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The distribution of educational services in Manitoba: an analysis of the effects of provincial policies,… Coleman, Peter Edward Fowler 1974

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c I THE D I S T R I B U T I O N OF E D U C A T I O N A L S E R V I C E S IN M A N I T O B A : AN A N A L Y S I S OF THE E F F E C T S OF P R O V I N C I A L P O L I C I E S , WITH PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE bij P E T E R EDWARD COLEMAN B . A . , M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCAT ION. i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMB IA F e b r u a r y , 1974 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f 4riu^. ^ h ^ u ) fa^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s e x i s t i n M a n i t o b a , and, s h o u l d e x t e n s i v e i n e q u a l i t i e s e x i s t , t o propose a m e l i o r a t i v e p o l i c i e s t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s . I n e q u a l i t i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o e x i s t when a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s v a r i e s c o n s i s t e n t l y , on a b a s i s o t h e r t h a n need, f o r s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . S i n c e u n i t a r y s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s a r e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n M a n i t o b a , and s i n c e v a r i a t i o n s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i z e have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s -d i c t i o n s , t h e method adopted i s t o p r e s e n t d a t a on 10 d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s , by s i z e of s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . T h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n shows t h a t s t u d e n t s i n l a r g e r s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y u r b a n , have s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r l e v e l s of a c c e s s . These v a r y by s e r v i c e , but t h e d i r e c t i o n o f advantage o r d i s a d v a n t a g e i s c o n s t a n t . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h need d i f f e r e n t i a l s . The second p o r t i o n of t h e s t u d y examines t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f e x i s t i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s i n a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s . The f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s of s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s r e v e a l t h a t s m a l l d i v i s i o n s g e n e r a l l y spend l e s s p er s t u d e n t , and t h a t a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e n d i t u r e s i s d i r e c t e d t o s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s . Thus e x p e n d i t u r e s on i n s t r u c t i o n a r e v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower i n t h o s e d i v s i o n s p r o v i d i n g r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of s e r v i c e . Only an i n c r e a s e d s h a r e o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s seems l i k e l y t o g i v e thern t h e f i n a n c i a l power t o improve t h e p r o v i s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . i i i A s e r i e s o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and s t a n d a r d s i s d e v e l o p e d , a g a i n s t w hich t h e p r o b a b l e o u t p u t o f p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s in f i n a n c i n g can be e v a l u a t e d . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s " r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n " , and t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d i s a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e c u r r e n t range i n revenues and l o c a l e f f o r t o f d i v i s i o n s . The second o b j e c t i v e , " a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y " , r e q u i r e s t h a t p o l i c i e s be r e a d i l y a d a p t a b l e t o c h a n g i n g needs, and t h a t an i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m be a v a i l a b l e t o s i g n a l changes i n needs, s e r v i c e l e v e l s , and f i n a n c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h u s m o n i t o r p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . The p r o p o s a l of p o l i c i e s i n t e n d e d t o f u r t h e r t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i s c o n s t r a i n e d by an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n M a n i t o b a , t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r l o c a l autonomy i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g a r e o f t h e " i n v e r s e a l l o c a t i o n " t y p e . To a c h i e v e e q u a I i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e p r o v i d i n g f o r a d i v e r s i t y o f e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s and l e v e l s , a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r ' s , t h e p r o p o s a l p r o v i d e s f o r t h r e e t y p e s of g r a n t s : c a t e g o r i c a l g r a n t s ; b a s i c g r a n t s p e r p u p i l ; and e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t s , i n -v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o d i v i s i o n w e a l t h . The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s e q u a l i z a t i o n and a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y as o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s , and p r o p o s e s a system of r e g i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , t o p r o v i d e t h o s e s e r v i c e s which d i v i s i o n s a r e not l a r g e enough t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y f o r t h e m s e l v e s . A g a i n , l o c a l autonomy a c t s as an i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n t . The s t u d y a s s e r t s t h a t major changes i n p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i n g o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , and l e s s sweeping changes i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , can i n c r e a s e t h e power o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o change t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i V e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n M a n i t o b a . Because d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r e s i d e w i t h l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , no g u a r a n t e e can be o f f e r e d t h a t t h e p o l i c i e s proposed w i l l a c t u a l l y change t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s in t h e p r o v i n c e . However, s h o u l d t h e p o l i c i e s proposed here be a d o p t e d , t h e p r o p o s e d d a t a system w i l l a l l o w p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s t o m o n i t o r p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s e q u a l i z a t i o n c o n t i n u o u s l y , and t h u s t o e v a l u a t e t h e a c t u a l o u t p u t of t h e p o l i c i e s . V C O N T E N T S C h a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTI ON . . . I The I m p o r t a n c e o f E q u a l i t y o f E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y . . . 2 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t u d y . . . 4 The M e t h o d o f t h e S t u d y . . . 7 THE D I S T R I B U T I O N OF S E R V I C E S AND RESOURCES . . . 10 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H i g h l y Q u a l i f i e d T e a c h e r s . . . 13 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , C o n s u l t a t i v e a n d R e f e r r a l 2 ? P e r s o n n e l The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n . . . 24 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s In V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . . . 2 5 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s . . . 31 C h a p t e r I I E Q U A L I Z I N G F I N A N C I A L RESOURCES:' P O L I C Y O B J E C T I V E S AND PROPOSAL F i n a n c i a l E l e m e n t s i n I n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i s i o n o f S e r v i c e s O b j e c t i v e s f o r an A d e q u a t e F i n a n c i n g S y s t e m f o r U n i t a r y S c h o o l Di v i s i o n s P o l i c y P r o p o s a l f o r E q u a l i z i n g t h e F i n a n c i a l R e s o u r c e s o f U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s C h a p t e r i I I CHANGING A D M I N I S T R A T I V E STRUCTURES TO ALLOW MORE EQUAL P R O V I S I O N OF S E R V I C E S : P O L I C Y O B J E C T I V E S AND PROPOSALS . . . 91 O b j e c t i v e s f o r an A d e q u a t e S y s t e m o f S c h o o l D i v i s i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . 92 A G e n e r a l P o l i c y P r o p o s a l f o r I m p r o v i n g t h e P r o v i s i o n o f S e r v i c e s i n S m a l l D i v i s i o n s . . . 105 CONCLUSIONS AND P O L I C Y PROPOSALS , . . i 2 5 B I B L I O G R A P H Y . . . . 130 . . . 40 .. . . 42 . . . 57 • • • 72 vi LIST OF TABLES T a b l e I Mean Readi n g Achievement S c o r e s of P u p i l s C l a s s i f i e d A c c o r d i n g t o U r b a n / R u r a l and Grade . . . 12 T a b l e 2 . S i z e o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e U n i t , By E n r o l l m e n t G r o u p i n g s and M e t r o p o l i t a n Area o r O t h e r L o c a t i o n , M a n i t o b a I 9 6 9 - i 9 7 0 . . . . 15 T a b l e 3 P u p i I - T e a c h e r R a t i o s in U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s in M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 16 T a b l e 4 Pupi I-Teacher R a t i o s i n U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 16 T a b l e 5 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r s w i t h Degrees i n U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s in' M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 17 T a b l e 6 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r s w i t h Degrees i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a School D i s t r i c t s , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 17 T a b l e 7 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r s w i t h E x p e r i e n c e i n U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 18 T a b l e 8' The D i s t r i b u t i o n of T e a c h e r s w i t h E x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia School D i s t r i c t s , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 19 T a b l e 9 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of T e a c h e r s w i t h Degrees i n U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1971-1972, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups (Based on 40 D i v i s i o n s , as i n T a b l e I) . . . 2 i T a b l e 10 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r s w i t h E x p e r i e n c e i n U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1971-1972, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 21 T a b l e II The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and C o n s u l t a t i v e S t a f f i n U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 22 T a b l e 12 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e f e r r a l s o f C h i l d r e n t o t h e C h i l d G uidance C l i n i c and t h e O f f i c e o f C h i l d Development S e r v i c e s , 1969-1970 . . . 25 v i i T a b l e 13 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s in S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n in U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s in M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l I m e n t Groups . . . 25 T a b l e 14 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a School D i s t r i c t s , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 25 T a b l e 15 The P r o v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Programs i n U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s . i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 27 T a b l e 16 The P r o v i s i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l A r t s C o u r s e s i n U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 28 T a b l e 17 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e s i n U n i t a r y . D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l Iment Groups . . . . 28 T a b l e 18 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s in A l ! V o c a t i o n a l - and B u s i n e s s C o u r s e s and Programs i n U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s in M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By EnroI Iment Groups . . . 29 T a b l e 19 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s in V o c a t i o n a l and B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a School D i s t r i c t s , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 29 T a b l e 20 E n r o l l m e n t s i n R e g i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l s i n M a n i t o b a , 1971-1972, By L o c a t i o n . . . 30 T a b l e 21 The P r o v i s i o n o f L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s (Books) i n R e p o r t i n g U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 32 T a b l e 22 The P r o v i s i o n o f L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s ( P e r i o d i c a l s ) i n . R e p o r t i n g U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 32 T a b l e 23 The P r o v i s i o n o f ' L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s (A/V M a t e r i a l s ) i n R e p o r t i n g U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s in M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l I m e n t Groups . . . 33 T a b l e 24 The P r o v i s i o n o f L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s (Books) i n R e p o r t i n g S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l I m e n t Groups . . . 34 T a b l e 25 The P r o v i s o o n o f L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s ( P e r i o d i c a l s ) i n R e p o r t i n g School D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969— 1970, By^EnroIIment Groups . . . 34 vi i i T a b l e 26 The P r o v i s i o n o f L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s (A/V M a t e r i a l s ) in R e p o r t i n g School D i s t r i c t s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . . 35 T a b l e 27 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E x p e n d i t u r e s in M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s P e r S t u d e n t By Budget C a t e g o r y and E n r o l l m e n t G r o u p i n g , 1970 . . . 4 5 T a b l e 28 I n s t r u c t i o n a l and S u p p o r t E x p e n d i t u r e s p e r S t u d e n t in M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s , By E n r o l l m e n t G r o u p i n g , 1970 . . . 46 T a b l e 29 . Average S a l a r y p e r T e a c h e r i n M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s , By E n r o l l m e n t G r o u p i n g , 1970 T a b l e 30 C o s t of P r o v i d i n g A d d i t i o n a l S p e c i a l C l a s s P l a c e s , t o Reach E x i s t i n g P r o v i n c i a l Mean, i n M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s , 1969-1970 . . . 49 T a b l e 31 E x p e n d i t u r e s on L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s i n R e p o r t i n g U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , 1969-1970, By E n r o l I m e n t Groups . . . 50 T a b l e 32 Average Income from Tax R e t u r n s by Region i n M a n i t o b a , 1966-1969 ~ . . . 52 T a b l e 33 Range i n Revenues p e r S t u d e n t and L o c a l E f f o r t in M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s , By E n r o l I m e n t Groups . . . 54 T a b l e 34 A v e r a g e s and Ranges i n Revenue p e r S t u d e n t and L o c a l E f f o r t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s , 1970, By E n r o l l m e n t Groups . . . 57 T a b l e 35 S c h e m a t i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Pr o p o s e d P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s i n t h e F i n a n c i n g o f E d u c a t i o n i n U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s in M a n i t o b a . . . 64 T a b l e 36 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e U n i t s , E n r o l l m e n t s and A v e r a g e s f o r Western Canada, 1969-1970 . . . 65 T a b l e 37 P r o p o r t i o n s o f T o t a l D i v i s i o n a l Revenue t o be D e r i v e d from D i f f e r e n t Revenue S o u r c e s w i t h V a r i a t i o n s i n S i z e o f t h e B a s i c G r a n t , i n $'000'S . . . 77 T a b l e 38 One P o s s i b l e E f f e c t o f t h e Pr o p o s e d F i n a n c e Formula on Ranges i n T o t a l Revenues and L o c a l E f f o r t i n M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s ( A l t e r n a t i v e M i n i m i z i n g L o c a l E f f o r t ) . . . 83 ix T a b l e 39 One P o s s i b l e E f f e c t o f t h e Proposed F i n a n c e Formula on Ranges i n T o t a l Revenues and L o c a l E f f o r t in M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s ( A l t e r n a t i v e I I : M a x i m i z i n g Revenue) . . . 84 T a b l e 40 Ave r a g e s and Ranges i n Revenue p e r S t u d e n t and L o c a l E f f o r t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s , 1970, By E n r o l I m e n t Groups . . . 87 T a b l e 41 Summary C h a r t o f E f f e c t i v e n e s s S t u d i e s on S c h o o l S e r v i c e Components . . . 9 5 T a b l e 42 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e a c h e r A i d e s i n M a n i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s , 197 1-1972 . . . 103 T a b l e 43 P r o p o s e d P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s i n t h e P r o v i s i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s i n U n i t a r y School D i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a . . . 104 T a b l e 44 I n t e r m e d i a t e U n i t s i n S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Some Ame r i c a n S t a t e s . . . 108 T a b l e 45 V a r i a t i o n s in Q u a n t i t i e s Q f V a r i o u s S e r v i c e s P r o v i d e d by t h e 53 B.O.C.E.S. in New Y o r k S t a t e , 1968-1971 . . . I I I T a b l e 46 S e r v i c e s P r o v i d e d by W i s c o n s i n ' s CESA, 1965-1971 . . I!3 T a b l e 47 Comparison o f Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f R e g i o n a l U n i t s o f S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( A c t u a l & Proposed) . . . 115 T a b l e 48 U n i t a r y D i v i s i o n s C o m p r i s i n g Proposed RESA R e g i o n s , w i t h 1971-1972 E n r o l l m e n t s . . . 124 X .1ST OF MAPS, CHARTS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS 1. E x i s t i n g S chool D i v i s i o n s - M a n i t o b a . . . . 13 2. M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g A r e a S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s . . . . 14 3. The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Some E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s i n U n i t a r y S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s in M a n i t o b a By E n r o l I m e n t Groups . . . . 37 4. Revenue Worksheet A . . . . . 79 5. Revenue Worksheet B . . . . 80 6. Revenue Worksheet C . . . . . 81 7. Revenue Worksheet D . . . . 82 x i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T h i s s t u d y was s u p p o r t e d , i n v a r i o u s ways and d e g r e e s , by a l a r g e number of p e o p l e . In t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e Hon o u r a b l e Saul M i l l e r and t h e HonourabIe'Ben Hanuschak, s u c c e s s i v e M i n i s t e r s o f E d u c a t i o n , and Dr. L i o n e l O r l i k o w , A s s o c i a t e Deputy M i n i s t e r , p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t , funds and i n f o r m a t i o n . My t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. J . H. A. W a l l i n , p r o v i d e d e s s e n t i a l s u p p o r t and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t , and Dr. L. B r i s s e y p r o v i d e d e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l a d v i c e on c o n c e p t u a l and a n a l y t i c m a t t e r s . T h roughout t h e work, my r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t , S h i r l e y M e r r y , was as committed t o t h e s t u d y , and i t s s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n , as m y s e l f . W i t h o u t her commitment and a s s i s t a n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e work would e v e r have been c o m p l e t e d . I am g r a t e f u l t o them a l l . P e t e r Coleman C H A P T E R I 1 NTRODUCT I ON . The f i r s t t a s k o f t h i s . c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r not t h e r e were, i n M a n i t o b a , d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o some r e s o u r c e s commonly b e l i e v e d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r an adequate e d u c a t i o n a l program, f o r example, t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s , l i b r a r y books, c o n s u l t a n t s t a f f , and so on. There was much e v i d e n c e t h a t i n e q u a l i t y e x i s t e d i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and s t a t e s . I f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n M a n i t o b a d i d i n f a c t r e v e a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i t was t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h i s work t o n e x t propose ways o f a m e l i o r a t i n g t h e s e i n e q u a l i t i e s . The i n i t i a l p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y d i d i n f a c t show t h a t t h e r e were d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o some s e r v i c e s w h i c h i t i s commonly b e l i e v e d a r e i m p o r t a n t t o s t u d e n t s . The d e t a i l s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I. C h a p t e r II examines t h e e f f e c t o f p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l f i n a n c e p o l i c i e s , and s u g g e s t s some changes which m i g h t reduce some o f t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d , and C h a p t e r I I I examines t h e c u r r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e and s u g g e s t s a p o l i c y p r o p o s a l w h i c h , a g a i n , m i g h t reduce some of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s . - 2 -The Importance o f E q u a l i t y o f E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y The i s s u e o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y becomes.a v e r y s e r i o u s one f o r e d u c a t o r s . a n d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l systems when e d u c a t i o n becomes a d e t e r m i n a n t o f one k i n d o f s u c c e s s i n l i f e a f t e r s c h o o l i n g . C l e a r i . y , i f s u c c e s s i n t h e s c h o o l c o n t e x t were n o t r e l a t e d t o any subsequent a c h i e v e m e n t i t would s t i l l be i m p o r t a n t t o p r o v i d e some measure o f e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y in. e d u c a t i o n , but i t would not be a v i t a l i s s u e , of i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e e n t i r e s o c i e t y . However, s i n c e we now know t h a t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n p r e d i c t s e v e n t u a l s o c i a l s t a t u s q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y , a t l e a s t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and p r o b a b l y a l s o i n Canada, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i s s u e i n c r e a s e s v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y . The c l o s e n e s s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s and s o c i a l s t a t u s i s now beyond q u e s t i o n . F u r t h e r , i t i s l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e , as P a r s o n s (1959) p o i n t s o u t . There i s a f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w hich i s e q u a l l y r e l e v a n t and e q u a l l y a m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n f o r e d u c a t o r s ; P o r t e r comments t h a t : A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a r t l i n g t o show a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n l e v e l , and income t h e r e i s a p e r s i s t e n t myth t h a t t h e drawback o f an i n a d e q u a t e e d u c a t i o n can be overcome by e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e work w o r l d . Upward m o b i l i t y d u r i n g t h e c a r e e r d e s p i t e t h e l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n may have been p o s s i b l e a h a l f c e n t u r y ago when S i r F r a n c i s GaI t o n a r g u e d t h a t a b l e p e o p l e w i l l overcome t h e i r s o c i a l h a n d i c a p s by t h e t i m e t h e y a r e f i f t y . In t h e m i d - t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m , however, t h e r e seems t o e x i s t i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d , not a l a d d e r of c o n t i n u a l 'promotion, but h i e r a r c h i c a l compartments i n t o w h i c h p e o p l e e n t e r from t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y stem. A l t h o u g h d u r i n g a c a r e e r t h e r e may be some movement up w i t h i n a compartment, moving up from one compartment t o a n o t h e r i s much more d i f f i c u l t . T h i s mob i M t y w i t h i n compartments i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s (.1965: p, 164). V e r i f i c a t i o n o f such a n a l y s e s i s p r o v i d e d by an e n t i r e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l i n e o f r e s e a r c h , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e conomics o f e d u c a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n between' e d u c a t i o n and income o f i n d i v i d u a l s has been t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada i n r e c e n t y e a r s . There have been a g r e a t many s t u d i e s , and t h e r e s u l t s have been s u r p r i s i n g l y c o n s i s t e n t : The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e U.S. economy o f f e r r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t (some m i g h t say s u r p r i s i n g l y c o n s i s t e n t ) s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t e d u c a t i o n , on t h e a v e r a g e , has p a i d s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l as we I I as n o n - f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s . The e v i d e n c e i s q u i t e s t r o n g t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e r e q u i s i t e a b i l i t y have been w e l l a d v i s e d t o c o n t i n u e . t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l and t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n . w i l l not c o n t i n u e (Bowen, 1968: p. 9 5 ) . Thus i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g . t h a t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , as Gordon (1972) p o i n t s o u t : equal o p p o r t u n i t y i n e d u c a t i o n has become an i s s u e o f c r u c i a l n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n . By many, i t i s r e g a r d e d as t h e base f o r a l l t h e r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f membership i n t h i s modern d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y (p. 423). The s i t u a t i o n does not seem v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n Canada. With r e g a r d t o t h e economic i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n , an a s s e s s m e n t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i f e i g h t y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g w e r e ' t a k e n as t h e base o f 100% o f income, h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n would g i v e an e q u i v a l e n t o f 148.1$ income, and u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t i o n would g i v e an e q u i v a l e n t o f '241.2$ o f income ( B e r t r a m , 1966). N a t u r a l l y , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o assume t h e s e f i g u r e s would h o l d p r e c i s e l y t r u e f o r a d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d of a n a l y s i s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s i t seems c l e a r t h a t i n g e n e r a l a t l e a s t , e d u c a t i o n and income a r e v e r y c l o s e l y . r e l a t e d , and t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c a u s a l . I t i s a l s o common i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e economics o f e d u c a t i o n t o f i n d some a s s e s s m e n t s o f a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t o i n d i v i d u a l s , beyond t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h measured income. One of t h e s e i s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n s t i i I f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , f o r w h i c h h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s p r e r e q u i s i t e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , e d u c a t i o n i s seen as p r o v i d i n g w i d e r employment c h o i c e s , and - 4 -t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t i s b a s i c o r g e n e r a ! e d u c a t i o n , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r w i t h s t a n d i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l unemployment not open t o p e o p l e of l e s s e r e d u c a t i o n ( B e r t r a m , 1966). Por t e r ' , commenting on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , n o t e s , t h a t " t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n t e n t o f e d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s b o u n d a r i e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h " (1965: p. 165). Thus n a t i o n a l p o l i c y s h o u l d c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y : " t h e i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y w h i c h has t h e g r e a t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y i s t h e one i n wh i c h t h e e g a l i t a r i a n i d e o l o g y has a f f e c t e d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e e q u a l l y t o a l l , and c a r e e r s a r e t r u l y open t o t h e t a l e n t e d " (1965: p. 167). P o r t e r ' s n a t i o n a l p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e d i f f e r s from t h a t g e n e r a l l y found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s e q u i t a b i I i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . The c o n c l u s i o n s a r e s i m i l a r , r e g a r d l e s s o f p e r s p e c t i v e , however. As P o r t e r p u t s i t , " t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y and t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e r a t i o n a l use o f economic r e s o u r c e s t h u s have a m u t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g f u n c t i o n " , (p. 167). Both p r i n c i p l e s s u p p o r t t h e judgment t h a t p r o v i d i n g f o r e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o C a n a d i a n s , both i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e Study For t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y w i l l be d e f i n e d as equal p r o v i s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . W i t h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , s i m p l e e q u a l i t y i s o b t a i n e d when e v e r y c h i l d has an equal chance t o o b t a i n t h e s e r v i c e s o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , s u i t a b l e programs, and adequate f a c i l i t i e s . D i s t r ' i b'uli on'a'l I y, s i m p l e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i s o b t a i n e d when, i n r e s p e c t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e o r r e s o u r c e , s t u d e n t s r e s i d i n g anywhere i n t h e p r o v i n c e have an-equa! chance t o o b t a i n i t ; s t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h i s i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the c a s e i n which the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t u d e n t s and s e r v i c e s i s p e r f e c t l y matched. I f , f o r a g i v e n s e r v i c e , t h i s i s not t h e c a s e , t h e n i n e q u a I i t y e x i s t s . Some l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e a p proach and t h e d a t a used h e r e must be p o i n t e d o u t . F i r s t , t h e r e :s l i t t l e g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e here t o demand f o r , o r need f o r s e r v i c e s , s i n c e t h e needs of s t u d e n t s , when a g g r e g a t e d i n t o s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , can be assumed t o be r o u g h l y e q u a l w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o o v e r a l l q u a n t i t i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e , a l t h o u g h o b v i o u s l y d i v e r s e a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . Need i s d i s c u s s e d , however, i n t h e c o n t e x t of f i n a n c e , and o f s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s . Second, i n g e n e r a l t h e d a t a g i v e n r e f e r t c a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a s e r v i c e o r r e s o u r c e , and not t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f i t , a l t h o u g h i n c a s e s where e n r o l l m e n t d a t a a r e g i v e n , ' f o r e x a m p l e ' i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , t h e r e v e r s e i s t h e c a s e ; t h e d a t a speak: t o u t i l i z a t i o n and not a v a i l a b i l i t y , s i n c e t h e r e may be more " p l a c e s " t h a n s t u d e n t s . In g e n e r a l , t h e e x i s t e n c e of unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i l l s i g n a l t h e need f o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s - t o amend t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . However, s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p r o v i s o s must be s t a t e d : f i r s t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o r r e c t d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s by r e d u c i n g s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a d v a n t a g e d . The p r o p o s a l s w i l l i n g e n e r a l emphasize t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y , o f i n c r e a s i n g s e r v i c e s t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . Second, some i n e q u a l i t i e s m i ght be e x p l i c a b l e and j u s t i f i a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f needs, v a l u e s , o r p u r p o s e s which have been i d e n t i f i e d i n advance. Fo r example, i n s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s h a v i n g p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y low e n r o l l m e n t s i n - 6 -v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s o r programs, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e may be more " p l a c e s " t h a n s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s . T h i s presumably r e f l e c t s t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of ' t h e i r own needs w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e programs, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e n c o n s t i t u t e s an ' i n t e n d e d and d e s i r e d ' i n e q u a l i t y . Such i n e q u a l i t i e s would not g e n e r a l l y g i v e r i s e t o p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i r d , s i n c e t h e emphasis o f t h i s s t u d y i s on p 6 l i c y , - a n d t h e f o c u s i s t h e p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m i n M a n i t o b a , t h e 'ma i n c o n c e r n w i l l be w i t h d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e o r seem t o be outcomes o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s , and n o t o f n a t u r a l o r c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s p o i n t has been made'by Coons, C l u n e and Sugarman: t o us t h e s t a t e ' s moral and l e g a l i m p e r a t i v e e x t e n d s no f u r t h e r t h a n t h o s e i n e q u a l i t i e s c r e a t e d by government i t s e l f . D i s c r i -m i n a t i o n by t h e s t a t e i s o u r s o l e o b j e c t ; t h i s e x c l u d e s t h e d u t y t o a m e l i o r a t e c u l t u r a l o r n a t u r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c a s t t h i s i n terms o f a b s e n c e o f t h e s t a t e ' s d u t y : we do not s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s t a t e i s f o r b i d d e n t o compensate f o r such d i s a d v a n t a g e s (1970: p. 9 ) . Thus, f o r example, i f i t s h o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , and p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c e a r r a n g e m e n t s , a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , t h i s f i n d i n g would g i v e r i s e t o p r o p o s a l s f o r a m e l i o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , what i s b e i n g p r o p o s e d i s a l i m i t e d though g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e view o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , t h a t t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n o f r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e s h o u l d not i n i t s e l f a f f e c t t h e range o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y a v a i l a b l e t o a s t u d e n t . F o u r t h , s i n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n e q u a l i t i e s m i ght e x i s t w hich a r e c o n s i d e r e d u n i m p o r t a n t , p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s w i l l r e v i e w any a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o b a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a s p e c i f i c i n e q u a l i t y . T h i s - 7 -w i l l a l l o w some r a n k i n g o f p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s i n o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y . The Method o f t h e Study The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o p o r t r a y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a number o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n M a n i t o b a , i n t h e y e a r 1969-1970, t h e l a s t y e a r f o r whi c h f u l l d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e . The d a t a w i l l d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h u n i t a r y s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s ( i . e . s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s e n r o l l i n g s t u d e n t s i n Grades K—12), which i n t h a t y e a r e n r o l l e d 88.6$ o f a i l s t u d e n t s i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l o f M a n i t o b a (DBS, 1971). The r e m a i n d e r were e n r o l l e d i n a v a r i e t y o f e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , remote o r s p e c i a l s c h o o l s , and s p e c i a l revenue s c h o o l s . In many c a s e s , a d e q u a t e d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , and g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s do not p r e c i s e l y a p p l y t o t h e s e u n i t s , and f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h e y a r e e x c l u d e d from t h e s t u d y . The g e n e r a l method w i l l be t o d i s p l a y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e s , by .groups o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e . The t a b l e s c a t e g o r i z e s c h o o I • d i v i s i o n s by s i z e o f e n r o l l m e n t , i n t o 0-3,000, 3,001-6,000, 6,001-10,000 and 10,001 and up. A l t h o u g h such c a t e g o r i e s s u p p r e s s d i f f e r e n t i a between d i v i s i o n s i n t h e same s-i ze c a t e g o r i e s , t h e y do make c o m p r e h e n s i b l e a good de a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n . S h o u l d s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s r e q u i r e i n f r a -c a t e g o r y i n f o r m a t i o n , t h i s can be p r e s e n t e d s u b s e q u e n t l y . The g e n e r a l purpose of t h e c a t e g o r y scheme i s t o a l l o w a r e a s o n a b l y d e t a i l e d o v e r v i e w o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a range o f s e r v i c e s a c r o s s t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s o f t h e p r o v i nee. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r way o f p r e s e n t i n g d a t a on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o-f s e r v i c e s was chosen f o r two r e a s o n s : f i r s t ; i t has been b e l i e v e d f o r many y e a r s t h a t - 8 -3 r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s i z e of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ( s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t ) , and t h e p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , (Campbell e t a I . , 1970). T h i s b e l i e f -i n f l u e n c e d t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d a t a chosen h e r e , s i n c e i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t s would appear. Second, s i n c e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s a r e c r e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government, any i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e d i v i s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a r e a p p r o p r i a t e grounds f o r p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s a d d r e s s e d t o p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , s i n c e such i n e q u a l i -t i e s may w e l l be amenable t o c o r r e c t i o n by t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s . T h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o p o s a l s f o r a m e l i o r a t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s which seem t o be u n i n t e n d e d and u n d e s i r e d consequences of e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s . Thus t h e s t u d y i s d e v e l o p -m e n t a l o r p o l i c y r e s e a r c h . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , and t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t , i s c o n s e q u e n t l y l i m i t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f a c t o r s which seem d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o a m e l i o r a t i o n ; a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s , many of them c a u s a l , r a i s e d by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between s i z e of u n i t and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , r e v e a l e d by t h e d a t a t o be p r e s e n t e d , a r e not e x p l o r e d h e r e . The s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s examined a r e as f o l l o w s ' : degreed t e a c h e r s , e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s ( d e f i n e d as c l a i m i n g f i v e o r more y e a r s of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ) , and s c h o o l d i v i s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e and r e f e r r a l p e r s o n n e l ; v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s , v o c a t i o n programs, b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s , and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ; and l i b r a r y books, p e r i o d i c a l s , and a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . T h i s group of s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s c o m p r i s e s v i r t u a l l y a i l t h o s e f o r which d a t a a r e e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e , e i t h e r from p r o v i n c i a l d epartments of e d u c a t i o n o r S t a t i s t i c s Canada. The f a c t t h a t t h e s e d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e r e f l e c t s t h e s h a r e d b e l i e f t h a t such d a t a a r e i m p o r t a n t . A r e c e n t r e v i e w o f - 9 -s t u d i e s o f - t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s c h o o l s e r v i c e s such as t h o s e about which d a t a i s p r o v i d e d here c o n c l u d e d t h a t , on b a l a n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h d a t a c o n -s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t e d t h e v i e w t h a t such s e r v i c e s were i m p o r t a n t in t h e i r e f f e c t upon t h e academic a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , i t i s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s on e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , and a m e l i o r a -t i o n of t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s i s i m p o r t a n t t o s t u d e n t s . For most s e r v i c e s , p a r a l l e l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s p r o v i d e d , t o show t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e of Western Canada, one i n w hich s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have somewhat d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l , f i n a n c i a l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f e a t u r e s . The c o m p a r i s o n s and c o n t r a s t s which t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f p a r a l l e l d a t a makes p o s s i b l e a r e g e n e r a l l y u s e f u l i n r e v e a l i n g t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i s indeed v a r i a b l e by p r o v i n c e . Subse-q u e n t l y , s p e c i f i c p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s might a l s o r e f e r t o t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , s i n c e one c a u s e o f v a r i a t i o n m i ght be d i f f e r e n c e s i n prov i n c i a I p o I i c i e s . In s u b s e q u e n t p a r t s of t h e s t u d y , i n which p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e g e n e r a l method w i l l be t o d e s c r i b e t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s can be e v a l u a t e d , (see D r o r , 1968, f o r a r e v i e w o f t h e uses of c r i t e r i a i n p o l i c y development) and t o p r e s e n t p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s which r e l a t e t o i n e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h seem u n p l a n n e d , and i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r impact on t h e s t u d e n t and t h e p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s ystem, and t h u s t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s . - 10 -THE DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICES AND RESOURCES T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s i n t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s . F i r s t , under p e r s o n n e l , d a t a on degreed t e a c h e r s , e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s , and c o n s u l t a t i v e p e r s o n n e l a r e p r e s e n t e d . Under programs, t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a I ' e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , v o c a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l programs, and b u s i n e s s programs i s d e s c r i b e d . F i n a l l y , under f a c i l i t i e s , d a t a on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s i s g i v e n . These c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e p u b l i s h e d and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f v a r i o u s k i n d s o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n M a n i t o b a . The d a t a used i n t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be drawn e x c l u s i v e l y from .the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1971, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d . C oncern w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s i s j u s t i f i e d , s i n c e t h e y do form an i m p o r t a n t segment of t h e t o t a l s p e c t r u m of s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s which c o m p r i s e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , as viewed by t h e c l i e n t . The i m p o r t a n c e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t a c h e d t c t h e s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s s t u d i e d here i s r e v e a l e d by t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f d e t a i l e d d a t a on t h e s e s e r v i c e s by S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Such d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d i n p a r t because t h e s e s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s a r e t h o u g h t t o be i m p o r t a n t i n d i c a t o r s o f q u a l i t y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s v i e w , w i t h r e g a r d t o i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s , i s p r e s e n t e d s u b s e q u e n t l y . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p o i n t o u t here t h a t r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e Coleman R e p o r t (1966) have tended t o s u p p o r t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s o f q u a l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n as u s e f u l u n t i l t h e s t a t e o f o u r knowledge improves. Mood s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e p r e s e n t r u d i m e n t a r y s t a t e o f o u r q u a n t i t a t i v e mode I s does not p e r m i t us t o d i s e n t a n g l e t h e e f f e c t s o f home, s c h o o l , and p e e r s on s t u d e n t s ' a c h i e v e m e n t " . (1970: p. 6) G u t h r i e and h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1970) r e v i e w e d a s e r i e s o f ma j o r s t u d i e s on t h e e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s s c h o o l s e r v i c e s on p u p i l a c h i e v e m e n t , and a s s e r t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a v a r i e t y o f s c h o o l s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g a l l t h o s e used i n t h i s s t u d y . When t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , amongst s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , o f s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s i s a t i s s u e , an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e group o f s e r v i c e s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s can be made. The f i r s t c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f u n i f o r m s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s ; t h a t i s , t h o s e s e r v i c e s w h i c h , i t seems l i k e l y , s h o u l d be d i s -t r i b u t e d on a p e r f e c t l y u n i f o r m b a s i s , i f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a T i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s des i red.' The second c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f s e r v i c e s w h i c h , i t seems l i k e l y , a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d on a n o n - u n i f o r m b a s i s , t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e l a c k o f u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e needs o f c l i e n t s i n t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s a r b i t r a r y , and n o t i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s d e f e n s i b l e , g i v e n a v e r y e x t e n s i v e and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and needs. However, a t e n t a t i v e d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n , based on c u r r e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s i n needs a s s e s s m e n t , can be s u g g e s t e d . A c c e s s t o h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , a v a r i e t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e , and r e f e r r a l p e r s o n n e l , and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , i s r e g a r d e d as u n i f o r m l y r e q u i r e d by s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . A c c e s s t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , and t o v o c a t i o n a l and b u s i n e s s programs, i s r e g a r d e d as d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e q u i r e d . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s based on v a r i a t i o n s i n need, and t h a t any p a t t e r n s i m p l y r e f l e c t s d e c i s i o n s by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f o r whom t h e y a r e - 12 -r e s p o n s i b l e have l e s s need f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s f a c i l i t i e s , and v o c a t i o n a l and b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n . In t h e abs e n c e o f f o r m a l needs a s s e s s m e n t s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e f u t e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c o m p l e t e l y . The o n l y r e c e n t l a r g e s t u d y b e a r i n g on t h i s a t a l l , a s u r v e y o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e , d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t , a f t e r Grade I, r u r a l s t u d e n t s had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s t h a n urban s t u d e n t s . TABLE I MEAN READING ACHIEVEMENT SCORES OF PUPILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO URBAN/RURAL AND GRADE URBAN RURAL DISCREPANCY Grade 1 1 .76 1 .85 + 0.09. 2 2.97 2.77 - 0.20 3 4.07 3.77 - 0.30 6 7. 16 6.73 - 0.43 (Ha 1amandari s, 1 971 : p.  133) G i v e n t h e g e n e r a l i m p o r t a n c e of r e a d i n g , t h e s e d a t a do not s u g g e s t t h a t t h e need f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i s g r e a t e r i n urban a r e a s ( l a r g e d i v i s i o n s ) . S i m i l a r l y , d a t a p r e s e n t e d l a t e r r e g a r d i n g e n r o l l m e n t s i n r e g i o n a l v o c a t i o n a l h i g h s c h o o l s s u g g e s t t h a t r u r a l s t u d e n t s may t e n d t o e n r o l l more r e a d i l y i n such s c h o o l s . In g e n e r a l , d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d s u b s e q u e n t l y on t h e b a s i s o f u n i t s i z e . However, t h e r e l a t i o n between s e r v i c e s and s i z e o f u n i t i s a l s o i n p a r t a l o c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , s i n c e i n M a n i t o b a most l a r g e d i v i s i o n s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r W innipeg a r e a . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e compares s i z e and l o c a t i o n . KELS.EY f t ?2\ 1-7 L E G E N D E X I S T I N G S C H O O L D I V I S I O N S 0-3000 3 0 0 1 - 6 0 0 0 l-IO METROPOLITAN 29 -TIGER HILLS 30 - PINE CREEK. 31 - BEAUTIFUL PLAINS 13 - AGASSIZ 6 0 0 1 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 14 -SEINE RIVER DIVISIONS 11 - LORD SELKIRK 12 - TRANSCONA- SPRINGFIELD 32 - TURTLE RIVER 33 - DAUPHIN - OCHRE. G r o u p IV - 10,001 + ft-) A J n / 15 - HANOVER 16 - BOUNDARY 17 - RED RIVER 18 - RHINELAND 19 - MORRIS - MACDONALD 20-WHITE HORSE PLAIN 21 - INTCRLAKE 22 - EVERGREEN 23 - LAKE SHORE 24-PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE 25 - MIDLAND 26 - GARDEN VALLEY 27 - PEMBINA VALLEY 28 - MOUNTAIN' 34 -PUCK MOUNTAIN 35 - SWAN VALLEY 36 - INTERMOUNTAIN 37-PELLY TRAIL 36-BiRDTAIL RIVER 39- ROLLING RIVER 40- BRANDON 41 - FORT LA BOSSE 42-SOURIS VALLEY 4 3 " ANTLER RiVER 44-TURTLE MOUNTAIN 45 -KELSEY 46- FLIN FLON 47- WESTERN 48- NORTHERN LEGEND CITIES VILLAGES & TOWNS MUNICIPAL t L.G.D. BOUNDARIES EXISTING SCHOOL DIVISION BOUNDARIES "-vr A I c»e*«» LOO fc.ons» 41 iUOLUHrS , ..60 « / 12 • 1 I---; - 14 -1 - Winnipeg 4 - S t . B o n i f a c e 8 - Norwood 2 - S t . J a m e s - A s s i n i b o i a 5 - F o r t G a r r y 9 - R i v e r E a s t 3 - A s s i n i b o i n e South 6 - S t . V i t a l i-0 - Seven Oaks I! - T r a n s c o n a - S p r i n g f i e ! d - 15 -TABLE 2 S i Z E OF ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPINGS AND METROPOLITAN AREA OR OTHER LOCATION, MANITOBA, 1969-1970 No. L o c a t i o n Group & Symbol EnroI Iment Di v s . M e t r o A r e a O t h e r Group I Up t o 3,000 18 0 18 Group I I 3,001-6,000 13 2 II Group I I I 6,001-10,000 - 6 5 1 Group IV Over 10,000 3 3 0 TOTALS 40 10 30 In t h e accompanying maps, t h e symbols a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g r o u p s a r e used i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h d i v i s i o n i d e n t i f y i n g number t o show t h e l o c a t i o n s o f d i v i s i o n s of v a r i o u s s i z e s The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f H i g h l y Q u a l i f i e d T e a c h e r s For t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s a r e c o n -s i d e r e d t o have two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which a r e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . F i r s t , d egreed t e a c h e r s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d , and t h e n t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g f i v e y e a r s o r more o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . A t p r e s e n t i n M a n i t o b a pupi l - t e a c h e r r a t i o s do not v a r y w i d e l y between t h e g r o u p s o f d i v i s i o n s . T a b l e 3 d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s . - 16 -TABLE 3 PUPIL-TEACHER RATIOS IN UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA, 1969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS Enro11ment No. T o t a l No. T o t a l No. Average Group Di v s . S t u d e n t s T e a c h e r s P/T.R. 1 18 40,686 1,861 ' 21.86 1 1 13 50,644 2,308 21 .94 1 1 1 6 45,574 2,089 21 .82 IV 3 80,662 3,648 22. 1 1 40 217,566 9,906 21 .96 Thus t e a c h e r s i n genera 1 seem t o be d i s t r i b u t e d more o r l e s s u n i f o r m ! l y a c r o s s t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s of M a n i t o b a . S t u d e n t s have r o u g h l y equal a c c e s s t o t e a c h e r s , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal o p p o r t u n i t y . The s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s s i m i l a r • TABLE 4 PUPIL-TEACHER RATIOS IN UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1969-1970, 1 3Y ENROLLMENT GROUPS Enro11ment No. T o t a l No. T o t a l No. Average Group Di v s . S t u d e n t s T e a c h e r s P/T.R.. 1 4 . l 60,901 2,690- 22.64 1 1 17 79,677 3,302 24. 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 81,078 3,262 24.86 IV 12 290,018 1 1 ,499 25.22 81 511,674 20,753 24.66 However, w i t h r e g a r c 1 t o h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat di f f e r e n t . The di s t r i b u t i on of degreed t e a c h e r s i n M a n i t o b a ' s u n i t a r y s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s i s shown i n T a b l e 5. - 17 -TABLE 5 THE DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS WITH DEGREES IN UNITARY SCHOOL (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) T o t a l % No. o f % o f P r o v . No. No. o f P r o v . Degreed. Degreed Enro11ment Di v s . T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 IS 1 ,861 18.79 512 13.34 -5.45 3,001-6,000 13 2,308 23.30 732 • 19.07 -4.23 6,001-10,000 6 2,089 21 .09 880 22.92 + 1 .83 Over 10,000 3 3,648 36.82 1 ,715 44.68 +7.86 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 9,906 . 100.00 3,839 100.00 T h i s t a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l a r g e r t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n , t h e b e t t e r chance t h e s t u d e n t has o f b e i n g i n s t r u c t e d by a degreed t e a c h e r . In B r i t i sh Co 1 urnb i a, t h e d i s ' t r i b u t i o n o f degreed t e a c h e r s f o 1 lows a co m p a r a b l e pa t t ' 3 r n , as i s i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e 6. TABLE 6 THE DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS WITH DEGREES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS, J 969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) T o t a l % No. o f %. o f P r o v . No. No. o f P r o v . Degreed Degreed Enro11ment Di s t . T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 41 2,690 12.96 1,165 . 10.45 -2.5! 3,001-6,000 17 3,302 15.91 1 ,578 14. 15 -1.76 • 6,001-10,000 1 I 3,262 15.72 1 ,695 15.20 - .52 Over 10,000 12 11,499 55.41 6,713 60.20 +4.79 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 81 20,753 ICO.00 11,151 100.00 - 18 -The i importance o f t h e s i z e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t seems l e s s marked i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia t h a n i n M a n i t o b a . A somewhat s i m i l a r p a t t e r n emerges when t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s ' i s . e x a m i n e d . (An e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one w i t h f i v e o r more y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . ) T a b l e 7 d i s p l a y s t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n by s i z e o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n i n M a n i t o b a . ' TABLE. 7 THE DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS WITH EXPERIENCE IN UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS I.M MANITOBA, I 9 6 9 - I 9 7 0 , BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Tota 1 % No. o f % o f P r o v . No. No. o f P r o v . E x p e r i enced E x p e r i enced Enro11ment Di v s . T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 18 1 ,861 18.79 1 ,041 18.43 - .36 3,001-6,000 13 2,308 23.30 1 ,205 21 .33 - i .97 6,001-10,000 6 2,089 21 .09 1 , 189 21 .05 - .04 Over 10,000 3 .3,648 36.82 2,214 39. 19 +2.37 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 9,906 100.00 5,649 100.00 T a b l e 8 re v e a 1 s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e x p e r i enced t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h Co 1umb i a, wh i ch f o 1 1 ows a s i mi l a r p a t t e r n t o t h a t i n Man i t o b a . - 19 -TABLE 8 THE DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS WITH EXPERIENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS, 1969-1970, BY"ENROLLMENT GROUPS . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) T o t a l $ . No „ o f $ of P r o v . No. No. o f P r o v . E x p e r i enced E x p e r i enced E n r o l I m e n t D i s t s . T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s Teachers- T e a c h e r s Di sc. rep a i Up t o 3,000 41°' 2,690 12.96 1 ,668 12.84 - .12 3,001-6,000 17 3,302 15.91 2,036 15.68 . - .23 6,001-10,000 1 1 3,262 15.72 2,046 15.76 + .04 Over 10,000 12 11,499 55.41 7,235 55.72 + .31 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 81 20,753 100.00 12,985 100.00 In g e n e r a l , i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f degreed t e a c h e r s , l a r g e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a , a n d ' i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , seem d i s t i n c t l y a d v a n t a g e d . They a r e a.l so s l_ i g h t I y .advantaged ' i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s . T h i s p o r t r a y a l of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i s not by any means novel o r s u r p r i s i n g . A major s u r v e y s t u d y o f t h e t e a c h e r w o r k f o r c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c a r r i e d on i n 1968-1969 by t h e C e n t r e f o r t h e Study o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia showed t h a t t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n ( c o m p r i s i n g most o f t h e urban a r e a o f t h e p r o v i n c e ) , w h i c h employed 49.13$ o f t h e t o t a l t e a c h e r w o r k f o r c e employed 54.75$ of t h e degreed t e a c h e r s (Wall i n , 1971: p. 14). The same B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t u d y s u g g e s t s a p a t t e r n o f t e a c h e r m o b i l i t y which c o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e ten d e n c y f o r h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s t o be employed i n urban a r e a s . In a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s r e g a r d i n g r e a s o n s f o r t e a c h e r m o b i l i t y , t h e s t u d y found t h a t o f t h o s e t e a c h e r s p l a n n i n g t o move t o - 20 -a n o t h e r r e g i o n , 36.57$ gave g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s as t h e main r e a s o n , 28.00$ gave p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , and 15.31$ gave e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Amongst a l l t e a c h e r s , whether p l a n n i n g t o change l o c a t i o n o r n o t , 24.15$ gave g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s as a p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r d o i n g so (Wall i n , 1971: p. 44). A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n showed low l e v e l s of t e a c h e r s e x p e c t i n g t o move, and h i g h l e v e l s o f d u r a t i o n o f employment. A l l t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e view t h a t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t e a c h e r s t e n d t o move t o t h e Lower M a i n l a n d (an u r b a n i z e d a r e a ) and s t a y t h e r e . Presumably t h e s e h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s have had t h e o p t i o n o f moving, perhaps because o f t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and have e x e r c i s e d t h a t o p t i o n . The same c h o i c e might have been a v a i l a b l e i n M a n i t o b a , and g i v e n r i s e t o t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . There i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n o f major s h o r t - t e r m changes i n t h i s p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n . T a b l e s 9 and 10 d i s p l a y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , on t h e same b a s e s , f o r M a n i t o b a i n t h e 1971-72 s c h o o l y e a r . These d a t a were s u p p l i e d by t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f M a n i t o b a , and a r e not p r e c i s e l y c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h e d a t a a l r e a d y used, s i n c e t h e y r e p o r t a cademic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s by s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s t e p s , r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t l y by d e g r e e . * *:in M a n i t o b a , t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e number of a c c e p t a b l e y e a r s of t r a i n i n g , and o f e x p e r i e n c e . In most c a s e s , C l a s s IV s t a t u s r e p r e s e n t s h o l d i n g a d e g r e e , and was so c a l c u l a t e d h e r e . TABLE 9-THE DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS WITH DEGREES IM UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA, 1971-1972, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (Based on 40 D i v i s i o n s , as i n T a b l e I)  (A) (B) (C) EnroI Iment (D) % No. of No. T o t a l No. o f P r o v . Degreed D i v s . T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s T e a c h e r s (E) % o f Prov. Degreed T e a c h e r s (F) Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 18 2,002 18.50 750 13.37 -5.1 2 3,001-6,000 13 2,460 22.74 1 ,081 1 9.28 -3.46 '6,001-10,000 6 2,227 20.58 1 ,230 21 .93 + 1 .35 Over 10,000 3 4,131 38. 18 2,547 45.42 +7.24 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 10,820 100.00 5,608 100.00 TABLE 10 THE DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS • : DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA. 1971 WITH EXPERIENCE IN UNITARY -1972, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS SCHOOL Enro11ment (A) No. Di v s . (B) T o t a l No. , T e a c h e r s (C) % of P r o v . T e a c h e r s (D) No. o f E x p e r i enced T e a c h e r s (E) % o f P r o v . E x p e r i enced T e a c h e r s (F) Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 !8 2,002 18.50 ' 1,124 17.63 -0.87 3,001-6,000 13 2,460 22.74 j,328 20.82 • -1.92 6,001-10,000 6 2,227 20.58 1 ,393 21 .84 + 1.26 Over 10,000 3 4, 131 38. 1 8 2,532 39.71 + 1 .53 PROV1 NCIAL TOTALS 40 10,820 100.00 6,377 100.00 These t a b l e s s u g g e s t t h a t i n r e g a r d t o a c c e s s t o h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , t h e e x t e n t o f t h e ad v a n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s i n l a r g e d i v i s i o n s has d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y . Over t h e p e r i o d 1969-1970 t o . 197 i-1 972, no major s h i f t s have t a k e n - 22 -p l a c e however. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e c o n t i n u i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e b a s i s used i n t h e a n a l y s i s h e r e . The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , C o n s u l t a t i v e , and R e f e r r a l P e r s o n n e l The d a t a p r e s e n t e d here d e s c r i b e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l ! d i v i s i o n -employed, as opposed t o s c h o o l - e m p l o y e d , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e p e r s o n n e l ; t h u s s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s , l i b r a r y c o o r d i n a t o r s , s u b j e c t and g r ade l e v e l s u p e r v i s o r s , t r a v e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and so on, a r e a l l i n c l u d e d . E x c l u d e d a r e t h e s t a f f o f t h e W i n n i p e g C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c , and s i m i l a r r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s , which w i l l be d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y . On t h e f a m i l i a r e n r o l l m e n t b a s i s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : TABLE U THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND CONSULTATIVE STAFF IN UNITARY DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA, 1969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS.  E n r o l I m e n t (A) No. Di v s . (B) T o t a l No. S t u d e n t s (C) No. o f S t a f f (D) % o f P r o v . S t u d e n t s (E) % o f P r o v . S t a f f (F) Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 18 . 40,686 33 18.70 13.07 - 5.63 O 3,001-6,000 13 50,644 44.5 23.28 17.62 - 5.66 6,001-10,000 6 45,574 41 20.95 16.24 - 4.. 71 Over 10,000 80,662 134 37.07 53.07 +16.00 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 217,566 252.5 100.00 100.00 (Based on d a t a s u p p l i e d f o r M a n i t o b a - A s s o c i a t i o n o f S c h o o l I r u s t e e s , 1971) To t h e i n b a l a n c e s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e d a t a , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o add r a t h e r . d i f f e r e n t d a t a t o c o m p l e t e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e and r e f e r r a l p e r s o n n e l . The major (and o n i y s i g n i f i c a n t ) r e f e r r a l - 23 -s e r v i c e o p e r a t i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e i s t h e Chi id G u i d a n c e C l i n i c o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g . T a b l e 12 compares t h e p r o v i s i o n of r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e ' s i n t h e G r e a t e r Winnipeg .area ( 1 0 d i v i s i o n s ) w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s i m i l a r s e r v i c e s , c o o r d i n a t e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l O f f i c e o f C h i l d Development S e r v i c e s , t o t h e r e s t of t h e p r o v i n c e . TABLE 12 THE DISTRIBUTION OF REFERRALS OF CHILDREN TO THE CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC AND THE OFFICE OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, 1969 - 1970 G r e a t e r Wi nn i peg Di v i s i ons  Wi nni peg S t . J a m e s - A s s i n i b o i a R i v e r E a s t S t . Boni f a c e T r a n s c o n a - S p r i ngf i e I d S t . V i t a l Seven Oaks F o r t G a r r y A s s i ni boi ne South Norwood No. % o f Prov.. No. % of P r o v . S t u d e n t s S t u d e n t s R e f e r r a I s * R e f e r r a I s Di s c r e p a n c y 48,020 20,132 12,510 8,720 8,493 7,026 6,630 6,122 3,704 3, I 17 19.55 8.20 5. 10 3.55 3.46 2.86 2.70 2.49 I .51 ' I .27 6,429 I , 176 747 822 416 729 463 348 239 219 53.65 9.81 6.23 6.86 3.47 6.08 3.86 2.90 2.00 I .83 +34.I 0 + I .61 + 1.13 + 3.31 + 0.01 + 3.22 + 1.16 + 0.41 + 0.49 + 0.56 AI I o t h e r prov i nc i a I a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s TOTALS 124,474 50.59 11,583 96.69 +46.00 121,090 49.31 396 3.31 -46.00 245,564 100.00 11,984 100.00 (*Drawn from t h e Annual R e p o r t of the. C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c of G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , n.d. No s i z e c a t e g o r y d a t a a v a i l a b l e . - ) - 24 -S e v e r a l p o i n t s s h o u l d be made about t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d i n t h i s t a b l e . F i r s t , t h e d i s p a r i t y between G r e a t e r W innipeg and t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y t h e C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c was s p e c i f i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e s c h o o l s . (See C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , n.d.f- p. 23) Second,, t h e d i s p a r i t y between t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e Winnipeg School D i v i s i o n and t h o s e p r o v i d e d f o r o t h e r d i v i s i o n s i n t h e G r e a t e r W innipeg a r e a may w e l l be r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c was o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e Wi n n i p e g School D i v i s i o n and i s s t i I i a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e D i v i s i o n . T h i r d , t h e d i v i s i o n s a r e l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f s i z e and t h e r e does seem t o be a t l e a s t a rough r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e o f u n i t and r e f e r r a l s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o p o p u l a t i o n . The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s s i m i l a r . t o t h a t i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , on degreed and e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s - t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e , and r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s ( o r t h e i r t e a c h e r s ) i n t h e s m a l l e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e i s a t s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower l e v e l s t h a n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e same s e r v i c e s i n t h e l a r g e r u n i t s . The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s jn S p e c - i a j ^ E d u c a t i o n T a b l e s ' 13 and j4 p o r t r a y e n r o l l m e n t s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , on t h e same b a s i s used i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , f o r M a n i t o b a and B r i t i s h Co i umb i a .' - 25 -TABLE 13 THE DISTRIBUTION OF ENROLLMENTS IN SPECIAL. EDUCATION IN UNITARY DI VIS ONS IN MANITOBA, 1969 -1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Studen I s No. T o t a l No. % c f P r o v . i n Spec i a l % o f P r o v . Enro1!ment Di v s . S t u d e n t s S t u d e n t s CI a s s e s Spec.CI,Pop. D i s c r e p a n c y No. ' I Up t o 3,000 18 40,686 18.70 690 1 .70 18.15 - .55 3,001-6,000 13 50,644 23.28 798 1 .58 20.99 -2.29 6,001-10,000 6 45,574 20.95 721 1 .58 18.97 -1.98 Over 10,000 3 80,662 37.07 1 ,592 1 .97 41.88 +4.8! PROVINCIAL. TOTALS 40 217,566 100.00 3,801 1 .75 100,00 TABLE 14 ..THE DISTRIBUTION OF ENROLLMENTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS, 1969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT.GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) S t u d e n t s No. • T o t a l No. % o f P r o v . i n Spec i a I % o f P r o v . Enro11ment Di v s . S t u d e n t s S t u d e n t s CI a s s e s S p e c . C i . P o p , Di s c r e p a n c No. % Up t o 3,000 41 60,901 1 1 .90 609 1.00 8,32 -3.58 3,001-6,000 17 79,677 15.57 815 1,02 11.14 -4.43 6,001-10,000 1 1 81,078 15.85 1,222 1.51 16.70 + .35 Over 10,000 1 2 290,018 56.68 4,572 1.61 63.84 + 8.01 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 81 511,674 100.00 7,318 1.43 100.00 *The s o u r c e , DBS, 1971, l i s t s t h r e e t y p e s o f e n r o l l m e n t s , j u n i o r A u x i l i a r y , S econdary S p e c i a l , and S e n i o r A u x i l i a r y . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f i g u r e s r e p o r t e d w i t h t h o s e r e p o r t e d i n the Annual R e p o r t , l'969- i 970, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Department of ' E d u c a t i o n , 1971, 'shows t h a t t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y i s not e q u i v a l e n t t o s p e c i a l o l asses, e I sewhere, and .'hence i t i s not i n c l u d e d h e r e . - 26 These t a b l e s s u g g e s t t h a t i n both p r o v i n c e s , s t u d e n t s i n need o f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s l i v i n g i n l a r g e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s have a b e t t e r chance of b e i n g e n r o l l e d i n a s p e c i a l c l a s s t h a n s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n s m a l l u n i t s . A g e n e r a l p o i n t a b o u t t h e p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s can be made b e f o r e concludi.ng t h i s s e c t i o n * In t h e 1969-1970 s c h o o l y e a r , fewer t h a n two c h i l d r e n i n e v e r y hundred were t a u g h t i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n M a n i t o b a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The CELDIC R e p o r t ( R o b e r t s , 1970), o f a n a t i o n a l s t u d y o f C a n a d i a n • c h i I d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , s u g g e s t e d t h a t 12$ of a l l s t u d e n t s s h o u l d p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s ; t h i s i n c i d e n c e f i g u r e i s a i s o used i n a manpower p r o j e c t i o n model by t h e U.S. O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n (The Committee on T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n and P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a n d a r d s , 1971). I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t c u r r e n t l e v e l s o f p r o v i s i o n a r e n o t e n t i r e l y a d equate i n t h e two p r o v i n c e s s t u d i e d . The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E n r o l l m e n t s i n V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n In M a n i t o b a , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n c a r r i e d on i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i s c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n o r B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t c a t e g o r y has two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s , V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l programs, f o r s t u d e n t s s p e n d i n g 50$ o f t h e i r c l a s s t i m e i n . t h i s a r e a , and I n d u s t r i a l A r t s c o u r s e s , f o r s t u d e n t s on U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e programs who have 12$ o f t h e i r t i m e t a b l e open f o r o p t i o n a l c o u r s e s , which may be I n d u s t r i a l A r t c o u r s e s . In many ways, t h e p r o v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l programs i s more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h a t of I n d u s t r i a l A r t s c o u r s e s , from t h e p o i n t o f view o f o f f e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o academic c o u r s e s f o r s t u d e n t s who a r e not u n i v e r s i t y bound. - 27 -The t a b l e s which f o l l o w a d h e re t o t h e f o r m a t a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d were g a t h e r e d from t h r e e main s o u r c e s , ' I i s t e d ' i n t h e ' t a b l e s , and i n some c a s e s by p e r s o n a ! s o l i c i t a t i o n from o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t group o f t a b l e s p r o v i d e s s e p a r a t e f i g u r e s f o r e n r o l l m e n t s i n V o c a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l programs, I n d u s t r i a l A r t s c o u r s e s , and B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . A s u b s e q u e n t t a b l e c o l l a p s e s t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s i n t o a s i n g l e g r o u p , and t h u s shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e n r o l l -ments i n a l l v o c a t i o n a l and b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s and programs i n u n i t a r y d i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a . T h i s l a s t t a b l e i s used f o r c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r which s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d . TABLE 15 THE PROVISION OF VOCATIONAL INDUSTRIAL PROGRAMS IN (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ' (F) No. No. T o t a l No. % o f P r o v . S t u d , i n % o f Prov„ Enro11ment Di v s . S t u d e n t s S t u d . Pop. Voc. 1nd. Enro11ment Di s c r e p a n c y up t o 3 ,000 18 4 0 , 6 8 6 18 .70 0 o00 . - 1 8 . 7 0 3 , 0 0 1 - 6 , 0 0 0 13 5 0 , 6 4 4 2 3 . 2 8 . 143 7 .66 - 1 5 . 6 2 6 , 0 0 1 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 6 4 5 , 5 7 4 2 0 . 9 5 57 3 .05 - 1 7 . 9 0 Over 10 ,000 . 3 8 0 , 6 6 2 3 7 . 0 7 1 ,667 8 9 . 2 9 +52 .22 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 2 1 7 , 5 6 6 100 .00 1 ,867 100 .00 - 28 -TABLE 16 THE PROVISION OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS COURSES IN UNITARY DIVISIONS IN'MAM ITOBA, 1969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) No, T o t a l No. % o f P r o v . No. Stud.. .'% of P r o v . E n r o l I m e n t D i v s . S t u d e n t s S t u d e n t s i n . 1nd. . A r t s Enro 1 1 rneht Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 IS 40,686 18.70 1,419 6.24 -•12.46 3,001-6,000 13 50,644 23.28 3,522 15.48 - 7.80 6,001-10,000 6 45,574 20.95 6,406 28. 16 ' + 7.19 Over 10,000 3 80,662 37.07 1 1 ,403 50.12 +13.05 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 217,566 100.00 22,750 100.00 . TABLE 17 THE DISTRIBUTION OF BUSINESS EDUCATION COURSES IN UNITARY DIVISIONS iN MANITOBA, 1969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS E n r o l I m e n t (A) No. Di v s , (B) T o t a l No, . S t u d e n t s (C) % of P r o v . S t u d e n t s (D) No. S t u d , i n Bus. Ed. (E) % o f P r o v . Bus. Ed. S t . (F) Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 18 40,686 18.70 684 13.64 - 5.06 3,001-6,000 13 50,644 23.28 879 17.53 - 5.75 6,001-10,000 6 45,574 20.95 1,220 24.33 + 3.38 Over 10,000 3 80,662 37.07 2,232 44.50 + 7.43 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 217,566 100.00 5,015 100.00 - 29 -TABLE 18 THE DISTRIBUTION OF ENROLLMENTS IN ALL VOCATIONAL AND BUSINESS COURSES AND PROGRAMS IN UNITARY DIVISIONS IN' M AjNj TO BA j _ J _ 9 6 9 H 9 7 0 , BY ENROLLMEN T GROUPS  Enro 1 1 me n t (A) No. . Di v s . (B) T o t a l No. S t u d e n t s (C) % of P r o v . S t u d e n t s (D) No, Enro 1 1 «, i n Voc.Ed. (E) % o f P r o v . Enro! 1 merits CF) D i s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 18 40,686 18.70 2, 103 7. 10 -11.60 3,001 -6,000 13 50,644 23.28 4,544 1 5.33 - 7.95 6,001 -10,000 6 '45,574 20.95 7,683 25.93 + 4.98 Over 10,000 3 80,662 37.07 . 15,302 51 .64 +14.57 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 217,566 100.00 29,632 100.00 The s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia i s n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n Man i t o b a ; TABLE 19 DISTRIBUTION OF ENROLLMENTS IN VOCATIONAL AND BUSINESS EDUCATION IM BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 1 9 6 9 - 1 9 7 0 . BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS*  Enro 1 1 ment (A) No. Di v s . (B) T o t a 1 No. S t u d e n t s (C) % of P r o v . S t u d e n t s (D) No, Enro11. i n Voc. Ed. (E) • % o f P r o v . Voc. Ed. S t u d . (F) D i s c r e p ; Up t o 3,000 40 60,601 11.81 2,346 1 1 .06 - .75 3,00L -6,000 16 74,090 14.44 3,425 16.15 + 1 .71 6,001 -10,000 12 88,202 17. 19 3,366 15.87 -1.32 Over 10,000 12 290,186 56.56 12,071 55.92 + .35 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 80 513,079 100.00 21,208 100.00 ^ ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1971) -- 30 -These d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o b v i o u s g e o g r a p h i c and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t t e m p t i n g t o group s t u d e n t s f o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p u r p o s e s have t o a l a r g e e x t e n t been s o l v e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but not i n M a n i t o b a . The 1969-1970 d a t a p r o v i d e d here f o r M a n i t o b a a r e t o some e x t e n t r e n d e r e d o b s o l e t e by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f a number o f r e g i o n a l v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , which were i n t e n d e d i n p a r t t o a l l e v i a t e t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s noted h e r e . These s c h o o l s o f f e r a broad v a r i e t y o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s t o s t u d e n t s i n Grades 10, I I , and 12. In t h e 1971-1972 s c h o o l y e a r t h e r e were f o u r o f t h e s e s c h o o l s i n o p e r a t i o n , two i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a and two o u t s i d e t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . There were two more under c o n s t r u c t i o n , one a t Brandon and one i n Swan R i v e r , a r u r a l a r e a . These r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have c e r t a i n l y reduced t o some e x t e n t the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n but t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e o f e n r o I Iments a t t h e f o u r s c h o o l s w i l l s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s r e d u c t i o n i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o e l i m i n a t e c o m p l e t e l y t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d . TABLE 20 ENROLLMENTS IN REGIONAL VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS IN MANITOBA, I 97 I-1-972, BY LOCATION* L o c a t i on Sch o o l D i v i s i o n EnroI Iment Rura I D a uphin, No. 33 S e l k i r k , No. I I 870 1, 133 Urban R i v e r E a s t , No. 9 S t , J a m e s - A s s i n i b o i a No. 2 784 779 * ( D a t a s u p p l i e d by Department of E d u c a t i o n , M a n i t o b a ) - 31 -E a r l y i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s w i l l a l l e v i a t e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f programs f o r s t u d e n t s i n t h e d i v i s i o n i n which t h e s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d but n o t f o r o t h e r s t u d e n t s . The s c h o o l a t Dauphin was a t t e n d e d by 20 student's from o u t s i d e t h e home d i v i s i o n , t h a t i s , o n l y 2.3$ of t h e t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t ; t h e s c h o o l a t S e l k i r k was a t t e n d e d by 35 s t u d e n t s from o u t s i d e t h e home d i v i s i o n , 3.1$ o f t h e e n r o l l m e n t . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h a t f o r M a n i t o b a , i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n o f non-academic programs e x i s t . R e g i o n a l s c h o o l s , r e c e n t l y p r o v i d e d , have p r o b a b l y reduced t h e s e i n e q u a l i t i e s , b u t u n l e s s a t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n s change v e r y s h a r p l y , w i l l not be e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n e l i m i n a t i n g them. The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s p o r t r a y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : books, p e r i o d i c a l s , and a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . Both t h e M a n i t o b a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i t u a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d , u s i n g d a t a p r o v i d e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada, and o r i g i n a l l y c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e i r annual r e p o r t on l i b r a r i e s . These r e p o r t s were n o t c o m p l e t e , and c o n s e -q u e n t l y e n r o l l m e n t f i g u r e s , and numbers o f d i v i s i o n s and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , d i f f e r from t h o s e i n p r e v i o u s t a b l e s , . T a b l e 21 p o r t r a y s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f books, by e n r o l l m e n t g r o u p s . - 32 -TABLE 21 •THE PROVISION OF LIBRARY SERVICES (BOOKS) IN REPORTING UN ITARY DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA, 1969 - 1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) % of % o f No. T o t a l No. No. o f P r o v . P r o v . % Enro 1 I merit Di v s . S t u d e n t s Books S t u d . Books Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 • 13 29,382 137,248 18.31 13.33 - 4.98 3,001-6,000 13 50,831 237,386 31.67 23.06 - 8.61 6,001-10,000 5 37,437 223,823 23.32 21.74 - 1 .58 Over 10,000 1 42,859 430,980 26.70 4 1 .87 + 15.17 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 32 160,509* 1,029,437 100.00 100.00 *Some d i v i s i o n s d i d not r e p o r t . T a b l e s 22 and 23 p o r t r a y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p e r i o d i c a l s and a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE 22 THE PROVISION OF LIBRARY SERVICES (PERIODICALS) IN REPORTING (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) .% of % of No. T o t a l No. No. o f P r o v . P r o v . % Enro11ment Di v s . S t u d e n t s P e r i o d . S t u d . P e r i od. Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 13 29,382 648 18.3! 9.33 - 8.98 3,001- 6,000 13 50,831 992 31 .67 14.27 -17.40 6,001-10,000 5 37,437 1,137 23.32 16.36 - 6.96 Over 10,000 I 42,859 4, 173 26,70 60.04 +33.34 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 32 160,509 6,950 100.00 100.00 - 33 -TABLE 23 THE PROVISION OF LIBRARY SERVICES (A/V MATERIALS) IN REPORTING UN ITARY .DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA, I 969--1 970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS t n r o l iment (A) No. Di v s . (B) T o t a 1 No. S t u d e n t s (C) No. of A/V Mat (D) % of P r o v . . • ' ' S t u d . (E) % of P r o v . A/V Mat. (F) % Di s c r e p a n c v Up t o 3,000 13 29,382 3,444 18.31 4.05 - 14.26 3,0001-6,000 13 50,831 14,874 31 .67 17.51 - 14.16 6,001-10,000 5 37,437 15,268. 23.32 17.98 - 5.34 Over 10,000 1 42,859 51,348 26.70 60.46 + 33.76 PROVINCIAL TOTALS AVERAGES 32 160,509 84,934 100.00 100.00 Al1 t h r e e t a b 1es reve a I t h e by now f a m i 1 i a r p a t t e r n o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s , w i t h t h e l a r g e d i v i s i o n s b e i n g h e a v i l y f a v o r e d i n a l l m a t e r i a l s . The e q u i v a l e n t t a b l e s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e v e a l an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t -s i t u a t i o n . In a l l t h r e e t y p e s o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s , t h e s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y a d v a n t a g e d , and t h e l a r g e r r e l a t i v e l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d . - 34 -TABLE 24 THE PROVISION OF LIBRARY MATERIALS (BOOKS) IN REPORTING SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, i 9 6 9 - 1 9 7 0 , BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) T o t a l % of % of No. No. No. of P r o v . P r o v . % Enro1Iment D i s t . S t u d e n t s Books S t u d e n t s .Books Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 25 44,253 416,943 9.00 10.47 + 1 .47 3,001-6,000 17 79,974 678,118 16.24 17.03 + 0.79 6,001-10,000 1 1 81,207 643,455 16.49 16. 16 - 0.33 Over 10,000 12 286,893 2,243,011 58.27 56.34 - ! .93 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 65 492,327 3,981,527 100.00 100.00 AVERAGES TABLE 25 THE PROVISION OF LIBRARY MATERIALS (PERIODICALS) IN REPORTING SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS E n r o l I m e n t (A) No. D i s t . (B) T o t a l No. S t u d . (C) No. o f P e r i o d (D) % o f P r o v . S t u d s . (E) % o f P r o v . P e r i o d (F) % D i s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 25 44,253 2,257 9.00 10.33 + 1 .33 3,001-6,000 17 79,974 3,691 16.24 16.89 + 0.65 6,OOi-I0,000 1 1 81,207 4,496 16.49 20.58 + 4.09 Over 10,000 12 286,893 11,407 58.27 52.20 - 6.07 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 65 492,327 21,851 100.00 100.00 AVERAGES - 35 -TABLE 26 THE PROVISION OF LIBRARY MATERIALS (A/V MATERIALS) IN REPORTING SCHOOL. DISTR ICTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, i 969-1970, BY ENROL LMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) T o t a 1 % o f % o f No. No. No. of P r o v . P r o v . Enro1Iment D i s t S t u d . A/V Mat. , ''Stud . ' A/V Mat. Di s c r e p a n c y Up t o 3,000 25 44,253 47,260 9.00 . 17.55 + 8.55 3,001-6,000 17 79,974 52,586 1 6.24 19.53 + 3.29 6,001-10,000 1 1 81,207 28,035 15.49 10.41- - 6.08 Over 10,000 \2 286,893 141,382 58.27 52.51 - 5.76 PROVINCIAL TOTALS 65 492,327 269,263 100.00 100.00 AVERAGES With r e g a r d t o l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s , s m a l l d i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a seem s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d . T h i s p a t t e r n does not appear i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , which s u g g e s t s perhaps t h a t d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o p u r c h a s e s o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s have been i n f o r c e t h e r e . The f a c t t h a t r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m l e v e l s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s e x i s t s t h e r e s u g g e s t s t h a t seme p r o v i n c e - w i d e i n f l u e n c e has been e f f e c t i v e . I t i s by no means c l e a r t h a t t h i s i n f l u e n c e has been t h a t o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s , but i t can be t a k e n as some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t rough d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f such r e s o u r c e s can be e f f e c t e d . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n can a l s o be drawn from t h e d a t a p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l programs i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 36 -T h i s a n a l y s i s o f v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e p u b l i s h e d d a t a on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a number of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n M a n i t o b a has de m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i n e v e r y s e r v i c e a r e a s t u d i e d t h e l e v e l o f p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s o r r e s o u r c e s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s i z e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . The d i r e c t i o n o f r e l a t i v e a d vantage i n terms o f a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s a l w a y s f a v o r s s t u d e n t s i n l a r g e d i v i s i o n s , whether t h e s e r v i c e i s one which i t was e x p e c t e d m i g h t be d i s -t r i b u t e d u n i f o r m l y , o r d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e needs of s t u d e n t s . The r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e absence of any formal a s s e s s m e n t of needs t o j u s t i f y t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c i a l , v o c a t i o n a l and b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s u g g e s t s s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e p a t t e r n i s independent o f s t u d e n t needs, but a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n i t s i ze. There i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y s u r p r i s i n g about t h e c o n -c l u s i o n s 5 a r r i ved a t he r e . P o r t e r has p o i n t e d o u t , f o r example, t h a t one s o c i a l b a r r i e r t o e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n " l i e s i n t h e r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s I i n e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s 1 ' (1965: p. 168); however, many p e o p l e w i l l perhaps f i n d i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t even w i t h i n s o c i a l and g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s , such an a p p a r e n t l y t r i v i a l element as s i z e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t can make a d i f f e r e n c e t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . With r e g a r d t o urban o r r u r a l l o c a t i o n , few p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n would f i n d i t s u r p r i s i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t a s m a l l r u r a l s c h o o l d i v i s i o n c a n n o t p r o v i d e t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t can be p r o v i d e d i n a l a r g e urban d i v i s i o n . What i s perhaps s u r p r i s i n g i s t h e h i g h degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y among d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i n v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s . The a t t a c h e d c h a r t p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e summary which r e v e a l s t h e THE DISTRIBUTION UF SOME EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IN UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS DEGREED EXPERIENCED ADMIN. AND SPECIAL VOCATIONAL - VOCATIONAL BUSINESS LIBRARY- LIBRARY- LIBRARY-TEACKERS TEACHERS CONS. STAFF EDUCATION PROGRAMS COURSES COURSES BOOKS PERIODICALS A/V MATERIALS - 38 -e x t e n t of t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y a t a g l a n c e . The c h a r t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i s -t r i b u t i o n of s e r v i c e s on t h e e n r o l l m e n t b a s i s used i n t h e t a b l e s . The p a r a l l e l f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d f o r B r i t i s h C o l umbia show t h a t t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y i s not n e c e s s a r i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s -d i c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h i n many s e r v i c e s t h e p a t t e r n i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n M a n i t o b a , i n a t l e a s t some s e r v i c e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n programs, t h e p i c t u r e in B r i t i s h C o lumbia i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . In one sense t h i s i s r e a s s u r i n g , s i n c e i t s u g g e s t s t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c i e s can e q u a l i z e a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . From t h e p o i n t of view of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s , perhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i s t h a t t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d here c l e a r l y a r e r e l a t e d t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i n e d u c a t i o n a r e t h e c r e a t u r e s of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s i n Canada ( B a r g e n , 1961: p. 10), j u s t as t h e y a r e t h e c r e a t u r e s of s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (Wise, 1968: p. 101). Hence r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n e q u a l i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i s i n e s c a p a b l e . If t h e s e i n e q u a l i t i e s a r e u n i n t e n d e d , and c o n t r a r y t o p r e -f e r e n c e s h e l d by p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , some changes i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s seem c a l l e d f o r . The g e n e r a l c r i t e r i o n of e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , i f a c c e p t a b l e t o p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , s u g g e s t s t h e o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n t h a t t h e s e p o l i c y changes m i g h t t a k e . Subsequent p o r t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y w i i l a r gue t h e c a s e f o r two g e n e r a l poI i c y ' p r o p o s a I s i n t e n d e d t o reduce t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d h e r e . More d e t a i l e d c r i t e r i a , o r v a l u e p o s i t i o n s , w i i l form a p a r t of t h e argument f o r t h e s e p r o p o s a l s . - 39 -The purpose of t h i s p a r t of t h e s t u d y was t o r e v i e w d a t a on t h e e x i s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s o f M a n i t o b a . The main c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e s i z e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t t e n d s t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a number of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , w i t h s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , and the' s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n them, g e n e r a l l y b e i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e d , T h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n h o l d s t r u e o v e r a wide range o f s e r v i c e s i n M a n i t o b a , and a somewhat s m a l l e r ranae i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . - 40 -C H A P T E R I I EQUALIZING FINANCIAL RESOURCES: POLICY OBJECTIVES & PROPOSALS. T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f i n a n c e i n M a n i t o b a . I t s p r i m a r y p u r p o s e s a r e as f o l l o w s : f i r s t , t o examine t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some p o r t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s c h o o l d i v i s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , m ight be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o f i n a n c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . I f t h i s s h o u l d seem t o be t h e c a s e , t h e second purpose w i l l be t o p ropose a m e l i o r a t i v e p o l i c i e s , t h e g e n e r a l t h r u s t o f which w i l l be t o p r o v i d e s m a l l s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , whose s t u d e n t s a t p r e s e n t have l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o some educ a -t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , w i t h i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l power, and t h u s make i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h o s e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s t o improve t h e l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . In e f f e c t t h o s e two p u r p o s e s w i l l r e q u i r e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f i n a n c i n g of e d u c a t i o n which a r e d i r e c t l y d e t e r m i n e d by p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s , t o whom t h i s r e p o r t i s a d d r e s s e d . The o r d e r o f t r e a t m e n t w i l l be t o e s t a b l i sh f i r s t t h e e x t e n t t o which d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n s e r v i c e s seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i n a n c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s a n a l y s i s a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e e f f e c t s of c u r r e n t f i n a n c i n g p o l i c i e s . Second, a s e t o f g o a l s o r o b j e c t i v e s i n f i n a n c e w i l l be proposed which m i g h t be a c c e p t a b l e t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s ; and t h i r d , a s e t o f p o l i c i e s f o r t h e f i n a n c i n g o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e w i l l be p r o p o s e d , t h e " p r o b a b l e r e a l o u t p u t " ( D r o r , 1968: p. 41) o f which w i l l more c l e a r l y meet t h e p r o p o s e d g o a l s o r o b j e c t i v e s t h a n e x i s t i n g f i nance p o I i c i e s . Many s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s c o n t i n g e n t on a c c e s s t o f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s : " e q u a l i t y o f - 4i -e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y a m a t t e r o f e q u a l i t y of a c c e s s t o f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s " ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971a: p. 5 9 ) . The m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s t o a l l o w s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s more equal a c c e s s t o p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , t o be p r o p o s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , can t h u s be viewed as a r a t h e r n e c e s s a r y r e s p o n s e t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . R e e x a m i n a t i o n c f f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s can be proposed as a n e c e s s a r y , i f not s u f f i c i e n t , r e s p o n s e t° t h e s e i n e q u a l i t i e s , because changes i n t h e a b i l i t i e s o f s m a l l s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s m ight v e r y w e l l be c o n -t i n g e n t upon i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l power. Such an i n c r e a s e i n f i n a n c i a l power, g i v e n t h e burden o f l o c a l t a x a t i o n on p r o p e r t y a t p r e s e n t , can o n l y be e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t from a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . However, such a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d , w i l l change t h e f i n a n c i a l p o t e n t i a l t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s . Changes i n s e r v i c e l e v e l s a r e l e f t i o t h e d i s c r e t i o n of l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s by t h e p r o p o s a l s i n t h i s c h a p t e r , . w h i c h a r e aimed a t p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , : and o n l y c o n c e r n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . A c o n t r a r y view t o t h a t g i v e n above, r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , has been argued. Some s c h o l a r s m a i n t a i n t h a t s i n c e i n p u t measures, such as t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r I, and o u t p u t measures, f o r example c f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , do n o t c o r r e l a t e v e r y w e l l , a t t e m p t s t o change t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s a r e n o t w o r th making. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , doubt i s e x p r e s s e d about t h e u t i l i t y o f a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . See, f o r example, J e n c k s (1972: p. 9 0 ) , - 42 -The r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s argument may t a k e s e v e r a l forms: f i r s t , t h e Coleman R e p o r t ( 1 9 6 6 ) , on which t h e argument i s based, may u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s c h o o l f a c t o r s (Bowles & L e v i n , 1968); s e c o n d , t h e main i s s u e i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f e q u a l i t y i s o p p o r t u n i t y not a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e use made o f o p p o r t u n i t y ; t h i r d , t h e f a c t o r s which a c c o r d i n g t o Coleman c o r r e l a t e s t r o n g l y w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t a r e f a r beyond t h e scope o f p u b l i c p o l i c y - m a k i n g ( M o s t e i l e r & Moynihan, 1972: p. 4 2 ) . F i n a l l y , i n t h e words o f Coons, C l u n e & Sugarman: The b a s i c l e s s o n t o be drawn from t h e e x p e r t s a t t h i s p o i n t i s t h e c u r r e n t inadequacy o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e t o d e l i n e a t e w i t h any c l a r i t y t h e r e l a t i o n between c o s t and q u a l i t y . We a r e u n w i l l i n g t o p o s tpone r e f o r m w h i l e we a w a i t t h e h o p e d - f o r r e f i n e m e n t s i n methodology which w i l l s e t t l e t h e i s s u e . We r e g a r d t h e f i e r c e r e s i s t a n c e by r i h d i s t r i c t s t o r e f o r m as adequate t e s t i m o n i a l t o the. r e l e v a n c e of money. Whatever- i t i s t h a t money may be t h o u g h t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , t h a t commodity i s some t h i n g h i g h l y p r i z e d by t h o s e who e n j o y t h e g r e a t e s t measure of i t . I f money i s i n a d e q u a t e t o improve e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e s i d e n t s o f poor d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d a t l e a s t have an equal o p p o r t u n i t y t o be d i s a p p o i n t e d by i t s f a i l u r e s . (1970: p. 30) T h i s i s s u e i s a l s o argued i n Benson (1965: pp. 19-27) and Wise (1968a: 142-150), w i t h s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s : money c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e s o p p o r t u n i t y and may i n f l u e n c e a c h i e v e m e n t ; i n t h i s c a s e s o c i a l r e f o r m , i t i s m a i n t a i n e d , c a n n o t a w a i t s c i e n t i f i c c e r t a i n t y . F i n a n c i a l E l e m e n ts i n t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n a l I n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e P r o v i s i o n o f  Sen/ i c e s T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l a t t e m p t t o r e v e a l t h e f i n a n c i a l b a s i s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s by e x a m i n i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f e x p e n d i -t u r e s o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , and a l s o t h e range o f revenues and l o c a l e f f o r t In d i v i s i o n s . i n e f f e c t , t h e l a t t e r m a t e r i a ! p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s of e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c e p o l i c i e s . The f i r s t p a r t t h e n d e a l s w i t h i n -q u a l i t i e s i n e x p e n d i t u r e s ; t h e second w i t h i n e q u a l i t i e s i n , r e v e n u e s . - 43 -B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g i n d e t a i l some f i n a n c i a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e p r e v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s i n M a n i t o b a s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , i t i s p e r h a p s - d e s i r a b I e t o examine b r i e f I y • t h e o v e r a I I r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i z e and c o s t s , and i t s p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on 'the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s . H o p e f u I I y t h i s w i l l p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e of t h e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f s m a l l d i v i s i o n s which i n a c c u r a c y and d e t a i l i s adequate t o s e r v e as t h e b a s i s f o r some p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s i n a s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n . -R e c ent r e v i e w s o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e - r e I a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i z e and annual e x p e n d i t u r e s per p u p i l have g e n e r a l l y not s u p p o r t e d t h e s i m p l i s t i c view t h a t l a r g e d i s t r i c t s must b e n e f i t from economies o f s c a l e and hence s h o u l d be a b l e t o o p e r a t e more e c o n o m i c a l l y , t h a t i s a t lower annual per p u p i l c o s t s . R a t h e r i t seems t o be t h e c a s e t h a t i n a number of d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s , both American and C a n a d i a n , per p u p i l c o s t s f a l l r o u g h l y on a c u r v e , w i t h l a r g e and s m a l l d i s t r i c t s . e n c o u n t e r i n g h i g h c o s t s , and i n t e r m e d i a t e -s.i zed d i s t r i c t s e n c o u n t e r i n g lower c o s t s (Coleman, 1972a; Holdaway & B l o w e r s , 1971; S u b a l a o & H i c k r o d , 1971). The emphasis of most of t h e r e s e a r c h has been on f i n d i n g t h e optimum p o i n t on t h i s c u r v e , t h a t i s t h e i d e a l s i z e o f d i s t r i c t s from a c o s t s t a n d p o i n t . In M a n i t o b a t h i s seems t o have been around 4,000 s t u d e n t s i n t h e 1969-70 s c h o o l y e a r (Coleman, 1972a: p. 6 3 ) . The n o t i o n o f economies o f s c a l e o p e r a t i n g i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s s t i l l an i n h e r e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e one, however, s i n c e i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h common s e n s e , w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and w i t h r e s e a r c h on t h e c o s t s of o p e r a t i n g s m a l l s c h o o l s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r i n s t a n c e , an.ana l y s i s o f f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s i z e of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t b udgets showed t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s i z e o f s c h o o l was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , c o r r e l a t i n g i n v e r s e l y w i t h t h e s i z e o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t budgets ( R o b i n s o n & Sawadsky, 1971). The s c a t t e r e d d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o r many j u r i s d i c t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t s m a l l d i s t r i c t s , i n which s m a l l s c h o o l s a r e g e n e r a l l y o p e r a t e d , e n c o u n t e r h i g h c o s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , due t o d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e . Large d i s t r i c t s e n c o u n t e r h i g h c o s t s because they p r o v i d e h i g h l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e i n g e n e r a l . Thus t h e economies of s c a l e c o n c e p t i s more v a l i d a t t h e s m a l l end o f t h e s i z e s p e c t r u m t h a n t h e l a r g e end. T a b l e s 27 and 28 p r e s e n t d a t a on s c h o o I • d i v i s i o n e x p e n d i t u r e s , by c a t e g o r y , f o r 1970. In g e n e r a l , t h e p i c t u r e i s as f o l l o w s : e x p e n d i t u r e s on i n s t r u c t i o n , both a b s o l u t e l y and as p e r c e n t a g e s , r i s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s i z e . T h i s . l e n d s some s u p p o r t t o t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n above which d e a l s w i t h e x p e n d i t u r e s on s e r v i c e s . Spending on s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y d e c l i n e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s i z e , s u p p o r t i n g t h e economies o f s c a l e h y p o t h e s i s , e x c e p t t h a t P l a n t M a i n t e n a n c e e x p e n d i t u r e s r i s e v e r y s h a r p l y i n t h e l a r g e s t d i v i s i o n s . T here a r e c e r t a i n l y f a c t o r s o t h e r . t h a n d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s e f i g u r e s ; f o r example, t h e c a t e g o r y O t h e r E x p e n d i t u r e s i n c l u d e s e x p e n d i -t u r e s on s t u d e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , which a r e not i m p o r t a n t i n t h e l a r g e urban d i v i s i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s which m ight w e l l be i n f l u e n t i a l a r e v a r i a t i o n s i n c o s t s of goods i n r u r a l a r e a s , s u b s t a n t i a l c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s , v a r i a t i o n s i n i n d e b t e d n e s s , and so on. (See Wise, 1968a: p. 157). However, some o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e t h e m s e l v e s p r o b a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e . For example, v a r i a t i o n s o f c o s t s o f goods a r e as l i k e l y t o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o s m a l l o r d e r s p r o d u c i n g s m a l l d i s c o u n t s as t o remoteness from s u p p l i e r s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s a r e sometimes i n f l u e n c e d by d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e . ( F r a n c e , 1971: p. 4 ) , TABLE 27 THE DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES IN MANITOBA'S UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS PER STUDENT BY BUDGET CATEGORY AND ENROLLMENT GROUPING, i970 (A) (B) Admin. Gen. Gro u o * p e r S t u d . (C) Admi n. 1 n s t r u c t . D e r S t u d . (D) I n s t r u c t . Day per S t u d . (E) P l a n t M a i n t . per S t u d . (F) O t h e r p e r S t u d . (G) Tota 1 Expend. (H) Range i n Expend. Der S t u d e n t $ % I 24.05 3.71 II 23.73 3.86 I I I 23.43 3.68 IV 22.16 3.11 $ % 18.36 2.83 20.58 3.35 26.17 4.11 36.59 5.13 $ % 379.77 58.59 387.55 63.04 437.91 68.84 480.47 67.42 $ % 59.62 9.70 58.72 9.55 57.48 9.04 77.71 10.90 $ % 166.41 25.67 124.16 20.20 91.16 1-4.33 95.70 13.43 $ 648.2.1. 614.74 636.15 7 12.63 $ 514.88 - 770.8! 519.63 - 693.66 555.53 - 683.43 624.94 - 768.28 PROV. 23.15 3.50 AVERAGES 27.27 4.12 431,09 65.14 65.67 9.92 114.60 17.32 661.78 51,4.88 - 770.81 *Group h e r e r e f e r s t o t h e f o u r e n r o l l m e n t c a t e g o r i e s used e a r l i e r . Group I i s compoised of d i v i s i o n s i n t h e 0 - 3000 e n r o l l m e n t r a n g e , Group I I i s c o m p r i s e d of d i v i s i o n s i n t h e 3001 - 6000 r a n g e , Group i c o m p r i s e d of d i v i s i o n s i n t h e 6001 - 10,000 range and Group IV i s c o m p r i s e d of d i v i s i o n s i n t h e 10,COO + range. (Based on a u d i t e d s t a t e m e n t s o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , s u p p l i e d i n summary fo r m by t h e Ma n i t o b a Department E d u c a t i o n . ) -46-I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a i e p l a y a t .least a p a r t i n t h e h i g h l e v e l o f e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s found i n smaII d i v i s i o n s . T a b l e 28 r e v e a l s t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s somewhat more c l e a r l y , by c o l l a p s i n g t h e e x i s t i n g budget c a t e g o r i e s i n t o two, w i t h t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n and I n s t r u c t i o n Day School c a t e g o r y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Serv i ce. expend i t u r e , and t h e r e m a i n d e r b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d S u p p o r t S e r v i c e e x p e n d i t u r e . E x p e n d i t u r e s on i n s t r u c t i o n r i s e both a b s o l u t e l y and i n p e r c e n t a g e terms w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n s i z e ( e x c e p t t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e change between c a t e g o r y 3 and 4 i s i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n but v e r y s m a l l ) . E x p e n d i t u r e s on s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s f a l l s h a r p l y i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s both i n a b s o l u t e and p e r c e n t a g e t e r m s . Between c a t e g o r i e s 3 and 4 however they r i s e a g a i n . These d a t a t h e n seem g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c u r v i I i n e a r c o s t h y p o t h e s i s . TABLE 28 INSTRUCTIONAL AND MANITOBA'S UNITARY SCHOOL SUPPORT EXPENDITURE PER STUDENT IN DIVISIONS, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPING, 1970 (A) Group (B) 1 n s t r u c t i ona1 S e r v i ces (C) S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s (D) T o t a l E x p e n d i t u r e 1 $ 398.13 % 61.42 $ 250.08 % 38,58 $ 648.21 1 1 408.13 66.39 206.6i 33.61 614.74 1 1 1 464.08 72.95 172.07 27.05 636.15 IV 517.06 72. 56 195.57 27.44 712.63 PROVINCIAL AVERAGES 458.36 203.42 661.78 -47-A t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n based on t h i s a n a l y s i s o f e x p e n d i t u r e s can now be s t a t e d : In M a n i t o b a , l a r g e d i v i s i o n s , which as has been d e m o n s t r a t e d p r e v i o u s l y p r o v i d e s u p e r i o r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e , do so a t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h costs.;• However, t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y low s u p p o r t s e r v i c e c o s t s h e l p them t o keep t h e i r e x p e n d i t u r e s down. They seem t o b e n e f i t , w i t h r e g a r d t o s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , from economies of s c a l e . Thus, i n g e n e r a l , i f i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , t o be e q u a l i z e d , i t can be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l amounts of a d d i t i o n a l funds w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r s m a l l d i v i s i o n s ; a rough measure o f t h e e x t e n t of t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l funds can be seen by c o n t r a s t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s ' o n i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e two g r o u p s of s m a l l d i v i s i o n s w i t h t h o s e i n t h e two g r o u p s of l a r g e d i v i s i o n s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g t a b l e , In c o n s i d e r i n g s p e c i f i c f i n a n c i a l bases f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n s e r v i c e s a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d , t h e s e r v i c e c a t e g o r i e s of p e r s o n n e l , programs, and f a c i l i t i e s can be used a g a i n . T e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s a r e c l e a r l y a m a j o r c o s t i t e m , and s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y be examined. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s a v e r a g e s a l a r y p e r t e a c h e r i n t h e e n r o l l m e n t c a t e g o r i e s a l r e a d y used. TABLE 29 AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN MANITOBA'S UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPING, 1970 (A) Group (B) No. of Di v s . (C) No, of S t u d e n t s (D) No. of T e a c h e r s (E) P/T R a t i o (F) Expend. on Teach.. Sa 1 . (G) Av. S a l a r y p e r T e a c h e r 1 •8. 40,686 1 ,851 •21 .86 % 13,872,236 $ 7,454.18 1 1 13 50,644 2.. 308 21 .94 17,680,944 ' 7,660.72 1 I i 6 45,574 2,089 21 .82 17,947,395 8,59!.38 IV 80,662 3,648 22. 1 I 34,808,820 9,54!.89 PROV. TOTALS AVERAG1 40 ES "2 1 7 , 566 9,906 2 i . 96 84,309,395 8,510.94 - 48 -The d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n e x p e n d i t u r e s shown a r e r e s u l t a n t s o f a t l e a s t t h r e e m a j o r f a c t o r s : pupi I - t e a c h e r r a t i o s , v a r i a t i o n s between s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s , and v a r i a t i o n s stemming from p l a c e m e n t on t h e s c h e d u l e s . The e f f e c t o f t h e f i r s t i s l i m i t e d , s i n c e as T a b l e 29 shows, v a r i a t i o n s from t h e p r o v i n c i a l mean here a r e s m a l l . The e f f e c t o f t h e second i s a l s o r a t h e r l i m i t e d : t h e l o w e s t s a l a r y s c a l e i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1970 had a minimum o f $4,500, (which was s h a r e d by 25 d i v i s i o n s ) and a maximum of $12,900. The h i g h e s t had a minimum o f $4,775 and maximum of $13,750. These ranges a r e c l e a r l y not s u f f i c i e n t t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e range from $7,454.18 t o $9,541.80 i n a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s shown i n t h e p r e c e d i n g t a b l e . C l e a r l y t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f d i s p a r i t i e s i n a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s i s p l a c e m e n t on t h e s c a l e - i e . v a r i a t i o n s i n e x p e r i e n c e and c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g f o r c e , and t h u s t h e s e d i s p a r i t i e s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e s e r v i c e s o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I. The' s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s f i n d i n g becomes c l e a r when an a t t e m p t t o e s t i m a t e t h e c o s t o f c o r r e c t i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a I • inequaI i t i e s i s c o n s i d e r e d . For d i v i s i o n s i n Groups I and II t o r a i s e s a l a r i e s t o p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e l e v e l s , i n o r d e r t o improve t e a c h i n g f o r c e s , would r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s o f about $1,000 p e r t e a c h e r f o r a t o t a l o f 4,169 t e a c h e r s . In t h e a r e a o f programs, s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d as an i l l u s t r a t i o n . The c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs has been e s t i m a t e d a t about t w i c e t h a t f o r t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l p u p i l . ( T h i s i s based, r o u g h l y , on N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t f i n d i n g s , 1971b, p. 28, but i s c e r t a i n l y n ot i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n . o f c o s t s . ) TABLE 30 COSTS OF PROVIDING ADDITIONAL SPECIAL CLASS PLACES, TO REACH EXISTING PROVINCIAL MEAN, IN MANITOBA' 'S UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS, i 969-1970 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) ( 1 ) % o f E n r o l I m e n t No. o f Tota1•No. % o f P r o v . S t u d . i n P r o v , Spec. Di s c r e p a n c y Expend. Add. C o s t s Group i no, Di v s . S t u d e n t s S t u d . Pop . Spec. C i C I . Pop. (No. o f S t u d . ,) per S t u d , (G x H) $ $ 1 18 40,686 18.70 690. 18.15 -21 648,21 13,612.41 1 ! 13 50,644 23.28 798 20,99 -37 614.74 53,482.38 i ! 1 6 45,574 20.95 721 18.97 -75 636.15 47,71 I.25 IV 3 80,662 37.07 1 ,592 41 .88 + 183 712.63 -PROVINCIAL TOTALS 40 217,566 IQ0-. 00- 3,801 100.00 114,806.04 AVERAGES ' 661,78 - 50 -T a b i e 30 uses d a t a a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d t o show t h e e n r o l l m e n t changes needed t o e q u a l i z e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , t h a t i s t o e l i m i n a t e t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between p e r c e n t a g e of p r o v i n c i a l s t u d e n t s , and p e r c e n t a g e of p r o v i n c i a l s p e c i a l c i a s s s t u d e n t s . To t h i s i s added d a t a on t h c o s t per p u p i l i n t h e v a r i o u s e n r o l l m e n t g r o u p i n g s . S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s a I r e a a c c o u n t f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s a t av e r a g e l e v e l s , t h e a d d i t i o n a l funds r e q u i r e d by t h e w e i g h t i n g f a c t o r (2.x r e g u l a r c o s t s ) , can be e s t i m a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e number o f a d d i t i o n a l p u p i l s by t h e a v e r a g e c o s t p e r p u p i l . In t h e g r o u p i n g o f t h e l a r g e s t s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , no a d d i t i o n a l funds a r e r e q u i r e d s i n c e t h e y a r e a l r e a d y above p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . W i t h r e g a r d t o f i n a n c i a l bases o f i n e q u a l i t y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , d i r e c t d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e . T a b l e 31 shows e x p e n d i t u r e s by some-d i v i s i o n s on l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s , and i s drawn from t h e ' S t a t i s t i c s Canada l i b r a r y s u r v e y d a t a a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o . TABLE 31 EXPENDITURES ON LIBRARY MATERIALS IN REPORTING UNITARY DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA, 1969-1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS  Enro11ment Group i ng No. of Di v s . T o t a l No. S t u d e n t s Expend i t u r e s Expend i t u r e s per S t u d e n t 1 0-3,000 13 29,382 $ 76,279 $ 2.60 II 3,001-6,000 13 50,831 78,265 1 .91 1 1 1 6,001-10,000 r, 37,437 110,767 2.96 IV 10,000 + 1 42,859 132,879 3. 10 PROVINCIAL TOTALS AVERAGES 32 160,509 398,190 2.49 - 51 -The s m a l l e r d i v i s i o n s a r e s p e n d i n g a t l e v e l s near o r below t h e p r o v i n c i a l mean; t h e l a r g e r d i v i s i o n s a r e s p e n d i n g above t h i s l e v e l . R a t h e r s m a l l a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s would e l i m i n a t e t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i n annua! e x p e n d i t u r e s , but would n o t , of c o u r s e , e l i m i n a t e t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . To do t h i s , t h e s m a l l e r d i v i s i o n s would have t o spend a t l e v e l s e x c e e d i n g t h o s e o f t h e l a r g e r d i v i s i o n s f o r a number of y e a r s . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s p a r t , on i n e q u a l i t i e s i n e x p e n d i t u r e s , can be s i m p l y s t a t e d : some a t l e a s t o f t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I have a f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a b i l i t y o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a t o p r o v i d e a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e must e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e t h e f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s . - E x p e n d i t u r e s a r e i m p o r t a n t : " t h e per p u p i l e x p e n d i t u r e does not t e l l t h e whole s t o r y o f q u a l i t y and e q u a l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n , but i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i ndex o f d i f f e r e n c e s among s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . " ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971b: p. 6) T h i s i s not t o s a y , of c o u r s e , t h a t o n l y money i s r e q u i r e d t o e q u a l i z e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Spending programs which p u r p o r t t o p r o v i d e improved e d u c a t i o n a r e q u i t e r i g h t l y nowadays t o be r e g a r d e d w i t h some s k e p t i c i s m ( L e v i n , 1970). However, t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a r e a s i n which a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s c o u l d p o s s i b l y a f f e c t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r e c i s e l y how and i n what terms e x p e n d i t u r e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d e n a b l e s t h e p r o p o s a l s here t o e scape t h e g l o b a l n a t u r e o f many o t h e r k i n d s o f s p e n d i n g program p r o p o s a l s . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s hoped t h a t t h e c l e a r s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s which f o l l o w s i n t h e next s e c t i o n w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y - 52 -e n a b l e p o l i c y - m a k e r s t o e v a l u a t e t h e impact o f t h e p r o p o s a l s , i f i m p l e -mented, and t h i s b u i l t - i n s e t o f s t a n d a r d s of e v a l u a t i o n w i l ! i n i t s e l f p r o v i d e a l i m i t a t i o n on i n e f f e c t i v e s p e n d i n g . There e x i s t i n e q u a l i t i e s i n revenues which seem l i k e l y t o be a ma j o r cause f o r t h e p a t t e r n c f e x p e n d i t u r e s which has a l r e a d y been d e m o n s t r a t e d . These i n e q u a l i t i e s i n reven u e s a l s o seem t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s , s i n c e t h e g r o u p i n g adopted i n o r d e r t o show d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n s e r v i c e s a l s o r e v e a l s d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n r e v e n u e s . Two c o n c e p t s used, " w e a l t h " a n d " l o c a l e f f o r t " , need some e x p l a n a t i o n . Wealth r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t a b l e by B a l a n c e d Assessment Per S t u d e n t , has been t h e s u b j e c t of some d i s c u s s i o n . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t has been m a i n t a i n e d t h a t : A s t a t e a i d system which r e c o g n i z e s o n l y t h o s e v a r i a t i o n s i n f i s c a l c a p a c i t y which a r i s e from t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o p e r t y w i t h i n a s t a t e and i g n o r e s t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n f i s c a l c a p a c i t y which a r i s e from t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income w i t h i n a s t a t e has v i r t u a l l y g u a r a n t e e d t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f i n e q u a l i t i e s i n f i s c a l c a p a c i t y and t a x e f f o r t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971a: p. 100). However, i n M a n i t o b a , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h i n t h e form o f income, and of w e a l t h i n t h e form of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , as r e f l e c t e d i n . a s s e s s e d v a l u e s , seem s i m i l a r , as shown'by t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a . TABLE 32 AVERAGE INCOME FROM TAX RETURNS BY REGION IN MANITOBA, 1966-1969 . M e t r o S o u t h e r n Y e a r W i nn ipeq Mani t o b a * Man i t o b a $ $ $ 1966 4,763 3,629 4,425 1967 4,521 3,441 4,204 1968 4,805 3,509 4,431 1969 5, 162 3,669 4,728 ( R e g i o n a l Development B r a n c h , Department o f I n d u s t r y and Commerce, 1971: p. 288) •^Southern M a n i t o b a e x c l u d e s o n l y two u n i t a r y d i v i s i o n s . - 53 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income, and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s s e s s e d v a l u e s o f p r o p e r t y , can be seen by comparing t h i s d a t a w i t h t h a t i n t h e n e x t t a b l e , which shows B a l a n c e d Assessment P e r S t u d e n t (BAPS), by group of s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . i t s h o u l d ' b e remembered t h a t d i v i s i o n s i n Groups i l l ana IV a r e , w i t h o n l y one e x c e p t i o n , l o c a t e d i n t h e M e t r o Winnipeg a r e a (see p.15 ) Thus t h e s e d i v i s i o n s a r e r o u g h l y c o - t e r m i n u s w i t h M e t r o Winnipeg i n t h e t a b l e above. F a m i l i e s i n t h i s a r e a e n j o y e d , i n 1969, annual incomes a v e r a g i n g $434 (9.18$) h i g h e r t h a n i n t h e p r o v i n c e as a whole; s i m i l a r l y , when t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e s p e r s t u d e n t i n Groups III and IV a r e combined, t h e r e s u l t a n t i s a BAPS of $9555, as compared t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e BAPS o f $8491. The d i f f e r e n c e of $1064 p e r s t u d e n t r e p r e s e n t s a 12.53$ ad v a n t a g e f o r t h e M e t r o a r e a . Thus t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e , w h e t h e r measured by income o r a s s e s s e d v a l u e s o f p r o p e r t y , f a v o r s t h e d i v i s i o n s grouped here as I I I and IV. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t can be argued t h a t even i f t h e r e were a d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e two measures o f w e a l t h , incomes and p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , t h e r e l e v a n t f i g u r e i n s o f a r as l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a r e c o n c e r n e d i s . t h a t f o r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . R a i s i n g f u n d s f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s by a t a x l e v y i n M a n i t o b a i s a power of d i v i s i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , but t h e y a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t y t a x . Thus w e a l t h i n terms of income of t h e community i s o n l y r e l e v a n t i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l i m i t s t o which t h e r a t e of p r o p e r t y t a x c o u l d be r a i s e d w i t h o u t e x c e s s i v e t a x p a y e r r e s i s t a n c e . The p r e s e n t range of l o c a l e f f o r t r e v e a l e d i n T a b l e 33 s u g g e s t s t h a t many d i v i s i o n s i n M a n i t o b a a r e a t p r e s e n t f a r from t h e s e l i m i t s . TABLE 33 RANGE IN REVENUES PER STUDENT AND LOCAL EFFORT IN MANITOBA'S UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (G) (H) T o t a l A v e r a g e Average Group A v e r a g e Range i n Loca 1 Ba1anced Av. Range & No. Revenue Revenue Revenue Assessment Loca 1 i n No. S t u d e n t s P e r S t u d e n t Pe r S t u d e n t Per S t u d . Pe r S t u d e n t E f f o r t Loca1 E f f o r t $ $ $ $ i IS 40,636 640.58 541.95-741.99 110.91 7,227 15.35 8.88-27.96(51 II 13 50,544 610.37 521.85-672.68 115.51 6,353 16.86 11.46-34.89 I I I 6 45,574 637.45 551.98-691.00 171.37 7,342 23.34 15.25-28.62 IV 3 30,662 720.02 628.45-776.83 224.59 10,806 20.78 19.89-26.87 PROV. TOT. 40 217,566 144,095,916 521.85-776.83 1 ,847,320,270 8.88-34.89(51 AVGS. 662.31 166.79 3,491 19.64 -NOlE: The d i v i s i o n w i t h l o c a l e f f o r t o f 51.30 i s F l i n F i o n , a . r e s o u r c e f r o n t i e r community' i n which l a r g e amounts of i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t y a r e e x c l u d e d from a s s e s s e d v a l u e s , and sub-s t a n t i a l payments i n l i e u o f t a x e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n l o c a ! revenue. Both These f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h i s index f i g u r e , which i s c o n s e q u e n t l y e x c l u d e d and r e p l a c e d by an a ! t e r n a t i v e f i g u r e , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e nex t h i g h e s t index f i g u r e . See Husby, ( I 9 7 i ) f o r d e t a i l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l f i n a n c e i n F l i n F l o n . - 55 -The c o n c e p t of " l o c a l e f f o r t " used h e r e needs some e x p l a n a t i o n . The f i g u r e i s a r r i v e d a t as f o l l o w s : t h e l o c a l revenue p e r s t u d e n t i s d i v i d e d by t h e b a l a n c e d a s s e s s m e n t per s t u d e n t t o a r r i v e a t an index f i g u r e which r e p r e s e n t s l o c a l e f f o r t . C o n c e p t u a l l y , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e amount p a i d p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e a b i l i t y t o pay, o r w e a l t h , and t h e h i g h e r t h e amount p a i d , and t h e lower t h e a b i l i t y t o pay, t h e h i g h e r w i l l be t h e index o f l o c a l e f f o r t . I t i s c l e a r l y a s i m p l i f i e d i n d e x , b u t seems a d e q u a t e f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; o f l o c a l f u n d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n , g i v e n t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o p r o p e r t y t a x as a s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e s . The adequacy o f t h e measure of w e a l t h , o r a b i l i t y t o pay, i s of c o u r s e c r i t i c a l , but t h i s has a l r e a d y been a r g u e d . (See Husby, 1971 and N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971c f o r more g l o b a l i n d i c e s o f e f f o r t . ) C o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s T a b l e 33 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , w h ich a r e c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d i n g low l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e , a r e a l s o making r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l s of e f f o r t . The a v e r a g e l e v e l o f e f f o r t o f t h e two g r o u p s o f s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , i n which incomes and a s s e s s e d v a l u e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y low, i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y below t h e p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e , a l t h o u g h as column M r e v e a l s , some i n d i v i d u a l d i v i s i o n s a r e making e x t r e m e l y h i g h l o c a l e f f o r t . T h i s f i n d i n g i s r a t h e r • s i m i I a r t o one f i n d i n g o f some.American s t u d i e s . In a r e c e n t r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h , H i c k r o d (1971) n o t e s t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l s and l e v e l s o f l o c a l e f f o r t and t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s seems t o be r i s i n g . The M a n i t o b a p a t t e r n , i n which t h e l e s s w e a l t h y d i v i s i o n s spend l e s s , and a l s o make l e s s l o c a l e f f o r t , may be f a i r l y common.then. I t 56 -seems i m p o r t a n t t o use a minimum l e v e l , o r s u p p o r t program, c o n c e p t i n t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s on f i n a n c e i o be made h e r e , s i n c e a s i m p l e m a t c h i n g system would n o t , a p p a r e n t l y , s e r v e t o improve t h e r e l a t i v e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f poor d i v i s i o n s , g i v e n t h e t e n d e n c y f o r l o c a l e f f o r t t o be low i n t h e s e d i v i s i o n s . These d a t a a l s o r e v e a l , however, t h e e xtremes i n range o f l o c a l e f f o r t c u r r e n t l y b e i n g made, and hence i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e r a i s i n g of f unds f o r e d u c a t i o n w h i c h c u r r e n t l y e x i s t . The range i n revenues per s t u d e n t i s l e s s s t r i k i n g t h a n t h e range i n l o c a l e f f o r t . If t h e low f i g u r e i s e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e of t h e h i g h f i g u r e , t h e range i n l o c a l e f f o r t i s from 17.31$ t o 100$ w h i l e t h e range i n revenue per s t u d e n t i s from 67.18$ t o 100$. In g e n e r a l , i n e q u a l i t i e s i n revenue and l o c a l e f f o r t i n M a n i t o b a , w h i l e comparing f a v o r a b l y w i t h a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (see T a b l e 3 4 ) , and w i t h many s t a t e s , a r e q u i t e l a r g e . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e , as i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h a t p r o p o s a l s t o e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y must r e c o g n i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g l o c a l e f f o r t , and t h a t some e q u a l i z a t i o n o f r e v e n u e s , t h a t i s , o f f i n a n c i a l power, i s i n many ways a n e c e s s a r y p r e c u r s o r t o s e r v i c e e q u a l i z a t i o n . G i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t s m a l l d i v i s i o n s t e n d not t o be w e a l t h y , i n terms o f assessed, v a l u e s , t h i s e q u a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , by means of changes i n t h e f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s of t h e p r o v i n c e . The n e x t s e c t i o n s p e l l s o u t i n some d e t a i l f o r +hese f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s a group o f p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , i n t e n d e d t o b r i n g about t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , so as t o i n c r e a s e t h e f i n a n c i a l power o f smaI I d i v i s i ons. - 57 -TABLE 34 AVERAGES AMD RANGES IN REVENUE PER STUDENT AND LOCAL EFFORT I N BR ITISH COLUMBI A SCHOOL DISTR" ICTS, 1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS Group Av. T o t a l Rev. Pe r S t u d e n t <• Range T o t a l <t i n Rev. Av. Loca 1 E f f o r t Range i n L o c a l E f f o r t 1 780.79 478. j> ,20 - 1210. ,27 28.81 14.26 - 40.44 1 1 724.4 5 653, ,55 - 817. ,84 29.93 24.33 - 39.25 1 1 1 676.38 614, .45 - 737, ,07 28.84 26.77 - 32.07 IV 697.95 635, ,09 - 771 . , 12 32.38 26.75 - 33.56 PROVINCIAL AVERAGE 707.86 478, ,20 -(732. 1210, 07) .27 28. 17 14.26 --(26. 40.44 18) (Based on d a t a g i v e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1972) *N0TE: A s s e s s e d v a l u e s p er s t u d e n t a r e g i v e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1970. Data were m i s s i n g f o r one d i s t r i c t i n Group I; t h e p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e was i n s e r t e d . O b j e c t i v e s f o r an Adequate F i n a n c i n g System f o r M a n i t o b a S c h o o l D i v i s i o n s The o b j e c t i v e s p r o p o s e d here d e r i v e from t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , and from t h e g e n e r a l i n t e n t d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I. They can be s i m p l y s t a t e d , and most o f t h e accompanying d i s c u s s i o n i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The two t y p e s o f o b j e c t i v e s a r e l a b e l l e d " R e s o u r c e E q u a l i z a t i o n " and '.'Adaptive C a p a c i t y " . They a r e r a t h e r g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , and i n c l u d e b u t a r e n o t l i m i t e d t o p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s . T h e r e a r e some grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s proposed here a r e , a t l e a s t i n g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , a c c e p t a b l e t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s . A p o s i t i o n paper r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d by t h e Government o f M a n i t o b a a s s e r t e d t h a t e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s a major g o a l o f t h e government. - 58 -The s c h o o l system s h a l l p r o v i d e e v e r y Manitoban w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p d i s t i n c t i v e and d i v e r s e t a l e n t s and s k i M s . E q u i t a b l e a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s and t o e d u c a t i o n a l programs o f v a r y i n g l e v e l s i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f r a c e , s e x , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c background and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n (Government o f M a n i t o b a , n.d.: p. 9). Note t h a t " e q u i t a b l e a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s and t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s " i s s p e c i f i c a l l y c i t e d as n e c e s s a r y f o r equal o p p o r t u n i t y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e paper s u g g e s t s t h a t "a s c h o o l s y s t e m r e s p o n s i v e t o community needs" i n a p r o v i n c e w h i c h i s viewed as a " p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , w i t h many c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r M a n i t o b a community " i s a d e s i r a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e educa-t i o n a l system. These g o a l s seem s i m i l a r t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n and a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y as t h e y a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d i n d e t a i l , h e r e . Thus t h e r e i s some r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s m i g h t f i n d t h e s e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s a c c e p t a b l e . W i t h r e s p e c t t o each o b j e c t i v e , some component e l e m e n t s , and some s t a n d a r d s o f pe r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t e d , w i i I be s t a t e d . The l a t t e r p u r p o r t t o be r e s e a r c h a b I e , so t h a t an i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m c o u l d be d e v i s e d t o y i e l d a c o n t i n u i n g f l o w o f d a t a on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f p r o v i n c i a l educa-t i o n a l - f i n a n c e p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d . The e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n d e r i v e from t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n : a good f i n a n c e system would e q u a l i z e r e v e n u e s by r a i s i n g t h e revenues o f p o o r e r d i v i s i o n s , t h u s p r o v i d i n g them w i t h t h e f i n a n c i a l power t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , s h o u l d l o c a i p o l i c y - m a k e r s w i s h t o do so. The f i n a l p o i n t needs s t r e s s i n g : l o c a l autonomy i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n t t o be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l s u b s e q u e n t l y . A major outcome i s l o c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f such q u e s t i o n s . - 59 The c a s e f o r e q u a l i z a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l f i n a n c i n g has been argued v e r y e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e U n i t e d S l a t e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s , most d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h e C a l i f o r n i a Supreme C o u r t i n t h e c a s e of S e r r a n o v s . P r i e s t . (See Shannon, 1972 f o r a summary of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s and o t h e r t e s t c a s e s . ) In t h e academic l i t e r a t u r e , Wise ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Benson ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Coons, C l u n e & Sugarman (1970), and a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s under t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t a r e t h e major s o u r c e s . Very b r i e f l y s t a t e d , t h e argument runs t h u s : S t a t e governments have been c o n c e r n e d t o r e d u c e i n e q u a l i t y of p r o v i s i o n and - s i m u l t a n e o u s l y - i n e q u i t y i n l o c a l t a x burden, If t h e r e were no s t a t e g r a n t s f o r s c h o o l s , we would see i n even more extreme form t h a n we now do t h e e x i s t e n c e , - . s i d e by s i d e , o f r i c h d i s t r i c t s p r o v i d i n g handsome s c h o o l programs and poor ones p r o v i d i n g meagre o f f e r i n g s , w i t h l o c a l t a x r a t e s s e t a t low l e v e l s i n t h e r i c h p l a c e s and a t h i g h l e v e l s i n t h e poor. S t a t e g r a n t s , t h e n , r e d u c e t h e w e i g h t of t h e t a x burden t o which p o o r - p l a c e s must s u b m i t i n o r d e r t o have a modest s c h o o l program (Benson, 1965: p. 8 2 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e g r a n t s have not been v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g t h e s e two o b j e c t i v e s , so t h a t s t a t e a i d p a t t e r n s i n f a c t show no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s t r i c t need and g r a n t l e v e l s ( Wise, 1968a: p. 132). However, e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w e a l t h (Benson, 1965: pp. 19-28; James, Thomas & Dyck, 1963). As a consequence o f t h e s e f a c t s , Benson,, Wi s e , and Coons, e t a l . s e v e r a l l y a r g u e t h a t t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f r e s i d e n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n e r o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y : In e f f e c t , t h e s t a t e ' s s c h o o l f i n a n c e s t a t u t e s c l a s s i f y t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t a t e on t h e b a s i s of t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n which t h e y r e s i d e . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e s t h e q u a l i t y of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y w hich t h e s t u d e n t i s t o r e c e i v e . If he happens t o r e s i d e i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h a h i g h t a x base, he r e c e i v e s a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . If he happens t o r e s i d e i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h a low t a x base, he r e -c e i v e s a worse e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y (Wise, !968a: p. 164). S i m i l a r l y , Coons, C l u n e , & Sugarman speak of t h e m i I I i ons of c h i l d r e n , : f o r whom t h e a c c i d e n t s o f r e s i d e n c e and boundary p l a y a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r forma! e d u c a t i o n " (1970: p. x v i i i ) . The l i n k between such - 60 -a c c i d e n t s o f r e s i d e n c e and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s t a t e governments i s i m p o r t a n t : t h e s c h o l a r s r e f e r r e d t o argue t h a t s i n c e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e t h e c r e a t i o n o f s t a l e governments, t h e n i n e q u a l i t i e s based on a system of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e a l s o c l e a r l y and u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s t a t e government. O v e r s t a t i n g t h e c a s e t o some e x t e n t , Coons, C l u n e & Sugarman m a i n t a i n t h a t : Our s t a t e governments have embraced t h e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t , as a r u l e , t h e q u a l i t y of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e w eaIth of .the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ; i n g e n e r a l t h i s a l s o means t h a t t h e q u a l i t y v/i ! I be i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e needs o f c h i l d r e n , (p. x i x ) I t i s i n e f f e c t t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by d i s t r i c t w h i c h was t e s t e d i n t h e S e r r a n o v s . P r i e s t c a s e . The c o m p l a i n t r u l e d on by t h a t c o u r t had as i t s c h i e f c o n t e n t i o n t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e f i n a n c i n g scheme a t p r e s e n t o p e r a t i n g i n C a l i f o r n i a v i o l a t e d t h e equal p r o t e c t i o n c l a u s e of t h e F o u r t e e n t h Amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . The C o u r t s a i d t h a t t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t measures t h e v a l i d i t y o f s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n w hich c o n c e r n s e i t h e r " s u s p e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s " o r " fundamental i n t e r e s t " a c c o r d i n g t o a s t r i c t C o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a n d a r d . T h at i s , any s t a t e law which p u r p o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s " a f f e c t i n g p e o p l e , such as t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l f i n a n c i n g laws which a p p e a r t o b e n e f i t p e o p l e u n e q u a l l y , i s s u b j e c t t o a s t r i c t measurement a g a i n s t t h e U.S. C o n s t i t u t i o n ' s " e q u a l p r o t e c t i o n c I a u s e " . . . t h e C o u r t f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d t h e C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c S c h o o l F i n a n c i n g Law on t h e b a s i s t h a i -i t i s a " s u s p e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . The C o u r t a f f i r m e d as " i r r e f u t a b l e " t h e p l a i n t i f f ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e School F i n a n c i n g Law i s a " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " based on w e a l t h . W h i l e t h e C o u r t conceded t h a t t h e law, t h r o u g h i t s g r a n t s o f " b a s i c " and " e q u a l i z a t i o n " a i d , " p a r t i a l l y a l l e v i a t e s " t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e w e a l t h o f l o c a l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t a t e , t h e C o u r t n e v e r t h e l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t " t h e system as a whole g e n e r a t e s s c h o o l revenue i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e w e a l t h of t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t " (Shannon, 1972: p. 467). In summary, then, t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a Supreme C o u r t t o t h e S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a , and o t h e r s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s and d i r e c t i o n s by o t h e r s t a t e supreme c o u r t s i s t h a t a f i n a n c e f o r m u l a must be found which e l i m i n a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between d i s t r i c t w e a l t h and e x p e n d i t u r e s on e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and - 61 -which c o n s e q u e n t l y e q u a l i z e s the l o c a l e f f o r t n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h e s e expend i t u r e s . C l e a r l y i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c l a i m t h a t t h e case i n Canada i s d i f f e r e n t . However, t h e e x i s t e n c e o f i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , dependent on t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n o f r e s i d e n c e , has a l r e a d y been shown f o r M a n i t o b a ; i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e c u r r e n t f i n a n c i n g f o r m u l a w i l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d , and shown t o f a l l f a r s h o r t o f e q u a l i z a t i o n . The d e s i r e f o r e q u a l i z a t i o n does n o t seem t o d i f f e r between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l governments here f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f l o c a l s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s i s p r e c i s e l y t h e same as t h a t of s t a t e governments i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , so t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e q u a l -i z a t i o n i s q u i t e p r o p e r l y a t t r i b u t e d t o p r o v i n c i a l governments. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s o f t e n t h e c a s e t h a t p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t systems a r e i n t e n d e d t o reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s , as f o r example i n Saskatchewan: The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e of t h e p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l f i n a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n is' t o reduce i n e q u i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s v a r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s t o s u p p o r t e d u c a t i o n a l programs. The u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s f i s c a l c a p a c i t i e s s h o u l d not d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t h e d i s t r i c t p r o v i d e s ( L a n g l o i s , 1971: p. 15). Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t w i t h r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n a l f i n a n c e , e q u a l i z a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e , i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l governments, and i s presumably a l s o w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s . In g e n e r a l , American c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t u d e n t needs, and a t t r i b u t e c o s t d i f f e r e n t i a l s , o r s t u d e n t w e i g h t i n g s , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971b, p. 2 8 ) . Such t e c h n i q u e s a r e , however, c l e a r l y a t t e m p t s t o e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l ach ievernent by a s s i s t i n g - 6 2 -some s t u d e n t s , judged l e s s c a p a b l e , more t h a n o t h e r s . In e f f e c t such f i n a n c e schemes a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s unequa My. In t h e r a t i o n a l e t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e n o t i o n of a t t e m p t i n g t o e q u a l i z e a c h i e v e m e n t was s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t e d . Hence t h e p r o p o s a l s h e r e w i l l make s i m p l e e n r o l l m e n t , not w e i g h t e d e n r o l I m e n t , t h e b a s i s on which p r o v i n c i a l f unds a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . T h i s i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s which i s t h e b a s i s of t h e c r i t i q u e o f t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n C h a p t e r I, and t h e s e r v i c e p r o p o s a l s i n C h a p t e r M l . S u b s e q u e n t l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r when a range o f p o s s i b l e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d , i t w i l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r a t h e r s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d n o t i o n of e q u a l i z a t i o n adopted h e r e can be c o n s i d e r e d one l e v e l o r s t a g e i n f i n a n c i a l e q u a l i z a t i o n . A s u b s e q u e n t l e v e l o r s t a g e i s based on t h e n o t i o n o f e q u a l i z i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . ' I t , s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e r i g o r o u s s t a n d a r d o f f i n a n c i a l e q u a l i t y adopted here i s not i n t e n d e d t o e l i m i n a t e program p r o p o s a l s which a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e f o r p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t needs. i t i s i n t e n d e d t o r e s t r i c t c o n s i d e r -a t i o n o f t h e s e a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n c o s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e programs then become a m a t t e r of l o c a l o p t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g , and i n e f f e c t t h e b o r d e r ! i n e between e q u a l i z a t i o n and p l u r a l i s m , i n t h i s s t u d y , i s b e i n g drawn i n s u c h a way as t o l i m i t e q u a l i z a t i o n as a c o n c e r n o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s t o a r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r c o n c e r n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y and not a c h i e v e m e n t . D i f f e r e n c e s between s t u d e n t s a r e t h e n 3 ' c o n c e r n o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t J n I oca 1 deci's i on-maki ng r a t h e r than i n p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . These i s s u e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l o c a l autonomy. 63 -The second group of o b j e c t i v e s can be d e s c r i b e d q u i t e b r i e f l y . One m ajor c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c u r r e n t f i n a n c e f o r m u l a e i s t h e i r i n f l e x i b i l i t y . To a d j u s t , f o r example, t h e C a l i f o r n i a f i n a n c e program t o meet t h e r e -q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e S e r r a n o v e r s u s P r i e s t d e c i s i o n i s a m a t t e r o f m a j o r d i f f i c u l t y , y e t e q u a l i z a t i o n as an o b j e c t i v e o f s t a t e f i n a n c e p o l i c i e s d a t e s back a t l e a s t t o t h e E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e I n q u i r y Commission in New Y o r k S t a t e in 1921-1924, (Benson, 1961: p. 2 1 0 ) . The o b j e c t i v e o f a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y assumes t h a t t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t and l i k e l y t o remain so , t h a t r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n s between d i v i s i o n s may s h i f t , and t h a t more e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h g r e a t e r d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers, i s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n more r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t h a n a t p r e s e n t . C u r r e n t l y , i n M a n i t o b a a r i g i d f o r m u l a i s a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n narrow l i m i t s o f d i s c r e t i o n , and w i t h i n p u b I i c i z e d e f f e c t s , w hich a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . " A d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y " has two components: t h e f i r s t i s an i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m , and t h e second i s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e o u t p u t of t h e system. The b a s i c p u r p o s e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m , o n l y p a r t o f which c o n s i s t s o f f i n a n c i a l d a t a , would be t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t needs, s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , and r e v e n u e s and e x p e n d i t u r e s , a l l on a c o m p a r a t i v e b a s i s . Because o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l s c o p e , i t seerns l i k e l y t h a t p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s would have t o p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n system. However, i t may be t h a t needs a s s e s s m e n t s a r e b e t t e r h a n d l e d by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . In t h a t c a s e i t would seem n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l i n ducements, perhaps i n t h e form o f s h a r e d c o s t programs, t o e n s u r e t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e needs s t u d i e s . - 64 -In e i t h e r c a s e , t h e d a t a . s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be g a t h e r e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s t o a l l o w v a l i d c o m p a r i s o n s ( p e r h a p s t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s ; see C h a p t e r I N ) , which c o u l d a s s i s t l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o make inf o r m e d d e c i s i o n s . Data on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , a t t i t u d e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s c o u l d a s s i s t i n program development d e c i s i o n s ; d a t a on c o m p a r a t i v e e x p e n d i t u r e s and s e r v i c e l e v e l s , s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r o v i d e d h e r e , c o u l d a s s i s t i n r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . The o b j e c t i v e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 35 . They can be used as g u i d e l i n e s i n d e v e l o p i n g p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s , and as s t a n d a r d s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e o u t p u t of c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s can be imeasured. TABLE 35 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF PROPOSED POLICY OBJECTIVES IN THE FINANCING OF EDUCATION IN UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA O b j e c t i v e s Resource E q u a I i z a t i o n Components I. Revenues 2. LocaI e f f o r t S t a n d a r d s Proposed V i r t u a l e q u a l i z a t i o n o f t o t a l r evenues o f d i v i s i o n s , a c h i e v e d by a system o f p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o l o c a l w e a l t h , o r a t l e a s t some t r e n d t o w a r d s e q u a l i z a t i o n . U n i f o r m l e v e l of l o c a l e f f o r t , o r a t l e a r e d u c t i o n s i n v a r i a t i o n s in l o c a l e f f o r t A d a p t i v e C a p a c i t y I n f o r m a t i o n system Adaptab i I i t y t o meet . needs P r o v i s i o n of an annua! c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f r e v e n u e s , e x p e n d i t u r e s , and l o c a l e f f o r t , l i n k e d t o b i a n n u a l a s s e s s m e n t s o f needs and of c u r r e n t s e r v i c e l e v e l s , and p r o v i s i o n f o r s t u d i e s of l o c a ! needs and p r e f e r e n c e s , c a r r i e d o u t l o c a l l y o r p r o v i n c i a I Iy. F i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s t o f a c i l i t a t e a d j u s t m e n t s in e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l s in l i n e w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d i e s o f needs and s e r v i c e l e v e l s , and w i t h o v e r a l l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f u n d s f o r e d u c a t i o n . - 65 -One i m p o r t a n t i s s u e remains t o be d i s c u s s e d . L o c a l c o n t r o l has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n M a n i t o b a . I t s c o n t i n u a t i o n i s assumed and t h i s s e r v e s as a major c o n s t r a i n t i n p u b l i c p o l i c y - m a k i n g . I t i s d e f i n e d , f o r t h i s s t u d y , as t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a number o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s , c harged by p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e w i t h t h e d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g a system o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , w i t h b o u n d a r i e s between u n i t s b e i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d e f i n e d . T a b l e 36 shows t h e number of i ndependent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i n e x i s t e n c e , w i t h t h e i r s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t and a v e r a g e s i z e , by p r o v i n c e , . f o r Western Canada. TABLE 36 ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS, ENROLLMENTS, AND AVERAGES FOR WESTERN CANADA, 1969-70 No. of S t u d e n t s Average P r o v i nee Uni t s E n r o l l e d EnroI Iment M a n i t o b a 47 244,379 5,200 Saskatchewan 76 244,316 3,215 A l b e r t a 6.8 413,719 6,084 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 81 51 I ,674 6 , 5 1 1 PROV. TOTALS 272 1,414,088 AVERAGE ' 5,199 (Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1971) The range i n a v e r a g e s i z e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t between t h e Western p r o v i n c e s i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , and s u g g e s t s s i m i l a r d e c i s i o n s by d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s , based on a s h a r e d n o t i o n o f o p t i m a l s i z e . However, t h e q u e s t i o n o f o p t i m a l s i z e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i n e d u c a t i o n has not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y answered, e i t h e r in Canada o r i n t h e U n i t e d - 66 -S t a t e s ( S u b a l a o and H i c k r o d , 1971). The h i s t o r y of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i n Canada, as i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o n t a i n s c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f r a t h e r s u b j e c t i v e v i e w s r e g a r d i n g o p t i m a l s i z e , w i t h t h e a c t u a l s i z e , and t h e s i z e deemed d e s i r a b l e g r o w i n g decade by decade ( C o l l i n s , 1961; Campbell e t a I, 1970: p. 9 8 ) . The c a s e f o r p l u r a l i s m i s u s u a l l y argued i n t e rms o f t h e i d e o l o g y of l o c a l c o n t r o l , as f o r i n s t a n c e i n E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l P o l i c y : L o c a l C o n t r o l o f E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) . In t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y based on p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n s , and such p h i l o s p h i c a l c o n c e p t s as t h e c o n f l i c t between community and s o c i e t y (Newmann and O l i v e r , 1969). Such i d e a s can be made t h e b a s i s f o r p o l i c y recommendations r e g a r d i n g a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e u n i t s i n e d u c a t i o n , ( s e e , eg., Coleman, 1971). T h e i r r e l e v a n c e and i m p o r t a n c e as c o n s t r a i n t s here r e q u i r e s some f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . B r i e f l y summarized, t h e r e l e v a n t e l e m e n t s of t h e c u r r e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f l o c a l autonomy ( o r l o c a l c o n t r o l ) seem t o be t h e s e : f i r s t , l o c a l c o n t r o l , a n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i d e o l o g y , i s i n e o n s i s t e n t , w i t h f u l l e q u a l i z a t i o n o f educa-t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y ( L i p s e t , 1970: p. 2 5 ) . However, i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e f e r e n c e f o r " t h e r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f s m a l l e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , " (Andrews, 1970: p. 56) and i t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t s m a l l u n i t s a r e e a s i e r f o r c i t i z e n s t o c o n t r o l , a l t h o u g h no s o l i d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n s has been p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e may be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l a r g e u n i t s which work a g a i n s t c o n t r o l , a l t h o u g h t h e s e p r e s u m a b l y v a r / from u n i t t o u n i t . (See Coleman, 1972a, f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . ) P a r a d o x i c a l l y , l o c a l c o n t r o l i s seen as p r o m o t i n g freedom, as opposed t o i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , ( C o u r t n e y , 1970: p. 4 6 ) , a n d . a l s o l i m i t i n g freedom o f i n q u i r y (Bowers, 1970: p. 15). - 67 -The d e b a t e between t h e p r o p o n e n t s of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t o e n s u r e e q u a l i t y , and t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t o e n s u r e c h o i c e , c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o h i n g e on t h e q u e s t i o n o f how f a r c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e p r e p a r e d t o go t o e n s u r e e q u a l i t y . C l e a r l y , e q u a l i t y i n terms of i n p u t f a c t o r s can f a i r l y e a s i l y be l e g i s l a t e d and s u p e r v i s e d by a c o m p l e t e l y c e n t r a l i z e d s c h o o l s y s tem. On .the o t h e r hand, t h e maximum degree of p l u r a l i s m c o n c e i v a b l e i s p e r h a p s t h e o l d sys t e m o f s i n g l e - s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . In e f f e c t , b oth o f t h e s e extreme p o s i t i o n s have been r e j e c t e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p I e a I ready s u g g e s t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t i n s o f a r as t h e s c h o o l - d i v i s i o n s o r d i s t r i c t s a r e by l e g i s l a t i o n o r r e g u l a t i o n s c r e a t e d o r funded i n such a way as t o d e v e l o p o r a l l o w g r o s s i n -e q u a l i t i e s , t o t h a t e x t e n t i s t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e and i s r e m e d i a l a c t i o n j u s t i f i e d . But s h o u l d p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n o r r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e f o r a h i g h d e g r e e of e q u a l i t y , and l o c a l d e c i s i o n s r e d u c e t h i s e q u a l i t y , ' t h i s i s not e f f e c t i v e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y , nor i s i t grounds f o r r e m e d i a l a c t i o n . ' ' Thus, because o f t h e c o m p e t i n g v a l u e o f l o c a l autonomy, p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s may t o l e r a t e some i n e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , i f i t i s an outcome o f i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . The'- r e s p o n s i b i I i t y f o r i n f o r m i n g , l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s may be u n d e r t a k e n by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , on t h e grounds t h a t an i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m f o r t h e e n t i r e p r o -v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l complex i s b e s t h a n d l e d c e n t r a l l y . The s y s t e m c o u l d p r o v i d e d a t a on community and s t u d e n t needs, programs, and r e s o u r c e s , and be j o i n t l y o p e r a t e d by l o c a ! and c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . I t w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s . - 68 -One f u r t h e r e l ement i n t h e c u r r e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f autonomy, o f p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o e d u c a t i o n a l f i n a n c e , s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d . The c a s e f o r l o c a l autonomy can be argued on economic g r o u n d s : t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t m a j o r i t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t groups o f p e o p l e assembled w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s e x h i b i t v a r i a n c e i n t a s t e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , income, and so f o r t h , t h e y w i l l wind up w i t h d i f f e r i n g q u a l i t i e s and q u a n t i t i e s o f p u b l i c , e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . I t may r e a s o n a b l y be assumed t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e s i n t a s t e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and income i s l e s s w i t h i n t h e t h o u s a n d s o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h a n i t i s w i t h i n l a r g e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s such as s t a t e s , and t h a t m o b i l i t y i s g r e a t e r among l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h a n among s t a t e s . I t th e n f o l l o w s t h a t t h e l o c a l v o t i n g - b u d g e t a r y p r o c e s s w i l l . produce an a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t o e d u c a t i o n t h a t i s more e f f i c i e n t t h a n t h e outcome t o be e x p e c t e d under a s t a t e - w i d e c e n t r a l i z e d system. The im p o r t a n c e o f and t h e w e i g h t t o be a t t a c h e d t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n depends i n s u b s t a n t i a l measure on a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e v a l u e judgment t h a t i t i s t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s we seek, f u n d a m e n t a l l y , t o s a t i s f y . M o r e o v e r , e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e sense employed here i s but one c r i t e r i o n . I t may be o f f s e t o r r e i n f o r c e d by such o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as may a r i s e from c o n c e r n a b out income d i s t r i b u t i o n , s o - c a l l e d b e n e f i t s p i l l o v e r s t o p e o p l e i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , and economies o r d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s ( B r a z e r , 1910: p. 244) ' The d i s c u s s i o n o f l o c a l autonomy has been ke p t b r i e f l a r g e l y because, in t h e M a n i t o b a c o n t e x t , t h e t r a d i t i o n o f l o c a l autonomy i n e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s so s t r o n g t h a t i t a p p e a r s u n l i k e l y t o be c h a l l e n g e d by p o l i c y - m a k e r s . Thus i t i s t r e a t e d as a b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y . However t h i s does not p r o v i d e a ready s o l u t i o n t o t h e o b v i o u s c o n f l i c t between e q u a l i z a t i o n and autonomy. Coons, C l u n e , and Sugarman a r g u e t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t i s n ot as s e v e r e as many o p p o n e n t s o f autonomy and s u p p o r t e r s o f e q u a l i z a t i o n wouId cI a im: Some argue s i m p I i s t i c a I i y t h a t e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s f l a t l y i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l o c a l a u t h o r i t y . We a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h i s supposed a n t i t h e s i s between e q u a l i t y and s u b s i d i a r i t y i s o v e r d r a w n : - 69 -t h a t both v a l u e s can be p r e s e r v e d i f o n l y one i s w i l l i n g t o s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s and f i n e t u n i n g r e q u i r e d o f any b a l a n c e d system. -( 1970: p. x x i i ) The " f i n e t u n i n g " r e q u i r e d c e r t a i n l y i n c l u d e s a much more e l a b o r a t e system o f f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s t h a n would o t h e r w i s e be n e c e s s a r y . One component which seems n e c e s s a r y i s t h e e lement o f b a s i c s u p p o r t f o r a minimum program which has been t r a d i t i o n a l i n many p r o v i n c i a l o r s t a t e f i n a n c e schemes. The h i s t o r y o f such " f o u n d a t i o n programs" i s g i v e n i n d e t a i l i n Coons, C l u n e , and Sugarman ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and weaknesses o f suc h programs have been d e s c r i b e d by Benson (1961: p. 210 f f . ) . The b a s i c g r a n t remains n e c e s s a r y f o r two major r e a s o n s , w h i c h seern t o have escaped t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f pure e q u a l i z a t i o n schemes, such as Wise (1968) and B r a z e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) . F i r s t , such p r o p o n e n t s assume t h a t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l spend more f r e e l y under an e q u a l i z a t i o n scheme. T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c a s e ; t h e l o w e s t - s p e n d i n g d i v i s i o n i n M a n i t o b a i s making l e s s l o c a l e f f o r t t h a n n e a r l y a q u a r t e r o f M a n i t o b a ' s u n i t a r y d i v i s i o n s . (See T a b l e 31; t h e d i v i s i o n h a v i n g revenue a t $521.85 a l s o has l o c a l e f f o r t o f 11.46.) Thus some 'sor t o f s p e n d i n g f l o o r , b a s i c t o t h e f o u n d a t i o n program as o r i g i n a l l y d e v i s e d , remains n e c e s s a r y ( M o r t , 1926). S e c o n d l y , a b a s i c g r a n t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y a t l e a s t as an i n t e r i m measure, t o p r e v e n t t o o g r e a t a d i s r u p t i o n o f budgets o f p r e s e n t l y a f f l u e n t d i v i s i o n s . As Wise p o i n t s o u t , "Few e q u a l i z a t i o n programs a r e approved w h i c h f a i l t o p r o v i d e some revenue t o even t h e w e a l t h i e s t d i s t r i c t s " (1968: p. 198). There i s o f c o u r s e good reason f o r t h i s : a new f o r m u l a which improves t h e programs o f some s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , but s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t s t h e programs of o t h e r d i v i s i o n s , i s u n a c c e p t a b l e . As was p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r I, e q u a l i z a t i o n t o be d e s i r a b l e s h o u l d be e q u a l i z a t i o n up t o some h i g h e r l e v e l , r a t h e r t h a n down - 70 -t o a mean o r median l e v e l . Thus i'f autonomy, i s t o be r e t a i n e d , i t seems a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o r e t a i n a system of b a s i c g r a n t s . The o t h e r f i n a n c i a l e l e m e n t s of autonomy which i t ; s e e m s i m p e r a t i v e t o r e t a i n a r e c h o i c e i n " e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l , and c h o i c e i n e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n . E q u a l i z a t i o n does not r e q u i r e t h a t e v e r y d i s t r i c t s h o u l d spend a t t h e same l e v e l , b u t t h a t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l s h o u l d be e q u a l l y p a i n f u l t o l o c a l t a x -p a y e r s . I t i s not e x p e n d i t u r e s which s h o u l d be e q u a l i z e d t h e n , but e f f o r t . The second e l e m e n t , c h o i c e i n t h e mix o f r e s o u r c e s p u r c h a s e d w i t h t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , i m p l i e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t o r even t h e same needs can be met i n d i f f e r e n t ways, and t h a t l o c a l d e c i s i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n making such c h o i c e s . Both t h e s e e l e m e n t s t h e n r e l a t e c l e a r l y t o t h e g e n e r a l b e l i e f t h a t l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s l i k e l y t o be a t l e a s t as good a s , and c o n c e i v a b l y s u p e r i o r t o , t h e d e c i s i o n s made by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . T here a r e o f c o u r s e s u b s i d i a r y a d v a n t a g e s i n the- range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s which have i n t h e p a s t been d e v e l o p e d by such l o c a ! d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Much of t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i n e d u c a t i o n c u r r e n t l y seems t o o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h more c e n t r a l i z e d s c h o o l s y s t e m s , f o r i n s t a n c e t h o s e o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom, N o r t h American s c h o o l systems a l r e a d y o f f e r a h i g h degree of v a r i a b i l i t y . I t i s a t l e a s t a r g u a b l e t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o move one's p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e , i n o r d e r t o choose a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of s c h o o l i n g f o r one's c h i l d r e n , i s an i m p o r t a n t c a use o f t h e h i g h l e v e l of m o b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of N o r t h A m e rica and an i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t of a p l u r a l i s t i c system o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As Coons, C l u n e and Sugarman put i t : " P e r s o n s s e e k i n g b e t t e r s c h o o l s t h r o u g h c e n t r a l i z e d ' e q u a l i t y ' o f t e n o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a chievement of such an e q u a l i t y g u a r a n t e e s not b e t t e r but - 71 o n l y s i m i l a r s c h o o l s " (1970: p. 17). The a c c e p t a n c e o f l o c a l autonomy as a c o n s t r a i n t has, t h e n , s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s f o r f i n a n c i n g e d u c a t i o n i n M a n i t o b a , which f o l l o w i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e f i n a n c i n g p r o p o s a l s , one e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s a l s , a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e l o c a l autonomy c o n s t r a i n t , s h o u l d be r e - e m p h a s i z e d . No g u a r a n t e e o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o p o s a l s i n c h a n g i n g e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s can be o f f e r e d . The p r o p o s a l s v e r y c o n s i s t e n t l y l i m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e power o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o change e x p e n d i t u r e l e v e l s , i f t h e y choose t o do s o . ' W h i l e s p e n d i n g d e c i s i o n s remain the. p r e r o g a t i v e of l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and t h a t i s a b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n h e r e , no changes in p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t systems can e n s u r e changes i n s p e n d i n g . They c a n , however, r a i s e t h e power o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n poor d i v i s i o n s t o spend by i n c r e a s i n g p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g , and t h u s e q u a l i z i n g s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r e v e n u e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , as a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , t h i s c o n s t r a i n t r e q u i r e s a more complex f i n a n c i n g scheme, a l l o w i n g c a r e f u l b a l a n c i n g between e q u a l i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and l o c a l autonomy, than would o t h e r w i s e be t h e c a s e . However, t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s b a l a n c i n g ( " f i n e t u n i n g " i n t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f Coons, C l u n e & Sugarman) can be a c h i e v e d , and a c h i e v e d i n such a way as t o e n s u r e f l e x i b i l i t y t o an e x t e n t which c e r t a i n l y does not e x i s t now. Thus t h e p r o p o s a l s on f i n a n c i n g here a r e i n a sense t e n t a t i v e , and t h e emphasis on e s t a b l i s h i n g a d a t a system t o m o n i t o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o p o s a l s i s a v i t a ! e l e m e n t . S h o u l d the p r o p o s a l s n o t be e f f e c t i v e , then p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s may be f o r c e d t o c o n s i d e r a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f b a l a n c e between c e n t r a l and l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . - 72 -PoJ_J_ cy Prop 0 5 3 I s f o r Equa i i z i ng t h e F i n a n c i n g of Man i t o b a ' s U n i t a r y Sc hop I Di v i s i ons I t has a l r e a d y been argued t h a t i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s t o a t t e m p t t o e n s u r e e q u a l i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , a t l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e , t h a t t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d by a c o m p e t i n g v a l u e , autonomy, and t h a t p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s a r e an a p p r o p r i a t e and n e c e s s a r y , i f n o t s u f f i c i e n t , d e v i c e f o r e q u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n -i t y . Many r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have c o n c l u d e d s i m i l a r l y t h a i ' " a - p rime o b l i g a t i o n o f S t a t e Departments o f E d u c a t i o n was t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e f i s c a l a p p a r a t u s of t h e s t a t e t o a c h i e v e e q u a l i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y " ( H i c k r o d , C h a u d h a r i , & Tcheng, 1972: p. 6 ) . Such s t u d i e s have a l s o p r o v i d e d a wide v a r i e t y o f p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s p u r p o r t i n g t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n s t a t e f i n a n c i n g p l a n s , and hence a r e v i e w of t h e s e s t u d i e s g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . By f a r t h e most e x t e n s i v e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s of which have a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d t o . The p r o j e c t i d e n t i f i e d f i v e main t y p e s of s t a t e s u p p o r t programs a c t u a l l y i n o p e r a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , o f which t h r e e c o n t a i n e d some e l e m e n t o f e q u a l i z a t i o n ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971a: p. 2 3 5 ) , The p r o j e c t a l s o d e v e l o p e d a t y p o l o g y , based on e x t e n t o r l e v e l o f e q u a l i z a t i o n . Assuming t h a t a g i v e n amount of s t a t e revenue i s a p p o r t i o n e d t o t h e d i s t r i c t s of a s t a t e : a) No e q u a l i z a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d i f s t a t e d o l l a r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be met d o l l a r f ' r d o l l a r from l o c a l f u n d s . b) The f i r s t l e v e l of e q u a l i z a t i o n i s r e a c h e d when s t a t e funds a r e a l l o c a t e d i n t h e form of u n i f o r m l i a t g r a n t s p er t e a c h e r o r per p u p i l w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y v a r i a t i o n s i n c o s t s and w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n f o c o n s i d e r a t i o n v a r i a t i o n s i n l o c a l t a x p a y i nc a b i l i t y , - 7.3 -c ) T h e s e c o n d l e v e l o f e q u a i i z a l i o n i s r e a c h e d when s t a t e f u n d s a r e a l l o c a t e d i n T h e f o r m o f ' f I a t g r a n t s w h i c h t a k e i n t o c o n s i d -e r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y u n i t c o s t v a r i a t i o n s b u t w h i c h do n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n v a r i a t i o n s i n l o c a l t a x p a y J ng ab i M t y . d) T h e t h i r d ievel o f e q u a l i z a t i o n i s r e a c h e d when s t a t e f u n d s a r e a l l o c a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f u n i f o r m f i a t g r a n t s w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y u n i t c o s t v a r i a t i o n s b u t w h i c h t a k e • i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n v a r i a t i o n s i n l o c a l t a x p a y i ng a b i l i t y . e ) T h e f o u r t h a n d h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e q u a l i z a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d f r o m a g i v e n a m o u n t o f a s t a t e r e v e n u e when i t i s a I l o c a t e d - i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y v a r i a t i o n s i n u n i t c o s t s , and a l s o v a r i a t i o n s i n t a x p a y i n g a b i l i t y o f l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971a:. p. 2 3 8 ) A t l e a s t f o u r d i f f e r e n t n o r m a t i v e m o d e l s c a n be g e n e r a l i z e d f r o m t h i s a n d o t h e r s t u d i e s . T h e s e m o d e l s a r e s i m i l a r , i n t h a t e a c h u t i l i z e s c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n and- t h e p r e f e r r e d o r i d e a l s i t u a t i o n . The m o d e l s d i f f e r i n t h a t t h e y e m p h a s i z e s o mewhat d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . From t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i a b e i s h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d , a s f o l l o w s : m o d e l ! - " p e r m i s s i b l e v a r i a n c e " ; m o d e l 2 - ' ' ' i n v e r s e a l l o c a t i o n " ; m o d e l 3 - " f i s c a l n e u t r a l i t y " ; a n d m o d e l - 4 - " f i s c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n " . ( H i c k r o d , C h a u d h a r i & T c h e n g , 1972: p. I I ) . . T h e b a s i c p u r p o s e o f t h e f i r s t n o r m a t i v e m o d e l i s t o r e d u c e t h e r a n g e i n e x p e n d i t u r e s t o some p e r m i s s i b l e l e v e l . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r a n g e o f I : i . 5 m i g h t be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c o u r t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( W i s e , 1968b). H o w e v e r , i n M a n i t o b a t h e r a n g e i n e x p e n d i t u r e s i s a l r e a d y w e l l w j t h i n t h i s g u i d e l i n e ( s e e p. 4 5 ) , a n d t h e p r i m e c o n c e r n i s w i t h e q u a l i z i n g p r o v i n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n s . T h u s t h i s mode! w o u l d n o t seem t o be v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e . The s e c o n d m o d e l , t h e i n v e r s e a l l o c a t i o n m o d e l , i s c e r -t a i n l y t h e m o s t w i d e i y u s e d a n d s t u d i e d . l r b o t h e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t s a n d l a r g e f l a t g r a n t s a r e b u i l t i n t o t r , e mode I , p o o r d i s t r i c t s c a n b e n e f i t s u b s t a n t i a l l y ( H i c k r o d , C h a u d h a r i ' & T c h e n g , 1972: p. i 6 ) , The t h i r d - 74 -modei, f i s c a l n e u t r a l i t y , i s e f f e c t i v e l y a s i m p l e b l o c k g r a n t w i t h no i o c a i c o n t r i b u t i o n a t a l i , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n That some i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s m i g h t a l i o w a d d i t i o n a l expend i 1 ures r a i s e d l o c a l l y . Absence o f l o c a l f u n d i n g would r e d u c e l o c a l c o n t r o l v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y , and emphasize c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y , and c l e a r l y t h i s mode! i s s u b s t a n t i a I Iy.a pure e q u a l i z a t i o n modei, w i t h no, o r l i t t l e , component of t h e l o c a l autonomy v a l u e . Thus i f seems i n a d e q u a t e f o r . t h e p u r p o s e s d e s i r e d h e r e . The fd l i r t h . m o d e I, c a l l e d f i s c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , has as i t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f v a r i a t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t , as o p p o s e d . t o o p p o r t u n i t y . Hence t h i s mode! Is r u l e d o u t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e i n i t i a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y , which emphasized t h e d e s i r e t o e q u a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , d e f i n e d as a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s . The e q u a l i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t was s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t e d as a g o a l . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e f o u r m o dels, H i c k r o d , C h a u d h a r i & Tcheng (1972) c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e most p r o b a b i e immediate r e s p o n s e t o p r e s s u r e s f o r f i n a n c i a l e q u a l i z a t i o n w i l l be an a t t e m p t t o i n -c r e a s e t h e s h a r e o f t h e s t a t e i n t h e f i n a n c i n g o f p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , and t o use t h i s i n c r e a s e d s h a r e " t o ' i e v e i up' t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s o f t h e p o o r e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s " (p. 39) by " t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g g r a n t - i n - a i d f o r m u l a e t h a t now d i s t r i b u t e funds from t h e s t a t e t o t h e l o c a l l e v e l . " (p. 40) T h i s seems not o n l y a p r o b a b i e but a I so a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t a t t e m p t t o promote f i n a n c i a l e q u a l i z a t i o n . C l e a r l y t h e r e a r e many ways i n which t h i s c o u l d be done. One a l t e r n a t i v e , which seems l i k e l y t o meet t h e o b j e c t i v e s r e a s o n a b l y we 1 i , i s s p e l l e d out i n d e t a i i h e r e . T h i s scheme would i n c r e a s e - 75 -t h e f i n a n c i a l power o f s m a l l s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , t o a l l o w them a t l e a s t t h e o p t i o n o f i m p r o v i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s , a t t h e i r own d i s c r e t i o n and based on l o c a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f need. In g e n e r a l t h e scheme, because i t a t t e m p t s t o meet both e q u a l i z a t i o n and a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y o b j e c t i v e s and l o c a l autonomy c o n s t r a i n t s , i s more complex th a n would o t h e r w i s e be n e c e s s a r y . The b a l a n c i n g between t h e two, r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y as " f i n e t u n i n g " , does not seem, however, e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e i n p r a c t i c e . The p r o p o s a l s here a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y e s o t e r i c , and as t h e examples p r o v i d e d w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e , any l o c a l a u t h o r i t y c o u l d , r e a d i l y c a l c u l a t e , once i t s budget needs were s e t , t h e amount of money i t would r e c e i v e in g r a n t s , and once t h e l o c a l l e v y r e q u i r e d . T h i s i s not t h e c a s e a t p r e s e n t ; g r a n t s a r e c a l c u l a t e d c e n t r a l l y , and s c h o o l boards do not know t h e i r e n t i t l e m e n t u n t i l t h e f i n a n c i a l y e a r i s o n e - q u a r t e r o v e r . The scheme p r o p o s e d , t o e n s u r e minimum l e v e l s o f s p e n d i n g , wouId-p r o v i d e a b a s i c p e r p u p i l g r a n t . To meet r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e -ments, i t p r o p o s e s an e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e measure of d i v i s i o n a l w e a l t h used, i . e . B a l a n c e d Assessment p e r S t u d e n t . F i n a l l y , a c a t e g o r i c a l g r a n t i s p r o v i d e d , t o a l l o w p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o s u p p o r t e x p e r i m e n t a l o r s p e c i a l program r e q u i r e m e n t s , w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d unduly burdensome f o r some d i v i s i o n s , such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h i s s y n t h e s i s o f g r a n t s , i t i s m a i n t a i n e d , would produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r r e s u l t s , i n terms o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s p r o p o s e d , t h a n t h e p r e s e n t sys+em. Each d i v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e s i t s budget, and t h u s a f i g u r e f o r t o t a l r evenues r e q u i r e d . From t h i s f i g u r e , t h e c a t e g o r i c a l g r a n t ( i n e s s e n c e a t p r e s e n t a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g r a n t ) , and t h e b a s i c g r a n t per s t u d e n t m u l t i p l i e d by s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t a r e d e d u c t e d , t o show a d d i t i o n a l revenue - 76 -r e q u i r e d above t h e s e g r a n t s . S h o u l d t h i s f i g u r e exceed revenue r e q u i r e d , th e b a s i c g r a n t i s reduced t o b a l a n c e . Then l o c a l revenue i s c a l c u l a t e d based on t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n f a c t o r , which i s t h e l o c a l B a l a n c e d Assessment p e r S t u d e n t d i v i d e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l maximum B a l a n c e d Assessment p e r S t u d e n t . Thus l o c a l revenue and l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o l o c a l w e a l t h . (Note t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l p r o v i d e s f o r a f l o o r o f 5% on l o c a l r evenue, t o r e s t r i c t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f i s c a l i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n v e r y p o o r d i s t r i c t s ) . L o c a l revenue i s t h e n deducted from t h e a d d i t i o n a l revenue r e q u i r e d +o g i v e t h e amount o f t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t . Even i n c a s e s i n wh i c h l o c a l revenue i s s u f f i c i e n t , o r n e a r l y s u f f i c i e n t , t o r a i s e r evenues t o t h e r e q u i r e d l e v e l , t h e m a t c h i n g p r i n c i p l e a p p l i e s , and i n some i n s t a n c e s w i l l h e l p t o g e n e r a t e revenue above t h e r e q u i r e d l e v e l . In such i n s t a n c e s t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t would s e r v e as an i n c e n t i v e t o r a i s e e x p e n d i t u r e s . B o t h t h e f l o o r p r o v i s i o n and t h i s p r o v i s i o n a r e i m p o r t a n t in p r i n c i p l e , but when a c t u a l s p e n d i n g l e v e l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , a r e not i i k e l y t o be i m p o r t a n t i n p r a c t i c e . T h i s g r a n t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a m a t c h i n g g r a n t t o b r i n g l o c a l revenue r a i s e d by I m i l ! i n t h e p o o r e s t d i s t r i c t up t o t h e same l e v e l as l o c a l revenue r a i s e d by I m i l l i n t h e r i c h e s t d i s t r i c t . (See B r a z e r , 1970: p. 255, f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m a t c h i n g p r i n c i p l e ) . The w o r k s h e e t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p r o c e d u r e , which each d i v i s i o n would f o l l o w i n budget p r e p a r a t i o n and s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e Department. The outcome o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e r e p r e s e n t s a four-way s p l i t i n t h e r e q u i r e revenue i n t o c a t e g o r i c a l g r a n t component, b a s i c g r a n t component, l o c a l revenue component, and e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t component. The w o r k s h e e t s used as examples a r e based on one d i v i s i o n ' s budget s t a t e m e n t . The f i r s t example uses a _ 77 -b a s i c g r a n t o f $475 per p u p i l , and s i n c e t h e a v e r a g e revenue per p u p i l i n th e p r o v i n c e , In t h e y e a r used as an example, was $662.31, t h e s i z e of t h e b a s i c g r a n t component e n s u r e s a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l l o c a l revenue and a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t , Thus t h i s b a s i c g r a n t f i g u r e would r e s u l t i n r a t h e r m i n o r e q u a l i z i n g e f f e c t s . The f l e x i b i l i t y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s f o r m u l a r e s u l t s from t h e f a c t t h a t each y e a r t h e b a s i c g r a n t f i g u r e -c o u l d be v a r i e d , d epending upon whether an emphasis on e q u a l i z a t i o n o r on f o u n d a t i o n s u p p o r t was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h a t y e a r . The e f f e c t s o f v a r y i n g t h e b a s i c g r a n t f i g u r e can be seen i n t h e s e t of w o r k s h e e t s which f o l l o w s , i n t h e example, t h e b a s i c g r a n t v a r i e s from $425 p e r . s t u d e n t t o $500 per s t u d e n t . The f i g u r e s from t h e s e w o r k s h e e t s a r e used i n T a b l e 44, which shows t h e change i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t o t a l d i v i s i o n a l revenue d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f grants., f o r t h e sample d i v i s i o n . TABLE 37 PROPORTIONS OF TOTAL DIVISIONAL REVENUE TO BE DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT REVENUE SOURCES WITH VARI AT IONS IN SIZE OF THE BASIC GRANT, IN S'OOO'S B a s i c G r a n t B a s i c G r a n t B a s i c S r a n i B a s i c G r a n t Revenue S o u r c e $425 $450 $475 $500 ~$ jT $ % % ~ ~ ~ ~ J o ' $ I B a s i c G r a n t 706,350 (64.9) 747,900 (68.7) 789,450 (72.4) 831,000 (73.4) C a t e g o r i c a l G. 183,302 (16.8) 183,302 (16.8) 183,302 (16.8) 183,302 (16.2) E q u a l i z a t i o n G. 106,872 ( 9.8) 84,552 ( 7.8) 63,396 ( 5.8) 63,395 ( 5.6) Lo c a l Revenue 92,071 ( 8.5) 72,841 ( 6.7) 54,430 ( 5.0) 54,430 ( 4.8) TOTAL 1,088,595 1,088,595 1,090,578 1,132,128 REVENUE 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 - 78 -REVENUE.WORKSHEET A Di v i s i on No. . 16 REQUIRED REVENUE 1,088,595 C a t e g o r i c a l G r a n t 183,302 S t u d e n t s 1,662 x $425 - B a s i c G r a n t 706,350 , n , L o c a l BAPS E q u a l . Formula: = P r o v , Max. 5,887 A 6 2 Q 12,718 A d d i t i o n a l Revenue R e q u i r e d (Req. Rev. - B a s i c & C a t e g . G r a n t s ) = 198,943 Add. Rev. R e q u i r e d x Equal Formula = L o c a l Revenue* 92,071 Add, Rev. R e q u i r e d - Loca.l Rev. = Equa1. G r a n t * * 106,872 Loc. Rev. per S t u d . = , ^ O C ° , . v e ^ ' = 5 5 . 4 0 r No. S t u d . \ BAPS = Local' E f f o r t = 9.41 TOTAL l,088,.595 . *May not be l e s s t h a n 5% of REQUIRED REVENUE. **Must equal fLOCAL REVENUE \ ^EQUALIZATION FORMULA j - L C C A L R t V E N U F -- 79 -REVENUE WORKSHEET B Di v i s i on No. ! 6 REQUIRED REVENUE S t u d e n t s I,662 x $450 = L o c a l BAPS E q u a l . Formula: P r o v > M a X o = .4628 12,718 A d d i t i o n a l Revenue R e q u i r e d (Req„ Rev. - B a s i c & C a t e g . G r a n t s ) Add. Rev. R e q u i r e d x E q u a l . Formula Add. Rev. .Required - Lo c a l Rev. Loc. Rev.' per S t u d . = L o c - _ R e v-- = 50.87 No. S t u d . BAPS = L o c a l E f f o r t = 8.64 TOTAL C a t e g o r i c a l G r a n t B a s i c G r a n t i57,393 L o c a l Revenue* EquaI. G r a n t * * ,088,595 183,302 747,900 72,84! 84,552 ,088,595 *May not be l e s s t h a n % of REQUIRED REVENUE. **Must equa I f-OCAI, REVENUE \. VEQUA LIZATION FORMULA^ LOCAL REVENUE - 80 -REVENUE WORKSHEET D D i v i s i o n No, i 6 REQUIRED REVENUE 1 ,088,595 C a t e g o r i c a l G r a n t 183,302 S t u d e n t s !,662 x $475 = Bas i c G r a n t 789,450 , , L o c a l BAPS bqua . Fortnu a: ---vr •• - -1 P r o v . Max, - ^ M 7 - .4628 12,718 - ^ £ £ . A d d i t i o n a l Revenue R e q u i r e d (Req. Rev. - B a s i c & C a t e g . G r a n t s ) Add. Rev. R e q u i r e d x EquaI.• Formu1 a = L o c a l Revenue* 54,430 Add. Rev. R e q u i r e d - L o c a l Rev. = Equa1. G r a n t * * 84,552 Loc. Rev. per S t u d . - L o c - R e v > - 32.75 ' y No. S t u d . -t BAPS = L o c a l E f f o r t = 5.56 TOTAL 1,090,578 *May not be l e s s t h a n 5% of REQUIRED REVENUE. **Must equal /LOCAL REVENUE \ , „ A 1 a „ l c . . u r - 81 -REVENUE WORKSHEET C D i v i s i o n No.. 16 REQUIRED REVENUE 1 ,088.. 595 C a t e g o r i c a l G r a n t 183,302 S t u d e n t s 1 ,662 x $500 = B a s i c G r a n t 831,000 Equa1. Formu1 a: L o c a l BAPS -Vov. Max. 5 ' 8 8 7 -12,718 ~ - - 4 6 2 8 A d d i t i o n a l Revenue (Req. Rev. - B a s i c Requ i red & C a t e g . G r a n t s ) ~ 74,293 Add. Rev. R e q u i r e d x Equa 1 . Formu1 a = Lo c a l Revenue* 54,430 Add. Rev. R e q u i r e d - L o c a l Rev.' = Equa1. G r a n t * * 63,396 Loc. Rev o'per Stud = L o c - R e v v = 32 75 No. Stud„ 2£i±L -„ BAPS = L o c a l E f f o r t = 5.56 TOTAL 1,090,578 *May not be l e s s t h a n 5% of REQUIRED REVENUE. **Must equal /l.0CAL REVENUE \ n r . ( r ( „ , r (•EQUALIZATION F d f M J L A ) - REVENUE - 82 -The c o nsequences of t h i s p r o p o s a l f o r M a n i t o b a ' s u n i t a r y s c n o o l d i v i s i o n s , had i t been i n e f f e c t i n 1970, can be i l l u s t r a t e d i n t a b u l a r -form. T a b l e s 38 and 39 i l l u s t r a t e two p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e e f f e c t s : i n t h e f i r s t i t i s assumed t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n a l funds made a v a i l a b l e by t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n a s p e c t o f t h e prop o s e d f o r m u l a w i i I be used t o reduc e l o c a i e f f o r t ; i n t h e second i t i s assumed t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s made a v a i l a b l e w i l l be used t o r a i s e e x p e n d i t u r e s . In o t h e r .words, t h e f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e t a k e s t o t a i revenue as f i x e d and v a r i e s - i o c a l e f f o r t ; t h e second t a k e s l o c a l e f f o r t as f i x e d end v a r i e s t o t a l revenue. A d d i t i o n a l l y , each t a b l e p r e s e n t s t h e d a t a a t two d i f f e r e n t b a s i c g r a n t ' e v e l s , $475 per s t u d e n t and $500 per s t u d e n t . In t h e second a l t e r n a t i v e t h e r e t e n t i o n o f a h i g h l e v e l o f l o c a l e f f o r t e l i c i t s a s u b s t a n t i a l e q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t , making t h e t o t a l g r a n t s a v a i l a b l e n o t i c e a b l y h i g h e r i n a l t e r n a t i v e M t h a n i n a l t e r n a t i v e I, and .hence r a i s i n g t h e revenue l e v e l w i t h o u t undue l o c a i e f f o r t . S i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e l o c a l c h o i c e s between a l t e r n a t i v e s I and I I , t h e impact o f t h i s p r o p o s a l can r e a l l y o n i y be d i s c u s s e d In terms of ra n g e s . For i n s t a n c e , w i t h t h e b a s i c g r a n t a t $475 per s t u d e n t , i f a l l l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s c h o s e t o m i n i m i z e l o c a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e l o c a l e f f o r t would be 14.11, and a v e r a g e r e v e n u e s would be $669.59 per s t u d e n t . If they chose t o max i m i z e e x p e n d i t u r e s , w i t h o u t I n c r e a s i n g i o c a l e f f o r t , l o c a l e f f o r t would be 19.64 and revenues would be $769.15. i n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e p r o p o s a l s would have produced funds i n e x c e s s o f a c t u a l l e v e l s i n t h e s m a l l e r d i v i s i o n s , even w i t h iower e f f o r t . Thus t h e funds r e q u i r e d f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n t h e s m a l l e r and r e l a t i v e l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d d i v i s i o n s wouId be ava! I a t Ie. TABLE 38 ONE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF THE PROPOSED FINANCE FORMULA ON RANGES IN TOTAL REVENUES AND LOCAL EFFORT IN MANITOBA'S UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS ( A l t e r n a t i v e I: Minimizing Local E f f o r t ACTUAL Ba s i c Grant $475 Per Student D F PROPOSED i J Av. Tota I Revenue Range i n Tota l Revent le Av. Loca 1 Revenue Av. Loca 1 t E f f o r t Range in LocaI E f f o r t Av. Total Revenue Av". Loca 1 Revenue Av. Local E f f o r t Range in LocaT E f f o r t 640.38 541.95 - 741. 99 110.91 1 5.35 8. .88 - 27.95 (51.30)* 659.21 50. 19 6.94 3. .76 - 13. 24 i I 610.37 521.85 - 672. 68 115.51 16.86 1 1 . ,46 - 34.89 626.98 52.29 7.63 4. . 1 3 - 14. ,74 111 637.45 55!.98 - 691. 00 17 1.37 23.34 15. .25 - 28.62 637.45 87.86 1 1 .97 5. .10 - 16. ,74 IV 720.02 628.45 - 776. 83 224.59 20.78 19. ,89 - 26.87 720.02 215.3! 19.93 I I , .63 - 23. . 3 /• PROV. AVGS. 662.31 521.85 - 776. (254.98) 33 166.79 (25.18?) 19.64 8. .88 - 34.89 (26.01) 669.69 119.79 (17.89$) 14. 1 1 3, .76 - 23. (19.40) .37 Bas i c Grant $500 Per Student 1 640.38 541.95 - 741 . 99 110.91 15.35 8. ,88 - 27.96 (51.30) 669.73 42.38 5.86 2. ,80 -.11. 27 ! 1 610.37 521.85 - 672. 68 115.51 .16.86 1 1 . ,46 - 34.89 638.03 46.37 6.77 4, . 13 - 12. 78 1 1 1 637.45 551.98 - 691. 00 1 71.37 23.34 15. .25 - 28.62 638.59 74.11 10.09 3. .61 - 14. ,68 IV 720.02 628.45 - 776. 83 ' 224.59 20.78 19. ,89 - 26.87 720.02 194.07 17.96 9. ,66 - 21. ,40 PROV. AVGS. 662.31 521.65 - 776. (254.98) 83 156.79 (25.\Q$) 19.64 8. •88 - 34.89 (26.01) 674.47 106.19 ( 15.74?)-12.51 3. .61 - 21. (17.79) .40 TABLE 59 ONE POSS IBLE EFFECT OF THE PROPOSED FINANCE FORMULA ON RANGES IN TOTAL REVENUES AND LOCAL. EFFORT IN MANITOBA'S UNITARY SCHOOL D IV I S IONS ( A l t e r n a t i v e II: M a x i m i z i n g Revenue ) B a s i c G r a n t $475 P e r S t u d e n t  ACTUAL PROPOSED A G r p . 3 • A v . T o l a l Revenue C Ra nge i n T o t a l Revenue C A v . Loca I Revenue D A v . L o c a 1 E f f o r t E Range i n L o c a l E f f o r t F Av". Loca 1 Revenue G AT. T o t a l Revenue H . Range i n T o t a l Revenue 1 6 4 0 . 38 5 4 1 . 9 5 - 74 1.99 110.91 1 5 . 3 5 8. ,88 - 2 7 . 9 6 ( 5 1 . 3 0 ) I 10.91 7 9 3 . 6 4 694 . ,92 - 8 7 2 . 6 0 ( 1 , 1 2 8 . 8 3 ) * I 1 6 1 0 . 3 7 5 2 1 . 8 5 - 6 7 2 . 6 8 115.51 1 6 . 8 6 1 1 . ,46 - 3 4 . 8 9 115.51 7 6 2 . 0 9 6 6 7 . ,56 - 8 1 7 . 8 2 ( 9 8 8 . 2 3 ) * * 1 1 i 6 3 7 . 4 5 5 5 1 . 9 8 - 6 9 1 . 0 0 171 .37 2 3 . 3 4 15. .25 - 2 8 . 6 2 1 7 1 . 3 7 7 8 5 . 4 6 681 . 05 - 8 4 9 . 4 4 i V 7 2 0 . 0 2 6 2 8 . 4 5 - 7 7 6 . 8 3 2 2 4 . 5 9 2 0 . 7 8 19. . 8 9 - 2 6 . 8 7 2 2 4 . 5 9 7 5 2 . 0 2 732 . ,58 - 8 3 3 . 8 4 AVGS. ' 662 .31 5 2 1 . 8 5 - 7 7 6 . 8 3 1 6 6 . 7 9 1 9 . 6 4 8. . 88 - 3 4 . 8 9 1 6 6 . 7 9 7 6 9 . 1 5 667 . •56 -~ 6 7 2 . 6 0 ( 2 5 4 . 9 8 ) ( 2 5 . 1 8 ? ) ( 2 6 . 0 1 ) ( 2 1 . 6 8 ? ) ( 2 0 5 . 0 4 ) B a s i c G r a n t $500 P e r S t u d e n t ; 6 4 0 . 3 8 5 4 1 . 9 5 - 741 . .99 1 1 0 . 9 ! 15. ,35 8. .88 - 2 7 . .96 ( 5 1 . 3 0 ) 1 10.91 8 1 5 . ,61 694 . ,92 - 8 9 7 , .60 ( 1 , 1 5 3 . 8 3 * 1 1 6 1 0 . 3 7 5 2 1 . 8 5 - 6 7 2 . .68 I i 5 . 5 l 16. ,86 1 1 . ,45 - 34 . ,89 115.51 781 . ,68 6 6 7 , ,56 - 8 4 2 , .82 . ( 1 , 0 1 3 . 2 8 ) i ! 1 r-37. 4f 5 5 1 . 9 8 - 691 . .00 171 .37 2 3 . ,34 15. ,25 - 2 8 . ,62 171 .37 8 1 0 . ,46 706 . ,05 - 8 7 4 . ,44 1 V 7/0.' 22 6 2 8 . 4 5 - 7 7 6 . .83 2 2 4 . 5 9 20 . . 78 19 89 - 26 . ,87 2 2 4 . 5 9 777 . ,02 757 . 58 - 8 5 8 . ,84 FKOV. AVGS. 6 6 2 . 3 , 5 2 1 . 8 5 -<254. 7 7 6 . 98 ) . 83 1 6 6 . 7 9 ( 2 5 . 1 8 ? ) 19. ,64 8. .88 - 3 4 . ( 2 6 . 0 1 ) ,89 1 6 6 . 7 9 ( 2 1 . 0 5 ? ) 7 9 2 . .37 667 . ,56 -( 2 3 0 . 8 9 7 . 04 ) 60 c + e T c T3b!e 3 3 . ' " "The h i g h e s t f i g u r e i s s o much i n e x c e s s o f t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t ( b r a c k e t e d ) t h a t i t i s e x c l u d e d f r o -c o n s i d e r a t i o n as an i m p r o b a b l e s p e n d i n g l e v e l f o r a r u r a l d i v i s i o n . The p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s p r e s e n t e d i n s c h e m a t i c form on page 72, under-equal i z a t i o n , r e q u i r e d t h e proposed p o l i c i e s t o produce "a h i g h e r degree of e q u a l i z a t i o n t h a n a t p r e s e n t i n r e v e n u e s and l o c a l e f f o r t . The p r o p o s a l , had i t . b e e n i n e f f e c t - i n 1970, would have reduced t h e ranges i n revenues and l o c a l e f f o r t and hence would have c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n , even a t t h e extreme p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s . The e q u a l i z a t i o n o f revenues i s somewhat more marked a t t h e $475 b a s i c g r a n t l e v e . . The autonomy c o n s t r a i n t a l s o r e q u i r e d , f i r s t , t h a t l i t t l e o r no change i n minimum e x p e n d i t u r e s o c c u r , and t h e p r o p o s a l p e r f o r m s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , w i t h t h e new a v e r a g e b e i n g $626.98 o f revenue per s t u d e n t compared t o $610.37 i n t h e a c t u a l f i g u r e . ( P r e s u m a b l y t h i s revenue would be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e x p e n d i t u r e s . ) The second r e q u i r e m e n t was a somewhat iower range of e x p e n d i t u r e s t h a n a t p r e s e n t , and t h i s t o o i s a c h i e v e d , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i n p r i n c i p l e , s i n c e l o c a l revenue remains open-ended, t h e range of e x p e n d i t u r e s c o u l d i n c r e a s e . The t h i r d requ i rernent o f t h i s c o n s t r a i n t was t h e r e t e n t i o n of an e x t e n s i v e range o f p a t t e r n s of e x p e n d i t u r e s . The f o r m u l a , s i n c e i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h revenue r a t h e r t h a n e x p e n d i t u r e s , c a n n o t e n s u r e t h i s , but i t p r o v i d e s f o r l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n p r e c i s e l y t h e same measure as t h e e x i s t i n g f o r m u l a . The p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d under t h e h e a d i n g of f l e x i b i l i t y r e q u i r e t h e proposed p o l i c y t o be a d a p t a b l e t o c u r r e n t needs, which i s i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o v i d i n g f o r a heavy e q u a l i z a t i o n t e n d e n c y a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , but a l s o a l l o w i n g f o r a ready s h i f t t o s u p p o r t as a primary. p u r p o s e . The key p r o v i s i o n a l l o w i n g t h i s i s of c o u r s e t h e d i s c r e t i o n a r y power t o s e t t h e per p u p i l g r a n t a t any l e v e l . The second r e q u i r e m e n t under f l e x i b i l i t y i s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f - 8 6 -f e e d b a c k d e v i c e s t o s i g n a l c h a n g i n g needs. The p r i m a r y i n s t r u m e n t here would be t h e w o r k s h e e t s , of which samples a r e g i v e n on pages 78,79, 80, and 81. Summarized i n t o a t a b l e , t h i s d a t a i s v i r t u a l l y a l l t h a t would be needed t o keep a r e c o r d o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a t t e r n o f changes i n e x p e n d i t u r e s , r e v e n u e s , and e f f o r t . N a t u r a l l y i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o compare t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s on t h e w o r k s h e e t s w i t h a u d i t e d s t a t e m e n t s of e x p e n d i t u r e s u b s e q u e n t l y , but t h e a d d i t i o n of t h i s w o r k s h e e t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n which d i v i s i o n s a l r e a d y p r o v i d e t o t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n would a l l o w p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y -makers a d e q u a t e f e e d b a c k d e v i c e s t o s i g n a l c h a n g i n g needs. These two e l e m e n t s i t i s c l a i m e d make t h e proposed p o l i c y s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f l e x i b l e , i n t h e sens o f p r o v i d i n g f o r a d a p t a b i l i t y , t h a n e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s . Of c o u r s e , t c e s t a b l i s h a means by which p o l i c i e s can be adapted t o c h a n g i n g needs i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t o e n s u r e t h a t such change t a k e s p l a c e . However, t h e p r i m a r y purpose of t h e p r o p o s a l h e r e i s t o p r o v i d e p o i i c y i n s t r u m e n t s which a r e c a p a b l e of r e a c h i n g t h e proposed o b j e c t i v e s ; t h e ways i n which such i n s t r u m e n t s a r e i n f a c t u s e d ' i n p r a c t i c e i s beyond t h e s c o p e ' o f t h i s s t u d y . I t can r e a s o n a b l y be c o n c l u d e d , t h e n , t h a t by r e f e r e n c e both t o t h e e x i s t i n g f i n a n c i n g p o l i c i e s , and t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s p r o p o s e d , t h e proposed p o l i c i e s seem l i k e l y t o p e r f o r m s u c c e s s f u l l y ; t h e " p r o b a b l e r e a l o u t p u t " meets t h e o b j e c t i v e s , and would p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s t o a l l o w t h e • s m a l l e r d i v i s i o n s t o improve t h e p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s . One f i n a l e v a l u -a t i o n i s s t i l l n e c e s s a r y : t h e c o m p a r i s o n of t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e p r o p o s a l w i t h t h a t o f f i n n a n c e p o l i c i e s i n e f f e c t i n a n o t h e r s i m i l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n , i n t h i s c a s e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T a b l e 40 p r e s e n t s t h e o u t p u t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f i n a n c e p o l i c i e s , f o r 1970, r e t a i n i n g t h e g r o u p i n g s used i n C h a p t e r I. I t r e p e a t s T a b l e 34, f o r r e a d e r c o n v e n i e n c e . - 87 -The p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e l o c a i e f f o r t , a t 28,17, i s n o t i c e a b l y h i g h e r t h a n M a n i t o b a ' s 19.64, but t h e range i s much t h e same, 26.18 i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 26.01 i n M a n i t o b a . A g a i n , t o t a l revenues a r e a t a much h i g h e r a v e r a g e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , $707.86 p e r s t u d e n t , compared t o M a n i t o b a ' s $662.31, and t h e range i n t o t a l revenue i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s v e r y l a r g e , a t $732.07, compared t o M a n i t o b a ' s $254.98. The r e d u c t i o n s i n ranges i n l o c a l e f f o r t and t o t a l revenue p e r s t u d e n t made p o s s i b l e f o r M a n i t o b a by t h e proposed p o l i c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e $475 l e v e l , o f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t improvement o v e r t h e B r i t i s h C o l umbia system, i n terms o f e q u a l i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . By r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s p r o p o s e d , t h e n , t h e s u g g e s t e d f i n a n c e p o l i c i e s o f f e r a r e a s o n a b l e p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and M a n i t o b a . TABLE 40 AVERAGES AND RANGES IN REVENUE PER STUDENT AND LOCAL EFFORT IN,BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS, 1970, BY ENROLLMENT GROUPS Av. T o t a l Rev. Range i n Ave. L o c a l * Range i n Group P e r S t u d e n t T o t a l Rev. E f f o r t L o c a l E f f o r t I 780.79 478.20 - 1210.27 . 28.81 14.26 - 40.44 II 724.45 6 5 3 . 5 5 - 817.84 29.93 2 4 . 3 3 - 3 9 . 2 5 I I I 676.38 614.45 - 737.07 28.84 26.77 - 32.07 •' _IV 697.95 635.09 - 77 i . 12 52.38 26.76 - 33.56 PROVINCIAL AVERAGE 707.86 4 7 8 . 2 0 - 1210.27 28.17 1 4 . 2 6 - 4 0 . 4 4 (732.07) ( 2 6 . 1 8 ) (Based on d a t a g i v e n i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1972) * NOTE: A s s e s s e d v a l u e s p e r s t u d e n t a r e g i v e n i n BCSTA, l 9 7 0 . Data was m i s s i n g f o r one d i s t r i c t i n Group I; t h e p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e was i n s e r t e d . - 88 -The p r o p o s a l c l e a r l y r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s c h o o l d i v i s i o n f i n a n c i n g by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. In 1970, p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75% o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n r e v e n u e s . Under t h e p r o p o s a l , p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s would i n c r e a s e t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% o f t o t a l r evenues ( T a b l e s 38 and 3 9 ) . The c h o i c e f a c i n g p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s i s i n e f f e c t whether such e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e d e s i r a b l e i n o r d e r t o improve t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . If s u p p o r t i e v e Is a t a b o u t 80% of t h e t o t a l program a r e r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o do t h i s , i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o urge t h e s h i f t from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75% s u p p o r t t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% s u p p o r t . .One f u r t h e r p o i n t can be made, w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s s h i f t In s u p p o r t l e v e l s . Because p r o v i n c i a l o p e r a t i o n s a r e s u b s t a n t i-a I fy f i n a n c e d by f e d e r a l l y r e b a t e d income t a x payments, I n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t l e v e l t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% s u p p o r t r e p r e s e n t s i n f a c t a s h i f t from p r o p e r t y t a x e s t o income t a x e s as a s o u r c e of f u n d s f o r e d u c a t i o n . The c a s e f o r such a s h i f t has been argued f r e q u e n t l y , (see f o r example Due, 1971,) and cam be summarized as f o l l o w s : t h e p r o p e r t y t a x i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d e c o n o m i c a l l y unsound, because of i t s d i s t o r t i n g e f f e c t on t h e economy, i t s i n e q u i t y , and I t s i n e l a s t i c i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e income tax- i s t h e most e q u i t a b l e , as w e l l as the most f l e x i b l e form Of t a x a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t income t e n d s t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h y e a r s of e d u c a t i o n , a t p r e s e n t , s u p p o r t s t h e view t h a t t h e use of t h e income t a x as a p r i m a r y s o u r c e of funds t o r e d u c a t i o n i s both r a t i o n a l and e q u i t a b l e . An assessment p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Economic C o u n c i l of Canada s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f 8 y e a r s of s c h o o l i-rug was t a k e n as t h e base f o r 100% of income, h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n would g i v e n an e q u i v a l e n t of 148.1% o f income, and u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t i o n would g i v e an e q u i v a l e n t of 241.2% of income. ( B e r t r a m , 1966), S i n c e t h e c o n s u m p t i o n of y e a r s of educa-t i o n by t h e i n d i v i d u a l g i v e s h i g h e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l , huis subsequent payment o f e d u c a t i o n c o s t s v i a h i s income t a x e s becomes a d e l a y e d u s e r f e e f o r e d u c a t i o n . - 89 -I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e proposed s y s t e m would come c l o s e r t o r e a c h i n g t h e s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d t h a n t h e e x i s t i n g system i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e a s o n f o r a d v o c a t i n g i t . As D r o r p o i n t s o u t : A p p r a i s a l by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e p a s t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y m i s l e a d i n g i n o u r g e n e r a t i o n , i n which r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n a p p l i c a b l e know-ledge have, i n most a r e a s , made i t p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e much more t h a n i n t h e p a s t . . . e v e n when a c h i e v e m e n t s a r e h i g h e r t h a n i n t h e p a s t , they o f t e n l a g i n c r e a s i n g l y b e h ind what i s p o s s i b l e , needed and demanded, and t h e y s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e o f t e n be e v a l u a t e d as "worse". (1968: p. 29) To d e m o n s t r a t e c o n c l u s i v e l y t h e m e r i t s o f a p o l i c y change, i t i s p r o b a b l y n e c e s s a r y t o show t h a t i t w i l l a l l o w f i r s t , b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n has been a c h i e v e d i n t h e p a s t ; s e c o n d , t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n of i m p o r t a n t v a l u e s ; and t h i r d , p e r f o r m a n c e equal t o o r b e t t e r t h a n p o l i c i e s f o l l o w e d i n o t h e r r o u g h l y s i m i l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . In summary, t h i s c h a p t e r has m a i n t a i n e d t h a t improvements i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n s m a l l , and g e n e r a l l y r u r a l , d i v i s i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n t i n g e n t on improvements i n t h e f i n a n c i a l power o f t h e s e d i v i s i o n s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a i r e s o u r c e s i s t h e most o b v i o u s , and p r o b a b l y most e f f e c t i v e , way o f b r i n g i n g t h i s about. Two i n t e r r e l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n and a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y , a r e p r o p o s e d , t o g u i d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s a v a i l a b l e . A chievement o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , and t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s p r o v i d e d , a r e both c o n s t r a i n e d by an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n M a n i t o b a , l o c a l autonomy i n e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , an " i n v e r s e a l l o c a t i o n " form o f p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e , c o u p l e d w i t h a s u p p o r t program e l e m e n t t o m a i n t a i n s p e n d i n g l e v e l s i n d i v i s i o n s where l o c a l demand f o r e d u c a t i o n i s weak. An e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n system, t o a l l o w r e v i e w and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e - 90 -f i n a n c e scheme i f i t does not a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n , i s an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l , s i n c e t h e scheme does not i n i t s e l f g u a r a n t e e changes i n e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s , but o n l y p r o v i d e s f o r changes i n t h e power o f some l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o change s p e n d i n g l e v e l s i f t h e y choose t o do s o . - 9'I C H A P T E R II CHANGING ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES TO ALLOW MORE EQUAL PROVISION OF SERVICES: POLICY OBJECTIVES AND PROPOSALS T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s f o r p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n M a n i t o b a . The main t h r u s t w i l l be t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l p o l i c y p r o p o s a l , a d d r e s s e d t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s , which i s i n t e n d e d t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o improve a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e p r o p o s a l w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h e improvement of a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r s t u d e n t s i n s m a l l and r u r a l s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , and hence may make i t p o s s i b l e f o r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o reduce some o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 1. The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l e s t a b l i s h a s e r i e s o f o b j e c t i v e s which w i l l g u i d e t h e development o f a p o l i c y p r o p o s a l . As p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e g e n e r a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c h a n g i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c c e s s by s t u d e n t s t o s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The second s e c t i o n w i l l p r e s e n t a g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l f o r m o d i f y i n g t h e e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e d e l i v e r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s by t h e a d d i t i o n o f some form o f r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e agency. T h i s agency i s seen as one d e v i c e by which l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s can improve t h e a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s by t h e i r s t u d e n t s , s h o u l d t h e y w i s h t o do so. The p r e s e n t system o f u n i t a r y s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g range i n s i z e , has been shown t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s i n C h a p t e r I. Some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g system may c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l t o e q u a l i z a t i o n o f a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s . ~ 92 -O b j e c t i v e s f o r a n Adequate System o f Schoo i D i v i s i o n Adm '< n i s t r a t i on The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e of t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o d e v e l o p a s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s , a c c e p t a b l e t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s , by wh i c h a g e n e r a l p o l i c y p r o p o s a l f o r changes i n t h e c u r r e n t system of s c h o o l d i v i s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c a n be e v a l u a t e d . The f i r s t c o n c e r n h e r e wi'U be w i t h s t a t i n g a c a s e f o r . t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s e r v i c e s t o be d i s c u s s e d . The second w i l l be a d i s -c u s s i o n o f s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s i n each of t h e a r e a s i n which i t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d i n e q u a l i t i e s i n a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s a l r e a d y ex i s t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as i n p u t - o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r c o r r e l a t e s o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n i , have r e c e n t l y b e e n • s u b j e c t e d t o i n -t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , both i n t h e Survey o t E q u a l i t y o f E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y , (Coleman, 1966) and s u b s e q u e n t l y as a consequence o f i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e s u r v e y , (See M o s t e i l e r and Moynihan, 1972.) The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n o f a group of c o n s u l t a n t s g a t h e r e d by t h e O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n t o r e v i e w t h e r e c e n t r e s e a r c h on p u p i l a c h i e v e m e n t i s t h a t : We can o n l y make t h e not very u s e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t moment we cannot make any s o r t o t m e a n i n g f u l q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f the e f f e c t ot t e a c h e r s on s t u d e n t achievement'. Many i n v e s t i g a t o r s b e ' i e v e t h a t t e a c h e r s may be t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t tor most c h i l d r e n and a r e a t wo r s t second o n l y t o p a r e n t s . That b e l i e f r e s t s l a r g e l y on judgment and i t may w e l l be t r u e ; u n f o r t u n a t e l y i t does not g i v e us any c l u e as t o how i t o p e r a t e s , and w i t h o u t t h a t i t i s not of much use t o p o h c y f o r m u l a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e (Mood,' ! 970: p. 7 ) . T h i s i s so l a r g e l y because " t h e p r e s e n t r u d i m e n t a r y s t a t e of our q u a n t i t a -t i v e models does not p e r m i t us t o d i s e n t a n g l e t h e e f f e c t s o f home, s c h o o l , - 93 -and p e e r s on s t u d e n t s ' a c h i e v e m e n t " , (p. 6) I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e i n t e n d e d as an o v e r v i e w of a volume which c o n t a i n s d e s c r i p t i o n s of some e x t r e m e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d q u a n t i t a t i v e m odels, which a w a i t f u M t e s t i n g . Such s t a t e m e n t s l e a v e e d u c a t i o n a l poI i c v - m a k e r s and pol i c y r e s e a r c h e r s i n a l m o s t t h e pre-1966 s i t u a t i o n . However, as Mood has commented, "one consequence of t h e Coleman R e p o r t has been t o r a i s e a number of fundamental q u e s t i o n s " . (1970: p. 7) A t l e a s t some a n s w e r s , t e n t a t i v e as they may be, have been p r o v i d e d as a consequence. A number of s t u d i e s , which show w i t h v a r y i n g d e grees o f r e l i a b i l i t y t h a t a number of s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s do indeed a f f e c t s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , remain u n c h a l l e n g e d but a l s o u n c o n f i r m e d . Thus p o l i c y - m a k e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s a r e l e f t w i t h o u t an e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s i s f o r p o l i c y .proposaIs a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . One r e s p o n s e t o t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y " w o u I d be, c f c o u r s e , t o m a i n t a i n . t h e s t a t u s quo u n t i I t h e s t a t e of our knowledge improves. However, t h e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s on e d u c a t i o n make t h i s g e n e r a l l y an u n t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n . I t a l s o seems unwise, as a g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y , a t l e a s t t o one s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t : The e n v i r o n m e n t which c o n f r o n t s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n today i s one of immensely g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y t h a n t h a t of t h e not t o o d i s t a n t p a s t . . . . I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t both t h e r a t e o f change and t h e l e v e l of d i v e r s i t y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e . G i v e n t h e amount t h a t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e now a b l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s , t h e r a t e w i t h which knowledge i s i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , and t h e r a t e w i t h which t h e c o m p l e x i t y of problems i s i n c r e a s i n g , t h e r e i s l i t t l e b a s i s f o r o p t i m i s m about t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o c o n t r i b u t e more s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o .the s o l u t i o n of f u t u r e p r o b l e m s . i n s h o r t , i t - i s my o p i n i o n t h a t i f t h e problems of e d u c a t i o n a r e t o be s o l v e d , t h e n i t w i l l have t o be done p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s of t h e a c c u m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e , e f f o r t s , and e v o l u t i o n a r y c a p a c i t y o f . t h e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s ystems. (Hi I I s , 1962: p. 3i )• - 94 -T h i s i s s u e was argued on pp. 41,42, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o f i n a n c e . The c o n c l u s i o n t h e r e was t h a t s o c i a l r e f o r m s c a n n o t a l w a y s a w a i t s c i e n t i f i c c e r t a i n t y . ' S i m i l a r l y , w i t h r e g a r d t o s e r v i c e s , t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y - m a k e r may w e l l choose not t o p e r p e t u a t e what seem t o be i m p o r t a n t i n e q u a l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t p r o v i d e s an o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n based on t h e f i n d i n g s o f a number o f major s t u d i e s w h i c h a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4 1 . We a r e i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e amount and c o n s i s t e n c y o f e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s c h o o l s e r v i c e s i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e academic performance of p u p i l s . In t i m e , we would w i s h f o r more p r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n about which s c h o o l s e r v i c e com-ponents a r e t h e most e f f e c t i v e and i n what mix o r p r o p o r t i o n t h e y can be made more e f f e c t i v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , on t h e b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n t h e s t u d i e s we r e v i e w e d , t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t s c h o o l s do make a d i f f e r e n c e . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s a c c e p t e d as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s made h e r e . The o b j e c t i v e s p r o p o s e d here f o r g u i d i n g t h e development o f a p o l i c y p r o p o s a l r e g a r d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a r e s i m i l a r i n form and c o n t e n t t o t h o s e proposed f o r f i n a n c i n g i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . As b e f o r e t h e y a r e s t a t e d i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e . A l s o as b e f o r e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e a chievement of one o b j e c t i v e i s l i m i t e d by t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r v a I u e , a c t i n g as a c o n s t r a i n t and i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e f i r s t . T h i s i s s u e has a l r e a d y been ar g u e d a t l e n g t h , and can be r e s t a t e d v e r y s i m p l y here: p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s may view t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i I i t y as b e i n g I imi t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s w hich a I low e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , t h r o u g h e q u a l a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s . T h e i r commitment t o l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may r e q u i r e them t o t o l e r a t e some i n e q u a l i t y i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s when i t i s deemed a c c e p t a b l e by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Thus t h e t e s t o f t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l here w i l l be, not whether a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i s improved, but whether t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n -makers i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved.' TA3LE ,43 SUMMARY CHART OF EFFECTIVENESS STUDIES ON SCHOOL SERVICE COMPONENTS Stu d y A u t h o r ( s ) I. Moi l e n k o p f and Me Iv i I Ie (1955) 2. Goodman ( 1959) D e s c i p t i o n o f Sample U.S. , 17,000 9 t h ( i n 100 s c h o o l s ) and i 2 t h ( i n 106 s c h o o l s ) g r a d e , male and tenia I e New Y o r k , 70,000 7 t h and I I t h g r a d e , male and f e m a l e i n 102 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s Measure o f Pup i I P e r f o r m a n c e ( S c h o o l O u t p u t ) A p t i t u d e and a c h i e v e -ment t e s t s A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t M e a s u r e ( s ) o f E f f e c t i v e S c h o o l S e r v i c e Component(s) ( S c h o o l Input)  1. Number o f s p e c i a l s t a f f 2. C i a s s s i z e 3. Pupi I - t e a c h e r r a t i o 4. I n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s 1. Number o f s p e c i a l s t a f f 2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s 3. T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e 4. " C l a s s r o o m a t m o s p h e r e " 3. I nomas (1962) G r e e n , e t a I (1954) Benson (1965) 6. Ki es i i ng ( 1967) P r o j e c t TALENT Samp Ie ( n a t i o n a I ) 10th and 12th g r a d e , male and f e m a l e V i r g i n i a ( P r i m a r i I y Negro) S e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s C a l i f o r n i a 5 t h g r a d e , 249 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s New Y o r k , 70,000 ' 7 t h and I I t h g r a d e male and f e m a l e i n 102 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s -A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t R e a d i n g a c h i e v e -ment t e s t A c h i e v e m e n t t e s " 1. T e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s 2. T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e 3. Number of l i b r a r y books I. A g g r e g a t e measure of e n t i r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l program 1. T e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s 2. A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' s a l a r i e s 3.. I n s t r u c t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e s I. E x p e n d i t u r e per pup i t ( i n l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ) Coleman R e p o r t ( 1965) S h a y c e f t (1967) U.S. Samp Ie U.S. 103 s c h o o l s 6,500 9 t h and 12th a r a d e , male and f e m a l e 9. Bur knead (1967) 90,000 C h i c a g o h i g h s c h o o l s s t u d e n t s i n 39 s c h o o l s . I 9,000 ' A t l a n t a H i g h S c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n 22 s c h o o l s and ISO s m a l l community h i g h s c h o o I s 10. Flowden R e p o r t (1967) Eng i i sh e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s Cohn ( 1968) Iowa h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n 377 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s 12, Raymond ( I 968) W. V i r g i n i a 5,000 h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s 5. Katzman (1968) B o s t o n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ( c o n t i nued) 0 l e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l a b i l i t C u r r i c u l u m v a r i a b l e s Age o f bu i I d i ng T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e T e a c h e r t u r n o v e r T e a c h e r s ' s a I a r y Age o f bu i I a i ng T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e T e a c h e r s ' academic p r e p a r a t i o n T e a c h e r s ' "ab i I i t y " T e a c h e r s ' s a l a r y Number o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s s i g n m e n t s p e r t e a c h e r S c h o o l s i z e T e a c h e r s ' s a l a r y Pupi Is per c l a s s r o o m S t u d e n t - s t a f f r a t i o A t t e n d a n c e d i s t r i c t e n r o I i ment T e a c h e r s ' employment s t a t u s T e a c h e r s ' d e g r e e l e v e l T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e T e a c h e r t u r n o v e r r a t i o 14. Bowies (!) (!969) U.S. i 2 t h g r a d e Negro ma Ies Bowies (2) U.S. 12th g r a d e (I 968) Negro ma Ies 16. Bowies & L e v i n (1968) 17. Hanushek (1968) 18. R i b i c h ( 1968) G u t h r i e , e t a l . (1970) 12th g r a d e Negro s t u d e n t s and 12th g r a d e w h i t e s t u d e n t s 6 t h g r a d e w h i t e s t u d e n t s i n 47 I s c h o o l s and 6 t h g r a d e Negro s t u d e n t s i n 242 s c h o o l s P r o j e c t TALENT Samp I e 5,284 6 t h g r a d e , s t u d e n t s • i n M i c h i g a n T e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l a b i l i t y . S c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y f a c i I i t i e s Length o f s c h o o l y e a r . C l a s s s i z e Abi I i.ty group i ng Level o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g Age o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g E x p e n d i t u r e per p u p i l T e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l a b i l i t y T e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s T e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l a b i l i t y T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . ' E x p e n d i t u r e s p e r p u p i l School s i t e s i z e Bu i I d i ng age % c l a s s r o o m s m a k e s h i f t L i b r a r y volumes T e x t b o o k s u p p l y T e a c h e r s ' v e r b a l a b i l i t y T e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e T e a c h e r s ' j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n School s i z e ( e n r o l l m e n t ) C l a s s r o o m s per 1,000 s t u d e n t s % of s t u d e n t s t r a n s f e r r i n g - 98 -The f i r s t main p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e g u i d i n g the development o f t h e p r o p o s a l i s t h e p r o v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s which p r o v i d e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s f o r e q u a l i z i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l , e d u c a t i o n a l programs, and f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h i s o b j e c t i v e i s s t a t e d i n t h e form of s t a n d a r d s o f measurement, which w i l l a l l o w t h e a ssessment o f t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s i n terms o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y w i l l meet t h e o b j e c t i v e , , e i t h e r i n f u l l o r i n p a r t . The components proposed as p a r t o f t h i s f i r s t main o b j e c t i v e r e q u i r e s some d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n . The p e r s o n n e l component has two main e l e m e n t s , t e a c h e r s a n d - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , r e f e r r a l , and c o n s u l t a t i v e p e r s o n n e l . A g l a n c e a t t h e l i s t o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t u d i e s on s c h o o l s e r v i c e components g i v e n on pages 95-97 w i l l r e v e a l t h e i m p o r t a n c e of h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . If s a l a r i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a p r o x y f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ( t r a i n i n g and/or e x p e r i e n c e ) , t h e n 12 o f t h e 19 s t u d i e s show q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of t e a c h e r s t c be an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The second main component, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , r e f e r r a l and c o n s u l t a t i v e p e r s o n n e l , i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y . Few o f t h e s t u d i e s d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between such p e r s o n n e l and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . However, two o f t h e e a r l y s t u d i e s l i s t e d d i d d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f such s p e c i a l s t a f f as p s y c h o l o g i s t s , r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s , and c o u n s e l o r s . They found t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n of such s p e c i a l s t a f f was an i m p o r t a n t s c h o o l i n p u t . In a d d i t i o n , Benson's mere r e c e n t s t u d y found t h a t i n some C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f medium s i z e (2,000 - 4,5000 s t u d e n t s ) t h e mean s a l a r y o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . These s t u d i e s do n o t , o f c o u r s e , t e l l us i n any d e t a i l why o r how s p e c i a l s t a f f c o n t r i b u t e t o s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t may be t h a t t h e y do so p r i m a r i l y by p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s f o r t e a c h e r s which a l l o w improvements i n t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . One would s u s p e c t t h a t such a s s i s t a n c e would be p a r t i c u l a r l y - 99 -u s e f u l t o t e a c h e r s d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y as l e s s q u a l i f i e d . Hence such s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be most a v a i l a b l e i n d i v i s i o n s i n which f u l l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s a r e i n s h o r t s u p p l y . The d a t a a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d show t h a t i n f a c t t h e r e v e r s e i n t h e c a s e : c o n s u l t a t i v e and r e f e r r a l p e r s o n n e l i n M a n i t o b a a t p r e s e n t a r e g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e l a r g e d i v i s i o n s , which a l s o have most of t h e h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . F o r s t u d e n t s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s r e p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y which may o r may n o t be u t i l i z e d . U n l e s s t h e r e i s some d a t a t o s u g g e s t h i g h e r o r lower l e v e l s o f need f o r such s e r v i c e s , one would assume t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y would be e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s t o u t i l i z e r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s . In f a c t , as has a l r e a d y been shown, a c c e s s t o such s e r v i c e s i s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n M a n i t o b a a t p r e s e n t . A g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e of r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n would r e q u i r e t h a t a p o l i c y p r o p o s a l a l l o w a t l e a s t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s i g n i f i c a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i W i t h r e g a r d t o programs, i t i s o f c o u r s e more d i f f i c u l t t o d e m o n s t r a t e e q u a l i t y o r i n e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s . Many e d u c a t o r s i n M a n i t o b a would m a i n t a i n t h a t t o make a v a i l a b l e programs more s u i t e d t o t h e needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a g r e a t many more o p t i o n s t h a n a r e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l w h i c h a l r e a d y compare u n f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h o s e a v a i l a b l e i n , f o r example, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as can be seen by comparing d e p a r t m e n t a l r e p o r t s on e n r o l l m e n t s i n v a r i o u s programs. ( M a n i t o b a Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1971; B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f E d u c a t i o n , 1971). To e q u a l i z e a c c e s s t o e x i s t i n g programs i n t h e p r o v i n c e may be o n l y a f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a g r e a t e r range of o p t i o n s . The p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a I - e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s in M a n i t o b a as a whole a l r e a d y l a g s b e h i n d proposed n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s ( R o b e r t s , 1970), as does t h e p r o v i s i o n o f such o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n many o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t o p r o v i d e f o r equal a c c e s s i n t h i s a r e a may - 100 -a g a i n be a f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f an adequate s e t o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . W i t h r e g a r d t o p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s , and s p e c i f i c a l l y l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e j u s t i f i c a t i o n a g a i n i n v o l v e s s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e impo r t a n c e o f t h e l i b r a r y as a c o r r e l a t e o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t , n e v e r t h e l e s s two o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s s t u d i e s d e a l w i t h t h i s d i r e c t l y , f i n d i n g a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s i z e o f t h e l i b r a r y and s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and a t l e a s t two o t h e r s can be c o n s i d e r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h i s i n d i r e c t l y , i f s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s a r e t a k e n as a pr o x y f o r adequacy o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y , as i s su g g e s t e d by Mood (1970: p. 4 3 ) . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s c h o o l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e component s e r v i c e s o f t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e , d i s c u s s e d here i n d e t a i i , i s c l e a r l y o f v a r i a b l e s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t n e s s . P o l i c y - m a k e r s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e a r e o b v i o u s l y l i k e l y t o be i n f I u e n c e d • i n d i f f e r e n t measures by t h e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e . But i n g e n e r a l i t seems c l e a r t h a t s t u d e n t s i n s m a l l and g e n e r a l l y r u r a l d i v i s i o n s a r e u n l i k e l y t o need lower l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e , w i t h r e g a r d t o a l l o f t h e v a r i o u s components d i s c u s s e d . The g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f l o c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c needs w i l l be d e a l t w i t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e second o b j e c t i v e , but i t would be r e m a r k a b l e i f u n i f o r m l y i n r e s p e c t t o e v e r y s e r v i c e examined, s t u d e n t s i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s r e q u i r e d lower l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e . The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s t h e n seems t o r e p r e s e n t a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o e q u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The e x t e n t t o which t h i s s h i f t i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s o c c u r s w i l ! i n some measure be l i m i t e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f l o c a l autonomy, wh i c h i t w i l ! now be a r g u e d , a c t s as c o n s t r a i n t i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , as i t d i d i n f i n a n c e . - 101 -T r e a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y as a fundamental a s s u m p t i o n , l o c a l c o n t r o l o r autonomy a c t s as a major c o n s t r a i n t on t h e range and c o n t e n t o f p o s s i b l e p o l i c i e s which can be c o n s i d e r e d . I t w i l l c e r t a i n l y c o n t i n u e t o a f f e c t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , s i n c e i n M a n i t o b a , a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n makes l o c a l c o n t r o l a n e c e s s a r y a s s u m p t i o n i n any s t u d y o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g . The e f f e c t s o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n e x t e n d i n t o a l l t h e a r e a s o f f i n a n c e and s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n which a r e t h e t o p i c o f t h i s s t u d y and t h e f o c u s o f t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s . L o c a l autonomy, o r c o n t r o l , c e r t a i n l y i m p l i e s a t l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e a wide v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , based on d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a l needs, o r p e r c e p t i o n s o f needs. At t h e same t i m e t h e r e i s no reason t o assume, once r e s o u r c e e q u a l i z a t i o n has been a c h i e v e d , t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and r e s o u r c e s w i l l be t h e same as a t p r e s e n t ; i t may w e l l be t h a t once needs a r e a s s e s s e d c a r e f u l l y , s m a l l d i v i s i o n s may f i n d t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r , f o r example, r e f e r r a l p e r s o n n e l t o be s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f l a r g e d i v i s i o n s . Thus t h e r e w i l l be no u n i f o r m p a t t e r n a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e , g i v e n t h i s c o n -s t r a i n t . There w i l l be d i v e r s i t y , but not t h e d i v e r s i t y p r e d i c t a b l e on the b a s i s o f s i z e and l o c a t i o n o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . W i t h r e g a r d t o programs, and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , a s i m i l a r l i n e o f argument i s a p p r o p r i a t e . L o c a l c o n t r o l , a c t i n g as a c o n s t r a i n t , s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y have t h e e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g u n i f o r m i t y . J u s t as t h e r e i s no reason t o assume t h a t r u r a l s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e fewer program o p t i o n s t h a n urban s t u d e n t s , t h e r e i s s i m i l a r l y no reason t o assume t h a t t h e y need t h e same o p t i o n s . However, when c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e a g g r e g a t e , t h e t o t a l number of programs o f f e r e d s h o u l d n o t , a f t e r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l , r e v e a l t h e p r e s e n t p a t t e r n o f advantage f o r urban s t u d e n t s and d i s a d v a n t a g e f o r r u r a l s t u d e n t s . - 102 -W i t h r e g a r d t o p e r s o n n e l , t h e c o n s t r a i n t may o p e r a t e as f o l l o w s : o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e as a whole, a v a r i e t y of s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s w i l l e x i s t , s i n c e l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and needs d i f f e r t o some e x t e n t . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s t a f f u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s p r e s e n t e d in Coieman & W a l l in (1971) s u g g e s t s t h a t a range o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a f f i n g models i s becoming a v a i l a b l e , and i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s and s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s may w e l l w i s h t o adopt p a t t e r n s q u i t e d i v e r g e n t from p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e , and from each o t h e r . However, t h e p r o v i n c i a l a g g r e g a t e o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s s h o u l d meet e q u a l i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i n t h a t whereas p l u r a l i s m o f s t a f f p a t t e r n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d s c h o o l s and s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , r e l a t i v e l y equal d i s t r i b u t i o n . o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s and o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c o n s u l t a t i v e , and r e f e r r a l p e r s o n n e l s h o u l d c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e p r o v i n c e . In o t h e r words, t h e f a c t t h a t one s m a l l d i v i s i o n c h o o s e s t o s t a f f i t s c e n t r a l o f f i c e w i t h h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d c o n s u l t a n t s t o a s s i s t t e a c h e r s , s h o u l d be o f f s e t by t h e f a c t t h a t a n o t h e r s m a l l d i v i s i o n c h o o s e s t o s t a f f i t s s c h o o l s w i t h h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , and t o employ few o r no c o n s u l t a n t s . The e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d e a r I i e r d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s and s u p p o r t s t a f f . D i v e r s i t y o f s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s does not a t p r e s e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e whole p r o v i n c e : most new s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s u t i l i z e t e a c h e r a i d e s i n some form, and a r e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a a c c u m u l a t e d by t h e M a n i t o b a T e a c h e r s ' S o c i e t y (1972) shows t h a t l a r g e r d i v i s i o n s u t i I i zed a d i ' s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f a i d e s . (See T a b l e 4 2 K The second main o b j e c t i v e i s a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y . T h i s i s viewed as a n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t f o r a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e . To meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e , p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s must p r o v i d e f o r a c o n t i n u i n g f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g needs and s e r v i c e s , e m p h a s i z i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e s e , t o - 103 -g u i d e l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y i s seen as r e q u i r i n g t h a t s e r v i c e s be p r o v i d e d i n more f l e x i b l e ways t h a n u s u a l , so t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s can r a p i d l y a d a p t t o r e d u c e t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i n f o r m a t i o n system. T h i s would r e q u i r e . t h e a b i l i t y t o add o r d e l e t e programs and s e r v i c e s ; i n e d u c a t i o n , t h e l a t t e r i s o f c o u r s e f a r t h e more d i f f i c u l t . TABLE 42 DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER AIDES IN MANITOBA'S UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS, 1971-1972*  No. o f % o f No. o f % o f No. o f % o f S t u d e n t s T o t a I T e a c h e r s T o t a ! A i des T o t a I L arge D i v s . 9 125,817 54.60% 6,134 -54.32% 906 65.53% (6,000+) Small. D i v s . 37 104,61! 45.40% 5,158 4-5.68% 520 36.47% (0-6,000) :  PROV. TOTALS 46 230,428 100.00% 11,292 100.00% 1,426 100.00%. *The Ma n i t o b a T e a c h e r s ' S o c i e t y d a t a i n c l u d e d a l l p u b l i c l y c o n t r o l l e d s c h o o l s . Hence t o t a l s d i f f e r from t h o s e c i t e d e l s e w h e r e . The d a t a on t h e number of s t u d e n t s and t h e number o f t e a c h e r s comes from t h e M a n i t o b a A s s o c i a t i o n o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s 1972 membership r e c o r d s . To summarize t h e o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d h e r e , w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o g u i d e t h e p r o p o s a l f o r change i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h f o l l o w s : t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e r e q u i r e s s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i z a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i z a t i o n must seem a p r o b a b l e outcome of t h e proposed p o l i c y , i f t h e p o l i c y i s t o be a c c e p t a b l e . Second, t h e p r o p o s e d p o l i c y must p r o v i d e f o r both an i n f o r m a t i o n system y i e l d i n g a c o n t i n u i n g f l o w o f d a t a on needs, s e r v i c e s , and d i s c r e p a n c i e s between them, and f l e x i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o a l l o w r a p i d r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i d e n t i f i e d . These o b j e c t i v e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 43. TABLE 43 PROPOSED POLICY OBJECTIVES IN THE PROVISION OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IN UNITARY SCHOOL DIVISIONS IN MANITOBA O b j e c t j yes A. R e s o u r c e EquaI i z a t i o n 2. COMPONENTS P e r s o n n e l i . H i g h l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , i i . R e f e r r a l and c o n s u l t a t i v e p e r s o n n e l . P r ograms* V o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s . V o c a t i o n a l programs. B u s i n e s s c o u r s e s , v. S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . L i b r a r y M a t e r i a l s Books P e r i od i c a I s I I I. A/V m a t e r i a Is STANDARDS PROPOSED D i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i t y , such t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s a c c e s s t o q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , i n s t r u c t i o n a l o r r e f e r r a l , i s n ot d e t e r m i n e d by s c h o o l d i v i s i o n , D i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s t o a v a r i e t y o f programs. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l equa! i t y o f a c c e s s t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . B. A d a p t i v e C a p a c i t y I, I n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m 2. F l e x i b l e s e r v i c e p r o v i s i on A b i a n n u a l assessment o f s t u d e n t needs w i t h r e g a r d t o b a s i c and o p t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs, t o g e t h e r w i t h a s u r v e y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s w h i c h emphasize ready e x p a n s i o n o r c o n t r a c t i o n o f programs, v i a m u l t i - u s e f a c i l i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s , and s h o r t - t e r m c o n t r a c t s w i t h s t a f f . *These a r e p r o v i n c i a l l y a u t h o r i z e d programs not p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on an eq u a l b a s i s t o a l l s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . - 105 -B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y p r o p o s a l two i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s s h o u l d be made: f i r s t , t h e c o n s t r a i n t o f l o c a l autonomy e n s u r e s t h a t no c e r t a i n t y e x i s t s t h a t t h e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l made here w i l l b r i n g about a change i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s . As w i t h t h e f i n a n c e p r o p o s a l s , i t s e f f e c t w i l l m e r e l y be t o r a i s e t h e power of l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o change s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s i f t h e y choose t o do s o . S e c o n d l y , u n i f o r m i t y o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d not be a n t i c i p a t e d . The e q u a l i z a t i o n o f d i v i s i o n s ' power t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l d i v i s i o n s p r o v i d e t h e same s e r v i c e s . The c h o i c e o f what s e r v i c e s t o p r o v i d e remains l o c a l , and d i v e r s i t y i s t o be e x p e c t e d , as a consequence. A G e n e r a l P o l i c y P r o p o s a l f o r Improving t h e P r o v i s i o n o f S e r v i c e s i n SmaII D i v i s i o n s One i m p o r t a n t t r e n d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n both i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada i s t h e r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s i n o p e r a t i o n , combined w i t h heavy i n c r e a s e s i n s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t s , r e s u l t i n g i n l a r g e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e number o f s c h o o l systems has been reduced from 95,000 in 1948 t o l e s s than 18,000 i n 1970 ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , 1971 a: p. 105). In Canada, s i m i l a r t r e n d s have o c c u r r e d ( C o l l i n s , I 9 6 i ) . But i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r i m p r o v i n g s e r v i c e s i n s m a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s has not been amalgamation o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n but r e g i o n a I i z a t i o n . The main d e v i c e i s some form of t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t o f s c h o o l a d m i n s t r a t i o n . T w e n t y - s i x o f t h e s t a t e s had such u n i t s in o p e r a t i o n i n 1970 ( C a m p b e l l , e t a I . , 1970: p. 116). I n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t s , when s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i n g d e t a i l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , t u r n o u t t o be q u i t e v a r i e d i n n a t u r e . A r e v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f i n t e r m e d i a t e - 106 -un i t s t h e - U n i t e d S t a t e s by Campbell et a l , (1970: p, 120) g i v e s r i s e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s There has been a gr o w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of e d u c a t i o n as a' s t a t e f u n c t i o n and the. need f o r a w o r k a b l e number or i n t e r m e d i a t e -o f f i c e s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m m u nication between t h e s t a t e and a g r e a t number of l o c a i s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . In t h e e a r l y s t a g e s t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t was seen e s s e n t i a l l y as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e arm of t h e S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n . Over t h e y e a r s , t h e r e has been e v e n t u a l t r a n s f e r o f t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e o f f i c e from a l a y board t o p r o f e s s i o n a l o r s e m i - p r o f e s s ' i o n a i o f f i c e r s , P r o g r e s s towards making t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e o f f i c e more t h a n a p e r f u n c t o r y one has been s l o w , f o r p e o p l e r e s i s t e d any en-croachment upon t h e i r e x e r c i s e o f c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n a t the l o c a i d i s t r i c t i e v e i . In r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t has come t o be viewed by many p e o p l e as an agency t o p r o v i d e t o s m a l l i o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s e r v i c e s which t h e y c a n n o t o r d i n a r i l y p r o v i d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The f i n a I ' s t a t e m e n t here i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r t h i s s t u d y . C o l o r a d o p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s t r e n d , The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and development of c o o p e r a t i v e s i n C o l o r a d o under t h e Boards of C o o p e r a t i v e S e r v i c e s A c t of 1965 c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e p h a s i n g o u t of t h e o f f i c e of t h e c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s . A t t h e i966 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n t h i r t y - f i v e c o u n t i e s v o t e d t o a b o l i s h t h e o f f i c e , . (See Appendix E.) S i n c e t h e A c t o f 1965 was p a s s e d , e l e v e n c o o p e r a t i v e boards have been o r g a n i z e d . The c o u n t y o f f i c e has s e r v e d as t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t so common t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l development of e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n many s t a t e s . The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n C o l o r a d o and t h e r e s u l t a n t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number of d i s t r i c t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e development o f t h e C o l o r a d o Department of E d u c a t i o n and t h e e x p a n s i o n o t i t s s e r v i c e s , have p r a c t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e d t h e need f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t In t h i s s t a t e . A l -though a Board of C o o p e r a t i v e S e r v i c e s was not d e s i g n e d as a s p e c i f i c r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e o f f i c e ot c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i t may, i n a d d i t i o n t o f u l f i l l i n g a need f o r expanded s e r v i c e s on t h e l o c a l l e v e l , become an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t l i a i s o n between t h e l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and t h e C o l o r a d o Department o f E d u c a t i o n , i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t , b e f o r e t o o l o n g , e v e r y d i s t r i c t w i l l be a component of seme Board of C o o p e r a t i v e S e r v i c e s . ( C o l o r a d o Department of E d u c a t i o n , i 967: p. 8) C u r r e n t l y , t h e n , t h e emphasis i n t h e r e g i o n a l u n i t i s on c o o p e r a t i v e s e r v i c e s , - 107 -and t h i s emphasis has l e d t o a good d e a l o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . ( F i t z w a t e r , 1967, g i v e s a t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f t r e n d s i n development o f s t a t e s c h o o l s y s t e m s ) . T a b l e 44 which f o l l o w s g i v e s some i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f e q u a l i z a t i o n and a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s u g g e s t t h a t a model e m p h a s i z i n g s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n t o a s s i s t in t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and s h o r t - t e r m c o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s t o eBBure a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y would be most a p p r o p r i a t e . - A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e c o n s t r a i n t o f l o c a l autonomy, r e q u i r i n g any form of r e g i o n a l agency t o be r e s p o n s i b l e t o l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i s a v i t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Because t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seem g e n e r a l l y t o meet t h e s e r e q u i r e -ments, t h r e e s t a t e s y s t e m s , New Y o r k , W i s c o n s i n , and C o l o r a d o , a r e examined i n d e t a i l . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l l ead t o a s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f such a g e n c i e s f o r M a n i t o b a . The Boards o f C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s o f New Y o r k S t a t e i n g e n e r a l have t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1 . They a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w hich can be p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r and/or more e c o n o m i c a l l y t o g e t h e r than by a s i n g l e d i s t r i c t a l o n e . 2. Members of Beards a r e chosen a t an annual m e e t i n g o f s c h o o l board members of component s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , and s e r v e f o r a f i v e y e a r term. 3. Any d i s t r i c t w i t h a p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n o f l e s s t h a n 125,000 may become a component of a r e g i o n s e r v e d by a Board. 4. S e r v i c e s can be r e c e i v e d from Boards on two base s : f i r s t , a d i s t r i c t may c o n t r a c t f o r s e r v i c e s ; s e c o n d , a component d i s t r i c t may r e c e i v e w i t h o u t c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n approved s e r v i c e s from t h e B o a r d . 5. The c o s t s o f t h e Boards a r e p a i d i n p a r t by s t a t e a i d , and i n p a r t p r o r a t e d amongst a l l component d i s t r i c t s , e x c e p t t h a t t h e c o s t s o f s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s a r e p r o r a t e d amongst t h e d i s t r i c t s r e q u e s t i n g and r e c e i v i n g t h a t s e r v i c e . TABLE 44 S t a t e Mich., i owa Neb. On Wi s c . i NTERMED i ATE UNITS IN SCHOOL ADMiNiSTRATiON IN SOME AMERICAN STAlES Date o f !ncept i o n • i 962 1965 i 965 964 T i t i e o f U n i t s I nterrried i a t e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . R e g i o n a l Educa-t i o n a l S e r v i c e Agenc i e s . E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e U n i t s . ! ntermed i a t e E d u c a t i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . C o o p e r a t i ve Educ a t i onaI S e r v i c e . A g e n c i e s . C o n t r o I E l e c t e d by l o c a l b o a r d s . R e l a t i o n s h i p t o Loc a i D i s t r i c t s S e r v i c e - o r i ented E l e c t e d a t i a r g e and c o u n t y r e p r e s e n t a t i ve. E l e c t e d by i o c a l Serv ice-^or I e n t e d . b o a r d s . Fund i ng Tax levy & bond i s s u e . E l e c t e d a t l a r g e . S e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d . Tax l e v y . S e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d . Tax l e v y . E l e c t e d a t l a r g e . S e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d . Tax le v y . C o n t r a c t s w i t h l o c a l b oards and s t a t e g r a n t s . o co L o I o . Pa. 1965 971 Boards o f C o o p e r a t i ve Serv i c e s . I ntermed i a t e Un i t s . A p p o i n t e d by i o c a l boards, E l e c t e d from i o c a l board members. S e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d . C o n t r a c t s w i t h l o c a l Serv i c e - o r i e n t e d , b o a r d s . S t a t e and l o c a l d i s t r i c t g r a n t s . ( c o n t I n u e d ) Date o f S t a t e I n c e p t i on Texas 1965 Wash. 1965 T i t l e o f U n i t s R e g i o n a l Educa-t i o n a l S e r v i c e C e n t e r s . Intermed i a t e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s . C o n t r o I E I e c t e d at- I a r g e E l e c t e d a t l a r g e R e l a t i o n s h i p t o Loc a l D i s t r i c t s Admi n i s t r a t i on coor d i n a t ion o r i e n t e d . Superv i s i on-o r i e n t e d . Fund Ing S t a t e and l o c a l d i s t r i c t g r a n t s . County, s t a t e and f e d e r a l f u n d s . 1948 B o a r ds of C o o p e r a t i ve Educa t : o n S e r v i c e s . E l e c t e d from l o c a l board members. Admi n i s t r a t i o n -c o o r d i n a t i o n o r i e n t e d . S t a t e and l o c a l d i s t r i c t g r a n t s and ' c o n t r a c t s . N.J. 1969 M a j o r S t a t e S t a t e Department. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - S t a t e , f e d e r a l Department c o o r d i n a t i o n and p r i v a t e r o l e s . o r i e n t e d . g r a n t s . ( C a m p b e l l , 1970; N a t i o n a l S c h o o l P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971; S t a t e o f W i s c o n s i n , Department of P u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n , 1971; De La F l e u r , 1961; C o l o r a d o Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1967) — 110 — 6. P e r s o n n e l a p p o i n t m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y , • a r e made by t h e B o a r d , and on c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . 7. The s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e Boards a t p r e s e n t , and t h e annual v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e s e , a r e d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 45. An e a r l y a n a l y s i s o f Boards of C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s in New Y o r k S t a t e , c a r r i e d o u t by t h e New Y o r k S t a t e S c h o o l B o a rds A s s o c i a t i o n , a r r i v e s a t some i n t e r i m c o n c l u s i o n s which can be t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e d a t a g i ven i n Tab Ie 45: a. The prime m o t i v a t i o n o f a i l Boards o f C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s and t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r f u n c t i o n s has been s e r v i c e t o component d i s t r i c t s . b. E x p a n s i o n o f program o f f e r i n g s t h r o u g h t h e use of s h a r e d t e a c h e r s has been p a r t i c u l a r l y n oted i n r u r a l a r e a s o f New.York S t a t e . E d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h t h e c o o p e r a t i v e use o f n o n - c l a s s r o o m p r o f e s s i o n a l s have had t h e i r g r e a t e s t e x p a n s i o n i n more d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . c. The use o f s h a r e d t e a c h e r s changes i n c h a r a c t e r as e n r o l l m e n t s o f component d i s t r i c t s i n c r e a s e . d. There appears t o be an i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e need f o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of l o c a l s t a f f members. e. In s p i t e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e s in r e a c t i o n s t o t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n , one f a c t s t a n d s o u t c l e a r l y above a l l : t h e g r e a t e s t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t t o d a t e , and t h e s t i l l g r e a t e r hope f o r s h a r e d s e r v i c e s boards i s t o w a r d s t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e g o a l o f equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , t h a t i s , t h e maximum development of t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f each and e v e r y c h i l d . (De La F l e u r , 1961: pp. 11-15) In 1961, 78 s h a r e d s e r v i c e s boards p r o v i d e d s e r v i c e s t o 68% o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e s t a t e . These s e r v i c e s were o f t h r e e k i n d s : i t i n e r a n t -t e a c h e r s , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs and t e a c h e r s , and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n programs and t e a c h e r s . By 1971, t h e r e were 48 b o a r d s , p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o v i r t u a l l y e v e r y n o n - c i t y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h e s t a t e . These s e r v i c e s were, TABLE 45 VARIATIONS IN QUANTITIES OF VARIOUS SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE 53 B.O.C.E.S. IN NEW YORK STATE, 1968-1971 i 968-I 969 1969- 1970 1970- 197! I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r S e r v i c e s Adm i n . & Management Ser v i c e s P u p i l P e r s o n n e I S e r v i c e s Spec ia1 Educat ion Occup. E d u c a t i o n M i s c . r i T i , C o n s u I t a n t Ch i I d a d j ustment Menta1Iy Occupa- M i see I 1an-Dr i v e r s e r v i c e s , o r g u i d a n c e hand i capped, t i o n a 1 eous s e r v i c e s e d u c a t i o n , Coord i na- c e n t e r s , Phys i c a i I y e d u c a t i o n , F o r e 1gn t o r s and De n t a l h y g i e n e . hand i c a p p e d , Adu1t o c c u -I anguage, s u p e r v i s o r s , Gu i dance Emot iona11y p a t i o n a i I n d u s t r i a 1 Commun i c a - d i r e c t o r - o r d i s t u r b e d , e d u c a t i on. a r t s , t i ons counse1 o r , Speech and L i b r a r i a n, c e n t e r s , Nurse t e a c h e r hear ing M u s i c , Data o r a t t e n d a n t , c o r r e c t i o n , Phys i ca1 P r o c e s s i ng, Psy c h o 1og ica1 G i f t e d and e d u c a t i o n , L i b r a r y psych i a t r i c e n r i c h m e n t . Read i n g . p r o c e s s i n g . ' s e r v i c e s , Soc i a 1 w o r k e r . UN I TREACHER UN i T=PR0GRAM UN 1T=TEACHER UN i TREACHER UN 1T=STUDENT UN 1T=TEACHER 478.4 391 . I 47! .4 231 .6 287.7 243.7 469.3 377.3 380.2 1688.4 1665.4 1832.5 I I 14.9 1443.4 1623.4 48.4 33.7 10! .0 (Burea u o f School D i s t r i c t O r g a n i z a t i o n , S t a t e E d u c a t i o n Department, 1971) - 1 1 2 -as has a l r e a d y been shown, much more d i v e r s e i n n a t u r e . S i n c e membership i n a b o a r d , as a component d i s t r i c t , i s by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t board r e s o l u t i o n , t h i s g rowth i n d i s t r i c t s s e r v e d i s a r e a s o n a b l e i n d i c a t o r of t h e r e c e p t i o n of t h e Boards of C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s by s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , and t h e e v a l -u a t i o n by t h e s e d i s t r i c t s o f t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , In a d d i t i o n , t h e growth i n t h e range o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , s i n c e i t t o o i s a t t h e d e c i s i o n o f component d i s t r i c t s , a l s o r e p r e s e n t s an e v a l u a t i o n of t h e a b i l i t y of t h e Boards of C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l s e r v i c e s . The c o n t r a s t between 1961 and 1971 t h e n r e v e a l s a v e r y p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e work of t h e Boards of C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s by t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n New Y o r k S t a t e . W i s c o n s i n ' s C o o p e r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e A g e n c i e s c o n s i s t o f 19 r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s , p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o a l l l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e s t a t e . They have t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. They a r e " d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e e d u c a t i o n a l needs i n a l l a r e a s o f W i s c o n s i n and as a c o n v e n i e n c e f o r . s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n c o o p e r -a t i v e l y p r o v i d i n g t o t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , s c h o o l b o a r d s , admin-i s t r a t o r s and o t h e r s , s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g , w i t h o u t l i m i t a t i o n , because o f r e n u m e r a t i o n , s u c h programs as r e s e a r c h , s p e c i a l s t u d e n t c l a s s e s , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , p r o c e s s i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i o n , i n - s e r v i c e programs, and l i a i s o n between t h e s t a t e and l o c a l d i s t r i c t . " 2. The Boards of C o n t r o l a r e chosen a t an annual m e e t i n g of s c h o o l board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . 3. The Board o f C o n t r o l must a p p o i n t an agency c o o r d i n a t o r , who has p u r e l y c o o r d i n a t i n g and c o o p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . 4. S e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f l o c a l d i s t r i c t s , and on a c o n t r a c t u a l b a s i s . 5. The a g e n c i e s r e c e i v e an annual s t a t e g r a n t f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expense. 6. The s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e a g e n c i e s , and t h e i r g r o w t h , i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e accompanying t a b l e . -113-TABLE 46 SERVICES PROVIDED BY Wi 1 SCONS i N'S ( : E S A , 1965-197 1 _[969 : :70 1970-71 i 96:5-66 1966-67 1967-6 ui 1968-69 Shared P e r s o n n e l ( D i s t s . ) 102 237 366 385 465 503 Shared S e r v i c e Programs 33 38 68 64 71 94 P a r t i c i p a t i n g D i s t r i c t s 31 1 412 418 409 412 449 T o t a l School D i s t r i c t s 562 513 490 465 456 454 (Department o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , S t a t e o f W i s c o n s i n , 1971: p. 12) In C o l o r a d o , t h e r e d u c t i o n ' o f t h e number o f d i s t r i c t s from 2,000+ i n 1935 t o 18! i n 1967 has s t i l l not e n s u r e d the c a p a c i t y t o p t o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s a t r e a s o n a b l e c o s t , and t h e b a s i c p u r p o s e o f t h e Boards o f Cooper-a t i v e S e r v i c e s i s t o p r o v i d e both an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n and development of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s and a s a f e g u a r d f o r l o c a l b oard autonomy. ( C o l o r a d o Department o f E d u c a t i o n , 1967: p. I) These boards a r e c l e a r l y n o t arms of t h e s t a t e department of e d u c a t i o n , and C o l o r a d o i s c o n s i d e r e d not t o have a t h r e e - e c h e l o n system o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b u t a t w o - e c h e l o n s y s t e m , w i t h the Beards o f C o o p e r a t i v e S e r v i c e s b e i n g complementary t o t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t s . ' The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C o l o r a d o u n i t s can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. They a r e i n t e n d e d as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s by which d i s t r i c t b o a rds a r r a n g e f o r t h e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , which c a n n o t a d e q u a t e l y be p r o v i d e d by d i s t r i c t s i n d i v i d u a l l y . 2. The Board a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e agency i s e l e c t e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l b oards from amongst t h e i r - membership. 3. "The c o o p e r a t i v e board u n d e r t a k e s t o p r o v i d e o n l y t h o s e programs and s e r v i c e s which t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t s c a n n o t p r o v i d e f o r them-s e l v e s " . ( C o l o r a d o Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1967: p. 14) 4. The l o c a l d i s t r i c t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n s e r v i c e s a t t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n , and t h e c o s t s of a s e r v i c e a r e p r o r a t e d amongst t h o s e d i s t r i c t s r e c e i v i n g i t , on whatever b a s i s ( p u p i l s e n r o l l e d , f l a t f e e , - 1 1 4 -a s s e s s e c i v a l u e s , p u p i l s r e c e i v i n g t h e s e r v i c e ) seems a p p r o p r i a t e . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s o f t h e agency a r e p r o r a t e d amongst a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i s t r i c t s on a f e e o r per p u p i l b a s i s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , T a b l e 47, summarizes t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t h r e e systems d e s c r i b e d , and a g e n e r a l i z e d model p r e p a r e d by Stephens (1970) f o r t h e Midwest Work C o n f e r e n c e on E d u c a t i o n . Some o f t h e s e r v i c e s which have been p r o v i d e d by such a g e n c i e s i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s a r e as f o l l o w s : C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s 1, C o o r d i n a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n 2. C u r r i c u l u m s e r v i c e s a. R e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s b. C o n s u ! f a t i ve a c t i v i t i es Spec i a ! e d u c a t i o n programs f o r a. G i f t e d ch i I d r e n b. Menta!1y r e t a r d e d c. P h y s i c a l ! y h a n d i c a p p e d d. P a r t i a l l y s i g h t e d e. Speech t h e r a p y f . Hard of h e a r i n g g. Homebound • S p e c i a l Teachers a. A r t b. Mus i c c. Homemaki ng d. Gu i dance 5. Outdoor' e d u c a t i o n 6. Summer camping programs 7. I n s e r v i c e programs a. T e a c h e r s b. Board members and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c. S e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l (bus d r i v e r s , c l e r i c a l and c u s t o d i a l p e r s o n n e l , e t c , ) 8. Adu i t e d u c a t i o n ( s p e c i a l i z e d , a c a d e m ic, v o c a t i o n a l ) 9. V o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a. A g r i c u i f u r e b. S a l e s and s e r v i c e s c. T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g d. S k i Med l a b o r TABLE 47 COMPARISON OF SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF REGIONAL UNITS OF-SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION (ACTUAL ^-PROPOSED) Actua1 Range i n o r S e r v i ce S t u d . EnroI 1. P r o p o s e d P u r p o s e Contro1 1n i t i a t i o n Fund i ng i n R e g i o n A c t u a 1 , P r o v i d e s e r v i c e s Board e l e c t e d By component Combi n a t i o n o f No d a t a New Y o r k b e t t e r o r more by schoo1 l o c a l b o a r d , s t a t e and f o r ava i 1ab1e. economi c a 1 i y board. Members ap p r o v e d by some a d m i n i s t r a -c o o p e r a t i v e I y . o f component s t a t e , o r t i v e c o s t s and d i s t r i c t . c o n t r a c t e d a p p r o v e d s e r v i c e s f o r by any and c o n t r a c t . l o c a l b o a r d . A c t u a 1 , P r o v i d e c o - Board of By s c h o o l S t a t e g r a n t s and 19,808 t o W i s c o n s i n o p e r a t i v e l y Contro1 d i s t r i c t s c o n t r a c t s w i t h 221,033 e d u c a t i ona1 s e l e c t e d a t c o n t r a c t ! n g d i s t r ! c t s . s e r v i c e s t o co n v e n t i o n wi t h reg i ona1 t e a c h e r s , of s c h o o l agency f o r s t u d e n t s , board r e p r e - s h a r e d s e r v i c e s adm i n i s t r a t o r s , s e n t a t i ves and s c h o o l b o a r d s . i n r e g i o n . Actua1„ P r o v i d e c o - Board Loca 1 S e r v i c e c o s t s a r e S u g g e s t e d Co 1orado o p e r a t e ve I y e 1 e c t e d by d i s t r i c t s p r o r a t e d amongst m i n irnum e d u c a t iona1 p a r t i c i p a t i ng ch o o s e t h o s e t h o s e d i s t r i c t s 10,000 s e r v i c e s s c h o o l b oards s e r v i c e s r e c e i v i n g i t , w h i c h d i s t r i c t s from amongst t h e y w i s h admi n i s t r a t i ve c a n n o t a d e q u a t e - t h e i r member- t o p a r t i c i - c o s t s p r o r a t e d ly p r o v i d e sh i p. p a t e i n . amongst a i I p a r t i -i nd i v i dua1 1y. c i p a t i nq d i s t r i c t s . P r o p o s e d P r o v i s i o n o f Board o f D i r - By c o n s t i - Tax l e v y , s t a t e M i n i mum• Step h e n s programs and e c t o r s e l e c t e d t u e n t l o c a l g r a n t s , c o n t r a c t s 30,000 s e r v i c e s t o I from each o f s c h o o l d i s - w i t h d i s t r i c t s . l o c a l s c h o o l 7 d i r e c t o r d i s- t r i c t s , w i t h d i s t r i c t s . t r i c t s , 2 a t c o n t r a c t s l a r g e , i n t h e ap p r o v e d by r e g i o n s e r v e d . s t a t e e d u c a -f i o n a i agency. - 1 1 6 -10. R e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e 11. E d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o and TV I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s S e r v i c e s 12. A u d i o - v i s u a l c e n t e r a. Share equipment b. Share mater ia Is 13. P u b l i c a t i o n s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p r o d u c t i o n a. S u r v e y s and r e p o r t s b. B u l l e t i n s and handbooks 14. C u r r i c u l u m l a b o r a t o r y 15. L i b r a r y s e r v i c e s Pup i I S e r v i c e s 16. P u p i l p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e s a. A t t e n d a n c e b. G u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l i n g c. T e s t i n g 17. H e a l t h s e r v i c e s a. S c h o o l n u r s e s b. D o c t o r s , d e n t i s t s c. S o c i a l w o r k e r s d. P s y c h o l o g i s t s e. M e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s 18. S c h o o l lunch s e r v i c e s a. Area workshops f o r p e r s o n n e l b. C o o p e r a t i v e p u r c h a s i n g 19. P u p i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n b. Bus m a i n t e n a n c e c. I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r d r i v e r s 20. C o o p e r a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n programs A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e s 21. C e n t r a l i z e d b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s a. A c c o u n t i n g b. A u d i t i n g c. R e p o r t i n g d. C o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s 22. C o o p e r a t i v e p u r c h a s i n g a. I n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p p l i e s b. i n s t r u c t i o n a l equipment 23. Data p r o c e s s i n g s e r v i c e s - 1 1 7 -2.4, S c h o o l p l a n t s e r v i c e s a. M a i n t e n a n c e b. Bu i !d i ng c l i n i c s c. A r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s 25. P r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e s a. Teacher r e c r u i t m e n t b. T e a c h e r Replacement c. S u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r pool d. C o o r d i n a t i o n of t e a c h e r b e n e f i t s e. C r e d i t u n i o n s e r v i c e s 26. Legal s e r v i c e s 27. F e d e r a l and s p e c i a l programs ( C o l o r a d o Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1967: pp. iO-12) T h i s r e v i e w of t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s i n e d u c a t i o n i n some Am e r i c a n s t a t e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e a g e n c i e s have been e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s , a t r e a s o n a b l e c o s t s , t o s t u d e n t s i n s m a l l s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . Two g e n e r a l c l a s s e s of s e r v i c e s m i g h t be p r o v i d e d by s u c h a g e n c i e s i n M a n i t o b a : d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e ; and s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s t o s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e u n i t c o s t s of such s e r v i c e s , which a r e h i g h e r i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s (see p. 4 5 ) , perhaps because o f d i s e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e . Such a g e n c i e s m i g h t w e l l c o n t r i b u t e t o r e s o u r c e and s e r v i c e e q u a l i z a t i o n t h e n . The a g e n c i e s , g i v e n c a r e f u l s t r u c t u r i n g , need not i n f r i n g e s u b s t a n t i a l l y on l o c a l autonomy, as i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e C o l o r a d o model. F u r t h e r , t h e y would p r o v i d e a i o g i c a l agency f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and s u p p l y t o improve d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , as p r o p o s e d on page 64, and t h i s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o f l e x i b i l i t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The r e g i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s which a r e p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g , a p p a r e n t l y e f f e c t i v e l y , i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s m i g h t w e l l p r o v i d e a u s e f u l model w h i c h c o u l d a t l e a s t be w o r t h t e s t i n g i n M a n i t o b a . A r e a s o n a b l e p r o b a b i l i t y seems t o e x i s t That such a g e n c i e s i n M a n i t o b a c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o e q u a l i z a t i o n and a c i p a t i v e c a p a c i t y o b j e c t i v e s , w i t h o u t - 1 1 8 -i n f r i n g i n g on i o c a I•autonomy. Many of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e t h r e e s t a t e systems d e s c r i b e d here seem d e s i r a b l e f o r M a n i t o b a . In t h e d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l w h i c h f o l l o w s , t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a system which seems a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p r o v i nee . R e g i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , i t i s p r o p o s e d , s h o u l d : 1. Be c r e a t e d by s t a t u t e , w i t h t h e purpose o f p r o v i d i n g t h o s e s e r v i c e s t o s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s in c o n t i g u o u s s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s and d i s t r i c t s i n a r e g i o n , which can be b e t t e r o r more e c o n o m i c a l l y p r o v i d e d c o o p e r a t i v e l y t h a n autonomously. 2. Be c o n t r o l l e d by r e g i o n a l boards c o n s i s t i n g o f one t r u s t e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t i n t h e r e g i o n , s e r v i n g a . t h r e e - y e a r term. A c h a i r m a n s h o u l d be e l e c t e d by t h e b o a r d , and d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be by m a j o r i t y v o t e . 3. Be funded by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s t o meet o p e r a t i n g e x penses and c o n t r a c t s w i t h d i v i s i o n s and d i s t r i c t s t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s . In g e n e r a l , t h e c o s t s o f c o n t r a c t e d s e r v i c e s , i f p r o v i d e d t o more th a n one d i v i s i o n , w i l l be p r o r a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s e r v e d . 4. Be made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c c u m u l a t i n g d a t a on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t and needs, l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n , and s c h o o l d i v i s i o n f i n a n c e , and p r o v i d i n g i t t o t h e s c h o o l boards of t h e r e g i o n , and t o p r o v i n c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . 5. A p p o i n t a c o o r d i n a t o r , and whatever o t h e r s t a f f m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e c o n t r a c t e d s e r v i c e s . 6. R e c e i v e r e q u e s t s f o r s e r v i c e s from t h e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s ; however, t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e s w i l l r e q u i r e t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e r e g i o n a l b o a r d , and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a v a l i d c o n t r a c t between t h e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t o r u n i t s and t h e r e g i o n a l b oard. 7. Have t h e power t o t h e m s e l v e s c o o p e r a t e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f some s e r v i c e s t o two o r more r e g i o n s . 8. P r o v i d e f o r an a d v i s o r y committee c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r from each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t i n t h e r e g i o n , t o d e v e l o p p r o p o s a l s f o r s h a r e d s e r v i c e s and e n s u r e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e -n e ss and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e agency. The r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d here can be - 1 1 9 -d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y , i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t more t h a n p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e i s i n v o l v e d . The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g such a g e n c i e s by s t a t u t e r e s t s on two main r e q u i r e m e n t s : f i r s t , s i n c e p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g i s e n v i s a g e d , s t a t u -t o r y c r e a t i o n seems d e s i r a b l e ; s e c o n d , s i n c e t h e s e a g e n c i e s w i l l e n t e r i n t o c o n t r a c t u a l agreements w i t h l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s , s t a t u t o r y c r e a t i o n becomes a l m o s t e s s e n t i a l . The r e a s o n f o r s u g g e s t i n g c o n t r o l by r e g i o n a l b o a r d s o f t r u s t e e r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s i s somewhat more complex. In e s s e n c e , what i s so u g h t i s t h e main-t e n a n c e o f good c o m m u n i c a t i o n s v i a t h e " l i n k i n g p i n " n o t i o n o f j o i n t member-s h i p , which i s s t a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n L i k e r t ( 1 9 6 1 ) . As d e s c r i b e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Commission on t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e U n i t (which p r o v i d e s a good though e a r l y s t a t e m e n t o f t h e c a s e f o r such u n i t s ) : " c o o r d i n a t i o n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t and l o c a l d i s t r i c t e f f o r t s i s g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d when members of t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t board have e x p e r i e n c e as members o f a l o c a l d i s t r i c t b o a r d " (1955: p. 8). A second i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e v i c e i s t o p r e v e n t t h e development o f a t h i r d l e v e l o f p o l i c y - m a k i n g body i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n : s i n c e t h e r e g i o n a l board w i l l c o n s i s t o f r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s o f l o c a l b o a r d s , t h e p o l i c i e s d e v e l o p e d w i l l i n e f f e c t be. e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e p o l i c i e s o f l o c a l b o a r d s . A t h i r d r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e v i c e i s t o e n s u r e t h a t r e g i o n a l b oards do not i n f r i n g e on l o c a l c o n t r o l more t h a n i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s . In t h e development and e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t s , " t h e c r u c i a l i s s u e may w e l l be whether t h e agency i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e o r r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l agency o r t o t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t s l o c a t e d w i t h i n i t s g e o g r a p h i c a r e a " ( N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e P r o j e c t , I97!a: p. 108), - 120 -. An i n t e r e s t i n g example of r e g i o n a l ' e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n Canada i s t h e system of C o l l e g e C o u n c i l s o p e r a t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . These c o u n c i l s a r e c h a r g e d , by l e g i s l a t i o n , w i t h o p e r a t i n g j u n i o r o r r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e s i n r e g i o n s of t h e p r o v i n c e , and t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e i r members a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l o c a l s c h o o l b o a r d s . The s c h o o l boards a l s o p r o v i d e o p e r a t i n g f u n d s , on a p r o r a t e d b a s i s . The s t a t e d i n t e n t o f t h e s e d e v i c e s was t o e n s u r e l o c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e c o l l e g e s , and t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of t h e c o l l e g e s t o l o c a l needs. The dual f u n c t i o n o f t h e t r u s t e e c l e a r l y r a i s e s d i f f i c u l t i e s , and t h e s e a r e d i s c u s s e d by a t r u s t e e who i s a l s o a c o l l e g e c o u n c i l member, as f o l l o w s : H i s f e l l o w t r u s t e e s must u n d e r s t a n d t h e dual r o l e which t h e y have committed him, i n terms o f i t s demands on l o y a l t y and d e d i c a t i o n . I n e v i t a b l y , d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o l l e g e a f f a i r s w i l l engender a p o i n t o f view not a l w a y s e a s i l y s h a r e d by t h o s e l e s s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t s c h o o l b oards a p p o i n t t o C o l l e g e Counci Is. peopIe who a r e a b l e and who have d e m o n s t r a t e d a p o s i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e g e s . I t i s j u s t as i m p o r t a n t t h a t board r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s r e c o g n i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a c t as a c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k between t h e i r board and t h e c o u n c i l . ( B e i n d e r , 1971: p. 8) The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s t o meet some c o s t s of t h e r e g i o n a l u n i t s has f o u r j u s t i f i c a t i o n s : f i r s t , some r e p o r t i n g f u n c t i o n s , i m p o r t a n t t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l and t o l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( s e e page 7 0 ) , w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y d e v o l v e o n t o t h e r e g i o n a l agency, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f computer f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t h e r e . The admin-i s t r a t i v e c o s t s of such r e p o r t i n g a r e q u i t e a p p r o p r i a t e l y borne by t h e p r o v i n c e , s i n c e t h e s e r v i c e i s n o t a l o c a l one. The i m p o r t a n c e o f d a t a -g a t h e r i n g , and i t s p r o v i s i o n t o l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s was emphasized i n C h a p t e r I I , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e . Second, p r o f e s s i o n a development o f t e a c h i n g s t a f f and s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t p r e s e n t p a r t i a l l y funded by t h e p r o v i n c e , m i ght a l s o be f o c u s e d on t h e s e a g e n c i e s . T h i r d , and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t , some i n c e n t i v e f o r e n c o u r a g i n g t h e development of t h e - 121 -a g e n c i e s i s d e s i r a b l e , i n o r d e r r a p i d l y t o e q u a l i z e a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The emphasis i n f u n d i n g w i l l c e r t a i n l y be on c o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h d i v i s i o n s , however. It i s e n v i s a g e d t h a t t h i s w i l l have t w o ' s u b s t a n t i a l a d v a n t a g e s : f i r s t , c o n t i n u i n g p r e s s u r e t o p r o v i d e good s e r v i c e s e c o n o m i c a l l y can be e x e r t e d on r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s by t h e i r s c h o o l d i v i s i o n c l i e n t s . - Thus t h e a g e n c i e s a r e e f f e c t i v e l y p e r f o r m a n c e - c o n t r a c t i n g . Second, d e c i s i o n s on whether o r not t o c o n t r a c t f o r s e r v i c e prov i s i on a r e v e r y l i k e l y t o be made on c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s b a s e s , and t h e a g e n c i e s w i i l be r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p and m a i n t a i n s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n s which t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e economies of s c a l e which seem p a r t i c u l a r l y important" i n s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , t h e a r e a i n w hich s m a l l d i v i s i o n s a r e a t p r e s e n t s p e n d i n g h e a v i l y . (see page 46.) T h i s method o f f u n d i n g t h e a g e n c i e s may w e l l r e d u c e per s t u d e n t c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g some s e r v i c e s , and hence improve r e t u r n s on d o l l a r s expended. The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s be made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n of d a t a i s based on t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e s p e l l e d o u t on p. 70 and such d a t a i s i m p o r t a n t t o both s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , t o a l l o w i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e m o n i t o r i n g of p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t o r m i g h t w e l l h o l d t h e o n l y permanent s t a f f a p p o i n t m e n t i n a r e g i o n a l c e n t e r . S i n c e o t h e r s t a f f wou'd be a p p o i n t e d t o p r o v i d e c o n t r a c t s e r v i c e s , t h e i r terms might w e l l e x p i r e w i t h t h e e x p i r a t i on o f t h e c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o r d i v i s i o n . The c o o r d i n a t o r however w i l l p r o v i d e a' c o n t i n u i n g l i n k and be r e s p o n s i b l e d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e g i o n a l board. U s e f u l c a n d i d a t e s f o r such p o s i t i o n s m i ght be found amongst ex i s t i ng d i v i s i o n a l s u p e r i n+endents who have had e x p e r i e n c e i n more t h a n one d i v i s i o n , o r p r o v i n c i a l i n s p e c t o r s . ~ 122 -The s i x t h p o i n t above r e g a r d i n g s e r v i c e i n i t i a t i o n i s a most i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e powers of t h e r e g i o n a l agency. F r e q u e n t l y , i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t s i n A m e r i c a n s t a t e s have l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s , t h a t i s t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o i d e n t i f y s e r v i c e s w h i c h can u s e f u l l y be o f f e r e d by t h e u n i t . Such i n i t i a t i v e s a r e not c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e f o r r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n M a n i t o b a , s i n c e t h e agency t h e n becomes e f f e c t i v e l y a t h i r d l e v e l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The h i s t o r y of c o u n t y u n i t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c e r t a i n l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e n o t i o n t h a t l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d by t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t ; however, t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e M a n i t o b a s i t u a t i o n and t h e h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s o f f e r s some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e s t r i c t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n t h e way s u g g e s t e d h e r e . The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s s h o u l d t h e m s e l v e s have the a b i l i t y t o c o o p e r a t e i s based on t h e r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e s i z e of p u p i l e n r o l l m e n t s i n r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s p r o p o s e d h e r e , and t h o s e e l s e w h e r e . F o r example, i n P e n n s y l v a n i a t h e range i n w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e d a i l y membership from t h e s m a l l e s t i n t e r m e d i a t e u n i t t c t h e l a r g e s t i s 28,329 t o 294,493 ( S t a t e B o a r d - o f E d u c a t i o n , Pa., 1967). The range i n e n r o l l m e n t p r o -posed i n M a n i t o b a i s 9,539 t o 79,498. (See p. 128). I t i s c e r t a i n l y t h e c a s e t h a t i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f , f o r example, d a t a p r o c e s s i n g s e r v i c e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h e r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s s u g g e s t e d here a r e p r o b a b l y i n d i v i d u a l l y t o o small.. A s t u d y made p r i o r t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e g i o n a l d a t a c e n t r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u g g e s t e d s u b s t a n t i a l economies o f s c a l e were a v a i l a b l e , and recommended development o f u n i t s s e r v i n g (00,000 s t u d e n t s (Howe & T o t h e r o h , 1969). The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e g i o n a l C e n t r e , t h e f i r s t i n Canada, became o p e r a t i o n a l i n 197 1 ( J e n s e n , 1971) s e r v i n g f i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w i t h a t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t of 44,610 i n 1970-71 ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1972), F i n a l l y , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e committee of s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s based on t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n T o r o n t o ' s t w o - t i e r e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s tem. The committee o f d i r e c t o r s , and a l s o ' c a r e f u l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Metro B o a r d , which i s made up of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e two most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e sys t e m ( M c C o r d i c , 1969). A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e importance, o f t h i s committee o f s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s seems t o f o l l o w q u i t e l o g i c a l l y from t h e g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e a g e n c i e s , w h i c h , as viewed here^ can be summarized as s u p p l e m e n t a r y , a r t IcuI a t Ive, and c o -o r d i n a t i v e . (Based on Rhodes, 1963: p. 5, b u t w i t h o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e r e v e r s e d . ) F o r such f u n c t i o n s t o be p e r f o r m e d , i t seems i n d i s p u t a b l e t h a t mandatory r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s o f s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e n e c e s s a r y . • .The r e g i o n s t o be s e r v e d by t h e s e a g e n c i e s might be composed as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , which i s based on t h e r e g i o n s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e by-l a w s o f t h e M a n i t o b a A s s o c i a t i o n of School T r u s t e e s (MAST, 1972). These r e g i o n s have t h e advantage o f f a m i l i a r i t y and a c c e p t a b i l i t y t o s c h o o l b o a r d s , and s i n c e t h e s e b o d i e s a r e key d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s i n t h e pro p o s e d s y s t e m , t h i s a dvantage seems i m p o r t a n t . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e W i n n i p e g S c h o o l D i v i s i o n has been o m i t t e d from t h e Suburban R e g i o n , s i n c e I t has an e n r o l l -ment l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f many o f t h e r e g i o n s , and hence can and a l r e a d y does p r o v i d e a l l t h e s e r v i c e s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y , w i t h o u t membership i n a r e g i o n -a l agency. On t h e b a s i s of t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s t a t e s p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , i t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e s e a g e n c i e s do p r o v i d e u s e f u l s e r v i c e s which a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y u t i l i z e d by l o c a l d i s t r i c t s . They do g e n e r a l l y have TABLE 48 UNiTARY DIVISIONS* COMPRISIN6- PROPOSED RESA REGIONS, WITH 1971-1972 ENROLLMENTS NOR THWESTERN REG I ON CENTRAL REG i ON SOUTH' CENTRAL REG I ON INTERLAKE . REGION SOUTHEASTERN REG 1 ON WESTERN REG i ON SUBURBAN REG I ON Di v No. , En ro i l -m e n t s * * D i v No, . Enro1 I -me n t s Di v No. . E n r o M -me n t s D i v . No. ""Enrol i -ments D i v . Enro11 No. ments 1- D i v No, . E n r o l I ments - D i v . No. Enro 1 ments 32 2163 20 1803 18 1 850 1 1 5255 14 4 136 31 2345 20544 33 3532 24 5253 19 2029' 13 4158 15 4608 37 241 5 3 4472 34 . i 997 23 2003 25 2334 21 3453 16 1552 58 2575 4 9217 35 3299 29 201 3 26 586 22 2670 17 2014 39 3532 6078 36 2807 30 2301 27 47 1413 1527 23 2608 40 41 42 43 44 8419 2981 I 630 1750 2569 6 8 9 10 12 7613 2916 13591 6907 8350 TOT ALS*** 5 13793 5 15378 6 9539 5 18145 4 1 23 i 0 9 28216 9 79498 in e number o f u n i t a r y d i v i s i o n s has i n c r e a s ed s i nee th e 1969-1970 schoo1 y e a r . EnroI 1 me n t s f o r 1971- 197 2 based on MAST membership r e p o r t s . S c h o o l d i n c r e a s i i s t r i c t s c o n t ng somewhat t i guous he t o t a t o t h e s e d i 1 s t u d e n t 6 v i s i :nro 1 ons s h o u l d a iment t o be i so be i nc! s e r v e d . 1 uded i n t h e r e g i o n s . t h u s - 125 -an e q u a l i z a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i m i l a r t o , t h e one proposed f o r M a n i t o b a . The p r o v i s i o n s , common t o s e v e r a l , t h a t s e r v i c e s be a t t h e r e q u e s t of t h e l o c a ! d i s t r i c t , and t h a t a g e n c i e s be c o n t r o l l e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l o c a l d i s t r i c t s , g e n e r a l l y s c h o o l board members, e n s u r e s t h e r e t e n t i o n o f l o c a ! autonomy. The c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n s o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d a r e e v i d e n c e of f l e x i b i l i t y . Thus such a g e n c i e s seem t o o f f e r a u s e f u l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e f o r i m p r o v i n g s e r v i c e s i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , which seem l i k e l y t o meet t h e p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . - 126 -CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY PROPOSALS The c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h a r e drawn from t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y have a l r e a d y been g i v e n i n some d e t a i l a t t h e end o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e s e c t i o n s . T h i s summary i s i n t e n d e d s i m p l y as a b r i e f r e s t a t e m e n t , p r e l i m i n a r y t o t h e s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s which f o l l o w s . E q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s i m p o r t a n t t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n Canada, and i n M a n i t o b a , because o f t h e e x t e n t t o which e d u c a t i o n i s a d e t e r m i n a n t o f s o c i a I p o s i t i o n and l i f e - t i m e e a r n i n g s . Because of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , e q ual o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i s a major element i n s o c i a l e q u i t y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s i m p o r t a n t t o s o c i e t y as a whole because o f t h e e x t e n t t o whi c h n a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t depends on t h e w e l l - e d u c a t e d p o p u l a c e . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s make i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a l l young p e o p l e have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c h i e v e a l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n commensurate w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and d e s i r e s . In t h i s s t u d y , e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s d e f i n e d as equal a c c e s s t o a range o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e i n M a n i t o b a . The f o c u s i s on p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s , and t h e i r e f f e c t s on t h e power o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l o c a l needs. The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , d e e p l y e n g r a i n e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e , i s assumed. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 10 e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s shows t h a t t h e s e a r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s , d e p e n d i n g on t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n o f r e s i d e n c e , and t h a t i n e v e r y s e r v i c e and r e s o u r c e a r e a f o r which c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a has been p u b l i s h e d , l a r g e , and g e n e r a l l y u r b a n , s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s a r e f a v o r e d o v e r s m a l l , and g e n e r a l l y r u r a l , s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s . - 127 -There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n a r e i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t i a l need, and t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e p a t t e r n of advantage and d i s a d v a n t a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s i s p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s y stem, and t o s i z e v a r i a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e s y s t e m o f s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e i s an outcome o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l ' s e r v i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s system a r e assumed t o be o f c o n c e r n t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y - m a k e r s , and t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e s t u d y p r o p o s e s a m e l i o r a -t i v e p o l i c i e s f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t - i s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t e q u a l i z a t i o n s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l s - of s e r v i c e i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c i n g s e r v i c e s in. b i g d i v i s i o n s . I f s e r v i c e l e v e l s a r e t o be r a i s e d , t o e q u a l i z e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s become i m p o r t a n t . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s and revenues of s c h o o l d i v i s o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t an a s s o c i a t i o n between e x p e n d i t u r e s , r e v e n u e s , and s e r v i c e l e v e l s e x i s t s . Large d i v i s i o n s spend more money, but p r i m a r i l y on i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y . Small d i v i s i o n s spend p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more on s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s . W i t h r e g a r d t o r e v e n u e s , t h e r e i s a l a r g e range i n r evenues between d i v i s i o n s , and a l a r g e r range i n l o c a l e f f o r t . In o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s , and g u i d e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s , two p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s a r e p r o p o s e d : e q u a l i z a t i o n , i n r e v e n u e s , e x p e n d i t u r e s , and s e r v i c e s ; and a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y , c o n s i s t i n g of a f l e x i b l e p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c e scheme, and a d a t a system t o a l l o w c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g of changes i n needs, s e r v i c e s , and f i n a n c e s . P o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by an i m p o r t a n t a s s u m p t i o n , t h a t l o c a l autonomy in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i l l c o n t i n u e . A r e v i e w of r e c e n t r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e way of i m p r o v i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n of smaI i s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , t o a l l o w them t o improve t h e p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , i s t h r o u g h t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l - 128 -r e s o u r c e s . A f i n a n c i a l f o r m u l a o f t h e " i n v e r s e a l l o c a t i o n " t y p e , i n which p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s a r e i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o s c h o o l d i v i s i o n w e a l t h , seems a p p r o p r i a t e . A d e t a i l e d f i n a n c e p r o p o s a l i s g i v e n , w i t h p r o b a b l e outcomeSjas an example o f what c o u l d be" a d o p t e d . The p r o b a b l e o u t p u t o f p o l i c i e s o f t h e t y p e p r o p o s e d would be s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n r e v e n u e s i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s , w i t h o u t ' i nf r i ngernent on l o c a l autonomy. These i n c r e a s e s would p r o v i d e l o c a i d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h t h e f i n a n c i a l power t o improve t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s . The scheme proposed would p r o v i d e v a i i d and r e l i a b l e c o m p a r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h t o base d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g s e r v i c e s . In e s s e n c e , t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y p r o p o s a l here would i n c r e a s e t h e power o f l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s in s m a l l d i v i s i o n s t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s , w i t h o u t d e t e r m i n i n g i n advance, a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , what t h e s e s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be, o r i n d e e d , whether improved s e r v i c e s were needed i n any p a r t i c u l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n . Data on t h e c o s t s o f s e r v i c e s i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s s u g g e s t t h e need f o r a second p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f i n a n c e p r o p o s a l , c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s . A s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e p roposed f o r f i n a n c e , i s s u g g e s t e d f o r s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . A system of r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s i s p r o p o s e d , which i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e c o o p e r -a t i v e s e r v i c e s , t o a l l o w s m a l l d i v i s i o n s t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s e c o n o m i c a l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y , and t h u s c o n t r i b u t e t o e q u a l i z a t i o n c f a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s by s t u d e n t s . L o c a l autonomy i s p r o t e c t e d by p r o v i d i n g f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e a g e n c i e s by l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . A d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l i s p r o v i d e d here a l s o . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s would s e r v e as d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n c e n t r e s f o r t h e p r o p o s e d d a t a s y s t e m , and hence would a s s i s t i n m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e q u a l i z a t i o n of a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s . Thus t h e y m i ght c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of e q u a l i z a t i o n and a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t y o b j e c t i v e s . S i n c e t h e p r o p o s a l p r o v i d e s f o r d i v i s i o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h e a g e n c i e s , t h e y need not i n f r i n g e on l o c a i autonomy. - 129 -The p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s can be r e s t a t e d b r i e f l y : f i r s t , a s u b s t a n t i a l change i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s f o r f i n a n c i n g s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s i s p r o p o s e d , i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e power o f s m a l l d i v i s i o n s t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s ; s e c o n d , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , t h e r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e agency, i s p r o p o s e d t o e n c ourage t h e c o o p e r a t i v e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s i n s m a l l d i v i s i o n s . A t h i r d p r o p o s a l , i n t e g r a l t o t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d , s u g g e s t s t h e need f o r a d a t a s ystem t o p r o v i d e c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a on needs, s e r v i c e l e v e l s , and f i n a n c e , t o p e r m i t t h e m o n i t o r i n g o f p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s e q u a l i t y o f a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s . Two f i n a l comments a r e e s s e n t i a l . The p r o p o s a l s a r e p r e d i c a t e d on one b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n : t h a t t h e l o c u s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n e d u c a t i o n w i l l n o t change. Throughout t h e d i s c u s s i o n , t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n o f l o c a l c o n t r o l has been assumed and t r e a t e d as a major c o n s t r a i n t on p r o p o s a l s f o r change i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . However, t h e p r o p o s a l s f o r change do seem t o - a l l o w f o r g r e a t e r e q u a I i t y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s , f o r s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , w i t h o u t . imposing i d e n t i t y o f s e r v i c e p r o v i s i o n . Thus t h e y do a l l o w l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o be r e s p o n s i v e t o l o c a l needs. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y p r o v i d e a t l e a s t some l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h a d d i t i o n a l power, i n t h e form o f i n c r e a s e s in t o t a l r e v e n u e s , w i t h which t o improve s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s , s h o u l d l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s choose t o do so. - .130 Bi BLIOGRAPHY Andrews. J . C . 1970 "The Id e o l o g y of L o c a l C o n t r o l . " i n C A . Bowers e t a l . ( e d s . ) , E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l P o l i c y : L o c a l C o n t r o l of E d u c a t i o n : 51-60. New Yor k : Random House. 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