Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development and testing of a field instrument for research into the study of attitudes and preferences… Sim, Ah Ba 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1968 A45 S55.pdf [ 5.94MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0102456.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0102456-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0102456-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0102456-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0102456-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0102456-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0102456-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0102456-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0102456.ris

Full Text

THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A FIELD INSTRUMENT FOR RESEARCH INTO THE STUDY OF ATTITUDES AMD PREFERENCES INVOLVED IN THE PURCHASE OF HOMES by AH BA SIM B. A. (Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the Department of Commerce and Business Administration We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the recjui red standard--. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s represen-t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The o b j e c t o f t h e t h e s i s was t o d e v e l o p a f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s among v a r i o u s s o c i a l g r o u p s . The i n s t r u m e n t has been d e v e l o p e d f o r use i n r e s e a r c h on a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r -ences i n v o l v e d i n the p u r c h a s e o f homes. The i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d as a v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e , c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e house photographs g r a d u a t e d a l o n g a s o c i a l c l a s s continuum t o r e p r e s e n t the lower, m i d d l e , and upper s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s ; and w i l l be d e v e l o p e d on t h e a ssumption t h a t p e o p l e can c o n s i s -t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among house photographs on the b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l c l a s s of occupant f a m i l i e s . The t h r e e house photographs were d e r i v e d from a r a t i n g p r o c e s s i n the f i e l d which used 60 r e s p o n d e n t s t o r a t e a s e t of 3 0 c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d house photographs among t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s . The house photographs a s s o c i a t e d most w i t h each of the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t each s o c i a l s t r a t u m i n the v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e . Use of the v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l and open-end q u e s t i o n s was proposed as a means t o d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s and, a l s o , o t h e r a t t i t u d e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t o buy a heme. The a c t u a l u t i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t cannot be e s t a b l i s h e d here, but must be i 1 i the o b j e c t o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The study d i d r e v e a l , however, a h i g h d e g r e e of c o n s i s t e n c y of r a t i n g s by r e s p o n -d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s backgrounds and, t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e d f a c e v a l i d a t i o n f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 O b j e c t i v e s o f the Study 3 O b j e c t i v e s and Nature of the O v e r - a l l Home Purchase Survey 5 Chapter O r g a n i z a t i o n and Resea r c h Methodology . . . 10 I I . REQUIREMENTS AND NATURE OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENT . . . 12 Needs and Purposes 12 I n a d e q u a c i e s o f E x i s t i n g A t t i t u d e T e c h n i q u e s . . . 18 Nature of t h e F i e l d Instrument 26 S o c i a l C l a s s as t h e A t t i t u d e Continuum 31 Summary hi I I I . DEVELOPING THE FIELD INSTRUMENT 43 S e l e c t i o n of Photographs t o be T e s t e d h3 Sampling Desi gn hS Procedure of t h e F i e l d Work k& A n a l y s i s o f t h e F i e l d Data 50 Summary 70 IV. APPLICATIONS AND VALIDITY OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENT . . 72 A p p l i c a t i o n s 72 V a l i d i t y 78 Re1 i a b i l i ty 82 L i m i t a t i o n s and Weaknesses 83 V CHAPTER PAGE V. SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 93 APPENDIX A. REVIEW OF PAST RESEARCH 98 Some Major R e s e a r c h S t u d i e s 99 T e c h n i q u e s Used 106 APPENDIX B. ILLUSTRATION OF RATING SHEET 109 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Summary o f R a t i n g s 51 I I a S e l e c t i o n o f Photographs t o Re p r e s e n t "Lower" S c a l e C a t e g o r y U s i n g O n e - T a i l Normal Curve T e s t . 53 l i b S e l e c t i o n o f Photographs t o Rep r e s e n t " M i d d l e " S c a l e C a t e g o r y U s i n g O n e - T a i l Normal Curve T e s t . 5*+ l i e S e l e c t i o n o f Photographs t o Represent "Upper" S c a l e C a t e g o r y U s i n g O n e - T a i l Normal Curve T e s t . 56 I l i a C h i - s q u a r e T e s t o f P r o p o r t i o n o f Endorsement f o r Photographs S e l e c t e d f o r "Lower" S c a l e C a t e g o r y . 57 I l i b C h i - s q u a r e T e s t o f P r o p o r t i o n of Endorsement f o r Photographs S e l e c t e d f o r "Upper" S c a l e C a t e g o r y . 59 IVa C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s f o r R a t i n g s of Each Photograph by Sub-sample f o r "Lower" S c a l e Category . . . . 63 IVb C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s f o r R a t i n g s of Each Photograph by Sub-sample f o r " M i d d l e " S c a l e Category . . . . 65 IVc C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s f o r R a t i n g s o f Each Photograph by Sub-sample f o r "Upper" S c a l e Category . . . . 67 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 A C o n c e p t u a l Mode l o f t h e Home P u r c h a s i n g D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s 7 2 I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l e s . . 2k 3 The T h r e e P h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t . . 61 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o Or. R. F. K e l l y who was a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e of encouragement and guid a n c e d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d o f the stud y and f i e l d work. Thanks a r e a l s o due t o a l l t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s who k i n d l y gave me some o f t h e i r p r e c i o u s time t o r a t e t h e photographs and answer q u e s t i o n s . CHAPTER I PURPOSES AND OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION T h e r e has been l i t t l e s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t t o study t h e manner i n which p e o p l e buy homes. C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s a l a c k o f an i n t i m a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e home p u r c h a s e r market. F r e q u e n t l y the market i s viewed as a het e r o g e n o u s mass, d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y on t h e b a s i s of t y p e s of home pu r c h a s e d , which i s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s may i n p a r t a c c o u n t f o r the apparent l a c k o f "consumer o r i e n t a t i o n " on the p a r t o f many r e a l t o r s and home b u i l d e r s . The home p u r c h a s i n g p r o c e s s i s a complex and imp o r t a n t phenomenon t h a t s h o u l d r e c e i v e more r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n . The purchase of a house r e p r e s e n t s the s i n g l e l a r g e s t f i n a n c i a l commitment a f a m i l y i s l i k e l y t o make, and as such has g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . F u r t h e r no purchase c o u l d p o s s i b l y s i g n i f y the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of a f a m i l y more than a house. A house i s the u l t i m a t e i n s o c i a l c o n s p i c u o u s n e s s . A f a m i l y i s b e i n g j u d g e d and knows t h a t i t i s b e i n g j u d g e d by the t y p e o f house i t o c c u p i e s . The house then becomes a medium o f e x p r e s s i o n , s o c i a l or o t h e r w i s e , f o r t h e occupant f a m i l y . The manner i n which p e o p l e buy houses i s a c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s , and t o u n d e r s t a n d how and why p e o p l e buy a p a r t i c u l a r type of house i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n , one has t o probe the minds o f t h e home p u r c h a s e r s . The a t t i t u d e s , t a s t e s , p r e f e -r e n c e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e home p u r c h a s e r s , and how t h e s e f a c t o r s a f f e c t t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s w i l l have t o be s t u d i e d . S o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o get a t t h e s e c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s as t h e s e a r e not phenomena t h a t c a n be o b s e r v e d e a s i l y o r e l i c i t e d from p e o p l e through c o n v e n t i o n a l methods o f i n t e r v i e w . In f a c t t h e whole p r o c e s s may not be app a r e n t even t o t h e home p u r c h a s e r h i m s e l f ! Research i n t o the study o f a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s and how they a f f e c t t h e home p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f home p u r c h a s e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n s , and w i l l be of d e f i n i t e v a l u e t o r e a l t o r s and home b u i l d e r s i n t h e i r o f f e r i n g s of houses and m a r k e t i n g programs. U n f o r t u n a t e l y v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t h a t has been done i th e h o u s i n g i n d u s t r y can be l a b e l l e d b e h a v i o r a l . E x a m i n a t i o n o f past r e s e a r c h w i l l r e v e a l a l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s on t h e h o u s i n g i n d u s t r y , m a i n l y on such a r e a s a s economics, f i n a n c e , d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , l o c a t i o n , and r e g i o n a l a n a l y s i s . ^ Very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h i s of t h e b e h a v i o r a l t y p e t h a t probes consu-mer's m o t i v a t i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s . Among t h e h a n d f u l o f e a r l i e r e f f o r t s a l o n g t h i s l i n e a r e G. H. Beyer, F. W. Mac-k e r s e y , and Montgomery Houses a r e f o r P e o p l e ( R e s e a r c h ^For a comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y , see t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f Real E s t a t e A p p r a i s e r Real E s t a t e Apprai ser B i b l i o q r a p h y ( C h i c a g o . I 9 6 4 ) and J . B. Babb and B. F. D o r d i c k Rea1 E s t a t e I n f o r m a t i on So u r c e s ( D e t r o i t , Gale R e s e a r c h Co. 3 P u b l i c a t i o n No . 3« I t h a c a , N . Y . C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i n g C e n t e r . 1955)2 and W. T . K e l l e y "How B u y e r s Shop f o r a New Home" The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l V o l . XXV ( A p r i l 1957) p p . 209 -214. The l a c k o f b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h may be t h e c a u s e o r e f f e c t o f t h e l a c k o f " c o n s u m e r o r i e n t a t i o n " o r e m p h a s i s on t h e home p u r c h a s e r i n t h e r e a l e s t a t e b u s i n e s s . . However, r e c e n t l y t h e r e h a s d e v e l o p e d more i n t e r e s t i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l a s p e c t s o f home p u r c h a s i n g , p r e s u m a b l y e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e " c r i s i s " i n h o u s i n g a n d f r o m a d e s i r e t o u n d e r s t a n d and s e r v e t h e c o n s u m e r s b e t t e r . B o t h u n i v e r s i t y and c o m m e r c i a l b o d i e s h a v e u n d e r t a k e n s t u d i e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . A p p e n d i x A r e v i e w s t h e f i n d i n g s a n d m e t h o d s o f some o f t h e m a j o r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y . OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY A Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y was p r o p o s e d d u r i n g t h e f a l l o f I967 a n d w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n by D r . R. F . K e l l y o f t h e U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s s t u d y w i l l be a n a n t e c e d e n t t o t h e o v e r - a l l S u r v e y ( t o be s p e l l e d ou t l a t e r ) and c o n s t i t u t e p a r t o f t h e f i e l d t e s t i n g o f c o n c e p t s a n d h y p o t h e s i s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e v e l o p a f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t f o r u s e i n t h e f i e l d work and i n t e r v i e w i n g e n v i s a g e d i n t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y . The need f o r , t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s , and p o s s i b l e u s e s o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be e x p l o r e d ; and t h e a c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e f i e l d w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t . 2 H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s The C o r n e l l S t u d y . h T h e r e i s a need t o p r o v i d e v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n s t o a t t i t u d e measurement i n h o u s i n g s t u d i e s and i n the proposed o v e r - a l l S u rvey. But e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e m e a s u r i n g or s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s do not p r o v i d e f o r t h i s . T h e r e f o r e t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t r e p r e s e n t s an attempt t o p r o v i d e such v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n s t o a t t i t u d e measurement i n h o u s i n g . I t w i l l t a k e the form o f a v i s u a l a t t i t u d e m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e or s c a l e , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e house photographs, each one r e p r e s e n t i n g an occupant f a m i l y p e r c e i v e d t o be i n t h e lower, m i d d l e , or upper c l a s s . The i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be b u i l t on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p e o p l e can and do c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among house photographs on the b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l c l a s s o f occupant f a m i l i e s . An attempt w i l l be made t o v a l i d a t e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i n t h e f i e l d work. I t i s hoped t h a t t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e form o f t h r e e house phot o g r a p h s , p o s s i b l y w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s , w i l l prove u s e f u l i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s , and p o s s i b l y o t h e r a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t o buy a house. The n a t u r e of the f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i s e x p l o r a t o r y and may r e p r e s e n t t h e f i r s t o f a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u m e n t s h a v i n g as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s . T h i s study i s v e n t u r i n g i n t o u n e x p l o r e d grounds, and can at b e s t be e x p l o r a t o r y . Though t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i s d e v e l o p e d , u n f o r t u n a t e l y time does not permit t h e w r i t e r t o v a l i d a t e t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e f i e l d . However p o s s i b l e 5 means of f i e l d v a l i d a t i o n s w i l l be suggested. Hence no c l a i m or p r e t e n c e c a n be made as t o t h e a c t u a l u t i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t a t t h i s p o i n t . However t h e q u e s t i o n o f v a l i d a t i o n w i l l be a c o n t i n u i n g q u e s t i o n t h a t w i l l have t o be t a c k l e d b e f o r e i t can be used i n t h e Home Purchase Survey. OBJECTIVES AND NATURE OF THE OVER-ALL HOME PURCHASE SURVEY O b j e c t i v e s The proposed Home P u r c h a s e Survey w i l l be o f an e x p l o r a -t o r y n a t u r e and seek t o c o n t r i b u t e i n some waytb t h e vacuum o f knowledge i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l a s p e c t s o f home purchase and h o u s i n g d e c i s i o n s . A f i r s t o b j e c t i v e of t h e proposed s u r v e y i s t o study and i d e n t i f y t a s t e s , a t t i t u d e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s o f home p u r c h a s e r s . Based on t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h i d e n t i f i a b l e p a t t e r n s o f h o u s i n g t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s and t h e r e f o r e market t y p e s and sub-groups. The Survey seeks t o e x p l o r e the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s i n home p u r c h a s i n g - t h e s t a g e s and v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o buy a house. I t w i l l examine how a t t i t u d e s , t a s t e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s a f f e c t t h i s d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s and d i f f u s i o n p r o c e s s e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the outcome of the p r o c e s s . The Survey has i t s p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t s f i n d i n g s w i l l e n a b l e r e a l t o r s t o b e t t e r match t h e i r house o f f e r i n g s t o consumer demands. B e t t e r i n s i g h t s can be gained i n the manner which r e a l t o r s can appeal t o or compete f o r c e r t a i n or 6 p a r t i c u l a r customer groups through more e f f e c t i v e use o f a d v e r t i s i n g and s a l e s p r e s e n t a t i o n . N ature The s e a r c h and t h e d e c i s i o n t o buy a house i s a complex phenomenon. As t h e need f o r a house (new or a l t e r n a t i v e ) i s a p p a r e n t , the d e c i s i o n u n i t ( t h e f a m i l y b e i n g th e most appro-p r i a t e u n i t h e r e ) b e g i n s i t s s e a r c h f o r a house. D i f f e r e n t s e t s of h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e a t any p o i n t of time, and w i t h i n each set a r e d i f f e r e n t houses about which the home p u r c h a s e r must d e c i d e . However he i s l i m i t e d i n h i s c h o i c e by a number of c o n s t r a i n t s . H i s p e r s o n a ! r e s o u r c e s ( f i n a n c i a l ) a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p u r c h a s e w i l l e l i m i n a t e him from many o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s e t s o f houses. Not a l l t h e s e t s o f housi ng a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t a r e wi t h i n hi s pu r c h a s i ng range a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o him e i t h e r . Q u e s t i o n o f d i s t a n c e from work (and m o b i l i t y ) , d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and s o c i a l c l a s s e s , and a whole host of other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may be c o n s t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s . Even when he i s d e c i d i n g , the houses i n q u e s t i o n may have a l r e a d y been s o l d , and a d i f f e r e n t s e t of h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s may have e n t e r e d th e market. F r e -q u e n t l y then, the s e a r c h i s one o f m a t c h i n g h o u s i n g a t t r i b u t e s t o d e s i r e d f e a t u r e s , and t h e f i r s t house t h a t meets the g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s may be bought. T h i s s e a r c h and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s c a n be f i t t e d i n t o a model t h a t can be d e f i n e d " o p e r a t i o n a l l y " , t h a t i s f o r use i n the S u r v e y . F i g u r e 1 shows a c o n c e p t u a l model of the Home P u r c h a s i n g D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s . The d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s 7 "FIGURE I A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF. THE HOME PURCHASING DECISION PROCESS INFORMATION SOURCES: P h y s i c a l n o t i c e Word-of-mouth A d v e r t i s i n g Other, mass. media^ -f time -j—> PHYSICAL INSPECTION FACTORS: P h y s i c a l Economic S o c i a l Awareness II [Interest! U > I I I Evaluation! V Purchase Decision; (*" the w r i t e r i s indebted to Dr. R.F.Kelly for. t h i s schematic model ) 8 c o n s i s t s o f f i v e s t a g e s : awareness, i n t e r e s t , e v a l u a t i o n , mental t r i a l , and p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n . Awareness o c c u r s upon t h e f i r s t l e a r n i n g o f t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e house. I n t e r e s t i s shown when one seeks a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and b e g i n s t o view a g i v e n house as a p u r c h a s e a l t e r n a t i v e . E v a l u a t i o n i n v o l v e s an attempt by a p u r c h a s e r t o match h i s wants and r e q u i r e m e n t s a g a i n s t t h e r e a l t o r ' s o f f e r i n g s . Mental t r i a l r e p r e s e n t s t h e s t a g e when the p r o s p e c t i v e buyer i m a g i n e s h i m s e l f t o be l i v i n g i n t h e house. The p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n w i l l i n v o l v e a commitment t o p u r c h a s e the house or a d e c i s i o n not t o p u r c h a s e ( t h a t i s , r e j e c t i o n which can o c c u r i n any s t a g e as t h e d i a g r a m c l e a r l y shows). The most i m p o r t a n t and a l s o c o g n i t i v e s t a g e s of i n t e -r e s t , e v a l u a t i o n , and mental t r i a l of t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l be o f major f o c u s i n t h e S urvey. A t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o t h e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and how they i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . The r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d v e r t i s i n g , f a c e - t o - f a c e s a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n f o r m a l word-of-mouth communications, p h y s i c a l i n s p e c t i o n and o t h e r f a c t o r s i n t h e development o f a t t i t u d e s toward a r e a l t o r and/or h i s o f f e r i n g s w i l l be s t u d i e d . The v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c elements i n t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , so a p p a r e n t from F i g u r e 1, w i l l be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , and i s a s o u r c e f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . S t u d i e s on the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l r e v e a l what f a c t o r s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g th e v a r i o u s s t a g e s and t h e i r outcome. How d o r s t a s t e s , a t t i t u d e s , and p r e f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s ? What a r e the i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l c l a s s 9 and n e i g h b o r h o o d f a c t o r s i n t h e development o f a t t i t u d e s t o and p e r c e p t i o n s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s ? Are a t t i t u d e s toward houses i n f l u e n c e d by the s t a g e i n t h e l i f e - c y c l e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t and t h e s t y l e o f l i f e p e r c e i v e d and e x p e c t e d t o be u p h e l d by t h e p u r c h a s e r ? To what e x t e n t a r e houses r e g a r d e d as s t a t u s symbols? How do p h y s i c a l and a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c e t h e c h o i c e p r o c e s s ? I n s i g h t s i n t o t h e s e and o t h e r q u e s t i o n s w i l l e n a b l e an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t customer groups and t h e i r t a s t e s and a t t i t u d e s toward d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f houses, a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , i n t e r i o r d e s i g n s , and t h e r e a l t o r s o f f e r i n g them. They w i l l p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . To a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v e s above, t h e Survey w i l l make use o f a s e r i e s o f a t t i t u d i na 1 i n s t r u m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y g e n e r a l t a s t e s and a t t i t u d e s toward d i s t i n c t a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , i n t e r i o r d e s i g n s , l o c a t i o n s , r e a l t o r s , and t y p e s o f p e o p l e t h e y p e r c e i v e as p r e f e r r i n g t h e s e s t y l e s , d e s i g n s , l o c a t i ons and rea1 t o r s . These i nstruments wi11 i n c l u d e t h e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l and p i c t u r e probes i n the form o f a v i s u a l m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e t o get at the c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s and p r o c e s s e s of t h e s e a r c h f o r a house. A v i s u a l a t t i t u d e measuring d e v i c e i s not yet a v a i l a b l e , and t h i s study w i l l s e r v e as s o r t o f a b r a v e v e n t u r e t o d e v e l o p such an i n s t r u m e n t f o r use i n the f i e l d . A c o n v e n t i o n a l type of q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l a l s o be r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n g e n e r a l f a c t u a l d a t a and such i n f o r m a t i o n 10 a s p u r c h a s i n g i n t e n t i o n s , a s p i r a t i o n s , l i f e - c y c l e s , p a s t home-p u r c h a s i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s . Both s t r u c t u r e d and open-end q u e s t i o n s w i l l be employed. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h i s Survey w i l l be e x p l o r a t o r y and c o n f i n e d t o t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a . R e s o u r c e s do not permit a n a t i o n wide e f f o r t . A sample o f 300 h o u s e h o l d s w i l l be i n t e r v i ewed, and t h i s wi11 c o v e r most i d e n t i f i a b l e customer groups t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o e n t e r t h e h o u s i n g market. In each h o u s e h o l d u n i t , i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be c o n d u c t e d w i t h both husbands and w i v e s , as t h i s has proved t o be most r e v e a l i n g by o t h e r home p u r c h a s e s t u d i es ( f o r example st u d y by C o r n e l 1). The exact n a t u r e o f t h e sample d e s i gn has yet t o be worked o u t . E x p l o r a t o r y work and f i e l d t e s t i ng ( o f whi ch t h i s study i s one) a r e now i n p r o g r e s s and i t wi11 be some time b e f o r e th e a ctua1 Survey c an be c a r r i e d o u t . CHAPTER ORGANIZATION AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY H a v i n g e s t a b 1 i shed the n a t u r e o f t h e o v e r - a 11 Home Purchase Survey and the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study i n Chapter I, Chapter 11 w i l l p r o c e e d t o t a k e up the t h e o r e t i c a 1 i s s u e of t h e f i e l d i nstrument, and e x p l o r e t h e need, purpose, and n a t u r e o f the v i sua 1 a t t i tude measuri ng devi c e . The ba s i s and c o n s t r u c t i on o f t h e i nstrument w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The i n v e n t o r y o f e x i s t i ng a t t i t ude t e c h n i ques i s exami ned t o see i f any o f them s a t i s f y the needs i n t h e Survey. Chapter I I I d e s c r i b e s t h e development o f t h e f i e l d i nstrument i n t h e f i e l d and t h e " r a t i ngs" o f so specia11y s e l e c t e d house photographs by a t e s t sample of 60 r e s p o n d e n t s , 11 drawn up on t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a l c l a s s . The p r o c e d u r e o f t h e f i e l d work and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f the t h r e e photographs a r e d e s c r i b e d . R e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i e l d d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d . The next c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r IV examines t h e v a l i d i t y , a p p l i c a t i o n s , and l i m i t a t i o n s o f the f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . The major s e t b a c k here (as e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r ) i s t h e i n a b i l i t y o f the wri t e r t o v a 1 i d a t e the i nstrument i n t h e f i e l d . T h i s c h a p t e r i s t h e r e f o r e o n l y a t h e o r e t i c a l e x p o s i t i o n and specu-l a t i o n , w i t h i n d i c a t i o n s o f p o s s i b l e f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s and means o f v a l i d a t i o n . The f i n a l c h a p t e r ( C h a p t e r V) summarizes t h i s e x p l o r a -t o r y s t u d y and spe11s out i t s c o n e l u s i o n s . A r e v i ew o f some r e l e v a n t and major r e s e a r c h i n housi ng i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. I t summarizes t h e f i n d i n g s o f and the t e c h n i q u e s used i n t h e s e s t u d i e s . The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s used t o t h i s study i s a l s o examined. CHAPTER II REQUIREMENTS AND NATURE OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENT T h i s c h a p t e r endeavours t o e s t a b l i s h t h e need f o r , r e q u i r e m e n t s , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e F i e l d Instrument which i s t o be used i n t h e Home Purchase Survey. As t h e F i e l d Instrument w i l l be a u n i q u e a t t i t u d e d e v i c e w i t h a v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n , much o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a 1 e x p o s i t i on wi11 be o f an e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e , and a g r e a t dea1 o f f i e l d t e s t i ng i s needed b e f o r e any c l a i m c an be made as t o i t s d e f i ni t i ve v a l u e . However t h i s study w i l l r e p r e s e n t an i ni t i a 1 e f f o r t i n e x p l o r i ng the p o s s i b i 1 i t y o f v i s u a l a t t i tude measuri ng d e v i c e s f o r u s e i n r e s e a r c h on home p u r c h a s i ng, and p o s s i b l y i n o t h e r f i e l d s . NEEDS AND PURPOSES C o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t ude m e a s u r i n g and sea l i n g i nstruments can be and a r e used i n s t u d y i ng a t t i t u d e s i n the p u r c h a s i ng o f consumer and d u r a b l e goods. The T h u r s t o n e e q u a 1 - a p p e a r i n g sea 1i ng t e c h n i que has been used t o study a t t i tudes toward t r a d i n g stamps,* and t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l has been a p p l i e d t o study consumer r e a c t i ons t o t h e image of brands, 1 J . G. Udel 1, "Can A t t i tude Measurement P r e d i c t Consumer B e h a v i o r " . J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g . V o l . XXIX ( O c t . 1965), pp. 46-50. p r o d u c t s , and companies, -^ and i n consumer p a t r o n a g e d e c i s i o n s . - 3 However t h e r e have been few a t t e m p t s t o study a t t i t u d e s and t h e consumer d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i n the h o u s i n g market - a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of t h e l a c k o f b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . Even t h o s e few a t t e m p t s have been l i m i t e d i n scope ( s e e Appendix A ) . The l a c k o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l methods and a t t i t u d e m e a s u r i n g s c a l e s t o t h e home pu r c h a s e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s may i n p a r t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s p e c i a l n a t u r e o f t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n s e a r c h i n g f o r and b u y i n g a house. U n l i k e o t h e r d u r a b l e goods, t h e p u r c h a s e o f a house r e p r e s e n t t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e f i n a n c i a l commitment a f a m i l y i s l i k e l y t o make i n i t s l i f e - c y c l e , and has i m p o r t a n t economic and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The s e a r c h p r o c e s s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e the form of a more s y s t e m a t i c (though not n e c e s s a r i 1 y " r a t i o n a l " ) p r o c e s s o f m a t c h i n g h o u s i n g a t t r i b u t e s t o a more or l e s s w e l l - d e f i n e d i d e a l house which t h e p r o s p e c t i v e buyer has i n mind. The p r o c e s s o f s e e k i n g out the d e s i r e d house may be a l o n g drawn out one, compared t o t h e p u r c h a s e o f o t h e r d u r a b l e goods. F a m i l i e s spend an a v e r a g e of t e n months a c t i v e l y shopping f o r a home or over a year j u s t l o o k i n g 2W. A. Mindak " F i t t i n g t h e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l t o the M a r k e t i n g Problem". Journa 1 o f M a r k e t i n g . V o l . XXV (Apr. 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 2 8 - 3 3 . 3R. F. K e l l y and R. Stephenson "The Semantic D i f f e r e n -t i a l . An I n f o r m a t i o n Source f o r D e s i g n i n g R e t a i l Patronage A p p e a l s " . J o u r n a l of M a r k e t i n g . V o l . XXXI ( O c t . 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. i+3-^7. 14 a r o u n d f o r h o u s e s . * * Over s u c h a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e a n d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e a r c h , a t t i t u d e s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s d o c h a n g e . T h i s r e n d e r s t h e s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r more d i f f i c u l t , a n d may h a v e l i m i t e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e t e c h n i q u e s , many y e t t o be r e f i n e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y and i n a p p l i c a t i o n , i n h o u s i n g r e s e a r c h . Of g r e a t e r r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s s t u d y , u n l i k e t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r c o n s u m e r g o o d s , s e a r c h i n g f o r and b u y i n g a h o u s e i s l a r g e l y v i s u a l ( t h a t i s , t h e s t i m u l i a r e l a r g e l y v i s u a l ) . The d e c i s i o n i s a l m o s t a l w a y s a p p r o a c h e d g r a d u a l l y ( u n l e s s t i m e i s a c r i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t e . g . i m p o s e d by n o t i c e o f e v i c t i o n f r o m p r e s e n t p r e m i s e s ) , and i s u s u a l l y p r e c e d e d by a l e n g t h y p e r i o d o f " w i n d o w s h o p p i n g " . Many f a m i l i e s u s u a l l y l o o k f o r homes l o n g b e f o r e t h e y s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r b u y i n g o n e , a n d spend t h e i r w e e k e n d s ( f o r a s l o n g a p e r i o d a s one y e a r ) " w i n d o w - s h o p p i n g " and l o o k i n g f o r homes .5 The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e v i s u a l s t i m u l i i n t h e s e a r c h p r o c e s s i s more a p p a r e n t f r o m F i g u r e 1 ( s e e page 7 ) ' A l l t h e s t a g e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s some f o r m o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n . No one b u y s a h o u s e w i t h o u t s e e i n g and e x a m i n i n g t h e h o u s e - i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , i n t e r i o r d e s i g n , and l o c a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n ^ F i n d i n g s o f t h e R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n o f C h i c a g o T r i b u n e What Makes t h e Home B u y e r T i c k a s r e v i e w e d by D. L . L i o n e l , "Home B u y e r s ' S t u d y o f f e r A d . C l u e s " . E d i t o r & P u b l i s h e r V o l . XCV ( A p r . 2 1 , 1962) p. 4 0 . S i m i l a r f i n d i ngs a r e r e p o r t e d by o t h e r S u r v e y s ( e . g . K e l l e y ' s ) . 5D. L . L i o n e l , op c i t . , p . 4 0 . t o t h e s t a g e s o f c r e a t i n g awareness and i n t e r e s t i s borne out by r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . Owens-Corning F i b e r g l a s s C o r p o r a t i o n i n t h e i r s u r v e y r e p o r t e d t h a t 35% o f t h e sample l e a r n e d about t h e i r house t h r o u g h d r i v i n g around and a c t u a l l y coming a c r o s s t h e h o u s e . K e l l e y r e p o r t e d t h a t 30% o f h i s sample l o c a t e d t h e i r house t h r o u g h coming a c r o s s t h e house and from s i g n s on t h e p r o p e r t y . 7 The Home F u r n i s h i n g s M a r k e t i n g and Re s e a r c h C o u n c i l , I n c . The Homemaker and Home F u r n i shi ngs has p o i n t e d out t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v i s u a l , and p i c t o r i a l a d v e r t i s i n g i n th e p r o c e s s o f home and home f u r n i s h i n g s p u r c h a s i n g . The e v a l u a t i o n and mental t r i a l s t a g e s of t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s do not o c c u r i n t h e a b s t r a c t . One cannot c o n s i d e r a house as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e u n l e s s one has seen t h e house e i t h e r i n a p i c t u r e or on the a c t u a l s i t e . Mental t r i a l i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e u n l e s s one has examined and i n s p e c t e d a house, o t h e r w i s e t h e r e w i l l be no i n t r i n s i c b a s i s f o r t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s t o work upon. The v i s u a l i m a g e r i e s and a p p e a l s , emanating from p i c t o r i a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o r v i s i o n s of a c t u a l houses, a r e more b a s i c and d i r e c t i n communicating t o p r o s -p e c t i v e home p u r c h a s e r s than any v e r b a l a b s t r a c t i o n . Only t h e s e i m a g e r i e s and v i s u a l i z a t i o n s can i n d u c e t h e i n t e n d i n g p u r c h a s e r t o p r o j e c t h i m s e l f i n the p a r t i c u l a r house - i n ^Owens-Corni ng F i b e r g l a s s C o r p o r a t i o n , Report on Home Buyer's P r e f e r e n c e s ( T o l e d o , Ohio. 1967)-7w. T. K e l l e y , "How Buyers Shop For A New House". A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l V o l . XXV (Apr. 1957) p. 210. ^ P r e p a r e d by t h e S o c i a l Research, I nc. Chicago, I l l i n o i s . I967. s h o r t e n g a g i n g i n mental t r i a l . C o n s e q u e n t l y an o v e r t d e c i s i o n t o p u r c h a s e can o n l y p r e c i p i t a t e from a d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s t h a t i s l a r gel y v i sua 1 i n c h a r a c t e r . R e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s t o buy a house i s the c o n c e p t o f a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e . Each i n d i v i d u a l , t h r o u g h h i s c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e , has a c q u i r e d c e r t a i n a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and v a l u e s . The pu r c h a s e of a house w i l l i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o s e a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s . The q u e s t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 s t y l e , l a n d s c a p i ng, view, s u r r o u n d i n g s , and l o c a t i o n w i l l be o f v a r y i n g s i g n i f i -cance t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ; and the home p u r c h a s e r w i l l look f o r an a e s t h e t i c frame t h a t i s c o n d u c i v e t o h i s p e r c e p t i o n and way of l i f e . Only t h o s e h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t a r e c o m p a t i b l e or t h a t may be a l t e r e d so they a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s a e s t h e -t i c t a s t e s w i l l be l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e s f o r p u r c h a s e . The d e s i r e f o r the pr o p e r a e s t h e t i c s e t u p r e i n f o r c e s t h e need f o r v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e house. T h i s i s so because t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f t h e house can o n l y be judged through t h e v i s u a l p r o c e s s . The l a t t e r e n s u r e s t h e former i s a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s . Hence i n the home purchase d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , the v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n w i l l e n s u r e t h a t t h e a e s t h e t i c frame o f t h e house - i t s s t y l e , l a n d s c a p e , and view -i s not a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the p u r c h a s e r ' s r e a l m o f a e s t h e t i c s , or at l e a s t t h e elem e n t s o f u n a c c e p t a b l e a e s t h e t i c s i s at a minimum. Only when t h i s i s s a t i s f i e d can the o v e r t a c t i o n of p urchase be a f f e c t e d . However i t must be noted t h a t not everyone may f i n d t h e a e s t h e t i c s an imp o r t a n t c h o i c e c r i t e r i o n . But t h i s does not mean t h a t p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e house i n q u e s t i o n w i l l not be c a r r i e d out i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . In l i g h t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n above, i t would appear t h a t any study o f the home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , and t h e a t t i t u d e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and a s p i r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d w i t h i t shouId r e f l e c t t h e e s s e n t i a l l y v i sua 1 s t i m u l i i n t h e p r o c e s s . However no a t t i tude i nstrument t h a t p r o v i d e s such a v i sua 1 dimensi on i s a v a i l a b l e . A l 1 e x i s t i ng a t t i t ude sea 1i ng d e v i c e s a r e based on v e r b a 1 c l u e s . A l t h o u g h they have t h e i r own a r e a s of a p p l i c a t i on, they cannot r e f 1 e c t t h e vi sua 1 n a t u r e o f t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i on p r o c e s s . The e x i s t i ng paper-and-penci 1 a t t i tude t e c h n i ques ca nnot a c c u r a t e l y c a p t u r e the t rue c h a r a c -t e r o f t h e p r o c e s s t o buy a house which i s so e s s e n t i a l l y and g r a t i f y i ng v i sua 1 i n i t s impact. Consequent1y none o f the housi ng s u r v e y s u n d e r t a k e n so f a r have u t i l i z e d such an i nstrument. T h i s study i s aimed at t h i s gap and a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i de a v i sua 1 dimensi on t o a t t i t ude measurement. The f i e l d i nstrument i s c o n c e i ved t o p r o v i d e some form of a v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n i n the study of a t t i t u d es and d e c i s i on making p r o c e s s i n the proposed Home Pu r c h a s e Survey. I t wi11 be some k i n d of an a t t i tude sea 1e w i t h s t i m u l i r e p r e s e n t e d i n a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n , and wi11 t a k e t h e form of a number of house photographs. I t wi11 be c o n s t r u c t e d - on some b a s i s t o permi t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by r e s p o n d e n t s . The b a s i s p o s t u l a t e d i s a s o c i a l c l a s s continuum of house o c c u p a n t s t h a t w i l l e n a b l e r e s p o n d e n t s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between houses. Such a b a s i s w i l l have t o assume t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s c an d i s c r i m i n a t e between house photographs based on p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l c l a s s o f occupant f a m i l i e s i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner. C o n s t r u c t e d i n t h i s way, the proposed a t t i t u d e d e v i c e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , may be u s e f u l t o d e t e r m i n e a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and t a s t e s and p o s s i b l y o t h e r h o u s i n g v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s of consumers i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s , and how they a f f e c t the home purchase d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . From t h e s e i t may be p o s s i b l e t o break down consumers i n t o market subgroups based on i d e n t i f i a b l e p r e f e r e n c e s and t a s t e s , a e s t h e t i c or otherwi se. The p r e l i m i nary n a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d i nstrument i s s t r e s s e d , and may w e l l r e p r e s e n t t h e f i r s t o f severa1 e x p e r i m e n t a l i nstruments a lon g t h i s 1i ne. I NADEQUACIES OF EXISTING ATTITUDE TECHNIQUES As Appendix A shows, r e s e a r c h e r s have not p r e v i o u s l y u t i 1 i zed the form o f v i sua 1 a t t i t ude devi ce proposed above. The C o r n e l 1 study d i d d e v e l o p d e s i gns i n the form o f f o u r p l a n s f o r each o f t h e f o u r v a l u e groups i n housi ng (economy, p e r s o n a l , fami1y, and p r e s t i g e ) . The v a l u e or market groups were d e v e l o p e d by s e a l i ng a t t i t u d es r e l a t e d t o housi ng by t h e sealogram t e c h n i que. However no v i sua 1 s e a l e s or pi c t u r e probes were used t o di s t i ngui sh t h e va1ue groups, though t h e f o u r d e s i gns can now be used a s v i sua 1 probes f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The Home F u r n i s h i ngs M a r k e t i ng and Research C o u n c i 1 , Inc. The Homemaker and Home F u r n i s h i ngs made use o f some p i c t u r e s and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t o t a p i d e a s about t h e s t y l e s of home f u r n i s h i n g s . Respondents were asked how they f e l t 19 about t h e v a r i o u s p i c t u r e s shown. The p i c t u r e s were m a i n l y used t o d e t e r m i n e how r e s p o n d e n t s r e a c t t o v a r i o u s t y p e s and forms o f a d v e r t i s i n g . B e s i d e s t h e s e , o t h e r s t u d i e s a r e l a c k i n g i n the p o s t u l a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s . Concomitant w i t h t h i s l a c k o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c a l e s w i t h v i sua 1 s t i m u 1 i i s t h e absence of such an i nstrument from t h e i n v e n t o r y o f a t t i t u d e s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A l l t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a r e v e r b a l i n n a t u r e and r e q u i r e the respondent t o v i s u a l i z e t h e s t i m u l i and c o n c e p t s h i m s e l f . Hi s v i s u a l i z a t i on may not n e c e s s a r i 1 y c o i nei de p e r f e c t 1y wi t h t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t a r e t o be s c a l e d . Convent i ona1 a t t i tude measurement c o n s i s t s o f t h e assessment o f an i ndi v i d u a 1 ' s r e s p o n s e s t o a (>redetermi ned set o f v e r b a 1 p r o p o s i t i ons or s t a t e m e n t s about t h e a t t i tude i n q u e s t i o n . Such a t t i t u d e s c a l e s can be d e v e l o p e d through t h e use o f j u d g i ng groups t o a t t a c h s e a l e v a l u e t o s t a t e m e n t s ( e . g . T h u r s t o n e ' s ) , or based on d i r e c t r e s p o n s e s o f agreement or d i s a g r e e m e n t ( g r a d u a t e d a l o n g a s c a l e ) t o s t a t e m e n t s t h a t have no p r i or s c a l e v a l u e ( e . g . Sealogram a n a l y s i s ) . E i t h e r methods r e q u i r e r e s p o n d e n t s (or s u b j e c t s ) t o respond t o a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s a l o n g a f a v o u r a b l e / u n f a v o u r a b l e , a g r e e / d i s a g r e e , or o t h e r continuum i n o r d e r t o be s c a l e d . Based on t h e s e r e s p o n s e s the respondent i s a s s i gned a numeri ca1 p o s i t i o n a l o n g the s c a l e t h a t extends from one extreme o f a p p r o v a l ( a c c e p t a n c e ) t o t h e o t h e r extreme o f d i s a p p r o v a l (or r e j e c t i o n ) . The p a t t e r n and summation of t h e s e r e s p o n s e s 2 0 w i l l p r o v i d e a q u a n t i t a t i v e i n d e x a n d s o m e i n f e r e n c e a b o u t t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s i n q u e s t i o n . T h e T h u r s t o n e t e c h n i q u e , L i k e r t s u m m a t e d s c a l e s , a n d S c a l o g r a m a n a l y s i s a r e w i d e l y u s e d t o o l s t o m e a s u r e a n d s c a l e a t t i t u d e s . T h e s e t e c h n i q u e s - l i k e o t h e r s c a l i n g d e v i c e s - a r e d e f i c i e n t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f a t t i t u d e a n d c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s w h o s e s t i m u l i t a k e s o n p r e d o m i n a n t l y v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i n t h a t t h e y l a c k v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e T h u r s t o n e t e c h n i q u e , ^ o f w h i c h t h e m e t h o d o f e q u a l a p p e a r i n g i n t e r v a l i s t h e m o s t p o p u l a r , r e q u i r e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o i n d i c a t e h i s a g r e e m e n t t o a s e r i e s o f s t a t e m e n t s ( u s u a l l y 2 0 t o 2 2 ) p e r -t a i n i n g t o t h e a t t i t u d e i n q u e s t i o n . T h e s e s t a t e m e n t s h a v e p r i o r s c a l e v a l u e s , a n d a r e s e l e c t e d b y a j u d g e m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e t h a t s o r t s a n d n u m b e r s a l a r g e n u m b e r o f n o n m o n o t o n e i t e m s o r s t a t e m e n t s i n 11 c a t e g o r i e s ( n u m b e r e d f r o m 1 t o 1 1 ) a l o n g a n e q u a l l y s p a c e d c o n t i n u u m o f f a v o u r a b l e n e s s . T h e m e d i a n v a l u e o f a l l t h e n u m b e r s g i v e n t o e a c h i t e m b y t h e j u d g e s r e p r e s e n t t h e s e a l e v a l u e o f t h a t i t e m . A b o u t 22 i te rns w i t h t h e l e a s t i n t e r j u d g e v a n " a b i 1 i t y ( u s i n g t h e i n t e r q u a r t i 1 e r a n g e ) o f s o r t i n g a r e s e l e c t e d t o f o r m t h e s c a l e . T h e sum o f t h e s c a l e v a l u e s o f s t a t e m e n t s e n d o r s e d b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t b e c o m e s h i s a t t i t u d e s c a l e . T h i s s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e t h e r e f o r e c l e a r l y d o e s n o t p r o v i d e a n y v i s u a 1 d i m e n s i o n t o a t t i t u d e s t i m u 1 i . 9see L . L . T h u r s t o n e " T h e o r y o f A t t i t u d e M e a s u r e m e n t " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u i l e t i n V o l . X X X V I ( 1 9 2 9 ) P P - 2 2 2 - 2 4 1 o r A . L . E d w a r d s T e c h n i q u e s o f ~ A t t i t u d e S c a l e C o n s t r u c t i o n (New Y o r k . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s 1957T~f°i" m o r e d e t a i l t r e a t m e n t . 21 The Lik e r t summated technique* 0 suffers from the same defi c i e n c y , but i s a d i f f e r e n t scale. The f i n a l scale c o n s i s t s of a number of monotone items ( i . e . items having the character-i s t i c that the more favourable the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward the a t t i t u d e object, the higher h i s expected score for the item) selected through item analysis and i s administered to a sample which i n d i c a t e t h e i r reactions by means of a 5-category r a t i n g system of strongly approve, approve, undecided, disapprove, and strongly disapprove. Categories are scored by assigning values of 5, h, 3, 2, and 1 i n such a way that the most favourable a t t i t u d e always has the highest weight. The sum of a l 1 item scores i ndi cate the respondent•s a t t i tude. Both the Thurstone and the summated techniques suffer from other disadvantages which prejudice t h e i r use i n the home purchase survey. Both techniques produce a t t i t u d e measures that are highly synthesized - each gives a single composite i ndex of an a t t i tude concept. They lack the f l e x i b i 1 i t y requi red to study di fferent aspect or v a r i a b l e of an a t t i tude concept (e.g. lo c a t i o n , vi ew, s t y l e and i nteri or desi gn i n a t t i tudes toward a house). Separate Thurstone or Lik e r t scale instruments can be developed to study a t t i t u d e s toward d i f f e r -ent and s p e c i f i c aspects of the housing problem. But when more than a few vari a b l e s are chosen for study, the use of the 1 0See P. L i k e r t "A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes" Archives of Psychology Vol. XXIII (1932) pp. 1-55 or A. L. Edwards, op. c i t . for d e t a i l s . 22 i n s t r u m e n t s become un w i e l d y . * * A l s o the e l a b o r a t e n a t u r e and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e s c a l e s a r e major d i s a d v a n t a g e s . The S c a l o g r a m s c a l e * 2 i s made up o f a s e r i e s o f items w i t h which t h e respondent i n d i c a t e s agreement or d i s a g r e e m e n t . The i t e m s a r e so r e l a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l who responds posi t i v e l y t o any p a r t i c u l a r i t e m a l s o responds p o s i t i v e l y t o a l l o t h e r i t e m s h a v i n g a lower rank. The r e s p o n d e n t ' s s c o r e w i l l be t h e number o f items he e n d o r s e s f a v o u r a b l y . A number of t e c h n i q u e s ( e . g . C o r n e l l , Scalogram board t e c h n i q u e s ) can be used t o e v a l u a t e d t h e s e s c o r e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r s c a l a b i l -i t y . L i k e o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , t h e s c a l e i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t e d as a b s t r a c t s t i m u l i . F u r t h e r t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s l i m i t e d by a number o f u n r e s o l v e d t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . A l s o i t e m s s c a l a b l e by one sample may not be s c a l a b l e by another.13 Of g r e a t promise, but a l s o d e f i c i e n t i n the v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n i s t h e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l . * ^ O r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d l l R . F. K e l l y and R. Stephenson, op. c i t . * 2 S e e S. A. S t o u f f e r e t . a l . Measurement and P r e d i c t i o n Volume IV ( P r i n c e t o n . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1950). *3A. Ana s t a s i P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g (New York, M a c m i l l a n Co. i960) p. 589, and M. E. Shaw S e a l e s f o r Measurement of A t t i t u d e (New York. M c G r a w - H i l l . I967) p. 25. I^See C. E. Osgood, G. J . S u c i , and P. H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement o f Meani ng (Urbana. U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s Press"] 1957) o r " T . E. Osgood "The Nature and Measurement of Meaning". P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n V o l . XLIX (May 1952) pp. 197-237. t o measure the meaning o f c o n c e p t s , i t i s now w i d e l y used i n a t t i t u d e measurement t o probe both the i n t e n s i t y and content o f r e s p o n d e n t ' s a t t i t u d e s . The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n s i s t s o f p a i r s o f p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s w i t h a s e v e n - i n t e r v a l s c a l e s e p a r a t i n g the o p p o s i t e members of each p a i r . The p o s i t i o n s of the s c a l e a r e d e s c r i b e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g " e x t r e m e l y " , " q u i t e " , " s l i g h t1y " , " n e i ther one or the o t h e r " , " s l i g h t l y " , " q u i t e " , and " e x t r e m e l y " f rom one end of the s e a l e c o n t i nuum t o a n o t h e r , usua11y on an equal i n t e r v a1 b a s i s . The respondent i s t o judge the concept and s e l e c t the poi nt on the i n t e r v a1 s e a l e t h a t best r e p r e s e n t s h i s a t t i tude towards i t . F i gure 2 i 1 l u s t r a t e s t h e form of the semant ic d i f f e r e n t i a 1. The b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s s e l e c t e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n the semant ic d i f f e r e n t i a l should be r e l e v a n t t o the a t t i tude or dec i s i on p r o c e s s under s t u d y . These s e a l e s can be d e r i ved through p r e l i m i nary f i e l d work ( e . g . f rom content a n a l y s i s of depth i n t e r v i ews tha t f o c u s on the a t t i tudes under c o n s i d e r a -t i on) or o ther r e l e v a n t p r o c e d u r e s . Osgood and hi s a s s o c i a t e s , u s i ng f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c procedures have e s t a b1 i shed t h r e e genera 1 d i m e n s i o n s of a t t i tude measured by the semant ic d i f f e r e n t i a 1 -an e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r , a potency f a c t o r , and an a c t i v i t y f a c t o r .*5 Consequent ly i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t r e l e v a n t s c a l e s t o measure d i f f e r e n t a t t i tude d imens i ons d e s i red by v a r y i ng the f a c t o r l o a d i ng of t h e d i f f e r e n t d imensi ons . 15jhe e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r c o r r e s p o n d s t o a t t i t u d e s t h a t concern e v a l u a t i o n of o b j e c t s b e i n g r a t e d ( e . g . f a v o u r a b l e -u n f a v o u r a b l e ) ; potency f a c t o r t o those of power ( e . g . s t r o n g -w e a k ) ; and a c t i v i t y f a c t o r t o the l e v e l s of a c t i v i t y ( e . g . a c t i v e - p a s s i v e ) . These t h r e e f a c t o r s account f o r most d i m e n s i o n s of a t t i t u d e . FIGURE 2 1 1 l u s t r a t i ons Of Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S e a l e s A r c h i t e c t u r a l S t y l e Nei t h e r One Nor Extremely Q u i t e S l i g h t l y the Other S1i ght1y Q u i t e E x t r e m e l y TRADITIONAL : : : : : : CONTEMPORARY UBIQUITOUS : : : : :__ UNIQUE SIMPLE : : : : : : ELABORATE The s c a l e s need not be s i m p l e a d j e c t i v e w o r d s . D e s c r i p -t i v e p h r a s e s c a n be u s e d , a n d s e n s i t i v i t y may be e n h a n c e d by t h i s p r o c e s s . ^ The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l c a n be s c o r e d by a s s i g n i n g w e i g h t s t o e a c h p o s i t i o n , and t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s c a l e c a n be summated t o y i e l d s c o r e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e s e s c o r e s c a n be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t o t a l i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p mean s c o r e s w i t h a s s o c i a t e d d i s p e r s i ous a b o u t t h e m e a n s . P r o f i l e s may be c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m t h e s e s c o r e s . The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l h a s e n j o y e d a p o p u l a r i t y u n m a t c h e d by o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s . I t i s b e i n g u s e d t o compare c o r p o r a t e i m a g e s ( a c t u a l and i d e a l ) , b r a n d s and s e r v i c e s o f c o m p e t i n g s u p p l i e r s , *7 and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a t t i t u d i na1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c u s t o m e r s and consumer p a t r o n a g e d e c i s i o n s . ^ The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a d v e r t i s i n g and o t h e r p r o m o t i o n a l s t i m u l i on a t t i t u d e c h a n g e has b e e n a n a l y z e d by u s i n g t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l . ^ i t s c o m p a r a t i v e l y w i d e s p r e a d u s e i s due t o i t s f l e x i b i l i t y a n d e a s e i n a p p l i -c a t i o n . The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l c a n be d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e many d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a v a r i a b l e a t t i t u d e u n d e r i n v e s t i g a -t i o n . U n l i k e t h e T h u r s t o n e and L i k e r t t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h p r o v i d e 1 6 W . A . M i n d a k , o p . c i t . , p. 28. * 7 i b i d . , and A. J . S p e c t o r , " B a s i c D i m e n s i o n s o f t h e C o r p o r a t e I m a g e " . J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XXV ( O c t . 1961) p p . 4 7 - 5 1 . 1 8 R . F . K e l l y and R. S t e p h e n s o n , o p . c i t . *9w. A . M i n d a k , "A New T e c h n i q u e f o r M e a s u r i n g A d v e r t i s -i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s " . J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XX ( A p r . 1956) p p . 367-378. o n l y s y n t h e s i z e d i n d i c e s o f a t t i t u d e s , the semantic d i f f e r e n -t i a l can e x p l o r e t h e d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s o f any a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e ( e . g . numerous a s p e c t s o f home p u r c h a s i n g ) . I t can be e a s i l y r e p e a t e d over time t o d e t e c t t r e n d s i n consumer r e a c t i o n s , and t o measure i n t e r a c t i o n between a d v e r t i s i n g and consumer a t t i t u d e s . Above a l l the i n s t r u m e n t i s - r e l a t i v e l y easy t o c o n s t r u c t and admi ni s t e r , and yet i t i s usua 11 y r e l i a b l e . The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l has many p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a -t i o n s i n the home purchase s u r v e y s p e l l e d out e a r l i e r . I t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g t h e home purc h a s e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s and t o s c a l e v a r i o u s s e t s of a t t i t u d e towards a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , l o c a t i o n , r e a l t o r s and o t h e r f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d wi th t he d e c i s i on t o purcha se a house. However, by i t s e l f , i t o n l y p r o v i d e s a means t o s c a l i n g r e s p o n s e s t o s t i m u l i t h a t a r e a b s t r a c t and v e r b a l i n n a t u r e . L i ke o t h e r t e c h n i ques, i t negl ect s t h e v i sua 1 dimensi on i n the home purchase d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s which i s p o s t u l a t e d t o be v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . There i s t h e r e f o r e the need t o p r o v i d e such a d i m e n s i o n i n a t t i t u d e measurement i n home purchase d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e r e i s an attempt i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The proposed f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i n c o n j u n c t i on wi t h o t h e r i n struments, p a r t i cu1 a r 1 y t h e semanti c d i f f e r e n t i a l can hope t o p r o v i d e a more u s e f u l and f r u i t f u l means o f s t u d y i n g a t t i t u d e s and f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n t o p u r c h a s e homes. A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g the need f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t the next s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e n a t u r e and b a s i s o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . 2 6 NATURE OF THE FIELD INSTRUMENT General Requi rements of A t t i tude S e a l e s The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be d e v e l o p e d t o p r o v i d e a v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n t o some form o f an a t t i t u d e s c a l e . The s t i m u l u s o f t h e s c a l e w i l l assume a v i s u a l , r a t h e r than v e r b a l , d i m e n s i o n . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w i l l t h e r e f o r e t a k e the form of a v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e . B e f o r e s e t t i n g out t h e n a t u r e of t h e i n s t r u m e n t , i t w i l l be f r u i t f u l t o be aware of the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a t t i t u d e s c a l e s i n g e n e r a l . A t t i t u d e s c a l i n g ( c o n v e n t i o n a l ) r e q u i r e s t h a t r e s p o n -d e n t s r e a c t w i t h e x p r e s s i o n s o f a p p r o v a l or d i s a p p r o v a l , agreement or d i sagreement, or otherwi se t o a set of c a r e f u 1 1 y d e t e r m i n e d items or p r o p o s i t i o n s . The p a t t e r n and summation o f r e a c t i o n s t o the set of items w i l l p r o v i d e a way o f i n f e r r i n g the r e s p o n d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t , and w i l l p e r mit t h e respondent t o be a s s i g n e d a p o s i t i o n a l o n g some q u a n t i t a t i v e s c a l e . From t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i t i s apparent t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e s c a l e d a g a i n s t some k i n d o f continuum. The continuum may be one t h a t r anges from a p p r o v a l t o d i s a p p r o v a l or agreement t o d i s a g r e e m e n t . Or i t can be any o t h e r b a s i s l i k e s o c i a l c l a s s and h o u s i n g adequacy, but i t s n a t u r e must be r e f l e c t e d i n and i n f e r r e d from the c h a r a c t e r o f the items s e l e c t e d t o make up the s c a l e . These i t e m s must r e l a t e t o the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s or c o n c e p t s which t h e s c a l e p u r p o r t s t o measure. I t i s the resp o n s e t o items a l o n g a l i n e a r continuum t h a t p e r m i t s a t t i t u d e s towards o b j e c t s t o be s c a l e d . S c a l e s , 27 by definition, w i l l also require some form of scale intervals, categories, or points whereby numerical values may be attached, and consequently used to denote the quantitative scale value of the respondent. Finally attitude scales should be uni-dimensional ( i . e . , measure one attitude variable), so that v a r i a b i l i t y introduced by other irrelevant attitudes, not meant to be scaled, can be excluded. These are the general structura1 requi rement s of attitude scale construction. Different scale types wil l necessari1y di ffer in structure. The f i e l d i nstrument as an a t t i tude sea 1e wi11 have to meet these requi rements, and wi11 be di scussed be 1ow. Also to be usefu1, a seale, at the mi ni mum, must be va l i d (measure what i t purports to measure) and r e l i a b l e (yield consi stent r e s u l t s ) . 2 0 Only the structura1 nature of the f i e l d instrument w i l l be covered here - the questi ons of va1i di ty and r e l i a b i l i t y w i l l be deferred to Chapter IV. Nature of the Field Instrument The proposed f i eld i nstrument wi11 attempt to provi de, as stated, a visual dimension to an attitude scale. The vi sua 1 dimensi on wi11 necessari ly take the form of pictures (photographs or otherwi se) to represent the stimuli of atti tude objects to be measured. Mention of pictures in attitude research w i l l immediately bring to mind the Thematic 2 0 L . W. Furguson "The Requirements of an Adequate Attitude Scale" Psychological Bulletin Vol. XXXVI (1939) pp. 655-670 and M. E. Shaw, op. c i t . , pp. 16-20. 28 A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t (or TAT), a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t may assume t h e f o r m of t h e TAT but o n l y i n so f a r t h a t p i c t u r e s or p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e u t i l i z e d t o p r o v i d e v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s t i m u l i . Beyond t h i s t h e f i e l d i nstrument t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t form and, e s s e n t i a l l y , a p p r o a c h e s the n a t u r e of an a t t i t u d e s c a l e . U n l i k e t h e TAT, i t w i l l have a w e l l - d e f i n e d and e x p l i c i t continuum as i t s b a s i s . A g a i n l i k e a s e a l e , the i nstrument wi11 p o s s e s s some form o f i n t e r v a 1 or s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s . The number of t h e s e i n t e r v a l s can be changed by v a r y i n g t h e number o f p i c t u r e s t o denote each s e a l e i n t e r v a l . The i nstrument may d i f f e r i n i t s app1i c a t i o n . Though i t may employ the u n s t r u c t u r e d and f r e e r e s p o n s e ( i n t h e form o f s t o r y b u i 1 d i ng from t h e p i c t u r e s ) of the TAT, o t h e r more f r u i t f u l means o f a p p l i c a t i o n a r e env i saged. ( T h i s wi11 be d e a I t wi t h i n C h apter IV.) As t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t approaches t h e n a t u r e of an a t t i t ude sea 1e, i t may be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a l l i t as an a t t i tude s e a l e wi t h stimu1i i n t h e v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n - or f o r conveni ence, a v i sua 1 a t t i tude sea 1e. The v i sua 1 a t t i tude sea l e i s e n v i s a g e d t o c o n s i st of t h r e e photographs of houses graduated a l o n g a s o c i a l c l a s s c o n t i nuum. The v i su a l dimensi on t o t h e f i e l d i nstrument wi11 be p r o v i ded by t h e s e t h r e e photographs of houses. The houses of the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n t h e photographs w i l l s e r v e as the v i sua 1 stimu1i e n v i s a g e d i n the a t t i t u d e s c a l e . I t wi11 be a g a i n s t t h e p a t t e r n s o f a e s t h e t i c s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , or o t h e r f e a t u r e s i n the house photographs t h a t r e s p o n s e s o f r e s p o n d e n t s w i l l be measured. The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i n the form o f t h e t h r e e photo-graphs can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n wi t h o t h e r t e c h n i ques t o h e l p r e v e a l a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s i n the home pur c h a s e s u r v e y . I t can be a p p l i e d i n s e v e r a 1 ways. U n s t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e s ( s i m i l a r t o t h e TAT) t o t h e house photographs may be used. S t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e s t o both open and c1osed ques-t i ons about the photographs can be a p p l i ed. Or the f i e l d i nstrument may be f r u i tfu11y used wi t h t h e semanti c d i f f e r e n -t i a 1 t o sea 1e a t t i tudes toward t h e housi ng q u e s t i on. E x p l o r a -t i ons i n t o some of t h e s e p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i ons wi11 be di s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. The photographs of the i n s t r u m e n t wi11 t a k e t h e forms o f the e x t e r i o r s t y l e s and d e s i gn of houses. The garden, house compound and s u r r o u n d i ngs o f the house wi11 be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s seem 1ogica1 as t h e house, i t s s t y l e , l a n d s c a p i n g s , and nei ghborhood wi11 be the f o c i o f t h e ho u s i ng s t u d y . A l s o t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e most a n a l o g o u s t o r e a l i t y . The t h r e e house photographs wi11 r e p r e s e n t t h r e e l e v e l s o f t h e s o c i a 1 c l a ss c o n t i nuum. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e use o f a s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum f o r sea 1i ng housi ng a t t i t u d e s wi11 be di s cussed i n the next s e c t i on, but t h e imp o r t a n c e of t h i s c o n t i nuum can be r e c o g n i zed h e r e . I t i s on the b a s i s of t h i s c o n t i nuum t h a t t h e t h r e e photographs can be de v e l o p e d - one t o r e p r e s e n t each 1evel o f s o c i a l c l a s s . The t h r e e l e v e l s a r e " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and "upper". The development of the t h r e e house photographs r e s t on the assumption tha t p e o p l e can and 30 do c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e between house photographs on t h e b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l c l a s s e s of occupant f a m i l i e s . G i v e n an a t t i t u d e continuum o f s o c i a l c l a s s , r e s p o n d e n t s can d i s c r i m i n a t e between d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s (or houses) and s c a l e them. In t h i s way the t h r e e photographs can be d e v e l o p e d from a h o s t o f d i f f e r e n t photographs by o b t a i n i n g r a t i ngs f o r them i n a f i e l d s u r v e y . The photograph t h a t i s most f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h each of t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The a c t u a l development o f t h e t h r e e photographs and t h e t e s t i n g of the assumption w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n Chapter I I I . As t h e t h r e e house photographs wi 11 suggest, t h e v i s u a l a t t i tude s e a l e wi11 have t h r e e s c a l e c a t e g o r i es. One photo-graph wi11 r e p r e s e n t each o f t h e c a t e g o r i es of 1ower, mi d d l e , and upper i n t h e s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum. Th r e e l e v e l s of the s e a l e i s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t he f i e l d i nstrument. More than t h i s number of photographs w i l l render the development of the v i s u a l sea 1e d i f f i c u l t . A l a r g e r number of s c a l e c a t e g o r i es wi 11 n e c e s s i t a t e a l a r g e r " u n i v e r s e " of photographs f o r r e s p o n d e n t s i n the t e s t samp 1e t o r a t e . Rat i ng t o o many photographs ( e . g . hO t o 5 0 ) w i l l be a t e d i o u s p r o c e s s , and r e s p o n d e n t s may then be tempted t o s o r t them i n a random f a s h i o n and t h e r e f o r e i n t r o d u c e abnorma1i t i es i n the r a t i n g s . A l s o the t h r e e photographs a r e c o n c e i v e d t o be i n t h r e e c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e c l a s s e s . H a v ing four or more c a t e g o r i e s w i l l i n t r o d u c e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g and l a b e l l i n g the 31 r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e s o c i a l c l a s s s c a l e ; and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c w o u l d f i n d s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n s d i f f i c u l t t o make . P e o p l e t e n d t o t h i n k i n t e r m s o f t h r e e e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s p o i n t assumes i m p o r t a n c e when t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , w h i c h r e q u i r e s r e s p o n d e n t s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s b a s e d on p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l c l a s s e s o f o c c u p a n t f a m i l i e s , i s c o n s i d e r e d . I t w o u l d not be e a s y f o r r e s p o n d e n t s t o d i s t i n g u i s h f o u r o r more c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i a l c l a s s and r a t e t h e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s a c c o r d i n g l y . H e n c e t h e u s e o f t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t a u s e f u l b a s i s t o b u i l d t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t wi t h i t s v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n may r e f l e c t a n d m e a s u r e more a d e q u a t e l y t h e v i s u a l s t i m u l i i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s t o buy a h o u s e . However a t t h i s p o i nt any c l a i m t h a t t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e s c a l e d o e s s a t i s f y t h e e s t a b l i s h e d n e e d f o r a n a t t i t u d e i n s t r u m e n t t h a t s c a l e v i s u a l s t i m u 1 i c a n n o t be made. E v e n i f t h e i n s t r u m e n t d o e s meet t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , o n l y f i e l d t e s t and v a 1 i d a t i on (wh i c h a s s t a t e d e a r 1i e r i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y ) c a n r e a l l y t e s t i f y t o any s u c h c l a i m s . SOCIAL CLASS AS THE ATTITUDE CONTINUUM A t t i t u d e s c a l i n g m e t h o d s p r e s u p p o s e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an u n d e r l y i ng 1 i n e a r and u n i d i m e n s i o n a 1 c o n t i n u u m . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t a s a v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e h a s been p o s t u l a t e d t o h a v e a s o c i a l c l a s s c o n t i n u u m . Any c o n c e p t t h a t i s t o c o n s t i t u t e a c o n t i n u u m f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t must be c a p a b l e o f s e r v i n g a s a b a s i s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r i n t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . T h i s s e c t i o n s e e k s t o e x p l a i n t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e c h o i c e o f s o c i a l c l a s s a s t h e c o n t i n u u m . B e f o r e t h e r a t i o n a l e o f s o c i a l c l a s s a s a c o n t i n u u m i s c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s u s e f u 1 t o e x a m i n e t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s i t s e l f . S o c i e t y i s n e c e s s a r i l y s t r a t i f i e d ; i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s o c c u p y and a r e p e r c e i v e d t o o c c u p y h i gher o r lower r a n k s o f s t a t u s and p r e s t i ge i n s o c i e t y . Kah1 a t t r i b u t e d t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a 1 s t a t u s t o s i x f a c t o r s . 2 ' They a r e p e r s o n a 1 p r e s t i g e , o c c u p a t i o n , p o s s e s s i o n s , i n t e r a c t i o n wi t h i n and wi t h o u t t h e g r o u p , c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s . T h e s e a r e t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e p e r t i n e n t i n t h e p e r c e p t i on and r a n k i ng o f fami l i e s i n t o o r a 1ong a c o n t i nuum o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s . T h e s e f a c t o r s o p e r a t e t o d i s t i ngui sh and d i f f e r e n t i a t e b r o a d g r o u p s o f f a m i 1i es f r o m o t h e r s whi c h do not e x h i b i t t h e same a t t r i b u t e s o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c l u s t e r o f f ami l i e s . I t i s o n l y i n t h i s b r o a d s e n s e t h a t t he c o n c e p t o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s i s o p e r a t i v e . I n t h e 1i t e r a t u r e o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e h a s n e v e r b e e n any g e n e r a 1 a g r e e m e n t on t h e meani ng o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s n o r a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d scheme t o m e a s u r e and d e n o t e s o c i a l c l a s s . 2 2 T h i s p r e c l u d e s any p r e c i se d e f i n i t i on o f s o c i a l c l a s s . 2 1 J . A . K a h l The A m e r i c a n C l a s s S t r u c t u r e (New Y o r k . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n - ; T9S6) p p . tf-12. 2 2 E x a m p l e f o r Canada i s J . P o r t e r The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c ( T o r o n t o . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . 1965) p p . 7 -10, and f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , J . E . Carman The A p p l i c a t i o n o f S o c i a 1 C l a s s i n M a r k e t S e g m e n t a t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y . I n s t i t u t e o f B u s i n e s s and E c o n . R e s e a r c h 1965) p . 60. 33 P e r c e i v e d s o c i a l c l a s s h a s b e e n c h o s e n a s t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n t i n u u m f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s c h o i c e i s b a s e d o n t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s i s a l o g i c a l a n d m e a n i n g f u l b a s i s t o s t u d y a n d e x p l a i n t h e m a n y f a c e t s o f home p u r c h a s i n g . T h i s c a n b e d e m o n s t r a t e d . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s o c i a l c l a s s a n d s p e n d i n g b e h a v i o r h a s b e e n s t u d i e d b y m a n y s c h o l a r s . P e r h a p s t h e c l a s s i c o n e w a s b y M a r t i n e a u . 2 3 H e f o u n d t h a t " c o n s u m p t i o n p a t t e r n s o p e r a t e a s p r e s t i g e s y m b o l s t o d e f i n e c l a s s m e m b e r s h i p , w h i c h i s a m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f e c o n o m i c b e h a v i o r t h a n m e r e i n c o m e " . 2 ^ I n c o m e a s a h a n d y i n d e x f o r c o n s u m p t i o n p a t t e r n i s f a r f r o m b e i n g a d e q u a t e . T h e r e a r e f a r - r e a c h i n g p s y c h o l o g i ca 1 a n d b e h a v i o r a 1 d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s . D i f f e r e n t v a l u e o r i e n t a -t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , s t y 1es o f 1i f e , a n d c o n c e p t s o f p r e s t i g e c a u s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n s u m p t i o n a m o n g s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s . T h e g r a c i o u s l i v i n g o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s i s e x h i b i t e d i n t h e i r h o m e s , a n d c o n s u m p t i o n o f g o o d s w i t h p r e d o m i n a n t 1 y p r e s t i g e v a l u e . T h e m o t i v a t i o n a n d s t r i v e f o r s u c c e s s i n t h e u p p e r m i d d l e c l a s s ( t o u s e W a r n e r ' s t e r m i n o l o g y ) a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r s o c i a 1 p a r t i c i p a t i o n , home d e c o r , a n d c o n s u m p t i o n o f h i gh p r i c e d g o o d s . T h e " a v e r a g e f a m i 1 y " i n t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y m a y c l o t h e t h e m s e l v e s i n c o a t s , s u i t s a n d d r e s s e s f r o m " n i c e s t o r e s " a n d s a v e f o r a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n 2 3 p . M a r t i n e a u " S o c i a l C l a s s a n d S p e n d i n g B e h a v i o r " , J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l - XXIII ( O c t . 1958) p p . 121-130. 2 4 i b i d . , p . 130. 3>k f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The w o r k i n g c l a s s i s o r i e n t e d towards e n j o y i n g l i f e and l i v i n g w e l l from day t o d a y . 2 5 S p e n d i n g p a t t e r n s o f lower s t a t u s p e o p l e te n d t o be a r t i f a c t - c e n t e r e d , w i t h most d i s c r e t i o n a r y income " i n v e s t e d " i n new c a r s and a p p l i a n c e s . On the o t h e r hand, hi gh s t a t u s spendi ng i s e x p e r i e n c e - c e n t e r e d , wi th a g r e a t e r tendency t o spend f o r t r a v e 1, e d u c a t i on, and p a r t i c i p a t i on i n hobbi es and r e c r e a t i on. The wi f e i n the u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s t e n d s t o buy a 11 her pub 1i c a ppearance c l o t hi ng from sp e c i a 1ty s t o r e s , and c hose her wardrobe a c c o r d i ng t o c a r e f u 1 l y p r e s c r i bed s t a n d a r d s of a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ; w h i1e th e "worki ngman 1s wi f e " t ends t o spend l e s s money on c l o t h i n g beyond t h a t which i s n e c e s s a r y , but wi11 a s p i r e t o b u i I d up her s t o c k o f k i t c h e n a p p l i a n c e s . In f a c t , s o c i a 1 c l a s s mani f e s t s i t s e 1 f i n most consumpt i on p a t t e r n s : t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n brand p r e f e r e n c e s d e p e n d i n g on s o c i a 1 c l a s s . The c h o i c e and patronage o f s t o r e s , purchase of f u r n i shi ngs, s u b s c r i p t i ons t o ma ss med i a, and consumpti on o f an i n e x h a u s t i v e l i s t o f o t h e r i t e m s may o f t e n be e x p l a i n e d on t h e b a s i s of s o c i a 1 c l a s s . Thi s c l o s e r e l a t i onshi p between s o c i a 1 c l a s s and consumption p a t t e r n s i s even more c l e a r l y e x h i b i t e d i n the c ase o f a house. Barber put s i t t h i s way: "The t y p e o f d w e l1 i ng p l a c e and i t s l o c a t i o n wi t h i n the l o c a l communi t y a r e l i k e l y t o be symbols o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s p o s i t i o n i n a l l s o c i e t i e s . T h i s i s so because the home i s t h e p l a c e where so many important r e c r e a t i o n a l , 25R. p. Coleman, "The Si gni f i c a n e e of S o c i a 1 St r a t i f i -c a t i on i n S e l 1 i ng". P r o c e e d i n g s of the American Marketi ng A s s o c i a t i o n (Dec. i 9 6 0 ) pp. 1 7 1 - t o l f . c o n s u m p t i o n , s o c i a l i z a t i o n o r e d u c a t i o n a l , and s o c i a l l y i n t i m a t e a c t i v i t i e s a r e c a r r i e d o u t . I t i s t r u e a l s o b e c a u s e a f a m i l y ' s n e i g h b o r s a r e t h o s e w i t h whom i t i s most l i k e l y t o a s s o c i a t e i n t i m a t e l y and e q u a l l y . S i n c e a l l o f t h e s e k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r have s o c i a l c l a s s s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e p l a c e s , home and n e i g h b o r h o o d , w h e r e t h e y o c c u r become s o c i a 1 c l a s s symbol s . 1 , 2 6 The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t many s o c i a 1 s c i e n t i s t s h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d i n d i c e s o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s , b a s e d e n t i r e l y on h o u s i n g , 2 ? o r p a r t 1y on h o u s i n g . 2 ^ D i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s p l a c e d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s on a h o u s e . T h i s may be i n d i c a t e d by t h e f i nd i ngs t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e f o r h o u s i ng a n d h o u s e h o l d o p e r a t i on i n c r e a s e s wi t h s o c i a 1 c l a s s . The h i gher t h e e d u c a t i on and o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , t h e h i gher i s t h e e x p e n d i t u r e f o r h o u s i n g . 2 - * B e s i d e s t h i s , o t h e r v a l u e and m o t i v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n h o u s i ng a r e a 1 s o e x h i b i t e d . The u p p e r c l a s s t e n d t o h a v e l a r g e , e x p e n s i v e , and g r a n d h o u s e s i n e x c l u s i ve n e i g h b o r h o o d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r s t y 1e o f g r a c i ous 1 i v i n g . The i r s t y l e o f 1 i f e may r e q u i r e two o r more r e s i d e n c e s - a town h o u s e , v a c a t i on r e s i d e n c e a n d h u n t i ng 1odge. The u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i 1 y i s a p t t o spend a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s h a r e o f i t s r e s o u r c e s on h o u s i ng i n a " p r e s t i ge" n e i g h b o r h o o d , and on r a t h e r e x p e n s i ve p i e c e s o f f u r n i t u r e . T h e i r c o n c e r n i s 2 6 B # B a r b e r S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n . (New Y o r k . H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company. 1957) P^ 27R . w . Mack " H o u s i ng As an I n d e x of S o c i a 1 C l a s s " . S o c i a l F o r c e s . V o l . XXIX (1951 ) P P - 391 - 4 0 0 . 28^. L . W a r n e r , Meeker and E e l 1s S o c i a l C l a s s i n A m e r i c a . (New Y o r k . H a r p e r S- Row. i 9 6 0 ) . 2 9 j . E . Ca rman , o p . c i t . , p. 30. 36 w i t h e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e and a d e s i r e t o demonstrate t h a t they a r e on t h e "move" (upwards) o r , perhaps, t h a t they have " a r r i v e d " . On t h e o t h e r hand, the lower m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i l y p r o b a b l y has a good house, but not i n a f a n c y d i s t r i c t , and p r o b a b l y l o t s o f f u r n i s h i n g s , though none by name d e s i g n e r s . ^ 0 On t h e lower s c a l e , the w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l i e s have modest d e s i r e s f o r h o u s i n g . They want an adequate house i n terms o f room f o r t h e f a m i l y . The d e c i s i o n t o buy a house i s a c r u c i a 1 and major i nvestment i n t h e i r l i v e s . Once a mi nimum s t a n d a r d o f decency i s a c h i e v e d , they a r e not w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i ce t h e c o n t e n t s o f a house f o r i t s e x t e r n a 1 appearance, or f o r a b e t t e r nei ghborhood. I n s t e a d t h e "worki ngman 1s wi f e " w i l l s t o c k i t w i t h a p p l i a n c es, a nd i s wi 11 i ng t o s a c r i f i c e a more expensi ve house i f she can have a l l t he modern t y p e s of a p p l i a n c e s t h a t she w i s h e s . D i f f e r e n t v a l u e s and t a s t e s toward home f u r n i s h i n g s and the home a r e e v i d e n t i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . The Home F u r n i shi ngs Marketi ng and Research C o u n c i1 , Inc. The Homemaker and Home F u r n i shi ngs r e p o r t e d t h a t hi gher s t a t u s women a r e h i gh1y s t y l e c o n s c i o u s , c o n c e r n e d about t h e compati b i l i t y o f s t y l e s and t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f s t r i k i n g room arrangements. They a r e a 1 so k e e n l y aware o f t h e d i s p l a y v a l u e o f good f u r n i shi ngs w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s t a t u s v a l u e o f t h e f a m i l y . They b e l i e v e 30R. p. Coleman, op. c i t . , p. I 7 6 . 3 1 s. Bank "Revi ew and Summary of Worki naman's Wife" i n S . H. B r i t t and H. W. Boyd M a r k e t i n g Management and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A c t i o n ( M c G r a w - H i l l . 1963) pp. 1 2 1 - 1 3 4 . 37 t h a t they a r e a c h i e v i n g t h e good l i f e i m p l i e d by the p o s s e s s i o n o f good f u r n i s h i n g s and t h e r e f o r e have s t r o n g d e s i r e s t o upgrade f u r n i s h i n g s or add t o u c h e s of e l e g a n c e t o t h e i r f u r n i s h i n g s and h o u s e h o l d . M i d d l e s t a t u s women a r e r e l a t i v e l y modest i n t h e i r t a s t e s f o r f u r n i s h i n g s . They s t r e s s f a m i l y c o m f o r t , c o n v e n i e n c e , and w e l f a r e i n home f u r n i s h i n g s . F u r n i s h i n g s a r e t o look a t t r a c t i v e and s e n s i b l e , and p r e f e r -ences a r e almost always devoted t o a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e . Lower s t a t u s women a r e more a n x i o u s about q u a l i t y and d u r a b i l i t y t h a n about the s t y 1e o f t h e i r f u r n i s h i ngs. Worn-out f u r n i sh-i n g s and b a r g a i n s a l e s a r e u s u a l l y t h e i r r a t i o n a l e t o buy -and they always te n d t o buy something d i s t i n c t i v e and d i f f e r e n t . 3 2 T h e r e a r e a l s o d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s w i t h r e g a r d t o the house as a home. The lower c l a s s c o n c e i v e o f t h e house and t h e l i v i n g room as a n i c e and coz y p l a c e where the f a m i l y can gather t o spend i t s spare time and watch t e l e v i s i o n . The k i t c h e n , r i c h i n a p p l i a n c e s , i s u s u a l l y the h e a r t of the home f o r the "workingman 1s w i f e " , and not a p l a c e t o escape from. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y a p l a c e f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g g u e s t s . H igher s t a t u s f a m i l i e s tend t o emphasize t h e l i v i n g room w i t h i t s decor and a e s t h e t i c s as a p l a c e f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g g u e s t s . The k i t c h e n i n such homes i s u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e and 3 2 T h e Home F u r n i s h i n g s M a r k e t i n g and Research C o u n c i l , I n c - IllS. Homemaker and Home F u r n i shi ngs, p r e p a r e d by the S o c i a l R esearch, Inc. ( C h i c a g o , 11 l i n o i s . 1 9 6 7 ) , see Appendi x. 38 not v i s i b l e from t h e l i v i n g room. T h e r e a r e other a r e a s where home v a l u e s may be d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by s o c i a l c l a s s . 3 3 From t h e above d i s c u s s i o n i t can be seen that an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s and h o u s i n g e x i s t s . S o c i a 1 c l a s s i n f l u e n c e s s t y l e s o f l i f e , housi ng v a l u e s , and home p r e f e r e n c e s . A t t i t u d e s , p r e f e r e n c e s and a spi r a t i ons toward housi ng t y p e , a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 d e s i gn, and 1 o c a t i on can be e x p l a i ned on the b a s i s of s o c i a 1 c l a s s and di f f e r e n t i a 1 s t a t u s . In o t h e r words, s o c i a 1 c l a s s can be a meani ngfu1 b a s i s t o study behavi or and a t t i t u d e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e home purcha se d e c i s i on p r o c e s s . Hence i t s use i n the f i e l d i n strument. Havi ng e x p l a i ned the r a t i o n a l e f o r u s i ng so c i a 1 c l a s s as the c o n t i nuum f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t , some o f t h e p o s s i b l e 1imi t a t i ons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use of s o c i a 1 c l a s s i n housi ng s t u d i e s shou 1 d a 1 so be r e c o g n i zed. One q u e s t i on t h a t i s apparent i s whether s o c i a 1 c l a s s i s r e a l l y a c o n t i nuum o f r a n k i ng or a s e r i es of di s c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s . I f s o c i a 1 c l a s s i s t o be c o n s i dered as t h e u n d e r l y i ng b a s i s f o r t h e i nstrument, i t must s a t i s f y t h e r equi rement of a c o n t i nuum. The di s c r e t e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l c l a s s c l a i m t h a t t h e p a t t e r n of p r e s t i ge, power, and p r i v i 1 e g e s resu11 i n the c r e a t i on o f d i s t i net groupi ngs o f per sons. A 1 i ne o f demar-c a t i o n can be used t o d e s i gnate a group of p e o p l e wi t h 33Housing v a l u e t y p e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n e x p l o r e d . The Cornel 1 study found f o u r housi ng v a l u e t y p e s , but not on the b a s i s o f s o c i a l c l a s s . S o c i a l c l a s s can be a meaningful b a s i s t o study h o u s i n g v a l u e t y p e s . s u f f i c i e n t s i m i l a r s o c i a l c l a s s c o n f i g u r a t i o n s from o t h e r g roups. U n f o r t u n a t e l y past s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h any f i x e d number o f c l a s s e s . Two t o s i x s t r a t a o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s have been d i s c o v e r e d and used . (These a r e e v i d e n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e c o n t i nuum h y p o t h e s i s.) To make t h i n g s worse, s t u d i e s u s i n g comparable methods have l e d t o d i f f e r e n t r e s u 1 1 s . For example W. F. Kenke1 and G. E . Lenski u s i n g methods s i m i l a r t o Warner's have come t o the c o n e l u s i on t h a t s o c i a 1 c l a s s i s a c o n t i nuum r a t h e r t h a n somethi ng wit h s i x di s c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s . ^ A l s o t h e d i s c r e t e t h e o r y does not c o n s i d e r t h o s e " u n c l a s s i f i ed" p e o p l e a nd t h o s e c o n s t a n t l y on t h e move, mai n1y due t o m o b i l i t y . The bases f o r r a n k i ng change from t i me t o time and re n d e r r a n k i ngs i ncomparable. More s i g n i -f i c a n t i s t h e a l l e g e d bases f o r r a n k i ng do not o r d i n a r i 1 y show s i gni f i c a nt c o r r e l a t i ons wi th one a n o t h e r , and t h e r e f o r e c a t e g o r i z a t i on o f i ndi v i dua1s wi11 produce i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s . In f a c t a l l d a t a , even from s t u d i es whi ch c l a i m t o have found d i s c r e t e c l a s s e s , a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o n t i nuum t h e o r y . The r e s u l t s yi e l d e d a c o n t i nuum of r a n k i ng by a 11 t h e c r i t e r i a o f r a n k i ng - i ncorne, w e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , p o s s e s -s i ons, a t t i t u d e s , power, o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , and genera 1 3^J. E . Cuber and W. F. Kenkel S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n JH the U n i t e d S t a t e s (New York. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . i 9 5 i r y ~ P . 3 0 3 . ho r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . ^ 5 s o c i a l c l a s s e s have been found t o be s c a l a b l e by the Guttman s c a l e , and t h e r e f o r e forms a continuum o f r a n k i ng.^6 T h e r e f o r e i t would be j u s t i f i e d t o c o n t e n d t h a t a s o c i a l c l a s s r a n k i n g system i s more a c c u r a t e l y c o n c e i v e d o f as a continuum r a t h e r than as a set o f d i s c r e t e c a t e g o r i e s . How i s t h e use o f t h r e e i n t e r v a l s c a l e s o f " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and "upper" i n t h e v i sua 1 f i e l d i nstrument j u s t i f i e d ? As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the t h r e e s e a l e i n t e r v a 1 s o n l y r e p r e s e n t c o n v e n i e n t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e s o c i a l c l a s s continuum. They a r e not i n any way meant t o be f i x e d or d i s c r e t e . The t h r e e i n t e r v a1 l e v e l s a r e on 1y used i n conformi t y wi t h t h e requi r e -ment s o f naming s c a l e i n t e r v a l s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t t i tude sea l e s . Hence the t h r e e s c a l e l e v e l s have t o be c o n c e i ved as conveni ent s c a l e i n t e r v a 1 s a 1ong t h e s o c i a l c l a s s continuum f o r sea 1ing r e s p o n d e n t s . — An a t t i tude sea 1e has as one o f i t s r e q u i rements t h e uni dimensi o n a1 i ty o f t h e a t t i tude dimensi on. The concept o f s o c i a l c l a s s c ontinuum does not seem t o be u n i d i m e n s i o n a 1 . Max Weber has s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t r a t i f i c a t i o n has t h r e e dimensi ons - t h a t o f economi c o r d e r , p r e s t i ge o r d e r , and power o r d e r . Carman c o n c e i v e d o f a power d i m e n s i o n , s t a t u s 3 5 j . E. Cuber and W. F . Kenker S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i on i n t h e Uni t e d S t a t e s (New York. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . 36Kahl, op. c i t . , pp. 72-84. 41 d i m e n s i o n , and c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n o f s o c i a l c l a s s . ^ 7 Kahl as seen e a r l i e r has used s i x v a r i a b l e s ( p r e s t i g e , o c c u p a t i o n , p o s s e s s i o n s , i n t e r a c t i o n , c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s ) t o e x p l a i n t h e phenomenon o f s o c i a l c l a s s . A u n i d i m e n s i o n a1 e x p l a n a t i o n o f s o c i a l c l a s s i s not t e n a b l e and cannot e x p l a i n the t rue n a t u r e o f s o c i a 1 s t r a t i f i c a t i on. How does t h i s a f f e c t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t of t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m ent. The mu 11 i d i men s i ona 1 i t y of s o c i a 1 c l a s s i s acknowledged and couId be a weakness i n the f i e l d i nstrument. However i n t h e r e q u i rement of uni dimensi o n a1 i t y f o r a t t i tude s e a l e t h e r e i s " n o t h i ng i nt r i n s i c a1 1 y improper i n havi ng an a t t i tude t e s t c o v e r s e v e r a l di f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e a t t i tude or be 1i e f , p r o v i di ng t h e s e a s p e c t s a r e p a r t o f a c o n s t e l l a t i on making up t h e be 1i e f s or a t t i t u d e " . 3 9 The i n s i s t e n c e on uni di mensi o n a1 i t y i s t o prevent the i n c l u s i on o f i r r e l e v a n t and c o n f u s i ng s o u r c e s o f v a r i a b i 1 i t y from o t h e r a t t i t u d e c o n c e p t s . S i n c e t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r d e p e n d e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s a r e p a r t of t h e c o n s t e l l a t i on t h a t make up and e x p l a i n the s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum, t h e r e i s n o t h i ng i neon si s-t e n t about i t s mu1ti dimensi o n a1 i ty and i t s use i n t h e v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e . F u r t h e r t h e s o c i a l c l a s s c o n t i nuum i n t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i s o n l y meant t o be a g e n e r a l i z e d continuum. 3 7 J . E. Carman, op. c i t . , pp. 1 4 - 3 2 . 3 8 j . A . K a h l , op. c i t . , pp. 8 - 1 4 . 3 9 p . Krech and R. S. C r u t - c h f i e l d Theory and Problems of S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y ( M c G r a w - H i l l . 1948) p. 2 3 1 . i+2 I t w i l l s e r v e a s a s o r t o f o v e r - a 11 c o n t i nuum t h a t w i 1 1 permi t sea l i n g o r measur ement o f v a r i ous s u b - c o n t i nua t h a t one may w i sh t o s t u d y . Fo r e x a m p 1 e , when u s e d w i t h t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 , t h e s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum w i 1 1 n e c e s s a r i 1y h a v e t o b e a g e n e r a 1 i z e d c o n t i nuum f o r t he s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n -t i a 1 , w i t h i t s own pa i r s o f s e a 1 e c o n t i n u a , t o sea 1 e v a r i ous a s p e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e h o u s e p u r c h a se p r o c e s s . Hence t h e u s e o f a m u 1 t i d i m e n s i ona1 c o n t i nuum i n t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i s , i n l a r g e p a r t , j u s t i f i e d , t h o u g h t h i s p o s s i b l e 1 i m i t a t i on must be k e p t i n mi nd when u s i n g t h e i ns t r u m e n t . SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has e s t a b l i s h e d t he need f o r a d i f f e r e n t f o r m o f f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y . The n a t u r e and b a s i s o f t he v i sua 1 s e a l e was e x p l a i n e d . T h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s w i 1 1 p r o v i de t h e v i sua 1 d i m e n s i on t o t h e p r o p o s e d a t t i t u d e s c a l e . The n e x t c h a p t e r w i 1 1 e x p l a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s f r o m t h e f i e l d w o r k . CHAPTER I I I DEVELOPING THE F IELD INSTRUMENT T h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e f i e l d work i s t o d e r i v e t h e t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h i s t o be u s e d i n t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y . A s i t c a n be r e c a l l e d , t h e t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s w i11 r e p r e s e n t t h e " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and " u p p e r " l e v e l s i n t h e v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e . T h e s e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s c a n be d e r i ved by o b t a i n i ng r a t i n g s f o r a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d s e t o f h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s a g a i n s t a t h r e e s c a l e s o c i a l c l a s s c o n t i nuum f r o m a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f r e s p o n d e n t s . The p h o t o g r a p h wi t h t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g i n e a c h o f t h e s e a l e c a t e g o r i e s may be t a k e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y i n t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s c h a p t e r w i 1 1 d e s c r i b e how t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e d e r i v e d i n t h e f i e l d w o r k , and t r y t o t e s t t h e a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r 1y i ng t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . SELECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO BE TESTED The i n i t i a l s e l e c t i on o f t he " u n i v e r s e " o f p h o t o g r a p h s t o be r a t e d i s a f u n d a m e n t a 1 s t e p i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t and must be u n d e r t a k e n wi t h c a r e . T h i s i s s o b e c a u s e t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s l a r g e r s e t o f p h o t o -g r a p h s . T h e r e f o r e e a c h p h o t o g r a p h s e l e c t e d must be a s r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e s o c i a l c l a s s t h a t i t was s e l e c t e d kk t o r e p r e s e n t , and a w i d e r a n g e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p h o t o -g r a p h s s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e f o r s e l e c t i o n . The G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d Mu11 i p1e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e R e c o r d e d S a l e s J u l y 1s t t o December 3 1 s t 1966 h a s a v e r y c o m p r e h e n s i v e p h o t o g r a p h l i s t i n g o f h o u s e s s o l d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a , c o m p l e t e w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on l o c a t i o n , l o t s i z e , number o f r o o m s , age o f h o u s e , f l o o r a r e a , number o f b a t h s , g a r a g e , and p r i c e o f t h e h o u s e s . From t h i s Mu 11 i p 1 e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e was s e l e c t e d a " u n i v e r s e " o f t h i r t y p h o t o g r a p h s f o r r a t i n g . The b a s i s f o r t h e c h o i c e o f p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e : i ) d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s t o be s e l e c t e d w i t h e a c h one r e f l e c t i ng a s much a s p o s s i b l e one o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s ( l o w e r , mi d d 1 e , and uppe r ) . T h e s e a r e t o be e x p r e s s e d i n t h e a f t e r - m e n t i oned f e a t u r e s . i i ) a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n , s t y l e , e l a b o r a t e n e s s , 1 a n d -s c a p i n g , and t h e f r a m e o f a e s t h e t i c s a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . i i i ) m a t e r i a 1s u s e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n ( e . g . 1 umber , c o n c r e t e , t y p e o f r o o f i n g ) . i v ) s u r r o u n d i ngs o f t h e h o u s e ; g a r d e n , f e n c i n g , n a t u r e o f n e i g h b o r i n g h o u s e , and i n d i c a t i ons o f n e i g h b o r h o o d . v ) i n f o r m a t i on on t h e number o f r o o m s , l o t s i z e , f l o o r a r e a , number o f b a t h s , g a r a g e , a g e o f h o u s e , l o c a t i o n , and p r i c e g i v e n i n t h e Mu11 i p i e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e f o r e a c h h o u s e f a c i 1 i t a t e d t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . v i ) p h o t o g r a p h s wi t h o t h e r e a s i 1 y i d e n t i f i a b 1 e o b j e c t s o r p o s s e s s i ons ( e . g . c a r ) w h i c h may be " c o n f o u n d i ng" t o t h e s o c i a l c l a s s image o f t h e h o u s e w e r e e x c l u d e d . T h i s i s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r j udgement by r e s p o n d e n t w i11 be b a s e d on 1y on t h e h o u s e . On t h i s b a s i s , 30 p h o t o g r a p h s f r o m t h e Mu 11 i p 1 e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e w e r e s e l e c t e d t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e p h o t o g r a p h " u n i v e r s e " . T h e r e w e r e a s many p h o t o g r a p h s s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t each o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s , t h o u g h t h e number o f p h o t o g r a p h i n e a c h s o c i a l c l a s s c a t e g o r y was not d e l i b e r a t e l y made t o b e t h e same. I t was f e l t t h a t 30 c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d p h o t o g r a p h s w o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e s e t f r o m w h i c h t o d e r i v e t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s w o u l d p e r m i t r o u g h l y a c h o i c e o f one out o f t e n p h o t o g r a p h s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Too l a r g e a number o f p h o t o g r a p h w i l l make t h e r a t i n g p r o c e s s a t e d i o u s one f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s may r e s u l t i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t l o s i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e r a t i n g , and j u s t r u s h t h r o u g h t h e r a t i ng p r o c e d u r e by s o r t i ng t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i n a random m a n n e r , and t h e r e b y i n t r o d u c i n g e r r o r s i n t h e r a t i n g . E a c h p h o t o g r a p h f r o m t h e Mu11 i p1e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e h a s a 1i s t i ng number p r i n t e d on i t , and t h i s was u s e d f o r i d e n t i -f i c a t i on p u r p o s e s i n t h e r a t i ng p r o c e s s and f i e l d w o r k . The s e l e c t e d p h o t o g r a p h s ( a l l ha 1f p o s t c a r d s i z e ) w e r e c u t o u t f r o m t h e Mu11 i p 1 e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e , p a s t e d on t o c a r d b o a r d s , and 1 ami n a t e d t o f a c i 1 i t a t e h a n d l i n g and p r e v e n t s p o i 1 age t h r o u g h u s e . SAMPLING DESIGN A s a m p l i ng d e s i gn was n e c e s s a r y t o r a t e t h e s e l e c t e d s e t o f p h o t o g r a p h s . The s a m p l e , a n o n - r a n d o m c l u s t e r o n e , was d e s i gned t o r e f 1 e c t t h e s a m p l i ng d e s i gn i n t h e p r o p o s e d Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y , and t o c o v e r p o t e n t i a 1 home p u r c h a s e r s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . To c o v e r t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s , an a r e a s a m p l e b a s e d on known s o c i a l c l a s s e s o f f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g t h e r e was a d o p t e d . S i x a r e a s i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a w e r e s e l e c t e d , w i t h two t o r e p r e s e n t e a c h o f t h e l o w e r , m i d d l e , and u p p e r c l a s s e s . The a r e a s w e r e : P o i n t G r e y - U n i v e r s i t y A r e a . 1. Upper C l a s s , U I : U I I M i d d l e C l a s s . M I : M i l 3. Lower C l a s s . LI LII S h a u g h n e s s y Hei g h t s , a t Angus D r i v e and M a t t h e w s A v e n u e . West P o i nt G r e y . B l o c k s f r o m West 17th A v e n u e t o West 2 4 t h Avenue a t Dunbar R o a d . S o u t h V a n c o u v e r . B l o c k s f r o m E a s t 4 3 r d Avenue t o E a s t 4 8 t h Avenue a t V i c t o r i a D r i v e . G r a n d v i ew. B l o c k s f r o m E a s t 1 s t A v e n u e t o E a s t 5 t h A v e n u e a t Nana imo S t r e e t . E a s t H a s t i n g s . B1o c k s f r o m F r a n k 1 i n S t r e e t t o Dundas S t r e e t a t Nana imo S t r e e t . From e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s , t e n f a m i l i e s w e r e t o r a t e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . Th i s wi11 mean a t o t a l s a m p l e s i z e o f 60 f a m i 1 i e s wi t h 20 f r o m e a c h s o c i a 1 c l a s s s u b - s a m p l e . I n e a c h s a m p l e a r e a , e v e r y t h i r d h o u s e was s o l i c i t e d t o s o r t and r a t e t h e 30 p h o t o g r a p h s . The housewi f e was t h e u s u a l r e s p o n d e n t , t h o u g h t h e h u s b a n d was u s e d i n t h e f o r m e r 1 s a b s e n c e . The a b o v e s a m p l e f o r t h e f i e l d work seems sma11 and not t o o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . However i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t t i t u d e and r a t i n g s e a l e s , p r e c e d e n c e h a s shown t h a t l a r g e and r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s a m p l e s a r e not r e a 1 l y n e c e s s a r y , t h o u g h t h i s p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d , a t l e a s t on t h e o r e t i c a l g r o u n d s . F o r e x a m p l e O s g o o d , S u c i and Tannenbaum have u s e d s a m p l e s i z e s a s s m a l l a s 40 c o l l e g e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t o d e v e l o p h7 t h e i r s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l . S u c h s c a l e s have p r o v e d t o be b o t h v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . ' A l s o i n a t t i t u d e s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t , i t i s h e l d t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e j u d g e s do not b i a s t h e p l a c e m e n t o f a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s ( o r p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h i s c a s e ) . T h i s h a s been c h a l l e n g e d , b u t not d i s p r o v e d . Shaw i n summari z i ng t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f j u d g e s on a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e a r g u m e n t s have been i n v a i n f o r t h e two s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n a s k i ng d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s . T h o s e o p p o s i ng t h e f i r s t a s s e r t i on h a v e a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e j u d g e ' s own a t t i t u d e s i n f l u -e n c e i n any way t h e i r j u d g e m e n t o f i t e m f a v o r a b i l i t y , w h i c h i s c l e a r l y i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . But t h e a s s e r t i on was t h a t t h e j u d g e ' s a t t i t u d e s d o n o t b i a s t h e sea 1e v a l u e s a s s i gned t h e a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s , whi ch i s a d i f f e r e n t p r o p o s i t i o n . I n t h e p l a c e m e n t o f p h o t o g r a p h s on a s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum, t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t wouId n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p l a c e -ment . What i s r e q u i r e d i s on 1 y a n a b i 1 i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e o r r a t e c o n s i s t e n t 1y t h e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s a 1ong a g i v e n s o c i a 1 c l a s s s e a l e . No c l a i m a s t o w h e t h e r t h e r a t e r ' s a t t i t u d e s w i 1 1 i n f 1 u e n c e h i s j u d g e m e n t o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s i s b e i ng made. The s a m p l i ng d e s i gn may be j u s t i f i e d on t h e s e g r o u n d s . S i nee t h e s a m p l e h a s been d e s i gned t o c o v e r d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s , and t o r e f l e c t t h e s a m p l e i n t h e o v e r - a 11 Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y , i t may be c1 a i m e d t o be a d e q u a t e . The 1 0 s g o o d , S u e i and Tannenbaum, o p . c i t . , p. 3 9 -2M. E . Shaw, o p . c i t . , p. 561. See a l s o A . L . E d w a r d s , o p . c i t . , p. 86. 48 a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i e l d d a t a ( T a b l e s I V ) a t t e s t s t o t h e s a m p l i n g a d e q u a c y a s i t i s shown t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s r a t e d t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i n a c o n s i s t e n t m a n n e r , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e r a t e r ' s a t t i t u d e s have l i t t l e b i a s on t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . However i t must be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a l a r g e r s a m p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r a t i f i e d on s o c i a l c l a s s and s e l e c t e d on a random b a s i s w o u l d be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . But t h e i n c r e a s e i n a c c u r a c y t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s may not j u s t i f y t h e i n c r e a s e i n e f f o r t s a n d r e s o u r c e s i n v o l v e d . PROCEDURE OF THE F IELD WORK Q u e s t i on D e s i gn and R a t i ng P r o c e d u r e The p r o c e d u r e r e q u i r e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o r a t e a 11 t h e 30 p h o t o g r a p h s i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f s o c i a l c l a s s ( l o w e r , m i d d l e , a n d u p p e r ) . The r e s p o n d e n t i s t o e x a m i n e t h e p h o t o -g r a p h s and s o r t them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s o c i a 1 c l a s s o f t h e o c c u p a n t fami 1y i n e a c h p h o t o g r a p h . The p h o t o g r a p h s s o r a t e d a r e t o be p l a c e d i n t o t h r e e b o x e s l a b e l l e d " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and " u p p e r " . To e n s u r e u n i f o r m i t y o f s t i m u l u s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s t o a l l r e s p o n d e n t s and t o p r e c l u d e any p r o m p t i ng f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , a s e t o f i n s t r u c t i ons o r q u e s t i on was d r a f t e d t o be shown t o a l 1 r e s p o n d e n t s . The i n s t r u c t i ons w e r e c a r e f u 1 l y d r a f t e d t o name t h e s u b j e c t and d e f i n e t h e c o n t i n u u m and s c a l e p o i n t s t o be e m p l o y e d i n t h e r a t i n g s c a l e . The i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e : " H e r e a r - e a s e r i e s o f h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s . We w o u l d l i k e you t o e x a m i n e e a c h p h o t o g r a p h and p l a c e i t i n one o f t h e h9 t h r e e boxes p r o v i d e d . The t h r e e boxes a r e l a b e l l e d " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and "upper". I f you f e e l the f a m i l y t h a t l i v e s i n t h e house shown i n a photograph i s most l i k e l y t o be i n t h e " m i d d l e " c l a s s f o r example, p l a c e t h a t photograph i n the box l a b e l l e d " m i d d l e " . P l e a s e cont i nue t h i s p r o c e s s u n t i 1 you have r a t e d a 11 the p h o t o g r a p h s . " The i n s t r u c t i ons were typed on t o a pi ece o f c a r d b o a r d and shown t o a 11 respondent s, who r a t e d the photographs and p l a c e d them i n t o the t h r e e boxes which were l a b e l l e d . The respondent was q u e s t i oned r e g a r d i ng a d d r e s s o f house and o c c u p a t i on o f head of t he f ami 1 y. The i n t e r v i e w e r bef or e he l e a v e s t h e respondent makes a r a t i ng of the s o c i a l c l a s s of the respondent based on hi s o b s e r v a t i o n o f the d e s i gn, i n t e r i or d e c o r a t i on, and t y p e s of f u r n i shi ngs i n the house. T h i s i s t o see t h a t t h e f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d conform t o t h e s o c i a 1 c l a s s s t a t u s o f t h a t sample. Si nee t h e s e r a t i n g s were made by one o b s e r v e r , i f any bi as exi st s, i t w i l l be a p p l i ed equa 11 y i n a l l c a s e s . R e c o r d i n g and T a b u l a t i o n The r a t i ngs o f t he 30 photographs by each i ndi v i dua1 respondent were r e c o r d e d as shown i n the R a t i ngs Sheet i n Appendi x B. The 1i st i ng numbers o f each of the photographs r a t e d i n the t h r e e c a t e g o r i es were r e c o r d e d under t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e columns i n the R a t i ngs Sheet. These i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n d e n t ' s r a t i n g s f o r each photograph (now i d e n t i f i e d by a s s i gned number s r a n g i n g from one t o 30 t o f a c i 1 i t a t e t a b u -l a t i on, s i nee t h e l i s t i ng numbers were g i v e n i n f o u r f i g u res) were t r a n s f e r r e d t o master s c h e d u l e s which t a b u l a t e s f o r each of the t h r e e s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s ( i . e . " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and 50 " u p p e r " ) t h e r a t i n g s o f e a c h p h o t o g r a p h by e a c h r e s p o n d e n t . T h i s w i l l e n a b l e t h e t o t a l r a t i ngs o f e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s t o be e n u m e r a t e d , b o t h by s u b - s a m p l e s and by t h e t o t a l s a m p l e . I n t h i s w a y , t h e r e s u I t s o f t h e f i e l d w o r k w e r e r e c o r d e d and t a b u l a t e d , and t h e n summari z e d f o r a n a l y s i s , whi c h i s d e a l t wi t h i n t h e f o l 1o w i ng s e c t i o n . ANALYSIS OF THE F IELD DATA T a b l e I shows t h e Summary o f R a t i ngs f o r t h e 30 p h o t o -g r a p h s i n t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i es by t h e 60 r e s p o n d e n t s . The r a t i ngs r e v e a 1 a t e n d e n c y t o r a t e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h e "midd1e" c a t e g o r y . The " m i d d l e " c a t e g o r y h a s a t o t a 1 o f 833 r a t i ngs c o m p a r e d t o 415 and 552 f o r t h e "1ower" and " u p p e r " c a t e g o r i es r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s may be due t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h " u n i v e r s e " h a v i ng r e l a t i v e l y more p h o t o g r a p h s r e p r e s e n t a t i ve o f t h e " m i d d l e " c l a s s , o r r e s p o n d e n t s may have f o u n d i t c o n v e n i ent t o lump t h e i r r a t i ngs i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i s i s not a s e r i o u s 1imi t a t i on a s t h e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e not random but s e l e c t e d t o r e f 1 e c t d i f f e r e n t s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s . But i t i nd i c a t e s t h a t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s e t mi ght be i m p r o v e d by i n c l u d i ng more p h o t o g r a p h s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e o t h e r two c a t e -g o r i e s . S e l e c t i o n o f t h e 3 p h o t o g r a p h s The mai n i n t e n t i on o f t h e f i e l d work i s t o d e r i v e t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n t h e F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t . T h e s e c a n be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e 30 p h o t o g r a p h s . T A B L E I SUMMARY OF R A T I N G S R A T I N G " P H O T O G R A P H S ( N U M B E R S ) S C A L E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H 9 1 0 1 1 12—T3 W~t_5~ LOWER 49 4 3 55 18 2 3 2 28 2 21 39 9 38 11 M I D D L E 10 12 14 4 39 22 6 19 31 9 39 19 43 22 44 UPPER 1 44 43 1 3 36 51 39 1 49 - 2 8 - 5 R A T I N G P H 0 ~ T ] 0 G R A P H S ~ T N U H T F R S )~~~~~ T O T A L S C A L E ~ 1 6 ~ H 7 T8~~~T9 T O lT 22 21 Us TI 26 27 28 29 ~"J0~" LOWER 4 8 1 4 1 2 - 3 9 24 5 2 4 51 13 415 MIDDLE 36 45 19 4 0 26 25 37 21 42 34 46 39 45 7 38 833 UPPER 20 7 40 16 33 33 23 36 9 2 9 19 1 1 2 9 552 52 The p h o t o g r a p h ( s ) f o r each c a t e g o r y of the s c a l e can be s e l e c t e d by d e t e r m i n i n g which photographs have r a t i n g s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the mean r a t i ng f o r t h a t c a t e g o r y . Thi s can be down by u s i n g the o n e - t a i 1 normal c u r v e t e s t t o " c u t - o f f " t h o s e photographs t h a t have si gni f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r r a t i ngs from t h e mean r a t i ngs at g i v e n 1evels o f c o n f i d e n c e . T a b l e s II show such c a l c u l a t i o n s u s i ng an 0*05 l e v e l o f s i gni f i c a n e e . Those photographs w i t h r a t i ngs si gni f i c a n t 1y g r e a t e r t h e mean r a t i ng f o r t h a t c a t e g o r y a r e those t h a t have r a t e d most f r e q u e n t 1y by r e s p o n d e n t s t o be i n t h a t c a t e g o r y and t h e r e f o r e can be t a k e n t o be t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h a t c a t e g o r y . Usi ng a c r i t i c a l c r i t e r i on ( a t di f f e r e n t s i gni f i cance 1 e v e l s ) on the Z d i s t r i b u t i on i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n p h o t o g r a p h ( s ) t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i ve o f t h a t c a t e g o r y . Thi s i s t e s t e d f o r photographs w i t h the hi ghest r a t i ng and s u c c e s s i v e l y downwards f o r each sea 1e c a t e g o r y . Any photograph w i t h a c a l c u l a t e d Z v a l u e equa1 t o or l e s s than t he c r i t i c a l Z v a l u e ( e . g . 1*645 at 0*05 l e v e l o f s i gni f i c ance) wi11 be r e j e c t e d . T a b l e I I a ) shows t h a t photograph number k, 29, and 1 a r e a c c e p t e d by the c r i t e r i on t o be most r e p r e s e n t a t i ve of the " l o w e r " c a t e g o r y at 0-05 l e v e l of si gni f i cance. T a b l e I l b ) r e v e a 1 s t h a t none of the photographs a r e r a t e d t o be s i gni f i -c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the mean r a t i ng v a l u e f o r the " m i d d l e " s c a l e . U s i n g a s i gni f i cance l e v e l of 0-10 ( c r i t i c a l Z va lue at 1 -282 ), o n l y the photograph wi th the hi ghest r a t i n g ( i . e . photograph number 26) w i l l be a c c e p t e d . Thi s means t h a t a 53 TABLE H a ) SELECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO REPRESENT 11 LOWER" SCALE CATEGORY USING ONE-TAIL NORMAL CURVE TEST Mean o f R a t i n g f o r " L o w e r " C a t e g o r y = X i = __,x = 415 = 14*31 n 29 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n = S^ = N s / n LTXJ - ( Z><i ) = 16*73 n(n-1 ) ~ Normal d e v i a t e s , Z - = - X | _ " s T ~ C r i t i c a l Z v a l u e , a t < = 0-05 i s 1*645. P h o t o g r a p h Number R a t i n g (X) Z v a l u e Resu It 4 55 2-432 A c c e p t 29 51 2* 193 A c c e p t 1 49 2-080 A c c e p t 12 39 1 '476 R e j e c t TABLE l i b ) SELECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO REPRESENT "MIDDLE" SCALE CATEGORY USING ONE-TAIL NORMAL CURVE TEST Mean o f R a t i n g f o r " M i d d l e " C a t e g o r y = X M = §33 = 2 7 - 7 7 13-64 30 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i on = = ^/n^Tx2 - (X!xi )^ n(TFTl ~~ Normal d e v i a t e s , Z j = xj - Xj^ S M C r i t i c a l Z v a l u e , a t °< = 0-05 i s 1-645. P h o t o g r a p h Number 26 28 15 R a t i n g (X ) 46 45 44 Z va1ue 1-337 1-263 1 -190 R e s u l t R e j e c t R e j e c t R e j e c t 55 l a r g e r number o f p h o t o g r a p h s a r e r a t e d i n t h e " m i d d l e " c a t e g o r y , t h o u g h none o b t a i n e d a r a t i n g w h i c h i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 - 0 5 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . However a t 0 - 1 0 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e p h o t o g r a p h w i t h t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t and t h e r e f o r e w i 1 1 be s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e " m i d d l e " c a t e g o r y . T a b l e l i e ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s number 7 and 10 a r e a c c e p t e d by t h e c r i t i c a 1 c r i t e r i on , and t h e r e f o r e t o be most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e " u p p e r " c a t e g o r y . H a v i ng o b t a i ned t h r e e and two p h o t o g r a p h s t o be r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f t h e " l o w e r " a nd " u p p e r " c a t e g o r i es r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e n e x t s t e p i s t o s e l e c t one p h o t o g r a p h t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t pa r t i cu1 a r s e a 1e . A c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f t h e p r o p o r t i on o f e n d o r s e m e n t f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i n e a c h o f t h e s e a l e c a t e g o r i e s was made t o s e e i f t h e r e i s any s i gni f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e g r e e o f e n d o r s e m e n t f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i n e a c h s c a l e c a t e g o r y . T a b l e 1 1 I a ) shows t he c o n t i ngency t a b l e o f t h o s e i n t h e samp 1e who e n d o r s e d or r e j e c t e d p h o t o g r a p h s number 1, h, and 29 i n t h e " l o w e r " s e a l e . The e x p e c t e d v a l u e s o f endorsement or r e j e c t i on w e r e c a 1 c u l a t e d a s p r o p o r t i o n s t o t h e m a r g i n a l t o t a 1 s a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e t a b l e , o r by a p p l y i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e n d o r s e m e n t ( o r r e j e c t i on ) f o r t h e rows t o t h e t o t a l number o f r a t i n g s . The c h i - s q u a r e v a 1 u e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d and t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f e n d o r s e m e n t w e r e equa1 f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . The h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d a t t h e 0 - 0 5 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h e p r o p o r t i ons o f e n d o r s e m e n t a r e c o n c l u d e d t o be e q u a l . Even a t a TABLE l i e ) SELECTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO REPRESENT "UPPER" SCALE CAT EG OR Y USING ONE-TAIL NORMAL CURVE TEST Mean o f R a t i n g f o r " U p p e r " C a t e g o r y = X = Zx = 552 = 19*71 n TE" S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n = S u = n £x? - ( £ x i ) 2 = 17-06 n(n-1 ) Normal d e v i a t e s , Z-j = X- - X u C r i t i c a l Z v a l u e , a t ^ = 0-05, i s 1-645. P h o t o g r a p h Number R a t i n g ( x ) Z v a l u e R e s u l t 7 51 1-834 A c c e p t 10 49 1-717 A c c e p t 2 44 1-423 R e j e c t TABLE I l i a ) CHI -SQUARE TEST OF PROPORTION OF ENDORSEMENT FOR PHOTOGRAPHS SELECTED FOR "LOWER" SCALE CATEGORY P H 0 T 0 G R A P H TOTAL # 1 # k # 29 O b s e r v e d E x p e c t e d O b s e r v e d E x p e c t e d O b s e r v e d E x p e c t e d ENDORSEMENT 1+9 51 -66 55 51-66 51 51*66 155 REJECTION 11 8-34 5 8-34 9 8*34 25 TOTAL 60 60 60 180 E x p e c t e d Number o f Rat i ngs = e * j = n . j ^ n • t ) r2 = £ i i n j i e - y j = (-2-66) 2 + (3*34 ) 2 + (-0-66)2 + (2-66 ) 2 + (-3*34) 2 + (0-66) 2 = 2-60. H Q : The p r o p o r t i ons o f endor sement a r e e q u a l HA* The p r o p o r t i o n s o f e n d o r s e m e n t a r e n o t e q u a l «< = 0-05 -C r i t e r i o n : R e j e c t H 0 i f ^0*05,2 > 5-991 Cannot r e j e c t H D i f AQ. 05 J2 ^ 5 '99 1 C o n c l u s i o n : T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f endorsement o f t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s . 58 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f 0*20 (f* = 3 * 2 1 9 ) , t h e h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . T h i s means t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f r a t i n g s f o r p h o t o g r a p h number 1, h, and 2 9 . One c a n p r e s u m a b l y be i n d i f f e r e n t a s t o w h i c h o f t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h e " l o w e r " s c a l e c a t e g o r y . T a b l e 111b ) s i mi 1ar1y r e v e a 1 s t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a t i n g s o f p h o t o g r a p h s number 7 and 10 a t t h e 0*05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . E v e n a t s u c h a h i gh s i g n i f i c a n c e 1 e v e l a s 0-5 ( f ^ - 0*455) t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not s i gni f i c a n t . T h e r e f o r e one c a n be i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e two p h o t o g r a p h s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e " u p p e r " s e a l e c a t e g o r y . T h i s a 11ows f o r some d i s c r e t i on i n t h e s e l e c t i on o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e " 1 o w e r " and " u p p e r " s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s . S u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i on o f t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h e " l o w e r " c a t e g o r y , a n d t h e t w o i n t h e " u p p e r " c a t e g o r y was a p p l i e d t o s e e w h i c h one p h o t o g r a p h b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d i t s r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r y . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s w e r e g i v e n t o a l l f e a t u r e s i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h whi ch a s a w h o l e g i v e s t he b e s t r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h e " l o w e r " and " u p p e r " s o c i a l c l a s s . A f t e r s c r u t i n y p h o t o g r a p h number h ( 1 i s t i ng number 1708 ) was s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e h o u s e o f t h e 1ower c l a s s , and p h o t o g r a p h number 10 ( l i s t i n g number 2653) f o r t h e u p p e r c l a s s . The p h o t o g r a p h p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d f o r t h e " m i d d l e " c l a s s was p h o t o g r a p h number 26 ( 1 i s t i ng number 6761 ) . T h e s e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s , 59 TABLE I l i b ) CHI -SQUARE TEST CF PROPORTION OF ENDORSEMENT FOR PHOTOGRAPHS SELECTED FOR •'UPPER" SCALE CATEGORY P H 0 T 0 G R A P H TOTAL 7 # 10 O b s e r v e d E x p e c t e d O b s e r v e d E x p e c t e d ENDORSEMENT 51 49-98 49 Z19.98 100 REJECTION 9 10-02 11 1 0-02 2 0 TOTAL 60 60 120 E x p e c t e d Number o f R a t i n g s = e^ j - n . j n^^ n 0 - 2 4 H Q : The p r o p o r t i o n s o f e n d o r s e m e n t a r e e q u a l H A : The p r o p o r t i o n s o f e n d o r s e m e n t a r e no t e q u a l ex, = 0-05 2 C r i t e r i o n : R e j e c t H Q i f f 0 . 0 5 ] > 3 -841 Cannot r e j e c t H o i f A o-05 1 ^ 3 ' 8 k ] C o n c l u s i o n : T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f e n d o r s e m e n t o f t h e two p h o t o g r a p h s . 60 a s shown i n F i g u r e 3 w i l l c o n s t i t u t e t h e v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n o f t h e F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t . ^ A b i l i t y To Di s c r i mi n a t e A l o n g P e r c e i v e d S o c i a 1 C l a s s e s Of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r r e s p o n -d e n t s , f r o m d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s , c a n and c o n s i s t e n t l y d o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n t h e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s b a s e d on t h e p e r c e i ved s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s o f o c c u p a n t f a m i l i e s . T h i s , a s i t may be r e c a l l e d , was t h e a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e f i e l d work do p r o v i de a b a s i s t o t e s t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . T h i s c a n be done by t e s t i ng w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e any s i gn i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n how t h e s u b - s a m p l e s , o f 20 r e s p o n d e n t s e a c h f r o m t h e l o w e r , m i d d l e , a n d u p p e r c l a s s e s , r a t e e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n t o e a c h o f t he t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s on t h e r a t i ng s c a l e . Do r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s r a t e t h e p h o t o g r a p h s d i f f e r e n t 1 y ? T a b l e s IV show c h i - s q u a r e ana 1 y s i s o f how t h e t h r e e s u b - s a m p l e s r a t e e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and " u p p e r " c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e r a t i n g s e a l e . The h y p o t h e s i s b e i ng t e s t e d was w h e t h e r t h e s u b - s a m p l e p r o p o r t i ons o f r a t i n g s f o r e a c h p h o t o g r a p h w e r e t h e same. The e x p e c t e d v a l u e f o r e a c h a n a l y s i s was c a l c u l a t e d by a p p l y i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l r a t i ngs f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p h o t o g r a p h and a p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e t o ^The o t h e r p h o t o g r a p h s s e l e c t e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e 1ower a n d upper c l a s s , a n d a n o t h e r t o r e p r e s e n t t o t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , c a n be u t i l i z e d t o c o n s t i t u t e an a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t , s h o u l d t h e n e e d s demand i t . " LOWER" 62 t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e r a t i n g s ( i . e . t o t a l s a m p l e o f 6 0 ) , t o t h e s i z e o f t h e s u b - s a m p l e . T a b l e I V a ) t e s t s how t h e s u b - s a m p l e p r o p o r t i o n s f o r e a c h p h o t o g r a p h r a t e d i n t h e " l o w e r " c a t e g o r y d i f f e r f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d p r o p o r t i o n a t t h e 0-05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . I f t h e s u b - s a m p l e p r o p o r t i o n s f o r p h o t o g r a p h number 1 , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e f o u n d t o be t h e same ( o r no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ) , t h e n t h e s u b - s a m p l e r a t i ngs o f p h o t o g r a p h number 1 c a n be s a i d t o be random o r homogenous . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t , t h e n t h e s u b - s a m p l e s do not r a t e p h o t o g r a p h number 1 i n t h e same m a n n e r . T h i s c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s ^ was r u n f o r e a c h o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s r a t e d i n t h e " l o w e r " s c a l e c a t e g o r y . No a n a l y s i s was made f o r t h o s e p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h w e r e r a t e d i n t h e " l o w e r " c a t e g o r y by o n l y one s u b - s a m p l e , a s i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e b e i n g r a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by t h e s u b - s a m p l e s . T h o s e p h o t o g r a p h s whi ch w e r e not r a t e d a t a l 1 i n t h e c a t e g o r y by a l l t h e t h r e e s u b - s a m p l e s w o u l d mean t h a t t h e " r a t i n g s " ( i . e . n o n - r a t i n g ) w e r e t h e same, and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d be t a k e n t o be r a t e d i n t h e same m a n n e r . T a b l e s I V b ) and I V c ) show s i m i l a r c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f r a t i n g s f o r e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n t h e " m i d d l e " and " u p p e r " s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . E x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e I V a ) shows t h a t t h e s u b - s a m p l e p r o p o r t i o n s (and n o n - r a t i n g s ) a r e t h e same f o r 25 o f t h e 30 ^ C o n t r a r y t o c o n v e n t i o n , e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s o f l e s s t h a n f i v e w e r e u s e d i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s i n T a b l e s IV , a s t h i s w o u l d not a f f e c t t h e r e s u l t s . S i n c e t h e e f f e c t o f u s i n g s u c h s m a l l e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s i s t o i n c r e a s e t h e s i z e o f t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s , t h e f a c t t h a t a l l such v a l u e s ( e x c e p t t w o ) i n t h e T a b l e s w e r e f o u n d t o be b e l o w t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e , c o u l d o n l y s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d . TABLE I V a ) CHI -SQUARE ANALYSIS FOR RATINGS OF EACH PHOTOGRAPH BY SUB-SAMPLES FOR "LOWER" SCALE CATEGORY SUB-SAMPLE P H 0 T 0 G R A P H S ( N U M B E R ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 LOWER CLASS 16 3 1 19 6 1 2 - 8 1 5 13 3 12 1 MIDDLE CLASS 17 1 - 18 - - - 6 - 4 13 1 11 2 UPPER CLASS 16 - 2 18 8 1 1 2 14 1 12 13 5 15 8 TOTAL 49 4 3 55 18 2 3 2 28 2 21 39 9 38 11 EXPECTED RATING ( e j ), 16-3 1-3 1-0 18-3 6-0 0-7 1 -0 0-7 9-3 0-7 7-0 13-0 3-0 12-7 3-7 r 2 0- 0 2-4 1-0 0-0 1-7 2-6 1-0 - 3-9 2-6 5-4 0-0 2-7 0-7 7-8 F o r e a c h p h o t o g r a p h , e - = T o t a l R a t i n g f o r P h o t o g r a p h i x S i z e o f S u b - S a m p l e ( o r 2 0 ) T o t a 1 S a m p l e S i z e ( o r 6 0 ) H 0 : The p r o p o r t i ons o f r a t i n g a r e t h e same f o r p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2 , . . . 3 0 . H ^ : The p r o p o r t i o n s o f r a t i n g a r e NOT t h e same f o r p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2 , . . . 3 0 . <= 0 * 0 5 . 2 2 C r i t e r i o n : R e j e c t H Q i f F 0-05 2 5 " 9 9 1 o r i f ^ 0 - 0 5 1 > 3 ' 8 i f 1 Cannot r e j e c t H Q i f f 2 . ^ 2 <=. 5*991 o r i f / < 2 ] C 3 - 8 4 1 . TABLE I V a ) ( c o n t i n u e d ) SUB-SAMPLE P H 0 T O G R A P H S ( N U M B E R ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 LOWER CLASS 2 2 - 1 _ 1 2 5 1 1 1 17 6 MIDDLE CLASS 1 2 - 2 - - 2 6 2 - 1 17 5 UPPER CLASS 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 5 13 2 1 2 17 2 TOTAL 4 8 1 4 1 2 3 9 24 5 2 4 51 13 EXPECTED RATING ( e i )' 1-3 2-7 0 -3 1-3 0-3 0-7 1 -0 3-0 8-0 1-7 0-7 1-3 17-0 4-3 r 0-5 1.0 - 0 5 - 1 -0 2-0 4-5 0-4 2-6 0-5 0.0 2-C TABLE I V b ) CHI -SQUARE ANALYSIS FOR RATINGS OF EACH PHOTOGRAPH BY SUB-SAMPLES FOR "MIDDLE" SCALE CATEGORY SUB-SAMPLE P H 0 T 0 G R A P H ( N U M B E R ) 1 2 3 4 5 1 7 8~~~ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 LOWER CLASS 4 2 1 1 12 7 4 2 12 3 15 7 12 8 16 MIDDLE CLASS 3 6 5 2 16 4 1 7 14 3 16 7 16 9 17 UPPER CLASS 3 4 8 1 11 11 1 10 5 3 8 5 15 5 11 TOTAL 10 12 14 4 39 22 6 19 31 9 39 19 43 22 44 EXPECTED RATING ( e j ) 3-3 4-0 4-7 1-3 13-0 7-3 2-0 6-3 10-3 3-0 13-0 6-3 14-3 7-3 14-7 r 1 0-2 2-0 5-3 0.5 4-7 3-3 3-0 5-2 4.4 0 2-9 0-4 0-6 1-2 1-4 For e a c h p h o t o g r a p h , e i = Tota1 R a t i n g f o r P h o t o g r a p h i x S i z e o f S u b - S a m p l e ( o r 20) T o t a l SampTe S i z e ( o r 60) H Q : The p r o p o r t i ons o f r a t i ng a r e t h e same f o r p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2, . . . 30. H A : The p r o p o r t i ons o f r a t i n g a r e NOT t h e same f o r p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2, . . . 30. <= 0-05. 7 C r i t e r i o n : R e j e c t H Q i f F Q - O S 2 > 5-991 Cannot r e j e c t H c i f f\.QS 2 4 5*991. O N TABLE I V b ) (cont inued) SUB-SAMPLE P H O T O G R A P H ( N U M B E ~R J 16 17 18 19 20 21 . T i ... 23 24 25 T 5 - 27 28 29 3 0 LOWER CLASS 10 14 3 11 3 9 8 6 16 14 16 11 14 2 12 MIDDLE CLASS 10 16 8 12 10 7 12 8 13 14 14 14 14 3 11 UPPER CLASS 16 15 8 17 13 9 17 7 13 6 16 14 17 2 15 TOTAL 36 45 19 ko 26 25 37 21 42 34 46 39 45 7 38 EXPECTED RATING (ei ) 12-0 15-0 6 -3 13-3 8 . 7 8 -3 12-3 7 - 0 14-0 11-3 1 5 . 3 13-0 15-0 2 . 3 12-7 K2 2 - 0 0.1 2 - 6 1-6 6 - 0 C 3 3 - 3 0 - 3 0-4 3 - 8 0 - 2 0 - 5 0 -4 0 - 3 0 -7 ON ON TABLE I V c ) CHI -SQUARE ANALYSIS FOR RATINGS OF EACH PHOTOGRAPH BY SUB-SAMPLES FOR " U P P E R " SCALE CATEGORY SUB-SAMPLE P H 0 T 0 G R A P H ( N U M B E R ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 LOWER CLASS 15 18 _ 2 12 14 18 - 16 - _ 5 - 3 MIDDLE CLASS - 13 15 - - 16 19 13 - 17 - - 3 1 UPPER CLASS 1 16 10 1 1 8 18 8 1 16 - 2 - 1 TOTAL 1 44 43 1 3 36 51 39 1 49 - 2 8 - 5 EXPECTED RATING ( e - ) 0-3 14-7 14-3 0-3 1-0 12-0 17-0 13-0 0-3 16-3 - 0-7 2•7 - 1.7 x- 2 - 0-3 2.3 - 1-0 2-7 0 . 8 3 . 8 - 0 . 0 -. - 2 . 0 - 1-6 For each p h o t o g r a p h , ej = T o t a l R a t i n g f o r P h o t o g r a p h i x S i ze o f S u b - s a m p l e ( o r 2 0 ) T o t a l Samp le S i z e ( o r 60) H Q : The p r o p o r t i o n s o f r a t i n g a r e t h e same f o r p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2 , . . . 3 0 . H/ \ : The p r o p o r t i ons o f r a t i ng a r e NOT t h e same f o r p h o t o g r a p h 1, 2 , . . . 3 0 . 0 . 0 5 . 7 ,. C r i t e r i o n : R e j e c t H G i f ^ 0 - 0 5 , 2 > 5*991 o r i f J<0.05 1 > 3-841 Cannot r e j e c t H 0 i f 2 ^ 5*991 o r i f f 2 Q , 0 5 } << 3-841. TABLE I V c ) ( c o n t i n u e d ) SUB-SAMPLE P H 0 T 0 G R A P H ( N U M B E R K 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2h 25 2 6 27 28 29 30 LOWER CLASS 8 h 17 8 17 11 12 13 2 1 3 8 5 1 2 MIDDLE CLASS 9 2 12 6 10 13 8 12 5 - k 6 5 -UPPER CLASS 3 1 11 2 6 9 3 11 2 1 2 5 1 1 3 TOTAL 2 0 7 ko 16 33 33 23 36 9 2 9 19 11 2 9 EXPECTED RATING ( e i ) 6-7 2-3 13*3 5-3 11-0 11.0 7-7 12-0 3-0 0-7 3-0 6 . 3 3 . 7 0 . 7 3-0 I*2 3 • 1 2-0 1.6 3-5 5-6 0.7 5-3 0-2 2-0 2-1 0 . 7 ' ' 0 . 7 2 . 9 2 . 1 0-7 ON OO p h o t o g r a p h s a t 0*05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s means t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s u b - s a m p l e s d i s c r i m i n a t e d among and r a t e d i n a c o n s i s t e n t manner t h e 25 p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h e " l o w e r " c a t e g o r y . A t a h i gher 1 e v e l o f s i gni f i c a n c e , most o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s w i l l be f o u n d t o be r a t e d i n s i m i l a r w a y s . The same s u b - s a m p l e s r a t e d t h e p h o t o g r a p h s i n t h e " m i d d l e " c a t e g o r y ( T a b l e I V b ) , and out o f 30 p h o t o g r a p h s o n l y one was r a t e d s i gn i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 0-05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r a t i ngs f o r t he o t h e r 29 p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e c o n s i s t e n t . A t a s i gni f i c a n c e l e v e l o f O 0 2 , a 11 p h o t o g r a p h s wi 11 b e r a t e d i n t h e same w a y . T a b l e I V c ) shows t h a t out o f 30 p h o t o g r a p h s , 26 w e r e r a t e d i n t h e " u p p e r " c a t e g o r y i n s i m i l a r manner a t 0-05 1 e v e l o f s i gni f i c a n c e . The d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n t r a t i ng f o r t h e 30 p h o t o g r a p h s i s h i g h . E i g h t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t and 87% o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y by t h e 60 r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e 1ower and uppe r c a t e g o r i es r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e 97% o f them w e r e r a t e d c o n s i s -t e n t 1 y i n t o t h e m i d d l e c a t e g o r y . T h i s g i v e s an o v e r - a 11 c o n s i s t e n c y o f near 1y 90% i n t h e r a t i ngs a t t h e 0 ' 0 5 s i g n i -f i c a n c e l e v e l . T h i s w i l l be h i g h e r wi t h h i gher s i g n i f i c a n c e 1 e v e l s . T h i s c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f r a t i ng may a l l o w one t o s a y , wi t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f i d e n c e , t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s d rawn f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s c a n and do c o n s i s t e n t 1y r a t e hou se p h o t o g r a p h s a l o n g a p e r c e i v e d s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum. T h e r e -f o r e t h e r e i s s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n t e n t i on t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s , b a s e d on p e r c e i ved n o t i ons o f s o c i a l c l a s s o f h o u s e o c c u p a n t s , c a n and do c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s . 70 T h i s t o a g r e a t d e g r e e v a l i d a t e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i ng t h e c o n s t r u c t i on o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . The a n a 1 y s i s a 1 so 1 ends s u p p o r t t o an e a r 1i e r c o n t e n t i on t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e samp le ( i . e . r a t e r s o r j u d g e s ) h a v e l i t t l e o r no i n f l u e n c e on t h e r a t i n g s . The c h i - s q u a r e ana 1y s i s o f r a t i n g s f o r e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n e a c h o f t h e r a t i ng c a t e g o r i es ( T a b l e IV a , b , and c ) shows t h a t i f t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s d i f f e r -e n t 1y p h r a s e d , t h e n t he h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e s u b - s a m p l e s a r e homogenous o r random c a n be a c c e p t e d f o r most o f t h e c a s e s . The s u b - s a m p l e s w i l l be f o u n d t o be random f o r 25 and 26 o f 30 c a s e s i n t h e " l o w e r " and " u p p e r " s e a l e c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c -t i v e l y , and 29 o u t o f 30 c a s e s i n t h e "midd 1e" c a t e g o r y . T h i s resu11 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a s t h e s a m p l e has been s t r u c t u r e d d e l i b e r a t e l y t o i n c l u d e t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . T h i s may be s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o c o n t e n d t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r s o c i a 1 c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d s and a t t i t u d e s , a r e c a p a b l e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i ng among and r a t i ng h o u s e p h o t o -g r a p h s , b a s e d on p e r c e i ved s o c i a l c l a s s e s o f o c c u p a n t f s m i 1 i e s , i n a c o n s i s t e n t m a n n e r . Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has d e a I t wi t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . F i g u r e 3 shows t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s t h a t a r e t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e v i sua 1 d i men s i on i n t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h i s t o be u s e d i n t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y . The t h r e e p h o t o -g r a p h s and t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e not w i t h o u t t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s . The n a t u r e o f t h e i n i t i a l p h o t o g r a p h " u n i v e r s e " f r o m w h i c h t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e t e s t e d and s e l e c t e d , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e 71 t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s t h e m s e l v e s , and t h e p r o c e d u r e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a r e p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s o f l i m i t a t i o n . T h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s t h a t s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t p e o p l e c a n and c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s a l o n g p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l c l a s s e s c a n n o t be t a k e n a s d e f i n i t i v e f r o m t h i s i n i t i a l f i e l d w o r k . The same must be s a i d o f t h e c o n e 1 u s i on t h a t n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e ( o r r e s p o n d e n t s ) d o e s n o t b i a s t h e r a t i n g o f house p h o t o g r a p h s . Though t h e f i e l d work d o e s s u p p o r t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s , t h e y c a n n o t be t a k e n t o be f i n a l r e s u 1 1 s . O n l y more f i e l d w o r k and t e s t i ng c a n r e a l l y a t t e s t t o t h e i r d e f i n i t i v e v a l u e s . CHAPTER IV APPLICATIONS AND V A L I D I T Y OF THE F IELD INSTRUMENT C h a p t e r I I I has d e s c r i b e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t . F i g u r e 3 shows t h e t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . Th i s c h a p t e r wi11 e x p l o r e some o f t h e p o s s i b l e u s e s and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e s c a l e , i t s v a l i d i t y and 1 i m i t a t i o n s . APPLICATIONS The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t was d e v e l o p e d t o p r o v i d e a v i s u a l d i m e n s i on t o a t t i t u d e m e a s u r e m e n t . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e w i l l r e f l e c t more a d e q u a t e l y t h e v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c n a t u r e o f t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e a more m e a n i n g f u l way t o s t u d y a s p e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p u r c h a s e o f a h o u s e . At t h i s s t a g e i t c a n n o t be a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t , a s d e v e l o p e d h e r e , p r o v i d e s t h e answer t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d need f o r v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e m e a s u r e m e n t , o r w i11 p r o v e t o b e a b l e t o m e a s u r e a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s t o w a r d a e s t h e t i c s , a r c h i t e c -t u r a 1 s t y l e , o r e t h e r f a c t o r s i n t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i on p r o c e s s . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t o n l y r e p r e s e n t s a n a t t e m p t t o a p p l y v i s u a l s t i m u l i t o t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l i n g p r o c e s s , and w h e t h e r t h i s w i l l be o f d e f i n i t e u s e t o t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y w i11 depend on f u r t h e r f i e l d t e s t i n g . 73 The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t was c o n c e i v e d a s a p o s s i b l e means o f u s i n g p h o t o g r a p h s t o p r o b e a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s , a r c h i t e c -t u r a l t a s t e s , and maybe o t h e r f a c t o r s p e r t i nent i n t h e p r o c e s s t o buy a h o u s e . I n p r o v i d i n g a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i on i t may be pa r t i cu1 a r 1 y u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i ng a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and t a s t e s . The t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s c a n s e r v e a s b a s e s t o d i s t i n -gu i sh t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f c o l o r , d e s i g n , s t y l e , a r r a n g e m e n t , and o t h e r a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s t o w a r d homes o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s e m p l o y e d h e r e i n . They may p r o v i de t h e v i sua 1 s t i m u l i t o e n a b l e r e s p o n d e n t s t o engage i n t h e " m e n t a l t r i a l " o f h o u s e s and t h e r e b y a l l o w t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a r c h i t e c -t u r a l s t y l e , 1 i f e s t y l e s , a n d h o u s i ng v a l u e s t o be r e v e a l e d . The p h o t o g r a p h s e a l e s do p r o v i de a way t o s t u d y and d i f f e r e n -t i a t e a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s on a s o c i e 1 c l a s s b a s i s , w h i c h may be a b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g m a r k e t segment s . T h e s e a r e p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t c a n be e x p l o r e d . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t c a n b e u s e d i n s e v e r a l w a y s . U n s t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e s t o t h e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s , o r s t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e s t o b o t h o p e n - e n d and c l o s e d - e n d q u e s t i o n s c a n be a pp 1 i e d . I t i s p o s s i b 1 e t h a t i t c a n be f r u i t f u 11 y u s e d wi t h t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1. a ) U n s t r u c t u r e d R e s p o n s e T h i s a p p l i c a t i on i s s i mi l a r t o t h e T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t . R e s p o n d e n t s c a n be a s k e d t o exami ne t h e t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s and t h e n r e q u e s t e d t o t e l l o r b u i l d up t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f a m i l y p e r c e i v e d t o be l i v i n g i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e h o u s e s - t h e k i n d o f f a m i l y , i t s s i z e , c o m p o s i t i o n , 7h p r e f e r e n c e s , and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , l o c a -t i o n , n e i g h b o r h o o d , and l i f e s t y l e s . T h i s w i11 n e c e s s a r i l y assume t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i 1 1 i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f wi t h t h e o c c u p a n t o f t h e h o u s e and i n d i r e c t l y r e v e a l h i s a t t i t u d e s a s he e x p r e s s e s h i s i d e a s a b o u t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s a n d o c c u p a n t s . From t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s i t w i l l b e a b l e t o r e v e a l t h e r e s p o n d e n t 1 s p e r c e p t i on o f t h e l i f e s t y l e s o f members o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a 1 c 1 a s s e s . T h i s u n s t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e w i l l a 1 low d i f f e r e n t " s t o r i e s " t o be bu i I t up a b o u t f a m i l i e s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . From t h i s w e a 1 t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n , ana 1 y s i s ( c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , o r o t h e r w i s e ) c a n be c a r r i ed out t o i d e n t i f y and i n f e r p e r t i nent a t t i t u d e t r a i t s . Though t h i s may be a u s e f u 1 method o f a p p l i c a t i o n i t i s cumbersome and p r o d u c e s r e s p o n s e s t h a t may be t o o d i f f u s e i n n a t u r e t o be o f g r e a t v a l u e . S p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s u n d e r exami n a -t i o n may n o t be r e v e a l e d a t a l l by t h i s f r e e r e s p o n s e m e t h o d . H e n c e o t h e r m e t h o d s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t may be more d e s i r a b l e . b ) S t r u c t u r e d R e s p o n s e T h i s may be a meani ng fu1 method o f u s i ng t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . The r e s p o n d e n t s c a n be d i r e c t e d a t s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o r s t i m u l i i n t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h o s e p h o t o g r a p h s m e a s u r e d . F o r e x a m p l e , r e s p o n d e n t s c a n be a s k e d how t h e y f e e l about t h e d e s i g n , f o r m , and s t y l e o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , l a n d s c a p i n g , o r u s e s o f t h e compound o f h o u s e s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s . From q u e s t i ons on a s e r i e s o f s u c h a t t r i b u t e s i t may be p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d up t h e a t t i t u d e s o f r e s p o n d e n t s t o w a r d s u c h t h i ngs a s a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 p r e f e r e n c e , l o c a t i o n , and l i f e s t y l e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s a s d e p i c t e d i n t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . Two f o r m s o f s t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e may be u s e d . C l o s e d -end and o p e n - e n d q u e s t i e n s may be u t i 1 i z e d . C l o s e d - e n d q u e s t i ons a r e s p e c i f i c i n t h e i r n a t u r e , wi t h r e s p o n d e n t s s e l e c t i n g an a n s w e r f r o m s e v e r a 1 a 1 t e r n a t i v e s g i v e n . Fo r e x a m p l e r e s p o n d e n t s may be r e q u e s t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e t y p e s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 s t y l e t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d t o be p r e f e r r e d by t h e f a m i 1y i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s . Di r e c t q u e s t i ons on c o l o r , f u r n i s h i n g s , and number o f wi ndows p r e f e r r e d by t h e f a m i 1 y i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h c a n be a s k e d . O p e n - e n d q u e s t i ons a 1 low t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o a n s w e r f r e e l y i n h i s own w o r d s t o t h e q u e s t i o n . Such q u e s t i ons may p r o d u c e i n f o r m a t i on on a t t i t u d e s t h a t c 1 o s e d - e n d q u e s t i ons a r e u n a b l e t o r e v e a l . R e s p o n d e n t s may a 1 s o " v o l u n t e e r " a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s c a n be a s k e d s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s : "What do you t h i nk i s t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e o c c u p a n t f a m i 1 y wi t h r e g a r d t o c o l o r scheme, v i e w , and l a n d s c a p i ng?" "What t y p e and what a r r a n g e m e n t o f f u r n i s h i ngs w o u l d t h e f a m i l y l i v i n g i n t h i s h o u s e h a v e ? " . "How i s p r i v a c y v a l u e d by t h i s f a m i l y ? " Hence t h e o p e n - e n d q u e s t i o n s do p r o v i d e a u s e f u l means o f e x p l o r i n g many a s p e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . 76 c ) The F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t and t h e S e m a n t i c Di f f e r e n t i a 1 The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t c a n be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n wi t h t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l . The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l c a n be u s e d t o d e f i ne s p e c i f i c s t i mu1 i f r o m t h e t h r e e house p h o t o g r a p h s and t h e n sea 1e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e s p o n s e a g a i n s t b i - p o i a r a d j e c t i v e s . I t t h e r e f o r e p r o v i des a means o f s t r u c t u r i ng and q u a n t i f y i n g r e s p o n s e s t o t h e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s . F o r e x a m p l e p r e f e r e n c e s t o w a r d any a t t r i b u t e s e t , l i k e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , may be r e v e a l e d by u s i ng t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 . These a t t i t u d e s s o s c a l e d and q u a n t i f i ed cou1d l e n d t h e m s e I v e s t o s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t . The u s e o f t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 t o q u a n t i f y r e s p o n s e s t o p i c t u r e p r o b e s i s not new. R e e v e s has a p p l i e d t h e semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 a s a q u a n t i t a t i v e i ndex t o TAT p r o j e c t i o n s . * I n f a c t t h e r e i s now a t e n d e n c y t o app1y r a t i n g s c a l e s t o o b j e c t i f y t h e i nt r o s p e c t i ve d a t a and i n f o r -m a t i o n f r o m t h e T A T . 2 B e s i d e s quant i f y i ng r e s p o n s e s t h i s a p p 1 i c a t i on h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e o f s t a n d a r d i z i n g s c o r e s f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s ; r e d u c i ng t he b i a s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n i n t e r p r e t a t i on o f r e s u l t s ; and f a c i 1 i t a t i ng admi n i s t r a t i o n o f t he i nqu i r y . Wi t h t h e s e a d v a n t a g e s , t h e f i e l d i n s t rument c a n be p r o f i t a b 1y u s e d w i t h t h e semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 . The u s e o f t he s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 wi t h t he f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t wouId mean t h a t b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s c a l e s have t o 10sgood, S u c i , and Tannenbaum, o p . c i t . , pp . 237-238. 2 J . Z u b i n , L . D. E v o n , & F . Schumer An E x p e r i m e n t a 1 A p p r o a c h t o P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i ques (New Y o r k . John W i l e y . l5fc5) PP~575^6oT" be d e v e l o p e d f i r s t . T h e s e s c a l e s c a n be d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e a t t i t u d e s e t s s u c h a s a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l t a s t e s . D e p e n d i n g on t h e d e p t h o f t h e s t u d y , b i - p o l a r a d j e c -t i v e s o r p h r a s e s c a n be d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e s u b s e t s o f a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e s , l i k e c o l o r scheme, v i e w , l o t a r r a n g e m e n t , n e i g h b o r h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d p r i v a c y . Or more b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s c a n be added t o t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s i n F i g u r e 2 ( page 2k) t o d e t e r m i n e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s t o w a r d s v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e ! s t y l e s . T h e s e c o n c e p t s and b i - p o l a r s c a l e s f o r t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l c a n be d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f d e p t h i n t e r v i ews t h a t f o c u s on a t t i t u d e s t h a t a r e t o be s t u d i ed by t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . S i n c e t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l i t s e l f i s l i k e l y t o be u s e d i n t h e Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y , ^ t h e s e d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s c a n d e v e l o p s c a l e s f o r u s e b o t h by t h e semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i t s e l f and t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . Then f i e l d t e s t i n g w i l l have t o be c a r r i ed out t o t e s t t h e u s e f u 1 n e s s and va 1 i d i t y o f t h i s a p p r o a c h , and t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r c a n be more meani n g f u 1 l y s t u d i ed by u s i n g t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . I t i s o n l y a f t e r t h e s e f i e l d t e s t s t h a t t h e u t i l i t y and s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i ons o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t wi t h t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l c a n be d e t e r m i n e d . S i nee not a 11 v a r i a b l e s t i m u l i f r o m t h e t h r e e p h o t o -g r a p h s c a n be s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e f o r m o f t h e s e m a n t i c ^See p p . 6 - 1 0 . d i f f e r e n t i a l , o p e n - e n d q u e s t i o n s may be u t i l i z e d t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l . O t h e r a t t i t u d e s not s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1, unusua1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p e r c e p t u a l d i s t o r t i o n s a l l may be r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f o p e n - e n d q u e s t i o n s . Hence a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h o p e n - e n d q u e s t i ons and s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l shou1d most l i k e l y be u s e d wi t h t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . V A L I D I T Y The u 11 i m a t e c o n s i d e r a t i on c c n c e r n i ng any measurement t e c h n i que i s i t s v a l i d i t y . The v a l i d i t y o f a n i n s t r u m e n t i s t h e e x t e n t t o whi c h i t m e a s u r e s what i t pur por t s t o m e a s u r e . I n v a 1 i d m e a s u r e s o f a t t i t u d e s a r e , o f c o u r s e , u s e l e s s i n e x p l a i n i ng and p r e d i c t i ng a t t i t u d e s . McNemar has s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i zed a t t i t u d e s e a 1es b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e been u s e d w i t h o u t t h e i r v a l i d i t y h a v i ng been e s t a b l i s h e d . , + T h i s I s i n l a r g e p a r t due t o t h e d i f f i c u 1 1 i es o f f i n d i ng i ndependent out s i de c r i t e r i a t o c o r r e l a t e t h e s c o r e s o f t he i n s t r u m e n t under exami n a t i o n . As s t a t e d e a r 1i e r , t h e w r i t e r w i11 not be a b l e t o v a 1 i d a t e t h e f i e I d i n s t r u m e n t i n s u b s e q u e n t f i e l d w o r k . A t t h i s s t a g e , one c a n o n l y f a l l upon " f a c e v a 1 i d a t i o n " , and l e a v e t h e d i f f i c u i t t a s k o f f i e l d v a 1 i d a t i on t o someone e l s e a s a c o n t i nu i ng t a s k i n t h e o v e r - a 1 1 Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y . However some p o s s i b 1 e ways o f v a l i d a t i n g t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w i 11 be s u g g e s t e d . 4 Q . McNemar " O p i n i o n - a t t i t u d e M e t h o d o l o g y " P s y c h o l o g i c a 1 B u l l e t i n V o l . X L I I I ( 1 9 4 6 ) pp . 2 8 9 - 3 7 4 . F a c e V a l i d a t i o n L o g i c a l v a l i d a t i o n o r f a c e v a l i d i t y r e f e r s t o e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l o r " c o m m o n - s e n s e " a n a l y s i s whi ch c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e i terns ( h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s ) b e i ng what t hey a r e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t i nuum c a n n o t be o t h e r t h a n i t i s s t a t e d t o b e . S u c h va 1 i d a t i on must n e c e s s a r i 1 y s p r i ng f r o m a c a r e f u 1 d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c o n t i nuum and a t h e o r e t i c a 1 j u s t i f i c a t i on o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i on o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t on s u c h 1 o g i ca 1 a n a l y s i s may be s a i d t o be v a 1 i d . B a s e d on an u n d e r l y i ng c o n t i n u u m o f s o c i a l c l a s s and t h e a s s u m p t i on t h a t p e o p l e c a n d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s on t h i s b a s i s , t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s have b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m a r a t i n g p r o c e s s i n a f i e l d s u r v e y t o be t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e a c h o f t h e t h r ee s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s . The t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s c o n s t i t u t e t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e sea 1e w h o s e v i sua 1 s t i m u l i a r e t o be u s e d t o p r o b e a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 p r e f e r e n c e and p o s s i b1y o t h e r h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Whether t h e v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e c a n s u c c e s s f u 1 1 y p e r f o r m t h e t a s k o f r e v e a 1 i ng a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a e s t h e t i c s , a r c h i t e c t u ra1 p r e f e r e n c e o r o t h e r a t t i t u d e s a r e q u e s t i ons t h a t c a n n o t be t a c k l e d by a p r i o r i r e a s o n i n g . The p h o t o g r a p h s d o , and have b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o , show t h e hou se s e t t i ng o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s , and b a s e d on t h i s c l e a r d i s t i n c t i on i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e y c a n be e x p e c t e d t o h e l p p r o b e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s t o w a r d h o u s i n g . Hence i n t h i s manner t h e v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e may be s a i d t o have c o n s t r u c t and f a c e v a l i d i t y . 80 F i e l d V a I i d a t i o n T h i s i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y , b u t ways o f f i e l d v a l i d a t i o n a r e i n d i c a t e d . The f i e l d i n s t rument c a n be v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t t he s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 . B o t h t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t u s i n g o p e n - e n d q u e s t i ons and t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 c a n be u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e same s e t o f h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s ( e . g . a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 p r e f e r e n c e ) . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e t w o i n s t r u m e n t s c a n be ana 1yzed and c o r r e l a t e d f o r c o n s i s t e n t and c o m p a t i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s . A h i gh d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n and c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e s u l t s s h o u I d be demanded b e f o r e any c o n c l u s i o n o f v a l i d i t y i s made. V a 1 i dat i on a g a i n s t t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i m p l i e s t h a t t he s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i s a v a l i d i n s t r u m e n t f o r m e a s u r i ng a t t i t u d e s i n t h i s c o n t e x t . The l a r g e number o f p a s t s t u d i e s and a p p l i c a t i o n s have a t t e s t e d t o t h e v a 1 i d i t y and r e l i a b i 1 i t y o f t h e semant i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 a s an a t t i t u d i na 1 i n s t r u m e n t . However i t s v a 1 i d i t y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h o u s i n g wi 11 depend a g r e a t dea1 on how t h e b i - p o l a r sea 1es f o r t h e c o n c e p t s u n d e r s t u d y a r e d e v e l o p e d . T h e s e , a s i n d i c a t e d e a r 1i e r , c a n be i den t i f i ed and deve1 oped f r o m d e p t h i n t e r v i ews , and t h e n must be t e s t e d i n t h e f i e l d t o e l i m i n a t e r e d u n d a n t b i - p o l a r s e a l e s and t o i n c l u d e r e l e v a n t o n e s . On ly t h e n c a n t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 be u s e d t o v a l i d a t e t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . Va 1 i d a t i on o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t a g a i ns t t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l i s not w i t h o u t i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . The f i e l d 81 i n s t r u m e n t has b e e n e n v i s a g e d a s a v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e t h a t i s e x p e c t e d t o m e a s u r e v i sua 1 l y - mani f e s t e d a t t i t u d e s 1i k e a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e , i n a more a d e q u a t e manner t h a n ot h e r v e r b a 1 t e c h n i q u e s , l i k e t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l . Then how c a n t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t be v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 i n t h e measurement o f s u c h a t t i t u d e s ? T h i s i s a l i m i t a t i o n , b u t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f v a 1 i d a t i o n , what i s r e a l l y r e l e v a n t i s t he d e g r e e o f c o n s i s -t e n c y o r c o r r e l a t i on o f t he r e s u 1 1 s o f t h e two i n s t r u m e n t s , and n o t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f one o v e r t h e ot h e r . The u l t i m a t e p r a c t i c a l t e s t o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f a t t i t u d e measurement 1i es i n t h e u s e f u 1 n e s s o f t h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i ng and p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r . Can t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t be v a 1 i d a t e d by j u d g i ng what i t c a n p r e d i c t ( e . g . a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s o f home p u r c h a s e r s i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s ) a g a i n s t t h e a c t u a 1 p u r c h a s e s o f home b u y e r s? T h i s met hod wou1d r e q u i r e p r e t e s t i ng and a p p 1 i c a t i ons o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i n a s e r i es o f f i e l d t e s t s and t h e n use o f t h e r e f i ned f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t f o r p r e d i c t i o n . However t h e u s e o f p r e d i c t i ve v a 1 i d i t y i s l i m i t e d by t h e 1ack o f a one t o one r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r . 5 Even i f t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s va 1 i d , i t may s t i l l n o t be c i e a r a s t o what b e h a v i o r one s h o u l d p r e d i c t f r o m t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e a t t i t u d e . T h i s mi ght a r i se f r o m t h e a b o v e m e n t i oned l i m i t a t i o n or t h e l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f how a t t i t u d e s g o v e r n b e h a v i o r i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . Even i f 5 D . K r e c h and R. S . C r u t c h f i e l d , o p . c i t . , p p . 265-267. 82 p r e d i c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e a r e s t i l l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i d e n t i f y i n g and o b s e r v i n g t h e b e h a v i o r o f r e s p o n d e n t s p r e d i c t e d i n t h e f i e l d . H e n c e a t t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e t h e u s e o f p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y t o v e r i f y t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i s most p r o b a b l y p r e m a t u r e . R e l i a b i 1 i t y I n a d d i t i on t o b e i ng v a 1 i d , t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t must be r e l i a b l e , i . e . y i e l d c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s when a p p l i ed a ga i n and a g a i n t o t h e same s a m p l e . T h i s q u e s t i on o f r e 1i a b i 1 i t y w i 1 1 assume i m p o r t a n c e o n c e t h e v a 1 i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t h a s been e s t a b 1 i s h e d . However a t t h i s i n i t i a 1 s t a g e , t h e prob1 em o f e s t a b l i s h i ng u t i l i t y and v a 1 i d i t y t a k e s p r e c e d e n c e . A p o s s i b l e way o f e s t a b 1 i s h i ng r e l i a b i 1 i t y i s t o u s e t h e t e s t - r e t e s t m e t h o d . S i nee a s e r i e s o f f i e l d t e s t s a r e e n v i -s a g e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e f i nement o f t o o l s f o r t h e o v e r - a l 1 Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o a p p l y t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t t o t h e same s a m p l e s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s , and t h e n ana 1yze t h e r e s u l t s f o r c o n s i s t e n c y . A l t h o u g h b i a s and g e n u i ne a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s may o c c u r o v e r t i me, t e s t - r e t e s t means o f e s t a b l i s h i ng r e 1 i a b i 1 i t y c a n s t i 1 1 b e u s e d , p r o v i ded t h e t i m e l a g s b e t w e e n t h e t e s t s a r e not t o o l o n g t o a 11 ow a t t i t u d e s t o b e m o d i f i e d . Or i t may be p o s s i b l e t o employ an a 1 t e r n a t i v e f o r m o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t t o t e s t i t s r e l i a b i l i t y . A n o t h e r r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s e t o f t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s c a n be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h " u n i v e r s e " d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , 83 and a d m i n i s t e r e d t o r e s p o n d e n t s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f i r s t s e t . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e t w o f o r m s o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t c a n be a n a l y z e d f o r c o n s i s t e n c y and r e l i a b i l i t y . However a t t h i s s t a g e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p o s s i b l e u s e o f p h o t o g r a p h s i n v i s u a l m e a s u r e m e n t , t h e u s e o f two f o r m s o f t h e same i n s t r u m e n t may be a l i t t l e t o o a m b i t i o u s and o u t o f p l a c e . L IMITATIONS AND WEAKNESSES T h i s s e c t i on w i 1 1 exp1 o r e some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . The t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f i e l d work t o p r o v i de v i sua 1 d i m e n s i ons t o measurement o f a t t i t u d e s e t s r e l e v a n t i n ana 1 y z i ng home p u r c h a s i ng b e h a v i o r . To what e x t e n t d o e s t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e sea 1s s a t i s f y t h i s need and t o what e x t ent i s i t a b l e t o m e a s u r e or r e v e a 1 a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i ng a e s t h e t i c s o r o t h e r w i s e ? T h e r e c a n be no d e f i n i t i v e a n s w e r h e r e . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t has o n l y been an a t tempt t o p r o v i de a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n t o t h e s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s i n home p u r c h a s i n g . Whether t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e s e a l e s , a s t h e y a r e , a r e u s e f u l and c a p a b l e o f d e t e r m i n i ng a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s o r o t h e r a t t i t u d e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s s u b m a r k e t s c o u l d o n l y be a n s w e r e d by f u r t h e r f i e l d work and t e s t i n g . At t h i s s t a g e t h e u t i 1 i t y and s c o p e o f t he f i e1d i n s t r u m e n t c a n n o t be d e f i n e d ; t h o u g h i t has been c o n c e i v e d a s a p o s s i b l e means o f d e t e r m i n i n g a e s t h e t i c and o t h e r v i s u a l l y - m a n i f e s t e d a t t i t u d e s , i t may p r o v e u s e f u l t o p r o b e o t h e r a r e a s l i k e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d l i f e s t y l e s and h o u s i n g v a l u e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . 84 The p r e l i m i n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t c a n n o t be o v e r s t a t e d . T h i s may w e l l be t h e f i r s t o f a s e r i es o f i n s t r u -ment s a i m e d a t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and t a s t e s . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e f o r m o f t h e t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s and a p p 1 i ed i n t h e ways p o s t u l a t e d may p r o v e i n a d e q u a t e o r even u s e l e s s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e d e s i r e d t a s k s . Then r e f i nement s have t o be made, o r o t h e r f o r m s o f v i s u a l d i m e n s i ons ( l i k e c o l or d r a w i n g s , 1 i ne d e s i gns o f h o u s e s , b o t h e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r ) e x p l o r e d . A l l t h e s e have t o be v i ewed i n t h e p e r s p e c t i ve o f d e v e l o p i ng e x p e r i m e n t a 1 i n s t r u -ment s f o r t h e p r o p o s e d Home P u r c h a se S u r v e y . Even i f t he f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t a s i t s t a n d s , i s u se fu 1 as a v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e s c a l e , o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s a r e a 1 so e v i d e n t . The t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s r e p r e s e n t t h e end r e s u l t o f a p r o c e s s o f r a t i n g a " u n i v e r s e " o f t h i r t y p h o t o g r a phs a ga i n s t a t h r e e 1 eve 1 s o c i a 1 c l a s s s c a l e . A n o t h e r s e t o f p h o t o g r a p h , s e l e c t e d on a d i f f e r e n t ba s i s and r a t e d by a di f f e r e n t sampl e , may p r o v e t o be j u s t a s r e p r e s e n t a t i ve o r e v e n b e t t e r t h a n t h e ones d e v e l o p e d h e r e . The t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s deve1 oped f o r t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i 1 y u n i q u e . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h i s a c c e n t u a t e s t h e need f o r t h e c a r e f u 1 i n i t i a 1 s e l e c t i o n o f t he p h o t o g r a p h " u n i v e r s e " , w h i c h s h o u l d be a s numerous and a s r e p r e s e n t a t i ve o f t h e h o u s e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s a s p o s s i b l e . The a n a l y s i s o f r a t i ngs i n C h a p t e r I I I d o e s revea 1 t h a t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s e t u s e d h a s b i a s t o w a r d s t h e m i d d l e c l a s s c a t e g o r y . T h e s e a r e w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The f a c t t h a t a n o t h e r s e t o f p h o t o g r a p h s may w e l l be d e v e l o p e d t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i r o n i c a l l y c a n 85 be a s t r o n g p o i n t i n t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . I t g i v e s f l e x i b i l i t y t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h c a n be d e v e l o p e d u s i ng o t h e r p h o t o g r a p h s e t s i n o t h e r a r e a s and a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t c a n t h e r e f o r e be t a i l o r e d t o s u i t e n v i ronmenta1 and t e m p o r a l n e e d s s h o u 1d s i m i l a r s t u d i es be p l a n n e d i n d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i ca1 a r e a s and a t o t h e r t i m e s . T h i s f 1 e x i b i 1 i t y w i l l perrni t more meani ngf u 1 r e s p o n s e s . The t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e t h e m s e l v e s s o u r c e s o f w e a k n e s s . They r e p r e s e n t o n l y one p a t t e r n o f a e s t h e t i c s , a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 s t y 1e , and s i t u a t i on f o r e a c h o f t h e s o c i a 1 c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s . E v e n i f t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i ve o f t he d i f f e r e n t s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s , e a c h p h o t o g r a p h c a n o n l y c o n v e y a v i sua 1 r e p r e s e n t a t i on o f one a e s t h e t i c f r a m e , one a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e , a nd one s e t t i ng o f a h o u s e . What a b o u t o t h e r f o r m s o f d e s i gn and s t y l e o f hou ses t h a t may be j u s t a s r e p r e s e n t a t i ve o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s ? How c a n t h e s e be r e f l e c t e d and t h e a t t i t u d e s a s s o -c i a t e d wi t h them s t u d i ed? R e c o g n i z i n g t h e l i m i t s o f t h e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e v i sua 1 s e a l e s c a n o n l y hope t o s t u d y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o t h e r f r a m e s o f a e s t h e t i c s , a r c h i t e c t u r e , or o t h e r h o u s i ng f a c t o r s by a s k i ng r e s p o n d e n t s o p e n - e n d q u e s t i ons o r t o " p r o j e c t " t h e m s e l v e s t o o t h e r s i t u a t i ons not shown i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . The t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s on 1y show t h e e x t e r i o r d e s i gn and f e a t u r e s o f t h e h o u s e s . What a b o u t i n t e r i o r d e s i gn and d e c o r a t i o n s ? The a r r a n g e m e n t o f room, s p a c e , i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n and t y p e o f f u r n i s h i n g s a r e i m p o r t a n t e x p r e s s i o n s o f a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and h o u s i ng va l u e s . S t y l e s o f 1i f e a r e 86 more v i s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h i n t e r i o r s e t t i n g and d e c o r . T h e s e a r e v a l u a b l e a v e n u e s o f p o t e n t i a l v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n s t h a t may be u s e f u l t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o a f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t , but t h e i n s t r u m e n t wi t h w h i c h t h e w r i t e r i s c o n c e r n e d h a s not a c h i eved t h e 1eve l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i on t o s t u d y a l l t h e f a c e t s o f a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e s a t one t i m e . The e x t e r i o r d e s i gn o f a h o u s e , usua11y t h e f i r s t s t i m u l u s t o c a t c h a p r o s p e c t i v e b u y e r ' s e y e s , and t h e r e f o r e f i r s t t o a f f e c t h i s d e c i s i on p r o c e s s o u t c o m e , i s c o n s i d e r e d however i n t h i s i n i t i a l e f f o r t . The t h e o r e t i ca1 c o n s t r u c t o f t he f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i s t o a 1arge e x t e n t c o n s i s t e n t . 11 h a s been d e v e l o p e d on t h e a s s u m p t i on t h a t p e o p l e c a n d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s b a s e d on t h e p e r c e i ved s o c i a 1 c l a s s o f o c c u p a n t f a m i l i e s on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s . The f i e l d d a t a i n C h a p t e r I I I have shown a h i gh d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t ency i n t h e r a t i ngs o f t he p h o t o g r a p h s i n t o t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i es o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s and t h u s wou1d a p p e a r t o v a 1 i d a t e t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n . But t h e s e a r e not d e f i n i t e c o n e l u s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y when c o n s i d e r i ng t h e s i z e and n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e . The u se o f a s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum f o r an a t t i t u d e sea 1e t h a t s t u d i es h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s seems 1ogica1 and s o u n d . But t he m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i e s o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s a 1i mi t a t i o n i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and a p p l i c a -t i on o f t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e sea 1e, t h o u g h i t may be j u s t i f i ed a s a g e n e r a 1i zed c o n t i nuum. A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n h a s t o do wi t h t h e s a m p l i ng d e s i gn u s e d t o d e v e l o p t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . Though t h e h i gh d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n c y o f r a t i n g s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s d o e s 87 t o a l a r g e e x t e n t v a l i d a t e t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f r a t e r s have l i t t l e or no i n f l u e n c e on t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e d e s i gn c o u Id s t i l l m i g h t be i m p r o v e d by random s a m p l i ng p r o c e d u r e s , and s t r a t i f i c a t i on o f a l a r g e r s a m p l e on a s o c i a 1 c l a s s b a s i s . A f i n a l s h o r t c o m i ng o f t h i s s t u d y and t h e f i e l d i n s t r u -ment i s t h e q u e s t i on o f f i e l d v a 1 i d a t i o n . F a c e v a l i d a t i o n o n l y r e v e a 1 s what t h e i n s t r u m e n t a p p e a r s t o m e a s u r e , a n d c a n n o t be t a k e n a s s u f f i c i en t i nd i c a t i on o f v a l i d i t y . O n l y f i e l d v a 1 i d a t i on a l o n g t h e 1i nes s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r can p r o v e t h e v a 1 i d i t y o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e f o r m o f t h e t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s r e p r e s e n t a n i n i t i a l a t t e m p t t o p r o v i de v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n t o a t t i t u d e measurement i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i on maki ng p r o c e s s . R e c o g n i t i on o f t h e s e 1i mi t a t i ons w i 1 1 l e a d t o a b e t t e r under s t a n d i ng o f t h e n a t u r e , u t i l i t y , a nd p o t e n t i a 1s o f t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e d e v i c e . S u b s e q u e n t e f f o r t s shou1d be d i r e c t e d a t t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s . On ly by o v e r c o m i ng d e f e c t s and t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f r e f i n e -m e n t , c a n one be s u r e o f t h e u t i l i t y , v a 1 i d i t y , and p o t e n t i a 1 s o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t o f a s e r i e s o f f i e l d t e s t i n g o f c o n c e p t s and h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e p r o p o s e d o v e r - a l l Home P u r c h a se S u r v e y , w h i c h s e e k s t o e x p l o r e a t t i t u d e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and a s p i r a t i ons o f home p u r c h a s e r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p a f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t f o r u s e i n t h e f i e l d work and i n t e r v i ewi ng e n v i s a g e d i n t h e S u r v e y . Th i s i s a n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y t o p r o v i de a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n i n a t t i t u d e mea surement i n home p u r c h a s i n g . The v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n was p r o p o s e d i n t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t a s a p o s s i b l e means o f d e t e r m i n i n g a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and t a s t e s , and p o s s i b l y o t h e r a t t i t u d e s i n home p u r c h a s i n g . C h a p t e r I I e x p l o r e d t h e need f o r and n a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . The d e c i s i on maki ng p r o c e s s i n s e a r c h i ng f o r and b u y i ng a h o u s e w a s e s t a b 1 i shed t o b e 1a r g e l y v i sua 1; a n d any s t u d y o f t h i s d e c i s i on p r o c e s s , and t h e a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r -e n c e s i n v o l v e d w i t h i t , s h o u l d r e f 1 e c t t h e e s s e n t i a l l y v i sua 1 and a e s t h e t i c s t i m u 1 i . However e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e t e c h n i ques d o not p r o v i de s u c h v i sua 1 d i m e n s i on and c o n s e q u e n t l y none o f t h e p a s t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on h o u s i n g ( r e v i e w e d i n A p p e n d i x A ) has made u s e o f s u c h an i n s t r u m e n t . T h e r e was t h e r e f o r e a need t o p r o v i de s u c h a d i m e n s i on i n t h e s t u d y o f h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s . 89 The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t was c o n c e i v e d a s an a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n i n t h e f o r m o f t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s g r a d u a t e d a l o n g a s o c i a l c l a s s c o n t i n u u m . I t was d e v e l o p e d a s a v i s u a l a t t i t u d e s c a l e b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s c a n a n d do c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s , b a s e d on p e r c e i ved s o c i a 1 c l a s s o f o c c u p a n t f a m i l i e s . The n a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t was c o n s t r u c t e d t o c o n f o r m t o t h e g e n e r a 1 r e q u i rement s o f a t t i t u d e s e a l e s . The t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s w i11 c o n s t i t u t e t h e l o w e r , mi d d l e , and u p p e r c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e s o c i a 1 c l a s s c o n t i nuum i n t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l e . The r a t i o n a l e o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s a s a c o n t i nuum f o r t h e v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e sea 1e was s e e n and e s t a b l i shed i n t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a 1 c l a s s and s p e n d i n g b e h a v i o r i n h o u s i n g . S o c i a 1 c l a s s i s a meani ngfu1 b a s i s t o s t u d y h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . However t h e u s e o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s as a c o n t i nuum i n t h e i n s t rument ha s i t s p o s s i b l e 1 imi t a t i ons i n i t s m u 1 t i d i men -s i ona1 c h a r a c t e r . T h i s may be j u s t i f i ed on t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i ons o f s o c i a 1 c l a s s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and c o n s t i t u t e t h e component p a r t s t h a t e x p l a i n t h e s o c i a 1 c l a s s phenomenon. M o r e o v e r t h e c o n t i nuum i n t h e f i e I d i n s t r u m e n t i s on 1y p r o p o s e d as a g e n e r a l i z e d c o n t i nuum, w h i c h w i l l permi t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s and s u b - c o n t i nua o f h o u s i ng a t t i t u d e s t o be s t u d i e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he f i e l d - i n s t r u m e n t was c a r r i ed out i n f i e l d w o r k , w h i c h u s e d 6 0 r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m a n a r e a s a m p l e s t r a t i f i e d by s o c i a l c l a s s , to r a t e and s o r t 3 0 h o u s e p h o t o -g r a p h s i n t o t h r e e b o x e s l a b e l l e d " l o w e r " , " m i d d l e " , and " u p p e r " 9 0 on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l c l a s s o f o c c u p a n t f a m i l i e s . The p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g t h e i n i t i a l " u n i v e r s e " s e t o f 30 p h o t o g r a p h s and t h e p r o c e d u r e o f t h e f i e l d w o r k w e r e d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r a t i ngs o f t h e 30 p h o t o g r a p h s . The f i e l d d a t a a 1 so p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o t e s t t h e u n d e r l y i ng a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The high d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e r a t i ngs seems t o v a l i d a t e t h e a s s u m p t i on t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r s o c i a 1 c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d , c a n d i s c r i m i n a t e among h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s b a s e d on p e r c e i v e d s o c i a 1 c l a s s o f o c c u p a n t f ami l i e s i n a c o n s i s t e n t m a n n e r . However c o n s i d e r i ng t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e f i n d i ngs c a n n o t be t a k e n a s d e f i n i t i v e . T h e g e n e r a 1 a r e a s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t w e r e i n d i c a t e d . Thou gh t h e i n s t rument was c o n c e i v e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i ne a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s , i t seems t h a t i t may be u s e f u 1 t o p r o b e o t h e r a r e a s 1 i ke a r c h i t e c t u r a 1 p r e f e r -e n c e s , 1 i f e s t y 1 e s , and o t h e r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d h o u s i n g o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a 1 c l a s s e s . The f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t may be a p p 1 i ed i n s e v e r a 1 w a y s . U n s t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e s t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h s d o e s n o t seem t o be a f r u i t f u l means o f a p p l i c a t i o n . S t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e s t o b o t h o p e n - and c 1 o s e d - e n d q u e s t i ons may p r o v e more u s e f u l . A p p l i c a t i ons wi th t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 was recommended becau se i t p r o v i ded a means o f s t r u c t u r i n g and q u a n t i f y i ng r e s p o n s e s t o t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . However t h i s ha s t o be s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h t h e use o f o p e n - e n d q u e s t i o n s . S i n c e f i e l d v a 1 i dat i on o f t h e i ns t rument was beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y , f a c e v a l i d a t i o n v/as r e s o r t e d t o . However 91 f a c e v a l i d i t y c a n n o t be t a k e n a s c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e o f v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . P o s s i b l e v /ays o f v a l i d a t i n g t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a 1 and by p r e d i c t i ve v a 1 i d a t i on w e r e s u g g e s t e d ; and t h e s e a r e immedi a t e p r o b l e m s t h a t h a v e t o b e t a c k l e d i n s u b s e q u e n t f i e l d w o r k b e f o r e t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t c a n be c l a i m e d t o be v a l i d and u s e d i n t h e p r o p o s e d Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y . O the r 1 i mi t a t i ons a n d s h o r t corni ngs o f t h e f i e Id i n s t r u -ment and t h i s s t u d y must a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d . The samp 1 e d e s i g n , t h e s e l e c t i on o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h " u n i v e r s e " s e t , a nd t h e f i e l d p r o c e d u r e a r e s o u r c e s o f l i m i t a t i o n s . The t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o -g r a p h s t h e m s e l v e s a r e p h y s i c a 1 1 y l i m i t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i on o f t h r e e f r a m e s o f v i s u a l and a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s , and t h e r e f o r e e x c l u d e o t h e r h o u s i n g f e a t u r e s a n d t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f s t u d y i ng t h o s e a t t i t u d e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them by t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . O t h e r mea ns o f p r e s e n t a t i o n ( e . g . 1 i ne d e s i g n , d r a w i n g s ) o f t h e same o r o t h e r f e a t u r e s ( e . g . i n t e r i o r d e s i g n o f h o u s e s ) may be e x p l o r e d and may p r o v e t o b e more e f f e c t i ve i n p r o v i d i ng t he v i sua 1 d i m e n s i o n t o t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s s t u d y c a n o n l y be v i e w a s an a t t e m p t t o s a t i s f y an e s t a b 1 i shed n e e d . The v i sua 1 a t t i t u d e s c a l e i n t h e f o r m o f t h e t h r e e h o u s e p h o t o g r a p h s h a s been deve1 oped t o p r o v i de a v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n t o a t t i t u d e m e a s u r e m e n t , and may be u s e d a s a means o f d e t e r m i n i n g a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s and t a s t e s . But w h e t h e r t h e i n s t r u m e n t r e a l l y p r o v i d e s t h e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e two p r o b l e m s c a n n o t be a n s w e r e d h e r e . O n l y f u r t h e r f i e l d t e s t s c a n r e v e a l . At t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t a g e , t h e u t i l i t y and s c o p e 92 o f t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t c a n n o t be d e f i n e d . Though i t h a s been d e v e l o p e d as a p o s s i b l e means o f d e t e r m i n i n g a e s t h e t i c and o t h e r v i s u a 1 1 y - m e n i f e s t e d a t t i t u d e s , i t may p r o v e u s e f u l i n p r o b i ng o t h e r h o u s i n g a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . Or i t may p r o v e not t o be u s e f u l a t a l l . The p r e l i m i n a r y n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y c a n n o t be o v e r s t a t e d . The s t u d y has r a i s e d more q u e s t i o n s t h a n i t has a n s w e r e d i n i t s a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a v i s u a l d i mensi on t o a t t i t u d e measurement i n h o u s i ng s t u d i e s . The q u e s t i ons o f va 1 i d a t i ng t h e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t , o f d e f i n i ng t h e ut i 1 i t y , s c o p e , and p o t e n t i a 1s o f t he f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t , a n d o f s u b s e q u e n t r e f i n e -rnent s a r e pr ob 1 ems t h a t have t o be t a c k l e d i n s u b s e q u e n t f i e Id work s , and s h o u l d be v i ewed a s a r e a s f o r c o n t i nu i ng r e s e a r c h i n t h e p r o p o s e d Home P u r c h a s e S u r v e y . BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A . BOOKS A n a s t a s i , A . P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g (New Y o r k . M a c M i l l a n Company. I 9 6 0 ) . B a r b e r , B. S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n (New Y o r k . Ha r c o u r t B r a c e . 1 9 5 7 ) . B e y e r , G . H . H o u s i n g a n d S o c i e t y (New Y o r k . Mac Mi l i e n Company. 1 9 6 5 ) . B e y e r , G. H . , M a c k e s e y , T . W. , and Montgomery , J . E . H o u s e s A r e F o r P e o p l e ( R e s e a r c h P u b l i c a t i o n No. 3 . I t h a e a , N. Y . C o r n e l 1 Uni v e r s i t y H o u s i n g C e n t e r . 1 9 5 5 ) . B r i t t , S . H . ( E d . ) . Consumer B e h a v i o r and t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s . (New YorkT John Wi 1 e y . I 9 6 6 ) . C a r m a n , J . M. The A p p l i c a t i on o f S o c i a 1 C l a s s i n M a r k e t S e g m e n t a t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a i T f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , I n s t i t u t e o f B u s i n e s s a n d Economi c R e s e a r c h . 1965 ). C h i c a g o T r i b u n e R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n "How C h i c a q o Newcomers Shop For H o u s i ng ( C h i c a g o . June 1 9 6 6 ) . C r o n b a c h , L . E s s e n t i a 1s o f P s y c h o l o q i ca1 T e s t i n g (New Y o r k . H a r p e r & RowT i 9 6 0 ) . C u b e r , J . F . and K e n k e 1 , W. F . S o c i a 1 S t r a t i f i c a t i on i n t h e Uni t e d S t a t e s (New Y o r k . A p p 1 e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . 1 9 5 4 7 . E d w a r d s , A . L . T e c h n i ques o f At t i t u d e S e a l e C o n s t r u c t i o n (New Y o r k . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . 1 9 5 7 ) • F e r b e r , R. and W a l e s , H . M o t i v a t i o n and M a r k e t B e h a v i o r (Homewood. R i c h a r d Q. I r w i n . T9"5B")T F o o t e , N . M. e t . a l . H o u s i ng Cho i c e s a nd H o u s i ng C o n s t r a i n t s (ACTION s e r i e s i n H o u s i n g £- Community D e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i l l . i 9 6 0 ) . F r e e m a n , F . S . Theor y and P r a c t i c e o f P s y c h o l o g i c a 1 T e s t i ng (New Y o r k . Henry H o l t 5- C o . f 9 5 5 7 . Goode, W. J . and H a t t , P . K. M e t h o d s I n S o c i a 1 R e s e a r c h (New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i l l . 1 9 5 2 ) . 94 G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Rea1 E s t a t e B o a r d Mu11 i p1e L i s t i ng S e r v i c e R e c o r d e d S a l e s J u l y 1 s t t o December 3 1 s t 1966 . G u i I f o r d , J . P s y c h o m e t r i c M e t h o d s (New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i l l . 1954). Home F u r n i s h i ngs M a r k e t i n g a n d R e s e a r c h C o u n c i 1 , I n c . The Homemaker and Home F u r n i s h i ngs p r e p a r e d by S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , I n c . ( C h i c a g o . 1967X The Impact o f I n d u s t ry A c t i v i t i e s - on Consumer P u r c h a s i ng o f Home F u r n i s h i ngs p r e p a r e d by A r t he r D. L i t t l e ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . 196 7 ) . A Home F u r n i s h i n g s Consumer S t u d y Amortg Buyer s and I n t e n d i n g B u y e r s , p r e p a r e d by N a t i o n a l F a m i l y O p i n i o n , I n c . ( T o l e d o , O h i o . 1967 ). J a h o d a , M. and W a r r e n , N. ( E d . ) . A t t i t u d e s ( P e n g u i n Modern P s y c h o l o g y S e r i e s . I 9 6 6 ) . K a h l , J . A . The A m e r i c a n C l a s s S t r u c t u r e (New Y o r k . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wi n s t o n . " 1966 ). K e r l i n g e r , F . N . F o u n d a t i o n s o f B e h a v i o ra1 R e s e a r c h (New Y o r k . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wi n s t o n . 1964 ) . K r e c h , D . and C r u t c h f i e l d , R. S . Theor y and P r o b 1 ems o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y (New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i l l . 1948 ) . K r e c h , D . , C r u t c h f i e l d , R . S . and B a 1 1 a c h e y , E . C . I n d i v i d u a l I n S o c i e t y (New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i l l . 1 9 6 2 ) . L a n s i n g , J . B . , and Muel 1 e r , E . wi t h Bar t h , N. R e s i d e n t i a 1 L o c a t i on and U r b a n M o b i 1 i t y ( S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a 1 R e s e a r c h . Uni v e r s i t y o f Mi c h i gan . June 1964). L a n s i n g , J . B . R e s i d e n t i a 1 L o c a t i o n and Urban M o b i 1 i t y . The Second Wave o f I n t e r v i ews . ("Survey R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . Un i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n . 1966). L i n d g a y , G. ( E d . ) . Handbook o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y V o l . I ( A d d i s o n - W e s l e y 1 9 5 4 ) . M e y e r s o n , M. e t . a l . H o u s i n g , Peop- le and C i t i e s (ACTION S e r i e s i n H o u s i n g & Community D e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i l l . 1962 ) . Osgood , C . E . , S u c i , G. J . , and Tannenbaum, P . H. The Measurement o f Meani n g . ( U r b a n a . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s . T957"n" 95 O w e n s - C o r n i n g F i b e r g l a s s C o r p o r a t i o n R e p o r t on Home B u y e r 1 s P r e f e r e n c e s ( T o l e d o , O h i o . 1967). P a x t o n , E . T . What P e o p l e Want When They Buy a House ( W a s h i n g t o n . U . S . D e p t . o f Commerce. G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 1955). P o r t e r , J . The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c ( T o r o n t o . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . 1965 ). Raymond Loewy /wi 11 i am S n a i t h I n c . The. M o t i v a t i o n s Toward Homes and H o u s i n g ( p r e p a r e d f o r t h e P r o j e c t Home C o m m i t t e e 1966). Remmer s , H . H . In t r o d u c t i on To Opi n i on and A t t i t u d e Measurement (New Y o r k . H a r p e r s . 195417 Se111 i z , C . e t . a 1. R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s i n S o c i a 1 R e l a t i o n s (New Y o r k . Ho i t , R i n e h a r t and Winston" ! T3E6T-Shaw, M . £. Sea 1es f o r t h e Measurement o f A t t i t u d e s (New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i 1T7~ T9~£7T' Srni t h , G . M. M o t i v a t i on R e s e a r c h j_n A d v e r t i s i ng and M a r k e t i ng (New Y o r k . M c G r a w - H i 1 TT 1954"). S t o u f f e r , S . A . e t . a 1. Measurement a n d P r e d i c t i on V o l . IV ( P r i n c e t o n . Pr i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1950), V a n c o u v e r R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d Rea1 E s t a t e T r e n d s I n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r ( 1966). W a r n e r , W. L . , M e e k e r , M . , and E e l 1s, K. S o c i a l C l a s s In A m e r i c a (New Y o r k . H a r p e r S- Row. I960TI Z u b i n , J . , E v o n , L . D. and Schumer , F . An E x p e r i m e n t e 1 A p p r o a c h To P r o j e c t i ve T e c h n i q u e s (New Y o r k . John W i l e y & S o n s . 1965). B. ARTICLES AND PAPERS B a n k s , S . " R e v i e w and Summary o f WORKINGMAN 1S WIFE" i n B r i t t , S . H . & B o y d , H . W. M a r k e t i ng Management and Admi n i s t r a t i v e A c t i o n (New Y o r k . McGraw-H i 11. 19b3Tpp .~T21 -133. Cohen , J . "A S c a l e f o r t h e measurement o f a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e " Journa1 o f P s y c h o l o g y V o l . X I I (1941) P P . 75-79. C o l e m a n , R. P . " T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n S e l l i ng" . P r o c e e d i ngs o f t he Ameri c a n M a r k e t i ng ,f s s o c i a t i on ( D e c . i960) p p . 171 - 1 8 4 . 96 C o w l e y , L . M. " T h e V a l u e o f V i e w " The A p p r a i sa 1 J o u r n a 1 V o l . X IX ( A p r . 1 9 5 D p p . 2 3 9 - 2 4 2 . F e r g u s o n , L . W. " T h e R e q u i r e m e n t s o f an A d e q u a t e A t t i t u d e S c a l e " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n V o l . XXXVI ( 1 9 3 9 ) p p . 6 6 5 - 6 7 0 . H u g h e s , G. D. " S e l e c t i n g S c a l e s To M e a s u r e A t t i t u d e Change" j o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h V o l . IV ( F e b . I967) p p . 8 5 - 8 7 , K a t o n a , G. and M u e l 1 e r , E . "Consumer A t t i t u d e s and t h e H o u s i ng M a r k e t " i n Foundat i on For R e s e a r c h on Human B e h a v i o r P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h on Consumer B e h a v i o r ( A n n A r b o r , Mi c h i g a n . I962 ) p p . 1 1 - 1 9 . K e l l y , R. F . and S t e p h e n s o n R. " T h e S e m a n t i c Di f f e r e n t i a l . An I n f o r m a t i on S o u r c e f o r D e s i gni ng R e t a i 1 P a t r o n a g e A p p e a l " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XXXI ( O c t . 1 9 6 7 ) p p . 4 3 - 4 7 . K e l l e y , W. T . " D i a g n o s t i c R e s e a r c h , A C a s e S t u d y " The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l V o l . XXXI ( J u l y 1963) p p . 3 3 3 - 3 3 7 -" M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h and Home D e s i gn" The A p p r a i s a 1 J o u r n a 1 V o l . X X V I I I ( A p r . i 9 6 0 ) p p . 2 3 5 - 2 4 1 . "How B u y e r s Shop For A New Home" The A p p r a i sa1 J o u r n a 1 V o l . SSV ( A p r . 1957) p p . 2 0 9 - 2 1 4 . K e n d a l 1, L . T . and S h e n k , N. W. "Home B u y i ng Pat t e r n s " The R e s i d e n t i a l A p p r a i s e r V o l . XXV ( J a n . 1959) p p . 2 2 - 2 4 . L i k e r t , P . "A T e c h n i que f o r t h e Measurement o f A t t i t u d e s " A r c h i v e s o f P s y c h o l o g y . V o l . X X I I I ( 1 9 3 2 ) p p . 1 - 5 5 . L i o n e l , D. C . "Home B u y e r s S t u d y O f f e r Ad C l u e s " E d i t o r 5- P u b l i s h e r V o l . XCV ( A p r . 2 1 , 1 9 6 2 ) p. 4 0 . " M r . Rea 11or , t h e r e i s some r e s e a r c h " E d i t o r & P u b l i s h e r V o l . XCIV ( D e c . 1 6 , 1961 ) p. 3 8 . Mack , R. W. " H o u s i n g As an I n d e x o f S o c i a l C l a s s " S o c i a l F o r c e s V o l . XXIX ( 1 9 5 1 ) pp . 3 9 1 - 4 0 0 . Mar t i n e a u , P . " S o c i a l C l a s s and S p e n d i ng B e h a v i o r " J o u r n a 1 o f M a r k e t i ng V o l . X X I I I ( O c t . 1 9 5 8 ) p p . 1 2 1 - 1 3 0 . "~ " T h e P a t t e r n o f S o c i a l C l a s s e s " . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Amer i c a n M a r k e t i ng- A s s o c i a t i o n ( June 1 9 5 7 ) p p . 233 - 2 ~4~9-McQuade, W. "Why P e o p l e D o n ' t Buy H o u s e s " F o r t u n e V o l . LXXVI No. 7 ( D e c . 1 9 6 7 ) P P - 1 5 3 - 155 . McNemar, Q. " O p i n i o n - A t t i t u d e M e t h o d o l o g y " P s y c h o l o g i c e 1 B u l l e t i n V o l . X L I I I ( 1 9 4 6 ) p p . 2 8 9 - 3 7 4 . M i n d a l s , W. A . " F i t t i n g t h e S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l t o t h e M a r k e t i n g P r o b l e m " J o u r n a 1 o f M a r k e t i ng V o l . XXV ( A p r . 1961) p p . 2 9 - 3 3 -— "A New T e c h n i q u e f o r M e a s u r i n g A d v e r t i s i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XX ( A p r . 1956) pp . 3 6 7 - 3 7 8 . N o r r i s , R. T . " P r o c e s s e s and O b j e c t i v e s i n t h e New London A r e a " i n C l a r k , L . H . Consumer B e h a v i o r (New Y o r k , New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s " T9347 pp . 2 5 - 2 9 . O s g o o d , C . E . " T h e N a t u r e and Measurement o f M e a n i n g " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n X L I X (May 1952) p p . 197-237-Rosow, I . "Home O w n e r s h i p M o t i v e s " A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w V o l . X I I I N o . 6 ( D e c . 1948) p p . 751 - 7 5 6 . T h u r s t o n e , L . L . " T h e o r y o f A t t i t u d e M e a s u r e m e n t " P s y c h o l o g i ca1 B u H e t i n V o l . XXXVI ( 1929 ) p p . 2 2 2 - 2 4 1 . W i r t h , L . " H o u s i n g a s a f i e l d o f S o c i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h " . A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w V o l . X X I I No. 2 . ( A p r . 1947) p p . 134-14T: U d e l 1 , J . G . " C a n A t t i t u d e Measurement P r e d i c t Consumer B e h a v i o r " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g V o l . XX IX ( O c t . 1 9 6 5 ) p p . 4 6 - 5 0 . APPENDIX A APPENDIX A REVIEW OF PAST RESEARCH T h i s A p p e n d i x r e v i ews b r i e f l y some o f t h e ma jo r r e s e a r c h done i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l f i e l d i n t he h o u s i ng m a r k e t . As s t a t e d e a r 1 i e r t h e r e has been l i m i t e d number o f s t u d i e s on t h e b e h a v i o r a 1 a s p e c t s o f how p e o p l e go a b o u t i n t h e i r d e c i s i on and s e a r c h t o buy h o u s e s . P a s t s t u d i es h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d on n o n - b e h a v i o r a 1 a s p e c t s l i k e economi c s , f i n a n c e , e v a l u a t i o n and 1ocat i on i n t h e h o u s i n g i ndu s t r y . T h i s l a c k o f b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e m a r k e t s i t u a t i o n w h e r e demand h a v e u s u a l l y e x c e e d e d s u p p 1y and t h e r e f o r e t h e p r o b l e m o f consumer m o t i v a t i on have not b e e n a c u t e . Th i s c o u 1 d p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e l a c k o f c o n s u m e r o r i e n t a t i o n i n t h e r e a 1 e s t a t e and home b u i 1 d i ng i ndu s t r y . R e c e n t 1y t h e r e h a s b e e n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f b e h a v i o r a l s t u d i e s i n t h e h o u s i n g m a r k e t . Home b u i l d e r s and r e a l t o r s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e how s u c h s t u d i e s on why p e o p l e buy h o u s e s c a n he 1p them t o b u i I d and o f f e r h o u s e s t h a t a r e w a n t e d and p r e f e r r e d by p r o s p e c t i v e b u y e r s . R e s e a r c h on a t t i t u d e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , and m o t i v a t i o n s o f p r o s p e c t i v e home b u y e r s w i l l e n a b l e r e a l t o r s and home b u i l d e r s t o s e r v e t h e m a r k e t b e t t e r . F o r t u n e m a g a z i n e r e p o r t e d t h a t m o t i v a t i o n 9 9 r e s e a r c h h a s now g a i n e d some m e a s u r e o f a c c e p t a n c e i n t h e h o u s e b u i l d i n g b u s i n e s s . ' SOME MAJOR RESEARCH STUDIES Among t h e ear 1 i e s t s t u d i es on home p u r c h a s e m o t i v a t i o n s was t h e s t u d y by R. N o r r i s r e p o r t e d i n - 1 9 5 4 . 2 The s t u d y , t h e r e s u l t o f 101 i n t e r v i ews i n t h e New London A r e a ( C o n n e c t i c u t ) , e x p l o r e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r b u y i n g h o u s e s , and t h e s e a r c h and d e c i s i on p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p u r c h a s e . The m e t h o d s o f l o c a t i n g p u r c h a s e s , i n t e n s i t y o f s e a r c h , and d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e d e c i s i on p r o c e s s w e r e r e p o r t e d . A s i m i l a r s u r v e y was ca r r i ed o u t i n P e n n s y l v a n i a by W. T. K e l l e y 3 i n 1 9 5 5 , and t h e r e s u l t s w e r e c o n f i r m a t o r y o f t h e N o r r i s ' s t u d y . P a x t o n r e p o r t e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t w o s u r v e y s w h i c h s t u d i e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f demand f o r h o u s e s and what p r o s p e c t i v e b u y e r s l o o k f o r when t h e y buy a h o u s e . ^ T h e s e s m a l l s c a l e s t u d i e s w e r e t h e h a r b i n -g e r s o f more m o t i v a t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a 1 r e s e a r c h i n t h e 1W. McQuade "Why P e o p l e D o n ' t Buy H o u s e s " F o r t u n e V o l . LXXVI No . 7 ( D e c . 1367) p p . 1 5 3 - 1 5 5 -2 R . N o r r i s " P r o c e s s e s a n d O b j e c t i v e s i n t h e New London A r e a " , i n L . H . C1 a r k ( E d . ) Consumer B e h a v i o r (New Y o r k . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1954") p p . 2 5 - 2 9 - ~ 3 W . T . K e l l e y "How B u y e r s Shop f o r a New H o u s e " A p p r a i sa 1 J o u r n a l V o l . XXV ( A p r i l 1957) P P - 2 0 9 - 2 1 4 . K e l l e y a l s o repo7tfed~ o t h e r s t u d i e s i n W. T . K e l l e y " M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h and House D e s i g n " A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l V o l . XX V11-1 ( A p r i l i 9 6 0 ) pp . 2 3 5 - 241 , and W. T . K e l l e y " D i a g n o s t i c R e s e a r c h , A C a s e S t u d y " A p p r a i sa 1 J o u r n a l V o l . XXXI ( J u l y I 9 6 3 ) p p . 3 3 3 - 3 3 7 -4E . T . P s x t o n What P e o p l e Want When They Buy a Hou s e . ( W a s h i n g t o n U . S . D e p t . o f Commerce. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 1955). 100 h o u s i n g m a r k e t , b o t h by i n s t i t u t i o n a l and c o m m e r c i a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . The C o r n e l 1 S t u d y 5 The C o r n e l 1 S t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by B e y e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s o f t h e C o r n e l 1 U n i v e r s i t y H o u s i ng R e s e a r c h C e n t e r was a m a j o r s t e p f o r w a r d i n h o u s i ng r e s e a r c h . The s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o f o c u s on t h e f u n d a m e n t a1 human v a l u e s and m o t i v a t i o n s t h a t f a m i l i e s have i n b u y i n g h o u s e s , i n o r d e r t o d e s i gn more n a t i o n a l s h e l t e r t h a t wi11 accommodate and i m p l e m e n t f a m i l y 1 i f e . T h r o u gh p r e l i mi n a r y f i e l d w o r k , t h e s u r v e y d e v e l o p e d n i ne v a l u e c o n c e p t s ( e c o n o m y , f a m i l y c e n t r i c i sm, p h y s i ca1 h e a 1 t h , a e s t h e t i c s , l e i s u r e , e q u a 1 i t y , f r e e d o m , menta1 h e a 1 t h , and s o c i a 1 p r e s t i ge) whi ch w e r e u s e d a s b a s e s t o s e p a r a t e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t o h o u s i ng v a l u e g r o u p s . From t h e s e ana 1ys i s f o u r v a l u e g r o u p s w e r e e s t a b 1 i shed : economy, p e r s o n a 1, f a m i l y and p r e s t i g e . T h e Economy v a l u e f a m i l i e s e m p h a s i z e economy, economi c u s e s o f goods and s e r v i c e s , b a s e t h e i r d e c i s i ons mai n1y on p r i c e , and a r e c o n v e n t i ona1 and c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r t a s t e s and h a b i t s . The Per sona1 v a l u e g roup d e s i r e s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , p e r s o n a 1 e n j o y m e n t and p r i v a c y , and s t r e s s e s f o r m a 1 i t y and t h e a e s t h e t i c s o f t h i n g s . The Fami1y v a l u e g r o u p emphasi z e s f a m i 1 y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i ps and a r e c o n c e r n e d wi t h t h e we 11 - b e i ng o f e v e r y member o f t he f a m i l y . The P r e s t i ge g roup i s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s s o c i a 1 p r e s t i g e . From t h e s e a nd o t h e r 5 G . H . B e y e r , T . W. M a k e s e y , and J . E . Mont gomery H o u s e s A r e F o r P e o p l e ( R e s e a r c h . P u b l i c a t i o n No . 3 . I t ha©a, New Y o r k . C o r n e l 1 Uni v e r s i t y Hou s i ng C e n t e r . 1955 )• 101 r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y , t h e r e p o r t d r e w up f o u r d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n s o f h o u s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i f f e r e n t v a l u e t y p e s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s t u d y a l s o p r o v i d e d g u i d e s f o r h o u s e p l a n n i n g , and i n f o r m a t i o n on n e i g h b o r h o o d and a t t i t u d e s o f h u s b a n d / w i f e and o w n e r s / r e n t e r s . T h i s s u r v e y o f 1032 f a m i l i e s b a s e d on a s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e i n t h e B u f f a l o a r e a p r o v i d e d t h e f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y f u n d a m e n t a l h o u s i n g v a l u e s and s t u d y m a r k e t s e g m e n t s b a s e d on h o u s i n g m o t i v a t i o n s . I t c o u l d be an e x c e l l e n t p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r r e s e a r c h , b u t no s i m i l a r s t u d y has been a t t e m p t e d s o f a r . The S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r S t u d i es T h e s e r e f e r t o t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , Uni v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , p u b l i shed i n t h r e e r e p o r t s : i ) J . B . L a n s i n g and E . M u e l l e r w i t h N. Bar t h R e s i d e n t i a 1 L o c a t i on a nd U r b a n M o b i 1 i t y ( S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c a i 1 R e s e a r c h , Uni v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n June 1964). i i ) J . B. L a n s i ng and N. Bar t h R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n a n d U r b a n Mobi 1 i t y . A Mu 1 t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s ( S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e for S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n . D e c . 1964). i i i ) J . B . L a n s i ng R e s i d e n t i a 1 L o c a t i on a nd U r b a n M o b i 1 i t y . The S e c o n d Wave o f I n t e r v i ews ( S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c T a l R e s e a r c h , Uni v e r s i t y o f Mi c h i gan June 1966). T h e s e t h r e e r e p o r t s p r e s e n t t h e s t u d y o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n and u r b a n m o b i l i t y o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . The f i r s t two r e p o r t s w e r e b a s e d on 824 i n t e r v i e w s i n Sept e m b e r - O c t o b e r 1963 and t h e l a s t one on 740 i n t e r v i e w s i n I965. The R e p o r t s r e v e a l e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s on t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e s , p r e f e r e n c e f o r l a r g e r l o t s i z e , l o c a t i o n f r o m t h e 102 c e n t e r o f m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , and n e i g h b o r h o o d s w h e r e f r i e n d s l i v e d , and t h e d e s i r e f o r v a c a t i o n c o t t a g e s . T h e s e w e r e a l s o s t u d i e d i n t erms o f r e s i d e n t i a 1 d e n s i t y , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s , and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . The s t u d y on u r b a n m o b i l i t y gave s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s on t h e a v e r a g e j o u r n e y ( d i s t a n c e and t i m e ) t o w o r k , mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( c a r o r common c a r r i e r ) u s e d and p r e f e r r e d , and t h e e f f e c t o f m o b i 1 i t y on l o c a t i o n o f h o u s e s . Though t h e s t u d i e s a r e n o t mai n1y b e h a v i o r a 1 , t h e y p r o v i de v a l u a b l e i n s i ght s and i n f o r m a t i on on 1ocat i ona1 p r e f e r e n c e s and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d n e i g h b o r h o o d and o t h e r f a c t o r s i n b u y i ng a h o u s e . C h i c a g o T r i bune S t u d i es The R e s e a r c h D i v i s i on o f t h e C h i c a g o T r i bune h a s done some p i o n e e r i ng w o r k i n t h e g e n e r a 1 a r e a o f consumer b e h a v i o r and m o t i v a t i o n . I n t h e r e a l e s t a t e s e c t o r , t h e y h a v e made a c o m p r e h e n s i ve s t u d y o f home b u y e r ' s m o t i v a t i ons b a s e d on i n t e r v i ews wi t h 1 ,200 C h i c a g o f a m i l i e s . ^ The s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e f e a t u r e s t h e p r o s p e c t i v e b u y e r s w a n t e d i n a new h o u s e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e a r c h p r o c e s s , and t h e r o l e o f t h e r e a l e s t a t e b r o k e r . I t c o n e l u d e d t h a t t h e predomi nant need was f o r more s p a c e i n new h o u s e s , and t h e s e a r c h was a d r a w n - o u t o n e , p r e c e d e d by l e n g t h y " w i n d o w - s h o p p i n g " and l a s t i n g f o r an a v e r a g e p e r i o d o f t e n m o n t h s . " P u b l i s h e d a s Chi c a g o T r i b u n e R e s e a r c h Di v i s i on What makes t h e Home Buyer T i c k and r e v i e v / e d i n D. L . L i o n e l "Home B u y e r s ' S t u d y o f f e r Ad C l u e s " E d i t o r & P u b l i s h e r ( A p r i 1 21, 1962 ) p . ko. I n a r e c e n t s t u d y , t h e C h i c a g o T r i b u n e s t u d i e d how newcomers t o C h i c a g o and l o n g t i m e r e s i d e n t s shop f o r h o u s i n g a n d t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y e n c o u n t e r i n d o i n g s o . 7 i t f o u n d t h a t newcomers usua11y s t a r t o f f by e x a m i n i n g newspaper a d v e r t i s e -ment s and t h e n consu11 f r i e n d s , b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e s and rea1 e s t a t e a g e n t s . O l d t i m e r e s i d e n t s a r e - m o r e l i k e l y t o d r i v e a r o u n d i m m e d i a t e l y . The R e p o r t i nd i c a t e d t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a -t i on needed f o r a p u r c h a s e d e c i s i o n , t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f r e a l e s t a t e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , and what c o n s t i t u t e d " a n i d e a l a d " . Raymond Loewy/wi11i am S n a i t h I n c . Study® A m o t i v a t i ona 1 r e s e a r c h s t u d y ( y e t t o b e pub 1 i s h e d ) was u n d e r t a k e n by t h e above r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n t o s t u d y t h e m o t i v a t i o n s a f f e c t i ng t h e c h o i c e o f homes o f 2 ,154 f a m i l i e s and 586 i nd i v i dua 1s who w e r e q u e s t i oned i n d e p t h i n f i v e g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i ons i n t he Uni t e d S t a t e s . The r e p o r t , p r e p a r e d f o r a c o n s o r t i urn o f 28 c o r p o r a t i o n s , d e t a i l s t h e s h i f t i n g o f p a t t e r n s o f m o t i v a t i o n a l v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e h o u s e ( e . g . s i n g l e f a m i l y dwe1 l i n g , a p a r t m e n t s , l o c a t i o n ) . T h e s e w e r e a n a l y z e d by a g e g r o u p s , i ncome l e v e l s , f a m i l y g r o u p i n g s and m a l e / f e m a l e r e a c t i o n s . The r e p o r t p a r t i c u l a r l y d e a l t wi t h t he husband and w i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t h e p r o c e s s t o buy a h o u s e . The husband was r e p r e s e n t e d a s t h e o b s t a c l e - - h e was u n w i l l i n g t o move and 7ch i c a go T r i b u n e R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n How Ch i c a g o Newcomer s Shop f o r Hou s i ng ( C h i c a g o . June 19 66 ) . 8Raymond Loewy /Wi 1 1 i am S n a i t h I n c . The M o t i v a t i o n s Toward Homes and H o u s i ng ( p r e p a r e d f o r t h e P r o j e c t Heme C o m m i t t e e . 1966 ) . 1 ex-t e n d e d t o " r o m a n t i c i z e h i s p r e s e n t e n v i r o n m e n t " . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e w i f e was t h e p r i m e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e and d o e s most o f t h e s h o p p i n g . The man b u y s t h e h o u s e f o r t h e s a k e o f h i s w i f e and c h i I d r e n , and a s a symbo l o f h i s a c h i e v e m e n t . The s u r v e y a 1 s o segment s t h e m a r k e t on t h e b a s i s o f l i f e c y c l e . Fou r mai n s u b m a r k e t s - - t h e b r i d e / n e w 1 y - w e d m a r k e t •, f i r st - h o u s e m a r k e t , " u p g r a d e m a r k e t " ( t h o s e who have h o u s e , b u t be low r e t i rement age and d e s i r e d b e t t e r h o u s e s ) , and r e t i r e e m a r k e t - - w e r e i d e n t i f i e d and d e s c r i b e d . S i x o t h e r s u b - m a r k e t s b a s e d on o t h e r c r i t e r i a v /ere a l s o i d e n t i f i e d . The s t u d y a d v o c a t e d t h a t a s i n g l e a p p r o a c h t o h ou s i n g i s no 1 on ge r e f f e c t i ve i n 1i eu o f t h e c h a n g i n g b u y e r ' s p r o f i l e s due t o p r e s s u r e s o f modern l i v i n g c o n d i t i ons a nd t he s t a g e s i n t h e 1i f e e y e 1e. P r o m o t i on and a d v e r t i s i n g b a s e d on s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s and t h e p r e - t e s t i n g o f h o u s i n g d e s i g n s w e r e s u g g e s t e d . O w e n s - C o r n i ng F i b e r g l a s s S t u d y ^ T h i s s u r v e y w h i c h t o o k 3'l y e a r s t o c o m p l e t e , a s k e d 1 0 , 0 0 0 r e c e n t h o u s e b u y e r s i n 20 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ^ What t h e y w o u l d l o o k f o r i f t h e y w e r e t o buy a g a i n . F e a t u r e s t h a t b u y e r s w o u l d l o o k f o r i n e l u d e d d o u b l e g a r a g e s , e x t r a b a t h s , e n t r a n c e f o y e r , b u i l t - i n a p p l i a n c e s , f i r e p i e c e s , more c l o s e t s , and v/a 11 - t o - w e 1 1 c a r p e t i n g . F a c t o r s o f b u i l d e r r e p u t a t i o n , commun i ty a p p e a r a n c e , and n e a r n e s s t o s c h o o l and s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s w e r e c i t e d i n t h a t o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e i n s e l e c t i n g a h o u s e . But a f t e r p u r c h a s i ng a n d s t a y i n g i n t h e house f o r 9 0 w e n s - C o r n i n g F i b e r g l a s s C o r p o r a t i o n R e p o r t on Home Buyer 1 s P r e f e r e n c e . ( T o l e d o , O h i o . 1367 ). 105 some t i m e t h e o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y o f t h e f a c t o r s c h a n g e s . The r e p o r t c l a s s i f i e d r e s p o n s e s by p r i c e r a n g e o f home o f i n t e r v i ewer s and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n by i nd i c e t i ng d i f f e r e n c e s i n b u y e r p r e f e r e n c e s b a s e d on economi c s and i ncome 1 e v e 1. I m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e r e v e a l e d b e t w e e n t h e a v e r a g e and t h e a f f l u e n t home b u y e r s wi t h r e s p e c t t o o p t i o n s , s p a c e , g a r a g e s , t a x a s s e s s m e n t o f hou s e s and o t h e r f a c t o r s . A w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n was p r e -s e n t e d i n a r e a s l i k e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r o m o t i o n m e d i a , p o s t -p u r c h a s e s a t i s f a c t i o n , and ne i g h b o r h o o d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The Home F u r n i s h i ngs M a r k e t i n g a n d R e s e a r c h C o u n c i 1 , I n c , S t u d i e s T h r e e s t u d i e s on home f u r n i s h i n g s have been s p o n s o r e d and p u b l i s h e d by t h e Home F u r n i s h i n g s M a r k e t i n g a n d R e s e a r c h C o u n c i 1, I n c . Of t h e s e , o n l y The Horn erne k e r and H orne F u r n i s h -i n g s , p r e p a r e d by S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , I n c . ( C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s . I967) has r e l e v a n c e t o b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h i n h o u s i n g . * 0 T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h e r a t i o n a l e s and m o t i v a t i o n s c o v e r n i ng t h e p u r c h a s e o f home f u r n i s h i n g s . I t e x a m i n e d t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t and 1i f e s t y l e s t h a t d e t e r n i ne p r e f e r e n c e s i n home f u r n i s h i n g s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d e c i s i o n t o b u y , t h e r o l e o f a d v e r t i s i n g , and t h e s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e 10 j h e o t h e r two r e p o r t s a r e The Impact o f I n d u s t r y A c t i v i t i e s on Consumer P u r c h a s i no oT~H cm e Fur m s h i ngs p r e p a r e d F y ~ ' A r t r T e r ~ i . L i t t l e , Tricl ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t e s T I 9 6 7 ) , and A Home F u r n i s h i ngs Consumer S t u d y Amen g B u y e r s a nd I n t e n d i ng B u y e r s p r e p a r e d by N a t i o n a l F a m i l y O p i n i o n , I n c . " ( T o l ec!o, O h i o . 1967). 1C6 p u r c h a s e r . T h i s s u r v e y o f 806 women i n 2k c i t i e s showed how s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , age g r o u p i n g s , s t a g e i n l i f e c y c l e , and l i f e s t y l e s a f f e c t g o a l s and a c t i o n s . I t p a i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f f a m i l y 1i f e c y c l e and i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s , and how t h e y a f f e c t t h e p e r c e p t i on o f t h e h o u s e , t h e t a s t e f o r f u r n i s h -i n g s , t h e r e s p o n s e t o a d v e r t i s i n g , and t h e p u r c h a s e d e c i s i on p r o c e s s . Not a l l t h e s t u d i e s on b e h a v i o r a 1 r e s e a r c h i n h o u s i ng h a v e been r e v i ewed h e r e - - f o r e x a m p l e t he s t u d y by t h e S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e v i ew. But t h e s e a r e some o f t h e m a j o r e f f o r t s t h a t v /ere u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e p a s t few y e a r s t o e x p1 o r e t h e a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e home d e c i s i on p r o c e s s . T h e s e s t u d i es e s t a b l i s h much g r o u n d work f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o h o u s i ng m o t i v a t i ons and va l u e s . At t h i s s t a g e , much r e m a i n s t o be 1 e a r n t o f how t h e p r o s p e c t i ve p u r c h a s e r goes a b o u t i n t h e p r o c e s s t o b u y a h o u s e - - t h e f o r m a -t i o n o f hou s i n g v a l u e s , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s i n a t t i t u d e f orrnat i on t o w a r d s t h e d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e h o u s e , and t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s have y e t t o be r e s e a r c h e d u p o n . T e c h n i q u e s Used The r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d above have a p p l i e d a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e p u r c h a s e o f homes. The most commonly u t i l i z e d t e c h n i q u e s v /e re c o n v e n t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s , g roup i n t e r v i e w s , and p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . The c o n v e n t i o n a l 107 q u e s t i o n n a i r e , u s i n g b o t h c l o s e d - and o p e n - e n d q u e s t i o n s , was u s e d i n a l l t h e r e s e a r c h , b u t i t s u t i l i t y i n p r o b i n g a t t i t u d e s i s l i m i t e d and must be supp 1 ement ed by o t h e r t e c h n i c u e s i n any b e h a v i o r a l s t u d y . D e p t h i n t e r v i e w s have b e e n u t i l i z e d t o r e v e a l a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e s u r v e y s by Raymond Loewy/'.Vi 11 i am S n a i t h , I n c . , - t h e S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , I n c . , and W. T . K e l l e y . T h e s e i n forma1 p r o b i n g i n d e p t h o f r e s p o n d e n t s p r o d u c e a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i on t h a t c a n be a n a l y z e d t o o b t a i n d a t a on a t t i t u d e s . S u c h t e c h n i q u e s due t o t h e i r l e n g t h y and i n v o l v e d n a t u r e c a n o n l y be e c o n o m i c a l l y u sed wi t h a s m a l l s a m p l e . The same comment i s t r u e f o r t h e g roup i n t e r v i e w s . The Ch i c a g o T r i bune i n i t s s e c o n d s u r v e y i n t e r v i ewed 55 women i n g r o u p s o f f i v e , and had i n d i v i d u a l s i n e a c h g r o u p t o e x p r e s s and d i s c u s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s on v a r i o u s i s s u e s . Though t h e s e r e s p o n s e s d e f y s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e y do r e v e a l u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d f e e l i n g s o f r e s p o n d e n t s . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , l i k e w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n and s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n have b e e n u s e d i n numerous s t u d i e s . R a t i n g and s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s w e r e u t i l i z e d t o r a t e and s c a l e a t t i t u d e c o n c e p t s . The C o r n e l 1 S t u d y f o r e x a m p l e u s e d t h e Sea 1 c-gram a n a l y s i s t o s c a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g v a l u e s , and f r o m t h e s e d e v e l o p t h e f o u r h o u s i n g v a l u e c a t e g o r i e s . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y u s e d i n any s u r v e y . However t h e p o i n t t o n o t e i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h e l a c k o f t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h p r o v i d e v i s u a l d i m e n s i o n t o a t t i t u d e measurement i n home p u r c h a s i n g i n t h e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d . I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n C h a p t e r I I t h a t v i s u a l 108 s t i m u l i a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e home p u r c h a s e d e c i s i on p r o c e s s , p a r t i c u 1 a r 1 y i n a e s t h e t i c a t t i t u d e s and p r e f e r e n c e s t o w a r d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s . T h e r e i s t h u s a need t o p r o v i d e a v i s u a l d i m e n s i on t o a t t i t u d e measu rement i n home p u r c h a s i n g . The Homemaker a n d Home Fur n i s h i ngs r e p o r t d i d u t i 1 i zed some a d v e r t i s e m e n t p i c t u r e s t o t o p i d e a s a b o u t s t y l e s o f heme f u r n i s h i n g . But t h e i r u s e i n t h i s s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o how r e s p o n d e n t s r e a c t t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . The l a c k o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a t p r o v i de a v i sua 1 d i m e n s i on t o a t t i t u d e measurement makes t h e F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y a f i r s t a t t empt i n t h i s d i r e c t i on i n h o u s i ng r e s e a r c h . H o p e -f u l l y t h i s may p r o v e u s e f u 1 , a nd e n c o u r a g e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a 1 ong t h i s 1 i ne i n h o u s i n g and a s w e l l a s o t h e r r e s e a r c h . APPENDIX B APPENDIX B ILLUSTRAT I ON OF RATING SHEET A d d r e s s : 3926 Angus D r i v e Code # U2Sk O c c u p a t i o n (Head o f F a m i l y ) : E n g i n e e r S e x o f R e s p o n d e n t : F . RATINGS "LOWER" "MIDDLE" "UPPER" 3692 3060 4174 3223 1968 2\h3 8156 2902 4383 1708 6038 4306 1115 k07h I65I 82 73 2653 7353 1307 3547 5865 27k2 5729 4267 2655 3801 7853 3770 676I 5185 I n t e r v i e w e r ' s R a t i n g : Upper C l a s s . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0102456/manifest

Comment

Related Items