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Mediating and moderating effects of locus of control and appraisals of control on burglary victim coping Mackoff, Randy 1992

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MEDIATING AND MODERATING EFFECTS OF LOCUS OF CONTROL AND APPRAISALS OF CONTROL ON BURGLARY VICTIM COPING by RANDY MACKOFF BA, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 MA, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the re q u i r e d standard TKÊ^miV^ËBSrfY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1992 © Randy Mackoff, 1992 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Cc)sjfxî,<^\\ \VN<k ^ N K p r ^ l > 0 ^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date FVj(Kv)t>\: W . m ? C5 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was t o examine c o n t r o l b e l i e f s and t h e i r r o l e i n the d i f f e r e n t ways v i c t i m s cope w i t h b u r g l a r y . Two s t u d i e s were conducted. In the f i r s t study, p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o l l e g e students who had been b u r g l a r i z e d w i t h i n the previous year. The v o l u n t e e r s were men and women between the ages of 19 and 37 (N=61). The p a r t i c i p a n t s completed Levenson's (1981) locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e . The f o l l o w i n g week, i n order t o a s s i s t r e c a l l , the p a r t i c i p a n t s viewed a 2-minute video t h a t d e p i c t e d a r e s i d e n t i a l burglary i n progress. Immediately f o l l o w i n g the video, they completed a coping measure, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l measure, and importance of outcome measure. The second study was a conceptual r e p l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t study and t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w e d the same procedures. However, i n order t o assess locus of c o n t r o l p r i o r t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s were male and female c o l l e g e students (N=102) who had never been b u r g l a r i z e d (experimentally induced v i c t i m s ) . Zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n s , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , and h i e r a r c h i c a l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n were used t o examine the main, mediating, and moderating e f f e c t s of locus of c o n t r o l , importance of outcome, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and gender on coping f u n c t i o n s . Because previous research has found gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i t was hypothesized t h a t the i n f l u e n c e t h a t gender has on coping r e s u l t s from an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t was a l s o expected t h a t the d i r e c t i o n or s t r e n g t h of the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n would be i n f l u e n c e d by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s gender and by how much importance he or she attached t o the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. In both the v i c t i m group and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group, emotion-focused coping was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by gender, locus of c o n t r o l , importance of outcome, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . However, problem-focused coping was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by gender, locus of c o n t r o l , importance of outcome, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l f o r the v i c t i m group only. Locus of c o n t r o l d i d not i n f l u e n c e the gender and coping r e l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n both groups men who held strong powerful others l o c u s of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s used l e s s emotion-focused coping. In c o n t r a s t , i n t h e bu r g l a r y v i c t i m group, women who held strong powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s used more emotion-focused coping. However, there was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s and emotion-focused coping f o r women i n the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. For experimentally induced v i c t i m s , both men and women w i t h h i g h chance locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s used more emotion-focused coping. In both groups, importance of outcome d i d not moderate the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s of these r e s u l t s and suggestions f o r fu t u r e research are discussed. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS X INTRODUCTION 1 Coping Theory 1 Gene r a l i z e d B e l i e f s About C o n t r o l 3 Importance of Outcome 5 S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l s of Co n t r o l 6 Gender D i f f e r e n c e s 7 Summary 8 Methodological Issues 9 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 12 Crime V i c t i m Coping 12 Coping Theory 19 Gen e r a l i z e d B e l i e f s About Con t r o l 24 Importance of Outcome 33 S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l s of Contr o l 36 Gender D i f f e r e n c e s 40 Mediator and Moderator V a r i a b l e s 44 Methodological Issues 48 Summary 53 HYPOTHESES 55 METHOD 60 Study 1 60 P a r t i c i p a n t s 60 Procedure 60 Study 2 62 P a r t i c i p a n t s 62 Procedure 62 Video Stimulus 62 P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s 63 Levenson's I , P, and C Scales 63 S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l s of C o n t r o l 65 Outcome Value 65 C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s (Coping) 66 Man i p u l a t i o n Check 67 A n a l y s i s of Data 68 RESULTS 71 D e s c r i p t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Burglary V i c t i m Sample 71 Ma n i p u l a t i o n Checks 71 D e s c r i p t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Sample 71 Ma n i p u l a t i o n Checks 73 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s of V a r i a b l e s f o r Burglary V i c t i m s 74 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s of V a r i a b l e s f o r Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s 76 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s 78 Group D i f f e r e n c e s on Demographic Data 78 Group D i f f e r e n c e s on Independent and Dependent V a r i a b l e s 78 Test of Main E f f e c t s f o r Study 1 (Burglary V i c t i m s ) 83 Test of Mediator Hypotheses f o r Study 1 (Burglary V i c t i m s ) 86 Test of Moderator Hypotheses f o r Study 1 (Burglary V i c t i m s ) 88 Question of T h e o r e t i c a l I n t e r e s t f o r Study 1 (Burglary V i c t i m s ) . . 8 9 Test of Main E f f e c t s f o r Study 2 (Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s ) 92 Test of Mediator Hypotheses f o r Study 2 (Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s ) 94 Test of Moderator Hypotheses f o r Study 2 (Exper i m e n t a l l y Induced V i c t i m s ) 97 Question of T h e o r e t i c a l I n t e r e s t f o r Study 2 (Exper i m e n t a l l y Induced Vi c t i m s ) 98 DISCUSSION 101 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Cou n s e l l i n g 112 L i m i t a t i o n s 113 Future Research 114 REFERENCES 116 APPENDICES 126 Appendix A 126 Informed Consent 127 Demographic Questionnaire 128 Locus of C o n t r o l Measure 130 Appendix B 134 D e s c r i p t i o n of Video 135 Video Viewing I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r V i c t i m and Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Group 136 COPE f o r V i c t i m and Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Group 137 S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l s of C o n t r o l f o r V i c t i m and Expe r i m e n t a l l y Induced V i c t i m Group 142 Outcome Value f o r V i c t i m Group and Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Group 143 M-Cl(lO) f o r V i c t i m and Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Group 144 Bur g l a r y Experience f o r V i c t i m and Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Group 145 Appendix C 146 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Coping Subscales f o r V i c t i m Group 147 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Coping Subscales f o r Exp e r i m e n t a l l y Induced V i c t i m Group 148 Appendix D 149 C o r r e l a t i o n s of S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y w i t h the Independent and Dependent V a r i a b l e s of Burglary V i c t i m s and Expe r i m e n t a l l y Induced V i c t i m s ,..150 Appendix E 151 M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e F-Tests f o r Previous V i c t i m i z a t i o n and I n t e n s i t y of Experience E f f e c t s 152 Appendix F 153 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s of Combined Sample 154 LIST OF TABLES 1. D e s c r i p t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Burglary V i c t i m P a r t i c i p a n t s and Experimentally Induced V i c t i m P a r t i c i p a n t s 72 2. Means, Standard Deviations, and I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s of Burglary V i c t i m s 75 3. Means, Standard Deviations, and I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s of Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s 77 4. M u l t i v a r i a t e Tests and U n i v a r i a t e F-Tests f o r V i c t i m S t a t u s , Gender, and V i c t i m Status by Gender I n t e r a c t i o n 79 5. Standardized Discriminant Function C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r V i c t i m Status and Gender 81 6. H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression A n a l y s i s T e s t i n g Main and Moderating E f f e c t s P r e d i c t i n g Problem-Focused Coping f o r Bu r g l a r y V i c t i m s 84 7. H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression A n a l y s i s T e s t i n g Main and Moderating E f f e c t s P r e d i c t i n g Emotion-Focused Coping f o r Bu r g l a r y V i c t i m s 85 8. H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression A n a l y s i s T e s t i n g Main and Moderating E f f e c t s P r e d i c t i n g Emotion-Focused Coping f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l l y Induced V i c t i m s 93 9. Standardized D i s c r i m i n a n t Function C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Gender E f f e c t s of Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s 96 LIST OF FIGURES 1. H y p o t h e t i c a l model of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediating the locus of c o n t r o l - c o p i n g f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n 46 2. H y p o t h e t i c a l model of outcome value as moderator of the locus of c o n t r o l - c o p i n g f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n 47 3. Hypothesized model of i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and gender as mediators of problem-focused coping 57 4. Hypothesized model of chance locus of c o n t r o l , powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and gender as mediator v a r i a b l e s of emotion-focused coping 58 5. Moderating e f f e c t of gender on the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n f o r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s 91 6. Moderating e f f e c t of gender on the chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n f o r experimentally induced v i c t i m s . . . 9 9 7. Moderating e f f e c t of gender on the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s 100 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my d i s s e r t a t i o n committee. Dr. N. Amundson, Dr. C. Johnston, and Dr. S.S. Lee, f o r t h e i r advice and counsel. In p a r t i c u l a r , I thank my research supervisor. Dr. B o n i t a Long, f o r her e x t r a o r d i n a r y wisdom i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Dr. Long i s an outstanding professor and i t i s my for t u n a t e experience t o have had her as my research s u p e r v i s o r . I thank my mother Riva, f a t h e r A l b e r t , s i s t e r Sherry, and b r o t h e r L e s l i e , f o r t h e i r encouragement and confidence i n my a b i l i t y t o complete my d o c t o r a l degree. F i n a l l y , I thank my wife G a i l , son Alexander, and daughter J a n n e l l e , f o r without t h e i r support, encouragement, and love the s u c c e s s f u l p u r s u i t of my academic dream would not have been p o s s i b l e . No person could have a b e t t e r f a m i l y than t h a t of my own. Thank you. INTRODUCTION R e s i d e n t i a l b u r glary (breaking and e n t e r i n g a d w e l l i n g house w i t h i n t e n t t o commit a c r i m i n a l offense, u s u a l l y t h e f t ) i s a common o f f e n s e i n Canada (827 b u r g l a r i e s per 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n ; Canadian Crime S t a t i s t i c s , 1989). Although burglary occurs f r e q u e n t l y , v i c t i m s of bu r g l a r y have not receiv e d as much research a t t e n t i o n as v i c t i m s of v i o l e n c e and sex offenses (Maguire, 1980). Yet, the way v i c t i m s cope w i t h the bur g l a r y experience d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y from other v i c t i m groups ( F i s c h e r , 1984; Maguire, 1980; Papp, 1981; Waller & O k i h i r o , 1978; W i r t z & H a r r e l l , 1987). Furthermore, there i s some evidence t o suggest t h a t men and women cope d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n (Maguire, 1980). Burglary v i c t i m s r e p o r t a v a r i e t y of coping s t r a t e g i e s , some of these s t r a t e g i e s are b e h a v i o u r i a l l y focused and some are emo t i o n a l l y focused ( i . e . , change l o c k s , d e n i a l of v u l n e r a b i l i t y ) (Agnew, 1985; Maguire, 1980; Paap, 1981). Theory suggests t h a t i n an e f f o r t t o r e g a i n a sense of c o n t r o l the coping s t r a t e g i e s s e l e c t e d by v i c t i m s are l i k e l y t o be consonant w i t h t h e i r general b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l , b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l t h a t are s p e c i f i c t o the s i t u a t i o n , and the importance of the s i t u a t i o n (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; R o t t e r , 1975; Wal l s t o n , W a l l s t o n , Smith, & Dobbins, 1987). Because coping i s connected w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g , the systematic examination of locus of c o n t r o l , importance of the outcome of the b u r g l a r y , and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l may c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . Thus the purpose of t h i s study was t o determine the extent t o which c o n t r o l b e l i e f s account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ' short-term use of coping s t r a t e g i e s . Coping Theory Coping has been addressed from a v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , a l l of which have l i m i t a t i o n s and se r i o u s flaws (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Lazarus and Folkman present a u s e f u l t h e o r e t i c a l framework of coping t h a t attempts t o r e c t i f y the shortcomings of previous approaches. Furthermore, Lazarus and Folkman (1984) d e s c r i b e coping as a process r a t h e r than a t r a i t , which suggests t h a t coping should be s t u d i e d i n l i g h t of a p a r t i c u l a r event. They d e f i n e coping as " c o n s t a n t l y changing c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l e f f o r t s t o manage s p e c i f i c e x t e r n a l and/or i n t e r n a l demands th a t are appraised as t a x i n g or exceeding the resources of the person" (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, p. 141). From t h i s framework, problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping are considered the two main func t i o n s of coping. A coping f u n c t i o n i s the purpose a coping s t r a t e g y serves. Problem-focused coping i s d i r e c t e d at managing the problem causing the d i s t r e s s . Emotion-focused coping i s d i r e c t e d at d e a l i n g w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s emotions th a t a r i s e from the problem event (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The d i s t i n c t i o n between problem-focused and emotion-focused coping i s w i d e l y recognized and accepted w i t h i n the s t r e s s and coping l i t e r a t u r e (Endler & Parker, 1990). In response t o c r i t i c i s m s of e x i s t i n g measures of coping processes. Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub (1989) developed a multidimensional coping inventory i n which problem-focused coping i n c l u d e s the subscales a c t i v e coping, planning, suppression of competing a c t i v i t i e s , r e s t r a i n t coping, and seeking of i n s t r u m e n t a l s o c i a l support. Emotion-focused coping i s represented by subscales t h a t i n c l u d e seeking of emotional support, p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , acceptance, d e n i a l , and t u r n i n g t o r e l i g i o n . T his m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l approach provides d e t a i l and c l a r i t y t o emotion- and problem-focused coping and was employed i n t h i s study t o examine i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope. Based on theory, Lazarus and Folkman (1984) suggested t h a t g e n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l ( p a r t i c u l a r l y locus of c o n t r o l ) and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l would i n f l u e n c e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s choice of coping f u n c t i o n s . However, i n t h e i r 1980 study of a middle-aged community sample and t h e i r 1985 study of c o l l e g e exam t a k i n g , they found t h a t l o c u s of c o n t r o l d i d not r e l a t e t o coping, whereas s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l d i d i n f l u e n c e coping (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980, 1985). In general, i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e d they c o u l d c o n t r o l the s t r e s s o r used more problem-focused than emotion-focused coping. However, other researchers have found that i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l i s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h problem-focused coping (Anderson, 1977; Carver et a l . , 1989; Parkes, 1984; Solomon, M i k u l i n c e r , & Benbenishty, 1989). An explanation f o r these i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s may be t h a t the locus of c o n t r o l construct was intended t o be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l expectancies as a p r e d i c t o r of human behaviour ( R o t t e r , 1975, 1990). Thus, the i n f l u e n c e of both s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l and locus of c o n t r o l are important i n understanding the coping s t r a t e g i e s of bur g l a r y v i c t i m s . Generalized Beliefs About Control The best known c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of g e n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f about c o n t r o l i s R o t t e r ' s (1966) construct of locus of c o n t r o l . When a person b e l i e v e s t h a t a reinforcement i s contingent upon h i s or her own behaviour or a c t i o n , then t h i s b e l i e f i s r e f e r r e d t o as an i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l of reinforcement or i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l ( R o t t e r , 1966). When a person b e l i e v e s t h a t a reinforcement i s not contingent upon h i s or her own behaviour or a c t i o n , but i s subject t o l u c k , chance, or f a t e , then t h i s b e l i e f i s r e f e r r e d t o as an e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l of reinforcement or e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l (Rotter, 1966). From a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s l o c u s of c o n t r o l has i t s g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on behaviour i n novel and/or ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s (Rotter, 1966, 1975). Thus, when a person has not been p r e v i o u s l y b u r g l a r i z e d , then i n r e l a t i v e terms, the b u r g l a r y experience i s novel and ambiguous, and locus of c o n t r o l would be expected t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e the v i c t i m ' s coping behaviour. Levenson (1981), although r e t a i n i n g the i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , has f u r t h e r developed the e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n t o i n c l u d e the dimensions of chance and powerful others. Levenson (1981) describes chance and powerful others as " b e l i e f i n the ba s i c unordered and random nature of the world and b e l i e f i n the b a s i c order and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f the world, coupled w i t h the expectancy t h a t powerful others are i n c o n t r o l " (p. 15). Although the dimension of powerful others i s considered an e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t does have the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l . The powerful others o r i e n t a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t t o b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s because i t allows the v i c t i m t o hold the expectancy t h a t the a u t h o r i t i e s ( i . e . . P o l i c e ) may be able t o help achieve the d e s i r e d reinforcement. Therefore, d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between powerful others and chance appears important f o r understanding the expectancy b e l i e f s of people when a u t h o r i t i e s may be i n v o l v e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l event (Levenson, 1981), Hence, Levenson's (1981) m o d i f i c a t i o n f u r t h e r r e f i n e s the e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of Rotter's (1956) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and i n doing so makes i t r e l e v a n t t o the study of v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y . Evidence supports the p o s i t i o n t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l may account f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l coping i n s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s ( L e f c o u r t , 1976, 1983; Phares, 1976; R o t t e r , 1966; S t r i c k l a n d , 1978, 1989). Several researchers studying events d i f f e r e n t from crime v i c t i m i z a t i o n (e.g., h e a l t h - r e l a t e d i s s u e s , n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , and war) have found r e l a t i o n s h i p s between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. In g e n e r a l , i n d i v i d u a l s h olding an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n use more coping considered problem-focused, compared w i t h emotion-focused coping, whereas i n d i v i d u a l s who hold an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l use more emotion-focused than problem-focused coping (Anderson, 1977; Carver et a l . , 1989; Parkes, 1984; Solomon et a l . , 1989; S t r i c k l a n d , 1978). The r e l a t i o n between powerful others and coping f u n c t i o n s has not r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n . Blanchard-Fields and I r i o n (1988) found t h a t c o l l e g e age students who hold a powerful others o r i e n t a t i o n use l e s s problem-focused coping than o l d e r a d u l t s who hold the same locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . From a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s , one would expect t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g a high powerful others o r i e n t a t i o n would use more emotion-focused coping than problem-focused coping, unless the s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a c t i o n s of the powerful others were p r e d i c t a b l e and p o s s i b l e t o manipulate. Importance of Outcome Although there i s evidence of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c u s of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s , much of the research has been flawed by f a i l i n g t o account f o r the moderating e f f e c t of outcome value ( R o t t e r , 1975; S t r i c k l a n d , 1989; Wallston et a l . , 1987). Rotter (1966) argues t h a t a person's behaviour or a c t i o n s i n a novel or ambiguous s i t u a t i o n are a f u n c t i o n of th a t i n d i v i d u a l s ' s locus of c o n t r o l , as w e l l as the degree of the importance of the outcome (outcome value) t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l attaches t o the s i t u a t i o n . Thus, u n l i k e locus of c o n t r o l , which i s a g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy b e l i e f t h a t i s he l d antecedent t o the event, outcome value i s a b e l i e f t h a t must be considered i n l i g h t of a s p e c i f i c encounter. For example, those who hold an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and who value t h e i r h e a l t h , gather more in f o r m a t i o n about h e a l t h maintenance than those who do not value t h e i r h e a l t h ( S t r i c k l a n d , 1978; Wa l l s t o n e t a l . , 1987). In t h i s example, the behaviour i s g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and the degree t o which a person values h i s or her h e a l t h i s considered the outcome value. In keeping w i t h locus of c o n t r o l theory, outcome value should be considered i n conjunction w i t h the l o c u s of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t , and the f a i l u r e t o do so i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many s t u d i e s (Levenson, 1981; R o t t e r , 1975; S t r i c k l a n d , 1989; W a l l s t o n et a l . , 1987). Parkes (1984) found t h a t i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l female student nurses used s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l s of suppression ( s i m i l a r t o emotion-focused coping) when a s i t u a t i o n was r a t e d as low i n importance ( i . e . , outcome v a l u e ) . This f i n d i n g supports the argument t h a t emotion-focused coping may be a more acceptable coping f u n c t i o n d u r i n g an event i n which the i n d i v i d u a l perceives the event as low i n outcome value . Hence, based on theory and supported w i t h e m p i r i c a l evidence, outcome value i s expected t o moderate the locus of c o n t r o l - c o p i n g f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i o n s h i p . That i s , i t i s expected t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l three dimensions of locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping w i l l be stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g low outcome value than among i n d i v i d u a l s h olding high outcome value. Conversely, i t i s expected t h a t the r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping w i l l be stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h olding high outcome value than among i n d i v i d u a l s h olding low outcome value. Situational Appraisals of Control R o t t e r (1966, 1990) and Folkman (1984) contend t h a t t o p r e d i c t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n coping one should consider, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h locus of c o n t r o l and outcome value, s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l expectancies as they apply t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n ( i n t h i s study the p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s coping w i t h b u r g l a r y ) . W i t h i n Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) t h e o r e t i c a l framework, s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l expectancies are r e f e r r e d t o as s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l r e s u l t from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the demands of a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n and the degree t o which the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s he/she can a l t e r t h a t s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . Yet, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l may not only act as a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e of coping f u n c t i o n s , but may f u r t h e r serve t o mediate the e f f e c t of locus of c o n t r o l on coping f u n c t i o n s (Parkes, 1984). Researchers who st u d i e d coping i n a middle-age community sample as w e l l as coping during three stages of a c o l l e g e midterm examination, found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s (Folkman, Aldwin, & Lazarus, 1981; Folkman & Lazarus, 1980, 1985). In general, i n d i v i d u a l s who perceived a s p e c i f i c s t r e s s o r as amenable t o change (the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e d he/she c o u l d c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n ) used more problem-focused coping than emotion-focused coping. I n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e d a s t r e s s o r was beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , and hence had t o be accepted, used more emotion-focused coping than problem-focused coping. Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel-Schetter, DeLongis, and Gruen (1986) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n a sample of 85 married couples. Moreover, Parkes (1984) found s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between locus o f c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i n r e l a t i o n t o coping behaviour f o r female student nurses. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t e r n a l s who appraised a s t r e s s o r as 'could change' (thus could c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n ) used greater general coping than suppression coping. However, i n t e r n a l s who appraised a s t r e s s o r as 'must accept' (could not c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n ) used greater general coping than suppression coping. Thus, based on theory and research i t i s expected t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e the coping f u n c t i o n s used by b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s and mediate the locus of c o n t r o l - c o p i n g f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Carver et a l . , 1989; Folkman et a l . , 1981; Folkman & Lazarus, 1980, 1985; Parkes, 1984). Gender Differences L i t t l e i s known about gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o crime v i c t i m i z a t i o n (Janoff-Bulman & Frieze-Hanson, 1987). Maguire (1980), i n h i s study of 322 b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s , found t h a t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of female b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s experienced greater d i s t r e s s and changed behaviours i n a more dramatic way than t h e i r male coun t e r p a r t s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t some females experienced g r e a t e r d i s t r e s s than the males, one could i n f e r t h a t gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n response t o b u r g l a r y are a t t r i b u t a b l e t o b e l i e f s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h gender r o l e t h a t are learned or c u l t u r a l l y assigned (Greenglass, 1982; Vaughter, 1979). There are l i k e l y s e v e r a l u n d e r l y i n g reasons e x p l a i n i n g why there are gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope. In the l i t e r a t u r e on s t r e s s and coping there i s support f o r coping d i f f e r e n c e s based on the male and female d i s t i n c t i o n ( B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s & I r i o n , 1988; Carver et a l . , 1989; Vingerhoets & Van Heck, 1990). For example, Vingerhoets and Van Heck (1990), i n t h e i r community Scunple of 997 people, found t h a t men used more problem-focused than emotion-focused coping and t h a t women used more emotion-focused than problem-focused coping. Therefore, given evidence t h a t women experience g r e a t e r d i s t r e s s than men, I expected that female b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s would use more emotion-focused than problem-focused coping and the opposite would be t r u e f o r male v i c t i m s . Janoff-Bulman and Frieze-Hanson (1987) suggest t h a t gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o crime may be a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n world-view b e l i e f s and self-schemas. Self-schemas are de f i n e d as " c o g n i t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the s e l f t h a t guide the pr o c e s s i n g of s e l f - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and provided a framework f o r summarizing, e v a l u a t i n g , and d e s c r i b i n g one's experiences and behaviour" ( M i l l e r , 1984, p. 1223). Several b e l i e f s l i k e l y comprise an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f -schema, and on a r a t i o n a l b a s i s , locus of c o n t r o l would appear t o be one of those b e l i e f s . Locus of c o n t r o l i s s i m i l a r t o a person's world view (Hersch & Scheibe, 1967) and i s p a r t l y developed through gender v i a s o c i e t a l i n f l u e n c e (Levenson, 1981). A c c o r d i n g l y , locus of c o n t r o l should mediate the gender-coping f u n c t i o n s r e l a t i o n f o r v i c t i m s of bu r g l a r y . Moreover, Hoyenga and Hoyenga (1979) i n t h e i r review of the l i t e r a t u r e on sex d i f f e r e n c e s and a t t r i b u t i o n , r eported t h a t s e v e r a l s t u d i e s found t h a t women fr e q u e n t l y hold an e x t e r n a l l o cus of c o n t r o l and men hold an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . Therefore, gender should moderate the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n . Summary In summary, i t was expected t h a t gender would i n f l u e n c e coping f u n c t i o n s , w i t h females using more emotion-focused than problem-focused coping and males us i n g more problem-focused than emotion-focused coping ( B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s & I r i o n , 1988; Carver et a l . , 1989; Vingerhoets & Van Heck, 1990). Moreover, i t was expected t h a t there would be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping and a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between chance locus of c o n t r o l / p o w e r f u l others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping. However, i t was a l s o expected that locus of c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l would mediate the gender and coping r e l a t i o n , i n t h a t locus of c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l would account f o r the r e l a t i o n between gender and coping (Folkman, 1984; Levenson, 1981). F i n a l l y , gender and outcome value were expected t o a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n and/or strength of the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n (Parkes, 1984; R o t t e r , 1975, 1990). Methodological Issues In order t o t e s t the proposed r e l a t i o n s h i p s i t was necessary t o design two s t u d i e s . The f i r s t study examined a c t u a l v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y (Study 1) and the second study used non-victims who imagined themselves being v i c t i m i z e d (Study 2). This was done because R o t t e r ' s (1966) the o r y suggests t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l may change f o l l o w i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t event and there i s evidence t o support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . For example, i n a study of the treatment of drug a d d i c t i o n . Berger and Koocher (1972) found that when the p a r t i c i p a n t s entered treatment they hel d an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n , but upon treatment t e r m i n a t i o n t h e i r locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n had changed t o i n t e r n a l . Furthermore, C o l l i n s , T a y l o r , and Skokan (1990) found t h a t the process of coping w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n (cancer) r e s u l t e d i n changes i n s e l f - v i e w , w i t h some of the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l i n g more i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i f e and some of the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l i n g l e s s i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i f e . Moreover, i t has been suggested t h a t v i c t i m i z a t i o n may g i v e r i s e t o a negative s e l f - t r u s t schema t h a t makes a v i c t i m v u l n e r a b l e t o powerful o t h e r s , thus i n c r e a s i n g the v i c t i m ' s powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f (McCann, Sakheim, & Abrahamson, 1988). Therefore, a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m ' s locus of c o n t r o l may be a l t e r e d by the b u r g l a r y experience, confounding the r o l e of locus of c o n t r o l as a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e of coping e f f o r t s . That i s , f o l l o w i n g the b u r g l a r y experience an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n may change from i n t e r n a l t o e x t e r n a l , e x t e r n a l t o i n t e r n a l , or an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l may not change. Consequently, measuring locus of c o n t r o l a f t e r a b u r g l a r y experience would make i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether locus of c o n t r o l was a p r e d i c t o r of burglary coping. Therefore, i t was of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t t o examine locus of c o n t r o l as an antecedent v a r i a b l e t h a t serves as a p r e d i c t o r of coping. In order t o t r e a t locus of c o n t r o l as an antecedent v a r i a b l e . Study 2 incor p o r a t e d a p a s s i v e - i n t e r p r e t i v e design (Crano & Brewer, 1986). Rather than a c t u a l v i c t i m s of bur g l a r y , c o l l e g e student v o l u n t e e r s (experimentally induced v i c t i m s ) viewed a video of a b u r g l a r y and were asked t o v i c a r i o u s l y experience the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. P a s s i v e -i n t e r p r e t i v e design i s considered appropriate when the use of deception i s u n e t h i c a l and f o r the purpose of theory development and refinement (Crano & Brewer, 1986). I t would have been u n e t h i c a l t o deceive p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t they had been b u r g l a r i z e d because of the great d i s t r e s s t h a t such a deception could cause. Combining a passive i n t e r p r e t i v e design w i t h experimental c o n d i t i o n s may provide i n f o r m a t i o n f o r theory b u i l d i n g (Crano & Brewer, 1986). However, evidence suggests t h a t recall-memory i n v o l v e s g r e a t e r sensory and c o n t e x t u a l d e t a i l than imagined-memory and t h a t imagined-memory events are more complex and r e f l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o the i n d i v i d u a l (Johnson, Foley, Suengas, & Raye, 1988). Therefore, i t i s expected t h a t those who r e c a l l the burglary experience and those who imagine b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n would d i f f e r on coping because e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s ' coping may r e f l e c t how they b e l i e v e they cope i n ge n e r a l , as opposed t o how they would a c t u a l l y cope w i t h the b u r g l a r y experience. Thus w i t h Study 2, I attempted t o r e p l i c a t e Study 1 u s i n g d i f f e r e n t procedures f o r measuring the v a r i a b l e s of concern (Cozby, 1981; Hendrick, 1991). Although I expected v i c t i m i z a t i o n t o a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l , i f the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s were supported f o r both s t u d i e s , these r e s u l t s would challenge the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t locus of c o n t r o l i s a f f e c t e d by a v i c t i m i z a t i o n event. Passive i n t e r p r e t i v e design was used i n an e f f o r t t o "unconfound" (Amir & Sharon, 1991, p. 58) the r o l e of locus of c o n t r o l as an antecedent v a r i a b l e t h a t i n f l u e n c e s b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping. Therefore, the purpose of Study 2 was t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the t h e o r e t i c a l understanding of the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Canadians are at a f a r greater r i s k of being v i c t i m s of crimes against property, such as burglary, than crimes against person, such as rape and a s s a u l t (Fattah, 1991; Sacco, 1990). Moreover, v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y may experience severe p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s (Clarke & Hope, 1984; F r i e z e , Hymer, & Greenberg, 1987; Maguire, 1980). Despite t h i s , b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s have not received as much research a t t e n t i o n as v i c t i m s of v i o l e n c e and sex offenses (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e , 1987; Maguire, 1980). Although there are i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope w i t h the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience ( F i s c h e r , 1984; Maguire, 1980; Paap, 1981; Waller & O k i h i r o , 1978), there i s a dearth of i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l a i n i n g why there i s i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping. From the broader l i t e r a t u r e on s t r e s s and coping, t h e r e i s both a t h e o r e t i c a l and an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s t o suggest t h a t locus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and gender may have main, mediating, or moderating e f f e c t s t h a t account, i n p a r t , f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope w i t h the b u r g l a r y experience (Anderson, 1977; Brown & H a r r i s , 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Levenson, 1981; Parkes, 1984; Solomon et a l . , 1989; Vingerhoets & Van Heck, 1990). What f o l l o w s i s a review of what i s known about how crime v i c t i m s cope. A summary of r e l e v a n t aspects of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) theory of s t r e s s and coping i s presented. Next the r o l e of locus of c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l are r e l a t e d t o the b u r g l a r y experience and r e l e v a n t research i s c r i t i q u e d . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r gender d i f f e r e n c e s i s put forward and f i n a l l y , expected mediated and moderated e f f e c t s are explained. Crime Victim Coping C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can create s h o r t - and long-term p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s f o r the v i c t i m (American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1985; Fattah, 1991; Gottfredson, R e i s e r , & Tsegaye-Spates, 1987; N o r r i s , Kaniasty, & Scheer, 1990). I t i s not uncommon f o r crime v i c t i m s t o experience a host of a v e r s i v e emotions i n c l u d i n g anger, depression, f e a r , g u i l t , confusion, d i s t r u s t , dismay, and sadness (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; Cook, Smith, & H a r r e l l , 1987; Fa t t a h , 1991; Randle, 1985). Although the c o u n s e l l i n g of v i c t i m s f a l l s d i r e c t l y w i t h i n the mandate of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology (Douce, 1988), crime v i c t i m coping has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e research a t t e n t i o n from c o u n s e l l i n g and c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s (Herrington, 1985). The p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c r i m i n o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has revealed a great deal about socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v i c t i m s , yet there i s a dearth of i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s o n a l i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of v i c t i m f u n c t i o n i n g ( F a t t a h , 1991). Stage t h e o r i s t s have f i g u r e d prominently i n the area of crime v i c t i m coping. Bard and Sangrey (1986) contend t h a t v i c t i m r e a c t i o n s develop through impact, r e c o i l , and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n stages. The impact stage i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the v i c t i m experiencing p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s . During the r e c o i l stage the v i c t i m begins t o adapt t o the new s i t u a t i o n and begins t o modify or n e u t r a l i z e the emotions causing the p s y c h o l o g i c a l disturbances. The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n stage f o l l o w s the r e c o i l stage and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the subsiding of int e n s e emotions. Em o t i o n a l l y and b e h a v i o u r i a l l y the crime i s no longer a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of the v i c t i m ' s l i f e . The v i c t i m o s c i l l a t e s between stages f o l l o w i n g no p r e d i c t a b l e t i m e t a b l e . Bard and Sangrey's (1986) stage approach i s , i n general terms, d e s c r i p t i v e of the p a s t - v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience, but f a i l s t o account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n coping. Furthermore, i t does not provide an avenue ( i . e . , p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s ) t o e x p l a i n why some i n d i v i d u a l s may not f o l l o w the p r e s c r i b e d stages. S e v e r a l researchers have suggested t h a t v i c t i m s of crime use a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l s t r a t e g i e s t o achieve r e o r g a n i z a t i o n or p r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g (Agnew, 1985; Cohn, 1974; Taylo r , Wood, & Lichtman, 1983). For example, Taylor et a l . (1983) argue t h a t v i c t i m s use f i v e c o g n i t i v e processes t o n e u t r a l i z e t h e impact of crime and achieve r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . V i c t i m s may make s o c i a l comparisons w i t h l e s s fortunate others, focus s e l e c t i v e l y on a t t r i b u t e s t h a t make one appear advantaged, create h y p o t h e t i c a l worse worlds, construe b e n e f i t s from v i c t i m i z a t i o n event, and/or manufacture normative standards of adjustment. In essence, these processes a l l o w the v i c t i m an i l l u s i o n of c o n t r o l over hi s / h e r behaviour and/or emotions. These c o g n i t i v e processes are s i m i l a r t o Bard and Sangrey's (1986) stages i n tha t they d e s c r i b e v i c t i m coping but they do not account f o r or e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n t i a l responses t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Furthermore, there i s e m p i r i c a l evidence t h a t suggests that not only are there i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way crime v i c t i m s cope with v i c t i m i z a t i o n , but t h a t crime v i c t i m s cope d i f f e r e n t l y i n response t o d i f f e r e n t types of crime (American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1985; Wirtz & H a r r e l l , 1987). W i r t z and H a r r e l l (1987) i n t h e i r study of 236 v i c t i m s of f i v e d i f f e r e n t crimes found v i c t i m s of d i f f e r e n t crimes appear t o use d i f f e r e n t coping responses according t o the crime experience. For example, v i c t i m s of sexual a s s a u l t stay home more o f t e n f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n than do any other crime v i c t i m s . B u r g l a r y v i c t i m s more than other crime v i c t i m s are c a r e f u l t o lo c k doors and i n s t a l l l o c k s and bars. Therefore, i t may not be prudent t o apply research f i n d i n g s of crime v i c t i m coping from one type of crime t o another d i f f e r e n t type crime. As such, coping w i t h b u r g l a r y may be d i s t i n c t from other types of crime v i c t i m i z a t i o n coping, t h e r e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g review of crime v i c t i m coping i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . Papp (1981) documented h i s own r e a c t i o n s of f a l l i n g v i c t i m t o r e s i d e n t i a l b u r g l a r y . He i d e n t i f i e d three stages of r e a c t i o n t o being a v i c t i m . The i n i t i a l stage l a s t e d s e v e r a l days and was c h i e f l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v e r s i v e emotional responses, such as f e a r , d i s g u s t . v i o l a t i o n , and anger. The middle stage was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b e h a v i o r a l a c t i v i t i e s predominately geared towards reducing the r i s k of f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n . A c t i v i t i e s i n the middle stage i n c l u d e d changing l o c k s and i n s t a l l i n g a b u r g l a r alarm. The strong a v e r s i v e r e a c t i o n s experienced during the i n i t i a l stage subsided d u r i n g the middle stage. The f i n a l stage was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a s t a t e of normalcy, w i t h m i l d emotions of resentment and cynicism. Papp's (1981) study was l i m i t e d by i t s s u b j e c t i v e n e s s and case study methodology t h a t allows the experience t o be placed only w i t h i n an i d i o g r a p h i c context. However, the study d i d provide d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about the emotional and developmental i s s u e s experienced by one v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . Within Papp's d e s c r i p t i o n of the b u r g l a r y experience, i t was p o s s i b l e t o tease out s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s t h a t may provide i n s i g h t i n t o why there i s i n d i v i d u a l coping v a r i a t i o n i n response t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n . For example, Papp argued t h a t b e h a v i o r a l a c t i v i t i e s geared towards reducing the r i s k of f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n provided a sense of personal c o n t r o l . Hence, Papp's world view about c o n t r o l ( i . e . , locus of c o n t r o l ) coupled w i t h h i s b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l s p e c i f i c t o the s i t u a t i o n ( i . e . , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l ) i n f l u e n c e d h i s choice of coping s t r a t e g i e s employed t o manage the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. Papp's (1981) p e r s p e c t i v e on how c o n t r o l b e l i e f s ' i n f l u e n c e coping i s i n keeping w i t h the broader l i t e r a t u r e on s t r e s s and coping as discussed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). F i s c h e r (1984) used a phenomenological methodology t o study the experience of those who have f a l l e n v i c t i m t o e i t h e r robbery, a s s a u l t , t h e f t , vandalism, attempted rape, harassment, and b u r g l a r y . The 50 p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged i n age from 18 t o 90 years and were from v a r y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and socio-economic backgrounds. F i s c h e r (1984) argued t h a t b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s are q u i t e s i m i l a r t o rape v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d by Burgess and Holmstrom (1974). "Burglary v i c t i m s speak of t h e i r homes as having been penetrated, desecrated and d i r t i e d " ( F i s c h e r , 1984, p. 168). However, there i s a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e between d e s c r i b i n g one's home and d e s c r i b i n g one's person i n such terms. Yet one f a c t o r apparent was that v i c t i m ' s c o n t r o l over h i s / h e r l i f e had been suspended. F i s c h e r s ' (1984) study provided an overview of crime v i c t i m s ' experience and provided f u r t h e r support f o r the argument t h a t v i c t i m s of bu r g l a r y may experience a great deal of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . Yet, the study has l i m i t a t i o n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s were inte r v i e w e d on the telephone, perhaps l i m i t i n g or d i s t o r t i n g the in f o r m a t i o n obtained. A l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study had reported the crime t o p o l i c e , t h e r e f o r e the sample may not be re p r e s e n t a t i v e of crime v i c t i m s who do not r e p o r t t o p o l i c e . Furthermore, F i s c h e r (1984) d i d not e x p l a i n or account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . However, the apparent c e n t r a l r o l e t h a t c o n t r o l p l a y s i s s i m i l a r t o Papp's (1981) study. Both s t u d i e s suggest the more c o n t r o l an i n d i v i d u a l p erceives he or she has, the greater number of b e h a v i o r a l s t r a t e g i e s one i s able t o incorporate i n t o h i s / h e r coping behaviour. Maguire (1980) i n v e s t i g a t e d the impact of b u r g l a r y through i n t e r v i e w i n g 322 bu r g l a r y v i c t i m s at t h e i r homes 4 t o 10 weeks a f t e r the di s c o v e r y of the offense. Ten independent judges c l a s s i f i e d the v i c t i m s ' responses. S i x ca t e g o r i e s of i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s were determined by the judges. Approximately 30% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t anger and annoyance, 19% were shocked, 17% experienced confusion, 9% experienced d i s b e l i e f , 9% f e l t f e a r , and 17% had no strong r e a c t i o n . To ga i n a sense of c o n t r o l , s e v e r a l v i c t i m s e x h i b i t e d s e c u r i t y behaviour such as changing l o c k s , i n s t a l l i n g alarms, updating or purchasing insurance (42% - 80% depending on the type of s e c u r i t y behaviour). Maguire (1980) found t h a t the time of day when the bu r g l a r y occurred, the property s t o l e n , or whether the v i c t i m was at home at the time of the b u r g l a r y d i d not account f o r i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n v i c t i m coping. However, he d i d f i n d t h a t female b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s expressed stronger emotional d i s t r e s s than t h e i r male counterparts. Gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n have a l s o been reported by Janoff-Bulman and F r i e z e (1987) and W i r t z and H a r r e l l (1987). There are d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v e r i f y i n g the accuracy of Maguire's f i n d i n g s because of under/overreporting t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of research t h a t r e l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y on s e l f - r e p o r t s (Maguire, 1980). Furthermore, although Maguire found i n d i v i d u a l and gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping, he f a i l e d t o account f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s . However, h i s research r e a f f i r m e d the observation t h a t b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s use emotional and/or be h a v i o r a l e f f o r t s t o cope and t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l may f i g u r e prominently i n i n f l u e n c i n g the coping used by b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . Brown and H a r r i s (1989) argue t h a t b u r g l a r y i s more than a simple property crime because the offense i n v o l v e s an i n t r u s i o n i n t o what i s normally considered a safe t e r r i t o r y by the v i c t i m . B u r g l a r y may c r e a t e extreme p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s i n v i c t i m s p a r t l y because i t i s a v i o l a t i o n of primary t e r r i t o r y , which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l c e n t r a l i t y . V i o l a t i o n of primary t e r r i t o r y threatens the v i c t i m s ' sense of c o n t r o l . Brown and H a r r i s (1989) suggest t h a t i n response t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s associated w i t h b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n , v i c t i m s use b e h a v i o u r a l and emotional coping e f f o r t s . For example, a b e h a v i o u r a l response may be t o i n s t a l l l o c k s t o prevent f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n , whereas an emotional response may be t o consult powerful o t h e r s , such as the p o l i c e , i n an e f f o r t t o reduce f e e l i n g s of d i s t r e s s . To e x p l o r e a v a r i e t y of aspects about the b u r g l a r y experience. Brown and H a r r i s (1989) conducted 30-minute i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 44 female b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . They found t h a t on the average, p a r t i c i p a n t s reported t h a t b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n caused seven s t r e s s f u l emotions. Furthermore, u n l i k e Maguire's (1980) f i n d i n g . Brown and H a r r i s (1989) found t h a t severe damage t o the i n s i d e of the residence c o r r e l a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r v i c t i m d i s t r e s s (r = .43; p < .01). This discrepancy between Maguire's (1980) f i n d i n g and Brown and H a r r i s ' (1989) may r e s u l t from the l a t t e r s t u d y i n g only women—women reported greater l e v e l s of d i s t r e s s i n Maguire's (1980) study. Brown and H a r r i s (1989) a l s o found t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s used a v a r i e t y of coping s t r a t e g i e s f o l l o w i n g the b u r g l a r y , i n c l u d i n g t a l k i n g t o f r i e n d s f o r s o c i a l support, t a l k i n g t o p o l i c e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , purchasing f i r e a r m s , and i n s t a l l i n g alarms. These coping s t r a t e g i e s a r e s i m i l a r t o problem- and emotion-focused coping and may be s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by c o n t r o l b e l i e f s (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of Brown and H a r r i s ' (1989) r e s u l t s are l i m i t e d t o female v i c t i m s of bu r g l a r y . Furthermore, they d i d not measure c o n t r o l , which might have provided support f o r t h e i r argument t h a t v i o l a t i o n o f primary t e r r i t o r y threatens the v i c t i m s ' sense of c o n t r o l . T y l e r (1981), i n h i s study of 244 crime v i c t i m s , found support f o r the argument th a t perceived c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e s crime v i c t i m coping. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were interviewed f o r 45 minutes i n an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h how t h e i r c o n t r o l b e l i e f s r e l a t e t o the v i c t i m i z a t i o n process. T y l e r (1981) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between perceived c o n t r o l and behavi o u r a l responses t o bur g l a r y (r = .21, E< .001). Thus, the g r e a t e r the p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , the greater the emphasis on a c t i v e coping employed f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n ( i . e . , l o c k i n g doors, i n s t a l l i n g alarms, buying a guard dog). T y l e r ' s (1981) data were c o r r e l a t i o n a l and d i d not show ca u s a l order. In a d d i t i o n , a t h i r d v a r i a b l e may mediate or moderate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between perceived c o n t r o l and coping behaviour. Furthermore, a c t i v e coping may r e s u l t i n high l e v e l s of c o n t r o l , thus co n f u s i n g the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . T y l e r f a i l e d t o recognize a d i s t i n c t i o n between g e n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l ( i . e . , l o c us of c o n t r o l ) and s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t r o l b e l i e f s ( i . e . , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l ) and how they may d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e coping. Both g e n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t r o l b e l i e f s are b e l i e v e d t o i n f l u e n c e coping behaviour (Compas & Orosan, i n pr e s s ; Folkman, 1984; Parkes, 1984; T h o i t s , 1991). F i n a l l y i t would have added c l a r i t y i f T y l e r had placed h i s d i s c u s s i o n of v i c t i m coping s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n a t h e o r e t i c a l model of coping. In summary, s e v e r a l researchers have found i n d i v i d u a l and gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i n general, and bur g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y (Agnew, 1985; F a t t a h , 1991; Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e , 1987; Maguire, 1980; Wirtz & H a r r e l l , 1987). V i c t i m s cope w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n through managing emotions ( i . e . , d e n i a l , comparison w i t h others l e s s fortunate) and/or managing the problem ( i . e . , changing l o c k s , i n s t a l l i n g an alarm, purchasing a f i r e a r m ) . Some researchers have found t a n g e n t i a l and d i r e c t evidence t h a t gender, general b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l , and s i t u a t i o n a l b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e coping (Brown & H a r r i s , 1989; Compas & Orosan, i n p r e s s ; Folkman, 1984; Maguire, 1980; Papp, 1981; Parkes, 1984; T y l e r , 1981). Coping Theory Coping has been addressed from a v a r i e t y of t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , a l l of which have l i m i t i n g and/or s e r i o u s flaws (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) present a t h e o r e t i c a l framework of coping t h a t attempts t o r e c t i f y the d e f i c i e n c i e s of previous approaches. Their t r a n s a c t i o n a l theory of s t r e s s and coping has co n s i d e r a b l y changed the way i n which coping i s co n c e p t u a l i z e d (Stone, Greenberg, Kennedy-Moore, & Newman, 1991). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) d e f i n e the coping process as "c o n s t a n t l y changing c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l e f f o r t s t o manage s p e c i f i c e x t e r n a l an/or i n t e r n a l demands th a t are appraised as t a x i n g or exceeding the resources of the person" (p. 141). Coping i s what the person a c t u a l l y does or t h i n k s i n response t o a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . Coping changes as the person's c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l s change and/or as the environment changes. Compas, Forsythe, and Wagner (1988) i n t h e i r study of 65 undergraduates found low consistency i n pa t t e r n s of coping across two types of ongoing s t r e s s o r s . F i n d i n g s by Compas et a l . (1988) support the p o s i t i o n that coping i s s i t u a t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c and not a t r a i t . Moreover, Bolger (1990) argues t h a t i n many st u d i e s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n coping s t r a t e g i e s r e s u l t from d i f f e r e n c e s i n the types of s t r e s s o r s people encounter and not from p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s or other f a c t o r s t h a t were po s t u l a t e d as accounting f o r such d i f f e r e n c e s . Lazarus and Folkman (1984) consider problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping as the two main f u n c t i o n s of coping. A coping f u n c t i o n i s the purpose a coping s t r a t e g y serves. Problem-focused coping i s d i r e c t e d at managing the problem causing the d i s t r e s s . Emotion-focused coping i s d i r e c t e d at d e a l i n g w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s emotions t h a t a r i s e from the problem event (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). However, the important d i s t i n c t i o n between problem- and emotion-focused f u n c t i o n s o f t e n l a c k s c l a r i t y . For example, seeking s o c i a l support may be problem-focused or emotion-focused depending on whether i t i s f o r i n s t r u m e n t a l or emotional reasons (Carver et a l . , 1989; Endler & Parker, 1990; Tobin, Holroyd, Reynolds, & Wigal, 1989). There i s c o n f l i c t i n g evidence regarding whether i n any one event an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l use one f u n c t i o n of coping t o the t o t a l e x c l u s i o n of another coping f u n c t i o n . Folkman and Lazarus (1980) developed the Ways of Coping C h e c k l i s t (WCC) t o measure the coping of a middle-age community sample comprised of 52 women and 48 men. They found i n 98% of the 1,332 coping episodes reported t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s used v a r y i n g amounts of emotion-focused and problem-focused, or one f u n c t i o n of coping was more dominant depending on the s i t u a t i o n . For example, i n work - r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s used problem-focused coping more f r e q u e n t l y than emotion-focused coping, whereas i n h e a l t h r e l a t e d episodes the p a r t i c i p a n t s used emotion-focused coping more f r e q u e n t l y than problem-focused coping. Folkman and Lazarus (1980) concluded t h a t c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l (an e v a l u a t i v e process concerned w i t h the meaning or s i g n i f i c a n c e of an event) and how amenable t o change a s i t u a t i o n i s perceived as being ( i . e . , how c o n t r o l l a b l e a s i t u a t i o n i s perceived) determines the use of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping d u r i n g any episode. S p e c i f i c a l l y , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e the coping f u n c t i o n s used by an i n d i v i d u a l (Lazarus & Folkman, 1980). Folkman and Lazarus (1985), i n a study of c o l l e g e students, administered the WCC (modified) during three stages of an examination. The three stages were i d e n t i f i e d as the a n t i c i p a t o r y stage, w a i t i n g stage ( w a i t i n g f o r marks), and the outcome stage ( a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the marks). They found t h a t during the a n t i c i p a t o r y stage 99% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s used problem-focused coping as the predominate coping f u n c t i o n . During the w a i t i n g stage and outcome stage v a r y i n g cimounts of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping were used by 95% and 94% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The changes i n coping i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l a f f e c t coping. Yet i t was not c l e a r whether t h i s was a d i r e c t e f f e c t , mediating e f f e c t , or moderating e f f e c t . In the a n t i c i p a t o r y stage (where one can a c t i v e l y manage the s i t u a t i o n ) problem-focused coping was at i t s peak, whereas i n the w a i t i n g stage, problem-focused coping subsided and emotion-focused coping increased. During the outcome stage the coping f u n c t i o n was i n f l u e n c e d by the grade the p a r t i c i p a n t r e c e i v e d . Those p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d lower grades used more emotion-focused coping than those p a r t i c i p a n t s who r e c e i v e d higher grades. Though coping f u n c t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h i f t e d from the a n t i c i p a t i o n stage t o the w a i t i n g stage, p a r t i c i p a n t s throughout the exam used v a r y i n g degrees of both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. However, i n a more s t r e s s f u l encounter ( i . e . , burglary) an i n d i v i d u a l may use more of one coping f u n c t i o n than another. Anderson (1977) stu d i e d 102 randomly s e l e c t e d business owner-managers a f t e r t h e i r businesses had been damaged by a h u r r i c a n e . Coping f u n c t i o n s (Class I and I I ) were measured according t o Kahn, Wolfer, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal's (1964) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. C l a s s I and I I coping are s i m i l a r t o Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Contrary t o Folkman and Lazarus' (1980, 1985) f i n d i n g s , Anderson (1977) found t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h i s study d i d not use a combination of coping f u n c t i o n s but used e i t h e r problem-focused coping or emotion-focused coping. His f i n d i n g s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e , i n p a r t , t o the extreme nature of the s i t u a t i o n and to the type of s c a l e used t o measure coping. Further research i s r e q u i r e d t o c l a r i f y i f and how a p p r a i s a l i n f l u e n c e s coping (Peacock & Wong, 1990). Peacock and Wong (1990) used l i n e a r s t r u c t u r a l modelling a n a l y s i s t o t e s t the r e l a t i o n s between a p p r a i s a l , emotion-oriented, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s d u r ing an u n i v e r s i t y examination. In t h e i r sample of 143 undergraduates, they found no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p p r a i s a l and emotion-oriented coping. However, they d i d f i n d t h a t greater l e v e l s of emotion-oriented coping were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h higher l e v e l s of d i s t r e s s . Although Peacock and Wong acknowledge t h a t other researchers have found t h a t lower l e v e l s of d i s t r e s s were as s o c i a t e d w i t h higher l e v e l s of emotion-oriented coping, they suggest t h a t coping i s antecedent t o d i s t r e s s . Moreover, they p o s i t t h a t the coping f u n c t i o n must be congruent w i t h the nature of the s t r e s s i n order t o decrease the d i s t r e s s . They a l s o argue t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t r o l may act as a mediating v a r i a b l e where emotion-focused coping i s concerned. Yet, both t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y t h e re i s support f o r the p o s i t i o n t h a t g e n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t r o l b e l i e f s i n f l u e n c e the coping f u n c t i o n s employed by an i n d i v i d u a l during a s t r e s s f u l encounter (Anderson, 1977; Carver et a l . , 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Parkes, 1984; Solomon et a l . , 1989). Aside from the d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between problem- and emotion-focused coping on some of the coping subscales, r e c e n t l y , s e l f -r e p o r t , s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c coping questionnaires (e.g., WCC) have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r numerous reasons (Endler & Parker, 1990; Stone e t a l . , 1991). S p e c i f i c a l l y , Endler and Parker (1990) argue t h a t the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the WCC are questionable. They contend t h a t the e m p i r i c a l support f o r the v a l i d i t y and i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s of many of the coping subscales are very modest. Endler and Parker (1990) suggest t h a t the psychometric problems of the WCC a r e f u r t h e r exasperated by researchers who add or drop items according t o hypotheses being s t u d i e d or according t o the p o p u l a t i o n under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Stone et a l . (1991) c r i t i c i z e d s e l f - r e p o r t , s i t u a t i o n -o r i e n t e d coping questionnaires (e.g., WCC Revised, Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) regarding the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of coping items t o s p e c i f i c problems (domain), the stage of the s t r e s s f u l event f o r which coping was r e p o r t e d (coping p e r i o d ) , and the meaning extent i n the response key used w i t h coping items (response key). To examine these c r i t i c i s m s e m p i r i c a l l y . Stone et a l . (1991) inter v i e w e d 49 female and 42 male c o l l e g e students about the most s t r e s s f u l event t h a t they had experienced i n the past week. During the i n t e r v i e w the p a r t i c i p a n t s answered the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOC) and s p e c i f i c questions designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the c r i t i c i s m s of domain, coping p e r i o d , and response key. Using two-way ANOVA, f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a higher number of not a p p l i c a b l e responses were endorsed f o r the noninterpersonal than i n t e r p e r s o n a l domains. Further a n a l y s i s w i t h a repeated measures ANOVA i n d i c a t e d higher p r o p o r t i o n s of "not a p p l i c a b l e " responses were reported f o r problem-focused than emotion-focused coping. Stone et a l . (1991) concluded t h a t the WOC items t h a t comprised emotion-focused s t r a t e g i e s were endorsed across problem types, whereas problem-focused coping items were s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c . Stone et a l . (1991) found t h a t approximately 70% of the respondents report e d t h a t they considered the acute stage as t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of the coping p e r i o d . The remaining p a r t i c i p a n t s reported t h a t t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of the coping p e r i o d i n v o l v e d the preparatory stage o n l y , the recovery stage o n l y , or a combination of the preparatory and recovery stage. F i n a l l y , Stone et a l . (1991) examined what the p a r t i c i p a n t s meant by t h e i r responses. P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked i f they judged 'extent' i n t h e response key i n terms of "duration," "frequency," " e f f o r t , " or "usefulness". The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was a great d e a l of v a r i a t i o n among the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the ways they c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the term extent. Stone e t a l . (1991) concluded t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r p r e t e d the meaning of extent i n the response key i n d i f f e r e n t ways. In summary, Lazarus and Folkman (1984) o f f e r a t r a n s a c t i o n a l t h e o r y of s t r e s s and coping i n which problem- and emotion-focused coping are the two main f u n c t i o n s of coping. The instrument developed by Folkman and Lazarus t o measure coping have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r s e v e r a l reasons, e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of s t r e s s o r domain, coping p e r i o d , and response key (Stone et a l . , 1991). The coping s t r a t e g i e s s e l e c t e d by b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s are l i k e l y t o be those that are consonant w i t h t h e i r general b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l and t h e i r b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l s p e c i f i c t o the s i t u a t i o n (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Wallston t e a l . , 1987). Furthermore, v i c t i m s who value the outcome of the bu r g l a r y and who b e l i e v e t h a t the s t r e s s o r i s subject t o c o n t r o l w i l l use problem-focused coping more than v i c t i m s who do not value the outcome and do not b e l i e v e the s t r e s s o r i s subject t o c o n t r o l (Lazarus & Folkman, 1980, 1984). Previous research found t h a t women respond more emotionally t o b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n than men; t h e r e f o r e i t i s expected that women v i c t i m s would use more emotion-focused coping than men and that men would use more problem-focused coping than women (Maguire, 1980). Generalized Beliefs About Control G e n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l are expected t o i n f l u e n c e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s choice of coping f u n c t i o n s (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The best known c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of ge n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f about c o n t r o l i s R o t t e r ' s (1956) construct of locus of c o n t r o l . Locus of c o n t r o l , as de f i n e d by R o t t e r (1966, 1975), i s a g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy c o n s t r u c t t h a t a r i s e s out of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory. G e n e r a l i z e d expectancies are s i m i l a r t o a person's world view and are l a r g e l y determined by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s past experiences (Hersch & Scheibe, 1967). When a person b e l i e v e s t h a t a reinforcement i s contingent upon h i s or her own behaviour or a c t i o n , then t h i s b e l i e f i s r e f e r r e d t o as an i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l ( R o t t e r , 1966). When a person b e l i e v e s t h a t a reinforcement i s not contingent upon h i s or her own behaviour or a c t i o n , but i s s u b j e c t t o l u c k , chance or f a t e , then t h i s b e l i e f i s r e f e r r e d t o as an e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l of reinforcement or e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l (Rotter, 1966). R o t t e r ' s (1966) construct of locus of c o n t r o l has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r being unidimensional. Subsequently, s e v e r a l researchers have put f o r t h m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s of Rotter's o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of locus of c o n t r o l . In p a r t i c u l a r , Levenson (1981), although r e t a i n i n g the i n t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , has f u r t h e r developed the e x t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n t o include the dimensions of chance and powerful others. The powerful others o r i e n t a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r y p e r t i n e n t f o r bu r g l a r y v i c t i m s because i t allows the v i c t i m t o hold the expectancy t h a t the a u t h o r i t i e s ( i . e . , p o l i c e ) may be able t o help achieve the d e s i r e d reinforcement. Therefore, d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between powerful others and chance appears important i n order t o understand the expectancy b e l i e f s of people when there are p o t e n t i a l l y powerful others i n v o l v e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l event (Levenson, 1981). Furthermore, Levenson's (1981) m o d i f i c a t i o n f u r t h e r r e f i n e s the e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of R o t t e r ' s (1966) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and i n doing so makes i t r e l e v a n t f o r the study of bur g l a r y v i c t i m s . From a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s , locus of c o n t r o l has i t s g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on behaviour i n novel and/or ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s ( R o t t e r , 1966, 1975). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of locus of c o n t r o l ' s i n f l u e n c e on behaviour diminishes as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience i n a s i t u a t i o n i n c r e a s e s (Rotter, 1975). When the s i t u a t i o n i s known t o the i n d i v i d u a l , s p e c i f i c expectancies of c o n t r o l as opposed t o a g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy w i l l act t o determine behaviour (Rotter, 1966, 1975, 1990; S t r i c k l a n d , 1978). Lazarus and Folkman (1984) d e f i n e ambiguity as " l a c k of c l a r i t y i n the environment, s i t u a t i o n a l cues regarding the nature of the outcome and/or extent t o which i t can be c o n t r o l l e d are minimal" (p.66). They contend t h a t the greater the ambiguity the more the i n d i v i d u a l r e l i e s on g e n e r a l i z e d expectancies ( i . e . , locus of c o n t r o l ) i n determining h i s / h e r behaviour. A s i t u a t i o n i s novel when a person has not experienced the s i t u a t i o n before (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Few s i t u a t i o n s are completely novel, i n most s i t u a t i o n s a person w i l l be able t o make some connection, no matter how weak, between the s i t u a t i o n at hand and some other group of s i t u a t i o n s . Hence, the n o v e l t y of a s i t u a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e r a t h e r than absolute (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Furthermore, a novel s i t u a t i o n i s a l s o ambiguous i n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s u n c l e a r about the s i g n i f i c a n c e or meaning of the event (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). In a study of the i n t e r a c t i o n between t r a i t a n x i e t y and c o n t r o l i n a shock avoidance task. Archer (1979) provides e m p i r i c a l evidence t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s have the strongest i n f l u e n c e on behaviour under ambiguous c o n d i t i o n s . Moreover, Solomon et a l . (1989), i n t h e i r study of locus of c o n t r o l and combat-related post-traumatic s t r e s s d i s o r d e r i n s o l d i e r s , found t h a t the greater the cunbiguity of the b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y , the more locus of c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e d the coping f u n c t i o n s used by the s o l d i e r s t o deal w i t h the post-traumatic s t r e s s . Folkman and Lazarus (1980, 1985), i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of coping i n a middle-age community sample and c o l l e g e exéimination t a k i n g , found there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n . However, i n order f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l t o i n f l u e n c e h i s / h e r coping, i t i s necessary f o r the s t r e s s o r t o be novel. C o l l e g e students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an examination i s not a novel or ambiguous s i t u a t i o n and i t i s not known i f the coping behaviours of a middle-age sample i n v o l v e d novel or ambiguous s t r e s s o r s . Solomon et a l . (1989), i n t h e i r study of post-traumatic s t r e s s d i s o r d e r , examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s . The 104 male p a r t i c i p a n t s who ranged i n age from 18 t o 32 with a median age of 30, a year p r i o r t o data c o l l e c t i o n had fought on the f r o n t l i n e f o r I s r a e l during the 1982 Lebanon war. A shortened v e r s i o n of Rotter's locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e was administered t o e s t a b l i s h the locus of c o n t r o l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Threat a p p r a i s a l was a s c e r t a i n e d through having the p a r t i c i p a n t s r a t e on a 5-point L i k e r t type s c a l e how t h r e a t e n i n g they found the b a t t l e . Raw scores from the WCC (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980) were used t o measure problem- and emotion-focused coping. Through the i n t e r v i e w , the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f low and high b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y was determined. Solomon et a l . (1989) found t h a t under low b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y the great e r the i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l the more the p a r t i c i p a n t s used problem-focused coping, r(52)=.20, E<.05, as w e l l , under high b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y the greater the i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l of the p a r t i c i p a n t s the more the p a r t i c i p a n t s used problem-focused coping f o l l o w i n g combat s t r e s s r e a c t i o n , r(48)=.40, E<.01. Furthermore, under low b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y the p a r t i c i p a n t s reported using more emotion-focused coping when they experienced strong negative emotions, r(52)=.29, E<.05, as w e l l , under high b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y p a r t i c i p a n t s reported using more emotion-focused coping when they experienced strong negative emotions, r(48)=.27, E<.05. Therefore, b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y was r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. F i n d i n g s by Solomon et a l . (1989) are i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t high b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y provided an unambiguous s i t u a t i o n cue of how t o r e a c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , locus of c o n t r o l would be expected t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h coping under the ambiguous event of l o w - b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y . Although Solomon et a l . (1989) found a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s r e g a r d l e s s of b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y , f u r t h e r analyses complicate these previous f i n d i n g s . These researchers conducted simultaneous m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses t o assess d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n of locus of c o n t r o l , t h r e a t a p p r a i s a l , negative emotions, and coping func t i o n s t o post-traumatic s t r e s s i n b o t h hi g h - and l o w - b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y . The c o n t r i b u t i o n of locus of c o n t r o l t o post-traumatic s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e under e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n . However, Solomon et a l . , using path a n a l y s i s , examined the i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of locus of c o n t r o l on post-traumatic s t r e s s . Under high b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y no d i r e c t path between locus of c o n t r o l and p o s t -traumatic s t r e s s v i a the other v a r i a b l e s reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, under low b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y the i n d i r e c t path from c o n t r o l expectancy t o p ost-traumatic s t r e s s through t h r e a t a p p r a i s a l was s i g n i f i c a n t . Therefore, p a r t i c i p a n t s who held i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and who r e p o r t e d low b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y were associated w i t h lower t h r e a t a p p r a i s a l , which was then r e l a t e d t o fewer post-traumatic s t r e s s symptoms. Solomon et a l . (1989) argued that these f i n d i n g s support the p o s i t i o n t h a t locus of c o n t r o l has i t s strongest i n f l u e n c e on behaviour under ambiguous c o n d i t i o n s . Under the ambiguous c o n d i t i o n of l o w - b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y , locus of c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e d post-traumatic s t r e s s through the mediating e f f e c t of t h r e a t a p p r a i s a l , whereas, under the unambiguous c o n d i t i o n of h i g h - b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y locus of c o n t r o l was not a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g post-traumatic s t r e s s behaviour. Fin d i n g s by Solomon et a l . (1989) f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l , coping f u n c t i o n s , and other aspects of human behaviour ( i . e . , post-traumatic s t r e s s ) . C l e a r l y t here i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s . However, Solomon et a l . f a i l e d t o address the i n c o n s i s t e n t moderating e f f e c t of ambiguity as d i s p l a y e d through b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y . Moreover, t h e i r f i n d i n g s a l s o suggest t h a t locus of c o n t r o l has a stronger r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h problem-focused coping than emotion-focused coping. From t h e i r study i t appears that problem-focused coping i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o locus of c o n t r o l and high l e v e l s of emotional d i s t r e s s are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. This f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h more recent research (Compas & Orosan, i n pr e s s ; Peacock & Wong, 1990). The study by Solomon et a l . (1989) has s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t , as Solomon et a l . suggest, causal i n f e r e n c e i s not p o s s i b l e because of the f a c t t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s were measured one year r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y and because of the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l design of the study. Second, although there was a p o s i t i v e moderate c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping, t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s i s incomplete without a s c e r t a i n i n g whether outcome value moderated the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . R o t t e r (1975, 1990) argues t h a t research u s i n g locus of c o n t r o l i s flawed i f i t does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n outcome value . T h i r d , Solomon et a l . d i d not provide a con v i n c i n g argument, nor d i d t h e i r c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s support the p o s i t i o n t h a t b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y l e v e l represents ambiguity of the events. Conceivably, l o w - b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y corresponds w i t h low outcome value, i n t h a t the outcome i s not as important as h i g h - b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y , where the outcome i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y important. Fourth, many aspects of b a t t l e may not be novel and/or ambiguous t o experienced s o l d i e r s , t h e r e f o r e i t would have been prudent t o e s t a b l i s h whether s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l p r e d i c t coping f u n c t i o n s and/or mediate the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . F i n a l l y , locus of c o n t r o l was measured a f t e r the event and not antecedent t o the event. Research supports t h a t a person's locus of c o n t r o l may be a l t e r e d by l i f e events ( i . e . , war) and subsequent coping e f f o r t s and i s not a f i x e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t (Berger & Koocher, 1972; C o l l i n s et a l . , 1990). Therefore, locus of c o n t r o l as a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e may have been i n a p p r o p r i a t e and may have created d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the e f f e c t s of locus of c o n t r o l on coping f u n c t i o n s . Anderson (1977), i n h i s study of 102 business people who s u r v i v e d a h u r r i c a n e , found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s used t o cope w i t h the aftermath of the hu r r i c a n e . In g e n e r a l , Anderson (1977) found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l used more emotion-focused coping than problem-focused coping. Those w i t h an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l used more coping s i m i l a r t o problem-focused coping than coping s i m i l a r t o emotion-focused coping. Anderson's (1977) f i n d i n g s d i d not provide a c l e a r understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , the a n a l y s i s was c o r r e l a t i o n a l , t h e r e f o r e , determination of a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping was not p o s s i b l e . Second, he f a i l e d t o account f o r the r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n on outcome value. For example, a person w i t h an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l who h o lds a low-outcome value regarding the event, may not have used problem-focused coping. Based on theory, the locus of c o n t r o l - c o p i n g f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p may be moderated by outcome value ( R o t t e r , 1966, 1975, 1990). T h i r d , Anderson (1977) t r e a t s locus of c o n t r o l as bimodal thus making the s c a l e i p s a t i v e . F a i l u r e t o t r e a t locus of c o n t r o l as o c c u r r i n g on a continuum l i m i t s the f i n d i n g s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the study. F i n a l l y , more information regarding i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n coping may have been provided by t a k i n g i n t o account s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . Locus of c o n t r o l i s o p t i m a l l y p r e d i c t i v e i n novel and/or ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s (Rotter, 1966, 1975, 1990). I t i s not known i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Anderson's (1977) study were coping w i t h novel and/or ambiguous events. Therefore, i n f o r m a t i o n about s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t r o l b e l i e f s , may have been h e l p f u l i n the p r e d i c t i o n of coping f u n c t i o n s and/or i n understanding the p o s s i b l e mediating r o l e t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l has between the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . Carver et a l . (1989) administered t h e i r m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l coping i n v e n t o r y (COPE) and s e v e r a l other q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n c l u d i n g R o t t e r ' s (1966) locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e t o a group of 162 u n i v e r s i t y undergraduates. I n t e r n a l i t y reached s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h 2 of the 13 COPE s c a l e s . I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l had a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r = .17, E < '05) w i t h A c t i v e Coping and a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n (r = -.15, E <.05) w i t h Focus On and V e n t i l a t i o n of Emotions. Due t o t h e i p s a t i v e nature of Rotter's s c a l e , the same magnitude but w i t h the opposite d i r e c t i o n would have occurred f o r e x t e r n a l i t y . These f i n d i n g s lend weak support t h a t there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping. Moreover, i t i s not c l e a r from the study by Carver et a l . (1989) whether the p a r t i c i p a n t s were coping w i t h novel and/or ambiguous events. S i t u a t i o n a l c o n t r o l b e l i e f s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o coping (7 of the 13 subscales) more f r e q u e n t l y than locus of c o n t r o l (2 of the 13 s u b s c a l e s ) , t h e r e f o r e i t was l i k e l y t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s were not coping w i t h novel and/or ambiguous events. Under unambiguous c o n d i t i o n s , a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping would not be expected. B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s and I r i o n (1989) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping as moderated by age and context. The 96 p a r t i c i p a n t s completed s e v e r a l questionnaires i n c l u d i n g Levenson's (1981) I n t e r n a l , Powerful Others, and Chance Scales, and Folkman and Lazarus's (1985) WCC ( r e v i s e d ) . The male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d e q u a l l y i n t o four age groups: adolescents, young a d u l t s , middle-aged a d u l t s , and o l d e r a d u l t s . In g e n e r a l , younger i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l used coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were emotion-focused, such as self-blame and h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n . However, a d u l t s w i t h an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l used more problem-focused coping than emotion-focused coping. Blanchard-F i e l d s and I r i o n (1988) argue t h a t i n t e r n a l i t y may represent a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t w i t h d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t i o n s made according t o age. For excimple, young i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n may b e l i e v e t h a t they are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n and r e a c t immaturely. They avoid or r e a c t i n a h o s t i l e manner towards the event. However, o l d e r a d u l t s react maturely and o f t e n take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s t r e s s o r . Therefore, they use problem-focused coping t o manage the s t r e s s o r . Furthermore, o l d e r a d u l t s who held a powerful others locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n endorsed coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were problem-focused, whereas w i t h younger groups powerful others were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t comprise problem-focused coping. P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a chance o r i e n t a t i o n , the second dimension of e x t e r n a l i t y on Levenson's locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e , used d i f f e r e n t coping s t r a t e g i e s than those w i t h a powerful others o r i e n t a t i o n . Both younger and o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s h o l d i n g chance locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n used emotion-focused coping. However, older a d u l t s endorsed a h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n . Blanchard-Fields and I r i o n (1988) suggested t h a t chance has a d i f f e r e n t meaning f o r o l d e r a d u l t s than younger a d u l t s . B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d ' s and I r i o n ' s (1988) f i n d i n g s support the p o s i t i o n t h a t locus of c o n t r o l has at l e a s t three dimensions. Moreover, i n the case of o l d e r a d u l t s i n t e r n a l and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l were r e l a t e d t o problem-focused coping, whereas chance locus of c o n t r o l a f f e c t e d emotion-focused coping. Yet i n younger a d u l t s a l l three dimensions of locus of c o n t r o l were r e l a t e d t o coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were considered emotion-focused s t r a t e g i e s . This evidence provided some support f o r the hypothesis t h a t age moderated the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n . However, Blan c h a r d - F i e l d s and I r i o n d i d not measure outcome value. Therefore, i t may be t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s do not r e f l e c t the moderating e f f e c t of age, r a t h e r the moderating e f f e c t of outcome value . Perhaps younger a d u l t s d i d not pla c e an emphasis on the outcome value and t h e r e f o r e d i d not engage i n problem-focused coping s t r a t e g i e s . However, o l d e r a d u l t s may have placed g r e a t e r emphasis on outcome value than younger cohorts and thus engaged i n problem-focused coping. In summary, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s showed a complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping (Anderson, 1977; B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s & I r i o n , 1988; Carver et a l . , 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, 1985; Parkes, 1984; Solomon et a l . , 1989). The d i r e c t e f f e c t of locus of c o n t r o l on coping was e q u i v o c a l . In the case of burglary v i c t i m i z a t i o n , the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n s h i p may be moderated or mediated by outcome value, gender, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . Furthermore, Levenson's (1981) powerful others s c a l e may be p e r t i n e n t t o b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s because i t may depict the v i c t i m t o hold the expectancy t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ( i . e . , p o l i c e ) may be able t o help achieve d e s i r e d r e s u l t s ( i . e . , home s e c u r i t y ) . Both the mediating and moderating e f f e c t s of outcome value and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l on the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n s h i p must be examined t o understand the l o c u s of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n f o r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . Importance of Outcome R o t t e r (1966, 1990) argues t h a t a person's behaviour or a c t i o n s i n a novel or ambiguous s i t u a t i o n are a f u n c t i o n of t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ' s l o c u s of c o n t r o l , as w e l l as the degree of outcome value t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l attaches t o the s i t u a t i o n . In the context of locus of c o n t r o l the term reinforcement value i s used interchangeably w i t h outcome value (Rosolack & Hampson, 1991; Ro t t e r , 1966, 1990). Thus, u n l i k e locus of c o n t r o l , which i s a g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy b e l i e f t h a t i s held antecedent t o the event, outcome value i s a b e l i e f t h a t must be considered i n l i g h t of a s p e c i f i c event at a p a r t i c u l a r time (Rosolack & Hampson, 1991). For example, those who hold an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and who value t h e i r h e a l t h , gather more informa t i o n about h e a l t h maintenance than those who do not value t h e i r h e a l t h ( S t r i c k l a n d , 1978; Wallston et a l . , 1987). In t h i s example, the behaviour i s gathering i n f o r m a t i o n and the degree t o which a person values h i s or her he a l t h i s considered outcome value . Outcome value should be considered i n conjunction w i t h the locus of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t , and f a i l u r e t o do so i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many st u d i e s (Levenson, 1981; R o t t e r , 1975, 1990; S t r i c k l a n d , 1989; Wallston et a l . , 1987). H. Lef c o u r t (personal communication, June 18, 1990) suggests t h a t outcome value i s f r e q u e n t l y not measured because i n most research the outcome value i s accepted as high due t o the seriousness o f the encounters being studied. Yet, i n the case of b u r g l a r y , t h e r e may be v a r i a n c e i n outcome value held by the v i c t i m s and t h i s may, i n p a r t , account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope (H. L e f c o u r t , personal communication, June 18, 1990). Furthermore, Rosolack and Hampson (1991) argue that outcome value must reach some minimum l e v e l before i t i n t e r a c t s with locus of c o n t r o l and has p r e d i c t i v e power of behaviour. One of the few studies t o consider a s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t t o outcome value was conducted by Parkes (1984). Parkes asked p a r t i c i p a n t s t o i n d i c a t e the importance of the s i t u a t i o n t h a t they were coping w i t h . This was s i m i l a r t o outcome value, except t h a t w i t h outcome valu e the emphasis i s on the importance of the outcome of the event. Coping was measured w i t h the WCC. Parkes conducted Very Simple S t r u c t u r e ( R e v e l l e & R o c k l i n , 1979) f a c t o r a n a l y s i s on the WCC data and d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h r e e f a c t o r s of coping. The f i r s t f a c t o r represented General Coping t h a t i n c l u d e d c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l s t r a t e g i e s i n response t o a s t r e s s f u l event; the second f a c t o r represented D i r e c t Coping, which i s s i m i l a r t o problem-focused coping; the t h i r d f a c t o r represented Suppression and i n c l u d e d items such as suppressing thoughts of the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n , coping s t r a t e g i e s g e n e r a l l y considered emotion-focused coping. Parkes r e p o r t e d acceptable i n t e r n a l consistency values f o r General and D i r e c t Coping (.89 and .71) and l e s s than acceptable r e l i a b i l i t y value f o r Suppression Coping (.56). Hence, any f i n d i n g w i t h regard t o Suppression Coping must be considered i n l i g h t of a low i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y value. Parkes (1984) found t h a t female student nurses who he l d e i t h e r an i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l used s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l s of Suppression coping when a s i t u a t i o n was rated as low i n outcome value. This r e l a t i o n s h i p was not found f o r General or D i r e c t Coping. The main e f f e c t of outcome value f o r Suppression coping i l l u s t r a t e s the importance of outcome value as i t p e r t a i n s t o coping s t r a t e g i e s encompassed by emotion-focused coping. Furthermore, at the conceptual l e v e l , outcome value may moderate the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n s h i p . Parkes argues t h a t emotion-focused coping may be a more parsimonious coping f u n c t i o n f o r events t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t h o lds as unimportant (low outcome value) because there i s l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n t o change the s t r e s s o r under such circumstances. Solomon et a l . ( 1 9 8 9 ) i n t h e i r study of 1 0 4 males e x p e r i e n c i n g post-traumatic s t r e s s d i s o r d e r , d i d not measure outcome value. However, the v a r i a b l e , low and high b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y , conceivably corresponds w i t h low and high outcome value. That i s , under low b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y the importance of the s i t u a t i o n i s l e s s than under high b a t t l e i n t e n s i t y . As such, under low outcome value there was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r = . 3 2 , E < . 0 0 1 ) between locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping. However, under high outcome value the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping was not s i g n i f i c a n t , whereas between locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (r = . 4 0 , p < . 0 5 ) . Although not c o n c l u s i v e , these f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t outcome value moderates the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n . Carver et a l . ( 1 9 8 9 ) measured outcome value w i t h two items. The g r e a t e r the outcome value the more the p a r t i c i p a n t s reported u s i n g s t r a t e g i e s compatible w i t h emotion-focused coping ( i . e . , d e n i a l ) . Although there was a r e s t r i c t e d range i n as s e s s i n g outcome valu e ( p a r t i c i p a n t s h o l d i n g low outcome value were not i n c l u d e d ) , these f i n d i n g s are not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those of Parkes' ( 1 9 8 4 ) . This c o n t r a d i c t i o n may be r e s o l v e d , i n p a r t , by c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t emotional a r o u s a l / d i s t r e s s may be l i n k e d t o the use of emotion-focused coping (Compas & Orosan, i n press; Peacock & Wong, 1 9 9 0 ) . Conceivably, the g r e a t e r the outcome value the greater the emotional a r o u s a l and thus the need f o r emotion-focused coping increases. In summary, there i s a dearth of i n f o r m a t i o n about the r o l e of outcome value as a moderator between locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n s . Numerous researchers contend t h a t when locus of c o n t r o l i s assessed outcome value should a l s o be assessed (Levenson, 1981; R o t t e r , 1975, 1990; S t r i c k l a n d , 1989; Wallston et a l . , 1987). Moreover, based on theory and e m p i r i c a l research there i s some evidence t h a t outcome value moderates the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . That i s , outcome value a f f e c t s the d i r e c t i o n and/or s t r e n g t h between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping w i l l be stronger among v i c t i m s h o l d i n g high outcome value than among v i c t i m s h o l d i n g low outcome value . Conversely, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping w i l l be stronger among v i c t i m s h o l d i n g high outcome value than among v i c t i m s h o l d i n g low outcome value. Situational Appraisals of Control In order f o r locus of c o n t r o l t o be a p r e d i c t o r of coping, s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l expectancies must a l s o be considered (Folkman, 1984; R o t t e r , 1975). To address the iss u e of s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l expectancies, Lazarus and Folkman (1984) proposed s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . In ge n e r a l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l r e f e r t o the degree t o which an i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s he or she can change or c o n t r o l a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i n l i g h t of the demands of th a t s i t u a t i o n . Folkman and Lazarus (1980) stu d i e d coping i n a middle-aged community sample and found that i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e d a s i t u a t i o n c ould be c o n t r o l l e d used more problem-focused coping than emotion-focused coping. On the other hand, i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e d a s i t u a t i o n c ould not be c o n t r o l l e d used more emotion-focused coping than problem-focused coping. Folkman and Lazarus (1985) i n t h e i r study of coping d u r i n g t h r e e stages of examination t a k i n g found t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who pe r c e i v e d t h a t they could c o n t r o l t h e i r examination performance used more problem-focused than emotion-focused coping d u r i n g the preparatory stage of examination t a k i n g . Furthermore, Folkman et a l . (1986), i n a study t h a t examined the r e l a t i o n between a p p r a i s a l and coping i n a sample of 85 married couples, again found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l used more problem-focused than emotion-focused coping i n d e a l i n g w i t h s t r e s s o r s . However, because i n these s t u d i e s the s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l questions were vague, i t was unclear as t o what p a r t i c i p a n t s were suggesting they c o n t r o l l e d or f a i l e d t o c o n t r o l . Moreover, i n some encounters s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l not only p r e d i c t coping but may a l s o mediate the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n (Parkes, 1984). Yet, Folkman (1984) argues that assessment of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i s plagued by the d i f f i c u l t y of determining what the p a r t i c i p a n t p e r c e i v e s as being c o n t r o l l e d . FoDcman and Lazarus (1985) suggest t h a t f u t u r e research s p e c i f y what the i n d i v i d u a l p erceives he or she i s c o n t r o l l i n g . To date few researchers have acted on Folkman and Lazarus's (1985) suggestion. Carver et a l . (1989), i n a study of c o l l e g e students' coping, used a s i n g l e item t o measure perceived c o n t r o l ("When you are under s t r e s s , do you u s u a l l y . . . " followed by four choices ranging from "you d e f i n i t e l y can do something about the s i t u a t i o n " t o "you d e f i n i t e l y can do nothing about the s i t u a t i o n " ) . Perceived c o n t r o l reached s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h more sc a l e s (3 sc a l e s ) t h a t comprise problem-focused coping than d i d R o t t e r ' s (1966) i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l (1 scale) and was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o problem-focused coping and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. Carver e t a l . (1989) d i d not t e s t whether perceived c o n t r o l mediated the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n . Furthermore, p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l assessed w i t h a s i n g l e item does not adequately address Folkman's (1984) concern of what i t i s the p a r t i c i p a n t p erceives he or she i s c o n t r o l l i n g . Parkes (1984) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p among locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , importance of episode ( s i m i l a r t o outcome v a l u e ) , and coping f u n c t i o n of 171 f i r s t year female n u r s i n g students. R o t t e r ' s (1966) locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e was administered and, based on a median s p l i t , those who scored 0 t o 12 were c l a s s i f i e d as i n t e r n a l s and those who scored 13 t o 22 were c l a s s i f i e d as e x t e r n a l s . S i x t o 12 weeks a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e , a modified WCC (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980) was administered. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o complete the WCC w h i l e r e c a l l i n g a demanding or troublesome event that had occurred w i t h i n the previous month. Parkes obtained a c l o s e approximation of outcome value by a s k i n g each p a r t i c i p a n t t o r a t e the importance of the event as e i t h e r low, medium, or high. S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l were obtained through the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a p p r a i s a l of the event as (a) could change ( c o n t r o l p o s s i b l e ) , (b) mixed (may or may not be able t o have c o n t r o l ) , and (c) must accept (no c o n t r o l p o s s i b l e ) . Parkes (1984) conducted a s e r i e s of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses t o determine main and mediating e f f e c t s . She found a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r locus of c o n t r o l and D i r e c t Coping, but not f o r General or Suppression Coping. Furthermore, Parkes examined the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s of locus of c o n t r o l by s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and locus of c o n t r o l by outcome value. Although the main e f f e c t of outcome value was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r Suppression Coping, the locus of c o n t r o l by outcome value i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l t h r e e types of coping. However, f o r each coping type the l o c u s of c o n t r o l by s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i n t e r a c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . Parkes (1984) reported t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n demonstrated t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediated the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, according t o Baron and Kenny (1986) s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e a moderating e f f e c t and not a mediating e f f e c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , t e s t i n g f o r mediator e f f e c t s w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n terms may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Yet, c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t without the i n t e r a c t i o n term of locus of c o n t r o l by s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l t h ere was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping, i t i s conceivable t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n has acted as a mediator between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. Therefore, the r o l e of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l as a mediator and moderator of the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n s h i p remains unclear. In general, Parkes (1984) found t h a t i n t e r n a l s used l e a s General Coping than e x t e r n a l s when they assessed t h e s i t u a t i o n as one they c o u l d change or must accept. However, f o r those w i t h an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l , a p p r a i s a l s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o l e v e l s of General coping. P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l used more D i r e c t Coping than Suppression when the s i t u a t i o n was appraised as one they could change. P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and an a p p r a i s a l of could change used more Suppression than D i r e c t Coping. Yet e x t e r n a l s use of D i r e c t Coping increased when making an a p p r a i s a l of must accept. I n t e r n a l s and e x t e r n a l s used g r e a t e r l e v e l s of Suppression Coping during mixed a p p r a i s a l s . Moreover, both i n t e r n a l s and e x t e r n a l s used more Suppression when t h e i r s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l were incongruent w i t h t h e i r locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . Yet, Parkes (1984) found t h a t i n t e r n a l s and e x t e r n a l s used s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l s of Suppression when the p a r t i c i p a n t s rated the s t r e s s o r s i t u a t i o n as low i n outcome value. This l a t t e r f i n d i n g may i n d i c a t e t h a t Suppression or emotion-focused coping i s a more acceptable type of coping d u r i n g a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t event, whereas the former f i n d i n g suggests t h a t Suppression or emotion-focused coping i s used when emotional d i s t r e s s i n c r e a s e s as a r e s u l t of an i n c o n g r u i t y between s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l and locus of c o n t r o l . Hart and Cardozo (1986) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l and coping. They s t u d i e d 135 c o l l e g e students t o determine, i n p a r t , how they cope w i t h s i t u a t i o n s t h a t cause anger, h o s t i l i t y , or i r r i t a t i o n . Several q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were administered i n c l u d i n g a questionnaire that contained 3 items t h a t measured s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . These 3 items, u n l i k e other s t u d i e s t h a t have measured s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , determined whether the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t i n c o n t r o l of t h e i r emotions, behaviour, and the s i t u a t i o n . Hence, Hart and Cardozo's (1986) i n d i c a t o r s of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s begin t o address Folkman's concern r e g a r d i n g s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . Coping was measured w i t h the WCC (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Hart and Cardozo (1986) found t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o problem-focused coping and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping e f f o r t s f o r both men and women. However, t h e i r study does not c l a r i f y the r o l e of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i n a novel and/or ambiguous encounter. In summary, the measurement of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l has been complicated by not knowing what aspect of an encounter an i n d i v i d u a l i s attempting t o c o n t r o l (Folkman, 1984). However, e m p i r i c a l evidence supports the p o s i t i o n t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l are r e l a t e d t o coping e f f o r t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , there i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping (Blanchard-Fields & I r i o n , 1986; Carver et a l . , 1989; Folkman et a l . , 1981; Folkman, 1984; Folkman & Lazarus, 1980, 1985; Hart & Cardozo, 1986). In the present research, I w i l l examine how b u r g l a r y v i c t i m ' s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l i n f l u e n c e the way an i n d i v i d u a l copes w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Based on theory, i t i s expected t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l would mediate the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p (Folkman, 1984; Parkes, 1984; R o t t e r , 1966). Gender Differences L i t t l e i s known about gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o crime v i c t i m i z a t i o n (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e , 1987), and i n the s t r e s s and coping l i t e r a t u r e gender d i f f e r e n c e s have been r e l a t i v e l y neglected (Long, 1990; Long & G e s s a r o l i , 1989). However, gender may account, i n p a r t , f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope. In the broader l i t e r a t u r e there i s support f o r coping d i f f e r e n c e s based on gender d i f f e r e n c e s . Vingerhoets and Van Heck (1990) used the WCC (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980) t o study coping behaviour of 465 males and 532 females from a community sample. The coping q u e s t i o n n a i r e was modified t o measure how people cope w i t h s t r e s s f u l encounters i n general and not w i t h a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . They conducted a s e r i e s of t t e s t s t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t men used s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p <.001) more problem-focused coping than women; and women use s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p <.001) more emotion-focused coping than men. Although these f i n d i n g s support gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n coping t h e r e were three main problems with the study. F i r s t , m u l t i p l e t t e s t s i n c r e a s e d the l i k e l i h o o d of Type I e r r o r (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1984). Second, i t was not c l e a r what each p a r t i c i p a n t was coping w i t h ; d i f f e r e n c e s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o men and women responding t o d i f f e r e n t s t r e s s o r s ( i . e . , t h r e a t , challenge, or b e n i g n - p o s i t i v e ) . F i n a l l y , the WCC was mod i f i e d t o measure coping as a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t , which i s the a n t i t h e s i s t o the t r a n s a c t i o n a l model of s t r e s s and coping (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). Carver et a l . (1989) examined c o l l e g e students' coping w i t h the most s t r e s s f u l event i n t h e i r l i f e of the past 2 months and found t h a t men and women engaged i n d i f f e r e n t coping s t r a t e g i e s . Women more than men re p o r t e d seeking s o c i a l support f o r emotional reasons and men more than women reported use of a l c o h o l i n an e f f o r t t o cope. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Carver e t a l . (1989) d i d not elaborate f u r t h e r regarding gender d i f f e r e n c e s . Moreover, i t i s unclear whether the gender d i f f e r e n c e s found by Carver et a l . (1989) were of such a magnitude t h a t combining the data of men and women f o r analyses detracted from the r e s t of t h e i r f i n d i n g s (Endler & Parker, 1990). B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s and I r i o n (1988), i n t h e i r study of age as a moderator of locus of c o n t r o l and coping, a l s o found gender d i f f e r e n c e i n coping. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d the most t h r e a t e n i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g s i t u a t i o n they had encountered i n the l a s t s i x months. Women endorsed more forms of emotion-focused coping than d i d the male p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, t h i s f i n d i n g only held t r u e f o r t h r e a t a p p r a i s e d s i t u a t i o n s . In challenge s i t u a t i o n s there were no gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n coping. Thus, i f b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n i s considered predominantly a th r e a t and not a challenge, gender d i f f e r e n c e s would be expected. Maguire (1980) examined 322 burglary v i c t i m s ' responses and found t h a t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of female b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s experienced g r e a t e r d i s t r e s s and changed behaviours i n a more dramatic way than t h e i r male counterparts. Females, more f r e q u e n t l y than males, r e p o r t e d r e a c t i o n s of severe and acute d i s t r e s s . Separated, widowed or d i v o r c e d women were judged by 10 independent judges t o have experienced the most severe p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s . "The most s t r i k i n g long-term p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t was experienced almost e x c l u s i v e l y by women. About 12 percent of a l l females used words such as ' p o l l u t i o n ' , ' v i o l a t i o n ' or 'a presence i n the house'. Many made an e x p l i c i t analogy w i t h sexual a s s a u l t . . . " (Maguire, 1980, p.285). Maguire's (1980) study does not di s c u s s v i c t i m r e a c t i o n s i n terms of problem- and emotion-focused coping. However, i n l i g h t of Peacock and Wong's (1990) f i n d i n g s and Compas and Oroson's ( i n press) review of the l i t e r a t u r e , women who experience such severe d i s t r e s s from being b u r g l a r i z e d would be more i n c l i n e d than men t o use emotion-focused coping. Maguire (1980) does not e x p l a i n why women i n h i s study experienced greater d i s t r e s s than men. Maguire's f i n d i n g s are not unique. Waller and O k i h i r o (1978), i n t h e i r study of b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s i n the Toronto area, found t h a t female v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y experienced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s t r e s s than male v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y . Janoff-Bulman and F r i e z e (1987) argued t h a t male and female sexual abuse v i c t i m s experienced s i m i l a r emotions but d i f f e r e d on at l e a s t t h r ee behaviours. Men tended t o non-report more than women, men experienced l e s s s o c i a l withdrawal than women, and male v i c t i m s experienced a greater increase i n aggressive behaviour than female v i c t i m s . Although Janoff-Bulman and F r i e z e maintain t h a t these gender d i f f e r e n c e s are b e h a v i o r a l and not emotional, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t some of these b e h a v i o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s are not accompanied by corresponding emotions. For example, an increase i n aggressive behaviour would l i k e l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an increase i n anger, whereas g r e a t e r s o c i a l withdrawal i s l i k e l y a s s o ciated w i t h an increase i n d e p r e s s i o n . However, Janoff-Bulman and F r i e z e (1987) emphasized t h a t t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y of research regarding crime v i c t i m gender d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e r e f o r e d e s c r i p t i o n s of such d i f f e r e n c e s are t e n t a t i v e . There are l i k e l y s e v e r a l underlying reasons e x p l a i n i n g why there are gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way burglary v i c t i m s cope. Janoff-Bulman and F r i e z e (1987) suggest t h a t gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o crime may be a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n world view b e l i e f s and self-schemas. Self-schemas are defined as " c o g n i t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the s e l f t h a t guide the processing of s e l f - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d e a frame work f o r summarizing, e v a l u a t i o n , and d e s c r i b i n g one's experiences and behaviour" ( M i l l e r , 1984, p. 1223). S e v e r a l b e l i e f s l i k e l y comprise an i n d i v i d u a l ' s self-schema, and, on a r a t i o n a l b a s i s , locus of c o n t r o l would appear t o be one of those b e l i e f s . Locus of c o n t r o l i s s i m i l a r t o a person's world view (Hersch & Schiebe, 1967) and i s p a r t l y developed through gender (Levenson, 1981). The male schema as determined by North American s o c i e t y i s s t r o n g , a c t i v e , and powerful; whereas the female schema i s f r e q u e n t l y comprised of passiveness and helplessness (Bem, 1981; Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e -Hanson, 1987). From these s t e r e o t y p i c a l gender schémas one c o u l d i n f e r t h a t male b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s are more l i k e l y t o use more problem-focused coping than emotion-focused coping, and women b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s are l i k e l y t o use more emotion-focused coping than problem-focused coping. McCaan e t a l . (1988) a l s o suggest that the impact of v i c t i m i z a t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s schema w i l l i n f l u e n c e the coping of the i n d i v i d u a l . In p a r t i c u l a r , a person may develop a negative s e l f - t r u s t schema t h a t i n v o l v e s the b e l i e f t h a t a person cannot t r u s t h i s or her own perceptions or judgements and perceives a l a c k of c o n t r o l over l i f e . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a negative s e l f - t r u s t schema makes a person v u l n e r a b l e t o powerful others. In summary, there i s l i t t l e known about gender d i f f e r e n c e s as they p e r t a i n t o crime v i c t i m coping. Researchers o f f e r evidence t h a t i n t h r e a t s i t u a t i o n s females tend t o use more emotion-focused coping than problem-focused coping and t h a t men tend t o use more problem-focused coping than emotion-focused coping (Blanchard-Fields & I r i o n , 1988; Carver et a l . , 1989; Vingerhoets & Van Heck, 1990). Maguire (1990), Janoff-Bulman and F r i e z e (1987), and Waller and O k i h i r o (1978) have observed t h a t men and women behave d i f f e r e n t l y i n response t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Gender schema, p a r t l y comprised of locus of c o n t r o l (Hersch & Scheibe, 1967; Levenson, 1981), may, i n p a r t , account f o r gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n crime v i c t i m coping. A c c o r d i n g l y , f o r v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y , locus of c o n t r o l should mediate the gender-coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . Mediator and Moderator Variables This study i s concerned w i t h c o n t r o l b e l i e f s t h a t may account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way burglary v i c t i m s cope. Therefore, i t was u s e f u l t o examine locus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and gender i n l i g h t of t h e i r mediating or moderating e f f e c t s on coping f u n c t i o n s . Frequently, p s y c h o l o g i c a l researchers have used the terms mediating and moderating interchangeably. However, Baron and Kenny (1986) cogently argue t h a t mediators and moderators are d i s t i n c t . A v a r i a b l e a c t s as a mediator when: (a) v a r i a t i o n s i n l e v e l s of the independent v a r i a b l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y account f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n the presumed mediator ( i . e . . Path a ) , (b) v a r i a t i o n s i n the mediator s i g n i f i c a n t l y account f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n the dependent v a r i a b l e ( i . e . . Path b ) , and (c) when Paths a and b are c o n t r o l l e d , a p r e v i o u s l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n between the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s i s no longer s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h the s t r o n g e s t demonstration o c c u r r i n g when Path c i s zero (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p. 1176). Based on theory and e m p i r i c a l research, i t i s expected t h a t l o c u s of c o n t r o l a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l (Path a) and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l a f f e c t coping (Path b ) , and when Path a and b are c o n t r o l l e d , locus of c o n t r o l w i l l no longer have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n w i t h coping f u n c t i o n (Path c ) . Hence, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l w i l l mediate the locus of c o n t r o l - c o p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p (see Figure 1 ). A moderator v a r i a b l e a f f e c t s the d i r e c t i o n and/or s t r e n g t h between an independent or p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e and a dependent or c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e (Baron & Kenny, 1986; Smith, Smoll, & Ptacek, 1990). W i t h i n the framework of a n a l y s i s of variance a moderator e f f e c t occurs when t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between "a f o c a l independent v a r i a b l e and a f a c t o r t h a t s p e c i f i e s the appropriate c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s o p e r a t i o n " (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p. 1174). For example (see Figure 2 ) , based on theory and e m p i r i c a l research, i t i s expected t h a t locus of c o n t r o l i s a p r e d i c t o r of b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping f u n c t i o n s w i t h outcome value as a moderator of t h i s r e l a t i o n . The moderator hypothesis i s supported i f there i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and outcome value r e g a r d l e s s of the main e f f e c t (Baron & Kenny, 1986). (Mediator) S i t u a t i o n a l Appraisals of Control Locus of Control (Independent variable) \ Coping Function ^ of Burglary victims (Dependent Variable) Figure 1. Hypothetical model of s i t u a t i o n a l appraisals of c o n t r o l mediating the locus of control-coping function r e l a t i o n . {Predictor) Locus of control -> ( C r i t e r i o n ) Coping Function (Moderator) Outcome Value Locus of Control X Outcome Value Figure 2 . Hypothetical model of outcome value as moderator of the locus of control-coping function r e l a t i o n . In summary, previous researchers have f a i l e d t o d e l i n e a t e the d i s t i n c t i o n between moderator and mediator v a r i a b l e s . Baron and Kenny (1986) c l a r i f y the ways i n which moderators and mediators d i f f e r and i n doing so help t o c l a r i f y the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s so o f t e n found w i t h i n the s t r e s s and coping l i t e r a t u r e . Methodological Issues Once an i n d i v i d u a l has been b u r g l a r i z e d , the op p o r t u n i t y t o a s c e r t a i n the v i c t i m ' s pre-burglary locus of c o n t r o l may be compromised. By studying r e a l v i c t i m s , the r o l e of locus of c o n t r o l as a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e of coping i s confounded c r e a t i n g a methodological dilemma. Furthermore, b u r g l a r y v i c t i m r e c a l l i s not always accurate because of l y i n g , f o r g e t t i n g , or t e l e s c o p i n g (misplace the v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n c i d e n t i n time) (Fattah, 1991). As w e l l , when people r e c a l l events they o f t e n do not focus e q u a l l y on a l l aspects of the event. Some t h i n k more about the f a c t s and some t h i n k more about t h e i r emotional r e a c t i o n t o the event (Suengas & Johnson, 1988). Moreover, Brewin (1988) argues t h a t i n s e l f - r e p o r t r e c a l l when i n d i v i d u a l s describe or e x p l a i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s and behaviours they are making inferences designed t o account f o r or j u s t i f y t h e i r a c t i o n s . R o t t e r ' s theory suggests t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l may change f o l l o w i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t event (Rotter, 1975). A study by C o l l i n s et a l . (1990) provided some support f o r t h i s n o t i o n . They examined b e l i e f changes surrounding the l i f e domains of the world, p r i o r i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the s e l f , and the fut u r e as a consequence of the experience of cancer. L i f e domain of s e l f i n c l u d e s f e e l i n g s of s e l f -e f f i c a c y ( s i m i l a r t o locus of c o n t r o l i n tha t both address aspects of per c e i v e d c o n t r o l ) . B e l i e f domain of the f u t u r e i n c l u d e s b e l i e f s t h a t f u t u r e events are not always c o n t r o l l a b l e ( s i m i l a r t o e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l ) . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n C o l l i n s et a l . study i n c l u d e d 30 women and 25 men, a l l of whom were cancer p a t i e n t s . Interviews were conducted to determine p o s i t i v e , negative, or n e u t r a l changes i n the b e l i e f domains of the v i c t i m s . Coping was measured with a modified v e r s i o n of the WCC and was hypothesized t o lead t o changes i n the domains of a c t i v i t i e s / p r i o r i t i e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the s e l f , and the f u t u r e . F o l l o w i n g d i a g n o s i s the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e and negative changes i n t h e i r b e l i e f s . E i g h t y - f o u r percent r e p o r t e d changes i n t h e i r views of themselves, 83% reported changes i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , 79% reported changes i n p r i o r i t i e s / d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , 67% reported changes i n t h e i r b e l i e f s about the f u t u r e , and 66% r e p o r t e d changes i n t h e i r b e l i e f s of the world. Repeated measures ANOVA were used t o analyze the data. In the b e l i e f domains of the s e l f and the f u t u r e both negative and p o s i t i v e changes occurred as a r e s u l t of coping e f f o r t s . In the case of b e l i e f s about s e l f , the most frequent change was r e l a t e d t o perceived v u l n e r a b i l i t y , w i t h some p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l i n g l e s s i n c o n t r o l and others f e e l i n g more i n c o n t r o l . In the case of the f u t u r e , the most common changes were changes i n t i m e t a b l e and not making plans because the f u t u r e was viewed as t h r e a t e n i n g . C o l l i n s e t a l . acknowledged t h a t the r e t r o s p e c t i v e nature of the data does not a l l o w f o r the determination of whether the changes i n b e l i e f s r e p o r t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s were a c t u a l or perceived. However, C o l l i n s et a l . argued t h a t a c t u a l change may be l e s s important than perc e i v e d change and recommended f u t u r e research i n c l u d e pre- and post measures of b e l i e f s t o c l a r i f y the exact nature of the v i c t i m ' s experience. Regardless of whether the changes i n b e l i e f s are negative or p o s i t i v e f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n , the study by C o l l i n s et a l . (1990) supports the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f s may change. Hence, f o l l o w i n g b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f may change from i n t e r n a l t o e x t e r n a l , e x t e r n a l t o i n t e r n a l , or an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l may not change. Consequently, measuring locus of c o n t r o l a f t e r a burglary experience would make i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether locus of c o n t r o l was a p r e d i c t o r of b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping or whether the locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n was a consequence of coping e f f o r t s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether and how locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s w i l l change f o l l o w i n g b u r g l a r y . However, as a r e s u l t of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience i t would be expected t h a t v i c t i m s would have a stronger powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f than e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s . The expected d i f f e r e n c e i n powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f between v i c t i m s and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s i s expected because i t has been suggested t h a t v i c t i m i z a t i o n may give r i s e t o a negative s e l f - t r u s t schema. In t u r n , the negative s e l f - t r u s t schema makes a v i c t i m v u l n e r a b l e t o powerful o t h e r s , such as the p o l i c e and insurance companies (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e , 1983; McCaan et a l . , 1988). An approach t o the study of locus of c o n t r o l as an antecedent v a r i a b l e i s t o use a p a s s i v e - i n t e r p r e t i v e design. With t h i s design the researcher has c o n t r o l over when the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e the experimental treatment. For example, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l i s f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d and then the i n d i v i d u a l i s asked t o imagine how he or she would cope w i t h b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n . A p a s s i v e - i n t e r p r e t i v e design i s considered appropriate when use of deception i s u n e t h i c a l and f o r the purpose of theory development and refinement. However, M i l l e r (1972), i n a comprehensive review of s t u d i e s t h a t have employed a p a s s i v e - i n t e r p r e t i v e designs, argues t h a t although s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have found t h a t these designs r e p l i c a t e deception study f i n d i n g s , many of these p a s s i v e - i n t e r p r e t i v e r e s u l t s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y flawed ( i . e . , Darroch & S t e i n e r , 1970; Greenberg, 1967; Horowitz & R o t h s c h i l d , 1970; W i l l i s & W i l l i s , 1970). M i l l e r concludes t h a t people may or may not be a b l e t o behave i n r o l e p l a y as they would i n r e a l l i f e . Thus the c o g n i t i v e processes i n v o l v e d i n p a s s i v e - i n t e r p r e t i v e design and r e a l event r e c a l l r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n . Johnson and Raye (1981) o f f e r theory ( r e f e r r e d t o as r e a l i t y monitoring) and e m p i r i c a l evidence t h a t e x p l a i n the c o g n i t i v e processes t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e r e a l memory ( e x t e r n a l l y generated) and imagined memory ( i n t e r n a l l y generated). T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the d i f f e r e n c e s between i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y generated memories r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s between the processes i n v o l v e d i n the formation of each (Schooler, Gerhard, & L o f t u s , 1986). E x t e r n a l l y generated memories r e s u l t from r e c a l l and are hypothesized t o i n c l u d e more contextual and sensory d e t a i l ( s p a t i a l and temporal), whereas, i n t e r n a l l y generated events have r e s u l t e d from imaginai and thought processes and t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c to the i n d i v i d u a l (Schooler et a l . , 1986). To e m p i r i c a l l y examine the t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y generated memories. Schooler et a l . (1986) presented colour s l i d e s of an auto accident t o 175 undergraduate u n i v e r s i t y students. Half the p a r t i c i p a n t s were shown s l i d e s t h a t d e p i c t e d a y i e l d s i g n and the other p a r t i c i p a n t s were shown the same s l i d e s except the y i e l d s i g n was not included. Both groups were then asked t o describe the y i e l d s i g n . Two independent r a t e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y examined a l l the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the y i e l d s i g n . Compared t o the r e a l -memory group, the imagined memory group's d e s c r i p t i o n s " l e s s f r e q u e n t l y mentioned the sensory p r o p e r t i e s of the s i g n but more o f t e n i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t s ' c o g n i t i v e processes, the f u n c t i o n of the s i g n and v e r b a l hedges" (Schooler et a l . , 1986, p.173). However, the real-memory group's d e s c r i p t i o n contained more sensory p r o p e r t i e s of the y i e l d s i g n than the imagine memory group. Schooler et a l . suggest t h a t these f i n d i n g s support the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n that r e c a l l i n v o l v e s more c o n t e x t u a l and sensory d e t a i l than imagined memory and th a t imagined memory i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n that i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o the i n d i v i d u a l . F urther e m p i r i c a l evidence f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c a l l -memory and imagined memory i s o f f e r e d by Johnson et a l . (1988) i n t h e i r study of 72 c o l l e g e students e i t h e r r e c a l l i n g or imagining a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l events. To e s t a b l i s h r e c a l l memory, p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o r e c a l l a s o c i a l event, a t r i p t o the l i b r a r y , or a v i s i t t o t h e d e n t i s t . To e s t a b l i s h imagined memory, p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o r e c a l l a fantasy or an u n f u l f i l l e d i n t e n t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s then completed measures t h a t assessed sensory, c o n t e x t u a l , and i d i o s y n c r a t i c components ( i . e . , c l a r i t y , sound, smell, seeming i m p l i c a t i o n s ) . Comparison of means revealed t h a t , i n general, recall-memory i n v o l v e s g r e a t e r sensory and c o n t e x t u a l d e t a i l than imagined memory and t h a t imagined memory events were more complex and r e f l e c t e d information i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The a b i l i t y t o imagine about future events may be one of the most important features of c o g n i t i o n (Taylor & Schneider, 1989). In t h e i r review of the l i t e r a t u r e on coping w i t h simulated events, Taylor and Schneider (1989) reported that imagining an event made i t seem r e a l . They f u r t h e r argued t h a t imagining an event can evoke strong emotions w i t h corresponding p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s . Although imagining an event may seem r e a l , the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed suggests t h a t there are d i f f e r e n c e s between recall-memory and imagined memory (Johnson & Raye, 1981; Schooler et a l . , 1986). As such, i t i s expected t h a t experimentally induced v i c t i m s and b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s would d i f f e r on coping because experimentally induced v i c t i m s ' coping may r e f l e c t how they b e l i e v e they cope i n general, as opposed t o how they would a c t u a l l y cope w i t h the b u r g l a r y experience. In order t o examine locus of c o n t r o l as an antecedent v a r i a b l e t h a t serves as a p r e d i c t o r of b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping i t would be necessary t o conduct a p r o s p e c t i v e study. This would prove d i f f i c u l t because I would have t o measure people's locus of c o n t r o l , wait f o r them t o be b u r g l a r i z e d , and then measure t h e i r coping. In t h i s study, p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s makes such a design d i f f i c u l t t o conduct. Therefore, two s t u d i e s were conducted t o overcome these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The f i r s t study i n v o l v e d b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s r e c a l l i n g t h e i r experience, whereas the second study r e p l i c a t e d the f i r s t study but i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a n t s a n t i c i p a t i n g b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n . This type of r e p l i c a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d t o as a conceptual r e p l i c a t i o n (Cozby, 1981). Conceptual r e p l i c a t i o n i s an e f f o r t t o r e p l i c a t e the o r i g i n a l f i n d i n g s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t procedures f o r measuring the v a r i a b l e s of concern (Hendrick, 1991). R e p l i c a t i o n i s important f o r theory confirmation or d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n and f o r unconfounding v a r i a b l e s (Amir & Sharon, 1991; Lamal, 1991). Summary There i s a p a u c i t y of information e x p l a i n i n g why there are i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way bu r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope w i t h the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) provide a t h e o r e t i c a l model of coping t h a t i s w e l l s u i t e d f o r the study of bu r g l a r y v i c t i m coping. Within t h e i r model problem- and emotion-focused coping are the two main functions of coping. Based on the s t r e s s and coping l i t e r a t u r e there i s both a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s and e m p i r i c a l evidence t o support the p o s i t i o n t h a t locus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and gender may have main, mediating, or moderating e f f e c t s that account, i n p a r t , f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ' short-term use of coping f u n c t i o n s (Anderson, 1977; Folkman, 1984; Parkes, 1984; Solomon et a l . , 1989). In p a r t i c u l a r , because of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and greater d i s t r e s s women are l i k e l y t o use more emotion-focused coping than men and men are l i k e l y t o use more problem-focused coping than women (Carver, 1989; Vingerhoets & Van Heck, 1990). With regard t o the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n , v i c t i m s who h o l d an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f p r i o r t o b u r g l a r y would l i k e l y use more problem-focused than emotion-focused coping. However, v i c t i m s h o l d i n g chance or powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s p r i o r t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n would l i k e l y use more emotion-focused coping than problem-focused coping (Anderson, 1977; Parkes, 1984; Solomon et a l . , 1989). Furthermore, locus of c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l would account f o r the r e l a t i o n between gender and coping because g e n e r a l i z e d expectancies of c o n t r o l and s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l expectancies appear t o mediate the gender and coping r e l a t i o n (Folkman, 1984; Levenson, 1981; Parkes, 1984), However, gender and outcome value would a f f e c t the r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and coping because l o c u s i c o n t r o l i s b e l i e v e d t o be i n f l u e n c e d by the importance of the outcome; furthermore locus of c o n t r o l i s p a r t l y developed through gender r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Levenson, 1981; Parkes, 1984; R o t t e r , 1966, 1975, 1990; Solomon et a l . , 1989; Vingerhoets & Van Heck, 1990). HYPOTHESES I t was expected t h a t the bur g l a r y v i c t i m s ' locus of c o n t r o l would be a f f e c t e d by the burglary event, t h e r e f o r e i t was expected t h a t the bur g l a r y v i c t i m group would hold greater powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s than the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. Furthermore, because of the d i f f e r e n c e between r e c a l l and a n t i c i p a t i o n , i t was expected t h a t experimentally induced v i c t i m s and b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s would d i f f e r on coping. In order t o determine whether these d i f f e r e n c e s were supported or whether data from the two s t u d i e s could be combined i n t o one group t o t e s t the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses, a n a l y s i s was conducted t o t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s between burglary v i c t i m s (Study 1) and exp e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s (Study 2) on the independent ( l o c u s of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l ) and dependent v a r i a b l e s (problem- and emotion-focused coping). Main e f f e c t s were of secondary i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study. However, i t was expected t h a t gender would be ass o c i a t e d w i t h coping f u n c t i o n s , w i t h women u s i n g more emotion-focused coping than men and men u s i n g more problem-focused coping than women. Furthermore, i t was expected t h a t t here would be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping and a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between chance and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping. I t was f u r t h e r expected t h a t the greater the outcome value the more problem-focused coping would be used. The mediator and moderator hypotheses are s t a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . A v a r i a b l e f u n c t i o n s as a mediator t o the degree t h a t i t accounts f o r the r e l a t i o n between a p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e ; whereas a moderator v a r i a b l e a f f e c t s the d i r e c t i o n and/or strength of the r e l a t i o n between a p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e (Baron & Kenny, 1986). S p e c i f i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g mediated r e l a t i o n s h i p s were hypothesized: 1. I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . 2. S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediates the i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e a c t i o n . 3. S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . 4. Chance locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . 5. Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . 6. S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediates the chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . 7. S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediates the powerful others l o c u s of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . (See Figure 3 f o r Hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 and Figure 4 f o r hypotheses 4, 5, 6, and 7). Internal Locus of Control 1 Gender S i t u a t i o n a l Appraisals of Control Problem-Focused Coping Figure 3. Hypothesized model of i n t e r n a l locus of control, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and gender (l=men, 2=women) as mediators of problem-focused coping. l=Gender (2,1; 3,1; 4,1); 2=Internal Locus of Control (3,2; 4,2); 3=Situational Appraisals of Control (4,3); 4=Problem-Focused Coping. Chance Locus of Control 7K Gender S i t u a t i o n a l Appraisals of Control Powerful Others Locus of Control ^ Emotion-Focused Coping Figure 4. Hypothesized model of chance locus of control, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l appraisals of control, and gender (l=men, 2=women) as mediator v a r i a b l e s of emotion-focused coping. l=Gender (2,1; 4,1; 5,1); 2=Chance Locus of Control (3,2; 5,2); 3=SituationaI Appraisals of Control (5,3); 4=Powerful Others Locus of Control (3,4; 5,4); 5=Emotion-Focused Coping. The f o l l o w i n g moderated r e l a t i o n s h i p s were hypothesized. 1. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l ( i n t e r n a l , powerful o t h e r s , and chance) and emotion-focused coping w i l l be stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value than among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g low outcome value. 2. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l ( i n t e r n a l , powerful o t h e r s , and chance) and problem-focused coping w i l l be stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value than among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g low outcome value. 3. The r e l a t i o n between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping w i l l be stronger among men than women. 4. The r e l a t i o n between chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping w i l l be stronger among women than men. There i s a l a c k of e m p i r i c a l evidence regarding the r o l e of powerful others locus of c o n t r o l as a moderator of the gender and coping r e l a t i o n . Moreover, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l i s an e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , yet i t does have the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l . Because locus of c o n t r o l i s p a r t l y developed through gender through s o c i e t a l i n f l u e n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t gender may a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n and/or s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n between powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and coping. Therefore, the f o l l o w i n g questions of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t were posed f o r e x p l o r a t o r y purposes. 1. Does gender moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n ? 2. Does gender moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n ? METHOD Because d i f f e r e n c e s were expected between the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group due t o the f a c t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l may change f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n and because there may be d i f f e r e n c e s between recall-memory versus imagined memory, d e t a i l s of Study 1 (burglary v i c t i m s ) and Study 2 (experimentally induced v i c t i m s ) are presented s e p a r a t e l y . Study 1 Participants The sample c o n s i s t e d of 61 volunteer c o l l e g e students who were e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t and second year psychology, s o c i o l o g y , and c r i m i n o l o g y courses at a la r g e Western Canadian c o l l e g e . Only those who had been v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y w i t h i n the previous year and were not at home at the time of the bur g l a r y were e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The sample i n c l u d e d 31 men and 30 women between the ages of 19 and 37 wi t h a mean age of 22.7 (SD=4.1). Procedure I s o l i c i t e d volunteers from 17 f i r s t and second year psychology, s o c i o l o g y , and criminology day and evening c l a s s e s at the c o l l e g e . Each c l a s s was comprised of approximately 35 students, t h e r e f o r e a t o t a l of approximately 600 students (e.g., 35 students per c l a s s ) were approached to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. I attended each c l a s s and at the beginning of the c l a s s I explained c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and the r a t i o n a l e f o r the study, and t h a t only those i n d i v i d u a l s who were not at home when t h e i r r e s i d e nce was broken i n t o were e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Those who volunteered t o p a r t i c i p a t e were asked t o complete an informed consent statement, demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and a locus of c o n t r o l measure (see Appendix A). Those who choose not to p a r t i c i p a t e were asked t o s i t q u i e t l y and look through the questionnaires u n t i l a l l had been c o l l e c t e d so t h a t they remained unnoticed. The f o l l o w i n g week, I returned t o the c l a s s e s and reminded the students of the purpose of the study and asked the volunteers t o view, i n the classroom, a video of a r e s i d e n t i a l b u r g l a r y i n progress (video t o be discussed more f u l l y f o l l o w i n g Study 2 procedures). The video was presented i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e the v i c t i m s ' memory of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a t they had experienced. Those who chose not t o p a r t i c i p a t e were asked t o s i t q u i e t l y u n t i l the vi d e o and data c o l l e c t i o n process was complete. J u s t p r i o r t o the video the p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o remember back t o when they were a v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . Immediately f o l l o w i n g the video they r e c e i v e d o r a l and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s regarding the completion of the coping measure, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l measure, outcome value measure, a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e , and an i n t e n s i t y of experience measure, r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Appendix B). The p a r t i c i p a n t was asked t o r e c a l l how he/she coped over the f i r s t 7 days a f t e r the bur g l a r y . Seven days had been s e l e c t e d f o r two main reasons. F i r s t , Bard and Sangrey (1986) re p o r t t h a t the v i c t i m may experience three stages, impact, r e c o i l , and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The impact and r e c o i l stage are the stages when the v i c t i m i s most a c t i v e b e h a v i o r i a l l y and emotionally i n coping w i t h the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. During the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n stage the v i c t i m puts the experience i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e and commits h i s / h e r energy t o other t h i n g s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). Bard and Sangrey do not put a time frame on each phase, but do suggest t h a t the impact and r e c o i l stage may occur w i t h i n s e v e r a l days a f t e r the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. Hence, u s i n g the f i r s t 7 days a f t e r the bu r g l a r y experience as the time frame in c r e a s e d the l i k e l i h o o d of ca p t u r i n g the i n f l u e n c e of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l on coping f o l l o w i n g the bur g l a r y . Second, I i n t e r v i e w e d 5 b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s who explained t h a t the f i r s t week f o l l o w i n g the b u r g l a r y was the most problematic p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , w h i l e at the same time, the f i r s t week was the p e r i o d when they had t h e i r g r e a t e s t impetus t o t r y and prevent f u t u r e b u r g l a r i e s (the 5 b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s i n t e r v i e w e d were not inc l u d e d i n the study). The video was played i n a classroom on a 24" c o l o u r t e l e v i s i o n s e t . A maximum group s i z e of 35 viewed the video. A f t e r the completion of the questionnaires the p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e b r i e f e d , a l l questions were answered, and a l l were thanked f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g . I informed the p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t they could contact me f o r the r e s u l t s of the study. During the d e b r i e f i n g , s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y commented t h a t the video brought back memories of t h e i r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. Study 2 Participants The sample c o n s i s t e d of 102 volunteer c o l l e g e students who were e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t and second year psychology, s o c i o l o g y , and c r i m i n o l o g y courses (from the same c o l l e g e as Study 1). Approximately 600 students, i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s from the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Study 1, were approached t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. The sample included 61 men and 41 women between the ages of 19 and 40 w i t h a mean age of 22.3 (SD=3.8). To ensure the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n had not been a l t e r e d from a previous b u r g l a r y , those respondents who had been p r e v i o u s l y b u r g l a r i z e d were excluded from t h i s study. Procedure Study 2 followed the same procedure as Study 1 w i t h the e x c e p tion of three m o d i f i c a t i o n s . F i r s t , the p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o l l e g e students who had never been p r e v i o u s l y b u r g l a r i z e d . Second, the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the coping, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value measures were changed t o allow the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o answer w i t h regard t o how they would r e a c t . F i n a l l y , the video viewing i n s t r u c t i o n s were changed t o i n s t r u c t the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o imagine how they would cope w i t h the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience (see Appendix B). Video Stimulus A b r i e f video (approximately 2 minutes) was presented t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Study 1 and Study 2 that d e p i c t s a r e s i d e n t i a l b u r g l a r y i n progress. The video allowed the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o v i c a r i o u s l y experience b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The video was produced i n August, 1990 by the J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the purpose of t r a i n i n g p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of b u r g l a r y . Therefore, the p o r t i o n of the video used i n t h i s study d e p i c t s a t y p i c a l b u r g l a r y and has been designed t o r e a l i s t i c a l l y p o r t r a y a b u r g l a r y i n progress (see Appendix B f o r d e t a i l s of v i d e o ) . To o f f e r f u r t h e r support f o r t h e r e a l i s m of t h i s video, two p o l i c e o f f i c e r s who are experts i n the f i e l d were shown the video and interviewed. Both found the video t o be a r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of a t y p i c a l b u r g l a r y . Furthermore, the video was p i l o t e d on 18 p a r t i c i p a n t s . An assessment of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i n t e n s i t y of imagining the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience was conducted. The p a r t i c i p a n t s reported a mean score of 4.5 (SD =1.21) on an I n t e n s i t y of Burglary Experience measure (range 1 t o 7; See Appendix B). This score i n d i c a t e d t h a t the video was h e l p f u l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o v i c a r i o u s l y experience the burglary v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. S i m i l a r l y , during the d e b r i e f i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s v e r b a l l y reported t h a t the video was r e a l i s t i c and was h e l p f u l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g v i s u a l i z a t i o n of f a l l i n g v i c t i m t o b u r g l a r y . Predictor Variables Levenson's I. P, and C Scales. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e i s no locus of c o n t r o l instrument developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r v i c t i m s of crime. However, Levenson's (1981) i n t e r n a l ( I ) , powerful others ( P ) , and chance (C) Scales t r e a t locus of c o n t r o l as a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l construct and the i n c l u s i o n of the P Scale makes t h i s instrument w e l l s u i t e d f o r use w i t h v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y (See Appendix A). Levenson's I , P, and C Scales were designed as a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of R o t t e r ' s (1966) Scale and i n c l u d e s three dimensions of c o n t r o l . F i r s t , the I Scale measures the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f t h a t he/she has c o n t r o l over the reinforcements i n he/her own l i f e . Second, the P Scale measures the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f t h a t powerful others have c o n t r o l over the reinforcements i n his/her own l i f e . However, i f the i n d i v i d u a l can determine some r e g u l a r i t y i n the a c t i o n s of the powerful others t h e r e may be an opportunity f o r c o n t r o l . F i n a l l y , the C Scale measure the i n d i v i d u a l s ' b e l i e f t h a t the world i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e and unordered, hence reinforcements occur by chance and are not subject t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r o l . In summary, the i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n i s assessed by the I Scale and the e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s assessed by t h e P and C Scales. The I , P, and C Scales are comprised of three 8-item subscales u t i l i z i n g a 6-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e (anchors are -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3 ) , but are presented as a u n i f i e d 24-item s c a l e . T o t a l s c a l e scores are t h e sum of the items scores plus 24. Levenson (1981) recommends adding 24 t o e l i m i n a t e negative scores. The range on each s c a l e i s from 0 t o 48. A high s c a l e score i n d i c a t e s that the person holds a strong b e l i e f towards t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . This instrument has been used w i t h a v a r i e t y of populations i n c l u d i n g samples of p r i s o n e r s and persons a f f l i c t e d w i t h psychopathology, a l c o h o l i s m , and h e a l t h r e l a t e d i s s u e s (Levenson, 1981). Kuder-Richardson r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r n a l consistency estimates f o r I , P, and C Scales were moderate; .51, .72, and .73, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and f o r a 1 week t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y the c o e f f i c i e n t s were i n the .60 t o .79 range (Levenson, 1981). In t h i s study, r e l i a b i l i t i e s (Cronbach's alpha) f o r the I , P, and C Scales f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group were .73, .79, and .62, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group the r e l i a b i l i t i e s were .51, .72, and .73. Levenson (1981) reported t h a t the v a l i d i t y of the I , P, and C Scales (convergent and d i s c r i m i n a n t methods) was demonstrated i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n . R o t t e r ' s locus of c o n t r o l e x t e r n a l s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d .25 and .56 w i t h the P and C Scales and -.41 w i t h the I Scale f o r a c o l l e g e sample (Levenson, 1972). Furthermore, Levenson (1981) found t h a t the P and C Scales (both e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s ) had moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h each other, r = .41 t o .60. The I Scale had a low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the P and C Scales w i t h c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t range from -.25 t o .19. Levenson reported n e g l i g i b l e and n o n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s amongst I , P, and C Scales and s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y as measured by the Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). Situational Appraisals of Control. S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l are the extent t o which a person b e l i e v e s he or she can c o n t r o l a p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s f u l encounter (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). However, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l are d i f f i c u l t t o evaluate because i t i s hard t o determine what c o n t r o l aspect of the s i t u a t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l i s f o c u s i n g on (Folkman, 1984). In an e f f o r t t o r e s o l v e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . Hart and Cardozo (1986, 1988) suggest t h a t c o n t r o l a p p l i e s t o emotions, behaviours, as w e l l as the s i t u a t i o n . This study employed 3 items t h a t Hart and Cardozo (1988) used t o measure secondary a p p r a i s a l ( c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y ) i n t h e i r study of 135 c o l l e g e students (See Appendix B). I n t e r n a l consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha was .77 (Hart & Cardozo, 1988). In t h i s study Cronbach's alpha was .82 f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group and .88 f o r the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e on a 6-point L i k e r t type s c a l e (1= " S t r o n g l y Disagree" t o 6= "Strongly Agree") t o each of the 3 items ("I f e l t i n c o n t r o l of my emotions"; "I f e l t i n c o n t r o l of what i t was t h a t I was doing"; "I f e l t i n c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n " ) . A t o t a l score was obtained by summing the r a t i n g s on the 3 items and d i v i d i n g by 3. Scores range from 1 t o 6, higher scores i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r sense of c o n t r o l . Outcome Value. Because outcome value has been r a r e l y assessed, i t was necessary t o develop items t o assess t h i s c o n s t r u c t . The f o l l o w i n g 3 items were used t o measure outcome value. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e on a 6-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ranging from 1 " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " t o 6 " s t r o n g l y agree" whether (a) the s i t u a t i o n was one of great p e r s o n a l importance t o me, (b) the s i t u a t i o n mattered a great deal t o me, and (c) the outcome of my a c t i o n s mattered a great d e a l t o me (See Appendix B). I n t e r n a l consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was .81 f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group and .79 f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. The f i r s t two items were taken from items Hart and Cardozo (1986) used t o measure primary a p p r a i s a l i n t h e i r study of coping w i t h anger-provoking s i t u a t i o n s . These items appear s i m i l a r t o outcome valu e i n t h a t they assess the personal s i g n i f i c a n c e of the event. The t h i r d i t e m was developed by the author and i s i n keeping w i t h the c o n s t r u c t being measured. A t o t a l score of outcome value was obtained by summing the r a t i n g s on the items l i s t e d and d i v i d i n g by 3. Scores range from 1 t o 6, higher scores i n d i c a t e a greater l e v e l of outcome value . Three s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s reviewed the construct and i n d i c a t e d t h a t the items were r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the c o n s t r u c t . Furthermore, the outcome value measure was p i l o t e d on 18 c o l l e g e students who had a mean score of 4.7 (SD =1.2) w i t h a range of 2.0 t o 6.0. The p i l o t r e s u l t s supported the p o s i t i o n t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , outcome value would be high but t h a t there would be v a r i a n c e . Criterion Variables (Coping) Coping f u n c t i o n s were assessed using Carver et a l . (1989) mu l t i d i m e n s i o n a l coping inventory (COPE) that has 52 items and 13 subscales t h a t describe s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s people use t o manage s t r e s s (See Appendix B). Carver et a l . (1989) have i d e n t i f i e d 5 subscales as problem-focused coping ( a c t i v e coping, planning, suppression of competing a c t i v i t i e s , r e s t r a i n t coping, seeking i n s t r u m e n t a l s o c i a l support) and 5 subscales as emotion-focused coping (seeking of emotional s o c i a l support, p o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , acceptance, d e n i a l , t u r n i n g t o r e l i g i o n ) . Three subscales t h a t they b e l i e v e t o be l e s s u s e f u l (focus on and v e n t i n g of emotions, b e h a v i o r a l disengagement, and mental disengagement) were not i d e n t i f i e d by Carver et a l . (1989) as problem-or emotion- focused coping, but the content of these subscales appeared p e r t i n e n t t o b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping. Inspection of the items r e v e a l s t h a t focus on and venting of emotions and mental disengagement are i n keeping w i t h Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) d e f i n i t i o n of emotion-focused coping. B e h a v i o r a l disengagement i s a c t i v e and hence serves as a problem-focused f u n c t i o n . Each of the 7 emotion-focused and 6 problem-focused subscales are comprised of 4 items. In a sample of 978 u n i v e r s i t y undergraduates, i n t e r n a l consistency u s i n g Cronbach's alpha was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s c a l e . Only mental disengagement f e l l below .62, the remaining s c a l e s ranged from .62 t o .92 (Carver et a l . , 1989). In t h i s study Cronbach's alpha f o r problem- and emotion-focused coping f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group was .87 and .84, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and .81 and ,82 f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Each item i s r a t e d according t o a 4-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e (1= " I d i d not do t h i s at a l l " , 2= " I d i d t h i s a l i t t l e b i t " , 3= " I d i d t h i s a medium amount", 4= "I d i d t h i s a l o t " ) (Carver et a l . , 1989), For t h i s study, the 4-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e has been r e t a i n e d , however, because the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Study 2 must p r o j e c t t h e i r coping i n t o the f u t u r e , the responses were changed t o the f u t u r e tense f o r them (1= " I w i l l not do t h i s at a l l " , 2= " I w i l l do t h i s a l i t t l e b i t " , 3= " I w i l l do t h i s a medium amount", 4= " I w i l l do t h i s a l o t " ) . Carver et a l . (1989) recommend t h a t the tense of the responses be a p p r o p r i a t e l y changed f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n . Scores f o r the problem-focused s c a l e s range from 24 t o 96 and emotion-focused s c a l e s range from 28 t o 112, higher scores i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r coping use (see Appendix C f o r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of s u b s c a l e s ) . Manipulation Check The M-Cl(lO) s c a l e (Strahan & Gerbashi, 1972) was used t o detect s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response sets (See Appendix B). The 10 item M-Cl (10) S c a l e i s a modified v e r s i o n of the 33 item Marlowe-Crowne Scale D e s i r a b i l i t y Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). The M-Cl (10) Scale was employed i n t h i s study t o reduce excessive q u e s t i o n n a i r e l e n g t h . This s c a l e has 10 items t h a t r e q u i r e True or F a l s e responses (5 are keyed t r u e and 5 are keyed f a l s e ) . Scores can range from 0 t o 10. The h i g h e r score i n d i c a t e s the stronger need of the p a r t i c i p a n t t o respond i n c u l t u r a l l y approved ways (Strahan & Gerbashi, 1972). The i n t e r n a l c onsistency c o e f f i c i e n t using Kuder-Richardson 20 ranged from .59 t o .70. This s c a l e s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e s w i t h the Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y Scale at (r =.80). I developed the I n t e n s i t y of Burglary Experience Measure t o determine how a c c u r a t e l y and i n t e n s e l y the p a r t i c i p a n t s imagined f a l l i n g v i c t i m t o b u r g l a r y a f t e r viewing the video (See Appendix B). P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e on a 7-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e whether (a) "I was able t o imagine t h a t I was a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m , " (b) " I i n t e n s e l y imagined t h a t I was a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m , " (c) "the video a s s i s t e d me i n imagining t h a t I was a v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . " A t o t a l score of i n t e n s i t y of the b u r g l a r y experience was obtained by summing the r a t i n g on the items l i s t e d and d i v i d i n g by 3. Scores range from 1 t o 7, higher scores i n d i c a t e a greater l e v e l of i n t e n s i t y of the b u r g l a r y experience. Analysis of Data Of the 175 returned measures, 12 were incomplete (20% or more miss i n g items) and not useable (7 from the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group and 5 from the burglary v i c t i m group). Therefore, a n a l y s i s was based upon the informa t i o n of 61 p a r t i c i p a n t s from the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group (Study 1) and 102 p a r t i c i p a n t s from the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group (Study 2). Of the remaining 163 p a r t i c i p a n t s , approximately 4 coping measures had two missing items each. An average score was c a l c u l a t e d from the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' previous subscale scores and was assigned t o the item t h a t was not completed. The analyses of data were the same f o r Study 1 and Study 2. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s (frequencies, means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n matrix) f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s were computed. To determine t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' answers were not based on a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response se t , zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between the M-Cl(10) s c a l e and the independent v a r i a b l e s ( i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l , powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , chance locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value) and the dependent v a r i a b l e s (problem- and emotion-focused coping). Furthermore, t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s were able t o imagine or r e c a l l the b u r g l a r y experience, means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the I n t e n s i t y of Burglary Experience measure and c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were examined. P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s was conducted t o determine whether the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m group d i f f e r e d from the experimentally induced v i c t i m group on demographic data and on the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s . To determine d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups on demographic data, ANOVA and Chi-square t e s t s of independence were conducted. To determine whether the two groups' means d i f f e r e d on the independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s used t o t e s t the hypotheses, a 2 x 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the combined sample, w i t h gender and v i c t i m s t a t u s ( i . e . , e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s and bu r g l a r y v i c t i m s ) as independent v a r i a b l e s , and problem- and emotion-focused coping, i n t e r n a l , powerful others and chance l o c u s of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value as dependent v a r i a b l e s . To determine the r e l a t i v e importance of the dependent v a r i a b l e s the MANOVA was followed up by u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . Any s i g n i f i c a n t u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t on any f a c t o r i n the design was considered a measure of importance of t h a t dependent v a r i a b l e t o the m u l t i v a r i a t e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (Haase & E l l i s , 1987). Haase and E l l i s (1987) argue t h a t the major disadvantage t o the u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t as a follow-up procedure t o a MANOVA i s t h a t i t does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . To counteract t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , Haase and E l l i s recommend the use of standardized d i s c r i m i n a t e f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r making d e c i s i o n s about the r e l a t i v e importance of any dependent v a r i a b l e t o the m u l t i v a r i a t e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Standardized d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are measures of the i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of one of the dependent v a r i a b l e s when a l l the other dependent v a r i a b l e s i n the model are c o n t r o l l e d f o r . The main e f f e c t s were determined by conducting h i e r a r c h i c a l r e g r e s s i o n analyses. The v a r i a b l e s were stepped i n t o the equation i n the f o l l o w i n g order. Gender was entered f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l , chance locus of c o n t r o l , powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . The c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were problem- and emotion-focused coping. The standardized scores of each of the continuous p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were used t o c o n t r o l f o r s c a l e d i f f e r e n c e s among the v a r i a b l e s . To t e s t the mediator and moderator hypotheses the c r i t e r i o n recommended by Baron and Kenny (1986) were fol l o w e d . To t e s t the mediator hypotheses, zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d t o determine i f the independent v a r i a b l e a f f e c t e d the mediator and i f the independent v a r i a b l e a f f e c t e d the dependent v a r i a b l e . I f these two r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s i g n i f i c a n t , a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was conducted t o determine i f the mediator v a r i a b l e was the most important v a r i a b l e t h a t accounted f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the independent v a r i a b l e and dependent v a r i a b l e . The moderator hypotheses were t e s t e d w i t h m u l t i p l i c a t i v e terms (cross products) entered i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g the corresponding f i r s t order terms (Cohen & Cohen, 1983). RESULTS D e s c r i p t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Burglary V i c t i m Sample The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the burglary v i c t i m study (N = 61) i n c l u d e d 31 men and 30 women. The mean length of time between b u r g l a r y experience and completing the questionnaires was 4.8 months (range 1 - 9 months). The l a r g e s t number of respondents were s i n g l e (75.4%) w i t h a mean age of 22.7 years (range 19 - 37). Forty-seven percent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d at home wi t h t h e i r parents and 62% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s p a i d r e n t . The average household income of the p a r t i c i p a n t s was between $21,000 -$30,000 per year. The mean value s t o l e n during the v i c t i m s ' b u r g l a r y was $4,503.00 and the average damage sustained t o the residence was l i g h t t o moderate. Twenty-five percent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been a v i c t i m of property crime other than b u r g l a r y ( i . e . , t h e f t ) and an equal number had been a v i c t i m of v i o l e n t crime ( i . e . , a s s a u l t , sexual a s s a u l t ) . See Table 1 f o r a summary of the d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample. Man i p u l a t i o n Checks S o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y as measured by the M-Cl(lO) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d only t o emotion-focused coping and chance locus of c o n t r o l , a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were l e s s than -.27 (See Appendix D). Therefore, the responses by the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m group t o the measures were r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e response set. The I n t e n s i t y of Bu r g l a r y Experience measure assessed the v i v i d n e s s of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ' memory of the bur g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. The mean score on the 3-item I n t e n s i t y of Burglary Experience measure was 5.54, SD=1.08 (range 1 - 7 , "not at a l l " t o " g r e a t l y " ) . No one scored below 3 on the summed s c a l e , which i n d i c a t e d that the video f a c i l i t a t e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c a l l the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. D e s c r i p t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Sample The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the experimentally induced b u r g l a r y v i c t i m study (N = 102) inc l u d e d 61 men and 41 women. In ge n e r a l , the D e s c r i p t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Burglary V i c t i m P a r t i c i p a n t s (N=61) and Experimentally Induced V i c t i m P a r t i c i p a n t s (N=102> C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Burglary V i c t i m s M SD f % E x p e r i m e n t a l l y Induced M SD f % Age 22.7 Burglary Experience 5.5 Time s i n c e b u r g l a r i z e d 4.8 ( i n months) Value i n D o l l a r s of Amount S t o l e n (Md 1000) 4,503 Gender men women M a r i t a l Status s i n g l e married separated d i v o r c e d L i v e w i t h Parents yes no Pay Rent yes no Income (household) under 10,000 10,000 - 20,000 21,000 - 30,000 31,000 - 40,000 over 40,000 Damage severe moderate l i g h t none V i c t i m of Previous Crime Other Than Burglary none property v i o l e n c e 4.1 1.1 3.0 22.3 3.8 4.9 1.1 31 50.8 30 49.2 46 75.4 12 19.7 3 4.9 0 0.0 29 47.5 32 52.5 38 62.3 23 37.7 11 18.0 8 13.1 15 24.6 9 14.8 18 29.5 2 3.3 18 29.5 28 45.9 13 21.3 31 50.8 15 24.6 15 24.6 61 59.8 41 40.8 90 88.2 7 6.9 1 1.0 4 3.9 60 58.8 42 41.2 47 46.1 55 53.9 18 17.6 20 19.6 9 8.8 14 13.7 41 40.3 38 37.3 43 42.2 21 20.5 respondents were s i n g l e (88.2%) w i t h a mean age of 22.3 years (range 19 - 40). F i f t y - e i g h t percent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d at home w i t h t h e i r parents and 46.1% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s p a i d r e n t . The average household income of the p a r t i c i p a n t s was between $21,000 and $30,000 per year. None of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been p r e v i o u s l y b u r g l a r i z e d , although 42.2% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been v i c t i m s of other property o f f e n s e s ( i . e . , t h e f t , car t h e f t ) and (20.6%) of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been v i c t i m s of v i o l e n t crime ( i . e . , a s s a u l t , robbery, sexual a s s a u l t ) . A one-way MANOVA on a l l p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s was conducted t o determine whether those who reported never having been v i c t i m i z e d and those who reported previous v i c t i m i z a t i o n ( v i c t i m s of v i o l e n t and property crime) d i f f e r e d on mean scores f o r emotion- and problem-focused coping, i n t e r n a l , chance, and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value . The m u l t i v a r i a t e group e f f e c t f o r previous v i c t i m i z a t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F< 1 (see Appendix E ) . See Table 1 f o r a summary of the d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample. M a n i p u l a t i o n Check S o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y as measured by the M-Cl(lO) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d o n ly t o gender, a l l the c o r r e l a t i o n s were l e s s than -.17 (see Appendix D). Therefore, the responses by the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group t o the measures were f r e e from a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e response s e t . The I n t e n s i t y of Burglary Experience measure determined how a c c u r a t e l y and i n t e n s e l y the p a r t i c i p a n t s imagined f a l l i n g v i c t i m t o bu r g l a r y . The mean score on the 3-item I n t e n s i t y of Burglary Experience measure was 4.94, SD = 1.08 (range 1 to 7, "not at a l l " t o " g r e a t l y " ) . No one scored l e s s than 3 on the summed s c a l e , which i n d i c a t e d t h a t the video was of a s s i s t a n c e i n he l p i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s imagine t h a t they were v i c t i m s of r e s i d e n t i a l b u r g l a r y . A one-way MANOVA on a l l p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s was conducted t o determine whether those who scored above the median on the I n t e n s i t y of Burglary Experience measure and those who scored below the median d i f f e r e d on mean scores f o r emotion- and problem-focused coping, i n t e r n a l , chance, and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value. The m u l t i v a r i a t e group e f f e c t f o r i n t e n s i t y of experience was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F< 1 (see Appendix E). Descriptive Statistics of Variables for Burglary Victims In the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group, gender (coded 1 f o r male or 2 f o r female), locus of c o n t r o l dimensions, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value (independent v a r i a b l e s ) were not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d and most of the c o r r e l a t i o n s were below .30. However, i n t e r n a l l o cus of c o n t r o l was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , r(61)= -.27, E < -02, and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o chance locus of c o n t r o l , r(61)= -.31, E < .01. I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , r(61)= .31, E < -Ol* Moreover, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h chance locus of c o n t r o l , r(61) =.74, E < .001. This r e l a t i o n s h i p was expected because both measure d i f f e r e n t dimensions of the same o r i e n t a t i o n . Problem- and emotion-focused coping were r e l a t e d , r(61) = .38, p < .001. In g e n e r a l , problem-focused coping was not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any of the independent v a r i a b l e s , w i t h the exception of outcome value, r(61) =.55, E<.001. However, emotion-focused coping was r e l a t e d t o powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , chance locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value, rs(61) =.41, .36, -.34, and .45, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s are presented i n Table 2. Means. Standard D e v i a t i o n s , and I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s of Burglary V i c t i m s (N=61K Women(n=30) Men(n=31) V a r i a b l e M SD M S D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 1.Gender 2 . I n t e r n a l 33.37 6.71 34.71 8.30 -.09 3. Powerful Others 20.00 10.74 22.45 9.17 -.12 -.27 4. Chance 17.80 7.65 20.16 8.10 -.15 -.31 .74 5 . S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l 3.46 1.22 4.03 1.32 -.22 .32 -.17-.17 6.Outcome value 4.34 1.37 4.71 1.24 -.14 -.03 .19 .02 -.23 7. Problem-focused coping 49.97 11.67 53.68 11.36 -.16 .06 .15 .02 .03 .55 8. Emotion-focused coping 65.90 11.71 62.16 12.88 .14 -.21 .41 .36 -.34 .45 .38 Note. Higher scores i n d i c a t e greater locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and coping. a Gender was coded 1 (men) and 2 (women) r( 6 0 ) . 2 1 , E<.05; r(60).29, E<.01 (Bonferroni adjusted r(60).43, E<.05; B o n f e r r o n i adjusted r(60).49, E<.01, Shavelson, 1988) Descriptive Statistics of Variables for Experimentally Induced Victims The means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the exp e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s are presented i n Table 3. In the expe r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group, gender (coded men=l, women=2), locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome valu e (independent v a r i a b l e s ) were not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d and most of the c o e f f i c i e n t s were below .20. I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l was not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o any of the v a r i a b l e s . However, i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o chance locus of c o n t r o l , r(102) = -.20, p <.02. This negative r e l a t i o n s h i p was expected. Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p s were not s i g n i f i c a n t , the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n t e r n a l l o c us of c o n t r o l w i t h problem- and emotion-focused coping was as expected; t h a t i s , i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o problem-focused coping and was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. Powerful others locus of c o n t r o l was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h chance locus of c o n t r o l , r(102) = .50, £ <.001. Conceptually, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was expected because both measure d i f f e r e n t dimensions of the same o r i e n t a t i o n . As w e l l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o gender, r(102) = -.36, E <.001, t h e r e f o r e , women reported lower l e v e l s of s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . The dependent v a r i a b l e s , problem- and emotion-focused coping, were r e l a t e d , r(102)=.40, E <.001. In general, the independent v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o problem-focused coping, w i t h the exception of a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h outcome value, r(102) = .25, p <.01. Hence the g r e a t e r the outcome value, the more problem-focused coping was used. Gender was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping, r(102) = .30, E<.001; t h e r e f o r e , women reported higher l e v e l s of emotion-focused coping. Chance locus of c o n t r o l was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping, r(102) = .31, p <.001; the greater the chance locus of c o n t r o l the more emotion-focused coping was used. Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s , and I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s of Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s (N=102> Women <n=4H Men(n=61) V a r i a b l e M S D M S D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 1.Gender 2 . I n t e r n a l 34.66 5.60 36.12 5.14 -.13 3. Powerful Others 15.76 7.42 18.71 7.31 -.19 -.02 4. Chance 17.10 8.60 17.79 7.73 -.04 -.20 .50 5 . S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l 3.15 1.30 4.05 1.06 -.36 .08 .08 .01 of c o n t r o l 6.Outcome value 5.19 .94 4.87 .88 .17 .01 .05 .01 -.20 7. Problem-focused coping 59.05 9.50 58.97 8.42 .01 .09 -.02 -.01 -.06 .25 8. Emotion-focused coping 67.93 9.70 61.74 10.03 .30 -.09 -.02 .31 -.18 .17 .40 Note. Higher scores i n d i c a t e greater locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and coping. a Gender was coded 1= men and 2= women r(100).16, E<.05; r(100).23, E<.01 (Bonferroni adjusted r(lOO).34, E<.05; B o n f e r r o n i adjusted r(100).39, E<.01, Shavelson, 1988) Preliminary Analysis To examine the expected group d i f f e r e n c e s and t o determine whether data from the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m group and the exp e r i m e n t a l l y induced group should be combined t o answer the hypotheses, p r e l i m i n a r y analyses were conducted. Group differences on demographic data. In order t o compare the p a r t i c i p a n t s from the two stu d i e s (experimentally induced v i c t i m s , N=102; b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s , N=61) on demographic data, Chi-square t e s t s of independence were conducted on c a t e g o r i c a l data. For the purpose of the a n a l y s i s the ca t e g o r i e s were kept the same as found i n Table 1. The groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on gender, Chi-square (1,N = 163)=.91, E<.33; income, Chi-square (4 , N = 163)=8.61, E<.07; type of previous v i c t i m i z a t i o n , Chi-square (1 , N = 163)=2.35, E<'13; and m a r i t a l s t a t u s , Chi-square (1 , N = 163)=3.67, E<-06 ( f o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s the c a t e g o r i e s were married and o t h e r ) . Although b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ' mean household incomes were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s ' , i t i s worth noting that 40% of the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s versus 29.5% of the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m s had a household income of $40,000 and over per year. S i m i l a r l y , 19.7% of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s were married versus 6.9% of the expe r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. ANOVA r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups on age, F < 1. Therefore, on demographic data the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the ex p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Group differences on independent and dependent variables. A 2( b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s , experimentally induced v i c t i m s ) by 2(gender) MANOVA wi t h seven dependent v a r i a b l e s (emotion- and problem-focused coping, i n t e r n a l , chance, and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value) was conducted t o determine whether b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s and experimentally induced v i c t i m s d i f f e r e d on the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The m u l t i v a r i a t e group e f f e c t f o r v i c t i m s t a t u s M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e F-Tests f o r V i c t i m S t a t u s , Gender, and V i c t i m Status bv Gender I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s (N=163^ V i c t i m Status Gender V i c t i m S t atus by Gender df F E< £ E< £ E< M u l t i v a r i a t e (7,153) 4.96 ,01 4.93 .01 <1 .60 U n i v a r i a t e (1,159) Emotion- <1 .59 7.39 .01 <1 .44 focused coping Problem- 19.68 .01 1.26 .26 1.37 .24 focused coping I n t e r n a l 1.75 ,19 1.89 .17 <1 .96 locus of c o n t r o l Powerful 8.47 .01 3.87 .05 <1 .87 Others locus of c o n t r o l Chance 1.39 .24 1.36 .25 <1 .52 locus of c o n t r o l S i t u a t i o n a l <1 .46 14.16 .01 <1 .41 a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l Outcome 8.33 .01 <1 .88 3.77 .05 value (burglary v i c t i m s and experimentally induced v i c t i m s ) was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(7,153) = 4.96, E<-001 (see Table 4). Burglary v i c t i m s d i f f e r e d from e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s on mean scores (see Tables 2 and 3) f o r problem-focused coping, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , and outcome value, u n i v a r i a t e Fs(1,159) = 19.68, 8.47, and 8.33, a l l ES<.01, r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Table 4 ). An examination of means revealed t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y more problem-focused coping and hel d g r e a t e r outcome value than b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . However, b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on powerful others locus of c o n t r o l than e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s (see Tables 2 and 3 ) . The standardized d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the v i c t i m s t a t u s main e f f e c t (see Table 5) suggested a s i m i l a r o r dering of importance of the dependent v a r i a b l e s : the most important v a r i a b l e s were problem-focused coping and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l . However, chance locus of c o n t r o l and outcome value were the next important v a r i a b l e s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between experimentally induced v i c t i m s and b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s (see Tables 4 and 5). U n l i k e the u n i v a r i a t e F t e s t s , the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s does take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . Because problem-focused coping and outcome value are c o r r e l a t e d (r(163) = .45, 2<.001), the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of outcome value i s more modest than the u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s suggest (see Appendix F ) . The m u l t i v a r i a t e group e f f e c t f o r gender was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(7,153)=4.93, E<.001 (see Table 4). Men d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from women on mean scores f o r emotion-focused coping and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , u n i v a r i a t e Fs(l,159) = 7.39 and 14.16, a l l ES<.01, r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Table 4). The d i f f e r e n c e between men and women on powerful others locus of c o n t r o l was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(l,159) = 3.87, E<.05. Standardized Discriminant Function C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r V i c t i m Status and Gender (N=163) V i c t i m Status Gender Standardized Standardized C o e f f i c i e n t C o e f f i c i e n t V a r i a b l e B B Emotion-focused coping -.28 .76 Problem-focused coping .75 -.43 I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l .13 -.16 Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l -.70 -.33 Chance locus of c o n t r o l .34 -.36 S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l -.13 -.57 Outcome Value .33 -.15 An examination of the means revealed t h a t women reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y more emotion-focused coping than men, whereas men were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l (see Tables 2 and 3). The standardized d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r gender main e f f e c t (see Table 5) suggested a s i m i l a r o r d e r i n g of importance of the dependent v a r i a b l e s : the most important v a r i a b l e s were emotion-focused coping and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . Furthermore, problem-focused coping, chance locus of c o n t r o l , and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l were the next most important v a r i a b l e s i n d e f i n i n g the dimension (see Tables 4 and 5). Because powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and chance locus of c o n t r o l are c o r r e l a t e d (r(163) = .60, 2<.001), the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of powerful others locus of c o n t r o l i s more modest than the u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s suggest (see Appendix F ) . F i n a l l y , the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the V i c t i m Status by Gender i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F< 1 (see Table 4 ) . The absence of an i n t e r a c t i o n suggested a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of means on the gender f a c t o r at each l e v e l of v i c t i m s t a t u s f o r emotion- and problem-focused coping, i n t e r n a l , powerful o t h e r s , and chance locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and outcome value. The conceptual d i f f e r e n c e between the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group and the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group was supported by these data. The u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s revealed mean d i f f e r e n c e s on problem-focused coping, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , and outcome value. D i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s f u r t h e r supported these f i n d i n g s and r e v e a l e d t h a t the most important v a r i a b l e s i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s from e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s were problem-focused coping and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l . Therefore, conceptually and based on the data, the hypotheses were analyzed separately f o r Study 1 ( b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group) and Study 2 (experimentally induced v i c t i m group). Test of Main E f f e c t s f o r Study 1 (Burglary Victims> I t was expected t h a t gender would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h coping f u n c t i o n s , w i t h women using more emotion-focused coping than men and men using more problem-focused coping than women. I t was expected t h a t t h e r e would be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping and a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between chance and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping. I t was f u r t h e r expected t h a t the greater the outcome value the more problem-focused coping would be used. To t e s t the main and moderating e f f e c t s two h i e r a r c h i c a l r e g r e s s i o n analyses were conducted. The continuous p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were standardized. The v a r i a b l e s were stepped i n t o the equation i n the f o l l o w i n g order: Gender (coded l=men and -l=women) was entered f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l , chance locus of c o n t r o l , powerful others l ocus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . The main e f f e c t s were followed by the corresponding i n t e r a c t i o n terms ( I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l by Gender, Chance locus of c o n t r o l by Gender, Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l by Gender, I n t e r n a l l o cus of c o n t r o l by Outcome Value, Chance locus of c o n t r o l by Outcome Value, and Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l by Outcome Value). The c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s were problem- and emotion-focused coping. Main e f f e c t s must be i n t e r p r e t e d c a u t i o u s l y i n l i g h t of s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . The o v e r a l l r e g r e s s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r problem-focused coping, F(12,48)=3.37, p <.01. A l l v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r 46% (32% adjusted) of the v a r i a n c e i n problem-focused coping. A f t e r the e f f e c t s of gender, i n t e r n a l , chance, and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l were accounted 2 f o r , outcome value accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t R change (.252) i n problem-focused coping (B=7.23) (see Table 6). The o v e r a l l r e g r e s s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r emotion-focused coping, F(12,48)=4.59, p < .01. A l l v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r 53% (42% adjusted) of the va r i a n c e i n emotion-focused coping (see Table 7). Gender H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression A n a l y s i s T e s t i n g Main and Moderating E f f e c t s P r e d i c t i n g Problem-Focused Coping f o r Burglary V i c t i m s (N=61) 2 Source Change R F E< S Gender .005 <1 .50 .93 I n t e r n a l .006 <1 .45 1.15 Chance .003 <1 .60 1.07 Powerful Others .001 <1 .77 -.61 Outcome value .252 22. 32 .01 7.23 S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l s of C o n t r o l .021 1. 86 .18 1.96 I n t e r n a l X Gender .001 <1 .75 -.46 Chance x Gender .027 2. 38 .13 3.14 Powerful Others x Gender .036 3. 20 .08 -3.53 I n t e r n a l X Outcome value .019 1. 65 .20 -2.63 Chance x Outcome value .002 <1 .67 -.92 Powerful Others x Outcome value .032 2. 86 .10 -2.89 Cumulative R adjusted .32 R e s i d u a l Mean Square = 88.64 df = 12,48 Note. Gender i s coded l=men, -l=women. a The B values are the unstandardized c o e f f i c i e n t s from the f i n a l simultaneous a n a l y s i s . The constant i n the equation i s 52.32. The df are 1,60 f o r the stepped i n v a r i a b l e s . *2<.001. H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression A n a l y s i s T e s t i n g Main and Moderating E f f e c t s P r e d i c t i n g Emotion-Focused Coping f o r B u r g l a r y V i c t i m s (N=61) Source 2 Change R F E< a B Gender .035 3.62 .06 -2.56 I n t e r n a l .001 <1 .77 -.43 Chance .044 4.58 .04 4.27 Powerful Others .001 <1 .90 -.25 *** Outcome value .161 16.61 ,01 6.15 S i t u a t i o n a l .023 2.46 .12 -2.28 A p p r a i s a l s of C o n t r o l I n t e r n a l x Gender .001 <1 ,86 -.26 Chance x Gender .011 1.15 .29 2.15 ** Powerful Others x Gender .094 9.64 .01 -6.06 I n t e r n a l x Outcome value .001 <1 .72 -.74 Chance x Outcome value .001 <1 .80 -.52 Powerful Others x Outcome value o .001 <1 .93 .14 Cumulative R adjusted .42 Res i d u a l Mean Square = 86.86 df = 12,48 Note. Gender i s coded l=men, -l=women. a The B values are the unstandardized c o e f f i c i e n t s from the f i n a l simultaneous a n a l y s i s . The constant i n the equation i s 64.30. The df are 1,60 f o r the stepped i n v a r i a b l e s . ***£<.001, **E<.01, *E<.05 approached s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r emotion-focused coping, F(1,60)=3.62, p < .06. Furthermore, a f t e r the e f f e c t s of gender, i n t e r n a l , chance, and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l were accounted f o r , outcome v a l u e 2 accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t R change (.161) i n emotion-focused coping (1=6.15) (see Table 7). In summary, as expected, a f t e r having accounted f o r the v a r i a n c e of gender, i n t e r n a l , chance, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , outcome 2 value accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t R increase i n the variance i n problem-focused coping. However, outcome value a l s o accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t 2 R i n c r e a s e i n the variance i n emotion-focused coping. Test of Mediator Hypotheses for Study 1 fBurqlarv Victims) In g e n e r a l , the hypotheses were t e s t e d by conducting zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i v e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s . The hypotheses f o r the two groups (experimentally induced v i c t i m s and b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ) were t e s t e d separately. To e s t a b l i s h mediation, the c o n d i t i o n s recommended by Baron and Kenny (1986) were followed: " F i r s t , the independent v a r i a b l e must a f f e c t the mediator i n the f i r s t equation; second, the independent v a r i a b l e must be shown t o a f f e c t the dependent v a r i a b l e i n the second equation; and t h i r d , the mediator must a f f e c t the dependent v a r i a b l e i n the t h i r d equation. I f these c o n d i t i o n s a l l hold i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n , then the e f f e c t of the independent v a r i a b l e on the dependent v a r i a b l e must be l e s s i n the t h i r d equation than i n the second. P e r f e c t mediation holds i f the independent v a r i a b l e has no e f f e c t when the mediator i s c o n t r o l l e d " (p. 1177). Hypothesis 1: I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r m e d i a t i o n — t h a t the independent v a r i a b l e (gender) must a f f e c t the mediator ( i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l ) was not met, r(61)=-.09, p > .25. F a i l u r e t o s a t i s f y the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n e l i m i n a t e s the n e c e s s i t y t o e s t a b l i s h the second c o n d i t i o n . Hypothesis 1 was not supported f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group (see Table 2 f o r burglary v i c t i m group c o r r e l a t i o n s ) . Hypothesis 2: S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r mediation was met, i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , r(61)=.32, p < .01. The second c o n d i t i o n — t h a t the independent v a r i a b l e ( i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l ) must a f f e c t the dependent v a r i a b l e (problem-focused coping) d i d not h o l d , r(61)=.06, p > .32. Therefore, hypothesis 2 was not supported. Hypothesis 3: S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate the gender and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r m e d i a t i o n — t h a t gender a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l was met, r(61)=.22, 2 < .04. However, the second c o n d i t i o n of mediation, gender a f f e c t s problem-focused coping, d i d not hold, r(61)=-.16, p > .11. Therefore, hypothesis 3 was not supported f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group. Hypothesis 4: Chance locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r m e d i a t i o n — t h a t gender a f f e c t s chance locus of c o n t r o l was not met, r(61)=-.15, p > .12. Hypothesis 4 was not supported f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group. Hypothesis 5: Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r m e d i a t i o n — t h a t gender a f f e c t s powerful others locus of c o n t r o l was not met, r(61)=-.12, E > .17. Therefore, f o r the v i c t i m group hypothesis 5 was not supported. Hypothesis 6: S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate the chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r mediation, chance locus of c o n t r o l a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , was not met, r(61)=-.17, p > -lO' Therefore, hypothesis 6 was not supported. Hypothesis 7: S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r mediation, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l was not met, r(61)=-.17, p > .10. Therefore, hypothesis 7 was not supported f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group. Test o f Moderator Hypotheses f o r Study 1 (Burglary V i c t i m s ) Moderating e f f e c t s were t e s t e d w i t h m u l t i p l i c a t i v e terms (cross products) entered i n t o a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g the corresponding f i r s t order terms (Cohen & Cohen, 1983). The order of entry of v a r i a b l e s was: gender, i n t e r n a l l o cus of c o n t r o l , chance locus of c o n t r o l , powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . I n t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l by Gender, Chance Locus of C o n t r o l by Gender, Powerful Others Locus of Co n t r o l by Gender, I n t e r n a l Locus of Cont r o l by Outcome Value, Chance Locus of Co n t r o l by Outcome Value, and Powerful Others Locus of C o n t r o l by Outcome Value. To f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n terms, the continuous v a r i a b l e s were standardized p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s , and unstandardized r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d . Hypothesis 1: The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l ( a l l 3 dimensions) and emotion-focused coping i s stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value, than those wit h low outcome value . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m group the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r I n t e r n a l Locus of Co n t r o l by Outcome Value, Chance Locus of C o n t r o l by Outcome Value, and Powerful Others Locus of C o n t r o l by Outcome Value were not s i g n i f i c a n t , Fs <1 (see Table 7). Therefore, outcome value d i d not moderate the locus of c o n t r o l ( a l l 3 dimensions) and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n s and as a r e s u l t , hypothesis 1, f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group, was not supported. Hypothesis 2: The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l ( a l l 3 dimensions) and problem-focused coping i s stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value, than those wit h low outcome value . Results i n d i c a t e d that the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r I n t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l by Outcome Value, Chance Locus of Co n t r o l by Outcome Value, and Powerful Others Locus of Co n t r o l by Outcome Value were not s i g n i f i c a n t , Fs <1.65, <1, 2.86, r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Table 6). Therefore, outcome value d i d not moderate the locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused r e l a t i o n s ; hypothesis 2 was not supported. Hypothesis 3: The r e l a t i o n between i n t e r n a l l o cus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping i s stronger among men than women. The i n t e r a c t i o n term. Gender (code l=men and -l=women) by I n t e r n a l Locus of C o n t r o l , was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F < 1. Therefore, there was an absence of a moderator e f f e c t and hypothesis 3 was not supported (see Table 6 ). Hypothesis 4: The r e l a t i o n between chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping i s stronger among women than men. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r the burglary v i c t i m group the i n t e r a c t i o n term. Gender by Chance Locus of C o n t r o l , was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F(1,60)=1.15, E>.29 (see Table 7). Therefore, there was an absence of a moderator e f f e c t and hypothesis 4 was not supported. Questions of Theoretical Interest for Study 1 (Burglary Victims) 1. Does gender moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n ? To t e s t t h i s q u e stion of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t , the Powerful Others Locus of Cont r o l by Gender i n t e r a c t i o n was entered i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g the corresponding f i r s t order terms. Results (see Table 6) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Powerful Others Locus of Co n t r o l by Gender i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F (1,60) = 3.20, p < .08. Therefore, gender d i d not moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . 2. Does gender moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n ? The Gender by Powerful Others Locus of C o n t r o l i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , F (1,60) = 9.64, g < .01 (see Table 7). To examine the form of the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and emotion-focused coping were graphed f o r r e l a t i v e l y low (minimum standardized score) and high (maximum standardized score) l e v e l s of powerful others locus of c o n t r o l . Unstandardized r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (B values) were determined from the r e s i d u a l s of the dependent v a r i a b l e when the reduced model had been a p p l i e d . The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was graphed according t o the method suggested by Cohen and Cohen (1983). When graphed, i n s p e c t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n revealed t h a t powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping; i n c o n t r a s t , powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s h e l d by men were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping (see Figure 5). Therefore, f o r the bur g l a r y v i c t i m group, gender moderated the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . x=Women o=Men Minimum Maximum Powerful Others Locus of C o n t r o l Figure 5» Moderating e f f e c t of gender on the powerful others l o c u s of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n f o r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s (N=61). The minimum and maximum standardized scores f o r powerful others locus of c o n t r o l were -1.93 and 1.78, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r powerful others locus of c o n t r o l f o r men: y=-2.05(x) + -2.12; powerful others locus of c o n t r o l f o r women: y=3.27(x) + 2.86. Test of Main E f f e c t s f o r Study 2 (Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s ) To t e s t main and moderating e f f e c t s f o r Study 2 ( e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s ) two h i e r a r c h i c a l r e g r e s s i o n analyses were conducted. The o v e r a l l r e g r e s s i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r problem-focused coping, F(12,89)=1.09, p >.38. A l l v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r only 1% of the v a r i a n c e found i n problem-focused coping. Therefore, gender, l o c u s of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l were not p r e d i c t o r s of problem-focused coping f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. The o v e r a l l r e g r e s s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r emotion-focused coping, F(12,89)=2.89, p < .01. A l l v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r 28% (18% adjusted) of the v a r i a n c e i n emotion-focused coping (see Table 10). Gender was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r f o r emotion-focused coping, F(1,101)=5.78, p < .02. Women used more emotion-focused coping than men. A f t e r the e f f e c t s f o r gender and i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l were accounted f o r , chance 2 locus of c o n t r o l accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t R change (.010) i n emotion-focused coping (B=3.91) (see Table 8). In summary, gender accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of v a r i a n c e i n emotion-focused coping. Furthermore, a f t e r having accounted f o r the v a r i a n c e by gender and i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l , chance locus of 2 c o n t r o l accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t R increase i n emotion-focused coping. H i e r a r c h i c a l Regression A n a l y s i s T e s t i n g Main and Moderating E f f e c t s P r e d i c t i n g Emotion-Focused Coping f o r Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s (N=102) 2 a Source Change R F E< S * Gender . 0 4 6 5 . 7 8 . 0 2 - 2 . 5 3 I n t e r n a l . 0 0 1 <1 . 9 9 . 0 1 Chance . 0 1 0 1 2 . 3 1 . 0 1 3 . 9 1 Powerful Others . 0 0 7 <1 . 3 6 - 1 . 1 0 Outcome yalue . 0 0 9 1 . 0 9 . 3 0 1 . 0 3 S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l of C o n t r o l . 0 0 6 <1 . 4 0 - . 8 7 I n t e r n a l x Gender . 0 0 7 <1 . 3 4 1 . 0 5 Chance x Gender . 0 3 2 3 . 9 4 . 0 5 2 . 2 3 Powerful Others x Gender . 0 2 8 3 . 5 0 . 0 7 - 2 . 1 6 I n t e r n a l x Outcome value . 0 0 2 <1 . 6 4 . 6 2 Chance x Outcome value . 0 0 2 < 1 . 6 1 . 6 7 Powerful Others X Outcome value o . 0 1 6 1 . 9 4 . 1 7 - 1 . 8 0 Cumulative R adjusted . 1 8 R e s i d u a l Mean Square = 8 6 . 8 6 df = 1 2 , 8 9 Note. Gender i s coded l=men, -l=women. a The B values are the unstandardized c o e f f i c i e n t s from the f i n a l simultaneous a n a l y s i s . The constant i n the equation i s 6 4 . 9 8 . The df are 1 , 1 0 1 f o r the stepped i n v a r i a b l e s . * E < . 0 5 , **p< .01 Test of Mediator Hypotheses for Study 2 (Experimentally Induced Victims) Hypothesis 1: I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r m e d i a t i o n — t h a t the independent v a r i a b l e (gender) must a f f e c t the mediator ( i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l ) was not met, r(102)=-.13, p > .10. This i n f o r m a t i o n can be found i n Table 3. F a i l u r e t o s a t i s f y the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n e l i m i n a t e s the n e c e s s i t y t o e s t a b l i s h the second c o n d i t i o n . Thus, hypothesis 1 was not supported f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Hypothesis 2: S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . For the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r mediation, i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , was not met, r(102)=.08, p > .21. Therefore, hypothesis 2 was not supported f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Hypothesis 3: S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate the gender and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . For the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r m e d i a t i o n — t h a t gender a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l was met, r (102)= -.36, p < .01. However, the second c o n d i t i o n of mediation, gender a f f e c t s problem-focused coping, d i d not hold, r=(102)=.01, p > .50. Therefore, hypothesis 3 was not supported f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Hypothesis 4: Chance locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r m e d i a t i o n — t h a t gender a f f e c t s chance locus of c o n t r o l was not supported, r (102)= -.04, E > .34. Therefore, hypothesis 4 was not supported f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Hypothesis 5: Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l mediates the gender and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . For the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group the f i r s t and second c o n d i t i o n f o r mediation were m e t — gender a f f e c t s powerful others locus of c o n t r o l , r(102)= -.19, p < .03, and gender a f f e c t s emotion-focused coping, r(102)= .29, p < .001. Moreover, Baron and Kenny (1986) argue t h a t a v a r i a b l e f u n c t i o n s as a mediator t o the extent that i t accounts f o r the r e l a t i o n between the p r e d i c t o r (gender) and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e (emotion-focused coping). However, standardized d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r e vealed t h a t emotion-focused coping (B=.54) c o n t r i b u t e s more t o gender d i f f e r e n c e s than does powerful others locus of c o n t r o l (B=-.34) (see Table 9 ) . Hence, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l does not account f o r the r e l a t i o n between gender and emotion-focused coping, t h e r e f o r e hypothesis 5 was not supported. Hypothesis 6; S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate the chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r mediation, t h a t chance locus of c o n t r o l a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , was not met, r(102)= .01, p > .49. Therefore, hypothesis 6 was not supported f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Hypothesis 7: S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l mediate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n f o r mediation, t h a t powerful others locus of c o n t r o l a f f e c t s s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , was not met, r(102)= .08, p > .22. Therefore, hypothesis 7 was not supported f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. Standardized Diacriminant Function C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Gender E f f e c t of Ex p e r i m e n t a l l y Induced Vic t i m s (N=102). Standardized C o e f f i c i e n t s V a r i a b l e B Emotion-focused coping .54 I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l -.25 Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l -.34 Chance locus of c o n t r o l -.15 S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l -.62 Outcome value . 19 Test of Moderator Hypotheses for Study 2 fExperimentally Induced Victims) The same procedures f o r t e s t i n g moderator e f f e c t s i n Study 1 (burgl a r y v i c t i m s ) were used f o r t e s t i n g moderating e f f e c t s i n Study 2 (experimentally induced v i c t i m s ) . Hypothesis 1: The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l ( a l l 3 dimensions) and emotion-focused coping i s stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value, than those h o l d i n g low outcome v a l u e . R e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Locus of Co n t r o l ( I n t e r n a l , Chance, and Powerful Others) by Outcome Value i n t e r a c t i o n s were not s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r e d i c t i n g emotion-focused coping, Fs(l,101) = <1, <1, 1.94, E>.17, r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Table 8). Therefore, f o r the locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n s , outcome value was not a moderator. Hypothesis 2: The r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l ( a l l 3 dimensions) and problem-focused coping i s stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value, than those h o l d i n g low outcome valu e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the o v e r a l l l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n f o r problem-focused coping was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Therefore, there was an absence of a moderator e f f e c t and hypothesis 2 was not supported. Hypothesis 3: The r e l a t i o n between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping i s stronger among men than women. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the o v e r a l l r e g r e s s i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Therefore, there was an absence of a moderator e f f e c t and hypothesis 3 was not supported. Hypothesis 4: The r e l a t i o n between chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping i s stronger among women than men. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n term. Gender by Chance Locus of C o n t r o l , was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(1,101)=3.94, p < .05 (see Table 8 ) . When graphed (the same procedures f o r graphing i n Study 1 were a p p l i e d i n Study 2 ) , i n s p e c t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n revealed that chance locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by both men and women were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p was stronger f o r men than f o r women (see Figure 6). Although hypothesis 4 was not supported, gender d i d moderate the chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n . Questions of Theoretical Interest for Study 2 (Experimentally Induced Victims) 1. Does gender moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n ? To answer t h i s question of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t , the Gender by Powerful Others Locus of C o n t r o l i n t e r a c t i o n was entered i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g the corresponding f i r s t order terms. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r t h e exp e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group the Powerful Others Locus of C o n t r o l by Gender i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , F <1. Therefore, gender d i d not moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping r e l a t i o n . 2. Does gender moderate the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n ? R e s ults i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r the exp e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group, the Powerful Others Locus of Co n t r o l by Gender i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(l,101) = 3.50, p <.07 (see Table 8). When graphed, i n s p e c t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women were not r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping; i n c o n t r a s t , powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s h e l d by men were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. Therefore, gender moderated the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused r e l a t i o n f o r the experimentally induced v i c t i m group (see F i g u r e 7 ) . Figure 6. Moderating e f f e c t of gender on the chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n f o r ex p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s (N=102). The minimum and maximum standardized scores f o r chance locus of c o n t r o l were -2.17 and 2.54, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r chance locus of c o n t r o l and men: Y=4.19(x) + -1.84; chance locus of c o n t r o l and women: Y=1.82(x) + 2.61. x=Women o=Men ^ I ! Minimum Maximum Powerful Others Locus of C o n t r o l Figure 7. Moderating e f f e c t of gender on the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s (N=102). The minimum and maximum standardized scores f o r powerful others locus of c o n t r o l were -1.67 and 1.94, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and men: Y=-2.47(x) + -1.48; powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and women:Y=.26(x) + 2.80. DISCUSSION The purpose of t h i s study was t o determine the extent t o which c o n t r o l b e l i e f s account f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ' short-term use of coping s t r a t e g i e s . Two s t u d i e s were conducted. In Study 1, the p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o l l e g e students who had been b u r g l a r i z e d w i t h i n the previous year. In Study 2, the p a r t i c i p a n t s , who had never been b u r g l a r i z e d , viewed a video of a b u r g l a r y i n progress and a n t i c i p a t e d how they would cope with b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Because previous research has found gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i t was hypothesized t h a t locus of c o n t r o l would account f o r (mediate) the gender and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n . I t was a l s o expected t h a t gender and outcome value would a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n or strength (moderate) of the locus of c o n t r o l and coping f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n . In both the v i c t i m group and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group, emotion-focused coping was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by gender, locus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . However, problem-focused coping was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by gender, locus of c o n t r o l , outcome v a l u e , and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l f o r the v i c t i m group only. Although the mediating hypotheses were not supported, s e v e r a l moderating e f f e c t s were found. In both groups, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s h e l d by men were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping; i n c o n t r a s t , i n the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping and powerful others l ocus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group were not r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. For ex p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s , chance locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women and men were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping; y et, the r e l a t i o n s h i p was stronger f o r men than f o r women. Unexpectedly, i n both groups, outcome value d i d not moderate the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s revealed t h a t those who r e c a l l e d the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience (burglary v i c t i m group) d i f f e r e d from those who imagined b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n (experimentally induced v i c t i m group) . Expe r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y more problem-focused coping and considered the outcome of the bu r g l a r y experience more important than d i d the burglary v i c t i m s . However, b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on powerful others locus of c o n t r o l than e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s . As expected, b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s held a stronger powerful others l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n than experimentally induced v i c t i m s . The powerful others locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n may have r e s u l t e d as a consequence of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s coping behaviour i n response t o b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n ( C o l l i n s et a l . , 1990). Burglary v i c t i m s ' experience w i t h the p o l i c e , insurance, and p o s s i b l y the courts ( i . e . , i f the offender was a r r e s t e d and disputed the a l l e g a t i o n i n court) may have demonstrated t o them t h a t c o n t r o l i s n e i t h e r self-determined nor i n the hands of f a t e , but r a t h e r powerful others have a strong i n f l u e n c e . Furthermore, i t has been suggested t h a t v i c t i m i z a t i o n may give r i s e t o a negative s e l f - t r u s t schema t h a t makes a v i c t i m v u l n e r a b l e t o powerful others (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e , 1983; McCaan et a l . , 1988). Another expected d i f f e r e n c e t h a t was supported by the data was t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s used more problem-focused coping than b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . An explanation i s t h a t f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n many b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s b e l i e v e t h a t c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i f e has been suspended ( F i s c h e r , 1984; Papp, 1981; T y l e r , 1981). That i s , e f f o r t s t o use problem-focused coping f o l l o w i n g the burglary may have been a l t e r e d or stopped by powerful others ( i . e . , p o l i c e , i n s u rance). However, those who imagined f a l l i n g v i c t i m t o burglary d i d not have t h e i r b e l i e f systems a l t e r e d by unforeseen r e a l i t i e s t h a t f o l l o w v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Therefore, they may have maintained t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was c o n t r o l l a b l e and t h e r e f o r e used more problem-focused coping s t r a t e g i e s than the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group (Carver et a l . , 1989; Folkman & Lazarus, 1980). Furthermore, experimentally induced v i c t i m s valued the outcome of the b u r g l a r y experience more than b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . U n l i k e the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group, the experimentally induced v i c t i m s ' responses may have been d i s p o s i t i o n a l as opposed t o s i t u a t i o n a l . Other r e s e a r c h e r s have found t h a t recall-memory (e.g., b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group) i s r i c h e r i n sensory and co n t e x t u a l d e t a i l than imagined memory (e.g., e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group) and that imagined memory contains more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c than does recall-memory (Johnson & Raye, 1981; Johnson et a l . , 1988; Schooler et a l . , 1986). Therefore, without the a c t u a l experience of burglary and the dev a l u a t i o n of the event from powerful others ( i . e . , p o l i c e , insurance companies), the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s b e l i e v e d t h a t the outcome of bur g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n was more important than d i d the burglary v i c t i m s . Although the main e f f e c t s were of secondary i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study, i t was expected t h a t f o r both the v i c t i m group and e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group women would use more emotion-focused coping than men and men would use more problem-focused coping than women. I t was a l s o expected t h a t i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o problem-focused coping and that chance and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. I t was f u r t h e r expected t h a t outcome value would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o problem-focused coping. As expected, women used more emotion-focused coping than men i n both the v i c t i m group and the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. This f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e v e r a l other s t u d i e s ( B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s & I r i o n , 1988; Carver et a l . , 1989; Vingerhoets & Van Heck, 1990). However, there were no gender d i f f e r e n c e s f o r problem-focused coping. An ex p l a n a t i o n f o r the f i n d i n g i s that both problem- and emotion-focused coping are used i n any one event (Lazarus & FoDonan, 1984). Furthermore, problem-focused coping may be r e l a t e d t o perceived c o n t r o l , whereas emotion-focused coping may be l i n k e d t o emotional d i s t r e s s (Compas & Orosan, i n press; Peacock and Wong, 1990). Men and women d i d not d i f f e r on c o n t r o l . Moreover, previous research has found t h a t women b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s experience greater d i s t r e s s f o l l o w i n g b u r g l a r y than male b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s (Maguire,1980; Waller & O k i h i r o , 1978). Therefore, men and women d i d not d i f f e r on the use of problem-focused coping, but because women may have experienced greater d i s t r e s s f o l l o w i n g b u r g l a r y they used more emotion-focused coping than men. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , women may have used more emotion-focused coping because t h i s form of coping may be acquired through s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Greenglass, 1982; Vaughter, 1979). For the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group, problem-focused coping was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by gender, locus of c o n t r o l , outcome v a l u e , and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l . These v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r 27% (adjusted) of the variance i n problem-focused coping. In p a r t i c u l a r , outcome value was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r , accounting f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t 2 R change (.252) i n problem-focused coping. As expected, the g r e a t e r the importance of the outcome, the more problem-focused coping was used. The more a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m valued the outcome of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience the more they used instrumental types of coping ( i . e . , changing locks) t o achieve the d e s i r e d outcome ( i . e . , t o not be b u r g l a r i z e d a g a i n ) . Emotion-focused coping was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by gender, locus of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l f o r the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m group. These v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r 35% (adjusted) of the v a r i a n c e found i n emotion-focused coping. Again, outcome value was a 2 s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r , accounting f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t R change (.161) i n emotion-focused coping. The greater the importance of the outcome the more emotion-focused coping was used. This f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Peacock and Wong (1990), but some previous research has found t h a t emotion-focused coping was associated w i t h lower outcome value (Parkes, 1984). A p o s s i b l e explanation f o r these apparently c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s i s i n terms of the congruence between coping and the s t r e s s o r (Peacock & Wong, 1990). When the outcome of the s i t u a t i o n i s considered important t h i s may give r i s e t o greater d i s t r e s s , i n t u r n , g r e a t e r d i s t r e s s i s l i n k e d w i t h emotion-focused coping (Compas & Orosan, i n press; Peacock & Wong, 1990). For the experimentally induced v i c t i m group, problem-focused coping was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by locus of c o n t r o l , s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and gender. I t i s not c l e a r why problem-focused coping was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d . A p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n i s th a t previous research has found t h a t age moderates the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n t r o l b e l i e f s and coping. In p a r t i c u l a r , c o n t r o l b e l i e f s of c o l l e g e age i n d i v i d u a l s i n f l u e n c e d emotion-focused coping more than problem-focused coping (Blanchard-Fields & I r i o n , 1988). In t h i s study the p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o l l e g e age, t h e r e f o r e i t i s not completely unexpected that t h e i r c o n t r o l b e l i e f s d i d not p r e d i c t problem-focused coping. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s , competence b e l i e f s ( i . e . , s e l f - e f f i c a c y , are perc e p t i o n s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o take the necessary a c t i o n s t o o b t a i n the d e s i r e d outcome) and not contingency b e l i e f s ( i . e . , locus of c o n t r o l ) , may be l i n k e d t o problem-focused coping (Thompson & Spacapan, 1991). Furthermore, because 60% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d w i t h t h e i r parents i t i s c onceivable t h a t they d i d not perc e i v e t h a t they had the c o n t r o l t o implement a c t i v e coping s t r a t e g i e s without t h e i r parents' consent. Emotion-focused coping was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d by locus of c o n t r o l ( a l l three dimensions), s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , outcome value, and gender f o r the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. These v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r 17% (adjusted) of the v a r i a n c e found i n emotion-focused coping. Chance locus of c o n t r o l was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r accounting f o r 9% of the variance found i n emotion-focused coping. As expected, the greater the chance locus of c o n t r o l the more emotion-focused coping was used. For the most p a r t , t h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t e m p i r i c a l l y and c o n c e p t u a l l y . That i s , e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s who b e l i e v e d c o n t r o l was not p o s s i b l e endorsed emotion-focused coping f u n c t i o n s ( i . e . , d e n i a l , t u r n i n g t o r e l i g i o n ) . Anderson (1977), Blanchard and I r i o n (1988), and Parkes (1984) a l s o found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f ( i . e . , chance locus of c o n t r o l ) used coping s t r a t e g i e s s i m i l a r t o emotion-focused coping. In t h i s study i t was expected t h a t locus of c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l would mediate the gender and coping r e l a t i o n , i n t h a t locus of c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l would account f o r the r e l a t i o n between gender and coping. In both Study 1 ( b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group) and Study 2 (experimentally induced v i c t i m s ) the mediator hypotheses were not supported because, i n p a r t , locus of c o n t r o l was not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o coping. S i m i l a r t o Carver e t a l . (1989) and Folkman and Lazarus (1980, 1985), the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping was not s i g n i f i c a n t . However, researchers studying extreme s t r e s s f u l events ( i . e . , war and hurricanes) have found s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between locus of c o n t r o l and coping (Anderson, 1977; Solomon et a l . , 1989). S e v e r a l i s s u e s may account f o r the f a i l u r e of t h i s study t o f i n d a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. In Study 1 ( b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s ) , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l l o cus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping was not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h r e e p o s s i b l e reasons. F i r s t , B l anchard-Fields and I r i o n (1988), i n t h e i r study of age and coping, found t h a t f o r c o l l e g e age p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l o cus of c o n t r o l was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h problem-focused coping s t r a t e g i e s but was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h emotion-focused coping s t r a t e g i e s . They p o s i t t h a t young people i n s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s equate i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l w i t h self-blame and t h e r e f o r e cope by a v o i d i n g the s i t u a t i o n , B l a n c h a r d - F i e l d s and I r i o n f u r t h e r argue t h a t young people w i t h a chance or powerful others locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n are l e s s l i k e l y t o engage i n problem-focused coping than emotion-focused coping because the young people f e e l t h a t the c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n i s u l t i m a t e l y not i n t h e i r hands. This f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the present study. Second, the l a c k of s p e c i f i c i t y of the items t h a t comprise problem-focused coping (Stone et a l . , 1990) may have det r a c t e d from the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. Fattah (1991) contends t h a t many v i c t i m s of crime, even i f the r e c a l l p e r i o d i s l i m i t e d t o s i x months, f o r g e t d e t a i l s of the v i c t i m i z a t i o n . As such, b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s i n t h i s study may have been able t o remember s a l i e n t emotional i s s u e s r e f l e c t e d i n the s t r a t e g i e s t h a t comprise emotion-focused coping, but could not remember t h e i r coping s t r a t e g i e s as r e f l e c t e d i n the items t h a t comprise problem-focused coping. Therefore, t h i s aspect of r e c a l l may have weakened the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping. F i n a l l y , C o l l i n s et a l . (1990) provided e m p i r i c a l support f o r the p o s i t i o n t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f s may change f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience and subsequent coping e f f o r t s . Hence, as a r e s u l t of the burglary experience and subsequent coping e f f o r t s , the v i c t i m s ' locus of c o n t r o l may have changed and t h e r e f o r e was not r e l a t e d t o the coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were r e c a l l e d . Three is s u e s may account f o r the f a i l u r e of Study 2 (e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group) t o f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. F i r s t , the process of b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n may not have been novel t o the m a j o r i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . From a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s locus of c o n t r o l has i t s g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on behaviour i n novel and/or ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s ( R o t t e r , 1966, 1975). Moreover, as Lazarus and Folkman (1984) argue, the no v e l t y of a s i t u a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e r a t h e r than absolute. For the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s , 60% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been v i c t i m s of other crimes, and as Fattah (1991) argues, many people do not r e p o r t t h e i r v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f f i c i a l l y or through surveys. Therefore, although MANOVA r e s u l t s (see Appendix E) were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r previous v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether those who re p o r t e d no previous v i c t i m i z a t i o n had a c t u a l l y never been v i c t i m i z e d or whether they were f a i l i n g t o report previous v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Hence, because of the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of knowledge from previous v i c t i m i z a t i o n , the i n f l u e n c e of locus of c o n t r o l on burglary v i c t i m coping may have been minimized because the bur g l a r y experience may not have been n o v e l . Second, the s t u d i e s reviewed t h a t found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping may have d e a l t w i t h more extreme s t r e s s o r s than b u r g l a r y ( i . e . , war, s u r v i v i n g a h u r r i c a n e ) , and as such i n c r e a s e d the n o v e l t y and ambiguity of the s t r e s s o r and increased the pe r t i n e n c e of locus of c o n t r o l as a p r e d i c t o r of coping behaviour. F i n a l l y , the i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e had low i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y (.51), although s i m i l a r t o the i n t e r n a l consistency found by Levenson (1981) w i t h a c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n , a low i n t e r n a l consistency does make a measure l e s s dependable (Shavelson, 1988). To a l a r g e degree locus of c o n t r o l d i d not account f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and coping because gender and locus of c o n t r o l were not s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d . V i t a l i a n o , Russo, and Maiuro (1987), used M i r e l s ' (1970) 9-item locus of c o n t r o l measure and found t h a t e x t e r n a l i t y was as s o c i a t e d w i t h female medical students compared w i t h male medical students. However, Blanchard-Fields and I r i o n (1988), i n t h e i r study of age and coping, used Levenson's (1981) locus of c o n t r o l measure and found no d i f f e r e n c e between men and women on the i n t e r n a l and chance s c a l e s . Yet, they d i d f i n d t h a t men scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the powerful others s c a l e , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t men have a stronger b e l i e f i n the c o n t r o l of powerful others than women. Conceivably, the use of a multidimensional locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e [Levenson's (1981) powerful others s c a l e i s an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n , but a l s o a l l o w s f o r the opportunity f o r c o n t r o l ] more r e a l i s t i c a l l y captures an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n than does a dichotomous locus of c o n t r o l measure. I t was expected that gender and outcome value would a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n and\or str e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. That i s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping was expected t o be stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value than among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g low outcome value. A l s o , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping was expected t o be stronger among i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g high outcome value than among i n d i v i d u a l s holding low outcome value. Furthermore, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and problem-focused coping was expected t o be stronger among men than women. As w e l l , the r e l a t i o n between chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping was expected t o be stronger among women than men. Outcome value d i d not moderate the locus of c o n t r o l ( a l l three dimensions) and coping r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r e i t h e r the burglary v i c t i m group or the ex p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. This f i n d i n g i s s i m i l a r t o Parkes' (1984) study. However, the importance of outcome value should not be dismissed. Rosolack and Héimpson (1991) contend t h a t outcome value must reach a c e r t a i n , yet u n s p e c i f i e d , minimum l e v e l before i t may i n f l u e n c e the d i r e c t i o n and/or strength of the r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. Although the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study h e l d moderately hi g h outcome value, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t l e v e l of importance attached t o outcome value by the p a r t i c i p a n t s was not s u f f i c i e n t l y strong enough t o a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n and/or strength of the r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and coping. In both Study 1 (burglary v i c t i m s ) and Study 2 (e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m s ) gender a f f e c t e d the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping. In both groups, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s h e l d by men were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping; i n c o n t r a s t , i n the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group, powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s h e l d by women were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping and powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women i n the ex p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group were not r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping. These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the burglary group more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s t h e r e a l i t y of b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping than does the expe r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. The d i s o r d i n a l nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n (see F i g u r e 5) of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s i s c o n s i s t e n t both t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y . Conceivably, as a r e s u l t of gender schema and negative s e l f - t r u s t schema the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping was a f f e c t e d by gender (Bem, 1981; J a n o f f -Bulman & Frieze-Hanson, 1987; McCann et a l . , 1988). These f i n d i n g s support Levenson's (1981) contention t h a t powerful others locus of c o n t r o l i s an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t does have p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l . For example, u n l i k e women, men may have found through experience t h a t powerful others ( i . e . , p o l i c e ) may help achieve d e s i r e d reinforcement, thus p r o v i d i n g a sense of c o n t r o l t o t h i s e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Thus, strong powerful others locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by men were n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping because men w i t h t h i s b e l i e f saw p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l ; whereas women w i t h s i m i l a r b e l i e f s d i d not see p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l and t h e r e f o r e strong powerful other locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). F i n a l l y , as p r e d i c t e d , gender a f f e c t e d the st r e n g t h of the chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n f o r the ex p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group. However, co n t r a r y t o what was hypothesized, chance locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s held by women and men were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o emotion-focused coping, yet the r e l a t i o n s h i p was stronger f o r men than women. This f i n d i n g suggests t h a t men who hold e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s use more emotion-focused coping s t r a t e g i e s t o deal w i t h a s t r e s s o r than do women. This f i n d i n g i s i n keeping w i t h Hoyenga and Hoyenga's (1979) review of the locus of c o n t r o l l i t e r a t u r e . They found t h a t men who hel d e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s had greater i n h i b i t e d goal o r i e n t e d behaviour than women. However, gender d i d not a f f e c t the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n between chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping f o r the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group. Again, t h i s f i n d i n g f u r t h e r demonstrates the d i f f e r e n c e between experiencing v i c t i m i z a t i o n and imaging v i c t i m i z a t i o n ; suggesting t h a t e x p e r i e n c i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s the nature of the r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and coping than does imaging v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Conceivably, the d i s t r e s s of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience was s u f f i c i e n t l y strong i n the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m group t o crea t e a negative s e l f - t r u s t schema th a t emphasized the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n but de t r a c t e d from the chance locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n f o r women v i c t i m s (Maguire, 1980; McCann et a l . , 1988). As such, gender would only a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n of the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n and not the st r e n g t h of the chance locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n . Therefore, i n the case of bu r g l a r y v i c t i m s , gender moderated the powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping r e l a t i o n , but d i d not moderate the chance locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n . In summary, experimentally induced v i c t i m s reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y more problem-focused coping and held g r e a t e r outcome value than b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . However, b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on powerful others locus of c o n t r o l than experimentally induced v i c t i m s . In both groups women used more emotion-focused coping than men. For the v i c t i m group, outcome value accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of varia n c e found i n problem- and emotion-focused coping. Chance locus of c o n t r o l accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of variance found i n emotion-focused coping f o r the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. F i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r both the bu r g l a r y v i c t i m group and the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y induced v i c t i m group, locus of c o n t r o l and s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l d i d not account f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between gender and coping. However, i n both groups, gender a f f e c t e d the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between powerful others locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping. Gender a l s o a f f e c t e d the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n between chance locus of c o n t r o l and emotion-focused coping i n the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. Moreover, the moderating e f f e c t of gender o f f e r s some support f o r the contention t h a t data from the burglary v i c t i m group more r e a l i s t i c a l l y captures the r e l a t i o n between locus of c o n t r o l and coping than does t h e data from the experimentally induced v i c t i m group. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g C o u n s e l l i n g v i c t i m s of crime f a l l s d i r e c t l y w i t h i n the mandate of c o u n s e l l i n g psychology (Douce, 1988). Although t h i s was not an i n t e r v e n t i o n study, three main i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s e from t h i s study f o r c o u n s e l l i n g b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . F i r s t , the d i f f e r e n c e s between b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s and experimentally induced v i c t i m s demonstrates t h a t coping w i t h b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n may increase the v i c t i m s ' powerful other locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and may decrease the value of the importance attached t o the outcome of v i c t i m i z a t i o n . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m , a c o u n s e l l o r may represent a powerful other. As such, the c l i e n t may look t o the c o u n s e l l o r t o impose s o l u t i o n s t o the problems the c l i e n t i s experiencing. C l e a r l y , from a phenomenological understanding of s t r e s s and coping, such a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c l i e n t and c o u n s e l l o r would not be advantageous t o e i t h e r p a r t y . Therefore, c o u n s e l l o r s must be aware not t o f u r t h e r increase dependency i n t h e i r c l i e n t s who have been v i c t i m s of b u r g l a r y , but t o t r y and r e s t o r e a sense of agency. Furthermore, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s may discount the importance of the outcome of the b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience even though they are experiencing p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . C o u n s e l l o r s may wish t o take t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n because the c l i e n t ' s d i s c o u n t i n g of outcome importance may a f f e c t h i s or her current p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g and behaviour ( i . e . , the c l i e n t may p l a c e h i s or her property or person at unnecessary r i s k t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n because he or she b e l i e v e s t h a t v i c t i m i z a t i o n does not matter). E x p l o r a t i o n of the v i c t i m ' s b e l i e f s regarding the importance of the outcome of the burg l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience may provide the v i c t i m g r e a t e r understanding of h i s or her coping responses. Second, women burglary v i c t i m s use more emotion-focused coping than male b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . Recognizing that women and men use both f u n c t i o n s of coping, c o u n s e l l o r s should e s t a b l i s h t h a t women v i c t i m s are us i n g enough a c t i v e coping s t r a t e g i e s (e.g., changing locks) t o reduce the r i s k of subsequent v i c t i m i z a t i o n and t h a t men are addressing t h e i r emotional needs ( e . g . , s o c i a l support). Although t h i s study d i d not examine healt h y p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the broader the range of coping s t r a t e g i e s ( i . e . , problem-and emotion-focused coping) that an i n d i v i d u a l has a v a i l a b l e , the b e t t e r able the person i s t o cope with t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n s (Parkes, 1984) F i n a l l y , f i n d i n g s from t h i s study suggest t h a t imaging v i c t i m i z a t i o n may not r e f l e c t the r e a l i t i e s of a c t u a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Because there are d i f f e r e n c e s between imaging and ex p e r i e n c i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n , c o u n s e l l o r s who use v i s u a l i z a t i o n w i t h c l i e n t s who are at r i s k of v i c t i m i z a t i o n or who fear v i c t i m i z a t i o n , may not adequately prepare the c l i e n t t o deal w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Therefore, i n an e f f o r t t o reduce the d i s t r e s s associated w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i t i s important f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and crime prevention p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o recognize t h a t there may be l i m i t a t i o n s ( i . e . , may not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the v i c t i m i z a t i o n process) i n having c l i e n t s imagine or v i s u a l i z e the v i c t i m i z a t i o n process (e.g., t o bur g l a r y or sexual a s s a u l t ) . L i m i t a t i o n s There were s i x main l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h Study 1 and Study 2. F i r s t , a l l the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e l f - r e p o r t . Second, both s t u d i e s were not concerned w i t h the process and change that i s r e l a t e d t o c a u s a l i t y as advocated by Lazarus and Folkman (1984). T h i r d , the sample was comprised of c o l l e g e students from a homogeneous age group, t h a t i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the general p u b l i c . To determine whether age moderated the locus of c o n t r o l and coping r e l a t i o n i t would be necessary t o have p a r t i c i p a n t s from a broader range of ages. Fourth, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o compare v i c t i m s and nonvictims because socioeconomic f a c t o r s ( i . e . , household income) may be, i n p a r t , a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t h a t separates v i c t i m s from nonvictims. F i f t h , many unmeasured p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t may a f f e c t how an i n d i v i d u a l copes with b u r g l a r y were not the focus of t h i s study. For example, i n c l u s i o n of negative a f f e c t i v i t y i n t o an expanded model may prove u s e f u l i n understanding i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the use of emotion-focused coping. F i n a l l y , because the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the burglary v i c t i m group was r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll (N=61), the power of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses was reduced. Future Research C l a r i f i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus of c o n t r o l and coping f o r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m coping may best be accomplished by pr o s p e c t i v e research. In fu t u r e research, researchers should measure the locus of c o n t r o l of i n d i v i d u a l s i n a p a r t i c u l a r community p r i o r t o bu r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n and then gather the p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on outcome value, s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l , and coping f o l l o w i n g b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Furthermore, locus of c o n t r o l should be measured before and a f t e r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n t o determine the a f f e c t t h a t v i c t i m i z a t i o n and subsequent coping e f f o r t s have on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s locus of c o n t r o l . However, p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s may not make such research p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e researchers conducting analogue res e a r c h could i n c o r p o r a t e d e t a i l e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n of the b u r g l a r y experience u s i n g s m a l l group s e t t i n g s . Future research should be d i r e c t e d towards the development of a coping measure th a t contains problem- and emotion-focused coping items t h a t are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of b u r g l a r y v i c t i m ' s coping e f f o r t s . This may help c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n between c o n t r o l b e l i e f s and coping f o r b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s . 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A., Wallston, B. S., Smith, S., & Dobbins, C.J. (1987). Pe r c e i v e d c o n t r o l and h e a l t h . Current P s y c h o l o g i c a l Research and Reviews, 5, 5-25. W i l l i s , R. H., & W i l l i s , Y. A. (1970). Role p l a y i n g versus deception: An experimental comparison. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 16, 472-477. W i r t z , P. W., & H a r r e l l , A. V. (1987). V i c t i m and crime c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , coping responses, and s h o r t - and long-term recovery from v i c t i m i z a t i o n . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psvchology, 55, 866-871. Appendix A Informed Consent Demographic Questionnaire Locus of C o n t r o l Measure Informed Consent T i t l e of the Study: Burglary V i c t i m Coping Date: Purpose of the Study: This i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s being conducted t o gain a b e t t e r understanding of how b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s cope with the burglary experience. Procedure: As a p a r t i c i p a n t you w i l l be asked t o do the f o l l o w i n g : 1. View a 2 minute video. 2. Do paper and p e n c i l questionnaires before and a f t e r you view the video. The questionnaires w i l l take 25 t o 30 minutes t o complete. This i s t o c e r t i f y t h a t I , , agree t o v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n on b u r g l a r y . I understand t h a t I do not have t o p a r t i c i p a t e and t h a t I am f r e e t o withdraw my consent and may terminate my p a r t i c i p a t i o n at any time. This w i l l not j e o p a r d i z e my standing nor my opportunity t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n any other programs sponsored by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia or Douglas C o l l e g e . Data t h a t are c o l l e c t e d w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l w i t h regard t o my i d e n t i t y . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by number only and a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be kept i n a locked f i l e c a b i n e t . Only the i n v e s t i g a t o r and h i s supervisor w i l l have access t o the f i l e s . I w i l l have a chance t o ask any questions I want about t h i s research p r o j e c t . Questions I ask w i l l be answered t o my s a t i s f a c t i o n . I w i l l r e c e i v e a copy of t h i s consent form. Date: P a r t i c i p a n t ' s s i g n a t u r e F a c u l t y Supervisor: Dr. B. Long I n v e s t i g a t o r ' s Signature Randy Mackoff, MA, Dept. of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology, UBC 527-5328 Dept. of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology 228-4756 Demographic Information D i r e c t i o n s : Please c i r c l e the l e t t e r t hat i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each item. 1. Sex: [A] male [B] female 2. Age: years 3. M a r i t a l Status [A] s i n g l e [B] married (includes common law) [C] separated [D] divorced [E] remarried [F] widow(er) 4. Do you l i v e at home w i t h your parents? [A] yes [B] no 5. Do you pay rent where you l i v e ? [A] yes [B] no 6. How many persons do you l i v e with? persons 7. What i s your y e a r l y household income? [A] under $10,000 per year [B] $10,000 - $20,000 per year [C] $21,000 - $30,000 per year [D] $31,000 - $40,000 per year [E] over $40,000 per year 8. Have you ever been a v i c t i m of burglary ( b u r g l a r y i s de f i n e d as when a person(s) enters your residence without permission i n order t o commit a crime)? [A] yes [B] no Bur g l a r y V i c t i m s Only 9. Were you i n your home at the time of the burglary? [A] yes [B] no 10. Were you confronted by the suspect(s) at the time of the burglary? [A] yes [B] no 11. What was the t o t a l value of items s t o l e n ? d o l l a r s 12. How severe was the damage to your property as a r e s u l t of the burglary? [A] severe [B] moderate [C] l i g h t [D] none Burglary V i c t i m s and Experimentallv Induced V i c t i m s 13. Have you been a v i c t i m of any crime other than burglary? [A] yes [B] no 14. I f you answered yes t o 13, please s p e c i f y the c r i m e ( s ) . Locus of Control On the next page i s a s e r i e s of a t t i t u d e statements. Each represents a commonly held o p i n i o n . There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. You w i l l probably agree with some items and disagree w i t h o t h e r s . We are i n t e r e s t e d i n the extent t o which you agree or disagree w i t h such matters of o p i n i o n . Read each statement c a r e f u l l y . Then i n d i c a t e the extent t o which you agree or disagree by c i r c l i n g the number f o l l o w i n g each statement. The numbers and t h e i r meanings are i n d i c a t e d below: I f you agree s t r o n g l y : c i r c l e +3 I f you agree somewhat: c i r c l e +2 I f you agree s l i g h t l y : c i r c l e +1 I f you disagree s l i g h t l y : c i r c l e -1 I f you disagree somewhat: c i r c l e -2 I f you disagree s t r o n g l y : c i r c l e -3 F i r s t impressions are u s u a l l y best. Read each statement, decide i f you agree or disagree and the strength of your o p i n i o n , and then c i r c l e the a p p r o p r i a t e number. Give Your Opinion On Every Statement I f you f i n d t h a t the numbers t o be used i n answering do not adequately r e f l e c t your own o p i n i o n , use the one t h a t i s c l o s e s t t o the way you f e e l . Thank you. Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Stron g l y Somewhat S l i g h t l y S l i g h t l y Somewhat St r o n g l y -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 1. Whether or not I get t o be -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 a leader depends mostly on my a b i l i t y . 2. To a great extent my l i f e -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 i s c o n t r o l l e d by a c c i d e n t a l happenings. 3. I f e e l l i k e what happens i n -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 my l i f e i s mostly deter-mined by powerful people. 4. Whether or not I get i n t o -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 a car accident depends mostly on how good a d r i v e r I am. 5. When I make pl a n s , I am - 3 - 2 -1 +1 +2 +3 almost c e r t a i n t o make them work. 6. Often there i s no chance -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 of p r o t e c t i n g my personal i n t e r e s t s from bad luck happenings. 7. When I get what I want, -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 i t ' s u s u a l l y because I'm luc k y . 8. Although I might have good -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 a b i l i t y , I w i l l not be given l e a d e r s h i p r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y without appealing t o those i n p o s i t i o n s of power. 9. How many f r i e n d s I have -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 depends on how ni c e a person I am. 10. I have o f t e n found t h a t what i s going t o happen w i l l happen. -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 Disagree S t r o n g l y -3 Disagree Somewhat -2 Disagree S l i g h t l y -1 Agree S l i g h t l y +1 Agree Agree Somewhat S t r o n g l y +2 +3 11. My l i f e i s c h i e f l y con-t r o l l e d by powerful others. 12. Whether or not I get i n t o a car accident i s mostly a matter of luck. 13. People l i k e myself have very l i t t l e chance of p r o t e c t i n g our personal i n t e r e s t s when they con-f l i c t w i t h those of strong pressure groups. 14. I t ' s not always wise f o r me t o plan too f a r ahead because many th i n g s t u r n out t o be a matter of good or bad fortune. 15. G e t t i n g what I want r e -q u i r e s p l e a s i n g those people above me. 16. Whether or not I get t o be a leader depends on whether I'm lucky enough t o be i n the r i g h t place at the r i g h t time. 17. I f important people were t o decide they didn' t l i k e me, I probably wouldn't make f r i e n d s . 18. I can p r e t t y much determine what w i l l happen i n my l i f e . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 19. I am u s u a l l y able t o p r o t e c t my personal i n t e r e s t s . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 Disagree Strongly -3 Disagree Somewhat -2 Disagree S l i g h t l y -1 Agree Agree Agree S l i g h t l y Somewhat S t r o n g l y +1 +2 +3 20. Whether or not I get i n t o a c a r accident depends mostly on the other d r i v e r . 21. When I get what I want, i t ' s u s u a l l y because I worked hard f o r i t . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 22. In order t o have my plans work, I make sure t h a t they f i t i n w i t h the d e s i r e s of people who have power over me. 23. My l i f e i s determined by my own a c t i o n s . 24. I t ' s c h i e f l y a matter of f a t e whether or not I have a few f r i e n d s or many f r i e n d s . -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 Appendix B Video D e s c r i p t i o n Video Viewing I n s t r u c t i o n s Coping Measure S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l s of C o n t r o l Measure Outcome value Measure S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y Scale Burglary I n t e n s i t y Measure D e s c r i p t i o n of Video Two Caucasian males i n t h e i r l a t e teens attempt t o pry open the s i d e door of a house. Unable t o gain e n t r y , one of the males smashes open the adjacent window and unlocks the door. Both males enter the house and go d i r e c t l y t o the master bedroom. Once i n s i d e the bedroom one of the males empties a c l o t h i n g drawer on the bed and s c a t t e r s the belongings. The second male opens a desk drawer and f i n d s a cheque i n an envelope. He opens the envelope and s t e a l s the cheque. Both males drop the socks t h a t they had used t o cover t h e i r hands and run out the f r o n t door c a r r y i n g s t o l e n property. The burglary takes place i n the night and there i s no apparent s i g n of anyone being at home. There i s dramatic music i n the background and the e x c i t e d b r e a t h i n g of the suspects can be heard. The video i s i n c o l o u r and i s shown on a 24" screen. The video l a s t s approximately 2 minutes. Video Viewing Instructions for Burglary Victims "You are about t o watch a 2 minute video of a t y p i c a l b u r g l a r y . While viewing t h i s b u r g l a r y t r y t o remember, i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e , what your own experiences were when you were b u r g l a r i z e d . " Video Viewing Instructions for Experimentally Induced Victims "You are about t o watch a 2 minute video of a t y p i c a l b u r g l a r y . Imagine, as you s i t here a s i m i l a r b u r g l a r y as the one you are about t o witness i s t a k i n g place at your residence. When you get out of c l a s s t o n i g h t you r e t u r n home t o discover t h a t your residence has been b u r g l a r i z e d . Personal and p r i v a t e items have been touched by a stranger and some items have been s t o l e n . " The viewing of t h i s video took place i n a maximum group s i z e of 35 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a classroom. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were seated at t a b l e s . The video was played on a 24" colour screen. COPE (Victim Group) Instructions: Remember back t o when you were a v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . In the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r a t e each item according t o what you d i d and f e l t over the f i r s t 7 days f o l l o w i n g the burglary. Then respond t o each of the f o l l o w i n g items by c i r c l i n g the appropriate number at the end of each item. Please t r y t o respond t o each item separately In your mind from each other Item. Choose your answers t h o u g h t f u l l y , and make your answers as t r u e FOR YOU as you can. Please answer every item. There are no " r i g h t " or "wrong" answers, so choose the most accurate answer f o r YOU - not what you t h i n k "most people" would say or do. I n d i c a t e what you d i d when YOU were b u r g l a r i z e d . COPE (Experimentally Induced Victim Group) Instructions : Imagine a s i m i l a r b u r g l ary t o the one you have viewed has j u s t occurred at your residence. When you get out of c l a s s t o n i g h t you r e t u r n home t o di s c o v e r t h a t your residence has been b u r g l a r i z e d . Personal and p r i v a t e items have been touched by a stranger and some items have been s t o l e n . In the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r a t e each item according t o what you would do and f e e l over the f i r s t 7 days f o l l o w i n g the b u r g l a r y . Then respond t o each of the f o l l o w i n g items by c i r c l i n g the appr o p r i a t e number at the end of each item. Please t r y t o respond t o each item separately in your mid from each other item. Choose your answers t h o u g h t f u l l y , and make your answers as t r u e FOR YOU as you can. Please answer every item. There are no " r i g h t " or "wrong" answers, so choose the most accurate answer f o r YOU - not what you t h i n k "most people" would say or do. I n d i c a t e what you would do i f YOU were b u r g l a r i z e d . Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s I w i l l not do I w i l l do t h i s I w i l l do t h i s a I w i l l do t h i s at a l l a l i t t l e b i t medium amount t h i s a l o t 1 2 3 4 Burglary V i c t i m s I d i d not do t h i s at a l l I d i d t h i s a l i t t l e b i t I d i d t h i s a medium amount I d i d t h i s a l o t 1. I t r i e d t o grow as a person as a r e s u l t of the experience. 2. I turned t o work or other sub-s t i t u t e a c t i v i t i e s t o take my mind o f f t h i n g s . 3. I got upset and l e t my emotions out. 4. I t r i e d t o get advice from someone about what t o do. 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 5. I concentrated my e f f o r t s on doing something about i t . 6. I s a i d t o myself " t h i s i s n ' t r e a l . " 7. I put my t r u s t i n God. 8. I admitted t o myself t h a t I couldn't deal w i t h i t , and q u i t t r y i n g . 9. I r e s t r a i n e d myself from doing anything too q u i c k l y . 10. I di s c u s s e d my f e e l i n g s w i t h someone. 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 11. I got used t o the idea t h a t i t happened. 12. I t a l k e d t o someone t o f i n d out more abut the s i t u a t i o n . 13. I kept myself form g e t t i n g d i s t r a c t e d by other thoughts or a c t i v i t i e s . 3 4 3 4 3 4 14. I daydreamed about t h i n g s other than t h i s . 3 4 15. I got upset, and was r e a l l y aware of i t . 3 4 1 2 3 16. I sought God's help. 1 17. I made a pl a n of a c t i o n . 1 18. I accepted t h a t t h i s had happened 1 and t h a t i t couldn't be changed. 19. I hel d o f f doing anything about 1 i t u n t i l the s i t u a t i o n permitted. 20. I t r i e d t o get emotional support 1 from f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s . 21. I j u s t gave up t r y i n g t o reach 1 my g o a l . 22. I took a d d i t i o n a l a c t i o n t o t r y 1 t o get r i d of the problem. 23. I refused t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t had 1 happened. 24. I l e t my f e e l i n g s out. 1 25. I t r i e d t o see i t i n a d i f f e r e n t 1 l i g h t , t o make i t seem more p o s i t i v e . 26. I t a l k e d t o someone who could do 1 something concrete about the problem. 27. I s l e p t more than usual. 1 28. I t r i e d t o come up with a st r a t e g y 1 about what t o do. 29. I focused on d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s 1 problem, and i f necessary l e t other t h i n g s s l i d e a l i t t l e . 30. I got sympathy and understanding 1 from someone. 1 2 3 31. I gave up the attempt t o get 1 what I wanted. 32. I looked f o r something good i n 1 what was happening. 33. I thought about how I might best 1 handle the problem. 34. I pretended t h a t i t hadn't r e a l l y 1 happened. 35. I made sure not t o make matters 1 worse by a c t i n g too soon. 36. I t r i e d hard t o prevent other 1 t h i n g s from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h my e f f o r t s at d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s . 37. I went t o movies or watched TV, 1 t o t h i n k about i t l e s s . 38. I accepted the r e a l i t y of the f a c t 1 th a t i t happened. 39. I asked people who have had s i m i l a r 1 experiences what they d i d . 40. I f e l t a l o t of emotional d i s t r e s s 1 and I found myself expressing those f e e l i n g s a l o t . 41. I took d i r e c t a c t i o n t o get 1 around the problem. 42. I t r i e d t o f i n d comfort i n my 1 r e l i g i o n . 43. I fo r c e d myself t o wait f o r the 1 r i g h t time t o do something. 44. I reduced the amount of e f f o r t 1 I put i n t o s o l v i n g the problem. 1 2 3 45. I t a l k e d t o someone about how I 1 f e l t . 46. I learned t o l i v e w i t h i t . 1 47. I put aside other a c t i v i t i e s 1 i n order t o concentrate on t h i s . 48. I thought hard about what steps 1 t o take. 49. I acted as though i t hadn't even 1 happened. 50. I d i d what had t o be done, one 1 step at a time. 51. I learned something from the 1 experience. 52. I prayed more than usual. 1 Situational Appraisals of Control (Victim Group) Instructions : Remember back t o when you were a v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . In the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r a t e each item according t o how you f e l t over the f i r s t 7 days f o l l o w i n g the bur g l a r y . Situational Appraisals of Control (Experimentally Induced Victim Group) Instructions : Imagine a s i m i l a r b u r g l ary t o the one you have viewed has j u s t occurred at your residence. When you get out of c l a s s t o n i g h t you r e t u r n home t o d i s c o v e r that your residence has been b u r g l a r i z e d . Personal and p r i v a t e items have been touched by a stranger and some items have been s t o l e n . In the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e , r a t e each item according t o what you would f e e l over the f i r s t 7 days f o l l o w i n g the b u r g l a r y . Rate each item according t o the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e . I n d i c a t e your response by c i r c l i n g the appropriate number at the end of each item. S t r o n g l y disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Strongly Agree 1. During the week a f t e r the 1 2 3 4 5 6 b u r g l a r y I f e l t i n c o n t r o l of my emotions. 2. During the week a f t e r the 1 2 3 4 5 6 b u r g l a r y I f e l t i n c o n t r o l of what i t was th a t I was doing. 3. During the week a f t e r the 1 2 3 4 5 6 b u r g l a r y I f e l t i n c o n t r o l of the s i t u a t i o n . Outcome Value (Victim Group) Remember back t o when you were a v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . Outcome Value (Experimentally Induced Victim Group) Instructions : Imagine a s i m i l a r b u r g l ary t o the one you have viewed has j u s t occurred at your residence. When you get out of c l a s s t o n i g h t you r e t u r n home t o d i s c o v e r t h a t your residence has been b u r g l a r i z e d . Personal and p r i v a t e items have been touched by a stranger and some items have been s t o l e n . Rate each item according t o the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e . I n d i c a t e your response by c i r c l i n g the appropriate number at the end of each item. S t r o n g l y Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 S t r o n g l y Agree 1. This s i t u a t i o n was one of 1 2 3 4 5 6 great personal importance t o me. 2. The s i t u a t i o n mattered a 1 2 3 4 5 6 great d e a l t o me. 3. The outcome of my a c t i o n s 1 2 3 4 5 6 a f t e r the b u r g l a r y mattered a great deal t o me. M-CiriO) (Victim and Experimentally Induced Group) Instructions: L i s t e d below are a number of statements concerning personal a t t i t u d e s and t r a i t s . Read each item and decide whether the statement i s t r u e or f a l s e as i t p e r t a i n s t o you p e r s o n a l l y . P l a c e a T f o r True or an F f o r F a l s e on the space t o the l e f t of each statement. 1. I'm always w i l l i n g to admit i t when I make a mistake. 2. I always t r y t o p r a c t i c e what I preach. 3. I never resent being asked t o r e t u r n a favour. 4. I have never been i r k e d when people expressed ideas very d i f f e r e n t from my own. 5. I have never d e l i b e r a t e l y s a i d something t h a t hurt someone's f e e l i n g s . 6. I l i k e t o gossip at times. 7. There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone. 8. I sometimes t r y t o get even r a t h e r than f o r g i v e and f o r g e t . 9. At times I have r e a l l y i n s i s t e d on having t h i n g s my own way. 10. There have been occasions when I f e l t l i k e smashing t h i n g s . Burglary I n t e n s i t y Measure ( V i c t i m Group) Please c i r c l e the response which best i n d i c a t e s the extent t o which you were able t o r e c a l l the b u r g l a r y experience, 1. I was able t o r e c a l l t h a t I was a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m . Not at a l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 With great accuracy 2. I i n t e n s e l y r e c a l l e d when I was a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m . Not at a l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 With great accuracy 3. The video a s s i s t e d me i n r e c a l l i n g when I was a v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . Not at a l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G r e a t l y 1. Was your r e a c t i o n t o the bu r g l a r y experience as you expected i t t o be? Not at Very Somewhat S l i g h t l y E x a c t l y as a l l d i f f e r e n t d i f f e r e n t d i f f e r e n t expected 1 2 3 4 5 f(N=61) 3 6 8 25 19 Bu r g l a r y I n t e n s i t y Measure (Experimentally Induced V i c t i m Group) Please c i r c l e the.response which best i n d i c a t e s the extent t o which you experienced imagining t h a t you were a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m . 1. I was able t o imagine t h a t I was a b u r g l a r y v i c t i m . Not at a l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 With great accuracy 2. I i n t e n s e l y imagined t h a t I was a bu r g l a r y v i c t i m . Not at a l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 With great accuracy 3. The video a s s i s t e d me i n imaging t h a t I was a v i c t i m of b u r g l a r y . Not at a l l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 G r e a t l y APPENDIX C I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Coping Subscales of V i c t i m s I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Coping Subscales of E x p e r i m e n t a l l y Induced V i c t i m s I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Coping Subscales of the B u r g l a r y V i c t i m Group (N=61) V a r i a b l e 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1.Active .74 .28 .49 -.06 .33 .31 .05 .01 .05 .09 .14 -.07 2.Plan .49 .45 -.10 .43 .21 .27 .14 -.01 .01 .18 -.22 3.Seekins .44 .14 .24 .14 .50 .39 -.24 .14 .32 -.02 4.Suppres .24 .26 .25 .17 -.06 -.07 .26 .29 -.01 S.Behdis .33 -.02 .13 .21 .05 .39 .28 .46 6.Restra .27 .15 .24 .10 .34 .05 .06 7.Posit .21 .22 .43 .27 .05 .22 8.Seekemo .37 -.02 .26 .51 .01 g . R e l i g .10 .27 .10 .20 10.Accept .02 --.17 .04 11.Mdiseng .28 .39 12.Focus .24 13.Denial Note. A c t i v e = A c t i v e coping; Plan = Planning; Seekins = Seeking s o c i a l s u p p o r t - i n s t r u m e n t a l ; Suppres = Suppression of competing a c t i v i t i e s ; Behdis = B e h a v i o r a l disengagement; Restra = R e s t r a i n t coping; P o s i t = P o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and growth; Seekemo = Seeking s o c i a l support-emotional; R e l i g = Turning t o r e l i g i o n ; Accept = Acceptance; Mdiseng = Mental disengagement; Focus = Focus on and v e n t i l a t i o n of emotions. V a r i a b l e s 1 t o 6 are problem-focused coping subscales. V a r i a b l e s 7 t o 13 are emotion-focused coping subscales. r{60).21, 2<.05 r(60) . 2 9 , 2<.01 (Bonferroni adjusted r(60).53, 2<.05, r(60).58, p<.01, Shavelson, 1988) I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Coping Subscales of Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s (N=102) V a r i a b l e 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1.Active .68 .37 .35 -.16 .02 .23 .22 .26 .07 -.01 .13 -.26 2.Plan .41 .42 -.22 .13 .25 .12 .14 .19 -.11 .07 -.23 3.Seekins .30 .03 .14 .29 .58 .15 .05 .22 .27 .03 4.Suppres -.08 .22 .14 .09 .09 -.10 -.03 .04 .05 S.Behdis .21 -.01 .11 .22 -.16 .20 .08 .32 e.Restra .21 .15 .10 .15 .19 .03 -.02 7.Posit .21 .21 .49 .18 -.03 -.19 8.Seekemo .25 .05 .19 .54 .10 9.Rel i g -.02 .12 .14 .17 10.Accept .19 -.05 -.31 l l . M d i s e n g .13 .36 12.Focus .17 13.Denial Note. A c t i v e = A c t i v e coping; Plan = Planning; Seekins = Seeking s o c i a l s u p p o r t - i n s t r u m e n t a l ; Suppres = Suppression of competing a c t i v i t i e s ; Behdis = B e h a v i o r a l disengagement; Restra = R e s t r a i n t coping; P o s i t = P o s i t i v e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and growth; Seekemo = Seeking s o c i a l support-emotional; R e l i g = Turning t o r e l i g i o n ; Accept = Acceptance; Mdiseng = Mental disengagement; Focus = Focus on and v e n t i l a t i o n of emotions. V a r i a b l e s 1 t o 6 are problem-focused coping subscales. V a r i a b l e s 7 t o 13 are emotion-focused coping subscales. r(100).16, E<.05 r(100).23, E<.01 (Bonferroni adjusted r(lOO).43, 2<.05, r(100).47, 2<.01, Shavelson, 1988). Appendix D C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y w i t h Independent and Dependent V a r i a b l e s C o r r e l a t i o n s of S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y w i t h Independent and Dependent V a r i a b l e s of Burglary V i c t i m s (N=61) and E x p e r i m e n t a l l y Induced Victims(N=102) S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y V a r i a b l e Burglary V i c t i m s Experimentally Induced V i c t i m s a Gender -.04 -.17 I n t e r n a l locus .08 -.02 of c o n t r o l Powerful Others -.15 .02 locus of c o n t r o l Chance locus -.24 -.07 of c o n t r o l S i t u a t i o n a l .15 -.12 A p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l Outcome Value -.06 -.04 Problem-focused -.27 -.10 coping Emotion-focused -.21 -.05 coping Gender was coded 1 (men) and 2 (women) r(60).2 1 , 2<.05 r(100).16, 2<.05 r(60).29, E<.01 r(100).23, 2<.01 B o n f e r r o n i adjusted: r(60).43, E<.05, r(60).49, 2<.01, r(100).34, 2<.05, r(100).39, 2<.01 (Shayelson, 1988). Appendix E M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e F-Tests f o r Previous V i c t i m i z a t i o n and I n t e n s i t y of Experience E f f e c t s M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e F-Tests f o r Previous V i c t i m i z a t i o n and I n t e n s i t y of Experience E f f e c t s (N=102) Previous V i c t i m i z a t i o n df F E< I n t e n s i t y of Experience F 2< M u l t v a r i a t e (7,92) U n i v a r i a t e (1,98) Emotion-focused coping Problem-focused coping I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l Chance locus of c o n t r o l Powerful Others locus of c o n t r o l S i t u a t i o n a l A p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l Outcome value <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 .81 .59 .73 .85 .33 .46 <1 1.25 .26 1.25 <1 2.55 <1 .90 <1 <1 <1 <1 .69 .27 .49 .11 .89 .49 .77 .59 Note. No p r i o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n (n=38) vs. p r i o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n (n=64). Below median f o r I n t e n s i t y (n=43) vs. above median f o r I n t e n s i t y (n=59). Appendix F I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s of Combined Groups I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r and C r i t e r i o n V a r i a b l e s of Combined Groups (N=163>. V a r i a b l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 a 1.Gender -.12 -.14 -.07 -.30 .01 -.09 .23 2.Intenal -.17 -.25 .18 .01 .11 -.15 3.Powerful Others .60 -.03 .08 -.01 .18 4.Chance -.06 -.01 -.02 .32 5 . S i t u a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l s of c o n t r o l -.21 -.03 -.25 6.Outcome value .45 .30 7. Problem- ,37 focused coping 8. Emotion-focused coping a Gender was codedl (men) and 2 (women) r(100).16, E<.05 r(100).23, E<.01 (Bonferroni adjusted r(150).31, E<.05; r(150).35, p<.01, Shavelson, 1988). 

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