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Development and testing of a field instrument for research into the study of attitudes and preferences… Sim, Ah Ba 1968

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THE  DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A FIELD  INSTRUMENT  FOR RESEARCH INTO THE STUDY OF ATTITUDES AMD PREFERENCES INVOLVED IN THE PURCHASE OF HOMES  by AH BA SIM B. A . ( H o n s . ) , U n i v e r s i t y  of M a l a y a , 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  Master o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e Department of Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  We a c c e p t  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  t o t h e recjui red standard--.  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  advanced d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  Library  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  requirements  f o r an  I agree that  the  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  I further  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y  p u r p o s e s may  tatives.  be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my  It i s understood  that  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  written  Department o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Columbia  of t h i s t h e s i s  permission.  for  ABSTRACT  The  object  instrument  for  of  the  the  t h e s i s was  determination  of  p r e f e r e n c e s among v a r i o u s  social  been  research  developed  ences  involved  constructed house  be  tently  as  the  process 30  use the  on  the  the  the  field  three  social  stratum  visual  attitude  of  in  The  the  t o buy  field  a  house  60  photographs  on  can the  heme.  instrument  cannot  involved actual be  and  basis  from  to  of  Use  the  tastes  utility  established  rating  rate  a  set  social  most  represent of  with each  the  Semantic  proposed  i n the  a  among t h r e e  scale. with  in aesthetic  The  to  consis-  associated  selected  q u e s t i o n s was  attitudes  three  categories;  people  photographs  in conjunction  open-end  of  was  continuum  respondents to  attitude  visual  prefer-  instrument  class  scale  has  families.  the  differences  process  and  consisting  that  were  scale  other  upper  categories  to  also,  used  house  and  and,  The  social  occupant  which  Differential determine  and  a  and  instrument  attitudes  scale,  field  tastes  The  homes.  along  a  house p h o t o g r a p h s were d e r i v e d  categories. of  on  assumption  c a r e f u l l y selected  class  aesthetic  among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s  class  three  attitude  middle,  develop  groups.  purchase of  graduated  lower,  social  in  in  visual  discriminate  The  each  a  developed  perceived  of  in  photographs  represent will  for  to  and  as  means  preferences  decision and  a  making  validity  here,  but  of  must  be  i the  object  however, dents  further research.  a high  from  provided  of  degree  different  face  construction  of  of  the  consistency  social  validation field  The  class  for the  study of  did  b a c k g r o u n d s and,  instrument.  i  reveal,  r a t i n g s by  assumptions  1  respontherefore,  underlying  the  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  PAGE  PURPOSES  AND  1  OBJECTIVES  Introduction  1  Objectives  o f the Study  3  Objectives  and Nature  of the Over-all  Home  Purchase 5  Survey Chapter II.  Organization  REQUIREMENTS  AND  and R e s e a r c h  NATURE  OF T H E F I E L D  Methodology  . . .  10  INSTRUMENT  . . .  12 12  Needs and P u r p o s e s Inadequacies  of Existing Attitude  Nature  of the F i e l d  Social  Class  Techniques  . . .  26  Instrument  as t h e A t t i t u d e  31  Continuum  hi  Summary III.  DEVELOPING THE F I E L D Selection Sampling Procedure Analysis  43  INSTRUMENT  of Photographs  t o be T e s t e d  h3  D e s i gn  hS  of the Field of the Field  k&  Work  50  Data  70  Summary IV.  18  A P P L I C A T I O N S AND  VALIDITY  OF T H E  FIELD  INSTRUMENT  . .  72  Applications  72  Validity  78  Re1 i a b i l i t y  82  Limitations  and Weaknesses  83  V CHAPTER V.  PAGE  SUMMARY  AMD  CONCLUSIONS  88 93  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  APPENDIX  A.  B.  REVIEW  OF PAST  Some M a j o r  Research  Techniques  Used  ILLUSTRATION  98  RESEARCH  OF RATING  Studies  99 106  SHEET  109  LIST  OF T A B L E S  TABLE I IIa  PAGE Summary  Selection  lie  Ilia  I lib  IVa  IVb  IVc  of Photographs  t o Represent  "Lower" Curve Test  .  53  S e l e c t i o n o f Photographs t o Represent "Middle" S c a l e C a t e g o r y U s i n g O n e - T a i l Normal C u r v e T e s t  .  5*+  S e l e c t i o n o f Photographs t o Represent "Upper" S c a l e C a t e g o r y U s i n g O n e - T a i l Normal C u r v e T e s t  .  56  C h i - s q u a r e T e s t o f P r o p o r t i o n o f Endorsement f o r Photographs S e l e c t e d f o r "Lower" S c a l e Category  .  57  C h i - s q u a r e T e s t o f P r o p o r t i o n o f Endorsement f o r Photographs S e l e c t e d f o r "Upper" S c a l e Category  .  59  C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s f o r R a t i n g s o f Each Photograph by S u b - s a m p l e f o r " L o w e r " S c a l e C a t e g o r y . . . .  63  C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s f o r R a t i n g s o f Each Photograph by S u b - s a m p l e f o r " M i d d l e " S c a l e C a t e g o r y . . . .  65  C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s f o r R a t i n g s o f Each Photograph by S u b - s a m p l e f o r " U p p e r " S c a l e C a t e g o r y . . . .  67  Scale lib  51  of Ratings  Category  Using  One-Tail  Normal  LIST  OF  FIGURES  FIGURE 1  PAGE A Conceptual Decision  Model  of  the  Home  Purchasing  Process  2  Illustrations  3  The T h r e e  of  7  Semantic  Photographs  of  Differential the  Field  Scales  Instrument  .  .  2k  .  .  61  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d constant entire  source  t o O r . R. F . K e l l y  o f encouragement  p e r i o d o f the study  and guidance  and f i e l d  g a v e me  photographs  some o f t h e i r  a n d answer  precious  questions.  during the  work.  Thanks a r e a l s o due t o a l l t h o s e kindly  who was a  respondents  time  who  t o rate the  CHAPTER  PURPOSES  I  AND O B J E C T I V E S  INTRODUCTION There manner lack  has been  i n which  people  t h e market  differentiated  buy homes.  home p u r c h a s e d ,  lack  Consequently  phenomenon  that  and  that  determined  market.  by  of types economic  f o r the apparent  on t h e p a r t  o f many  receive  i s likely  more  realtors  t o make,  more  i t i s being judged  manner  then  and t o u n d e r s t a n d  largest  than  possibly  a house.  A family  by t h e t y p e  b e c o m e s a medium  people  has great signify the  A house  i s being  i s the  judged  o f house i t  of expression,  family.  buy h o u s e s  how a n d why  i n a particular  The  financial  and a s such  could  f o r t h e occupant  i n which  and important  research attention.  conspicuousness.  or otherwise,  o f house  i s a complex  represents the single  The house  The  type  i sa  mass,  on t h e b a s i s  account  F u r t h e r no p u r c h a s e  i n social  occupies.  process,  only  i n part  character of a family  knows  social  should  a family  significance.  ultimate  as a heterogenous  home p u r c h a s i n g p r o c e s s  of a house  commitment  social  there  o f t h e home p u r c h a s e r  i s largely  orientation"  t o study t h e  builders.  The  purchase  which  T h i s may  o f "consumer home  i s viewed  and d i s t i n g u i s h e d  considerations.  and  systematic e f f o r t  o f an i n t i m a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Frequently  of  little  location,  people  i s a complicated buy a  particular  one h a s t o probe t h e  minds  o f t h e home p u r c h a s e r s .  rences,  and a s p i r a t i o n s  factors  affect  studied. get that  c a n be o b s e r v e d  conventional may  t h e d e c i s i o n making  cognitive  Research and  how t h e y  contribute  research factors  easily  techniques  even  into  affect  motivations,  and w i l l  home b u i l d e r s  have t o be  are required to  from  In fact  people  t o t h e home p u r c h a s e r of attitudes  understanding be o f d e f i n i t e  i n their  offerings  o f home  through  t h e whole  process  himself!  and p r e f e r e n c e s  t h e home p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n  t o a better  these  a s t h e s e a r e n o t phenomena  or e l i c i t e d  the study  prefe-  a n d how  process w i l l  methods o f i n t e r v i e w .  not be apparent  tastes,  o f t h e home p u r c h a s e r s ,  Sophisticated  at these  The a t t i t u d e s ,  process  will  purchasers'  v a l u e t o r e a l t o r s and  o f houses and  marketing  research  has been  programs. Unfortunately the of  housing past  very  little  i n d u s t r y c a n be l a b e l l e d  research will  reveal  a  housing  industry, mainly  design,  construction, location,  little  research  large  on such  behavioral. number  and r e g i o n a l  mer's m o t i v a t i o n s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s . this  line  done i  Examination  o f s t u d i e s on t h e  areas a s economics,  i s of t h e behavioral type  along  that  finance,  analysis.^  that  probes  Very consu-  Among t h e h a n d f u l o f  earlier  efforts  a r e G. H. B e y e r ,  kersey,  a n d Montgomery Houses a r e f o r P e o p l e  F . W. Mac-  (Research  ^For a comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y , see t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f Real E s t a t e A p p r a i s e r Real E s t a t e Apprai ser Biblioqraphy (Chicago. I 9 6 4 ) a n d J . B. Babb a n d B. F . D o r d i c k Rea1 E s t a t e I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e s ( D e t r o i t , G a l e R e s e a r c h Co.  3 Publication  1955)  Center. Home"  N o . 3« 2  Ithaca,  Journal  The  lack  of behavioral  the  lack  o f "consumer  serve  bodies  estate  have u n d e r t a k e n  studies  and t h e i r  OBJECTIVES  and w i l l  sity  of B r i t i s h over-all  Survey  Columbia.  Survey  o n t h e home  more i n t e r e s t presumably to  in  emanating  understand  direction.  Appendix A  o f some o f t h e m a j o r  research  study.  was proposed  This  study  and t h e a c t u a l  will  of  of the Univer-  be an antecedent  out l a t e r )  study  to  and c o n s t i t u t e  i s t o develop  a  field  and i n t e r v i e w i n g  envisaged  The need f o r , t h e c o n c e p t u a l  of the f i e l d development  instrument  will  of t h e instrument  be c a r r i e d o u t .  Hereafter  the f a l l  of concepts and hypothesis.  of this  uses  during  b y D r . R. F . K e l l y  f o r u s e i n t h e f i e l d work  field will  2  of  uni v e r s i t y and commercial  in this  ( t o be s p e l l e d  testing  and p o s s i b l e  explored;  Both  to this  t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y .  basis,  the  studies  relevance  The o b j e c t i v e  in  p p . 209-214.  1957)  and from a d e s i r e  better.  be undertaken  of the f i e l d  instrument  f o r a New  OF THE STUDY  I967  part  has developed  a n d methods  A Home P u r c h a s e  the  there  t h e consumers  the findings  Housing  business..  i n housing  reviews  Shop  or emphasis  a s p e c t s o f home p u r c h a s i n g ,  from the " c r i s i s " and  V o l . XXV ( A p r i l  orientation"  i n the real  behavioral  University  r e s e a r c h may b e t h e c a u s e o r e f f e c t  However, r e c e n t l y the  Cornell  a n d W. T . K e l l e y " H o w B u y e r s  The A p p r a i s a l  purchaser  N. Y .  c i t e d a s The C o r n e l l  Study.  be in  h There measurement Survey. do  not  is a  need  i n housing  But  existing  an  visual  three  to  family  perceived  The  instrument  can  and  do  on  the  An  attempt  the  social  middle,  of  consisting  of  occupant  or upper  assumption  class  be made t o v a l i d a t e  i s hoped  house prove  that  photographs, useful  i n the  p r e f e r e n c e s , and  involved nature the  form  r e p r e s e n t i n g an  lower, on  the  of  this  to  that  class.  people  photographs  occupant  families.  assumption  in  the  work.  three  and  one  dimensions  take  scale,  techniques  instrument  d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e  perceived  will  It  will  each  built  consistently  b a s i s of  d e v i c e or  i n the  be  visual  attitude  over-all  scaling  field  It w i l l  to  proposed or  the  such  i n housing.  t o be  will  measuring  provide  photographs,  dimensions  i n the  Therefore  a t t i t u d e measuring  house  field  attitude  attempt  a t t i t u d e measurement  provide visual  s t u d i e s and  provide for this.  represents  a  to  i n the  of  the  first  their  of  a  the  possibly  instrument  i n the  with  instruments,  other  determination of other  making  instrument  series  objectives  field  possibly  decision  field  the  aesthetic  attitudes  process  and  t o buy  a  instruments  determination of a e s t h e t i c  of  tastes  preferences house.  i s e x p l o r a t o r y and  of experimental  form  may  The  represent  having  tastes  as  and  preferences.  can  at  This  study  best  be  developed, validate  i s venturing into  exploratory.  u n f o r t u n a t e l y time  this  instrument  Though  unexplored the f i e l d  does not  i n the  field.  permit  grounds,  and  instrument  is  the writer  to  However  possible  5 means o f  field  pretence  can  the  field  be  will  before  O B J E C T I V E S AND  Objecti  be  nature  housing  identify  in  be  used  NATURE  OF  THE  However  question in  the  and the  that  claim  or  validity  of  question  will  have  Home P u r c h a s e  of  to  be  Survey.  OVER-ALL HOME PURCHASE  Home P u r c h a s e  seek  the  first  to  Survey  contribute  behavioral  objective  tastes,  preferences The  in  aspects  decision  SURVEY  will  be  of  an  some w a y t b t h e  of  tastes,  Based  Survey  buy  and  explora-  vacuum  home p u r c h a s e  The enable  consumer  - the  these  the  has  can  and  of  and  the  better  insights  appeal  to  or  housing and  be  and  of  possible  tastes  and  sub-groups.  decision  affect and  study  making  involved  process in  the  attitudes, this  decision  diffusion  processes  process. significance.  match  Better  i t may  e x a m i n e how  sources  i s to  aspirations  variables  its practical  realtors to  demands.  the  aspirations  outcome of  of  types  explore  information  and  findings,  It w i l l  and  survey  preferences,  stages  house.  Survey  realtors  proposed  market  seeks t o  a  the  influence  on  therefore  preferences,  process,  the  i d e n t i f i a b l e patterns  and  to  of  attitudes,  home p u r c h a s i n g  which  utility  point.  i t can  and  distinguish  will  this  actual  a continuing  home p u r c h a s e r s .  that  the  s u g g e s t e d . H e n c e no  decisions. A  in  at  proposed  knowledge  to  to  be  ves The  tory  made a s  instrument  validation tackled  validations will  their  can  compete  be  house gained  for  Its  findings  offerings in  certain  the or  to  manner  6 particular  customer  advertising  and  groups  sales  through  more  e f f e c t i v e use  of  presentation.  Nature The  search  phenomenon. apparent, priate sets  the  unit  of of  which  the  his  by  a  (and and  question  of  housing  into use  mobility),  factors. may  and  r e q u i r e m e n t s may This  search  a model  that  in  search  features,  the  Survey.  Home P u r c h a s i n g  and can  sets  that  been  the be  Decision  limited  persona!  of  house  all  the  distance  and  a  the  matching  eliminate  Not  social  i s deciding, and  about  may  be  the  houses  different market.  housing  that  set  Freattributes  meets  the  bought. making  defined  Figure  is  considerations  sold,  of  any  h i s pu r c h a s i ng  cultures  first  decision be  wi t h i n  have e n t e r e d  i s one  at  houses  houses.  Question  other  Different  he  His  is  appro-  purchase w i l l  of  are  complex  most  available  However  the  E v e n when he  have a l r e a d y  the  for  the  house.  constraints.  different of  a  is a  alternative)  different  decide.  either.  a l t e r n a t i v e s may  then,  desired  him  a whole host  constraining in  to  are  house  being  for  set  a or  usually  alternative  alternatives  from work  general  of  (new  family  are  (financial) available  acceptable  to  (the  must  buy  house  each  number  the  to  i t s search  within  range are  quently  unit  a  alternatives and  h o u s i ng  classes,  decision for  home p u r c h a s e r  choice  of  need  here) begins  f r o m many o f  sets  the  decision  time,  resources him  the  housing  point  in  As  and  process can  "operationally",  1 shows a c o n c e p t u a l  Process.  The  decision  be  fitted  that  model  is of  process  for the  7 "FIGURE I A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF. THE HOME PURCHASING DECISION PROCESS  -f  time - j — > FACTORS:  INFORMATION  SOURCES: Physical notice  Word-of-  mouth Advertising Other, mass. media^  Awareness  Physical PHYSICAL INSPECTION  Economic Social  II III U > [Interest! E v a l u a t i o n !  (*" t h e w r i t e r i s i n d e b t e d t o D r . R . F . K e l l y f o r . t h i s s c h e m a t i c model )  V Purchase  Decision;  8 consists mental the is  of  five  trial,  first  and  a  learning  given  involves  an  himself  be  not  involve to  The rest, will given the  diagram  most  of  to  the  decision  sales  communications, development will  be  of  i n t o account,  and  Studies  the  How  decision  also trial  of  trial  imagines decision  house or  the  Survey.  a  occur  decision  in  stages  decision  Attention  and  how  any  toward  visual  so  apparent  a  and  source  in determining  of  the  advertising,  his  elements 1,  process w i l l various and  be  factors  will  consideration  attitudes, are  other  Figure  the  process  word-of-mouth  aesthetic  for  inte-  influence  r e a l t o r and/or  from  decision  and  of  will  they  informal  inspection  What  and  Mental  purchase  can  to  Evaluation  r e l a t i v e importance  The  process?  begins  h i s wants  cognitive  information  tastes,  Interest  and  buyer  the  upon  shows).  representation,  the  dors  The  purchase  and  The  is a  on  instrumental  outcome.  of  attitudes  process,  prospective  i n the  physical  studied.  decision  to  mental  process.  face-to-face  to match  house.  clearly  focus  house.  information  i s , r e j e c t i o n which  and  sources  the  realtor's offerings.  important  major  Awareness o c c u r s of  purchaser  commitment  evaluation, be  a  i n the  (that  evaluation,  purchase a l t e r n a t i v e .  the  living a  the  existence  s t a g e when t h e  purchase  s t a g e as  a  by  against  the  will  the  interest,  decision.  seeks a d d i t i o n a l  attempt  represents to  of  house as  requirements  awareness,  purchase  shown when one  view  are  stages:  in  offerings in  be  the  taken  in this  reveal  what  stages  and  preferences  importance  of  the  study. factors their  influence  social  class  9  and  neighborhood  factors  i n t h e development  perceptions  of a particular  set of housing  their  i n the decision  process?  place  houses unit by  influenced  and t h e s t y l e  the purchaser?  symbols? the  How  choice  will  offering  them.  t h e home To  use  styles,  achieve  of a series tastes  styles,  interior they  Insights into  interior  designs,  visual  measuring  processes  of the search  measuring  device  serve for  as sort  toward  of  houses,  understanding  t h e Survey  locations,  These  probes  wi11  venture  designs, include the  i n t h e form  t o get at t h e c o g n i t i v e f o r a house.  to identify  and types o f  styles,  instruments  A visual  of a  f a c t o r s and attitude  and t h i s  t o develop  make  architectural  realtors,  these  will  designed  distinct  i s not yet a v a i l a b l e ,  o f a brave  groups and  and t h e r e a l t o r s  above,  and p i c t u r e  device  questions  process.  perceive as p r e f e r r i n g  Differential  types  as status  influence  customer  different  designs,  the objectives  and a t t i t u d e s  regarded  and other  provide a better  decision  l o c a t i o n s a n d rea1 t o r s . Semantic  these  of different  toward  t o be u p h e l d  preferences  o f a t t i t u d i na 1 i n s t r u m e n t s  general  people  and a e s t h e t i c  They w i l l  purchase  a r e houses  toward  of the family  extent  and a t t i t u d e s  architectural  i n the life-cycle  T o what  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  tastes  Are a t t i t u d e s  p e r c e i v e d and e x p e c t e d  do p h y s i c a l  t o and  a l t e r n a t i v e s and  of life  process?  enable  their  of  by t h e s t a g e  of attitudes  such  study an  will  instrument  use i n the f i e l d . A conventional  required  type  t o obtain general  of questionnaire w i l l  also  factual  information  data  and such  be  10 as  purchasing intentions,  aspirations,  purchasing  e x p e r i e n c e s and  structured  and open-end  As confined permit be  stated  preferences.  Both  Survey  effort.  be  Area.  that  are likely  unit,  wives,  exact  be e x p l o r a t o r y  Resources  identi fiable  t o enter the housing market.  has proved  be c o n d u c t e d  t o be m o s t  studi e s ( f o r example  with  study  o n e ) a r e now actua1  CHAPTER  husbands  by o t h e r  by C o r n e l 1 ) .  The  w o r k a n d f i e l d t e s t i n g ( o f whi c h t h i s  i n p r o g r e s s a n d i t wi11 be some t i m e  Survey  Purchase I,  Chapter  of  the f i e l d  AND  RESEARCH  e s t a b 1 i shed  Survey  proceed  i nstrument,  METHODOLOGY  of thi s study  i n Chapter  t o t a k e up t h e t h e o r e t i c a 1  and e x p l o r e t h e need,  c o n s t r u c t i on o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f e x i s t i ng a t t i t u d e  a n y o f them Chapter  i nstrument selected  will  issue  purpose,  n a t u r e o f t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e m e a s u r i ng d e v i c e .  i nventory  before  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o v e r - a 11 Home  and t h e o b j e c t i v e s  11 w i l l  study  c a n be c a r r i e d o u t .  ORGANIZATION Having  if  In each  n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e d e s i gn h a s y e t t o be w o r k e d o u t . Exploratory  and  will  customer  both  revealing  and  do not  A s a m p l e o f 300 h o u s e h o l d s  interviews will  as t h i s  home-  employed.  will  i n t e r v i ewed, a n d t h i s w i 1 1 c o v e r most  home p u r c h a s e  the  this  t o t h e Greater Vancouver  household  is  past  questions will  earlier,  a n a t i o n wide  groups  and  locational  life-cycles,  and  The basi s  be d i s c u s s e d .  The  t e c h n i q u e s i s exami n e d t o s e e  s a t i s f y t h e needs i n t h e Survey. I I I d e s c r i b e s t h e development  i n the f i e l d  and t h e " r a t i ngs"  house photographs  by a t e s t  of the f i e l d  o f so  sample  specia11y  o f 60  respondents,  11 drawn up o n t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a l field  work and t h e s e l e c t i o n  described.  class.  The procedure  of the  o f the t h r e e photographs  Results of the analysis  of the f i e l d  are  data are  presented. The  next  chapter,  Chapter  applications,  and l i m i t a t i o n s  major  here  setback  IV e x a m i n e s  o f the f i e l d  (as explained e a r l i e r )  the wri t e r t o v a 1 i date  t h e i nstrument  chapter  i s therefore only  lation,  with  indications  instrument.  The  i s the i n a b i l i t y  i n the f i eld.  a theoretical of possible  the v a l i d i t y ,  of  This  e x p o s i t i o n and  specu-  f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s and  means o f v a l i d a t i o n . The tory  study A  is the  final  chapter  (Chapter  V) summarizes  i n Appendix  techniques  techniques  explora-  and spe11s out i t s c o n e l u s i o n s .  r e v i ew o f some r e l e v a n t a n d m a j o r  i ncluded  this  used  used  A.  I t summarizes  i n these  to this  study  studies. i s also  r e s e a r c h i n h o u s i ng the findings  o f and  The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e examined.  CHAPTER I I  REQUIREMENTS  This  AND  NATURE  OF THE F I E L D  chapter endeavours  to establish  requirements,  and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e F i e l d  is  i n t h e Home P u r c h a s e  t o be u s e d  Instrument  will  be a u n i q u e  attitude  d i m e n s i o n , much o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a 1 exploratory needed value. in  However  Instrument  which  As t h e F i e l d visual  e x p o s i t i on w i 1 1 be o f a n  dea1 o f f i e l d  t e s t i ng i s  c a n be made a s t o i t s d e f i n i t i v e  t h i s study w i l l  f o r use i n research  r e p r e s e n t an i ni t i a 1  effort  a t t i t u d e m e a s u r i ng  o n home p u r c h a s i ng,  and  possibly  other f i elds.  NEEDS AND  PURPOSES  Conventional can  t h e need f o r ,  device with a  e x p l o r i ng t h e p o s s i b i 1 i t y o f v i s u a l  devices in  n a t u r e , and a great  b e f o r e any c l a i m  Survey.  INSTRUMENT  be and a r e used  consumer  a t t i tude measuring  a n d sea l i n g  i n s t u d y i ng a t t i t u d e s  and d u r a b l e goods.  The T h u r s t o n e  s e a 1i ng t e c h n i q u e h a s b e e n u s e d trading  stamps,*  applied  t o s t u d y consumer  i nstruments  i n t h e p u r c h a s i ng o f equa1-appearing  t o study a t t i tudes  and t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l  toward  has been  r e a c t i ons t o t h e image  of brands,  1 J . G. U d e l 1, " C a n A t t i t u d e M e a s u r e m e n t P r e d i c t Consumer Behavior". Journal of Marketing. V o l . XXIX ( O c t . 1965),  pp. 46-50.  products, However  and  companies, ^ -  t h e r e have been  consumer  decision  reflection  of  Even t h o s e  few  Appendix  few  attempts  process lack of  attempts  i n consumer  i n the  to  patronage  study  housing  attitudes  market  behavioral research  have been  limited  decisions.-  - a  attitude  lack of a p p l i c a t i o n  area.  (see  measuring may  decision  of b e h a v i o r a l methods  s c a l e s to the  i n part  processes  be  home p u r c h a s e  attributed  t o the  and  decision  making  special  nature  of  i n v o l v e d i n s e a r c h i n g f o r and  buying  a  the  house. Unlike represent likely and  the  largest  goods, t h e  single  the  implications.  form  "rational") or  durable  The  of matching  less well-defined ideal  has  i n mind.  may  be  a  durable  process  l o n g drawn out goods.  actively  The  of  one,  process w i l l  housing  f o r a home o r  the  t o the  a  of  year  W. A. Mindak " F i t t i n g t h e S e m a n t i c Marketing Problem". Journa1 of Marketing. 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 2 8 - 3 3 . 2  family i s economic  necessari1y to a  prospective  the  average  over  not  house  necessarily  attributes  out  compared an  a  important  (though  seeking  of a  commitment has  house which  F a m i l i e s spend  shopping  and  search  o f a more s y s t e m a t i c  process  purchase  financial  t o make i n i t s l i f e - c y c l e ,  social  take  other  desired purchase ten just  more buyer  house of  other  months looking  Differential to V o l . XXV (Apr.  3  the  direct  in this  i n scope  and  A).  The  process  the  and  the  3R. F . K e l l y a n d R. S t e p h e n s o n " T h e S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n tial. An I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e f o r D e s i g n i n g R e t a i l Patronage Appeals". Journal of Marketing. V o l . XXXI ( O c t . 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. i + 3 - ^ 7 .  14 around for  houses.**  process of  s e a r c h , a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s do change.  renders  the  may h a v e yet  study  Over  of  such a  long  a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r  l i m i t e d the a p p l i c a t i o n of  t o be r e f i n e d  period  of  time and i n  This  more d i f f i c u l t ,  attitude  techniques,  t h e o r e t i c a l l y and i n a p p l i c a t i o n ,  in  the  and  many  housing  research. Of  greater  relevance to this  study,  making process a s s o c i a t e d w i t h other for  and b u y i n g  a house  are  largely visual).  is  consumer  largely visual  (unless  time i s a c r i t i c a l  notice  e v i c t i o n from present  p r e c e d e d by a l e n g t h y  period  families  usually  for  consider  buying  look one,  and  of  p r o c e s s i s more a p p a r e n t the  stages involved  some f o r m o f  in  homes  long b e f o r e  spend t h e i r  the v i s u a l  and  they  1  location.  imposed  (see  seriously as  long a homes.5  search  page 7 ) '  All involves  without  its architectural The i m p o r t a n c e of  by  Many  in the  No o n e b u y s a h o u s e -  approached  looking for  stimuli  stimuli  usually  the d e c i s i o n making process  visualization.  design,  and  searching  e.g.  weekends ( f o r  from F i g u r e  s e e i n g and e x a m i n i n g t h e house interior  always  and i s  decision  the  "window s h o p p i n g " .  p e r i o d as one y e a r ) " w i n d o w - s h o p p i n g " The i m p o r t a n c e o f  is,  constraint  premises),  the  goods,  (that  The d e c i s i o n i s a l m o s t  gradually of  unlike  style, visualization  ^ F i n d i n g s of the Research D i v i s i o n of Chicago Tribune What M a k e s t h e Home B u y e r T i c k a s r e v i e w e d by D. L . L i o n e l , "Home B u y e r s ' S t u d y o f f e r A d . C l u e s " . E d i t o r & P u b l i sher V o l . XCV ( A p r . 2 1 , 1962) p. 4 0 . S i m i l a r f i n d i ngs a r e r e p o r t e d by o t h e r S u r v e y s ( e . g . K e l l e y ' s ) . 5D.  L.  Lionel,  op c i t . , p .  40.  to  the stages  by  research findings.  in  their  their the  survey  house through  Council,  around  reported coming  the  process  evaluation  30% o f h i s s a m p l e  that  a c r o s s t h e house and from  of visual,  and mental  trial  stages  i n the abstract.  as  a possible alternative  in  a picture  impossible  and p i c t o r i a l  unless  o r on t h e a c t u a l  unless  one has examined  Mental  there w i l l  processes  t o work u p o n .  The v i s u a l  emanating  from  illustrations  be no i n t r i n s i c  houses,  a r e more b a s i c and d i r e c t  pective  home p u r c h a s e r s  imageries  purchaser  has pointed  than  to project  himself  process  c o n s i d e r a house t h e house  trial  basis forthecognitive imageries  and a p p e a l s ,  or visions  of actual  i n communicating  t o pros-  can induce  i n the particular  house  7w. T . K e l l e y , "How B u y e r s S h o p F o r A New A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l V o l . XXV ( A p r . 1957) p . 2 1 0 .  Illinois.  I967.  by t h e S o c i a l  Research,  Inc.  Only  the intending  ^Owens-Corni ng F i b e r g l a s s C o r p o r a t i o n , R e p o r t P r e f e r e n c e s (Toledo, Ohio. 1967)-  ^Prepared  either  i s virtually  any v e r b a l a b s t r a c t i o n .  and v i s u a l i z a t i o n s  The  and i n s p e c t e d a house,  otherwise  pictorial  s i g n s on  advertising i n  one h a s seen  site.  across  and Research  of t h e d e c i s i o n  One c a n n o t  about  located  o f home a n d home f u r n i s h i n g s p u r c h a s i n g .  not occur  Buyer's  coming  I n c . T h e Homemaker a n d Home F u r n i s h i n g s  t h e importance  these  learned  and a c t u a l l y  T h e Home F u r n i s h i n g s M a r k e t i n g  out  do  i s borne o u t  35% o f t h e s a m p l e  that  driving  house through  property.7  awareness and i n t e r e s t  Owens-Corning F i b e r g l a s s C o r p o r a t i o n  reported  house.Kelley  their the  of creating  -i n  on Home  House".  Chicago,  short  engaging  i n mental  can only  trial.  to  purchase  is  l a r g e l y v i sua 1 i n c h a r a c t e r . Related  buy  a house  certain will  t o the idea  through  aesthetic  inevitably  reflect  view,  surroundings,  cance  to different  an  aesthetic  of  life.  or  that  Only  will  The need the  to  those  aesthetics  aesthetic  process, frame  ensures  aesthetic  tastes.  o f t h e house  at  least  purchase  everyone  may  be a f f e c t e d . find  will  i s satisfied  reinforces the  through t h e i s acceptable  ensure  and view  -  o f aesthetics, or  aesthetics  i s at a  can the overt be n o t e d  an i m p o r t a n t  purchase  that the  landscape,  realm  i t must  because  i n t h e home  will  - i t s style,  the aesthetics  h i s aesthe-  T h i s i s so  Hence  dimension  However  look f o r  are compatible  setup  t h e former  of unacceptable  when t h i s  signifi-  for purchase.  to the purchaser's  the elements Only  that  aesthetic  The l a t t e r  not a n t i t h e t i c a l  minimum.  candidates  the visual  l a n d s c a p i ng,  are compatible with  f o r the proper  is  aesthetic  style,  o f t h e house c a n o n l y be j u d g e d  the individual  o f a house  t o h i s p e r c e p t i o n a n d way  alternatives  so they  Each  be o f v a r y i n g  p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e house.  process.  decision  of  housing  that  has a c q u i r e d  a n d t h e home p u r c h a s e r  i s conducive  be l i k e l y  desire  forvisual  visual  preference.  an e x p r e s s i o n o f those  that  process  The purchase  will  decision  i n the process to  experience,  and v a l u e s .  and l o c a t i o n  may b e a l t e r e d  tastes  of aesthetic  people;  frame  an o v e r t  a decision  of visualization  h i scultural  tastes  from  The q u e s t i o n of a r c h i tectura1  preferences.  tic  precipitate  i s the concept  individual,  Consequently  action that not  choice  criterion.  But in  this  does  n o t mean  question will  that  physical  n o t be c a r r i e d  examination  o f t h e house  out i n t h e d e c i s i o n  making  process. In any  light  of the discussion  s t u d y o f t h e home  attitudes, shouId  the essentially  no a t t i t u d e  instrument  d i m e n s i on i s a v a i l a b l e . are of  based  purchase  a t t i tude ter  they  cannot  t e c h n i q u e s c a nnot  i nstrument.  they  field  a visual  making  instrument  dimension  accurately  a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n , photographs.  class  respondents  own  areas  paper-and-penci1  c a p t u r e t h e t rue  charac-  i s so e s s e n t i a l l y  and  none o f t h e such an  a t t h i s gap a n d a t t e m p t s measurement.  i s c o n c e i v e d t o p r o v i d e some of a t t i tudes  Home P u r c h a s e  s e a 1e w i t h  and wi11 t a k e t h e f o r m  and d e c i s i on  Survey.  stimuli  form  I t wi11  represented i n  o f a number o f h o u s e  I t w i 1 1 be c o n s t r u c t e d - o n some b a s i s t o p e r m i t  discrimination social  have t h e i r  Consequent1y  i n the study  o f an a t t i tude  a v i sua 1  s e a 1i ng d e v i c e s  so f a r have u t i l i z e d  process i n the proposed  some k i n d  with i t  i n the process.  The e x i s t i ng  i s aimed  that  t h e v i sua 1 n a t u r e o f t h e  p r o v i d e a v i s u a 1 d i m e n s i on t o a t t i t u d e The  be  ref1ect  i n i t s impact.  Thi s study  involved  p r o v i d e s such  Although  appear  p r o c e s s , and t h e  stimuli  o f t h e p r o c e s s t o buy a h o u s e w h i c h  h o u s i ng s u r v e y s u n d e r t a k e n  of  that  d e c i s i on p r o c e s s .  g r a t i f y i ng v i sua 1  to  v i sua 1  i t would  A l 1 e x i s t i ng a t t i t u d e  on v e r b a 1 c l u e s .  a p p l i c a t i on,  home  decision  p r e f e r e n c e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s  reflect  However  purchase  above,  by r e s p o n d e n t s .  continuum  o f house  to discriminate  The b a s i s  postulated  occupants  that  between  houses.  will  Such  a  isa enable basis  will  have t o assume t h a t  house  photographs  families  based  determine  classes,  process.  From  i n t o market tastes, field  As  The  A shows,  t h e form  a long  sealogram  represent the f i r s t t h i s 1i ne.  TECHNIQUES  four  v a l u e groups  and p r e s t i g e ) .  However  research.  related  n o v i sua 1  groups  t o h o u s i ng by t h e  seales  or pi c t u r e  groups,  a s v i sua 1 p r o b e s  though t h e  for further  T h e Home F u r n i s h i n g s M a r k e t i ng a n d R e s e a r c h  T h e Homemaker  pictures  of four  i n h o u s i ng (economy,  t o d i s t i n g u i sh t h e v a 1 u e  d e s i g n s c a n now b e u s e d  above.  The v a l u e or market  b y s e a l i ng a t t i t u d e s  probes were used  nature of the  r e s e a r c h e r s have n o t p r e v i o u s l y  of the four  t e c h n i que.  consumers  p r e f e r e n c e s and  The p r e l i m i nary  instruments  decision  down  o f v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e d e v i c e p r o p o s e d  fami1y,  were d e v e l o p e d  of  t o break  a n d may w e l l  ATTITUDE  i n different  C o r n e l 1 s t u d y d i d d e v e l o p d e s i gns i n t h e f o r m  personal,  device,  t h e home p u r c h a s e  on i d e n t i f i a b l e  i s stressed,  OF E X I S T I N G  plans f o r each  Inc.  based  experimental  Appendix  u t i 1 i zed  o f consumers  t h e s e i t may b e p o s s i b l e  subgroups  I NADEQUACIES  attitude  preferences and t a s t e s and p o s s i b l y  a e s t h e t i c or otherwi se.  severa1  o f occupant  t e c h n i q u e s , may b e u s e f u l t o  a n d how t h e y a f f e c t  i nstrument  class  way, t h e p r o p o s e d  housing values and a t t i t u d e s  social  of  other  aesthetic  social  between  manner.  i n this  conjunction with  other  on p e r c e i v e d  i n a consistent  Constructed in  respondents can d i s c r i m i n a t e  Counci1,  a n d Home F u r n i s h i n g s made u s e o f some  and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o t a p i d e a s about  home f u r n i s h i n g s .  Respondents  were a s k e d  the styles  how t h e y  felt  19 about  the v a r i o u s p i c t u r e s  used  to determine  forms in  how  inventory verbal  the  stimuli  mainly  t o various types studies  are  and lacking  scaling  of  of a p p l i c a t i o n such  c o i n e i de  an  the  scales  i nstrument  techniques.  require  of  from  A l l these  respondent  to  the  techniques  visualize  H i s v i s u a l i z a t i on may  p e r f e c t 1y wi t h t h e c o n c e p t s  with  that  not  are  to  scaled.  assessment set  o f an  a t t i tude measurement  i ndi v i d u a 1 ' s r e s p o n s e s  o f v e r b a 1 p r o p o s i t i ons question.  the  use  (e.g. or  lack  concept s h i m s e l f .  C o n v e n t i ona1  in  this  i n n a t u r e and  necessari1y be  with  i s the absence  and  react  Besides these, other  of a t t i t u d e  are  p i c t u r e s were  requirements.  Concomitant v i sua 1 s t i m u 1 i  The  respondents  of advertising.  the p o s t u l a t e d  shown.  Such a t t i t u d e  o f j u d g i ng  groups  no  pri or  to attach on  value  about  be  seale  di rect  (graduated along a  scale  can  the  t o a (>redetermi ned  statements  scales  T h u r s t o n e ' s ) , or based  disagreement  have  or  consi st s of  the a t t i tude  developed value to  responses  scale) to  (e.g. Sealogram  through statements  of  agreement  statements  analysi s).  Either  methods r e q u i r e r e s p o n d e n t s  (or  attitude  favourable/unfavourable, agree/  disagree, on  or  other  along a continuum  responses  the  position  along  scale  approval  (acceptance) t o the  (or  these  statements  rejection).  the  The  s u b j e c t s ) t o respond  that  i n order  respondent that  pattern  scaled.  Based  i s a s s i gned a n u m e r i c a 1  extends other and  t o be  to  from  one  extreme of  summation  of  extreme  of  disapproval these  responses  20 will  provide  a  respondent's The Scalogram  attitude  Thurstone analysis  attitudes.  These  deficient whose they  quantitative  in  the  stimuli lack  is  popular,  agreement taining prior that  to  to  sorts  of the  all  in  the  value  sorting  attitude not  that  van"abi 1 i ty  are of  of  given  selected  statements scale.  p r o v i de  any  This  (numbered  of  appearing  20  to  per-  statements  have  1 to  11)  each  judges  form  endorsed scaling  the the by  22  the  v i sua 1 d i m e n s i on  i terns wi t h  to  The  sum  respondent  technique  procedure  along  or an  value  represent the  least  range)  of  of  scale  the  becomes  therefore  a t t i tude  items  median  i nterquarti 1 e scale.  his  22)  to  About  are  that  indicate  nonmonotone  the  -  in  to  The  i tem.  scale  processes  a judgemental  from  by  and  interval  favourableness. item  and  Thurstone  of  ( u s i ng  to  the  These  number  scales,  character  (usually  by  question.  cognitive  respondent  selected  large  categories  continuum  the  and  equal  in  the  scaling devices  visual  question.  are a  of  about  measure  example,  statements in  and  numbers  numbers  i nterjudge  of  attitude  11  For  objects  to  other  attitude  requires  values,  like  method  inference  summated  tools  predominantly  the  series  spaced  seale  values  a  and  statements equally  which  the  scale  on  Likert  -  of  some  attitude  used  dimensions.  of  most  widely  treatment  and  the  technique,  techniques  technique,^ the  towards  are  takes  visual  index  his  clearly  does  stimu1i.  9see L. L . Thur s t o n e " T h e o r y o f A t t i t u d e Measurement" P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u i l e t i n V o l . XXXVI (1929) PP- 222-241 or A . L. E d w a r d s T e c h n i q u e s o f ~ A t t i t u d e S c a l e C o n s t r u c t i o n (New Y o r k . Appleton-Century-Crofts 1957T~f°i" m o r e d e t a i l t r e a t m e n t .  21  The L i k e r t summated t e c h n i q u e * s u f f e r s from the same 0  d e f i c i e n c y , but i s a d i f f e r e n t s c a l e . of a number of monotone items ( i . e .  The f i n a l  scale consists  items having the c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c that the more f a v o u r a b l e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward the  a t t i t u d e o b j e c t , the higher h i s expected score f o r the  item) s e l e c t e d through item a n a l y s i s and i s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a sample which i n d i c a t e t h e i r r e a c t i o n s by means of a 5category r a t i n g system of s t r o n g l y approve, approve, undecided, disapprove, and s t r o n g l y disapprove. a s s i g n i n g v a l u e s of 5,  C a t e g o r i e s are scored by  h, 3, 2, and 1 i n such a way that the  most f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e always has the highest weight.  The  sum of a l 1 item scores i ndi c a t e the respondent•s a t t i tude. Both the Thurstone and the summated techniques s u f f e r from other disadvantages which p r e j u d i c e t h e i r use i n the home purchase survey.  Both techniques produce a t t i t u d e measures  that are h i g h l y synthesized - each g i v e s a s i n g l e composite i ndex of an a t t i tude concept.  They lack the f l e x i b i 1 i t y  requi red t o study di f f e r e n t aspect or v a r i a b l e of an a t t i tude concept (e.g. l o c a t i o n , vi ew, s t y l e and i n t e r i or desi gn i n a t t i tudes toward a house).  Separate Thurstone or L i k e r t  instruments can be developed t o study a t t i t u d e s toward ent and s p e c i f i c aspects of the housing problem.  scale differ-  But when more  than a few v a r i a b l e s are chosen f o r study, the use of the  S e e P. L i k e r t "A Technique f o r the Measurement of A t t i t u d e s " A r c h i v e s of Psychology V o l . XXIII (1932) pp. 1-55 or A. L. Edwards, op. c i t . f o r d e t a i l s . 10  22 instruments  become u n w i e l d y . * *  difficulties major  Scalogram  with which items  the are  posi t i v e l y all  other  will  be  be  used  indicates that  of  items  of these  abstract  scales  Further  of unresolved  items  scalable  individual  rank.  or  who  are  The  Scalogram  the  this  one  and  s a m p l e may  disagreement.  posi t i v e l y  favourably.  items  technique  A  their  are  be  number can  scalabil-  presented  i s limited  to  score  techniques)  practical not  items  respondent's  board  scale  of  responds  responds  endorses  theoretical by  series  scores to determine  techniques,  stimuli.  of a  agreement  item a l s o  he  (e.g. Cornell,  other  an  lower  to evaluated these  Like  number  having a  i s made up  2  parti cular  number  techniques  ity.  so r e l a t e d  items  the  scale*  respondent  t o any  of  Also  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  and  disadvantages. The  The  involved  A l s o the e l a b o r a t e nature  by  as  a  difficulties.  scalable  by  another.13 Of dimension  great i s the  llR.  promise, Semantic  F. K e l l y  and  but  also  deficient  Differential.*^  R.  Stephenson,  i n the  visual  Originally  developed  op. c i t .  * S e e S. A . S t o u f f e r e t . a l . M e a s u r e m e n t a n d P r e d i c t i o n IV ( P r i n c e t o n . Princeton University Press. 1950). 2  Volume  *3A. Ana s t a s i P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g (New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n C o . i 9 6 0 ) p. 589, a n d M. E . Shaw S e a l e s f o r M e a s u r e m e n t o f A t t i t u d e (New Y o r k . McGraw-Hill. I967) p. 25. I ^ S e e C. E . O s g o o d , G. J . S u c i , a n d P. H. T a n n e n b a u m , The M e a s u r e m e n t o f M e a n i ng ( U r b a n a . University of I l l i n o i s Press"] 1957) o r " T . E . O s g o o d " T h e N a t u r e a n d M e a s u r e m e n t o f Meaning". P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n V o l . X L I X (May 1952) pp.  197-237.  t o measure  t h e meaning o f c o n c e p t s ,  a t t i t u d e measurement of respondent's  of  attitudes.  with a seven-interval  the o p p o s i t e members of each p a i r .  "qui te",  " s l i ght1y", "nei ther  "quite",  and " e x t r e m e l y "  seale that  representing  best  The  F i gure 2  the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1. selected  s h o u l d be r e l e v a n t  for application i n  the  t o the a t t i t u d e or  These s e a l e s can be d e r i ved from content  a n a l y s i s of  f o c u s on t h e a t t i t u d e s under  relevant  respondent  t h e poi nt on t h e i n t e r v a 1  t h r o u g h p r e l i m i nary f i e l d work ( e . g .  t i on) or o t h e r  " s l i ghtly",  hi s a t t i tude towards i t .  d e c i s i on p r o c e s s under s t u d y .  d e p t h i n t e r v i ews t h a t  "extremely",  i nterva1 b a s i s .  and s e l e c t  The b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  scale  f r o m one end o f t h e s e a l e c o n t i nuum  represents  i 1 l u s t r a t e s the form of  consists  The p o s i t i o n s  one or t h e o t h e r " ,  u s u a 1 1 y on an e q u a l  i s t o judge the concept  content  The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l  the s c a l e a r e d e s c r i b e d as  to another,  i s now w i d e l y used i n  t o probe b o t h t h e i n t e n s i t y and  of p a i r s of polar a d j e c t i v e s separating  it  procedures.  considera-  Osgood and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ,  u s i ng f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e s have e s t a b 1 i shed t h r e e  genera 1  d i m e n s i o n s o f a t t i t u d e measured by the s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 an e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r , factor.*5  a potency f a c t o r ,  Consequently i t  s c a l e s t o measure d i f f e r e n t v a r y i ng t h e f a c t o r  is  and an a c t i v i t y  possible to construct  relevant  a t t i tude d i m e n s i ons d e s i r e d by  l o a d i ng o f t h e d i f f e r e n t  15jhe e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r concern e v a l u a t i o n of o b j e c t s u n f a v o u r a b l e ) ; potency f a c t o r w e a k ) ; and a c t i v i t y f a c t o r t o active-passive). These t h r e e dimensions of a t t i t u d e .  dimensi ons.  corresponds to a t t i t u d e s that being rated (e.g. favourablet o t h o s e o f power ( e . g . s t r o n g the l e v e l s of a c t i v i t y ( e . g . f a c t o r s a c c o u n t f o r most  FIGURE 2  1 1 l u s t r a t i o n s Of S e m a n t i c  Differential  Architectural  Extremely  TRADITIONAL  Quite  :  UBIQUITOUS  SIMPLE  :  Slightly  Nei t h e r One Nor t h e Other  Seales  Style  S1i ght1y  Quite  Extremely  :  :  :  :  :  CONTEMPORARY  :  :  :  :  :__  UNIQUE  :  :  :  :  :  ELABORATE  The  s c a l e s need  tive  phrases  thi s  process.^ The  weights  not  c a n be u s e d ,  be and  simple a d j e c t i v e words.  s e n s i t i v i t y may b e e n h a n c e d  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  t o each p o s i t i o n ,  b e summated  to yield  c a n be t r a n s f o r m e d  and  total  c a n b e s c o r e d by  the  scores of  into  the  The unmatched  individual  psychological  b e i n g used  t o compare  brands  s e r v i c e s of  and  t h e a t t i t u d i na1 patronage other  promotional  by u s i n g t h e widespread cation.  The  competing  W.  scores  P r o f i l e s may  a  be  popularity  scaling techniques. images  (actual  s u p p l i e r s , *7  and and  c u s t o m e r s and  on a t t i t u d e  a s p e c t s of  ideal), to  op.  and  has been  c i t . , p.  and  analyzed  comparatively  attitude  Likert  determine  consumer  c a n be d e v e l o p e d  a variable  is  advertising  change its  It  t o i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and ease i n  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  A. Mindak,  g r o u p mean  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  U n l i k e the Thurstone  1 6  scores  has enjoyed  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . ^  many d i f f e r e n t tion.  corporate  stimuli  use i s due  can  These  the means.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  decisions. ^  or  scale  scores.  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l by o t h e r  respondents.  by  assigning  responses t o the  w i t h a s s o c i a t e d d i s p e r s i ous about constructed from these  Descrip-  under  applito  measure  investiga-  techniques which  provide  28.  * 7 i b i d . , a n d A. J . S p e c t o r , " B a s i c D i m e n s i o n s o f t h e Corporate Image". J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XXV ( O c t . 1961) pp. 47-51. 1 8  ing  pp.  R.  F.  K e l l y a n d R.  Stephenson,  op.  cit.  *9w. A . M i n d a k , " A New T e c h n i q u e f o r M e a s u r i n g A d v e r t i s Effectiveness". J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XX ( A p r . 1956)  367-378.  only  synthesized  indices  tial  can explore  the different  (e.g.  numerous  repeated  over  to measure  time t o detect  Above  i n t h e home  could  be a p p l i e d  purchase  differential  purchase  decision  process  associ ated  However,  style,  that  attempt  There  i n attitude  processes.  The f i e l d  decision  next  field  instrument.  t h e home sets  of a t t i t u d e  measurement  and v e r b a l  i n nature.  i s postulated  t h e need  consideration  The proposed  field  p a r t i cu1 a r 1 y  a more u s e f u l  and f a c t o r s  t o be  t o provide  i n home p u r c h a s e  under  i nstruments,  attitudes  will  a means t o s c a l i n g  i s therefore  decision here i s  instrument i n t h e semanti c  and  involved  such  fruitful  i nthe  homes.  establishing  section  It  r e a l t o r s and o t h e r  process which  c a n hope t o p r o v i d e  t o purchase  After the  provides  instrument  c o n j u n c t i o n wi t h o t h e r  means o f s t u d y i n g  applica-  out e a r l i e r .  various  location,  i n this direction.  differential  reliable.  underlying  are abstract  home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n significant.  easy t o  i t n e g l e c t s t h e v i sua 1 d i m e n s i on i n  t e c h n i ques,  dimension  spelled  and t o s c a l e  i t only  to stimuli  Li ke o t h e r  an  and consumer  h a s many p o t e n t i a l  survey  and  wi t h t h e d e c i s i o n t o p u r c h a s e a h o u s e .  by i t s e l f ,  responses  very  reactions,  is-relatively  to identify factors  towards a r c h i t e c t u r a l  a  between a d v e r t i s i n g  variable  I t c a n be e a s i l y  i n consumer  a l l the instrument  semantic  tions  the  trends  differen-  o f any a t t i t u d e  a n d admi n i s t e r , a n d y e t i t i s u s u a 11 y  The  factors  facets  the semantic  o f home p u r c h a s i n g ) .  interaction  attitudes. construct  aspects  of attitudes,  deal  t h e need  for the f i e l d  instrument  w i t h t h e n a t u r e and b a s i s  of the  26  NATURE  OF THE F I E L D  General  Requi r e m e n t s The  visual  verbal,  dimension.  requirements Attitude  dents  react  agreement  reactions the  scaling  with  items  permit  attitudes  are scaled  continuum  may  agreement  like be  social  reflected  selected  that  From  setting  out t h e  t o be a w a r e o f  respon-  or d i s a p p r o v a l ,  The p a t t e r n and summation o f p r o v i d e a way o f i n f e r r i n g  concerning the attitude  o b j e c t , and  t o be a s s i g n e d a p o s i t i o n these  statements  ranges  t o disagreement.  from  i n and i n f e r r e d  i t i s apparent  approval  from  some that  The  to disapproval  Or i t c a n b e a n y o t h e r  basis  but i t s n a t u r e  must  the c h a r a c t e r o f the items  These  o b j e c t s or concepts which  I t i s the response  along  o f continuum.  and h o u s i n g a d e q u a c y ,  permits a t t i t u d e s  t h e r e f o r e take  i n general.  a g a i n s t some k i n d  be one t h a t  class  will  than  or otherwi se t o a s e t o f c a r e f u 1 1 y  t o make up t h e s c a l e .  the a t t i t u d e measure.  scales  The  rather  be f r u i t f u l  or p r o p o s i t i o n s .  attitudes  scale.  Before  expressions of approval  scale.  to provide a  (conventional) requires that  the respondent  quantitative  or  scale.  t o the set of items w i l l  respondents'  will  instrument  i twill  of attitude  or d i sagreement,  determined  assume a v i s u a l ,  attitude  of the instrument,  be d e v e l o p e d  o f an a t t i t u d e  The f i e l d  of a visual  Seales  will  t o some f o r m  of the scale will  the form nature  of A t t i tude  instrument  dimension  stimulus  the  field  INSTRUMENT  t o items  i t e m s must the scale along a  relate to purports t o  linear  t o w a r d s o b j e c t s t o be s c a l e d .  continuum Scales,  27 by d e f i n i t i o n , w i l l  a l s o require some form of scale i n t e r v a l s ,  categories, or points whereby numerical values may  be attached,  and consequently used t o denote the q u a n t i t a t i v e scale value of the respondent.  F i n a l l y a t t i t u d e scales should be u n i -  dimensional ( i . e . , measure one a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e ) , so that variability  introduced  by other i r r e l e v a n t a t t i t u d e s , not  meant to be scaled, can be excluded. These are the general  structura1 requi rement s of  a t t i t u d e scale c o n s t r u c t i o n . necessari1y  di f f e r  i n structure.  an a t t i tude sea 1e wi11 wi11  and  The  f i e l d i nstrument  as  have to meet these requi rements, and  be di scussed be 1ow.  mi ni mum,  D i f f e r e n t scale types w i l l  Also to be usefu1,  a seale, at  the  must be v a l i d (measure what i t purports to measure)  r e l i a b l e ( y i e l d consi stent r e s u l t s ) .  nature of the f i e l d instrument w i l l questi ons of v a 1 i di ty and Chapter  2 0  Only the  structura1  be covered here - the  reliability will  be deferred  to  IV.  Nature of the F i e l d Instrument The  proposed f i eld i nstrument wi11  attempt t o provi de,  as stated, a v i s u a l dimension to an a t t i t u d e scale. vi sua 1 dimensi on wi11  necessari ly take the form of pictures  (photographs or otherwi se) to represent objects to be measured. research w i l l  The  the stimuli of a t t i tude  Mention of pictures i n a t t i t u d e  immediately bring to mind the Thematic  L . W. Furguson "The Requirements of an Adequate A t t i t u d e Scale" Psychological B u l l e t i n V o l . XXXVI (1939) pp. 6 5 5 - 6 7 0 and M. E. Shaw, op. c i t . , pp. 16-20. 2 0  28 Apperception instrument that  Test  may  pictures  the  attitude  seale,  scale by The  categories.  varying  i nstrument  employ  may  the unstructured  of application  in  Chapter  IV.)  of  an a t t i tude  an a t t i tude  and f r e e  The three  c o n t i nuum.  i t may  of houses  The v i s u a l  p r o v i d e d by t h e s e t h r e e  of  the d i f f e r e n t  as  t h e v i sua 1 s t i m u 1 i  be  against  or  other features  social  t o denote  response  have  Again  like  o f interva1 or c a n be  each  changed  seale  Though  interval. i t may  ( i n the form  ( T h i s wi11  of  story  be d e a I t wi t h the nature  be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a l l i n t h e v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n  i t as  - or f o r  s e a 1e.  sea l e i s e n v i s a g e d t o c o n s i s t o f graduated along a s o c i a l  photographs  classes  of houses.  i n t h e photographs  of aesthetics,  i n t h e house be m e a s u r e d .  that  wi11  The  houses  will  serve  scale.  architectural  photographs  class  i nstrument  envisaged i n the a t t i t u d e  the patterns  respondents w i l l  as i t s basis.  d i m e n s i on t o t h e f i e l d  be  approaches  instrument approaches  a v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  photographs  field  o f t h e TAT, o t h e r more f r u i t f u l  As t h e f i e l d  v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  to  t h e TAT, i t w i l l  i n i t s app1i c a t i o n .  s e a l e wi t h s t i m u 1 i  conveni ence,  the  of these i n t e r v a l s  a r e envi saged.  s e a 1e,  this  field  i n so f a r  are utilized  p o s s e s s some f o r m  of pictures  b u i 1 d i ng f r o m t h e p i c t u r e s ) means  Unlike  continuum  wi11  differ  The  form and, e s s e n t i a l l y ,  T h e number  t h e number  Beyond  scale.  and e x p l i c i t  the instrument  o f t h e TAT but o n l y  stimuli.  n a t u r e o f an a t t i t u d e  technique.  representations  takes a di fferent  a well-defined a  assume t h e f o r m or p i c t o r i a l  provide visual i nstrument  (or TAT), a projective  I t wi11  styles,  responses o f  The graphs help  field  instrument i n the form o f the three  c a n be u s e d  reveal  survey.  i n c o n j u n c t i o n wi t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s t o  attitudes  a n d p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e home  I t c a n be a p p l i e d  responses  (similar  be  Structured  used.  t i ons about i nstrument  i n s e v e r a 1 ways.  t o t h e TAT) t o t h e house responses  the photographs may b e f r u i t f u 1 1 y  into  t o both  used  purchase  Unstructured photographs  open a n d c1osed  c a n be a p p l i e d .  t i a 1 t o s e a 1e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t i ons  photo-  may ques-  Or t h e f i e l d  wi t h t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n -  t h e h o u s i ng q u e s t i o n .  some o f t h e s e p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s wi11  Explorabe  di s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. The the  photographs  exterior  compound  styles  o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t wi11  a n d d e s i gn o f h o u s e s .  The p r e s e n t a t i o n  as t h e house,  i t s style,landscapings,  the  foci  o f t h e h o u s i ng s t u d y .  analogous  three  house  soci a 1 c l a s s  1ogica1  these features  wi11 be  a r e most  represent  three  levels  The r a t i onale f o r t h e use o f a  c o n t i nuum f o r s e a 1i ng h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s wi11  di s c u s s e d i n t h e next  s e c t i on,  but t h e i m p o r t a n c e  c o n t i nuum c a n b e r e c o g n i z e d h e r e . c o n t i nuum t h a t  the three  represent  1evel o f s o c i a l  house  seem  and nei ghborhood  p h o t o g r a p h s wi11  t h e s o c i a 1 c l a ss c o n t i nuum.  "lower",  be i n c l u d e d i n t h e  of these features  Also  house  to reality.  The of  The garden,  a n d s u r r o u n d i n g s o f t h e h o u s e wi11  photographs.  take t h e forms o f  each  photographs  rest  of thi s  I t i s on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  photographs  " m i d d l e " , and " u p p e r " .  be  class.  c a n be d e v e l o p e d The t h r e e  The development  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  that  - one t o  levels are of the three  p e o p l e c a n and  30 do c o n s i s t e n t l y basis an  of  perceived  attitude  scale  r a t i ngs most  between  them.  developed  from  dealt  with  the three s e a l e wi11  upper  of  objects  The  selected The  house have  represent  that  is  each  of  the  that  particular of  the  will  three  each  scale  number  suggest, the  categori es.  o f t h e c a t e g o r i es of c o n t i nuum.  be  of photographs  s e a 1e d i f f i c u l t .  field  will A  r e s p o n d e n t s may and  t h e n be  therefore  the three  distinguishable  tempted  introduce  photographs classes.  difficulties  be  photographs  Rat i ng  a tedious  to sort  t o o many  p r o c e s s , and  them i n a  abnorma1i t i es  four  development  of  a r e c o n c e i v e d t o be Having  More  "universe"  samp 1e t o r a t e .  to 5 0 ) w i l l  the  scale  i n the test  ( e . g . hO  the  of  of  for  photographs  levels  number  a  respondents  larger  photo-  instrument.  render  larger  One  visual  1ower, mi d d l e ,  Three  necessi tate  introduce  be  obtaining  of the assumption  c a t e g o r i e s wi 11  Also  can  development  p h o t o g r a p h s wi 11  i n the socia 1 c l a s s  the v i s u a l  fashion  Given  houses)  photograph  t o represent actual  the t e s t i n g  (or  by  respondents with  the  can  photographs  photographs  i s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t he this  families.  respondents  attitude  on  i n Chapter I I I .  g r a p h wi11  than  and  class,  survey. by  photographs  of occupant  different  be  house  the t h r e e  instrument.  photographs  a t t i tude  way  in a field  three  seale  different  categories will  As  classes  associated  i n the  between  social  a host of  f o r them  category  and  of  In t h i s  frequently  three  social  continuum  discriminate and  discriminate  random  i n the  ratings.  i n three  o r more c a t e g o r i e s  o f d e t e r m i n i n g and  labelling  the  clearly will  31 r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s of general  p u b l i c would f i n d  People tend  to think  categories.  This  assumption of  the  classes  of  for  social  point  t h e use of the f i e l d  and  assumes  three  in  three  photographs is  to  It  would not  be  or more c a t e g o r i e s  photographs  categories represent  i nstrument  wi t h  accordingly.  a useful  basis to  i t s v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n  need f o r  cannot  an a t t i t u d e  be m a d e .  only  i s beyond  the v i s u a l  of  Hence build  Even i f  the  that  i nstrument  involved  However  s c a l e does  instrument  may  stimuli  buy a h o u s e .  t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  at  this  sati sfy  the  scale visual d o e s meet  this  f i e l d t e s t a n d v a 1 i d a t i on ( w h i c h a s  stated  the  t e s t i fy  scope of  thi s study)  can r e a l l y  such c l a i m s .  S O C I A L C L A S S AS THE ATTITUDE Attitude  1i near  i nstrument  as a vi sual  presuppose  and u n i d i m e n s i o n a 1  have a s o c i a l c l a s s  a t t i tude  continuum.  c o n s t i t u t e a continuum for of  CONTINUUM  s c a l i n g methods  u n d e r l y i ng  capable  underlying  respondents  considered.  and measure more a d e q u a t e l y  requi rement,  t o any  distinguishable  instrument.  established  e a r 1i e r  the  b a s e d on p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l  to d i s t i n g u i s h four  any c l a i m t h a t  stimu1i  easily  which requires  the d e c i s i o n making process t o  poi nt  and  i m p o r t a n c e when t h e  r a t e t h e house  The f i e l d reflect  of  families,  respondents  scale;  such d i s t i n c t i o n s d i f f i c u l t t o make.  instrument,  occupant  class  social class  i n terms  d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e  easy  the  the e x i s t e n c e of  continuum.  The  field  s c a l e has been p o s t u l a t e d Any c o n c e p t  the f i e l d  serving as a b a s i s for  that  instrument  is  to  must  exploration into  be  the  to  an  attitudes This  and  behavior  in  s e c t i o n seeks to e x p l a i n  social  c l a s s as the Before  considered, itself.  the  it  rationale  i s usefu1  Society  is  ranks  of  s t a t u s and  di f f e r e n t i a 1 s t a t u s p r e s t i ge, wi t h o u t  These a r e  group,  class. broad  of  in  been any  class  nor  to  class.  social  class.  2 2  J . A. Rinehart 2  1  the concept  of  of  t o o c c u p y hi gher  soci ety.  six factors. ' 2  possessions,  that  are or to  that  are  this  persona 1  in  ori entati ons.  the  p e r c e p t i on  a 1ong a c o n t i nuum o f  soci a 1  d i s t i n g u i sh a n d d i f f e r e n t i a t e  cluster  sense that  t he c o n c e p t  1i t e r a t u r e  of  of of  exhibit  fami l i e s .  s t r a t i f i c a t i on,  there  on t h e meani ng o f  any  the It  soci a 1 c l a s s  a c c e p t e d scheme t o m e a s u r e  Thi s p r e c l u d e s  lower  i n t e r a c t i o n wi t h i n and  p e r t i nent  parti cular  genera 1 agreement  or  or  Kah1 a t t r i b u t e d  They  is  socia 1 class  individuals  c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and v a l u e  a generally  social  Holt,  of  In t h e  never  the c h o i c e  f a m i 1i e s f r o m o t h e r s whi c h d o n o t  thi s broad  operati ve.  of  stratified;  p e r c e i ved  fami l i e s i n t o  same a t t r i b u t e s only  t o examine  These f a c t o r s operate groups  rationale  s o c i a l c l a s s as a continuum  p r e s t i ge i n  the v a r i a b l e s  r a n k i ng o f  of  necessarily  occupation,  the  the  process.  continuum.  fami l i e s o c c u p y and a r e  and  t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n  is  has  soci a1  and  denote  p r e c i se d e f i n i t i on  K a h l The A m e r i c a n C l a s s S t r u c t u r e and W i n s t o n ; T9S6) p p . tf-12.  is  (New  of  York.  -  E x a m p l e f o r C a n a d a i s J . P o r t e r The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c (Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press. 1 9 6 5 ) p p . 7-10, and f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , J . E . Carman T h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f S o c i a 1 C l a s s i n Market Segmentation ( U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. I n s t i t u t e of B u s i n e s s and E c o n . R e s e a r c h 1965) p . 60. 2 2  33 Perceived continuum the  This  t o study  by  that  instrument.  social  class  ande x p l a i n  been  relationship  studied  chosen  This  as the underlying  choice  i s a logical  t h e many  Marti neau. 3  facets  determi nant  income". ^  Income  is  bei ng  f a r from There  di f f e r e n c e s tions,  i s based on  and  meaningful  o f home  purchasing.  Perhaps  "consumption  living  t h ec l a s s i c patterns  behavior  index  than  s t y 1es  o f 1i f e ,  Di f f e r e n t  and concepts  i n c o n s u m p t i on among  o f t h eupper  ( t o use Warner's  soci a1 p a r t i c i pati on,  class  wi t h  value  home  soci a1 c l a s s e s .  predomi nant1y  decor,  The"average  respectability  may c l o t h e  2  Journal  3p.  "nice  stores"  Martineau  24ibid.,  i n their  p r e s t i ge  a r ereflected  homes,  value.  middle i n their  themselves and save  i n thei r concern f o r i n coats,  suits and  for a college  " S o c i a l C l a s s and Spending  p . 130.  The  a n d c o n s u m p t i o n o f h i gh  fami1y"  o f M a r k e t i n g V o l - XXIII  orienta-  o f p r e s t i ge  i s exhibited  terminology)  pri ced goods.  from  pattern  a n d b e h a v i ora1  The m o t i v a t i on and s t r i ve f o r s u c c e s s i n t h e upper  dresses  operate a s  mere  f o r consumption  soci a1 c l a s s e s .  consumpt i on o f goods  class  one was  adequate.  between  cau se d i f f e r e n c e s  behavior  membershi p, whi ch i s a more  o f economic  a s a handy  and spending  a r e f a r - r e a c h i ng p s y c h o l o g i ca1  atti tudes,  gracious  that  t o d e f i ne c l a s s  si gni f i c a n t  class  scholars.  He found  2  2  of social  b y many  p r e s t i ge s y m b o l s  and  h a sbeen  can be demonstrated. The  has  class  f o r t h ef i e l d  contention  basis  social  ( O c t . 1958)  e d u c a t i on  Behavior",  p p . 121-130.  3>k for  their  enjoying  children. life  and  Spending  new  cars  s p e n d i ng spend  patterns  and  of  with  wi f e  In  fact,  most  On  and  i n the  whi1e  aspi re  to  day  the  people  a  greater  p a r t i c i p a t i on  to carefu1ly  there  are  stock  which  of  of  f u r n i s h i ngs,  s u b s c r i p t i ons  t o ma s s med i a ,  an  inexhaustive  list  i t e m s may  the  basi s of Thi  case  of a  patronage  of  and  to  necessary, appliances.  c o n s u m p t i on depending  stores, and  o f t e n be  purchase  c o n s u m p t i on explained  on  soci a 1 c l a s s .  s close  consumption  other  and  buy  standards  preferences  soci a 1 c l a s s .  of  to  and  stores,  is  ki tchen  d i f f e r e n c e s i n brand  to  i n hobbi es  1  her  choice  status  p r e s c r i bed  on  The  "invested"  " w o r k i n g m a n s wi f e " t e n d s that  be  tendency  s p e c i a 1ty  from  to  c l a s s tends  s o c i a 1 c l a s s mani f e s t s i t s e 1 f i n most  patterns:  tend  h a n d , h i gh  upper-middle  the  up  2  other  wi t h  towards  day. 5  to  status  c l o t h i n g beyond buiId  i s oriented  d i s c r e t i o n a r y income  w a r d r o b e a c c o r d i ng  l e s s money on  wi11  from  a p p e a r a n c e c l o t h i ng  appropri ateness;  but  class  lower  appliances.  The  pub 1i c  her  spend  of  t r a v e 1, e d u c a t i o n ,  r e c r e a t i on.  chose  well  i s experi ence-centered,  for  a 11 h e r  working  living  artifact-centered, in  The  r e l a t i onshi p between  patterns  house.  soci a 1 c l a s s  i s even more c l e a r l y  Barber  put s i t t h i s  exhibited  and in  the  way:  "The t y p e o f d w e l 1 i ng p l a c e and i t s l o c a t i o n wi t h i n t h e l o c a l communi t y a r e l i k e l y t o be s y m b o l s o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s position in a l l societies. T h i s i s s o b e c a u s e t h e home i s t h e p l a c e w h e r e s o many i m p o r t a n t r e c r e a t i o n a l ,  c a t i on  25R. p . C o l e m a n , " T h e S i gni f i c a n e e o f S o c i a 1 St r a t i f i i n S e l 1 i ng". P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i ng  Association  (Dec.  i960)  pp.  171-tolf.  of  c o n s u m p t i o n , s o c i a l i z a t i o n or e d u c a t i o n a l , and s o c i a l l y intimate a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out. It i s t r u e a l s o b e c a u s e a f a m i l y ' s n e i g h b o r s a r e t h o s e w i t h whom i t i s most l i k e l y t o a s s o c i a t e i n t i m a t e l y and e q u a l l y . Since a l l of t h e s e k i n d s of b e h a v i o r have s o c i a l c l a s s s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e p l a c e s , home a n d n e i g h b o r h o o d , w h e r e t h e y o c c u r become s o c i a 1 c l a s s s y m b o l s . 1 , 2 6  The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s o s i gni f i c a n t s c i e n t i s t s have c o n s t r u c t e d i n d i c e s of enti rely  on h o u s i n g , ? 2  Different  or  p a r t 1y o n  h o u s i ng a n d h o u s e h o l d The h i gher hi gher  the  i s the  v a l u e s on a  f i ndi ngs t h a t  other  for  expensi ve,  to express t h e i r  and  expendi t u r e  value  soci a 1 c l a s s .  p r e s t i ge,  and m o t i v a t i o n a l The u p p e r  g r a c i ous  class  class its  fami1y  i s apt  to  1i v i n g .  1odge.  spend a r e l a t i v e l y  e x p e n s i ve pi e c e s of  26 Barber B r a c e a n d Company. B #  Social  di f f e r e n c e s tend t o  have  Thei r  style  of  house,  The u p p e r - m i d d l e  r e s o u r c e s on h o u s i ng i n a " p r e s t i ge"  on r a t h e r  the  i n e x c l u s i ve nei ghborhood  1 i f e may r e q u i r e t w o o r m o r e r e s i d e n c e s - a t o w n v a c a t i on r e s i d e n c e a n d h u n t i ng  for  2  grand houses  s t y 1e o f  house.  housing. -*  i n h o u s i ng a r e a 1 s o e x h i b i t e d . large,  2  o p e r a t i on i n c r e a s e s wi t h  expendi ture  based  housing. ^  e d u c a t i on a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l  Besi des t h i s ,  many s o c i a 1  soci a 1 c l a s s ,  classes place different  T h i s may be i n d i c a t e d by t h e  that  furni ture.  Social Strati fication. 1957) P^  large  share  of  nei ghborhood, Thei r concern  (New Y o r k .  and is  Harcourt,  27R . w . Mack " H o u s i ng As an I n d e x o f S o c i a 1 C l a s s " . Forces. V o l . X X I X (1951 ) P P - 3 9 1 - 4 0 0 .  28^. L . W a r n e r , M e e k e r a n d E e l 1 s S o c i a l C l a s s i n America. (New Y o r k . H a r p e r S- Row. i960). 2  9j.  E.  Carman,  op.  c i t . , p.  30.  36 with  e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e and  they  are  on  the  "arrived".  On  probably  has  probably  lots  On modest  the  a  the  room  standard  of  s a c r i f i ce for a  the  appliances  family.  The  she  wishes.  home a r e  F u r n i s h i ngs  values evident  M a r k e t i ng  Home F u r n i s h i ngs  h i gh1y  style  styles  and  a r e a 1 so k e e n l y regard  30R.  p.  a nd  are  family  families  to  buy  and  not  0  have  house i n a  house i s  O n c e a mi nimum willing  the  to  that  concerned of  1  classes.  hi gher about  types  The  a of  Inc.  Home  The  Homemaker  s t a t u s women  the  are  compati b i l i t y  room a r r a n g e m e n t s . value  the  c i t . , p.  sacri f i ce  home f u r n i s h i n g s  Counci1,  display  to  a l l t he m o d e r n  striking  of  " w o r k i n g m a n s wi f e "  i s wi 11 i ng  have  Research  op.  have  district,  lives.  t a s t e s toward  status value  Coleman,  they  class  adequate  decision  they  name d e s i g n e r s . ^  class  Instead  can  aware o f t h e  t o the  fancy  that  house f o r i t s externa 1 appearance,  reported  attainment  middle  an  i n di f f e r e n t  and  conscious,  the  and  that  n o n e by  i n thei r  appl i ances, i f she  Different  in a  i s achieved,  house  that  not  T h e y want  b e t t e r nei ghborhood.  expensi ve  lower  the working  content s of a  i t with  perhaps,  the  though  i nvestment  decency  more  with  scale,  major  stock  and  but  furnishings,  for the  will  the  hand,  house,  lower  a c r u c i a 1 and  and  other  good of  (upwards) or,  d e s i r e s f o r housing.  terms of  or  "move"  a d e s i r e to demonstrate  of  family.  good  of They  f u r n i s h i ngs  They  believe  I76.  31s. Bank " R e v i ew and Summary o f W o r k i naman's W i f e " i n S . H. B r i t t a n d H. W. Boyd M a r k e t i n g Management a n d Administrative A c t i o n (McGraw-Hill. 1 9 6 3 ) pp. 121-134.  37 that of  they  are achieving  t h e good  life  good  furnishings  and t h e r e f o r e  upgrade  furnishings  or add t o u c h e s  furnishings modest  and household.  i n their  comfort,  convenience,  Furnishings ences  tastes  status  Middle  status  and w e l f a r e  ings  and b a r g a i n always  possession  desires t o to their  They  i n home  stress  family  furnishings.  a t t r a c t i v e and s e n s i b l e ,  always devoted  and p r e f e r -  to a particular style.  sales are usually tend  by t h e  women a r e r e l a t i v e l y  quality  t h e s t y 1e o f t h e i r f u r n i s h i n g s .  about  they  strong  of elegance  women a r e m o r e a n x i o u s a b o u t  than  and  have  for furnishings.  a r e t o look  a r e almost  implied  their  Lower  and d u r a b i l i t y Worn-out  rationale  f u r n i sh-  t o buy -  t o buy s o m e t h i n g d i s t i n c t i v e a n d  di f f e r e n t . 3 2 There as  a home.  are also The lower  living  room a s a n i c e  gather  t o spend  kitchen, home  rich  i t s  different values class  and cozy spare  place  1  It i s frequently  Higher  status  i t s decor  guests.  a place  f a m i l i e s tend  i n such  t o t h e house  the family can television.  the heart  and not a p l a c e  for entertaining  t o emphasize  and a e s t h e t i c s  The kitchen  where  i s usually  f o r the "workingman s wife",  regard  o f t h e house and t h e  time and watch  i n appliances,  from.  with  conceive  with  as a place  The  of the t o escape guests.  the living  room  for entertaining  homes i s u s u a l l y  separate and  3 T h e Home F u r n i s h i n g s M a r k e t i n g a n d R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , I IllS. Homemaker a n d Home F u r n i s h i n g s , p r e p a r e d by t h e S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , I n c . ( C h i c a g o , 11 l i n o i s . 1967), see Appendi x. 2  n c  38 not  visible  from  the living  room.  There  home v a l u e s may b e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e From t h e above intimate  relationship  Soci a1 c l a s s  between  A t t i tudes,  housi ng t y p e ,  class  of l i f e ,  status.  basi s t o study  behavi or  that an  and h o u s i n g  exists.  p r e f e r e n c e s and a spi r a t i ons  soci a1 c l a s s and at t i tudes  p u r c h a se d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s .  where  h o u s i ng v a l u e s , a n d  a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 d e s i gn,  I n other words,  areas  class.33  i t c a n be s e e n  e x p l a i ned on t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s  be  i  by s o c i a l  social  influences styles  home p r e f e r e n c e s . toward  discussion  a r e other  Hence  a n d 1 o c a t i on c a n and di f f e r e n t i a 1  c a n b e a meani n g f u 1 involved  i n t h e home  i t s use i n the f i e l d  nstrument. H a v i n g e x p l a i ned  the  the r a t i onale  c o n t i nuum f o r t h e f i e l d  1imi t a t i ons  associated with  instrument,  apparent  soci a 1 c l a s s  i s whether  r a n k i ng o r a s e r i e s o f d i s c r e t e is  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  it  must  pattern  di s c r e t e  theory  o f p r e s t i ge,  c r e a t i on o f d i s t i net cation  c a n be u s e d  i n h o u s i ng  One q u e s t i o n t h a t i s  i s really  a c o n t i nuum o f  categories.  I f socia 1  class  as t h e u n d e r l y i ng b a s i s f o r t h e i nstrument,  s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i rement The  some o f t h e p o s s i b l e  the use of soci a 1 c l a s s  s h o u 1 d a 1 s o be r e c o g n i z e d .  studies  f o r u s i ng s o c i a 1 c l a s s a s  o f a c o n t i nuum.  of social  class  c l a i m that t h e  power, a n d p r i v i 1 e g e s r e s u 1 1 g r o u p i n g s o f per s o n s .  t o d e s i gnate  i n the  A 1 i ne o f d e m a r -  a group o f people  wi t h  33Housing value types a r e r e l a t i v e l y unexplored. The C o r n e l 1 s t u d y f o u n d f o u r h o u s i ng v a l u e t y p e s , b u t n o t on t h e basis of social class. S o c i a l c l a s s c a n be a m e a n i n g f u l b a s i s t o study housing v a l u e types.  sufficient groups. any  fixed  number  worse,  past  methods  of classes.  using  si milar  di s c r e t e  failed  W.  other  to establish  and u s e d .  (These  methods have  F. Kenke1  are evidence T o make  things  led to different  and G. E . L e n s k i  using  t o W a r n e r ' s h a v e come t o t h e c o n e l u s i on  i s a c o n t i nuum r a t h e r  than  that  somethi ng wit h s i x  categories.^  Also  the di screte  " u n c l a s s i f i ed"  theory  p e o p l e a nd t h o s e  due t o m o b i l i t y .  t o time and render  ficant  have  from  Two t o s i x s t r a t a o f s o c i a l  comparable  F o r example  soci a 1 c l a s s  show  studies  f o r t h e c o n t i nuum h y p o t h e s i s . )  studies  resu11s.  t i me  class configurations  have been d i s c o v e r e d  themselves  mai n1y  social  Unfortunately  classes in  similar  i s the alleged  s i gni f i c a n t  does  not c o n s i d e r  constantly  The bases  on t h e move,  f o r r a n k i ng c h a n g e  ranki ngs i ncomparable.  bases  those  More  from signi-  f o r r a n k i ng do not o r d i n a r i 1 y  c o r r e l a t i o n s wi t h  one a n o t h e r ,  c a t e g o r i z a t i on o f i n d i v i d u a 1 s w i 1 1 p r o d u c e  and  therefore  i nconsi stent  results. In found  di screte  theory. the  a l l data, classes,  c r it e r i a  attitudes,  i95 ry~ . 303. P  from  s t u d i e s whi c h c l a i m  a r e consi stent  with  t o have  t h e c o n t i nuum  a c o n t i nuum o f r a n k i n g by a 11  o f r a n k i ng - i ncorne, w e a l t h , power, o c c u p a t i o n a l  3^J. E . Cuber the United States i  even  The r e s u l t s yi elded  si ons,  JH  fact  education,  prestige,  posses-  and genera 1  a n d W. F . K e n k e l S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n (New Y o r k . Appleton-Century-Crofts.  ho representational t o be  prestige.^5  s c a l a b l e by  continuum contend  of  Guttman  r a n k i ng.^6  that  conceived  the  a  of  social  as  a  social  classes  scale,  and  Therefore  continuum  therefore  i t would  class ranking  system  rather  have been  be  forms  a  a  justified  i s more  than as  found  set  to  accurately  of  discrete  categories. How  i s the  "middle",  and  As  earli er,  stated  convenient are  not  use  "upper"  way  meant  l e v e l s are  ment s o f  naming s c a l e  application  of  c l a s s continuum  —  An  social Max  d i m e n s i ons  in  the  sea 1e h a s of  the  has  suggested  - that  order.  of  as  that  economi c  scale  The the  three  three  requi reand  scale  i nterva1s  They  levels  a 1ong  the  respondents.  one  of  seem t o  i t s requi rements  be  strati fication order, of  j u s t i f ied?  represent  construction  a t t i t u d e d i m e n s i on.  Carman c o n c e i v e d  3 5 j . E. C u b e r Uni t e d S t a t e s  only  di s c r e t e .  Hence the  sea 1 i n g  "lower",  i nstrument  i n c o n f o r m i t y wi t h  c o n v e n i ent for  of  c l a s s continuum.  f i x e d or  c l a s s c o n t i n u u m d o e s not  Weber  power  be  sea l e s .  as  social  uni d i m e n s i o n a 1 i t y  social  i n t e r v a l s i n the  a t t i tude  a t t i tude  the  to  scales  i nterva1s  seale  on 1y u s e d  concei ved  interval  v i sua 1 f i e l d  three  i n t e r v a l s along  i n any  be  three  i n the  the  i nterva1  have t o  of  a  The  the  concept  of  unidimensiona1. has  p r e s t i ge  three  order,  power d i m e n s i o n ,  and status  and W. F . K e n k e r S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i on (New York. Appleton-Century-Crofts.  36Kahl, op. c i t . ,  pp. 72-84.  41 dimension, seen  and c u l t u r a l  e a r l i e r has used  dimension  s i xvariables  possessions,  interaction,  orientations)  t o explain  A  unidimensiona1  and  cannot  field  acknowledged  seale  or  making  cover  and  attitude  a r e part  improper aspects  i nstrument.  f o r a t t i tude i n h a v i ng an  o f t h e a t t i tude  o f a c o n s t e l l a t i on  The i n s i s t e n c e  from other  interdependent  on  c o n t i nuum, t h e r e  attitude  dimensions o f  o f t h e c o n s t e l l a t i on t h a t  i t s mu1ti dimensi ona1i ty  make u p a n d  i s n o t h i ng i neon s i s -  and i t s u s e i n t h e v i s u a l  scale.  Further instrument  of  of the  t h e i n c l u s i on o f i r r e l e v a n t  o f v a r i a b i 1 i ty  Since the various  about  construct  i n the f ield  aspect s a r e part  i s t o prevent  explai n the soci a 1 c l a s s tent  di f f e r e n t  or a t t i t u d e " . 3 9  c o n f u s i ng s o u r c e s  soci a 1 c l a s s  class.  i s not t e n a b l e  o f uni dimensi ona1i ty  several  up t h e be 1i e f s  concepts.  the theoretical  be a w e a k n e s s  p r o v i di n g t h e s e  uni di mensi o n a 1 i t y  and v a l u e  T h e mu 11 i d i men s i o n a 1 i t y o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s i s  and c o u I d  test  class  the social  i s only  as  o f soci a 1 s t r a t i f i c a t i on.  i s " n o t h i ng i nt r i n s i c a 1 1 y  there  b e 1i e f ,  of social  Kahl  occupation,  consciousness,  nature  this affect  i n t h e r e q u i rement  a t t i tude  (prestige,  t h e phenomenon o f s o c i a l  explanation  i nstrument.  However  class  e x p l a i n t h e t rue  How d o e s  of social class.^7  meant  37J.  E . Carman,  38j.  A . Kahl,  class  c o n t i nuum i n t h e f i e l d  t o be a g e n e r a l i z e d  continuum.  op. c i t . , pp. 1 4 - 3 2 .  op. c i t . , pp.  8-14.  39p. K r e c h a n d R. S. C r u t - c h f i e l d T h e o r y and P r o b l e m s Social Psychology (McGraw-Hill. 1 9 4 8 ) p. 2 3 1 .  i+2 It  will  serve as a sor t  sea l i n g or wi sh  to  m e a s u r ement  study.  di f f e r e n t i a 1 , have t o be a  For the  of of  o v e r - a 11 c o n t i nuum t h a t v a r i ous  examp1e,  s u b - c o n t i nua  when u s e d w i t h  soci a 1 c l a s s  g e n e r a 1 i z e d c o n t i nuum f o r  t i a 1, wi th i t s  own p a i r s o f  a t t i tudes  the use of  a m u 1 t i d i m e n s i o n a 1 c o n t i nuum i n t h e  in  must  large  part,  be k e p t  j u s t i f i ed,  though  i n mi nd w h e n u s i n g  one  may  semanti c  n e c e s s a r i 1y  to  aspect s of  is,  house  permi t  t he s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n -  sea 1 e c o n t i nua,  toward the  that  the  c o n t i nuum w i 1 1  wi11  sea 1 e v a r i ous  p u r c h a se p r o c e s s . field  thi s possi ble  Hence  i nstrument  1 i m i t a t i on  t h e i ns t r u m e n t .  SUMMARY This form  of  nature house  chapter  fi eld  instrument  and b a s i s of photographs  proposed  a t t i tude  development  of  h a s e s t a b l i s h e d t he n e e d f o r  the  for  t h e Home P u r c h a s e  a di f f e r e n t  Survey.  t he v i s u a 1 s e a l e w a s e x p l a i n e d .  wi11  The Three  p r o v i de t h e v i sua 1 d i m e n s i on t o  scale. three  The  next  chapter wi11 e x p l a i n  photographs  from  the f i e l d  the the  work.  CHAPTER  III  D E V E L O P I N G THE F I E L D The o b j e c t i v e of house photographs in  for  t h e f i e l d work  the f i e l d  t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y .  house photographs  wi11  "upper"  the v i s u a l  levels in  photographs selected class  INSTRUMENT  instrument  As i t  represent  of  The p h o t o g r a p h  house  i n the f i e l d  wi t h  attitude  the hi ghest  t o be  scale.  "middle", These  against  sample of  rating  represent  a three  three and  three a  carefully  scale  i n each of  that  used  social  respondents. the  particular  d e s c r i b e how t h e t h r e e  the f i e l d work,  u n d e r 1 y i ng t h e  field  and  seale category  The i n i t i a l  so because t h e will  a n d must  three  the  assumption  t he " u n i v e r s e " o f  step i n  photographs  the development  selected for  from t h i s  each photograph  s e n t a t i v e as p o s s i b l e of  photographs  be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h c a r e .  be d e r i v e d  Therefore  to test  are  TESTED  s e l e c t i on of  i s a fundamenta1  f i e l d i nstrument  try  photographs  i nstrument.  S E L E C T I O N OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO BE  graphs.  three  instrument.  T h i s c h a p t e r wi11  instrument  which i s  the " l o w e r " ,  photographs  c a t e g o r i e s may b e t a k e n t o  t o be r a t e d  the  c a n b e d e r i v e d by o b t a i n i ng r a t i n g s f o r  set  in  derive  c a n be r e c a l l e d , t h e  c o n t i nuum f r o m a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  derived  is to  the  social  larger  the  set  class  that  it  the  Thi s  is  field  of  s e l e c t e d must  of  photo-  be a s  repre-  was s e l e c t e d  kk to represent, graphs  should be a v a i l a b l e The  Service very  Greater  comprehensive Vancouver  size,  baths,  number  garage,  July  of  different  1st t o  December  l i s t i n g of  rating.  age o f  and p r i c e o f  i)  The  basis for  di fferent wi t h e a c h the three These are features.  ii)  31st  houses  the  house,  floor  houses.  the c h o i c e of  L i s t i ng  1966 h a s a sold in  complete with information  rooms,  photo-  E s t a t e B o a r d M u 1 1 i p1e  on  area,  the  location, number  of  F r o m t h i s Mu 11 i p 1 e  L i s t i n g S e r v i c e was s e l e c t e d a " u n i v e r s e " for  types of  selection.  Real  photograph area,  of  for  Vancouver  Recorded S a l e s  Greater lot  and a w i d e r a n g e  of  thirty  photographs  photographs  were:  t y p e s o f h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s t o be s e l e c t e d o n e r e f l e c t i ng a s much a s p o s s i b l e o n e o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s ( l o w e r , mi d d 1 e , a n d u p p e r ) . t o be e x p r e s s e d i n t h e a f t e r - m e n t i oned  a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i gn, s t y l e , e l a b o r a t e n e s s , 1ands c a p i n g , and the frame of a e s t h e t i c s as e x p r e s s e d i n the photographs.  iii)  m a t e r i a 1s u s e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n ( e . g . c o n c r e t e , type of roofing).  1 umber,  iv)  s u r r o u n d i ngs of t h e h o u s e ; g a r d e n , f e n c i n g , n a t u r e of n e i g h b o r i n g h o u s e , and i ndi c a t i ons of n e i g h b o r h o o d .  v)  i n f o r m a t i on o n t h e number o f r o o m s , l o t s i z e , f l o o r a r e a , number o f b a t h s , g a r a g e , a g e o f h o u s e , l o c a t i o n , a n d p r i c e g i v e n i n t h e Mu11 i p i e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e f o r each house f a c i 1 i t a t e d the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s .  v i ) p h o t o g r a p h s wi t h o t h e r e a s i 1 y i d e n t i f i a b 1 e o b j e c t s o r p o s s e s s i o n s ( e . g . c a r ) w h i c h may be " c o n f o u n d i n g " t o the s o c i a l c l a s s image of t h e house were e x c l u d e d . T h i s i s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r j u d g e m e n t by r e s p o n d e n t w i 1 1 b e b a s e d on 1y on t h e h o u s e . On t h i s b a s i s , S e r v i c e were  f r o m t h e Mu 11 i p 1 e L i s t i ng  selected to c o n s t i t u t e the  T h e r e w e r e a s many the three  30 p h o t o g r a p h s  photographs  social classes,  photograph  selected t o  though  the  number  "universe".  represent of  each  of  photograph  in  each  social  same. be  It  class  was f e l t  sufficient  three  that  for  a c h o i c e of  social  the  set  field  one out  classes.  d e l i b e r a t e l y made t o b e  carefully  30  t o c o n s t i t u t e the  photographs  roughly three  c a t e g o r y was not  Too  of  s e l e c t e d photographs  This would  ten photographs  l a r g e a number  of  for  process a tedious  one f o r  T h i s may r e s u l t  in  losing interest  r a t i ng, the  and j u s t  rush  photographs  errors  i n the  through  f i c a t i on p u r p o s e s  from  p r i n t e d on i t ,  in  i n the  by  s o r t i ng  introducing  Mu11 i p 1 e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e ,  1 ami n a t e d  L i s t i ng S e r v i c e  has  i denti-  r a t i ng p r o c e s s a n d f i e l d w o r k .  from the  (all  ha 1f p o s t  card  size)  were c u t  p a s t e d on t o  to faci1i tate handling  and  The out  cardboards,  prevent  spoi1 age  use.  SAMPLING  DESIGN  A s a m p l i n g d e s i gn w a s n e c e s s a r y t o r a t e t h e of  the  a n d t h i s was u s e d f o r  photographs  set  will  respondents.  and t h e r e b y  t h e Mu11 i p1e  selected  through  the  r a t i ng.  1i s t i ng number  and  each of  r a t i ng p r o c e d u r e  i n a random manner,  Each photograph a  the  the  the permit  photograph  make t h e r a t i n g  the respondent  would  from which t o d e r i v e  instrument.  the  photographs.  was d e s i gned  The s a m p l e ,  to ref1ect  the  a non-random  and t o c o v e r  from d i f f e r e n t  classes.  social  cluster  s a m p l i ng d e s i gn i n  Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y ,  the  p o t e n t i a 1 home  To c o v e r t h e  classes,  an a r e a  s a m p l e b a s e d on known s o c i a l  families  r e s i d i n g t h e r e was a d o p t e d .  selected  three  proposed purchasers social  classes  Six areas  one,  i n the  of Greater  Vancouver the  a r e a were s e l e c t e d , w i t h two t o  lower, middle,  and upper  represent  each  of  classes.  The a r e a s w e r e : Upper  1.  Class,  Middle  Class.  Lower C l a s s .  3.  From e a c h o f photographs.  UI:  Point  UII  Shaughnessy Hei g h t s , a t Angus D r i v e and M a t t h e w s A v e n u e .  MI:  West P o i n t G r e y . B l o c k s from West 1 7 t h A v e n u e t o West 2 4 t h Avenue a t Dunbar R o a d .  Mil  South Vancouver. Blocks from East 43rd Avenue t o East 48th Avenue at V i c t o r i a D r i v e .  LI  G r a n d v i ew. B l o c k s from East 1 st Avenue t o East 5 t h Avenue at Nanaimo S t r e e t .  LII  East H a s t i ngs. B1ocks from F r a n k 1i n S t r e e t t o Dundas S t r e e t a t Nanaimo S t r e e t .  these areas,  Thi s wi11  30  every  sample f o r  samples a r e not  However  grounds.  rea1ly  1  the f i e l d work in  s e a l e s , precedence has  limitation  shown t h a t  necessary,  example Osgood,  and r a t e  fami1i es  the  respondent, absence.  seems sma11  the development  s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d , at For  sort  the f o r m e r s  60  the  In each sample  The housewi f e was t h e u s u a l  too representative.  tive  sub-sample.  t h e husband was used i n The a b o v e  rating  sample si ze of  t h i r d h o u s e was s o l i c i t e d t o  photographs.  though  t e n fami l i e s were t o r a t e  mean a t o t a l  wi t h 2 0 f r o m e a c h s o c i a 1 c l a s s area,  Grey-University Area.  of a t t i tude  l a r g e and  though  and  not and  representa-  thi s possi ble  l e a s t on t h e o r e t i c a l  S u c i and Tannenbaum have  sample s i z e s as s m a l l as 40 c o l l e g e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s  to  used develop  h7 their both  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . v a l i d and  of  statements  the judges  (or  s c a l e development, do not  photographs  challenged,  but  controversy  of  stated  the arguments  that  not  in  the i nfluence  in  judge's  a t t i t u d e s do not  the  statements,  a t t i tudes of ment . rate  of the  What i s  seale.  i nf1uence  S i nee t h e classes,  op.  respondent  been  for  statements  t h e two s c h o o l s  own a t t i t u d e s  item favorabi l i ty,  0sgood, E. p.  it  Suei  Shaw,  86.  s e a 1e v a l u e s a s s i g n e d  the  proposi t i on.  on a s o c i a 1 c l a s s wouId not  i nfluence  photographs  thei r  in  and Tannenbaum, c i t . , p.  561.  the  place-  t o di scrimi nate  or  a 1ong a g i v e n s o c i a 1  the r a t e r ' s  soci a 1 c l a s s  sample  is  In  c o n t i nuum,  a t t i tudes  wi11  i s b e i ng m a d e . on t h e s e  grounds. social  t h e o v e r - a 11 Home  may be c1 a i m e d t o be a d e q u a t e .  op.  which the  s a m p l e h a s b e e n d e s i gned t o c o v e r d i f f e r e n t the  i nflu-  t h e a s s e r t i o n was t h a t  s a m p l i n g d e s i gn may be j u s t i f i e d  reflect  the  T h o s e o p p o s i ng t h e f i r s t  i s on 1 y a n a b i 1 i t y  of  that  attitude  T h i s has  in vain  No c l a i m a s t o w h e t h e r  and t o  M. cit., 2  But  photographs  requi red  Purchase Survey,  1  of  of  on a t t i t u d e  whi c h i s a d i f f e r e n t  hi s judgement  The  be  summari z i ng t h i s  the j u d g e ' s  bi as the  c o n s i s t e n t 1y t h e h o u s e  class  judges  i s held  placement  Shaw i n  questi ons.  the a f f i rmative.  placement  of  t h e i r judgement  clearly  it  this case).  have been  a s s e r t i on h a v e a s k e d w h e t h e r e n c e i n a n y way  b i a s the  di sproved.  h a v e b e e n a s k i ng d i f f e r e n t  a t t i tude  to  reliable.'  A l s o i n a t t i tude attitudes  Such s c a l e s have proved  op.  The  c i t . , p.  39-  See a l s o A .  L.  Edwards,  48 analysis  of  the  adequacy as i t  field is  the photographs rater's  data  (Tables  shown t h a t  IV)  a t t e s t s t o the  the different  i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner,  a t t i t u d e s have  little  social  implying  sampling  classes that  b i a s on t h e p l a c e m e n t  rated  the  of  the  photographs. However particularly  it  must  be a c k n o w l e d g e d  s t r a t i f i e d on  social  that  class  a  and  in  efforts  and  resources  sample,  s e l e c t e d on a  r a n d o m b a s i s w o u l d be m o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . i n a c c u r a c y t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s may n o t  larger  But  the  j u s t i fy  increase  the i ncrease  involved.  PROCEDURE OF THE F I E L D WORK Q u e s t i o n D e s i gn a n d R a t i n g The  procedure  photographs middle,  the  sort  The  The p h o t o g r a p h s  of  "middle",  To e n s u r e u n i f o r m i t y  a  set  al1  of  and  to  name t h e  subject  be e m p l o y e d  in  is  class  and of  t o examine the  the respondent's  s t i m u l u s or  perception photograph. boxes  i n s t r u c t i o n s to  p r o m p t i ng f r o m t h e  the c o n t i n u u m and  scale.  all  i n t e r v i ewer,  t o be  The i n s t r u c t i ons were c a r e f u 1 l y  the r a t i n g  photo-  "upper".  q u e s t i on was d r a f t e d  and d e f i n e  shown  to  drafted  to  scale  points  to  The i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e :  "Here - e a s e r i e s of house photographs. We w o u l d l i k e you t o e x a m i n e e a c h p h o t o g r a p h and p l a c e i t i n one o f t h e a r  30  (lower,  t o be p l a c e d i n t o t h r e e  p r e c l u d e any  i n s t r u c t i ons or  respondents.  social  t o r a t e a 11 t h e  t h e o c c u p a n t f a m i 1y i n e a c h  so r a t e d are  "lower",  respondents  respondent  respondent  them a c c o r d i n g t o  soci a 1 c l a s s  labelled  requi red the  three c a t e g o r i e s of  and u p p e r ) .  g r a p h s and of  into  Procedure  h9 t h r e e boxes p r o v i d e d . The t h r e e boxes a r e l a b e l l e d " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and " u p p e r " . I f you f e e l t h e f a m i l y t h a t l i v e s i n t h e h o u s e shown i n a p h o t o g r a p h i s most l i k e l y t o be i n t h e " m i d d l e " c l a s s f o r e x a m p l e , place t h a t p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e box l a b e l l e d " m i d d l e " . Please c o n t i nue t h i s p r o c e s s u n t i 1 you h a v e r a t e d a 11 t h e photographs." The  i n s t r u c t i ons were  typed  shown t o a 11 r e s p o n d e n t s, who  and  placed  them i n t o  the three  respondent  was  o c c u p a t i on  o f head  he  leaves the  of  the  q u e s t i oned  respondent  based  i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i on, This  is to  see  soci a 1 c l a s s made by  one  that  on  which  pi ece  of cardboard  the photographs were  The  r a t i ng  of  of  interviewed  sample.  o b s e r v e r , i f any  b i as  The and  b e f or e  the s o c i a l  t y p e s o f f u r n i s h i ngs  of that  Si nee  and  labelled.  interviewer  hi s o b s e r v a t i o n  the f a m i l i e s  status  rated  f ami 1 y . makes a  and  to a  r e g a r d i ng a d d r e s s o f h o u s e  o f t he  respondent  boxes  on  class  t h e d e s i gn, i n the  house.  conform  to the  these ratings  e x i s t s, i t w i l l  be  were  a p p l i ed  equa 11 y i n a l l c a s e s .  Recording  and  The respondent  Tabulation  r a t i ngs were  r e c o r d e d as 1 i s t i ng  A p p e n d i x B.  The  rated  three  i n the  respective  columns  respondent's a s s i gned l a t i on,  photographs  numbers o f e a c h  i n t h e R a t i ngs f o r each  number s r a n g i n g f r o m s i nee  the  the t h r e e  l i s t i ng t o master  scale  by  each  i n d i v i dua1  shown i n t h e R a t i n g s  c a t e g o r i es were  ratings  were t r a n s f e r r e d of  30  o f t he  Sheet.  t o 30  numbers w e r e  These (now  schedules which  categories  thei r  individual  identified  to faci 1i tate given  in  photographs  r e c o r d e d under  photograph one  of the  Sheet  by  tabu-  i n four  f i gures)  tabulates  f o r each  ( i . e ."lower", "middle",  and  50 "upper")  the  This w i l l three  ratings  enable the  categories  the t o t a l In  of  total  t o be enumerated,  t h i s way,  wi t h i n t h e  and  then  f o l 1 o w i ng  Table  I  to  t o 415  "universe"  have f o u n d i t category. are  not  But  it  and  by  the "middle"  T h i s i s not  i n c l u d i ng m o r e  to  R a t i ngs f o r  photographs  category for  the  photographs  in  dealt  has a tota1  t h e "1ower"  or  photograph  of  and the  r e s p o n d e n t s may into  di f f e r e n t  s e t mi ght  to represent  The  photographs  1imi t a t i on a s t h e  ref1ect  photo-  the  T h i s may b e d u e t o  class,  a serious  t h e 30  respondents.  lump t h e i r r a t i n g s  selected to  i ndi c a t e s t h a t  recorded  a n a l y s i s , whi ch i s  h a v i ng r e l a t i v e l y m o r e  c o n v e n i ent  random but  f i e l d work were  t h e 60  and 552  c a t e g o r i es r e s p e c t i v e l y .  r e p r e s e n t a t i ve o f  of  rate the  The " m i d d l e "  r a t i ngs compared  photograph  by s u b - s a m p l e s  the  DATA  c a t e g o r i e s by  "midd1e" c a t e g o r y .  "upper"  in  section.  s h o w s t h e Summary  the three  the  summari z e d f o r  r a t i ngs r e v e a 1 a t e n d e n c y  833  respondent.  each photograph  both  the r e s u I t s of  A N A L Y S I S OF THE F I E L D  in  r a t i ngs of  by e a c h  sample.  and t a b u l a t e d ,  graphs  each photograph  thi s photographs  soci a 1 c l a s s e s .  be i m p r o v e d  the other  two  by  cate-  gori e s . S e l e c t i o n of  the 3  photographs  T h e mai n i n t e n t i o n o f three  photographs  Field  Instrument.  30  photographs.  to  t h e f i e l d work i s  represent  the three  T h e s e c a n be d e r i v e d  to derive  social from the  classes  the in  r a t i n g s of  the the  I  TABLE  SUMMARY  RATING SCALE  "  P H O T  1  2  3  RATINGS  OF  O G R A P H S  4  5  ( N U M B E R S )  6  7  H  12—T3  9 1 0 1 1  W~t_5~  LOWER  49  4  3  55  18  2  3  2  28  2  21  39  9  38  11  MIDDLE  10  12  14  4  39  22  6  19  31  9  39  19  43  22  44  44  43  1  3  36  51  39  2  8  UPPER  RATING SCALE  LOWER  1  ~ 1 6 ~ H 7  4  8  P H 0~T]0 G R A T8~~~T9 T O lT  1  4  1  2  P H  22  -  1  49  -  ~T N U H T F R  S  21  Us  3 9  TI  24  S  26  5  27  2  -  5  )~~~~~  28  4  TOTAL  2 9 ~"J0~"  51  13  415  MIDDLE  36  45  19  40  26  25  37  21  42  34  46  39  45  7  38  833  UPPER  20  7  40  16  33  33  23  36  9  2  9  19  11  2  9  552  52 The be  photograph(s)  selected  by  si g n i f i c a n t l y Thi s can  be  "cut-off" r a t i ngs Tables  determining greater  down by  those  from II  show  and  such  one-tai1  category.  have  at  be  for that  U s i ng  1evels)  t o be  obtai n photograph(s)  the  t o be  value  (e.g.  1*645 a t  0*05 l e v e l  of  that  have  category  i t will of  hi ghest  t o or  equa1  of  (at di f f e r e n t  with  Z value  confidence.  those  s e a 1e c a t e g o r y .  calculated  greater  i n that  r e p r e s e n t a t i ve the  to  s i gni f i c a n t 1y  s u c c e s s i v e l y downwards f o r e a c h a  test  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  c r i t e r i on  Thi s i s t e s t e d f o r p h o t o g r a p h s w i t h  of  are  Z d i s t r i b u t i on  t o be  category.  curve  r a t i ngs  can  ratings  0*05 l e v e l  the most  a critical on  scale  f o r that  1evels  category  respondents  taken  the  s i gni f i c a n t l y  u s i ng a n  photographs with  by  of  normal  given  calculations  f r e q u e n t 1y  s i gni f i c a n c e to  t h e mean r a t i ng  u s i n g the  Those  category  p h o t o g r a p h s have  photographs that  t h e r e f o r e can  that  than  t h e mean r a t i ng  r a t e d most  which  t h e mean r a t i ngs  s i gni f i c a n e e . greater  f o r each  less  than  be  that  possi ble category.  r a t i ng Any t he  and  photograph critical  s i gni f i c a n c e ) wi11  Z  be  rejected. Table accepted  by  IIa) the  c r i t e r i on  "lower"  category  revea1s  that  greater  scale.  Using  than a  1 -282 ), o n l y  photograph  at  the  level  number  of  t h e mean  will  be  of  f o r the  0-10  the  accepted.  of  1 are  the I lb)  s i gni f i -  "middle"  (critical  hi ghest  and  Table  r a t e d t o be  r a t i ng v a l u e level  29,  r e p r e s e n t a t i ve  s i gni f i c a n c e .  p h o t o g r a p h wi t h  26)  number k,  photographs are  s i gni f i c a n c e the  photograph  t o be most  0-05  none o f  cantly  at  shows t h a t  Z va lue  rating ( i . e .  T h i s means t h a t  a  53  TABLE SELECTION  Ha )  OF PHOTOGRAPHS  TO REPRESENT  S C A L E CATEGORY U S I N G O N E - T A I L  Mean o f R a t i n g Standard  f o r "Lower"  deviation  =  Category  S^  =  N s  11  NORMAL CURVE TEST  = X i = __,x = 415 = n 29 / n LTXJ  -  ( Z><i )  n(n-1 ) Normal  deviates,  Z-  =  LOWER"  14*31  = 16*73  ~  -X|_  "sT~ Critical  Z value,  Photograph  at <  Number  = 0-05  i s  R a t i n g (X)  1*645. Z  value  Resu It  55  2-432  Accept  29  51  2* 193  Accept  1  49  2-080  Accept  12  39  1 '476  Reject  4  TABLE SELECTION  OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO REPRESENT  S C A L E CATEGORY USING  Mean o f  Rating for  Standard  lib)  "Middle"  d e v i a t i on  =  ONE-TAIL  Category =  NORMAL CURVE TEST  = X  M  = §33  devi a t e s ,  Zj  =  xj  S  Critical  Z value,  Photograph  at  Number  °<  =  =  27-77  30  ^/n^Tx - (X! i 2  x  n(TFTl Normal  "MIDDLE"  )^  13-64  ~~  Xj^  M  0-05  Rating  is  (X)  1-645.  Z va1ue  Result  26  46  1-337  Reject  28  45  1-263  Reject  15  44  1 -190  Reject  55 larger  number  though  none  level  of  of  photographs  obtained  are  a r a t i n g which  confidence.  However  at  the photograph  with the highest  therefore  be s e l e c t e d t o  Table  wi11  lie)  indicates that  a c c e p t e d by  rated is  0-10  the  "upper"  level is  represent  photographs  the "middle"  of  significant  the  "middle"  number  and  the next  7 and  A chi-square test  endorsement  for  w a s made t o  see i f  degree  of  the  photographs there  endorsement  the  10 a r e  t o be  repre-  c a t e g o r i es r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  of  to represent  the  i n each of  i s any  for  category.  categor y.  t h e " l o w e r " a nd " u p p e r "  sea 1e.  and  t h e r e f o r e t o be most  s t e p i s t o s e l e c t one p h o t o g r a p h  pa r t i c u 1 a r  0-05  significance,  H a v i ng o b t a i ned t h r e e a n d t w o p h o t o g r a p h s sentative of  category,  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  rating  t h e c r i t i ca 1 c r i t e r i on,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  in  that  p r o p o r t i on the  of  seale categori es  s i gni f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  photographs  in  each  in  the  scale  category. Table  11Ia)  s h o w s t he c o n t i n g e n c y  samp 1e who e n d o r s e d in  the "lower"  r e j e c t i on w e r e at  ratings. against  rejected  rejected  photographs  the  table,  r e j e c t i on)  or for  1,  the  rows t o the  at  the  endorsement  hypothesis  the  that  photographs.  0-05  level  of  the proportions  Even a t  of  number  of  endorsement  The h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t  a r e c o n c l u d e d t o be e q u a l .  tota1s  tested  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e and the  29  or  proportion total  the  and  endorsement  The c h i - s q u a r e v a 1 u e s were c a l c u l a t e d and the n u l l  h,  to the marginal  by a p p l y i n g the  those i n  number  The e x p e c t e d v a l u e s o f  c a 1 c u l a t e d as p r o p o r t i ons  (or  w e r e equa1 f o r  of  seale.  the bottom of  endorsement  or  t a b l e of  be  p r o p o r t i ons a  TABLE SELECTION  lie)  OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO REPRESENT  SCALE CAT EG OR Y U S I N G O N E - T A I L  Mean o f  Rating for  "Upper"  Category  "UPPER"  NORMAL CURVE TEST  = X  = Zx  = 552  Standard d e v i a t i o n  =  S  =  u  n £x?  -  (£ i x  )  =  19*71  =  17-06  TE"  n 2  n(n-1 ) Normal  devi ates,  Critical  Z value,  Photograph  Z-j  at  Number  =  ^  X-  =  -  X  u  0-05,  Rating  is  (x)  1-645.  Z value  Result  7  51  1-834  Accept  10  49  1-717  Accept  2  44  1-423  Reject  TABLE CHI-SQUARE  TEST  PHOTOGRAPHS  #  1  Observed  Ilia)  OF PROPORTION  OF ENDORSEMENT FOR  SELECTED FOR "LOWER" SCALE CATEGORY P  H  0  T  #  0  Expected  Observed  k  G  R  A  P  H  #  Expected  Observed  29  TOTAL Expected  ENDORSEMENT  1+9  51 -66  55  51-66  51  51*66  155  REJECTION  11  8-34  5  8-34  9  8*34  25  TOTAL  60  60  E x p e c t e d Number  r  2  £  =  =  i  i  n  (-2-66)  o f Rat i ngs  j i  e*j  =  180  n. j ^ n• ) t  e-yj  + (3*34 )  2  =  60  2  + (-0-66)2 + (2-66 )  2  + (-3*34)  2  + (0-66)  = 2-60. H : HA* Q  «< =  T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f e n d o r sement a r e e q u a l The p r o p o r t i o n s o f endorsement a r e not equal  0-05  Criterion:  Reject Cannot  Conclusion:  H  0  ^0*05,2  if  reject  H  D  >  5-991  i f AQ. 05 J2 ^ 5 '99 1  T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s endorsement o f t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s .  of  2  58 significance cannot  o f 0*20 (f*  be r e j e c t e d .  difference  =  T h i s means  i n t h e number  h, a n d 2 9 . of  level  that  the hypothesis  t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t  of r a t i n g s f o r photograph  One c a n p r e s u m a b l y  these photographs  3*219),  should  be i n d i f f e r e n t  represent  number  1,  as t o which  the "lower"  scale  category. Table significant  1 1 1 b ) s i mi 1 a r 1 y r e v e a 1 s differences  are  n o t s i gni f i c a n t .  two p h o t o g r a p h s  t h e r e a r e no  i n t h e r a t i n g s o f photographs  7 a n d 10 a t t h e 0*05 l e v e l h i gh s i g n i f i c a n c e 1 e v e l  that  of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  a s 0-5  ( f ^ -  Therefore  t o represent  number  Even a t such a  0*455) t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  one c a n be i ndi f f e r e n t  t h e "upper"  seale  tothe  category.  T h i s a 11ows f o r some d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e s e l e c t i on o f the  photographs  categori es. in  category,  t h e photograph  tion  represent  number  10 ( l i s t i n g previously number  number  photographs category  represented i t s  and "upper"  g i v e s t he b e s t  social  h ( 1 i s t i n g number  t h e house  best  scale  Consi d e r a t i ons were g i v e n t o a l l f e a t u r e s  whi ch a s a w h o l e  of the "lower"  photograph  and "upper"  and t h e two i n t h e "upper"  t o see which one photograph  r e s p e c t i ve c a t e g o r y . in  t h e "1ower"  S u b j e c t i ve e v a l u a t i on o f t h e t h r e e  the "lower"  was a p p l i e d  t o represent  f o r t h e upper  selected f o r the "middle"  2 6 ( 1 i s t i ng number  6761 ) .  After  scrutiny  1708 ) w a s s e l e c t e d t o  o f t h e 1ower c l a s s , 2653)  class.  representa-  and photograph class.  c l a s s was  These t h r e e  number  The photograph photograph photographs,  59  TABLE C H I - S Q U A R E TEST  Ilib)  CF PROPORTION OF ENDORSEMENT FOR  PHOTOGRAPHS SELECTED FOR •'UPPER" S C A L E CATEGORY P  H  T  0 7  G  0  R  A  #  P  H  TOTAL  10  Observed  Expected  Observed  Expected  51  49-98  49  Z19.98  100  REJECTION  9  10-02  11  1 0-02  20  TOTAL  60  ENDORSEMENT  Expected  120  60  Number o f R a t i n g s  =  e^ j  -  n.j  n^^ n  0-24 H : H : Q  A  ex, =  The p r o p o r t i o n s The p r o p o r t i o n s  o f endorsement o f endorsement  0-05  Criterion:  2  Reject Cannot  Conclusion:  a r e equal a r e not equal  H  Q  if  reject  f H  o  i  f  0  .  0 5  ]  Ao-05  > 1 ^  3-841 3  '  8  k  ]  T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f endorsement o f t h e two photographs.  60 as  shown i n  the F i e l d A b i l i ty  great  backgrounds,  between t h e  house  soci a 1 c l a s s e s  of  of  the f i e l d  q u e s t i o n whether  photographs  si gni f i c a n t di f f e r e n c e s respondents  each from the  each photograph  t h e r a t i ng  scale.  rate  the  Tables  IV  sub-samples rate and  "upper"  sub-sampl es,  are of  and upper  t he t h r e e  each photograph  c a t e g o r i es of  each photograph  were the  a parti cular  20 classes, on  soci a 1  how t h e  seale.  sub-sample same.  photograph  three  "middle",  The h y p o t h e s i s  p r o p o r t i ons of  ratings  The e x p e c t e d v a l u e f o r  a n a l y s i s w a s c a l c u l a t e d by a p p l y i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n r a t i ngs f o r  any  c a t e g o r i es  in the "lower",  the r a t i n g the  the  di f f e r e n t 1 y ?  show c h i - s q u a r e a n a 1 y s i s o f  b e i ng t e s t e d w a s w h e t h e r for  there  Do r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t photographs  the  t h i s assumpti on.  lower, middle,  i n t o each of  as  The r e s u l t s o f  t e s t i ng w h e t h e r  i n how t h e  do  the  Thi s,  assumption underlying  instrument.  T h i s c a n be done by  b a s e d on  families.  f i e l d w o r k d o p r o v i de a b a s i s t o t e s t  classes  of  respon-  c a n and c o n s i s t e n t l y  occupant  be r e c a l l e d , w a s t h e  construction  rate  dimension  P e r c e i v e d Soci a 1 C l a s s e s  significance i s the  from d i f f e r e n t  p e r c e i ved may  c o n s t i t u t e the v i s u a l  Instrument.^  discriminate  it  3 will  T o Di s c r i mi n a t e A l o n g Of  dents,  Figure  of  and a p a r t i c u l a r  each  total scale  to  ^ T h e o t h e r p h o t o g r a p h s s e l e c t e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e 1ower a n d u p p e r c l a s s , a n d a n o t h e r t o r e p r e s e n t t o t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , c a n be u t i l i z e d t o c o n s t i t u t e a n a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t , s h o u l d t h e n e e d s demand i t .  " LOWER"  62 the t o t a l size  of  possible  the  sub-sample.  proportions differ  ratings  for  Table  number  1,  If  for  photograph  the  are  number  sub-samples manner.  the  do n o t  rated  was made  for  category  by o n l y  photographs  in  those  said to  photographs  the  for  same  sub-sample  t o be r a t e d  in  the  chi-square  the "middle"  and  Examination proportions  (and  as i t  same,  same m a n n e r . a n a l y s i s of "upper" of  Table  the  al1  non-ratings)  ratings  for  are  shows t h a t the  in  same the  the  "lower"  that  these  sub-samples.  the  the  and  category  "ratings"  could  each  scale categories  the  No a n a l y s i s  in  and t h e r e f o r e IVb)  of  each of  by t h e  at  Tables  IVa)  not  homogenous.  i s obvious  rated  of  r a t i ngs  1 in  s u b - s a m p l e s w o u l d mean t h a t  n o n - r a t i n g ) were the  (or  scale category.  rated d i f f e r e n t l y  whi c h w e r e n o t  category  photograph  be r a n d o m o r  number  the  sub-sample  level  0-05  which were r a t e d  sub-sample,  were being  the three  "lower"  to  are d i f f e r e n t , then  photograph  the  one  photographs  similar  at  Thi s c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s ^ was r u n f o r  photographs  by a l l  then the  60),  the "lower"  proportions  proportions  rate  in  f o u n d t o be t h e  1 c a n be  if  sample of  t e s t s how t h e  rated  sub-sample  example,  Alternatively,  in  IVa)  each photograph  si gni f i c a n t l y di f f e r e n t ) ,  (i.e.  total  from the expected p r o p o r t i o n  significance.  Those  (i.e.  IVc)  be  taken  show  photograph  respectively. the  same f o r  sub-sample 25  of  the  30  ^ C o n t r a r y t o c o n v e n t i o n , e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s of l e s s than f i v e were used i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s i n T a b l e s IV, as t h i s w o u l d not a f f e c t the r e s u l t s . Since the e f f e c t of u s i n g such s m a l l e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s i s t o i n c r e a s e the s i z e of t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s , t h e f a c t t h a t a l l such v a l u e s ( e x c e p t t w o ) i n t h e T a b l e s w e r e f o u n d t o be b e l o w t h e c r i t i c a l value, could only serve to r e i n f o r c e the conclusions reached.  TABLE CHI-SQUARE  SUB-SAMPLE  1  P  2  H  ANALYSIS  FOR RATINGS  OF EACH PHOTOGRAPH  SUB-SAMPLES  FOR "LOWER"  SCALE  CATEGORY  0 3  R  S  (  T  0 4  8  1  55  18  1-0  18-3  1-0  0-0  1  -  18  UPPER  16  -  2  18  49  4  3  16-3  1-3 2-4  0- 0  2  For  8  -  17  r  7  -  MIDDLE C L A S S  EXPECTED RATING ( e j ),  6  H  -  19  TOTAL  P  2  1  CLASS  5  A  1  3  CLASS  G  each photograph,  e-  0  M  10  Q  E  12  R  )  13  14  15  13  3  12  1  -  6  -  4  13  1  11  2  1  2  14  1  12  13  5  15  8  2  3  2  28  2  21  39  9  38  11  6-0  0-7  1 -0  0-7  9-3  0-7  7-0  13-0  3-0  12-7  3-7  1-7  2-6  1-0  -  3-9  2-6  5-4  0-0  2-7  0-7  7-8  x Size  the same for NOT t h e same f o r  if  F -05  2  if  f  2  0  2  . ^  5  "  9 9 1  <=. 5*991  o r  or  of  Sub-Sampl e (or  photograph photograph  2  H  11  B  5  rating are r a t i n g are  Q  reject  U  1  = T o t a l R a t i n g f o r Photograph i Tota 1 Sample S i z e (or 60)  H : The p r o p o r t i ons o f H^: The p r o p o r t i o n s of <= 0*05. Criterion: Reject H Cannot  9  N  BY  8  6  16  LOWER  IVa)  i  f  if  1, 1,  2, 2,  2 ^ 0-05  1  /<  2  ]  ... ... >  3  C  20)  30. 30. '  8 i f  1  3-841.  TABLE SUB-SAMPLE  P  H  0  T O G 19 20  (continued)  R A P 21 22  H  16  17  2  2  -  1  _  1  MIDDLE CLASS  1  2  -  2  -  UPPER  1  4  1  1  1  4  8  1  4  1-3  2-7  0-3  0-5  1.0  -  LOWER  CLASS  CLASS  TOTAL EXPECTED RATING ( e i )' r  18  IVa)  S  (  N  U  M  B  25  26  2  5  1  1  -  2  6  2  2  2  5  13  1  2  3  9  1-3  0-3  0-7  1-0  0 5  -  1-0  23  24  E  28  R  )  29  30  1  17  6  -  1  17  5  2  1  2  17  2  24  5  2  4  51  13  3-0  8-0  1-7  0-7  1-3  17-0  4-3  2-0  4-5  0-4  2-6  0-5  0.0  2-C  27  TABLE CHI-SQUARE  ANALYSIS  SUB-SAMPLES SUB-SAMPLE LOWER  CLASS  MIDDLE UPPER  CLASS CLASS  TOTAL EXPECTED RATING ( e j )  r  1  For  P  0  H  3  0  FOR " M I D D L E " G  Q A  <=  R  1  A  P  SCALE  H  8~~~  (  PHOTOGRAPH BY  CATEGORY B  1  1  12  7  4  2  12  3  15  3  6  5  2  16  4  1  7  14  3  3  4  8  1  11  11  1  10  5  3  10  12  14  4  39  22  6  19  31  9  3-3  4-0  4-7  1-3  13-0  7-3  2-0  6-3  10-3  0-2  2-0  5-3  0.5  4-7  3-3  3-0  5-2  4.4  = Tota1  Rating  for  Photograph  SampTe S i z e  (or  10  M  2  7  9  U  N  4  Total H : H :  OF EACH  2  ei  5  FOR RATINGS  1  each photograph,  4  T  IVb)  i  Criterion:  R  12  )  13  14  15  7  12  8  16  16  7  16  9  17  8  5  15  5  11  39  19  43  22  44  3-0  13-0  6-3  14-3  7-3  14-7  0  2-9  0-4  0-6  1-2  1-4  x Si ze of Sub-Sample  (or  20)  60)  T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f r a t i ng a r e t h e same for T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f r a t i n g a r e NOT t h e same f o r  0-05.  11  E  photograph photograph  1, 2, 1, 2,  ... ...  30. 30.  7  Reject  Cannot  reject  H  Q  if  FQ-OS 2  H  c  if  f\.  QS  2  >  5-991  4  5*991. ON  TABLE I V b ) SUB-SAMPLE  16  17  H 18  10  14  3  11  3  9  MIDDLE CLASS  10  16  8  12  10  UPPER  16  15  8  17  13  36  45  19  ko  26  25  37  EXPECTED RATING (ei ) 12-0  15-0  6-3  13-3  8.7  8-3  12-3  7-0  1-6  6-0  C3  3-3  0-3  LOWER  CLASS  CLASS  TOTAL  K  2  2-0  P  0.1  2-6  O  T 19  O  20  G  R 21  (continued)  A  23  24  U M 25  8  6  16  14  16  7  12  8  13  14  9  17  7  13  .  P T  H i  ...  (  21  N  B  E ~R J - 27  28  29  30  11  14  2  12  14  14  14  3  11  6  16  14  17  2  15  42  34  46  39  45  7  38  14-0  11-3  15.3  13-0  15-0  2.3  12-7  3-8  0-2  0-5  0-4  0-3  0-7  0-4  T 5  ON ON  TABLE I V c ) CHI-SQUARE  SUB-SAMPLE LOWER  1  CLASS  2  ANALYSIS  FOR RATINGS  OF EACH PHOTOGRAPH BY  SUB-SAMPLES  FOR " U P P E R "  SCALE  P  15  3 18  H  0 4  0 5  T  G  R  _  2  6 12  A  P  H  14  8 18  7  CATEGORY (  9  N  U  10  M  B  E  11  12  -  16  -  _  R  )  13 5  14 15 -  3  MIDDLE CLASS  -  13  15  -  -  16  19  13  -  17  -  -  3  1  UPPER  1  16  10  1  1  8  18  8  1  16  -  2  -  1  1  44  43  1  3  36  51  39  1  49  -  2  8  -  5  14-7  14-3  0-3  1-0  12-0  17-0  13-0  0-3  16-3  -  0-7  2•7  -  1.7  -  1-0  2-7  0.8  3.8  -  0.0  -. -  2.0  - 1-6  CLASS  TOTAL EXPECTED RATING x-  ( e - ) 0-3 -  2  For  each  0-3  2.3  photograph,  ej = T o t a l R a t i n g f o r Photograph i x S i ze o f S u b - s a m p l e T o t a l S a m p l e S i z e ( o r 60)  H : H/\:  T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f r a t i n g a r e t h e same for p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2 , T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f r a t i ng a r e NOT t h e same f o r p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2 , 0.05. ,. Criterion: Reject H if ^ 0 - 0 5 , 2 > 5*991 o r i f J<0.05 > Q  7  G  Cannot  reject  H  0  1  if  2  ^ 5*991  or i f  f  2 Q  ,  0 5  }  ... ...  (or 30. 30.  3-841  << 3-841.  20)  TABLE SUB-SAMPLE  P  H  0 19  T  0 20  IVc) G  (continued)  R  A  P  H  (  16  17  LOWER CLASS  8  h  17  8  17  11  12  13  2h 2  MIDDLE C L A S S  9  2  12  6  10  13  8  12  UPPER  3  1  11  2  6  9  3  20  7  ko  16  33  33  2-3  13*3  5-3  11-0  3 • 1 2-0  1.6  3-5  5-6  CLASS  TOTAL EXPECTED RATING ( e i ) I*  2  6-7  18  21  22  23  N  U 25  M  B 26  E  R 27  K 28  29  30  2  1  3  8  5  1  5  -  k  6  5  -  11  2  1  2  5  1  1  3  23  36  9  2  9  19  11  2  9  11.0  7-7  12-0  3-0  0-7  3-0  6.3  3.7  0.7  3-0  0.7  5-3  0-2  2-0  2-1  0 . 7 ''  2.9  2.1  0-7  0.7  ON OO  photographs  at  0*05 l e v e l  respondents  from t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  among a n d r a t e d the "lower" of  the  The  in  category.  same s u b - s a m p l e s  rated The  (Table  rated the  photographs  s i gni f i c a n t l y di f f e r e n t  at  the  for  t he o t h e r  level  same w a y .  1evel  IVb),  of  of  Table in  IVc)  per  say,  respondents  n e a r 1y 90% This w i l l  in  the  there  of  "middle"  only of  one was  significance. At  w i 11 b e r a t e d  in  at  of  of  the  30  the  photographs  in the  photographs  1ower a n d  were upper  them were r a t e d c o n s i s g i v e s an o v e r - a 11  wi t h  the  hi gher  0'05  si g n i -  s i gni f i cance  r a t i ng may a l l o w o n e that  to  respondent s drawn  from  s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s c a n a n d d o c o n s i s t e n t 1y r a t e hou se a l o n g a p e r c e i ved soci a 1 c l a s s is  a  photographs,  30  s i m i l a r manner  r a t i ngs a t  be h i g h e r pattern  of  This  wi t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f i d e n c e ,  photographs fore  ways.  were consi s t e n t .  r a t i ng f o r  category.  This consi stent  di f f e r e n t  in  c e n t a n d 87%  t h e 60  tent 1 y i n t o the middle  1evels.  out  category  c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e 97%  level.  si m i l a r  level  0-05  shows t h a t  consi stent  r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y by  f i cance  in  most  s i gni f i c a n c e .  Ei g h t y - t h r e e  consi stency of  the  in  s i gni f i c a n c e ,  i n the  a 11 p h o t o g r a p h s  the "upper"  The d e g r e e of hi gh.  O02,  photographs  photographs  photographs  29  of  t o be r a t e d  30  26 w e r e r a t e d  is  be f o u n d  t h e 25  1evel  of  s i gni f i c a n c e  0-05  At a hi gher  T h i s means t h a t  sub-samples di s c r i m i nated  and out  r a t i ngs  the  significance.  a c o n s i s t e n t manner  photographs w i l l  category  of  support  for  c o n t i nuum.  t h e c o n t e n t i on t h a t  b a s e d on p e r c e i ved n o t i ons o f  social class  of  There-  respondents, house occupant s ,  c a n a n d d o c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e  photographs.  70 This  to a great  degree  c o n s t r u c t i on o f t h e  v a l i d a t e s the  field  the  little of  nature  or  e n t 1y  IV  the  for a,  b,  or  tively,  random  out  each of if  be f o u n d  of  the  i r r e s p e c t i ve of a r e c a p a b l e of  the  sub-samples  most  of  for  sample has been  the di f f e r e n t  soci a 1 c l a s s  25  social  cases.  a n d 26  of  category.  c l a sses.  This  respondents,  backgrounds  and a t t i t u d e s ,  r a t i ng h o u s e  classes  Thi s  structured  social  d i s c r i m i n a t i ng among a n d  b a s e d on p e r c e i ved  the  are  s e a l e c a t e g o r i es r e s p e c -  evi dence t o contend that  thei r  in a consi stent  hypothesi s i s di f f e r -  c a s e s i n t h e "midd1e"  30  to i nclude  t h e r a t i ng c a t e g o r i e s  t o be r a n d o m  and " u p p e r "  have  T h e c h i - s q u a r e a n a 1y s i s  c a n be a c c e p t e d f o r  s i gni f i cant as t h e  may be s u f f i c i e n t  graphs,  shows t h a t  the "lower"  deli berately  in  c o n t e n t i on  r a t e r s or judges)  t h e n t he h y p o t h e s i s t h a t  a n d 29  resu11 i s  t o a n e a r 1i e r  on t h e r a t i n g s .  and c )  The s u b - s a m p l e s w i l l cases in  support (i.e.  each photograph  phrased,  homogenous  30  sample  no i n f l u e n c e  r a t i ngs  (Table  of  the  instrument.  The ana 1 y s i s a 1 so 1 ends that  a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i ng  of  photo-  occupant  fsmi1i es,  manner.  Summary This  c h a p t e r has d e a I t  i nstrume nt.  Figure  3  wi t h  shows t h e  c o n s t i t u t e t h e v i s u a 1 d i men s i on i n is  the development three  photographs  the f i e l d  t o b e u s e d i n t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y .  graphs  and t h e i r  The n a t u r e three  of  developments  the i n i t i a l  photographs  are  t he  that  i nstrument The t h r e e  not w i t h o u t  photograph  of  their  "universe"  were t e s t e d and s e l e c t e d , t h e  field are  to  which photo-  limitations.  from which nature  of  the the  71 three  photographs  are  possible  the  next  sources of  chapter.  contention house  themselves,  that  must  be  sai d of  respondents) Though t h e  f i e l d work  d e f i ni t i ve  bias  cannot  values.  the  development  be d i s c u s s e d  analysi s that  social  from t h i s i n i t i a l  not  and  These w i l l  of  support  consistently discriminate  perceived  f i e l d work does they  procedure  the  t h e c o n e 1 u s i on t h a t  does  conclusions, more  can and  along  t a k e n as d e f i ni t i v e  the  limitation.  The r e s u l t s o f  people  photographs  and  of  of  house  be t a k e n t o b e f i n a l attest  The  the  be same  sample  of  (or  these  resu11s. to  thei r  the  among  photographs.  the v a l i d i t y  t e s t i ng c a n r e a l l y  cannot  f i e l d work.  nature  rating  support  classes  in  Only  CHAPTER APPLICATIONS Chapter Instrument. fi eld  VALIDITY  AND  III  IV  OF THE F I E L D  has d e s c r i b e d  Figure  i nstrument.  3  the development  shows t h e t h r e e  Thi s c h a p t e r wi11  p o s s i b l e u s e s and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f its  validity  and  INSTRUMENT  house  of  the  Field  photographs  explore  some o f  of  the  the  t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  scale,  1imitations.  APPLICATIONS The  field  instrument  was d e v e l o p e d  d i m e n s i on t o a t t i t u d e m e a s u r e m e n t . attitude  scale w i l l  aesthetic  nature of  a t t i t u d e s and  preferences i nvolved  as developed for  a more m e a n i n g f u l  cannot  here,  provides  process. apply  The f i e l d  visual  whether  ether  thi s w i l l  Survey wi11  depend  factors in  instrument  stimuli  to  be o f  i n the  t h e answer  measure a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s or  the  the v i s u a l  way t o  be a s s e r t e d t h a t  v i sua 1 a t t i tude measurement,  tura 1 sty le,  that  a visual visual  and  t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s ,  provide  thi s stage i t  i s hoped  r e f l e c t more a d e q u a t e l y  and t h e r e f o r e  At  It  to provide  the f i e l d  prove  a  of  house.  i nstrument,  established to be able  need to  toward a e s t h e t i c s , a r c h i t e c t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n  only  the a t t i t u d e  r e p r e s e n t s an attempt scaling process,  d e f i ni t e use t o  on f u r t h e r  purchase of  to the  or wi11  study a s p e c t s  f i eld  t h e Home  t e s t i ng.  and  Purchase  to  73 The f i e l d of  instrument  u s i n g photographs  tural  a house.  pa r t i cu1 a r 1 y tastes.  In  c a t e g o r i es employed  sty l e ,  The f i e l d  It  style,  t o w a r d homes o f  h e r e i n.  be and  arrangement,  the three  social  and  class  T h e y may p r o v i de t h e v i s u a 1 t o engage  in  the "mental  allow thei r a t t i tudes  trial"  toward a r c h i t e c -  a p p l i c a t i ons t h a t i nstrument  is  segment s .  c a n be  can be used i n  responses t o the house  and d i f f e r e n -  socie1 c l a s s  i d e n t i f y i n g market  t o both open-end  a pp 1 i e d .  )  desi gn,  s e a l e s d o p r o v i d e a way t o s t u d y  possi b l e areas of  a  color,  respondents  may be a b a s i s f o r  responses  process  can serve as bases t o di s t i n -  a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s on a  Unstructured  i n the  1 i f e s t y l e s , and h o u s i ng v a l u e s t o be r e v e a l e d .  photograph  tiate  the  of  houses and t h e r e b y  tural The  enable  p e r t i nent  a v i s u a 1 d i m e n s i on i t may  photographs  preference  to  factors  architec-  i n d e t e r m i n i ng a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s  aestheti c values  stimuli  other  providing  useful  The t h r e e  g u i sh t h e  of  probe a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s ,  t a s t e s , a n d maybe  t o buy  other  to  w a s c o n c e i v e d a s a p o s s i b l e means  basi s, These  which  are  explored. several  photographs,  ways.  or  structured  and c l o s e d - e n d q u e s t i o n s c a n be  possi b 1 e that  it  c a n be f r u i t f u 11 y u s e d wi t h  s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1. Unstructured  Response  T h i s a p p l i c a t i on i s Test.  s i mi l a r t o  the Thematic  Apperception  R e s p o n d e n t s c a n b e a s k e d t o e x a m i ne t h e t h r e e  photographs teristics  of  three houses  and  then  the -  requested t o t e l l  family  the  p e r c e i v e d t o be  kind of  family,  its  or  build  living size,  house  up t h e c h a r a c i n each of  composition,  the  7h preferences, tion,  and a t t i t u d e s  neighborhood,  and  toward a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s ,  life  styles.  assume t h a t  the  occupant  t h e house and i n d i r e c t l y  of  respondent wi11  he e x p r e s s e s h i s From t h e  three  respondent s  photographs  p e r c e p t i on o f  1  three  i d e a s about  identi fy  the  it  reveal  s t y l e s of  as  and o c c u p a n t s . reveal  the  members  of  the  soci a 1 c 1 asses. Thi s u n s t r u c t u r e d  t o b e bu i I t  up a b o u t  thei r a t t i tudes. (content and i n f e r  response w i l l  fami l i e s of  di f f e r e n t  From t h i s w e a 1 t h o f  analysis, p e r t i nent  or  otherwi se)  a 1 low d i f f e r e n t  c a n be c a r r i ed out  t i o n may n o t Hence o t h e r  great  responses  value.  that  to i denti f y  of  application it  may be t o o d i f f u s e  Speci f i c a t t i tudes under  be r e v e a l e d a t a l l b y methods  ana 1 y s i s  a t t i tude t r a i t s.  cumbersome and p r o d u c e s t o be o f  " s t o r i es"  s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s and  i nformati on,  T h o u g h t h i s may be a u s e f u 1 m e t h o d  nature  the  his attitudes  be a b l e t o  li fe  necessarily  h i m s e l f wi t h  photographs  will  the  T h i s wi11  loca-  thi s free  response  of a p p l i c a t i o n o f the f i e l d  is in  exami n a method.  instrument  may  be more d e s i r a b l e . b)  Structured  Response  T h i s may instrument. features  or  be a meani n g f u 1 m e t h o d  The r e s p o n d e n t s stimuli  in the  form,  and  three  t h e compound  photographs  measured.  c a n b e a s k e d how t h e y  s t y l e of of  architecture,  houses for  u s i ng t h e f i e l d  can be di r e c t e d at s p e c i f i c  responses to those photographs respondents  of  feel  For  about  and t h e i r example, the  design,  landscaping, or uses  each of  the three  social  of  classes.  From q u e s t i ons on a s e r i e s of possible  to build  such a t t r i butes  up t h e a t t i t u d e s o f  respondents  t h i ngs a s a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 and  life  the  field  s t y l e s of  the di f f e r e n t  social  e n d and o p e n - e n d q u e s t i ons a r e  of  structured  speci f i c i n  archi tectura1 fami1y  in  style  each of  thei r nature,  fami1y  the  in  that the  f u r n i shi ngs,  is  three  regard  Respondents  t o c o l or  that  i ndi c a t e the  types  Di r e c t  by  quest i ons by  respondent  t o answer  S u c h q u e s t i o n s may  the  and  Hence t h e open-end  fami1y  l a n d s c a p i ng?"  "What  family  "How i s p r i v a c y v a l u e d q u e s t i o n s do p r o v i d e  e x p l o r i n g many a s p e c t s o f  home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s .  as:  the occupant  of f u r ni shi ngs would the  t h i s house have?" .  unable  additional  c a n be a s k e d such q u e s t i o n s of  freely  produce  c 1 o s e d - e n d q u e s t i ons a r e  scheme, v i e w ,  t y p e and w h a t a r r a n g e m e n t  means o f  For  can be a s k e d .  " W h a t d o y o u t h i nk i s t h e p r e f e r e n c e  family?"  to  R e s p o n d e n t s may a 1 s o " v o l u n t e e r "  i nformati on.  respondents  photographs.  t o the questi on.  i n f o r m a t i on on a t t i t u d e s to reveal.  wi t h  Closed-end  a n d number o f w i ndows p r e f e r r e d  photograph  h i s own w o r d s  in  in  Closed-  p e r c e i v e d t o be p r e f e r r e d  O p e n - e n d q u e s t i o n s a 1 low t h e  living  c l a s s e s as depi c t e d  from severa1 a 1 t e r n a t i v e s g i v e n .  on c o l o r ,  wi t h  such  location,  r e s p o n s e may be u s e d .  e x a m p l e r e s p o n d e n t s may b e r e q u e s t e d  in  toward  preference,  q u e s t i e n s may b e u t i 1 i z e d .  s e l e c t i n g an answer  the  be  i nstrument.  Two f o r m s  of  i t may  a  a t t i t u d e s toward  by t h i s useful the  76 c ) The F i e l d  Instrument  The f i e l d  i nstrument  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . t o d e f i ne s p e c i f i c then It  a n d t h e S e m a n t i c Di f f e r e n t i a 1 c a n b e u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n wi t h t h e  The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l  s t i mu1i  from t h e t h r e e  house  s e a 1e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e s p o n s e a g a i n s t  therefore  responses  photographs and  bi-poiar  adjecti ves.  p r o v i des a means o f s t r u c t u r i ng a n d q u a n t i f y i n g  t o t h e house  toward any a t t r i bute revealed  c a n be used  photographs.  set, like  F o r example  archi tectural  s t y l e , may b e  by u s i n g t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 .  s o s c a l e d a n d q u a n t i f i ed c o u 1 d  lend  preferences  themseIves  These to  attitudes  statistical  treatment. The u s e o f t h e semanti c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 t o q u a n t i f y responses t o p i c t u r e probes the  i s not new.  Reeves has a p p l i e d  semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 a s a q u a n t i t a t i v e i n d e x t o TAT  projecti ons.* rating  scales  mation from  In fact  there  i s now a t e n d e n c y  t o app1y  t o o b j e c t i f y t h e i nt r o s p e c t i ve d a t a and i n f o r -  the TAT.  2  B e s i d e s q u a n t i f y i ng r e s p o n s e s  a p p 1 i c a t i on h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e comparati ve purposes;  of standardi z i n g  this  scores for  r e d u c i n g t he b i a s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  in  i n t e r p r e t a t i on o f r e s u l t s ;  of  t he i n q u i r y .  a n d f a c i 1i t a t i n g admi n i s t r a t i o n  Wi t h t h e s e a d v a n t a g e s ,  the f i e l d  i n s t rument  c a n b e p r o f i t a b 1y u s e d w i t h t h e semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 . T h e u s e o f t he s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 wi t h t he i nstrument  w o u I d mean t h a t  10sgood, S u c i ,  bi-polar  adjective  and Tannenbaum,  scales  field have t o  o p . c i t . , p p . 237-238.  J . Z u b i n , L . D. E v o n , & F . Schumer An E x p e r i m e n t a 1 A p p r o a c h t o P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s (New Y o r k . John W i l e y . PP~575^6oT"  l5fc5)  2  be d e v e l o p e d  first.  These  s c a l e s c a n be d e v e l o p e d  to  measure  attitude  s e t s such a s a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l  tastes.  D e p e n d i n g on t h e d e p t h  tives  phrases  or  aesthetic  adjectives Figure  2  classes  c a n be d e v e l o p e d  attitudes,  neighborhood  of  like color  the  scheme,  ( p a g e 2k)  to the  to determine  c a n be d e v e l o p e d  i n t e r v i ews t h a t by t h e f i e l d is  Since the  bi-polar scales in social  styles.  scales for  the  that  semantic depth  a r e t o b e s t u d i ed  semantic  differential  t h e Home P u r c h a s e  i n t e r v i e w s can develop  of  three  t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of  l i k e l y t o be u s e d i n  these depth  the  adjec-  arrangement,  Or m o r e  a t t i t u d e s of  f o c u s on a t t i t u d e s  instrument.  lot  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  towards v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e !  differential  subsets  view,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p r i v a c y .  c a n be a d d e d  bi-polar  t o measure  T h e s e c o n c e p t s and b i - p o l a r  itself  study,  scales for  Survey,^  use both  by  the  semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i t s e l f a n d t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i n conjunction w i t h the f i e l d have  t o b e c a r r i ed o u t  this  approach,  is  only  to test  after  these f i e l d  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l S i nee not can be  a 11 v a r i a b l e  structured  ^See pp.  6-10.  tests that  the f i eld  c a n be  testing  will  t h e u s e f u 1 n e s s and va 1 i d i t y  s t u d i ed by u s i n g t h e  speci f i c a p p l i c a t i ons of  graphs  Then f i e l d  and t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h a s p e c t s of  be m o r e m e a n i n g f u 1 l y It  instrument.  fi eld  behavior  can  i nstrument.  the u t i l i t y  instrument  of  wi t h  and the  determined. stimuli  from the  i n t h e form of  the  three  semantic  photo-  differential,  open-end  questions  the  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l .  the  s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1,  perceptual of  distortions  open-end  q u e s t i ons and wi t h  the  Other  attitudes  may  be  revealed  to  not  supplement  structured  through  Hence a c o m b i n a t i o n  semanti c d i f f e r e n t i a l  fi eld  be u t i l i z e d  unusua1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  all  questions.  may  of  and the  both  shou1d most  in  use  open-end  l i k e l y be  used  i nst rument.  VALIDITY T h e u 11 i m a t e c o n s i d e r a t i on c c n c e r n i ng a n y t e c h n i que the  is  extent  i t s v a l i di t y .  t o whi ch i t  Inva1i d measures  of  The v a l i d i t y  m e a s u r e s what  a t t i tudes  are,  of  e x p l a i ni ng and p r e d i c t i ng a t t i t u d e s . c r i t i c i zed a t t i tude  it  to correlate As va1i date  McNemar  has  thi s stage,  f i eId  di f f i c u i t  a s a c o n t i n u i ng t a s k  the w r i t e r wi11  fall  task of in  , +  t he i n s t r u m e n t  i nstrument  one c a n o n l y  have  the  in  upon  under  be a b l e  w i 11 b e  suggested.  part  to  f i e l d work.  else  Survey.  the f i eld  4 Q . McNemar " O p i n i o n - a t t i t u d e M e t h o d o l o g y " B u l l e t i n V o l . X L I I I (1946) pp. 2 8 9 - 3 7 4 .  At  and  someone  Home P u r c h a s e  validating  large  exami n a t i o n .  "face va1idati on",  over-a11  some p o s s i b 1 e w a y s o f  in  without  o u t s i de c r i t e r i a  f i e l d v a 1 i d a t i on t o  However  severely  Thi s Is  subsequent  in  been used  not  is  measure.  useless  f i n d i ng i n d e p e n d e n t  s c o r e s of  s t a t e d e a r 1i e r , the  leave the  the  pur p o r t s t o  s e a 1es b e c a u s e t h e y  t o t h e d i f f i cu11i es of  an i nstrument  course,  t h e i r v a l i d i t y h a v i ng b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . due  of  measurement  i nstrument  Psychologica1  Face  Validation Logical  theoretical  or  i terns ( h o u s e  v a l i d a t i o n or "common-sense"  photographs)  t h e c o n t i nuum c a n n o t va 1 i d a t i on must of  the  field  class  and  it  house photographs  t h e most  photographs  s e a 1e w h o s e v i s u a 1 s t i m u l i tastes,  archi tectura1  a t t i tudes of vi sual  pri ori  the three  each of  the  the  classes a t t i tude  toward  housing.  among have  to  be  aestheti c  other  perform  cannot  do, three  b a s e d on t h i s c l e a r d i s t i n c t i on i n t h e probe the  social  classes.  attitudes  h o u s i ng  Whether  the task  t o w a r d a e s t h e t i c s , a r c h i t e c t u ra1  show t h e hou se s e t t i ng o f  be e x p e c t e d t o h e l p  t o probe  social classes.  The p h o t o g r a p h s  be  the v i sua 1 a t t i tude  a r e t o be u s e d  a t t i t u d e s a r e q u e s t i ons t h a t  reasoni ng.  survey  t h r ee s o c i a 1  consti tute  di f f e r e n t  of  photographs  process i n a f i e l d  s c a l e can successfu11y  r e v e a 1 i ng a t t i t u d e s other  Such  the  can di s c r i m i nate  p r e f e r e n c e a n d p o s s i b1y  people of  a t t i tude  of  1 o g i c a 1 a n a l y s i s may  people  on t h i s b a s i s ,  from a r a t i n g  house  stated t o be.  B a s e d on a n u n d e r l y i ng c o n t i n u u m  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  The t h r e e  is  the nature  j u s t i f i c a t i on o f  on such  t h e a s s u m p t i on t h a t  been d e r i v e d  t hey a r e ,  the  i nstrument.  i nstrument  s a i d t o be v a 1 i d .  to,  than  t h e c o n t i nuum a n d a t h e o r e t i c a 1  The  t o ei ther  a n a l y s i s whi c h c o n c l u d e s t h a t  b e i ng w h a t  be o t h e r  refers  n e c e s s a r i 1 y spr i ng from a c a r e f u 1 d e f i n i t i o n  c o n s t r u c t i on o f  or  f a c e v a l i di t y  preference  developed  social classes, photographs,  they  different  H e n c e i n t h i s manner  of  b e t a c k l e d by a  and have been  of  the  the  s c a l e may be s a i d t o h a v e c o n s t r u c t a n d  and can  social  visual face v a l i d i t y .  80 Field  VaIidation This  field  i s beyond  validation The  field  are  the  i n s t rument  tastes,  the  same s e t  archi tectura1  of  consi stency  of  results  of  is  made.  past and  r e l i a b i 1 i t y of  depend  a great  concept s under e a r 1i e r , and  the  Results  and c o r r e l a t e d  shouId  the  of  be demanded  thi s context.  from for  study  i t s va1i di ty  s e a l e s and t o  two  consi stent  before  any  and  and conclusion  The  i nstrument large  on how t h e b i - p o l a r  i n the i nclude  semanti c d i f f e r e n t i a 1  these  These,  d e v e 1 oped field  of  t h e va1i di ty a s an a t t i t u d i na 1 of  housing  s e a 1es f o r  the  as i ndi c a t e d  from depth  to eliminate  relevant  for  number  i n the context  are developed.  be t e s t e d  used  aestheti c  correlation  semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1  dea1  t he  semanti c di f f e r e n t i a 1 i m p l i es  c a n be i d e n t i f i ed a n d  t h e n must  bi-polar  the  However  of  using  (e.g.  s t u d i es and a p p l i c a t i o n s have at t e s t e d t o  i nstrument. wi 11  in  against  h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s  t he s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i s a v a l i d  m e a s u r i ng a t t i t u d e s  ways  i nstrument  A h i gh d e g r e e  V a 1 i d a t i on a g a i n s t that  field  preference).  conclusions.  validity  but  s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 c a n be  i n s t r u m e n t s c a n be a n a 1 y z e d compati b l e  study,  c a n be v a l i d a t e d  Both the  q u e s t i ons and t h e  t o measure  this  indicated.  semanti c di f f e r e n t i a 1 . open-end  scope of  ones.  be u s e d t o v a l i d a t e  redundant  Only the  i n t e r v i ews,  then  can  field  i nstrument. V a 1 i d a t i on o f differential  is  the f i e l d  not w i t h o u t  its  instrument  agai nst  limitations.  The  the  semantic  field  81 instrument is  has been e n v i s a g e d  as a v i s u a l  e x p e c t e d t o measure v i sua 1 l y  aesthetic  di f f e r e n t i a l . the  t h a n ot h e r v e r b a 1 t e c h n i q u e s , T h e n how c a n t h e  Thi s i s a  va1i dati on,  what  tency  or  and not  is  really  superi ori ty  relevant  one o v e r  The u l t i m a t e p r a c t i c a l t e s t measurement  1i e s i n  i nstrument  the usefu1ness of  be v a 1 i d a t e d  aesthet i c p r e f e r e n c e s of agai nst  the  the of  t h e u n d e r s t a n d i ng a n d p r e d i c t i o n o f  the  s e r i es o f  i nstrument va1i di ty  fi eld for  is  behavi or.  between a t t i tudes va 1 i d , predi ct  it  may  and b e h a v i o r . 5  still  from the  not  it  5D.  govern  K r e c h a n d R.  consi s-  of  a t t i tude  the  for  can predi ct  (e.g.  di f f e r e n t  classes)  T h i s met hod  wou1d  i nstrument  r e f i ned  the use of  in  field  p r e d i c t i ve  a one t o one r e l a t i o n s h i p Even  if  the  attitude.  l i m i t a t i o n or  behavi or  of  field  field  be c i e a r a s t o w h a t  exi stence of the  f r o m t h e above menti oned how a t t i t u d e s  1ack of  of  Can t h e  home b u y e r s ?  However  such  t h e s e measurements  t e s t s and t h e n u s e o f  l i m i t e d by t h e  process  the v a l i d i t y  home p u r c h a s e r s i n  predi c t i on.  of  two i nstrument s ,  r e q u i r e p r e t e s t i ng a n d a p p 1 i c a t i o n s o f t h e a  semanti c  ot h e r .  by j u d g i ng w h a t  the a c t u a 1 p u r c h a s e s of  1i k e  be v a l i d a t e d  i s t he d e g r e e  t he r e s u 1 1 s o f of  l i k e the  t h e measurement in  that  i n a more  instrument  l i m i t a t i o n , but  c o r r e l a t i on o f the  fi eld  semantic di fferent i a 1 i n  a t t i tudes?  scale  - mani f e s t e d a t t i t u d e s  t a s t e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e ,  a d e q u a t e manner  agai nst  attitude  the  i n a gi v e n  S . Crutchfield,  i nstrument  behavi or  ci t.,  should  a r i se  knowledge  si t u a t i on.  op.  one  T h i s mi ght l a c k of  is  pp.  Even  of  if  265-267.  82 prediction  is  identifying in  the  possible,  and  there  observing  are  the  still  behavior  difficulties of  of  respondents  predicted  field. Hence at  v a l i d i ty  this  to veri fy  preliminary  the f i e l d  stage  the use of  i nstrument  i s most  predictive probably  premature. Rel i abi 1 i t y In  a d d i t i on t o b e i ng v a 1 i d ,  reliable,  i.e.  agai n t o the assume  yield  consi stent  same s a m p l e .  importance  estab1i shed.  However  at  saged  in  method.  o v e r - a l 1 Home P u r c h a s e the  fi eld  and  then  and  g e n u i ne a t t i t u d e  means the  of  i nstrument  time  lags  Or field  sentative ratings  the  of  it  takes  to the results  it  the  for  and  wi11  has  p r o b 1 em  been of  precedence.  field  is  to use  test s are  tools  for  the  envi-  the  may be p o s s i b l e t o a p p l y  same s a m p l e s  at  di f f e r e n t  consi stency.  c h a n g e s may o c c u r o v e r can s t i 1 1  tests are  be p o s s i b l e t o  i nstrument  the  i nstrument  be  not  Although  t i me,  long  bias  test-retest  be used,  too  stages,  p r o v i ded  t o a 11 ow  modified.  may  set  the  r e f i nement o f  Survey,  between t h e  t o be  of  e s t a b 1 i s h i ng r e l i a b i 1 i t y  and  must  r e 1i a b i 1 i t y  t h i s i ni t i a 1 s t a g e ,  e s t a b l i s h i ng r e 1 i a b i 1 i t y  attitudes  the  q u e s t i on o f  S i nee a s e r i e s o f  the development  ana 1yze  This  and va1i di t y  A p o s s i b l e way o f  i nstrument  r e s u l t s when a p p l i ed a ga i n  once the va1i di ty  e s t a b l i s h i ng u t i l i t y  test-retest  the f i e l d  of  to test  three  i ts  employ  reliability.  photographs  photograph  an a 1 t e r n a t i ve f o r m Another  c a n be o b t a i n e d  "universe"  described  in  of  repre-  from Chapter  the III,  83 and a d m i n i s t e r e d t o r e s p o n d e n t s Results  from the two forms  analyzed  for  stage of  e s t a b l i s h i n g the  visual  of  in addition  the  field  instrument  c o n s i s t e n c y and r e l i a b i l i t y .  measurement,  may be a l i t t l e  However  p o s s i b l e use of  the use of  too ambitious  two f o r m s and out  to the  can at  photographs of  of  first  the  same  set.  be this in  instrument  place.  L I M I T A T I O N S AND WEAKNESSES This  s e c t i on w i 1 1  weaknesses of  the  The t h r e e work  fi eld  some o f  extent what  photographs  aesthetics here.  to the  or  has o n l y  study  t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  capable of  by f u r t h e r  social  class  f i e l d work and  scope of  probe  of  at t i tudes  s e a l e s , as they  t e s t i ng.  t he f i e 1 d i n s t r u m e n t  At  values  of  areas  like  the d i f f e r e n t  social  classes.  r e g a r d i ng answer t o p r o v i de  are, other  are useful a t t i tudes be  and of  answered  thi s stage the u t i 1 i ty  cannot  a t t i t u d e s toward  to  i n home p u r c h a s i n g .  submarkets could only  visually-manifested attitudes,  other  field  To what  been an a t tempt  be d e f i n e d ;  h a s b e e n c o n c e i v e d a s a p o s s i b l e means o f and o t h e r  a t t i tude  revea1 a t t i tudes  d e t e r m i n i ng a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s o r  the d i f f e r e n t  of  There can be no d e f i n i t i v e  i nstrument  a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n Whether  t o measurement  the  s e a 1s s a t i s f y t h i s n e e d a n d  a b l e t o measure  otherwise?  The f i e l d  and  in  i n a n a 1 y z i ng home p u r c h a s i ng b e h a v i o r .  is it or  limitations  have been d e v e l o p e d  does t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  e x t ent  the  i nstrument.  t o p r o v i de v i s u a 1 d i m e n s i o n s  set s r e l e v a n t  and  exp1 o r e  determining it  life  may p r o v e  though  it  aesthetic useful  s t y l e s and  to  housing  84 The  preliminary  overstated.  T h i s may w e l l  ment s a i m e d a t tastes.  The  photographs i nadequate tasks. visual both  nature  the  be t h e f i r s t  i nstrument  a n d a p p 1 i ed  Then  (like  i nteri or)  p e r s p e c t i ve o f  ment s f o r  the  proposed  a v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  di f f erent be j u s t here.  scale.  ba s i s a n d  The t h r e e  t h e need  for  thi rty  Another rated  the houses of  The a n a l y s i s o f photograph  as i t  developed  forms  of houses,  t h e s e have t o  stands,  t h e end  result  be  i s u sefu1  of  set  of  photograph,  than  social  Chapter  III  to c o n s t i t u t e the f i e l d  of  1 eve 1  may p r o v e  t h e ones  the f i e l d  to  developed  i n strument  t h i s accentuates t he  photograph  and a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  classes a s possible. does  revea1 t h a t  the middle  the development set  of  s e l e c t e d on a  sampl e,  deve1 o p e d f o r  the di f f e r e n t  as  a process  p h o t o g r a phs a ga i n s t a t h r e e  In t h i s c o n t e x t ,  that another  the desi red  other  i ni t i a 1 s e l e c t i o n of  r a t i ngs i n  prove  l i m i t a t i o n s a r e a 1 so e v i d e n t .  set used has b i a s towards  The f a c t  of  house  Survey.  s h o u l d be a s n u m e r o u s  These are weaknesses i n  or  All  by a di f f e r e n t  uni que.  the carefu1  "uni ver s e " , which  three  and  d e v e l o p i ng e x p e r i m e n t a 1 i n s t r u -  other  photographs  necessari1y  the  be  i nstru-  1 i ne d e s i g n s o f  as r e p r e s e n t a t i ve or e v e n b e t t e r  a r e not  of  drawings,  represent  r a t i n g a "uni ver se" of soci a 1 c l a s s  t o be m a d e ,  i nstrument  scale,  photographs  s e r i es of  performance  Home P u r c h a s e  t he f i e l d  cannot  aestheti c preferences  explored.  the  The t h r e e  the  c o l or  v i ewed i n  Even i f  of a  i n t h e w a y s p o s t u l a t e d may  r e f i nement s h a v e  e x t e r i or and  of  instrument  i n t h e form of  even u s e l e s s i n  d i m e n s i ons  the f i e l d  determination  field  or  of  of  the  photographs  instrument  class  the  category.  i nstrument. may w e l l  be  i r o n i c a l l y can  85 be a  strong  point  flexibility other  to the  photograph  The f i e l d  i n the concept  sets  i nstrument  e n v i ronmenta1 and planned This  in  three  represent and  Even i f  are  photograph  that  may b e j u s t  classes?  one  them  needs  and a t  be  are  pattern  of  times.  sui t  s t u d i es  each of  the of  convey  other  forms  soci a 1 c l a s s  weakness.  categori es. soci a 1 c l a s s e s ,  a v i s u a 1 r e p r e s e n t a t i on o f  of  style,  a nd o n e  d e s i gn a n d of  Recogni z i n g the  s t y l e of  toward  frames  h o u s i ng f a c t o r s by a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s to other  soci a1  limi t s of  open-end  or  asso-  the  study  aesthet i c s , archi tecture,  three  attitudes  other  q u e s t i ons  s i t u a t i ons not  a  hou s e s  attitudes  hope t o  one  s e t t i ng o f  the di f f e r e n t  be r e f l e c t e d a n d t h e  s t u d i ed?  themselves  times.  sources of  t he d i f f e r e n t  as r e p r e s e n t a t i ve  of  be  aestheti c s , archi tectura1  t h e v i sua 1 s e a l e s c a n o n l y  to "project"  similar  themselves  photographs, other  to  gives  u s i ng  di f f e r e n t  tailored  shou1d  one a r c h i t e c t u r a l  How c a n t h e s e  c i a t e d wi t h  areas  r e p r e s e n t a t i ve  What a b o u t  It  perrni t m o r e m e a n i n g f u 1 r e s p o n s e s .  can only  aestheti c frame,  i nstrument.  g e o g r a p h i ca1 a r e a s and a t o t h e r  s i t u a t i on f o r  they  house.  other  photographs  only  the  w h i c h c a n be d e v e l o p e d  can therefore  f 1 exi bi 1 i ty w i l l  s t y 1e,  each  in  temporal  di f f e r e n t  The They  i nstrument  of  shown i n  or the  photographs. The features  three  of  the  d e c o r a t i ons? d e c o r a t i o n and of  photographs houses.  of  show t h e e x t e r i o r  What a b o u t  The a r r a n g e m e n t type  on 1y  of  i n t e r i or  room,  furnishings  are  a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and h o u s i ng va l u e s .  space,  d e s i gn  d e s i gn  and  and  interior  important  expressions  S t y l e s of  1i f e  are  86 more v i s u a l l y  expressed through  These a r e v a l u a b l e may b e u s e f u l i nstrument the  1evel  avenues  interior  of potential  to i ncorporate  s e t t i n g and d e c o r . visual  into a f i e l d  dimensions  i nstrument,  o f s o p h i s t i c a t i on t o s t u d y  a l l the facet s of a e s t h e t i c  a t one t i m e .  the f i r s t  stimulus to catch a prospective buyer's  therefore  f i r st t o a f f e c t  con s i dered  however  T h e e x t e r i o r d e s i gn o f a h o u s e ,  1arge e x t e n t  in this  initial  consi stent.  a s s u m p t i on t h a t  basi s .  h i gh d e g r e e  o f t he f i e l d  c a n di s c r i m i nate  The f i e l d  to va1idate  data  of occupant  i n Chapter  III  photographs  families have  on a  shown a  photographs  s o c i a 1 c l a s s a n d t h u s wou1d  the basi c assumption.  i s to  on t h e  among h o u s e  i n t h e r a t i n g s o f t he  c a t e g o r i es of  is  i nstrument  11 h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d  o f c o n s i st ency  the three  eyes, and  effort.  on t h e p e r c e i v e d s o c i a 1 c l a s s  consi stent  into  people  usua11y  h i s d e c i s i on p r o c e s s o u t c o m e ,  T h e t h e o r e t i ca1 c o n s t r u c t  based  but t h e  wi t h w h i c h t h e w r i t e r i s c o n c e r n e d h a s n o t a c h i eved  a t t i tudes  a  that  appear  But t h e s e a r e n o t d e f i n i t e  conelusi ons,  e s p e c i a l l y when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s i z e a n d n a t u r e  the  The u se o f a s o c i a 1 c l a s s  sample.  s e a 1e t h a t and  sound.  class  c o n t i nuum f o r a n a t t i t u d e  s t u d i e s h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s a n d v a l u e s B u t t he m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  represents  of  seems  1ogica1  c h a r a c t e r i s t i e s of soci a1  a 1i mi t a t i o n i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d a p p l i c a -  t i on o f t h e v i s u a 1 a t t i t u d e  s e a 1e,  though  i t may be j u s t i f i ed  a s a g e n e r a 1i z e d c o n t i nuum. Another used of  t o develop  consi stency  l i m i t a t i o n h a s t o d o wi t h t h e s a m p l i ng d e s i gn the f i e l d of r a t i n g s  i nstrument.  T h o u g h t h e h i gh d e g r e e  of the di fferent  soci a 1 c l a s s e s does  87 to a large raters  extent  have  validate  little  photographs,  the  or  soci a 1 c l a s s A final  ment  is  the  and  the  the  Despite form of  the  1i n e s  field these  three  house  1i mi t a t i o n s w i 1 1  by  the  and  utility,  by  random  sample  on  Only  earlier  fi eld  only be  field  can prove  i nstrument  represent  lead to a better  a nd p o t e n t i a 1s o f  sure  and cannot  the  of  i nstrument.  in  the u t i l i t y ,  these  study of  the  devi c e .  shortcomi ngs.  the p r o c e s s of va 1 i di t y ,  attempt  the  u n d e r s t a n d i ng o f  be d i r e c t e d a t  the  R e c o g n i t i on  t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  through  in  an i n i t i a l  t o a t t i t u d e measurement  o v e r c o m i ng d e f e c t s a n d  c a n o n e be  i nstru-  Face v a l i d a t i o n  to measure,  the  photographs  e f f o r t s shou1d  fi eld  the  the f i e l d  home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i on m a k i n g p r o c e s s .  Subsequent  of  study  appears  limitations,  the  ment,  larger  of  i nstrument.  of  Only  this  suggested  p r o v i de v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n  nature,  of  be i m p r o v e d  i n d i c a t i on o f v a l i d i t y .  to  these  might  f i e l d va 1 i dati on.  i nstrument  s u f f i c i ent  of  still  the a t t i t u d e s  placement  s t r a t i f i c a t i on o f a  s h o r t c o m i ng o f  v a 1 i d a t i on a l o n g t h e va1i di ty  on t h e  that  basi s.  q u e s t i on o f  r e v e a 1 s what taken as  no i n f l u e n c e  d e s i gn c o u Id  s a m p l i ng p r o c e d u r e s , a  the contention  r e f i ne-  and p o t e n t i a 1 s  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND This testing  of  study  represents  preferences,  processes.  t o deve lop a f i e l d  field  preferences  for  the  proposed  for  use  the Survey. in  over-all  in thei r  this  study  was  the f i e l d work  and  Thi s i s an  dimension  The v i s u a l  exploratory  a t t i t u d e mea s u r e m e n t  d i m e n s i o n was p r o p o s e d  a s a p o s s i b l e means  and t a s t e s ,  in  of  and p o s s i b l y  field  a t t i tudes,  home p u r c h a s e r s  The o b j e c t i v e  p r o v i de a v i sua 1  instrument  of  i nstrument  i n t e r v i ewi n g e n v i s a g e d i n  home p u r c h a s i n g .  o f a s e r i e s of  which seeks to explore  and a s p i r a t i ons  d e c i s i o n making  to  the f i r s t  c o n c e p t s and h y p o t h e s e s  Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y ,  study  CONCLUSIONS  of  in  determining  other  in  the  aesthetic  attitudes  in  home  purchasi ng. Chapter i nstrument.  II  explored  the  need f o r  T h e d e c i s i on m a k i ng p r o c e s s  b u y i ng a h o u s e w a s e s t a b 1 i s h e d t o b e study  of  t h i s d e c i s i on p r o c e s s ,  ences i nvolved  with  it,  and a e s t h e t i c st i m u 1 i . not past  and  should  in  nature  1 a r g e l y v i s u a 1;  ref1ect  the  made u s e o f  s t u d i e s on h o u s i n g  exi s t i n g a t t i tude  such an i n s t r u m e n t .  p r o v i de s u c h a d i m e n s i on i n  the  (reviewed  of  and  and  and any  prefer -  t e c h n i ques none o f  i n Appendix  T h e r e was t h e r e f o r e study  field  e s s e n t i a l l y v i sua 1  p r o v i de s u c h v i s u a 1 d i m e n s i o n a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y research  the  s e a r c h i ng f o r  and t h e at t i t u d e s  However  of  A)  do  the has  a need  h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s .  to  89 The f i e l d provide  visual  graduated a visual  instrument  dimension  in  was c o n c e i v e d a s a n a t t e m p t the  along a social class attitude  form  of  three  continuum.  house  It  that  c a n a n d d o c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e  nature the  of  soci a 1 c l a s s  the f i e l d  i nstrument  genera 1 r e q u i rement s of  photographs  wi11  c a t e g o r i es of  the  The  of  rationale  a t t i tude  of  occupant  lower,  soci a 1 c l a s s  Soci a 1 c l a s s  i s a meani ngfu1 b a s i s t o  and v a l u e s .  However  s i ona1  di f f e r e n t  t h e component  phenomenon.  Moreover  on 1y p r o p o s e d  study  soci a 1 c l a s s 1imi t a t i ons  soci a 1 c l a s s part s t hat  s u b - c o n t i nua o f  housi ng.  h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s a s a c o n t i nuum  in  i n i t s mu1ti di menground  that  i nterdependent  explai n the  c o n t i nuum,  scale.  t h e v i sua 1  in  the  and  soci a 1 c l a s s  t h e c o n t i nuum i n t h e f i e I d  as a g e n e r a l i z e d  a s p e c t s and  are  upper  the c l o s e r e l a t i on-  T h i s may be j u s t i f i ed on t h e  d i m e n s i ons of  consti tute  di f f e r e n t  the use o f  to  house  the a t t i tude  and s p e n d i n g b e h a v i or  ha s i t s p o s s i b l e  character.  and  a s a c o n t i nuum f o r  s e a 1e w a s s e e n a n d e s t a b l i s h e d i n  i n s t rument  The  The t h r e e  mi d d l e ,  s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum i n  shi p between  the  photographs,  was c o n s t r u c t e d t o c o n f o r m  consti tute the  as  respondents  families.  attitude seales.  soci a 1 c l a s s  photographs  was d e v e l o p e d  s c a l e b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  b a s e d on p e r c e i v e d  to  i nstrument  which w i l l  is  permi t  h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s  to  be  studied. The development in  f i e l d work,  stratified graphs  by  o f t he f i e l d - i n s t r u m e n t  which used 6 0 social class,  i n t o three  boxes  respondents to r a t e a n d  from an area  sort  labelled "lower",  was c a r r i ed  3 0 house  "middle",  out  sample photo-  and  "upper"  90 on t h e of  b a s i s of  occupant  "universe"  the  respondent's  families. set  of  of  the  field  in  Chapter  i nstrument  photographs.  The f i e l d  data  consi stency  that  in the  respondents,  However cannot  r a t i ngs  occupant  The  three  from the  thei r  nature  genera 1 areas  may b e u s e f u 1 1i f e  of  The  based  study,  a p p l i c a t i o n of  Thou gh t h e  to probe  st y1es,  the  the  to  30  test  degree  high  a s s u m p t i on background,  on p e r c e i v e d manner.  t h e f i ndi ngs  the f i e l d  i n s t rument was c o n c e i v e d  other  seem t o  responses  be a f r u i t f u l  more u s e f u l . recommended  The  open-  b e c a u se i t  t o the  ha s t o b e s u p p l e m e n t e d  with  scope of  this  field  v a 1 i d a t i on o f  study,  the  use the  help it  prefer -  housing of  the  may b e a p p 1 i ed  the  photographs  in  does  Structured  q u e s t i o n s may  prove  s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 was of  structuring  f i e l d i nstrument. the  to  seems t h a t  application.  p r o v i ded a means  q u a n t i f y i ng r e s p o n s e s  Since  of  to  and c 1 o s e d - e n d  A p p l i c a t i o n s wi t h  toward  i nstrument  responses  means  it  i nstrument  1i k e a r c h i t e c t u r a 1  a t t i tudes  field  Unstructured  t o both  areas  and o t h e r  soci a 1 c l a s s e s .  severa1 ways. not  field  photographs  information  d e t e r m i ne a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s ,  three  the  r a t i ngs o f  i n a consi stent  of t h i s  of  soci a 1 c l a s s  photographs  class  initial  house  seems t o v a l i d a t e  fami l i e s  social  be t a k e n a s d e f i n i t i v e .  indicated.  ences,  the  procedure  i nstrument.  i r r e s p e c t i v e of  c o n s i d e r i ng t h e  The were  of  III.  the  c a n d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e soci a 1 c l a s s  and t h e  a 1 so p r o v i d e d  of  of  s e l e c t i n g the  were d e r i v e d  t h e u n d e r l y i ng a s s u m p t i o n of  process of  photographs  30  work were d e s c r i b e d  The  perception  of  open-end  However  and thi s  questi ons.  i n s t rument w a s b e y o n d  f a c e v a l i d a t i o n v/as r e s o r t e d  to.  the  However  91 f a c e v a l i d i t y cannot validity the by  of  field  the  be t a k e n a s c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e  instrument.  i nstrument  against  the  that  have  field  work b e f o r e  the f i e l d  valid  and u s e d i n  the  Other ment  and  graphs three  proposed  are  the  sources of  frames  of  other  "universe"  limitations.  visual  the  set,  other  explored  a nd t h e  The t h r e e house  l i m i t e d i n the  and a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s ,  presentation features  a n d may  to the f i e l d  study  e s t a b 1 i shed  need.  three  photographs  of the  instrument  and  cannot  can r e v e a l .  design of  The v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e  scale  has been deve1 oped  be a n s w e r e d  s t u d y i ng  instrument.  houses)  of may  the be  p r o v i d i ng t he  to  satisfy  an  i n the  form of  the  t o p r o v i de a v i s u a l  a n d may be u s e d a s a means  a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and t a s t e s . provides  of  therefore  drawings)  can o n l y be v i e w a s an attempt  really  photo-  i nst rument.  t o at t i tude measurement,  determining  problems  i n t e r i or  field  p r e s e n t a t i on  1 i ne d e s i g n ,  t o be more e f f e c t i ve i n  This  dimension  (e.g.  (e.g.  prove  v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n  house  samp 1 e d e s i g n ,  h o u s i n g f e a t u r e s a n d t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f  mea ns o f  same o r  f i e Id i n s t r u -  The  t h o s e a t t i t u d e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m by t h e f i e l d Other  be  Survey.  s h o r t corni n g s o f  physi ca11y  are  c a n be c l a i m e d t o  Home P u r c h a s e  photograph  themselves are  exclude  i nstrument  and  subsequent  s t u d y must a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d .  s e l e c t i on o f  procedure  and t h e s e  t o be t a c k l e d i n  1 i mi t a t i o n s a n d  this  validating  semantic di f f e r e n t i a 1  p r e d i c t i v e v a 1 i d a t i on w e r e s u g g e s t e d ;  immedi a t e p r o b l e m s  the  P o s s i b l e v/ays o f  of  the  here.  At t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y  But  whether  solutions to  these  two  Only  field  tests  stage,  further  the u t i l i t y and  scope  92 of  the  field  developed other  instrument  v i s u a 11y-menifested  be  at a l l .  i t s attempt  measurement the  field  attitudes,  The  it  may p r o v e  preliminary  has  been  a e s t h e t i c and useful  Or i t  nature  may  of  has r a i s e d more q u e s t i o n s t h a n i t  to provide  in  a visual  h o u s i ng s t u d i e s .  instrument,  p o t e n t i a 1s o f rnent s a r e  determining  it  in prove  the  study  overstated.  The s t u d y in  Though  h o u s i n g a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s .  t o be u s e f u l  cannot  be d e f i n e d .  a s a p o s s i b l e means o f  p r o b i ng o t h e r not  cannot  of  t he f i e l d  pr ob 1 ems t h a t  work s ,  and  should  in the  proposed  d i m e n s i on t o  instrument, have  and of  be v i ewed a s a r e a s f o r  Home P u r c h a s e  Survey.  v a 1 i d a t i ng  scope,  subsequent  t o be t a c k l e d i n  answered  attitude  The q u e s t i o n s o f  d e f i n i ng t h e u t i 1 i t y ,  has  and r e f i ne-  subsequent  c o n t i nui ng  f i e Id  research  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Anastasi, A. Company. B a r b e r , B. 1957).  BOOKS  Psychological Testing I960). Social  (New Y o r k .  S t r a t i f i c a t i o n (New Y o r k .  Beyer, G. H. Housing and S o c i e t y Company. 1965 ) .  (New Y o r k .  MacMillan Ha r c o u r t  Brace.  Mac Mi l i e n  B e y e r , G. H . , M a c k e s e y , T . 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M o t i v a t i o n s T o w a r d Homes a n d H o u s i n g ( p r e p a r e d f o r t h e P r o j e c t Home C o m m i t t e e  1966).  Remmer s , H . H . I n t r o d u c t i on T o O p i n i o n a n d A t t i t u d e (New Y o r k . Harpers. 195417  Measurement  S e 1 1 1 i z , C . e t . a 1. Research Methods i n S o c i a 1 R e l a t i o n s (New Y o r k . H o i t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n " ! T3E6TS h a w , M . £. S e a 1es f o r t h e M e a s u r e m e n t York. M c G r a w - H i 1 T 7 ~ T9~£7T' Srni t h , G . M . (New Y o r k .  o f A t t i t u d e s (New  M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h j_n A d v e r t i s i ng a n d M a r k e t i n g M c G r a w - H i 1 TT 1954").  S t o u f f e r , S . A . e t . a 1. M e a s u r e m e n t a n d P r e d i c t i o n V o l . IV ( Princeton. Pr i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1950), Vancouver  Real  Estate  V a n c o u v e r ( 1966).  W a r n e r , W. L . , M e e k e r , A m e r i c a (New Y o r k .  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P r o c e e d i n g s o f t he Ameri c a n M a r k e t i ng ,f s s o c i a t i on (Dec. i960) pp. 171-184.  96 Cowley, Vol.  L . M.  "The  XIX ( A p r .  Ferguson, Scale"  Value o f View"  195D  pp.  T h e A p p r a i sa1  239-242.  Journa1  L . W. " T h e R e q u i r e m e n t s o f an A d e q u a t e A t t i t u d e P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n V o l . XXXVI ( 1 9 3 9 ) p p . 6 6 5 - 6 7 0 .  H u g h e s , G. D . " S e l e c t i n g S c a l e s T o M e a s u r e A t t i t u d e j o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h V o l . IV ( F e b . I967)  Change" pp. 85-87,  K a t o n a , G. a n d M u e l 1 e r , E . "Consumer A t t i t u d e s a n d t h e Housi ng M a r k e t " i n F o u n d a t i o n F o r R e s e a r c h o n Human B e h a v i o r P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h o n Consumer B e h a v i o r (Ann A r b o r , Mi c h i g a n . I962 ) p p . 1 1 - 1 9 . K e l l y , R . F . a n d S t e p h e n s o n R. " T h e S e m a n t i c Di f f e r e n t i a l . An I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e f o r D e s i gni ng R e t a i 1 P a t r o n a g e Appeal" J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XXXI ( O c t . 1967) p p . 4 3 - 4 7 . K e l l e y , W. T . "Diagnostic Research, A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l V o l . XXXI ( J u l y  A Case Study" The 1963) p p . 3 3 3 - 3 3 7 -  " M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h a n d Home D e s i g n " V o l . XXVIII (Apr. i960) pp. 235-241. "How Vol.  Buyers  Shop  SSV ( A p r .  F o r A New Home"  1957)  pp.  The A p p r a i sa1  T h e A p p r a i sa1  Journa1  Journa1  209-214.  K e n d a l 1, L . T . a n d S h e n k , N . W. "Home B u y i ng P a t t e r n s " T h e R e s i d e n t i a l A p p r a i s e r V o l . XXV ( J a n . 1 9 5 9 ) p p . 2 2 - 2 4 . L i k e r t , P . " A T e c h n i que f o r t h e M e a s u r e m e n t o f A t t i t u d e s " Archives of Psychology. V o l . XXIII ( 1 9 3 2 ) pp. 1-55. L i o n e l , D. C . 5- P u b l i s h e r  "Home B u y e r s S t u d y V o l . XCV ( A p r . 2 1 ,  O f f e r Ad C l u e s " 1 9 6 2 ) p. 4 0 .  " M r . R e a 1 1 o r , t h e r e i s some r e s e a r c h " V o l . X C I V ( D e c . 1 6 , 1961 ) p . 3 8 .  Edi t o r  M a c k , R . W. "Housing As an Index o f S o c i a l F o r c e s V o l . XXIX ( 1 9 5 1 ) p p . 3 9 1 - 4 0 0 .  Edi t o r & Publi sher  C l a s s " Soci al  M a r t i n e a u , P . " S o c i a l C l a s s a n d S p e n d i ng B e h a v i o r " o f M a r k e t i ng V o l . X X I I I ( O c t . 1 9 5 8 ) p p . 1 2 1 - 1 3 0 .  Journa1 "~  "The P a t t e r n o f S o c i a l C l a s s e s " . Proceedings of the A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i ng- A s s o c i a t i o n ( J u n e 1 9 5 7 ) p p . 2 3 3 - 2 ~ 4 ~ 9 M c Q u a d e , W. "Why P e o p l e D o n ' t Buy H o u s e s " No. 7 ( D e c . 1 9 6 7 ) P P - 1 5 3 - 1 5 5 . M c N e m a r , Q. " O p i n i o n - A t t i t u d e M e t h o d o l o g y " B u l l e t i n V o l . XLIII ( 1 9 4 6 ) pp. 289-374.  Fortune  Vol.  LXXVI  Psychologice1  M i n d a l s , W. A . " F i t t i n g t h e S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l t o t h e Marketing Problem" J o u r n a 1 o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XXV ( A p r . 1961) p p . 2 9 - 3 3 —  " A New T e c h n i q u e f o r M e a s u r i n g A d v e r t i s i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XX ( A p r . 1 9 5 6 ) p p . 3 6 7 - 3 7 8 .  N o r r i s , R. T . " P r o c e s s e s a n d O b j e c t i v e s i n t h e New L o n d o n A r e a " i n C l a r k , L . H . Consumer B e h a v i o r (New Y o r k , New York, University Press" T9347 p p . 2 5 - 2 9 . Osgood, C . E . " T h e N a t u r e and Measurement o f Meaning" P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n X L I X (May 1 9 5 2 ) p p . 197-237Rosow, I. Review  "Home O w n e r s h i p M o t i v e s " American S o c i o l o g i c a l V o l . X I I I N o . 6 ( D e c . 1948) p p . 751-756.  T h u r s t o n e , L . L . "Theory o f A t t i t u d e Measurement" ca1 B u H e t i n V o l . X X X V I ( 1929 ) p p . 2 2 2 - 2 4 1 .  Psychologi  Wirth, L. "Housing as a f i e l d of S o c i o l o g i c a l Research". American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review V o l . XXII No. 2 . ( A p r . 1947)  pp.  134-14T:  U d e l 1 , J . G . " C a n A t t i t u d e Measurement P r e d i c t Consumer Behavior" J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XXIX ( O c t . 1965) pp. 4 6 - 5 0 .  APPENDIX A  APPENDIX A REVIEW OF PAST T h i s Appendix done i n  the  e a r 1i e r  there  behavi ora1 and  r e v i ews b r i e f l y  behavioral  a spect s of buy  non-behavi ora1 1ocat i on i n  field  has been  search to  Past  housing  of  have u s u a l l y  the  in  s t u d i es h a v e  This  lack  t o t h e market  not  e s t a t e a n d home b u i 1 d i ng i ndu s t r y .  realtors people  studies in  are  buy  a r e w a n t e d and attitudes, will  market  better.  how s u c h  c a n he 1p them t o by  and m o t i v a t i o n s  realtors  Fortune  of  and  magazine  the  and  problem  cou1d  the  in  number  Home b u i l d e r s studies offer  of and  on why houses  Research  prospective  that  on  where  orientation  home b u i l d e r s reported  the  behavioral  buyers. of  stated  evaluation  Thi s  b u i I d and  prospective  As  concentrated  increase i n  to r e a l i z e  preferred  enable  an  the housing market.  preferences,  buyers  of consumer  has been  beginning  houses  lack  been a c u t e .  research  t h e i r d e c i s i on  s u p p 1 y and t h e r e f o r e  the  behavioral  on  situation  account  R e c e n t 1y t h e r e  major  studies  probably rea1  for  the  economi c s , f i nance,  exceeded  c o n s u m e r m o t i v a t i on h a v e  of  go a b o u t  i ndu s t r y .  r e s e a r c h may b e a t t r i b u t e d demand  number  how p e o p l e  houses.  some o f  i n t he h o u s i ng m a r k e t .  limited  a spect s l i k e  the  RESEARCH  to  serve  that on  home the  motivation  99 research house  h a s now g a i n e d  building  some m e a s u r e  of acceptance i n the  business.' SOME MAJOR RESEARCH  Among  t h e ear 1i e s t  STUDIES  s t u d i e s o n home p u r c h a s e m o t i v a t i o n s  was t h e study  b y R. N o r r i s  result  i n t e r v i ews i n t h e New L o n d o n A r e a  of  explored  101  reported  the reasons f o r buying  d e c i s i on p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d locating  purchases,  out were  i n Pennsylvania c o n f i rmatory  findings demand  of the Norris'  a n d what  they  buy a h o u s e . ^  These  gers  o f more m o t i v a t i o n a l  Vol.  1W. LXXVI  and t h e s e a r c h and  A similar  b y W. T. K e l l e y  3  The methods  survey  i n 1955,  study.  studied  of  of the  was ca r r i ed  and t h e r e s u l t s  Paxton  reported the  the characteristics of  prospective buyers small  the  (Connecticut),  of s e a r c h , and dimensions  reported.  of two surveys which  f o r houses  houses,  The s t u d y ,  2  in the purchase.  intensity  d e c i s i on p r o c e s s w e r e  in-1954.  look  s c a l e s t u d i e s were  and behavi ora1 r e s e a r c h  McQuade "Why P e o p l e D o n ' t Buy H o u s e s " N o . 7 ( D e c . 1367) p p . 153-155-  f o r when the harbini n the  Fortune  R . N o r r i s " P r o c e s s e s a n d O b j e c t i v e s i n t h e New L o n d o n A r e a " , i n L . H . C1 a r k ( E d . ) Consumer B e h a v i o r (New Y o r k . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1954") p p . 2 5 - 2 9 - ~ 2  W . T . K e l l e y "How B u y e r s Shop f o r a New H o u s e " A p p r a i s a 1 J o u r n a l V o l . XXV ( A p r i l 1 9 5 7 ) P P - 2 0 9 - 2 1 4 . K e l l e y a l s o repo7tfed~ o t h e r s t u d i e s i n W. T . K e l l e y " M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h a n d H o u s e D e s i g n " A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l V o l . XX V11-1 ( A p r i l i 9 6 0 ) p p . 2 3 5 - 2 4 1 , a n d W. T . K e l l e y " D i a g n o s t i c R e s e a r c h , A C a s e S t u d y " A p p r a i sa 1 J o u r n a l V o l . XXXI ( J u l y I 9 6 3 ) p p . 3 3 3 - 3 3 7 3  4E . T . P s x t o n What P e o p l e Want When They Buy a Hou s e . ( W a s h i n g t o n U . S . D e p t . o f Commerce. Government Printing Office. 1955).  100 housing market,  both  by  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and c o m m e r c i a l  organiza-  tions. The C o r n e l 1 S t u d y  5  The C o r n e l 1 Study u n d e r t a k e n of  the  step  and h i s a s s o c i a t e s  C o r n e l 1 U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i ng R e s e a r c h C e n t e r  forward  i n h o u s i ng r e s e a r c h .  on t h e f u n d a m e n t a 1 have i n b u y i n g t h a t wi11  houses,  in  order  study  aestheti cs,  family  f i e l d work,  lei sure,  family  the  that  four  value  survey  freedom,  T h e Economy v a l u e  economi c u s e s of  thei r  groups.  groups were e s t a b 1 i shed :  and p r e s t i ge.  mai n 1 y  h o u s i ng v a l u e  goods  and  s e l f - e x p r e s s i on,  shelter  p h y s i ca1 menta1  hea1th,  separate  p e r s o n a 1,  family  economy,  b a s e t h e i r d e c i s i ons and c o n s e r v a t i ve  The P e r s o n a 1 v a l u e  persona 1 enjoyment  families  developed  f a m i l i e s emphasize  o n p r i c e , a n d a r e c o n v e n t i ona1 t a s t e s and habi t s .  focus  From t h e s e ana 1 y s i s  economy,  servi ces,  to  1i f e .  s o c i a 1 p r e s t i ge) whi ch w e r e u s e d a s b a s e s t o  respondent s i n t o  major  n a t i onal  c e n t r i c i sm,  equa1i t y ,  was a  attempted  t o d e s i gn m o r e  accommodate and implement  n i ne v a l u e c o n c e p t s ( e c o n o m y , hea1th,  The  human v a l u e s a n d m o t i v a t i o n s  T h r o u gh p r e l i mi n a r y  and  by B e y e r  group d e s i res  and p r i v a c y ,  and  stresses  f o r m a 1i t y a n d t h e  a e s t h e t i c s of  emphasi z e s f a m i 1 y  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d a r e c o n c e r n e d wi t h  we 1 1 - b e i ng o f is  o r i ented  every  towards  member  t h i ngs.  in  o f t he f a m i l y .  soci a 1 p r e s t i ge.  The F a m i 1 y v a l u e  T h e P r e s t i ge  From t h e s e a nd  group the  group  other  5 G . H . B e y e r , T . W. M a k e s e y , a n d J . E . Mont gomery Houses A r e For P e o p l e ( R e s e a r c h . P u b l i c a t i o n No. 3 . I t ha©a, New Y o r k . C o r n e l 1 Uni v e r s i t y Hou s i ng C e n t e r . 1955 )•  101 results  of t h esurvey,  designs  o f houses  characteristics.  house  planning,  husband/wife This  sample to  The study  andi n f o r m a t i o n and  survey  so  value  a l s o provided  types  and  guides f o r  on neighborhood  and  attitudes  o f 1032 f a m i l i e s b a s e d o n a s t r a t i f i e d area  fundamental  provided  housing  b a s e d on h o u s i n g m o t i v a t i o n s . departure  different  owners/renters.  i n theBuffalo  identify  drew up f o u r  according t o t h ed i f f e r e n t  their  of  thereport  for research,  the f i r s t  values  and  It could  b u t no s i m i l a r  systematic  study  attempt  market  segments  be an e x c e l l e n t  point of  study  has  been  attempted  far.  The S u r v e y  Research  These Center,  refer  Uni v e r s i t y  i)  ii)  iii)  t o the  efforts  of Michigan,  o f t h e Survey  publ i shed  Research  i n three  reports :  J . B. L a n s i ng and N . Bar t h R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n a n d U r b a n Mobi 1 i t y . A Mu 1 t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s ( S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e for S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , University of Michigan. D e c . 1964). J . B . L a n s i ng R e s i d e n t i a 1 L o c a t i o n a nd U r b a n M o b i 1 i t y . T h e S e c o n d Wave o f I n t e r v i ews ( S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c T a l R e s e a r c h , U n i v e r s i t y o f Mi c h i gan J u n e 1966). three  reportspresent  and u r b a n m o b i l i t y  two r e p o r t s  were based  the last  revealed  similar findings preference  over  t h e study a period  o n 824 i n t e r v i e w s  1963 a n d  houses,  S t u d i es  J . B . L a n s i n g and E . M u e l l e r w i t h N. Bar t h R e s i d e n t i a 1 L o c a t i o n a nd U r b a n M o b i 1 i t y ( S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c a i 1 R e s e a r c h , Uni v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n J u n e 1964).  These location  Center  o n e o n 740 i n t e r v i e w s on t h e t r e n d  f o r larger  lot size,  of residential  of time.  The  first  i n Sept ember-October i n I965.  towards  The Reports  single  family  l o c a t i o n from t h e  102 center  of  lived,  and  studied and  the d e s i r e  in  t erms o f  area, for  findings  to work,  mode  of  preferred, Though  p r o v i de v a l u a b l e preferences factor s in  vacation cottages.  The s t u d y  effect  of mobi1i ty  the  of  the  the  time) used  l o c a t i o n of  houses.  they  1 o c a t i ona1 and  other  C h i c a g o T r i bune has  genera 1 area of estate sector,  home b u y e r ' s  Chicago f a m i l i e s . ^  space i n  new h o u s e s , lengthy of  that  the  and t h e  role  predomi nant  they  The  and  done  behavior  h a v e made a  study  on  explored  i n a new h o u s e , of  the real  the  estate  n e e d was f o r  s e a r c h was a d r a w n - o u t  "window-shopping"  ten  consumer  moti v a t i ons based  s e a r c h p r o c e s s , and t h e  coneluded  period  gave  behavi o r a 1 ,  p r o s p e c t i v e buyers wanted  It  average  on  groups,  house.  1,200  broker.  p r e c e d e d by  or  toward nei ghborhood  In t h e r e a l  study  the  (car  also  S t u d i es  i n t e r v i ews wi t h  of  mobility  i n s i ght s and i n f o r m a t i on o n  and m o t i v a t i o n .  nature  on u r b a n  s t u d i e s a r e n o t mai n1y  some p i o n e e r i ng w o r k i n  features  socio-economic  common c a r r i e r )  T h e R e s e a r c h D i v i s i on o f  the  These were  transportation  b u y i ng a  comprehensi ve  friends  ( d i s t a n c e and  and a t t i t u d e s  C h i c a g o T r i bune  where  on the a v e r a g e j o u r n e y  and t h e the  and n e i g h b o r h o o d s  r e s i d e n t i a 1 densi t y,  leisure activities.  similar  and  metropolitan  more  one,  lasting for  an  months.  " P u b l i s h e d a s Chi c a g o T r i b u n e R e s e a r c h Di v i s i on What m a k e s t h e Home B u y e r T i c k a n d r e v i e v / e d i n D. L . L i o n e l "Home B u y e r s ' S t u d y o f f e r Ad C l u e s " E d i t o r & P u b l i s h e r ( A p r i 1 21, 1962 ) p. ko.  In a r e c e n t newcomers and  study,  t o C h i c a g o and long t i m e  the problems  they  newcomers usua11y ment s a n d t h e n  consu11  agents.  around  immediately.  t i on needed  encounter  start  estate  estate  off  shop f o r  so.7  by e x a m i n i n g  it  housing  found  newspaper  that  adverti se-  b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e s and rea1  r e s i dent s a r e - m o r e  The R e p o r t  likely  to  drive  i ndi c a t e d the t y p e o f  i nforma-  f o r a purchase d e c i s i o n , t h e i nadequaci e s of and what  consti tuted  real  "an ideal ad".  L o e w y / w i 1 1 i am S n a i t h I n c . Study® A m o t i v a t i ona 1 r e s e a r c h  undertaken  by t h e above  study  ( y e t t o b e pub 1 i s h e d ) w a s  research organization  m o t i v a t i o n s a f f e c t i ng t h e c h o i c e o f homes and  s t u d i e d how  residents  i n doing  f r i ends,  Old time  a d v e r t i sements,  Raymond  the Chicago Tribune  i n d i v i d u a 1 s who w e r e q u e s t i oned  586  geographical  t o study  o f 2,154  i n depth  r e g i o n s i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The  the  families i n f i ve  report,  prepared  f o r a c o n s o r t i urn o f 28 c o r p o r a t i o n s , d e t a i l s t h e  shifting  of  aspects  patterns  of t h e house  location). family  report  interactions represented  Shop  (e.g. single  These were a n a l y z e d  groupings The  of motivational  family  dwe1 l i n g ,  by a g e g r o u p s ,  and m a l e / f e m a l e particularly  values attached  to  various  apartments,  income  levels,  reactions.  dealt  wi t h t he h u s b a n d  i n t h e p r o c e s s t o buy a h o u s e .  and w i f e  The husband was  a s t h e o b s t a c l e - - h e was u n w i l l i n g t o move a n d  7ch i c a go T r i b u n e R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n How C h i c a g o Newcomer s f o r Hou s i ng ( C h i c a g o . J u n e 19 66 ) .  8Raymond L o e w y / W i 1 1 i a m S n a i t h I n c . The M o t i v a t i o n s T o w a r d Homes a n d H o u s i ng ( p r e p a r e d f o r t h e P r o j e c t Heme Committee. 1966 ) .  1 extended hand, the  to "romanticize his t h e w i f e was t h e  shopping.  and c h i I d r e n ,  T h e man b u y s t h e and a s a symbol  submarket s - - t h e  age and d e s i red  The no  better  1i f e e y e 1e.  1 i eu o f  if  would  look  for  i neluded  1  survey  cycle.  F o u r mai n market,  be low r e t i r e m e n t market--were  sub-markets based  on  t o h ou s i n g  the changing buyer's  housing  in  double  b u i l t - i n appliances,  appearance, were c i t e d But a f t e r  and in  is  profiles  c o n d i t i o n s a nd t he s t a g e s  3'l y e a r s  in  scientific  d e s i g n s were  again.  garages,  f i re  suggested.  order  of  areas^  What  Features that  importance  90wens-Corning Fiberglass Corporation Preference. (Toledo, Ohio. 1367 ).  buyers  and  reputation,  s c h o o l and  p u r c h a s i ng a n d s t a y i n g i n  they  entrance  more c l o s e t s ,  builder  nearness to  asked  extra baths,  pieces,  F a c t o r s of  that  to complete,  20 m e t r o p o l i t a n  t h e y were t o buy  v/a 11 - t o - w e 1 1 c a r p e t i n g .  Buyer s  wife  Study^  house buyers  for  a house.  but  his  The  a s i n g l e approach  living  survey which took  look  facilities  life  ret i ree  Six other  p r e - t e s t i n g of  would  community  house, and  advocated that  O w e n s - C o r n i ng F i b e r g l a s s  foyer,  sake of  P r o m o t i o n a n d a d v e r t i s i n g b a s e d on  and t h e  10,000 recent  the  of  v/ere a l s o i d e n t i f i e d .  study  This  basi s of  houses),  1 o n ge r e f f e c t i v e i n  findings  for  other  and d o e s m o s t  h i s achievement.  ( t h o s e who h a v e  due t o p r e s s u r e s o f modern the  of  on t h e  and d e s c r i b e d .  criteria  house  force  On t h e  b r i d e / n e w 1 y - w e d m a r k e t •, f i r s t - h o u s e  "upgrade market"  ot her  environment".  prime m o t i v a t i n g  a 1 s o segment s t h e m a r k e t  identi fied  present  shopping in  selecting  the house  Report  for  on Home  105 some t i m e  the  order  The r e p o r t  of  priority  classified  of  i n t e r v i ewer s a n d t h e r e f o r e  by  i n d i c e t i ng d i f f e r e n c e s  economi c s and  i ncome 1 e v e 1.  to opti ons,  hou s e s a n d o t h e r sented  i n areas  purchase  like  the  satisfaction,  factors  provided  p r i ce range  preferences  garages,  i n f l u e n c e of  of  home  information  based  di f f e r e n c e s  and t h e a f f l u e n t  A wealth of  and  changes.  additional  Important  space,  factors.  the  r e s p o n s e s by  i n buyer  r e v e a l e d between t h e average wi t h r e s p e c t  of  on  were  home  buyers  tax assessment  information promotion  of  was  media,  prepost -  nei ghborhood c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  The Home F u r n i s h i ngs M a r k e t i n g a n d  Research Counci1,  Inc,  Studi es Three and  p u b l i s h e d by  C o u n c i 1, i ngs,  I nc.  the  t h e Home F u r n i s h i n g s  Of  prepared  I967) h a s This  s t u d i e s on home f u r n i s h i n g s  by S o c i a l  study  explored  purchase  of  Research,  of  the  and  1i f e  the development and t h e  Research  a n d H orne F u r n i s h -  (Chicago,  research in  Illinois.  housing.*  r a t i o n a l e s and m o t i v a t i o n s  styles that  advertising,  Inc.  It  sponsored  M a r k e t i n g and  The Horn erne k e r  home f u r n i s h i n g s .  home f u r n i s h i n g s , role  only  relevance to behavioral  environment  the  these,  have been  examined the  c o v e r n i ng home  d e t e r n i ne p r e f e r e n c e s of  the d e c i s i o n to  shopping  0  in  buy,  experience of  the  10 j h e o t h e r t w o r e p o r t s a r e The I m p a c t o f I n d u s t r y A c t i v i t i e s on Consumer P u r c h a s i no oT~H cm e Fur m s h i n g s prepared F y ~ ' A r t r T e r ~ i . L i t t l e , Tricl ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t e s T I 9 6 7 ), and A Home F u r n i s h i n g s Consumer S t u d y Amen g B u y e r s a nd I n t e n d i ng Buyers p r e p a r e d b y N a t i o n a l F a m i l y O p i n i o n , I n c . " ( T o l ec!o, O h i o .  1967).  1C6  purchaser.  This  socio-economic life  survey  status,  styles affect  to a t t i t u d e s  of  1i f e  they  affect  i ngs,  the  cycle  the  women  806  age  i n 2k  groupings,  and  preferences  and i n  di f f e r e n t  p e r c e p t i on o f  response  in  It  paid  in  the  soci al  the house,  to advertising,  cities  stage  g o a l s and a c t i o n s .  attention family  of  and  the  the  showed  life  how  cycle,  and  particular different  classes,  and  taste for  purchase  stages how  furni sh-  d e c i s i on  process. Not a l l have been Research some o f  the  studies  r e v i ewed h e r e - - f o r Insti tute  the major  y e a r s t o exp1 ore  is  not  work  for  this  stage,  for  by  the  r e v i ew.  But  Stanford these  are  past  few  in  t h e at t i t u d e s  and p r e f e r e n c e s  involved  goes about  These  the  s t u d i e s e s t a b l i s h much  and  Techniques  the  exact  in  the  of  how t h e  t o buy  ground  nature  the  of  p r o s p e c t i ve  di f f e r e n t  di f f e r e n t  the  At  a house--the  i n t e r a c t i o n of  the  forma-  variables  att r i butes  of  d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s have  the yet  upon.  Used  in  purchase  reviewed  the e x p l o r a t i o n of  homes.  v/ere c o n v e n t i o n a l interviews,  1earnt  process  f orrnat i o n t o w a r d s  The r e s e a r c h techniques  t o be  i n the  hou s i n g v a l u e s ,  t o be r e s e a r c h e d  the  available  study  v/ere u n d e r t a k e n  much r e m a i n s  i n a t t i tude house,  e x a m p l e t he  h o u s i ng  r e s e a r c h i n t o h o u s i ng m o t i v a t i o n s a n d v a l u e s .  purchaser of  research in  ef f ort s that  home d e c i s i on p r o c e s s .  tion  on b e h a v i o r a 1  and  above of  T h e most  questionnaire,  projective  have a p p l i e d  the behavioral commonly depth  techniques.  a variety elements  utilized  interviews, The  of in  techniques group  conventional  107 questionnaire, used is  in a l l  limited  attitudes  Depth  its  to  and  obtain  to their  lengthy  preferences  and  of  in  groups  probing  can only  same comment  of  Though  reveal  these  underlying  responses  in  f i ve,  techniques,  completion  have been used i n  scaling  defy  The  Cornel 1 Study  its  and  analysis  to  scale  att i tudes  and from  these develop  A combination  of  the f o u r  survey.  the  techniques which  a t t i t u d e measurement reviewed.  It  of  However  i n home  the point provide  purchasing  has been e s t a b l i s h e d  in  in  analysis,  they  respondents. sentence Rating  and  the  Sea 1 c-gram values,  categories. c a n be in  effectively  this  dimension the various  Chapter  various  attitude  note  visual  on  scale  value  to  survey  housing  techniques  the  individuals  opinions  di f f e r e n t  housing  different  u s e d i n any lack of  had  and  due  for  second  example used  toward  be  true  studies.  to rate  of  economically  statistical  numerous  for  Research,  can  l i k e w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n and  t e c h n i q u e s were u t i l i z e d  concepts.  is  a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s  Projective  surveys  i n depth  be  any  to  Such t e c h n i q u e s  C h i c a g o T r i bune  women i n  attitudes  in the  i n f o r m a t i on t h a t  nature  was  techni cues i n  Social  group t o e x p r e s s and d i s c u s s t h e i r  i ssues.  probing  respondents  i nforma1  The  questions,  been u t i l i z e d  Inc.,-the  of  involved  The  have  on a t t i t u d e s .  sample.  group i n t e r v i ews. i n t e r v i ewed 55  These  a wealth data  u s e d wi t h a s m a l l  utility  interviews  Kelley.  analyzed  do  but  Loewy/'.Vi 11 i am S n a i t h ,  a n d W. T .  each  c l o s e d - and o p e n - e n d  be s u p p 1 ement ed by o t h e r  respondent s produce  in  both  research,  study.  by Raymond Inc.,  the  and must  behavioral reveal  using  II  that  study  is  to studies visual  108 stimuli  are  important  part i cu1ar1y  t h e home  styles.  There  is  d i m e n s i on t o a t t i t u d e measu r e m e n t a n d Home F u r n i s h i n g s  advertisement  p i c t u r e s t o top  f urni shi ng. respondents of  a first  react  makes t h e  a t t empt  toward  report  study  types of  F i e l d Instrument  di d u t i 1 i zed s t y l e s of is  l i m i t e d t o how  a d v e r t i sements.  developed  a nd e n c o u r a g e  some  heme  further  as other  The  attitude  in this  i n t h i s d i r e c t i on i n h o u s i ng r e s e a r c h .  1 i ne i n h o u s i n g a n d a s w e l l  a  home p u r c h a s i n g .  p r o v i de a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n t o  t h i s may p r o v e u s e f u 1 ,  a 1 ong t h i s  this  to di fferent that  in  i d e a s about  But t hei r use i n  t e c h n i ques  measurement  fully  preferences  t h u s a need t o p r o v i d e  T h e Homemaker  lack  p u r c h a s e d e c i s i on p r o c e s s ,  i n a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e s and  architectural visual  in  study Hope-  research  research.  APPENDIX B  APPENDIX B I L L U S T R A T I ON OF RATING Address: Occupation  3926 A n g u s (Head  Drive  Code # U2Sk  of Family):  Sex o f Respondent:  SHEET  Engineer  F. RATINGS  "LOWER"  "MIDDLE"  "UPPER"  3692  3060  4174  3223  1968  2\h3  8156  2902  4383  1708  6038  4306  1115  k07h  I65I  82 73  2653  7353  1307  3547  5865  27k2  5729  4267  2655  3801 7853 3770 676I 5185  Interviewer's  Rating:  Upper  Class.  

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