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Opera, or the doing of women : the dramatic works of Ingeborg von Bronsart (1840-1913) Boyd, Melinda Jean 2002

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O P E R A , O R T H E D O I N G O F W O M E N : T H E D R A M A T I C W O R K S O F I N G E B O R G V O N B R O N S A R T (1840-1913) By M E L I N D A J E A N B O Y D M . A . , The University of British Columbia, 1996 B. Mus., The University of Manitoba, 1994 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y In T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S We accept this thesis as conforming T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A Apr i l 2002 © Melinda Jean Boyd, 2002 U B C Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n ot be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f /// (J^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Vancouver, Canada 1 of 1 4/11/2002 12:52 P M ABSTRACT In the early 1890s, Ingeborg von Bronsart (1840-1913) was hailed by the German musical press as the "first lady" of the German stage. Her first two extant dramatic works —Jery und Bately (Singspiel, 1873) and Hiarne (grosse Oper, 1891) — had captivated audiences and were met with enthusiasm from critics. By 1904, Arthur Elson noted that Bronsart was "one of the few really great women composers." Yet by the time her last opera, Die Siihne, premiered in 1909, the magic had faded. Critics rejected the work as unimaginative, while audiences stayed away. Bronsart and her works quickly disappeared from the repertoire and from history. Employing manuscript and contemporary published sources, Chapter One examines Bronsart's life and the rich artistic circles in which she lived and worked. Chapters Two, Three and Four are devoted to each of Bronsart's three extant operas. The individual works are considered with respect to their genesis as well as to more general matters of plot and dramatic structure. Because little is known about Bronsart's music, in order to obtain a better understanding of her style a substantial portion of my discussion concentrates on the musical analysis and dramatic interpretation of each opera. Focusing on the specific numbers and scenes that I consider to be of significant interest, I examine the vocal writing, harmonic language, formal structures, unity and continuity. The thesis concludes with an exploration of broader historiographical issues of reception, gender, genre and aesthetic value, laying the foundation for a renewed interest in this unique composer and her works. i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables iv List of Figures v Acknowledgement vii INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter One Composing a Life 6 Chapter Two Singspiel in the Age of Wagner: Jery und Bdte/y (1873) 29 Chapter Three Riding the Valkyrie: (En)Countering Wagner in Hiarne (1891) 102 Chapter Four The Tragic Case of Die Siihne (1909) 244 Chapter Five Gender, Genre, Value: Toward New Horizons of Expectations 320 Bibliography 335 Appendix 347 iii LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Settings of Jery undBately, compiled from Franz Stieger, Opernlexicon, Titelkatalog Bd. 1 (Tutzing, Hans Schneider 1975), pp. 644-45. 31 Table 3.1 List of instrumental music in Hiarne. 122 iv LIST O F F I G U R E S Figure 2.1 Advertisement for the score of Jery und Bdtely as is appeared in the Neue Zeitschriftfur Music Bd. 73:1 (June 1877): 232. 34 Figure 2.2 Title page of the Gesangtext (libretto) to Jery und Bdtely. 35 Figure 2.3 List of set numbers in Jery und Bdtely. 36 Figure 2.4 Outline of formal structure of Ouverture. 38 Figure 2.5 Jery undBately large scale tonal scheme. 44 Figure 2.6 Outline of Thomas's Lied " E i n Madchen und ein Glaschen Wein" (No. 5). 54 Figure 2.7 Outline of Bately, "Es rauschet das Wasser" (No. 3). 59 Figure 2.8 Outline of Jery, "Es rauschen die Wasser" (No. 3). 65 Figure 2.9 Outline of Heinrich Stiehl, Bately/Jery "Es rauschet das Wasser" (1868). 66 Figure 2.10 Outline of Georg Hartmann, Bately/Jery duet "Es rauschet das Wasser" (1902) 66 Figure 2.11 Outline of "Duet und Quartet" Section I (mm. 1-63). 76 Figure 2.12 Outline of "Duet und Quartet" Section II (mm. 64-115) 82 Figure 2.13 Outline of "Liebe, Liebe," from "Duet und Quartet," mm. 140-171. 87 Figure 3.1 Hiarne, autograph score, page 1. 104 Figure 3.2. Friedrich Bodenstedt, Neumuhler, to Hans von Bronsart, 8 August 1873. Goethe-und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar. 106 Figure 3.3 Friedrich Bodenstedt, Meiningen, to Hans von Bronsart, 6 February 1874. Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 107 Figure 3.4 Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to La Mara [pseud. Marie Lipsius, 5 May 1878. Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. I l l Figure 3.5 Title page of Hiarne MS. 119 Figure 3.6 Outline of "Schwedisches Volkslied" (Women's Chorus), Act I, scene 3. 128 v Figure 3.7 Outline of Hiarne, Act I, scene 6. 138 Figure 3.8 Outline of Hilda's aria, Act I, scene 6, mm. 1067-1096. 148 Figure 3.9 Outline of Hiarne's aria, Act I, Scene 6, mm. 1098-1152. 153 Figure 3.10 Outline of duet (Hilda and Hiarne), Act I, scene 6, mm. 1154-1199. 159 Figure 3.11 Comparison of Duet II (Act II, scene 7) and Duet I (Act I, scene 6). 166 Figure 3.12 Reproduction of title page from "Das Lied von der Gotterdammerung," Hiarne, Act I, scene 3. 173 Figure 3.13 Outline of Vorspiel, Hiarne. 196 Figure 3.14 Outline of Hiarne's "contest" song, Vorspiel, mm. 245-316. 211 Figure 3.15 Comparison of singing contest in Hiarne (Vorspiel) and Tannhamer (Act II, scene 4). 221 Figure 3.16 Tannhauser's commentaries and contest song, Tannhauser Act II, scene 4. 223 Figure 4.1 Excerpt from letter, Ingeborg von Bronsart, Munich, to Marie Lipsius, 8 December 1909. Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 248 Figure 4.2 Die Siihne: Summary of scenes. 250 Figure 4.3 Outline of Vorspiel to Die Siihne. 252 Figure 4.4 Outline of formal structure of Scene 7 (Klarchen and Conrad). 282 vi A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T This project would not have been possible without the guidance and encouragement of many people. I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Vera Micznik (Dissertation Supervisor), Dr . Richard Kurth and Dr. David Metzer for their expertise, criticisms, patience, and the spirit of cooperation and support lent to this project. My thanks also to Karen Scheider, Deutsches National Theater, Weimar, for access to the Hiarne manuscript, and the staff at the Goethe- und- Schiller Archiv, Weimar, for their kind assistance with Bronsart's letters. Funding for this project was provided in part by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and by the Tina and Morris Wagner Foundation Fellowship (UBC). Dedicated to Caitlin and Christine. vii Introduction In 1910, approaching her 70th birthday, Ingeborg von Bronsart (1840-1913) wrote to Marie Lipsius, her friend and biographer, expressing her gratitude for Lipsius's statement that she [Bronsart] was "the first and until now the only German woman dramatic composer," and that she was also "the first woman to have brought a large opera {Hiarne) to the stage."1 Lipsius, better known by her pen name La Mara, was not the only one to hold a high opinion of the composer. According to published reviews of Bronsart's first two extant operas —Jery und Bdtely (1873), and Hiarne (1891) — both audiences and critics greeted Bronsart and her works with enthusiastic praise. For example, Paul Simon, writing as the editor of the Neue ZeitschriftfurMusik in 1890-91, praised her as a "creative tone-poet of the innermost heart with temperament and artistic conviction," whose work was clearly influenced by the New German triumvirate of Liszt, Wagner and Berlioz.2 More substantially, Simon clearly stated that due to extensive studies, talent, perseverance and creative strength, women composers had collectively reached an "intellectual crossing" ("eine geistige Reise") that enabled them to generate "highly-important works" ("hochbedeutende Werke").3 Yet by the time Bronsart's third and final opera, Die Suhne, premiered in 1909, the magic had faded: Bronsart and her works soon fell into oblivion. 1 "Sehr dankbar wurde ich Ihnen wann Sie es annehmen wollen, daB ich die erste und bis jetzt die einige dramatisch Componistin Deutschlands bin und daB ich auch die erste Frau bin, von der eine grofie Oper (Hiarne) auf die Buhne gebracht worden ist." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Munich, to Marie Lipsius, Berlin, 25 April 1910. Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. Emphasis in the original. 2 "Ingeborg von Bronsart ist eine aus innerstem Herzen mit Temperament und kunstlerischer Ueberzeugung schaffende Tondichterin." Paul Simon, "Die erste Auffuhrung der Oper Hiarne von Frau Ingeborg von Bronsart im Koniglichen Opernhause zu Berlin," Neue Zeitschrift furMusik Bd. 87:1 (1891): 87. 3 "Aber auch vorzugleich auf dem Gebiete der darstellenden und bildenden Kiinste sehen wir Frauen, die durch ihre weitumfassenden Studien, ihr Talent, ihr energische Willens-und Schaffenskraft eine geistige Reise erlangt haben, um hochbedeutende Werke zeugen zu konnen." Paul Simon, "Hiarne: GroBe Oper von Ingeborg von Bronsart," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musikm. 86:2 (1890): 553. 1 Despite the inherent interest one might expect in the "first lady" of the German stage, today's scholars have not yet given Bronsart the attention she deserves. My own interest in Ingeborg von Bronsart was sparked when I attended a symposium on nineteenth-century women song composers, held at the University of Victoria in the fall of 1996. The majority of the scholarly papers read there focused on the works of Clara Schumann, Fanny Hensel, Josephine Lang and Alma Mahler, but at an evening concert presented as part of the symposium, Alexandra Browning performed several of Bronsart's lieder. I was surprised to learn later that Bronsart was successful and highly regarded as an opera composer — a field in which few women had endeavoured to try their hand — and I thus was thus determined to learn more about her. My interest in Bronsart as a woman composer is matched by a growing curiosity with regard to gender and representation in opera. Recently opera criticism has directed its attention to the role of women on the opera stage, with a particular emphasis on how women characters are treated within certain nineteenth-century plot archetypes. In her groundbreaking book, Opera, or the Undoing of Women, Catherine Clement demonstrated that these plot archetypes more often than not end with the "undoing" or death of women characters.4 Carolyn Abbate, on the other hand, has countered this evidence by proposing that the prominence accorded the female voice might be considered as a form of "empowerment" or "envoicing" that has the potential to subvert this kind of plot.5 An explosion of books and articles continues to broaden our understanding of gender in opera, but with only a few exceptions very little space has been devoted to any discussion of 4 Catherine Clement, Opera, or the Undoing of Women, translated by Betsy Wing, foreword by Susan McClary (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988). 5 Carolyn Abbate, "Opera; or the Envoicing of Women," Musicology and Difference: Gender and Sexuality in Music Scholarship, edited by Ruth A. Soke (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), pp. 225-258. 2 dramatic works by women composers/ What intrigues me with regard to gender issues in operas by women composers is the presence of a female compositional voice, and in the case of Bronsart, the question of what kind of voice a woman composer might have, coming from an operatic tradition of men like Lortzing, Marschner and Wagner. Hence the tide of my dissertation is not entirely facetious or tongue-in-cheek, but an unequivocal statement on what this project is about. Bronsart's life story has yet to have been told in full. Marie Lipsius's extensive biography and Elise Polko's "biographisches Skizzenblatt" (biographical sketch), both published in 1888, still leave a substantial gap in our knowledge.7 More recently, James Deaville has been working towards a full-length biography, but his work has not yet been published.8 In Chapter One, my own effort to draw a more complete portrait of Bronsart relies on the work of these three writers, supplemented by many of Bronsart's own letters, and scattered references about her found among the writings on more well-known figures such as Liszt, Wagner, and Bulow. 6 The absence of works by women composers in the discussion of gender in opera may be due to women composers' displacement from the current repertory and music history in general. Recent scholarship is beginning to recognize the important contributions that women have made as composers for the stage, including Karen Henson, "In the house of disillusion: Augusta Holmes and La Montagne noire" Cambridge Opera Journal 9:3 (1997): 233-262; Jann Pasler, "The ironies of gender, or, Virility and politics in the music of Augusta Holmes," Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture 2 (1998): 1-25; Jacqueline Letzter, "Making a spectacle of oneself: French Revolutionary opera by women," Cambridge Opera Journal 11:3 (1999): 215-232; Jacqueline Letzter and Robert Adelson, Women Writing Opera: Creativity and Controversy in the Age of the French Revolution (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001; and Laurel Parsons, "Elisabeth Lutyen's The Numbered'' (Ph.D. Diss., University of British Columbia, forthcoming). 7 La Mara [pseud, of Marie Lipsius], DieFrauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, Musikalische Studienkopf, Bd. 5 (Leipzig: Breikopf & Hartel, 1888), pp. 127-144; and Elise Polko, "Ingeborg von Bronsart: biographisches Skizzenblatt," Neue Musik-Zeitung 9 (1888): 142-143. 8 James Deaville is also the author of two informative dictionary articles, "Bronsart, Ingeborg [Lena] von," New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers, edited by Julie Ann Sadie and Rhian Samuel (London: MacMillan, 1994), pp. 88-89; and "Bronsart [nee Starck], Ingeborg (Lena) von," Groves Online (URL: http://www.grovemusic.com, accessed 6 April, 2001). 3 Chapters Two, Three and Four are devoted to each of Bronsart's three extant operas. Each work is considered with respect to its genesis as well as to more general matters of plot and dramatic structure. Because litde is known about Bronsart's music, in order to obtain a better understanding of her style a substantial portion of my discussion concentrates on the analysis and dramatic interpretation of each opera. Focusing on the specific numbers and scenes that I consider to be of significant interest, I examine the vocal writing, harmonic language, formal structures, unity and continuity. Since scores are not widely available, I have included many musical examples and diagrams in support of the analytical sections. Bronsart's case also raises several broader philosophical questions which are addressed in Chapter Five. By whom was she influenced among the traditionally male composers of opera? As a pupil of Liszt and wife of Hans von Bronsart, himself a composer and one of the more vocal proponents of the New German School, one would expect the influence of Wagner and the New Germans to be strong, yet she vehementiy denied any influence from Wagner.9 More importandy, if Bronsart's works were so successful, why have they since disappeared from the stage? Since each of her three operas represents a different genre, the answer to this question must be explored for each opera individually. I approach her first opera, the Singspiel Jery undBately, from the perspective of how viable the genre still was in the last half of the nineteenth century. Certainly the legacy of Wagner and Bayreuth loomed large in the late nineteenth and twentieth century imagination, overshadowing coundess other composers, men and women alike. A unique situation thus developed, where two opposing yet interdependent operatic cultures existed side-by-side: one manifesting itself in the "modern," towering works of Wagner, the other 9 Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg [Lena] von," p. 88. 4 old-fashioned (works by Lortzing and Weber, as well as newly-composed operas) but continuing to exist, if not thrive, on the thirst of theaters and the opera-going public for a simple evening's entertainment. In this respect, Bronsart's second opera, Hiarne, regarded by early critics as "Wagnerian," may be better viewed as a parody, part of a Wagnerian "counterculture" that avoided competition with Wagner. Jery und lately and Hiarne established Bronsart's reputation as a composer for the stage, a reputation grounded in expectations for future works. But in the end, with Die Siihne, Bronsart's last and least successful opera, the composer alienated her audience by refuting those expectations, by stepping too often from the very elements that made the first two operas appealing. Arthur Elson called Ingeborg von Bronsart "one of the few really great women composers,"10 but whether her works merit revival or inclusion in the canon is open to question. As we shall see in the analytical chapters, the artistic merits of Bronsart's operas are many: she was an eloquent, skilful composer with a command of form, who was adept at recognizing the inherent qualities and remaining true to the material that she chose to set. Yet value is contingent on a number of factors other than artistic merit. While performance, reception and publication are crucial to the way in which value is perceived, solving the equation also involves untangling the complex relationship between gender and genre, and how those two factors colour the ways in which value is determined. Gender and genre carry implicit and explicit sets of expectations. Because of these expectations, I believe that Bronsart's early success and the reputation it established may have also led to her downfall. Ultimately, her place in history — whether as artist or artefact — may depend on finding new ways to determine aesthetic values, an issue that I explore during the course of this project. 'Arthur Elson, Woman's Work in Music (Boston: L.C. Page & Co., 1904), p. 220. 5 Chapter O n e " C o m p o s i n g a L i f e " T h e attempt to provide a complete picture o f the life o f an artist such as Ingeborg v o n Bronsart presents the scholar wi th a difficult task. Throughout her adult life, Bronsart travelled extensively, cultivating a wide circle o f friends, patrons and professional acquaintances that included some o f the foremost musicians, poets and critics o f the time. Consequendy, primary sources such as letters, manuscripts, and other documents are scattered widely, some have only recendy been catalogued, others remain as yet inaccessible, and undoubtedly m u c h more has been lost over the course o f time. 1 Ear ly biographies were written by L a Mara (Marie Lipsius) and Elise Po lko , but both were published i n 1888, leaving a substantial gap i n our knowledge about Bronsart 's last twenty-four years. 2 Addi t i ona l bits and pieces o f information can be found i n reviews, concert announcements, and i n ail-too brief and infrequent references to Bronsart i n writings on more prominent figures such as Lisz t , Wagner and B i i l o w . Thus the modest narrative that follows is a compilat ion o f many threads woven from unpublished letters, early biographies, and secondary sources. T h e fact that Bronsart was esteemed as a " G e r m a n " composer is noteworthy given the fact that her early chi ldhood and youth were spent i n St. Petersburg, Russia, where she 1 F o r example, a large collection o f letters exchanged between Ingeborg and her husband Hans v o n Bronsart, held at the Thuringischen Hauptstaatsarchiv i n Weimar , has only recendy been catalogued. See Jan Neubauer, " D e r NachlaB 'Hans Bronsart v o n SchellendorfP i n Thuringischen Hauptstaatsarchiv Weimar ," ( M . A . thesis, Institute fur Musikwissenschaft, A l t e M u s i k und Ki rchenmus ik der Hochschule fur M u s i k Franz Lisz t , Weimar , 1999). Unfortunately, this collection is at present inaccessible because the A r c h i v is closed for renovations unti l 2002. 2 L a Mara [pseud. Marie Lipsius], "Ingeborg v o n Bronsart ," Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, Musikalische Studienkopf, B d . 5 (Leipzig: Bre i tkopf & Hartel , 1888), pp. 127-144; and El ise P o l k o , "Ingeborg v o n Bronsart: biographisches Skizzenblatt," Neue Musik-Zeitung 9 (1888): 142-143. 6 was born on 24 August 1840. Her father, Wilhelm Stark, was a Swedish citizen who belonged to the Russian Merchants' Guild and was a member of the Swedish Ecclesiastical Council in St. Petersburg. According to Ingeborg, Stark remained in that city for more than forty years, but always maintained his Swedish citizenship.3 Ingeborg's mother, Margarethe Elizabeth (nee Ockermann) was also of Swedish descent. Along with her older sister Olivia (b. 1838), Ingeborg was raised in a musical household. Margarethe was an accomplished violinist who could not read music but had mastered the instrument by watching and listening to others, and Wilhelm played the flute.4 The parents, together with the household staff, created musical evenings of Swedish folk songs. As the daughters grew up, these evenings became weekly events attended by artists visiting St. Petersburg. When Olivia was nine years old, the Starks decided that she should begin piano lessons. Ingeborg was considered still too young, but the precocious child insisted on being allowed to participate too, until her parents finally relented. La Mara notes that even at the first lesson, the teacher thought "the little one [Ingeborg] appears to have a great deal of talent," and that within six months she had surpassed her older sibling.5 Within a year, Ingeborg was composing her own small melodies and dances, leading Stark to engage Nicolas von Martinoff — a friend of Liszt, Thalberg and Henselt — to teach his daughter the art of composition. It is difficult to assess just how much the young composer may have learned from Martinoff. According to La Mara, he was a former army officer and dilettante who did not usually teach,6 while Polko states that Martinoff was 3 Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 5 May 1878, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 4 La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 130. 5 "Schon in der ersten Lection meinte die Lehrerin: 'Die Kleine scheint viel Talent zu haben,' und ehe ein halbes Jahr verging, hatte sie die altere Schwester bei weitem uberflugelt." Ibid. 6 Ibid., p. 131. 7 Ingeborg's piano teacher. 7 In any case, Martinoff, apparently captivated by the young girl's playing, decided to take her o n as a pupi l . F r o m that time forward, Ingeborg and her sister spent many hours i n the Mar t inof f household, frequently accompanying the family to performances o f Italian opera i n St. Petersburg. A l t h o u g h her ties to the Mar t ino f f family remained strong, i n 1851 Ingeborg also began studies wi th Constantin Decker (1810-1878). Un l ike the aristocrat Martinoff, whose musical credentials are somewhat questionable, Decker was a pianist, composer and harmony teacher. 8 O n e short year after begmning studies wi th Decker , Ingeborg, then only twelve years old, held her first concert i n the salon o f Coun t Ruscheleff-Besborodko, featuring one o f her pieces, a small composi t ion for orchestra. 9 After the concert i n Ruscheleff-Besborodko's salon, Ingeborg found ample opportunities to perform. H e r parents still held weekly gatherings, at wh ich she displayed her talent for solo performance, accompaniment, and sight-reading. B y this time she was a confident and poised performer, as she demonstrated i n 1854 at a concert at the M i c h e l [sic] Theater i n St. Petersburg. In the middle o f her performance o f Chopin ' s E minor Concer to (performed wi th orchestra and from memory), one o f the piano strings suddenly snapped 7 " I m Klav ie r unterreichtete sie ein genialer Musikdilettant der Petersburger Aristokratie — N i c o l a Martinoff , der Freund Lisz t , Thalberg und Henselt ." Po lko , "Biographisches Skizzenblatt ," p. 142. 8 L i k e Martinoff, Decker is also an enigmatic figure. W e do k n o w that he studied harmony, counterpoint and fugue at the Universi ty o f Ber l in , before residing briefly i n Hal le , Le ipz ig , Breslau, Konigsberg and Potsdam. A c c o r d i n g to F.J . Fetis, Decker wrote one opera (Die Guesen in Breda, Hal le , 1838), published a string quartet i n 1837 (Leipzig: Hoffmeister), and also published several piano pieces. See "Decker , Constantin," Biographie Universelle des Muskiens, 2nd edition, vo l . 2 (Paris: D i d o t Bros. & Sons, 1866), p. 448. Decker 's name does not appear i n any o f the more recent standard reference resources such as Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Basel and L o n d o n : Barenreiter Kassel , 1957) or the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Stanley Sadie, ed. (London: M a c M i l l a n , 1980). 9 L a Mara , Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 131. A c c o r d i n g to L a Mara , the piece was orchestrated by Decker . L a Mara does not indicate what other works may have been o n the program. 8 and began to ratde audibly in the neighbouring strings. Ingeborg had the presence of mind to continue playing with her left hand, while reaching into the piano with her right hand to remove the broken string.10 Throughout these early years, Martinoff continued his mentorship of the young composer. Ingeborg spent much of each summer at Martinoff s country estate near Schlusselberg, where she learned to swim, ride horses, and play billiards. These periods of physical activity were intended to improve her health and to protect the young artist against the strain resulting from intense musical activities.11 Martinoff also introduced her to the Russian aristocracy, and she quickly became a favourite of the Grand Duchess Constantin. When the Grand Duchess celebrated her birthday at her summer castle at Pawlowsk near St. Petersburg, Ingeborg participated by singing in an operetta, performing a role written especially for her.12 That performance was fortuitous in two respects: Ingeborg earned the Grand Duchess's patronage and, in addition, she was introduced to a young German pianist, her future husband Hans von Bronsart, who was in St. Petersburg on a concert tour.13 Ingeborg quickly gained the attention of artistic as well as aristocratic circles. At age ten, she met Anton Rubinstein, with whom she maintained a warm friendship from that time onward. Rubinstein was captivated not only by Ingeborg's playing, but also by her compositions, commenting that "she certainly plays very beautifully, but what especially 1 0 Ibid, p. 132. " Elise Polko notes that intense musical activities caused the young Ingeborg to "faint" (Ohnmacht). (Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 142). La Mara asserts that Ingeborg's nerves were so sensitive that "when she played a trio for the first time at age nine, she fainted at the sound of the instruments together." ['Thr Nerven, die fruher so empfindlich waren, daB, als sie mit neun Jahren zum ersten Mai Trio spielt, der Zusammenklang der Instrumente sie ohnmachtig macht."] (La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 133). 1 2 The role was Columbine in an operetta entitled Arlequinprestidigitateur, libretto by Count Sollohub, music by Carl Lewy. La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 133. 1 3 Ibid. 9 interests me about her is her talent at composition."14 Rubinstein's interest was well-founded: by the time she was fifteen, Ingeborg's first published works were beginning to appear. In 1855, Bernard, a St. Petersburg firm, published three Etudes, a Tarantella, and a Nocturne for piano. Another St. Petersburg pubHshing house, Johansen, printed six Russian Lieder on texts by Lermontoff.15 Several more piano works, such as sonatas, variations, toccatas and fugues, were written but not yet published at that time. The outbreak of the Crimean War in 1853 brought significant changes to Ingeborg's life because her mentor, Martinoff, was recalled into the army. With Martinoff gone, her musical education was entrusted to the capable hands of his friend, Adolph Henselt (1814-1889). Henselt had settled in Russia following studies with Hummel in Weimar and an extensive concert tour. By 1838, he was "highly successful in St. Petersburg . . . was made court pianist, teacher to the imperial children, and soon afterwards, music inspector of the imperial girls' schools."16 Henselt's credentials were impeccable: highly regarded as a virtuoso pianist, composer and pedagogue, his piano technique was said to provide a link between that of Hummel and Liszt.17 Ingeborg remained under Henselt's tutelage for almost two years (1855-57), at which time it was decided that she should leave St. Petersburg and make her way in the larger musical world. Ever since her first meeting with Hans von Bronsart, she had "dreamed of distant lands and people," and begged to be allowed to study with Liszt in Weimar.18 1 4 "Sie spielen ja sehr schon, aber was mich besonders an Ihnen interessiert, ist doch Ihr Kompositionstalent." Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 142. 1 5 The Russian Lieder may have been lost. They are noted in La Mara's list of Ingeborg's published works (Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 137), but are not included in James Deaville's list in "Bronsart, Ingeborg [Lena] von," New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers, Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel, eds. (London: MacMillan, 1994), p. 88. 1 6 Edward Dannreuther, "Henselt, Adolph," New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 8, Stanley Sadie, ed. (London: MacMillan, 1980), p. 489. 1 7 Ibid. 1 8 Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 142. 10 Accompanied by her mother and sister, Ingeborg, now eighteen, set out for Weimar in early 1858. Along the way, Margarethe became ill and decided to stay in Karlsbad to take a cure, permitting the two sisters to continue to Weimar on their own.19 They arrived at Liszt's home, the Altenberg, without mishap. Ingeborg carried with her a letter of recommendation from Henselt, and after a brief audition, Liszt accepted her as a pupil. She had taken along some of her own compositions as well, including some of her fugues for the piano. According to Arthur Elson, "the experienced master [Liszt] rather doubted if the charming apparition before him could produce such an intricate work as a fugue without receiving aid."20 Liszt apparendy gave her a new theme and requested that she write another fugue. What happened next provided the fuel for what is perhaps the most popular legend surrounding Ingeborg, retold in almost every source, and thus cited in full here. As Polko recounts the incident: Of course the master's wish was fulfilled in the shortest period. Liszt sat at the piano with the lavish, most serious fugue pages, in order to play the work. Then followed a meaningful "Hm!" And turning around to the young composer, he said, with his hearty laugh and mischievous look, "But you certainly do not look like it!" The answer, given with glowing cheeks and flashing eyes, pronounced in exotic-sounding German: "I'm certainly very happy that I don't look like a fugue!"21 Ingeborg's quick wit amused Liszt, who predicted that she would one day become the "George Sand of music."22 1 9 Ibid. 2 0 Arthur Elson, Woman's Work in Music (Boston: L.C. Page & C o , 1904), p. 222. 2 1 "Selbstverstandlich wurde der Wunsch des Meisters in kurzester Zeit erfullt. Liszt setzte sich mit dem ihm uberreichten ernsten Fugenblatt sofort an den Flugel, um die Arbeit zu spielen. Dann erfolgte ein bedeutungsvolles 'Hm!' — und sich nach der jungen reizenden Komponistin umwendend, sagte er mit seinem giitigen Lacheln und einem schalkhaften Blick: 'Aber sie sehen wirklich gar nicht danach aus!' Die Anwort, mit ergliihenden Wangen und blitzenden Augen gegeben, lautete in fremdartig klingendem Deutsch: 'Nun, ich bin sehr froh, daB ich nicht wie eine Fuge aussehe!'" Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 142. 2 2 "Wer weiB, vielleicht werden Sie noch die George Sand der Musik!" La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 129. 11 Notwithstanding the success of the compositional test, while at Weimar Ingeborg's time was devoted to piano performance: she composed only one sonata. She spoke warmly of Liszt's genius for teaching, confiding in La Mara that "his guidance prevented me from being one-sided in art, and the example of his wonderful artistic nature taught me to seek the beautiful in music, and to take it up in myself, no matter what school its composer belonged to."23 During the winter of 1858-59, Ingeborg debuted in Leipzig, Dresden and Paris. In June of 1859, she was part of Liszt's entourage to Leipzig for the first meeting of the Tonkunstler-Versammlung of the Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereins.24 Another member of the party attending the Tonkunstler-Versammlung would have a profound influence on Ingeborg's future: Hans von Bronsart. Hans and Ingeborg had met earlier, when he had performed in St. Petersburg. A pianist, composer and conductor, Hans was also a pupil of Liszt, and, along with Hans von Biilow and Joachim Raff, was one of the more outspoken champions of the New German School. He made his way to Weimar in 1853, after studying in Berlin with Siegfried Dehn and Theodor Kullak. Liszt thought highly of him, writing that "I have become very attached to Bronsart, who has developed a real performing talent and has composed a trio that I consider to be among the best in that genre, and much superior to the trios of Rubinstein."25 Not only did Liszt dedicate his A Major Piano Concerto to Hans, but he also entrusted him with the work's premiere at the court theater on 7 January 1857. At the end of the same year (29 December 1857), Hans's 2 3 '"Seine Leitung,' bezeugt sie selbst, 'hat mich vor kunstlerischer Einseitigkeit bewahrt, und das Beispiel dieser wunderbaren Kiinsdernatur lehrte mich, das Schone in der Musik liberal! zu suchen und in mich aufzunehmen, gleichviel welcher Richtung ihr Schopfer angehorte.'" Ibid, p. 134. 2 4 Ibid, pp. 134-35. 2 5 Alan Walker, Fran^Us^t: The Weimar Years 1848-1861 (London: Faber & Faber, 1989), p. 187. 12 Friihlingsfantasie fur OrchesterOp. 11 appeared on the same program as the premiere of Liszt's symphonic poem Die Hunnensch/acht.26 His abilities as a performer and composer aside, Hans's impact on contemporary musical thought as a writer and critic should not be underestimated. As noted in his obituary, "what the name Bronsart lends to the lasting value in music history is the personality of this man and artist. He was an idealist in the true sense and beautiful meaning of the word."2 7 In 1858 he published a large pamphlet, Musikalische Pflichten (Musical Duties), defending Zukunftsmusik and the practices of Liszt, Wagner and Berlioz.28 He was one of the founders of the Neu-Weimar-Verein, founded in 1855, whose purpose was to provide a harmonizing link between art, literature and science. The members of the Verein included Liszt (President), Berlioz, Billow, Joachim and Wagner. Even though the group disbanded in 1867, their ideas led to the establishment of important cultural institutions such as the Weimar Kunstakademie (1860), the Musikakademie (1872, today the Franz Liszt Hochschule fur Musik), the Goethe-und Schiller Archiv and the Goethe Gesellschaft.29 Hans would later take up a similar cause, acting as president of the Allgemeinen Deutscher Musikverein from 1888-1898. Soon after the Liszt entourage returned from the 1859 Tonkunsder-Versamrnlung in Leipzig, Hans and Ingeborg were engaged to be married. The wedding did not take place immediately, however. Ingeborg's next few years, according to Elson, were "devoted to performing, and numerous tours brought equally numerous triumphs. Composition was not 2 6 Wolfram Huschke, Musik im klassischen und nachklassischen Weimar 1756-1861 (Weimar: Hermann Bohlaus, 1982), p. 205. 2 7 Unsigned obituary, "Hans von Bronsart," Neue Musik-Zeitung 35 (1914): 95. 2 8 Hans von Bronsart, Musikalische Pflichten (Leipzig: Heinrich Matthes Verlag, 1858). 2 9 Friedrich W. Riedel, "Die Neudeutsche Schule: ein Phanomen der deutschen Kulturgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts," Fran^Us^t und Richard Wagner: Musikalische und geistesgeschichtliche Grundlegen der neudeutschen Schule, Liszt-Studien 3, Serge Gut, ed. (Munich: Emil Katzbichler, 1986), pp. 16-17. 13 neglected, and a piano concerto of fair success was the result of this period."3" Liszt followed her activities with some interest, noting in a letter to her that, "through our friend Bronsart I have had some good tidings of you; you have fulfilled your role of charmer in the best possible manner, and Bronsart is full of raptures about you."31 At the time of the letter (2 November 1859), Ingeborg was preparing to give a concert in St. Petersburg, for which her teacher predicted undoubted success.32 One of Ingeborg's concert tours also took her to Paris during this period, where La Mara asserts that she met Rossini, Auber and Wagner.33 Ingeborg met Wagner on at least two occasions. In 1860, she attended one of his "Wednesday receptions" in Paris. At that time, Wagner was occupied with the rehearsals and performance of Tannbauser.3* The second meeting took place in 1863, in St. Petersburg, at the home of Baron Vittinghof.35 Although Wagner recalled both meetings in his memoirs, his attention seems to have been focused entirely on Ingeborg's physical appearance.36 The 1860s brought many changes to the lives of Ingeborg and Hans. On 14 September 1861, the two were finally married at Konigsberg, where Hans's father had 3 0 Elson, Woman's Work in Music, p. 233. James Deaville notes that the concerto (unpublished) was completed by 1863. (Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg (Lena) von," p. 88.) 3 1 La Mara, ed, Letters ofFran^Us^t, vol. 1, trans, by Constance Bache (London: H. Grevel & C o , 1894), p. 405. 3 2 Ibid, p. 406. 3 3 La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, pp. 135-136. 3 4 Rehearsals for Tannhauser at the Paris Opera began on 24 September 1860, with performances following in March 1861. Barry Millington, The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music (New York: Schirmer Books, 1992), p. 16. 3 5 From January to April 1863, Wagner visited Prague, St. Petersburg, and Moscow to give concerts of his music. Ibid. 3 6 From the Paris meeting, Wagner recalled that "Fraulein Ingeborg Stark, who afterwards married young Hans von Bronsart, put in an appearance among us, a vision of bewitching elegance, and played the piano." Of the second meeting, he wrote, "I met once more with Ingeborg Stark, the beautiful Swedish pianist and composer of sonatas, whom I had formerly known in Paris." Richard Wagner, My Life, vol. 2 (New York: Dodd, Mead & C o , 1911, reprint, St. Claire Shores: Scholarly Press Inc, 1976), pp. 739 and 858. 14 settled.37 They remained at Konigsberg throughout the next summer, then spent the winter of 1862-63 in Dresden.38 In 1864 the couple moved to Berlin, where Hans was appointed as Billow's successor as director of the Konzerte der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. Their first child, Clara Wilhelma, was born on 14 April 1864, followed by a son, Fritz George Heinrich Konstanze, on 12 November 1868.39 According to La Mara, the children were Ingeborg's "gift from heaven," and she took great pleasure in developing their musical talents.40 She composed songs for her daughter, who by age four was able to sing two-voice canons with her mother.41 While Fritz later became a writer (Schriftsteller) and pursued a career as a lieutenant in the army,42 Clara soon became an accomplished pianist and seemed destined to follow her mother's career path on the concert stage. Tragically, a nervous condition cut short her career, leaving her incapacitated. As Jan Neubauer has noted, "letters confirm that she outlived her parents, but the precise date of her death can not be stated with certainty."43 Fritz died on 24 December 1918. Like many women artists, Ingeborg took satisfaction in raising her children but at the same time she acknowledged that the dual role of artist and mother was a difficult one. Her largest dramatic work, Hiarne, was completed when both children were well into adulthood (1891). As she wrote about Hiarne at the time, "I can say . . . that I wrote every bar with 3 7 La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 136. 3 8 Ibid. 3 9 Neubauer, "Der NachlaB 'Hans Bronsart von Schellendorff," p. 16. 4 0 "Der Erziehung der beiden Kinder, die ihr der Himmel schenkte, gab sie sich mit aller Sorgfalt hin. Sie hat die Freude, die musikalische Begabung der Eltern auf die Tochter Clara Wilhelma (geb. 1864) wie den Sohn Fritz (geb. 1868) vererbt zu sehen und sie Beiden pflegen und entwickeln helfen zu durfen." La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 143. 4 1 Ibid. 4 2 Neubauer, "Der NachlaB 'Hans Bronsart von Schellendorff," p. 16. 4 3 "DaB sie ihre Eltern iiberlebt hat, ist briefliche belegt, fiber ihre Todesdatum konnte allerdings bislang nichts in Erfahrung gebracht werden." Ibid. 15 pleasure and love. I would have been finished long ago, had my life not been so busy, and had I devoted more time to music than the spare time that my other duties left me with."4 4 Ingeborg's "other duties" included mamtaining a hectic concert schedule (for a time) while moving the household from city to city as her husband pursued his career as a conductor and theater Intendant (manager/director). The year before Clara's birth (1863), Ingeborg was awarded the tide of "Koniglich Hannoverschen Hofpianistin" (Royal Hannover Court Pianist),45 while towards the end of the couple's sojourn in Dresden (8 December 1863), she performed in a subscription concert directed by Hans at the Saale des Hotel de Saxe. Despite her pregnancy, Ingeborg carried off a demanding program that included J.S. Bach's Italian Concerto, Chopin's Waltz in C# minor and Nocturne in Db major, two works by Schumann (Novelletten and "Am Abend"), a Beethoven Sonata (Op. 111), as well as a Liszt transcription, "Concert-Walzer iiber Motive aus Gounod's Faust" ("Valse de l'opera Faust," composed 1861).46 One reviewer observed that Ingeborg's "highly correct execution of the individual pieces," along with the "sensibly-shaped and charming melodic rendition" (a trademark of the Lisztian school), were met by an appreciative audience.47 Ingeborg's career as a professional concert artist ended abruptly in April of 1867, when her husband accepted an appointment from the King of Prussia as Intendant of the Koniglich Theater in Hanover. State policy at the time dictated that the wives of Prussian 4 4 "Ich kann sagen . . . daB ich jeden Tact mit Lust und Liebe geschrieben habe. Ich ware ja auch langst fertig, wenn mein Leben nicht ein so vielseitiges sein muBte und ich nicht nur die Zeit der Musik widmete, die mir meine anderen Pflichten, welche fur mich obenan stehen, iibrig lassen." La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 143. 4 5 Neubauer, "Der NachlaB 'Hans Bronsart von Schellendorff," p. 17. 4 6 Unsigned review, Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik Bd. 60:1 (1864): 5. 4 7 "Auch die diesmalige hochst correcte Ausfuhrung der einzelnen Stiicke verfehlte nicht, besonders im gesanglichen Theile derselben (in Folge der sinnig-edlen und liebenswurdigen Vortragsweise) einen freudigen Eindruck zu machen und den Dank der Anwesenden, welcher sich durch enthusiastichen Beifall kundgab, hervorzurufen." Ibid. 16 officers and officials were prohibited from appearing publicly as artists, with the exception of occasional charity concerts.48 Thereafter, Ingeborg's public appearances were restricted for the most part to the domestic sphere, primarily at weekly matinees held at the Bronsarts' home. Three exceptions were her appearances with Liszt at the Bach-Denkmal in Eisenach (1875), Bayreuth (1876) and the Tonkunsuer-Versarnmlung of the Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereins held in Hanover in 1877.49 Retirement from the concert stage because of Hans's new position had certain benefits, among them more time that could be spent on composition. At first, "it was still charming lullabies and two-voice children's songs that this workshop relied on, compositions that the mother later sang with the daughter,"50 but the beginning of the Hanover period also gave birth to Ingeborg's first dramatic work, Die Gbttin von Sais. This three-act opera, on a libretto by Meyer, had its first and only performance at court in Berlin in 1867. Ingeborg and Hans provided the four-hand piano accompaniment, while the soloists were members of the Hofbiihne and the chorus was filled out by the men and women of the court.51 Although it was a "beautiful and noble evening for the composer,"52 the opera's failure to 4 8 La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 139. 4 9 "Mit Liszt habe ich bereite 3 Mal hier offentlich auch Clavieren gespielt. Einmal zum Besten der Eisenacher Bach-Denkmal; denn fur Bayreuth und zuletzt im vorigen Fruhjahr bei Gelegenheit der Musikfesten der Allgemeinen Deutschen Musik Verein." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 5 May 1878, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. According to Alan Walker, at the Bach-Denkmal Liszt and Ingeborg performed together Liszt's Prelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H arranged for two pianos. Walker also states that the concert took place in Hanover, not Eisenach. Walker, Fran% Us%t: The Weimar Years, p. 286. 5 0 "Aber zunachst waren es doch wohl anmutige Wiegen-und zweistimmige Kinderlieder, welche diese Werkstatt verlieBen, Kompositionen, die spater die Mutter mit dem Tochterchen sang." Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 143. 5 1 Ibid., p. 142. 5 2 "Es war ein schoner und ehrenvoller Abend fur die Komponistin." Ibid. 17 reach a wider audience is attributed to a weak libretto lacking dramatic action.53 The libretto was published in 1869, but unfortunately the music is lost. Further changes would take place in the Bronsart household in the early 1870s. The male members of the Bronsart family had a long history of military service. A minor hand injury (finger paralysis, according to La Mara),54 had previously prevented Hans from fulfilling his military obligations, but with the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war, in 1870 he re-enlisted as a noncommissioned officer of the 57th Infantry.55 In June of the same year, Ingeborg had completed her Romance in A for violin and piano,56 but her creative output from this time also reflects a sense of duty to her adopted homeland. A patriotic men's chorus "Hurrah Germania" (text by F. Freiligrath) and three lieder dedicated to the Kaiser are from this period, as well as her only large-scale orchestral work, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Marsch. The march was performed at the Hanover Hoftheater in 1871 as part of the presentation ceremony welcoming home the troops.57 According to Elise Polko, the war also brought an end to the frequent "house concerts" (Hauskonzerte) in the Bronsart home, and the "artistic couple lived a very withdrawn life from then on." 5 8 If life was "withdrawn," it was not without purpose, for "early in the years 1871 and 1872 in the Bronsart house the Goethe poem 'Jery und Bately' 5 3 See La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 139. 5 4 Ibid, p. 140. 5 5 Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 143. 5 6 The autograph Ms of the Romance is held at the PreuBischer Kulturbesitz, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. It was published (without opus number) in Weimar, 1873. See Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg [Lena] von," p. 88. 5 7 La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 140. 5 8 "Nach 1870 horten leider diese genuBreichen Hauskonzerte auf, das Kunstlerpaar lebte fortan sehr zuriickgezogen." Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 143. 18 saw the light of the world as a Singspiel."59 The premiere of Jery und Bdtely (Weimar, 1873) was followed by a period of intense activity, as the Singspiel enjoyed performances at Ilm-Athen, Carlsruhe, Baden-Baden, Schwerin, Kassel, Wiesbaden, Braunschweig, Hanover, Konigsberg and Mannheim.60 Just as Ingeborg was enjoying the success of Jery undBately, an influential visitor arrived at the Bronsart home: poet, writer and translator Friedrich von Bodenstedt (1819-1892). Bodenstedt wrote a poem about Ingeborg, pubkshing it in 1876 in his book Einkehr und Umschau.^ Ingeborg employed some of his other poems as the source for four books of Lieder, Op. 8, 9, and 10 — all published in 1879, and Op. 12, published in 1880.62 Perhaps more importantly, Bodenstedt also promised her an opera text. He had been searching for a suitable subject, and soon discovered one in the old Danish saga Hiarne. Hans von Bronsart himself had been working on a libretto based on the saga as early as 1859,63 but had set the manuscript aside. Bodenstedt apparently felt that Hans's adaptation was excellent, nonetheless he was persuaded to versify and shorten the text while mamtaining the dramatic structure.64 Throughout the remaining years of the 1870s, Bodenstedt visited the Bronsarts' home frequently, and he and Hans maintained a steady correspondence as the libretto was crafted into its final form.65 5 9 "Im Friihrjahre 71 und 72 erblickte im Bronsartschen Hause die Goethesche Dichtung 'Jery und Bately' als Singspiel das Licht der Welt..." Ibid. 6 0 La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, p. 141. 6 1 Friedrich Bodenstedt, "Ingeborg am Flugel," Einkehr und Umschau: Neueste Dichtungen (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1876), pp. 149-150. The text for the poem can be found in the Appendix, page 347. 6 2 Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg (Lena) von," p. 88. 6 3 Hans von Bronsart's libretto is mentioned in a letter from Franz Liszt to Franz Brendel, 6 December 1859, published in La Mara, Letters o/Fran^Lis^t, vol 1, p. 415. 6 4 See Elise Polko, "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 143. 6 5 A substantial collection of Bodenstedt's letters to Hans von Bronsart — dating from 1873 to 1891 — is held at the Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv in Weimar (Sig. GSA 96/215). Hiarne 19 A crucial event with regard to the Hiarne collaboration may have come in 1876, with the first presentation of Wagner's Ring cycle at Bayreuth. As we shall see later in Chapter Three, Hiarne — at least in its subject matter — is the most "Wagnerian" of Ingeborg's operas. She participated in the first Bayreuth festival, performing with Liszt, while also attending the performances of the tetralogy along with her husband and Bodenstedt. On one of the festival evenings, the three Hiarne collaborators dined with Eduard Hanslick, who later recounted the meeting in his autobiography. Hanslick and Ingeborg apparently shocked the other two collaborators by agreeing that the Ring was "vier Martertage" (four days of torture).66 Hanslick's remarks constitute one of the few clear indications that Ingeborg was ambivalent about Wagner's works. Just how much the Bayreuth experience influenced the composition of Hiarne will be considered later, but it is worth mentioning that Hanslick's comments did not go unnoticed. Nearly twenty years later, Ingeborg read Aus meinem Leben "with great interest," and wrote to her friend Julius Rodenberg that she was "sincerely pleased that he [Hanslick] remembered our meeting in Bayreuth so kindly."67 One year after the first Bayreuth festival (1877), the Tonkunstler-Versammlung of the Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereins was held in Hanover, where once again, Ingeborg came out of retirement to perform with Liszt. Prior to the meeting, however, she was more concerned with having one of her works staged during the gathering. Peter Cornelius's comic opera, Der Barbier von Bagdad, had already been chosen; Ingeborg felt that since the is first mentioned in Friedrich von Bodenstedt, Meiningen, to Hans von Bronsart, Hanover, 6 February 1874. Bodenstedt's handwriting is extremely difficult to decipher. A more detailed discussion of the collaboration between Hans and Bodenstedt is provided in the chapter on Hiarne (Chapter Three). 6 6 Eduard Hanslick, Aus meinem heben, Bd. 1 (Berlin: Allgemeiner Verein fur Deutschen Litteratur, 1894, reprint, Westmead: Gregg International, 1971), pp. 178-180. 6 7 "Mit der groBten Interesse habe ich 'Aus meinem Leben' von Hanslick gelesen'und mich aufrichtig gefreut, daB unsere Begegnung in Bayreuth so freundlich gedacht hat." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Weimar, to Julius Rodenberg, 23 July 1894, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 20 Barbier was not long, and since her own Jery und Bdtely took scarcely an hour, the two works could be staged on the same evening. In a letter to Liszt, she complained that her husband "could not very well offer his wife's composition, but should you [Liszt] wish to have it performed, then certainly your wish would be granted."68 If one assumes that Ingeborg's success on the stage stemmed in large part from the fact that her husband used his position to promote her works, that assumption can be laid to rest here. And while I have found no evidence to suggest that Liszt did indeed intervene on Ingeborg's behalf, Jery und Bdtely was performed at the Tonkunsder-Versammlung, and with great success.69 Meanwhile, Ingeborg's work on Hiarne progressed slowly. Writing to La Mara in May 1878, to provide biographical details for her book, she noted that her "four-act opera (Vorspiel and 3 acts) is called 'Hiarne' and is not yet finished," and that she "hoped to complete the opera in two years."70 Smaller creative projects were intertwined with the larger work, including two chamber pieces for cello and piano {Notturno Op. 13 and Elegie Op. 14) as well as a Romance in Bb Op. 15 for violin and piano (all published in 1879).71 Song forms also occupied the composer, among them the five Weihnachtslieder Op. 11 (pub. 1880), and five lieder on texts by Ernst von Wildenbruch, Op. 12 (pub. 1882).72 6 8 ". . . doch kann mein Mann nicht gut die Composition seiner Frau anbieten; sollten aber Sie, hochvehersten Meister die Auffuhrung wunschen, so ist ja Ihr Wunsch [the last word is illegible]." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to Franz Liszt, 11 May 1877, Goethe-und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. Emphasis in the original. 6 9 The performance of Jery undBately was reviewed by Richard Pohl, "Die 14. Tonnkunsder-Versarnmlung des Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereins," Neue Zeitschriftfiir Musikl?>:\ (1877): 233-234. 7 0 "Mein vieractige Oper (Vorspiel und 3 Akten) heiBt 'Hiarne' und ist noch nicht beendet. . . in zwei Jahren erst hoffe ich mein Oper zu beendigen." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to Marie Lipsius [pseud. La Mara], 5 May 1878, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 7 1 Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg (Lena) von," p. 88. 7 2 The Op. 12 lieder are "Abendlied," "Standchen," "Zwei StrauBe," "Der Blumenstrauss," and "Letzte Bitte." Wildenbruch's handwritten poem of "Der Blumenstrauss" is included in a collection of his letters to Ingeborg held at the Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv in Weimar. 21 The lack of time for composition is a constant refrain in Ingeborg's letters from this period. Visitors were always welcome in the Bronsart home, and for one period in 1876 they nursed Hans von Biilow when he was seriously i l l . 7 3 Bodenstedt continued to visit the Bronsarts often, even though his part in the Hiarne collaboration was essentially complete. Hans frequently travelled on business, leaving Ingeborg to take responsibility for their family. In September 1882 she wrote to her friend Ernst von Wildenbruch, describing the "sad hours" spent by her son's bedside after an illness.74 Although she had predicted that Hiarne would be completed by 1880, later that same month she wrote to Wildenbruch again, telling nim that the opera was not yet finished.75 The Bronsarts' Hanover period drew to an end on 1 October 1887, when Hans accepted an appointment as the General Intendant of the Hoftheater in Weimar. For Ingeborg, the new Weimar period finally saw the completion of Hiarne. The much anticipated premiere was widely reported in the musical press as early as 1888, when the Neue Musik-Zeitung declared that the opera had already been accepted for performance at Hanover and Weimar.76 In 1890, the Neue Zeitschriftfiir Musik reported that the premiere would take place in Berlin.77 In the meantime, Ingeborg again busied herself with the composition of lieder, publishing three different collections between 1891 and 1892.78 7 3 Liszt also visited Hanover at this time (23 September to 5 October 1876). Franz Liszt, Selected Letters, translated and edited by Adrian Williams (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), p. 793. Billow's illness came at the end of an extensive concert tour in North America. He also lived in Hanover from 1878 to 1879, holding the position of Kapellmeister of the court theater. 7 4 "Dieser Bet, in welche ich, durch Fritzschens Anfall, so wird ich traurige Stunden verlebte, ist mir, seit Ihrer Besuche, lieb und werth geworden." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to Ernst von Wildenbruch, 5 September 1882, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 7 5 Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to Ernst von Wildenbruch, 26 September 1882, Goethe-und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 7 6 "Kunst und Kunsder," Neue Musik-Zeitung 9 (1888): 11. 7 7 Paul Simon, "Sangkonig Hiarne," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik Bd. 86:1 (January 1890): 37-39. 7 8 6 Gedichte Op. 20 (various poets), 3 Gedichte Op. 22 (texts by Peter Cornelius), and 3 Lieder Op. 23 (Goethe, Lenau). Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg (Lena) von," pp. 88-89. 22 During the hectic preparations for the premiere of Hiarne, Ingeborg finally made a long-awaited pilgrimmage to Sweden. Although both of her parents were Swedish citizens, Ingeborg had never visited her putative homeland. The opportunity finally arose in the fall of 1890, when she and Hans were to embark on a two-month tour of the northern countries. From Weimar, the couple planned to travel over-land through Berlin to Stralsund on the north coast of Germany, then continue on to Stockholm. After a stay in Trondheim (Norway), they would return to Germany via Copenhagen.79 The trip reacquainted Ingeborg with her Swedish heritage, but also provided a much-needed respite for her husband. Tensions had been running high in Weimar throughout the first half of 1890, caused by internal conflicts and philosophical differences between Hans and two of his colleagues: Eduard Lassen and Richard Strauss. Hans met Strauss in January of 1889, offering him a position in Weimar as "GroBherzoglich Weimarischer Kapellmeister," which Strauss took up on 1 August 1889. At the time, Strauss felt that Hans was a "splendid fellow, a man of honour from head to toe . . . and very progressive," while he considered Lassen — the incumbent Kapellmeister since 1858 — to be "old and tired."80 Strauss would soon discover that even though Hans was "progressive," the older man had his limits. Hans maintained that Strauss's position as director made him subordinate to Lassen, the Hofkapellmeister; thus Strauss chafed under Lassen's conservatism while Hans supported Lassen's authority and control.8' Yet the greatest 7 9 Ingeborg von Bronsart, Weimar, to Frau Moritz, 7 July 1890, Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv, Weimar. Frau Moritz was the wife of Dr. Moritz, a long-time resident of Weimar and member of Liszt's circle. In the letter, Ingeborg also asks Frau Moritz to accompany them on the trip. 8 0 "Bronsart ist ein famoser Kerl, ein Ehrenmann vom Scheitel bis zur Sohle . . . dabei sehr fortschrittlich . . . auBerdem ist Lassen alt und mude und freut sich auf Entlastung." Willi Schuh, Richard Strauss: Jugend und Friihe Meisterjahre Febenschronik 1864-1898 (Zurich and Freiberg: Atlantis Musikbuch-Verlag, 1976), p. 171. 8 1 Ibid, p. 206. 23 problem seems to have been Strauss's growing relationship with Cosima Wagner. Alarmed by what he may have considered a temporary infatuation, Hans warned Strauss that "Weimar would not be a branch of Bayreuth," and cautioned him about his involvement with Wagner's "unmusical widow."82 Whatever role Ingeborg may have played in Strauss's "Sturm und Drangzeit" in Weimar is difficult to assess, as is any influence Strauss may have had on her music.83 Certainly some of Strauss early masterworks — including Tod und Verklarung and Don Juan — were performed in Weimar, but except for the Faiser-Wilhelm Marsch (1871), Ingeborg herself displayed litde interest in large-scale orchestral music, programmatic or otherwise. Strauss's first opera, Guntram, also premiered in Weimar (10 May 1894), but well after Hiarne. While Strauss's possible influence remains to be seen, what can be stated with certainty is that the opera repertoire that made its way to the Weimar stage at that time was extremely rich and diverse. For example, the 1889-1890 season included works by Mozart, Weber, and Lortzing, as well as Fidelio, Tannhauser, and Fohengrin.M The long-awaited premiere of Hiarne finally took place at the Koniglisches Opernhaus in Berlin on 14 February 1891. Even the Kaiser was in attendance, and according to Paul Simon the performance was so successful that the composer was "saluted with numerous curtain calls and laurel wreaths."85 Further performances in Hanover (1892), 8 2 "Weimar diirfe keine Filiale Bayreuths werden . . . Jeder gute Musiker, der mit Wagner in naher Beziehung stand, weiB dariiber (d.h. uber die Art der Widergabe seiner Werke) mehr und zuverlaBigeres als die unmusikalische Witwe des grofien Meisters." Ibid, p. 207. 8 3 Although Willi Schuh provides a detailed discussion of the relationship between Hans and Strauss, Ingeborg is mentioned only in passing, as Hans's wife and composer of Hiarne. Schuh, Richard Strauss: Jugend und Friihe Meisterjahre Lebenschronik, p. 522, n. 1. 8 4 Ibid, p. 183. 8 5 "Der Componistin wurden spontane Ehrenbezeihungen dutch zahkeiche Hervorrufe und Lorbeerkranze zu Theil." Paul Simon, "Die erste Auffuhrung der Oper Hiarne von Frau Ingeborg von Bronsart im Konigl. Opernhause zu Berlin," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik Bd. 87:1 (1891): 87. 24 Weimar (1893) and later Hamburg (1897) all met with the same success. After the Weimar performance, the Grand Duke awarded Ingeborg a gold medal for art and science.86 While Hiarne was enjoying a successful run in Germany, negotiations were underway to have the work performed abroad at the World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893. The Exposition would feature a Women's Building, where a Board of Lady Managers was appointed to oversee the design and construction of the building, the exhibition of arts and crafts, and to produce concerts of orchestral and chamber music.87 Herr Wermuth, the Reichs-Kommissar representing Germany at the Exposition, exerted some less-than-subtle political pressure on the president of the board to consider Hiarne for performance at the Women's Building: Allow me to claim your attention and the valuable assistance for a special matter concerning the Musical creation of a distinguished German lady, Frau Ingeborg von Bronsart; the wife of the Intendant of the famous Grand Ducal Theater at Weimar. This lady is the composer of a grand Opera "Hiarne" the dedication of which having been graciously accepted by His Imperial Majesty the Emperor, who as a great connoisseur and admirer of Music, takes a peculiar and personal interest in the Composition . . . Her Royal Highness the Princess Friedrich Carl von Preussen [sic], our Lady Protectrice honouring Frau Ingeborg von Bronsart by her personal friendship wishes to lend her influence and assistance that "Hiarne" might be played during the Columbian Exposition at Chicago.88 The Reichs-Kommissar's request notwithstanding, Hiarne was not performed at the Exposition. However, when the Women's Building opened on 1 May 1893, the ceremonies "began with a Grand March [the Kaiser-Wilhelm Marsch] composed by Ingeborg von Bronsart of Weimar, Germany."89 Ingeborg attempted to negotiate direcdy with Theodore Thomas, conductor of the Exposition Orchestra and a German by birth. Like Herr Wermuth, she was willing to use 8 6 Wilhelm Asmus, "Ingeborg von Bronsart," Neue ZeitschriftfurMusik Bd. 94:1 (1898): 194. 8 7 Ann E. Feldman, "Being Heard: Women Composers and Patrons at the 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition," Notes 41:1 (1990): 9. 8 8 Ibid, pp. 13-14. 8 9 Ibid, p. 7. 25 her connections with royalty, and wrote to Thomas, appealing to his sense of German patriotism: It has been ages and I have not heard anything from Chicago concerning the performance of the 1 st act of "Hiarne" under your direction. I am quite concerned not only because I . . . would be inconsolable if this wonderful plan did not mater-ialize . . . this would also offend Her Royal Highness, the Princess Friedrich Carl of Prussia, if her royal wish received so little consideration. It would be a disgrace for my work if, after sending all the musical scores — for which I have to pay the cost — the work then would be sent back without even being considered!! . . . I would be very happy and very grateful if you, very honored Sir, would take up my case with warm interest as a sympathetic German colleague . . . It cannot go unnoticed here in Germany if you, very honored Sir, help a German woman composer walk away as a winner.50 Ingeborg's impassioned plea failed to sway Thomas, although he did conduct a second performance of the Grand March at a Pops concert on 8 August 1893.91 There is no evidence to suggest that the Bronsarts actually attended the Exposition. Hans retired from his position in Weimar on 25 June 1895, at the age of sixty-five, and was awarded the honorary title of Privy Councilor.92 The couple moved to Munich, where both could devote more time to composition. For some time, Ingeborg stepped back from composing large operas and chamber music (a Phantasie for violin and piano, Op. 21, was published in 1891),93 returning again to the more intimate world of the lied. In 1898 she composed "Im Lenz" to a text by Heyse.94 She wrote to her friend Marie Lipsius in 1902 that Breitkopf & Hartel would soon publish a "Liederheft" of three lieder (Op. 25), along 9 0 Ibid, p. 16. 9 1 Ibid, p. 17. Ingeborg was not the only composer to appeal directly to Thomas and have her request denied. Amy Beach, whose Festival Jubilate was also performed on opening day (the work had been commissioned for the Exposition's October 1882 dedication cermony but was subsequendy rejected), asked Thomas to consider a second work as well. Feldman, "Being Heard," pp. 7 and 17. 9 2 "Hans von Bronsart," Neue Musik-Zeitung 35 (1914): 95. 9 3 Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg (Lena) von," p. 88. 9 4 Ibid, p. 89. 26 with "Rapelle-toi" (text by Alfred de Musset, Op. 24) and Felix Dahn's "Abschied" (Op. 26).95 Ingeborg took great pride in the fact that her oeuvre now included thirty lieder. In 1903, the Neue Musik-Zeitung announced that Ingeborg was celebrating her fiftieth Jubilee (50 jahriges Kunstjubilauni).96 She referred to it affectionately as her "golden wedding anniversary with music" (meine goldene Hochzeit mit der Musik).97 Princeregent Luitpold of Bayern awarded her the Ludwigs-Medaille in honour of the occasion.98 The Jubilee also coincided with the undertaking of a new opera, Die Siihne (The Atonement).99 Compared with Hiarne, the composition of which extended over more than fifteen years, Die Siihne was completed relatively quickly, and the work was premiered at Dessau on 11 April 1909.100 Although reviews of the first performance were not encouraging, Ingeborg confided to her friend Marie Lipsius that the score was to be published in Berlin by a company called "Harmonie."101 She further envisioned having a performance of Die Siihne in Stockholm to celebrate her seventieth birthday. The Grand Duchess Mitten of Baden, who was very interested in Ingeborg's work, happened to be related to the queen of Sweden. Ingeborg informed both Marie Lipsius and the Grand Duchess that she would send a copy of the piano score, along with a letter, to the king of Sweden.102 With only four months remaining until her birthday, 9 5 "Breitkopf & Hartel habe ich der Auftrag gegeben die kurzlich erscheinen Compositionen von mir zu iiberstanden: ein Liederheft von 3 Liedern; 'Rapelle-toi' von Alfred de Musset und 'Abschied' von Felix Dahn." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Munich, to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 2 December 1902, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. Ingeborg dedicated "Rapelle-toi" to her sister Olivia. 9 6 "Kunst und Kunsder," Neue Musik-Zeitung 24 (1903): 144. 9 7 Ingeborg von Bronsart, Munich, to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 2 December 1902, Goethe-und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 9 8 "Personalnachrichten," Neue Musik-Zeitung 24 (1903): 156. 9 9 "Kunst und Kunsder," p. 144. 1 0 0 Ernst Hamann, "Dessau," Die Musik 8 (1908-09): 368. 1 0 1 Ingeborg von Bronsart, Munich, to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 25 April 1910, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 1 0 2 Ibid. 27 there would not have been much time for preparation, and there is no documentary evidence that a performance took place in Stockholm. In 1910, Ingeborg set another Heyse text, "Verwandlung," and dedicated a set of lieder to Marie Lipsius.103 Unfortunately, these last few works were never published. A promised biographical article by Lipsius, in honour of her seventieth birthday, also came to nothing due to the death of one of Lipsius's close friends. The task was to have been passed on to one Dr. Otto Neitzel, but it appears that the article was never published. After a lengthy illness, Ingeborg died in Munich on 17 June 1913, at the age of seventy-two. Hans's death occurred a short time later, on 3 November of the same year. Following a lifetime of apparent success, the last few years gave Ingeborg time to reflect on past glories. Her final communications with Lipsius, as both her friend and biographer, recount some of her most special moments, particularly the performances with Liszt and the success of her stage works. She was well-aware of her position as the "first lady" of the German stage, and especially pleased that her biographer was a woman writing about a woman.104 What is more, she felt fortunate that "the most significant and famous music writer" (Musikschriftstellerin) would include her biography in her "important work, 'Musikalische Studienkopfe'."105 One can only speculate how much more we may have been able to know about Ingeborg, had Lipsius had the opportunity to rewrite Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart after 1913 and give us a more complete picture. 1 0 3 Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg (Lena) von," p. 89. 1 0 4 "Es freut mich von Herzen, daB eine Frau iiber Frauen schreiben witd." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 5 May 1878, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. Emphasis in the original. 1 0 5 "Es wurde mich hochbegliicken, wann Sie, die bedeutensten und beruhmsten Musikschriftstellerin, die mich fur wurdig gehalten hat, meine Biographie in ihr bedeutende Werk, 'Musikalische Studienkopfe' aufzunehmen." Ingeborg von Bronsart, Munich, to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 25 April 1910, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 28 Chapter T w o "Singspiel i n the A g e o f Wagner: Jery und Bately (1873)" H a v i n g experienced the failure o f her first opera, Die Gbttin von Sai's (1867), Bronsart no doubt sought the secret to success wi th her second work, and found the near-perfect inspiration i n Goethe's light-hearted comedy Jery und Bately. B o t h subject and genre were ideally suited to the composer's lyrical voca l wri t ing and command o f small forms. Because so litde is k n o w n about Bronsart and her works, this chapter examines the genesis o f Jery und Bately, insofar as it can be documented at this time. Fo l lowing discussion o f the plot and the dramatic structure, the musical analysis focuses o n the Overture and o n h o w it is connected to the work as a whole. Mus ica l characterization along wi th general matters o f style are explored i n the analysis o f specific set numbers, wi th a particular emphasis o n how the power struggle between the title characters is resolved musically. Principles o f dramatic intensification and continuity are considered wi th regard to the finale. In addition, this work also raises some important issues wi th respect to gender. I w i l l explore the intersections gender, genre and value judgement more fully i n Chapter F ive , but for the purposes o f the present chapter, I w i l l demonstrate that Bately is an unconvent ional female character w h o resists society's expectations at a time when gender images were being substantially redefined. Bronsart may have been attracted to this work precisely because Bately is a strong female whose views go against the grain o f the dominant gender images o f the time. A t the same time, for the male character, Jery, behind the mask o f comedy and farce lies an analogous story o f corning to manhood. Jery and Bately's struggle to reconcile their opposing views o n marriage is worked out musically throughout the course o f the opera. 29 Jery und Bately is based on a Singspiel text by Goethe. Goethe wrote the libretto i n 1780, when the construction o f a new theater i n the Redoutenhaus provided the city o f Weimar wi th a permanent home for both music and drama. 1 Performances took place that year, wi th music composed by Sigmund v o n Seckendorff and the lead role o f Bately performed by C o r o n a Schroter. 2 The subject apparendy was inspired by Goethe 's recent visit to Switzerland wi th D u k e K a r l August . Goethe himself described the work as "a little operetta, i n wh ich the actors w i l l wear Swiss costume and talk about cheese and milk. It is very short and merely designed for musical and theatrical effect." 3 F o r more than a century, the lively farce attracted the attention o f at least twenty-seven different composers, including K o n r a d i n Kreutzer (1810), A d o l p h Bernhard M a r x (1825), Gerhard Wagner (1909), and a 1906 setting i n Italian (Jery e Betly) by E n r i c o Romano (a complete list o f the various settings is shown i n Table 2.1, page 31). 4 In terms o f the plot, much more than cheese and mi lk is at stake i n this bucol ic farce enacted by a small cast o f four characters. The female protagonist, Bately, is a Swiss mi lkmaid w h o lives a happy i f somewhat meager existence wi th her father. She passes the time carrying pails o f mi lk , sitting at her spinning wheel, and fending of f the amorous advances o f Jery, the district's most eligible bachelor. Nei ther Father nor Jery can convince Bately that she should secure her future by marrying Jery. Bately, i n fact, has spurned many suitors; her independent nature has not endeared her to her neighbours, w h o view her as something o f a cruel temptress. Jery's friend Thomas agrees to play matchmaker, but his 1 M a r v i n Carlson, Goethe and the Weimar Theater (Ithaca and L o n d o n : Corne l l Universi ty Press, 1978), p. 38. 2 I b i d , p. 40. 3 Ibid. 4 Franz Stieger, Opernlexicon, Titelkatalog B d . 1 (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1975), pp. 644-45. 30 Table 2.1. Settings o f Jery und Bdtely, compi led from Franz Stieger, Opernlexicon, Titelkatalog B d . 1, (Tutzing, Hans Schneider, 1975), pp. 644-45. Composer Date Place Philipp Kayser 1780 never performed Seckendorff 1780 Weimar P. V . Winter 1790 Munich J.O.F. Schaum 1795 Oels G.B. Biery 1800 Leipzig Friedrich Gotzloff c. 1800 Berlin F.L. Seidel c. 1800 never performed J.F. Reichardt 1801 Berlin Ch.G.A. Bergt 1804 Bautzen Konradin Kreutzer 1810 Vienna M . Frey 1815 Mannheim A . B . Marx 1825 Berlin Friedrich Hartmann 1833 Hamburg Johann Schneider c. 1840 unknown J. Rietz 1841 unknown A. Justus Lecerf 1846 Dresden A. Scheufele 1851 Stuttgart Johann Hager c. 1850 never performed Heinrich Stiehl 1868 Gotha H. Hopff c. 1870 unknown G. Satter c. 1870 unknown Ingeborg von Bronsart 1873 Leipzig 1 Oskar Bolck 1873 Leipzig J. Kniese 1898 Bayreuth Georg Hartmann 1902 Danzig Enrico Romano 1906 Palermo, under the title "Jery e Betly" Gerhard Wagner 1909 Saarbriicken £ This is incorrect. T h e premiere was at Weimar. 31 methods prove to be unorthodox. Forc ing himself o n Bately (hugging and kissing her), Thomas tries to make her see that her mountain home is unsafe. W h e n Bately fights h i m off, i n his frustration Thomas smashes the windows o f her house, then gives the order to have his herd o f catde let loose to destroy her meadow. A l t h o u g h Bately's o w n physical strength is considerable, neither she nor her father can protect their home against the oncoming herd. T h e neighbours, alienated by Bately's stubborness, ignore their cries for help. A s Thomas has intended, Jery comes to the rescue, but Thomas physically beats h im. It is n o w Jery's turn to rebuff Bately's overtures. Bately suddenly seems more attracted to the injured and humiliated Jery now, and she convinces h i m that she does indeed love h im. Father gives his blessing for the union, Thomas is banished after making restitution for the damage he has caused, and the work ends wi th the happy anticipation o f Jery and Bately's fo rmcoming marriage. Bronsart 's reasons for choosing Jery und Bdtely cannot be stated wi th certainty. There is no evidence to suggest that the work was commissioned, although that could certainly be the case. It may have been intended to mark an important occasion at the Weimar court; however, the score is dedicated to Fraulein Marie Rohrs, not a member o f the royal family. 5 O n e can speculate that an interest i n Goethe w o u l d have been instilled i n the composer during her time wi th L isz t i n Weimar . 6 In addition, Bronsart 's attraction to Goethe's comedy is understandable i n light o f the immense popularity o f the libretto. G i v e n the failure o f her first dramatic work, Die Gbttin von Sai's, Bronsart may have been look ing for a 5 Fraulein Rohrs ' identity remains a mystery at this time. She may have been a singer at the Weimar court. 6 D u r i n g his tenure i n Weimar, L i sz t worked, without success, toward the establishment o f a "Goe the Foundat ion ." See Wol f r am Huschke, Musik im klassischen und nachklassischen Weimar 1756-1861 (Weimar: Hermann Bolhaus, 1982). 32 proven subject. Biographer Elise Polko noted only that in "1871 and 1872 in the Bronsart home the Goethe poem Jery und Bately saw the light of the world as a Singspiel."7 Jery und Bately premiered at the Weimar Hoftheater on 26 April 1873, under the direction of Liszt's associate Eduard Lassen.8 The work quickly made the rounds of the smaller repertory theaters in Carlsruhe, Baden-Baden, Schwerin, Kassel, Wiesbaden, Braunschweig, Hanover, Konigsberg and Mannheim.9 After a successful revival at the Tonkunsder-Versammlung in 1877, noted above, the opera lay idle. The first and only edition of the piano-vocal score of Jery und Bately was published by C.F. Kahnt in Leipzig in 1877. Publication may have been planned to coincide with the work's revival at the Tonkunsder-Versammlung held the same year: the publisher's advertisement appeared in the Neue Zeitshrift fur Musik on the page preceding Pohl's review (a reproduction of the advertisement is shown in Figure 2.1, p. 34). It is worth noting that in Kahnt's advertisement, as well as the title page to the work, Jery und Bately is referred to as an "Oper" ("opera") even though the work is clearly a Singspiel.10 Bronsart's libretto, undated, was printed separately from the score by Schluter'sche Hofbuchdruckerie in Hanover (title page shown in Figure 2.2, p. 35). Both the score and Bronsart's printed libretto contain only the "Gesangtext" (song texts), not the dialogue or stage directions. 7 "Im Fruhjahre 71 und 72 erblickte im Bronsartschen Hause die Goethesche Dichtung 'Jerry und Bately' [sic] als Singspiel das Licht der Welt." Elise Polko, "Ingeborg von Bronsart: biographisches Skizzenblatt," Neue Musik-Zeitung 9 (1888): 148. 8 James Deaville, "Bronsart, Ingeborg [Lena] von," New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers, edited by Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel (London: MacMillan, 1994), p. 88. 9 La Mara, Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart, Musikalische Studienkopf Bd. 5 (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1888), p. 141. 1 0 The designation as an "Oper" versus a "Singspiel" and its implications with regard to aesthetic value are discussed further in Chapter Five. 33 Figure 2.1. Advertisement for the score of Jery und Bdtely as it appeared in the Neue Zeitschrift furMusicBd. 73:1 (June 1877): 232. In meinem Verlage ist erschienen: Oper von Ingeborg* von Bronsart Klaricrauszug mit Text M. 7,50 netto. LEIPZIG. C. F. KAHNT, Fiirstl. S.-S. Hofmusikalienhandlung. 34 Figure 2.2. Title page of the Gesangtext (libretto) to Jery undBately. s 1 I 'SBaftft ton 9»#org von gronfarf. j Brit Jrr 6t|a"ngr. 35 L i k e Goethe 's original text, the dramatic structure o f Bronsart 's Jery und Bately is i n a single act. B u t while no scene divisions are marked i n Goethe's text, 1 1 scene divisions are indicated i n Bronsart 's published libretto. These divisions are prompted by the entrances and exits o f characters, rather than by necessary changes i n location (all o f the action takes place i n a single location, i n front o f Bately's house). There are twenty-seven scenes i n total, wi th thirteen musical numbers, listed i n Figure 2.3, below. Certain scenes do not contain musical numbers (scenes 9, 15-18, and 22), while the longer set numbers (Nos. 3, 9, 10, and 12) encompass more than one scene. Figure 2.3. L i s t o f set numbers i n Jery und Bately. Scene Set No. Title Text Incipit Cbaracter(s) 1 1 L i e d "Singe, V o g e l , singe" Bately 2 2 D u e t "Jeden M o r g e n " Father, Bately 3 & 4 3 L i e d " E s rauschet das Wasser" Bately & Jery 5 4 A r i e " G e h ' ! Verschmahe" Jery 6 5 L i e d " E i n M a d c h e n " Thomas 6 6 L i e d " E s war ein fauler Schafer" Thomas 7 7 Duet t "Neue Hof fnung" Jery & Thomas 8 8 Duet t " N i c h t so ei l ig" Thomas & Bately 10-14 9 Terzett " E i n Quodl ibe t" Thomas, Father, Bately 19-21 10 Duet t " D e m Verwegnen" Jery & Thomas , (Bately comes i n at the end) 23 11 Ariette " E n d l i c h , endlich darf i c h " J e r v 24-26 12 Duet t und " Ich b in lang, sehr lang" Bately, Jery, Father, Thomas Quartett 27 13 Finale "Ffort das T o b e n " Chorus, Bately, Jery, Thomas , and Father Bronsart was largely faithful to the original, leaving the spoken dialogue as such, and omit t ing only one o f Goethe's song texts (a short number for Jery, between N o s . 3 and 4). 1 1 "Con t inuous" action without formal scene divisions seems to be a convent ion i n about half o f Goethe 's Singspiel texts, including Die Fischerin (1 act), Scher\, Fist und Racbe (3 acts) and Die ungleichen Hausgenossen (fragment). B o t h Erwin undElmire and Claudine von Villa Bella do have formal scene divisions. 36 Jery und Bately opens wi th a substantial "Ouverture," the only extended instrumental passage i n the opera. A s i n the case o f many other G e r m a n operas, such as Weber 's Der Freischut^ the overture incorporates thematic materials drawn from set numbers i n the rest o f the opera. W h a t is intriguing about the overture to Jery und Bately is the manner i n w h i c h these thematic materials are presented. The provenance o f the themes, unusual key scheme, and truncated sonata form mirror, i n musical terms, the conflict between Jery and Bately i n the comedy that follows. B o t h the introduct ion and coda o f the overture, i n A major, draw o n the opera's finale (No . 13) for their thematic materials (see Figure 2.4, p. 38). In the introduction, the slow tempo and dotted rhythms establish an atmosphere o f a majestic, courtly processional that somehow seems at odds wi th the rural setting and lower class subject matter o f the comedy to fol low (mm. 1 - 8 shown i n Example 2.1, p. 39). 1 2 However , its meaning becomes clear at the beginning o f the Finale, where the chorus uses this music to celebrate Jery and Bately's wedding (mm. 102-107, Example 2.2, p. 39). Nearly all o f the music for the coda (mm. 203 - 249) appears as it does i n the last stages o f the finale (the last 33 measures o f the opera, pp. 72 - 75 o f the score). Three thematic ideas appear i n the Expos i t ion (mm. 27-124). Theme I i n a minor (mm. 27 - 43, shown i n Example 2.3, p. 40, labelled " J e r y " i n Figure 2.4) is a substantial preview o f Jery's first solo aria " G e h ! Verschmahe die Treue!" (No . 4, i n c minor , m m . 4 -18, shown i n Example 2.4, p. 41). A recurring accompaniment motive from Jery and Thomas 's duet (No . 10, m m . 25 - 26, Example 2.5, p. 42) provides the transitional theme (labelled "tr. T h e m e " i n Figure 2.4, m m . 48 - 55 shown i n Example 2.6, p. 42). The t M r d 1 2 A l l musical examples for Jery und Bately are taken from the piano-vocal score published by C . F . K a h n t (Leipzig, 1877). Measure numbers restart at " 1 " at the beginning o f each set number. 37 thematic idea (Th. II "Bately" i n F ig . 2.4, Example 2.7, p.43) is i n C major, far removed harmonically from the A major o f the Introduction, but the relative major o f theme I (a minor) . Th is theme comes from Bately's voca l line in the duet, N o . 12, where it is set i n shorter note values, i n A b major (c.f. Example 2.19, p.88). After three statements o f theme II, an emphatic cadence i n C major closes the exposition (mm. 123-124). Figure 2.4. Out l ine o f formal structure o f Ouverture. Introduction: m m . 1-26 (Andante) "F ina le" theme: wedding chorus, i n A major (mm. 1-6); Exs . 2.1 & 2.2 Expos i t ion : m m . 27-124 (Allegro molto, alle breve) T h . I (mm. 27-42) tr. T h . (mrn.48-9) T h . II (3 statements: m . 66, 78, 106) "Jery" "Bately" a minor V / a C major m m . 123-4: V - I i n C E x s . 2.3 & 2.4 Exs . 2.5 & 2.6 E x s . 2.7 & 2.20 Development : m m . 125-142 Uses transition theme Begins i n C major, modulates (gm, B b , em, Ab) to V / a Recapitulation: m m . 164-196 (truncated: no return o f theme II) T h . I (164-181) tr. T h . (184) trans, m m . 192-96 pedal E m m . 197-202 a minor new context: E major V / E Coda: m m . 203-224 (poco meno mosso) "F ina l e " theme: structurally related to wedding chorus theme A major F o l l o w i n g a brief development section, where the transition theme modulates to V / a (mm. 125-142), the recapitulation begins i n m . 164 as expected, wi th theme I i n a minor . Measures 164-181 are repeated exactly as they appear i n the exposition. However , when the transition theme returns at m. 184, the pi tch classes remain unchanged, but the harmonic context is n o w i n E major, wi th a key signature o f four sharps. This new context seems to signal that someti i ing is about to happen, and indeed, instead o f the anticipated 38 E x a m p l e 2.L Jery und Bately, Ouverture, mm. 1-8. Andante J = 66 Piano f f i c : »• c 1 cresc. ' LY& ,tt i r f 1 f f— \p s ^ - *' W m m -=M=) — d —fr-ir i • M. •• Example 2.2. Finale (chorus), mm. 102-106. Andante Soprano Alto Tenor Bass Fr ie - de den Ho - hen, F r i e - d e den M a t - t e n ! V e r leiht ihr Bf lu - me E Fr ie - de den HO - hen, Frie - dc den Mat - ten! V c r - l e i h t ihr Bau - me J £ - f - f - f 105 • A f-f—F-kuh - len - de Schat - ten Q - ber die jun - ge Frau, ii - ber den Gat - ten! tl r \u i i — I W I I uw fe S i kuh - len - de Schat - ten u - ber die jun - ge Frau, 0 - ber den Gat - ten! 39 Example 2.3. Ouverture, theme I, "Jery," mm. 27-43. 27 —* f t , „ f f~ ' -r 1 1 ^~ — A i * * .—• i f 1 r 1 40 Example 2.4. Excerpt from No. 4, Jery's "Geh'l Verschmahe" mm. 4-18. Jery; mm G e h ' ! verschma-he die Treu mp r \ -41 Example 2.5. Excerpt from No. 5, Jery and Thomas duet, mm. 25-26. Example 2.6. Ouverture, transition theme, mm. 47-55. 42 Example 2.7. Ouverture, theme II "Bately," mm. 66-77. 43 recapitulation of theme II in a minor, Bronsart gives us a transitional passage on V / E (mm. 192-196). At m. 197, a tempo change to Poco meno mosso coincides with five measures of E pedal (mm. 197-201), until a third inversion V 7 / A resolves to A major in m. 203, initiating the coda. As much as it is a cliche to characterize the first and second themes as "masculine" and "feminine," in this case it may have been the composer's intent for us to hear them that way in retrospect. Moreover, by withholding the return of the second theme in the tonic, a rninor, Bronsart leaves the issue of tonal resolution to be worked out through the course of the opera. Jery and Bately's differing views on love and marriage, and their ultimate reconciliation, might thus be heard as a difference in mode (major and minor), and the working out of the conflict between Ctt and C^. This working out can be seen in the large-scale tonal planning of the opera, shown in Figure 2.5. Figure 2.5. Jery und Bdtely. large scale tonal scheme. Overture: A / a - / C / A [Cft vs. CT] No. 1 C (Bately) [Cq {blll/A}] No. 2 E (Bately/Father) [Of {V/A}] No. 3 Db (Bately)/c# (Jery) [Db=C# {III/A}] No. 4 c minor (Jery) [Ct| {biii/A, parallel min. of C maj.}] No. 5 F major (Thomas) [Ctl ^ b V I / A , IV/C}] No. 6 A major (Thomas) [OH No. 7 F (Jery)/F# major (Thomas) [C#vs.Ct| {bVI/A, VI/A}] No. 8 Db (Bately & Thomas) pb=C# {III/A}] No. 9 G / g (Thomas/Father/Bately) [Btl vs. Bb] No. 10 F (Jery/Thomas/Bately) [CU] No. 11 Dfjery) [Ctf {TV/A} No. 12 Ab to Eb (All) [C§ {Ab = G# enharmonic leading-tone of A major}] No. 13 begins in C major, to D, G, A major [Ctl to C#] (Jery, Bately, Thomas, Father, and chorus) 44 The sharp major keys may be considered as representing society, particularly the A major tonality of the overture and the finale, given the strong associations of this music with the chorus at the end of the opera. Father is also a part of this social order. While he has little to sing throughout most of the opera, his largest contribution is in the duet with Bately, in E major. Music for both Bately and Jery, on the other hand, tends to be set in flat major keys (F, Db, Ab, Eb), exploiting Ck, or else minor keys (Jery's No. 4 in c minor). The relationship between C# and is treated almost like a musical pun in the third number, a lied for Bately and Jery, where Bately's music is in Db major as opposed to Jery's music which is in c# minor (this number is discussed in further detail below). Even in the penultimate number (No. 12), beginning in Ab major and ending in Eb major, C# figures prominently in the reprise of Jery's "Es rauschen die Wasser" in its original key of c# minor (this number, too, is discussed in further detail later). Thomas, in his role as matchmaker, seems to play on both sides of the C#-Cl equation, with a solo lied in F major (No. 5) and another in A major (No. 6). Bronsart's command of small forms and skilful! characterization is displayed in the set numbers in Jery und Bately. As Richard Pohl noted in his review (1877), "the Swiss subject matter could easily induce here the "yodel" style or upper-Bavarian 5A time sentimentality."13 Imaginative and effective, often with whimsical modulations, the musical setting is a perfect artistic match for the folk-like subject matter. In the opening number (labelled "No. 1 Lied" in the score) Bately is portrayed as a child of nature who sings about litde birds and trees: 1 3 Richard Pohl, "Die 14. Tonkunstler-Versammlung des Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereins vom 19. bis 24 Mai 1877," Neue Zeitschriftfur Musik Bd. 73:1 (1877): 233. 45 Singe, V o g e l , singe! Sing, bird, sing! Bluhe, Baumchen, bliihe! Bloom, little trees, bloom! W i r sind guter Dinge , We are good things, Sparen keine M i i h e , Sparing no effort, Spat und friih. Early and late. D u r i n g the course o f the L i e d the text is repeated three times (the third time only partially), but the music is through- composed: each repetition o f the text comes wi th a new melody that is more heavily ornamented wi th agile leaps, fast runs, turns and trills evoking birdsong, while a "yode l " motive appears in m . 10 on the text " W i r sind guter D i n g e " (Example 2.8, pp. 47-49). Immediately, the major /minor C^l-Cft duality o f the overture comes into play i n this number (there is no intervening dialogue after the overture). B o t h the voca l line (mm. 5-6) and the accompaniment (mm. 1-2) are motivically connected to the overture theme I (cf. E x . 2.3 p. 40 and E x . 2.4, p. 41), but i n C major rather than a minor (Ex. 2.3) or c minor (Ex. 2.4). T h e key o f a minor resurfaces at the end o f the first statement o f the text (mm. 13-17, E x . 2.8, pp. 47-48), then serves as the harmony for the beginning o f the second statement (mm. 18-19). C# is introduced into the voca l line and the accompaniment (m. 19), tonicizing V / V i n preparation for the modulat ion to G major. I f the text seems to express Bately's carefree nature and a certain desire for freedom (especially wi th the nonsense syllables i n mm.29-35), the accompaniment is pinned first to a G pedal (mm. 23-26) then a C pedal (mm. 32-35). Unresolved leading-tone B's i n the penultimate bar have a poignant touch, and might be heard as representing the issues o f the plot that must be resolved later. Overa l l this first number is more like a coloratura aria than a folk-song or lied. Whi l e Bately desires freedom, her father, o n the other hand, is a mode l o f stability and social convention. A g i n g and physically declining, he presses Bately to secure her future by marrying Jery. H i s feet are firmly rooted i n the reality o f the situation, while his paternal 46 Example 2.8. No. 1, Lied, Bately, "Singe, Vogel, singe!" Allegretto J = 96 Sin - ge V o - gel, sin - ge! B lU - he Baum - chen, blU - he! Unpocopin schenando w i r s i n d gu - ter D i n - ge, r4—= ^ F l k , . , poco riten. tr spa - ren k e i - n e M U - h e spat_ und frQh, ja spat und fruh, V/vi vi * r V / E ( V / V in a) 47 Example 2.8 (continued, page 2 of 3). 16 [<7r- In 1 H ' ~ m * =£= pat und frQh. Sin - ge, Vo - gel,_ sin - ge, F — = = ^ = ^ & = L. J v i f i t r tf- t t r f f f --J • »— • L J — 1 bl i i -he , Baum- chen, blil - he! Wir sind gu ter_ Din - ge, ja_ 48 Example 2.8. (continued, page 3 of 3). 29 La, tra la la la la la blu-he,Baum-chen,blU - he, sin-ge,Vo-gel,sin - ge, tra la la la la m sin - ge mp jmtf nt. 40 frwv len_ a tempo Vo gel sin - ge! ^ 6 §= i F a tempo p r E r — « J. * t f — " " U L J -49 pragmatism is reflected i n the solid folk-like setting o f the duet that he shares wi th Bately. Father's words express his concern for Bately's future: Jeden M o r g e n Every morning Neue Sorgen, new worries, Sorgen fur dein junges Blut . worries for jour young blood. Musical ly, Father is represented by a stable E major harmony, symmetrical four-measure phrases, and a voca l line that is carefully supported i n the accompaniment (mm. 2 - 1 1 , Example 2.9, pp. 51-53). The entire text is sung twice, i n the manner o f an antecedent-consequent structure, wi th a final repetition o f the last line to round of f the section. W h e n Father pauses o n g# minor ( i i i / E ) at the end o f his section (m. 11), Bately responds by twisting his words to suit her o w n outlook on life: A l l e Sorgen A.U worries N u r auf Morgen! only for tomorrow! Sorgen sind fur M o r g e n gut. Worries are good for tomorrow. A l t h o u g h she confirms and continues Father's g# minor at first, by m . 16 she has cadenced i n G# major. The melody continues the "bi rdsong" coloratura from the first number, while the syncopated accompaniment indicates that she is much livelier than her father (mm. 12 -14, 18 - 20 o f Example 2.9). In m m . 17-21, Bately entreats her father to sing wi th her, using a minor . The dominant 7th o f F major (m. 21) is treated as an augmented 6th to return to E major, thus, when he enters, she keeps h i m i n E major, preventing h i m from going to g# minor again as they sing the concluding section together, each to their o w n words. L i k e Father, Thomas is portrayed as a strong male figure, but one w h o is repulsed by Jery's lovelorn sighs. H i s cavalier attitude toward love is displayed i n his first number, the L i e d " E i n M a d c h e n und ein Glaschen W e i n " (scene 6). A c c o r d i n g to Thomas , the solution to Jery's p rob lem is simple: 50 Example 2.9. No. 2, Father and Bately duet. Andantino J = 92 No. 2. Duett (Vater, Bately) Vater: Je - den Mor - gen neu - e Sor - gen, HE2 i i i i E major: l m Sor - gen fur dein jun- ges Blut. Je - denMor- gen neu-e Sor-gen, • r ~3 "3 v H i^ T * * V 7 . ^ i . r r r f 6 Sor - gen fiir dein jun-gesBlut. Sor - gen ftlr dein jun - ges m gately: Poco piu vivo. vviii 51 Example 2.9. (continued, page 2 of 3). S o r - g e n sind far m o r - gen gut! f U r m o r - gen gut. A l - le So r -gennu rau fmor - gen S o r - g e n s ind f i r mor -Je - den M o r - gen 52 Example 2.9. (continued, page 3 of 3). 23 2 \ SfS Al le Sor - gen nur_ auf mor neu - e Sor - gen, Sor - gen fur dein jun - ges Blut . i J J J 2d 7? n/. e cre.sc. Sor - gen sind fur mor gen Sor - gen ftlr dein j u n - ges Blut_ A mr r— j a S o r - g e n ftlr d e i n j u n - g e s rit. e cresc. si Blut . 53 E i n M a d c h e n und ein Glaschen W e i n A maiden and a glass of wine Curi ren alle N o t h ; Cures all need; U n d wer nicht trinkt und wer nicht kuBt And whoever does not drink or kiss D e r ist so gut wie todt. Is as good as dead. T o ensure that the message is unambiguous, i n the musical setting the single stanza o f text is repeated three times, i n A B A 1 form (outline shown i n Figure 2.6, below). Figure 2.6. Out l ine o f Thomas 's L i e d , " E i n Madchen und ein Glaschen W e i n " (No . 5). Intro A section B section A 1 section Postlude M m . 1-4 5 - 16 1 7 - 2 3 34 -45 46-55 56 - 59 Me lody I new melody melody I extension F major F major F , a-, C F , V / d returns to F The percussive hunting figures i n the introduction, interlude and postlude hint at Thomas 's predatory attitude towards w o m e n (Example 2.10, pp. 55-57). Clarity is maintained throughout the L i e d by the chordal accompaniment that supports the voca l line and the simple harmonic language: the tonic F major elaborated by I V . In the B section, the a m i n o r / C major duality o f the overture returns wi th a brief progression i n C major, v i (a minor) - I V - V - 1 (mm. 29-32, Example 2.10 p. 56). O n e o f the most striking features o f the song is the incessant dwell ing on V / d minor on the w o r d "tot" ("dead," m m . 45 and 49). T h e persistent leading-tone C# reminds the listener o f the A major harmony o f the overture. A l t h o u g h Jery is young and relatively wealthy, Bately's greatest objection is that he wants to have a w o m a n i n his power, and that woman is her ("nur w i l l er mi t Gewal t eine Frau dazu haben und just [sic] mich" ) . 1 4 H e r desire for independence places her among the ranks o f her more famous (Italian) operatic counterparts, including Rosina i n / / barbiere di Siviglia. A s Ra lph L o c k e has observed, i n comic opera the heroines "often take matters into their o w n capable hands and manage to end up wi th a husband w h o m they have freely 1 4 Goe the , /CTJ und Bately, p. 918. 54 Example 2.10. No. 5, Thomas, "Ein Madchen und ein Glaschen Wein.' Allegro J = 80 IA Section j Thomai: F major: IV 1 IV B r f U fM Mfld-chen und ein Glfls- chen.Wein ku -ri-ren al-le Not; ku -ri-ren al-le Nor ir rmJJM und J J J J 1 r- wer nicht trinkt und t4-4 4 i i wer nicht koBt, der [j- <| J- M • />'«/ 1 i & J1 —] | ii •• 1 IV I f i f f i r r i IV 1 ist so gut wie t( der ist so gut wie 3 tot, <y •tj j r r f 1 • ,• • i Stff—5-55 56 Example 2.10. (continued, page 3 of 3) •10 > l ^ r y r r , r f r r i wer nicht trinkl und 1,4 «[> i i wer nicht kUBt, der | + <H M LmJ 1 !! ist so gut wie rrPr i i tot, der § i i i j : L P! p d r-^  i J i j - J - ^ - * — - j j - . . r r r r r J : dill s T f P r 1 — - - ^ *3 = creic>. ist so gut wie tot. Und wer nicht trinkt und wer nicht koOt, der 3 V/d 3 ist s o _ gut wie tot, und wer nichttrinkt und wer nicht kQflt, der 57 chosen rather than one assigned to them by lo rd or guardian." 1 5 Because their resistance to social expectations takes place wi th in the context o f a comedy, heroines like Bately and Rosina are rarely seen as being subversive nor are they taken seriously. Wha t begins as a protofeminist statement is undone, when the w o m e n characters "end up being safely re-domesticated at the end . . . thereby celebrating society's main plot for women , the 'successful marriage' p lo t . " 1 6 Bately's ambivalent stance toward Jery and marriage are clearly embedded i n Goethe's text, but Bronsart also enhances that struggle by enacting it musically i n two duets between Jery and Bately. T h e first occurs early i n the opera (scene 3) just as Jery makes his first entrance. Bately sees Jery approaching and plans to rebuff h i m yet again, by taking up her spinning and singing a "happy song" so that he cannot "launch into his same o ld story." 1 7 E s rauschet das Wasser, The water rushes, U n d bleibet nicht stehn; And doesn't stand still; G a r lustig die Sterne Very merrily the stars A m H i m m e l hingehn; Go through heaven; G a r lustig die W o l k e n Very merrily the clouds A m H i m m e l hinziehn, Move in the sky, So rauschet die Liebe Thus rushes love U n d fahret dahin! And goes away! T h e words o f her L i e d show her desire for freedom, like the rushing waters, the stars and the clouds drifting i n the skies. A c c o r d i n g to Bately, love is fleeting and soon passes by. Bately's musical "actions" speak as strongly as her words. The sixteenth-note accompaniment to the L i e d appropriately represents the swirling imagery o f the text as wel l 1 5 Ra lph L o c k e , "Wha t are These W o m e n D o i n g i n Opera?," in En Travesti: Women, Gender, Subversion, Opera, Corr ine E . Blackmer and Patricia Julianna Smith, eds. (New Y o r k : Co lumbia Universi ty Press, 1996), p. 62. 1 6 Ibid. 1 7 "Wahrhaftig, da k o m m t er! H a b ich's doch gesagt. D i e Liebhaber sind so punkt l ich wie die Sonne. Ich muB nur ein lustig L i e d anfangen, daB er nicht gleich i n seine alte Leier einlenken kann." Goethe, Jery und Bately, p. 919. 58 as the activity o f spmning (Example 2.11, pp. 60-61), while the form (A B A 1 ) and phrasing is less free than Bately's first number (outline shown i n Figure 2.7, below). O n e is reminded here o f another, more famous Goethe spinning song, Schubert's setting o f "Gre tchen am Spinnrade" from Faust. B u t while Gretchen bemoans the loss o f her lover, her comic counterpart tries to side-step the issue o f love through enharmonic modulations. Figure 2.7. Out l ine o f Bately, " E s rauschet das Wasser" (No . 3). A B A 1 Text lines: 1 -4 5 & 6 5 & 6 7 & 8 7 & 8 8 5 - 8 M m . # : 3-8 9-10 12-13 14-16 17-18 20 21-25 I -V 7 bVI I Keys : Db-Ab Ab A(=Bbb) Db The hesitant rol led chords i n the accompaniment and three measure phrases when the voice enters (mm. 3-8) mimic the process o f starting up the spinning wheel. Beginning i n Db major, the harmony modulates to the dominant, Ab, i n m. 8 (Example 2.11, p. 60). A t m . 11 the Ab pedal i n the bass is respelled as G#, initiating the modulat ion to A major (A=Bbb, bVI/Db), whi le drawing us back once again to the C^-Ctt duality o f the overture. T h e original tonic Db returns i n m . 14 through another whimsical modulat ion i n the opposite direction, this time via a different enharmonic equivalence o f C# wi th Db. F o r the next seven measures (mm. 14-20, Example 2.11, p. 61), the final couplet o f the text, "So rauschet die Liebe und fahret dahin," is repeated three times, as the spinning accompaniment gradually slows: first i n triplets (mm. 14-15), then quarter notes and dotted-eighth and sixteenth notes. T h e harmony from m m . 16-20 dwells o n the dominant. Twice , Bately pauses whistfully at a fermata on the dominant 7th (first inversion, m . 16, root posi t ion, m . 20), the second time leaving the leading-tone and chordal seventh to resolve i n a different 59 riple 2.11. Bately, "Es rauschet das Wasser" (No. 3, mm. 1-26). .Allegro moderato J= 112 ^ Bfllely: ^ - o J ' ~ lus - tig die Wol - ken am Him - mel hin- z^ ehn 4- * gar lus - lig die Wol - ken V/A 60 Example 2.11. (continued, page 2 of 2) '\ht* 1 r K "r IT 1 . crate. S « • 1 Him - mel hin ziehn._ So rau-schet dieLie - be und fah - ret da-r> /rt ^ ____ . . n 5 H hin. So rau-schet die Lie-be und fah-ret da- hin,_ und 20 _eN"J"mP° yf\poco rn. fth-retda-hin^Gar lus - tig die Wo! - ken am Him me! hin 23 a tempo piii lento ziehn. So rau - schet die Lie be und 61 register i n m . 21 as the spinning wheel resumes its mot ion . H e r pauses are strongly reminiscent o f Schubert's Gretchen, w h o also halts expectantly o n the dominant 7th i n her song (m. 68 o f "Gre tchen am Spinnrade"). Bu t while Gretchen recalls the ecstasy o f her lover's kiss ("sein K u B " ) , Bately's objective is the opposite: to convince her suitor that love is fleeting, and that she is not interested i n h im. W h i l e Bately sings, Jery waits patiently i n the wings, listening to the seductive appeal o f her r ippl ing accompaniment. H e replies to her song wi th one o f his own , trying to w i n Bately over to his point o f v iew by incorporating her words, but changing their grammatical sense and meaning: E s rauschen die Wasser, The waters rush away, D i e W o l k e n vergehen; The clouds disappear; D o c h bleiben die Sterne, But the stars remain, Sie wandeln und stehn! They wander yet they stay! So auch mit der Liebe , That's the way love is, D e r Treuen geschicht: Distinguishedfrom loyalty: Sie wegt sich, sie regt sich It moves, it stirs, U n d andert sich nicht! Yet remains the samel Bately says that everyone should be free to do what they want, and that love is transitory, but Jery changes the text to point out that every element o f nature (including love) has an aspect that does not change but stays the same. In order to convince Bately, Jery mimics her song, to the point o f incorporat ing a variation o f the spinning accompaniment, but i n c# minor— an enharmonic respelling o f Bately's D b tonic — ending i n E major at the end o f the repeat o f the first four lines o f the text (m. 35, Example 2.12, pp. 63-64, outline shown i n Figure 2.8, p. 64). T h e symmetrical four-measure phrases and eventual E major harmony recalls Father's music from the earlier duet wi th Bately, while c# minor and E major reinforce the C^-Ctf duality against Bately's D b major tonic. 62 Example 2.12. Jery, "Es rauschen die Wasser," (No. 3, mm. 27-50). J = 104 a tempo 27 Es rau - schendie Was - ser, die Wol - ken ver-gehn, doch JO cS minor: i m- — — if' -0-blei - b ;n die Ster - ne, si N T ' s ri\n e wan • deln und stel in. Es 0- m 1 J J ^ i 5 M i < 3 3 r rau - schen die Was - ser, die Wol - ken ver-gehn; doch * J -K», -°=f ft 'f P r y r 1 =^  blei - ben die S er - ne, sie i • r r H r A/an - deln und stehn. ^=-4 =^ j ^ L J<5 E^3 5 So auch mit der Lie - be derTreu - en, ge-schicht C (kVI/E) 63 64 Figure 2.8. Out l ine o f Jery, " E s rauschen die Wasser" (No. 3). Text lines: 1 - 4 1 - 4 5 - 8 1 - 4 5 - 8 M m . # : 28-31 32-35 36-39 41-44 45-50 i - V i . . b V I / E , E i I Keys : c# minor E major C major c# minor.... D b major Jery even invokes Bately's two measures o f chromatic slippage, at m. 36, w i th the text "so auch mit der L iebe ," sliding f rom E major into C major, bVI , emphasizing the statement that "true love is not fleeting." Ci rc l ing back to C# minor, he repeats the first four lines o f text one more time. N o w his c# minor has a "get serious" quality, i n response to Bately's coy mock ing beforehand. A l t h o u g h the spinning accompaniment is relentless throughout his part o f the duet (hammering his point home), by m . 43 the sixteenth-note mot ion begins to slow, the accompaniment abandoning h i m completely i n m . 45 (possibly indicating that Bately may have ceased her spinning i n order to listen to him). A s he repeats the last two lines for the final time, he changes meter and key (m. 49), switching enharmonically again from C# minor to D b major, closing out the number, (as expected, i n a certain way) i n D b major, Bately's key. Bronsart 's setting o f this duet enriches the psychological portrayal o f the two characters, enacting musically their different opinions about love. Other settings o f Goethe's text tend to disregard or downplay the situation. F o r example, i n He in r i ch Stiehl's 1868 setting, Jery and Bately each sing their strophes o f the spinning song separately, then together, as shown i n Figure 2.9, p. 66 (cf. Bronsart's text and translation for this number o n pp. 58 and 62). 65 Figure 2.9. Out l ine o f He in r i ch Stiehl, Bately/Jery " E s rauschet das Wasser" (1868). Section 1 (Bately) Section 2 (Jery) Section 3 (together) Lines 1 - 8 1 - 8 interlude Lines 1-8 5 1 - 4 interlude Lines 1 - 8 7-8 7-8 7 - 8 M e l . a b a c a d M m . # : 3 - 1 0 11-18 19-21 23-30 31-34 35-38 39-46 47-8 49- 53 I V I i . . . . V v i i 0 7 . . V / G I V I V 7 / G t o V / C I V I m o d I C major a minor G major C major C Stiehl "empowers" Bately by al lowing her to sing her entire text twice through at the outset o f the number. B o t h characters sing their o w n words, but to Bately's original melody (melody a) to start the final section (Example 2.13, pp. 67-71). L i k e Bronsart, Stiehl employs a spinning sixteenth-note accompaniment, but his most interesting musical moments are reserved for Jery's partial repetition o f lines 1-4 and the instrumental interludes. Similarly i n G e o r g Hartmann's 1902 setting, Jery and Bately sing the final two lines o f text together at the end, but using Jery's words ("sie wegt sich und regt sich, und andert sich nicht"), as shown i n the outline i n Figure 2.10 below. In terms o f the musical language, Hartmann's setting is so unvaried that it borders on the banal; wi th the exception o f a change i n meter i n Jery's section, there is no musical differentiation between the characters at all (Example 2.14, pp. 72-74). Figure 2.10. Out l ine o f G e o r g Har tmann, Bately/Jery duet " E s rauschet das Wasser" (1902). Section 1 (Bately) Section 2 (Jery) (together-his words) Lines 1 - 8 7 - 8 Lines 1 - 8 Lines 7 - 8 M m . 3-18 19-22 33-48 49-53 K e y : G major G major G major [meter changes line 6] 66 Example 2.13. Heinrich Stiehl, Bately/Jery duet, "Es rauschet das Wasser" (1868). No. 3. Duett Andantino quasi Allegretto Heinrich Sliehl Baelely f ^ f (ZIP f Es rau-schetdas Was-serundblei - bet nicht steh'n, gar lu - stigdicSlcr - ne am Him - melgeh'n, gar j II 3 E = lu - slig dicWol - kc n am V ^ } i —TrTrTrTrTrTrtfT W —«L J — -rmrmr * — 1 T W ^ till Him - mel hin-zieh'n, so rau - schet die Lie - be und fan - ret da-hin. Es m rau - schet das Was - ser und blei - bet nicht steh'n, gar lu - stig die Stern' am 1 J J u tail i i i 67 Example 2.13. (continued, page 2 of 5) Him - mel_gch'n; gar lu - sligdie Wol - ken am Him - mel zieh'n. so 17 rau - schctdic Lie - be und fan - ret da-hin. 68 Example 2.13. (continued, page 3 of 5) 24 Wol - ken vcr-geh'n, doch blei - bendieSter - ne, sie wan - deln und steh'n, so auch mil dcrL.ic - be der Treu - en gc-schicht, sie wcgi sich, sieregt sich und den sich nicht Es rau - schen die Was - scr. d ie 4 3EE3E — _ — j as cresc. r r 32 W o l - ken ver - geh'n, doch blei - ben die Ster - ne, sie 69 Example 2.13. (continued, page 4 of 5) A wan - dein und sieh'n. . , -j? J y^aa j f"f\f J7 Baelely. ^ ft P ft P Jery. Es rau-schcldasWas-serund Es rau-jchendie Wai-ser.die 333 5 3 . . S 3 5 3 5 3 3 n i i f i f i t i f — f t blei - bel nichtsteh'n, gar lu - stigdieSter - ne am Him - mclgeh'n. gar Wol • ken ver-geh'n. doch blei - bendicSter - ne, sie wan - delnundgeh'n, so M i t t ^ g f l i 5 ^ « r i r v f l lu - slig die Wol - ken am Him - mel hin - zieh'n, so rau - schel die Lie - be und auch mil der Lie - be der Treu - en ge - schlcht, sie wegt sich, und regt sich und T 70 Example 2.13. (continued, page 5 of 5) V6 a n .". d ^ s i c h f j ' d " . sie wegt sich. und regt sich und an - dertsichnichi, sie wegi sich. und regt sich und an - den sich niche. rau - schet die Lie - be u nd flh - rel da - hin. > wegi sich und regt sich und si 71 Example 2.14. Georg Hartmann, Bately/Jery duet, "Es rauschet das Wasser," (1902). Frisch No. 3 Georg Hartmann Baetely Es rau - schet das Was - ser und blei - bet nicht stehn; gar lus - lig die Sler - nc am Him-mel hin gehn; gar lus - tig die Wol - ken am Him-mel hin - zichn; so 15 f Nur ein wenig breiler m rau - schet die Lie - be und fah - ret da - hin. so rau - schet die imp m • leichl m 72 73 Example 2.14. (continued, page 3 of 3) Sie wegi sich, sie regt sich. und an - den sich nicht nicht. Sie wegt sich, sie regt sich, und 'an - dert sich nicht. . 74 What distinguishes Bronsart's version even more from those of Stiehl and Hartmann is her treatment of the reprise of Jery's portion of the spinning duet (and the material following it) later in the opera. The reprise of the spinning song is clearly indicated in Goethe's original libretto, embedded in the penultimate section (in Bronsart, as part of No. 12 "Duett und Quartett," discussed further below). Stiehl reprises the song in an abbreviated version (in A major), but the critical passage that follows — where Bately acknowledges that she loves Jery, consequendy resolving the plot — is omitted. Hartmann, too, reprises the spinning song, but dispenses with Bately's capitulation. Although the eventual outcome of the plot remains the same in all three versions, Bronsart's setting remains true to the original. Between the first spmning duet and its reprise, a great deal of action takes place. In sum, after the first duet, despite Jery's efforts in the end Bately is unconvinced, and she tells him so. Her stubborn refusal leads Jery to seek Thomas's help, setting in motion Thomas's attempted seduction and the destruction of Bately's house. Bately does not change her mind until Jery comes to the rescue and is physically beaten by Thomas. She is moved by Jery's efforts to protect her, perhaps even out of pity to see him now that he is injured, humiliated and emasculated. The denouement takes place in the "Duett und Quartett" (No. 12), where dramatic intensification is carried out, as is conventional in comic opera, through musical continuity rather than through closed set numbers or dialogue. At the outset of the "Duett und Quartett," only Jery and Bately are present, but they are joined first by Bately's father, then by Thomas approximately r^o-thirds of the way through. The overall structure is far more complex than the tide of the number suggests, as, in fact, there are five clear sections. 75 Section I functions as an introduction to the duet proper. In the first part o f this section, Jery and Bately alternate wi th short solo passages i n wh ich they discuss Jery's injuries. The text is written i n rhymed verse, not prose, while the rhyme schemes interlock between the separate strophes: Bately Ich b in lang, sehr lang geblieben. K o m m , wir miissen's nicht verschieben: K o m m und zeig mir deine H a n d . Jery Liebe Seele, me in Gemi i t e Bleibt beschamt v o n deiner Gi i t e . A c h wie w o h l tut der Verband! Bately Schmerzen dich noch deine Wunden? Jery Liebste, sie sind lang verbunden; Seit dein Finger sie beriihrt, H a b ich keinen Schmerz gespiirt. I've remained too long. Come, we must not postpone it: Come and show me your hand. Beloved soul, my heart Is ashamed by your goodness. 0 how well the bandage is done! Do your wounds still hurt you? Dearest, they are long bandaged, Since yourfinger touched them, I have felt no pain. A l t h o u g h these smaller passages approximate "dialogue," they are written i n an arioso style rather than i n recitative (Example 2.15, pp. 77-78). The entire introductory passage is unified harmonically through closely related keys — V / A b - A b major, c minor , f minor , A b and E b (as shown i n the diagram i n Figure 2.11, below). Figure 2.11. Out l ine o f "Due t und Quartet" Section I (mm. 1-63). Intro Bately Jery Bately Jery Bately M m . 1-4 6-11 12-19 20-21 22-30 31-63 6 m m 8 m m 2 m m 9 m m V / A b A b ^ c m V / A b to V / f f , v 7 / f f , V / A b , A b , E b V / B , B , f, A b "dialogue" "ar ia" 76 Example 2.15. "Duett und Quartett," dialogue portion of Section I, mm. 1-29. Andante con moto J = 80 n i lang, sehr lang ge-b l ie - ben. K o m m ! W i r mils - sens nicht ver-sch ie - ben, komm und 77 Example 2.15. (continued, page 2 of 2). 18 v/v v 78 Section I concludes wi th a longer "aria" for Bately, a single strophe o f text i n w h i c h she gives Jery the opportunity to reject her. O n the surface, her words are self-deprecating, but there is a sense that she is also mock ing Jery. Rede, aber rede treulich, Speak, but speak truly, Sieh mi r offen ins Gesicht! Look at me openly in the face! Findest du m i c h nicht abscheulich? Don 'tyou find me disgusting? A b e r Jery schmeichle nicht! But Jery, do not flatter! D e r du ganz dein Herz geschenkt, What you gave completely from your heart, D i e du nun so schon verteidigt, What you now so beautifully defend, Oft wie hat sie dich beleidigt, How often did it offend you, WeggestoBen und gekrankt! Pushed away and sickened! H a t dein L ieben sich geendet, ]fjot{r l°ve has ended itself, Hat dein H e r z sich weggewendet, If your heart has turned itself away, Uberlaft m i c h meiner Peine! Leave me to my torment! Sag' es nur, i ch w i l l es dulden, Only say it, I will endure it, Stille leiden meine Schulden; And quietly suffer the blame; D u sollst immer glucklich sein. You should always be happy. T h e first three lines o f the strophe are underpinned by a harmonic progression i n B major ( v i - i i - V - 1 , m m . 31-34, Example 2.16, pp. 80-81), w i th g# minor set up by die V 7 / A b i n m . 30 (cf. last measure o f Example 2.15, p. 78). A s Bately asks i f Jery "finds her disgusting" ("findest du m i c h nicht abscheulich," m m . 35-36), on the w o r d "abscheulich" her voca l line descends chromatically E#-D#-Cx-C#, while her question is underl ined by a harmonic shift f rom B major through V / D # to V 7 / f # minor (in tnird inversion, w i th a doubled 7th). Th i s chord acts as an inverted G e r m a n 8, resolving to V / f minor (m. 37) before V / A b is introduced on the last beat o f m . 38. Once again, the Ctf-C' l duality comes into play, as Bately calls Jery's name, first o n C# (m.36) then o n C4 (m. 37). W i t h the return o f A b major, Bately incorporates Jery's melodic material f rom the first part o f the section (last beat o f m . 46 to m. 52 o f the aria parallels Jery's m m . 11- 17). There is a touch o f poignancy as Bately tells Jery " Y o u should always be happy," offering these words on three different dominants, on a circle o f 5ths ( C 7 - F 7 , B b 7 - E b 7 , A b 7 , m m . 57-62, Example 2.16); the final A b 7 effectively 79 Example 2.16. "Duett und Quartett," Section I, Bately's aria, mm. 31-63. 80 Example 2.16. (continued, page 2 of 2). " invi t ing ' ' Jery to take over her key (Db major), as he d id i n the earlier duet, " E s rauschet das Wasser." Bately's aria is left hanging on V 7 / D b as the next section (Section II) begins immediately. This section consists o f three subsections: the reprise o f Jery's l ied " E s rauschen die Wasser" (No . 3), a pair o f interlocking strophes (Jery's " E n g e l du scheinst" and Bately's " N e i n , i ch werde nicht betrogen"), and a coda that reprises N o . 4, "Gehe! Verschmahe die Treue!" shown i n Figure 2.12. Figure 2.12. Out l ine o f "Due t und Quartet," Section II, mm.64-115. Jery: aria J e l 7 Bately Jery: C o d a M m . 64-81 82-93 94-106 107-115 " E s rauschen" " E n g e l " " N e i n " "Verwe i l e" V 7 / E b , c# minor , to V / A A / f i t , V / G G , Bb , G c minor A t this point, Bately's sympathy for Jery prompts h i m to reprise his por t ion o f the spinning song, i n the original key o f c# minor. Bu t in his defeated state, Jery changes the order o f the text. Instead o f repeating the first four lines, he goes direcdy through the text in order. T h e modulat ion to C major ( b V I / E ) still occurs at the same moment i n time, but is now aligned wi th the first part o f the text, rather than wi th the second. Instead o f emphasizing the stability o f "true love," Jery now seems to be saying that love is transitory. A t the end, he is unable to make the final switch to D b major, Bately's home key from the first song, as he n o w believes that nothing w i l l enable h i m to possess her. T h e reprise o f Jery's part o f the spinning song leads direcdy into the next musical unit, the second duet where the power struggle is finally resolved. Jery begins wi th his o w n strophe o f text: 82 Enge l , du scheinst mir gewogen! Angel, you seem to be favourably disposed toward me! D o c h ich bitte, halt' die Regung But I beg control the emotion N o c h zuri ick, noch ist es Zeit! Go back, there is still time! Leicht , gar leicht w i r d man betrogen Simply, how simply one is deceived V o n der Ruhrung, der Bewegung, By the emotions, the feelings, V o n der G u t u n d Dankbarkeit! Of goodness and gratitude! H e recognizes that Bately's change o f heart may have been triggered not by love for h im, but by feelings o f gratitude. H e r display o f emotionalism only serves to make h i m suspicious. A s Jery d id in the first duet, Bately turns the tables by n o w incorporating his music and his words (to a lesser extent) i n her reply: N e i n , i ch werde nicht betrogen! No, I was not deceived! M i c h beschamet die Erwagung I was ashamed by the consideration Deiner L i e b ' und Tapferkeit. Of your love and bravery. Bester, i c h b in D i r gewogen; Best, I am disposed towardyou; Traue, traue dieser Regung I trust, trust this emotion Meiner L i e b ' und Dankbarkeit! My love and gratitude! F r o m her words, Bately appears to be giving i n to Jery's original wishes, and can n o w be safely "redomesticated." Matters are not quite so simple, however. Jery's part o f the duet begins o n the dominant o f f# minor (m. 2, Example 2.17, p. 84), before modulating to A major — the key o f the overture — i n m.5. W h e n Bately takes over his music, she does so a semitone higher, but immediately i n the major mode., G major (m. 14, Example 2.18, p. 85). W h a t is more, Jery's strophe, closing on a first inversion D major triad i n m. 13, is in essence a long dominant preparation for Bately's tonic G major. W h e n Bately approaches her tonic G again via the dominant i n m. 19, o n the last syllable o f "Tapferkeit" (bravery), the bo t tom seems to fall out o f the accompaniment as the bass drops an octave to F^l i n m . 20, supporting a sudden switch to a new local tonic Bb major (b i l l ) . Bately appears to have substituted one dominant for another, but withholds a f i rm statement o f the new tonic for 83 Example 2.17. Jery, "Engel, du scheinst rnir gewogen," mm. 1-13. Poco riten. il Tempo En - gel, du scheinsl mir ge - wo - gen! m V/fS ft cresc. rt r (i ir r Doch ich b i t - te , halt' die Reg - ung noch . zu - ruck, noch ist es crew. te 7 A IV/A Zeit. ^ — N 1 1 * f 1 p1 r ^ f 1 ' 1 Le ich t , . gar leicht wird man be tro - gen ft1 t J i i r r F i 1 piitp f r f 84 Example 2.18. Bately, "Nein, ich werde nicht betrogen," mm. 14-26. 14 Bately * . m, Nein, ich wer - de nicht be - tro gen! Mich be-scha - met d ie Er-wag - ung dei - ner_ Lieb' und Ta - pfer keit. Be - ster, ich ^"n^lS"^"66"' ^ " e'traU"e' trau-edie-ser Reg - ung mei - ner Lieb' und Dank bar - keit. G major: I 4 85 almost three full measures. T o cadence again i n Bb major i n m. 22, she uses a v i i " 7 chord suspended over I 6 (in Bb) instead o f a more conventional dominant to lead into the B b 6 resolution. A t this point i n the text, Bately is telling Jery that she trusts her emotions, while the harmonic progression creates an ambiguous sensation about "traue." T h e wavering tonality might also show that her words should not be trusted. But , the Bb major chord finally does appear at the end o f m . 22, functioning now as a voice-leading chord to the v i i 0 7 tonicizing C minor i n m . 23. C minor continues into m . 24, but becomes the minor subdominant o f G major i n a large i v - V 7 - I cadence (mm. 24-26) that underscores the words "meiner L i e b ' und Dankbarkei t ." The return o f the tonic G major fulfills the delayed resolution f rom m . 20, coinciding wi th the resolution o f the plot as Bately finally tells Jery that she loves h im. Section II closes wi th a coda, i n the form o f another reprise. The idea o f the reprise o f " E s rauschen die Wasser" (Jery's part o f the spinning song) as part o f this resolution originates i n Goethe's repetition o f the exact text i n the original libretto. B u t Goethe also created a parallel between the text o f N o . 4 and the corresponding passage f rom the "Due t t und Quartett" (No . 12). N o . 4 (Jery) Gehe! Go! Verschmahe Spurn D i e Treue! The loyal one! D i e Reue The remorse K o m m t nach! Comes later! N o . 12 (Jery) Verweile! Stay! Ubereile Don't D i c h nicht! You rush! M i r lohnet schon g'nuglich A friendly face E i n freundlich Gesicht. Is reward enough. 86 The opposi t ion has some sense o f humour i n it. In N o . 4, Jery tells Bately to go away, but that she w i l l be sorry later, while i n N o . 12 he urges her to stay. T o underline the parallelism, and the reversal, Bronsart uses similar music for both passages, and this musical setting functions as a unifying force not only for these two scenes, but across the entire opera. W e hear this music first i n A minor as the main theme o f the exposition o f the Ouverture (noted as the "Jery" theme i n Figure 2.4, p. 38, Example 2.3, p. 40), then i n c minor i n N o . 4 (mm. 4-17 shown i n Example 2.4, p. 41), and finally again i n c minor at the end o f Section II o f the "Due t t und Quartett" (mm. 107-112, Example 2.19, p. 88). It seems that for Bronsart this music is able to have different meanings — depending on the context — epi tomizing both the conflict and its resolution. A short transitional passage mimick ing dialogue (mm. 116-139) leads to the next section, the duet between Jery and Bately (Section III, m m . 140-171). The i r single stanza o f text shows that for once, the two characters a gree on something: Liebe! Liebe! Love! Love! Hast du uns verbunden, You have joined us together, L a B , o laB die letzten Stunden Let, o let the last hours Selig wie die ersten sein! Be blessed as the first are! T o reinforce the point, the text is repeated four times, i n a musical A B A 1 form where the first A section has two subsections, a and b (Figure 2.13 below): Figure 2.13. Out l ine o f "Liebe , L i e b e " from "Due t und Quartet," m m . 140-171. Section: A [a] [b] B A 1 M m . # 140-145 146-151 152-159 160-171 Keys : Ab major Ab, cm, Bb ab, Cb, Eb[=V/Ab] Ab {Cb=Ger. B/Eb} 87 Example 2.19. "Duett und Quartett" Section II, mm. 107-112. Jy-Lb',^  "> ~rr-. ft ft-- : 0—r"—— Vcr - wei -i,\ i i r r J- =A le! Ue-ber - ei - le dich >• , , . , ] J >J »> ' f t - j ' r 1 1 / nicht! Mir loh - net schon ^ r i'j r 9 r 1 r f f f ^ ^  r — 1 1 H cj"1 88 B o t h A sections are i n A b major, while the B section explores the parallel minor (ab), Cb major (as a G e r m a n 6 o f Eb) , and E b ( V / A b ) . A s a result o f their new-found "agreement," for the first time i n the opera Jery and Bately sing simultaneously, wi th Jery harmoniz ing i n tiiirds and sixths below Bately's voca l line (Example 2.20, pp. 90-93). 1 8 T h e voca l lines are a mixture o f canonic imitation — signifying their bond — and note-against-note counterpoint, wi th the exception o f the B section, where the voca l lines are strictly note-against-note (mm. 152-159, Example 2.20). Throughout the duet, harmonic support is provided by triplet figuration i n the accompaniment, but the voca l lines are never doubled by the accompaniment (except i n the first half o f m . 153), perhaps indicating that n o w Jery and Bately's relationship is strong enough to stand on its own. The duet concludes emphatically o n a v i - V - I cadence i n A b major, wi th a fermata over the final octave Abs (mm. 166-171). Despite the full close indicated at the end o f the duet section, the number continues as Father enters the scene i n Section I V . H i s entrance instigates a brief and highly modulatory passage o f dialogue — set first as recitative, then arioso, then chordal — between himself, Jery and Bately as he gives his blessing for their marriage (Example 2.21, pp. 94-95). In m . 181, Bronsart invokes the "Tr is tan" chord, wi th the same spacing as i n the prelude to Tristan und Isolde. Thei r celebration is interrupted, however, by an ominous descending scale figure leading to a cadence i n c minor, signalling a new musical section triggered by the appearance o f Thomas (mm. 202-204 o f Example 2.21). In a short aria shown i n Example 2.22 (mm. 216-241, pp. 96-97), reminiscent o f the "dr inking song" style 1 8 A recording o f this duet, along wi th the lied " E n d l i c h , endlich darf i ch hoffen" (No . 11), is available, o n Women's Work: Works by Famous Women Composers (Gemin i H a l l , L P R A P 1010, 1975). T h e performance is by Bernice Branson as Bately (soprano) and Mert ine Jones as Jery (alto). A s far as I can determine at this time, this is the only commercial recording o f any o f Bronsart 's operas. 89 Example 2.20. Duet from "Duett und Quartett," Bately and Jery, mm. 140-171. A Section 140 B a * e , y : Lie - be! Lie - be! Hast duuns ver-bun den, laB, o lalL t km 9 —^ - -J V b* ^ die letz-ten Stun - den se - lig wie_ die— er - sten sein. fMP \t \J n «J. k J ' A * lafl die letz -1 | en Stun - den se - I • gw iedie er - sten sein. . . . 1—1 0 m *—0» —*~ =^ = \± fm • • [ P p r rr r r n> -—= Lie - be! Lie - be! Hast duuns ver-bun - den, laB, o laB. 90 Example 2.20. (continued, page 2 of 4) 149 L ie be! L i e - be! Hast du unsver -bun - den, laB, o laO 91 Example 2.20. (continued, page 3 of 4) 92 Example 2.20. (continued, page 4 of 4) 93 Example 2.21. Section IV, dialogue between Father, Bately and Jery, mm. 172 -204. 172 Vater: 94 Example 2.21. (continued, page 2 o f 2) Poco meno mosso Neh - met den Se - gen, Se - gen_ und Glilck.. ^ _ __ eT - J J J T T 95 Example 2.22. Section IV, Thomas's "aria," mm. 216 - 241. Thoma s. r--m- m———| P g g tr 1 In de rBe - t run -ken -he i t hab'_ ich 'sge-tan. in de rBe- t run -ken-he i t hab' ich'sc den Scha - den, den Scha - den zu scha - tzen; ich ge - be die Stra - fe w i l l 96 Example 2.22. (continued, page 2 of 2) 230 Und Air mein Kup - peln krieg' ich, L%'tt r' n 110' 0 T - t "3—=U= f A. + d ' w ~ d krieg1 ich zwolf Dou - beln, mehr sind der Scha - den, die Stra - fe nicht werth! Mehr sind der Scha - den, die Stra - fe nicht werth. Ge - be dich! ± = r z f 97 o f his " E i n Madchen und ein Glaschen W e i n , " Thomas explains that his actions were due to the fact he had been dr inking ("In der Betrunkenheit hab' ich's gethan"). H e offers to pay restitution for the damages he has caused, but also demands his "matchmaker 's" fee f rom Jery. Jery forgives Thomas , setting the stage for the quartet that ends the number (Section V ) . T h e quartet (Section V ) is i n the style o f a jubilant, Mozar t ian finale, chordal but wi th some imitations. A single line o f text, " O frohlicher Tag , " is repeated eight times by the four singers (Jery, Bately, Father and Thomas) , divided into two distinct, symmetrical eight-measure sections: A , m m . 253-260, and A 1 , m m . 261-269 (labelled i n Example 2.23, pp. 99-100). A t the beginning o f the first section, Bately and Jery sing the first main phrase together (m. 253 to the first beat o f m. 255), while i n the second section, Jery sings the entire main phrase (m. 260, beat 2, to m. 263) while Bately picks up a por t ion o f Father's voca l line from the first section. Perhaps the most interesting feature o f the quartet is the harmonic setting. E a c h o f the two parallel sections is underpinned by the same progression i n E b major: I 6 - I V - V - v i - i i - V - I , over a bass line ascending chromatically from G to C . T h e I V , V and v i chords are tonicized by their o w n dominants (with augmented fifths inflected by chromatic passing tones (Section I, m m . 253 and 254). The cadential v i chord (c minor) is prolonged for 3 and one-half measures (mm. 255-258), before the progression concludes wi th a i i - V - I cadence (mm. 258-260). In the second section, the entire progression is repeated almost verbatim, but the prolongation o f v i is extended even more to 4 and one-half measures (mm.262-266, Example 2.23, p. 100), while the final cadence is also extended. A s a result o f chromatic inflection, throughout the quartet there is a constant feeling o f tension, encouraging the audience to a state o f excitement and emphatic resolution. 98 Example 2.23. Quartet: Bately, Jery, Thomas, and Father, mm. 252 - 269. 252 F3> major: i 99 Example 2.23. (continued, page 2 of 2) 260 Tag o froh - li - cher Tag, o frOh frOh - li-cher Tag,. frOh-li-cher Tag! li-cher Tag, o frOh - li - cher Tag! froh li-cher Tag, o froh-li-cher Tag, o froh - li - cher Tag! a * - ^ frOh - Ii-cherTag, o froh-li-cher Tag, o froh - li - cher Tag! 100 After the "Duet t und Quartett," all that remains is for the final musical resolution o f the C^-Ctf dualism. F o r dramatic purposes, the Finale (as always) is somewhat superfluous: the main issues o f the plot have already been resolved. Musically, however, the Finale facilitates the return to A major, the key o f the overture, and thus provides tonal closure. Bronsart accomplishes this i n four main steps. First, six measures o f horn calls i n C major beckon the chorus o f peasants on to the stage. W h e n the neighbours (peasants) finally rush onto the stage to see what all o f the commot ion is about, they are accompanied by frantic scale figures i n D major. Nex t , Thomas performs his "exit" solo (in G major), fol lowed by the closing wedding chorus i n A major. A s noted above, the wedding chorus provides the material for the slow introduction o f the overture, unifying the work f rom beginning to end. G i v e n its historical place, Jery und Bately is essentially a conservative work, but one o f high quality: an imaginative, effective and masterly setting where the musical language is we l l wi th in the envelope o f the time. Whi l e the preceding analysis demonstrates Bronsart 's command o f small forms, lyrical vocal writ ing, and ability to provide musical unity across a large form, more importandy, the combinat ion o f Goethe's humorous libretto and Bronsart 's music appealed to her audiences. Jery und Bately established Bronsart 's reputation as a composer for the stage, but also provided a solid foundation for significant artistic development i n her later works. Bronsart took a great deal o f pride i n this opera: even towards the end o f her career, Jery und Bately held a special place i n her heart. 101 Chapter Three " R i d i n g the Valkyr ie : (En) Counter ing Wagner i n Hiarne (1891)" In a series o f articles published i n 1890-1891, Paul S imon, then editor o f the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, promoted the for thcoming premiere o f Ingeborg v o n Bronsart 's new opera Hiarne. S i m o n began by calling Bronsart "the first G e r m a n w o m a n w h o not only has drafted and completed an opera o f the largest scale, but also has obtained a large stage for the engagement [performance] o f the finished work ." 1 Remind ing his readers that Bronsart was a pup i l o f Lisz t , he pointed out that her work was also influenced by the other two pillars o f the N e w G e r m a n School : Ber l ioz and Wagner. Wagner, i n particular, drew Simon's attention, as he noted that Hiarne, like the Ring, was based i n part o n the legends o f the Edda . H e was especially enthralled wi th the chorus o f Valkyries that appears at the end o f Bronsart 's opera. However , what S i m o n may not have k n o w n is that Bronsart 's relationship w i t h Wagner was somewhat ambivalent. A t the first R i n g festival i n Bayreuth (1876), she shocked her Hiarne librettists (Friedrich Bodenstedt and her husband) by agreeing wi th Edua rd Hansl ick that the Ring was equivalent to "vier Martertage" (four days o f torture). 2 Undoubtedly , overt references to Wagner occur in Bronsart 's opera, notably i n A c t I where the title character Hiarne sings "Das L i e d v o n der Gotterdammerung," and at the conclusion o f the opera, when a chorus o f Valkyries carries the dead hero and heroine o f f to Valhal la . B y the same token, the influence o f Wagner's Tannhauser seems particularly strong here, as w i l l be illustrated through a comparison o f the "tournament o f song" i n Tannhauser 1 "... daB Frau v o n Bronsart die erste deutsche D a m e ist, die eine Ope r v o n groBter Anlage nicht nur entworfen und vollendet hat, sondern der sich auch eine groBe Buhne durch die A n n a h m e des vollendeten Werkes erschlossen hat." Paul S imon , "Sangkonig Hiarne ," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 86:1 (January 1890): 37. 2 Edua rd Hansl ick, Aus meinem heben (Berlin: Allgemeiner Vere in fur Deutsche Literatur, 1894, reprint, Westmead: Gregg Press, 1971), p. 180. 102 (Act II, scene 4) wi th Hiarne (Vorspiel). However , as this chapter w i l l demonstrate, the Wagnerian elements i n Hiarne are confined to specific characters and the libretto (partly written i n Stabreim), but the formal structures and musical style are indebted to the earlier G e r m a n Romant ic opera tradition o f Marschner and Wagner's pte-Ring period. W h i l e Bronsart gave her audiences just enough Wagner to live up to Simon's p romot iona l hype, she, i n fact, more often stayed stylistically wi th in the limits and conventions o f traditional G e r m a n romantic opera. T h e autograph manuscript o f Hiarne and a copy o f the published libretto are housed i n the archives o f the Deutsches Nat iona l Theater in Weimar . 3 It is i n full orchestral score, approximately 800 pages, bound in four volumes: Vorsp ie l , A c t I, A c t II and A c t III. A facsimile o f page one o f the score is provided i n Figure 3.1, p. 104. T h e autograph is i n Bronsart 's hand, except for A c t II, wh ich appears to be i n a different hand (perhaps the work o f a copyist). M o s t o f the M S is written i n brown-black ink, wi th occasional small additions (mainly to the bassoon parts) made i n pencil , i n Bronsart's hand. Correct ions were made i n red and blue pencil , while red ink was used to highlight the stage directions. T h e opera is scored for a full complement o f woodwinds (three flutes, two oboes, english horn , two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons), brass (four horns, three trumpets, two tenor trombones, bass t rombone and tuba), strings, harp, and t impani. 4 O n e tenor, one soprano, and one baritone are required for the three main solo parts (Hiarne, H i lda , and Friedleu, 3 Access to the autograph is very l imited because the D N T is a work ing theater, not a research library; hence they have no rnicrofi lm facilities, nor w i l l they release the M S to be filmed at another location. In A p r i l 2000, wi th the co-operation o f the Theater librarian, K a r e n Scheider, I was permitted to photograph the M S using 35 m m colour slides, f rom wh ich I have since made a piano reduction. 4 T h e location o f parts used i n performance is unknown. 103 Figure 3.1. Hiarne, autograph score, page 1. respectively), while the secondary solo parts require one tenor, one baritone, one bass, and one alto. Large choruses (both men's and women's) are also required. Hiarne premiered at Ber l in i n 1891, long after the first Ring festival i n Bayreuth, but the genesis o f the w o r k occurred over a protracted period spanning more than diirty years, thus predating Jery und Bately i n some ways. Hans v o n Bronsart sketched a draft libretto o n the Hiarne subject i n the 1850s. The inspiration for the project may have come from Hans's friend and fellow member o f Liszt 's Weimar circle Felix Draeseke (1835-1913), w h o was composing his o w n opera, Konig Sigurd, between 1855-1858. 5 In a letter to Franz Brendel (6 December 1859), L i sz t reported that "he [Hans v o n Bronsart] is now work ing at his opera, and sent me a little while ago the libretto wh ich he has himself composed to it, and wh ich seems to me very successful i n the most important scenes, as wel l as i n the dialogue." 6 Despi te Lisz t ' s predictions o f success, the project went no further; the draft libretto laid dormant unt i l the early 1870s. Sometime i n 1873, the draft was handed over to Fr iedr ich Bodenstedt, a writer, critic and translator, w h o agreed to rework the sketch. Bodenstedt's work on the libretto proceeded slowly. In a letter dated 8 August 1873, he told Hans v o n Bronsart that he had just now read the sketch, and that "the piece, i n substance and shape, had made a very depressing impression" on h i m 7 (this passage from the letter is provided i n Figure 3.2, p. 106). Bodenstedt noted that it w o u l d be a struggle to 5 A l t h o u g h I have not consulted Draeseke's score, the subject matter o f Konig Sigurd may be similar to Hiarne. A c c o r d i n g to Martella Gutierrez-Denhoff , the finale to Konig Sigurd includes "Das L i e d der Skalden." Draeseke visited Hans v o n Bronsart i n 1858. Martella Gut ierrez-Denhoff , Felix Draeseke: Chronik seines Lebens (Bonn: G u d r u n Schroder Ver lag , 1989), pp. 27 and 34. 6 L a Mara , Letters o/Fran^Lis^t, vo l . 1, translated by Constance Bache (London: H . G r e v e l & C o . , 1894), p. 415. 7 " . . . daB mir das Stuck, in Gehal t und Gestalt, einen sehr bedriickenden E i n d r i i c k gemacht hat." Fr iedr ich Bodenstedt, Neumuhler , to Hans v o n Bronsart, 8 August 1873. Goethe- und Schiller- A r c h i v , Weimar. 105 Figure 3.2. Friedrich Bodenstedt, Neurmihler, to Hans von Bronsart, 8 August 1873. Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. * V f t U A ^ ^ f+X* I *uiyjL *y #u+7~ft«*. 2/ <*HJ#~£ %<r^ u*^*^ 106 Figure 3.3. Fr iedr ich Bodenstedt, Meiningen, to Hans v o n Bronsart, 6 February 1874. Goethe- und Schiller- A r c h i v , Weimar. $MUs>- &C4A*>t4. 4^ <g4u*~ ^Zru*. fputfy*. /ni^fA,, y /fa «rur ^ W / ^ ^ f - &u£/f Ju*4*~ fr**~uX-•viyl. tfyruuJ*, pyu~ flfcb/&* /tii+9rr**->, 107 increase the effectiveness of the poem, and that the ending must be re-written.8 By 6 February 1874, he admitted that the first attempts to put the sketch in a new form were not entirely successful (an excerpt from this letter is provided in Figure 3.3, p. 107).9 Further correspondence between Bodenstedt and Hans von Bronsart indicates that work on the libretto intensified around June of 1874 and continued through June of 1875. An exact date for the completion of Bodenstedt's part in the project cannot be stated with certainty, except to say that his version of the libretto was published in 1876 (coinciding with the first Bayreuth Ring festival), in a volume of his works entitled Einkehr und Umschau}0 Even after Bodenstedt's version was published, Hans made substantial emendations to the libretto.11 This final version was published in 1894, under the imprint "Druck von R. Wagner's Wittwe in Weimar" ("printed by R. Wagner's widow in Weimar"). Ingeborg's role with regard to the libretto is difficult to assess in light of the extant correspondence cited above.12 She seems to have had little direct involvement in the reworking of the libretto until June of 1875, when Bodenstedt wrote to Hans, stating that he had "received a letter yesterday from your [Bronsart's] wife, with suggested changes to Hiarne, which I will carry out to the best of my abilities."13 No details as to the precise 8 Ibid. 9 Friedrich Bodenstedt, Meiningen, to Hans von Bronsart, Hanover, 6 February 1874. Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 1 0 Friedrich Bodenstedt, Einkehr und Umschau (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1876). 1 1 Hans's emended version of the libretto is held at the Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek, Weimar. His emendations, where relevant, will be discussed later in conjunction with the specific musical examples. 1 2 As of this time, I have not located any of Ingeborg's letters to Bodenstedt or anyone else on the subject of the libretto. Hans's letters to Bodenstedt are for the time being inaccessible, as they are held at the Thuringischen Hauptstaatsarchiv in Weimar. This Archiv closed for renovations in January 2000 and is not expected to reopen until sometime in 2002. The letters were only recently catalogued. See Jan Neubauer, "Der NachlaB 'Hans Bronsart von Schellendorf in Thuringischen Hauptstaatsarchiv Weimar" (M.A. Thesis, Institute fur Musikwissenschaft, Alte Musik und Kirchenmusik der Hochschule fur Musik Franz Liszt Weimar, March 1999). 1 3 "Gestern erhielt ich einen Brief von Ihrer Frau Gemahlin, mit Anderungsvorschlagen zu 108 nature o f the changes were provided. U n t i l further documentation is available, one can only speculate that Ingeborg monitored the work i n progress. W h a t remains open to speculation is why and when Hans turned the completed libretto over to his wife, instead o f composing the music for the opera himself . 1 4 E l i se Polko ' s highly romanticized account o f the collaboration sheds litde light o n the issue. A c c o r d i n g to P o l k o , fol lowing the success o f Jery und Bately i n 1873, Ingeborg was actively searching for a subject for a new opera. A t about the same time, Bodenstedt "came to the Bronsart house . . . bringing wi th h i m all kinds o f lieder [that is, poems], w h i c h Frau Ingeborg set to mus ic . " 1 5 P o l k o asserts that Bodenstedt, too, had been searching for a suitable subject, and promised to supply Ingeborg wi th an opera l ibretto. 1 6 Rather than wri t ing a whol ly new libretto, Bodenstedt agreed to versify and shorten Hans 's earlier draft o f Hiarne}1 T h e chronology o f the composi t ion for the music to Hiarne is also somewhat uncertain. N o dates o f any k ind were recorded on the autograph manuscript. W h e n Ingeborg wrote to L a Mara i n M a y 1878 — providing information for what w o u l d later be L a Mara's book Die Frauen im Tonleben der Gegenwart — she stated only that her "four-act opera (Vorspiel and three acts) called 'Hiarne ' was not yet finished" and that she had just Hiarne, die i ch alle nach bester Kraf t ausfuhren werde." Fr iedr ich Bodenstedt, Meinigen, to Hans v o n Bronsart, Hanover , 27 June 1875. Goethe- und Schiller- A r c h i v , Weimar . 1 4 There is no evidence to suggest that Hans composed any music for his version o f Hiarne. A c c o r d i n g to the fifth edition o f Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1954), Hans composed one opera, Der Corsar to a libretto after B y r o n (no date given). This work is not listed i n the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980). 1 5 " I n dem Jahre eben dieser Auffuhrung schritt auch Fr iedr ich v. Bodenstedt i iber die Schwelle des Bronsartschen Hauses und mit i h m zogen Lieder aller A r t ein, die Frau Ingeborg i n M u s i k setzte." El ise Po lko , "Ingeborg v o n Bronsart: Biographisches Skizzenblatt ," Neue Musik-Zeitung 9 (1888): 148. Ingeborg's settings o f Bodenstedt's Mir^a Schaffy poems (Op. 8 and O p . 9) were published i n 1879, while one setting was published i n 1902 (Op. 25). See Deavil le , "Bronsart, Ingeborg [Lena] v o n , " p. 88-89. l 6 P o l k o , "Biographisches Skizzenblatt," p. 148. , 7 I b i d . T h e locat ion o f Hans's original draft is unknown at this time. 109 started it a short rime ago (this page o f the letter is reproduced i n Figure 3.4, p. 111). 1 8 In a subsequent letter A p r i l o f 1881, Ingeborg noted that Bodenstedt was staying wi th the Bronsarts for eight days, but no ment ion was made o f any progress o n Hiarne.V} B y 1888, El ise P o l k o asserted that the opera was finished and had already been accepted for performance at a number o f theatres, among them the Kon igHch Hofoper i n B e r l i n . 2 0 F r o m these scattered references, one can draw the conclusion that the composi t ional process spanned at least twelve years, from 1876 (when Bodenstedt completed his version o f the libretto) to 1888. The much-anticipated premiere o f Hiarne took place o n 14 February 1891, at the K o n i g l i c h Opernhaus i n Ber l in under the direction o f general Intendant Coun t Hochberg . 2 1 Herr R o t h m i i h l and Frau Sucher performed the lead roles o f Hiarne and H i l d a , while Friedleu was performed by Her r B u l B . 2 2 A t the end o f the performance, the composer was "spontaneously honoured wi th numerous curtain calls and laurel wreaths." 2 3 Kaiser W i l h e l m 1 8 " M e i n vieractige Ope r (Vorspiel und 3 Akten) heiBt 'Hiarne ' und is noch nicht beendet. A l s F rau P o l k o dariiber schrieb, hatte i ch sie vor kurzen angefangen." Ingeborg v o n Bronsart, Hanover , to Marie Lipsius [La Mara], 5 M a y 1878. Goethe- und Schiller- A r c h i v , Weimar. 1 9 Ingeborg v o n Bronsart, Hanover , to L a Mara , 18 A p r i l 1881. Goethe und Schiller A r c h i v , Weimar. This letter may have been written i n response to a request f rom L a Mara for more information for her book. Whi le the earlier letter (5 M a y 1878) gives a reasonably detailed account o f her life to that point, i n the second letter Ingeborg was much less formcorning, citing a hectic schedule that allowed little time for talking about her life. 2 0 " D i e O p e r ist jetzt vollendet und bereits an verschiedenen Theatern, unter diesen auch an der K o n i g l . Hofope r i n Ber l in , zur Auffuhrung angenommen." P o l k o , "Biographisches Skizzenblatt ," p. 148. 2 1 Paul S imon , " D i e erste Auffuhrung der Oper Hiarne v o n Frau Ingeborg v o n Bronsart i m K o n i g l . Opernhause zu Ber l in , " Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik B d . 87:1 (1891): 87. 2 2 In the letter o f 5 M a y 1878, Ingeborg told L a Mara that the tide role was intended for the Heldentenor Schott, one o f the stars o f the Hanover stage during the 1870s-1880s. See the left-hand margin o f the reproduction o f the letter on page 112. There is no evidence to suggest that Schott ever actually performed the role. 2 3 " D e r Compon i s t in wurden spontane Ehrenbezeigungen durch zahlreiche Hervorrufe und Lorbeerkranze z u T h e i l . " S imon, " D i e erste Auffuhrung der Ope r Hiarne ," p. 87. 110 Figure 3.4. Ingeborg von Bronsart, Hanover, to La Mara [pseud. Marie Lipsius], 5 May 1878, Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. I l l II, to w h o m the opera was dedicated, was also i n attendance. 2 4 Reviews o f the premiere praised all o f the singers, as we l l as the exceptional work o f the harpist, He r r Posse, and the producer H e r r Tetzlass, w h o "used all the aid o f modern stage-technique for a truly brilliant staging." 2 5 James Deavi l le argues that — like Bronsart 's last opera (Die Siihne) — Hiarne "suffers from a poor l ibret to." 2 6 W i t h its mixture o f elements from the G e r m a n romantic opera tradition, Nor se mythology, and Wagnerian subtexts, the plot is at best predictable. A l l o f the action is set i n the mythical kingdoms o f Lethra (Denmark) and Sigtuna (Sweden), around the eleventh or twelfth century. The story concerns the heroic deeds o f the title character, Hiarne, and his efforts to w i n first the Dan i sh crown, then the love o f H i l da , daughter o f K i n g E r i c h o f Sigtuna. A t the outset o f the Vorsp ie l , set i n a "Freier [sic] Platz am M e e r " (a open place by the sea), the H i g h Priest (Oberpriester) announces that the Dan i sh K i n g , Fro tho , has died, and that his only son and heir, Friedleu, went missing at sea and is presumed dead. A singing contest is held to determine w h o w i l l be the new king. Three Skalds step forward to compete for the crown: Harald, W i n g u l f and Hia rne . 2 7 Hiarne wins the contest, but Hara ld and W i n g u l f swear to get revenge. 2 5 " D u r c h H e r r n Oberregisseur Teztlass waren alle Hil fsmit te l der modernen Buhnentechnik zu einer wahrhaft glanzenden Inscenirung verwendet worden." Ibid. 2 6 Deavil le , "Bronsart , Ingeborg [Lena] v o n , " p. 88. 2 7 A "ska ld" may be loosely defined as a "warrior-poet." A c c o r d i n g to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, the term skald (or scald) is "an o ld Nor se w o r d for a poet, usually applied to a Norwegian or Icelandic court poet or bard o f the period from the 9th century to the 13th." Chris Baldick, ed., Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (Oxford: O x f o r d Universi ty Press, 1990), p. 206. 112 A c t I moves to a hall i n K i n g Er ich ' s palace, where H i l d a has a premoni t ion that she w i l l fall i n love wi th a handsome king. E r i c h tells her that Hiarne is corning to seek her hand, but when Hiarne arrives at K i n g Er ich ' s court he is disguised as his o w n messenger. After dr inking from the ceremonial mead horn and accepting a rose from Hiarne, H i l d a agrees to the union. E r i c h asks Hiarne to consecrate the un ion by singing a song, and Hiarne responds wi th "Das L i e d v o n der Gotterdammerung." Hiarne is astounded that H i l d a w o u l d agree to marry h i m sight unseen, but even more surprised when he learns that H i l d a knew his true identity all along. T h e act ends wi th a lengthy duet i n w h i c h H i l d a and Hiarne pledge their love. A s the couple prepare for their wedding, the scene shifts to the wi ld , rocky coast o f Denmark where, at the beginning o f A c t II, Hara ld and W i n g u l f plot their revenge. Unde r the darkness o f night and to the sound o f rol l ing thunder, the two conspirators conjure a W o l w a , w h o consults the runes to see what the N o r n s have predicted. T h e W o l w a tells them that Hiarne is not the rightful heir, and that the true king w i l l defeat h im. H e r predict ion comes true: propelled by a fierce storm, a dragon ship is driven u p o n the rocks. A l t h o u g h the rest o f the crew is drowned, Frotho's long lost son Friedleu is spared. Hara ld and W i n g u l f tell h i m that Hiarne has usurped his throne, and offer to gather an army to help Friedleu defeat Hiarne. The setting returns to the "Freier Platz am M e e r " where the wedding celebration is underway. W i t h their combined forces, Harald , W i n g u l f and Friedleu mount an attack just as the priest has consecrated the marriage. Bel ieving that Friedleu is an imposter, Hiarne defends his c rown but is overpowered by Friedleu: i n the course o f the batde, Hiarne is driven of f a cliff, plunging to what w o u l d seem to be a certain death. Friedleu intends that H i l d a w i l l now be his wife, but the priest refuses to consecrate the second union. Friedleu takes matters into his o w n hands, taking Thor ' s hammer from the 113 priest and consecrating the marriage himself. H e sends H i l d a o f f wi th her ladies-in-waiting to prepare for the wedding night. T h e scene shifts to Hilda 's bed-chamber. Repulsed by the idea o f marriage to Friedleu, H i l d a drinks a via l o f poison hoping to join Hiarne in death. H a v i n g survived his fall f rom the cliffs, Hiarne returns to rescue H i l d a f rom Friedleu, but he is too late. H i l d a lays dying i n his arms as the act comes to a close. A c t III finds the assembled company once again at the "Freier Platz am Meer , " i n anticipation o f Hilda 's funeral. Hiarne, disguised as an aging Skald, offers to sing a funeral lament as the bier is prepared. Friedleu resists at first, but allows Hiarne to proceed wi th the lament while the bier is set aflame. After the funeral, the scene changes to the bedchamber i n Friedleu's casde. Whi le Friedleu lays sleeping, Hiarne discards his Skald's disguise, donning Friedleu's royal garments and crown. Reluctant to k i l l Friedleu i n his sleep, Hiarne awakens h i m and a battle ensues. This time it is Hiarne who overpowers Friedleu. Helpless without his sword and facing certain death, Friedleu bares his chest to provide a target for the death blow. In doing so, he reveals a large mark ("ein groBes Feuermal") 2 8 that marks h i m as Frotho 's true son and heir. Recognizing the birth-mark, Hiarne refuses to fight any further, a l lowing Friedleu to k i l l h im. A s Hiarne lays dying, the god T h o r appears, striking a b low wi th his hammer that causes the entire mountain to collapse, burying Friedleu beneath the rubble. Valhal la looms i n the distance, as a chorus o f Valkyries, accompanied by H i l d a , sweeps d o w n to carry H i l d a and Hiarne away. F r o m the perspective o f the plot, the Bodenstedt /Bronsart version o f Hiarne is very different f rom He in r i ch Marschner's 1857 version. Marschner's Sangskdnig Hiarne und das Tyrsingschwert (1858) 2 9 is laced wi th choruses o f spirits and demons; supernatural and 2 8 "Feuermal" can be translated several different ways. Some dictionaries note that it is a "port-wine mark" or "stain," while others refer to it as a "bu rn" or "burn-mark." In either case, a "Feuermal" can be regarded as some sort o f birth-mark or branding. 2 9 Konig Hiarne und das Tyrsingschwert was Marschner 's last opera, composed i n 1857-58, and 114 daemonic elements are hallmarks o f his works, coming from the G e r m a n romantic opera tradition o f Weber and Der Freischiit^. F r o m the outset o f Marschner's opera (libretto by W . G r o the), Hiarne is already a k ing . 3 0 The power struggle takes place i n another k ingdom, where whoever marries As loga w i l l gain the crown. W i t h the aid o f a magic sword forged by elves and dwarfs (the "Tyrs ing" sword o f the ride), Hiarne attempts to rescue As loga f rom the clutches o f her power-hungry uncle Ul l e r . 3 1 However , the sword's powers are only effective i f the weapon is used i n the name o f justice. Because Hiarne is not the rightful heir to the throne, the magic o f the sword abandons h im. In due course, Asloga's brother Friedebrand (like Friedleu, missing and presumed dead) returns to claim the crown. Ul le r is banished while Friedebrand allows Hiarne to claim As loga as his wife. In the end, Friedebrand is the hero, and i n a final ballet scene, the fallen warriors are carried o f f to Valhal la (about the only plot similarity wi th Bronsart's version). 3 2 In pre-production articles and early reviews o f Bronsart's opera, Pau l S i m o n and G e o r g Crusen (both wri t ing in the Neue Zeitschrift fur Music) made m u c h o f the fact that the story o f Hiarne was based on the legends o f the E d d a and Saxo Grammat icus . 3 3 W h i l e the reference to the former tied Bronsart's work inextricably to Wagner and especially to the premiered at Frankfurt am M a i n , 1863. 3 0 This synopsis o f Marschner 's opera is taken from the published libretto, Kbnig Hiarne und das Tyrsingschwert, O p e r i n vier Aufz i igen v o n W . Grothe , M u s i k v o n He in r i ch Marschner (Munich: C . W o l f & Son, 1883). The opera exists only i n M S ; thus far I have consulted only the libretto. 3 1 T h e idea o f the magic sword may come from an Icelandic legend about a sword called "Tyf ingr ." See Gabr ie l Turville-Petre, The Heroic Age of Scandinavia (London: Hutchinson 's Universi ty Library, 1951, reprint, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976), p. 36. 3 2 The ballet scene is not included i n the published libretto, but was part o f the 1883 performances i n Hanover . F o r further information, see He in r i ch Borges, " H e i n r i c h Marschner 's O p e r 'Hiarne ' , " Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik B d . 79:1 (Apr i l 1883): 165-67, 173-74, & 197-99. 3 3 Paul S imon , "Hiarne: G r o B e Ope r v o n Ingeborg v o n Bronsart ," Neue ZeitschriftfurMusik B d . 86:2 (December 1890): 535; and G e o r g Crusen, "Ingeborg v o n Bronsart 's 'Hiarne ' i m K o n i g l i c h e n Hoftheater zu Hannover ," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik B d . 88:1 (February 1892): 85. 115 Ring der Nibehingen, a great deal o f poetic licence was applied to both source legends, creating highly romanticized versions o f characters and events that are far removed from their models. In addition, the Prose Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson ca. 1220, 3 4 and the first nine books o f Saxo Grammaticus 's Gesta Danorum (Danish History, ca. 1208) 3 5 bear a strong resemblance to each other i n terms o f their content, so much so that it is impossible to determine accurately wh ich o f the two might have been consulted by the Hiarne librettists. Perhaps the only clear distinction between the Prose Edda and Gesta Danorum is that the Edda deals primarily wi th the gods and their wor ld , while the Gesta Danorum provides a further account o f mortals and their interaction wi th the gods. T h e story behind Hiarne can be traced to books five and six o f Saxo Grammaticus 's history. A c c o r d i n g to Saxo, there was a mythical Dan i sh king named Frode (also k n o w n as F r o d i or Frodi) w h o had a son named Fridleif. W h e n the news o f Frode's death was finally revealed, 3 6 the "Danes wrongly supposed that Fridleif, who was being raised i n Russia, had perished." 3 7 Thus at the beginning o f book six, a "song o f praise" contest was held to determine a new king; the winner was H i a r n [sic]. 3 8 Excep t for minor spelling changes i n the names, the opera plot is consistent wi th the legend up to this point. F r o m here, however, the opera diverges sharply from Saxo's history. H i a r n was not a hero, but a peasant; i n Saxo's op in ion , the "spendthrift populace squandered a k ingdom on a chu r l . " 3 9 N o r d id the 3 4 H . R. E l l i s Dav idson , Gods and Myths of Northern Europe (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books , 1964, reprint, 1975), p. 24. 3 5 Ande r son , Rasmus, ed., The Nine Books of The Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus, v o l . 1, trans, by Ol ive r E l t o n (London: Norroena Society, 1905), pp. 10-11. 3 6 A c c o r d i n g to Saxo, Frode was already o ld and feeble when he was ki l led by a sorceress. Fearing a rebellion, for three years the nobles maintained the pretense that Frode was still alive by displaying his embalmed corpse i n a royal carriage. Anderson , The Nine Books, v o l . 2, pp. 354-346. 3 7 Ibid. , p. 347. 3 8 Ibid. 3 9 Ibid. , p. 348. 116 Hiarn of legend win Hilda's hand through song. The great love affair is most likely based on an earlier passage from book five, where Hilda, daughter of Hogni, falls in love with Hedin, a prince of a tribe of Norwegians and supporter of Frode. 4 0 Saxo's description of their meeting is strongly suggestive of Hilda and Hiarne's first meeting in Act I, scene 1 of the opera.41 K ing Erik of Sweden (Hilda's father in the opera) died at the same time that Hiarn won the Danish crown. It is Erik's son, Halfdan, who brought Fridleif back from Russia, enlisting his help to defeat the Norwegians who constandy plundered his kingdom. When the Danes learned of Fridleif s return, they demanded that Hiarn resign, but he refused. Although Fridleif defeated Hiarn in batde and banished him, Hiarn later returned disguised as a servant, at which time Fridleif "challenged him and slew him, and buried his body in a barrow that bears the dead man's name."4 2 In Saxo's history, the gods have litde to do with the story of Hiarn and Fridleif. Similarly in Bronsart's opera, the gods — with the exception of Thor — have no direct involvement in the action. They are deities only, whose names are invoked during choruses as symbols of social and cultural solidarity (for example, the chorus to Odin in the Vorspiel, and the chorus to Freya in Act I to bless Hilda and Hiarne's marriage).43 It is in part this emphasis on human world and its lack of involvement with the world of the gods that drastically distinguishes Bronsart's libretto from that of Wagner's Ring. 4 0 Ibid., p. 326. 4 1 Saxo noted that "a mutual love afterwards arose between this man [Hedin] and Hilda, the daughter of Hogni, a chieftain of the Jutes and a maiden of most eminent renown. For, though they had not yet seen one another, each had been kindled by the other's glory. But when they had a chance of beholding one another, neither could look away; so steadfast was the love that made their eyes linger." Ibid. 4 2 Ibid., p. 355. 4 3 "Od in" is the equivalent of Wagner's "Wotan." 117 Hiarne is laid out i n three acts wi th a Vorsp ie l . The Vor sp i e l consists o f a single musico-dramatic unit — the singing contest — wh ich serves both to establish the narrative pre-history o f the drama and to set the remaining action into mot ion (the singing contest is discussed i n further detail below). A c t I is divided into six scenes, while A c t II has seven scenes and A c t III is the shortest wi th only three scenes. Scene divisions are marked i n both the libretto and the score, and usually correspond to the entrance or exit o f a character or change o f place. O n the title page to the M S , Ingeborg called Hiarne a "grosse Oper , " meaning "large" opera (the tide page is reproduced i n Figure 3.5, p. 119). 4 4 Whether or not the label was intended to invoke a specific tradition — such as French "grand" opera — or i f the term was meant simply to state the nature o f the work 's proportions is difficult to tell, as the term was used by many composers i n the nineteenth century. 4 5 Elements o f French grand opera are present i n Hiarne, notably i n the ballet scenes discussed further below. The composer's label notwithstanding, i n terms o f form and genre (as we l l as subject matter), Hiarne's critics perceived analogies wi th Wagner. Af ter a performance o f the opera i n Hanover i n 1892, G e o r g Crusen asserted that "the fo rm selected by Mrs . v o n Bronsart for the musical setting o f the text is on the whole that o f Wagnerian music drama." 4 6 I f by " f o r m " Crusen meant — i n the broadest, most general sense — the divis ion o f acts into individual scenes, wi th continuity across entire scenes, then the comparison wi th 4 4 O n the tide page to the published libretto (1894), the designation was written as " G r o B e Oper . " In both cases, the meaning is the same. 4 5 The designations "grosse Oper , " "grosse romantische Oper , " and "grosse komische O p e r " occur frequendy i n the " L i s t o f Operas" recorded i n J o h n Warrack, German Opera: From the Beginnings to Wagner (Cambridge: Cambridge Univeristy Press, 2001), especially pp. 404-406. 4 6 " D i e v o n Frau v o n Bronsart fur die musikalische Einkle idung des Textes gewahlte F o r m ist i m ganzen die des Wagner 'schen Musikdrama's ." G e o r g Crusen, "Ingeborg v o n Bronsart 's 'Hiarne ' i m Kon ig l i chen Hoftheater zu Hannover ," Neue ZeitschriftfurMusik B d . 88:2 (February 1892): 85. 118 Wagner may be seen as a valid one. On the other hand, if he was referring to the formal structure of individual musical units within scenes, then the veracity of Crusen's statement can be called into question. As we shall see, even though the score does not specify "recitative-aria-duet" or "numbers" (No. 1, No. 2, and so on, as in Jery und Bately), Hiarne is essentially a "number" opera, wherein scenes are comprised of harmonically closed "set" musical forms such as A B and A B A , instrumental numbers, and choruses interspersed with clear recitative-aria structures and duets. Crusen's use of the term "music drama" in conjunction with Hiarne is even more problematic. According to Carl Dahlhaus, Wagner himself "rejected the expression 'music drama'," preferring equally ambiguous terms such as "word-note-drama" or "artwork of the future."47 When it came to defining the concept, Wagner equivocated., offering different (and often contradictory) explanations. Thus our understanding of the term "music drama" comes not from any clear and concise definition from Wagner, but from an aquired sense or recognition of certain characteristics of his works — especially The Ring, Tristan und Isolde, and Parsifal — composed in light of his theoretical writings. First and foremost, these works exemplified a closer relationship between the music and the text, one in which both are active participants in the unfolding of the drama. Wagner enriched this relationship by writing his own texts, abandoning traditional poetic meters and end-rhyme in favour of alliterative verse called Stabreim. By employing Stabreim, Wagner was able break away from the period phrase structure, creating what he called "unendliche Melodie" (discussed in further detail below). The distinction between recitative and aria singing styles was cast aside, replaced by an "arioso" style that falls somewhere between recitative and aria. Wagner's orchestral texture was also unique at the time. Leitmotifs (also not Wagner's term) 4 7 Carl Dahlhaus, Richard Wagner's Music Dramas, trans, by Mary Whittall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), p. 4. 120 permeated the texture, woven into a "symphonic web" intended to supply more than a mere accompaniment for the singers. A s Wagner noted i n Oper und Drama, " i n the total expression o f the performer's every message, to the ear alike as to the eye, the orchestra thus takes an unbroken share, supporting and elucidating o n every hand: it is the m o v i n g matrix o f the music, f rom whence there thrives the unit ing b o n d o f all Express ion . " 4 8 Cadences were delayed or avoided altogether. The result was a more fluid, continuous, highly chromatic and constantly modulat ing entity that Wagner called a "Gesamtkunstwerk" or "total w o r k o f art." Bronsart 's Hiarne exhibits some o f the above characteristics o f Wagner's works at times. Alli terative verse is employed frequendy, but traditional poetic meters and end-rhyme are equally important. There is very little use o f recitative, but certainly more "aria"-like singing than i n Wagner. M o r e significandy, Hiarne contains no complex system o f leitmotifs or "symphonic web," although as we shall see, there are longer passages o f musical reminiscences. Nonetheless, the role o f the orchestra is mosdy to provide an accompaniment to the singers, rather than to elucidate or illuminate the dramatic action. T h e presence o f several large-scale instrumental numbers in Hiarne stands i n marked contrast to Ingeborg's other operas, where there is little attention paid to instrumental music, aside f rom the Overture to Jery und Bdtely and the Vorsp ie l to Die Siihne. A s shown i n Table 3.1, p. 122, the instrumental sections include "introductions" (labelled "Ein le i tungen" i n the M S ) bringing the characters on stage, and Vbergangsmusik (transitional music) used to facilitate "Verwandlungen" (changes i n stage setting and location) i n the middle o f an act 4 8 Richard Wagner, Opera and Drama, trans, by W . A s h t o n El l i s (Lincoln and L o n d o n : Universi ty o f Nebraska Press, 1995), p. 335. 121 according to the demands o f the plot . 4 9 F o r the most part, these instrumental numbers are stately processionals and marches. Majestic dotted rhythms and triplets figure prominently, Table 3.1. L i s t o f instrumental music i n Hiarne (measure numbers restart at 1 at the beginning o f each act). Act or scene MM.# Label in M S Function Vorspiel 1 - 3 1 Einleitung introduction Act I 1 - 5 5 Einleitung introduction Act I, scene 3 222 - 302 none Processional (Hiarne's entrance) Act I, scene 3 538 - 658 Waffentanz ballet Act II 1 - 6 8 Einleitung introduction Act II, end scene 3 570 - 696 Ubergangsmusik Scene change Act II, end scene 6 983 - 1309 Verwandlung Scene change Act III 1 - 2 2 Einleitung introduction Act III, end scene 2 173 - 2 9 4 Ubergangsmusik Scene change Act III, end scene 3 407 - 429 none Descriptive: accompanies Thor as does generous scoring for horns and brass to reflect the p o m p and circumstance o f courdy society, as i n the music accompanying Hiarne's arrival at K i n g Er ich ' s palace i n A c t I, scene 3 (piano reduction o f the opening measures o f the passage is shown i n Example 3.1, p.123). O n e o f the most unusual instrumental numbers is the Waffentan^ (Weapon dance) that occurs later i n A c t I, scene 3. The Waffentan^m&y have been intended as a tribute to Hiarne and his royal entourage, however, it is neither an introductory processional nor transitional music (there is no scene change at this point), but rather its appearance is disruptive, creating an awkward halt to the action. Especially fol lowing o n the heels o f an ethereal women's chorus to Freya, the goddess o f marriage, the Waffentan^ seems even more out o f place. The title, marked i n both the M S and the published libretto, suggests the "Ubergangsmusik" is the actual label that Ingeborg employed i n the M S . 122 Example 3.1. Instrumental processional, Hiarne A c t I, scene 3, m m . 222-235. (reduction: M B ) § 222 Allegro moderato 3 n\ 12 Trumpeten in F (in Theater), [shown at concert pitch] \m? F F F |fi j . FI "T*F m m § \ J 3 SS ' * E L-o 1 poco a p 1—© oco cresc. (Timpani) 230 m c 3 3 3 3 f » T J J 1 1 1—1—i-J—1 1 1—L1 J—1 233 \k i= r i i ' f r r **r I i . #=% •s- J. J) r>! C J * r»/ marcato ID ^ I 1 J - 1 *i J § A l l musical examples for Hiarne are my o w n reduction from the orchestral M S . T h e examples are intended to aid the reader; thus they should not be considered as a pol ished piano-vocal score. 123 number may have been intended as a ballet scene, but there is nothing i n either the stage directions or i n the M S to suggest that the Waffentan^ was actually choreographed. Nonetheless, the presence o f the Waffentan^ supports the conception o f the work as a "grand" opera i n the French tradition. The large role o f the chorus distinguishes Hiarne from Bronsart 's other operas and from Wagner's later works, especially The Ring and Tristan und Isolde, where there is little use made o f the chorus. G i v e n its origins as a stage play and the focus on a small number o f characters, the absence o f a chorus i n Die Siihne is understandable, while i n Jery und Bately the chorus o f peasants appears only at the very end o f the work. In Hiarne the chorus is almost always present, observing and commenting o n the action, offering songs o f praise, or i n some cases participating i n the battle scenes (the chorus o f Friedleu's soldiers i n A c t II, for example). Compr i sed o f priests, soldiers, knights, ladies-in-waiting, and even Valkyries , the different groups are representative o f the various societal factions involved i n the drama: church, court and military. Y e t Bronsart's musical style for each group is m u c h the same. Textual clarity is never sacrificed at the expense o f complex part-writing. L i k e the opening chorus i n praise o f the god O d i n (Vorspiel m m . 32-57, m m . 32-42 shown i n Example 3.2, pp. 125-126), each chorus is consistendy homophonic wi th only occasional imitative entries, even when it is joined by one or more solo voices. Occasional moda l mixture is employed to add colour to the harmonic language, as i n the use o f the major mediant C major ( I I I / A b , m . 35, Example 3.2) and the minor subdominant D b minor ( i v / A b , m . 41, Example 3.2), but extended chromaticism is otherwise avoided. Formal designs, too, are uncompkcated, as most o f the choruses consist o f a single stanza o f text, contained wi th in one musical section. 124 Example 3.2. O p e n i n g chorus from Hiarne, Vorsp ie l , m m . 32-42 (reduction: M B ) . Moderato tempo come primo 22 Chor der ganzen Versammlung. (Freier Platz am Meere. Im Hintergrunde die Bildsflulen der Gotten In der Mitte der Bilhne ein Altar, auf dem die Opferflamme brennt; links der Opferhain, rectus ein selsiges Gestade mit einem in das Meer uberhangenden Felsen. Der Oberpriester vor dem Altar; hinter ihm im Halbkreise die Priester; zu beiden Seiten im Hintergrunde die HSuptlinge, Skalden, darunter Harald, Wingulf, Hiarne; Krieger und Volk zum Landsthing versammelt.) O - din, hoch-thron - en-der V a - ter der Sie ge, O - din, hoch- thron-en-der V a - ter der Sie ge, O - din, hoch-thron - en-der V a - ter der Sie ge, O - din, hoch-thron - en-der V a - ter der Sie ge,. 0 0 ft C (HI)' 125 Example 3.2. (continued, page 2 o f 2). 126 O n e chorus in particular merits further scrutiny for the special labels that Ingeborg supplied i n the M S . F o r the women's chorus to Freya that marks H i l d a and Hiarne's betrothal i n A c t I, scene 3, she labelled the chorus "Schwedisches V o l k s l i e d mi t Frauen-Reigen" (Swedish folk-song wi th women's round-dance) wi th a further subtitle "Tanz der N i x e n " (dance o f the nixies). 5 0 In addition, the words "Solo T a n z " appear i n the M S later i n the chorus (m. 467). L i k e the Waffentan^ the sub tide indicates that some choreography was involved i n performance. Possibly there is some influence here f rom Wagner's Tannhauser, specifically the "flower dance" o f the Bacchantes and nymphs surrounding the chorus o f Sirens i n A c t I. Tradi t ional folk song held an important place i n Ingeborg's early ch i ldhood; its influence clearly carried over later into her o w n works including Hiarne and Die Siihne}1 The "Schwedisches V o l k s l i e d " in Hiarne may be an adaptation o f one o f the many Swedish folk songs that filled her ch i ldhood home, as noted i n Chapter One , yet the formal structure and harmonic language are somewhat removed from the style o f a simple strophic folk song. Typica l o f the choruses i n Hiarne, the text consists o f a single poetic stanza: 5 2 1. H o r c h , wie der N e c k auf den W o g e n singt: 5 3 Usten, how the sea king sings on the waves: Lieb l i ch ertont es v o m Welt ; It resounds lovingly from the world; Rauschende Reigen die Meersei schlingt: The sea-creature winds in a swirling round-dance: Sternhell dammert die Welt . Bright stars dawn on the world. 5. B l i ck t er nach oben, so weint er laut, He glances up, thus he cries aloud, Senkt er das bleiche Gesicht, His pale face sinks, Freya, die H o l d e v o m H i m m e l schaut, Freya, the beautiful, looks down from Heaven, 8. Freya, sie lachelt i h m nicht. Freya does not smile upon him. 5 0 "Schwedisches Vo lks l i ed mit Frauen-Reigen" also appears in the printed libretto, but not the label "Tanz der N i x e n . " 5 1 In Die Siihne, a Bohemian folk song (Bohmisches Volksl ied) is performed by an off-stage orchestra during Conrad's mental breakdown i n scene 10. 5 2 T h e text for this chorus does not appear i n Bodenstedt's version o f the libretto. Thus far I have been unable to ascertain whether the "Schwedisches V o l k s l i e d " is an authentic Swedish folk melody. 5 3 A footnote i n the published libretto (1894) indicates that " N e c k " means " der Meereskonig" (the sea king). 127 Herber ist seines, als Menschenweh: Bitterer is his, than human sorrow: 10. L i eb ohne Liebe ist Le id ! Loving without love is suffering! W i t h its references to Freya (the goddess o f marriage), the folk-song text is appropriate for a wedding ceremony, but the text is also ambiguous and ironic. T h e singing "sea k i n g " ("Neck") identifies both Hiarne (the singer) and Friedleu (the sailor), while the protagonist is clearly unhappy that Freya is not favouring h im. Ambigu i ty and irony are reflected i n the musical setting, an A B C A 1 f o rm as shown i n the outline i n Figure 3.6 below: Figure 3.6. Out l ine o f "Schwedisches V o l k s l i e d , " (Women's chorus), A c t I, scene 3. A Section (mm. 422-465) K e y : D major b minor D major Phrase: a a b a a Starting m.# 424 432 440 448 456 Phrase length 7+1 7+1 8 7+1 7+1 Instrumental interlude (mm. 463-465 (D major to d minor) B Section (mm. 466-481) K e y : Bb major d minor Bb major d minor to V / F Phrase: c d c e Starting m.# 466 470 474 480 Phrase length: 3+1 3+1 3+1 1 + 1+2 C Section (mm. 482-515) K e y : F major d minor F major Phrase: f f1 g Starting m.# 482 490 498 506 Phrase length: 7 + 1 7 + 1 8 7 + 3 m m . Instrumental interlude Transi t ion (mm. 516-518) on V / D A 1 Section (mm. 519-537) K e y : D major Phrase: a a Starting m.# 519 527 Phrase length: 7+1 8 128 B o t h A sections share the same musical materials: the triple meter, waltz-like melody and the D major tonal center (a piano reduction o f the entire chorus is shown i n Example 3.3, pp. 130-137). A t m . 466, the B section is initiated by an abrupt modulat ion to Bb major (bVI), set up by the A# leading-tone o f b minor (mm.440-46), ut i l izing D as a c o m m o n tone and d minor as a frequent harmony (iii) between the two key areas (Example 3.3, pp. 132-133). The A#/Bb ambiguity nicely reflects the ambiguity and irony o f the text. In the B section, text lines 1 - 4 appear i n their new harmonic context, but the words take o n a breathless quality wi th a new melody where the voca l phrases are compressed into two measures plus one beat, overlapping wi th two fol lowing orchestral measures in a question-answer manner (mm. 466-473, Example 3.3, p. 133). Section C , i n F major, parallels the first A section i n its tonal scheme (the major key framing the relative minor) and its phrase structure. Something o f a "false" reprise o f the A section occurs at m m . 506-512 (Example 3.3, p. 130, labelled i n example): when Freya's name is invoked (text lines 7 - 8 ) , the melody reverts to that used for the same text in the A section (phrase " a " m m . 456-462), but i n the " w r o n g " key o f F major rather than D major. This "wrong key" reprise strengths the irony and ambiguity o f the statement "Freya, sie lachelt i h m nicht" ("Freya does not smile upon H m " ) . Is it Hiarne that Freya is not smiling down on, even though he is about to marry H i l da , or is it Friedleu, the man w h o w i l l force himself o n H i l d a later i n A c t II? A final repetition o f text lines 7 - 8 , over V / D (mm. 516 - 518), functions as a transition, preparing the "true" return o f D major tonic i n the brief A 1 section. 129 Example 3.3. "Schwedisches V o l k s l i e d , " women's chorus, Hiarne A c t I, scene 3. (reduction: M B ) Tanz der Nixen (Schwedisches Volkslied mit Frauen-Reigen) D major: I 425 Neck auf den Wo lieb - lich er - tont es vom j J -0-1 i r r 1 ' -tf Welt; Rau-schen - de Rei-gen die Meer - seischlingt: Rau-schen-de Rei-gen die Meer - seischlingt: 130 Example 3.3. (continued, page 2 o f 8). 436 S-Stern- hell dam - mert die Welt Blickt er nach o-ben, so Stern - hell ~" damm - mert die Welt, * — Blickt er nach o-ben, so JSi g J -*r 1 ' ' ' b minor: i 442 senkt er das blei - che Ge - sicht,. weint er laut, Fre - ya, die Hoi - de vom Him - mel schaut, D major: I 131 Example 3.3. (continued, page 3 o f 8). 132 Example 3.3. (continued, page 4 o f 8). IB Section I 466 [c] un poco meno mosso (Sol° Tanz) Horch wie derNeck auf den Wo-gensingt Horch, wie derNeck auf den Wo-gensingt: mm un poco meno mosso 474 d minor Rau Rau 3 = £ schen-de Rei - gendieMeer-sei schlingt schen-de Rei - gendieMeer-sei schlingt: 133 Example 3.3. (continued, page 5 o f 8). 482 d minor C Section rit. molto Blickt er nach o ben so weinL. -J-nach Blickt er er nach o ben so weint_ i r I g -3- y F major: 487 er laut, senkt er_ das blei er laut, senkt -3- :3 r das blei 134 Example 3.3. (continued, page 6 o f 8). 493 a che, das_ blei che Ge sicht, Blickt er nach che, das blei che Ge sicht, Blickt er nach -Pig. 499 4 V/d d minor 7 = 5 i * blickt er nach o ben so weint er laut, er laut, o - ben so weint senkt er das _ f r r r r r t 505 0 senkt er das blei - che Ge sicht. Fre-ya, die Ho i -de vom Him - mel -0-blei - che Ge - sicht.. Fre-ya, die Hoi -de vom Him - mel hfiN w-—s- f ?• s =R=S= — r r ' : n—i—1 1 r p — * — i — ~i—i—i— J—£ - j — ^ — ^ — — # — * — F major 135 Example 3.3. (continued, page 7 o f 8). 509 HP - scha ut, 1 -re-ya, sie I r 0 > ach - elt ihm nicht. scha ut, T * 0 m 1 :re-ya, sie lach - elt ihm -m ±. ±Z nicht. m ^ r f - r t f M : _ ' -J- r r r Fre - ya, die Hoi - de, sie lach - elt ihm nicht. Her - ber ist sei - nes als Men - schen-weh: lach - elt ihm nicht. Her - ber ist sei - nes als Men - schen-weh: D major 136 Example 3.3. (continued, page 8 o f 8). 137 Choruses and instrumental numbers set Hiarne apart f rom Bronsart 's other operas, but the majority o f the solo arias and duets i n Hiarne are still very much i n the style o f Jery und Bately i n terms o f their harmonic language, formal structure and inherent lyricism. Perhaps the only tangible difference is that i n Hiarne the music is continuous, not i n the Wagnerian sense o f "unendliche Melod ie , " but mov ing from one number to another without interruption for spoken dialogue, as it does i n the Singspiel. A c t I scene 6 epitomizes Ingeborg's approach to "cont inuous" music constructed from contiguous set numbers. A s H i l d a and Hiarne pledge their love to each other, the bui ld up to the emotional climax o f the first half o f the opera is reinforced by a concomitant musical intensification that progresses through recitative, ariosos and arias, culminat ing i n the first o f two duets. The scene can be roughly divided into two halves — musically as wel l as dramatically — as shown i n the outline o f the scene provided i n Figure 3.7, below: Figure 3.7. Out l ine o f Hiarne, A c t I, scene 6. First Half : "ac t ion" m m . 999 - 1065. M m . # : 999 - 1006 1007 - 1020 1021 - 1065 Character: Hiarne H i l d a Hiarne Style: recit recit recit~*arioso K e y area: B , C g, E b , ab (as i v / E b ) G F Second Half : "emot ion" m m . 1067 - 1199. M m . # : 1067 - 1096 1098- 1152 1 1 5 4 - 1 1 9 9 Character: H i l d a Hiarne B o t h Style: aria aria duet F o r m : A B A 1 A B A 1 A B A 1 K e y area: D b F D b F# D , D b F# F# Bb F# In the first half, the action moves ahead, as Hiarne reveals his true identity to H i lda . Beginning wi th sparsely accompanied recitative (mm. 999 - 1006, Example 3.4, pp. 139-141), 138 Example 3.4. Hiarne, Act I, scene 6, m m . 999-1020 (reduction: M B ) . 998 Hiarne (tritt auf.) n\ P 1001 rt f 7 9 9 O ver - zei - he mir huld - voll, daG ich Dir zu nah'n ge - wagt! mp 1003 B major ft 9 ' r p t t \if f r ~ p F 9 Ich seh dich trau - rig, und ich werd es selbst bei dei - nem J E /005 o4 6 3 e minor l i lda poco piu mosso rt Du sprichst ein Wort das mir das An - blick, hoi - de Ko - nigs - braut. «4s V 7 / C °vjj g minor 139 Example 3.4. (continued, page 2 o f 3). 1008 P" 9 " J"\\ Herz durch-schnei-det undscharf mich an-ge-lob-te Pflicht er - in-nert, h ± i.*h die ich so IF 8 D: Ger. 46. 6 6 poco rit. a. tempo chromatic ascent r 7 P J^'»it 3 ^ 3p streng nicht hielt, wie ich ge - sollt. Wie wiir - de Hiar-ne zur-nen, wenn er poco rit. \tempo °vii/g 1014 L|W P" P V P sa - he. Wieich al-lein instil-ler Mor-gen-s tun-demitDir hier wei-le, und * Parallel fifths i n the MS. 140 Example 3.4. (continued, page 3 o f 3). '1017 poco rit. was wiird1 er sa - gen, war' ihm be kannt, was Du ge - wagt zu bit - ten von mir, und «H37 n. poco rit. 1019 A ich m so schwach war, zu ge - wan ren! m vii/D V / G 141 Hiarne enters the scene, still disguised as his o w n messenger. A s he notices H i l d a i n tears ( " D o c h i n Thranen") , the cadence switches enharmonically when V / C b major resolves to B major i n m . 1001, o n the words "o verzeihe mi r huldvol l , daB i ch dir zu nah 'n gewagt" ("o forgive me, for coming so close to you"). Throughout die passage, there is a dynamic interplay between B^-Cb-Ct l (perhaps a musical representation o f Hiarne's hidden identity), such as at m . 1003, where the w o r d "traurig" (sad) is underpinned by v i i o 7 / e resolving to e minor , while a half-step slip i n the bass from B to C l (mm. 1004-5) sets up a perfect cadence V 7 - I i n C major at the end o f Hiarne's section (mm. 1005-6). W e l l aware that the messenger is actually Hiarne himself, H i l d a answers, at first i n recitative that slowly evolves into arioso style, that his appearance has reminded her o f her duty ( " D u sprichst ein Wor t , das mi r das H e r z durchschneidet und scharf m i c h angelobte Pfl icht erinnert," m m . 1007 - 1020 o f Example 3.4). H e r supposed fear is portrayed through the vocal line comprised largely o f minor seconds (mm. 1007-8), especially the stepwise chromatic ascent f rom G 4 to C 5 wi th the ironic statement " h o w angry Hiarne w o u l d be" i f he saw her alone wi th the messenger ("Wie wi i rde Hiarne zi i rnen, wenn er sahe, wie i ch allein i n stiller Morgenstunde mi t D i r , " mm.1013-15). In a more expansive arioso that concludes the first half o f the scene, Hiarne finally reveals his identity, bringing back the B ^ - C ^ l binarism (mm. 1029-1032) as he emphasizes that H i l d a is " K i n g Hiarne's bride" ( "Dich , K o n i g Hiarnes Braut), while twice drawing attention to his o w n name, first w i th an Italian r5/C major i n m . 1031, then wi th a striking move from d m 7 to A b coinciding wi th the apogee o f the voca l line i n m . 1037-38 (Example 3.5, pp. 143 - 146). A s he explains that his subterfuge was intended only to test her heart ("um dein H e r z zu priifen"), he mimics her ascending voca l line, G 4 up to D 5 (last beat o f m . 1060 to first beat o f m. 1062, Example 3.5, p. 146). 142 Example 3.5. Hiarne's recit and arioso, A c t I, scene 6, m m . 1021-1065 (reduction: M B ) . tempo T — > ! — — * — m. 10211 f 1 b y F P J 1 ^ •r i r * 1 ich so schwach war, zu ge-wah - ren! Hiarne. tranquillamente \ r y m Du tha - test nichts, . was — « " _ -a tempo * 5 (flute) vii/D V / G V / G 1022 er nicht wis - sen darf, poco piii animato und je - des Wort der Selbst - be - schul - di -gung. J n J: r=*rp (strings) 1 6 G V7 / F F 7025 Er - hort nur dei - nen Werth in sei - nen Au - gen 143 Example 3.5. (continued, page 2 of 4). 1028 1 J? ft V- 2 -ty— Hii - da, glaubst Du denn, daB ich ge-wagt, Dich, KO-n ig Hiar - nes ^ J>JTT3 3 § — * (clarinet) 4 /032 poco piti lento mm Braut, umei-ne Ro - sederLie-be hoi - desSinn-bild, kiihn zu bit-ten, wenn 9 *9 poco piii Wnto V 7 / C v/c Hilda. Dasis tzuvie l desGliicks! zu ich nicht_ selbst K6-nig Hiar - ne ware? $ 0 _J. 0 (strings and winds) 3 E t dm7 At 144 Example 3.5. (continued, page 3 o f 4). 1041 (cello) V / F . 1045 , Gliicks! Hiarne. tranquillo poco rit. afempo Fur mich, nicht_ dich; _ denn mei - nes , wird ver poco rit. a itempo -ZZt -0 V 7 / # 1048 m dop pelt durch das Dei - ne! Ich wol - lte nicht nach al - tem i> (Clarinet solo) -cr 145 Example 3.5. (continued, page 4 o f 4). 1051 Hiarne. 1—jf—, s 1 — s— r ^ K.o - nigs - brauch mit frem - den A u - gen sehn durch frem - - de 1058 ^ * ^ V / F F 5 * o tempo poco jit. -y: pocorit. fe p r "p r 7 p " p kom - men als mein Ge sand ter, um dein Herz zu pru .M'J..1!> nnm r poco rit. -u—f dm Andante espressivo 1062 a tempo p" pir p-p fen, und mehr. 3* m weit mehrfand ich als ich ge - ahnt! 3 3 a tempo f T (clarinet) 146 In the second half o f the scene, the "ac t ion" stops and emotion takes over, as first H i l d a , then Hiarne, sings an expansive aria fol lowed by their duet. The texts for these passages, clearly written i n rhymed verse, differ i n that respect f rom the prose texts o f the "ac t ion" por t ion o f the scene. A l l three numbers have a similar A B A 1 formal structure. In addition, the numbers are l inked harmonically: Hi lda 's aria is i n D b major, enharmonically equivalent to V o f F#, the tonic o f Hiarne's aria and o f the duet, while the second half o f the B section o f Hiarne's aria is i n Hilda 's key o f D b major (c.f. Figure 3.7, p. 138). Despite the close affinity between the three numbers, each has its o w n distinctive features wi th respect to the treatment o f the text and the key relationships wi th in each number. In Hi lda ' s aria, all three stanzas o f the text deal wi th the same topic (her feelings for Hiarne), although i n stanza two she recalls the dream that prophesied his arrival. A s befits a formal "aria" or song, the poetic lines are end-rhymed i n an a b a b, c d c d, e f e f pattern: 1. W i e lost sich mein zweifelndes Bangen How my doubting anxiety dissolves In minnige Seligkeit auf! In loving bliss! W o die Quel len der Tr i ibsa l sprangen Where the sources of distress sprang Beginnt nun das Gfuck seinen Lauf. Now happiness begins its course. (B) 5. U n d was das mir den Busen entziindet And what inflamed my breast Was Holdes durch dich mir geschehn: What sweetness happened to me through you: E s ward mir i m T r a u m schon verkiindet It was already announced to me in a dream G a n z wie ich's i m Leben gesehn! Exactly as I saw it in life! (A 1 ) 9. De ine A u g e n glanzten wie Sonnen Your eyes shone like the sun U n d klang deine Stimme so suB. Andyour voice sounded so sweet. A l s ob sie schon alle die W o n n e n , As if it already promised all the raptures, D i e jetzt rnir geworden, verhieB. Which now exist for me. Perhaps in recognition o f this poetic structure, Ingeborg set the text i n a three-part A B A ' , shown i n the diagram in Figure 3.8, p. 148. 147 Figure 3.8. Out l ine o f Hilda 's aria, A c t I, scene 6, m m . 1067-1096. 5 4 Section: A B A 1 Text stanza: stanza 1 stanza 2 stanza 3 Text line: 1 - 2 3 - 4 5 - 6 7 - 8 9 - 1 0 1 1 - 1 2 11 - 12 Mus i c phrase: a b (trans) c d (trans) a 1 e e1 Starting M m . # : 1067 1071 (74-5) 1076 1080 (83-4) 1085 1089 1093 K e y area: Db,bb to F F t o V / D D b A , C , a, to V / F # 1 (Db=C#) (new key begins m . 1073) The phrases (labelled a, b, c, d, e i n Figure 3.8) are constructed from two text lines o f each stanza. E a c h phrase is approximately the same length (4 mm. , phrases are labelled i n Example 3.6, pp. 149-151). Contrast i n the B section is kept to a m in imum. B o t h the voca l line and the accompaniment style o f the B section approximate that o f the A section (the sections are labelled i n Example 3.6.). Modula t ion to the new key area (F major) for the B section is instigated before the A section is completed, facilitated by a a common-tone F and by contrary semitone motions o n the w o r d "beginnt" i n m m . 1072-73 (Ab up to Ak i n the voca l line, and D b down to C i n the bass), then confirmed wi th a perfect cadence (V 7 - I ) i n F major i n m m . 1073-1074. A br ief transition (mm. 1074-1075) then introduces the B section, where the harmony moves through III# (m. 1076, A major, reconfiguring the earlier D b n o w as C#). After two measures o f a dominant pedal A ( V / D , m m . 1081-82), the retransition for the A 1 section is prepared o n the last beat o f m . 1083, as the V 7 resolves to d minor in m. 1084. Ano the r pair o f semitone moves, this time both i n parallel (A^l to A b , and D^l to D b , F is again the c o m m o n tone) sets up the arrival o f D b major and the beginning o f A 1 i n m . 1085. A n excursion through A major (bVI, enharmonic In the diagram, measure numbers refer to the first full measure at the beginning o f each phrase. 148 Example 3.6. Hi lda 's aria, Act I, scene 6, m m . 1067-1096 (reduction: M B ) . 10i6 Hilda. A Section E E Wie lost sich mein zwei - feln des Ban - gen in 1069 min - ni - ge Se - lig - keit auf! Wo die Quel - len der Triib_ sal m r ' if •70-- 0 bl>m /072 vedge] transition 7 3 spran - gen be - ginnt nun das Gliick sei - nen Lauf. Und Dl> F (III/Db) V/F F(I) 149 Example 3.6. (continued, page 2 o f 3) was mir den Bu - sen ent-zun - dent was_ hoi - des durch dich mir ge schehn:_ es_ (solo flute and violinl (clarinet) 1080 III** ward mir im Traum_ ver-kun - det ganz wie ich's im Le-ben ge sehn! VI<D> pedal 1084 Al Section p o c o nr. • m a tempo nt. Dei-ne A u - genglanz-tenwie Son-nen undklangDei-neStim-me so 150 Example 3.6. (continued, page 3 o f 3). 1088 Eg siiB_ als ob sie schon al - le d ieWon-nen , die_ jetzt mir ge -wor -den , ver -3- E S 0 5 -T^'j dm7 6 4 C V 7 / C '092 ±5, hieB, als ob sie schon al le die Won - nen, die 3 6 V/a Ger. 5 V/a nt. ten. Andante con moto jetzt mir ge - wor - den, ver hieB. (enharm. G3=AI>) V/Dt C« (V/Ftt) 151 respelling o f Bbb, m. 1088) and a minor (m. 1093), culminates i n V / A , comciding wi th the apogee o f the voca l o n the w o r d " W o n n e n " (raptures) i n m . 1094. T h e bass line descends chromatically, B-Bb-Bbb-Ab, closing the aria wi th a strong cadential progression i n Db. Y e t while Hilda 's voca l line closes o n the tonic Db i n m . 1096, the underlying orchestral harmony switches enharmonically to C# major (V/F#) , facilitating the modulat ion to F# major for Hiarne's aria to follow. Hi lda ' s aria functions as a long dominant preparation for Hiarne's aria, where the proport ions o f the A B A 1 form are gready expanded. T h e five poetic stanzas o f the text deal wi th the same topic as Hilda 's aria — Hiarne's v is ion o f her in a dream — as wel l as his hopes for the future: (A: stanzas 1 & 2) 1) D u zeigst i n ho ldem Widerscheine, You show in lovely reflection, O H i l d a , was mir selbst geschehn, 0 Hilda, what happened to me, D e n n wie i m T r a u m du das meine Forjust as in a dream you saw mine H a b ' i ch dein B i l d i n T r a u m gesehn! I saw your image in a dream'. 2) So bli tz uns ein prophetisch A h n e n A propheticforbearer sparkles on us Vorb i ldend , schaffend durch's G e m u t h Ideally, creating through its soul U n d fiihrt das H e r z die rechten Bahnen, And leads the heart on the right road, W o unserm T r a u m Erf i i l lung bluht. Where to our dream fulfillment blooms. (B: stanza 3) 3) D u bist das U r b i l d alles Schonen, U n d was dein M u n d und Auge sprach In weihevol len Liedestonen: D u r c h dich begeistert sing ich's nach! (A ' : stanzas 4) U n d wie i ch singe, w i l l i ch handeln, E i n K a m p f e r gegen Trug und W a h n , M e i n ganzes V o l k soli mit uns wandeln A u f friedlicher geweiter Bahn . 5) So k o m m , dich ganz mir zu verbinden, H a u c h deinen O d e m meinem ein — E i n R e i c h des Segens w i l l i ch griinden, U n d du sollst meine K o n i g i n sein! You are the original image of all beauty, And what your mouth and eyes spoke In solemn sounds of song: Through you I sing it enraptured! 4 & 5 ) And how I sing I will act, A warrior against deception and folly, All my people shall wander with us On a more peaceful, consecrated road. So come, to unite yourself completely with me, Breathe your breath into mine; I will found an empire of blessings, Andyou shall be my queen! 152 As the format of the text above shows, in the musical setting the stanzas are distributed so that stanza three, with its special statement about Hilda as the Urbild of all beauty, forms the central B section. As in Hilda's aria, each musical phrase is regularly constructed from two text lines, as shown in the diagram in Figure 3.9, below: Figure 3.9. Outline of Hiarne's aria, Act I, scene 6, mm. 1098-1152. Section: A B A 1 Mm.#: 1098-1116 1117-1129 1130-1152 Text Stanza: 1 2 3 4 5 Text line: 1-2,3-4 1-2,3-4 1-2, 3-4, 3-4 1-2, 3-4 1-2, 3-4, 3-4 Music phrase: a b a1 a2 (ext) c d d1 a b1 a' a2 ext. Key: I bVI altered V / I --> I F# major D maj. Db maj. F# major In the B section of Hilda's aria, Ingeborg had explored the mediant relationship of Db major-F major (III of Db), while in Hiarne's aria there is considerable emphasis on d# minor (vi) and D# major (VI) in the A section, as well as bVI in the B section, moving suddenly from F# major to D major (mm. 1116-1117, Example 3.7, p. 154-158). Modulation back to the tonic F# major for the return to the A 1 section (m. 1130), is carried out through several steps. First, in mm. 1123-1124, Bronsart shows how a direct move to F# is possible through contrary motion (G->F#, C#«->-C#, A-+A#), then she reverses the contrary motion to get to V / D b in mm. 1124-1125 (Fx—>Ab, C#->Db, A ^ A b ) . At this point, there is a a sequential repetition of phrase "d" (marked "d 1 " in Figure 3.9 above), in Db major, arrived at through a reinterpretation of V / D as an Italian augmented 6th chord in Db (m. 1125). Notably, Db was Hilda's tonic in the previous number. The final step occurs at the last moment, through the enharmonic switch from Db to C# in m. 1129, as the dominant of F#, initiating the A 1 section. Generally, both the form and musical language recall those of Schumann's songs. 153 Example 3.7. Hiarne's aria, A c t I, scene 6, m m . 1098-1152 (reduction: M B ) . 154 Example 3.7. (continued, page 2 o f 5). / / / / fuhrt das Herz die rech - ten Bah - nen wo uns - rem Traum Er - fiil - lung j r: dan J \ r i f 'Lr r V / v i nr. 4 6 2 I a tempo W a t t bliiht, Er - fill lung blilht. Du csorass. -mr 7 t J,* 'nt. (viola)" a tempo 1117 B Section M bist das Ur - bild al - les Scho - nen, und was Dein Mundund A u - ge p p D (I.VI/Fjt):I 1120 6 IV 6 iv riY. LU a tempo sprach wei - he - vol - len Lie - des -to - nen; durch rit. a tempo ft* H' 155 Example 3.7. (continued, page 3 o f 5) 1123 m Dich be-gei-stert sing ich's nach! In wei - he-vo l - len r * \ v //26 6 III DK=Ctt): V rit. _ p r r- g Lie - des - to - nen durch Dich_ be - gei - stert sing_ ich's a * * * rit. //29 IV a tempo V 7 AI Section s find nach! wie ich sin - ge will ich han - deln, ein I 3 1 r—" 3 r 1132 r> (=v/Fi) S i I5TI 1^  J J* fl h h h Kamp - fer ge - gen Trug und Wahn, mein gan - zes Volk soil mit uns fe vi 156 Example 3.7. (continued, page 4 o f 5). 1135 I /Mia i s- s , < tf^. ' W i ; 7 al — V - K - T r 1 wan - deln auf fried -1 i - cher ge - weih -ter Bahn So komm, dich ganz mir zu ver J. ) VI //iP bin - den, hauch De i -nenO - dem mei-nem ein, *** ass 1 = 3 V/Dtt Out,. 1 5 1 Reich des Se - gens will ich griin - den und Du sollst mei - ne Kon' - gin 1146 * 7 sein! Und Du sollst mei-neKon'-ginsein! tr »ljg Ein V/Df 157 Example 3.7. (continued, page 5 o f 5). 1149 4* j u it tta Reich des Se - gens will ich griin J JCJ den, und ;/5/ r;7. Du sollst mei - ne Kon' - gin sein! ITS r—3--m-V7/F# 158 Hiarne's aria leads directly to the emotional climax of the scene, the duet "O wonnig Athmen" (Example 3.8, pp. 160-164). As noted above, this is yet another A B A 1 formal structure where contrast in the B section is kept to a minimum, dependent on a modulation to a mediant related key with enharmonic equivalence: F# major to Bb major (Bb=A#, III/Ftt). Perhaps the most significant feature of the duet is the manner in which the three-part form is derived from the text. In the two previous arias, the multi-stanza texts could easily be set into A B A forms, but the duet is derived from a single four-line text stanza: O wonnig Athmen, suB Empfinden, 0 sweet breath, sweet sensation, Begliickt begliickend, Herz an Herz, Made happily happy, heart to heart, In sel'ger Liebe sich umwinden! In blessed love twined around it! Mir ist, als schwebt ich himmelwarts. Forme, it's as if I soared heavenwards. To achieve the three-part musical form, the poetic lines are presented only once in order in the A section, then rearranged in each subsequent section, as shown in Figure 3.10 below. Figure 3.10. Outline of duet (Hilda and Hiarne), Act I, scene 6, mm. 1154-1199. Section: A B A 1 Mm.#: 1154-1166 1167-1181 1182-1199 Text lines: 1 2 3 (4 4) 3 2 4 (partial) 1 2 3 2 Key: F# Bb (=Aft) Ftt Hilda and Hiarne sing in thirds throughout most of the duet. While the first A section stays within the tonic F# major and its dominant, both the arrival of the B section and the return to A 1 present some interesting overlapping. Modulation to the new key for the B section, Bb major (the enharmonic equivalent of A#, III/F#) occurs at m. 1167, midway through the text of line four, somewhat blurring the boundaries of the formal structure (Example 3.8, pp. 161). In light of the words at this point, the technique employed to facilitate the modulation is ironic: as Hilda and Hiarne sing about being swept 159 Example 3.8. H i l d a and Hiarne duet, A c t I, scene 6, m m . 1154-1203. 1 1 5 3 a Hilda. IA Section I 1156 160 Example 3.8. (continued, page 2 o f 5). 161 Example 3.8. (continued, page 3 of 5). 162 Example 3.8. (continued, page 4 o f 5). 163 164 heavenwards, the new key is introduced by descending semitone slippage i n their voca l lines on the w o r d "schwebt" and before "hLmmelwarts," reinforcing the irony (mm. 1166-67, H i l d a D# to Hiarne F# to Fty. A t the return o f the A 1 section, while the text and melody return, the harmony is unstable, still work ing its way to F#, first as a reiteration o f V / g (itself introduced by and augmented 6th back i n m m . 1176-7) as a G e r m a n augmented 6th, then through a long dominant pedal (C#) i n the bass (mm. 1183-1189, Example 3.8, pp. 163-164), unti l F# major i n root posi t ion finally arrives on the last w o r d o f the duet (m. 1199). Whi l e Ingeborg may have been disinclined toward leitmotivic technique at this stage o f her composi t ional career, she seems to have preferred i n all three o f her operas the motivic technique o f her predecessors Weber, Marschner, and (pre-leitmotivic) Wagner, especially that o f repetition o f larger blocks o f musical material. In Hiarne, such repetition occurs at the end o f A c t II, scene 7. A s H i l d a lay dying from the poison, she first reprises the A section o f Hiarne's aria f rom A c t I, scene 6, then the duet that followed. A l t h o u g h it is something o f an operatic cliche that the heroes and heroines reminisce about their love through a repeat o f their main love duet materials, the reprise may be justified by the text. Hi lda 's words for the aria por t ion o f A c t II, scene 7, very closely resemble text stanzas four and five o f Hiarne's aria: N e i n , du muBt leben zu des Volkes He i l ! No, you must live for the peoples' welfare! D e n n eine hohe Sendung ist dein Leben. Because your life is a high mission. 3) W i e du gesungen, muBt du handeln, The way you sang, you must act, E i n K a m p f e r gegen T r u g und Wahn : A warrior against deception andfolly: D e i n ganzes V o l k soli mit dir wandeln All your people shall walk with you 6) A u f friedlicher geweihter Bahn! On a more peaceful consecrated road! 7) Ich aber hauche fortzuleben, But I breathe my last breath, D i r meinen letzten O d e m ein! To live on for you! M e i n Geis t w i r d deinem sich verweben, My spirit will be woven with yours, 10) G a n z bist du mein, ganz b in i ch dein! You are completely mine, Iam completely yours! 165 Lines 3-6 are nearly identical to stanza 4 of Hiarne's aria in Act I, except that the personal pronouns have been changed from the first-person "ich" to the second-person "du" (see Hiarne's text on p. 152). The "union of spirits" and "breathing" parallels stanza 6 (lines 1 and 2) of Hiarne's aria ("So komm, dich ganz mir zu verbinden/ Hauch deinen Odem meinem ein"). For the reprise of the aria, the music returns to the original key, F# major, and to the melody of the A 1 section (mm. 1130-1148) of Hiarne's aria (both vocal lines are shown in Example 3.9, p. 167). The duet that follows (Duet II, in Act II) is analogous to the opening A section of the previous duet (Duet I, Act I), but with several important changes. As shown in the diagram in Figure 3.11, below, Hilda (alone) begins by singing the same words to the same melody as in Duet I (mm. 1292-1295 of Duet II): Figure 3.11. Comparison of Duet II (Act II, scene 7) and Duet I (Act I, scene 6). Duet II (Act IT) Mm. 1292-1295 1296-1299 1300-1307 1308-1312 1312-1316 Hilda, line 1 Hiarne-new Hilda, lines 3&4 Hiarne-new Hilda line 4 Hiarne-new F# F# 1304: Att (III/Ftt) V/F# to F# Duet I (Act R Mm. 1153-1157 1158-1161 1162-1169 1195-1199 Both: line 1 Both: line 2 Both: lines 3 & 4 Both: line 2 Fit Ftt 1167: Bb (=A#) Hiarne, on the other hand, is given new words, befitting the situation (Hilda is dying). It is worth noting that his words at this point are written in the MS (in Ingeborg's hand), but do not appear in the published libretto or in Bodenstedt's Einkehr und Umschau version. The setting is almost identical to mm. 1153-1157 of the first duet, except that the bass line in Duet II is altered in mm. 1292-93 (Example 3.10, pp. 168-170). Because the dramatic 166 Example 3.9. Hilda's vocal line, Act II, scene 7, mm. 1272-1290, and Hiarne's vocal line, Act I, scene 6, mm. 1130-1148. 'Jlhhj H ' l d a ( A c t n a d a ) Hilda 5 Wie D u ge - s u n - g e n , m u s s t D u h a n - d e l n , ein K 8 m p - f e r g e - g e n T r u g u n d 1275 m HI. HI. HI. HI. W a h n ; dein gan - z e s V o l k s o l l mit d i r w a n - d e l n auf fried - l i - c h e r g e - w e i h - t e r 1279 E E r~N—T r > J i Bahn ! Ich a - b e r h a u - c h 0 MS e f o r t - z u • • l e -V ben, I—i— D i r n i e i - n e n l e t z - ten_ 1283 Si > -Mi-J- J J O - d e m ein! 1287 Mein Geist wird dei - n e m ich ver wer - ben, g a n z _ bist Du mein, ganz bin ich dein, ganz bin ich dein! 1129 Hiarne (Act I aria) Hiarne fav \>%(' nd wie ich s i n - g e wi l l ich han - deln, e i n K S m p - f e r g e - g e n T rug und 1133 Hr. Hr. Hr. Hr. -JOT Wahn , meingan - zes V o l k s o l l mit unswan - deln auf fried - l i - c h e r g e - w e i h - t e r 1137 • 'Matt > J * i r p~ g Bahn So komm,d ichganzmi rzuve r -b in - den, h a u c h D e i - n e n O - dem 1141 Hhw i j ||. J ^jS K FrTl 3 m-i — L-l 1 \^mm mei-nem ein. 1145 D u s o l l s t m e i - n e K o n ' - g i n sein! Und D u s o l l s t m e i - n e K o n ' - g i n se in ! 167 Example 3.10. H i l d a and Hiarne duet, A c t II, scene 7 ("Duet II"), m m . 1291-1320), (reduction: M B ) . l2V u Hi lda. ft ttu ate ft It [» ftf Iftf O won nig Ath m m rr Ftt:i /294 >J 6 Emp --p fin - d en: „ . Hiarne. P P $ • mjn rr F T ' F - E — I Hi l T da , sie r J" r r r J _ W. r* M ^ § 1 1 " _ LvttX i* « - - - L ^ J -»M J J J ' * J--J 1 9 1 » — T o 1 VI ii =£=±=* i I /297 In r 9 M P 3E£ stirbt! Omei-ne Hi l -da verlaBt michnicht, . m S 3JiF=i: U J O J m 2 V vyv 168 Example 3.10. (continued, page 2 of 3). 1300 H i l d a el - ger L ie - b si oh =5= um-iTDfT] rr fflrpt 1 J * — — 4^^4 J _ J -& '303 ate den, mir ist als schwebt ich O Got-ter! auchen-demei-ne Noth, laBt ster-benmich, • J T U r3«Tli J .,1 - h ' j ' — I 1 *• M x-J-i y ft ¥ 'i iii" /30tf ^ 1 *f J -0 si L i i 7 V — r * nit* § t f ft 1 & n F = = -S i r — mel s—V 5— warts —*—? CM) tr * # t t e ^ laBt ster - ben mic "1 8 I t - f * ;h mit ihr! — % Doch u i r n ihr +=l — * — • * • • J j-- f D (V/G) 1 r r =< V/D 169 Example 3.10. (continued, page 3 o f 3). 1309 rit letz - ter Ge - bet. dpJ J-— 3 -ich mu6_ es er - fiil § # rit. 1312 6 4 V / G V7 / G ate Mir ist als schwebt_ ich len, a tempo I — g-r;r. Ft) (I) -fS> Ate him mel - warts. o lafJt mich nicht! . '>:h\*J lL f nt. V (CJ pedal) I (Sie sinkt sterbend aus seinen Armen auf die Ruhebank. Hiarne Der V o r h a n g fallt. E n d e des 2ten A k t e A u i n tiefem Schmerz kniet vor Hilda nieder.) O ^ m r- i-i P - B . i — r - n i—P-=T=H r— i—~t i H ~cn I 170 situation has changed since the first duet, Hiarne (alone) now sings new words, "Hilda, sie stirbt! O meine Hilda verlaBt mich nicht" ("Hilda, she's dying! O my Hilda, don't leave me"), with an altered melody (mm. 1296-1299), replacing the line "begluckt begluckend, Herz an Herz" from Duet I, but to the same harmonic progression as in Duet I. At m. 1300, Hilda continues with lines 3 and 4 of the text, while Hiarne joins her with more new words at m. 1303 ("O god, end my need too, let me die with her"). The entire passage from mm. 1300- 1307 parallels mm. 1162-1169 in Duet I. However, the semitone motions that introduced the new key area for the B section of Duet I (m. 1167, Bb major, enharmonic A#, III/F#) are re-written in Duet II: the semitone motion is still present (m. 1304-5), but this time the A# is preceded by G#, not coming from direcdy from F# as it did before. Thus the return to the tonic F# major to close the duet happens via A#, but in the context of a major third cycle, F#-A#-D-F#, involving a common tone and two semitones in contrary motion (mm. 1303-1313). With the C*1 in m. 1312, the effect of the final move to F# major is like that of a common-tone German 8. Hilda's words at the end of the duet, "mir ist als schwebt ich himmelwarts" take on a different meaning: rather than being swept heavenwards out of rapture, she is dying. F# major is an important tonal area, unifying the opera as a whole. A l l three acts end in that key, just as all three acts culminate with an emotional climax as Hilda and Hiarne are united in some way, either through their betrothal, her death, or their reunion as they are swept off to Valhalla. Despite the formal organization into set numbers such as arias, choruses and instrumental processionals, continuity is maintained by linking individual numbers through their tonal relationships, particularly major third relationships, and the repetition of larger musical units. 171 Hiarne shares wi th Wagner's Ring one important element: the downfal l o f the gods. Whereas Wagner ultimately decided to bring about the "twil ight" o f the gods i n four full length music dramas, i n Hiarne the story o f the end o f the wor ld is narrated i n a single — albeit lengthy — number: "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung" early o n i n A c t I o f the opera (the tide is written i n the autograph score, i n Ingeborg's hand, reproduction o f the page from the M S shown i n Figure 3.12, p. 173). T h e text for the L i e d is drawn f rom the Voluspa, a p o e m depicting the destruction o f the gods, paraphrased by Snorr i Sturluson i n the Prose Edda.55 A c c o r d i n g to H . R. El l i s Dav idson , the main elements o f Snorri 's paraphrase include a "great winter" that lasts three years on end, suffering and bitter warfare, mighty earthquakes, and darkening o f the sun. A serpent leaves the sea, causing tidal waves, while giants arrive i n a ship made from the "uncut nails o f the dead." In the final batde, the armies o f the gods are defeated by giants, while Surt (a warrior god) is left to destroy heaven and earth by fire. After the conflagration, the earth reawakens, green and fertile. O n l y men and the sons o f the gods survive. 5 6 In Bronsart 's opera, all o f main events from the Voliispa saga are captured i n the text o f "Das L i e d v o n der Gotterdammerung." Hans v o n Bronsart provided the text for this song. Fr iedr ich Bodenstedt's version can be found i n the Append ix , p. 348. T h e L i e d text and translation begin on p. 174. Numbers have been added to the stanzas to aid the reader, while the format and separation between the lines is reproduced from that o f the printed libretto: 5 5 H . R. E l l i s Dav idson , Gods and Myths of Northern Europe (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books , 1964, reprint, 1975), p. 202. 5 6 Ibid. 172 173 Hort, alle, ihr edlen Helden, [1] Das hohe Lied, Das gewaltige, geweihte, V o n der Gotterdarnmerung! Was die Seherin geweissagt, Wi l l ich sing, V o n der Asen Untergang Und dem ewigen Gott. Seit durch Lokes, des Bosen Lift [2] Baldur der Licht starb, Der hehre Gott hochster Unschuld Und Herzenreine: D a starb auch das goldne Gluck Der Asengotter; VerhangniB und Verderben Ward ihnen verkiindet. Drei Winter werden kommen, [3] W o Siinde waltet, Wo Brudermord entbrennt Und Treuebruch. Drei Winter werden kommen, W o Wolfe hausen, Zerstorende Sturme Und starrer Frost. Endlich wird erbeben [4] Der Erdenball, Es taucht aus der Tiefe Das Todtenschiff: Dann bricht seine Bande Loke der Bose, Entfesselt wird Fenrir, Der finstre Wolf. Mitten aus dem Meer [5] Kommt der Midgardswurm, Und Surtur von Siiden Mit flammenden Schwert. Vor dem heulenden Heer Spaltet der Himmel, In drohendem Donner Drohnen die Felsen. Listen, everyone,you noble heroes, to the high lied, The powerful, consecrated one, of the twilight of the gods! What the prophetess wisely told, I will sing, Of the decline of the Asen51 and the eternal god. Since through Loke the Evil's trick Baldur the Light died, The majestic god of higher innocence and pure of heart: The golden fortune of the Asen gods also died; Doom and ruin was prophesied for them. Three winters would come, where sin prevailed, Where fratricide and broken loyalty burned. Three winters would come, where wolves howled, Destructive storms and rigid frost. Finally the planet earth would shake, The deathship was driven out of the depths: Then Loke the Evil broke his bonds, Fenrir the sinister wolf would be unleashed. From the middle of the sea came the serpent, And Surtfrom the south with a flaming sword. Before the howling army Heaven cracked, In threatening thunder the cliffs roared. "Asens"are gods. "Asgard" (stanza 6) is the home of the gods, equivalent to Valhalla. 174 Die Asen im Asgard, [6] Von Allvater gefuhrt, Die edlen Einheriar Eilen zum Kampf, Geschmiickt mit glanzender Goldner Riistung, Mit strahlendem Schwerte Und leuchtendem Schild. Bald brauset und briillet [7] Wie Windsbraut die Schlacht Und wiitet mit wildem Wehegeschrei; Es fallen die Fiirsten Der FinsterniB, Es gehet zu Grunde Der Gotter Schaar. Schwarz wird die Sonne,1 Die Erde sinkt ins Meer, Herab von Himmel fallen Die hellen Sterne; Gluthwirbel umwiihlen Das ganze Weltall, Bis es im Brande Zusammenbricht. Aber dann tont ein gewaltiges "Werde!" [9] Durch's Schweigen der Nacht; Wieder erhebt aus dem Meer sich die Erde In griinender Pracht; Und wieder erwacht Alles zum Leben zur Wonne! Schoner erglanzt die Sonne! Mond und Gestirne sie leuchten hernieder Mit schonerem Strahl, Flammengelautert begriiBen sich wieder Die Gotter im Saal; Aus dammerndem Thai Schwebt zum lichten Gefilde Baldur, der Reine, der Milde. Und dann wird der Ewige walten Auf dem Himmelstron, The Asens in Asgard, led, by the great father, the noble army of gods rushed to the battle, adorned with shimmering golden armour, with shining swords and glimmering shields. Soon the battle roared and bellowed like the wind's bride and raged with wild cries of pain; The princes of darkness fell, the god Schaar was sent to the ground. But then a powerful 'Becoming1." resounded through the silence of the night; The earth rose up again from the sea in greening splendour; and everything living again woke to life. The sun shone more beautifully! [10] Moon and stars shining down with more beautiful rays, resoundingfires again greet the gods in the hall; [11] From the dawning valley Floats to the sunny climes Baldur, the pure, the kind. And then eternity was chosen from the heavenly host, [8] The sun grew dark, the earth sank into the sea, The bright stars fell down from heaven; the entire universe churned hot-swirling, until it collapsed in the fire. 5 8 Changes in the line format and breaks between stanzas from this point on occur in the printed libretto. 175 Wunderherr l ich neu gestalten Wel t und Erdensohn. Marvelously wonderful newly created world and son of earth. D e n Al lmacht 'gen , den Al lweisen D e r kein N a m e nennt, Werden alle Wesen preisen, E r d ' und Firmament. [12] To the all-powerful, all-knowing, the one that takes no name, A.U beings were priced, earth and firmament. U n d es herrschet L i e b ' und Frieden [13] D a n n i n Ewigkei t , Al les findet schon hienieden Himmelsseligkeit . And love and peace prevailed then in eternity, All finds here in this world below heaven's blessing. The poetic structure o f the L i e d text itself is o f interest here. Stanzas one and two provide an introduct ion to the L i e d — the first an exhortation to listen, the second prophesying the d o o m o f the gods. The remaining eleven stanzas narrate the events o f the Voluspa i n a symmetrical structure o f 5 - 1 - 5 stanzas: stanzas three through seven are devoted to the cataclysm, stanzas nine through thirteen account for the rebirth o f the earth, and the two halves are bisected by stanza eight, where the universe collapses. In addition, the symmetrical structure is emphasized by the use o f specific poetic devices: the first half o f the text (stanzas 1 -7) relies on internal rhyme and alliteration, while the stanzas o f the second half (stanzas 9-13) favour end rhyme. Stanza eight utilizes some alliteration, but not to the extent o f that seen i n the first seven stanzas. Bronsart 's musical setting supports the poetic structure on several levels. T o begin wi th , the first half o f the text (stanzas 1-8), relating the batde and cataclysim, is set almost exclusively i n a stark declamatory or recitative-like voca l style, underpinned by rov ing harmonies relying o n minor keys, coloured by augmented and diminished chords. T h e first two lines o f stanza three ("three winters") are set to a descending chromatic progression: first inversion major triads alternate wi th augmented traids (mm. 717-720, Example 3.11, pp. 177-188). F o r the third and fourth lines o f the stanza (the second statement o f " D r e i Winter 176 Example 3.11. "Das L i e d v o n der Gotterdammerung, ' ' A c t I, scene 3 (reduction: M B ) . 177 Example 3.11. (continued, page 2 o f 12, m m . 699-712). 178 Example 3.11. (continued, page 3 of 12, mm. 713-725). 713 der - ben, ward ihn en ver-kun-det. Drei E 3 E -m-7/7 Moderato V'/e 1' 1 P" p p p r Win -ter wer -den kom -men wo Sun - dewal-tet , wo Bru-der-mord ent-brennt und m » I "[' I 1 6 ( 6 5 5 e 720 | varied transposition of mm. 717-7201 p i r p r p E Treu - e - bruch. Drei Win - ter wer - den kom - men, wo Wol - fe hau - sen, zer f i If 723 4 C (V/F) 6 6 E E (aug) Allegro T P" P f P" P ' ^ r ^ -stor- en-de Stur-me und star-rer Frost. 0 „ End -1 ich wird er-be - bender 3 r » 1 >t i d * 3 3 ^4 7* « ^ J 5 = B < ? 5 ( £ 6 ±^ - i t * '1* i n « Ei" 4 (aug) 4 (aug) V 7 /g 179 Example 3.11. (continued, page 4 o f 12, m m . 726-738). 726 Er-den-ba l l , estaucht aus der Tie fe das Tod - ten - schiff; dann . M _ •w PT P V 7 /c 729 molto piii lento bricht sei - ne Ban 0 "» de Lo - ke der Bd - se, ent-fes - selt wird Fen - rir der (strings) I S V 7 /a 732 f ? v f r P 1 r p p" fin - stre Wolf. Mit - ten aus dem Meer - e kommt der M i d - gards - wurm, 735 9 r p" F T r " i* 7 * p p und Siir - tur von SO-den mit flam-men-den Schwert. Vor dem '6 07 bm bm 180 Example 3.11. (continued, page 5 o f 12, m m . 739-751). 181 Example 3.11. (continued, page 6 o f 12, m m . 752-759). 182 Example 3.11. (continued, page 7 o f 12, m m . 760-771). 760 m Winds - braut die Schlacht und wil - tet mitwil-dem We - he-ge-schrei; es I 3 • f ., . f » r f o4 2 dm °7 Alle breve (quasi Presto) 6 V/d 2 V/e p i r ^ p" pi" p" F i f=f fal - len die Ftir - sten der Fin - ster - niB, es ge - het zu Grun - de der $ * ¥ T % , i % S V $ , i =*= 766 6 4 em | varied transposition of mm. 763-7661 p" F ' P P I T 9 7 p d 1 p Got ter Schaar. 3 3 Schwarz wird die Son - ne, die Er - de sinkt ins Meer, her &-ZX-V/erh 769 » j m yr Ym m J » ab vom Him - mel fal - len die hel - len ff] . _ - U l - ster 183 Example 3.11. (continued, page 8 o f 12, m m . 772-789). 772 TO Piii lento (senza alle breve) JL. -ne Gluth - wir - bel um g--3-n | 3- -3—,,— 3-to as 776 /-if. p- p r P P wiih-len . das gan - ze Wei-tall — P i bis es in Bran - de zu 0= -3—, -3—i,—3-r"1 rit. VII/G' ' 779 a tempo poco piii lento 15 G^ Piii lento. 16 l]3 sam - menbricht. ±3£ (horns) o vii 0 7 /B b ebm vii/y/eb El> (V pedal) 755 A-ber dann tont ein ge - wal-ti-ges "Wer - de!" H 3 — (flutes) o (strings) 184 Example 3.11. (continued, page 9 o f 12, m m . 790-806). 185 Example 3.11. (continued, page 10 of 12, mm. 807-822). 806 Andante 9 r p- 9 Son - ne! 41 Mond und Ge-stir - ne sie (horns) 3 3 (flutes) 3 3 5// leuch-ten her-nie - der mit scho-ner-em Strahl, flam-men -ge-lau - tert be 3 (horns) 3 (flutes) 9 p t f 5/5 f1^ T rg * *• * r ^ — * — ~ (horns) 5/9 Aus dam - mem - dem ThaL schwebt zum ¥ * 3 3 3 (flutes) 3- ' -3 (horns) 0 p-V/E 186 Example 3.11. (continued, page 11 of 12, mm. 823-841). 823 lich ten Ge - fil - de Bai dur, der * * I ^ V/E 527 pjtt 4 (enharmonic) E^  (B> pedal) Rei ne, der M i l de! Und dannwirdderE-wig'n lM J J J =r=f= _ Q ^ i - J J J J i f f f * * -5 »• * 5 r, m —s 0 «<s ii/f 833 wal - ten auf dem Him mel Strom, wun - der herr - lich neu ge-537 j—i— stal - ten Welt und Er den sohn. DenAllmacht-gen,den A l l -ak C 1 , 4 A^ 187 Example 3.11. (continued, page 12 of 12, mm. 842-859). 842 * 1 s | =F m 1—>— L=—m 1 ^—* =1= = F = 5 wei - sen, den keinNa-me nennt, wer-den al - leWe-sen prei - sen, 847 I 3 1 Erd' und Firm-a - ment. Und I es herr-schetLieb' und 3 P vii A b fm (vi/Ab) Frie - den dann in E - wig - keit s6? al - lesfin-det schon hie V 7 A1, 556 H 11 f f EEEE v/c V7/Al> A b 188 werden kommen") the progression is varied and transposed up a whole-step (mm. 721-24, Example 3.11). T h e tempo changes to Al legro corresponding to the shaking o f the earth i n stanza 4, while the "Todtenschi f f ' (deathship, stanza 4) rising f rom the sea is represented by a snake-kke chromatic bass-line (mm. 726-28), and the rol l ing thunder and roaring cliffs o f stanza 5 prolongs V / B wi th a rumbl ing tremolo pedal B i n the bass (mm. 744-48). Suddenly, the setting o f text stanza six, wh ich portrays the army o f gods, changes to a more consonant tonal progression from E major to G major, wi th a militaristic triplet accompaniment and i n a song-like or arioso voca l style (mm. 749-758). The first hal f o f the L i e d is through-composed, wi th the exception o f two transposed repetitions: one for the repeat o f the text o f the third stanza " D r e i Winter werden kommen , " noted above, and a second varied transposition, i n wh ich the music for lines 4-8 o f text stanza seven is repeated a half step lower for lines 1-4 o f stanza eight, as the earth sinks into the sea and the stars fall f rom heaven (mm. 763-770, Example 3.11). This second varied repetition sets up a b ig arrival o n eb minor (m. 775), for the last 4 lines o f stanza 8, where the universe finally collapses. In contrast to the first half o f the L i e d , the second half unfolds through a more extended voca l range i n arioso style, supported by a much more consonant and diatonic tonal language emphasising major keys, representing the rebirth. A ten-measure span o f E b major harmony over a dominant (Bb) pedal, m m . 784-794 (Example 3.11) initiates the dawn o f the new w o r l d i n stanza nine (the E b major harmony at this point has a special referential significance that w i l l be discussed in more detail later). A n unprepared switch from E b major to C major, together wi th an annunciatory G - C signal in the voca l line greets the now-shining sun, m o o n and stars (mm. 805-807), while another mediant-related modulat ion, C major to A major, the latter resolving as the dominant o f D major (m. 817), accompanies 189 the return o f the gods to their home After a modulat ion back to E b major harmony at m . 825, the voca l line reaches its apogee on Bb6 i n m . 829 as Baldur ascends to heaven. A n E b pedal through this section prepares the final modulat ion to A b major (m.832, Example 3.11), the main tonal area for the remaining 28 measures o f the L i e d . Ano the r major third cycle (Ab-C) closes the song. B o t h the structure o f the text and its setting evoke strong connections wi th Wagner. It is not a coincidence that the relendess alliteration displayed i n the first half o f the text closely resembles Wagner's concept o f Stabreim . 5 9 A c c o r d i n g to Car l Dahlhaus, Wagner "decided to write the text o f Siegfrieds Tod [later Gotterddmmerung] i n Stabreim as an acknowledgement o f the subject's origin i n Germanic my th . " 6 0 Stabreim also served an explicitly musical purpose, al lowing Wagner to break free from the periodic structure o f his earlier works by replacing it wi th the irregular phrase structure o f "musical prose." 6 1 B u t while alliteration often inspired Wagner to musical prose, i n Bronsart 's setting the most obviously alliterative verses (stanzas 4 through 7) are worked out almost invariably into periodic two-measure melodic phrases (even i f the harmony does not always abide by this parallelism). The Edda ic and Skaldic poets employed alliteration i n their verse. 6 2 Because Bronsart 's librettists and Wagner consulted the same source legends (the Edda and the Gesta 5 9 A c c o r d i n g to Wagner's definition, the alliterative aspect o f Strabreim can come "either from a kinship o f the vowe l sounds, especially when these stand open i n front, without any init ial consonant; or f rom the sameness o f the initial consonant itself, w h i c h characterises the likeness as one belonging peculiarly to the object; or again, f rom the sameness o f the terminal consonant that closes up the root behind (as an assonance), provided that the individualising force o f the w o r d lies i n that terminal." Richard Wagner, Opera and Drama, translated by W i l l i a m A s h t o n El l i s (London: K e g a n Paul , Trench , Tr i ibner & C o . , 1893, reprint, L i n c o l n and L o n d o n : University o f Nebraska Press, 1995), p. 227. 6 0 C a r l Dahlhaus, "Wagner's ' A Communica t ion to my Friends: ' Reminiscence and Adapta t ion ," Musical Times 124 (1983): 91. 6 1 Ibid. 6 2 Gabr ie l Turvil le-Petre, The Heroic Age of Scandinavia (London: Hutchinson 's Universi ty 190 Danoruni) the appearance o f the poetic device i n their operas may be attributed to its origin i n the source legends. Its use i n Bronsart 's opera is even more relevant, given that the title character is a Skald. Hans v o n Bronsart may have written the text i n imitat ion o f the Skaldic verse found i n the sources. I f that is the case, the periodicity o f Ingeborg's musical setting may be due to the syllabic nature o f Skaldic poetry, where the number o f syllables and stresses had to be counted, as opposed to the rhythmical, more flexible Edda ic style. In Skaldic " C o u r t Meter ," for example, poets were expected to distribute three stresses across six syllables i n each poetic l ine . 6 3 Y e t this does not account for the appearance o f end-rhyme i n the second half o f Bronsart 's text, where there is a strong sense o f irony or satire. Rhyme o f any type occurs rarely i n Edda ic poetry, while the Skalds preferred internal rhyme over end-rhyme. 6 4 M o r e importandy, end-rhyme is atypical o f Wagner, particularly i n the King. Was this concommitant shift i n poetic and musical styles in Hiarne intended only to portray rebirth and the dawning o f the new wor ld order, or might the regressive step backward from Wagnerian "musical prose" be considered as a comment on Ingeborg's distaste for Wagner? Mus ica l evidence suggests the latter, i n the form o f small but specific allusions to the Ring. M u c h has been made o f the opening measures o f the prelude to Wagner's Das Rheingold, where the E b major tonal center emerges from "a long-held E flat deep d o w n i n the double-basses, a pr imordial element, as it were, out o f wh ich the w o r l d o f water represented by the Rhine w i l l come into being." 6 5 The process o f unfolding the E b major harmony encompasses 17 measures, wi th the addition o f the dominant Bb i n m . 5 and the mediant G i n m . 17 (the E b harmony is then sustained much longer). Wagner asserted that the idea for Library, 1951, reprint, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1976), p. 165. 6 3 Ibid. , pp. 165-166. 6 4 Ibid. , p. 166. 6 5 Ernest N e w m a n , The Wagner Operas (New Y o r k : A l f r ed A . K n o p f , 1978), p. 451. 191 the prelude came to h i m i n a dream, and that the "huge crescendo should throughout create the impression o f a phenomenon o f nature developing quite o f its o w n accord ." 6 6 In the second half o f "Das L i e d v o n Gotterdammerung," as the earth awakens — nature "redeveloping" after the cataclysm — E b major is also the tonal center, w h i c h here, however, appears first orchestrally set as a second inversion E b major triad, w i th the dominant Bb as a pedal in the bass (mm. 783-786), corresponding to the text o f stanza 9, " A b e r dann tont ein gewaltiges Werde ' ! " at m . 786 (Example 3.11, p. 188). A n even more compel l ing example occurs i f one compares m m . 805-812 wi th the excerpt f rom Das Rheingold shown i n Example 3.12 (p. 193). In "Das L i e d , " E b major gives way to C major (mm. 805-812), wi th the text "Schoner erglanzt die Sonne" (the sun shines more beautifully). B o t h the C major harmony and the triplet figure i n the accompaniment point to what Rober t D o n i n g t o n describes i n Das Rheingold as "the glitter o f the sun's light playing wi th the gold under the water, as childhood's innocent delight." 6 7 E v e n Wagner's distinctive fanfare motive o f the gold, shown i n Example 3.12 (p. 193), is alluded to by the arpeggiated chords i n m m . 805-807. Finally, i n the triadic melody and A b major setting o f the last stanza o f "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung" (mm. 841-848) and its textual connect ion wi th the "newly created w o r l d , " one cannot help but recognize an allusion to arpeggiation at the beginning o f the Walhal la motive from the Ring (Example 3.13, p. 193). T h e strongest case for parody may be made i f one considers what "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung" is doing i n this opera. Certainly, the L i e d conforms to the romantic ballad type, whereby a character sings a ballad that proleptically anticipates the denoument 6 6 Sandra Corse, Wagner and the New Consciousness: Language and Love in the Ring (Cranbury, N J : Associated Universi ty Presses, 1990), p. 72. 6 7 Rober t D o n i n g t o n , Wagner's 'Ring" and its Symbols: Music and Myth (New Y o r k : St. Mart in 's Press, 1974), p. 287. 192 Example 3.12. Motive of the gold, from Wagner, Das Rheingold. (Dover; 46/1/6-46/2/2) j motive of the gold | Example 3.13. "Walhalla" motive, Wagner, Das Rheingold. 193 o f the work. Furthermore, as an example o f what Carolyn Abbate calls "phenomenal song," it is not out o f place i n a work about the exploits o f a "s inging" k ing . 6 8 L i k e the two other phenomenal performances i n Hiarne — the singing contest i n the Vorsp ie l , and Hiarne's lament for Hi lda ' s funeral i n A c t III — "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung" is dramatically motivated, that is to say, its performance follows an invocat ion by K i n g E r i c h for Hiarne "to s ing ." 6 9 Such an invocat ion or " invi ta t ion" to tell a story, according to Abbate , is an important marker o f phenomenal performance. 7" But , i n the case o f "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung," the topic o f the song stands outside the context o f the opera's plot, impos ing a m u c h different (and intrusive) moment or detour, onto the scene. A t this point i n the plot H i l d a has already agreed to marry Hiarne, thus the purpose o f the song seems to be to "consecrate" the betrothal. Compared to the other "wedding" song, the "Schwedisches V o l k s l i e d " women's chorus, "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung" seems that m u c h more out o f place. "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung" points to Wagner's Ring, but by virtue o f the singing contest i n the Vor sp i e l Hiarne also evokes two other Wagnerian works: Tannhauser (premiered 1845) and Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg (premiered 1868). T h e parallels between Tannhauser and Die Meistersinger are obvious: i n both works a young girl is offered as the prize to the victor, while the action is instigated by a character who stands outside o f social or 6 8 Caro lyn Abbate describes "phenomenal" song as a "voca l performance that declares itself openly, singing that is heard by its singer, the auditors o n stage, and understood as 'music that they (too) hear' by us, the theater audience." Caro lyn Abbate , Unsung Voices: Opera and Musical Narrative in the Nineteenth Century (Princeton: Pr inceton Universi ty Press, 1991), p. 5. 6 9 E r i c h : "Sag, edler Skald, willst du eine Bitte mir w o h l gewahren? O so weih dies Fest durch deines Sanges Zaubermacht!" [Say, noble Skald, w i l l you grant me a request? Consecrate this celebration wi th the magic power o f your singing!]. Hiarne, A c t I, scene 3. 7 0 Abbate , Unsung Voices, p. 4. 194 artistic expectations. 7 1 Central to Die Meistersinger is the concept o f voca l performance as "craft" — thus i n the "singing contest" each competitor is expected to fol low strict rules while the performance is secretly adjudicated by a "marker" w h o is himself fully trained i n the art o f the Mastersinger. In Hiarne, o n the other hand, the purpose o f the singing contest is to determine a new king — obtaining the c rown results (mdirectly) i n the additional prize o f a bride. A s wi th Tannhauser, the outcome o f the singing contest i n Hiarne is commented o n by "society" (represented by choruses o f knights and courtiers) rather than by the subjective aesthetic judgement o f an individual as i n Die Meistersinger. Ingeborg was familiar wi th bo th Tannhauser and Meistersinger?2 she attended the Paris premiere o f Tannhauser i n 1861, while her husband conducted performances oi Meistersinger vo. Hanover i n 1870. 7 3 Because the singing contest i n Hiarne encompasses the entire Vorsp ie l , an examination o f the formal structure permits a view o f Bronsart 's composi t ional methods across the larger per iod o f an act or scene. The Vor sp i e l is organized into distinct musical units: a br ief instrumental prelude (an "E in le i tung" or " Int roduct ion" o f 31 measures) fol lowed by a four-part chorus i n praise o f O d i n ; the high priest's narrative o n Frotho 's death and the call for the singing contest; then the contest proper (diagram o f outline provided i n Figure 3.13, p. 196). Three Skalds — Hara ld (tenor), W i n g u l f (bass) and Hiarne (tenor) — participate i n the contest, performing three songs that vary greatly i n terms o f 7 1 E r i c h R a p p l proposes that the comic reflection o f Die Meistersinger cou ld be a satire on the singing contest i n Tannhauser. See notes to Richard Wagner, Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg, Silvio Varv i so , conductor (Compact D i s c , Phil ips 434 611-2, 1992), p. 11. 7 2 There is no evidence to suggest that Ingeborg l iked or disliked Tannhauser or Die Meistersinger any more than the Ring. 7 3 Cos ima Wagner recorded i n her diary, 25 June 1870, "Letter from v o n Bronsart, the theater manager i n Hanover ; Die Msinger [sic] has not been a success there." Cos ima Wagner, Cosima Wagner's Diaries: An Abridgement, trans, and ed. by Geoffrey Skelton (London: P iml i co , 1994), p. 65. 195 their subject matter and formal structure. A s each singer concludes his contest song, the chorus interjects wi th its judgement o n the song. Figure 3.13. Out l ine o f Vorsp ie l , Hiarne. Mm.# Character Style Form Key 1-31 Instrumental prelude A b 32-57 Chorus (men and women) chorus A b 57-10 H i g h Priest recit f minor 106-155 Hara ld arioso A B C C 156-172 Chorus chorus C 178-227 W i n g u l f arioso A B C A 1 d 226-242 Chorus D , B 245-316 Hiarne arioso through-C o m p o s e d A b 318-332 Chorus chorus A b 333-34 H i g h Priest arioso C 348-402 Chorus chorus C , E , C Major keys, simple diatonic progressions and clear modulations predominate, wi th the major-third related keys, A b major and C major, provid ing the tonal anchors at the beginning and at the end. O n l y the high priest's narrative and W i n g u l f s contest song explore minor tonalities. F o l l o w i n g the high priest's declaration o f the singing contest, Hara ld is the first to step forward wi th an offer to begin. H i s song text, as it is laid out i n the printed libretto, consists o f his request to begin (2 lines), two stanzas o f 6 and 16 lines respectively, and a concluding pair o f lines (the underline marked between lines 8 and 9 i n stanza two is intended to show the division o f the text i n the musical setting and does not appear i n the printed it libretto): Vergonnt sei mir , dem Skalden K o n i g Frothos, Grant it to me, to open the contest to the Skaldic D e n Wet tkampf z u erofmen durch mein L i e d . King Froth through my song. 196 O d i n , leih deinen H a u c h [A section] Meiner L i p p e z u m Liede, W e i h sie, zu singen V o n Frotho 's Siegen, D e n Kr i egs ruhm z u kunden D e s groBen Kon igs ! D u Vater der Got te r [B section] Gabst i h m Gewalt , D a B r u h m v o l l ragend Sein Re ich sich dehnte V o n d e m A l p e n bis A l b i o n s Kuste , I hm Al les sich beugte, Zweihunder t Herrscher I h m huldigend frohnten. Odin, lend your breath to my lips for the song, consecrate them, to sing of Frotho's victories, to announce the glories of war of the great king! You, father of the gods gave him power, that glorious rising served his empire from the Alps to Albion's coast, everyone bowed down to him, two hundred lords happily paid hommage to him. Seine St imme war Donner , [C section] Sein StreitroB wie Sturmwind, H o c h schwang er den Hammer In machtiger H a n d . U n d er schlug i n der Schlacht, M i t vernichtendem Schlag, W i e der Bl i tB dem B a u m trifft I m bluhenden W a l d . His voice was thunder, His warhorse like the storm wind, he swung the hammer high in powerful hand. And he fought in the battle, with crushing blows, the way lightening strikes the trees in the bloomingforest. Ihm, dem Ke ine r i m K a m p f glich, [epilogue] Him, who no one equalled in battle, Gle ich t auch keiner an Ruhm! none also equalled in glory! In the first stanza, Hara ld calls upon the god O d i n to "consecrate" his lips to sing the song, while stanzas two and three are devoted to recounting Frotho's exploits o n the batdefield. A s wi th the first half o f "Das L i e d v o n der Gotterdammerung," the text relies heavily o n short lines and alliteration rather than on end-rhyme. In the musical setting, the text is worked into a three-part form, A B C , w i th an introduct ion and epilogue (labelled on the score i n Example 3.14, pp. 198-201). Harald 's offer to begin the contest, set to a sparse chordal accompaniment i n G major (mm. 106-112), functions as an introduction to the song proper. After a two-measure prelude o n the harp, i n C major, the A section begins i n m . 115. The A section is a closed harmonic per iod i n C major (mm. 115-128), but wi th a clear modulat ion to E major ( I I I /C , again a 197 Example 3.14. Harald's "contest" song, Vorsp ie l , m m . 106-155 (reduction: M B ) . Con un piii di moto 1 0 { Harald (tritt vor). l l n t r o d u c t i H Ver - gonnt sei mir, dem Skal - den Ko - nig Fro - thos, 18 den (strings) 109 G major: I Wett - kampf zu e r -of f -nen durch mein Lied 3 = ^ (harp! 6 1 I V 7 V7 / C p Hauc =f= h = * = n lei - nei Lip 5? mmmm) pe zum Lie i , — i — — de, ^ - i = ^ #L--^—<• * IV V 7 I 3 V 198 Example 3.14. (continued, page 2 o f 4). 119 Weih sie_ zu sin r 7 c gen von J -. J J poco Wf. 3 a tempo i—3—I fr V/am am V / G /22 3 V/E * c x l 1 1 ^ Fro - thos Sie - gen, A 1 t \J L11UO l_l 1 ^  ^ * Ad Kb 3 den E (I) 122 Maestoso V 7 I -»• Kriegs - ruhm zu kiin - den des groB - en Ko mg! (strings) C major:i 128 Poco piu lento 3 B Section V I Du Va - ter der Got - ter gabst ihm Ge-walt, daBruhm-voll ra-gen sein Ab major: I IV 1 IV 199 Example 3.14. (continued, page 3 o f 4). 132 Reich sich dehn - te, von dem A l - pen bis A l - bions Kiis - te, ihm fr 3E=5 V 7 / C /35 C VVDl- dl>(=Ctt) V/d A l - les sich beug - te, 3 "3 TTT 3 £: 3 ^ /37 6 Ill/d VI 4 V 7 /d zwei - hun - dert Herr - scher ihm hul - di - gend frohn 3=11 ten. Sei - ne Vl/d III VI C Section Con piu di moto 3 Stim-mewarDon - ner, sein Streit-roB wie Sturm-wind, hoch schwangerdenHam-mer in .. 0 -6 V / G 6 V 4 3 i V 200 Example 3.14. (continued, page 4 o f 4). 201 m a j o r - A i r d related key) i n m m . 122-124, fol lowed by a return to C major at m . 125 at "Maestoso." A change i n tempo (pocopiii lento), together wi th a sudden switch to A b major ( b V I / C ) , initiates the B section at m . 129. Unl ike the A section, the B section is not a closed harmonic period, but ends o n an A major triad ( V / d ) i n m. 138. V 7 o f d is first introduced i n m . 134, where it is heard as a G e r m a n 8 o f D b ( IV o f the A b major that began the B section). Section C begins on the upbeat to m . 140, as the V / d resolves to d minor. Th is section has two distinct subsections: c (moving from d minor to its dominant, m m . 140-145), and c 1 (moving from e minor to its dominant, m m . 146-151); throughout the entire song, the only repetition is represented by c and c 1 , the latter o f wh ich is a varied transpostion o f the former. T h r o u g h a progression to G major i n the epilogue (mm. 152-155), Hara ld returns to the tonal center o f his introduction, provid ing some harmonic closure to his song, but without adequately addressing the C major that was so prominent i n the A section. W h e n the chorus has finished evaluating Harald's contest song, W i n g u l f steps forward wi th his o w n version. Whereas Hara ld praised Frotho the warrior, W i n g u l f takes a different approach, citing Frotho's abilities as a steward o f a prosperous empire and his role as father o f the people: Trosdos, trauernd [A section] Bleak, mournful Trift t mein L i e d euer Ohr , my song meets your ears, D e n n iiber uns kam because indescribable sorrow Unsagliches Weh! came over us! H o c h hob der K a m p f r u h m [B section] Hold high the glory of battle D e n K o n i g als Helden , of the king as hero, D o c h noch ruhmvoller ragt er but still more glorious he towered A l s Ordner des Reichs, as steward of the empire, D e m er bl i ihenden Wohls tand in which he created blooming prosperity D u r c h weises Wal ten schuf, through wise reign, D a i h m hoher das Recht gait the law applies more to him there A l s Guns t und G o l d . than favour and gold. 202 U n d wie W o l k e n des Himmels [C section] And like the clouds of heaven Das Wachs thum der E rde , the growth of the earth, So forderte Fro tho so Frotho promoted D u r c h fruchtende Spende through fruitful gifts D i e Beute des Sieges of the booty of victory D e r Segen der Seinen. of the blessing of him. W i r verloren i n i h m In him we lost D e n Vater des V o l k s . the father of the people. D a r u m trauert, ihr Treuen, [A 1 section] That's why, sadly, his loyalty, In trostloser Klage, in more mournful sounds, D e n n ganz gleicht Ke ine r because no one can completely equal D e m gottlichen Frotho! the godly Frotho! Metr ica l alliteration is once again a significant feature o f the song text, but the more conventional format — two symmetrical 12-line stanzas — differs f rom that o f the first song. In many respects, W i n g u l f s contest song is less adventurous than Harald's. T h e quasi-symmetrical structure o f the text is replicated i n the musical setting, where the two stanzas o f the text are distributed evenly across an A B C A 1 form, as noted by the section labels that appear w i th the text above. Textual material for the A section is provided by lines 1-4 o f the first text stanza, while that for the A 1 section is taken from the last four lines o f the second text stanza. The remaining lines o f stanzas one and two are distributed evenly between the B section (stanza 1, lines 5-12) and C section (stanza 2, lines 1-8). Mus ica l parallelism i n the two A sections reflects the similar content o f the text: i n both sections W i n g u l f mourns the loss o f Frotho, set to a straightforward diatonic progression i n d minor , i n a slow tempo, wi th a bard-like arpeggiated harp accompaniment (Example 3.15, pp. 204-208, A section m m . 178-190; and A 1 , m m . 221-228). The B section, praising F ro tho as "steward o f the empire," is initiated i n m. 191 by the introduction o f the tonic major mode (D major). F# major harmony, mediant-related to D major, becomes significant over the next measures (mm. 194-198), during wh ich short bursts o f triplets i n the accompaniment 203 Example 3.15. Wingulf s "contest" song, Vorspiel, mm. 178-228 (reduction: MB). IA Sectionl ; jg Wingulf (tritt vor). p.-Trost los trau rnd trifft mein Lied eu - er 3 = m (harp) d minor: i 181 ~ * — 6 6 9 4 Ohr,. denn ii - ber unskam un - sag-lisch-es 1 ^ •3- 6 V/F F (Ill/d) 184 WehL un-sag - lisch-es Weh! m ^ 6 . ±0-F64 F 204 Example 3.15. (continued, page 2 o f 5). 205 Example 3.15. (continued, page 3 of 5). 199 a tempo da ihm ho - her das Rechtgalt DJ(=Eb) A11 eg ro moderato 203 | C Section I (D major) -0- # P-V v \Y Wol ken des Him mels ...=«• r ^ = f SH*j for - c er-te 1 Fro -m tho durch •8m "1 fruch - - ten-de • ^0-—0 : < ft* — — J—1 206 Example 3.15. (continued, page 4 o f 5). 207 Example 3.15. (continued, page 5 o f 5). 225 Wir bewegt uns - re Her - zen der Skal - de! Sei - ne Wir bewegt uns - re Her - zen der Skal - de! Sei 1 (D major) 208 (mm. 194-95) portray Frotho's status as a hero. F# major gives way to D# minor as an enharmonic modulat ion from D# minor (D#=Eb) through Bb major finally resolves by semitone and c o m m o n tone mot ion to D major i n m . 201, before a perfect cadence i n D closes the section (Example 3.15, p. 206). A l though the C section (mm. 203-220) is also i n D major , contrast wi th the B section is provided by the faster tempo (Allegro moderato) and the swirl ing sixteenth-note accompaniment pattern. I f W i n g u l f s contest song seems somewhat conservative, that impression is reinforced when the chorus enters at the end o f m. 227, before the song is finished. Whi l e the chorus compared Harald's singing wi th the rol l ing o f the thunder i n the sky and waves i n the sea ("Wie am H i m m e l des Donners R o l l e n / W i e das Rol len der W o g e n i m Meer") , they note, i n contrast, that W i n g u l f s "voice and harp sound like the rustling o f the autumn w i n d i n the forest at sunset" ("Seine Stimme und Harfe e rk lang/Wie das Rauschen v o m Herbs twind i m W a l d e / B e i des Himmels Untergang"). Y e t neither performance appears to have entirely pleased the noble society that sits i n judgement, as the chorus concludes wi th the question: " W h o w i l l now claim the crown, the singer o f war or peace?" ( "Wem w i r d nun die K r o n e beschieden: dem Sanger v o m K r i e g oder Frieden?"). Hiarne is the final contestant to step forward, and, as one might expect, his offering is m u c h more complex i n terms o f both its text and its music. The text consists o f six stanzas, each wi th a varying number o f lines wi th a flexible number o f syllables per l ine . 7 4 N i c h t ziemt uns Mannern [stanza 1] To us, men doe not seem Z u jammern wie Weiber , to feel sorry like women, D a zu den Got te rn ging that the powerful Frotho D e r gewaltige Frotho. went to the gods. E i n leuchtendes Leben A. gleaming life LieB er zuri ick, he left behind, 7 4 Twelve lines o f text that appear between text stanzas 5 and 6 i n the published libretto have been omit ted i n the musical setting. A l t h o u g h the cut is substantial, it does not alter the meaning o f the song. 209 U n d es hob ihn empor Z u Asgard's Lichtwel t , W o hochste W o n n e n Des Herr l ichen harren. He imda l l als H i i t e r [stanza 2] D e r Himmelsburg Fi ihr te auf dem Farbenbogen Fro tho empor; H e l l schmetterte sein heiliges Gia l ler H o r n K i i n d e n d die A n k u n s t Des Heldenkonigs! E s jauchzten die edlen [stanza 3] Einheriar , Schlugen klirrend die Schwerter U n d Schi ld zusammen; A l l e die A s e n A u s Asgards Palast Z o g e n gri iBen entgegen Fro tho dem G r o B e n . N u n weilt er i n Walhallas [stanza 4] L i c h t und W o n n e , Umschwebt v o n den schonsten Schildjungfrauen. Allvater O d i n R a h m i h n auf In des H immel s Herrl ichkeit A l s Halbgott . Jauchzen und jubeln [stanza 5] Sol i jede Brust, K e i n e Klage sol i tonen U m K o n i g Frotho! V o n des H i m m e l s H o h e n Schwebt er hernieder, Sein V o l k zu segnen M i t strahlendem Ruhm! D a r u m hoch preis' i ch Frotho, [stanza 6] D e r selig nun weilt In den W o n n e n Walhallas. and it elevates him to Asgard's light-world, where the highest bliss of the lordly awaits. Heimdall as guard of heaven's mountain leading Frotho above the rainbow; brightly his holy Gialler horn blows, proclaiming the arrival of the hero-king! The noble accompaniments rejoice, striking, clanking sword and shield together; All of the Asens out of Asgard's palace shown saluting against Frotho the great. Now he sits in Valhalla's light and bliss, surrounded by the most beautiful young women bearing shields. All-father Odin frames him in heaven's splendor as half god. Every breast shall celebrate and rejoice, no lament shall sound around King Frotho! From heaven's heights he floats down, to bless his people with beaming glory! For that I praise Frotho highly, who now blessedly rests In Valhalla's bliss. 210 Alliteration is again the predominant poetic device. Whereas Harald and Wingulf s contest songs focused on Frotho's earthly deeds as king, Hiarne's song emphasizes the afterlife and Frotho's ascension to Valhalla as a half-god. Hiarne's artistic prowess is equally demonstrated in the musical design of his contest song, where the six stanzas of his text are through-composed (Harald's contest song is also through-composed, but on a much smaller scale). What sets Hiarne's contest song apart from those of his competitors is the harmonic language. Harald and Wingulf s contest songs are closed harmonic periods, based largely on mediant-related keys, with occasional enharmonic modulations. Hiarne's song is not a closed harmonic period, but it outlines a "progressive tonality," beginning in Db major (with Ab as V/Db), and ending in Ab major (Example 3.16, pp. 212-218). Straightforward harmonic progressions are employed for the sections dealing with the gods, especially when the textual reference is to "Walhalla" as in the beginning of stanza 4 ("Nun weilt er in Walhallas Licht und Wonne," mm. 289-292) and at the end of stanza 6 ("der selig nun weilt in den Wonnen Walhallas," mm. 311-316). These majestic passages are juxtaposed with an abundance of major-third related keys (indicated by brackets in Figure 3.14), and sudden modulations usually via "enharmonic pivots" indicated by arrows in Figure 3.14. Figure 3.14. Outline of Hiarne's "contest" song, Vorspiel mm. 245-316. Text stanza: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mm. # 245-267 269-278 279-288 289-296 297-308 309-316 Key: Ab, Ab E, C, Ab Ab, B (V/E) E, F# F#, D C, Ab U U ii Pivots: Ab=G# E#=F Eb=D# {m.269} {m.275}{m.281} 211 Example 3.16. Hiarne's "contest" song, Vorspiel, mm. 246-316 (reduction: MB). Largamente 2 4 5 . _ Hiarne (tritt vor). i t e x t s t a n z a , 2,"° Nicht ziemt unsMan-nern zu jam-mem wie Wei-ber. -0- * da zu den f m-'4 2 Ab major: V 249 Got - tern ging H= 1-der ge r—l - wal c \ tig - e I r "ro - tho. T V t j - j — 0 {C. * J -4 J: —P-r -253 IV * I* ITT I ' E m Ein k uch ? — esLe - ben -V . 3 3 3 =FF= 3 ^ 3 3 J _ 3 3 -mW 1 1 "1 J * * J -• -» r; 6 6 lieG er zu-ruck. und es hob ihn em-por » i , bg zu As - gards 212 Example 3.16. (continued, page 2 o f 7). 260 poco rit. g tempo m at Licht-welt, wo hpch-steWon-nen des herr - lich-en Har - ren. Wo poco ri7. a tempo - f i f -6 „K « 0'6 5 * — 1 n <fl 1 K— I— ; J 1 « 1 r J- ' 1 hflch i f f 268 Ab major 6 iv V 7 | enharmonic ivot text stanza 2 Heim dall als Hii ter der AJ> Gtt 270 r W a - =—i r n W-S ^ A H H i m - rr *C*C*CT iels-t m r * 1 tuhr - te au ? dem_ F ^ = «= ar - ben-b o-gen p==4 ^ P— W— W w— 3 3 3 3 3 3 "r*fr*"i*ttr* 3 3 3 3 213 Example 3.16. (continued, page 3 o f 7). 273 | enharmonic pivot | Fro - tho em-por; hellschmet-tertsein hei - li-ges 7 m 1 Ti 7 B 7 E # F 7 7 h? v/c« ctt C major: IV ii 27(5 Gial - lar horn kiin - den die An - kunft des Hel - den-11 v-> t M 71'^  7 p 7 ^ 7 b? =1= 27S l>VI (Ab) text stanza 3 ] V/AI> g IJ M v T IT P" P l I - ko-nigs! •m Es jauch - zten die ed - len Ein - her - i-ar, schlu-gen J n# J zagz S E E * o'4 2 Ab V / A b 281 klir - rend Schwer - te und Schil - de zu - sam - men; al - le die A - sen aus V/B B V/g# V/g# 214 Example 3.16. (continued, page 4 o f 7). 284 _ Tim • u B i ¥n~] S S j 1 r r I L P JI eg f "Eg 1 r " 1 J fl*L_*L As - gards Pa - last, zo-gen griiB-end ent-ge-gen Fro - tho dem I ilJ- J1 E ttDtt V / E 2SS V / E e: Gei5 3 text stanza 4 r * pip- PP GroB - en. Nun weilt - er in Wal - hal - las Licht und Won - ne, um i i J f 1 * r V / E 291 , ft ft A (IV/E) poco Wr. fe 9' 9 d 9 schwebt von den schon - sten Schild - jung - frauen. A l l - va - ter O - din nahm ihn mm t* r » poco /•//. vi V C» (V/Ftt) F* 294 poco rit. mm 5»E auf in des Him - mels Herr - l ich-keit als Halb - gott. 215 Example 3.16. (continued, page 5 o f 7). 1 text stanza 51 297 1 ' — , i — p F» r*"1—frl •r-iT-i—3-=- . 3 Iff " ' t i -Jai ch-zenundj a-beln sol j e -/—i de B P f rust kei-ne r 1 g 7 * = -1 Y-/—)-. Kla - gesollt o-nenum 3 i j tempo 1— ' • — ' ? — V « H - z 1 t < 1 J V / F f F** 50/ j J71 J J i - \r 1- ^ 1 i I 1 F¥ E r T * Hp—«r— *5 < S: 3d =1= I a A 305 V / F * F* 3 V/Ftt rit. w der, sein Volk zu seg - nen mitstrahl 3 en - dem • U I j nr. F» '4 2 V / D D (bVI/Ftt) 216 Example 3.16. (continued, page 6 o f 7). s—- rs —>— |1l|\,H i | Z. )—L— 1 'i ? — s—5— r 9 J Ruhm! D C major: V /V 311 P i u largamente 0~f \ 0 0. 1 s e - lig nun weilt n den *• Won - i — * ne n Wal hal - las, - -, J P^V, ( harp) 0--* » 0 A •f M 5 — r * c t V 0 \i0 m — it I 1 217 Example 3.16. (continued, page 7 o f 7). 218 Modula t ion is implemented by switching enharmonically on "p ivo t " pitches: A b to G# (m. 269); E# to F (m. 275); and E b to D# (m. 281, Example 3.16, pp. 212-218). Ingeborg also used this technique i n Jery und Bately, particularly i n the consecutive numbers " E s rauschet das Wasser" and " E s rauschen die Wasser," where enharmonic transfers are used to communicate musically the power struggle between the two tide characters. 7 5 In the present case, the technique may be intended to portray Hiarne as a more artistically sophisticated character than his rivals, and thus more suited to bear the crown. Whi l e there is no musical repetition, the setting o f the first four lines o f stanza 2 — both the voca l line and the accompaniment (mm. 268-275) — is nearly identical to that for stanza 6 f rom "Das L i e d v o n der Got terdammerung" (cf. m m . 749-757, Example 3.11, pp. 181-182). Because both passages deal wi th the gods, this parallelism may be seen as some type o f " f ixed" musical representation o f the gods, perhaps as close as Ingeborg gets to the concept o f lei tmotif i n this opera. B y virtue o f his artistry, fol lowing Hiarne's performance, first the chorus and then the high priest declare h i m the victor. The outcome stands in marked contrast to that o f the "tournament o f song" i n Tannhauser, A c t II, scene 4, where Tannhauser is banished from society for his immora l views on love. Whi l e the contest i n Tannhauser is o n a m u c h larger scale than that i n Hiarne, nonetheless, there are some parallels between the two works that deserve closer examination. A t the structural level, the two singing contests are similar i n their approach to the basic design o f the scene. In both works, introductory instrumental music — by way o f a processional — is fol lowed by a chorus o f knights and ladies representing "society" (comparative outline o f the two scenes is shown i n Figure 3.15, p. 221). T h e singing contest This issue was explored i n Chapter T w o ; see pp. 59-65. 219 is announced by a figure who symbolizes authority: the H i g h Priest i n Hiarne and the Landgrave i n Tannhauser. Thereafter, each contestant (three i n Hiarne, four i n Tannhauser) presents his contest song, wi th the chorus providing some type o f commentary. T h e scene i n Tannhauser \& further expanded wi th the addition o f longer instrumental passages between the set numbers, as indicated i n Figure 3.15. M o s t importantly, Tannhauser's comments about each previous contestant bui ld up to his o w n final contest song. Because he is allowed to reply to his opponents, his contribution to the scene is much more important than Hiarne's. W h a t is more, Tannhauser's song is a recurring theme from the Venus-Scene and Overture; the reuse o f material adds a depth o f characterization that is absent i n Bronsart 's work. In both operas, the contest songs themselves are harmonically closed musical periods or "numbers," whose main accompaniment is provided by the harp, yet substantial differences arise i f one compares the texts and musical settings. The song texts i n Tannhauser are written i n the older end-rhyme style o f Wagner's pte-Ring period, as opposed to the alliterative verse style used i n Hiarne. Wagner's pie-Ring composi t ional style is also reflected i n the musical settings, where the periodic structure o f the text is cast, for the most part, i n symmetrical eight-measure phrases punctuated by full cadences, all taking place wi th in clear formal structures, such as the A B A 1 form o f Wolfram's contest song. So although the scene i n Bronsart 's opera is possibly modeled o n Tannhauser, because o f the historical posi t ion o f Hiarne after Wagner's innovations i n the Ring, she takes some o f those innovations (alliterative verse, more flexible formal structures) into her text while ostensibly mamtaining the "number" structure. 220 Figure 3.15. Compar i son o f singing contest in Hiarne (Vorspiel) and Tannhauser (Act II, scene 4).76 Hiarne Processional (instrumental) Tannhauser Processional (instrumental) Chorus (priests, soldiers, ladies) Chorus (knights, ladies) H i g h Priest (recit) [Announces contest] Landgrave recit /arioso [announces contest] Harald: contest song Chorus Instr. Interlude Pages Wolf ram: contest song Chorus: comments on song Chorus (short) Tannhauser comments Wingulf : contest song Walther: contest song Chorus: comments Chorus (short) Tannhauser comments Hiarne: contest song Biterolf: contest song Chorus: comments, awards prize H i g h Priest: confirms award Chorus (short) Tannhauser comments Landgrave: intervenes Wol f ram: implores heaven to give h i m the prize Tannhauser: contest song Chorus: " H e i l , K o n i g Hia rne" Chorus and others react, banish Tannhauser In terms o f the characters involved i n the singing contest, the authority figures are represented by the H i g h Priest i n Hiarne and the Landgrave i n Tannhauser. Hara ld and W i n g u l f (Hiarne) are analogous to W o l f r a m v o n Eschenbach, Walter and Biterolf, while 7 6 The comparison is made to the Dresden version o f Tannhauser. T h e Pairs version omits Walther 's song. 221 Hiarne and Tannhauser can be seen as counterparts given their posi t ion i n the order o f events. Tannhauser and Hiarne are both "artists" in some respects, but that is where the similarity ends. Thei r positions i n society are at opposite ends o f the spectrum. Tannhauser is a rebel w h o stands outside o f society; his contempt for social mores is obvious when he mocks the other contestants for what he considers to be their conservative and misguided views o n love. Tannhauser's o w n "contest" song is preceded by a series o f three commentaries or replies to his opponents, labelled Part I, II, and III i n the outline o f the formal design i n Figure 3.16, p. 223. Parts I and II — Tannhauser's replies to W o l f r a m and Walther respectively — are very similar, wi th a sparsely accompanied nine-measure introductory recitative passage followed by an "ar ioso" section, bo th harmonically closed (Part I i n F major, Part II i n C major, Part I shown i n Example 3.17, pp. 224-226, and Part II i n Example 3.18, pp. 227-230). In each o f Parts I and II the arioso section can be subdivided into three main periods — a, b and c — comprised o f symmetrical eight-bar (4+4) phrases (labelled i n Examples 3.17 and 3.18 ). Tannhauser's reply to Bi te ro l f (Part III), i n bb minor , is the shortest o f the three commentaries, wi th only four measures o f introduct ion followed by fourteen measures o f arioso. In this section, as Tannhauser's argument becomes more impassioned, the symmetrical phrase structure that was evident i n the first two parts begins to break d o w n into irregular phrase lengths (Example 3.19, p. 231). A l t h o u g h the first two parts conclude o n a full cadential close, in Part III only the voca l line closes o n the tonic, B b, while the supporting harmony is left hanging o n v i i o 7 / V (164/4/2) . Finally, Tannhauser's passion erupts " i n wildest exaltation" (according to the stage direction) in his contest song (outline shown i n Part I V o f Figure 3.16, p. 223). T h e symmetrical antecedent-consequent 222 phrases, stable E major harmony, and stock accompaniment pattern epi tomized i n m m . 1-16 o f Example 3.20 (pp. 232-234) belong to a stylistic wor ld far removed f rom the "symphonic web" o f the Ring. Figure 3.16. Tannhauser's commentaries and contest song, Tannhauser, A c t II, scene 4. Part I: reply to W o l f r a m (153 /1 /4 - 1 5 5 / 1 / 4 ) 7 7 Section: Intro (recit) A r i o s o M m . # 1 - 9 9 - 3 6 Phrase: a b c Phrase length: 8 8 8 K e y : F major c, d, F F Part II: reply to Walther (158/3/1 - 160 /5 /5) Section: Intro (recit) A r i o s o M m . # : 1 - 9 1 1 - 4 2 Phrase: a b c Phrase length: 8 4+3 8+8 K e y : G ( V / C ) E b E b G, to C Part III: reply to Bi te ro l f (163 /3 /3 - 164 /4 /2) Section: Intro (recit) A r i o s o M m . # : 1 - 4 5 - 1 8 Phrase: Phrase length: 2 m m + l beat, K e y : bb minor bb Gb ends on v i i o 7 / F Part I V : "contest" song (169/1/1 - 171 /1 /1) [one section] M m . # : 1 - 8 9 - 16 17 - 2 0 21 - 2 4 2 4 - 2 8 29 - 3 3 Phrase: a a 1 b b 1 c d Phrase length: 8 m m 8 m m 4 m m 4 m m 4 m m 5 m m K e y : E mai. E E E V / E . e. C ends v i i o 7 / A 7 7 Refers to page number/system number/measure number i n the piano-vocal score. Richard Wagner, Tannhauser (New Y o r k and L o n d o n : G. Schirmer, n.d.). 223 Example 3.17. Tannhauser's reply to Wolfram, Act II, 224 Example 3.17. (continued, page 2 of 3). 14 pir tytf karin: des Dur-stesBren-nen muss ich kuh-len, ge-trost i l ' J ' J gm /7 4 2 V / d dm leg' ich die Lip - pen an. In vol - len Zu taste* gm lri«k'ich 20 6 dm: jj F: I Won - nen* ..indie kein Za J j.njjmTij|jTTmj gen je sich mischt: denn un - ver rrjjyjJJj] IT T T V V r r * p sieg - bar ist der Bron - nen, .^ vyiemein Ver - Ian JJ y W » » ^ > ;en me er •rue. — < IV 16 I v/v 6 V V 7 225 Example 3.17. (continued, page 3 of 3). A lischl. So. dass.mei n Seh -T 1 nen -<9J e V wig— E nJTi r r z » * * . -i > f 1 jj, 1 29 dm J 11 Tr • * ' 6 1 fiM • A bren -IJL . I I i n J ) i ' b' an m jell • 1*" ich r rP, r 1 -« &m - It. » J -J- =ff= 1 ~ F J [ — • — ~ i 32 V ly i r J = - > r p v= mich. Und wis - se, ' r v» r pi Wolf- ram, so er-•J- -J ^ ?Sg •m 3 4 35 V'/F 4cen - ne der Lie - be wahr - sles )i£e - sen ich! A 1tfc.l l I I I s i (F major)r 226 Example 3.18. Tannhauser's reply to Walther, Act II, scene 4. 0 Wal-ther, der du al - so sang - est, du hast die Lie - be arg ent-v/c P /enndu in sol - chemSchmach-tcnbang-esi.ver-seig - te lichwohl die & major l IV 227 Example 3.18. (continued, page 2 of 4). 228 Example 3.18. (continued, page 3 of 4). 22 § Y zolll. i Yr ' r r^rrf f r r r . r rn da ihr sie "T^TT—P P P 1 1 J 11 m MM 'LLiJ i i i i 1 • J T T T T Tpjn TP[ 11 rr rjXr|_LjiNJ be -5 = ^ : grei - fen solll! —?*^==ri ~ | i 1 j 1 —r J " V 5* f ' * t — » Doch, 7 t — = T - " T ^ "" } Jth « If was sich der Be-ru rT J7T1 i 1 - rung b i u m ' P P-T eu - get, euch He •—p— rz und rujTli ^ i l J J j J J j j J J J J j =s-H—* J J 0 J * jh : » • r. 29 Sin - nen na - he liegt, ift JJJ JJJJJ was sich, aus glei - chemStoff er V 0 menop ft um V 7 /am am 229 Example 3.18. (continued, page 4 of 4). F (1V/C) |ft' r " P I * i Irr.nn' ich Lie - be! _j s J i g — * i 7 i 7 E — > 1 > f > f > V'/C 230 Example 3.19. Tannhauser's reply to Biterolf, Act II, scene 4. 231 Example 3.20. Tannhauser's "contest" song, Act II, scene 4. 1 PMrl p- f J — laul sei tihh'e - * .t-.t .t .t-t-jetzt dein_ Preis von r4h f ~ f — t — F F F F R i p" ^r . , , r r r T r r r f r r r T r r ^ r ' i f i f i J l ^ s P ^ i l 1 1" 1 i B (V/E) mir! Dein su - sser_ Reiz ist Im P f; rrfrrrTr'™g • T p T P « — j — V ' / E 1(E) V 7 / V 232 Example 3.20. (continued, page 2 of 3). hm 0 p f -f~ vyv v VI 14 4& -fL. 0 de Wun - der-stammt von dir! 233 234 E v e n wi t l i i n Tannhauser itself, the singing contest and other music associated wi th the courdy society o f the Wartburg is conservative and backward-looking, while that o f the Venusberg is more advanced. Carolyn Abbate asserts that "the two styles can be understood not as a flaw, but as deliberate and meaningful. T h e two opposing styles are l inked to the dualism o f the two opposed wor lds . " 7 8 A similar aesthetic seems to be at w o r k i n Hiarne, where the more progressive musical aspects are associated wi th the warrior-poet Skalds, wi th courdy society and Hiarne and Hilda 's love represented by more old-fashioned means. Wagner was never completely satisfied wi th Tannhauser, scholars continued to puzzle over the various versions and the Tannhauser that "might have been" had Wagner l ived. O n e final point o f comparison remains to be made here between Wagner and Bronsart: the chorus o f Valkyries that appears at the end oi Hiarne. I f there is an element o f parody i n "Das L i e d v o n der Gotterdammerung," that element is magnified tenfold i n Bronsart 's chorus o f Valkyries. N o t h i n g could be further removed from the pr imordia l "Hojo toho!" o f so-called "Ride o f Valkyr ies" at the beginning o f A c t III o f Wagner 's Die Walkiire. Whereas Wagner's Valkyries are warrior-maidens, sweeping d o w n o n warhorses to carry the fallen heroes off to Valhal la , Bronsart 's Valkyries are ethereal, calm and angelic, almost religious i n their approach to their duties, as their words indicate: C h o r der Walk i i r en Chorus o f Valkyries W i r schweben, Walki i ren , We're Valkyries,gliding (down) V o m Sternenzelt, From the canopy of stars, Z u Walhal la zu fuhren, To lead to Valhalla, Hiarne, den H e l d . Hiarne, the hero. U n d die er verloren, And the one he lost, U n d die er beweint, And the one he mourns, W a r d O d i n erkoren, Was chosen by Odin, I h m ewig vereint. To be united with him forever. 7 8 C a r o l y n Abbate , "Orpheus and the Underwor ld : The Mus ic o f Wagner's Tannhauser" English National Opera Guide 39: Tannhauser, edited by Nicolas J o h n (London: J o h n Calder, 1988), p. 33. 235 H i l d a (superimposed on second stanza o f above text): D i e Liebe iiberwindet Love overcomes D e s Lebens N o t h , The necessity of life, U n d ihr A u g ' erblindet And its eyes Selbst nicht i m T o d . Are not blinded in death. "The one he lost" ("und die er verloren") is H i lda , who joins the Valkyries i n their descent. A c c o r d i n g to the stage directions, Valhal la can be seen i n the distance, while the Valyries are to float d o w n slowly ("Die Walk i i ren schweben langsam hernieder"). Musical ly , the Valkyries evoke the atmosphere o f the A c t I women's chorus, the "Schwedische V o l k s l i e d " celebrating H i l d a and Hiarne's wedding, perhaps because n o w H i l d a and Hiarne are to be united i n death. The first section o f the chorus (stanza 1 o f the text, m m . 432-450, Example 3.21, pp. 237-242) is underpinned by a progression f rom F# major to its dominant (m. 445), at wh ich point H i l d a joins the Valkyries, embroidering above the chorus wi th her o w n words. A stepwise chromatic ascent i n the bass (G#-A-A#, m m . 448-49) sets up a D#-rooted 7th chord i n m . 450, wh ich then resolves to Eb major by semitone (F# to G ) and enharmonic c o m m o n tones (D#=Eb, A#=Bb). Af ter a seven measure prolongation o f Eb major (mm. 451-457), there is an abrupt shift f rom Eb major to A# minor ( i i i /F#, m . 458), together wi th a change i n meter, f rom 6 /4 to 4 /4 . F# major is reconfirmed i n m . 462, as H i l d a repeats her text (solo this time). T h e Valkyries rejoin her at m . 465, singing the last two lines o f Hilda 's text along wi th her. B y having the Valkyries carry H i l d a and Hiarne of f to Valhal la , Bronsart converts the tragedy into an ostensibly happy ending. T h e F# major harmony functions to b ind this final chorus to the end o f Ac t s I and II, wh ich are also i n that key. F# major is prominent throughout the opera, associated especially wi th Hiarne and Hi lda , so that one might perceive it as signifying, on some levels, the strength o f their love. 236 Example 3.21. Chorus of Valkyries, Hiarne Act III, mm. 431-480 (reduction: MB). 4J' u Chor der WalkUren. A a Wir s ihhltt - _ • ~r i" i' m :hwe - ben Wal -PlAl,, 'ir s< ^ J »(J :hwe - ben Wa! -,nu... i n n r . — hwe - „ ben Wal -iFI—1 H lj t P " l — I T i Fjt major: I V I V ? V i i i ll 1 1 A ,. ji kQ - - ren vom Stern - - en -. a kO ren vom Stern - en kU ren vom Stern - - en -i - i n n r , r i 1 $ * 1 1 ' EEE,> J } J 7 ^ [ J 3 J *3J k V fihhfl J di— d' zu Wal 1- > J =fa & 1 11 ,J" = JUAjt |—. .... f #• J' zu Wal zeit, 1 ^ — m f P™1—1 zu Wal 1J—1 H R - T r r n i ft1 L( J —m—• •—a—0 «J ~i * J 1 J J J J r J 1 J [ j J^J k-M—*—J i • ' 237 Example 3.21. (continued, page 3 of 6). 445 239 240 Example 3.21. (continued, page 6 of 6) Ja selbst nichtimTod und ihr Aug'ihr Au, Jaselbst nichtimTod und ihr Aug'ihr Aug' Ja selbst nichtimTod und ihr Aug'ihr Aug' (V/vi) V/vi vi V70 242 From Jery und Bately to Hiarne, Bronsart took a tremendous artistic leap forward. Whereas the former demanded a concise, folk-like lied style, in terms of its proportions and subject the latter required planning across a much larger scale, a greater variety of types of music (instrumental introductions, processionals, choruses, arias, duets, recitatives), in a much more dramatic style. As with Jery und Bately, the music for Hiarne is of high quality, an effective and artistic complement to the drama. That Bronsart achieved her task is evident in Paul Simon's review of the premiere, where he extolled the "powerful scenes full of dramatic life and vigorous, chivalrous characters alternating with purely lyrical mood-images of inwardly noble passion. A mighty procession of heroic boldness goes through many scenes."79 Hiarne vaulted Bronsart to the rank of a serious composer of serious works, a "Tondichterin" belonging to the realm of Liszt and Wagner. What remains to be seen is how Bronsart further pushed her artistic and aesthetic boundaries in her next work. 7 9 "Kraftvolle Scenen voll dramatischen Lebens und markig-ritterlicher Gestalten wechseln ab mit rein-lyrischen Stimmungsbildern tief innerlich-edler Herzensleidenschaft. Es geht ein gewaltiger Zug des Heldenhaft-Kuhnen durch viele Scenen." Paul Simon, "Die erste Auffuhrung der Oper Hiarne von Frau Ingeborg von Bronsart im Konigl. Opernhause zu Berlin," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik Bd. 87:1 (1891): 87. 243 Chapter Four "The Tragic Case o f Die Siihne (1909)" The unmitigated popularity o f Jery und Bdtely, followed by critical acclaim for Hiarne, firmly established Ingeborg v o n Bronsart's reputation as the "first lady" o f the G e r m a n stage. A s we have seen in the two previous chapters, that reputation rested largely o n the composer's ability to entertain and amuse her audiences through comic or heroic stories, supported by lyrical voca l writ ing (often in die manner o f Schumann lieder), wi th in clear formal musical structures. But for her last opera, Die Siihne (The Atonement , 1909), Ingeborg broke the mo ld , so to speak, stepping away from those characteristics that had ensured some degree o f success. Un l ike her other works, Die Siihne met w i th coo l indifference. Repor t ing on the poorly attended premiere at Dessau (Apr i l 1909), August Spanuth speculated that perhaps "one mistrust[ed] the opera from the outset, because it was composed by a woman , " but that the composer's "noble name should have chased that mistrust away." 1 H e further suggested that the citizens o f Dessau might have stayed away because a one-act opera was not wor th the trouble; but that, i n any case, those w h o did not attend the performance were "spared a strong disappointment." 2 A s for the opera itself, Spanuth directed his crit icism to three main issues: the weak libretto, described as crass and implausible; leitmotifs, wh ich failed i n terms o f "characteristic expression" (charakteristischen Ausdruck) ; and lyricism allowed to "fa l l into hopeless banality." 3 In a 1 "Misstraute man der Ope r v o n vornherein, wei l sie v o n einer Frau komponier t war? D e r i m doppelten Sinne noble N a m e Ingeborg v o n Bronsart's hatte das Misstrauen eigentlich verscheuchen sollen." Augus t Spanuth, " D i e Siihne," Signale 47 (1909): 550. 2 " O d e r hielt man einen Einakter iiberhaupt nicht fur wichtig genug u m seinetwegen einen kleinen A u s Aug zu machen? Einer le i was wegen man wegblieb: diejenigen, die nicht gekommen waren, hatten diesemal G l u c k , denn ihnen blieb eine starke Ent tauschung espart." Ibid. 3 "Das Lei tmotivische wechselt mit breiten, melodischen Satzen ab; wahrend aber das Lei tmotivische wenigstens ein Bemuhen z u m charakteristischen Ausdruck zeigt, lasst sie das Lyrische oft in's hoffnungslos Banale fallen." Ibid. 244 similar vein, Erns t H a m a n n asserted that the "unimaginative music serves more as a product o f the strong w i l l o f a talented artist, rather than as the result o f internal artistic necessity . . . hence it fails to remain interesting." 4 Despite the best efforts o f the director, Franz M i c k o r y , H a m a n n concluded that the opera scored only a "modestly reasonable success" ("ein bescheidener Achtungserfolge"). 5 T w o reviews o f a single performance can hardly be considered a comprehensive reception history, but other documented crit icism o f Die Siihne is scarce. 6 A year after the premiere, Ingeborg confided to Mar ie Lipsius that a performance was planned for S tockho lm i n honour o f her 70th birthday, 7 but there is no record to indicate that this, or any other performance ever took place. It seems that Die Siihne died a quick and relatively painless death, but given Bronsart's previous successes the situation begs the question: what went so terribly wrong? This chapter employs Spanuth and Hamann's three main points o f cri t icism — the libretto, leitmotifs, and lyricism — as a starting point, while taking into consideration pertinent issues o f voca l styles, the use o f set forms and scene construction. I begin by examining Ingeborg's choice o f subject matter, speculating that her choice reflects a nostalgia for the glory days o f her time spent wi th L i sz t — and later wi th her husband Hans — i n Weimar , combined wi th the influence o f contemporary poli t ical thought. In order to understand Bronsart 's leittnotif technique, I provide a detailed analysis o f the Vorsp ie l , wi th 4 " D i e erfindungsarme M u s i k gibt sich mehr als das Produkt des starken Wol lens einer begabten Kunst le r in , nicht aber als das Ergebnis des kunstlerischen inneren Miissens. Daher kann sie i m hochsten Falle w o h l interessieren, zu ergreifen bleibt ihr versagt." Erns t Hamann , "Dessau," Die Musik 8 (1909): 368. 5 Ibid. 6 Erns t H a m a n n published a second review, nearly identical to the first, as "Kri t i sches Rundschau: Dessau," i n the Neue Musik-Zeitung 30 (15 A p r i l 1909): 326. 7 Ingeborg v o n Bronsart, M u n i c h , to Marie Lipsius, 25 A p r i l , 1910. Goethe- und Schiller-A r c h i v , Weimar . 245 particular attention to the leitmotifs that return at crucial moments i n the drama. W h a t may be viewed as only a perfunctory or rudimentary attempt at leitmotifs i n Hiarne is expanded i n Die Siihne, where leitmotifs operate at varying levels o f signification, f rom the purely gestural or referential to those wi th a distinct formal function. Extended moments o f lyr ic ism are not merely fortuitous but are motivated by the drama itself B y way o f demonstrating Ingeborg's method o f large-scale scene construction, I offer a substantial discussion o f scene seven, where vestiges o f ternary A B A and bar forms provide the musical framework for one o f the most explosive dramatic situations i n the opera. T h e libretto to Die Siihne originated i n a one-act tragedy o f the same name, written by Theodor K o r n e r (1791-1813) in February 1812. In a letter dated 15 February 1812, K o r n e r explained to his father that he was " n o w work ing on the most terrible subject that is conceivable." 8 A c c o r d i n g to Korner ' s biographer, K a r l Berger, the "dramatization o f the bloodcurdl ing anecdote was completed i n five days." 9 B o t h K o r n e r and his father expressed misgivings about the work's effectiveness, even though Goethe reported that it made an "extraodinary sensation" wi th its performance i n Weimar . 1 0 Goethe's praise notwithstanding, Die Siihne failed to find success on other stages. Berger attributes the failure to the fact that the play is a "weak imita t ion" ("schwache Nachahmung") o f an "unpleasant genre" ("miBgeborenen Gattung") . 1 1 8 " Ich arbeite jetzt an dem graBlichsten Stoff, der nur denkbar ist." K a r l Berger, Theodor Korner (Bielefeld and Leipz ig : Velhagen & Kla f ing , 1912), p. 143. 9 " In funf Tagen war das Stuck, die Dramatisierung einer gruseligen Anekdote , vollendet." Ibid. 1 0 " V o n der Wirksamkei t des Stuckes wurden Vater und Sohn noch mehr iiberzeugt, als Goethe i m M a i v o n einer 'auBerordentlichen Sensation' zu berichten wuBte, die es bei seiner Auffuhrung i n Weimar gemacht habe." Ibid., p. 144. 1 1 "So nahme die schwache Nachahmung eines unerquicklichen Vorbi ldes nicht einmal an den raschverfliegenden Modeerfolgen der miBgeborenen Gat tung teil ." Ibid. 246 Precisely when Ingeborg took up Korner ' s tragedy is not known. A l t h o u g h she often kept her friend, Marie Lipsius, informed about works-in-progress, she d id not ment ion her "new opera" to Lipsius unti l 1909 (a por t ion o f the letter, dated 8 December 1909, is reproduced i n Figure 4.1, p. 248). 1 2 Ingeborg gave no explanation for selecting a gruesome plot f rom an unpopular play, but one can speculate that several factors may have played a role here. T h e decision may have been prompted by a wider revival o f the interest i n G e r m a n literature that had emanated from Goethe and his Weimar circle — a circle that included Goethe 's younger contemporary, Korne r . A n interest i n literature from this group was most likely developed during her year o f study wi th L isz t i n Weimar (1858-1859), and furthered later when her husband was appointed Intendant o f the Weimar Hoftheater (1887-1895). G i v e n that Ingeborg's most successful opera was a setting o f Goethe 's Jery und Bdtely (Weimar, 1873), it is possible that for her source material she simply turned again to this r ich per iod i n Weimar 's history. A t the same time, i n the unstable poli t ical climate leading up to W o r l d W a r I, K o r n e r was enjoying a resurgence i n popularity. A c c o r d i n g to Susan Youens , his "fame was resurrected . . . when the German nation sought hundreds o f thousands o f new Korners to die for their country as he had done." 1 3 Ingeborg's choice might therefore be viewed simply as a further unfolding o f her o w n sense o f patriotism and G e r m a n nationalism, first displayed i n the 1870s wi th the composi t ion o f patriotic choruses and the Kaiser Wilhelm Marsch. 1 2 Ingeborg v o n Bronsart, M u n i c h , to Marie Lipsius, 8 December, 1909. Goethe- und Schiller- A r c h i v , Weimar . 1 3 Susan Youens , "The lyre and the sword: Theodor K o r n e r and the bed," Schubert's Poets and the Making of Lieder (Cambridge: Cambridge Universi ty Press, 1996, reprint 1999), p. 53. 247 Figure 4.1. Excerpt from letter, Ingeborg von Bronsart, Munich, to Marie Lipsius, 8 December, 1909. Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar. 248 T h e plot o f Korner ' s play is i n the tradition o f German folk tales w i th its incorporat ion o f a shooting contest (akin to Der Freiscbiit^) and a rural setting. Spread across ten scenes, the drama is enacted by three characters: the two brothers, C o n r a d and W i l h e l m , w h o compete for the love o f the same woman , Klarchen . K o r n e r employed a lengthy narrative passage between Kla rchen and Conrad i n the first scene to unfold the prehistory o f the drama. T h e couple met at a shooting contest, where Conrad w o n the first prize for marksmanship. They immediately fell i n love, but Kla rchen was already married to Conrad's domineering older brother, Wi lhe lm . W h e n W i l h e l m went off to war and was assumed to have died i n batde, the grief-stricken father persuaded Kla rchen to marry Conrad . A s the play continues, the couple's idyllic existence is shattered when W i l h e l m returns, expecting to resume his life wi th K la rchen (not unlike Hiarne, where Friedleu's return sets the tragic aspects i n motion) . Kla rchen , forced to decide between the two brothers, places her deep sense o f mora l obligation and duty to W i l h e l m above her own happiness and her love for Conrad . Overwhe lmed by the pressure o f making the decision, she collapses. W i l h e l m wraps her i n his coat and lays her o n the bed. In a fit o f jealous rage, Conrad , unable to bear the thought o f losing his wife to his brother, decides to take revenge: he plunges a knife into the sleeping figure, mistakenly murdering Klarchen , not Wi lhe lm . In adapting the spoken drama to its musical setting, Ingeborg made some structural changes. A l l o f Korner ' s scene divisions are maintained, wi th one exception:she placed Klarchen 's four lines o f text at the end o f scene four into a separate (and very short) scene o n its o w n (scene five i n the opera). Thus the opera has eleven scenes, while the play has only ten, as shown i n Figure 4.2, p. 250. 249 Figure 4.2. Die Siihne: Summary o f scenes. Scene: (Opera 1. /Play) 1. Character(s): Conrad , K la rchen Content: prehistory: their meeting, Wi lhe lm's death 2. 2. K la rchen (alone) "aria" re: her love for Conrad 3. 3. W i l h e l m (alone) returns, expecting his o ld life 4. 4. Kla rchen , W i l h e l m W . learns that his father is dead, but doesn't k n o w that K l . and Conrad have married 5. K la rchen (alone) asks why god has forsaken her 6. 5. Conrad (alone) returns from work i n the forest 7. 6. Conrad , K la rchen she tells h i m W i l h e l m has returned; struggle for possession o f Kla rchen begins 8. 7. K la rchen (alone) realizes she must choose one brother 9. 8. W i l h e l m , Kla rchen W . tells her how m u c h he's changed, she tells h i m she is married to Conrad , faints 10. 9. Conrad , Kla rchen Kla rchen unconscious, Conrad hallucinates, stabs Kla rchen by mistake 11. 10. A l l final confrontation between W i l h e l m and Conrad; K la rchen dies F o r the opera, the text was not versified but left i n the prose form found i n the spoken drama. In the final scene (scene eleven) Bronsart interpolated nine lines o f text, having Conrad ask his brother for forgiveness. Single lines o f text were excised i n several places, but substantial cuts were also made, notably i n scenes three, nine, and ten. A l t h o u g h these larger cuts do not change the outcome o f the plot, they tend to diffuse the lifelong hatred between W i l h e l m and Conrad that is at the root o f their struggle over Kla rchen . The most notable example o f this hatred is displayed i n scene nine o f the play, where W i l h e l m asserts 250 that his brother is "the only man i n the w o r l d w h o m I never tolerated i n my life. Wherever I went, there he stood, i n fortune and play we were always opposites, the victory o f one was the other's loss ." 1 4 Ingeborg cut this passage as wel l as a similar one i n scene ten, where Conrad complains that W i l h e l m never loved h im. Other cuts affect the way i n w h i c h W i l h e l m was "decent, i f also a litde hard" ("Er war w o h l brav, wenn auch ein biBchen hart"), while i n scene three W i l h e l m confesses that he was a loutish brute w h o was softened Later i n scene seven, Kla rchen tries to explain to Conrad that W i l h e l m "is completely confident" ( "Wilhe lm ist ganz Vertrauen"). Clearly the last two passages portray W i l h e l m as a more sympathetic character, i n some small way justifying Klarchen 's decision to return to h im, but all three o f these passages were cut f rom the opera libretto. T h e combined effect o f these cuts downplays the significance o f the individual characters' actions and motivations while placing more weight on the inescapable power o f fate. Perhaps it is because o f these omissions that the unhappy relationship between the brothers that August Spanuth described as "so m u c h more crass and unl ikely ," 1 5 becomes even more implausible i n the opera. It is n o w left up to the music, and to its system o f leitmotifs, to enrich and interpret the psychological motivat ion o f the drama. 1 4 " E r ist der einzige Mensch auf dieser Welt , mi t dem i ch m i c h i m Leben nie vertrug. W o i ch hintrat, da stand er auf, wir waren i m G l u c k und Spiel und immer gegeniiber, der Sieg des E i n e n war der Fa l l des A n d e r n . " 1 5 " B e i K o r n e r ist die Situation nur noch so vie l krasser und — unwahrscheinlicher, da sich das Ung luck zwischen Brudern abspielt." Spanuth, " D i e Siihne," p. 551. characters are perceived. F o r example, i n scene one o f the play, K la rchen recalls that by his experiences as a soldier: 251 Bronsart's Die Siihne begins with a short instrumental Vorspiel. The predominantly minor mode establishes a dark, ominous atmosphere for the tragedy that is to follow. Laid out in five main sections, the form is that of a traditional opera overture: A B A 1 framed by a slow introduction and slow coda, as shown in Figure 4.3, below. Figure 4.3. Outline of the Vorspiel to Die Siihne. Section: Introduction (Andante) Mm.#: 1 -30 Motives: a, b Keys: e minor Section: A (Allegro) Mm.#: 31-73 Motives: c, d, e, c, f, g, e1, and Klarchen's aria from scene 8 Keys: c# minor, bb minor Section: B (Andante) (listesso tempo) Mm.#: 74-97 98- 128 Motives: Wilhelm's aria from scene 9 Keys: D major modulating Section: A 1 (Allegro) Mm.#: 105 - 128 Motives: e1 Keys: f# minor Section: Coda (Andante) Mm.#: 129 - 142 Motives: b, a Keys: V / E (B major, b minor), e minor The introduction and coda above present the same thematic material and the same tonal center (e minor, although the coda begins on V / E [Bmajor then b minor]). Whereas the A sections are highly chromatic and modulatory, evoking a pastiche or collage-like effect of rapidly alternating smaller motives (some of which are discussed in more detail below), 252 the contrasting B section can be characterized as an extended lied-like passage which is constructed almost entirely from Wilhelm's aria in scene nine (mm. 74-92 of the Vorspiel correspond to scene nine mm. 1-19). The long-breathed vocal melody from the aria (Example 4.1a, pp. 254-55) is transferred to the bass clarinet in the Vorspiel (Example 4.1b, pp. 255-56), while both passages maintain the same tonal center (D major) and accompaniment style. Only in the final three measures of each example do the two passages begin to diverge: the aria modulates to the tonic minor (dm, mm. 17-19, Ex. 4.1a), while in the Vorspiel the bass clarinet continues with a new melody over an e minor harmony (mm. 90-92, Ex. 4.1b). Together with the foreshadowing of a longer musical unit from later in the opera, almost every measure in the Vorspiel can be accounted for at some point later in the drama. The introduction (mm. 1-30) appears again at the beginning of scene 10; the first ten measures of the A 1 section (mm. 105-114) return in scene nine (mm. 63-73), while the last six measures of the coda also close the entire opera. In conjunction with longer passages of music, the Vorspiel also exposes eight smaller, more fragmentary motives constituting most of the leitmotifs employed in the opera (labelled "a" through "g" in Figure 4.3. Al l motives are shown in Example 4.1c, p. 257). As noted earlier, Die Siihne's first critics cited leitmotifs as one of the work's weakest points. August Spanuth, in particular, declared that the leitmotifs lacked "characteristic expression."16 What Spanuth might have meant by the term "characteristic expression" is not entirely clear, but in the opera itself leitmotifs seem to function on several different levels, from those that signify or represent abstract concepts to ones that can be associated 1 6 Spanuth, "Die Siihne," p. 550. 253 Example 4.1a. Wilhelm's aria, scene 9, mm. 1-19." Andante con moto Wilhelm der Er-in - ner-ung noch im ver-wohn-ten Au - ge. A * r frfs).i.TTl Jui n A 1 7 All excerpts for D/> J*/6w are from the piano-vocal score published by Harmonie-Verlag (Berlin, 1909). 254 Example 4.1a (continued, page 2 of 2). Example 4.1b (continued). 256 Example 4.1c. Vorspiel motives "a" through "g." Motives "a" and "b,"mm. 1-5. | motive V | Motive "c," mm. 30-31 ff H P IT Motive "d," m. 36-37. Motive "e." m. 42-43. Motive "f," mm.43-44. — j ^ * — rrrl -4-, 1 h>J r 5 257 with specific actions or characters. Thus some leitmotifs are more graphic or obviously representational than others. Two of the most compelling leitmotifs in Die Siihne, "a" and "b," which are related, appear to represent the more than abstract concept of fate. Motive "a," the first "fate" motive, is presented at the outset of the Vorspiel (mm. 1-5). This motive is characterized by tripled octave E's in the lower register, reiterated and sustained across five measures while the melody, in the bass — also tripled at the octave — circles around B then descends to E (Example 4.2, p. 259). After all of the voices settle on E in m. 4, motive "b" which follows is a more embellished or elaborated version of "a," consisting of an ascending leap of a minor tenth (E to G), and a descent in triplets returning to E , as in motive "a" (c.f. Example 4.2, mm. 4-5, p. 259). Motive "a" is repeated immediately (mm. 6-10, Example 4.2), but with several changes. Instead of the motive "b" appendage, an english horn solo is contrapuntally superimposed over motive "a" (m. 6ff, Example 4.2), later taken over by the oboe and clarinet at m. 17. A t m. 8, the harmony is altered, as F^'s and B's are substituted for the E's and G's of m. 3, while the bass-line's descent to low E is redirected, appearing instead as a stepwise descent C - B - A - G in mm. 9-10, facilitating the modulation to f minor in m. 11. The entire passage suggests a sense of impending doom and inescapable fate which will, however, become explicit in scene ten, mm. 1-20 (Example 4.3, p. 260), where Conrad bemoans the "deceitfulness of fate" ("Das Schicksal staunt seine eigne Tiicke jammernd an"). His vocal line is a variation of the english horn and oboe/clarinet solos heard in the Vorspiel, while the accompaniment (Example 4.3) is essentially identical to the Vorspiel passage in Example 4.2. Motive "a" is used sparingly but always in its original harmonic context, almost as a "bookend" motive that opens and closes the opera. Motive "b," on the other hand, is 258 Example 4.2. Vorspiel, mm. 1-21, showing "a" and "b" motives. I motive * a " | mp motive 1 • ±=3 •Si—dim. 3 cm V XT. /P cresc. Example 4.3. Scene 10, mm. 1-20, showing motive "a" and Conrad's vocal line. / — jt |moiivc«| _ , 9onrad. r r r a-berhier, hier tobt's! Dc$Lc-bcn$E-lc-mcn-lc auf-ge-schrcckl durch sol - chen & — - J " - — Zu - falls schsu-der-vc-l-len Ein - gxirT, um - brau - sen siaunt sei - ne eig - ne Ttik - ke jam - memd an, und bebi vor die - sem 260 transformed and then woven into the fabric o f the entire drama. It acts as the "developmental" version o f motive "a ." In the coda o f the Vor sp i e l (mm. 129-136) motive " b " is heard i n a new tonal context, outl ining B major harmony (m. 133) then B minor harmony (m. 134, Example 4.4, p. 262). A s the opera proceeds, motive " b " reappears at crucial points i n almost every scene, functioning as an intrusive narrator, a constant reminder o f fate unfolding. F o r example, the motive sounds i n scene one, just as W i l h e l m introduces Conrad to K la rchen at the shooting contest, (m. 23). It makes a fateful return i n scene nine, when W i l h e l m gives Kla rchen his coat (m. 125), and again i n scene ten, just before C o n r a d stabs Kla rchen . T w o especially significant appearances o f motive " b " are discussed further below i n connect ion wi th specific scenes. Whereas motives " a " and " b " seem to represent the abstract concept o f fate, motive " c " appears to operate o n a different referential level, signifying a specific action: the murder o f Kla rchen . M o t i v e " c " is first heard i n Vor sp i e l at m m . 30-31, repeated immediately wi th a rhythmic variation and transposed up a semitone in m m . 32-33 (Example 4.5, p. 262). T h e rapid chromatic ascent and descent contains an augmented second (Cb-D^) and outlines a tritone Ab-D^, and first seems to suggest a diminished triad (Ab-Cb-D^) or a related sixth chord, punctuated instead by a fortissimo French 6 (E-G#-A#-Cx) enharmonically spelled as E-Ab-Bb-Dt], w h i c h remains unresolved under a fermata. It is then not heard again unt i l the final scenes o f the drama. In scene 10, Conrad sees a motionless figure ly ing o n the bed, and fantasizes that i f W i l h e l m were "sleeping" (dead) Kla rchen wou ld be his ( "Er konnte schlafen, und ich ware gli ickhch, er konnte schlafen, und sie [Klarchen] war ' mein Weib!") . Mo t ive " c " sounds twice — once again a semitone higher on the second iteration — framing Conrad's statement that such thoughts are the work o f the devil ("Der Teufel schwatzt dir deinen H i m m a l ab," scene 10, m m . 50-54, Example 4.6, p. 263). B u t fate must 261 Example 4.4. Vorspiel Coda, mm. 129-136, with motive "b." Andante con moto Example 4.5. Motive "c," Vorspiel mm. 30-33. 262 Example 4.6. Scene 10, mm. 50-54, showing motive "c." 263 be fol lowed to its inexorable conclusion; after a series o f auditory hallucinations, C o n r a d stabs the sleeping body. In the final scene, when W i l h e l m asks "who has commit ted this b loody act"("Wer hat die graBlich blut'ge Tat begangen"), motive " c " punctuates his question, again appearing twice at the same transposition levels as before. Conrad's reply: " I did it! M y wife!" ("Ich tat's! M e i n Weib!") , outlines melodically i n inversion the same interval o f a tritone A - D # contained i n the second statement o f motive " c " (scene 11, m m . 3-8, Example 4.7, p. 265). Thus the rising and falling o f the musical line i n motive " c " might be heard as graphically representing the physical action o f raising and lowering the knife, while fortissimo augmented 6th chord signifies the blade penetrating flesh or the pain. O n e might further perceive the voice leading i n m m . 5-8 as a musical manifestation o f inescapable fate, as the progression o f chords punctuating motive " c " (chords labelled © , © and © i n Example 4.7, p . 265) moves from v i i 0 7 i n m. 5, to the common-tone French 8 o f flf minor (m. 7), finally arriving o n f# minor (2nd inversion) i n m . 8, while Conrad 's voca l line is left shrieking o n Dt | (reduction shown i n Example 4.8, p. 265). A third representational level, that o f characterization, is provided by motive " f ' wh ich is a variation o f motive "b . " The motives are related rhythmically and i n their pi tch contour ("b" is i n minor , while " f ' is i n major). W i t h its distinctive dotted rhythm and fanfare-like horn fifths, motive " f ' suggests hunting and the outdoors (Example 4.9, p. 266). Throughout the opera various versions o f motive " f ' are closely associated wi th Conrad , the woodsman. O n e o f the more graphic examples occurs i n scene 1, as K la rchen recalls Wilhe lm's words when she first met Conrad: " D e r flinke Jager ist mein Bruder C o n r a d " ("the nimble hunter is my brother Conrad). A s shown i n Example 4.10 (p. 266), the tail section o f mot ive " f ' underscores the words "Jager" and "Conrad . " The resemblance 264 Example 4.7. Scene 11, mm. 3-8, showing motive "c." Wilhelm. Klar - chen! Wer hat die grass - lich blut' - ge Conrad. Example 4.8. Reduction chord progression, scene 11, mm. 5-8. © (m.5) © (m.6) ® (m.7) @ (m.8) v i i 0 7 CT Fr.8 /ft f dm 265 Example 4.9. Vorspiel mm. 43-44, showing variation of motive "b's" resemblance to ' Example 4.10. Scene 1, mm. 25-26, showing Conrad's "nimble hunter" motive "f." 2K ^Klaerchen 1 "Derflin^ce Ja - ger ist meinBru-ierCon-rad!" 266 between Conrad's "nimble hunter" motive " f ' and the fate motive " b " may be seen as a musical connect ion between Conrad's hand that holds the knife and the hand o f fate. A l o n g wi th leitmotifs, critics o f Die Siihne also cited lyricism as one o f the opera's primary weaknesses. Spanuth especially took exception, noting that "she [Ingeborg] often allows the lyrical to fall into hopeless banality." 1 8 H e did not elaborate o n what he meant by "the lyr ica l" or "banality," nor did he cite specific examples from the opera. However , we can speculate that this weakness (if it indeed exists) may be attributed to Korner ' s original dramatic structure, i n wh ich one character is alone o n the stage for four out o f ten scenes (c.f. Figure 4.2, p. 250). The problem is further compounded by the fact that — after the extended narrative o f scene 1 — the plot does not immediately move forward; any "ac t ion" (of wh ich there is little enough i n the play/opera as it is) is held at bay while two o f the characters, K l a r c h e n and W i l h e l m , present highly emotional monologues. Ingeborg set the monologues as two consecutive full-blown arias. T h e musical style can best be described as that o f a lied, very much i n the tradition o f Schumann, yet i n keeping wi th the types o f arias that we have seen i n Jery und Bdtely and Hiarne. Wh i l e this style might be considered to be extremely outdated i n the context o f an early twentieth century opera (compared, for example, to Salome or Erwartung), it does seem to suit both the dramatic situation and the characters. Klarchen 's outpouring o f emotions and nostalgia, focused on her love for Conrad , may be seen as demanding a more sentimental or tender treatment (that is, an aria or arioso voca l style and diatonic harmonies) as opposed to the declamatory singing and pungent dissonances used later i n the opera. Bronsart 's choice o f this mode for emotional moments also holds for Wilhelm's monologue, where the outer "Lasst sie das Lyrische oft in's hoffnungslos Banale fallen." Spanuth, " D i e Si ihne," p. 551. 267 sections expressing his feelings and nostalgia also convey the more romantic l ied style, while the B section, i n w h i c h he relates his experiences i n battle, differs substantially i n style. Klarchen 's aria deals wi th a single topic, her love for Conrad . T h e scene opens wi th a four-measure introductory sixteenth-note orchestral passage i n D major (Wilhelm's key i n the next aria), upon which , i n recitative style, she bids farewell to Conrad as he leaves to work i n the forest. Fo l lowing the modulat ion to E b i n m m . 4-5, the A section o f the aria proper begins o n the pick-up to m . 6 (Example 4.11, pp. 269-273). H e r words i n the first section reveal a sense o f gratitude toward Conrad , emphasized by the repetition o f the last line o f the text (the repetition is Bronsart 's, not Korner 's) : D e r gute treue Conrad! The good faithful Conrad! [4mm. antecedent] W i e er m i c h so herzl ich liebt! How he loves me so! Ich kann's i h m nie vergelten, / can never repay him, [5mm. consequent] Ich kann's i h m nie vergelten. I can never repay him. T h e irony is multiple: it is W i l h e l m w h o m she cannot "repay," and C o n r a d w h o w i l l not be able to atone for his actions. There is something ominous about the unequal distribution o f the text into a four-measure antecedent (mm. 6-9) and a five-measure consequent phrase (mm.10-14), where K la rchen utters a transposed version o f the Vorspiel ' s " a " motive, Cb-Bb-At | -Bb , w i th the second statement o f the text " Ich kann's nicht i h m vergelten" ("I can never repay h i m , " m m . 11-12, Example 4.11, p. 269). The effect is somewhat undermined by the naivete o f the | rhythm for the same words, first i n the voca l line (m. 10), then echoed i n the accompaniment (m. 14). T h e transition to the B section incorporates the music that introduced the aria, transposed f rom D major to E b major (mm. 17-19, Example 4.11, p. 269). It corresponds wi th Klarchen 's reverie, momentarily interrupted when she realizes that Conrad is still wi th in 268 Example 4.11. Klarchen's "aria," scene 2, mm. 1-60. gu - tetrcu-c Con-rad! Wieer mich soherz-lich licbt! Ichkann's ihm_ nie.ver Q 1. _ attmpa = nf.— • gel-ten, ichkann's ihmniever i I "••-'»)] «—i-al : 1— - eel - ten .^T n v ^ ^ i F r — i t # . 4 - a - > — i 269 Example 4.11. (continued, page 2 of 5). 16 (AmBWWft.rT«"'P0t<""*Pri"'0 UilittM A—#5-sJ Mon-densci-neFrau, und mag michim - mernoch nichU'ran ge-woh - ncn.ein V I V/v i vi(em) V/em hal - bcs Stund - chcn oh - ne ihn zu sein J. J,, ,E r ist auch 270 Example 4.11. (continued, page 3 of 5). muss ich inn wohl noch seh'n Ich kann's ver-such-en; V7D 1 , & /en. es dam-mertzwarschon aus dem Tal her-u-ber, 38 Eb r v/v Un poco pju largamcnte. I V/E1" menof dim. yrTP; 6 271 Example 4.11. (continued, page 4 of 5). (gehtrechtt lb) 272 Example 4.11. (continued, page 5 of 5). § m E 6 0A Es wird Nachi. •liAM i =t=l ' ' ' L U r—LjMf 'j- ^ —1 |Scene3| — ^ . ^ - — - ~ \"TI J i i rrn -fnr^F i . 1 » — » &~b—r*' '"" '1 t — 5 r" lffH — « F — ' j : 1 P l> t- j J->* 1 j J p -T 273 sight. H o r n fifths and fragments o f Conrad's motive " f ' sound i n the orchestra (as they do i n the introduct ion to the aria), accompanying Klarchen 's words "there he goes, he's throwing kisses to m e " ("Da geht er noch, er wirft mir Ki i s se z u , " wi th Conrad's "n imble hunter" step o f sixteenth notes). O n the final " leb ' w o h l " (mm. 19-20), a 0 i i 7 ( A - C - E b - G ) resolves to V 7 / G i n preparation for the B section. In accordance wi th the A B A formal paradigm, the B section contrasts musically i n terms o f harmony ( G major and F major tonal centers), slower tempo and change i n meter, and a slightly more chromatic vocal line. Bu t from the standpoint o f the text, it continues i n the same vein: K la rchen is nostalgic, but relating the past wi th the present: Ich b in nun schon drei M o n a t seine Frau, I've been his wife for already three months, u n d mag m i c h immer n o c h nicht d'ran gewohnen and don't want to live without him, ein halbes Stundchen ohne i hn zu sein. to be without him for one-half hour. E r ist auch gar zu lieb! He is just much too dear! A m Kammerfenster muB ich ihn w o h l noch seh'n I must see him from the chamber window, Ich kann's versuchen; I can try; T h e intensity o f her feelings for Conrad resonates i n the orchestra, as the accompaniment embroiders the melody while doubl ing it i n octaves (mm. 21-24, Example 4.11, p. 270). A s she asserts that she "cannot be without h i m for one-half hour," the harmonic underpinning intensifies, wi th an augmented dominant tonicizing F major i n m . 25. In m m . 26-27, the orchestra begins to anticipate the next voca l phrase, coinciding wi th a rapid harmonic movement i n F major: V / I V - I V - i i , pausing o n V / D in m . 27. W h e n K l a r c h e n continues, the interrupted F major progression resumes, while the melody reaches its apogee o n A 5 i n m . 28, supported by V 7 / V (in F). After resolving to the local tonic F major i n m. 29, there is a sudden change i n the orchestra, as K la rchen tries to see Conrad. In this transitional passage, her voca l style becomes more recitative-like (repeated pitches, narrow range), while the accompaniment 274 instigates a stepwise descent in a series o f "dominant sevenths" (mm. 31-33, Example 4.11, p. 271), culminating on V 7 / D b wi th the w o r d "versuchen" i n m . 33. Resolut ion to D b is thwarted when the chordal seventh, G b , becomes G ^ o n the second beat o f m. 34, while the remaining two voices slip by semitone (Cb-Bb, F b - E b , registrally displaced) to E b major (mm. 34-35), perhaps indicating the futility o f Klarchen 's attempt to see her departing husband from the window. T h e return to the original tonic, E b , signals the onset o f the A 1 section at the pick up to m . 36, where K la rchen is seeking some k ind o f reassurance that she loves Conrad . E v e n though it is growing dark, she asserts that she can still "see": es dammert zwar schon aus dem T a l heriiber, it's already getting dark over in the valley, doch fur ein Weiberauge ist's noch hell; yet for a woman's eyes it is bright; es w i r d nicht Nach t w o uns're Liebe wandelt. there is no night where our love goes. But Klarchen 's "Weiberauge" may be deceiving her: in the end, darkness (or more specifically, Conrad's inability to "see" clearly) w i l l be her undoing. The musical setting appears to comment on the veracity o f her words. A strong cadential tonicization o f E b major supports the last phrase o f her text ("es w i r d nicht Nach t w o uns're L iebe wandelt," m m . 41-44), but is undermined by the continuation i n the orchestra. K l a r c h e n leaves the stage while the ensuing Schumannian orchestral postlude vacillates between E b major and eb minor (mm. 48-50, Example 4.11, p. 272). A clashing false relation F t f /F^ i n m . 52, fol lowed by a strange diminished 7th transition (m. 53) leads to yet another vacil lat ion between E major and e minor (mm. 54-55). F o r the last five measures o f the postlude, the harmony is determined by an oscillation between two pitches, E b and E natural. U s i n g E b / E ^ l as pivots, the harmony swings f rom A b minor (m. 56) to E major (m. 57) before settling back on A b minor i n m . 58 (Example 4.11, pp. 272-73). F r o m 275 the perspective o f the drama, this tonal wavering may be regarded as foreshadowing Klarchen 's mora l di lemma as she is forced to choose between the two brothers. B u t it is the four enunciations o f the fate motive " b " (Example 4.11, p. 272) that leaves the listener wi th the impression that something is about to go terribly wrong. The postlude is more than just connective tissue joining arias. Whi l e it fills the space left by Klarchen 's departure, it also shows physical separation between her and W i l h e l m . The enunciations o f the fate motive bring an immediate response: as the V 7 / D b i n the final measure o f the postiude resolves to D b major i n the first measure o f scene 3, W i l h e l m makes his astonishing return from the dead. H i s entrance, wearing a white coat (indicated i n the stage directions) initiates another aria, again in A B A 1 form. L i k e Klarchen 's aria i n the preceding scene, the outer sections o f Wi lhe lm 's aria are highly emotional , describing his feelings o f joy at returning home (ironically) to his father (now dead) and his "faithful wife" (now married to his brother): [A Section] Sei mir gegriiBt, du Wiege meiner Jugend! Greet me, you cradle of my youth! Sei mir gesegnet, liebes Vaterhaus! Bless me, belovedfather's house! [B Section] W i l d hat das L e b e n m i c h herum geworfen, Ufefor me has been wild, i n K a m p f und B l u t hat m i c h die Ze i t getaucht. Time has shrouded me in battle and blood. E i n ew'ger Wechse l brach die Weltgesetze, An eternal change brought world law, und stolze Reiche, langst verjahrte Formen , and proud empires, long-commitedforms, die reifen Bluten vieler Menschenalter the ripe blood of many lifetimes Sah ich zerreiBen i n der Zei ten Sturme, I saw dismembered in the storm of the times, und die Zers torung baute sich den T h r o n and the throne built its own ruin auf Tr i immerschut t der sinkenden Geschlechter.yra^? the rubble of the sinking generation. [A 1 Section] D i c h aber f ind ' i ch treu der alten Sitte; But Ifind you true to the old tradition' hier ist noch Al les , wie ich's friih verlassen, everything is still here, as I left it earlier, all ' meine L ieben soil i ch hier begriiBen, I'll be welcomed by all my loved ones here, den guten Vater und mein treues Weib . my goodfather and my faithful wife. 276 Example 4.12. Wilhelm's aria, scene 3, mm. 1-38. Andante con moto Wilhelm (in einem wei&en Mantel durch die MitteitUr) | A section | mj~ Sei mir ge-grilBt, du Wie- ge mei-nerJu - gend! 3 — 3 3 3 3 mich her-um ge - wor - fen, in Kampf und Blut hat mich die 277 Example 4.12. (continued, page 2 of 4). Example 4.12. (continued, page 3 of 4). 15 279 280 The A sections are set to the same triplet accompaniment, evoking the rural life that W i l h e l m is expecting to find o n his return home (A section m m . 1-6, A 1 section m m . 29-37, Example 4.12, pp. 277-280). A s we might expect, the B section (mm. 7-27) contrasts strongly wi th the two A sections. W h e n W i l h e l m reflects on his experiences during the war, the music quickly departs from the folk-like style and D b major harmony o f the opening, i n favour o f rapid modulations, non-harmonic seventh chords, rushing tiiirty-second note figures and (cliche) militaristic triplets. In the A 1 section (mm. 29-37), Bronsart enriches the irony o f Wi lhe lm's final words, "den guten Vater und mein treues W e i b " ("the good father and my faithful wife") by modulat ing f rom D b major to b minor via A major, ut i l izing the enharmonic C # / D b to signify that the situation expects to find o n his return home is not the same one that he left. The accelerando i n m . 36 underscores Wilhe lm's increasing excitement at the prospect o f seeing K la rchen again, but it is tempered (for the audience) by a variation o f the fate motive " b " that sounds i n m . 37, where the stage directions indicate that W i l h e l m lays d o w n the coat. In scene 7, Bronsart reserves for one o f the most critical moments i n the plot a more continuous musical web, but one where the vestiges o f set forms are still discernable. T h e scene can be divided into five main sections: an introductory passage, fol lowed by two A B A forms framing a bar fo rm (a a 1 b), and a coda, as shown in the outline o f the scene provided i n Figure 4.4, p. 282. 281 Figure 4.4. Outline of formal structure of Scene 7 (Klarchen and Conrad). Section 1: "Introduction" Mm.#: 1-17 18-21 Keys: C, A , to V 7/F#, to vii 0 7/e Char: Conrad Style: "arioso" Topic: "wonderful dream" sees Klarchen in tears Section 2: Form: A trans. B trans. A 1 Mm.#: 22-45 46-55 56 - 65 66-79 80-93 Keys: e, mod., e to V/c#, c# dt, E, c# e, d Char: Klarchen both Klarchen both Conrad Topic: Wm. alive "bad dream" "evidence" "reality/hell" Section 3: ("Conrad) Form: a a1 coda "exhortation" b Mm.#: 95 - 100 101-106 107 108-109 109 - 123 Keys: d, g, Ab, f, aug. triads V 7 /F# dim. Triad a, Db, fit, d Text: lines 1-3 lines 4-7 lines 9-16 Other: symmetrical Vz step ascent in bass phrasing Section 4: Form: A B A 1 (a, a1) Mm.#: 124-131 131-147 148-163 Keys: d, toB fibb toBb, t o E Char: Klarchen Conrad Klarchen Topic proposition cuts her off resumes Section 5: "Coda" Mm.#: 164-172 173-181 182-193 Keys: to V 7 /Bb to c#, f D, t o E Char: Conrad both Conrad Style: recit arioso Topic: agrees to K.'s plan fate motive death "b" 282 Mediant-related keys govern the tonal scheme: C major, e minor , c# minor and E major. Certain binaries embedded in the text (dream/reality, beauty/hell) are expressed at the musical level through the juxtaposition o f tonal stability wi th extended chromaticism. Important leitmotifs from earlier scenes also return to play a role. E v e n in the absence o f set numbers, sectional division can still be perceived, often delineated by w h o is speaking, the topic, or by changes i n harmony, meter or style o f accompaniment. O n l y two characters are present throughout the scene: Kla rchen and Conrad . E a c h character is given extensive passages o f text, interspersed wi th rapid exchanges o f dialogue, punctuated by interjections from the other. T h e scene begins wi th an introductory passage i n the manner o f an "entrance aria" (labelled Section I i n Figure 4.4), as Conrad returns from his day's work i n the forest. L i k e his brother, he returns home wi th the expectation o f spending pleasant hours w i th his wife. This expectation is expressed i n a seventeen-measure arioso passage (mm. 1-17, shown i n Example 4.13, p. 284-85). The first eight measures o f the passage are accompanied by triplets i n a stable C major progression, pausing on V 7 / C on the final syllable o f "verplaudern" (to chat away) i n m. 8. A s Conrad continues—not yet aware that W i l h e l m has returned from the dead—he reflects on the beauty o f the day, comparing it to a spring bridal festival: M i r ist's so wunderselig heut, For me today is so wonderfully blessed, so fruhlingsheiter, so cheerful like spring, als war ' des Brauttags jahrlich Freudenfest; like it was at the annualfestivalfor brides-to-be; W i r konnen's traumen, We could dream about it, nun so w o l l ' n wir 's traumen; as now want to dream about it; The anticipated resolution o f V 7 / C f rom m . 8 is abandoned through a sudden slip down to V / A b via the c o m m o n tone G , and a tonicization o f A b major, quickly changing the G e r m a n augmented 6 t h / A b into its enharmonic equivalent, V / A (m. 11). A long dominant 283 Example 4.13. Scene 7, Section 1: Conrad's "arioso," mm. 1-21. Conrad Cd. Cd. Cd. ist's so wun - der - se - lig heut so friih -lings - hei - ter, als GerS / A b 284 Example 4.13. (continued, page 2 o f 2). Cd. Cd. Cd. trau men: doch seh' ich recht? Du schwimmst in rit. PP. ten. 19 -b- d minor 06 5 Cd. Tra -nen? Klar -chen! Du weinst? Um Got - tes - wil - len sprich, was soil das? gas ftp °7 o4 3 06 5 ° 5 (vii/e) 285 prolongation o f A major sets up Conrad's vocal climax on the w o r d "Freudenfest" i n m . 13 (Example 4.13, p. 285). B u t Conrad's happiness at this moment, like his dream, is illusory: it is based o n a relationship that w i l l soon cease to exist. Whi l e his dream-world is portrayed by sweeping harp figures i n m m . 15 and 17, the D major and D minor chords are pinned to a non-harmonic B i n the bass. T h e arioso style o f the introduction ends wi th the last harp figure (m. 17) as C o n r a d realizes that K la rchen is crying. Through alliteration, K o r n e r has provided a subtle play o n words, substituting Klarchen 's "Tranen" (tears— " D u schwimmst i n Tranen") for Conrad 's " traumen" (dreaming— " W i r konnen's traumen," as above): D o c h seh' i ch recht? Do I see correctly'? D u schwimmst in Tranen? Klarchen? You're swimming in tears? Klarchen? D u weinst? Are you crying? U m Gottes wil len sprich, was soil das? For God's sake, speak, what is it? Conf ined at first to a narrow range, the voca l line is more recitative-like, closely fol lowing the rhythm o f the text, while the formerly lush texture o f the accompaniment is reduced to sustained diminished-7th chords, reaching v i i 0 7 / e , over a descending three-note motive i n the bass (mm. 17-21, Example 4.13, p. 285). T h e next section o f the scene is composed o f a large A B A 1 form that utilizes passages o f rapid dialogue as transitions between the formal sections. In the first A section, K la rchen responds to Conrad by re tor t ing to the concept o f "dreaming" (Traum) telling h i m to abandon his dreams because W i l h e l m is alive: A c h , deine Freude, sie zerreiBet mein Herz! Oh, your joy, it breaks my heart! Fasse dich, Conrad! Brace yourself, Conrad! W i r f den ganzen Traum, den mir v o n G l u c k Throw the whole dream, dreamed of me and und Lebensfnih l ing traumten, happiness and spring's life, w i r f i h m hinaus i n die emporte Welt . throw it out into the outraged world. Reiss' aus dem Herzen , aus dem blutenden, Tear from your heart, the flourishing, Erinnerungen schoner, sel'ger Stunden; memories of beautiful, blessed hours; ReiB aus der Seele dir mein treues B i l d ! tear my faithful image from your soul! 286 Ich b in fur dich, b in fur das G l u c k verloren! I've lost you, lost happiness1. D e i n Bruder W i l h e l m lebt! Your brother Wilhelm lives! In the musical setting, her speech comprises a closed musical period o f 24 measures, begmning and ending i n e minor (as does the Vorspiel) , but wi th a strong inflection o f c# minor i n m m . 31-33 (Example 4.14, p. 288-89). In contrast to the exuberant C major at the beginning o f Conrad's arioso, one might view Klarchen 's reliance on the minor mode as a reflection o f her sadness (again, something o f a cliche, but too obvious to dismiss). Perhaps i n deference to the C major harmony that began the scene, she touches briefly on C major i n m . 26 when she tells Conrad to "brace" himself ("Fasse dich, Conrad") , but i n this context the referential significance o f C major is i ronic rather than joyful because it is underpinned by the "fate" motive " b " i n the bass line (Example 4.14, p. 288). The emotional plunge from the couple's happiness to impending tragedy is mirrored first i n bass-line's slow half-note descent, A t t - A ^ - G - F t t (mm. 27-29), then more rapidly in eighth notes, G#-F#-E-D#-C# (mm. 32-33). A b o v e the bass line, an intense chromatic progression carries the harmony through the mediant-related keys o f C major- e minor-c# minor (mm. 26-33, reduction shown i n Example 4.15a, p. 294). The return to the tonic, e minor , employs a second mediant-related progression, G major-b minor -B major-d# minor-e mino r (mm. 34-45, reduction provided i n Example 4.15b, p. 294). Asymmetr ica l phrasing i n the voca l line (3+5+3+4+5+3) contributes to Klarchen 's sense o f desperation, while a tritone F#-C i n the voca l line wi th the text "[ganz-]en T r a u m " (m. 27) further emphasizes the nightmare that is about to begin. Klarchen 's announcement that W i l h e l m is alive initiates a transitional passage i n wh ich both characters participate i n a brief exchange o f dialogue, set as recitative (mm. 46-55, Example 4.14, p. 290). Insisting that W i l h e l m could not possibly be alive, C o n r a d 287 Example 4.14. Scene 7, Section 2, m m . 22-94 (Conrad and Klarchen) . Allegro appassionato 288 Example 4.14. (continued, page 2 of 7). 289 Example 4.14. (continued, page 3 of 7). 290 Example 4.14. (continued, page 4 of 7). 56 Al legro moderato B Section EES E g K l Dort im Zim - merweint er sei - ne Thra -nen , dem ab - gi J. * V i 3 = 59 J n i schied' nen Va-ter-Rei-ste nicri, Siehhier, das ist sein rvfan-tel 3F§ r 9:r j (52 V / ° V?c« / » ctt * fr Glau - bemir, es ist kein Traum; du bist fur mich ver- lor - en! 3 * 3 ff Sri ^ a Conrad V 7 /c« \ r |T" »p P E ^ Beial-lenHeil '-gen nein, du bistmeinWeib! Was Gott ver-ei-nigt, soil die £ £ 2 * T c» v V'/Ftt 291 Example 4.14. (continued, page 5 of 7 ) . 70 t I - r i i Das fruh'-reBand lost uns'-reBand-e auf! Welt nicht schei-den! Nein, sag'ichdir S+Fl OP' ^ 3E 74 D V 7 / A TX(V/d ) dm vii°7/E motive "f1 Er istdein VL rit-3 3= nein, bei dem ew'-^"gen Gott! Er sollmit mirumdie-senHim-mel karnp-fen. 3 o5 6 3 AI Section PIT P ter-lich! So mit - ten aus des " r * - A A "~ ^ _ [per I motive "b"] 6 em 292 Example 4.14. (continued, page 6 of 7). 5/ m mp men Him - mels schon - sten Trau - h in die - se 7 84 V 7 / e vii 0 7/ctt V / c « Hoi -len wirk-lichj^itj}- Das istmehr als ein 6 motive "b" mf 2 6ctt 43 c»„ 87 6 G F« Men - schen-herz er - tragt! as__uil ,der EE 1 IEE 1 * «9 V / b 6 bm cresc. f ¥ • > i = See - legan-ze Frei - heit ii - ber - bo 293 Example 4.14. (continued, page 7 of 7). 91 Klarchen. die - serKlip-pe schei - ten die Na - tur!_ Fas-sedich nur! — J * L JL-V'/D V / E 7f« rfn Example 4.15a. Scene 7, mm. 26-33, reduction. 7 2 8\ 2 V J r W — i — J..~.,..m— 1 1" '1* ' « 4 7 * C -V9 e m ) ° v ' ^ m V /V V'/em vii«/c« V/c* Example 4.15b. Scene 7, mm. 34-45, reduction. 35 36 37 38 « 4J. 45 4 6 '6 A 7 6 6 4 6 7 7 6 7 V bm 5 V/V V/B B V/d« V/d» d»m V/e V/d» 5 v/e G V em 294 attributes Klarchen's state of mind to "ein boser Traum" (an evil dream). But the return to the concept of dreaming, in this instance, is Bronsart's, not Korner's, since the composer has substituted the "ein boser Traum" for "ein leer Gerucht" ("an empty rumour") in the original play. An "evil" dream is far removed from Conrad's vision of marital bliss that opened the scene. This difference is iUurninated by the harmonic progression to c# minor. Although Conrad is steadfast in his belief that Wilhelm was killed by "frank'schen Sabeln" (French sabres), his convictions seem to be undermined by the series of non-tonicizing dominant and diminished 7th chords, culminating in a strong cadential tonicization of c# minor on the first beat of m. 51 (Example 4.14, p. 290, reduction shown in Example 4.15a, p. 294). The word "Traum" is sung as an appogiatura A# over a second inversion common-tone (diminished 7th (G#-B-D-E#) leading to V 7/c# (mm. 50-51). This inflection of c# minor lasts for only one measure (m. 51), but it foreshadows a more emphatic modulation to that key five measures later. From mm. 51-55, the two characters quickly exchange words, Klarchen arguing that Wilhelm is alive and that she is his wife, while Conrad counters "Nein, sag' ich!" ("No, I say!"). Attempting to convince Conrad of the veracity of her words, Klarchen appears to lead him musically to her point of view. This occurs in mm. 55-56, where the vocal lines move from F through Gb to G# (Example 4.14, pp. 290-91). Conrad's Gb and Klarchen's G# are both sung in the same register. But Conrad's pitch, on the word "hier," is supported by a diminished 7th C-Eb-Gb-A, an enharmonic respelling of vii07/c# minor, and a semitone above the diminished triad underlining Klarchen's "Weib." After pausing in the high register, the chord plunges down to its resolution on c# minor in m. 56. Conrad's questioning "hier" is answered resoundingly by Klarchen's "Dort im Zimmer" ("there in the room"), initiating the B section of the A B A structure. 295 Dramatically, the B section serves to introduce evidence that Wilhelm is alive. Klarchen begins by indicating that Wilhelm is in the next room, then points to his coat as further proof: Dort im Zimmer weint er seine Tranen There in the room he cries his tears dem abgeschied'nen Vatergeiste nach. to the spirit of his departedfather. Sieh hier, das ist sein Mantel. See here, that is his coat. Glaube mir, es ist kein Traum; Believe me, it is no dream, du bist fur mich verloren! You are lostfor me! At this point in the drama the coat is important only because it is evidence of Wilhelm's presence; later, it will be one of the instruments of Klarchen's death. Yet the significance of the coat is dissipated somewhat due to the omission of a passage from Korner's original text. In the play, when Klarchen asserts that Wilhelm is in the next room crying, Conrad accuses her of hallucinating: "Kranke Phantasie zwang dir das Geisterbild vor deine Seele" ("Sick fantasies squeeze the apparition from your soul"). Bronsart did not include these lines in the opera. Ironically, Klarchen's eventual death is the result of Conrad's "hallucinations" when he mistakenly identifies the coat with Wilhelm. Nonetheless, this omission of the text here may be seen to serve a strictly musical purpose by sustaining a more unified and continuous flow across a longer period rather than breaking down into smaller periods due to the constant interchange of dialogue between the two characters. Further continuity in the first six measures of the passage is provided by the arioso-like vocal line supported by a clear dominant prolongation of c# minor (mm. 56ff, Example 4.14, p. 291). Yet as she reaches the last part of her speech — "Glaube mir, es ist kein Traum" ("Believe me, it is no dream") — by m. 63 this harmonic clarity is destroyed. The bass-line descent in broken octaves through m. 62 achieves its goal of G# on the first beat of m. 63, but the expected dominant harmony of c# underpinning the word "Traum" is 296 reconfigured as a 9th chord: G#-B-D#-F#-A#. A further series of diminished 7th chords leads to vi i 0 7 of E/e (in second inversion) on the last beat of m. 64, but again the anticipated resolution is diverted as the A-natural in the bass falls to G# in m. 65, while the D#, F#, A and C are suspended across the bar line. As a result, one might hear G#-B#-D#-F#-A (where the B# is equivalent to C^) as the dominant 9th of c# minor, a fulfilment, as it were, of the 9th chord (G#-B-D#-F#-A) in m. 63. This hearing is substantiated by the fact that the dominant 9th does indeed resolve to c# minor in m. 67. But if Klarchen seems to have "lost her way" harmonically, Conrad pulls her back by re-estabHshing the tonic c# minor in mm. 67-68, as he asserts "nein, du bist mein Weib!" ("no, you are my wife"). To reinforce his point, Conrad defers to a higher power, invoking God's name three times over the next eleven measures (mm. 68-78, Example 4.14, pp. 291-292). In his desperation, he claims that "was Gott vereignet, soli die Welt nicht schneiden" ("what God has joined together, the world shall not part"). Klarchen recognizes that what Conrad claims as his God-given right applies to Wilhelm, reminding him that "das fruh're Band lost uns're Band auf ("the earlier bond dissolves our bond"). Her interjection closes in m. 72 on the same vii 0 7 chord from m. 64 (D#-F#-A-C), propelling the harmony into E major in m. 73. The new tonal area of E major is fleeting, lasting for only two measures (mm. 73-74), allowing the "hunter" motive "f' to sound in the orchestra, while Conrad again denies that their relationship is over. He vows to fight Wilhelm to the death, closing on a diminished triad in m. 77. Klarchen attempts to convince him one last time, remmding him that Wilhelm is his brother ("Er is dein Bruder"), calling on the vi i 0 7 D#-F#-A-C for the third time (in third inversion, m. 78). 297 This third appearance of the vi i 0 7 chord in m. 78 initiates the A 1 section. Whereas Klarchen sang the first A section, the reprise is sung by Conrad: So mitten aus des Himmels schonsten Traumen So in the middle of heaven's most beautiful dream, in diese Hollen Wirklichkeit! in this hell reality! Das ist mehr als ein Menschenherz ertragt! That is more than one human's heart can bear! Das ist der Seele ganz Freiheit uberboten! That surpasses the soul's entire freedom! An dieser Klippe scheitert die Natur! On this obstacle nature fails! Comparing the first four lines of this passage with lines 3-7 of Klarchen's first A section (cf. text for the A section, p. 286 above), certain parallels come to light. Specific key words link the two texts: Traumen, Herz, Seele. Klarchen tells Conrad to abandon his dream by "throwing it out into the outraged world" ("wirf ihm hinaus in die emporte Welt"), and to tear her faithful image from his soul. Conrad's speech presses further the dichotomy between dreaming (beauty) and reality (hell), while finally acknowledging the consequences of Klarchen's words. Bronsart has carried the textual parallelism further by supporting a portion of both passages with the same music. Thus from mm. 80-87 (Example 4.14, pp. 290-91), Conrad repeats music heard at mm. 28-35 (Example 4.14, pp. 286-87), with one substantial difference. Klarchen's earlier passage begins within the context of the established tonic, e minor, then modulates through c# minor and b minor before closing the larger musical period on e minor in m. 45 (mm. 28-35 of Example 4.14). Conrad's passage, on the other hand, shares precisely the same harmonic progression through eight measures (mm. 80-87 of Example 4.14), but occurs within the context of E major's key signature, not e minor. And, while Klarchen's passage is harmonically closed, the same cannot be said for Conrad's section. Closure in E major is anticipated with the approach to the dominant in m. 93, but Klarchen's interjection in m. 94 ("Fasse dich nut!") cuts off the possibility of resolution. 298 Instead, her interjection seems to initiate a new formal section (labelled Section 3 in Figure 4.4, p. 282). This new section is both a continuation of Conrad's previous A 1 material and an independent formal structure in its own right. The text divides clearly into two sections, bisected this time by Conrad's own interjection ("Fasse dich! Unsinnig Wort!"): Kannst du den Strom auf halten, Canyon stop the river, der iiber Felsen in den Abgrund stiirtzt? that plunges over the cliffs into the abyss? Befiehl dem Feuer, kalt zu sein? Orderfire to be cold? Gebiete dem Sturme, Command the storm, wenn er heulend dich umbraust, if it howls aroundyou, und sich begrabt im allgemeinen Schrecken, and buries itself in generalfright, daB er zum Zephyr werde! so that it becomes the Zephyr! Fasse dich! Unsinnig Wort! Get hold of yourself Ridiculous word! Wenn's nur dem Leben galte, If it is only valid in life, wenn's nur der Erde seichte Giiter trafe, if only shallow good strikes the earth, doch dich, dich, dich! but you, you, you! Nein, beim groBen Himmel, nein! No, by the great heaven, no! Ich will night ruhig sein, will mich nicht fassen! I will not be calm, I will not pull myself together! Hier wird Verzweiflung Pflicht; Here despair is duty; ich will verzweifeln! I will despair! Ein Niedertracht'ger, der hier Trost verlangt! A. malice, which demands comfort here! In comparison with scene 1 — where Conrad was virtually speechless at his first meeting with Klarchen — under duress his rhetorical powers are raised to new heights.19 The musical setting of this passage is laid out as a loosely structured bar form, a a1 b (outline shown in Figure 4.4, Section 3, p. 282). Although the form in itself is not unusual, the d minor tonal center is at odds with the rest of the scene, where the broader tonal context depends on mediant-related keys, C major, e minor, E major and c# minor. The two 1 9 In scene 1, Conrad and Klarchen's first meeting is related in the form of a flashback, where Conrad recalls that "Der Bruder stiess mich an: 'Bist du von Holz? WeiBt du solch' hubschem Kinde Nichts zu sagen? Du bist ja sonst mit Worten nicht so karg!' Ich keeker Bursch stand aber ganz verschuchtert, und stotterte und zupfte an dem Hut." (The brother [Wilhelm] pushed me: 'Are you made of wood? Don't you know what to say to such a pretty child? You are not usually so meagre with words!' I was an impertinent lad, but completely mtimidated, and stuttered and pulled on my hat.) 299 Stollen share the same accompaniment style, similar melodic contour and rhythmic profile, but different harmonic progressions. A dominant seventh tonicization o f d minor i n m . 96 establishes that key as the tonic for the first Stollen, w i th a modulat ion to g minor i n m . 99 (Example 4.16, p. 280). The second Stollen (mm. 101-107) begins in g minor, the closing key o f the first Stollen, mov ing through Ab major (m. 102), f minor (m. 103), and ab minor (m.104) triads, before dissolving harmonically into a series o f four augmented triads, leading to V 7 / F # i n the "coda" (mm. 105-107, Example 4.16, pp. 301-303). Resolut ion o f the V 7 / F # is averted, the musical and textual flow disrupted by Conrad's exhortation "Fasse dich! Uns inn ig Wor t ! " (mm. 108-109). Fo l lowing the exhortation, the Abgesang continues wi th a brief sequence beginning in a minor (with a B b i n the key signature) over an ascending bass-line B-C-Db-Eb-Fb as Conrad's rage builds (mm. 109-114 o f Example 4.16, pp. 302-303). T h e bar form is closed of f harmonically, returning to d minor at m. 122. In the penultimate section o f the scene (Section 4, m m . 124-163), K l a r c h e n tries to appease Conrad by proposing a solution. W i l h e l m , she suggests, might be wi l l ing to give her up i f he knew the circumstances: W e n n i ch dir teuer b in , hor auf mein Wort! If I am dear to you, listen to me! E s ware mogl ich W i l h e l m gibt die Rechte, It is possible that Wilhelm would give me die er an mich , an meine Liebe hat, the right to put my love i n deine H a n d , wenn er erfahrt daft w i r ~ in your hand, if he learned that we -But Klarchen 's suggestion is not well-received: before she can finish, Conrad cuts her off. Musical ly, Klarchen 's suggestion and Conrad's interruption provide the material for the first section o f the second A B A 1 form o f scene 7 (Section 4). The beginning o f the first A section (starling on the last eighth o f m . 123) overlaps wi th the last measure o f Conrad 's bar form and the w o r d "verlangt" (Example 4.17, pp. 305-308). A motive i n the 300 Example 4.16. Scene 7, Section 3, a a 1 b (bar form), m m . 95-123. 301 Example 4.16. (continued, page 2 of 3). 302 Example 4.16. (continued, page 3 o f 3). 303 accompaniment of this linking measure recalls Klarchen's aria from scene 2, where it occurs in the vocal line as she sings that she "can never repay him [Conrad]" ("ich kanns ihm nie vergelten," scene 2, mm. 9-10, c.f. Example 4.11, p. 269). In its present context, the motive seems to reveal a relationship between "verlangen" and "vergelten," in other words, between Conrad's "demand" for satisfaction (in this case, some type of revenge) and Klarchen's repayment. The first few measures of the A section also maintain the d minor key area from the end of Conrad's bar form. But as Klarchen tries to persuade Conrad that there may be a solution to their problem, she again appears to lead him tonally. In m. 126 there begins a chromatic ascent through parallel major 6/3 chords, leading to a perfect cadence V 7 -I in B major (mm. 129-130, Example 4.17, p. 305). In mm. 130-131 Klarchen's vocal line ascends through the first five steps of the B major scale, but is left hanging on the dominant F# when Conrad interupts her. Despite Klarchen's attempt to provide a reasonable solution to their dilemma, Conrad questions her sanity. His accusation is powerfully ironic, given that it is his breakdown that finally spills over in scene 10: Bist du von Sinnen? Are you cra^y? Glaubst du, daB man toricht das hochste Gut Do you believe that one foolishly strikes the so in die Schanze schlagt? Highest good in the entrenchment? Wenn man den Himmel findet, if one finds heaven, wenn die Tore des Paradieses freudig sich geoffhet, if the gate of Paradise joyfully opened, wirft nur ein Rasender sie wieder zu. only to be quickly closed again. Was ist denn Bruderdank fur solch ein Opfer? What then is brotherly thanks for such a sacrifice? Was gibt die weite, groBe, reiche Welt What does the wide, great rich world fur die verschertze Seligkeit? give forforfeited happiness? Nichts! Nichts! Nothing! Nothing! Conrad's speech here carries a double meaning. On the surface, he seems to be talking about himself, that he will have to forfeit his own happiness and be left with nothing. 304 Example 4.17. Scene 7, Section 4, mm. 123-163. 305 Example 4.17. (continued, page 2 o f 4). 306 N, Example 4.17. (continued, page 3 o f 4). 307 Example 4.17. (continued, page 4 of 4). 308 Conrad "found heaven" with Klarchen when his brother went off to war; now that Wilhelm has returned, the "gate of Paradise" is about to close on him. But Conrad is also talking about about Wilhelm. Having returned from the "hell" of war, it is Wilhelm who now stands at Paradise's gate, finding haven in the reunion with his wife. Even more to the point, Wilhelm has already made the ultimate sacrifice (Opfer) by going off to war in the first place. Conrad recognizes that Klarchen's solution would leave Wilhelm with nothing. In contrast to Klarchen's predominandy major mode A section, Conrad's B section starts off with a vi i 0 7 tonicizing the c# minor that punctuates his first exclamation "Bist du von Sinnen" ("Are you crazy?", m. 131-132, Example 4.17, pp. 305-306). Following the exclamation, an augmented dominant 7th in m. 132 (C-E-G#-Bb: the G# is spelled as Ab) introduces f minor, the main key area for the next four measures (mm. 133-136). After a brief excursion through A major and Bb minor (mm. 138-141) the tonic f minor returns in m. 142, while the vocal line duplicates and expands on the opening phrase of mm. 133-136. Whereas Conrad's vocal line climbed to its apogee Bb4 on the word "Trost" (consolation) earlier in the scene (m. 122, cf. Example 4.16, p. 303), by the end of this section he has "lost" his ability to sing: according to the stage directions in the score, the final exclamation is to be performed "beinah gesprochen" — "almost spoken." Finally, in the A 1 section (mm. 148-163 of Example 4.17, pp. 307-308), Klarchen is allowed to finish what she started before Conrad interrupted her. Her role as mediator between the two brothers is apparent in her words: LaB mich ihm mit freiem Wort bekennen: Lxt me confess to him freely: er ist dein Bruder, er wird menschlich sein. He is your brother, he'll be civilised. Nur, ich beschwore dich, jetzt weich' ihm aus! Only I smear to you, avoid him now! Ein furchterlich Begegnen konnt' es werden, It could be a terrible encounter, es kocht ein wildes Blut in deiner Brust. a wild blood boils in your breast. Jetzt weich' ihm aus, wenn du mich je, Now avoid him if you indeed, wenn du mich je geliebt. if indeed you love me. 309 Klarchen also performs the role of "musical" mediator in the first part of the section. One might view the tritone relationship between her B major at the end of the first A section and Conrad's f minor as a reflection of their differing stances towards the situation. It is up to Klarchen to resolve the tension of the B major/f minor tritone, and thus "resolve" the problem. She does so with the same half-step progression seen m the first A section, moving through first inversion triads Eb-E-F, leading to a perfect cadence V 7 -I in Bb major (mm. 149-152, Example 4.17, p. 307). The sensation of relaxation is only momentary, as the Bb ascends to B4 in m. 153, instigating a tritone modulation to e minor in m. 156 (and thus back to one of the main third-related keys controlling the entire scene). Minor harmonies in mediant and sub-mediant relationships (e-c-ab-c# minor, mm. 156-160) are employed to underline Klarchen's fears of a "furchterliche Begegnen" [sic] ("a terrible encounter"). Invoking all of her persuasive powers, Klarchen argues that if Conrad "really loved her" ("wenn du mich je geliebte") he would do as she asked. Her use of the subjunctive tense (geliebte), E major harmony and triplet accompaniment (especially m. 163) is significant, reminding Conrad of happier times at the beginning of the scene and especially in scene 1.2" The final section of scene 7 is organized into a small recitative-aria type of structure. At first, Conrad agrees to Klarchen's plan, albeit reluctantly: Es sei! Ich will die ganze Mannerkraft, So be it! I will gather together all the die ich meines Herzens Falten finde; manly strength that I can find, zusammen rufen. in my heart's folds. Doch beim groBen Gott! Yet by the great God! Lange halt' ich's nicht aus. I cannot bear it long. Mach's kurz, Make it short, ich rate dir's! I advise you! The section is introduced by ascending parallel root-position major triads, E-F -Gb starting on the last beat of m. 163 (Example 4.18, pp. 312-314). Conrad's vocal line for the first 2 0 Scene 1 begins with Conrad fondly recalling their first meeting at the shooting contest: the harmony is in E major, with a continuous triplet accompaniment. 310 eleven measures (mm. 164-174) is speech-like recitative, characterized by repeated pitches and a narrow range (especially mm. 164-169). Recalling the perfect cadence in Bb major in m. 152, the emphasis on Bb in the vocal line, with the text "[Es] sei" (So be it!), provides a tenuous musical affirmation that Klarchen's efforts to mediate the dispute were at least partly successful. Nonetheless, Conrad's stubbornness is reflected in the harmony, which remains pinned to a Gb pedal (bVI/Bb) for the first three measures of the section (mm. 164-166), thus avoiding any convincing enunciation of Bb major. Even in m. 167, the stage is set for a perfect cadence in Bb, but the force of that cadence is undermined when the bas: line passes through the chordal 7th (Eb), arriving on D too early (m. 167, beats 3 and 4). When the Bb harmony finally arrives in m. 168, it seems to occur as an afterthought, and in bb minor, indicating that Conrad cannot live up to his promise to "gather together" ("zusammen rufen") all of his manly strength. His anguish is portrayed harmonically and melodically by an augmented triad, C-E-G#, with a G# in the vocal line on the word "Gott" in m. 169-170. As Conrad outlines this augmented triad (descending) in m. 170, his vocal range begins to expand, as he gradually recovers the voice that was lost on the "beinah gesprochen" text earlier in the scene, but continues to move further away harmonically. As the recitative portion of the section closes, Conrad warns Klarchen with the statement "God protect you" ("Schiitz' dich Gott!"), followed by an ominous ascending variant of the "fate" motive "b" in the orchestra (m. 176, Example 4.18, p. 313). Another important motive from the Vorspiel, motive "d," then sounds with Conrad's statement "Ich gehe" ("I'm leaving," mm. 178-79). In the Vorspiel motive "d" undergoes sequential 311 Example 4.18. Scene 7, Section 5, m m . 164-193, Conrad's "recit" and "arioso." l6l Conrad =1 Si Tempo I Es sei! Ich will die gan - ze Man -ner - kraft, die ten. V m 7 Co" Gl> pedal ich inmei-nesHer-zensFal-ten fin-de, zu-sam-men ru-fen. Dochbeimgro-ssen 1 J 169 V'/B^ 3 W dm ,6 bbm f ff m. m r :—1 c 5 0 t t ! ^ 2 * $ 7 N Lan - ge halt'ich's nicht aus. Mac 8 > •< 9=lti I'S ku rz, ich r a-tedir's! ft* <•):— 7 3 > r 3 Oft 1 I r -i 7 I ? 7 ! X. !: o 5 dm 312 Example 4.18. (continued, page 2 o f 3). Klarchen 313 Example 4.18. (continued, page 3 o f 3). | Arioso] ,8l Conrad. Tempo I r v Weib! Meinteu-res Weib! Dich sollt' ich las-sen? Nein, beimew' - gen 314 Example 4.19. Vorsp ie l , m m . 36-41, showing motive " d . " 315 repetition and variation for six measures (Vorspiel mm. 36-41, Example 4.19, p. 315), but in scene 7 the sequence is cut short after only three measures, ending in m. 180. This truncation serves a dramatic function, as Klarchen prevents Conrad from leaving by calling him back. According to the stage directions, she hurries after him and throws herself around his neck ("Kilt ihm nach und fallt ihm um den Hals."). Calling Conrad back will have tragic implications, indicated by the variation of the "fate" motive "b" in the next measure (m. 181). The pungent chromatic slip from f# minor to f minor (mm. 180-181) may be heard as a portentous comment on the futility of Klarchen's physical gesture. Scene 7 concludes with a small aria-like passage in which Conrad—at least in terms of the text—adopts a much more conciliatory tone: Weib! Mein teures Weib! Wife! My dear wife! Dich sollt' ich lassen? Should I leave you? Nein, beim ew'gen Gott! No, by the eternal god! Vom Leben scheid' ich It is easierfor me to die leichter als von dir! than be separated from you. Yet when placed within their musical context, something about Conrad's words does not quite ring true. The aria is introduced by a statement of the "fate" motive "b" in f minor (m. 181) after which an abrupt tonal shift to D major accompanies the first line of the text (m. 182, Example 4.18, p. 314). This sudden invocation of the major mode lends a mellifluous tone to the words "Weib! Mein teures Weib!," especially since Wilhelm used almost the same words twice in scene 4: "mein treues Weib" (my faithful wife, scene 4, pp. 41 and 43 of the score). While the tonic D major harmony reinforces Conrad's belief that Klarchen is his wife, his ensuing question "should I leave you" ("Dich sollt' ich lassen?" m. 184) is set on an open cadence, V 7 / G . When he answers his own question emphatically, "no, by the eternal god" (Nein, beim ew'gen Gott!"), the certitude of his words is undermined by parallel dominant and diminished seventh chords. Far from fulfilling the expected resolution of 316 V 7 / G , the bass slips down a half step from D to C# as if to tonicize f# minor (mm. 184-85). A further slip in the bass from C# to C^ coincides with V 7 / F and the word "Gott" (m. 186). Another slip from C to B establishes a more "stable" (second inversion) E major tonality for his words "I would rather die" (Vom Leben scheid' ich," mm. 187-88), but right after the clear V / E at the end of the passage (m. 193), instead of resolving the bass slips down again a half step to a bb diminished chord, implying new instability and sinking fate. Although Conrad's words are meant to console Klarchen, the sounding of his "hunter" motive "f ' in m. 188 is ominous, given its ressemblance to the fate motive "b." In the end, Conrad is concerned only with his own happiness; he remains fixed on his own narrow view of the world. The moral dilemma of the plot seems to revolve around the question of whose sins are being "atoned," and by whom. One could say that each of the three characters involved in this macabre drama has something to atone for. The rivalry between Wilhelm and Conrad repeats the stock fairy-tale type, where one brother (typically the elder one), is the so-called "favourite son," powerful and domineering (Wilhelm), while the other is younger, passive and jealous (Conrad). However, Wilhelm already "atoned" for his sins when he went off to war: the experience — as he recalls in his aria in scene four — made him realize that he had been a brute, and he returns home resolved to change his ways. Conrad, on the other hand, suffers from "survivor's guilt" (the younger son left behind, while the older son "sacrificed" his life for his nation), coupled with his envy of his older brother. His "sin," if one might call it that, was his failure to stand up for himself, to be a man in the face of his brother's bullying, and to claim Klarchen as his own even before her marriage to Wilhelm. Despite their professed love for her, for both brothers Klarchen is little more than a trophy. 317 Nor is Klarchen completely innocent. She married Wilhelm even though she was more attracted to Conrad. Her struggle to reconcile her love for one brother (Conrad) with her obligation to the other (Wilhelm) was only temporarily abated with Wilhelm's disappearance. Even then, Klarchen did not take matters into her own hands, but was manipulated by Conrad's father into marrying him. With Wilhelm's return, her struggle resumed. In her naivete, Klarchen plays the two brothers against each other. She is too passive to effectively take charge of the situation; in the heat of the moment, when she must confront Wilhelm with the news that she doesn't love him, she faints. The fact that Klarchen is stabbed to death in her sleep is the ultimate atonement for her passivity. Of Bronsart's three extant operas, Die Siihne is the most problematic. As August Spanuth observed, the composer's "noble name" should have ensured at least some measure of success, but this opera did not survive its premiere.21 The music apparently could not resuscitate what may be regarded as a weak libretto founded on poorly conceived psychological motivations, lacking any substantive dramatic action aside from a gruesome knifing. Yet with Die Siihne, there is a strong sense that Bronsart was pushing her own artistic and aesthetic boundaries. Although it is still well within the envelope of the time, the harmonic language is more chromatic than that of Hiarne. When the music does revert to the older lied style, it is with an eye to enriching the psychological aspects of a character or a situation (Klarchen's aria in scene 2, for example). Rather than recapitulating large blocks of musical material, as she did in Jery und Bately and Hiarne, in this opera Bronsart treats several smaller leitmotifs more developmentally, transposing them and placing them in new contexts where they take on new meanings, especially motive "b." In Jery und Bately and Hiarne, the 2 1 Spanuth, "Die Siihne," p. 550. 318 primary function of the orchestra is to accompany the singers; in Die Siihne, the orchestra is a more active participant in the unfolding of the drama. To that end, the music does what it is supposed to do, no more and no less, by providing its own sublime commentary to Korner's ghoulish play. 319 Chapter Five "Gender, Genre and Value Judgement: Toward New Horizons of Expectations" A common thread runs throughout the various reviews of Ingeborg von Bronsart's operas; whether positive or negative, these reviews emphasize the seemingly remarkable fact that the composer is a woman. It is easy to dismiss the disappearance of her works as the unfortunate by-product of her gender, to assume that Ingeborg, like many other women, was simply "written-out" of a history constructed by and for men. In Ingeborg's case, to attribute the disappearance of her works to her gender alone is to overlook a number of other contributing factors. Gender is inextricably intertwined with genre and issues regarding the way in which aesthetic value is determined. In that respect, this chapter explores the paradox of genres that existed in the sphere of German opera during the last decades of the nineteenth century, where Singspiel and out-dated romantic opera types co-existed alongside the towering works of Wagner. Drawing on Hans Robert Jauss's theories of the aesthetics of reception and Carl Dahlhaus's concepts of analysis and value judgement, this chapter examines the implications of that paradox for determining the aesthetic value of Bronsart's operas.1 Also to be taken into account are the more implicit and less obvious influences filtered through the acolytes of the New German School, including Hans von Bronsart. Whether or not the New Germans constituted an actual "school" of composition remains open to debate; nonetheless, their influence played an important role in determining the opera repertory during this period. Finally, this chapter considers the possibilities for the revival of Bronsart's operas, and what that revival might mean in terms of establishing a place for her works in the canon. 1 Hans Robert Jauss, Toward an Aesthetics of Reception, translated by Timothy Bahti (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982); Carl Dahlhaus, Analysis and Value Judgement, translated by Siegmund Levarie (New York: Pendragon, 1983). 320 The paradox of genres can be seen in the general state of German opera in the last decades of the nineteenth century. As Edgar Istel has observed, "at the time of Richard Wagner's death in Venice (Feb. 13, 1883) the German stage was in a curious condition."2 Wagner's legacy, now monumental, did not immediately prevail. Alongside the masterpieces of Mozart, Lortzing, Weber and Marschner, new operas continued to be produced. In the sphere of more serious dramatic works, composers had two choices: to meet Wagner head-on, or to retreat into what Istel calls "compromise" or "repertoire" operas (the two terms are interchangeable), endeavouring to "combine the 'good new' which Wagner had brought with what was fit to live of the 'good old'."3 Singspiels and musical comedies also belong to the "repertoire" or "compromise" class. While such opera types experienced a growing popularity for the very reason that they did not compete with Wagner, as Istel has noted, "what this impossible style-mixture would lead to was clear: in due time these works [compromise or repertoire operas] sank into oblivion."4 Composers who avoided the "compromise" opera types and posed a more direct challenge to Wagner met with varying degrees of success. Three examples illustrate this point. The first is August Bungert (1845 - 1915), who represents one of the most audacious efforts to emulate Wagner as well as one of the most miserable failures. From 1898 to 1903, Bungert composed a tetralogy, Die Homeriscbe Welt, intended as a six-day cycle for a projected festival-house at Godesberg on the Rhine. Although the individual operas were performed 2 Edgar Istel, "German Opera Since Richard Wagner," Musical Quarterly 1 (1915): 261. 3 Ibid., p. 262. 4 Ibid. Istel's article provides a litany of now forgotten composers and their works. Somewhat ironically, her predicted that Richard Strauss's Salome and Elektra would never find a place in "the purified atmosphere which will be found in Germany after the war is over." Ibid., p. 286. 321 separately,5 the festival-house was never built. Viewed as litde more than a Wagner parody, the tetralogy was soon forgotten. On a much smaller scale, but slightiy more successful, was Richard Strauss's Guntram (Weimar, 1894). For Strauss, Guntram was not so much a challenge to Wagner but an hommage, as his inscription — "Thanks to God, and to the sacred Wagner" — in the manuscript short score attests/' From the beginning, Wagner was the model: even the name of the tide character is an amalgam of the Wagnerian characters Gunther {Gotterdammerung) and Wolfram {Tannhauser)? Shades of both Tannhauser'and Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg are present in the plot, which, like Hiarne, includes a singing contest. As a product of the composer's youthful exuberance for Wagner, Strauss himself admitted years later that Guntram achieved only a succes d'estime? Finally, with his fairy-tale opera, Hansel und Gretel (Weimar, 1893), Engelbert Humperdinck managed to wed Wagnerian polyphony to a popular and appealing subject. The most successful and enduring of the three examples cited here, Istel attributes the longevity of Hansel und Gretel to its appearance at a fortuitous time, when the "law of contrast demanded that something very simple should follow the overladen scores of the Wagnerians and the brutalities of the modern Italians and their German imitators."9 5 The four operas are Odysseus' Heimkehr (1896), Kirke (1898), Nausikaa (1901) and Odysseus' Tod (1903). A l l premiered at Dresden. 6 Charles Osborne, The Complete Operas of Richard Strauss (New York: Da Capo, 1988), p. 7. 7 Ibid, p. 6. 8 Strauss's assessment of Guntram comes from his essay "Reminiscences of the First Performances of My Operas, written in 1942. The passage is reprinted in Osborne, The Complete Operas of Richard Strauss, p. 9. 9 Istel, "German Opera Since Richard Wagner," p. 270. With respect to following the "Wagnerian" path, Istel observes that "the older Weimar circle which had surrounded Liszt . . . stayed in a moderate zone." According to Istel, Peter Cornelius's Barbier von Bagdad was the "only original opera produced by the Wagner-Liszt school," and "others belonging to Liszt's circle tried to compose operas; good musicians, but poor dramatists, like Bronsart, Lassen, Draeske, Raff and Alexander Ritter, none of whom prospered." See "German Opera Since Richard Wagner," pp. 264-65, and p. 267. Emphasis mine. It is not clear here whether Istel is referring to Hans or Ingeborg. 322 More often, however, composers turned to the "compromise" or "repertoire" type of opera. Too "old-fashioned for the Wagnerians and altogether too 'Wagnerian' for the partisans of older opera,"10 compromise-type operas nonetheless fulfilled a significant function by supplying German theatres (other than Bayreuth) with new works that were at the very least entertaining. As long as the public demanded an alternative to Wagner, compromise or "repertoire" opera remained a viable, if somewhat fleeting, path.11 What is clear is that German opera was developing along two separate directions or "twin cultures," to borrow a phrase from Carl Dahlhaus, the one following the "symphonic" path of Wagner (via Beethoven) and the other following the "compromise" path.12 The concept of "twin cultures" is based on the aesthetic dichotomy that existed between Beethoven's instrumental music and Rossini's operas in the early decades of the nineteenth century. Beethoven's symphonies, according to Dahlhaus, represent an "inviolable musical 'text' whose meaning is to be deciphered with 'exegetical' interpretations," while with a Rossini score, "it is the performance which forms the crucial aesthetic arbiter"13 rather than a careful reading of the score. The "inviolability of the text" and necessity of "exegetical interpretation" implies that a Beethoven symphony is of greater aesthetic value than a Rossini opera. Thus when Wagner aligned his operatic reforms with Beethoven's instrumental music, he was staking a claim: not only that the symphonic web of his music dramas was founded on the same aesthetic principles as Beethoven's symphonies, but that his works were of the same aesthetic rank. 1 0 Ibid., p. 262. 1 ' Edgar Istel uses the terms "compromise" and "repertoire" opera interchangeably. 1 2 Carl Dahlhaus, Nineteenth-Century Music, translated by J. Bradford Robinson (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1989), pp. 8-14. 1 3 Ibid, p. 9. 323 Bronsart's operas reside somewhat uneasily within this paradigm of two operatic cultures. Of her three works, only the Singspiel Jery und Bately can be seen as clearly following the "repertoire" or "compromise" opera type. Yet the pejorative connotations of this classification overide the high quality of the music. From the perspective of the subject matter and the use of alliterative verse, with Hiarne Bronsart seems to have taken an obvious step towards the more Wagnerian path, while maintaining some conventions from the earlier style of German romantic opera such as closed aria forms, the reprise of the love duet, and the role of the orchestra as an accompaniment to the singers. Die Siihne is the most problematic of the three. Given its more advanced chromatic language in conjunction with a more systematic deployment of leitmotifs, Die Siihne may be regarded as the most "modern" of Bronsart's operas, but it was also the least popular. A simple categorization of Bronsart's operas as one type or another may only partially account for their disappearance from the repertory, but could provide a few insights as to how we might determine the aesthetic value of these works. For that we must turn to the theoretical models of Carl Dahlhaus and Hans Robert Jauss. In the later part of the nineteenth century Singspiels and other comic works fulfilled a specific function by keeping the theaters supplied with new works. Ultimately the value of such works must be determined using what Dahlhaus describes as "functional judgement," the fitness of the work for the task which it is to fulfill. "Functional" music is "primarily an exemplar of type — an exemplar which reaches perfection when it projects the marks of the type clearly and purely" as opposed to the masterworks, where the claim to be considered "art" is based on individuaHty and originality.14 In his review of Jery und Bately at the Tonkunstler-Versammlung of the Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereines (Hanover, 19 May 4 Dahlhaus, Analysis and Value Judgement, p. 13. 324 1877), Richard Pohl wrote that "this opera is what it is supposed to be, no more and no less: a one-act Singpiel in lyrical form, with dialogue, to a simple-meaning libretto of idyllic character, clear and concise in the musical forms, friendly in mood and noble in expression."15 In other words, Jery und Bdtely exhibits the marks of type inherent in the genre, and can thus be considered as an "exemplar of type." Its value is determined by its adherence to tradition rather than individuality or orginality. Bronsart chose to call Jery undBately an "Oper" (opera) rather than a Singspiel. Pohl's use of both terms in the review quoted above seems to indicate that there was litde important distinction between the two terms. As Hans Schletterer has noted, after the French Revolution, the designations Singspiel and Operetta disappeared and the large, romantic, lyrical, comic opera took their place."16 The designation "Singspiel" was still used occasionally: along with "Spieloper," "musikalisches Lustspiel," and "komische Oper," the term was used to refer to a comic musical work of "higher quality,"17 while "operetta" would resurface later in the nineteenth century with an entirely new — and for the most part pejorative — set of meanings. One can speculate that Bronsart employed the term "Oper" to distinguish her work from the more vulgar operettas of Offenbach and Johann Strauss. Pohl also noted that Jery undBately was "already of interest because the composer is a woman."18 But he attempted to downplay the significance of the composer's gender, making 1 5 "Diese Oper ist das, was sie sein soil, nicht mehr und nicht weniger: ein einaktiges Singspiel in lyrischer Form, mit Dialog, nach einem einfach gehaltenen Textbuche von idyllischem Character, klar und knapp in dem musikalischen Formen, freundlich in der Stirnmung und nobel im Ausdruck." Richard Pohl, "Die 14. Tonkunstier-Versarnmlung des Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereins vom 19. bis 24. Mai 1877," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 23 (June 1877): 233. 1 6 "Die Benennungen Singspiel und Operette verschwinden, die grofien romantischen, lyrischen, komischen Opern treten an ihre Stelle." Hans Michael Schletterer, Das deutsche Singspiel (Augsberg, 1863, reprint, Hildescheim and New York: Georg Olms, 1975), p. 159. 1 7 Istel, "German Opera Since Wagner," p. 261, n. 1. 1 8 "An und fur sich ist es schon von Interesse, dafi der Autor eine Dame ist." Pohl, "Die 14. Tonkunsder-Versammlung," p. 233. 325 it clear that Bronsart was so talented that one need not withhold criticism out of a false sense of gallantry.19 Yet as Rozsika Parker and Griselda Pollock have observed, some 100 years later, "the sex of the artist [composer] matters. It conditions the way art is seen and discussed."20 Feminist criticism has demonstrated that a double critical standard often applies, in which women are considered "women first, artists second."21 As a result, expectations for a woman composer differed gready from those of her male counterparts. To begin with, women were expected to compose in the smaller, more suitably "domestic" (and therefore "feminine") genres of the lied, solo piano pieces and chamber music. Large-scale forms such as opera and symphony belonged to the "public" — and therefore "masculine" — sphere. Within the hierarchy of genres, Singspiel, rooted in performance at court, with its spoken dialogue and reduced resources, may be considered a smaller, less public and more "feminine" form of opera, more "craft" than "art," even though it requires many of the same skills on the part of the composer, such as orchestration, that made the larger forms difficult for many women. There was also an inherent danger in exceeding expectations. Individuality and originality — hallmarks of genius — were considered to be exclusively masculine characteristics inappropriate for a woman to display. The popularity and critical acclaim for Jery und Bdtely proved to be a double-edged sword. Entertaining and amusing, with an abundance of what can be regarded as "pretty 1 9 "Der talentvollen Kiinsderin Ingeborg v. Bronsart gereicht es besonders zur Ehre, daB man ihr Werk in die Reihe der wohlgelungenen dieses Genres stellen darf, ohne dabei die hofliche Reserve machen zu miissen, daB eine Dame die Verfasserin sei, bei der man nicht kritische Gewissenhaftigkeit, sondern vor Allem nur die Galanterie walten lassen musse." Ibid. 2 0 Rozsika Parker and Griselda Pollock, "Crafty Women and the Hierarchy of the Arts," in Aesthetics: The Big Questions, edited by Carolyn Korsmeye (Maiden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999), p. 44. 2 1 Elaine Showalter, "The Double Critical Standard and the Feminine Novel," in A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing, expanded edition (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), p. 73. 326 tunes," it established Bronsart's reputation as a composer for the stage. But Bronsart may have been "led out of the race by false prizes."22 Taking the case of woman painters as an example, Germaine Greer has explained how "gallant praise was not a stimulus to further effort, but a siren song calling her to desist from her labours . . . by graciously conceding victory and loading the novice women with trophies, the men disarmed them."23 The withholding of constructive criticism in favour of "poisonous praise" may have prevented Bronsart from striving for higher artistic ideals beyond popularity and commercial success. As Greer more recently put it, "systematic overestimation of an artist's work may have a worse effect on her achievement in the long run than unimaginative carping would have."24 This may have been the case with Bronsart's first opera. Georg Crusen described Jery und Bately as "dainty, attractive music ("zierlichen, ansprechenden Musik) . . a harmless piece ("harmlosen Stiicke")."25 Pohl's account of the same work as "elegant. . . very pretty . . . and struck in a very happy mood"2 6 also seems hollow and insignificant, a rhetoric that is intrinsically gendered "feminine'' as opposed to more "masculine" adjectives like energetic, masterful or ingenious.27 What is more, Pohl's statement that Jery und Bately is exactly what it should be, no more and no less, effectively denied Bronsart the status of innovator: once denied, that status could never be retrieved. 2 2 Germaine Greer, "The Illusion of Success," in The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Works (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1979), p. 69. 2 3 Ibid. 2 4 Germaine Greer, Slip-Shod Sybils: Recognition, Rejection and the Woman Poet (New York: Penguin, 1995), p. xxi. 2 5 Georg Crusen, "Ingeborg von Bronsart's 'Hiarne' im Koniglichen Hoftheater zu Hannover," Neue Zeitschrift fur MusikBd. 88:1 (1892): 85. 2 6 Pohl, "Die 14. Tonkunstler-Versammlung," p. 234. 2 7 For an intriguing discussion of "gendered" criticism, see Katharine Ellis, "Female Pianists and Their Male Critics in Nineteenth-Century Paris," Journal of the American Musicological Society 50 (Summer-Fall 1997): 353-385. 327 The burden of reputation imposed by the early criticism and reception of Jery und Bately carried over with Hiarne in 1890-91. According to Hans Robert Jauss's theory of the aesthetics of reception, any new work "does not present itself as something absolutely new in an informational vacuum, but predisposes its audience to a very specific kind of reception by announcements, overt and covert signals, familiar characteristics, or implicit allusions."28 All new works are thus met with a preconceived "horizon of expectations." For Hiarne, the "horizon of expectations" would have been predicated on Bronsart's reputation, as well as the proto-Wagnerian characteristics promoted in the musical press. Bronsart's undertaking to compose a large opera goes against the grain of expectations for a woman composer. As Crusen put it, "the fact that a woman herself dares the composition of a multi-act large opera . . . arouses in us no small respect for the courage of the composer."29 Paul Simon's reviews also emphasize that Hiarne was the first large opera by a woman to appear on the German stage.30 Given this reminder of the composer's gender, as we might expect, the critical language referring to the music of Hiarne was also gendered, but strikingly different than that used for Jery und Bately. Instead of feminine adjectives, Simon described Hiarne as dramatic and passionate, asserting that there is "an energetic, manly strength and daring in the battlescenes."31 Crusen's observations, too, take on Jauss, Towards and Aesthetics of Reception, p. 23. 2 9 "Aber die Thatsache, daB eine Dame sich an die Composition einer mehractigen groBen Oper wagt, diirfte uns hier zum ersten Male entgegentreten und vor dem Muth der Componistin einen nicht geringen Respect einfloBen." Crusen, "Ingeborg von Bronsart's 'Hiarne'," p. 85. Emphasis mine. 3 0 This is especially true of the two articles that Simon published before the premiere of Hiarne. See Paul Simon, "Sangkonig Hiarne," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik Bd. 86:1 (1890): 37; and "Hiarne: groBe Oper von Ingeborg von Bronsart," Neue Zeitschriftfur Musik Bd. 86:2 (1890) : 553. 3 1 "In der Behandlung der Kampfscenen tritt eine energische, mannliche Kraft und Schneidigkeit zu Tage." Paul Simon, "Die erste Auffuhrung der Oper Hiarne von Frau Ingeborg von Bronsart im Konigl. Opernhause zu Berlin," Neue Zeitschriftfur Musik Bd. 87:1 (1891) : 87. Emphasis mine. 328 a similarly masculine tone, as he noted that "although the character of the music — unexpected with a woman — is absolutely powerful, the lyrical places are the most attractive."32 From the perspective of Jauss's aesthetics of reception, for a work to be considered as "art," it must not precisely meet expectations of the prevailing standard of taste, but step beyond those expectations, providing future aesthetic experience. While the individuality and originality of a new work may alienate its first audience, Jauss suggests that, "the aesthetic distance with which it opposes its first audience . . . can disappear for later readers," resulting in a "horizonal change.33 Yet Hiarne precisely fulfils the musical "expectations prescribed by a ruling standard of taste," making no further or future demands of its audience. Because Hiarne did not alienate its first audience, no "horizonal change" was required at the time; there was no successive unfolding of meaning that was actualized through the history of the work's reception. Jauss claims that works like Hiarne, "in their social index are to be no less valued than the solitary novelty of the great work that is often comprehended only later."34 Nonetheless, social value is by no means equivalent to aesthetic value; almost invariably it is aesthetic value which qualifies a work for inclusion in the canon. Whereas Jery und Bdtely and Hiarne can both be seen as fulfilling expectations, the same cannot be said of Die Siihne. Contemporary critics had nothing good to say about this opera, As noted in Chapter Four (p. 244), August Spanuth speculated that the poor attendance for the premiere may have been due to the fact that the audience mistrusted the opera because it was composed by a woman. Spanuth felt that Bronsart "showed no physiognomy as an opera composer whatsoever," 3 5 . . . while criticising the leitmotives as 3 2 Crusen, "Ingeborg von Bronsart's 'Hiarne'," p. 86. 3 3 Jauss, Toward an Aesthetics of Reception, p. 25. 3 4 Ibid. 3 5 ". . . daB Frau von Bronsart als Opernkomponistin keinerlei Physiognomie zeigt." August 329 lacking "characteristic expression." A more constructive point was made by Ernst Hamann, who noted a problem with the orchestration, where "a real thickness, favouring the brass section in particular, greatly hindered the singers."36 Certainly Bronsart's reputation would have engendered a very specific set of expectations for this opera. However, I believe that Die Siihne alienated its first audience, not because the music itself is shocking or daring for its time, but because its subject matter was incongment with the composer's image. For an audience that had come to expect pretty tunes and an evening's entertainment such as those provided by Jery und Bately and Hiarne, Die Siihne's gruesome subject matter overstepped the bounds of good taste. Because Die Siihne disappeared from the repertory so quickly, there was no successive unfolding of meaning. Finally, there is the issue of Ingeborg's relationship to the New Germans. The New German School itself is sometliing of an enigma. Scholars have debated whether or not one can speak of a "school" when its two main proponents — Wagner and Liszt — were so different.37 But what unified the these two opposing spheres, rallying around the concept of Zukunftmusik ("music of the future") were the innumerable followers of Liszt and Wagner. Many were not musicians or composers themselves, but were writers or critics (Franz Brendel and Richard Pohl), theater directors and administrators (Eduard Lassen, Franz Dingelstedt), conductors (Hans von Biilow, who was also a composer), and even actors (Eduard Genast, Hoffmann von Fallersleben). With respect to the first group, their Spanuth, "Die Siihne," Signal47 (1909): 550-551. 3 6 Ernst Hamann, "Kritische Rundschau, Dessau," Neue Musik Zeitung 30:15 (April 1909): 326. 37See, for example, Friedrich W. Riedel, "Die Neudeutsche Schule — ein Phanomen der deutsche Kulturgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts," Fran% Us^t und Richard Wagner: Musikalische undgeistesgeschichtliche Grundlegen der neudeutschen Schule, Liszt-Studien 3, Serge Gut, ed. (Munich: Emil Katzbichler, 1986), pp. 13-18. 330 influence held sway over the musical press of the time, while the second group, including Hans von Bronsart, had some degree of control over what works were performed. The role of the musical press should not be underestimated: under Franz Brendel's editorship — strongly encouraged by Liszt — the Neue Zeitschriftfur Musik became the official mouthpiece for promoting the New German platform.38 It is worth noting that the most glowing reviews of Ingeborg's operas were published in the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, raising at least some questions as to the reviewers' potential biases. As the wife of one of the most ardent New German supporters, it is unlikely that Ingeborg would have been taken to task in a public forum. Perhaps even more to the point is what writers such as Richard Pohl did not say about her. Although Pohl lavished praise on the 1877 performance of Jery und Bately^ Ingeborg did not merit inclusion in his discussion of "modern" opera, published as a book chapter in 1888.40 Ingeborg's fate, it seems, was no different from that of many other composers who chose to align themselves, in one way or another, with the New Germans. They were "good musicians, but poor dramatists," according to Istel.41 Short, one-act comic opera types proved to be more immediately successful, as with Peter Cornelius's Barbier von Bagdad (Weimar, 1858), and Alexander Ritter's Wem die Krone (Weimar, 1890), and Derfaule Hans 38James Deaville, "Franz Brendel — ein Neudeutscher aus der Sicht von Wagner und Liszt," Fran^ Lis^t und Richard Wagner: Musikalische undgeistesgeschichtliche Grundlegen der neudeutschen Schule, Liszt-Studien 3, Serge Gut, ed. (Munich: Emil Katzbichler, 1986), 42. A comprehensive survey and analysis of the musical press of this period is beyond the scope of the present study. Several good studies are available, including James Deaville, "The Music Criticism of Peter Cornelius" (Ph.D. Diss, Northwestern State University, 1986). 39Richard Pohl, "Die 14. Tonkunsder-Versammlung des Allgemeinen Deutschen Musikvereins vom 19. bis 24 Mai 1877," Neue Zeitschriftfur Musik 23 (1877): 233-234. 40Richard Pohl, "Die moderne Oper bis Richard Wagner," Die Hohen^iige der musikalischen Entwicklung (Leipzig: B. Elischer Nachfolger, 1888), pp. 319-373. Despite the title "bis Wagner" ("up to Wagner"), Pohl's book also covers Wagner's late works that can be considered contemporary with Ingeborg's first two operas 4 1 Istel, "German Opera Since Richard Wagner," p. 267. 331 (Munich, 1895). Felix Draeseke, like Ingeborg, turned to subjects based on Norse and German myths with his operas Konig Sigurd (1858 ) and Gudrun (1884). During Liszt's Weimar period in the 1850s, Draeseke formed a close friendship with Hans von Bronsart.42 As noted in Chapter Three, Konig Sigurd may have inspired Hans to begin work on the Hiarne libretto, while Gudrun was premiered in Hanover under his direction. Al l of these operas were performed, "produced by friendly conductors [that is, friends and colleagues sympathetic to the New German cause], and were generally buried with honors by a well-disposed public without having been able to gain a footing on the stage."43 The exception is Cornelius's Barbier, which despite the debacle surrounding its premiere at Weimar, is now widely regarded as the Urtyp of German comic opera.44 As a composer, Hans von Bronsart's contribution to this circle was minimal. His most important compositions were the Fruhlings-Fantasie for Orchestra, Op. 11 (composed 1857-8, published 1880) and the Piano Concerto in Fit (published 1873). Several large programmatic works went unnoticed (for example, the "Tongedicht" Manfred [Weimar, 1901] and In denAlpen [Symphony for Chorus and Orchestra, 1889-96, lost])45 But as a writer, conductor, and theater manager, his influence was widespread. His large pamphlet Musikalische Pflichten, published in 1858 in defence of Liszt, Wagner, and Zukunfstmusik, is deserving of a study in its own right. He produced, directed, or conducted the works of Wagner, Liszt, and his New German colleagues, including Draeseke's Gudrun. More 42Commentary regarding Draeseke's high opinion of Hans von Bronsart can be found in Martella Gutierrez-Denhoff, Felix Draeseke: Chronik seines Lebens (Bonn: Gudrun Schroder Verlag, 1989), p.34, n. 28. 43Istel, "German Opera Since Richard Wagner," p. 267. 4 4Open hositility toward Cornelius's Barbier at the premiere prompted Liszt's resignation and subsequent departure from Weimar. For further information on the circumstances of the premiere, see Alan Walker, Fran^Usyt: The Weimar Years 1848-1861 (London: Faber & Faber, 1989), pp. 494-497. 4 5 Hans Rudolf Jung, "Bronsart von Schellendorf, Hans," Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Personenteil 3, Ludwig Finscher, ed. (Bassel: Barenreiter-Kassel, 2001), p. 980. 332 importantly, Hans often had the authority to decide which works were performed and which ones were not. This authority did not necessarily manifest itself in his wife's favour, as we have seen in the case of the Hanover Tonkunsder-Versammlung in 1877 (Chapter Two). Above all, Hans would have had an intimate knowledge of what types of works that audiences wanted to hear; thus one can surmise that he most likely gave his wife some guidance in that direction. As a group, the New German acolytes and their works remain on the fringes of history. Their only lasting legacy exists in their work behind the scenes, as advocates of Liszt and Wagner, while their music is forgotten. Efforts are underway to come to a better understanding of the New German School, and to revive their works. Recent interest has led to the establishment of the International Draeseke Gesellschaft, but the interconnections and influences are so wide-spread that much remains to be done. With respect to Ingeborg, the task seems doubly difficult because she belongs to two marginalized groups. As Karen Henson has noted, with regard to Augusta Holmes, "the impulse to view a woman's text as, precisely, a text by a woman is strong these days."46 Yet the rubric "woman composer" still carries negative connotations, an understanding that the music is somehow different and therefore inferior. The quality of Ingeborg's music should dispell any such notions, toward which the present study is only a modest beginning. To bring this music back to life, we need access to modern editions of scores, in order to facilitate performances and recordings. By disseminating Ingeborg's music to a new audience, we can initiate a new "reception history," one that recognizes that the "horizon of expectations" may be different for a woman composer. With a better understanding of this 4 6 Karen Henson, "In the house of disillusion: Augusta Holmes and La montagne noire" Cambridge Opera Journal*) (1997): 233. 333 difference in mind, the final question remains as to what kind of place these works may find in the canon. Having layed out the foundations of a stylistic analysis of Bronsart's works, we can now elucidate further this, and other issues related to her music and personality. First, I hope to obtain access to more documentation concerning her life, her relationship with her husband, and other contextual material. Secondly, an expansion of the type of analysis undertaken here to her works in other genres will enable us better to place her style among the ones of the contemporary composers. Thirdly, a comparison of her dramatic works with those of other works in the "marginalized" non-Wagnerian operatic genres will highlight her place in that canon. And finally, as our fuller image of Ingeborg von Bronsart's personality and work emerges, we then might be able to assess her "ecriture feminine." 334 Bibliography Manuscript and Other Source Materials: Collections of letters held at the Goethe- und Schiller- Archiv, Weimar: Ingeborg von Bronsart to Marie Lipsius. 1878-1910. Sig. 59/389,9. Ingeborg von Bronsart to Franz Liszt. 1876-1877. Sig. 59/9,11. Ingeborg von Bronsart to Frau Moritz. 1890-1911. Sig. 96/356. Ingeborg von Bronsart to Julius Rodenberg. 1894. Sig. 81/11,1,9. Ingeborg von Bronsart to Ernst von Wildenbruch. 1882. Sig. 94/160,1. Friedrich Bodenstedt to Hans von Bronsart. 1873-1891. Sig. 96/215. Franz Liszt to Ingeborg von Bronsart. 1875-1880. Sig. 59/455,2. Ernst von Wildenbruch to Ingeborg von Bronsart. 1882-1893. Sig. 94/298,1. Bronsart, Ingeborg von. Hiarne. MS orchestral score, 1891. Deutsches National Theater, Weimar. . Jery und Bately. MS piano-vocal score, 1873. Holograph. New York Public Library. Selected List of Ingeborg von Bronsart's Published Scores: Bronsart, Ingeborg von. Sechs Lieder des Mir^a-S chaffy, Op. 8. Huntsville, Texas: Recital Publications, 1983. . Sechs Gedichte, Op. 10. Huntsville, Texas: Recital Publications, 1983. . Fiinf Gedichte, Op. 16. Huntsville, Texas: Recital Publications, 1983. . Die Siihne. Piano-vocal score. Berlin: Harmonie, 1909. . Jery und Bately. Piano-vocal score. Leipzig: C F . Kahnt, 1879. . Romance for Violin and Piano. Berlin: R. Sulzer, 1900. Contemporary Sources (Literary. Critical, and Scores): Anderson, Rasmus, ed. The Nine Books of the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus. 2 volumes. Translated by Oliver Elton. 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Edited by Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood and Gary C. Thomas. New York and London: Routledge, 1994. Pp. 27-66. 346 A P P E N D I X "Ingeborg am Flugel," by Friedrich Bodenstedt. Published in Einkehr und Umschau (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1876), pp.149-150. Die Tasten beugen sich vor Deinen Handen, Wie Kronvasallen ihrer Konigin In Huldigung die reichsten Gaben spenden, Und Du fahrst herrschend iiber sie dahin — Doch mild ist Deine Herrschaft, suB Dein Zwang, Der Ohr und Herz begluckt durch holden Klang. Und solcher Zauber wohnt in Deinen Fingern, DaB alle Schatze, ihnen dargebracht, Statt ihrer Spender Reichthum zu verringern, Ihn nur vermehren durch die Zaubermacht: Wie die Vasallen mehr an Lehensgut Empfangen, als sie bringen an Tribut. Du pfluckst die Tone von der Tasten Riicken Zu holden Melodien voll Glut und Glanz, Wie wir im Lenz von Beeten Blumen pfliicken Zu einem duftigen StrauBe oder Kranz; Und herzerfreuend wie der Blumen Duft, Vermahlen Deine Tone sich der Luft. 347 Text for "Das Lied von der Gotterdammerung" from Hiarne, by Friedrich Bodenstedt. Published in Einkehr und Umschau (Jena: Hermann Costenoble, 1876), pp. 186-189. Horet, ihr Helden, Den hohen Gesang Von der geweissagten Gotterdammerung. Einst war Allvater Der einzige Gott; Von ihm kam der Geist Und alles Geschaff ne. Wie aus den Wurzeln der Stamm, Aus dem Stamm das Gezweig wachst Zum hochragenden Baume Mit viel Blattern und Bliithen: So wuchs, in Wechsel Wandelnder Zeiten, Aus der einzigen Gottheit Ein zahlreich Geschlecht. Aus dem einen Stamme Sprangen viele Aeste, Und der riesige Baum Ueberragte das Erdrund. In Midgard die Menschen Mehrten und schieden sich. Weit um Urd's Brunnen Wucherte Unfrieden. Wie die Aeste sich schlagen Der Esche Ygdrasill, Wenn der Sturm sie bewegt, Also war's mit den Menschen. Freunde wurden Feinde Grimmig wie Fenrir; Zwist und Zwietracht Kam zwischen die Volker. Der bluhende Baldur MuBte verbluten, Der lichte Gott, Durch Loke's List. 348 Wahn umwolkte Die Sonne der Wahrheit; Liebe erlosch, Haft loderte auf. Die Kampfgotter kamen, Doch keiner wird bleiben; Wieder wird Frieden Die Liebe wecken. Fenrir und Freki Werden entfesselt; Zu Hel fahren Helden, Der Hirnmel klasst. Zum Angriff eilt Odin Mit alien Asen, Der Todeswolf stirbt — WiBt ihr, was das bedeutet? Die Sonne verhiillt sich, In's Meer sinkt der Erdball, Glutwirbel umwiihlen Den nahrenden Weltbaum. Doch neu aus dem Wasser Aufgriint der Erdball, Gelautert von Bosen, Gereinigt, gesiihnt. So weit wie die Welt Reicht sehendes Wissen; Ich kenne des Wis sens Baum von der Wurzel. Gotter verschwinden Wie Wolkengebilde, Doch es bleibt die Alles Durchdringende Gottheit: Die einige, ewige, Welterneuernde; Mit ihr lebt ewig Das Licht und die Liebe. HaB fiihrt zu Unterwelt Ohne Heimkehr nach Oben, Aber zur seligen Lichtwelt Fiihrt erlosende Liebe. 

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