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A survey of attitudes of Canadian graduates in archival studies toward the roles of social science research… McCarthy, Jane Bowe 1998

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A SURVEY OF ATTITUDES OF CANADIAN GRADUATES IN ARCHIVAL STUDIES TOWARD THE ROLES OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN THEIR PROFESSION by JANE BOWE MCCARTHY B.A., The University of Alberta, 1985 B.A.(Special Certificate), The University of Alberta, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Library, Archival and Information Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1998 © Jane Bowe McCarthy, 1998 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Srftul>JL<£ Vancouver, Canada Date 4. ^P.ce^Joey. /fffT DE-6 (2788) Abstract Social science research is a form of inquiry which is useful in expanding the knowledge-base of a profession, but one which is not normally associated with the archival profession. The purpose of this study is to examine social science research as it applies to the Canadian archival profession in general, and to archivists who have graduated from the Master of Archival Studies (MAS) degree program, at the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies at the University of British Columbia. This study examines the attitudes of the first cadre of graduates of a degree program in archival studies in Canada towards the various roles that social science research plays in the development of their discipline and practice. A reading of the literature in the archival field reveals that social science research methods are infrequently employed by the profession in Canada, although there have been frequent calls for their adoption. Archivists are more familiar with and employ more often theoretical (deductive) and historical methods than empirical (inductive) methods. The study employs the methodology of a survey questionnaire to discover the training and application of social science research methodology that these graduates have experienced during their formal education and during their careers. All the respondents had either completed the MAS program or the course work towards the degree in the period, 1981-1994, and were working in the field at the time of the study. The study revealed that respondents support a research dimension for the field, although their support was inclusive of other types of research more common to the archival studies (theoretical, historical, scholarly, and archival), and not specifically directed to scientific research. 33% of respondents expressed an interest in learning about research methods, while 39% said that they were somewhat interested. There was also a correlation between those ii respondents who had taken a course in research methods and their knowledge of and support for this type of research in the archival profession. Likewise, there was also evidence to support that respondents without the knowledge of research methods were as confident in their ability to conduct a research project or assist on a research team led by someone else, as were their colleagues who had taken the course. The qualitative data yields evidence of at least a few scientific research projects being conducted in the archival workplace, particularly user or reference surveys and conservation surveys. The study concludes that there is a role for both pre-appointment and continuing education programs to foster greater understanding and use of social science methods in all facets of the profession's research endeavours. Social science research methods are not only applicable to archival studies, they are beneficial and necessary to the development of the Canadian archival profession. The thesis recommends that archivists should have, at the very least, an appreciation of research methods and a discerning eye for what constitutes good research. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract List of Charts List of Tables vii Introduction 1 - 3 Chapter One A New Perspective: Social Science Research in Archival Studies 4 - 14 Chapter Two Expanding Archival Knowledge Using Social Science Research 15-34 Chapter Three The Research Project: "A Survey on MAS Students/ Graduates Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession" 35-58 Chapter Four Analysis of the Data and Results of the Survey 59-132 Chapter Five Some Conclusions on the State of Social Science Research in the Canadian Archival Profession and Possible Directions in the 21st Century 133-136 Selected Bibliography 137-147 Appendix I Codebook 148-185 Appendix II Qualitative Data - Transcript of Responses to Qualitative Questions 186-236 iv List of Charts Frequencies Chart 1. Chart 2. Chart 3. Chart 4. Chart 5. Chart 6. Chart 7. Chart 8. Chart 9. Chart 10. Chart 11. Chart 12. Chart 13. Chart 14. Chart 15. Chart 16. MAS Course Work Completion Year Thesis Status Research Methods Course Taken Type of Research Methods Course Taken Current Employment Status Current Work Setting Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Reason for NOT Conducting Research in the Workplace - 'No Personal Interest' Reason for NOT Conducting Research in the Workplace - 'Lack of Time' Reason for NOT Conducting Research in the Workplace - 'Lack of Money' Reason for NOT Conducting Research in the Workplace - 'Lack of Incentives' Reason for NOT Conducting Research in the Workplace - 'Lack of Knowledge' Reason for NOT Conducting Research in the Workplace - 'Other' Confidence in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project Confidence in Ability to be a Member of a Research Team Led by Someone Else Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace p. 65 p. 67 p. 70 p. 71 p. 73 p. 76 p. 79 p. 81 p. 82 p. 83 p. 84 p. 85 p. 86 p. 88 p. 89 p. 91 v Chart 17. Chart 18. Chart 19. Chart 20. Chart 21. Like to Learn More About Research Methods Means by Which to Learn More About Research Methods Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Development of the Archival Profession Areas of the Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Personally Conducted Research Project Since Beginning Work as a Archivist p. 96 p. 97 p. 99 p. 102 p. 105 Crosstabulations Chart 22. Research Methods Course by Confidence in Ability p. Il l to Plan and Conduct a Research Project Chart 23. Research Methods Course by Confidence in Ability p. 113 as a Member of a Research Team Led by Someone Else Chart 24. Research Methods Course by Knowledge of Research p. 115 Methods Useful in the Workplace Chart 25. Research Methods Course by Knowledge of Research p. 117 Methods Useful in the Development of the Archival Profession vi List of Tables Crosstabulations Table 1. Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last p. 119 Ten Years by Current Work Setting Table 2. Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the p. 122 Workplace by Current Work Setting Table 3. Like to Learn About Research Methods by Current p. 124 Work Setting Table 4. Like to Learn More About Research Methods by p. 126 Means by Which Respondent Would Like to Learn More About Research Methods vii Introduction The topic of social science research methods and the ability of archivists to conduct useful research and convey the results of their research to the profession at large is one which is relatively new to the Canadian archival profession. Recent archival literature has begun to address the role of research and research methods, and this movement signals the maturation of the archival profession.1 The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding and appreciation of the role of social science research and research methodology in the Canadian archival profession. The study begins with an assessment of relevant archival and library and information science (LIS) literature on the subject of research. The discussion covers the theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations when conducting research. An in-depth study of the LIS literature on the role and the value of research suggests ways in which the Canadian archival profession might increase its effort to conduct research and to educate its members on research methodology. The study includes a survey of Master of Archival Studies (MAS) students and graduates 'Richard Cox has written several articles advocating the importance of good research, according to sound research methods: "Charting the Unknown: The Continuing Need for Research About Archival Work, Institutions, and the Profession," American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 410-13; "The American Archivist: Voice of the Profession of Another Role? Some Thoughts at the Beginning of an Editorship," American Archivist 54 (Fall 1991): 462-64; and "The Roles of Graduate and Continuing Education Programs in Preparing Archivists in North America for the Information Age," American Archivist 56 (Summer 1993): 444-57. As the Editor of American Archivist. Cox issued an "Editor's Special Forum on Needs in Archival Research and Publication" in American Archivist 57 (Spring 1994): 268-88. Other authors have also addressed the need for research: Victoria Lemieux in "An Archival Practitioner's Views on Archival Literature: Where Have We Been and Where are We Going," Archivaria 40 (Fall 1995): 199-209; Roy Schaeffer in "From Craft to Profession: The Evolution of Archival Education and Theory in North America," Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 21-34; and Robin Wylie in "Student Archivistics: The Contribution of Master of Archival Studies Theses to Archival Professional Literature," Archivaria 39 (Spring 1995): 96-107. 1 from class years 1981-1991.2 The aim of the survey is to gather empirical data on these archivists' attitudes towards research, and to capture information on their current research activities in the workplace. The survey asks if the MAS students and graduates think the ability to do research and to conduct research projects would be useful to them in their work and their profession. The MAS students and graduates, 1981-1991, are chosen as the study population because they constitute a relatively homogenous group of archivists who have all received formal, pre-appointment education in archival theory, method, and practice, allowing for the various curriculum changes since the program began in 1981.3 Likewise, the total number of MAS students and graduates is such that it is quite manageable and practical to conduct a census survey of the entire group, and since the study deals with students and graduates over a ten year period, there is a good distribution of respondents at all levels of seniority from entry-level through to senior/chief archivist level. Finally, as a distinctive group within the profession, they have had a significant impact on the overall development of the Canadian archival scene since the first class entered the work force in 1983. The study addresses a significant gap in the existing archival literature with respect to the role of research and research methods in the profession. Although the importance of research methods has been asserted by the Association of Canadian Archivists (ACA), there has not been 2For a description of the MAS program see: Terry Eastwood, "The Origins and Aims of the Master of Archival Studies Programme at the University of British Columbia," Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983): 35-52. 'Throughout the thesis, the author refers to the MAS respondents as either graduates or students. All the respondents to the questionnaire completed the course work in the MAS Program. The term 'graduate' indicates those students who also completed the thesis requirement and who have graduated from the MAS Program. The term 'student' indicates those who completed the course work, but not the thesis, and who did not graduate. 2 any in-depth examination of social science research in the Canadian archival profession.4 The selected bibliography herein identifies relevant LIS and archival literature on research and research methods and serves as a useful resource for archivists wishing to learn more about this topic. Research methodology is a complex subject which requires a great deal more expertise than is gained through a graduate-level course or a short seminar.5 However, as a first attempt to gather data on an issue previously unstudied, this thesis aims to provide archivists with baseline data from which further investigations may benefit. The survey conducted in this study includes the requisite elements of a research project, according to social science research methods, and presents these elements as a learning model for other archivists. At first glance, one might think that social science research has little or no application to archives. However, this investigation concludes that not only is this type of research applicable, it is beneficial and necessary to the development of the Canadian archival profession. The thesis recommends that archivists should have, at the very least, an appreciation of research methods and a discerning eye for what constitutes good research; however, the survey results provide evidence that there is much work to be done to achieve this result. The Education Committee, Association of Canadian Archivists. "Guidelines for the Development of a Two-Year Curriculum for a Master of Archival Studies Programme (December 1988)." Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 128-41; and "Guidelines for the Development of Post-Appointment and Continuing Education and Training Programme (December 1990)." Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 60-89. 5Nancy Van House, "Assessing the Quantity, Quality and Impact of LIS Research," in Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure (Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991): 92. Van House makes two important points in this piece: many professional schools teach quantitative problem solving, but not as "research methods" and that this minimal training in research methods combined with the pressure to publish, may result in poor "research", primarily in-house studies, submitted to research journals. 3 Chapter One: A New Perspective: Social Science Research Methods in Archival Studies To begin a discussion of the role of social science research in the Canadian archival profession, one must first tackle the inherent problem of terminology since archival literature typically uses the terms 'research' to describe the study of archival documents and 'researcher' to describe the user of archives. This thesis does not deal with research using archival materials, or archival research as it will be called, but rather with social science research as it is employed by the archival profession, where the researcher is not the user of archives but the archivist. In addition to the confusion of what the term 'research' means to archivists, there is the further complication that within the Library and Information Science (LIS) literature there are several valid definitions of 'research', as it is used in this study. This chapter presents a selection of LIS definitions of research, and identifies the one which is adopted for this study. To simplify the confusion in defining research, Mary Jo Lynch, in "Research and Librarianship: An Uneasy Connection", creates four categories: practical research, bibliographical research, scholarly research, and scientific research.1 Practical research is the general type of everyday research undertaken by anyone who gathers information in order to solve a problem. Research in this form comes from published or unpublished sources or directly from other people who may have already dealt with a similar problem or issue. Lynch describes the second category, bibliographic research, as being when previously identified work related to a given problem is analyzed to arrive at a new understanding of the problem, by an investigator who "... arrives at conclusions by reordering the thoughts of others."2 She cites the 'research' papers produced by high school and first year university *Mary Jo Lynch, "Research and Librarianship: An Uneasy Connection," Library Trends 32 (Spring 1984): 367-69. Tbid., 368. 4 students as examples of bibliographical research. Lynch's definition of scholarly research is the one which best describes how scholarly research differs from social sciences research. She writes that: [s]cholarly research, typically done by humanists, is similar to bibliographical in that it is often based on previously published work related to the matter at hand. The analysis goes far beyond re-ordering the thoughts of others, however, and involves disciplined inquiry which enables the scholar to make an original contribution of the knowledge base of a field. Although data are not collected from nature, as is the norm in scientific research, data are collected and organized in an objective way and analyzed according to systematic principles, thus relating this work to that which is recognized as scientific.3 By Lynch's definition, scholarly research is as rigorous and innovative as scientific research because it is produced according to acceptable standards prescribed by the academic community and makes an original contribution to the current knowledge, understanding or perspective of the issue or topic under investigation. Although Lynch does not highlight the importance of scholarly research standards adopted by academia, it is important to note that the rigor of scholarly research lies exactly within the academic community's ability to articulate the principles, methods and practices by which scholarly research is evaluated and to instill within academics the standards of good scholarly research. As producers of scholarly research, academics must meet the established criteria if their work is to be taken seriously and their arguments are to be convincing. As consumers of scholarly research, academics use these criteria as tools in reviewing and analyzing the research work produced by their peers. Scholarly research that results in an article for publication in an academic journal is subject to the scrutiny of peer review. Finally, Lynch defines scientific research simply as that "... which discovers new Tbid., 369. 5 knowledge," according to the basic scientific process of inquiry, which includes the identification of the problem or issue under investigation, the identification of current knowledge and context of what is being studied, the formulation of hypotheses, the development of a logical research methodology, the collection and analysis of data, and the presentation of findings and acceptance or rejection of the hypotheses.4 For the purpose of this study, one must add to Lynch's four categories the archival definition of research. Traditionally, archivists have used the terms 'researcher' and 'research' to describe the archives' clientele and their activities in reference or research rooms.5 One need only skim the pages of any archival textbook or academic journal to see examples of the common usage of the terms 'researcher' and 'research'.6 Mention the word 'research' to an archivist, and his or her thoughts may turn to reference services, finding aids, lengthy and vigorous discussions as to whether archivists are meeting the needs or expectations of their clientele, what research topics prevail, and the diversity of internal and external users. An archivist's understanding of research is also tempered by a matter of perspective, in that the word 'research' is used to describe the activity of the archival client, not the archivist. Tbid., 369. 5The archival definition of 'researcher' appears in Lewis J. Bellardo and Lynn Lady Bellardo. A Glossary for Archivists. Manuscript Curators and Records Managers. (Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1992): 30. "A researcher is an individual who consults documents, either by a visit to a research room or through mail or telephone contact, for information about or from the holdings of a records center, archives, or manuscript repository. A researcher is also called a reader or searcher. See also: User." 6See Keeping Archives. Ch.10: Access and Reference Services, pp. 273-305; The Life of A Document. Ch. VI: Making Archives Available, pp. 210-216; A Modern Archives Reader. Ch. 7: Reference, pp. 255-277; and Archivaria 36 (Autumn 1993): "Index to Archivaria: Numbers 21-30, 1986-1990", p. 364. The subject heading for 'research' indicates "see Historical research", and entries with the word 'research' in the title of the article refer to archival or historical research. 6 Archivists are trained to assist researchers in identifying archival documents relevant to their research topic. As facilitators of research, archivists are oriented towards aiding the research pursuits of others, rather than having any direct experience of active research themselves. Naturally, a line archivist undertakes archival research in the course of his or her duties, when arranging and describing a fonds, developing an archives' display, or responding to a reference enquiry. However, active research, be it archival, scholarly, or scientific, is perhaps viewed by line archivists as being beyond their busy professional life? Of course, this is not to say that all archivists avoid involving themselves actively in research. There are line archivists and archival academics who actively engage in archival or scholarly research (and its sub-set, historical research). The 'hyphenated' archivist (the archivist-historian, archivist-genealogist, archivist-journalist, etc.) may undertake archival and/or scholarly research, beyond that of their professional reference duties, for reasons of personal satisfaction or professional contribution; for presentation and/or discussion at professional conferences or workshops; or for publication. Traditionally, line archivists have come to the profession with undergraduate or graduate degrees in the humanities, predominantly history (as well as English, political science, medieval studies, Canadian studies, art history, etc.) and may not be familiar with social sciences research. Archivists with pre-appointment professional training, in graduate programs such the Master of Archival Studies Program, or archival studies in the Faculty of Information Studies at the University of Toronto, or in the Department of History at the University of Manitoba often come with background in the humanities and their professional school training either excludes 7 courses in research methods or offers them only as elective courses.7 Archival academics are the most likely candidates for an active research orientation as they function as educators in an academic milieu that requires them to conduct research.8 However, archival academics, trained predominantly within the humanities, are oriented towards the scholarly research of that discipline and may not be familiar with the quantitative and qualitative research of the social sciences. It is not surprising that the current knowledge base of the archival profession is built predoniinantly upon scholarly research, given the formidable link with the humanities discipline. One does not suggest that scholarly research activity should be reduced or replaced by social sciences research. Rather, one proposes that an increase in social sciences research on archival issues will accentuate and complement the entire body of archival knowledge, which is currently dominated by scholarly research. But what exactly is social science research? Social science research is a structured process of enquiry and discovery according to rigorous standards, and undertaken by the archival practitioner and academic alike to build or enhance his or her knowledge of the profession, to test current theories against reality, or to solve problems of interest to archival professionals. Herbert Goldhor describes research, as "... any conscious, pre-meditated inquiry — any 'One example of the predominance of students coming to the MAS Programme with first university degrees in the humanities is found in the: School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, "Comparative Statistical Analysis of 1994 and 1993. • Annual Report 1994 July 01-1995 June 30 (University of British Columbia: SLAIS): 16. These statistics indicate that, in 1993, 82% of students had degrees in the humanities (27% history), compared to only 9% of students with social science backgrounds. While in 1994 the number of students with first degrees in the social sciences jumped to 40%, there were still 50% of students with degrees from the humanities (35% in history). "The academics of the profession are the archival educators who teach within established archival studies programs. 8 investigation which seeks to increase one's knowledge of a given situation."9 This broad definition of research would apply equally well to many forms of research, including scholarly and historical research. With this definition, one would conclude that research is alive and well in the Canadian archival profession judging by the scholarly research published in Archivaria. However, Goldhor's definition does not emphasize the rigor, structure, and replication aspect of social science research. Charles McClure and Ann Bishop present a more comprehensive definition of research as: .. .any systematic and formal effort (basic or applied) to create new knowledge or produce new information. It is also used to suggest a degree of attention to method and rigor in obtaining and analyzing information that goes beyond writing best described as 'opinion pieces'.10 This definition is also problematic since one might successfully argue that much of the current theoretical and academic literature in archival studies meets the criteria of rigor, structure, method to produce new knowledge. The most concise definition of research, and the one which is chosen as the basis of this study is developed by Peter Hernon, who describes research as: ... an inquiry process that has clearly defined parameters and has as its aim, the: Discovery or creation of knowledge, or theory building; Testing, confirmation, revision, refutation of knowledge and theory; and/or 'Herbert Goldhor, An Introduction to Scientific Research in Librarianship (Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science, 1972), 7, quoted in Mary Jo Lynch, Research and Librarianship: An Uneasy Connection," Library Trends 32 (Spring 1984): 367. 10Charles R. McClure and Ann Bishop, "The Status of Research in Library/Information Science: Guarded Optimism", College and Research Libraries 50 (2) (Mar. 1989): 128. 9 Investigation of a problem for local decision-making11 Hernon's definition is employed in this study because it is encompasses the three types of social science research: basic or pure research, applied research, and action research. Hemon identifies basic or pure research as the: ...pursuit of knowledge for its own sake and may or may not immediately contribute to a theoretical base of knowledge... and may engage in theory building, or the placement of abstract ideas, concepts, principles, and propositions that exist outside of a set of circumstances or empirical referents in some order, structure, or relationship. The purpose is to either construct new theories or produce new generalizations by adapting existing theories.12 Applied research, according to Heraon, "validates theory and may result in the revision of theory," and often involves testing hypotheses. Action research he describes as being "... usually applied research directed to an immediate problem. Librarians often conduct action research to generate data useful for local decision-making."13 While the LIS profession tends to produce more action research than the other two types, a mature profession or discipline will have all three. Similarly, a research project may include elements of all three types of research. Although some researchers consider action research to be the weakest type, and not 'real' research, Mary Sue Stephenson argues that it is better that the profession does some type of research, in a rigorous, structured fashion, according to "Peter Hernon, "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS," chap, in Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement (Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Press, 1991), 3-4. 12Ibid, 5. "Ibid. 10 acceptable standards of social sciences research methods, than not to do any research at all.14 One might also argue that since the archival profession is only just beginning to realize its research function and the necessity of structured quantative and qualitative data and analysis, it will eventually progress from action research to more sophisticated basic and applied research. Although elementary, action research furnishes the skills and tools by which both the archival practitioner and scholar may analyze a question, problem, or situation in a structured methodology when there is not enough knowledge or information already to act or decide what to do. Hernon's definition is also chosen because of its reference to the inquiry process, which includes five basic activities: 1. Reflective inquiry (including the identification of the problem, literature review for context, formulation of a theoretical or logical framework, research objectives and research questions and or hypotheses). 2. Identification and adoption of appropriate research designs and methodologies. 3. Collection of data. 4. Analysis of data. 5. Presentation of findings and recommendations for further research.15 The inquiry process articulates the pattern of structured research and summarizes the scientific model which is adopted throughout the scientific community as the basic criteria of conscientious 14Mary Sue Stephenson, ARST 590: "Research Methods in Libraries and Archives," University of British Columbia, School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, (Winter Session 1993-1994), Class Lecture, 13 September 1993. •Tbid, 4. 11 research. The scientific model includes eight basic steps16, which are presented in a linear progression, but which in practice may take place in almost any sequence. 1. State the general problem 2. Conduct a literature search 3. State the specific problem 4. Design the research methodology 5. Gather the data 6. Analyze the data 7. Report the results of the research 8. Examine results and modify hypotheses in light of the Inherent in the inquiry process and the scientific method is the notion of structure, planning and rigor, and the articulation of standards by which all research is critically reviewed and analyzed by one's peers. The essence of the word research is 'to search again'. Yet, the problem for archivists (as is the case with their LIS colleagues) is that there are many topics and issues in archival studies which have yet to be studied. Ideally, a healthy body of research develops over time as archivists undertake their own research projects according to acceptable standards of research, the results of which when reported to the archival community are subject to replication by other archivists in order to test whether or not the original results are still valid. It is in this research continuum that the entire body of knowledge is advanced and enriched. One may use the analogy of a tree to visualize the importance of research in the 16I have structured my own research project according to the scientific model, and have presented a detailed description of my research in Chapters Three and Four. "The Scientific Model or Method of Research is described by Mary Sue Stephenson in ARST 590: "Research Methods in Libraries and Archives," Class Lecture, 9 September 1993. 12 results. development of archival studies.18 The tree signifies the knowledge of the profession and the limbs of the tree signify the various research topics which have been studied or have yet to be studied. Each time a new topic is studied the profession reaches out onto a new limb. Every time someone replicates a research project to test the results of the original research, the profession moves a little further out onto that limb. Over time, the replication of research and the testing or refuting of research results yields a stronger and healthier tree. Success in building the professional body of knowledge is in moving slowly and surely over time a little further onto the branch, rather than leaping onto the end of the branch in the hope that something will land there by some good fortune. Adapting Stephenson's analogy of the 'knowledge tree', one might also argue that archival knowledge and literature has grown up from the 'seedling' literature of the post-war era to the 1970s, characterized by opinion pieces and "how we do it in our shop"19 contributions. As Canadian archivists discovered a professional identity apart from historians and as they formed their own professional association in the mid-1970s, they began to create an effective communication vehicle for the dissemination of their professional literature in Archivaria. Throughout the mid- to late-1980s and early 1990s, the archival profession's intellectual life grew deeper and stronger from the active and vigourous discourse on archival theory and methodology, with topics ranging from professional qualifications and pre-appointment educational criteria to descriptive standards and the concept of the archival fonds, functional analyzes, and conservation strategies. Now at the end of the century, and with strong roots to support a mature 'knowledge 18This "tree analogy" is borrowed from Dr. Mary Sue Stephenson, who uses this visual imagery to educate her students on the value of research in the development of the LIS and archival professions. •"Victoria Lemieux, "An Archival Practitioner's Views on Archival Literature: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going," Archivaria 40 (Fall 1995): 206. 13 tree', one might question whether or not the archival profession is about to enter a new stage in its development by engaging in social science research. Unlike professions and disciplines which consider research methods and the conduct of research by its members to be an integral part of its metier, the archival profession has yet to cultivate an intellectual commitment to social science research throughout its membership. As to be addressed in Chapter Two, can archivists really consider themselves members of a profession or a discipline if they have not cultivated what might be termed an 'active research orientation?' In order to evolve, the archival community must recognize the need for this evolution. Without any well-defined research orientation cultivated in the profession, archivists must first understand the benefits of research, then acquire the skills to undertake good research. Why should the archival profession concern itself with social science research? What benefits are derived from having archival practitioners and academic alike, conducting this type of research? Chapter Two will analyze why research is necessary in the development of the archival profession. 14 Chapter Two: Expanding Archival Knowledge Using Social Science Research Methods Professions, like the individuals who belong to them, evolve and develop through self-awareness, critical analysis, and innovation. A profession which knows itself is able to identify gaps in its professional knowledge base and respond with new or revised theories, methods and practices to meet contemporary demands or challenges. The health and development of a profession depends on a body of solid research generated by its members, and the ability of its members to conduct and critique the research in their field. Social science research methods provide archivists with structure and rigor when exploring issues and problems in their profession, and allow archivists to document the process by which new knowledge is discovered in order that the findings may be communicated to the profession and/or replicated by other researchers. Over time, the entire body of knowledge built up by members who undertake research into the archival profession and those who later test and replicate those earlier findings builds and enhances what is known about the archival profession. Archival practitioners are given the opportunity to undertake their own research, predominantly action research directed towards a particular problem.1 Archival theorists are given the opportunity to study whether archival theory is still applicable to contemporary archival issues •For some examples of research by practicing archivists, including archival studies students who used social science research methodologies, see: Tim Hitchinson, "Strategies for Searching Online Finding Aids: A Retrieval Experiment," Archivaria 44 (Fall 1997): 72-101; Diane L. Beattie, "An Archival User Study: Researchers in the Field of Women's History," Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 33-39; Laura Bradley, "User Fees - Where We Are Now in Nova Scotia," Council of Nova Scotia Archives Newsletter (Fall 1997/Winter 1998): 23, 27-28; Elizabeth Eso and Robin G. Keirstead, "A Survey of Students of the Master of Archival Studies Programme at the University of British Columbia, 1981-88," Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 104-27; Alan D. Gabehart, "Qualifications Desired by Employers for Entry-Level Archivists in the United States," American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 420-39; Erwin Wodarczak and Judy Chown, AABC Internet Committee, "Internet Connectivity Survey," AABC Newsletter 8 (1) (Winter 1998): 17-18. 15 or dilemmas.2 This chapter explores why and how social sciences research and research methods are essential requirements of professionalism and discusses potential difficulties in fostering this new educational requirement. This chapter also examines whether the Canadian archival profession is ready to accept social science research as a new form of professional enquiry suitable to many issues and topics in archival studies and well within the reach of both the academic and practising archivist. One must first consider why the archival profession has yet to embrace this type of research, when discussion and debate on the role of research and research methods has existed in librarianship for many years, since scientific research methodology was first introduced to the Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago in 1923.3 The debate on whether social science research is even necessary in the development of the archival profession is further complicated because it touches upon the more vigourous archival discussions on professional education requirements, the existence of archival theory, and the role of the archivist in society. Since each of these issues can be debated at great length and with passion, far beyond the scope of this chapter, there remains one fundamental argument in support of archivists' becoming educated in social science research methods, engaging in this type of research, and becoming 2Luciana Duranti and Heather MacNeil, "The Protection of the Integrity of Electronic Records: An Overview of the UCB-MAS Research Project," Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 46-67. This article summarizes the UBC-MAS research project which applied a diplomatic analysis to electronic records. 3Mary Jo Lynch, "Research and Librarianship: An Uneasy Connection," Library Trends 32 (Spring 1984): 371. According to Lynch, scientific research methodology was introduced to librarianship in 1923 by the work of Charles C. Williamson in Training for Librarianship. The work led to the founding of the Graduate Library School (GLS) at the University of Chicago. The focus of the GLS program was the discovery of new knowledge about librarianship through scientific research. 16 research literate. Research is an element by which one may distinguish a profession from mere activity; but more specifically, research is employed by professionals to investigate, analyze, and test the theories, methods and practices of their profession. A profession which does not test its theoretical, methodological and practical foundations is unable to know, short of intuition or uninformed thought, whether its theory remains valid, its methods remain relevant, or its practices meet current needs. Research pushes the boundaries of one's professional knowledge further and further by having that professional simply question "I wonder why...", "I wonder if....", "I wonder how...." and then pursue an answer. Without the knowledge gained through structured research, yielding valid and reliable data, a profession is unable to reaffirm its existing knowledge base nor is it able to progress towards new knowledge. The ability of archivists to conduct structured and rigorous research according to the scientific model and inquiry process and to disseminate the findings of that research, and/or to critically review and evaluate the research work of their peers is essential for developing the theoretical and applied knowledge of the archival profession. Roy Schaeffer has addressed the role of the scientific method in the development of archival theory, when he quotes from Vollmer's Professionalization: The importance of theory precipitates a form of activity normally not encountered in a nonprofessional occupation, viz., theory construction via systematic research. To generate valid theory that will provide a solid base for professional techniques requires the application of the scientific method to the service-related problems of the profession. Continued employment of the scientific method is nurtured by and in turn reinforces the element of rationality. As an orientation, rationality is the antithesis of traditionalism. The spirit of rationality in a profession encourages a critical, as opposed to a reverential, attitude toward the theoretical system. It implies a perpetual readiness to discard any portion of that system, no matter how time-honored it may be, with a formulation demonstrated to be more valid. The spirit of rationality generates group self-criticism and theoretical controversy. Professional members convene regularly in their associations to learn and to 17 evaluate innovations in theory. This produces an intellectually stimulating milieu that is in marked contrast to the milieu of a nonprofessional occupation.4 Likewise, Mary Biggs writes that: Research is necessary, of course, for without it, there is only unsystematic observation, intuition, and superstition - no body of trustworthy knowledge, no data to support or challenge explanatory theories and promote their extension or their demise... 'No theorist... can any longer carry on his work without feeling that the empirical sociologists are looking over his shoulder and that sooner or later he must answer to them,' wrote Shils (1980, p. 142). 'He knows now that his work can no longer be self-sustaining but that it must justify itself by what it contributes to research (Ibid.).5 Schaeffer and Biggs highlight that scientific research acts as a necessary counterweight to theory that is, in the case of the archival profession, derived from "an intellectual discipline based on philosophical study of ideas. "6 Systematic, rigorous, scientific analysis tests theory and, in doing so, ultimately strengthens it. While Biggs leaves the impression of confrontation between the theorist and the empirical researcher, research is better viewed as a complementary function to "Roy Schaeffer "From Craft to Profession: The Evolution of Archival Education and Theory," Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 31-32. Schaeffer quotes Howard M. Vollmer and Donald L. Mills, eds., Professionalization. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966): 12. 5Mary Biggs, "The Role of Research in the Development of a Profession or a Discipline," In Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure, 72-84. (Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991), 74. Biggs quotes from Edward A. Shils, "The Confluence of Sociological Traditions," in The Calling of Sociology, and Other Essays on the Pursuit of Learning, ed. Edward A. Shils (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 134-164. This description of what archival activity should be originates from Terry Cook, "Mind Over Matter: Towards a New Theory of Archival Appraisal," in The Archival Imagination: Essays in Honour of Hugh Taylor (Ottawa: Association of Canadian Archivists, 1992), 43; as quoted by Victoria Lemieux, "An Archival Practitioner's Views on Archival Literature: Where We Have Been and Where We are Going," Archivaria 40 (Fall 1995): 206. Lemieux uses the phrase from Terry Cook to highlight the dichotomy between those who see archival activity as an intellectual discipline versus an empirical discipline which employs the scientific method. 18 theory building. Apart from theory building in the academic setting, research is equally useful to practising archivists for problem-solving with more reliable and statistically valid methods than the intuition, common sense, and best guesses of their forebears. In the archival workplace, research methods function as analytical tools for investigating issues, understanding in-house phenomena, and gathering data for local problem-solving in a structured, methodical and rigorous manner. Resource allocators may require hard data and statistical evidence through structured research to justify the continuation of archival programs, monitor the success in the delivery of archival services to the parent organization, or support the need for larger budgets, more staff and better facilities. Archival services may require analysis to ensure that user needs are being met. From an intellectual perspective, practitioners within a profession should be no less inclined to undertake research as part of their professional life in the workplace. As Peter Heraon observes: "[r]esearch... should encourage practitioners to ask why and not merely to do something."7 To date, research in archival studies has been predominantly the scholarly and historical research of the humanities. While scholarly and historical research is appropriate for exploring many aspects of archival studies, these approaches are found to be inappropriate in situations where quantative and/or qualitative analysis is better suited to the inquiry, particularly when testing, confirming, revising or refuting knowledge and theory, and/or investigating a problem for local decision-making.8 When quantative or qualitative analyzes have been employed by archivists with little or no training in social science research methods, often the results have been studies which are poorly operationalized or designed, methodologies which are inadequate or 7Hernon, "The Elusive Nature," p. 12. 8Ibid., 3-4. 19 inappropriate, data which is either invalid or unreliable, or conclusions unsupported by the data. With proper instruction in social science research methods, archivists are capable of identifying an area of research, developing an appropriate, structured methodology, gathering data according to the rules and procedures developed for the study, analyzing the data using the appropriate statistical tests, and drawing conclusions which are valid and reliable. Several archival contributors have directly or indirectly lamented the lack of scientific research being conducted in archival science. Ian Wilson, in "Strategies for Communication" exemplifies the frustration archival professionals experience in the overall lack of formal research when he writes that: [i]n attempting to assess the real level of communication activity in our repositories, I am hampered by the state of our literature and the lack of statistical data. As I have noted, I am not aware of any study of the overall communications function in archives in North America. The studies that have been published are excellent but episodic, describing isolated initiatives. The surveys that exist suggest to the critical observer that the apparent gap in the archival literature is an accurate reflection of the attitude of many archival admimstrators to communication.9 Michael Cook identifies the study of archives user groups as being one area of archival knowledge to benefit from "the investigatory techniques developed by the social sciences."10 Particularly in understanding the impact of genealogists and family historians, Cook warns that "[t]he problems imported by pressure from these users, however, will not be solved until the archivists decide to participate in the research."11 Cook points to a historical and intellectual 9Ian E. Wilson, "Strategies for Communication," Journal of the Society of Archivists 16 (1) (1995): 56. 10Michael Cook, The Management of Information from Archives. (Aldershot: Hants.: Gower Publishing Company Limited, 1986): 186. nIbid. 20 isolation of archives as reasons why archivists have been slower in realizing the shared benefits of linkages with other allied professions, particularly with library and information science colleagues who joined in the 1970s to expand the realm of information management.12 From a practitioner's perspective, Victoria Lemieux writes: ... many of these new theories and methodologies are relatively untested. Archival practitioners here and there may have experimented with them and have published anecdotal accounts of their results, but — largely — they have not tested these ideas in any systematic way. Consequently, many ideas in current archival literature remain speculative, rather than demonstrable and useful to the archival practitioner.13 To address the research function in archival education, the Education Committee of the Association of Canadian Archivists prescribed in 1988 the "Guidelines for the Development of a Two-Year Curriculum for a Master of Archival Studies Programme."14 The purpose of the guidelines was to "...indicate the components of the body of knowledge which, by international consensus, belong to a professional archivist."15 Research methods was described as a "Subject for Methods Course" in the curriculum, to complement the more familiar or traditional courses in archival education: intellectual history, administrative history of Canada, elements of law for archivists, archival science and history of archives, records management, organization and administration of North American archives, diplomatics, automation and archives, special methods for description of archival holdings, preventive conservation, management sciences and 12Ibid., 2. "Victoria Lemieux, "An Archival Practitioner's Views on Archival Literature: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going," Archivaria 40 (Fall 1995): 206. 14The Education Committee, Association of Canadian Archivists, "Guidelines for the Development of a Two-Year Curriculum for a Master of Archival Studies Programme (December 1988)," Archiyaria. 29 (Winter 1989-1990): 128-141. lsIbid, 134. 21 financial accounting. The Committee's rationale for including a course in research methods as part of the archival education was as follows: The archivist needs to become familiar with several aspects of the research process, not only as a facilitator of research for the users but also as a consumer of research. In fact, archivists conduct research when they are making decisions about selection and acquisition, and are arranging and describing archival documents. Archivists, thus, need to have an understanding of historical and social sciences research methods.16 Although its rationale makes reference to the archival or historical research used in the course of archival functions such as arrangement and description, selection and acquisition, it is clear from the content description for "Research Methods" that the Committee was speaking directly of social science research: Content Research: definition and historical context. Research methods and design: various approaches, their characteristics and appropriate applications. The research process: problem selection, problem statement, characterization of the literature, hypothesis, operational definitions, assumptions, study design, data collection, data analysis, conclusions and report writing. The research plan.17 While one might expect to see an emphasis on research and research methods in the curriculum of a two year graduate-level pre-appointment program, research was further legitimized by the Education Committee's guidelines for post-appointment and continuing education training in 1990.18 By including research methods in the training of archival professionals working beyond the academic setting, the Education Committee acknowledged the 16Ibid., 139. 17Ibid. 18The Education Committee, Association of Canadian Archivists, "Guidelines for the Development of Post-Appointment and Continuing Education and Training Programmes (December 1990)," Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-1991):60-89. 22 role and importance of research methods as a mark of professionalism. The Education Committee identified research methods at both advanced and specialized levels and reiterated the content description from the earlier document: Research Methods [at the advanced level] Body of Knowledge: Research: definition and historical context. Research methods and designs; various approaches and their characteristics. The research process: problem selection, problem statement, characterization of the literature, hypothesis, operational definitions, assumptions, study design, data collection, data analysis, conclusions, and report writing. The research plan. Historiography. Content: The advanced level should provide comprehension of various historical and other social science research methods, the research processes followed by archives patrons and staff, and the preparation of research plans (e.g. bibliometric analysis, preparation of questionnaires, etc).19 Research Methods [at the specialized level] Body of Knowledge: See section under "Advanced Level." Content: The specialized level should provide a detailed examination of specific type(s) of research and the implications for archival practice (e.g. the relationship of quantitative research to sampling techniques).20 While in theory, the Education Committee anticipated that the professional archivist should have a basic grounding in research methods; in practice, this particular skill set has yet to be widely developed and appreciated within the Canadian archival community. There appears to exist within the Canadian archival community certain aspects of what McClure and Bishop have described as a "lack of research competencies", including "the inability to recognize good 19Ibid, 68. 20Ibid., 71. 23 research, discounting of all research because it is not understood, inability to conduct a quality research project; inability to differentiate between research and opinion pieces, and general lack of sophistication in the use of research methods."21 To date, there have not been any major educational initiatives in the area of research methods to train archivists in how to recognize and analyze good research, to conduct a good research project, and to differentiate between various research methods appropriate to the study being conducted. Nor has there been any significant rise in the production of published research according to scientific research methods.22 Pre-appointment education programs may offer social science research methods only as an elective.23 One or two articles a year specifically related to research methods may be published in Archivaria.24 However, the overall success of the "Guidelines" in developing archivists with the knowledge, experience or inclination towards social science research appears to be negligible. 21Charles R. McClure and Ann Bishop, "The Status of Research in Library/Information Science: Guarded Optimism," College and Research Libraries 50 (2) (Mar. 1989): 140. In then-discussion of research competencies, McClure and Bishop have developed these examples of the lack of research competencies. ^While the quantity of published research has not risen, there is hope that the quality of research and the reporting of that research in a publication is slowly improving. For an excellent example of published research, see Tim Hutchinson, "Strategies for Searching Online Finding Aids: A Retrieval Experiment." Hutchinson includes the key elements of published research, which are often missing in research articles: an explanation of his literature review, methodology, statistical measures, results and analysis, and conclusions, including methodological problems, implications, and suggestions for further research. 23In the course of this research, I have not found any evidence that such a course has actually been offered by a professional archival association such as the Association of Canadian Archivists (for example, as a session at a conference), or in the education programmes of regional archival association such as the Archives Association of British Columbia, or the Archives Society of Alberta. MFor example: Mary Sue Stephenson, "Deciding Not to Build the Wall: Research and the Archival Profession," Archivaria 32 (Summer 1991): 145-51; "The Function and Content of Research Methods in Graduate Archival Studies Education," Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993): 190-202. 24 The key to advancing research in the archival profession and the primary barrier to research at this time is the lack of educational opportunities for archivists to learn about research methods. While the AC A "Guidelines" include teaching research methods at the post-appointment and continuing education levels, the most effective instruction is best focussed on archival students in the graduate professional schools, who have chosen to devote at least a year or two to acquire professional training. Biggs advocates that librarians should improve their delivery of research methods training as follows: First, library school training in empirical research methods for Master's degree students, which should be mandatory, needs to be expanded, stiffened and made more exciting. Its goal should be not necessarily to produce researchers, but to prepare new librarians who will be critical, imaginative consumers of research findings and research partners, capable of formulating investigative questions and addressing them analytically.25 Mary Sue Stephenson, in her overview of the research methods course taught to Master of Archival Studies students and their library colleagues at the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, has summarized the important longterm benefit from such educational instruction: By combining a knowledge of existing research, a recognition of areas that could benefit from research, and at least a basic knowledge of the actual research methods, archival studies graduates should be in a position to make research a normal and expected function and tool of the archival workplace.26 Stephenson further observes that graduate archival education, such as in the Master of Archival Studies Program: 25Mary Biggs, "The Role of Research in the Development of a Profession or Discipline," in Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure, 72-84, (Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Pubhshing Corporation, 1991): 82. 26Mary Sue Stephenson, "The Function and Content of Research Methods in Graduate Archival Studies Education," Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993): 192. 25 ...offers an ideal mechanism for developing a cadre of archivists who understand not only why research is important and how it can be used to increase the theoretical and applied foundations of the profession, but also what needs to be done and how it should be done.27 While education is the key to creating archivists with a research orientation, it must be accompanied by a means of dissemination for research work produced by archivists who have acquired this new skill. Richard Cox has addressed the need for improved research and the necessity of providing an outiet for publication, when as the newly appointed editor of American Archivist, he defined the primary purpose of that journal, as being: "...the publisher of systematic research about archival functions, repositories, activities, practices, and principles."28 Three years later, Cox mounted an Editor's Special Forum on Needs in Archival Research and Publication in American Archivist, and contributed his own article in which he describes the state of research from 1970-1992, and the role of American Archivist in fostering research.29 While Cox does not advocate the publication of research to the exclusion of other types of articles presented in the journal, he understands that: [a] stronger research literature is essential to better practice (to help tell us how well we are doing what we are doing) and to a better knowledge base (to enable us to reconsider why we are doing what we are doing). As an applied science, archival science needs fully 2Tbid. 28Richard Cox, "The American Archivist: Voice of the Profession or Another Role? Some Thoughts at the Beginning of an Editorship," American Archivist 54 (Fall 1991): 463. Cox's second purpose for the journal, which is linked to the first above, is that American Archivist should be the vehicle for publication about the archival profession's knowledge base (theory) and its practice. Third, it should be a mechanism for serving the profession and stimulating discussion; fourth, it should be a chronicle of the profession's development. 29Richard J. Cox, "An Analysis of Archival Research, 1970-1992, and the Role and Function of the American Archivist." American Archivist 57 (Spring 1994): 278-288. 26 formed theory, methodology, and practice.30 Cox realizes that 'fully formed theory, methodology and practice', can only be achieved by testing, refuting, or rediscovering archival basics. He concludes his article with a basic assessment of the American archival profession's research needs. Cox sees the need for research on all archival functions, which is replicable, is well-designed from a research methodology perspective, builds on and refines earlier research, and draws on relevant research from other fields.31 His final words in the article offer an invitation, or perhaps a challenge to his colleagues, that the American Archivist awaits research submissions for publication32. Cox's emphasis on the role of research undertaken with the American archival profession and published by American Archivist signifies an major breakthrough in archival thinking because it emphasizes the need for more and better research into archival issues within the profession, and offers archival researchers a major forum in which to present their work. While Cox provides potential researchers with a standing offer to publish their work, ultimately one returns to the need for adequate training, since without proper education in research methods the quality and quantity of research articles submitted for publication will not improve. Cox's challenge in American Archivist is relevant to this analysis of the Canadian archival community because it also exemplifies the paradigm shift from the traditional scholarly and historical research usually found in archival professional literature to the empirical, scientific analyzes Cox and others have called for. While the Canadian counterpart, Archivaria accepts many types of research articles, including scientific research articles and contributions to the 30Richard Cox, "An Analysis of Archival Research, 1970-1992, and the Role and Function of the American Archivist." American Archivist 57 (Spring 1994): 287. 31Ibid., 288. 32Ibid. 27 understanding of social science research methods, there is no explicit invitation for such contributions as there is in American Archivist. As the major venue for professional archival literature in Canada, Archivaria exemplifies the current orientation towards the scholarly and historical research paradigm, in its 'Advice to Authors of Submissions': Archivaria is devoted to the scholarly investigation of archival science in Canada and internationally. The journal welcomes articles and other submissions exploring the history, nature and theory of archival science, or the use of archives; it aims to be a bridge of communication among archivists, and between archivists and the users of archives. Previous issues serve well to indicate the breadth of possible subjects relating to archives; various media and their evolution and characteristics; theoretical problems; practical solutions; new fields of history (and related disciplines) and new kinds of documentation being explored by users; new technological developments; legal and ethical concerns; the history of archives, individual archivists, and archival trends; the analysis of record-keeping practices over time and space; the relationship of archivists to other information management professionals; and much else.33 Margaret Child has observed that "[o]ne of the primary characteristics of young or developing professions is an increasingly rigorous definition of the art or science in question. "34 Unlike other professions and disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, and social work, which employ research methods, the archival profession in Canada has yet to develop any widespread scientific research orientation. Such an orientation encourages members of a profession to investigate aspects of their profession by undertaking their own research projects according to the research standards adopted by their profession, and/or to analyze and evaluate the published research of their peers against accepted professional research standards. Child has summarized this different mind set about research and archives as becoming "more analytical about the 33Archivaria 44 (Fall 1997): 195. 34Margaret S. Child, "Reflections on Cooperation Among Professions," American Archivist 46 (Summer 1983): 287. 28 sources of assumptions."35 Although some archivists may be sceptical of applying social sciences research to archival studies, they are reminded by Roy Schaeffer that: [a]s early as 1941, Solon Buck observed that like other sciences, archives is and must be 'compounded of parts of many other sciences or fields of knowledge'. Hugh Taylor and others have pointed out that the theoretical base can be drawn from an application to archival questions of research in such varied areas as communication theory, speculative philosophy, sociology and psychology.36 In response to archivists who may not see the need for social science research methods in archival studies, one might suggest that their reaction is reminiscent of the reluctance of their predecessors to accept archival education innovations such as records management, descriptive standards, management theory, or computer literacy, which over time have all become acceptable areas of study. At one time, these new areas were perceived, in some quarters, as having no relevant connection to the traditional archival education. Today, they are the requisite skills of the modern professional archivist. The key to exploring and acquiring new professional skills has been and will likely always be the ability of the archivist to adapt to new professional paradigms as they evolve over time. The new professional paradigm, in the case of research methods, is the discovery of new knowledge about one's profession according to a structured, scientific method, in contrast to the scholarly or historical methods currently employed by archival academics and by practising 3Tbid. 36Solon Buck, "The Training of American Archivists," American Archivist 4 (April 1941): 84; and Hugh A. Taylor, "The Discipline of History and the Education of the Archivist," American Archivist 40 (October 1977): 397-402; as quoted in Roy Schaeffer, "From Craft to Profession: The Evolution of Archival Education and Theory in North America," Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 30. 29 archivists who regularly contribute to the knowledge base of the profession. Not until archivists have made that paradigm shift, will they be willing and able to apply social science research. Herein lies the key to where the state of social science research is within the Canadian archival profession. In spite of the inclusion of research methods in the ACA Education Committee's "Guidelines", the Canadian archival community has yet to fully accept the need for social science research as a basic skill in their working, professional lives. While this fact may discourage archivists who accept social science research methods as part of their professional knowledge, there is comfort in knowing that the scenario parallels the development of research within librarianship over the past seventy years. Writing in 1931, C C . Williamson stated that: [t]o my mind the real reason that there is so little scientific study of the problems of library service is that practically no librarians have been trained in scientific methods... Moveover, there has been, and still is, I believe a deep-rooted prejudice among library workers against subjecting their activities to scientific scrutiny.37 Williamson's observation of librarians circa 1931 is as true today for the majority of Canadian archivists, who lack either the training and the willingness to apply this new research to archival theory, method, and practice. There are also practical reasons to explain why research methods are not well received in the Canadian archival community, despite the endorsement from the Association of Canadian Archivists. The traditional alliance of archival studies to the humanities and history is a powerful one which may not readily adapt to new knowledge from the social sciences. Archivists agree that records management, appraisal for selection and acquisition, arrangement and description, reference and access, preventive conservation, and outreach are important subjects which one 3 7C.C. Williamson. "The Place of Research in Library Service". Library Quarterly 1 (Jan. 1931): 10. 30 must learn to be an archivist. Research methods has yet to attain that level of acceptance within the archival profession in general and the graduate professional schools in particular. One must also consider that apart from a minority of research methods devotees currendy in the archival profession, there may also be little or no interest by members of the archival profession in learning research methods or undertaking research into the profession. Unlike their academic colleagues, practising archivists may not receive any tangible incentives, such as educational leaves, pay rises, or promotions, to encourage them to conduct research and publication as part of their work. Practising archivists may not have time in their working lives to conduct research, or may not have any support from their parent institution to engage in research activities. More importantly, archivists may not feel that they have the research knowledge and skills to actually conduct a structured research project, according to established social sciences research methods. Finally, McClure and Bishop have stated that: One basic impediment to the promotion of research in LIS is that fundamental conflicts remain about the nature, role, purpose and value of research in a professional field. Early assessments by Williamson and Shera note a fundamental antipathy in librarianship towards the application of scientific scrutiny to a profession steeped in idealism and to practice based on art. Several commentators have noted that the field as a whole has a long history of being more concerned with preserving knowledge than creating knowledge.38 This assessment is one which may apply equally well to the archival profession and explain why its members do not produce more research, ironically, even if some archivists express the need 38Charles R. McClure and Ann Bishop, "Status of Research in Library/Information Science: Guarded Optimism." College and Research Libraries 50 (2) (Mar. 1989): 129. 31 for research into various issues or topics. Robin Wylie has examined the theses produced by students in the Master of Archival Studies (MAS) Program and concluded that two areas of knowledge exist in the MAS thesis work: the management of the record (intellectually/physically) and archival administration (from external questions such as defining the social contexts of records and institutional structures to internal administration concerns such as access, promotion and education), with either a theoretical, methodological or practical approach to either of these subjects.39 In his concluding statements regarding the future course of MAS thesis work, Wylie identified gaps in this literature as being related to discussions of public information policies, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy laws and administration, the physical management of the record, archival description, the Rules for Archival Description, archivography, and archival education. Absent from Wylie's article is any discussion of the obvious gap in social science research in the current MAS thesis literature. Perhaps one might surmise from this omission that Wylie may not recognize the legitimacy of this type of research within the MAS thesis literature. Wylie does refer to the "scientific" nature of archives in his concluding paragraph regarding the publication of student research work when he writes: Finally, now that we know in a general way what has been produced by students, should this research literature be included in archival publications? If the profession believes in the value of a systematic and comprehensive research agenda based on the development of archives as a science as well as a discipline, by developing theories and methods about managing the record and its administrative context, then there is every reason to promote the results of one of the few places where research is conducted into archives as a science. In this way, student archivistics will become the basis of a theoretically armed, methodologically sophisticated, 39Robin Wylie, "Student Archivistics: The Contribution of Master of Archival Studies Theses to Archival Professional Literature," Archivaria 39 (Spring 1995): 97. 32 scientific profession.40 However, one might question his definition of 'scientific', which might better be interpreted as scholarly research rather than the scientific investigation according to the inquiry process and scientific model described earlier in Chapter One. Richard Cox cites the Master of Archival Studies Program as having contributed to theory building and research on basic archival function through its thesis requirement.41 However, even within this pre-appointment education program, the theses produced by students have tended towards historical or theoretical studies of archival phenomena and issues. As discussed in the next chapter, one might expect that archivists who receive pre-appointment archival training, within the professional school setting of the University of British Columbia's Master of Archival Studies Program, would also be the archivists most likely to have undertaken research in the course of their working professional lives. Some of the graduates of the MAS Program would have taken the course in research methods when it was offered as an elective, and they would have an informed opinion of the role of research and research methods in the archival profession.42 By asking a series of questions to determine their interest in '"Wylie, 103-104. 41Richard J. Cox, "The Roles of Graduate and Continuing Education Programs in Preparing Archivists in North America for the Information Age," American Archivist 56 (Summer 1993): 453. One should note that the mandatory thesis requirement in the MAS Programme was dropped in 1994, replaced by the option of either a thesis project or additional course work and comprehensive examinations. 42Prior to the MAS Winter Session 1995/96, the cross-listed research methods course was a required course for library students and an elective for MAS students. In January 1996, this research methods course became a required course for the MAS students. A recent change in the MAS core curriculum has resulted in the required social science research methods course, being replaced with a new required course, not solely about research methods, to be called 'Archival Research and Scholarship. The course is designed specifically for MAS students, and is planned for delivery in early 2000. 33 research, their confidence and ability in conducting research, their attitudes towards research, and their current research activities, one might understand the current state of research within this group, and suggest a possible future course for research and research methods. 34 Chapter Three: The Research Project: A Survey on MAS Graduates/Students Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession The preceding chapter develops the argument in favour of archivists learning research methods and actively engaging in social science research to develop and strengthen the knowledge-base of their profession. However, to date there has not been any scientific or statistical evidence of archivists' attitudes towards social science research, their thoughts on the role of this research in the development of their profession, or whether they want to know how to do research as part of their professional duties. In order to furnish statistical data for a thesis that advocates the benefits of scientific research, a structured research project was planned and administered as part of the thesis. This chapter defines the research problem and the methodology and design of the research project. It is organized according to the basic scientific method and includes a statement of the general problem, a literature review, a statement of the specific problem, and a detailed description of the research design and data gathering process. This chapter is designed to be read in conjunction with the Codebook, which is located in Appendix One. The last three steps of the scientific model are covered in Chapter Four, with an analysis of the data, a report of the results of the research, and the modification of any hypotheses originally formulated in the course of the research. 35 Statement of the General Problem1 The research project began with a few simple questions: I wonder what archivists think about social science research? Do archivists think social science research is important to their profession? I wonder if archivists know how to undertake social science research? Why is there limited discussion of social science research in archival literature? The project was originally conceived of as a way of knowing more about social science research as it applies to archival studies. Its goal was to provide insight into why social science research has not received the same attention and discussion in archival science literature and study as it has in library science. The importance of research methods in the Canadian archival profession has been endorsed by the Education Committee of the Association of Canadian Archivists (ACA).2 However, Canadian archivists have not yet fully embraced the opportunity to conduct extensive empirical research, judging by the limited number of such research articles in the professional journals and the apparent gap in current archival education literature regarding research methods. Since the early 1990s, archivists have begun to discuss the benefits of social science 'Peter Hernon and Cheryl Metoyer-Duran, "Problem Statements: An Exploration Study of Their Function, Significance, and Form," Library and Information Science Research 15 (1993): 71-92. Their article studies the elements and importance of the problem statement in research studies. In defining the general and specific problem statements for this study, I have consulted their work, including the 'Attributes of a Problem Statement', Figure 3. I agree with Hernon and Metoyer-Duran's argument that if research is directed towards problem-solving, the articulation of the problem statement is fundamental to what proceeds onward through reflective inquiry, appropriate research methodology and design, collection and analysis of data, and presentation of findings. 2The Education Committee, Association of Canadian Archivists, "Guidelines for the Development of a Two-Year Curriculum for a Master of Archival Studies Programme (December 1988)," Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 128-141; and "Guidelines for the Development of Post-Appointment and Continuing Education and Training Programmes (December 1990)," Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-1991): 60-89. 36 research in the development of the archival profession and the need for archival scholars and practitioners to undertake research to test the current body of archival theories, methods, and practices. One might ascertain the direction in which research should be encouraged or developed within the profession, if one knew the attitude of professional archivists towards research, and the degree to which they consider or conduct research in the course of their working lives. Literature Review A literature review was undertaken to determine if anyone else had previously researched the topic, and if so, to what conclusion. Researchers conduct literature reviews to discover what research has already been done and to place their work in context to that which has gone before; to expand their existing knowledge base of the topic or problem they have chosen to investigate; and/or to formulate their research so as to build on existing research. From an academic perspective, a researcher also undertakes the literature search in preparation for eventual publication of the findings. The selected bibliography assembled throughout the project is divided into two sections: sources from library and information science (LIS) literature and sources from archival literature. The LIS profession has produced a more developed body of literature on research and research methods and presents many aspects of research within the profession: ranging from basic literature on research methods, to the development of research agendas within the library science profession, to analytical pieces on the benefits of more and better research in library science, and critical pieces on the shortcomings of current research conducted within that profession. In contrast, archival science literature is just now discovering the realm of social science research as it may be applied to the archival profession. Consequently, one finds articles which 37 focus on the new educational requirement of research methods; articles which begin the debate on the role or status of social science research within the archival profession; and samples of published research which describe the research work of archivists. A literature search confirmed that while research projects have been conducted and published, none deal directly with the topic of archivists and research methods. In cases where projects were reported, it was useful to analyze the research work of individual archivists and to study their methodologies and reporting styles when publishing in the scholarly journals. There were also some articles which advocated the need for better research into the archival profession, which was of direct relevance to the research project. Diane L. Beattie's article on her archival user study in the area of women's history is important not so much for what she has studied, but for how she has studied it.3 Beattie undertakes an empirical research approach to the study of a specific user group (namely historians) in their use of archival sources in the area of women's history. She uses the combination of two types of survey techniques: 1) the questionnaire or survey, to analyze the researcher's use of and attitudes to the archival material and 2) the reference or citation analysis, to analyze the respondent's actual use of primary sources. Beattie clearly defines the limitations to these two approaches, and then goes on to report her findings in the article. Furthermore, throughout the article she comments on the lack of enthusiasm on the part of archivists for the empirical approach. Beattie indicates that a common flaw in the overall development of the profession is that archivists tend to base their understanding of a given situation in terms of intuition, without any empirical data as proof.4 3Diane L. Beattie, "Archival User Study: Researchers in the Field of Women's History." Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-1990): 33-50. Tbid., 34. 38 She contends that there must be more substance to these 'archival impressions', and that structured research methodology provides the necessary rigor that is expected of a mature profession or discipline. Richard Cox begins his article, "Charting the Unknown: The Continuing Need for Research About Archival Work, Institutions and the Profession," with a very simple statement: "I am always amazed by how much we don't know about our own profession. "5 As the editor of American Archivist. Cox introduces this issue as the one devoted to the promotion of research within the American archival community. He invites American archivists to engage in basic and applied research work, and to submit their findings to the 'Research Articles' section of American Archivist for dissemination to the community at large. However, Cox recognizes that although there is a ready forum for research articles, there is a general lack of effort or enthusiasm for research activities on the part of individual archivists. The Cox article leads one to consider that the Canadian counterpart, Archivaria. does not include a similar section specifically aimed at the publication of research. Traditionally, Archivaria has been a scholarly journal directed towards theoretical and historical research. In regard to the American situation, Cox's article points to two possible situations: either archivists are simply not doing any research, or they are doing research but are not publishing. In terms of the research project, Cox's article prompted the development of research questions to gather data on whether MAS respondents have personally conducted any research projects since beginning work as archivists, what their confidence level is in conducting or assisting in a research project, reasons or factors for not being able to conduct research in the workplace, and what research projects have been conducted in their workplace in the last ten years. 5Richard J. Cox, "Charting the Unknown: The Continuing Need for Research About Archival Work, Institutions, and the Profession." American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 410-413. 39 Cox and Samuels' article outlining an appraisal research agenda is reviewed not for its subject (that is, the identification and retention of records of enduring value), but for the authors' commentary on the state of research in the American archival community.6 The authors maintain that there is a general misperception that research is fancy, expensive, and undertaken only by the national or state archival repositories. They explain that research need not be that complex. They write that: [rjesearch is generally described as a systematic search for new concepts, new knowledge — truth... Research, then, is defining what is unknown and finding answers by asking questions. This simplistic explanation is offered to demonstrate that the everyday work of archivists involves the research process.7 Cox and Samuels recognize that research is important in the development of the profession, and that working archivists, even those in one-person shops, should not hesitate to engage in action research to deal with a given problem in their institutions. Furthermore, archivists must recognize that although a given problem is unique to its institution, it may have relevance to other archivists in similar situations. This article prompts one to consider whether the lack of extensive research activity is due to archivists' perceptions of research, their institutional setting, or their employment situations. The Eso/Keirstead study has a direct connection with this project because it provides useful background data on the MAS students/graduates current to 31 December 1988.8 Most 6Richard J. Cox and Helen W. Samuels. "The Archivist's First Responsibility: A Research Agenda to Improve the Identification and Retention of Records of Enduring Value." American Archivist 51 (Winter/Spring 1988): 28-42. Tbid., 30. "Elizabeth Eso and Robin Keirstead. "A Survey of Students of the Master of Archival Studies Programme at the University of British Columbia, 1981-1988." Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-1990): 104-127. 40 of the questions are aimed towards building a profde of MAS students as a distinct group within the archival profession. Nonetheless, the questions relating to demography, previous education, employment, professional activities, and publications provide the context for new studies involving the MAS group. Of particular interest is their use of open response questions such as " 7) List all your experiences as an archival user prior to entering the Programme. Types of Archives, Types of Research."9 Such questions make it more difficult to control the data without some standardization of possible responses. Their survey also provided some early indication of the population size for the thesis research project. Based on an increase of approximately ten students each subsequent year past 1988 (when there were 59 total respondents), it was estimated that the population to 1992 was approximately 100 students. Alan D. Gabehart reports on a research project entitled "Qualifications Desired by Employers for Entry-Level Archivists in the United States," that he conducted for his doctoral dissertation.10 The article is relevant to the research project because it explains the use of a questionnaire as the data-gathering instrument. The article is also relevant in terms of its overall design and presentation, which includes the introduction/problem statement; the background, design, and limitations of the study; the distribution and return of the questionnaires, and the research findings. The article serves also as a model for the presentation of one's research to a scholarly journal such as American Archivist. Paul McCarthy argues that studies on the management aspects of the archival profession 9Ibid., 123. 10Alan D. Gabehart, "Qualifications Desired by Employers for Entry-Level Archivists in the United States." American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 420-439. 41 have been ignored in the archival literature.11 Furthermore, he states that effective archival management requires the ability to recognize and analyze changes in current practices. The archivist is best able to measure such change through applied research techniques. The research then leads the archivist to adjust current practices to meet the new requirements or demands of the system. Once again, it is not so much what this author says about management, but about research, that is of interest in this literature review. McCarthy is yet another archivist who advocates the necessity of research activities on the part of the working archivist, towards the long-term development of the profession. He recognizes that individual archivists and institutions should engage regularly in research. He writes that "[rjesearch and a critical approach to problem-solving in archives must become an everyday exercise."12 Mary Sue Stephenson states that the MAS Program provides an arena in which future archivists might learn the importance of research methods in the development of then-profession.13 Stephenson believes that the research methods course offered at SLAIS/UBC affords MAS students an excellent opportunity to learn the correct theoretical, methodological, and practical issues involved in conducting research. The article prompts such research questions as: Has the graduate/student ever taken a research methods course, and if so where? Does the respondent think that knowledge of research methods is useful in the workplace and in the development of the archival profession? Has the respondent ever conducted a research project 1 1 Paul McCarthy, "The Management of Archives: A Research Agenda." American Archivist 51 (Winter/Spring 1988): 52-69. 12Ibid., 68. "Mary Sue Stephenson, "The Function and Content of Research Methods in Graduate Archival Studies Education." Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993): 190-202. 42 since leaving SLAIS and if so, what was it? Stephenson's earlier article, "Deciding Not to Build the Wall: Research and the Archival Profession," furnishes an excellent overview of the current state of research in librarianship and provides advice to archivists who are just beginning to address the role of social science research in the development of their profession.14 Stephenson cautions against building a wall between the scholarly community who are most likely to become involved in research, and practitioners who are most willing to defer to their academic colleagues. Stephenson is adept at presenting the research pros and cons from both sides, from the academics and theoreticians who may be reluctant to put their theoretical foundations to the test; to the line archivists, of varying levels of education, who are content to let research go on in the ivory towers of academia. As the archival profession stands at a "crossroads", Stephenson challenges scholars and practitioners alike, to expand the realm of their professional knowledge by adopting a research orientation.15 By doing so, archivists will become as accustomed to actively engaging in and/or consuming published research as they already are in discussing, debating, and conducting appraisal, arrangement and description, reference and access, preventive conservation, outreach, and other archival functions and activities. As an archival practitioner, Victoria Lemieux questions how well the current literature is meeting the needs of 'front line,' archivists.16 In doing so, she articulates the need for more applied research to test the archival theories and methodologies practioners live with in the 'real 14Mary Sue Stephenson, "Deciding Not to Build the Wall: Research and the Archival Profession," Archivaria 32 (Summer 1991): 145-51. 15Ibid., 149. 16Victoria Lemieux, "An Archival Practitioner's Views on Archival Literature: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going," Archivaria 40 (Fall 1995): 199-209. 43 world'. While Lemieux does not dispute the importance of archival theory, she notes that to date the professional literature has tended to be more heavily theoretical, than practical; and with little or no thorough attempt to systematically test archival theory using sound research methods. Lemieux is quick to point out that archivists should not return to what she calls the "how we do it in our shop" era, which was a feature of archives literature well into the 1970s and early 1980s.17 Instead, she calls for the development of a research plan to direct both the theoretical and empirical research which needs to be conducted. Such a research plan would not only assist in filling in gaps in existing literature, but would signify the maturity of the archival profession and push even further the limits of literature knowledge. Barbara Craig has produced an article analyzing the importance of fostering archives research in education programs and professing the workplace as the arena in which archivists might undertake productive and useful research.18 In reviewing the current skill set of professional archivists at the end of the twentieth century, Craig acknowledges that there are contemporary professional needs and academic requirements which are not fulfilled by the traditional archival training which has evolved over the past fifty years. When addressing research methods and archivists, Craig argues that many research methods: "statistical, quantitative, survey, qualitative, and historical - have a place in the skill set of archivists; to exclude one or more would impair greatiy the archivist's ability as a professional.19 Although Craig approaches research methods as one of several pools of knowledge yet "Ibid., 206. 18Barbara Craig, "Serving the Truth: The Importance of Fostering Archives Research in Education Programmes, Including a Modest Proposal for Partnerships with the Workplace." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 105-17. 19Ibid., 108. 44 to be developed by archival professionals, her enduring comment regarding archivists and research methods is that: Research cultivates a habit of examining received notions for their continuing pertinence and relevance. In the long run, the choice of research area and method is perhaps not as important as is the active pursuit of the research itself and the formal distribution of its results to the larger archives community.20 Craig's challenge is two-fold, since she says that not only must archivists acquire good research skills and then actively research various aspects of their profession. They must also communicate their findings to the profession at large. For the purpose of the research project, her challenge would lead one to ask if MAS graduates/students feel they have the skills to engage in research. It might also lead one to consider whether Archivaria should follow the example of the American Archivist by promoting the publication of research articles in a dedicated research section. Wendy Duffs article on the University of Pittsburgh electronic records project presents the requisite elements of a research project report, including a statement of the general problem, the research questions of the research agenda that resulted from the national conference sponsored by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, a statement of the specific problem which led to the University of Pittsburgh Electronic Records Project, and mention that a literature review was completed.21 Her report of the Pittsburgh project includes a brief outline of the methodology, and provides an appendix which describes in detail the functional requirements for record-keeping. While the actual requirements are the focus of her article, some discussion of the process by which those requirements were arrived at would have 20Ibid., 110. 21Wendy Duff, "Ensuring the Preservation of Reliable Evidence: A Research Project Funded by the NHPRC." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 28-45. 45 accentuated and supported the article.22 Duff indicates that the requirements were developed as a result of the literature review and the work of the Advisory Group of Experts. However, she does not describe the membership of this group. She also indicates that the set of functional requirements for record-keeping were circulated to over one-hundred archivists, record managers and other information professionals, and disseminated at conferences, workshops and publications; and that based on their comments, the requirements were revised. There are no details on how the study population was assembled. Was it a statistical sample of a professional association such as the Society of American Archivists or other professional associations such as the Association of Records Managers and Administrators? Or was the process of distribution more informal, using a non-scientific sample of colleagues who the researcher thought may be interested in the subject of the study? How was the draft document circulated? Was the method a mailed questionnaire survey, telephone survey, or personal interview with the respondent? How exactly was it disseminated at conferences, professional workshops and through publications? What was the data gathering process? In what period of time were the comments and suggestions gathered? How was the data received and analyzed? The absence of such detailed information may lead a reader to question the degree of rigor and structure used in conducting this research, and ultimately denigrate the validity of the research being presented.23 2Tbid., 32. 23While these questions may be answered elsewhere in other articles Duff has written on the Pittsburgh project, it would have been worthwhile to even include a footnote of where this detailed information may be found. 46 Statement of the specific problem Although the general problem was directed towards what 'archivists' in Canada thought about research, it was during the consideration of the general problem and the literature search, that it became clear that the study should focus on those archivists who had come to the profession through the Master of Archival Studies Program. It seemed likely that of all Canadian archivists, those who received pre-appointment education at a masters-level, professional school would be the archivists most likely to have learned research methods, and/or undertaken qualitative and quantitative research in their professional lives. After consultation with the thesis advisors and the completion of the literature review, it was decided to refine the focus of the study upon the attitudes of M A S graduates and students. The aim of the survey was to gather empirical data on these archivists' attitudes towards social science research, and to capture information on their current research activities in the workplace. The survey would ask if the M A S students and graduates thought that the ability to do research and to conduct research projects would be useful to them in their work and their profession. The project would evaluate whether M A S students and graduates had occasion to conduct research in the workplace or within the profession itself (i.e. as members of regional archives associations, historical societies, records management associations, etc.), and whether they thought that they were capable of conducting research based on the education they received in the course of their studies in the M A S program. M A S graduates/students were chosen for the research project because they were a uniform group of professional archivists who all received formal, pre-appointment education in archival theory, method, and practice, allowing for various curriculum changes since the program began in 1981. As a distinct group within the profession, MAS-trained archivists have had a significant impact on the overall development of the Canadian archival scene since the first class entered the 47 workforce in 1983. Since the study included graduates and students over a ten year period, it was thought that there would be a good distribution of respondents at all levels of seniority, from line archivists through to senior archivists in supervisory positions. The study would address a significant gap in existing archival literature with respect to the role of research and research methods in the archival profession. The data gathered would provide knowledge of the current attitudes of MAS archivists and research methods and would assist in determining a possible future course of action. The title of the research project was defined as "A Survey on MAS Graduates/Students Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession.1,24 Research Methodology and Design Published research often concentrates on reporting the results of a study, while onntring the details of the research's methodology and design. So how do archivists, as consumers of research, know whether or not the findings of a research study are to be believed? The key to analyzing research is in the detailed description of the research methodology and design. The critical reader of research analyzes the methodology and design to assess whether or not the study was conducted with structure, planning and rigor; qualities which attest to the credibility of the findings being reported. A good research study includes an explanation and justification for the methods used in conducting the research so that others may analyze the research and/or replicate the study to validate or re-evaluate its findings. Research designs document the methods undertaken, the rules defined and the decisions made in the course of conducting the research.25 I^deally, a research project title is ten to twelve words long and indicates the study population and the nature of the study. "See the codebook for a description of general rules for coding data. 48 The research design is the arrangement of conditions for the collection and analysis of data, in a manner that aims to combine the relevance of the research purpose with 'economy in procedure'. It is the plan of the study, and as such is present in all research projects - good, bad or indifferent.26 The research design is as unique as the person undertaking the research, and as a creative activity, reflects the researcher's own understanding of the problem, the researcher's identification of the most efficient and economical method in achieving the goals of the study, and the degree of error the researcher is willing to accept in the course of the investigation. As Mary Sue Stephenson reminds her students, it is 'largely a waste of time to argue whether or not a given research design is 'scientific,' since it is more a question of the degree to which the design allows the purposes of the research project to be accomplished."27 Instead of debating whether a research design is scientific, it is more useful to question whether the design achieves the collection of data which is valid and reliable. Validity refers to whether the attributes a researcher develops for a variable actually measure that variable and the phenomena with which the variable is concerned.28 Reliability refers to whether the measures that a researcher has constructed for a variable would, when faced with identical conditions, have identical measures.29 Without an acceptable degree of validity and reliability, the data and ^Mary Sue Stephenson, "ARST 590: Research Methods in Libraries and Archives, Class Notes #6, 7 October 1993." Stephenson's concept of 'economy in procedure' is fundamental to a discussion of research methodology since the goal of the researcher must be to use the most efficient means possible to obtain valid and reliable data to satisfy the research goals and objectives. 27Ibid. 28See the codebook for the variables and attributes. 29Stephenson, "ARST 590, Class Notes #6, 7 October 1993." 49 results of a research project are flawed and useless.30 A researcher also uses structure and planning throughout the project to ensure that the time, effort and expense of conducting the research yields sound data.31 A structured methodology checks and balances the personal experiences, attitudes, and biases that all researchers bring to their work. A research project follows a basic progression from a researcher thinking about the research problem and articulating the motivation for conducting the study, to defining appropriate variables and research questions to address the problem, to choosing the appropriate research methodology for achieving the purpose of the study, according to acceptable standards for research defined within the archival and library science communities. The goal of the thesis research project was to learn more about the attitudes of MAS graduates and students to research and the research methods and to provide empirical data on whether or not MAS graduates and students have conducted research or think that a knowledge of research methods would be useful. The study developed according to a logical framework and was both exploratory and descriptive in its approach. Since a study of this nature had not been conducted before, the exploratory approach was to gain familiarity and new insight into what 30Since research is a creative process, it falls to the researcher to determine the degree of error he or she is willing to accept in the project. If the data collected is relevant and useful in addressing the issue or problem under investigation and if there has been sufficient attention to structure and rigour, then it has been a good design. "Research is labour-intensive, time-consuming and often costly. The costs involved in this project included: photocopying questionnaires and paying postage for first and second mail-outs, including postage-paid return envelopes to encourage respondents to reply. International postage and return postage-paid was required in cases where respondents lived abroad. There were also time costs in identifying variables/research questions, defining attributes, developing the codebook, designing the questionnaire, compiling mailing list of respondents, researching current addresses, preparing labels/envelopes, assembling/mailing questionnaire packages, coding returned questionnaires, and entering data into a suitable statistical computer programme. 50 MAS graduates/students thought about research methods. The study also was descriptive as it would collect data which would accurately describe the attitudes of the MAS respondents to the topic of research methods, and the degree to which research was being conducted by respondents. Code Book Appendix One contains the codebook for the research project. The codebook documents the test variables and corresponding univariable research questions and attributes of each variable, the level of measurement, and the value codes for the statistical computer analysis. The codebook provides a concise textual, operational definition of each variable and describes the way in which it is used or measured in the research project. It defines the meaning of each variable as it is intended within the context of the study. Since a variable, as it is meant by the researcher, may be misunderstood by a respondent, the researcher must describe and define in his or her own mind exactly what is meant by it. The codebook includes samples of the covering letter and the questionnaire, as well as written instructions on the data gathering instrument (questionnaire), the mail-out procedure, and the data coding process. The codebook also describes the various decisions that a researcher makes in the course of developing and implementing the research, and is detailed enough to allow another researcher to replicate the study. Variables and Research Questions The variables were defined in the course of developing the problem statements and conducting the literature search. While a variable is simply defined as 'something that varies,' it is actually that which varies which is of interest to the researcher in the pursuit of research 51 topic or problem.32 Variables derive from the topic or problem itself and are evident since they are the things the researcher wants to know about the topic or problem being studied. Variables must be capable of being detected, recorded, and measured. The key to developing test variables is to adequately define and operationalize each variable to the appropriate level of specificity within the study. Each variable must have a name, an operationalized definition, and a means of measuring it. Variables may have nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio levels of measurement, and it is essential to determine what level of measurement will provide you with the information needed to satisfy the problem under investigation. The variables and resulting research questions consisted of three sections: demographic information, research in the workplace, and research and the archival profession. Demographic variables were necessary in understanding the respondent: year of MAS course work completion, thesis status, type of thesis research, whether or not the respondent has taken a course in research methods, his or her current employment status, current employment position or job title, and the job title of the person to whom the respondent reports directly, current work setting and an optional question which asked the name of the institution. Variables relating to research in the workplace consisted of: research projects in the workplace within the last ten years, reasons or factors for not being able to conduct research in the workplace, confidence in ability to plan and conduct a research project, confidence in ability to be a member of a research team lead by someone else, and whether knowledge of research methods would be useful in the workplace. Finally, variables pertaining to research in the archival profession included whether the respondent would like to learn more about research methods, if the respondent thought that a general knowledge of research methods would be useful in the development of the archival 'Mary Sue Stephenson, "ARST 590, Class Notes #3, 16 September 1993." 52 profession, areas of the archival profession that would benefit from research activity, has the respondent ever personally conducted a research project since beginning work as an archivist, and comments which the respondent added to the end of the survey questionnaire. The Population and Sample The determination of the population and sample depends on the purpose of one's research project and the practical reality in which the project exists. The theoretical population of this study was the Canadian archival community; with the study population being graduates and students of the MAS Program, operationalized as being those who entered the program in the eleven year period, 1981-1991. Students who first entered the MAS Program in 1981 completed their course work and entered the work force in 1983. Students who entered the MAS Program in 1991 completed the course work and entered the work force in 1993, although three respondents to the questionnaire indicate that they actually completed the course work in 1994. The sample, which is a subset of the study population and the actual set of people from which data is gathered, was designed as a census sample which included all members of the study population.33 A census sample was chosen because the total number of students in the eleven year period was less than one hundred and it was practical to include each one in the study. There were ninety-five cases in total. It is the link between the case, the sample, the study population and the theoretical population that allows a researcher to formulate valid and reliable generalizations from the data gathered on each case in the sample, and then have those findings apply as well to the study and theoretical populations. Generalizations derived statistically from the data, and the less-scientific 'See the codebook for details on the sampling design. 53 generalization of concepts allow the researcher to translate the immediate findings of the study beyond the study population up to the theoretical population.34 The ability to make generalizations means that a researcher can understand what is going on with the larger population, without having to study every member of it. However, as Stephenson indicates, "it is a major weakness in much of the research of our fields that the differences between these two types of generalizations is neither recognized nor applied.1,35 Survey Method The survey method using a mailed questionnaire was the most practical method of gathering the data.36 A questionnaire would allow respondents to answer quantitative and qualitative research questions, and provide written descriptions of any research projects in then-workplace or that they had personally conducted. Respondents could also provide their written comments on the survey specifically or about research in general, at the end of the questionnaire. Given that MAS graduates/students reside across Canada and abroad, a mailed questionnaire was more practical than conducting telephone interviews. As a cross-sectional survey design, data was collected on different persons at the same time, and then used to compare results. There were certain limitations associated with the survey method and mailed questionnaire and the following assumptions were made: that the person to whom the questionnaire was addressed was the same person who completed it; that the respondent was honest in his or her answers (which was likely since it respondents would not be supplying their name, although they 'Mary Sue Stephenson, "ARST 590: Class Notes #4, 23 September 1993." 'Ibid. !See the codebook for a sample of the questionnaire. 54 could be linked to their questionnaire by their unique identification number); and that the respondent would supply truthful answers. The likelihood that respondents would provide valid answers in a survey depends on various factors. They may be genuinely interested in the topic of the survey or they may think that the survey has some importance. They may want to the helpful or they may feel it is their duty to reply. They may also feel that they have no choice in replying or not. Given that these were fellow MAS students and graduates, it was hoped that in addition to being somewhat interested in the topic, they may at least feel a certain degree of duty to complete and return the survey to a fellow MAS student. It is also possible that a respondent may not participate in a survey if he or she has difficulty in understanding the survey questions or feels that completing the survey is a waste of time. Respondents may also feel that they do not know enough about the topic of research methods to make a contribution, or they may feel that completing the survey questions may reflect their lack of knowledge about research and research methods. It is essential that in the course of planning one's research project, that the researcher identify every possible thing which could go wrong with the project. In this case, there were several points which needed to be addressed: The lapse in time between the original mail-out date (May 1994) and the actual mail-out date (May 1998), resulted in a stale mailing list. The mailing list required updating the current mailing addresses of each case, as they were identified in regional or national archives association membership directories, and current telephone directories. The study was originally designed to include the MAS class which completed the second year of course work in the academic year 1992/93. When the survey was first being planned in 1994, an assumption was made that members of the 1992-1994 class, completing the course work in the academic year 1993/94 (which was the last class required to complete a 55 thesis) were only just entering the work force and would not have any experience upon which to draw in order to answer the survey questions. In the four year lapse in time between development and implementation of the survey, the 1992-1994 class has had the experience with which to respond to the questionnaire. The researcher took this aspect of the survey into consideration and decided to retain the original operationalized definition of the population. A researcher is careful to define everything about the study, and to account for possible problems which may affect the study, ranging from the respondent not understanding the questions or supplying an unusual response to a given question, to sending the questionnaire at a time when there is a natural disaster, or a postal strike. In the process of analyzing possible sources of error, a researcher acquires a "research attitude" which makes one truly believe that no matter how many times one conducts a research project, a mistake is always possible.37 It is in this process of structured planning, that a researcher must account for possible sources of error which may occur during the data collection process and which will affect the collection of valid and reliable data. The questionnaire contained three types of survey questions. Section I: Demographic Information captured data on respondent characteristics. Section II: Research in the Workplace and Section III: Research in the Archival Profession asked questions regarding behaviour and attitudes of the respondents. The questionnaire was designed to ensure data quality (validity and reliability) and to minimize respondent burden, the amount of work or effort the respondent must use to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire form was designed so that it was no longer than six pages and would take less than fifteen minutes to complete. The questionnaire layout was designed for easy 37Mary Sue Stephenson, ARST 590: Research Methods in Libraries and Archives, Class Lecture, 9 September 1993. 56 reading, with each question numbered clearly, and each attribute choice clearly defined with adequate space to mark the reply. Qualitative questions provided enough lines on which to write a reply, and adequate white space was left between each question to avoid making the questionnaire form appear crowded. Section titles, fonts and highlights were consistent throughout the form. Questions were presented in a logical progression, in each of the three sections of the form. The survey questions used concise, but simple words. Questions which contained concepts which were new or ambiguous were explained or defined to avoid the respondent and the researcher meaning two different things. This was particularly the case with the term 'research' which was used throughout the questionnaire, since it was possible some respondents may confuse 'social science' research with 'archival' research.38 With some questions, examples were supplied for clarity and definition so that the respondent would understand what was being asked.39 In other questions, a time reference was used to ensure that both the researcher and respondent understood the reply choices.40 Leading questions or questions that contained more than one variable were avoided. The questionnaire package contained a covering letter which explained the reason why the research was being conducted, the purpose of the survey, the study population, a confidentiality clause, the UBC disclaimer, an approximate time frame for completion of the survey, the offer of a stamped return envelope, and a due date for return. A second covering letter was prepared for those cases which did not respond by the first due date. 38See Appendix One, Codebook, sample questionnaire, page 2-6. 39Ibid., Questions #3, #4, #12. ""Ibid., Question #5. 57 The questionnaire packages were assembled according to the codebook procedure. The first mail-out occurred on June 1, 1998 with a due date of June 19, 1998. Approximately one week after this date, on June 29, 1998, a second copy of the questionnaire was sent to those who had yet to reply. The second due date was July 17, 1998. As they were returned, questionnaires were coded manually using the value codes established in the codebook, and these codes were eventually entered into the statistical computer program, SPSS, to analyze the data.41 Chapter Four contains a discussion of the data analysis and the results of the research. 41Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Ver. 6.1.3 for Windows/Student Version (Chicago, 111.: SPSS Inc.): 1996. 58 Chapter Four: Analysis of the Data and Results of the Survey The final steps in the scientific model include analyzing the data, reporting the results of the research, and examining the results and modifying any hypotheses originally formulated in the course of the research. The data analysis from this project includes the descriptive statistical analysis of the quantative questions and the analysis of documents, specifically the open-ended written responses to the qualitative questions in the questionnaire. Quantative designs allow a researcher to measure several variables across many cases. Researchers use statistical analysis of quantitative data to identify patterns and reveal trends in the raw data gathered in the course of a research project, and then to make valid and reliable generalizations of the study population which may be relevant when applied to the larger theoretical population. While archivists are generally unaccustomed to complex statistical applications, there are basic statistical applications such as frequency distributions and cross-tabulations which are useful in summarizing quantative data. Qualitative designs yield greater amounts of data on a smaller number of variables and respondents (that is, those who choose to make a response) and require greater attention to each individual case than is used in quantitative designs. Qualitative designs yield informative and useful data directly from the respondent, who has taken the time to give his or her thoughts on a given question. Unlike quantitative data which is analyzed using a statistical computer program, qualitative data is analyzed through the mind of the researcher, who is responsible for ensuring the validity and reliability of the data through fair and responsible treatment of the data. The ability to draw valid and reliable generalizations is more limited with qualitative data, and therefore analysis is not readily applicable on a higher level to the theoretical population. However, the data gathered is rich in information on what respondents think or feel about a given question. Qualitative analysis is summarized in this chapter, but transcripts of me original 59 responses have been provided in Appendix 2 for the benefit of readers who want to analyze for themselves the raw data as context to the findings being presented in this chapter. Return Rate and Confidence Level The census sample for the survey included 95 cases, 3 of which did not have any address to which a questionnaire may be sent. A total of 92 survey packages were mailed on the first mail-out; of which 6 were returned to sender with an incorrect address. Efforts were made to determine current mailing addresses, but without success. It was decided that the study could be maintained with this additional margin of error. A total of 86 packages were actually received by the MAS respondents. 60 questionnaires from either the first or second mail-outs were returned by the end of the survey period, 3 of which were spoiled, for a final total of 57 useable questionnaires and a return rate of 66%. As stated in the codebook, to achieve a 95% confidence level (sampling error of +7- 5%) a total of 77 returns was required. To generalize to the entire study population, with a population size of 95 cases and 57 useable returns, the actual sampling error is +/- 8.25 %, or a confidence level of 91.75%. Once the questionnaires were coded and the codes were transferred to coding sheets, the data was ready for statistical analysis using SPSS. Codebook values for the attributes in the quantitative questions were entered into the computer program. From that, each case's response to each quantitative question was entered by the corresponding code number. It is from that data the statistical tests are run, according to the type of question and the knowledge one wishes to obtain for any given question over the total number of cases. 60 Methods of Data Analysis Frequency Distributions The quantitative data in the questionnaire was first analyzed using frequency distribution, to determine the number of times a given variable occurs over the total number of cases, the percentage that this count is of the sample size, and the cumulative percentage. Frequency distributions result in tables which have been translated into bar charts for a visual presentation of the statistical data. "The advantage of a frequency distribution is that it classifies, condenses, and greatly simplifies data for presentation, analysis, and interpretation."1 The frequency distributions have been analyzed by count rather than by percent. Arthur W. Hafher warns of the dangers and deceptions of percents, particularly in instances where the denominator is small. A percentage may not actually reflect the true situation, as in his example of a survey of three people. One might report that 33% of those surveyed are frequent library users. To prevent a deception in the data, one should use the actual count and say that of the three people surveyed, one is a frequent library user. Hafher also reminds the consumers of research that there are many ways to express a relationship in or summary of the data. While researchers will present the data in the way which best supports the desired result, consumers of research must analyze the presentation to know whether the summaries are accurate reflections of the situation under study, and the conclusions based on the data summaries are appropriate and reasonable.2 Qualitative questions have also been analyzed and summarized, in the order that they appear in the questionnaire. Written summaries of each of these questions makes reference to 'Arthur W. Hafher, Descriptive Statistical Techniques for Librarians (Chicago: American Library Association, 1989), 50. 2Ibid., 36-37. 61 the transcriptions, arranged in question number order, in Appendix 2. Crosstabulations After determining the frequency distributions in each question, the next analysis involved the use of crosstabulation to examine the relationship between two given variables. Crosstabulation counts the number of cases that have different combinations of attributes of the two variables and results in a table with a cell for every combination of the two variables. Most of the crosstabulation analyses have been summarized visually using clustered bar charts.3 However, in analyses which do not lend themselves well to a visual presentation, the frequency distribution tables are presented. All crosstabulations use counts instead of percentages, for the reasons stated in the section on frequency distributions. The actual counts to each response yield a more accurate depiction of the data received in each question, than is the case with the percentages. 3Ibid., 80. For tips on graphs, see Hafner's 'Guidelines for Designing Graphs.' 62 Data Analysis - Frequency Distributions The questionnaire was divided into four sections: I. Demographic Information (Questions 1 through 9) Section I was intended to gather information on the background and experience of the respondent, to furnish context for the respondent's responses to the research questions. II. Research in the Workplace (Questions 10-14) Section II was designed to capture data on the current state of social science research in the workplace. III. Research in the Archival Profession (Questions 15-18) Section III was designed to gather data on what respondents thought about the role and use of research methods in the archival profession. IV. Additional Comments (Question 19). Section IV provided space for respondents to make comments on the questionnaire in particular or the subject of research in general. 63 I. Demographic Information (Questions #1 through #9) Research Question #1 The original intention of this question was to determine the respondent's perspective as an early, mid-, or later MAS student. As Chart 1. (see next page) indicates, there was a fairly even distribution of respondents from the study population, with a surprisingly large, but unaccountable, proportion of respondents from the class years 1990, 1987, 1989, and 1991, (as seen in the actual counts).4 "Please note that the numbers at the top of each bar are the actual counts received for each attribute. 64 o oo CO ° t— junco 65 Research Question #2 Chart 2. (see next page) indicates that 43 respondents completed their thesis, while 1 respondent's thesis was still in progress. 13 respondents reported that they had abandoned the thesis. These numbers compare favourably with the completion rates in other master's programs. 66 67 Research Question #3 This qualitative question gives data on the nature of the thesis undertaken by each respondent. The question was designed intentionally as a qualitative question to allow the respondent to give as much or as little information about his or her project, although the examples given in the question were often used by the respondent as attributes, for example: theoretical analysis, historical analysis, content analysis, and case study. Appendix 2 contains a transcript of the responses to Question #3 and indicates a predominance in theoretical and/or historical thesis research, with at least half (28 out of 54) of the respondents indicating either of these types of research as the primary descriptor of their thesis. The remainder of responses include other methods such as content analysis, case study, or survey/questionnaire as the primary description. Some theses involved a combination of two or more methods. 68 Research Question #4 Chart 3. (see page 70) indicates that of the total number of respondents, only 20 have taken a course in social science research methods, with 37 having never taken such a course. Chart 4. (see page 71) shows that of the 20 respondents who have taken a course in research methods, 15 have taken the course at the University of British Columbia's School of Library, Archival and Information Studies. 5 respondents report taking a course in social science research methods at another university or college. Although the question does not ask respondents to specify when they took the course, it is likely that the respondents who indicate 'other university or college' took the course as part of their undergraduate studies. It is also interesting to note that none of the respondents indicate having taken a research methods course via an archives workshop or continuing education course, which were the other examples used to illustrate this question. It is also noteworthy that in response to Question #15, respondents indicate that the means by which they would like to learn more about research methods is predominantly though a workshop run by the regional archives professional association or at a half-day session at a professional conference. 6 9 I 1 1 1 o o o o CO (\| T -70 71 Research Question #5 Current employment status was measured to determine the employment perspective from which respondents were supplying their answers. Chart 5. (see next page) shows that the majority of respondents, 47 in total, work in full-time permanent positions; with 2 respondents reporting part-time permanent, 3 respondents working in contract or temporary positions, 2 respondents currently not employed, and 3 respondents reporting 'other'. The fact that the majority of respondents are employed full-time provides this study with evidence of the impact of MAS students and graduates upon the Canadian archival profession at large. While it is often thought that the MAS-trained archivists constitute a unique group within the profession, and in the past fifteen years have had an effect on the overall makeup of the Canadian archival community, these statistics reveal something of the degree of that impact. One must acknowledge that full-time, MAS-trained archivists are also having an impact on the nature and operation of the archival workplace because they are implementing the theories, methods, and practices that they acquired in the MAS Program. This data is particularly relevant to the study of research methods because it suggests the potential for incorporating research methods into the archival workplace if that particular knowledge was ever to become a regular component of the MAS curriculum. 72 1/1 ti u o m —i— o —i— o co o CM — I — o 3 CO *•> C <u S "a. 6 m •»-> c =3 U junco 73 Research Questions #6 and #1 These qualitative questions were also used to develop the employment context from which respondents were answering the questionnaire. Replies to these questions indicate that most of the respondents hold either senior and/or managerial positions (See Appendix 2 - Questions #6 and #7). Again, this data speaks to the impact of the MAS respondents in their workplace, not in terms of their numbers, but rather in their role as senior staff and managers. In this capacity, MAS archivists are able to influence the decisions and direction of their workplace as they engage in policy development, long-range planning, and priority assessment. As in Question #5, the data is relevant to this study because it demonstrates the potential for incorporating research methods into the workplace, if it were part of the standard MAS curriculum. Research Question #8 This question determined the work setting of the respondent. As Chart 6. (see page 76) indicates, the plurality of respondents (16 out of 55 total respondents) work in other than the traditional archival institutional settings operationalized for this question. 12 respondents indicate that they work in provincial or territorial archives, followed by 10 respondents who work in civic or municipal archives. It is interesting that the largest percentage of responses indicate 'other' as the current work setting. Other work settings include: health authority; regional health authority archives; computer systems department, professional archival association; provincial records management unit; non-governmental organization; professional association; international organization; records management; business insurance sector; provincial government line ministry; municipal archives/museum and art gallery; and the policy, planning and legislation branch of a 74 provincial ministry. One respondent, a contractor, indicated 'all of the above' to Question #8. One must address here the possibility of a flaw in the development of attributes for this particular variable, and address a comment from one respondent regarding the focus of this survey. The respondent, case #39, Research Question #19: Comments, indicated: "I think you have a major survey flaw... You seem to have assumed that MAS students/grads are all part of the archival profession..." In retrospect, one must acknowledge that the questionnaire was designed with the thought that most respondents were engaged in traditional archival settings, as reflected in the attributes developed in Question #8: archival institutions at various levels of government (federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal); various thematic archival repositories (religious, corporate, university, professional association, or private); and museum and archives. The researcher should have included records management as an attribute of 'current work setting.' While it is true that records management should have been included as an attribute, the possibility of other responses was accounted for in Question #8 by including 'Other' as an attribute. One could argue that the omission of records management is not a "major" survey flaw, as was stated by Case #39, because the research included the attribute 'other' as a possible choice. However, the omission of any reference to records management must be acknowledged as an error given the large number of respondents who indicate that they do not work in the traditional archival repository setting. One must also consider the possibility that if the questionnaire appeared to by geared towards only the "archival profession," respondents in records management may have treated the questions differently than their archival colleagues. 75 7 6 Question #9 This optional question, which asked for the name of the respondent's employer, was used simply as a filtering question for data being reported by respondents employed by the same institution. II. Research in the Workplace (Questions #10-#14) Research Question #10 Question #10 was intended to measure the formal and informal research activity in the respondent's workplace. The question assumes that the respondent has knowledge of any research projects in the workplace within the last ten years, or would attempt to find out the details of projects he or she was not directly involved in. As explained in both the covering letter and p. 2-6 of the questionnaire, Question #10 was specifically intended to gather data on social science research projects in the workplace. As seen in Chart 7. (see page 79), 32 respondents indicated that research projects had occurred in their workplace within the last ten years. This number was unexpectedly high, given that it was thought that social science research was not that prevalent. 15 of respondents indicate that research projects had not occurred in their workplace, with 7 respondents saying they did not know. Qualitative responses transcribed in Appendix 2 - Question #10 include a variety of research projects, both formal and informal, which may or may not have used social science research methods. A number of respondents appear not to have differentiated between social science research and other types of research undertaken in the workplace, which would account for the large number of respondents who answered 'yes' to this question. There are a few possible reasons for the confusion in this question. This may be a case 77 of researcher error in that the question itself was not clearly stated or well-developed. This may be a case of respondent error in that some respondents are not aware of the differences between social science research and the other types of research normally associated with the archival profession (for example: theoretical, historical or archival research). It may also be possible that respondents interpreted 'informal' research (as described on page 2-6 of the questionnaire) as being any informal research according to a structured plan, regardless of whether it was qualitative or quantitative in design. Although this question is somewhat problematic, the data is useful in measuring whatever projects have been undertaken in the respondents' workplace. As seen in the transcripts from Question #10, there is a range of projects, including social science research projects such as user, client, or reference surveys and conservation surveys; as well as a number of projects related to electronic records, systems and software; new technologies; feasibility studies; and archival issues such as appraisal, acquisition, records management, Rules for Archival Description, and conservation. While most of the projects were unpublished, many respondents indicated that the results were disseminated through internal project reports. 78 79 Research Question #11 Question #11 asked respondents to rank from 1 to 6 the reasons or factors for not being able to conduct research in the workplace, with 1 being the primary reason, 2 being the secondary reason, and so on to 6 being the last reason. Charts 8. through 13. (see pages 81-86) summarize the ranking for each variable as first choice, second choice, and so on. The majority of respondents chose Tack of time' (Chart 9.) as their first choice as a reason for not conducting research in the workplace, followed by Tack of money' (Chart 10.). Third choice was Tack of incentives' (Chart 11.) from the parent institution. 'Lack of knowledge' (Chart 12.) and 'no personal interest' (Chart 8.) were chosen as 4th and 5th reasons, with the attribute of 'other' being chosen by only a few respondents (Chart 13). It is not surprising that the top three reasons for not conducting research in the workplace are 'lack of time' and Tack of money' and Tack of incentives' since these particular reasons are often cited in regard to many aspects of the archival profession. While these reasons are certainly justifiable ones given budget reductions, staffing constraints, and low morale in the workplace, it is equally important in this study to know that 'no personal interest' and especially Tack of knowledge' do not appear to be major reasons or factors for not conducting research. As indicated by the large percentages for the attribute 'missing' in Charts 8. and 12., a large number of respondents did not choose to rank these particular reasons at all. In the course of this study, it was thought that Tack of knowledge' in particular, and 'no personal interest' in general would be the most likely impediments to respondents doing research. The data indicates that this is not true at all. The data also suggests that even if respondents had the knowledge or interest in research methods and in conducting research, they would very likely not have the time, money or incentives to encourage them to do it anyway. 80 ;uno3 81 82 83 1— o o CM •«-;uno3 85 G O •a Q >, o c <u CO =tfc c o CU 3 a x: & cu c/3 oi u 4> o • 1—1 o o CU CJ o o l - i cu o ' o JS o c cs u CJ DO c o CO — I — o m —i— o o CO — I — o CM I — O (50 e •a O 3 -a c o U H O z c o CO CU Pi c/3 cu O CU o m o CU C xs i cu CU oi junco 86 Research Questions #12 and #13 These two questions were designed to measure the confidence of respondents in undertaking a social science research project. Question #12 asks respondents if they would feel confident in their ability if asked to plan and conduct a social science research project. Question #13 asks respondents if they would feel confident if asked to be a member of a research team lead by someone else. Question #13 assumes that while respondents may not be confident to conduct a research project on their own, they may be more confident to participate as a team member led by another. If the respondents were to accept that research methods constitutes specialized knowledge which is necessary to conduct a research project, then the majority of respondents having no research methods training should have answered 'no' to this question. However, the majority of respondents to Question #12 (Chart 14 - see page 88) answered either 'somewhat' (28 respondents) or 'yes' (17 respondents), with only 10 respondents answering 'no'. When the emphasis in responsibility shifts to respondents having confidence in ability as member of a research team led by someone else, the percentage of respondents answering 'yes' jumps to 47, with only 7 responding that they would be somewhat confident (Chart 15. - see page 89). These statistics are important in understanding how respondents view research, given that in Question #4, 37 out of 57 respondents indicate that they have never taken a research methods course. The data reveals a high degree of confidence among MAS respondents in conducting a research project and in being a member of a research team led by another, although the majority has never been properly trained in social science research methods. If this confidence without proper training is a trend within the larger theoretical population, then there is likely to be some difficulty in convincing archivists of the need to acquire this specialized training. 87 89 Research Question #14 This two-part question measured whether respondents thought that a knowledge of research methods would be useful in the workplace. As indicated in Chart 16. (see next page) the majority of respondents (34) agree that this knowledge would be useful, while 14 respondents indicate that research methods would be somewhat useful in the workplace. 5 respondents indicated 'no', 3 had 'no opinion', and 1 answered 'do not know.' The second part of the question, for those who answered either 'yes' or 'somewhat', asked respondents why it would be useful. Many respondents indicate that research methods would be useful for knowing the proper methods for conducting research, resulting in more accurate data, for more efficient decision-making. For example: Case #11 "Would provide an effective tool to facilitate the planning process, the allocation of resources, and the needs of your governing authority/constituency." Case #24 "To design research projects capable of producing authoritative and measurable results for management decision-making." Case #43 "It would be useful to know something about the proper procedures for designing questionnaires, conducting reliable surveys, etc. Research methods is one course I wish I'd taken at SLAIS." Case #72 "Increased rigour and professionalism would increase administrative efficiency in the public service." Case #74 "Archives conduct all [kinds] of programs -outreach, reference services, micrographics, photo reproduction, etc. These programs should be periodically evaluated [respondent's emphasis]. Proper evaluation requires a knowledge of research methodology in order to obtain reliable and [valid] conclusions, leading to new strategies, etc." 90 91 Some respondents highlight the importance of knowing research methods as part of one's profession. For example: Case #18 "Quite simply, research needs to be done, the profession can't advance without it [and] meet the challenges of a changing environment. We aren't really a profession unless we can examine and build upon our theoretical foundations. It defines the word "profession"." Case #45 "I have found that "research" is sometimes conducted by staff in our parent organization, using questionable methods. I know enough to know that the projects are not valid in terms of design, analysis, etc. Knowledge of research methods can be such a basic skill that I can't imagine that it wouldn't be useful at some point - even if only to understand/critique the research conducted by others." Case #70 "In a local government setting, research, feasibility studies, and public consultation processes are a significant component of the strategic planning and decision-making process. Professionals working in this context are better able to perform responsibilities if trained and knowledgable." A few respondents report that while research methods would be useful, if the parent organization does not support research or offer incentives for undertaking research, the opportunities to use the skills would be limited. For example: Case #8 "Knowledge of research methods would be helpful if the institutional setting affords the time, money, and incentives to conduct research; however, in my experience, practicing archivists must rely on the research of others (e.g. academic researcher), as time, money, incentive is usually lacking." Case #25 "The orientation of my workplace is not that conducive to archival research, but in a number of non-archival settings it would be useful"." Finally, one respondent observes that: 92 Case #21 "I think your definition of research focussed on the survey/questionnaire model, is rather narrow. Perhaps that would be useful in the workplace, but my colleagues and I need and use other research methods successfully." Although the questionnaire and cover letter specified that the nature of the study was social science research, this response is perhaps indicative of some respondents who felt that the questionnaire should have included other types of research normally associated with the archival profession (theoretical, historical, archival), or that the focus on social science research was not relevant to them in their work. As noted at the beginning of Appendix 2, it is also very useful to compare the responses in cases with experience of a research methods course versus those without that particular background knowledge. The data indicates that students who have knowledge of research methods are supportive of research methods in the workplace. One would logically conclude that it is due to their exposure to research methods that they understand the benefits of research and research methods in the workplace, and articulate these benefits in more 'research literate' terminology than respondents without training. For example: Case #17 "It's a meeting ground for professional/academic training and business needs in the workplace, i.e. there is a need for applied rather than theoretical/pure research." Case #20 "It would allow archivists to plan projects properly and ensure that results are statistically valid and without overt bias. It would allow archivists to identify problems in methodology, before projects began." Case #65 "So that if you are asked to conduct a study, that the best research methods are used." Case #71 "Knowledge of research methods is valuable to both producers of research and consumers of research. Knowing how to conduct a sound research project 93 and evaluating someone else's research is equally important. Archivists should be familiar with basic research methods, if not to conduct a project themselves, to understand and properly evaluate reports and projects which incorporate empirical research." III. Research in the Archival Profession (Questions 15-18) Research Question #15 Chart 17. (see page 96) shows that the majority of respondents would like 'somewhat' to learn more about research methods (22), followed by 19 respondents who answered 'yes'. 11 respondents indicate that they would not like to learn more about research methods. When asked how they would like to receive this instruction in research methods, 16 respondents who answered either 'yes' or 'somewhat' indicate that they would like to learn research methods through a workshop offered by a regional archival professional association, followed by 8 who would prefer a session at a professional conference, 7 who would choose a continuing education course at a university or college, and only 5 who would choose a credit course at a university or college (Chart 18. - see page 97). While there is evidence of at least some interest in learning about research methods, the method of delivery could present a problem since research methods is offered usually as a university credit course (for example, as in the case of the MAS Program or other undergraduate social science programs) or through continuing education (for example, at local community colleges). This question supports interest in the delivery of research methods primarily through a regional workshop (1-2 days, not held during a professional conference) or as a second choice 94 through a conference session (a half-day or less). The challenge to research methods instructors would then be to develop a curriculum suitable to the 1-2 day workshop format which would cover adequately the course material usually presented over a four month term. 95 96 Research Question #16 Similar to Question #14, respondents were asked if, in their opinion, a knowledge of research methods would be useful in the development of the archival profession. Chart 19. (see next page), indicates that the majority of respondents answered 'yes' (41), with the remainder answering 'somewhat'(13). In retrospect, this question should have paralleled Question #14 by asking those who replied 'yes' or 'somewhat' to describe briefly why it would be useful. The omission of this follow-on question should be considered a flaw in the development of this research question. Without this additional knowledge, one can only guess that those who acknowledge the merit of research methods in the workplace would find similar benefit in applying research methods to the development of the profession. However, without the data, this is only speculation. 98 3 X! 'B Vi o c <u 3 O" <SJ l-l p-c o C/5 cu 3 C x: o 13 <u Vi cu ON t: SO xs U ' 5 cu o o c o •o c o c "B. o o c G o in o — I — o — i — o CM — I — o CU Vi Vi •O O CU X i c_> cd cu Vi CU CU b O •o CU o o Vi .V C+-I o > x: o <U •a G CU E Cu > cu Q CU 5 junco 99 Research Question #17 Respondents were asked in this question if they thought there are areas of the archival profession that would benefit from research activity? Once again, the majority of respondents indicate 'yes' (45), with 7 respondents indicating 'somewhat' (Chart 20. - see page 102). Respondents who answered 'yes' or 'somewhat' were then asked to consider three areas of priority for research in the archival profession. The transcribed responses in Appendix 2 cover a wide range of issues and topics which may be approached with a social science research methodology, or which may be better served by another method of analysis. Common issues and topics included studies of: user, client, reference services; electronic records preservation and management; records management, new technologies such as e-mail, the Internet and World Wide Web; appraisal, acquisition, arrangement and description, descriptive standards, and outreach and advocacy, legal issues, access and privacy issues. While the original intention of the question was to highlight areas of the archival profession that would benefit from social science research specifically, respondents tended to include ideas for which other methodologies, including scholarly and historical analyzes, may be more suitable. It is also useful to note the responses in cases where there was prior knowledge of research methods, since it appears that having the knowledge of research methods gave the respondent a better idea of the types of studies which would be most suitable to a social science approach. For example: Case #56 "I can't think of any areas that couldn't benefit from research activity, e.g. reference service (determining who actually uses the archives); trends in archival education (determining what is being taught); trends in acquisition patterns ( what is being acquired and any changes to those patterns)." 100 Case #74 "1) evaluation of the experiences of [prior] users when new technology is contemplated 2) analysis of user satisfaction with archival procedures and programs, perhaps cross-tabulated with user profile information collected on Reference Registration Forms 3) conservation needs assessment and treatment priority ranking based on factors such as vital/non-vital records; use; deterioration; historical importance, etc." Regardless of the respondent's background, the data received in Question #17 is extremely useful in knowing what research topics and issues are in the forefront of respondents' minds at this time, and is likely to be an accurate reflection of the research priorities of the Canadian archival community at large. More importantly, the data provides solid evidence of the need for increased research activity to address the issues and problems described by respondents, the methodologies of which may include social science research methods, as well as the more common theoretical and historical approaches. 101 102 Research Question #18 The last question asked of respondents was had they ever personally conducted a research project since beginning work as an archivist. This question was intended to gauge the research activity of the respondents, and again focussed on the social science research activity of the respondent. As with other questions, it appears that some respondents may have interpreted the question to include any type of research activity, since the number indicating that they had conducted a social science research project was much higher than expected. Chart 21. (see page 105) indicates that 25 respondents answered 'yes', 26 answered 'no'. 6 respondents did not answer the question. The possibility of some misinterpretation of this question is found in the descriptions provided in the second part of Question #18. Many respondents described projects with a social science research methodology, particularly a survey being conducted. For example: Case #3 "a survey of archival and records management practices and types of records held by hospitals in Alberta" Case #7 "a survey of medical archives in Alberta..." Case #11 "... collection and analysis of user statistics, including subject researched and archival resources consulted..." Case #17 "survey of published use of photographs of users, survey of acetate film deterioration" Other projects suggest other research methodologies, such as theoretical, historical or archival analyzes, suitable to the nature of the inquiry. For example: 103 Case #1 "... functional analysis and Guidelines for Appraisal of Government Records, Acquisition Strategies in Provincial Archives in Canada" "research into history of company incorporation law in Yukon and agencies responsible for this function. The research was through use of published and archival sources." "theoretical study on archival theory, records and the public" " my research has been informal and always related to records management functions. Sometimes it is research into the functions and activities of a records creating agency and sometimes it is research into the records (their organization, nature, etc.)" Regardless of their methodology, the projects described in Question #18 reflect that slightly less than half of the MAS respondents have contributed research since engaging in the profession. One must also account for the possibility that this number may not be an accurate reflection of the study population because it included the phrase "... since you began working as an archivist." As discussed in the analysis of Question #8, this questionnaire was designed with the premise that most respondents were working as archivists, in an archival setting. Based on the data in Question #8, and the comments from some respondents, one must consider the possibility that by hmiting the question with the phrase "...since you began working as an archivist." some respondents ignored the question if they were not working as archivists. Case #12 Case #28 Case #33 104 o CO o CM 1— o junco 105 IV. Additional Comments: (Question #19) Research Question #19 Respondents were given an opportunity to supply their comments on the survey in particular and the subject of research in general.5 The comments are very useful in confirming what the quantitative data and other qualitative data indicate as being a two distinct camps. The first and smaller group are respondents who are in favour of archivists knowing social science research methods and undertalcing this research, when dealing with certain topics, issues and problems in the archival profession. The second and larger group are those respondents who either are unable to distinguish between social science research and other more common types of research found in the archival profession or think that social science research is not relevant or applicable to archival studies. Within each of these two camps one finds that lack of time, lack of money, and lack of incentives are significant barriers to research of any kind. The following comments are indicative of those respondents who are in favour of social science research methods: Case #2 "Since I did a survey/questionnaire as the basis of my thesis I see the value of conducting research in the pursuit of new ideas, etc. I think adhering to accepted social science research methods is very important to give the research validity and credibility. To evolve and develop, the profession needs to know about itself but needs to do so properly." Case #24 "Research will be most valuable when it yields results which are 1) relevant for decisions on program expenditures and initiatives and 2) can be evaluated/confirmed through a subsequent (post-research) measurement of results of program 5One should note that according to the 'General Rules for Coding Data', as defined in the Codebook, any comments or additional information which were supplied throughout the questionnaire were transcribed and treated as an 'additional comment' under Question #19. 106 expenditures and initiatives. If the research does not deal with institutional priorities/problems/issues and yield results relevant for decision-making, it is unlikely to be supported." Case #25 "This is a useful research topic, although one that may raise more questions in some people's minds. Some may see this as another example of the [division between] "academic" archivists and practical ones. Thus, I hope that the final product of this research project will emphasize that an element of research can or should be considered an integral part of archival work, regardless of the background of the individual." Case #57 "Research is critical to the development of the theoretical underpinnings of the profession. Every facet of our work, our identity, etc. requires research in order for the profession to grow. As information - its creation, use, and retention -becomes more complex, the need for us to conduct research will become more critical. Otherwise, someone else will do it for us." Case #68 "Formal research is somewhat intimidating - it's necessary in some areas (like user studies), most archival research projects are informal. I have not used the research methods course in my day to day work, but consider the knowledge gained there useful in evaluating other research efforts and in knowing limits of my own knowledge on how to conduct research." Case #74 "In these times of restraint, I attach special importance to #1 and #2 [Question #17] - To what extent do new technologies in fact lead to increasing operational efficiency and increased client use of archives? If, indeed, they do? - To what extent do standardized archival procedures, i.e. RAD, increase user satisfaction and use? "Users" defined as [archivists], sponsors and the general public." - We take a lot for granted! Proper evaluation of these kinds of questions would have a very 107 significant [bearing] on where we decide to place our time and resources in the archives! While they are individual comments, these examples illustrate a pattern found within the data that there is a distinct group of respondents here who understand the value of social science research methods, and that this is an attitude which is not found within the majority of respondents to this survey. Examples from the other group include the following: Case #5 [in regard to Question #12: Confidence in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project, to which the respondent answered 'no'] "I would first have to learn social science research methods! Since when is archival science a social science??" [respondent's emphasis] [in regard to Question #17: Areas of the Archival Profession That Would Benefit from Research Activity, to which the respondent answered 'yes'], with comment that: "I don't think that social science research on the archival profession is useful, but certainly research is essential." Case #21 "I'm not interested in learned [sic] how to do a survey unless I actually need the skill." Case #34 "Re: [Question] 11 -1 did not like the question. An assumption is made that the archivist does not perform research work as part of their duties. Personal [choice?] in what is researched would only apply if it was professional research (i.e. on then-own time or through mutual agreement). The BC Archives archivists work in public service environment and not an academic one." Case #35 "As is so often noted, working archivists have very little time for research, and those who can find some time are more likely to do a more practical "hands-on type" of research than the social sciences research that is described in this questionnaire. In most professions, there is a distinction between those who do research and those who work (e.g. 108 doctors and research scientists). Although I feel that the archival profession needs to do more research, I don't think it's realistic to expect a great deal of research until we have a larger research and academic community." Case #77 "No need to learn formal research methods as defined; do use other research methods constantly." Case #79 "I want to be cooperative, but I find this survey (like many others I receive) is a world away from the reality of my working life. My concerns are much more "real" and I certainly don't feel I'd have the time to undertake such research projects. In today's world, a consultant would be hired." Again, keeping in mind that these are individual comments, this input combined with the quantitative data suggests that social science research methods is often perceived as not being relevant or useful to the study of archives; as being ah academic undertaking not applicable to the real world of the practitioner; as being specialized knowledge that is not generally useful to the practising archivist or as being specialized knowledge that may be obtained through the services of a contractor if it ever was required in the archival workplace. 109 Data Analysis - Crosstabulations Crosstabulation #1: What relationship is there between respondents who have taken a research methods course and confidence in their ability to plan and conduct a research project? Chart 22. (see next page) exhibits a pattern across each category of respondents (those who have taken a research methods course and those who have not), that more respondents feel somewhat confident in planning and conducting a research project, than those who feel confident. While none of the respondents with the research methods training indicate that they do not feel confident, 10 respondents without the training said 'no', while 2 respondents said they did not know. This analysis support earlier indications that respondents who have not taken research methods training are either confident (9) or somewhat confident (16) in their ability to conduct social science research. Based on this data, one concludes that the potential for improving the quality of research within the MAS-trained archivists is limited, if the majority feel confident or somewhat confident in their ability without having ever been adequately trained in research methods. One might have expected that respondents with a course in research methods would be more inclined to report that they feel confident, rather than somewhat confident. However, it could also be that having the knowledge of research methods gives these respondents a better idea of what is actually involved in conducting a project. As the chart indicates, of the 20 respondents with a course in research methods, slightly less than half said they would feel confident (8), with the remainder (12) indicating they would be somewhat confident. 110 CM T -111 Crosstabulation #2: What relationship is there between respondents who have taken a research methods course and the confidence in their ability as a member of a research team led by someone else? Chart 23. (see next page) yields a similar pattern to the previous analysis in that the majority of respondents in each category feels confident in its ability to assist in a research team led by someone else. Again, one sees that the majority of respondents without training feels confident in their ability to assist in a research project, although not having taken a research methods course. This data indicates that until there is better appreciation of research methods as a specialized body of knowledge, the ability to advance the quality of social science research in the archival community is hmited. As one might expect, the majority of respondents with training indicate they are confident in their ability to assist as a team member (18), compared to less than half of those same respondents (see Chart 22 - see page 111), who said they are confident in their ability to conduct a project on their own. 112 113 Crosstabulation #3: What relationship is there between respondents who have taken a research methods course and respondents who think that a knowledge of research methods is useful in the workplace? Chart 24. (see next page) indicates that the majority of respondents in each category agrees that knowledge of research methods is useful in the workplace. However, previous data suggests that respondents with prior knowledge of research methods would have had social science research in mind when answering this question. The majority of these respondents (19) indicate that knowledge of research methods would be useful in the workplace, with 3 respondents saying 'somewhat' and 1 saying 'no'. The majority of respondents without a research methods course also thought that knowledge of research methods would be useful, although some respondents may have meant this knowledge to include other types of research methods. Earlier data cautions that these respondents may not have been minking specifically of social science research methods when dealing with this question. Only a small number of respondents in each category said that this skill would not be useful. 114 ;uno3 115 Crosstabulation #4: What relationship is there between respondents who have taken a research methods course and respondents who think that a knowledge of research methods is useful in the development of the archival profession? Chart 25. (see next page) reveals a similar pattern that the majority of respondents in each category agree that knowledge of research methods would be useful in the development of the archival profession, with the remainder supporting that the knowledge would be somewhat useful. Allowing for the fact that social science research may not have been readily understood by some respondents, this data indicates that respondents generally support the role of research within the development of the archival profession. It is interesting to note that not one respondent, in either category, chose 'no' to signify that a knowledge of research methods was not useful in the development of the archival profession. This may provide some evidence of the conundrum that exists within the archival profession that while many archivists would agree that research is a good thing, few archivists commit their time and energy to doing research as a professional contribution. 116 117 Crosstabulation #5: What relationship is there between research projects in the workplace within the last ten years and current work setting? Table 1. (see next page) indicates that the majority of respondents who answered 'yes' (11) to research projects in the workplace were situated in other than the traditional work settings or attributes developed for this question. As discussed in the section on frequency distributions in Question #8, 'other' work settings included such places as: a health authority, a professional association, a records management unit, a provincial government ministry, and a non-governmental organization. Further research would be necessary to determine why other than the traditional work settings have greater research activity. The next work setting category to report research was provincial/territorial archives (with 7 respondents answering 'yes'), followed by university/college archives (5), although research activity is reported, in varying degrees, in a variety of archival work settings. 118 J ° cS Q t ^ * —> CS o © m o <T> r-H o o I =tfc C o +2 pH 1 ai L CO P CO c3 <a >* a <a H OS • J e». rC +-> c rG <L> O « t I Ji CA •p1 CO c - g 1° es CU CO o o o o Oi' O O 00 © O O © O O O O O O CS O O CS a O U r-H <S Oi Os CS CS ::***:: cs CS t-~ r-l ON © 00 CS CS r-H CS SO::! o o o CS S O U o H o c CO a-o & ca 8. g co O u <u X> s I IS « i i lis o « 5 5, o, S o o o © © © r-' c» o\ II S i i l l III S£ S3 § £.9 "Sb •a « 'JET S S "S 3 X> H o o o o o o <ri! vo' Hi 2 o 1 8 '£ c a'3 >» o o o <u o o o M r i p i r i 119 Crosstabulation #6: What relationship is there between knowledge of research methods useful in the workplace and current work setting? Table 2. (see page 122) indicates that the majority of respondents who answered 'yes' to a knowledge of research methods being useful in the workplace are situated in other than the traditional archival work setting (10 respondents). This data coincides with the findings in Table 1. that other than the traditional archives setting is where most research was reported from. It is logical that if there is research being produced in these other settings, then there is also support for knowledge of research methods being useful in the workplace. The second highest score came from respondents in provincial/territorial settings (9 respondents), followed by those in civic/municipal archives (5 respondents). The two tables also contrast the data for civic/municipal responses. While Table 1. reports little research activity in the civic/municipal setting, Table 2. indicates that most of the respondents from this work setting (5 respondents said 'yes', 4 respondents said 'somewhat') agree that a knowledge of research methods would be useful. Qualitative responses to Question #14: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace (see the frequency distribution analysis for this question, case #11, 45, 70, 74 transcripts) suggest that the civic/municipal archives is one setting in which research methods would be useful. As Case #70 observes, the local government setting requires research, feasibility studies, and public consultation, which for an archivist working in this environment, would necessitate some basic understanding of 120 qualitative and quantitative research methods and statistical analysis.6 The genesis of this thesis project was as a result of the researcher's practicum experience in a civic/municipal government archives. A research project was assigned, as part of the practicum, to measure the internal users of the archives. It was expected that the results of this research project would be statistically valid and yield reliable data on the profile of the internal user, their expectations, research needs, and level of satisfaction in their experience of using the archives. 121 Q O oo cn «n —> F - I cn fn o © I T ! O I o o © c o 3 •8 s C N 1 cu o J3 CL, cu © o o o o o 00 o o vo o © o o o p cn o o CN vo Ov <-« CN 00 00 00 CN CN cn cn CN CN o od oo CN <-i CN ! JH t> y -5 1 s i i S3 .2 It, a a 8 ,<L> (L) 3 i o . © © © © © r~' oo" o \ II IH g.9 § o o C N I T ) cn CN © © © q © © rr' vd H W C / 5 c O u o o I o o cN 11 o o cn a o c« o o c o cu CO 8 CO C+-I O I H f I l l O ™ 1 1 1 •cf o 1 M C H U > © © ©• © © © M .-i cs cn 122 Crosstabulation #7: What relationship is there between respondents who would like to learn more about research methods and current work setting? Table 3.(see next page) suggests that an interest in learning more about research methods is fairly even across a number of different work settings, with a total of 19 respondents answering yes to learning more about research methods, with 4 respondents answering 'yes' in each of the categories of provincial/territorial, civic/municipal, and university/college archives, followed by 3 respondents in 'other' work settings. A slightiy larger number of respondents (21) indicate that they are 'somewhat' interested in learning more about research methods, with 9 respondents answering from the perspective of other than the traditional work settings, and 7 from provincial/territorial archives. A total of 10 respondents say they would not like to learn more about research methods. Ironically, although 9 of the 10 respondents from civic/municipal archives setting indicate that knowledge of research methods would be either 'useful' or 'somewhat useful' in the workplace (see Table 2 - page 122), in this analysis only 4 of those respondents say that they would like to learn research methods, with another 4 respondents indicating that they would not. 2 respondents say that they would 'somewhat' like to learn more about research methods. 123 £ 3 Q 3 Pi H vo CS co *rs CN —i 00 CN CO CN i i l i i i o o >r> o I T ) r - H o o 1 o o -H CN ON o o ON O o 00 VO ON r-H CS 00 00 « •if S O rj ai c73 5 •*3 CO P 111 r-G o '5 c^ l g +-> r - H co O CO "T3 O xi X! O *3 CO & o s <-s I ca C <U 3 o •rH 60 CO. .o o © vd o o o o o © co o o cs o o mm o c 3 O C J CN n^ -CS CN O o o r S a o T3 © O CN CO o O ca X! I a 8 o •sr oo co ^ cs f*-  ri cs O 00 00 CS r-n' r-H CS no co iri cs co G O o g CO X> O 60 _C 'co co G 3 73 o 3 U H CrH O r Q o o o p o o r-' od o< i l l 2 §3 § g .9 -a P X i-i 2 2 o p q o iri vd 1 i H 5il o •a ^2 <u o o o p p 124 Crosstabulation #8: What relationship is there between respondents who would like to learn more about research methods and the means by which the respondent would like to learn more about research methods? Table 4. (see next page) indicates that of the 19 respondents who said they would like to learn more about research methods, 7 would like a workshop by the regional archives professional association, 5 would choose a credit course within a university/college program, 4 would choose a continuing education course at college/university. Of the respondents who said they were 'somewhat' interested, 9 chose a regional workshop, followed by 6 respondents who preferred a session at a professional conference. Based on the data, it appears that the preferred method of delivering post-appointment education in research methods, and the one which is most likely to appeal to both the respondents who are interested or, at least, somewhat interested is a workshop sponsored by a regional archives professional association. 125 Q 3 H ON o oo r-o o 00 o CO .—i o o CO o o c s CO 00 c o CO O O CS 00 o o cs ON NO CS O © cs vo 00 cs Wm o cs c o o o E s o co O c a _ o Z U H ON CO C o co X) O .If co o 6 l i t d> to +H E v a • £ «•> mi .2 5 -S J . ^ e l ? <° M tj ft » 3 •2 J2 -I S c o S 0 xi 0) O 6* *3 » J o u 5 © © o o © © p p o o —< <N ro •<*•' vi 126 Summary of the Data While each section above explains the data and offers possible explanations and conclusions, an examination of the results presented in this chapter directs the researcher to articulate certain general conclusions of the study population which, at least conceptually, may be applicable to the theoretical population as well. Purpose of the Project and the Research Problem First, one must revisit the original purpose of the project and the research problem being addressed by the study. In general, the project was conceived of as a way of knowing more about social science research as it applies to archival studies. The purpose in conducting this project was to provide insight into why social science research has not received the same attention and discussion in archival science literature and study as it has in library science. The problem under investigation was to gather empirical data on archivists' attitudes toward social science research, and to capture information on their current research activities in the workplace. Although originally conceptualized as a study of Canadian archivists, the study population was narrowed to focus specifically upon archivists who had come to the profession through the MAS Program. It seemed likely that of all Canadian archivists, those who received pre-appointment education at a master's level, professional school would be the archivists most likely to have learned research methods, and/or undertaken qualitative and quantitative research in their professional lives. 127 General Research Questions The general research questions formulated at the beginning of this research project were as follows: QI. Why is there a limited awareness or discussion of the role of social science research in comparison to that found in the library and information science literature? Q2. What do MAS respondents think about social science research methods? Do they think that this type of research is applicable to archival studies? Q3. Do respondents have any interest in learning social science research methods? Q4. Is there any difference in attitudes between those respondents who have taken a course in research methods versus those who have not? Q5. Is there any scientific research being produced in the workplace? Q6. Do respondents think that scientific research is useful in the workplace and in the development of the archival profession? Conclusions Based on the Data Presented in this Chapter 1. Although a small number of respondents favour the use of social science research, the majority do not appear to readily distinguish between that particular type of research and the other more common types of research usually associated with the profession. Some respondents without the knowledge of social science research methods may perceive this method of inquiry as having little or no relevance to archival studies, compared to the traditional types of research already associated with the profession (archival, theoretical, and historical research). 128 Conceptually, a parallel situation may exist within the Canadian archival community at large which is comprised of archivists who have not had exposure to social science research methods, and may not see the application. Not until social science research methods are actively promoted and widely accepted in the Canadian archival community as a legitimate skill for archivists, will the opportunities to advance this type of research improve. 2. Although the covering letter and questionnaire were careful to define the focus of the survey as being scientific research, and not the other more common types of research in archival studies, in some cases respondents did not always maintain that particular focus in their answers. The data supports that MAS respondents without training in social science research methods had some difficulty in differentiating between this type of research and other types of research. Respondents with at least a course in social science research methods expressed a better understanding of what social science research entails, the elements of empirical research, and in what research situations the scientific method is appropriate. One must conclude that research methods is a skill which one must first learn in order to understand its value or application. As an area of study, research methods has yet to be widely recognized as a component of the standard archival education. Responsibility for the rise or fall of research methods as a legitimate component of archival education rests with educators in the pre-appointment, Master's-level archival programs, who should ensure that research methods is part of the core curriculum; and with the education committees of regional archival associations who should develop research methods workshops to meet the needs of practising archivists who want to learn research methods. 129 3. Respondents indicate that they are interested in learning research methods, with 22 respondents indicating somewhat of an interest, and 19 respondents saying they would like to learn more about research methods. 11 respondents said they would not like to learn more about research methods, with the rest saying they did not know (2) or had no opinion (3). While this conclusion may not apply to the larger theoretical population, these numbers support offering research methods as part of a pre-appointment curriculum, and for offering research methods workshops within the regional education programs. 4. Respondents with experience of a research methods course are more knowledgeable about the subject and are more 'research literate,' judging by the data gathered in this study. The majority of MAS respondents with a course in research methods received their instruction at the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies. Therefore, it would seem logical that in a pre-appointment, professional program such as the MAS Program, a research methods course should be designated as part of the core curriculum. Over time, a required course in research methods would result in 'research literate' archivists and would yield archivists knowledgeable of research methods in keeping with the ACA's education guidelines. This conclusion is directed towards all pre-appointment, professional school programs, and not just the MAS Program. If professional school programs exist to create professional archivists, then that is the best place to foster a research orientation. The preferred delivery of a research methods course in post-appointment training is through a workshop sponsored by a regional archives professional association. As already mentioned, the challenge for research methods instructors will be to develop a two day workshop curriculum that will cover all of the major elements of a term-long course currently offered at the Masters' degree level. 130 5. Although in some cases respondents did not make the distinction between social science research and other forms of research, the qualitative data provides evidence that a degree of scientific research being conducted in the workplace, mainly in the form of user, client and reference surveys and conservation surveys. Likewise, the data also provides evidence that other types of research are also being conducted in the workplace, either by the respondents themselves or by their colleagues. The majority of this research is disseminated in-house, and not published externally for the benefit of other members of the Canadian archival profession. 6. Despite the difficulty in terminology, the data also supports that the majority of respondents, both with and without the research methods course, agree that a knowledge of research methods would be useful in the development of the archival profession and that there are areas of the profession that would benefit from research activity. While support of scientific research into archival issues and topics is confined to those who have taken a research methods course, most respondents agree that more research, in general, is needed to develop the profession; although who should do it is of some debate. Respondents, who are predominantly practitioners, indicate that their ability to conduct research is restricted by lack of time, money or incentives from their parent organization. There is the feeling that if research cannot be part of their job, then it will not be undertaken. The data also reveals a tendency within the study population to consider research as the responsibility of the academic archivist and not the practitioner. It is highly likely that this sentiment is also found within the archival community at large, as most archivists face the same funding and time constraints as those archivists in the study population. 131 Limitations of the Research As already stated, in retrospect, the survey and the questionnaire were oriented towards archivists in traditional archival work settings, and did not explicitly include records managers and other information professionals who were situated in non-traditional or non-archival environments. While the questionnaire was designed to incorporate responses from respondents other than archivists, it was viewed as being narrow in its focus. Secondly, while there was a decent return rate of 66%, this is still a small number of respondents from which to analyze and draw conclusions, and the ability for statistically valid conclusions applicable to the larger theoretical population is limited. However, one is able at least to conceptually generalize beyond the study population. Suggestions for Future Research It would be very useful, in light of the data gathered in this survey, to examine whether there is any change in attitude towards social science research in those MAS students who were required to take the research methods, as the result of curriculum changes in Winter Session 1995/96. A study of those students who were required to take the course would test the theory presented here that it is only when students actually take a research methods course do they then understand research methods and appreciate the benefits of social science research in the development of the archival profession. Alternatively, it would also be useful to administer a similar questionnaire to a larger study population comprised of Canadian archivists sampled from the membership of the Association of Canadian Archivists, who come from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds. One could then determine what the interest is in research methods beyond those archivists who attended the MAS Program. 132 Chapter Five: Some Conclusions on the State of Social Science Research in the Canadian Archival Profession and Possible Directions in the 21st Century The importance of research methods in the development of the archival profession, as presented in this thesis, is best summed up in the simple, yet astute, observation that knowledge of research methods "illuminates the path versus finding one's way in the dark."1 Research methods provide archivists with structure and rigor when exploring issues and problems in their profession and allow archivists to document the process by which new knowledge is discovered in order that the findings may be communicated to the profession and/or replicated by other researchers. The aim of the thesis was to contribute a better understanding and appreciation of the role of social science research and research methods and to address a significant gap in the existing archival literature with respect to this form of inquiry. The thesis concludes that social science research methods are essential in developing and expanding the knowledge-base of the archival profession. Research methods may be used by the practitioner and the academic alike, in a variety of applications, the end result of which ultimately strengthens the collective knowledge of the archival profession. The analysis of the literature and the survey data suggests guarded optimism when describing the state of social science research in the Canadian archival profession. While not entirely ready to expand its intellectual borders, the Canadian archival profession has in its favour the Association of Canadian Archivists' (ACA) educational guidelines which promote training in research methods. While AC A has done very well to legitimize research methods within archival education, it could go further by implementing this educational requirement 'This excellent observation belongs to Case #55, in response to Research Question #14: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace (see Appendix 2). 133 among its own membership, perhaps through a special research methods workshop funded by the Canadian Council of Archives. Based on the survey results, one would expect at least a moderate level of interest in research methods from within the community at large. As a pilot project, ACA, in consultation with research methods educators, could develop a basic research methods curriculum to promote this skill to its members. While there is evidence from the data that research is occurring in the workplace, and that the majority of archivists support the need for more research in general, there is some difference of opinion as to who should do it. One concludes from this study that at least within the minds of some MAS respondents, there already exists the "research wall" that Mary Sue Stephenson warns archivists against building within their community. Since lack of time, lack of money and lack of incentives are major barriers to the production of any research, ACA should also work to counteract these barriers with initiatives such are educational leaves, research grants, research awards for practitioners, who are the most at risk for not contributing research. The Canadian archival community is also well served by the minority of MAS-trained archivists who have taken a course in research methods and who are informed consumers and, in some cases, producers of research. The data reveals that an archivist's support of research methods training is linked directiy to his or her knowledge of research methods. MAS respondents with research methods training exhibit greater awareness of the importance of research methods in the archival workplace and in the development of the archival profession. While respondents do not appear to be any more inclined to actually do research, at least they have a more informed and articulate understanding of how social science research applies to the archival profession. An examination of the current literature and an analysis of the survey results of the study undertaken in conjunction with this thesis yields mixed opinions on the current state of social 134 science research and the direction which the research might take in years to come. In theory, one concludes that Canadian archivists should embrace this type of research as a means of pushing their deeply-rooted knowledge further, so that they may discover new knowledge and build new theory; test, confirm or revise the existing knowledge and theory; or investigate vexing issues and problems2 confronting the archival profession in the 21st century. However, in practice, one must admit there is much work yet to be done. The majority of respondents appear to be well entrenched or at the very least aligned with the humanities discipline. As the archival profession enters the 21st century, the challenge will be to accept research methods as an essential component of the standard archival education, to provide adequate training to pre-appointment and post-appointment archivists, and to encourage the production and the dissemination of quality research. Compulsory education in research methods, particularly in pre-appointment education programs, is the key to gradually infusing this knowledge into the profession at large, so that graduates of these programs will "be in a position to make research a normal and expected function and tool [my emphasis] of the archival workplace".3 The major detriment to research methods in the Canadian archival profession is the misperception that social science research is not relevant to the study of archives; a sentiment which is best captured in one respondent's comment to the survey that "... since when is archival science a social science?"4. Canadian archivists have yet to expand their consciousness to include a new professional paradigm, which in the case of research methods, is the discovery of new knowledge about one's profession according to a structured, scientific method, in contrast to the scholarly 2Again to quote Peter Hernon's definition of research, found in his article, "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS", 3-4. 3Stephenson, "The Function and Content of Research Methods...", 192. "Case #5, Research Question #19: Additional Comments (see Appendix 2). 135 or historical methods of the existing paradigm. With movement towards a new professional paradigm and with thorough education in research methods, one hopes that someday more archivists will instead be asking: 'Where is the science in archival science?' 136 Selected Bibliography Sources from Library and Information Science Literature Adam, Ralph. "Ethical Issues in Research and Publication." Library and Information Research News 12 (Summer 1989): 12-24. Allen, G.G. "Management and the Conduct of In-House Library Research." Library and Information Science Research 8 (1986): 155-62. Baker, Sharon L. "Problem-Solving Through Experimental Research: The Need for Better Controls." Library Trends 38 (2) (Fall 1989): 204-14. Biggs, Mary. "The Role of Research in the Development of a Profession or a Discipline." In Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure, 72-84. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991. Birdsall, William F. "Librarians and Professionalism: Status Measured by Outmoded Models." Canadian Library Journal 37 (June 1980): 145-48. Bookstein, Abraham. "Sources of Error in Library Questionnaires." Library Research 4 (1) (1982): 85-94. . "Questionnaire Research in a Library Setting." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 11 (1) (1985): 24-28. Butler, Meredith and Bonnie Gratch. "Planning a User Study: The Process Defined." College and Research Libraries 43 (July 1982): 320-30. Childers, Thomas. "Evaluative Research in the Library and Information Field." Library Trends 38 (2) (Fall 1989): 250-67. Dyer, Hilary and Richard Stern. "Overcoming Barriers to Library and Information Science Research: A Report of the First Advanced Research Institute Held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign." International Journal of Information and Library Research 2 (2) (1990): 129-34. 137 Enger, Kathy B., Georgina Quirk and J. Andrew Stewart. "Statistical Methods Used by Authors of Library and Information Science Journal Articles." Library and Information Science Research 11 (Jan.-Mar. 1989): 37-46. Estabrook, Leigh. " The Growth of the Profession." College and Research Libraries. 50 (3) (May 1989): 287-96. Gothberg, Helen M. "The Library Survey: A Research Methodology Rediscovered." College and Research Libraries 51 (Nov. 1990): 553-59. Grover, Robert and Jack Glazier. "Implications for Application of Qualitative Methods to Library and Information Science Research." Library and Information Science Research 7 (1985): 247-60. Hafner, Arthur W. Descriptive Statistical Techniques for Librarians. Chicago: American Library Association, 1989. Hale, Martha L. "Paradigmatic Shift in Library and Information Science." In Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure, 336-46. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991. Hanks, Gardner and C. James Schmidt. "An Alternative Model of a Profession for Librarians." College and Research Libraries Vol. 36, No. 3 (May 1975): 175-187. Hayes, Robert M. "Education of the Information Professional: A Library School Perspective." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 39 (5) (1988): 312-17. Henige, David. "Waiting for the Great Pumpkin? On the Whereabouts of Justification in Library Research: A Symposium." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 17 (6) (1992): 348-358. Hernon, Peter and Cheryl Metoyer-Duran. "Problem Statements: An Exploration Study of Their Function, Significance, and Form." Library and Information Science Research 15 (1993): 71-92. 138 . "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS." In Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure, 3-14. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991. Janes, Joseph W. "On Rigor." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 17 (6) (1992): 351-52. Kidston, James S. "The Validity of Questionnaire Responses." The Library Quarterly 55 (April 1985): 133-50. Liestman, Daniel. "Chance in the Midst of Design: Approaches to Library Research Serendipity." Research Quarterly (Summer 1992): 524-32. Lynch, Mary Jo. "Research and Librarianship: An Uneasy Connection." Library Trends 32 (Spring 1984): 367-83. McClure, Charles R. "Increasing the Usefulness of Research for Library Managers: Propositions, Issues, and Strategies." Library Trends 38 (2) (Fall 1989): 280-94. McClure, Charles R. and Ann Bishop "The Status of Research in Library/Information Science: Guarded Optimism." College and Research Libraries 50 (2) (Mar. 1989): 127-43. Neill, S.D. "The Dilemma of Method for Information Research: Is Information Science a Science, Social Science, or Humanity?" Chap, in Dilemmas in the Study of Information: Exploring the Boundaries of Information Science. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992. Odi, Amusi. "Creative Research and Theory Building in Library and Information Sciences." College and Research Libraries 43 (4) (July 1982): 312-19. Peritz, Bluma C. "The Methods of Library Science Research: Some Results from a Bibliometric Survey." Library Research 2 (1980-1981): 251-68. Powell, Ronald R. Basic Research Methods for Librarians. 2d ed. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991. 139 . "Guides to Conducting Research in Library and Information Science." In Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure, 15-30. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991. Richardson, John, Jr. "Toward an Expert System for Reference Service: A Research Agenda for the 1990's." College and Research Libraries 50 (2) (Mar. 1989): 231-48. Robbins, Jane. Research Skills for Research Librarians: A Report on and Examples From an Educational Program." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 15 (1) 1989: 4-6. Rodger, Eleanor Jo. "The Right Study of the Right Issues at the Right Time: Conducting In-House Studies in Public Libraries." Library Trends 38 (2) (Fall 1989): 313-22. Schlichter, Doris J. and J. Michael Pemberton. "The Emperor's New Clothes? Problems of the User Survey as a Planning Tool in Academic Libraries." College and Research Libraries 35 (May 1992): 257-65. Van House, Nancy A. "Assessing the Quantity, Quality, and Impact of LIS Research." In Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement, ed. Charles R. McClure, 85-100. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1991. . "Output Measures in Libraries." Library Trends 38 (2) (Fall 1989): 268-79. Widdows, Richard, Tia A. Hensler, and Marlaya H. Wyncott. "The Focus Group Interview: A Method for Assessing Users' Evaluation of Library Services." College and Research Libraries 52 (July 1991): 352-59. Wurzburger, Marilyn. "Conducting a Mail Survey: Some of the Things You Probably Didn't Learn in any Research Methods Course." College and Research Libraries News (December 1987): 697-700. 140 Sources from Archival Literature The Education Committee, Association of Canadian Archivists. "Guidelines for the Development of a Two-Year Curriculum for a Master of Archival Studies Programme (December 1988)." Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 128-41. . "Guidelines for the Development of Post-Appointment and Continuing Education and Training Programme (December 1990)." Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 60-89. Standing Committee on Education, Association of Canadian Archivists. "ACA Education Programme and Implementation Plan." ACA Bulletin 16 (January 1992): 1-4. Atherton, Jay. "The Contribution of Archivaria to the Development of the Canadian Archival Profession." American Archivist 57 (Spring 1994): 270-77. Beattie, Diane L. "An Archival User Study: Researchers in the Field of Women's History." Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 33-49. Bellardo, Lewis J. and Lynn Lady Bellardo. A Glossary for Archivists, Manuscript Curators and Records Managers. Chicago: Society of Amierican Archivists, 1992. Bradley, Laura. "User Fees - Where We Are Now in Nova Scotia." Council of Nova Scotia Archives Newsletter (Fall 1997/Winter 1998): 23, 27-28. Bureau of Canadian Archivists. "Policy of the BCA Concerning the Education and Training of Archivists in Canada." ACA Bulletin 19 (November 1994): 4-11. Burke, Frank G. "Archival Cooperation," American Archivist 46 (3) (Summer 1983), 293-305. Child, Margaret S. "Reflections on Cooperation Among Professions." American Archivist 46 (Summer 1983): 286-92. Cook, Michael. The Management of Information from Archives. Aldershot, Hants.: Gower Publishing Company Limited, 1986. 141 Cook, Terry. "Dead or Alive?" Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983): 3-4. "Shadows in the Canadian Archival Zeitgeist: The Jeremiad of Terry Eastwood Considered." Archivaria 22 (Summer 1986): 156-62. "Mind Over Matter: Towards a New Theory of Archival Appraisal." In The Archival Imagination: Essays in Honour of Hugh Taylor, ed. Barbara L. Craig, 38-70. Ottawa: Association of Canadian Archivists, 1992. Couture, Carol. "Today's Students, Tomorrow's Archivists: Present Day Focus and Development as Determinants of Archives Science in the 21st Century. Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 95-104. Couture, Carol and Jean-Yves Rousseau. The Life of a Document: A Global Approach to Archives and Records Managmement. Translated by David Homel. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1987. Cox, Richard J. "American Archival Literature: Expanding Horizons and Continuing Needs, 1901-1987," American Archivist 50 (Summer 1987): 306-23. . "The American Archivist: Voice of the Profession or Another Role? Some Thoughts at the Beginning of an Editorship." American Archivist 54 (Fall 1991): 462-64. . "Educating Archivists: Speculations on the Past, Present, and Future" Journal of the American Society for Information Science 39 (5) (1988): 340-43. American Archival Analysis: The Recent Development of the Archival Profession in the United States. Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1990. . "Charting the Unknown: The Continuing Need for Research About Archival Work, Institutions, and the Profession." American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 410-13. . "The Context of Archives and Archivists." American Archivist 56 (2) (Spring 1993): 230-32. 142 . "The Roles of Graduate and Continuing Education Programs in Preparing Archivists in North America for the Information Age," American Archivist 56 (Summer 1993): 444-57. . "The Roles of the Editor: Some Additional Reflections." American Archivist 56 (1) (Winter 1993): 10-14. . "An Analysis of Archival Research, 1970-1992, and the Role and Function of 'The American Archivist'." American Archivist 57 (Spring 1994): 278-88. . "Needs in Archival Research and Publication." American Archivist 57 (Spring 1994): 268. . "Playing with Archival Assumptions: Reading our Archival Literature. American Archivist 57 (3) (Summer 1994): 444-47. Craig, Barbara. "Serving the Truth: The Importance of Fostering Archives Research in Education Programmes, Including a Modest Proposal for Partnerships with the Workplace." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 105-17. Daniels, Maygene F. and Timothy Walch, eds. A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on Archival Theory and Practice. Washington, D C : National Archives Trust Fund Board for the National Archives and Records Service, 1984. Davis, Susan E. "Archival Education: The Next Step." The Midwestern Archivist XTV (1) (1989): 13-21. Diamond, Elizabeth. "The Archivist as Forensic Scientist - Seeing Ourselves in a Different Way". Archivaria 38 (Fall 1994): 139-54. Duff, Wendy. "Ensuring the Preservation of Reliable Evidence: A Research Project Funded by the NHPRC." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 28-45. Duranti, Luciana and Heather MacNeil. "The Protection of the Integrity of Electronic Records: An Overview of the UCB-MAS Research Project." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 46-67. 143 Eastwood, Terry. "The Origins and Aims of the Master of Archival Studies Programme at the University of British Columbia." Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983): 35-52. . "What is Archival Theory and Why Is It Important." Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 122-30. . "Revised MAS Curriculam at UBC". ACA Bulletin (May 1994): 14-16. . "Reforming the Archival Curriculum to Meet Contemporary Needs." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 80-88. Ellis, Judith, ed. Keeping Archives. 2d ed. The Australian Society of Archivists. Port Melbourne: DW Thorpe, 1993. Ericson, Timothy L. "Forming Structures of Exquisite Beauty: Archivists and Education." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 118-25. Eso, Elizabeth and Robin G. Keirstead. "A Survey of Students of the Master of Archival Studies Programme at the University of British Columbia, 1981-88." Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 104-27. Fay, Margaret C. and Gertrude Bloor McLaren, eds. "Index to Archivaria. Numbers 21-30, 1986-1990." Archivaria 36 (Autumn 1993): 302-382. Floyd, Barbara L. and Richard W. Oram. " learning by Doing: Undergraduates as Employees in Archives." American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 440-52. Gabehart, Alan D. "Qualifications Desired by Employers for Entry-Level Archivists in the United States." American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 420-39. Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J. "From Education to Application and Back: Archival Literature and an Electronic Records Curriculum" American Archivist 56 (Summer 1993): 532-44. Hedstrom, Margaret. "Understanding Electronic Incunabula: A Framework for Research on Electronic Records." American Archivist 54 (Summer 1991): 334-54. 144 Hutchinson, Tim. "Strategies for Searching Online Finding Aids: A Retrieval Experiement." Arcjuvaria 44 (Fall 1997): 72-101 Kessner, Richard M. "Employing the Case Study Method in the Teaching of Automated Records and Techniques to Archivists," American Archivist 56 (Summer 1993): 522-31. Klumpenhouwer, Richard. "The MAS and After: Transubstantiating Theory and Practice in the Archival Culture." Archivaria 39 (Spring 1995): 88-95. Lemieux, Victoria. "An Archival Practitioner's Views on Archival Literature: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going." Archivaria 40 (Fall 1995): 199-209. Maher, William J. "The Use of User Studies," The Midwestern Archivist XI (1986): 15-26. Martin, Robert Sidney. "The Development of Professional Education for Librarians and Archivists in the United States: A Comparative Essay." American Archivist 57 (Summer 1994): 544-58. MacDermaid, Anne. "Reaction Versus Proaction: Moving From Here to There." Archivaria 29 (Winter 1989-90): 197-203. McCall, Nancy and Lisa A. Mix. "Scholarly Returns: Patterns of Research in a Medical Archives." Archivaria 41 (Spring 1996): 158-87. McCarthy, Paul H. "The Management of Archives: A Research Agenda." American Archivist 51 (Winter/Spring 1988): 52-69. Nesmith, Tom. "Professional Education in the Most Expansive Sense: What Will the Archivists Need to Know in the Twenty-First Century." Archivaria 42 (Fall 1996): 89-94. Palm, Charles G. "Introduction to Archival Research Agendas." American Archivist 51 (Winter/Spring 1988): 24-27. Rabe Barritt, Marjorie. A Decade of Sponsored Research: The Bentley Historical Library's Research Fellowship Program for Study of Modern Archives. University of Michigan: Bentley Historical Library, March 1994. 145 Roberts, John W. "Practice Makes Perfect, Theory Makes Theorists." Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 111-21. Schaeffer, Roy. "From Craft to Profession: The Evolution of Archival Education and Theory in North America." Archivaria 37 (Spring 1994): 21-34. Stephenson, Mary Sue. "Deciding Not to Build the Wall: Research and the Archival Profession." Archivaria 32 (Summer 1991): 145-51. . "The Function and Content of Research Methods in Graduate Archival Studies Education." Archivaria 35 (Spring 1993): 190-202. Swift, Michael. "Management Techniques and Technical Resources in the Archives of the 1980's." Archivaria 20 (Summer 1985): 94-104. Tumbaugh, Roy C. "Archival Mission and User Studies." The Midwestern Archivist XI (1986): 27-33. United Nations. UNESCO. Harmonization of Training in Librarianship, Information Science and Archives. General Information Programme PG 1-87 / WS/ 2. March 1987 Wells, Garron. "An Analysis of the Composition of the Board of Directors: Report of the 1993-94 Standing Committee on Nominations and Elections." ACA Bulletin 19 (1) (Sept. 1994): 2-9. Wilson, Ian E. "Strategies for Communication". Journal of the Society of Archivists 16 (1) (1995): 55-69. Wodarczak, Erwin and Judy Chown, AABC Internet Committee. "Internet Connectivity Survey." AABC Newsletter 8 (1) (Winter 1998): 17-18. Wylie, Robin. "Student Archivistics: The Contribution of Master of Archival Studies Theses to Archival Professional Literature." Archivaria 39 (Spring 1995): 96-107 146 Statistical Analysis Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Ver. 6.1.3 for Windows/Student Version (Chicago, 111.: SPSS Inc.): 1996. Norusis, Marija J. SPSS For Windows Base System User's Guide. Release 6.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc., 1993. Other Sources Craig, Barbara L. Toronto, ON to Jane Bowe McCarthy, Edmonton, AB, April 9, 1998. Including survey "Canadian Archivists: What Types of People Are They?" Centre for Research in Information Studies, Faculty of Information Studies, University of Toronto. Peters, Evelyn, Vancouver, BC to Jane Bowe McCarthy, Edmonton, AB, January 31, 1997. Including "Survey of Archivists/Records Managers Who Attended the Master of Archival Studies Program at the University of British Columbia." School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, "Comparative Statistical Analysis of 1994 and 1993." Annual Report 1994 July 01-1995 June 30 (University of British Columbia: SLAIS): 16. 147 Appendix I - Codebook 148 Test Variables: 1. MAS course work completion 2. thesis status 3. type of thesis research 4. research methods course 5. current employment status 6. current employment position/job title 7. job title of person to whom the respondent reports directly 8. current work setting 9. name of institution (optional) 10. research projects in the workplace within last ten years 11. reasons or factors for nol being able to conduct research in the workplace 12. confidence in ability to plan and conduct a research project 13. confidence in ability to be member of research team led by someone else 14. knowledge of research methods useful in workplace 15. like to learn more about research methods 16. general knowledge of research methods useful in development of archival profession 17. areas of archival profession that would benefit from research activity 18. personally conducted a research project since beginning work as archivist 19. comments regarding survey in particular or research in general 149 Univariable Research Questions: 1. In what year did the respondent complete the MAS course work? 2. What is the status of the thesis? 3. What type of research was conducted (or is being conducted) in the course of writing theJhesis? 4. Has the respondent ever taken a research methods course? 5. What is the current employment status of the respondent? 6. What is the current employment position/job title held by the respondent? 7. What is the job title of the person to whom the respondent reports directly? 8. What is the current work setting of the respondent? 9. What is the name of the institution the respondent works at? (optional) 10. Have there been any research projects conducted in the workplace within the last ten years? 11. Which reasons or factors does the respondent see for not heiiig able to conduct research in the workplace? 12. Does the respondent feel confident in ability to conduct a research project according to established social sciences research methodology? 13. Does the respondent feel confident in ability if asked to he a member of a research team led by someone else? 14. Does the respondent think that a knowledge of research methods is useful in the workplace? 15. Would the respondent like to learn more about research methods? 16. Does the respondent think that a general knowledge of research methods is useful in the development of the archival profession? 150 Univariable Research Questions: (cont'd) 17. Does the respondent think that there are areas of the archival profession that would benefit from research activity? 18. Has the respondent ever personally conducted a research project since beginning work as an archivist? 19. What comments does the respondent have regarding the survey in particular or research in general ? 151 Variable SPSS Name Level Attributes Value Code ID id num ratio actual number 1 to 95 Mailing mailing ratio 1st return 2nd return missing 1 2 1. MAS Course courcom Work Completion Year nominal actual year- 1983 1 - 1984 2 - 1985 3 - 1986 4 - 1987 5 - 1988 6 - 1989 7 - 1990 8 - 1991 9 - 1992 10 - 1993 11 - 1994 12 missing • 2. Thesis Status status nominal complete in progress deferred abandoned missing 1 2 3 4 3. Type of Thesis Research qualitative actual response missing 152 / Variable SPSS Name Level Attributes Value Codes 4. Research rm cour Methods Course Taken nominal yes no missing 1 2 rm type nominal UBC/SLAIS 1 Other university 2 or college course missing • 5. Current empstat Employment Status ordinal FT permanent 1 PT permanent 2 contract/temporary 3 not currentiy 4 employed other 5 missing • 6. Current Employment Position/ Job Title qualitative actual response missing Job Title of Person to Whom Respondent Reports Directly qualitative actual response missing 153 Variable SPSS Name Level Attributes Value Codes 8. Current Work workset nominal Setting national archives 1 provincial/territorial 2 archives civic/municipal 3 archives university/college 4 archives business/corporate 5 archives religious archives 6 private archives 7 professional assoc. 8 archives museum and archives 9 other 10 missing • 9. Name of qualitative actual response Institution missing (optional) 10. Research rjworkpl Projects in the Workplace within the Last Ten Years qualitative actual response missing nominal yes 1 no 2 do not know 3 missing • 154 Variable SPSS Name Level Attributes Value Codes 1 la. "No Personal Interest" noint as Reason or Factor for Not Being Able to Conduct Research in Workplace ordinal first choice 1 second choice 2 third choice 3 fourth choice 4 fifth choice 5 sixth choice 6 missing • 1 lb. "Lack of Time" as lacktim ordinal Reason or Factor.. same attributes and value codes as above in 11a lie. "Lack of Money" lackmon ordinal as Reason or Factor... same attributes and value codes as above in 1 la lid. "Lack of Incentives" lackinc as Reason or Factor... ordinal same attributes and value codes as above in 11a lie. "Lackof Knowledge lack_kno or Experience" as Reason or Factor... ordinal same attributes and value codes as above in 1 la 1 If. "Other" as Reason or other Factor... ordinal same attributes and value codes as above in 1 la 12. Confidence confid in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project ordinal no opmion do not know yes somewhat no missing 0 1 2 3 4 155 Variable SPSS Name Level Attributes Value Codes 13. Confidence in conftm ordinal no opinion 0 Ability to be do not know 1 Member of yes 2 Research Team somewhat 3 Led by Someone no 4 Else missing • 14. Knowledge of usewrkp ordinal no opinion 0 Research do not know 1 Methods yes 2 Useful in the somewhat 3 Workplace no 4 missing • qualitative actual response missing 15. Like to Learn learnrm ordinal no opinion 0 More About do not know 1 Research Methods yes 2 somewhat 3 no 4 missing • means nominal session at prof. 1 conference workshop by 2 regional archives prof, assoc. continuing education 3 course at college or university credit course within 4 univ. or college programme other 5 missing • 156 Variable SPSS Name Level Attributes Value Codes 16. General usej>rof ordinal no opinion 0 Knowledge do not know 1 of Research yes 2 Methods somewhat 3 Useful in no 4 Development missing • of Archival Profession 17. Areas of areas Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity ordinal no opinion do not know yes somewhat no missing 0 1 2 3 4 qualitative actual response missing 18. Personally Conducted a Research personal nominal yes no missing 1 2 Project Since Beginning Work as an Archivist qualitative actual response missing 19. Comments qualitative actual response Regarding missing Survey in Particular or Research in General 157 Textual Definitions of Variables: ID: Unique case identification number. Mailing: Return of the questionnaire during the first mail-out period, the second mail-out period, or not at all, as indicated by "missing" 1. MAS course work completion: The actual year of completion of MAS course work 2. Thesis Status: The current status of the thesis complete = thesis written and defended in progress = thesis currently being researched and/or written deferred = thesis has been temporarily deferred with permission of the school abandoned = respondent is no longer paying tuition fees to the programme, or has gone beyond the five year deadline 3. Type of Thesis Research: The type of research conducted in the course of the thesis work as defined by the respondent's brief written response (open-ended question). Examples are given as: theoretical analysis, historical analysis, content analysis, case study, survey/questionnaire, etc. 4. Research Methods Course: Completion of a course in social sciences research methods. If answer is yes, respondent is asked to identify where course was taken (open-ended question). Examples are given as: SLAIS (School of Library, Archival and Information Studies, UBC), another university/college, continuing education course, archives workshop, etc. 5. Current Employment Status: FT (full time) permanent = 35 or more hours per week, permanent position FT (part time) permanent = 34 or fewer hours per week, permanent position Contract/Temporary = either full or part time, limited term position Not currently employed = not working in the profession Other = none of the above 6. Current Employment Position/Job Title: Job title of the respondent as defined by the respondent (open-ended question). 158 Textual Definitions of Variables (cont'd) 7. Job Title of Person to Whom Respondent Reports Directly: Job title of the person to whom the respondent is directly accountable to, supplied by the respondent (open-ended question). 8. Current Work Setting: Type of archives in which the respondent is currently employed: national archives provincial /territorial archives civic/municipal archives university/college archives business/corporate archives religious archives private archives professional association archives museum and archives other = none of the above 9. Name of Institution Name of institution that the respondent is employed at (optional open-ended question). 10. Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years: Any formal or informal research project(s) that has been carried out in the repository or by the employer within the last ten years. 11. Reasons or Factors for not Being Able to Conduct Research in the Workplace: Reasons or factors that the respondent sees for not being able to conduct research in the workplace. 12. Confidence in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project: If the respondent feels confident in his or her ability to plan and conduct a research project according to established social sciences research methodology. 13. Confidence in Ability to be a Member of Research Team led by Someone Else If the respondent feels confident in his or her ability to be a member of a research team led by someone else. 14. Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace: If, in the opinion of the respondent, knowledge of research methods would be useful in the workplace. If answer is 'yes' or 'somewhat', respondent is asked to describe briefly why it would be useful (open-ended question). 159 Textual Definitions of Variables (cont'd) 15. Like to Learn More About Research Methods If the respondent would like to learn more about research methods. If the answer is 'yes' or 'somewhat', respondent is asked to identify through what means he or she would like to learn more about research methods. Examples are given as: a session at a professional conference (half day or less), a workshop run by a regional archives professional association (that is, not held during a professional conference) (1-2 days), a continuing education course taught at a college or university (1-3 days), a credit course within a university or college programme, or other means. Other equals none of the above. 16. General Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in Development of the Archival Profession: If, in the opinion of the respondent, a knowledge of research methods would be useful in the development of the archival profession. 17. Areas of the Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity If, in the opinion of the respondent, there are areas of the archival profession that the respondent thinks would benefit from research activity. If answer is 'yes' or 'somewhat', respondent is asked to identify three areas of priority for research (open-ended question). 18. Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as an Archivist Has the respondent conducted a research project since beginning work as an archivist. If answer is 'yes' or 'somewhat', respondent is asked to briefly describe the project. 19. Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General: Any comments the respondent would like to add regarding the questionnaire in particular, or the subject of research in general. 160 Other Textual Definitions The definition of research was included in the text of the covering letter so that respondents would not mistake social sciences 'research' for the more common notion of 'archival research'; that is, a study using archival documents (i.e. what researchers do in archives). Examples such as 'user surveys', 'membership studies', and 'case studies' were cited in the questionnaire so that all respondents had the same understanding that what is asked of them in the questionnaire is their attitudes towards social sciences research as it applies to the archival profession. A brief explanation was included in the text of the questionnaire (page 2-6). See next page. 161 Other Textual Definitions (cont'd) (From page 2-6 of the questionnaire). //. Research in the Workplace: Generally speaking, an archivist would conduct research for the development of new knowledge and theories; or to test, confirm, revise, or refute existing knowledge and theories; or to investigate a problem for which there is not enough information currently available in order to make a decision, choose a course of action, etc. This would include research into various aspects of the archival profession (for example: educational requirements, descriptive standards, advocacy, outreach, etc.); the archival workplace (for example: user needs, reference studies, conservation needs assessments, etc.); new technologies (for example: electronic records, imaging systems, automated information retrieval systems, etc.). Formal research consists of a structured methodology akin to the research carried out in the social sciences, and according to an inquiry process consisting of five basic activities. AH five activities would be carried out by the researcher, in varying degrees, based on the nature of the topic under investigation. 1. Reflective inquiry (including identifying the specific problem, conducting a literature review to place the problem in context, formulating a theoretical/logical framework and research objectives/questions) 2. Identification and adoption of appropriate research designs and methodologies 3. Collection of data 4. Analysis of data 5. Presentation of findings, and recommendations for further research It is also possible that archivists engage in informal research of a more exploratory nature, and with the intention of gaining an overall (or snapshot) view of a given situation or problem, or of making an informed decision. Informal research would include any. quantitative and/or qualitative research that was conducted according to a structured plan. This survey attempts to capture information on BOTH formal and informal research. 162 The Data Gathering Instrument (dgi): The Covering Letter: First Mail-Out (see next page) 163 / The Data Gathering Instrument (dgi) (cont'd) The Covering Letter: Second Mail-Out (see next page) 165 The Data Gathering Instrument (dgi) (cont'd) The Questionnaire (see next pages) 167 Survey on MAS Graduates/Students' Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession 1-6 I. Demographic Information: 1. In what year did you complete the MAS course work? 19 2. What is the status of your thesis? [Choose one of the following] ( ) complete (thesis written and defended) ( ) in progress (thesis currently being researched and/or written) ( ) deferred (thesis temporarily deferred with permission of the school) ( ) abandoned (no longer paying tuition fees, beyond the five year deadline, etc.) 3. What type of research was conducted (or is being conducted) in the course of writing your thesis? (for example: theoretical analysis, historical analysis, content analysis, case study, survey/questionnaire, etc.) 4. Have you ever completed a course(s) in social sciences research methods? [Choose one of the following] ( )yes ( )no If yes, where did you take the course(s)? (for example: at SLAIS, another university/college, continuing education course, archives workshop, etc.) 5. What is your current employment status? [Choose one of the following] ( ) full time permanent (35 or more hours per week, permanent position) ( ) part time permanent (34 or fewer hours per week, permanent position) ( ) contract/temporary (limited term position, either full or part time) ( ) not currently employed (not working in the profession) (If not currently employed, please skip ahead to Question #11) ( ) Other (please specify) 6. What is your current employment position/job title? 168 id. Survey on MAS Graduates/Students' Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession 2-6 I. Demographic Information: (cont'd) 7. What is the job title of the person to whom you report directly? 8. What is your current work setting? [Choose one of the following] ) national archives ) provincial/territorial archives ) civic/municipal archives ) university/college archives ) business/corporate archives ) religious archives ) private archives ) professional association archives (for example, medical or legal association, etc.) ) museum and archives ) Other (please specify) //. Research in the Workplace: Generally speaking, an archivist would conduct research for the development of new knowledge and theories; or to test, confirm, revise, or refute existing knowledge and theories; or to investigate a problem for which there is not enough information currently available in order to make a decision, choose a course of action, etc This would include research into various aspects of the archival profession (for example: educational requirements, descriptive standards, advocacy, outreach, etc); the archival workplace (for example: user needs, reference studies, conservation needs assessments, etc); new technologies (for example: electronic records, imaging systems, automated information retrieval systems, etc.). Formal research consists of a structured methodology akin to the research carried out in the social sciences, and according to an inquiry process consisting of five basic activities. All five activities would be carried out by the researcher, in varying degrees, based on the nature of the topic under investigation. 1. Reflective inquiry (including identifying the specific problem, conducting a literature review to place the problem in context, formulating a theoretical/logical framework and research objectives/questions) 2. Identification and adoption of appropriate research designs and methodologies 3. Collection of data 4. Analysis of data 5. Presentation offindings, and recommendations for further research It is also possible that archivists engage in informal research of a more exploratory nature, and with the intention of gaining an overall (or snapshot) view of a given situation or problem, or of making an informed decision. Informal research would include any quantitative and/or qualitative research that was conducted according to a structured plan. This survey attempts to capture information on BOTHformal and informal research. 9. What is the name of your institution? (optional) id. 169 Survey on MAS Graduates/Students' Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession 3-6 c 1 CO cd "E, u. O ? u 3 O >> T3 eu ts 3 T3 C o o <2 c o ~3 <2 CU J3 CJ CO 'o" Ui Q. <u tt> eu u-C ret C CU cu eu 5 eu 60 TJ eu 2 2 5 O </> ^ eu ^ eu cu S JO *-« "5 •£ -S o .5 o to C CU O Q =5 J O ed o eu i -cu CD •c o CU -a eu •n eu T j <f> cu cu •s > 3 £ cS o .S 5 "2 « S eu E >" TJ * cu sr Q > «- £ ed O eu \3 S H CU . f l v_ O CL, CJ < o =52 e o * eu cu w — eu H 2 o u. £ 3 2 O H. o TJ <•< U •c > s 1 R "3 •^ 3 s a. C3 c c c o 8? S o, oo •a o a K c o •3 o. 4J a 1 •a. tu u c I f * s § |" a o •a _ ca id. 170 Survey on MAS Graduates/Students' Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession 4-6 II. Research in the Workplace: (cont'd) 11. Which of the following do you see as reasons or factors for not being able to conduct research in the workplace? Rank the following from 1 to 6 (1 indicates the primary reason, 2 indicates the secondary reason, and so on, 6 indicates the last reason) [Rank order] ( ) no personal interest in conducting research ( ) lack of time ( ) lack of money ( ) lack of incentives from the parent institution (for example: career advancement, bonuses, etc.) ( ) lack of knowledge or experience of research methods ( ) Other (please specify) 12. Would you feel confident in your ability if you were asked to plan and conduct a research project (for example: a users survey or membership questionnaire) according to established social sciences research methodology {including a literature review, study of appropriate research design, data collection, data analysis, presentation of findings)? [Choose one of the following] ( ) yes ( ) somewhat ( )no ( ) do not know ( ) no opinion 13. Would you feel confident in your ability if you were asked to be a member of a research team led by SOmeOne else? [Choose one of the following] ( )yes ( ) somewhat ( )no ( ) do not know ( ) no opinion 14. In your opinion, would a knowledge of research methods be useful in the workplace? ( )yeS [Choose one of the following] ( ) somewhat ( )no ( ) do not know ( ) no opinion If yis or somewhat, briefly describe why it would be useful. 171 - i — i.d. Survey on MAS Graduates/Students' Attitudes Towards Research in the Canadian Archival Profession S-6 III. Research in the Archival Profession: 15. Would you like to learn more about research methods? [Choose one of the following] ( ) yes ( ) somewhat ( )no ( ) do not know ( ) no opinion If yes or somewhat, then through which means would you like to learn about research methods? [Choose one of the following] ( ) a session at a professional conference (half-day or less) ( ) a workshop run by a regional archives professional association (that is, asl held during a professional conference) (1-2 days) ( ) a continuing education course taught at a college or university (1-3 days) ( ) a credit course within a university or college programme ( ) Other (please specify) 16. In your opinion, would a general knowledge of research methods by archivists be useful in the development of the archival profession? [Choose one of the following] ( )yes ( ) somewhat ( )no , ( ) do not know ( ) no opinion 17. In your opinion, do you think that there are areas of the archival profession that would benefit from research activity? ( ) yeS [Choose one of the following] ( ) somewhat ( )no ( ) do not know ( ) no opinion If yes or somewhat, what would you consider to be three areas of priority for research in the archival profession? i.d. 172 The Data Gathering Instrument (dgi) (cont'd) Written Instructions This questionnaire was mailed to MAS students/graduates up to and including the class which finished all course work in April 1993. A master list of MAS students/graduates was compiled using the student records maintained in the SLAIS main office. The ability to compile this list was based on the assumption that the school maintains an accurate listing of the names and addresses of all current and former MAS students. There were two possible problems anticipated in the compilation of a master list of all possible MAS respondents. 1) SLAIS may have only the home address of the student/graduate (and it is preferable to mail a work-related survey to the respondent's business address instead) 2) the listing may not be accurate since the students/graduates may not have supplied updated information when they have moved or changed jobs. In reality the addresses maintained by SLAIS were not current, and the name of each student was cross-referenced with membership directories from the Association of Canadian Archivists (ACA), as well as regional archives associations across Canada, and the membership directory for the Society of American Archivists (SAA). In some cases, when there were still some names for which there was no address, I asked MAS faculty in SLAIS if they knew the current address of the student/graduate. Addresses were also cross-referenced with the current year's telephone directories. The master list of MAS students/graduates included the following information: unique identification number, first name, last name, street address, city, province/state, country, postal code, class number, first mail return, follow-up sent, second mail return. To ensure the anonymity of the respondents, the master list was destroyed after the survey was complete. This prevented anyone from linking the respondent's name to his or her corresponding numbered questionnaire. 174 The Data Gathering Instrument (dgi) (cont'd) Written Instructions The Pre-Test While a pre-test is advisable, it was not practical to do in this project. Instead, the final draft of the questionnaire was reviewed by the thesis supervisor Prof. Terry Eastwood, and the co-supervisor, Dr. Mary Sue Stephenson, as well as the University of British Columbia Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee for Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects. The questionnaire was also previewed by students who were not part of the study population. The students proofread the questionnaire and covering letter and provided input as to whether the questions were logical and concise. The Mail-Out The mail-out date for the survey was Monday, June 1, 1998. It should be noted that the mail-out date for the survey was delayed by four years, due to circumstances on the part of the researcher. While the questionnaire remained valid, the researcher was required to research and update the master mailing list with the current year's directories of the national and regional archives associations. Prior to the mail-out date, a questionnaire package was assembled for each name on the master list. Care was taken to ensure that the unique identity number for each addressee on the list corresponded to the same identify number on the lower righthand corner of the questionnaire, and to the same identity number on the lower righthand corner of the mailing label affixed to the mail-out envelope. The questionnaire package consisted of a covering letter, blank questionnaire form, and a postage-paid, self-addressed envelope. In some cases, the respondents lived abroad, and international return postage was included with those packages. As each questionnaire was returned, the identifying number and corresponding name was checked off the master list. The first deadline for returning the questionnaire was Friday, June 19, 1998. 49 questionnaires were received during the first mail-out period. 175 The Data Gathering Instrument (dgi) Written Instructions (cont'd) The reminder notice and covering letter, a second questionnaire (printed on a different colour paper) and a postage-paid, self-addressed return envelope was mailed out to those respondents who did not return the questionnaire by the first return due date (as indicated by the appropriate column on the master list of respondents). The date for sending the reminder was about one week after the first return due date, Monday, June 29, 1998. The second return date was Friday July 17, 1998. 8 questionnaires were received during the second mail-out period. As questionnaires were returned, they were filed into a loose-leaf binder in identity number order and coded immediately, rather than waiting for all the questionnaires to arrive and doing them at then end of the survey period. Possible Problems 1. Possibility of a postal strike (Canada or abroad), which would affect the distribution of the questionnaire, and its return. As there was a postal strike in Canada less than a year ago, it was unlikely that there would be another one during the survey period. There was still a possibility that there was a postal strike abroad which would affect the questionnaire reaching respondents outside Canada. 2. Possibility that some of the addresses published in the directories were incorrect or that some respondents had moved since the last published address. If an envelope was returned to sender during the first mail-out period, I decided that if I could not find an updated address, I would treat the respondent(s) as I had those respondents who did not appear in any of the professional directories, and appeared to be inactive in the profession. The corresponding degree of error was accounted for in the survey. 3. Possibility that if the respondent filled out both the first and second questionnaires, I would take the data supplied in the first questionnaire only, since the second questionnaire was prejudiced by the knowledge gained in the first one. 176 Data Coding Data Coding Sheet (see next pages) no int 1 r workpl | inst nam 1 work set dir rep 1 emppos | an a E rm type 1 rm cour 1 status 1 cour com | mailing 1 id num 1 r H •* m v o r~ o e ov o r H <s r H <*) r H " t r H l/V VO r H t— 9 0 © v o r ) t s «S tN «») t s T fS Vi IS VO tN r~ tN 0 0 IN Ov tN © t»> <N f> <*» "> T » f ) IT) v o f> t~-"> 9 0 t 178 personal [ areas use prof | means | learn nn | use wrkpl confid tm | confid 1 other 1 lack kno lack inc j lack mon 1 lack tim | H H N f> yf vo t - 90 Ov O H H F H ^ H f> H H •t VO 1— H H 90 H H © f> H f IT, vo 1— 90 f>» Ov «S o f> fs f> t f> f> •* ir, f> VO f ) 1^  f> 90 179 Data Coding (cont'd) Written Instructions The purpose of the data coding sheet was to keep track of the given response to each question across the total number of questionnaires which were returned. The order of the questions on the data gathering instrument (dgi) corresponded in sequence to the order of the variables in the code book, as well as to the order of boxes on the data coding sheet. This was to avoid any confusion between each question and the corresponding answer. So not to lose place when going through each dgi, the codebook and the data coding sheet, I followed through each one with a blank sheet of paper covering subsequent questions until the preceding one was entered fully onto the coding sheet. The code number which corresponded to the given response was entered onto the coding sheet in the appropriate column identified by the SPSS name. Replies to qualitative questions were not included on the data coding sheet, and were recorded separately by transcribing the response onto index cards (see General Rules for Coding Data: Item #6). All questions on one questionnaire were coded before moving on to another questionnaire. Questionnaires were coded as they were received, and were proof-read once after initial coding and annotated 'proof-read' in red ink. Once all questionnaires were received and coded, I went through each one again to proof-read a second time, and indicated with a check mark (e.g. 'proof-read' /). / 180 General Rules for Coding Data 1. If a question was not answered at all, it was treated as 'missing.' 2. If it was not clear which attribute was marked, it was treated it as 'missing.' 3. In general, if there was any indication that the respondent was confused by a question and there was some doubt as to the validity of the answer, then it was counted as 'missing.' 4. If two questionnaires were returned by the same respondent, I took the data on the first questionnaire and destroyed the second questionnaire, since the data in the second one would have been prejudiced by the first one. 5. A log was kept of any decisions or interpretations made in the course of coding. A form was used for each question requiring a decision or an interpretation as to how the question was coded. The form included the question number and wording of the question, the identification number of the questionnaire, and the decision that was made, so that subsequent problems with that question were dealt with in a manner consistent throughout all questionnaires. Example: QUESTION # 75 Would you like to learn more about research methods? Questionnaire ID Number Decision Made I.D. 68 Respondent has written a comment beside Q. 15. I have transcribed it and will treat is as an additional comment under Q. 19 181 General Rules for Coding Data (cont'd) 6. A similar technique was used for questions with the response option of 'Other: ', as in questions 5, 8, 11, and 15. Example: QUESTION # 8 What is your current work setting? Questionnaire I.D. Number Response I.D. 21 Other: Public School Board Archives 7. For the qualitative responses given for Questions 3, 10, 14, 17, 18, and 19, each response was transcribed onto ruled index cards, and filed according to the question number. Each card included the question number, the case identification number, and the transcribed response. Example: Q. 10 Have there been any research projects conducted in your I.D. 90 workplace within the last ten years ? "An internal users' survey of employees that have used the Archives in the past twelve months" 182 General Rules for Coding Data (cont'd) 8. Questions #6 and #7 were transcribed onto the same index card since the purpose of identifying the job title of the person to whom the respondent reports to directly is to establish the chain of command vis a vis the respondent's own employment position. #6 and #7 were open-ended questions which were eventually coded. 9. If a returned questionnaire was not complete (that is, if only Section I: Demographic Information was filled in), then it was treated as 'spoiled' since there was no data to analyse regarding attitudes to research. 10. Likewise, if less than half of the combined number of questions in the remaining two sections, Section II: Research in the Workplace and Section III: Research in the Archival Profession were not answered, then the questionnaire was treated as 'spoiled'. 183 Sampling Design Operational Definitions of the Population The theoretical population was the Canadian archival community. The study population was all MAS students/graduates up to and including the class which finished all course work in April 1993. Sampling Design A census sample was used for this study because of the manageable number of possible respondents in the study population of students/graduates of the MAS programme. A census sample is defined as being when all members of the study population are included in the sample; all members have a known (100%) chance of being selected. A census sample is used with a relatively small study population, and when it is feasible — given available resources (time, money, staff, etc.) - to gather information from all members of the study population. The success of the census sample for this study depended on the SLAIS office knowing who all the members are for each class year between 1981 and 1993 (exclusive of the first year students in 1992/1993 school year). Originally developed for implementation in May 1994, the actual mail-out did not occur until June 1998, due to circumstances on the part of the researcher. While the delay did not affect the questionnaire, it required that the researcher update the master mailing list with current addresses found in the current membership directories of the Association of Canadian Archivists (ACA), the regional archives associations, and the Society of American Archivists (SAA). If there was a current contact address for each of the MAS students/graduates, then each had an equal, known chance of being selected. In reality, there were some MAS students/graduates for which current addresses were not available. It was still possible to continue with a census survey, as long as it was clearly stated that the study population was comprised of those MAS students/graduates that were able to be 184 Sampling Design (cont'd) found using SLAIS records, the current archival associations membership directories, and other reasonable sources. However, the results of the study could not be generalized to those MAS students/graduates who did not participate in the survey. Size of the Sample There were 95 MAS students/graduates in the study population. Using the standard formula below, the sample size is calculated as follows: n = N n - 95 1+Ne 1+ 95 (.0025) n = sample size n = 76.76.76 or 72 N = study population e = sampling error (dispersion) [sampling error of +/- 5% / .05] Written Instructions on How to Select the Sample In a census sample, all members of the study population must have a known and equal probability for being selected as part of the sample. To select the census sample, I followed the instructions for the master list of members of the study population described in the section above on the written instructions for the data gathering instrument. 185 Appendix II - Qualitative Data Transcripts of Responses to Qualitative Questions 186 Note: Appendix 2 contains transcripts of the responses to qualitative questions asked in the survey, and are presented in question number order. Transcripts are arranged in case number order. Note: For comparative purposes in the qualitative data, one should also know which cases involved previous training in social science research methods. The following cases answered 'yes' to Question #4: Have you ever completed a course(s) in social sciences research methods? and have been annotated with [rm] in each question for the convenience of the reader. Case # 7, 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, 23, 26, 36, 37, 39, 51, 53, 56, 62, 65, 68, 70, 71, 74 187 Variable: Type of Thesis Research Research Question #3: What type of research was conducted (or is being conducted) in the course of writing the thesis? Case # Response 1 Theoretical, historical, content analysis 2 Survey/questionnaire 3 Historical analysis 5 Theoretical analysis, literature survey, historical analysis 7 Theoretical analysis [rm] 8 Content analysis of Canadian Provincial and Territorial archival legislation 9 Functional analysis of a particular type of creator 11 An exploratory study was conducted through survey research. [rm] Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire, distributed by mail to a non-random sample. 14 Case study 15 Historical analysis of two case studies 17 Literature survey, theoretical analysis [rm] 18 Interviews of faculty members (re: faculty papers); written surveys to other archival [rm] institutions 20 Content analysis of lawyers' case files, using diplomatics [rm] 21 I did a case study of two voluntary associations. This involved ethnographic research and analysis of filing systems. I also did a literature survey and documented the history of the associations, of course 188 Variable: Type of Thesis Research Research Question #3: (cont'd) 22 Historical analysis 23 Library research, interviews with government cartographic employees, historical analysis, [rm] some theoretical analysis 24 Theoretical analysis, historical analysis, survey/questionnaire 25 Conducted literature search and analysis, interviews, primarily research and analysis 26 Theoretical analysis [rm] 28 Theory 29 Theoretical and historical analysis 31 Theoretical analysis 33 Theoretical and content analysis 34 Theoretical analysis, historical analysis, case study, [content] analysis 35 Literature survey/analysis, survey/questionnaire of archival repositories, site visits, and analysis of finding aids 36 Historical [rm] 37 Case studies of provincial/territorial institutions [rm] 39 Survey questionnaire [rm] 40 Case study, theoretical analysis 43 Conducted a case study on the federal administration] of agriculture through analyzing legislation 45 Content analysis 189 Variable: Type of Thesis Research Research Question #3: (cont'd) 46 Theoretical analysis, legal analysis, technical analysis 47 Historical analysis 51 Theoretical analysis across disciplines (law and archival theory and diplomatics) [rm] 52 Theoretical analysis, historical research of one specific type of educational institution, research and study of legislation 53 Content analysis of an archival legislation [rm] 54 Historical analysis, content analysis 55 Literature search/review, survey/interviews with selected archivists regarding non-textual records 56 Historical analysis, survey/questionnaire [rm] 57 Survey/questionnaire combined with historical analysis 58 Survey/questionnaire (1984, 1994) to provide a ten year comparison of the scope, nature, admin, and intellectual control, use and conservation/preservation of oral history sources in National, Provincial, and Territorial Archives (bilingual, 23 questions) 62 Theoretical, historical analysis [rm] 64 I guess content analysis - I interpreted the system development process in relation to record creation 65 Historical analysis, survey/questionnaire [rm] 66 Arrangement and description of maps in Archives - content analysis 70 Historical analysis, case study [rm] 190 Variable: Type of Thesis Research Research Question #3: (cont'd) 71 Theoretical analysis and oral history interviews [rm] 72 Survey/interviews, secondary search of literature 74 Historical development of the the Vancouver City Archives up to the opening of the [rm] present facility in 1973(?) 75 Case study of child care workers in provincial social work program with an analysis appraisal criteria for case files 77 Theoretical analysis, historical analysis 79 Historical analysis 88 Literature review, content analysis, case study 90 Theoretical analysis, historical analysis 191 Variable: Current employment position/job title Job title of person to whom the respondent reports directly Research Question #6 What is the current employment position/job title held by the respondent? Research Question #7 What is the job title of the person to whom the respondent reports directly? Case # Response 1 Q.6 Q-7 3 Q.6 Q.7 5 Q.6 Q7 7 Q.6 [rm] Q.7 8 Q.6 Q7 9 Q.6 Q7 11 Q.6 [rm] Q-7 12 Q.6 [rm] Q7 14 Q.6 Q7 Contract/Temporary = Municipal Clerk lanager, Records Management and Comrm Department of Government Services 15 Q.6 Manager of Operations Q.7 Director of Finance and Information Services 192 Variable: Current employment position/job title Research Question #6 Job title of person to whom the respondent reports directly Research Question #7 Case # Response 17 [rm] Q.6 Q7 Acting Senior Archivist Portfolio Manager 18 [rm] Q.6 Q7 Archivist University Archivist 20 [rm] Q.6 Q7 Archives Advisor President of the Archives Society 21 job Q.6 Q7 Archivist 2. I often refer to myself as an Appraisal Archivist, as this is my main focus. Manager of Portfolios 22 Q.6 Q7 University Archivist Division Head 23 [rm] Q.6 Q.7 Archivist Director 24 Q.6 Q.7 Manager, Systems Planning and Standards Director, Information Analysis and [Scheduling] 25 Q.6 Q7 Manager, Corporate Publishing and Information Management (Information Management portion includes records management, archives and FOI and Privacy) Regional Clerk 26 [rm] Q.6 Q.7 Senior Archivist Manager, Special Collections 28 Q.6 Q7 Archivist Archives Manager 29 Q.6 Q7 Government Archivist (Historical Researcher 2) Section Chief 31 Q.6 Q7 Ministry Records Officer Manager, Records and Library Services 193 Variable: Current employment position/job title Research Question #6 Job title of person to whom the respondent reports directly Research Question #7 Case # Response 33 Q.6 Q7 34 Q.6 Q-7 35 Q.6 Q7 36 Q.6 [rm] Q7 37 Q.6 [rm] Q7 39 Q.6 [rm] Q7 40 Q.6 Q7 43 Q.6 Q7 45 Q.6 Q7 46 Q.6 Q7 47 Q.6 Q7 51 Q.6 [rm] Q7 194 Variable: Current employment position/job title Research Question #6 Job title of person to whom the respondent reports directly Research Question #7 Case # Response 52 Q.6 Q7 53 Q.6 [rm] Q7 54 Q.6 Q.7 55 Q.6 Q7 57 Q.6 Q7 58 Q.6 Q7 62 Q.6 [rm] Q.7 64 Q.6 Q7 65 Q.6 [rm] Q7 66 Q.6 Q7 68 Q.6 [rm] Q7 70 Q.6 [rm] Q7 195 Variable: Current employment position/job title Research Question #6 Job title of person to whom the respondent reports directly Research Question #7 Case # Response 71 Q.6 [rm] Q.7 72 Q.6 Q.7 74 Q.6 [rm] Q-7 75 Q6 Q7 77 Q.6 Q7 79 Q.6 Q.7 88 Q.6 Q7 90 Q.6 Q.7 93 Q.6 Q.7 providers policies and procedures) 196 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: Have there been any research projects conducted in the workplace within the last ten years? [Note: For quantitative analysis of this question, see Chapter 4: Analysis of the Data and Results of the Survey] If yes, briefly describe the project(s) as follows: - Project Title (or brief description): - Approx. Year of Completion - Designed by Whom: - Findings Published? Yes or No, and if yes, where was it published Case # Response 1 a - Appraisal of Government Records - 1997 - staff - no b - Acquisition of Archival Records - 1997 - staff - no c - Archival Preservation Standards - 1998 - contract personnel - no d - Acquisition Strategy - 1998 - staff - no 5 a - Particulars not immediately available to me, but will not doubt be included by those who did the research. 197 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 7 a - Region-wide assessment of records management needs, including various surveys, [rm] collection and analyses of data and presentation of findings - followed by design and implementation of program - 1999 - records manager (staff) - no 8 a -The use of total quality management methods to restructure records management functions (informal [research] and not direcdy related to typical archival functions) - 1995 - respondent - yes, Records Management Quarterly b - The Applicability of the Management of Public Sector Records Programme in Francophone Developing Countries: A Prehminary Assessment Based on a Case Study of Records and Information Management Systems of the Government of Burkina Faso (more formal) [research] - 1997 - International Records Management Trust/International Council of Archives - no ~ report submitted to United Nations Development Programme, the project's funding agency 9 a - Plan a records management programme (including a new uniform classification system based on function) - 1996 ongoing - staff member - classification system and training manuals available internally and on the Web b - Research on electronic records management and EDMS - 1997 ongoing - staff member - not currently beyond a working discussion draft 198 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 14 a - User survey - 1994/95 - UBC MAS students with our staff - no b - Imaging systems (informal) - 1998 - staff - no 17 a - Evaluation of software for automated information system [rm] - ongoing - staff - in-house project report b - Re-engineering of Archives Business Processes - 1997 - not sure [who designed], but external origin - in-house [publication], several project reports c - Client survey - 1997 - Ministry/Archives staff - in-house report d - Acetate film deterioration survey -1998 - staff/Image Permanence Institute - in-house report 199 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 18 a - survey of personal information in university records [rm] - 1990 - university archivist - internal report b - feasibility of scanning archival documents - 1992 - university archivist - internal report 20 a - Alberta Archives: Needs Assessment [rm] - 1988 - contractor - yes (internal publication) b - Alberta's Archival Community - 1992 - contractor - yes (project report) c - Education Program Review - 1993 - contractor - yes (project report) d - [Grants Adjudication Report] - 1996 - contractor - yes, (in-house report) e - Vision 2005 - 1998 - contractor - yes (project report) f - Education Program Review - 1998 - contractor - yes (project report) 200 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) (cont'd) 20 a Please note: I have only been working here for approximately one year, and other research projects may hae taken place of which I am unaware. 21 a - centralized reference implementation review - 1991 ) - staff - internal reports b - pilot project re: implementating RAD [Rules for Archival Description] - 1996 - staff - internal report c - pilot project re: joint ORCS review - 1998 - staff - ACA [Association of Canadian Archivists] paper presentation d - electronic records issues - ongoing - staff - yes, internal report and discussed at ACA conference e - Structuring finding aids for an archives website - ongoing - staff - yes — internal report and (may be published in Archivaria) Note: There are probably other projects conducted which I'm unaware of or have forgotten. I would describe all of these as informal. 201 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 23 a - user survey [rm] - [19]80's sometime - reference unit - staff - no b - administrative histories - various [years] - various staff - in the finding aids c - Crease Family, Henry and [....] - 1996 - staff - yes, published as popular history book 24 a - Archival Legislation Review - 1994 - staff member - no b - Archival/Records Management Software Review - 1995 - staff member - no c - Disaster Recovery Procedures - 1995 - staff member - yes 31 a - training needs analysis - 1992 - staff member - yes, internal project report 202 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 34 a - Leglisative Review - 1996 - staff - yes, in-house b - Systems Aris I - 1988-1996 - staff/contractors - yes, in-house c - Systems Aris 0 - 1997-1999 - staff/contractors - yes, in-house d - Development of ARCS [Admininistrative Records Classification System] - 1986-1989 - staff - yes e - Development of ORCS [Operational Records Classification System] - [1980's?] - staff - yes f - Public Access System - 1994-96 - staff - yes, in-house g - security upgrade - 1997-98 - staff - yes, in-house h - Development of FOI [Freedom of Information Act] - 1992 - staff - yes, Act passed, in-house 203 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 37 a - Archival Holdings System (integrated records description system with tracking system [rm] for containers of records) - ongoing - personnel of the institution with some contract staff - yes, many internal reports, final summaries, etc. b - MIKAN project (subset of #1) GenCat RAD compliant descriptive system to replace the old collection MG/RG system - 1998 - Personnel of the Archives - Yes, internal papers, manuals c - User Survey - 1994 - Personnel of the Archives - Yes, internal report d - Re-organization of the NAC (massive study of functions, responsibilities, etc.) - 1993-1994 - Paid external consultants and personnel of the institution - Yes, internally 40 a - Needs Assessment of BC Archives - 1989 - Association Executive and independent contractor - Yes (AABC publication) 43 a - Photograph Fees Inquiry - 1995 - Archivist - Yes, report to director and board b - Lower Mainland/Vane. Island Reference Stats Inquiry - 1996 - Archivist - Yes, report to director and board, as well as to municipal council and in local society newsletter 204 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) (cont'd) 43 c - Direction of Society (in what direction should the Chilliwack Museum/Archives take in the next 5 to 6 years? - 1998 - staff - Newsletter 46 a - Preservation of A/V Records - 1996 - student (professional experience project) - yes (project report) b - preservation of nitrate negatives - 1993 - external consultant - yes, (project report) c - management of electronic records - current - practicum student - no, (not yet complete) 52 a - Electronic document management system - ca. 1996 - high school grad working as records officer and part time assistant (with 15 years work experience in records) - no b - process document management system - still undergoing tribulations!; implemented ca. early-mid 1997 - external consultant, internal employees - no c - reference inquiries need to know how process was conducted to obtain board members[?] 205 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) (cont'd) 52 d - registers, board resolutions, and motions board directors - 1998 - rec[ords] analyst - no, internal use only 57 a - The following was associated with the workplace, but not in it - I'm not sure if it meets your criteria. [This was a sabbatical in the Czech republic]. [Title of project was] "Public Understanding of Archives in Canada and the Czech Republic" - 1993 - staff member - not yet 58 a - A number of organizational studies and task forces, some conducted by outside consultants and others in-house. Also some user studies. b - Conservation survey to determine the physical condition of our holdings, hiring and training summer student to carry out the survey/data capture using a detailed form. Survey was to have been a 5 year project for summer students. - in 1992, project curtailed due to lack of money after only 2nd year - staff of Conservation Program, Manuscript Division (including myself as the Conservation Officer, 1989-1993) - no, records determined to be at most risk were listed and appropriate action taken by in-house conservators 206 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 64 a - my response relates to records/information management and archival sub-unit of the larger organization; larger organization conducts formal and informal research b - Electronic Records Profile - 1998 - staff [respondent] - yes, internal project management deliverables c - Corporate Information Management Strategy - 1998 - team - yes, internal project management deliverables d - Intranet finding aid software - 1998 - team - yes, internal project management deliverables e - Document Management Technology Requirements - 1998 - [respondent] - yes, internal project management deliverables f - Organizational Merger Records Integration - 1997-98 - team - yes, internal project management deliverables 207 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 68 a - Arrangement issues [rm] - 1998 - [respondent] - AO [Archives of Ontario] Website b - User survey - client satisfaction - 1997 - committee - in-house report c - Functional Thesaurus Evaluation - [1998] - committee - in-house report 70 a - Surrey Museum and Archives Planning and Development Feasibility Study [rm] - 1991 - [external consultants] - yes, City of Surrey Public Document 71 a - Survey of association membership for educational/training needs [rm] - 1 year - volunteers - expected to be published soon 72 a - Report on Administrative Costs - 1997 - contract Reform Committee - yes, internally by the office of the Comptroller General b - multiple audits - ongoing - various [staff] - yes, gov't audit reports 208 Variable: Research Projects in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Research Question #10: (cont'd) 75 a - Reference Survey (informal) - 1992 - staff - no 77 a - This ministry has many research officers and policy analysts with backgrounds criminology, sociology, statistics, etc. 79 a - would rather not give details 88 a - Corporate Archives Development Project [informal] - 1998 - [staff?] - no 90 a - Archives Feasibility Report - 1989 - staff - no b - Records Management Feasibility Report - [no date] - consultant - no c - Fonds vs. Record Group Report - [no date] - staff - no 209 Variable: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace Research Question #14: Does the respondent think that a knowledge of research methods is useful in the workplace? [Note: For quantitative analysis of this question, see Chapter 4: Analysis of the Data and Results of the Survey] If yes or somewhat, briefly describe why it would be useful: Case # Response 1 yes - Focus of research goals and objectives 2 somewhat - Some knowledge of research methods is necessary even if you're doing user surveys. In today's business climate it is essential that research be conducted to a professional standard if the results of the research are going to be credible and withstand scrutiny 7 yes [rm] - Occasionally to carry out research, more often to facilitate research by others [medical as well as historical, etc. ] 8 somewhat - Knowledge of research methods would be helpful if the institutional setting affords the time, money and incentives to conduct research; however, in my experience, practicing archivists must rely on the research of others (e.g. academic researcher), as time, money, incentive is usually lacking. 9 yes - When I was planning our RM [records management] program, I just applied my knowledge of planning and research[ing] a project from past experience in school, so I did flounder a bit at the beginning. I could have been more efficient with a specific approach to guide me. 11 yes [rm] - Would provide an effective tool to facilitate the planning process, the allocation of resources, and the needs of your governing authority/constituency. 210 Variable: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace Research Question #14: 17 yes [rm] - It's a meeting ground for professional/academic training and business needs in the workplace, i.e. there is a need for applied rather than theoretical/pure research 18 yes [rm] - Quite simply, research needs to be done, the profession can't advance without it [and] meet the challenges of a changing environment. We aren't really a professional unless we can examine and build upon our theoretical foundation. It defines the word "profession". 20 yes [rm] - It would allow archivists to plan projects properly and ensure that results are statistically valid and without overt bias. It would allow archivists to identify problems in methodology, before projects began. 21 yes -1 think your definition of research focussed on the survey/questionnaire model, is rather narrow. Perhaps that would be useful in the workplace, but my colleagues and I need and use other research methods successfully. 23 yes [rm] - You never know when it might be useful in the office environment or in personal interests; helpful in dealing with researchers and their projects 24 somewhat - To design research projects capable of producing authoritative and measurable results for management decision-making. 25 somewhat - The orientation of my workplace is not that conducive to archival research, but in a number of non-archival settings it is useful. 26 yes [rm] - Most important in preparing surveys to determine users needs of variety of topics * analysing appraisal decisions, collection surveys 33 yes - As the province's central agency for the management of government records, research is often required to make the required decisions associated with the various recorded information management functions 211 Variable: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace Research Question #14: 34 yes - Maintains staff knowledge of new methods; gives ability to begin new processes in an ever-changing environment 36 yes [rm] - It would be useful to base decisions on research conducted within the institution, i.e. when setting priorities, planning, etc. with a limited amount of resources 39 yes [rm] - Data collection and analysis are components in many information management positions. Beyond that, archivists and records managers must work with and be able to understand the records generated by others who have conducted research 43 yes - It would be useful to know something about the proper procedures for designing questionnaires, conducted reliable surveys, etc. Research methods is one course I wish I'd taken at SLAIS. 45 yes -1 have found that "research" is sometimes conducted by staff in our parent organization, using questionable methods. I know enough to know that the projects are not valid in terms of design, analysis, etc. Knowledge of research methods can be such a basic [respondent's emphasis] skill that I can't imagine that it wouldn't be useful at some point - even if only to understand/critique the research conducted by others. 52 yes - Always useful to know accepted (research) standards for specific operations, such as research methods, statistical analysis. 53 somewhat [rm] - It could give better chances to have a sound, accurate, efficient analysis, [respondent's emphasis] if one carries an assessment of some aspect of the work place (e.g. user needs) 54 somewhat - There are areas of research which we could use for planning to provide a better understanding of our practices. However, in a small institution the opportunity for such research is virtually nil. 212 Variable: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace Research Question #14: 55 yes - It would illuminate the path vs. finding one's way in the dark. 56 yes [rm] - Knowledge of research methods would give everyone greater confidence in their ability to conduct research and enable people to be more focused in their research objectives. This could save a lot of time too! 57 yes - Well, it would be nice to have a better grip on them so that one could design small research projects. I tried it once to get the reaction of users to different presentations of screens, but the results were unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. 58 yes - The results would have more credibility if they were based on sound research principles. 65 yes [rm] - So that if you are asked to conduct a study, that the best research methods are used. 68 somewhat [rm] - To structure a research project, to allow for better quality research. 70 yes [rm] - In a local government setting, research, feasibility studies, and public consultation processes are a significant component of the strategic planning and decision-making process. Professionals working in this context are better able to perform responsibilities if trained and knowledgable. 71 yes [rm] - Knowledge of research methods is valuable to both producers of research and consumers of research. Knowing how to conduct a sound research project and evaluating someone else's research is equally important. Archivists should be familiar with basic research methods, if not to conduct a project themselves, to understand and properly evaluate reports and projects which incorporate empirical research. 72 yes - Increased rigour and professionalism would increase administrative efficiency in the public service. 213 Variable: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace Research Question #14: 74 yes [rm] - Archives conduct all [kinds] of programs - outreach, reference services, micrographics, photo reproduction, etc. These programs should be periodically evaluated [respondent's emphasis]. Proper evaluation requires a knowledge of research methodology in order to obtain reliable and [valid] conclusions, leading to new strategies, etc. 75 yes - Confidence level of staff would be enhanced by such knowledge - to help them understand more about the profession, as well as to impart such knowledge to their researchers. 79 somewhat - Could assist in making a case for more funding, equipment, etc. if the need could be established using recognized methodology. 88 yes - We might consider doing formal research, either within our own department or on a team with other departments, if we had training in research methods, because we would feel more confident in our expertise. 93 somewhat - For user surveys, information retrieval systems 214 Variable: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Research Question #17: Does the respondent think that there are areas of the archival profession that would benefit from research activity? [Note: For quantitative analysis of this question, see Chapter 4: Analysis of the Data and Results of the Survey] If yes or somewhat, what would you consider to be three areas of priority for research in the archival profession? Case # Response 1 somewhat - reference services - appraisal of archives - arrangement and description of archives 2 yes - reference/user services - need better understanding of users. That's the only one I can think of. 5 yes - appraisal - record structure 7 yes [rm] - identification of neglected records (not in Archives) - collection strategies - use of archival records by researchers (admittedly a big topic) 8 yes - appraisal theory and methodology - electronic records management - the relationship between recordkeeping and organisational efficiency and accountability 9 yes - choosing records management applications and EDMS - internal consulting with internal [records management] clients 215 Variable: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Research Question #17: 11 yes [rm] - using the quasi-definition of "archival profession" provided in the introduction to Section II on p. 2-6, I would rank priorities for research as follows: 1) advocacy (i.e. development/review of internal /external support, - 2) outreach (i.e. development/assessment of public programs); and - 3) descriptive standards (i.e. implementation / maintenance of RAD) 14 somewhat - users/clientele - future forms of record - conservation of fragile media 17 yes [rm] - finding out about our users and how responsive we are to their needs, etc. - appraisal - performance of information storage and retrieval systems 18 yes [rm] - electronic records, electronic records, electronic records [first two priorities] - how researchers use archives - i.e. how they search for information 20 yes [rm] - reference services - public awareness and advocacy - acquisition and appraisal 21 yes - the nature of records creators and their records - electronic records - legal issues surrounding records 23 yes [rm] - policy development - reference - description of archival materials 216 Variable: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Research Question #17: 24 yes - electronic records preservation - electronic documents and records management systems - effectiveness of records classification and scheduling systems 25 yes - impact of technology - user needs/expectations - role of archivists within [larger] organizations 26 yes [rm] - determining users needs - how our users conduct research 28 yes - anything that gets past the mere assertiveness of much published literature and moves towards actually demonstrating something, "areas" are not so important (I think) as qualities of mind... 29 yes - preservation of electronic records - content analysis of archival description 31 yes - management of electronic records - preservation of electronic records 33 somewhat - appraisal, records management (scheduling) arrangement and description 34 yes - electronic records and the [word illegible] - access [service?] (i.e. reference) - philosophy of North American archival theory 35 - practical issues such as how do archivists deal with the Internet which is increasingly becoming a medium of records creation, storage and exchange 217 Variable: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Research Question #17: 36 yes [rm] - user needs - access tools/automation - electronic records 37 yes [rm] - client/users studies = expectations - electronic records/information technology - subject access to holdings and how RAD fits into all of this 40 yes - user studies relating to information retrieval methods - comparisons of standards (descriptive) between different information science professions - examination of various appraisal approaches and methodologies 43 yes - knowledge of research methods would help us serve our researchers better - something more practical such as types of records researchers are accessing - how FOI and Access policies and leg[isltion] have changed the archival world 46 somewhat - [management] and appraisal of Internet/web documents - [management] of academic records - [management] of e-mail 47 yes - use of records - [percent] of use and type - success/use of funding for archives - record keeping/creation practices 53 somewhat [the term "areas" was unclear to respondent] [rm] (Depends how "areas" is defined) - records management (e.g. analysis of the efficiency of the retention schedule) - reference (e.g. analysis of the user needs) - management of the workplace 54 yes - effectiveness of research tools - appraisal guidelines (continued) [?] 218 Variable: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Research Question #17: 55 yes - users/reference services - use of RAD (who uses it and why, who doesn't, etc.) - impact of funding cuts/freezes 56 yes [rm] - I can't think of any areas that couldn't benefit from research activity, e.g. reference service (determining who actually uses the archives); trends in archival education (determining what is being taught); trends in acquisition patterns (what is being acquired and any changes in those patterns) 57 yes - 1) user comprehension and behaviour - 2) theoretical understanding of the record and its generation - 3) public perception of archives, archivists, marketing of the same 58 yes - Acquisition Policy: 1) a survey to determine if all sectors of Canadian society are being documented (not just those in positions of power) by today's archives - Control: 2) a review of the "tax credit" driven processing of archival records, the cost, advantages and disadvantages - Outreach: 3) Research into improving public awareness of archives, from school children to the general public 64 yes - application of theoretical principles to developments in other information disciplines that are more main stream than our own e.g. Enterprise Documents, Management Technology developments 65 yes [rm] - preservation - appraisal — are we choosing the "right" stuff - does RAD work and is it user-friendly 66 yes - determine needs of the user in research - determine the difference between the researcher's expectations and what he/she receives 219 Variable: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Research Question #17: 68 yes [rm] - research into user needs, preference, etc. - main priority for archivists - also research on user's responses to RAD - research on electronic displays of information 70 yes [rm] - user studies; community development - strategic planning - collections development and management 71 yes [rm] - survey of collections - survey of users - survey of tools 72 yes - research to support their continued existence in light of fiscal cutbacks - marketing - outreach activities 74 yes [rm] - 1) evaluations of the experiences of [prior] users when new technology is contemplated - 2) analysis of user satisfaction with archives procedures and programs, perhaps cross-tabulated with user profile information collected on Reference Registration Forms - 3) conservation needs assessment and treatment priority ranking based on factors such as vital/non-vital records; use; deterioration; historical importance, etc. 75 yes - the archival workplace (sociological management observations) - strategic positioning - the role of the archivist in the larger organization/world - archival education - training for management in the new millennium 77 yes - appraisal methodology - user studies 79 somewhat - user satisfaction - sponsor satisfaction 220 Variable: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Research Question #17: 88 yes - management of electronic records - electronic document management systems - role of archivist in information sciences discipline 90 yes - electronic records management and preservation - descriptive standards and methods for publication on the Internet - preservation of archival materials 93 yes - I'm not really sure 221 Variable: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist Research Question #18: Has the respondent ever personally conducted a research project since beginning work as an archivist? [Note: For quantitative analysis of this question, see Chapter 4: Analysis of the Data and Results of the Survey] If yes, briefly describe the project(s)?: Case # Response 1 yes - 1) appraisal - functional analysis and Guidelines for Appraisal of Government Records - 2) Acquisition Strategies in Provincial Archives in Canada 3 yes - survey of archival and records management practices and types of records held by hospitals in Alberta 5 yes - but not as you would define it 7 yes [rm] - with a colleague, I conducted a survey of medical archives in Alberta. We collected data thought a survey and site visits, analyzed the data and presented our findings in a report which was widely distributed in Alberta and Ontario. 8 yes - 1) "The Use of Total Quality Management to Restructure Records Management Functions" - what could be called an informal research project - "The Applicability of the Management of Public Sector Records Programme in Francophone Developing Countries: A Preliminary Assessment Based on a Case Study of Records and Information Management Systems of the Government of Burkina Faso" (more formal) [research] 222 Variable: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist Research Question #18: 9 yes - see p. 3-6 [question 10] -1 initiated, researched and planned these projects. The RM program is currentiy being implemented and ongoing development is still happening. The EDMS research is rather stalled right now due to lack of time and the fact that integration of EMDS and RM applications is such a new area - it's hard to get good info. 11 yes [rm] - 1) Reference Services - collection and analysis of user statistics, including subject researched and archival resources consulted - 2) Human Resources - collection and analysis of staff contributions including type of staff, amount of time and types of work undertaken 12 yes [rm] - Research into history of company incorporation law in Yukon and agencies responsible for this function. The research was through use of published and archival sources. 17 yes [rm] - 1) survey of published use of photographs by users - 2) survey of acetate film deterioration 21 yes -1 was in a leadership position for projects #1-3 [described under question #10] - 1) I chaired the CRWG when we researched how reference was 23 yes [rm] - personal project involving literature review and general library research, search of archival sources with potential for interviews 24 yes (informal) - preparation of internal issue papers of aspects of archival legislation (e.g. definition of "record", preservation [provisions?], offenses and penalties - review of commercial archival and records management software 223 Variable: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist Research Question #18: 25 yes - assessment / [anticipation] of impact of FOI on municipal archives - methods for promoting archives within hospital administration 26 yes [rm] - survey of photographic collection of 1.5 million items; had to define parameters, establish sampling methodology, compile data, and interpret results 28 yes - theoretical study on archival theory, records, and the public 33 yes - my research has been informal and always related to records management functions. Sometimes it is research into the functions and activities of a records creating agency and sometimes it is research into the records (their organization, nature, etc. ) 40 yes - research into the competencies of a municipal organization, with resulting categorization and classification of data 43 yes - see question #10 for description 47 yes - as above, several undertaken 57 yes - for my master's dissertation I conducted a survey re: the generation of records by clergy in (specific denominations) in B.C. - for [?] article on access to religious records I conducted an opinion survey across Canada among churches - for my sabbatical I conducted 495 interviews - for my doctoral dissertation I've been doing multi-[site] case studies 224 Variable: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist Research Question #18: 58 yes - see question #10 68 yes [rm] - recent paper into adoption of series system - involved looking at arrangement practices of other institutions, professional literature, an analysis of RAD and of existing finding aids at the AO [Archives of Ontario]. 70 yes [rm] - Planning and Feasibility Study, 1991 (as part of the team) - User Survey, 1991, 1996 (as part of the team) 71 yes [rm] - Physical condition survey of film, video, and sound collection 77 yes - constantly - for program evaluation, and development of new areas of programming 90 yes - fonds vs. series system (record group) report - researched the pros and cons of each system and made recommendations to my institution 225 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: What comments does the respondent have regarding the survey in particular or research in general? Case # Response 2 Comment made under Question #19 "Since I did a survey/questionnaire as the basis of my thesis, I see the value of conducting research in the pursuit of new ideas, etc. I think adhering to accepted social science research methods is very important to give the research validity and credibility. To evolve and develop, the profession needs to know about itself but needs to do so properly". 5 Comment made under Question #12: Confidence in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project Response was "NO" "I would first have to learn social sciences research methods! Since when is archival science a social science??" [respondent's emphasis] Comment made under Question #13: Confidence in Ability to be Member of Research Team led by Someone Else Response was "YES" "Certainly in some areas, depending, of course, on the nature of the research". Comment made under Question #14: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in Workplace Response was "YES" "Knowledge of research methods is essential to any archivists, work, but not necessarily social science research methods". 226 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: (cont'd) 5 Comment made under Question #15: Like to Learn More About Research Methods Response was "NOT" "... social sciences research methods, but research skills can always be improved" Comment made under Question #16: General Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in Development of Archival Profession Response was "YES" "See comments on Q. 14 above" Comment made under Question #17: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity Response was "YES" [Note: this respondent makes a distinction in this question that it is "not in the profession but in the science" [respondent's emphasis] "I don't think that social science research on the archival profession is useful, but certainly research is essential". 8 Comment made under Question #12: Confidence in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project Response was "SOMEWHAT" "It would depend on the nature/area of the research - the most appropriate methodology. I am more comfortable with qualitative methods than quantitative methods" Comment made under Question #19 "I would hypothesize that most of the research conducted by practicing archivists will be of the informal type" 227 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: 9 Comment made under Question #19 "When planning our Rfecords] M[anagement] Program, other colleagues were very helpful as were other web-sites about their programs." 18 Comments made under Question #19 [rm] "This is a well-designed survey. I'll be interested in hearing the results. The basic problems are no incentive and no time. Wish I could be more encouraging, research needs to be done but few employers encourage it. Our workloads are pretty full as it is. Also, as one gets older, one doesn't want to do research on weekends or evenings. If it can't be part of the job, its hard to squeeze in extra hours. Maybe that is just a function of growing older. Research is perhaps best tackled by the young enthusiasts." 20 Comment made under Question #19 [rm] "Good survey - well-designed, very comprehensive. As I mentioned, other research projects may have taken place which I don't know about because I've only been here one year." "Every once in a while, I feel like I should do a research project to contribute to archival knowledge, but no topic seems to grab me, and I don't know what I'd do with the finished product if I got that far. And then, the urge to research dissipates. Perhaps it's more about me than it is about research in the profession." 21 Comment made under Question #4: Research Methods Course Taken Response was "NO" v "But for my MA in Folklore, I completed courses which concerned ethnographic research methods [at] Memorial University of Newfoundland." 228 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: (cont'd) 21 Comment made under Question #12: Confidence in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project Response was "YES" "I have never personally conducted a survey or questionnaire. However, I would feel very confident about other aspects and types of research." Comment made under Question #15: Like to Learn More About Research Methods Response was "SOMEWHAT" "I'm not interested in learned [sic] how to do a survey unless I actually need the skill." Comment made under Question #16: General Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in Development of Archival Profession Response was "YES" "Using a broader definition of research, e.g. ethnographic, historical, etc. " Comment made under Question #19 "I think conducted research is an important part to the MAS degree because it gives one a chance to think deeply about archival issues, theories, and practices. Also because it prepares one for research as part of regular archival work. Some of this will be part of the routine, but sometimes there is a special project, which if conducted, would bring important benefits to the archival institution one works for. We should do more of this- it requires initiative on our part, encouragement by management (not always forthcoming) - and time and other resources, always in short supply. A challenge!" 229 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: 24 Comment made under Question #15: Like to Learn More About Research Methods Response was "SOMEWHAT" "Other: Journal Articles" Comment made under Question #19 "Research will be most valuable when it yields results which are 1) relevant for decisions on program expenditures and initiatives and 2) can be evaluated / confirmed through a subsequent (post-research) measurement of results of program expenditures and initiatives. If the research does not deal with institutional priorities/problems/issues and yield results relevant for decision-making, it is unlikely to be supported." 25 Comment made under Question #4: Research Methods Course Taken Response was "NO" "(not directly - it was dealt with indirectly in a number of undergraduate and graduate history courses)" Comment made under Question #10: Research Project in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Response was "NO" "(not in relation to archival issues, has been research, mostly informal, on FOI and Privacy issues). Comment made under Question #19 "This is a useful research topic, although one that may raise more questions in some people's minds. Some may see this as another example of the [division between] "academic" archivists and practical ones. Thus, I hope that the final product of this research project will emphasize that an element of research can or should be considered an integral part of archival work, regardless of the background of the individual." 230 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: 28 Comment made under Question #19 "I'm not clear about how you are distinguishing between research done for the benefit of "my" institution, and research done as a general professional exercise. Certainly the habits of mind that research engenders are helpful in the workplace, but perhaps not so much in order to do research, as rather to be able to evaluate the research others have done elsewhere when seeking to apply it at home (at least in a small shop)... I'd prefer staff who have good judgment to staff who want to do research (if we could afford it, and thought it the best use of our resources)." 34 Comment made under Question #18: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist Response was " N / A " "I worked as a records analyst/administrator. In these positions, research work in the development of the ministry of [word illegible] ORCS - [and?] the process for "a change" in Administration for B C " Comment made under Question #19 "Re [Question] 11 -1 did not like the question. An assumption is made that the archivist does not perform research work as part of their duties. Personal [choice?] in what is researched would only apply i f it was professional research (i.e. on their own time or through mutual agreement). The BC Archives archivists work in public service environment and not an academic one." 35 Comment made under Question #14: Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in Workplace Response was "NO" "Would be useful i f were able to do research, but not useful for the lone arranger who is too busy managing an archives and records management program to do any research." 231 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: 39 Comment made under Question #10: [rm] Research Project in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Response treated as "MISSING" "* not sure how to answer this. There have been no literature reviews or research with a careful design/methodology. But day to day work requires "research" in the investigative sense: interview skills, analysis of data, document searches, diplomatics (very basic, not to L. Duranti's level), work flow analysis, etc." Comment made under Question #18: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist No response "Nothing "formal" but constantly collecting and analysing data and presenting findings in the workplace. Research and analysis are critical business skills in records management." Comment made under Question #19 .. .Good luck on your thesis. I think you have a major survey flaw though. You seem to have assumed that MAS students/grads are all part of the archival profession. You haven't defined "archival profession" and so I'm not sure that my responses are valid for your thesis. While records managers and archivists are both information management professionals, the day to day business is somewhat different. Is records management in scope? See also my comments for Question #10. If you want more info/comments, my work no. is..." 232 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: 47 Comment made under Question #10: Research Project in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Response was "YES" "I am a consultant and independent researcher, so a major percentage of my time is spent on research, including work paid for by other agencies, largely international." Comment made under Question #19 "I don't believe my contributions will be very useful as I do not work in an archival institution, but as an educator/consultant affiliated with universities and research institutes - therefore my major task is research, writing and teaching." 51 Comment made under Question #19 [rm] "As is so often noted, working archivists have very little time for research, and those who can find some time are more likely to do a more practical "hands-on type" of research than the social sciences research that is described in this questionnaire. In most professions, there is a distinction between those who do research and those who work (e.g. doctors and research scientists). Although I feel that the archival profession needs to do more research, I don't think it's realistic to expect a great deal of research until we have a larger research and academic community." 233 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: 52 Comment made under Question #15: Like to Learn More About Research Methods Response was "NO" Other: " If the need arose, I would look for a course that ran 1-3 days, either during a conference or as continuing] education]." Comment made under Question #17: Areas of Archival Profession That Would Benefit From Research Activity No response "Probably, but no active [sic] in field of archives on a regular basis. Records management situations arise where general knowledge of research methods would be very valuable, need not restricted to "archives". Comment made under Question #18: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist No response "N/A archive involvement less than 5% of duties at the moment." 57 Comment made under Question #12: Confidence in Ability to Plan and Conduct a Research Project Response was "YES" "but my knowledge could be better [enhanced]. Comment made under Question #16: General Knowledge of Research Methods Useful in the Workplace Response was "YES" "absolutely" [respondent's emphasis] 234 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: (cont'd) 57 Comment made under Question #19 "Research is critical to the development of the theoretical under pinnings of the profession. Every facet of our work, our identity, etc. requires research in order for the profession to grow. As information - its creation, use. and retention -becomes more complex, the need for us to conduct research will become more critical. Otherwise, someone else will do it for us." 65 Comment made under Question #10: [rm] Research Project in the Workplace Within the Last Ten Years Response was "DO NOT KNOW" "not to my knowledge - we usually only write to other institutions to see how they do things (i.e. photo reproduction policy and scanning policy)." 68 Comment made under Question #19 [rm] "Formal research is somewhat intimidating - it's necessary in some areas (like user studies), most archival research projects are informal. I have not used the research methods course in my day to day work, but consider the knowledge gained there useful in evaluating other research efforts and in knowing limits of my own knowledge on how to conduct research." 72 Comment made under Question #18: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist No response "well not as an archivist, yes as a bureaucrat outside the profession" 235 Variable: Comments Regarding Survey in Particular or Research in General Research Question #19: 74 Comment made under Question #19 [rm] "In these times of restraint, I attach special importance to #1 and #2 [Question #17] - To what extent do new technologies in fact lead to increasing operational efficiency and increased client use of archives? If, indeed, they do? - To what extent do standardized archival procedures, i.e. RAD, increase user satisfaction and use? "Users" defined as [archivists], sponsors and the general public." - We take a lot for granted! Proper evaluation of these kinds of questions would have a very significant [bearing] on where we decide to place our time and resources in the archives! 77 Comment made under Question 15: Like to Learn More About Research Methods Response was "NO" "No need to learn formal research methods as defined; do use other research methods constantiy." 79 Comment made under Question #18: Personally Conducted a Research Project Since Beginning Work as Archivist Response was "NO" "If all five elements listed on page 2 had to be included." Comment made under Question #19 "I want to be cooperative, but I find this survey (like many others I receive) is a world away from the reality of my working life. My concerns are much more "real" and I certainly don't feel I'd have the time to undertake such research projects. In today's world, a consultant would be hired." 236 

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