  of  acreage  Yukon,  the  industry  industry  the  environmental  of  Province  The  the  towards  H.  to  Hunt  say  emotionalism,  public But  I  for  various  do blame  material  today  and  Georgia-Pacific Corp.)  against  the  wildfire  by m i s s t a t e m e n t ,  blamed  no t r u t h  for  the  the  of  their  guise  of  own,  at  a l l .  damage  feed  gospel to  of  ignorance, The  done.  those misguided individuals  reasons  under  is  sometimes  be  of  Portland,  environmentalists:  fanned  can not  Logging Congress i n  (president  about  new b a t t l e  half-truths,  Pacific  who,  such an  often  had  10. unsuspecting loose  with  knowledge  the of  democracy, of  a  the  in  general,  experience  kind  of  in  emotional In  the  of  is an  the  may  be  of  the  mining  mouths  perhaps article  mining  welfare,  rabble in  rousers.  common:  work, the  and  aspires work It wide  range  of  to  of  they  not  that  would  insults  of  Watts,  in  daring  by  indicated  some o f  These  the  include  the  attackers a  real loud-  (politicians),  share-the-wealthers,  ecologists,  leanings,  aggressive  take these  towards  a  that:  muckrakers  from  of  environmental-  anti-establishment,  to  attitude  a man w i t h  Canada,  a  and  plain  some  things  contempt  individual  succeed economically through  attitudes  the  for  p e s s i m i s m and d i s r e s p e c t  the  apparent  our  sway.^  encountered  ...  full  in  typical  list  doom,  witchdoctors  These groups have  extreme  and the is  to  and  leftist  ability  cult  stated  intellectuals,  anti-pollutionists  woodsy  of the  create  industry  he  with  by M u r r a y  industry  and h i p p i e s ,  so-called  those  interesting  of  they  nature  response often  It  surely  sound l i k e  Western Miner  mish-mash  and  ancient  it  These prophets  dangers  intelligence  long  ists.  the  revived  . . .  facts  often  Although industry  media  the  a  hard  for  who hard  chance.^  statements  that  problem  achieving  of  there  is  a  11. environmental even  quality.  revolutionary  extremely majority likely,  people  however,  and t h a t  attitude,  reactionary of  those  that  who  charged  atmosphere.  issues.  It  difficulty incorporate  have  on the  to  tremendous  create  a  environmental  be  an  in  an  the It  is  remain  environmental  on the  central to  to  verbal  environmental  overcome  this  decision-making process that values  an  extremes. will  or  emotionally  least  challenge  is  No d o u b t  towards  in  at  reformist  there  these  working  Confrontations,  a  other  a  polarization  operate  continue  is  attitude.  of  in  to  there  between  problem  involved  will  be  and t o  while  somewhere  undoubtably will  one hand  defensive  the  are  objectives  will  and  fall  quality  level,  On t h e  objective  and  will  meaningful  manner.  Economics  Although use  of  natural  the  economics of  determining is  there  and E n v i r o n m e n t a l  are  resources,  the  particularly  it  many is  a particular  common t h a t  use  true  resource-use conflicts  environmental  Indeed,  present  controversy  of  resource  development  ing  conclusions reached  the  objective  of  most  this  by  for  and  persuasive  that  these  section to  a two  to in  This  involve  economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  surrounding v i r t u a l l y is  the  related  decision-making process.  between  issues  the  factors  of  competition the  are  competing  outcome in  the  interests  Quality  consequence of approaches.  analyze  the  all  the It  economic  conflict-  will  be  approach  12. to  r e s o u r c e - u s e d e c i s i o n s and t o  determining  the  most  Virtually resource  desirable  all  development  "cost-benefit  c a n be  analysis".  monetary  cost  the  total  monetary  benefit  the  is  said  benefits to  be  particular does  not  socially can  be  use  of  a  central  rate  or  the  This  in  is  a  particular  known  as  and  comparing  from  the  costs, The  it  that  a  it  is  in  the  development  that  a  cost-benefit  however,  environmentally economic  discussion  of  the  to  development.  the  fact  a  computing  economically desirable,  weakness by  resources.  a process of  derived  or  approach particular  analysis.  £es±vc^.:xxf ;®a.l  "discount  used i n present  a development.  investor,  this  that  be  In  the  from  development.  Benefit-Cost  cost-benefit  This  financial  value, of  terms  the  present  an to  of  estimate meet  value This  Analysis"  is  factor  matters  monetary  available  of  rate".  all  provides  estimate  to  simply  is  to  in  Analysis  same p r i n c i p l e  the  be  natural  what  exceed the  resource  illustrated  employed  A  must  to  of  usefulness  related  development  sufficiently  desirable.  Cost-Benefit  of  a  necessarily indicate  techniques  calculate  of  is  in  economically desirable.  clearly  interest  included  This  total  its  allocation  economic f a c t o r s  the  If  evaluate  the  is  and costs  individual  or  analyses based on is  used  and  amount  of  present  and  future  costs  benefits  explained  p u b l i s h e d by  as  the  the  to  corporate  the  future  the  benefits  of  of  is  capital and  an  to  be  derived  follows  in  "A G u i d e  Department  of  13. Northern  Affairs  Benefits time. the  and N a t u r a l  and  Sometimes  project,  outset,  the  arising  at  a given  time  fit-cost are  at  payments  today  at  receive borrow and  adjusted  Thus  a  future,  cannot  to  end  capital  this  it  in  or  today  order  to  next  cent and  make  time.  the  by  10  per  cent  would to  the  in have  A  for  of  future  to  $100 to  instead  of  placing  expected  what  amount  interest  which,  expecting  can  interest  future  value", to  year  bene-  other  amount  a payment  year  cost,  worth  "present  because anyone  accumulate  benefit  in  at  savings  Consequently,  would  of  per  payment  as  equivalent  the  to  and  is  year,  expecting  made,  year  per  the  the  is  capital  project  the  comparable  that  cent  10  be  at  values  at  next  pay  to  of  stream.  occur  expected  at  that  this  today,  delayed  adjustment  projects.  expected  full  only  future.^  in  discounted to  is  the  today  used  interest  letting  is  ensure  benefit  today,  future  Unless this  well  be  anyone  and  the  be  $110  in  make  bank  necessary that  per  that  bank  a  10  repay  could  is  $110  $100  larly,  it  dates  a  over  life  concentrated  pattern,  at  of  are  but  the  time  must  payment  costs  over  as  as  which  the  evenly  occur  period.  payment  spread  immediately,  benefits  delayed  invested  accrue  the  different  least  all  are  usually  analysis  desirable  do not  they  but  while  Whatever  if  costs  Resources:  one  year,  $110. $110  $100 for the to  Simi-  next in  the  year  the year.  remote be  paid  expected value  into in  14. It development  is  costs  serve rate  to  and  in  project  in  the  projected The  terms  costs  the  u s i n g an  rate  of  about  All  interest  years  values.  construction  development  sales  of  costs  Because a l l  and m a i n t e n a n c e , of  contributors  the  to  (in  this  case the  The  loss  of  ily  cease  the  after  or  project,  resulting  from  thirty  present cent  the  years,  no  amount  per  effect  occur  these  ratio  ratio"  factors  is  It  is  will  this after  present  the  400/375  the  calculated  costs  are  revenue  by  At  the  or  cost-  related thirty  benefits  salmon f i s h e r i e s however.  in  occur  on the  during  between  as  will  and  $400  construction  annum.  that  from  years,  to  destroyed  values  benefits,  will  "benefit-cost  revenue  completely  per  the  thirty  million  $125  and b e n e f i t s  little  next  spawning  benefits  loss  of  is  salmon  the  will  will  development.  for  are  10  the  of  interest  government  that  dam,  an  $250 m i l l i o n  be  values  a  on a major  over  the  dam a n d a  have  life-expectancy  of  of  value example  employing  anticipated  include  rate  all  of  provincial  which w i l l  on economic  An h y p o t h e t i c a l  the  is  resource  present  that  power  these  interest,  thirty  benefit  the  the  benefits  will  salmon run  development. by  of  with  and  It  of  entirely  weakness  life-expectancy  and maintenance  based  that  costs  imagine  province.  the  from  a major  a hydro-power  the  million.  us  are  explanation  involved.  computing the  considering  this  concerned only  benefits  Let  river  are  illustrate  when  from  decisions that  considerations the  clear  to  year  greatest and  costs  1.07).  not  necessar-  possible that  the  15. dam w i l l  become u s e l e s s f o r  after  thirty  would  not  s t i l l  remain  years  result  in  if  as  a  result  be  effectively  is  o b v i o u s l y not  fisheries of  the  Problem of  a  particularly  For  the  focus in  problem  the  relation  external related costs  cost to  in  a  be  the  the  only  about  for  in  realistic  this  the  salmon. out  for  years  of  cost-benefit of  as  the  This dam  Therefore, 10,000  this  years  cost  analysis.  actual  would  loss  would This  involved.  Costs of  with  as  of  purpose of  the  or  it  these  will  are  the  that  analysis  appraisal  of  the  development  c l a s s i f i e d under  two  general  benefits.  is  to  significant  term  The  invariably  and  impact,  sufficient  most  As the  development.  costs  be  the  development  analysis,  environmental  external  quality.  a  cost-benefit  a major  discussion,  costs  cost  wiped  estimate  environmental a  of  energy-  reservoir.  fisheries  thirty  the  electric  the  migration  "externalities"  of  the  completely  developments  is  of  in  cost-benefit  incomplete can  dam,  external to  buildup  s e r i o u s weakness  of  purpose  on t h e  to  were  External  for  silt  production of  restoration  accounted  Another  is  a  to  obstacle  even  The  the  an  due  the  implies,  not  directly  omission of  results  involved.  categories:  an  in  such  an  External "tangible"  costs and  "intangible".  Tangible  External Tangible  related  to  the  Costs external  purpose of  costs  the  are  those  development  costs  but  that  which  can  are be  not  expressed  in  externality  monetary c a n be  values.  found  in  environmental  disturbance.  copper  operation  mining  presently  used as  many For  that  is  forest-land  The  development  of  the  forest  and t h e r e f o r e  of  the  soil  soil  area's  forming  restore  the  production therefore  a  expressed of  as  cost  of  the  mining  benefit  analysis  type  cost  of  process  result  is  leading  of  of  of  of  the  the  per  to  the  The  problem  any  inherent  is  the  for  of  in  open-pit  area  involve  that  of  the  is  saw-logs.  the  removal  of  elimination natural  of  This  mining  forest  the  basis. and  years  loss  of  development  weakness  in  This  to wood  and  is  It  is  of  included  Yet,  a  the  in  be  production a  in  "tangible" a  practice,  costthis  decision-making  mine.  external the  therefore  could  could  sustained yield  considered in  tangible  production  terms.  c o u l d be  development  of  an  many h u n d r e d s  development.  not  an  of  involve  possible that  monetary  value  the  for  fertility.  of  that  imagine  result  It  type  operation.  in  year  this  production  will  will  land  operation  often  the  require  result  dollar  acre  planned  original  calculated  the  wood o n an  cost  value  be  its  direct  real  The  to  example,  copper mine  processes w i l l  is  undoubtedly  the  of  developments  for  wood p r o d u c t i o n .  land  a  Instances  costs  is  cost-benefit  not  the  analysis  17. itself.  Rather  functions in  of  resource obliged,  for  many  are  a  ing  the  of  by  in  the  the  there  operation  the  value  of  which  These  include  are  are  a  are by  direct to  its  From  resource  will  only in  or  order  is  costs  to  real  produced) to as  paid  need  be  realize  the  is  energy,  only  required  development,  operation,  are  s e l d o m met  as  individuals  possible that  a  "social or  resource  of  costWhile  to  the  the of  but  those  resource.  The  costs are  not  developer.  that  organizations. development  meet  which  the  costs"  being  physical  etc.  by  the  example,  copper mine  rental,  the  in  benefits  the  explosives,  to the  for  from  land  invest-  profitability  total  of  p a s s e d on  by  ratio.  exploitation  labour,  the  is  "corporate"  the  pay that  included  the  cost-benefit  it  for  investor,  the  benefit  that  necessary  determine  between  to  only be  corporate  able  fuel  it  these  a  organization  actually  "social"  result  some o t h e r  to  development.  costs  therefore  quite  regulations,  simply  the  essential  and  is  costs,  With  ore  developer  involved  environmental  only  such  electric  essential  fore  (the  and  particularly  that  the  structure  organizations  The  traditional  development,  usually  the  costs  or  the  government  investments.  discrepancy  and  is  its  borne  a  and  individual  analysis  ratio  corporation  They  the  Therefore,  results  plant,  of  development.  benefit  that  of  costs  cost-benefit of  costs,  a particular  investor.  consequence of  legal  result  view  consider  a  corporate  any  the  direct of  is  development  not  point  it  must It  which  is  be there-  appears  18. to  be p r o f i t a b l e  from  the  standpoint  would  actually  result  in  a  costs  associated with  it  were  Intangible  External The  intangible, tangible the  external  cost-benefit  on which be  of  it  is  included  in  a  environmental category  of  nize  opment. it  is  the  It  is  such  an  external  are of  of  value  costs,  different the  the  the  result  of  underlying cost  analysis.  is  Most  those  nature  a  tangible  of  termed  from  a weakness economic  cost  and t h e r e f o r e  the  in  system  that  cannot  resource developments  of  the  example  forest  external  entire  of  soil, costs  forest  soil  for  and  birds,  trees,  cannot  be  detrimental  fall  into  this  among t h e m wildlife,  it  considering the  may  it  copper mine  is  possible to  associated with  is  that  is  recog-  its  devel-  removed.from  eliminated.  Many  an  they  provided  insects,  meaningful be  soil  large  bacteria,  monetary  possible to  recreational  a  value  approach  potential  of  area  non-  shrubs and herbaceous p l a n t s  a s s i g n any  True,  the  community  wood p r o d u c t i o n t h a t  resources. by  and  using the  impossible to  problem  of  An i n t a n g i b l e  species of  same  habitats  all  considered.  They  analysis  effects  only  of  if  investor  costs.  When  commercial from  costs.  intangible  not  corporate  economic l o s s  fundamentally  cost-benefit  removal  many  a  a monetary  Again, required  category  based.  e x p r e s s e d as  a  Costs  other  are  net  of  grew variety etc. to  this the  area  19.  in  terms  such  as  dollars  spent  forest  land.  This  is  a very  of  total  value  of  the  the  ecological community system  or of  (biosphere)  It  tions  could  it  neither  The  is  reasons 1.  lead  a  is the  for  this  The  use the  resource obliged  other  of  the  than  of  Many  resource  the  (or  biological  The any  other  life-support  monetary  previous  of  summarized  discount  terms.  discussion  resource  rate  costs  of  as  that  the  pay  for  that This  social  are  tends  do  so.  to  degradation  that  of  the  increase  or  rise  to  invest  and  be  gives  development the  benefits  tangible  costs  expressed rise  in  usually  environmental  cannot  This  to  follows:  reluctant  gives  and  though  resource.  costs will  even  desirable  often  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  terms.  costs.  the  forest  environmentally  developments  monetary  external  the  the  however.  estimate  a  investor.  3.  of  a particular  those  costs.  of  expressed in  development to  superficial  of  development  future  external  in  a  and  acre  upon economic c o n s i d e r a -  c a n be of  person per  based e n t i r e l y  nor  Individuals  not  to  from  to  elimination 2.  seen  socially  minimize  part be  that  per  community,  value  cannot  c a n be  decision-making  as  day  incomplete  forest  environmental organisms)  per  to  of  adequately  intangible  20. E c o n o m i c .VaJLues v s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l The use  them  t o a simple  an aura  thing  o f 200  say that  200  rather  to say that  production  worth  quantities.  This  than  e v e n when  project  will  result  of copper per day.  group.  as they  and energy  The f i r s t  pass through  possible  values  therefore,  relative  will  t h e most  result  of  value.  of and  population.  i s comparable  o n them  i s an  (materials)  t h e human  complete.  i n t h e most  desirable)  another  the study  to the  to quantify  of materials  i s quite  that  i n the  among t h e i n d i v i d u a l s  among t h e human p o p u l a t i o n  decisions  i s one  statement  o f goods  an endeavor  of the flows  express  i n the production of  economics involves  relationships  Our knowledge  to place  result  the second i s a statement  of ecology in  material  It  pounds o f copper p e r day and q u i t e  i s t h e s c i e n c e o f economics and i t  science  and  will  about  are used t o  quantity.  i s based upon t h e flow  (energy)  for resource-  Numbers h a v e  they  some a b s o l u t e  i t s foundation, It  tool  because t h e d e c i s i o n c a n be  expression.  a particular  of quantity;  At  services  numerical  t h e same p r o j e c t  dollars  expression  is attractive  of objectivity,  human v a l u e s  to  use o f economics as t h e primary  decision-making  reduced  Values  the in a  and energy It  i s ,  and thereby  efficient  therefore, arrive  at  (and presumably,  use of the available  materials  energy.  The  real  weakness  o f economics l i e s  i n the fact  that  • 2 1 . it  only  considers those  material  place  among members  of  these  exchanges  given  exchanges based of  are  given  on monetary  materials  species  and  which  survival. the  are  is  science of  that  the  upon the food  oxygen that  and  the  of  The  of  flow  phytoplankton  through  system of  exchanges,  to  a  human  degree  of of  from  It  sea  all  the the  Homo  place  are  has  been  many  outside  man's  been  the  and the  that  exchanges  the  human and  strengthened  through  depends  all  others  energy green  provide  energy,  us  carbon  and m i n e r a l  released  from  the  with  plants  on the  land  not  an  yet  economics i n  extremely been  dioxide,  earth's  begins  is  with  nutrients  that  It  and has of  is  of  things.  however,  that  irrefutably  atmosphere,  and  these  demonstrated  radiant  have  take  Only  only  well-being  eco-systems that sun's  that  sapiens.  s y s t e m and  there  to  exchanges  decision-making  s p e c i e s and  living  approaching  i.e.  in  that  has  energy  this  fact  value  materials  the  continues  by  take  weathering of  in  that  concept  our  use  nitrogen  In  great  ecology.  centuries  crust.  of  preservation  through  value  values.  this  survival  species,  consideration  energy  are  It  one  and  the  complex  quantified  relation  to  the  system.  How t h e n , that  take  place  such  a way  that  resource-use present,  that  can the  outside they  the  c a n be  value  cannot  be  material  human p o p u l a t i o n taken  decision-making? it  of  It  reduced  and energy be  expressed  into  consideration  must  be  to  accepted,  a numerical  flows in  in at  least  expression  at  but  must  be  stated  required  is  a process that  resource  development  the  in  a  less  as  quantitative  weighs  at  least  the an  equal,  factor  in  decision-making.  resource-use  policy  in  which  be  in  development. ment  Monetary  This  pattern  effects  of  a  the  would  than  is  This  environmental the  likely  result  presently  development  are  in  would  of  be by  a  as  produce  employed  primarily  a  would  for  invest-  environmental  a much d i f f e r e n t the  of  particular  this  o c c u r r i n g when dictated  effects  considerations  desirability  constraints.set  is  and p r e f e r a b l y  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would  decisions within  approach. use  determining  What  environmental  dominant  paramount  manner.  resource-  environmental by  monetary  considerations.  Conclusion  Resource-use ation  of  information  disciplines, ment  in  as  which  problem  from  be more  fully  to  avoid  which  often  are  number  in  however,  define  the  different  occurring. of  There  in  the  It and  is in in  in  often such  such  academic of  the  thesis  in  has  text  difficulty  terms  The  directions  appreciated.  results  necessarily involve  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  disciplines.  terminology, to  as  unnecessary use  different  made  a  f r o m many  well  they  conflicts  order been  of  a  and  that  this  conscious  impossible to  a way  that  environ-  approaches  specialized  an  professional  social  communication  cases  consider-  they  fact  can  attempt  terminology between  avoid  attempt  the  has  can  be  such been  23. comprehended  by  anyone - i n t e r e s t e d  in  the  subject  matter  of  the  thesis.  The history  of  onmental  second chapter  the  legislation  quality  in  Chapter metals ture  on a q u a t i c  related  quality the  in  to  data  on the  pollution  in  content  mine  south  of  indicate heavy  the  presented relative  in  there  is in  Chapter  metal  in  a  water The  three.  which  pollution  it  brief of  being  of of  envir-  on  order  whether  to  or  field  the  from  number  of  mines  a  a  considerable  result  of  chapter  possible to  control  in  existing  trip  field  was  heavy in  trip,  metal the  which  increase  mining,  are  demonstrates determine  British  published  preventing  of  this  mining  not  effectively  of  determine  little  survey  a  litera-  water  c a u s e d by very  a  heavy the  limited  This is  mining In  pollution,  results  as  review  pollution  (there  frequently water  effects  a  Canada.  p r o v i n c e was  make  a  achievement  metal  ascertain  water  drainage  ease with  heavy  to  provides  the  contains  metal  and t o this  the  of  heavy  Columbia  metal  order  levels  of  heavy  province.  that  metal  in  heavy  undertaken of  of  to  review  locations  British  control  a  impact  subject),  unacceptable  not  the  p o s s i b l e extent in  is  thesis  Columbia.  organisms and  selected  operations  the  related  British  three  of  Columbia  in  also the  whether  or  is  effective.  Chapter  four  is  the  main  body  of  the  thesis  and  is  a  24. case by  history  Utah  of  the  application  C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g  legislation  and  court  Chapter the  action  five  thesis.  reports  of  from  oceanographic r e s e a r c h at general  pattern  information discharge  was  from  This  of  used to the  Utah  Pollution  Company,  the  Inlet  movement  predict  the  copper mine  the  in  in  the  effects on the  of  work  the  results order  the  permit.  conducted  as  obtained  to  inlet. of  Permit  resulting  granting  contains  Rupert  Control  and t h e  on e x p e r i m e n t a l  chapter  water  a  following  part  the  for  determine  This waste  turbidity  of  the  inlet.  The weaknesses case  in  history  feasibility making  Conclusion of the and  of  study  also  involved  contains  obtaining  by in  thesis  is  a  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s as  process with  participation  the  the  financial  necessary to  research  with the  r e s o u r c e s and  professionals in project.  the  of  the  determined  section dealing  information  limited  expert  a  summary  many  by  major the  the decision-  limited  fields  of  25.  Footnotes  f o r Chapter 1  1 Ralph N a d e r , I n : E c o t a c t i c s , e d i t e d by J o h n G. M i t c h e l l a n d C o n s t a n c e L . S t a l l i n g s , P o c k e t B o o k s , New Y o r k , N.Y., 1970, p . 15. 2 G.F. C u l h a n e and R. H a y e r , 1970. B r i e f on E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact o f t h e H i g h R o s s Dam, s u b m i t t e d t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n by E n v i r o n m e n t a l S y s t e m s Community A s s o c i a t i o n , 30 p p . 3  Vancouver  Province,  4  British  5  W e s t e r n M i n e r , O c t o b e r , 1970, p . 26.  Columbia  December 20, 1972, p . 18.  Lumberman,  November,  1971, p . 7.  W.R.D. S e w e l l , J . D a v i s , A.D. S c o t t , a n d D.W. R o s s , 1965. G u i d e t o C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s , Queen's P r i n t e r , O t t a w a . 6  26.  CHAPTER  2  A R E V I E W OF T H E L E G I S L A T I O N R E L A T E D P O L L U T I O N CONTROL IN  TO  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  Introduction  The government mined and  by  respective  in  pollution  specific  federal  reference  outlines  agencies  responsible  sets  the  out  in  therefore  necessary to  which  economic,  compete  for  evolution to  a  this  of  certain  the  environmental  Much  duties  its  in  is  of  A review  of  the  deter-  terms  of  government  enforcement. public  their of  the  of  the  in  law  framework  the  since  society's  It the  relative  environmental  interesting  evolution  of  and  provincial  the  and the  An understanding  resources.  the  and  some d e g r e e  an understanding  of  various  and powers  and  extent  provides  industry  political  industry  a great  application  both  legislation  degree  to  the  process.  use  are  public,  legislation  of  social,  the  the  contained  p r o c e s s and t o  influence  of  The  for  positions  decision-making  control  provisions  statutes.  and  roles  is within  interests historical  it  reflects  aspirations  quality.  of  the  material  in  the  following  chapter  is  for  contained  in  articles  by  Lucas ' 1  Early The directed  at  early  what  itself  primarily  public  health.  the  Governor  and t o such  direct  things  houses  . . . .  injury  to  British of  the  was  in  means  in  any  . law  the  have means  particular  been of  the  included  deal  with  empowered  Health  Districts  relating  pigsties, of  any  the  Act  first  stream  to  slaughter-  nuisance  therefrom"^.  Health  the  by  A the  provision  pollution.  or  set  of  Board in  Section  of  adopted  any ... to  purification  kind  shall  be  unless  the  best  purify  the  same.^  constituting  not  defined  by  was  passed in  either  the  "best  the  Act  means" or  the  Regulations^.  The Sewerage sewer  Sewerage  Districts  connections  with  Act the  and waste  45  that:  stream  c a s e was  for 1869  matters  arise  under  matter  any  in  abatement to  of  delineate  Health  likely  to  to  summary  provided  in  of  Ordinance  was  concerned  implications  privies,  These  s o l i d waste  deposited  its  Columbia that  control  sewers,  established  regulations  However,  the  health  Columbian  No  Boards  for  1896  and  (Cabinet)  "drains,  public  Health  sewage  Council  and  British  Colony's Health  local  as  regulations of  The  in  in  now t e r m p o l l u t i o n  with  .  Legislation  legislation  we  and Good  1  power  to  1910  require  disposal.^  In  setting proper  1913  the  up  plumbing, Burrard  28. P e n i n s u l a J o i n t Sewerage A c t gave power t o the C i t y of Vancouver and necessary present  surrounding  d i s t r i c t s t o expropriate land  f o r sewerage works.^  day  and  i s now  T h i s has  i n the form o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver  Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t Act.!*-* p r o v i d e s the a u t h o r i t y necessary Iona I s l a n d and the Annacis  In 1903  been r e t a i n e d t o the  I t i s t h i s A c t which  f o r such developments as  I s l a n d sewage treatment  the  plants.  the Water Courses O b s t r u c t i o n A c t was  passed  as a means of c o n t r o l l i n g the use of water f o r waste d i s p o s a l . S e c t i o n 2 of the A c t p r o v i d e d t h a t : ... i n case a person throws or i n case an owner or o c c u p i e r of a m i l l thrown i n t o any  s u f f e r s or permits  lake, r i v e r ,  t o be  stream or watercourse/  s l a b s , bark, sawdust, waste s t u f f or other o f any  sawmill, or  ... d r i f t w o o d , waste wood or  l e a c h e d ashes ...'he s h a l l i n c u r a p e n a l t y exceeding  t e n d o l l a r s and not l e s s than  d o l l a r f o r each day d u r i n g which the o f t h i s Act c o n t i n u e s , arising  refuse  over and  not  one  contravention  above a l l damages  therefrom.^  T h i s s e c t i o n i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r e s e n t Water A c t ^ form which i s changed t o p r o v i d e t h a t no o f f e n c e occurs the Water Recorder or Engineer to desist.13  has  first  ordered the  in a  unless  polluter  This there  was  British only at  virtually  Columbia.  routine  the  forthcoming pollution  from  the  control  Health  for  Act  in  lower  River  controversy  in  expropriate  land  way  than small  were  difficult of  a time  when  sawmilling and  primarily  diseases.  because  in  required  aimed  a penalty  plan  into  for  wildlife,  the  it the  there  nearly  was  in  the  with  only  under  forty  Prior exist-  the  in  would north  district  agriculture  years  1950's.  The  build  arm and and  of an  the  the  dumping  the  Fraser  area  with  fisheries  of  on  the  to  public  Vancouver Island  primary  River,  also  by  officials  the  considerable  values.  was  districts  led  Iona  of  with  province,  created  City  dealt  there  the  load  the  consolidation  time  surrounding  Richmond m u n i c i p a l require  that  of  in  of  legislation  after  this  problems  Richmond t o  The  further  sewage  growth  particularly  population  The  continual  government  a growing  mid  was  no  During  delta.  the  plant. as  there  V a n c o u v e r "and -the  effectively  sewage  which  capacity,  1917.  in  treatment  that  provincial  particularly Fraser  fact  industry,  increase  the  were  at  communicable  subject  industrial  considerable  deal  the  made  up  other  centres  measures  was  drawn  industry  water-borne  the  Columbia's  and paper  the  was  Acts.14  British  of  of  c o u l d be  Despite  pulp  health  pollution  pollution  various  no h e a v y  public  of  legislation  Population  containment  prevention ing  early  the  need  wished  to  to  sewage  objected  to  treated main  water-  recreation,  30.  The  First  Although more it  serious  was  lation  the  industrial  problem  latter  dealing  than  which  with  quality  The  the  trial  that  pollution  confined  largely  contributed public  and  to  plant the  was  a  representatives  the  A  Department  limited  to  Pollution  effluent  done  created,  affecting  land  sanitation  or  or is the  or  any  which,  by  the  to  the  probably general  was  passage  to  the  lower  and  be  created, opinion  health,  of  be and  condition  interest.18  being  treatment  surface  the  indus-  office.  empowered  the  of  latter  or  in  legis-  than  as:  to  at  health.  Affairs in  all  a  sewage,  province,  with  The A c t  result  detrimental public  the  sewage  level  into  likely  water  home  issue  B o a r d was  pollution or  to  Municipal  Control  public  the  municipalities  discharges  defined  Board,  of  of this  1 6  time  standpoint  the  Island  of  anything  the  Iona  1956.  the  government  Act  existing,  of  the  in  the  attempt  people,  of  Control  The A c t ...  over  first  of  areas  awareness  at  closer  of  provincial  was  waters.17  number  the  jurisdiction  for  that  1956  by m u n i c i p a l  from  at  by  valley.  than  outlying  greater  resolved  administered  standards  the  was  the  p r o b l e m was  large  dispute  Pollution  River  to  their  The  a  in  pollution  rather  Act,  presented  resulted  sewage  for  Control  pollution  that  water  environmental fact  Pollution  its Fraser to  set  ground  31. No p e r s o n was any waters obtaining Board the  under  a permit  that  tion  whether  or  not  to  the  the  from  industrial  granted,  and  conditions  his  days  to  in  was  The  the  its  be  an  The  and  surveys  to  province.  e v e n when  did  but  by  the  sole  objec-  discretion  of  a  hearing"  The w o r d i n g was  not  had to  B o a r d was determine  hope  also the  ditches,  treatment  of  autofor  given  a the  condition  to  not  deal  with  include  "works"  was  sewage  any  intercepting  based i n  provided  and d i s p o s a l p l a n t s  sewers,  in  for  a the  sewage  and works,  origin-  provision  included: drains,  the  announced  of  subject  objector  industry  for  was  its  to  pi  only  the  definition  the  hearing,  Board.  and  "in  decision.^0  that  intended  it  as  permit  Upon r e c e i p t  the  a municipality waste,  to  date  the  necessary.  object  1 9  would  of  deemed affected  the  of  set  be  Board decided  clear  the  where  were  into first  discretion  would  from  a public  tests  waters  municipality.  rights  objection  to  the  effluent  entitled  the  d e c i s i o n by  The A c t ating  at  the  waste  Board without  was  for  it  any  It  objector  conduct  various  so.  thirty  form,  entitled  favourable  of  do  that  p r o v i s i o n makes  matically  power  the  Columbia G a z e t t e .  written  and n o t i f i e d this  of  were  felt  within  British  in  jurisdiction  d i s c h a r g e was  application the  discharge  required  A n y p e r s o n who  in  to  to  permits  treatment  effluent  the  permitted  pumping  Act  32.  stations, and  and  outlets  disposing and  all  The nature  and  reference  for  of  and  or  carrying  in  necessary  off,  and  necessary to  drainage  not  necessary  any  for  a  thereto,  treating  and  sewage,  and  any  lands,  and  conveyances  structures,  legislation  did  works  drainage  works,  included sewage  other  the  completion  other  of  a  system."  was  therefore  way  provide  single-purpose  the  comprehensive  broad  terms  approach to  in of  pollution  control.  In expanded Fraser  to  1963  include  River,  Vancouver  the  the  from  all  Gulf  Island.  transferred  In the  of  Lands,  definition  of  "works"  further  waste" by  jurisdiction  municipalities Islands,  1965  the  and  Forests was  and the  regulation  which  the  of  and Water  amended  by  include  south-east of  the  lands  was  into  coast  the  Resources.  of  Act  to  the of  Act  Affairs  inserting  some  the  drained  Municipal  jurisdiction  to  under  administration  Department  Department  dustrial  Board's  was the  The  "including  B o a r d was outside  in-  expanded  municipal  boundaries.  The Major legislation slightly  in  Pollution  steps  in  British  preceded  by  the  Control  Act,  evolution  of  Columbia have,  specific  for  1967 pollution the  controversial  most  public  control part,  been  issues.  33. Just  as  the  Iona  Island  treatment  original  Pollution-Control Act,  proposal  by Western  Buttle  Lake  control Park  the by  resulted  law.  River  waste  Greater  of  fact  that  Mines  its  so  the  eventually  later, pute the  but  waste  this  eventually passage of  was did  resulting  at  the  the  1956  a  it  is  about  Pollution  Pollution  repeal  The  the  structure  definition The  upon,  emitting  in,  into  into or the  was  of  under  note  land  such  to  the a  and  fully  the  Act  The  2  dis-  and  new 1956  considerable  administration. read:  water, or  permit  the  that  1967. ^  control  The  a  more  1956  amounted  of  the  District,  through  the  changed to  a body  air  Water  to  in  obtain  and expansion of  pollution  "pollution"  introduction  storing or  of  of  proposed  discussed  Control Act,  contained p r o v i s i o n s which  in  to  settlement be  for  Control Act.  obliged the  water  opposition  1966  Act,  change  of  in  sufficient  revision  drinking  result  pollution  the  included  was  it  a  a  into  the  legislation but  largely  of  into  Provincial  to  will  the  in  District  satisfy  litigation  brought  As  therefore not  change  the  the  effluent  Strathcona  supply  was  required  point  in  sparked  surrounding  eventually  Water  the  debate  significant  drains  Park  under  discharge  The  and  controversy  d i s c h a r g e mine  Campbell R i v e r .  to  courts.  to  situated  provides  jurisdiction  issue  is  Strathcona  Western  so the  next  Campbell River  disposal,  area  the  Island  of  Ltd.  Lake  which  municipality the  in  Buttle  on Vancouver  Campbell  Mines  plant  or  discharging  substances  or  34. or contaminants o f such a c h a r a c t e r as t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r or impair t h e u s e f u l n e s s of t h e land, water o r a i r . ^ 4  The wording used suggests t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n was intended t o a p p l y v e r y b r o a d l y t o r e s o u r c e use. However, t h e d e f i n i t i o n i s perhaps r a t h e r weak because o f an inadequate d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term  "substantially".  The new l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t ence o f a P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board  "which s h a l l c o n s i s t o f a  Chairman and such o t h e r members as t h e Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may from time t o time d e t e r m i n e . T h e  Board may be  d i r e c t e d by t h e Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l t o i n q u i r e  into  and t o determine t h e cause o f any matter r e l a t e d t o the p o l l u t e d c o n d i t i o n o f water, l a n d o r a i r . The Board may a l s o be r e q u i r e d to: (a)  take such r e m e d i a l a c t i o n as the Board cons i d e r s necessary i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ; or  (b)  t o report t o the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , who may t h e r e a f t e r d i r e c t the Board t o take whatever r e m e d i a l a c t i o n i t considers necessary i n the p u b l i c  interest.^  The Board may determine i t s own procedure and may e l e c t an A c t i n g Chairman i n t h e absence o f t h e Chairman.  The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e Board a r e l i m i t e d by the A c t t o  35.  the  following (a)  powers  and  to  determine  of  water,  to  land to  may b e or  mittees  Director  of The  appointment for  the  include  enforcement suspend comply  or with  Director.30 ing  out  the (a)  the  of  time  to  of  matters  the  the  or  quality  contaminant  any  waters,  and t e c h n i c a l  time the  a s may b e  Board with  may b e  com-  deemed regard  referred  by  the  the  Act  is  Appointed feature  of  related  any  of  to  the  of  permit  the  the  include  of  water,  Act what  land  has  permit  powers  determine  Act.  granting,  general  to  the  upon f a i l u r e  of  or  1967  Control  The D i r e c t o r  conditions  The more  of  Pollution  administration  permits.29  intent  a  2 8  a Director  cancel  constitute  effluent  to  inform  significant  matters  properties  regarding  advisory  Pollution Control  day-to-day all  of  such  whatever  most  shall  discharged into  from  necessary  Board.  air  and  air;  appoint  to  and  standards  character  which  qualities  condition;  prescribe  and  (c)  what  land  polluted (b)  duties:  of  by or  the  the  who  is  His  powers  the  power  the  and to  permitee  order  of  Director  for  following:  qualities  and  air  constitute  shall  responsible  amendment  an  the  properties a  to  the carry-  36.  polluted (b)  to  prescribe  and  (c)  the  discharged  or  emitted  water,  to  tests  conduct of  notify  all  or  waste,  or  or  air  when  c a n be of  the  only  history  are  in  of  practice  do  the  an  with  the  advisory  effluent water,  or  in  a polluted  that role  land  contaminant  its  overlap  terms  in  in  of  condition.  powers  Director.32  indicate  the  air;  considerable  use  air;  standards.31  Director  only  or  into  waste  is  or  the  the  well  naming  of  clerks Civil  as  appointing  an A s s i s t a n t  Council iphe  and  recent  its  function  is  in  where  matters  of  policy  and  other  Service  a Director, Director,  employees  A c t .  3  4  '  3  5  The  It  when  concerned.33  officers, with  to  land  prescribed  there  land  determine  .Lieutenant-Governor  Board would  restricted  the  be  discharge  effluent,  Board would  so by t h e  water,  determining  co-operation  the  As for  the  and  of  waste  may  to  contaminant  B o a r d and  that  the  emit  meet  surveys  p e r s o n s who  seen that  is  then  pollution  to  to  and  into  quality  other  which  standards  to  effluent,  contaminants  prescribing  directed  the  the  or  functions  probable  of  regarding  materials,  fails  It  standards  character  extent (d)  condition;  and  the  Act  such  necessary, Director  in  provides  engineers, accordance  and h i s  staff  operate  as  Resources Water tive  structure  salt  ground  waters  legislation  engineer  for  in  carrying  out  the  pollution  discharging  was  first  the  and  with  file  him  the  and  administratowards  Branch are  resource  of  a permit prior  the  of  brought  of  the the  the  power Act  and  for  only  develop-  distinct  the  from  and  in  the  to  notify  make  following  the  The  information:  also  Lieutenant-  the  for  province  purposes.^  to  1,  Any p e r s o n and had  8  begin  January  before  any of  regulations  after  Director  is  Board or  intends  1970  the  performance  divide  Director. 1,  and  It  administrative  January the  surface  Act.-*?  to  Act.  inland  province.  material  the  1967  province"-^  against  to  the  ponds,  a n y . p e r s o n who  waste  in  other  entire  good f a i t h  that  other  must  all  be  districts  states or  and  the  in  made  lakes,  to  given  control  permit,  streams,  imposed under  is  d i s c h a r g i n g waste a  may  purpose  obtain  in  necessarily  jurisdiction  done  duty  sewage  obtained  "all  watercourses  act  Act  Forests  the  involving  not  Water  philosophy  of  changes were  applies  Council  The  must  or  Branch  government's  are  other  action  any  authority  Governor  into  no  and  as  within  clearly  that  any  of  waters,  provided  Lands,  the  significance.  "waters"  waters,  the  decisions  disposal  number  defining  the  of  of  recommendations  into  overriding  A  position  The  Branch w i t h i n  Department  emphasizes  inputs  and waste  Control  the  The  control.  many  possibly  By  of  Resources.  of  ment  Pollution  Service  pollution one  the  1970  who  not  March,  197 2  38a (i)  the  type  of  sewage,  effluent  or  other  waste  discharged; (ii)  the  daily  average  a n d maximum  rate  of  discharge;  and a r e a  of  the  and (iii)  the  location  discharge. The  person  permit  is  then  within  Director  to  Application  for  for  on a  The  application  the  Branch.  days  to  make  following  Pollution  The  under  is  Control  the  standard then  formal  application  a written  order  for  from  a  the  Name  and  2.  Type  of  trator,  form which  forwarded  works  Location of  4.  Point  5.  Quantity including hour  of  rates  s u p p l i e d by  be  the  Director.  for  processing  by  the  Director  the  through  includes:  applicant. e.g.  copper  plant,  concen-  etc.  works. of  effluent  maximum  effluent. to  be  rate,  and o p e r a t i n g  ifically,  applicable,  solids,  12  season of  of  where  the  discharged  maximum  Characteristics  total  may  him  treatment  discharge of  is  involved,  sewage  3.  to  Control Act  required  address  of  Permits  Pollution  information  1.  6.  works  so.^0  Permits applied  the  3 9  required  sixty  do  of  effluent  and  and  24  discharge. spec-  suspended  solids,  b i o c h e m i c a l oxygen demand,  pH  39.  range, toxic 7.  Type  temperature,  coliform  bacteria,  and  chemicals. of  treatment  to  be  applied  to  the  waste.41 A  copy  the in  of  site the  the  the of  the  British  Director  Objections  Control  Act,  Columbia  days  wording  in  was  Granting the  1967  contains  that:  granting  time  file  an  The  Director.  the  as  to  of  a  the  Act  class  of  Subsection  1  at  published  newspapers  as  or a  not  of  objections  The  be  may, the  within  original  affected within  regulations,  in  the  his  sole  objection  diswill  hearing.43  changed  3  in  Pollution  received  would  decide,  p e r s o n s who -  ground  thereto.  shall  of  the allow  are  permit  prescribed  subject  which  they  rights  whether  Act,  application.  objection  Director  the  copy  such l o c a l  1956  as  an  p e r s o n whose  such  amendment limit  long  stated  be  to  so  Act  the  another  in  provisions  the  cretion,  as  the  of  Any  and  on the  Permits  filing  by  1968  of  case with  parties  posted  2  the  (2)  be  and  of  (1)  A  then  Gazette  suggest.^  the  interested  thirty  must  proposed discharge  may  to As  from  application  this may  Section  section object 13  was  in  such a  directly revised  to  way  to  the  read:  40. (1)  (2)  An o b j e c t i o n be  filed  as  may  Where  in  be the  under  jection by  any  land  land  under  who  or  the or  any  or  subsection  or  licence  Act  would  be  Where  the  discharge  or  objection  may b e  for  in,  an  ob-  filed  in  or  the  the  under  such by  to  water,  claims  under  time  on/  may b e  issued  affected  by  emit  any  holder  this  that  Act  the  permit  the  or  granting  any that the  not  for  p e r s o n who  of  a permit into  to  air,  an  filed  of  is  the  into  immediately may b e  resident  proposed or  discharge  contaminant (b)  is  contaminant  miles  point  is  any  interest  a n d who  application  five  p e r s o n who  materials  applicant  interest  a permit  (1)  an  such  may-  regulations.  for  into  an  a permit  permit.  (a)  A  the  waste  is  Water  licence  (3)  any  or  of  and w i t h i n  is  p e r s o n who h a s  or  a  s u c h manner  sewage  a permit  of  granting  application  of  land  the  prescribed in  discharge or  to  or  the  existing  emission of air;  adjoining  affected  within  by  the  or municipality  the  granting  of  permit.  qualified  to  file  an  objection  under  this  provision Board.  The  requires into  may  file  an  objection  with  B o a r d must  determine  whether  that  the  Director  consideration.  manner  in  which  interest"  The  the  Board  not  enlarged  In  the  case  of  the  higher  authority.  of  Branch it Any  is  to  upon  order  appealed  to  the  Board, ^  so  Council, members  who may to  Columbia,  hear  must  appeal  tribunal to  decision f i n a l . is  not  5  !  be  of A  n  either  the  or  the  expected  cannot  any  change  The  1968  an  long  the  the  as  this 4  Any  7  chooses. days  Branch  from  of  the of stay  In the to  the of  Act  of  this  deposit  case  a  The  been  a  sum  Court  execution.  included  the  of  The  0  Supreme  has  the  British  4  5  may  in  order. ^  hearing.  may  Cabinet  Court  required.52  the  to  within  order  in  to  "public  Director  done  appeal  amendment  the  the  d e c i s i o n on the is  order  Provincial  appellant  procedure  The  5  any  Lieutenant-Governor  the  a  of  is  Supreme  as  4  of  from  the  from  to  Council or act  order  of  of  f i n a l .  meaning  engineer  number  costs  objection  Act.  order.  thirty  require  a  to  any  within  appeal  the  any  appellant  Executive  after  the  appeal,  may the  the  of  designate  made  cover  until  down t h a t  date  whichever  appeal  money  4  the  in  from  be  appealed  determine  is  appeal  and  be  Board  interest  an  possible to  Director  B o a r d may  the  such  is  the  the  take  Control  public  directive  to  of  the  d e c i s i o n or  appealed  days  Pollution  a  be  fifteen  also  d e c i s i o n of  is  member  shall  the  is  Thus,  handed  section  it  dealing  with  penalties  control  permit.  Anyone  or  into  any  or  or  to  land  a prison  continuing $500.00  offence  per  day  A section obtain  term  to  a permit.  to  guilty  water  is  liable  of  to  three  up  is  other  of to  to  the  a  violations is  any  fine  months,  Act  or  for  pollution  a  of  up  to  both.  fine  broadened  to  on  $1000.00 For  of  of  the  the  committed  provision  wastes  up  a  to  3  besides  now  a  discharging  continues.^  An o f f e n c e  contravenes  obtain  a provision  offence  amendment  include  (a)  failure  found  there  the  1970  for  the  penalty  failure  by  any  Act  to  person  or  who  the  regulations; (b)  wilfully  destroys,  with  works  the  lawful (c)  any  ture, tool any of (d)  The  Director  for  any  injures  gauge,  or  weir,  appliance, belonging  applicant, the  any  permit  or  Government neglects  fails  to  give  boat,  placed  of  Canada  to  pay  security,  a as  Act  or  regulations.^  also  has  the  power  if  the  to  in  holder,  this  time  with  measuring  permit  or  of  interferes holder  tampers  cable,  to  fails  length  or  without  authority;  destroys, or  of  injures  device,  works struc-  instrument position or  or by  official  or  of  the  fee  or  charge,  required  suspend or  holder  any  fails  to  Province; or  under  cancel  any  comply  with  permit the  43. Act,  fails  order the  of  to  the  pay  money  Director,  in or  respect fails  to  to  the  permit,  comply w i t h  disobeys  any  any  provision  of  permit.55  Although tion  in  British  approach not  the  As  the  it  will  it  is  Columbia  pollution  only  statute  with  important  of  most be  discussed  control,  from which  grounds the  these  most  is  of  significant its  Pollution that  the  followed  by  a  comprehensive  Control  relate  Federal  legisla-  to  Act  pollution.  Fisheries  number  of  is  Act,  other  Acts.  By v i r t u e  empowered  the  provisions  first  The  and  doubt  on the  to  provincial  coast  no  inland to  of  its  pass  recently  No p e r s o n  stated  shall or  put,  lime,  chemical  remnants any  other  whether the  put,  provided  or  or  knowinqly  knowingly  these  by  the  or  thereof,  mill  rubbish  deleterious is  s u b s t a n c e s named  decaying or  substance  of in  a  like this  or  drugs, io r  sawdust or thing,  character section  or  sea  is  Fisheries  t o be  fish,  to  resources  permit to  permit  substances or  dead  same  related  government  protects  matter,  the  matters  that:  cause  into,  is  in  Act  federal  which  function  pass  poisonous  the  legislation This  Fisheries  authority  fisheries,56  pollution. until  Federal  to not,  Act  44. i n any water  f r e q u e n t e d by f i s h ,  or t h a t flows  i n t o such water, nor on i c e over e i t h e r  such  waters. ' J  A f i n e o f up t o $1000.00 f o r a f i r s t  o f f e n c e was  d e t e r r e n t a g a i n s t v i o l a t i o n s o f the A c t . i n t e n t o f the above p r o v i s i o n , i t was s u c c e s s f u l p r o s e c u t i o n s under the A c t .  p r o v i d e d as a  D e s p i t e the obvious  d i f f i c u l t t o conduct The c o u r t s tended t o  i n t e r p r e t the wording t o mean t h a t a c t u a l death or i n j u r y t o f i s h must be shown and t h a t t h i s must be l i n k e d beyond r e a s o n a b l e doubt t o the presence o f a d e l e t e r i o u s substance which been put i n the w a t e r . problem  5 8  had  T h i s amounted t o a v e r y d i f f i c u l t  f o r the F i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the  p o l l u t e r had been o p e r a t i n g f o r a l o n g time and had k i l l e d o r d r i v e n away the m a j o r i t y o f the f i s h i n i t s v i c i n i t y .  In  an attempt t o c l a r i f y the i n t e n t of the A c t , an  amendment was  passed i n 1970 which p r o v i d e d t h a t :  no p e r s o n s h a l l d e p o s i t or permit the d e p o s i t of  a d e l e t e r i o u s substance o f any type i n  water  f r e q u e n t e d by f i s h or i n any p l a c e under  any c o n d i t i o n s where such d e l e t e r i o u s or  any o t h e r d e l e t e r i o u s substance t h a t  from the d e p o s i t o f such d e l e t e r i o u s may  substance  e n t e r such water. •  The A c t goes on t o d e f i n e  results  substance  JJ  " d e l e t e r i o u s substance" as:  •45.  any  substance that,  degrade  or  alter  degradation that to  water  fish  Further,  the  to  the  that  form  it  part  in  is  use  water.  Governor  added t o  alteration  so that  or  frequent  or  or  if  of  be  as  to  cations  any  his  in  opinion  substance. are  the  it  provided  continuous  to  will  in  the  and up t o  6 3  in  Pollution mental the in  a more  The  number  quality.  specific  Health  fish  that  empowered  to  the  per  regulations  if  (of  any  the the  of  Provincial other  modifiif  in  deleterious  first offence  offence is  contain  cases  a  review  appraisal  of  statutes  besides  provisions relating  Although these  and  Legislation  provincial  pollution  are  many ways  control, of  the  in  their  they  are  contents  provincial  to  the  environ-  peripheral often will  Regulations  for  the  Health  provide  situation.  Act  provide  to  relevant  Act The  to  the  development  for  day  are  require  deposition of $5000.00  $5000.00  may m a k e  The M i n i s t e r  prohibit  up t o  scheme o f  rounded  deleterious  6  Control Act  overall  of  nature. ^  Other A  is  or  of  guality  of  substances which  6  development  Penalties  6 2  of  fish. -'-  Environment)  result  process  (Cabinet)  classes  of  would  6 0  s u b s t a n c e s and  Department  a  the  b y man o f  Council  deleterious  of  rendered  prescribing regarded  water,  that:  46. No person s h a l l or  s u f f e r the accumulation on  escape from h i s premises, or d e p o s i t , or  permit the d e p o s i t , upon any l a n d b e l o n g i n g t o him or under h i s c o n t r o l , o f a n y t h i n g so as t o endanger the p u b l i c h e a l t h , or  shall  d e p o s i t , or s u f f e r or permit t o be d e p o s i t e d , i n , upon, on or i n t o any s t r e e t , square, byway, wharf,  dock, s h i p , l a k e , pond, bank,  harbour, r i v e r ,  and  lane,  stream, or water,  any manure  or  o t h e r r e f u s e , or v e g e t a b l e or animal matter,  or  f i l t h o f any k i n d , or any dead  animal.^5'^6,67  that: No s o l i d r e f u s e or waste matter o f any k i n d s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d i n any stream so as t o obs t r u c t i t s flow, or put i n t o any stream or l a k e so as t o p o l l u t e i t s waters, and no i d or l i q u i d sewage matter from e i t h e r or  sol-  public  p r i v a t e sewers s h a l l be d i s c h a r g e d i n t o  any stream or l a k e , but i f i t can be proved t h a t the b e s t means have been adopted t o p u r i f y the sewage e t c . , b e f o r e i t e n t e r s the stream or l a k e , no o f f e n c e i s committed, i s u n l e s s the l o c a l Board has n o t i f i e d  that  the  o f f e n d i n g p a r t i e s t h a t the means adopted are insufficient:  nor s h a l l  any poisonous, noxious  47.  or  polluting  source  be  unless  the  to As  in  the  l i t t l e Act. sewage from  and the  this  given  to  the  the  1975.  in  water  a  means  as  have  or  first  any  other  stream been  adopted  same. ^ 6  to  the  complete But  this  by  is  the  of  of  Service  primary  in  the of  pollution  the  interpretation  dump r a w  will  is  treatment  officials.  to  treatment  there  means"  water  o b v i o u s l y not  Health  1896,  tertiary  any  Columbia continue  only  in  "best  implies  elimination this  British  established  definition  assume t h a t  and  lake  from  be  Many sewage  required  by  6 9  fine  The Water  of  person violating up t o  person  is  guilty  Puts  into  tailings, thing by Violators default  $100.00  or  the six  terms months  of  the  Act  is  imprisonment/  liable or  both.7°  Act Section  in  any  regulations  wording  Any to  the  source.  communities into  best  original  One w o u l d  proceeding  passed into  purify  guidance  liquid  or  the of of  41 of  of an  any  the  offence stream  gravel,  Act^^ provides  any  sawdust,  refuse,  Act  or  are  payment,  Water  liable  that  any  who: timber,  carcass,  or  having  been  substances, after  Engineer  the  Water  Recorder to  imprisonment  a  fine of  not of  up t o  other ordered to up  do to  twelve  s o . ^ $250.00  and,  months.^  3  48.  The Land A c t The Land A c t " ^ p r o v i d e s  that:  No p e r s o n s h a l l t h r o w , d e p o s i t ,  dump, or i n  any way cause t o be p l a c e d upon crown l a n d any g l a s s , m e t a l ,  soil,  garbage,  o r any  substance without the a u t h o r i t y of  other  the  7s minister.  J  Any p e r s o n found g u i l t y o f d o i n g so i s l i a b l e t o a f i n e o f up t o $300.00 o r t o imprisonment o f up t o s i x t y d a y s , o r b o t h . The Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t As a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e o f K a i s e r R e s o u r c e s L t d . t o t r i p mine f o r c o a l i n t h e  plans  East 77  Kootenay, t h e government amended t h e Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t 1969 and p a s s e d t h e C o a l Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t ^ t o p r o v i d e some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f l a n d d i s t u r b e d by t h e industry. It  The l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e s  that:  i s t h e duty o f e v e r y owner, agent o r man-  a g e r o f a s u r f a c e mine t o i n s t i t u t e and c a r r y out a program f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n and r e c l a m a t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e l a n d and w a t e r courses  affected thereby,  and, on t h e  d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o r abandonment mine, t o undertake  of a  surface  and complete t h e program t o  l e a v e t h e l a n d and w a t e r c o u r s e s  in condition  s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e m i n i s t e r ; and such a  in  49. program s h a l l be submitted t o and approved by 7Q  the m i n i s t e r . . Notice be p u b l i s h e d  3  of the f i l i n g  of the reclamation  program must  i n t h e G a z e t t e and i n such l o c a l newspapers as t h e RO  minister prescribes.  The m i n i s t e r i s r e q u i r e d t o hear  u  from other government departments and t o hear  advice  "representations  from any other persons i n any way a f f e c t e d by t h e r e p o r t and t h e program" and a f t e r s i x t y days must e i t h e r approve o r r e j e c t the r e p o r t o r approve i t i n a r e v i s e d form. -'8  The m i n i s t e r  must r e q u i r e t h a t t h e p e r s o n r e c e i v i n g a p p r o v a l t i o n program d e p o s i t  f o r a reclama-  up t o but not exceeding $500.00 f o r each  82 acre o f l a n d d i s t u r b e d . the c o s t o f r e c l a m a t i o n  T h i s money may be a p p l i e d toward i n t h e event t h e owner o r manager  t o do a j o b t h a t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e m i n i s t e r . - ^ 8  fails  The  m i n i s t e r has t h e power t o c a n c e l t h e permit and t o "order t h e owner, agent o r manager and a l l other persons t o cease and desist  from c a r r y i n g on t h e mining  operation".  8 4  Conclusion A review o f the l e g i s l a t i o n that i s relevant t o the achievement o f p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l suggests t h a t t h e r e p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g most a s p e c t s o f t h e problem.  a r e ample  Although  improvements a r e c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e , and some w i l l be suggested later,  i t appears t h a t a l l a c t s o f despoilment and d e g r a d a t i o n  have been outlawed almost t o the p o i n t o f redundancy by t h e  50. various and  statutes  enforcement,  halted  within  if  law  the  quality, mills, to  it  ating land  the  is  mines,  are  in  of  interpreted unlikely  their  such  them.  that  a way  very  sewage  as  not  favours  many  to  the  of  In  environmental  could  or  pulp  continue  very  treatment  be  fact,  province's  etc.  the  could  alone.  Certainly  of  "impair  law  of  finances  pollution  favour  plants,  means"  legislation  and u n l e s s  is  the  in  intent  of  article  on the  enforcement  reports  that  few  are  of  oper-  usefulness of  to  The  Land A c t  same  and  only  under  the  Health  that  there  has  determined  is  the  the  true  three Act  been  in  for  the  no a t t e m p t  enforcement  his (k)  of  the  Pollution  of  the  times. to  in  a manner  quality.  knowledge  p r o s e c u t i o n s have recent  it  use unless  anti-pollution  of  S e c t i o n 41  little  environmental  of  best  of  interpret  maintaining  no p r o s e c u t i o n s under years.  itself  courts  the  J  in  condition.  "best  all  existing  liberally  present the  the  that  sufficient  waters".  enforced  Good  Given  seems p r o b a b l e  refineries,  The  his  with  context  employing  in or  it  were  operate  them  is  dealing  provide  provincial  there  In  have  Act  in  Control Act  These  which  legislation,  Water  been  it  carried  facts  are  consistent legislation.  been  recent  and  the  out suggestive  and  51.  Footnotes  for  Chapter  2  1 A . R . L u c a s , 1969. Water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l Columbia. U . B . C . L a w R e v i e w 4_, p p . 56-58. A . R . L u c a s , 1971. Legal U . B . C . Law R e v i e w 6 ( 1 ) , pp. 2  techniques 167-192.  for  in  British  pollution  control.  3 P a t r i c k Good, 1971. A n t i - p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and i t s e n f o r c e m e n t : an e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . U . B . C . L a w R e v i e w 6_(1), pp. 271-286. 4  B.C.  5  Lucas,  6  Sess. Papers of Province v i i i - i x (1869).  pp.  Ordinances 1969,  1868-69.  pp.  62-66.  7  Lucas,  1969,  p.  63.  8  S.B.C.  1910,  c.  43.  9  S.B.C.  1913,  c.  7.  S.B.C.  1956,  c.  59  11  S.B.C.  1903,  c.  1  2  R.S.B.C.  1  3  Lucas,  1  0  14  id.  1  Order  5  remain 1  6  1960,  1969,  in  S.B.C.  1956,  c.  p.  amended  3rd  S.B.C.  Sess.,  1965,  c.  7th  Pari.,  60.  405.  64.  No.  intact c.  B.C.,  28.  Council  virtually  as  of  36.  829, under  July the  20,  1917.  present  These  Health  regulations  Act.  see L u c a s , 1969, pp. 65-66 f o r the related to the P o l l u t i o n Control A c t , 1  7  18  R.S.B.C.  1960,  c.  289,  1  9  Id.,  as  amended  2  0  Id. ,  s.  17 (2) .  2  1  Lucas,  2  2  R.S.B.C.  2  3  S.B.C.  2  4  Id.,  s.  2  5  Id.,  s.  3(1).  2  6  Id.,  s.  3(3).  2  7  Id.,  s.  3(4).  28  i d . ,  s.  4.  2  9  Id.,  s.  5  3  0  S.B.C.  1968,  c.  38,  s.  4.  3  1  S.B.C.  1967,  c.  34,  s.  10.  3  2  Lucas,  1969,  p.  1969,  S.B.C.  s.  1960,  1967,  the  material  1965,  c.  37,  s.  17(1). •••  65. c.  c.  289,  s.  2.  34.  2.  and  s.  6.  67.  LecT;ur-e a t U . B . C . at the time Chairman 1971. J  J  3  4  S.B.C.  3  5  R.S.B.C.  3  6  S.B.C.  3  7  Id.,  s.  of  2.  '  p.  source 1956.  1967,  c.  1960,  1967, 20.  c.  Department of F o r e s t r y by F . S . M c K m n o n , o f the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B o a r d , March 23,  34, c.  s.  9.  289,  s.  34,  s.  2.  4(am.).  53 .  38  i d . ,  39  i d . , s.  5(la).  4  Id.,  5(lb).  0  s.  s.  19.  1 copy o f a p p l i c a t i o n form used by Utah Mining C o . i n a p p l y i n g f o r a permit from B r a n c h , d a t e d O c t o b e r 2, 1969. 4  C o n s t r u c t i o n and the Pollution Control  4  2  i d .  4  3  S.B.C.  1967,  c.  34,  s s . 13(1)  4  4  S.B.C.  1968,  c.  38,  s.  5.  Id., this provision R . C . S . 1970 c . 3 6 ,  is s.  now i n c o r p o r a t e d 13.  and  13(2).  45 see 4  6  Id.,  s.  12(1).  4  7  Id.,  s.  12(2).  4  8  Id.,  s.  12(1).  4  9  Id.,  s.  12(2).  50  i d . ,  s.  12(4).  5  1  Id.,  s.  12(6).  5  2  Id.,  s.  12(7).  5  3  S.B.C.  1968,  c.  38,  s.  9.  S.B.C.  1970,  c.  36,  s.  20A.  c.  38,  s.  4.  54  5  5  S.B.C.  1968,  5  6  B.N.A.  A c t , 1867,  5  7  R.S.C.  1952,  5  8  A . R . Lucas,  c.  c.  3,  119,  s.  1971,  p.  s.  91.  33(2).  175.  as s e c t i o n  13(6):  54. 5  9  S . C . 1970,  6  0  Id.,  s.  3 (11a).  6  1  Id.,  s.  3 (12).  6  2  Id.,  s.  33A(2).  6  3  Id.,  s.  3(5).  6  4  Id.,  s.  3(6).  6  5  B.C. Reg.  6  6  R.S.B.C.  6  7  B . C . Reg. 142/59,  6  8  Id.,  s.  c.  63,  s.  3(2).  142/59. 1960,  c.  170. s.  9.  66.  69 for  F r a s e r R i v e r Report, 1970. A study conducted P o l l u t i o n and Environmental C o n t r o l . p. 4.  7  0  R.S.B.C.  1960,  c.  170,  7  1  R.S.B.C.  1960,  c.  405.  7  2  Id.,  7  3  Id.  7  4  S . B . C . .1970,  7  5  Id.,  s.  7  6  Id.,  s.  7  7  R.S.B.C.  s.  s.  8  S.B.C.  7  9  Id.,  s.  Society  113.  41.  c.  17.  59(1). 60. 1960,  c.  11.  7  s.  by t h e  1969, 8.  c.  3.  242,  as amended,  1967,  c.  25,  1969,  c.  18,  80 s.B.C. 1969, c. 18, s. 11(1). 81 i d . , s. 11(4). 82  I d  .  f  s  .  11(5).  8 3  I d . , s. 11(14).  8  4  i d . , s. 11(14).  8  5  Good, 1971.  56.  CHAPTER  THE HEAVY METAL CONTENT AND M I N E ITS  TOXIC  OF M I N E D R A I N A G E WATER  EFFLUENT  EFFECTS  3  IN  R E L A T I O N TO  ON A Q U A T I C ORGANISMS  Introduction  From the in  the  been set  a of  previous failure  Firstly, were  is  the  of  of  mine  acid  pollution survey  was  to  enforce In  types  of  standards.  undertaken  associated  number to  water  might  to  determine  metal  the  mines  determine bodies.  there  has  be  adequate  an  empirically  study  was  and m i n i n g  was  conducted of  ranging  from  with  if  this  undertaken.  the  recommended h e a v y  in  legislation  mines  review  Thirdly, of  otherwise  three-part  a  pollution  suggested that  pollution,  drainage,  a  a  existing  was  to  heavy  metal  of  what  order  Secondly,  heavy  of  it  warranted,  reviewed.  aspects  a  chapter,  statutes.  conclusion  analysis  technologies several formation  metal  these  reviews  as  southern  British  Columbia  levels  of  heavy  metals  in  background,  57.  Heavy  Metal  and M i n i n g  The mining  for  metals  disturbance Columbia of  of  this  copper,  nickel,  presently  but  the  silver,  Most consist  of  -  land  surface  Among  5.0%  the  Anaconda copper  and  at  the  to  at  zinc  is  zinc, gold  metal)  to  this  values,  the  where  such as  for  metal  lead, also  are  by  is  Sullivan silver,  mined  being  a  close  lead  at is  shaft  enough  Atlin  as  mine  zinc  to  the  the  with  high  by  are  and A l i c e  molybdenum.  Fig.  method.  operated  and  (see  sulfides  open-pit  Mine  mining  exploited  such operations  which  the  molybdenum,  copper  the  British  extracted  presently  that  those  environmental  primarily  low-grade  are  surface  In  are  extraction  Britannia,  predominant  of  of  resources.  iron,  ore-bodies  permit  mines  considerable  employed  formations  Kimberly,  open-pit  where  the  exceptions  and  Cominco  of  practice  and water  metals  recoverable  Mine  in  cadmium and  large  (0.5  land  technique  Technology  widespread  results  both  Mines  mined, Arm  1).  58,  '6  22  20 2. /S£AA/£> CoPf£K 3-  UGSr£rW  -f. SurJfio  — —  Cu.,Zn,/%,  Pb  Cuu  /*!ft5COT  S.  — Cu., /*7o  — Ni,  StyULKAnE.£.rJ  Cu.  — Ct*. 8  7.  HfGHrooNr  —  8. &=Tt/jL£#E/*t 9. ^  /  /  £  Cu.,  Mo  CoPP£K  —  > A7//V//VC  tO- C/ZAlG-MO/vr  Cu.  —  J7  CM.  t  Mo  16  — Cu.  il.  &/*J=A//>/I  —  I2  PN£.oA//x  (3.  OW.  /f.  /?££V£S  •  Cu.,Mo  EZPtJoRATtod —  to  — -  AJ , PL ?  U-S.  SKlO/VAC  A  Cu. , /tu. %  , R>,Zn18-  Ctfcs/ZCS/U*.  I?.  G-IVifiJOVC  i  •  f7-  C2.  Pt>,2V>-  B£J.L  — —  CoPP£fi  2/.  GA.*fJiSA.£.  22.  p/A/crt/  23.  MAD/AS/)  £.A/0rfA:o  2£>-  7-£A/tOA  Ca  2.7-  &<fTAA/AJ/A  —  Z8.  —  Al*  Cu.  — C« —  -  2ft-  CK  Cu.,Aj,  Pi,  —  /="<*, C « — —  CK. ,  Z-n.  ,  r-lo  Z i  F i g u r e 1. Map o f B r i t i s h Columbia showing th© p r i n c i p l e mining o p e r a t i o n s and h e maj« major m e t a l s b e i n g e x t r a c t e d a t t h e s e mines* ana t ztie (frora B o G . Economic Reviow, 1 9 7 1 )  59.  Perhaps with  these  waters such or  in  as  the  operations the  tant  siltation,  chemicals and  are  serious  the  of  the  and the  used  in  however,  of  heavy  metal  framework  of  techniques  overriding  of  heavy  metals  achieved are of  which  major  raw  ore  concentrating smelter;  and  discussed  and  as  the  of  in  the  the  the  the  open-pit  in  to  recover  associated with as  this of  is  the  for  outside  ore  mined  processing.  Ore  From the  Ore-body  it.  readily  the  milling to  metal.  smelting  the  introduction  shipment  the  in  employed.  the  be  open-pit  firstly,  secondly,  by  impor-  with  correct  the  timber  As w i l l  dealt  techniques mining:  from  interrelated  which  in  factors  also  strongly  in  into  bodies  are  c a n be more  preparation  smelting  part  for  of  ore-body;  ore  here  greater  overseas  Removal  a knowledge  problems  be  The  results  from  not  shipped  and  systems  ore  used to  environment  thirdly,  environmental  be  manner  aquatic  land  water  c a n be  the  phases  of  are  and  must  Other  of  of  the  of  into  through  three the  the  loss  associated  metals  significance.  problems  pollution  An understanding alters  of  problem  heavy  activity.  erosion,  milling  these  that  mining  mining  of  contamination  the of  environmental  introduction  accelerated  sometimes  demonstrated, with  is  vicinity  crop production,  toxic  most  or  the  scope  in  British  There removal or a  The  refining of  the  will  study  Columbia  is  60..  The determined taken  as  a  the  analysis  preliminary  Disturbance result  up the  of  to  the  vegetation  nearby  which  facilities.  the  from will (In  be the  highly  year  old  second growth  pit by  area  The  and t h e  excavating  land  are  deal  of  o v e r b u r d e n may siltation the  site  rock  taken,  be washed  Utah land  hemlock  and the  overburden for  the  During of  this  of  the  at  the  from  Rupert  then  rivers,  site,  lakes  or  of  the  The  pulp mill  removed  facilities  amount  area  thirty  fir.  Alice  operation  the  an  Inlet  inlets  areas  a  of  great  soil  causing  the  prepared  large  the  for  from  .is  e r o s i o n and u n l e s s  from  removal  concentrating  amabilis Port  mill  as  set  the  approximately  are  considerable away  of  exploit  involves well  mine  operation  necessary to to  construction of  forces a  as  mine-  and  serious  into  which  drains.  Removal  of  ore  manner  in  order  continuous is  the  and t u r b i d i t y  systematic and  bedrock.  made  this  is  are  candidate  excavations  shipped to  and  the  c a u s e d by  mine-site  forest  foundation  to  is  and  at  disturbance  the  mixed  soil  exposed to care  entire  productive  harvested  processing.)  c a n be  ore-body  samples which  decision is  case of  was  were  the  used for  site  trees  land  large-scale the  a particular  drill-core  and minor  After  first  of  of  investigation  clearings  equipment.  ore-body, of  by  during  site.  economic p o t e n t i a l  broken  access by  by  from to  ore  drilling  the  mine-site  ensure trucks  is  stability to  and b l a s t i n g  the and  carried of  active is  the  out pit  areas.  then  loaded  in  a  walls The into  ore  trucks  viewpoint exposure ly  to  and h a u l e d the  of  the  oxygen.  continually ore  most  are  to  Throughout  metal  (CuFeS^) ,  exposure  ponding  metal  insoluble These the  to  in  ore  water,  a  finds  its  usual  procedure  way  into  to  The M i n e r a l  eight that  to are  to  the  means  ten  ore  into  inches.  presently  and  are  therefore  water. land  surface,  of  the  and the  from  rapidly  to  form are  the  the  there  corres-  virtually soluble.  leached  away  excavation drainage  out  into  of  from  usually  eventually  From here  water  are  oxidized  the  highly  pit  tailings  in  (ZnS) .  open p i t .  drainage  surfaces  minerals  easily  As the  new  particular-  sphalerite  quite  react  and  the  (FeS),  usually  the  the  the  pit  tailings  discharge.  Process  carried where  it  particles In  are  is  pyrite  are  into  mill  and  as  sulfates  pump t h e  is  The  sulfides  Concentration  conveyor  (PbS),  concentrator  raw  mine  such  environmental  process  atmosphere the  sulfides  minerals  bottom  to  this  the  the  directly  The  mechanical  is  the or  the  of  From an  Whereas  runoff  depression in  discharge,  by  the  the  life  atmosphere  products  surface~by  forms  either  the  to  in  weathering.  galena  sulfates.  oxidation  the  exposed t o  predominantly  factor  surface  These upon  concentrator.  significant  mineral  being  chalcopyrite  the  most  operating  of and  by  truck  is  initially  with the in  and  a maximum  in  crushed  instances by  diameter  large-scale virtually  some  all  mining that  of  about  operations are  planned mills The  the  into  ore  is  then  particles  which  maximum d i a m e t e r  on the  size  of  of  Utah  ore,  the  ore  is  the  grinding  the  required  valuable  is  to  often  less  operation  is  a  less  the  than the  particles  by  than  of  in  the  physical the  size  of The  rock  in  microns. depending  (In  the  case  the  ground  objective  separation  host  250  however,  ore.  microns.)  grinding  about  this,  maximum  70  from  autogenous  diameter  particles  example,  be  ground  have  mineral  for  mineral  finely  of  of  the  which  they  are  embedded.  The termed  "froth  treatment the  which  operation  flotation".  which  mineral  termed  central  particles  number  through  of  The  chemicals  in  which  the  agitated  in  order  to  group  c h e m i c a l s added t o  the  surface  surface  of  tension the  the  collector,  not  so the  of  rising tion  of  keep  of  the  a p h y s i o - c h e m i c a l method  use ore  of is  added  the  the water  affected  remains  in  the  material  is  from  bottom  achieved of  the  water  fed  froth,  to  flotation  continually  as  lowers  below.  which  of  One  whereas  flotation  of  suspension.  which  a  is  is  are  water  into  mixture in  of  surface  with  frothers)  and produces a  by means  the  is  (known  froth  process  chemicals that  and  The m i n e r a l s , this  separation,  ore  on the  mixed  particles  in  the  concentrating  ore-water-chemical  mixture. are  are  held  the  is  the  ground  chambers  of  the  produces a hydrophobic f i l m  "collectors". a  This  in  jet  froth  have the  on  adhered  chamber. contains  to  material  Continual of  the  air  circulati<  bubbles  Upon c o m p l e the  mineral  63. particles,  must  be  separated  material  of  gangue.  is  usually  with  depressed metal  the  ores  process often  skimmed o f f  Many and t h e s e waste  is  the  a  flotation"  collectors  and  by  then  number  from  each  first  iron  with  through  the  the  of  other step of  the  from  further  characteristics  (At  mine,  example,  Utah  chalcopyrite floating  (CuFeS)  the  the  ilide,  include  hydrocarbon these no  Other  substances to to  speaking  countries.  alcohols  such  (terpineol)  as  and  Very  is  The  is  in  the  heptyl  cresylic  acid  metal  is  to  by  and  the  various  by  (M0S2)  be  all  minerals.  separate  collectors  used for  literature  the  of  frothers  also  containing toxicity  (1970)  alcohol.  this  thiocarban-  sulfur  about  are  impart  simultaneously  and Duncan  (xylenol)  and  chalcopyrite.)  may  are  The  which  necessary to  octyl  sulfides,  "differ-  frothers  agents"  the  generally  other  of  c h e m i c a l s used as  hexyl,  from  (tailings).  known  organisms  effects  as  c h e m i c a l s u s e d as  These  sulfides  separation  dithiophosphates,  l i t t l e  aquatic  their  which  compounds t h a t  formates.  esters.  reference  of  thiocarbamates,  and xanthogen  the  and d e p r e s s i n g t h e  common g r o u p  xanthates.  purpose  it  from Molybdenite  molybdenite  The most are  for  all  each  "modifying  metal  well  the  use  flotation  as  in  gangue  differential the  valuable  sulfide  separated  use  of  flotation"  of  and d i s p o s e d o f are  a  The  "bulk  exception  sulfides  ential  contain  water.  of  found  Englishare Pine  used  usually oil  for  this  64. purpose  in  some p r o c e s s e s .  The  most  concentration can  be  they may soda as  grouped  perform be  ash  is  cations  dextrin,  of  acid  with  the  and  naturally  occurring  process.  The  is  stored  disposed  of  in  pipe ore  other which  ions  mines  most  concentrate  in  and  are  include such  as  colloids  such  as  used  to  often  p r o c e s s when Yet  used to with  category  of  anions  separated.  interfere  this  group  such  minerals  another  group  precipitate  the  include  flotation soda  ash,  sulfites.  for  the the  of  the  shipment  cases  located  carries  flotation  being  that  silver,  (CaO),  acids  They  substances are  "precipitants"  completion  centrate  and  are  substances  and v a r i o u s  the  Another  mixture  lime  and w i t h  These  function  flotation  agents".  and  the  the  s u c h as  (NaOH)  in  agents.  of  the  and o r g a n i c  These  of  basis  acid.  zinc  cyanate,  glue.  termed  Upon  soda  used  modifying  pH o f  "resurfacing  lead,  properties  chemicals,  cyanide  as  and  the  The  and h y d r o c h l o r i c  selectivity  similar  are  substances  caustic  copper,  chemicals  c l a s s e s on the  alkaline  and  phosphate starch  of  separation.  employed as  group  sulfides  three  ore  2  silicate,  with  in  (Na C03),  substances  improve  metal  into  regulated  sulfuric  such  of  diverse  in  near  mineral  the  the  waste  (tailings)  a tailings  pond,  or,  the  lakes,  tailings tailings  and  separation,  sea into have  or a  body been  of  as  water. to  is  with  by means  ground  con-  Utah  of Both  a  fine  a the  powder the As  and  atmosphere the  there The  is  into  often  earth  f i l l ,  is  nearby by  waste This  rock  flow  water  l i t t l e  subsequent  successful  in  ore,  sulfide an  to  the  of  is  under  lakes  of  the  and  directly  them.  In  about  the  carry  a valley (sands) in  the  can provide the  are  Tailings  fraction  and  source.  w h i c h may  dam a c r o s s  tailings  this  storage,  open and  inlets.  by  using  from  the  a  into  the  of  continu-  under-water  possible oxidation  soluble metals  heavy  ponds  path  for  case of  to  them.  during  from  water  coarse  area  in  exposed  through  cover  oxidation  drainage  the  known  drains  area  water  and  body  used  discharge.  The  the  kept  the  through  release  that  surface  disposed of  by  or  places  ous  disposal,  large  constructing a  drainage  of  are  streams,  natural  in  water  usually  leaching  the  the  any  however,  formed  tailings.  for  a very  s e l d o m a p r o b l e m due  exposed to  metals  have  and t o  concentrate  tailings,  thus  are  therefore  most  recovering  that  sulfides  which  drainage  water.  Processes  in  the  major  90  to  in  problem  the  of  with  the  This  tailings.  appreciable  Formation of  quantity  oxidation  of  oxidation  and  Acid and  only  valuable  d i s c h a r g e most  an  the  95% o f  process is  also  susceptible to  Involved  The  ore  contains  are  concentration  from  a n d many m i n e s  present  effluent  efficient  the  iron  results  of  in  metal  leaching  Mine  metals  by  Drainage  leaching  occurs  on  66. the  exposed ore  tailings.  However,  under  certain  these  is  Oxygen  is  the  tailings.  tion  metal  of  much  is  finely  acid in  the  than is  metals for  with  water  both  the  the  by  is  generally  by  the  in  have  significant  iron  sulfide  oxygen p r e s e n t , in  the  but  for  sulfides.  and  mineral concentrathe  iron)  area  but  of  chemistry that  content  it  ferrous  the  of  is  that  there  following  of  the  tailings  the  of  to  the  Given that  production  metal  exposed  found  the  occur  open-pit  surface  They  and  the  (except  outline  occur.  important  the  much l a r g e r  (1971)  most  of  In  low  only  of  tailings  the  will  the  area  much h i g h e r .  in  exposure  formation.  resulting  +  2  initial  in  area  and  only a  are  reaction sulfate  and  acid: 2FeS  ore  occur  problem -will  pollution  place  sulfuric  a  The  provided  in  Shizake  and  metals  surface  open-pit  Hawley  sufficient  react  is  material.  chronic  the  this  smaller  drainage  heavy  itself  conditions.  ground waste  tailings  This  of  conditions  compensated  mine  takes  and  In  of  open-pit  available  sulfides  concentration this  the  These  is  the  leaching  required  surface  in  environmental  probably  atmosphere. in  surfaces  2H 0 2  reaction  surface the 4FeS0  +  in  +  2H S0 2  2FeS0  2  takes  the  presence  4  70  place  open-pit. of  4  further +  0  2  4  both The  +  2H S0 2  in  4  the  products  tailings are  oxygen: 2Fe (S0 ) 2  4  3  +  2H 0 2  then  and  on  able  to  The  ferric  oxidize With  sulfate  the  other  formed metals  chalcopyrite,  for  in  this  present  example,  reaction in  the  the  is  then  ore-body  following  able  and  to  tailings.  reaction  may  +  +  take  •place: CuFeS These  and  sulfides able  +  2  2  other are  extent  bacteria  4  acid  sp.  of  rate is  drainage  these  acid  ppm.  higher  concentrations  bacterial  drainage  levels isolated  has  on t h e i r  for  than of  aquatic  reactions  for  aquatic  from  developed specific  a  is  been  and  there  role  in  most  of  the  a  produced  a  the  Thiobacillus metal  heavily the  polluted  growth  of  tolerated  in  optimum 2.0,  locations  harmful pH f o r far  These where  oxidation  of  metal  to much to the  below bacteria  acid  considerable  of  tolerate up  general.  a  to  acutely  The  exists  The  zinc  approximately in  oxidizing  observed to  are  life.  sulfur  for  also  4  consider-  heavy  ppm a n d  are  which  life  number  of  2  a  has  soluble  12,000  to  2H S0  metal  biological  environment has  4  thiooxidans.  growth  of  metals  those  the  Even the  suitable  heavy  T.  are  sulfides  the  and  up t o  of  5FeS0  whichever  therefore of  greatly.  other  oxidation  acceptable  ture  Most  m a c r o s c o p i c forms  been  oxidation  d i s s o l v e d copper  and  is  4  tailings  presence  ferrooxidans  15,000  involving  and  drainage  a  CuS0  2  ferrooxidans  provides T.  the  formation  of  have  by  increased  bacteria.  30  ore  condition  levels  all  the  Once the acidic  mine  in  mine  sufficiently  +  reactions  accelerated  of  production  2  similar  present  degree.  the  + H 0  3  Thiobacillus  formation large  2Fe (S0 )  mine litera-  sulfides.  68.  The  production  p r o c e s s s i n c e the  of a c i d mine d r a i n a g e i s a cumulative  f e r r i c s u l f a t e produced i n the o x i d a t i o n  f e r r o u s s u l f a t e i s a b l e t o enter  of  into further reactions i n -  v o l v i n g other heavy metal s u l f i d e s .  These other  s u l f i d e s of  copper, z i n c , l e a d , e t c . are a l s o o x i d i z e d d i r e c t l y i n aqueous s o l u t i o n as are the i n the p r o d u c t i o n  iron sulfides.  A l l these r e a c t i o n s r e s u l t  of s u l f u r i c a c i d which c r e a t e s  an  acidic  s o l u t i o n i n which heavy metal ions are h i g h l y s o l u b l e . exception  to t h i s  s u l f a t e and  i s l e a d which g e n e r a l l y forms an  i s t h e r e f o r e present  from mining a r e a s . leachable  The  at low  production  An  insoluble  l e v e l s i n water d r a i n i n g  o f s o l u b l e and  therefore  heavy metal s a l t s can be expected t o c o n t i n u e  v i r t u a l l y a l l of the  until  s u l f i d e s t h a t are exposed t o atmospheric  oxygen or t o oxygen-bearing water have been c o n v e r t e d i n t o sulfates.  In many cases t h i s p r o c e s s may  c o n t i n u e f o r decades  f o l l o w i n g the abandonment o f a m i n e - s i t e . therefore  The  process i s  c u m u l a t i v e i n the broader g e o g r a p h i c a l  sense as  a c i d l o a d t h a t must be c a r r i e d by the environment w i l l as the number of abandoned mining p r o p e r t i e s  The  the  increase  increases.  r a p i d r a t e of growth i n the mining i n d u s t r y i n  B r i t i s h Columbia may  t h e r e f o r e be  expected t o c r e a t e a con-  s i d e r a b l e long-term problem of heavy metal p o l l u t i o n , the s o l u t i o n t o which may measures from the  be the a p p l i c a t i o n of  onset of mining a c t i v i t y .  only  preventative I f a mine and i t s  d i s p o s a l system are not designed w i t h the p o s s i b l e  oxidation  69.  of  metal  sulfides  and t h e  in  mind,  there  little  once and in  it  reaches  alleviation this  The  Natural  sea-water  into  the in  the  will  of  the  acid  mine  of  drainage  is  most that  due  metals  a  to  large  an  a high it  natural  be  the  fresh  the  the  natural  degree  heavy  area  problem  prevention  it  of  are  waters  later  and  metals  concentration a l s o have  soil  of  a  are  of  in  process  any  them  natural  concentration seepage  It has  c a n be been  a particular  relatively  in  water expected,  formed metal  high  all  present  discharges  exposed to  the  Water  and  metals  originates.  where  Salt  weathering  upon t h e i r  which  area  will  F r e s h and  all  concentration  from which in  in  from watersheds  formations  that  from  Heavy M e t a l s  of  The  to  has  water  from that  concentration  metal.  One  of  the  estimating  the  on  aquatic  organisms  in  which  the  metal  its  the  sea  is  of  difficult various  the  occurs  watershed  to  most  effects  particular way  the  discussed  watershed  that  the  correct  will  oceans.  therefore,  the  to  of  indicate  geological  rock  done  the  for  This  depends  the  be  of  Methods  analysis  carries  water  can  patterns  chronic proportions.  Levels  solution.  which  that  drainage  chapter.  An  in  is  natural  in  passes  and  problems  concentrations  determination different through  each of  associated  these  a  of  the  waters. number  may  heavy  metals  chemical' form Water  of  favor  of  with  from  a  environments a  different  on  70. chemical from  state  seepage  rivers  and  subjects varying  in  the  water  lakes,  the  in to  metals  the  the  hydroxides,  be  different  threshold  chemical  form  another,  complexes  or  present  in  such  humic  for  as  example)  heavy  metals  organic as  chelation  the  water. acids  matter  soluble  a  salts  The  or  factors  entially  effected  chemical  form  in  by  that  is  in  in  are  the  complexed  forms  are  less  more  than  any one  form, of  of  the  it  forms  in  is  most so.  however,  kind.  the  also  rich  drainage  contain  form.  a given  dissolved  toxic  to  a  in  tend  of  or  to  that a  is  a  matter bog,  fraction contains  simpler  one  form  that  through  as  metal  organic  large  Drainage metals  and  c o n v e r s i o n from  Drainage  insoluble  which  the  matter  of  to  nature  Each  organic  result  ocean,  sulfates  with  contain  lies  chemical  products  a  the  weathering  soluble  for  of  concentration  and  as  streams,  may  significance  chemical  of  carbonates.  levels  expected  as  or  in  conditions  oxygen  present  situation,  they  complexed  would  water  site  physical  Each  and  (as  c o u l d be in  the  silicates,  exhibits  into  runoff  hardness,  may  metals.  saline  from  upon the  metals  to  highly  pH,  Depending  heavy  soil,  carried  salinity.  insoluble  the the  temperature,  water,  various  of little  form,  either  particulates.  these fact  varying  that  heavy  toxic, High so the  aquatic  metal  present.  physical life  depending  Generally  while levels problem  the of is  and is  upon  the  speaking,  insoluble heavy one  differ-  and  metals of  the  are  degree  71. Heavy  Metals  in  the  Seawater in  the  earth's  amounts  but  (ppm)  open  ocean,  tent  than  in  to  have  found metals  There  coastal the  are  a n d many where  the  found at  these  are  all  concentrations  than  chemical  0.001  mg/1  composition  areas  or  average  of  is  fresh  elements  in  large  less  than  (1.0  1.0  ug/1).  The  more  consis-  far  waters,  concentrations  mg/1  Zinc  0.010  mg/1  Iron  0.010  mg/1  Lead  0.0001  mg/1  Cadmium  0.0001  mg/1  Mercury  0.00003  Molybdenum  0.010  Silver  0.0003  Gold  0.000004  be  the  present  0.003  considerable depending  type  and  climate.  particularly  metals.  contain  Copper  areas  of  less  to  Waters  has of  been heavy  1971):  geology  range  in  following  the  areas,  found  coastal  land,  soil  been  Coastal  Some o f  the  either  (Grill,  will  has  crust.  most  mg/1  Ocean and  on the  of  for  concentrations  variation  the A  area,  survey  copper, that  mg/1  of  mg/1.  these water  a n d many  of will  c a n be  mg/1  from  volume  mg/1  the  draining  factors  values  serve  figures  to  expected  found  the  from  related in  illustrate for  in  to  coastal the  heavy  At 8.4-30.2 from  Woods H o l e ,  ug/1  1.0-8.3  water  copper ug/1.  samples  5.7-22.0 ments  made  1.0-5.7  in  ug/1.  the  of  (Chow  the  and  and Thompson, static  a  in  the  summer  2).  regular  It  copper  in  a given  volume  of  runoff  the  rate  clear will The  of  that  weathering the  dilute level  inlets  of  the  large  are  copper  copper  water.  This  and  the  far is  At  Friday  that  is  is  the  Burrard  low  that  it.  in  waters  and  world  it  of  in  the  levels  copper  of  not  in  the  winter  that  it  Pacific  for  of  the  areas,  the  high  concen-  to  reaches  level  ug/1  (Chow  assumes  British  caused by  is  in  a  concentration  one  the  before  0.7-1.9  Harbor  related If  at  Juan  a maximum  different  Inlet)  average  from  the  in  from  Station  San  concentration  experienced  in  the  from  measure-  copper  copper  with  found  copper  Friday of  in  Zoology  in  strongly  considerably  the  at  levels  Japan,  of  the  level  into  similar  (1938)  range  pattern  draining  presumably  resulting  the  seem p r o b a b l e  found  below  to  from  ug/1  reported  Harbor  work  a minimum  area  levels  from  found  Later  2.0-8.0  Bay,  (1939)  samples  found  observed  Meyer  Tokyo  in  runoff  (Howe S o u n d a n d  Georgia  tion  water  In  annual  coastal  from  Sea w h i l e  were  and  would  found  Noddack  showed  (1943)  Bahamas he  indicated  1952).  has  Fig.  and  ug/1  but  tration (see  (1950)  levels  1954)  the  area.  Sweden.  Thompson,  Galtsoff  (1944)  same  4.0  copper  in  Baltic  Noddack  Kristineburg,  Islands  the  by M o r i t a  concentration at  while Buch  from  ug/1  Mass.  is Northwest  an  estuary.  Columbia  Strait  of  coastal  annual river  precipitawater  Zoo  "-r*  \ A  u  e  ~oc~?-  '  Dec-  '  1  F*8.  /95I  F i g u r . 2.  Graph showing t h .  '^V^XT'S^^  1  1  4PR. 195Z  1  J-CW.  wo-.  ^ ^ ^ f ^ X ^ , Thomson, 1954).  • J  74.  entering  these  A  coastal  areas.  considerable  to  determine  the  natural  In  reporting  the  data  follow late  the  and  practice  the  important  remain  Thompson  (1958)  iron  114  of  coastal  of  Chan  1.0-39.0  ug/1  at  The  dissolved  in  giving  for  Indian  coastal  metals. is  while  done  coastal  analyses, values  This  often  the  is  in  order  waters. most  for  the  workers particu-  particularly  a wide  dissolved  Ocean c o a s t a l  reported  (1966) a  by  range  of  concentrations  and  of  Sugawara  in  Texas 200  et  from of  from water.  Bay  for  (1963).  At  found  9.0-156.0  ug/1.  been  Western  reported  Working  from ug/1  from  Ocean.  (1960)  7.1-10.5  a  (1959)  the.Pacific  varied  mean  dissolved iron  Okabe  and  dissolved  ug/1  al  locations. and  Laevestu  for  and Yamamoto  levels  concentrations  estuarine  ug/1  molybdenum have  estuarine  levels  and  ranging  station  waters,  In  Parker  reported  levels  reported  17.8  iron.  Hashitani  coastal  waters,  and  of  dissolved iron  dissolved iron  molybdenum  (1969)  separate  there  Japan,  coastal  Burton  their  particulate  natural  coastal  in  a mean v a l u e  for  in  and  Japanese  iron  Pacific  were  Williams  of  in  ug/1  station  number  of  since  found  iron  concentrations  a  levels  been  stable.  ug/1  30.0  particulate  has  concentrations  Working  values  work  obtained  of  iron  relatively  and  of  d i s s o l v e d heavy  with  particulate  amount  in  found  9.6-12.7 in  North  that ug/1.  samples Atlantic  of  for  coastal while 16.0  waters  British ug/1  reported ug/1  (Black to  waters  levels  were  indicate  Rupert  made  that  quite  of  6.3-14.0 were  the  1952).  Riley  similar  to  those  Reports  of  the  (Young  et  contain Irish  molybdenum  and T a y l o r , from  on Vancouver  the  natural  to The  concentrations  Inlet  before  ug/1  found  dissolved  1966;  molybdenum  of  from  and M i t c h e l l ,  have  found  waters  ments  are  coastal  (Chan and R i l e y ,  (1970) the  contained  from  8.4-10.3 Beak  4.0-11.0  ug/1  These  Utah  mine  levels  of  molybdenum  in  found  in  many  operate  parts  other  12.0-  is  1968).  to  1959)  from  Sea  Island.  began  al,  et  al  in  measureand  Rupert  Inlet  of  the  world.  copper,  iron  much l e s s British a  number  and molybdenum  work  ug/1,  ug/1, ug/1  Heavy  report  at  12.0  at  3.6  seawater  Metals The  in  2.9  ug/1 et  ug/1, near  Fresh  heavy  the  more  metals  difficult in  analysis  of  some o f  in  lead  water  al  (1971)  copper  at  less  3.0  Conway R i v e r  obtain  levels and  estuary  Two for  metals.  8.0  miles  since  waters  dissolved  than  ug/1,  than  areas.  heavy of  20  found  to  coastal  the  taken  other  coastal  concentrations  ug/1,  the  heavy  on them  including  Elderfield  lead in  (1952)  of  are  done  involved  silver  molybdenum at England.  been  elements  and M i t c h e l l 11.0  has  studies of  levels  ug/1  off of  Black  zinc and  Plymouth,  zinc  at  8.8  cadmium at in  at  0.76  Wales.  Water  metal  content  of  fresh  waters  is  far  more  76.  variable This  is  water  than due  that  of  largely  which  is  to  the  pH o f  despite  the  addition  (Arnold  and R o y c e ,  fresh  water,  precipitation in a  limestone region  tend an  to  in  in  will  although  to  produce  condition that  slightly  acidic  is  is  enough t o  permit  organisms.  of  the  water  there  insignificant,  result  of  the  Depending  variations  desert"  in  which mining  in  will  of not  soil  usual, that  to  type, rich  whereas  is  as  actual be  lakes  however,  when  is  p r o d u c e d by  a  some  This  is  areas,  or  variation  streams  variation  compared t o  is  normal  acidity  and  with  content,  non-mineralized  no doubt  life.  water  of  for  acidic  those  metal  development  will  however,  aquatic  such  heavy  on t h e  common  An area  drainage  productivity.  activity.  pH i s  waste  mineralization  toxic  different  often  alkaline  drainage,  drainage  and the  than  species composition of  a  deal  fresh  acidic  geology,  alkaline  It  of  watershed.  the  corresponding  as  drainage.  the  ore-bodies,  of  "biological  the  a great  considerably higher  relatively  in  by  in  seawater.  highly  range  exploitable  community  age  considerable  in  slightly  of  areas,  only  alkalinity  quantities  produce  is  remain  mineralized  low  the  a  to  areas.  capacity  dissolved salts  highly  generally  in  to  watershed  most  potentially  a  coastal  buffering  determined  there  acidic  create  generally  tend  which  the  great  I960),  of  tends  and temperature  undisturbed  Even  the  seawater of  open ocean or  lack  by  largely  produce  enough t o  the  provided  Whereas  in  either  with is  the  a c i d mine  drain-  It chronic  heavy  naturally mineral  in  area,  the  further  slow  that  the  by  is  there  are  extremely  relatively  were  metals  the of  land  process  water  areas.  been  runoff  in  of  in  In  the  runoff  of  weathering to  during  oxidation  for  about  over  most  and t h e r e f o r e  at  In a  levels  metal  from  most  that  water-  can  be  Columbia,  even  mineralization,  province water  of  relatively  British  heavy  much o f  concentrations  at  find  majority  developed  place  communities. areas  The  surfaces.  metals  to  occurring  therein  erosion  taking  heavy  unusual  subjected  have  mineral  is  is  problems  contained  from  fresh  it  exposed to  Columbia have  extensive  high  low  directly  releasing  fresh  pollution  and v e g e t a t i o n  exposure  why  mineralized  heavy  Soils  and  tolerated  the  of  acid  highly  oxidation  rate  though  or  protecting  the  understandable  British  years.  the  sheds  in  surfaces  leaching  10,000  quite  metal  even  glaciation and  is  results  (Peterson  in  et  al,  1970).  Copper concentrations Carson ug/1  (1964)  and  a  Miramichi Island, 6.0  ug/1  generally  below  10.0  report  range River  the  is  of in  copper  (Peterson  Dissolved  an  in  ug/1  copper in  al,  zinc  have  in  fresh  a  dissolved state  water.  been  In  Sprague  concentration  an u n p o l l u t e d  Brunswick.  levels et  ug/1  average  0-8.0 New  present  Buttle  of  section  Lake  and 1.3 of  usually  the  on Vancouver  found  to  range  found  at  levels  from  3.0-  1971).  is  at  below  78.  50.0  ug/1  Sprague ug/1  and  and  levels  in  a  of  fresh Carson  range zinc et  Conway  Wales  of  23.8  states  ug/1 that  about  70.0  terms  fresh than  of  soluble  tors the  both  are  of  are  the  readily  deposits  of  found  contain  southern  645  ug/1  and to  zinc  25.0  at  an  of  in  3.3  Lake  of  the  average  River level  (1963)  both  the  of  ug/1  Livingstone  leach  dissolved  United  States  by  and  study  River  Test  of  13.2  the  and ug/1  The  them.  rivers  drains  is  at  which  therefore of  into  chalk  alkaline,  c a n be  fac-  drain  the  dissolved iron  same v a r i a b i l i t y  a  These  which  however,  and  in  organic  dissolved iron  New F o r e s t of  for  therefore  Beaulieu,  concentrations  1971).  is  in  acidic  a watershed  which  metals  slightly  affinity  of  heavy  common  only  from  the  much more  complexed with a  River  it  of  concentrations  are  and  strong  Hampshire,  The  bogs  have  (Head,  variable  iron  metals  becomes  12.8  occupied.  found  Buttle  tributary  waters  most  also i a s a  The  was  In and  concentration  the  to  English Channel.  heaths  15.0  1971).  fresh  other  required Iron  and  the  al,  containing  well  stations  between  River  concentration  d i s s o l v e d and p a r t i c u l a t e  illustrated  to  average  contain  mean  probably  Minerals  form.  materials  to  all  Miramichi  dissolved zinc. at  et  probable  is  those  conditions  an  the  An undisturbed  found  in  In  ug/1.  water. are  1970).  zinc  Iron in  reported  (Elderfield the  found  1.0-20.0  was  and p a r t i c u l a t e is  of  al,  drainage.  (1963)  are  (Peterson in  water  the  was two  drains acidic, 639  and  expected  for  79. particulate amounts  iron  of  colloidal  humic  acidic  forms  an  to  acids  the to  is  rarely  found  hydroxides,  cases  detectable  were  not  levels  in  low  usually  found  1971).  other  0.05-2.0  has  ug/1  containing  organic  large  complexes  of  in  ug/1  and  the  water  is  of  investigation  to  al,  al,  in  at  from  ug/1  as  Lake  4.5  in  lead  most  ug/1  1971).  present  at  in  0.45  ug/1  (Elderfield  the  Saale  and g o l d in  et  cause  of  is in  al,  ranging River  would  natural  mercury,  only  Cadmium  in not  be  waters.  silver  c o n s i d e r e d anomalous the  lead  Dissolved  concentrations  cadmium,  determine  .  the  well  and  conditions.  Conway  1.0  as  Buttle  1971)  in  metals,  ug/1  generally  silver  s h o u l d be  2.0  reported  at  Both  In  reported  are  samples  concentrations ug/1  et  et  River  1963).  heavy  even  anglesite)  than  natural  general,  1.0  less  metals  under  other  silicates.  Conway w e r e  above  above  d i s s o l v e d form  (Peterson  concentrations  deserve  as  the  been measured  (Livingstone,  are  a  (Elderfield  1.0  section  be  at  that  waters  mineral  and  to  heavy  below  Mercury  expected In  River  concentrations  an u n p o l l u t e d  Europe  found  concentration  The  from  the  in  (the  oxides  were  very  of  iron  Unlike  sulfate  concentrations  average  carry  environments.  insoluble  insoluble  lead  ability  solution.  Lead most  due  or  gold  and  such high  values.  80. Biological and T h e i r  Despite acutely below  toxic  1.0  to  mg/1  as  required  by  function  as  protein,  and  for  one  is  an  has  each  as  an  found  in  activator  the  as  such  sion  of  carbon dioxide  Iron  is  a very It  and has where  a  1959).  lead,  There  mercury,  a minimum  the  heavy  tolerable  metals  part  have  as  a  of  the  in  the  by  well these  level  which  as  well  are  in  the  for  are  constituent  copper  of  silver  the  of  oxygen  role,  (Keilin for  all  in  the  role  (Mahler,  serving  as  an  et  the  conver-  al,  1940).  forms  of  aquatic  (porphyrin-bound system of  respiratory  biological or  found  replaces  catalyzes  cytochrome  80% o f  flavo-  metallo-protein  which acid  biochemical  of  hemocyanins  hemoglobin  no known  cadmium,  important  transport  micronutrient of  an  biochemical  carbonic  constituent  responsible  concentrations  physiological  anhydrase  essential  is  are  and  constituent  to  identified  metals  biochemical  hemocyanins,  a  carbonic  been  it  (Kawai, ing  is  at  heavy  required  important  enzymes  life.  as  integral  and  the  are  activator,  an  Organisms  them  shown t o  hemoglobin  plays  of  Metals  organism.  been  In  of  Heavy  Aquatic  many  many  of  the  organisms  therefore  enzyme  of  enzyme  ug/1),  a particular  molluscs.  Zinc  aquatic  for in  that  essential  for  certain  1956).  fact  most  Copper  iron  the  There  a maximum  Distribution  (1000  same o r g a n i s m s processes.  Requirements  gold.  oysters activity  functions For  iron)  these  involvmetals,  81. therefore, and  that  effects  it  is  their  possible that  complete  on a q u a t i c  Perhaps metals  and  organisms are  far  ious ent  metals  to  are  organism). by  "magnified" level this  of  problem  tration As  at  the  toxicity  extent  metal  the  to  of  selective in  the  given  results  situations magnitude  which  but  it  involved  Black centration  to  may  in  factors  an  biological  and M i t c h e l l (ratio  of  only  a  differ-  than  (which  is  by  often  is the  the  the  to  and o r g a n i s m s . metals this  limited  number  of  actual  "concen-  uptake,  estimate  of  One a p p r o a c h  metals as  the  activity  metal  determination, of  and  var-  involved,  metabolic  of  that  The  temperature  environment.  each others  does p r o v i d e  levels  and t o  organism  rather  involved  describe  heavy  all  concentration  combinations  affect  to  rates  of  its  uptake  for  many v a r i a b l e s  tissues  particular  aquatic  between  surrounding water.  rate  which  factor"  strongly  detrimental  of  and t h e  a  experimental  are  requirement  ability  different  water,  determines  The  the  their  the  the  interact gives  in  in  in  is  there  no  problem  depending on the  in  through  the  lies  metals  present  levels  the  no minimum  have  fundamental  concentrated  extent  determined  most  organisms  concentration  a great  the  the  those  equilibrium  metal  absence would  concentrate  above  is  communities.  aquatic to  there  the  may  method of  order  actual  of  concentration.  (1952) heavy  present metal  data  content  for of  the fresh  conalgae  82  to  heavy  algal are  metal  species  from  much more  than  with  content  the  Fucus  species  and  against  a  the  digitata  to  it  would  be  A.  nodosum.  1,400 of  to  conducted  a  number  heavy  of  oyster,  factors  of  in  the  very  factor  10.0 to  marine  for  lead  Mya  arenaria,  2,000  for  copper,  values  is  only  marine  ranged  ug/1  14,000  animals heavy  in  the  cadmium,  and had  41,000  148,000  or  14  for  iron,  while  the  mussel,  Mytilus  1,150  for  copper,  2,900  for  for  ambient  mg/1  in  the  algae  show t h e et  copper, The  for  iron,  seawater  al  strong(1968) of  a  The  concentration  factors  edulis,  Laminaria  molluscs.  zinc.  3,400  in  zinc,  accumulation  gave  15  accumulated For  Pringle the  of  concentration  400  molluscs  of  14,800  for  the  for  a high  intertidal  estuarine  concentration for  If  metals.  various  to  and  involved  factor  weakly  from  range  metal  algae.  the  ug/1  investigation in  heavy  digitata  low  in  intertidal  show a w i d e  the  Laminaria  are  of  concentration  Crassostrea virginica,  clam,  cadmium,  with The  gradient  was  metals  4,100  number  These  molybdenum  concentrate  226,000 for  a  Ascophylum nodosum.  zinc  iron,  zinc  for  that  laboratory  eastern  for  2  concentrated  Among ability  algae.  concentration  concentration  est  of  concentration  however,  shores.  These  indicate  for  correlated  from  spirilus.  factors  water)  British  strongly  molybdenum ranged for  of  f  6,700  soft  of  800  lead,  and  shelled for  and  s h o w e d 800 2,200  for  cadmium, 1,700  for for  zinc.  83.  Most heavy  metal  levels  of  the  (1970)  bution the  of  the  content  the  etc.)  16  to  species were ent  in their  1.2-40 and  of  class.  Shackleton  in  the  from  metal  dried  seven  content  was f o u n d  mg/kg,  copper  from  (1937)  report They  in  16  to  from  similar  found  sea-  for  from  quite  differrelated showed  500  mg/kg, weight. copper  Marks  which  and c e o l e n -  65-1,  copper  Two  etc.)  molluscs  dried  Cadmium  lead  closely  3.0-150  from  weight.  also  from  analyzed.  in  belong  ranged  mg/kg,  echinoderms  an average  species  involved  dried  levels  ones  metals,  jelly-fish,  91-540 mg/kg  distri-  analyzed.  4.1-30  range  and  the  specimens  species of than  the  concentrations  even though  12  values  and z i n c  mg/kg  of  Riley  (starfish,  and were  the  therefore  the heavy  68-240 mg/kg  of  with  the minor  species  from  contents  and  organisms  (sea-anemones,  metal  of  in their  the  of  dealt  discussed  echinoderms  copper  The a n a l y s i s  molluscs. 50.0  In  content  and z i n c  1.2-73  mg/kg,  about  considerably  mg/kg,  higher  Iron  gastropod  have  Some o f  mg/kg  heavy  significantly  from  (1971)  e v e n when  not  calculated.  s h o w e d s i m i l a r .ranges  taxonomically.  tarates.  al  been  organisms.  coelentarates  analyzed  not  determination  environment  a n d many  iron  1.7-9.4  mg/kg, of  cadmium  the  aquatic  elements  species,  1,800  from  the  vary  taxonomic  urchins,  0.50-6.0  in  marine  species to  ranged  have  major  from  mg/kg  organisms  et  of  same  of aquatic  and Segar  in particular,  the  the  have  iron  to  involving  factors  all  tissues  studies  metals  concentration Segar  of  mg/kg,  lead  from  McCance in  marine  concentration (1938)  reports  .84.  a  range  of  weight,  copper  somewhat  levels higher  in  molluscs  than  the  from  values  9.7-560  reported  mg/kg by  dried  the  other  analysts.  It  c a n be  considerable content. ation  seen  interspecies  There  (Pringle  may et  also  al,  gigas,  zinc  has  copper  from  7.8-37.8  0.1-4.5 ranges C.  mg/kg, of  the  to  specimens  were  of  the  that  metals  be  cadmium  to  from  Mercenaria  much o f the  that  terms of  of  from  from  15.3-91.4  0.2-2.1 mg/kg.  clam,  Mya  the  many  variability  environment  from  is  due  which  wet  weight,  lead  Similarly eastern  these  different  vari-  Crassostrea  mg/kg,  However of  is metal  mg/kg  arenaria,  mercenaria.  significance  heavy  oyster,  86-344  for  there  intraspecies  Pacific  reported  from  the  the  iron  data  deal  range  shelled  collected  in  In  were  the  in  a great  mg/kg,  interpret  above  variation  found  soft  quahaug,  difficult  possible  been  and  the  1968).  concentration  virginica,  northern  from  the  the  is  ranges  areas. to  wide  oyster,  and it  from  as  It  the  is  different  levels  organisms  were  collected.  A content A  slight  often  of  very  aquatic  increase  result  present  useful  in  in  a  aquatic  concentration  application  organisms in  the  is  level  to of  of  data  on the  indicate metals  heavy  in  the  considerable magnification organisms,  factors.  particularly  of  those  heavy metal  metal pollution.  environment the  levels  with  high  will  85.  The  General  Toxicity  the  large  lethal  organisms. workers work  In  have  has  regarding  the  to  increases  in  A  toxic  effect  enzymes. toxicity  to  as  with  they  Organisms  form  silver  of  has a  of  the  of  of  heavy  metals  on  laboratories. reporting  more  aquatic  environment,  of  general  knowledge  Field  specific  communities  been  to  of  most  observations  has  as  communities  metals  may b e  acids  in  the  gathered, nature  organisms  strongly  a wide  to  is et  are  a  (1968)  often  been p o s t u l a t e d  metal  is  related  the  form  in  attributes  the  Copper,  active  to  may  water  affinity  that  organic  so they  systems. strong  of  to  non-living  exposed to  enzyme have  water,  al  related  variety  complexed w i t h  that  groups which  therefore  is  drainage  Pringle  known t o  particular  in  basic principles  material  are  heavy  themselves  d i s c h a r g e s on e n t i r e  poisoning of  sulfhydral It  to  body  as m e t a l s  the  of  controlled  complexes with  humic  concerned  concentrations.  dissolved.  to  a  and t o  tolerance metal  have  research  waste  many  living  are  and  and  of  toxicity  Just  which  achieve  sufficient  heavy  such  complexes  imino  Aquatic  effects  mortalities  and t h e  substances.  mercury  to  studies  restricted  effects  ability  organics  been  fish  The their  to  determine  toxicity  of  sublethal  order  organisms.  however,  number  and  largely of  of  Metals  conducted their  instances  of  Heavy  Considerations  A with  of  the  for  sites  amino,  on  relative  stability  of  86.  its  organic  tive  chelates  toxicities  mercury, at  best  as  it  copper, only  does  organisms  a  to  is  the  take  probably  into  their  affecting  the  ing  transport  of  to  exposed d i r e c t l y  oxygen  are  the  gills  from  the  water.  were the  to  combine w i t h  action  therefore  breath  In  Lloyd  c a u s e d by  the  due  to  loss  either  effects  of  case In of  a  most  (1924),  gaseous  recent  of  the  is  the  study  on w i n t e r  to  higher  exposed uptake  action  The  exchange  types  of  lead  toxic  secretions  necessary  result  copper  the  organic  most  the  studying  however,  breakdown  tissues  a  for  asphyxiation. mucus  In  heavy  inhibit-  different  sensitive  responsible  (1960),  the  have  of  membranes,  and  and  environment.  the  the  preventing  adequately.  physiological  was  death. is  are  cell  membrane  of  tissues.  action  chlorine  concluded that  thought  in  the  Carpenter  fish  exchange. to  which  the  however,  their  combine w i t h of  is  ability  toxic  organisms  fish,  on  eventually  and  in  Aberystwyth,  thereby  to  of  in  least:  This  toxicity,  metals  rela-  to  iron.  differential  potassium,  to  metals  g i l l s ,  toxic  at  the  indicate  from greatest  relative  Different  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  pollution heavy  it.  would  cadmium,  exclude  sodium,  of  tissues  of  permeability  across  forms,  zinc,  ability  substances tissues  order,  account  and  This  common s p e c i f i c mode  thereby the  cobalt,  estimate  detoxify  most  complexes. following  lead,  rough  not  The metals  in  or  of  heavy  metals  produced  and  by  resulting  considers that g i l l for loss  the  epithelium  gaseous of  the  determine  flounders,  ability  the  87.  Pseudopleuronectes are  a number  levels  of  necrosis and g r o s s  effects that  i n the g i l l  the primary  which toxic.  lead,  from  cadmium,  appear  The specific is  far  of  heavy  of  metals  problem  from  test  verify  metals  of  that  will  iron.  from  copper as  postulate  that  also  mercury,  metals  most  conclusion is  silver,  copper,  toxicity  a n d o n enzyme  extracts  hypothesis.  Metals  deals  with  the  toxic  action  species  of  aquatic  to present  a complete  manner.  in  section will  therefore  be r e s t r i c t e d  particularly  sensitive  species  the mining  of  be t h e  this  the  the  on p a r t i c u l a r  present  other  groups  Experimental  organisms  tissue,  involves  the hypothesis  toxic:  liver,  (1957)  sulfhydryl  predicted  that  of  as w e l l  action  there  a n d medium  the  Low l e v e l s  with  this  of  and G r u s h k i n  to  least  High  that  the hemopoetic  sulfides  S p e c i f i c Heavy  this  identification  leads  cobalt,  too voluminous  objective  to  literature  heavy  ions  toxicity  zinc,  of  of  epithelium  Shaw  insoluble  most  partially  Toxicity  metal  of  o n a number to  the g i l l  This  t h e most  The o r d e r  studies  The  of heavy  follows,  action.  structure.  tissue.  reports  metamorphosis  destruction  of  (1969)  mechanism f o r t h e t o x i c  enzymes.  form  fatty  in g i l l  vacuolation  Baker  destructive  produced  changes  important  of  the kidney,  combination  as  sites  copper of  produced  of  americanus,  the greatest industry.  potential  and t o  of  organisms The to  the  the  pollution  88.  A  study conducted  review o f heavy metal  by D u n c a n  toxicities  number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h The  toxic  by  i n g e n e r a l and  are fundamental  a c t i o n o f heavy metals  i n temperature  and  by  calcium carbonate  l o w e r i n g t h e water  itself  t o a d d i t i o n a l metal  toxicity  i s reduced  possibly  due  causes  form.  Both  suspended  toxicity  review a r t i c l e s  (1953), Huet  and D i c k e n s o n  It factor toxic  dissolved forcing  thereby  o f the former  the  exposing  solids  The  water, which  t o be p r e s e n t i n an and  organic material  through the formation of onto p a r t i c u l a t e  ( 1 9 5 0 ) , McKee and W o l f e  surfaces.  (1963),  tend  complexes  h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d by D u o d o r o f f Lloyd  Other and (1965),  (1968).  has  a l r e a d y been mentioned  i n determining the l e v e l i s the c h e m i c a l form  in turn  increases  compared t o f r e s h  of the metal  the a b s o r b t i o n of metals  Katz  as  to the higher a l k a l i n i t y  t o reduce metal  useful  its gills,  by  problem.  (as m e a s u r e d  Low  toxicity  a  aggravating the s i t u a t i o n .  seawater  a greater fraction  insoluble  and  by  over and  t o the  hardness  (CaCC>3) c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) .  t o p a s s more w a t e r  outlines  i s e n h a n c e d by b o t h  oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n c r e a s e metal organism  (1970) p r o v i d e s a g o o d  i s determined  that  at which  i n which  t h e most  a particular  the metal  oxygen c o n t e n t , a c i d i t y  terms  of acute t o x i c i t y  ionic  forms  and  the  This  tempera-  chemical composition.  in particular,  o f the metals which  metal i s  i s present.  by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r ;  ture,  important  In  i t i s the d i s s o l v e d  a r e t h e most t o x i c  due  to  or their  89. a b i l i t y t o form complexes w i t h c e l l membranes and o t h e r c e l l u l a r constituents.  M e t a l s which are a l r e a d y complexed  o r g a n i c matter i n the water,  and those t h a t are p r e s e n t as  i n s o l u b l e s u l f i d e s e t c . , are l e s s t o x i c as they do not form such complexes.  with  readily  T h i s does not mean t h a t these c h e m i c a l  forms do not p r e s e n t a p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t i o n problem,  however.  O r g a n i c a l l y bound metals and metals i n the form o f p a r t i c u l a t e s may  be i n g e s t e d by a q u a t i c organisms  and may  be c o n c e n t r a t e d t o  h i g h l e v e l s i n t h e i r t i s s u e s i n the same manner as d i s s o l v e d metals.  T h i s may  prove t o be as harmful i n the long term t o an  organism or group o f organisms  as d i r e c t p o i s o n i n g .  When  d e a l i n g w i t h an e n t i r e b i o l o g i c a l community o f organisms  as  they o c c u r i n n a t u r e , i t i s o f t e n s u b l e t h a l e f f e c t s caused by slow a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t o x i c m a t e r i a l s which b r i n g about t i o n and d e g r a d a t i o n of l i v i n g  systems.  disrup-  This subject w i l l  d e a l t w i t h more f u l l y i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f e f f l u e n t  be  standards  f o r heavy metal d i s c h a r g e s .  The most common t e c h n i q u e s f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t o x i c l e v e l s o f heavy metals are those which i n v o l v e mortality studies. the  controlled  The o b j e c t i v e o f such s t u d i e s i s u s u a l l y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the LC50 v a l u e which i s d e f i n e d as the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r substance which r e s u l t s i n the death o f 50% o f the t e s t organisms  over a g i v e n time p e r i o d .  The most commonly used time p e r i o d i s 96 hours but s t u d i e s have been conducted u s i n g o t h e r time p e r i o d s r a n g i n g from a few hours  90.  to  several  of  the  this  weeks.  methods  type  posure  of  of  employed  bioassay.  test  toxic  substance  for  50% m o r t a l i t y  the  The  usual  to  the  1970)  procedure range  observation  organisms.  plots  gives  the  a  interpretation  a wide  and t h e  of  a graph which  (1969,  and  organisms  the  from  Sprague  median  The  of  data  involves  of of  complete  review  from  the  ex-  concentrations the  time  L C 5 0 may  survival  required  be  times  of  estimated  against  the  concentrations.  Unfortunately than  it  is  effects  meaningful  such  behaviour requires  as  and  encountered  in  arriving  standards  permit  is  determine be  aquatic  set  in  number  by  is  order In  dividing  that  makes  to  into  and  with  effort  their  It  to  avoid  practice  than  such  the  LC50 v a l u e  the  calculation  by  quite  in  toxic  The  effects  10  actual  undesirable  LC50 v a l u e  often  are  concentration  LC50 v a l u e .  is  effects  difficulty  o b v i o u s l y be  the  to  application  containing  feeding  results  Another  undesirable this  the  a  sublethal  these  applicability  containing the  convenient  growth, of  but  their  would  wastes  more  account  determination  involves  equal  often  organisms.  how much l o w e r  ecosystem.  arbitrarily other  which  take  discharges  of  is  interfere  of  of  metals.  discharge  material  should  communities  as h e a v y the  terms  for  not  The time  LC50 s t u d i e s  toxic to  does would  more in  and  to  that  deal  populations  substances  it  technique  reproduction.  meaningful  at  as  those  a great  much more  this  done or  100  the in  of  problem standard an  somewhat or  simple.  by  some  This  91.  method has l i t t l e  b i o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y and, although  i t can  p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e r e l a t i v e t o x i c i t y o f a number o f substances, determination  i t i s c e r t a i n l y not s u f f i c i e n t  o f b i o l o g i c a l l y meaningful  for the  standards.  Some p r o g r e s s has been made towards t h e improvement o f these b i o a s s a y  techniques.  I n a paper d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t s  o f long-term exposures t o copper on t h e growth, and  reproduction  s u r v i v a l o f brook t r o u t , S a l v e l i n u s f o n t i n a l i s , McKim and  Benoit  (1971)  i n c o r p o r a t e s u b l e t h a l as w e l l as l e t h a l  i n t o t h e i r study. concentration"  effects  They d e f i n e t h e "maximum a c c e p t a b l e  (MATC) as t h e h i g h e s t t o x i c a n t  toxicant  concentration  t h a t has no adverse e f f e c t s on t h e s u r v i v a l , growth and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e t e s t organisms.  T h i s i s determined by  measuring t h e p e r cent s u r v i v a l , growth r a t e , number o f females spawning, t o t a l number o f eggs spawned and mean number o f v i a b l e eggs spawned p e r female.  Through s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses  the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e t o x i c a n t which has no s i g n i f i cant e f f e c t  i s determined and i s used as t h e MATC.  An  " a p p l i c a t i o n f a c t o r " i s then d e r i v e d by d i v i d i n g t h e MATC by t h e 96-hour LC50.  I f i t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e i s a constant  ratio  between t h e MATC and t h e LC50 f o r a l l a q u a t i c organisms, i t i s t h e n p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e maximum a c c e p t a b l e p a r t i c u l a r t o x i c a n t by simply d e t e r m i n i n g  level for a  t h e LC50 f o r another  s p e c i e s and m u l t i p l y i n g i t by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f a c t o r .  92. Most have  on  results  a  single  of  one  chemical  controls, their will the  the  studies  concerned themselves  metal  the  of  test  study  form  and  of  the  to  heavy  with  report  with the  to  the  metals  the  species.  metal,  various  results  is  for  the  of  heavy  acute  It  another  variability  susceptibility be  involving  of  a  difficult  to  compare  various  adequacy  number  single  reasons of  experimental  The of  the  including  s p e c i e s as  toxicants. a  toxicities  effects  different  of  metal  regards  approach  studies  of  here each  of  individually.  Copper  The  literature  comprehensive and  is  toxic  report have  that  been  of  at  insects,  growth with  of  the  found  mg/1  the  0.005 in  that  the 0.027  immobilization  of  is  a  low  as  toxicity  levels.  toxic  to  McKee  ranging  from  many k i n d s  phytoplankton,  and  report  that  simulated  copper  concentration  in  algae,  Nitzschia  copper  rate  of  perhaps  resulted  in  photosynthesis.  mg/1  copper  resulted  the  crustacean,  and W o l f e  of  in  most  (1963)  0.015-3.0 fish,  mg/1  Crustacea,  Nielsen  seawater  resulted  Nielsen  the  pollutant  zooplankton.  Chlorella  palea,  mg/1  is  common i n d u s t r i a l  concentrations  uncellular  diatom,  that  reduction report  (1970)  0.001  metal  relatively  copper  Nielsen only  this  demonstrated  mollusks, and  as  on copper  in  an  increase  reduced  pyrenoidosa.  Working  and A n d e r s e n  (1970)  greater Warnick the  Daphnia  than and  50% Bell  (1969)  complete magna.  The  growth  93.  rate by  of  the  0.050  (1960)  brown  mg/1  found  sufficient  that  the  copper  to  at  copper to  the  Mott  the  hard  (1948)  barnacle, B.  copper  reduce  the  pyrifera,  by  shrimp,  of  for  mg/1  in  with  the  soft  demonstrated  but  concentrations  concentrations reproductive  hour at  above  the above  ability  the  et  mg/1  mg/1  kelp,  (1971)  (1968)  but  for and  report  by worm, of  found  extremely were  mercenaria.  0.320  giant  polycheate  were  arenaria,  were  suppression  al  LC50 v a l u e  (1960)  trout,  less  Pyefinch copper for  1.40  mg/1  in  in  trout,  0.017 (McKim  hard  water. Mount  above  0.018  decreased growth  0.03 2 mg/1  brook  that  promelas,  concentrations  and  found  Salmo g a i r d n e r i i ,  Pimephales  copper  At  of  24  was  minnow,  increased mortality  survival  0.020 Mya  the  North  affected  significant  Mercenaria  at  not  while  Pringle  and Henderson  water  that  a  was  and  mg/1  of  reduced  on  the  so and • the  barnacle,  mg/1.  in  the  clam,  on rainbow  fathead  mg/1  above  balanoides,  0.190  copper  1.00  0.100  and A h s a n u l l a h  salina,  mg/1.  clam,  calculated  at  Brown  suffered  0.050  shelled  Tarzwell LC50  rate  shelled  Balanus  crenatus,  photosynthetic  to  sharply  and G l e n d e n n i n g of  concentrations soft  was  concentrations  50%.  up  digitata  1968),  Artemia  labronica,  levels  Laminaria  (Bryan,  concentrations  growth  toxic  that  brine  Ophryotrocha  that  copper  to  Macrocystis  algae,  mg/1 and  copper  was  salvelinus was  found  Benoit,  to  and found  the was  1971).  0.050  Working (1968) mg/1  resulted  fecundity. to  fontinalis, reduce  96-hour  reduce and  growth  Sprague  at and  (1964)  94. reported  that  copper  levels  in  increased mortality  In  a  later  reported  paper  to  be  of  excess of  juvenile  (Sprague  0.032  in  0.048  Atlantic  and Ramsay,  mg/1  salmon,  1965)  this  resulted Salmo  value  salar.  was  mg/1.  Zinc  As  is  true  toxic  to  fish  and  group  of  organisms.  of  dissolved zinc  be  lethal  mg/1  is  to  zinc  from  0.1-1.0  organisms  the  antagonistic  reduces  the  metal's the  unable  McKee and W o l f e  to  pond s n a i l , of  the  in  heavy  life  mg/1 in  than  action  toxicity.  survive  also  report  are  have  soft  is  it  The for  that  for  been  to  any  is  more  other  that  levels  demonstrated while  lowest eggs  to  up t o  difference  calcium in  the a  zinc  report  This of  at  is  water,  heterostropha dangerous  metals,  (1963)  water.  to  Physa  metal  hard  literature  mg/1.  levels  the  McKee and W o l f e  to  in  of  aquatic  toxic  w h i c h were  the  many  not  reported  trout  other  aquatic  often  attributed which  for  is  hard  lethal  2.0  water  level  and young  of  of  concentration  of  0.01  1.0  is  toxic  mg/1  and t h a t oysters  zinc  abnormally  a n d many  high  other  shellfish.  Working found In  a  to  be  the  that later 0.42  test  the  96-hour  paper mg/1  with  juvenile  Atlantic  LC50  zinc  Sprague and  also  s o l u t i o n had  a  for  in  salmon, soft  and Ramsay  (1965)  found  the  that  synergistic  water  report  presence  effect  Sprague  on the  was this  of  (1964)  0.60  mg/1.  level  copper  in  toxicity  of  zinc.  Bryan  Laminaria zinc  in  digitata  and  North  zinc  (1960)  1.0  a  growth  rate  significantly or  kelp,  is  the  brown  (1969)  1.80  report  mg/1 z i n c is  0.30  that  in  for  mg/1.  the brine  that  50% m o r t a l i t y  of  in  They  13 h o u r s .  shrimp,  Artemia  s u p p r e s s e d by c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  In  mg/1 toxic  their  Glendenning of  a  10.0 mg/1 i n the  kelp  concentration  the  polycheate  also  salina,  of  0.10  and t h a t  photosynthesis report  of  the  a concentration  (1971)  algae  that  Macrocystis pyrifera,  labronica,  of  of  by a c o n c e n t r a t i o n  50% i n a c t i v a t i o n  resulted  worm O p h r y o t r o c h a the  magna  Brown and A h s a n u l l a mg/1 z i n c  growth  and B e l l  determined  in  the  corresponding value  the giant  resulted  fronds. of  f o r Daphnia  of  that  Warnick  nymphs t h e  studies  found  was i n h i b i t e d  seawater.  threshold mayfly  (1968)  zinc  found  that  was  of  1.0  mg/1  higher.  Iron  The thoroughly  toxicity  a s many  of  insoluble  i n waters  into  as s o l u b l e  them  with  by  drainage,  considerable in  water  with  precipitates  waters  toxic  of  normal  it  will  a n d may c a u s e b l o c k i n g  the  the  6.0  precipitate  aquatic  serious of  than  becomes q u i t e  to  investigated  metals.  l o w pH h o w e v e r ,  pH l e v e l s  can cause  heavy  a pH h i g h e r  iron  action  has not been  other  salts  In  mine  iron  the  hydroxides. acid  of  life.  such  It  is  relatively  and i f  introduced  out as  respiratory  insoluble  as those  soluble  and  created  exhibits  Furthermore,  deposition of  irritation  as  iron  on the g i l l s function.  even  hydroxide of  fish  96,  McKee carp  will  that  1.0-2.0  at  not  similar  resulted  and Wolfe  survive  mg/1 r e s u l t  pH v a l u e s .  i n the that  life  50 m g / 1 i r o n  of  a l l  fauna, 0.7  of  the waters  pike,  of  dogfish  in  upper  limit  of these  have  have  5.0  mg/1  also  support  content of  and  and t r o u t  survival  They  that  a content  tench,  5.5  McKee a n d W o l f e  for the  an i r o n  mg/1 i r o n  of  3 hours.  States  a pH b e l o w  0.9  concentration  a d i s s o l v e d form.  m g / 1 a n d 50 p e r c e n t  at  i n the death  i n the United  95 p e r c e n t  that of  the probable in  report  a concentration  An i r o n  death  suggest is  in  (1963)  less  of  of  fish  report  that  good  fish  less  than  than  0.3 m g / 1 .  lead  as low as  Lead  McKee 0.1  mg/1 have  For  Coho  Anderson Daphnia growth at  lead  been  found  salmon the (1948) magna  rate  found  lethal  that  concentrations lead  that to  levels  various  LC50 was f o u n d the toxic  mg/1.  was m e a s u r e d  of  report  48-hour  was 1 . 2 5  concentrations for  and Wolfe  level  A significant  for the brine  above from  5.0  mg/1.  0.1-0.4  of  species  of  to  be 0.34  of  lead  fish. mg/1  lead.  chloride  for  suppression of  shrimp, Jones  Artemia (1938)  mg/1 as t h e  lethal  salina, lists levels  sticklebacks.  Cadmium  Cadmium life  at  very  is  extremely  low l e v e l s .  toxic  to  The t h r e s h o l d  a l l  forms  of  concentration  aquatic of  cadmium  97. chloride water  was  1963). of  for  found  magna  in  0.0026  mg/1,  (McKee  than  G o l d f i s h have  been  killed  chloride  96-hour  was  observed  the  same  LC50 at  of  for a  the  experimental  crab,  mussel,  0.0165  Paguris  Mytilus  in  18  mg/1.  sand  cadmium  common s t a r f i s h ,  blue  Daphnia  less  the  the  to  of  be  cadmium  hermit  immobilization  Crangon  concentration  longicarpus, Asterias  by  the  of  was  25.0  perhaps  the  most  toxic  reports  that  a  reports  reported  0.82  edulis,  concentration  mg/1.  0.3 2 mg/1  forbesi,  Wolfe,  that  septemspinosa  0.32  values  Erie and  a  Elser,(1971)  shrimp,  conditions  hours  Lake  Under for  the  cadmium,  for  mg/1,  and  for  the  mg/1.  Mercury  Mercury metals. of  less  is  Anderson than  (1948)  0.006  mg/1  Malacea  (1966)  gudgeon  and minnows  found  to  mercury five a  be of  days.  lethal  found  0.05 0.02  mg/1.  Working  level  that was  mg/1  of  was  was with  0.008  able  the  Vallin fatal  mg/1  common  concentration  LC50  mg/1,  (1948) to  the  immobilize  96-hour  0.02-0.05  the  to  of  reports  juvenile  stickleback,  Daphnia  for  while  of  heavy mercury  magna.  bitterlings, for that  salmon Jones  carp a in  it  level less  (1939)  was of than  reported  mercury.  Silver  Silver only  trace  is  amounts  similar being  in  toxicity  required  to  to  cadmium  produce  and  harmful  mercury,  effects  to  98.  many  organisms.  Daphnia of  magna was  silver  for  and W o l f e , was  Anderson  0.04  0.0051 mg/1  sticklebacks  1963)  and  of  It toxicity it  levels  of  specific  is  not  that in  the  nitrate. to  the  be  toxic  The  highest  level  lethal  0.003  the  Water  the  Heavy  for  level  mg/1,  level  and Mine  above  (McKee  tolerated  define  that  group  and the  with  would of  has  organisms.  the  The  of  arrive  at  nature  and t h a t  various  lethal  and  approach  taken  objective no  productivity  here will  will be  to  significant in  the  be  be  used only  largely  provide harm  community  of  large  in  in  maximum of  number  standards  be  sublethal  a of  in  The  nature  standards  quite  levels  guidelines.  metal  this  interrelations  biological  heavy  either  as  metal  survival  their  used to  literature  heavy  been done  criteria  the  of  p r e c i s i o n the  guarantee  complexity  Content  Effluent  review  c o n s i d e r a b l e work  metals  Metal  the  in  in  for  from  possible to  involved  reported  the  evident  organism or  requires  result  that  reported  salmon f r y  Drainage  although  heavy  variables  the  silver  is  Standards  Mine  that is  general  for  found  mg/1.  Recommended  area  (1948)  and  that  species diversity  organisms that  is  exposed  will  or to  effluent.  Any through  community  natural  of  organisms  selection to  a  is  specific  the  result  range  of  of  adaptation  environmental  99.  factors. may of  be  For  adapted  metals  sent  maximum axiom  of  of  entirely  that  follows  toxic  of  to  It  that  organisms  is  capable  history.  Even  if  the  community  memory"  providing in  this  discussing  British  it  has  to  withstand  not  quite  done  levels  expresses  There  a  to  danger  harmful  conditions  extremely resulted metals  in  to  in  in  in  runoff  relatively  its  waters.  acclimatization  of  which  present  in  recent  in  The  assumed levels  higher  than  exposed to (say  lower  within  sufficient  the  former  fish  et  al  from  levels (1970)  lakes  of  these  parts  of  the  Columbia.  British  Columbia  forces in  world  The  concentrations  resulted  pre-  the  levels  Selective  may h a v e  the  well:  other  low  to  in  heavy  evolutionary  Peterson  problem  British  are  retain  metals  in  be  times  rapidly.  to  given  recent  increase  Some  tolerating  at  area  tolerate.  cannot  is  comparing  fish  will  its  heavy  area.  accuracy  in  an  this  found  high  it  possibly  too  of  Columbia  metals  been  will  the  is  exposed  it  is  any  concentrations  been  "genetic  with  one  concentrations  possible,  is  has  generations)  not  this  it  of  susceptible  from  in  from  another  community  which  100  is  predict  to  than  from  set  a particular  substance  concentrations  mussels  much more  others.  knowledge,  levels  be  of  different  population  therefore  community  any  a population  another  may  which a  those  an  poisoning than state  that  to  than  communities metal  example,  has of  and  aquatic  heavy  in  100 organisms  tolerant  levels  metals  of  "normal" produce  in  Columbia.  The  assessing system one  for  the  limits  waters.  It  some range to  of  an  in  metals  require,  effect  be  to  in  drains  operation. mining  There  industry  is  would  most  through no d o u b t view  a  use  in  in  the  various  those  a  its  tolerate previous however,  that  not  will  sound the  receiving  the  water  practice, same  concen  waters.  Thi  process  have  taken  in  for  levels  of  metals  disturbed  persons  tol-  possible,  industrial  area  in  will  with  on the  standard  receiving  the  or  that  setting  outside  the  these  variability  effluent in  one  sense.  biologically  ore  such  is  of  values,  community  from  that  levels the  to  the  British  within  practically  present  refining  are  the  that  not  areas,  metal  or  that  discharge  are  most  on heavy  that  The  time  to  in  one  absolute  is in  communities  as  in  is  fishes  therefore,  levels  It  in  we  metals  possible  metal  concentrating water  some  low  concentration  sufficient  meaningful  communities  increase.  tration  no  heavy  these  would  would  of  a  therefore  if  difficulty,  the  therefore, of  in is  another,  experience.  tolerate  problem  biologically  quite  distinguish  effects  be  comparing  of  increase  may  than  major  is  areas  rather  a  relatively  consequently  changes  discharge  erance  these  cent  in  The  to  per  system to  data  and  other  harmful  only  by  the  representing  requirement  as  mining the  unrealistic  101. as  it  they  would take  mean t h e i r  in  for  There for  the  the  enforcement system dards  of is  this  much t o of  entire  they  limits  natural  said,  mining  be  as  provide  clean  as  the  of  heavy  with  weakness  into  that  This  industry  take  a practical  standards  The major  do not  from  industry.  among d i f f e r e n t  levels  problem  be  effluent  requirements.  tolerance the  is  and would  that  must  water  processing.  establishment  throughout  effluent  account  with  c o u l d be m i n i m i z e d  in  by  adopting  equable  uniform  stan-  variability  of  water.  uniform  simplify  a more  communities  metals  are  would  the  standpoint,  organisms  It  is  the  felt  or that  following  approach: Heavy  1.  those  levels  harmful In  2. in  metal  to  that  have  aquatic  to  content  The  receiving  for  any  changes  diversity  that  in  their  3.  the  may  well  below  to  be  the  receiving  any  of  metals  water  increase  should also  population be  levels  in  must  the  tissues.  waters  in  set  demonstrated  this  determine  of  be  life.  organisms  be m o n i t o r e d  must  been  combination with  aquatic  metal  standards  be  numbers  c a u s e d by  the  monitored  and  species  .  effluent  discharge. With  these  levels  of  principles heavy  metals  in  mind  it  s h o u l d be  is  felt  that  established  the as  following  maximum  of of  102.  concentrations British  in  the  of  the  mining  industry  in  Columbia: Copper  0.020  mg/1  Zinc  0.050  mg/1  Iron  0.500  mg/1  Lead  0.005  mg/1  Cadmium  0.005  mg/1  Mercury  less  Silver  0.001  A Review  of  Metals  the in  literature of  little  doubt  continue  heavy  to  and  nection  metals  that grow  They  nature  the  a  effect  water,  few of  that  more  serious  if  present  have  studies  of  a  number  serious  reviewed acid  of  in  of  mine  in are  one  this  in  the on  the  available and  that are  problem  drainage that  Heavy  Canada  practices  comments  mg/1  Canada  publications  a  (1971)  Levels  mining  those  0.0001  mg/1.  Locations  is  make  leave  it  will  continued.  in  con-  situations  illustrate  the  problem:  Without  exception,  effluents  were  involved  worked  Without  the  only  than  on the  problem  their  Ontario.  Various  are  in  Mining  the  Shizake  with  of  with  of  at  there  dealing  levels  Effect  Water  Although  Hawley  effluent  when  evident, sulfide  exception,  the  acid the or  mine  drainage  specific  type  companies  sulfide-associated  ore-bodies  contained  ores.  in  103.  quantities  of  iron  minerological the  milling  were to  such  the  Once  period water the  sulfide our  which  must  be  brought  of  seepage  Elliot  Lake mg/1  and  0.05  was  clear,  article water  district. iron,  mg/1  11.4  comparing  from  the  reported  is  acid  also  control.  an  3.6  mg/1  2.0  of  water  sparkling  in  appearance  found  aquatic  in  the  organisms,  that  mine it  area  and  copper,  sample  values  analysis  abandoned t a i l i n g s  zinc,  that  concern  present  mg/1  to  load  increases.  effective  a pH o f  and  produce  abandoned  had  The  can  to  of  the  in  cumulative.  immediate  also  form  ecology.  water  metal  toxic  an  to  The  cadmium.  colorless  number  of  varying  area,  continue  under  they  rejected  discharged  Ontario  assimilate  a problem  a  stream  increases,  is  sample  those  in  this  were  react  when  and  will  must  operations  after  tailings  Thus,  their  these  and  As the  operations  environment  In  By  properties  exception,  waste.  which,  drainage  decades.  without  sulfides  chemistry  mine  for  as  the  various  sulfides  area,  iron  from  stream  Abandoned  iron  salts  (in  serving  areas  time,  soluble  Acid  acid  the  a tailings  effluents  ...  and,  circuits  that  of  affect  2,200  forms)  tailings  in  sulfide  when  in  the  mg/1  lead  analyzed taken.  effluent  c a n be  a  contained  0.67 was  of  seen  with that  104. it  is  were in  lethal  to  virtually  diluted  by  100  British such  mine  drainage  also  contain  the  as  copper  those in  iron  and  ore  the  from  of  the  Columbia which  1971).  The  significant  the  problem  River been the  in  of  New  Little  South  and  maximum  of  compared  lethal  downstream  at  (1964)  10%  Rupert  in  British  Columbia  report  that  of  0.008  in  from  the  copper  mg/1  were  in  greatly  1972),  sulfide also  (Carr,  contains  dealing  this  the  levels the  river  for  on  Miramichi.  reached  an u n p o l l u t e d exceeded  has  operation  into  of  with  Miramichi  river  mining  copper  a maximum  an  northeastern  Northwest  flows  section  has  1971).  the  a polluted  fish  in  acid  example  (Dournovo,  Inlet  in  for  for  which  iron  mg/1  levels  as  zinc  which  sulfide of  contamination and  mining  mineral  been p u b l i s h e d  copper  it  problem  (Young,  in  if  the  deposit  about  have  The  in  of  region  copper  pollution  extensive  Carson  Working maximum  metal  of  tailings  sulfide  papers  type  sulfides,  the  Tomogonops R i v e r  0.080  to  of  heavy  an  in  iron  prevalent  Valley  deposit  Brunswick.  c a u s e d by  Sprague  The  number  of  even  ore-bodies  contains  copper  amounts  A  15%  life  excavation  iron  Churchill  British  Utah  of  Highland  content  aquatic  resulted  Many  amounts  of  most  the  have  Ontario.  in  forms  The  involves which  large  ore  average the  times.  Columbia  ores  all  a  as  section. 20  miles  mine-site.  in  levels  the of  same  area,  10.0  mg/1  Watson  (1969)  a n d maximum  observed  zinc  levels  of  105. 81.5  mg/1  in  immediately river data  was  the  at  (1970)  pollution  the  pit  below  in  a  drains  found  that  the  copper  the up  and  to  65.5  copper  exposed Utah  the  mg/1  for in  Rupert  to  possible  that  discharge  from  open-pit  the  Inlet  the  zinc.  areas  This  the  and  it  serious  mining  has  been  the  area. was  It  far  mg/1  up t o  the  of  thereafter.  l e a c h i n g p r o b l e m may  was  higher through  copper 0.034  the  and  mg/1  need  from  to  all At  the  discharged  the  the  possibility will  mining It  into  Department  however,  duration  open-  the  s u g g e s t e d by  (now  area,  the  leaching  being  copper  topography  operation.  eliminate  open-pit for  are  of  than  illustrates  Fisheries  will  had  the  interesti  from  contamination  tailings  considerable time a  latter  metal  in  of  The  tailings the  in  effect  Miramichi  12.1  The  a  the  River  Roberts-  draining  up t o  leaching.  for  the  containing  heavy  atmosphere  and  plants.  water of  Some  Besch  determine  the  3.2.  was  this  the  by  of  water  which  mg/1  example,  low  the  that  whereas  the  a  pH o f  vascular  than  that  probably  source.  the  and the-Department  metal  exposed  former  2.0  to  tributary  levels  zinc,  Environment)  heavy  that  draining  and d i s t u r b e d  deep water  the  such  separately  mine,  Company  attempt  water  and up t o  consider  reach  an  S o u t h Tomogonops  The  same a r e a  through  zinc  tailings,  to  the  different  that  Little  mine-site.  in  is  water  in  the  on s t r e a m - s i d e  mine-site  enters  of  times  obtained  Pichette  of  water  found  were  zinc  the  is  develop  of  of  remain  and quite from  this  106.  Besch pollution in  from  complete  distance along  and R o b e r t s - P i c h e t t e the  elimination  below  t h e banks  of  a considerable  11,  1969, which the  river  mine  Sudbury 1.3  at  water  mg/1 copper  studies  of  affected the  least  to  indicate  does  that  present  reported  the  in  has  a  resulted  gravel  reports  levels  beds  that  there  from August of  metal  considerable  barren  (1970)  to high  -(1970)  copper  the  The sample  levels  5  to  and z i n c  Pollution  report  levels  in British that  Control  f o r heavy in  of heavy  of metals  metal  is  data.  waters many  al  livers  of  own  is  does  from  (1970) of  appar-  One s t u d y ,  i n water,  et  to  extremely  This  pollution  Peterson i n the  4.7.  routinely  it  the  concentrations  the  contained  for their  form.  of  in  Columbia  metals,  nature"  levels  literature  Branch  a usable  Columbia.  mine  although  such measurements  "confidential  metal  analyzed  i n the  was d e t e r m i n e d  the data  British  heavy  a n d h a d a pH o f  c o u l d be found  two s i t e s  not  reported  the Copper C l i f f  mg/1 i r o n  the problem  on the  in  for  i n the Miramichi  from  metal It  obtain  due t o  is  references  and that  difficult ently  and 8.4  c o m p a n i e s make  at  Pippy  Ontario.  by m i n i n g .  purposes, monitors  drains  of  the heavy  time.  the heavy  mining  river.  and B u t l e r  that  plants  resulting  fish-kill  that  district  No  of vascular  he a t t r i b u t e d  Browne for  the  that  S o u t h Tomogonops R i v e r  the mine-site  was  in  Little  report  fish  mining have from  a  107.  number o f l a k e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t r e c e i v e d i s c h a r g e s from mining o p e r a t i o n s .  I n B u t t l e Lake on Vancouver  Island,  f i s h l i v e r s were a n a l y z e d i n 1966 p r i o r t o t h e opening o f Western Mines' c o p p e r - l e a d - z i n c mine.  Copper  l e v e l s were r e -  p o r t e d t o average about 3 5.0 mg/kg wet weight and l e a d at about 0.6 mg/kg.  levels  I n 1969, two y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f  mining a c t i v i t y , t h e copper l e v e l s were found t o have r i s e n t o an average o f about 150 mg/kg and l e a d l e v e l s t o about 2.5 mg/kg.  The most dramatic evidence o f heavy metal p o l l u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i s r e p o r t e d by P e t e r s o n e t a l (1970) i n  t h e i r study o f t h e mercury c o n t e n t o f f i s h l i v e r s and muscles i n a number o f B r i t i s h Columbia l a k e s .  I n s i x l a k e s not  a f f e c t e d by e f f l u e n t from a mercury mine t h e mercury content ranged from a low o f 0.01 mg/kg t o a h i g h o f 0.95 mg/kg.  In  P i n c h i Lake i n c e n t r a l .British Columbia, however, which r e c e i v e s t h e e f f l u e n t from t h e Cominco mercury mine, t h e mercury content ranged from 0.10 mg/kg t o 31.0 mg/kg w i t h an average o f about 5.0 mg/kg.  The h i g h l e v e l s o f mercury i n P i n c h i  Lake  would not appear t o be due e n t i r e l y t o n a t u r a l l e a c h i n g o f exposed mercury m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  Some o f t h e o t h e r l a k e s  were i n watersheds t h a t c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t mercury ization.  mineral-  None o f t h e s e showed mercury l e v e l s i n f i s h  t o those found i n P i n c h i  Lake.  sampled  comparable  108.  A  Survey  to  of  Determine in  During field  trip  mines  in  was  mining  were The  sites  bodies,  wherever ranged  from  to  British  visited  Effect  period  in  July  study  and  to  Metal  July  impact  on the  document  slide  Columbia Levels  Bodies  5 to  the  12,  of  1972,  a  certain  quality  of  some  the  visual  effects  photography.  Water  samples  possible,  at  from  small  very  mine  operations,  to  the  large-scale  that  are  of  the  mines  typical  British  on Heavy  Columbia  35mm c o l o r  collected,  Mines  Some A s s o c i a t e d W a t e r  undertaken  water with  Their  the  southern  associated of  Certain  that  the  various abandoned  open-pit have  mine-sites. shaft-  developments  recently  begun  to  operate.  The major was of  the  determination  waters  increases it  could  a n d was study  of  objective of  evidence  effected  by m i n i n g  in  metal  be  heavy  the  of  Utah  the  the  research  copper  the  water  sampling  of  heavy  metal  activity.  levels  concluded that  worthy  of  mine.  were  If  effort  contamination  significant  indicated  problem  program  deserved involved  by  the  survey,  further in  the  study  case  109.  The arriving Utah  at  Inlet,  It financial  metal  on the  into  was  not  frequent  that  sampling  at  to  water its  were  a  at  each m i n e - s i t e  of  the  quantity  in  of  limited  out  each l o c a t i o n  and  of  due  heavy  locations order  metals  to  entering  at  This  time  of  the  of  have  order  required to  account  concentrations  have an  sites  would  metal  and  approaching  chosen i n  obtain  the  discharged.  anything  would  in  of  and b i o l o g y  are  to  useful  impact  wastes  visited.  in  be  possible  sampling program  seasonal fluctuations number  also  quality  carry  for  large  would  the  possible,  resources,  activity  of  which  comprehensive water  mining  survey  a prediction  copper mine  Rupert  a  heavy  to  be  sampled  overall  runoff  water  estimate from  the  area.  The to  a  few  sample the  s a m p l i n g w h i c h was  samples  locations  site  and  its  Samples receiving effluent area.  collected were  on a  undertaken single  chosen after  a  was  visit.  brief  limited The  survey  of  environs.  were  drainage (outfalls  taken  water or  from  streams  directly  tailings  from  ponds)  that  were  either  the  or  the  mill  open-pit  In was  planning  anticipated  obtaining property companies the  them  have  that  to  are  the  from  to  the  gates  Consideration  of  written  means to  of  a  enter  letter  the  environmental  This experience who h a d  of  Inquiry held  were  into  Mr.  14,  Terry  permission received,  for  various  the  company's  the  to  enter  all  reasons  of  the  the  that  of  a n d many entry  of  is  possibility  author of  the  gives  companies be  by  permitted  assessing  to  the  a  letter  the  dated  offices  of  denied  the  company It  previous President,  gather  Control  Mining  operations.  etc.).  to  Pollution  fxorn t h e  their  (against  due  attempting  head  which  interest,  from  the  in  enter  property  to  purpose  B.C.  In  aslced t h e  lease  purpose  it  mining  SPEC F e d e r a t i o n  Discharges 1972.  the  to  The  the  however,  Terry,  at  mines,  operation.  approach i n  use  sutdy.  that  the  operators  given  the  done,  Bill  Waste  on March  1971, for  Mr.  for  of  not  used t h i s  information  was  various  some d i f f i c u l t y  to  which  for  the  a mineral  requesting  impact  was  the  permission  mine-site  be  access  questioned. obtaining  of  at  to  mine  under  control  control  trip  would  nature  operating  right  field  there  permission due  them  the  Branch  Industry  November 29  mining  Eleven  not  subsequently  companies  replies  request  policy,  26,  in  111. was  concluded, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the best approach would be t o  e n t e r the m i n e - s i t e unannounced wherever p o s s i b l e and t o take the  r i s k o f b e i n g asked t o l e a v e , h o p e f u l l y a f t e r  sufficient  i n f o r m a t i o n had been gathered f o r the purpose o f the f i e l d Methodology  and Techniques Employed i n C o l l e c t i n g  trip.  and  A n a l y z i n g Water Samples f o r Heavy M e t a l Content  Water samples  from each of the mines v i s i t e d were  analyzed f o r copper, z i n c , and i r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s u s i n g the V a r i o n T e c h t r o n Model AA-5  atomic a b s o r b t i o n spectrophotometer.  Hollow cathode lamps f o r each metal were o p e r a t e d at the following  wavelengths:  Copper  @  324.75 mu  Zinc  @  213.86 mu  Iron  d>  248.33  mu.  Commercially prepared' s t a n d a r d s o l u t i o n s o f 1000 mg/1  were used  to prepare more d i l u t e standards a g a i n s t which the samples  were  compared.  , The water  samples  were a l s o a n a l y z e d f o r pH w i t h the  use o f an O r i o n I o n a n a l z e r Model 404 s e n s i t i v i t y o f b e t t e r t h a n 0.1 samples  specific  o f a pH u n i t .  were not a n a l y z e d i n the f i e l d  change i n pH  i o n meter w i t h a As the water  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some  (and any of the o t h e r parameters measured)  may  have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t r a n s f e r t o  the l a b o r a t o r y .  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y p o s s i b l e f o r samples  w i t h an a c i d i c pH i n which  112.  additional contained problem  acid in  did  obtained. drainage L.J.  could  the not  For  at  reports  an  approximate  material  in  in  could a  to  measure  the  glass  and  the  and  deionized  metal  was  mine for  at  error  found  range  conductivity  meter.  total  pH  values  tailings A  letter  Control  2.7-3.1  from for  for  mine.  sample  the  the  for  from  this  in  Environmental a  sulfides  that  Kimberly.  Sullivan  of  of  amount  was  measured  using  Conductivity of  dissolved  is  ionic  were  collected  labware  was  for  the  water  before  was  used  were use  for  of  to  the  order  of  this  water  rinsed in  litre  absorbtion  An exception  bottles  1.0  used throughout  or  filtration  in  polyethylene the  metals  was  the  samples.  with  1:1  to  avoid  preparation  analyses  use  of  A l l  nitric  of  that  labware  acid  contamination. all  the  heavy  standards.  water  filter  however,  each  errors.  water  As the  2.7  contamination  collection  Deionized  felt,  with  the  of  samples  in  funnel  oxidation  water.  avoid  result  at  CDM2e  Polyethylene  order  2.9  by  significant  Manager  conductivity  Water bottles.  to  Sullivan  water  Type  is  a pH o f  a pH o f  drainage  Radiometer  the  (1972),  Total a  It  contribute  Nicholson  similar  generated  sample.  example,  water  Cominco,  be  in  soon  samples order  to  as  possible  were  vacuum  remove  the  after  collection  filtered  through  particulates.  (from a  The  0.45  2-6  days)  micron  filtrates  were  113. acidified chloric  to  acid  dissolution an  aliquot  total  a  pH o f  and of  of  stock  the  metals  in  each  sample  was  metal  1:1  in  the  solution  order  sample.  taken  one  three  the  samples  to  For  give  being  being  there  was  obtained values  a  time,  and  and  10.0 were  zinc  to  of  hydro-  ensure  Before  the  complete  acidification  analyzed  the  mg/1  iron.  and the  for  the  pH  and  standard  using  different  standards  separately one  that  solution  the  measured  no m a t e r i a l through  presented  first  procedure,  metal  being  and  this for that  other  water  difference variation  of  used  1,  each  second the known  might  (less  It  that  standard  standards  2 and of  for  3)  the  of  metal were  all  the  any particular  found  that  the  values  in  composition.  were  obtained  containing  The by  only  method  for  the  analysis  of  water  samples  the  the  measured.  The  the  two  standards  was  or  were  each  on the  5%)  two  Some o f  determine  have  to  analyzed  every  amounts  would  concentrations  using  These were  for  sample.  in  mg/1  standards  procedure metals  the  metal  the the  1000  (Stations  containing  This  in  for  from  solutions.  Beach  analysis  determination  calibration  Britannia  first  the  samples were  at  the  for  prepared  and  checking  with  measured.  interference metal  copper,  analyses  prepared  metals  at  twice  analyses.  mixed  of  collected  analyzed  1.0  spectrophotometer  metal  sample  of  concentrations  solutions  calibrate  were  water  a  conductivity.  heavy  for  2 with  deionized  Standards of  about  was  114. arrived  at  after  publications (1967), Marvin  a  by A l l e n  Christian et  al  Ramakrishna  literature (1961),  (1970),  Munro  brief  sample  will  results be  for  of  of  Water  most The  Copper Mine,  the  of  ore  is  the  mine  a  great  50  per  main  water be  Brooks  included  et  and M a r t i n  and Goodman  Sample  al (1971),  (1970),  and  Analyses  metal,  and  pH a n d  for  an  conductivity  each mine  following  explanation  of  the  pumped  with  source  that  copper deal  seeps out  to  metal  zinc  sulfide  sulfide.  and has  been  in  present  has  a  network  many  extending  of  heavy  through the  them metal rock  surface.  fissures  is in  of  one the  almost  shafts far is  into  drainage  the  also  shaft  3,200  tons  been  sea-level. the  drainage  shafts  water  the  continuously  has  from  of  province.  a  of  below  detail  which  is  capacity  pollution  The  and  material  production  it  greatest  Anaconda  An elaborate of  the  pollution  iron  At  in  from Vancouver  heavy and  studied  of  years. day.  of  Beach  was  accessible  rich  operation  over ore  Nix  heavy  Britannia  examples  a  constructed The  most  serious  contains  for  (1968),  that  locations.  is  mining  subject  Marion  separately  The Anaconda mine it  (1970),  (1968),  the  presented  description  Anaconda  as  the  (1967) .  The  a  of  Anonymous  and Feldman  Results  analyses  review  is  and  must  discharged  115.  F i g u r e 3» O u t l i n e map o f the B r i t a n n i a Beach r e g i o n i n Howa S o u n d s h o e i n g the water sampling s t a t i o n s i n B r i t a n n i a Creek a n d a l o n g t h e shore o f Hov/e Sound•  116.  i n t o B r i t a n n i a Creek i n at l e a s t two l o c a t i o n s and i s c a r r i e d by t h e c r e e k i n t o Howe Sound where i t i s d i s p e r s e d by c u r r e n t s i n a predominantly northward d i r e c t i o n along the e a s t e r n of the sound.  shores  Water samples were c o l l e c t e d on J a n u a r y 7 , 1 9 7 2  a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n B r i t a n n i a Creek and a l o n g t h e o f Howe Sound (see F i g . 3 ) .  shore  The r e s u l t s o f t h e sample a n a l y s e s  are contained i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e .  Conductivity values  are  g i v e n i n m i l l i m h o s and m e t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n m g / 1 . Station  pH  Cond.  Cu  Zn  Fe  0.50  3.0  11.0  1  5.0  0.028  2  3.8  3.0  22.0  72.0  250  3  4.0  1.90  12.0  36.0  120  4  4.3  0.90  5.0  13.0  45  5  6.4  18.0  1.10  6.0  2.0  6  7.7  25.0  0.08  0.08  0.05  7  7.9  27.5  0.05  0.06  0.05  8  6.6  28.0  0.25  0.70  0.10  9  6.6  28.0  0.10  0.15  0.05  10  7.4  28.0  0.10  0.15  0.05  11  7.5  29.0  0.02  0.03  0.05  12  8.0  29.0  0.01  0.03  0.05  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c o p p e r , z i n c and i r o n found i n t h e w a t e r f l o w i n g from t h e Anaconda mine l e a v e no doubt t h a t has p r o d u c e d a s e r i o u s a c i d mine d r a i n a g e p r o b l e m .  it  The sample  117.  taken  at  Station  concentration tion  in  2  of  (of  both  Canada t h a t  effluent  is  also 4.0  about  below  the  effluent  above  it,  due  has  in  to  would is  also  side of  be  the  mouth  creek  zone w i t h  the  algae  that  Giant  Mascot  a  considerable  operation  with  are  the  water.  of  a c i d mine  to  iron  of  up  a  thin  from  one h a l f  of  in  in  in  a  creek  distance  in  such  that  it.  Only  of  Howe  Sound  mile  on  either  to  the  the  mouth  intertidal  unicellular  the  the  in  intertidal  green zone.  Hope  mine  capacity  which  filled the  life  The  microorganisms  Adjacent  film  high  is of  concentrator  and  to  loca-  results  are  surviving  resistant  Creek.  survive  Mascot  d i s p o s a l area  water  for  and  ocean water  no o b s e r v a b l e  to  tailings  drainage  The  3.8  upstream)  of  highly  Britannia  from  a valley  capable  and o t h e r  tailings  across  discharge points  forms  a mill  for  higher  literature.  (and  Ltd.,  The G i a n t  the  a  other  discharge  was  Mines  in  any  conditions  of  able  reported  at  The  exception  was  than  has  Creek.  this  there  copper  itself)  Britannia  seriously polluted  of  the  been  acidic,  other  in  and  water  a pH o f  bacteria  found  effluent  with  no m a c r o s c o p i c l i f e specialized  zinc  very  pH o f  the  in  a  nickel  1,500  are  is  a  tons  pumped v i a typical  behind with  tailings  drainage  with  a  precipitation  from  the  and  area  distinct water.  per  copper day.  The  a pipeline  tailings the  producing  dam  waste.  showed t h e  to built  The  visible  symptoms  reddish discoloration About  the  one m i n u t e  due  after  118.  stopping  at  approached was  by  written  drink that  any  is  the  the  employee  the  is  tailings  of  the  hard-hat)  water  who w a s  draining  knowledge  at  a  so as  local to  be  stations  tailings  disposal  area.  of  the  tailings Samples  of  the  as  drainage  tailings  area were  they  dam.  unfit  that  third  a n d was  apparently  collected  on J u l y  at  It  Mascot  in  the  1972 a n d  the  of  out  water by  vicinity the  pond.  seeping of  The at  above  the  the  mine.  the following  pH  Cond.  Cu  Zn  Fe  1  7.3  0.64  0.90  0.01  0.01  2  7.3  0.92  0.60  0.01  0.01  3  7.7  0.049  0.05  0.01  0.01  The siderable  analyses  effect  area  as  the  drainage  is  more  the only  the  obtained•  Station  the  not  apparent  that  s a m p l e was  was  we  human c o n s u m p t i o n .  tailings  was  is  least,  selected  unaffected  5,  (Giant  area.  for  the  was  concerned that  first  entered  The  the  were  author  company  level,  The  water  the  most  from  sampling  themselves  dam,  mining  Three  s e c o n d was  were  an  contaminated  tailings  base  base of  on h i s  of  there  water  of  the  tailings slightly  indicate  on the  that  the  level  of  copper  concentration  of  this  than  area.  10  The  increased  times  greater  acidity from  7.7  of  the  above  tailings in  water  have  in  the  than  in  the  the  con-  draining  metal  tailings  a  from  tailings water  above  drainage  tailings  to  7.3  is below  119.  it.  This  may  be  operating  and  the  masked by  alkaline  levels  copper  of  beginning and a  Highland  site  the  of  most  Ltd.,  a mill  projected  planned. over  contains which than  extensive  large  capacity  the 0.45%  present  of  Copper an  the  concentrator water metal  of  mine  tailings  thoroughly  area  with  tons.  interior open-pit  a  of  is  is  being  effluent.  indicate  order  The  the  pollution in  s t i l l  problem  to  contamination  obtain  and  and  was  approximately contains to  make  methods.  16  The  is  the  Copper  Corporation  tons of  day,  and  Lornex  38,000  tons  per  day,  per  Valley  day,  reserves by  that  by  implications  Copper,  now  copper  employee  being ore  of  of Valley  40  within  miles content  (greater  exploitable of  such  a  are  with  Highland  copper  commercially  is  of  an  the  miles  British  per  mine,  sufficient it  province,  Bethlehem  stated  1972)  and  in  tons has  the  Ashcroft  mining  a third  mines It  of  15,000  40,000  between  copper  capacity  (Dournovo,  copper)  mining  of  these  geology  midway  operations,  capacity  billion  Bethlehem  the  heavy  extent  Valley,  production,  Each  one  the  that  methods.  Corporation, in  the  of  drainage  more  southwestern  Two  presently  the  serious  of  Highland  the  with  in  in  fact  Valley  Columbia.  a  found  the  acidity  investigated  The in  to  substances  treatment  Merritt  part  inherent  understanding  possible  Mining  in  a possibly  s h o u l d be  clear  The  of  due  by  large  area  120..  being of  surface  the  land  future  that  for  thousands  any  of  holes  difficult  already  it  is  other  acres  left  are  has  conditions,  useless  dous  mined  from  that  purpose.  the  predict,  been mined  likely  s c a r r e d by  to  is  it  clearing  open-pit  any  will  Gigantic  but  if  the  indication  b e made  piles  of  of  virtually  waste  rock,  and  tremen-  operations,  operations  state  dominate  the  landscape.  It area.  At  due t o  a  guarded union an  the  difficult  time  strike. by  both  members  the  union  were  pond  results 1972, w e r e  visit  willing  study,  as  the  to  this  the  this  water  was  below  the  analysis  of  mine-site  entry the  sample  for  0.12  0.03  contained  expected  mill  It  in  pH v a l u e flotation  was  manage-  from  the  July  follows:  0.020  the  the  of  on  8.7  in  purpose  collected  1  alkaline  the  the  sample,  this  Zn  The  Although  point.  Cu  be  heavily  discharge  Cond.  would  down  effluent  pH  sample  was  obtained  Station  The  this  shut  case with was  from  was  personnel.  not  the  samples  Lornex mine  permit  One w a t e r  immediately  for  obtain  and management  representatives.  tailings The  of  to  Because of  environmental  ment  6,  was  not  a  copper  water is  concentration  draining  from  p o s s i b l y due  circuit  and  possible to  far  0.01  above  that  an u n d i s t u r b e d  to  the  thereby  obtain  Fe  addition  into  any  the  water  which  area.  of  lime  tailings.  samples  at  the a  Bethlehem  road  that  employee.  and one  is  controlled  Upon r e q u e s t  mine-site included  Copper mine.  under a  the at  one  example  of  a  on  reclamation  the  a  of  only gate  author of  the  areas  was  refused  any  the  other  permission to  The  reclamation  area  impressive  and  amounted  about  on  a  levelled  overburden  information  as  vegetation,  even  land  to  reclamation  the  amount  though for  least  acid  mine  fall  of  heavy is  the  area  of  agriculture  usefulness and  was  was  were  acre  not  the  tour building  the  said not  of  to  mixed  required was  or be  very  possible to  tour  the  pond area  s e e n was  fertilizer for  the  and upon r e q u e s t  that  by  being  of  tailings  one-half  guide  is  the  develop  problem.  of  the  of  mill  was  Highland Valley  which w i l l  possibility its  in  The most  that  It  of  that  is  company  The  the  No p h o t o g r a p h s  see  a  a tour  open-pits,  however,  mine  grasses obtain  for the  this head  of  company.  the  areas  drainage  metals.  the  tion  likely  the  the  Fortunately the  dump.  the  manned by  offered  experiments  underway.  to  was  is  experiment  permitted,  reclamation  that  three  reclamation  were  approach to  company p e r s o n n e l .  overburden material.  author of  by  guidance  look  attempted  The  province This  is  due  to  minimize  the  problem  serious  massive for  recreation.  to  probably  problem  land  other  in  the  the  disturbance  purposes such  a  very of  one  serious low  rain-  leaching  Highland and t h e as  of  of  Valley destruc-  forestry,  122.  Brenda Mines  Ltd.,  Peachland  B r e n d a M i n e s i s a c o p p e r and a mill  c a p a c i t y of  obtain  samples o f t h e  a number o f the  river  that  great  The  to the  water  deal of  objectionable river for  was  the  i n the  i t was  entry t o the  pond  river  was  odour.  The  vegetation along  i t emitted  dead o r a p p a r e n t l y tailings  water  Station  pH  Cond.  1  9.1  2  6.7  seeing  from  a strong  the  The  dump  and  of  the  ( S t a t i o n 2),  the f o l l o w i n g  results  2.80  0.01  0.18  0.14  0.24  0.01  1.40  of a p o t e n t i a l l y  result  high  possibly  to chemical  The added  low  o f c o p p e r and  s e r i o u s heavy  alkaline  i n very  interesting.  levels  pH  metal  of the  of the  i n the m i l l i n g  iron  metal  tailings,  concentrations,  alkalinity  the  analysis  1.45  high  a  and  banks o f  dying.  that  with  Fe  The  the  were  Zn  particularly due  Upon  ignore  Cu  showed a b n o r m a l l y  would n o r m a l l y  to  slurry  ( S t a t i o n 1)  1972, p r o d u c e d  on  p o l l u t i o n problem.  area.  a t h i c k grey  surface;  indicative  necessary  with  to  i t became u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  the  J u l y 7,  In order  f o r about a m i l e  water from a nearby waste r o c k  Both samples  day.  foam on  a sample o f t h e  are  water  per  w i s h t o h a v e a n y o n e s e e what t h e y  collected  and  of ore  tailings  tailings  a l l either  drainage  forbid  carries  company w o u l d n o t  doing.  tailings  signs that  concentrator the  24,000 t o n s  molybdenum o p e r a t i o n  is  tailings  process.  that  is  123. Cominco L t d .  (Sullivan),  The and  iron  per  day.  Kimberly  S u l l i v a n mine a t K i m b e r l y  operation with a m i l l  capacity  undoubtedly  area  t h e most  British  Columbia.  tration  of i r o n  drainage  i s t h e most serious  largely  Most  following  disposal  symptoms o f an a c i d  results  concen-  receiving  i n them and  absent  d r a i n a g e were c o l l e c t e d  the base of the main t a i l i n g s  showed t y p i c a l  by t h e h i g h  life  is  mine d r a i n a g e i n  of the creeks  v e g e t a t i o n a l o n g t h e i r .banks i s e i t h e r  at  ore  mine a t P r i n c e t o n  example o f a c i d  f r o m t h e a r e a h a v e no v i s i b l e  samples o f a c i d  of  zinc,  e x t e n s i v e i n t h e p r o v i n c e and  T h i s i s caused  i n the ore.  lead,  o f 11,000 t o n s  Next t o t h o s e a t Copper M o u n t a i n  the t a i l i n g s  Two  is a silver,  or very  on  July  area.  the  unhealthy.  10,  Both  1972  locations  drainage s i t u a t i o n .  were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s e s o f  The  the  samples: pH  Sample  Cond.  Cu  Zn  Fe  Cd  1  2.7  5.50  0.42  18.0  1350  0.27  2  2.7  5.30  0.54  17.0  1400  0.02  These water  s a m p l e s h a v e t h e l o w e s t pH  trip.  zinc  Both  indicate  iron  a very serious  which i s not is  and  acid  were a l s o d e t e r m i n e d  levels  found  on t h e  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are at l e v e l s drainage problem  among t h e m e t a l s  f a r above l e t h a l  o f any  even  that copper,  mined a t t h e S u l l i v a n o p e r a t i o n ,  for fish.  f o r these  and  field  Cadmium c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  s a m p l e s as  i t had  been  suggested  124.  (in  the  Waste be  SPEC  brief  Discharges  present  in  it  was  natural  waters than  in  were  no m i n i n g  the  Mining  Sullivan at  a  cadmium  is  rarely  mg/1  in as  it  and  resulted  serious  result  there  have  are  and  at  afflicted  therefore  than  is  concentrated  an  acid  been  over  (known  present  with  the  in at  disease.  immediate  concern,  operation  s h o u l d be  thoroughly  the  Abandoned  extent  Mine  A mining miles  of  at  large  operation south  of  cadmium  Moyie  pile that  was  Cranbrook.  of  mg/1.  In  concentrations 300  higher  very  times if  there  life  dangerforms,  efficiently  the  as  by  Kamioka Mine  situation  that  has As  hundred  deaths  attributed  the  two  Itai-Itai  hundred would  therefore,  and  investigated  in  be  a to  Ouch-Ouch  eighty  seem t o  and t h e  or  most in  River.  as  may  the  Jintsu  It  a  "people problem  Cominco order  to  deter-  pollution.  on Moyie  of  0.27  into  metal  the  Japan least  one  expected  to  drainage  one  of  this  a particularly  that  of  In  at  be  toxic  reports  that  nearly  Cadmium i s  demanding  mine  would  extremely  Branch Inquiry  water.  present  cadmium p o l l u t i o n  cadmium p o i s o n i n g disease)  is  (1972) in  Industry)  concentration  area.  is  Shimizu  caused  and  water  the  Control  drainage  present  humans,  organisms. Japan has  from  drainage  pollutant  including  Pollution  0.001  high  ous  the  the  the  samples  higher  to  waste on the  Lake  rock  has  shore  A small  of  volume  been  left  Moyie of  by  Lake  drainage  a  small  about water  15 was  running and  it  from had  possible  the  the  to  base  determine  sample  analysis  the  metals  mined.  10,  1972  it A  and  it  6.5  0.47  The  zinc  than  water  was  of  that  copper  which  in  and  the  heavy  metal  load  how  small  Midway  living  avoid  Mine,  volume flowing  following  to the  a  acidic as  appear  from  zinc  was  among  collected  on  results:  and  a high  many  contained  iron  water  probably  was  also  aquatic  the  mined  able  to  combination  of  many  of  such  when  viewed  is  small  it  very  higher  organisms. appeared  assimilate the  and  far  area  to  problem  a  concentration.  effects  creation  but  17.5  runoff  serious  ore  10.0  "The  it,  not  0.11  drainage  is  was  Fe  in  Midway is  water  from  lake  was  It  Zn  well  the  sample  lake,  Cu  serious  may  which  of  the  that  the  the  community such  would  conditions,  no  of  discharges  obviously matter  alone.  Aldridge  The Aldridge  water  into  original  seem l i k e l y  without  lead  they  as  the  from  small  to  of  of  quite  be w i s e  nature  by  volume  can  drainage.  tolerated  the  however,  mine  c a n be  Fortunately  organisms  acid  slightly  concentration  level  of  yielded  1  high  directly  single  Cond.  of  pile  would  pH  sample  rock  the  Station  The  the  appearance  the  July  of  the  Mine  about  with  35  miles  typical  shaft  a  south  acid  entrance  abandoned of  Cranbrook.  drainage  and  into  shaft  a  mine A  near  small  characteristics  was  nearby  A  stream.  126. sample  of  in  following  the  this  water  was  pH  Cond.  1  4.7  0.56  of  pH o f  the  a heavy  above  sample  metal  levels  to  is  Cu  Zn 1.20  quite  pollution be  and  the  erable  low  heavy  metal  is  that the  generate and  the  basis  under  case,  in  metal  natural drainage that and  problem  similar  resources, among  resulted  is  in  control likely the  is  water  that  were these  but  which, in  there  at  Buttle  are  Wesfrob  Mines  at  Tasu  Granduc  Mines  Ltd.  at  in  Lake the  If  will  continue  pollution  showed  a to  consid-  effectively.  copper  a  is  turn  be  On  mine  control  was increase  expected  number  of  under  acid  in  program.  Island  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Stewart  Ltd.  at  Babine  Mines  Ltd.  at  Merritt  Lake  mine  other  limitations  on Vancouver  to  this  some  serious  sampling  Copper  far  visited  which  improved.  that  the  are  in  of  would  due  zinc  are:  Mines  Craiqmont  that  There  included  is Utah  indicated  Western  Granisle  new m i n e s  collected  those  developed.  not  working  the  beginning  mines  Columbia,  process of  of  that  administration  samples  over  study  not  and  number  British  the  conditions.  analyzed  a n d many  had  natural  and  case h i s t o r y  conditions,  iron  collected  unless  the  Both  small  decision-making  A l l  indicated  the  concentrations  deserve  Notable  it  detailed  undertaken.  and  Fe  from  pollution  conflicts  the  1972  28.0  Conclusion  pollution  overall  10,  and  apparent  samples  and  problem.  expected  few  suggests this  is  July  0.04  Discussion It  on  data:  Station  The  collected  Is.  mines time  127. Texada  Mines  Churchill  Copper  Similkameen All  of  these  analyses  butors  to  the  arrive  at  copper  mine  from  the  from  heavy  major  on Texada Corp.  Mining  operations,  sample  A  Ltd.  metal  p r e c i s i o n what  particular  certainty, produce the  operation.  however,  serious  mine-site  rainfall  considerable  produce  acid  metal  inches  iron  It  but  Utah  sulfide  mine  as  has  drainage  of  all  of  of  has  the  the  the  It  in  and  requirements the  is to  will  be  at  a  potential draining  region  ore-body  copper  with  Utah  considerable  water  operating  to  draining  Inlet.  conditions  operation  as  the  each m i n e - s i t e ,  and the  condition  p r o g r a m was  concluded with  is  well  the  Rupert  future  pollution  annually)  therefore  of  to from high  contains  molybdenum necessary  resulting  to  heavy  pollution.  Whether tion  The  waters features  the  contri-  water  the  water  problem.  metals  c a n be  metal  itself.  sulfides. an  that  heavy  (80-100  It  potential  in  the  any  the  of  and  state  are  of  impact  heavy  unique  results  possible  of  to  the  sampling  levels in  River  water  the  due  a  the  Racing  Princeton.  visited,  of  difficult, with  from  of  the  at  pollution  some p r e d i c t i o n  mine-site  Corp.  mines  objective  on the  on the  judging  the  Island  of if  example  the the to  marine  this  heavy  ecology  of  metal  Rupert  Anaconda Copper Mine use  in  load- w i l l  at  comparison with  Inlet  is  Britannia Utah,  there  result less  in  predictable,  Beach i s is  a  degrada-  a  good  valid  128. possibility acid  that  i n time  (perhaps as l o n g  a s 20-30 y e a r s ) t h e  d r a i n a g e o r i g i n a t i n g from t h e open-pit  r o c k dumps w i l l biological  cause a s e r i o u s  area  loss of species  p r o d u c t i v i t y at l e a s t along  and t h e waste d i v e r s i t y and  the shoreline  adjacent  t o t h e mine.  A  Brief Discussion ^Prevention  A great  deal  o f Techniques  o f A c i d Mine -Drainage  of research  has been undertaken,  ularly  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n brought  mining  i n the Appalachians,  the  Much o f t h i s  towards t h e r e v e g e t a t i o n the  excavation  that  present that  on n u t r i t i o n a l l y  waste m a t e r i a l . and a v e r y  This  sterile  usually  after  planting  cover o f vegetation. etation will  It i s felt  Also,  be s u c c e s s f u l  i n order there  after that the  i t i s usually  assumed  i s one o f e s t a b l i s h i n g and o f t e n h i g h l y large  s p e c i a l i z e d mixture of plant  the i n i t i a l  behind  c o n t i n u e t o be e m p l o y e d  requires  a p p l i c a t i o n s must be made f r e q u e n t l y  distur-  has been d i r e c t e d  o f t h e waste rock l e f t  t h e problem o f reclamation  vegetation  izer  research  mining techniques w i l l  a solution to  c a u s e d by l a n d  approach i s that  partic-  about by c o a l  to find  o f o r e has been completed.  main weakness w i t h t h i s  and  i n an e f f o r t  problem o f a c i d drainage c o n d i t i o n s  b a n c e due t o m i n i n g .  f o r the  toxic  amounts o f f e r t i l species.  and p o s s i b l y  Fertilizer  f o r many  years  t o m a i n t a i n a permanent  i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  i n preventing  the formation  revegof acid  129.  mine  drainage  through a  the  surface  largely  tailings,  layer  an  the  In reclamation  be the of  entire carried  and  mining out  would  all  to  to  now e n c o u n t e r e d  and  former  which  is  are  not  meet  the  the  It  to  the  in  affected  by  therefore of  and u s e f u l n e s s .  of  mine  necessary  that  development,  is  felt  the of  would  that  if  development  and t h a t  programs  acid the  be  drainage  difficulties largely  overcome: 1.  A detailed  overburden disturbed  profile by  undertaken  the  prior  disturbance. the  relative  materials order  2.  to  the  the  the  entire  operation  to  onset  the would  fertility must  extract  all  of  of  mining  This  that  During  opment  investigation  be  the  land  fertile  or  soil  area  and  to  be  should  be  of  any major  land  provide  knowledge  of  toxicity  removed  of  from  the  the  various  site  in  ore.  clearing soil  phase  s h o u l d be  of  seep  of  problem  eliminated  to  requirement  is  outset  adhered  revegetation  able  program  it  conditions.  operations,  not  productivity  prevention  were  s t i l l  approach is  successful  from  certain  completely in  a  drainage  water  This  does  achieve  mining  of  cover.  its  guidelines  but  bulk  operation,  under  surface be  one  acid  Drainage  the  plant  land  order  following all  of  aesthetic  reclaiming  the  conditions.  the  placed  develin  such  a  way  that  mining  it  c a n be  operation.  achieve  would  involve  sides  of  at  the  izing  it  by  means  A survey the  of  mining  the  the  end  best  placing  of  the  method  the  operation  seeding to  to  water  drainage  determine  disturbed. drainage such  to  soil  and  in  stabil-  provide  the  operation the  ings  area  water  pit  As  of  mining  minimize  a  cover  this  in  a way  area,  the  the  does  leave  far  mine-site  such  as and  with  the  from  through  the  is  the  the  a  operation.  of  all  in  ground-  being  out  in  individual  the  displanning  drainage and the  t a i l -  common p o i n t .  disturbed  area  Any  could  difficulty.  water  tailings  mill  and  involve  dumps,  out  these  from  that  at  on  number  would  l i t t l e  possible all  recycled  in  site  carried  carried  away  waste  affected  watershed  be  the  Ideally  treated  mine  should then  be  surface  effects  leaves  that be  natural the  to  area.  to  s h o u l d be  discharges running  from  then  as  the  area  in  patterns  drainage  entire  patterns  The  a way  turbed  the  operation  order  4.  of  the  at  vegetation.  3. by  Possibly  this  piles  of  recovered  draining  pond s h o u l d  circuit This  from  during  would  the  serve  the  be time to  131.  minimize area if  heavy  of  volume  and would  the  5.  the  reduce  contained  sulfide  any  the  disturbed  treatment  excessive  s h o u l d be  tailings,  cause  of  could  then  thus  a c i d mine either  levels  or  trolled  conditions  c o u l d be  No u n d e r w a t e r  lakes  or of  waste  inlets, sight  -  eliminating  costs of  does  disposal,  disposed of than  the  disposal  of  to  develop is  correct  hand,  leaves  where  polluted  iron  refining under  drainage  to  more  tailings,  a  a  con-  whether This  serious  result  of  in  nothing  water  an  in  is  an  the  pollution  underwater  Land d i s p o s a l ,  tailings  sulfide  approach to  virtually  it.  the  If a  rest  principal  permitted.  mind"  as  the  tailings.  of  s h o u l d be out  there  for  from  a  The  shipped  disposal problem.  problem  separated  drainage. be  smelter  done  leaving  metals.  the  "out  water  greatly  drainage  Iron  6.  of  that on the  accessible  c a n be  can  be  other location  treated  if  necessary.  7.  At  the  and  overburden  returned as  to  possible  end  as and  of  the  that large  mining  was an  operation  stockpiled area  revegetation  of  the  the  should  soil be  disturbed  s h o u l d be  carried  land  13 2.. out on t h e e n t i r e a r e a . 8.  P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made i n t h e r e c l a m a t i o n  program o f each mine f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d o f any c o n t a m i n a t e d  treatment  d r a i n a g e water o r i g i n a t i n g  f r o m t h e m i n e - s i t e a f t e r t h e mine has ceased t o operate. I f the preceding guidelines are followed i t i s l i k e l y t h a t many p o t e n t i a l a c i d d r a i n a g e s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d be p r e v e n t e d from o c c u r r i n g .  O n l y m i n i m a l changes i n t h e t e c h n o l o g y  p r e s e n t l y b e i n g employed would be n e c e s s a r y .  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O b s e r v a t i o n s on the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f iron i n seawater, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o Southhampton w a t e r . J . Mar. B i o l . A s s . U.K. 51, p p . 891-903. Huet, M., 1950. Fish Document E a u x , No. 7,  toxicology. pp. 396-406.  Jones, J . R . E . , 1939. The s o l u t i o n pressures of the stickleback (Gasterosteus Jones, J . R . E . , 1948. to toxic solutions. Kawai, branch Keilen, and  K., 1959. tissues. D.,  nature  Centre.  enzyme.  Beige  A further study of the reactions J . E x p . B i o l . 2_5, p p . 22-34.  T., J .  Et.  r e l a t i o n between the electrolytic metals and t h e i r t o x i c i t y t o the aculeatus). J . Exp. B i o l . 16.  The cytochrome system i n B i o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n s 117,  and Mann, of  Bull.  1940. of  Carbonic  Biochem.  3_4,  of  fish  marine lamellip. 125. anhydrase p.  1163.  purification  136 . Lloyd,  R.,  trout.  1960.  Ann.  The  Appl.  toxicity  Biol.  Mahler, H.R., 1956. protiens. Advanced  4j3,  of  pp.  zinc  sulfate  to  rainbow  84-94.  Nature and f u n c t i o n o f E n z y m o l o g y 17_, p . 233.  metallaflavo-  M a r k s , G . W . , 1938. The c o p p e r c o n t e n t and c o p p e r t o l e r a n c e some s p e c i e s o f m o l l u s c s o f t h e s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a coast. Scripps I n s t i t u t i o n of Oceanography, B i o l o g i c a l B u l l . 75, pp. 224-237.  of  M a r i o n , T . G . , and M a r t i n , D . F . , 1971. E f f e c t s of humic a c i d s on i r o n a n a l y s i s i n n a t u r a l w a t e r s . W a t e r R e s e a r c h 5_, p p . 689-692. M a r v i n , T . K . et a l , 1970. Some e f f e c t s o f f i l t r a t i o n determination of copper i n freshwater and s a l t w a t e r . and O c e a n o g r a p h y 15.(2), p p . 320-325. McCance, R . A . , and S h a c k l e t o n , of marine gastropods. J . Mar.  193 7 . Biol.  The m e t a l l i c A s s . U . K . 2_2,  on the Limnology  constituents pp. 269-271.  McKee, J . E . , and W o l f e , H.W., 1963. Water Q u a l i t y Resources Agency of C a l i f o r n i a , S t a t e Water Q u a l i t y Board.  Criteria, Control  McKim, J . M . , and B e n o i t , D . A . , 1971. Effects of long-term exposures t o copper on s u r v i v a l , growth and r e p r o d u c t i o n of brook t r o u t (Salvelinus fontinalis). J . F i s h . R e s . B d . Canada 28, p p . 655-662. Meyer, H . , 1938. Uber den K u p f e r h e g a l t Naturwissenschafter 26_, p p . 630-631. M o r i t a , Y . , 1950. and z i n c c o n t e n t s pp. 246-2.48.  Distribution of seawater.  Mount, D.I., 1968. minnows (Pimephales  of J .  des  Ozeanwassers.  c o p p e r and Chem. S o c .  zinc, Japan  IV. 71,  Copper  Chronic toxicity of copper to fathead promelas) . W a t e r R e s e a r c h 2, p p . 2 1 5 - 2 2 3 .  Munro, D . C . , 1968. E f f e c t s o f a c i d i t y and e x t r a c t i o n r a t i o s a solvent-extraction procedure i n atomic absorbtion flame spectrophotometry. A p p l i e d S p e c t r o s c o p y 22! ( 3 ) , pp. 199-200. N i c h o l s o n , L . J . , Manager f o r L t d . , personal communication Nielsen, in  the  E.S.,  sea  and  and A n d e r s e n , freshwater.  Environmental Control for d a t e d November 28, 1972. S.W., Marine  1970. Biology  Copper 6_,  pp.  ions  in  Cominco  as  93-97.  poison  137. Nix, J . , and Goodwin, T . , 1970. The simultaneous extraction of i r o n , manganese, copper, c o b a l t , n i c k e l , , chromium, l e a d and z i n c from n a t u r a l waters f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n by atomic a b s o r b t i o n spectroscopy. Atomic Absorbtion Newsletter 9_(6), p p . 1 1 9 - 1 2 2 . Noddack,  I.,  and Nodack,  Schwermetalle  W.,  1936.  in Meerestieren.  Parker, P . L . , et a l , 1963. Texas Bay. Pubis. Investl. pp. 1-40.  Die Haufig  Ark. Zool.  Keiten  32 A ( 4 ) ,  der  pp.  1-35.  C o b a l t , i r o n and manganese i n a Rep. D i v . F i s h . U n . S . A f r . V o l 59,  Peterson, G . R . et a l , 1970. H e a v y m e t a l c o n t e n t s o f some fresh water f i s h e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B . C . F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , F i s h e r i e s T e c h n i c a l C i r c u l a r N o . 2 , 34 p p . Peterson,  G . R . , 1971.  in  Lake,  Buttle  Summary  1966-1970.  of  analyses  mimeo.  f o r heavy  metals  8 pp.  Pippy, J . H . C . , 1970. Fish mortalities i n the Northwest Miramichi R i v e r i n 1969. F i s h . R e s . B d . Canada, Technical Report No. 226, p p . 1-5. P r i n g l e , B . H . , et a l , 1968. T r a c e metal a c c u m u l a t i o n by estuarine molluscs. J . of the Sanitary Engineers D i v i s i o n , P r o c . Am. S o c . C i v . E n g s . S A 3 , p p . 4 5 5 - 4 7 5 . Ramakrishna, T . V . , e t a l , 1 9 6 7 . Determination of copper, and z i n c by a t o m i c a b s o r b t i o n s p e c t r o s c o p y . A n a l . Chim. 37, p p . 20-26.  cadmium Acta.  Riley,  ion  J . P . , and T a y l o r ,  exchange seawater.  D.,  1968.  i n the determination Analytica  Chim.  The use o f  chelating  o f molybdenum and vanadium  Acta  41_, p p .  in  145-148.  R i l e y , J . P . , and Segar, D . A . , 1970. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m a j o r a n d some o f t h e m i n o r e l e m e n t s i n m a r i n e a n i m a l s : I. Echinoderms and c e o l e n t e r a t e s . J . Mar. B i o l . A s s . U . K . 50, pp. 721-730. Segar, D.A. et a l , 1971. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the major and some o f t h e m i n o r e l e m e n t s i n m a r i n e a n i m a l s , I I . Molluscs. J . M a r . B i o l . A s s . U . K . 5_1, p p . 1 3 1 - 1 3 6 . Shaw, W . H . R . , a n d G r u s h k i n , ions to aquatic organisms. 447-452. Shimizu, In:  Y . ,  Polluted  1972. Japan,  B . , 1957. The t o x i c i t y Arch. Biochem. Biophys.  Itai-Itai  disease  Jun Ui Editor,  (ouch-ouch  Tokyo,  Japan,  of metal 6_7, p p .  disease). pp.  17-20.  138. Sprague, young pp.  J . B . ,  1964.  salmon i n  Avoidance of  the  laboratory.  copper-zinc  J .  Wat.  Poll.  solutions Cont.  by-  Fed.  36.,  990-1004.  Sprague, J . B . , 1969. I. B i o a s s a y methods pp. 793-821.  Measurement of p o l l u t a n t t o x i c i t y t o fish, for acute t o x i c i t y . W a t e r R e s e a r c h 3_,  Sprague, J . B . , 1970. Measurement of p o l l u t a n t II. U t i l i z i n g and a p p l y i n g b i o a s s a y r e s u l t s . 4, pp. 3-32.  toxicity to fish, Water R e s e a r c h  Sprague, J . B . , and C a r s o n , W . V . , 1964. Chemical conditions the Northwest M i r a m i c h i R i v e r d u r i n g 1963. F i s h . Res. Bd. C a n a d a , M a n u s c r i p t R e p o r t S e r i e s N o . 1 8 0 , 46 p p . S p r a g u e , J . B . , and Ramsay, B . A . , 1965. 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CHAPTER  THE  UTAH CONTROVERSY  THE ADMINISTRATION  4  -  A CASE  STUDY  IN  OF P O L L U T I O N C O N T R O L  Introduction  Both the is  administration not  functioning  To of  Chapters  what  case  from  a heavy  for  to  the be  undertaken a  metal  three  have  control  in  indicated British  that  Columbia  adequately.  appear  s t u d y was  and  pollution  illuminate  would  application  of  two  adequate of  pollution mine.  shortcomings  what  in  application  legislation,  appeared  control  the  permit  to for  be  a  detailed  a  typical  waste  discharge  140.  The  I n 1965,  Proposed M i n e r a l  U t a h C o n s t r u c t i o n and  from t h e i r head o f f i c e a group of mineral Rupert  Inlet  drilling  and  million  tons  claims  excavation low  investment  o f 70  facilities  and  per  day  beginning was  life-span  On  October  2,  m i l l i o n g a l l o n s per The  and  late  called  to establish  the mine-site  operating  shore  i n 1971.  The  of of  exploratoryreserve of  f o r an ore  280  Development initial  concentrating  i n preparation for  a production rate of  an  33,000  A major c o n t r a c t f o r s a l e  the M i t s u i I n d u s t r i a l  mine would o p e r a t e  over  Group a  years.  1969,  an  C o n t r o l B r a n c h by  2  northern  estimated  1969,  dollars  o f 21  9.3  of finely  Subsequent  1969.^  Pollution  Inlet.  Island.  signed with  the  Rupert  to the  operation with  o f Japan i n October, projected  adjacent  r e v e a l e d an  million  of the concentrate  Co.,  Francisco, acquired control  i n June,  to clear  open p i t mining  Mining  grade copper-molybdenum o r e .  p l a n s were announced  tons  i n San  on V a n c o u v e r  of  Development  day  effluent  ground waste rock,  a p p l i c a t i o n was Utah f o r a permit  submitted to  o f c o p p e r mine t a i l i n g s  discharge into  w o u l d c o n t a i n 3 2,000 t o n s and  residual  to  per  q u a n t i t i e s of a l l  day  141.  chemicals involved fuel  involved include  o i l ,  lime,  discharged port  the  before would  were  waste  to  at  system of  typical with  a  the  deep  public  the  entire Inlet  but  area  a  is  clear  an abundance of oysters  and  feet  into  the  water.  the  Sound,  being  is  the  cut  amyl  which  It  was  would  would  be  trans-  Rupert  Inlet  hoped that  effects  operations  agents  xanthate,  effluent  central  visible  most  on  this  surface  when t h e  eastward extends  from  the  tailings  from  announcement Inlet  was  of  semi-wilderness.  c o l d the life,  c o d f i s h which  since  year  round  including  contribute  and  the  is narrow,  water  by  a  development,  as  place  of  the  It  and  Utah  managed  long  into  outer  the  Some l o g g i n g t o o k has  far  long  the  of  extension  Pacific.  relatively  off  regeneration  marine  in  which  Island  fjords,  state  and  of  similar  forms  land.  1930"s, to  200  around Rupert  forest  The  3  the  surface.  basin which  land  Some o f  sulfate,  of  Vancouver  Until  zinc  alcohols.  possibility  Inlet  coastal  s i l l .  productive in  depth  the  process.  submerged p i p e l i n e  Quatsino  end o f of  shallow  a  occurred in  Rupert  northern  a  the  introduced  inlet  of  introduction  have  milling  and v a r i o u s  eliminate as  the  sodium c y a n i d e ,  by means  its  water,  in  highly  near  the  returned  The water  in  shore  the Rupert  at  present  supports  crabs,  shrimp,  clams,  considerably to  the  diet  142. of  local  Indian  residents,  Reserve  at  particularly  the  mouth  The The  inhabitants  Quatsino  Decision  of  the  Quatsino  Narrows.  Process  Objectors In  Pollution to  of  the  the  response  Control  permit  to  Utah's  Branch  application,  received  application,  as  some  allowed  150  within  30  written  under  the  days  the  objections  4  Pollution  5 Control  Act.  Association,  The the  objectors United  Fishermen  of  Society  various  branches  Control  (S.P.E.C.),  (R.A.P.A.), members  of  and the  The nature for  the  Many  and  the  a more  by  a  of  British  group  large  the  four  and  The  objected  also put  as  of  a  the  to  on  them citizens.  subjective the  number  of  and  problems.  beautiful  submissions  criticisms was  ecologists raised  in  of  a  brief  at  the  this  in  objector  proposed discharge  Among t h e s e  points  of  private  concern of  a wild  forward  and  Association  environmental  the  Union,  Environmental  many  s u b m i s s i o n s were  effects  and  individuals,  who  approach  biologists 8  Trollers  Workers  Pollution  express  nature.  Columbia.  following:  to  were  issues  of  these  massiveness  There  technical of  of  potential  Pacific  Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n  groups  general  the  and A l l i e d  for  number  served  the  specific  of  the  simply  province.  raised  the  6  majority  mentioned  questioned  a  the  previous  Branch's  included  and area  of  that  the  project  submitted University  brief  included  143. 1) previous of  The  scale  of  experience.  material  adequately  (6  x  The  are  not  The  effects  of  cubic  feet)  on a  the  effluent  dynamics of  known.  3)  There  to  of  the  the The  water  metal  including  is  outside  such  the  range  a tremendous  small  inlet  of  through  the  food  4)  The  biological  the  term  inlet,  is  mixing  effect not  of  amount  cannot  be  nature  of  not  of  zinc,  been  Rupert  which the  the  concentrations and  in  Inlet  would  bring  tailings  on  the  known.  are  concentration  c h a i n has long  The  the  copper  circulation  vertical  chemical  particular  possibility  of  be  profile  exact  In  ions,  may  water  surface.  predicted.  turbidity  operation  predicted.  2)  stability  10^  the  of  tailings of  not  cannot  soluble known.  these  be  heavy The  heavy  metals  investigated.  consequences of  should mixing  an  occur,  increase cannot  in  be  the  adequately  predicted. 5) possible space  Because of  that  and  time  undesirable from  Perhaps S.P.E.C. were  in  which  presented.^  quality  the  2  1.  What  of  runoff  the  the a  scale effects  projected  most  of  the  may  effect  far  removed  period  and  area.  detailed  s u b m i s s i o n was  water  included the will  it  be  c o n s i d e r a b l e number These  discharge,  of  is in  both  that  made  technical  by  questions  following:  the  mining  operation  entering  Rupert  Inlet  as  have land  on  the  drainage?  144.  2. the  Will  combination  Sound  at  Port 3.  e.g.  in  of  effects  Alice  and  be  Is  in  any  effluent  brief of  the  experience  and  1. possible  Group  Quatsino  effluent?  substances  that  in  in  result  the in  the  the  effluent,  organisms  continuous  long-term  alter  the  present  that  the  Pollution  independent  sociologists, is  requested  making Hold  entering  concentrated  not  many  information  a  final  open,  expression 2.  will  suggested  economists,  before  already  from  dis-  sublethal  community  of  inlet?  engineers,  steps  any  assurance  drastically  the  The  resulting  Inlet?  there  may  effects  p r o p o s e d mine  cyanide,  advice  makers.  the  effluent  zinc,  that  the  mill  will  The seek  synergistic  extent  the  organisms  pulp  Rupert  4. charge  of  be  T o what  copper,  present  there  of  Actively  biologists,  and  planners  seldom tapped the  Branch to  decision  hearings  expert  and  encourage  by  lay  so t h a t opinion  individuals  to  ecologists,  decision-  the  permit the may  Branch  whose  the  take  on t h e  public  Control  following application: widest  be  heard;  testify  at  such  hearings; 3. such  Give  hearings  in  full  consideration  arriving  at  4.  Publish  full  5.  Publish  reasons  6.  Make  all  to  opinions  expressed  at  decisions;  proceedings for  of  such  arriving  such p u b l i c a t i o n s  at  hearings; decisions;  freely  and  and  generously  145.  available  survey  of  to  the  At  a  later  Rupert  any  mining  was  submitted  the  Federal  public.  date  Inlet,  operation by  a  to  and  detailed be  to  S.P.E.C.  outline  conducted  continue  to  the  for  before  ecological  commencement  throughout  Pollution  an  its  Control  of  operation, Branch  and  to  13 Fisheries  The to  the  Utah  mercial  Pollution  conservationists,  permit  of  the  Forests  and Water  The Water  feasibility water as  1970  the  toward  object this a  research. be  the  non-profit No o r i g i n a l  a  literature  Even  mine  before  The  by a  study his  Utah  organization research survey  the  included  the On  of  had  commissioned  clear  be  of  many  Minister been  into  that  conducted  carried  Lands,  on  the  fresh  was  specializing  would  and  indefinitely.  department  be  comsportsmen-  sciences,  development  would  opposition  organizations,  wastes  seemed  with  consideration  the  and m i l l  work  that  postponed  in  it  faced  biological  that  the  study,  problem.  base  Final  Service  Although  of  the  announced  Resources  dumping  b o d i e s . ^  Research,  would  of  in  therefore  was  Resources  a wide  public.  was  it  B r a n c h was  anti-pollution  experts  application 16,  from  vocal  general  January  by  Control  application  fishermen,  members  Department.  and  not  it  mentioned  was  by in out;  salt  directed  B.C. industrial the  study  only.  study  was  completed  it  was  clear  that  146.  it  would  not  involved. posal ing  s y s t e m was  literature  a  the  of  literature Anaconda  adequate  criticism  its  a  local but  few  examples  which  are  Copper mine  mines  that  although mines  in  are  readily  at  acceptable point of was  of  the  procedure f o r  view.  report  not  the  anyone  whose  impact  of  The  sole  It would  case.  specialty  is  expertise  would  the  be  of  large-scale author  problem  of  the  of  Utah  are  effluent  into  bodies  the  waste  the  study  be  involved  was  be  of  a  of  water, Both  leaching  that  in  on the  of  the  in the  and heavy  metal  This  project the  by  total  environment.  sulfide in  authors  mind.  scientist  significance  an  environmental  consideration of  research  these  and  determine  objective  activity  Mines  examples  Utah.  an  no p a r t i c i p a t i o n  report  leaching  to  expected  this  The  information.  d i s p o s a l from  industrial  undoubtedly  was  the  both  inspection  field  study  chosen with was  in  Western  p r o p o s e d by  in  restriction  situation.  Beach and the  on-site  exist-  consideration  Lake  microbiological  acid  the  could therefore  There  field  to  The  The  from  reported  dis-  be h e l p f u l  proposal.  excluded  provided useful  purpose of  would  Buttle  accessible for  main  that  Utah  than  problems  and n a t u r e .  not  Britannia at  the  are  relevant  mine  of  proposed effluent  size  the  which  quantities  c o u l d have  The  the  survey  discharge their  smaller  undoubtably  of  literature  copper-lead-zinc-silver of  of  references  feasibility  to  evaluation  unprecedented  contains  the  study  number  an  A central  determining of  provide  whose  ores.  relation  pollution,  but  This to is  147. hardly  representative  evaluation  in  fact  work,  the  had  in  any  way  author,  it  can  s t i l l  be  the  point  desirable,  from  someone  the  less  both  to  articulate  pledged  to  undertake  Utah  they  are  groups  effect  p r o b l e m was  engaged  for  the  of  it  the  relationship  many y e a r s  of  the  in  industry. the  would  report's  have  objectors, with  of  compounded by  mining  objectivity  view  put  Utah  their  the  been to  include  mining  into  insisted  desirable  Fisheries  top  Pacific  Department  clarification  of  the  of  Meetings  5  method  important in  investigations  their  is  Fisheries  The  that  It  and w i t h  publicly.  Chamber o f  meetings  Company,  positions  local  at  active  were  the  and  was  objectors  operation".^  industry  of  making Company  its  proposals  were  held  Commerce,  with  at  which  d i s p o s a l was  the  fZ  possible.  S.P.E.C.  and the  "extensive  including  officials  publicly  of  the  of  1 most  This  suggested that  whose  efforts  various  environmental  require  direct.  Meanwhile  before  total  been  impugning  study  considerations that  conducted for  Without  was  the  author  B.C. Research,  in  many  disposal system.  that  at  the  determining  proposed waste the  of  of to  The  opposing views  the  various  note  that  "negotiating" level  Region. personnel  objector during  with  officials S.P.E.C.  of  the  Federal  position  met  1969,  7  period  officials  officers 5,  expressed  groups.^  this  both  on December  Department's  were  of  the  Department with to  seek  and p o t e n t i a l  role  in  148. the  Utah  used  in  compiling  effects formal  decision process.  of  the  method  However,  Utah of  on  that  urged  Department's  Development.  approval  release  of  sound r e s e a r c h ,  could  be  of  information possible that  might  be  required.  information, only  of  r e s p o n s e was  information  would  this  release  evaluation The  disclosing this  ministerial  emphasized based  the  They  serve  to  some  developed.  S.P.E.C.  provided  it  was  raise  the  Depart-  officials  met  with  3 8  ment  in  the  estimation  On  December  Utah  executive  upon  request,  in  the  discharge memorandum provided gramme  a  to  Fisheries  of  of  held  for  and  and  this of  ecological by  January  18,  1970  conjunction the  representatives,  legislators  were  invited.  had  T.W.  Beak  engaged  at  survey  the of  At  the  Consultants  be  Company  to  proposed  effects.  a  used  A  Counsel  that  research  Department  draft  pro-  of  was  accepted  for  Subsequently,  a public  meeting  Beach by  Local  well  the  expense,  Rayonier as  with  provided,  to  the  S.P.E.C.'s  and  Rumble  with  Company  additives  urged  survey,  Utah's  Company.^  of  by  S.P.E.C. at  the  possible harmful  the  Union  chemical  prepared  conducted  meeting  ecological  by  in  S.P.E.C.  S.P.E.C.  determine  approved  Workers  Utah  to  At list  an  public.  1969,  process.  s u c h an  be  Commerce  Paper  complete  agreement  consideration was  18,  undertake  area  the  personnel.  separation  voluntarily  of  as  514,  Port  to  Pulp  Alice  Federal  meeting  the  conduct  an  Chamber  Sulphite Mill.  and  Utah  local  and  S.P.E.C.  Provincial  disclosed that ecological  it  149. study plan by  of  the Rupert  for  Dr.  Inlet  an e c o l o g i c a l  John Stimson  area.  survey  of  20  of  The f o l l o w i n g the  area,  the University  of  day a  prepared  British  detailed  for  S.P.E.C.  Columbia, p  Institute  of Animal  In  the  result,  research  agreement  followed  the  appears  study.  2  is  common i n  planning  of  occasions  But  ecological efforts  Company's  incident  which "best  underwater  waters it  nor  survey were  at  to  entered  into  the  2  However,  2  least  it  partially  undertake  i t s own  occurred  during  advantage"  data  Inlet  between  Narrows  is  40  feet  spreading  practically  it  to  no chance  there  layers.  the water  other they  that  In  was a s s u m e d t h a t  parts  would  several  that,  "A  surface of  ever  the  was n o  On  representatives  below  illus-  interpretation  and t h a t  and s u r f a c e  b y Company  only  from  deep  period  controversies.  system  was s t a b l e  this  the  s i l l  will  Sound...  go so f a r . 24  Below and of  70  that  feet  there  "the water  differing  surface  i  Utah.  specifically  p l a n .  decision to  disposal  was s t a t e d  the t a i l i n g s there  of  i n Rupert  Quatsino  stop  neither  developer-conservationist  the  deep water  in  the  the problem  mixing  was f o r w a r d e d  3  One trates  t h e Company  the Group's for  Ecology,  p r o p o s e d by S . P . E . C .  S.P.E.C.  that  responsible  Resource  is  no t i d a l  i n Rupert  turbulence  Inlet  is  i n Rupert Arm";  stratified  into  layers  density with t i d a l action affecting only the 25 layers". I t was i n f e r r e d f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e d e e p  150. water was  was  stagnant  subsequently  paper  that  waters  the  were  exchange  from  the  to  us  beginning.  that  this  it It  an  the  article  mixed  deep  this  accepted  with  oceanographic  between to  mix  in  vertically  response  quickly  not  out  available  water  They  did  pointed  indeed  of  Company's  and  and  fact,  was  now  interchange  in  data  and  surface  claimed as  it  water.  local  suggested  that  news-  there  rather  It  that  layers.  implying  occur  the  therefore  s u g g e s t i o n was  as  surface  the  was  an  The interesting.  it  was  that  "it  is  will  prevent  known  important any  long-  s' 7 term buildup dictory  of  nature  a r t i c l e ,  2  the  of the  these was  of  Federal  Pacific  Salmon t h a t  British  Columbia in  the  cases  it  is  the  Control  of  before  Act  When  pointed by  out  the  requires of  the  permit  of  Fisheries,  the  spawn  fisheries in  The  the  many  Federal  decision-making that  proposed disposal  Water  Agriculture,  forwarded  of  felt  was  also  coast.  participate  inlet".  comment  Comptroller  Department  protection  where  further  departments  is  the  the in  contra-  a  second  Company.  Department  the  application  includes  by  no  and C o n s e r v a t i o n ,  the  in  statements  Pollution  advice  provincial  tion  matter  Fisheries  The the-  of  there  8  The F e d e r a l  seek  toxic  the  scheme,  as 3  the  Rights Health,  is  a matter  rivers  either  well  and  and  by  may that  as  RecreaA  copy  policy  to  particularly  Department  fishery  of  to  jurisdiction  resource,  process  as  issued.  whose  0  Director  lakes may  near  adversely  a permit  the  therefore  recommending  be  the  not  in affected be  151..  granted,  or  It  the  is  in  applicants  that  protective  interest  to  seek  of  this  conditions  both  be  provincial  advice,  since  attached  to  authorities  the  the and  Department  of  permit. permit  Fisher-  31 les  is  the  discharge  by  clearly  authorized of  under  the  Fisheries Act  deleterious  substances into  case  Utah  waters  control  frequented  f i s h . 2 3  In Fisheries  the  had  taken  of  an  the  e v e n more  development, active  the  pollution-control  permit-issuing  was  directly  in  the  permit  had  approached f i s h e r i e s  advice  and  involved  application  cooperation.  sultations  that  underwater  rather  disposal The  the left  from  be  the  on O c t o b e r officials It  was  d e c i s i o n was  than  2,  on the  beginning,  made  desirable  method.  biological  d e c i s i o n throw quality  and  is  The  usual  of  interpretation  prior  in  to  obtain  these  their  contailings  underwater  economic r e a s o n s . underwater  disposal  d e c i s i o n was tailings  on l a n d . light  under  engineers  to  favoured  that  leaching  1969  of  Department  Utah  during  for  This  considerable  Department  discharge the  Utah  felt  oxygen  than  3 3  in  to  presumably  most  atmospheric  1969.  early  land.  the  d i s p o s a l method  apparently  also  of  role  process.  the  Fisheries  exposed to  information  planning  of  possibility  this  the  the  Department  would  ing  to  The on the  the  if  based they  facts  on  were  surround-  problem  of  decision-making  process.  It  has  been  observed at  many p r e v i o u s  mining  operations,  152.  in  particular  exposed mine primarily such  as  copper  mines  waste  is  subject  copper sulfate.  to  The  to  aquatic  disposal of  that  oxygen which  mechanism.  It  was  provide  solution  studies, of  this  The  however,  Deep Water As  application, known  the  surface water,  that  brought  to  also  very  *  For  tend  to  the  a more  as  the  a c i d mine due  in  to  felt  cast  by  that  of  in  are large  rivers  alone. ^  It  3  may  presence  underwater  of  from  atmos-  oxidation by  disposal  Subsequent  is  result  Company and  doubt  as  action  bacterial  the  serious  such  would  oceanographic  on the  correctness  below.  Problem* previously,  deep water  in  and t h e r e f o r e It  at  Rupert the  followed  discussion  the  time  statements  d i s s o l v e d oxygen,  complete  the  sulfides  resulted  drainage  the  problem.  shown  surface.  low  have  States  Company's p u b l i c  was  be  this  bacterial  United  necessary for  mentioned the  They  sulfates  the  officials  Mixing  this  insoluble  miles  tailings  to  assumption,  of  that  bacteria,  some 6 , 0 0 0  apparently  Department  by  convert soluble  life.  in  Appalachian region,  oxidation  water  toxic  is  Fisheries a  to  which  rendered  mine  the  products  fish-life  therefore,  pheric  into  4  and have  inhospitable known,  3  of  spp.,  sulfide  toxic  kills  land  coal  Thiobacillus  extremely fish  the  of  of  the  permit  suggested that  Inlet  did  not  mix  tailings  would  that  deep water  the  since  this  it  was  problem,  not  not  it  with  be would  replaced  see Chapter  5.  153.. periodically only  by  f r e s h oxygenated water  i n the upper  layers  o f water,  by p h y t o p l a n k t o n , o r t o d i f f u s i o n oxygen  i s added  t o the marine  as  either  Water t h a t  becomes low  i t i s u s e d up by t h e o r g a n i s m s  and  federal  their  departments  positions  remains  filed,  the  Both the  Provincial  o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n ^ and t h e  Department  of F i s h e r i e s  body and primary  3  cited  a low d i s s o l v e d  oxygen  involved t h e s e was  the c o l l e c t i o n  the r e s u l t s  Q u a t s i n o Sound a r e a .  c o n t e n t i n deep water  o n l y two  of  basic  studies  of Rupert  water  as t h e disposal.  Inlet  oceanographic data.  v a l u e s from  of four  which  One  oceanographic cruises  In both of these studies,  of  i n Rupert  reported high  v a l u e s i n t h e deep water  condition  oxygen could  in  the I n l e t ,  by  surface water.  not e x i s t  Inlet.  The  D r . G.L.  dissolved foot  Pickard  and  u n l e s s t h e r e was  w i t h t h e deep waters 3 9  i n the  50 t o 75 p e r c e n t s a t u r a t i o n a t 400  d e p t h s were r e p o r t e d  this  of a stable  c o n d u c t e d by t h e F i s h e r i e s R e s e a r c h B o a r d o f C a n a d a  included  oxygen  Federal  r e a s o n s f o r t h e d e c i s i o n t o employ u n d e r w a t e r  T h e r e have been  and  the existence  provincial  t o determine  Department  3 7  at  there.  i n v o l v e d were a p p r o a c h e d  regarding the discharge.  that  i n dissolved  living  When t h e p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n was  It is  to photosynthesis  from t h e atmosphere,  system.  depth f o r long periods g r a d u a l l y oxygen  due  from t h e s u r f a c e .  states  vertical  being p e r i o d i c a l l y  also that mixing  replaced  source of the information that  l e d the  154.  Department both  oxygen  Certainly results main the  of  Fisheries  content  the  of  function  of  The  as  a  oxygen for  pointed  and  which  from  even  its  circulation. would  not  placed  forms  underwater Rupert growth.  The  the  was  the  not  Fisheries of  regarding  clear. to  the  Research Board,  information  same  to  for  use  original  was  capable  in  the  a  by  documented  assumed t h a t  sulfide  of  on the  operating  it  has  been  4  2  almost  The  in  water  put  and t h e s e high  are  a  there well  a  information  oxygen  water  bacteria  if  low  sufficient  could provide  become  Inlet's  they  were  oxygen  are  also  adapted  d i s s o l v e d oxygen be  forward  dissolved  tailings  low  inaccurate.  oxidizing  with  change  presumed  technical  the  the in  not  apparently,  high  shown t h a t  certainly  surface  the  did  a s s u m p t i o n s were  of  in  Fisheries  reasoning  determining  particularly  tailings  though  implication  Thiobacillus,  would  of  of  levels  Department  d e c i s i o n had  the  another  the  even  central This  Department  of  that  conditions.  Inlet  to  significance  of  is  d i s s o l v e d oxygen  face  However,  4 1  high  the  underwater,  content. marine  be  the  in  is  It  by  position  disposal.  There apart  of  remains  indicated  circulation  provision  out  The  4 0  concentration  underwater  conclusion  Fisheries.  existence  1969.  irreversible  is  opposite  c o n c l u s i o n seems c o n t r a r y  done  which  of  was  result  and water  research  Department  December,  the  Department's  the  deep water  to  to  content  for  substrate  in  their which  0.55. would in  support  the  a  release  large of  population  soluble  heavy  of  these  metal  organisms  ions  into  resulting  the  marine  environment.  Public  "Processing"  the  Objections  On J u l y the  Pollution  "The  report be  to  the  to  do,  was  behind cited  disposal  had  been  probably  nature  of  report two  In  had  effect It  is  of  ore  the  were  informed  by  Research study  on  With  been  possible.  completed.43  Since  to  was  this to  understand  study.  indicated  the  p r o p o s e d method  the  s u c c e s s f u l l y at  unprecedented  form  letter  announced the that  available  at  basis.  order  that  a  each  of  all  other  what  the  one  therefore  the  objectors  completion,  limited  Pollution The  is  referof  mine.  This  undocumented  system.  report's  advised  loan  to  and  any  Not  should  support  the  that  The  concentrators  report  difficult  Particular  conclusions in  The  were  Wastes  wherever  employed to  B.C.  from  proposed disposal  and  week  due  the  tailings  the  1970, w h i c h abstract  which  objectors  Disposal"  the  the  150  and M i l l i n g  Company's p o s i t i o n .  ence  a  Mining  deep water  intended  the  Branch that  Underwater  in  reasoning  was  1970  recommended t h a t  placed  Utah  3,  Control  Disposal of  Reference  Participation  letter  available  number Control  of  dated  enclosed copies  an  of  the  Branch o f f i c e s  continued: data  July  relative  to  the  on  3,  156.  application at  this  time,  support  your  and  supports  and  this  matter,  this  office  opposition. concluded  that  nothing  objectors material  that  did  part  as  briefs  of  than  the  like  called  not  received  was  they  be  to  a  did  expedite  3,  1970.  felt  that  1970  all  a  form  letter  noted  that  you  the  4 4  their  originand  report,  and  survey,  comment. to  in  concern  literature  not.wish the  be  received  reviewed  further  respond to  4,  will  expressed their  merely  for  technical  order  August  S . P . E . C ,  it  on  objectors  to  further,  position  must  On S e p t e m b e r objectors  your  later  you wish  based  these  decided that and  briefs  In  no  since  event  considered  submission  sufficiently  Some,  c a n be  considered.  majority  submission had  the  original  data  which  above  in  written  The  added  out  documented  received  al  set  it  Therefore,  submit  further  of  150  letter.  but  from  four the  the  Director  that  read  follows: I of  have July  3,  advised of  your  letter  in  therefore  section  that  1970  4  of  the in  the  objection  to  hearing.  13  be 5  an  did  not  respond to  allotted  time  accordance with Pollution (if  you  objection)  most  does  not  letter  and you  are  subsection 4  Control  intended  our  Act  your  (1967) original  warrant  a  in  Subsection  4  The  of  section  Director  tion,  of  objector appears  that  discretion in  was  in  that:  shall  decide  in  or  not  of  this  the  his that  or  not  3  letter  In  fact,  least  one  the  letter  same  be  will  be  held  Port  Hardy  1970  to  hear  July  3,  1970.  be the  letter  dated  interested  The and  of  a  gentleman  retired  Salmon  a pulp  Society,  an  to  disclosed  and paper from  North  exercised  though  there  to  do  been  file  further  informed that  a.m.  replied  4,  for  filed no  result  in  process.  1970.  In  4 7  that: a  hearing  Hall,  our the  the  this  material  near  on September to  was  so would  September  know  8:30  the  representations  and  the  had  did  announced by  named  housewife  the  decision-making  procedure  it  make  were  who  Subsequently, to  was  at  those  commencement  be  Director  Kinsmen R e c r e a t i o n  Airport  determined  the who  in  will  material  failure  from  objectors  Y o u may  discre-  notify  the  even  objector  form  the  shall  further  that  excluded  same  and  letter,  being  the  objection  upon which  objector  received  sole  4  basis  July  his  decision. ^  an  at  the  a hearing,  whether  response to  indication  states  whether  subject  It  13  letter hearing  Director  16, of will at  hearing. that  at  the  only  four  objectors  hearing.  worker,  both  Vancouver,  association representing  These were:  from  and  had  the  the  Duncan, Pacific interest  been a  B.C.,  158. primarily these  of  sports  objectors  submissions, Quatsino to  the  and  3rd  The a  of  hand  The  reply  of  had  merely  brief,  as  point  of  and t h e  groups  the  United  permitted  to  represent  the  make  into  Rupert  as  response to  the  sent  If  such  able  within  and A l l i e d  to and  of  time  the  the  directly  organizations.  Workers  whose  in  most  affected  Trollers  representations.  that  submit  the  the  directly  Pacific  fishermen  to  participation  denied  very  the  Society  that:  not  individuals be  Salmon  5 0  further  been  to as  is  the  the  Association  Union, These  were  not  groups  livelihoods  Marble  by  In  River  depend  which  flows  Inlet.  In  read  public  commercial  salmon runs  groups,  such  Fishermen  upon  S . P . E . C ,  likely  permit  1970.  then,  and knowledgeable  particular,  stated  of  their  of  Pacific  None  4 9  with  knowledge  suggested,  3rd,  operators.  briefs  the  Salmon S o c i e t y  d e c i s i o n process had  concerned  technical  first  August  this  and m a r i n a  had  letter  detailed  At  which  included  none  Pacific  limit  grant  had  Sound a r e a .  July  permit  fishermen  largest an  in  exclusion  and most  open t e l e g r a m  vocal to  the  of  from the  the  hearing,  anti-pollution  Pollution  Control  part:  you wish  please  their  to  consult  hold a  a  public  lawyer  to  hearing  find  out  on what  Utah, that  Branch  159'. means.  If  hearing  on U t a h ,  court  By decision become was  a  time  hold  following  the  an  of  Nanaimo.  Campbell permit allow  of  hold  a  public  yourself  In  of  to  failure  the  down  both  were  in  in  act  in  a  a  for  Hooker  Mines 5  disclosed of in  failing  Chemicals  Ltd.  (NPL)  v.  of  B.C.  which to  act  "in  Chemicals  case  the of  their  accordance with  he  and  5 3  Greater  ground  substantiate  had  that  a  by Hooker  decisions  4  application  1970,  application  the  agency  result  May,  him  the  Utah  as  quashed on the  properly  for  Director  outlined,  District,  to  on t h e  criticized  Western  applications  reasons  hearing  on a permit  Water  objectors  to find  the  interview,  had  5 2  case  River  therefore  one  d e c i s i o n handed  manner"  earlier  wish  you w i l l  procedure  J u s t i c e Wootton  Ltd.  not  a public  In  judicial  the  this  Court  do  law.  clear.  Supreme Mr.  to  of  you  Director  on  failure  to  objections,  the  and  principles  of  55 natural  justice.  procedural Act,  they  procedure  requirements must  5  be  on the In  District ^  Since these  an  for  examined Utah  Western  cases  dealing in  Mines  objection  Ltd.  had  with  detail,  application  been  have  elaborated  objections  and  the  considered  v.  Greater  filed  by  under  the  Director's in  light  Campbell the  the  Water  of  them.  River  Water  District, 57  which the  held  an  company's  appropriation application  licence  for  under  a permit  to  the  Water  Act,  dump m i n e - m i l l  to waste  16 Q. into  a  fresh-water  District  drew  its  lake, water  source of supply.  the  river  After  from  receipt  which  of  the  the  objection  58 was  acknowledged  retained  the  possible  effect  discharge. District  B.C.  and  to  lies  a  by  Branca,  prepare  of  the  a  the  District  report  on  that  to  objection  permits  the  Company's proposed  Board wrote  their  the  J.J.A.)  permits.  the had  were  the  District's been  being  British held  administrative  of  its  process,  of  the  Act  be  allowing  or  that  Board,  an  in  and  in  exercises  con-  issued  to  while  the  act  p e r s o n s whose  application  body has to  judicial  of  it  rights  functions.  (Davey  Control  6  duty to  on a p p e a l .  might,  would  no  a  certiorari  Appeal  judicially.  a  be h e a r d  event  was  permit  opposed to  Pollution  procedurally to  as  any  of  determining  reversed  Columbia Court  required  the  opportunity  d e c i s i o n was  that  body,  trial,  a writ  administrative  decision;  this  for  administrative  notice  tribunal  an  an  moved At  the  A purely  q  its  However, of  and  ground that  adequate  to  the  that  Board,  communication between  immediately  exercised  affected  majority  further  them  quash the  function.^  only  no  supply  Board u n t i l  on the  provide  party  was  water  District  applications,  to  Control  Ltd.  The Certiorari  Pollution  "dismissed",  Western Mines  judicial  its  informing  and  dismissed  on  the  the  Research Council to  There  solicitors sidered  by  6  0  The  x  and  Board  at  certain  2  The  be  affected  is  stages  provisions by  161..  the  granting  of  a permit  proceed  in  a  must  objections. Act or  6  not  does  the  not  judicial  Although  6 3  a l l ows  4  the  mean  that  opportunity  to  submissions  for  said  J.A.,  that  right  its  be  subject c a n be  objection  if  an  sole of  effective  objection  c o n s i d e r e d by  the  Board.  implies  reasonable  rule  makes  by  illusory  environment  of  it  and  this  public  Pollution  Control  A c t  Pollution  Control  Act,  of  a Director  Act,  including  left  the  task  the of  to  a  this  reasonable by  written  The  have This  section,  the in  turn  support  so that  the  an  the  Board  Anything  file  whethe  less  objection  farcical.  to  decision,  and  concern about  generated  ment  right  Control  objection  to  to  intelligently.  statutory  Following wave  representations  upon  the  opportunity  Board  discretion  denied.  right  a  Pollution  a hearing",  denied  is  the  these  informally,  a hearing  make  the  the  may  the  of  surely,  objection  to  17(2)  the  show t h a t  considering  "in  to  means,  in  decide  his  example,  a  objections  manner  objector  support  confers and  will  the  file  section  Board to  objection  Davey,  to  by 6  the was  6  Western repealed  1967. be  permit  advising  apparently  the  quality  Mines and  for  Minister  the  re-enacted made  as for  administration  issuing process. the  of  response  controversy,  P r o v i s i o n was  responsible  in  °  To the  on p o l i c y  province the the appointof  the  Board  was  matters,  162.  undertaking acting  as  investigations  appeal  tribunal  Important ions.  Section  previously Director  Any an  such  a  who  fell  outside  the  Pollution  the  public  .  new  filed man,  in to  the  was  under  of  1970  application chemical  Certiorari  would was  not then  be  file  Act  or  be  Board,  .  to  Minister,  and  Director.  objection  subsection  provis-  outlined  objections  with  the  in  land  of  a permit  or  any  the  or  by  is  or  Water  interest  affected  who  Act,  under  the  granting  0  added  this by  which  allowed file  an  must  then  decide  the  making  his  Director decision.  subsection that  Lawrence  into  Georgia  Director  the  subject to  Jones,  Chemicals  the  any  to  that  by Hooker  sought  that  class  .  in  wastes  communication,  objection  land  requires  .  the  the the  the  by  holder  this  specified  Control  March an  7  of  to:  the  would  consideration  discharge further  or  interest  It  or  in  interest  s u b s e c t i o n was  .  into  right  an  the  permit...  However,  .  the  for  not  permit  a  made  replaced  i s s u e d under  claims  request  decisions of  applications  applicant  who  tion  from  p e r s o n who h a s  licence  of  was  limited  on permit  the  changes were  17(1)  that  at  an  a  objection  take  the  objec-  7]  objection  Ltd.  Strait.  of  Jones  Director's  was  fisher-  Nanaimo  Without  a hearing.  quash the  with  "whether  commercial  informed of  person  that A writ  any his of  decision  to  163. denying of  the  Nanaimo  mental J  a hearing.  Branch of  Control.  however  economic  it  The  The  was  of  Wootton, making  his  without in  support  that  decision  not  Mines of  in  Case,  the  case  support  the  the  the  J .  to  the  grant  as  to  Venables the in  the  have  to  objections, 7 5  more  made  cross  are  dealt  because  reply  to  7  a  to  the  case  is  with  by  Jones had  in the  the the  was  counsel  which  in  was  for  This  addressed his  which  quashed, Branch.  the  Jones,  Mr.  became  objection  from  evidence  by  by  to  and  useful  voce  given  objections  Branch.  Western  Control  because v i v a  to  essentials  time  order  to  his  required  particularly  Branch procedure by  making  by m a t e r i a l  Pollution  by  filed  opportunity  in  reasonable  error  material  was  know  plaintiff.  objection  an  J.A. to  Environobjection,  into  Before  Director's  standpoint  manner  him  informally,  the  an  fell  on t h e  4  and  better  Director  Davey,  and  a  technical  objectors  least  back  i t .  the  by  examination the  him  backing  identifiable  Director  the  the  filed  readily  and g i v i n g  Chemicals  Control  also  a hearing  meet  participation  had  with  Pollution  hold  Therefore,  referred  for  the  the  at  brought  that  outlined  they  explained  case  and  "(allow)  In  public  to  i.e.  Pollution  Director.  the  a hearing,  manner  matter  public  group  application,  .The H o o k e r the  Society  fisherman  held  material  submissions..." and  the  was  supplying Jones with  of  consider  proceed  that  d e c i s i o n not  first  the  S.P.E.C.  felt  interest  action  members  of  important to  the  •1-6-4.  Director, to  rather  require.  7  was  In  to  answer  owner  of  Chemical of  the  There  6  objection  than  to  the  was  properly  under  whether  water-front  property  plant  objection  as  Pollution I  take  whether  an  Control  Act,  cognizance  of  it  is  as  section  some q u e s t i o n ,  made  a question  Board  in  he  had  accepted two  properly the  of  of  the  from  an  the  Act.  letter  by  the  lodged under  evidence  seem  whether  a  miles  Director  form  would  therefore,  provisions  located  all  the  the  13(6)  an  Hooker  section  13  replied: before  me  objection  or  otherwise. Later  in  the 39  cross-examination  Q Yes.  Now,  addition  Mr.  the  Venables,  you gave  in  into  consideration  by  from  -  following  other  I  your  any  exchange  understand evidence  objections  sources to  the  that  that that  Board,  took in  you were  is  place:  took filed  that  correct? A 40  I  Q I  don't  filed the  about up 41  I  put  some o f  these  it  that  way.  see.  A We t a k e  of  believe  or  written  Board; the  on our  to  there  objections  the is  Minister quite  Board's position,  a  that or  lot  etc.,  are  to of  and  the  actually Chairman  confusion they  end  desk.  Q Yes. A  -  officially  accepted,  a n d we  recognize  them.  =165.  42  Q So t h i s  is  is  who w r i t e s ,  whether  so  to  long  for  the  That  you  as  it  it  the  there  it  you  not,  as  permit  consider  43  where  discretion,  Board,  A  again  is  are  to  recognize  be  to  the  Director, an  you w i l l  then  right,  is  fine  but  can  I  any  your  person  Minister,  to  objection  to  whoever to  look  a properly-filed  is  exercising  the  at  the  it  is,  application  it  then  and  objection?  qualify  that?  Q Yes. A This are  working  in  appreciation  within  30  days,  everybody  doesn't  know t h e  and  we  that  forth  confusion  feel  and t h a t  correspondence;  so  in  are  the  the  fact  that  and t h e  fact  that  act.  does  they  of  By w r i t i n g  nothing  but  of  back  create  misdirecting  light  we  those  their facts,  77 what The recognition by  and  entitled  Persons  in  the  public  decision  in  an only  latter  without  interest  objections.  The the  is  of  correct.  the  B r a n c h seems q u i t e  consideration of  persons having  Director  say  practice  persons  the  you  interest to  the  case,  are  Board  requires  effect  under  object  class  that  of  was  objections section  to' t h e  the  Director 7ft  practice  or  other  as  a c c o r d members  by  section  the  the  their  coupled with of  13(6).  objectors  whether  consider  ,  be  filed  Board under  determining  to  whether  13(2)  accorded status first  this to  all  clearly  public  the a  by  ,  wider  opportunity  to  might  be  n e c e s s a r y on a  strictly  participate  in  the  decision process  narrower  166.  than  interpretation  of  the  79 legislation.  While to  hearings  on  acknowledging objections,  the  the  Director's  tenor  of  the  sole  discretion  judgement  as  suggests  80 that  hearings  would  also  strongly  suggested that  procedure  that  be  would  desirable  ensure  in  the  many  cases.  Director  that  the  Wootton,  J .  should establish  reguirements  of  a  notice  and  81 opportunity  to  consider  recommended t h a t objection, to  appeal  he  should  that  quick  the  Chemicals to  heed  was  lost  in  the  hearing  ing,  while  Utah  amply  the at  face,  of  denies  notify  the  met.  a hearing  objector  He  on  of  also  an  his  right  2  controversy was  boiling  handed  advice.  adopted  then,  apprehended the  properly  of by  around  down,  the  Director  Unfortunately, Wootton,  the  J . ' s  Director  h i m when  the  was  something  suggestions,  on the  as  Utah  demonstrates.  same t i m e  relevant  participation.  postponed  8  judicial  procedure  presentation public  clearly  interpretation  On t h e satisfy  respond are  Director  judgement  the  his  application  to  the  decision.  With Hooker  when  and  indefinitely  the  legal  Utah  reguirement  effectively  technical  On S e p t e m b e r when  hearing  the  appeared of  14  holding  limiting  information the  Director  designed  both  and  a  hear-  the  the  range  scheduled hearing  developed  a  sore  of was  throat.  .167.  The  Company and  the  Community  Opposition had  been  voiced  Regional  Board  any  in  3,  "can't  The  4  Summer  it  was  condone the  As  a  the  Branch.  Board a l s o  result 16,  matter At  Chairman  was  it's  public  when  they  this  you  the  Co.  of  in  waste  their  be  the  the  the  of  the  regional  at  to  on the  the  of  disposal proposed  the  participate applica-  hearing of  scheduled  the  Pollution  Board on September  by  Rupert  permit  criticism  by  inlet  local  a meeting  desire  held  the  Board  operation  e x c l u s i o n from  the  the  is  that  handled  and  hold  open no  private  can't  blame  suspicion that  done. this  I  think  area,  else,  was  that Hardy.  the  people  manner  in  Control  21,  the  asked  to  appear  Each  1970 had  is  the  suspicious,  about they  that  treat  the been  objector  to  the  four  or  official  be  is  like with being  from  anyone  hearing.  rescheduled  would  it  nobody  municipalities  but  things  underhanded  noteworthy  of  hearing  if  something  it's  6,  one  meetings  none  On N o v e m b e r  Port  which  into  stated, If  informed  of  by  resolved  Board expressed  a meeting  1970  At  might  being  effluent  Island.  method  their  the  of  expressed the  that  of  of  Waddington,  Vancouver  1970,  hearing  September  which  in  discharge  the  Mount  northern  public  tion. for  of  the  C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g  Inlet".® in  of  on August  district Utah  early  District  government  to  8  5  objectors for  permitted  were  December the  2  assistance  168.  of  one  technical  at  the  hearing.  advisor  Meanwhile, of  the  delay had  Pollution by  the  begun  that  disposal  scheme.  1000  there  acres  over-burden,  and  as  many  well  as  number  the  of  construct filed  Mineral Mines sion the  8  of  ,  water  Power  cleared  the  Waters  with  any  1  proposed  to  cleared  removal  receive  of  construction  had  been  obtained  Protection 8  building  hearing  Act  B r a n c h as  addition,  of  the  9  0  of  as  been  a high  were  by  the  allowing  diver-  obtained  from  voltage  regulatory  to  the  required  Crown C o r p o r a t i o n  Pollution  work by  from  under  required  required  a permit  and  these  on t h e  was  plan  purposes had  by  Approval  Certificates  7  Rights,  All  agencies.  reclamation  In  installed 9  the  activities  f a c i l i t i e s .  Authority.  become  mill  Provincial  Water  had  structures.  processing  of  Clearing  Company h a d and  any  main  a  for  it  in  the  and  9  granting  reflected  after  the  participant  the  opposition to  wharf  these  8  in  mine-site.  excavation  for  A c t .  been  a  of  along  been  before  not  months  deep-sea  as  one y e a r  1970,  begun  Mines  Comptroller had  a  of  provincial  Regulation  service and  8  had  considerable  smaller  wharf  the  A c t  over  three  fall  included  commenced c o n s t r u c t i o n  Navigable  the  with  1970,  timber,  Federal  Federal  Permit  By t h e of  of  be  developing  was  Approvals a  in  installed  materials,  delay  Control  January,  apparent  over  the  company  in  who w o u l d  power  B.C.  hurdles  Control  Hydro had  Permit  been  169. application at  the  was  mine  of  the  develop that  the  company's that  the  of  that  Board, site  is  permanently  interviewed  just  that  the  was  employed  a  that  permit  himself  before  obtaining  a permit.  ahead  invest if  to  it  being  However,  2  30  million  foresaw  In  the  technical  9  is  fact,  any  of  on  seems  real  to  replied  unlikely  in  building  possibility  Director  ahead  the  the  and  it  that  disposal requirements  of  himself  conceded that  go  obtained.  He  done it  opera-  permitted  dollars  the  hearing would  was  the  was  a member  Utah  development  what  unless  aware  a s k e d why  a permit. prior  well  was  facilities  obtain  was  Affairs,  now g o i n g  company w o u l d  question  men w e r e  begin  own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " .  to  obvious  Municipal  mine  concentrating failure  c o u l d not  Control  "work  350  company management  mine  The M i n i s t e r Pollution  Over  site.  The tion  held.  was  the  would  only be  93 imposed. Elaine "...  Price,  fair  would  At  get  replied:  to  the one  of  of  "Yes,  affair.  the  that  a permit?";  perhaps  Utah  the  presume  that  One week was  hearing,  the  most  to  the  Control  which  started  its  Utah  assume." hearing public  question  by  whether  operation  it  Mrs. is  assuming  administrative  it  manager  OjA  an  event  response  protested  Branch i n  a  objectors,  Wheaton,  dramatic  A petition  Pollution  Utah  fair  before  response to  recognized  R.O.  is  in  the  refusing  occurred in  the  entire  "arbitrary to  allow  that  action"  S.P.E.C.  170.  and  other  groups  350  employees  The  Chairman  to  object  engaged  the  was  Peitition  Committee  It's  a very  important  issue,  have  serious  danger  We  feel  Rupert to  to  effects our  there Inlet  hear  on  all  children  could and  be  the  S.P.E.C.'s  signed  construction  the  a  of  in  publicly,  and  a  brief  Utah  that:  which  could  us  and  could  of  the  mill  site.  be  grand-children.  danger  fact  the  241  stated  one of  of  by  that  of  pollution  the  makes  us  Board feel  to  refuses  this  more  qc.  strongly.  J  Such  an  unprecedented  show o f  part  of  union  who  struction, to  the  dence  members  is  indicative  project. in  the  effectively  It  ability toward  of  the  depend of  also  environmental  the  hearing  uled  on December  were  permitted  the  right  three  to  the  of  only  and  on t h e  one  in  advisors, two  Through  lawyers  S.P.E.C.  of  mine's  public  lack  Control  of  on  the con-  opposition  public  Branch to  environmental  confiwork  quality.  Hearing Utah  Port  Utah a  base  improved  advisor  the  on the  extreme  Pollution  goal  1970  counsel,  technical  Francisco,  2,  wide  suggests  The The  directly  awareness  application Hardy.  each,  and  did  company  including  the  Although  representative  senior  lay  was  held the  objectors  sched-  objectors  not  formally  was  supported  official  senior  as  from  have by  San  counsel.  had  obtained  three  advisors:  a marine  biologist  oceanographer  from  member  U.B.C.  was  of  the  represented  become  a member  advisor. the  The  by  a  of  the  (on  officials.^  PhD.  the  intended  recognized  the  hearing,  and  transportation°to  it  the  outlined and  the  and  hearing)  Port  culled  had as  from  organized  Hardy  for  own  the  three  of  of  technical  of  rejected of  company meetings  advisors  cost  before  provided  list  tactics  technical  assumed the  shortly  his  a  a  Society  helpfully with  and  Salmon  cross-examination  their  Society  then  so  the  stated  procedure that  and to  the  Pollution  scheme  be  made and  the  far  prior  of to  accommodation  the  objectors  as  that  by  Control  Branch hearing  a  opening  short  operation  purpose the  applicant  contemplated  procedure,  was  the  in  acted  Branch had  officials  Director,  that  concerned,  He  the  indicated  clear  works  aid  who  an  and  advisors.  Venables,  Act,  the  of  who  University,  Columbia,  Pacific  student  apparently  objectors  When  he  day  British  The  and  Control  to  the  and  of  Ecology  Society  S.P.E.C.  6  Simon F r a s e r  Law F a c u l t y .  questions",  objections,  their  University  Pollution  objectors  "suggested  the  from  the  the  that  Pollution  Control  Branch  give  empowers  proceeded  to  outline  followed  at  the  applicant,  adequate  Utah  will him  for  the  hearing.  Construction  day.  cause  which  He  made  was that  the .  pollution.  determine first  Mr.  Control  assurance not  to  in  Pollution  hearing  application  Act  the  statement  the  must  of  of  opened,  his  time  own  the  Generally,  the  format  and M i n i n g  Company,  •'172.  would by  present  the  four  Following  its  recognized  the  in  witnesses,  the  hall  whether be  a  examination  of  the  panel  consisted  closing  Pollution  Control  the  a  third  application  and  the  its  advisors.  Next, to  the  any or  of  of  the  by  by  sworn  and  Finally cross-  members  counsel,  whom w e r e  the  from  objectors.  applicant  his  two  their  questions  advisors  Director,  make  cross-examination  allowed  by  cross-examination  would  representatives  applicant  and  of  the  three  engineers  and  biologist.  brief  was  be  statement  of  to  counsel.  B r a n c h members,  PhD.  The  would  by  their  objectors  submit  his  Company  would  which  or  followed  and/or  the  themselves  representative  public  there  and  first,  objectors  cross-examination,  presentations, Company  application  presented  lengthy  and  by  the  Company  contained  in  support  preliminary  of  studies  its of  97 currents,  density  profiles,  apparent,  however,  through  and the  bottom  fauna.  cross-examination  It  became  by  the  objectors  98 and  the  had  been  presentation done  ecological the  were  observations. (1) heavy  metals  brief. occurred  not  problems  effluent's  of  their  conclusive  involved.  harmlessness In  briefs, in  that  answering  Sweeping  had  been  the  studies  the  fundamental  generalizations  made  on v e r y  which  as  to  limited  particular:  The  possibility  was  not  even  of  biological  considered  The  fact  that  accumulation  in  fish  near  a  similar  of  in  concentration  the  copper  tailings  Company's and  outflow  lead at  of  lengthy has  Buttle  Lake  173.  on Vancouver either  Island  unaware  avoided  the  The  sulfides  brief.  levels  basic  discussion (2)  metal  of  of  of  the  the  preliminary  sulting  from  the  exposure  was  discussed (4)  The  to  fry  96  in  in  a  100  of  the  only  marine  w a t e r . T h e the  of  o r g a n i s m s was per  cent  B.C.  the  Inlet  not  were  simply  of  heavy  considered on the  deserve  tests. ^ 1  at  in  eventual least  be  affected  were  carried  effects The  of  such out  limited  Research on b e h a l f  of 96  many  were as  in  the  re-  open  direct hour  were  toxicity  pit  test of not  inherent  of  crabs,  the  involving  simulated carried  coho  tailings  out  by  limitations  of  conducted on organisms  clams,  on any  the  a  surfaces  pollution  brief.  tests  the  No t e s t s  > 1  ore  metal  concentration  to  (5)  was  possibility  investigation  adds  sub-lethal  in  Company's  a c c e p t e d method  No t e s t s  this  the  these  to  brief  or  oxidation  p o s s i b l e heavy  that  likely  bacterial  of  fact  hour  the  investigation. extent  salmon  of  considerations,  environment  metals  The  effluent  of  implications  (3)  not  authors  subject."  marine  s o l u b l e heavy  the  biological  possibility  in  The  suggests that  most  phytoplankton,  organisms to  indicate  etc.  possible  effluent. tidal  of  the  current  measurements  Company i n d i c a t e d  made  that  by  "deep  102 water was  currents  not  scouring  do o c c u r "  favourable  to  and v e r t i c a l  the  in  Rupert  Inlet.  Company a s - i t  mixing  may  occur.  This conclusion  indicated These  that  actions  bottom would  '1-7 4-. tend the  t o bring the t a i l i n g s authors  of this  Company e n g a g e d  study  any  surface waters.  1 0 3  was " d a t a  Instead the  consultant t o reinterpret the  Whereas  t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e B.C.  are i n s u f f i c i e n t  t o document  c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s " , t h e Utah c o n s u l t a n t concluded  "current  measurements a r e adequate t o i n d i c a t e  strength  and c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c u r r e n t s " .  were b o t h during  t h e B.C. R e s e a r c h  favour  the general  These  conclusions  survey  o f Rupert  Inlet  was  designed  t h e Company's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e was n o t s i g n i f i i n the i n l e t .  1  0  4  Nearly  a l l samples  were o f t h e b o t t o m s e d i m e n t s b e l o w 100 f o o t d e p t h s . concluded  that  of Rupert  Inlet  "benthic p r o d u c t i v i t y i s not high".  productivity  t h e more p r o d u c t i v e  intertidal  bottom f i s h (7)  Inlet  basin  a n d n o s a m p l e s were t a k e n i n  and e u p h o t i c  zones.  The p r o shrimp and  i n the brief.  The r e p o r t p r e s e n t e d  i n Rupert  The r e p o r t  i n t h e deep c e n t r a l  valuable species o f crabs,  was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  taken  No a t t e m p t was made t o e s t i m a t e  i n the Inlet  duction o f commercially  profiles  taken  study.  The b i o l o g i c a l  cant marine l i f e  primary  reliably that  made o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e same o b s e r v a t i o n s  (6) to  At the hearing  were n o t r e p r e s e n t e d .  an independent  B.C. R e s e a r c h d a t a . Research study  into  concluded  o n t h e measurement that  "density  of density  stratification 105  exists The  through  t h e e n t i r e water column w i t h i n Rupert  o n l y a c t u a l m e a s u r e m e n t s made were t a k e n  1970, a n d were r e p o r t e d  Inlet".  o n one d a y , J u n e 17,  f o r o n l y two s t a t i o n s i n R u p e r t  Inlet.  175. The  generality  given  the  they  was  had  limitations the  the  p r e s s who  created  had  life not  not  create  was  carried  scientific by  the  a  the  of  question  ards  for  area,  and  s h o u l d not  Nevertheless, the  hearing  be it  of  noted  marine  the  of  be  panel,  a  the  to  out  the  Utah  dealt  lay  the  and  The  questions  0  6  dialogue and  the  was  with  quality  objectors  1  reading  briefs  mainly  only  effect  that  waters."  pre-development  that  impression  consultants  submitted  for  discharge  objectors.  information of  The  technical  produce t e c h n i c a l  number  records  the  of  objectors  monitoring  environmental for  A member  the  their  surface  that  briefs  technical  and  of  recognized  pointed  expected was  though  need  that  that  the  consideration  inadequate,  claiming  previously  and t h e  of  consultants both  application.  would  overall  of  time.  system.  reported  their  by  Utah's  lack  scurrying to  since the  briefs  of  proposed system of  their  general  the  hearing  entirely  of  formality,  of  the  justified,  s p a c e and  questioning  excessive turbidity  more  Several  reaction  convincing in  advisors  the  both  and t h e i r  tailings  almost  objectors  largely  support  o b v i o u s l y not  in  serious  experts  s h o u l d be on  the  base  the  Utah's  of  data  components of  in  been  It  data  Utah  that  the  from  attended  data  was  on marine  would  their  harried  additional  of  expected  biological  "had t h e  conclusion is  clear  not  of  for  Utah  the  limitations  It that  of  the stand-  planning. could  not  information. that  raised  interested by  objectors  in  cross-examination  that  involved  policy  issues  were  quickly  107 ruled  out  of  order  At  the  by  end  tne of  Director.  the  day  the  hearing  was  adjourned  sine  ] 08 die  pending  both the  S.P.E.C.  and  Pollution  groups  felt  December  the  outcome R.A.P.A.  Control  that  of  they  2 hearing,  appeals  with  the  Act  internal  had  been  and  were  that  had  been  Pollution appeal  unjustly  1  0  Control  to  by  Board  procedure.  9  excluded  determined  filed  be  from  heard  under  Both the  in  a  public  forum. Pollution Following dated  November  Pollution decision  to  Control  and  to  under  to  following of  seemed the  the  Hooker to  of  from In  that  the In  his  groups  Pollution  the the  Hardy  letter,  the  listed,  (Nanaimo) to  with  appeal  Port  providing  directly  Pollution  considered his  persons  Chemicals  the  to  the  he  Appeal  along  the  to  this  s u g g e s t i o n made  Chemicals  Both Director  the  respond  Hooker  them  Act.  from  decided  Board.  hear  Board  S . P . E . C ,  indicated  order  tion  1970,  exclude  specifically  be  letter  A s s o c i a t i o n , had  Pollution  hearing  6,  the  Control  by  be  Control Richmond  to  Director  had  1  1  0  judicial  the  decision to an  hold  J .  Again  he  in the  criticism  appeared  ReapplicaDirector levied  in  Case.  forwarded Control  notices  with  of  covering  a  appealable  information,  L t d .  Anti-  Director's  hearing,  Wootton,  Branch  appeal  to  letters  the requesting  postponement pending were  the  also  Control  of  the  outcome  served  Board.  1  filed  by  (1) prived  the  treatment notice  1  Director  that  requisite  to  objectors  the  were  the  of  July  the  venue  in  costly,  and  in  Port  the  public  tions  into  became  of  1970  appeal  the  that  in  their  consideration  the  natural  Pollution  Act  justice  because  failure  to  letter  in  the  mainland  during  for  large  the  was  Branch w e l l  Hardy  from  the  Director  reaching  his  reply  stated  in  fair  to  clear  by  was  a  the the  pre-  region the  of  many of  decision  part:  the  British area  accommodation objectors.  meritorious take  of  Vancouver  hearing,  to  and  inappropriate knew,  numbers were  and  decision process;  hearing  lower Port  the  de-  reply  the  application.  Director's  of  inadequate  to  of  notices  Director  response  objections  in  by  made  clear  requires  similar  was  the to  the  It  Control  inadequate  interest  The  of  1970.  participation  located  as  to  Control  3rd,  that  is  suggested  2nd,  notices  Chairman  consequences of  Transportation  They  The  1  followed  rights  Pollution  Pollution  is  December  namely:  procedure  Columbia.  Hardy  1  urged  groups,  afterward  that  as  1  for  McKinnon,  were  their  further  (2) because,  of  of  letter  only  F.S.  two  the  the  given  Director's  appeal.  grounds  the  under  the  scheduled  2  groups  was  of  on Mr.  Two m a i n appeal  hearing  and  their on t h e  1  1  3  that  objecpermit  173. Your of  attention  section  which  12  the  at  on t h e  Hardy  Following appeals  were  Victoria made who  by  the  appear  in as  agent that  the  that  it  an  Association  was  of  at  Hardy  including  its  given  at  Port  on the  was  placed  the  consequences of since  ing  the  T.W.  the  hearing,  opportunity  he to  been  the  held  as  1970.  Port  1  1  of  that  Construcscheduled  4  Hardy  Control first  stay  Utah  hearing,  B o a r d  1  ^  the  -j_  n  presentation  been  unfairly  Hardy  the  was  hearing;  opportunity  and  the  that  located was  in  the  to  reply  support  report,  failure  this  to  his the  1  to  material  heard  of  8  the  hearing  area  and  reliance  proper  letter  of  notice July  application,  had  allow  come  in  a  a  of  3rd.  includ-  forward  R.A.P.A.  resulted  in  objectors,  Strong  provide  1  be  the  to  of  the  Vancouver  l i m i t e d . •'•^  failure  Consultants that  in  of  to  that  to  location  s i n c e many  discriminated  Director  a proper  failure  respond to  advised  c h o s e n by  Port  Director's  argued  are  be  a  1967,  Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ,  Hardy  new m a t e r i a l Beak  The  inappropriate  R . A . P . A . , were  accommodation  Also,  at  as  from  the  Pollution  not  objection; was  of  Act,  act  2nd,  A s s o c i a t i o n had had  not  application  1970.  the  objector  support Port  the 8,  of  you  Company w i l l  sub-section 7  Control  shall  on December  by  to  Pollution  adjournment  on December  argued  against  heard  the  directed  accordingly  and M i n i n g  Port  ...  "No a p p e a l  and  hearing  tion  of  states:  execution"  is  at  proper  denial  of  x  '  17.9.  natural  justice  within  the  principles  laid  down  in  Western  1I Limited  v.  Greater  Re A p p l i c a t i o n the  strict  not  have  it  had  legal  been  Hooker  excluded  the  new  it  may  provide in  by  segment  the  of  an  public  with  lined and  group.  respect  behalf  of  He  to  the  of  the  the  the  S.P.E.C.  technical  information  Lands, one  of  of He  to  Forests the  of  in  and Water  Pollution  room a p p r o x i m a t e l y  on b e h a l f  the  permit and  an  way  the the been  hearing, confiis  hearing. appeal legal  on  1  then  S.P.E.C.  appropriate  Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n  1  argument on  outprocess,  experts had  additional  public  Board members, the  2  behalf  submitted  application  through  respond  Act  Resources Minister,  Control half  to  and  significant  scientific  that  first,  public  Association,  stated  present  had  should  the  Control a  from  interested  agency  reference  technical  an  second,  an  that  Apart  0  reasons:  Company at  presented  the  2  opportunity  and  from  by  in  also  is  Pollution  and h e a r i n g  range  an  1  R.A.P.A.  two  representing  excluded  involvement  to  presented  by  Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n  indicated  hearing  given  it  and  L t d .  that for  that  insights;  incorporated  available  the  if  counsel then  notice  S.P.E.C.'s  Williston,  and  new  is  (Nanaimo)  actions  Q  District,  hearing  organization  S.P.E.C.'s that  the  administration  when  Water  emphasized  submitted  valuable  undermined  of  its  information  the  he  from  organization,  to  River  Chemicals  argument,  demonstrated  responsible  dence  of  Campbell  Mines  forum.  Ray entered  argument Association.  ieo. Later In  he  addressed  particular,  wrangles cedures said,  he  were  told  simply  s h o u l d be  they  some c o m m e n t s them  time  that  simply  the  group  appeals  wasted.  necessary.  should  to  If  No  procedural  formal  groups  send t h e i r  and  hearings  have  briefs  representatives.  or  pro-  information,  he  to  the  Director,  appeals  was  rendered  and  122 to  the  press.  The following as  Board's  day.  Each  d e c i s i o n on t h e group  received  identical  the  written  reasons  view  the  follows: The A p p e a l fact  that  is the  disallowed; appellants  certain  new t e c h n i c a l  garding  the  if  they  writing, within  Company,  so wish, to  the  thirty  the  Director  not  to  make  application  any  On t h e  material  c o u l d be  one  the  the  of  the  Pollution  that  he  has  they  Utah  of  this  have re-  Mining are  and  requested,  information,  Pollution  date  of  available  of  Control  is  in  Control,  this  decision regarding  before  in  appellants  forward  order,  and  instructed  the  said  considered the  aforesaid  1 2 3  decision left  dilemma.  by  Director  days of  information.  This  to  state  information  application  Construction  however,  hand,  construed  the  the as  groups  facing  opportunity a  limited  to  something file  victory.  of  a  further However,  it  181. was  felt  l i t t l e than  that  weight,  it  would  publicized. of  the  had  fair cal  if  Also,  material  to  the  main  have  been waived the  by  be  heard as  the  Supreme  following  the  that  since the  permit  was  more  effective  action  might  the  issues  in  and  in  subsequent  the  same,  if  the  an  to  none the  at  to  the  be  one  Supreme  latter  c o u r s e were  adopted.  filed  a  of  a writ  Court  waiver  result,  two  of  the  further  technical  again  full  further there be  techni-  was  fear  taken  within  very  to  further thirty  of  Certiorari  permit.  Since  under  12  s. be  became  a  within  the  felt  shortly,  of  a to  the the  Act,  substantially real  p o s s i b i l i t i e s were brief  and  g r o u p members  granted  the  trained,  course a  many  members  arguments  might  p r o c e e d i n g s , would  of  R.A.P.A.  for  grant  possibility  the  be  If  Cabinet)  but  4  to  was  the  and a  Order,  hearing  the 2  the  notice  the  There  1  of  impact  adequately  legally  hearing. by  to  them  weight  the  the  In  of  adequate  (or  certiorari  lesser  that  likely  the  a  believe  decision to  appeal  have  accorded  reason to  Board's O r d e r ,  ultimate  would  be  and  groups.  Court  would  hearing  allowed  relating  point  public  Board,  days  quash  a  provide  filed  point  at  it  appreciate  to  to  this  event  was  Control  were  that  any  there  failure  opportunity  to  in  presented  failed  upon  appeal  response at  and  Pollution  simply  based  any  danger  covered.  thirty  day  125 period, long  while  letter  to  S.P.E.C.'s  the  Director  Executive of  Director  Pollution  simply wrote  Control  a  reiterating  19c group's  position  on  its  failure  to  be h e a r d ,  ^°  and  otherwise  the  182.  did  nothing  more.  Resulting  Permit  Policy  and  P r o c e d u r a l Changes  Conditions On J a n u a r y  20,  1971  the  public  hearing  was  formally  1 p-7 closed  by  the  and M i n i n g Branch  to  Director.  Co.  was  The  following  issued a permit  dispose of  9.3  million  by  day  the  gallons  Utah  Construction  Pollution of  Control  copper mine  waste  1 op daily  into  different permit that  from  did  the  Rupert  that  however  Director  pollution  Inlet.  The  originally contain  of  The  to  land  p r o p o s e d by  a number  Pollution 129  safeguards".  1.  d i s p o s a l s y s t e m was  of  Control  shall  sufficient  and  not  suitable  pond on or  before  prior  discharge,  whichever  The  2. an  Permittee  emergency  standards repair 3.  The  (shall)  tailings  and  such  throughout Permittee  to for  December date  The  requirements  "stringent  anti-  requirements  that:  secure a  tenure  tailings  31, is  1973,  the  or  sooner.  d e s i g n and  construct  pond t o  acceptable  engineering  be  life  shall  not  maintained of  the  fail,  prior  to  discharge,  to  post  form  in  the  amount  of  $1,500,000.00  five  (5)  operating  years  security  after  in  good  permit.  ment  of  no  . . .  shall the  were  fail  disposal to  termed  be  Company.  specific  Among t h e s e  Permittee  the  to  in for  to an a  commenceacceptable period  d i s c h a r g e commences.  183. The to  security  or  forfeiture  with  should the  an o r d e r  alternate  a portion  of  the  thereof Permittee  Director  or modified  will  to  system of  be  fail  subject  to  comply  construct treatment  an and/or  discharge. 4.  The Permittee  agent  or  phase  sampling  be  organization  carried  years  to  at  least  discharge  ascertain  receiving  to  program which  five  (5)  will  operating  all  subject  to  . . .  natural  conditions  through  Rupert  in  monitoring  into  the  the  monitoring  the  the  receiving of  Holberg  Inlet,  waters...  effects  of  the  effluent  environment  the physical-chemical-  characteristics  Inlet,  Inlet,  and r e l a t e d  ascertain  biological Holberg  of  Narrows  discharged through  the  a two-  in physical-chemical-biological  characteristics Quatsino  independent  commences -  environment  variations  an  s e t up and conduct  by the D i r e c t o r  to  ((b))  engage  and s u r v e i l l a n c e  on f o r  after  approval (a)  shall  Quatsino  of  Rupert  Narrows  and  Inlet, related  130 waters.  Despite quirements original  do not  their  initial  represent  disposal plan.  appearance  the  any s i g n i f i c a n t  T h e Company a l r e a d y  first  change  in  two  re-  the  had c o n t r o l  of  far  184. more  land  than  tailings. was  The  proposed  Company h a d the in  public the  included  of  of  mill  to  the  system.  if  it  damage only an  the  an  land  granting  plans  disposal  emergency  it  in  1  Presumably  of  of  the it  the  tailings  pond  permit.  The  prepared  prior  the mine  was  of  considered  to  necessary  failure  in  the  underwater  disposal  system.  tailings  to  the  emergency  pond would  allow  operations  requirement was of  the the  believe were  At whether  3  of  for  while  repairs  were  made  to  \  construction  pond  1  continue  proposal  to  a  the  One  reason  necessary  before  hearing.  the  be  construction  long  event  Diversion  its  would  this  the  posting  time  the  security Inlet  that  the  security or  to  be  c a u s e d by  modified  was  the  posted  as  not  as  effluent. against  disposal  system  the  Company  security  in  against  there  is  no  build  the  tailings  bond.  issued  available the  by  However,  post  permit  is  bond  Company w o u l d  would  the  the  pond.  required  to  alternate  the  contemplated of  tailings  that  not  not  it  was  uncertain  compensation The  permit  failure on the  to  for states  construct  order  of  the  Director.  A meeting 20,  1971,  was  at  The  question  the  was  of  attended  time of  also  the by  Pacific the  a member  compensation  Salmon  Minister of for  the  of  Society  Municipal  Pollution  damages  on  was  February Affairs  Control  put  to  him  who  Board. at  the  185. meeting to  the  the  and he capital.  terms  of  questions security results  is in  not the  It  1  3  it  2  Inlet  in  it  disposal  in  the  not  would  be  directly  would  merely  did  as  from  the  move  the  of  the  l i t t l e  arise  as  since drainage Inlet.  tailings  on h i s  simply  restated to  the  therefore,  that  any  that  be  damage  use a  as  to  the to  part  on the  the  of  of  the  their  emergency using the  of  shore  one w a l l  place  result  from  one  built  shore  A shift  from  return  discharge.  pond w i l l  i s l a n d near be  it  address himself  effluent  tailings  the  he  seem p r o b a b l e ,  should problems  into  to  compensation for  therefore  Inlet,  answer  and  u s i n g an  tailings  an  however,  would  emergency  will  write  letter,  intended  Inlet,  dam.  his  permit  asked.  Rupert  the  In  the  The of  promised to  the  pond pond  Inlet  to  another.  The Company  to  undertake  indication the  of  disposal  proposed, will  be  example,  is  however, any  copper  food-chain  the  a program  biological monitoring,  system w i l l  identified  avoiding  p r o v i s i o n of  some a d v a n c e  there  guarantee, in  fourth  in  be  now t h e before that  of  permit,  pollution  control  no d i f f e r e n t possibility  it  becomes  from  that  that  system w i l l  effects  is  accumulate  in  some o t h e r  mechanism,  concentration  or  the  is  the an  Although  originally to  There  undesirable found to  of  requires  policy.  damage  serious.  a monitoring  that  be  the is  no  successful  discharge.  If,  some o r g a n i s m s it  Inlet  is  for through  possible  186.  that  there  will  introduction copper tion  of  appear  may  tailings  that  animal  stopped.  been  of  aimed in  of  this  to  set  approached the  is  At  between  Utah  1971  to  August  Professor  31,  1972.  J . B . Evans,  Engineering.  The  cost  initial  period  will  be  substantially  data  collection  consultants U.B.C. of  the  will  and Utah  Committee data.  and  are  be  This  program  The  Head  of  to  Utah  of  $40,500. more  in  the  there  is  no  requirement  a  analysis will employees. design of  resulted the  rates  exof  underindication  of  an  inde-  program,  U.B.C.  an  Board  of  p e r i o d March program  Department  of  Mineral  the  assistance for  U.B.C.  Total large  cost part  carried  The main program  of of  out  the the by  functions and  the  agreement  the  be  the  in  covering the  1 3 3  since  of  Columbia through  supervisor of the  contamina-  laboratory  assist  British  approved by  a monitoring  of  attempted.  the  of  Engineering Department.  for  be  of  discharge  biological monitoring  University  and U . B . C ,  the  accumulation  present  will  Mineral  Governors,  the  time  amounts  possible that  comply w i t h up the  the  situation,  after  organisms would  nature  to  this  even  determining  problems.  order  agent  at  It  from  significant  In  grow worse  marine  these  until  tissue.  has  In  Utah  tailings  to  research  pendent  considerable delay  continue  metals  standing  a  the  in  perimentation heavy  be  is  the  program actual  commercial of  1,  the  interpretation  187. The  pollution  control  permit  issued to  Utah  states  that: Prior to  to  and  for  discharge,  shall  be  the  data  tabulated  first  year  collected and  after  during  submitted  commencing  each  quarter  quarterly  to  the  Director; and  also  that  the  Submit  independent  comprehensive  tabulated  data  program.  The  submitted  to  it  published.  may  be  submitted prior  to  permit  does  program w i l l the  1  3  committee  the  is  thereafter.  not  be  to 1  3  to  the  a  and  form  report time  discharge  that  shall  of,  be  but  and  at  annual  4  state  a n d made  have  such  first  at  surveillance  interpreted  in  The  and  the  that  the  available  committed  to  results the  of  the  public;  itself  verbally  to  is  composition of  but  this  5  An  important  in  terms  present,  the  of  consideration the  three  main  areas  Engineering,  Geology,  members  from  these  that  each  of  there  is  a  the  academic' d i s c i p l i n e s  Mineral  suggests  to  specifically  published  containing  sampling  Director  commencement  Branch appears  p o l i c y .  At  be  the  data  must:  reports  approximately  intervals The  of  agent  of  study  represented.  represented  and Oceanography,  departments.  serious  risk  of  This  with  are four  composition  repeating  the  the  188. inadequacies  of  the  organization  was  report  commissioned to  feasibility  of  that  specialist  case  a  p r o d u c e d by  d i s c h a r g i n g mine in  determining  the  most  In  the  the  advisory  of  directing  to  a  case  group  outnumber  of a  in life  The Institute  of  plankton,  the  engineers  two  biologists  Oceanography; other  in  one  committee  whose  of  study  but  this  tions  regretable  data  The  nekton  well  led as  the  on which  to  the  was  study water  given  it  into  the  bodies. the  appears  In  entire  disposal  program has  that been  task  method.  the  task  assigned  scientists  full  specialty swimming  not  in  the  directly of  ability  greatly  Land Use  to  marine  from  U . B . C ,  Department involved  and  of  in  Director  no  areas  Zoology,  the  consulta-  This  probably the  is other  These  committee. would  the  there  fish  the  phyto-  Because of  interpret  the  both  organisms).  the  to  at  are  in  involves  participation  recommendations  Utah  specialist  zooplankton.  formation  committee's  and  a  committee  departments  (free  was  the  their  Environment The  one  represented  department  that  enhanced  the  are  into  physical  on the  marine  of  of  the  that  scientists.  structure  members  and  R e s e a r c h when  acceptable  committee,  monitoring  particular on the  wastes  ecologically  biological which  conduct  microbiology  of  B.C.  is  have  biological  will  be  based.  Act  controversy  has  also  resulted  in  enactment  189. of  a  new  statute  to  ensure  empowered  of  of  public  Use A c t  public  the  British  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  development Land  by  environmental  land  and  authorizes  to  formulate  environmental  environmental  and m i n i m i z e  Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e ,  resources.  establishment  and  in  consequential  a n d make  recommendations  Council  relating  to  and use  of  may  also  hold  and  appoint  public  use  and  environmental  reports  land  of  a  awareness;  land  to  the  to  in 1  engage  it  inquiry  an  Committee  foster  increased  consideration development,  and  the  committees, deems  and  prepare  Lieutenant-Governor-in-  resources.  when  Cabinet  damage;  other  inquiries  and  Environment  resource  problems  technical  use  ensure  environmental natural  in  The  recommend p r o g r a m s  c o n c e r n and  factors  impact  designed  3  development The  7  Committee  consultants, necessary  and  to  13 8 properly  determine  This rather  Committee  Minister,  permit.  large  He  proceed  until  he  pollution  situation  where  to  approval  that  c o u l d be  during  appears  the  to  statement  in  the  its  be by  massive  set  permit  had  against  the  application  direct  Lands,  that  investment  in  not been a  by  a  Water  of  the  future,  be  allowed  to  obtained.  repeat the  of  and  granting  had  prevent  result  Forests  would  approval  would  capital created  the  Legislature  control  candidly,  jurisdiction.  following  resource developments  said quite  permit  within  Ray W i l l i s t o n ,  stated  extractive  This,  matter  surprising policy  Resources Utah  any  of  the  Company  Utah  prior  overwhelming  economic  imperatives  environmental  concerns  raised  process.  J  He  emphasized  that  190. these by  go-ahead  technical  original Use  approval  experts  statement  Committee,  would  be  decided  and p u b l i c  recently  introduce  directed  move  strong  particularly public  these  separate  not  hold  no  requirement  information Committee which  will  The  or  filing  criticism  hearings  to  as  that to  deliberations  objections,  the  to  it  is  of  nature,  made  Cabinet,  with  be  commence. can  not  major  Nor  Land 4 0  subsequently  encouraged  a  itself.  They  guarantee  taken  permit. the  to de  before  the  their  that  in  the  machinery by  Control  kind  was  Act. ' 1  of with  made  Environment  decision is  public  before  Cabinet  application  is  adequate  concern  the  whether  there or  any  were  are  public  Pollution  facto  go-ahead of  there  formalize  However,  no g u a r a n t e e  the  the  that  discretion out  by  they  developments  to  is  register  desirable  that  given  can under  development  clear  was  proposed developments  Utah  it  does  pointed  the  makes  Act  also  have  Use A c t  legislation  They  been  it  however,  given  must  Control  problem;  merely  they  Cabinet  Land A c t , " ' "  generally  before  that  Pollution  in  the  persons as  the  is  notice  their  the  held  hearings.  Clearly  regard  be  Williston's  existing  however,  were  this  at  Committee  interested  decision  with  Mr.  evaluation  legislation.  groups  deal  include  under  duties;  concerned that  undertaken.  by  to  the  established  Environmental government  would  hearings.  suggested that  charged with to  procedures  and  s t i l l  participation,  for Land to or  be  191.  even  public  that  the  merely  notice.  Pollution  Does  -  participation  become  meaningless in  and  effect,  not  resulted  in  otherwise with  the  been  Court,  Supreme  a  the to  of  Rupert  also  one  S.P.E.C.  was  a  the  had  The  that  and 72  Case.  3,  quash the  4  enclosed with  the  out  permit  were that  the  Control  for  Act  will  now  Case on J a n u a r y  disappointed, their  efforts  conditions issue  cool;  and  1971,  with  Utah  permit  by  Paul who  Sound f o r who h a d  its  avenues  though may  than  seemed t o o there  20,  have  would fraught  remained  proven  successful  S.P.E.C.  support,  the  3  fisherman  fishermen  set  1  Piatocka  previously  Columbia  Quatsino  grounds  to  limited  of  2  permit  But,  had  4  is  means  participation  the  felt  onerous  commercial  Inlet of  They  allowed  British  Pollution  officials  o n May  to  the  1  process  technical the  f i a t .  of  acknowledgement  so,  public  Permit:  be  route  action of  under  case.  an  with  If  granting  Chemicals  Court  Piatocka  the  more  Therefore, certiorari  damage?  surprised.  have  only  effective  the  slightly  Hooker  application  R.A.P.A.  possibilities  Supreme in  and  altogether  permit  upon C a b i n e t  Following S.P.E.C.  Act  developed  Challenging  1971,  to  concerned  environmental  public  depend,  amount  Control  housekeeping  minimizing  this  the  commenced i n  Piatocka.  had some  signed  original  in  was  fished 15 the  of  the  Mr. in  the  years.  He  brief  that  objection.  notice  a  motion  were  area was  192. substantially additional in  deciding  vant  matter,  property  by  to  Utah.  the  In  pre-judgment  the  that  of  the  the  that  dismissed that  he  and the  the  Pollution  the  material  a three  action, lacked not  filed  notice  day  to  1  4  irrele-  fact  an  Act; his  taken  the  Control  standing  the  under  a valid  in  support  motion  was  June  Aikins,  a written first the  of  insufficient.  1 1 , 14 J .  and  judgement.  preliminary  to  15,  reserved,  Pollution  objection  the  the  1 4  and  ^  He  objection:  Control Utah  Act  permit  application.  Aikins  had  were:  exhaust  Pollution  the  counsel  file  not  in  ^  by  Control  had  hearing,  down  upholding  filed  of  objections,  15, 1971, handed  had  the  to  An  4  and  preliminary  the  to  failed  4  jurisdic-  this  These  status  s i n c e he  appeal  that  raised  Director. lacked  1  million  Director.  were  remedies,  Piatocka  because  upon the  internal  Following  September  alleged  objections  Board.  some $30  had  applicant's  on  was  the  c o n s i d e r i n g an  applicant  that  on the  it  by of  to  exceeded h i s  the  Board;  1971,  permit  issue  under  statutory  (3)  Director  applicant  objection  appeal  investment  preliminary  that  (2)  the  effect,  Attorney-General (1)  on the  issue the  namely,  Three for  argued  g r o u n d was  tion  forced  those  J.'s d e c i s i o n  seems q u e s t i o n a b l e  on  strictly  193. legal  grounds;  social  effective  Act  from  the  Chemicals decision  high  may  be  permit  considering  tion  under  s.  is  and by  13(6)  formal  under to  was  This  public  J . ' s  in  that  his  'effective  an  4  objection"  not  "public  This  8  not  may  made  all the  of  1  5  the  4  interest  to  permit This  9  Board  non-s.  13(2)  Therefore,  if  by  be  s u c h by  inviting  a  statute  brief,  as  if  it  were  give  it  a  status  or  an which  did  Aikins,  that must  little  had  The  0  and  determina-  objections 1  it  seem a  a  Director.  whether  by  reviewed  the  Piatocka.  objection  objection',  1  on any  cannot  in  below  Board and D i r e c t o r  objection'  Director  treating  of  i t .  to  the  q u e s t i o n was  application.  conclusion  'effective the  Utah  determination that  a key  that  that  forwarded  respect  reasoning.  Board had  the  Control  Hooker  discussed  Board had  the  opportunities  participants  the  13(6)  broader  the  important  be  a  Pollution  following  will  consider  the  the  "ineffective  s.  from  reduces  an  a policy  in  including  (A)n  one  aspiring  though  s h o u l d be  correct  in  Aikins,  reason that  followed  objections, J.  even  established  applications  a  of  Director  the  make  to  under  reached  However,  7  helpful  it,  since  was  mark  could validate  the  previously  significantly  Lordship concluded that  odd,  not  water  determination  required"  policy  4  unsatisfactory  participation  examination  Director  a  1  case  applications.  His  made  The  public  Case.  following  the  completely  standpoint.  for  future  and  it  194. does then  every  invalid.  one  that  could  by  of  Since  unlikely who  not  the  the  The  tions  at  all.  The  objectors  by  therefore  entirely  eloquently  argued  judicially to  by  provisions  of  necessarily the  more  for  the  have  Western had  this,  was  to  to  in  the  the  counsel Court  allow  The  respect  the  licence  were  no v a l i d  Control  duty  by  to  to  the  Director  to  the  Hooker on  it  Section  of  so  to  validate  Control  does  is  interests  be  excluded  element  of  if But  arose  an  by  appropriately Act  by  of  This  a matter  the  placed  no h e a r i n g .  an  not  justice.  whenever  cases,  the  objection  This  of  act  Authorities,  the  natural  13(4)  to  objection  1  limitations  hold  duty  or  Chemicalsl^  and  were  Director  a  judicially  can  the  Piatocka s  Act.1^3  rights  objec-  hearing  the  find  and  common l a w  obligations  provisions.  to  "amend"  act  holders  hearing.  of  principle  the  Hardy  was  is  the  for  Pollution  policy,  it  with  Port  objection;  affected  rely  as  there  concerned that  Pollution  and  and  Supreme  Director  subject  Minesl^  decided  the  These  statutory  done  gracia,  imported  individual.154 drafted  officials  common l a w  decision that  objection  or  correspondence with  follow.  was  an  owners  Land,  of  a variant  general  principle  filed  "validate"  establishing  property  Crown  exchange  ex  be  remote  objections"  that  Court  would  any  was  interest  is  at  on t h e  "public  result  P.C.B.  The  objection  were  validly  13(2).  be  150-odd  have  s.  possess,151  mine-site  there  under  would  statute  may  the  the  Director  there  is  . 195. also act  authority  for  judicially  governing  when  interested  tion  and g i v e n  submitted, privilege  by  is  s t i l l  to  an  If  so,  a  to  to  even  if  all  affected  were  the  provided to  be at  if  a  the  with heard.  a  formal  does  of  arose  at  the  "Fair",  it  is  hearing  if  that  hearing  with  persons.  partici-  is  held,  p r i n c i p l e .  respect  hearing  it  amounted 1  5  8  to  (especially  formal  means  informa-  require  Mines  new m a t e r i a l s  introduced  This  7  correspondence  Western  judicially  5  his  affected  not  formal  1  relevant  similarly  justice  exchange  within  act  J .  estopped with  to  Director objector. see  rejected  from  denying  Piatocka's  he  position  can  also  Estoppel,  objector; his  s o .  to  under  must  the  on  T.W.  December  Hardy.  was  As  that  to  do  other  persons  c o n t i n u e d when  Port  deal  natural  hearing  duty  obliged  orally  But  and  I  heard  decision-maker if  opportunity  be  a  even  be  accorded to  Aikins,  ity  must  that  a hearing,  not  been  the  Director  is  has  informal  in  he  fair  means  Beak R e p o r t ) 2nd,  accords  parties  arguable  Piatocka  proposition  he  legislation  that  pation  the  the  did as  There no  that  applicant  such him was  argument he  objection.  not  treating  the  change h i s affected as  if  sound b a s i s  for  the  author-  said: not  any  were  no p r e j u d i c e  the  without  a  qualified  position,  in  he  was  He was  that  to  way a  nor by  was  the  qualified the  argument  applicant. given  196.  me b a s e d o n  The Director  to  difficulty  shelter  cations .  This  should  least  at  There  is  which  the  in  have  of  the 1  6  does  a procedural  into  the  a  latter  detriment  believing  to  that  was  that  he  the  protection  The point  of  view  Board must  closely planning  akin  the  result is  that  in  the  the  from  the  is  to  in  confer  tribunal,  is  operational  a and  irregularity  involving  as  estoppel. to  Inlet  of it  falls 1  6  1  obtain  The u l t i m a t e  into result  regarding  fishery.  environmental  it  meets  Court.  being misled  Rupert  that  interdepartmental  the  representations  not  to  argument  failure  of  so.  upon s e c t i o n  that  his  is  is  responsibilities  an  an  it  Board an  not  in  do  the  but  modifi-  situation  or  case,  result  further  case  a  "mere  support  a  -  a  the  Board and D i r e c t o r ,  found  d e c i s i o n means and p a s s  officer  this  will  livelihood  disappointing,  The  by  c a n be  make  from  between  involves  Board as  to  estoppel  representation  that  allows  procedural  attention  unnecessary to  unable his  the  judicial  arguable  was  consider  the  upon a  is  reasoning  own i n f o r m a l  alleged  Piatocka  of  this  distinction  modification  it  unfavourable.  However,  the  from  was  that  suggests that  c l a s s , one  determination  9  representation It  0  5  r e c e i v e d more  jurisdiction  which  1  behind his  problem  effect  procedure".  The  is  a well-recognized  spurious one  estoppel.  groups'  altogether now c l e a r  13(6) body;  the  objections. rather  committee  with  from  to  time  that  it  is  policy  time.  It  more and is  197 .  likely  to  find  mountains versial result  of  itself  objections  permit in  a  that  full under  members  the  The  re-examination the  Act  public  and  to  unable  c a n be  applications.  procedures of  completely  to  deal  expected  decision,  of  the  on  in  the  future  contro-  therefore,  objection  clarification  participate  with  of  the  and  the  may  well  hearing  right  decision  of  process.  Conclusion  How d i d groups  affect  effects of and  the  on the  their  the  Pollution  efforts  « What can  is  be  be  role  given;  some g e n e r a l  but  activities  which well to  on the  to  do t h i s  hearing  and  full  effects  and b r i e f i n g the  even  and  though  forced  to  in  B.C.  to  ensure  the  result and  effective  control  O b v i o u s l y no v e r y of  a  any  legislative  pollution  review  Utah  decisions?  clear  answers  controversy,  of  Environmental Action groups'  the  identified.  independent  the  was  Utah  of  the  technically  able,  to  information based,  S.P.E.C.  excluded  through  was  experts,  p r o p o s a l were  alternatives.  informally  S.P.E.C.  technical  and q u a l i t y  develop  work  Can  made.  type  it  application?  Action  c a n be  conclusions in  suggest  Environmental  the  adequate  d e c i s i o n c a n be  challenge  certain as  after  Utah  Is  courts?  observations  recruiting  seriously  the  the  d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s as  identified? framework  of  Several  by  Control  and group p a r t i c i p a t i o n the  of  d e c i s i o n on t h e  administrative  citizen  activities  its  from  was  upon as able  the  individual  1-98. members, and as the  through o t h e r p a r t s of the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s ,  i n t e r n a l appeal t o the  such  Board.  In a d d i t i o n , the a c t i v i t i e s of S.P.E.C., R.A.P.A. and assorted  i n d i v i d u a l s r e s u l t e d i n the Utah a p p l i c a t i o n b e i n g  widely p u b l i c i z e d . strong  T h i s massive p u b l i c i t y , t h a t  c r i t i c i s m of the  P o l l u t i o n Control  t o have been at l e a s t p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e i s s u e and  a u t h o r i t i e s , appears f o r s e n s i t i z i n g the  f o r c i n g the d e c i s i o n t o h o l d a p u b l i c  It  i s impossible  featured  t o say what the  hearing.  r e s u l t would have  been i n the absence of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Groups.  But,  perhaps some i n d i c a t i o n of the Groups' e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s the f a c t t h a t the Utah permit c o n d i t i o n s  included  T h e performance bond requirement was  the  plant.  several  first  B i o l o g i c a l m o n i t o r i n g requirements had  p r e v i o u s p e r m i t s , but none were so d e t a i l e d and as t h a t  specified for Utah.I  f o r an  "firsts". industrial  been i n c l u d e d  in  comprehensive  6 2  T h e e x p e r i e n c e of the Groups a l s o h i g h l i g h t s a number o f problems i n h e r e n t t i o n and  i n the e x i s t i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l  legisla-  policies. 1.  T h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act  misleading  and  as t o the n a t u r e and  regulations  e f f e c t of  by the D i r e c t o r t o i s s u e p e r m i t s . not  d e c i d e the  first  order q u e s t i o n  not  the development should go  are  decisions  T h e D i r e c t o r does of whether or  ahead at a l l ; he  199.  merely  makes  technical systems limit gone  so  his far  him  dealing  as to  to  the  decision,  taken  of  the  under  suggest  permit  d e c i s i o n s on  Director  does  legal  authority  at  the  and  occasionally  in  Cabinet.  the  unhappy  and  outraged  of  higher  buffer  public issues  s u c h as  But,  his  in  any  event,  quality  and  quantity  up  to  overall  area.  The  denies  respect problem  to is  groups  and  ity  "control  to  in  water  Therefore,  Director with  plants  does  receiving that  the  individuals  make  the  level,  p o s i t i o n may Cabinet  Utah  Mine  in  give In  en-  proposal.  effluent permits  for  ultimately for  make  add  that  how v e h e m e n t l y fact  be  and  sensitive  standards  in  go-  decision  areas  water  pollution".  the  to  the  policy  quality.  legislation to  when  does  His  conditions  he  not  3  d e c i s i o n s on  quality  does  departmental  the  certain  even  permit  between  no m a t t e r  it,  6  on p o l i t i c a l l y  vironmental  individual  Act  1  the  and has  not  his  is  interest  applications.  previously  one  the  disposal  this  Act  public  nevertheless  and g i v e  the  that  the  the  effluent  considers that  consider  while  confirm  He  authority  with  However, ahead  acceptability  proposed.  of  permit  second order  the  appears Director  dealings  to  the  author-  with  the  Director direct of  and  their  whether  which  the  question  comment  plant  i n the  uses,  simply  and  should  has  receiving  authority  They be  concern  Director  to prevail  has  before  the  of  resource  proceedings  water  (which  operation  and  and  in  any  are  incapable  issues. the  It  effects  event,  is  of  to of  the  responding  little  that  ought  competing denies  that  he  inquiry  about  must  proposed;  assistance  they these  skepticism  develops  1  the  effectively to  wonder  rapidly  the  technology  expert  (over  applications).  the  quibbles  a l l  and t o  Director  why  question  to  i n permit  without  e n t i r e process  regard  understand  limited essentially  at  standards  the  therefore  the  authority)  consider  cannot  at  be b u i l t  area having  etc. to  no  him they  among  about  citizen  obj ectors. The it  real is  decisions  are  made  at  higher  obvious  that  discretionary  Environmental  Land  Use  tive  2.  public  As  the  sole  of  the the  preserve  polluter. process  involvement  framed,  invocation  can  Act  The be  in  do n o t these  levels,  statutes  of  the  and  like  guarantee  effec-  makes  formulation of  p o l l u t e r or  issues  potential  Pollution Control  Branch  i n i t i a t e d only  an a p p l i c a t i o n  by  the  decisions.  Pollution Control Act process  and  decision for  a  permit  the No  submitted  procedures interested  likely  to  be  the  matter  has  prepared  the  its  the  planned  system proposed, to  property  the  its  proposal that  will  related  raise  polluter  submitted  designed to  issues  the  to  regulations.  formally  until  application and  and  he has  can  filing,  of  related  not,  according  Act  whether  p r o p o s a l and  Before of  the  Director  technical  issues  in  or  narrow the  Director  down  affected  with  subject  carefully  laid  the  individual,  application. the  to  have  been  raise  to  the  and p o s s i b l y  obvious potential  is  mainly feasibility  scientific environmental  effects. In  addition,  a kind by  of  obtaining  placed  on h i s  own  vided of  allow  the  the  under  position  for  legislation  meaningful  limited  public  Participation to  have  acguired  discharge his  other  sums o f  statutes  money. of  public and t h e  B r a n c h and Board are  process.  to  already  waste and  Objectors  meeting  the  are  polluter  terms.  opportunities  by  the  in  may  right  approvals  substantial  always  The  applicant  pre-emptive  investing  3.  the  s t i l l  participation relevant too  involvement as  persons having  direct land  or  in  policies  narrow the  objectors a permit  pro-  to  decision is or  water  licence  likely  stantial Other must  crown  obtain to  on  get  All  in  of  file  this  are  of  may  in  valve  the  Director  by  his  buffer  The  internal  Control  tion. the  position  Act  widening  fact  appeal proved  public  It  is  Pollution  to  allow  response.  to  Control their  must  sufficient In  the  the  cases  Few  hearings  to  be  held  become  Director.  public  oral  within  appear  used mainly  be  remain  as  too  Public a  safety  pressure  in  the  makes  Pollution  as  a means  the  Utah  so u n t i l  Board acquire  a  be  done  earlier  time  applica-  in  for  the  analysis  decision process,  con-  the  conveyed to in  of  proper  proceedings under  must  of  members  responsibilities  lead  Utah  in  futile  participation  information  and t h i s  from  i s s u e has  procedure  judicial  tors,  and t h e y  the  untenable.  ducting  Better  Director.  when  of  4.  the  be  understanding these  all  determin-  before  in  the  and  interest  apart  sub-  exist.  Board,  are  largely  likely  the  quite  for  of  p e r s o n s may  public  where  hearings  areas  objections  held,  sensitive  In  with  is  which  situations  politically  such  their  discretion  objections  only  no  must  hearings,  sole  affected.  favourable  even  Director. public  a  be  land,  objectors  ation  the  to  Act.  objecprocess and  the  major  203. Utah  technical  was  received  recognized  objectors  only  Port  hearing.  The  Hardy  recognize  this  "suggested at  the  of  the  used  Utah  the  and t h e y  clarify  hearing to  the  they  were  their  objections.  actions  pollution  as  to  the  control  must  the  at  least  mimeographed  and  other  to  them  of  the  adequately  courts  Branch  conveying  information  this  ask  implications  words,  a means  Clearly  in  four  encouraged to  objectors,  unable  the  distributed  nature  In  itself  which  the  since  were  the  proposal.  information  Legal  Director  q u e s t i o n s " were  to  by  one week b e f o r e  difficulty,  hearing,  questions  opening  brief  without  support  is  not  good enough.  have  had  some i m p a c t  decision process to  in  representation 165  of  a wider  Chemicals hearing  is  procedural the in  range 1 6 6  time  to  of  with his  examine  it  interests. have the  standards  The since  cases  denied,  objectors support  of  was  that  apparently  hold  a  formal  this  meet  dealing  with  objectors.  information  and t o  hearing  a  large  on t h e  Utah  an  judicial  part  in  by  allow  comment  Chemicals case had  d e c i s i o n and the  certain  submitted  and must  and  even where  must  material  played  Mines  Director  application,  Hooker the  established that  in  the  The Western  He m u s t the  provide  applicant a  reasonable  it.  additional criticism  inducing the  application.  oral  minimal  them on  an  Hooker  It  impact, in  that  Director seems,  case to  204. therefore, decisions  that  may h a v e  requirements This  legal  effect  a  laid  down by  the  likely  stems  from  decisions in  decision  p r o c e s s and  However, effectiveness  factor  is  the  re-enforced reluctance excellent being  Hooker  of  to  to  the  public for  procedural not  Piatocka  directly raised  are  very  were in  in  in  result  for  The  which  conservatism Case the  effect  pollution  control  decisions,  the  social  really  case,  issues  of  of  and  in  recognizand  turned  even  an  the on  points though  public  interest  decisions.  Piatocka public  of  same p r o c e d u r a l  Piatocka  is  7  achieve  value  had the  in  6  and  Western Mines  they  the  1  is  danger  grounds to  precedential  they  on  important  courts,  earlier  of  their  constraints  illustrates  l i t t l e  environmental  the  in  Piatocka  on p r o c e d u r a l  of  same w i d e r  opportunities  The  clearly  Unfortunately  in  judicial  participation,  issue  the  cases.  perception  The most  approach of  result in  serious  actions.  Canadian  case  public  the  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  narrowed  underpinning.  objectives.  interest  matters.  The  political  legal  legal  particular  administrators'  s t i l l  control  actual  sensitivities  entirely  while  wide  the  'legislate'.  That  rely  beyond the  decisions in  technical  Chemicals cases since,  effect  pollution  of  these  appear  challenge  light  traditional  example.  necessity  were  there  environmental  Piatocka ing  to  the its  narrow  by  obliged  broader  to  leverage  judicial  the  action  case  appears  participation  in  to  have  proceedings  •205. under at  the  least  upon  Pollution been  the  clarified,  Board  on o b j e c t i o n s under  the  final  permit  the  B.C.  handle  biological  lay  the  in  eering. with  large  the  Utah  the  Branch  portion l a r g e .  1  and  public  review  one  relate At  procedure  of  a heavy  interest  of  applied  resulting  the  has burden  determinations  decision  and  in  issues.  have  the  of  B r a n c h was  process  entire -  staff  since  Panel  enginissues above  been  in  continues  to  Hardy  the  to  in  added  Port  However,  to  expertise  mainly  documented  biologist.  appli-  ill-equipped  been have  technical  Utah  evaluating  Hearing  Branch  the  Its  areas  and  in  scientists  fact  on t h e  time  problems  recently-appointed  engineers  scientific  science  components Life  to the  Control  biochemical  and  the  staff;  be  prorather  8  Utah  basic  scientific  often  not  Branch  that  carefully  application  issues  resolved are  expertise, but  full  Pollution  application.  The  and  a  the  possibility  numerous  applications.  biological  of 6  However,  the  comments  physical  Some o f  included  and  making force  Act.  Act.  in  cation,  in may  Two issues  Control  at  well  is  about  in  informed  a l l .  qualified.  relating  all  possibilities  also  Any  the  to  environmental  permit  applications.  and  will  illustrates  be  armed raised  opinions  with  the  fact  effects If  are  objectors  necessary  and hypotheses  ventured  that  will  advanced,  always  be  2-06.  tested  by  The  result  is  the  actual  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  facility. going  In  monitoring  Pollution be  major  and  and  cannot  be  serious  control  precondition bear  damage  is  project where,  not  is  ing  requirements  the  interested  may  in  fact  history  consider the  on the  and  bear  It  the  has that  the  information  the  inadequacy  two were  most the  the  In  a  hand,  public,  of  in  by  the  of  was  Utah's  mine  cumulative  the  pollution  studies  studies  on t h e  is  as who  or  in  the the  the  any  pilot  developer,  leave  tailings  a  environmental  and d a t a  necessary to  might  question  even though  demonstrated  the  of  Post-development  really  on-  short  of  decision-making process did that  a  be  chain organisms.  serious  monitoring  clearly  by  effects  biological  onus  to  proposed  required  given  sense,  the  the  possibility  food  further  left  a thorough  Inlet  s h o u l d be  should be.  other  of  possibility  essential  throw  it  cost  been  in  the  Pre-development  affected  possible effects  Perhaps  would  suggested,  But  showing t h a t  likely?  requirements it  of  are  environmental  can the  requiring  of  p r o g r a m was  developing nor  operation  development,  time.  development.  onus  is  Utah  consideration  to  the  or  in  out;  to  possibilities  Serious  contamination  authorities  should  the  Branch.  ruled  Certainly  these  surveillance  ecological crisis  or  case  of  remedied  poisoning  a  case  Control  detected  time  the  that  monitor-  burden  on  developer  interpretation.  preceding not  adequately  prediction  on Rupert to  of  Inlet.  critical  factors  contributing  this  Pollution  Control  Branch's decision  to  207. exclude  t h e most  hearing, water  and U t a h ' s  movement  In patterns  of  undertook results chapter.  knowledgeable  of  water  to  of  the  public  investigate  the patterns  investigate  empirically  the  Inlet.  movement  a program  from  to  i n Rupert  order  this  reluctance  participants  i n Rupert  on-site  research are  Inlet,  the  actual  author  oceanographic research.  reported  i n the  following  The  of  208.  Footnotes  North  Island  Gazette,  for  October  Chapter  29,  4  1969,  at  1.  A p p l i c a t i o n for a Permit under the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967, f i l e d w i t h t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B r a n c h O c t o b e r 2, 1969, s i g n e d by R . O . Wheaton, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Manager, U t a h C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g C o : North I s l a n d G a z e t t e , O c t o b e r 29, 1969, at 15. B r i e f of Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n for a permit under Appendix 1. 4  The  Vancouver  5  Pollution  Province,  Control  Act,  and M i n i n g C o . i n s u p p o r t o f its the P o l l u t i o n Control A c t , 1967,  December ss.  13(2);  1,  1970  at  21.  13(6).  S . P . E . C . a t t h i s t i m e was t h e l a r g e s t a n t i - p o l l u t i o n society i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i t h a c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s o m e 30 branches throughout the province (plus s e v e r a l i n other provinces) and a membership o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8,000. 6  R.A.P.A. is a relatively small ratepayers a s s o c i a t i o n formed by c o n c e r n e d r e s i d e n t s o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond w h i c h o c c u p i e s an i s l a n d at t h e mouth o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . Its s i t u a t i o n h a s made R i c h m o n d t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e d o m e s t i c a n d i n d u s t r i a l waste of s e v e r a l dozen upstream communities, i n c l u d i n g the C i t y of Vancouver. 7  B r i e f d a t e d November 28, 1969, f i l e d with the Pollution C o n t r o l Board as an o b j e c t i o n t o Utah p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n and signed by: 8  C S .  Holling,  Ecology,  Director,  University  of  Institute British  P.A. L a r k i n , A c t i n g Head, of B r i t i s h Columbia.  of  Animal  Resource  Columbia.  Department  Ian E . E f f o r d , D i r e c t o r , M a r i o n Lake I n t e r n a t i o n a l B i o l o g i c a l Programme.  of  Zoology,  Project,  University  Canadian  209.  J.P.  Kimmins,  University  of  Assistant British  Professor  of  Forest  Ecology,  Columbia.  9  See J . L . P i c k a r d , " O c e a n o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Inlets of Vancouver Island, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , 20 J . F i s h . R e s . B d . Canada 1109-1144 (1962); M. W a l d i c h u k , " P h y s i c a l and C h e m i c a l O c e a n o g r a p h i c Data From t h e West C o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e N o r t h e r n B . C . C o a s t " , M a n u s c r i p t R e p o r t S e r i e s 9 9 0 , V o l . I, F i s h . R e s . B d . Canada 73-124 (1968). S e e M a s a r u , F u j i y a " S t u d i e s On T h e E f f e c t s O f T h e Of F l o t a t i o n P r o c e s s To The C o a s t a l O r g a n i s m s " , B u l l . S c i . F i s h . 955-959 (1960); x  u  Tailings Jap. Soc.  B.H. Pringle, " T r a c e M e t a l A c c u m u l a t i o n by E s t u a r i n e M o l l u s c s " , 94 J . S a n i t . E n g n g . D i v . Am. S o c . C i v . E n g r s . 4 5 5 - 4 7 5 (1968); R.E. Drinnan, " O b s e r v a t i o n s on the A c c u m u l a t i o n o f Heavy Metals by S h e l l f i s h i n the E s t u a r y o f t h e M i r a m a c h i R i v e r , N.B." M a n u s c r i p t S e r i e s , F i s h . R e s . Bd. Canada (1966); K . A . C l e n d e n n i n g , and J . N . Wheeler, " E f f e c t s of Wastes on the Giant Kelp, Macrocystis Pyrifera", In, E . A . P e a r s o n E d . , Waste D i s p o s a l i n the Marine Environment. 82-91 (Permagon P r e s s , N.Y. 1960). See G . L . Turbidity in (1960); 1  1  P i c k a r d , a n d L . F . G i o v a n d o , "Some O b s e r v a t i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia I n l e t s " , L i m n o l . Ocean. 162-170  J . C a i r n s , "Suspended S o l i d s ' S t a n d a r d s f o r the P r o t e c t i o n of A q u a t i c O r g a n i s m s " , P r o c . 22nd I n d . Waste C o n f . , Purdue U n i v . E n g n g . E x t n . S e r . N o . 129 1 6 - 2 7 (1968); Harry Water 48-54  C. Davis, "Effects on Eggs and Larvae (1960).  of of  Turbidity Producing Materials i n Sea t h e C l a m " , B i o l . B u l l . Woods H o l e .  See S o c i e t y f o r P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l , "Utah Affair - November, 1969", I n t r o s p e c t 12-30, S p e c i a l Report Edition, (Spring 1970). T h e S . P . E . C . o b j e c t i o n was o n i t s face, f i l e d o n b e h a l f o f 72 f i s h e r m e n (whose s i g n a t u r e s w e r e a t t a c h e d ) w i t h an o p i n i o n p r o v i d e d by D r . A . L . T u r n b u l l o f t h e Department o f B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , appended. The i d e a o f c o u r s e was t o p r o d u c e a n o b j e c t i o n b y p e r s o n s m o r e  210. c l e a r l y a f f e c t e d i n a p u r e l y economic sense. However, as a r e s u l t of t h i s t a c t i c t h e r e was l a t e r some doubt as t o whether t h e c e n t r a l S.P.E.C. body i t s e l f was a p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d o b j e c t o r under s e c t i o n .13 o f t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t . Several S.P.E.C. branches i n c l u d i n g P o r t A l i c e , and M a l a h a t - C o w i c h a n did f i l e timely direct objections. 13 I b i d . The r o l e of the F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s Department (now F i s h e r i e s S e r v i c e , Department o f t h e Environment: see Government O r g a n i z a t i o n A c t S.C. 1970-71 c. 42, PT. I , p r o c l a i m e d i n f o r c e June 11, 1971) i n t h e p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t a i l at p. 25, i n f r a . 1 4  Vancouver Sun,  J a n u a r y 16,  1970.  Vancouver Sun,  J a n u a r y 19,  1970, at  1c 16  N o r t h I s l a n d G a z e t t e , December 10,  10. 1969,  at  9.  N o r t h I s l a n d G a z e t t e , F e b r u a r y 25, 1970, a t 12. S o c i e t y f o r P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l , 18, S p e c i a l R e p o r t E d i t i o n ( S p r i n g , 1970). 1 7  18  1 9  as  I d . , a t 17-18. follows:  The  Introspect  memorandum o f agreement p r o p o s e d  was  MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT between UTAH CONSTRUCTION & MINING CO.  LTD.  and THE SOCIETY FOR POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL (SPEC) TERMS OF  REFERENCE:  Utah i s a mining c o r p o r a t i o n p r e s e n t l y i n i t i a t i n g a p r o j e c t t o mine and c o n c e n t r a t e o r e a t R u p e r t I n l e t , Vancouver I s l a n d , B.C. B.C.  SPEC i s a S o c i e t y i n c o r p o r a t e d under t h e S o c i e t i e s A c t c o n c e r n e d w i t h the advancement o f e c o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e .  in  211.  The p a r t i e s a g r e e t h a t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t v / i l l be a d v a n c e d by p r o v i s i o n s o f an e c o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e R u p e r t Inlet a r e a t o be p u t i n h a n d b e f o r e commencement o f c o n c e n t r a t e d o p e r a t i o n a s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r r e v i e w a t some s u b s e q u e n t date, a f t e r t h e mine has been o p e r a t i n g f o r a p e r i o d . Utah w i l l p a y f o r t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f t h e s u r v e y p r o v i d e d t h e same s h a l l n o t e x c e e d a n amount t o b e n e g o t i a t e d among U t a h , S P E C , a n d o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Department of F i s h e r i e s of Canada. It is i n t e n d e d t h a t SPEC s h a l l o f f e r a d e s i g n f o r t h e s u r v e y a n d o r g a n i z e t h e same. It i s intended t h a t the Department of Fishe r i e s s h a l l be a p p r o a c h e d and r e q u e s t e d t o u n d e r t a k e approval o f a survey d e s i g n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the survey i t s e l f . The Department w i l l a l s o be a s k e d t o c o n t r i b u t e i t s f a c i l i t i e s to c a r r y i n g out the survey work. It is further intended that i n o r d e r t o c a r r y out t h e s u r v e y an e x e c u t i v e committee be s t r u c k h a v i n g one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e each from Utah, SPEC, and t h e D e p a r t ment o f F i s h e r i e s . It i s further intended t h a t the committee sha at an a p p r o p r i a t e time, authorize publication of the interim r e p o r t s e t t i n g out the f i n d i n g s o f the survey and c o n t a i n i n g recommendations w i t h regard t o the e c o l o g i c a l s t a t e and f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n of the Rupert I n l e t area. In c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r e m i s e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , in c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e payment o f t h e c o s t o f t h e s u r v e y by U t a h , and d e s i g n o f t h e program by SPEC, t h e p a r t i e s h e r e t o agree as follows: 1.  Utah w i l l accept t h a t program of survey which i s designed by SPEC, a p p r o v e d as t o c o n d i t i o n s and l i m i t s by t h e Department o f F i s h e r i e s and agreed t o as t o t o t a l c o s t s by U t a h .  2.  SPEC w i l l f u r n i s h t o U t a h a n d t o t h e Department of F i s h e r i e s , a program d e s i g n not l a t e r than t h e 15th day o f January, A . D . 1970.  3.  T h i s e n t i r e agreement i s subject to participate by t h e Department  4.  Neither the survey i t s e l f nor the report issued subsequent t h e r e t o s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d b i n d i n g on any p a r t y t o t h i s agreement, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , no recommendations contained i n any such r e p o r t a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d b i n d i n g on U t a h .  5.  The p a r t i e s agree t h a t Utah s h a l l be c o n s i d e r e d t h e initiating party of the ecological survey provided f o r herein.  6..  Utah  shall  provide,  at  an e a r l y  to of  obtaining of Fisheries.  date,  guidelines  agreement  as  to  what the  conditions progress  acceptable  by  of  of  accounting  the  program  for  shall  costs be  incurred  regarded  during  as  Utah.  7.  T h i s agreement does not p r o v i d e f o r a subsequent second stage to the survey a f t e r the p l a n t has been i n operation f o r a p e r i o d ; i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h i s m a t t e r be l e f t open to future negotiation.  8.  U t a h w i l l c o - o p e r a t e , i n s o f a r a s i t may r e a s o n a b l y b e able to, i n p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o p r o p e r t y owned o r c o n t r o l l e d by U t a h i n t h e R u p e r t I n l e t a r e a f o r t h e p u r p o s e of c a r r y i n g out the survey.  9.  T h i s agreement i s t o be e f f e c t e d w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o the r i g h t s o f any p a r t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o any p r o c e e d i n g s i n i t i a t e d under the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act of British Columbia. The p u t t i n g i n hand o f the program s h a l l not be c o n s t r u e d as an a d m i s s i o n by U t a h w i t h r e s p e c t t o any permit a p p l i e d f o r under the s a i d a c t .  10.  T h i s memorandum i s i n t e n d e d t o c o m p r i s e t h e s u b s t a n c e o f the agreement between the p a r t i e s , and i t i s agreed that such further o r o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a s may r e a s o n a b l y b e r e q u i r e d by s o l i c i t o r s a c t i n g f o r e i t h e r o f t h e parties may b e a d v i s e d s h a l l b e r e d u c e d t o w r i t i n g a n d e x e c u t e d b y t h e p a r t i e s a s t h e o c c a s i o n may a r i s e .  On b e h a l f  of  UTAH  (not  signed)  On b e h a l f  of  SPEC  (not  signed)  ^  2  u  1  Id.,  at  21;  Vancouver  Id.,  at  21-24.  Sun,  January  19,  1970,  at  10.  22 T h e G r o u p was p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t it c o u l d not d i s c o v e r the d e t a i l s of the proposed s t u d i e s from e i t h e r t h e company o r t h e Department o f F i s h e r i e s . The F i s h e r i e s Department r e p l i e d o n l y t h a t " i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t many o f the f e a t u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n your survey p l a n have been i n c l u d e d i n  213.  (The Company's) p l a n s and ... t h e r e are s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s which we r e g a r d t o be important which w i l l a l s o be i n c l u d e d " ( L e t t e r t o Dr. Robin Harger, S.P.E.C. V i c e P r e s i d e n t from W.R. Hourston, D i r e c t o r o f F i s h e r i e s , P a c i f i c Region, dated F e b r u a r y 5, 1970). S.P.E.C. was a l s o unable t o o b t a i n assurance from the Department t h a t the completed study would be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c : see I n t r o s p e c t , supra note 54, at 24-26. As noted i n t h e F e b r u a r y 5, 1970 l e t t e r from W.R. Hourston t o R. Harger, (supra, note 58) t h e Company's survey c o n t a i n e d "many o f the f e a t u r e s o f the S.P.E.C. p l a n . " E a r l i e r one o f the Company o f f i c i a l s had r e f e r r e d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f " c o u r t e s y s t u d i e s " being conducted: see l e t t e r t o M.E. P r a t t o f Utah from G.F. Culhane, Chairman S.P.E.C. L e g a l Committee, dated F e b r u a r y 10, 1970; I n t r o s p e c t , supra, note 54 a t 26. 2 3  2  4  North I s l a n d G a z e t t e , December 10, 1970, a t 9.  2  5  North I s l a n d G a z e t t e , January 21, 1970, a t 2.  2  6  See Waldichuk,  supra, note 45;  P i c k a r d , supra, note 45; N o r t h I s l a n d G a z e t t e , F e b r u a r y 25, 1970, at 12. 2  7  N o r t h I s l a n d G a z e t t e , March 4, 1970, a t 5.  2  8  North Island Gazette, A p r i l  2  9  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , s. 5 ( 4 ) .  15, 1970, a t 9.  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Water Resources S e r v i c e , P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia 10, ( A p r i l , 1970) ,(mimeo) . F i s h e r i e s A c t , R.S.C. 1970 c. F-14 as amended, S.C. 1969-70 c. 63. 3  1  32  Id.,  s. 33.  -3 O  P e r s o n a l Communication, from Mr. L e s l i e Edgeworth, F e d e r a l Department o f F i s h e r i e s , t o P.A. Moore, December 14, 1970. J  See H.L. E h r l i c k , " O b s e r v a t i o n on M i c r o b i a l A s s o c i a t i o n With Some M i n e r a l S u l f i d e s " , i n , M.L. Jensen Ed., Biogeochemistry o f 3  4  214.  Sulphur Isotopes, (Proceedings o f a National Science Foundation Symposium, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , A p r i l 1 2 - 1 4 , 1 9 6 2 ) . S e e E.C. K i n n e y " E x t e n t o f A c i d M i n e P o l l u t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s A f f e c t i n g F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e " . (U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r , F i s h and W i l d l i f e C i r c u l a t 1 9 1 , 1 9 6 4 ) . 3  5  P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Hon. K e n K i e r n a n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n , t o D r . J . P . Kimmins, d a t e d November 9 , 1 9 6 9 . r>  7  P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Mr. K e n J a c k s o n , F e d e r a l o f F i s h e r i e s , t o P.A. Moore, d a t e d November 9 , 1 9 6 9 . 3  8  See P i c k a r d ,  Department  supra, note 4 5 ;  Waldichuk,  supra, note 4 5 .  P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , D r . G.L. P i c k a r d , D i r e c t o r , I n s t i t u t e o f O c e a n o g r a p h y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., t o P.A. Moore, d a t e d December 2 , 1 9 6 9 . 40  P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Mr. Ken J a c k s o n , F e d e r a l o f F i s h e r i e s , t o P.A. M o o r e , d a t e d December 8 , 1 9 6 9 . 4  1  Department  S e e p. 14_ s u p r a .  S e e F.W. A d a i r , a n d K. G u n d e r s e n , " C h e m o a u t o t r o p h i c B a c t e r i a i n t h e M a r i n e Environment:"" T . I s o l a t i o n , C u l t i v a t i o n , a n d D i s t r i b u t i o n " , 15 C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f M i c r o b i o l o g y 3 4 5 - 3 5 3 4  2  (1969);  F.W. A d a i r , a n d K. G u n d e r s e n , " C h e m o a u t o t r o p h i c B a c t e r i a i n t h e Marine Environment: I I . C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f an O b l i g a t e l y Marine F a c u l t a t i v e A u t o t r o p h " , 15 C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f M i c r o b i o l o g y 355  -  359  (1969);  R.C. T i l t o n , " M a r i n e T h i o b a c i l l i : I . I s o l a t i o n a n d D i s t r i b u t i o n " , 13 C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f M i c r o b i o l o g y 1 5 2 1 - 1 5 2 8 ( 1 9 6 7 ) . R.C. T i l t o n , " M a r i n e T h i o b a c i l l i : I I . C u l t u r e 13 C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f M i c r o b i o l o g y 1 5 2 9 - 1 5 3 4  and U l t r a s t r u c t u r e " , (1967).  See D.W. Duncan, The D i s p o s a l o f M i n i n g a n d M i l l i n g W a s t e s With P a r t i c u l a r R e f e r e n c e t o Underwater D i s p o s a l , Study  '215. conducted by B . C . R e s e a r c h f o r t h e Department o f Lands, F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , Water R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e . 42 p p . (1970). L e t t e r from W . N . V e n a b l e s , D i r e c t o r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B r a n c h t o P a c i f i c Salmon S o c i e t y ; a l s o t o D r . J . P . Kimmins, d a t e d J u l y 3, 1970. Emphasis added. 4  4  45  . . L e t t e r from P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch t o D r . J . P . Kimmins, d a t e d September 4, 1970. 4  6  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , s.  13(4).  The M a l a h a t - C o w i c h a n Branch o f the S o c i e t y f o r P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l . However, the group had i n t h e meantime changed i t s name t o "Duncan S . P . E . C " , and had f i l e d f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e D i r e c t o r ' s J u l y 3, 1970 l e t t e r under t h a t name. T h i s was d i s c l o s e d l a t e r at t h e h e a r i n g o f the S . P . E . C - R . A . P . A . appeal to the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board, h e a r d December 8, 1970 ( i n f r a , p . 31) : Vancouver Sun, December 10, 1970, at 2 . 4  7  48  Supra,  note 43. .  49  .  .  By c o i n c i d e n c e t h e t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s were a l l members o f 5° L e t t e r , P a c i f i c Salmon S o c i e t y t o W . N . V e n a b l e s , P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B r a n c h , d a t e d J u l y 26, 1970.  Director  51 Vancouver P r o v i n c e , September 10, 5  2  Vancouver Sun, September 10,  1970.  1970.  53 R e . A p p l i c a t i o n o f Hooker C h e m i c a l s 75 W.W.R. 354 ( B . C . S . C ) . 54  •  (Nanaimo)  L t d . (1970) .  W e s t e r n Mines L t d . v . G r e a t e r Campbell R i v e r Water (1967) 58 W.W.R. 705 ( B . C . C . A . ) .  .  .  District,  The p r i n c i p l e c o n c e r n s b a s i c p r o c e d u r a l f a i r n e s s , and i s sometimes s a i d g e n e r a l l y t o i n v o l v e f i r s t , an u n b i a s e d d e c i s i o n maker, and s e c o n d , adequate n o t i c e and a f a i r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s t o be h e a r d . There i s g e n e r a l agreement on t h e f u t i l i t y o f a t t e m p t s t o e x t r a c t any v e r y p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s  216. from  the  Canadian  Administrative  5  6  5  7  (1967)  cases.  Law  and  58 W . W . R .  R.S.B.C.  I960,  c.  See g e n e r a l l y  Practice,  705  Robert  209-218  F.  Reid,  (1971).  (B.C.C.A.).  405.  58 Under t h e p r e d e c e s s o r s t a t u t e (The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , R . S . B . C . 1 9 6 0 , c . 2 8 9 ) t h e B o a r d was t h e s o l e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r .  59 The t r i a l judgment d a t e d O c t o b e r 14, (Vancouver R e g i s t r y No. X 8 4 4 / 6 6 . , Dryer,  1966 J . ) .  is  unreported.  The a u t h o r i t i e s are legion. See Robert F . R e i d , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Law a n d P r a c t i c e 1 5 9 , 1 6 7 - 1 7 0 ( 1 9 7 1 ) . However, the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e B o a r d ' s f u n c t i o n a s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e was questionable, particularly s i n c e the recent landmark E n g l i s h case, Ridge v . Baldwin, (1963) 2 A l l . E . R . 6 6 , (1963) 2 W . L . R . 9 3 5 , was n o t c i t e d t o t h e c o u r t .  61  (1967)  62  Id.,  at  706.  63  Id.,  at  707.  64  R.S.B.C.  65  Id.,  66  R.S.B.C.  67  S . B . C ,  68  Id.,  s s . 2,  10.  69  Id.,  s s . 4,  12.  70  Id.,  s.  13(2).  Id.,  s.  13(6).  71 72  58 W . W . R .  at  1960,  705  (B.C.C.A.).  c.  289.  c.  289.  708. 1960,  1967,  Re A p p l i c a t i o n  c.  34.  o f Hooker  Chemicals  (Nanaimo)  Ltd.,  (1970)  217. 75 W.W.R. 354  (B.C.S.C.).  73 Re A p p l i c a t i o n of Hooker Chemicals Nanaimo L t d . , supra note 110, h e a r i n g t r a n s c r i p t , c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n of W.N. Venables, D i r e c t o r , P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch, 26-29, (questions 44-57). 74 75 76 77  Supra note 67,  at  359.  Supra note 53,  at  707.  H e a r i n g T r a n s c r i p t , supra note 106,  at 18.  (questions  1-3)  I d . , at 25-26.  78 T h i s i n f o r m a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of the s t a t u t o r y o b j e c t i o n procedure was approved by Wootton, J . who s t a t e d at 357 (75 W.W.R.): I must conclude t h a t the a p p l i c a n t had the r i g h t t o have h i s a p p l i c a t i o n heard because the D i r e c t o r i n d i c a t e d t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d the o b j e c t i o n o f the a p p l i c a n t as a v a l i d one. 79 T h i s has s i n c e been c o n s i d e r a b l y q u a l i f i e d by the d e c i s i o n i n the case t h a t arose from the Utah c o n t r o v e r s y : see p. 42 infra. A Vancouver Sun e d i t o r i a l , ( J u l y 18, 1971, at 4 ) , expressed the hope t h a t t h i s s u g g e s t i o n would be a c t e d upon by the agency or by the l e g i s l a t u r e : 8  0  We would l i k e t o t h i n k t h i s i s a f a t e f u l judgment f o r the people o f B.C. We would l i k e t o t h i n k t h a t the government w i l l show proper r e s p e c t f o r the c o u r t ' s b e l i e f t h a t 'There must be some machinery whereby the p u b l i c h a v i n g an i n t e r e s t i n the matter s h o u l d have an o p p o r t u n i t y of o b j e c t i n g t o the g r a n t i n g of p e r m i t s ' (per Wootton, J . at 75 W.W.R. 357). 81 Supra note 67, 8 2  83  at  360.  Ibid. North I s l a n d G a z e t t e , September 30,  1970,  at 1.  21S. 84  8  5  North  Island  Gazette,  August  12,  North  Island  Gazette,  September  1970,  30,  at  1.  1970,  at  1.  86 Letter, P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch t o P a c i f i c Salmon S o c i e t y , d a t e d November 6, 1970. The e x c l u d e d o b j e c t o r s r e c e i v e d c o p i e s o f t h i s l e t t e r as w e l l . 87 as 8  8  Navigable am. 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 Mineral  Waters P r o t e c t i o n A c t , c . 15 s . 3 ( 1 ) (2).  Act,  R.S.B.C.  1960  c.  R.S.C.  244  as  1970,  C.N-19,  amended  s.  s.5.  51.  89 Mines Regulation A c t , R . S . B . C . 1967, c . 25, s . 11, 1968, c . 18, s . 90  91  92  93  94  95  Water  See  Act,  B.C.  North  R.S.B.C.  Hydro  Island  and  Power  Gazette,  Vancouver  Province,  Vancouver  Sun,  North  Island  1960,  c.  405  as  3,  242  s.  amended  Act,  1970,  at  9.  2,  1970,  at  10.  1970  December  at  2,  11,  ss.  S.B.C.  15,  December  Gazette,  c.  Authority  April  December  1960 2.  as  8,  am.  9.  1964,  c.7.  22.  1970.  96 2,  Material 1970.  distributed  to  objectors  in  Port  Hardy,  December  97 Brief  of  application  Utah  for  C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g  a permit  under  the  Co.  Pollution  in  support  Control  Act,  of  its  1967.  98 P . A . M o o r e , "A C r i t i c i s m o f t h e P r o p o s e d Dumping o f M i n e T a i l i n g s i n t o R u p e r t I n l e t by U t a h C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g C o . " , b r i e f p r e s e n t e d on b e h a l f o f t h e P a c i f i c Salmon S o c i e t y , December 2, 1970. 14 p p . 99 Vancouver "Heavy  Metal  Columbia".  Sun,  Content  January of  Department  20,  1971  at  Some F r e s h W a t e r of  Recreation  and  -  and Fish  see G . R . of  Peterson,  British  Conservation,  Fish  and  219. W i l d l i f e Branch, C i r c u l a r  (1970) .  P r o j e c t R e p o r t , B.C. R e s e a r c h t o Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g Co. S u b j e c t : B i o a s s a y o f T a i l i n g s Sample (September 24, 1970) . 1 0 0  101 I t i s u s u a l i n 96 hour t e s t s t o a r r i v e a t an e s t i m a t e o f t h e median l e t h a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n (LC50) w h i c h i s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e t o x i c m a t e r i a l which r e s u l t s i n t h e death o f 50% o f t h e t e s t organisms i n a 96 hour p e r i o d . I t i s then usual t o s e t t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s many t i m e s l o w e r t h a n t h i s v a l u e . The t e s t s r u n f o r Utah o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e was 0% m o r t a l i t y o f t h e t e s t organisms a t 100% concentration of the simulated e f f l u e n t . I t may be t h a t t h e LC50 i s a t o n l y d o u b l e t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s p r e s e n t i n t h e t a i l i n g s and t h e r e f o r e t h e t a i l i n g s would c o n t a i n more t o x i c m a t e r i a l t h a n would g e n e r a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e : See J.B. Sprague, "Measurement o f P o l l u t a n t T o x i c i t y t o F i s h : I . B i o a s s a y Methods F o r A c u t e T o x i c i t y " , Water R e s e a r c h , Review Paper, 793-821 (Pergamon P r e s s 1969). 102 P r o j e c t R e p o r t : B.C. R e s e a r c h t o Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g Co. S u b j e c t : C u r r e n t Measurements i n Rupert I n l e t (June I I , 1970). 103  .. L e t t e r , J.W. Johnson t o R.O. Wheaton, U t a h A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Manager, d a t e d June 12, 1970. 104 T.W. Beak C o n s u l t a n t s L t d . , "A P r e l i m i n a r y Assessment o f t h e B i o l o g i c a l and C h e m i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R u p e r t I n l e t and A d j a c e n t Waters", R e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g Co. (1970). 105 R a l f C a r t e r , "Measurement o f t h e Water D e n s i t y P r o f i l e i n R u p e r t I n l e t , B.C.", R e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g Co. (Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a , June 22, 1970). 1  Oft  107  V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , December 4, 1970. A.R. L u c a s , n o t e s from Hearing^, December 2, 1970.  108  Vancouver Sun, December 3, 1970, a t 22.  109  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , s. 1 2 ( 1 ) .  220.  Supra  note  67.  Letters, Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n (Mrs. S.V. Boyce, Secretary) d a t e d November 17, 1970; and C a n a d i a n S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l S o c i e t y (S.P.E.C), d a t e d November 19, 1970, to W.N. Venables, D i r e c t o r Pollution Control Branch. 1  1  1  112 Letters, Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , d a t e d November 17, 1970; and C a n a d i a n S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and Environmental C o n t r o l S o c i e t y , d a t e d November 20, 1970, to F . S . McKinnon, Chairman, P o l l u t i o n Control Board. 1  1 T J  S.P.E.C  and  R.A.P.A.  Notices  of  Appeal  dated  November  17,  1970. Similar letters, W.N. V e n a b l e s , D i r e c t o r , to J. Marunchak, Communications D i r e c t o r , Canadian S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l S o c i e t y , and t o M r s . S . V . B o y c e , S e c r e t a r y Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , both dated November 20, 1970. 1  1  4  115 Six  of  the  10  B o a r d members  F . S . McKinnon, Service).  Chairman  Raudsepp,  R.G.  Deputy  McMynn,  partment  of  J.W. Peck, Department  Deputy  Minister  Minister  Director,  present:  (Retired  The Hon. R . G . W i l l i s t o n , Water R e s o u r c e s . V.  were  of  of  and  Lands,  Water  Commercial  Recreation  Minister  of  Forests,  Forest  and  Resources.  Fisheries  Branch,  De-  Conservation.  Chief Inspector of Mines, Inspection o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s .  Branch,  Dr. C . J . G . Mackenzie, Associate Professor, Director, D i v i s i o n of P u b l i c H e a l t h P r a c t i c e , Department of H e a l t h Care and E p i d e m i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . , V a n c o u v e r , Other  members  of  The  Hon.  D.R.J.  The  Hon.  R.R.  Hospital  the  Board  Campbell,  Loffmark,  Insurance.  were: Minister  Minister  of  of  Municipal  Health  Affairs.  Services  and  l  Dr.  J.A.  J.S.  11  Taylor,  Allin,  Deputy  Department  Minister of  of  Health,  Health  221.  Branch.  Agriculture.  ft  T h e s u g g e s t i o n h e r e was r e a l l y t h a t t h e U t a h application r a i s e d i s s u e s o f c o n c e r n t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e and t h a t i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e s h o u l d be h e a r d i n as c o n v e n i e n t a manner as p o s s i b l e . Therefore a second h e a r i n g i n a Lower M a i n l a n d l o c a t i o n , o r i n V i c t o r i a , m i g h t be necessary. T h e r e s u l t was a h e a r i n g t h a t g a v e n e i t h e r P o r t H a r d y a r e a r e s i d e n t s , nor c o n c e r n e d i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s e l s e w h e r e in t h e p r o v i n c e a p r o p e r and c o n v e n i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o be h e a r d . The f o u r o u t s i d e o b j e c t o r s were h e a r d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n of l o c a l residents. 117 Form l e t t e r , P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch t o d a t e d J u l y 3, 1970, see note 79, supra. Supra  note  97.  Supra  note  53.  Supra  note  67.  Utah  objectors,  119  1  2  0  121 Richmond A n t l - P o l l u t i o n Argument, at 9-10.  • A s s o c i a t i o n , Memorandum  of  122 Vancouver  Sun,  December  8,  1970,  at  20.  123 L e t t e r s , F . S . McKinnon to Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , and C a n a d i a n S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l S o c i e t y d a t e d December 9, 1970. A Vancouver Sun r e p o r t o f December 10, 1970, at 2, n o t e d t h a t "The B o a r d ' s d e c i s i o n . . . f o l l o w s a s u g g e s t i o n made b y R e s o u r c e s M i n i s t e r R a y W i l l i s t o n at the a p p e a l t h a t anyone w i t h t e c h n i c a l o b j e c t i o n s to P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l a p p l i c a t i o n s s h o u l d s i m p l y hand them t o the D i r e c t o r a n d t o n e w s p a p e r s i n s t e a d o f i n v o l v i n g t i m e a n d money i n h e a r i n g s and a p p e a l s " . 1  2  4  Pollution  Control  Act,  s.  12(l)(c).  125 Letter  (and  attached  Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n January  6,  1971.  brief),  Robert  Association, to  T. the  Franson for Director,  the  dated  Letter, D. M a l l a r d , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r d a t e d J a n u a r y 6, 1971.  Director,  S.P.E.C.  to  the  127 Vancouver  1  Sun,  January  21,  1971,  at  1.  O O  dated  P r o v i s i o n a l Permit J a n u a r y 20, 1971.  No.  379-P  and  Letter  of  Transmittal  S e e V a n c o u v e r S u n , J a n u a r y 2 1 , 1971 a t 1. The r e p o r t o f the p e r m i t g r a n t a p p e a r e d o n t h e same d a y a s a n a c c o u n t o f T h r o n e Speech h i g h l i g h t s from the opening of the B r i t i s h Columbia Legislature. O n e o f t h e s e h i g h l i g h t s was a p r o m i s e t o introduce measures t o enhance environmental p r o t e c t i o n . The result was a v e r y e f f e c t i v e p a g e 1 j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f h e a d l i n e s : "TOP PRIORITY PLEDGED TO B . C . ' S ENVIRONMENT" a n d "UTAH GETS OKAY F O R I N L E T D U M P I N G " .  1  2  Vancouver  9  Province,  January  21,  1971  at  .  Ton  - P r o v i s i o n a l Permit No. 379-P, Appendix Transmittal, d a t e d J a n u a r y 20, 1971. L J V  1.  /  C,  and  Letter  of  B r i e f o f Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g C o . i n s u p p o r t of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a permit under the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967, A p p e n d i x 2. 1  3  1  13 2 Letter, Dan C a m p b e l l , M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s to L l o y d S t e w a r t , P r e s i d e n t , P a c i f i c Salmon S o c i e t y , dated March 30, 1971. 1  3  3  U.B.C.  Gazette,  Vol.  10,  No.  7,  at  2  (1971).  134 L e t t e r of t r a n s m i t t a l from D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l t o Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g C o . , d a t e d J a n . 20, 1971. Attached to P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch P r o v i s i o n a l Permit No.379135 Personal communication, A . J . Chmelauskas, Chief Engineer, Pollution Control Branch. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the requirement f o r t h e f i r s t r e p o r t t o be s u b m i t t e d before c o m m e n c i n g t o d i s c h a r g e was i g n o r e d b y U t a h a n d apparently o v e r l o o k e d by t h e B r a n c h . The mine began t o d i s c h a r g e i n l a t e O c t o b e r , 1971. A s o f J a n u a r y , 1972 t h e r e p o r t h a d n o t b e e n submitted. S.B.C.  1971,  c.  223. 137 1  3  _, Id.,  _ s . 3.  I d . , s. 4.  8  Vancouver  J  Sun, January 28, 1971 at 26.  I b i d . ; see Land A c t , S.B.C. 1970, c. 17, s. 84; B.C. Reg. 185/70. 1  4  0  141 B.C.  Environmental C o u n c i l Press Release dated March 26,  1971. The f i a t i s taken s e r i o u s l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, one o f the few remaining Canadian j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n which t h e f i a t o f the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l i s s t i l l a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o most d i r e c t l e g a l a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e Crown i n r i g h t o f t h e Province: see Crown Procedure A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 89. 1  4  2  1  4  3  144 ^  x  1  4  5  of •j  Supra note 50. Supra note 72. See N o t i c e o f Motion p a r a , Paul P i a t o c k a , p a r a . 22.  ( f ) and s u p p o r t i n g a f f i d a v i t  AC  Re P i a t o c k a and Utah C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g Company,(1971) 21 D.L.R. (3'd) 87 (B.C.S.C.) During t h e t h r e e months between the h e a r i n g on June 11, ±4 and 'T5, 1971, and t h e date o f judgment, c o n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e Utah s i t e c o n t i n u e d unabated. 1  4  7  Supra note 50.  1  4  8  Supra note 139, at 95.  1  4  9  Supra note 77.  A f f i d a v i t o f A l b e n Joseph Chemelauskas, C h i e f Engineer o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch, dated June 10, 1971, but not f o r m a l l y f i l e d i n t h e a c t i o n . 1  5  1  Supra note 139, at 95-96.  152 W r i t e r ' s notes from H e a r i n g , June 14, 1971.  224.  153  S u p r a n o t e 139 a t 9 5 .  154 See C o o p e r v . Wandsworth B o a r d o f Works, (1863) 14 C.B.N.S 143 E.R. 414 ( C P . ) ; W i s v / e l l v . C i t y o f W i n n i p e g , (1964) 45 D.L.R. (2d) 348 (Man. C . A . ) , Law a n d P r a c t i c e 21-22 ( 1 s t E d . , 1 9 7 1 ) ; S.A. de S m i t h , J u d i c i a l R e v i e w o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Action, 137 ( 2 d E d . , 1 9 6 8 ) . 155 156  Supra  note  54.  Supra  note  53.  157  The f o l l o w i n g statement appears i n Robert F . t r a t i v e Law a n d P r a c t i c e ( 1 s t e d . , 1971) a t 2 1 :  Reid,  Adminis-  There i s a u t h o r i t y t o the e f f e c t that even though a h e a r i n g i s n o t r e q u i r e d , o n e who e m b a r k s o n i t m u s t conform t o the r u l e s o f natural j u s t i c e , despite an a p p a r e n t l y a b s o l u t e d i s c r e t i o n and the e x e r c i s e o f power c l a s s i f i e d as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c i t i n g , Re O t j e s a n d G e n e r a l S u p p l i e s L t d . , ( 1 9 6 5 ) 47 D . L . R . (2d) 1 8 9 , 49 W . W . R . 488 ( A l t a . C . A . ) ; Re S w a n s o n a n d T h e M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s a n d F o r e s t s , ( 1 9 6 0 ) 23 D . L . R . (2d) 65 ( B . C . S . C ) ; and E x . p a r t e K u z y c h , (1968) 1 O . R . 5 7 7 , r e v ' d o n a n o t h e r point, (1968) 2 O . R . 3 3 7 .  158  Supra  note  54 a t  159  Supra  note  146  1 ft  708 p e r D a v e y , J . A .  at  96.  0  See S p e n c e r Bower a n d T u r n e r , p a r a . 142 ( 2 n d e d . 1 9 6 6 ) . 1  6  1  Ibid.  (1970) M.R.  See a l s o  3 WLR 7 3 2 ,  said  at  738  Lever  (1970)  (Finance  E s t o p p e l by  Ltd. v.  Representation  Westminster  3 A l l . E . R . 496 where  Lord  Corp.,  Denning  (W.L.R.):  T h e r e a r e m a n y m a t t e r s w h i c h p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s c a n now delegate to their o f f i c e r s . If an o f f i c e r , acting within the scope of h i s o s t e n s i b l e authority, makes a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on which another a c t s , then a p u b l i c authority may b e b o u n d b y i t , j u s t a s m u c h a s a p r i v a t e concern w o u l d b e . . . I t was a m a t t e r w i t h i n t h e o s t e n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y o f the planning o f f i c e r and being acted o n , i t i s b i n d i n g on t h e c o u n c i l .  In  Re F e r t i l e  Belt  (Sask. Q . B . ) , a compliance with  No.  183  and  Peters,  (1915)  W.W.R.  103  P r o v i n c i a l w e e d i n s p e c t o r who g a v e n o t i c e n o t g o v e r n i n g s t a t u t e was h e l d t o b e e s t o p p e d .  Interview with A . J . Chemelauskas, C o n t r o l B r a n c h , June 15, 1971. The V a n c o u v e r  Province,  Friday,  Chief  June  11,  Engineer,  1971,  at  in  Pollution  8.  See n o t e 125, s u p r a . The D i r e c t o r has s t a t e d t h a t "(The A c t ) i s e s s e n t i a l l y a waste c o n t r o l a c t . That i s , i t recognizes that t h e r e m u s t b e some d i s c h a r g e o f w a s t e i n t h e a i r , l a n d and water . . . And i f i t i s too narrow, then there are democratic processes to take care of that": The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , s u p r a , note 201. 1  6  4  165 166 167  Supra  note  54.  Supra  note  53.  Supra  note  146.  A t p r e s e n t 33 m e m b e r s o f t h e B r a n c h s t a f f a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s e n g i n e e r s , 16 a s t e c h n i c i a n s a n d e n g i n e e r i n g a s s i s t a n t s , and 7 as b i o l o g i s t s : Q u e s t i o n answered i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e by R.G. W i l l i s t o n , V o t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f the.Legislative Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia 10-12, (February 4, 1972). 1  6  8  CHAPTER  THE  P H Y S I C A L OCEANOGRAPHY  OF R U P E R T  W I T H C R I T I C A L COMMENTS ON I T S TAILINGS  5  INLET  ON V A N C O U V E R  ISLAND  U S E FOR T H E D I S P O S A L OF  BY U T A H C O N S T R U C T I O N AND M I N I N G  MINE  COMPANY  Introduction  As Pollution  explained  Control that  9.3  million  gallons,  per  day  permit  to  discharge water of  Rupert  would  causing  not  of  were  would an  in  Utah  mine  Inlet.  it  face  would  In  was  of be  32,000  d e c i d e d by  considerable permitted  tons  defending  result  in  any  inlet  or  on  was  the  of  its  not  affected  therefore in  by  settle  the  section of  directly  explored  more  fully  the  and t h e i r  Inlet  as  a  mine  the  of  thesis,  the  The  on  bottom in  for  the  point  of the  without  the  Company's  site  a  the  central  assumptions regarding receiving  for  and t h a t  water  the  tailings,  deep waters  the  the  discharge  tailings  currents to  public  effects  ecology.  tidal  turbidity  this  Rupert  its  to  the  application  undesirable  assertion that  In  of  4,  Company c o n t e n d e d t h a t  the  increase  suitability  the  containing  the  argument  Inlet  tailings  are  so,  quality  their  the  Rupert  do  Chapter  Branch,  opposition,  into  in  inlet.  arguments the tailings  1 .  Map showing the l o c a t i o n of Quatsino Sound on Vancouver Island.  229. from t h e i r mining  operation are  pal  the  objectives of  were t h e inlet  standard  and t r a c i n g o f the  discharge  feasibility of  e x p e r i m e n t a l work  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  using  Utah's  the patterns  oceanographic  t h e movements began.  of  The  of  t e s t i n g the  Rupert  Inlet  Island  and  inlet  system  Inlet  is  the  of  about  wide at  s i l l  point,  mile  Inlet  northwest,  the  locations  most inlet  of at  the its  is  which  and t h e i n the  in  the  prediction  inlet  intended to  underlying  princichapter  w a t e r movement  Inlet  a l l other  after  show  the  the  granting  is  and is  estuary  about  n o r t h e r n end  Figs.  length It  the  Area  eastward  (see  170  1 and  is  2).  its  metres  over  fjord  Narrows,  fathoms)  which forms  with Holberg  joined at  Inlet  fathoms  of  shallow deep  at  about s i l l .  which runs  t h e i r deepest in  the  one  type  head and a  (90  the  Rupert  a little  a typical at  of  extension of  a d j a c e n t t o t h e mouth and  to  the  points. at  various  Sound.) is  unusual  fjords  and t r a v e l s  amongst  on t h e  fresh water drainage head  Study  approximate depths  i n Quatsino  In  in  tidal  two b e i n g  Rupert respect.  Sound  continuous  the  the  t h e most  from Quatsino is  2 shows  It  of  point.  extensive  deepest  (Fig.  also  located at  five miles  mouth.  Rupert  of  assumptions  forms  Quatsino  its  one-half  is  the widest  w i t h an at  reported in this  equipment,  was  The  pollution control permit.  Vancouver  inlet  examined.  the t a i l i n g s  study  Description  mile  critically  in  one  B r i t i s h Columbia  from the  on t h e  fjords  land enters  surface  for  the  important  coast the full  230. length  of  the  Rupert  Inlet,  Marble  River  inlet  to  its  mouth  however,  the  main  which  Quatsino  Narrows.  inlet  is  far  small  area  ly  large  land of  water  in  of  the  an  important  an  inlet.  graphic  data  collected  tion  to  that them  mile  the  authorities  s c h e m e was  management regarding  found the  To issue  of  it  the  the  4,  end, North  head  River  former of  it  a  fresh  context  was  the  the the  relativefrom  the  unique  the  oceano-  to  a  Gazette  150  feet  and  a quarter  possible,  Rupert  that the  of  a  federal their  Utah  an h y p o t h e s i s  Inlet.  placed (the  inten-  submerged  public  forward  was  Permit  convince the  general  put in  of  Prior  Company's  about  desirable  article  Control  inlet  effort  an  of  circulation  this of  the  near  to  water  the  of  an  water  due  and the  depth  the  of  from  D e s c r i b e d by U t a h  of  Island  the  by means  and the  most  into  Pollution  necessary to  movement  this  a  as  them t o  In  mouth  In  Inlet.  Inlet  bottom  shoreline.  and p r o v i n c i a l disposal  on the  the  Rupert  tailings  carry  its  determining  in  sea.  at  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  Chapter  their  would  discharge from  of  in  the  the  is  Marble  input  in  later  Rupert  outlined  the  The  full  for  runoff  to  runoff  almost  feeding  Application for  dispose  pipeline  1969  discussed  Oceanography of  As  from  factor  The  be  Their  inlet  latter.  will  to  that  watershed  feature  The  the  freshwater  freshwater  than  the  area  c a n be  The  less  of  enters  and t h e n c e  in  the  local  December  newspaper  10, for  231.  the  area  i n which  headline article tive  "Utah  t h e mine  Officials  contained  Manager, A  the to  i n Quatsino  other  70  surface w i l l parts  there  ...  We f e e l  and  stay  North  Mr.  Wheaton  water of  the by  support its  deep  of  waters  without  their  deep water result  of  only  The  Administra-  below tailings  is  practi-  go so f a r .  Below  i n Rupert Arm  will  g o down  added)  density  the  21,  i n both  these  1970 went  that  with  on t o  quote  tidal  into action  layers.  articles  and t h a t  would  community  the  that  t h e Company h a d  to  the  concerning the  correct.  were  would  of  the  annihilation the  In  no c u r r e n t s  tailings  the bottom  which  effects  were  there  be t h e  a n d was a s s u r e d  statements  Inlet  that  any d i s t u r b a n c e  i n any u n d e s i r a b l e  stratified  F i s h e r i e s Department  i n Rupert  inlet  is  surface  consultants"  benthic  but there  the t a i l i n g s  differing  effect  feet  spread of  turbulence  Inlet  water  Effluent".  by U t a h ' s  forty  ever  i n Rupert  only  the  that:  the Federal  the  would  January  Company was m a i n t a i n i n g  settle Here  of  "expert  circulation the  stated  only  sound,  with  that:  stop the  no t i d a l  of  operate)  i n Mine  who s a i d  (Emphasis  Gazette  affecting was a l s o  the  confident  as s t a t i n g  layers  It  is  there.  Island  The  of  to  a statement  Narrows  no chance they  feet  The  of  Bob Wheaton,  water  cally  S a y No D a n g e r  a summary  Mr.  s i l l  was p l a n n i n g  of  essence, in  the  therefore inlet. the  inlet's  Company c o n t e n d e d w o u l d  on the water  quality  or  not  ecology  232. of  the  inlet.  (Anonymous, Port  Hardy  This  1970)  was  to  further  the  on December  emphasized  Pollution  2,  1970  in  Control  where  it  the  Company's  Branch hearing  was  predicted  brief  in  that  the  tailings: will  c o a l e s c e and  order will and  of  two  flow  form  feet  to  down t h e  come t o  a  rest  a  ten  density  current,  feet  thickness,  in  s l o p i n g bed in  the  of  on  Rupert  deepest  the which  Inlet  portion  of  the  inlet. This  statement  turbidity  of  feet  the  all  from its  public that  the  Inlet  be  the  government  the  it  was  strongly  Company h i r e d Permit  at  Data Time the  Control  oceanographic relatively  the  work  body  c o l l e c t e d were (lack  of  Port  on Rupert the  Permit  time  of  location  very  had  application  in  useful,  the  ten  Utah  and  "expert  W h i c h Were  in  the  consultants"  for  a  Pollution  Rupert  however, sampling  Utah  in The  for  little  Inlet.  never  waste.  Available  at  Made  by  been very  and had  few  the  of  by  agencies  application  industrial  replication,  depth  A p p l i c a t i o n was  the  out  a  in  hearing.  Inlet  there  carried  for  its  Hardy  increase  p o s i t i o n taken  s u p p o r t e d by defend  Permit,  isolated  receiving  to  no  above  communications with  Pollution  tions  Rupert  would  the  Until  been  in  there  was  the  a  water  bottom.  Oceanographic  as  that  This  and  Control  implies  It  the  basic is  in  past  data  a  a  been  that  despite  their  stations)  as  used  had limita-  they  gave  an  indication  the  inlet.  the  inlets  of  In  the  a  paper  Holberg  that  the  arating  and  stagnation will the at  be  and  seen  case. the  with all  was  the the  is  Vancouver  pattern  a  body  water  atmosphere by  into  necessary  by  the  the  the  and  into  was a  organisms  at  of  from  the  water  inlets  values.  this  in  top 100  where  the  is  metres  deep  deeper  location.  As  in  deep  water,  of  Sidney  it  in  is  past  a of  of no  water  input It  which  would  the is  the  from  into the  photosynthesis  (similar at  of  introduced  zone.  oxygen  body  absorbed  is  euphotic  the  bottom  indicator  There  in  sample  two  to  by-product  that  not  added)  it  time  was  the  surface  algae.  It  deepest  Oxygen  a  that:  in  d i s s o l v e d oxygen  as  of  sep-  result  except  d i s s o l v e d oxygen  some  the  at  commented  Narrows  from  values  in  anticipated  the  diagnostic  below  of  that  (Emphasis  therefore,  amount  would  uniform  surface  body  been  circulation.  benthic  assume,  values)  moved  at  a water  to  useful  water  near  appreciable  water has  or  phytoplankton  oxygen  an  of  only  apart  Island  Channel.  a very  general  Quatsino  oxygen  concentration  often  of  Holberg,  highest  (1963)  had  data)  circulation  characteristics  d i s s o l v e d oxygen  fact,  of  Pickard  Neroutsos  remarkably  and M i l l a r The  s i l l  low  water  it  (from the  In  head  inlets  Rupert  from  of  oceanographic  Island,  shallow them  pattern  on the  on Vancouver  In  water  general  to  of is contains surface  surface  consumed  become  and  depleted  over  stagnant  unless  replaced  it.  suggest to  a  very  some d e g r e e ,  Rupert  three  by  data  the  oxygen  the  water  100  concentration value  atmosphere  and  salinity  very  uniform  Only  in  the  more  at  by  data  the  of the  from top  5 metres  than  1°C  currents.  is  from a  This  collected  in  et  al,  which  represents  salinity  1957;  all an  the  indication  had  an of  way  to  that  further  the  the  bottom.  the  in  never  of  water  summer w h e n  at  is  increase  lack  by  and  water  temperature This  the  temperature  the  appreciable  bottom.  late  that  the  August,  70.1%  vertical  the  the  of  A l l in  and t e m p e r a t u r e  indicate  depth  or  series  1968).  Inlet  to  a  oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n  supported mid  August,  Rupert  this  is  in  of  that  in  central  there  strong  Canada  16th  inlet  top  area  was  on the  surface  below  oceanography  application  (Waldichuk  addition  was  circulating .  replaced  example,  situ  the  the  mg/1  the  therefore  is  being  on the  permit  in  In  of  near  whereas  were  in  Inlet  surface.  a high  6.51  become surface  inlet  are  available  For  pressure.  stratification  mixed  in  1967  metres  profiles  temperature,  the  at  inlet.  the  water  Research Board of  indicated  the  from Rupert  the  and A u g u s t ,  of  one  or  Fisheries  collected  saturation  varied  data  would  in  the  of  water  deep waters  nearer  time  water  levels  the  the  other  the  1962;  deep waters 1957  oxygen  oceanographic cruises to  November, the  at  and t h e  oxygenated  and t h a t  only  time  that  by water  Inlet  collected  high  strongly  The  of  freshly  The  periodically  of  period  layering is  fact  being that  stratification  235. is  most  likely  waters. that  The  to  take  place  limitations  stratification  did  water  runoff  from  could  not  assumed f o r  disposal  be  the  time  analyzed  c a n be of  it  of  only  the  data,  that  be  had  Board  been is  and p a r t  in  as  of  the  of  the  surface  open the winter  there  were  possibility  due  to  fresh  no d a t a ,  justifying  to  the  Inlet  the  was  the  circulation  from  research its  arm  function  to its  the  the of is  s h o u l d have  interpret the  this Company's  for  Fisheries  the the  were  the  the  the  ahead in  It  unaware  of  than  Rupert  Inlet  to  a  gave  correct  Inlet.  discussed it  at  Research Board  Fisheries  or  and  the  disposal system.  p r o v i s i o n of  in  public.  matter  The F i s h e r i e s  Federal  about  differently,  requesting  tailings  Company.  of  Rupert  anyone  had  come t o  and the  data  facts  water  available  representatives  the  plans  of  data  something  Company o f f i c i a l s  available  data  the  a n y o n e who  government  pusning their  planning  that  u s e d by Utah the  the  of  determining  concern for  accessible to  of  that  chose to  to  review  application,  oceanographic data  Utah  the  this  Rupert  plans  little  readily  particular, have  left  purpose of  purpose of  they  priority  were that  the  assumed t h a t  The  time  data  but  the  permit  their  understanding  above  land,  heating  during  seen from  water  that  they  a higher  exist  c o n c l u s i o n from  rationalizing can  the  for  circulation opposite  the  to  plans.  It at  the  of  due  In  should  Research Department  information  for  use  by  the  F i s h e r i e s Department.  working  closely with  system,  one might  of  the  data  that  Oceanographic  Utah  had  been  for  Since  Utah  particularly  after  a  of  great  this  deal  was  effects mined  aimed of  after  studies  circulation that by  did  B.C.  pertain  in  Rupert  at  two  waters  of  one  at  the  and t h e  Inlet,  Narrows.  reported  at  490  in  at  were  was  current  also  Have  Been  there  Rupert  Inlet.  Most  of  that  any  data  in  inlet  two  order  c o u l d be very  pattern  of  prepared  the  attempt at  the  mid-channel  "deep water  speeds of  off  currents at  the  up t o  location,  to  date depths  near the  knot  rapid  Utah  measured  station  a very  for  mine-site.  do o c c u r "  1.00  the  however,  various  inlet  of  of  water  exceptions,  only  was  deter-  few  A report  part  and  Hardy,  deepest in  permit,  Port  were  this  unaware  Obtained  control  speed and d i r e c t i o n  other  disposal  own r e s e a r c h p e r s o n n e l .  velocities  particularly  Current  feet  1970)  the  was  Unfortunately,  question.  concluded that  Quatsino  in  on the  this  Current  Rupert  That  hearing  There  measuring  Narrows,  its  establishing the  (Howard,  Inlet.  report  by  a pollution  inlet.  to  at  points,  Quatsino The  the  of  was  Application  discharge  at  Department  Department  establishing baseline  directed  1973)  for  d i s p o s a l began.  Research  (March,  public  planning  Inlet  Permit  applied  tailings  in  the  research undertaken  the  were  Rupert  Fisheries  the  collected  the  the  at  the  during  conclude that  Data  After  As the  in  nearest  the to  were movement  for  water the  at  such  a  great  depth.  deep  water  v/ere  found  incoming  tidal  flow  through  that  currents  the  entering by  the  waters  some r e a s o n  as  through  it  flows  the  3,  the  Utah  out  in  a  use  of  Rupert near  would  be  led  was  Quatsino  expected  material  the  part  have  a  layer  that  gravity water  of  of  flowing  would  bottom  of  the  found  this inlet  be  inlet  In  would  a  and  as  bottom,  some d e p o s i t Marble  expected this  to  River  point.  Control  currents  1971)  at  fans  the  bottom  its  deepest  the  its  of is  does  expected  right  sediment  A plausible  it  inlet  Secondly, out  it  deposit  because  c o u l d be  there.  of  biolo-  currents  of  was  through  that  of  rest  deposit  to  a pollution  sediment  it  in  Department  Firstly,  the  deeper  1970.)  considerable  location.  on the  at  2,  absence  be  the  Pollution  sounding equipment,  there  the  the  Federal  of  suggested  explained  (Goyette,  the  the  into  water  some l e n g t h  Goyette,  Narrows.  at  to  indicates  as  deep water  the  free  from  it  Darcy  He  ensure  area,  from  to  surprisingly  sediment  would  at  related  by M r .  that  sedimentary  report  team  depth  went  in  the  the  surface  (As  on December  research  electronic  deepest  Hardy  Department.  Inlet  point  this  research  the  with  Port  other  by  of  that  "diving"  narrows.  with  This  and  on the  representatives  findings  hearing  the  velocities  conjunction  tides  for  gist  the  the  is  a n d was  this  c a u s e d by  current  Narrows.  Company b u t  Fisheries  the  Quatsino  remaining  carried  of  in  not  The  the  occur  is  discredit Branch  to  maximum  inlet  Chapter  the  are  The  because  above load  on  explanation  238.  of  this  occur  unusual  as  a  result  The  lack  the  currents  carry  of  any  velocity could  as  out  a poor  mine  The  Despite  these  salinity  to  slight  increase  pattern  of  in in  density  by m e a s u r i n g  points,  computing  interpolating  the  findings  results  the  scouring action  This  until  the  Narrows.  would  the  tend  of  to  current  sediment  particles  of  been  collected indicate  in  inlet,  supporting  data  the that  was  indication  had  of  thus  available  that  Rupert  tons  no e f f e c t  salinity  is  with  distribution  in  in  density  density.  depth  in  (i.e.  and  temperature  and  salinity  the  points  each point in  order  to  ground  disposal  by  just  an  from  plans.  three  is  also  a  a  deter-  number  a table,  obtain  in  The  c a n be at  in  increase  pressure).  waterbody  the  Oceanography  There  any  the  would  An increase  in  at  Inlet  finely  determined  and p r e s s u r e .  increase  of  that  before  on U t a h ' s  Measurement  an  density  by  application  seawater  density  have  permit  a decrease  between  inlet  that  in  the  to  currents  Quatsino  bottom.  where  Temperature  its  through  dump m i l l i o n s  density  results  the  this  temperature,  temperature  the  deep water  bottom.  currents  Significance of  factors:  up  the  point  since  from  that  attributed  oceanographic data  location  waste,  be flow  over  the  on the  drawn  The  mined  flow  deep water  application.  tidal  further  researchers  are  would  c a n be  decreased to  conclusions  be  the  they  sediment  The  there  of  sediment  settle  various  situation  a two  of  and or  even  three  dimensional  The used  in  distribution  oceanography  circulation. technique.  Given  separated  would  be  s i l l .  from  at  would  the  longitudinal  stations  (see  of  equal  density)  can then  stations  (density  is  erature flows  and  rather  the  from  where  the  illustrate different density  the  the  the  two  into  was  of  of  by  a  to  entering  of  water  a  lesser  the  tend  surface to  Figure  3b  move  that  same  inlet the  The be  or  on  both  would water  be in  main  temp-  current  own d e n s i t y  stratum  density.  moving  level  in 3a  Figure of  expected inlet  3a  the  For  into the  expected  sides  the  two  isobars  be In  points  the  Figures  would  the  and  from  along  waters a  at  two  the  greater  to  it  joining  calculated  its  deep  s i l l ,  the  between  density.  distribution.  the  the  within  a  outside  (lines  then  water  this  calculated  table).  would  of  one  section through  as  of  salinities  and  c a n be  ^t,  remain  patterns  is  inside  with  shallow  and  interpolated  stations  density  distribution  In  water  Isopycnals  equivalent  current  types  surface.  be  ocean would  water  water  3b).  incoming t i d e  the  inlet  one  commonly  illustrate  of  density  by means  tends  moving  on an  inlet  so  water  than  example,  these  to  is  pattern  type  vertical  and  general  useful  e x p r e s s e d as  salinity  between  because  3a  a waterbody  temperatures  stations,  values  Figs.  be  outside  in  the  fjord  measure  two  density  determine  the  to  From these on a  of  a typical  possible depths  plotted  to  An example  basin  various  representation.  the inlet  and  3b  from  two  the s i l l  and  to  remain  is  less  on  dense  0(ST6.fK  /A?*>£R  Z7oo  27. So Z&o  _-^.->._V-**  >--^ -  _ _ >  _ J~ e  2S-5o  >  —  >  s°  29 oo  F i g . 3a.  Lg. 3 b .  Figures 3a and 3b. Diagrams of a longitudinal c r o ? 3 - s e c t i o n through a h y p o t h e t i c a l coastal fjord i n l e t . Isobars are shown as dotted l i n a a and arrows show t h e probable d i r e c t i o n of current flow over the s i l l on an incoming ti£& f o r the two patterns o f  density distribution.  O  241.  than  that  outside  downwards density  as  it  summarized  the  from  the  with  stable  the  exchange  below  it.  which  be  more  be  depths  a  water  temperature  mixed  in from  are  possible,  halocline  (salinity  top  to  to  may b e  reduce  the  if  not  with  to  is  the  a  a  remain any and  little  without  that  or  no  much  may  strong  effect  of  rapid of  Exceptions to  there  of  region  expect  a halocline,  offset  the  a  thermocline  a waterbody  bottom.  however,  feature  a tendency  profile  absence of  gradient)  This  runoffs  the  of  continu-  indicative  the  be  (often  relatively  One w o u l d above  may  obtained  thermocline,  is  same  are  A major  and  the  situations.  which  exhibits  region.  indicative  and,  on d e n s i t y .  the  but  flow  own  a waterbody  stations. is  its  complex  of  various  stratification  the  model,  profiles  temperature  between  situation  freshwater  to  A sharp thermocline  strong  may  stratification  ture  profiles  Conversely,  thermocline  at  surface  thermocline  large  to  of  temperature  depth.  waterbody  applied  therefore  reaches  oversimplified  vertical  series  would  it  a  over  with  pected  be  until  distribution  temperature  in  an  individual  profile  change  is  inlet  temperature  in  by m e a s u r i n g  vertical  This  incoming water  the  may u s e f u l l y  The  ously)  enters  level.  principle  and t h e  of  when  be the  ex^ above  enough tempera-  case  in  inlets  large  salinity  of  surface waters  consid-  erably .  The  above  example  c a n be  further  illustrated  with  data  242.  that by  were  the  collected  University  during  of  B.C.  1971  (Leblond,  1971).  were  made  number  at  One  of  and  another  a  these  Rupert  Inlet.  an  4a,  4b  and  6,  1971.  15  metres  depth  outside  assumes t h a t  of  equal  water  does  time  of  year  also  be  noted  shown  in  "dive"  during that  in  temperature  the  water  in at  part  of  is  result  a  s i l l  the  the  the s i l l  a  is  the  4c,  it  data  were  the  is  depth  outside, mass  the  equivalent  and  water  is that  in  through  the  follows  The both  deep  water  appear at  to  these  the  Quatsino  If  lines  that  the at  It  the  should  equivalent  that  the  values  indication  deep water  outside  depth  be  fact  that  least  s i l l  at  deep.  collected.  further the  the  metres  appears  values.  during  as w a t e r  at  for  indicates  inlet,  water  inlet  15  would  these  in  of  of  representa-  of  This  inlet  the  of  that  about  enters  salinity  of  to  it  inlet  flow  salinity  originated  also  and  graphical  narrows.  into  density  and  same w a t e r of  as  and t h a t  equal  the  Figure  which  and  probably  coming  the  deep water  inlet  water  outside both  values  which  indeed  These  temperature  narrows  density  part  R2  about  one  deepest  Rl  have  the  the  Narrows,  Stations  Inlet  of  Quatsino  at  Rupert  s i l l  Inlet.  density  in  the  in  Rupert  found  water  the  around  outside  narrows  measurements  values  both  in  and  March,  show t h e  show t h a t  deep water  in  salinity  in  out  4c  tions  the  carried  and  on March the  the  cruise  Oceanography  immediately  inside  salinity  of and  locations  was  just  incoming tide  Institute  of  Figures  temperature,  oceanographic  Temperature  stations was  an  in  Narrows  to  that  it  the  inlet  which  is  RfJP£.RT  <H/r\TSINO  AJflRRaUiS  MARKOVS  R.UPBRT  Zf-4.8  3AJ./A//TY  Fig.  4a.  (%=>)  F i g . 4b.  jea-sostlon o f Qu^ciuO F i g u r e s 4a, 4b, a n d 4 c D i a g r a m s s h o w i n g locsi&udirt:-.?. c?t , . y are 8h ao and R u p e r t I n l e t . Isople&hs o f t e m p e r a t u r e , s a l i n l l a r id d ,J.2A';.J l i n e 3 b e t w e e n s t a t i o n s R l a n d R2 f o r M a r c h 5 a n d 6, i-i'71,, ( L e B l o n d . )  CO  244. then  flows  downwards  Methodology  pattern to  and  Temperature  In  order  water  measure  a  of  This was  to was  this  not  results  following could it  the of  patterns  section.  provide of  a  that  to  water  of  the  purpose  turbidity It  was  felt  movement.  c o l l e c t i o n to  for  useful  current  measuring  this  be  be  the  least  fluctuation  and  the  nature  and  2.  The  presence or  of  value  would of  absence of water  due  horizontal to  a  patterns  strong  but  parameter.  determining  thermocline. a  in  in  a  that  difficult  thermocline  it  tempera-  parameters  include:  the  the  in  in  sampled.  discussed  would  annual  the  was  will  over  r e s o u r c e s and  the  The  been  data  to  at  years,  and  all  1.  depth  had  of  This  done  depths  three  year  the  necessary  time  related  of  be  be  and  or  of  salinity,  to  that  much i n f o r m a t i o n  of  two  measurement  temperature  stratification  have  a l s o measured,  hypotheses  would  stations  for  the  Inlet  temperature,  representative  limit  was  it  would  limited  Author  understanding  Inlet,  This  number  a  principal  the  Rupert  the  Rupert  complete  and p r e f e r a b l y  which  in  including  necessary to  be m e a s u r e d ,  would  at  p o s s i b l e due  some o f  not  and  sure  Turbidity,  was  in  a  currents.  year  be more  supporting  The  one  therefore  ture.  provide  many p a r a m e t e r s ,  intervals  order  to  oxygen and  Inlet.  Measurement  movement  frequent period  Rupert  T e c h n i q u e s E m p l o y e d by  In  of  dissolved  into  and  possible  245.  thermocline. all  year  waters the  it  are  If  there  could  a  indicate  separated  thermocline  is  from  strong that  the  (assuming  thermocline  the  deep  there  surface waters  is  no  below  strong  halocline). 3.  The  to  stability  temperature.  constant would  indicate surface  deep  waters  that  they  The  Kahl The  instrument  30°C  and  continuous  file  slide a  new  measurement time, The  are  date  contains and  depth  is  recorded of  within glass it and  temperature  the  temperature  for  Model  No.  0C-2/S,  by  in  temperature  0 to  a  range  140  means  is  a  obtained  and of  pressure  temperature The  stylus  versus  depth  For  each  instrument,  interpreted  a  completion  means  from  -2  temperature  of  marked  a plastic by  (depth)  temperature  the  is  California.  gold-coated  from  a  the  on  removed  trace  from  produces  upon  in  was  that  and  stored  the  measurement  used  and  of  mix  likely  is  station,  do n o t  San D i e g o ,  metres.  of  it  periodically.  Corporation  both  and  temperature  instrument.  slide  is  If  replaced  a  year,  stable  temperature the  the  it  respect  exhibit  are  used  from  waters  with  they  provides  of  trace  deep  waters  seasonally,  being  Instrument  elements  information  glass  changes  deep  throughout  waters.  instrument  Scientific  the  that  bathythermograph,  sensitive to  If  the  temperature  with  standard  of  of  slide a  a  pro-  the for  the  container.  slide  holder  247. that  superimposes a g r i d  slide,  providing  data  of  for  temperature  continuous  versus  depth  temperature  over  the  profiles  with  depth.  The means  of  a 12 V o l t  by  the  (a  21-foot  Figure  bathythermograph  author  was l o w e r e d  battery-powered  a n d was f i x e d  to  the  c a b i n - c r u i s e r powered  5 shows t h e  temperature  locations  profiles  were  of  stations  on f i v e  different  1971;  April  and 27,  1971;  1971;  and A p r i l  reported  26  in  10,  full  1972.  of  profiles  (Appendix  remarkably bottom  at  first  a l l  of  10 m e t r e s  of  a  strong  from  to  July  the  Rupert  that  there  only  21 a n d 2 2 ,  the  close to  At  no s t a t i o n  bottom.  a very  layers. shallow  marine  engine).  which  vertical  at  were  taken  February  at  4 and 5,  1971; December  these  1-3,  measurements  are  Studies  from  the  on any o f  the water  (about  temperature  surface  than  obvious  Even f o r  the  i n Rupert  greater  Another of  boat  Inlet  the water  of  research  thesis.  very  stratification  horizontal  occasions:  by  was c o n s t r u c t e d  Measurements  of  the water  the  stations  the Temperature  a variation  distinct is  is  stations.  s a m p l e d was t h e r e  of  impression obtained A)  uniform  stern  The r e s u l t s  in  The  that  the  i n Appendix A of  Results  winch  by an i n b o a r d  taken.  these  into  near  the  2 - 5  Inlet  is  right  to  the  dates  1°C from feature the  July,  a  is  surface 1971  metres)  the  depth the  lack  into  readings  layer  of  z  4-  4i  6 _JL_  a  —u.  I  10ZOr.£Q. /,/<T7/  30-  JVLY, J963  40-  I \  JULY 21, '971  /CO  //cr\  F i r u ^ 6 a . Temperature p r o f i l e s f o r February I-M J o ' y o f 1963 at a s t a t i o n i a Kanloops Take. "(After Ward, 1 9 6 4 ) .  , 6 b . T'--^.^£ture p r o f i l e s f o r D®cca< * r ; 'd J u l v at Cmtioa R7 i n Itapcrt l a l * (19?"'.). :  b A  249. warmer water  water is  indeed have  on t h e  stabilized  vertically  been  produce  a  the  1964)  in  deep  will  that  Inlet  can  seen  is  a  from  vertical  the  circulation  By  in  to  water  column  in  variation  rather  far  in  the  Figures  is  of  than  Inlet  deep w a t e r s .  6a  and 6b, from  Inlet,  restricted  the  to  the  in  compared  profiles  the  6a  Station  to  R7  in  the  feature Inlet of  throughout  in  R7).  It  Kamloops  water  of  (Ward,  for  Station  some f o r m  is  seasonal  Figure  whereas  Lake  summer,  of  the  is  further  vertical the  the  year.  temperature  seasonal variation  c a n be  to  strong  for  of  the  there  top  whereas  a  Kamloops Lake  feature  is  It  that  is  Rupert  stable  significant  Rupert  A  This  undergoing  would  water.  warmer  in  there  warmer  1971)  Inlet.  were  to  c a n be  that  of  July  point.  location  remaining  most  in  of  water  the  waters  for  This  temperature is  by  that  surface  of  this  the  temperature  layer  Rupert  If  the  profiles  the  indication  there  illustrations  water  temperature Rupert  which  1963.  for  for  the  collected  temperature again  the  of  and J u l y  surface  case  that  of  no  that  layer  vertical  5  these  distribution  indication  profiles  July  Fig.  likely  illustrate  (February  distinct  not  in  is  layers.  surface  to  shows t h e  (see  is  temperature  and  times  Rupert  this  serve  there  heating  a waterbody  January  develops  it  relatively  comparable  be  stable,  vertical  6b  and  distinct  solar  thermocline shows  into  sufficient  comparison with  Figure  surface  seen, a  referring  considerable  bottom  Kamloops Lake  surface while  by  the  of  of  the  the deep  increase  water  seasonal waters  250.  remain  at  a  constant  temperature  significance  of  the  variability  Rupert  is  the  fact  place  in  Inlet  could  not  vertical for  take  the  (geothermal  heating  of  water  this  ally top  the  resulting of  the  receive absorbed stable  of  by  temperature  July  is  water  Inlet it  water  Figure in  at  seen  that  falls rather  in  within the  bottom  is  The water from a  temperature  the of  for  as  about in  the  up by  the  4  of  seen for  R7  temperature This  April,  Inlet,  the  in  stations the  Rupert  rises  process  1971  warming  of  in  is  In  February  120  in  and  Rupert  metres  as  throughout in  Inlet.  the  inlet.  variation It  summer  apparently  measurements  a  would  seasonal  the  all  however,  the  at  not  constant  The water  of  does  metres)  less  same amount  picture  Station  50  6 C ° between  all  layer  the  because i t  or  Rupert  eventu-  at  surface.  about  deep water. the  heat  Because  water  this  the  a more  -  of  no  surface  of  radiation  In  was  downwards,  layer  (below at  there  inputs  the  surface  same p a t t e r n  months. the  which  insignificant).  metres  year.  complete  deep water winter  few  remain  The  a more  in  beneath  solar  deep water  warmed  of  water  dense  metres.  gradually  water  less  c o l u m n c a n be  the  change  a warmer,  temperatures  the  temperature  the  difference  15  pattern  this  from  heat  The in  heated  throughout  7 gives  water  the  year.  temperature  received through  expected to  apparently  did  the  a  from  is  this  water  be  are  the  deep water  a body of  column.  waterbody  therefore  there  in  water  any  In  water  in  a body o f  circulation.  warming  that  throughout  can and  takes  indicate  be  place a  251.  C°C)  T/E^PjZR A TUR £.  F&a 5,1971  H  10 20  3o-  J  4060 APA/L 27, /?7f IS  '  111  >  H  6b-|  9 0  D£C./  //?7/  /oo A no 120  130  Figure 7 . Seasonal v a r i a t i o n of temperature p r o f i l e s S t a t i o n R7 i n Rupert I n l e t .  at  temperature between  at  the February  temperature that  100 m e t r e s  the  of  about  temperature  about  deep water  of  12°C.  In  8°C which  of  about  December  temperature  is  intermediate  6 ° C and t h e  of  1971  had once a g a i n  it  July  c a n be  returned  seen  to  about  6°C.  The in  Rupert  seasonal  Inlet  has only  mechanism by w h i c h inlet  could  entire  replacement surface. gain in  or  the  increase  water  There  the  heat  and d e c r e a s e  temperature.  be t h e  no o t h e r in  quite  the  other  oceanographic data  ing  that  not is  to  mixing almost  placement surface  Utah's with  by warmer  It found  the  complete  waters  by t h e  continual  means  from,  by which  amounts  presented  vertical  theory  that  surface  i n the  the  water,  waters  at  the  to  least  such  place  deep water  of  the  i n the  the  a  Inlet  in  establishinlet.  was s t a b l e that  deep water  summer  is  with  i n the  appear  could  change  conjunction  previously,  would  frequent  deep water  i n Rupert in  the  or near  cause  takes  it  at  the  and by  and there  with  re-  cooler  winter.  may b e a d d e d t h a t author  mixing  s e a s o n a l exchange surface  or  only  in  seasonally throughout  conclusive, particularly  significant  The  the deep waters  f o r temperature  therefore  Contrary  of  temperatures  explanation.  by water  sufficient  The data  deep water  one p l a u s i b l e  deep water  is  of  temperature  column would of  lose  fluctuation  i n Rupert  the pattern Inlet  of  water  coincides well  temperatures with  those  recorded Control there  by  the  Program  is  no  was al  set  by up  useful ment  the as  from  is  to  (see  the  of  no  attempt  the  impact  avoided  It of  the  determine  is  the  are  attitude  on the  part  of  resource  extraction  not  can only  government,  and  to  other  environment-  a great to  deal the  of  commence-  same w e a k n e s s  as  out  by  the  directly the  or  to  infer of  fundamental inlet  errors  about  groups  to  the arrive  fact  leads it.  involved in  water  to  The  question  know  all  Company.  pattern  on the  this  was  which  is  corporation  lead  report  pollution  circulation.  to  its  it  obviously  anxious  a major  the  However,  values,  tailings  of  committee  prior  mine.  investigating  they  the  inlet  carried  concerning water  that  themselves,  contains  however,  The  advisory  Company's  the  salinity  inlet.  some h y p o t h e s i s  believe  and  to  inlet.  the  on t h e  been  terms  supervise  contains  has  in  to  It  from  report  that  the  Company h a s  3).  Environmental  publication,  the  U.B.C.  by  Utah's  data  in  agent  required  discharge the  the  the  Chapter  temperature in  of  of  this  circulation  information  research  prediction  the  program  simply  interpret  independent  that  circulation  at  an  tailings  other  to  water  background  of  There  In  1972).  chairman  permit  unfortunate the  (Evans,  for  monitoring  control  Phase  attempt  implications prepared  Pre-Operational  one  This in  judgement  involved  that  in  primary by their  regulation.  In in  Rupert  conclusion,  Inlet  can  be  the  results  summarized  as  of  temperature  follows:  measurement  254. 1.  The water  very  near  water the  the  cooling metres  2.  There  water  of is  into  density  at  3.  pattern  The the  water  of  deep  currents  its  lation.  In  using  ography,  it  is  deep  one  summer  time and  confined to  of  sur-  the  separating  layers year  was  that  vertical  of  top  the  differ-  during  which  of  there  variation is  the  oceanographic  superficial  and  Turbidity  Measurement  in  measurement  has  Rupert  coastal  been u s e d by  determining turbidity  assumed t h a t  as the  research  general a  as  separate  incorrect.  Oceanography  a  number  One  of  feature  "sources"  of  application  a means  patterns  diagnostic  conditions  Inlet  oceanographic research.  and  through-  Inlet.  both  in  frequent  circulation  Rupert  Application  basic  and  the  indicates  column i n  Inlet  sea  all  seasonal temperature  Utah's interpretation  in  any  the  are  of  4.  in  in  at  at  from  taken.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of  been  time  the  investigators  Inlet  horizontal  continual  Turbidity  bottom  uniform  column.  out  and  very  sharp thermocline  deep water  Rupert  the  winter  water  any  were  in  water  the  are  heating  the  no  to  Rupert  distinct  and perhaps  has  in  samples  in  The  in  Surface  few  ing  surface  stations  year.  face  temperatures  of  tracing  water in of  circu-  oceanwater  for  each of  waterbody  this,  the  will  water  basis  of  masses  this  is  simply  the  to  absorb  light.  determined in  the  magnetic  well  as  would  discolor are  The  a  that  a  water  suspended  dissolved  that  different  is  being  The  or  absorb  absorb  solid  that  converted  This  the  would  that  absorbed  masses.  and  light  expressions  of  that the  of  water  can  be  to  light  value to  case  solids all  chemical  in  the  water.  In  both  within  and  the  were  are  no  as  fact,  therefore  suspended matter  expressed  for  a  if  measured.  turbidity  land  there  values  as  sediment  suspended  size,  is  its  if  variability Turbidity  from  directly  be  particle  properties,  River  turbidity  of  in  to  contributing  the  that  matter  substances  draining  are  electro-  contributes  light.  substances  water  anything  concentration  identical  quantitative  water  of  water.  turbidity  of  be  the  on  properties  cannot  considerable  water  form,  particulate  emphasized  optical  substances  rough  be  mass  was  and  there  water  in  matter  composition,  the  must  other  the  spectrum  acids  because  of  dissolved  humic  each  basic  Basically,  all  while  from  and,  ability  (scatter)  that  mentioned  expression  (particulates)  absorbtion  include  such as  latter  most  relative  visible  the  It  only  the  former  quantitative  the  substances  water  its  factors.  among t h e  particular  In  reflect  would  absorbtion.  among  in  turbidity  distinguished  of  of  will  This  among t h e  however,  be  light  number  dissolved  be  can  characteristic  parameter.  radiation  turbidity.  a  measurement  by  water  have  an  in  256. attenuation  I  Where  is  the  intensity  of  measured,  e  C*(  (alpha)  tance  (path  water. ion  light  body  coefficient,  the  attenuation  - 1  the  a marked  water  )  when  is  in  8a (in  distinct  the  path  of  is the  which  an  this layers  in  with  It  has  of a  the  been  work  as  in  c a n be  and  metres.  of a  book  on  subject  features by  to  of  Joseph  indicate  applied  to  waterbodies  differing of  density the  about  into 38  that show  layers.  shows t h a t  stratified at  reciprocal  His  sufficient  discontinuity  extinct-  masses i n  a paper  found that  is  the  the  absorbtion  interface  Sea)  dis-  through  diagnostic  situation  log^g)/  the  on the  at  North  2.3  a means  of  this  sharp  as  light  be  being  expressed in  layers the  is  (1968).  measurement  turbidity of  will  L  water  presented  which  horizontal  example case  are  The  and  the  water  equals  e  is  complete  it.  turbidity  research. into  of  L  of  is  expressed in  Jerlov  application in  is  I  the  known  individual  most  profiles  review  (also  length  equation:  travels  measurement  of  the  (log  light  "alpha")  d e s c r i b e d by  presented  increase is  as  turbidity  best  are  stratified  Figure  simply  of  the  coefficient  distribution  brief  manner  which  or  use  oceanographic are  over  turbidity a  through  attenuation  measurements  (1955),  passed  the  source,  the  examples  vertical  has  its  is  oceanography  many  it  at  function  water  optical  light  by  exponential  (metres  of  defined  the  coefficient  indicating  after  of  is  is  The  and  intensity  length)  The  metres  which  coefficient  the two  metres  Figure 6a. Turbidity and temperature p r o f i l e s from a s t a t i o n i n the North Sea, (After Joseph, 1955} e  F i g u r e &b, T u r b i d i t y and teaperatur« p r o f i l e s frosi a s t a t i o n c a t h e Dogger Bank, ( A f t e r Joseph, 1955),  258.  depth.  The  corresponding vertical  superimposed the  turbidity  other  hand,  column, mixed, a  on the  increase  if  i.e.  relatively profile  distribution  again  of  a  illustrate  top as  the  to  the  Bank  bottom.  would  be  change waters  Figure  Dogger  the  has  fact  thermocline.  turbidity  assumed t h a t  the  profile  8b  and  The  is  shows  in  there  that  On the  the water  are  well  an  example  of  a homogen-  temperature  expected,  been  is  profile  no  evidence  thermocline.  One profiles that  is  where  turbidity that  are  other  a  there  are  increase picked  are  is  up by  of  such  turbidity currents  It  has  increase strong  feature  in  the a  the  currents  turbidity  profile  is  affecting  and  bottom  the  Rupert  continuous  order  to  Inlet,  vertical  obtain it  was  This  bottom  currents. of  at  bottom along the  at  in  This sediments with  bottom  indication  waters  in  relevant  necessary to  profiles.  the  1955)  them. of  a  that  that  location.  a Transmissometer  Turbidity  the  an  turbidity  (Joseph,  near  carried  increase  For  of  tidal result  D e s i g n and C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Measurement  found  therefore the  vertical  turbidity  ocean or  apparently  of  been  The  In in  sharp  there  existence  vertical  diagnostic  deserves mention.  there  areas  ity  to  homogeneous.  from  and  order  no marked be  from  included  in  coincides with  is  can u s u a l l y  is  The  there  it  turbidity  eous  graph  temperature  was  Rupert  Inlet  information collect  the  b e c a u s e most  on  turbid-  data of  as  the  diagnostic rate  of  absolute an  features of  turbidity  value  at  any  the  that  water  water  samples  water  column and  in  a  was  in  method  environmental employ ever,  to  This  This  the The  only  from for  program)  provides  a very  turbidity.  Because of  many  of  the  significant  features  It  was  known  necessary, as  a  turbidimeter)  A shown  in  author  Everhart  that  9.  (1955) ;  Jerlov  (1956) ;  and  meter, data  diagram was to  Fukuda  Joseph  of  the  a  the  Briggs  1955,  probable would  not  a  (otherwise  light or  a  employed  c o n s t r u c t e d by (1971);  Nishizawa  deal  1968); of  is  the  Duchrow  and  and Fukuda  Jones  help  be  difficult.  instrument  1959,  A great  that  form.  Inoue,  to  how-  continuous  and M o r r i s  1957,  need  representa-  a hydrophotometer in  of  Utah's  transmissometer  d e s i g n e d and  (1958);  (1955).  a  (it  weakness,  a transparency-meter,  provided  It  use  the  method  comparison  alpha  (1953,  surface  the  and  reference  (1971);  at  interpretation to  collect  in  profile  simplified  Figure  after  an  is  by  passes  to  discontinuous it  it  is  the  therefore,  meter,  as  eliminates  this,  its  depths  phase  Its  the  achieved  of  turbidity-meter,  attenuance  it  to  with  be  convenient  electronics.  the  making  various  turbidity  as  of  thus  can only  preoperational  and  than  method  tion  recorded  rather  alternative  a much more  optics  related  directly  them  the  are  turbidity  bottles  is  used for  it  depth.  analyze  monitoring  that  depth  measures  sampling  underwater is  one  profiles  with  column.  laboratory. the  turbidity  change  instrument  through  of  was  and also  Wills  260  k  3  i  O  0?  261. obtained  from  University  acknowledged  steel bulb The of  rods.  is  window  is  at  window the  one  the  and  end  of  in  tion.  the  the then  axis  of  onto  the  the  cells a  are  relative  sity  focuses  assures  all  connected  reaching  the  light  and  friends  as  is is  than  a an  it  placed from  bridge  in  is  the  diameter thick  the  as  focal  a  bulb  for  is  the  is  one  about  30  reading  of  the in  glass  the  parti-  to  the  pinhole  The  serves the  the first  a  behind  recorded. that  into  in  the  cm.  lens  through  parallel  through  for  cylinder,  a pinhole  which  light-  the  cm.  and  the  mm.)  a  convex  60  window  to  46  reference  double  entering  point  glass  passes through  circuit  the  at  mm.,  glass  being  absolute  photocell  measurement.  The  pass  stainless  turbidity  travels  light  three  incandescent  through  to  12  of  Volt  acts  identical  able  a  44  that  water-tight  means  Behind  Upon  only  two  a ^-inch  that  light  light in  and  another  the  that  other  rather  length  where  lens  that  instrument  photocell  preventing  of  cylinder. a  is  cylinder.  enters  through  by  filament  bulb  other  water  which  This  members  of  for  cylinder.  into  passes  cylinder  the  beam  It  the  (focal  the  axis  source  (photocell)  second w a t e r - t i g h t light  so t h a t  between  an  cylinders  light  parallel  water.  faculty  consists  on  the  lens  resistor  a  of the  convex  photocell  provides  aligned  placed  placed  dependent the  In  double  that  are  supplies  light a  transmissometer  that  that  B.C.  previously.  The cylinders  of  it, two  to  light  second c y l i n d e r .  In  and thus  photo-  produce intenthis  way  262.  any  fluctuation  compensated  in  light  power  12 V o l t  lead-acid  battery  was  for  the  battery  connected to  by means  of  a  4-wire  the  wires  bulb  two  of  the  wires,  turbidity 2146  current, was  chart  battery  instrument resistors from  100  values  The  by means in  to  from  a  0 to  turbidity  reading  that  and p r o v i d e s  a  light  the  boat.  of It  bulb  is  the was  of  a  was  in  employed by  60  cm.  path  transmissometer 12  Volt  to  the  the  12  Model a  and  and W i l l s  per  the  variable ranging current  procedure  (1956).  Style cent  No.  separate  turbidities  calibration  The  0-100  corresponded to  the  to  photocells.  calibrate  fixed  that  The  Jones  to  Volt  resistors  from  was  The  N chart  paper  transmission  of  length.  was  lowered  battery-powered  attached  for  sensitivity  order  of  metres  from  light  trace  160  powered  r e c o r d e d on R u s t r a k  continuous  the  The  of  a Rustrak  adjusted  micro-amps.  was  by  combination of  panel  a  instru-  through  for  was  of  by  on the  cable  circuit  power  that  range  current  100  to  The  a  the  surface  transmission of  identical  means  Volt  provided  connector  passing  the  recorder  control  0%  across  after  on the  and had  micro-amperes.  provided  provided  recorded  miniature  12 V o l t  12  research boat.  neoprene-coated  of  the  the  was  the  a waterproof  Two  adjust  of  instrument  on b o a r d  length. and  intensity  for.  The  ment  the  winch  into  winch with  a  the  water  on b o a r d 3/16  inch  the  by research  stainless  263 .  steel by  cable.  hand  The  a n d was c o i l e d  depth  marker  The 4-wire  of  the  on the  acrylic  in  external  plastic  the  (Plexiglass)  or  stainless  inside  the  interior  placed same  and taped  of  along  to  prevent  supports  between  the  in use.  an  "event"  in  of  either  order  cylinders  plastic  Black  of  were  steel  light  from  Plexiglass  to  were  electricians  extraneous  instrument.  not  raised  painted  tape  entering  baffles  two c y l i n d e r s  on  for  were  the  purpose.  pounds  per  water  square  water-tight,  surfaces The  the  the  The  were  order  black  and  manually.  instrument  The P l e x i g l a s s  with  when  by means  was o p e r a t e d  of  black  in  on deck  parts  corrosion problems.  outside  was l o w e r e d  was r e c o r d e d  which  avoid  the  cable  a container  instrument  recorder,  All  electric  at  2-wire  fitted  at  both  In  rubber  O-rings  ends  carried  out  of  for  hoped that  the  evidence  to  of  Turbidity  of  two d i s t i n c t  were  turbidity  obtained  data  from  that  the  200  cylinders  sealed  and on the  glass  windows.  t h e t w o c y l i n d e r s was  connectors.  Data  f o r Rupert  Inlet  i n Rupert  Inlet  related  would  approximately  used on a l l  between  turbidity but  is  ensure  cylinders  running  measurement  was  order  the  cable  150 m e t r e s  ends w i t h waterproof  Presentation  The  at  inch.  electric both  pressure  purposes.  be h e l p f u l  temperature  in  measurement  was  Firstly,  it  corroborating and t h e  other  information of  a  sharp  range  of  available  discontinuity  turbidity  increase  in  the  after  turbidity the  mine  then  of  in  near  were  The  turbidity  and t h e the  important,  distribution  the  inlet.  values,  presence  bottom  it  of  dumping had  Utah's  begun.  mine The  discharge  measured p e r i o d i c a l l y  its  waste  absence  seasonal  be  the  an  useful  in  inlet.  possible to  determine  tailings  Rupert  natural  for  or  absence of  all  in  be  the  or  would  would  measured p e r i o d i c a l l y  began t o  presence  oceanographic situation  and most  extent  Inlet  the  the  values  turbidity  interpretting Secondly,  for  about  into  for  about  a year  mine  waste  is  in  levels a year  the  before  inlet  after  of  and  the  were  discharge  began.  The ground of  rock.  A  turbidity  in  presence  of  wherever  the  by  also  be  It  result,  the  taken  place,  increase  water in  measurement,  from  It  average  from  the  be  finely  natural  therefore  could also  matter the  composed of  the  column would  it.  particulate  levels  indicate  assumed  tailings  was  dissolved substances i n  the  that identified the  waste  present.  happens  data  even  the  large  environmental  (baseline)  of  tailings  turbidity  would  ing  bulk  if  far  disturbance  collected data  there  too  is  are  frequently that  before  the  collected  nothing  to  there  in  developments  are  no  development  after  a  involv-  background begins.  disturbance  compare them w i t h  in  As  a  has order  to  265.  arrive that  at  has  conduct to  an  estimate  taken a  place.  study  initiate mine  began  the  case  of  hypothesis  the  hypothesis there  of  would will  average in  to  test  offered  the  an  since  Inlet  a  environmental  It  over was  change  opportunity it  was  possible  one y e a r  also  before  possible  in  specific hypothesis.  mining  company  itself  disposal system.  to  in  This its  Simply  stated,  read:  be  no m e a s u r a b l e  Inlet  bottom  of  limitation,  tailings  natural  Rupert  the  mine  the  mine  discharge.  s u p p l i e d by  rationalization the  Utah  on Rupert  waste  Utah  magnitude  this  research its  was  the  The  without  the  the  of  as  a  increase  background l e v e l s above  a  result  depth of  of  Utah's  of ten  in  the  turbidity feet  tailings  from disposal  system. The m o n i t o r i n g  of  was  necessary to  the  hypothesis.  turbidity arrive  Turbidity the  same  Another  stations station,  Neroutsos  Inlet  at  as  for  was  occasions:  November  2 and  27,  1971;  July  21  inlet  Rupert  Nl,  and (see  measured 3,  and  1970; 22,  was  therefore  confirmation  Inlet  temperature  mid-channel  Turbidity  and  in  the  designated in  the  either  profiles  turbidity.  26  in  at  2)  these  February  1971;  were  profiles  situated Fig.  or  at was  obtained (see  also  stations  December  that  rejection  the  4-6,  all  for  Fig.  mouth  5).  of  sampled on  1971;  1-3,  of  seven April  1971;  for  266 . April four while  10 of  the  11,  these  the  results B of  and  three  these  of  each  replication  the  of  diagrams  will  description  the  as  with  discernible in  the  19,  began  the  1972.  its  in  The  waste  discharge  the  The  the  text  values  Inlet  the  firs  discharg  began.  full  in  The  Appendix  was to  of  both  that  range path  are  of  of  of  very space  most  of  between light  length  pattern  the  yield  profiles  Rupert  in  order  to  These  illustrate  e x p r e s s e d as  data. the  the  On  these  attenuation  absorbtion  values  of  tailings low  began,  turbidity  and t i m e . the 0.13  in  and  0.15  absorbtion water  being  from  four  the  in  very the  inlet  had  This  1  about  most  profiles  of  turbidity  the  of  m" .  sampled.  seasonal variation  of  a n d was  All  water  most  7 to  10%  There  was  of  the  inlet.  vertical  for  longitudinal  Inlet.  turbidity  light  representa-  obtained  vertical  in  the  visual  transmissometer.  coefficient a  of  from  graphic  vertical  pattern  discharge  revealed  cm.  60  in  from  respect  over  the  interpretation  Rupert  to  water  used  directly  corresponds  no  and  presented  a more  combined t o  calculated  attenuation  the  data,  turbidity  replications an  18  mine  after are  provide  were  be  Before  uniform  to  turbidity  and  the  coefficient  in  occurred  turbidity  sections  water  the  measurements  order  tion  obtained  September  thesis.  In  diagrams  and  occurred before  other  of  1972;  presented  in  Appendix  B indicate  (Stations of  Rl  a n d R2  horizontal  during  any  probably head ity  of  the to  Rupert  values  Inlet. in A  fact  by  that  1971).  It  was  turbidity example  profiles  the  is  inlet  not  low  and v e r y  higher all of  found the  inlet  surface of  to  or  higher  patterns  to  most  with  8b  of  water  will  than  over  the  that  the  water a  the  were  the  the  trip  surface  to  either  illustrate  near  the The  water  had  a  very  regions  the on  these  some o f  in  layers.  These  right of  (Hole,  8a.  distinct  or  on  vertical  Inlet  observed.  turbid-  heavy  horizontal  of  the  this  Figure  that  at  inlet  of  similar  An a n a l y s i s to  the  typical  Rupert  number  readings  serve  the  in  are  rivers  field  shown i n  distinct  bottom.  in  more  stations  verified  1971 the  evidence  higher  one week  conclusion  into  the  area  February,  near  movement  with  the  was  the  throughout  the  highest  on the  Beginning  exceptions  been  turbidity  either  turbidity  two  had  turbidity,  the  The  concluded that  variable  occur  of  of  Inlet  no  any  waters  resident  stratified  right  of  surface  Rupert  uniform  and more  would  the  stations  at  in  support  Although  was  result  Figure  turbidity  there  This  therefore  shown i n  water  dates.  there  in  1971)  two  from  prior  profile  5,  of  runoff  local  immediately  exception  freshwater  the  occasion. stating  the  the  sampling  this  rains  of  a high  found  with  on F e b r u a r y  layering  of  due  that  of  were  bottom the regions  the  natural  inlet.  longitudinal  vertical  section  for  < m -t o  > O  O •—<  c o  CO m O  5 _» o C/5 CC UJ  —i c :» •  5  a.  LU  Q  c ~0  r—  to CO  November is  a  a  greatest  the  the  type  discussed  0.35  130  m  )  - 1  depth  to an  it  pattern is  of  is  the the  is  bottom  as  about  bottom  turbidity  travels  m  of  c o u l d be  inlet  coefficient  -  1  .  into  and  as  water  c a u s e d by  sediments  is  (1955)  deep  of  upward  This  Joseph  indicative  there  the  The  one  0.15  that  of  bottom.  d e s c r i b e d by  often  the  evident  attenuation  increased turbidity  consequent mixing  it  becomes lower  where  it  10) near  (with  and  turbidity  The  Fig.  metres  bottom  previously  currents. and  on the  (see  turbidity  about  metre  of  1970  higher  of  than 130  3,  of  depth  greater to  and  region  from is  2  a  the  scouring deeper  water.  There ity  in  the  surface  sampling. almost from  One o f  certainly  the  Marble  Marble  River).  around  Station  inlet the  was  at  this  mine-site  taken,  it  was  c a u s e d by  could  be  adjacent laden  were  also  waters these  due  to  River The R5.  other  Fig.  already  the  initial  mine-site  runoff  that  5  region are  as  regions  inlet  during  around  sediment for of  this  work at were was  in  the  higher  on the this  the  the  highly  of  mine  time  Rll  of  is  water  the is  centred the  and c l e a r i n g  for  readings  the  surface  d i s c o l o r e d by the  were  turbidity  development.  from  1970  entering  higher  that  originating  and  runoff  streams  first  turbid-  November,  turbidity  excavations  region  higher  location  no major  the  of  Station  load  b e g u n when t h e  concluded that  the  surface  the  As there and  distinct  centred  the  observed v i s u a l l y to  of  is  (see  location had  two  It waters  sedimentland  being  h QUATSINO W NARROWS  co LU UJ  2  ATTENUATION C O E F F I C I E N T  <C<>  0< >  0.40  SHADED  LIGHTLY  c< >  1.00  SHADED  DARKLY  M"  1  8 ro o  271.  disturbed  the  (see  The  turbidity  the  the  before  11).  at  rainfall  at  the  result  of  runoff  turbid  of  the  result  of  runoff  (Waukwaas that water by  was  below  the  of  surface  1971  water  is  R5  most  probably  only  surface R9.  area  distinct  Station  areas  Rll  and  the  Marble  River  The  second  was  creeks Creek).  increase R2  in  out  two  of  sampling  vertical  This  Fig.  was  the the  was  water  was  mine-site  no  the inlet to  note  deep  probably  runoff  most  the  the  to  appears  interesting of  1  tur-  that  of  -  caused  as  it  indication  clearing  period.  significant  (see  prior  probably  head  m  very  a n d was  There  the  0.90  surface  most  is  This  creeks.  c a u s e d by  of  turbidity  the  to  the  first  the  It  and R3.  settling the  at  (up  another  from  two  tailings  immediately  The  Rl,  one  the  inlet.  longitudinal  and  was  showed  replications  its  Rll) in  1971  sample  discharge  the  turbidity  shows  the  values  Coetwaus  this  to  of  4-6,  high  two  the  from  any  of  slight  during  on the  Stations  a  inlet  The 27,  and  February  the  regions. from  that  enters  operations  head  for  mine.  for  around  Stations  sediment  any  were  the  for  began  occurred  water  two  Creek  there  reason  There  centred  originate  mine  Station  that  sampling. one  the  of  pattern  turbidity  The  surface  bidity;  establishment  surface  out  Fig.  heavy  to  the  highest  carried  at  for  12).  higher  section region This  turbidity  for of  is  April  higher located  was  26  and  turbidity between  attributed  to  VERTICAL  L O N G I T U D I N A L S E C T I O N OF T U R n i D I T Y F I G U R E 12  (SU313IAJ)  HUPCRT INLET  Hid3Q  274.  the  land  Utah  clearing  mine.  Just  sediment-laden runoff  from  River  runoff  shown  for  again  centred  both  surface these  is  July  the of  form  the  was  into  inlet.  the  centred dumping. centred and side  It  is  around  a resulting of  the  as  a  vertical  field the  of  trip,  inlet  the the  as  (see  Fig.  13).  Station  R5,  the  the  the  bottom  w e r e made into top  the  of  shore  the  of  tailings  It  was  Station  Station flow  one of  there  was  inlet  as  the pond  the  Marble  section  This  region  this  time  a  out  (see  R5 w a s  caused  of  the  heavier  along  the  bottom.  of  by  of  was  by  time  over-  of  the  of  to  the  dumping  it  turbidity  this  bottom  overburden turbidity  overburden  particulate  Part  Island  Part  surface  the  the  of  year  the  mine-site.  simply  the  of  stripping  Narrow  result  that  At  deal  5).  the  at  construct  to  Fig.  direct  probable  the  used to  inlet  being  inlet.  result at  disposed  a  region  a great  concluded that R5 w a s  for  the  ore-body  was-being  being  also highly  of  Rll.  around at  result  longitudinal  turbidity  other  inlet  the  Station  apparently  around  entering  highest  emergency  material  be  development  1970  of  dumped  from  the  November,  1971  o v e r b u r d e n matersa3  causeways  to  turbidity  in  22,  regions  measurements  the  water  and  around  from  the  seen to  apparent 21  and the  waste  was  leading  mine-site.  centred  burden being  during  surface  The were  as  water  the  The  operations  matter  dumping down  the  VERTICAL  LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF TURBIDITY F I G U R E 14  (SU313IAI)  IN RUPERT INLET  Hld3d  276. I n summary, t h e t u r b i d i t y Rupert  Inlet  was  v e r y low  and v e r y u n i f o r m t h r o u g h o u t  before the discharge of t a i l i n g s observed surface  that and  t h e r e was  the bottom  This  i s i n contrast  Bute  and  there  Jervis  a large t h a t had  1960).  Inlets  a turbidity  on t h e B r i t i s h  i s c a u s e d by  the melting of g l a c i e r s  o f 0.75  sediment  t h e same y e a r .  A  similar  f o r t h e same months i n  The  of the  turbidity  s i t u a t i o n was  section of t u r b i d i t y  o f 1971.  observed  Giovando,  during  a brief  this  from  1  for  from a  low  i n June  of  i n Bute  As h a d  Inlet  Figure  14  inspection  sampling that  been planned,  1200  feet  shows t h e v e r t i c a l  f o r December 1-3,  into  on t h e bottom  1971,  o n e - h a l f months a f t e r t h e d i s c h a r g e o f t a i l i n g s from o n l y  where  Inlet,  ranged  observed  a t a d i s t a n c e o f about  shore of the i n l e t .  parent  - 1  1958.  sometime i n O c t o b e r  and  m  entire  and  t o a h i g h o f 10 m"  d i s c h a r g e d from a submerged p i p e l i n e  inal  mainland  In J e r v i s  it  the  t h a n 0.15  U t a h mine b e g a n t o d i s c h a r g e i t s t a i l i n g s  feet  the  entering these i n l e t s  Inlet  d e p t h o f 150  between  (Pickard  Rupert was  the year  been observed i n  Columbia  i n t h e summer.  i n F e b r u a r y o f 1958  1  has  in  consistently  of less  i n the t u r b i d i t y  t h e maximum s u r f a c e w a t e r m"  I t was  r e g i o n o f water  f r o m t h e w i n t e r t o t h e summer  This  example,  began.  to the s i t u a t i o n that  i s a large variation  waterbody  o f most o f t h e w a t e r  of the t u r b i d i t y  the t a i l i n g s  from longitud-  about  began.  at a  one  and  I t i s appattern  d i s c h a r g e had  277 .  resulted  in  water  in  Rupert  taken  place  discharge of  a  in  greater  the  values  higher  surface  0.38 to  In m"  the to  1  about  1971  Quatsino A  inlet  to  1970  the  of  that  pattern  of  no doubt s i l l  band of  1972  of  into  The and  the  of  for  there  1  of  was  the  18  dis-  turbidity value  Approximately 1970,  (see  that  the  Fig. was of  10).  In  0.68 the  m"  m"  or  1  and  1  previous  turbidity  3.60  one  highest  was  an  increase  year.  is  water  a  flow  of  deep waters  and  input  the  for  vertical  the  turbidity  distribution  "cloud"  September  .  the  comprising  turbidity  bottom  relatively  turbid  longitudinal  -  previous  into  1  of  after  had  turbidity  it  turbidity  and  m  150%  1971  that  water  0.25  highest  the  -  November,  about  1000%  Narrows  in  months  lowest m  water,  the  have  Before  with  inlet  0.22  surface  December,  leaves  was  of  inlet,  the  all  initiation  region  the  in  r e c o r d e d was highest  the  of  assumed t o  sampling.  and the  sampling,  the  c a n be  and o n e - h a l f  1  in  intruded  11,  entire  a  in  water m"  turbidity  between  been  One  the  the  turbidity  while  discharge. and  .  0.30  November,  distinct  have  1  increase  The 3,  -  of  this  an  the  m  than  1971  represents year.  0.15  turbidity  December,  of  water  of  began most  prior  time  time  part  charge  year  short  of  change  had  below  in  This  began there  values  recorded  increase  Inlet.  and t h e  tailings  the  dramatic  low  of  December  Rupert  turbidity  c a u s e d by  the  sections  for  19,  (see  1972  over  the  Inlet.  appears tailings  April Figs.  1-  10 15  to  278. VERTICAL  L O N G I T U D I N A L S E C T I O N OF T U R B I D I T Y  IN RUPERT INLET  FIGURE 15  (SH3131M)  Hld3Q  k QUATSIMG ii NARROWS  RUPERT INLET  tr.  UJ LJ  2  ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT <C%) IN M*"* C* >  0 . 4 0 SHADED  LIGHTLY  c< >  1 CO  DARKLY  S H A D E D  s-'Ji:^:-.^.-:..-.  280. and  16)  show t h a t the t a i l i n g s c l o u d i s being pushed towards  the head o f the i n l e t by the c u r r e n t s f l o w i n g down over the T h i s displacement resulting  of the t a i l i n g s by deep water c u r r e n t s i s  i n an upward movement of the t u r b i d i t y c l o u d i n the  v i c i n i t y of S t a t i o n s R5 All  and  R6.  t h r e e of the sample r e p l i c a t i o n s  a f t e r the mine began t o d i s c h a r g e  throughout the e n t i r e waterbody. the h y p o t h e s i s ,  t h a t were made  i t s t a i l i n g s i n d i c a t e that  the t u r b i d i t y of the water i n Rupert I n l e t has  reject  sill.  been i n c r e a s e d  I t i s t h e r e f o r e necessary  to  as s t a t e d by the Utah r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,  t h a t the t a i l i n g s d i s c h a r g e would r e s u l t  i n no i n c r e a s e i n the  t u r b i d i t y o f the water above a depth of t e n f e e t  from the  bottom.  Conclusions  The collected  v e r t i c a l temperature and t u r b i d i t y  i n Rupert I n l e t  t o September, 1972 collected  f o r the p e r i o d from November,  1970  are s u f f i c i e n t , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the  from o t h e r sources,  to arrive  at c o n c l u s i o n s  i n g the o b j e c t i v e s o f the oceanographic study. temperature data,  profiles  data  regard-  Firstly,  the  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the t u r b i d i t y data,  leave  no doubt t h a t t h e r e i s a c i r c u l a t i o n of the water throughout the e n t i r e  waterbody o f Rupert I n l e t .  There i s no d i s t i n c t  h o r i z o n t a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the water and probable  t h a t the c i r c u l a t i o n i s continuous  i t i s therefore from the s u r f a c e t o  281.  the  bottom  of  the  conclusive  in  proving that  directly mining The in  to  turbidity an  of  In  currents  regarding possible  to  water  the  for  in  this  ties  turbidity  the are  the  the  the  at  inlet.  circulation  a  the  result  of  rapid  colder  and more on the  that  flow  saline  (and  surface  significance  is  the  Marble  enters  fact the  salinity  of  of  of  the  the  Rupert  inlet  the in  inlet  has  fresh  water  of  in  (up  inlet.  presented it  is  is  greater  as  to  veloci-  Quatsino as  a  generally  density)  Perhaps of flow  of  force  to  mixed  and  s i l l  the  driving  water  about  the  Inlet,  well  a way  of  deep  over  through  narrows  such  the  been  water  is  the  circulation  the  Inlet.  density)  has  the  with  observed  that  Rupert  that  therefore  that  (low  of  the  resulted  depth  water  that  The water  through  a  patterns  flow  enters  inlet  to  is  Department.  have  deep waters  model  is  incoming t i d e .  low  the  rapid  tailings  of  by  Fisheries  bottom  alone  settling  predicted  entire  flow  seems l i k e l y  on an  of  a  data  not  indicate  It  Narrows  layer  of  general  6 knots)  River  the  information  about  water  the  the  a n d down i n t o  of  the  that of  are  Federal  oceanographic features  arrive  its  the  turbidity  result  turbidity  a s was  d i s c h a r g e began  using a l l  the  inlet  o c c u r r i n g from  Q u a t s i n o Narrows  By  the  the  tailings  indicate  addition,  after  the  s u p p o r t e d by  the  increase  inlet  water  in  Secondly,  of  profiles  increase  metres.  the  bottom  company and  greatest 50  the  inlet.  greatest  from  the  produce  immediately  than  in  a the  QVftTS/fVO  RVP£RT  /Ntzr  NARROWS fZ'VB-fZ  Q u a t s i n o K^rt"o«3.  HANKt/J  UTAH  283 .  path of the t i d a l  flow through Quatsino Narrows.  fore p o s s i b l e t h a t the  It is  there-  " d i v i n g " o f the water f l o w i n g i n t h r o u g h  t h e narrows i s enhanced by t h e downward d e f l e c t i o n caused by i t s contact w i t h t h i s l a y e r of low d e n s i t y runoff water.  The  downward f l o w o f w a t e r as i t e n t e r s t h e i n l e t r e s u l t s i n t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f some o f t h e deep w a t e r t h a t i s a l r e a d y i n t h e inlet.  The deep w a t e r i s i n t h i s manner g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by  the t i d a l flow e n t e r i n g the i n l e t .  The d i s p l a c e d ' d e e p w a t e r s  a r e e v e n t u a l l y pushed t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e i n l e t and a r e c a r r i e d out t h r o u g h Q u a t s i n o Narrows on t h e o u t g o i n g t i d a l flow  (see F i g . 1 7 ) . T h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l model o f w a t e r c i r c u l a t i o n i n  Rupert I n l e t i s f u r t h e r v e r i f i e d by a number o f v i s u a l  observa-  t i o n s t h a t were made d u r i n g t h e f i e l d t r i p s t o c o l l e c t  oceano-  graphic data.  On an i n c o m i n g t i d e t h e r e was o f t e n a prominent  " t i d e r i p " f o r m i n g an a r c j u s t o f f t h e e n t r a n c e t o Q u a t s i n o Narrows.  The i n c o m i n g w a t e r was moving r a p i d l y  (3-4 k n o t s )  on t h e narrows s i d e o f t h e t i d e r i p , whereas t h e w a t e r on t h e i n l e t s i d e o f t h e t i d e r i p was moving v e r y s l o w l y up t h e (about % k n o t ) .  The i n c o m i n g w a t e r appeared t o be  beneath the surface water of the  inlet  flowing  inlet.  On one f i e l d t r i p i n p a r t i c u l a r ( J u l y 2 1 , 1 9 7 1 ) , an o b s e r v a t i o n was made t h a t q u i t e p o s i t i v e l y demonstrated e x i s t e n c e o f deep water c u r r e n t s  i n the i n l e t .  the  While lowering  A//)A/ROU)S  Figure I d . Diagram showing the angle of the winch-line observed a t S t a t i o n R9 on July 21, 1971, i n d i c a t i n g the presence of desp vc,ter c u r r e n t s .  285. the  transmissometer  the  southwest  resulted inlet. (i.e.  in  at  a  Under  top  about  the  these  relatively  between the  these  metres  the  18).  The  these  depths  the  only  that  of  that  the  therefore  50  metres  water  1971).  at  and  winchline  gradually  high  the  up the  It  is  tidal  inlet  from  the  the  of  were  the  was  of  re-  water equal  than  the  about  100 Fig.  between velocity  100  metres  indicating  decreasing about  the  one  and  deep were  hour  Current water  the  Narrows.  surface  in  of  (see  again,  winchline  Quatsino  a l s o made  of  Canadian Tide  by  of  water  made  that  the  further  depth  case  winchline  a higher  currents  probable  Observations  at  that  velocity  depth  the  as  depth  that a  moving  the  velocity  vertical  therefore  through  a  that  is  flow  at  a higher  were  such  the  the  which-the  only  indicate  Below a  nearly  angle  metres  inlet  deep water  (calculated  50  was  changed even  conclusion  became  angle  up  not  on  From a  down t o  These observations  indicated the  and  an  This  would  moving up the  research vessel.  after  of  This  was  the  of  down a t  about  the  depth.  result  to  travelling  this  currents  however.  water  was  from  This  boat  winchline  water,  vertical.  velocity  the  blowing  hour.  water  the  of  go  the  18.  plausible  below  Tables,  expect  was  winchline  if  per  research  Figure  the  of  and  the  in  Below  angle  of  line  boat  water.  drifting  a wind  5 miles  to  depths  research  surface  than  of  about  was  lowered  metres  metres  of  one would  was  there  R9  conditions,  dotted  10-15  15  mained  to  velocity  no c u r r e n t s ) ,  shown by  Station  noticeable  transmissometer  the  a  at  upwelling  of  286. water to  at  various  occur  water  near  was of  Hankin  appeared  upwelling  to  Stations  deep water  extent  Less  (Duncan,  of  decision to the  the  was  the  5)  to  but  off  was at  high  more  the  flow  where  the  most  permit  deep waters report  British  1970).  due  This  times  extensive  probably water  seen  in  of  the  upwelling the  the  •  the  velocity  mine-site  of  often  vicinity  result  entering  the  of inlet  Narrows.  based upon the  Service  by  inlet.  Fig.  intense  This  displacement  into  (see  "boiling"  and R6.  Quatsino  tailings  the  observed right  R5  The  in  Point  be  current.  frequently  through  locations  This  Utah  of  to  Rupert  discharge Inlet  c o m m i s s i o n e d by  Columbia Government report  contained  the  to  was the  its to  mine  a  Water  B.C.  certain Resources  Research  following  recommen-  dation: Where ered depth The  report  possible, minimal, in  goes  water  tailings  deep bodies on,  Underwater settling  and where  however, disposal  value  s h o u l d be water.  to  recommend  should not  preclude  of  be  the  rapid  is  consid-  disposed of  of  characteristics  currents,  reuse  that: permitted  tailings, and  at  or  complete  where undersettle-  ment . It  is  therefore  of  mine  tailings  the  conclusion of  disposal is  the  thesis  environmentally  that  Utah's  undesirable,  method as  287 .  described  in  a dramatic Inlet.  the  increase  This  evidence  was  it  was  possible  It  was  argued  that  the  occurred  to predict  by  the  on t h e  that  of  resulted  a l l the water  the  the  discharge  the  absence  develop.  It  evidence  Rupert  body  from  inlet.  supporting  the  inlet,  can t h e r e f o r e  presented  of  which  the  of  condition of  in  in  large  condition of  despite  the  has  in  be  this  either:  1.  an e r r o r  the  Company  in  to  oceanographic  basis  it  despite  the present  company,  the  as  t u r b i d i t y of  s i t u a t i o n would not  concluded, chapter,  in  study,  available prior  regarding  this  Research  s i t u a t i o n has  that  evidence  B.C.  the  in  judgement  and t h e  approval  of  was  made o n t h e  government the  agencies  Company's  part  of  involved  disposal  plans,  or: the  2. cies  Company  acted with  environmental disposal  Whichever is  seriously p a t e d by pollution  no by the  doubt the  the  little  regard  or  no  consequences  of  government for  t h e mine  and d e c i d e d t o m i n i m i z e o r  information  there  and p o s s i b l y  that  of  that  was  the  presented  above  Rupert  tailings  control permit  Inlet  to  has  to  the mining  ignore  the  is  case,  them.  the  been a f f e c t e d f a r  t h a n was  Branch  the waste  possibilities  discharge  Pollution Control  to  agen-  when  it  originally granted  company.  It  is  more  antici-  a therefore  288. the of  recommendation mine  means at  the  Mining  tailings  of  land  Island  of  into  this  Rupert  disposal,  as  Copper Mine  Company.  thesis  that  Inlet  outlined operated  the  cease in by  underwater  and t h a t  Chapter Utah  5,  a be  disposal suitable adopted  Construction  and  289.  Bibliography  for  Chapter  5  Anonymous, 1971. B r i e f o f U t a h C o n s t r u c t i o n and M i n i n g Company i n support of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a permit under the Pollution Control Act, 1967. B r i g g s , R . O . , and M o r r i s , G . , 1971. Instrumentation for the p r e d i c t i o n o f underv/ater v i s i b i l i t y range as a f u n c t i o n o f water c o n d i t i o n s . O c e a n o g r a p h i c E n g i n e e r i n g C o r p . , mimeo. 7  pp.  Duncan, D.W., 1970. The d i s p o s a l o f m i n i n g and m i l l i n g wastes with p a r t i c u l a r reference to underwater d i s p o s a l . Report p r e p a r e d by B . C . R e s e a r c h f o r the Water R e s o u r c e s S e r v i c e , G o v e r n m e n t o f B . C . , m i m e o . 42 p p . Duchrow, R . M . , and E v e r h a r t , W . H . , 1971. Turbidity ment. T r a n s . A m e r . F i s h . S o c . 4_, p p . 6 8 2 - 6 9 0 .  measure-  E v a n s , J . B . , 1972. Summary R e p o r t , P r e - o p e r a t i o n a l p h a s e , M a r c h - S e p t e m b e r , 1971, environmental c o n t r o l program, Island Copper Mine, Rupert I n l e t , B . C . Submitted to the Pollution C o n t r o l B r a n c h by the - U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . , F e b . 4, 1972. Fukuda, M . , 1958. D e s i g n o f an B u l l . F a c . F i s h . Hokkaido Univ. Goyette, J u l y 21,  D., 1971. 1971.  Personal  H o l e , H . , 1971. Personal F e b r u a r y 5, 1971.  improved turbidity.meter. 9, p p . 6 2 - 7 2 .  communication with  communication with  Howard, T . E . , 1970. C u r r e n t measurements P r o j e c t Report from B . C . Research to Utah M i n i n g C o . , mimeo. 8 p p .  the  the  author,  author,  i n Rupert Inlet: C o n s t r u c t i o n and  Inoue, N . , N i s h i z a w a , S . , and F u k u d a , M . , 1955. The p e r f e c t i o n o f a t u r b i d i t y meter and t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f suspended m a t t e r and p l a n k t o n i n t h e sea u s i n g an u n d e r s e a o b s e r v a t i o n chamber. P r o c . U . N . E . S . C . O . Symp. P h y s . O c e a n o g . , T o k y o , 1955, pp. 53-57. Jerlov, Swedish  N . G . , 1953. Particle distribution D e e p - S e a E x p e d i t i o n 3_, p p . 73-97.  in  the  ocean.  Rept.  290.  J e r l o v , N.G., 1955. The p a r t i c l e m a t t e r i n t h e s e a as d e t e r mined by t h e T y n d a l l M e t e r . T e l l u s 1_, pp. 218-225. J e r l o v , N.G., 1957. A t r a n s p a r e n c y meter f o r ocean w a t e r . T e l l u s 9, pp. 229-233. J e r l o v , N.G., 1959. Maxima i n t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r t i c l e s i n t h e s e a . Deep-Sea R e s e a r c h 5_, pp. 173-184. J e r l o v , N.G., 1968. O p t i c a l Oceanography. Co., Amsterdam.  Elsevier  Publishing  J o n e s , D., and W i l l s , M.S., 1956. The a t t e n u a t i o n o f l i g h t i n s e a and e s t u a r i n e w a t e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f suspended s o l i d m a t t e r . J . Mar. B i o l . A s s . U.K. 35, pp. 431-444. J o s e p h , J . , 1955. E x t i n c t i o n measurements t o i n d i c a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f watermasses. P r o c . U.N.E.S.C.O. Symp. Phys. Oceanog., Tokyo, 1955, pp. 59-75. L e B l o n d , P.H., 1971. P e r s o n a l communication w i t h t h e a u t h o r , A p r i l 15, 1971. P i c k a r d , G.L., 1963. O c e a n o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n l e t s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . J . F i s h . Res. Bd. Canada 2 0 ( 5 ) , pp. 1109-1144. P i c k a r d , G.L., and G i o v a n d o , L.F., 1960. Some o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t u r b i d i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n l e t s . L i m n o l . Oceanog. 5_, pp. 162-170. W a l d i c h u k , M., e t a l , 1968. P h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l o c e a n o g r a p h i c d a t a from t h e west c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o a s t , 1957-1967, Volume I , Nootka Sound M u c h a l a t I n l e t and Q u a t s i n o Sound - N e r o u t s o s I n l e t . Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, M a n u s c r i p t R e p o r t S e r i e s No. 990. Ward, F . J . , 1964. Limnology o f Kamloops Lake. P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h . B u l l . 16_, 47 pp.  Internat.  291.  CONCLUSION  The p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s have p r e s e n t e d i n some d e t a i l many o f t h e l e g a l ,  economic, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and environmental  problems encountered  i n resource-use  The t h e s i s has demonstrated  decision-making. t h a t the major weakness  i n t h e p r e s e n t p r o c e s s by which r e s o u r c e - u s e c o n f l i c t s a r e resolved i s the lack of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of information regarding the environmental  impact  o f r e s o u r c e developments.  This i s  due p a r t i a l l y t o an a c t u a l s c a r c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , but i s a l s o because o f t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f c o r p o r a t e and government d e c i s i o n makers t o t a k e -this i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The  e x p e r i m e n t a l work c a r r i e d out f o r t h e t h e s i s  (Chapters 3 and 5) was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e environmental o f Utah's t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l system. collected indicated 1.  In summary, t h e data  that:  The water i n Rupert  I n l e t i s w e l l mixed  t o p t o bottom as a r e s u l t o f t h e t i d a l Q u a t s i n o Narrows. i n the i n l e t  desirability  The temperature  data  from  f l o w through collected  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e n t i r e waterbody i s  being r e p l a c e d as a r e s u l t o f frequent o r perhaps c o n t i n u a l displacement by warmer water i n t h e summer and c o o l e r water i n t h e w i n t e r which i s f l o w i n g i n t o  the  inlet  through  deep waters of  of  the  results out  by  of  the  B.C.  Rupert  2.  The  turbidity Inlet  of  Utah's  most  of  the  very  uniform  four  replications in  found bidity 0.15  in  the of  the presence  the  and  that the  inlet,  the  measurements  indicate  measurements  indicate  ment  out  bottom  scouring,  current  currents  replacing  addition,  the  sediment  Research, strong  In  near  limited  and  there  carried  are  deep waters  of  Inlet.  Rupert  in  Inlet  the  prior  that  most  of  to  the  (attenuation  in  the  in  commence-  turbidity  was  very  On a l l  low of  measurement  tailings  water  out  the  year.  turbidity  year  to  discharge  throughout of  carried  prior  Rupert  the  value  that  tailings  water  inlet  coefficient)  and  the  carried  discharge  the  of  it  had  of  was a  tur-  less  than  rn" . 1  turbidity  commencement turbidity  Inlet of  inlet.  c a u s e d by  relatively  the  narrows  increased turbidity  probably  The  the  the  has  measurements of of  the  discharge  entire  been g r e a t l y  tailings.  discharge  tailings  out  waterbody  lowest  one-half  after  indicate  i n c r e a s e d by  One a n d  began the  carried  in  the  that  Rupert introduction  months  turbidity  the  value  after  the  recorded  293. in  the  inlet  recorded the  deep  m  of  -  Utah  of  British  1  .  The h i g h e s t  water  of  active  Columbia  the m  represents  of  water  samples  indicate  that  disturbed  been  This  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  that  have  true  Anaconda Copper mine mine  operated  The  that  heavy  that  in  heavy the  metal  this  pollution  that  operations.  operations  Rupert also  as  Kimberly. has  resulted  Inlet  create  the water  such  and the  are comparable  at  will  through  f o r many y e a r s  pollution  a  considerable  by m i n i n g  Britannia  that  of  is  at  in  drains  by Cominco at  mine  mine  about  in  many  suggests  serious  draining  from  open-pit.  A major Rupert  the Utah  time  at  metal  operations  there  of mining  in production  Sullivan  to  collected  and abandoned m i n e - s i t e s  have  to  deep  values.  which  respects  i n the  an i n c r e a s e  areas  mining  one-half  water  of water  from  One a n d  recorded  pollution  fact  .  before  value  metal  the  1  inlet  the  heavy  been  -  turbidity  discharging tailings  pre-discharge  The a n a l y s i s  number  -  began  which  1  m  b e g a n was 0 . 3 8  turbidity  3.60  1000%  in  the  after  highest  3.  in  discharge  months  was  was 0 . 2 2  Inlet  objective  and at  other  of  the  experimental  mine-sites  in  work  carried  the province  was  out to  294.  demonstrate  that  and m a t e r i a l prediction discharge  of  the  and  fulfilling  this  its  In  to  in  Rupert  essential for  the  lacking  Inlet the  disposal in  impact Utah  up  the by  (Evans,  p r o g r a m was  heavy  a manner metal  mine.  In  to  Utah  tailings order  work  of  to  in  compare  in  the  the  the  compliance  1972).  successful  metal  that  data  the  report  background data the  of  useful in  financial  necessary to  experimental  be  set  permit  of  heavy  the  feature  to  would  program  in  the  limited  for  Rupert  content  will  make  collected  in  of it  Inlet. aquatic  possible  after  the  operate.  assembled during  outstanding  of  the  presented  for  presented  Despite was  it  those  data  with  from  success  amount  very  environmental  monitoring  the  them  began t o  obtain  control  large  was  compare  mine  with  Utah  particular,  organisms  information  monitoring  The a  to  objective,  pollution  collecting  given  disturbance  relative  obtained  environmental  possible,  probable  land  the  with  was  resources,  illustrate  results  it  that  is  fact the  of the  that  Utah  the  report  absence of  it  mine failed  of  wastes. to  large  monitoring  determination of  a  amount  of  useful  program,  the  on p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l  most conditions  background data  that  the  of  In  include  suitability particular, the  the  following  data  are  the  inlet  report  was  information:  295. 1. on  There the  and  was  nature  animal  heavy the  and  at  tidal the  (as  There  unusual Rupert  fauna  only  major  the  A study  of  therefore  the  inter-  essential  post-operational  to  interpret  distribution fact  that flow  the  to  effects  that free  through  the of  populations to  the  in  important  (chinook)  in  essential  that  river  Quatsino a  for  Sound.  complete  deepest  sediment  of  part  of  leads  to  currents  sediment  contain  salmon and h e r r i n g . spawning  bottom  resulting  Q u a t s i n o Narrows  deposition of  did  the  on t h e  deep water  report  fish  as  of  was  virtually  the  such  at  Beach).  The  tidal  reference  case  no a t t e m p t  possibility  no  be  Anaconda Copper  the  resident  would  the  inlet  3. - W h i l e  drainage  of  the  Inlet.  preventing  land  effect  is  sediment  the  probable  plant  intertidal  the  from  intertidal  operation.  was  is  from  report  of  determination  2.  most  the  elimination  and  mining  in  or  Britannia  flora  the  The  pollution  reduction  mine  presented  composition of  species.  metal  organisms  of  no d a t a  the  there.  data  on  inlet,  the it  commercial Rupert spring It  is  inventory  are  Inlet  made species is  the  salmon therefore of  these  species  296 .  be taken i f a complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the  i n l e t ' s ecology i s t o be a t t a i n e d .  4.  The most o u t s t a n d i n g weakness of the r e p o r t  i s the l a c k of any attempt  t o determine  c i r c u l a t i o n of water i n Rupert  Inlet.  the The  c e n t r a l argument put forward  f o r the use of the  inlet  the h y p o t h e s i s  f o r waste d i s p o s a l was  t h a t the deep waters of the i n l e t were not a f f e c t e d by c u r r e n t s and were not mixing the s u r f a c e waters.  with  I t would t h e r e f o r e seem  c e n t r a l t o any p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l m o n i t o r i n g program t h a t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s be t e s t e d by the and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of temperature, oxygen and c u r r e n t d a t a . attempt  collection  salinity,  In f a c t , t h e r e was  no  at c u r r e n t measurement and the tempera-  t u r e , s a l i n i t y and oxygen data c o l l e c t e d were not sufficient  t o a r r i v e at an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  water c i r c u l a t i o n i n the  inlet.  I n comparing the two programs, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t s t a t e t h a t w h i l e the Utah program was  unsuccessful i n providing  the n e c e s s a r y data on which t o e v a l u a t e Rupert  Inlet's  b i l i t y as a r e c e p t a c l e f o r mine wastes, the author was to  demonstrate  to  desiraable  t h a t the deep waters o f the i n l e t were  c i r c u l a t i n g and t h a t the t a i l i n g s would not s e t t l e d i r e c t l y t o  297. the  bottom.  The  conclusively indeed in  that  the  responsible  Rupert  been  author's  no  Inlet.  data  discharge  on the  this  is  data  monitoring  carried  $30,000  for  supplies  and  the  by  date  Utah of  collected (Evans,  out  capital  labour,  at  a  (Evans,  projected  cost  annum f o r  program  is  control  permit  for  at  tailings  in  excess of  and  it  excess  of  toring  program  of  British  time  staff  workers  the  will  therefore  included  from  writing  effects  of  as  part  was  of  the  there  has  the  despite  in  the  cost  fact  that  the  of  monitoring  $225,000 was  for  was  for  and  Pelletier,  result  required members  University at  data  the  of  and  1972).  pollution  p r o g r a m be  total  The  monitoring  commencement a  which  operating  consultants  Company's  in  of  to  carried  discharge  expenditure  experimental  work  the  Utah  from  the  University  Victoria,  mine-site,  c o l l e c t i o n and  carried  out  in  for  and  a  moni-  f u l l -  numerous  sample  analysis.  The  water  tailings  the  of  Utah  $40,000  the  faculty the  of  monitoring  after  research workers  engaged p a r t - t i m e  this  The  personnel 12  turbidity  proving  tailings  post-operational  the  years  Columbia, of  total  $100,000.  The  the  phase  five  $750,000.  in  routinely  Ellis,  requires.rthat  least  mine  inlet,  $155,000  services per  the  in  1972).  purchased  on  the  successful  of  of  equipment,  and  also  on t h e  pre-operational  p r o g r a m was was  increase  turbidity  program  The  an  As of  being  was  introduction  for  released  study  by  the  author  298. during cost  the  of  while  about  was  for  does  for  by  assistants expenses  of  the  any  to  and  and  for  friends  the  B.C.  from  trips.  included,  of  who  done  for as  at  a  and  voluntary  cost  such  would  cost  services as  research  additional  certainly  Utah  monitoring  program was,  of  course,  and  required  more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment  author's  experimental  work  in  comparison they  large  of  were  however,  the not  that  satisfy  the  Control  costs  similar  of  in  objectives  information  an  Inlet  Branch  (Chmelaushas,  (Evans,  presented  indicated  inlet,  there  1972).  was  the  of  two  the  be  less  far  more  Utah  was  it  projects  Despite existence  no change  in  is  interesting,  successful  by to  the both  and t o the of  author's  to  U.B.C.  that  the  program.  experimental  Pollution  deep water  either  a  in  monitoring  the  fact  such  essential  the  a  invalid,  was  not  the  is  required  environmental  1971)  It  did  basis  program  absolutely  presented  than  On t h i s  objectives.  generated  Rupert  committee  was  Inlet.  that  that of  Rupert  their  the  funds  information  The in  total  even though  expenditure  generating  the  $1,200  accompanied him all  student,  (This  involved  work  expenses  graduate  mine-site.  Even i f  total  $25,000. )  The  as  a  living  supplies,  the  the  total  was  was  operating  estimate  field  1972  $9,000  University  author's  on the  1969  which  expenses to  the  were  from  equipment  include  provided  than  at  travel  not  years  $12,200  studying  $2,000 was  three  the  advisory information  circulation  Pollution  in  Control  299.  Branch's  policy  committee's that is  towards  monitoring  e v e n when  available,  the  making  process is  attitudes function quality  of of  of  the the  the  resource  order  generate  people  the  in  developers,  resource-use  environmental developments.  resources.  involved,  part  of  the  than  it  the  to  and the  considered.  functions  redefining they  of be  require  of  the  legislation  government  the  This  relationship  individuals,  will between  corporations,  government.  further  suitable  decision-  to  is  decision  of  structure  problem w i l l  the  desirable  related  the  fact  research w i l l  legislation  information  and  be in  necessary for  required order  to  future  decisions.  thesis  decision-making  beneficial  at  to  advisory  the  decision-making process.  of  technical  This  continued  directly  and the  deal  arrive  the  more  this  the  on the  The weakness  whether  etc.,  great  to  a  a  it.  and  in  demonstrates  reluctance  being  redefine in  This  involved  to  disposal or  necessary to  a  institutions  and  municipalities,  in  consider  result  A  often  therefore  involved  necessarily  is  solution  restructure  agencies  program.  information  The to  to  waste  information  there  decision-makers  the  and and  has  process is  problems It  must  expanded, less  demonstrated inadequate  encountered  in  be h o p e d t h a t and w i l l  that to  deal  large this  result  environmentally  the  in  present  with  scale  the resource  research w i l l a more  damaging  use  be  socially of  natural  300.  Bibliography  f o r Conclusion  C h m e l a u s k a s , A . J . , 1971. P e r s o n a l a u t h o r , December 15, 1971.  communication w i t h t h e  E v a n s , J . B . , 197 2. Summary R e p o r t - P r e - O p e r a t i o n a l P h a s e , M a r c h - S e p t . , 1971, E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Program, I s l a n d C o p p e r M i n e , R u p e r t I n l e t , B.C. E v a n s , J . B . , E l l i s , D.V. and P e l l e t i e r , C.A., 1972. The E s t a b l i s h m e n t and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a M o n i t o r i n g Program f o r Underwater T a i l i n g D i s p o s a l i n Rupert I n l e t , Vancouver I s l a n d , B.C. mimeo, 19 p p .  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A  BATHYTHERMOGRAPH DATA FOR RUPERT  February,  1971  to  April,  1972  BATHYTHERMOGRAPH reMPZRr,rune:  O 2 4 6 S  10  (°c)  l:\ H IC l$ 20 Q  -1 1 i i i i I i u_  10 Zo~\ 3o* 4oA 50~ 6c-  303 .  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