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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The detailed anatomy of Triturus Torosus Smith, Gertrude M. 1926

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TEE DETAILS? MAT GMT OF TRITUEUS TCR03TJS. bv  Oertrufle LI. Smith*  I U.D.V^,  LJBKAR  1 CAT NO.ue * ^7 ^ J * ft 1 AGC flOt £7<fc<^<? TUB BETAI&SD AKATCKY OF TSIT"*?!^ T3303tJ3.  I (rertrufle IT. Smith  • Thesis Gubmitted for the Degree of Ueurter of Arts in the Department of Zoology.  The University of British Columbia.  ' April, 1**4  v*  s  %  LKDUTJ  ».*r  ouliliJiiAOi  Tage Introduction  X  Material  XI  The Skeleton  2*  The Jluscular System  7*  file Digestive System  22.  The Circulatory System  23.  (The irterial System  23)  2he Venous System  33*  The Respiratory System  38.  ThefierrousSystem ;'•  3?«  The Sense Organs  44.  The Urinogenital System  46.  The ©lands.  30.  Acknowledgements  3I«  Bibliography  32*  Pistes  T-XI7 , with Sxplanations  THIS DETAILED ANATOMY OF THITU3US TQRQ3US. Introduction* This investigation was undertaken, on the advice of Dr. Fraser, "because of its interest from an evolutionary stand point. As the investigation has shown, this form is much more nearly in the direct line of descent of higher vertehrates than is the frog; which, in comparison, is very highly specialized. Since the life history and habits have been fully dealt with by Hitter(Proc.Oal.Acad.Sc.l897), Storer(Syn. of Amph. of Cal.1925). Cope(Bat.North Am.), and others, it is unnecessary to give a detailed account here.  For thejdiseussion of the  external features also,. Ritter and Storer are sufficiently complete. None of these authors,however, have discussed in detail the internal anatomy.  This alone is dealt with in the  present thesis. Since in each of the systems examined so many structure were different from those described in other Urodeles, conclusions as to their homology could be drawn only after comparison with descriptions and figures given in various works in comparative amatomy of vertebrates and more particularly in those works dealing with the Anura and Mammals. The systems will be discussed in the following order: Skeleton, Muscular,  II. •  Digestive, Vascular,  or Circulatory,  Respiratory, Nervoua, Sense Organs, TJr ino - Se n 1 till, Sl«n&8• Material. Host of the material used for dissection was obtained from  leaver Lake in Stanley Park and Lonely Lake near which  Departure Bay, Vanoouver Island.  The speoimens^were pre-  served in tht usual formalin preparation were in very good condition for dissection* Specimens were also found by the writer in an old mill pond in Lynn Vmlley and a pond near Sixteenth Avenue and Arbutus Street.  I. THE SKS1SI0U Although the skeleton of this form for the most part resembles that of other Uroaeles it is very interesting from an evolutionary standpoint* The Skull  (Piatt I, figs. 1*2)  The skull of T.torosus id particularly interesting because of the presence of a supra-temporal bar which suggests a direct line of descent fron Urodcles to Reptiles* This bar is present in Hatteria.the only living genus of the Hhyncooephalia, and some fossil forms. The bar is apparently found only in the two forms, Trlturus and Triton (Kingsley, 1*25. p.125) - "  ''}•'•-'•  The skull is more primitive than that of the Anura because of * reduced number of bones. It does however resemble the anuran skull in shape and general appearance. On the ventral side the following bones are observed. The pjremaslllae are fused and in the median line is the small fontanelle. Fostero-laterally are the maxillae. Teeth are present on both the maxillae and premaxillae. On the roof of the mouth the vomer and palatine of each side are fused, forming the vomero-palatint. On the median line between the two vomers Is a large foramen, the inter-vomerine foramen. The palatine teeth are in two long, anteriorly converging rows. The parasphenoid makes up the remainder of the floor of the cranium. The lateral border of the cranium, as well as the inner wall of the orbit, is made up of one bone, the orblto-  Sphenoid or shaenethmolfl* The pterygoid is a fairly well developed hone with a forward projection, part of whioh is still cartilaginous in some individuals.  The quadrate is  laterally and ventrally placed to the squamosal*  Tht quadrate  bears the condyles for artioulation with the mandible* TTo skeletal structure oocurs between the maxilla and the quadrate There is, however, a well developed ligament extending across the interval between the maxilla and the quadrate and also one between the maxilla and pterygoid* In the auditory capsule the perlotlc is ossified. On tht outer, Tiietral side of the oapsule is the fenestra ovale in whioh is the stapes* There is no columella. e^ocolpltal is fused with the perlotlc.  The ossified  On the exoccipitals  are the condyles which artioulate with the first vertebrae '•• • '  ',  v':"- ' i  •.'---.  ":">;.••  M,'~  .'--'  ::v''-r^'  ~..~T\  ".: • '£ . , •;• ~ V / ; : ' •*••"  On tht dorsal surface the premaxilla extends back a short distance medially*  There is a cavity on the median  line which is bounded for the most part by the premaxillae hut the anterior ptfclson of the frontals form its posterior margin.  Laterally, as before is the maxilla.  Between the  maxilla and premaxilla on the dor3al surWce is the nasal, a comparatively large bone. L prefrontal is also present, form mlng the anterior border of the orbit.  Over the dorsal surfa  Surface of the brain ase the paired frontals.  3. "Posterior to these are the paired parietals. In eaoh o^ the parietals is a deep broad fossa passing from near the median line antero-ventrally. This forms the groove in which lies the anterior temporal muscle. Onthe posterior, margin of the groove is  a well developed ridge which  serves as the attachment for the posterior portion of the temporal muscle.  The periotic, e^occlpitals and  gupra-ojpciEitals are fused. On the surface of the per'otic are the impressions of the sen.icircular canals.  The  SQU^mos^l has an anterior projection which passes forward to meet with a posterior prooess from the frontal, thus forming a surra-temporal bar. This is the bar to whioh reference has already been made. The lower Jaw is made up of two i!eckelTs cartilages surrounded by membrane bones, dentale. splenlal. angular and a fuse*. coronary and suprangular*. There, is one oartilage bone, the articular, which articulates with the quadrate. The dentale is supplied with teeth. Theferanchlalskeleton is represented by the hyold aroh and two branchial arches.  There is a central portion  the copula, or basibranohlal cartilage, from the anterior end of which are two lateral cartilaginous projections or cornua. To these two cornua the oeratohyal is attached at its anterior end. This is the representation of the hyold arch. Anteriorly it consists of a large flat oval cartilage, posteriorly it is ossified. The posterior end of this  I. bone is attached to the squamosal. To the posterior end of thfe copula are attached the paired representatives of the first and second branchial arches. The first ceratobranchial is oonpletely ossifiid, the seoond only partially so. The., oorae together in a cartilage posteriorly. Prom thli oartilage an ossified first epibranohial passes back parallel with the oeratohyal and ysntral to it. In the larynx two small arytenoid cartilages supAthe  anterior part of the tracheal chamber, ^n the lateral  sides of the vestibule are two other small cartilages. The Vertebral^Skeleton. The four regions In the vertebral oolumn may be dis-, tinguished, though for the most part the vertebra^ are similar. There is but one vertebra, the atlas, in the cervical region, 'his articulates with the booipital oondyles of the skull by means of two similar condyles* This is followed by the thoraoo-lnmbar or trunk region made up of twelve or thirteen vertebrae all bearing ribs.  The sacral region consists of butane vertebra.  This has the transverse process especially developed (for the support sf the pelrio girdle.  The caudal region.  is made up of numerous vertebrae. Jn the anterior portion the vertebrae have well developed haemal arches as well as the lateral sygaphphyses for tke articulation. There are no ribs in the tail region.The vertebrae of the tail gradually decrease in size and cornierity^li 1 at the posterior end they are mainly centra .  %  The vertebrae are opisthoooelus. The ribs arise as in Heeturus. form two heads, a dorsal (tubercular) and ventral(capitular) portion. The two unite and pass for some distance around the bodv cavity. The Peotorsi Sjflrdle  (Plate III, figs. 6*7)  The ooraooide ax* large and cartilaginous, the left overlapping the right, on the ventral sufface. "'he.r< le also a small cartilaginous jqroooraoold, and1 on the doisal surface is the Bcapula.Surrounding the glenoid oavit; le e>n ossified portion extending into the coracoid,proeosacoid and scapula* There is a small foramen in the ossified part of the coraooid. There is a small ridge o the dorsal surface of the scapula which serves as an at* taehment for the cucllarls muscle. The humerus is quite regular hut the radius and ulna are present as two separate hut similar hones. There are seven carpals, five of which are partially ossified, *our metacarpals and eight phalanges. The distribution of the phalanges is as follows: one on the second digit, two on the third, three on the fourth, two on the fifth. 7he  p  £i2i2. Sir*1* (Plats III, fig.8)  The pelvic girdle consists of a cartilaginous plate ***• iachlo-pubic plats, of which the posterior part is ossified, from the anterior end is a bifurcating projection, the. eplpubls or ypsllold cartilage.Running dorsally from the poetero-lateral portion of the  6. plate, to be joined up with the saoral vertebra are two ossified ilia. The ilia pass posteriorly as re11 as dorsallyjbecause of this the origin of the muscles of the hind limb is greatly modified. The femur is ossified and the tibia and fibula are two separate bones both strongly developed. On the posterior margin of the fibula is a long flat ridge which serves %e give breadth to the limb.  There are sometimes eight  and sometimes nine tarsals, in the former case nutabers four and five are fused. ?ive of the tarsals are partially ossified. There are fiv« metatarsals and eleven phalanges the latttr being distributed as follows; one in the first digit, two in the second, three in the third,three In the fourth, two in the fifth* In the ischio-pubic plate are two foramina through which the obturator nerve passes. Hence the foramen may be termed the obturator foramen and regarded as the horaologue of the obturator in higher forms.  •-  THE MUSCULAR SYS Till.  In the main the nomenclature here used is is applied to homologous muscles in the higher forms. 1-Iusolee of the hyoid region. Senlohyoideua - a long thin musole extending from the sternum to the tip of the mandible. The origin is in the mandible and the insertion in the fascia of the sternohyoid* p  ranoho-hyoideue(oerato<»hyoideus) - is a heavy  muscle originating in the anterior portion of the ceratohyal and running postero-laterad to be Inserted in the roeterior part of the ceratohyal and the posterior part of the first eplbranohial. Sternohyoideus -  arises from the sternum and is  inserted In the dorsal surface of the hyoid arch. It is also derived in part from the anterior portion of the rectus abdominis. Uylohyoideus -  (totermaxiliaris anterior-Bronn) Submaxillar!s -Ecker)  It is a transverse muscle originating on the medial border of the mandible and Inserted in the fascia of the median ventral line and the hyoid. Stylohyoid -  (Intermaxillaris posterior-Bronn) Hinder prtion of submaxillaris Scker)  It is a narrow, well developed muscle arising on the posterior margin of the mandible and inserted in a fascia over the ooracoid, about the medial line.  R. Muscles of the Pectoral Region. Proooraco-humeralls - lies on the ventral surface of the proooracoid cartilage. It originates on the anterior portion of the proooracoid and is inserted .on the humerus. It corresponds to the deltoid in man. Snpraooraooldeus - lies on the ventral surface of the eoraooid. It originates on the coracoid and i3 Inserted on the humerus posterio* to the insertion of the previously described muscle. Peotorallfl - It is situated on the ventral surface posterior to the supracoracoideus and in the anterior portion running parallel with it.It is a fan-shaped musele.  The anterior portion arises from  a fascia  similar to the lineajalba on the median line and from the cartilaginous sternum. The posterior portion originates in a fascia overlying the rectus abdominis and the superficial aponeurosis of the external oblique. The two run together to be inserted on the lateral process of the humerus. In this form the pectoral muscle shor/s beginning of differentiation into anterior and posterior portions. Coraclio-brachialis brevis - is a flat muscle dorsal to the pectoral on the posterior and ventral surface of the eoraooid. It arises from the posterior margini0"7 coracoid and passes laterally to be inserted in the proximal end of the humerus.  tne  9. Carac: o-braohlalls longus - is a long thin muscle arising from the lateral posterior border of the corasoid Its origin is covered  on the ventral surfaoe by the  coraco-brachialis brevie. It passes laterally to be inserted on the humerus about two-thirds of the way fro» the shoulder. Coraoo-radialis propius - is a thin flat muscle lying on the ventral surfaoe of the ooracoid directly on the bone,dorsal to the supra  ooraooideus and having  the same origin on the ooracoid as that muscle.  It  is a fan-shaped musole.the fibres of which come together to form a long tendon* One branch of the tendon runs out to be inserted in the humerus,the other spreads to form a fan-shaped tendon which is inserted on the radius and ulna around the inner margin of the elbow joint.(See »  figurs) Biceps *  (Eumero- antiarachialis inferior-Bronn)  This is a strong,well developed muscle which arises from the distal end of the lateral process,passes alqg the humerus to be inserted in the proximal end of the radius* Thesa two muscles correspond to the biceps beach ii in the rabbit(Bensley) and to the biceps in man* Muscles of the Borsal Surface* Dorsalls scapulae -  (Infraspinatus-Bcker)  It is a wall developed muscle on the dorsal surface of the scapula'Justfvnterior to the latissimus dorsi and  10. osverss-by it in the medial posterior region. Anteriorly it is covered by the ououllaris.  It arises from the  medial cartilaginous surfnee of the scapula, passes ventrad to be inserted in the lateral process of the humerus just posterior to the procesaco-humerails. Itttissimus dorsl- (Dorso-humeralis-Bronn^  It is  a flat triangular muscle Just posterior to the dorsoscapularis and covering the postero-medial portion of that muscle with its anterior border. It covers also the eerratus magnus.  It arises from ths fascia on the  torso-medial line of ths body from the third to the Sixth vertebrae. Ths posterior portion arises from ths myotome of the fifth and sixth vertebrae.  It passes  vsntrally as a converging muscle to be inserted in the proximal snd of the extensor side of the humerus near ths lateral process* The insertion is just oaudad to and partially covered by ths insertion of ths dorsalis scapulas* Cuoullarls -(Capiti-dorso-scapularis-Bronn) Trapesius) This is also a sonverging muscle anterior to the dorsalis soapulae.lt arises from the fascia on the dorso-medial line of ths first two or three vertebrae and also from the exoccipitals.  The twofo ranches oome together  and are inserted on the dorsal border of ths bony coracoid and on ths ridgs near ths anterior border of the bony scapula.Bronn compares this muscle with the cucullaris  II. and sternoeleido-mastoid in man. Subcoraopsoapularis -  It arises from the upper -  edge of the bony proooracoid on the inner surface of the bone and from the inner surface of the scapula.lt passes laterally to be inserted on the inner surface of the deltoid crest of the humerus.lt is a short,stout muscle in the axillary fossa. Anconeus or Triceps - It has three definite origins. Spapularis medialis -  arises from the posterior border  of the scapula,around the glenoid cavity and from the proximal end of the humerus. ITnmfiralia lateralis - Arises from the proximal end of the humerus on the outer or lateral surface Humerails medialis - arises along the anterior "border of the humerus throughout its entire length. All three come together to form a tendon which passes over the elbow Joint and is inserted on the ulna. Serratus magnus - (Thoraoi-scapularis-Bronn) It is a fairly well developed muscle on the dorse lateral surface of the trunk oovered by the latissimus dorsi.  It has two branches,an upper and a lower portion.  The lower portion arises from the second rib and passes anteriorly to be inserted in the inner anterior border of the seapula near the insertion of the cucullaris. The upper portion arises from the second and third ribs and passes anteriorly to be inserted on the posterior border of the cartilaginous part of the scapula.  12. liueoles of the gore ana. Flexor oarpi r a d i a l i s - (Humero-radialis vol^ris Broun) It arises from the medial surface of the humerus just above the lateral epicondyle.lt runs along the radius to be Inserted in the distal end of that bone and the carpus radiale. Flsxor digit! oommunis - (Humero-phalangi volaris ~~*~~~•—"* Bronn) It arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus , runs along the radius to a fascia In the palm of the hand vnloh is divided into four branches.one going to eaoh digit. Flexor oarpi ulnaris -(Humero-ulnaris volaris Bronn) It arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus,in common with the preceding,and is inserted in the distal portion of the ulna and the ulnar carpal. Sxtensor oarpi radialis -(Humero-radialis dorsalis Bronn) It arises from the lateral side of the humerus near the lateral epioondyle.lt is inserted on the outer surfac* of the distal end of tho-radius and the radial oarpal. Extensor digit! oommunis -( Huraero- digiti 2-,5-Bronn It also arises from the lateral epioondyle,passes along the dorsal surface of arm and passes into a fascia which is divided into four branches,one going to eaoh digit. 2xtensor oarpi ulnar!s -(Humero-ulnarls dorsalisBronn)  13. It also arises from the lateral epioondyle on the outer side of the arm and is inserted In ths distal end of the ulna and the ulnar carpnl. Muscles of the Bmok and He ok.  /Plate IV  fig.9)  Digastrio - (Cephal*-dorso-maxillari8-Bronn Depressor maxillae - Eoker) This is a strong,well developed muaolo on the lateral siae of the Jaw. It has two origins,one a thin muscle arising from the dorsal f«scia,the other,a stouter muscle,arises from the lateral nrrgin of the squamosal.The two oome together to be inserted on the posterior angle of the lower Jaw. Ilasseter -(Petro-tympano-maxillaris-Bronn) It is a similar musole to the foregoing and situated anterior to it*It arises from the anterior border of the. quAdrate bone •aid the lateral border of the supra-temporal bar. It passes downward and slightly forward to be inserted on the lateral surface of the lower Jawtanterior to the insertion of the digastric* Pterygoid - (Pterygo-ymaxillaris-Bronn) It is a small muscle arising from the pterygoid and passing flown,coTcred by the temporal,to be inserted on 'he lower jaw. Temporal - (?ronto-parictal maxillaris-Bronn) This arises from the middle line from a fasoia on the dorsal surface of the atlas. It runs antero-ventrafi in a groove in the parietal,passing under the supra-temporal arcade,ventrally to be inserte^by a long tendon on the postero-medial surface of the lower Jaw.  There is also a posterior part of this  musole which arises from the neural spines of the second.  14. third and  fourth vertebrae. It passes antero-ventrally Just  posterior to the anterior portion of the temporal and is inserted on the posterior margin of the groove of the parietal and on the dorsal margin of the squamosal. The temporalis is made up of fibres from the longissimus dorsi and oonetitutes the dorsal insertion Of that muscle. There is a ventral jjrtion of the longissimus dorsi whose insertion is on the occipital region. Levator scapulae • (Basi-scapularis-Bronn) This is a long thin muscle arising from the occipital bones passing backward to be inserted on the anterior upper margin of the cartilaginous scapula. The Museles of the Eye. The musoles of the eye are very similar to those of the frog. On the oor3al surface may be seen the superior oblique from the anterior margin and the superior rectus from the postero-medial margin of the orbit. On the ventral surface may be seen the inferior oblique arising near the origin of the superior and the three recti muscles from the posteromedial angle of the orbit. The Trunk Uuaoles. The trunk muscles show some advance towards differentiation. The dorsal or epaxial muscles remain in the form of myomeres. The ventral or hjpaxial portions show a beginning of development into layers. There is present an external and an internal oblique, a transverse, a rectus abdominis. The external and internal oblique and transverse are separated from the dorsal myomeres by the lateral line. On the lateral  15. borders of the rectus abdominis are myomerio thickenings* *~ ^ttgol*9 Of the Pelvlo Girdle and Hind limb. Pyramidal!a - It oonsists of two small rectangular muscles on the ventral surface of the abdomen. It has its origin on the interior border of the oartilaginous portion of the ischio-pubic hone. It passes anteriorly on either side of the main branch of the epibubis and parallel with it* It is inserted along the posterior margin of the arms of the ypsiloid cartilage. Aocording to Bronn this muscle is homologous with the pyramidal is in man* Rectus abdominis - (Pttbo-thoracious-Bronn) It consists of two long narrow muscles on the ventral surface of the body on either side of the "linea alba" and traversed by seve^inscriptiones tendinae" The muscle arises from the antire anterior margin of the ischio-pubic plate and passes anteriorly, covered in its anterior portion by the pectorals* It branches anteriorly, sending some branches to he inserted in the cartilaginous sternum. The rest of the muscle continues forward as the staroohyoideus to be inserted on the hyoid. The lateral portion of these muscles is particularly well developed .forming a thick muscular band, thus showing the transition from the fishes to the higher forms. Sxternal oblique- (Coeto-abdominalis- Bronn) This muscle arises from the point of the ribs all alon$ the back.  The muscle fibres arise in diverging pointsjcoming to-  gether to form a large flat muscle on the lateral surface of the body. The fibres run postero-ventrally.some of them being joined up with the lateral border of the rectus abdominis,'  others going on as a thin film to the linea alba* Some of the t- •  fibres also are inserted on the ilium, others on the anterior margin Of the ypsiloid oartilage and around the border of the acetabulum* Internal oblique -(Abdominis obliquus internus-Bronn) It is a flat muscle slallar to the preceding and lying just beneath it. Its origin is the anterior border Of the ilium and the vertebrae from the sacral region to the fourth rib* It passes anteriorly and ventrally. The fibres nre inserted in the rectus abdominis and on the sternum* Transversalis • This is a thin muscle similar to the two former and. lying beneath the latter* Its fibres run transversely around the body from the vertebrae from the neck to the sacrum and are inserted on the mid-ventral line as in  -  scriptiones tendinae. Qracilis - (Pubo-ischio tibialis) it is a thin flat muscle originating in the middle line of the ventral surface of the ischio-pubic plate. The fibres run outwardt<M>nverging,to be inserted on the medial anterior surface of the tibia. Caudali-pubo-isohio-tibialis This is a thin narrow muscle arising from tho ventral surface of thw fourth and fifth caudal vertebrae,in common with tho ischio and femoro-caudal. It passes forward parallel with these two muscles to be inserted in the posterior border of the gracilis. Semimtebranosus -(Isohio-flexorius-Bronn) It is a long thin muscle originating on the posterior margin  17. of the ischium* It passes down and out,joining the preceding r.usole near its origin on the gracilis,to be inserted on the plantar surface of the flexor digitorum. It resembles the semitendinosus of Menopoma as desribed by Llivart.(Proe.Zool. Soo.186?) Sartorius - (Pttbo-tibialis-Bronn) This is a long slender muscle which arises from a fascia along the outer anterior margin of the ischio-pubic plate. It runs ©tttward anteriorly to the gracilis and is inserted on the tibia on the medial surface Just in front Of the insertion of the gracilis.  This origin resembles that Of Menobranohus as  desoribed by r.ivart (Proc.Zool.Soc.l869), in that it appears as a continuation of the external oblique muscles. jtechio-caudal - (Uivart) It arises in common with the semimembranosus from the ventral border of the fourth and fifth tail vertebrae running parallel with it to be inserted on the posterior margin of the ischium. It is the most medial of the three muscles passing along in this region* ?emoro-caudal - (Mivart) This ie a similar muscle to the preceding and arises in common with it ana semimembranosus from the fourth and fifth caudal vertebrae* It passes anteriorly parallel with them to be Inserted on the inner medial surface of the femur just below the great trochanter. This insertion ia covered by that of the adductor* Pectineua - (Enbo-ischio-femoralis internus-Bronn Iliaou8 -Mlvart) It is a fairly well developed muscle originating on the  IB. anterior bOYber of the isohio-pubic plate.It runs out to be inserted along the lower half of the femur to the tibial condyle. The position of this muscle corresponds to that Of the iliacus in certain forms out from its origin and insertion it seems to correspond to the peotineus. adductor - (3Pttbo-ischio»feraoralis externus-Bronn) It is a large triangular muscle on the ventral surface of the isohio-pubio plate,covered by the gracilis. It originates on the me(1441 line of that plate runs laterally to be Inserted on the medial surface of the femur near the insertion of the peotineus and femort-caudal, Gluteus maximus •>  This is a long narrow muscle ori-  ginating in the distal or ventral end of the ilium near the acetabulum* It passes along the femur to be inserted in a fascia whioh passes over the condyle to the proximal end of the tibia*  'Please- see page 20 for S. Medium and XlinJmus.  Rectus femoris -  It is similar to the previous muscle  and lies olose to it* Its origin is Just anterior to that of the gluteus maximus. It passes laterally to the the gluteus maximus to be inserted in a fasoia passing over the knee Joint, in common with '. i' the gluteus maximus* when the two muscles are inserted as a single tendon on the proximal end of the tibia. The two preceding muscles are regarded by Broon as different heads of the same muscle whioh he calls the Ilioextensorius. Bioepa •  This is a fairly well developed muscle arising  from the femur about the middle of the shaft and passing out  I?. to be Inserted on the fibula. IllO-peroneal -  It is a long slender musole arising  from the Ilium in close oormection with the gluteus raaximus. It passe8 oat to be inserted in the proximal end of the fibula -  on the posterior side. These two musoles are regarded by Bronn 4s two heads of the same musole whioh he terms the Ilio-femoro-fibularis. Tibialis antloua •  It arises on the distal end of the  femur and proximal end of the tibia and is inserted on the tibia and tarsus. Plexor oommunls dlgitqrum -It arises from the distal end of the femur,passes down the plantar surface of the tarsus and is Inserted on the five digits. Plexor hallucls - It is a small musclejcovered by the former. It arises from the inner upper border of the fibula and passes obliquely to be inserted in the hallux* These two musoles are well developed in Triturus, covering the plantar surface of the foot with a thick pad. reroneus - It daises on the lateral epicondyle of the femur and la inserted along the anterior portion of the fibula. Extensor brevia digitorum - It is a shofct musole covered by the extensor longus digitorura. It arises from the inner diatal border of the fibula,passes down to be inserted on the five digits* Kx tensor longus dip; 1 to rum -  It is a tendinous muscle  arising from the diatal end of the femur passing down to be isssrtad in aaoh sf the five digits. Extensor halluola /  It is a small musole ariaing in  10* ooTnvn with the sxtsn&or bre»ls d l g l t o n a snd passing eobllquslf *oro?s the pee to be lxeertaflor the hallux* oronstfa-tlbi*! * ;*IhuW-tiM%lic) I t Ifl a sri*ll.short nunele r*u*r,lng t^etraen the MM* *04 fibula in their distal portion* I t originates on the fibula and peaces eoroee to bo Inserted more Atotally on the t i b i a . ftozor^aetatarsl  e t d i g i t ! •(Brona)  St I t * f&brout rcusole ooTerefl by the flexor longus 41«ltor>ra. I t arisea ttoo the distal border of the fibula AM pasoas out t o bo inserted la oaoh of the flTt  fligite*  Tar.so*jM t*t*rc*i.o - (Bronn) St ariseft from the ventral surface of the tarsal bones an* p n w a out t o bo lnoertefl In oaoh of the flTO Oirlto* (To bo. rsad after the description of the Olsteoe marlnns; Ql^teue aedlus • I t la a e^all autfblo arltlne On the posterior border of the Ilium and pasues *oroea to l i e *u the upptr aurfaoe of the femur on the psronsal olds* Gluteus nlalT.ue - I t la a s e l l e r mu^ole than tbo for**; arising from the posterior border of tbo l l l u a passing serosa baside i t t o bo inserted near tha insertion of the l e t t e r hut proxitaal t o i t on tbo fe^ur&ooordlu£ t o Bronn t h i s i s the I l l o - f e ^ c r a l l s &^d i s hosologoue with the U l c e u s lu OMU The Cmda^ ^usolee. ?be casoles of ths t a l l retain tbo.  a j u s r l o oo&struotloo  oharastorlatlo of ths fishes* The l a t e r a l bsndj or lcsorl>» tiones ten dine* ere distinct In tha anterior half of the t a l l i n t e r i o r t o that %ho MUSOUS afcm l l t t l a division l s t o  21. Bytvaerss httt appear merely ae two flat muscles one on either side of the tall* On the ventral surface of the tall there is a depression on the anterior third* Posterior to this there is a rld^e. The same ie true of the dorsal surfaoe.  For the  anterior five myomeres of the tall the lateral longitudinal lines are distinct. Posterior to that they gradually disappear.  32.  THE DIS25TIV5 SYSTEM. There are no very striking differences in the digestive system of Triturus. The mouth is a wide opening bounded by W o lips, an upper and a lower. On the roof of the mouth are, the two openings of the posterior nares. In the median line anterior to them is a fontanelle, a large opening whioh has already been mentioned as occurtinj between the vomers. The palatine teeth are in two long -rows, converging anteriorly, one on either side of the median line. The tongue is a small oval body attached in its middle portion to the floor of the moith. The oesophagus opens as a horizontal slit. It extends oaudad as a straight tube for the distance of about ten millimeters when it broadens out to form the stomach,a body about twice its lengMi. The small intestine is similar to that of the frog witfo less coiling. There is a distinct widening to form the l^rge Intestine. It opens posteriorly into the cloaca. The liver is a large boa; on the ventral surface of the body cavity. Although it shows indications of division into separate lobes the body is still complete. The size and nature of the lobing of this organ varies greatly in different individual a. The gall bladder is a email sao-like body. The pancreas is scattered ^.ore or less definitely .along the blood vessels of the anterior portion of the small Intestine, and about the loop of the stomach.  *)'  THE CIROPLATOKT SYSTEM. The Heart The pericardial oavity is situated well forward , just beneath the peotoeal girdle. The heart is made up of one ventricle, two auricles, conus arteriosusjand  sinus venosus. The ventricle  is thioke4- walled and muscular, the auricles are thin walled and non-muscular.  The heart is turned as in the embryo of  higher vertebrates so that the left auricle lies almost directly dorsal to the right* The aurioles are divided by a complete septum. The two aurioulo-ventrioular openings, separated by the septum,oome together in suoh a way as to fere one opening Into the ventricular cavity. Opening from the cephalic end of the ventricle is the aonus arteriosus. It is situated on the ventral surface of the aurioles. A short dlstanoe out it becomes the bulbus arteriosus from whioh the arterial arches arise. The sinus venosus is posterior and slightly dorsal to the ventricle. It opens into the right auricle. The Arterial System. The arterial system is for many reasons the most i n teresting. With the disappearance of the gills,the gill arches have also gone and there are evidences of transition. The bulbus arteriosus divides to form two branches eaoh —  —  —  •'»  •  of wbleh is made up of three arohes. These three arohes correspond to the third,fourth and sixth arohes in primitive forms*In some of the specimens examined a small branoh repreeenting the fifsh eroh was fount but at beet it was  *••>-*  24.  poorly developed. the most anterior of the three vessels is known as the carotid aroh*  It passes laterally to the oarotid gland  where it divides to form two branches, the oxternal and jn* ternal oarotidi.  The former runs mediad again for a short  distance.as far as the thyroid gland where it turns and paeses^nteriorly, sending off various small branches. Shortly after it leaves the aroh it gives off a small branoh to the cerato-hyoid muscle. Others to the muscles of the lower jaw and one to the tongue,the lingual artery. The Internal oarotid passes laterally for a short distance from the oarotid gland toward the angle of the lower jaw*  H«re it divides sending one branch mediad aoross the  prootic bone to enter the cranium just posterior to the foramen for the pneumogastric nerve. the brains-see later)  This vessel supplies  The second branoh of the internal  oarotid passes anteriorly and slightly mediad to supply the mucoas membrane of the month and the under surface of the eye ball. About  half way between the carotid gland and the di-  vision of the internal carotid a small vessel goes across to join with the systemic arch. This is a remnant of the connection sometimes known as the ductus Botalli(No»I). The second vessel to leave the bulbus arteriosus is the systemic aroh which passes dorsad and slightly posteriorly to meet the corresponding vessel from the opposite side near the median line. In the region where the connection is made with the  ?5. InUmtl a*rotl4 a br%r«oh lo**oo tb* ayataalo, n*salr.£ l a t e r a l l ^ n * antorlorljr to**r4a tho a&gla Of tha Jo*. Horo It braoohao, ooodloff ono braaob aloa* ibo a*rg!n of tho lower Jaw, whioh in tam aan4a off mmXX braaohoa to tho akin of tbo loaa* Jnar.?*or« ara alaa throo or four  ?««M1I  p*»oln<s  ftoraallj froa tho aala braaah at tha angle of tho Ja* to tora!? tho afcla alonv tho aioa of tho  • • « . thlt  V M M I «AJ  a* oalloi tho actor log aataaooaa artory, Slljchtlj tabicJ tho orl«U of tha aataaaoaa hot ho for* tho two arahaa oo*a to«attar,iwo osaaUL oaaaala  % arloo  froa lho 4oroo4 portion of aaoh aroh* Tha* p*oa actoriorlj fay a abort tlatacat to«ataar.  Oaa of tho braaohaa than  turao aorta 4 ato" pataaa thrown tha boa* wall at tbo booo of tho axall la tho ragIon of tho ft rot vortaar*.  Tola ta tho  oool»llo~aartabral» I t ajgala 01 vita a, ot* araaoh paaolaf aaaaaa thrash tho traaatarao proooo»«» pf V * ftrtabr*a,an4 aoadlaf oooaatoaal bracobot to tho apical oort, f a i t to tho aartotral.  faa athar araaoh, too oaalpital, aaaaaa to tho  M H M » - * « M a aaa>  *aaaa>iSM»^HiMaMao-«  Aortal aarfaoo of t • afcmll. tbo aooon* tranofc moo actorlorl; oa tho ^antral aurfaoo of tho ahull t i l l i t vaaoboo tho pootar I or aaraa,  Kara I t alwltaa, aonaUaf 9m braaob aloe* tho  anterior aarfic of tha orbit, tea oo ootid ntaniaf aaiiaa around tho aarglc of tho poetari&r aaraa aaa than aaaalat fonr»r«t aontla* off aaa* rooa aaall hraooboof ta cap; l p tha ration of tho owtarcal  aaraa* fala raaaal aarratpoafta la  origin aa4 pooltloa to that ftfaroi bp Slngalo; aa tha oaolar artorar oat tlaoo,la tala oaaa, tho olfaotorp roglon la alao aapplta* It will b« oallad tha orblto-n%aa.Ha artary*  The third and hindermost arch to leave the heart i s the e— pulmonary artery* I t passes l a t e r a l l y for * short distance p a r a l l e l with the other two arches and then tarns suddenly and passes baok to the lungs, giving several amall branches to the oesophagus *s i t goes. At th« point where i t tarns posteriorly a v e s s e l goes across to unite with the systemic arch*  This i s the ductus  ^ o t a l l l and in a l l specimens examined was well developed.(So.2| The pulmonary, artery passes down the raeflial border ef the lung giving off v e s s e l s along tna ringed areas. Arteries of the Pootoral Region*  (?%*%* v #  figlj)  3hortl> after the union of the two systemic arches to form the dorsal aorta the subclavian artery a r i s e s ,  f t pass©•-,  l a t e rally,along with the brachial plexus,gives off several amall branches and continues as the a x i l l a r y to the) *f& Where I t becomes the brachial* The f i r s t branch to be given i s the oostg-cervjaaliat. I t i s a small branch running posteriorly on the dorsal wall of the body c a v i t y . D i s t a l l y to t h i s two branches are given off, ^  e  one passing dorsally and then again branching to form SttPoor*oo-so»Pularls(8oapttlarl6 of the frog) and the  Bcapalcrla p o s t e r i o r .  The foraer goes to  supply the  subooraco-scapularis muscle and the l a t t e r to the) muscles en the ventral surface of the s c a p u l a , i . e . the serratus megnue, etc.  The second branch passes l a t e r a l l y to about the w>r-  gln of the rectus abdominis where i t turns «?nd passes pea -<t e r l o r l y astwell **. developed vessel giving oft* braaehae to a l l the various segments i n the abdominal muscle. This i s  27. described by *iedersheim{?ig.2e'2) as n cutaneous vessel but • e it*is a deeper vessel the term anterior epigastric artery used by Brona seems preferable. This corresponds to tha thoracic artery in tha human*  Posteriorly it anastomoses  with the inferior epigastric.  Shortly after its origin the pusses anterior epigastrlo gives off a branch vrhiohAventrally to supply tha pectoral muscles. This ia the ooraooldeus which a  oorresponds to tha olavioular of tha thoraco- acromial in pan and to tha ooraoo-ol«vioularls l a tha frog. laterally a fourth branch i s given off from the subclavian. I t passes toward tha rsgion of the glenoid cavity following i t s margin and giving off a few branohas to i t and to tha prceoraoo-hameralle musole. This apparently correspond? tc tha olrcomflax humeri arteries in man* from this veasal near i t s origin a branch passes antero~medl*d which i t s a l f llvidos into several small vassals to supply tha muscles on tha doraal aurfaoe of tho scapula,i.e.the soapulirls doraalis and latlaslmua doral.  This i s ths soapularlc stipe rl or (£okor)  or tha co*polar olroumflsx(Bronn) This i s similar to the eo*pul«*r olroumflsx In man* There were found in this part of the system many variations* ffo two specimens w*ro alike and.com* not a l l the vaasele were found. The preceding aocount i s a fairly typloal ono however* Ths Subclavian artery pisses aorosa the axillary fossa and down the inner surface of the huraerua *s the brachial artery* '&t tho olbow Joint a branch i s given o f which ag»*iii divides, ono vestal passing forward to aupply the flexor  muscles of the forearm,the other passing up ths Irifffi to the bioepS-r  ^elow the elbow the brachial passes into the ln*~  terosseal spaoe|ind proceeds 3own the arm along the Inner margin  of the ulna. It crosses through a foremen in the  internedio-ulnnre oarpal to ths dorsal surfaos of the hand where it. divides into three parts, each branoh a>ain dividing sending one vesssl to the radial margin of one digit and the ulnar marfin of ths next. This seems to correspond in distribution at least to that described by Scfcer as the ulnar artery* About half way between the wrist and elbow two more branches are giyen Off from the brachial artery, one an the v  inner surface of the forearm which sends off small brsaihes to the flexor muscles and to the palm of the hand,also one branch passes forward, aoross the ulns to supply the outer and inner lateral margins of ths fourth finger.  This  corresponds in small part only to the digital branch of ths ulna in the frog(Bcker). The second branch to be given of-* from ths brachial passes dorsally through the intarosseal  toe sending off numerous  small branches to the extensor muscles along ths outer border of the ulna from the elbow to the wrist. One brsnch passes forward to supply ths muscles on ths dorsal surface of the hand. This may be homologous with ths radial. Vessels of the Brain,  (plate XI, fig. 26)  The internal carotid enters the cranium through a foramen in the spenoid. hose. Inside the cavity it sends off a Short branch which soon divides to form ths posterior and  I anterior  ramus. The posterior ramus passes caudad arcund  the pituitary body and dorsal to it to Join up with the corresponding vessel from the opposite side at the base of medulla. The vessel thus formed is the basilar artery. This passes  backward along the medio»ventral line of the  spinal oord as the anterior spinal artery. The anterior ramus passes forward laterally to the infundlbulum to the region of the optio ohiasma where it again divides forming two branches, one passing anteriorly along the groove in the cerebral hemispheres and supplying vessels to that region* This is the lobihemispheric! inferior externa^  (Ecker) The second branch  passes dorsally in the groove between the telencephalon and dlenoephalon, then turns anteriorly on the inner margin of the cerebral hemispheres to supply that region* This id tha lobiK Hemispheric! superior interna. The internal carotid passes forward to the optio foramen Where,together with the optic nerve.it. goes out to supply the eyeball and its muscles, especially in the posterior medial. region* Arteries of the Alimentary Tract. (Plate TI, fig.14) Immediately posterior to the origin of the subclavian arteries a branch arises on the ventral side of the aorta, passes posteriorly and divides,sending one branch to the oesophagus and one.which again divides, to the dorsal wall of the stomach. This is known as the anterior gastrlo artery* Some distance farther back a branch arises, the coelttacomesenterio(Ecker)or gaitr0-rcesenterle(Bronn)  Soon  after.  it leaves the aorta it divides to form two vessels,the posterior  30. gastric and the mesenteric.The gastric again divides,one branoh?"the ramus dexter, going to the right side of the stomach and one, the ramus sinister, to the left side Of the stomaoh, and a third to the pancreas and duodenum.  The ramus dexter  sends off a large branoh to the liver, the hepatio artery.one to the gallbladder and one to the pancreas.  The ramus sinis4  •r sends off a large branoh to the spleeH, the splenio artery. The mesenterio sends oat numerous branches to supply the anterior portion Qt the small Intestine.  This may be called,  for that reason, the superior mesenterio artery. Posteriorly along the aorta four branohes arise to supply the remainder of the small intestine. These are called oy Bronn the accessory mesenteric arteries.  These are fol-  lowed by four or five posterior mesenteries to the large intestine. 411 of these arteries originate from the ventral anrfaca of the aorta. In the male on the lateral surface, in the region of the first three accessot^aesenteric atearries three pairs of branches come off, one of eaoh pair on either side,  to  supply the testes. These are followed by numerous pairs of small branches to the kidneys, the renals.  In the female,  several branches similar in position to the spermatics are given off to the ovaries. Arteries of the Pelvic Girdle and Hind Limb. In the inguinal region the aorta gives off two large Tassels, one on either side, the illacs, whioh pass out to  31. eupply the hind limbs. Near the origin of the lilacs a small red. ian»hranoh arises from the aorta slightly to the left so ;hat it appears to come from the loft iliao artery. It passes caudad for a short distance sending two pairs of small renal arteries to the posterior part of the kidney and divides to form two branches whioh suppy the oloaca and its glands. Tha iliao artery gives off three branches, the epigastric, the hypogastrie and the veaioular.  The epigastric  passes anteriorly,sending a fe w small branches to the hip Joint, along the abdominal wall to anastomose with the anterior epigastric* The hypogastric passes oat to suuply the muscles '©f the pelvic girdle and the vesicular passes posteriorly to the urinary bladder. The 111*0 continues down the leg as the femoral or IfrHiTtf artery. It sends off several stall branches to the musoles of the proximel part of the leg. Just below the knee joint a large vessel arises which divides immediately. One branch rces to the knee joint and the distil portion of the biceps; a second branch passes forward on the plantar surface and •upplleB the muscles in that region; the third and largest branch passes through the interosseal space to the dorsal surface of the foot where it supplies the anterior margin and the superficial muscles. This third branch is homologous, with the anterior tibial artery. The crural continues as the tj.blo-peroneal along the upper margin of the fibula and passes through between the intermedial and oentral tarsals to the dorsal surface where it divides to supply the digits.  32.  From the dorsal side of the aorta arise several intercostal arteries which pass dorsally, dividing in two, one branoh going into the spinal colurai, the other passing out to supply the inner wall of the body cavity. The dorsal aorta continues posteriorly along the tail as the oaudal artery , giring off two small branches to the eloaca as it passes that region*  *f. »-  *S rawa 5I3BSJ,  (n*te  YIXI)  The venous distribution is very similar to the arterial but the velna are Is moat eases mora superficial than the arteries.  The Tains Are such more prone to variation than the  arteries. The ainue yanosus is made up af the two ccmron cardinals and the poet oaral velne» The common oardjnal.or a* apt gf CuTler., is nade up of the anterior and posterior cardinals. The anterior cardinals reeelve a supply from tha external Jugular, the internal Jugular and the subclavian braachee* The external-jugular is made up %t two brmnahaa.one from the tongue,the lingual,»an8 one from tha outer anterior margin of the lower 3«w, These come together at tha thyroid gland.  tne  m&n-tl Volar*  The external Ju-  gular also reoelvee a amall cutaneoue branoh from the an^-le of tha jav and one from tha dorsal surface of tha heart* The internal jugular oomea from within the skull.  Just be-  fore joining tha anterior aartlnal the internal Jugular receives a branoh made up af two smaller hranchee, one from the eub jSoapularie muscle)*, the Bubaoapul&Jlaf and the other from the choroid plexus of the brain.  Thep-lager portion is made up  from vesaala within tha aranium. The eubolavian Is the) continuation af the aalllarj which is formed by the Junotion of the cephalic,brachial and cutaneous.  The oephallo oo:->ee in over tha outer borleif>f the  muscles of the upper arm*  It begins In the p*1"»r  surface  of the forellmb by the coming together,on the anterior margin  •34. of the radius, of the veins from the four digits.  It reoeives  branches from the skin and muscles of the forearm and,near vine elbow, receives a branch made up of small vessels from the dorsum of the hand*  The vessel thus formed passes along the  anterior margin of the radius to the elbow where it curves round to the middle of the lateral surface of the upper arm. It passes over the shoulder into the body oavity between the procoracoid and scapula to meet with the axillary. About the centre of the dorsal surface of the scapula a branch goes across to meet with the axillary on the posterior border of the scapula. This may oorrespond to the basillc.At the point where the connection is made a small vessel enters from the region dorsal to the scapula, the suprascapularls. In the axillary fossa near the subolavian artery and brachial nerve a small vein comes in from the skin and muscles of the inner surface of the upper arm. This is homologous in  with the braohlaft. vein in man although it is very much reduced* T.torosus. The cutaneous  vein is made up fof several fairly large  branches from the lateral and ventral abdominal' wall. One large branch arises well back and runs forward Just inside the lateral line between the skin and muscles. Posterior to the junction with the brachial vein It receives a branch from the ventral wall.  (See Figures)  The ateebminal vein  is formed ftora the two pelvic bran-  ches which come across from the femoral.  The right pelvic  receives a fairly well developed vessel, the vesicular, from the bladder and anterior part of the cloaca and its glands.  The vein corresponding to thii on the loft side consists of but one email branch* t-  The abdominal also receives a branch,which may be called the veeloulo-messnterlo.from the large intestine and bladder. This joins the abdominal about one centimeter anterior to its formation by tht union of the two pelvioe.  This may be regar-  ded in part ae homolotgoue with the inferior mesenteric in man. The abdominal meets with a brar.oh from the anterior portion of the intestine to form the hepatio portal*Thebranoh may be termed the mosenterio with superior and inferior patts. These ressale accompany the arteries in the mesentery of the •mail intestine.  interior to the Junction a third  branch cornea in from the otomaoh and oesophagus. This is the gastric rein.  The hepatio portal prooeads to the liver  in which it is broken down. ?rom the capillaries two new veins,the hepatios, are built up and pase forward to join the post caval. line The poet osval arises ns two branohea in the median^In the posterior part of the kidneys* It passes interiorly, receiving numerous caall branches,the rsnals, from ths kidneys and from ths testes in the male,ths epormatlos(or ovaries i: the female^ Zt orossos through the liver to tht anterior margin where it receives the two hepatio veins and then empties into the siass vanoSUB. Ths renal portal system is made up of vessels from tht oaudal region and hind limbs* One branoh tomee forward from the tail, lying in ths msdlan line ventral to the artery*  36. Immediately posterior to the kidneys it divides,one branoh passing to the outer,lateral margin of each kidney and supplying it with branches. Two large veins enter from the hind limbs,the femoral, the most anterior,arising in the dorsal and ventral portions of the foot by branches which', come together on the anterior margin of the tibia.  The sciatic arises from several cu-  taneous vessels on the dorsal and outer borders of the limb in the region of the knee joint and passes medially along the posterior margin of the thigh.  Prior to its entrance it re-  ceives a branoh from the oloacal region. The sciatic may unite with the femoral to form the oommon iliac and enter.as such into the renal portal or the two e vessels may,as in several cases noted,pass separately into the renal portals*  The two vessels are connected by a vessel  passing around the dorsal surface at the base of the thigh. This is the ij-iacus communicana. Jhrom the angle formed by the Junction of the femoral and iliacus comnunicans the pelvic passes out to meet with the corresponding vessel from the opposite side and go forward as the abdominal vein. The posterior cardinals in the majority of cases were represented by two small veins|in the body wall in the region of the pericardial cavity. In one specimen it was found connecting the oommon cardinal with the post oaval just before the entranoe of the first hepatlo vain* The two pulmomajpy veins pass along the lateral margin of the lungs, fhe right crosses on the dorsal surface of the  37.  heart to meet the vessel from the left side. The vessel thus formed passes on the dorsal surfaoe of the sinus venosus anteriorly, to enter the left auricle.  *B.  ,.  THB RESPIRATORY SYSI&I.  (Plate II, fig.5)  The respiratory apparatus of Trj-turus. is very simple. 1% oonsists of two long sao-like /o..\iy- lungs extending, when -expanded,all the way from the region of the heart to the posterior part of the body cavity. The right is slightly longer than the left.  They are straight sao-like bodies  annulate in appearance, with the pulmonary vein running alonjj the lateral margin and the pulmonary artery along the medial border,the smaller blood passing out to anastamose along the ringed areas. The lungs open into a very short laryngotracheal chamber which in turn communicates,by means of the glottis, with the cavity of the mouth. There is a slight indication of the separation into bronchus and lung by the narrowing of the sac towards its anterior end* Tfith the development of the lungs the olfactory organ begins to be used for respiration. It opens anteriorly by the external nares*It will be disoussed later with the sense organs. The skin of this form is also used in the process of respiration. Hence,as in the frog, the skin is well supplied •with blood vessels.  J*. «  THE ISKVOUS SYSTEM. The Brain  Into I>  The Amphibian br«in,especially that Of the Urodeles, is very simple. It lies quite straight within the cranium. Viewed from the dorsal surface, the telencephalon shows no distinct division between the olfaotory lobes and cerebral hemispheres. The hemispheres are well developed,elongated bodies separated about half way hack by the pallial f_old. This is quite different from that of the frog for In the Anura there is an anterior connection between the two lobes and there is a distinct demarcation of the olfactory lobes. Posteriorly,between the hemispheres, there is a fairly wide separation covered by a choroid plexus,the anterior plexus. This passes in as a narrow stalk to send wide leaf-like structures to the lateral ventricles,a narrow branch to the third ventricle, and one to the ventricle of tha infundibulum. This plexus ie very vascilar and carries the blood supply to the interior of the ventricles. Posterior to this are two narrow projections, the roof of the dlencephalon.  In this roof is a small opening into the  third ventricle. This seems to represent in position the pineal body. The mesenoophalon is made up of two optic lobes,somewhat smaller than those of the Anura. They lie close together in the median line and there is little indioation of division into two separate lobes*  *0* The metoncepholon or cerebolJLmr. is represented merely ey a email shelf-like projection over the anterior end of the fourth ventricle. PoeterHWly it tne medulla oblongata or myelonoephalon> which extends for a short distance e^udad finally merging into the spinal cord which passes to the posterior end of the vertebral eolumn. Situated in the medulla and surrounded b. It is a large .triangular oavity#the fourth Tontriole,covered »y the posterior choroid plexus. From the venttol aspect the telencephalon hoe • similar oppearanoo to that of the dorsal, In that there is no distinct division  between the olfactory lobes end cerebral hemispheres*  Th're can be seen,however, the lateral bulbs near the anterior end from which the olfaotory nerves arise. Of the Hencepho.1 on the most anterioportion it the optie chiaama which is not very strongly developed* 21 boo the appearance merely of the straight continuation Of the optlo nerve0* Immediately behind the chiaama it a fairly large flat* toned body, the lnfundlblum. *»om the posterior end of which projects a gland-like hypophysis* !'o saccus v soulosua, lar.lna terainalis or tuber cinertum were found. The Yentrlolcs &Z the, BrilB.  (Flate If,fig. 25)  The ventricles are similar to those of the frog. The foramen Of Monro Is much wider,forming a large cavity before opening iato the third ventricle whioh is a narrow tube-like passage in the diencephalon.  There  is no distinct line of  41. deraarkation between the foramen of Lionro and the third van., tricle.  Opening posteriorly from the third ventricle is  the aqueduct of Sylvius.  Since the optic lobes are so close  together the optoooeles appear merely as an expansion of the iter.  The aqueduct of Sylvius opens into the fourth ven-  tricle which,as already stated, is situated in the medulla. The Spinal Nerves.  (Plate XII, fig 27)  The spinal nerves are similar in origin and the trunk nerves in distribution to those oifather vertebrates. The Brachial Plexus. The brachial plexus is made up of branches from the third and fourth spinal nerves and one small connection from the fifth.  This plexus goes to supply the muscles of the pe-  ctoral region and forelimb. Prom the anterior or thltd nerve a branch runs ventrad through the foramen in the ooracoid. This is the supracoracoideus.lt divides sending branches to the supracoracoideus, coraco-radialis propius and proooraco-humeralis muscles. Near the origin of this nerve the third divides,one branch going to meet the fourth nerve,thus forming the median nerve which will be discussed along with the ulnar. The remainder of the third, together with a branch from the fourth, goes out between the triceps and humerus,and, sending branches to that muscle,crosses over the bone to the radial side pf the forearm. Here it divides sending one branoh to the hrachio-radialisjthe remainder goes on to|supply the extensor muscles of the hand. ThBi is the radial nerve.  *8. lateral to the origin of the supra-ooracoideus a branch leaved the third nerve to supply the muscles on the dorsal surface of the scapula, the suprascapularis nerve. The main part of the fourth goes out to form the ulnar IJhe median and the ulnar pass down,one on either side of the brachial aretery,to tha forearm,where the three pass under the flexor muscles to the interosseus space. The ulnar nerve croeses over th» -ulna to supply the flexfcr muscles of the hand. The median passes,together with the arterj.between the radius and ulna- and parallel with them,branching on reaching the metacarpus to the supply the deeper muscles on the palm Of the hand. Posterior to tile brachial plexus are seven spinal nerves arising between the vertebrae and passing out to supply the muscles of the bod} wall* Here the metameric nature is retained. The nerves run round as far as the reotus abdominis. The Sacral Plexus. The thirteenth,fourteenth and fifteenth nerves make . up the lumbosacral plexus. $he three nerves are well developed and the nature of the plexus is rery similar to that^f the brachial plexus. The thirteenth passes out,sending off the cutaneous branch to the oblique) iusclesf At the head of the femur it resolves a branch from number fourteen. .It also sends a branch, the obturator^ ventrally which crosses through the obturator foramen and branches to supply the adduotor and gracilis*  41. rausolee. The nerve then continues as the femoral, through the biceps* musoles of the thig'h along the anterior margin of the tibia. It supplies a few small branches to the muscles and slcin On the anterior surface of the foot*It corresponds to the saphenous nerve in the human. The fturteenth anf fifteenth come together to form the sciatic nerve. At the point of Junction a branoh passes back to eujply the muscles of the oloacal region.The sciatic crosses between the triceps ana the femur to diviee very shortly into the peroneal and tibial.The tibial oroeses over the peronealjalong the ventral eurface of the interosseum to supply the flexor muscles on the sole of the foot. The peroneal goes around the medial end of the fibula, passes diagonally across to the distal end of the tibia where it branches to supply the extenecr muscles on the dorsal surface of the foot. The Sympathetic System. The sympathetic system ie very difficult to see distinctly. Xt ie represented by small, fine nerves arising from the eplnas-s and passing out to the mesentery of the digestive tract. Farther than that it was not traoed.  44.  THE SEITSS 0BGAIJ3. The Bar. The ear of T.^OjrOBus may be considered more primitive than that of the frog beoause in the former there is no middle ear. There Is no tympanic membrane and no oolumella. Sound is transmitted by means of the stapes in the fenestra ovale. The membranous labyrinth is protected by the bony labyrinth* There is a sac-like ventriculus,somewhat elongated. •Connected with it are the three semlolroular canals. Ventral to the utrioulus and communicating with it by •eane of a small opening is a seoond sao-like body,the saooulua. In the sacculus is a large calcareous body,almost filling the oavity, corresponding to the otolith in  loSer forms.  Opening from the sacculus on its medial margin and passing mediad across the utriculuS is a email duct, the endolymphatic duofr*  It meets the corresponding duot from the op-  posite side on the dorsal surface of the hind brain* The two together form a large sac covering the posterior ohorold plexus, and two lateral projections pass forward to form and surround a largo oaloareous body on oaoh side of the optic lobee. This sao is known ae the endo-lymphatlo Sao. Opening by means of a small pore from the postero-r— tswaA rsntral portion of the sacculus Is a small sac-like »edy, the iagena.  *5.  The eye is in all respects quite like that of the frog with the exoeption of the positidn of the gland. In T. torosus it is situated ventral to the margin of the lower eye-lid, extending from the anterior to the posterior border of the orbit along the lateral margin*  It corresponds to  the gland of the #ye which does not as yet show the differentiation into two separate glands,laorymal and Harderian, as in the higher forms. The shape of the eye-ball,also, is very similar to that ef the frog. It is in T.torosus also flattened on the outer surface. The three ooats, sclerotic, choroid and retina are all represented here, as in the Anura. The lens Is praotically spherioal*  The Olfactory Organ* organ The olfaotory^is situated within the skull. The sao is broddened considerably at its posterior end* the cavity are numerous ridges.  On the walls of  These are said by Wiedersheim  to be comparable to the turbinals of the higher forms* TheLateral Line Sense Organs. The lateral line system of sense organs is very similar, in distribution and nature of the pores,to that described by Kingsbury in Diemyotylus •iridesoens(AJ>i.HBo.8oo. Vol.17,I  18*5/  46.  #.  TH3TOMOffiSfllTiJiSYS'JSU.  The urinary system is more primitive than that of the Anurnns.  t?l*t« XIII)  The Kidney consists of two parts,a posterior nonsexual portion and an anterior sexual one. ^oth of these are made up of very muoh coiled tubules.  Collecting tubules  pass from -both Of these to the Wolffian duot whioh communicates posteriorly with the cloaoa, The two mesonephric ducts open separately into the cloaca. In the male the collecting ducts fdTom the oaudad part of the kidney and the Wolffian duct are muoh more strongly developed structures thanfthey are in the female.  In the male ;  the Wolffian duct is used as a urino-genital duct. No Miillerian duct was located in this speciesSa male individuals. All female specimens examined had the ovaries filled with eggs. In some of the specimens eggs were found in varioss parts of oviduct* These were- removed and examined. The gelatinous layers increase in size as the egp passes down the oviduct. 7116  The oviduct is the Mullerian duot.  oviduct itself is a long much coiled duot extending  from the cloaca anteriorly to be attached by means of a mes entsyy to the. anterior wall of the pleura-peritoneal cavity*The ostja are situated ventral to the scapula and just posterior to the pericardial cavity. The openings are formed by a continuation of the mesentery from the body wall to form m funnel-shaped opening. The oviduct oonsists of three appsrsntly distinct portione-the Anterior is wide and glandular  47. in appearance. It is followed by a narrow much coiled pottion which ]>n turn lends to a very thick region. When the egps are being laid this latter portion is particularly well developed. :'. small ooiled portion leads from this to a slightly widened area.the uterus. The two uteri open separately into the oloaca. The ©lcnaoa of the female of this.species is very similar to that described by Kingsbury in his article on the spermatheca of Dienuotylas.(Am.ZJio.Soo.Vol>17,l8?5). In  T.torosus  the oloaca is also provided with flask-shaped spermathecae. ilany of them were found to oontain spermatozoa.  The elevatic  on the ventral wall and thO dorsal depression bearing papillae m  T« are present in^torosug. Cn examination,the eggs in the oviduot and uterus showed no trace of segmentation, so that fertilization ooAld not have taken place. The egg must therefore be fertilized during its passage through the oloaca. The manner in which the spermathsoa get into the spermatheca has not yet been discovered. The male oloaca has a much more complicated system of glands. These are also fully described by £ingsbury(Am.Llic. Soc.Vol. 17,1895) for Dlemyctylus , and they are very similar in T._ torosus. The testis is multi-lobed, the number of lobes varying from two to four.. Only one animal was found to possess a fourlobed testis and that only on one side.  Anteriorly,the testis  is attached to the posterior wall of the lung,posteriorly to fat bodies. Numerous vasa ef#erentia pass across to tho  48.  anterior tubules of the kidney* Thus the spermatozoa pass frot. the t e s t i s , a o r o s s the vasa e f ' e r a t t i e through the anterior part of the kidney* by the c o l l e c t i n g tubules to the Wolffian duct and hence to the cloaca. In the cloaca they are attached to a gelatinous substance to form spermatophores. Considerable discussion has been going on and i s s t i l l taking plaoe as t o the nature of the formation of these multilobed t e s t . 8 .  Humphrey{I922,I925)believes that the* new lobe  ie formed at the eaudal^end of the germ-cell cord and that the anterior lobes degenerate* It i s the manner in which these processes go on that causes the raultl-lobed appearance* He b e l i e v e s i t to be due to the slow caude-eephalio movement of the epermatogendtlc "wave" and the delayed regeneration of the emptied l o b u l e s .  Obres}eeve(I?24),on the other  hand,believes that ne**? lobes arc forme 1 at either end of the primary lobe and i t i s not dependent on the degeneration and regeneration. He thinks th'.t new lobes may develop from the eex c e l l s at the extreme periphery of the terminal lobes or from germceil lelands oriented in direct l i n e with the gonads, but a t f l r e t having no oommunloation with i t * From what can be made out from external dlseeotlon the conditions found In t h i s form seem to corroborate what Humphrey believes to be the oese.  In figure 31 the posterior  portion Of the germ cord may be iegenerating and henoe forming a new lobe. On the other hand,in figure 31 the l e f t t e s t i s has at itepophallo end a body having the appearance of a degenerating lobe. Although there ire very superficial ooservatioss,Humphrey's hypothesis of a definite prooess seems  *y.  small r.orr re*8or,»ble than t h a t of Obres)o*re which ef-a^i to he more or l e s e % rr,«tter o ' oh* ce.  The Slands. The spleen  i s a long t h r e e - s i d e d bod^ s i t u a t e d on the  dorsal wall of the p o s t e r i o r p a r t of the stomach* I t resemble? more o l o s e l y , in shape and position* the spleen of higher v e r t e b r a t e s than does t h a t of the frog. The thyroid  c o n s i s t s of two small o r a l bodies l ^ i n g  on the e x t e r n a l Jugular vein Just p o s t e r i o r to the second c e r a t o b r a n c h i a l s . (See H a t e T i l l , f i g . I y d .  T>ey are very  vascular b o d i e s . The thymus,  a l s o c o n s i s t s of p a i r e d oval b o d i e s , so-tne-  what more s p h e r i e a l than, mnd about cne s i x t h as l a r g e a s , the thyroid.  I t i s s i t u a t e d near the angle of the Jaw ar.d pes*  tero-C ©really to the thyroid*  I t a l s o i s vneoular.  The p a r o t i d , l i k o the two foregoing glands , i a a paired s t r u o t u r e . I t appears as the widening of the sorrow oarotid a r t e r y a t the point of d i v i s i o n of t h a t vessel to form the i n t e r n a l a n t e x t e r n a l c a r o t i d s . In Appearance.(See P l a t e V, f i g . 12)  I t i s alao vaeo*lar  51.  Acknowledgements.  The writer here wishes to express her sincere gratitude to Dr« 0. McLean Fraser under whose direction the work has been done.  His kindly interest and sympathy with  the work and hie ever-ready assistance have indeed been an inspiration.  *  The writer also wishes to thank for the use of reference booke, Dr« A. S. HutaMnson and Mr. P.Dickson of the Department of Botany, also Sir* G. J»8penoer of the Department of Zoology and Dr. M.T. Williams of the Department of Geology.  52.  BIBLIOGRAPHY. Bensley,B.A.  - Practical Anatomy of the Rabbit. Philadelphia, I? 10.  Bronn.H.G.  iQassen und Or&nungen <3er Arrohibien von C. K.Hoffman.  Chase, S.W.  Leipzig, l873-l8?8.  "The Liesonephros and Urinogenital Ducts of 7ecturu8 maculosa, Rafinesque''  Journal of  Morphology, Vol.37. Ihiladelphia, I?22-23. Eoker, A.  xLnatomy of the Frog. Haslam.  ?razier,M.  Oxford, I889.  A Contribution to the Anatomyjaf the Amphibian Larynx. 3?.  Gray, H.  Translated by George  Journal of Morphology,Vol.  Philidelphia, I?24.  Anatomy of the Human Body ,20th Edition. Revised and re-edited by W.H.Lewis. Philadelphia, I?l8.  largitt, 3.3.  3erm Cell Origin in the Adult Salamander Diemyotylu8 Viridescens. phology, Vol. 39.  Howe 6, O.B.  Journal of Mor-  Philadelphia I?24.  Atlas of Praotioal Elementary Zootomy. London, 1902.  Humphrey i R.B. Interstitial Cells of Urodele Testes. Amerioan Jounal of Anatomy, Vol.2?. Philadelphia I?2I. The Multiple Testis of Urodele3. Biological Bulletin , Vol.23.  Woods Hole, I?J2.  Humphrey, R.R.  Multiple Testes in Dierayotylua.  of Morphology Vol. 41. Hyman,L.H,  Journal  Pkiladelphiay-I926,  A Laboratory Manual|for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy.  Chicago, I?22.  Kingsbury, B.P. Spermatheca and Methods of Fertilization in Some American Newts and Salamanders. Proceedings American Microscopical Society Vol. 17. I895. ////  Lateral Line Sense Organs in Some American Amphibia and Comparison with Dipnoans. 1  Ibid. Kingsley, J.S.  1895,  Comparative Anaibomy of Vertebrates. Phi-  ladelphia, 1913. The Vertebrate Skeleton.  Philadelphia,  192$. Mivart, St.G.  Notes on Myelogy of Menopoma Alleghaniensis, Proceedings Zoological Society of London. 1869*  —  —-  Notes on Myology of Menobranohas Lateralis. Ibid. I869.  Obreshkove, V.  Accessory Testicular Lobes in Diemyctylus Viridesoens, Their Probable Origin and Significance. Journal of Morphology, Vol, 39. Philadelphia 1924.  Parker ana Haswell*  A Text-book of  London I897.  Zoology Vol. II.  M. Iratt, H.  Manual of the Vertebrates of the United States. Philadelphia,IJ23.  Hitter,W.E.  Diemyctylus Torosus, Esoh.  Proceedings  California Academy of Sciences.  San  Francisco, 18*7• Storer, T«  A Synopsis of the Amphibia of California tferke]^, California, I$25.  Wiedersheira,R» Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. Translated by W.lf. Parker.  London, 18^7.  Williston, 7T.S. The Osteology of the Reptiles*  Zittel.Z.A.V.  Grundztlge der Palaentologie. Vertebrata.  Cambridge  II Abteilung  I923.  •N^  PLATE  -P«.  • Sp  I D ORSAL  VEM TRAL  x b  I.  •Explanation of Plate I* ?lga. ^ and 2 — Ventral and Dorsal View of Skull,  ?r.  —  Frontal.  In.  —  Internal Uares.  *>*x . —•  Maxilla*  3*.  —  Nasal.  Oo.  - • Occipital.  £a. ?ar.» — ™  Orbit*?; phenoid. Parietal Pnrasphenoid.  Pe.  «  Periotio.  Pm.  —  Premaxilla.  Fr.  —  Prefrontals  Pt.  -- Pterygoid*  H*  —  .uataate.  Sq.  —  Squamosal*  St.  •» •»  Supra-temporal 3ar  *P.  iV4B  Voraer o-pala tine •  08*  ?ig. £ — lower Jaw., Inner Surface. hsim —  Angular.  Ar* — articular. Ca« •»• Coronary and Supra-angular. De* —  Dental*  3p. —  Splenial.  PLATE II.  \ Z,  <u  ""3?"  *2.  Explanation of Plate II,  Pig. 4 —  Hyoid Apparatus, opened laterally,  Bb. — Basibranchial. Obi —  First Ceratobranohial  Cb2 —  Second  Oh —  •"  Ceratohyal  Kbf— First Spibranohial. Fig. 5 —  Respiratory Organs and Cartilages.  Ar. — Arytenoid cartilage Ay —  Pulmonary Artery  Br —  Bronchus  31 —  Glottis  Ta —  Traohea  To -- Tracheal cartilages Ve — Pulmonary Vein. Ventral View.  PLATE m.  XI.  •>•---f- .<  m  ••  r*" • '  .»  X5.  v  /ft®-'  8. X 5.  Explanation of Plata III.  . 6 —  Peotoral Girdle, Ventral View.  • 7 —  Peotoral Girdle and Pore Limb, Boreal.  Ce —  Central Carpal  Co —  Coraooid  flu —  Humerua  to  In -• Intermedio-ulnare Carpal Ma —  Metacarpals  Tr —  Proooraooid  Ha —  Rndial Oarpal  Pad —  Radius  3o —  3oapula  Sr —  Soapular Ridge  3t —  Sternum  til —  Ulna.  . 8 —  Pelrie Girdle  7a —  Famur  W  Fibula  —  II —  Ilium  01 —  Gasified pottion of Ieohlum  *P —  lubio Hate  ?i —  Tibia  To —  Tpsllold Cartilage or 3sdpabi-»  ;eel fled  portione  shaded.  P L A T E 12  Tcr-  Tc -  9.  Explanation o-* l ^ t e IY« ? i £ . 9 — Muscles of Dorsal Sorfaoe of Head Di — Dl£-n3trlo Le — Levator 3oapulae &a — !la83eter Tel and Te2 —  Tern* oral.  ?ig. 10 — Muscles of Pelvic Region (Ve::tral),and ?ig. II —  flmxov  Uusoles o* Hind Limb.  ad •• Adduotor - Caudali-pubo-ioob  Cp1 F.d  •  «P  Extensor Digitorum  ?o  —  ?emoro-caudal  Pd  —  Plexor Digitorum  5<B —  Gluteus Maximas  Sr  —  Gracilis  Io  —  Isohio-oaddal  11  wa  Iliaoua  IP  —  H i 3-peroneal  ?8  •V4M  Peroneal  -*  •»—  Pyramidalis  Hf  —  Rectus ?© oria  3*  • •»  Sartorius  3m  —  3eoiraembranoeas  3t  --  3emit«ndinosaa  Ta ? - T i b i a l ! e Antioua Yp  --  Tpsilold Cartilage  la  «» •>  Ilium.  PLATE  P wv  V i | i--P» ~^rr^'--^i  /£ 3.  E^L^-i.  Y  Explanation of Plate v. 12 —  Heart and its Arches (Ventral)  Ba — Bulbus Arteriosus Ca -- CarAtid Arch Cg — Carotid Gland Co —  Conus Arteriosus  Cu —  Cutaneous Artery  Da —  Dorsal Aorta  Dbl and Db2 — Ductus Botalii I and 2 Eo — External Carotid Artery Io *~- Internal  M  •  n  Oo — Occipital Artery On —  Orbito-nasalis 2  Pu —  Pulmonary Artery  3a —  Systemic Aroh  V  — Ventricle  Ve — Vertebral Artery, 13 — Right Subolavadn Artery and Branches, Ae -- Anterior Epigastric Br — Brachial Oo --Costo-cervicalis Ch -- Oixcumflex Humeri Cs —  Coracoideus  Oo —  Glenoid Cavity  re — Post Soapularis b —  Subooraoo-scapularis  3o -- Scapulnris Superior Sab —Subclavian.  PLATE ¥T  \u  Explanation of Flate VI. Fig. 14 —Arterial Supply of Alimentary Traot Organs turned to Right Side* ug —Anterior Gastric Am — Accessory Mesenteric Ca —  Caudal  Ci —Common Iliac CI —  Cloaoal  Da •- Dorsal Aorta Ep «-- Spigastrio G  —  51) —  Gastfrio Gall Bladder  He -- Hepatic Hy —  Hypogastric  In —  Intercostal  Xi —  liver,  Sp ~  Spleen  lies — Mesenteric I\d —.'.Ramus Cextra, Rs —* Ramus Sinistra He —  Renal  So —  Subclavian  Se —  Spermatic  St —  Stomach  Ve — Vesicular.  PLATE M  V c N T R A l_.  V DOR  X5.  X5.  a&Ll,  SAL.  Explanation of """late VII. Fig. 15 and I6(Ventral and Dorsal) Right Pore limb Arterial Supply. Du —  Digital Branch of Ulnar Artery  Ra —  Radial Artery  TT  Ulnar  1 —  "  Fig. 17 ana 18 (Ventral and Dorsal) Left Hind Limb, At — Anterior Tibial Artery Cu —  Cutaneous Branch  Fe —  Femoral Artery  Tp —  Tibio-peroneal Artery.  PLATE  \  H  zo  vm.  Explanation of Plate VIII. —  Venous System  (Ventraljf  Ab ,f^> Abdominal Ax —  Axlllsxg  Ba —  3asilio  Br —  Brachial  Ce —  Cephalic  Co —  Coronary (?)  Ghat'-«•- Outaneowi EJ —  External Jugular  J»e —  Femoral  He —  Hepatio  IJ —  Internal. Jugular  XI —  lingual  &x —  Kaxillaxy  Po —  Posterior Cardinal  Po // Pelrle Pv —  Poot Caral  3a —  Soiatio  Ty 01 — Ye —  Thyjfcft" (liana  Vesio^ai,  Vra — Veslonlo-meoenterio — !*eart (Doroal) la — Loft Atnrfole Lo — t e f t Cardfnol, "ul —: faliionargr-  Ho - • lUgfc* 0*****»*  PLATE A.  *<•«  MRS  LC  11.  IX.  Explanation of Plate IX. lig.  21 — Venous Syatam(Ia*oral View) A* — Axillary Ce —  Cephalio  Pewy- "'emor*! 10 —  Illaou? Communioans  11 -- Ilium 1c —  Lateral Cutaneous  Pe — Pelvio 3oa «— Sonpula. ?ig. 22 —  Hepatic Portal, Henal Portal and Postcaval Veins.  Ab — Abdominal*, Ca — Caudal Oa — G a s t r i c :ip — l e p a t l o P o r t a l nv — H e p a t i c Vein l o — I l i a o u a Com .unicans l a — Inferior Keeenterio Ki — Sidney ,  1 1 — liver*  Has ~- H e a e n t e r i o Po — l o s t Caval •  Te IT  Ep  ~ Palvio — P o s t e r i o r Cardinal - !?enal P o r t a l  3a — « Superior Ueeenteric Tm — Vesio*io-meoenterio #  ^  PLATE X.  LMJ m~~ •^  1;^ IV Kb.  Xk.  Xb  Explanation of Plato X« 21 — Brain (Dorsal) Aop —  Anterior Choroid Plexus  Cb — Calcareous Bo<ty i n Enctolymphatio 3ao Cba -  "  »'  n  saooulus  I J —* i n t e r n a l Jugular Vein 01 — Optic Lobes Pop — P o s t e r i o r Choroid Plexus Sa — Saeculu8 So —  Semicircular Canals  Ut — Utrioulua. 24 — Brain  (Ventral)  Ba ~ Baeilar Artery Oh —  Cerebral Hemispheres  Hy — Hypophysis In —  Infundibulum  Ob —  Olfactory Bulb  Oc —  Optic Chiasma  I  10 —  Cerebral Iferves.  PLATE XT.  25.  ZU  Explanation of Plate XI, Fig. 25 —  Ventrioles of Brain (Dorsal Wail Removed)  Aq —-. Aqueduct of Sylvius Dv -- Third Ventricle Fm -- Foramen of Monro Iv —  lateral Ventrioles  Vv —  Fourth Ventricle  Fig. 26- —  Blood Supply of Brain (Ventral)  Ba —  Basilar.Artery  lo —  Internal Carotid Artery  Ih — lobi-hemispherioi-inferior externa  KLIHT AU.  Explanation of riate XII. ' Fig. 27 — Brachial and Saoral Plexuses 1 — Supraeoraootdeus ITerve w  2 — Suprascapular!s 3 ~Badial  •  4 —Median  n  5 — Ulnar  '"  6 « Abdominal  "  7 —  »  Spinal  8 — Lateral Femoral Cutaneous " 9 — Obturator  Nerve  10 — Femoral  "  11 — Saphenous  "  12 — Sciatio  ."  13 — Tibial  "  14 — Peroneal  "  III/XVI — Vertebrae.  (Le  PLATE UK.  1%  ir  5o.  Explanation of Plate XIII. 28 —  Male Urinogenital Organs (Right) Wolffian Duct turned laterally  Gt —  Collecting tube  Pb —  Fat Body  Ka -- Kidney Anterior Sexual Portion ICp --  "  Posterior Non- "  n  (Der -- Testis (right) ?/d — Wolffian Duct i29 female Urinogenital Organs, and 30  "  n> —  "  "  (Ovaries remove  Fat Body  Gp -- Glandular Portion of Oviduot K& and K£ —  Same as Jig. 28  Md — Mullerian Duct Lie — Mesentery Os —  Ostium  Ov —' Ovary (with eggs) Ut —* ¥terus Wd —  Wolffian Duct  P L A T E XBJ  31.  t>L  51  35  iU  *Z.  Explanation o-" Plate XIV. "*ig. JI — 3 4 -- Variations of Lobes in Tester, Rl —  Regenerating lobe (?)  J)g — Degenerating Lobe (?)  


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