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The prose of Zhu Ziqing Crofts, Iain William 1984

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THE PROSE OF ZHU ZIQING by IAIN WILLIAM CROFTS B.A., The University of Leeds, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ASIAN STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1984 (© Iain William Crofts, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of W tSTJiplZS  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date £1 MllSf / W ABSTRACT Zhu Ziqing was a Chinese academic who developed a reputation f i r s t as a poet and l a t e r as an essayist i n the 1920's and 1930's. His works are s t i l l read widely i n China and are considered important enough to be included i n the curriculum of secondary schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Despite his enduring reputation among his countrymen, he i s l i t t l e known abroad and Western scholarly works on modern Chinese l i t e r a t u r e scarcely mention him. This thesis examines Zhu Ziqing's prose, since i t i s his essays which are the basis of his reputation. His short stories are examined f i r s t , as the precursors to his essays, with which they have much in common. The essays are presented in categories according to their subject matter, and representative works from each category are examined i n d e t a i l . I t becomes clear that the most noticeable characteristic of Zhu Ziqing's writings i s their autobiographical nature. He i s at his best when writing about things with which he i s intimately acquainted, and his attempts to grapple with wider s o c i a l issues tend to be inconclusive. Zhu Ziqing i s known p r i n c i p a l l y as a l y r i c essayist, a "painter of pictures with words." The scenes which he describes are often marked by his presence, linked by the autobiographical thread which runs through a l l his work. Concerned as they are with painting d e l i g h t f u l scenes rather than making any profound statements, l y r i c essays are not calculated to offend anyone's ideological s e n s i b i l i t i e s . This, combined with the inconclusive nature of Zhu Ziqing's attempts at weightier so c i a l pronouncements, accounts for the a v a i l a b i l i t y of his works on both sides of the Taiwan S t r a i t . - i i i -One may concede that Zhu Z i q i n g i s but a minor planet i n the Chinese l i t e r a r y firmament. N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s short s t o r i e s and essays are I n t e r e s t i n g as examples of prose which was h i g h l y regarded by the author's contemporaries i n the e a r l y days of modern Chinese v e r n a c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Introduction 1 ,Zhu Ziqing's F i c t i o n 7 Essays: L y r i c Prose 20 Treatment of Personal Relationships 31 Essays of Social C r i t i c i s m 45 Travelogues 67 Conclusion 75 Footnotes 82 Bibliography 84 - 1 -INTRODUCTION Zhu Ziqing ^ yjj$ (1898-1948) i s a name well known to anyone with a Chinese education. Notwithstanding the scant regard paid his writings by Western scholars, his poems and essays are prescribed reading for students on the Chinese mainland as well as i n Hong Kong and Taiwan. Few other writers from the May Fourth period can claim that d i s t i n c t i o n i n a nation so divided that prescribed reading i n one j u r i s d i c t i o n i s l i k e l y to be proscribed reading i n another. In t h i s thesis we s h a l l explore the nature of Zhu Ziqing's prose, since his l i t e r a r y reputation i s based mainly on his essays. We s h a l l see that, although he showed great promise as a writer, in some ways the promise was l e f t u n f u l f i l l e d because his v i s i o n was clearest of things within his own experience. He had great d i f f i c u l t y understanding people outside his own so c i a l background, and his attempts at socia l commentary were rather limited i n scope. However, he was perceived by his contemporaries to possess a talent for l y r i c description, and i t i s this which has won him his reputation. Before proceeding with the detailed examination of his works, i t i s appropriate to introduce the man responsible for them. Born November 22, 1898 i n Haizhou ,G} i n the province of Jiangsu *X ,j*fi , Zhu Ziqing was the son of a minor o f f i c i a l . He grew up i n the Jiangsu town of Yangzhou ffij 'J'1'/ and graduated from secondary school there i n 1916, whereupon he entered into a marriage arranged by his parents with Wu Zhongqian Jl£ , the daughter of a l o c a l physician. The same year, he went to study at Peking University, graduating from the Philosophy Department i n 1920. In the following fi v e years he taught at secondary schools and normal schools i n the provinces of - 2 -Jiangsu and Zhejiang , and f i n a l l y became a lecturer at Peking's Qinghua jp. University i n 1925. He was to remain with Qinghua University for the rest of his l i f e and became a highly respected scholar. Widowed in 1929, he married Chen Zhuyin i n 1932 and that marriage^lasted the rest of his l i f e . In addition to his own contribution to modern Chinese l i t e r a t u r e , he produced many textbooks for the study of c l a s s i c a l and modern Chinese l i t e r a t u r e as well as modern Chinese language. Zhou J i n credits Zhu Ziqing with being among the f i r s t ever to teach a course on modern Chinese l i t e r a t u r e at a Chinese u n i v e r s i t y . 1 From 1932 to 1937 and from 1946 to 1948 he was head of the Chinese Department of Qinghua University. From 1937 to 1939 he was head of the Chinese Department of the temporary university formed i n Kunming by Peking, Qinghua and Nankai $8 Universities during the war with Japan. Zhu Ziqing started his l i t e r a r y career as a poet while s t i l l a student at Peking University, and his l i t e r a r y energies were directed mainly towards poetry u n t i l 1925. His 246-line poem Huimie g f f i y£ (Destruction), published i n 1923, i s credited by L i Guangtian JT" with having "... had a great influence on the poetry of that period" £- s£ -$C Jfc- %k Jtt 5 f r ? £ ~ (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p. 11).2 Thus i t was as an accomplished poet that Zhu Ziqing turned his attention to writing prose i n 1925. According to Zhou J i n , Zhu Ziqing's success as a poet came only after years of practice, but with essays "... he had great success as soon as his pen touched the paper" ... — j £ H Jft 5 - ^ ^ %1C (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p. 127). His f i r s t essay, " Jiangsheng-dengying l i de Qinhuaihe" £X ft j£ &$^t?f£ >f ("The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River") was published i n 1923 and met - 3 -with c r i t i c a l acclaim. Zhou Zuoren described i t as "... a model for a r t i s t i c writing i n the vernacular" ... %7j (Zhu Ziqing yanjlu, p.128). Encouraged by this rapid success as an essayist, Zhu Ziqing channelled his creative energies away from poetry and into this genre. By 1925 he had a l l but ceased writing poetry. His only major poem after that date was Wan  Yiduo xiansheng — ^ Q_ (An Elegy to Master Yiduo), written i n 1946 i n memory of his close friend, the writer Wen Yiduo l'f]-~ ^ , who was assas-sinated i n July of that year. Otherwise, u n t i l the 1940's Zhu Ziqing's c r e a t i v i t y found expression through prose, mainly i n the form of the essay. During the 1940's he did l i t t l e creative writing, concentrating instead on writing texts for the study of modern Chinese l i t e r a t u r e and modern Chinese language. He died i n Peking on August 12, 1948 at the age of forty-nine. The period i n which Zhu Ziqing was most active as a writer, the 1920's and 1930's, was a time of great l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n China. The overthrow of the Q i n g ^ ^ Dynasty i n 1911 had brought i n i t s wake not only a search for a new p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l structure, but a search for a new l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l . Many Chinese i n t e l l e c t u a l s who had been educated abroad and returned home in the 1910's were convinced that China's economic and p o l i t i c a l weakness could be cured by some degree of westernisation. In addition to promoting Western science, philosophies and forms of government, they advocated a new style of l i t e r a t u r e to be written i n the vernacular. The " c l a s s i c a l " l i t e r a r y language which had prevailed u n t i l then was so different from the spoken language as to be u n i n t e l l i g i b l e to the ear. Its mastery required years of study, and l i t e r a c y was thus limited to a small segment of society. The reformists expected a l i t e r a t u r e based on the vernacular, as was the case i n - A -Western c o u n t r i e s , to f a c i l i t a t e the spread of l i t e r a c y and to forge a dynamic s o c i e t y b e t t e r able to hold i t s place i n the modern world. Two of the most noteworthy proponents of vernacular l i t e r a t u r e were Chen Duxiu and Hu Shi ^ 3 ^ . . Chen Duxiu founded the p e r i o d i c a l X i n Qingnian j^JT ^  (New Youth) i n 1915 upon h i s r e t u r n from studying i n Japan. I t c a l l e d upon the youth of China to question t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l values and to devise a new c u l t u r e to replace them. I t o f f e r e d t r a n s l a t i o n s of European l i t e r a t u r e as examples of the sor t of w r i t i n g to which Chinese authors should a s p i r e . The January 1, 1917 iss u e of New Youth c a r r i e d an a r t i c l e by Hu S h i , then studying i n the United States, i n which he o u t l i n e d p r i n c i p l e s f o r a new Chinese l i t e r a t u r e to be based on the vernacular language, which he regarded as the only s u i t a b l e medium f o r a l i v i n g l i t e r a -t u r e . Chen Duxiu agreed, and the next Issue of New Youth c a r r i e d an a r t i c l e i n which he c a l l e d f o r nothing short of a l i t e r a r y r e v o l u t i o n , the three g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s of which would be: (1) To overthrow the painted, powdered, and obsequious l i t e r a t u r e of the a r i s t o c r a t i c few, and to create the p l a i n , simple, and expressive l i t e r a t u r e of the people; (2) To overthrow the stereotyped and overornamental l i t e r a t u r e of c l a s s i c i s m , and to create the f r e s h and sin c e r e l i t e r a t u r e of r e a l i s m ; and (3) To overthrow the pedantic, u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , and o b s c u r a n t i s t l i t e r a t u r e of the hermit and r e c l u s e , and to create the p l a i n -speaking and popular l i t e r a t u r e of s o c i e t y i n general.-^ These two a r t i c l e s are regarded as marking the beginning of modern Chinese vernacular l i t e r a t u r e . From 1917 on, the movement f o r a new l i t e r a t u r e gathered momentum, and i t received a new impetus a f t e r the May Fourth Incident of 1919. This was a student demonstration i n Peking, p r o t e s t i n g the Treaty of - 5 -V e r s a i l l e s which allowed Japan to retain control of the German t e r r i t o r i e s i n Shandong lU which i t had seized when i t entered the F i r s t World War on the side of the A l l i e s . The i n t e l l e c t u a l ferment which resulted from the May Fourth Incident developed into a movement which encompassed demands for a wide range of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and cu l t u r a l reforms, just one of which was the establishment of the vernacular language as the sole medium of written expression. In 1920 the Chinese Ministry of Education f i n a l l y ordered that the c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a r y language be replaced with the vernacular in primary schools, and by 1921 th i s had spread to the higher levels of education as we l l . This period of Chinese history i s referred to as the May Fourth period, and the writers of the 1920's and 1930's who were s t r i v i n g to establish a new l i t e r a t u r e i n the vernacular are generally known as May Fourth writers, even though the movement for a new l i t e r a t u r e i s deemed to have been started in 1917. This movement and the wider-ranging May Fourth Movement were based i n Peking, where Zhu Ziqing was a student at the time. He took a keen interest i n the movement to establish a new vernacular l i t e r a t u r e , and was one of the founders of the Xinchao 50% magazine (New Tide) which was f i r s t published on January 1, 1919 by a group of students at Peking University. As already stated, i n i t i a l l y he concentrated on writing vernacular poetry, but by the mid-1920's he had switched to writing prose. At this time modern Chinese vernacular l i t e r a t u r e was s t i l l i n the e a r l i e s t throes of i t s development, and while one cannot claim that Zhu Ziqing was a guiding l i g h t i n the l i t e r a r y revolution of the May Fourth era, i t i s true that his l u c i d and readable prose caught the attention of his contemporaries. Chen Duxiu had called for the overthrow of "pedantic, u n i n t e l l i g i b l e and obscurantist" l i t e r a t u r e . Zhu - 6 -Z i q i n g was seen by many of h i s f e l l o w s to provide a model f o r the achievement of that aim. - 7 -ZHU ZIQING'S FICTION Zhu Ziqing's e a r l i e s t prose took the form of the short story, and was produced while he was s t i l l active as a poet. After his f i r s t essay was published and met with great c r i t i c a l acclaim, Zhu Ziqing a l l but abandoned the poem and short story to seize the essay as his medium of l i t e r a r y expres-sion. Before this watershed in his l i t e r a r y career he produced only two short s t o r i e s , "Bie"#'/ ("Parting") and "Xiao de l i s h i " ^ ^ ^ ^ - ("A History of Laughter"). Zhu Ziqing himself claimed that these were the only short stories he wrote, although he conceded that two pieces included^in Belying gf ^ , a c o l l e c t i o n of essays published i n 1929, may be mistaken for short s t o r i e s . ^ It i s clear that one of the texts Zhu Ziqing had i n mind was "A He" Pj"/^- , but the other i s so well camouflaged as an essay that I have been unable to discern which one i t i s . Even i f Zhu Ziqing's f i c t i o n comprises a mere two short stories and one text of uncertain genre which he liked to think was an essay, i t i s worth examining as the precursor to the essays on which his reputation i s based. "Parting," written In 1921, dealt with the relationship between a married couple, forced by circumstances to l i v e apart. "A History of Laughter" was written i n 1923 and gave a v i v i d portrayal of the l i f e of a daughter-in-law i n a t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese household of the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l class. His f i n a l short story, "A-He", dealt with a scholar's concern for the welfare of a young servant woman, trapped i n an unhappy marriage. It was written i n 1926. The most s t r i k i n g feature of Zhu Ziqing's f i c t i o n Is i t s strong autobiographical nature. The f i r s t two stories are obviously inspired by the relationship between Zhu Ziqing and his f i r s t wife Wu Zhongqian ^iM. • In "A-He" the - 8 -narrator i s a scholar who we can assume i s a thinly-disguised Zhu Ziqing, an assumption which i s reinforced by the author's claim that this short story i s r e a l l y an essay. The fact that Zhu Ziqing's f i c t i o n deals with themes arising from his own experience implies that he had d i f f i c u l t y empathising with people of a different s o c i a l background from his own and was unable to bring their experiences to l i f e i n prose. His short stories show that he was better able to give insight into the Chinese society of his day by drawing on his own experience and that of those closest to him. This can be gauged by the contrast between the main female characters In "A History of Laughter" and "A-He." In "A History of Laughter" the narrator i s a woman who describes her l i f e as a daughter-in-law i n a s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l household. We learn about her experiences and how she reacts to them, and we come to know different facets of her character. In "A-He" the character of the servant after whom the story i s named i s not nearly so well defined. We are told that she i s eighteen years old, i n t e l l i g e n t and a t t r a c t i v e . We learn nothing about her feelings or the way she thinks, since she i s always seen from a distance. The only time she addresses the narrator d i r e c t l y nothing of consequence i s said and we gain no insight into her character. In this story i t i s the f i r s t person narrator whose character i s explored, and the narrator i s Zhu Ziqing. In "A History of Laughter" i t i s also the f i r s t person narrator's character which i s explored i n depth and this time the narrator i s Zhu Ziqing's wife, Wu Zhongqian. Even i f Zhu Ziqing's f i c t i o n i s limited somewhat by being so closely . linked to his personal experience, his short stories are not without merit. They give a view of the so c i a l forces working against individuals in the - 9 -society of the day, and they show Zhu Ziqing's technical v e r s a t i l i t y , each story being quite different i n style and structure. The best of the three stories i s "A History of Laughter," whose inclusion in the Yale University textbook Readings i n Contemporary Chinese Literature makes i t the work through which many students of modern Chinese Literature are introduced to Zhu Ziqing.-> Since i t i s the best of his short stories I propose to examine i t i n some d e t a i l and conclude with a brief comparison of the three works. "A History of Laughter" takes the form of a monologue. It i s narrated by a woman as i f talking to her husband, i n whose position the reader i s placed. The woman t e l l s how, as a c h i l d , she loved to laugh and was free to do so. Later, she i s chided for being unladylike i n her laughter, and as a young bride her laughter causes f r i c t i o n with her in-laws, who regard i t as improper and sometimes misconstrue i t as i n s u l t i n g . F i n a l l y , her role as daughter-in-law i n a well-to-do family f a l l e n on hard times wears her down to the extent that she i s no longer capable of laughing. This, then, i s the history of laughter alluded to i n the t i t l e . Not a catalogue of mirth through the ages, but an account of the stages i n a woman's tr a n s i t i o n from care-free daughter to care-worn daughter-in-law. The opening paragraph of the story consists of a single sentence: "You ask why I don't l i k e to laugh any more, but how could I bring myself to laugh n o w ? H & f t t t K * i £ 5 , §£ 3£ *JZ ? Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.12). Thus i s the sombre tone of the story established from the outset. We are l e f t i n no doubt that the history of laughter which i s about to be recounted w i l l not be a happy one. The r h e t o r i c a l question catches the reader's attention and i s emphasised by standing i n a paragraph of i t s own. The f i r s t word i n the story i s "you" and the reader's involvement i n - 10 -the story i s established immediately. As has already been mentioned, the reader i s placed i n the position of the narrator's husband. This involvement of the reader in the narrative reinforces the realism of the story. The succeeding paragraphs deal with the woman's development from childhood to her mid-twenties, where the story ends. The theme of her declining a b i l i t y to laugh i s always present and even overstated, but despite that i t remains a useful way of focusing our attention on the steady worsening of the woman's si t u a t i o n . Her childhood i s dealt with i n the second paragraph. We are told that she laughed a lot from her e a r l i e s t infancy and that her mother i n particular always l i k e d to hear her laugh. Zhu Ziqing avoids any implication that this was a golden age unsullied by hardship. Rather, the narrator's happy disposition i s portrayed as cheering her parents and bringing a welcome r e l i e f when things are going badly. The f i r s t sign of the s o c i a l forces which w i l l work against the narrator for the rest of the story comes at the end of this paragraph. By this time she i s i n her teens and her mother has died. This loss has l e f t her less inclined to laugh than she was before, but even so, she i s judged to laugh too readily and i s admonished by her r e l a t i v e s : "... g i r l s should be more refined, laughing i s ill-mannered" „&t&JJ£g fJfJZ ^ & j L %Lffl> £E &° (Zhu Ziqing Wenji, v . l , p.13). The rest of the story covers some seven years of the woman's l i f e , s t a rting with a marriage which we can assume was not of her own choosing: "When f i r s t I came into your household, everywhere I looked there were constraints on a young married woman, her position i n her husband's extended strangers! Even you were a stranger! n JFfl$>] ^ ffc $f 3fcjPjL£-During these seven years, the soc i a l - 11 -f a m i l y and her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t s members a l l conspire to deprive her of the happiness she used to enjoy. This Is a r e l e n t l e s s process which b u i l d s up g r a d u a l l y from small beginnings. At f i r s t , there i s no more than a temporary a n x i e t y , to be expected when adapting to new surroundings: " I was l i k e a s o l i t a r y s p i r i t ... I sometimes f e l t f r i g h t e n e d , a f r a i d that I would say or do something wrong" ^*fV- 6^... ^ n ^ f j ^ ^ M ^ t Y y t / ^ m i ^ ^ ( i b i d . ) . As her new surroundings become more f a m i l i a r , she relaxes and lapses i n t o her old f a i l i n g of u n i n h i b i t e d laughter. "However, your f a m i l y a f t e r a l l wasn't my f a m i l y , a f t e r the f i r s t month my laughter had made people quite unhappy" ^ J f , J ? j [ J ^ j f ^ ^ y , ^ J ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ y C « T ^ ^ 5 . (^u Z i q i n g  w e n j i , v . l , p.14). She soon learns t h a t , quite apart from being considered u n l a d y l i k e , her laughter can even arouse enmity when members of the household b e l i e v e i t i s d i r e c t e d at them. For example, the f a t h e r - i n - l a w ' s concubine takes offence e a r l y on and her animosity b u i l d s up over time. However, the most important person with whom the new bride has to deal i s her mother-in-law. The t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f a m i l y i d e a l l y held three genera-t i o n s under one roof: the husband and wife of the senior generation, t h e i r sons, unmarried daughters and sons' wives, and f i n a l l y the grandchildren. The mother ran the household and expected obedience from her daughters-in-law. This s t o r y gives a v i v i d p o r t r a y a l of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. I n i t i a l l y , the mother-in-law i s shown e x e r c i s i n g her a u t h o r i t y with tact and f a i r n e s s w i t h i n the s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s which she takes f o r granted: laughing i s u n l a d y l i k e and her daughter-in-law's conduct r e f l e c t s poorly on the e n t i r e household. Her admonition i s couched i n c o n c i l i a t o r y language: - 12 -"It' s also hard to blame you, your mother died early and your father didn't pay attention to these things •.. You are i n my household and I regard you as my own daughter; that's why I'm giving you special advice" Jt^.^P> itfL'ffi, ft'4 j z ^ ... w$-$t imt)L i # f k l 3 t % % & i ¥ o (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.15). As time goes by, the mother-in-law's attitude changes, ultimately, she hates her daughter-in-law, not for anything she has done, but rather because the young woman's position in the household makes her a convenient scapegoat for the mother-in-law's anger. When the household's f i n a n c i a l situation declines, the mother-in-law i s bad-tempered with everyone, but the narrator t e l l s us: "Naturally, being of a younger generation and from outside the family, I was even less fortunate r£&TfL,Z.Jtft&^>tf&3L&Hf 3 « Ziqing  wenji, v . l , p.19). The mother-in-law's disappointment at her son's f a i l u r e to send his entire salary home i s translated into hatred of his wife: "... i t wasn't my fa u l t but since she wasn't happy with you, naturally she was even less happy with me ... Now she seemed gradually to have come to hate me!" ... 4 ^ W j £ is te, fit * & =F # J... U f (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.20). F i n a l l y , a quarrel with her son leads the mother-in-law to blame her daughter-in-law for every misfortune that has befallen the household. She complains to her husband: "Ever since she came in the door, you haven't had a decent posting and the family's situation has grown worse day by day!" g //( ]~Jt ^WO^^^^ffi-^^ ^^LM^-~i^. JfiiH^-JLi (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.19). By this point everyone i n the household follows the mother-in-law's example and constantly finds fault with the narrator. In this story, Zhu Ziqing captures the i s o l a t i o n of the daughter-in-law - 13 -i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese household, the " n a t u r a l " scapegoat f o r the other f a m i l y members because of her j u n i o r status and her p o s i t i o n as an o u t s i d e r . This i s o l a t i o n i s compounded by the f a c t that the members of the fa m i l y she was born i n t o no longer regard her as one of t h e i r own. On her f i r s t v i s i t home a f t e r her marriage she i s s u r p r i s e d to f i n d h e r s e l f treated l i k e a guest. La t e r on she discover s that i n the eyes of her own r e l a t i v e s her i d e n t i t y i s merged with that of her husband's f a m i l y as a whole. When her f a t h e r - i n - l a w loses h i s job and the household f a l l s on hard times, her r e l a t i v e s look down on her. "At that time my r e l a t i v e s ' a t t i t u d e towards me had a l s o changed g r a d u a l l y ..• who would have thought my own r e l a t i v e s could a l s o be snobbish? ... they seemed to look down on me ... they a l l knew our household had become poor, that was the reason" #^£'4^!X. ^t3& ^^^(3 mm* f%z... tiz^A Uf&~4&iiy&&$Xfi?¥%ffitezha. Z i q i n g w e n j i , v . l , p.18). S i m i l a r l y , when her husband lands h i s f i r s t job her own r e l a t i v e s t e l l her she can f i n a l l y hold her head up. Her status derives from her husband and h i s f a m i l y . She as an i n d i v i d u a l has nothing to do with i t . This powerlessness i s the most n o t i c e a b l e feature of her l i f e a f t e r her marriage, and i t i s manifested at the very beginning i n the f a c t that she has no say i n the choice of a husband. Once i n the new household she has to suppress her true nature i n order to conform to the stereotype of r e f i n e d womanhood expected by her in-laws and s o c i e t y at l a r g e . F i n a l l y , her j u n i o r p o s i t i o n i n the household leaves her the most convenient scapegoat f o r a l l i t s misfortunes. Her r o l e as a woman t i e s her to the home. With her husband working i n another c i t y without the means to support h i s wife and c h i l d r e n , she i s economically dependent on her in-laws and has no choice but to endure - 14 -the mental anguish I n f l i c t e d on her. When her husband quarrels with his mother, he Is able to leave i n a huff. His wife enjoys no such p r i v i l e g e . She complains early i n the story that men are free to travel and to make friends outside the home, while women are v i r t u a l prisoners in the household. This i s cer t a i n l y borne out by the incident just referred to. The man Is free to leave when he t i r e s of his mother's bickering. His wife i s l e f t with no escape and i s even blamed for i n c i t i n g him to go. The story ends with the woman in her mid-twenties, the mother of two children who not only have broken her health but whose c h i l d i s h shortcomings provide members of the family with new excuses to put blame on her. Her misery i s at i t s most intense and the story ends, as i t began, with a paragraph composed of a single sentence: "Good one, good one, could you l e t me laugh just a few more times as casually and as joyously as I was able to when Mother was alive? takes her leave on a note of despair. Powerless to take her fate Into her own hands, the woman can only plead with her husband to find the means to release her, i f only temporarily, from the misery which circumstance has imposed on her. The sombre f i r s t and last sentences of the story, standing as paragraphs of their own, form a frame around the story which emphasizes the narrator's feelings of imprisonment and despair. "A History of Laughter" succeeds i n giving a r e a l i s t i c portrayal of the l i f e of a young woman in China i n the f i r s t quarter of the twentieth century. Certainly, she i s atypical i n being a member of a s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l household, but her story s t i l l t e l l s us much about the role of women in the Chinese society of the day. The daughter-in-law/mother-in-law relationship, the lack ? (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.24). The narrator - 15 -of an i d e n t i t y d i s t i n c t from that of her husband and his extended family, her low position i n the family hierarchy, the alienation from the family into which she was born, a l l are reflections of the society at large rather than of the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l class i n p a r t i c u l a r . The story offers a scathing indictment of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese extended family by revealing the destructive forces brought to bear against i t s weakest members. The narrator may be accused of wallowing i n s e l f - p i t y without doing anything to try to improve her l o t , but I feel that the story makes plain the strength of the so c i a l forces conspiring to keep her i n check. Zhu Ziqing i s more concerned with exposing an ailment than proposing a cure, but the story does imply that the nuclear family would offer the narrator a greater chance of f u l f i l m e n t . At one point the narrator laments that her husband i s s t i l l unable to afford to support her and their children outside of his parents' home, a prospect which she would obviously welcome. Throughout the story there i s the implication that the husband's long absences studying or working i n other c i t i e s contribute to his wife's v u l n e r a b i l i t y at the hands of other family members. The husband i s not idealised, however. He i s the f i r s t to object to his wife's uninhibited laughter, and later i n the story he loses his temper with her when she stops him from h i t t i n g one of the children. There Is also the implication that his frequent absences lead him to ignore the extent of his wife's unhappiness. Nevertheless, he i s portrayed as her only natural a l l y , and i t i s to him that her plea for a respite from her suffering i s directed i n the la s t sentence of the story. A husband and wife are also the central figures i n "Parting," Zhu Ziqing's f i r s t short story. In this story the theme i s the separation of a married couple, a theme which i s also prominent i n "A History of Laughter." - 16 -However, the structure of the two stories i s quite d i f f e r e n t . "Parting" i s narrated i n the thi r d person, and the focus of attention i s on the husband. The story i s much shorter than "A History of Laughter," as i s the time-span i t covers. There i s much more description i n "Parting" than i n "A History of Laughter," and this slows down the pace of the story. Indeed, the wordiness of some of the description i s a flaw which Zhu Ziqing recognised himself. In the preface to his c o l l e c t i o n of essays, Belying, he compared the flow of the narrative i n "Parting" to the gait of a cripple, and said that the sentences were too wordy and slow i n getting to the point.^ He may have overstated the case s l i g h t l y , but i t i s true that the story contains a l o t of description and explanation which could just as well have been omitted. On the positive side, the story does succeed i n giving a l i v e l y portrayal of the couple and how they f e e l at being forced to part. This story shares with "A History of Laughter" the implication that the nuclear family provides the most f u l f i l l i n g l i f e s t y l e . The husband i s working away from home, and his wife and c h i l d are l i v i n g with his parents. Unexpectedly, he receives word that the situation at home i s bad and that as a result his wife and c h i l d w i l l have to come and l i v e with him. He feels that this i s something of an imposition at f i r s t , but after they arrive i t becomes apparent that they are a l l happier together. Zhu Ziqing makes no direct attacks on the t r a d i t i o n a l extended family i n "Parting" but i t i s interesting to note the reason for the wife and c h i l d having to return to the parents' home after a year. This decision i s prompted by the imminent b i r t h of their second c h i l d , which w i l l e n t a i l an insupportable f i n a n c i a l burden unless the wife returns to the parents' home. This f i n a n c i a l burden w i l l be the result of having to bring the husband's mother to stay with them during the wife's - 17 -confinement. Although the husband calculates that they can manage without his mother's presence, he does not have the nerve to t e l l her so. It i s a measure of the tyranny exercised by the doctrine of f i l i a l piety that a grown man cannot t e l l his mother that he cannot afford to bring her to help at the b i r t h of a grandchild, and that rather than face up to her he prefers to send his wife home, even though he would rather they stayed together. Zhu Ziqing's f i n a l short story, "A-He," d i f f e r s from the other two in that i t does not deal with the relationship between members of the same family. Like "A History of Laughter" i t i s narrated i n the f i r s t person, but this time the narrator i s a man. He t e l l s of spending his winter holidays with some rel a t i v e s at their v i l l a in the countryside, and describes the interest which he develops i n A-He, an eighteen-year-old g i r l whom his rel a t i v e s hire as a servant. Although she gives her name to the story, she i s not the main character. As i n "A History of Laughter" that role i s f i l l e d by the narrator. The mistake of ponderous description and explanation which Zhu Ziqing made i n "Parting" i s not repeated i n "A-He." Here, the descriptive passages enhance the narrative. However, Zhu Ziqing does make a mistake i n f a i l i n g to develop f u l l y his narrator's interest i n A-He. The story remains consistent up to a point, and then i t seems to shy away and change direc t i o n . The narrator's interest i n A-He has been deepening, although he has kept his distance. A-He i s married to a brute of a man and wants a divorce. Her employers, not wishing to become involved i n her problems, dismiss her a couple of days before the narrator i s due to leave. This i s where the change i n d i r e c t i o n comes. The narrator returns to his university and two new characters are introduced gratuitously. He consults these friends for advice on how best to help A-He and, since neither of them has a clue either, he can - 18 -be absolved from taking any action. When he returns to v i s i t his relatives at the spring holiday, he learns that A-He's husband has agreed to release her from her marriage i f her father pays him eighty yuan. The narrator sends a donation to the good cause, but that i s the extent of his involvement. Soon afte r , he learns that A-He has married a merchant and i s doing very well for herself. This i s not the story of a relationship, since the narrator admires A-He from a distance and there i s no indication that she i s interested i n him. As an examination of the narrator's feelings i t f a l l s down because he never has to come to terms with them. The object of his affection i s snatched away by good fortune and a l l he need do Is carry on as before. What these three stories have i n common i s the presence of Zhu Ziqing himself. In "Parting" the male character i s a scholar working away from home. The husband's long absences studying or working are prominent i n "A History of Laughter," and the narrator i n "A-He" i s also a scholar. There can be no doubt that these characters are based on Zhu Ziqing. The close links between Zhu Ziqing's f i c t i o n and his personal experience have already been remarked upon. Nowhere i s this more apparent than i n "A History of Laughter," which t e l l s the story of Zhu Ziqing's f i r s t wife Wu Zhongqian. The fact that the narrator of the story i s Wu Zhongqian can be demonstrated by the many pa r a l l e l s between the Zhu household and the family described in the story. The facts that the marriage was arranged by the parents, that the husband l e f t for university soon af t e r , that in the following years he was usually absent from his parents' home where his wife remained, that the father lost his c i v i l service posting i n the same year that the grandmother died, are a l l p a r a l l e l occurences i n the Zhu family and the family i n the story. This does not reduce the worth of "A History of Laughter" as a piece of - 19 -prose. I t remains a s k i l f u l and v i v i d p o r t r a i t of a t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese f a m i l y and i t s e f f e c t on i t s l e a s t p r i v i l e g e d member. S i m i l a r l y , the flaws of the other two s t o r i e s have nothing to do with the extent to which they are based on the author's own experience. What the i n t r u s i o n of the author's experience does seem to demonstrate i s an i n a b i l i t y to empathise with people of a completely d i f f e r e n t background from h i s own and to make them come to l i f e i n prose. I t h i n k t h i s gives a clue as to why he wrote so l i t t l e f i c t i o n , and why he espoused the essay so wholeheartedly as h i s p r e f e r r e d medium of l i t e r a r y expression. I t i s to h i s essays, then, that we w i l l turn our a t t e n t i o n i n the ensuing chapters of t h i s t h e s i s . / - 20 -ESSAYS: LYRIC PROSE Zhu Ziqing's essay-writing spanned more than twenty years, with his f i r s t essay appearing i n 1923. Most of his essays were written in the 1920's and 1930's, after which time his academic endeavours took precedence over creative w r i t i n g . The subjects on which he chose to expound were many and varied, but most of his essays can be divided into four categories: 1) l y r i c description; 2) examination of personal relationships, especially within the family; 3) so c i a l c r i t i c i s m ; and 4) accounts of his travels. Zhu Ziqing had served a long apprenticeship as a poet before turning his hand to writing essays, so i t comes as no surprise that his f i r s t few essays f a l l into the category of l y r i c description. "Jiangsheng-dengying l i de Q i n h u a i h e "^ f ^ T ^ J &2^ /j? >*f ("The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River") was published i n Xiaoshuo yuebao i n November, 1923. It met with great c r i t i c a l acclaim, and this rapid success prompted Zhu Ziqing to begin channelling his l i t e r a r y energies away from poetry and into the genre of the essay. In his book Zhu Ziqing yanjiu ^^M'ffi^/ » Zhou J i n states that Zhu Ziqing's success as a poet was hard-won, coming after years of practice. He then goes on to say: As far as his essays were concerned, i t was quite d i f f e r e n t , i t seemed as i f he had great success as soon as his pen touched the paper ... His essays ... i n the manner of genius rocked the l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s of the day as soon as they appeared ... (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p. 127) - 21 -The success of "The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhual River" can be gauged by the opinion of Zhou Zuoren that i t was "a model for a r t i s t i c writing in the vernacular" £ \$ $ljL 5Ctf?Jl$L%5l> (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p.128). Zhu Ziqing continued to write essays of l y r i c description. "Wenzhou de z o n g j i " ^ •J-I'l ("Traces of Wenzhou"), written i n 1924, i s a set of four brie f essays, the f i r s t three of which are l y r i c prose. Thereafter, Zhu Ziqing turned to other subjects, but l y r i c description continued to figure among them. At least a dozen of his essays f a l l into this category. Most of them describe outdoor scenes, but he also t r i e d his hand at describing music, a painting and the coming of spring. His two most highly regarded pieces of l y r i c prose are "The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River" and "Hetang yuese"-^ $ ("The Lotus Pool by Moonlight") and I propose to examine them i n some d e t a i l . To avoid implying that a l l Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c prose deals with water at night-time, I s h a l l also examine "Gesheng" ^jf^Jf^ ("Melodies"), a brief essay dealing with Zhu Ziqing's impressions of a concert he attended. "The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River" describes a v i s i t by Zhu Ziqing and his friend, the writer Yu Pingbo ^ ^ , to the Qinhuai River in August, 1923. Apart from being Zhu Ziqing's f i r s t essay, i t i s also one of his longest, running to some 5,200 characters. The essay opens with a brief introductory paragraph of three sentences and then goes on to give a detailed account of the river's appearance and of the human a c t i v i t i e s which give i t i t s p articular character. The f i r s t of these i s boating. The author expresses his opinion that the boats on the Qinhuai River are superior to those found at four other recrea-- 22 -t i o n a l centres i n China, including the famous West Lake at Hangzhou. This high praise i s followed by a description of the two types of boat character-i s t i c of the Qinhuai River, which leads to a description of the riv e r as viewed from one of these boats at night, in the process touching on allusions to the beauty of the Qinhuai River i n c l a s s i c a l Chinese l i t e r a t u r e . One of the d e t a i l s chosen to help recreate the atmosphere of the riv e r i s the sound of song, emanating from boats and from the brothels on the riverbank. This introduces the second a c t i v i t y for which the r i v e r i s noted, p r o s t i t u t i o n . However, this intrusion by the less salubrious side of the river's character does not immediately dispel the enchantment with the river's nocturnal beauty which the author has expressed so far: We were well aware that those songs were no more than a few time-worn words produced mechanically by an unmelodious voice, but when they traversed the r i p p l i n g breeze of the summer night and the lapping of the waves to linger by our ears, they were no longer merely their ( i . e . : the prostitutes') songs but were mingled with the secret of the breeze and the riverwater. (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.130) As the journey down the r i v e r continues, landmarks are described and we are made aware of the river's changing aspect; at times bustling with a c t i v i t y amind the l i g h t s of the boats, and at others lonely and desolate. About half way through the essay, the author's attention i s diverted from the scenery. Prostitutes who make a l i v i n g from singing ply their trade from boats on the r i v e r , and such a boat draws alongside the boat hired by Zhu Ziqing and his - 23 -fri e n d . We are given a detailed account of this encounter and i t s emotional impact on the author. When a man boards their boat with songbook i n hand i n the hope of drumming up some business, Zhu Ziqing's discomfiture i s caused by thoughts of what other people are thinking: "As he stepped across, many a gaze seemed to follow him onto our boat" At*, jr^L S$L- 8^ ^%,,^L^\1^ (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.134). This discomfiture i s made apparent i n the way the author handles the intrusion. He t r i e s to glance nonchalantly at the prostitutes but does not quite succeed, and when the song-book i s thrust into his hands and he i s invited to select a few songs, he i s so flustered that he leafs through the book hurriedly and hardly makes out any of the writi n g . He stutters that they are not interested and his friend concurs in a rather more resolute tone. F i n a l l y , the intruder leaves, "seemingly with some disdain ..." j%?ffs£-J$f -//^ ^ 7 ( i b i d . ) . Zhu Ziqing succeeds i n giving a v i v i d account of the incident and the tension i t causes, which i s heightened by the fact that i t i s preceded by a tranquil scene of trees along the riverbank and their beauty against the moonlit sky. Unfortunately, i n parts of the essay Zhu Ziqing i s needlessly e x p l i c i t . The encounter with the prostitutes i s followed by a long passage of self-examination which becomes rather tedious. Although his account of his actions has already shown that the fear of public disapproval was of importance i n his decision not to be serenaded by the ladies of the night, he feels the need to t e l l the reader d i r e c t l y . He says he bowed to moral pressure, although he f e l t sorry for the women and i t probably would have done no harm to l i s t e n to them. He decries his own selfishness and praises his friend Yu Pingbo, whose motives for refusing were more noble. He respected the women, and f e l t that to l i s t e n to them singing would be to subject them to - 24 -i n d i g n i t y . A l l t h i s could have been expressed in rather less than the 800 or so characters which Zhu Ziqing devotes to the task. The paragraph which follows and which concludes the essay Is of si m i l a r length, but i t i s much more expressive. The thread of description which was dropped before the previous paragraph i s picked up again as Zhu Ziqing recounts the return journey down the r i v e r . They have been accosted twice more i n the manner previously described and the author's unease has increased. However, t h e i r return i s not prompted by a f l i g h t of a g i t a t i o n . Rather, i t i s the boatman's desire to pick up another fare which leads him to suggest to his passengers that they might l i k e to return, and they "agree, not caring one way or another" ^s'^'^fizfa 7£2 (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.136). This loss of i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r outing i s not maintained, however, and they are affected by t h e i r changing surroundings on t h e i r way back down the r i v e r . Zhu Ziqing weaves a complex tapestry of sights, sounds and emotions. The i n t e r p l a y between darkness and l i g h t i s explored anew, and the darkness takes on a s i n i s t e r q u a l i t y which was absent in the early part of the essay. A larger boat carrying prostitutes passes and i s described as "pitch-black without any trace of l i g h t " J c $py$_^ — 7 ^ ( i b i d . ) , and when they pass under a bridge i t i s "as i f the darkness had opened a gigantic mouth and wanted to gulp down our boat" 3** j g ^ # £ ^ f # ^ 1 % I ~f ^  ( i b i d . ) . Yet, where e a r l i e r i t was the author's enchantment with the r i v e r which transformed the mechanical and tuneless songs of the p r o s t i t u t e s , here the b e a u t i f u l singing of a woman on the passing boat causes the author ( i b i d . ) . The author begins to recapture the dream-like q u a l i t y which characterised the early stages of t h e i r journey; but the journey ends a l l too and his f r i e n d to " l i s t e n a t t e n t i v e l y and with - 25 -soon, and they are l e f t with the feeling of an enchantment having dissolved. This essay succeeds i n giving a l i v e l y and multi-faceted portrayal of the Qinhuai River at night. Zhu Ziqing's apprenticeship as a poet has armed him with an extensive vocabulary which stands him i n good stead i n describing various types of l i g h t and darkness and in creating different mooods, bringing his experience of the Qinhuai River to l i f e . Unfortunately, he does spend too long making e x p l i c i t the reactions of himself and his friend to their encounter with the prostitutes, which adds very l i t t l e to the essay. Despite that, the essay i s a creditable piece of l y r i c prose, the more so when one bears i n mind that i t represents the author's f i r s t foray into the genre of the essay. According to Zhou J i n , "In the early days of vernacular l i t e r a t u r e , to be able to write l i k e this was rare indeed" 4 ^ fej 3 ^ ^M.&^Ml&A-J&l^ $%fe>fe^ (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p.129). In their book on the history of modern Chinese l i t e r a t u r e , ^ Tian Zhongji and Sun Changxi describe "The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River" as turning the sights and sounds of the Qinhuai River into "an enchanting painting" i t goes on to say, This essay was mainly concerned with describing scenery, but i t also contained an expression of sympathy with song-girls, subjected to humiliation and harm, and demonstrated his feeling of deep affection for the labouring people. -^(Zhongguo xiandai wenxue s h i , p.96) This invests Zhu Ziqing's ambivalent reaction to his encounter with the song-g i r l s with a sense of purpose which I believe i t lacks. The element of social c r i t i c i s m i n this essay i s quite i n s i g n i f i c a n t , and i t s success l i e s - 26 -exclusively with Zhu Ziqing's a b i l i t y to create an "enchanting painting" with words. Another of Zhu Ziqing's highly-regarded pieces of l y r i c prose i s "The Lotus Pool by Moonlight." Written i n 1927, i t shares with "The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River" the depiction of a night scene involving water and the expression of a feeling of unease. It i s much less wordy, however, a mere 1,200 characters to the e a r l i e r essay's 5,200. Rather than try to capture an expansive scene1 and an array of emotions, i t concentrates i t s efforts on the v i v i d portrayal of one scene and one emotion. Written while the author was an instructor at Qinghua University i n Peking, the essay describes the author's frame of mind during a s t r o l l around the lotus pool on the Qinghua campus one summer night. The author's frame of mind i s introduced in the f i r s t l i n e of the essay: "These few days I have been feeling quite u n s e t t l e d * ; ^ / ! ^ 'vo j£_ ^ —j1-(Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.182). This unsettled feeling i s highlighted by the fact that everything around i s peaceful: The moon had gradually risen high; outside the wall the laughter of children i n the street was already no longer heard; inside the house my wife was patting Run-er and quietly humming a l u l l a b y . (Ibid.) The silence which has descended on the street with the children no longer at play, and the quiet l u l l a b y from within the house contrast with the author's unsettled feeling and bring i t more v i v i d l y to our attention. As a way of diverting himself, the author decides to go for a walk by the lotus pool. The f i r s t thing he describes i s the path s k i r t i n g the pool, and - 27 -he manages to convey an intense f e e l i n g of s o l i t u d e and calm. He points out that i t i s a secluded pathway, l i t t l e frequented during the day, so n a t u r a l l y i t i s even more l o n e l y at n i g h t . This s e c l u s i o n i s emphasised by r e f e r r i n g to the trees which grow t h i c k l y along the pathway and by noting that on moonless ni g h t s the path i s so dark and gloomy that i t i s even a l i t t l e f r i g h t e n i n g . To avoid i n t r o d u c i n g a s i n i s t e r tone, the author adds that on t h i s occasion there i s nothing f r i g h t e n i n g about i t , d espite the paleness of the moonlight. The s e c l u s i o n i s perceived i n a p o s i t i v e way, being seen to a f f o r d a c e r t a i n k i n d of freedom: On the path there was only myself, pacing w i t h my hands behind my back. This piece of heaven and earth seemed to be mine ... t o n i g h t , a person under t h i s pale moon could t h i n k anything at a l l , or not t h i n k anything at a l l , and f e e l l i k e a free person. Things which i n the daytime would d e f i n i t e l y have to be done, and words which would d e f i n i t e l y have to be spoken, could a l l be disregarded now. V l t i > \ 6 J * l & & * r * : (ibid.) A f t e r t h i s , the author proceeds to a d e s c r i p t i o n of the l o t u s pool i t s e l f . This d e s c r i p t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o three paragraphs, the f i r s t of which d e p i c t s the surface of the p o o l . The most s t r i k i n g feature of the pool i s the expanse of l o t u s leaves which covers i t , s t r e t c h i n g high above the surface of the water, dotted here and there w i t h white l o t u s blossoms. The next paragraph deals with the q u a l i t y of the moonlight and the appearance i t lends to the p o o l , and the t h i r d paragraph describes the trees which crowd densely around i t . This paragraph a l s o returns our a t t e n t i o n to the author's frame of mind, c l o s i n g w i t h : "At t h i s time the l i v e l i e s t things have to be the sounds - 28 -of cicadas on the trees and of frogs i n the water; but the l i v e l i n e s s was t h e i r s , I had none at alV'^fff jJtM j0. $6$ ^! 0C _£ J # P £$Mj£;4Z%ffl^tZ1ll%Mfr&&^^ (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , pp. 183-184). The association of l i v e l i n e s s with the lotus pool leads the author to think of the ancient custom of gathering the lotus blossoms, which used to be important i n southern China. He quotes c l a s s i c a l references to this a c t i v i t y , and thinking of this makes him homesick for the south. This may have been the source of his unease at the beginning of the essay, and i f so the essay has come f u l l c i r c l e : This f i n a l l y led me to keep thinking about the south. I was thinking l i k e this when suddenly I raised my head, and without having noticed, I was already i n front of my own door; I gently pushed the door and entered, there was no sound at a l l , my wife had already been fast asleep for a long time. (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.184) In "The Lotus Pool by Moonlight" Zhu Ziqing s k i l f u l l y paints a picture of complete t r a n q u i l i t y and natural beauty which stands in stark contrast to his troubled frame of mind. This contrast gives emphasis to his emotional state. The essay i s concise and well-structured, the description v i v i d and expres-sive. I consider this the best of Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c essays. Before moving on to consider Zhu Ziqing's essays concerning personal relationships, I s h a l l examine b r i e f l y another of Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c essays i n order to demonstrate that the s i m i l a r i t i e s between "The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River" and "The Lotus Pool by Moonlight" do not extend to a l l of Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c description. "Melodies" i s included in an anthology of - 29 -Zhu Ziqing's works published i n Hong Kong. 0 There is no indication as to when i t was written, but i t i s representative of many of Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c essays, being very brief and l i m i t i n g i t s e l f to the portrayal of one subject. In this case, i t i s the effect which a certain concert had on the author. Similar essays include "Baishui j i " ^ ^C/^ > which describes a w a t e r f a l l , and "Yue menglong, niao menglong, lianjuan haitang hong"^ ffipflfc,%Wfr%fb, J^S-^X- ("A Hazy Moon, Drowsy Birds, a Rolled-up Blind and the Red of Crabapple Blossoms") which describes a painting. "Melodies" consists of f i v e paragraphs, but the whole essay i s no more than 400 characters long. The f i r s t paragraph i s made up of a single sentence, i n which the author states that he was enchanted by three pieces of music at a concert which he attended the previous evening. The next three paragraphs represent the three pieces which he found so moving. The f i r s t appeals to his sense of touch, and he describes the sensation of l i g h t d r i z z l e and gentle breeze on a spring morning. The second appeals to his sight, and he imagines a garden f u l l of bright flowers; while the third appeals to his sense of smell, evoking the fragrance of the flowers, the smell of damp earth as well as other smells carried on the breeze from outside the garden. These are from newly transplanted r i c e , young grain and the new foliage of willow trees, a l l of which the author concedes are not delicate fragrances but which nonetheless were stimulating to his sense of smell. These three paragraphs combine to provide a picture of freshness and vigour, depicting the sensations, sights and smells of a spring morning. Nowhere i s there any mention of sound or of the music u n t i l the f i n a l paragraph of the essay states that these impressions of springtime were contained i n the music referred to in the f i r s t paragraph. - 30 -In this essay, Zhu Ziqing gives a v i v i d representation of the evocative power of music, without describing the sound of the music i t s e l f or any sounds associated with the scene i t creates i n his imagination. This novel way of depicting music bears witness to Zhu Ziqing's capacity for imaginative and expressive descriptive writ i n g . The examples examined i n this chapter demonstrate Zhu Ziqing's v e r s a t i l i t y In l y r i c description, from the vast and expansive canvas of "The Sound of Oars on the Qinhuai River by Lamplight" to the cameo po r t r a i t of "Melodies." Although his reputation as an essayist i s based largely on his l y r i c essays, his best-known essay f a l l s into the category of those which examine personal relationships. It i s to these that we w i l l turn our attention i n the next chapter. - 31 -TREATMENT OF PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS The theme of personal relationships i s one to which Zhu Ziqing turns his attention i n many of his essays. His best-known essay, "Beiying" ^ , deals with the relationship between a father and his adult son, and many of Zhu Ziqing's essays deal with the relationships between family members. Since he seems to have been p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n t h i s , we s h a l l examine three of these essays i n some d e t a i l . Most of Zhu Ziqing's writings on friendship are eulogies to deceased friends. I t i s his writings on family relationships which reveal most about his own character and his ideas of how people treat each other and how they ought to behave. Zhu Ziqing's e a r l i e s t treatment of personal relationships came in his short s t o r i e s , which have already been dealt with i n an e a r l i e r chapter. His f i r s t essays comprised l y r i c description and soci a l c r i t i c i s m , but the publication of the prose anthology Beiying i n 1929 saw a return to the theme of personal relationships, most notably in the essays "Beiying" and "Ernii" i t ("Sons and Daughters"). The anthology Ni-wo 4<fi^fc (You and I ) , published i n 1936, also contains essays i n this category. In the short stories "Parting" and "A History of Laughter" Zhu Ziqing examines a husband and wife relationship and the relationship between a woman and her in-laws. Both these stories are closely linked to the experience of Zhu Ziqing and his f i r s t wife, Wu Zhongqian. In his essays Zhu Ziqing continues to examine his own family l i f e . In "Sons and Daughters" he describes his relationship with his young children. In "Gei wangfu".^^ ("To My Late Wife"), taking the form of a l e t t e r to Wu Zhongqian three years after her death at the age of thirty-two, Zhu Ziqing describes his feelings - 32 -towards her and paints a v i v i d portrait of her as a devoted mother and wife, whose early death was due i n no small part to her exertions on behalf of her family. Wu Zhongqian also figures i n "Ze ou j i " $^-/f$J j ^ , ("The Story of Choosing a Bride"), which l i k e the short story "A History of Laughter" i s c r i t i c a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese family's treatment of women. Although Wu Zhongqian figures prominently i n her husband's short stories and essays dealing with personal relationships, i t i s Zhu Ziqing's relationship with his father which inspired his most famous essay. Popularly regarded as Zhu Ziqing's best piece of prose, "Belying" was written i n October, 1927. Published one year late r in the prose anthology of the same name, i t struck a responsive chord i n devotees of f i l i a l piety which ensured i t enduring popularity. To this day, "Beiying" i s included in the curriculum of most schools i n Hong Kong and Taiwan. In the People's Republic i t s reputation endures despite the conventional Marxist dismissal of i t s "petty bourgeois i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s sentimentality."^ The essay can be examined i n three sections. The f i r s t of these, consisting of the f i r s t f i v e sentences, sets the scene. We are told that the author's most l a s t i n g memory i s of his father's beiying ^ ^ / , his figure as seen from behind. We are taken back to one winter when the author and his father both returned home for the funeral of his father's mother, and learn that the family's sorrows are compounded by the loss of the father's o f f i c i a l post and income. The second section of the essay consists of the next three paragraphs which deal i n d e t a i l with the episode which gives rise to the author's l a s t i n g memory of his father alluded to above. Father and son travel to Nanking, where the father i s to seek employment and the son w i l l catch the train to - 33 -return to his studies i n Peking. The important episode i s their parting at the railway station. It i s here that the father's love for his son becomes apparent. I t becomes apparent without the father stating i t , and i t i s only with hindsight that the son shows himself to be f u l l y aware of i t . We see the father through the son's eyes, and the son begins by finding f a u l t . When the father haggles with the baggage porters over the cost of their services, the son t e l l s us: At that time I was r e a l l y oversmart, I always f e l t that he did not speak very eloquently and I had to chip i n myself" M- * J ? i & & , % * V £ i& i£ * * &>% yf. ~5f (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p. 161). Once they get i n the t r a i n , the father chooses a seat for the son, helps him get settled and gives him such unneces-sary advice as: "Be careful on the road, sleep with one eye open, and don't catch cold" 'C>\ff J t ^ T f a ^ ^ ^ ' f t ^ d b i d . ) . He also enjoins the attendant i n the t r a i n to look after the son, who a l l this time i s thinking: "In my heart I snickered at his pedantry and old-fashioned notions ... And at my age! Surely I was not incapable of looking after myself?";^ "v2>v JC»~ ? ( i b i d . ) . In this episode Zhu Ziqing gives an accurate portrayal of a father and son relationship, showing us the father s t i l l seeing the child in the young man, who at twenty years of age feels he i s much too old to be treated so protectively. The author i n t e r j e c t i n g , "Ah! Now that I think about i t , at that time I r e a l l y was oversmart!" £&](t-'^j^^fifi^j^L J / ( i b i d . ) shows how hindsight has permitted him to see his father's actions as the expression of aff e c t i o n , rather than as unwarranted i n t e r f e r -ence and a b e l i t t l i n g refusal to acknowledge the son's adulthood. After this the beiying which has made such an impression on the author i s - 34 -described. The father decides to go and buy some tangerines for the son. As this means getting down from the platform, crossing the railroad tracks and mounting the platform opposite, i t entails a certain amount of exertion on the part of the father, who i s rather overweight. Refusing his son's offer to go instead, the father's exertions are described i n some d e t a i l and the author t e l l s us: "At this point I watched his outline from behind and my tears quickly flowed d o w n " i ^ U^ffi ( i b i d . ) . Then reinforcing the realism of the narrative, he adds: "I quickly wiped the tears dry, afraid that he would see, or that anyone else would see" &J+bjC#l&JtZte&jA#1& ( i b i d . ) . The father's painful progress back, hampered as he i s by having an armful of tangerines to contend with, i s then care f u l l y described. Father and son s i t i n silence for a while and then the father leaves, reminding the son to write. The author describes his emotions watching his father leave: "I waited u n t i l his form disappeared into the m i l l i n g crowd and could no longer be found, then I came in and sat down and my tears came again" % #>JJL-&yf.£T, >€5ZJ£J (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p. 162). In this section of the essay, we see the son's attitude change from i r r i t a t i o n at what he perceives as his father's shortcomings: his pedantry and clinging to outworn rules and ideas, his lengthy haggling with porters over the cost of their services, and his seeming denial of his son's adult-hood. This i r r i t a t i o n i s replaced with a r e a l i s a t i o n of his father's affection for him, an affection expressed not i n fine phrases but i n small deeds. In coming to the station to see him off , i n choosing a pleasant seat i n the t r a i n for him, i n exerting himself to go and buy some f r u i t for him to - 35 -eat on his journey, the father demonstrates a genuine affection for his son more eloquently than words could express. The third section of the essay consists of the f i n a l paragraph. The events described i n the previous section took place years before, and the author explains how the family's fortunes have waned since then and how the father's f i n a n c i a l worries have made him i r r i t a b l e and distanced him from his son. At the time of writing, father and son have not met for two years and their separation has allowed old misunderstandings to fade. The son receives a l e t t e r from his father, saying his health i s fading and death cannot be far away. Reading t h i s , the author r e c a l l s the figure of his father as he saw him at the railway station: "... I saw again the back of that corpulent figure clothed i n a green cotton gown and a black mandarin jacket" ... >Z. Jf^ ( i b i d . ) and the essay ends with a sorrow-f u l : "Ah! I don't know when I w i l l be able to see him again!" -^j&sfZf i ^ ^ ^ ^ f c / ( i b i d . ) . In this essay, Zhu Ziqing expresses his affection for his father and his father's affection for him without stating either openly. He s k i l f u l l y draws together small d e t a i l s to present a natural picture of a father and son. Their relationship i s not perfect and the essay carries a heavy tone of regret, e.g.: "At that time I r e a l l y was oversmart ..." and "Ah! I don't know when I w i l l be able to see him again!" Zhu Ziqing does not portray himself as a model of f i l i a l piety, but those who subscribe to the doctrine of f i l i a l piety can take comfort i n the fact that the intervening years have brought him to re a l i s e the true nature of his father's feelings for him and of his own feelings for his father. Herein l i e s the source of the essay's i popularity. Whatever Marxist c r i t i c s may say about "petty bourgeois - 36 -i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s sentimentality," the bond between parents and children i s extremely important i n Chinese society, be i t in the PRC or in the most remote Chinese community abroad. Zhu Ziqing presents a son with whose f a i l i n g s most can i d e n t i f y and whose r e a l i s a t i o n of the bond between himself and his father most can applaud. "Beiying" i s characteristic of Zhu Ziqing's essays dealing with personal relationships i n i t s refusal to present an idealised picture of human nature. It i s i r o n i c that this essay should have earned him the reputation of a devotee of Confucian family values, especially when his other writings are so c r i t i c a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese family. His short story "A History of Laughter" springs immediately to mind as an example of Zhu Ziqing's opposition to certain features of t r a d i t i o n a l family l i f e . It i s complemented by the essay "The Story of Choosing a Bride." Whereas "A History of Laughter" examines the treatment of a young woman after her marriage, "The Story of Choosing a Bride" deals with the process preceding her selection as a suitable mate for the eldest son of the house-hold. In this essay, Zhu Ziqing unmasks a society i n which young g i r l s are traded l i k e brood mares. They and their prospective husbands have no say i n the matter, and the boy's parents place less importance on temperament and compatibility than on small feet, a large breeding capacity and good blood-l i n e s . Zhu Ziqing uses calm understatement to allow the i n j u s t i c e of the t r a d i t i o n a l way of choosing a spouse to speak for i t s e l f . Rather than being subjected to a tirade against the feudal family system, the reader i s presented with the author's recollections of his parents' search for a suitable daughter-in-law, focusing on incidents which show the i n s e n s i t i v i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l system of match-making to the two people most affected by - 37 -i t . The author presents his reminiscences without passing judgement, but there can be no doubt as to his feelings on the matter. The f i r s t sentence of the essay demonstrates how marriage was regarded as the concern of the family rather than of the i n d i v i d u a l : "I was the eldest son and grandson, so the question of a wife was raised by the time I was eleven years old" ^ i O ^ ^\ Bf\^f^\ +~ £ tfc jj^ ^5(Zhu Ziqing wenji, v.2, p.301). The author goes on to say that at such an early age he paid no attention to the idea of marriage, and that his betrothal was arranged without his noticing. This i s emphasised by the fact that whenever a v i s i t o r comes from the fiancee's v i l l a g e , the author pays less attention to any news of his future wife than to the food brought by the v i s i t o r as a present. This expresses c l e a r l y how t r i v i a l the choice of a l i f e - l o n g partner seems to a c h i l d of eleven. In the second paragraph the author r e c a l l s how the news of his fiancee's death was received when he was twelve years old: "Nobody i n the family sighed [for her], probably when they saw her she was s t i l l l i t t l e , so with the passage of time they had no clear idea of what kind jE- ~" 7 . ~$ ( i b i d . ) . A daughter-in-law i s regarded less as 1 c of person she was"^J^>£?^ a person than as a commodity essential to the propagation of the family. No time i s lo s t i n searching for a replacement. The author next relates how three more prospective brides f a l l by the wayside before the woman he f i n a l l y does marry i s chosen, each incident revealing new c r i t e r i a by which the s u i t a b i l i t y of a match i s judged. One g i r l i s rejected because she i s overweight, which places her a b i l i t y to give b i r t h i n doubt. An attempt to arrange a marriage with her h a l f - s i s t e r , daughter of their father's concubine, i s rebuffed by the g i r l s ' family. - 38 -Presumably i t was more important to marry off the daughter of a wife than the daughter of a concubine. This episode also presents the other side of the coin: the parents of the g i r l s c r u t i n i s i n g a prospective son-in-law. He meets with their approval because he "does not look short-lived" ^*-J^, '5§2^ r $9 J& (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v.2, p.302), although having seen him walking they think there may be something wrong with his feet. The next attempt at obtaining a daughter-in-law seems to be going w e l l . There Is even an appraisal of the g i r l ' s character; clever and vivacious. More to the point, her father i s an even lower-ranking o f f i c i a l than the boy's father, which seems to have been desirable from the point of view of the boy's family. The matter i s within a hair's breadth of being settled when the boy's mother discovers that the g i r l i s adopted. That puts an end to i t . It i s no good having a clever and vivacious daughter-in-law from a family of acceptable rank i f her bloodlines cannot be confirmed! F i n a l l y , a suitable daughter-in-law i s found and married into the family. "This time the report was not bad, except that her feet were a l i t t l e large"j^-g7 ^ ^ V t l f c j L (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v.2, p.303). The prospective in-laws request that the g i r l ' s feet be bound before the marriage takes place. When i t turns out that this has not been done, there i s some unpleasantness but the marriage s t i l l goes ahead. The essay ends with this squabble over the size of the bride's feet. This essay reveals those c r i t e r i a uppermost i n the minds of parents looking for a suitable daughter-in-law. The main concern i s that she be good breeding-stock; of acceptable parentage herself and capable of bearing many children. That the son should l i k e her and she him i s of no importance what-ever. In none of the cases described i n the essay do the intended partners - 39 -meet each other. The object of the exercise i s not to select a l i f e - l o n g companion for an individual so much as a vehicle for the propagation of the family. Without resorting to strident denunciation, this essay succeeds in bringing home to the reader the i n s e n s i t i v i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l system of arranging marriages to the very people who must endure i t s consequences, the bride and groom. In "Sons and Daughters" Zhu Ziqing directs our attention to the aftermath of the process described above, that i s to the ra i s i n g of the children which marriage i s intended to produce. This essay f a l l s into two sections; a description of the author's relationship with his children up to the time the essay was written, and an expression of his thoughts on how children ought to be raised i n general and of his hopes of putting these into practice i n what remains of his offspring's childhood. The author i s frank In presenting his inadequacies as a father: "I am a s e l f i s h person through and through; as a husband I am already inadequate, as a father I am even less accomplished" ^  4*77 7^ iff M< t %L i£ ^ A^CsO^ 5 A f e f f f e > ^ f f J ^ s F J ^ ^ f r f c (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.197). He notes w i s t f u l l y that another author has pointed out that many of the world's greatest personages were unmarried, and Zhu Ziqing regrets that by the time he was aware of the lack of freedom which marriage would bring, his marriage had already been arranged by his parents. Zhu Ziqing's account of l i f e with the five children which his marriage had produced by the time the essay was written presents features of family l i f e which hold true the world over. His description of the pandemonium which reigns at meal-times i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l u c i d i n expressing the contrariness of childhood: - 40 -... you want a big bowl, he wants a small bowl, you say red chopsticks are best, he says black chopsticks are best; this one wants r i c e , that one wants gruel, one wants tea while one wants soup, one wants f i s h while one wants meat, one wants bean curd, one wants turnip; you say he has more food, he says you have better food" . . . ^ f ^ : ^ , * d <l-*&, \t & flLZthteisLM. (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.198) However, this essay i s less a tableau of family l i f e than an exploration of the author's discomfiture i n his role of father. Married off by his parents at age nineteen, Zhu Ziqing was the father of two children by the time he was twenty-three. "At that time I was just l i k e a wild s t a l l i o n , how could I tolerate that cumbersome saddle, b r i d l e and reins?" m i s . * - * - e » % & n * » k , z ° m % ? (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.199). Feeling trapped in his role as a father, his resentment s p i l l s over into an undue swiftness i n resorting to force as a means of d i s c i p l i n e . On one p a r t i c u l a r l y heinous occasion, he tri c k s his wife into leaving the house so that he can beat their two-and-a-half year old son without her interference. This i s the reaction to months of the c h i l d crying at the slightest provocation, compounded by embarrassment at the disturbance which the crying causes the neighbours. Zhu Ziqing expresses his regret at his extreme reaction, but i t seems plain that his remorse has not provided the impetus to reform. In describing his children, the author reveals an i n a b i l i t y to ide n t i f y closely with them. His depiction of their shortcomings i s not softened by parental pride. Although he concedes the cuteness of l i t t l e babies and gives a d e l i g h t f u l p o r t r a i t of his five-month-old daughter, his three-year-old son - 41 -i s described as extremely stupid because he has not learned to talk without making mistakes i n grammar and pronunciation. For t h i s , the author asserts, "We are always laughing at him" ^Jk'ffl^jL- flf i^L> &9 (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.201). The child's physique also gives r i s e to merriment: "He i s a fat l i t t l e thing with short legs. When he walks he hobbles funnily; i f he walks quickly or runs, he i s an even better sight" ( i b i d . ) . S i m i l a r l y , his seven-year-old daughter's t h i r s t for knowledge i s not praised, but i s presented as a tedious barrage of questions. Despite his annoyance at his children's shortcomings, the author i s not completely oblivious to their feelings. He expresses his regret at the fact that he and his wife can only manage to keep the three youngest children with them in Peking, and that the two eldest have had to be l e f t i n his parents' care. He i s concerned that they may feel neglected, not so much at being separated from him, but at being separated from their mother. This brother and s i s t e r being separated from me has always been a common occurence, but although they have been separated from their mother once before, this time i t has been for too long. I know how their l i t t l e hearts must endure that loneliness! (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.203) In the f i n a l two paragraphs of the essay, Zhu Ziqing turns from describing his own family to expressing what he perceives as general principles of child-rearing which he hopes to apply i n r a i s i n g his children. He says that his f i r s t task would be to gather a l l the children under one roof rather than farming the elder ones out to his parents. Then he would devote - 42 -more of his energies to their upbringing than he has so f a r . He warns of the p i t f a l l s of contenting oneself with affection for one's children without assuming an active role i n moulding their character. The question then arises, how i s their character to be moulded? The author states: "I should proceed in a planned way, and allow them to know gradually how to conduct themselves ." ^ M ^ y 4C 4t7 >$Jf /%)f /$&J$'$Ji4t!fc.A- % ( i b i d . ) This general statement of intent prompts him to ask i f he ought to try to mould his children i n his own image. His friend Yu Pingbo's jlfj answer strikes a responsive chord: "At any rate you would not wish them to be any worse than yourself" 7?""^ ]?t> &H> ^ i j ? ( i b i d . ) . Zhu Ziqing feels that this i s p a r t i c u l a r l y well put. The important thing, he says, i s not that one's children should resemble one i n character and outlook, but that at least they should be no worse as people. Unfortunately he does not define what constitutes "worse." The implication that somehow a l l parents achieve a minimum of human worth and that a l l that i s required of them as parents i s to ensure that their children also achieve this minimum i s naive i n the extreme. The f i n a l paragraph of the essay makes i t plain that Zhu Ziqing i s not seeking to define universally applicable principles of child-rearing. His v i s i o n extends no further than his own s o c i a l stratum, although his point of view can be regarded as rather advanced for the time and for a person of his scholar-gentry background. He grapples with the question of whether i t i s essential to send one's children to university. Two authorities are quoted. The f i r s t declares that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards one's children i s only f u l f i l l e d with their graduation from university. The second argues that a university education i s not a necessity and that i f one cannot afford to put - 43 -one's c h i l d through university or i f the c h i l d does not wish to go there i s no dishonour involved. Zhu Ziqing inclines to the l a t t e r view, but i t must be noted that he gives i t a rather hesitant endorsement. He has already said: "As for career and outlook on l i f e , i t i s best that they decide for themselves; they themselves are most dear to us, we should simply guide them and help them to develop themselves, that i s the wisest course" ( i b i d . ) . Now he responds to a quotation from an authority i d e n t i f i e d only as "S.K." with "... to say that university graduation i s essential i s perhaps only our prejudice. On this matter, I cannot have a definite opinion now ..." ... t f c j t . # $ ^JU-^f^ & ffi Z )L M 4 7 %{jfr&0 g nb&%.*% H-gfeS - (zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.204). This i s i n stark contrast to S.K.'s resolute declaration: "... i f they cannot or do not wish to attend university they can do something else, for example become workers, that i s certainly not unacceptable" ... ^ jj£ C ^ # ^ ( i b i d . ) . The essay ends with an expression of hope that the author w i l l succeed i n becoming a better father. Referring to Lu Xun's Diary of a Madman ^ j j X. 0 Jp. » Z n u Ziqing writes "Thinking of that 'madman's cry of 'save the children' how can I dare not to make the effortl"^^^ij^p>^.^/j^ (6*f?M%&*'fijf& % fe ( ^ i d . ) . The f i n a l two paragraphs of the essay do not s i t well with what goes before. Zhu Ziqing's description of family l i f e and his inadequacies as a father i s excellent, but his incoherent ramblings on how parents ought to behave have nothing to offer. He talks vaguely about helping children to develop their potential, but attempts no explanation of how this i s to be -Un-done. His suggestion that parents ought not to impose higher education on their children nor choose careers for them may have been enlightened for a person of his class at the time, but i t hardly constitutes a profound insight into the principles of child-rearing. Zhu Ziqing would have done better to l i m i t the scope of this essay to his experiences with his own children. On that l e v e l i t i s very successful. The attempt to expand i t to propose general principles of parenthood i s ill-conceived and poorly executed. Fortunately, i t comprises less than a quarter of the essay, which otherwise i s interesting for i t s v i v i d depiction of family l i f e and the insight i t gives into the author's character. In Zhu Ziqing's essays on personal relationships one i s struck by his honesty i n portraying himself. Although he may express regret at his shortcomings, he seeks neither to conceal nor to j u s t i f y them. The essays i n this category are also interesting i n exposing the negative aspects of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese family: i t s treatment of women as chattels, i t s power over the fate of the Individual i n arranging marriages and careers, i t s insistence on producing numerous children to ensure i t s perpetuation. Zhu Ziqing i s adept at exposing problems, although this i s not coupled with a talent for proposing solutions. Nevertheless, these essays are valuable in the insight they afford into the character of the author and his dealings with the people closest to him. ESSAYS OF SOCIAL CRITICISM Zhu Ziqing's essays directed against the flaws of society at large are those to which Marxist c r i t i c s attach the most emphasis. Consequently, Zhu Ziqing's position on the curriculum of educational i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the People's Republic i s due i n no small part to this body of writings. As indicated i n the preceding chapter, Liu Shousong dismisses "Beiying" for i t s "petty bourgeois i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s sentimentality." He contrasts this with the "militancy" of other essays, quoting extensively from "The Price of a L i f e : Seventy Cents" and pointing to two other works which he regards as noteworthy: 'Notes on a Journey' l a i d bare the backwardness of education in China at that time, and 'Notes on a Sea Voyage' s a t i r i s e d and accused various crimes of imperialism; these two works are worthy of attention. 4& 4f &Jg-1& # & . (Zhongguo xin wenxue shi chugao, p.182) Ma Zhuorong ffi? points out that although Zhu Ziqing never committed himself to p o l i t i c a l action, he ... s t i l l could not r e s i s t frequently poking through a corner of the heavy curtain over that semi-feudal, semi-colonial dark society, and thus exposing i t . Such works as 'An Account of a Government Massacre,' 'Notes on a Journey,' 'Culture on a River Boat,' 'The White Man: God's Proud Son!' and 'The Price of a L i f e : Seventy Cents,' are a series of bayonets piercing the dark and heavy curtain over feudalism and imperialism. „ (Zhu Ziqing y a n j i u ' z i l i a o , pp.104-05) i U - 46 -In this chapter, we s h a l l examine closely four works representative of this category of Zhu Ziqing's essays: "The Price of a L i f e : Seventy Cents," "Notes on a Journey," "The White Man: God's Proud Son!" and "An Account of a Government Massacre." "Shengming de jiage — q i mao q i a n " ^ k - ^ $ § 4 f t 4 & ~t^>^% ("The Price of a L i f e : Seventy Cents") was written early i n 1924. It was included i n "Traces of Wenzhou", a set of four essays written while Zhu Ziqing lived in that town, and ultimately appeared i n the anthology Zongji J£3^J&'JJ*- (Traces), published i n December 1924. The essay denounces an event which took place i n Wenzhou, the sale of a five-year-old orphaned g i r l by her sister-in-law for the princely sum of seventy cents. Zhu Ziqing's outrage manifests i t s e l f i n a strident tone imparted through the l i b e r a l use of exclamations and rh e t o r i c a l questions. This contrasts markedly with his technique i n "The Story of Choosing a Bride." As noted i n the preceding chapter, calm understatement on the part of the author allows i n j u s t i c e to speak for i t s e l f i n that essay. Here, however, Zhu Ziqing r e l i e s on strident denunciation to drive his point home. The essay opens with a statement contrasting the ideal with the r e a l : " L i f e ought to have no price; nevertheless i t has one!" -^Ej&p^f~Js5— 7$~^ (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.142). The author goes on to give examples of prices being attached to l i v e s . He begins by pointing out that procuring and kidnapping attach the highest prices to l i v e s , and ends by remarking that the l i v e s of children are the cheapest of a l l . He expands on this i n the following paragraph, giving examples of prices paid for children, and f i n a l l y settles on the cheapest case of which he has first-hand knowledge, the five-year-old g i r l sold for seventy cents. He has already - 47 -cited instances of children rumoured to have been sold for l e s s , so he fans the reader's indignation by pointing out: S e l l i n g a five-year-old ' g i r l ' for seventy cents perhaps cannot be counted as cheapest; but please consider c a r e f u l l y : i f you take a l i f e ' s freedom and seven l i t t l e s i l v e r coins, and place them on the ' trays of a scale, you w i l l observe that, just as i f weighing nine cows against one bovine hair, the difference i n weight i s truly too ' J ' (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.143) Next, the author recounts how he f i r s t saw the g i r l after his wife called him from dinner with his children to "see a c u r i o s i t y , a c h i l d bought for seventy cents!" .. - / / ^ r j ^ , f % $L?&& Zfr- ~§- / ( i b i d . ) . He describes the g i r l and concludes: "I looked for a while, and f e l t that she was no different from our children; I could not see what marked out the cheapness of her l i f e , such as the marks which are so readily apparent when we examine cheap goods" J ft %# gAP& i f e J ^ / M &fify%%%t$L43&1fr !>& (ZHu Ziqing wenji, v . l , pp.143-44). The author goes on to reinforce this point by saying that what makes this g i r l ' s l i f e so cheap i s not a lack of i n t r i n s i c worth, but rather the mere fact that i t was sold at a l l . "Our children's high worth stems from our never having sold them, while that g i r l ' s cheapness i s due to her having been sold ..."pjfe. jf~J^§^C S'ffifl')}^ jLfAl{j$L0... (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.144). The author devotes a paragraph to the sale and i t s background. He finds no redeeming point and gives a v i v i d and scornful depiction of the parties - 48 -involved. The purchaser i s revealed to be a r u f f i a n and a drunkard. The sister-in-law i s shown to be t o t a l l y s e l f i s h and lacking i n compassion. Why should she feed and clothe an orphan for years and then have to go to a l l the trouble of marrying her off and possibly paying a dowry? How much better, i n the author's words, "... while she's small and nobody i s paying attention, to make a present of her, give her clean away!" .. - "4^ t& 8$ j£ tt^ ^ f"^^. 4&jCt~A. ^t, ~5 "T^ ' ^ ! ( i b i d - ) - In case the reader should wonder i f the hard-heartedness i s born of desperation, Zhu Ziqing i s quick to point out that Wenzhou i s neither p a r t i c u l a r l y impoverished nor has i t recently known any years of famine. Furthermore, i f f i n a n c i a l need were at the root of the transaction, the s e l l e r s would surely have held out for a higher price. The paragraph ends with the author's imagined reconstruction of the transaction i t s e l f , the g i r l "half given, half sold" ^f^^rt J^L ( i b i d . ) , exchanged l i k e a household pet which has outworn i t s welcome. The penultimate paragraph deals with the child's future, of which the author takes an extremely pessimistic view: "As my wife said, that fellow cannot have the patience to raise her to adulthood! Just as i f he were ra i s i n g a p i g l e t , he w i l l wait u n t i l she i s s u f f i c i e n t l y fattened and then s e l l her to the butcher ^Lfyo^^jif3-' • (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.145). The author proceeds to examine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s as to who t h i s "butcher" might be. He begins with what he considers to be the best of a l l bad options, that she might be sold as a servant to a 'benevolent' master who would reap her labour "... just l i k e r a i s i n g a sheep to shear i t s wool. When she reached the appropriate age, she would be married o f f . If t h i s could be the case ... i t would be the most - 49 -fortunate of misfortunes." . .. fn ^  ^ fRj ™ 'g 7 #? ^> ^  J&^l'l %8 % ikfy j$L 4lt%t&mA* M*^P£...&V&W^*^^*M. ( i b i d . ) . Zhu Ziqing holds out l i t t l e hope of this happening, remarking that such generous masters are hard to come by. How much more l i k e l y that she w i l l be sold to a master who w i l l mistreat her and f i n a l l y s e l l her into concubinage. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s envisaged by the author for the g i r l ' s future are progressively \ worse, culminating with the prospect that she w i l l be sold into pro s t i t u t i o n . He focuses on various aspects of the ill-treatment she would receive at the hands of a brothel-keeper, and a l l eight of the sentences devoted to this f i n i s h with exclamation marks. This i s the most frequently-used punctuation mark i n the essay, and in the penultimate and f i n a l paragraphs i t i s used with frenzied abandon to create a crescendo of indignation. This reaches i t s climax at the end of the prostit u t i o n sequence, where we are told that the g i r l ' s degradation w i l l l a s t a l i f e t i m e . Then the author seems almost to need to pause for breath as he returns us to the present and expresses his despair: ... her degradation w i l l be l i f e l o n g ! So w i l l her tragedy! • Ah! Seventy cents have bought your entire l i f e i s your fl e s h and blood worth less than a mere seven l i t t l e s i l v e r coins? L i f e i s t r u l y too cheap! L i f e i s t r u l y too cheap! - * e X &l 1&f6&Me,JL#'£-&!— :"fu (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , pp.145-46) The essay's f i n a l paragraph i s the shortest, composed of fiv e sentences. The author turns his thoughts from the g i r l to his own children, and sounds a warning for the world at large: - 50 -Because of t h i s , when I think of my own children's fate, I t r u l y f e e l a certain t e r r o r ! If the human market in this world of money should exist for a single day, that i s our children's danger! That i s our children's humiliation! You who have children, consider, whose fa u l t i s this? Whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s this? .. 7&.^£'PlajL? (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p. 146) Once again Zhu Ziqing shows himself to be more adept at posing a question than proposing a solution. Ma Zhuorong comments: He did not know and had no way of pointing out to the reader that the arch-criminal which caused t h i s type of b i t t e r tragedy was not the c h i l d - s e l l i n g family head, nor was i t the human broker dealing i n c h i l d r e n ; rather i t was that inequitable, semi-colonial, semi-feudal society and the reactionary controllers f o r c i b l y occupying the top of the s o c i a l tower. . ,«_#,, ^  •. . , - /z. >•»- , J(& 1 % S 2 * . K&.&JF&3Z% £JL>aM?« (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu z i l i a o , p.109) Ma Zhuorong's c r i t i c i s m overlooks the implication i n this essay that society, referred to as "the world of money," i s to blame for allowing the existence of "the human market." Zhu Ziqing r i g h t l y berates the parties involved i n the transaction for t h e i r callous manipulation of another's l i f e , but he also points to a wider malaise which allows such e v i l actions to go unchecked. Indeed, Ma Zhuorong's c r i t i c i s m merely berates Zhu Ziqing for not being a Marxist, and Ma's assertions about a reactionary e l i t e at the root of a l l e v i l reveal more about his own preconceptions than about Zhu Ziqing's lack of perspicacity. A l l that.Ma does i s to state what i s i m p l i c i t i n the essay, but couching i t i n Marxist terms. The idea i s that society i s to blame for creating the conditions i n which the s i s t e r - i n - l a w can get away with s e l l i n g - 51 -the l i t t l e g i r l . Blaming society for l e t t i n g i t happen, however, merely detracts from the re s p o n s i b i l i t y of the individual to make the right moral decision. Thus, Zhu Ziqing evokes a complex moral question, which he sidesteps by blaming society i n general. Zhou J i n remarks that "... this essay i s written very loosely, his s k i l l i s not seen i n i t . " .. £ g -jg2tP&4f 4&*£ ifrftft *J3 j]%L • (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p.132). This may be j u s t i f i e d i f i t refers to the author's side-stepping of a moral issue raised by the essay, but otherwise this c r i t i c i s m seems unnecessarily harsh. While the number of exclamations may give the essay an unduly f r a n t i c a i r , i t i s otherwise well organized and certainly not loosely structured. It i s an interesting exercise i n extrapolation, proceeding from the g i r l ' s present predicament to examine i t s causes and i t s probable outcome. While the author proves powerless to provide a solution, he does demonstrate a capacity to look beyond the "cu r i o s i t y " of a ch i l d sold for seventy cents, and to search for wider implications. The essay "Luxing zaji " 7 7 l ^ ^ T " ^ . XlLs ("Notes on a Journey") was also written in 1924. I t was included i n the anthology Beiying, published i n 1928. It d i f f e r s from "The Price of a L i f e : Seventy Cents" in i t s greater length and i n i t s adoption of a s a t i r i c a l tone. "Notes on a Journey" was inspired by the thi r d annual conference of the Association for the Improvement of Chinese Education, which Zhu Ziqing attended and found p a r t i c u l a r l y disap-pointing. The essay offers a s a t i r i c a l look at the educational establishment i n China in the 1920's. The essay i s divided into three sections. The f i r s t of these i s en t i t l e d "Yinqin de z h a o d a i " ^ ? ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ("Solicitous Service") and i s concerned, not with the Conference i t s e l f , but with the delegates' departure from - 52 -Shanghai railway station. Two attendants have been sent to help the delegates obtain their railway tickets at a reduced fare. They find themselves unable to cope with the large numbers of delegates, and some of these are l e f t scrambling to buy their own tickets at the f u l l price minutes before the t r a i n i s due to leave. Zhu Ziqing paints a picture of pandemonium uncharacteristic of a gathering of staid i n t e l l e c t u a l s . This sets the atmosphere for the next section, whose t i t l e "Gong feng qi sheng" /TT7 i s a set phrase meaning "to be present i n person on the grand occasion." The "grand occasion" i s the main meeting of the conference. There i s more than a hint of irony i n the t i t l e of this section, and this quickly becomes apparent. The disorganisation which accompanied the delegates' departure from Shanghai continues at the conference. The assembly i s very late in getting under way. While waiting for the guests of honour to arrive, the author remarks on the number of soldiers and policemen l i n i n g the walls, and he notes sardonically: "They probably had not come to hear the speeches since they did not have the ceramic-like badges of members of the Association, nor did they have auditor's passes l i k e mine ..." 4f7 'fal/k JfL-  aJT\^ (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.208). Before the a r r i v a l of the guests of honour, the pr o v i n c i a l governor and m i l i t a r y commander, the delegates are led i n singing a p a t r i o t i c song by a woman who treats them l i k e schoolchildren. Not content with the f i r s t rendition, she suggests that they might l i k e to try again l a t e r . True to her word, she returns after a short i n t e r v a l and leads them i n a further three renditions of the anthem, to the bemusement of some and the i r r i t a t i o n of others. This s i l l i n e s s dispels any i l l u s i o n that there might t r u l y be some grandeur attached to the occasion. - 53 -The governor and the commander f i n a l l y make their entrance, and the meeting gets under way. The three main speeches are made by these two worthies and by the head of Southeastern University. Zhu Ziqing gives a detailed account of their speeches, their appearance and mannerisms which leaves one i n no doubt as to his low opinion of their i n t e l l e c t u a l c a l i b r e . The f i r s t to speak i s the m i l i t a r y commander, and Zhu Ziqing provides an i n c i s i v e analysis of the vacuity of his discourse. He talked and talked, and i n the f i n a l analysis what was he saying? I respectfully reply: half an eight-legged essay! He used a technique of dismantling words to take the subject of 'The Association for the Improvement of Chinese Education' and break i t down into four sections: f i r s t , he took the word 'education' as part one; then he took 'the improvement of education' as part two; 'the improvement of Chinese education' was part three; add to that the word 'association' and you have part four. _ _ . ^ \% i t % 46 it & JL. ft 4k °fL 7& m & i£ : (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.210) An "eight-legged essay" was a form of composition required for the imperial c i v i l service examinations. It was noted for i t s r i g i d i t y of form and i t s poverty of ideas, so Zhu Ziqing i s less than complimentary i n describing the speech as "half an eight-legged essay." The speech's low calibre i s further emphasised when the author remarks that the most memorable thing was the speaker's bow at the end of i t . The p r o v i n c i a l governor i s next to speak, and he fares no better than his colleague. "He also took a l o t of time; I do not know i f my mind was inadequate or i f there was some other reason, but I did not grasp his meaning at a i i " e , &}sL 5 V f & B t W i f r M t W * % & j L % % &ffl,&^$%^£ Jfb$.&3l- (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.211). The f i n a l speaker, - 54 -the head of a university, does l i t t l e more than reiterate what has already been said, and the author c a l l s this speech unfathomable. This second section of the essay closes with descriptions of two policemen, one a constable who stood motionless throughout the entire proceedings, the other an o f f i c e r whose commanding presence caught the author's eye. This combines with the references to the police and soldiers at the beginning of the section to form a frame around this part of the essay, emphasising the importance attached by the authorities to suppressing dissent. This hardly bodes well for the improvement of education. The t h i r d and f i n a l section of the essay i s e n t i t l e d "Disan rencheng" by the group concerned with the teaching of Chinese language. The topic i s the th i r d person pronoun i n modern standard Chinese. Zhu Ziqing goes to the seminar brimming with optimism, despite the disappointment of the main meeting: "We knew that plenary meetings were that sort of thing and that the p.212). He explains that as a teacher of Chinese he f e l t that this seminar would be of interest: "Unfortunately, after attending one session I became ( i b i d . ) . It becomes apparent that this i s a diplomatic i l l n e s s prompted by the execrable state of the participants' scholarship. F i r s t of a l l , Zhu Ziqing attacks the choice of topic, i r o n i c a l l y congratulating the person who chose i t on i t s timeliness. The topic i s the thi r d person pronoun _ta, which does not di f f e r e n t i a t e between 'he,' 'she' and ' i t ' when spoken, but which i s written i n three different ways to express ("The Third Person"). The author describes a seminar organised noteworthy meetings were those which i l l and was unable to go again. - 55 -these concepts. This convention was well established by the time at which Zhu Ziqing i s w r i t i n g , and he obviously feels that any scope for discussion on the matter has already been exhausted. He goes on to give an account of the seminar i t s e l f , where discussion centres on the appropriateness of using the female radical to write ta meaning 'she' ). The opinions put forward range from the t r i v i a l to the carelessly erroneous. One speaker argues that using the person radical to write ta_ meaning 'he' ) exalts men, while using the female radical to write the feminine pronoun contrasts with this to demean women. Another speaker purports to dispute t h i s , but gives a woolly-minded and inconclusive talk which confuses well-known facts. He says that modern writers using c l a s s i c a l Chinese use the character yi^ ) to mean 'she' while writers i n the vernacular use _ta with the female r a d i c a l . He even cites Zhou Zuoren as one of the former. Zhu Ziqing i s so incensed at this nonsense that he does not rely on the reader's good sense to iden t i f y i t as such. The character y i ( ) may be seen in c l a s s i c a l Chinese, i t i s trtfe, but i f you say that a l l those yi^ are women, you are sure to malign a great many men! That Mr. Zhou Zuoren advocates the use of the character y i i s also correct, but i t i s for use in the vernacular; I can guarantee that he certainly never said anything about 'using The calib r e of the discussion continues to degenerate. A woman complains that the use of the character ta_ with the female radical i s inappropriate because t r a d i t i o n a l l y the female rad i c a l was attached to characters to convey a derogatory, meaning. This draws the inevitable riposte that the character - 56 -hao (jt£~) meaning 'good' i s written with the female r a d i c a l . The hoots of laughter which greet this are in t e n s i f i e d when another speaker likens the use of _ta with the female rad i c a l to second-class t r a v e l , while the use of ta with the person r a d i c a l to mean 'he' i s l i k e third-class t r a v e l . This time the whole h a l l rocked with laughter, some people laughed so hard that their eyes glistened as i f tears were about to emerge; i t was certa i n l y a case of the proverbial 'tears in the midst of laughter.' What happened next i s rather unclear, probably the meeting ended amidst laughter and ta l k i n g ; rather l i k e the closing of an act i n a comedy. JL&\fl To &?$&#Utoi,*to (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.214) In this essay, Zhu Ziqing c r i t i c i s e s the authorities i n charge of Chinese education by holding them up to r i d i c u l e . In the f i r s t section, we see the i n a b i l i t y of the Association for the Improvement of Chinese Education to organise the simple matter of obtaining railway t i c k e t s . The motif of disorganisation runs through the whole essay. In the second section, we see the heavy-handed presence of the warlords i n the number of troops and police sent to maintain order at the conference. We are also treated to the spectacle of high-ranking o f f i c i a l s who are able to talk for ages without having anything to say. In the third and f i n a l section of the essay we find that the educators themselves are no better. They select an i n s i g n i f i c a n t topic for discussion and surround i t with pettiness, vacuous statements, blatant misrepresentation and unbridled merriment. Serious scholarship and thoughts on the structuring of education are conspicuously absent. Ma Zhuorong overstates the case when he c a l l s this essay a "bayonet piercing the curtain over feudalism and imperialism," but i t certainly i s an indictment of - 57 -a disorganised education system and the third-rate i n t e l l e c t s employed by i t . In "Baizhongren — shangdi de j i a o z i ! " ("The White Man: God's Proud Son!") Zhu Ziqing attempts to deal with the problems of racism and imperialism. This essay was written on June 16, 1925, and was prompted by events in Shanghai two weeks e a r l i e r . On May 30, there had been mass demonstrations in that c i t y , protesting the shooting of a man leading a s t r i k e at a Japanese-owned cotton m i l l . The crowd was f i r e d upon by B r i t i s h police, and deaths and i n j u r i e s resulted. These incidents sparked a wave of anti-foreign sentiment known as the May T h i r t i e t h Movement. Zhu Ziqing adopts a remarkably even tone in the essay, at a time when others were writing screaming indictments of foreigners and their wicked machinations. According to Zhou J i n : "... screaming hatred and howling in adversity ... p r a c t i c a l l y became the formula for other writers of the time as far as works on t h i s topic were concerned" ... 7t M- ^ 1? *2Ln  al\... &#&&i^ri^&lfeit (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p.137). Zhu Ziqing sets out to show the e v i l of racism and of exploitation of one nation by another, and he t r i e s to achieve this by extrapolating on a small incident from his own experience. However, the nature of the incident at the centre of the essay i s such that the essay throws more l i g h t on Zhu Ziqing than on the problems with which he i s attempting to deal. The author sets the scene i n the f i r s t paragraph of the essay. Riding a tram i n Shanghai the previous summer, he noticed a white man and boy whom he took to be father and son. Having always been inclined to admire handsome children, the author describes the boy i n some d e t a i l and explains that he never f e l t that children minded being looked at. - 58 -In the second paragraph i t becomes apparent that this one does mind being looked at. As the man and boy are about to leave the tram, ... something unexpected happened. That l i t t l e Westerner had o r i g i n a l l y been s i t t i n g opposite me; as he approached me, he suddenly and fo r c e f u l l y thrust his face towards me, his blue eyes opened wide, those handsome lashes were no longer to be seen; the rosiness of his cheeks had also lessened considerably. The peaceful and elegant face had become a coarse and ferocious one! There were words i n his eyes: 'Hmph! Yellow man, yellow Chinaman, you you look! You're not f i t to look at me!'. ^ m f a M i 3 ! > t e B S M - f t >£: W^4¥ 4fr&$f4f!» (Zhu Ziqing xuanji, p.110) 1 1 The confrontation, which the author c a l l s a "surprise attack," lasts only a couple of seconds. The supposed father has not noticed and the chi l d does not t e l l him. "(He) ... achieved his victory i n silence and went back triumphant" ) • • - - t ^ ' ^ T&HSifil% ( I b i d . ) . In the third paragraph, the author describes the effect which the perceived aggression had on him. The contrast between his reaction and the boy's i s stark indeed: "This sudden surprise attack set me trembling; my heart emptied, the pressure on a l l sides was so heavy that i t l e f t me unable to breathe f r e e l y " ^ # | %, % ® & & A&f^^AfM. rf^ff-^ffe & $ ( i b i d . ) . The contrast between this and the chid's walking away as i f nothing has happened leads the reader to wonder i f indeed anything did happen. A l l that i s certain i s that the boy objected to a stranger looking at him. The r a c i a l dimension may only be i n the author's imagination, for the ch i l d did not actually say anything to him. - 59 -Being scowled at by an ill-mannered brat of whatever complexion would not seem to provide s u f f i c i e n t provocation for an apoplectic f i t , and the author's reaction may be described as "extreme." Zhu Ziqing devotes the remainder of the paragraph to what he regards as the wider implications of the incident. He explains that what he finds so unnerving i s the fact that the antagonist i s a c h i l d : I have always considered that children should belong to the whole world, and that they ought not to belong merely to one race, one country, one region or one family. Because of t h i s , I cannot abide Chinese children c a l l i n g Westerners 'Foreign Devils.' However, this white c h i l d of about ten years of age has already been pushed into The sentiments which the author expresses here are noble enough, but one scowl i s hardly s u f f i c i e n t evidence to prove that the c h i l d f a l l s short of these noble aspirations and has "already been pushed into the two patterns of race and nation." Zhu Ziqing i s careful to point out that a l l groups have the capacity to look down on others. However, l i v i n g as he does i n an age i n which i t i s the whites who have the upper hand, he views the incident as a microcosm of the treatment which China has received at the hands of the western powers. "This surprise attack was i n fact the small r e f l e c t i o n of many attacks, on his face was printed i n miniature a page out of China's history of foreign relations" J i ^ " ^ ^ j^, ^ftZ f&jB'$P - 60 -Although the author believes himself to have been "attacked" by the boy, he does not blame him, pointing instead to the cloistered existence of a foreign c h i l d in China, which i s hardly calculated to foster a healthy attitude towards the host nation: ... his father, older r e l a t i v e s , his father's friends, fellow countrymen, and members of the same race are a l l arrogant and overbearing i n their dealings with Chinese people; his reading materials add fuel to the flames, presenting China as being without any redeeming feature and thus increasing his own sense of power. # ^ £ 4t5 ( i b i d ) While this may be a f a i r enough assessment of the general sit u a t i o n , i t t e l l s us more about Zhu Ziqing's preoccupations than i t does about that particular boy and his real environment. In the penultimate paragraph, Zhu Ziqing returns to his reaction to the child's antagonism. He explains that, after his i n i t i a l shock, he f e l t a surge of anger and national sentiment. However, he curbs his anger and reiterates that i t serves no purpose to blame that particular c h i l d . He also indicates that he believes this incident to show that there i s no hope of the coming generation r e a l i s i n g a world free from domination by particular races or nations. Surprisingly, Zhu Ziqing closes this paragraph by remarking that in some ways the c h i l d and whites i n general are worthy of respect: ... his calm, his silence, his independent action, his leaving without a backward glance are a l l signs of strength, and of a powerful and f i t character. Not i n the least soft or dependent, but forthright and to the point, this i s precisely what makes the white man stand out. - 61 -This demonstrates c l e a r l y the feeling of national and r a c i a l i n f e r i o r i t y which has led the author to read so much into a l i t t l e boy's f a c i a l expression. Referring to the c h i l d as "strong and f i t , " Zhu Ziqing echoes the Social Darwinist notion that somehow the Chinese are an unviable race, weak and unfit to survive against their " f i t t e r " foreign aggressors. The author does nothing to discredit this s i m p l i s t i c notion. Rather, he concludes the essay by admonishing the Chinese to change themselves and to r e a l i s e their own worth: " ... the most important thing for us to do i s to look at ourselves, and look at our children! Everybody i s God's proud son, Written at a time when emotions were running high, this essay attempts to address the issues with calm and detachment. The author's near apoplexy at being scowled at by the c h i l d i s perhaps calculated to show his sympathy for the feelings of those writers who r a i l e d against foreigners and their wickedness. However, his pointed suppression of his emotions and his emphasis on the idea that lashing out at individuals does nothing to solve the problem demonstrate his desire to seek a reasoned solution. Unfortunately, he does not succeed i n pointing out the path to such a solution, succumbing instead to s i m p l i s t i c notions of r a c i a l and national " f i t n e s s . " As a r e s u l t , this essay sheds more l i g h t on the author's assumptions about racism and imperialism than i t does on these phenomena themselves. this i s something which knows ( i b i d . ) . - 62 -Zhizhengfu da tusha j i " J^C M X \lLi ("An Account of a Government Massacre") which was written the following year, i s certainly not characterised by detachment. It i s Zhu Ziqing's eyewitness account of the "March Eighteenth Massacre" which took place i n Peking i n 1926 when demonstra-tors were attacked by troops guarding the government buildings of the warlord This essay i s similar in length to "Notes on a Journey" but i t s tone i s quite d i f f e r e n t . Gone i s the satire of the e a r l i e r essay, replaced by a straightforward reporting s t y l e . Where the author's imagination i n "The Price of a L i f e : Seventy Cents" and "The White Man: God's Arrogant Son" i s exercised i n reporting minor incidents of which he has first-hand knowledge and recreating their causes and consequences, which are beyond his immediate experience, i n this essay his creative powers are exercised i n recreating what he saw or heard himself• The horror of the experience i s apparent from the f i r s t two sentences of the essay, which provide an epigraphic f i r s t paragraph for the piece: "March Eighteenth was such a horrifying day! We must never forget that day! Ziqing wenji, v.3, p.765). The second paragraph i s equally terse, stating that the reason for which that day must never be forgotten i s that the govern-ment has k i l l e d upwards of forty people and injured some two hundred more.. In the t h i r d paragraph the author explains why he f e l t moved to write the essay. He says that he witnessed the massacre and noted some inaccuracies i n the newspaper reports which appeared the following day. Because of t h i s , he writes: "I s h a l l just say what I saw with my own eyes at the scene and what I heard afterwards, and I i n v i t e everyone to look at this dark and cruel China regime led by Duan - 63 -of the eighteenth day of March i n the twenty-sixth year of the twentieth century %t & & fife !aL %* & %L & ijfl t& The next nine paragraphs recount the events of the f a t e f u l day. Zhu Ziqing begins by describing the composition of the crowd, saying what groups were represented and how many people were involved. He describes their a r r i v a l i n the walled government compound, unhampered by the guards at the gate, and mentions that the guards at the government building i t s e l f seem unconcerned as we l l . This calm i s broken after the demonstrators have spread out peacefully i n the courtyard, watched by members of the government upstairs. Suddenly, some people break away from the crowd. People are confused as to what i s wrong u n t i l the shooting s t a r t s . Zhu Ziqing recounts his own reactions and gives a detailed account of what transpires as the crowd of which he i s a part attempts to flee the compound. Although the author emerges unscathed, he sees many people k i l l e d or injured, and learns afterwards of deaths and i n j u r i e s of people with whom he i s acquainted. Crouching i n a huddle with other demonstrators, Zhu Ziqing's r e a l i s a t i o n of the horror that was unfolding comes a few minutes after the shooting st a r t s : ... one or two minutes l a t e r , bright red, warm blood dripped onto the back of my hand and onto my jacket, and I realised at once that a massacre was under way! ... Only l a t e r , when we were running away, did I find out that a lot of blood had also dripped onto my head and onto my hat which had f a l l e n on the ground; i t was a l l h i s ! He had been bleeding for over two minutes and i t had a l l been bled onto me ... , , , v^ . _ , / ^ ^ . . . - n ^ M - i z t e & ffif>i&Hjt^ sft$-&$t-i- (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v.3, p.767) - 64 -Zhu Ziqing gives a f u l l account of his f l i g h t from the compound, and of the k i l l i n g s and i n j u r i e s which he witnessed. He intersperses his account of what he saw himself with details learned afterwards from other witnesses, putting particular emphasis on those points which are at odds with newspaper reports which sought to blame the massacre on provocation from violent demonstrators. Even when he concedes that a small minority may have had violent intentions, he points out that this did not provoke the soldiers, but merely provided an excuse for an attack that was going to happen anyway: ... l a t e r on one of the injured told me that he had seen a group of people, some of them carrying s t i c k s , who wanted to charge into the building. I suppose that may well have been the case; however, i t certainly was not the reason for the guards opening f i r e , at most i t was just their excuse. Their carrying their r i f l e s unloaded on thei r backs and without bayonets fixed (pretending to be calm) and their allowing the crowd to enter the government compound unhindered (to make easier targets) demonstrate their intention to 'encircle and annihilate' ... . x (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v.3, p.768) Throughout his account of the events, the author permits no doubt as to where r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l i e s . In the l a s t of the nine paragraphs devoted to recounting events, he points straight at Duan Q i r u i , leader of the warlord government, and berates him for compounding barbarism with stupidity: "Even i f we make no mention of 'humanity' can i t be that not even national decorum and the reputation of the 'interim gov ernment' were taken into considera-tion? Duan Q i r u i , you think i t over for yourself!" j^J* ^Aj^b* - 65 -i^^^o%\ (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v.3, p.773). In the last two paragraphs of the essay, Zhu Ziqing reiterates the enormity of the crime which has been committed, and once again puts the blame on the government. He points out that this massacre i s worse than the May Th i r t i e t h Incident of the previous year, not only in the number of deaths and i n j u r i e s , but also because this time they were i n f l i c t e d on Chinese by Chinese: "... our nation has such a shameless government, how can i t exist i n the world! This i s indeed the world's disgrace!" ... Zhu Ziqing states that a l l this leads to one question which the Chinese must ask themselves. He emphasises i t by having i t stand alone as the essay's f i n a l paragraph: "Now that so many people have died, what should we do about i t ? " * # ? J ^ ^ ^ X . , i £ > f / 7 3 f c # £ ^ ?* (Zhu-Ziqing-wenji, v.3, p.774). Yet again we see Zhu Ziqing set himself up as a poser of questions rather than a provider of answers. However, the answer i s i m p l i c i t i n the essay. The author provides the reader with a l l the evidence, and c a l l s on him to draw his own conclusions. Zhou J i n writes of this essay: It c l e a r l y told the i n t e l l e c t u a l c i r c l e s of the time that there was no way to reason with the warlords, much less come to terms with them, there was only the option of taking real action to participate i n the national revolution, to overthrow them, to drive them out. (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p.142) - 66 -The essays which we have examined in this chapter, with the exception of "Notes on a Journey," demonstrate Zhu Ziqing's sense of helplessness i n the face of the events which he describes. "Notes on a Journey," dealing as i t does with something with which the author was intimately acquainted, i s the most self-assured of the essays. His confidence displays i t s e l f i n the adoption of a s a t i r i c a l tone, dealing with the problems of Chinese education i n a mildly humorous way. The other essays try to grapple with wider issues, and two of them end with questions. The author has tri e d to hint at the answers i n the essays themselves, but he implies s i m p l i s t i c solutions which he lacks the confidence to expand f u l l y . Despite his obvious s i n c e r i t y , Zhu Ziqing i s seen to be an asker of questions, lacking the self-assurance to become a proponent of solutions. - 67 -TRAVELOGUES This i s the f i n a l category of essays to which we w i l l turn our attention in this thesis. Apart from scattered essays on travels i n China, Zhu Ziqing produced two anthologies of travelogues inspired by his travels i n Europe. These are Ouyou z a j i E^/^T^L^S (Notes on Travels i n Europe) and Lundun z a j i J\^l, %^L^i IfT^j (Notes on London), published i n 1934 and 1943 respectively. Both were the result of eleven months spent i n Europe i n 1931 and 1932, publication of Notes on London having been delayed by the upheavals associated with the Japanese invasion of China i n 1937. During his stay i n Europe, Zhu Ziqing spent most of his time i n London, but before returning to China he spent two months t r a v e l l i n g on the Continent, v i s i t i n g f i v e countries and twelve c i t i e s . This provided the material for Notes on Travels i n Europe, written during his return to China by boat. This anthology contains ten essays, " V e n i c e " ^ J f , "Florence"4%l^ ^7 » "Rome" |? , "The Ruins of Pompeii" , " S w i t z e r l a n d " , "The N e t h e r l a n d s " ^ ^ - , " B e r l i n " ^ ; f o j t . , "Dresden"^ 2%y $)^L » " T h e Rhine" and "Paris" <2^ :5>? • There i s also an appendix which contains two l e t t e r s to the author's friend Ye Shengtao, describing the author's journey to Europe by r a i l and more p a r t i c u l a r l y his impressions of Harbin and Siberia. The most s t r i k i n g feature of these essays i s the author's absence from them. V i r t u a l l y a l l of his other essays are first-person narratives, but here Zhu Ziqing prefers to distance himself i n order to focus the reader's attention on the places being described. This constitutes such a departure from his usual technique that he comments on i t i n the foreword to the anthology: - 68 -Each essay i n this book concentrates on describing the sights, and very seldom do I refer to myself. This I have avoided deliberately: for one thing, when t r a v e l l i n g abroad how can one hold forth with sagacious pronouncements; for another, at such a time discussion of 'personal t r i v i a ' r e a l l y i s pointless. j&f-Oj-K «&&m4t>>+&Jfc_gllMfcl%* (Ouyou z a j i , p . v ) " Zhu Ziqing intended this book to be read by secondary school students. He sets out to introduce them to European culture, so his descriptions focus on the h i s t o r i c a l landmarks of the places he v i s i t e d and on the famous works of art i n their museums. There i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e said about the people he met. He provides the h i s t o r i c a l background to the places he v i s i t e d and he also gives d e t a i l s about the a r t i s t s whose works he so admires. Perhaps he would have had more to say about the modern inhabitants had- he had more time to meet them. In the foreword he points out that of this two months on the Continent, three weeks were spent i n Paris and two in B e r l i n , leaving no more than three days i n each of his other stops. In his words: "... needless to say, this was no more than admiring the flowers from the back of a galloping horse." ... ^ 4 6 3 ( O u v o u z a j i , p . i i i ) . Another factor which contributed to this lack of intercourse with the locals was the author's i n a b i l i t y to speak any European language other than English: "When I was i n Paris I received a l e t t e r from a friend who remarked jokingly that I was 'touring Paris with my eyes'; in fact, the f i v e countries about which I have written here can only be considered to have been 'toured with my eyes .' ei4'%tMM^iAt9F i&$At$&e1& z a j i , p . i v ) . Despite the brevity of his acquaintance with the places described, Zhu Ziqing succeeds i n giving l i v e l y and detailed accounts of their interesting features. The essay on Paris i s by far the longest in the book. The others average no more than a t h i r d of this essay's length. It resembles the others i n comprising mainly descriptions of landmarks and the contents of museums, supported by h i s t o r i c a l anecdotes. However, i t also affords the reader a glimpse of the da i l y l i v e s of Parisians, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Zhu Ziqing's description of the c i t y ' s cafes. He describes cafes i n general and the sort of a c t i v i t y that goes on in them, pointing out that quite apart from being places to drink coffee and other beverages, they are places in which to s o c i a l i s e and are also much frequented by a r t i s t s and writers. He goes on to describe the three largest cafes i n Paris and their a r t i s t i c c l i e n t e l e . His detailed account of cafe l i f e ends with a description of how Parisians start their day. Most Parisians eat breakfast in the cafes. Generally a cup of coffee and two or three croissants are s u f f i c i e n t , unlike the B r i t i s h who eat so much. Croissants are a kind of bread, crescent-shaped, crisp and soft, and at their most delicious eaten hot; the French certainly know how to bake bread, and this type not only tastes good but looks good too. _ « m m °£ & #7 & $jj*itm & % =frfM & at> ZaS- t$ # o (Ouyou z a j i , p. 101) The brevity of Zhu Ziqing's stay i n other c i t i e s precluded the formation of such impressions of the inhabitants' d a i l y l i v e s . His essay on Venice i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l of his European travelogues. He generally starts by remarking on the most s t r i k i n g feature of the place that i s being described. In the case of Venice, i t i s the canals and gondolas. From there he proceeds to give the c i t y ' s location and general appearance. The travelogues give f u l l expression to Zhu Ziqing's powers of description. One example i s his - 70 -description of the view over the Venetian archipelago from the b e l l tower in St. Mark's Square. The islands are ... l i k e bouquets of flowers and masses of brocade, scattered upon a l l sides, undulating on the azure waves. In the distance sea and sky meet i n a boundless unity. There i s no smoke here, the sky i s clean; under the warm rays of the sun, everything seems transparent. &&**&B1L*, (Quyou , a 3 1 , p. 2 ) Any t r a v e l l e r constantly finds himself comparing the new sights to those at home, and Zhu Ziqing i s no exception. "When a Chinese comes here, i t i s as i f he were i n the lake and riv e r country of south China ..." ^ j§yC_ ^ ' J ... ( i b i d . ) . Later i n the essay, he concludes a description of gondola singers with a comparison to the Qinhuai River in Nanking: "This bore a s l i g h t resemblance to the scenes on the Qinhuai River i n those days, but the Qinhuai River was much l i v e l i e r B S J ^ - f i J ^ r ^ i ^ - ^ / W f f # (Ouyou z a j i , p.6). A l l these essays concentrate on describing the important landmarks of the places which the author v i s i t e d . In the case of Venice, Zhu Ziqing begins with St. Mark's Square, followed by St. Mark's B a s i l i c a and the Doges' Palace, which provide the opportunity to comment on paintings by Canaletto and Tintoretto. Next comes his description of singers on the canals at night, which i n c i d e n t a l l y gives r i s e to one of the few ill-informed comments i n the travelogues. The author supposes that the I t a l i a n songs which he heard on the canals of Venice were Jazz songs, which seems to this reader to be most un l i k e l y . How much more l i k e l y that this i s one of the "sagacious pronounc-ments" which the author i n his preface to the book said that ill-informed foreigners ought to avoid. The author continues his tour of Venice with - 71 -descriptions of two churches which he considers p a r t i c u l a r l y important from an a r t i s t i c point of view. One attracts his attention because i t i s decorated with frescoes by Tintoretto, and the other i s notable as the last resting place of the sculptor Canova and of T i t i a n , some of whose paintings are on display i n the church. The essay closes with the author's comments on an international art exhibition which was a biennial event and happened to be i n progress during his stay i n Venice. This essay i s representative of the others i n Notes on Travels i n  Europe. Concentrating as they do on h i s t o r i c landmarks, scenery and works of ar t , they draw on the author's s k i l l at l y r i c description which has been commented on elsewhere i n this thesis. The essays i n Notes on London include some which share these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but due to Zhu Ziqing's lengthy stay i n that c i t y he was much better acquainted with the people there and they figure prominently i n many of the essays i n this anthology. Zhu Ziqing spent seven months i n London, studying l i n g u i s t i c s and English l i t e r a t u r e at University College. The essays i n Notes on London were written two or three years after his return to China, and most of them appeared i n i t i a l l y i n Zhongxuesheng zazhi ^ & j ^ _ ^ _ J ^ ^ (The Secondary Student's  Magazine). The Japanese invasion of China i n 1937 and Zhu Ziqing's move to Yunnan province as a faculty member of the temporary university established there during the war years interfered with his plans to write more essays on his stay i n London. Those which he had already written were not published as Notes on London u n t i l 1943. The nine essays which make up this anthology are "San j i a shudian"_£-- 72 -shichang"^a-^T %y vfi i^fo ("Caledonian Market"), "Chide" t**T, gfe ("Food"), " Q i g a i " ^ ^ ("Beggars"), "Shengdanjie"^: ^ ("Christmas") and "Fangdong t a i t a i " ^ ^ $L^j£~ ("The Landlady"). In the foreword to this book, Zhu Ziqing points out that, just as was the case i n Notes on Travels i n  Europe, he has largely avoided mentioning himself i n these essays. He also remarks: "... among these nine essays there are quite a few which describe l i v i n g people, for example 'Beggars,' 'Christmas' and 'The Landlady,' and perhaps there i s more human feeling than i n Notes on Travels i n Europe" .. .jfc^, Jj^% $~ (Lundun z a j i , p . i v ) . 1 3 This i s the most noticeable difference between Notes on London and the e a r l i e r anthology. The essays i n Notes on London resemble the e a r l i e r ones i n length, averaging three thousand characters, and some display Zhu Ziqing's preoccupation with c u l t u r a l monuments and other h i s t o r i c landmarks. To those essays cited by the author himself as concentrating more on people than places could be added "Caledonian Market" and "Food." These two essays, as much as the three cited by the author, offer the Chinese reader an insight into how people l i v e in a distant country quite unlike their own. The essay which gives the closest view of any of the people whom Zhu Ziqing encountered i n his travels i s "The Landlady." Mrs. Hibbs, the landlady with whom Zhu Ziqing stayed for part of his time i n London, obviously made quite an impression on him. He refers to her i n the foreword to this anthology, and apart from devoting an essay to portraying her, he also includes her i n his essay "Christmas" where he rounds off a description of the general atmosphere of Christmas i n London with an account of the f e s t i v i t i e s i n her home. - 73 -In "The Landlady" the author does not provide a physical description of Mrs. Hibbs, but he does give a v i v i d depiction of her character. This i s achieved largely by l e t t i n g her speak for herself, and the essay r e l i e s heavily on indirect quotation. The author opens the essay by remarking that, to her Chinese guests, Mrs. Hibbs seemed to have a Chinese flavour although she had never been to China. This i s not expanded upon straight away. Rather, Zhu Ziqing uses her own words to describe her: "She used to say people joked that she and her daughter were Vi c t o r i a n , meaning that they were old-fashioned and i n f l e x i b l e ; however, she admitted that they were and that i t did not bother her" j& \%k% % iXL,^£jLfe&ft3£ *$fc$AjlPMJt* &%%%slte ^ ^ ^ ^ / / ^ ^ ^ ^ f e ^ q u n d u n z a j i , p.72). Mrs. Hibbs' most noticeable characteristic i s that she i s extremely t a l k a t i v e . "Talking was a delight to her and l i s t e n i n g was a delight to us (when she talked, her dead husband and son came to l i f e , as did some of her boarders); so although we were to l i s t e n to her for over four months, we never did grow t i r e d of i t " ^ %J*J&>> Atl °Jf % *jt ($. &WUAJ5^^if3&^ ''fl,fa]* :ft4fJ$4& (Lundun z a j i , p.73). The essay almost becomes a biography, the author quoting things Mrs. Hibbs told him about the past, as well as recounting his own observations from the time he spent i n her home. We learn a l i t t l e about her childhood, her late husband and son, and about the boarders who have come and gone over the years. We also learn about her anxieties over some of her daughter's unworthy suitors, and about her superstitions. The essay i s populated not only by the landlady and the people whom Zhu Ziqing meets i n her house, but also by people who have passed through before as the author imagines them from the landlady's - 74 -account. Mrs. Hibbs comes to l i f e i n the essay, a motherly old woman whose l i f e revolves around her daughter and her boarders, a l i v e l y and talkative woman who can laugh at her own shortcomings and bears her burdens l i g h t l y . The author's sympathetic portrayal i s tinged with sadness as he relates how her f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s arid a lack of boarders lead to her giving up her boarding-house. The f i n a l sentence of the essay harks back to the f i r s t description of Mrs. Hibbs and underlines what the author perceives as a tragic decline i n her fortunes: "Last year I received a l e t t e r from Mrs. Hibbs. She and her daughter have taken a job as housekeepers; for the 'Victorian' gentlewoman, this world i s already no longer hers" remarked upon i n the chapter on Zhu Ziqing's short stories that he had great d i f f i c u l t y i n portraying Chinese people from a different social background than his own. In the l i g h t of that i t i s a l l the more remarkable that he was able to draw such a well-rounded por t r a i t of Mrs. Hibbs, a woman from an ent i r e l y different culture. These travelogues are distinguished from mere guide books by what Ma Zhuorong c a l l s "... language as beautiful as poetry ..." ... ' ~~ J&jl^JfJ)i] afford the reader of al i e n people and their way of l i f e . They are also interesting as further examples of Zhu Ziqing's s k i l l at l y r i c description, and i n demonstrating that he could write essays i n which his own presence need not hold centre stage. (Lundun z a j i , p.81). It has already been p.103) as well as by the glimpses they CONCLUSION We have examined Zhu Ziqing's prose i n five categories. Four of these categories, despite the variations i n subject matter, share one characteristic which stands out above a l l others i n Zhu Ziqing's writing. This i s the auto-biographical element. His short stories and essays are marked by the presence of the author i n almost every l i n e , and a remarkably honest s e l f - p o r t r a i t emerges.. His writings reveal a man of a complex and often contradictory character. We see a caring husband who nevertheless lacked the courage to defend his wife from his parents' oppression; a man who lik e d children in the abstract, but f e l t uneasy as a father and often resorted to violence i n dealing with his own offspring; a timorous man, flustered when approached by prostitutes peddling only songs, yet a man brave enough upon escaping a massacre to write an essay accusing by name the warlord whose troops were responsible. Zhu Ziqing does not set himself up as a hero, deigning to offer enlightenment to lesser mortals. While pointing to the faults of the society around him, he does not shy away from presenting his own faults as wel l . The f i r s t category of Zhu Ziqing's prose which we examined was his f i c t i o n , which comprises a mere three short s t o r i e s . Despite the promise shown by "A History of Laughter," i t i s apparent that Zhu Ziqing lacked a talent for characterisation, which precluded his making f u l l use of this genre. "A History of Laughter" succeeds only because the main character i s Zhu Ziqing's wife, and the events which i t recounts are events from their own family l i f e . It i s no wonder that he i s able to present a v i v i d and w e l l -rounded portrayal of this woman. He had, after a l l , been married to her for seven years and had a wealth of observation to draw on. In contrast, the - 76 -character who gives her name to the story "A-He" i s not nearly so well developed. She i s a two-dimensional character, observed from a distance, and demonstrates Zhu Ziqing's i n a b i l i t y to empathise with people from a different s o c i a l background. We are offered no insight into her thinking and are given only a sketchy view of the l i f e she leads. This i n a b i l i t y to bring a wide array of characters to l i f e explains why Zhu Ziqing wrote so few short stories and turned instead to the essay, wherein he need only depict himself and his reaction to things around him. This tendency was well established i n his f i c t i o n , since two of his short stories are centred on male characters who are obviously modelled on the author. In his short s t o r i e s , Zhu Ziqing displayed a preoccupation with personal relationships which was carried over into his essays. While his essay "Beiying" i s taken by proponents of the doctrine of f i l i a l peity as support for this aspect of the t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese family, i t i s obvious from Zhu Ziqing's other essays on personal relationships that he was an iconoclast as far as the t r a d i t i o n a l family structure was concerned. "Beiying" i s an essay about the tr a n s i t i o n from boyhood to manhood, and the struggle for independence which so often distances offspring from their parents i n late adolescence and early adulthood. It i s certainly not a c a l l for formulistic reverence of one's parents. Zhu Ziqing's short stories and his other essays on personal relationships make abundantly clear his distaste for many of the features of the t r a d i t i o n a l extended family: i t s suppression of the ind i v i d u a l i n arranging careers and marriages; i t s treatment of women as chattels; i t s insistence on early marriage and the production of many children to ensure i t s own perpetuation. He implies strongly that the nuclear family would offer a more f u l f i l l i n g l i f e s t y l e . - 77 -Zhu Ziqing attempted to grapple with wider social issues i n many of his essays, but unfortunately the results tend to be inconclusive. He f a i l s to take a strong ideological stand and thus finds himself unable to suggest solutions to the problems which he exposes. Unable to reproduce the society of the day on a broad canvas and to indicate a direction i n which he wished i t to move, Zhu Ziqing contented himself with cameo portraits of individual i l l s which different readers would agree needed attention. They would disagree about the cure, but since he never made one e x p l i c i t , each reader can go his own way thanking Zhu Ziqing for supplying evidence to support his opinion. Thus, one finds his s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m praised by both Marxist and Nationalist c r i t i c s . When Zhu Ziqing ends "An Account of a Government Massacre" with the question, "Now that so many have died, what are we to do^ ?" Zhou J i n , writing i n Taiwan in the 1970's, answers "Overthrow the warlords." Marxist c r i t i c s echo that opinion, but obviously have different ideas on what the warlords should be replaced with. Zhu Ziqing's s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m i s such that c r i t i c s with d i f f e r i n g philosophical standpoints are able to praise his essays for lending credence to their own views of society's i l l s by imposing their own preconceptions on the so c i a l phenomena described by Zhu Ziqing and drawing their own conclusions. Even when Zhu Ziqing Is not attempting to make a weighty s o c i a l pronouncement, c r i t i c s with an ideological axe to grind often construe that he i s . It has already been remarked that, although Zhu Ziqing's description of the prostitutes i n "The Sound of Oars on the Lamplit Qinhuai River" i s devoid of s o c i a l comment, i t has been construed as a demonstration of his sympathy for the women's plight and his "deep affection for the labouring people." In a similar vein, Ma Zhuorong takes the essay "Beggars" from the travelogue - 78 -Notes on London as a Dickensian expose which "... to a d e f i n i t e degree l a i d could have been further from the author's mind. Struck by the differences between the techniques employed by beggars i n London and those at home in China, he merely sets out to describe the differences for the readers at home. Some of the beggars are presented as pathetic individuals, but others are seen as colourful characters. At no point does Zhu Ziqing attempt to draw a p a r a l l e l between the state of these individuals and any "sickness of c a p i t a l i s t society." It i s this noncommittal approach which leaves many of his essays open for those with ideological preconceptions to interpret as they w i l l . A large body of Zhu Ziqing's prose was never intended as a vehicle for opinions. Accordingly, there was never any danger of i t offending anyone's ideological s e n s i b i l i t i e s . This refers, of course, to his l y r i c essays and to a lesser extent to his travelogues. The l a t t e r are generally regarded as fine examples of descriptive writing, though their expressions of admiration for what the author considers to be the wonders of European art and architecture would not have sat well with the xenophobic extremists who held sway during the Cultural Revolution of the 1960's and early 1970's. The most s t a r t l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the travelogues i s the author's suppression of his own persona i n an attempt to concentrate the reader's attention on the places being described. These are the only essays by Zhu Ziqing i n which his own presence does not loom large. The best of his travelogues are those i n Notes  on London, since they go beyond descriptions of c u l t u r a l monuments to examine the people and afford the Chinese reader a l i v e l y and colourful view of an bare the sickness of c a p i t a l i s t society" ... ^^jlppZ M^^EO.^-(Zhu Ziqing yanjiu z i l i a o , p.104). In fact, nothing - 79 -al i e n society. The response to Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c prose from Chinese c r i t i c s of a l l p o l i t i c a l persuasions i s overwhelmingly favourable. According to Zhou J i n : As far as describing scenery i s concerned, Zhu Ziqing's technique i s certai n l y meticulous and inspired, and because of this his essays are brimming with l y r i c a l sentiments and painterly q u a l i t i e s ... (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu, p. 128) Meanwhile, on the mainland, Qu Yuxiu i s also impressed by Zhu Ziqing's s k i l l with words and gets rather carried away: As we leaf through Zhu Ziqing's essays ... i t i s as i f we go deep into a dense forest at the height of summer and suddenly come across a gurgling mountain spring; t h i s murmuring stream t r i c k l e s from the reader's heart and leads you to partake of an a r t i s t i c beauty. In Zhu Ziqing's essays, these simple and unadorned, yet i n f i n i t e l y though-provoking works, you can almost scoop i t up in your hands (Zhu Ziqing yanjiu z i l i a o , p.160) 1^ Gushing praise indeed. Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c essays, inspiring such favourable reactions, are a key to his enduring reputation. One has to search to find a c r i t i c with a bad word to say about Zhu Ziqing's l y r i c prose. One such i s the well-known poet, Yu Guangzhong c|? , whose essay on Zhu Ziqing appears as an appendix to an anthology of Zhu Ziqing's works published recently i n Taiwan. Yu Guangzhong considers these essays to be too sentimental, and he takes particular exception to the - 80 -p r o l i f e r a t i o n of cliched feminine imagery: L i t t l e g i r l s , v i r g i n s , dancers, song-girls, young women, beauties, f a i r i e s ... no sooner does Zhu Ziqing mention scenery than these shallow feminine images are obliged to make their appearance under his pen to adorn the world of his imagination ... i f they are not emerging from the bath, then they are starting to dance, always the same formulistic movements, one t i r e s of i t . ^ M ^ M S * f 4 2 "fJLlb (Jiangsheng dengying, p.302y-Ya Guangzhong tempers his c r i t i c i s m by acknowledging that Zhu Ziqing i s an important writer, but he goes on to say that there are two kinds of l i t e r a r y importance: a r t i s t i c and h i s t o r i c a l . To Zhu Ziqing he accords the l a t t e r , and I believe that he i s correct i n this assessment. Zhu Ziqing was not alone in displaying a penchant for sentiment and for depicting placid and soothing scenery. His l y r i c essays were not produced in a vacuum, but reflected the tastes of his time. The enthusiastic c r i t i c a l response to this body of Zhu Ziqing's prose demonstrates that sentiment and soothing scenery were precisely what many Chinese readers wanted, and indeed s t i l l do. One searches i n vain for some universal a r t i s t r y i n Zhu Ziqing's writing which would give i t a timeless and world-wide appeal. Most of his works are firmly rooted i n their own time. Their scope i s limited to the world of the Chinese urban i n t e l l e c t u a l i n the f i r s t half of the twentieth century, and If they achieve rather more than blandness, they s t i l l f a i l to scale the heights of genius. The hallmarks of Zhu Ziqing's prose are competence and l u c i d i t y , but these q u a l i t i e s alone do not account for his works enduring on the Chinese mainland as well as i n Taiwan and Hong Kong. His soc i a l c r i t i c i s m i s a l l things to a l l readers, and ideological s e n s i b i l i t i e s are l e f t unbruised. His %L, **** - 81 -l y r i c essays, inherently inoffensive, are praised as examples of prose-writing which schoolchildren can learn to emulate mechanically, in the t r a d i t i o n of Chinese painting. The only interest which the prose of Zhu Ziqing holds for the Western sinologist i s h i s t o r i c a l ; as examples of a luc i d and readable prose which was highly regarded by the author's contemporaries i n the early days of modern Chinese vernacular l i t e r a t u r e . The key to i t s enduring reputation among his countrymen l i e s not so much i n i t s content as i n i t s form; i n an a b i l i t y to paint enchanting pictures with words, to soothe the reader rather than to provoke thought. - 82 -FOOTNOTES 1. "In the spring term (of 1929) he taught 'Researching China's New Literature.' This was a new course which had never been taught before." (-ti**. *# f£ u *m i&r * & xtf i€. j£. AA f £ £ & -HfflfiMM* Zhou J i n : Zhu Ziqing yanjiu ^ g >>| tff ip? , Taipei: Zhiyan Chubanshe^&/&#££fc, 1978, p. 15. 2. Zhu Ziqing: Zhu Ziqing wenji &sjlf & M. » 4 vols., Hong Kong: Wenxue Yanjiushe SZl&xtfr$£.^jCt , 1972. 3. Chow Tse-tsung: The May Fourth Movement, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960, p.278. 4. "This small volume contains essays written over the last four years. Among them are two pieces which perhaps seem to resemble short stories, but you had best regard them as essays .. ."i^^'^^i, ff^i^-* ... (Zhu Ziqing wenji j ^ f r > ^ , v . l , p.158). 5. Wu-chi L i u and Tien-yi L i , ed.: Readings i n Contemporary Chinese  Literature , New Haven: Far Eastern Publications, 1978 (v.2, pp.94-106). 6. "... i n 'Parting' the use of words to build sentences i s so affectedly bashful, i t i s l i k e a hemiplegic i n v a l i d , the reader certainly reproaches i t with being hard to bear." ... * # ' J » &p Jft q^j&m&i^g %*ft ^^fc i # J ^ X , ^0fA ^ J ^ ^ • (Zhu Ziqing wenji, v . l , p.157). 7. Tian Zhongji $Jf and Sun Changxi ^ A-JI^ Jj » e d * : Zhongguo xiandai  wenxue shi 4> (§J 3Sj£, Jinan: Shandong Renmin Chubanshe iU jtj^ AH £M%t- , 1979. 8. Zhu Ziqing quanji#z & ^ ^ » H°ng Kong: Wenhua Tushu Gongsi ^4~t 9. "'Beiying' ... has been called [his] best essay, but i n i t there obviously exists some rather pronounced petty bourgeois i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s sentimental: " " 4a-iie: •*& %i..&L-GZ-tJi >r~ Xt3 dr & L i u Shousong 3&J : Zhongguo xin wenxue shi chUgao xp r&^Ejf ^ ty)'» Peking: Renmin wenxue chubanshe A^fC^?j£, Jff%_ ^5±i' , 1979, p.182. 10. Zhu Jinshun ^-^T W^, ed.: Zhu Ziqing yanjiu' z i l i a o j ^ ^ ^ ' f f i ^ ^ f - , Peking: Beijing Shifan Daxue C h u b a n s h e ' J f > ^ M^-^t- i 1981, pp.98-128 essay by Ma Zhuorong: "Lun Zhu Ziqing de sanwen" 11. Zhu Ziqing: Zhu Ziqing xuanji JtjfSsJg^Z jj£ , Peking: Kaiming Shudian tf*J3&M »  1952-- 83 -12. Zhu Ziqing: Ouyou z a j i ^ j / r f e f e j?*,, Peking: Kaiming Shudian ff&Mfy M . 1934. 13. Zhu Ziqing: Lundun z a j i , Peking: Kaiming Shudian )g , 1943. 14. Essay by Qu Yuxiu: "Shilun Zhu Ziqing he tade chuangzuo'"^ y&j£L&/ft4& fc&b&l 4fc » PP-151-165. 15. Zhu Ziqing^ Jiangsheng dengying , Taipei: Penglai Chubanshe i ^ ^ i t ^ T ^ t - , 1981. Essay by Yu Guangzhong: "Lun Zhu Ziqing de sanwen" t & ^ gC^ , pp.293-319. - 84 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Zhu Ziqing's Creative Writings 1. Beiying ^ fy, Hong Kong: Zhongliu Chubanshe fit 1958. 2. Hetang yuese . Hong Kong: Shanghai Shuju J " - ^ ^  ^ , 1962. 3- Jiangsheng dengying JCX^j . Taipei: Penglai C h u b a n s h e ^ J ^ t t j ^ 1981. ^ y 4. Lundun za j i / ^ ^ jfy . Shanghai: Kaiming Shudian 3f ^ ^ , 1946. 5- Mingjia sanwen j i n g h u a ^ ^ ^ J & l ^ i ^ . Hong Kong: Gaishe JSL^t , 1978. (Essays by Zhu Ziqing, pp.91-94, 316-317.) 6. Ni-wo . Hong Kong: Taiping Shu ju^C , 1963. 7. Ouyou z a j i Tsfe^fife^ \?, . Shanghai: Kaiming Shudian 3t & J% , 1936. 8. Xiandai mingjia sanwen xuan 3$A^&^ ffi^*5t / • Taipei: Darning Wang Shi Chuban Youxian GongsiX fa iii , 1972. (Essays by Zhu Ziqing, pp.19-27.) 9. Xuechao !Jf'|[# • Shanghai: Shangwu Yinshuguan j?*7^f ffi$T , 1933. (Poems by Zhu Ziqing, pp.1-27.) 10. Zhongguo mingjia sanwen xinshang t^/f/.r-g ^'^C^Lfi% ^ . Tainan: Xin S h i j i Chubanshe %ff-t#T£fetiJffc^jt- , 1969. (Contains essays by Zhu Ziqing among others.) !!• Zhu Ziqing quanji ^feZfe^^ • Taipei: Wenhua Tushu Gongsi <CA-t, 12- Zhu Ziqing quanji ^Ejjf^ 4>- & . Tainan: Jinchuan Chubanshe ^ J>\ jj^ Jftst^it» 1979. 13- Zhu Ziqing sanwen xuan £fa^i^^57C> • Hong Kong: Xiandai Shudian 14- Zhu Ziqing shiwen xuanji . Peking: Renmin Wenxue Chubanshe A R. 3C tfjfc^c±-_ , 1955. 15. Zhu Ziqing wenji ^C. ^  • 4 vols. Hong Kong: Wenxue Yanjiushe SC%%f>$l5f-±- , 1972. ^ 16- Zhu Ziqing xuanji ^k^y%¥t. • Hong Kong: Wenxue Chubanshe & M*t> "-955. * < ^ ^ *- & 17- Zhu Ziqing^xuanji ^^^ j^^L • Hong Kong: Xinyi C h u b a n s h e ^ ^ ijj - 85 -18. Zongji • Hong Kong: Taiping S h u j u ^ t - ^ ^ ^ , 1963. 19. Zul youmelde sanwen TfiiAti^- • Tainan: Jinchuan Chubanshe J'l&Hfcjfct- » 1 9 7 9 - ( E ssays by Zhu Ziqing, pp.1-37.) B. Zhu Ziqing's L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m and Pedagogical Works 1. Dushu zhidao T^lfi Q • Hong Kong: Taiping Shuju J ^ T ffi M) , 1963. 2. Guowen jiaoxue W 3&H$CW>- ' H o n 8 Kong: Taiping Shuju >fc ^ $7 , 1963. 3. Jingdian changtan 010 T^fc . Hong Kong: Taiping Shuju A*F $7 , 1963. 4. Jingdu zhidao juyu J£JE£f£^Pr^r . Shanghai: Shangwu Yinshuguan /tJ7 V% , 1942. (Written j o i n t l y with Ye Shaojun £ g %>)\ also known as Ye Shengtao »j- JL .) 5. L i He nianpu M^£f.}~&- . Hong Kong: Longmen S h u d i a n ^ T~] ft, 1970. 6. Luedu zhidao juyu ^ 7 ^ . Shanghai: Shangwu Yinshuguan F§7 # ffl ffi » 1943. (Written j o i n t l y with Ye Shaojun, c f . item B.4.) 7. Mingjia s h i - c i xinshang jlr \^7f^L . Tainan: Tainan Donghai Chubanshe # fa 3= £ Jjfc , 1979. (Essay by Zhu Ziqing on appreciation of poetry, pp.1-20.) 8. Shi yan zhi bian ^ f ^ f f * Peking: Guji Chubanshe &$gifaJftL 1957. 9. Shi yu ganjue l&£j$L j£ . Taipei: Qiming shuiu%0#ffi , 1957. 10. Wen Yiduo quanji \jf\ — & ^ • Shanghai: Kaiming Shudian 9 f < ^ tyj , 1948. (Zhu Ziqing et a l . , ed.) 11. Wenshi lunzhu yfc ^  . Hong Kong: Taiping Shuju ?f ffi fef , 1962. 12. Xin shi zahua W&£\$, • Hong Kong: Taiping Shuju j^^tyJg[] , 1963. ^ * 13. Ya-su gongshang # ffi . Taipei: Qiming Shujuy§" ^  ^ ^ , 1957. 14. Zenyang zengjin nide wenxue ^^fMirf$l&&• Hong Kong: Chen Yongtai Shuju , n.d. 15. Zhongguo geyao ftf/f^}^ • Peking: Zuojia Chubanshe^ ^ - j j j r ^ ^ t - , - 86 -C. Books and A r t i c l e s Concerning Zhu Ziqing 1. Author unknown: "Dui 'Beiying' de y i j i a n " ^ ^ ^ s ^ f t j { 7 ) . In Renmin jiaoyu X&gk^ , 1951, No. 10. ' ^ 2. A Ying J^ T s!j(t- : Yehang j i Jfc j$rcM- • Shanghai: Liangyou Tushu Yinshua Gongsi & &ff]J%>} sj , 1935 (pp.22-25). 3. A Yi n g ) 5 5 f ^ : "Zhu Ziqing xiaopin xu" ^J?.^ »a . In Xlandai  s h i l i u j i a xiaopin ijjpy^ + 7*L ^-A- • (No further d e t a i l s . See item D.l.) 4. Ai GuangyouX .^L : "Huainian Zhu Ziqing x i a n s h e n g " ^ <1&j££l J£_ . In Guangming ribao ^ eft py ffi , August 12, 1950. 5. Bo Shengj£#:£-: "Jinian Zhu Ziqing shi shishi er zhounian" fa j^lgr^flty . In Renmin ribao / & 0 , August 13, 1950. 6. Cao Juren ^ - ^ y A = - : Wentan san y i $L ^ZJ • Singapore: Chuangken Chubanshe &#g_i%±- > !954 (p. 44). 7. Chen Zhen $$Ljf : "Guanyu 'Beiying' jiaoxue wenti de s hang que" f«?'M, fflPtT • In Fujian ribao tfffl , October 29, 1951. ^~ 8. Chen Zhuyin $£/t£#fsr : "YI Peixian" . In Dagofig bao Jz. $g , November 23, 1975. (Chen Zhuyin i s Zhu Ziqing's widow.) 9. Chong N i a n ^ : " s h i nian qian de Zhu Ziqing xiansheng" -\-j£ jsfcj &ti>fif • In Xiandai ifj]/jf., Vol.6, No.2. 10. Fang Qing 77 j?f : Xiandai wentan bai xiang gff£/t ^ 1§[ % p . i 3 . (No further d e t a i l s . See item D.2.) 11. Feng S i s h o u ^ / ^ ^ " : "Yi Zhu Ziqing xiansheng" ^ ^ ^ ^ L • In Wenhui bao j Q z S , August 12, 1949. 12. Fudan Daxue Zhongwen Y±jg_M- ty?*1 : Zhongguo xiandai Wenxue i M M f t ^ f ^ • n.d. (pp.205-07). 13. He Q i y i n g ^ ' ^ ; ^ r : "Cong Zhu Ziqing de 'Beiying' s h u o q i " ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ ^ S f i ^ 5 * WL A& • In Xingdao wanbao B.f^f^WW'» d a t e unknown. (See item D.2. 14. ' J i Zhenhuai f H : " Zhu Ziqing xiansheng nianpu' In Zhu Ziqing wenji ^fayj^ S^I^L (vol.1, pp.15-70) (see item A.15). 15. Jing Wen^^/J^/: "Dao Zhu Peixian xiansheng" In Sima Wensen sj% 5Ctt_ , ed.: Zuojia yinxiang j i <{p ffl £g . Hong Kong: Zhiyuan Shuju % 01 Jgrf , 1950 (pp.22-29). I - 87 -16. Kang PeichuJ^eF-^77 : Wenxue zuojla shidal JC^.Jfe$fc&$#L . Hong Kong: Wenxue Yanjiushe ^T^sSf'tZ, *7£fc» 1973 (p.20). 17. L i Guangtian $^J^ 27 : "Zhu Ziqing xiansheng de daolu"^L# >^^L^-- _ - _ In Lun wenxue jiaoyu • Hong Kong: Chuangzuo S h u s h e d jp&*±_ , 1977. ^ ^ 18. L i Guangtian "Zhu Ziqing xiansheng zhuanliie" . In Zhu Ziqing wenji &.&5>4r ST. j l T (vol.1, pp.11-14) (see item A.15). ^ 19. L i Guangtian£J" & : "Zhu Ziqing xuanji xu" ^ ^ > j ^ $ £ , j | ; / ^ . i n  Zhu Ziqing xuanji- Jj=j &>4b£fz^ . Peking: Kaiming Shudian i f ^ f » 1952* 20. L i Guangtian J^T" 127 : " Z u i w anzheng de renge"j| 'JCs^t^?. In Lun wenxue jiaoyu j£ If ( s e e i t em C.17). 21. L i H u i y i n g ^ : ^ ^ : "Tantan Zhu Ziqing xiansheng" 1% Jfcfa'>f? ^t, J£- • In Chun wenxue yuekan ^ £ yC^!. % 5V , v o l . 1, no. 9. 22. L i L i m i n g J£ 8% : Zhongguo xiandai l i u b a i zuojia xiao zhuan -\W<^ jf^f . Hong Kong: Bowen Shuju S-JgyC &* , 1977 (pp.45-46, 75-76). 23. L i Liming f^T 8% • "Zhu Ziqing zhuanliie " ^ ^ ^ &^ . In Wentan  yuekan jC&^flf'l , No.312. 24. L i n , J u l i a C: Modern Chinese Poetry: An Introduction. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977 (pp.56, 61-74, 94, 103, 153). 25. Liu Shaotang iUM , ed.: Minguo renwu xiaozhuan &.Wt/Jft7'J'~/i1r 2 vols. Taipei: Zhuanji Wenxue Chubanshe Ifi&X&tV, %j?L fcL , 1975 (vol.1, pp.45-46). 26. L i ^ S J i o u s o n g ^ / ^ ^ . ^ ^ : Zhongguo xin wenxue shi chugao ^f^^fyC^^-2 vols. Peking: Renmin Wenxue Chubanshe X f&_%T{k , 1979 (vol.1, pp.181-82). 27. Meng Z i w e i J 3"ff$L: " J i Zhu Ziqing xiansheng" % & f a l l . In Dagong bao ^  £\ , date unknown (see item D.2). 28. 29. 30. Ren Wei / - : "Shiren, xuezhe, minzhu d o u s h i " f ^ ^ _ , ^ , ^ c f ^ f i f ^ - In Beijing wanbao ^  & ^/g, August 12, 1958. Sang Q i ^ . ; 3 r : "Zhu Ziqing de 'Jingdian changtan' " &bS&L tftyfa. In Dagong bao -k A ^ , March 20, 1950. : ? 7 ^ 7 ^  ^ Shan B i n g r e n ^ ^ ^ - ^ — , ed.: Dangdai Zhongguo xiaoshuo x i j u yiqianwubai  zhong tiyao & g7 ^  lit *tJg'J - "f_5 BMj& ' (No further d e t a i l s . See item D.2.) ' ^ - 88 -31. Shan Hang or Shan Xing (pronunciation unconfirmed): "Zhu Ziqing de Xiao de l i s h i " $L ft? y^§ £fe . In XiaoshuO yuebao /J%>^ % f £ , Vol.14, No.12, 1923. 32. Shang Tu i%1 J^- : "Zhu Ziqing yu Wen Yiduo" ffcjsl/j^ %\?$ — & • In Wenhui bao j£ jf% , December 28, 1946. 33. Shi Xiuqiao^&^T-^f- , ed.: Jindai Zhongguo zuojia l u n c ^ / f ? ^ 1 ^ Vb (pp.60-66). (No publication details i n the book i t s e l f . ) 34. Taiwan Dalu Zazhishe & , ed.: Zhongguo j i n d a i xueren  xiangzhuan ^j^^ & 4$ • Taipei, 1971. 35. Tian Zhongji Q 7 i$ y^f and Sun Changxi ^  e l , ed.: Zhongguo xiandai  wenxue shi tf? i^fo yC*^ • Jinan: Shandong Renmin Chubanshe ill fa X & {£ H&- *X > 1 9 7 9 (PP-94-96). 36. Wang YaoS^glr : "Nian Zhu Ziqing s h i " ^s%ifa>% ffi . In Zhongguo  wenxue luncong tyffl'^f.^g y& M- . (No further d e t a i l s . See item D.l.) 37. Wang Y a o ^ ^ S r : "Zhu Ziqing xiansheng de shi he sanwen" Mfc-fltlif ^J&^i • In Renmin ribao /* 0 , August 13, 1950. 38. Wang Yij£ *W and Kang Bojl-^jjt , ed.: Xin shi sanshi nian Wf ^ sfc . 3 vols. Hong Kong: Wenxue Yan j i u s h e j $ r - ^ p f %.±. , 1973 (vol.1, pp.59-77). 39. Wang Zhefu-^t? 3^ : Zhongguo xin wenxue ^ yundong shi ^ (Ml^Jf JZL'^J^ gty^jf, . Hong Kong: Yuandong Tushu G o n g s i ^ C ^ ^ J*?J ^9^ 6f/ , 1965. 40. Wen Xin JL J>ZJ- : Zhongxue guowen cankao z i l i a o d i y i j i WXZl&^f M^^k^ ( P - 1 3 5 ) - < N o further d e t a i l s . See item D.2.) ' 7 41. Xie B i n g y i n g t ^ ^ ^ : Zuojia yinxiang j i &'|g g77 gHg . Taipei: Sanmin Shuju j= ^Ml » 1 9 6 7 (pp.26-31). ~ 42. XnT±VfJ^>, ed.: Jindai xueren yinxiang j i j ^ z / t ^ j L ffijft . Taipei: Wanchan Shudian , 1970 (pp.109-115). 43. Yang Yiming - , ed.: Wentan s h i l i a o 5£&Z^4LJE% . Shanghai: Zhonghua Ribaoshe ^dfi 0 ft£. , 1944 (pp.143-48). 44. Yu Pingbo-ifr "^f4h : "Zhu Peixian xiong y±nian" ^ J ^ ^ ^ S J ^ r ^ . In Lunyu - f f i j-S-, No.161. ^ 45. Zhang Baishan ffijfa : "Mantan 'Hetang yuese'"j^f ^ • I n  Wenxue zh i s h i •^f^ifa j g , November, 1959. 46. Zhao Congj^C-^^. : Sa niandai wentan dianjiang l u • f r . Hong Kong: Junren Shudian/f|? X ft''J§ > 1 970 (pp.135-39). - 89 -52 47. Zhao Cong^H^- : Xiandai Zhongguo zuojia liezhuan 3$,4%> ffiAj? Ai? (p.63). (No further d e t a i l s . See item D.2.) 48. Zhao Q i x i n ^ C ^ ^ F : "Zhu Ziqing xiansheng yishi"^|?>j§f ^ . In Yangcheng wanbao # ^ ^ e ^ ^ > November 12, 1959. 49. Yu Guangzhong £ ft $ ' "Lun Zhu Ziqing de sanwen" j<b ^ $P -<£ . In Jiangsheng dengying, pp.293-319 (see item A.3). 50. Zhong Yuan 4 ' "Cong 'Beiying' dao 'Lun chifan' "A. $ Ji\| ^  0 ^ In Xinmin wanbao j g j f » August 12, 1953. 51. Zhou J i n f£\%ffr : Zhu Ziqing yanjiu J^&lJkJft'PL' Taipei: Zhiyan Chubanshe^W^g , 1978. (A well researched and complete examination of Zhu Ziqing and his works.) . Zhu J i n s h u n ^ : ^ ^ , ed.: Zhu Ziqing yanjiu ziliao> j3Lf?}j&Jiff (jf jffr . Peking: Beijing Shifan Daxue Chubanshe jb)% !t?X.^ & %?Jf-±- > 1981. (A c o l l e c t i o n of t h i r t y - s i x essays by various authors on Zhu Ziqing and his works, i t also includes fi v e of his essays and eleven of his short poems. An excellent resource which, unfortunately, only became available when this thesis was nearing completion.) ). Major Sources Used i n Compiling t h i s Bibliography 1. Shandong Shifan Xueyuan Zhongguo Yuwen Xi iU &3^ P'Si' 7# £C Zhongguo xiandai zuojia yanjiu z i l i a o suoyin $2 j^J -^ [7 -f^ ^j[J0f-W^tik *f/ * J i n a n » 1 9 6 0 ' s p r i n t e d i n Hong Kong, 1977 (pp.93-95). 2. L i Liming ^  JjC : Zhongguo xiandai l i u b a i zuojia xiaozhUan z i l i a o  suoyin ^ ffl ^4t^W ^ ^ 'h4f W %{ • Hong Kong: Bowen S h u j u ^ r - ^ ^ ^ , 1978. 


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